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Western Historical Publishing Company 


1 904 


Western Historical Publishing Company 



To the 

Pioneers of the Big Bend, Who Have Overcome Most Formidable 

Difficulties, Stood Like the Rock of Gibraltar Against 

Prejudice and False Report, and 

Made This Now Famous Country to Blossom as the Rose. 

Although no sculptured marble should rise to their memory, nor engraved stone bear record of their deeds, yet 
will their remembrance be as lasting as the land they honored. — Daniel Webster. 

If boundless plenty be the robe, 
Trade is the golden girdle of the globe. 
Wise to promote whatever end He means, 
God opens fruitful- Nature's various scenes. 
Each climate needs what other climes produce, 
And offers something to the general use; 
No land but listens to the common call, 
And in return receives supplies from all. 

— C'owper. 


N compiling a History of the Big Bend country — one of the most important sections of 
the State of Washington, the authors of this work have encountered, of course, those 
obstacles that are inseparable in the construction of any pioneer History of the West. 
Territorial legislative acts and the records of early county commissioners were vague 
and indeterminate in those days. In many respects they are conflicting and confusing. This, 
more particularly, applies to political history and educational affairs. 

But from this mass of data — official records, state and county documents, combined 
with interviews with the earliest and most reliable pioneers — the authors have endeavored to 
mine facts and smelt them into an accurate and conscientiously written history of pioneer 
days, avoiding as far as possible doubtful statements and conflicting reports. This has been 
done with a full realization of the responsibility attending the writing of an original county 

Part I., which concerns itself directly with the prominent events in the history of the 
Territory and State of Washington since 1550, is a comprehensive abridgment of the earliest 
history, from the most authentic data obtainable, written by eminent historians of the United 
States, England and Spain. In this connection we acknowledge our indebtedness to the late 
George Bancroft; Hon. Hall J. Kelley; the "Journal" of Captain Lewis; letters and other docu- 
ments written by the ill-fated Dr. Marcus Whitman; "Oregon: the Struggle for Possession, " by 
William Barrows; "Astoria, " by Washington Irving; Congressional Reports on the Oregon 
Question; Washington's Correspondence with John Jay; the. Colfax (Washington) Commoner; 
correspondence af James Douglas; Barton's "Washington Legislative Hand Book and 
Manual"; correspondence printed in the Olympia Pioneer; the eminent Western historian, 
Hubert Howe Bancroft; state papers of Governor Isaac Ingalls Stevens; Archibald McVickar 
and Hon. A. A. Denny. 

Many have been the friendly co-adjutors who have kindly and cheerfully assisted us in 
the compilation of this volume. We desire to here frankly state that in no instance has any 
one of these pioneers, business men or even temporary residents, of the vast country tra- 
versed — the great wheat belt of Washington, bearing on every hand undeniable evidence of 
thrift and prosperity — refused to assist us or failed to greet our work with encouragement. 
We cannot too cordially thank each and all of them. 

The editorial fraternity has been exceptionally friendly. To L. A- Inkster, Lincoln 
County Times; James Odgers, Davenport Tribune; Howard Spining, Wilbur Register; R. D. 
Anderson, Sprague Times; H. L. King, Franklin County Register; C. T. Geizentanner, 
Franklin County News-Recorder; Joseph G. Tuttle, Big Bend Empire; Benjamin Spear, 
Douglas County Press; Dan J. Jones, Coulee City News; Pettijohn & Swenson, Ritzville 


Times; W. H. Hughes, Hartline Standard; Gibson & Thompson, Adams County News; Al 
P. Haas, Lind Leader; J. F. Dealy, Hatton Hustler; Gale Smith, Washtucna Enterprise, 
due acknowledgment is made for valuable assistance in our work upon this History. 

To Judge N. T. Caton, County Auditor A. L. Brown, of Davenport; A. T. Greene, L. 

E. Kellogg, R. S. Steiner, John R. Lewis, S. C. Robins, Douglas County; J. M. Snow, of 
Spokane; George R. Roberts, Douglas County; Charles Rankert, Franklin County; Mrs. J. G. 
Bennett, George Sinclair, J. F. Cass, Jr., George W. Bassett, Otis Algoe and J. J. Mer- 
riman, Adams County, and many others, our thanks are sincerely tendered for the many, 
courtesies extended by them. 

The general and introductory history is the production of Richard F. Steele. The 
special histories of Lincoln, Douglas, Adams and Franklin Counties were written by Richard 

F. Steele, assisted by Arthur P. Rose. 

Spokane, Washington, 1904. 


We, the undersigned, citizens of Adams County, Washington, having been selected as a committee to examine 
the manuscript of a History of this County to be published by the Western Historical Publishing Company, certify 
as follows: 

We, as pioneer residents of the County, have read the narrative of the events recorded, and to the best of our 
knowledge find it to be a true, impartial and candid record of the leading historical incidents that are woven into the 
annals of Adams County. The treatment of the subject is fair and comprehensive, and, to the best of our belief, 
accurate. As such we give it our cordial endorsement. 

Mrs. James G. Bennett, 
George Sinclair, Sr., 
Edgar DeWitt Gilson, 

Ritzville, Adams County, September, 1904. 

We, the undersigned, citizens of Douglas County, Washington, having been selected as a committee to pass 
judgment on the merits of the History of said County to be published by the Western Historical Publishing Com- 
pany, do hereby certify as follows: 

We are pioneer residents of the County, have always taken especial interest in its development, and have been 
active participants in many of the incidents described in said History. We have read the manuscript narrative of 
these events, and it has our unqualified endorsement as a conscientious History and literary work of merit. In the 
treatment of the subject it is impartial, accurate and reliable, and we cordially recommend it to all. 

A. T. Greene, 
L. E. Kellogg, 
C. J. Stanley, 
J. M. Snow, 

Waterville, Douglas County, July, 1904. 

We, the undersigned, residents of Franklin County, Washington, having examined a portion of the manuscript 
of a History of Franklin County to be published by the Western Historical Publishing Company, and made such 
corrections as were deemed desirable, cordially testify that the work gives evidence of careful research and conscien- 
tious attention to facts. 

D. W. Page, Mayor of Pasco, 
Charles Rankert, 
W. S. Helm, 
Henry L. King, 

Pasco, Washington, August, 1904. 

We, the undersigned, having examined that portion of the History of Lincoln, Douglas, Adams and Franklin 
Counties to be published by the Western Historical Publishing Company relating to Lincoln County, bear testimony 
that it gives evidence of extensive reading, research and conscientious adherence to facts, and presents, to the best 
of our knowledge, an accurate, comprehensive and impartial record of events. As such we endorse and commend it. 


L. A. Inkster, 
N. T. Caton, 

Lincoln County, May, 1904. 



Dawn of Discovery. 

Juan Roderiguez in the Waters of the Smiling Pacific—His Mantle Falls Upon the Shoulders of Bartolme 
Ferrelo— Francis Drake Reaches as High as Latitude Forty-three Degrees— He Abandons the Search 
for Anian and Returns to England— Spain Becomes Aggressive in Northwest Exploration— Early 
Voyages of Urdaneta— Juan de Fuca Sails from Spain in Search of the Strait of Anian— Advance 
Guard of Inland Explorers Led by Sir Alexander Mackenzie— Speculations on the Origin of the Word 
"Oregon" — Siory of M. Le Page du Pratez 2-6 


Mississippi to the Coast. 

President Jefferson's Scheme to Traverse the Continent to the Pacific Ocean— Selection of Merriwether Lewis 
and William Clark for the Enterprise— Their Achievements After Entering the Territory of Oregon- 
Major Joshua Pitcher's Description of This Terra Incognito in 1800— The Willamette River and a 
Section of the Mighty Columbia— Lewis and Clark Start Up the Missouri— Fourteen Months from Their 
Departure— Party Endures Innumerable Hardships — Topography of the Country — Explorers Interview 
Various Indian Tribes— Across the Mountains— Compelled to Eat Horses and Dogs— Arrival at "Hungry 
Creek"— Pow-Wow with Savages— Down the Snake to the Columbia River — Dangerous Rapids Interfere 
with Navigation— From Tidewater to the Sea— Lewis and Clark's Party Pass the Winter in Camp at the 
Mouth of the Columbia and Set Out on Their Return 7-13 


The Oregon Controversy. 

Struggle of Five Nations for Possession of "Oregon" — Question Becomes Important and Far Reaching — One 
Hundred Years Punctuated with Many Wars — Part Played by the Hudson's Bay Company — Results of 
Mackenzie's Explorations — Monotony of the Fur Trader's Life — Boundary Commission of 1841 — Ash- 
burton-Webster Treaty — Commission of 1846 — Eyes of England Opened by the Expedition of Lewis 
and Clark — First English Settlement Made by Fraser in 1846 — John Jacob Astor Establishes a Trading 
Post at Astoria — Supremacy of Commercialism Over Sentimental Statesmanship — Twenty-Seven Years 
of Diplomatic Delay Over International Boundary Affairs — Continuance of Joint Occupancy of Oregon 
for Ten Years — Americans Strike Oregon Where the English Fail — Oregon is Left Out of the Ashburton- 
Webster Treaty — Dr. Marcus Whitman Arrives in Washington, D. C, With the Facts in the Case — 
Establishment of the Forty-Ninth Parallel as the International Boundary 14-26 


Tragedy of Whitman's Mission. 

Visit to St. Louis, Mo., of Four Flathead Indians— They Come for the "White Man's Book" — President Fiske 
Calls on Missionaries to Go to the Indian Tribes of the Great Northwest — Prompt Response by Whitman, 
Rev. Parker and the Lees — Sketch of Dr. Whitman by an Acquaintance — Significant Letter Sent by 
Whitman to Secretary of War Porter — Savage Details of the Whitman Massacre — Horrible Superstition 
of Indian Tribes— Names of the Victims — Miraculous Escape of Mr. Osborne and Family — Harsh and 
Cruel Treatment of Refugees by McBean — Christmas of 1847 Passed in the Midst of Hostile Savages. . 26-33 



The Cayuse War. 

Explanations of Mr. McBean's Treatment of Survivors of the Whitman Massacre — Americans Take the 
Initiative in the Cayuse War — James Douglas Writes to Governor Abernathy — Intense Excitement 
Among People in the Wallamet Settlement — Spokane and Nez Perce Indians Refuse to Join the Cayuse 
Tribe— Colonel Dilliam Sets Forth from The Dalles — Death of "Swallow Ball" and Wounding of 
the "Wizard" — Indians Fall Back to the Snake River— Escape and Final Capture of the Assassins of 
Dr. Whitman 34-38 


Other Indian Outbreaks. 

Indian Wars Immediately Affecting Washington — Expedition of Major Granville O. Haller — Discovery of 
Gold Causes a Stampede to Fort Colville— Defiance of Chief Pierre Jerome — Kamiakin Declares War 
the Whites — Campaign Against the Yackimas — Indian Tragedies in the Puget Sound District — Assas- 
sination of Lieutenant Slaughter — Renewal of Hostilities in the Yackima Country — Some Blunders of 
General Wood — Campaign of Colonel Cornelius — Memorable Siege of the Cascades — Steptoe's Cam- 
paign—Failure of the Council with the Cayuses, Des Chutes and Tyghes — Governor Stevens Recommends 
Enlargement of the Puyallup and Nisqually Indian Reservations — Arrest, Trial and Execution of 
Leschi — Indemnity Claims Following Indian Troubles are Lodged with Congress — Horace Greeley 
Favors Repudiation of Them — Defeat of Steptoe — Triumph of Industry and Intelligence Over Barbaric 
Ignorance and Indian Squalor 38-50 


Territory and State. 

Topography of Washington— First Inroads of Civilization — Washington Might Have Been Columbia — Creation 
of Lewis County — Agitation for Territorial Division — Congress is Memorialized — Isaac Ingalls Stevens 
Appointed First Territorial Governor — Sketch of His Life and Heroic Death — First Washington Terri- 
torial Legislature — A State in All But Name — Struggle for Capital Removal — Political Operation of 
Victor Smith — A Customs House Imbroglio — Removal from Port Townsend to Port Angeles — Death of 
Victor Smith — General Wright in Command of the Department of the Pacific — Congressional Delegate 
Jacobs Introduces Bill for the Admission of Washington Into the Union — Adoption of a Constitution 
Declared Void and Nugatory — Administration of Governor Watson C. Squire — Chinese Riots — Proclama- 
tion by President Cleveland — Fiscal Condition of the Territory in 1886 — Administration of Governor 
Eugene Semple — Washington Territory Admitted as a State — Munificent Land Grant — First State 
Officials 50-63 


Current Events— 1854-1887. 

Immensity of Walla Walla County in Early Territorial Days — Officials Fail to Qualify — Creation of Spokane 
County and Its Abandonment — Organization of Stevens County — Cottonwood Springs on the Overland 
Trail— J. R. Whitaker and "Okanogan Smith" — Early Settlers — "Wild Goose Bill"; His Biography, 
Adventures and Death — Indians Under Chief Joseph Take Up Arms — Early Chinese Miners — Original 
Settlers in Egypt — C. C. May — Establishment of E°rt Spokane — Vast Number of Live Stock Perish in 
Severe Winter of 1S81 — The Cricket Scourge of 1882-3 — Creation of Lincoln County and Bill Drafted by 
N. T. Caton — The Name of Sprague First Suggested for New County — Organic Act — Davenport the 
Temporary County Seat — First County Seat Contest 65-84 



Current Events— 1887-1896. * 

Railroad Enthusiasm — Telephonic Communication — Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern Railway Reaches Daven- 
port — Northern Pacific Builds Another Branch, the Central Washington — Fire Destroys Saw-Mill at 
Fort Spokane — Crop Failure in 1S89 — Northern Pacific Company Buys Up the Seattle, Lake Shore & 
Eastern Road — Fatal Railway Accident Near Almira — Severe Snowstorm of 1890 — Wilbur Cut Off from 
Rail Communication for Thirty-One Days — "Hard Times" — The Memorable Squirrel Pest —County Seal 
Contest of 1S90 Between Davenport and Sprague — W<lbur Throws Her Vote to Sprague — Indian Scare 
of 1S91 — Lincoln County Achieves Dis'inction at the Tacoma Grain Exposition — Great Northern Railroad 
Company Builds Through the County in 1892 — Proposed Abandonment of Fort Spokane is Earnestly 
and Successfully Opposed — Lieu Lands Thrown on the Market — Coxey's Army Invades Lincoln 
County — Great Strike of the A. R. U. on the Northern Pacific Lines — War Between Railroads and 
Sheepmen '.84-106 


Current Events— 1896-1904. 

Agitation for Removal of County Seat from Sprague to I'avenport in 1896 — Harrington Comes to the Front as 
a Candidate— Official Vote by Precincts — Citizens of the New County Seat Erect Public Buildings — 
Bumper Wheat Crop of 1897 — Garrison at Fort Spokane Leaves for the Seat of Spanish-American 
War — Severe Blizzard — Smallpox — Mysterions Disappearance of Little Ruth Inman — Death of Billy 
Gibbons — Organization of Lincoln County Pioneer Association — Meeting Between Presidents of the 
Great Northern, Northern Pacific and Oregon Railroad and Navigation Companies and Big Bend 
Farmers — Man Hunt for Outlaw Tracy — His Suicide in the Barley Field — Quarrel Over Distribution of 
Rewards — Brutal Murder of Judge and Mrs. Lewis — Assassination of C. F. Thennes — Arrest and Con- 
viction of Young Victor — New Trial Granted by Judge Neal 106-126 


Cities and Towns. 

Davenport the County Seat — Its Favorable Location — Early Settlement — Pioneer Business Men — First Issue 
of the Lincoln Leader — Rapid Upbuilding of the Town in 1888— Rumor That Title to Townsite is 
Defective — Opening of the Big Bend National Bank — First United Efforts for Fire Protection — Incor- 
poration of the Town — Advent of Central Washington Railway — Organization of the Grand Army of the 
Republic — Construction of Wagon Road from Davenport to the Cedar Canyon Mines in Stevens 
County — Financial Panic of 1893 — Many Citizens Enlist for War with Spain in 1898 — Organization of a 
Militia Company — Inauguration of a Water Works System — Electric Lights — Another Blaze — Churches 
and Fraternal Societies— Building of Auditorium and Armory Hall — 126-142 


Cities and Towns — Continued. 

Creston an Eligibly Located Town — Surrounding Country — Advent of the Central Washington Railway — Wilbur 
One of the Most Enterprising Cities in the Big Bend — Saw-Mills — Boom Strikes the Town — Incorpora- 
tion — Fire — Almira — Rapid Growth of the Village — Incorporation — Harrington — Once a Candidate for 
the County Seat — Downs — Edwall — Moscow — Odessa — Reardan — Mondovi — Govan — Sprague — Sensa- 
tional History — Disastrous Conflagration— Irby— Mohler— Other Towns 142-189 



Outline Description of Lincoln County — Topography and Elevation— Sketch of the Big Bend — Railway 
Lines— Boundaries— Agricultural Lands— Fruits, Grain, Stock and Minerals— Cultivation of Domestic 
Grasses— Rich Bottom Lands Along the Columbia and Spokane Rivers— The Crystal Mining Com- 
pany—Physical Aspect of Country— Egypt— Orchard Valley— Hellgate— Crab Creek 189-198 



First Commissioners of Lincoln County— Officials Serving in 1885— Political Complexion of Candidates Cuts 
But a Small Figure in the Early Days— Election of 1896— Election Held May 14, 1899, to Choose Dele- 


gates to Constitutional Convention — Hon. H. VV. Fairweather, Frank M. Dallam and B. B. Glasscock 
Elected — Farmers' Alliance Goes Into Politics — Party Lines are Loosely Drawn — Result of Election of 
1890— The People's Party— Exciting Contest in 1892— Concerted Efforts to Remove Sheriff S. E. De 
Rackin — Memorable Campaign of 1896 — Populists Achieve a Sweeping Victory — Prolonged Campaign 
of 1898— Elections of 1900 and 1902 199-209 



First County Board of Education Convenes at Davenport August 13, 1884 — Second Meeting in Sprague in 
1885 — First Teachers' Institute in Sprague in August of the Same Year — Organization of First School 
District in 1883 — School Superintendent Pryor's Report for 1887 — Cortland Academy — School for Indian 
Children at Old Fort Spokane — Graphic Description of This Institution by Superintendent Avery — Most 
Successful Teachers' Institute at Davenport in 1904 — Roster of Lincoln County Teachers in 1904 209-214 


Current History— 1871-1881 

Genesis of the White Man's History— Romance of the Love-Sick Chinaman— Earlier Pioneers— Report of 
Lieutenant Symons— First Survey of the County— The Columbia River— Settlers of 1883— Philip Mc- 
Entee— Dan Paul— The Urquharts— Indian Scare— Roster of Douglas County Pioneers— Organization of 
the County Through Influence of J. W. Adams — Organic Act— Okanogan— The Badger Mountain Com- 
munity—Early Assessment Rolls— Settlement of Foster Creek— Waterville Made the County Seat 521-544 


Current Events— 1886-1904. 

Many Settlers Arrive in 1887— Rival Railway Lines Fight for Position— First Grand and Petit Jurors— Crops 
Damaged by Dry Weather — Times of Financial Depression— Formal Opening of the Court House at 
Waterville— The Squirrel Pest— Hard Winter of 1S90 Kills Off Stock— Sheep and Cattle Men Fight . 
Bloody Battle— Land Office Located at Waterville— Saw-Mill Men Arrested for Timber Trespass- 
Financial Condition of 1893 Wrecks Industries— Floods in the Columbia— Gold Excitement— Industrial 
Exposition— Coulee City— Adrian Cut-off— Old Settlers' Association 545-557 


Cities and Towns. 

Coulee City— Curious and Picturesque— Original Name was McEntee— Early History— Advent of the Central 
Washington Railway— Pioneer Business Men— Round House Burned— Hartline— Outgrowth of the 
Town of Parnell— Located by J. W. Hartline— Great Wheat Shipping Point— Stephen Boise the First 
Settler— Pioneers of 1883— Plans Laid to Remove County Seat from Okanogan to Waterville— Early 
Building Operations— Celebration of Fourth of July— A Government Townsite— Wilsoncreek— Rapid 
Growth of the Town— Destruction by Fire— City is Incorporated— Bridgeport Located by Connecticut 
Men — Quincy — Ephrata— Krupp — Douglas — Stratford — Other Towns 558-586 



Douglas County Emphatically a Wheat Section— Soil and Climate— Grand and Moses Coulees— Wild and 
Awe-inspiring Scenery— Steamboat and Pilot Rocks— Ruins of Old-Time Railway Enterprises— Situa- 
tion, Area and Altitude— Famous Alkali Lakes -Moses Lake— Haystack Rocks— Crops Without Rain- 
Cool and Temperate Latitudes— Scientific Analysis of the Soil— Average Precipitation— Waterville and 
Orando Tramway 586-605 




Pioneers Who First Served Douglas County — Commissioner Meyers Removes from the County— Initial Elec- 
tion—Party Lines are Loosely Drawn — First Republican and Democratic County Conventions — The 1888 
Election — The 1892 Election — Populists Come Into Power — Republicans Recover Lost Ground'in 1902.606-614 



E. E. Brown First Superintendent — California Settlement the Original School District — First School Taught 
West of the Coulees — Names of the Pupils — Third District Created August 4, 18S6 — The Waterville 
District — Pioneer School — Douglas County Teachers' Institute — Waterville School House — Total Value 
of School Property 615-616 



Early Settlement — 1865-1904. 

George Lucas the First White Man to Locate in Adams County — Tribute to the Pioneers — Dissensions 
Between Stockmen and Farmers — Earliest Settlement in Adams County Along Cow Creek — Pioneer 
George W. Bassett — He Locates at Kahlotus Springs, Afterwards Washtucna — Indian Legend Concerning 
the Name of These Springs — Earliest Attempts at Farming in the County — Philip Ritz — Many Settlers 
Come from South Dakota— Death of James Gordon Bennett — Severe Winter of 1880-81 — Advent of the 
Northern Pacific Railway — First Marriage in Adams County — Legislative Act Creating the County — 
Initial Meeting of the Commissioners — Taxes are Levied — Citizens Attempt to Secure Water by Sinking 
Artesian Wells-^The County is Bonded for S'20,000 to Build a Court House — Sudden Rise in Price of 
Railroad Land 753-770 


Cities and Towns. 

Early History of Ritzville, Capital of Adams County— Settlers Flock In on the Trail of the Northern Pacific 
Railway— Church History— Congregationalists Build a House of Worship— Initial Fourth of July Cele- 
bration in Ritzville — Origin of Ritzville's Name — Scanty Supply of Water Causes Apprehension — Plan 
to Remove the Townsite Fails to Materialize — Status of the County Seat in 188S— Incorporation — Water 
Works System Introduced in 1894 at a Cost of S20.000 — Citizens of Ritzville Organize a Volunteer Fire 
Department— History of Fraternal Societies— The Flouring Mill— Many Town Additions are Platted. .771-781 


Cities and Towns — Continued. 

Lind a Thriving and Enterprising Town— Pioneer Charles Jell— Ten Voters in the Precinct— Establishment 
of a Postoffice— New Impetus Given to the Town in 1899— Dirstine Brothers Open Their Store in 
1898— Proposition to Incorporate the Town of I ind is Carried by a Large Majority in 1902— Washtucna, 
an Indian Name of Which No One Knows the English Equivalent— George W. Bassett the First 
Settler— Wheat Platform Built in 1891— Large Shipment of Grain the Same Year— Hatton, a Compara- 
tively New Town in Eastern Washington— Mrs. John Hackett Becomes Postmistress— Growth of the 
Town— Cunningham— Original Name of the Place, Scott— Elder W. R. Cunningham the Father of the 
Town— Paha— Townsite Located by George A. Miller— It is Subsequently Vacated, But Relocated and 
Platted by the Northern Pacific Railway Company in 1889— Gigantic Swindle in Connection With 
"Cascade City"— Other Places and Postoffices 781-789 




Area and Geological Formation of Adams County — Description of the Soil — Railway Facilities — Early Settlers 

Believed That the County was Only Suitable for Grazing Horses and oCattle— Climate — Rainfall — De- £ 
scription of Present Methods Prevailing in the Agricultural Industry — Principal Products — Large Wheat 
Shipment in 1902 — Irrigation — Construction of a Ditch from the Palouse River is AttendedJWith Diffi- 
culties — Evidences of Thrift and Comfort on Every Hand \ .789-797 



First Commissioners and Other Officers cf Adams County — Initial Election Held in 1884 — Three Voting Pre- 
cincts in the County — Election of 1886 — Result of County Election of 1890 — Sweeping Victory for the 
Populists in 1896 — Republicans Reverse This Result in 1898 — Democrats Carry the Day in 1900 — Popu- 
lists and Democrats Fuse in 1902 and Elect a Majority of the County Officials. 798-802 



Organization of First School District in Adams County — Pioneer School Building in the County — Mrs. James 
Gordon Bennett is Appointed Superintendent of Schools— Pioneer Teachers — Roster of Teachers in the 
County in 1888 — Mrs. Bennett Apportions School Moneys — Increase of School Districts Under the 
Administration of Superintendent Egbers — Present Condition of Schools 802-804 


Current Events— 1805-1902. 

First White Men in Franklin County — Lewis and Clarke Supply Indians With Eye Salve — Organic Act 
Creating Franklin County — Descriptive — Year 1894 One of Great Floods in the Snake and Columbia 
Rivers — Rapid Increase of Population — County Seat Removed from Ainsworth to Pasco by Act of the 
Legislature — First Newspaper in Pasco — Organization of Irrigation Districts — The Squirrel Pest — De- 
structive Fire in Pasco — Crops Matured Without Irrigation — Tragedy at the Schuneman Ranch — 
Frightful Railroad Accident on Northern Pacific Near Connell — Organization of the First Sunday 
School — Jumping Homesteads — Murder of Peter Nelson 919-940 


Current Events— 1884-1904. 

Railroad History of Franklin County — Invasion of Pasco by Coxey's Army of Commonwealers — Purchase of a 
Poor Farm for County Purposes — Early Days in the Town of Connell — Great Interest Taken in the 
Subject of Irrigation — First Wheat Grown in Franklin County — Birth of Many New Towns — Entertain- 
ment of President Roosevelt by Pasco Citizens — Flattering Growth and Prosperity of Connell — Organiza- 
tion of Franklin County Bank — Suicide of Gottleib Werner — First Franklin County Sunday School 
Convention Meets at Connell — Completion of the Survey of Connell Townsite — Connell's Excellent 
Water System — Business Houses of Connell Moved to East Side of Railroad Tracks — Connell Commer- 
cial Club — Report of Superintendent of Schools Gaiser 941-955 




Press of Lincoln, Douglas, Adams and Franklin Counties. 
Lincoln County Times— Sprague Sentinel— Herald— Wilbur Register— Daily Papers in Sprague— Lincoln 
County Democrat — Many Suspensions— Mr. De Rackin's Editorial Career — Medical Lake Ledger — 
Almira's First Paper— Editorial Association— Douglas County Journalism — Pioneer Sheet the Big Bend 
Empire, of Waterville — Nine Years Without a Newspaper — Hartline Standard — Coulee City Review — 
Big Bend Chief — Quincy Record — Bridgeport Post — Adams County — Pioneer Newspaper Published in 
1885 — Ritzville Times — Mail — Adams County News — Lind Leader — Hatton Hustler — Paha Hub — 
Franklin County — Pasco Headlight — Franklin County Register — Pasco Pilot 975-997 



Lost on the Plains of the Big Bend — Indian Legend Concerning the Origin of Spokane River — History of a 
Crime — Sea Serpent in Crab Creek — A Well of Gold — Tales of the Grand Coulee — Story of Early 
Days — Killed a Bear on Main Street — In the Early Days — A Mysterious Death — "Jim" Odgers' First 
Paper — A. L. Rodgers' Gold Mine — Church Services in a Saloon — Castle Rock — The Blood Thirsty 
Coyote — Jim's Report — First Adams County Strawberries 997-1020 


Lieu Land Litigation. 

Practically Affected All the Counties Traversed by the Northern Pacific Railway — Original Grant Providing 
for Withdrawal of Lands — Law Becomes Effective in Washington Territory in 1870 — Forty-Mile Limit — 
A Double Withdrawal — Immense Tide of Immigration Overflows Lieu Lands — Ten Miles Added to the 
Limits — Case of Guilford Miller vs. Northern Pacific Railway Company — Strong Letter from President 
Grover Cleveland — He Takes Sides With the Actual Bona Fide Settlers — Secretary of the Interior Vilas 
Decides the Case in Favor of Miller — He is Sustained Later by Secretary Hoke Smith — Case is Carried 
to the Supreme Court of the United States — Miller ajid Cole Again Victorious — Compromise is Finally 
Reached — United States Senator John L. Wilson Secures the Passage of a Bill Favorable to Home- 
steaders 1020-1024 


Branding Horses in Grand Coulee, Douglas County 545 

Rounding up Horses in Douglas County 545 

Steamboat Rock, Grand Coulee, Douglas County 592 

A Bit of the Mighty Columbia, Walled in 521 

A Douglas County Wheat Scene 576 

Moses Coulee Falls, at Low Water 560 

One of the First Lumber Houses Built in Douglas County,— 

a Landmark on the Frank J. Rusho Estate 560 

They Will Raise Wheat Bye and Bye 560 

A Glimpse of Orchard Valley, Lincoln County, Looking Down 

the Columbia J 76 

Hawk Creek Falls, Lincoln County 189 

Chief Moses and Wife 96 

Representatives of the People Who Used to Dwell in the 

Big Bend and Who Often Visit it at This Time 80 

An Abiding Landmark in the Big Bend 65 

11,595 Pounds of Lincoln County Wheat Going to Market .... 196 
As Hellgate, Columbia River, Appears from an Elevation of 

One Thousand Feet 196 

A Lincoln County Wheat Depot '. . 112 

Picking Strawberries, Lincoln County 196 

A Corner of the "Bread Basket," Adams County 753 

Heading Outfit, Adams County 789 

Threshing Scene, Adams County 784 

Noon Hour for the Wheat Haulers 768 

Loading a Train From the Farmers' Warehouse, Lind, Adams 

County 7!?6 

Steam Plow Belonging to S. L. Thomas, at Work on His Estate 

Near Hatton 786 

One of the Combined Harvesters Owned by S. L. Thomas and 
Used to Assist in Gathering the Wheat Crop from His 

Ranch of Five Thousand Acres East from Hatton 786 

Steam Combined Harvester of S. L. Thomas Operating on His 

Wheat Ranch Near Hatton 786 

Residence of S. L. Thomas 786 

Palouse Falls, Franklin County 9'9 



Nail, Benjamin F 50S 

Nash, George W 271 

Neal, Alice 454 

Neal, Charles H 430 

Neal, Robert R 275 

Nee, John F 362 

Nelson, Laurs 245 

Nestoss, Henry R 248 

Nicholason, John 274 

Nicholls, John H 253 

Nichols, William P 384 

Noble, John M 437 

Noble, Sidney G 428 

Ochs, Harry 342 

Odgers, James 384 

O'Farrell, John P 255 

Olsen, Ole 354 

Olson, J. Gus 280 

Page, Sylvanus 498 

Panek, Frank 393 

Patty, Harve 343 

Peffley D. Frank 219 

Peterman, George W. 278 

Peterson, Jens 503 

Peterson, Mads 502 

Peterson, Simon 297 

Phar, Hannah M 351 

Phillips, Charles A 250 

Phillips, Joseph B 353 

Pierce, Andrew J 301 

Plank, Sherman P 288 

Poison, Otto C 266 

Portch, Daniel L 240 

Porter, Edward 482 

Powell, James 239 

Powers, James H 476 

Price, Samuel L 320 

Proulx, Napoleon 368 

Purcell, Ralph 264 

Rake, George W 404 

Ratliff, Liberty L 467 

Raymer, John 312 

Reddy, Owen J 396 

Reeves, Rollin J 311 

Reinbold, Jacob 365 

Reinbold, Simon 367 

Reiter, E. D 485 

Rhodes, William W 289 

Richardson, Benjamin F 295 

Rinker, Samuel C 491 

Roberts', Alexander D 277 

Robertson, John H 309 

Robertson, William 216 

Robinson, Charles F 507 

Robinson, James E 461 

Robinson, John H 285 

Rockhold, Jerry 410 

Rookstool, Cornelius 315 

Rosenbalm, Gerhard 290 

Rosenbalm, John 290 

Rosman, Joseph 300 

Russell, John E 506 

Sallee, Sallee W 494 


Salter, Milton C 294 

Samuels, Cook 337 

Sarasin, Joseph 500 

Sawyer, John W 304 

Scarborough, Edwin F 316 

Scheibner, Fredrick M 425 

Scheuss, Matthew 474 

Schultz, Albert 5 10 

Schulz, William 4 '4 

Scott, Andrew J 283 

Sessions, Joseph 373 

Setters, John W 446 

Setters, Marion F 357 

Setters, Peter 328 

Shaffer, Minor 279 

Shaw, Abram 445 

Shaw, Jacob E 487 

Shepherd, Samuel S 322 

Sherman, George W 241 

Short. James H 301 

Siegman, John M 382 

Simons, George H 490 

Simons, William F 310 

Slater, James A 356 

Smelcer, George . . . ; 500 

Smith, Almon J .... '. 242 

Smith, George E 513 

Smith, Jacob 392 

Smith, John C 324 

Smith, Marshall R 339 

Smith, Thompson 453 

Smith, William L 233 

Snook, Edwin 358 

Snyder, George L 433 

Snyder, Thomas M 369 

Southard, T. B 292 

Spangle, Edward 277 

Sparks, George M 403 

Spining, Howard 3S6 

Springer, F. H 507 

Sprinkle, Fdwin 477 

Sprinkle, Frank 379 

Squire, Fred B 285 

Stambaugh, Isaiah 303 

Stang, Edward F 239 

Stanley, Henry C 232 

Stark, Andrew 394 

Steffey, B. F 309 

Stender Henry 343 

Stephens, Richard J 492 

Stevenson, Thomas G 374 

Stewart, Robert R 329 

Stimson, Luther- A 505 

Stimson, Willard 495 

Stolp, Friedrich 423 

Stookey, Allen J 247 

Stookey, Alfred E 222 

Stookey, William 245 

Straub, Charles A 221 

Strout, Albert D 323 

Sullivan, Bridget 505 

Swenson, Swen P 262 

Talkington, J. Albert 283 

Talkington, Joseph 330 

Talkington, Thomas E 441 

Tanner, Michael 489 


Telford, Robert 473 

Thing, Charles E 414 

Thomas, Abram J 345 

Thomas, George W 346 

Thompson, Henry M 293 

Thompson, Hugh L 448 

Thornbrue, John D 376 

Thornbrue, Joseph 500 

Thorp, Ellsworth M 227 

Thorp, G. W 391 

Timm, Fred D 360 

Tischner, Otto 463 

Tempers, W. Boltes 431 

Tramm, Henry C 405 

Tramm, Peter 372 

Tramm, Peter N- 504 

Tripp, John L 501 

Troy, George A 515 

Tucker, Orson 462 

Tufts, James P 220 

Turner, George A 380 

Turner, Luther P 442 

Unbewust, John 341 

VanBuren, Fred 245 

Vanskike, William J 244 

Vent, William H 517 

Vest, James E 395 

Vinyard, David 475 

Wachter, William 300 

Wagner, Damian . . . v 243 

Walch, Fred 265 

Walker, Nathan E 221 

Walker, W. L 395 

Walsh, Peter 405 

Walters, Thomas 273 

Warehime, Frank 321 

Warehime, John H 321 

Warren, James M 376 

Warren, William T 387 

Warwick, Horace M 435 

Warwick, Russell 340 

Watson, Fred L 221 

Watkins, William M 318 

Weadon, Turner A 510 

Weber, Jacob P 270 

Weismann, Christen K 472 

Wesp, Sylvester R 460 

Whiteside, Ida 276 

Whitnev, John D 378 

Wilke, Charles F 366 

Williams, Oliver G 268 

Williams. William 286 

Wilson. Willard A 420 

Witt, August 452 

Witt. Xatt 43X 

Wolfrum. John N 563 

Wolke, August C. F 348 

Wollweber. Otto 407 

Woodin, Julius D 478 

Worts, John K 258 

Wynhoff, Henry S 215 

Zellmer, Emil 4' '3 

Ziegler, Elijah 318 

Zimmerman, John 286 





Ahern, Morris W 280 

Anderson, Lewis 288 

Barbre, Charles M 288 

Birge, George K.. 488 

Bishop, Levi C 264 

Brown, Adrian S 312 

Brown, Josiah J 424 

Brown, Mrs 1 . Josiah J 424 

Cagle, John F 500 

Carstens, Peter 360 

Caton, Nathan T 432 

Chaffee. Elmer S 452 

Cole, Andrew J 256 

Cole, James J 24S 

Cole, Mrs. James J 248 

Cole, John C 496 

Cushrnan, Isaac N 272 

Darby, George E 232 

Dixon, Barnett D 280 

Duncan, William G 488 

Duncan, Mrs. William G... 488 

Engelsen, Edward 296 

Fish, Charles L 408 

Fletcher, Harry B 240 

Fletcher, Mrs. Harry B 240 

Furgeson, Leroy . 215 

Gee, William R 432 

Geer, Theodore D 224 

Geer, Mrs. Theodore D 224 

Gerlach, Charles G 272 

Gerlach, Mrs. Charles G 272 

Grinstead, Thomas 496 

Hair, Ole S 232 

Hamley, Eugene C 400 

Hansen, Hans M 296 

Hansen, Marcus A 296 

Harding, John R 408 

Heath, William J 480 

Heid, George 472 

Hills, Henry 224 

Mills. Mrs. Henry 221. 

Howell, William W 296 

Huffman, George W 304 

Huffman, John S 304 

Hutchinson, Richard A 344 


Irby, Ira L 35 2 

Jenne, Frederick 472 

Jenne, Mrs. Frederick 472 

Jensen, Harry 4°8 

Johnson, Julius C 3'2 

Jurgensen, Gerhard T. B.... 296 

Jurgensen, Holger 296 

Kennedy, George A 280 

Kiner, Fredrick S 215 

King. Benjamin 296 

Landreth, Squire B 500 

Larrabee, Frank T 448 

Leipham, Peter 464 

Leonard, Daniel 280 

Logsdon, George' T 488 

Long. Alfred W 480 

Long, Mrs. Alfred W 480 

Long, Isaac .H 480 

Long, U. Sheridan 480 

Markey, John 496 

Markey. Mrs. John 496 

.Mars. Samuel C 312 

McDonald, Alexander W... 416 

McGourin, John 416 

McGourin, Mrs. John 416 

McLaren, Robert 416 

McNall. Jesse A 424 

McNall, Mrs. Jesse A 424 

McQuarie, William H 496 

McQuarie, Mrs. William H.. 496 

Melcher, Augustus S 448 

Michaelsen. William L 280 

Miller, Aaron 408 

Morgan, Samuel A 320 

Morgan, Mrs. Samuel A.... 320 

Nicholason, John 272 

Nichols, William P 3S4 

Nichols, Mrs. William P 384 

Olson, J. Gus 280 

Page, Sylvanus 496 

Page, Mrs. Sylvanus 496 

Peterson, Jens 500 

Peterson, Mads 500 

Peterson, Simon 296 

Plank, Sherman P 288 


Price, Samuel L 320 

Price, Mrs. Samuel L 320 

Proulx, Napoleon 368 

Proulx, Mrs. Napoleon .... 368 

Raymer, John 312 

Rhodes. William W 288 

Robertson, William 215 

Russell, John E 506 

Sarasin, Joseph 500 

Sawyer, John W 304 

Scheibner, Fredrick M 424 

Scheibner, Mrs. Fredrick M. . 424 

Scheuss, Matthew 472 

Scott. Andrew J 2S0 

Setters, Peter 328 

Setters, Mrs. Peter 328 

Simons, George H 488 

Simons, Mrs. George H 488 

Smelcer. George 500 

Smith, George E 500 

Smith, Mrs. George E 500 

Smith, Jacob 392 

Smith, William L 232 

Snyder, George L 432 

Snyder, Mrs. George L 432 

Stanley. Henry C 232 

Stolp, Friedrich 424 

Stolp, Mrs. Friedrich 424 

Talkington, J. Albert 2S0 

Tanner, Michael : . 488 

Tanner, Mrs. Michael 488 

Telford, Robert 472 

Thompson, Hugh L 448 

Thornbrue, Joseph 500 

Tripp, John L 500 

Tripp, Mrs. John L 500 

Vinyard, David 472 

Walters, Thomas 272 

Warehime. Frank 320 

Warehime, Mrs. Frank 320 

Warehime, John H 320 

Warehime, Mrs. John H 320 

Warwick, Horace M 432 

Weismann, Christen K 472 

Weismann, Mrs. Christen K. . 472 

Witt. August 452 

Wynhoff, Henry S 215 

Wynhoff, Mrs. Henry S 215 



Alboucq, Leon 626 

Alexander, Delbert T 673 

Alexander Frank M 695 

Anderson, J. Albert 627 

Anderson, • Peter 649 

Vrbuckle. David S 652 

Asbury, Gilbert S 751 


Baker, William 620 

Banneck, John A 695 

Bell, Charles A 667 

Bell, William F 669 

Bishop, Louis E 744 

Bogart, Edgar M 648 

Bouska, Joseph 683 


Bowker, George M 727 

Brandt, Louis 684 

Bromiley, Frank W 742 

Brown, George D 620 

Brown. Isaiah 744 

Brownfield, John C 6t9 

Buckingham, James A 624 



Buzzard, Morris W 625 

Canton, William J 722 

Case, A. E 697 

Cassidy, Michael R 672 

Cavadini, Domenic C........ 691 

( lhase, Edward S 704 

Christensen, Soran C 710 

Clark. Orvill 642 

Cooper, John M 734 

Coordes, Eielt J 644 

Corbaley, Alvaro L 750 

Cornehl, Herman 667 

Covert, Jason 665 

Cox, Walter C 659 

Cunningham, James H 711 

Currier, Silas W 736 

Day, James 664 

DeBolt, Albert W 638 

DeCamp, Harry C 721 

Dodd, Byrurn S 644 

Dodd, Stephen 646 

Domrese, William 641 

Drinkard, John Q 663 

Duncan, John F 660 

Eli, William H 710 

Emrick, Weller 640 

Estes, William B 657 

Enrich, Albert L 706 

Farley, Jacob 676 

Farnham. Nathaniel H 738 

Feeney, Martin 746 

Ferguson. Thomas J 715 

Finney, Zachariah 730 

Fisher, Eli C 749 

Fletcher, John M 621 

Flynn, Andrew 67s 

Flynn, Charles E 662 

Friel, John M 700 

Friesinger, Peter J 719 

Garland, Jasper 634 

Garred, Frank S 735 

Garrett, Marshall 686 

Gilbert, Riley 654 

Gilchrist, Colin 699 

Godlove, Henry C 629 

Goldsmith, George F 731 

Gormley, John N 685 

Greene, Albert T 707 

Griffith. Henry B 738 

Gritsch, Anton 752 

Guibert, Antoine 696 

Hainer, Frank 682 

Halterman, Edward R 728 

1 [amilton, Ira 687 

Harris, John F 661 

Hanson, Hans N 627 

Harsh, Daniel E 630 

Hartman, Hugo F 617 

Haynes, William F 656 

Heinlen, David L 670 

Hellwig, Julius 717 

Hendricks. George W 741 

Henning, Herman G 674 

Hensel, Charles W 681 


Higginbotham, William W. : 663 

Hill. James H 655 

Hite, Spencer P 721 

Hollingshead, Eli 692 

Hollingshead, George W 694 

Hopp, Thomas P 685 

Howe, Milton B 694 

Howell, James 720 

1 [ughes, Griffith 671 

Hunt, John F 705 

Hutchinson, Benjamin 736 

Hutton, Hiram H 635 

Jamison, George F 724 

Jeffers, A. Jackson 731 

Jelinek, John 73 2 

Jensen, Lewis 649 

Johnson. Frederick J 635 

Jones, John G 734 

Jones, William E 693 

Jonke, John 663 

Jordan, Sanford E 622 

Kelley, Patrick 672 

Kellogg. Lucien E 698 

Kelly, James L 700 

Kimball. Orville H 74-' 

Kincaid. James H 696 

Kuder, Madison M 747 

Kummer, Ernst 632 

Lane, Theron W 725 

Larson, Hans P 651 

Leahy, Daniel E 668 

Leahy, Dennis J 7 2 & 

Leahy, James B 668 

Leary, Dennis E 735 

Leighton, Solomon 707 

Lewis, John R 658 

Lietzow, Henry 727 

Logan, John D 701 

Logg, George 645 

Lytle, Alton A 701 

Maltbie. Percy G 732 

Manke, August W 724 

Mason, Amos H 723 

Matthews. Irving W 702 

McCann, Francis W 638 

McDonald; Alfred E 670 

.McDonald, George M 636 

McDonald, John W 653 

McEntee, Philip 691 

McLean, James T 726 

McLean, Lachlan 690 

McLean, William 68g 

McNaught, Lewis A 675 

Melin, Luke 676 

Mitchell, Henry 714 

Mitchell, Joseph R 648 

Mohr, John 650 

Morrell, Alfred 684 

Neely, Oscar W 623 

Noble, Mark 711 

Oslo. Eddie H 632 

I >gle, William 633 

Olesen, I tans P. I 737 

( I'Neil, John 693 


Oppel, Adam 743 

Osborne, Charles L 659 

Osborne. Oscar F 659 

Owens, John T 716 

Parrott. Richard R 671 

Parrv, Thomas 637 

Paslay, William R 679 

Paul, Daniel 637 

Pawson, William 628 

Pearl, Silas A 706 

Pedersen, Niels 650 

Petersen, Christian 651 

Peterson, Peter 683 

Pierpoint, Alfred A 647 

Playfair, Robert L 73° 

Popple, James F 7 T 2 

Prange, Henry 642 

Pugh, John J 677 

Reeder, Charles E 745 

Reneau, William A 703 

Richards. David R 745 

Richardson, Tony F 680 

Ricks, Emmett L 646 

Roberts, George R 617 

Roberts, Robert D 645 

Roberts, Robert T 733 

Rogers, Albert L 705 

Robins. Samuel C 697 

Robinson, Augustus E 628 

Rounds, Frank W 747 

Rudd, Oliver A 626 

Ruud, Ole 643 

Sargeant, Perry T 618 

Scheibner, Fred T 674 

Schmidt. Leo L 718 

Schneider, Leonard 640 

Schrock, Edward F 688 

Schrock, James P 661 

Scully, William 664 

Semro. John A 7 T 3 

Sheehan, Thomas F 719 

Sheehan, William E 719 

Shepard. Orson P 678 

Shultz, George 633 

Smith. James H 658 

Smith. William J 656 

Soper, Albert 723 

Sprague, Charles M 740 

Stankey. Julius F 689 

Stapish, George M 653 

Steele, Calvin R 660 

Steiner, Richard S 748 

Stephens, John W 739 

Stoddard, William 739 

Summers, Philo E 715 

Sutherland, George D 716 

Sutherland, John H 716 

Swan, Albert E 750 

Tinner, John 678 

Turner. John V 629 

Tuttle, Baley J 682 

Twining, Daniel 639 

Tyler, Fred C 630 

Urquhart, Donald 708 

Urquhart, George 729 



Valentine, James B 666 

Waglay, Wade 729 

Waters, Richard J 623 

Whitehall, Alva C 7\\ 

Whitehall, Barclay W 634 

Whitehall, James 748 

Whitehall, Nicholas C 652 


Whitney, Eugene 655 

Wilcox, Harmon 703 

Wilcox, Horatio N 708 

Will. Charles F 718 

Williams, John E 677 

Wilson, David 665 

Wingate, Frank A 7 2 8 

Witte, John H 622 

Woolverton, Joseph W 631 


Yeager, Albert F 625 

Yeager, Henry G 679 

Yockey, Daniel 687 

Young, Jacob T 713 

Young, Louis C 7^3 

Young, Phillip J 618 

Zude, Gustav 625 



Alboucq, Leon 624 

Alexander, Delbert T 672 

Anderson, J. Albert 624 

Buckingham, James A 624 

Buzzard, Morris W 624 

Chase, Edward S 704 

Chase, Mrs. Edward S 704 

Clark. Orvill 640 

Domrese, William 640 

Domrese, Mrs. William 640 

Emrick, Weller 640 

Estes, William B 656 

Estes, Mrs. William B 656 

Flynn, Andrew 672 

Flynn, Mrs. Andrew 672 


Hanson, Hans N 624 

Hartman, Hugo F 617 

Haynes, William F 656 

Henning. Herman G 672 

Henning, Mrs. Herman G... 672 

Hensel, Charles W 680 

Howell, James 720 

Kelley, Patrick 672 

Kelley, Mrs. Patrick 672 

Lewis, John R 656 

McNaught, Lewis A 672 

Osborne, Oscar F 656 

Osborne, Mrs. Oscar F 656 

Prange, Henry 640 


Richardson, Tony F 680 

Roberts, George R 617 

Rudd, Oliver A 624 

Ruud, Ole 640 

Sargeant, Perry T 617 

Scheibner, Fred T 672 

Schneider, Leonard 640 

Schneider, Mrs. Leonard . . . 640 

Schrock, Edward F 688 

Schrock, Mrs. Edward F... 688 

Smith, James H 656 

Smith, William J 656 

Smith, Mrs. William J 656 

Yeager, Albert F 624 

Young, Phillip J 617 

Zude, Gustav 624 



Allen, Samuel 835 

Amsbaugh, Charles E 862 

Angell, John M 807 

Angell. Radford M 872 

Ashcraft, William B 868 

Bannon, James R 839 

Banta, Elias L 826 

Bardwell, Ernest J 875 

Bassett, John D 807 

Bassett, George W 888 

Bauer, Henry 852 

Bauer, Peter 900 

Benge, Frank H 823 

Bennett, Christena 814 

Berry, Benjamin F 906 

Bickford, Benjamin F 833 

Bickford, Edgar F 834 

Biermann, William 879 

Blair, Cyril J 891 

Booth, Charles T 817 

Bowers, Joseph H 828 

Bradley, Elja L 916 

Buchanan, Daniel 851 

Burkhart, Andrew J 895 

Burkhart, Madison L 827 

Christensen, George F 819 


Clodius. Claus H 902 

Comparer, Joseph M 812 

Crampton, Hal 834 

Cunningham, William R 805 

Dewald, Jacob 902 

Dewald, John J 859 

Dirstine, John T 867 

Dolbow, Thomas J 817 

Donnell, Vantromp 837 

Dorman, Hiner 845 

Eck, Adolph 881 

English, James J 876 

Evans, George G 905 

Fletcher, James F 879 

French. Franklin P 811 

Frost, Frank L 870 

Gage, Wells E 918 

Gaskill, Edward 893 

German, Thomas A 827 

Gilson, Edgar D. 880 

Glenn, Samuel . •. 880 

Goodenough, Oscar W 829 

Goodenough, William 832 

Goodykoontz, John W 826 


Griffith, William C 847 

Grub, Philipp A 872 

Hamann, Emil 909 

Hamblen, Frank 882 

Harris, Claude A 813 

Harris, Jared M 876 

Harris, Jesse R 8r4 

Harter, Hannah J 831 

Henderson, James W 864 

Hinrichs, Henry 848 

Holcomb, Clarence L 878 

Holcomb, Oscar R 818 

Howton, Joel 890 

Huffman, Daniel B 845 

Huffman, John C 840 

Huggins, Louis H 865 

Hutchinson, Samuel 863 

Imus, Day S6r 

Ingram, George 914 

Irby, John F 884 

Jansen, August C 908 

Johnson, Charles F 842 

Kasper, Jacob 822 

Kasper, Samuel 822 



Kelber, Wilhelmina H 844 

Kennedy, James M 896 

Kennedy, Robert C 842 

Kennedy, William K 809 

King, William W 854 

Koch, John F 915 

Koeplin, Carl A 871 

Krehbiel, Daniel 861 

Krehbiel, Jacob 858 

Krehbiel, John 867 

Labes", Charles 866 

Laing, Israel B 816 

Lansing, William J 815 

Laughlin, Lincoln 840 

Lavender, Garrett W 912 

Lee, Carroll A 917 

Lippold, Hannah 853 

Logan, Michael J 836 

Long, Calvin 859 

Long, Clark 860 

Long, John C 907 

Lucas, George 894 

Lucy, Henry 838 

Lucy, Rowen 897 

Luiten, Jacob 917 

Martin, Tarble W 846 

Martin. Thomas C 875 

May, Earl W 865 

McChesney, John H 830 

McChesney, Roy 890 

McElroy, Jack 864 

McKay, William 877 

McMillan, John 891 

Merriman, Judson J 848 

Milam, Joseph S 898 

Moore, Guy D 885 

Moore, Lee F 882 

Morgan, Arthur V 885 

Morgan, Simon H 883 

Morgan, Thomas M 886 

Mustard, William L 8r8 

Neare, William W 903 

Newland, Andrew S 825 


Nissen, Louis' 913 

Oestreich, Jacob F 857 

Olson, Andrew W 916 

Olson, Carl M 874 

Olson, Charles D 873 

Olson, Charles E 915 

Olson, John N 910 

Ott, Sebastian 843 

Pfannekuchen, Otto 913 

Pflugrad, Louis 901 

Philpott, David E 857 

Philpott, William H 898 

Pliger, Gustave '. 870 

Purcell, William 1 846 

Quillen, Charles' B 904 

Reeder, Walter C 900 

Reynolds, Ralph R 834 

Richardson, Fred H 878 

Rickert, Allen 868 

Rigg, Isaac 824 

Robbins, Fred E 841 

Rogers, Roy V 893 

Rosenoff. Alexander F 842 

Rosenoff, Henry 853 

Rosenoff, Jacob 852 

Ros'enoff, John F 850 

Rouse, Claud C 886 

Rouse, Howard B 883 

Sandbrink, Fred 874 

Saunders, Henry W 856 

Schafer, George 909 

Schermerhorn. Martin L 869 

Schoessler, Jacob 850 

Schroeder, Henry F 911 

Scott, Daniel A 851 

Seely, Eleazer M 839 

Shepley, Fred B 809 

Shopshire, L. N 844 

Shorno, John C 813 

Sinclair, George 820 


Sinclair, George, Jr 914 

Smith, Charles VV 837 

Smith, Gale 837 

Smith, John W 914 

Staley, Martin L 899 

Staser, Clinton 810 

Stewart, Lawrence 907 

Sullivan, John C 892 

Sutton, Byron L 889 

Sutton, Levi L 832 

Sutton, W. J 892 

Swenson, Willis S 808 

Teegarden, David 907 

Thiel, Fred 904 

Thomas, S. L 912 

Thompson, George R. N.... 821 
Timm, John 858 

VanMarter, Svlvester L 871 

Vehrs, Johan N. G 851 

Vogt, Christian 901 

Wagenaar, Peter 873 

Watson, Alexander, Jr 824 

Watson, Robert L 883 

Weaver, Hezekiah W 862 

Webb, George E 829 

Webb, Samuel W 905 

Weise, August 911 

Weller, Simeon G 838 

West, James F 894 

Whittall, William C 896 

Williams', Andrew J 828 

Williams, William R 908 

Willis, John A : 85s 

Wing, George L 863 

Winn, George M 831 

Winn, Thomas 887 

Woody, Nathan S 836 

Wright, Solomon P 835 

Yeisley, William W 8Sg 

Zent. Daniel W 866 



Angell, Radford M 872 

Angell, Mrs. Radford M 872 

Banta, Elias L 824 

Bassett, George W 888 

Bassett, Mrs. George W.... 888 

Berry, Benjamin F 906 

Booth, Charles T 816 

Bradley, Elja. L 916 

Clodius, Claus 1 H 902 

Cunningham, William R 805 

Dolbow, Thomas J 816 

Gilson, Edgar D 880 

Irby, John F 884 

Johnson, Charles F 840 


Johnson, Mrs. Charles F.... 840 

Kelber, Mrs. Wilhelmina H.. 840 

Kennedy, James M 896 

Kennedy, Robert C 840 

King, William W 854 

Laing, Israel B 816 

Laughlin, Lincoln 840 

McElroy, Jack 864 

Merriman, Judson J 848 

Merriman, Airs. Judson J... 848 
Mustard. William L 816 

Newland, Andrew S 824 

Olson, John N 910 

Olson. Mrs. John N 910 

Ott, Sebastian 840 


Philpott, William H S98 

Philpott, Mrs. William H... 898 

Reeder, Walter C 900 

Rigg, Isaac 8_'4 

Robbins, Fred E 840 

Rosenoff, Alexander F 840 

Sinclair. George. Jr 0T4 

Sutton, W. J 892 

Thomas, S. L 7S6 

Thiel, Fred 904 

Watson, Alexander, Jr S24 

Watson, Mrs - . Alexander, Jr. . 824 

Williams, William R 908 

Williams, Mrs. William R... 908 



Anderson, William T. 


■ 963 

Baske, Fred 97 2 

Blakely, William E 965 

Borden, George W 959 

Cooper, John 961 

Gerry, Robert 957 

Gray, Alvin P 971 

Harder, Hans 967 

Harder, Jacob 967 


Harder, Max 966 

Hendricks, George 960 

Hoon, Edgar 959 

Leonard, Benjamin D 969 

Lewis, John C 960 

Love, John B 964 

McAdam, Owen 963 

McClurken, John R 969 

McKinney, Jesse 963 

O'Brien, Cornelius S. 



Page, Danville W 958 

Ring, Noah H r 961 

Savage, Gibson 972 

Schunemann, Frank 970 

Smith, Wheelock B 962 

Spates, William W 970 

Taylor, M. M 968 

VanGordon, Josiah E 971 

Ulrich, Otto 964 



Gerry, Robert 957 

Harder, Hans 


Harder, Jacob 
Harder, Max . 
Hoon, Edgar 


. 966 


O'Brien, Cornelius S 957 

Page, Danville W 957 







'Few students of history have failed to ob- 
serve the immediate impetus given to maritime 
exploration by the royally proclaimed exploit 
of Columbus in 1492. Only nine years after the 
caravels of the Italian navigator had dropped 
anchor in American waters, off San Salvador, 
a Portugese sailor, Gaspar Cortereal, was cau- 
tiously feeling his way along the Atlantic coast. 
This was in the summer of 1501. This voyage 
of Cortereal reached as high, on the Atlantic 
mainland of North America, as 42 degrees 
north. Certain historians have claimed that the 
explorations of Cortereal really antedated the 
discovery of Columbus. But of this there is no 
authentic evidence ; there is an accumulation of 
testimony to the contrary. By eminent cosmo- 
graphists the year 1501 is now accepted as the 
period of Cortereal's exploits on the coast of 
the Atlantic, in the vicinity of modern New 
England. This expedition of two caravels had 
been sent out by Manuel , King of Portugal. 
There is no proof that this voyage had any 
other object, at least any other result, than 
profit. Seizing fifty Indians he carried them 
away, on his return, and sold them as slaves. 

As Cortereal was among the earliest on the 
Atlantic seaboard, so Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, 
or Cabrilla, as the name is variously spelled, 
is admitted to have been the earliest navigator. 

along southern California. It was evidently 
the intention of Cabrillo, to continue his voyage 
far higher on the Northwest Coast, for he, too, 
had heard of the mysterious "Strait of Anian," 
and was enthused with most laudable geograph- 
ical ambition. But fate ruled otherwise. Ca- 
brillo died in the harbor of San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, in January, 1543, fifty-one years after 
the momentous achievement of Columbus on 
the southeastern shores of the present United 
States. The mantle of Cabrillo fell upon the 
shoulders of his pilot, Bartolome Ferrelo. To 
within two and one-half degrees of the mouth 
of the Columbia river Ferrelo continued the 
exploration, tracing the western coast of the 
American continent along this portion of the 
Pacific, and to Ferrelo has been accredited the 
honor of having been the first white man to 
gaze upon the coast of Oregon. 

But back of that dimly outlined shore which 
Ferrelo skirted, above latitude 42 degrees, far 
inland, lay the immense, wonderful territory 
which afterward became Oregon. It is not 
susceptible of proof that Ferrelo ever gained 
north of the present Astoria, although this 
claim was at one period urged by Spain. But 
a country which could solemnly lay claim to the 
whole Pacific ocean would not be at all back- 
ward in declaring that one of her navigators 


was the first to sight the Northwest Coast, and 
that, too, far above the point really gained by 
Ferrelo. It is not considered likely that he 
reached above the mouth of Umpqua river. 

In 1577 Francis Drake, as privateer and 
freebooter, a pirate and plunderer of Spanish 
galleons, yet withal a man of strong character 
and enterprising spirit, attempted to find a 
northwest passage. Drake probably reached 
as high as latitude 43 degrees, and dropped his 
anchors into the shoals of that region. No in- 
land explorations were achieved by him, and 
he reluctantly abandoned the search for Anian, 
returned to Drake's Bay, on the coast of Cali- 
fornia, and subsequently to England around the 
Cape of Good Hope. En passant it is notice- 
able that during the famous Oregon Contro- 
versy, which obtained ascendancy in interna- 
tional politics two hundred and fifty years later, 
the discoveries of Drake were not presented by 
England in support of her claims for all terri- 
tory north of the Columbia river. Whether 
Great Britain was doubtful of the validity of 
discoveries made by a freebooter, or attached no 
importance to his achievement, the fact remains 
that they were not urged with any force or en- 

Cabrillo and Ferrelo were not emulated in 
maritime discoveries in the waters of the 
Northwest Coast, until 1550. But on the 
shore-line of the Atlantic, Cartier, for six years, 
between 1536 and 1542, had made a number of 
inland voyages, ascending the St. Lawrence 
Gulf and river five hundred miles, past the site 
of Montreal and to the falls of St. Louis. .In 
the far south Hernando De Soto, contemporary 
with Cartier, had sailed coastwise along the 
Florida peninsula and penetrated that tropical 
country until forced back by swamps, morasses 
and everglades. Inland exploration in the mid- 
dle of the sixteenth century comprised, prac- 
tically, in its northern limitations, a line cross- 
ing the continent a few miles below the 36th 
parallel, from the Colorado to the Savannahs, 
Coronado advancing into the modern Kansas, 

having passed the line at its central part. The 
Pacific had been explored sufficiently only to 
barely show the shore-line to the 44th degree of 
north latitude. 

In the w 7 ay of northern exploration on the 
Pacific coast Spain had, in 1550, accomplished 
little or nothing. But fifteen years afterward 
Spain became aggressive along the lines of mar- 
itime activity. Urdaneta, in 1565, planned and 
executed the initial voyage eastward, opening 
a northern route to the Pacific coast of North 
America. He was followed,, from the Philip- 
pines, by Manila traders, eager for gain, and 
for two centuries thereafter, through the rise 
and decline of Spanish commercial supremacy, 
these active and energetic sailors reaped large 
rewards from the costly furs found in the 
waters of the Northwest Coast. It is fair to 
say that the spirit of commercialism contributed 
far more toward development of the region 
of which this history treats than did the more 
sentimental efforts of geographical science. 

Still, the latter spirit was not without its 
apostles and propagandists. Among them was 
one who called himself Juan de Fuca, a Greek 
of Cephalonia. His real name was Apostolos 
Valerianos. Acting, as had Columbus, under 
royal commission from the King of Spain, he 
sailed bravely away to find the legendary Strait 
of Anian — the marine pathway between the 
greatest oceans of the world. The name of 
Anian, a mythical northwestern kingdom, orig- 
inated in 1500, and is said to have been taken in 
honor of a brother of Cortereal. The real strait 
was discovered by Russians in 1750. These 
Russians were fur-hunting Cossacks, who 
reached the Pacific coast of North America in 
1639. Their point of rendezvous was at 
Okhotsk, on the sea of that name. 

Though the voyage of Juan de Fuca proved 
fruitless it must be conceded that it was con- 
ceived in the interest of science ; a move in be- 
half of international economics, and honorable 
alike to both Spain and the intrepid navigator. 
In 1584 Francisco de Gali reached the Pacific 


coast, from the west, in 37 degrees 30 minutes ; 
some say 57 degrees 30 minutes. He was con- 
tent to sail southward without landing, but 
recorded for the archives of Spain the trend 
and shore-line of the coast. By the same route 
Cermenon, in 1595, met with disaster by losing 
his vessel in Drake's Bay, a short distance 
above the present city of San Francisco. 
Prominent among numerous other voyagers, 
mainly bent on profit, were Espejo, Perea, 
Lopez and Captain Vaca. 

As has been stated, the earliest explorations 
of the Northwest Coast were maritime. They 
were, also, in the main, confined between lati- 
tudes 42 degrees and 54 degrees, mainly south 
of the boundary line finally accepted by Great 
Britain as between Canada and the United 
States. Even in that twilight preceding the 
broad day of inland discovery, there were wars 
between nations, with "Oregon" the issue, and 
some compromises. Later came the advance 
guard of inland explorers who found, at the 
occidental terminus of their perilous journeys. 
a comparatively unknown seaboard 750 miles 
in extent, below the vast reaches of Alaskan 
territory and the Aleutian Islands. From the 
far north came Russian explorers, and they en- 
countered Southern navigators who had come 
upward from the ambrosial tropics. They com- 
pared notes, they detailed to each other many 
facts, intermixed with voluminous fiction, but 
from the whole was picked out and arranged 
much of geographical certainty. Four nations 
of Pacific navigators came to what afterward 
was known as Oregon, related their adventures, 
boasted of the discoveries each had made, dis- 
cussed the probability of a northwest passage, 
the "Strait of Anian," — and the Northwest 
Mystery remained a mystery still. 

The Spaniards, between 1492 and 1550, 
were in the lead so far as concerns actual geo- 
graphical results, of all other European sailors. 
Spain, through the agency of the Italian. Col- 
umbus, had discovered a new world : Spain had 
meandered the coast-line for 30.000 miles, from 

60 degrees on the Atlantis coast of Labrador, 
round by Magellan Strait, to 40 degrees on the 
coast of the Pacific. Vast were the possibilities 
of the future for Spain, and the world did 
honor to her unequalled achievement. From a 
broad, humanitarian view point, it is a sad 
reflection that so many of the golden promises 
held out to her should have, in subsequent cen- 
turies, faded away as fades the elusive rainbow 
against the storm-cloud background. But 
Spain's misfortune became North America's 
opportunity. England, too, and Russia, 
watched and waited, seized and assimilated so 
rapidly as possible, piece by piece the territory 
on which the feet of Spanish explorers had been 
first planted. That it was the survival of the 
fittest may, possibly, remain unquestioned, but 
it is a fact that Spain's gradual yet certain loss 
of the most valuable territory in the world has 
furnished many of the most stirring episodes 
in the world's history. Spain has lost, sold. 
ceded and relinquished vast domains to nearly 
all the modern powers. And not the least valu- 
able of Spain's former possessions are now 
under the Stars and Stripes. 

Thus far has been hastily sketched the 
salient facts concerning the earliest maritime 
discoveries of the Northwest Coast. None of 
the Spanish, English, Russian or Italian navi- 
gators had penetrated inland farther than a few 
miles up the estuary of the Columbia river. It 
was destined to remain for a class of explorers 
other than maritime, yet equally courageous 
and enterprising, to blaze the trail for future 
pioneers from the east. 

To Alexander Mackenzie, a native of In- 
verness, knighted by George III, is accredited 
the honor of being the first European to force 
a passage of the Rocky Mountains north of 
California. On June 3. 1780. Mackenzie left 
Fort Chipewyan, situated at the western point 
of Athabasca lake, in two canoes. He was ac- 
companied by a German, four Canadians, two 
of them with wives, an Indian, named English 
Chief, and M. Le Roux. the latter in the capac- 


ity of clerk and supercargo of the expedition. 
The route of this adventurous party was by the 
way of Slave river and Slave lake, thence down 
a stream subsequently named the Mackenzie 
river, on to the Arctic Ocean, striking the coast 
at latitude 52 degrees, 24 minutes, 48 seconds. 
This territory is all within the present boundar- 
ies of British Columbia, north of the line finally 
accepted as the northern boundary of "Oregon" 
by the English diplomats. 

Singular as it may appear there is no 
authentic history of the origin of this term 
"Oregon. - ' There is, however, cumulative 
testimony to the effect that the name was in- 
vented by Jonathan Carver, who pushed his in- 
land explorations beyond the headwaters of the 
Mississippi river; that the name was exploited 
and made famous by William Cullen Bryant, 
author of "Thanatopsis," and late editor of the 
New York Evening Post; that it was fastened 
upon the Columbia river territory, originally 
by Hall J. Kelley, through his memorials to 
congress in 181 7, and secondly by various other 
English and American authors. Aside from 
this explanation are numerous theories adduc- 
ing Spanish derivatives of rather ambiguous 
context, but lacking lucidity or force. It is 
likely that no more etymological radiance 
will ever be thrown upon what, after all. is a 
rather unimportant, though often mooted 

The expedition of Mackenzie, crowned with 
results most valuable to science and territorial 
development, comprised one hundred and two 
days. At the point he first made, on the Pacific 
coast the explorer executed, with vermillion 
and grease, a rude sign bearing the following 
inscription : "Alexander Mackenzie, from Can- 
ada by land, July 22. 1793." Subsequent ex- 
peditions were made by Mackenzie to the coast, 
one of them via the Peace river. 

But now comes one M. Le Page du Pratz, 
a talented and scholarly French savant, with 

the statement made several years ago, that 
neither Mackenzie nor Lewis and Clarke were 
the first to cross the Rockies and gain the 
Northwest Coast. Our French student claims 
to have discovered a Natchez Indian, being of 
the tribe of the Yahoos, called LTnterprete, on 
account of the various languages he had ac- 
quired, but named by his own people Moncacht 
Ape, "He Who Kills Trouble and Fatigue." 
M. Le Page declares that this man, actuated 
mainly by curiosity, a stimulant underlying all 
advancement, unassisted and unattended, trav- 
eled from the Mississippi river to the Pacific 
coast so early as 1743. This was sixty years 
before President Jefferson dispatched Captains 
Lewis and Clarke on their governmental expe- 
dition, the results of which have proved so im- 
portant and momentuous in the history of the 
development of Oregon and Washington. 
Moncacht Ape, it is claimed, met many tribes 
of Indians, made friends with all of them, ac- 
quired portions of complex dialects, gained as- 
sistance and information and, eventually gazed 
upon the same waters upon which Balboa had 
fixed his eyes with enthusiasm, many hundreds 
of miles to the south. 

It can not be denied that hardly has a great 
discovery been heralded to the world ere some 
rival genius springs up to claim it. Possibly 
it is this spirit which may have actuated M. Le 
Page in producing the somewhat mysterious 
Moncacht Ape, to pose as the pioneer of North- 
western exploration. But we, of to-day, are in 
no position to combat his claims, reserving to 
ourselves the undeniable fact that Mackenzie, 
Lewis and Clarke were the first white men to 
gain, overland, the Northwest Coast. 

From 1500 to 1803 this greatly abridged 
foreword has traced northwestern discoveries. 
We now enter upon a brief description of the 
glorious achievements of Lewis and Clarke in 
that portion of their journey so fruitful with 
results to Washington and Oresfon. 



Eleven years before the departure of Lewis 
and Clarke, on their expedition to the North- 
west, President Jefferson, in 1792, proposed a 
plan to the American Philosophical Society, in- 
volving a subscription for the purpose of em- 
ploying a competent person who should pro- 
ceed by land to the Northwest Coast. It is at 
this period that Captain Meriwether Lewis 
emerges from the obscurity of his military post 
at Charlotteville, Virginia. It had been ar- 
ranged that M. Michaux, a French botanist, 
should become the companion of Captain 
Lewis. These two had proceeded on their 
journey so far as Kentucky, at that time one 
of the western states, when an end was put to 
this initial enterprise by the French minister, 
who suddenly discovered that he had use for 
the botanical abilities of M. Michaux else- 
where. The latter was recalled. 

But this plan, which had grown in devel- 
opment of detail since its inception, was not 
abandoned by Jefferson. In 1803, on the eve 
of expiration of the act for the establishment 
of trading posts among Indians, the president 
again brought forward the scheme which he 
had first proposed to the American Philosophi- 
cal Society. The object sought was to trace 
the Missouri river to its source, cross the 
Rocky Mountains, and gain the Pacific Ocean. 
This was most satisfactorily accomplished, and 
because this expedition first sighted the Pacific 
in latitude 46 degrees, 19 minutes 11.7 seconds, 
it becomes an important factor, within the ter- 
ritorial limits of this history. The confidential 
message, transmitted by President Jefferson to 
congress, in January, 1803, had been favorably 
received, and results were far bevond his most 

sanguine expectations. Not only had the orig- 
inal plan been fully approved, but it was consid- 
erably amplified in its details, and Captain 
Lewis had been given as a companion, William 
Clarke, brother of General George Rogers 
Clarke. To Captain Lewis, to whom was given 
full command of the expedition, instructions 
were imparted concerning the route, various 
objects to which inquiries should be directed, 
relating to geography, character of the country 
traversed, the different inhabitants, biology, 
and such other scientific information as it was 
possible to obtain. 

Coincident with this momentuous under- 
taking another, and equally important negotia- 
tion was being carried to a successful conclu- 
sion. This was the Louisiana Purchase, from 
Napoleon Bonaparte, by which the United 
States acquired title to a domain whose extent 
and topographicl location made that other terri- 
tory to which Lewis and Clarke were en route, 
"Oregon," an almost absolute necessity. 
Louisiana, at that period extending from the 
mouth of the Mississippi river to the, then, 
indefinite boundaries on the north of Montana 
and the Dakotas, had been recently ceded by 
Spain to France. The latter power, by a treaty 
involving the payment to Napoleon of 
$15,000,000, ceded it to the United States. 

Following the return of the Lewis and 
Clarke expedition, a donation of land was made 
by congress to the members of the party. This 
was in 1807. Captain Lewis was appointed 
governor of our newly acquired territory of 
"Louisiana." and Clarke was made agent of 
Indian affairs. But while on his way to Phila- 
delphia, to supervise the publication of his jour- 


nal, in 1807, Captain Lewis was stricken with 

That portion of Lewis and Clarke's expedi- 
tion with which this history concerns itself re- 
lates chiefly to the achievements of these in- 
trepid captains after they had entered the terri- 
tory known as "Oregon," and from which the 
states of Oregon, Washington and Idaho were 
carved : And what was this territory, at that 
period a terra incognita? Major Joshua 
Pitcher, early in 1800 contributes the following 
brief description : 

The form or configuration of the country is the 
most perfect and admirable which the imagination can 
conceive. All its outlines are distinctly marked ; all its 
interior is connected together. Frozen regions on the 
north, the ocean and its mountainous coast to the west, 
the Rocky Mountains to the east, sandy and desert 
plains to the south — such are its boundaries. Within 
the whole country is watered by the streams of a single 
river, issuing from the north, east and south, uniting 
in the region of tidewater, and communicating with the 
sea by a single outlet. Such a country is formed for 
defense, and whatever power gets possession of it will 
probably be able to keep it. 

This was published in Volume I, No. 39, 
senate documents. Twenty-first Congress, sec- 
ond session. A more extended description is 
sketched later by Mr. Parker, who says : 

Beyond the Rocky Mountains nature appears to 
have studied variety on the largest scale. Towering 
mountains and wide-extended prairies, rich valleys and 
barren plains, and large rivers, with their rapids, cata- 
racts and falls, present a great variety of prospects. 
The whole country is so mountainous that there is no 
elevation from which a person can not see some of the 
immense range which intersect its various parts. 
From an elevation a short distance from Fort Van- 
couver, five isolated, conical mountains, from ten to 
fifteen thousand feet high, whose tops are covered with 
perpetual snow, may be seen rising in the surrounding 
valley. There are three general ranges west of the 
Rocky chain of mountains, running in northern and 
southern directions; the first above the falls of the 
Columbia river; the second at and below the Cascades; 
the third toward and along the shores of the Pacific. 
From each of these branches extend in different direc- 
tions. Besides these there are those in different parts 
which are large and high, such as the Blue Mountains, 
south of Walla Walla ; the Salmon River Mountains, 

between Salmon and Kooskooskie rivers, and also in 
the region of Okanogan and Colville. The loftiest peaks 
of the Rocky Mountains have been found in about 52 
degrees north latitude, where Mr. Thompson, astrono- 
mer of the Hudson's Bay Company, has ascertained the 
heights of several. One, called Mount Brown, he esti- 
mates at sixteen thousand feet above the level of the 
sea ; another, Mt. Hooker, at fifteen thousand seven hun- 
dred feet. It has been stated, farther (though probably 
with some exaggeration) that he discovered other points 
farther north of an elevation ten thousand feet higher 
than these. Between these mountains are widespread val- 
leys and plains. The largest and most fertile valley is in- 
cluded between Deer Island in the west, to within twelve 
miles of the Cascades, which is about fifty-five miles 
wide, and extending north and south to a greater extent 
than I had the means of definitely ascertaining ; probably 
from Puget Sound on the north, to the Umpqua river 
on the south. 

The Willamette river, and a section of the Colum- 
bia, are included in this valley. The valley south of 
the Walla Walla, called the Grand Rond, is said to excel 
in fertility. To these may be added Pierre's Hole, and 
the adjacent country; also Recueil Amere, east of the 
Salmon River Mountains. Others of less magnitude 
are dispersed over different parts. To these may be 
subjoined extensive plains, most of which are prairies 
well covered with grass. The whole region of country 
west of the Salmon River Mountains, the Spokane 
woods and Okanogan, quite to the range of mountains 
that cross the Columbia at the Falls, is a vast prairie, 
covered with grass, and the soil is generally good. 
Another large plain which is said to be very barren, 
lies off to the southward of Lewis, or Malheur river, 
including the Shoshone country ; and travelers who have 
passed through this have pronounced the interior of 
America a great, barren desert, but this is drawing a 
conclusion far too broad from premises so limited. 

Aside from Captains Lewis and Clarke, the 
party of exploration consisted of nine young 
men from Kentucky, fourteen United States 
soldiers, who had volunteered their services, 
two Freijch watermen, (an interpreter and 
hunter), and a black servant, employed by 
Captain Clarke. Before the close of 1803 prep- 
arations for the voyage were all completed, and 
the party wintered at the mouth of Wood river, 
on the east bank of the Mississippi. 

The start was on May 4, 1804, and the first 
reach, made on the sixteenth, was twenty-one 
miles up the Missouri. Of the many surpris- 
ing advantures encountered in ascending this 
river to Fort Benton, it is not the province of 


this history to recount. It was toward the 
Northwest Coast that their faces were set, and 
the advent of these pioneers into the future 
"Oregon" becomes of material interest to 
present residents of this section. 

August 1 8, 1805, fourteen months from the 
departure of this expedition, it had reached the 
extreme navigable point of the Missouri river, 
stated in Captain Lewis' journal, to be in lati- 
tude 43 degrees, 30 minutes, 43 seconds north. 
The party was now, for a certain distance, to 
proceed by land with pack horses. Tribe after 
tribe of strange Indians were encountered, a 
majority of whom met the explorers on friendly 
terms. The party endured hardships innum- 
erable; game was scarce in certain localities, 
and at times the weather was inclement. They 
forded unknown streams, and christened many, 
Lewis river, Clarke's Fork, and others. 

Particular inquiries were made regarding 
the topography of the country and the possibil- 
ity of soon reaching a navigable stream. In 
answer to such questions an ancient chief, who, 
it was claimed, knew more concerning the 
geography of this section of the northwest than 
any one else, drew rude delineations of the vari- 
ous rivers on the ground. It soon developed 
that he knew little about them. But some 
vague information was gained sufficient to 
show that the different streams converged in 
one vast river, the Columbia, running a great 
way toward the "setting sun, and at length los- 
ing itself in a great lake of water, which was ill- 
tasted and where the white men lived." Still 
another route was suggested, an analysis of 
which convinced Captain Clarke that the rivers 
mentioned debouched into the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia. He then inquired concerning the route 
used by the Pierced-nose Indians who, living 
west of the mountains, crossed over to the Mis- 
souri. According to Captain Lewis' journal 
the chief replied, in effect, that the route was a 
very bad one; that during the passage, he had 
been told, thev suffered excessively from hun- 
ger, being obliged to subsist for many days on 

berries alone, there being no game in that part 
of the mountains, which was broken and rocky, 
and so thickly covered with timber that they 
could scarcely pass. 

Difficulties, also, surrounded all routes, and 
this one appeared as practicable as any other. 
It was reasoned that if Indians could pass the 
mountains with their women and children, no 
difficulties which they could overcome would 
be formidable to the explorers. Lewis sets 
down in his journal : "If the tribes below the 
mountains were as numerous as they were rep- 
resented to be, they would have some means of 
subsistance equally within our power. They 
had told us, indeed, that the natives to the 
westward subsisted principally on fish and 
roots, and that their only game was a few elk, 
deer and antelope, there being no buffalo west 
of the mountains." 

It was decided by Captain Clarke to ascer- 
tain what difficulty, if any, would be encoun- 
tered in descending the river on which the 
party was then encamped. Continuing down 
the stream, which runs nearly northwest, 
through low grounds, rich and wide, they 
came to where it forked, the western branch 
being much larger than the eastern. To this 
stream, or rather the main branch, was given 
the name of Lewis river. The party followed 
it until confronted by insurmountable ob- 
stacles ; it foamed and lashed itself through a 
narrow pass flanked by the loftiest mountains 
Captain Clarke had ever seen. The Indians 
declared that it was impossible to descend the 
river or scale the mountains, snow-capped and 
repellant. They had never been lower than the 
bead of the gap made by the river breaking 
through the range. Captain Clarke decided to 
abandon the route. It was determined to pro- 
ceed on their course by land. On being ques- 
tioned their guide drew a map on the sand, rep- 
resenting a road leading toward two forks of 
another river, where lived a tribe of Indians 
called Tushepaws. These people, he said, fre- 
quently came to Lewis river to fish for salmon. 


Through the broken, hilly country through 
which flow the tributaries of the Columbia the 
party pressed forward. On the 29th Captain 
Clarke and his men joined the main party, 
which had made a wide detour in order to gain 
information regarding a more feasible route. 
Although August was not yet passed the 
weather was quite cold, and during the night 
ink froze in the pen and frost covered the 
meadows. Yet the days were warm, and this 
atmospheric condition grew more pronounced 
as they drew nearer the "Oregon" climate. 

The expedition began the passage across 
the mountains August 30, 1805. Accompanied 
by the old guide, his four sons and another 
Indian, the party began the descent of the 
Lemhi river. Three days later all the Indians. 
save the old guide, deserted them. There being 
no track leading across the mountains it became 
necessary to cut their way through the dense 
underbrush. Although the Indian guide ap- 
pears to have lost his way, on September 4, 
after most arduous labor in forcing a passage 
through the almost impenetrable brush, the 
party came upon a large camp of Indians. The 
following day a "pow-wow" Avas held, con- 
ducted in many languages, the various dia- 
lects suggesting a modern Babel, but it proved 
sufficient to inform the Indians of the main ob- 
ject of the expedition. These Indians were the 
Ootlashoots, a band of the Tushepaws, on their 
way to join other bands in hunting buffalo on 
Jefferson river, across the Great Divide. Part- 
ing from them the toilsome journey was re- 
sumed. The party was seeking a pass across 
the Bitter Root mountains. Game disappeared. 
On September 14 they were forced to kill a colt, 
their, stock of animal food being exhausted. 
And with frequent recurrence to the use of 
horseflesh they pressed on through the wilder- 
ness. An extract from Captain Clarke's jour- 
nal of September 18, conveys an idea of the 
destitute condition of his party : 

We melted some snow and supped on a little porta- 
ble soup, a few cannisters of which, with about twenty 

pounds' weight of bear's oil, are our only remaining 
means of subsistence. Our guns are scarcely of any 
service for there is no living creature in these mountains 
except a few small pheasants, a small species of gray 
squirrel, and a blue bird of the vulture kind, about the 
size of a turtle dove, or jay. Even these are difficult 
to shoot. 

Arriving at a bold, running stream on Sep- 
tember 19, it was appropriately named "Hun- 
gry Creek," as at that point they had nothing to 
eat. On September 20 the party passed down 
the last of the Bitter Root range and gained a 
comparatively level country. Here they found 
another band of strange Indians, people who 
had never looked upon the face of a white man. 
They proved hospitable and the party remained 
with them several days. The Indians called 
themselves Chopunnish, or Pierced-noses, the 
Xez Perces of to-day. The expedition was now 
in the vicinity of Pierce City, at one period the 
capital of Shoshone county, Idaho. On a white 
elk skin, the chief, Twisted Hair, drew a chart 
of the country to the west, to explain the geog- 
raphy and topography of the district beyond. 
Captain Clarke translates it as follows : 

"According to this the Kooskooskee forks 
(confluence of its north fork) a few miles from 
this place ; two days toward the south is another 
and larger fork (confluence of Snake river), on 
which the Shoshone or Snake Indians fish ; five 
days' journey further is a large river from the 
northwest (that is, the Columbia itself) into 
which Clarke's river empties; from the mouth 
of that river (that is, confluence of the Snake. 
with the Columbia) to the falls is five days' 
journey further; on all the forks as well as on 
the main river great numbers of Indians re- 

On September 23 the Indians were assem- 
bled, and the errand of the party across the 
continent explained. The talk satisfied the sav- 
ages: they sold their visitors provisions for 
man and beast and parted with amity. But 
immediate progress was somewhat delayed by 
illness of different members of the party. They 
were nearly famished when thev encountered 


the Nez Perces, and had eaten too heartily fol- 
lowing their privations. September 2j they 
camped on Kooskooskee river and began the 
building of canoes. Gradually the health of 
the men was recruited, and the early days of 
October were passed in making preparations to 
descend the river. According to Lewis' jour- 
nal the latitude of this camp was 46 degrees 
34 minutes 56 seconds north. It should be re- 
membered that the Kooskooskee is now the 
Clearwater, flowing into the Snake river which, 
in turn, empties into the Columbia. October 
8 the party began their long and adventurous 
voyage in five canoes, one of which served as 
an advance pilot boat, the course of the stream 
being unknown. They were soon assailed by 
disaster, one of the canoes striking a rock and 
sinking. The river was found to be full of 
rocks, reefs and rapids. At the confluence of 
the Kooskooskee and Snake rivers a night's 
camp was made, near the present Idaho town of 
Lewiston, named in honor of the commander 
of this expedition. And from this point the 
party crossed over into the territory now 
bounded by the limits of the state of Washing- 
ton. Experience in this camp finds the fol- 
lowing expression in Lewis' journal. 

Our arrival soon attracted the attention of the In- 
dians, who flocked from all directions to see us. In the 
evening the Indian from the falls, whom we had seen at 
Rugged Rapid, joined us with his son in a small canoe, 
and insisted on accompanpying us to the falls. Being 
again reduced to fish and roots, we made an experiment 
to vary our food by purchasing a few dogs, and after 
having been accumtomed to horse-flesh felt no disrelish 
for this new dish. The Chopunnish have great numbers 
of dogs, which they employ for domestic purposes, but 
never eat ; and our using the flesh of that animal soon 
brought us into ridicule as dog eaters. 

On October 11, having made a short stage 
in their journey, the party stopped and traded 
with the Indians, securing a quantity of salmon 
and seven dogs. They were now on the Snake 
river and proceeding rapidly toward the Col- 
umbia, known to all the various Indian tribes 

in "Oregon" as the "Great River." Dangerous 
rapids crowded the stream ; disasters were en- 
countered far too frequently to prove assuring 
to the voyageurs. October 14 another canoe 
was blown upon a rock sideways and narrowly 
escaped being lost. Four miles above the point 
of confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers 
the expedition halted and conferred with the 
Indians. During the evening of October 16 
they were visited by two hundred warriors who 
tendered them a barbaric ovation, comprising 
a procession with drums, torches and vocal 
music far more diabolical than classical. Here 
seven more dogs were purchased, together with 
some fish and "twenty pounds of fat dried 
horseflesh." At the point where the party were 
then stationed the counties of Franklin, 
Yakima and YValla Walla now come together; 
the junction of the Snake and Columbia rivers. 
The Indians called themselves Sokulks. 

Habit and experience necessarily render ex- 
plorers more far-sighted and astute than the 
ordinary citizen of civilized habitat. But the 
prescience of the former is by no means in- 
fallible. Lewis and Clarke were now about to 
set forth upon the waters of the mighty Colum- 
bia, a famous stream variously known as "The 
River of the North" and "The Oregon;" a 
great commercial artery whose convolutions 
were subsequently to be insisted upon by Great 
Britain as the northern boundary of "Oregon" 
territory. But the magnitude of this stream 
and its future importance in international poli- 
tics were, of course, unknown to Lewis and 
Clarke. These explorers had no knowledge of 
the "terminal facilities" of this stream other 
than that contributed by the legendary lore of 
Indians, dim. mythical, and altogether theoreti- 
cal. And with this absence of even a partial 
realization of the great significance of his mis- 
sion Captain Lewis writes in his journal of Oc- 
tober 17, 1805 : 

"In the course of the day Captain Clarke, 
in a small canoe, with two men. ascended the 
Columbia. At a distance of five miles he passed 


an island in the middle of the river, at the head 
of which was a small but dangerous rapid." 

With this simple introduction to the most 
important episode of his journey across the con- 
tinent Captain Lewis faced the Occident that 
held so much in store for thousands of the 
future. On the 19th the voyageurs began to 
drift down the Columbia. Rapids impeded 
their course, many of them dangerous. Short 
portages were made around the more difficult 
ones, and forty miles down the stream they 
landed among a tribe known as the Pishguit- 
pahs who were engaged in drying fish. Here 
they smoked the pipe of peace, exchanged pres- 
ents and entertained the Indians with the strains 
of two violins played by Cruzatte and Gibson, 
members of the exploring party. October 21 
they arrived at the confluence of a considerable 
stream, coming into the Columbia from the left, 
and named by the party Lepage, now known as 
John Day's river. Six years later, John Day, a 
Kentucky Nimrod, crossed the continent on 
the trail blazed by Lewis and Clarke, bound for 
Astoria, at the mouth of the Columbia. From 
the rapids below the mouth of this stream the 
party gained their first view of Mount Hood, 
prominent in the Cascade range, looming up 
from the southwest eleven thousand two hun- 
dred and twenty-five feet. On the day fol- 
lowing they passed a stream called by the In- 
dians Towahnahiooks ; to modern geographers 
known as the Des Chutes. This is one of the 
largest southern tributaries of the Columbia. 

Five miles below the mouth of this stream 
the party camped. Lewis and Clarke had 
learned from the Indins of the "great falls," 
and toward this point they had looked with 
some apprehension. October 23 they made the 
descent of these rapids, the height of which, in 
a distance of twelve hundred yards is thirty- 
seven feet eight inches. Around the first fall, 
twenty-five feet high, a portage was made, and 
below the canoes were led down by lines. At 
the next fall of the Columbia the expedition 
camped, among the Echeloots, a tribe of the 

Upper Chinooks, at present nearly extinct. 
They received the white men with much kind- 
ness, invited them to their huts and returned 
their visits, but the Echeloots were then at war 
with another tribe and at all times anxious con- 
cerning an expected attack by their enemies. 
Following a long talk with Lewis and Clarke, 
who were ever ready to extend their good offices 
toward making peace between hostile tribes, 
the Echeloots agreed to drop their quarrel with 
their ancient enemies. Here, too, the chiefs 
who had accompanied the expedition from the 
headwaters of the streams, bade the explorers 
farewell, and prepared to return eastward. Pur- 
chasing horses of the Echeloots they went home 
by land. 

The closing days of October were passed 
in descending the Columbia, in which portion 
of their voyage they met a number of different 
tribes of Indians, among them the Chilluckitte- 
quaws, from whom they purchased five small 
dogs, some dried berries and a white bread or 
cake, made from roots. They passed a small, 
rapid stream which they called Cataract river, 
now known as the Klickitat. Going thirty-two 
miles farther they camped on the right bank of 
a river in what is now Skamania county, Wash- 
ington, which is either the White Salmon or 
Little White Salmon. On the last day of Oc- 
tober Captain Clarke pushed on ahead to ex- 
amine the next of the more difficult rapids, 
known as "the great shoot." This obstacle was 
conquered, however, although not without a 
number of hair-breadth escapes, and on No- 
vember 2 the party were below the last of all 
the descents of the Columbia. At this point 
tidewater commences and the river widens. 

From tidewater to the sea the passage was 
enlivened with incidents sufficient to quicken 
the pulse of the enthusiastic explorers. Near 
the mouth of Sandy river they met a party of 
fifteen Indians who had recently come up from 
the mouth of the Columbia. By them they were 
told of three vessels lying at anchor below. It 
was certain that these craft must be either 



American or European, and the explorers could 
ill conceal their unbounded pleasure and antici- 
pation. A group of islands near the mouth of 
the Multnomah, or modernly, Williamette, had 
concealed this stream, upon which is now situ- 
ated the city of Portland, from view. The voy- 
ageurs had missed this important river en- 
tirely. Proceeding westward the explorers 
obtained their first sight of Mount Ranier, or 
Mount Tacoma, nine thousand seven hundred 
and fifty feet high. Nearing the coast the party 
met Indians of a nature widely divergent from 
any whom they had before seen. Captain Lewis 
says : 

These people seem to be of a different nation from 
those we have just passed; they are low in stature, ill- 
shaped, and all have their heads flattened. They call 
themselves Wahkiacum, and their language differs from 
that of the tribes above, with whom they trade for 
wapatoo roots. The houses are built in a different style, 
being raised entirely above ground, with the eaves about 
five feet high and the door at the corner. * * * The 
dress of the men is like that of the people above, but the 
women are clad in a peculiar manner, the robe not 
reaching lower than the hip, and the body being covered 
in cold weather by a sort of corset of fur, curiously 
plaited and reaching from the arms to the hip : added to 
this is a sort of petticoat, or rather tissue of white cedar 
bark, bruised or broken with small strands, and woven 
into a girdle by several cords of the same material. 

These Indians, as a tribal nation, have en- 
tirely disappeared, but their name is perpetu- 
ated by a small county on the coast of Wash- 
ington, north of the Bay of Columbia. 

Practically the Lewis and Clarke expedition 
reached the end of its perilous trip across the 
continent on November 15, 1805. Of this 
achievement the Encyclopaedia Britannica 
says : "They had traveled upwards of four 
thousand miles from their starting point, had 
encountered various Indian tribes never before 
seen by whites, had made scientific collections 
and observations, and were the first explorers 

to reach the Pacific coast by crossing the con- 
tinent north of Mexico." 

The closing statement of this article par- 
tially ignores the expeditions of Sir Alexander 
Mackenzie who, while he did not cross the 
continent from a point as far east as Washing- 
ton, D. C, made a journey, in 1789, from Fort 
Chipewyan, along the great Slave Lake, and 
down the river which now bears his name, to 
the "Frozen Ocean," and a second journey in 
1792-3 from the same initial point, up the 
Peace and across the Columbia rivers, and 
thence westward to the coast of the Pacific, at 
Cape Menzies, opposite Queen Charlotte 
Island. Only to this extent is the statement 
of the Encyclopaedia Britannica misleading, 
but it is quite evident that there is no pro- 
nounced inclination to do an injustice to the 
memory of Mackenzie. 

The Lewis and Clarge party passed the 
following winter in camp at the mouth of the 
Columbia. Before the holidays Captain Clarke 
carved on the trunk of a massive pine this 
simple inscription : 


STATES IN 1804 AND 5. 

During the return of the expedition the 
Clarke division came down the Yellowstone, 
in Montana. On a mass of saffron sandstone, 
an acre in base, and four hundred feet high, 
called Pompey's Pillar, twenty miles above the 
mouth of the Big Horn river, about half way 
up, the following is carved : 


JULY 25. 1806. 



The strugggle of five nations for possession 
of "Oregon," a domain embracing indefinite 
territory, but including the present states of 
Oregon, Washington and Idaho, and a portion 
of British Columbia, ran through a century and 
a half, and culminated in the "Oregon Contro- 
versy" between England and the United States. 
Through forty years of diplomatic sparring, 
advances, retreats, demands, concessions and 
unperfected compromises the contest was 
waged between the two remaining champions 
of the cause, the United States and Great Brit- 
ain. British parlimentary leaders came and 
went; federal administrations followed each 
other successsively, and each in turn directed 
the talents of its able secretaries of state to the 
vital point in American politics, Oregon. 

The question became all important and far 
reaching. It involved, at different periods, all 
the cunning diplomacy of the Hudson's Bay 
Company, backed by hundreds of thousands of 
pounds sterling; it brought to the front con- 
spicuously the life tragedy of a humble mis- 
sionary among the far western Indians, Dr. 
Marcus Whitman; it aroused the spirited pa- 
triotism of American citizenship from Maine to 
Astoria, and it evoked the sanguinary defi from 
American lips, "Fifty-four forty or fight." 

It closed with a compromise, quickly, yet 
effectually consummated ; ratification was im- 
mediate, and the "Oregon Controversy" be- 
came as a tale that is told, and from a live and 
burning issue of the day it passed quietly into 
the sequestered nook of American history. 

To obtain a fairly comprehensive view of 
this question it becomes necessary to hark 
back to 1697, the year of the Treaty of Rys- 

wick, when Spain claimed, as her share of 
North America, as stated by William Barrows : 

On the Atlantic coast from Cape Romaine on the 
Carolina shore, a few miles north of Charleston, due 
west to the Mississippi river, and all south of that line 
to the Gulf of Mexico. That line continued beyond 
the Mississippi makes the northern boundary of Louis- 
iana. In the valley of the lower Mississippi Spain 
acknowledged no rival, though France was then be- 
ginning to intrude. On the basis of discovery by the 
heroic De Soto and others, she claimed up to the head 
of the Arkansas and the present famous Leadville, and 
westward to the Pacific. On that ocean, or the South 
Sea, as it was then called, she set up the pretensions of 
sovereignty from Panama to Nootka Sound or Van- 
couver. These pretensions covered the coasts, harbors, 
islands and even over the whole Pacific Ocean as then 
limited. These stupendous claims Spain based on dis- 
covery, under the papal bull of Alexander VI, in 1493. 
This bull or decree gave to the discoverer all newly 
discovered lands and waters. In 15 13 Balboa, the Span- 
iard, discovered the Pacific Ocean, as he came over the 
Isthmus of Panama, and so Spain came into the owner- 
ship of that body of water. Good old times those were, 
when kings thrust their hands into the new world, as 
children do theirs into a grab-bag at a fair, and drew 
out a river four thousand miles long, or an ocean, or a 
tract of wild land ten or fifteen times the size of 

Nor was France left out at the Ryswick 
partition of the world. She claimed in the 
south and in the north, and it was her proud 
boast that from the mouth of the Penobscot 
along the entire seaboard to the unknown and 
frozen Arctic, no European power divided that 
coast with her, nor the wild interior back of it. 

At the date of this survey, 1697, Russia was 
quiescent. She claimed no possessions. But 
at the same time Peter the Great, and his minis- 
ters, were doing some heavy thinking. Result* 
of these cogitations were afterwards seen in 



the new world, in a territory known for many 
years to school children as Russian America, 
now the Klondyke, Dawson, Skaguay, Bonan- 
za Creek, the Yukon and — the place where the 
gold comes from. Russia entered the lists ; she 
became the fifth competitor, with Spain, Eng- 
land, France and the United States, for Ore- 

Passing over the events of a hundred years, 
years of cruel wars; of possession and dispos- 
session among the powers ; the loss by France 
of Louisiana and the tragedy of the Plains of 
Abraham, we come to the first claims of Russia. 
She demanded all the Northwest Coast and is- 
lands north of latitude 51 degrees and down 
the Asiatic coast as low as 45 degrees, 50 min- 
utes, forbidding "all foreigners to approach 
within one hundred miles of these coasts ex- 
cept in cases of extremity." Our secretary of 
state, John Quincy Adams, objected to this 
presumptuous claim. Emphatically he held that 
Russia had no valid rights on that coast south 
of the 55th degree. Vigorous letters were ex- 
changed and then "the correspondence closed." 
Great Britain took sides with the United 
States. Our protest was emphasized by pro- 
mulgation of the now famous "Monroe Doc- 
trine," the substance of which lies in these 
words : "That the American continents, by the 
free and independent condition which they 
have assumed and maintained, are henceforth 
not to be considered as subjects for coloniza- 
tion by any European power." 

Subsequently it was agreed between Russia 
and the United States, in 1824, that the latter 
country should make no new claim north of 54 
degrees, 40 minutes, and the Russians none 
south of it. With Great Britain Russia made a 
similar compact the year following, and for a 
period of ten years this agreement was to be 
binding, it being, however, understood that the 
privilege of trade and navigation should be free 
to all parties. At the expiration of this period 
the United States and Great Britain received 
notice from Russia of the discontinuance of 

their navigation and trade north of 54 degrees, 
40 minutes. 

Right here falls into line the Hudson's Bay 
Company. Between Great Britain and Russia 
a compromise was effected through a lease 
from Russia to this company of the coast and 
margin from 54 degrees, 40 minutes, to Cape 
Spencer, near 58 degrees. Matters were, also, 
satisfactorily adjusted with the United States. 

The final counting out of Russia from the 
list of competitors for Oregon dates from 1836. 
During a controversy between England and 
Russia the good offices of the United States 
were solicited, and at our suggestion Russia 
withdrew from California and relinquished all 
claims south of 54 degrees, 40 minutes. And 
now the contest for Oregon was narrowed 
down between Great Britain and the United 
States. But with the dropping of Russia it 
becomes necessary to go back a few years in 
order to preserve intact the web of this history. 

On May 16, 1670, the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany was chartered by Charles II. Headed by 
Prince Rupert the original incorporators num- 
bered eighteen. The announced object of the 
company was "the discovery of a passage into 
the South Sea" — the Pacific Ocean. During 
the first century of its existence the company 
really did something along the lines of geo- 
graphical discovery. Afterward its identity 
was purely commercial. Twelve hundred 
miles from Lake Superior, in 1778, the eminent 
Frobisher and others had established a trading 
post, or "factory," at Athabasca. Fort Chipew- 
yan was built ten years later and Athabasca 
abandoned. From this point Mackenzie made 
his two overland trips to the Pacific, treated in 
the two preceding chapters. Commenting 
upon these expeditions, from a political view 
point, William Barrows, in the "American 
Commonwealths" series, says : 

"The point reached by Mackenzie on the 
Pacific is within the present limits of British 
Columbia on that coast 1 53 degrees, _' 1 min- 
utes), and it was the first real, though unde- 



signed step toward the occupation of Oregon by 
Great Britain. That government was feeling 
its way, daringly and blindly, for all territory 
it might obtain, and in 1793 came thus near the 
outlying region which afterward became the 
coveted prize of our narrative." (Oregon: 
the Struggle for Possession.) 

Between the United States and possession 
of Oregon stood, like a stone wall, the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. It was the incarnation 
of England's protest against our occupancy. 
Such being the case it is a fortuitous opportu- 
nity to glance, briefly, at the complexion of 
this great commercial potentate of the North- 
west Coast. Aside from geographical discov- 
eries there was another object set forth in the 
Hudson's Bay Company's charter. This was 
"the finding of some trade for furs, minerals 
and other considerable commodities." More- 
over an exclusive right was granted by the 
charter to the "trade and commerce of all those 
seas, straits and bays, rivers, lakes, creeks and 
sounds, in whatsoever latitude they shall be, 
that lie within the entrance of the straits com- 
monly called Hudson's Straits." The charter 
extended, also, to include all lands bordering 
them not under any other civilized government. 

Such ambiguous description covered a vast 
territory — and Oregon. And of this domain, 
indefinitely bounded, the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany became monarch, autocrat and tyrant, 
rather an unpleasant trinity to be adjacent to 
the gradually increasing and solidifying do- 
minion of the United States. Then, with the 
old company, was united the Northwestern 
Company, at one time a rival, now a compo- 
nent part of the great original "trust" of the 
Christian era. The crown granted to the new- 
syndicate the exclusive right to trade with all 
Indians in British North America for a term 
of twenty years. Their hunters and trappers 
spread themselves throughout the entire north- 
west of North America. Their fur monopoly 
extended so far south as the Salt Lake basin 
of the modern Utah. Rivals were bought out. 

undersold or crushed. The company held at 
its mercy all individual traders from New 
Foundland to Vancouver ; from the head of the 
Yellowstone to the mouth of the Mackenzie. 
With no rivals to share the field, the extent of 
territory under the consolidated company seems 
almost fabulous — one-third larger than all Eu- 
rope; larger than the United States of to-day, 
Alaska included, by, as Mr. Barrows states, 
"half a million of square miles." And it was 
preparing, backed by the throne of England, 
to swallow and assimilate "Oregon." Con- 
cerning this most powerful company Mr. Bar- 
rows has contributed the following graphic de- 
scription : 

"One contemplates their power with awe 
and fear, when he regards the even motion and 
solemn silence and unvarying sameness with 
which it has done its work through that dreary 
animal country. It has been said that a hun- 
dred years has not changed its bills of goods 
ordered from London. The company wants 
the same muskrat and beaver and seal ; the In- 
dian hunter, unimproved, and the half-breed 
European, deterioating, want the same cotton 
goods, and flint-lock guns and tobacco and 
gew-gaws. To-day as a hundred years ago the 
dog-sledge runs out from Winnipeg for its 
solitary drive of five hundred or two thousand 
or even three thousand miles. It glides silent 
as a spectre over those snow-fields and through 
the solemn, still forests, painfully wanting in 
animal life. Fifty, seventy, and hundred days it 
speeds along, and as many nights it camps 
without fire, and looks up to the same cold 
stars. At the intervening points the sledge 
makes a pause, as a ship, having rounded Cape 
Horn, heaves to before some lone Pacific is- 
land. It is the same at the trader's hut or 'fac- 
tory.' as when the sledge man's grandfather 
drove up the same dogs, the same half-breeds 
or voyageurs to welcome him, the same foul, 
lounging Indians, and the same mink-skin in 
exchange for the same trinket. The fur ani- 
mal and its purchaser and hunter, as the land- 



scape, seem to be alike under the same immut- 
able law of nature : — 

" 'A land where all things always seem the 
same," as among the lotus-eaters. Human pro- 
gress and Indian civilization have scarcely 
made more improvement than that central, 
silent partner of the Hudson's Bay Company — 
the beaver." 

Originally the capital stock of this com- 
pany, at the time the charter was granted by 
Charles II, was $50,820. Through profits 
alone it was tripled twice within fifty years, 
going as high as $457,380, without any addi- 
tional money being paid in by stockholders. 
The Northwest Company was absorbed in 
1 82 1 on a basis of valuation equal to that of 
the Hudson's Bay Company. Then the con- 
solidated capital stock was $1,916,000, of 
which $1,780,866 was from profits. And 
during all this elapsed period an annual divi- 
dend of ten per cent had been paid to stock- 
holders. One cargo of furs, leaving Fort 
George for London in 1836, was valued at 
$380,000. In 1837 the consolidated company 
organized the Puget Sound Agricultural Com- 
pany. This was intended to serve as an offset 
to encroachments of colonists from the United 
States which settled in Oregon. In 1846 the 
English government conceded United States 
claims to Oregon, and at that period the Hud- 
son's Bay Company claimed property within 
the territory said to be worth $4,990,036.67. 

With such gigantic and powerful competi- 
tion for the territory of Oregon it is surprising 
that even as determined a government as the 
United States should have succeeded in oust- 
ing it from its trespass on our property. Nor 
could this have been accomplished had it not 
been for the pluck, skill, determination and in- 
domitable energy of our hardy pioneers. While 
the sale of rabbit skins alone in London, in one 
year, ordinarily amounted to thirteen hundred 
thousand, the company found its profit also in 
the beaver, land and sea-otter, mink, fisher, 
muskrat, fox, raccoon, sable, black, brown and 

grizzly bear and buffalo. And in search for 
these fur-bearing animals the hunters of the 
company braved every danger and spread 
themselves over the wild half of North Amer- 
ica. So far from carrying out the provisions of 
its charter relating to geographical discovery, 
early in the nineteenth century the company 
threw every obstacle possible in the way of such 
discoveries. Evidently it feared rivals. Sir 
John Barrow, in his history of Arctic Voyages, 
says : "The Northwest Passage seems to have 
been entirely forgotten, not only by the ad- 
venturers who had obtained their exclusive 
charter under this pretext, but also by the na- 
tion at large ; at least nothing more appears to 
have been heard on the subject for more than 
half a century." 

And what of the darker deeds of this mys- 
terious, silent, yet powerful commercial aggre- 
gation? In 1 719 it refused a proposal from 
Mr. Knight that two vessels be sent by him to 
look up a rumored copper mine at the mouth 
of an arctic river. In 1741 the company 
showed signs of hostility toward a Mr. Dobbs, 
engaged in the same enterprise. The failure 
of Captain Middleton, commissioned by the 
Lords of Admiralty to explore northern and 
western waters of Hudson's Bay, is attributed 
to a bribe of five thousand pounds received 
from the company. The beacon light at Fort 
York was cut down in 1746 to insure the com- 
plete wreck of an exploring party then aground 
in that vicinity. Much of the information con- 
cerning auriferous deposits brought back by 
Mackenzie from his two journeys was sup- 
presed. The Hudson's Bay Company had set 
its face against mineral development. Even 
that industry was a rival. Following the assas- 
ination of Dr. Marcus Whitman by Indians, in 
1847, one °f the suvivors of the massacre was 
refused the protection of Fort Walla Walla 
then under command of an agent of the Hud- 
son's Bay Company. On the whole this aggre- 
gation of English capital seems to have been 
as antagonistic to English enterprise as to 


American commerce, but all the time working 
like a mole under ground. 

Previous to the War of 1812 England had 
strenuously urged the Ohio as the western limit 
of the colonies. She seduced various Indian 
tribes to oppose western immigration. In 181 1 
General Harrison, afterward president, at- 
tempted to hold a friendly conference with the 
great Tecumseh. The meeting was disrupted by 
the latter, and it required the battle of Tippe- 
canoe to teach the warriors a bloody object les- 
son. Then followed the War of 181 2. In this 
Great Britain made an effort to recover the 
northwest, but failed signally. But the Hud- 
son's Bay Company was England in North 
America. And when the nation failed the com- 
mercial syndicate succeeded — for a time. While 
the United States had legal, she had not, owing 
to the interference of this company, actual pos- 
session and occupancy. 

Following the close of the Revolution and 
the treaty of 1783, an attempt was made to run 
a northern boundary for the United States. It 
looked well on paper. It traversed wild, unex- 
plored territory unknown to either party to the 

"Thus," says Barrows, "the northwest 
point of the Lake of the Woods was assumed 
for one bound from which the line was to run, 
to the northwestern point of the lake and thence 
'due west,' to the Mississippi. The clause in the 
treaty reads thus: 'to the said Lake of the 
Woods, and thence through the said lake to 
the most northwestern point thereof, and from 
thence on a due west course to the river Missis- 
sippi.' But the head of the river, proved to be 
a hundred miles or more to the south. So that 
little prominence in our otherwise straight 
boundary is the bump of ignorance developed 
by two nations. The St. Croix was fixed by 
treaty as the boundary on the northeast, but a 
special 'Joint Commission' was required in 
1794 to determine 'what river is the St. 
Croix,' and four years afterward this commis- 
sion called for an addition to their instructions 

since their original ones were not broad enough 
to enable them to determine the true St. Croix." 

In 1 84 1 another commission ran a boun- 
dary from the head of the St. Croix, by the 
head of the Connecticut, to the St. Lawrence; 
thence through the middle of its channel and 
the middle of the lakes to the outlet of Lake 
Superior, occupying the whole of seven years. 
And yet the line had not been carried through 
Lake Superior to the Lake of the Woods. Fi- 
nally, in 18 1 8, this was done and an agreement 
reached, though this line was not on the 49th 
parallel, from the Lake of the Woods, to the 
Rocky Mounmtains, the line that was offered 
by Great Britain, accepted by one administra- 
tion, refused by another, and finally adopted in- 
stead of "Fifty-four forty or fight." Still the 
English commission was loath to part with the 
Mississippi valley. They asked for a right of 
way to the headwaters of that stream. At the 
same time the southern limits of their northern 
possessions did not come within one hundred 
miles of the source of the Mississippi from 
whence its waters flow more than three thou- 
sand miles to the Gulf of Mexico. The com- 
mission, however, abandoned this claim and 
turned, to stand resolutely on latitude 49 de- 
grees. During negotiations with England, in 
181 8, a compromise was effected which pro- 
vided for a joint occupation of Oregon for ten 
years. In 1827 it was renewed, to run indefin- 
itely, with a provision that it could be termin- 
ated by either party on giving one year's notice. 
The Ashburton- Webster treaty of 1842 fixed 
the line between the St. Croix and St. Law- 
rence. In 1846 another commission failed to 
accomplish results in extending a line to the 
westward through their inability to agree on 
the "middle of the channel" between the main- 
land and Vancouver Island. 

Not until 1872 was this latter question de- 
cided. It was submitted to the Emperor of 
Germany as final arbiter. He decided favor- 
ably to the claim of the United States. Thus 
this boundary question was prolonged eighty- 



nine years, under eight treaties and fifteen spec- 
ifications, until final adjustment in its entirety. 
The Oregon Ixmndary remained in dispute up 
to 1S47. ^ may here be appropriately re- 
marked that the Joint Boundary Commission 
of 1818, agreeing on the 49th parallel, might 
have carried the line to a satisfactory point had 
they not been stopped by fur traders. Two 
companies were then attempting to gain pos- 
session of the territory. 

The expedition of Lewis and Clarke, 1804- 
6, opened the eyes of England. Jealous lest 
Americans should gain an advantage. Laroque 
was sent by the Xorth western Companv to 
sprinkle the Columbia river country with trad- 
ing posts. But Laroque gained no farther 
westing than the Mandan Indian village on the 
Missouri. In 1806 Fraser, having crossed the 
mountains, made the first English settlement by 
erecting a post on Fraser Lake. Others soon 
followed and New Caledonia came into exist- 
ence. It had remained for daring frontiers- 
men to open the dramatic contest for posses- 
sion of Oregon. Diplomats and ministers had 
dallied and quibbed. Now the contest had be- 
come serious and earnest. A German immi- 
grant, John Jacob Astor, was destined to play a 
prominent part in future strategetic movements 
for this possession. At forty years of age he 
was established in the fur business on the great 
lakes. Later, he had another post at the mouth 
of the Columbia river. Astoria, a freight port 
for furs incoming, and beads and trinkets out- 
going. In 1810 he dispatched an expedition 
of sixty men from St. Louis to the Columbia. 
Ffteen months after, depleted by death, the sur- 
vivors reached Astoria. Another company of 
about the same number arrived by way of Cape 
Horn some time earlier. Other ships followed, 
and in 181 3 Mr. Astor suffered the loss of the 
Lark, shipwrecked on the Sandwich, now the 
Hawaiian Islands. Nor was this the worst. Of 
Mr. Astor's partners, a majority had sold out 
to the Northwest Fur Company of Montreal, 
an English organization. Property which Mr. 

Astor had valued at $200,000 had been thrown 
away for $40,000. He saw signs of treachery. 
But so far, despite these handicaps, he had out- 
witted his competitors. They had planned to 
forestall him at the mouth of the Columbia. 
The failure of Laroque had defeated this 
scheme. Another division of the Northwest 
Company, in iSr r. had attempted to reach there 
ahead of the sagacious American trader. This 
party was snowbound and compelled to winter 
in the mountains. When they eventually ar- 
rived Astoria was a reality. The importance of 
these events is worthy of notice. Had Laroque 
or the other parties anticipated Astor, strong 
and cumulative evidence would have been af- 
forded England of prior possession, and this 
evidence would have been a powerful leverage 
during the long controversy which followed 
concerning the northern boundary of Oregon. 

Then, too, the defection of Astor's partners 
who had sold out to the Northwest Company 
led to an incident in the Oregon Controversy 
which is significant. Mr. Barrows says : 

"The leading partner in it, and the one who 
afterward led off in its sale, received them 
(representatives of the Northwest Company) 
in a friendly and hospitable way, and not as 
rivals : when they returned from their vain 
expedition he supplied them, not only with pro- 
visions, but with goods for trading purposes 
up the river, where they established trading 
huts among the Indians and became rivals of 
the Americans. Strange to say when the ques- 
tion of priority of occupation and national sov- 
ereignty was under discussion at London, fif- 
teen years afterward, the English put in these 
huts of this returning company, as proof that 
the English were as early if not earlier in the 
Columbia than the Americans." 

Here is a case in point which eloquently il- 
lustrates the supremacy of commercialism over 
sentimental statesmanship. Astor's partners 
had turned over the post, practically, to the 
Northwestern Company. The United States 
had been solicited by Great Britain, previous to 


the War of 1 812, to favor the Northwest Com- 
pany as against Mr. Astor, and this request 
had been refused. When the war opened Eng- 
land flamboyantly dispatched a naval force to 
the Columbia under orders "to take and destroy 
everything American on the Northwest Coast." 
On the arrival of this fleet in 1813, the com- 
mander had the barren satisfaction of running 
up the English colors and naming the post St. 
George. Already it had passed into English 
hands via the Northwest Company. 

Bad faith of his partners and the chances 
of war had, temporarily defeated the plans of 
Mr. Astor. American interests on that coast 
were under a cloud. But the United States was 
destined to win out. The War of 1812 was 
fairly on. It had been declared on June 12. 
1812; the treaty of peace was signed Decem- 
ber 14, 1 814. It contained this clause ma- 
terially affecting our interests in Oregon : "All 
territory, places and possessions whatsoever, 
taken by either party from the other during the 
war * * * shall be restored without de- 
lay." Did this provision cover Astoria? Ap- 
parently the English thought not, for when, in 
1 81 7, an American vessel was put in readiness 
to occupy that post Mr. Bagot, the English 
minister at Washington, opposed it. Two 
points are noted in his protest: The post had 
been sold to the Northwest Company prior to 
the war; therefore never captured. Secondly, 
"the territory itself was early taken possession 
of in his majesty's name, and had since been 
considered as forming a part of his majesty's 
domains." But repossession was granted 
despite the protest. In 181 8 the Stars and 
Stripes again waved over Astoria and the name 
"St. George" was relegated to the limbo of the 

But the Oregon Question was not dead ; 
only hibernating. It sprang into life at the 
behest of the eloquent Rufus Choate. From his 
seat in the senate he said : 

"Keep your eye always open, like the eye 
of your own eagle, upon the Oregon. Watch 

day and night. If any new developments or 
policy break forth, meet them. If the times 
change, do you change. New things in a new 
world. Eternal vigilance is the condition of 
empire as well as of liberty." 

For twenty-seven years the threads of dip- 
lomatic delay and circumlocution were spun out 
concerning the status of Oregon. Theoret- 
ically Astoria had been restored to us ; prac- 
tically the Northwest fur traders thronged the 
land. The English company had built a stock- 
ade fort. It looked as if they intended to hold 
possession of the mouth of the Columbia vie 
et armis. Indian tribes ranged themselves on 
the side of the English. Their minds had been 
poisoned ; insiduous words had been breathed 
into their ears to the effect that the Americans 
would steal their lands ; the English wanted 
only to trade with them for furs. And for more 
than ten years following the treachous sale of 
Astoria, there were scarcely any Americans in 
the country. Greenhow in his "History of 
Oregon and California," declares that at the 
period when the Hudson's Bay Company was 
before parliament, in 1837, asking for renewal 
of its charter, they "claimed and received the 
aid and consideration of government for their 
energy and success in expelling the Americans 
from the Columbia regions, and forming set- 
tlements there, by means of which they were 
rapidly converting Oregon into a British 

Astoria was restored to the United States 
by the Treaty of Ghent in 18 14. Yet in that 
document there is no allusion made to the 
Northwest Coast, or in fact, any territory west 
of the Lake of the Woods. Our instructions to 
the American plenipotentiaries were to concede 
nothing to Great Britain south of the forty- 
ninth parallel. Thus the question was left in 
abeyance with no defined boundary between 
English and American territory west of the 
Lake of the Woods. The southern boundary 
of Oregon was, also, in doubt. It was not 
definitelv fixed until the Florida Purchase. 


Then it was decided that parallel forty-two, on 
the Pacific, running east from that ocean to the 
Arkansas, down the river to longitude one hun- 
dred ; on that meridan south till it strikes the 
Red river; down the Red river to longitude 
ninety-four; due south on it to the Sabine 
river; and down the Sabine to the Gulf of 
Mexico, should define the southern and western 
boundaries of the Louisiana Purchase of 1803, 
which up to that period had remained indefin- 
ite. This act fixed, also, the southern boundary 
of Oregon. 

Until 1820 congress remained dormant so 
far as Oregon interests were concerned. Then 
it was suggested that a marine expedition be 
dispatched to guard our interests at the mouth 
of the Columbia and aid immigration from the 
United States. Nothing resulted. In 182 1 the 
same question was revived, but again permitted 
to relapse into desuetude. Mr. Barrows does 
not use language too strong when he says : 
"There appeared to be a lack of appreciation 
of the case, and there was a skepticism and leth- 
argy concerning that half of the union, which 
have by no means disappeared." 

In 1814 the question having been reopened 
in London Mr. Rush claimed for the United 
States from the forty-second to the fifty-first 
parallel. This section would embrace all the 
waters of the Columbia. Per contra the Eng- 
lish demanded possession of the northern half 
of the Columbia basin. This would have given 
us. as the northern boundary of Oregon, the 
Columbia river from a point where it intersects 
the forty-ninth parallel to its mouth. It is well 
to examine, at this point, what such a boundary 
would have meant to Washington. Had it been 
accepted there would, probably, never have been 
any state of Washington, at least, not as sub- 
sequently defined. Tt would have meant the 
loss of the following territory, comprised in 
the counties of Klickitat. Skamia. Cowlitz, 
Clark, Wahkiakum. Pacific. Chehalis, Mason, 
Lewis. Pierce. Jefferson. Clallam. Kitsap, King, 
Snohomish, Skagit, Whatcom, Yakima, Kitti- 

tas, Chelan, Okanogan and Ferry, a territory 
comprising forty-three thousand, seven hun- 
dred and sixteen square miles, two-thirds of 
the area of the present state of Washington. 

Thus remained the status of the dispute un- 
til 1828. Joint occupancy had now continued 
ten years. It must be conceded that the coun- 
try, owing to this provision, was now numeri- 
cally British. And English ministers were 
eager to avail themselves of the advantages of 
this fact. They said : "In the interior of the 
territory in question the subjects of Great 
Britain have had, for many years, numerous 
settlements and trading posts — several of these 
posts on the tributary streams of the Columbia, 
several upon the Columbia itself, some to the 
northward and others to the southward of that 
river. * * * In the whole of the territory 
in question the citizens of the United States 
have not a single settlement or trading post. 
They do not use that river, either for the pur- 
pose of transmitting or receiving any produce 
of their own to or from other parts of the 

Yet why was this the condition in Oregon 
at that period ? Simply because the aggressive- 
ness of the Northwestern Company had op- 
posed American colonization and fought each 
and every advance made by our pioneers, com- 
mercially and otherwise. Nor can it be denied 
that for many years Oregon was unappreciated 
by the east. To-day it appears, to unreflecting 
minds, an extravagant boast to say that only 
one-fifth of the domain of the United States 
lies east of the Mississippi river. And yet the 
statement is true. Only in 1854 did the initial 
railway gain the banks of the Father of Waters 
— at Rock Island. From there progress to the 
northwest was. for many years, slow, perilous 
and discouraging. Truly, it was a difficult 
matter for Oregon to assert herself. Tn [828 
an "Oregon wave" had swept over congress, 
amid considerable feverish interest and pro- 
longed eloquence. Protracted debate was had 
on a bill to survey the territorv west of the 


mountains between 42 degrees and 54 degrees 
40 minutes, garrison the land and extend over 
it the laws of the United States. The measure 
was defeated, again the question slumbered. 

But the daring American pioneers of the 
west were by no means idle. Unconsciously 
they were accomplishing far more toward a 
final settlement of the "Oregon Question" than 
all the tape-bound documents sleeping in the 
pigeon-holes of English parliamentary and 
American congressional archives. Of these 
pioneers Captain Bonneville should not pass 
unnoticed. He was of the army, and with one 
hundred of his men he made a two years' hunt- 
ing, trapping and fur-trading expedition, from 
the Missouri to the Colorado, and thence to the 
Columbia. In 1832 Nathaniel J. Wyeth or- 
ganized a company of twenty-two persons, in 
Massachusetts, for western exploration. En- 
thusiastic descriptions of Oregon, written by 
Hall J. Kelly, had contributed greatly to awak- 
en this interest among the scholarly young men 
who formed Wyeth's party. On July 4, 1832, 
they had arrived at Lewis' Fork of the Colum- 
bia. Among them were sickness, disappoint- 
ment and insubordination. Here the company 
divided. Several left to return east; among 
them Jacob and John, brothers of Captain 
Wyeth. Nathaniel Wyeth and his remaining 
companions reached Snake river, and one hun- 
dred miles north of Salt Lake, established a 
trading post. He was ruined by the ever ag- 
gressive Hudson's Bay Company, which placed 
a rival post. Fort Boise, below Fort Hall. 
British ministers had impudently declared that 
Oregon was settled by Englishmen ; that 
Americans had no trading posts within its lim- 
its. And why not? Read the following from 
Mr. Wyeth's memoir to congress : 

"Experience has satisfied me that the entire 
weight of this company (Hudson Bay) will be 
made to bear on any trader who shall attempt 
to prosecute his business within its reach. 
* * * No sooner does an American start 
in this region than one of these trading parties 

is put in motion. A few years will make the 
country west of the mountains as completely 
English as they can desire." 

To the same congressional committee Will- 
iam A. Slocum, in a report, goes on record as 
follows : "No individual enterprise can com- 
pete with this immense foreign monopoly es- 
tablished in our waters. * * * The In- 
dians are taught to believe that no vessels but 
the Company's ships are allowed to trade in the 
river, and most of them are afraid to sell their 
skins but at Vancouver or Fort George." 

Small wonder that at this time there were 
less than two hundred Americans west of the 
Rockies. And Canadian law, by act of par- 
liament, was extended throughout the region 
of the Columbia. Theoretically it was joint 
occupation ; practically British monopoly. So 
late as 1844 the British and Foreign Review 
said, brutally : "The interests of the company 
are of course adverse to colonization.* * * 
The fur trade has been hitherto the only chan- 
nel for the advantageous investments of capital 
in those regions." 

Truly the Hudson's Bay Company had 
adopted a policy of "multiplication, division 
and silence." Because meat and beef conduced 
to pastoral settlements, so late as 1836, the 
company opposed the introduction of catttle. 
One of the missionaries stationed at Moose 
Factory has written this : "A plan which I had 
devised for educating and training to some ac- 
quaintance with agriculture native children, 
was disallowed. * * * A proposal made 
for forming a small Indian village near Moose 
Factory was not acceded to ; and instead, per- 
mission only given to attempt the location of 
one or two old men, no longer fit for engaging 
in the chase, it being carefully and distinctly 
stated, by Sir George Simpson, that the com- 
pany would not give them even a spade toward 
commencing this mode of life." 

In 1S36 when Dr. Marcus Whitman and his 
party were entering Oregon. J. K. Townsend. 
a naturalist sent from Philadelphia to collect 



specimens of fauna and flora, said to him at 
Walla Walla : "The company will be glad to 
have you in the country, and your influence to 
improve their servants and their native wives 
and children. As to the Indians you have 
come to teach they do not want them to be any 
more enlightened. The company now have 
absolute control over them, and that is all 
they require." 

And right here is the crux of the differences 
between the United States and England con- 
cerning the territory of Oregon. It was the 
aim of the former to develop, improve and civil- 
ize the country ; it was the expressed determina- 
tion of the latter to keep it in darkness and sav- 
agery. For in North America the Hudson's 
Bay Company was England and English states- 
men were under the complete domination of 
this company's abject commercialism. It has 
pleased modern English writers to describe 
Americans as "a nation of shop-keepers." But 
throughout the whole Oregon controversy the 
United States stood for progress and civili- 
zation: England for the long night of ignor- 
ance and barbarism — for profit. Summed up 
bv Mr. Barrows the relations to Oregon of the 
two countries were as follows : 

"The Americans struck Oregon just where 
the English failed, in the line of settlements 
and civilization. One carried in the single man 
and the other the family; one, his traps and 
snares, the other his seed wheat and oats and 
potatoes; one counted his muskrat nests, and 
the other his hills of corn ; one shot an Indian 
for killing a wild animal out of season; and 
the other paid bounty on the wolf and bear; 
one took his newspaper from the dog-mail 
twenty-four or thirty-six months from date, 
and the other carried in the printing press ; one 
hunted and traded for what he could carry out 
of the country, the other planted and builded 
for what he could leave in it for his children. 
In short the English trader ran his birch and 
batteaux up the streams and around the lakes to 
bring out furs and peltries, while the American 

immigrant hauled in with his rude wagon, the 
nineteenth century and came back loaded with 
Oregon for the American union." 

In 1840 the flow of American immigration 
into Oregon, especially the missionaries, Lee, 
Whitman and Parker, alarmed the Hudson's 
Bay Company. It strenuously opposed the 
advent of wagons and carriages. Immigrants 
were lied to at Fort Hall ; were told that it 
would be impossible to proceed farther on 
wheels. It is recorded that on this account 
many of them reached Dr. Whitman's mission 
in a deplorably destitute condition. But all the 
artifices of the company could not check the 
hegira from the east. It is reserved for an- 
other chapter to relate the experiences of these 
pioneers. We have to do here, mainly, with the 
final settlement of the great "Oregon Ques- 
tion" between England and the United States 
— the political struggle for sovereignty. 

In 1843 Sir George Simpson, governor of 
the Hudson's Bay Company, who had made a 
tour of the continent, challenged us in these 
words : "The United States will never possess 
more than a nominal jurisdiction, nor long 
possess even that, on the west side of the Rocky 
Mountains. And supposing the country to be 
divided tomorrow to the entire satisfaction of 
the most unscrupulous patriot in the union, I 
challenge congress to bring my prediction and 
its power to the test by imposing the Atlantic 
tariff on the ports of the Pacific." 

Thus the great international question of 
tariff was brought into the Oregon Contro- 
versy. But we must not jump to the conclusion 
that Sir George was without some foundation 
for his vaporous remarks. At that time the 
Hudson's Bay Company had twenty-three posts 
and five trading stations in the northwe-t : it 
had absorbed ten rival companies, not leaving 
one American or Russian, and had been the 
means of putting to rout seven immigrant ex- 
peditions seeking homes in Oregon. 

The Oregon boundary question was still in 
dispute. But those Americans familiar with 



the subject were destined to temporary disap- 
pointment. In 1827 it had been referred, 
through a convention, to the King of the 
Netherlands as arbiter. Both parties to the dis- 
pute had rejected his decision in 183 1. Five 
efforts had been made to adjust the boundary 
by President Jackson, and five failures had re- 
sulted. The administration of President Van 
Buren closed with the matter still unsettled. In 
1842 Lord Ashburton came from London to 
negotiate a boundary treaty with Daniel Web- 
ster, secretary of state. A certain boundary 
treaty was negotiated, August 9, 1842, the two 
ministers signed it; it was ratified by the sen- 
ate on the 25th; by the Queen soon after, pro- 
claimed on November 10, 1842 — and the Ore- 
gon boundary was not in it. Nothing official 
whatever alluding to Oregon was found there- 
in. The only boundary touched was one "be- 
ginning at the monument at the source of the 
river St. Croix," terminating at the Rocky 
Mountains on the forty-seventh parallel. Little 
wonder that sectional feeling developed in the 
far west. 

Dr. Marcus Whitman, whose connection 
with the "Oregon Question" is treated in an- 
other chapter, had arrived in Washington too 
late for any effectual pleas for consideration of 
the matter in the treaty just signed. Still, as 
Mr. Barrows says, "The pressure of Oregon 
into the Ashburton treaty would probably have 
done one of three things, prevented the treaty 
altogether, excluded the United States from 
Oregon, or produced a war. Delay and ap- 
parent defeat were the basis of our real success, 
and the great work of Marcus Whitman, by 
his timely presence at Washington, was in 
making the success sure." 

With Oregon left out the Ashburton treaty 
had been ratified. The outlook was, indeed, 
gloomy. As a reflex of the insiduous teachings 
of the Hudson's Bay Company the following 
extract from a speech delivered by Mr. 
McDuffie in the United States senate is inter- 
esting:. He said : 

What is the character of this country? Why, as 
I understand it, that seven hundred miles this side of 
the Rocky Mountains is uninhabitable, where rain 
scarcely ever falls — a barren and sandy soil — mountains 
totally impassable except in certain parts, where there 
were gaps or depressions, to be reached only by going 
some hundreds of miles out of the direct course. Well, 
now, what are we going to do in a case like this? 
How are you going to apply steam? Have you made 
anything like an estimate of the cost of a railroad run- 
ning from here to the mouth of the Columbia? Why, 
the wealth of the Indies would be insufficient. You 
would have to tunnel through mountains five or six 
hundred miles in extent. * * * Of what use will 
this be for agricultural purposes? I would not, for that 
purpose, give a pinch of snuff for the whole territory. 
I wish it was an impassable barrier to secure us against 
the intrusion of others. * * * If there was an em- 
bankment of even five feet to be removed, I would not 
consent to expend five dollars to remove that embank- 
ment to enable our population to go there. I thank 
God for his mercy in placing the Rocky Mountains 

At the time this speech was being delivered 
Dr. Marcus Whitman was on his way from 
Oregon with "the facts in the case," informa- 
tion destined to shed a flood of intelligence on 
a rather benighted congress. And, in reality, 
our country was rapidly nearing the end of this 
interminable controversy. An area of terri- 
tory sixty-three times the size of Massachusetts 
and four times as large as Great Britain and 
Ireland was about to come under the protecting 
aegis of the United States government. The 
Hudson's Bay Company had declared, through 
its emissaries, that a wagon trip to Oregon was 
an impossibility. The same sentiment had been 
voiced in the United States senate. It remained 
for Dr. Whitman to prove the falsity of such an 
audacious statement. He led a party of two 
hundred wagons through to his mission on the 
mouth of the Columbia, arriving in October. 
1843. And this, too, against vigorous opposi- 
tion from the Hudson's Bay Company, at Fort 
Hall. Then the people began to manifest a 
lively interest in the question. This interest had 
been stimulated in December, 1842, by a mes- 
sage from President Tyler, in which he said : 
"The tide of population which has reclaimed 
what was so latelv an unbroken wilderness in 



more contiguous regions, is preparing to flow 
over those vast districts which stretch from the 
Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. In ad- 
vance of the acquirements of individual rights 
sound policy dictates that every effort should 
be resorted to by the two governments to settle 
their respective claims." January 8, 1843, con " 
gress received news that Dr. Whitman had 
made good his claim, and reached his destina- 
tion, with wagons, in Oregon. Party spirit, 
for there were two parties to the Oregon Con- 
troversy, aside from the British, ran high. Dr. 
Winthrop said: "For myself, certainly, I be- 
lieve that we have as good a title to the whole 
twelve degrees of latitude," i. e., up to 54 de- 
grees 40 minutes. Senator Thomas Benton 
voiced the prevailing sentiment of the time in 
these words : "Let the emigrants go on and 
carry their rifles. We want thirty thousand 
rifles in the valley of the Oregon; they will 
make all quiet there, in the event of a war with 
Great Britain for the dominion of that coun- 
try. The war, if it come, will not be topical : 
it will not be confined to Oregon, but will em- 
brace the possessions of the two powers 
throughout the globe. Thirty thousand rifles on 
the Oregon will anihilate the Hudson's Bay 
Company and drive them off our continent and 
quiet the Indians." 

Rufus Choate spoke for peace. He was 
followed by pacificatory utterances from others. 
Still, there was sufficient vitality in the "Fifty- 
four forty or fight" to elect President Polk on 
such a campaign issue. The population of Ore- 
gon at the close of 1844 was estimated by Mr. 
Greenhow at more than three thousand. The 
Indian agent for the government. Mr. White, 
placed it at about four thousand; Mr. Hines 
said: "In 1845 it increased to nearly three 
thousand souls, with some two thousand to 
three thousand head of cattle." The west was 
warm with zeal and anticipation. In the house 
of representatives Mr. Owen, of Indiana, said : 
"Oregon is our land of promise. Oregon is our 
land of destination. 'The finger of nature' — 

such were once the words of the gentleman 
from Massachusetts (J. Q. Adams) in regard 
to this country, — 'points that way;' two 
thousand Americans are already dwelling in 
her valleys, five thousand more * * * will 
have crossed the mountains before another year 
rolls round." It was the opinion of the senator 
from Illinois, Mr. Semple, that ten thousand 
would cross the Rocky Mountains the follow- 
ing year. 

At last a re-ohuion was introduced in con- 
gresss "affirming Oregon to be part and parcel 
of the territory of the United States from 42 
degrees to 54 degrees, 40 minutes, and that 
notice should be given at once to terminate the 
joint occupation of it." It was held on the floor 
of the house that "no doubts now remain in 
the minds of American statesmen that the gov- 
ernment of the United States held a clear and 
unquestionable title to the whole of the Oregon 

In the region at this time the Hudson's Bay 
Company had about thirty "trading posts." 
Really they were forts and powerful auxiliaries 
to an internecine war. Seven thousand citizens 
of the United States were in the same country. 
The question of another war with England had 
become a live and important issue. To have 
stood solidly for 54 degrees, 40 minutes, would 
have meant war. and as one gentleman ex- 
pressed it, "a war that might have given the 
whole of Oregon to England and Canada to the 
United States." During forty days the ques- 
tion of giving notice to England of discontinu- 
ance of joint occupancy was discussed in the 
house. It was carried by a vote of one hun- 
dred and sixty-three to fifty-four. The 
struggle in the senate was longer. An 
idea of the engrosoing nature of the 
Oregon topic may be gleaned from the 
fact that three score bills and resolutions were 
kept in abeyance on the calendar for future ac- 
tion. Daniel Webster prophesied that war 
would not result: that the incident would be 
closed by compromise and that the compromise 



would be on the boundary line of the forty- 
ninth parallel. The attitude of the two coun- 
tries was this : We had offered forty-nine de- 
grees from the mountains to the Pacific ocean, 
not once, but several times; England had of- 
fered forty-nine degrees from the mountains to 
the Columbia, and by that stream to the sea. A 
comparatively narrow triangle of land only lay 
between the demands of England and conces- 
sions of the United States. Most excellent 
grounds for a compromise. April 23, 1846, 
the notice passed the house by a vote of forty- 
two to ten, with important amendments strong- 
ly suggestive to both governments to adjust 
all differences amicably. No one longer feared 

From the point on the forty-ninth parallel of north 
latitude where the boundry laid down in existing 
treaties and conventions between the United States and 
Great Britian terminates, the line of boundary between 
the territories of the United States and those of her 
Britannic Majesty shall be continued westward along 
said forty-ninth parallel of north latitude to the middle 

of the channel which separates the continent from Van- 
couver's Island, and thence southerly through the mid- 
dle of the said channel, and of Fucca's Strait, to the 
Pacific ocean : Provided, however, that the navigation 
of the whole of the said channel and straits south of 
the forty-ninth parallel of north latitude, remain free 
and open to both parties. 

Thus reads the first article of the final 
boundary treaty between England and the Uni- 
ted States, so far as concerns Oregon. But to 
mould it into this form and sign the same, fifty- 
four years, two months and six days had been 
required by the two countries. On July 17, 
1846, the document, previously ratified, was 
exchanged in London between the two govern- 
ments. But Captain Robert Gray, of Boston, 
had discovered the Columbia river May 11, 
1792, and fully established a United States 
title to the country which it drains. It re- 
mained yet for a boundary commission, in 
1857, to run the line. The first meeting of the 
commission was held July 27, of the same 



"Who will respond to go beyond the Rocky 
Mountains and carry the Book of Heaven?" 

This was the startling question asked by 
President Fisk, of Wilbraham College. It was 
an editorial inquiry published in the Christian 
Advocate in March, 1833. Yet this ringing 
call for spiritual assistance was not initiative 
on the part of President Fisk. A Macedonian 
cry had been voiced by four Flathead Indians, 
of the tribe of Nez Perces, or Pierced-noses. 
They had come down to St. Louis from the 
headwaters of the Columbia, the Snake, Lewis 
or Clarke's rivers, far to westward of the 

Rocky Mountains. They were strangers in a 
strange land; almost as singular in dress, 
speech and accoutrements to the citizens of St. 
Louis as would be visitors to us from the 
planet Mars. Yet in their distant teepees 
among the western foothills of the Rockies, 
these four chiefs had heard of the "White 
Man's Book" from eager, pushing, tireless and 
resourceful pioneers who had followed the trail 
made by Lewis and Clarke. Alone and un- 
assisted by government appropriation, they 
had followed the same course down the Mis- 
souri and the Father of Waters three thousand 



miles to St. Louis. This was in 1832. The 
peculiar mission of these Indians was the open- 
ing act of the Whitman tragedy. Mr. Barrows 
says : "The massacre ran riot through eight 
days, and Dr. Marcus Whitman and wife, of 
the American Board, and thirteen or more as- 
sociates, were savagely killed on the 29th of 
November, 1847, an< 3 days following. It was 
the bloody baptism of Oregon, by the like of 
which the most of the American states have 
come to form the union." 

At the period of the arrival of these four 
Nez Perce chiefs Indians were not an uncom- 
mon sight in St. Louis. At certain seasons the 
suburbs of the city were fringed with teepees 
and wickiups. So, at first, but little attention 
was paid to them, otherwise than to note their 
strange dress and unknown dialect. It is not 
difficult to gather how they had learned of the 
White Man's Book. Their own rude eloquence 
addressed to General William Clarke at part- 
ing conveys this information. After a long 
time passed in the city, after two of them had 
gone to the happy hunting ground, the survi- 
vors made their desires known, and it appears 
their request was, perforce, denied. Transla- 
tion of the Bible into an Indian dialect is not 
the work of a few days or months. The two 
remaining Indians decided to return home; 
their mission a failure. The pathos of their 
complaint is in the spirit, if not the words, of 
one of the chiefs in his farewell speech to Gen- 
eral Clarke : 

"I come to you over a trail of many moons 
from the setting sun. You were the friend of 
my fathers who have all gone the long way. 
I come with one eye partly opened, for more 
light for my people who sit in darkness. I go 
back with both eyes closed. How can I go 
back blind to my blind people? I made my 
way to you with strong arms, tjirough many 
enemies and strange lands, that I might carry 
back much to them. I go back with both arms 
broken and empty. The two fathers who came 
with us — the braves of main- winters and wars 

— we leave here by your great waters and wig- 
wam. They were tired in many moons and 
their moccasins wore out. My people sent me 
to get the White Man's Book of Heaven. You 
took me to where you allow your women to 
dance, as we do not ours, and the Book was not 
there. You took me to where they worshipped 
the great spirit with candles, and the Book was 
not there. You shewed me the images of good 
spirits and pictures of the good land beyond, 
but the Book was not amnog them to tell us 
the way. I am going back the long, sad trail 
to my people of the dark land. You make my 
feet heavy with burdens of gifts, and my moc- 
casins will grow old in carrying them, but the 
Book is not among them. When I tell my 
poor, blind people, after one more snow, in the 
big council, that I did not bring the Book, no 
word will be spoken by our old men or by our 
young braves. One by one they will rise up 
and go out in silence. My people will die in 
darkness, and they will go on the long path to 
the other hunting grounds. No white man 
will go with them and no White Man's Book 
to make the way plain. I have no more 

Of this utter failure to secure a copy of the 
Bible, Mr. Barrows says, pertinently : 

"In what was then a Roman Catholic city 
it was not easy to do this, and officers only were 
met. It has not been the policy or practice of 
that church to give the Bible to the people, 
whether Christian or pagan. They have not 
thought it wise or right. Probably no Chris- 
tian enterprises in all the centuries have shown 
more self-sacrificing heroism, foreseen suffer- 
ing and intense religious devotion than the la- 
borers of that church, from 1520, to give its 
type of Christianity to the natives of North 
America. But it was oral, ceremonial and pic- 
torial. In the best of their judgment, and in 
the depths of their convictions, they did not 
think it best to ruduce native tongues to writ- 
ten languages and the Scriptures to the vernac- 
ular of any tribe." 



But the eloquence of this speech had fallen 
on appreciative ears. A young clerk in Gen- 
eral's Clarke's office, who had heard the sad 
plaint of the chief, wrote to George Catlin, in 
Pittsburg, historian and painter, an account of 
the scene. Thereafter events moved rapidly; 
the seed was sown and the harvest was about 
to be fulfilled. One Indian only lived to return 
to his people, without the Book, but it cannot 
be said that his mission was a failure. The edi- 
torial appeal of President Fisk produced re- 
sults. Measures were at once taken by the 
American Board of Commissioners for For- 
eign Missions, and the Methodist Board of 
Missions to send missionaries to Oregon. 
Revs. Jason and David Lee were pioneers in 
this scriptural crusade. They went under ap- 
pointment of the Methodist Board. They were 
followed the next year by Revs. Samuel Par- 
ker and Marcus Whitman, M. D., sent by the 
American Board of Commissioners. In the 
summer of 1835 the latter arrived at the Amer- 
ican rendezvous on Green river. Accompanied 
by a body of Nez Perces, from which people 
the four chiefs had gone to St. Louis, Rev. 
Mr. Parker went to Walla Walla and on to 
Vancouver. And with him he carried the 
"Book." Dr. Whitman returned to the states 
the same fall, married Narcissa Prentice, and 
organized an outfit with which he returned, 
•with his bride, to Oregon, arriving at Walla 
Walla in September, 1836. 

The question as to whether or no Dr. Whit- 
man "saved Oregon to the United States" will 
remain forever a question of casuistry. Events 
might have shaped themselves as they subse- 
quently did, had Whitman not made his long 
midwinter ride to Washington, D. C. to lay 
his facts and fears before the president. Every- 
thing might have resulted in the retention by 
the United States of all of Oregon south of the 
49th parallel, had no warning cry come from 
the far northwest, a culverin shot announcing 
the attempt of England to seize the country, 
not only by force of majority colonization, but 

through artifices of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany. At a dinner in Waiilatpu, attended by 
Dr. Whitman, news was received that a colony 
of English, one hundred and forty strong, were 
then near Fort Colville, three- hundred and fifty 
miles up the Columbia. A young priest leaped 
to his feet, threw his cap into the air and cried : 
"Hurrah for Oregon ! America is too late 
and we have got the country!" 

This is but one of the many significant 
signs witnessed by Whitman. He was a man 
of foresight : he had seen and realized the 
wealth, position and future possibilities of Ore- 
gon as had no other American at that period. 
And he rode on to Washington and told his 
story. It will be read in the preceding chapter 
that not until he had done so did the American 
congress act. Of the personality of Dr. Whit- 
man one who knew him contributes the follow- 
ing picture : 

"Marcus Whitman once seen, and in our 
family circle, telling of his one business — he had 
but one — was a man not to be forgotten by the 
writer. He was of medium height, more com- 
pact than spare, a stout shoulder, and large 
head not much above it, covered with stiff, 
iron gray hair, while his face carried all the 
moustache and whiskers that four months had 
beeen able to put on it. He carried himself 
awkardly, though perhaps courteously enough 
for trappers, Indians, mules and grizzlies, his 
principal company for six years. He seemed 
built as a man for whom more stock had been 
furnished than worked in symmetrically and 
gracefully. There was nothing peculiarly 
quick in his motion or speech, and no trace of a 
fanatic ; but under control of a thorough 
knowledge of his business, and with deep, ar- 
dent convictions about it, he was a profound 
enthusiast. A willful resolution and a tena- 
cious earnestness would impress you as making 
the man." 

Sordid motives have been attributed to Dr. 
Whitman's efforts in behalf of Oreg'on. One 
writer has assumed that his sole object was to 



secure continuance of his little mission at 
Waiilatpu. But there is abundance of evidence 
that his ideas were of broader scope than this. 
Let it be noted that efforts to depreciate Whit- 
man suddenly ceased as late as 1891. That 
year there was found in the archives of Wash- 
ington, D. C, a letter from him proposing a 
bill for a line of forts from the Kansas river to 
the Willamette. In the Walla Walla Union- 
Journal of August 15, 1891, the letter was first 
published. It has been reproduced in Dr. O. 
W. Nixon's work, "How Marcus Whitman 
Saved Oregon :" 

To the Hon. James W. Porter, Secretary of War: 
Sir: — In compliance with the request you did me the 
honor to make last winter while at Washington, I 
herewith transmit to you the synopsis of a bill, which, 
if it could be adopted, would, according to my exper- 
ience and observation, prove highly conducive to the best 
interests of the United States generally ; to Oregon, 
where I have resided for more than seven years as a 
missionary, and to the Indian tribes that inhabit the 
intermediate country. 

The government will doubtless for the first time 
be apprised through you, and by means of this communi- 
cation, of the immense migration of families to Oregon, 
which has taken place this year. I have, since our in- 
terview, been instrumental in piloting across the route 
described, in the accompanying bill, and which is the 
only eligible wagon road, no less than fam- 
ilies, consisting of one thousand persons of both sexes, 
with their wagons, amounting in all to one hundred and 
twenty-six ; six hundred and ninety-four oxen and 
seven hundred and seventv-three loose cattle. 

Your familiarity with the government's policy, 
duties and interests, render it unnecessary for me to 
more than hint at the several objects intended by the en- 
closed bill, and any enlargements upon the topics here 
suggested as inducements to its adoption, would be quite 
superflous, if not impertinent. The very existence of 
such a system as the one above recommended suggests 
the utility of postoffices and mail arrangement-, which 
it is the wish of all who now live in Oregon to have 
granted them, and I need only add that the contracts 
for this purpose will be readily taken at reasonable rates 
for transporting the mail across from Missouri to the 
mouth of the Columbia in forty day-, with fresh horses 
at each of the contemplated posts. The ruling policy 
proposed, regards the Indians as the police of the 
country, who are to be relied upon to keep the peace, 
not only for themselves, but to repel lawless white men 
and prevent banditti, under the solitary guidance of the 
superintendent of the several post-, aided by a well- 

directed system to induce the punishment of crimes. 
It will only be after the failure of these means to pro- 
cure the delivery or punishment of violent, lawless and 
savage acts of aggression, that a band or tribe should 
be regarded as conspirators against the peace, or pun- 
ished accordingly by force of arms. 

Hoping that these suggestions may meet your ap- 
probation, and conduce to the future interests of our 
growing country, I have the honor to be, Honorable 
sir, your obedient servant, 


Certainly it is reasoning from slender, un- 
substantial premises to assert that the great in- 
fluence exerted upon President Tyler and Sec- 
retary W'ebster by Whitman was founded on 
so slight a pretext as saving to him, personally, 
the humble mission at Waiilatpu. Whitman 
must have been a man with "an idea," larger 
than that to have commanded respect from the 
ablest statesmen of his day ; to have crystalized 
public sentiment into a desire for the whole of 
Oregon ; to have smelted patriotism into the 
heraldic proclamation of defiance to England, 
"Fifty-four forty or fight." 

If Whitman were purely selfish, why should 
he have announced his intention, in 1843, °f 
personally conducting a large train across the 
mountains? Security of his mission did not 
depend on this. On the contrary the advance 
of civilization, with attendant churches, would 
tend to do away entirely with missions to the 

As we approach the melancholy close of Dr. 
Whitman's varied career as explorer, mission- 
ary and statesman, one can not fail to be im- 
pressed with a feeling that less devotion to a 
patriotic sense of duty would have conduced to 
his personal safety. Two antagonists were ar- 
rayed against him and his political, as well as 
his spiritual, plans ; primarily the Hudson's Bay 
Company, and the Indians, indirectly influ- 
enced by the same commercial corporation. The 
policy of the company was to keep the country 
in the condition of a vast game preserve for the 
purpose of breeding fur-bearing animals. 
Naturally this pleased the Indians. It was di- 
rectly in line with their mode of life. The pol- 



icy of American colonization was smybolized 
by the axe and the plow; complete demolition 
of profitable hunting grounds. And of this 
latter policy Dr. Whitman was high priest and 

Since the discovery of America Indian wars 
have been like 

"Freedom's battle, once begun, 
Bequeathed by bleeding sire to son." 

In a letter written by- Washington to Jay, 
in 1794, the first president says: "There does 
not remain a doubt in the mind of any well- 
informed person in this country, not shut 
against conviction, that all the difficulties we 
encounter with the Indians, their hostilities, the 
murders of helpless women and innocent chil- 
dren along our frontiers, result from the con- 
duct of the agents of Great Britain in this 
country." Historical justice demands, how- 
ever, that we assign the primary cause of the 
Whitman massacre to the entagling circum- 
stances of the Indians on the Columbia, under 
two rival peoples and conflicting policies. Also 
the general character of the Indians as uncivil- 
ized and superstitious, must be duly considered. 
Before the tragedy, as since, many Americans 
were cruel, deceitful and aggressive in their 
treatment of the unsophisticated savage. Those 
who have philosophically watched the trend of 
current events in the past twenty-five years need 
not be told that more than one Indian outbreak 
can be directly traced to low cupidity and 
peculation among our government officials. To 
a certain extent this cruelty and deception had 
been practiced upon the Indians by lawless 
white men prior to the Whitman massacre. To- 
day we can not come into court with clean 
hands for the purpose of accusing the English 
pioneers of Oregon. If their policy was one 
designed to check the march of western civili- 
zation, it was certainly devoid of the sometimes 
Satanic cruelty shown by Americans towards 
the Indians. 

We now come to the savagfe details of the 

Whitman tragedy and the immediate cause of 
the outbreak. Undoubtedly this will be found 
to lie in the innate superstition of the savage, 
educated or. uneducated. Following the return 
of Whitman from Washington, in 1843, tne In- 
dians in the vicinity of the mission at Waiilatpu 
were restless and insurbordinate. There is evi- 
dence that at this period Whitman scented dan- 
ger. He contemplated removal to The Dalles 
for safety, and had even gone so far as to ar- 
range for the purchase of the Methodist Mis- 
sion at that point. Two personal enemies were 
arrayed against him ; Tamsuky, a Cayuse chief, 
and Joe Lewis. The latter, was a sullen, re- 
vengeful half-breed, one who had wandered to 
the mission, been befriended by the doctor, and 
secretly became the head center of a murderous 

Measles became epidemic among the In- 
dians during the summer of 1847, introduced 
among the Cayuse tribe by immigrants. It was 
Indian medical practice to treat all fevers by 
placing the patient in a sweat-house, followed 
by a bath in ice-cold water. Under, such ig- 
norant ministrations many of the patients, of 
course, expired. They died, too, under the 
medical attendance of Dr. Whitman, whose ut- 
most vigilance could not save his patients from 
the sweat-house and the fatal douche. It was 
at this critical period that the treacherous Lewis 
circulated reports that the doctor was poison- 
ing instead of healing his patients. Lewis af- 
firmed that he had overheard Whitman and 
Spalding plotting to obtain possession of the 
country. It was finally decided by some of the 
influential chiefs of the tribe to demand of Dr. 
Whitman a test case of his professional skill. 
An Indian woman afflicted with the measles 
was given in his charge. The terrible alterna- 
tive, secretly decided upon, was this : Should 
the woman recover, all would be peace : should 
she die the Indians were to kill all the mission- 

Of this direful plot Whitman was apprised 
by Istikus. a Umatilla friend. The doctor 



treated the story with levity. Not so Mrs. 
Whitman. With the sensitive intuition of 
woman, she fully comprehended the dread sig- 
nificance of Istikus' story, and, though intrepid 
by nature, the heroine of a dangerous pioneer 
journey across the continent, she became 
alarmed, and was in tears for the first time since 
the death of her child eight years before. Dr. 
Whitman reassured her the best he could, and 
renewed his promise to move down the river. 
It was too late. On the fatal 29th of Novem- 
ber, 1847, great numbers of Tamsuky's adher- 
ents were in the vicinity of Waiilatpu. Their 
sinister presence added to the alarm of Mrs. 
Whitman. Survivors of the massacre said 
that the hills were black with Indians looking 
down upon the scene. About one o'clock in the 
afternoon of the 29th, while Dr. Whitman was 
reading, a number of Indians entered his room, 
and, having attracted his attention, one of them, 
said to have been Tamchas, buried his hatchet 
in the head of his benefactor. Another savage, 
Telaukait, one who had received nothing but 
kindness, beat the face to a pulp. Bloody work, 
thus began, was speedily followed with relent- 
less brutality. None of the white men, scat- 
tered and unsuspecting, could offer adequate 
assistance. They were quickly shot down with 
the exception of such as were remote. Five 
men escaped. After incredible suffering they 
finally reached a place of safety. Mrs. Whit- 
man was the only woman who suffered death. 
Other women were outraged, and children, boys 
and girls, held in captivity several days. Will- 
iam McBean, the Hudson's Bay Company's 
agent, at Fort Walla Walla, refused to harbor 
Mr. Hall, who had escaped as far as the fort, 
and he subsequently perished. A courier was 
despatched by McBean to Vancouver, but this 
man did not even warn the people at The Dalles 
of danger. Happily they were unmolested. So 
soon as James Douglas, then chief factor in the 
place of Dr. Whitman, heard of the massacre, 
he sent Peter Skeen Ogden, with a force, to 
rescue the survivors. Osrden exhibited a com- 

mendable zeal and efficiency, and by the expen- 
diture of several hundred dollars, ransomed 
forty-seven women and children. 

Following are the names of the victims of 
this outbreak; the people slaughtered during 
the eight days of murderous riot: Marcus 
Whitman, Narcissa Whitman, John Sager, 
Francis Sager, Crockett Brewley, Isaac Gillen, 
James Young and Rogers, Kimball, Sales, 
Marsh, Saunders, Hoffman and Hall. After- 
wards there was found on the site of the massa- 
cre a lock of long, fair hair, which was, un- 
doubtedly taken from the head of Mrs. Whit- 
man. Among the relics of this tragedy, in 
Whitman College, it is now preserved. An ac- 
count of the escape of Mr. Osborne was pub- 
lished a number of years ago. It is a graphic 
description of the horrors of the event, and 
from it we take the following extracts : 

As the guns fired and the yells commenced I 
leaned my head upon the bed and committed myself and 
family to my maker. My wife removed the loose floor. 
I dropped under the floor with my sick family in their 
night clothes, taking only two woolen sheets, a piece 
of bread and some cold mush, and pulled the floor over 
us. In five minutes the room was full of Indians, but 
they did not discover us. The roar of guns, the yells 
of the savages, and the crash of clubs and knives, and 
the groans of the dying continued until dark. We 
distinctly heard the dying groans of Mrs. Whitman, 
Mr. Rogers and Francis, till they died away one after 
the other. We heard the last words of Mr. Rogers in 
a slow voice, calling, "Come, Lord Jesus, come quickly." 

Soon after this I removed the floor and we went out. 
We saw the white face of Francis by the door. It was 
warm, as we laid our hand upon it, but he was dead. 
I carried my two youngest children, who wi re sick, and 
mr wife held on to my clothes in her great weakness. 
We had all been sick with measles. Two infants had 
died. She had not left her bed for six weeks till that 
day, when she stood up a few minutes. The naked, 
painted Indians were dancing a scalp dance around a 
large fire at a little distance. There seemed no hope 
for us and we knew not which way to go, but bent 
our steps toward Fort Walla Walla. A dense, cold 
fog shut out every -t;ir and the darl -implete. 

We could see no trail and not even the hand before the 
face. We had to feel out the trail with our feet. My 
wife almost fainted, but staggered along. Mill Creek, 
which we had to wade, was high with late rains and 
came up to the waist. My wife in her great weakness 
came night washing down, but held to my clothes. I 

3 2 


braced myself with a stick, holding a child in one arm. 
I had to cross five times for the children. The water 
was icy cold and the air freezing some. Staggering 
along about two miles Mrs. Osborne fainted and could 
go no further, and we hid ourselves in the brush of 
the Walla Walla river, not far below the lodges of 
Tamsuky, a chief who was very active at the commence- 
ment of the butchery. We were thoroughly wet, and the 
cold, fog-like snow was about us. The cold mud was 
partially frozen as we crawled, feeling our way into the 
dark brush. We could see nothing the darkness was so 
extreme. I spread one wet sheet down on the frozen 
ground; wife and children crouched upon it. I covered 
the other over them. I thought they must soon perish 
as they were shaking and their teeth rattling with cold. 
I kneeled down and commended us to our Maker. The 
day finally dawned and I could see Indians riding 
furiously up and down the trail. Sometimes they would 
come close to the brush and our blood would warm and 
the shaking would stop from fear for a moment. The 
day seemed a week. I expected every moment my wife 
would breathe her last. Tuesday night we felt our way 
to the trail and staggered along to Sutucks Nima 
(Dog Creek), which we waded as we did the other 
creek, and kept on about two miles, when my wife 
fainted and could go no farther. Crawled into the 
brush and frozen mud to shake and suffer on from 
hunger and cold, and without sleep. The children, too, 
wet and cold, called incessantly for food, but the shock 
of groans and yells at first so frightened them that they 
did not speak loud. Wednesday night wife was too 
weak to stand. I took our second child and started for 
Walla Walla; had to wade the Touchet; stopped fre- 
quently in the brush from weakness; had not recovered 
from measles. Heard a horseman pass and repass as 
I lay concealed in the willows. Have since learned it 
was Mr. Spalding. Reached Fort Walla Walla after 
daylight ; begged Mr. McBean for horses to go to my 
family, for food, blankets and clothing to take to them, 
and to take care of my child till I could bring my 
family in should I live to find them alive. Mr. McBean 
told me I could not bring my family to his fort. Mr. 
Hall came in on Monday night, but he could not 
have an American in his fort, and he had him put over 
the Columbia river; that he could not let me have 
horeses or anything for my wife or children, and I must 
go on to Umatilla. I insisted on bringing my family to 
the fort, but he refused ; said he would not let us in. 
I next begged the priest to show pity, as my wife and 
children must perish and the Indians, undoubtedly, kill 
me, but with no success. 

There were many priests at the fort. Mr. McBean 
gave me breakfast but I saved most of it for my family. 
Providentially Mr. Stanley, an artist, came in from 
Colville, and narrowly escaped the Indians by telling 
them he was "Alain," H. B., meaning that his name 
was Alain and that he was a Hudson's Bay Company 
employe. He let me have his two horses, some food 
he had left from Revs. Ellis' and Walker's mission ; 

also a cap, a pair of socks, a shirt and handkerchief, 
and Mr. McBean furnished an Indian who proved most 
faithful, and Thursday night we started back, taking my 
child, but with a sad heart that I could not find mercy 
at the hands of God. The Indian guided me in the thick 
darkness to where I supposed I had left my dear wife 
and children. We could see nothing and dared not call 
aloud. Daylight came and I was exposed to Indians, but 
we continued to search till I was about to give up in 
despair, when the Indian discovered one of the twigs I 
had broken as a guide in coming out to the trail. Follow- 
ing this he soon found my wife and children still alive. 
I distributed what little food and clothing I had and we 
started for the Umatilla, the guide leading the way 
to a ford. 

Mr. Osborne and family went to William- 
ette Valley where they lived many years, as 
honored members of the community, though 
Mrs. Osborne never entirely regained her 
health from the dreadful experiences incident 
to the massacre and escape. 

The most ingenious casuisty will fail to 
palliate the heartlessness of Mr. McBean. At 
the present day when charity, chivalry, nay, 
self-sacrifice to aid the suffering meet with 
heartiest approval from nearly all civilized na- 
tions, it is difficult to conceive of such base mo- 
tives as appear to have actuated him. That he 
reflected the baser qualities of the Hudson's 
Bay Company's policy, no one can reasonably 
deny. It seemed necessary to him to show the 
Indians that so far from reproving their con- 
duct the representative of the company was in 
sympathy, if not in actual collusion with the 
savage conspirators. McBean's attitude on this 
occasion stands forth as one of the darkest 
chapters in the history of the Hudson's Bay 
Company's "joint occupancy" with Americans 
of the territory of Oregon. 

If further proof were wanted of the appar- 
ent understanding between the Indians and the 
company the case of the artist who gave his 
name as "Alain," representing himself as con- 
nected with the interests of the Hudson's Bay 
Company is before us. Refusal of assistance to 
Mr. Osborne by the priests at Fort Walla Walla 
is readily understood. Their tenure of spiritual 
office was dependent on the company. Their 



heartless action was not based on theological 
antagonism. No difference of creed entered 
into the matter. They were guided simply by 
personal interest; they were but another form 
of the abject creatures to which the Hudson's 
Bay Company sought to reduce all their de- 
pendents. But in the annals of American his- 
tory there is no more pathetic recital than the 
story of Osborne's and Hall's rejection at the 
English fort to which they had fled for shelter. 
A less distressing case of a few weeks later 
is presented in the following extract from 
some reminiscences of Mrs. Catherine Pringle, 
formerly of Colfax. Mrs. Pringle was one of 
the Sager children, adopted by Doctor and Mrs. 
Whitman. The story of the "Christmas din- 
ner" which follows was given by her to the 
Commoner, of Colfax, in 1893: 

The Christmas of 1847 was celebrated in the midst 
of an Indian village where the American families who 
kept the day were hostages, whose lives were in constant 
danger. There is something tragically humorous about 
that Christmas, and I laugh when I think of some things 
that I cried over on that day. 

When the survivors moved to the Indian village a 
set of guards was placed over us, and those guards were 
vagabond savages, in whose charge nobody was safe. 
Many times we thought our final hour had come. They 
ordered us around like slaves, and kept us busy cook- 
ing for them. Whenever we made a dish they compelled 
us to eat of it first, for fear there was poison in it. 
They kept up a din and noise that deprived us of peace 
by day and sleep at night. Some days before Christmas 
we complained to the chief of the village who was sup- 
posed to be a little generous in our regard, and he gave 
us a guard of good Indians under command of one 
whom we knew as "Beardy." The latter had been 
friendly to Dr. Whitman; he had taken no part in the 
massacre, and it was claimed that it was through his 
intercession that our lives were spared. 

We hailed the coming of Beardy as a providential 
thing, and so, when the holiday dawned, the elder folks 
resolved to make the children as happy as the means 
at hand would allow. Mrs. Sanders had brought across 
the plains with her some white flour and some dried 
peaches, and these had been brought to our abode in 
William Gray's mission. White flour was a luxury and 
so were dried peaches then. Mrs. Sanders made white 
bread on Christmas morning, and then she made peach 
pie. Beardy had been so kind to us that we had to in- 
vite him to our Christmas dinner. We had ever so 
many pies, it seemed, and Beardy thought he had tasted 

nothing so good in all his life. He sat in one corner 
of the kitchen and crammed piece after piece of that 
dried pie into his mouth. We were determined that he 
should have all the pie he wanted, even if some of us 
went hungry, because Beardy was a friend on whose 
fidelity probably our lives depended. 

And so we had our Christmas festival, and we sang 
songs and thanked heaven that we were still alive. After 
dinner, and about an hour after Beardy went away, we 
were thrown into alarm by a series of mad yells and we 
heard Indian cries of "Kill them! Tomahawk them!" 
A band of savages started to attack the Gray residence, 
and we saw them from the windows. Our time had 
come and some of us began to pray. The day that 
opened with fair promises was about to close in despair. 
To our amazement and horror the Indian band was led 
by Beardy himself, the Indian we counted on to police us 
in just such emergencies. He was clamoring for the 
death of all the white women. Fortune favored us at 
this critical juncture for just as the Indians were enter- 
ing the house messengers arrived from Fort Walla 
Walla. The messengers knew Beardy well, and they 
advanced on him and inquired the reason for his wild 

Me poinsoned !" cried Beardy, "Me Killed. White 
squaw poisoned me. Me always white man's friend, 
now me enemy. White squaw must die." 

That would be a liberal translation of the Indian 
words. Then followed a colloquy between Beardy and 
the messengers, and from the language used we learned 
that Beardy had suffered from an overdose o' American 
pie, and not knowing about the pains that lie in wait 
after intemperate indulgence even in pie, he rushed to 
the conclusion that he had been poisoned. It required 
a long time for the messengers to convince Beardy that 
they were innocent of any intention to cause him pain, 
but that he was simply suffering from the effects of 
inordinate indulgence in an indigestible luxury. The 
messengers talked Beardy into a reasonable frame of 
mind; he called off his horde of savages and peace once 
more spread her wings over the William Gray mission. 
We were all happy that night — happy that Mrs. Saun- 
dres' pie had not been the means of a wholesale 
slaughter of white families on Christmas day. 

The messengers I speak of brought good new 
the fort. Succor was at hand, and on December 29th 
we were moved to the fort and started down the river 
to The Dalles. January .}. 1848. The Christmas of the 
year 1847, as it was celebrated in this territory, offers 
something of a contrast to the yuletide merriment in all 
the churches and homes to-day. 

We have described the Whitman Mission, 
Whitman's mid-winter journey, his work for 
Oregon and the massacre. It remains to speak 
of the Cayuse war which followed as a nat- 
ural sequence. 



Friends of Mr. McBean have come forward 
with an explanation of his treatment of the 
refugees from the Waiilatpu massacre. It is 
claimed tht his reluctance to do any act which 
appeared like befriending Americans was 
through fear of the Cayuse Indians and a be- 
lief that they were about to begin a war of ex- 
termination upon Americans, their friends and 
allies. Therefore it would be dangerous to 
assist such Americans as were then seeking re- 
fuge from massacre, outrage and torture. 

It was reserved for Americans, however, to 
take the initiative in this war. News of the 
Whitman tragedy stirred the hearts of genuine 
men ; men in whose veins ran the milk of hu- 
man kindness instead of ice-water. On the day 
following the massacre Vicar General Brouillet 
visited the Waiilatpu mission. He found the 
bodies of the victims unburied; he left them 
with such hasty interment as was possible, and 
soon after met Mr. Spalding whom he warned 
against attempting to visit the mission. This 
was. indeed, a friendly act on the part of the 
Vicar General, for the horrors of this tragedy 
did not come to a close on the first day. While 
it was safe for Brouillet, in close touch with the 
Hudson's Bay Company, to repair to that sad 
scene of desolation, it was not considered safe 
for any Americans to visit the spot. On Tues- 
day Mr. Kimball, who had remained with a 
broken arm in Dr. Whitman's house, was shot 
and killed. Driven desperate by his own and 
the sufferings of three sick children with him, 
he had attempted to procure water from a 
stream near the house. The same week Mr. 
Young and Mr. Bulee were killed. Saturday 
the savages completed their fiendish work by 

carrying away the young women for wives. Of 
the final ransom of the captives F. F. Victor, in 
"The River of the West," says : 

"Late in the month of December (1847) 
there arrived in Oregon City to be delivered to 
the governor, sixty-two captives, bought from 
the Cayuses and Nez Perces by Hudson Bay 
blankets and goods ; and obtained at that price 
by Hudson's Bay influence. 'No other power 
on earth,' says Joe Meek, the American, 'could 
have rescued those prisoners from the hands of 
the Indians,' and no man better than Mr. Meek 
understood the Indian character or the Hud- 
son's Bay Company's power over them." 

On December 7, 1847, from Fort Van- 
couver, James Douglas sent the following let- 
ter to Governor Abernethy : 

SIR: — Having received intelligence, last night, by 
special express from Walla Walla, of the destruction of 
the missionary settlement at Waiilatpu, by the Cayuse 
Indians of that place, we hasten to communicate the 
particulars of that dreadful event, one of the most 
atrocious which darkens the annals of Indian crime. 

Our lamented friend, Dr. Whitman, his amiable and 
accomplished lady, with nine other persons, have fallen 
victims to the fury of these remorseless savages, who 
appear to have been instigated to this appalling crime by 
a horrible suspicion which had taken possession of their 
superstitious minds, in consequence of the number of 
deaths from dysentery and measles, that Dr. Whitman 
was silently working the destruction of their tribes by 
administering poisonous drugs, under the semblance of 
salutary medicines. 

With a goodness of heart and a benevolence truly 
his own, Dr. Whitman had been laboring incessantly 
since the appearance of the measles and dysentery 
among his Indians converts, to relieve their sufferings ; 
and such has been the reward of his generous labors. 

A copy of Mr. McBean's letter, herewith trans- 
mitted, will give you all the particulars known to us of 
this indescribably painful event. Mr. Ogden, with a 
strong party, will leave this place as soon as possible 





for Walla Walla, to endeavor to prevent further evil ; 
and we beg to suggest to you the propriety of taking 
immediate measures for the protection of the Rev. Mr. 
Spalding, who, for the sake of his family, ought to 
abandon the Clearwater mission without delay, and re- 
tire to a place of safety, as he cannot remain at the 
isolated station without imminent risk, in the present 
excited and irritable state of the Indian population. 

I have the honor to be, sir, your most obedient 
servant, JAMES DOUGLAS. 

The reception of this letter was followed 
by intense excitement among people in the 
Wallamet settlement. The governor was au- 
thorized to mobilize a company of riflemen, not 
exceeding fifty in number, their objective point 
being The Dalles, which they were instructed 
to garrison and hold until such time as they 
could be reinforced. Three commissioners 
were chosen to carry out such provisions. The 
commissioners addressed a circular letter to the 
superintendent of the Methodist Mission, the 
"merchants and citizens of Oregon" and the 
Hudson's Bay Company. This document is 
valuable as explaining existing conditions in 
Oregon at that date, December 17, 1847: 

Gentlemen : — You are aware that the undersigned 
have been charged by the legislature of our provisional 
government with the difficult duty of obtaining the 
necessary means to obtain full satisfaction of the Cayuse 
Indians for the late massacre at Waiilatpu, and to pro- 
tect the white population of our common country from 
further aggression. In furtherance of this subject they 
have deemed it their duty to make immediate application 
to the merchants and citizens of the country for the 
requisite assistance. 

Though clothed with the power to pledge to the 
fullest extent the faith and means of the present govern- 
ment of Oregon, they do not consider this pledge the 
curity to those, who, in this distressing emer- 
gency, may extend to the people of this country the 
means of protection and redress. 

Without claiming any special authority from the 
government of the United States to contract a deb) to 
be liquidated by that power, yet from all precedents of 
like character in the history of our country, the under- 
signed feel confident that the United States government 
will regard the murder of the late Dr. Whitman and his 
lady, as a national wrong, and will fully justify the 
people of Oregon in taking active measures to obtain 
redress for that outrage, and for their protection from 
further aggression. 

The right of self defense is tacitly acknowledged 

to every body politic in the confederacy to which we 
claim to belong, and in every case similar to our own, 
within our knowledge, the general government has 
promptly assumed the payment of all liabilities growing 
out of the measures taken by the constituted authorities 
to protect the lives and property of those who reside 
within the limits of their districts. If the citizens of 
the nates and territories, east of the Rocky Mountains, 
are justified in promptly acting in such emergencies, who 
are under the immediate protection of the general 
government, there appears no room for doubt that the 
lawful acts of the Oregon government will receive a 
like approval. 

Though the Indians of the Columbia have com- 
mitted a great outrage upon our fellow citizens passing 
through the country, and residing among them, and 
their punishment for these murders may, and ought to 
be, a prime object with every citizen of Oregon, yet, 
as that duty more particularly develops upon the gov- 
ernment of the United States, we do not make this the 
strongest ground upon which to found our earnest ap- 
peal to you for pecuniary assistance. It is a fact well 
known to every person acquainted with the Indian 
character, that by passing silently over their repeated 
thefts, robberies and murders of our fellow citizens, they 
have been emboldened to the commission of the ap- 
palling massacre at Waiilatpu. They call us women, 
destitute of the hearts and courage of men, and if we 
allow this wholesale murder to pass by as former ag- 
gressions, who can tell how long either life or property- 
will be secure in any part of the country, or what 
moment the Willamette will be the scene of blood and 

The officers of our provisional government have 
nobly performed their duty. None can doubt the readi- 
ness of the patriotic sons of the west to offer their 
personal services in defense of a cause so righteous. 
So it now rests with you, gentlemen, to say whether 
. mr rights and our firesides shall be defended or not. 

Hoping that none will be found to falter in so high 
and so sacred a duty, we beg leave, gentlemen, to sub- 
ourselves, *- 

Your servants and fellow citizens, 
Jesse Applegate, 
A. L. Lovejoy, 
Geo. L. Curry, 


This patriotic communication produced a 
certain effect, though not. perhaps, financially 
commensurate with the hopes of its authors. 
The amount secured was less than five thousand 
dollars, but this sufficed to arm and equip the 
first regiment of Oregon riflemen. In the 
month of January they proceeded to the Cayuse 



We are now acquainted with the agency 
through which the ransomed missionaries, 
their wives and children reached the Willa- 
mette valley in safety. Concerning the people 
who were brought from Lapwai and Tchirria- 
kin, it may be said to the credit of the Indians 
that though one band, the Cayuses, were mur- 
derers, two bands, the Nez Perces and Spo- 
kanes, were saviors. Few narratives are more 
thrilling than that relating to Fathers Eells and 
Walker, who attended the council of the Spo- 
kanes at Tchimakin, which council was to de- 
cide whether or no to join the Cayuses. On 
their decision hung the lives of the missionaries. 
Imagine their emotions as they waited with 
bated breath in their humble mission house to 
learn the result of the Indians' deliberations. 
Hours of animated discussion followed; argu- 
ment with the Cayuses emissaries; and finally 
the Spokanes announced their conclusions in 
these words : "Go and tell the Cayuses that the 
missionaries are our friends and we will defend 
them with our lives." 

The Nez Perces arrrived at the same con- 
clusion. Bold though these Cayuses were — 
the fiercest warriors of the inland empire — 
their hearts must have sunk within them as they 
saw that the Umatillas, the Nez Perces and the 
Spokanes and, even at that particular period, 
the Hudson's Bay Company, were all against 
them, and that they must meet the infuriated 
whites from the Willamette. The provisional 
government had entered upon the work of 
equipping fourteen companies of volunteers. 
The act of the legislature providing for this had 
been passed December 9, 1847. A large ma- 
jority of these volunteers furnished their own 
horses, arms and ammunition. This, too, with- 
out thought of pecuniary gain or reimburse- 
ment. The response to the circular letter of 
the commissioners had been prompt, open- 
handed and hearty. 

Cornelius Gilliam, father of W. S. Gilliam, 
of Walla Walla, was chosen colonel of the reg- 
iment. He was a man of superlative energy, 

brave and resourceful, and, pushing all neces- 
sary arrangements, he set forth from the ren- 
dezvous at The Dalles on February 27, 1848. 
Several battles occurred on the way into the 
Cayuse country, the most severe being at Sand 
Hollows, in the Umatilla country. Five Crows 
and War Eagle, famous fighters of the Cayuse 
tribe, had gathered their braves to dispute the 
crossing of this region with the Oregon rifle- 
men. Five Crows flamboyantly claimed that 
by his wizard powers he could stop all bullets 
while War Eagle's gasconade was couched 
in the boastful statement that he would 
agree to swallow all missies fired at him. 
This same spirit of braggadocio has, through- 
out all historical times, animated pagan sol- 
diers. During the war with the Filipinos the 
natives were solemnly told by their priests that 
all bullets fired by American soldiers would 
turn to water before reaching them. 

Mark the result of the engagement between 
the avengers of Dr. Whitman and the supersti- 
tious Cayuses. At the first onset the "Swallow 
Ball" was killed, and the "wizard" was so seri- 
ously wounded that he was compelled to retire 
from the war. 

Nevertheless the Indians maintained a 
plucky fight. A number of casualties were suf- 
fered by the whites. But at last the Indians 
were compelled to break, and the way for the 
first regiment of Oregon riflemen was clear to 
Waiilatpu. The desolated mission was reached 
by Colonel Gilliam's command March 4. Here 
the soldiers passed several days to recuperate 
from the effects of a short but arduous cam- 
paign, and give to the remains of the martyrs 
of the Whitman massacre a reverent burial. 
Some of the dead had been hastily covered with 
earth by Vicar General Brouillet, and his com- 
panions ; others when Ogden ransomed the 
captives, but afterward they fiad been partially 
exhumed by coyotes ; hyena-like allies of the 
dastradly Cayuses. 

The Indians had now fallen back to Snake 
river. Following them thither the whites were, 



somewhat, outgeneraled by the wily savages, an 
event that has been duplicated several times in 
Indian wars of more recent date. The Oregon 
riflemen surprised and captured a camp of 
Cayuse Indians among whom, as was afterward 
divulged, were some of the murderers of Dr. 
Whitman and his friends at Waillatpu. The 
Machiavellian Cayuses suddenly professed 
great friendship for the Oregon avengers, and, 
pointing to a large band of horses on a hill, 
declared that the hostiles had abandoned them, 
and gone across the river. This deception was 
successful. Completely deluded the whites 
surrounded the camp and, rounding up the 
horses, started on their return. It was the hour 
of temporary Cayuse triumph. The released 
captives, mounting at once, began a furious at- 
tack on the rear of the batallion of riflemen 
which proved so harrassing that the volunteers 
were compelled to retreat to the Touchet river, 
and finally, although they repelled the Indians, 
they were forced to turn loose the captured 
horses. These animals the strategetic Indians 
immediately seized and with them vanished 
over the plains. They had outwitted Gilliam's 
men. Not only had they secured life and lib- 
erty for themselves, but had actually recovered 
the bait with which they had inveigled the vol- 
unteers into a trap. 

It was soon made evident that the Cayuse 
Indians»had no real desire to fight. The whites 
insisted on a surrender of the murderers of Dr. 
Whitman and his people. Finding that the vol- 
unteers were in earnest in making this demand 
the treacherous tribe scattered in different di- 
rections; Tamsuky, with his friends, going to 
the headwaters of the John Day river. There, 
despite various efforts to capture them, they re- 
mained two years. In 1850, a band of L T ma- 
tillas undertook the task of securing them, for 
trial, and after fierce and desperate resistance, 
killed Tamsuky and captured a number of his 
murderous compatriots. Of these captives five 
were hanged at Oregon City. June 3. 1850. 

The Cavuse Indians, however, assert that I 

only one of these condemned and executed In- 
dians were really guilty of participation in the 
horrible deeds at Waiilatpu. That one, they de- 
clared, was Tamahas. who struck Dr. Whitman 
the fatal blow. The claim that the others were 
innocent may be true, so far as the actual mur- 
der of the doctor or his friends is concerned, 
but as accessories to a great — indeed, a national 
crime — they were, undoubtedly, guilty. If they 
were not, it is but one more instance of lament- 
able failure to apply either punishment or mercy 
accurately, which has characterized all Indian 
wars on both sides. The innocent have 
borne the sins of the guilty in more ways 
than one. 

In this Cayuse war many men, who after- 
ward became famous in Oregon and Washing- 
ton history took an active part. Among them 
may be named James Nesmith, who was United 
States Senator. He was the father of Mrs. Levi 
Ankeny, of Walla Walla, present United States 
senator from Washington. William Martin, of 
Pendleton, Oregon, was one of the captains in 
the corps of rifle men during this war. Joel 
Palmer, Tom McKay. J. M. Garrison and 
many others bore their part in the beginning, or 
later in the maturer development of the coun- 
try. Colonel Gilliam, who had shown himself 
to be a brave and sagacious commander, was 
accidentally killed on the return of his trooops, a 
most melancholy close of a career full of prom- 
ise to this country, then slowly unfolding its 
wealth of varied industries. 

In taking leave of this stirring epoch in the 
history of a certain portion of the. now. state of 
Washington, pursuit, capture and punishment 
of principals and instigators of the murder of 
Dr. Whitman, and his associates in missionary 
work, it may be said in the way of retrospec- 
tion that, grevious as was the end of Whitman's 
career, no doubt it will ultimately be seen to 
have produced greater results for this region 
and the world than if he had survived to have 
enjoyed a well-merited rest from his labors. 
Subsequent development of this section, the 



founding of Whitman College, and the whole 
train of circumstances arising from American 
occupation of Oregon may be seen, in some 
measure, to have grown out of the tragedy at 
Waiilatpu. Here, as elsewhere, martyrdom 
appears a necessary accompainment to the most 
brilliant progress in civilization. 

While the offense of these Indians can not 
be condoned, charity compels the admission that 
the ignorant creatures were scarcely more re- 
sponsible than the wild beasts who, also, dis- 
puted this territory with civilized man. The 
very superstition which it is the duty of every 

missionary to eradicate from pagan minds as 
speedily as possible, is primarily to blame for 
the undoing of Dr. Whitman. Steeped in this 
barbaric superstition, pampered by the Hud- 
son's Bay Company, treacherously deceived by 
agents and emissaries of the great octupus of 
the Northwest Coast, we can not hold these 
savages to a higher degree of responsibility than 
the source from which they drew their grew- 
some inspiration. But in 1848 the progress of 
western civilization demanded their suppres- 
sion, if not ultimate removal, along with the 
coyote and rattlesnake. 



Previous to 1859 the territory of Oregon 
comprised the present states of Washington, 
Oregon and Idaho. It is not within the prov- 
ince of this history to follow the careers of In- 
dian "braves," Indian thieves and Indian raps- 
callions along the entire course of their devious 
warpaths throughout all of the country out- 
lined above. Of the Indian wars immediately 
affecting Washington, the territory covered by 
these annals, it becomes our duty to treat them 
in an impartial yet concise manner. 

The massacre of the Ward train, by the 
Snake Indians, occurred near Fort Boise in the 
autumn of 1854. Determined to show the In- 
dians that the government would not remain in- 
active in the face of such outrages Major Gran- 
ville O. Haller organized an expedition with 
which he pushed over into the Snake country, 
from Fort Dalles. Nothing tangible resulted 
from this march other than a demonstration in 
force 4 ; the Indians retreated into the mountains ; 
Major Haller and his soldiers returned to The 
Dalles. During the summer of 1855, however. 

he made another attempt to reach the Snake In- 
dians, and this time successfully, finally captur- 
ing and executing the murderers of the Ward 

Discovery of gold in the vicinity of Fort 
Colville incited a stampede to that country. 
This was in the spring of 1855. At that period 
Governor Stevens was making his famous east- 
ern tour through the territory engaged in treat- 
ies and agreements with the various tribes, and 
this gold discovery so excited the members of 
his escort that it was with difficulty they were 
prevented from deserting. On meeting with 
the Kettle Falls, Pend d'Oreilles, Spokanes and 
Coeur' d'Alenes Governor Stevens had told 
them that he would negotiate with them for the 
sale of their lands on his return. Offers to pur- 
chase lands by the whites had always been re- 
garded with suspicion by the Indians. To them 
it appeared the preliminary step toward sub- 
jugation and domination of the country which, 
perhaps was not an unusual view of the matter. 
The gradual but steadv increase of the white 



men was far from pleasing to the Indians; they 
were dissatisfied with the terms of treaties al- 
ready negotiated, and one chief Peupeumox- 
mox "Yellow Bird," was on the eve of repudi- 
ating the sale of certain territory. 

The first note of defiance was sounded by 
Pierre Jerome, chief of the Kettle Falls Indians, 
about August i, 1855. He declared emphat- 
ically that no white man should pass through 
his country. This declaration was soon fol- 
lowed by rumors of murders committed by the 
Yakimas. A number of small parties had set 
forth from the Sound en route to Fort Col- 
ville, via Nisqually pass and the Ahtanahm 
Catholic mission. Such was the report com- 
municated by Chief Garry, of the Spokanes, to 
A J. Bolon, special agent for the Yakimas. It 
was Bolon's intention to meet Governor Stev- 
ens on the latter's return from Fort Benton, and 
assist at the councils and treaties. But on re- 
ceiving these sanguinary reports Bolon rashly 
deflected his course for the purpose of investi- 
gating them. He went, unattended to the Cath- 
olic mission to meet Kamiakin, and was mur- 
dered by Owhi, a nephew of Kamiakin, and 
chief of the Umatillas, who treacherously shot 
him in the back. 

Then Kamiakin declared war on the whites, 
which war, he said, he was prepared to carry 
on five years, if necessary. The gauntlet had 
been thrown down and war was inevitable. The 
rumor of whites having been killed by the 
Yakimas was confirmed by miners returning 
from Fort Cloville, on September 20. A 
requisition for troops from Vancouver and 
Steilacoom was at once made by acting Gov- 
ernor Mason. Fears for the safety of Governor 
Stevens warranted sending a detachment to his 
assistance. A force of eighty-four men from 
Fort Dalles, under Major Haller, was ordered 
to proceed against Kamiakin and Peupeumox- 
mox. two chiefs most to be dreaded. Haller's 
objective point was the Catholic mission, the 
home of Kamiakin. He set forth October 3. 

Indians were discovered the third day out. 

A sharp skirmish ensued in the afternoon of 
that day, and at nightfall the Yakimas with- 
drew. Of Haller's force eight men were killed 
and wounded. On the following day the fight 
was renewed, the whites being without water 
and having but very little food. The Indians 
attempted to surround Haller, and so sharp was 
their attack that at dark a messenger was des- 
patched to Major Raines, at The Dalles, asking 
for assistance. On the third day of this en- 
gagement, which was in reality a signal defeat 
for the whites, the cavalry horses and pack ani- 
mads were turned loose to find water and grass. 
Haller determined to return to The Dalles, and 
was again attacked by the Indians who, for ten 
miles, harassed the retreating soldiers with a 
sharp, running fire. The force separated into 
two divisions, one of them being under the com- 
mand of Captain Russell. Two detachments 
of reinforcements failed to connect with Haller, 
for any effective stand against the enemy, and 
Major Haller reached The Dalles with a loss 
of five men killed, seventeen wounded and con- 
siderable government property. It was esti- 
mated that the Indians suffered a loss of forty 

The disastrous result of this initial cam- 
paign against the Yakimas inflamed both sol- 
diers and civilians. Preparations for a war of 
considerable magnitude were hastily made. It 
was reported at Forts Vancouver and Steila- 
iiat there were fifteen hundred fighting 
braves in the field against the whites. One 
company of volunteers was called on from 
Clarke, and one from Thurston county, these 
companies to consist of eighty-five men each. 
Acting Governor Mason asked for arms from 
the commanders of the revenue cutter Jefferson 
Davis and sloop of war Decatur, which were 
furnished promptly. Company B, of the Puget 
Sound Volunteers, was organized at Olympia, 
Gilmore Hays, captain, James S. Hurd. first 
lieutenant, William Martin, second lieutenant, 
Joseph Gibson, Henry D. Cock, Thomas 
Prathar, and Joseph White, sergeants : Joseph 



S. Taylor, Whitfield Kirtley, T. Wheelock and 
John Scott, corporals. On the 20th they re- 
ported at Fort Steilacoom and on the 21st, un- 
der command of Captain Maloney, set out for 
White river to reinforce Lieutenant Slaughter, 
who had gone into the Yakima country with 
forty men. 

The history of Nesmith's campaign against 
the Yakima Indians is uneventful. J. W. 
Nesmith was placed in command of several vol- 
unteer companies, organized by proclamation 
of Acting Governor Mason, numbering, 
all told, about seven hundred men. They 
were enrolled at Seattle, Olympia, Van- 
couver and Cathlamet. James Tilton was 
appointed adjutant-general of the volun- 
teer forces and Major Raines was in com- 
mand of the regulars to cooperate with 
Nesmith. The volunteers and regulars formed 
a junction at Simcoe Valley on November 7. 
The day following there was a sharp skirmish 
with the Indians, but the latter finding the force 
of the whites greatly augumented were timid, 
and more inclined to retreat than advance. Be- 
ing supplied with fresh horses they could escape 
easily, and were driven up the Yakima river to 
a narrow gap in the mountains where they 
made a feeble stand. Haller and Captain Augur 
charged them, upon which they retreated and 
fled down the other side of the mountain, leav- 
ing the whites in possession. On the 10th they 
made another stand, and an attempt was made 
by the volunteers and regulars to surround 
them. Owing to a misunderstanding a charge 
was made at an inopportune moment, and again 
the wily foe were enabled to retreat in compar- 
ative safety. On reaching the Ahtanahm mis- 
sion it was found deserted and, after a number 
of unimportant movements, Nesmith pushed on 
to Walla Walla. Major Raines reported to 
General Wool, who had recently arrived in the 
territory. The latter was supplied with four 
thousand stand of arms, a large amount of am- 
unition and had with him fifty dragoons. 

General Wool at this period appears to have 

been extremely critical and fault-finding. He 
was particularly severe on the volunteers nor 
did he spare Majors Raines and Haller. One 
of General Wool's orders, which appears to 
have given great offense to the citizens- of Ore- 
gon, was to disband the company enrolled to 
proceed to the relief of Governor Stevens, and 
this order was subsequently bitterly resented 
by the governor. The result of Wool's con- 
duct was what might have been expected ; con- 
tentions between the regulars and volunteers, 
rendering void their efficiency and making it 
impossible for them to co-operate. Practically 
future campaigns against the hostiles were in 
the hands of the volunteers. January 11, 1856. 
General Wool received information of Indian 
troubles in Southern Oregon and California, 
and he left for San Francisco, having first as- 
signed command of the Columbia River Dis- 
trict to Colonel George Wright, with head- 
quarters at The Dalles. 

In the Puget Sound district the year 1855 
was punctuated with a number of Indian trag- 
edies. Lieutenant McAllister and M. McCon- 
nell, of McConnell's prairie, were killed by the 
hostiles in October of that year. Sunday, the 
28th, in the White Valley, the Indians fell upon 
the farming settlements. W. H. Braman, wife 
and child, H. H. Jones and wife, Simon Cooper 
and George E. King and wife were killed. 
Others escaped to Seattle. The death of Lieu- 
tenant Slaughter, in December, 1855, cast a 
heavy gloom over the various communities then 
in the territory. While in command of sixty- 
five men, on Brannans' prairie, Lieutenant 
Slaughter was sitting at night in a small log 
house. For the purpose of drying their wet 
clothing the soldiers had started a small fire 
near the door of the cabin, and the Indians, 
guided by this light were able to shoot Slaugh- 
ter through the heart. Without uttering a 
word he fell dead from his chair. An attack 
on Seattle, in December of the same year, was 
repulsed with heavy losses to both sides, the 
sloop of war. Decatur, taking a prominent part 



in this fight and doing good execution. Other 
United States vessels, including the Active and 
Massachusetts, were conspicuous in defense of 
the town. It was aboard the Decatur that the 
sanguinary Patkanim delivered the heads of In- 
dians for which a bounty was offered. Pat- 
kanim had entered into a contract with the ter- 
ritorial government by which he was to receive 
eighty dollars apiece for all heads of Indian 
chiefs, and twenty dollars for the heads of war- 
riors. Subsequently these ghastly trophies were 
forwarded to Olympia. In this horrible hunt 
for hostile heads Patkanim was assisted bv 
eighty warriors of the Snoqualimich and 
Skokomish tribes, and, also, a chief called John 
Taylor. The United States navy at that time 
rendered most valuable services in repulsing 
Indian attacks along the shore-line of Puget 
Sound. Working in conjunction with the land 
forces of the whites the guns of the ships at 
times did terrible execution among the painted 
savages. On the morning of October 22, 1856, 
a party of Indians surrendered to the com- 
mander of the Massachusetts and were taken 
to Victoria. It was generally supposed that the 
severe treatment accorded unfriendly Indians 
on the Sound would result in the abandonment 
of depredations in that vicinity. But on August 
11, 1857, a party of savages landed at Whidby 
Island, killed a man named I. N. Eby, decapi- 
tated him and looted his house before an alarm 
could be given. Nor was this the extent of 
later depredations. It became necessary for 
vessels heavily armed to cruise in the sound 
and through Fuca Strait. 

Our territorial limitations demand that we 
return to the Yakima country where Indian hos- 
tilities were renewed. In October. 1855 rumors 
were rife of a combination of Oregon and 
Yakima Indians. It was reported, also, that the 
Des Chutes. Walla "Wallas and Cayuses were 
inclined to be unfriendly. To prevent such a 
combination Indian Agent Olney had been sent 
from The Dalles to Walla Walla. Tt was con 
strued as an unfavorable circumstance tint 

Peupeumoxmox should have been found on the 
north side of the Columbia. Other signs indi- 
cated the truculency of Peupeumoxmox, and he 
even denied that he had ever sold the Walla 
Walla valley. To Olney it seemed apparent 
that the chief was preparing to join the Ya- 
kimas in a war against the whites. It was de- 
cided in conference between Agent Olney and 
McKinlay, Anderson and Sinclair, officers of 
the Hudson's Bay Company, to destroy the 
amunition in Walla Walla to prevent it from 
falling into the hands of the Indians. It was. 
therefore, thrown into the river. All whites 
were then ordered to leave the country, and this 
order included Sinclair, who abandoned prop- 
erty in the fort valued at $37,000. 

To a winter campaign against the Indians 
in the Yakima valley, Colonel Nesmith was 
stoutly opposed. He directed attention to the 
fact that his horses and men were exhausted, 
some of the latter being severely frost-bitten 
and otherwise unfit for duty. One hundred and 
twenty-five of them had been discharged. How- 
ever, Governor Curry ordered Major M. A. 
Chinn to proceed to Walla Walla and join 
Nesmith. This order was followed by a general 
uprising of the Indians. Chinn resolved to 
fortify the Umatilla agency, and await rein- 
forcements, believing it impossible to form the 
contemplated union with Nesmith. Accord- 
ingly Chinn, who had arrived at the agency 
November 18. 1855, where he found the build- 
ings destroyed, erected a stockade and named 
the same Fort Henrietta, in honor of the wife 
of Major Haller. Later Kelly arrived and suc- 
ceeding reinforcements gave him four hundred 
and seventy-five men. The first sally from 
Walla Walla was made on December 2. The 
force of three hundred and ninety-nine men 
was met by Chief Peupeumoxmox, who carried 
a white flag at the head of a band of warriors. 
Following a conference the Indians were held 
as prisoners and, during a subsequent attack 
on Waiilatpu. were killed. The truculent chief 
of the Walla Wallas met his death earlv in the 



insurrection of which he was the instigator. 
The fight at Waiilatpu continued through the 
7th, 8th and 9th, the fortunes of war being tem- 
porarily with the Indians. Reinforcements for 
Kelly arrived on the 10th, from Fort Henrietta, 
thus enabling the whites to snatch victory from 
the jaws of defeat, and continue the pursuit of 
the Indians until nightfall. Kelly then built 
Fort Bennett, two miles above Waiilatpu. 

It is impossible to attempt a description of 
the battle between the upper and lower cascades 
of the Columbia river without being brought 
face to face with another blunder of General 
Wool. However valuable may have been his 
services during the Mexican war, and no one 
could justly censure any portion of his career 
in those campaigns, truth compels the state- 
ment that General Wool's knowledge of Indian 
warfare was limited. Undoubtedly his inten- 
tions were the best, but he appears singularly 
unfortunate in a number of his military orders 
while at the head of the troops in Washington 
and Oregon. 

About the middle of December, 1855, Kelly 
received news of the resignation of Colonel 
Nesmith. The latter was succeeded by Thomas 
R. Cornelius, and Kelly, anxious to return to 
civil duties, gave his command to Davis Layton. 
A. M. Fellows took the place of Captain Ben- 
nett, Fellows being succeeded by A. Shepard, 
and the latter by B. A. Barker. Thus was 
effected a partial reorganization of the volun- 
teer forces in the Walla Walla valley. On the 
return of Governor Stevens, who arrived in 
camp December 20, he expressed himself as 
highly gratified by the assistance rendered us 
by the Oregon trooops. During the ten days he 
remained in the Walla Walla valley, a com- 
pany of home-guards, composed of French 
Canadians, was formed and officered by Sidney 
E. Ford, captain, Green McCafferty, first lieu- 
tenant. It was decided, after discussion with 
the Oregon volunteers, to intrench Walla Walla 
and hold the same until the regular trooops 
were prepared to prosecute another campaign. 

Similar means of defense were provided for the 
Spokane and Colville. 

Before his return to Olympia Governor 
Stevens expressed his appreciation of the serv- 
ices of sixty-nine Nez Perce volunteers in a 
substantial manner. He directed that they be 
cordially thanked, mustered out of service and 
their muster rolls forwarded to Olympia for 
future payment. No one can gainsay this 
judicious measure, for it was of -the utmost im- 
portance to retain the friendship of any tribe of 
Indians disposed to be at all friendly toward the 
whites. In return for the generous treatment 
by Governor Stevens the Nez Perces coven- 
anted to furnish horses with which to mount 
the Oregon volunteers. 

The return of Governor Stevens and Kelly, 
the one to Olympia, the other to Oregon City, 
was marked in each instance by a series of pub- 
lic ovations from the people. January 19, 1856, 
the governor was received with a salute of 
thirty-eight guns ; Kelly was given a public 
banquet and escorted to the hall, an honor 
worthily bestowed on one who, without doubt, 
had prevented a dangerous coalition between 
the Indians of Northern Washington and 
Southern Oregon. But the praiseworthy 
efforts of Oregon were not to cease at this point. 
A proclamation was issued by Governor Curry 
on January 6, 1856, asking for five companies 
to be recruited in Yamhill, Polk, Clackamas, 
Marion and Linn counties, supplemented by 
forty men to round out the skeltonized company 
of scouts under Captain Conoyer. These troops 
arrived at Walla Walla about March 1. 

Nine days later the campaign was opened by 
Colonel Cornelius who started with six hundred 
men. The plan was to proceed along the Snake 
and Columbia rivers to the Palouse and Ya- 
kima; thence to Priest's Rapids and down the 
east bank of the Columbia to the mouth of the 
Yakima. During this march a few Indians 
were found, but no heavy engagement followed, 
and the command reached the Yakima March 
30. Here ominous reports were received. Be- 



tween the two cascades of the Columbia were 
a number of settlements. These had been at- 
tacked by hostile Indians. 

One blunder of General Wool's, to which 
attention has been called, was made at this junc- 
ture. On his arrival from California he had 
found at Vancouver three companies of in- 
fantry. He ordered two of these to repair to 
Fort Steilacoom. The territory of the hostile 
Klikitats and Yakimas adjoined a portage be- 
tween the cascades, on which portage a large 
quantity of government stores was exposed. 
This was a strong inducement to the Indians to 
attack the point, and it should have been heav- 
ily guarded. On the contrary the company at 
the Cascades, on March 24, was sent away, 
with the exception of eight men under com- 
mand of Sergeant Matthew Kelly. The latter 
was a member of the 4th infantry. The upper 
and lower ends of the portage were connected 
by a wagon road. The stream above the port- 
age was named Rock Creek, on which was a 
saw mill. In this vicinity were a number of 
families and the trading post of Bradford & 
Company. An island in the river was con- 
nected with the mainland by a bridge. The first 
steamer to run on the Columbia, trading be- 
tween The Dalles and the Cascades, was the 
Mary. This craft was at her landing near Rock 
Creek. The block-house wasi located about 
midway between the two cascades and near it 
lived the families of George Griswold and W. 
K. Kilborn. 

General Wool, after giving his orders, 
which resulted so disastrously, had returned to 
California. The force of Colonel Wright had 
moved from The Dalles ; his rear left un- 
guarded. At the upper settlement of the Cas- 
cades, on the morning of March 26. a force of 
Klikitats and Yakimas appeared with hostile 
demonstrations. Some of the settlers had gone 
to their daily avocations, but the hour being 
early, the crew of the Mary had not reached 
the boat. The Indians who had taken their po- 
sition under cover of darkness opened the 

fight, if such an attack on almost defenseless 
settlers could be termed a fight, with a rapid 
rifle fire from the brush. One of the whites was 
shot dead and a number wounded at the first 
volley. It developed into an Indian massacre 
accompanied by all the horrid features inci- 
dental to such scenes, and those who fell vic- 
tims to rifle balls were immediately toma- 
hawked and scalped. Among the first to fall 
was the family of B. W. Brown. Himself, 
wife, a young boy and his sister, eighteen years 
of age, were slain and thrown into the river. 

Bradford & Company's store, a log struc- 
ture, appeared to be the only place of refuge, 
and to this fled the workmen on the bridge and 
a number of settlers. Then began the memor- 
able siege of the Cascades. Of the forty people 
gathered in the store building eighteen were 
able to make a defensive showing, and armed 
with nine government rifles which, with some 
ammunition, had been left of the store to be for- 
warded to Vancouver, they replied to the fire of 
the enemy to the best of their ability. All ad- 
vantages of position were with the hostiles. 
They were concealed on higher ground and, ap- 
parently, had the settlers at their mercy. It was 
in the first onslaught of this savage attack that 
James Sinclair, one of the Hudson's Bay Com- 
pany's agents, was killed. He was shot through 
an open door in a manner similar to the assas- 
sination of Lieutenant Slaughter. 

Providentially the steamer Mary was not 
captured. An attack was made upon the boat 
and the fireman, James Linsay, shot through the 
shi iiiMer. A negro cook, having been wounded, 
leaped into the stream and was drowned. One 
Indian was shot and killed by the engineer. 
Buskminister. and John Chance, son of the 
steward, killed another hostile. To effect the 
escape of the boat it became necessary for Har- 
din Chenoweth. the pilot, to manipulate the 
wheel while lying prone on the floor of the pilot 
house. The families of Sheppard and Vander- 
pool ventured from the shore in skiffs, and were 
picked up in midstream. The gallant little 



Mary was then off up the river for succor. Sev- 
eral fatalities afterward occurred 301005 the 
settlers and a number of hairbreadth escapes 
are recorded. The Indians fired the mill and 
lumber yards and tried desperately to burn the 
log store. The absence of water was added to 
the elements of horror surrounding the be- 
seiged settlers. Within the store one man was 
dead. Sinclair, and four others severely 
wounded. A few dozen bottles of ale and whis- 
key comprised the liquids available for thirty- 
nine people, the greater number being women 
and children. 

In this dire emergency justice demands that 
credit be given to a Spokane Indian in the party 
who risked his life to procure water from the 
stream. At first he succeeded in getting water 
only sufficient for the wounded, but the suc- 
ceeding day he was enabled to fill two barrels 
and convey them inside the store. Meanwhile 
the imprisoned settlers were harassed by fears 
for the safety of the Mary. The capture of this 
boat meant utter failure to receive reinforce- 
ments and relief. 

The attack on the block-house below Brad- 
ford & Company's store was simultaneous with 
the assault above. The garrison comprised nine 
persons, five of whom only were inside the 
structure at the time of the unexpected attack. 
The Indians had massed themselves on an ad- 
jacent hill. One of the garrison who had been 
caught outside the block-house was shot 
through the hip, but managed to crawl to the 
door, where he was admitted. Cannon was 
brought to bear on the enemy, and soon 
afterward the neighboring settlers came 
running to the rude fort for protec- 
tion. A number of them were killed, but such 
as reached the fort alive were taken inside. Dur- 
ing four hours a heavy fire was kept up by both 
sides, and an attempt to fire the block-house at 
night was repulsed. The Indians prowled about 
with horrid yells, and did what damage they 
could do to surrounding property. Some pro- 
visions were procured on the 27th from an ad- 

jacent house by three soldiers. The congres- 
sional report of "Indian Hostilities in Oregon 
and Washington Territories," 11-12, gives the 
names of the plucky garrison of this block- 
house. They were M. Kelly, Frederick Beman, 
Owen McManus, Lawrence Rooney (killed in 
the first attack), Smiley, Houser, Williams, 
Roach and Sheridan. On the second day of the 
fight the latter four went out and returned 
with the dead and wounded. 

An attack on the Lower Cascades did not 
result in loss of lives. Many of the settlers 
were warned of the assault on the block-house 
by a half-breed boy, who informed W. K. Kil- 
born and urged him to leave the neighborhood. 
Kilborn owned a Columbia river freight boat, 
and by means of this craft he saved the lives of 
his own family and those of several others. Ar- 
riving at Vancouver Kilborn apprised the resi- 
dents of that place of the outbreak. This news 
threw the people into consternation, and they 
expected momentarily to be attacked. The dif- 
ficult problem presented was to send reinforce- 
ments to the Cascades and retain, at the same 
time, sufficient force to protect Vancouver. To 
the Hudson's Bay Company's fort, for greater 
safety, Colonel Morris removed the women and 
children of the garrison. In his "History of 
Washington, Idaho and Montana," Hubert 
Howe Bancroft states that Coloneil Morris 
"refused arms to the captain of the volunteer 
home guards in obedience to the orders of 
General Wool." Mr. Bancroft says further : 

"I take this statement from a correspondent 
of the Olympia Pioneer and Democrat of April 
25, 1856, who says that Kelly, of the volun- 
teers, went to the officer in command at that 
post and requested to be furnished with arms, as 
all the arms in the country had gone to furnish 
a company in the field — Captain Maxon's. 'He 
was insulted — told to mind his own business.' 
A few days later a consignment of arms from 
the east arrived, for the use of the territory, 
and the settlers were furnished from that 



If such was the order of General Wool it 
certainly exhibits a marked degree of hostility 
toward the volunteers of Washington and Ore- 
gon, and unpleasantly emphasized one more 
blunder on the part of the veteran of the Mexi- 
can war. It will be noted in another portion of 
this chapter that the brunt of the fighting in the 
Various Indian outbreaks fell upon volunteers. 
The efforts of the regulars were purely sup- 
plementary and were not conducted with the 
success worthy of the most ordinary tactician. 

Lieutenant Philip Sheridan, of whom we 
now hear for the first time in connection with 
military movements, on the morning of the 27th 
left on the steamer Belle for the Cascades. With 
him were a small detachment of one company 
assigned by General Wool for the protection of 
Vancouver. Fugitives were met, in the river; 
some of them on a schooner, others in a 
batteau. The men among these settlers, flying 
for their lives, immediately volunteered to re- 
turn and participate in the punishment of the 
hostiles, an exhibition of manliness which fully 
illustrates the spirit which invariably animated 
the Washington and Oregon volunteers, despite 
the severe and unwarranted strictures of Gen- 
eral Wool. A reconnoitre was made by Sheri- 
dan on arriving at the lower end of the portage, 
and the condition of affairs at the Cascades and 
the block-house was gleaned from some Cas- 
cade Indians. On the Washington side of the 
Columbia Sheridan landed his men ; the boat 
being sent back for more ammunition to Van- 
couver. Two of Sheridan's men were shot 
down while effecting a landing. Relief of the 
block-house was not effected immediately as 
the party was unable to advance during the day. 

On the steamer Fashion an >ther relief party 
was enroute from Portland. Thirty men had 
been recruited by Benjamin Stark and H. P. 
Dennison on the 26th. and this number was in- 
creased by other volunteers from Vancouver. 
It was midnight, the 26th, that Colonel Wrighl 
received news of the attack on the Cascades. 
He had removed from The Dalles with his 

troops to Five-Mile Creek, where he was en- 
camped. With two hundred and fifty men he 
went back to The Dalles, boarded the steamers 
Mary and Wasco, and reached the Cascades on 
the morning of the 28th. At the latter place 
it was the belief of the garrison that the Mary 
had been captured by the Indians. With only 
four rounds of ammunition left, and in ignor- 
ance of the arrival of Sheridan, the settlers in 
their desperation had determined to board a 
government flat-boat and go over the falls 
rather than fall into the hands of the Indians. 
The pleasure with which they caught sight of 
the Mary and Wasco rounding the bend of the 
river can be better imagined than described. 
With the timely arival of these troops the In- 
dians disappeared. Under command of Colonel 
Steptoe two companies of the 9th infantry, a 
detachment of dragoons and the 3rd artillery 
advanced to the block-house and from this point 
to the landing below. Lieutenant Sheridan's 
command coming up at the same time alarmed 
the Indians and they vanished with remarkable 
celerity. Colonel Steptoe lost one soldier and 
one hostile was killed. Subsequently nine In- 
dians who were identified as having engaged 
in the massacre at the Cascades were captured 
and executed. 

It was the opinion of Governor Stevens, 
formed after his return to Olympia, that Indian 
hostilities in the immediate future were to be 
confined to the Yakima country and Walla 
Walla valley. January 21, 1856, in a special 
message addressed to the legislative assembly, 
he dwelt with great earnestness on the desirabil- 
ity of acquiring title to the country unincum- 
bered by Indian claims. This had been the mo- 
tive of his recent trip to the country of the Nez 
Perces, Coeur d'Alenes and other tribes far to 
the eastward of the Cascade range. He said 
that nearly all the different tribes whom he had 
interviewed had been, apparently, quite willing 
to concede this point. But the governor added 
that he had been deceived in this respect, and 
that it would now be necessarv to send soldiers 

4 6 


from the Sound into the Indian country east of 
the Cascades. Furthermore he was opposed to 
treaties and favored extermination. 

In this conclusion Governor Stevens was, 
as events subsequently proved, greatly de- 
ceived. So far from confining their depreda- 
tions to the Walla Walla valley the Indians 
were even then making preparations to raid the 
coast of the Sound. Althogh the ensuing war 
was, for a period, confined to the country north 
of the Steilacoom, terror ran riot in other iso- 
lated and unprotected localities. Many mur- 
ders were committed and a great deal of valu- 
able property destroyed by the remorseless sav- 
ages. Then it was that Governor Stevens re- 
turned to Olympia and ordered a portion of 
the southern battalion to the Sound country, 
During the spring of 1856 a decisive engage- 
ment with the Indians was had at White river, 
resulting in the complete rout of the savages, 
although they outnumbered the whites two to 
one. Governor Stevens proclaimed martial 
law. Fighting occurred on John Day river and 
in June, 1856, Major Layton captured thirty- 
four warriors. A spirited engagement between 
the Indians and Colonel Shaw took place on the 
Grand Rond, but following this the hostiles 
broke up into small bands, but sufficiently ag- 
gressive to create considerable activity among 
the troops. One of the most effective methods 
adopted to dishearten the enemy was that of 
stopping supplies and capturing the Indians' 
horses in various raids. Some of the savages 
were neutral; nearly all of them needy; and 
during a vigorous march through the country 
overtures made by the United States were, in a 
large number of cases, accepted. Of the 
Wasco, Des Chutes, Tyghe and John Day 
tribes, nine hundred and twenty-three surren- 
dered, and four hundred of the more truculent 
Yakimas and Klikitats surrendered to Colonel 
Wright. Following this they received gov- 
ernment aid. 

While these scenes were being enacted on 
the Sound it had been impossible for Governor 

Stevens to deploy troops east of the Cascade 
range. Of this fact the Indians in that country 
took advantage. It required the best diplomatic 
efforts of Lieutenant-Colonel Graig to hold the 
Nez Perces and Spokanes to their allegiance, 
and finally, July 24, Captain Robie informed 
Colonel Shaw that the Nez Perces had become 
recalcitrant, declared hostile intentions and re- 
fused all offers of government supplies. It was 
at this annoying juncture of affairs that Gov- 
ernor Stevens decided to go to Walla Walla 
and hold a council. He found conditions de- 
cidedly worse than had been reported. Al- 
though Colonel Wright had been pressed to 
join the council he declined, urging that it 
would be better to establish at Walla Walla a 
strong military post with Stepoe in command. 

This council was not crowned with the 
most satisfactory results. The Cayuses, Des 
Chutes and Tyghes, although they arrived in 
the vicinity of the meeting place, were disposed 
to be sullen and unfriendly. They refused to 
pay a visit to Governor Stevens, exhibited signs 
of hostility by firing the grass and otherwise 
gave evidence of malevolence. Kamiakin and 
Owhi, Yakimas and Oualchin. of the Cceur 
d'Alenes, also refused to attend and passed their 
time sowing seeds of dissension whenever and 
wherever opportunity offered. On the nth of 
September the council opened and closed dis- 
mally on the 17th. It became necessary for 
Governor Stevens to remove to the immediate 
vicinity of Steptoe's camp through fear of vio- 
lence from the Indians. No pipe of peace was 
smoked and no satisfactory results achieved. 
The Indians demanded to be left in peaceful 
possession of all the country claimed by them 
as "domains," and declared most emphatically 
that no other terms would be accepted. It was 
with no little difficulty that Governor Stevens 
succeeeded in getting out of the country alive. 
His train was attacked on its way back to The 
Dalles and two of the escort killed. Following 
this humiliating repulse of the governor, and 
after his return to the Sound, Colonel Wrigfht 



marched to Walla Walla and ordered all the 
chiefs to meet him in council. It was, evident- 
ly, the intention of Wright to adopt drastic 
measures, but few Indians attended the coun- 
cil, and, like the preceding one, it bore no 
fruit. Those who came said, sullenly, that they 
were opposed to confirmation of the Walla 
Walla treaty. Troops were at once thrown 
into the various posts, including Mill Creek, 
Fort Dalles and the Cascades settlement, and 
preparations made to secure all from invasion 
during the approaching winter. 

Throughout this summer and while at- 
tempts were being made to pacify the Indians 
east of the Cascade range, hostilities continued 
on the Sound. The Puyallups and Nisquallies, 
at a council held at Fox Island, August 4th, 
convinced Governor Stevens that an injustice 
had been done them through the limitations of 
their reservation. An enlargement was recom- 
mended by the governor, and a resurvey or- 
dered, which absorbed thirteen donation claims. 
Subsequently congress appropriated $5,000 to- 
ward improvements. 

The story of the capture and execution of 
Leschi is, perhaps, one of the most sensational 
Indian episodes in the career of Governor Ste- 
vens. Leschi, together with Nelson, Stahi, 
Quiemuth and the younger Kitsap, had been 
ringleaders in the attack on the Decatur, in the 
Sound, and now Governor Stevens desired to 
try them for murder. These Indians had at- 
tended the council with Colonel Wright, in the 
Yakima country, and Wright had paroled them. 
At that period an attempt was being made to 
quiet the Indians east of the Cascade range. 
In the opinion of Wright, of whom these five 
savages had been demanded, it would be unwise 
at this juncture to give them over to certain ex- 
ecution, but the governor was insistent in his 
demands, and again made requisition for the 
hostiles. To this demand nearly all the army 
officers were opposed, believing the policy to be 

In November Leschi was arrested. Slug- 

gia and Elikukah, two of his own people, be- 
trayed him into the hands of the whites. At 
that period Leschi was an outcast and, practi- 
cally, outlawed by both Yakimas and whites. 
The traitorous Sluggia and Elikukah found him 
and handed him over to Sydney S. Ford who 
forwarded him on to Olympia. Leschi was 
now to stand trial for the killing of A. B. 
Moses. At the first trial, November 14, the 
jury failed to agree. March 18, 1857, a sec- 
ond trial was had, resulting in conviction 
June 10 was the day set for his execution. 
The attorneys engaged for Leschi's defense 
appealed the case to the supreme court, and this 
appeal served as a stay of proceedings and de- 
ferred execution beyond the day assigned. 
However, the verdict of the lower court was 
sustained and January 22, 1858, was set as the 
day for the hanging of Leschi. McMullin, 
who had succeeded Stevens, was now governor 
of Washington. Friends of Leschi appealed to 
him for pardon ; seven hundred settlers vigor- 
ously protested. The execution was to be at 
Steilacoom and on the day set there was a large 
audience. This time, however, the death pen- 
alty was delayed by friends of the condemned 
by a most peculiar legal manipulation. Shortly 
before the time for the execution the sheriff and 
his deputy were placed under arrest by a Uni- 
ted States marshal. The charge against the 
prisoners was that of selling liquor to Indians. 
In vain an attempt was made to reach the 
i sheriff and secure the death warrant, without 
which it would be impossible to strangle Leschi 
legally. But that officer was retained in close 
custody until the period set for Leschi's hang- 
ing had passed. The "United States marshall" 
in these proceedings was Lieutenant McKibben, 
stationed at Fort Steilacoom, who had been ap- 
pointed for that express purpose. All in all 
this coup was in the nature of a ruse on the 
part of the regular army. l>et\veen whom and 
the citizens of the territory there was at all 
times considerable friction. 

Indignation at this perversion of justice and 


palpable miscarriage of law ran high among the 
people. Public meetings of protest were held 
and the legislature appealed to. This body pro- 
ceeded to adjust matters in a most strenuous 
manner, repealing certain laws and enacting 
new ones until the legal coils around Leschi 
were deemed sufficiently strong to insure his 
punishment. Again the prisoner was tried and, 
although his counsel demurred to the jurisdic- 
tion of the court, he was overruled and Febru- 
ary 19, 1858, the Indian who had so success- 
fully fought off the hounds of law was hanged. 
It is a matter of historical record that few of 
the more active Indian participants in the vari- 
ous outbreaks on the Sound escaped. Three 
of them were assassinated by white men in re- 
venge for the murder of friends ; a number 
were hanged at Fort Steilacoom; one of his 
own people killed Kitsap in June, 1857, on 
Muckleshoot prairie, and Leschi's friends re- 
venged themselves by taking the life of the 
treacherous Sluggia. Comparative peace was 
restored to the Sound country, yet the horrors 
of the outbreak were long remembered. To 
the Puyallup and upper White River valley 
many of the settlers did not return until 1859. 

Patkanim, the horrible blood-hunter, who, 
for American gold, trafficked in human heads 
as nonchalantly as he would deal in wolf-pelts, 
did not long survive the war. The following 
estimation of this barbarian is given by the 
Pioneer and Democrat under date, January 21, 
1859 : "It is just as well that he is out of the 
way, as, in spite of everything, we never be- 
lieved in his friendship." 

Indemnity claims following Indian troubles 
on the Sound amounted to some twelve thous- 
and dollars, which sum was appropriated by 
congress. But the actual expenses incidental 
to the conduct of this war, a war in behalf of 
the peace and prosperity of Washington and 
Oregon, approached quite nearly six million 
dollars, or exactly $5,931,424.78, divided as 
follows: Washington, $1,481,475.45; Ore- 
gon. $4,449,949.33. Payment of $1,409,- 

604.53 was made to the Oregon, and $519,- 
593.06 to the Washington volunteers. At that 
period the eminent editor and publicist, Horace 
Greeley, had not advised the young men of the 
country to "go west," and he was unkind 
enough to say, in the New York Tribune: 
"The enterprising territories of Oregon and 
Washington have handed into congress their 
little bill for scalping Indians and violating 
squaws two years ago. After these (the 
French spoilation claims) shall have been paid 
half a century or so, we trust the claims of the 
Oregon and Washington Indian fighters will 
come up for consideration." 

The scene of Indian troubles now removes 
itself to a point in eastern Washington more 
immediately identified with the limitations of 
this history. In April, 1858, the mines in the 
vicinity of Colville had become attractive to 
"stampeders," and two white men pushing on 
into the "gold country," had been slain by a 
party of savages belonging to the Palouse tribe. 
A petition for troops, signed by forty residents 
of Colville, had been forwarded to Colonel 
Steptoe. The latter informed General Clarke 
of the fact and advised that an expedition be 
sent north to punish the savages and protect 
the settlers. Adding to the crime of murder 
the Palouses had gone down into the Walla 
Walla country and driven away a band of gov- 
ernment cattle. The Palouses who, it was 
claimed, had killed the Colville miners, were 
found by Colonel Steptoe at the Alpowah. 
Steptoe had left Walla Walla May 6, 1858, 
with one hundred and thirty dragoons en route 
for the country of the Nez Perces. On ap- 
proach of the whites the Indians fled. Because 
Steptoe placed no confidence in a report he re- 
ceived on the 1 6th that the Spokanes were 
making arrangements to attack him he, unfor- 
tunately, found himself surrounded with a force 
of six hundred miscellaneous "braves," includ- 
ing warriors of the Cceur d'Alenes, Palouses, 
Spokanes and Nez Perces. They were attired 
in war paint and had chosen a position where 



from three sides they could assault Steptoe's 
detachment of troops. During a short parley 
the Spokanes confirmed the reports that they 
were on the war path, and announced that they 
purposed to do considerable fighting before the 
whites would be permitted to ford the Spokane 
river. Doubtless the Indians were emboldened 
in their conduct by the fact that these dragoons 
of Steptoe's were without other means of de- 
fense than their small arms. For this inexcus- 
able blunder no reason has ever been assigned, 
and none could be that would, at this day, be 
acceptable to a military man. The savages 
rode along side by side with the troops and 
hurled at them insults and cries of defiance. 
At nightfall the chiefs demanded to know the 
reason for this invasion of their country. 

No explanation was made that in any way 
pacified the chiefs, although Steptoe said that, 
having learned of trouble near Colville he was 
on his way thither to inquire into the cause of 
it. The chiefs pointed out the fact that he was 
not on the Colville road at all. Unfortunately 
he had been led astray by a guide. Timothy, by 
name. Without suitable arms, and otherwise 
unprepared for fighting, Steptoe decided to re- 
treat. He began his return to the Palouse on 
the 17th. A few miles away a party of Cceeur 
d'Alenes were gathering roots, and to them the 
Spokanes appealed asking their assistance in 
bagging an enemy whom the Spokanes. par- 
ticularly, did not intend to allow to leave the 
country alive. A Cceeur d'Alene chief, named 
Vincent, attempted to hold a parley with Colo- 
nel Steptoe, but firing was commenced by the 
Palouses and the skirmish soon resolved itself 
into a general engagement. Encumbered by a 
pack train, which it was necessary to guard; 
passing over ground rough and most favorable 
for Indians and their mode of warfare Step- 
toe's command labored under a serious disad- 
vantage, and were in no condition for any 
effective fighting. The savages charged a com- 
pany commanded by Lieutenant Gregg, but 
the prompt support given by Lieutenant I las 

ton repulsed the Indians and they suffered se- 
verely at this point. Twelve of them were 
killed, including Jacques Zachary, brother-in- 
law of Vincent; lames and Victor, the latter 
one of the powerful chiefs of the Coeur d" 
Alenes. Later on, while attemping to reach a 
stream of water. Lieutenant William Gaston 
and Captain Oliver H. P. Taylor were killed. 
The result of this "Battle of Steptoe Butte," 
fought at a place seven miles from the present 
town of Colfax, must be. impartially, recorded 
as a defeat for the whites. On the morning 1 >f 
the 19th the retreating troops reached Snake 
river and from this point continued on to Walla 

The animosity of the Indians exhibited in 
this disaster has been variously explained. The 
most plausible reason for it lies, probably, in the 
fact that the Creur d' Alenes bad been told of 
the proposed government road through their 
country, from the Missouri to the Columbia 
river. This was subsequently completed by 
Lieutenant Mullan. from Fort Walla Walla 
to Fort Benton. 

In June, 1858, active preparations were 
made to avenge the defeat of Steptoe. Quite a 
large body of troops were mobilized at Fort 
Walla Walla, some of them being brought 
from San Francisco and other California 
points ; some from the Sound. Here for a 
period of time they were industriously drilled 
in the tactics of Indian warfare. This was to 
be an expedition against the Cceur d' Alenes 
and Spokanes; another was being put in motion 
against the Yakimas. The campaign plan was 
to have Major Garnett move toward Colville 
with three hundred men, co operate with Cap- 
tain Keyes. and "round up" the tribes of In- 
dians. Major Garnett was to leave August 
15; Captain Keyes left Walla Walla on the 
7th. Fort Taylor was built at the junction of 
Tucannon and Snake rivers, which, with its 
six hundred and forty acre- of reservation, was 
intended as a permanent post. Here Colonel 
Wright arrived August iN. The expedition 



consisted of one hundred and ninety dragoons, 
four hundred artillery and ninety infantry, the 
latter armed with Sharpe's rifles. Seventy-six 
miles north from Fort Taylor Indians appeared 
on the hills and fired on a company of Nez 
Perces Indians who had been enlisted as volun- 
teers by the whites and uniformed as regular 
soldiers. Soon afterward the hostiles retreated. 
They reappeared on September i, in force, 
and one of the most important battles of this 
particular Indian war was fought. The victory 
was plainly with the whites, the savages losing 
twenty killed and many wounded. 

But the Indians were desperate. Colonel 

Wright resumed his march September 5th, and 
was again attacked by the enemy. Shells from 
the howitzers burst among them ; the fire of the 
whites was deadly, and defeat of the Indians 
complete. On September 10 the Cceur 
d'Alenes surrrendered, and the redoubtable 
Vincent was not the least active in inducing 
this submission. They had attempted to stay 
the progress of civilization through their wil- 
derness and civilization would not be stayed. 
Whatever of home or country they once had 
was gone. Henceforth enterprise, industry and 
intelligence were to supplant barbaric ignorance 
and Indian squalor. 



''The West" of the days of the Revolution 
was embraced within the limits of the Atlantic 
coast and longitude 89 degrees west from 
Greenwich, or 12 degrees west from Washing- 
ton, D. C. Compare this narrow strip of terri- 
tory with the magnitude of the Northwest of to- 
day and remember, also, that the geographical 
center of the United States, from east to west, 
lies at a point in the Pacific Ocean six hundred 
miles west from San Francisco, California. 
From the latter fact we are enabled to obtain a 
fair comprehension of the extreme western ex- 
tension of our Alaskan possessions. 

States have increased, territorially, since the 
surrender of Lord Cornwallis. The "midgets," 
smaller than many western counties, lie along 
the Atlantic shore. Washington, the "Ever- 
green State," of whose stirring and romantic 
past this history treats, is more than three- 
fourths the size of New York and Pennsyl- 
vania, combined, or more than equalling the 
size of all Kentucky, Connecticut, Massachu- 

setts, Delaware and Maryland. Its area is 
69,994 square miles. Its entire western boun- 
dary is washed by the waves of the Pacific; the 
great "ill-tasting lake" of the Indians; discov- 
ered by Balboa and once claimed in all its sub- 
lime immensity by Spain as her own national 
property. From British Columbia it is sep- 
arated by the Strait of Juan de Fuca, which 
forms its boundary until it reaches a point where 
the 49th degree of north latitude crosses the 
strait. Thence the northern boundary line of 
Washington runs east on the 49th parallel two 
hundred and fifty miles nearly to the 1 1 7th de- 
gree of longitude west from Greenwich, and 
thence south to the 46th degree of latitude; 
thence west on that degree until the Columbia 
river is reached, where Klickitat, Walla Walla 
and Yakima counties converge, the Columbia 
river then forming its southern boundary on to 
the coast. 

The Puget Sound Basin and the great val- 
ley of the Upper Columbia combine to greatly 



diversify the topography of Washington. Be- 
tween these two distinctively marked territor- 
ies runs the Cascade Range of mountains, north 
and south, separating "The Inland Empire" 
from "The Coast," or variably, "The Sound 
Country." This mountain range is, in its en- 
tirety, one of the most imposing on the North 
American continent. Creeping upward from 
the far south, for hundreds of miles but a suc- 
cession of low hills, or chain of buttes, the range 
grows bolder in contour and height until to the 
far north Mount St. Elias accentuates its most 
imposing altitude. Volcanic, snow-capped 
cones rise to heights of fifteen and twenty 
thousand feet, and a number of the highest of 
these are within the boundaries of Washington. 

In a preceding chapter outlining the "Ore- 
gon Controversy," it was noted that in 1846, 
when the southern line of British Columbia was 
finally determined, all that remained south of 
that boundary to the 43d parallel was called 
Oregon. In 1849 a territorial government was 
granted covering all the original Oregon. It 
was then an indefinite region embracing the 
lands lying between the Rocky Mountains and 
the Pacific Ocean, and north of the 43d parallel. 
In 1 85 1 steps were taken toward dividing Ore- 
gon. All that portion north and west of the 
Columbia river was thrown into a new territory, 
supplied with a distinct territorial government. 
Ni 1 1 ipposition having appeared either from the 
Oregon legislature or from congress the con- 
summation of this division was effected in 
1853. Then Washington embraced the rather 
indefinite territory of Idaho. Oregon became a 
state in 1859. Washington, then including 
Idaho, was under territorial government, re- 
maining thus until March 3. 1863. when the 
territory of Idaho was set off by congress. The 
eastern portion of Washington, from a line 
near the 117th degree of west longitude, and 
portions of Montana, Dakota and Nebraska 
combined to form the creation of Idaho at that 

Of the first inroads of civilization, aside 

from the Hudson's Bay Company, into the ter- 
ritory of Oregon, then including Washington, 
Archibald M'Vickar writes: 

I he earliest emigration from the United States 
for the purpose of settlement in this territory was in 
[832. Three years afterward a small party went out 
by land with Nathaniel Wyeth, of the Boston Fishing 
and Trading Company under the direction of Rev. 
James Lee and David Lee, who established a mission 
settlement among the Callopoewah Indians, on the 
Willamette river. This colony afterward received some 
small accessions, and in November, 1839, Rev. James 
Lee sailed from the United States for the Columbia 
river with a party of fifty-four persons, among them six 
missionaries and a physician, with their families. This 
party arrived safely out, and the annual report of the 
missionary society of the Methodist Episcopal church, 
in May, 1841, presents a favorable account of their 
labors among the Indians. Some parties of young men 
had started for the Columbia from states bordering on 
the Mississippi. The whole number directly attached to 
the mission is only sixty-eight, including men, women 
and children. The first settlers along the river, accord- 
ing to Mr. Parker, who visited- the country in 1835. 
consisted of Canadian Frenchmen formerly in the em- 
ployment of the Hudson's Bay Company. 

"The Oregon Controversy," and "Tragedy 
of Whitman's Mission," preceding chapters, 
have traced in outline the more important de- 
tails of this early settlement. Western Wash- 
ington, on the coast, was the first portion of the 
torritory settled. The advantages of sea coast 
fishing and fur-trading, of course, account for 
this fact, together with its accessibility by voy- 
ages around the Horn, and proximity to the 
more fully developed settlements of California. 
The name, "Puget Sound" was much more 
familiar to eastern people and students than the 
coasts of Oregon or Washington. Thus, in a 
general way, the resources of western Wash- 
ington became gradually known to a certain 
limited number of the inhabitants of the ex- 
treme east. Concerning the various enterprises 
of these pioneers of Washington Hubert Howe 
Bancroft has pertinently said in his "History of 
Washington, Idaho and Montana:" "In the 
previous chapters I have made the reader ac- 
quainted with the earlier American residents of 


the territory north of the Columbia, and the 
methods by which they secured themselves 
homes and laid the foundation for fortunes by 
making shingles, bricks and cradling machines, 
by building mills, loading vessels with timber, 
laying out towns, establishing fisheries, explor- 
ing for gold and mining for coal. But these 
were private enterprises concerning only indi- 
viduals, or small groups of men at most, and I 
now come to consider them as a body politic, 
with relations to the government of Oregon 
and to the general government." 

The plan of this history demands that we 
pursue the same course in the treatment of our 
subject, and also to show how narrowly Wash- 
ington escaped being called "Columbia." The 
provisional government of Oregon adopted in 
1843 did not include the terrritory north of the 
Columbia river. So late as 1845, at the time of 
the Hudson's Bay Company made a compact 
with this provisional government, there existed 
no county organizations north of that river with 
the exception of Tualatin and Clackamas "dis- 
tricts," which claimed to extend northward as 
far as 54 degrees 40 minutes. But these dis- 
tricts were not peopled by American citizens, 
and not until the compact went into effect was 
there established an American settlement in the 
region of Puget Sound, and a new district 
created called Vancouver. The first judges 
were M. T. Simmons, James Douglas, and 
Charles Forrest. John R. Jackson was 

Lewis county was created December 19, 
1845. Primarily its northern limit extended to 
54 degrees, 40 minutes, or was supposed to, 
comprising territory north of the Columbia, 
and west of the Cowlitz, rivers. In 1846 it was 
represented in the legislature by W. F. Tolmie ; 
Vancouver county by Henry N. Peers, the lat- 
ter described as "a good versifier and fair leg- 
islator." He was an attache of the Hudson's 
Bay Company. The initial agitation for a new 
territory north of the Columbia was made July 
4, 1 85 1. At Olympia a number of American 

citizens of the Sound had assembled to appro- 
priately celebrate the day. In his oration Air. 
Chapman alluded eloquently to "the future 
state of Columbia." His remarks awakened an 
enthusiastic response, and the same evening a 
meeting was held, the avowed object of which 
was to procure a separate territorial govern- 
ment. Of this meeting Clanrick Crosby was 
chairman; A. M. Poe, secretary. H. A. Golds- 
borough, I. N. Eby, J. B. Chapman and C. 
Crosby addressed the audience. Their speeches 
were followed by the appointment of a commit- 
tee on resolutions which recommended that a 
meeting to be held August 29 at Cowlitz land- 
ing, the object of which "to take into care- 
ful consideration the present peculiar position 
of the northern portion of the territory, its 
wants, the best methods of supplying those 
wants, and the propriety of an early appeal to 
congress for a division of the territory." The 
convention thus called was attended by twenty- 
six delegates. It adjourned the following day, 
having defined the limits of twelve intended 
counties, requested the benefits of donation 
lands, petitioned congress for a plank road 
from the Sound to the mouth of the Cowlitz, 
and a territorial road from some point on 
Puget Sound to Walla Walla, and otherwise 
memorializing congress on the important sub- 
ject of division. It was the expressed inten- 
tion of the delegates to move, should their re- 
quest be denied, for immediate admission into 
the union as a state. It is needless to say that 
enthusiasm ran high at this meeting on the 
Cowlitz. At that period the population of 
the territory under consideration was less than 
four thousand souls. 

Nothing tangible resulted from this meet- 
ing, although The Columbian, a weekly news- 
paper, published at Olympia, continued the agi- 
tation for territorial division and independent 
organization. November 25, 1852, a conven- 
tion was held at Monticello, on the Cowlitz 
river, at that period an enterprising munici- 
pality of Northern Oregon. Congress was 



again memorialized and the document for- 
warded to Hon. Joseph Lane, territorial dele- 
gate. This memorial contains so concise and 
graphic a description of early territorial condi- 
tions that it is deemed best to reproduce it in 
full : 

To the Honorable, the Senate and House of Repre- 
sentatives of the United States, in Congress assembled : 

The memorial of the undersigned, delegates of the 
citizens of Northern Oregon, in convention assembled, 
respectfully represent to your honorable bodies that it 
is the earnest desire of your petitioners, and of said 
citizens, that all that portion of Oregon Territory lying 
north of the Columbia river and west of the great 
northern branch thereof, should be organized as a 
saparate territory under the name and style of the Terri- 
tory of Columbia, urging these reasons : In support of 
the prayer of this memorial, your petitioners would 
respectfully urge the following, among many other 
reasons, viz. : 

First : That the present Territory of Oregon con- 
tains an area of 341,000 square miles, and is entirely too 
large an extent of territory to be embraced within the 
limits of one state. 

■ Second: That said territory possesses a sea coast 
of 650 miles in extent, the country east of the Cascade 
mountains is bound to that on the coast by the strongest 
ties of interest; and, inasmuch as your petitioners be- 
lieve that the territory must inevitably be divided at 
no very distant day, they are of the opinion that it would 
be unjust that one state should possess so large a sea- 
board to the exclusion of that of the interior. 

Third: The territory embraced within the bound- 
aries of the proposed "Territory of Columbia," contain- 
ing an area of about 32,000 square miles, is, in the 
opinion of your petitioners, about a fair and just medium 
of territorial extent to form one state. 

Fourth : The proposed "Territory of Columbia" 
presents natural resources capable of supporting a popu- 
lation at least as large as that of any state in the union 
possessing an equal extent of territory. 

Fifth : Those portions of Oregon Territory lying 
respectively north and south of the Columbia river must, 
from their geographical position, always rival each 
other in commercial advantages, and their respective 
citizens must, as they now and always have been, be 
actuated by a spirit of opposition. 

Sixth : The southern part of Oregon Territory, hav- 
ing a majority of voters, have controlled the territorial 
legislature, and benefit from the appropriations made 
by congress for said territory, which were subject to the 
disposition of said legislature. 

Seventh : The seat of the territorial legislature is 
now situated, by the nearest practicable route, at a dis- 
tance of four hundred miles from a large portion of the 
citizens of Northern Oregon. 

/ ighth: A great part of the legislation suitable to 
the south, 1-. for local reasons, opposed to the interests 
of tin north, inasmuch as the south has a majority of 
vote>. and representatives are always bound to reflect 
the will of their constituents, your petitioners can enter- 
tain no reasonable hopes that their legislative wants will 
ever be properly regarded under the present organiza- 

Ninth : Exjprience has. in the opinion of your 
petitioners, well established the principle that in states 
having a moderate sized territory, the wants of the 
people are more easily made known to their representa- 
tives there is less danger of a conflict between sectional 
interests, and more prompt and adequate legislation can 
always be obtained. 

In conclusion your petitioners would respectfully 
represent that Northern Oregon, with its great natural 
resources, presenting such unparalleled inducements to 
immigrants, and with its present large population, and 
rapidly increasing by immigration, is of sufficient im- 
portance, in a national point of view, to merit the foster- 
ing care of congress, and its interests are so numerous 
and so entirely distinct in their character, as to demand 
the attention of a separate and independent legislature. 

Wherefore your petitioners pray your honorable 
bodies will at an early day pass a law organizing the 
district of country above described under a territorial 
government, to be named "The Territory of Columbia." 

Done in convention assembled at the town of Monti- 
cello, Oregon Territory, this 25th day of November, 
A. D., 1852. 

G. M. McConaha, President. 
R. V. White, Secretary. 

This memorial was signed by forty-one 
other delegates. Congressional Delegate 
Joseph Lane earnestly supported the bill for 
the formation of Columbia Territory subse- 
quently introduced. February 10. 1853. the 
bill, amended by Mr. Stanton, of Kentucky, 
striking out the word "Columbia" and insert- 
ing in lieu thereof "Washington," passed the 
house by a vote of 128 to 29, and on March 2, 
without further amendment, it was passed by 
the senate. It should be taken into considera- 
tion that the bill, as passed by both houses, did 
not limit the new Territory to the boundaries 
prescribed by the memorial of the Monticello 
convention. Our national legislators took a 
broader view of the matter, and continued the 
line of partition from a point near Walla 
Walla, east along the 46th parallel to the Rocky 
Mountains. This was a far more equal di- 



vision, and included what is now the "Pan- 
handle" of Idaho, an area considerably larger 
than the present state of Washington. At that 
period, according to a census taken in 1853 by 
Marshal Anderson, the counties in the new 
Washington Territory contained the following 
population: Clarke, 1,134, Island, 195, Lewis, 
616, Jefferson, 189, King, 170, Pierce, 513, 
Thurston, 996, Pacific, 152; total, 3,965. Of 
these 1,682 were voters. 

The first Territorial governor of Washing- 
ton was Isaac Ingalls Stevens, who was ap- 
pointed to this office and, also, made ex officio 
Superintendent of Indian Affairs of Washing- 
ton Territory, and by the secretary of war was 
given charge of an exploration and survey of a 
railroad from the headwaters of the Mississippi 
to Puget Sound. In a communication to A. A. 
Denny, dated at Washington, D. C, April 18, 
1853, Governor Stevens said: 

"Herewith you will find a printed copy of 
my instructions from the secretary of war, by 
which you will see an exploration and survey 
of a railroad from the headwaters of the Mis- 
sissippi to Puget Sound is entrusted to me 
* * * A military road is to be built from 
Fort Walla Walla to Puget Sound. Captain 
McClellan, an officer distinguished for his gal- 
lantry in Mexico, has command of the party 
who will make the exploration of the Cascade 
range and the construction of the military road. 
His undertaking of the task is a sure guarantee 
of its accomplishment. I expect to pierce the 
Rocky Mountains, and this road is to be done 
in time for the fall's immigration, so that an 
open line of communication between the states 
and Sound will be made this year." 

Isaac Ingalls Stevens was born in the his- 
toric and classic town of Andover, Massachu- 
setts, and educated at West Point, from which 
military institution he was graduated with hon- 
ors in 1837. For several years the young of- 
ficer was in charge of the New England coast 
fortifications. During the war with Mexico 
lie was attached to the staff of General Scott. 

Four years preceding his appointment as Ter- 
ritorial Governor of Washington he was asso- 
ciated with Professor Bache in the coast sur- 
vey. It will be seen that the duties assigned to 
Governor Stevens were manifold and ardu- 
ous. Aside from the appointive office of gov- 
ernor of a young, though important Territory, 
he was to superintend the construction of a mil- 
itary road from the Sound to the Rockies ; sur- 
vey the line of what eventually became the 
great transcontinental highway, the Northern 
Pacific Railroad, and at the same time superin- 
tend the complicated affairs of the savage and 
turbulent Indian tribes between the coast and 
the Rocky Mountains. Certainly a heavy re- 
sponsibility to be placed upon the shoulders of 
one man. The sagacity and efficiency with 
which he met these heavy responsibilities have 
been recorded in preceding chapters of this 
work. It was his destiny to be called higher. 
In May, 1861, news was received at Olympia 
of the surrender by Major Anderson of Fort 
Sumter. "The Irrepressible Conflict" be- 
tween North and South had for years worn 
heavily on the patriotic spirit of Governor Stev- 
ens. He was a pro-slavery democrat, yet he 
loved his country and placed her national and 
indisoluble interests above party or purely 
sectional benefits. In reply to a speech wel- 
coming him home from his perilous expedition 
among hostile tribes of Indians he said : "I con- 
ceive my duty to be to stop disunion." These 
were brave words, for at this period the Terri- 
tory of which he was chief executive was 
thickly populated with avowed secessionists. 

Dissensions were rife in his own party. 
Assaults were made by the press upon his pa- 
triotism and even his personal character was 
assailed. He was accused of attempting a coali- 
tion with Lane and Grim for the purpose of 
forming an independent Pacific republic. Vis- 
ionary and chimerical as was this scheme; im- 
possible for one of the sterling patriotism of 
Governor Stevens to cherish for a moment, the 
charge found many professed believers among 



his opponents. With the darkening of war 
clouds Stevens, who had intended to stand for 
re-election, renounced the project and hastened 
to Washington to offer his services to the gov- 
ernment. July 31, 1 86 1, he was appointed col- 
onel of the 79th New York Infantry, and was 
among the first of the defenders of Washington 
and Arlington Heights. In March, 1862, he 
received a commission as brigadier general, and 
on July 4, was made a Major General of vol- 
unteers. Such was his rapid rise by promotion 
in the army. His death was a fitting close of a 
heroic life. At the battle of Chantilly he seized 
the flag which had fallen from the dead hand of 
a color sergeant, and was shot in the forehead, 
dying upon the field. Sudden was the revul- 
sion of feeling in Washington Territory when 
news of his death was received. The legisla- 
ture passed resolutions in his honor, and crape 
was worn by the members ten days. He died 
at forty-four years of age. In a letter touching 
upon the character of Governor Stevens, writ- 
ten by Professor Bache, of the coast-survey, 
he said : 

"He was not one who led by looking on but 
by example. As we knew him in the coast- 
survey office, so he was in every position of life. 
* * * This place he filled, and more than 
filled, for four years, with a devotion, an en- 
ergy, a knowledge not to be surpassed, and 
which left its beneficient mark upon our organ- 
ization. * * * Generous and noble in im- 
pulses, he left our office with our enthusiastic 
admiration of his character, appreciation of his 
services, and hope for his success." 

The apportionment for the first Washing- 
ton Territorial legislature was made by Gov- 
ernor Stevens soon after his arrival from the 
east. The proclamation concerning the same- 
was made November 28. 1853, designating 
January 30. 1854. as the day for election of 
legislative members. February 27 was the 
time set for the meeting of the legislature and 
Olympia the place. Nine members composed 
the original council : Clarke county. D. F. 

Bradford, William H. Tappan : Lewis and 
Pacific counties, Seth Catlin, Henry Miles; 
Thurston county. D. R. Bigelow, B. F. Yantis; 
Pierce and King counties. Lafayette Balch, G. 
N. McConaha; Jefferson and Island counties, 
William P. Sayward. 

Twice this number of members composed 
the house, viz : Clarke county, F. A. Chenow- 
eth, A. J. Bolan, Henry R. Crosbie, A. C. 
Lewis and John D. Biles ; Thurston county, C. 
H. Hall, L. D. Durgin, David Shelton and Ira 
Ward, Jr.; Island county. Samuel D. Howe; 
Pierce county, H. C. Moseley, L. F. Thompson 
and John M. Chapman ; Jefferson county, Dan- 
iel F. Brownfield; King county, A. A. Denny; 
Lewis county, H. D. Huntington and John R. 
Jackson ; Pacific county, John Scudder. 

In this legislative membership we have a 
fair roster of the pioneer statesmen of Wash- 
ington Territory. The most of them have been 
stricken by the hand of death, but the work 
they did in laying the foundation of Washing- 
ton's future territorial and commonwealth im- 
provement can never be stricken from the pages 
of history. One of these members, Hon. A. A. 
Denny, representative from King county, in a 
paper read before the Historical Society, at 
Tacoma, said : 

At the time of the Monticello convention, Thurston 
county embraced all the territory north of Lewis county 
to the British line, and the session of the Oregon legis- 
lature, just prior to the division of the territory, formed 
out of Thurston county Pierce. King. Island and Jeffer- 
son counties, making a total of eight counties in Wash- 
ington Territory when organized, Clarke county at that 
time extending t" the summit of the Rocky Mountains. 
The first session of the legislature formed eight new 
counties. Walla Walla was formed at this session, em- 
bracing all the territory east of the mouth of the Des 
Chutes river and running to the forty-ninth parallel on 
the north and the parallel of forty-six degrees thirty 
minutes eastward to the summit of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, and I well remember that a board of county officers 
was appointed and representation in the legislature pro- 
vided for, but when tin- succeeding legislature convened, 
no members from Walla Walla appeared, and it was 
found that no organization of the county had been made 
for want of population, and the widely scattered condi- 
tion of the few who then inhabited that vast territory. 



It will be recalled that so early as 1852 the 
impetuous members of the Monticello conven- 
tion were determined to demand admission to 
the union as a state should congress deny terri- 
torial division. But thirty-seven years were 
destined to pass before the culmination of such 
an event. And yet. during a large portion of 
the last half of this period Washington was a 
state in all but name. Her statesmen and poli- 
ticians indulged in commonwealthian struggles 
much the same as those at present exploited by 
older states in the union. In 1859-60 a cer- 
tain faction plotted for the removal of the Ter- 
ritorial capital from Olympia to Vancouver. It 
was secretely arranged by legislative manipu- 
lation to apportion Territorial institutions as 
follows : to Vancauver the capital ; to Seattle 
the university ; to Port Townsend the peniten- 
tiarv. An act to this effect passed both bodies 
of the legislature. It carried, however, two 
fatal defects; no enacting clause was inserted, 
and it violated the terms of the organic act by 
attempting a permanent location of the capital. 
Consequently the law fell to the ground of its 
own legal impotence. As in Louisiana, in 
1872, two legislatures were in session in Wash- 
ington, or rather the regular body at Olympia 
and a "rump" organizing at Vancouver. The 
supreme court's decision on the removal law- 
brought the factions again together at Olympia. 
In 1861 the corner stone of a university was 
laid at Seattle, A. A. Denny donating eight, 
and Edward Lander two, acres of land for that 
purpose. In this circumstance, also, the Ter- 
ritory of Washington assumed many of the ef- 
fects of modern statehood, through subsequent 
"mismanagement" of university funds. Truly 
a state in all but name ! 

Quite similar in point of contention for the 
capital was the strugle for the possession of the 
custom-house between Port Townsend and 
Port Angeles. In August, 1861, Victor Smith 
arrived from Washington, D. C, with creden- 
tials as collector of United States revenue. 
Possessine the confidence of the national ad- 

ministration he was accused of utilizing it to 
further an intrigue for removal of the custom- 
house. It was openly charged that he was 
speculating in Port Angeles real estate and 
working for his personal financial interests. Be- 
sides this Smith was one of the original "car- 
pet-baggers," even at that early day detested 
by the democracy in Washington Territory, 
which party was, numerically, quite powerful. 
Removal of the custom-house from Port 
Townsend to Port Angeles was recommended 
by Secretary Salmon Portland Chase, and in 
June. 1862, congress passed a bill making the 
change. A subsequent act of congress was in 
the nature of "a bill for increasing revenue by 
reservation and sale of townsites." It was at 
this point that the crux of Smith's real estate 
enterprises became apparent. Port Townsend 
citizens were wild with excitement. They ac- 
cused Smith of a defalcation of $15,000, but he 
promptly repaired to the national capital and 
showed conclusively that the alleged crime was 
nothing more than the transference of one 
fund to another. This custom-house imbroglio 
continued for some time, in the course of which 
the guns of the revenue cutter Shubrick were 
shotted and brought to bear on the town of 
Port Townsend. Finally, after many serious 
complications, involving numerous arrests and 
much ill-feeling, the custom-house was re- 
moved from Port Townsend to Port Angeles. 
George B. McClellan, afterwards general 
commanding the army of the Potomac, had re- 
ported favorably upon the change of location. 
Here the institution remained until December 
16, 1863, when the town of Port Angeles was 
washed away, causing the death of Inspector 
William B. Goodell and Deputy Collector J. 
W. Anderson. In 1865 the custom-house was 
taken back to Port Townsend, and the same 
year Victor Smith was lost in the wreck of the 
steamship Brother Jonathan, wrecked near 
Crescent City, involving the loss of three hun- 
dred lives. 

For a number of vears the residents of 



Washington had been engaged in various wars 
with Indians. Therefore it was not unusual 
that some most excellent fighting material was 
to be found among the ex-volunteers of the 
Cayuse war, Steptoe's invasion and the im- 
portant battle of White River. In May, 1861, 
news of President Lincoln's call for volunteers 
was received at Olvmpia. Henry M. McGill 
was acting-governor; Frank Matthias adju- 
tant-general. The latter appointed enrolling 
officers in each county in the Territory, at this 
period comprising twenty-two, east and west 
of the Cascades. The same summer Wright, 
now brigadier general, was placed in command 
of the department of the Pacific, and Colonel 
Albermarle Cady of the district of the Colum- 
bia. Colonel Justin Steinberger came to the 
coast in January. 1862, and enlisted four in- 
fantry companies, one each from Port Madi- 
son, Walla Walla, Port Townsend and What- 
com. From the Olvmpia Standard, of July 20, 
1861, it is learned that a company had prev- 
iously, in May, been enlisted at Port Madison, 
designated at the Union Guards, consisting of 
seventy men, officered as follows: William 
Fowler, captain; H. B. Manchester, first lieu- 
tenant ; E. D. Kromer, second lieutenant ; non- 
commissioned officers, A. J. Tuttle, Noah Falk, 
William Clendennin. Edgar Brown. S. F. 
Coombs. R. J. May. J. M. Grindon, John Tay- 
lor. The Lewis County Rangers, mounted, 
were organized in June. 1861. Henry Miles, 
captain; L. L. Dubeau, first lieutenant: S. B. 
Smith, second lieutenant. To the four com- 
panies enlisted by Colonel Steinberger four 
more were added from California, General Al- 
vord assumed command in July, and Colonel 
Steinberger went to Fort Walla Walla, where 
he relieved Colonel Cornelius, of the Oregon 
cavalry. These troops were stationed at Walla 
Walla and Fort Pickett. 

In i860 the discovery of valuable aurifer- 
ous deposits at Pierce City. Oro Fino. Oro 
Grande and other points along the Clearwater, 
in what is now Idaho, but was then included in 

Washington Territory, created a stampede 
which his seldon been equalled in the history 
of gold discoveries in the territory. At that 
period a treaty with the Nez Perces existed 
which, theoretically, estopped travel across the 
Indian country. Practically it did nothing of 
the sort. From a few hundred the number of 
miners increased to thousands. On the Colum- 
bia river lines of steamers plied between the 
western portions of the Territory to old Fort 
Walla Walla, conveying men and freight as 
near as possible to these seductive placer mines, 
where pay dirt was found averaging one hun- 
dred dollars a day to the miner. In May the 
steamer Colonel Wright came up the Columbia 
and Clearwater to within forty miles of Pierce 
City. At this landing was founded the "spas- 
modic" mining town of Slaterville. with its 
canvas saloons and rough board shanties. In 
July five thousand men were prospecting the 
country, or washing from ten to one hundred 
and fifty dollars a day from the earth. "Town 
lot" people and merchants reaped a substantial 
reward for their industry. It is stated that the 
weekly receipts of gold dust at Portland from 
the Clearwater district was $100,000. Deady's 
"History of Oregon" says : "The Colville and 
Oro Fino mines helped Portland greatly: and 
in 1861 built up the Oregon Steam Navigation 
Company. Loaded drays used to stand in line 
half a mile long, unloading at night freight to 
go in the morning, that involved a fortune." 

It was but natural that the steadily increas- 
ing tide of immigration to this district should 
materially affect the political status of the Ter- 
ritory. From west of the Cascades the pendu- 
lum of political power swung to the east : to 
the vicinity of Shoshone and Walla Walla 
counties. More judges were required east of 
the mountains. District courts were estab- 
lished at the county seats. It was. however, the 
destiny of Washington Territory to lose the 
richest portions of these mining districts. Con- 
gress passed an act. which was approved by 
President Lincoln. March 3, 1863. organizing 



the Territory of Idaho out of all such territory 
of Washington lying east of Oregon and the 
117th meridian of west longitude. The popu- 
lation of the remaining Territory of Washing- 
ton was then only 12,519. Yet in i860 it had 
been less than half this number. 

Twelve years before the admission of 
Washington into the union agitation concern- 
ing this subject was precipitated. Congres- 
sional Delegate Jacobs in December, 1877, in- 
troduced a bill for admission, and when it was 
fully realized that a constitutional convention 
was to be ordered, the old question of 1852 
sprung to the front, "Washington" or "Col- 
umbia"? June 11, 1878, the convention as- 
sembled at Walla Walla. By the constitution 
then adopted a new eastern boundary was 
marked for the proposed state, including the 
Idaho "Panhandle" and much of the mineral 
territory lost in 1863. Twenty-four days were 
passed in "concentrating" and "smelting" the 
various provisions of this document, and, al- 
though no enabling act had been passed by 
Congress, the constitution was adopted by the 
people at the succeeding November election for 
delegates. As the entire proceedings of this 
convention were void and nugatory, it is need- 
less to devote space to their consideration. As 
illustrative of patriotic zeal and alert progres- 
siveness, however, the attitude of the people at 
this period is worthy of record. 

The administration of Governor Watson C. 
Squire was one especially worthy of commen- 
dation. He was appointed in 1884, succeeding 
William A. Newell. Squire was a man of rare 
executive ability, a veteran of the Civil war, 
and became one of the most prominent factors 
in advancing the interests of the Territory and 
promoting its progress toward statehood. He 
was born May 18, 1838, at Cape Vincent, New 
York, and in 1861 enlisted in the 19th New 
York Infantry as a private, rising to the rank 
of first lieutenant. He then resigned, was 
graduated from the Cleveland law school, in 
1862, and then recruited a company of sharp- 

shooters of which he was given the command, 
being assigned to the Army of the Cumberland. 
He served on the staffs of both Generals Rose- 
cranz and Thomas and was, after the war, 
agent for the Remington Arms Company. In 
1879 he located in Seattle, and ten years there- 
after was elected president of the statehood 
committee, holding its meeting in Ellensburg 
in January of 1889. In framing memorials 
afterward presented to congress in behalf of 
statehood he was most assiduously employed 
and his efforts met with cordial appreciation 
from the people of the Territory. 

During the administration of Governor 
Squire occurred the "Chinese Riots," on the 
coast, opinion of his policy in the Territory be- 
ing at that time divided. But it is certain that 
his courageous attitude in behalf of law and 
order won the approval of a large majority of 
the most influential and intelligent citizens of 
the nation at large. It was at this period, 1885, 
that the first attempts, under auspices of the 
Knights of Labor, were made to expel China- 
men from the Territory. Riots occurred; 
Chinese were killed and bloodshed and dis- 
order ensued at Seattle among the coal miners. 
Governor Squire, November 5, 1885, issued a 
proclamation commanding the establishment of 
peace, and to this so little attention was paid 
that disorder increased rather than subsided, 
and several Chinese houses were fired and the 
occupants driven away. Troops were promptly 
forwarded from Vancouver and, the secretary 
of war being informed of the conditions, Pres- 
ident Cleveland issued a proclamation couched 
in more drastic terms than had been that of 
Governor Squire. Its effect was temporary; 
in February, 1886, other outbreaks took place 
and in efforts to protect the "celestials" a num- 
ber of lives were sacrificed and conditions re- 
solved themselves into overt rebellion. Gov- 
ernor Squire declared martial law. Its pro- 
visions were carried out with firmness, if not 
severity. Order was restored, but the execu- 
tive found himself placed between the hostile 



attacks of the proletariat, and the hearty com- 
mendation of President Cleveland, his cabinet 
and the members of the Territorial legislature. 

Squire's administration was marked by 
healthy progress and steady improvement in 
the various industries and material welfare of 
the Territory. During his incumbency the 
penitentiary was built at Walla Walla, an addi- 
tion made to the penitentiary at Seatco, and an 
insane asylum erected at Steilacoom. At the 
close of 1885 the Territory was free from debt 
and with a surplus of $100,000. That his best 
efforts were ever directed to further the inter- 
ests of Washington is amply proven, not only 
by gratifying results, but by his carefully pre- 
pared and luminously written official reports. 
The one forwarded to the secretary of the in- 
terior in 1884 was a concise and valuable his- 
tory of the Territory for several years ante- 
rior to his administration, embracing much in- 
formation that had been ignored by preceding 
executives. In explaining his object in thus 
voluminously presenting these valuable statis- 
tics Governor Squire said : 

"I have diligently corresponded with the 
auditors and assessors of all the counties of the 
Territory, furnishing them with printed blanks 
to be returned, and with all the managers of 
various educational and business institutions. 
Besides drawing on my own knowledge of the 
Territory, gleaned during a residence here dur- 
ing the past five or six years. I have gathered 
and compiled a variety of important facts from 
leading specialists in reference to the geo- 
graphical, geologic, and climatic characteris- 
tics, the coal and iron mining, horticultural, 
agricultural, and manufacturing interests, the 
fisheries and the flora and fauna of the Terri- 
tory. The data thus offered, together with the 
summary reports of our charitable and penal 
institutions, and an exhibit of the financial con- 
dition of the Territory, if published, will not 
only be of great service in encouraging and 
stimulating our people, but will furnish re- 
liable information to the intending immigrant. 

and will indicate to congress the rightful basis 
of our claim for admission into the union of 

In the last paragraph of this quotation may 
be traced the central thought which appears to 
have actuated Governor Squire in his untiring 
efforts. To accomplish the admission of Wash- 
ington he spared no labor in collecting an ar- 
ray of statistical information that could be 
molded into powerful arguments for state- 
hood. And to these reports is due largely the 
great volume of immigration which flowed into 
the Territory on the wheels of the Northern 
Pacific railway. From 75,000 in 1880, the 
population increased to 210,000 in 1886. In 
the latter year this pioneer railroad company 
operated four hundred and fifty-five miles of 
railway within the boundaries of Washington ; 
the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company 
two hundred and ninety-five miles ; the Colum- 
bia and Puget Sound Company forty-four 
miles, and the Olympia and Chehalis Company 
fifteen miles, which, together with other com- 
pleted lines, gave to the Territory eight hun- 
dred and sixty-six miles of railroad. The ef- 
fect on all industries may be easily conceived. 
The building of shipping tonnage was stimu- 
lated on the coast ; the output of produce east- 
ward increased wonderfully. The wheat mar- 
ket was. at that period, still in the east, and in 
1886 the Northern Pacific Company trans- 
ported 4,161 tone of wheat and 1,600 tons of 
other grains to the Mississippi river; the Ore- 
gon Railroad and Navigation Company t. >• ik 
out 250.000 tons of wheat, flour and barley to 
southeastern points. These appear, at this 
date, insignificant figures compared with the 
present volume of grain business, but eighteen 
years ago they gave indubitable proof to the 
people of the eastern states of the remarkable 
fertility of the soil of Washington Territory. 

Associated with Governor Squire in the 
Territorial offices were R. S. Greene, chief jus- 
tice: J. P. Hoyt, S. C. Wingard and Georg* 
Turner, associate justices: N. H. Owings. sec- 



retary. The delegate to congress was Thomas 
H. Brents. The federal officers were John B. 
Allen, United States district attorney: Jesse 
George. United States marshal : C. Bash, cus- 
toms collector ; C. B. Bagley and E. L. Heriff, 
internal revenue collectors ; William McMicken, 
surveyor-general : John F. Gowley, registrar, 
and J. R. Hayden. receiver of the United States 
land office at Olympia; F. W. Sparling, regis- 
trar, and A. G. Marsh, receiver, of the Van- 
couver land office; Joseph Jorgensen, registrar, 
and James Baden, receiver, at Walla Walla; J. 
M. Armstrong, registrar, and John L. Wilson, 
receiver, at Spokane, and R. R. Kinne, reg- 
istrar, and J. M. Adams, receiver, at Yakima. 

Governor Squire was succeeded in 1887 by 
Eugene Semple. Although a republican, he 
had won the confidence of a democratic admin- 
istration at Washington, D. C, and was re- 
tained in office long after his place could have 
been conveniently supplied with a democratic 
partisan. His attitude during the Chinese riots 
had done much to establish him in the estima- 
tion of President Cleveland. At the time of 
Semple's accession the questions of statehood 
and woman suffrage were agitating the people. 
Affairs were somewhat disquieted. The suff- 
rage question had been defeated by popular vote 
in 1878, but the legislature of 1883-4 had 
passed an act conferring this privilege upon 
women, and the act had been declared unconsti- 
tutional by the courts, but not until the women 
of the Territory had enjoyed the benefits of 
voting, holding office and serving on juries for 
two years, were they disfranchised. In 1886 
woman suffrage became an exceedingly lively 
party issue : the republicans favoring, the dem- 
ocrats opposing the same. There had. also, 
been a "capital removal" scheme injected into 
the campaign, and strong "North Yakima" and 
"Ellensburg" factions developed in the "In- 
land Empire." A large number of those favor- 
ing statehood had assumed, upon what logical 
grounds is rather obscure, that with admission 

into the union the "panhandle of Idaho, lost 
in 1863, would be restored to the state. This 
remote probability was. however, employed as 
an argument in favor of capital removal, but 
the strenuous "coasters" of the extreme west 
stoutly opposed a location of the seat of gov- 
ernment east of the Cascades, and the hopes of 
the Yakima Valley people were doomed to dis- 
appointment. During the second term of Gov- 
ernor Semple, Charles S. Voorhees succeeded 
Congressional Delegate Brents, and James 
Shields succeeded Hayden in the Olympia land 
office. N. H. Owings continued as secretary, 
R. A. Jones was chief justice, Frank Allyn. 
George Turner and W. G Langford associate 

The fight for admission continued bravely. 
In 1886 the Tacoma board of trade resolved 
that "The commercial independence of Wash- 
ington Territory acompanying the completion 
of the Northern Pacific railroad to tide-water 
should be supplemented by its political inde- 
pendence as a state of the American union. Ad- 
mission can not in decency be delayed many 
years longer, whatever party influences may 
sway congress. The census of 1890 will show 
a population within the present limits of the 
Territory exceeding 200,000, and a property 
valuation of at least $200,000,000." Prev- 
iously the claims of Washington for admis- 
sion had been urged by Governor Squire in one 
of his reports, in forceful language, assigning 
among other reasons "the sterling, patriotic, 
and enterprising character of its citizens ; its 
present and prospective maritime relations with 
the world : its position as a border state on the 
confines of the dominion of Canada, the most 
powerful province of Great Britain ; its wealth 
of natural resources and growing wealth of its 
people: the efficiency of its educational system, 
requiring that its school lands should be allotted 
and utilized ; its riparian rights should be set- 
tled, capital and immigration encouraged, and 
the full management and control of municipal 


and county affairs should be assumed b) tin- 
legislature, which is not allowed during the 
Territorial condition." 

According- to the report of Governor 
Semple for 1888 the population of Washington 
Territory was 167.982; the taxable property 
was $84,621,182; the revenue produced by a 
tax of two and one-half mills. $2 12.734.92 ; the 
amount of coal mined, 1,133.801 tons; the lum- 
ber output 320,848,203: the estimated capacity 
of the combined mills 1,043,796,000 feet; the 
total railway mileage 1,137.3. broad-gauge, 
and 40 miles narrow-gauge. The same year an 
insane asylum at Steilacoom was completed at a 
cost of $100,000 and $60,000 appropriated for 
a hospital for the insane at Medical Lake. The 
citizens of Vancouver donated land, and the 
legislature appropriated money for the erection 
at that point of a school for defective youth. 
The national guard consisted of two regiments 
of infantry and one troop of cavalry. 

Such, in rough outline, was the material 
condition of the Territory of Washington on 
the eve of statehood. On the anniversary of 
President Washington's birthday. February 
22, 1889, congress passed an enabling act pro- 
posing the terms on which the Territory might 
be admitted into the union. By these pro- 
visions the governor was. on April 15, 1889, 
to call for the election of seventy-five delegates 
on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in 
May, to meet in constitutional convention at 
Olympia on July 4, 1889, for organization and 
formulation of a state constitution. The en- 
abling act by virtue of which Washington Ter- 
ritory was permitted to call a constitutional 
convention embraced other territories. Its title 
was as follows: "An act to provide for the 
division of Dakota into two states and to en- 
able the people of North Dakota. South Da- 
kota, Montana and Washington to form con- 
stitutions and state governments, and to be ad- 
mitted into the union on an equal footing- with 
the original states, and to make donations of 
public lands to such -late-." The land grant to 

Washing-ton was: "For the establishment and 
maintenance of a scientific school, one hundred 
thousand acres; for state normal schools, one 
hundred thousand acres ; for public buildings at 
the state capital, in addition to the grant here- 
inbefore made, for that purpose, one hundred 
thousand acres; for state charitable, educa- 
tional and reformatory institutions, two hun- 
dred thousand acres." 

To defray the expenses of the constitutional 
convention the sum of $20,000 was appropri- 
ated by congress. It was further provided that 
there should be appointed one district judge, 
United States attorney, anil United States 
marshal ; the state to constitute one judicial dis- 
trict to be attached to the ninth judicial dis- 
trict ; the regular terms of court to commence 
in April and November; the clerks of the courts 
to have their offices at the state capital ; the 
judge to reside in the district and receive a 
salary of $3,500 per annum, and the courts of 
the state to become the successors of the terri- 
torial courts. 

On July 4, 1889, the delegates elected to 
the constitutional convention proceeded to bus- 
iness at Olympia. Following is the represen- 
tation of the several counties : 

Stevens, S. H. Manley, J. J. Travis; 
Spokane. C. P. Coey, George Turner, J. Z. 
Moore. J. J. Browne, T. C. Griffitts, H. F. 
Suksdor, Hiram E. Allen; Lincoln. II. W. 
Fairweather. B. B. Glascock. Frank M. Dal- 
lam; Kititas. J. A. Shoudy, A. Mires. J. T. 
McDonald; Whitman. J. P. T. McCloskey, C. 
II. Warner. E. 11. Sullivan. J. M. Reed. James 
II ungate. George Comegys: Adams. D. 
Buchanan; Garfield. S. C. Cosgrove; Franklin, 
W. B. Gray; Columbia. M. M. Goodman, R. F. 
Sturvedant ; Walla Walla. Lewis Xeace. D. J. 
Crowley, B. L. Sharpstein. X. G. Blalock; 
Yakima. W. F. Prosser; Clarke, Louis Johns. 
A. A. Lindsley; Skamania. G. II. Stevenson; 
Pacific. J. A. Burk ; Wahiakum. O. A. Bowen; 
Cowlitz. Jesse Van Name; Mason. Henry 
Winsor, fohn McReavy ; Chehalis, A. I. West; 



Jefferson, Allen Weir, George H. Jones, H. 
C. Wilson; Skagit, James Power, Thomas 
Hayton, H. Clothier; Whatcom, J. J. Weisen- 
berger, E. Eldridge; Snohomish, A. Schooley; 
Island, J. C. Kellogg; Kitsap, S. A. Dickey; 
King, R. Jeffs, T. T. Minor, T. P. Dyer, D. 
E. Dwrie, John P. Kinnear, John P. Hoyt, M. 
J. McElroy, Morgan Morgans, George W. 
Tibbetts, W. L. Newton ; Pierce, T. L. Stiles, 
P. C. Sullivan ; Gwin Hicks, H. M. Lillis, C. T. 
Fay, R. S. Moore, Robert Jamison ; Thurston, 
John T. Gowey, T. M. Reed, Francis Henry; 
Lewis, O. H. Joy, S. H. Berry. 

J. Z. Moore, of Spokane Falls, was elected 
temporary chairman of the convention, and Al- 
len Weir, of Port Townsend, was chosen tem- 
porary secretary. Permanent organization was 
effected by the election of John P. Hoyt, of 
Seattle, president, John I. Booge, Spokane 
Falls, chief clerk, and Clarence M. Bartin, 
Tacoma, reading clerk. The deliberations of 
the session occupied fifty days. At the election 
of October i, 1889, the constitution framed by 
these seventy-five delegates, representing twen- 
ty-eight counties, was adopted by the people. 
All in all it was an instrument fairly well 
adapted to the requirements of the people of 
Washington. Although not extravagant the 
salaries allowed state officers were liberal; the 
corporations were treated impartially; it pro- 
vided for five supreme judges and ordained su- 
perior courts in all the counties ; fixed the num- 
ber of representatives at not less than sixty- 
three nor more than ninety-nine ; and the senate 
at nor more than half nor less than a third of 
that number; and claimed all tide-lands except 
such as had been patented by the United States. 
The question of woman suffrage, prohibition 
and capital removal were voted upon separately. 
Of the votes cast 40,152 were for adoption of 
the constitution and 11,879 against it. Pro- 
hibition was defeated by a vote of 31,487 to 
19,546; woman suffrage was again laid aside 
by 34,513 votes against, and 16,527 for, that 
question, and for location of the state capital 

Olympia received 25,490 votes; North Yakima, 
14,718; Ellensburg, 12,833; Centralia, 607; 
Yakima, 314; Pasco, 120; scattering, 1,088. 

At this initial state election John L. Wilson 
was chosen for congressman and Elisha Pyre 
Ferry for governor. The other state officers 
elected were Charles E. Laughton, lieutenant 
governor; Allen Weir, secretary of state; A. 
A. Lindsley, treasurer; T. M. Reed, auditor; 
William C. Jones, attorney general ; Robert B. 
Bryan, superintendent of public instruction ; 
W. T. Forrest, commissioner of public lands. 
Ralph O. Dunbar, Theodore L. Stiles, John P. 
Hoyt, Thomas J. Anders and Elman Scott 
were elected to the supreme brench. All of these 
succeessful candidates were republicans. Of 
the one hundred and five members of the legis- 
lature elected one senator and six representa- 
tives were democrats. Following is the per- 
sonnel of the first Washington state senate and 
house of representatives 

Senate — F. H. Luce, Adams, Franklin and 
Okanogan ; C. G Austin, Asotin and Garfield ; 

C. T. Wooding, Chehalis ; Henry Landes, 
Clallam, Jefferson and San Juan ; L. B. Clough, 
Clarke; H. H. Wolfe, Columbia; C. E. For- 
sythe, Cowlitz ; J. M. Snow, Douglas and Ya- 
kima; Thomas Paine, Island and Skagit; W. 

D. Wood, J. H. Jones, O. D. Gilfoil, John R. 
Kinnear, W. V. Reinhart, King; W. H. Knee- 
land, Kitsap and Mason; E. T. Wilson, 
Kittitas ; Jacob Hunsaker, Klickitat and Ska- 
mania ; J. H. Long, Lewis ; H. W. Fair- 
weather, Lincoln ; B. A. Seaborg, Pacific and 
Wahkiakum ; John S. Baker, L. F. Thompson, 
Henry Drum. Pierce; Henry Vestal, Snoho- 
mish ; Alexander Watt, E. B. Hyde, B. C. Van 
Houton, Spokane; H. E. Houghton, Spokane 
and Stevens ; N. H. Owings, Thurston ; Piatt 
A. Preston, George T. Thompson, Walla 
Walla ; W. J. Parkinson, Whatcom ; John C. 
Lawrence, J. T. Whaley, A. T. Farris, Whit- 

House — W. K. Kennedy, Adams ; Will- 
iam Farrish, Asotin; L. B. Nims, J. D. Med- 



calf, Chehalis; Amos F. Shaw, John D. 
Geoghegan, S. S. Cook, Clarke; A. B. Luce, 
Clallam ; A. H. Weatherford, H. B. Day, Col- 
umbia; Chandler Huntington, Jr., Cowlitz; E. 

D. Nash, Douglas; C. H. Flummerfell, Frank- 
lin; W. S. Oliphant, Garfield; George W. 
Morse, Island; Joseph Kuhn, Jefferson; J. T. 
Blackburn, W. C. Rutter, W. H. Hughes, 
Alex. Allen, W. J. Shinn, George Bothwell, F. 
W. Bird, F. B. Grant, King; M. S. Drew, Kit- 
sap ; J. N. Power, J. P. Sharp, Kittitas ; Bruce 

F. Purdy, R. H. Blair, Klickitat ; S. C. Herren, 
Charles Gilchrist, Lewis ; P. R. Spencer, T. C. 
Blackfan, Lincoln; John McReavy, Mason; 
Henry Hamilton, Okanogan ; Charles Foster, 
Pacific ; George Browne, A. Hewitt, George B. 
Kandle, Oliff Peterson, James Knox, Stephen 
Judson, Pierce ; J. E. Tucker, San Juan ; J. E. 
Edens, B. D- Minkler, Skagit ; George H. Stev- 
enson, Skamania; Alexander Robertson, A. H. 
Eddy, Snohomish; J. W. Feighan, J. E. 
Gandy, S. C. Grubb, J. S. Brown, A. K. Clarke, 

E. B. Dean, Spokane; M. A. Randall, Stevens; 
W. G. Bush, Francis Rotch, Thurston; Joseph 

G. Megler, Wahkiakum ; Joseph Painter, Z. K. 
Straight, James Cornwall, Walla Walla; R. 
W. Montray, George Judson, Whatcom ; J. C. 
Turner, E. R. Pickerell, J. T. Peterson, R. H. 
Hutchinson, B. R. Ostrander, Whitman; John 
Cleman, Yakima. 

On joint ballot the republican majority of 
the legislature was ninety-six, thus insuring the 
election of two United States senators. Wat- 
son C. Squire and John B. Allen were elected, 
their respective votes on joint ballot being sev- 
enty-six and seventy-one. In the United States 
senate Mr. Squire drew the short term, expiring 
.March 4, 1891, and Mr. Allen served the long 

term, expiring March 4, 1893. In January, 
1891, Mr. Squire was re-elected for six years. 
The omission of the signiture of Governor 
Mason to a certificate accompanying a copy of 
the constitution adopted, caused a delay in the 
proclamation of President Harrison, and in 
consequence of this the legislature had assem- 
bled before Washington was actualy a state. 
On November 11, 1889, the proclamation was 
issued by the President, attested by James G. 
Blaine, secretary of state, and Washington 
stepped into the ranks of that sisterhood at 
whom she had long looked with rather envious 
eyes. During the past fifteen years her course 
as a state has been one fulfilling the most san- 
guine expectations of her sponcors. Indeed, a 
retrospective glance shows scarcely one unwise 
step taken by the leading factors in her political 
and industrial history from the first agitation 
for territorial division until to-day. 

At the date of admission into the union 
Washington had, approximately, a population 
of 200,000. The census of 1900 accords the 
state 518,103, and the past four years have ma- 
terially increased these figures. From twenty- 
eight counties at the period of admission the 
state now has thirty-six, and Indian reserva- 
tions to the number of fourteen. We can not 
more fittingly close this portion of our history 
than with the words of the late Julian Ralph, 
written ten years ago : 

"Washington is in every material way a 
grand addition to the sisterhood of states. With 
the easy and rich fancy of the west, her people 
say that if you build a Chinese wall around 
Washington, the state will yield all that her 
inhabitants need without contributions from 
the outer world." 





CURRENT EVENTS— 1854-1881 

The original county formed in eastern 
Washington was Walla Walla. It was the 
creation of the first Territorial Legislature of 
Washington, in 1S54. These were its bound- 
aries: Commencing" its line on the north hank 
of the Columbia river, opposite the mouth of 
the Des Chutes river, in Oregon, and thence 
running north to the 49th parallel of 
north latitude, and it comprised all of 
Washington Territory between this line 
and the Rocky [Mountains, which at 
that time included what is now north- 
ern Idaho and a part of the present state of 
Montana, in addition to the greater part of the 
present eastern Washington. The whole of 
this vast territory then contained less than a 
dozen American citizens and the creation of 
Walla Walla county has heen spoken of as :i 
"legislative absurdity." 

The officials appointed to jurisdiction over 
this immense county failed to qualify; the suc- 
ceeding legislature in [855 appointed others. 
In this age of place-hunting and patronage-beg- 
ging it is interesting to note that none of the 
gentlemen last appointed seemed to desire the 
honors or emoluments of public office, anil as 
none of them qualified for their positions the 
Walla Walla county organization was of mere- 
Iv nominal character as was the case the year 

previous. But in January, [859, Walla Walla 
county was successfully organized. The county 
seat was located at a small settlement which had 
sprung up near .Mill Creek. Its first name was 
Steptoeville; then Waiilatpu, and at the first 
meeting of the commissioners it was given the 
name of Walla Walla. In [858 the Territorial 
Legislature organized the county of Spokane. 
These were the bouujlaries : Beginning at the 
mouth of the Snake river, thence following the 
river to the 46th parallel; thence east to the 
crest of the Rocky mountains alienee following 
the divide of the Rocky mountains north to the 
49th parallel; thence down the Columbia river 
to the place of beginning. In the hill, county 
commissioners and other officials were named, 
hut county organization did not materialize 
de facto. The following year new officials 
were named with the result that none qualified. 
It was a duplication of the Walla Walla organ- 
ization. In [860 another "acl to create and or- 
ganize the county of Spokane." was passed by 
the Territorial Legislature. County organiza- 
tion was effected — a county comprising about 
one-third of the state of Washington, and por- 
tions of Idaho and Montana. I'inkney City, 
about three miles from the present town of Col- 
ville, Stevens county, was named as the county 
seat of all this wide expanse of territory. In 



January, 1863. the legislature created the coun- 
ty of Stevens, the same being taken from Walla 
Walla county. It was located at that period en- 
tirely west of the Columbia river and along the 
borders of the British Possessions, and north 
of the Wenatchee river. March 3, 1863, con- 
gress forced a division of this large county by 
organizing the Territory of Idaho from the 
eastern portion of Washington. This greatly 
reduced the size of the Brobdingnagian Spo- 
kane county. 

In 1864. by legislative act the county of 
Spokane ceased to exist, and thenceforth it was 
known as Stevens county. The county seat 
remained at Pinkney City, or Fort Colville, 
these names being interchangeable. Whitman 
county was cut off. in 1871 ; at that period it 
included Adams and Franklin counties. Octo- 
ber 30, 1879, Spokane county was organized 
from a part of Stevens county. At that time 
the area included Spokane, Douglas and Lin- 
coln counties. The boundaries of Spokane 
county, as created at that time were as follows : 
Commencing at a point where the section line 
between sections 21 and 28, in township 14, 
range 2j, Willamette Meridian, Washington 
Territory, strikes the main body of the Colum- 
bia river on the west side of the island ; thence 
west to the mid-channel of the Colum- 
bia river ; thence up the mid-channel of 
the Columbia river to the Spokane river ; 
thence up ihe mid-channel of the Spo- 
kane river to the Little Spokane river; 
thence north to the township line between 
townships 29 and 30 ; thence east to the bound- 
ary line between Washington and Idaho Ter- 
ritories ; thence south on the said boundary line 
to the fifth standard parallel ; thence west on 
said parallel to the Columbia guide meridian; 
thence south on said meridian to the fourth 
standard parallel ; thence west on fourth stand- 
ard parallel to the range line between ranges 
27 and 28 : thence south on said range line to 
the section line between sections Nos. 24 and 
25, in township 14. north, range 27 east, Willa- 

mette Meridian ; thence west to the place of be- 

Within these boundaries were the present 
counties of Spokane, Lincoln and Douglas, with 
an area of 8,844 square miles. The legislative 
session of 1883 changed the map of eastern 
Washington. In the Big Bend country, with 
which we have to deal particularly, the four 
counties which form that country were created ; 
Lincoln and Douglas from the western portion 
of Spokane county, and Adams and Franklin 
from the western part of Whitman county. 

We have traced the county formations of 
eastern Washington so far as they effect Lin- 
coln county. The Spokane county, as formed 
in 1879, remained intact until 1883, when the 
present Lincoln county was formed. But be- 
fore proceeding with the creation of the county 
let us look into the early settlement before it 
became a county. All these changes indicated 
a period of voluminous immigration. The days 
of the aborigines, the explorers, the fur traders 
and the missionaries, which we have glanced 
at in brief panorama, were merging into those 
of the agriculturist, the miner, the tradesman 
and the scholar, with the soldier on the stage 
during the brief intervals between acts. 

Previous to the advent of white men Lincoln 
county contained an Indian trail extending 
from east to west. It was considered one of the 
most popular Indian thoroughfares in eastern 
Washington. The over-night camping place 
was the spring where now is located the town 
of Davenport. Bunch grass was abundant in 
the neighborhood and the present site of Dav- 
enport was in the nature of an oasis. 

Otto Woolweber, residing eight miles north 
of Reardan, Lincoln county, an enthusiastic 
delver after data relating to the early history 
of the west, has in his possession valuable writ- 
ings and maps, once the property of Governor 
Isaac Ingalls Stevens' surveying party which 
passed through the Territory of Washington in 
1853. From this source we learn that a detach- 
ment of this party under Lieutenant Richard 



Arnold traversed a portion of what is now Lin- 
coln county. From Fort Colville Lieutenant 
Arnold followed the Columbia down to the 
point where Hunter Creek (Paw-W'aw) forms 
a confluence with that stream. From here he 
crossed over the ridge toward the Spokane 
river, camping November 16. 1853, on the 
north side of this stream where now is located 
the Detillion bridge. On the 17th he crossed 
the Spokane and traversed the Spokane and 
Columbia bluffs to the Columbia river and that 
evening camped where Peach, or Orchard Val- 
ley is now located. Still following the bluffs 
down the Columbia he camped on the 18th 
near Hellgate and on the evening of the 19th 
near where Tipso is located. The party entered 
the Grand Coulee, the altitude at this point reg- 
istering 1.435 f eet > an d on tne 20m went mto 
camp where now stands Coulee City, Douglas 
county. At this place Lieutenant Arnold 
found the altitude to be 1.642 feet above sea 
level. They explored and followed the Grand 
Coulee to the Columbia river reaching it No- 
vember 25th. From this point the party march- 
ed to Fort Walla Walla. 

So early as 1858 what is now Lincoln coun- 
ty was traversed by a party of miners on their 
way to the famous Fraser river mines. Hun- 
dreds of sanguine, stalwart men passed through 
the Territory of Washington and up the Okan- 
ogan river, that year, to the newly discovered 
gold fields which, at that period had created 
the wildest excitement, as did the Klondike 
country in the 90's. There is substantial evi- 
dence that at least one party en route to the 
Fraser river made its way there via Lincoln 
county. A company of 350 men and several 
thousand head of stock left The Dalles. Oregon, 
bound for Fraser river. They traveled from 
The Dalles to Walla Walla where government 
officials were then building the fort. Here the 
company employed an Indian to guide them to 
the mouth of the Okanogan river. The guide 
lost the trail and the mining party struck the 
Columbia, opposite the mouth of the Sans Poil 

river. From there they made their way to the 
Okanogan country. It required a number of 
days to cross the Columbia. In due time they 
won their way to the Fraser river, about thirty 
days out from The Dalles to the diggings. 

Among the party who crossed the Big Bend 
plains in 1858 were J. R. W'hitaker, who in 
1881 returned to Lincoln county and settled on 
a ranch near Harrington, ami Hiram F. Smith, 
better known in politics and mining circles as 1 
"Okanogan Smith." Returning from the Fra- 
ser river country in i860 Mr. Smith took up a 
ranch at the foot of Osoyoos lake, in what is 
now Okanogan county. Here he resided for 
many years and did much for the advancement 
of that northern country. In 1861 William 
Newman, after whom Newman's lake was 
named, came to the present site of Sprague. 
Here he became proprietor of a station for trav- 
elers and government express animals. At that 
early period Mr. Newman's nearest neighbors 
were a lone settler at the mouth of the Palouse 
river, and Mr. James Monaghan. The latter 
came to this country in i860 and established a 
ferry on the newly completed military road 
where it crossed the Spokane river, some twen- 
ty miles below the falls. Mr. Monaghan sub- 
sequently had charge of what was known as 
the Lapray bridge. 

One of the first permanent settlers — if not 
the first — to locate in what afterwards ! 
Lincoln county, was R. M. Bacon. Mr. Bacon 
left his home in Boston in i860 and headed tor 
the west. Three years later he came to the di- 
vide vallev, in Stevens county, where be re- 
mained until 1871. He then came to the Crab 
creek country, in Lincoln county, and ^ 
in raising cattle. Save for an occasional hand 
of Indians and the wild animals that ranged 
over the prairies, the entire country was a wild 
waste, destitute of life and denounced by mili- 
tary authority as a howling desert. Mr. Bacon 
confesses that he was a trifle lonesome the first 
vear he passed in the Crab creek country, but 
after that he was satisfied with his lot. He says 



that > iccasionally the Indians were a little ugly, 
but he was never molested, and did not think 
there was ever real cause for alarm. Within a 
few years after Air. Bacon's arrival in this part 
of the country other hardy pioneers came and 
settled in his vicinity. In course of time a post- 
office was established on Crab creek, known as 
the Crab creek Post Office. Air. Bacon became 
the first postmaster in Lincoln county. Mail 
was received once a week by stage. 

When the first settlers ventured out upon 
the broad bunch grass plains of Lincoln county 
and other parts of Central Washington, only 
the bottom lands along flowing creeks were con- 
sidered of any value, and in such places these 
early pioneers sought to make themselves 
homes. For agricultural purposes the uplands 
were considered worthless ; fit only for roving 
bands of cattle, horses and sheep. But a few 
years later and it was discovered that the up- 
lands were the better, and settlers who located 
upon them soon found that they were more 
eligibly situated than those who had preceded 
them and chosen homes on creek bottoms. 

Undoubtedly the oldest settler of Lincoln 
county, or of the whole Big Bend country, was 
Samuel Wilbur Condin ( sometimes spelled 
Condi t, ) but who was better known through- 
out the northwest as "Wild Goose Bill. - ' Feb- 
ruary I, 1895, the Wilbur Register explained 
editorially, as follows: 

"As there seems to be some question con- 
cerning the correct orthography of 'Wild Goose 
Bill's' name, the Register will state, on the au- 
ity of his own signature, that the proper spelling 
is Samuel Wilbur Condit. The surname was 
originally Condin, but some years ago it was 
erroneously spelled Condit in a patent from the 
government, and this orthography Bill accept- 
ed, and has since spelled his name accordingly." 

Samuel Wilbur Condit. who was known 
personally or by reputation to almost every man 
woman or child in the Pacific northwest, as 
"Wild Goose Bill," was torn in Orange, New 
Jersey, about 1835. Being from childhood of 

an adventurous disposition he struck out early 
for the west in search of fortune. He stopped 
for a time in Illinois, but soon pushed on to 
the golden shore of California, where he ar- 
rived at an early day. Thence he drifted north- 
ward, and in the 6o's he was engaged in 
freighting over the trackless plains of the Big 
Bend from Walla Walla to the placer camps 
along the Columbia river. The exact date that 
he came to this country is uncertain. In an 
interview in 1889 he made the statement that 
he had lived in the Big Bend thirty years which 
would make the period of his arrival in 1859. 
Condit, or Condin, was a "squaw man," and 
for years lived in a country where the face of a 
white man was seldom seen. About 1875 he 
became known to the few early settlers of east- 
ern Washington. At that period he was pro- 
prietor of a cayuse pack train engaged in trans- 
porting supplies from Walla Walla and other 
points which were then supply depots for the 
unsettled region embracing northern Idaho and 
northeastern Washington, to miners and pros- 
pectors scattered through the mountains, and to 
surveyors who were then exploring the coun- 
try, seeking a feasible route to the seaboard for 
the Northern Pacific railroad. Condin had 
made frequent trips through the Big Bend 
country to the mines of the north. It was one 
day. lung ago, that he first saw the site where 
Wilbur now stands. He stood on the dividing 
ridge south of town, and saw the clear waters 
of the Little Ridge, fringed with a luxuriant 
growth of aspens, willows and Cottonwood, 
meandering down the valley and off through a 
natural meadow to the beautiful lake nestling 
among the mcks a mile below. Then and there 
he resolved that at some future time he would 
call this charming spot his home, and he fre- 
quently made it his resting place during long 
and toilsome journeys. 

At length, probably about 1875. becoming 
wearied of his nomadic life, he pitched his tent 
in this beautiful valley and made it his per- 
manent home. The land at that time was un- 



surveyed, but he staked off his claim, built a 
cabin, disposed of his pack train, invested all of 
his available cash in horses and cattle and 
branched out into the stock-growing business. 
Eater, when the land was surveyed, Condit 
made his riling, and afterwards made final proof 
and acquired title from the United States gov- 
ernment to the land on which is now located the 
town of Wilbur. It was at this time that the 
government made the mistake of engrossing 
the papers and land patent under the name of 
"'Condit." According to the rude forms of 
marriage practiced among her tribe he took to 
himself an Indian maiden. His frontier ranch, 
marked on the early maps by hardy explorers 
as "Wild Goose Bill's Place," was the ground 
occupied by the site of the present flourishing 
town of Wilbur. Here, for many years, he 
continued to reside with his Indian wife by 
whom he had three sons. A mass of sensational 
stories have been floated concerning Condin's 
wild life. It has been asserted that he had 
killed innumerable Indians "for interfering 
with his domestic relations." His killing rec- 
ord, however, embraced five Indians, shot in a 
running tight while resisting arrest. The story 
which has been repeated many times, that he 
killed the man who first dubbed him "Wild 
Goose Bill," is untrue. The following, his last 
will and testament, made just prior to his tragic 
death, is of historical intererst : 

"Condin's Ferry. January 19, 1895. Know 
all men by these presents that I Samuel Wilbur 
Condit being in my right mind & knowing 
that life is uncertain do make my last will and 
testament on this day of our Lord January the 
ninteant eightten hundred & nity five it is my 
desire to give my son george Conduit my prop- 
perry known as Condine fery & to will & be- 
queath to my son Willey Condit five dollars & 
fifty cents the balance of my property real & 
pirsinel to my cripple son Charles excepting 
my interest that myself & R. J. Reave Hold 
jointly on setcion eight I will my interest on the 
same to R J Reaves & his Heirs & assig 

alsor appoint E J Reave my Adminesterater & 

executor without bonds stipulating that he see 
to my cripple son Charles & that he 1- well taken 
care of as long as he Lives my propperty 
known as the Mitchell place I bequeath 
to R. J. Reaves provided he pays the 
Mortgag on the same it is my de- 
sire that R. J. Reaves rents my proper- 
ty & aplyes the rents to the maintence of my 
cripple son Charles in case of 1 1 i -s Death it is 
my desire that my sole property shall he aplied 
to the School fund of Wilbur, & also that theree 
Be enoughf sold to pay all of my Just debts. 
Hoping & trusting that R J Reaves will act in 
good faith 1 revoke all former wills up to this 
date witness my Hand & Seal 
"(My Hand & Seal) 

"Samuel Wilbur Condit 

"Witness George G James 

"Burt I). Woodin" 
"Wild Goose Bill" had his good traits, hut. 
raised in a rough school, in which self-reliance 
and the unbounded freedom of the frontier that 
inculcates the impression that might makes 
right, endow a man with unconventional char- 
acteristics that would not he regarded as en- 
tirely the pink of propriety. Bill, had, also, his 
weaknesses. Condin located and lived on the 
land now embraced in the townsite of Wilbur. 
He also owned a ferry on the Columbia river, 
that was operated for many years, and other col- 
lateral that made him a comparatively wealthy 
man. There were no white women in the land 
when Condin first settled therein, and he took 
unto himself an Indian wife. By her he had 
several children. Eater in life he married an- 
other squaw and a child was horn that developed 
into a helpless cripple. In his later years the 
w hi lie affectii >n 1 if the 1 »ld man was o >ncentrated 
in this deformed, epileptic, speechless offspring. 
His intese love for the unfortunate child was a 
redeeming feature in the rough, frontier-man's 
life. The manner in which S. W. Condin se- 
cured the cognomen. "Wild Goose Bill," is told 
by the Lincoln County 'rimes: 



"It is said that Mr. Condin received his pic- 
turesque nickname when he was a callow youth 
of twenty summers. The Big Bend country 
was, as yet, unsettled. Condin was out on a 
hunting; expedition and he wanted game. Sud- 
denly he espied a large flock of geese on a lit- 
tle rivulet. His heart stood still. Cautiously 
he crept closer and closer to the unsuspecting 
quarry. The geese rose and fell on each little 
ripple, and/ with the proverbial stupidity of 
geese imagined themselves in safety. 

"The huntsman drew nearer and nearer. 

"Suddenly the sport commenced. Condin 
began shooting, and in a short time had bagged 
the entire flock. Then a woman who had set- 
tled on a neighboring Clearing, approached and 
viewed the scene of slaughter. 

"What business have you killing my pets? 
she yelled in a voice pitched in C alt. 

"The story got out, and the man who mis- 
took a flock of tame birds for wild ones, wore 
the original title, 'Wild Goose Bill,' until his 
death. The virago was appeased by the pay- 
ment of several pieces of silver, but the incident 
came down from mouth to mouth to the present 

Many years previous to the advent of white 
men in the Big Bend country it is known that 
Chinamen carried on placer mining along the 
upper Columbia river. These Celestials have 
worked the gold from the sands of that river 
ever since, in a primitive way and undoubtedly 
fortunes have been secured. One of many 
spots visited in the early days by the Chinese 
was in Lincoln county, opposite the mouth of 
the Sans Poil river. 

Sam Wow, an aged Chinaman and a pio- 
neer miner of the Columbia bars, in this vicin- 
ity, is now a resident of Wulbur. Sam claims 
to have first done placer mining here about 
1864, and travelers through the country ten 
years after this date state that he was engaged 
in work there. Sam is uncertain of the exact 
date when he came to the country, but he re- 
members that he was ushered in by the worst 

snowstorm that ever visited the locality. Ac- 
cording to his description any storm of later 
years would certainly have to take second place 
in the climatology of Washington. He came 
in from the east and states that in places the 
snow was ten feet deep and the cold terrible. 
As a consequence of that first trip to the Colum- 
bia placer fields Sam Wow lost the first joint 
from each one of his ten fingers, and. also. 
suffered the separation between himself and 
several of his toes. But he was not to be de- 
terred by such a calamity. He had entered upon 
a prospecting tour which included a visit to the 
upper Columbia, and thither he went. Age and 
continual stooping while shoveling the gravel 
from placer beds have imparted a permanent 
twist to his body; his manner of walking im- 
parts the impression of an animated corkscrew. 

Captain John McGourin, an early settler 
of Lincoln county, came about 1875. 

June 14. 1877, Chief Joseph's band of Nez 
Perces took up arms, their field of operations 
being Camas Prairie, in Idaho. The United 
States government at once proceeded with vigor 
to suppress the uprising, but the troops did not 
arrive in time to prevent the murder by Indians 
of many defenseless and inoffensive settlers. 
Reports gained currency that the Palouses, 
Couer d' Alenes, and Spokanes had gone on the 
war-path, and that Chief Moses was on his way 
south to join the hostile warriors. A general 
feeling of uneasiness prevailed among the set- 
tlers of eastern Washington. Then the people 
were thrown into a panic and the wildest and 
most ludicrous excitement prevailed. Utterly 
unfounded rumors of massacres and depreda- 
tions were passed from person to person and, 
as is usual in such cases, they lost nothing of 
their hideous aspect in the course of their trav- 
els. In Whitman county fear assumed the pro- 
portions of a panic. Reason appeared to have 
temporarily surrendered her citadel and wild 
fancy ruled. The stock, which at the time hap- 
pened to be in corrals, were left without food 
or drink, while the animals fortunate enough 



to be at liberty when tbe "scare" developed, 
wandered about at will. Settlers hastily re- 
paired to Colfax. Wagons were driven down 
the steep hills heading to the Whitman county 
seat town at a gallop. Never before or since 
have the streets of Colfax witnessed such a 
scene of turmoil. Jt is certain that bad tbere 
been any Indians in the vicinity disposed to 
make an attack but feeble resistance could have 
been uttered under the circumstances. Many 
of the fugitives dared not trust even Colfax 
or Palouse for protection, but pushed on until 
Walla Walla or Dayton had been reached. 
Rifles, revolvers, shotguns and weapons of all 
kinds were hurridly made read}- for use. Men 
rushed about excitedly while women and chil- 
dren greeted each new report of butcheries with 
loud lamentations and wailings. The Indians, 
many miles away, were no doubt totally un- 
conscious of the commotion they were causing, 
and, as was afterwards discovered, the northern 
Indians were somewhat perturbed, believing 
the whites were meditating offensive rather 
than defensive warfare. 

Settlers on Crab creek, now within the ter- 
ritory comprising the counties of Lincoln and 
Douglas, like the settlers in Whitman and other 
portions of eastern Washington, abandoned 
their homes so soon as the first danger note had 
been sounded. They set out for Walla Walla 
and other points, but before proceeding far on 
their journey some of the bolder ones decided 
to return to their homes and brave all dangers. 
Meanwhile a small band of Columbia river In- 
dians on their way from the camas grounds, 
had discovered that everything was deserted 
and had helped themselves to whatever they 
could find in the way of provisions, clothing 
and stock. The returned farmers saw these 
depredations, and nut remaining to ascertain 
their true extent, tied in haste, circulating all 
sorts of exaggerated reports. Their stories 
had the effect of confirming the general impres- 
sion of an uprising of the northern Indians. 
Among the many settlers who rushed to Col- 

fax there -were a few logical enough to desire 
some certain evidence of the presence of Indians 
in their section. Wont twenty of these organ- 
ized themselves into a scouting party, and on 
the second day of the scare set out on an expe- 
dition. They no traces of hostilities. None 
of the farms which they visited had been in 
any way disturbed, but the cattle in the corrals 
were beginning to feel the pangs of hunger and 
thirst, and were endeavoring to make their 
wants known by brute signals. At Fori How- 
ard, Idaho, the party was informed that Joseph's 
band had not crossed the Clearwater, a bit of 
news which, no doubt, proved very soothing to 
the friends at home. It was said by some one 
that the Catholic missionary. Father Cataldo, 
was being detained at his mission by the Coeur 
d' Alene Indians, and two of the party, D. S. 
Bowman and James Tipton, set out for that 
place to investigate, while the rest returned to 
Colfax. Messrs. Bowman and Tipton found 
the Indians greatly excited, believing the "Bos- 
tons," as they called the Americans, were pre- 
paring to attack them. They had construed the 
warlike preparations as evidence of hostile in- 
tent on the part of the whites and were prepar- 
ing to defend themselves if assaulted. The 
same was true of the Palouse and Spokane 
tribes. There can be no doubt that the service 
of the two dauntless white men in this matter 
was of inestimable value. They allayed the 
fears of the red men. explaining the true situa- 
tion and convincing them of the pacific dispo- 
sition of the whites. The account which they 
brought back to Colfax had a pacifying influ- 
ence there, and as further evidence that no harm 
was intended they bore certificates of peaceful 
intentions from the chiefs. These had l>een 
procured by Father Cataldo. The arrival of 
these two men at Colfax was most opportune. 
The settlers returned to their homes and found 
that in some instances the Indians, far from en- 
tertaining a hostile thought, had even protected 
the crops from damage by loose cattle and taken 
care of the deserted property. 



June 30th, Rev. H. T. Cawley, a mission- 
ary stationed at Spokane Falls, wrote concern- 
ing the attitude of the Indians in that vicinity : 
"I hasten to give assurance of the pacific dis- 
position of the Spokanes, also of the Snake 
River, >Nez Perce and Palouse Indians camped 
here. In public council held last Monday at the 
'Falls/ they unanimously declared their friend- 
liness toward the whites, and we have found 
them thus far unusually careful to avoid giving 
offense. The Spokanes, have, of course, been 
somewhat alarmed both at the gathering of the 
whites at Colfax, and at the 'Falls," but now 
that all have returned to their homes every- 
thing has quited down." 

Itis evident that no real danger ever exist- 
ed and that the scare was utterly baseless in 
fact. The northern Indians never contempla- 
ted an outbreak and the hostile tribes returned 
east over the Lolo trail, utterly ignoring the 
Palouse country. Ludicrous though the white 
stampede may seem, a momentous crisis exist- 
ed, for such were the conditions prevailing 
among both whites and Indians that an indis- 
creet act on the part either might have precipi- 
tated a barbarous and sanguinary war. 

In 1878 O. B. Parks, one of the pioneer 
settlers of Lincoln county, came from Califor- 
nia and settled one mile north of the present 
site of Davenport. The same year J. G. Keth- 
roe located on a homestead in the neighbor- 
hood of Reardan, and Barney Fitzpatrick set- 
tled on a stock ranch and engaged in the busi- 
ness of raising cattle. Soon after the establish- 
ment of Fort Spokane he contracted with the 
LJnited States government to supply the troops 
with fresh beef. 

Among the very earliest to make a home in 
Lincoln county were Mr. and Mrs. A. D. 
Strout. They secured a homestead four and 
one-half miles southeast of Davenport in 1879. 
Taking the limit of the number of acres a muni- 
ficient government grants to every bona fide 
settler, Mr. Strout's original possession con- 
sisted of 160 acres. When he settled on his 

homestead his property consisted of three 
horses, a dilapidated wagon and only a few dol- 
lars. One of the horses was killed by an acci- 
dent the first winter. His nearest neighbor 
lived fifteen miles distant. After erecting a 
small "shack"' Mr. Strout drove to Colfax 
for his winter's supplies and seed for the fol- 
lowing season. Upon reaching home he had 
remaining in money just ten cents. Lhidaunt- 
ed, himself and wife started in to build up a 
home in the new country. Their many make- 
shifts are amusing to talk of at the present day, 
but were, indeed, trying at the time. They 
drove a long distance to a neighbor's and made 
an arrangement by which Mr. Strout took a 
sow to feed and winter for half the pigs. Mrs. 
Strout secured a hen, half of the brood to be 
paid for the use of the bird. During the winter 
the couple managed to get hold of a Mexican 
dollar; in the spring it was pawned to a sheep 
herder for a mutton. Mr. Strout was unable 
to redeem the pledge. For flour they dried 
wheat in the oven and ground it in a coffee mill. 
The shifty expediences to get along were only 
similar to the experience of many of the early 
settlers. However, Mr. Strout never despaired. 
Serious accidents he encountered, once accident- 
ly shooting himself from which he barely re- 
covered. He was treated by physicians from 
Sprague and Fort Spokane; at another time he 
suffered from a fearful kick in the face. But 
adversity did not remain with him always. 
Gradually he accumulated land and personal 
property until he became independent. 

The original settler to locate a homestead 
in the "Egypt" country was Joseph M. Nichols, 
who came there in 1879. 

Mr. C. C. May, president of the Big Bend 
National Bank, Davenport, came to Lincoln 
county in the earliest days of its eventful his- 
tory in 1879. At that period he was a member 
of a government surveying party. He was 
pleased with the country and decided to locate 
here. Securing a homestead within five miles 
of the present site of Davenport he erected a 



small house consisting of one room, measuring 
from the ground to the ceiling seven feet. A 
year or two later he added a second room and 
again a third. Concerning the condition of the 
country at that pioneer period Mr. May said: 
"Why, we could travel for weeks and not see 
a white man. The only white person 1 rcmem- 
her was 'Wild Goose Bill.' who was holding the 
fort at what is now the town of Wilbur." 

Mr. May has left his impress upon the com- 
munity in which he resides, and has labored 
assiduously to build up the country. In 1880 
he was chosen one of the commissji fliers of Spi >- 
kane county, which then comprised the present 
counties of Lincoln and Douglas. Although 
he has been pressed to accept many other offices 
this is the only one he ever held in this locality. 

In 1879 A. G. Courtright settled on a farm 
a short distance east from where Mondovi now 
stands. In company with his son he conducted 
the stage station there for many years. It was 
an inn, or caravansary, for all travelers who 
passed back and forth from the Big Bend pre- 
vious to the advent of railroads. Among other 
early pioneers were Mr. and Mrs. L. A. Ken- 
nedy who came to the country in 1879, settling 
on a homestead a few miles southeast of Dav- 
enport. T. M. Cooper, who became prominent 
as a business man and active politician, came 
also in 1879, settling near the present site of 
Creston. The same year Byron Richards lo- 
cated on a homestead near old Mondovi. 
Among others who "spied out the country" 
the same year and found it good were James 
Ihuihert, who made his residence one and one- 
half miles west of Davenport; Horace Parker, 
locating in the Crab creek country near the pres- 
ent town of Lamona ; and Mr. and Mrs. John 
Oakley who pitched their tent in Egypt, coming 
here from California. 

Major John W'>rts. now a resident of Dav- 
enport, is a pioneer of Lincoln county, having 
paid his first visit to the country in 1S79. He 
traveled over the greater portion of the pres- 
ent Lincoln county, and his description of the 

country at that early period is intensely inter- 
esting. Only a few hardy pioneers had pre- 
ceded him and for miles and miles he pushed 
on without encountering a white man. Major 
Worts states that the number of wild fowl 
then in the country was astonishing, and de- 
clares that he dare not make a true statement 
of the facts, desiring to retain his excellent rep- 
utation for veracity. April 21, [879, Mr. Worts 
camped at the spring, now in the heart of the 
city of Davenport, lie did not at this time 
become a citizen of the town, or of Lincoln 
county, hut a few years later he came back, 
made a permanent location and operated a saw 
mill in the northern part of the county. 

The year 1880 witnessed the establishment 
of a United States government military post 
within the boundaries of what a few years later 
became Lincoln county. The condition of the 
country at this period may he described as wild. 
There were a few settlers along Crab creek in 
the southern part of the county and active pre- 
parations for the building of the Northern 
Pacific Railway had induced a iaw people to 
come to what is now Sprague. The inhabitants 
of the eastern upper portion of Lincoln county 
could, probably, he counted on one's fingers. 
The site for Tort Spokane, or Post Spokane, 
as it was first called, was selected in Septem- 
ber, 1880, by General (). O. Howard, depart- 
ment commander, and Lieutenant Colonel Mer- 
riam, of the Second U. S. Infantry. These 
officers selected the site on the beautiful bench 
just above the Spokane river, only a short dis- 
tance from where that river flows into the Col- 
umhia. It was one of the prettiest among the 
frontier posts and was selected because it was 
in easy striking distance of the Colville Indian 
Agency, just across the river. To this newly 
selected post were brought t\\c companies of 
the Second Infantry and die troop of the Sec- 
ond Cavalry under command of Lieutenant 
Colonel Merriam. These troops were brought 
from the foot of Lake Chelan, where they had 
been for some time exerting a wholesome in- 



fluence upon the Chelan Indians. Shortly after 
the establishment of Fort Spokane Lieutenant 
Colonel Merriam was removed to Fort Colville. 
in Stevens county, and Major Smith became 
commander-in-chief during his absence. Xo 
permanent improvements were made at the new 
fort until 1882. when Fort Colville was aban- 
doned and Lieutenant Colonel Merriam again 
assumed command, remaining until the comple- 
tion of the fort in 1885. With his return the 
erection of buildings was begun and the place 
became known as Fort Spokane. The fort was 
constructed on elaborate principles. The gov- 
ernment expended thousands of dollars, install- 
ing handsome quarters for officers and privates, 
such store buildings as were necessary, a sys- 
tem of water works and all the accessories need- 
ful for a first-class military station. There 
were a dozen large frame buildings on the 
north side of the enclosure, utilized as 
officers' quarters. There were vast bar- 
racks peopled by the men in the ranks, 
brick guard houses, commissarv buildings, 
stables, etc. A system of water works com- 
posed of a pumping station on the river and a 
large reservoir on the hill side south of the 
fort, carried water throughout the grounds. 

In 1885 the buildings were completed and 
Lieutenant Colonel Merriam was relieved by 
Lieutenant Colonel Fletcher, and the Second 
Infantry was exchanged for three companies 
of the Fourth Infantry. The following year 
Major Kent, of the Fourth Infantry, assumed 
command at the fort. Other commanders in 
the order named have been : Lieutenant Col- 
onel Mears, of the Fourth Infantry, who died 
at the fort in 1890; Lieutenant Colonel Cook, 
of the Fourth ; Major Carpenter, of the Fourth ; 
and Major McGoughlin, of the Sixteenth In- 

The spot is one of the most beautiful in the 
state. The grounds are a net-work of sewers 
and water mains. There was a double system 
of water works in use at the fort ; one a reser- 
voir of pure spring water on the hill, high above 

the garrison, and piped down to the quarters 
for the domestic use of both officers and men ; 
the other source of supply was by means of a 
steam eng'ine located at the Spokane river, forc- 
ing water through another set of pipes for the 
stables, hre and irrigating purposes. 

Another prominent Lincoln county settler 
of 1880 was W. H. Vandine. In the autumn 
of that year he entered a homestead claim three 
miles north of what subsequently developed into 
the town of Davenport. Northern Lincoln 
county received its first settlers, outside of a 
few who have been mentioned heretofore, in 
1880. Many came to Egypt that fall. The fol- 
lowing year others came, nearly all settling in 
Egypt and quite a colony was there in 1881. 
William Yarwood was one of the first settlers 
in central Lincoln county, taking up a home- 
stead near Harrington in 1880. Still, it is true 
that only a comparatively few hardy pioneers 
had settled in what later became Lincoln coun- 
ty prior to the building of the Northern Pa- 
cific railroad through the southeast corner of 
the count}' in 1 880-1. With the construction of 
this line of road settlement began to push out 
rapidly over the lands in the southern part of 
the county tributary to the new railroad. The 
first settler in the Reardan neighborhood was 
J. F. Rice who went there in 1881. Isaac Mul- 
hiem settled near Mondovi long before the 
formation of Lincoln county. 

The winter of 1881 was one to try the 
"summer soldier, and the sunshine patriot." 
Snow fell to a great depth and for many days 
travel was interrupted. Most of the stock in 
the country perished. Mr. Barney' Fitzpatrick, 
mentioned elsewhere, and one of the earliest 
settlers in the county, a number of years after- 
ward told of an experience he had during that 
severe winter. He was caught in the storm at 
Deep Creek Falls, and realizing that the block- 
ade would last for some time he struck out for 
home on horseback. At that time he lived a 
short distance west of the present townsite of 
Davenport. There were only a few scattered 



houses over the route traveled by him, but he 
managed to reach one every night. He was six 
days making- the trip. The snow was soft and 
so deep that lie had to break a path for his 
animal and when he succeeded in gaining his 
home he was completely exhausted. 

In early days the United States government 
transported all of its army supplies in Wash- 
ington Territory with four and six mule teams. 
So frequent were the trips from one post to 
another that the trails they followed became 
established roadways for all travelers in those 
days. The great, heavy army wagons would 
wear cuts through the prairie sod and the rains 
would wash these out each season, compelling 
the army trains to follow a new track along the 
old one ; and these in turn would be washed 
out, thus continuing this plan annually until 
a well-defined and clearly marked trail would 
be developed. For many years after the use of 
these trails had been abandoned and even 
after the advent of the railroad through 
the Territory these government trails 
would he referred to in describing the 
topography of the country. When the 
settlers came and took up homesteads in the 
country they would designate their homes as 
being at such a point along "the old govern- 
ment trail." One of the best known of these 
trails in eastern Washington traversed what 
later became Lincoln count}-. It was in use 
during the time when army supplies were trans- 
ported from Walla Walla to Fort Spokane, and 
was used not only by military men, but also by 
immigrants and miners who were traveling in 
this direction. A favorite camping place for 
these caravans was at Cottonwood Springs, the 
best water supply along the entire route. A 
volume of water as large around as the huh of 
a wagon wheel, and as cold as ice. continually 
pours out from Cottonwood Springs, creating 
quite a little stream or creek along the hanks 
of which a small forest has grown. It was 
this cool water and the welcome shade that in- 
duced the army caravans and the immigrants 

to camp here. This greatly appreciated spring- 
is in the heart of the city of Davenport, county 
seat of Lincoln county. 

In 1882 and 1883 Lincoln county suffered 
from a most peculiar pest — the cricket s 
Pioneers tell us that the cricket epoch was the 
most remarkable ever encountered in a new- 
country. Myriads of large, black crickets, 
measuring from one to two inches long swarmed 
out of the earth and up through the snow, and 
devastated the fields for two seasons. They 
made their first appearance in 1882. Settlers 
combined their forces and dug ditches, sur- 
rounding their farms with pits five rods apart, 
and men, women and children worked day and 
night with brooms, sweeping the pests into pits 
and destroying them. The hulk of their crops 
destroyed, families subsisted on peas and fish 
throughout the season. It people could have 
obtained the means to escape, the country would 
have been dep< ipulated. The scourge was w< >rse 
during the year 1883 than the previous season. 
The appearance of the crickets the third year 
created a panic among the settlers. The peo 
pie fully realized that the destruction of the 
crops then meant rum. But they met the enemy 
with the courage of true Washingtonians — a 
courage which then amounted almost to fero- 
city. Deeper were dug the ditches, their mileage 
was extended, and the broom brigades fought 
with the desperation of people forced to tight. 
for their lives. Just as the insects were about 
to conquer for the third time and the settlers 
were almost ready to yield in despair, a heavy 
rain set in, succeeded by frost and the crickets 
tumbled into the pits to rise therefrom no more. 
Great was the rejoicing when it became known 
that the cricket pest was completely extermin- 

Prior to the organization of Lincoln coun- 
ty, in 1883, very little was known of tin 
try then called "Western Spokane County," ex- 
cept by those who had actually taken up a resi- 
dence in the new district. There were no. rail- 
roads ami n ■ stage lines. Occasionallv some 

7 6 


party would make an extended trip on horse- 
back to the western country, the journey re- 
quired many days and numerous hardships. 
Returning he would give flowery descriptions 
of the fertility of this vast region, then contain- 
ing but a few scattered settlers ; hardy pioneers 
who had held their place in the van of the ad- 
vance of civilization. Such was the condition 
of affairs when the county was organized. At 
the time of the organization of Lincoln county 
it was quite sparcely settled. Farms and farm 
houses were few and far between. Few acres 
of the fertile soil had been mutilated by the 
plow. There were no luxuries; few comforts 
of life. The occasional road was only an in- 
distinct ribbon across the broad expanse of un- 
broken plain, as erratic in its course as the 
steps of a drunken sailor. Everything was in 
the rude, primitive condition common to west- 
ern pioneer life. Sprague was the only town, 
given some importance by being the end of a 
division on the Northern Pacific railroad. 
Harrington and Davenport . were villages, the 
rudest, cheapest looking, most uninviting im- 
aginable, and Reardan, Wilbur, Almira. Ed- 
wall, Odessa and other now flourishing towns 
were not dreamed of. 

Not without strong opposition did the coun- 
ty of Lincoln come into existence. Perhaps no 
other county in Washington encountered more 
determined antagonism than this. Judge N. T. 
Caton, at present a practicing attorney at Dav- 
enport, was the author of the bill creating Lin- 
coln county. At that period he was a resident 
of Walla Walla county and was serving in the 
Territorial Council. The settlers of the terri- 
tory proposed to be cut off from Spokane coun- 
ty were unanimously in favor of the bill. The 
only opposition was from the Northern Pacific 
Railway Company, yet it was nearly powerful 
enough to defeat the bill. The reason for the 
railway's opposition was this: The Northern 
Pacific Company had determined that Cheney 
should be the coming town of eastern Wash- 

ington. Spokane Falls was to remain a village. 
Cheney was the county seat and would, un- 
doubtedly have remained so for many years 
with the old Spokane county intact. With the 
setting off of the western portion the railway 
company saw that Spokane Falls would be able 
to secure the county seat as it was more cen- 
trally located. With the building of the North- 
ern Pacific road and the location of headquar- 
ters at the little town of Sprague, which came 
into life with the building of the road, Spokane, 
Cheney and Sprague, all of which were then in 
Spokane county, entered upon a rivalry that at 
times became more interesting than friendly. 
Cheney had been successful over Spokane in a 
county seat contest ; Spokane formed an alliance 
with Sprague by the terms of which there was 
to be a new vote on the county seat question, 
and Lincoln county was to be organized with 
Sprague as the county seat. The combination 
worked, and a bill was passed by the legislature 
providing for a revote in the Spokane county 
seat contest. The success of the latter part of 
this agreement will be seen by a further perusal - 
of this history. 

The bill as originally introduced in the 
Council provided for the naming of the new 
county Sprague, in honor of John W. Sprague, 
at that time general superintendent and agent 
of the Northern Pacific Railway. It did not 
name Davenport as the temporary county seat, 
but left the location of the county seat with the 
voters. How the county came to be named Lin- 
coln instead of Sprague is told by Judge Caton, 
the author of the bill, and its most ardent sup- 
porter ; Colonel Houghton, who had been form- 
erly in the employment of the Northern Pacific 
Company looking after the company's lands, 
was not on friendly terms with John W. 
Sprague. Colonel Houghton was a member of 
the Territorial Legislature of 1883, and op- 
posed the bill for the creation of Sprague coun- 
ty. It appeared to Mr. Caton that much of this 
opposition might arise from the proposed name 



of the new county. He sought an interview 
with the ex-official of the Northern Pacific kail- 
road Company. 

"Colonel," said Mr. Caton, "it appears to 
me that we are making' a mistake in naming 
this new county after a living person. One can 
never be sure in such a case that the name will 
reflect credit upon the community. On the 
other hand if we name it after some one who 
has gone before and upon whose name there 
can be no stain, we run no risk of the name dis- 
gracing us. Now, as we are naming the other 
counties in the Big Bend country after noted 
Americans who have passed away, what do you 
say to changing the name of this one from 
Sprague to Lincoln ?" 

"Just the proper thing," replied Colonel 
Houghton, and from that time he became a 
supporter of the bill. 

The measure passed the Council without a 
dissenting vote, but in the house it was strongly 
opposed. I. X. Peyton in 1883 was associated 
with J. C. Davenport in the control of the town- 
site of Davenport, and through his influence the 
bill was amended so as to name Davenport as 
the temporary county seat. In this form, but 
not without opposition, it passed the house. It 
will thus be seen that the first county seat right 
in Lincoln county occurred prior to the creation 
of the county. Judge Caton and the supporters 
of the Lincoln county bill in the Council did 
not desire to have any town named as the tem- 
porary county seat, wishing to leave the matter 
entirely in the hands of the voters, but to fail 
to promptly concur in the house amendment 
would prove fatal to the passage of the meas- 
ure at this session, as only a few days remained. 
The Council, therefore, promptly concurred, al- 
though much pressure was brought to defeat 
the bill. Mr. Caton was offered $1,000 to use 
his influence against concurring in the house 

Concerning the manner in which Davenport 
was named as the temporary county seat of 

Lincoln county in the bill creating the county, 
the Sprague Herald of July 2$, 1890, said: 

"The bill named Sprague as the temporary 
county seat and also contained a provision for 
the permanent location of a county seat bj pop 
ular vote of the people. When the measure 
reached the house later on it was referred to the 
committee on counties in that branch. Colonel 
I. X. Peyton succeeded in having the name of 
Sprague struck from the bill and Davenport in- 
serted. The people of Cheney were opposed to 
the bill because the division of Spokane county, 
of which Cheney was at that time the county 
seat, meant their death knell. It was thought 
this change would kill the bill, for the wildest 
imagination never supposed a county seat would 
be located at a place thirty miles from a rail- 
way and telegraphic communication, and ap- 
proachable only by wagon roads which during 
the winter were impassable, and that, too, a 
place existing only in name. But the people of 
Sprague concluded to accept the bill as amend- 
ed relying on the good sense of the voters of 
Lincoln county to restore her birthright, in 
which she was not disappointed." 

The substitution of Davenport for Sprague 
as the county seat in the Lincoln county bill 
came perilously near defeating the measure. 
Xovember 20, X. T. Caton presented a petition 
to the council signed by 420 persons, objecting 
to Davenport being named as the capital of the 
county "as there are only two houses in that 
locality, and it is forty miles from any railroad 


In a later number of the Herald ap] 

the following : 

"When the bill finally came from the com- 
mittee on counties, through some occult influ- 
ence Davenport was substituted for Sprague. 
It was supposed at that time that Cheney, actu- 
ated bj spite, and some of the people of Spo- 
kane at least, who owned property in Daven- 
port from motives of profit, had brought un- 
due influence to bear upon a member i<\ that 



committee to make the change. When the peo- 
ple of Sprague had been apprised thereof they 
were justly indignant. A mass-meeting was 
held which was attended by Senator White- 
house and others from Spokane who endeavor- 
ed to explain the change. Sprague had it in her 
power to kill the bill and allow the division of 
Spokane county to go by default, and that ques- 
tion was under consideration. But one of her 
citizens being called upon for an opinion spoke 
in substance as follows : 

" "It is true, fellow citizens, that we have 
been betrayed and deceived. We have asked 
for bread and have been given a stone. Whether 
Spokane and her delegation are responsible for 
this I know not, but this I know, that so long 
as we remain in the same county with Spokane 
Falls so long will we be dominated by Spokane 
capital and Spokane influence. It is better, 
therefore, for us to cut loose therefrom — accept 
the bill, then, even in its obnoxious form, and 
trust to the whirligig of time to set all things 

"This reasoning prevailed and Spokane 
county was divided. - ' 

The bill for the division of Spokane county 
and the creation of Lincoln county passed the 
house November i, 1883, by a vote of 13 to 9, 
as follows : Ayes — Barlow, Blackwell, Brooks, 
Clark, Coply, Kincaid, Kuhn, Martin, Miles, 
Shaw, Shoudy, Young and Mr. Speaker. Nays 
— Besserer, Brining, Foster, Goodell, Hun- 
gate, Lloyd, Ping, Stitzel, Warner, Absent, 
Turpin. The bill was passed amid much excite- 
ment. There was a large audience in the gal- 
leries. Jacob Stitzel made a strong speech op- 
posing the measure and was followed by Mr. 
Smallwood, who, upon invitation by the house, 
spoke in advocacy of the bill. 

Following is the text of the measure as it 
finally passed : 

An Act to create and organize the County of Lincoln. 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly 

of the Territory of Washington: That all that portion 

of Spokane county, Washington Territory, described as 

follows : Beginning at the point in Tonwship No. 27 
north, where the Colville guide meridian between ranges 
39 and 40 east, Willamette meridian, intersects the 
Spokane river, and running thence south along said 
meridian line to the township line between townships 
numbered 20 and 21 north ; thence west along said town- 
ship line to its intersection with the Columbia guide 
meridian between ranges numbered 30 and 31, east 
Willamette meridian ; thence south along said meridian 
line to the township line between townships numbered 
16 and 17 north ; thence west on said township line to 
the range line between ranges 27 and 28 east. Willa- 
mette meridian ; thence south on said range line to the 
section line between sections numbered 24 and 25 in 
township No. 14, north of range No. 27 east, Willamette 
meridian ; thence west on said section line to the mid- 
channel of the Columbia river; thence up said river in 
the middle of the channel thereof to the mouth of the 
Spokane river, in the middle of the channel thereof, 
to the place of beginning, shall be known and designated 
as the county of Lincoln. 

Sec. 2. That John Bartol, Edward D. Willis and 
John McGourin are hereby appointed county commis- 
sioners of said county of Lincoln. 

Sec. 3. The county commissioners above named are 
hereby authorized within twenty days after the approval 
of this act, and upon ten days notice, to qualify and enter 
upon the discharge of their duties as such commission- 
ers, and" are hereby empowered to appoint all necessary 
county officers necessary, to perfect the organization of 
said county ; and the county commissioners aforesaid, 
sheriff, auditor and the other officers' appointed shall 
hold their offices until the next general election and 
until their successors are elected and qualified accord- 
ing to law. 

Sec. 4. That the justices of the peace, constables, 
road supervisors and other precinct and school officers 
heretofore elected and qualified, and now acting as 
such, residing in that portion of Spokane county which 
is by the provisions of this act included in the county 
of Lincoln, are hereby continued as such officers in said 
county of Lincoln until the next general election, and 
until their successors are elected and qualified. 

Sec. 5. That all taxes levied and assessed for the 
year 1S83 upon the persons and property within the 
boundaries of Lincoln county, as herein described, shall 
be collected and paid to the treasurer of the county of 
Spokane, and shall thereafter be paid upon demand, 
according to assessment, to the treasurer of the county 
of Lincoln. 

Sec. 6. The county auditor of Lincoln county is 
hereby authorized to take transcripts of all records, 
documents and other papers on file or of record, in the 
office of the county auditor of Spokane county, which 
may be necessary to perfect the records of said Lincoln 
county, and for this purpose he shall have access to 
the records of said Spokane county without cost. 

Sec. 7. The county seat of the county of Lincoln 



is hereby located at the town of Davenport temporarily, 
until the same shall be permanently located by a vote of 
the electors of said comity at the next general election. 
At the next general election the permanent location of 
th county seat of Lincoln shall be submitted to the 
qualified electors of said county, and the place receiving 
the majority of votes shall be the permanent county 
seat of Lincoln comity. 

Sec. 8. The county of Lincoln shall be attached to 
the county of Spokane for judicial and legislative pur- 
poses until otherwise provided. 

Sec. 9. This act shall take effect and be in force 
from and after its approval. 

Approved November 24. 1883. 

By tracing the boundaries of Lincoln coun- 
ty as described in the preceding act of the leg- 
islature it will be found to embrace the present 
counties of Lincoln and Douglas. It will, 
doubtless, prove news to a large majority of 
Lincoln county citizens that Lincoln county, at 
one time, included Douglas county, but such is 
the case. The bill creating Lincoln county was 
approved by the governor November 24, 1883, 
and it was four days later, or on November 28, 
that the Douglas county bill was approved. 
Of course there had been no county government 
organized during this time, but the Douglas 
county bill reads "all that part of Lincoln coun- 
ty, etc." 

The creation of Douglas, took from terri- 
tory of Lincoln county, described in the act, the 
following. All that portion of the county 
bounded as follows: Beginning at a point 
where the Columbia guide meridian intersects 
the Columbia river on the northern boundary 
of Lincoln county, and thence running south on 
said Columbia guide meridian to the township 
line, between townships Nos. i<> ami 17; thence 
running west on said township line to the range 
line between ranges 2"] and 28; thence south on 
said range line to the section line between sec- 
tions 24 and 25, in township 14, north, range 
27 east; thence west on said section line to 1 1 ic- 
mid-channel of the Columbia river: thence up 
said channel of said river to the place of be- 
ginning. This left Lincoln county with boun- 
daries as they are today. Nearly every year 

since that time some eft' it has been made to 
divide the county, but as yet success has not 
crowned these efforts. 

The birth of Lincoln county dates from De- 
cember 18, 1883. On that day John Bartol, E. 
1). Willis and John McGourin, who had been 
named as commissioners in the act authorizing 
the organization of Lincoln county, convened 
at Davenport, the temporary a unity seat. ' There 
was present with these gentlemen Attorney S. 
C. Hyde. Having taken the oath of office the 
board at once proceeded to business. Commis- 
sioner Bartol was elected chairman. Arrange- 
ments were made with Barney Fitzpatrick for 
the rent of a building, 24x36 feet in size, at $10 
per month for the use of the o unity officers who 
were named by the commissioners. 

The creation of this new county was the 
signal for the influx of hundreds of settlers. 
People living at a distance learned of these rich, 
broad acres awaiting the advent of the husband- 
man and commenced floating in. Farms were 
soon under cultivation, villages sprang into 
existence and the region soon became known 
as the great wheat belt of the state of Wash- 

The month of November, [884, was accen- 
tuated by the most exciting event in the his- 
tory of Lincoln county; the struggle between 
the towns of Sprague and Davenport for. pos- 
session of the county records and the county 
seat. October 10, 1890, six years subsequently, 
tlie Lincoln County Times explained the condi- 
tions of 1884 as follows: 

"At the time Lincoln county was formed 
and Davenport was made the temporary county 
seat, the upper portion of the county was 
sparcely populated. A considerable number of 
people were collected around Davenport, better 
known as 'Cottonwood Springs,' Harrington, 
■ i and other points, while Sprague was 
ing town of 600 or 700 population. At 
the general election ^\ [884 the people were 
called upon to vote upon the location of the 
county seat. There were three candidates for 



the honor, Davenport, Harrington and Sprague. 
The campaign preceding the election was hot 
and furious. At that time women were entitled 
to the ballot. As a matter of course few voters 
entitled to a vote failed to exercise that privil- 
ege, while considering the extent of the popula- 
tion, the figures would indicate that the purity 
of the ballot was not a feature of the election. 
The total vote polled was 2,277. Oi tn ' s num- 
ber Sprague received 1,256; Davenport, 819; 
and Harrington, 202. Sprague cast 1,023 

This contest was, indeed, spirited. Preced- 
ing election day Davenport was hopeful ; even 
jubilant. But the majority vote declared that 
Sprague was to be the permanent county seat 
of Lincoln county. Charges of fraud were at 
once preferred. Sprague on that day cast over 
one thousand votes. This, it was alleged, were 
as many, if not more, than the entire roster of 
the inhabitants of the town. It is a matter of 
record that this number is nearly twice as many 
as the town polled before or since that eventful 
day. Many stories are told of how Sprague 
"got out'' its vote in this election. In the heat 
of another, county seat fight six years later, the 
editor of the Lincoln County Times tells his 
version of how the town of Sprague won the 
contest of 1884 : 

"By invading the holy sanctity of God's 
acre, where hallowed ground is bedewed with 
the tears of broken-hearted mourners and vot- 
ing the names inscribed upon the marble shafts 
sacred to the memory of some beloved one. By 
forcing little innocent children to vote, whose 
very natures, guided in the paths of probity 
through the influence of the orisons whispered 
at the mother's knee, rebelled against the crime. 
By voting passengers on through trains who 
had no more interest in Lincoln county than 
the natives of Alaska, and who, without con- 
sidering the responsibility of defrauding a peo- 
ple, looked upon the transaction as a joke." 

Concerning the fraudulent voting at the con- 
test of 1884 the Wilbur Register presents as 

dispassionate a view as can be secured. No- 
vember 20, 1 896, it said : 

"Had the election laws at that time been as 
strict as they are now in the state, which was 
then the Territory of Washington, the perman- 
ent location would have been made to the satis- 
faction of all concerned. Then a simple ma- 
jority was all that was required to locate or re- 
locate a county seat. Besides all persons of 
either sex who had arrived at the age of twen- 
ty-one years could vote for, Territorial officers 
anywhere in the Territory, and for county offi- 
cers or county issues anywhere in the county. 
There was no secret ballot and interested par- 
ties could prepare the ballot and conduct the 
elector to the polling place — never leaving him 
until his ticket was deposited. There was much 
talk of fraudulent voting, both by residents and 
non-residents of. the county; and the charge 
that men who then resided in Sprague inveigled 
boys and girls scarcely in their 'teens to vote at 
that election has never been disproven. 

"Many indictments were brought for illegal 
voting, but by some hocus-pocus none of them 
ever reached trial. The recollection is that they 
were quashed on the ground that the grand jury 
was itself illegally convened." 

The people of Sprague replied to the resi- 
dents of Davenport with counter charges. The 
Sprague Herald thus speaks of the 1884 elec- 
tion : 

"In that election Davenport polled 192 votes 
on the county seat question, while in 1886, two 
years later, her entire vote was 79. And yet in 
the face of these figures she has the audicity to 
charge fraud upon the people of Sprague." 

Mr. David Vinyard states : 

"A number of Sprague people were arrested 
on charges of illegal voting at the 1884 election, 
and were tried at Cheney, then the county seat 
of Spokane county, but no convictions resulted. 
Feeling between the citizens of the two towns 
was strong during these trials and the shedding 
of blood was narrowly averted in one or two 

-■# <*#! 




Following the election the board of can- 
vassers reported their findings to the board of 
county commissioners, and at 2:30 o'clock, en 
the morning of November 13th, the heard hav- 
ing been in continuous session since two o'clock 
of the day before, the commissioners passed the 
following order: "Whereas it appearing to the 
satisfaction of the board that the city of Sprague 
has received a majority of the votes cast for 
county seat, it was moved, seconded and carried 
that this board adjourn to meet at Sprague No- 
vember 13th, at 2 o'clock p. m., and advise the 
county auditor to notify the other county offi- 
cers to remove their offices to that place as soon 
as convenient." 

In accordance with this order the commis- 
sioners met at Sprague at 2 o'clock on the after- 
noon of the 14th. There were present in ad- 
dition to all the commissioners the sheriff, pro- 
hate judge and treasurer. Attorneys were 
called in to consult the board relative to procur- 
ing the records from Davenport. In the mean- 
time the auditor was instructed to purchase the 
necessary books and papers to transact the busi- 
ness of his office and the other county offices. 
A few clays later a building was leased from 1 1. 
\\ . Fairweather for court house purposes, at 
a rental of $35 per month. At this meeting of 
the 14th the board passed the following order: 

"Whereas, It appears from the official count 
of the votes cast at the late general election made 
by the hoard of canvassers, that the city of 
Sprague has received a majoritj of all the votes 
cast at said election for county seat, and there- 
fore, by virtue of section 9, page 20, laws ol 
Washington, [883, is the lawful count) seat 
of Lincoln county; therefore the county audi- 
tor, the county treasurer, sheriff and judge ol 
probate court are hereb) ordered to remove 
their records and offices to the cit} of Sprague 
in Lino 'In o >unty." 

It was not within the power of the commis- 
sioners to legislate the records to Sprague, how- 
ever. On the 1 5th the board took official notice 

that the records were forcibly detained in Dav- 
enport by passing the following order. 

"It is hereby ordered by the board that; 
Whereas, It has come to the knowledge 
of the hoard that the public records of 
the county have been forcibly taken from 
the possession of the different officers, 
who are the legal custodians thereof, and 
are in danger of being injured or destroyed, and 
the public business is greatly retarded; There- 
fore the prosecuting attorney is hereby ordered 
to take such legal measures as may he necessary 
to recover to the proper officers the po- 
of the records of Lincoln county." 

Meetings were held every day by the board, 
at which the best methods of securing the rec- 
ords were discussed. On the 18th the hoard 
decided to call on the Territorial government 
for aid in securing the records. Accordingly 
the following telegram was dispatched to the 
governor : 

"W. C. Squires. Governor Washington 
Territory. ( )lympia, Washington Term 

"An armed mob has forcibly taken pi 
sion of our count}- records and refuse to dc 
liver them to the proper county officers. The 
sheriff is unable to disperse the mob or re- 
cover the records. Can you assist our sheriff? 
Please answer. "John Bartol, 

"\\. \. Busey, 
"Ji ilm Mci ,. inriii. 

"County Commissioners Lincoln county. 
Washingti m Territory." 

Sheriff John Cody also telegraphed as 
lows to the gi iverni >r : 

"\\ . C. Squires, < iovernor \\ asli 
Territ >r\ . < Hympia, W. T. 

"An armed force has seized the records oi 
the county and refuse to deliver the same t<> 
the proper county officers. I am unablt 
sufficient aid to recover the records or disperse 
the rriob. Can you assist me? 1 'lease answer. 

"John Cody, Sheriff Lincoln county. 
"\\. T. Sprague, November [8, 1884." 



On the other hand the people of Daven- 
port and the settlers in the upper portion of the 
county, believing that the election had been car- 
ried by fraudulent means, dispatched a mes- 
senger post haste to procure an injunction re- 
straining the county officials from removing 
the records from Davenport until an investiga- 
tion could be made. Meantime the roads lead- 
ing into Davenport from all directions were 
lined with men carrying muskets, revolvers, 
Winchesters and other weapons of warfare, all 
determined to hold the fort at Davenport. For 
three long weeks night and day did they guard 
and garrison the city. A ditch on the hillside 
in the town, and a ridge marks the place where 
breastworks were thrown up. They are pointed 
out to the visitor to this day — memorials of that 
perilous period. During these weeks of "mili- 
tary law" the men at their posts were anxiously 
looking for the promised injunction which, for 
the time being, would make the records secure. 
But in vain. The injunction was not secured. 
Becoming weary of waiting one by one the 
members of the "army" returned to their 
homes. Meanwhile Sprague was awaiting her 
opportunity. Suddenly a force swept down 
upon Davenport from sixty to one hundred 
strong and armed to the teeth. No resistance 
was made. Davenport surrendered the county 
records. Yet it was not a complete surrender 
as is shown in a later event in the history of 
this county. Martin J. Maloney was at the 
head of the army of deputies who came up from 
Sprague and removed the county records from 
Davenport. In describing this memorable event 
in the history of the county the Lincoln County 
Times in after years said : 

"It was a serious matter at the time, but 
many is the laugh the old timers have had over 
it since. Mr. Maloney marshaled his hosts on 
the brow of the ridge at the head of Harker 
street. The defenders of the court house had 
.rifle pits along the slope of the opposite ridge 
where the court house now stands. The creek 
was a dead-line, and the blood-curdlins: an- 

nouncement was made that the man with the 
hardihood to attempt to cross this stream would 
have his anatomy full of button-holes. Every- 
body was in deadly earnest. But the Sprague 
contigent was after the records and they got 
them without the burning of powder or the 
spilling of gore. It is only due to the defenders 
to say that the force came down at an unex- 
pected moment when none of them were on 
duty. It is fortunate that the affair ended as 
it did. Still there was some excitement at- 
tendant on this raid. When Maloney drove 
across the creek and his errand became known 
the inflammable Dick Hutchinson stepped for- 
ward with a pistol as long as his arm and dared 
Maloney to shoot it out with him at twenty 
paces. But Maloney had business to attend to 
and refused to accommodate the warlike Dick 
with an exchange of shots. Those were great 
old days, and while a tinge of feeling may yet 
linger among a few of the participants, it is 
too slight to affect the friendships of longer 

Among the members of the sheriff's posse 
which went to Davenport and returned in tri- 
umph to the county seat were H. A. Langley, 
C. W. Scabron, Joseph Wormald, J. M. Hen- 
derson, George Monk, George Rhein, A. Rick- 
ert, William Calaran, W. O. Montgomery, A. 
J. Jessup, C. E. Jones, A. Riggs, P. Dencer, 
C. F. Martin, J. Dunlap, E. D. Coffee, John 
Kelly, Rosengren, A. Turnbull, L. Patterson, 
T. Murphy. S. W. George, L. Matthews, 
Thomas O'Brien, \Y Murry, Charles Shields, 
J. F. Murray, O. Lavin, H. E. Bedford, John 
O. Griffin, H. S. Hughes, Frank Wall, E. G. 
Pendleton. Others who took part in this his- 
tory-making period of the county as deputy 
sheriffs and guards of county property were 
Martin J. Maloney, J. C. Burns. J. H. Fried- 
lander, Lee A. Wilson, James Nelson and C. E. 

The dramatic story of Sprague s capture of 
the county records from Davenport is one 
which the few now living who participated 



in the historical event never tire of relating. It 
must he admitted that feeling ran high at this 
crucial period, and one of the most remarkable 
features connected with the affair is that it 
was unaccompanied by bloodshed. To David 
Vinyard, who since 1880 has been a resident 
of Sprague, and who was an active participant 
in the removal of the Lincoln county records, 
we are indebted for the following account of 
the complication : 

"We left Sprague about 180 strong armed 
to the teeth with rifles, and revolvers and each 
one with a commission as deputy sheriff. John 
Cody was sheriff of the county and, naturally, 
the leader of the party. The majority of us 
were horseback, although a number made the 
trip in carriages. I was, at the time, in the 
draying business, and drove over my dray 
wagon for the purpose of carrying back the 
county records — and you may believe that we 
were determined to bring them back. It was 
no summer picnic that we were on. Of course 
we knew that the people of Davenport and the 
country in that vicinity had for some time been 
under arms and were not likely to surrender 
the records without a fight, but we were out 
to get them and were prepared for any emer- 
gency. On our way over we threw up en- 
trenchments at different places where we could 
stop and defend ourselves if attacked on our 
way back. The trip to Davenport was with- 
out particular incident. Arriving there we dis- 
covered that entrenchments had been thrown 
Up in various places, but the majority of the 
defenders we found had retired to their ranches. 
They had been on guard for three weeks, and 
many had returned home to look after their 

"Our party advanced upon the trenches 
and finding them unoccupied we stationed our- 
selves behind the breastworks which the Daven- 
port defenders had erected, and coming to the 
building which held the county records and 
which had served as a temporary court house 
we found two men on guard on the outside. 

These we quickly captured. Then we ap- 
proached the court house. Sheriff Cody rapped 
on the door and a man of powerful build, with 
a rifle in his hand, opened the door just wide 
enough to look out. The next instant the di » >r 
went down with a crash and the defender was 
looking into the muzzle of Sheriff Cody's six- 
shooter. He was quickly disarmed as were, 
also, three other men, who were on guard in- 
side the building. While the rest of the posse 
were on guard in the entrenchments around 
the court house, about twenty of our men set 
to work loading the records on to the wagon 
and in a very short time we were on the back 
trail for Sprague with the precious records in 
our charge. On our way back and before we 
had left Davenport very far behind we met two 
parties of armed men on their way to Daven- 
port. They had received word that we were 
after the records and were coming to the rescue. 
The parties were too small to show resistence, 
but with threats that we would never cross 
Crab creek with the books they hurried on to 
Davenport for the purpose of raising a force to 
intercept us before we could reach In .me. 
However, we were not molested and landed 
the documents safely in the new county scat." 

According to Territorial Governor Sam- 
ple's report for 1887 the value of taxable prop- 
erty in Lincoln county in 1885 was $1,623,- 
405; in 1887, $2,069,085, an increase in two 
years of $445,590. November 29, 1886, the 
county commissioners accepted the court house 
erected at Sprague by Chris P. Nygard, the 
builder. The cost of this structure was in the 
neighborhood of $10,000. The Lincoln County 
Times, in a reminiscent mood, wrote as fol- 
lows concerning conditions from 1SS5 to 1890: 

"The pioneer settlers enjoyed a few privi- 
leges, and no luxuries, but they were not har- 
rassed with debts. ( Government lands could not 
be mortgaged and settlers were compelled to 
pay as they went. They did not have money 
to pay with, but they traded around so as to 
balance accounts. So long as this time hon- 


ored practice prevailed the people were com- 
paratively happy and contented, and did not 
much concern themselves about a gold standard 
or a silver standard, a high or low tariff. 
There were enthusiastic partisans then as later, 
but the notion had not yet taken possession of 
them that their individual prosperity depended 
upon directing the affairs of the national gov- 
ernment upon any new plan. This became the 
dream of later years. How well are the pros- 
perous years betwen 1885 and 1890 remem- 
bered! This was the era of money borrowing, 
when mortgaging farms became a mania. Fic- 
titious values were placed on property; the 
speculative spirit was at its height, and there 
was no limit to credit. This was believed to 
be a time of prosperity, and no one stopped to 
think that a day of reckoning must come. But 
it finally did come and without much warning. 
Many who had cansidered themselves well off 

who had made partial payments on a lot of 

property, suddenly found their resources for 
raising money cut off. and their property grad- 
ually slipping away from them." 

December 29, 1899, the Times continued: 
"From 1889 to 1893 the state of Wash- 
ington passed through a feverish and unnatural 
boom. There was not a city, town or hamlet 
in the state that did not expect to become a 

second Chicago, and in Lincoln county there 
were several places that had aspirations. Peo- 
ple were afflicted with a town lot mania. In- 
flation was the order of the day ami the most 
unheard of values were placed on town prop- 
erty, with nothing in sight, or even prospective, 
to justify such figures. Several towns of the 
county were touched with the spell of this mad- 
ness, and people talked of $500 a front foot 
for lots, when butting up against the back doors 
of the few houses of the prospective city was 
a limitless expanse of almost unoccupied terri- 
tory, much of which was open to homestead or. 
pre-emption, with a government price affixed 
thereto of $2.50 per acre. But those were great 
days and the man who talked a few hundred 
a foot front made himself imagine that in a 
short time the same lots would reach the thou- 

According to the United States census of 
1890 the population of Lincoln county was 
9,312. In 1900 it had jumped to 11.969, and 
in 1903 to 18.571. This is an increase of 55^ 
per cent, in three years, the eighth largest in- 
crease of any county in the state in point of 
numbers. The 1903 census is estimated from 
school statistics taken from the school reports 
of the several county superintendents. 


CURRENT EVENTS— 1887 TO 1896. 

Rather too sanguine hopes were awakened 
in the minds of Davenport residents in Jan- 
uary, 1887, by unfounded railroad enthusiasm. 
The moving spring of this unwarranted ex- 
citement was the survey of the "Sprague & 
Big Bend Railroad" from the town of 
Sprague to '-Wild Goose Bill's," a distance of 

1 forty-two miles. It was the claim of the engi- 
neer at that time that this road could be built 
for $7,000 a mile. It was. also, the recom- 
mendation of Major Sears that a branch road 
lie built to tap the Mondovi, Fairview & Dav- 
enport countries, leaving the main line at 
Minnie Falls Mills, on Crab creek. This line 


he estimated could lie constructed for $4,000 
per mile. But nothing eventuated from either 
of these schemes and gradually the well-ad- 
vertised details of the enterprise faded from 
menu >ry. 

October 3, 1887, a number of towns in 
Lincoln county were placed in telephonic com 
munication with Spokane. W. S. Norman, a 
well-known telephone expert and manager, of 
the hitter city, purchased from the United 
States government the telegraph line between 
Fort Spokane and the "Falls," which he at 
once transformed into a telephone line. Offices 
Avere established at Deep Creek, Mondovi, 
Davenport, Egypt Postoffice, and at the Post, 
which was the terminus of the line. This was 
known as the Spokane, Big Bend & Fort Spo- 
kane Telephone Company. It was of incalcu- 
lable benefit to towns within the system, and 
the enterprise displayed by Air. Norman was 
duly appreciated. 

The year 1887 was one punctuated with 
railroad projects. In December Northern Pa- 
cific surveyors invaded Lincoln county and ran 
lines for a contemplated railroad. They were 
under the direction of H. S. Hudson, chief 
civil engineer of the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road Company, and Major J. I. Jamison. 

April 2j. 1888, word was received thai 
the contract for grading the first sixty miles 
of the Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern Rail- 
road from Spokane Falls westward into the 
Big Bend country, had been let to the firm of 
Burns & Chapman, the prominent contractors. 
I'lie closing of this contract was the occasion 
of mutual congratulations among Davenport 
citizens. Spokane Falls had been asked to 
subscribe for $175,000 worth of stock. This 
had been dune, the entire amount being raised 
within four days from the time of opening 
the stock books. One of the provisions of 
this subscription was that forty miles of the 
road should be equipped in time to transport 
the season's crop. 

May 17. 1888. the following correspond- 

ence from Cheney. Spokane county, appeared 

in the Portland Oregonian : 

"The presence of Engineer Jamison, of the 
Northern Pacific Railway Company, in this 
place, and the fact that he has been quietly 
purchasing rights of way for die much talked 
of railroad from Cheney to Medical Lake and 
thence to the Big Bend country, has again ex- 
cited the hopes of the people to a high pitch, 
although they have been unable to learn any- 
thing official about the future. That which 
apparently gives point to the action of Mr. 
Jamison in the eyes of the people here is that 
he should appear promptly after work had 
been actually begun on the Spokane end of the 
Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern railway, and 
the definite location of its line, a distance >>t 
forty miles in the direction of the I'.ig Bend 
country. Appearances indicate that either a 
big game of bluff is being played by some- 
body, or there is going to be some lively work 
done by these rival roads, and that, tun, in the 
near future, while, as has been already stated. 
there are some circumstances which the peo- 
ple here think are full of suggestion." 

About this time Paul F. Mohr, chief engi- 
neer of the Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern 
Railroad, said in an interview : 

"Work on the line is progressing fairly 
well. The contract has been let to Ryan & Mc- 
Donald, of New York, and Smith & Burns, of 
Baltimore, to build the entire uncompleted 
portion of the line from Squak, forty-two 
miles east of Seattle, to Davenport, in Lin- 
coln county, which is the terminus of the fifty- 
mile portion now under construction westward 
from Spokane Fall-. The distance is J40 
miles, and this part of the road must be fin- 
ished within two years. Chapman & Burns 
are building that portion of the line westward 
from Spokane Falls to Davenport, and will 
finish it about September 1st." 

Mr. Mohr gave the following a- the course 
of the road east of the Cascades: 

"It will pass at. or near. Ellensburg, but, 



possibly, not through it. From Snoqualmie 
Pass to Ellensburg, the Seattle, Lake Shore & 
Eastern will parallel the Northern Pacific. 
Thence it will run southeastwardly to near 
Priest Rapids, the head of navigation on the 
Columbia River, thence northeasterly to Dav- 
enport; thence easterly to Spokane Falls." 

Such was the condition of Lincoln county 
railway affairs in August, 1888. On the 27th 
instant Frank M. Gray, of Davenport, re- 
ceived the following wire from D. F. Percival, 
Cheney : 

"Grading forces commenced here on Big 
Bend road (Central Washington) this morn- 
ing under Contractor Hunt. Large force of 
men at work ; more will be put on. Work will 
be pushed as fast as possible to Davenport." 

Within a few days after the reception of 
this cheerful message about four hundred 
graders were throwing dirt at different points 
between Cheney and Davenport, and on Octo- 
ber 26th Mr. Percival again wired Mr. Gray 
from Cheney : 

"Track layers on the Cheney & Davenport 
(Central Washington) road commenced this 
morning from here. Look out for the keers 
when the bell rings." 

Tuesday, November 27th the first train 
on the Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern Railroad 
made its appearance at Medical Lake, Spo- 
kane county. At that time Wheatdale was its 
terminal point toward which it was building 
at the rate of two miles a day. It was the 
plan of the projectors of this road to complete 
forty-five miles to Wheatdale, near Daven- 
port, by December 1, 188S, and then cease 
work for the winter, going forward to the 
mouth of the Wenatchee river, on the Colum- 
bia, the following season. At the same period 
the plan of the projectors of the Central Wash- 
ington road was to "construct a railroad from 
a point on the main line of the Northern Pa- 
cific, at or near the town of Cheney, in Spo- 
kane county, extending thence in a general 
northwesterly direction to a point at, or near 

the town of Davenport, in Lincoln county ; 
thence in a general northwesterly direction to 
the west side of what is known as the middle 
crossing of the Grand Coulee, in Douglas 
county, in the Big Bend country, and thence 
in a general westerly and south westerly direc- 
tion to an eligible point on the Columbia, near 
the mouth of the Wenatchee river, in the 
county of Douglas, all in the Territory of 

Thus it will be readily perceived that these 
two companies had thrown out surveys over 
practically the same routes. But the first train 
to arrive "at or near Davenport," was a con- 
struction train of the Seattle, Lake Shore & 
Eastern Railway Company. This was on De- 
cember 3, 1888, and yet this terminus was 
then several miles south of town. From this 
point freight and passengers were conveyed 
to Davenport by teams. At this period travel 
was brisk and many hack and freight wagons 
were in active commission caring for the large 
volume of trade. At one time it was seri- 
ously considered by the company to build a 
rival town at the terminal point. Still Daven- 
port possessed so many advantages in the way 
of location and eligibility that this idea was 

January 1, 1889, the Central Washington 
was graded into Davenport and track-laying 
was proceeding as fast as practicable. Feb- 
ruary 14th this road had come within the cor- 
porate limits of Davenport; the town now 
had its first direct rail communication with the 
outside world. Heretofore the work of track- 
laying in the eastern portion of Lincoln county 
had been seriously hampered by snow and 
severe weather. Consequently the date of the 
arrival of the initial train was somewhat later 
than had been anticipated. Tuesday, February 
1 2th, the working crew, the steam track-layer 
and the train accompanying with material had 
swung into sight around the bend, a mile or 
more to the east. All day Wednesday the 
crew worked steadily onward toward the depot 



grounds, arriving in town that evening", the 
finishing touches being given to the road on 
the day following. The scene of operations 
was visited Wednesday by crowds of people 
anxious to witness the automatic working of 
the patent track-layer. Each face was wreathed 
with a smile of satisfaction, and it was the 
universal opinion that this grand entree of a 
railroad was destined to insure a rapid growth 
of the town and increased prosperity. It was, 
in fact, a gratifying realization of one of those 
crowning events in the annals of a community 
that invariably meets hearty approval, and often 
enthusiastic commendation. Small worider 
that upon this consummation of their hopes 
the citizens congratulated each other. 

The construction of the Central Washing- 
ton railway was conducted with no grand 
flourish of trumpets or noisy demonstration. 
The company had decided to build into the Big 
Bend, and proceeded to carry out the plan with- 
out ostentation. No subsidy was voted, nor 
was the progress of the line advertised abroad. 
It was a business proposition, pure and simple, 
and as such it was carried out to a successful 
conclusion. The steady progress of the road 
was only anxiously watched by that section of 
country ready to reap the benefits of such a 
line. The construction was done under the di- 
rect supervision of Engineer C. F. Reardan, 
and in every respect the work was first-class. 
Inclemency of the weather occasionally 
checked work for a day or two, but the means 
employed for laying track were the most per- 
fect that the ingenuity of man had, si 1 Ear, 
produced, and with it Mr. Reardan pushed F01 
ward to his objective point. 

The Central Washington railroad b 
running regular trains to Davenport. The 
freight business of the Seattle, Lake Shore & 
Eastern railway dwindled away to absolutely 
nothing, temporarily, and much of the pas- 
senger traffic was. also. lost. Hut the latter 
road effected a coup. It arranged to deliver 
freight into Davenport at the same rates 

charged by the Central Washington, and. for 
awhile, so successfully did it carry out this 
plan that the contractor plying between the 
terminus of the road and Davenport had more 
business than he could conveniently handle. 

An immediate result of the construction of, 
a railway through a portion of Lincoln county 
was a large influx of settlers, especially during 
the spring of [889, and considerable land was 
purchased, pre-empted and homesteaded. 
June 14, 1889. General Tyner published the 
following concerning the wonderful change re- 
cently effected in Lincoln county: 

"Think of the short time ago when Lincoln 
county was an unknown quantity, as much so 
almost as Central Africa, and then think what 
three or four years have done. From an unoc- 
cupied prairie country given up to the rever- 
berating echoes of the howling coyote, or the 
paths of roaming Indians, now the railroad 
track has absorbed the Indian trail; the loco- 
motive the coyote's yelp; new depot- and ele- 
vators, steam elevators, which although but 
recently completed, handled over 100,000 
bushels of unsold wheat. Now the live news- 
paper puhlishes the events of the world which 
the cowboy formerly peddled to straggling 
camps. Now families are breaking up sod on 
great farms over which restless herds of stock 
grazed at will but a few moons ago. 

It may prove of interest to learn that in 
[888, less than jo years ago, there were in 
Lincoln county only 07 persons and firms who 
paid taxes on over 84.000 worth of property. 
The names of these and the amounts upon 
which they paid taxes at that period were: 

Northern Pacific Railway Company, $296,- 
788; First National Bank, Sprague, S--.000; 
Edward Ramm, $20,365; Harrington. Furth 
& Company, $25,400; John Enos, $19,800; 
Brown, Glasscock & Company, $16,095; E. 
M. Kinnear. 815.045: William Bigham, 815.- 
010: Gehres & Hertrich, 815.170; R. 0. 
Porak, 810.444: 11. W. Fairweather, $10,245; 
Hoffman & Stevens, $10,240; C. C. May. 


$9,780; G. M. & L. C. Fisher, $9,004; B. B. 
Glasscock, $9,595; J. H. Lamona, $9,535; 
John Balf, $8,505; Pauline Robbins, $8,555; 
J. H. Shields, $8,565; William Dittenhoefer, 
$8,525; William Greene, $8,110; Jensen, 
Brooke & Company,' $8,650; J. H. Nicholls 
and wife, $7,135: David Gunning. $7,030; 
John Hogan, $7,720; George Benninghoff, 
$7,890; R. M. Bacon. $6,960; C. Hartson. 
$6,016 James Hubbard. $6,335; Murphy & 
Burns, $6,215; Frank Ringuett, $6,135; Max 
Sussman, $6,310; G. C. Turner, $6,220; Poul- 
son & McKinnie, $5,025; P. Myer, $5,525; 
W. J. Burrows, $5,715; A. Sawyer. $5,350; 
Clay Fruit, $5,825; W. M. Stafford, $5,000; 
J. Walters, $5,275; C. W. Washburn, $5,870; 
E. M. Jones. $5,800; Adam Ludy. $5,040; 
C. O. Lybecker, $5,410; T. H. Brents. $5,460; 
W. N. Bowen, $4,420: Thomas Dawant. 
84,700; B. Fitzpatrick, $4,150: A. Dowell, 
$4,120; J. Harding, $4,020; D. X. Hyde, 
$4,590; I. Irby, $4,680; J. W. Johnson, 
$4,400; J. G. Kethroe, $4,625; Lafollette 
Brothers, $4,000; Joseph Lapray, $4,870: H. 
McCool, $4,525 ; H. McNeilly, $4,825 ; D. K. 
McPherson, $4,555; John Nee, $4,970: L. 
Popple, $4,350; I. Ravenaugh, $4,325: C. 
Smith, $4,850; John Turner, $4,190; W. L. 
Smith, $4,785 ; J. R. Whittaker, $4,295 ; T. R. 
Moore, $4,265. 

During the late 80's and early 90's the 
discoveries of rich silver mines in the Salmon 
River district, Okanogan, were causes of con- 
siderable travel through Lincoln county. All 
those going into the mines from the east trav- 
ersed the county, and there were numbers of 
them. The route from Spokane was by way of 
Deep Creek Falls and Mondovi to Davenport. 
Leaving Davenport the course was northwest- 
erly, passing Brown's and "Wild Goose Bill's" 
ranches where now stands the town of Wilbur, 
thence on through Keller, to "Wild Goose 
Bill's ferry on the Columbia river. The distance 
from Davenport to Keller was about forty 
miles, and from Keller to the ferrv fortv miles 

farther. Crossing the Columbia river was ef- 
fected by means of a steel wire ferry, carrying a 
large boat. From this point the trail ran in a 
northwesterly direction over the Colville In- 
dian reservation, the Okanogan River being 
crossed at Jones' Ferry. Through stages ran 
from Spokane Falls to Ruby and Salmon City, 
(the latter being afterwards called Conconully) 
ami the trip required three days' time. 

In July. 1889, work was commenced on 
the extension of the Central Washington from 
Davenport westward. To Contractor Kirkin- 
dall was awarded the contract to push the road 
through to a point on the western boundary 
of the county known as Almira. July 26th 
the Times published the following: 

"The meeting of the committee from this 
town ( Davenport ) and the officials of the 
Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern Railway Com- 
pany was held at Spokane Falls Monday, July 
2 1 st. The result of this conference was that 
Mr. Mohr offered to have his road built into 
Davenport in thirty days provided he received 
$15,000 and right of way. A representative 
meeting was held here Tuesday evening last 
(July 22d), when the foregoing proposition 
was presented, and the unanimous conclusion 
arrived at that the money should be raised and 
the right of way given. A committee consist- 
ing of Messrs. Nicholls, Ratcliffe, Newman, 
McAvinney, Luce, May, Finney, Edwards, 
Simmons, Ramm, McMillan, O'Connor, Essig, 
Drumheller and Forrest was appointed to so- 
licit subscriptions." 

August 1 6th the Times added the follow- 
ing anent the same matter : 

"A very enthusiastic meeting of the citi- 
zens of Davenport was held at the offices of 
the Big Bend National Bank on Monday last 
(August nth) to hear the result of Mr. David 
Wilson's conference with the Seattle Com- 
pany's officials regarding the construction of 
the road to this point. Both business and 
property interests were well represented 011 the 
occasion and the unanimous opinion of the 



meeting was that trains would be running into 
town not later than October 1st, next. 

".Mr. Wilson stated that he had met Mr. 
Paul F. Mohr, vice president of the Seattle 
Company at Tacoma. and had submitted a 
proposition to him to the effect that the people 
here would give the company the right of way 
from present end of track to Davenport ; would 
grade the road-bed, build culverts, leave the 
track ready for the ties and donate the neces- 
sary depot grounds provided his company 
would furnish a competent constructing engi- 
neer, survey the road and supply all the rails, 
ties, fastenings, switch-stands, buildings and 
all other necessary materials and appliances to 
complete the road. This proposition was made 
by Mr. Wilson in lieu of that made by the 
Seattle Company a short time ago. in which 
the residents of this section were asked to 
subscribe $15,000 to the stock of the road, 
which is just about double the amount that will 
now he required to carry out the desired object. 
Mr. Wilson read a letter from Mr. Mohr stat- 
ing that his company would accept the pro- 
posal made. 

"A committee was appointed to solicit sub- 
scriptions and a list was immediately made 
headed as follows: David Wilson, $1,000; 
May & Luce, $500; John H. Xicholls, $250." 

October 11, 1889, the Seattle, Lake Shore 
& Eastern railway was completed into Daven- 
port. But this had not been accomplished 
without a struggle. Of this battle between 
giants the Times said: 

"The road bed of the Seattle. Lake Shore 
& Eastern is graded into town, and by Tues- 
day, October 8th, the iron was laid to the 
Northern Pacific crossing, onlj a short dis- 
tance south of the school house and within 
the town limits, and the cars would today be 
running into the depot yards at the head ol 
Morgan street were it not for an impediment 
that the new arrival ran into. It was nothing 
less than the opposition of the Northern Pa- 
cific people who are barring the crossing with 

a locomotive. From an employee ol the road 

we learn that the Seattle officials picked up a 
frog at Medical Lake that was the property of 
the Northern Pacific and had it on the ground 
here ready to put in Tuesday. When Superin- 
tendent Riordan, of the Central Washington, 
was notified of this fact he ran an engine down 
to the crossing with a force of men. loaded 
the frog "ii board and carried it oft". He then 
had an engine stationed across the track and 
there it has remained up to the present time, 
night and day. Both parties are watching 
each other, the Seattle men to get across, and 
the Northern Pacific men to prevent it. Of 
course the crossing will eventually he made, 
hut the hitch is putting the Seattle outfit to 
considerable expense, besides it is the source 
of great annoyance to the people of Davenport 
who are anxious to see the new road in opera- 
tion. Wednesday the Seattle passenger train 
arrived at the crossing, and the iron could be 
laid to the end of the grade in a few hours if 
the impediment were out of the way. So far 
the proceedings have been conducted without 
any violence. Further work will lie tied up 
until the strong arm of the law makes the 
Northern Pacific officials give way." 

It is sufficient to say that this annoyance 
was of short duration, and when the Seattle 
Company had provided its own frog, it was 
put in without further objection on the part of 
the Central Washington people. 

Sunday night, August 18. 1889, at 10:30 
o'clock, fire broke out in the government saw 
mill at Fort Spokane, and within a short 
period everything was consumed with the ex- 
ception of the engine and hoiler. These latter 
were slightly damaged, hut not sufficiently to 
disable them. The lire originated in the en- 
gine room and the damage, including the loss 
of lumber, was estimated at S5.000. 

The year [889 will he remembered by resi- 
dents of Lincoln county as "the year of the 
crop failure" — an event so unusual that it is 
well worth recording. It is not often that the 



fertile soil of the Big' Bend proves recreant to 
the trust reposed in it. The season was a 
promise and a disappointment. In the spring 
everything bore a most propitious aspect. The 
broad acres of Lincoln county were beautiful 
carpets of rich verdure. The grain was 
healthy, vigorous and heavy, and the harvest 
bade fair to be the largest ever garnered. But 
Providence willed otherwise. \\ "hen the pros- 
pects appeared the brightest the withering 
blight of steady and excessively hot winds 
came sweeping over the country, and with it 
perished the hopes of the husbandman. There 
followed a long siege of dry, hot weather, and 
it is astonishing that therewas anything of a 
crop at all left. The farmer, however, cut half 
a crop, but to the many who had sowed their 
fields for the first time this misfortune was 
more than usually severe. The consequences 
of this partial crop failure — for partial it was 
— was to create a financial stringency in the 
Big Bend which was severely felt. 

A serious wreck occurred on the Central 
Washington railroad, six miles west of 'Wil- 
bur, Wednesday morning. January 8, 1890. 
The road had been blocked with snow for a 
long time and the first train out consisted of 
engines Nos. 100 and 447, one box car and 
two way cars. This train left Wulbur about 
10:30 o'clock a. m., for Almira, to clear the 
track. West of town a cut of eight feet deep 
was encountered, full of solidly drifted snow. 
The two engines made a run for the cut, but 
the hard condition of the drifted snow caused 
both locomotives to jump the track. The en- 
gines rolled over and fatally injured the engi- 
neer and fireman of 447, Messrs. Melcher and 
Burroughs. Tim Raridon, the old-time con- 
ductor, who was on the head engine, jumped 
through the cab window before the engine fell 
over, escaping- with a severe shaking up and a 
few bruises. Engineer F. Gorman, of No. 
100, and his fireman. McClellan, had a very 
close call, but escaped with a slight- scalding. 
"Engineer Melcher was the most severely 

injured and died in a few days. His injuries 
were internal, caused by being jammed in the 
debris, and also from inhaling steam. His 
fireman, James Burroughs, suffered terribly, 
being held against the boiler-head among the 
burning coals which had been thrown from 
the fire-box, and the escaping steam from the 
bursted pipes. Help was immediately sum- 
moned from Wilbur and all that was possible 
was done to relieve the sufferers. The cut 
where this accident occurred is about 150 feet 
long and the head engine, 447, had not ad- 
vanced within more than 7$ feet before it left 
the rails, running on the ties about fifty feet 
more, when the pilot appears to have struck 
some obstacle, doubled up, or buckled, torn 
off the front trucks and shot the engine over 
on the right side at right angles to, and almost 
clear, of the track. The second engine was 
keeled over on its left side and imbedded in the 
side of the cut." 

Fourteen years prior to the important de- 
cision of the federal supreme court in the case 
of the Northern Securities Company's "mer- 
ger" Lincoln county found herself with some- 
thing in the nature of a "merger" on her own 
hands. This was in July, 1890, and of it the 
Times said: 

"Rumors have been in circulation here for 
some days to the effect that the Seattle, Lake 
Shore & Eastern Railway Company had fallen 
into the hands of the Northern Pacific. The 
following telegram from President Oakes, of 
the Northern Pacific Railway Company to the 
Spokane Falls Globe confirms the report : 

" 'The Northern Pacific Company has pur- 
chased a little more than a majority of the cap- 
ital stock of the Seattle, Lake Shore & East- 
ern — that is, about $3,00,000 out of $5,000,- 
000 — and has leased the remainder of the prop- 
erty upon the basis of six and three-quarter 
per cent interest on the outstanding bonds, and 
the further issue of bonds to complete the line 
to the International Boundary, a total of about 
$5,000,000. The annual rental will be about 



$8,000,000, but inasmuch as the Seattle Com- 
pany has thus far earned its interest, the North- 
ern Pacific is not likely to be called upon to 
make good any deficit. The Northern Pacific 
will enter upon the operation of the Seattle 
road on the 25th of July.' " 

This virtual consolidation of the two lines 
was particularly unsatisfactory to both Daven- 
port and Spokane. The former town had ex- 
pended several thousand dollars for the pur- 
pose of securing a competing line into the Big 
Bend Country, while Spokane had subscribed 
$175,000 in stock to the Seattle, Lake Shore 
& Eastern road. 

Early in January, 1890, Lincoln county, in 
common with all of eastern Washington, was 
visited by perhaps the worst snow storm in its 
history. For more than a week the settlers of 
the county were without communication with 
the outside world. Railroads were blockaded 
and many passengers on the various trains 
were snowbound in different towns. The 
worst feature of the storm was the loss of 
stock occasioned by its severity. All feed was 
covered by snow, and so heavy were some of 
the drifts that many cattle perished in them. 
It was, in fact, next to impossible for stock- 
men to ride around and drive in range cattle. 
However, this loss was nothing to what would 
have resulted in such a storm several years 
previous. Settlement of the country nad cur- 
tailed the range and there were comparatively 
few head of stock running at large. Farmers 
had learned wisdom by experience, and in the 
main, they had prepared for such an emer- 
gency by keeping up their stock and winter- 
feeding them. Still, the losses trom this source 
were quite severe. 

The drifting snow blockaded the railroad- 
as effectually as though a deluge had obliter- 
ated the tracks and it was only by persistent 
labor that the wheels were again set in motion. 
The wind began blowing January 1st. and 
whirled the light snow across the country. 
Every cut, no matter how deep, was piled level 

full, placing an impregnable lace to the loco- 
motive. Trains on the Central Washington 
and Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern roads ar- 
rived in Davenport from Spokane Falls. 
Wedensday night. January 1, and from that 
time until the 6th no train was able to make 
its way through. January 3d the powerful 
snow plow of the Central Washington left 
Davenport, urged on by three engines, and a 
passenger train followed in its wake. At 
Reardan the monster plow plunged into a cut 
and there stuck fast. Two other engines were 
almost pulled to pieces and considerably dam- 
aged in an endeavor to extricate, or force on 
the plow. This condition of affairs continued 
until Sunday, the 5th, when a rotary snow 
plow began work out of Cheney. This mon- 
ster cork-screw worked a clearing until it 
reached a point a few miles east of Reardan. 
when it, too, was disabled and taken back f( >r 
repairs. Returning on Monday it had a track 
open and traffic was resumed east of Daven- 
port. The western end of the route was then 
attacked and opened in the course of a few 
days. The rival road, Seattle. Lake Shore & 
Eastern was not so successful in opening its 
track, having no snow-plow, and spring had 
opened before it was in running order. The 
town of Wilbur was cut off from all outside 
communication 31 days. 

Following this severe storm of January 
the weather continued cold until March, there 
being another storm the latter part of Febru- 
ary. This, ti » 1, added to the woes of the st( vk - 
man and the railroads. This latter storm was 
particularly severe on stock, and that which 
was running at large was almost completely 
wiped out. while even where animal- were fed 
there was considerable loss. During the 
period of the February storm cattle and 
that had escaped the January attack were 
emaciated and in no condition to withstand 
further cold weather. Settlers who had t.-een 
feeding ran out of hay. and the snow remain- 
ing long iiit- • the usual springtime, much of 



the stock which had heretofore enjoyed the 
advantage of care succumbed. In summing 
up this disaster the Lincoln County Times of 
March 7th said : 

"Continual storms and severe weather have 
put an end to all hopes of cattlemen, and the 
loss among range cattle and horses amounts 
almost to annihilation. A loss of eighty or 
even ninety per cent, is not too high an esti- 
mate. No portion of this section has escaped. 
Even where the farmers prepared to feed their 
stock through the winter they did not calcu- 
late on so prolonged a season, and feed has 
failed. YVe hear the most distressing accounts 
of the losses and men who last fall were con- 
sidered well-to-do are today bankrupt * * 
Each day we hear the names of old 
settlers mentioned who have lost about all 
their stock. One instance is told of a cattle- 
man whose feed was exhausted before the last 
big storm. He could not witness the suffer- 
ings of the animals. They were all driven into 
a canyon and there left to perish. The coun- 
try west of Davenport is strewn with dead ani- 
mals, and their bleaching bones will long re- 
main sad reminders of this terrible winter. 
The effect of the season on cattle has conclu- 
sively proved one thing, and that is that the 
range in this section has become too limited 
for large bands of stock." 

During the spring succeeding the memor- 
able "hard winter" of 1889-90 travelers 
throughout the country reported that dead cat- 
tle and horses were scattered everywhere. As 
a rule these dead animals would be found in 
bunches of half a dozen or more, as if the poor 
creatures had crowded close together for 
warmth. The atmosphere of some sections 
was permeated by a dreadful stench from these 
decaying carcasses. There were far too many 
of them too be buried and in a number of in- 
stances giant powder was used to blow the 
bodies to atoms. A gentleman thoroughly 
familiar with the sheep industry informed the 
editor of the Spraguc Herald that before win- 

ter had closed in there were 40,800 sheep with- 
in the boundaries of Lincoln county, and that 
10,875 perished in these two storms. 

By the older citizens of Lincoln county the 
spring of 1890 will be remembered as the 
"hard times" period. Property was cheap : 
business stagnant. Each community in the 
county suffered from the baleful effects of short 
crops and an unusually severe winter. But 
sanguine hopes arose above this depression. 
It was the belief of nearly all that it was but 
temporary, and that with the customary 
"bumper crop" for which the county has al- 
most universally been noted financial affairs 
would resolve themselves into more favorable 

In 1890, according to the government 
census, Lincoln county was accredited with a 
poulation of 9.312. And this wonderful in- 
crease had nearly all accumulated since the 
era of railway construction through the county. 
While the subject of squirrels may appear 
a rather unique one to occupy a place in the 
history of any county, old residents of the Big 
Bend country will agree with us that for sev- 
eral years, beginning with the spring of 1890, 
the squirrel question assumed large and omin- 
ous proportions. While these pests did not 
j make their first appearance this year, it was 
at this particular time, however, that they 
came in hordes. They were, indeed, promi- 
' nent. In political conventions platforms were 
' framed containing "squirrel planks," and the 
j issue appeared momentous. Columns after 
columns were, in the daily and weekly press, 
devoted to the treatment of tne squirrel evil. 
Patent exterminators as numerous and varied 
as the hues of Joseph's coat were put on the 
market, but each in turn was cast aside and the 
scourge was only eliminated by the death of 
the pests from natural causes. A correspond- 
ent of the Fannington Journal wrote: 

"The squirrel which proved such a pest to 

the farmers of Lincoln county for several 

> years was an animal indigenous to the great 



basin lying between the Rocky Mountains and 
the Cascades and Sierra Nevadas, and is de- 
scribed by naturalists under the name of the 
'whistling marmot of the great plains of the 
Columbia. ' In habit it was a hibernating ani- 
mal and made its first appearance in this lati- 
tude about the middle of March, and in fact its 
habits were so regular that they have been 
known to burrow through snow-drifts of from 
two to there feet deep, and it returned to its 
burrow about the middle of August or first of 
September. It got in its worst destructive 
work in July and August, when preparing for 
its winter rest, and the damage was done by 
cutting down the grain and stripping it of the 
leaves, as it laid up no winter store at all. At 
the approach of the autumn season the mar- 
mot would retire to his burrow and close the 
mouth of it with earth and then roll himself 
in a ball of dried grass and lie dormant until 
the next spring, when he would again emerge 
and enjoy life for a brief period." 

Those farms in the western portion of Lin- 
coln county appeared to be more seriously af- 
fected by the inroads of the pestilent ground 
squirrels. There the country appeared to be 
literally alive with them. In some instances 
farmers dug deep trenches around their fields 
in an effort to keep off the squirreK Mr. 
Geer, of Geer postoffice, killed i.ioo squir- 
rels within the space of four days, and a 
farmer near Wilbur succeeded in making away 
with [ during the summer. And al- 
though this slaughter continued there ap- 
peared to be no diminution in the exasperat- 
ing number of squirrels. Bounties and free 
poison ran the comity in debt $40,000. Squir- 
rel scalp bounties were offered by the county 
commissioners. Commenting upon this the 
Tunes said: "It is astonishing the number of 
squirrels that have fallen victims this spring, 
and it would seem that the ranks of the pests 
must be almost annihilated by the war that has 
lieen waged against them this spring. The first 
week the commissioners were in session up- 

ward of 30,000 scalps were cashed in and full 
returns have not yet been received. Yet while 
this number appears large, the mortality has 
made no perceptible reduction in the squirrel 

During the autumn of 1890 the Central 
Washington railway was completed to Coulee 
City, in Douglas county. The preceding year 
, it had reached Almira. Some inside history 
concerning the building of this road was con- 
tributed by Mr. C. P. Chamberlin, who be- 
came its receiver. In his report published in 
February. 1896. he said: 

"In [887 a Mr. Jamieson made a survey 
and located a line for the building of the Cen- 
tral Washington railroad from Cheney, in Spo- 
kane comity, to a point a few miles west of 
Coulee City, in Douglas county, Washington, 
a distance of one hundred and seventeen and 
thirty-seventh-one-hundredths miles. The con 
struction of the Central Washington railroad 
was begun at Cheney on July 1 >. [888, and 
completed to Coulee City in 1890. The road is 
completed one mile and forty feet beyond Con 
lee City, and grade built for about eight miles 
beyond the end of the track, or nearly to the 
top of Grand Coulee, on the west side. 

"Starting at Cheney the road, as built, fol- 
lows the Jamieson survey to a point about two 
miles wc-t of Medical Lake, a distance of about 
twelve nides west of Cheney. At this poinl 
the road, as built, leaves the Jamieson survey 
and runs almost due north for about two miles. 
following down the stream known as Deep 
( reek fi ir about three miles, crossing the stream 
on a 44-span trestle bridge. 703 feet long and 
40 feet high, built on an eight-degree curve. 
The road then runs west about one mile, thence 
north two miles, thence southwesterly, thence 
northwesterly and westerly to point of intersec- 
tion, west of Reardan, with the Jamieson sur- 
vey, being a distance of eighteen miles from 
where the constructed line left the Jamieson 
survey, to point of intersecting it again. This 
change necessitated the making of sharp curves. 



deep cuts, high trestles, sags and increase of 
grades and lengthened the road about four and 
four-tenths miles in the eighteen miles, whereas 
the Jamieson survey from section i, township 
24, west, range 40 east, ran nearly on a tangent 
in a west-northwesterly direction, all the way 
to where the constructed line intersects west of 
Reardan, making scarcely any cuts, a much 
easier grade and distance shorter four and four- 
tenths miles. Nearly all the grade was built 
and right of way secured on the line of the 
Jamieson survey before the change was made 
to where the road is now built. 

"At a point about one mile west of Daven- 
port the road, as built, turns south and south- 
west, thence west to Rocklyn, thence north- 
west to Creston, a distance of about twenty- 
two miles. Some ten miles of this distance 
the road, as built, passes through a belt of scab 
land, composed of basaltic rock, necessitating 
numerous rock cuts, making this ten miles the 
most expensive piece of road to build between 
Cheney and Coulee City. The Jamieson sur- 
vey, in covering this distance, runs west-north- 
west • from Davenport until nearing the scab 
land, that road, as built, passes through, when 
it runs south avoiding the scab land and rock, 
crossing back to where the road is now built 
between Wilbur and Govan, making a much 
shorter route. The advantage of the Jamieson 
survey over that of road as built for above dis- 
tance was a saving in distance, grades, curves, 
and avoiding the rock cuts. At about the 86th 
mile post, near Almira, the road as built again 
leaves the Jamieson survey, runs northwest for 
about two and one-half miles and thence south- 
westerly for about fourteen and one-half miles, 
intersecting the Jamieson survey again at about 
mile post 104. 

"On the Jamieson survey the grade is de- 
scending the whole distance, while on the road 
as built it rises to an elevation of 2,108 feet, 
three and one-half miles west of mile post 86, 
making this difference ; Jamieson survey, 
length, 16 miles; road as built, length, 18 

miles ; Jamieson survey, grades not exceeding 
7 per cent.; road as built, six miles, .8 to 1.5 
per cent. ; twelve miles, .4 to .8 per cent, grades. 
About the only explanation that is given for 
this change of the construction of the road is 
that about the time of the beginning of the con- 
struction of the Central Washington railroad 
there was a townsite company formed and com- 
posed almost entirely of the Northern Pacific 
officials, who were either in charge of the con- 
struction of the Central Washington railway, 
or occupying positions that gave them prom- 
inence in controlling and directing the affairs 
of the Northern Pacific Railway Company. It 
is a matter of regret both to the owners and to 
the patrons of the Central Washington rail- 
way that this townsite company could not have 
secured as favorable terms for their purpose 
along the line of the Jamieson survey as where 
the road was built." 

The story of the county seat contest of 1890 
between Davenport and Sprague is one re- 
plete with dramatic, even sensational interest. 
It is a recognized truth that the residents of 
the northern and western portions of Lincoln 
county never considered the county seat as per- 
manently located at Sprague. It had always 
been regarded as a matter of course that at some 
future day the question of relocation would 
again be submitted to the arbitrament of the 
ballot. Firm in this belief the voters time and 
again elected county commissioners with the 
distinct ante-election understanding that they 
should swing their official influence to prevent 
construction of any expensive county buildings. 

The summer of 1890 appeared to be an au- 
spicious time in which to reopen the burning 
question of county capital removal. Construc- 
tion of the Central Washington and Seattle, 
Lake Shore & Eastern railroads through the 
northern part of the county had caused a rapid 
settlement of that portion of the Big Bend. 
New towns had sprung up and each had ac- 
quired quite a formidable voting strength. Ag- 
ricultural and industrial conditions surround- 



in«- the two towns of Davenport and Sprague 
were radically different from what they were 
during the memorable contest of 1884, six 
years previous. At that period the central and 
northern portions were little more than rolling 
hunch-grass prairies. Settlements were few 
and far between. Now the aspect was decid- 
edly changed. Nearly every district surround- 
ing Davenport and trending to the southward 
was occupied by thrifty farmers. Jt was pro- 
posed by the citizens of Davenport to build 
free of cost to the county a court house building 
the expense of which should be not less than 
$10,000. Three-fifths of all ballots cast were 
necessary to remove the county seat, all of 
which votes must be in favor of one particular 
place of jremoval. 

Fully 1,200 voters signed the petition to 
the county commissioners, which was presented 
August 5th, and permission was granted by 
them for an election to be held in November. 
Thus the 1890 compaign for county seat hon- 
ors was fairly on, and exceedingly warm. It 
was the ardent, and natural desire of Sprague 
citizens to investigate the exact condition of 
the promised $10,000 for court house purposes. 
Davenport realized the fairness of this propo- 
sition and that amount was promptly deposited 
in the Big Bend National Bank. Mr. C. C. 
May. cashier, made affidavit to the following 
statement : 

"Davenport, Lincoln County, Wash., Oc- 
tober 6, 1890. — This is to certify that there 
has been deposited in the Big Bend National 
Bank of Davenport, Washington, the sum of 
ten thousand dollars for the purpose of erecting 
county buildings at Davenport, Washington, 
if the county seat shall be removed from 
Sprague to Davenport as a result of the elec- 
tion to be held the fourth day of November, 
1890. In case the county seat be so removed 
the Big Bend National Bank will pay into the 
count v treasury the sum of ten thousand dol- 

lars '.11 the 4th day of March, 1891, for the 
purpose of erecting such buildings. 

"The Bi<; Bend National Hank. 

"C. C. May, Cashier." 

Saturday evening, October 18, 1890, a 
meeting of Wilbur business men was held in 
Mr. Benson's office for tin- purpose of discuss- 
ing the county seat question as it affected Wil- 
bur, and arriving at some positive conclusion 
as to which point — Davenport or Sprague — 
offered the least obstacle to the division of the 
county on a north and a south line. The meet- 
ing was called at the solicitation of Davenport 
gentlemen who had passed the four preceding 
days canvassing the town, and who personally 
gave notice to all whom they desired to attend 
the meeting. The deliberations were of a very 
informal character, and it soon became appar- 
ent that Sprague was regarded as being in a 
better position to meet the wishes of the people 
of Wilbur than was Davenport. Upon an ex- 
pression of the meeting being taken it was 
found that an unanimous feeling prevailed to 
assist Sprague in the contest. 

The vote of Wilbur was an important fac- 
tor in this contest and to secure it Sprague put 
forth strenuous efforts. On the other hand 
Wilbur citizens were extremely anxious that 
a county division should he effected whereby 
a new county should be formed of which she 
might become the capital. The Wilbur Reg- 
ister joined forces with Sprague in this move- 
ment and Davenport was defeated by the fol- 
lowing vote by precincts: 


Precincts. Davenport. Sprague. 

Meridian id 19 

Butte 30 3 

Davenport 201 3 

Union 51 1 

Rearclan 1 .',-• 4 

Condon 24 30 

South Sprague <> 384 

Sedalia 31 

Miles 37 o 

9 6 


Brents 54 20 

Earl 27 3 

Grand Blnff 5 5 

Willow Springs 15 9 

North Sprague 7 20S 

Wilbur 21 68 

Mondovi 122 1 

Enos 11 8 

Harrington 49 18 

Crab Creek 4 33 

Yarwood 14 I0 

Fairview 9° 4 

Liberty 19 '5 

Welch Creek 29 3 

Grand Coulee 9 25 

Sassin 13 69 

Inkster 91 3 

Larene 99 3 

Wilson Creek n 12 

1,204 992 

Sprague received a majority over the two- 
fifths vote required and the county seat re- 
mained with her. 

During the winter of 1 890-1 residents of 
Lincoln county were seriously affected by an 
annoving wheat blockade. It appeared impos- 
sible to secure transportation for the farmers' 
grain ; there was a car-famine with consequent 
inactivity of the market. Many buyers had ad- 
vanced money on wheat upon which they could 
not realize. This condition of the local wheat 
market continued until after Christmas when 
plenty of cars were received and the congestion 

In January, 1891, there occurred an Indian 
"scare" on the Colville Reservation and in cen- 
tral Okanogan county. A brief outline of this 
event may not be out of place here. Cole, 
a freighter plying betwen Wilbur and the 
n< Tih country, was murdered by an Indian boy 
named Stephen, or such, at least, was the sup- 
in isition. The latter was arrested and lodged 
in jail at Conconully, the county seat of Okan- 
ogan county. A party of citizens from Alma, 
and other sections of the county went to the 
jail, removed Stephen and hanged him from 
a tree a short distance below Conconully. This 
act greatly ano-ered the Indians on the reser- 

vation, who at once threatened to go on the 
war path and exterminate all the white settlers 
in the country. At this period the Dakota In- 
dians afflicted with their historical Messiah 
craze, were on the war path, and in conse- 
quence anxiety was felt in many sections of 
eastern Washington. The citizens of the upper 
country petitioned the governor of the state 
for troops and arms with which to defend 
themselves. Guns and ammunition were at once 
forwarded, but the hostile Indians were finally 
induced to remain quiet without further blood- 
shed. It was subsequently confessed that the 
danger was more fancied than real, and certain 
newspapers went to the extent of hinting that, 
after all, Stephen was not the actual murderer 
of the freighter. Cole. While no portion of 
Lincoln county was directly threatened, con- 
siderable excitement was manifested by settlers 
in the northern portion, especially along the 
Columbia river opposite the CoLille Reserva- 

The following from the U'ilbtir Register 
under date January 23, 1891, explains the na- 
ture of the scare in so far as it affected Lincoln 
county : 

"Mr. Al Stevens, a prosperous horseman 
from Grand Coulee, came in from that place 
Monday last (January 19) with the startling 
information that the Indians were crossing the 
river in large numbers and that the settlers in 
that vicinity were becoming considerably 
alarmed. He imparted the news to Mayor Hay 
and at the same time requested him to use his 
influence in obtaining guns and ammunition 
for their use. The request was immediately 
complied with and the arms will, probably, ar- 
rive to-night. Mr. Stevens says that the In- 
dians are acting in a very mysterious manner. 
They cross to this side of the river and then sud- 
denlv disappear, no one knows where. Some 
of the more timid are of the opinion that the 
Indians are gathering in some of the canyons 
along the river and some dark night will break 
out and massacre the whole settlement. This 




is hardly probable, however, as the Indians in 
this part of the country are at present so few in 
numbers that they would hardly dare attack 
settlers this side of the river. If there is any 
outbreak it will more than likely he in the neigh- 
borhood of Ruby City, where the trouble origin- 
ated. It is all very well to be prepared, tin High, 
for it is hard to tell what the red devils would 
not do, and a few hundred rifles distributed 
among the settlers along the river would lie a 
great 'inducement' for the Indians to stay at 

Following the temporary settlement (if the 
county seat question resulting in a victor) i"i" 
Sprague, the matter of county division was 
taken up at the earnest demand of the people 
of Wilbur. Objection was made by Daven- 
port tn any division having a north and 
smith line of demarcation, but the town was. 
apparently, willing to allow the division quo- 
tum to proceed provided an east and west line 
was adopted thus separating Sprague from Da- 
venport. It was Imped that by this means the 
latter town would eventually secure the county 
seat. Tii this proposition, however, the con- 
sent i if Sprague could in it be obtained. In the 
legislature two bills for county division were 
introduced, one by Representative Isaac M. 
Cushman providing for a north and south line 
a few miles west of Davenport, designating 
Wilbur as the new county seat and christening 
the proposed new political division as "Big 
Bend County." A second bill provided for di- 
vision on an east and west line, but nothing 
tangible resulted from either of these two meas- 
ures. Another plan which received some eon 
sideration but did not materialize was in the 
nature of a compromise whereby the county 
was to he segregated into three divisions, Big 
Bend to be designated as the western county. 
Grant that of the east and Sprague t. > remain 
the count v seat of Lincoln county. But it was 
destined that the county should not only re- 
main intact, hut that Davenport should, eventu- 
ally, secure the capital. The following sum- 

mary of the complication was published March 
6, [89I, by the Lincoln Comity Times. 

At the opening of tin campaign last fall Uic re- 
location of the county son was the all-important quest 
lion of the hour, ll was believed thai a 111. ire central 
location was generall} desired, and that its removal 
to Davenport would result to the financial advantage of 
the tax payers of the county. Davenport was regarded 
a. well situated ami therefore di signated as a con- 
testant for county seat honors, Sprague realizing that 
'" relj upon her merits as compared with tl 
Davenport was likely to result disastrously to her. 
formed an alliance with Wilbur whereby that town 
was to throw her vote and influence in the balance with 
Sprague, in consideration of which the latter would 
secure such a division of the county as that Wilbur 
would he the county seat of 1I1.' new division. The im- 
probability ami impracticability of the proposition was 
apparent to everybodj except the Wilbur people them- 
selves. rhej eagerly caught at this offer and labored 

hard and faithfully in the interest of Sprague, and hy 

her efforts barely succeeded in retaining that town 

as the COUntj Seat of Lincoln county for another term 
of years. 

Having faithfully fulfilled her promises she con- 
fidently expected that Sprague would redeem her pledges 
hy aiding the north and south division over the Rocky 
Canyon. * Very naturally Sprague could not 

afford to aid such a division as it would have left her 
in a helpless condition to contend with an adversary 
in the evenl of another contest. It was hut natural that 
she should ti> to protect herself, and if hy a reiteration 
of her good will -he ran succeed in bringing Wilbur 

to her support gain, when -he needs her. why. she will 
do it. 

It was in the latter pan of September, 1891, 
that Lincoln county, in company with the Big 
Bend, achieved distinction at the Tacoma Grain 
Exposition and this too in a manner that ac- 
corded her high standing among the grain- 
growing sections of the coast as a cereal pro- 
ducing country. The managers .if the expo- 
sition placed Lincoln as the first county in the 
state in a showing of wheat, oats and barley: 
Walla Walla county the first in fruits and Ya- 
kima county the first in Imps. Each county in 
the state was represented by most attractive dis- 
plays, and a strong effort was made by Whit- 
man to carry away the laurels in the cereal ex- 
hibit, but the honor was accorded to Lincoln 


In March, 1892, the formal transfer of the 
Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern Railway was 
made to the Northern Pacific Company. Still 
the road had been under practical control of 
the latter company for nearly a year previous. 

The Big Bend Chief tells an interesting 
tale of the discovery of the Great Northern 
route down Crab Creek by the Urquhart 
Brothers, the well known stockmen. Presi- 
dent James J. Hill had surveyors out trying 
to locate an eligible route down to the Colum- 
bia river, but the grades were all steep. The 
Urquhart Brothers, who were watching with 
decided interest the movements of the company, 
became acquainted with the difficulty exper- 
ienced by Mr. Hill. Mr. Donald Urquhart, 
therefore, wrote the Napoleonic railroader a 
personal letter agreeing to find him a route de- 
void of "toboggan slides." At first nothing was 
heard from Mr. Hill, but one evening, some 
weeks later, a party drove up to Mr. Urquhart's 
home and desired to remain over night. The 
following morning they stated that their errand 
was to find the route of which Mr. Urquhart 
had written to Mr. Hill. Accordingly Donald 
hitched up a team and after a month or two 
spent in running surveys proved the correctness 
of his statement made in the letter. The en- 
gineer who made the survey met the party at 
Rock Island and could hardly believe the evi- 
dence of the field notes. More especially was 
he hard to convince as he had made several in- 
vestments along the northern route for himself 
and friends with almost a certainty that 
the road would be constructed along that 
survev. The only error made by Mr. 
Urquhart was at Trinidad, where the loop 
is it iw made to avoid crossing the canyon 
at that point. He still maintains that the can- 
yon can be bridged with safety. With- 
in a year from the time that the letter was 
written t< > Mr. 1 Iill the whistle of the locomotive 
might have been heard in the Crab creek valley. 

The Great Northern Railway was built 
through Lincoln county in 1802. Preliminarv 

surveys were made all over eastern Washing- 
ton and many rumors were afloat as to the 
probable course through Lincoln county. For 
a period it appeared reasonable that some of the 
towns in the northern portion of the county 
would be on the line as it was thought that the 
crossing of Grand Coulee would be made at 
Coulee City. In fact the Great Northern Com- 
pany filed their map in the Waterville land of- 
fice showing this route. September 30, 1892, 
the Great Northern was completed to the Co- 
lumbia river. 

For many years non-resident stockmen 
were in the habit of driving their herds to Lin- 
coln county each successive summer. Early 
in the year 1892 a mass meeting of Lincoln 
stock-raisers was held at Fellows station, on 
the Central Washington railway and organized 
the Lincoln County Stock Protective Associa- 
tion. The following resolution was then 
adopted: "Resolved that we will no longer suf- 
fer such grievance, and we hereby give notice 
to non-resident stockmen that any further at- 
tempt to encroach on our ranges will encounter 
the united and determined opposition of this 
organization. A word to the wise is sufficient." 

In the spring of 1892 the two companies of 
soldiers then stationed at Fort Spokane were 
called to the Coeur d'Alene mines where they 
took an active part in the labor troubles at that 
point. They remained during the summer, re- 
turning to the fort November 17th. 

In March, 1893, the squirrel pest reap- 
peared, but it was ardently anticipated that it 
marked the beginning of the end of the trouble. 
This, however, was an error. It was reported 
that these animals were emerging from their 
winter quarters in large numbers and were 
starving at a rate threatening total extermina- 
tion. Thousands of them were observed scur- 
rying across the snow in vain search of some- 
thing to eat. The Lincoln County Times com- 
mented on the phenomenon as follows : 

"There is at least one advantage of a back- 
ward spring that is likely to prove of untold 



value to the grain producers of the county. 
The little rodents who prey upon green wheat 
fields and who scamper over a thousand hills 
in countless numbers long hefore this time 
most years, are making a desperate and unsuc- 
cessful struggle for existence this season. It 
is mure than a month since they began to peep 
forth and though they are great rustlers in 
dry weather they have a great aversion for 
snow and cold, consequently many of them are 
passing to their reward and if the balance are 
properly looked after will soon join them." 

Yet in March, 1894, the ravenous rodents 
reappeared in large numbers in the southern 
and central portions of Lincoln county. They 
appeared, however, to be traveling northward 
and it was freely predicted that they would 
soon disappear into the Columbia river. There 
was observed, also, a decrease in their numbers. 
In certain portions of the county many were 
drowned out by floods. Still, in the face of all 
this the squirrels apeared as pestiferous as ever. 
In April, 1895, the Wilbur Register said: 

"The story as told by the Register two 
weeks ago regarding the destruction of squir- 
rels by small red lice has been confirmed during 
the last few days by men who have investigated 
the matter. J. F. Opitz, who lives on Lake 
creek, was in town Monday and says that there 
is absolutely no doubt that the lice are killing 
the squirrels by the thousands. Where there 
were twenty squirrels last year there is not 
one now, although the lice only affect the squir- 
rels in certain localities. Air. Opitz says that 
his neighbors have caught a number of the 
squirrels in traps, which had been attacked by 
the lice, and in every instance the squirrels were 
nothing but skeletons. Jack Sterretl and others 
living out that way say that it is surely the lice 
that are destroying the pests, and all advise 
that the people living up here should try to se- 
cure some of the squirrels having the lice on 
them and turn them loose where they are likely 
to scatter the vermin." 

It is evident that these lice did some good 

in the way of killing the pests, hut not until 
June, 1896, was the nuisance abated. At that 
period they began to die off in large numbers 
from disease. July 3d the faculty of the Ag- 
ricultural College at Pullman said: "The dis- 
ease is one affecting the throat. It shows itself 
in one or more abscesses, the outside of which 
resembles a crust, or scab. Later this abscess 
may ft >rm a large, ugly looking ulcer. The 
symptoms are not aggravating until toward the 
termination of the disease, when the affected 
squirrel will turn round and round in a circle, 
be thrown into spasms or convulsions, death 
following immediately." 

July 17th the Sprague Herald said: "The 
squirrels in this section have ceased to be a 
pest. They are all either dead or dying." 

Thus closed one of the most pestiferous 
afflictions which the farmers of Lincoln have 
ever been called upon to face. 

The proposed abandonment of Fort Spo- 
kane met with a sturdy and. temporarily, suc- 
cessful opposition from the citizens of Lincoln 
county. The question was first broached in 
October, 1893. At that time General Carlin, 
of the Department of the Columbia, in his an- 
nual report recommended this course to the 
government, together with a number of other 
smaller forts. General Carlin. also, advised the 
establishment of a new post near the city of 
Spokane. This recommendation appears to 
have been anticipated, so far as it applied to 
Fort Spokane, as only a few soldiers were there 
in October, 1893. The Lincoln County Times 
was fully alive to the merits of the question, 
and October -'oth said : 

"It is well known that the -city of Spokane 
has had designs upon the acquisition of thi 
military post for years past merely for the ad- 
vantages that would grow out of government 
appropriations, for the erection of necessar 
buildings, to the city as a whole, and the inci 
dental advantages that would be reaped from 
a monthly soldierly pay roll to the bus- 
ness community as a part. Why should 


the government abandon a post conceded 
to be the best planned in this division 
and upon which so much money has been 
expended ? It is near the border line, quite 
accessible, and will most probably be on a line 
of railroad at no distant day. If local advant- 
ages are to be considered Lincoln county pro- 
tests that she has prior claims which are en- 
titled to as much consideration as any claim 
that can be advanced by Spokane as a county or 

In November of that year canvassers were 
in the field securing names of Lincoln county 
settlers remonstrating against abandonment. 
It was held by the signers of these petitions 
that the fort was as necessary then as it had 
been ten years previous. They claimed that, 
as the fort was between two Indian reserva- 
tions, Colville and Spokane, the post served as 
a restraint upon such "bad Indians" as might 
be disposed to do mischief of any description. 
These Indians were always able to secure whis- 
key occasionally, notwithstanding a close watch 
kept upon them by the military, and when they 
did so procure it they were exceedingly dan- 
gerous. Removal of Fort Spokane would ren- 
der it for easier for them to procure whiskey. 
At that period it was one of the best constructed 
posts in the northwest and upon which consid- 
erable money had been expended by the gov- 
ernment. For these and other reasons the citi- 
zens of Lincoln county earnestly protested 
against abandonment and respectfully asked 
that the war department should thoroughly in- 
vestigate the matter before acting upon the 
recommendation of General Carlin. Nothing 
was done farther in the matter at this time. In 
April, 1894, several companies of infantry and 
two of cavalry were added to the garrison, and 
not until the breaking out of the Spanish war, 
in 1898, was abandonment of Fort Spokane 
effected. The troops then went to the front 
and were not, subsequently, returned. 

In 1894 what were known as the "lieu 
lands" were thrown upon the market in Lincoln 

county. Previous to this the question had been, 
particularly to people residing in the north- 
western portion, vexatious and unsolved. For 
a number of years these residents had been 
holding lieu lands by "squatters' rights," im- 
proving and cultivating them, yet all the time 
afraid to leave them, even for a day or so, 
through a wholesome fear that they would b< 
"jumped." There were several townships of 
these lieu lands along the Columbia river which 
were especially valuable. At last, through the 
influence of the Washington delegation in con- 
gress the lieu lands were placed on the market 
and the actual settlers on them could "quiet 
title" by purchase, which the most of them did. 

The memorable Coxey Army movement 
which took the country by storm did not pass 
Lincoln county by in 1894. The "Common- 
wealers," as they were called were then travel- 
ing eastward from the Sound cities on their 
way to join "General" Coxey on his march to 
Washington, D. C. Sprague, being a railroad 
point of prominence, secured the majority of 
trouble from this source, although other towns 
in the county were not unmolested. May 6th 
a Sprague correspondent of the Spokane Re- 
view sent in the following: 

"This morning Sprague citizens witnessed 
a novel sight. During the night freight trains 
from the west brought several hundred of the* 
industrial army. The passenger train also 
unloaded about seventy-five riding on "blind 
baggage" and brake-beams. After breakfast 
this morning, which the industrial army re- 
ceived through the kindness of our citizens, 
the army attempted to board freight train No. 
58 which leaves this station at 7 a. m. The 
army swarmed upon the box-cars like bees. 
The crew made several attempts to get them 
off and started several times, but each time the 
army would climb upon the cars again. Fi- 
nally the train backed down into the yard and 
the officials hit upon a novel and dangerous 
plan. They made the train a double-header 
with two powerful engines, also having the 


switch engine as "pusher." After clearing- the 
train of the army it was hacked down almost 
to the lake west of town, and then made a Fast 
run through our city, going at the rale of fifty 
miles an hour. 

"Ah nit i me hundred of the arm}- started i »ul 
walking east and intended to board the train, 
going up the hill, but on account of the double- 
header they were fooled. A live-stock train 
eastbound was brought to a halt by an indus- 
trial who set an air-brake from the trucks of 
one of the cars. The officials ordered the stock 
unloaded and swear they will not carry the 
"Commonwealers" if not a wheel turns for a 
mi 'nth." 

May 8th another dispatch was published, it 
appearing that a temporary check was put to 
the lawlessness, as follows: 

"Everything is very quiet in our city today. 
All the industrial army took their departure 
during the night on the stock and freight train 
which left here about 3 a. m. Although about 
_>5 Deputy United States Marshals arrived here 
from Spokane to escort the stock train out of 
town the Coxeyites all caught on going up 
grade east of town. There are six or seven 
Deputy United States Marshals under com- 
mand of Captain V. M. Massey stationed here 
to keep the Commonwealers off all trains, and 
some of them were more boisterous around the 
saloons and depot than all of the Coxeyites 
who have been visiting us for the last few days. 
There are 600 or 700 of the army strung along 
the railroad from Ellenshurg. who will arrive 
here within the next few days " 

The cattle train from Sprague was brought 
into Spokane at 6 o'clock on the morning of 
the 8th inst. The marshals found that the 
train was in possession of the industrials who 
would not move under their orders to get off 
the right of way, sonic of the army telling them 

that they would in >t dare si t. During the ex 

citement one man was clubbed. As the cattle 
train started up the marshals ran alongside t" 
keep the Coxeyites off. But the latter started 

to rush by them for the brake-beams and the 
marshals began shooting. No one was injured, 
hut the Commonwealers discovered that the 
marshals meant "business." 

About a dozen of the army reached I I 
port Saturday noon. May [2th. At the ex- 
pense of a number of citizens of the town they 
lunched at the Dale 1 louse 1 since destroyed by 
tire), and then continued on their way to Wash- 
ington, D. C, rejoicing. They came over the 
mountains from the west and succeeded in 
stealing a ride over the Central Wash: 
Railway to within a mile or two of town. They 
did not move forward on their march until a 
little recruiting had been done, ddie following 
dispatch, under date of May [6th was sent in 
to Spokane from Davenport : 

"A man named Rippitos, of this place, en- 
tertained a large number of people today with 
a discourse upon the Coxey movement. After 
he had finished speaking enlistment began and 
within a short time nearly one hundred men 
had joined the army. Quarters were offered 
them by Jack Redick, who allows them to use 
bis old wagon shed, where they will spend the 
night. A grand demonstration took place this 
afternoon, the men parading, colors living 
and headed by the Davenport brass hand. They 
will remain here a few days to complete re- 
cruiting and will then depart for Washington, 
D. C." 

Thus ended Lincoln county's adventure 
with the Coxeyites, hut the same month of the 
same year high water was a fruitful topic of 
discussion as well as in other portions of the 

state. June 7th. the ll Is continuing, the 

fridge at fort Spokane was carried out. Un- 
der date of June 17th the Lincoln County Times 
said : 

"People living along the Columbia river 
tell frightful tales of ruin and devastation re- 
sulting from the high waters. Houses, barns, 
Stacks, dead horses and cattle and even human 
beings have been seen Boating down the river. 
It is related that one day when the waters had 


about reached their height a man and two girls 
were seen strapped down to a floating raft drift- 
ing down the current. It was impossible to 
rescue them. The river was so swift and vio- 
lent in most places that it was almost sure death 
to venture into the current with a boat." 

June 22d the waters of the Columbia and 
Spokane rivers and other streams were slowly 
subsiding and no further mischief was feared. 
It was admitted, however, that these streams 
had never been known, by the oldest residents 
of the country, to rise so suddenly or to such 
a height. But on June 29th Crab creek, in 
the southern portion of the county, became a 
mighty river, carrying away bridges, fences 
and grain. This was the first time this stream 
bad ever reached any extraordinary height due 
to spring floods. 

•The Northern Pacific Railway strike, in 
1894, and under the auspices of Eugene V. 
Debs and the A. R. U., which affected the en- 
tire system, played an important part in the 
history of Lincoln county. Directly and in- 
directly to it may be traced some of the im- 
portant events which transpired later, — notably 
the removal of the county seat from Sprague 
to Davenport two years later. It was the cause 
of certain dissensions between the two ambitious 
towns. One Saturday in June, 1894, a num- 
ber of farmers assembled in Sprague and in 
the name of Lincoln county, adopted certain 
resolutions concerning the great strike then 
pending. This meeting was presided over by 
John Cody, and A. J. Lacy, J. C. Murray and 
O. T. Terwilliger drafted the following reso- 
lutions which were adopted : 

Resolved, That we, citizens of Lincoln and ad- 
joining counties in mass meeting assembled, in the city 
of Sprague, Washington, hereby express our emphatic 
condemnation of the plutocratic money powers that 
have so systematically done all that could be done to 
oppress 1 the poor generally, and of the management of 
the Pullman Car Company who are the direct cause 
of the strike on all the sections of railroads now out. and 
be it further 

Resolved, That we hereby extend our hearty sym- 
pathy to all the unfortunate toilers wdio have been re- 

duced to enforced idleness through the iniquitous and 
tyrannical action of the management of the Pullman 
Car Company in reducing the wages of their employees 
to starvation price, and especially do we extend our 
sympathy to and hereby declare our approval of the 
action of our citizens who are employees of the North- 
ern Pacific Railroad Company in their determination to 
insist upon the equitable adjustment of the wages, and 
the restoration to their positions of the employees that 
have gone out, and be it further 

Rcsoh'cd, That we as a body assembled hereby 
pledge ourselves to do all in our power to alleviate any 
condition of suffering or want, and that we are willing 
to contribute everything within our power that may be 
needed for the purpose of the strikers or their families. 

It should be remembered that this period 
was one of intense excitement throughout the 
entire country. Similar meetings and similar 
resolutions were held and passed in many 
places. Indeed, it may be truthfully asserted 
that these resolutions of sympathy were mild 
in their character compared to many others of 
like import. Viewed in the calm retrospection 
of history they do not appear at all anarchistic 
or revolutionary. But conditions at that time 
were inflammable. It is this fact that tended 
to bring on a strong division of public senti- 
ment. And to this division must be ascribed 
the intensifying of the bitterness which origi- 
nated in 1884 between the towns of Sprague 
and Davenport as well as between citizens of 
each town. The action of this mass meeting 
in Sprague was at once seized upon by cer- 
tain people in Davenport to create a spirit of 
animosity against Sprague. The more conser- 
vative citizens of that town realized that such 
a condition must be palliated. A dispatch from 
Sprague, dated July 16th, will more full}' ex- 
plain their position : 

"This evening a large meeting of citizens 
and business men was held and resolutions were 
passed for law and order. The assemblage was 
resolved to protect from insult and violence 
all men who desire to go back to work. One 
hundred citizens were sworn in as deputy sher- 
iffs. It was also resolved to enforce the or- 
dinance keeping boys off the streets after 9 
o'clock p. m. The meeting was very enthu- 



siastic and the citizens are determined that 
peace shall be preserved. The following reso- 
lutions were unanimously adopted : 

Whereas it has come to our attention that numerous 
false and misleading reports- have been published and 
circulated with regard to the condition of affairs at 
Sprague and the sentiments and opinions of citizens 
during the strike, and 

Whereas, The reports not only do Sprague and 
her citizens an injustice, but are calculated to do much 
harm, therefore be it 

Resolved, By the citizens and business men of 
Sprague in mass meeting assembled that we denounce 
as false the report that Sprague is solid for the strike; 
that we believe that even among railroad employees- 
there are a large number who are and have been op- 
posed to the strike from the beginning as unjust and 
ill-advised ; that the report that Troop A of Sprague 
refused to return home behind non-union men is abso- 
lutely untrue; and especially is it false that the people 
of Sprague — or a respectable portion of them — approved 
their alleged refusal to do so. On the contrary the 
citizens of Sprague are loyal to the flag and to the 
laws', and are outspoken in their opinion that it is the 
duty of a soldier to obey orders under any and all cir- 
cumstances, and that refusal so to do should be met with 
severe punishment. 

We condemn the false and exaggerated reports of 
the disturbance Sunday night, the Slh instant, as the 
facts are : That beyond the throwing of rocks- at a train 
■ and the burning of one small trestle and the partial 
burning of another, no great damage was done and 
there was no "howling mob" as reported. We are quite 
positive that had the Tekoa militia, who were aboard 
the train, done their duty there would have been no 
disturbance whatever. Had they even made a show 
of resistance, instead of remaining in the cars, the 
hoodlums who started the row would have been iri 
timidated and there would have been no trouble at 
all ; be u further 

Resolved, That for the purpose of indicating the 
attitude of the business men in this matter, and in 
order to preserve law and order and aid the authorities 
in protecting the employees and property of the North- 
ern Pacific, should such aid be necessary, we organize 
ourselves into a law and Order league, the members 
thereof to be sworn in as deputy sheriffs. 

Resolved, Further, thai these resolutions be given 
due publicity and especially be furnished u> papers in 
Spokane, Tacoma and Seattle for publication. 

Thus much for the conflicting attitudes of 
the citizens of Lincoln county concerning the 
great strike. As for the strike per se, two 
companies of infantry were called from Fort 

Spokane Sunday night, July 8th, and early 
Monday morning left for Sprague by special 
train to report for duty. A bridge was burned 
down in front of them, however, before thev 
reached there, but the train crews succeeded in 
patching it up and they passed over. This 
train was manned by amateurs, a saw mill en- 
gineer being in charge of the locomotive. 
These soldiers returned from Sprague July 
25th, although the strike had been declared 
off on the 21st inst. July 13th Division Super- 
intendent F. W. Gilbert, of the Northern Pa- 
cific, who had temporarily removed his head- 
quarters from Sprague to Spokane, returned 
to Sprague and opened up his headquarters in 
that town, where he held himself in readiness 
to act upon the application of all ex-employees 
for reinstatement for duty. 

July 13th the Lincoln County Times said: 
"Locally there is some sympathy with the 
strikers, but sentiment is practically unani- 
mous in favor of the preservation of laws, the 
restoration of order and against the destruc- 
tion of property and intimidation of workmen 
by threats of violence by organized bodies." 

The Northern Pacific strike also affected 
the Central Washington railway. Monday, 
July 9th. a special carrying soldiers came over 
the line and this was the first train into Daven- 
port since the tie-up. Mail for all parts of the 
count\- was brought to Harrington, on the 
Great Northern and other postoffices on that 
mad, which were not affected by the strike, 
and distributed to the different towns by 
stages. Some intended for the northern part 
of Lincoln county was taken to Colville, Ste- 
vens county, via the Spokane Falls & North- 
ern line. then, as now under the management 
of the Great Northern officials, and then 
pied bj stage t" Fori Spokane, and thus dis- 
tributed throughout the county. Saturday^ 

ion. July 14th. the first train on tb 
tral Washington, in (8 days, arrived in Wil- 
bur. Lincoln county. The citizens of that 
town turned out en masse to welcome the de- 



laved transportation. The engine was guarded 
by three deputy marshals. 

The last act in the interesting and sensa- 
tional career of "Wild Goose Bill" took place 
in the latter part of January, 1895, resulting 
in his death together with that of a man named 
Barton Park. Concerning this double tragedy 
the Lincoln County Times in reporting the 
event said : 

"The shooting affair between 'Wild Goose 
Bill' and Barton Park, in which both were 
killed, occurred at the King ranch, about ten 
miles distant from 'Wild Goose Bill's' place 
on the Columbia river. There were four wit- 
nesses to the deed. The whole trouble was 
over a woman, Millie Dunn, by name, who 
was married to a young man by that name in 
Davenport a couple of years ago. but from 
whom she secured a divorce several months 
since and for some time had been living with 
'Wild Goose Bill,' whose proper name was 
Samuel Wilbur Condin. 

"Condin, who had a squaw wife, induced 
her to leave and soon became greatly attached 
and very jealous of his young mistress. She. 
however, soon tired of him and took up with 
Jack Bratton at the King ranch. This preyed 
upon Condin's mind and he drank heavily and 
is supposed to have been well under the influ- 
ence of liquor when he started upon his fatal 
journey to the King ranch accompanied by 
Bert Woodin. Arriving there Condin jumped 
out of the wagon and went into the house and 
W'oodin drove to the barn with the team. En- 
tering the house Condin shook hands with all 
present, Bratton, Park and Mrs. Dunn. It is 
said he next asked the woman to go back and 
live with him and on receiving a negative an- 
swer, pulled a revolver and fired two shots at 
her. both taking effect in her left arm. It is 
belived that Park interfered here by firing a 
shot, and the woman states that at this inter- 
ference Condin turned upon Park, shot him 
through the breast and started out the door. 
Park, though fatally wounded, grasped a rifle 

within reach and fired upon the retreating 
Condin, killing him, and fired another shot at 
Bert Woodin taking the heel off of his 
(AYoodin's) toot. He then dropped down 
and expired almost instantly. Bratton, who 
had been the cause of hostilites, slipped out of 
the door as the shooting began and lost no 
time in placing distance between himself and 

"Condin had passed through many a skir- 
mish, and always come out unscathed and was 
a stranger to fear. But that he anticipated 
trouble and probably a fatal termination was 
evidenced by the fact that he had made a new 
will leaving the most of his property to his 
crippled half breed child before starting out 
on this last journey. Those who know Con- 
din best scarcely credit the story that he began 
shooting at a defenseless woman unless he in- 
tended taking his own life immediately after. 
The woman's left arm was badly shattered, 
and it is possible that it will cost her her life. 
Woodin and Bratton who escaped, the Times 
is informed, have quit the country. The re- 
mains of young Barton Park were brought to 
town last Saturday and interred in the cem- 

Tuesday, August 13th, occurred a bad 
wreck on the Central Washington railroad 
just east of Almira, which resulted in the 
death of Fireman Prytz and serious injury to 
Engineer Hobart. The train consisted of 
fourteen cars of cattle belonging to W. H. 
Fleet, of Coulee City, en route to Chicago, 
and one car of horses owned by Griffith Jones, 
consigned to Wisconsin. The train was com- 
ing down grade at a rapid rate, and when the 
curve was reached, near Almira, the engine 
and the entire train with the exception of the 
horse car, a cattle car and the caboose, went 
over into the ditch twenty feet below, piling 
one car of live stock upon another making a 
frightful wreck. Of the 314 cattle 150 were 
either killed or maimed, making their destruc- 
tion necessarv. Fireman Prvtz fell under the 



boiler and was killed almost instantly by scald- 
ing water. Conductor Roberts, Brakeman 
Downs. W. H. Fleet and tbree or four otbers 
were in tbe caboose and escaped injury. , 

In May, 1896, war broke out between tbe 
railroads and tbe sheepmen. On tbe 1 3th in- 
stant tbe following dispatch was sent to the 
Spokesman-Review, Spokane : 

"Sprague, May 13. — Some time age the 
Northern Pacific railroad company served no- 
tices "ii all tbe sheepmen who have been in the 
habit of grazing their flocks every spring with- 
in a radius of 15 miles of Sprague, in Adams, 
Whitman and Lincoln counties,, to keep off 
their lands. Some of tbe sheepmen have 
formed a combination to remove, shear and 
ship their wool over the O. R. & X. railroad 
and some over tbe Great Northern. The 
Northern Pacific Company bearing of the 
same, sent the following communication to 
the stock association : 

"Sprague, Wash., May 7, 1896. — To Jack 
McElroy. John Graves, M. Parks, committee, 
and all other cattlemen, ranchers and members 
of the Stock Grazing and Protective Associa- 
tion, Gentlemen: — You are doubtless aware 
that the Northern Pacific Railway Company 
has been sustained by the United States Court, 
at Walla Walla, in its contention that sheep 
cannot graze upon railroad land without per- 
mission of tbe company. Of course this means 
that any land owned by you need not be fenced 
to prevent sheep from grazing upon it. 

"Now the company does not propose to 
drive sheepmen out of tbe country, but it 
does wish to extend such protection to the cat- 
tle owners and small farmers as is possible, 
and at the same time treat the sheepmen 

'Your association in the effort to protect 
yourselves from sheep depredations, might 
carry the thing too far. We think you all 
would prefer to accomplish the result by fair 
means in conjunction with efforts of tbe rail- 
road company, rather than by putting your- 

selves in the attitude of law breakers. We be- 
lieve that a reasonable arrangement can be 
reached, and would like to meet you all at 
Sprague next Monday. May tl, 1896, at 10 
o'clock a. m.. and talk over this whole matter. 
Tbe railroad land department desires to ascer- 
tain what route can he used for the sheepmen 
to pass up to Sprague ami shear and get back 
immediately after shearing, doing the least 
possible damage to you. I will he here to rep- 
resent Thomas Cooper, the Northern Pacific 
Railroad Company's land agent, of Tacoma, 
and it is possible that Mr. Cooper may be here 
himself. Therefore, in your own interests, we 
trust you will meet us as suggested without 
fail. Signed. E. F. Benson, Land Examiner 
for X. 1". R. R. Co. 

"The stock association bad a meeting with 
Mr. Benson present, and discussed this mat- 
ter and came to the following conclusion: 

"Resolved, After discussing the matter of 
co-operating with the Northern Pacific Rail- 
road Company in its efforts to bring the sheep- 
men of Adams. Whitman and Lincoln coun- 
ties to Sprague to sheer, it is unanimously 
agreed that we refuse our consent for them to 
come north of the line running west from the 
bead of Walled Lake to Rock creek,»in Adams 
and Lincoln counties." 

"The following dodger has been printed 
and will he scattered where it will reach all 
sheepmen : 

"'Public Notice. — To all owners and 
herders of -keep: You are hereby notified 
not to herd or graze your sheep north of a 
line running west from the head of Walled 
Lake to Cow creek, and east from the head of 
Walled bake to Rock creek. By order of the 
Stock Grazing and Protective Association. 
Signed, Jack McElroy, John Graves, M. 

The prevailing sentiment existing in Lin- 
coln county concerning the lo^s ,,f the com- 
peting line of railroad, the Seattle. Lake Shore 
& Pastern Railway, is voiced in the following 



extract from the Lincoln County Times of 
date, July 14, 1896: 

"The Seattle. Lake Shore & Eastern Rail- 
road, a branch of which was extended from 
Spokane to Davenport during the winter of 
1889, and for which the property holders of 
the town put up liberally for the purpose of 
inducing the management to run through, in- 
stead of around the place, has just been trans- 
ferred to the committee of the mortgage bond 
holders and the deed placed on file in Spokane. 

"This deed conveys the road, commencing 
in the city of Seattle and running to Sallal 
Prairie, 62 miles ; a line commencing in 
Woodinville, King county, running to Sumas, 
101 miles; a branch known as the Hilron 
branch, and 18 miles of additional branches 
and spurs; also the main line in the eastern 
division, commencing at Spokane and running 
west to Davenport. The transfer includes all 
the rights of way, franchise, rolling stock, 
buildings, etc., and 2,500 shares of stock in 
the Union Depot Company, at Spokane, and 
its leasehold estate for 99 years in the depot 
grounds ; also the railroad company's title to 
tide and shore lands in King county. 

"The company was enjoying an era of un- 
equaled prosperity at the time this road was 

built through Lincoln county, and the people 
and the railroads all seemed to have plenty of 
money. Roads were being built everywhere, 
and scarcely a week passed that a party of sur- 
veyors did not pass through looking up a route 
for some projected line. It was not hard for 
them to raise the necessary money to induce 
the Seattle road to build in, which was be- 
lieved to be a necessary thing in order to build 
up the place so that other roads could be con- 
trolled that talked of penetrating the Big 
Bend. These were thrifty days when people 
heard little and cared less about free silver and 
sub-treasury schemes. All went along smooth- 
ly enough for two or three years and then a 
reaction set in. Railroads quit building, 
money began to get scarce ; all sorts of politi- 
cal nostrums were advocated ; taking short 
cuts to ease and fortune, and then the business 
failures began. Xo more was heard of pro- 
jected railroads, and the Seattle, Lake Shore 
& Eastern line, after a hard struggle, finally 
ceased to be operated altogether between Daven- 
port and Spokane, and now reverts to the bond 
holders. Railroads, as well as individuals, 
overestimated themselves, strained their credit 
and now a good many of them have valuable 
experience but a good deal less money." 


CURRENT EVENTS— 1896 TO 1904. 

Agitation for removal of the county seat 
from Sprague was renewed the spring of 1896. 
Harrington was ambitious, and in March the 
Independent, of that town, announced that 
Harrington would be a candidate. The town 
of Edwall also listened to the buzzing of the 
county seat bee. and was, for awhile, ambit- 
ious to become the Hub of Lincoln county. It 
was well known that Wilbur would not feel 

justified in refusing the honor, and Davenport 
considered herself the logical candidate. Con- 
ditions were such that unless a number of 
towns entered the race and thus divided the 
vote, removal from Sprague to Davenport 
might be considered a certaintv. The city of 
Sprague which, until the year previous was, 
unquestionably, the principal town of the 
county, had encountered a series of disasters 



from which it could not, immediately, recover. 
The fire of August .}. [895, which is elsewhere 
treated in this work, laid waste the town. It 
was unquestioned that a new Sprague would 

spring from the ashes of its desolation had not 
the Northern Pacific Railroad Company de- 
cided to remove their machine shops from the 
town and establish division headquarters else- 
where. This was a blow harder than the fire. 

Davenport formally entered the county 
seat contest April 6th. A mass meeting of the 
business men of the town assembled in the 
council chambers and it was largely attended. 
The situation was exhaustively discussed and 
it was the unanimous opinion of the meeting 
that Davenport should become a contestant. 
Editorially the Lincoln County Times said: 

"In entering- the field for the county seat 
Davenport does not intend to make any attack 
on Sprague, the present seat of county govern- 
ment. She entertains the most kindly feeling 
for that place and all its citizens, and would 
not like to see a single one of them suffer loss 
by reason of the removal of the county seat. 
However, the removal of the seat of county 
government to a more central point is an 
urgent public necessity, and overbalances all 
private considerations as to individual losses 
occasioned by the change.'' 

April 25th the citizens of Harrington held 
a mass meeting and. also, decided to enter the 
contest. Under the law each town that de- 
cided to become a candidate for county seat 
privileges was obliged to present to the board 
of county commissioners a petition signed by 
qualified electors of the county equal in num- 
ber to one-third of all the votes cast at the last 
preceding general election. Roth Davenport 
and Harrington complied with this provision 
and became contestants. It is generally ad- 
mitted that Harrington was not very sanguine 
of securing the prize. It was at the earnest 
solicitation of Sprague and for the sole pur- 
pose of dividing the vote in order to prevent 
a re-location. The conditions at that period 

are thus outlined by the Spokesman-Review of 

date July _>o. [896 : 

"Davenport has filed with the county com- 
missioners a petition asking for an election for 
the removal of the county seat to Davenport. 
Tins petition has been acted upon by the 
county commissioners and the issue will come 
up at the general election this fall. Harring- 
ton has also filed a petition and is on the list 
as a candidate. 

"The conditions have been changing ma- 
terially in favor of Davenport. In the past 
two years the south half of the county from 
which Sprague derives its voting support has 
been reduced at least five hundred votes, one- 
half of the reduction being on account of the 
changed conditions at Sprague alone. Besides 
this it is argued by Davenport people that 
Sprague is situated three miles from the south 
line of the county and six miles from the east 
line. Thus the county seat is in the corner of 
the county and the people in this section be- 
lieve it should be more centrally located. Dav- 
enport agrees to replace without a dollar- ( 
pense to the county, county buildings similar 
to those at Sprague. Harrington is not con- 
sidered to have any chance at all in the fight. 
The friends of Davenport are aligning them- 
selves and the final result will come in No- 

It was not until the latter part of Sep- 
tember that Davenport mobilized her forces in 
earnest for the impending campaign. From 
that date the contest on her part was most vig- 
orous and aggressive. September [8th Dav- 
enporl citizens executed a bond in the sum of 
SiS.Noo in favor of the commissioners 
ditioned upon the selection of Davenport as 
capital of the county, and pledging the bonds- 
men in that event to erect "a court house and 
county jail at a place in Davenport. Washing- 
ton, satisfactory to the county commissioners 
of said county, which said court house and 
county jail shall be of the same size, material. 
and capacity of said county buildings now in 


Sprague, the present county seat, and contain 
the same number of rooms, and apartments 
similarly arranged, each said court house and 
jail to be built on yards and lots of land as 
large as the lots and yards on which the pres- 
ent county court house and jail at Sprague are 
situated ; and invest and deliver to Lincoln 
county on or before the said first lay of July. 
1897, good, absolute and sufficient title to said 
lots, yards, premises, court house and jail 
thereon : and remove from Sprague to Daven- 
port, Washington, all the public records, 
books, furniture, safes, fixtures and appara- 
tus of whatever kind and nature now used in 
and about said county buildings at Sprague, 
and place the same in good and regular order 
in the county buildings to be built in Daven- 
port, as aforesaid." 

Those who executed this bond were : C. C. 
May, F. H. Luce, 'William Finney, Melissa 
Finney, H. C. Keedy, Lizzie Keedy, Albert 
W. Turner, Alice Turner, E. E. Plough, Mar- 
garet Plough, George Oswalt, Mary Oswalt, 
John H. Nicholls, Emma Nicholls, Walter 
Mansfield, Mary P. Mansfield, James S. Ink- 
ster, Laura Inkster, Robert Tischner, Rosina 
Tischner, Fred Quehlke, Margaret A. Oueh- 
lke, Herman Kruger, Dora Kruger, B. O. Gib- 
son, Louisa Gibson, Peter Leipham, Pbebe 
Leipham, Fred McLellan, Henry J. Whitney, 
Mrs. Fred McLelland. H. Josephine Whit- 
ney, A. F. Lambert, H. XV. Knapp, Ida M. 
Knapp, Dennie Moylan, Lula Moylan, A. L. 
Smalley, Clarence G. Snyder, Hugh H. Mc- 
Millan, Fred Lauer, L. A. Inkster. W. H. 
Moore, Mary E. Moore, Adam Knox, Katie 

Those who were favorable to either 
Sprague or Harrington for the county seat 
assumed the same position taken in the mem- 
orable contest of 1890, viz: That Davenport 
did not have the money required to construct 
the county buildings. The bond that had been 
executed was attacked and it was further al- 
leged that "there were not to exceed three men 

on the bond who were worth a five cent piece 
over and above just debts and liabilities/' 

But it appears that Davenport had the 
money. This was attested by the following 
sworn statement by C. C. May, Cashier of the 
Big Bend National Bank : 

"Davenport. Washington, October 15, 
1896. — This certifies that there has been de- 
posited in the Big Bend National Bank, of 
Davenport, Washington, the sum of ten thous- 
and dollars ($10,000) to be used only, or as 
much thereof as may be necessary, for the pur- 
pose of erecting a county court house and jail 
of the same size, material, dimensions, and 
number of rooms as the county buildings now 
located at Sprague, Lincoln county, Wash- 
ington, in case the county seat shall be re- 
moved from Sprague to Davenport, as a result 
of the election to be held on the 3d day of No- 
vember. 1896. This deposit is without any 
reservation whatever, to be paid out only for 
purpose herein named and as a guarantee that 
said buildings together with all of block 94 
in Columbia Addition to Davenport, which 
block is 215x250 feet, will be conveyed to 
Lincoln county, Washington, free from any 
incumbrance whatever, on or before August 
1, A. D., 1897; and that said Lincoln county 
shall not incur any expense in the removal of 
the county records, offfce and vault furniture 
and fixtures and jail cages, from Sprague to 

"If Davenport fails to construct said build- 
ings and deliver same together with said block 
of land to Lincoln county, Washington, by 
good and sufficient warranty deed with the 
usual covenants, on or before the first day of 
August, 1897, or foils to remove the records 
aforesaid from Sprague to Davenport within 
sixty days after the result of said election is 
declared ; or fails to furnish suitable offices, 
free of expense to Lincoln county, to be used 
pending the construction of said county build- 
ings, then and in that event the said $10,000, 
for so much thereof as mav be necessary tc 



construct said buildings) becomes due and 
payable to the order of the board of county 
commissioners of said Lincoln county, Wash- 

"By Big Bend National BaiiK, per C. C. 
May. cashier." 

This certificate was deposited with the 
county treasurer on the 16th day of October, 
and duly acknowledged by J. J. Brown, county 
treasurer. The bond in the sum of $18,800 
was placed in the hands of the county commis- 
sioners. The following letter explains their 
action in the matter. 

"'Mr. C. C. May, Davenport. Washington. 
Dear Sir : — The bond furnished by the citizens 
of Davenport for the erection of county build- 
ings and expense of moving the records and 
fixtures from this place to Davenport in the 
event that the voters of Lincoln county, on the 
3d day of November, declare in favor of lo- 
cating the county seat at Davenport, is on file 
in the auditor's office. We have examined the 
above mentioned bond and believe it to be 
good and sufficient for the purpose given, but 
do not think it our duty to take any action 
whatever in regard to the matter, as the bond 
placed on file with the county auditor is just 
as binding as if approved by the board. Re- 

"L. V. Allen. 
"T. G. Stevenson. 
"A. E. Stookey, 

For the second time Wilbur held the bal- 
ance of power ; she had the deciding v< ites in the 
impending contest. And again Wilbur thrust 
the issue of county division into the campaign. 
She demanded that the representative business- 
men of Davenport should pledge themselves 
to assist when in some future time --he should 
attempt to divide Lincoln county. Of course 
such an obligation could only he binding upon 
the signers. Hard as the term- were Daven- 
port's leading residents were compelled to 

enter into this agreement, or all their hopes 
would he nullified. They did so. There was 
no politics in the agreement. Republicans. 
Democrat-. Populists, Prohibitionists were 
combined in the movement. It was the future 
of a whole community dependent upon the 
promise of Wilbur, and Wilbur appears to 
have lived up to the contract nominated in the 

At the November general election of 1896, 
the contest was settled in favor of Davenport. 
The official vote was, Davenport, 1582; Har- 
rington, 240; against removal, 537. Follow- 
ing i- the result of the vote by precincts: 

Precincts. Davenport. Harrington. Against Rem. 

Reardan 153 8 

Mondovi 100 1 3 

Fairview 81 2 13 

Lassin 29 8 41 

Larene 97 o 1 

Inkster 90 o o 

Miles 29 o 1 

Davenport 242 o o 

Union 58 2 1 

Harrington 59 73 , 

Liberty 5 46 11 

Sedalia 4 26 2 

Crab Creek 4 -3 13 

Grand Bluff 4 14 16 

Enos 16 3 2 

Yarwood 4 26 o 

Condon 62 I 1 

Meridian 40 2 4 

Grand Coulee 54 1 5 

Wilbur 113 2 16 

1 'olumbia 44 1 6 

Unite 50 

Brents 8g o 

Welch Creek 73 o 1 

Wil-011 Creek 40 I 6 

N'ortb Sprague 3 7 

South Sprague 7 16 225 

Earl ^ S 

[,582 240 537 

The Davenport correspondent of the 
Spokesman-Review thus described the joyous 

ratification of the result: 

"The citi/ens of Davenport celebrated th< 
count v -eat victory last night in an enthu- 
tastic and inspiring manner. At 7:30 o'clock 


a torchlight procession was formed, which 
marched up and down Morgan street several 
times, headed by a traveling brass band which 
added to the enthusiasm by furnishing the 
liveliest kind of music. Cheer after cheer 
went forth from the procession, and was re- 
echoed by those who thronged the sidewalks. 
Finally a halt was called in front of the Co- 
lumbia hotel, a table was provided, and one, 
citizen after another was carried by stalwart 
hands, placed on the table, and requested to 
deliver a speech, until a dozen or more short 
speeches were made by as many representative 
citizens. Then the procession, including the 
ladies, who also took part, in a body entered 
the theatre and listened to the evening's enter- 
tainment. Bonfires and the firing of anvils 
were the other features of the celebration.". 

Preliminary steps were taken to contest 
the legality of this memorable event. The 
ground upon which the action was based was 
that the $10,000 contributed by Davenport 
citizens was a bribe to the voters by which 
they were induced to vote the county record 
away from Sprague. Concerning this matter 
the Times said, editorially : 

"There is no foundation for such a con- 
test upon which any hope for success is based, 
for there is no case on record where a suit has 
ever been sustained based upon such grounds, 
and there is not the slightest probability that 
this suit will be successful. The purpose is. 
evidently, an attempt to delay the removal of 
the records, but it will not succeed." 

But this threatening war cloud passed 
harmlessly away. Monday, November 20th 
the county commissioners convened at 
Sprague and quietly issued an order for the 
removal of the county records to Davenport 
December 14th. No contest suit was actually 
filed, consequently none could we withdrawn. 
Thus ended the county seat contest of twelve 
years standing, and which had intermittently 
cropped up, surrounded by all the multifarious 
bickerings and bitterness incidental to such 

procedures. Davenport was officially declared 
to be the county seat after 12 o'clock, mid- 
night, December 14th. On the 16th instant the 
county records arrived in Davenport. The 
records, furniture, etc., were brought in by rail 
in charge of a committee of Davenport citi- 
zens. The condition of the roads made it im- 
possible to bring them overland. Three cars 
were required to transport these official effects 
and they were three days in transit. The 
county officials, on their arrival in Davenport, 
secured offices in various buildings until the 
court house could be constructed. In January, 
1897, the citizens of Davenport paid into the 
county treasury $6,000 in cash, and gave a 
deed to a block of land upon which to erect 
a court house. Tire commissioners decided 
that $6,000 would more than pay for the 
erection of a county building equal to the one 
formerly used at Sprague. but decided to add 
to it and erect one sufficient for present needs. 
The action of the commissioners in this mat- 
ter reads as follows, and was signed by all the 
commissioners, Friday, January 15th: 

Ordered that the $6,000 received from the citizens 
of Davenport for the erection of a court house and 
jail be placed in the county treasury and credited to a 
fund to be known as the "court house fund," upon which 
only warrants for the erection of such buildings shall 
be drawn. The above matter coming on for hearing, 
and the citizens of Davenport having agreed to place 
$6,000 gold coin of the United States, in the hands of 
the county commissioners, and a deed to block 94, 
Columbia Addition to the. Town of Davenport, pro- 
vided that the commissioners release the signers' of the 
bond and certificate of deposit given, from all liability 
in the premises, except as hereinafter stated, and the 
board being fully advised in the matter and having made 
careful estimate of the cost of replacing and duplicating 
all buildings of the same size, material and finish as 
those formerly used as a court house and jail at Sprague, 
and the board being fully satisfied that said sum will 
erect and build better and more substantial buildings 
than those formerly occupied : It i? therefore ordered 
that the said amount and the deed to block 94, Columbia 
Addition to the Town of Davenport, the receipt of which 
is hereby acknowledged, be, and the same is hereby, 
accepted in full payment from the citizens of Daven- 
port as per their bond and agreement on file in the 
office of the county auditor and certified check deposited 


with the county treasurer; and it is further ordered that 
the signers of said bond be, and they are hereby, re- 
leased from all liability on account of the agreement 
and consideration for which said bond and check were 
given, except that the citizens of Davenport furnish 
temporary quarters for the county officials until the new 
court house is built, but in no case later than the first 
day of August, 1897. 

Subsequently the commissioners decided to 
erect a court house at a cost of $10,000. March 
1st a contract was let to Fred Baske to build 
a county building at a cost of $12,119.90. 
This handsome structure was completed in due 
time as per contract. At Sprague, Monday, 
July nth, the old court house, jail and lots 
on which they were located were sold at public 
auction. These buildings cost Lincoln county 
over $10,000. The buildings were sold for 

"The year of the bumper wheat crop," 
1897, marked the return of prosperous times. 
Farmers and business men of Lincoln county 
were cheerful. Mr. David Wilson, who for 
many years past had been interested in the 
town of Davenport and who always took a 
prominent part in Lincoln county affairs, at 
the close of the year 1897, wrote as follows 
concerning the financial condition of the farm- 
ers and the size of the year's crops : 

"Careful estimates of this year's wheat 
crop in Lincoln county place it at 6,500,000 
bushels, which at prevailing prices, equals $4,- 
500,000. Taken together with other cereals, 
live stock, fruit, minerals, etc., the cash value 
to the 1.500 farmers of Lincoln count}- will 
be $6,000,000. or $4,000 apiece — a result un- 
heard of heretofore in any county in the 
United States. ***** The area 
of Lincoln count}- is about 1.500,000 arn^, di 
vided as follows: Grazing land (including 
aboul 250,000 acre- of timber.) 700.000 
acres: agricultural lands, about N00.000 acres. 
Of the latter 350.000 are under cultivation, 
there lining been seeded to wheat alone this 
year (1897) approximately 250,000 
which yielded an average of 29 bushels to the 

acre, some of which sold as high as 78 cents 
per bushel.- * * * * * The crop of 
[897, in many instances, yielded a return that 
would pay all expenses for raising, marketing 
the same, pay the full market price for the 
land, and leaves a handsome profit besides." 

The result of this big crop was that nearly 
all the mortgages in the county were paid off, 
and there were many purchases of railroad and 
other land. Almost every tillable quarter sec- 
tion in the count}- was purchased or leased for 
farming purposes the next year. Mr. Frank 
M. Dallam, the present editor of the Palmer 
Mountain Prospector, of Loomis, Okanogan 
county, wrote as follows : 

"The Lord was g 1 to the people of 

Lincoln county in 1897, ***** 
Hard times had rattled at every door. Crops 
were light, and even had they been enormous. 
the market was dead and the prices did nol pay 
the harvesting. A cloud was over the com- 
munity; business was at a standstill; the 
deadly mortgage was eating away the farm. 
and lines of care and trouble were penciled 
upon every face. At a time when the strain 
was the greatest, and many had laid down 
their burdens when faint and weary with de- 
ferred hope, by surrendering their homes. 
fortune lit up the gloom by a radiant smile 
that brought joy and comfort and luxuries 
to hundreds of households. The broad acres 
laughed with the burden of golden grain and 
an advance in prices lifted many into compar- 
ative wealth ami set many more upon their 
feet and gave encouragement and unusual 
vigor to the husbandman. The touch of 
fortune that made the farmer prosperous sent 
new blood through the arteries of trade. The 
step of man became more elastic, cheerfulness 
took the place of former shadows, a feeling of 
renewed life and hope animated every one. and 
business felt the thrill or returning activity." 

This encouraging access of prosperity 
found its reflex in the daily movements of the 
people. In December, [897, nearly every 


eastbound train out of Lincoln county carried 
from one to half a dozen citizens on their way 
to former homes in the east to pass the winter 
with relatives and friends. The majority of 
these east-bound pilgrims were farmers who 
had been rewarded by bounteous crops, had 
paid off their indebtedness — mortgages and 
other obligations — and still had left a generous 
surplus. This was, by no means, the first year 
favorable to the farmers throughout the 
county, although the three previous seasons 
had resulted in a combination of light crops 
and low prices. On many of them this had 
exercised a depressing effect. And while there 
were many outgoing residents, on temporary 
vacations bent, reports of the generous crops 
of the Big Bend and the prosperity of Central 
Washington reached the far east and the "mid- 
dle west." The result was that hundreds of 
new settlers flocked into Lincoln county in the 
spring of 1898. They came from all parts of 
the union ; they settled in all parts of the 

April 17, 1898, Companies B and E, of 
the Sixteenth U. S. Infantry, who had been 
stationed at Fort Spokane for two years, left 
for the seat of war. Their point of embark- 
ation was New Orleans. These troops were 
under command of Major William H. Mc- 
Laughlin, and other officers of the command 
were Captains W. C. McFarland, G. H. Pal- 
mer, and C. R. Tyler and Lieutenant E. C. 
Carey. On their arrival in Davenport the 
soldiers were given a cordial reception by the 
citizens of the town. They departed over the 
Central Washington, and were heartily 
cheered at all the stations along the line. The 
fort has never since been garrisoned. 

During the summer of 1898 there was de- 
cided in the superior court of Lincoln county a 
causus celebre, known as the De Rackin case. 
This was a suit brought by Samuel E. De 
Rackin against the county for payment for 
publishing the delinquent tax list of Lincoln 
county. The case attracted attention through- 

out the state and interested Lincoln county cit- 
izens for several years. Mr. De Rackin was 
for some time the publisher of the Sprague 
Mail, and was awarded the delinquent tax list 
for publication by the county treasurer. The 
publisher carried out his part of the work sat- 
isfactorily and presented a bill to the county 
for $4,500. The commissioners refused to al- 
low the bill and in lieu thereof, offered Mr. De 
Rackin $140. Under protest this amount was 
accepted by the publisher, and he immediately 
brought suit against the county for the bal- 
ance claimed. The lower court decided 
against him, but he carried it to the superior 
court and secured a reversal. At the second 
trial, held before Judge William E. Richard- 
son, he secured a verdict for $840.60, less the 
$140 already paid. The last act in the case 
took place Monday, August 29th, when a com- 
promise was reached, the commissioners pay- 
ing $700 rather than appeal the case. De 
Rackin won, but others secured the money. 
What was left after settlement of the at- 
torney's fees was garnisheed by the Fidelity 
National Bank. 

The wheat crop of 1898 was equal to that 
of the previous year. Prices ranged around 
fifty cents a bushel. Owing to the scarcity of 
freight cars there was some delay in moving 
this mammoth crop. 

The close of the year 1898 marked the re- 
moval from Lincoln county of an old land- 
mark — nothing less than a railroad. The Se- 
attle, Lake Shore & Eastern Railway, which 
had created so much enthusiasm among the 
citizens of the county at the time of its con- 
struction, but which was operated only a short 
time, was of no use to the company which 
owned it and the rails were taken up and util- 
ized in the extension of branches in Idaho. 
The destroying hand of time has since erased 
the embankments, and a few cuts through the 
barren "scab land" are all that is left to indicate 
that a railroad ever passed that way. 

In the legislature of 1899 an effort was 




made to create a new county from the western 
part of Lincoln, and the eastern part of Doug- 
las counties, with Wilbur as the county seat 
of the new division. This project failed, and 
it is still claimed that the failure is owing to 
the abrogation by Davenport of its agreement 
with Wilbur pending the last contest for the 
county seat. There is, of course, a radical dif- 
ference of opinion existing today upon this 
question; and the situation may be briefly ex- 
plained as follows : The citizens of Davenport 
contend that the crux of the agreement be- 
tween Davenport and Wilbur at the time of 
the county seat contest in 1896, was, simply, 
that Davenport should remain neutral when- 
ever Wilbur should bring forward the county 
division project. On the other hand the Wil- 
bur people insist that the agreement bound 
Davenport to do all in her power to assist in 
the advancement of the division. And thus 
the respective positions remain today. The di- 
vision project was abandoned on discovering 
that Douglas county did not have the required 
population to leave 4.000 people in the county. 
Tuesday, February 1. 1899, Lincoln 
county was visited by the most sudden blizzard 
in its history. For several days before the 
storm broke in all its wintry fury the weather 
had been so spring-like that the people had be- 
gun to think that winter had actually retired 
from the lap of Spring. Monday night a 
couple of inches of snow fell, but Tuesday 
morning was pleasant ; the wind having hauled 
to the southeast. Gradually, during the fore- 
noon, the light prevailing wind shifted to the 
northeast. Suddenly, about noon, snow be- 
gan falling, accompanied by a terrific gale. 
For six hoursthe wind howled and the falling, 
drifting snow was so dense that one could not 
see across the street; the cold was intense. 
Business in all the towns of the county was 
practically suspended. By six o'clock the 
snow ceased falling, but the heavy gale con- 
tinued, and Wednesday morning, although 
clear, was cold. Beginning with this blizzard 

of the 1st inst., the county fell heir to a con- 
tinuous spell of Arctic weather that surpassed 
the memory of the pioneers of the county. 
For several days the mercury did not rise 
above zero, and from 10 to 22 degrees below 
were common records. This atmospberic con- 
dition continued until the 10th inst., an oc- 
currence so unusual in this climate that it ex- 
cited the wonderment of other states than this. 
This season will be remembered as the "cold 
winter," and as such is worthy of more than a 
passing remark. 

In April, 1899, Fort Spokone was officially 
abandoned by the United States government. 
Since the departure of Companies B and E, to 
the Spanish War, the fort had been left in 
charge of Sergeant B. Coughlin. With him 
were Post Quartermaster Sergeant B. Bech- 
told, Commissary Sergeant A. Smart, Hospital 
Steward J. Sweeney and two privates. In the 
spring of 1899 Sergeants Couglin, Bechtold 
and Smart reported for duty at the new post 
recently established at Spokane. Sergeant 
Sweeney to Boise City, Idaho, and the two 
privates to their regiments, at San Francisco. 
The movable property at the fort was taken to 
Fort Wright, at Spokane. Fort Spokane had 
been a source of considerable income to the 
people of northern Lincoln county, as much of 
the produce consumed by the occupants of the 
fort was drawn from the adjacent neighbor- 
hood, and it was with regret that the people 
witnessed its abandonment. 

The epidemic of smallpox, in its mildest 
form, which passed over the country in the 
spring of 1899 touched Lincoln county. Sev- 
eral sporadic cases were reported in June from 
the southern and western portions of the 
county. Stringent measures were at once 
taken by the authorities. Fear of the disease 
more than any grave results from it, created 
consternation in certain quarters. Every 
school and Sunday school was ordered closed 
until further notice by the sheriff. The county 
was scoured by officials enforcing quarantine 



regulations. Yaccine points were in demand, 
and the "sore arm" became the rule ; its absence 
the exception. There were many wila rumors 
afloat; people shunned the more thickly pop- 
ulated towns ; business suffered in consequence. 
Places where a case of smallpox had never 
been known suffered equally with those in 
which the disease had appeared. Normal con- 
ditions however, were soon restored, and the 
panic became as a tale that is told. 

But in the fall of the same year the people 
were thrown into a condition of far greater ex- 
citement on account of the mysterious disap- 
pearance of Ruth Inman from the Watson 
home, Parrott postoffice. Locally the event 
created as great a sensation as the kidnaping 
of young Edward Cudahy, in Omaha. 

Mr. and Mrs. C. A. Inman resided at 
Creston. Sunday afternoon, October 22d, ac- 
companied by their children, they drove to the 
home of Mr. Watson, a few miles south of 
Creston. While there little Ruth played in 
the yard with several other children, all older 
than herself. When last seen by the older 
members of the party, who were in the house, 
Ruth was sitting in a buggy-; the last seen of 
her by the other children she was going toward 
the house, and to them it seemed she entered 
the Watson residence. So far as known this 
was the last seen of the little girl alive. When 
Ruth was missed search was at once made, and 
no traces being discovered, great alarm was 
experienced and the neighborhood was sum- 
moned. Throughout the night the search was 
continued unweariedly. From far and near 
people flocked to the scene. Time and again 
each foot of ground was gone over with the 
earnestness of agonized anxiety. There was 
no sign of the lost infant. 

November 8th, under the direction of 
Sheriff Gardner, a systematic search was com- 
menced. Detective Joe Warren, of Spokane, 
was called upon and responded with his pro- 
fessional services. Notices were printed and 
distributed, inviting all who could possibly 

abandon their business to join in the search. 
One hundred men assembled at the Watson 
farm house. Part of this force was mounted 
and again the surrounding country was beaten 
by footmen and horsemen. Nothing was left 
unexamined ; wells, outhouses, ponds, badger 
holes, indeed, every hiding place wherein so 
small a body as little Ruth's might be hidden, 
was carefully searched and minutely examined. 
It was not a careless, perfunctory skimming of 
the surface of the ground. Each member of 
the part) r experienced a deep and intense in- 
terest in the proceedings. They were actuated 
by heartfelt sympathy for the stricken parents ; 
anxious to clear up the weird mystery of her 
taking off. It was in vain. Each succeeding 
day's attempt proved as fruitless as that of 
the first. Had she been translated Ruth Inman 
could not have more completely dropped from 
mortal ken. The people of the surrounding 
country were not only mystified; they were 
awed and astounded. It appeared certain that 
had the child been killed and devoured by some 
wild beast, at least a shred of her clothing 
would have been found. Then belief became 
strong that human agency was at the bottom 
of the mystery. The most gruesome stories 
were in circulation. Kidnaping was the fav- 
orite theory. Another gypsies; another In- 
dians. Along these lines a number of clues 
were run down to end in a dead wall. A large 
reward was offered for news of the little 

A sensational incident of the search was 
the part taken by Mrs. Layson, of Medical 
Lake. She claimed to be a spiritual medium, 
or clairvoyant, possessing the gift of second 
sight. To Sheriff Gardner she made the 
startling announcement that coyotes had eaten 
the child, and that all that was left was a little 
shoe with a foot in it. She declared, further- 
more, that she could go to the spot and find the 
shoe. This she would do if her expenses were 
paid. Tuesday. November 14th, Mrs. Layson 
visited the scene of the disappearance and after 


spending a day going over the country ob- 
served that it was a remarkably good location 
for kidnapers to ply their trade. 

Sunday, November 19th, the mystery of 
the past month was cleared. The result re- 
vealed the saddest case of infantile suffering 
and death that had ever occurred in the 
county. On that date Hugh Johnson and F. 
M. Lynch were hunting cattle at a point some 
five or six miles south of the Watson home. 
They noticed what they at first supposed was 
a cast off "jumper." But after riding on a short 
distance the thought of the lost child came to 
them and they decided to return and examine 
the "rags" that had attracted their attention. 
Upon close inspection they discovered that this 
clothing was a child's dress. Without pausing 
for further examination they rode in hot haste 
to Wilbur from which place the parents of 
little Ruth and the sheriff were notified. 

Early the following morning Sheriff 
Gardner, Deputy Sheriff Charles Gardner, De- 
tective Joe Warren and Mr. Inman repaired 
to the scene. What they found was horrible in 
the extreme; shocking to men who had seen 
death in all its forms. Only a small quantity 
of the remains could be found after a long and 
thorough search, and the tew fragments were 
scattered over a large space. The skull, per- 
fectly denuded of flesh, a few pieces of bone 
and some entrails were secured. The two 
outer garments worn by the child were almost 
perfectly intact. The underclothing was torn 
into small shreds. The shoes and stockings 
could not be found. The locality where the 
remains were discovered was the summit of a 
high and rocky ridge about five and one-half 
miles southeast of the Watson farm. It was 
a mile beyond the zone encompassed by the 
searching parties. The country between the 
house from which the child had disappeared 
and the place where the remains of the body 
were found is very rough and broken. There 
are small lakes, deep and rocky draws and 
steep hills. It is almost beyond comprehension 

how a child so young was able to walk so far, 
for the trip is a severe tax on a strong man. 
The back of the dress was mildewed as though 
it had lain in one position several weeks. The 
general opinion was that the child wandered 
and tottered along until she fell from sheer ex- 
haustion and died from exposure, for the night 
she disappeared was very cold. It was the 
opinion of the doctors that the child had met 
death in this way, and had not been touched by 
animals until after death. 

In the spring of 1899 a dozen or more cit- 
izens of Davenport interested in the project of 
forming a fair association met at the store of 
William Finney and perfected an organization. 
Other meetings, were held and soliciting 
committees appointed to receive subscriptions 
for stock. Several hundred shares were sub- 
scribed and a corporation was formed known 
as the Lincoln County Fair Association. Land 
was secured for grounds, a race track was 
made, a well dug and the necessary buildings 
erected. The association was incorporated, the . 
capital stock being $10,000, by A. W. Turner, 
I. Breslauer, William Finney, Frank M. Dal- 
lam and John H. Bond. The initial exposi- 
tion of the Lincoln County Fair Association 
was held at the grounds Wednesday, Thurs- 
day and Friday, October 19, 20 and 21. The 
scope and value of these fairs increase from 
year to year and interest is awakened by the 
common desire of neighbors and neighbor- 
hoods to excel in the special lines in which they 
may be interested. Since organization the fair 
has been held every season. 

The population of Lincoln county, as given 
by the United States census of 1909, was 1 1. 
969. The same year the wheat yield of the 
county was 6.750,000 bushels, or 750,000 
more than ony other county in the state of 
Washington ; almost half as much as the whole 
state of Oregon. The cereal crop of 1901 was 
one of the largest ever produced in the 
county. Reports from the four points of the 
compass indicated that the yield ran from 20 to 



35 bushels per acre. The acreage as well as 
yield exceeded that of 1900. 

During the fall of 1901 came a large num- 
ber of eastern settlers to the southern pi .rtion 
of Lincoln county. The light lands, which 
before had been considered of small value, pro- 
duced surprising crops during the preceding 
year or two. This fact 'caused a rush to this 
portion of the Big Bend. Lincoln and Douglas 
counties, and the vast tract of land which had 
been given over to grazing was rapidly taken 
up in homesteads. 

Sunday. April 27, 1902. Billy Gibbons, 
one of the noted characters of Lincoln, was 
fatally shot by Deputy Sheriff Nickell, of 
Okanogan county. One week previous to the 
killing a band of eight horses had been run out 
of the country by Billy Gibbons, George Wild 
and a third party unknown. Three of the 
horses were disposed of near Almira, at which 
place the trio were camped when discovered 
by the pursuing officials.. Constable Phillips. 
of Almira, in company with a party of ball 
players, recognized Gibbons as they passed the 
camp on their way out of town, Sunday morn- 
ing. Phillips returned to Almira and notified 
Nickell who had reached Almira considerably 
ahead of the fugitives. Gibbons and Wild sep- 
arated and each one came into town from dif- 
ferent directions. Wild was observed entering 
a livery stable and here he was rounded up, 
arrested at the point of a gun. and handcuffed. 
Presentlv Gibbons was seen to enter a saloon. 
Nickell followed him in; two or three as- 
sistant stood watch at the doors. The deputy 
encountered Gibbons and ordered him to throw 
up his hands, at the same time covering him 
with a revolver. Instead of complying with 
this order, Gibbons seized a man with whom 
he had been talking, and held him between 
himself and the officer, at the same time at- 
tempting to back out of the door and reaching 
for his own gun. Gaining it he shot at Nick- 
ell, and missed, but the aim of the latter was 
better; he sent a bullet through Gibbon-' 

breast, which lodged in the muscles of the 
back. This shot, doubtless, saved several lives, 
for the subsequent fusillade by Gibbons was 
not effective; he appeared dazed and never 
seemed to raise his gun high enough. How- 
ever, he succeeded in getting away temporar- 
ilv, and partially out of the officer's range, 
mounted his horse, rode to camp, exchanged 
horses and galloped off. He was purused and 
found eleven miles out lying on the ground ex- 
hausted, having thrown his gun over the 
fence. Gibbons was taken back and medical 
aid summoned, but the first shot had been fatal 
and at midnight. Monday, April 28th, he died. 
The Gibbons family, George, Hugh, Har- 
vey and Bill, were well known throughout the 
county. Bill first ran afoul of the officers in 
1893, and in 1894 was convicted of wheat 
stealing and was sent to the Walla Walla 
penitentiary for a term of years. He escaped 
from jail at one time, but was subsequently 
recaptured. In August, 1898, he and one Paul 
had an encounter with Deputy Sheriff Mc- 
Namara, near Harrington, Paul escaping after 
an exchange of shots. Gibbons was taken but 
afterwards released. At the time of his death 
he was twenty-eight year old. The spirit of ad- 
venture was strong within him. and "rustling" 
horses and cattle was a business he followed, 
perhaps as much for the danger and excite- 
ment connected with such a life as from any 
pecuniary advantage derived from it. He 
was continually under the surveillance of the 
officers and his death wound received in a 
pistol battle with one of them was a logical 
culmination of the wild career he had led. 

In May, 1902. a census of Lincoln county 
was taken by the assessor, and there was found 
to be 15.474 inhabitants, an increase of 3.504 
in two years. 

Inly 12. 1902. the Lincoln County Pio- 
neer's Association was organized at Crab 
creek, at the conclusion of an informal picnic 
of pioneers. The following officers were 
elected: Jacob Smith. Sprague, president ; J. J. 



Brown, Edwall, vice president; W. L. Crowell, 
Harrington, secretary; George E. Snell. 
Sprague, treasurer. It was thrown open to 
membership for all residents of Lincoln county 
who had become such prior to 1890. 

Monday, August 4. 1902, will be remem- 
bered by the people of Lincoln county as a day 
of important and unusual events. Sometime 
previous elaborate arrangements had been 
made for a conference between the farmers of 
the Big Bend country and the presidents of 
three great railway lines. We have said that 
this was an unusual event, but the implication 
extends no further than this section of the 
country. For several years privious it had 
been the practice of President J. J. Hill, of the 
Great Northern Railway Company, to hold 
"heart-to-heart talks" with the farmers and 
stockmen of the states of the middle west; 
these meetings assembling at various time-- 
and at various places. But to the residents of 
the Big Bend this conference was an innova- 
tion. It was unique, attractive, and the in- 
terest excited was widespread. 

Davenport had been selected as the place 
at which to hold the conference between ship- 
pears and the leading officials engaged in the 
business of transportation. Invitations had 
been extended to Presidents J. J. Hill, of the 
Great Northern, C. S. Mellen, at that period 
president of the Northern Pacific, and A. L. 
Mohler, of the Oregon Railway & Navigation 
Company. On the day named the following 
distinguished gentleman connected with the 
transportation industry arrived in Davenport. 

Great Northern — President James J. Hill; 
John F. Stevens, general manager; Louis Hill 
assistant to J. J. Hill; F. S. Forest, superin- 
tendent Spokane Falls & Northern Railway. 

Northern Pacific — President C. S. Mellen; 
Jules Hannaford, general traffic manager: W. 
S. Gilbert, superintendent ; Thomas Cooper, 
assistant to the president. 

O. R. & N.— President A. L. Mohler, R. 
B. Miller, general freight agent; B. Campbell, 

assistant traffic director of the Harriman lines; 
J. P. O'Brien, superintendent ; \V. \Y. Cotton, 
general attorney. 

At the Central Washington station these 
gentlemen were met by a reception committee, 
after which followed a general introduction. 
The freedom of the city was tendered the 
guests by Mayor G. K. Birge, which President 
Hill affably acknowledged. The visiting of- 
ficials who had arrived in their private car 
were driven to the Auditorium in carriages at 
10:30 o'clock, a. m. J. Grier Long, X. W. 
Durham and R. H. Hutchinson represented 
the Spokane chamber of commence. Among 
other prominent visitors were Don Rvrie of 
Spokane, E. J. Lake of Elk. George W. Seal 
of Addy, Julius Siemens of Ritzville. Rev. W. 
R. Cunningham of Ritzville, Stanley Hallett 
of Medical Lake, D. W. Metcalf of Wilbur. 
Howard Spiffing of Wilbur, C. G. Garrettson 
of Harrington, H. C. Farrell, F. H. McKaj 
and H. Morality of Spokane and a representa- 
tive of the Spokane Chronicle. A delegation 
from Reardan included the following: John 
Raymer, Peter Fram, Clans Carstens. C. 
Shannon, John Wickham, and W. B. Warren. 

Farmers and stockmen from every part of 
the Big Bend were present in large numbers. 
Shortly after ten o'clock in the forenoon of 
this gala day the crowd, constantly increasing 
in size, began to gather at the Auditorium 
wherein the conference was to be held, and 
where the oratorical portion of the exercises 
subsequently took place. Mr. James Odgers, 
editor of the Davenport Tribune, presided and 
introduced the speakers, of whom President 
Hill was the first. He showed conclusively 
that, while he was an acknowledged genius in 
railway building and railway management, he 
was more than this, a man fully conversant 
with the various branches of diversified farm- 
ing. President Hill was followed by Presi- 
dent Mellen. The latter sprung something in 
the nature of a surprise. He announced the 
contemplated construction of what is known as 



the "Adrian Cut-off," a line of road since built 
between Coulee City, the terminus of the 
Central Washington Railway, and the town 
of Adrian, on the Great Northern Railway, 
about twenty miles in length. President Mel- 
len said that the road would cost $350,000, 
and that it was a gift, as the country through 
which it would pass was barren and unprofit- 
able, all of which is doubtless true. But he 
said that this matrimonial alliance between the 
Northern Pacific and Great Northern systems 
would place Davenport and other towns along 
the Central Washington Railway on a through 
line to the coast, thus saving the haul to 
Spokane and doubling back on the main lines, 
west. This announcement was greeted with 
cheers and other exhibitions of marked en- 
thusiasm. President Mohler made a few re- 
marks mainly in a humorous vein. 

Following the speaking at the Auditorium 
the entire assemblage repaired to the Armory 
Hall. Here a banquet had been prepared to 
which, in the language of the average convent- 
ional newspaper, "all did ample justice." 
President Hill mingled with the crowd and 
touched elbows with everybody in a most 
friendly spirit. In the afternoon the differ- 
ent delegations met with the railroad presi- 
dents in the lodge room over the Auditorium. 
Here all the grievances were presented, dis- 
cussed, and measures of relief promised. Mr. 
T. M. Cooper presided at this meeting. Charles 
Bethel. John F. Green. J. W. Fry, T. C. Lakin, 
W. P. Nichols, W. H. Childs and Mr. French 
presented the side of the farmers and business 
men in as favorable and forcible a style as pos- 
sible. They placed the cost of raising a bushel 
of wheat at from 35 to 42 cents. Mr. Hill oc- 
cupied the floor about half the time replying to 
questions and explaining why certain rates 
were maintained. The discussion was con- 
ducted along the most amicable lines. There 
was an absence of any bitter criticism of the 
railroads, some of the farmers going so far as 
to say that they had no particular criticism to 

make. President* Hill, however, made no 
definite promises, further than to say that af- 
ter confering with the farmers in other sec- 
tions, the presidents would consider the ques- 
tion as to how great a reduction in freight 
rates they could make. At 4 o'clock, p. m., 
the conference adjourned, and the presidents 
and other visitors immediately went to the 
depot and returned to Spokane the same 

Shortly after this visit a reduction of ten 
per cent was made on grain rates from eastern 
Washington to Puget Sound, and also to east- 
ern markets. 

It was in Lincoln county that the great 
man-hunt after the desperado, Harry Tracy, 
came to a tragical close. This is not the place 
to rehearse the history of his original crime, 
or to feed the morbid appetite of youth with the 
story of this outlaw's miserable and worthless 
life. It is sufficient to say that he, in company 
with one Merrill, escaped from the penitentiary 
in Oregon, overpowered and killed the guard 
and fled north and eastward. Having after- 
ward murdered Merrill in cold blood Tracy 
continued on his way east, crossed the Cas- 
cades and entered the Big Bend country via 
Moses Coulee. Until he reached the Eddy 
farm, near Creston, Lincoln county, he suc- 
cessfully evaded pursuit, although closely 
harried by Sheriff Cudihee, who was hot on 
his trail. Shortly after Tracy's escape, and 
while he was committing his first desperate 
deeds of blood, the Lincoln County Times con- 
tained the following editorial. Subsequent 
events proved the Times to have been right, 
yet at the time it was written the editor of 
the journal had not the faintest idea tha,t the 
concluding act of the tragedy was to be played 
on Lincoln county soil. He said : 

"The Oregon convicts who have escaped 
over the Washington line are, evidently, im- 
pressed with the terror their names inspire. 
Upon entering some farm house they an- 
nounce their names and then proceed to issue 



orders as though obedience would immediately 
follow as a consequence. They are liable to go 
up 'against the real thing' somewhere in their 
travels, however." 

The following concise account of the final 
scenes in the life of this miserable criminal and 
degenerate, Tracy, is taken from the columns 
of the Davenport Tribune, and is uncolored 
by prejudice: 

"Two months, lacking three days, from the 
time Harry Tracy killed the guards and es- 
caped from the Oregon penitentiary, his re- 
mains were brought to Davenport, he having 
sent a revolver bullet through his brain, shoot- 
ing himself in the right eye. From the day he 
left the timber and took his chances in an open 
country, it was only a matter of time when he 
would be captured or killed. 

"To George Goldfinch more than any other 
person belongs the credit of hastening the end. 
George Goldfinch is a young man about 19 
years of age. He met Tracy near Lou Eddy's 
place on Lake creek, fifteen miles southwest of 
Davenport, Sunday afternoon, August 3, 
1902. He came upon a man in camp on the 
high divide, who invited him to take tea with 
him. The boy refused, having recently par- 
taken of dinner. Tracy passed himself off as a 
miner and insisted upon the boy eating, stand- 
ing with a revolver and rifle in his hand. The 
conversation started about the crops in gen- 
eral, then to the Jeffries-Fitzsimmons fight, 
and finally drifted to Tracy. He asked where 
Tracy was. and Goldfinch replied that it was re- 
ported he was near Wilbur. Then the man re- 
plied, "I am Tracy." He then demanded of 
the boy to guide him to Lou Eddy's place and 
coiled up a rope that had been dragging, say- 
ing it was a bad sign, and accompanied him 
four miles to Eddy's place and went to the 

"During the trip he said if the road was 
obstructed by a clump of bushes or high rock, 
to have Goldfinch drop behind him. as he did 
not desire that he should be the one killed 

should there be a posse ahead of him. When 
they arrived at the house he informed Lou and 
Gene Eddy who he was, and as Lou had his 
team hitched up, going to Ben Hurley's, he 
made Lou put his team back in the barn, and 
all three go into the field and cut hay for 
Tracy's horses. At the house he got Lou to 
fix a holster for his revolver, sharpen his razor, 
knife, and mend his cartridge belt, as the loops 
were too large for the cartridges. After- 
ward Tracy took a bath, shaved and ate sup- 
per. He let Goldfinch depart, threatening that 
if he informed as to his whereabouts he would 
find the two Eddys stiff in the morning, at the 
same time saying he might leave that evening 
and take Lou with him. Goldfinch left for 
Blenz's ranch where he was employed, and told 
Blenz that evening, asking his advice as to 
what course to pursue, but received no satis- 
factory answer. Goldfinch, having left a let- 
ter at Eddy's, returned Monday and was sa- 
luted with a "hello" from Tracy, who asked 
where the sheriffs were, and was answered 
that he didn't know. Tracy at the time was at 
work helping the Eddy boys to put on a track 
to the barn door. He had no rifle and simply 
had his revolver upon his person. 

"Goldfinch returned home, went to Cres- 
ton and called up Sheriff Gardner, asking the 
operator not to make it public. A posse was 
immediately formed at Creston, and Tuesday 
evening, about six o'clock, Tracy was discov- 
ered in a wheat field on the Eddy place and a 
number of shots were exchanged. Marshal 
O'Farrell met Goldfinch at Fellows, by agree- 
ment, and together they went to Eddy's, where 
they took up a position within forty yards of 
the house, in a gulch, the only escape in that 
direction. The Creston posse had the ad- 
vantage in position, having Tracy at a disad- 
vantage. Guard was kept during the entire 
night and at the first dawn of morning all 
closed in, and the corpse of Tracy was found 
in the wheat field under the bluff, with the 
right leg broken and a bullet through the 


brain — the latter having been fired by his own 
hand. Tracy had remarked at Eddy's that he 
didn't mind being killed, if he was killed out- 
right, and not burned at the stake, as he 
dreaded. When found the revolver was 
grasped in his right hand with his finger still 
on the trigger which sent the bullet upon its 
deadly mission, only one cartridge having been 
fired from the revolver. 

"The remains of Tracy, and his camp 
accoutrements were brought to Davenport and 
taken to the undertaking parlors of O. W. 
Stone. Within a few minutes every man, wo- 
man and child seemed to be drawn toward 
Harker street. Coroner R. P. Moore impan- 
eled a jury and examined the remains before 
them. It was found that he had been shot 
twice in the right leg, one bullet striking him 
in the hip and ranging downward ; the other 
bullet broke the leg above the ankle. The 
missile which did the deadly work entered the 
right eye, ranging upward, and coming out 
near the crown. Coroner Moore called the 
following jury who viewed the remains of the 
dead convict, Tracy : P. W. Dillon, A. J. 
Grant, G. K. Birge, William Newton, L. A. 
Davies, and E. E. Lucas. George Goldfinch 
was the first witness. Doctors Whitney, 
Moore and Lanter corroborated each other as 
to the manner by which Tracy died — from a 
self-inflicted wound from a 45-Colt's revolver, 
the ball entering the right eye and coming out 
at the back of the head. Dr. Lanter then stated 
bow young Goldfinch came to Creston and sent 
word to Sheriff Gardner. A posse of five was 
organized by Constable Straub, of Creston, 
and they arrived at the house of Lou Eddy 
about 4 o'clock that evening. They ap- 
proached the house from the west side and 
saw a man answering in dress and descrip- 
tion to Tracy, coming out of a blacksmith shop. 
Dr. Lanter had thought that they had better 
take a shot, but Smith advised caution. They 
were advancing with drawn guns when Tracy 
•discovered them. He then dodeed behind a 

horse and went toward the barn and when 
within twelve feet he made a jump and landed 
inside, secured his gun, came out of the barn 
another way and, shielding himself behind two . 
hay stacks, struck out for a large rock in the 
barley field adjoining wdiere he opened fire, 
which was promptly returned. 

"Tracy made a good target, as every time 
he rose to shoot he showed his white shirt. 
After the exchange of eight shots he shifted 
his position and crawled into the barley. The 
posse kept shooting whenever they saw any 
movement. No shots were returned, and in 
the course of three-quarters of an hour a muf- 
fled shot was heard in the field and that was 
supposed to be the fatal one with which Tracy 
took his life. Dr. Lanter and Smith fired two 
shots, and then lay down to await events. This 
was at 4 :30 o'clock in the evening. 

"Tracy was found lying almost on his face, 
his left hand holding his Winchester rifle, his 
revolver in his -right, pointing to his forehead. 
He had, before taking his life, dragged him- 
self a distance of forty yards, indicating that 
his leg had been broken behind the rock. Con- 
stable Straub talked with Eddy who was mow- 
ing hay, before Lanter and Smith came upon 
Tracy at the house. At first Eddy denied that 
he had such a person around, but admitted that 
there was a visitor. Straub corroborated 
Lanter as to the shooting. Sheriff Gardner ex- 
hibited the Colt's revolver, and said he fired 
one shot. The balance of the evidence was in 
the same strain, and the jury found a verdict 
that the deceased man was Harry Tracy, and 
that he had come to his death from a gunshot 
wound inflicted by his own hand." 

Such is the repulsive story as told by a lo- 
cal journal of good repute. There have been 
bickerings and recriminations by the score con- 
cerning the exact details of this tragedy in the 
Eddy barley field ; it would be impossible for 
the most careful historian to separate fact from 
fiction ; to assert that he, the writer, could pose 
as an impartial arbiter of questions innumer- 


able, questions still debatable at the time of 
the present writing. But as reported by the 
local papers of the immediate community in 
which these scenes occurred we give the story to 
our readers without malice and with charity 
for all. During, or soon after the fight, the in- 
terchange of shots between the Creston posse 
and the hunted desperado, Sheriff Gardner ar- 
rived on the scene. It is his testimony before 
the coroner's jury that he fired once into the 
field. He then sent to Davenport for rein- 
forcements to guard the field until morning. 
Throughout that night armed men gathered 
around the battleground anxious to be "in at 
the death," still unconscious that the cold hand 
of death had already been laid upon Outlaw 

It was on Wednesday morning that the re- 
mains of Tracy were brought to Davenport 
and taken to the office of an undertaker. 
Throughout the clay crowds lingered in the 
vicinity anxious to obtain a view of the dead 
bandit. It was a gruesome spectacle, as he lay 
on the floor in his blood-stained clothes, the 
top of his head gaping open from the self- 
inflicted gun-wound. He was awaiting identi- 
fication by Oregon authorities who were ex- 
pected in on every train. Stories grow with 
repetition and travel. This is particularly 
true of the many wild statements regarding al- 
leged "Tracy relic hunters." In papers out- 
side the state of Washington it has been pub- 
lished that the remains were denuded of the 
clothes ; that the hair was cut away. This was 
a gross exaggeration. Relic hunters did pick 
up a few buttons and other trinkets, but they 
did not cut any clothes off. and the dead man's 
hair was untouched. While the body lay in the 
undertaker's parlors the Lincoln County Times 
said : 

The sensational events of the life of the 
outlaw during the few days he passed at the 
ranch of Lou and Gene Eddy were told to the 
writer by Lou Eddy. The many reports pub- 
lished about the incidents of these few days o in- 

flict with each other and, in many accounts, with 
the truth. The following account of the tragedy 
and the events leading up to it is written from 
notes furnished the writer by Mr. Eddy, and 
describes the tragedy as witnessed by the man 
who had more opportunity to study the char- 
acter of the outlaw than any other person he 
encountered in the course of his famous break 
for liberty, and who was an eye witness of all 
the events that transpired on his ranch. 

The Eddy ranch is located in a rough and 
rocky scope of country, devoted almost entire- 
ly to stock grazing. Surrounding the house 
and barn of the Eddy boys on nearly all sides 
rise walls of rock, of similar formation of those 
of the Coulee walls, but of lesser proportions. 
The entire aspect is wild in the extreme. To 
this place on the afternoon of Sunday, August 
3. m)dj, at about 3 130 p. m., Harry Tracy, the 
outlaw, accompanied by George Goldfinch, 
came. Tracy had met young Goldfinch at a 
point about five miles west, and they had jour- 
neyed together to the Eddy ranch. He had re- 
vealed his identity to Goldfinch, and just before 
arriving at the ranch he said he guessed he 
might as well tell the Eddys who he was. 
Tracy was armed with his 30-30 Winchester 
rifle and his .45 Colt's revolver, and had with 
him two saddle horses. 

Tracy and Goldfinch came direct to the 
barn, where they found Lou Eddy. To the latter 
the outlaw told who he was. He stated that he 
understood that he was a stock raiser and de- 
sired to procure two saddle horses to replace 
the ones he had. having ridden his all the way 
from Wenatchee making their hacks sore. Mr. 
Eddy examined the horses and finding some 
shoes loose he put these in condition. The out- 
law said he would rest awhile and pull out that 
evening. George Goldfinch expressed his in- 
tention of leaving, hut to this, at first, Tracy 
strenuously objected. His intentions were to 
remain here a few days to recuperate although 
he had not yet made this kn< >w n. ami he did not 
wish Goldfinch to leave for fear of his giving 


information of the bandit's whereabouts. He 
told Air. Eddy that he had no money but would 
work for his board during- his proposed stay 
with him. The Eddys were building a barn and 
inquired of Tracy if he could do carpenter 
work. He said he was not a carpenter but 
guessed he could make himself useful. Ac- 
cordingly the following morning the notor- 
ious outlaw set to work carrying boards and 
nailing them on the roof. He worked all day 
Monday and nearly all of Tuesday, and Mr. 
Eddy says he was a first-class workman. During 
these two days Air. Eddy had an excellent op- 
portunity for studying the character of the man 
who had forced his presence upon him. Tracy 
spoke freely of his past life and. as Air. Eddy 
expressed it. "he could talk an arm off a man." 
He was a sociable and agreeable talker. He 
stated that the newspaper reports of his killings 
were exaggerated ; that he had not killed nearly 
so many people as reported. He, evidently, had 
no use for bankers nor money loaners. He 
spoke intelligently of the issues of the day. At 
night he slept in the open air, as was the custom 
of the Eddy boys during the hot weather. His 
sleeping place was about six feet from where 
Gene Eddy slept. 

Tracy was ever on the alert and continually 
kept a lookout for possible posses. While at 
work on the roof of the barn he would never 
allow either of the other workmen to get behind 
him. When it was necessary for one to pass 
behind him Tracy would always turn and face 
him. saying something commonplace, as though 
the turning was done simply to speak and not 
because of suspicion. The Eddy boys on sev- 
eral occasions talked over the advisability of 
attempting to capture or kill Tracy. They de- 
cided to take no chances and to undertake noth- 
ing of the kind unless success was assured. 
Goldfinch, believing that the outlaw had depart- 
ed Sunday night, as he had stated that such 
was his intention, came to the Eddy ranch 
again Monday to learn if anything had hap- 
pened. This was late in the evening-. Sus- 

picion that the boy would inform against him 
had been allayed in Tracy's mind, and again 
Goldfinch was allowed to take his departure. 
He returned to Adam Blenz's ranch, where he 
was working, and early the next morning went 
to Creston, and notified the Lincoln county au- 
thorities. It was 5 :2^ o'clock Tuesday even- 
ing, that any one at the Eddy ranch first saw 
any of the members of the Creston posse. Lou 
Eddy was mowing hay about one-half a mile 
northwest of the house, when Messrs. Straub 
and Lillingren drove up and inquired where 
Tracy was. Mr. Eddy unhitched and came to 
the barn. Tracy was in the yard when Eddy 
came in about 6 o'clock. Suddenly Tracy, who 
kept a constant lookout, uttered an exclamation 
and demanded of Eddy : 

"Who are those men with guns?" 
He had espied the other three members of 
the posse who, armed with rifles, had appeared 
on a bluff only a short distance from the barn. 
Tracy sprang behind the horses and ordered 
Eddy to lead them to the barn. When within 
a few feet of it Tracy made a jump and was 
shielded from his pursuers by the building. He 
ran along the side of the barn and, entering, se- 
cured his rifle. Then in a stooping position he 
made a run for the large rock in the barley field, 
about 200 yards northeast of the barn. He was 
not seen by the posse until just before he reached 
the rock and only one shot was fired before he 
gained it. It was behind this rock that Tracy 
brought all his cunning into play. He would 
run from one corner of the rock to the other, 
putting up his cap as a mark, but never in range 
when his head was in it. Both sides opened 
fire. Air. Eddy says the posse fired eight times, 
Tracy five and Sheriff Gardner once. After 
several shots had been exchanged Tracy was 
seen to either jump, or fall, from the rock into 
the barley field. It was then that Gardner put 
in an appearance and fired a shot into the field. 
Within one minute another shot was heard just 
before sundown — evidently Tracy killing him- 
self — and then all was still. The body of Tracy 



was found at daybreak the next morning. It 
was immediately taken to Davenport. 

"A bitter fight is on between the Creston 
posse and Sheriff Gardner — a legacy of the 
bandit, Tracy, who was killed on the Eddy 
farm a week ago. The Creston posse stoutly 
maintain that no officer was near at hand when 
the fight with Tracy occurred, that Marshal 
O'Farrell, of Davenport, did not arrive on the 
ground until an hour later, and that Sheriff 
Gardner and his son, Charles, were two hours 
behind the fight. On the contrary the marshal 
and sheriff claim that they were in at the 
windup. The following morning Sheriff 
Gardner took charge of Tracy's remains and 
brought them to the undertaker's rooms at 
Davenport. The coroner, Dr. Moore, then 
took possession of the dead man, held an in- 
quest and appointed members of the Creston 
posse to escort the remains to Salem, Oregon, 
and secure the reward. Sheriff Gardner 
declared that the coroner had no authority 
to do anything of the kind, and announced 
that he, himself, would take the remains to 
Oregon the next morning. He was sup- 
ported in the position he took by Prose- 
cuting Attorney Caton. The Creston men 
were greatly incensed over the sheriff's action, 
and the most serious trouble was feared, 
as they, the Creston men, were armed, and 
stated that they would resist the sheriff's at- 
tempts to take the body at any cost. It was at 
this stage of the proceedings that Sheriff 
Gardner acceded to their demands, and an- 
nounced that he would allow them to go to 
Oregon with the body. 

"Arriving at Salem, the Creston men were 
refused the reward, the governor informing 
them that a message had been received from the 
sheriff of Lincoln county requesting him to pay 
no rewards until all claims were presented and 
considered. No settlement has yet been made. 
Sheriff Gardner claims that be is entitled to a 
share of the reward. It is understood that a 
conference will be held between the different 

claimants this week, and that an effort will he 
made to reach some agreement. Meanwhile 
the Creston people are thoroughly wrought up 
over the affair and sentiment throughout the 
county appears to be strongly in their favor." 

The last scene in the Tracy drama was en- 
acted in the courts of Lincoln county in June. 
1903. It concerned the $2,500 reward offered 
by the state of Washington for the capture of 
Tracy. The contest was between the Creston 
part) — Dr. Lanter, C. A. Straub, Maurice 
Smith, J. J. Morrison and Frank Lilliangreen 
— who attacked and captured Tracy. At first 
there were a number of other claimants in com- 
pany with young Goldfinch, including Sheriff 
Gardner, but later they all withdrew their 
claims. On motion of plaintiff's attorney the 
jury was instructed to bring in a verdict for the 
members of the Creston posse. Young Gold- 
finch, unfortunately allied himself against the 
men who participated in the capture, and in the 
legal contest was beaten. Sentiment, however, 
was strongly in the boy's favor, and the public 
would have been pleased to have seen him 
share in the reward. There is one point in this 
matter that, so far, has been overlooked by the 
"public." It is evident to the candid reader 
that Goldfinch was betrayed from the start. He 
telegraphed Sheriff Gardner concerning the 
whereabouts of Tracy. He did more, he re- 
quested the operator to keep his secret. It was 
the duty of the operator to do this. But a man 
named J. J. Morrison, who was in the office at 
the time, spread the news. He communicated it 
to the Creston people. The posse hastily or- 
ganized by Constable Straub, and, unknown 
to Goldfinch, marched on the doomed outlaw. 
Goldfinch had, also, made an appointment with 
Marshal O'Farrell, an appointment which he 
kept to the letter. All of Goldfinch's informa- 
tion so far had been turned into the proper 
official channels. No wonder he felt chagrined 
to find how sadly his plans bad miscarried. Cer- 
tainly Goldfinch has a grievance. 

The ^'ashington Tracy reward, $2,500. was 



paid over to the Creston men in December, 
1903, thus .ending a long controversy. The 
Oregon reward, $1,500 had been previously 

Undoubtedly Tracy was insane. His ex- 
ploits throughout Lincoln county as well as in 
other parts of the state indicate a condition of 
violent dementia. His reckless dalliance at a 
ranch in a country alive with armed men look- 
ing for him, and permitting strange people to 
go and come was, certainly, taking such des- 
perate chances as no man in his right mind 
would have taken under the circumstances. By 
this utter neglect of ordinary precaution his 
pursuers were frequently thrown off tJie scent. 
From the time of his escape from the Oregon 
penitentiary Tracy's actions were devoid of 
rationality. He failed to take advantage of the 
most favorable opportunities to get out of the 
country. He, at timse, exhibited cunning, and 
appeared resourceful, with wit enough to es- 
cape out of the state on a freight train. Or he 
might have continued among the mountains, 
gradually working his way to some place jf 
comparative safety. But to undertake to 1 i • i e 
through an open country, accompanied by a 
pack horse of strikingly peculiar markings, ore- 
claiming his name at every house in a bombastic 
manner, was to court pursuit and certain cap- 
ture or death. 

Friday, December 19, 1902, an awful double 
murder was committed four miles southeast of 
Almira. Air. and Mrs. J. A. Lewis, residing on 
their ranch, were brutally murdered by a party, 
or parties, who. at the present writing have 
never been apprehended. To this day the hor- 
rible deed is shrouded in mystery. Judge and 
Mrs. Lewis were an aged couple, well known in 
Lincoln county where they had resided for 
many years. They were well-to-do, so fir as 
this world's goods are concerned, but robbery 
does not, conclusively, appear to have been I he 
object of this terrible deed. Judge Lewis was 
found in the house, lying on the floor, face 
downward. The bodv of Mrs. Lewis was dis- 

covered out in the corral, a quarter of a mile 
distant, a shapeless heap covered with stiaw. 
A tenant of Judge Lewis discovered the ocad 
bodies Sunday morning, December 21st. The 
day before. Saturday, the tenant had been to the 
place in search of some stock, but did not enter 
the house and did not notice the body of Mrs. 
Lewis which, as stated, had been covered with 
loose straw and refuse. 

Tuesday morning the county commissioners 
met and offered a reward of $500 for the cap- 
ture of the murder, or murderers, of J. A. 
Lewis, and an additional reward of $500 for 
the slayers of Mrs. Lewis. At that time it was, 
singularly enough, assumed by the commission- 
ers that the old couple had been killed by differ- 
ent parties. However. Commissioner Thomp- 
son, who visited the premises and saw the bod- 
ies, arrived at the conclusion that both victims 
had been slain with an old, dull axe which had 
been found lying by the side of Judge Lewis, 
but which previously had always been kept out 
at the corral wherein was discovered the ghast- 
ly remains of Mrs. Lewis. It was his opinion 
that she was the first victim. Evidently she 
had made strenuous resistence. Her hands and 
arms were horribly cut and mangled, showing 
the desperation of the poor old lady's fight for 
life. There was not so much evidence of a 
prolonged struggle on the part of Judge Lewis ; 
the top and back part of his head had been 
beaten in ; the wounds had been inflicted, ap- 
parently, after he fell. The object of this brutal 
crime may, possibly, have been robbery as it 
might, also, have been revenge. The safe was 
open and the money gone. Judge Lewis sel- 
dom kept less than $500 in the safe, and at times 
as much as two or three thousand dollars. He 
frequently loaned money, dealing mainly with 
those whose financial stress impelled them to 
pay a high rate of interest, and were unable to 
secure funds elsewhere. It is for this that the 
theory of revenge rises superior to that of rob- 
bery as an incentive. It was suggested at the 
time of the tragedv that had robbery onlv been 



planned different weapons would, likely, have 
been used. Over this ghastly crime intense feel 
ing was engendered throughout the entire Big 
Bend country. It was peculiarly cruel and cold- 
blooded. It is said, with every evidence of 
truth, that if the guilty party could have been 
located at the time, vengeance would have 
quickly followed in the form of lynching'. This. 
however, was denied by those who possessed 
greater faith in the law-abiding citizens of the 

"Judge" Lewis (he had been a justice of 
the peace), was a man about 76 years old, and 
his wife nearly the same age, had been pioneers 
of Lincoln county. They lived within them- 
selves, expended little for clothing or anything 
else, and had succeeded in accumulating prop- 
erty to a considerable amount ; the} - were known 
to be in independent circumstances. Judge 
Lewis distrusted banks. He never deposited 
money in them, but kept his surplus funds in a 
safe in the house. At the time the crime was 
committed the safe was unlocked. This fact 
indicated that business of some nature was then 
being transacted. In addition to the county 
rewards Dr. L. Lewis, of Wilbur, offered re- 
wards of $250 in each case for the capture of 
the perpetrators of the crime. At the present 
writing no apprehensions have been made and 
the affair remains a mystery. 

But Lincoln county had not yet supped full 
of horrors. Closely following the Tracy trag- 
edy and the murder of the Lewis family, came 
the Thennes killing at the little town of Govan, 
between Wilbur and Almira. Friday evening. 
April 3, 1903, a masked man entered a saloon 
in Govan, shot and almost instantly killed C. 
F. Thennes, the only witness to the tragedy 
being one Kleeb, the bartender. The latter 
failed to recognize the assassin. The murderer 
came through the door, revolver in hand, walked 
up to Thennes, and with the declaration, "Now 
I have got you," began firing. The two men 
grappled and no other word was spoken on 
either side. Six shots were fired, three of which 

took effect. Kleeb, the bartender, lost no time 
in getting out of the way, when the bullets be- 
gan to fly, but saw the assailant disappear out 
of the same door through which he had entered, 
after he had emptied his revolver. Thennes 
was still on his feet, and with the assistance of 
Kleeb reached the doorsteps of the hotel before 
he fell prostrate and expired. He never spoke 
after being shot except to ask for a doctor. 

Thennes formerly lived in Davenport and 
Reardan, and was not known to have any en- 
emies. The motive for this crime was not rob- 
bery, whatever else it may have been. The 
most plausible supposition was that the assassin 
of Thennes was also connected with the mur- 
der of Judge and Mrs. Lewis, the latter affair 
having been shrouded in mystery, and that 
Thennes was in possession of incriminating 
evidence likely to lead to the arrest of the 
guilty party, or parties. It was reported that 
Thennes had said when intoxicated that he 
could lay his hands on the Lewis murderers. 

For this crime one Cyrus Victor was ar- 
rested, tried and found guilty in the fall of 1903. 
Nothing in the evidence, however, connected 
him with the Lewis murders. In March, 1904, 
Victor was granted a new trial. At this writ- 
ing this is still pending. 

An event in the history of Lincoln county 
was the good roads convention held at Daven- 
port, Friday and Saturday, June 19 and jo. 
1903. From every part of the county repre- 
sentatives were present, and the attendance was 
flattering. Much general information concern- 
ing this important exploitation was dissemin- 
ated. The members of the convention assem- 
bled in the court room where they were called 
to order by 11. J. Maskentine. H. J. Hinckley. 
of Edwall, was chosen temporary chairman and 
Lee Warren temporary secretary. X. T. Caton, 
Davenport. Commissioner Thompson, of Al- 
mira, Ex-Commissioner Crisp, of Harrington, 
Richard Riffe, of Mondovi and J. 11. Nicholls, 
of Davenport, were appointed a committee on 
permanent organization. Saturday the follow- 



ing permanent organization was perfected : H. 
M. Thompson, president ; J. H. Nicholls, vice- 
president ; T. C. Lakin, secretary; John F. 
Green, treasurer; Henry Jenson, of Sprague, 
W. \Y. Finney, of Odessa, Michael Koontz, of 
Sprague, Peter Leipham, of Davenport, and 
Frank Hardin, of Larene, executive committee. 
Addresses were made by Prof. O. L. Waller, 
of the State Agricultural College, at Pullman, 
and Mr. Thompson, City Engineer of Spokane. 
In October. 1903, articles of incorporation 
were filed by the Lincoln county Historical As- 
sociation, which held a meeting- at Harrington. 

The organization of the association was com- 
pleted with the following officers : President, 
N. T. Caton ; vice-president, George M. Witt, 
Harrington; secretary, W. L. Crowell, Har- 
rington ; treasurer, G. E. Smith, Crab Creek ; 
historian, T. C. Lakin, Harrington ; trustees, 
John F. Green, S. C. Kinch, Aaron Miller, 
Jacob Smith, T. C. Lakin. 

A second "good roads convention" was held 
at Davenport Wednesday and Thursday, Feb- 
ruary 10 and 11, 1904, and although the 
attendance was small considerable interest was 
manifested and much good was accomplished. 



Traversed by three railways, two of them 
the main lines of great transcontinental systems, 
Lincoln county is, as would necessarily be the 
natural result, well supplied with thrifty, sub- 
stantial cities, towns and villages. They lie 
along the Columbia river, the Central Wash- 
ington, Great Northern and Northern Pacific 
railways, and between these four great arteries 
of transportation are numerous smaller villages 
and settlements supplying, in a business way, 
the immediate necessities of their adjacent 
farming communities. In 1903, according to 
the report of the Washington State Bureau of 
Statistics, there were in the county 129 school 
districts and eleven towns maintaining graded 
schools. At this period the number has been 
increased as will be seen from the chapter de- 
voted to the educational interests of Lincoln 
county. Of the more prominent towns the lead- 
ing one is the capital of the county. 


It is situated in the center of a wide scope of 
gently rolling prairie, and it may truthfully be 

said that the land surrounding it is not excelled 
in point of fertility by that of any other agri- 
cultural district in the United States. The lo- 
cation of Davenport is a natural point of gravi- 
tation from this rich section of Washington's 
territory. The selection of this site would seem 
simply dictated by good, common sense and 
business sagacity ; it is an ideal, eligible location. 
The splendid springs adjacent to the city would, 
in themselves, prove strong inducements to one 
seeking a townsite, but aside from these there 
are many other points equally persuasive. 

Davenport lies in a circular valley of level 
but not low or swampy land. From the rim of 
this valley rise the undulating lands that sur- 
round it, by easy, almost imperceptible, ascent. 
On one side of this attractive vale low hills rise 
more abruptly than do those adjoining them; 
natural barriers against occasional winds that 
sweep over the prairies. The surrounding coun- 
try is a succession of rounded knolls, the sides 
of which recede in graceful curves ; the utility 
of which is excellent drainage. The elevation 
of the city proper is 2,470 feet, one of the high- 
est points in Lincoln county. In the spring of 



1902 the population of this city was 1,393, a 
gain of 393 since the government census of 
1900; the present population is given by the 
state bureau of statistics as 1,729. 

The history of the town of Davenport dates 
from the year 1880. Early in that year a man 
by the name of Harker took up his abode at the 
head of Cottonwood creek, on the present town- 
site, and surrounded by no familiar neighbors, 
other than the rather unsocial coyote, solitary 
and alone he began the life of an honest gran- 
ger. Where now stands the thrifty, enterpris- 
ing town of Davenport he was the sole inhabi- 
tant ; his the homestead from which was carved 
the townsite. But Mr. Harker soon disposed of 
of his slender equity in the land. The large 
spring near the center of the town was, at that 
period, surrounded by a grove of cottonwood 
trees. For several years the postoffice estab- 
lished in its vicinity was known as Cottonwood 

While Mr. Harker was the sole person re- 
siding where is now Davenport, there were a 
few settlers at a distance. "Harker's place" 
was located on the road leading through the Big 
Bend country, and there was more or less travel 
continually. Those were the days of the earlier 
immigrants and homeseekers in this portion of 
eastern Washington. Mr. Harker was the pre- 
siding official of Cottonwood Postoffice. He 
might also, have been termed the pioneer busi- 
ness man of the town, although he did not 
carry in stock a very complete line of goods. A 
few articles of general merchandise he had, 
however, and these he disposed of at fairly re- 
munerative prices to travelers and incoming 
settlers. But it was destined that Mr. Harker 
should not long remain monarch of all he sur- 
veyed. According to Mr. H. H. McMillan, 
to whom we are indebted for much of the in- 
formation concerning- earlier Davenport, t lie 
original business house was established in July, 
1881. John H. Nicholls turned the first sod 
and laid the foundation of the first building in 

Davenport, a combination structure to be util- 
ized as store, dwelling, postoffice and hotel. 

At this period Davenport was known as 
"Cottonwood Creek." lint with equal proprie- 
ty the town might have been aptly named 
"Nichollsville," for were not Mr. Nicholls and 
his estimable wife for several years the life, the 
inspiration, the good genii of the place? .Mr. 
Nicholls' store was situated on "Harker street," 
and he hauled his goods from Cheney and Spo- 
kane Falls, located on the main line of the 
Northern Pacific railroad, then but recently 
completed. Previous to this time provisions 
and other freight had been hauled from Colfax 
and Walla Walla. Mr. Nicholls was a sag- 
acious, energetic business man, of fine social 
qualities and strong character. He rapidly 
grew prosperous but with the advent of the 
Central Washington railroad he disposed of his 
business interests in "Cottonwood Creek' to 
Mr. William Finney. 

The succeeding structures to follow the ini- 
tial edifice were a feed stable and saloon, which 
were, also, built by Mr. Nicholls. The latter 
conducted the feed stable ; the saloon was under 
the proprietorship of John Courtwright, who 
subsequently became a leading Mondovi farmer. 
These few business ventures rounded out prog- 
ress and development of "Cottonwood Creek" 
for the year 1881. The succeeding year of 
1882 was accentuated by two events in the brief 
history of the "Creek." One of these was the 
arrival of Robert Cameron, who purchased 
the saloon mentioned and at once christened it 
"Bub's Place." The other event of the year 
was of greater importance, being no less than 
the organization, or rather, inauguration of a 
rival city. Mr. Nicholls' town was located on 
the lower ground where now stands the business 
portion of Davenport. In [882 Mr. J. C. Dav- 
enport came to the country and planned the 
building of a rival town on the higher land to 
the south, about midway between where the 
Central Washington Railway station is located, 



and the Nicholls store on Harker street. Mr. 
Davenport and one or two associates erected 
five buildings — an extensive store and ware- 
house, a saloon, blacksmith shop and dwell- 
ing. To this "opposition" village was given- 
the name of Davenport in honor, of its founder 
and leading spirit, but by the inhabitants of the 
"lower town" it was called "Over the Hill." 
This embryonic city, however bright its pros- 
pects at its inception, was short-lived. It fell 
a victim to the fire-fiend, two of the most 
prominent buildings being destroyed. They 
were not rebuilt. Richard Traul, owner and 
proprietor of the saloon, quietly withdrew to 
the "old town" of "Cottonwood Creek," where 
he took possession of the Harker house and re- 
habilitated it to such an extent that he was en- 
abled to pursue his saloon business in tranquil 
prosperity. But following in the wake of Mr. 
Traul came the name, "Davenport," and the 
waif from the rival city was captured and it 
immediately replaced that of "Cottonwood 
Creek." By one stroke of misfortune Daven- 
port lost not only its entity but its cognomen. 
The year 1883 brought to Davenport — the 
new Davenport — A. Melzer, who at once erect- 
ed and became proprietor of the Cottonwood 
brewer}'. The pioneer lawyer of Davenport, 
J. C. Small, located the same year in a build- 
ing erected by him. In company with many other 
pioneer professional men, Mr. Small sagacious- 
ly conducted the development of his homestead 
in addition to looking after the legal interests 
of the community. Subsequently he formed a 
law partnership with C. H. Pryor, at that pe- 
riod superintendent of public instruction of 
Lincoln count)-, but this association was soon 
terminated by the death of Mr. Pryor. About 
the same time James Rogers built a hotel which 
he successfully conducted for over two years. 
At this period there were many favorable in- 
centives to the growth of Davenport, including 
the creation and organization of Lincoln coun- 
ty in 1883-4, and the temporary location here 
of the countv seat. A building; to be used for 

court house purposes was erected and rented 
to the new county officials. In this enterprise 
a prominent part was performed by Mr. Ber- 
nard Fitzpatrick. To the little village of Dav- 
enport the year 1884 added such staunch men- 
as Henry Keedy, Colin Campbell, J. W. John- 
son, Deen & Green, a general merchandise firm 
and a number of others. In the fall of 1884 
occurred the most important and exciting" event 
in the history of Davenport — the great and 
memorable county seat contest — in the course 
of which all the county records were removed 
to Sprague, in the extreme southern portion of 
the county. The interesting and rather spec- 
tacular details of this sensational event will be 
found in full in the first chapter of this History 
of Lincoln County. 

June 12, 1884, the first issue of the Lincoln 
Leader made its appearance. From a perusal 
of the initial production of this journalistic 
venture, which existed only a few months, one 
gains a fair idea of the progress made by Dav- 
enport up to that period. J. H. Nicholls was 
the moving spirit of the "cross-roads village" 
in those days. He conducted a general mer- 
chandise store, a hotel, a livery stable and was 
postmaster. The business houses consisted of 
the City Hotel, Rogers & Boyce, proprietors, 
J. H. Nicholls, mechant, J. W. Johnson, black-, 
smith, A. Melzer, brewery, R. J. Cameron and 
Dick Radcliff, saloons. White & Cameron, 
hardware, J. C. Small, attorney, and M. M. 
Hopkins, physician. North of the town 
was a sawmill operated by Warner & 
Roe. Local items stated that Cal Simmons 
was about to burn a kiln of brick and C. H. 
Pryor had recently opened the public school. 

During the earlier portion of 1885 there 
were in Davenport three substantial business 
houses. Perhaps the most important acquisi- 
tion to the city during this year was the Lincoln 
County Times, published by F. M. Gray. Two 
general mercantile stores were established the 
same year, one by Kaminsky & Son, of Cheney, 
and represented here by Louis Kaminsky ; the 



other a branch store by the widely known firm 
of Ostroski, Breslauer & Co., also of Cheney, 
Mr. Breslauer having charge of the Davenport 
venture. James E. Roe, at one period inter- 
ested in the sawmill business near Larene, was 
a resident of Davenport a short time during the 
year 1885, and here he erected a building later 
known as the Boyes hotel. Quite a number of 
newly arrived citizens appeared upon the scene 
in 1886, among them being Thomas Edwards. 
Samuel Sullivan opened a furniture store. Dr. 
Whitney came, and J. A. Hoople established a 
harness shop. January 1, 1887, there were in 
Davenport three general mercantile stores, one 
saddle and harness shop, one drug store, one 
butcher shop, one law and real estate office, one 
lawyer, two wagon shops, two general black- 
smith shops, three livery and feed stables, one 
hotel, one contractor and builder, two agricul- 
tural implement agencies, two saloons, one doc- 
tor, nne hardware store, one school house, one 
furniture store and one newspapef. Here, then, 
were nearly all the representative commercial 
and professional enterprises usually found in 
any wide-awake, progressive western town. 
The present gave promise of a flattering future 
which has been fully realized. There were 
many new comers during the year 1887-8 and 
a number of new business enterprises were es- 
tablished. Foremost among the upbuilders of 
the town was Mr. C. C. May. who came in 
187c;. He had at once engaged in the real es- 
tate business and contributed to the practical 
development of the young town by erecting a 
number of substantial buildings. As said then 
by the Lincoln County Times: 

A new year has never dawned upon Davenporl with 
brighter prospects and greater promise than does the 
year [888. Through every channel of indutry that per- 
tains to the general advancement of the town and coun- 
try, the outlook is must gratifying. An era of railroad 
building is approaching, immigration of a most sub- 
stantial character will certainly commence 5,0 soon as 
the winter subsides; mines Oil all sides' are being opened 
and developed winch promise to be of the 
source of commercial lenefil possibli to the country, 

and last but not least the farmer who confidently looks 
forward to the transportation of his' grain by rail next 
season, has made extensive preparations for a largely in- 
creased acreage from which be expects handsome profits. 
Taking things altogether we are to be congratulated 
upon the brilliant prospects the future has in store 
for us, and while we thus rest complacently upon the 
assurance of good times, we extend an invitation to 
others to come and share prosperity with 11-. believing 
our town and country affords superior inducements to 
any one combining a little energy with enterprise to 
accumulate a fair proportion of world's goods. 

In addition to those already mentioned there 
were, according to an article written by Mr. H. 
H. McMillan, on December 24, 1888. the bil- 
lowing business houses in Davenport on that 
date: two hotels, Hay & Grutt, general mer- 
chandise; Finney, general merchandise; Os- 
borne, photographer; Jackson Brock, lawyer; 
Herrin. agent for Frank Brothers, implements ; 
Moore & Son, harness and shoe shop; Oliver, 
drayman; Kruzer Brothers, butchers; Ralcliff, 
butcher ; Turner, implement agent ; Dearling, 
livery stable; Tuttle, blacksmith; Markham, 
livery stable; Lee, sewing-machine agent: hud- 
son, blacksmith; Olson, jewelry and watch- 
making: Robinson, notions and restaurant; 
Goodsell, millinery; O'Connor, saloon; Boon, 
saloon; Crawford, barber; Merriam, restau- 
rant. At this period there were two church or- 
ganizations in Davenport, the M. E.. the earlier 
of the two in its origin, and the Presbyterian. 
The approach of the Seattle. Lake Shore & 
Eastern railroad to its temporary terminus 
within a little less than five miles of Davenport 
in December, [888, appeared to be a signal for 
something approaching the nature of a boom. 
December 7th the Lincoln County Times said: 
"( )n every side one sees new buildings un- 
der course of construction and die sound of the 
carpenter's hammer extends far into the night. 
The new depot is among the principal buildings 
now in process of erection and around it centers 
most of the interest of our citizens. Freighl 
from the terminus of the new railroad, hut a 
short distance away, is landed in town daily. 
Strangers seeking locations in all branches of 



business select this town as headquarters and 
all acknowledge that few places in eastern 
Washington offer the inducements of the Big 
Bend. The elevator is daily storing large con- 
signments of grain, preparatory to shipping to 
other points, and freighters' teams make this 
city their destination instead of surrounding 
towns. The 'boom' has struck Davenport and 
will stop with us for some time." 

In December of that year the residents of 
Davenport began to ambitiously voice the opin- 
ion that their municipal home was then larger 
than Cheney, and that within six months it 
would rival in size the city of Sprague. New 
buildings were going up daily, the real estate 
market was active and great was the volume of 
general business. January 18, 1889, the Lin- 
coln County Times as evidence of enterprise 
and municipal energy, began agitation for the 
removal of the territorial capital from Olympia 
to Davenport. Truly, this was a worthy ambi- 
tion if a trifle audacious. It was, however, the 
concensus of opinion that Davenport "had no 
more show than a rabbit." But Ralph Waldo 
Emerson had long before advised his readers 
to "Hitch your wagon to a star," and the editor 
of the Times was simply following the advice 
of the Sage of Concord. 

During the early part of 1889 Davenport 
was, certainly, a lively town. The real estate 
men were very active in booming the place and 
much money was spent in advertising. Not 
only did Davenport gain a local reputation as a 
coming town, but in the cities of the Sound, as 
well, was it advertised as the coming metrop- 
olis of Central Washington. The result was that 
real estate moved freely and lots were sold at 
profitable rates. Each day witnessed the arrival 
of strangers in the town who either engaged in 
business or sought employment. The accommo- 
dations were not sufficient to care for all who 
came. "People are arriving every day and are 
disappointed in not finding quarters to occupy. 
Any number "of cottages and business houses 
could be rented at once," said the Times. "It 

is to be regretted that the town is not prepared 
to give immediate accommodations to those de- 
siring to locate, but that deficiency will be rem- 
edied in the earl)' spring. It is a most satis- 
factory condition of things and is conclusive 
proof that Davenport will be a scene of great 
activity so soon as the weather justifies begin- 
ning in earnest outdoor work." 

In February, 1889, circulation was given 
to a report that the title to the townsite of Dav- 
enport was defective, and that purchasers of 
town property were securing nothing more 
tangible than a straw deed to such property as 
they acquired. It was asserted by the Lincoln 
County Times that this rumor had been given 
wings by a newspaper published in Sprague. 
At that period Mr. Frank M. Dallam was editor 
and publisher of the Times and he proceeded to 
investigate the conditions of real estate affairs. 
February 8th he wrote as follows concerning 
the matter, showing conclusively that the title 
to the townsite of Davenport was perfect : 

The southeast quarter of section No. 21, town- 
ship No. 25, north of range No. 37, E. W. M., was 
bought by John C. Davenport and associates about the 
year 1882, from the Northern Pacific Railway Company, 
on the contract plan, and a few blocks were platted and 
recorded as the town of Davenport. The deferred pay- 
ments' due the railroad company were not made, hence 
the railroad company only could perfect title. However, 
this does not concern those interested in the present 
town of Davenport, built on Margan's, Columbia, Tim- 
mons', Essig*s, Dillon's, and Hogan's additions, the 
title to all of which property being legally and tech- 
nically perfect. There was never but one house built 
on the quarter section of land bought by John C. Daven- 
port, and it was destroyed by fire in 1882, and no oppor- 
tunity is offered for sale on that quarter section by any 
person or corporation, hence any interest that John C. 
Davenport and associates owned, then or now, does not 
interest us' in the least. The title to all lots on the 
market in Davenport is absolutely perfect, and every 
purchaser receives a warranty deed signed by individuals 
or a corporation of known responsibility and great 

Saturday, May 8, 1889, the Big Bend Na- 
tional Bank, of Davenport, opened its doors for 
business. This was the first banking institu- 
tion in the place and it enjoyed a large and mer- 


I3 1 

itoriously confiding patronage. Tuesday even- 
ing, May 28th, of the same year, there was or- 
ganized in Davenport a board of trade. This 
result was brought about largely by the patriotic 
efforts of Mr. David Wilson. Following the 
decision to organize such an institution these 
officers were elected: Dr. F. H. Luce, presi- 
dent; J. H. Nicholls, vice-president; Frank M. 
Dallam, secretary; J. Hoople, treasurer. An 
executive committee consisting of the four of- 
ficers named and C. W. Christie, David Wilson, 
H. H. McMillan, C. C. May and Willard Her- 
rorij was selected. The charter members of the 
Davenport board of trade were : F. H. Luce, 
J. H. Nicholls, J. H. Hoople, Frank M. Dal- 
lam, C. W. Christie, David Wilson, H. H. Mc- 
Millan, C. C. May, Willard Herron, William 
Finney, T. L. Edwards, W. E. Ratcliff, Dr. J. 
H. Whitney. J. L. West, George Oswalt, Mr. 
Rowe, Thomas O'Connor, Mr. Olson, C. L. 
Simmons, L. C. Keedy, Mr. Madden, J. C. 
Small, Air. German, Mr. Fischner, George 
Weaver, T. J. Robinson, Mr. Hader, H. Born, 
D. H. Mathorn. 

One of the most important enterprises es- 
tablished in Davenport during the summer of 
1889 was the brick yard, by James E. Roe, of 
Spokane Falls. Previously, owing to the scar- 
city of material, building operations had been 
seriously handicapped, and the advent of this 
enterprise was hailed with enthusiasm by the 
residents of the town. 

Wednesday evening, August 14th, the first 
united efforts were made in the way of afford- 
ing adequate protection from fire. At Keedy's 
hall a meeting was held the ostensible purpose 
of which was to organize a fire company. But 
at first there was considerable apathy, lack of 
enthusiasm being plainly noticeable. In its re- 
port of this meeting the Times said : 

"For a time it was so extremely chilly, ow- 
ing to the conspicuous absence of several prom- 
inent citizens, who, it was supposed ought to 
take some interest in such a laudable object, that 
the chances were a hundred to one that nothing 

would be accomplished. But the arrival of Mr. 
A. W. Turner, who called the meeting to order 
and stated the object for which they were met, 
caused a visible melting of the icicles." 

Speeches were made by Mr. Turner, Judge 
J. T. Robinson, Major Hoople, A. P. Oliver, 
H. C. Keedy, E. E. Plough, Prosecuting Attor- 
ney Christie and Thomas McGowan. A com- 
mittee on organization consisting of Frank M. 
Dallam, David Glasgow, E. E. Plough, H. C. 
Keedy and Martin McGowan was named. Yet 
tins was all that was at that time accomplished 
in the way of organizing a fire company. A 
second meeting was called for the purpose of 
perfecting the inchoate organization, but only 
one or two were present and the enterprise was, 
for the time, abandoned. The people were luke- 
warm — or cold — in regard to fire protection 
and thus no company was formed until several 
years later. 

Work was steadily progressing on the Cen- 
tral Washington railroad during the summer 
of 1889, and lively times were experienced. 
One thousand men were employed on the new 
line by the company, and numerous buildings 
were erected in town. Visiting strangers — and 
possible investors — were driven about the coun- 
try by industrious real estate men and shown 
the various natural facilities for money making 
offered by a most fertile and productive soil. It 
was the claim advanced at this time that, dur- 
ing the summer of 1889 the city hail made a 
larger growth than any other place in eastern 
Washington, aside from Spokane, and this 
growth, it was urged, was of a permanent char- 
acter. In the fall of this year considerable 
work was accomplished in the way of street 

The story of the incorporation of Daven- 
port is one replete with incident. The first at- 
tempt to incorporate the town was made in 
April, 1S89, although the subject had been 
widely discussed during the previous winter. 
A petition was circulated and signed by almost 
every resident taxpayer. Saturday, April 6th, 



this document was placed in the hands of Judge 
Nash who was vested with the power to grant 
or refuse the prayer of the petitioners. This 
permission, or judicial order, was issued in 
May following. The first regular meeting of 
the Board of Trustees of the town of Davenport 
was held in the office of C. C. May on Monday 
morning, May 15, 1889. Those present were 
J. H. Nicholls, H. C. Keedy and Thomas 
O'Connor. The absent members were A. W. 
Turner and H. H. McMillan. The board was 
organized by the election of J. H. Nicholls, 
president, and Willard Herron, town clerk. The 
following officers were appointed : J. M. Boyes 
marshal ; C. W. Christie, town attorney ; A. P. 
Oliver, street commissioner ; W. M. Finney, 
treasurer; F. C. Lee, assessor. 

The new town board did not attempt to 
create a revolution in municipal affairs by the 
enactment of drastic or oppressive ordinances. 
They moved slowly and without immoderate 
exhibition of authority and it is, perhaps, as 
well that they did so as subsequent events 
proved that the entire process of incorporation 
so far had been illegal. However, the effects 
of their work were realized by the citizens and 
Davenport was greatly benefited by the (sup- 
posed) incorporation. 

The year 1889 was the most prosperous in 
Davenport's history, before that period, and the 
improvements completed in those twelve months 
footed up over a quarter of a million dollars. 
Let us review with Frank M. Dallam, at that 
time editor of the Lincoln County Times, the 
progress of Davenport during this year. De- 
cember 27th, he said : 

"Prior to 1889 Davenport was little more 
than a cross-roads postoffice. * * * The 
promised advent of railroads and the construc- 
tion of the same was a material factor in push- 
ing ahead the place, although before that event 
a few houses had sprung up around the original 
structures that had constituted the 'town.' No 
one who has been absent a year would recog- 
nize the Davenport of today, as the Daven- 

port of a year ago. It is vastly improved 
in every respect, and the people who have 
since the first of last January located in 
our midst are congratulating themselves that 
their lines have been dropped in such a pleasant 
place. One year ago today the only means of 
reaching Davenport was by stage, a private con- 
veyance or on foot. The distance to any point 
on the railroad was long and the trip tedious. 
The town was isolated. There were only a 
few houses and a small population. People al- 
ready here were confident and cheerful, how- 
ever, for the location was such that it was only 
a question of time until railroad communica- 
tion would be established, and then a bright fu- 
ture was assured. A year ago last summer the 
construction of the Seattle. Lake Shore & 
Eastern road was commenced by a comany of 
capitalists. It was headed westward through a 
rich farming country. The jealous eyes of the 
Northern Pacific officials saw that the trade of 
a vast inland empire was about to be wrested 
from them by a competitor. A branch of the 
great transcontinental line must be thrown out 
to counteract the effect of the building of the 
other road. To think was to act. Ground was 
at once broken on the Central Washington, and 
rapidly two ribbons of steel stretched off into 
a section that had never echoed to the shriek 
of the iron monster. The people of Davenport 
watched anxiously the movements of the rival 
companies. A year ago this month the sound 
of the approaching locomotive could be dis- 
tinctly heard far off to the southeast. In Feb- 
ruary the Central Washington crew spiked the 
iron into the corporate limits and connection 
with the outside world was complete. The ad- 
vent of this railroad was the cause 1 if much re- 
joicing and a new impetus was given to the 
place. By a great mistake the Seattle. J.ake 
Shore & Eastern was built to within fi >ur miles 
of town, and there the terminus remained for 
some months. At last the enterprising citizens 
raised the necessary amount to grade the road- 
way into town and then Davenport had the ad- 


J 33 

vantage of a competing line with all points east 
and west, at the same time insuring for its being 
a railroad center, as no road will be constructed 
across the state in future years without being 
compelled to pass through this place. 

"With the first sign of spring, and before 
the snow had disappeared from view building 
operations commenced. Not only did the rail- 
roads make valuable improvements, but individ- 
uals vied with each other in erecting substantial 
business houses and attractive homes. The 
straggling business center assumed a more com- 
pact appearance; the residence quarter spread 
out ; new firms became established, and clear up 
to the time cold weather set in, only a few weeks 
ago, the trowel and hammer and saw kept up a 
steady refrain, an accompaniment to the march 
of improvement, and the sweetest music that 
ever tickled the tympanum of an enterprising 
people. We are not prepared to give a detailed 
list of the improvements that have been made. 
We have not the names of the builders nor the 
cost figures. Everybody who possessed the 
requisite capital did not hesitate to invest in per- 
manent structures. Handsome brick and frame 
buildings, the product of a single year, attest 
the public spirit and confidence of our people. 
Mr. David Wilson has done much toward assist- 
ing in the development of the place. Messrs. 
Luce. Christie, Squier, Small, Nicholls, Germain, 
Griswold, Keedy, Plough, Turner, Oswalt & 
Hughes, G. R. Oswalt, McArthur, Snyder & 
Tischner, Moylan, Edwards, Mothorn, Worts, 
Zuehlke, and scores of others, whose names 
would be mentioned if we could call them to 
mind at this hasty writing, have aided in this 
building up of a town. Public and private edi- 
fices have sprung up. The Hats ab< ait town that 
did not contain a vestige of a habitation twelve 
months ago are now thickly dotted with com- 
fortable homes. Two large brick blocks and a 
dozen neat two-story frame business houses 
have been constructed. A hotel has been added 
to the place, which, in architectural appearance, 
furniture and management is second I" no hos- 

telry in eartern Washington, and we bar none. 
The members of the Presbyterian congrega- 
tion have contributed their share by the erection 
of an elegant place of worship. Altogether the 
total amount of money expended in Davenport 
in private, public and corporation work during 
1889 will foot up to over $250,000. 

"During the year the town has been incor- 
porated and the advantages of this movement 
have been apparent. There is better order kept 
and the board is composed of progressive citi- 
zens possessed of the requisite push to help on 
a growing place. Considerable street grading 
has been let and when completed the improve- 
ment will add materially to the appearance ot 
the town, making a better impressii m 1 in strang- 
ers and encourage people to renewed activity." 

By a decision of the state supreme court, 
handed down early in 1890. it was held that the 
incorporation of all towns under the Territorial 
laws was void and possessed no legal standing. 
Between the incorporation of Davenport and 
the rendering of this judicial opinion Washing- 
ton had been admitted in to the union as a state. 
In company with a number of other towns in 
the state Davenport was thrown out of the in- 
corporated class and at once relegated to primi- 
tive villagehood. Steps were at once taken to 
secure legal incorporation. In March Attorney 
Ayers drafted a petition to the legislature on the 
part of Davenport in regard to the illegal in- 
coropration. The petition was favorably acted 
upon by the legislature and the prayer of the 
petitioners granted. Thus the act- of the trus- 
tees and officials of Davenport were made se- 
cure so far as persecution of their actions done 
in good faith were concerned. 

At the session Hi" the commissioners of Lin- 
coln county, in .May. [890, the following peti- 
tion was presented : 

'I,, the i [1 'i" 11 ible I '■ ■ ity Commissioners of 

Lincoln County, State of Washington: 
Tin- undersigned respectfully rep ur hon- 

orable body 1 1 1 : 1 1 they .-in- qui 
of Lincoln and Si t< of Washington at this date, and 



that they are residents within the limits of the cor- 
poration hereinafter prayed to be established and in- 
corporated, and within the limits hereinafter mentioned. 
fixed and described; that within the following described 
limits are now -five hundred people as nearly as' your 
petitioners can state. The above mentioned limits and 
proposed boundaries of said corporation are as follows, 
to-wit : Section 21, in township 25, north of range 37, 
east of the Willamette Meridian, in Lincoln county, 
State of Washington, and more particularly described 
as follows, to-wit : Commencing at a point at the north- 
west corner of section 2r, at the intersection of sec- 
tions 20, 17 and 16. said township and range, thence 
running east 320 rods, more or less, along the southern 
boundary line of section 16, to the intersection of sec- 
tions 16, 15 and 22, said town and range; thence south 
320 rods, more or less along the western boundary of 
section 22, to the intersection of sections 22, 27 and 28, 
said town and range ; thence running west along the 
northern boundary of section 28, 320 rods more or 
less, to the intersection of sections 28, 29 and 20, said 
town and range ; thence running north along the eastern 
line of section 20, 320 rods, more or less, to the place 
of beginning, according to the United States' govern- 
ment survey thereof. 

Wherefore, the undersigned, your petitioners, pray 
your honorable body to incorporate the territory lying 
within said boundaries and the inhabitants thereof as 
a town under and by the name of "The Town of Daven- 
port," under and by virtue of, and in accordance with the 
provisions of an act of the legislature of the State of 
Washington entitled "An act providing for the organi- 
zation, classification, incorporation and government of 
municipal corporations and declaring an emergency.'' 

Dated at Davenport, Washington. April 15, 1890. 

This petition was signed by exactly one hun- 
dred citizens. It was presented to the county 
commissioners, favorably acted upon, and they 
named May 20th as the date of a special elec- 
tion for the purpose of voting on the proposi- 
tion. Upon that date the election was, accord- 
ingly, held. There was no unusual excitement 
and only a slight vote was polled. Against the 
regular ticket a light opposition was manifested 
in certain quarters. The following was the vote 
cast: For incorporation, 105; against incor- 
poration, 1. For mayor, A. W. Turner, 102; 
for treasurer, William Finney, 105 ; for coun- 
cilmen, R. Tischner. 102; P. W. Dillon, 99; H. 
D. Mothorn, 97; John Peet, 85; T. O'Connor, 
88; George Oswalt, 32; J. -A. Hoople, 12. 

J laving now passed through the various 

processes made necessary by the enactment of 
a law in relation to the organization of towns 
by the first legislature of the new State of 
Washington, Davenport at last succeeded in the 
accomplishment of its wishes on June 9, 189O. 
The following dispatch marks the. official be- 
ginning of the new municipal government : 

"Olympia, June 9, 1890: Certified copy 
of order of county commissioners incorporating 
section 21, township 25, north range 37, E. 
W. M.. and the inhabitants thereof under and 
by the name of The Town of Davenport, filed 
this 9th day of June, 1890. 

"Allen W t eir, 
"Secretary of State." 
July 12, 1890, a special election was held 
to vote on a proposition to issue $10,000 in 
bonds for the purpose of building a school house 
in Davenport. There were cast 79 votes, of 
which 71 were in favor of the proposition, five 
against, and three votes were not counted. On 
the question of material for the contemplated 
edifice 70 votes were for a brick, and five for 
a frame, building. 

The board of trade organized in the spring 
of 1889 passed into innocuous desuetude. From 
a condition of inchoation it had become mori- 
bund. Accordingly on Wednesday evening, 
December 15, 1890, the business men of Dav- 
aiport assembled for the purpose of placing' 
upon its feet a new board of trade. The meet- 
ing was well attended and after a number of 
those present had voiced opinions concerning" 
the undeniable benefits to be derived from such 
a commercial organization the following offi- 
cers were selected: P. W. Dillon, president; 
A. W. Turner, vice-president; George Oswalt, 
second vice-president ; Guy L. Smith, secretary ; 
J. A. Hoople, treasurer. 

November 20, 1891, the Times said: "The 
city council has at last taken steps to provide 
the town with fire protection adequate to its 
needs, having ordered a truck and hook and 
ladder outfit at a cost of nearly $700. The 
town has lone been without any means of com- 



batting the fiery element and that she has not 
suffered serious loss in consequence is owing 
more to good fortune than anything else. A 
lot was purchased on the corner of Sixth and 
Morgan streets on which suitable buildings will 
be erected in a short time." 

But by the time the apparatus arrived a new 
city council had taken office and the new mem- 
bers declined to accept it. Thus the matter of 
providing suitable fire protection was allowed 
to languish, and the whole affair was side- 
tracked temporarily. 

Notwithstanding the fact that an unusually 
light crop had been harvested, and that Daven- 
port relied almost entirely on its agricultural 
trade, the town forged to the front during the 
year 1891. Over $60,000 worth of improve- 
ments were made within that year. Among the 
principal improvements were : Xew school 
house, $8,000; David Wilson, brick block, $8,- 
000; William Finney & Company, brick store, 
$5,000; J. A. Hoople, brick store, $5,000; Rob- 
ert Tischner, brewery, $5,000; McGowan's 
planing mill building, $5,000, total $36,000. 

January 30, 1892, initial steps were taken in 
Davenport toward the organization of a Post 
of the Grand Army of the Republic. Those 
who assumed an active participation in the pro- 
ject were Jackson Brock, J. D. Woodin, W. D. 
Kipp, A. P. Oliver, F. F. Hall, T. L. Edwards, 
George S. Rodgers, Emil Graf, John Wolf, W. 
H. Howard, Joseph Park. H. J. Whitney, S. L. 
Burrill, Archey Markham. 

On the first of October, 1892, there was put 
in operation a flouring mill in Davenport, an 
enterprise which had for several years been 
agitated. This enterprise was established by 
A. A. Davis and G. W. Howard, and had a ca- 
pacity of 150 per day, with a storing capacity 
of 40,000 bushels of grain. 

Saturday, May 6. 1893. a volunteer fire 
company was organized, starting in -life with 
over thirty members. This was the first organ- 
ization of the kind in the history of Dav< 
although, as we have seen, attempts had been 

previously made to place one upon its feet. The 
town had been quite fortunate in its freedom 
from fire during the ten or twelve years of its 
existence, never having suffered from any ci 11- 
flagration of serious proportions. The follow- 
ing w ere the initial officers of the new company : 
William Finney, president; II. J. Whitney, 
vice-president; A. C. Shaw, secretary; C. C. 
May, treasurer. These were named as trustees : 
F. W. McGowan, C. G. Snyder, and E. A. Ink- 
ster, for the one year term, and A. W. Turner. 
P. W. Dill, ,n and G. K. Birge for tin- six 
months' term. D. W. Glasgow was unanimous- 
ly chosen chief and was empowered to select 
two assistants. Still, it was not until the fol- 
lowing September that a fire engine was pro- 
cured and placed in commission. It was not 
long after the organization of the company he- 
fore its necessity was fully realized, even before 
the engine had been procured. June 17th Mc- 
Gowan Brothers' hardware store was burned, 
entailing a loss of $12,000, covered by insur- 
ance to the amount of $7,100. The Times 
said: "The town escaped destruction by a 
very narrow margin. The burned building was 
surrounded on all sides by frame structures, and 
but for the efficient work of the newly organ- 
ized c< impany the greater part of the town 
would surely have gone up in smoke." 

This narrow escape resulted in much good 
in accelerating the procurement of suitable 
equipment for the fire company. The sum of 
$500 was raised by popular subscription with 
which to purchase apparatus and to this sum the 
town council added 8150. On May 1. 1805. oc- 
curred one of the most serious fires that had yet 
occurred in Davenport, resulting in the loss of 
two Rosenquest residences and the one of H. 
H. Plough, The total loss was about : 
covered by $2,400 insurance. This fire w 
lowed two weeks later by another which dis- 
troyed the city mills causing a loss of about 
$5,000, with insurance of 82.500. W. L. Tur- 
ner''- residence burned about this time entailing 
of between $2,000 and S3. 000. 



An event of great importance to the town of 
Davenport took place during the year 1896. 
This was the construction of a wagon road 
from this town to the Cedar Canyon mine in 
Stevens county. The citizens of Davenport 
subscribed money for the road, and in May 
contracts were let for beginning the work. 
These rich mines of Cedar Canyon were pro- 
ducing large quantities of ore and by the enter- 
prise of Davenport's citizens in building the 
road this was brought here for shipment and 
has resulted in considerable financial benefit to 
the business men of the place. Unusual activ- 
ity in the building line was witnessed during the 
autumn of 1896. The prospect of securing the 
removal of the county seat from Sprague was 
the principal cause of business revival. In No- 
vember the city council decided to erect a jail 
consisting of two stories, the lower one to be 
utilized as a city lockup and the upper one for 
council chambers. At this period every dwell- 
ing house in Davenport was occupied, and there 
were inquiries every day from new arrivals in 
town for this line of accommodation. While 
some hasty building was done the season was 
too far advanced for any immediate relief to 
these house seekers, and it became a serious 
question how the influx of population incident 
to the town's new relationship was to be pro- 
vided for. 

A financial panic succeeded the feverish 
boom of 1892. There was a season of depres- 
sion from 1893 until 1897, and during these 
intervening years the people of Davenport were 
attempting to successfully soke the puzzle of 
"how to get something to eat." Little time or 
inclination had they to devote much attention 
to building enterprises. Still, Davenport did 
not suffer from this backset to so great an ex- 
tent as other less eligibly located towns. True, 
business dragged to a certain extent, and it was 
a struggle for all classes of business men to 
keep their heads above water. And yet from 
year to year marked additions were made to the 
young city. 

The town entered upon the year 1S97 under 
most favorable conditions. Future prosperity, 
seemed assurred. "While no sensational prog- 
ress was made in a business sense during 1896, 
there was considerable advancement in the line 
of growth and material development, much 
improvement in trade and a better, stronger 
feeling existed among all classes of business 
men. The first day of January, 1897, found 
nearly every house in town occupied and an 
increasing demand for more. 

For several weeks following the removal of 
the county records from Sprague to Davenport 
the most absorbing question among the busi- 
ness men and citizens generally was the loca- 
tion of the court house building, a topic by no 
means original or unique. Apparently a ma- 
jority of the citizens favored a location on the 
north side of the main street, although some de- 
sired it placed on the south side. This matter 
was decided finally by the county commission- 
ers, on Tuesday night, February 7th, by a se- 
lection of a location on the north side on the 
block deeded by the citizens of Davenport. 
Concerning this temporary division of opinion 
the Lincoln County Times said: 

"Excitement ran high Sunday afternoon, 
and the commissioners themselves were, appar- 
ently, undecided what to do up to the time of 
taking final action. It was reported that they 
were favorable to the south side location, and 
those friendly to the other side, who were the 
dominating element in town, began to bestir 
themselves to prevent the location going south. 
In the evening, between 8 and 9 o'clock, after 
the commissioners had met to take final action, 
a meeting of the north side advocates was called 
in Turner & Plough's old store room to devise 
some means of prevailing on the commissioners 
to adopt the originally proposed site in Colum- 
bia Addition. This meeting had been called 
to order .for some time and several prominent 
citizens had expressed themselves quite vigor- 
ously, when some one came in and announced 
that the commissioners were writing out an or- 



der for the location of the court house on block 
94. Columbia Addition. This announcement 
was greeted with vociferous and hearty cheers, 
and the gathering filed out the door and down 
the street to the commissioners' room t< 1 ex- 
press their approval of the action taken. 

"The chief worker for the south side was 
P. \Y. Dillon, and had he been supported by an 
equal number of the town's people would, in 
all probability, have made a successful fight, 
for the commissioners themselves, personally, 
favored a location nearer the depot." 

As a -result of abundant crops and the re- 
turn of prosperous times throughout the coun- 
try Davenport, in the fall of 1897, assumed a 
thrifty, indeed, a jocund air. The merchants 
all conducted an extensive business. Xot since 
the palmy days of '89 and '90 had there been 
such a volume of ready cash in circulation. 
Everybody, from the capitalist down to the Si- 
wash who sawed wood — or refused to saw 
wood — was prosperous and happy. 

The opening of war with Spain awakened 
a commendable patriotic spirit in Davenport, 
and this sentiment animated all classes of citi- 
zens. In May, 1898, it was decided to organ- 
ize a battery of light artillery, and, according- 
ly, a formal petition was forwarded to Gover- 
nor Rogers and Adjutant General Ballaine ask- 
ing to be mustered into the state militia. En- 
rollment papers were at the Big Bend drug store 
and many signers signified by their acts their 
intention, or desire, to become members of this 
organization. If it was impossible to serve as 
members of a battery the signers declared their 
entire willingness to serve as infantrymen. The 
company was organized Saturday. May 28, 
the following officers being elected : Captain, 
J. J. Sargent; First Lieutenant. Henry < ',. An- 
derson; Second Lieutenants. C. II. McCourt, 
J. A. Prudhomme; First Sergeant, Patrick 
Corbett ; Color Sergeant, O. T. Oswalt. It was 
decided to organize as light artillery, but to 
serve as infantry if necessary, to be included in 
the next call for troops. A few days later the 

adjutant-general authorized the company to he 
mustered in as infantry. The company drilled 
twice a week. And thus Davenport for the 
first time became represented in the military 
service of the United States. 

One of the most destructive fires in Daven- 
port's history broke out early Thursday morn- 
ing, September 8, 1898, a conflagration which 
licked up a number of business houses on Har- 
ker street. The ominous cry of "fire!" aroused 
the slumbering population and after the first 
alarm was given the cry was quickly taken up, 
and within a few moments people of both sexes 
came pouring down to the scene of destruction 
from every direction. The sky was illuminated 
by fierce flames which covered the roofs and 
came streaming down out of the windows and 
doors of the wooden buildings adjacent to Will- 
iam Finney's large brick store. Rapidly the lire 
spread from one wooden shack to another, al- 
though scarcely a breath of air was stirring ex- 
cept that created by the flames themselves. It 
was difficult to tell in which of the wooden build- 
ings the fire had originated, for flames swept 
over two or three of them almost simultaneous- 
lv, but it was subsequently learned that the ini- 
tial point had been in the Dale house, a frame 
building next to Mr. Finney's store. Within a 
very few moments following the alarm the fire 
engine was placed in position down by the 
creek which flows along Spring street, south 
and back of the row of wooden structures fac- 
ing on Harker street. Here the fire had se- 
emed great headway. From the first it was ap- 
parent that none of the wooden buildings could 
he saved, and for awhile it looked as though 
tlie entire business portion of the town must be 
swept away. 

Had a stiff breeze prevailed it would not 
have been possible for the volunteer firemen, 
with the appliances at hand, to have saved a 
single building along 1 larker or .Morgan streets. 
Fortunately scarcely a breath of air was stir- 
ring, and what little there was came from the 
north, the most favorable quarter. Th< 



house and oil room back of the Finney block 
was soon a mass' of flames. The rear door 
leading into the store burned out and flames 
were immediately communicated to the interior. 
In less than an hour after the alarm had been 
sounded the entire structure was reduced to a 
mass of smouldering ruins. The sheds in the 
rear of Millis' store and the adjoining stores 
fed the flames, and from here they seized upon 
the window and door frames in the rear of the 
bank and other brick buildings. The efforts of 
the firemen were then directed entirely to the 
work of preventing the destruction of the brick 
block west, along Morgan street, from the 
bank. There was no lack of willing hands and 
water was laid on the superheated brick walls 
with good effect. Valuable service was also 
rendered by the bucket brigade. Streams of 
water were poured from the back windows and 
along the roof. By i 130 the volunteers had the 
fire well under control. Its onward march east 
across Harker street was checked by heroic 
effort, although the large plate glass windows 
in the Hooper block were shattered. Thus the 
fire was confined to the wooden buildings south 
along Harker street. The only brick building 
destroyed was the large store of William Fin- 
ney. The frame structures destroyed were the 
Dale House. John Hanson's barber shop, the 
Oleson restaurant, and the saloon building oc- 
cupied by Ellsworth Shaw. 

During the porgress of this fire men and 
women were constantly employed transporting 
goods across the street from the brick store 
buildings, and some damage resulted from 
breakage. The grocery store of H. D. Barber 
and the millinery store of Miss Mary Moore 
were destroyed. There were a number of nar- 
row escapes and one man was so badly burned 
that it was feared he would not recover. The 
unfortunate man, Samuel Koehn. was a tailor 
in the employ of Daniel Delin. He attempted 
to find his way down the stairway which was 
was full of flames and smoke. He rushed 
through it all making his escape with great dif- 

ficulty. He had been assisted out of his room 
by T. Larson, a carpenter, who heard him in- 
side trying to make his way out. Mr. Larson 
was, also, badly burned about the face and head. 
Mrs. Mahet, the proprietor of the house, escaped 
with her child by jumping out of the top win- 
dow at the rear of the building. A number of 
others made similar escapes with scarcely a 
stitch of clothing. 

Following are the losses not covered by in- 
surance: Dale House, owned by William Fin- 
ney, $2,000; Oleson restaurant, owned by Judge 
Small, $600; E. Shaw, saloon, $600. 

Following are the losses of those carrying 
insurance, the amounts being the amount of 
insurance paid by the companies : William Fin- 
ney & Company, $11,650; E. Shaw, $500: M. 
Millis, $636.50; H. D. Barber, $419.35; Man- 
Moore, $57; G. T. Logsdon, $6.50; S. Kruger, 
§j$; Maria A. Wainwright, ^t,:,: Mrs. E. G. 
Wilson, $564; C. R. Petrie, $76; H. W. 
Knapp, $yS: H. C. Keedy, $289. 

Following this disaster the city council es- 
tablished a fire limit consisting of all of blocks 
78 to 79, inclusive, and the south half of blocks 
80 and 83, inclusive, of Morgan's Addition. 
This limit included the blocks between Morgan 
and Spring streets from the town hall to the 
Times office, on the south side of Morgan 
street, and half the blocks on the north side of 
Morgan street. 

Despite the fact that considerable building- 
was done in the summer of 1898, there was a 
dearth of living houses and many who would 
have moved to town could not do so owing to 
lack of accommodations. The destruction by 
fire of the Dale House deprived many of a 
place of residence. During the summer months 
several families made their homes in tents. 

More rapid advancement in business condi- 
tions was made in the young town during the 
year 1898 than ever before in its history. The 
sun of prosperity that bad kissed the bountiful 
wheat fields had, also, shone through the dark 
cloud of depression and gladdened the hearts 



of all. It was a season of magnificent crops 
and the harvest inspired confidence and awak- 
ened new hopes in almost ever}' family. The 
pulse of trade was quickened, investments were 
encouraged and the season was one of general 
revival and convalescence from a low. financial 
fever. Commenting upon these favorable con- 
ditions the Lincoln County Times said: 

"In this fortunately located little city it is 
evident in the renewal of building, the appear- 
ance of new faces in the streets, and a more 
cheerful disposition among the old residents 
that all are hopeful of the future. This gn iwth 
of population has necessitated the construction 
of new business houses and the building of 
numerous residences, many of them handsome 
and substantial homes. The example of those 
who first started building last spring was a 
spur to others to follow, resulting in a wonder- 
ful growth in the place. 

"It would simply be impossible to enumer- 
ate separately all the buildings erected in Dav- 
enport during 1898. No portion of the town 
has suffered neglect. On every hand can be 
seen evidence of this rapid growth. The total 
amount of money invested in these improve- 
ments foots up to thousands of dollars. On 
Morgan street three handsome brick buildings 
were added to the business blocks, two of them 
erected by David Wilson and one by Dr. Whit- 
ney. Ole Hair also put up a large and very 
neat brick block on Sixth street. During the 
year the secret societies completed the two- 
story auditorium at the corner of Ninth and 
Morgan streets. This is a very creditable 
structure, and supplies a long felt want in the 
nature of a public hall. The public school has 
been enlarged by a new addition that in its di- 
mensions is about the size of the orginal build- 
ing. But it is in the number of new residences 
that Davenport excelled during 1898, far sur- 
passing the record of any previous year. Fully 
fifty new residences were constructed during 
the season. Among these were homes buill 
l.v Fred Hulsman, H. N. Martin. David Wil- 

son, J. B. Pershall, Mr. Earls, Mrs. Rogers, li. 
H. Hulton ami C. E. Weyland. 

The militia company organized in the spring 
of 1898 disbanded before the second call for 
volunteers was made. Word was received from 
the authorities at Olympia in August that a 
company from Davenport could he mustered 
into state service. Preparations were at once 
made for the forming of a battery, and Wed- 
nesday evening, September 13th, the company 
consisting of 28 members, was mustered in as 
Battery A. by Captain Lyons, of Spokane. Fol 
lowing were the officers and members of the 
company : 

Captain, H. G. Anderson; First Lieutenant. 
O. T. Oswalt ; Second Lieutenant, Frank Dal- 
lam, Jr.; Sergeant. Emil Graf; Color Bearer, 
J. J. Sargent; George Bertonerer, Jalek Hop- 
kins, Roy Millis, Stephen Jayne, Antone 
Kotsch, Charles Smith, Fred S. Knapp, Ji fhn 
H. Snyder, M. W. Miller, James A. Redick, 
Ira B. Hyatt, Louie D. Todd, Lee Moore, T. 
Jayne, R. P. Moore, E. D. McDonnell, J. W. 
Gibson, W. Kennedy, Stephen O'Leary, H. S. 
Omacht, H. L. Perry, T. Goodlad, T. R. Jayne. 

The adjutant general issued a general order 
consigning the various military companies of 
the state to organized regiments. The Second 
Regiment was composed of Company A. at 
Spokane; B at Colfax; C at Goldendale; !> at 
Walla Walla; E at Spokane; F at Yakima; G 
at Garfield, and Battery A. Light Artillery, at 
Davenport. The Davenport boys were also at- 
tached to the First Battalion of the Second 
Regiment, with Companies A, E, and < i. the 
Spokane and Garfield warriors, commanded by 
Captain E. W. Lyons, of Spokane. In Janu- 
ary. [899, the Davenport Company was sup- 
plied with arms. The battery was one in name 
only, as the organization was armed and 
equipped as an infantry company, having 
Springfield rifles. 

Saturday. July 2, [899, a special election 
was held in Davenport forthepurpi se of voting 
on a proposition to issue bonds for establishing 



a system of water works. There were 239 votes 
registered. No great interest was manifested 
and only 176 votes were cast. Of these 132 
were favorable to the proposition and 44 against 
the same. These bonds were sold and in Au- 
gust work was commenced on the plant. 

Battery A, of Davenport, left on Saturday, 
November 4, 1899, for Seattle to participate in 
the welcome extended to the members of the 
First Washington Volunteer regiment on its 
return from the Philippines. The battery was 
in charge of Captain Henry Anderson and 
First Lieutenant Richard Oswalt. Forty-two 
members of the battery took part in the excur- 

Davenport's new system of water works 
was placed in operation Saturday, December 9, 
1899. This was the consummation of two 
years of exertion. Several propositions had 
been considered by the city authorities and there 
had been some lively skirmishing over the prop- 
osition. It had been at last decided that the 
municipality should own the plant. Upon 
reaching the next step was to decide upon the 
source of supply. Several sources were exam- 
ined, but the one finally selected was that 
known as the "lower spring," which was pur- 
chased from C. C. May for $1,000. The town 
at last secured a small system, but a good one 
which promises to meet all requirements. The 
construction of the system is such that its ca- 
pacity may be increased and the pipes extended 
at any time. 

The year 1899 was but a continuation of 
1898 in the matter of improvements of a per- 
manent nature. Two handsome brick blocks 
were erected during this year and many resi- 
daices. A conservative estimate places the 
value of improvements for 1899 at $100,000. 
June 9, 1900, a school election was held at 
which it was voted to bond the district for $20,- 
000. the sum of $15,000 to be applied to the 
erection of a new school building, and $5,000 to 
pay indebtedness. The vote was 187 for; 78 
against. In December. 1900. the new high 

school building was completed as a cost of about 
$16,000. During the winter of 1 900-1 Daven- 
port was visited by smallpox in the prevailing 
mild form. Public schools were closed and 
public gatherings of all kinds were discontinued 
for a short period. Twenty-one buildings were 
erected in 1900 at an estimated cost of $40,000. 
Tuesday evening, October 22, 1901, the Dav- 
enport Commercial Club was organized, a body 
which has accomplished much on the lines of 
betterment of the town and the settlement of 
the surrounding country. C. E. Meyers was 
the original president, and A. \Y. Turner, vice 
president; F. W. Anderson, treasurer, E. L. 
Spencer, secretary. 

In November, 1901, the militia company 
was disbanded. For some time previous the 
company had existed as an independent organi- 
zation, not being assigned to any regiment. The 
muster out was made by Lieutenant John Kin- 
zie, N. G. \Y.. and the arms and equipments of 
Battery A were shipped to Olympia. 

Concerning municipal illumination the Lin- 
coln County Times of March 13, 1903, said: 

"The town of Davenport was illuminated 
Monday. March 9th for the first time with 
electric lights. The last piece of machinery was 
placed in position and the last connection was 
made about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, when 
the switch was turned on, the same instant a 
bright light beaming forth from each lamp in 
the city. Not the slightest difficult}' occurred 
and everything worked with complete and ex- 
act precision from the start. The electric light 
plant has been delayed to a late day, consider- 
ing the town's size, but it is one of the latest 
improved plants in existence, and it has many 
advantages not offered in any city supplied at 
an earlier date." 

Saturday evening, June 20, 1903. the town 
was scorched with one of the hottest blazes in 
its history. At 5 o'clock p. m., flames broke out 
from the roof of the old Mirror office, corner 
of Spring and Harker streets. More than half 
a eale was blowing from the southwest. All 



combustible matter was as dry as tinder, and 
within the space of a tew moments the entire 
building was a mass of smoke and flames. 
Xext to this building stood a Chinese laundry, 
formerly the Cameron saloon ; then the Tripp 
livery barn ; next the old store building owned 
by J. H. Xicholls, and last the little building 
owned by the Bowers Brothers, which was 
practically destroyed. The manner in which the 
fire boys fought the flames was deserving 1 if the 
highest commendation. The last stand was 
made at the Bowers residence where there was 
a desperate fight between man and the de\ 1 Hir- 
ing element. Although the firemen were pro- 
tected by coats and wet blankets several of them 
were badly scorched. The Tripp livery stable 
was filled with horses and rigs, but the animals 
and almost everything in the 1 mi Ming was 
saved, yet the flames swept through it so sud- 
denly that the escape of two or three men who 
were working in the loft were cut off, and they 
were compelled to jump through the windows. 
This was the largest and best building in the 
row. The large O'Leary residence on the brow 
of the hill above where the fire was raging was 
ablaze at one time and was saved only by des- 
perate efforts. 

The heaviest loss fell to J. L. Tripp, who 
owned the livery barn, occupied by the Brink 
Brothers, valued at about $4,000, on which only 
$500 insurance was carried. The old Mirror 
building was owned by Mr. Breslauer and was 
valued at $400, insurance, $250. The laundry 
owned by Fred Latter was valued at $600, no 
insurance. The Chinaman lost several hun- 
dred dollars worth of fixtures. J. II. Xicholls 
lost $500 or $600, no insurance. The tire or- 
iginated from fire-crackers with which some 
boys were playing in the Mirror building. The 
buildings destroyed were the first erected in the 
town of Davenport. They formed the original 
town, and were built by J. II. Xicholls and 
Robert Cameron in 188 1-2. 

In November, 1903, Davenport became am- 
bitious to be advanced to a town of the Third 

Class. A town of this class is divided into 
■ wards and is entitled to seven councilmen and 
all its officers become elective. The first re- 
quirement is that the town must contain a popu- 
lation of not less than 1.500. Tuesday, Decem- 
ber 8th, an election was had in accordance with 
a petition which had been circulated by Louie 
Todd, and the vote was 132 for, and 4, against 
advancement. A census of the town was sub- 
sequently taken by Enumerators Todd and 
Donahue who found a population of 1,616, an 
increase of over 50 per cent since the census of 
1900. The result placed Davenport in the 
Third Class. 

The first secret society organized in Daven- 
port was that of the Odd Fellows, in 1 889, with 
eleven members. The Masonic Lodge was or- 
ganized the same year, with,' a membership of 
seventeen. In the spring of 1890 the Knights 
of Pythias organized with a membership of 
thirty-five. The succeeding order was the 
Good Templars who perfected an organization 
in December, 1891, its initial membership being 
twenty. At present the fraternal societies of 
Davenport are: Columbia Lodge No. 56, De- 
gree of Honor; Excelsior Lodge No. 240. 1. 
O. G. T. ; Davenport Lodge No. '14. I. O. O. 
F. ; Loyal Americans; Davenport Lodge No. 
55, A. O. U. \V. : Arcadia Lodge No. 58, A. V. 
& A. M.; Lincoln Tent No. 62, K. O. T. M.; 
Davenport Chapter No. 25, R. A. M. 

I >avenport was the home of the first church 
organized between Spokane and the Columbia 
river. It was the First Presbyterian and was 
instituted in the fall of [884, chiefly through 
the efforts of 11. II. McMillan. During five 
year- Mr. .McMillan labored as n- pastor, hold- 
ing services in the public school building. In 
[889 a building was erected. Sunday, Decem- 
ber 14. 1902, tin- handsome edifice was dedi- 
cated. It cosl $10,126. Today Davenport is 
represented by the following congregation.-: 
Baptist, German Lutheran, Catholic, Presby- 
terian, Christian, First German M. V... Firsl M 
E.. St. Luke'- Protestant Episcopal. 



In December, 1903, the public schools of 
Davenport had outgrown the then commodi- 
ous school building'. 

Davenport is a town in which much atten- 
tion has been given to the planting of trees, 
cultivating lawns, and otherwise beautifying 
homes. The result of such commendable la- 
bors is a beautiful transformation, and the many 
examples thus set will, doubtless, be followed 
by others who may succeed the present genera- 
tion. The first impression of the visitor to 
Davenport, and after a casual glance about, is 
that it is a town of churches and schools, for in 
every part of the town are to be seen those em- 
blems of civilization. The churches are large 
and are modern in style and appointment. The 
high school building, constructed of white 
pressed brick, is fhe largest and finest structure 
in the county. Davenport is the educational 
center of the Big Bend, and students come from 

the surrounding country to attend the schools, 
their graduates being accepted in all the higher 
institutions of learning throughout the state. 
There are two commodious meeting places for 
public assemblages, the Auditorium and Arm- 
ory hall. The Auditorium is equipped with the 
necessary scenery to accommodate drama! ic en- 
tertainments of all classes, and Armory hall 
serves for general entertainments. Davenport 
is the trade center for a vast territory, supply- 
ing the country beyond the Columbia river, a 
distance of over 30 miles. A large per cent of 
the Cedar Canyon mines in Stevens county 
finds its outlet through this city. There are 
two banks in the town, about a dozen grocery 
and general merchandise stores, two large ho- 
tels, a number of smaller ones, besides an 
equally large representation in other lines of 
business. Five doctors and ten lawyers are en- 
gaged in the practice of their professions. 




One of the most eligibly located towns on 
the line of the Central Washington railway is 
Creston. It is situated at the foot of Brown's 
Butte, a gently sloping hill, and a prominent 
landmark in this locality. It is in the center of 
what is known as the Brent's country, one of 
the exceptionally rich farming sections of Lin- 
coln county. The elevation is about 2,500 feet 
above sea level. The distance west from Dav- 
enport is 30 miles. It is surrounded by a wide 
expanse of exceedingly fertile farming coun- 
try. The population is about 450. 

Of the country surrounding Creston it may 
be said that it varies in a number of particu- 
lars. There are rocky canyons and "scab" 

lands; there is, also, a large area of farming 
land that cannot be surpassed anywhere in the 
western country. Especially is this true of 
the Brent's country to the north and north- 
west. The "lay of the land" is ideal for agri- 
cultural purposes; the soil is deep and heavy 
and not subject to frosts that occasionally in- 
jure grain farther west; it retains mosture 
much better than the lighter soil to the south. 
Still, good homes, surrounded with an air of 
prosperity are found even in the canyons and 
"scab" lands. Creston is, annually, the shipping 
point for from 300.000 to 400,000 bushels of. 
grain, varying with different seasons. In 1902 
Orchard Valley marketed at Creston 8,800 
boxes of berries and fruits, realizing $70,090, 
and this, too, at prices below the average of 



other years, or over $222 per acre for the land 
under cultivation. 

Creston, so named because of its elevation, 
being the highest point on the Central Wash- 
ington railway came into existence with 
the building of this road in 1889. The 
townsite was railroad land. In the spring 
of 1890 this townsite was platted by 
H. S. Huson ; the instrument was filed June 
23, 1890. The original structure was a store 
building brought down from Sherman by 
Henry Yerfurth. In it he opened a small store, 
the first mercantile establishment in Creston. 
Mr. Verfurth became, also, postmaster when 
the government decided to establish an office 
at this point. Nearly synchronous with the ar- 
rival of Mr. Verfurth in the prospective town 
came A. H. Hesseltine, who conducted a black- 
smith shop, and Henry Mangus, the latter be- 
coming proprietor of the second store. The 
Lincoln County Times of May 2, 1890, stated 
that Creston contained at that period a depot 
building, a hotel, one or two other small struc- 
tures — "and prospects of some day becoming 
a good town." These "prospects" have been 
amply fulfilled. 

But there was scant prosperity the first five 
years to encourage the new comer. The own- 
ers of the townsite went into bankruptcy ; a 
receiver was appointed. In the town proper 
•the population was limited to five or six famil- 
ies. Creston was up against a dead wall — at 
a standstill. Her neighboring towns were ad- 
vancing; some rapidly; others more slowly. 
J. J. Dodd is one of the pioneers of Creston. 
He settled there in 1893 and began the practice 
of law. Not until 1897 did the town of Cres- 
ton come to the front. It will be remembered 
that this was the year of Lincoln county's 
"bumper" wheat crop. Then she awakened 
from a comatose condition new settlers flocked 
into the immediate vicinity, and the village. 
keeping pace with its industrial surroundings. 
began to grow and thrive. The incoming of 
settlers with some capital was akin to the stim- 

ulant of rare old wine. Xew business firms 
opened up new establishments. Messrs. Philip 
Laber and Daniel Worby were important fac- 
tors in building up the town during this pros- 
perous year. Still, it is a strange, puzzling 
reflection that Creston should have lain so 
long dormant while other towns in the county 
were forging to the front. But the progress 
she has made since awakening from her cat- 
aleptic condition possesses many element- of 
surprise. As a dot on the map of the state of 
■Washington Creston dates back to the time of 
the founding of a number of other small towns 
on the line of the Central Washington rail- 
road. But as a town entitled to rank as im- 
portant among the Big Bend communities it 
has but few years of history behind it. Less 
than four years covers the period of real ex- 
pansion in Creston. Of course at its inception 
the town possessed no hall and no secret so- 
cieties, except perhaps one or two minor or- 
ganizations in a moribund condition ; it had no 
bank; no mill; no prescription drug store: no 
furniture emporium — in fact its circle of busi- 
ness was so incomplete that the trade it should 
have supplied with all things needful was 
compelled to seek other towns for many 
of the necessaries of life, saying nothing 
about the luxuries. And while in those "other 
towns" the people, of course, purchased many 
articles which might have been procured at 
Creston had the assortment of goods been 
large enough. And thus trade was driven 
away solely through lack of a few important 
lines of goods. The town had few substantial 
dwellings; perhaps half a dozen telephones and 
no rival lines. There was not a wind pump 
or tank in the village for sprinkling a lawn or 
fighting an incipient blaze; there was no news- 
paper to advertise the town's existence to the 
outside world. 

And this doleful condition lingered for 
years following the platting of Creston. Then 
"a change came o'er the spirit" of Creston. 
The Pu.^et Sound and Seattle Wheat Compan- 



ies erected two large and substantial grain 
ware houses in the fall of 1900. During the 
succeeding few months Laber & Worby tripled 
the capacity of their building and increased 
their building and increased their stock accord- 
ingly. Howie's, now Fox's dry goods store 
was added to the business of the town. A 
strong lodge of Odd Fellows was instituted. 
A newspaper appeared on the scene. All things 
considered there was a transformation of the 
mise en scene most agreeable and surprising 
to the inhabitants of Creston. And this sud- 
den manifestation of a new spirit in the town 
attracted a largely increased trade; stocks of 
merchandise increased in volume and assort- 
ment. The absolute necessity of a hall led to 
the organization of the Creston Hall Associa- 
tion, and the erection of a fine, commodious 
auditorium at First and D streets. Before 
this was completed the Creston State Bank was 
organized and made ready for occupancy and 
business. R. E. "Wright's new pharmacy, one 
of the most elaborate in the Big Bend, was 
opened beside the new bank. Meanwhile the 
family of fraternities had been increased by 
the birth of the Rebekah degree lodge, and 
lodges of the W. O. W. and A. F. & A. M. 
Then the mill proposition was taken up — a 
$35,00 plant — the Creston Roller "Mills, was 
completed. A large stock of furniture and un- 
dertaking goods was opened, at present mer- 
ged in the partnership stock of Foster & Coup- 
er. Smith & Salter 'opened a new stock of 
merchandise, the firm subsequently becoming 
Dodd & Salter. They added a line of farm 
machinery and implements. Two skilled 
blacksmiths and machinists eliminated the ne- 
cessity of traveling to \\ "ilbur or Davenport 
for work in their line. A new barber shop, an- 
other meat market, a jeweler's and general 
repair shop and the head office of a mining- 
company located in town. The telephone ser- 
vice increased to nineteen in September, 1903, 
and eighteen in the country. At heavy ex- 
pense Creston enterprise constructed a wagon 

road from the town 25 miles northward into 
the rich mineral belt of the "South Half" of 
Colville Indian reservation and established one 
of the best ferries on the Columbia river. 

The new movement in home building dot- 
ted the town with cottages of the substantial, 
comfortable order. Nearly all these were built 
as homes for new comers to the, practically, 
new town, and today rental property is alto- 
gether too scarce. "Within two years the pop- 
ulation of Creston doubled ; the increase being 
of a most desirable class of people. One new 
church was added in 1903, that of the Saints, 
and a M. E. class (South) was organized. 
These two, with the older organizations, Pres- 
byterians and Baptists, gave the town that 
year four religious congregations. And while 
these marked improvements were taking place 
within the city, the territory surrounding was 
being settled by a well-to-do, hospitable and 
wide-awake people, loyal to the town and 
proud of the country they have developed from 
the native bunch grass. 

In retrospection go back to the days of 
1889. Then was built the Central Washing- 
ton railway. Creston was only a small trading- 
point with a postoffice, the "jurisdiction" of 
which extended from the Columbia river to the 
railroad on the south, with a width of perhaps 
ten miles east and west. Writing August 7. 
1903, the editor of the Creston News said: . 

"The growth of Creston for several years 
was slow, but about two years ago a new im- 
petus was given to it, since which time the de- 
velopment has been rapid and substantial. The 
population has doubled and at the election held 
in April there were 102 persons entitled to vote 
in the town. New residences have sprung up 
in every quarter of the town and of a better 
class, and a large amount of rebuilding and im- 
proving has been done. New additions have 
been platted and real estate values have appre- 
ciated steadily." 

The only fire of any importance in Creston 
occurred February 4. 1902. It destroyed the 



Sumerlin House, Dr. Lanter's office and the 
plant of the Creston News. The losses were. 
W. B. Sumerlin, house, $600, no insurance: 
Dr. Lanter, $1,000, insurance, $800: D. F. 
Peffly, $440, insurance, $300. Laber & Wor- 
by's loss was small. 

The town of Creston became known 

throughout the length and breadth of the 
country in August, 1902. as the home of the 
men who captured Outlaw Harry Tracy. This 
sensational event is treated in a previous chap- 
ter of the "History of Lincoln County." 

Initial steps toward incorporation of Cres- 
ton were taken early in the year [903. A mass 
meeting was held January 3d, and it was de- 
cided to ask the county commissioners to call 
an election for the purpose. To this petition 
there were 82 signers out of a total of 96 legal 
voters in the town at the time the petition was 
circulated. To this petition the commissioners 
acquiesced and the election was set for April 
4, 1903. At this election 86 votes were cast, 
incorporation carried by a vote of jj to 6. 
The result of the election for city officials re- 
sulted as follows: For mayor. A. E. Stookey,' 
79; Councilmen : Patrick Kelly. j><; J. AT. 
Dungan, 74; E. W. Watson, yy; Philip Laber, 
j^, ; E. Zeigier, 74. Treasurer. F. A. Duncan, 


At the present writing there are five church 
organizations in Creston, viz : Baptists, Pres 
byterians, Catholic, Saints, and [Methodists. 
With die exception of the Methodist- all have 
church buildings. The fraternal societies are 
represented by the Creston Lodge. No. [23, A. 
I ; . eV V ,\|.; Creston Lodge. No. 174. 1. O. O. 
K. : Creston Star No. 13'J. Rebekah; Creston 
Lodge NTo. 371, YV. 0. VV.; Blizzard Circle 
No. 44-'-. A . ( ). W.. and M. W. A. 

April 20. 1004. Frank M. Spain, state or- 
ganizer for the Retail Grocers' and General 
Merchants' Association, completed the organ- 
ization of a local branch of the Inland Retail 
Dealer^' Association. The firms joining this 
organization were: Laber & Worby, Jump 

& brizzell. Newer & Kihlen. Hough & Glover, 
VV. R. Foster, G. W. Sigler, C. I'. Jenne, Will- 
iam Johnson and George B.- Rees Officers 

elected were: President, T. F. Frizzellj vice 
president, Philip Laber; secretary, E. J. Win- 
ter; treasurer, ( i. W. Sigler. 

One of the most promising and enterpris- 
ing towns in the Big J '.end is Wilbur. It is 
situated in an oblong basin with a small clear 
creek running through the center of the town, 
and abrupt, basaltic cliffs, not of very great 
elevation, on the north and south. At one time 
this spot was. evjdently, a lake: there is still, 
marshy land on the east and west ends of the 
basin, some distance from the townsite. 

In Lincoln county there was no town west 
of Davenport prior to the construction of the 
Central Washington railroad. When this line 
became a reality talk flowed voluminously of 
other towns, villages and cities in the Big 
Bend. "Wild Goose Bill's" place, thirty-eight 
miles west of Davenport, was accorded a post- 
office by the department at Washington, 1 >. 
C, and given the name of Wilbur, the middle 
name of Samuel Wilbur Condin (Wild Goose 
Bill. ) It was then considered a likelv place 
for a town and the future has not disputed the 
judgment of the locators. It was on the 
line from Davenport to the mines m the north- 
ern part of the state, one day's drive from the 
county seat. Therefore, in the spring of [888 
Wilbur boasted of a hotel, two Stores, two i^e<\ 
stables, two blacksmith simps, a saloon and a 
drug store. The pioneer merchants of Wilbur 
were J. M. Parrish & Company. They opened 
a general merchandise store in October. 

January 1. [889, Wilbur contained but six 
I houses, and was small and insignifi- 
cant, indeed, compared with the town of a year 
later. < hitside of a radius of thirty miles Wil- 
bur had scarcely been heard of. Those who 
made their home in the place at that time hoped 



not without some doubt and secret misgivings, 
to build up a town of modest proportions. That 
within a few months it would assume the sub- 
stantiality and prominence that it did was be- 
yond their wildest expectations. In February, 
1889, 'Wilbur had three general merchandise 
stores, two hotels, one drug store, two feed 
stables, two restaurants, one blacksmith and 
one butcher shop, one carpenter shop, one sa- 
loon, and quite a number of comfortable resi- 
dences. The town had been platted in April, 
1889, by Samuel Wilbur Condin, (Wild Goose 
Bill.) In May of that year the building of a 
railroad to Wilbur had become an assurred 
fact. Surveyors were put to work establish- 
ing a grade through the rocky canyon and 
officials high in authority in the Central Wash- 
ington Company announced, without reserva- 
tion, that the road was coming to Wilbur. 
Authenticity was given to this information by 
the activity displayed by railroad officials in 
securing interests in the Wilbur townsite. 
Messrs. Huson, Riordan, Ashton and other 
members of the Columbia Townsite & Invest- 
ment Company, composed of parties of the 
"inner circles" of the railroad company, vis- 
ited Wilbur and had a conference with S. W. 
Condin, owner of the Wilbur townsite, and 
Rolland J. Reeves, who represented Mr. Con- 
din. These townsite buyers came prepared to 
entertain any proposition Mr. Condin might 
have to offer in consideration of the railroad 
locating a depot at Wilbur. Condin left it 
entirely to the gentlemen to say what the new 
1 lad desired. Their proposition was one-half 
interest in the original townsite and the addi- 
tion, as well as in the proceeds of sales made, 
and a like interest in an unplatted eighty-acre 
tract of deeded land adjoining, in consideration 
of which the road would locate a depot on the 
original townsite before the close of the year. 
Mr. Condin asked for, and received time to 
consider this proposition, and, being materially 
aided by lot owners in the new town, conclu- 
ded to accept the terms of the railroad men. 

Thus the management of the Wilbur townsite 
passed into the hands of a company of ener- 
getic men who possessed ample capital and 
vim with which to develop the resources of the 

The effect that the certainty of the railroad 
coming into town was soon seen in the erection 
of new buildings and the inauguration of new 
business enterprises in Wilbur. We quote 
from the Register of May 25th : 

"Notwithstanding the fact that three large 
saw mills in this vicinity are kept running at 
their full capacity the supply of lumber avail- 
able for immediate use is inadequate to meet 
the demands of the many contractors and 
builders now engaged in Wilbur. Five new 
buildings have been completed within the past 
week; six more are in course of construction 
and lumber is being hauled on to the grounds 
for several others. There is no doubting the 
success of Wilbur. A grand and glorious fu- 
ture is already secure." 

C. E. Huson, a brother of the railroad 
engineer, soon afterwards arrived in Wilbur, 
and assumed control of the townsite business 
for the company. 

The first incorporation of Wilbur was on 
March 25, 1889. This incorporation was in 
accordance with the Territorial law which 
provided for incorporation of towns by order 
of the district court. The district court of the 
Fourth Judicial District, sitting at Sprague, 
issued a decree incorporating Wilbur and nam- 
ing municipal officers. The officials appointed 
entered upon the discharge of their duties and 
the town was under municipal government un- 
til a decision of the supreme court declared all 
such incorporations void. This was after the 
admission of Washington as a State. Numer- 
ous other towns throughout the state aside 
from Wilbur were thrown out by this sweep- 
ing decision. Nothing discouraged, however, 
the citizens went immediately to work to se- 
cure a lawful incorporation. 

June 1, 1889, we find in Wilbur business 



houses as follows : Two hotels, one bakery, 
two saloons, one drug store, four physicians, 
one restaurant, one newspaper, one feed stable, 
one barber shop, one meat market, one livery 
stable, one millinery store, one furniture store, 
one lawyer, two carpenter shops, three black- 
smith shops, one real estate and loan agency, 
one harness store, one land, loan and insurance 
agency, and three general merchandise stores, 
well stocked. There were "boom" times in 
February and March, 1889. Real estate own- 
ers and agents were jubilant. Although forty 
acres of ground had been platted the previous 
fall Wilbur first sprung into prominence early 
this year. June 7th the Register said : 

"The boom has struck Wilbur. A class of 
enterprising, rustling young men came here in 
the months of February and March joining 
the few others already located. A dozen build- 
ings were all that could be counted on the 
townsite of forty acres. Invigorated by the 
breezes of spring, with all hands joined, those 
having the destiny of Wilbur in their keeping 
went conscientiously to work to carry out a 
glorious future for their foundling. When it 
was announced that the Central Washington 
surveyors were in the field our people were up 
and stirring. Nothing was left undone to se- 
cure the entrance of that road to Wilbur. When 
the officials of the company visited the town 
to definitely decide the matter they were met 
by a liberal spirit by the townsite proprietor, 
Condin, and the people of Wilbur. The result 
is before you." 

The following summer of 1889 was one of 
great activity. The ring of the hammer and 
the hum of the saw were heard throughout 
the length and breadth of the townsite. June 
7th the Register editorially remarked : 

"hi scarcely three months the half dozen 
structures have increased until the numerous 
and substantial buildings in Wilbur p 
the dimensions of a large village. The Volum- 
inous stocks of goods and the characters of her 
business men s:ive satisfactory assurance to the 

stranger that Wilbur already is a business 

The result of this activity on the real es- 
tate market was marvellous. Cautious and ex- 
perienced dealers swarmed into Wilbur and an 
excellent class of business men with capital 
came to the new town and expressed a deter- 
mination to invest and settle. Town property 
was immediately in great demand and as this 
became daily more and more scarce, prices ad- 
vanced until lots that a couple of months earl- 
ier could have been purchased for $150 could 
not be bought on June 1st for $1,000. Speak- 
ing of the rapid rise in town lots during the 
space of one week the Register said : "They 
started in at $450 per lot last Saturday, ad- 
vanced to $650 Tuesday, and as we go to press, 
(Friday) for a fifty-foot lot on Main street 
$800 is refused. Lots on Railroad avenue, 
Cole, Knox and Ann streets have experienced 
an advance of about 400 per cent, on their 
price two months ago." - 

Although Wilbur's hotel accommodations 
at this time were by no means meagre, the rush 
to the new town was such that they proved in- 
sufficient. No pretentious buildings were 
erected by townsite speculators and "boomers" 
for the purpose of unloading property, to re- 
main forever empty, useless monuments of 
false pretense, but day by day and week by 
week during the summer and fall of 1889, the 
growth and development of Wilbur went stead- 
ily on. In company with every town which 
comes into existence with the building of a 
railroad, Wilbur, for a few months, suffered 
from the "tough" clement. The great army 
of "grafters" and disreputable people who re 
drawn to such towns like the magnet to the 
pole, were in Wilbur, and made their pi 

eeably felt. But subsequently there was 
a sitting out of these characters by the law 
pie, and they gradually passed away 
to more congenial fields. 

October 1st the roadbed had been com- 
pleted; the track was laid into Wilbur, an 



event of the utmost importance in the history 
of this town. And the arrival of the rail mad 
was the signal for renewed activity in build- 
ing operations. "The railroad has reached Wil- 
bur*' was the talismanic word that brought new 
enterprises to the town. From far and near 
throughout the Big Bend country attention 
was attracted to "Wilbur on the plains." Al- 
though the arrival of the road had been thor- 
oughly discounted by anticipation, the most 
sanguine little thought that it would cause the 
stir and bustle that it did. A bank was or- 
ganized, a mill started, a stage line was estab- 
lished to the Okanogan mining country, a new 
hotel was built and new enterprises by the score 
were placed on foot. Only the scarcity of lum- 
ber retarded building operations, but despite 
this fact most gratifying progress was made. 
In December, 1888, the towns of Wilbur 
and Almira were "unknown, unhonored and 
unsung." They came into existence within a 
few mouths subsequently, however, and thev 
are entirely worthy of the great, goaheaditive 
west. Of course the construction of the Cen- 
tral Washington road was the raison d' etre 
of their being, and the initial point of their ca- 
reers. Wilbur, especially, has grown with re- 
markable rapidity. But they are both flourish- 
ing towns of Lincoln county and both places 
contain many large business establishments, 
lively populations and most excellent prospects 
of continued prosperity. Wilbur's first board 
of trade was organized Saturday. January 25, 
1890. On the list of members some forty 
names were enrolled. Great interest was man- 
ifested by the organization in the advancement 
.of the town along industrial and commercial 
lines. The officers of the board were: D. 
Fitch, president; H. A. Johnson, vice presi- 
dent; G. N. Portman. treasurer; E. F. Benson, 
secretary: P. D. Oliphant. assistant secretary. 
It is alleged that, while many acknowledged 
the beneficent influence of the new board, half 
the work d> me by it was not credited to it. Still 
here are some of the actualities which it ac- 

complished : It imparted a life-giving impetus 
to the Storage & Forwarding Company (In- 
corporated) which erected a commodious store 
house near the depot; it had printed and dis- 
tributed thousands of papers and circulars that 
were the means of attracting considerable at- 
tention, capital and some immigration to the 
place; it was through their untiring efforts 
that the Columbia River Milling Company was 
induced to locate in Wilbur, and this in itself 
shows more to its credit than any accomplish- 
ment of any other similar organization in east- 
ern Washington. 

By the spring of 1890 Wilbur had grown 
to a town of no little importance in the Big- 
Bend country. Since the advent of the railroad 
'its growth had been considerable and in the 
amount of business done ranked well up with 
the other towns along the line. Let us go back 
to Monday, April 28th, and visit this town in 
company with that bright newspaper man, 
Frank M. Dallam. This is how Wilbur ap- 
peared to him at that time : 

"A great change has taken place in Wil 
bur during the past two years. Just two years 
ago, while on the way to the mines, we rode 
down the hill into 'Wild Goose Bill's' ranch, 
as it was then generally known. About three 
or four houses of very primitive design occu- 
pied the flat. It was an oasis to us then, for 
we were weary of pounding a saddle for two 
days and glad to see any kind of a shelter. We 
were not prepared to see the change that has 
been wrought within so short a time, the 
of the advent of a railroad. A person secures a 
fine view > if the place coming in from the east, as 
looking directly down upon the town, the 
whole place can lie taken in at a glance. Wil- 
bur presents a very attractive appearance from 
the cars. It is concentrated, as it could not 
very well otherwise be, ami from a distance 
looks compactly built. The newness of the 
buildings has not had time to wear off, and one 
understands at once that the town is the crea- 
tion of a few months. Having half an hour's 



leisure, the result of traveling on an extra 
freight, we sauntered over the business portion 
of the town. A nearer inspection shows many 
gaps to fill in to make the streets solidly built 
up, but the people are hopeful and 'there is no 

g 1 reason why a much larger growth is not 

possible. The town 'is laid out uniformly with 

g 1. wide streets. A spasmodic effort has 

been made to put down sidewalks, but some 
of the property owners faltered in the good 
work. .Most of the business buildings are 
large and creditable structures, and show that 
the owners have every confidence in the place, 
or they would not put so much money in per- 
manent improvements. The stores, of which 
every branch of trade is represented from the 
bank to the huckster shop, carry large stocks, 
and from what we could learn are doing a 
gi 11 id business. Like other towns along the line 
Wilbur is feeling the influence of hard times 
and very little building is now in progress. 
However, we believe this is only temporary 
and before fall we expect the place will enjoy 
a considerably increased growth. A large 
amount of freight is shipped from here to the 
mines, which is a great advantage to the 

Wilbur had a serious time in securing in- 
corporation. We have seen how the first act 
of incorporation was thrown out by action of 
the supreme court when the Territory joined 
the sisterhood of states. There were other dis- 
appointments in store for the ambitious town. 
A petition for the re-incorporation of Wilbur 
was presented to the board of county commis- 
sioners in the spring ,,f [890. It was signed 
by ninety-eight legalized voters. The peti- 
tioners claimed that there was at that time a 
population of 350. The following was 
upon the record of the commissioners: 

In the matter of the petition for the incorporation 
of the town of Wilbur, the prayer of the petition was 
granted, and the b mndai ie 

tion fixed on the following lim ' ' immencing 

at the northeast corner of the south west quarter of 
section 8, township 26, north of range 33, E. \V. M. ; 

running thence liwesl corner 

luthwest quarter, thence south one-quarter milt- 
to the northeast comer of th quarter of the 
southeast quarter of section 7. township and 
aforesaid. I one-half mile to the northwest 
corner of southwest quarter of southeast quarter of said 
s'ection 7 ; them to thi north- 
east corner of the southwest quarter of said secti 7 
. est > 4 mile to the m n I Irw t 1 >rner of northeast 
quarter of southwest quarter of said section 7; thence 

south one mill ithwesi corner of southeast quarter 

of northwest quartet 1 t8, said town and 

range: thence east three-quarters of a mile to the 
southeast corner of northea q id - ction 18; 

thence north one-halt utile to northeast corner said 
s'ection 18; thence east one-half mile to southeast corner 
of southwest quarter of section 8; thence north one- 
half mile to place of beginning. 

The number of inhabitants in said described bound- 
aries arc found to be 350, and the board hereby orders 
and appoints the following election officers: John 
Thomson, inspector; R. D Reardan, Dell Hart, judges. 

A mass meeting of voters was held to nom- 
inate candidates for town officers to be voted 
for at the time of the incorporation election. 
It was decided to place two tickets in the field 
by the same o inventii m. And these candidates 
were named: Mayor, Dr. J. P. Tamiesie. 
John Thomson; Treasurer. John Thomson, II. 
A. Johnson; Councilmen, 11. A. Johnson, J. 
M. Parrish. P. Lyse, A. II. Maddock, M. E. 
Hay, J. H. Robertson. S. Britton, W. H. Coch- 
rane. D. R. Cole and P. D. Oliphant. The 
election was held Saturday. May 24th. The 
result was a unanimous vote for incorporation. 
The vote, however, was light, many of the citi- 
zens being engaged on contract work away 
from home, principal^ at Coulee City. Inter- 
est was added to this election by the number 
of tickets in the field, as well as by the attempt 
of certain non-residents to cast ballots. The 
following vote was cast: For incorporation, 
02 : against incorporation, o. For mayor. A. 
II. Maddock, 37; Dr. J. P. Tamiesie, 33. For 
treasurer. ( i. < '•. Stambaugh, 55. For coun- 
cilmen: J. M. Parrish, 69; P. Lyse, 66; W. 
II. \. Johns m, 58 : S. Brit- 
ton, 42. 

But still incorporation was not a fact. The 



following excerpt from the proceedings of the 
county commissioners explains the condition : 

The board proceeded to canvass the election returns 
of the town of Wilbur for incorporation, and being well 
advised in the premises, ordered the same laid over 
for future consideration, assigning the following reason, 
to-wit : The board of county commissioners of Lincoln 
county, Washington, make this statement of their rea- 
sons for declining to issue an order incorporating the 
town of Wilbur, though the vote of the citizens of the 
proposed town was unanimously in favor of such in- 
corporation. When the board met on the first Monday 
after the election, viz : May 26, 1890, it appeared that 
an error had been made in the election notices, in 
this; that the notices included in the boundaries of the 
proposed town territory that w-as outside of, and not in- 
cluded in the boundaries of said town as prayed for in 
the petition for incorporation ; wherefore the board 
concluded that this error was fatal to a legal incor- 
poration of the town of Wilbur, and for this reason 
alone declined to issue the order for its incorporation. 

This ukase of the board of county commis- 
sioners was met by energetic counter action. 
An appeal for relief was at once made to the 
superior court, with the result that the follow- 
ing mandate to correct the notices of election 
was issued : 

"State of Washington, in the Superior Court 
of Lincoln County, holding terms at Spra- 
gue: Wallace Mount, Judge: 

"In the matter of the incorporation of the 
town of Wilbur. Order to correct an omis- 
sion in the election returns. It appearing upon 
affidavit of A. H. Maddock in the matter of 
the incorporation of the town of Wilbur that 
an error had been made in the publication of 
the names and that the official ballots were not 
prepared, the board of county commissioners 
are hereby required to correct such error, or 
show cause why the same should not be cor- 
rected at my chambers on the 5th day of Au- 
gust, 1890, at ten o'clock in the morning. 
Dated this August 4th, 1890." 

The same day the board made the correct- 
ion and the town was duly incorporated as a 
town of the fourth class. The following were 
declared elected the first officers of the town : 

A. H. Maddock, mayor; G. G. Stambaugh, 
treasurer; Peter Lyse, W. H. Cochrane, S. 
Britton, and W. H. Gardner councilmen. Ar- 
ticles of incorporation were filed with the sec- 
retary of state at Olympia, August 11, 1890, 
thus giving the town of Wilbur the privilege 
of enjoying municipal government once mure. 

According to the United States census of 
1890 Wilbur was accorded a population of 
405, and it therefore ranked as third in size 
in the county of Lincoln. There were quite 
times in Wilbur during the year 1891. The 
season was not marked by the marvelous 
growth that had distinguished it the previous 
year. This does not mean that it retrograded, 
but the "boom" times were over and the town 
was solidifying to a firmer basis. Several pro- 
posed routes of the oncoming Great Northern 
railroad were lively topics of discussion during 
the greater portion of this year. Wilbur wanted 
this road, and for a period it seemed as if she 
would surely secure a competing line, and thus 
become an important junction. But the Crab 
Creek route was finally selected and Wilbur 
was compelled to content herself with the Cen- 
tral Washington spur of the Northern Pacific. 

Wilbur's first disastrous fire occurred early 
Sunday morning, October 4, 1891. In addi- 
tion to an extensive property loss three persons 
were destroyed in the flames and a fourth was 
fatally burned. The fire broke out in the build- 
ing of Daniel Wagner, on the corner of Main 
and Knoz streets, at two o'clock in the morning, 
consuming that building, Lyse Brothers' but- 
cher shop, and G. M. Wilson & Company's 
drug store. The fire originated from the ex- 
plosion of a lamp that had been left burning 
owing- to the sickness of one of the Wagner 
children. The flames spread rapidly and had 
gained considerable headway before the dan- 
ger was discovered. Misses Caroline and Win- 
nie Wagner, in whose room the fire started, 
and with whom the sick child was sleeping. 
were awakened by the smoke and flames. They 
immediately 2'ave the alarm cries of "fire;"'' 


pistol shots brought out the town ; the work 
of rescue and saving property began. 

The family of Mr. Wagner, comprising 
eleven persons, together with an adopted son, 
Gustaf Hannss, and the cook, C. Walker, oc- 
cupied the upper story of the building, and all 
had narrow escapes. Three of the children. 
Hannss and Walker, escaped by the rear stairs, 
and Mr. Wagner and four children found safe- 
ty in jumping from the windows. Mrs. Wag- 
ner ran down stairs after a pail of water. Re- 
turning she entered the room where the fire 
originated, believing the children were still 
there. The building by this time was wrapped 
in flames ; she was overcome by the heat and 
smoke and was burned to death. Little Annie, 
ten years old, started out by the Hallway, but 
got only as far as the outside door, where she 
perished. In the meantime Mr. Wagner heard 
the cries of Robert, six years old, in the same 
n 10m from which he had escaped ; he returned 
and rescued the boy by dropping him out of the 
window into the arms of J. H. Robertson, re- 
ceiving a severe scorching about the head while 
so doing. The child had inhaled the deadly 
flame, however, and died the following day. 
There was still another child, Charlie, four 
years old in the room, but so intense was the 
heat that a rescue was impossible. Mr. Wag- 
ner then quitted the building- only to learn that 
his wife had perished, and the scene was touch- 
ing and heart-rending. 

Friends gladly cared for the homeless and 
motherless children. The horrible event' cast 
a gloom over the surrounding country, for Mr. 
Wagner and his family were pioneers and 
among the most respected people in the coun- 
ty. Rapidly spread the flames and soon caught 
the Lyse Brothers' butcher shop, the building 
adjoining on the west, and thence on to the 
next building. G. M. Wilson & Company's 
drug store. Men and women worked hard to 
save the stock in this store, hut the heat soon 
became unbearable and only a -mall amount 
was saved. The small warehouse between the 

drug store and J. M. Parrish & Company's 
building was torn down, which probably, saved 
that store. As it was it was only after hard 
work and the use of plenty of water, sail and 
wel blankets that the flames were kept from 
bursting out of the side exposed to the heat. 
It was the same with the Yount building across 
the street on the east, occupied by B. W. Fel- 
der. jeweler, and Dr. [!. 11. Yount. as an office. 
Wet blankets and water were freely used and 
this building was saved. J. II. Robertson's 
blacksmith shop was badly scorched, but was 
saved from destruction. The Big I lend sa- 
loon began to smoke during the hottest part of 
the fire, but willing hands came to its rescue. 
Had either of these buildings caught fire it is 
highly probable that the entire business part 
of the town would have been destroyed. There. 
doubtless, never was a fire under more favor- 
able atmospheric conditii ins. There was n< >t the 
faintest sign of a breeze other than that caused. 
by the roaring flames; had there been no one 
could tell the extent of the damage which 
would have resulted. The heat arising from 
the burning buildings carried shingles and 
cinders high in the air, depositing them almost 
a mile south and wesl of town. There was no 
fire organization of any description; merely 
blankets and small garden hose attached to 
pumps. The losses in property were about as 
foil, >w ■> : 

Daniel Wagner, building, $4,000. no in- 
surance: Lyse Brothers' butcher shop, and ii\- 
tures, $1,200, insurance, $400; (1. W. Wilson 
& Company's drug store, building and stock. 
$7,000. insurance. Sj.ioo. 

During the "hard times" of 18(13 , " ^96 
Wilbur suffered with the rest of the country at 
that trying period. The harvesting of the 
bountiful crop of [897 marked the end of this 
depression in Wilbur. During the fall of 1807 
there were marketed at Wilbur 36S.OOO bush- 
el- of wheat. This grain placed in circulation 
something like a quarter of a million of dol- 
lars, cash. In the summer of 1890 a wagon 



road was constructed between Wilbur anil the 
flourishing- mining camp of Republic, now in 
Ferry county. This road was built by the 
state, an appropriation of $8,000 having been 
made by the legislature for that purpose. The 
building of this public highway, it was thought 
would result in much good to the town. Re- 
public, at that time, was as lively a mining 
camp as ever existed in the state of Washing- 
ton. There was no railroad, and only a round- 
about wagon road to the camp. By the build- 
ing of this road from Wilbur the trade of the 
two or three thousand people who rushed into 
the new "diggings," was to be thrown to the 
new Lincoln county town. But the road was 
in poor condition, and at different times the 
people of Wilbur raised by popular subscrip- 
tion $2,000 with which to repair it. And by 
the time the road was in fair condition, and the 
energetic business men were about to reap the 
reward of their activity, two railroads were 
built into Republic and the expected benefit 
to Wilbur did not materialize. 

The disastrous fire of 1901 is thus describee 
by the Wilbur Register of July 12th: 

Wilbur's record of fires would fill. a good sized book, 
and in one instance tbree lives were lost. But no fire 
of the past would compare in property loss with the one 
which visited our little city last Friday evening (July 
5, 1901). Just about two minutes after the mill whistle 
blew for 6 o'clock p. m., the alarm of fire was shouted 
in the street. Men ran with buckets from all parts of 
town to the big store of M. E. & E. T. Hay. from which 
smoke was already issuing. In some unaccountable 
manner fire had started in the basement and two or 
three of the clerks who had rushed down stairs had just 
time to locate it in the dry goods department, which was 
partitioned off at the southwest corner of the building. 
Those who reached the basement were driven out by 
dense smoke before they could gain the seat of the 
conflagration, though Mrs. M. E. Hay and those con- 
nected with the store declare that they had been within 
that room not more than ten or fifteen minutes before 
the fire, and had not noticed even the slightest odor 
of smoke. I'll ere was a large tank full of water on a 
high tower at the rear of the store, and two or three 
lines of hose were quickly attached to the pipes leading 
therefrom. " Hut by that time no living being could 
approach near enough the seat of fire to reach it effect- 
'li tlie ^mall hose. Indeed, only a few minutes 

had elapsed until every occupant had been driven 
to the street by the suffocating smoke and flames which 
so rapidly followed. The open stairway at the rear 
of the grocery department, near the middle of the build- 
ing, acted as a chimney to the seething furnace in the 
basement, and it was only a few moments until the 
whole interior of the building was wrapped in flames. 
So rapid and fierce was the work of destruction that 
nothing was saved from all the big stock except a few 
vehicles from the implement department, although but 
a slight breeze was stirring from the southwest. It 
was voon apparent that with nothing at hand to fight 
tire but buckets the whole north side of Main street 
was in jeopardy, and with the wind gradually rising 
as the fire increased in heat and power the danger was 

Everyone owning personal property in the threat- 
ened district began moving in a hurry. The streets were 
soon filled with a throng of scurring humanity and all 
kinds of personal effects were' tumbled out and moved 
by short stages beyond the zone of fire. It was only 
a short time after the flames broke out until the entire 
block on the north side of Main street, facing the big 
store, was. also, in flames, and a little later all else 
in the block was being consumed with the exception 
of Robertson's dwelling. Just as a number of other 
buildings oposite of the north and east of that block 
were beginning to burn the wind veered sud- 
denly from the southwest to the northeast, and in ten 
minutes more fully one-fourth of the town was saved, 
after having been given up as lost. J. H. Robertson's 
dwelling and Dr. Starr's big hall could not have with- 
stood the fire more than five minutes longer, and Lewis' ■ 
saloon and the Register office could not have held out 
longer than ten minutes. All the glass in the front 
of the latter building was cracked in various directions 
by the heat. On the west side of the fire the bank 
and Parrish's store were protected by wet blankets 
over the big windows, and the buildings, being of brick 
no damage was done except the checking of one big 
glass in the bank building. The old Keller building 
which stands against the west wall of the Hay store, 
was saved only by vigorous work. The flames lapped 
around the front of the wall and fired the wooden 
structure, which was saved only by the tearing off of 
boards from the corner and all along the top. Fol- 
lowing the change of wind came a new ganger. The 
lumber yards of the Hays' was situated just across the 
alley south of the store, containing, possibly, a million 
feet of lumber, and the tank tower and lumber at the 
northeast corner were already on fire, just where the 
reversed wind could exert the greatest force in fanning 
the flames. About that time the authorities decided that 
the Chism building at the opposite end of the alley con- 
stituted a menace to the yard and the southern portion 
of town, and it was thrown to the ground with a 
charge of ten pounds of giant powder. The next thing 
was to save the lumber, for if that could not be done 



a large portion of the town to the south and west was 
surely doomed. Finally the big tank im the 

tower and fell to the ground, but fire was still raging in 
the tower and piles of cedar posts and stacks of lumber. 
Already a bucket line had been formed which was 
passing water from the creek near by, and hose at- 
tached to a pump on a stationary engine was 
utilized by the efforts of a half dozen l<> a dozen men 
working the pump. Soon the braces of the tower had 
burned asunder and the timbers came crashing down 
among the men and across the piles of lumber. A man 
named John McHale was struck by the falling timbers 
and severely, though not fatally, hurt. 

By this time the fire in the lumber became so 5«rious 
that two or three dozen ladies who were anxious spec 
tators, volunteered their services for the bucket brigade 
and the line was extended right into the lire ami smoke, 
the ladies passing the empty buckets back, while the men 
passed them forward filled with water. Many a tired 
man echoed the sentiment "God bless the ladies," and. 
indeed, they furnished the balance of power necessary 
to control that tire. Merchants and men of all occu- 
pations came from Creston, Almira and the adjoining 
country and worked manfully until all danger was past. 
About ten o'clock another stream was turned on from 
a hose attached to a pipe line that had been laid from 
the mill, and from that time on it was only a matter of 
extinguishing the fire that was confined to the bottom of 
two or three big lumber piles'. About midnight the 
bucket line was disbanded and the ladies went home, 
but the lire was not entirely' subdued until four o'clock 
Saturday morning. Several persons were slightly in- 
. jured and H. G. Coonse, of Hesseltine. received quite a 
shaking up by falling from Dr. Starr's building, al- 
though he was' able to go home on Saturday morning. 

It was not dreamed that a single life had been lost 
until about one o'clock p. m., Saturday, when a casual 
sightseer passed among the ruins, and noticed a human 
skull in the vault of a closet which had stood in the rear 
of Carpenter's saloon. That discovery created wild ex- 
citement for a time, and an examination made it evi- 
dent that someone had perished there, though th< n 
but a small mass of bones and charred flesh remaining. 
Inquiry soon developed the fact that a man named Jack 
Madigan, known among his associates as "Coyote Jack.'' 
had been about the saloon in the afternoon of Friday, 
but had not been seen nor heard of since. Me \\a^ at 
\lmira on the Fourth of July, where lie was drinking 
pretty freely, and his acquaintances say that he was 
always sleeping after a spree. where 

and at any time. He came over with - >me Wilbur 
boys, arriving just before noon on Friday, bill bad quit 
drinking though not yet quite himself. 

The total loss reaches somewhere in the 11. 
hood of $155,000, of which amount M. E. & E. T. Hay 
'estimate their los, at $135,000. J II. Roberts >u. black- 
smith shop and a detached building containi 
amount of bard wood, $3,500; \ B Walker, barber 

ter, 1 lotel Wil- 
bur and furniture and Vestibule saloon, $7,000: Finne- 
gan & Peterson, Hermitagi ock, $4,500: M. 

000; \ h t ole, livery barn, $1,500; 1 
son. hoi: j j n Hotel Wilbur. 

$600. To offset till th ed $7,000 

on building and stock, besides a sepi rati policy to cover 
all damage to lumber; J. II. Robertson, no insurance; 
A. B. Walker, $600 ; C. M. Carpenter, $4,500 ; Hermitage, 
$1,500; 1 1; Cole, no insurance; Pederson, 


The energetic character of the citizens of 
Wilbur was prominently displayed following 
the disastrous blaze. New buildings at once 
took the place of those destroyed. In the 
spring of 1903 a system of water works was 
established in Wilbur at a cost of $12,000. In 
October of the same year an elaborate lighting 
system was installed by the Wilbur Electrical 
Company. The churches of Wilbur are rep- 
resented by the Presbyterians, Baptists, M. E.. 
and M. E. South. Catholics, Evangelical Luth- 
eran and German Lutheran. Of fraternal so- 
cieties there are many, including Tuscan 
Lodge No. 81, A. F. & A. M., Tuscan Chapter 
No. 64, O. E. S., Wilbur Lodge No. in, K. 
P., Wilbur Lodge, No. 74. A. 0. U. \\\. R. L. 
McCook Post No. 39, G. A. R.. Wilbur Camp 
No. 415, W. O. W.. Columbia Tent Xo. 65, 
K. O. T. M., Big Bend Lodge No. 161, I. O. 
O. F., Danish Brotherhood, Charity Lodge I. 
O. G. T.. M. W. A.. Loyal Americans. El Mo- 
dello Rebekah Xo. 130. 1. ( ). O. 1\. and But- 
tercup Circle Women of Woodcraft. 

The land upon which is located the town of 
Almira was pre-empted in the 80' s by C. C. 
Davis, several years before the construction of 
the Central Washington railroad. Here Mr. 
Davis erected a building and carried a small 
stock >if mixed merchandise for the accommo- 
dation of the few settlers then in the vicinity. 
( ionsequently Mr. Davis is entitled to the rank 
as the pioneer merchant of Almira. 



One of the events pregnant with import- 
ance in the history of a town is its christening. 
Messrs. Odgers and Reed had completed ar- 
rangements with Davis for the purchase of a 
part of his interests and, also, for the estab- 
lishment of a town. But the name had been 
left open for suggestion. Xo decision was 
reached until Mrs. Almira Davis, wife of the 
original owner of the land, was in the act of 
signing her name to the deed. The two gen- 
tlemen purchasers had not before known Mrs. 
Davis' given name, and it appearing a pretty 
and euphonious cognomen to those interested 
in the prospective town, one of them collo- 
quially observed : 

"What's the matter with calling the town 

Nothing whatever appeared to the "mat- 
ter," and thus it was unanimously christened. 
Previously the farm had been known as "Dav- 
isine." July 26, 1889. the Wilbur Register 
said : "That place may make a town in the 
future. There is considerable vacant land for 
it to grow on. If you desire to learn of the 
'glorious future' in store for the town, just 
confer with 'Tom' Hodges, the resident town- 
site agent. He never tires of reciting it." 

It having become a settled and authentic 
conclusion that a railroad would pass in the 
immediate vicinity of the Davis ranch, a town- 
site was laid out and platted, and everything 
prepared for the building up of the town of 
Almira. The status of the place on August 2, 
1889, as told by the townsite owners in an ad- 
vertisement in the Wilbur Register is as fol- 
lows : 

"Almira is the new townsite. fifteen miles 
west of Wilbur, and it will be the terminus of 
the Central "Washington railroad. It is sur- 
rounded by magnificent agricultural and stock- 
raising lands, and will be the commercial cen- 
ter for a radius of thirty miles and railroad 
freighting terminal for the far west. Almira 
lias excellent openings for all classes of 
business and business men seeking loca- 

tions should by all means visit Almira. 
There is an abundance of good water 
to be had at the depth of from 15 to 30 
feet. Town property placed on the market 
less than a week ago has alread\' experienced 
an advance and desirable locations are being 
rapidly sold and are now in the hands of sec- 
ond parties. Builders and contractors are al- 
ready there in large numbers erecting business 
blocks for parties who stake their faith in the 
future of the town and have determined to 
locate and enter business at Almira. Real 
estate investors are offered a golden oppor- 
tunity in Almira town property." 

Six weeks after the platting of the town 
it was conservatively estimated that there were 
$15,000 worth of improvements. Among the 
first business men in the new town were Odgers 
& Reed, townsite owners, Joseph Simeno, Perry 
Barker, Tony Richardson, E. Grutt & Com- 
pany. G. N. Watson. F. Irwin, John Hartline, 
Frank Lingie, Robert Strutt, Skee & Walford, 
J. C. Keller and C. C. Davis. The Central 
Washington railroad reached .Almira in ine fall 
of 1889 and the place opened up with bright 
prospects. But cold weather came, accompan- 
ied by snow as building operations were com- 
menced, and nipped its ambition in the bud. 
Had the road reached this point a few months 
earlier, Almira would, doubtless, have been 
a good-sized town by the time winter set in. 
A*s it was it did not assume metropolitan ap- 
pearances that fall. It became a typical rail- 
road town. It was known that the road was 
to be extended westward the following sum- 
mer, and the buildings erected in the main were 
of a temporary character, the absence of paint 
being a striking feature, yet adding somewhat 
to the picturesqueness of the village. Until the 
road was completed to the Grand Coulee Al- 
mira remained the terminus. All trains ran to 
this point, connections by stage being made to 
points westward. These facts made me town 
furiously active, but it was treely predicted that' 
the construction of the road to the Coulee would 



prove a death-knell to the hopes of Almira. 
But such was not the result. More buildings 
were erected in the spring- of 1890, and there 
were quite a number of people transacting busi- 
ness in the new town. Among other enter- 
prises was a mercantile establishment owned by 
Barker & Madden, a newspaper published by 
Harry Hubler, and a hospital in charge of Dr. 
L. M. Willard. James Odgers, one of the 
owners of the townsite, was a busy man in Al- 
mira during this transition period, disposing of 
ti iwn lots. 

The location of Almira was on the m irth- 
east cpiarter of section 32, township 26, north 
range 31 east, fifteen miles west of Wilbur, and 
commanding one of the finest agricultural belts 
of the Big Bend country. Paradise Valley, on 
the west ; Wilsoncreek, Douglas county, on the 
southwest; Voorhees, Lincoln and the Califor- 
nia settlements on the north and northwest. It' 
was the nearest railway point to Waterville, 
Lake Chelan and the Okanogan country ; the 
natural keystone of supply. This was in Sep- 
tember, 1889. So fast as material could be 
secured substantial buildings were erected of 
which the following were in existence on the 
ab >ve date: ■ 

J. C. Keller, of Hesseltine. general mer- 
chandise, 26x60, two stories; Watson & Irwin, 
general merchandise, 22x56, two stories ; Tony 
Richardson, store, 20x42 ; Barker & Madden, 
saloon, 16x60; Joseph Simons, butcher shop, 
and residence, 20x36, two stories; Reed & Od- 
gers, one story building. 18x36, used for a 
printing office and store; Robert Strutt's black- 
smith shop, 26x40. A Mr. Jennings, of Wil- 
bur, was preparing plans and specifications for 
a hotel on a large scale. Hartline & Tingle's 
hardware store was just completed. Watson 
& Irwin had a commodious livery barn and 
corral in course of construction, together with 
a fair stock of rough lumber. Twenty thou- 
sand dollars' worth of real estate had recently 
changed hands. In 1890 the population of A! 
mint was 15''. In November of that year Al- 

mira became a town in the prohibition class. 
I he last saloon had closed its doors; the active 
prohibitionists had said that it "must g 
Almira was. temporarily, the only town in the 
great Big Bend country without a saloon. 

Sunday. January 3, [892, Almira was 
ited by a tire which burned out several of the 
principal business houses of the town. Hart- 
line & Lingle. hardware merchants, sustained 
a loss of $5,000, covered by $2,500 insurance. 
This lire is supposed to have originated from 
a lamp that had been left burning in the store. 
From this building the flames rapidly spread \<> 
the adjoining general merchandise store of J. 
W. & E. E. Hartline. and in a short time only 
heaps of smouldering ashes remained to tell the 
tale. The loss of the latter firm was $5,000 
covered by $3,000 insurance. D. C. Johnson 
lost a building valued at Si. 000 upon which 
there was no insurance. 

Four years later, January 17. 1896, three 
people lost their lives in a fire at Almira: John 
Lewis, aged 16; Henry Lewis, aged 11. and 
William Taylor, aged 21. The Lewis boys, 
whose parents had separated some years before 
and left Almira. were living alone in a small 
shack in the town. The Taylor boy was 
ing the night with them. Efforts to save these 
young men were unavailing, and when the em- 
bers had cooled their charred remains were 

In February, 1903, the Almira Outlook 
editorially said ; 

"'Three years ago 1 beginning of 1900), the 
town of Almira was. practically, at a stand- 
still. At that period it had. perhaps, one hun- 
dred inhabitants. Many of the buildings were 
beginning to look old and worn. A small 
amount of business was done compared with 
what is now transacted. Nearly three-fourths 
of the townsite was not on the market, most of 
it having against it delinquent taxes of from 
six to ten year- standing. The remainder was 
not considered as valuable, but was held by 
parties from outside whose prices were n 



tractive to purchasers. To all this, soon after, 
was added a rumor that the title to the first 
mentioned property was not clear, it being said 
that competent authority had made a report to 
that effect. This, however, proved to be erron- 

During the years 1900 and 1901 Almira 
took on a new life. Fresh enterprises were 
inaugurated in the town, the population in- 
creased, and from a country village it began 
to merge into a prosperous town. The Big 
Bend Outlook of January 17, 1902, said: 

"Almira is still growing. If you don't be- 
lieve it, come and see for yourself. During 
the past twenty months activity in building has 
scarcely diminished at any one time. There 
has been no sudden impetus, no 'mushroom 
growth," in a single night, a day, or even six 
months, but there has been a steady increase. 
With the exception of a short period last win- 
ter, from one to six buildings have been in prog- 
ress of construction during all seasons of the 

In April, 1902, the assessor's population 
was given as 289. This included only resi- 
dents on the platted townsite. 

The first steps toward incorporating Al- 
mira were taken Monday, April 30, 1903. A 
mass meeting was called to discuss the matter. 
About sixty residents were present and the sub- 
ject was warmly debated by nearly all of the 
leading citizens. There was manifested to the 
enterprise some opposition. A vote was taken, 
and at that time only five present registered 
themselves as opposed to the proposition. Then 
it was decided to circulate a petition asking 
permission of the county commissioners to vote 
on the question. Saturday, May 23d, was 
named as the date for holding the special elec- 
tion. To the petition there were 67 signers. 
The special election was held on the day named 
by the commissioners. There were cast a total 
of 85 votes, of which 43 were against the meas- 
ure, and only 39 in favor of incorporation. Had 
the majority been the other way the officers 

chosen would have been as the vote shows be- 
low. Two tickets were in the field, the "Citi- 
zens," and the "Peoples." 

For Mayor — J. C. Johnson, C, 65 ; D. W. 
Potter. P., 20. 

For Councilmen — E. J. Burke, C, ~2; C. 
F. Deets, C. 53; H. M. Thompson, C, 46; 
Frank Irwin. P., 42: J. Zimmerman, C, 40; 
A. Nichols, P.. 40; W. E. Hersperger, P.. 35; 
W. H. Ever-. P., 35; W. A. Kolfe, C„ 30: J. 
W. Henley, P.. 12. 

For Treasurer — Van Howard, C, 62 ; C. 
M. Phillips. P., 23. 

This defeat for incorporation was, doubt- 
less, compassed by divergent views regarding 
the complexion of the ticket carrying candi- 
dates for municipal officers. There •was, also, 
considerable wrangling over the limits of the 
territory proposed to be incorporated. 

The first destructive fire, involving great 
property loss, occurred Thursday morning. 
March 21. 1903. It originated in the office of 
the Almira News, edited by Lee McCarty. Mr. 
Dallam, the printer, had started a fire in the 
office and stepped out for a few minutes. Far- 
ther than this nothing is known of its inception. 
The building was owned by J. C. Keller. It had 
recently been remodeled, with an addition 
which was used for a lodge room. The wind 
carried the flames to the east, across the street, 
but despite this the proximity of the two 
Thomas Mackler buildings to the printing of- 
fice, proved their destruction. One of these 
buildings was occupied by N. O. McKee. as a 
saloon. The ice house of C. Rust, which stood 
close to these buildings, was, also, in the path 
of the fire as was the Rust barn. The latter 
was saved only by the great exertions of the 
fire-fighters on that side. Meantime good work- 
was being clone on the east side of the street. 
A large number of men carried water in buck- 
ets from nearby wells. Blankets were spread 
to partially protect some of the plate glass in 
the stores, especially in the new Keller brick 
block. Yet in spite of these precautions all but 



two lights "ii the fire side of the building were 


For a time the Hotel Almira was threat- 
ened. This edifice was situated on the north 
side of the street. Copious showers of water 
and wet blankets alone saved it. Some of the 
buildings to the southeast were in danger for 
awhile, but little injury resulted. The prin- 
cipal losses were the buildings of Messrs. Kel- 
ler. Mockler and Rust, and the printing plant 
of the Almira News. The totality of the loss 
was estimated at $6,000. 

In October of the same year another de- 
structive fire visited the city. On the evening 
of the Jjth instant the residents of the place 
were startled by the alarm of '"fire!" voiced by 
a number of people. A few rushed to the bell 
of the Baptist church where the tolling hammer 
was utilized to warn the inhabitants of the im- 
pending disaster. This fire had originated in 
the kitchen of the Hotel Almira. on the north- 
west corner of Alain and Third streets, during 
a brief absence of those who had been in the 
room. Opinion was divided as to whether 
the fire was caused by a gasoline lamp or the 
stove. This portion of the building was old, 
well seasoned, and it burned fiercely. When 
discovered the conflagration was bey ".id con- 
trol. Mr. Pangborn, one of the proprietors of 
the lintel, rushed up stairs, musing the guests 
as he went and dragging children from their 
beds in their night clothes. The cook was com- 
pelled to jump from a window. From the ho- 
tel the fire ate its way west and northward 
against an almost imperceptible breeze, to the 
adjoining apartments and buildings, w iping 1 nit 
Dean Brothers' and Chris Walter's saloons, ami 
Knox's meat market. Potter's grocery and 
Xort. McKee's saloon. It then jumped across 
the street to the east, destroying the postoffice 
building, but here the flames were, for the first 
time, held in check. The mosl desperate bat- 
tle was that made to save the Palace barber 
shop, a short distance north of the postoffice on 
the east side of Third street. Several ladies 

here distinguished themselves by their timely 
efforts in fighting lire. The private system of 
water works in connection with the barber shop 
materially aided 111 saving this property Had 
it taken fire it is highly probable that several 
other buildings would have been destroyed. As 
is was $100 covered the loss in this quarter. 

Other buildings that required herculean 
work to save were the combined residence and 
shop of Peter Peterson, the Hughes & King 
store, on the east, Hughes' blacksmith shop. on 
the west. Blinn's warehouse, Felder's jewelry 
store and Hays' implement addition on the 
north and the Mitchell & Salter livery barn on 
the southwest. The plate glass in Hughes & 
King's store, the Palace barber shop and Kel- 
ler's store was badly damaged. Among the 
heaviest losers from this lire were Postmaster 
McCleary, A. H. Knox, and Pangborn & 
Aldridge. The postoffice building belonging 
to J. C. Keller, was without insurance, but this 
loss was light. Xot an article of I). \\ . pot- 
ter's grocery stock was saved, ami it was with 
great difficulty that he secured his books. He 
carried about $1,200 insurance. The Hotel 
Almira. owned by Mrs. F. Heft'enish. was in- 
sured for something over, a figure much 
below cost. Mads Peterson owned the build- 
vupied by Henry Knox, as a meat mar- 
ket ; they were insured. .Yearly all of the 
buildings destroyed by this blaze were prompl 
ly replaced by better structures. 

Incorporation of Almira was finally effeel 
ed. The second election to vote on the propo- 
sition was held Friday, January 22, 1904. 
Quitea little opposition was manifested, in fact. 
for a while, sufficient to cause some of it. sup- 
porters to fear defeat al the polls, lb 

position was greatly exaggerated, and it 
served 1 : idating a largi 

among the friends of the project. There were 
cast 70 * oR-s, 5*. for, and 20 against incorpor- 
ation. Only one ticket for municipal officers 
was in the field, following were the officials 
Mayor, I. C. Johnson; treasurer. Van 


Howard; councilmen, Charles T. Deets, A. \Y 
Blinn, J. C. Keller, F. E. Kunz and N. O. Mc 

There are three church organizations in Al- 
mira, Baptists, Methodists and Congregational- 
ists. Of fraternal societies there are Almira 
Tent No. 82, K. O. T. M. ; Almira Hive No. 
49, I. O. T. M. ; Almira Camp No. 9.204, M. 
W. A. ; Almira Lodge No. 192, I. O. O. F. ; 
Almira Lodge No. 127, A. F. & A. M., and 
the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. At 
present the population of Almira is about 400. 


On the main line of the Great Northern 
railway, fifty-one miles west of Spokane, fif- 
teen miles from Davenport, the capital of Lin- 
coln county, and twenty-five miles from Spra- 
gue, is Harrington. It is an important railway 
point with a population of 650, an increase of 
200 within two years. There are in the town 
six large grain warehouses and one flouring 
mill, and the combined capacity of these cereal 
depots is considerably over one million bushels. 

On all sides of Harrington the country may 
be said to be solid wheat land with an occas- 
ional pasture tract that is continually in requis- 
ition. Although in some places a number of 
sections are owned by one party the greater 
number of farmers are located on half and 
quarter sections, and they find this amount of 
land adequate to earn them a good livelihood. 
The town proper is well platted, both as to 
drainage and eligibility for building operations. 
On the east is School Hill, a most attractive 
and desirable residence location. Third street, 
the main business thoroughfare, runs directly 
north and south, with a gentle slope northward. 
Through the town, coursing diagonallv. is -a 
small creek the bed of which will, undoubtedly, 
in the future, become the main line of a sewer- 
age system. Of the many fine business blocks 
and residences within her limits Harrington is 
justly proud. The usually conceived idea of 

the eastern visitor to the west is that its towns 
are composed of clusters of rude huts thrown 
hetrogenously together without regard to com- 
fort or attractiveness. But with Harrington 
this is far from being the case. All the brick 
blocks are artistic and substantially construct- 
ed. The city has been built with an eye to sym- 
metry in its future growth. No buildings now 
standing in Harrington would look outre, or 
misplaced in a city of many thousands of in- 
hibants. Harrington is the commercial center 
of a most extensive wheat belt, and within a 
short distance of the geographical center of 
Lincoln county. It lies near the head of Coal 
Creek Valley, at an elevation of 1900 feet above 
sea level. 

Its early history is replete with interest. In 
1879 Adam and Jacob Ludy came to the point 
immediately adjoining the' quarter section 
where Harrington now stands, and here they 
homesteaded property. The}' erected a small 
building in which to house themselves, the pio- 
neer structure of Harrington, and among the 
first habitations of Lincoln county. The fol- 
lowing extract from a prize essay written by 
Miss Gertrude Adams, is of historical interest: 

"A traveler in the year 1880 who chanced 
to be wandering through Lincoln county, in thd 
Territory of Washington, would have seen 
what at first appeared to be a barren tract of 
land, but on closer observation he would have 
discovered that the soil was very fertile and 
would be productive if cultivated. Near the 
present site of Harrington the first thing that 
attracted the eye would have been huge masses 
of rocks, piled up in picturesque attitudes, and 
a small stream winding its way between them. 
In the surrounding country might be seen a 
few shacks, nothing more, where certain cow- 
boys camped and herded their cattle. 

"Of course in new countries towns are laid 
out certain distances apart. There was noth- 
ing unusual about the site chosen for this city 
of Harrington to make it any better than any 
other. First a few shanties, one of which was 



used as a postoffice, while the mail was carried 
by a mail carrier in what was denominated r, 
'stage.' And while the town grew quite rapid- 
ly, it was all the time growing- to stay." 

It was during the earliest days of Lincoln 
county's history that the establishment of Har- 
rington was accomplished. In 1882 the firm 
of Harrington, Furth & Robinson, all residents 
of Calusa county, California, purchased 1,500 
acres of land in what was at that period the 
most unsettled portion of the Big Bend, and 
near the present site of the town of Harrington. 
This company's property was, in 1892, deeded 
to the California Land & Stock Company. 
Nearly all of the earlier residents came from 
Yolo or Calusa counties, California. These 
pioneers had faith in the country. They began 
the cultivation of wheat, at first in a small and 
inconsequential way. The initial movement in 
the project of building a town was made in 
1882. Mrs. Horace L. Cutter secured control 
of the property, purchasing it from the North- 
ern Pacific Railway Company, and surveyed a 
townsite which, in honor of \Y. P. Harrington, 
was given his name. The townsite plat was 
not placed on record until May 12, 1883. O 1 
course there was a raison d'etre for this move- 
ment in behalf of a townsite project. It was 
this: In 1S82 the Northern Pacific Railway 
Conpany ran a survey through one corner of 
the quarter section of land upon which the town 
of Harrington is now located. Positive in the 
belief that the new road would be built on this 
original survey, Mrs. Cutter purchased from 
the railway company this quarter section of 
land. But the project to run the line over this 
survey was abandoned; Mrs. Cutter did not 
succeed in disposing of any of the l"ts. 

Although the townsite had been laid out in 
[882, it was imt until the spring of the year 
following that the town contained inhabitants. 
Then Edward Willi- ami Charles Billings 
erected a small store building in which they dis- 
played a modest stock of general merchandise 
and thus launched the first store in the town 

Harrington. All of their g Is were freighted 

in fnun Sprague; consequently the price of 
them remained rather high. In 1890 they dis- 
1" ised of the business to Fred Graft". In the fall 
of 1883 a postoffice was established; Edward 
Willis was postmaster; Harrington was entitled 
to a place on the map of the state of Washing- 
ton. As the nearest railway point at this time 
was Sprague. on the Northern Pacific, twenty- 
five miles away, it is obvious that settlement 
shi mid take place slowly. Even had it been dis- 
covered at that time that wheat would grow 
here in luxurious abundance, shipping it to mar- 
ket was not practicable. The few settlers were 
contented to raise a little stock, thus earning a 
meagre livelihood. But the following year saw 
the business enterprises of the youthful town 
considerably augmented by the establishment 
of a blacksmith shop and a hotel, although it 
is candidly confessed that the latter was idle 
the greater portion of the time. In June of the 
same year the Lincoln County Times was first 
thrown to the breeze at Harrington by F. M. 
Gray. And this was the signal for the ambi- 
tious and go-ahead town to enter into com- 
petition for county seat honors. This forma- 
tive period of her history is told in the first 
chapter of Part II, of this work, lint Har- 
rington was never, really, in the race, ami Mr. 
Gray removed his printing plant to Davenport 
in [885. There was a saloon in Harrington, 
doing business a portion of the time, and in 
[886 the citizens of the town voted on the pro- 
hibition question with the following result: 
For prohibition, 22: against prohibition, ^2. 
With illy increasing its business 

enterprises the town continued to exist barren 
of startling events to mar the even tenor of its 
truction to this point of the 
Great Northern railway in 1892. Preceding 
this momentuous epoch the population of Har- 
iri was quite limited, there being only live 
or six families residing in the town at the time 
work was commenced near there on the Great 
Northern grade. When it became known that 



the company hail selected the Crab Creek route 
through Lincoln county, and that the town of 
Harrington was listed as one of the stations on 
the new road, the heretofore comatose settle- 
ment took on new life and animation. This 
was early in 1892. Airs. Cutter, the owner of 
the town-site, disposed of a portion of her in- 
terest to Messrs. Glasscock, Moore and others, 
who formed the Harrington Townsite Com- 
pany. F. M. Lighthizer was employed as 
agent and during the summer of that year a 
number of lots were sold to those coming to 
the new town to engage in business. During 
this period Harrington enjoyed its most excit- 
ing, if not most prosperous times. Hundreds 
of railroad graders made the town headquar- 
ters. As is invariably the case there came in 
their wake all classes of the genus homo, in- 
cluding those who virtuously desired to engage 
in legitimate business, and those who did not. 
Boarding and lodging houses, restaurants, sa- 
loons, dance halls and gambling hells sprung 
up in short order to entice from the railroad 
laborers their hard earned dollars. On No- 
vember 1. 1892, track-laying was completed to 

There was, undoubtedly, a "boom" of mag- 
nificent proportions in Harrington during this 
period of railroad excitement. Crowds of pros- 
pective settlers flocked to the town : hotels were 
overrun ; beds could not be secured at any 
price and a "shake-down" on the floor with 
blankets was at a premium. Several new b iwn- 
site additions were laid out and platted, and one 
ci irrespondent writing from Harrington de- 
cleared that f( irtv carpenters were then at work 
on new buildings. However, the greater por- 
tion of these improvements were temporary. 
With the departure of the railrood laborers a 
number of the business men closed their stores 
and went elsewhere. The permanent growth 
during this year was not large. A number of 
lots were sold, however, and plans made for 
extensive improvements the following year. 
One of the most important factors in the 

building up of the country around Harrington 
and one that has resulted in much good to the 
t< >wn was the operations of the California Land 
& Stock Company, whose headquarters had 
been established at Harrington. This company 
was organized in 1892 with a capital of $300,- 
000. Previous to this a number of non-resi- 
dents owned about 3,000 acres of land in the 
vicinity of Harrington. They combined their 
property at the time' and added to it until it 
now it controls more than twenty-five sections. 
The officers of the company are Jacob Furth, 
of Seattle, president; W. P. Harrington (after 
whom the town was named), of Calusa, Cali- 
fornia, vice-president ; Luke Robinson, San 
Francisco, treasurer; John F. Green, Harring- 
ton, manager. Many thousands of acres of 
land in this vicinity are sown to wheat each 
year, and several hundred head of horses are 
employed to take care of the crops. 

Fire visited Harrington Friday morning, 
March 2, 1894, causing a loss of about $25,000, 
nearly all covered by insurance. The principal 
sufferers were the owners of the Wilson build- 
ing, valued at $4,000; proprietors of the Great 
Eastern Clothing Company, $15,000; King & 
Reeves, druggists. $3,000. These buildings 
were of brick, and among the best edifices in 
town. This conflagration was the work of an 

Friday, May 11, 1894. the coal sheds of the 
Great Northern Railroad Company were de- 
stroyed by fire, involving a heavy loss. 

From the building of the railroad in 1802 
until the spring of 1898 the growth of 
Harrington, while not of "boom" pro- 
portions, was steady and sure. The mam- 
moth cereal crop of 1S97 produced a 
reaction from the heavy depression of 
the preceding five years, and," in common 
with all the other towns in Lincoln county, 
Harrington enjoyed the benefits of this revi- 
val. In the spring of 1898 there were in town 
four general merchandise stores, a harness 
shop, hardware and furniture store, drug store,. 



and Airs. Laugtnour; Air. and Mrs. Gun- 
r; Mr. and Airs. Haves; Air. and Miss Or- 

two hotels, livery stable, blacksmith simps, meat 
market, barber shop and two saloons. During 
the summer and fall of this year the town en- 
joyed a most substantial growth. Quite a 
number of new residences and business houses 
were erected, and Harrington was on the crest 
of the wave of prosperity. 

January 18, 1899, the First Presbyterian 
Church of Harrington, was dedicated. This 
was the first church edifice to be erected in the 
place, and cost $2,600. The initial steps to- 
ward holding religious services in Harrington 
were taken as early as 1884, when the citizens 
built a public hall to be used for church, school 
and 1 ither assemblies. For ten years this build- 
ing supplied all the demands in this line in the 
village. During the autumn of 1894 the Pres- 
byterian Church Society was organized by Rev. 
Norman McLeod, with a membership of nine- 
teen. These were Air. J. Brace, elder, and wife ; 

nan: Air. and Airs. Durie and two daughters; 
Airs. Alargarett Plough; Airs. W. F. Glasscock; 
Aliss Eva Thomas; Airs. John Harding and 
Airs. Thompson. Dr. X. AIcLeod was pastor 
at large for the Spokane Presbytery, but served 
the church at Harrington for more than two 
years, holding services in the school house. 
Plough's hall and the German Methodist church 
building. At the end of that time the work in 
the Harrington field stopped, no regular preach- 
ing services being held for about two years, 
with the exception of such services as were 
given by C. A. Phipps and Dr. T. M. Gunn, 
synodical missionary. 

January r, 1899, the business houses of 
Harrington included three general merchan- 
dise stores, a harness shop, live hotels and res- 
taurants, three confectionery stores, two livery 
stables, two blacksmith shops, two lumber 
yards, a bank, new -paper, gn icer) st >re, butciier 
shop, and a hardware, implement and furni- 
ture store. April 6, UK" 1 , the Harrington Cit- 
izen s:iid : 

"It is doubtful if any other town in Eincoln 
county has done si , much toward material de- 
velopment in the past year as has Harrington. 
The principal enterprise carried to a successful 
consummation during the past twelve months 
was the erection, at a cost of $25,000. of the 
handsome flouring mill of the Harrington Alill- 
ing Company. This magnificent manufactur- 
ing plant was built almost exclusively by local 
capital during a dull year, and bespeaks vol- 
umes for the enterprise and energy of the peo- 
ple. To illustrate the amount of business done 
during the years 1898 and [899, the following 
table showing receipts and shipments of goods 
via the Great Northern railroad is given : 

R eceif Is. 

1898. [899 

Merchandise, all kinds 1.500 tons 6,000 tons. 

Agricultural implements 3 cars 7 cars 

Wood 31 cars f>4 cars 

Lumber and shingles 9 cars J> cars 

Wheat o cars 72 cars 

Machinery o cars .} cars 

Brick and cement o cars- I car 



Merchandise all kinds 25 tons 

Wheat 400.000 bush. 720.1 1 

Cattle ' "> cars 

Flour and feed o cars 4,5 car> 

The first school in Harrington was organ- 
ized in a small, one-room building, and the 
school was taught by one teacher for terms of 
varying length. The number of pupils in- 
creased, but it was not until tStij that a Large. 
two-room building was erected to meet the in- 
creased demands for educational privileges. 
Two teachers were then employed, tn 1900 
there were [38 pupils enrolled in the Harring- 
ton schools and a third teacher was engaged 
and another building rented. In [90] a brick 
school house was erected at a cost of $7,00 •. 
containing six rooms. 

1 luring the autumn of 1901 the people of 

1 62 


Harrington began taking active steps to incor- 
porate the town. There had been considerable 
increase in the population during the past two 
years, and many new buildings were erected. 
Naturally incorporation was the next thing in 
line. Harrington, being one of the oldest towns 
in the county, and having been outstripped in 
the race for supremacy only because there were 
not enough county seats to go around, had now 
come to the front in excellent condition. 

November 12, 1901, agitation for incorpo- 
ration begun in earnest. A mass meeting of citi- 
zens was held that evening at which 47 citizens 
were present and discussed the advisability of 
having a municipal government. A vote was 
taken and thirty votes were favorable to the 
proposition; seventeen against. "A committee 
consisting of A. C. Billings, Dr. Steters, A. G. 
Mitchum, S. L. Blumaner and Wallace Crowell 
were appointed to secure signers to a petition 
asking the county commissioners to name a 
date for a special election to vote on the ques- 
tion. To this petition there were sixty-four 
signers. The election was held Friday, April 
4. 1902. A convention for the purpose of 
nominating candidates for municipal officers 
had been held Monday, March 31st, with the 
following result : Mayor, A. C. Billings ; treas- 
urer, A. R. Graham ; councilmen, Thomas Han- 
sard, W. A. Moore. John A. Chisholm, Dr. M. 
F. Setters, George Wilson. 

One hundred and nine votes were cast at 
this election : 64 for incorporation and 45 
against. The only ticket in the field was the 
one nominated at the citizens' convention the 
preceding Monday and the gentlemen named 
thereon served as Harrington's first municipal 
officials. The election had actually been antic- 
ipated by the convention. 

The present church organizations in Har- 
rington are the Presbyterian, Baptist, Evangel- 
ical and Catholic. Of fraternal lodges there 
are five: Harrington Lodge No. 160. I. O. O. 
F. ; Harrington Lodge No. 122, K. of P. ;■ 
Harrington Court, No. 8;, F. of A.; W. O. 

W. and Women of Woodcraft; Rebekahs; 
Rathbone Sisters; A. F. & A. M. 

The city hall was completed in 1904 at a 
cost of $9,000. The city is provided with an 
excellent fire department. The water supply is 
abundant and of exceeding purity. There are, 
in fact, two water systems, and cool, crystal 
well water may be tapped in rock veins at a 
depth of from twenty to thirty feet. 

This village is one of the newest in Lin- 
coln county. It is on the Great Northern rail- 
road, fourteen miles west of Harrington, fif- 
teen miles east of Odessa, and twenty-eight 
miles southwest of Davenport, the county seat. 
Although Downs was not established until 
early in 1902, it has gained a population of 200 
people and has outstripped many of its older 
rivals. Its buildings are all new and substan- 
tial, and visitors to Downs are favorably im- 
pressed with its appearance. The remarkable 
growth of the town and the many public im- 
provements which one sees here are the direct 
result of concerted action on the part of the 
citizens and all business men generally. It 
would be hard to find in the length and breadth 
of the Inland Empire a town of 200 inhabi- 
tants in which the business men are more ener- 
getic or more keenly alive to the interests of 
their home community. 

In the summer of 1901 where now stands 
the town of Downs was the ranch of H. S. 
Anion. This land consisted of a sage-brush 
tract and scab rock was very much in evidence. 
A person journeying through this part of the 
country on the Great Northern train at that 
time would hardly predict that inside of a year 
a flourishing town would there make its appear- 
ance. But such was the case. It was during 
the trouble between the Great Northern offi- 
cials and the Yarwood brothers, at Mohler, that 
it was decided by the railroad authorities to 
find a new location for side trackage and the 



possible site for a new town. H. S. Anion 
quickly grasped the opportunities and offered 
the officials all the land needed for extra im- 
provements free of charge, provided they 
would build their tracks at the present loca- 
tion of Downs. This was quickly done by the 
railroad company ; side-tracks were extended 
and the station was named "Downs" in honor 
of the late assistant general superintendent, P. 
I. Downs, who with his only sun, was killed 
near Xyack, Montana, in a railway wreck in 
August, 1 90 1. Downs was platted January 
14, 1902, by Howard S. Anion. 

After the company had decided to establish 
the new station a town was quickly built. The 
first building erected was the Great Northern 
warehouse. Immediately after George Easson, 
one of the leading merchants 1 if Mohler, erected 
a store building at Downs and opened a general 
stock of merchandise, later selling the business 
to O'Connor & Sherman. A postoffice was es- 
tablished and George Easson was made post- 
master. D. W. Dahl built a hotel building and 
was Downs" first landlord. The next business 
house was the Ivy saloon, conducted by Lee 
Wats. in. S. Page and J. Salvay built the first 
residences and they were soon followed by sev- 
eral others. The depot was completed in De- 
cember, 1902. Other business enterprises that 
were soon started in the new town were one of 
the largest hardware stores in Lincoln county. 
by H. L. Anion, a restaurant by George Ingalls, 
and a blacksmith shop by M. Gallagher. The 
town was still very young when Mr. Anion sold 
the remaining townsite land to John O'Connor. 
The latter at once began a system of improve- 
ments. He established a lumber yard in the 
village that would be a credit to a large city, 
later selling it to Hansen Brothers. Mr. 
O'Connor and D. Sherman purchased George 
ti's stock at Downs and Mohler. and 
erected a substantial store building. 1 
dating the two stores at Downs. Another ad- 
dition to the town when it was in its infancy was 
a drug store In- Dr. Freer. 

For some time Mohler, two and one-half 
miles above Down-, was an important rival of 
the new town. But Downs had the backing of 
the railroad company. In the spring oi 
the sidetracks at Mohler were taken up and the 
town which had incurred the enmity of the rail- 
road capitulated. Some of the business houses 
and most of the business men came to Downs. 
During the autumn of 1902 there was organized 
what was known as the Downs Business Men's 
Association, an organization which has brought 
about practically all the improvements that have 
made the municipality the progressive city that 
it is. The officers selected to guide the opera-' 
tions of the association were Dr. F. X. Freer, 
president ; T. O. Ramsland. secretary ; and T. 
D. Slosson, treasurer. This organization is 
still in existence and doing everything in its 
power to advance the interest of the town. 
Among other things this business men's ass< ici- 
ation accomplished during 1902 was the es- 
tablishment and editing of the !>":^ns Dispatch, 
the building of sidewalks throughout the town, 
and the bringing to Downs of a number of busi- 
ness enterprises. The succeeding year witnessed 
many more improvements. A system' of water 
works was put in by John O'Conner, the town- 
site owner, at a cost of $8,000. The citizens de- 
sired a suitable school house and public funds, 
not being available, three of Downs' energetic 
citizens, S. Page. D. C. Hansen ami Frank 
Couples, erected a handsome building at I 

of $4,100, and took chances of being reim- 
bursed later. To the credit of the vote- 
said, that when the matter of voting bonds to 
pay for this building came to an i>sue, tin 
not one dissenting vote against issuing Iwnds 
to the amount 1, all that could at that 

period be legally voted. The school now has 
an enrollment of 78, and two teachers -ire em- 
ployed. A local telephone exchange was es- 
tablished in April, 1003. and three separate 
barb wire telephone lines penetrate the 
country surrounding Down-. The Bank of 
Downs was another institution established in 



the spring of 1903, through the efforts of the 
Business Men's Association. Total improve- 
ments fi ir the year footed up $38,000. A Meth- 
odist Church is now being built at a cost of 
$1,700. There is a lodge of the M. \Y. A. and 
a brass band of seventeen pieces. 

The first settler in the country of which the 
town of Edwall is the center was Peter Ed wall, 
who came to the then uninhabitated country in 
1881. He took up a ranch near the present 
site of the town that bears his name and en- 
gaged in farming. Sometime after Mr. Ed- 
wall settled here Mr. William Spence, of Medi- 
cal Lake, homesteaded the land upon which was 
afterward built the town. This land was pur- 
chased by Mr. Edwall in 1887. 

When the Great Northern Railway built 
through central Lincoln county the right of 
way crossed Mr. Edwall's land. Forty acres of 
this land he platted into a townsite which he 
named Edwall. The county records show that 
this filing of the plat was made May 19, 1892. 
The railroad erected a water tank and other 
buildings at the station. Friday night, Decem- 
ber 7, 1893, occurred a disastrous wreck on the 
line of the Great Northern Railway at Edwall. 
Train No. 16 was standing at the water tank. 
Train No. 15, expecting a clear track, came 
along from the east and dashed into the stand- 
ing train. Engineer Joseph Shinski and Fire- 
man Wallace were instantly killed. When one 
hundred yards away Shinski saw the train 
standing in his way and whistled for "down 
brakes." It was too late. The two engines 
piled up and were thrown twenty feet from the 
track. Two oil cars were immediately behind 
the tender of No. 15. The oil caught fire and 
the wreck was soon in flames. Shinski's body 
was found under the wreck. The fire immed- 
iately surrounding him was extinguished and 
the body recovered, the upper part having been 
burned beyond recognition. Wallace's body 

was not scorched by the flames. The oil tanks 
burst and the fire consumed five cars. 

Eve witnesses of this terrible accident say 
that when the oil cars took fire a terrible ex- 
plosion followed, the flames shooting up nearly 
200 feet. The blaze appeared to spread out 
over the sky, and for a few moments it ap- 
peared that the entire town was about to be 
enveloped by the consuming flames. Fortun- 
ately they spent themselves before reaching the 
ground. It was a lurid sight and resulted in 
the destruction of railroad property probably 
to exceed $50,000. 

To the credit of the people in the Edwall 
country be it said the first building erected on 
the townsite was a church. A number of farm- 
ers had in 1893, settled in the vicinity, and 
these people raised money and erected a place 
of worship — a church of the Methodist (South) 
persuasion. The same year the first store build- 
ing was built by a gentleman named Enlow, 
from Medical Lake. Owing to lack of funds 
Mr. Enlow did not complete this building, but 
disposed of his interest to Mr. Edwall. The 
latter finished the structure and the following 
year Messrs. Gill and Moffatt opened the first 
store in this building. This firm was the only 
business house in Edwall until the following 
year, when Lemly & Randall erected a building 
and engaged in the saloon business. In 1897 
the second mercantile house was starred by 
Thomas Campbell. He came from Medical 
Lake with a stock of goods. Commencing with 
this year Edwall began to grow* and its ex- 
pansion since has been of a substantial nature. 
Today it is a town of about 275 inhabitants. It 
has a number of general merchandise stores, 
warehouses, bank, a newspaper, and many 
other business establishments. The Methodist 
(South), German Methodist, Catholic and 
Baptist churches have organizations, the three 
first named having church buildings. Fra- 
ternal organizations are represented by the 
Masons and the Woodmen of the World. Fifty 
scholars are enrolled in the public schools, 



which employ two teachers. Edwall is on tin- 
main line of the Great Northern Railway, 
twenty miles east of Harrington, eighteen 
miles from Davenport and seventeen miles from 

.Most of the land in the vicinity of Edwall 
is devoted to wheat raising. It is a volcanic ash 
and contains great strength and richness. It is 
in these fields that the great amounts of wheat 
are produced, the yield running from twenty lo 
forty bushels to the acre. Many of those now 
farming here came into the country with little 
or nothing, and today these are the men of af- 
fluence. The whole of the country around the 
town is in a progressive condition, and the farm 
houses are among the best in the state. Among 
the prominent business houses are the Bank of 
Edwall, of which Mr. Frank Carpenter is 
cashier; the mercantile house of Gill & Com- 
pany, doing an excellent business and the larg- 
est establishment of its kind in the town ; the 
feed mill and creamery of S. P. Hay, which 
does an excellent business in the farming coun- 
try thereabout; a hardware and implement 
house, a blacksmith and tonsorial artist and 
other enterprises, as well as a first-class hotel 
conducted by Butler Brothers. 

When the Great Northern Railroad Com- 
pany built its line through Lincoln county in 
1892, what were called "stations" were estab- 
lished at regular intervals along the line. \' 
first these consisted generally of a sign-board 
upi m w hich w as painted the name of the statii in. 
One of these was Moscow, a few miles west ol 
the other signboard called Edwall. In the sum- 
mer of 1894 Moscow fell heir to something in 
the nature of a boom, principally through the 
efforts of Mr. Wells. \ postoffice was estab- 
lished and Mr. Thomas Denson was made the 
government official there. 

And yet this postoffice was destined to 
be of temporary benefit only. Owing to some 

difficulty between Postmaster Denson and the 
train postal clerks the office was discontinued. 
So near as the facts can be ascertained the 
trains were oftentimes irregular ; the pi istmaster 
was not always on hand, and occasionally the 
mail pouch was thrown off either above or be- 
low the platform, where on several occasions il 
was permitted to remain over night. Thus the 
mail clerks and postmaster acquired the habit 
of reporting each other to departmental head- 
quarters, until the officials finally tired of the 
constant friction and ordered the office discon- 
tinued. However, another otYu-v was subse- 
quently established. 

It was not until the autumn of 1898 that 
a townsite of Moscow was platted by Mr. X. 
S. Long. Settlers in the vicinity desired to 
make this place their shipping point and a small 
village made its appearance. December 4. [903, 
the Lincoln County Times said : 

"The townsite of Mo-cow was purchased a 
short time ago by I". W. Anderson, of Daven- 
port, from John ( )'Connor, of Downs. The lit- 
tle city has taken on new life and promises to 
share the prosperity being enjoyed by the vari- 
1 iiis t iwns throughout the county. A neat fi lur- 
room school house has been erected; a new de- 
pot has been promised. The old school build- 
ing will be remodeled and utilized as a church. 
A state bank will be started and a lumber yard, 
a hardware store ami other enterprises will be 
added to the business portion of the town. 
What is now the main street of Moscow is to 
be abandoned to mercantile establishments and 
occupied by warehouses. Hereafter the main 
business street will run north and south, just 
west of the business center of the town." 

The population of Moscow is aboul 175. 

Considered a- an enterprising western town 
Odessa has a most desirable location. It lies 
in a broad, productive valley, with Crab creek, 
a fine stream, traversing the place. It is lo- 

1 66 


cated on the Great Northern Railway, twenty- 
five miles from Harrington, and the same dis- 
tance from Ritzville, in Adams county, on the 
south. It is a Russian settlement and named 
for the celebrated wheat shipping point of the 
Muscovite empire. 

Although one of the youngest tows in Lin- 
coln county Odessa has come into prominence 
within the past few years and is rapidly taking 
its place in line with the most progressive mu- 
nicipalities in the Big Bend. Unlike the earlier 
settled portions of Lincoln county, where 
single individuals control and farm several sec- 
tions, the agricultural population adjacent to 
Odessa is closely clustered and there are two or 
three settlers to the section. They are mostly 
German-Russian or Bohemian farmers. George 
W. Finney was the founder of the town of 
Odessa and he is the earliest pioneer of this 
portion of the county, having homesteaded the 
land upon which now stands the town. It was 
platted by Mr. Finney in the summer of 1899 
in generous lots of 50x125 feet. Of Mr. Fin- 
ney and his brother, Richard, the Big Bend 
Chief, published at Wilsoncreek, Douglas 
county, said : 

"George and Dick Finney came to the Crab 
creek country from Missouri at an early day, 
and engaged in stock raising, the only line of 
business represented here. Dick located as a 
homestead what is now Odessa, but later re- 
linquished it for the purpose of filing on a tim- 
ber claim. George homesteaded a piece of land 
in the same locality. Later the brothers came 
into possession of the Odessa tract and when 
they dissolved partnership George, rather re- 
luctantly, took possession of it. He attempted 
to raise wheat on the townsite of Odessa, but 
made a failure of it and decided that he had 
nearly a worthless ranch* A change came, 
however, and he platted a portion of it." 

The Odessa Record continues the story of 
the birth of the town : 

George W. Finney may properly be called the father 

of Odessa. He settled in this part of Crab Creek valley 
in 1886, filing on the land where the greater portion of 
Odessa now stands, as a timber culture claim. There 
were only a few settlers up and down the creek in 
those days and it was not until the year 1892 that the 
Great Northern Railway was built through this part 
of the country to the coast. Houses were miles apart 
and Ritzville and Harrington were the nearest trading 
points'. Up to six or seven years ago (1897) stock 
raising was carried on quite successfully in the valley 
and for years Mr. Finney's cattle roamed at will over 
the ground now occupied by the growing young town 
of Odessa. 

It was in the winter of 1897-8 that Mr. Finney 
first conceived the idea of building a town here, and 
he set about to interest others' in the project. The Great 
Northern then had a sidetrack here and the place was 
known as Odessa siding. In the month of January, 
1898, Roy E. Trantum, W. N. Schoonover, and J. B. 
Ziegler landed here, driving across country from Ritz- 
ville to investigate the possibilities' of opening a general 
merchandise store. They were well pleased with the 
location and believing that it would some day make a 
good town, Messrs. Tantrum and Schoonover decided to 
erect a store building. Mr. Finney, furnished them with 
a site and they employed Mr. Ziegler to build for them. 
By May the building was' completed and their stock, 
consisting of general merchandise and lumber having 
arrived, they commenced business. 

In June the Odessa postoffice was established and 
Air. Schoonover was appointed postmaster. Others* 
had arrived on the scene by this time and a few build- 
ings were put up and another store s'tarted by Gust. 
Zabel. In the fall Mr. Ziegler was appointed justice of 
the peace and notary public and opened a real estate 
and insurance office. It was then evident that there 
would be a town, so Mr. Finney employed J. W. Strack, 
then city engineer of Spokane, to survey and plat the 
town. (The town was platted July 17, 1899, by George 
W. Finney.) The following spring L. G. Nuelsen and 
George Unsoeld bought Trantum & Schoonover's stock 
of merchandise and Mr. Nuelsen succeeded Mr. Schoon- 
over as postmaster, which office he held until February, 
1901. when Dr. Connell, the present postmaster, was ap- 
pointed to succeed him. In the fall of 1899 I. T. Whistler 
came here as agent for the Great Northern Railway Com- 
pany. The depot was not built until the early part of 
the year 1900. and he transacted the company's business- 
in Adams & Company's grain warehouse, now owned 
by the Seattle Grain Company. 

At this time the population consisted of between 
fifty and one hundred people. During the year others 
came and several new business enterprises were started. 
In October Trantum & Schoonover's addition to the 
town was platted and they sold several lots. But it was 
not until the summer of 1901 that the town began to 
show rapid growth. During that year the population 
increased very rapidly and before the year was out it 



numbered over four hundred soul?. In May, Finney's 
First Addition was platted and about the same time 
Mr. Ziegler laid out another addition to the town on 
the west. These two additions now constitute the 
greater part of the residence portion of the town. The 
Odessa State Bank was established in April. 1901. with 
George A. Kennedy, our present mayor, as' cashier. 
The Odessa Record made its appearance on May iotb. 
with the name of M. F. Devlin at the masthead. Last 
year (1902), the town was incorporated, the mill, the 
new brick school house, and several brick blocks were 
erected and numerous new business enterprises' estab- 
lished. In the fall another new addition to the town 
was laid out and platted, by Messrs. George \V. Finney 
and J. J. Pattee. 

During the summer of 1903 Mr. Roy E. 

Trantum, one of the prominent business men of 
Odessa, contributed the following personal 
reminiscence to the Odessa Record: 

Five years ago the 7th of last January (1898), 
J. B. Ziegler, W. N. Schoonover and myself landed in 
Crab Creek valley at a point known as Odessa sidetrack, 
on the main line of the Great Northern Railway, coming 
across the country with a team and wagon from Ritz- 
ville. the county seat of Adams county, to inv< 
the possibilities of opening a general merchandise store. 
The land tributary to Odessa, which is now fenced and 
producing the finest kind of wheat, was then a vast 
rolling prairie, and not a cabin or fence to greet the eye. 
but it was nevertheless, a magnificent picture. We were 
so well pleased with the location and believing that there 
was a glorious future for the country surrounding. 
Mr. Schoonover and myself decided at once to erect 
a store building and forthwith employed Mr. Ziegler, 
then a contractor, to erect a building 24x50 feet. 

We had to wait about two months for our build- 
ing material, and in the meantime Mr. Ziegler tiled a 
homes'tead right on a vacant 40-acre tract a short dis- 
tance from our location, and built a cabin thereon. The 
tract is now known as Ziegler's addition to Odessa. 
During the construction of our store buildinj 
appeared upon the scene C. V. Drazan. an enterprising 
young immigrant agent, and he was so well pleased with 
the country, and foreseeing the grand opportunities to 
be achieved, he at once secured the agency of the North- 
ern Pacific Land Company, acting as their resident 
agent, and commenced advertising the country and its 
possibilities, and to him .1 ' of praise is to 

be given for the number of industrious farri 
surround our busy little burg. By May we had a very 
good stock of general merchandise, lumber and 
In June W. N. Schoonover was duly ;■ 
master, which office was much appreciated by the people 
in our locality. Previous to this time we had to go to 
Lamona for our mail, a distance of twelve mile- cas; 

and it was a great inconvenience. It was evident that 
we would have a town, and Mr. Finney emplo 

of J. \\\ St rack, a surveyor from Spokane, to 
lay out about ten acres in blocks and lots, and Mr. 
Finney then gave us a deed to one lot 50 x 100 on which 
our store was built. Id so well that since 

that time Mr. Finney has had several additions staked 
Out. Joe Jilk and Frank Ardolf were the next to erecr 
a building for a hotel and a saloon. Mr. C. V. Drazan 
then built an office and in the fall Gus. Zabel built a 

and put in a stock of general men I 
At about this time J. I'.. Ziegler was appointed justice of 
the peace and notary public, also securing th 
of the American Central Fire Insurance Company. Mr. 
Ziegler has been very prosperous, which he deserves 
for his integrity and earnest work for the welfare of the 

The Great Northern Express Company app 
the writer express agent the same fall which was another 
felt want in our neighborhood. The following spring 
L. G. Nuelsen and George Unsoeld succeeded the firm 
of Trantum & Schoonover in general merchandise, L. G. 
Nuelsen succeeding W. N T . Schoonover as postmaster. 
At about this time the Odessa school district was laid 
out and a school hotis'e built which has lately been re- 
placed by a modern four-room brick structure that is a 
credit to our community. Odessa has progressed much 
more rapidly than any of its neighbors, and there is room 
in plenty for those who desire to locate in a prosperous 1 

In 1900 tbere were five business bouses in 
Odessa and a census of the town would have 
disclosed a population of only 30. But the ad- 
jacent country was beginning to be well settled 
and 600,000 bushels of wheat were shipped 
from the town. Of the rapid growth of < )dessa 
the Seattle Post-Intelligencer in June, 1902, 
said : 

"Just west of Lamona on the Great North- 
ern Railway is one of those surprises which 
meet the traveler who comes through tin- sec- 
tion for the first time in two years — the town of 
Tbere was no Odessa beyond a sign 
post and a water tank in 1900. There is quite 
.! good deal to Odessa now, and every bit tbere 
is lively. The wheat and grain shipping and 
the trade of the fanners in the surrounding 
country made this town. It has three hotels, 
more have been built during tbe past 
week. It has two business streets well lined 
with stores. It has a number of brick business 


blocks and several really handsome residences 
among its houses. Everything is very new but 
everything is well established. The place is 
growing as fast as material can be secured for 
buildings and men to erect them." 

The first steps toward incorporation were 
taken June 9, 1902. On that date a mass meet- 
ing of citizens was held at Smith's Hall. Senti- 
ment was almost unanimously in favor of the 
proposition and a committee was appointed to 
secure signers to a petition to the county com- 
missioners asking the privilege of voting on the 
question. Seventy-two signatures were ob- 
tained and the petition was presented Jul}' 28th. 
The date set for election was September 13. 
1902. Fifty-seven votes were cast, of which 
fifty were for incorporation and one against. 
Following is the vote for municipal officers : 

For Mayor — George A. Kennedy, 45 ; L. 
G. Xuelsen, 8; J. B. Ziegler, 1. 

For Councilmen — Joseph Kriegler, 55 ; J. 
B. Ziegler, 51 ; J. P. Weber, 51 ; S. S. Barney, 
48; A. Bigham, 48; Roy E. Trantum, 4; Julius 
Krinkle, 4 ; Paul Alten, 2 ; F. Logsdon, 1 ; L. 
P. Zimmer, 1. 

For Treasurer — E. J. Kriegler, 54. 

The first meeting of the new city council 
was held October 1st. 

The memorable Crab creek flood and its 
effect on the town of Odessa is thus described 
in the Record of date March 11, 1904: 

"Odessa passed through the worst flood 
in her history this week. The oldest settler in 
this vicinity of the Crab creek valley has never 
witnessed its equal. The water, which had been 
unusually high this season, began to rise rap- 
idly Tuesday morning and about 8 o'clock a. 
m., a telephone message was received from 
Barney Minard that the worst was yet to come 
and warned all to be prepared for it. Though 
living but a few miles from Odessa, it requires 
about six hours for water to traverse the space 
from Minard's to town, and preparations were 
at once begun to save our city bridges. Every- 

body worked with a will; in a few hours all 
were anchored and none too soon, for when the 
work was completed the water was up to their 
stringers. The old Finney flume, one of the 
landmarks of Odessa, was next threatened, and 
on account of the decayed condition of the same 
it was decided to anchor one side and cut out 
the part across the main channed for the preser- 
vation of the bridges below. Shortly after noon 
the water was out of its banks and flooding 
parts of the town, especially the southern and 
western portions. About this time the water 
had lifted Bob Smith's shop from its founda- 
tion but no further damage was done to that 
building. The people of Ziegler's addition were 
compelled to leave their homes and seek refuge 
on higher ground. By four o'clock nearly the 
entire town, except the north side and main 
street was covered with water. Later some of 
the Main street cellars began filling up and at 
7:30 p. m., there were eight inches of water 
flowing through Main street and from six to 
twelve inches over every bridge in the city, 
with the water still slowly rising. Many of our 
people had left their homes and were spending 
the night with friends more fortunately situ- 
ated. It is said that Henry Sieler's home ac- 
commodated about fifty people that evening. 
At midnight the water began to recede and has 
been falling steadily ever since. 

"When one recalls the immense body of wa- 
ter which swept over the flat on which our city 
is located the small amount of damage done ap- 
pears hardly credible. Not a bridge left its 
foundation, although some of the approaches 
and a few perpendicular and batter posts were 
washed out. The county, however, did not fare 
so well. Commissioner Kellum informs us this 
morning that there is not a bridge left on Crab 
Creek east of Odessa. From all parts of Lin- 
coln county come reports that bridges have 
been washed away and roads rendered unfit for 
travel. The Great Northern roadbed between 
this place and Wilsoncreek has been greatly 



damaged by the flooding of the tracks ami traf- 
fic has been practically at a standstill since 
Tuesday evening." 

The present school district of Odessa was 
organized in December, 1897, and on January 
10, 1898, the directors of the newly formed dis- 
trict held their initial meeting. George W. 
Finney donated the present beautiful site in 
the southeastern portion of the town, and a 
school building was erected. The growth of 
this school has been rapid. The single room 
frame building soon became too small and an 
addition was erected and another teacher em- 
ployed. Early in 1902 it was found necessary 
to again increase the school facilities of the 
town, and the old building was disposed of and 
in its place was built a handsome four-room 
brick structure, provided with modern equip- 
ments, at a cost of $7,000. Those who have 
taught in this school and rendered most efficient 
service are Miss Anna L. Johnson. Mrs. F. J. 
McKay and Miss Carrie B. "Weir. There are 
eight grades taught in the schools. 

Municipal improvements are still progress- 
ing in Odessa. In October. 1902, a flouring 
mill was completed with a capacity of 400 bar- 
rels, and a total warehouse capacity of 60,000 
bushels. In 1904 a system of water works was 
installed costing $14,000. For this purpose 
$12,000 in bonds were voted, in May, of that 
year, there being 45 votes in favor of the bonds 
and 5 against them. Odessa has four grain 
warehouses shipping from 750,000 to 900,000 
bushels of grain annually. 

The churches of Odessa comprise the Pres- 
byterian. German Lutheran. German Congrega- 
tional, Baptist and Catholic. Of fraternal so- 
cieties there are. the A. O. U. W.. I. O. O. F., 
D. of H. and F. of A. In May, 1902. the 
population of the town had increased to 436 
and it is at present estimated at 800. 

The present population of the lively little 

city oi Reardan is approximately six hundred. 
It is located fifteen miles east of Davenport, 
twenty-three miles wot of Spokane by wagon 
road and forty-one miles by rail, and only two 
miles west of the division line between I 
and Spokane counties. Reardan is, indeed, a 
prettily situated town and surrounded by an ex- 
tensive area of rich farming country contribut- 
ing to its importance as an eligible trading 
p< lint. Grain is delivered to Reardan for ship- 
ment from miles around, especially from that 
garden spot, the Crescent country, which sup- 
ports a large population and where as s^reat im- 
provements in the line of handsome country 
houses may be found as in the same extent of 
territory elsewhere in the county. 

For a number of years before the construc- 
tion of the Central Washington Railway in 
1889, there was a town on the present site of 
Reardan. Jt was known as Fairweather. that 
being the name of the village originally laid out 
just east of the present townsite of Reardan. 
Fairweather was platted September 23, 1882, by 
William F. Hooker and John W. Still, residents 
of Cheney. But during this time Fairweather 
was, practically, a town in name only, although 
in its palmiest days it boasted of a store, a hotel 
conducted by M. Olson, and a blacksmith shop. 
In the earlier days a postoffice named Capps was 
located on the ranch of J. S. Capps, one mile 
north of the present site of Reardan. "Capps' 
place" was on the old Fort Spokane stage road. 
With the completion of the railroad to this 
point Fairweather took on a new ambition and 
became a hustling little business point. But 
this event in its history was followed by the loss 
of us name, Fairweather, and the substitution 
of two names in its place. The postoffice was 
moved down from Capps', and for a time the 
new ••burg" assumed that name. On the rail- 
way time tables, however, the station was 
designated as Reardan. in honor of Engineer 
of Construction C. F. Reardan. Within a 
short period that became the generally accepted 
name of the town. 



During the summer and fall of 1889 quite 
a lively business point sprung up supplanting 
the original town of Fainveather. Of course 
the completion of the Central Washington 
Railway was the cause of this sudden access of 
activity. The first building erected was a ware- 
house 1 20x30 feet in size, put up in June by the 
Northern Pacific Elevator Company. The rail- 
way company built an elegant depot and Mr. C. 
A. Pearce became the local agent. During the 
autumn of the same year he erected a residence, 
the first in the town. The original store build- 
ing was erected in August by M. Olson, who 
moved his stock of goods down from the old 
town of Fainveather. Shortly afterward the 
postoffice of Capps, was discontinued and Mr. 
Capps, the postmaster, occupied the same posi- 
tion in the new town, the office for a period 
thereafter being known as "Capps'." The same 
fall James Brand opened the second store in 
town ; A. W. Childs established himself in the 
drug business and A. Lutzhoft opened an imple- 
ment house. These were the only business 
houses introduced in Reardan during the year 

1889. Possibly not to exceed twelve or fifteen 
people passed the winter in the town of 

By the United States census taken June 1, 

1890, we find that the town had gained a pop- 
ulation of thirty-one. Two new firms started 
in business in 1890, Mr. Wickham and J. M. 
Warren. By the summer of 1891 Reardan had 
improved wonderfully, supporting four gen- 
eral merchandise stores, a drug store, harness 
shop, furniture store, saloon, two hotels, barber 
shop, two butcher shops, blacksmith shop and a 
boot and shoe store. 

It may be said that from 1892 until 1899 
there was, practically, no growth of any dis- 
tinctive importance to the town of Reardan. 
But the country in the immediate vicinity was 
thickly settled anil the town depended entirely 
upon its agricultural resources. The "hard 
times" through which the entire country was 
passing produced its effect on the new town 

and business was stagnant. With the develop- 
ment of the country and enormous cereal crops 
accompanied by good prices of the late 90's 
Reardan came rapidly to the front. It may be 
remarked that the year 1899 was the most pros- 
perous one in her history. One of the import- 
ant enterprises of this year was the erection of 
a flouring mill by the Washington Grain <x Mill- 
ing Company. The original capacity of this 
mill was 125 barrels; this has since been in- 
creased to 400 barrels. In November of this 
year the Reardan Exchange Bank was organ- 
ized by local capital. 

In February, 1901, a petition for the in- 
corporation of the town of Reardan was thrown 
out by the board of county commissioners. The 
cause assigned for this failure to incorporate 
was an insufficient number of petitioners, prim- 
arily, and secondarily, to the opposition, or at 
least, indifference, of several leading property 
holders in the town. But the project was not 
doomed to failure; only temporary delay. In 
June, 1902, the population, according to the 
census returned by Assessor D. M. McRae. was 
378. This was a fine showing and greatly en- 
couraged the friends of incorporation. Another 
petition was circulated and presented to the 
commissioners. This was in 1903. This ac- 
tion had been preceded by a mass meeting held 
January 31, at which the sentiment was almost 
unanimous in favor of incorporation. The pe- 
tition was signed by 79 voters and the election 
set for April 4th. There were cast 1 1 1 votes, of 
which 68 were for and 34 against incorpora- 
tion, nine not voting on the proposition. The 
first municipal officers were M. Moriarty, 
mayor ; T. G. Stevenson, John Wickham, John 
Raymer, C. S. Warren and J. C. Driscoll, 
councilmen ; Frank Garber, treasurer; L. A. 
Dale, marshal and W. D. Barnhart. police 

During the fall of 1903 the people of Rear- 
dan undertook and carried to a successful con- 
clusion a work that is destined to result in much 
good to the town. The citizens subscribed $5,- 



000 to build a wagon road from the falls north 
of Reardan to the Cedar Canyon mines in Stev- 
ens county. With this road completed Reardan 
now enjoys an excellent trade from that dis- 
trict which formerly went to Davenport and 

August 21, 1903, the Reardan Gazette said : 
"Reardan has five general merchandise 
stores, two hardware and implement stores, two 
lumber yards, two drug stores, one bank, two 
livery stables, two barber shops, two butcher 
shops, one jewelry store, one confectionery 
store, one millinery store, three blacksmith 
shops, three saloons, five large grain ware- 
houses, a 400-barrel flouring mill, two doctors, 
one lawyer, one newspaper, one real estate of- 
fice, one hotel, one restaurant, a handsome aud- 
itorium and lodge room. There are also three 
churches and a fine school building. Fra- 
ternal societies comprise the Odd Fellows, Re- 
bekahs. Woodmen of the World, Women of 
Woodcraft, Maccabees, Fraternal Army of 
America and Grand Army of the Republic. 
There is, also, a public park adjoining the town 
on the east owned by citizens or Reardan, con- 
taining a ball ground and grand stand. So 
rapidly as possible this 'breathing space' is be- 
ing beautified and in time will become one of 
the greatest attractions of the town." 

The territory north of Reardan is supplied 
with the free rural postal delivery. The neigh- 
boring farming country is connected by a barb 
wire telephone system. So far in her history 
Reardan remains one of the few towns that have 
never received a set back by any serious con- 


Two and one-half miles northeast of the 
town of Mondovi in the early So's was estab- 
lished a postoffice known then as Mondovi, but 
later as "Old Mondovi." This was the first 
jtostoffice established in northern Lincoln 
county. It was on the old Fort Spokane stage 

line and was the stopping place for travelers 
over that route. A gentleman by the name of 
Christian was postmaster ; he also carried a 
small slock of goods which he disposed of to 
the very few settlers in his vicinity. Old Mon- 
dovi passed out of existence with the birth of 
New Mondovi, or Mondovi proper. The pros 
pect of the Central Washington Railway being 
built through this territory gave an impetus to 
the later town. In its issue of January 1, iNN<,. 
the Lincoln County Times contributed the first 
intimation that a town was in existence at that 
point as follows : 

"Mondovi is experiencing a boom in a small 
way. John Raymer is erecting a mill near the 
ranch of Isaac Mulberin and will soon be ready 
to do custom sawing. The railway is graded 
into that burg and they are patiently waiting 
for track-laying to reach that point. The ware- 
house now being built at that point will receive 
grain on and after January 7th. and the farm- 
ers are holding their grain until then. Consid- 
erable building will be done early in the spring." 

This "boom" mentioned by the Times was 
a rather limited affair. No business houses 
made their appearance in 1S89 nor in 
1890. However, during the latter year a post- 
office was secured and J. Wolverton became 
postmaster. According to the United States 
census of 1890 Mondovi was credited with hav- 
ing a population of sixteen. It was in 1891 that 
Mondovi enjoyed its first and only "boom." 
D. I'". Percival and Stanley Hallet. of Cheney, 
purchased a half section of land at that point 
and attempted to build a rival to the town of 
Reardan. J. II. King, who had been living at 
Deep Creek, for some time previous, was se- 
lected by the townsite owners to push the fur- 
tunes of the new enterprise. Mr. King estab- 
lished a blacksmith shop, a restaurant and liv- 
er}- stable and became postmaster. For quite 
a period he was the only business man in town, 
but later a gentleman from Cheney opened a 
store, which he sold after a few months to his 
clerk. John M. Siegman, who has conducted 



the first and only store in Mondovi ever since. 
For several years the town made no growth of 
moment, but being in the center of a rich and 
extensive wheat country much grain is shipped 
from this point and Mr. Siegman enjoys a sub- 
stantial and lucrative trade. January 15, 1897, 
the Times again touched upon the subject of 
Mondovi : 

Mandovi was born during "boom" days in the great 
west and provision was made for a mighty city. Profit- 
able farms were abandoned for agricultural purposes 
and converted into town blocks and lots and placed 
on the market at figures that promised fortunes in re- 
turn. They were well advertised abroad and many sales 
were made ; all went w r ell for a time. Many lots were 
sold but no brick blocks sprung up or even wooden 
ones. In fact the boom was confined entirely to the 
sale of real estate, and as time passed and taxes became 
due. with no sign of material growth in sight, the air 
castles began to vanish. Sales ceased and taxes upon 
highly valued town property became burdensome. Grad- 
ually town additions began to revert into good farm? 
until only a small but sufficient portion of the original 
townsite remained. The idea conceived that a great city- 
could be built up in such a way was, of course, an idle 
dream, yet it was a natural product of "boom" times 
when any kind of speculation seemed to prosper. It 
was a fair sample of the enterprise that contributed to 
the "hard times" in the west in the early 90's — enter- 
prise that ruined credit. 

Mondovi is surrounded by a fertile farming coun- 
try, but she was hopelessly handicapped from the 
start in the contest for commercial importance by 
the presence of larger and well established .rivals on both 
sides, so she could not reasonably have been expected 
to develop into anything but a small country town. 
Early in January, 1897, by action of the county com- 
missioners, the town was reduced in area to just a few 
Hocks, nearly the entire townsite reverting to the owners 
as farm lands. 

The fire record of Mondovi is confined to 
one conflagration. Monday evening, Febru- 
ary 5, 1894, the large warehouse owned by Sen- 
ator R. A. Hutchinson was burned. The build- 
ing contained 16,000 bushels of wheat, and of 
this amount 12,000 bushels were destroyed. 
The loss was large and only $4,500 insurance 
was carried. This fire was supposed to have 
been the work of incendiaries. 

At present Mondovi is a town of about 100 
people. There are several warehouses, a gen- 

eral store, a saloon, hotel, blacksmith shop, and 
feed mill. There are two churches, Alethodist 
and United Brethren. Mondovi is seven 
miles northeast of Davenport. 

Govan is a town of about 100 inhabitants, 
situated on the Central Washington Railway, 
six miles west of Wilbur. As a place on the 
map Govan (named in honor of one of the 
Northern Pacific civil engineers) came into ex- 
istence in the autumn of 1889, with the build- 
ing of the railroad. But it was several years 
afterward before it gained the distinction of 
being called a "town." For some little time 
after the railroad was built Govan was quite a 
lively camp, although, in a business way, but 
little progress was made. One of the principal 
causes of Govan being lively during the spring 
of 1 890 was the fact that a large sand bank was 
located in its immediate vicinity. Wood, Lar- 
son & Company, railroad contractors, made 
Govan their headquarters and a large force of 
men were employed there engaged in digging 
sand for railroad work. There was a steam 
shovel and four gravel trains were utilized in 
this work. Chief Dispatcher Stitson had a car 
here during the time this work was in progress, 
and handled the movements of all trains. Frank 
M. Dallam visited Govan April 28, 1890, and 
made the assertion that Govan had nothing to 
recommend it. and that it would never be any- 
thing more than a station. While Mr. Dallam's 
prediction has not been entirely substantiated 
his prognostication was comparatively correct, 
as Govan has been outstripped by nearly all its 

According to the United States census of 
1890 Govan was credited with a population of 
thirty-three. Ten years later its population 
was twenty-one. Since then, however, the town 
has advanced and has become a trading point 
and is improving. A postofnce was established 
in 1895. The townsite of Govan was platted 
June 24, 1899, by Carrie A. Hesseltine. 


l 73 

Sprague, the second in size of the present 
towns of Lincoln county, lies in a deep valley, 
in conformation so narrow that it might be ap- 
propriately denominated a coulee. This entire 
valley is bordered by steep ledges of black, vol- 
canic rock. In 1889 there were neither trees 
nor gardens within the, then, busy and compact 
city. And what little could be seen beyond the 
basaltic rocks certainly did not suggest agricul- 
ture as a very important asset. But were one to 
Srive northward he would have come out on a 
fine, high, rolling plateau ; the soil consisting 
of a rich, brown loam. At the present writing 
handsome shade trees line most of the streets, 
especially in the residence portion of the town, 
which is noted for its fine lawns, well dressed 
and in excellent condition. 

in compiling this History of Lincoln O lunty 
it has seldom been necessary to refer to dates 
prim- to the latter part of the 70's. It was then 
that the very earliest settlers came to the coun- 
try. Before that period it was something of a 
lltopia — unknown except to a comparatively 
few explorers. However, we learn that as 
early as 1839 a party headed by that earnest 
pioneer missionary. Rev. Cushman Eells. vis- 
ited the site where now stands the city of 
Sprague. L ndoubtedly this was the first com- 
pany of white people to camp on Lincoln county 
soil. The data for this interesting history is a 
letter written by Rev. Eells to a lady in 
Eprague, under date of January 12. 1892: Fol- 
lowing is an extract from this epistle: 

"On the afternoon of the 14th of March. 
1839, Rev. Elkanah Walker, wife and baby 
boy, Mrs. Eells and myself camped at the vvest- 
femmost of three springs near the present site 
of the city of Sprague. On the next morning 
as the animals were being caught, Mr. Walker 
was injured by the kick of a horse. The result 
was camp did not move that day. The 
weather was line. 1 walked in the direction of 
the present city. The occasion was favorable 

tor meditation and the prayer-fitting prepara- 
tion for the work we were soon to enter upon. 
Please take a leap over h irty-three j ear- and one 
month. If 1 mistake not. on the 14th of April. 
[882, 1 conducted a preaching service in 
Sprague. The chapel was the dining room of 
a small hotel presided over by Mrs. Baker. My 
understanding is that that was the first service 
of the kind ever held in that city." 

Patrick Cumasky, who took up a homestead 
in 1869. was the first settler in the locality of 
Sprague. He was followed in 1871 by Patrick- 
Wallace and in 1872 by William Burrow, col- 
loquially known as "Hoodoo Billy." When a 
small settlement began to spring up in 1879, in 
anticipation of the advent of the Northern Pa- 
cific Railway, the place was given the name of 
"H looville." in honor of Mr. Burrow. Dur- 
ing 1870-0. many parties were attracted to the 
vicinity of Sprague and by them much specula- 
tion was indulged in as to the prospective 
towns to be built along the line of the oncoming 
railroad, then represented by grade stakes. 
Among the first of these parties was one in 
which I.. E. Kellogg, at that period a resident 
of Colfax, Whitman county, was a member. 
At present Mr. Kellogg is auditor of Douglas 

Prior to the construction of the Northern 
Pacific Railway through the Territory of 
Washington, the country surrounding the spot 
where the town of Sprague later made its ap- 
pearance was inhabited by only a limited num- 
ber of settlers. The only place of any im- 
portance in the vicinity where these hard}- pio- 
neer could secure provisions was the then 
small town of Walla Walla. There the United 
States government had established a military 
post, garrisoned by a fair complement of regu- 
lar soldiers. They were stationed there to 
guard settlers from Indian depredations and 
als! 1 t< 1 keep open channel- 1 if communication be- 
tween them and the outer world. But the town 
of Sprague was not fairly launched on munic- 
ipal life until the summer of [880. The work 



of grading the Northern Pacific road was be- 
gun at Ainsworth, at the mouth of the Snake 
river, in 1879; the work of completing the road 
to the spot where Sprague is located required 
over a year. . 

One of the exemplary rules established by 
the Northern Pacific Company at the time it 
was building its road through Washington was 
that no liquor should be sold within one mile of 
the proposed line of track. In June, 1880, E. 
M. Kinnear and Patrick Wallace opened a sa- 
loon to accommodate the men employed in 
grading the road, at a point just one mile north 
of where Sprague now stands. To this day 
the place is known as "Whiskey Rock." At 
this point the saloon nourished until the ban 
against such resorts in Sprague was removed. 
The first building erected upon ground which 
is now within the corporate limits of Sprague 
was put up by the Northern Pacific Company 
for the storage of grain and commissary stores. 
This was in June, 1880. Later this building- 
was utilized for a number of years as a livery 
stable. It was located on Railroad Avenue. 
The commissary store was conducted by Edwin 
Dane, who was a time-keeper in the employ of 
the railroad company. Shortly afterward he 
engaged in business for himself and opened a 
second store, but did not long remain 
thereafter. The railway commissary storehouse 
was merely a temporary affair, intended to sup- 
ply the wants of the graders in the company's 
employ. To E. M. Kinnear belongs the honor 
of being the pioneer business man of Sprague. 
In Jul)-, 1880, he erected a store building and 
stocked it with a small assortment of goods. 
Mr. Kinnear came from Colfax, where, it is 
said, he operated a peanut stand for a short 
period. His Sprague business expanded until 
he had an establishment of mammoth propor- 
tions within a few years. Until the railway 
came he freighted his stock in from Colfax. 
The same year Willis Misner opened a black- 
smith shop. 

The year 1880 did not witness an abnormal 

growth in the town. The railroad graders were 
about the only people from whom to derive sup- 
port, the country not yet being settled to any 
appreciable extent. Still, even the graders con- 
trived to add to "the gaiety of nations," and 
they livened up the town. During this year the 
townsite was surveyed by Dr. Miller and the 
plat was filed with the auditor of Sp< >kane 
county December 27, 1880, by the Northern 
Pacific Railway Company, per Walter Sprague. 
The new town had been named in honor of 
General John W. Sprague, who from 1879 to 
1883 was in charge of the Northern Pacific 
Company's interests on the Pacific coast, as 
general superintendent, assistant treasurer and 
land commissioner. Mr. Sprague died in Ta- 
coma, December 24, 1893. Among those who 
settled in the new town in 18S0, or who had 
previously come to the vicinity, were Patrick 
Wallace, William Burrow, Commodore Downs, 
H. L. White, James N. Campbell, Patrick 
Cumasky, Frank Sturgis, David Vinyard, Ed- 
win Dane, E. M. Kinnear, Dr. Miller and 

The spring of 1881 witnessed the arrival of 
new enterprises in the young city. The railroad 
became a finality. The rails were laid into town 
Sunday, May 16th. Shortage of material had 
considerably delayed the arrival of the road and 
during the winter work had been interrupted. 
Let us glance at the town at this date. There 
were then the two small general stores of E. M. 
Kinnear and Edwin Dane, a livery stable con- 
ducted b*y Patrick Wallace, a boarding house in 
a tent presided over by a Mr. Brown, and an- 
other of which Mrs. O'Toole was the land- 
lady, two saloons, one owned by Patrick Dillon; 
the other by Alfred Rickett. conducted by Wil- 
liam H. White, and a blacksmith shop owned 
by Willis Misner. 

During the construction of the Northern 
Pacific Railway, and for some time subse- 
quently, Sprague was a typical western city; 
high carnival ruled at all hours; the town grew 
like Jonah's gourd. The prominent factor in 



this "boom" was the location there of r; 
headquarters. Handsome residences and sub- 
stantial business houses were erected; prosper- 
ity was in evidence on every side. With the 
■wonderful development of the surrounding 
country business expanded; Sprague devi 
int.i a city of prominence. The advent of the 
railroad was the signal for increased activity. 
Residents of Sprague at that transition pei I 
tell us that the amount of stock shipped from 
the town during 18S1 was something enormous. 
Sheep raising was carried on to some extent by 
a number of parties in the vicinity, and all 
seemed to be seized with a desire to patronize 
the new railway. The company immediately 
erected its depot and selected Sprague as the 
location for the railway shops for the Idaho 
division. Work on these was at once com- 
menced and about 350 men were employed on 
the shops, round houses, etc. Officials of the 
road looking after its interests built handsome 
homes for themselves, thus contributing to the 
town an appearance of permanency. The erec- 
tion of these beautiful residences by the railway 
officials enters largely into the history of 
Sprague and a chapter might be written profit- 
ably on this one subject. But many of these 
officials were subsequently placed on trial 
charged with appropriating the company's ma- 
terial for their homes. It was alleged that the 
lumber which was supposed to have been used 
in the company's buildings had been surreptit- 
iously utilized by employees. Northern Paci- 
fic stone was used in the foundations; Northern 
1'acilic bricks for chimneys; Northern Pacific 
paint found its way on to the outside and inside 
of buildings while men drawing pay from the 
Northern Pacific Company were employed in 
the construction of private buildings. It is 
claimed that from ten to fifteen houses were 
thus constructed; the trial of the predatory of- 
fii was a landmark in Sprague's 

j. et no nne was convicted. 

As with many other towns one of the 
ind institutions in Sprague was the brewer}'. 

established in 1881. In that year R. O. Porak 
and Charles .\l. Rasch came overland in a 
prairie schooner from The Dalles, ( >regon, and 

both at once entered into business. Air. Rasch 
engaging in a saloon enterprise while Mr. 
Porak directed his attention to the brewing 
of beer. "The Kettle," which at this time 
composed this primitive brewery, was placed 
between two rocks; the institution was in work- 
ing order. The product of this little establish- 
ment met with a ready sale and the owner, care- 
fully husbanding his profits, enlarged the plant. 
Within a few years he was established in a 
stone and brick building. 

\\ bile there was considerable activity in 
the new town it was not until about May, [882, 
that the postal authorities saw- lit to grant 
Sprague a postoffice. J. J. Burns was made 
postmaster. The second general store 1 .Mr. 
Dane having gone out of business) tobei ipened 
in Sprague was one owned by Gehres & Hert- 
rich. These gentlemen had selected a lo- 
cation during the winter of 1881 -2, and in 
March they arrived with their goods, opening 
up for business on the 28th of that month. 
When they arrived the snow had melted ; the 
townsite was covered with water. Unloading 
their stock near the present depot site they 
packed them through the inundation to the 
store building. Victor Hertrich, alluding to the 
opening of their business, says that the first 
sale made was that of a suit of clothes to David 

April 20. [882, the new railroad shops were 
opened by an elaborate ball. Pioneers of the 
town well remember this momentous event. 
On that day the town was visited by a "cold 
snap." The ground was covered by four inches 
of snow; the thermometer registered ten de- 
below zero. There is no disputing the 
fact that these shops were responsible for the 
future prominence of Spraguje in Lincoln 
county. Else Sprague would never have been 
recognized in the 80' s and early 90's as the 
town in eastern Washington." Several 



hundred thousands of dollars were expended 
by the Northern Pacific Company in improve- 
ments in this young city. In the extensive shops 
repair work for the entire Idaho division was 
done; for a certain period all cars were con- 
structed at this point ; old cars and engines over- 
hauled and rebuilt. From the date of the es- 
tablishment of the shops until 1895 the pay- 
roll of the Northern Pacific Company here av- 
eraged fully $30,000 per month. 

The first celebration of Independence Day 
ever held in Lincoln county occurred in 
Sprague, July 4, 1882. Hon. W. H. Small - 
wood was orator, and George S. Brooke, presi- 
dent, of the day. W. PI. Carr served as chief 
of police. Prayer was offered by Rev. G. W. 
Shaw. Even at this early day Sprague boasted 
of a brass band and a competent glee club. In 
1882 the first hotel — the National — was erected 
by Brown & Dane. This year also witnessed 
the establishment of the first school with a mil 
of about thirty scholars, and the first church, 
the Episcopalian. This house of prayer was 
built by popular subscription, led by Y. W. 
Sanders. Its erection amply demonstrates the 
proverbial push and energy of the citizens of 
Sprague. R. R. Jones was the contractor. The 
timbers were framed on Saturday evening, and 
on Sunday morning all the able-bodied men in 
town worked on the building. That forenoon 
the edifice was completed and in the afternoon 
services were held. During the latter part of 
1882 the first newspaper, the Sprague Herald, 
was established. December 13th, of the same 
vear a volunteer fire department was organized. 
It was a hook and ladder company, the first of 
the kind in the Territory of 'Washington north 
of the Snake river, and east of the Cascade 
mountains. John Bartol served as the first 
president and for, many years he remained at 
the head of the Sprague fire department, and 
was, in fact, for a number of vears the oldest 
fire department president in the Territory. This 
pioneer, and now historic, organization, before 
the hose carts and other appartus were added, 

consisting solely of a hook and ladder truck, 
and a small band of determined men, success- 
fully combatted two fires in the early history 
of the town which threatened the total destruc- 
tion of the place. Upon the organization of the 
department Master Mechanic Jonathan Evans 
was elected chief and J. N. Campbell, assistant. 
No active part was taken by Mr. Evans as he 
was prevented from doing so by his duties with 
the Northern Pacific Company. Full responsi- 
bility fell upon the shoulders of Mr. Campbell. 
The company organized December 13, 
1882. The following month the hook and lad- 
der truck was puchased from the Portland. Ore- 
gon, fire department, the members of the com- 
pany assisted by a few other citizens, paying 
for the apparatus. Its cost in Portland was 
$450 ; the freight to Sprague, $50. Later, upon 
the complete organization of the company of 
fire fighters, it was presented to the city. A 
complete list of the members of this company 
is not in existence. Eight of them, who for 
a number of years were closely identified with 
the organization, were John Bartol, J. X. 
Campbell, A. S. Hughes, Ed. Pendleton, Benja- 
min Ettleson, C. M. Rasch, David Vinyard and 
W. F. Murray. Other members who served 
with distinction during the So's were H C. 
Smith, C. M. Samson, W. J. Slattery, P. 
Beardsley, George Beardsley, Fred Cooper, T. 
Foley and T. X. Murphy. With the growth of 
the town it became necessary to add other ap- 
paratus, and two hose carts were purchased, 
thus completing the organization of Hose Com- 
panies Nos. 1 and 2. 

The city of Sprague was incorporated under 
a charter enacted by the Legislative Assembly 
of the Territory of Washington. It was ap- 
proved by the governor November 28, 1883. 
This charter provided for the government of 
the city by a mayor and six councilmen to be 
elected by the people for a term of one year, 
to serve without pay. It provided, also, for 
a marshal to lie elected by the people, and a 
justice of the peace and assessor to be chosen 




by the city council. The officials named in 
the act \vere George S. Brooke, mayor; E. M. 
Kinnear, William A. Fairweather, R. O. Porak, 
B. B. Glasscock, L. A. Conlee and Patrick Wal- 
lace councilmen. That year the city govern- 
ment was organized. Martin J. Maloney was 
elected the first marshal and Frank Wilson was 
selected to serve as justice of the peace. At the 
time of this incorporation the city contained a 
population of about five hundred people. Of 
the town at about this period (1882) the 
Herald said, under date of May 25, 1892 : 

"Although Sprague in the early 8o's was 
the largest town and the best business point in 
northern Washington, still it enjoyed for a 
long time the unenviable distinction of being an 
undesirable place for residence; of having the 
worst site and environments; and being the 
poorest built and most shaggy place this side of 
the mountains. And all this was true to a con- 
siderable extent, fur railroad officials, having 
no other object in view, fixed upon the site as 
the most advantageous and best adapted one 
for division headcpiarters and the location of 
their machine shops, and not being troubled 
with any aesthetic taste, they were oblivious to 
the picturesqueness of the shores of Lake ( '< il- 
ville, and quite indifferent about the once rug- 
ged surface of the town site in this coulee, or 
its craggy surroundings. W r hat tended fur- 
ther to excite such comment in connection with 
the natural disadvantages we had to begin with 
was the general aspect of the place when nearly 
a thousand people were swarming about the 
busy hive; for aside from there not being a 
green tree, or shrub or flower, or blade of grass 
within the corporate limits, the streets of this 
at one time 'City of Rocks' were all ungraded 
and in horrible condition, and outside of the 
then imposing headquarters, the huge machine 
shops and a few business houses, nearly all 
places of resilience were one-story frame struc- 
tures of most unprepossessing appearance, and 
well calculated to evoke a broad smile from the 

passersby, as well as the unfavorable impres- 
sii his which were so common." 

Beginning with the establishment of the 
railroad shops in 1882 there had always existed 
an element of uncertainty in the growth and 
prosperity of Sprague. arising chiefly from 
doubt and speculation concerning the perma- 
.nence of division headquarters. Yet despite 
this quasi-uneasiness the town improved, grew 
and prospered until it became, as said by the 
Herald, the best town of its size in the Terri- 
tory of Washington, and probably unsurpassed 
by any other city of 2,500 inhabitants on the 
Pacific coast. Its enterprises were always 
directed by a class of business men who never 
contemplated defeal in any undertaking to 
which they might put their hands. The mo- 
mentous county seat light of 1884 has been 
voluminously treated in another chapter of this 
work. Of Sprague, as it appeared to him in 
1884, Mr. Frank M. Winship, for many years 
editor of the Sprague Herald, writing in Jan- 
uary, 1889, said : 

We landed in Sprague early in 1884, shortly after 
the days of tents and "dugouts," ami at a time when 
her citizens were beginning to think of something more 
than a mere camping outfit. Some good, substantial 
buildings were then taking the places of temporary 
structures, ami it seemed as though Sprague was des- 
tined 10 make rapid strides toward becomil 
metropolis of eastern Washington. I'.ut as timi 
by and we failed to see improvements in the business 

portion of the city, which her growth and natural sur- 
roundings demanded, we were at a loss to know how 
it was that firms doing the immense amount of business 
that many of tin m wen' should he contented to transact 
their liiisiness in old shells that would hardly shield 
ils from inclement weather. We have some- 
times been amused while standing in front <4 some of 
our business houses carrying stocks of go, >d~ worth 

from $50,1 O0 to note what little attempt was 

advertise the business of these tirms. We have 

seen from time to t inn- in the show windows of these 

us a beautiful conglomeration of disorder in 
the matter of displaying their goods. For instance, wc 

have noticed hoots and shoes, gaudy heads, do. 

appli -. potatoes and onions all together on one string. 

Was this because the proprietor- supposed that only 

i 7 8 


Siwashes would see their display, or was it lack of taste 
and enterprise on the part of our business men ? 

We have solved this query as follows : Many of 
our business men came here when Sprague was only 
a railroad camp and started their enterprises on a 
small scale and built up large commercial interests 
and were satisfied to ply their avocations in buildings 
wholly at variance with the growth and demands of their 
trade, and making the prosperity of their city a secondary 
consideration, content while they, themselves, were ac- 
cumulating fortunes, to let the city take care of herself. 
Some of these same old fogies have even gone so far 
as to discourage parties desiring to locate here by tell- 
ing them that business was dull and everything was 
being overdone, when in truth there was not a business 
man in the city who was not making money. We are 
glad to note that within the last two years this great 
evil has been, in a large measure, overcome. Some of 
the old fogies have left and men of enterprise have 
come in, and those of the old ones who remain see 
the necessity of keeping pace with the times. Many 
new buildings have been erected that would be a credit 
to any city, and with those in contemplation, in another 
year the business portion of the town will wear quite 
a metropolitan air. 

June 28, 1886, the city of Sprague voted on 
the question whether or no intoxicating liquors 
should be sold within her corporate limits. The 
result was favorable to the "wet" element, the 
vote being: For prohibition, 90; against, 283. 

Lincoln county's original flouring mill was 
erected at Sprague in 18S7. Pledges from 
farmers were secured by the promoters to fur- 
nish 50,000 bushels of wheat. A considerable 
portion of this pledged wheat came from a dis- 
tance of 35 or 40 miles. Huffman & Stevens 
were the proprietors of this enterprise. It is 
averred that every bushel of wheat grown in 
1887 between the Columbia river and Rock 
creek was marketed at this mill, totaling ex- 
actly 52,000 bushels. In this connection it is 
interesting to note that this same territory in 
1 90 1 yielded at least 12,000,000 bushels. Dur- 
ing the spring of 1887 a cavalry company 
known as Troop A was enrolled, an organiza- 
tion destined to play an important part in the 
town's history, and one in which the people of 
Sprague took great pride. Following were 
the members, officers and privates of Troop A, 

as furnished by Sergeant Bartol shortly after 
organization : 

E. G. Pendleton, captain ; R. G. Paddock, first 
lieutenant ; Thomas O'Brien, second lieutenant ; John 
Bartol, first sergeant ; J. N. Campbell, second sergeant ; 
M. P. Murphy, third sergeant; Wallace Mount, fourth 
sergeant ; W. T. Murray, first corporal ; W. F. Brown, 
second corporal ; Thomas Meagher, third corporal ; 
Charles A. Hagen, fourth corporal. 

Privates— B. F. Burton, G. S. Brooke, A. B. Brooke, 
J. J. Burns, John Bracken, Thomas Block, S. A. Conlee, 
John Cody, George Case, Len Curtis, George Cosgrove, 
James Dillon, J. P. Deredesheimer, P. Dencer, H. W. 
Fairweather, James Fairburn, F. M. Gray, David Hig- 
gins, J. J. Harris, W. Hinshaw, A. S. Hughes, S. G. 
Jackson, O. C. Jensen, John Palmer, A. Schneider, W. S. 
Specklmire, J. S. Smith, Thomas Smith, W. J. Slattery, 
George M. Fray, G. A. Wood, L. A. Winney, T. A. 
Wickham, P. Wallace, B. B. White, H. W. Brooke, 
G. S. Johnson, G. R. Klnick, J. W. Kelly, W. B. Lott- 
man, I. G. McGinnis, H. T. Murray, J. J. Maloney, 
J. W. Miller, M. S. Weeks, S. Newman, R. M. Porter, 
William Pea, W. F. Robertson, Frank Ringuit. Knox 
Johnson, Charles' B. Johnson, Willis Kinder, H. Mc- 
Ginnis, S. P. McGinnis, M. Mullett, M. J. Maloney, 
S. G. McMillan, Ira G. Nelson, ■ W. H. Olds, W. P. 
Putman, F. M. Quinlan, L. P. Reardon, T. S. Roodman, 
R. D. Rairdon. 

In the election for officers of Troop A, in 
May, 1888, the following candidates were suc- 
cessful : Charles B. Johnson, captain ; B. B. 
Glasscock, first lieutenant ; Dr. Smith, second 
lieutenant. In this capacity Captain Johnson 
served for many years. 

A Sprague citizen, writing of the improve- 
ments in his town in September, 1887, said : 

I want to have a little general talk about our im- 
provements under way and prospective, to show that 
our sister city, Spokane Falls, hasn't got it all her own 
way. To start with is the new mill, the brick and stone 
foundation of which is already up. The building will ' 
be 36X4S feet in size, three stories and basement. The 
capacity of this mill will be 75 barrels per day. The 
warehouse already up is 30x70 feet. An engine room 
will be built, the engine to be 35-horse power. The 
town council is receiving plans for putting in a system 
of water pipes and sewers. Plans are also being re- 
ceived for establishing a system of electric lights. An- 
other industry talked of here is a foundry. As a 
shipping point Sprague stands second between Helena, 
Montana, and Wallula Junction. Transactions at the 



depot average about $25,000 per month, and this season 
over one-half million pounds of wool were shipped from 
here, and this business is increasing yearly. Building 
improvements are very brisk. Three dwellings, those 
of Messrs. J. H. Shields, Frank Gheres and William 
Dittenhoefer, will cover $14,000 finished. It is safe to 
place the amount at $75,000 which is being spent in 
building operations. 

Saturday morning, November 13, 1887, 
Sprague was visited by a fire whicb destroyed 
four buildings. The losers were Miss Callan, 
millinery; Thomas McAllister, harness store; 
Jones & Nygard, furniture, and Mclnnis, pho- 
tographer. All carried insurance with the ex- 
ception of Mr. Mclnnis. In addition to the de- 
struction of her store Miss Callan lost consider- 
able money which was in a trunk that was 

In the beginning of the year 1889 Sprague 
was a busy town of 1,600 people. She exhibited 
positive evidence of prosperity in the improve- 
ments of her streets ; the erection of brick busi- 
ness blocks ; in her large public school and court 
house. Here was located a Catholic school (St. 
Joseph's Academy), and many men found 
lucrative employment in the railroad shops. 
Sprague was the principal headquarters for the 
Idaho division of the Northern Pacific Railway 
Company, and the company had a large, hand- 
some building for the use of its officials. A 
brewery using the barley grown in the sur- 
rounding country and hops from Puyallup Val- 
ley brought considerable money to the town and 
the neighboring farmers. The same year wit- 
nessed many improvements, public and private. 
These included an electric light plant and a sys- 
tem of water works. New business houses were 
erected ; a creamery established and. taken alto- 
gether, it was a year of great advancement for 
the town. Aside from the improvements men- 
tioned a new brick city hall was built. Prior 
to the erection of this edifice the city council had 
been meeting in a woodshed. 

During the first decade of Sprague's history 
the town never experienced what might In' cor- 
rectly denominated a "boom." It had no oc- 

casion for one nor did it attempt to manufacture 
one with the usual ingredients of "hot air" and 
imagination. But up to the period of its great 
and almost incalculable disaster through fire it 
enjoyed a steady growth. Many of the towns 
in eastern 1 \Yashington coming into existence 
in the 8o's bought advertising space in the Port- 
land Orcgonian, the Minneapolis Tribune and 
other papers for the purpose of attracting atten- 
tion to them. But this was not the case with 
Sprague. It permitted its own steady march to 
interest the stranger within, or without its 
gates. From the time of its inception its course 
was one of uninterrupted smoothness. It made 
such improvements as time and circumstances 
would permit. Nearly all the streets and ave- 
nues were graded; its public buildings consisted 
of a commodious opera house. Masonic Tem- 
ple and city hall. Up to a certain eventful date 
no floods nor fires nor blizzards marred the 
city's progress during the first decade. 

But the year 1890 began with a "boom" 
of colossal proportions. Never before in the 
town's history had there been such marked 
activity in real estate as was witnessed in March 
of this year. Business lots that had been 
on the market for months at merely nominal 
figures were now snapped up quickly .and 
eagerly. All descriptions of property advanced 
rapidly. The underlying cause f< r all the "com- 
mercial tumult" was the announcement that 
the Northern Pacific Railway Company would 
at once begin the work of doubling the capacity 
of its car shops, round houses, etc., and would 
expend $-'50,000 in improving its property. It 
was on the wings of rumor, also, that the Ore- 
gon Railroad iv Navigation Company was about 
Wish a new railroad east anil wesl of 
Sprague. and that Sprague would be headquar- 
ters for the construction work. The possibility 
of the erection of a smelter here affording em- 
ployment to 2,000 men did not in the least 
diminish the enthusiasm of the citizens. A fran- 
chise was granted by the city council for the 
construction of a street car line to be completed 



within ninety days. A choice and sightly tract 
of land in the suburbs was platted. The city pur- 
chased twenty acres more to be used as a public 
park. In its issue of March 27th the Sprague 
Herald said : 

The past week has been one of unusual activity, 
there having been eighty-two transfers in the city. As 
yet prices are held at an advance of about twenty-five 
per cent, over last week. Still, real estate in Sprague is 
lower than that of any other city of importance in the 
state. Choice business locations may be purchased 
at from $2,000 to $5,000. Residence lots are selling at 
prices varying from $75 to $600. Our people are in no- 
wise excited but are simply awakening to the fact 
that Sprague has advantages which warrant her in 
taking a more conspicuous place among Washington 

Sprague, at this period, .was certainly enjoy- 
ing a "boom" of magnificent proportions. Real 
estate agents received orders by wire to in- 
vest in Sprague properties from capitalists. 
"Sprague real estate not for sale at any price," 
was a common telegraphic answer to inquiries 
received by people who owned property in the 
town which was apparently to become a city. 
April 3d the Herald said : 

Sprague is the scene of a very busy season. Build- 
ing operations are developing rapidly and as soon as each 
structure is finished it is at once occupied. Calls are con- 
tinually being made for workmen. Not enough laborers 
can be had to carry on the work necessary to the rapid 
growth of the city. Sprague in the infancy of its 
growth resembles Spokane during its miraculous ad- 
vancement of a couple of years ago. This week two 
real estate offices have been established and the trans- 
fers number over one hundred. With all its advantages 
Sprague is destined to become one of the foremost cities 
in Washington. At any rate the confidence of those 
who have been purchasing real estate must be very 
great or they would not invest so heavily. 

This boom, however, was of short duration. 
The new railroad was not built ; the proposed 
improvements in the shops did not materialize ; 
the smelter was not constructed ; the street rail- 
way system gained the "survey" stage and went 
no farther. By the official census taken by the 
government in 1890 the population of Sprague 
was given as 1.722. 

Washington was now a state. During the 
summer of 1891 the question of reincorporating 
the city of Sprague was taken up. Experience 
had demonstrated that there were many defects 
in the old charter, some of which limited the 
powers to such an extent that the growth and 
advancement of the city was greatly retarded. 
The legislature of the new state at its first ses- 
sion under the constitution, among other acts, 
provided by a general law charters for cities, 
including a charter for cities of the third class. 
To remedy the defects of their city charter the 
people of Sprague desired to reincorporate un- 
der this law. Accordingly they circulated for 
signatures a petition and the same was pre- 
sented, asking for some action toward securing 
a new charter. Originally Sprague had been 
incorporated under the old Territorial law. 
Washington was now a state. The supreme 
court had decided all such incorporations void, 
and issued a mandate authorizing special elec- 
tions for such purposes. The result of this 
election, called by the county commissioners, 
was an almost unanimous verdict in favor of 
re-incorporation. Under the new dispensation 
the following municipal officers were elected, all 
Democrats with the exception of Councilman 
O. C. Jensen : 

George S. Brooke, mayor ; John Bartol, 
treasurer; George Maguire, assessor; R. M. 
Houck, health officer; T. M. Cooper. F. J. 
Gehres. John Garvey, T. N. Murphy, W. P. 
Putman, James Stewart and O. C. Jensen, 

As illustrating the laxity of railroad, land 
office and other officials it is stated that not until 
June, 1895, did the Northern Pacific Railway 
Company receive a patent from the government 
to the land comprising Sprague's townsite. 
Meanwhile the real estate had been sold and 
resold many times and passed around among 
many parties. In December, 1892, the Sprague 
Herald said: "All that is definitely known is 
that the city is floating around somewhere in 
the east half of section 2^, but whether its 



point of beginning' is at the north or south 
corner stake, or somewhere in the middle of the 
east half, is something that no man can find 
out from the records. So the question. 'Where 
is Sprague at?' is a very pertinent one." 

In March, 1892, by a vote of 182 to 46, the 
city decided to issue bonds in the amount of 
$35,000 to purchase the properties of the water 
works and electric light companies, both of 
which had heretofore been operated by private 
individuals. The first election held for this 
purpose was declared illegal. June 17 another 
election was carried for the proposition by a 
nine-tenths vote, and a transfer of these proper- 
ties procured. 

March 18, 1894, Sprague was visited by the 
greatest flood hitherto known in her history. 
This unusual rise began on the 17th; and on 
the evening of that day the high water line had 
been reached ; on Sunday morning it was "out 
of sight." During a period of seventy-two 
hours that portion of the city between the rail- 
road and an alley near the old opera house was 
inundated, the average depth on a level being 
about eight inches. The low land lying east of 
the railway shops was totally submerged, as was 
the tract west of the mill. Three boats plied 
the waters which surged through the business 
portion of the town. The floors of many sti >res 
and saloons were covered with water. 

April 25th the Herald said: "Bradstreet's 
Commercial Agency gives Sprague the best 
rating of any city in the state. In effect, it says, 
it is the soundest and safest city in which to do 
business in the state of Washington. There 
has never been a business failure of any signifi- 
cance in the city." 

The great strike of the Northern Pacific 
railway employes in the summer of 1X04 is 
exhaustively treated in another chapter. But 
this industrial imbroglio played such an impor- 
tant part in the future of the town that we deem 
it best to here reproduce some of the more 
salient features. July 8th the strike assumed 
threatening proportions. Concerning the acts 

of lawlessness on this date the Sprague Herald 
of July 1 ith said: 

Everything pertaining t" the strike- has been going 
on in the same even tenor that ii started with and 
nothing occurred to injure the cause of the A. R. I"., 
until last Sunday night (July 8th), when the train 
bearing Company K. National Guards Wa hing 
Tekoa, came in manned by "scabs." Hoodlums threw 
rocks at the engineer and the scab crew, and two box 
cars were on the main track in front of the train. 
The engineer opened the throttle and got down out of 
sight owing to fear, and the next instant crashed into 
the cars. In the meantime a car loaded with engine 
oil was run down the track to the second brid 
of town and set on fire, burning ear. oil and trestle t" tin- 
ground. This wa- not all The large trestle east of 
town had also been tired by unknown parties, though 
it was discovered in time to extinguish the flames before 
much damage was done, only about fifteen feet .if the 
trestle being burned. This is supposed to be the work 
of hoodlums or sympathisers, but there are many who 
will make the A. R. U. hear the blame. Is it no 
mental to their cause? To be sure it ts. Citizens of 
Sprague generally regret this occurrence. Company K 
was detained the remainder of the night and nearly all 
Monday, leaving in the afternoon as soon as the trestle 
was repaired, \lmni n o'clock Monda} forenoon a 
train bearing a company of regulars from Fort Spokane 
came in from the east and repaired the trestle which 
checked their progress. A train from the west bearing 
Company B, First Infantry. Seattle, came in shortly 
after noon and they were compelled to repair tli 
west of town to get into Sprague. The soldiers used 
rails to pry off the car trucks. They were nearly live 
hours making the necessary repairs. Had not tin- 
burning of these bridges occurred our city would not 
have had to submit to and be placed under martial law. 

There arc two companies of United State- Ri 
from Fort Spokane encamped on the lawn around the 
headquarters building under Command of Major Car- 
penter, viz: Company II. with fifty-on( men. com- 
manded by Captain Webster, and Company G, fifty-two 
men, commanded bj Captain O'Brien. 

The various meetings held in the city anent 

this industrial disturbance have been fully 
treated in the '"Lincoln County History" of 
this work. Opinion was divided, and while 
there was considerable undercurrent of sym- 
pathy for the strikers, few were found who de- 
sired the railway company to remove it- -hops 
and division headquarters from the city. Yet 
all this was done in the future. July JJ, 
[894, the Lincoln County Times said: 


"The division headquarters of the Northern 
Pacific have been moved from Sprague to Spo- 
kane, and Superintendent Gilbert is quoted as 
saying that the shops would in all probability 
be moved also. This would prove a severe 
blow to Sprague and a loss to the entire county. 
The taxes derived from the location of the 
shops in the count)- is by no means inconsider- 
able and their removal would be unfortunate. 
This action of the railroad company has been 
hastened, if not entirely precipitated by the ap- 
parent sympathy for, and the support given to, 
the strikers in most they have done, by the 
citizens and business men of Sprague. If the 
public meetings recently held there denouncing 
unlawful acts and pledging support to the laws 
had taken place at the beginning of the trouble 
as they should, it is not probable that the head- 
quarters or anything else would have been 

But temporarily there was a lull in the 
strained anxiety of the citizens of Sprague. 
The blow did not fall immediately in the full 
intensity of its force. Since Sprague became 
a town rumors would periodically make their 
appearance to the effect that the shops were to 
be removed to Spokane. Following the strike 
these rumors gained in volume. Frank M. 
Winship, editor of the Sprague Herald, was 
in St. Paul. Minnesota, shortly after the trouble 
and interviewed General Manager Kendrick 
concerning these rumors. July 23d he wired 
his paper as follows : 

"To Herald. Sprague, Washington. — I 
have just interviewed General Manager Ken- 
drick. of the Northern Pacific Railway Com- 
pany. He says there is no foundation what- 
ever for reports that the railroad shops at 
Sprague were to be removed. The headquar- 
ters removal is permanent. Agitators will not 
be re-employed. Frank M. Winship." 

August 8th the Herald congratulated its 
readers thus : "The shop whistle never sounded 
more musical than it did this morning in sum- 
moning a number of the railroad shop em- 

ployees to work again, after the six weeks' 
lay-off caused by the strike. Although the 
whole force has not yet been assigned to duty 
it is believed it is a question of only a few days 
when the shops will again be swarming with 
men anxious to make up for the time worse 
than lost."' 

To this the Lincoln County Times added: 
"Everything appears serene at the county seat 
again, work in the car shops having been re- 
sumed, although business is still quiet among 
the merchants. The strike has necessarily been 
injurious to trade, and the town is only recov- 
ering from the bad effects." 

Following the A. R. U. strike Governor 
McGraw appointed a court of inquiry to inves- 
tigate the conduct of the Spokane, Tekoa and 
Sprague militia during the trouble. The court 
reported September 15th. It found Company 
G, of Spokane, guilty of mutinous conduct at 
Tacoma on July 7th, and that all the members 
then present, except Charles E. Nelson, par- 
ticipated or acquiesced in the mutiny. The 
court recommended that the company be dis- 
banded and would favor the dishonorable dis- 
charge of the mutineers, but for the fact that a 
courtmartial would be necessary to impose this 
sentence. The court found captain J. W. 
Stearns, of Tekoa, in permitting his company 
to be stoned by a mob at Sprague, absolutely 
wanting in proper knowledge of his duty, and 
recommended his discharge. 

Concerning the Sprague company the court 
found that while a considerable number of 
Troop A were in sympathy with the strikers, 
there was no disloyalty, except on the part of 
its sergeant, W. H. Evans, who organized a 
squad of men to cheer the Spokane mutineers 
at Tacoma. and Sergeant A. P. Sully and Pri- 
vate Kennedy, who deserted at Tacoma. The 
discharge of Evans, Sully and Kennedy was 
recommended. Governor McGraw approved 
the findings and at once issued orders to carry 
them into effect. 

In October, 1895. Troop A disbanded. The 



primary cause of this was the disastrous fire 
that swept the town. It had ever been a popu- 
lar organization. 

One of the tragic events in Sprague's his- 
tory during the year 1895 was the murder of 
Constable L. A. Coulee by Alfred Symes. 
which occurred June 25th. The constable had 
arrested Symes, an alleged stock thief, in 
Sprague, and both prisoner and officer set out 
on horseback for Ritzville. Sprague people 
were informed that Conlee had been murdered 
on the following day, his body having been 
found about four miles above Ritzville. Later 
information showed how the victim had met 
his death. He had been shot six times through 
the body and head. The exact details of the 
crime remained a mystery, but it was surmised 
that Symes, who was riding just behind Con- 
lee succeeded in jumping on behind the con- 
stable, overpowering him and securing his re- 
volver with the above result. Shots had been 
distinctly heard by two or three parties and 
some boys saw Symes dragging the murdered 
man away from the road. It was learned that 
Symes went immediately to his cabin, got sup- 
per, and then left a marriage license lie had 
taken out the day he was arrested. Sprague 
business men offered a reward of S500 for the 
apprehension of Symes dead or alive. 

The latter was locally known as "Jesse 
James." and possessed an unenviable reputa- 
tion. He had boasted that if Conlee ever at- 
tempted to arrest him he would kill him. He 
had come to Lincoln county about eight years 
previous. August 11, 1895. Symes was cap- 
tured in Missoula county. Montana, by Sheriff 
Thompson, of Adams county. Washington, 
and E. D. Gibson, of Ritzville. Admitting the 
killing the prisoner set up the plea of self-de- 
fense. He was tried in Adams county, found 
guilty and sentenced to death. In January. 
1896, Judge Upton, of Walla Walla, commuted 
the sentence to nineteen years in the peniten- 
tiary. An appeal was taken to the supreme 
court, but the sentence of the lower court was 

affirmed in June, 1899. During the sprii 
1903 Symes was released <>n parole. 

Saturday. August 3. 1895, is a date that will 
not be forgotten by any living person who was 
in Sprague that disastrous day. For one of the 
most destructive conflagrations that ever de- 
vastated Eastern Washington reduced the busi- 
rtion of the city to ashes; rendered hun- 
dreds of pe >ple homeless and destitute of food 
and made absolutely necessary the solicitation 
of aid from outlying towns. An an 
ing 320 acres wa^ burned over; every building 
in the tract destroyed, and entailing a monetary 
loss of $1,250,000. At noon a lire alarm was 
rung for a blaze in Bryant's chi p and feed mill, 
corner of Railroad avenue and 1) street. And 
thus the destiny of Sprague — the history of 
Lincoln county — was changed by the careless 
use of tire in the chop mill on an exceedingly 
windy day. Quickly the department responded 
to the call, but far more rapidly was the blaze 
fanned by the strong gale into a roaring fur- 
nace. The most determined fire fighters — and 
there were none better in the state — were driven 
back almost as soon as they arrived upon the 
scene. From one building to another leaped 
the fire and within five minutes it was apparent 
that the entire town was threatened. At one 
corner of C street the flames forked ; one branch 
reaching out north of the railway track, con- 
suming in it^ way the Northern Pacific grain 
warehouse, the National hotel and the entire 
row of wooden buildings at a corner of B street. 
From this point it leaped to the Pacific hotel 
and the string of frame structures in the rear. 
Thence it jumped to the railway headquarters' 
building and Porack's brewery. These were 
totally destroyed as was the residence of Mr. 

Meanwhile the southern wing of this fiery 
onslaught -wept into ruins the building 
Railroad avenue and First and Second 
including the Commercial hotel, the city hall, 
the store of R. Newman & Company and the 
Masonic Temple. From here the flami 

1 84 


their way to the buildings west of the car shops, 
and in another minute they were melting into 
ruins. It was impossible to do anything to 
save the railroad building owing to the fact 
that the water-pipes had burst in this portion of 
the city. A few moments later a terrible explo- 
sion occurred as the oil tanks burst, and timbers 
and flames rose high in the air. The fire was 
checked on the west side by the brick buildings 
of the First National Bank and Jensen, King 
& Company, the occupants placing wet blankets 
over the windows and fighting the flames des- 
perately. Mayor Sanderson at this time ar- 
rived from Medical Lake and ordered the 
building of Ben Ettleson, corner of C and First 
streets, blown up with dynamite. This was 
done and the entire row of business houses on 
C street, between First and Second streets, 
were saved. From this point the flames pur- 
sued a southeasterly direction and destroyed 
the drug store of W. P. Putnam, the Masonic 
Temple, the county jail, the old opera bouse, 
and the residences of R. R. Jones and E. H. 
Stanton. Here the flames were checked by the 
use of more dynamite. The fire swept east as 
far as the stock yards, completely obliterating 
every residence and business house in that por- 
tion of the city. 

Eye witnesses testified subsequently that 
the flames of this fierce oncoming volume of 
fire reached a block in advance of the burning 
buildings, spreading in every direction with 
the rapidity of a whirlwind, driving people be- 
fore it in all possible haste unable to save any- 
thing from their burning houses and flying 
panic stricken to places of refuge on the out- 
skirts. It is estimated that there were over 200 
buildings in flames at one time. While the fire 
was about a block away from the county jail 
the prisoners were released. It is said they did 
excellent work assisting the neighboring busi- 
ness men to save their goods, but disappeared 
when the flames were under control. Among 
the first buildings to encounter destruction was 
the Northern Pacific railway station. Operator 

Young removed his instruments to a field east 
of town, made new wire connections and sent 
and received messages as rapidly as possible. 
Scenes at the burning of the round house were 
sensational. Flames rose to a height of one 
hundred feet, bursting from every portion of 
the roof. Engine after engine was run out 
only to be met by advancing flames that drove 
engineer and fireman from the cabs. Twenty- 
four locomotives were destroyed ; seven only 
were saved. 

Within four hours of the inception of this 
disaster Sprague presented a scene of utter 
desolation. Smoldering ruins marked the spot 
where once stood a prosperous city. Not over 
half a dozen business houses were left stand- 
ing. These included Gehres & Hertrich's 
general merchandise store, the Sprague roller 
mills, the First National Bank. Jensen, King 
& Company and E. Redding & Company. All 
the newspaper offices of the city with the excep- 
tion of the Herald were burned out. The post- 
office was among the first buildings to go. One 
of the unfortunate features of this disaster was 
the comparatively small amount of insurance 
carried by the business men. Many carried 
none at all and some of them were ruined. Fol- 
lowing were the losses sustained by the dis- 
aster : 

Northern Pacific Railroad Company. $700,- 
000, made up as follows : Twenty- four loco- 
motives and fifty-four freight cars. $325,000; 
shops, machinery, etc., $50,000: headquarters' 
building, master mechanic's office, passenger 
station, $50,000; freight and freight ware- 
house, ice house and ice, grain warehouse and 
oil and oil house, $75,000. There was also 
half a mile of track destroyed and about 7,000 
tons of coal and 5,000 cords of wood, together 
with the coal bunkers and wood sheds, all of 
which brought the loss up to nearly, if not 
quite three-quarters of a million dollars. Other 
losses : 

J. W. Bryant, chop feed mill, $1,000; 
Archie Mcintosh, blacksmith shop. $500; 



Gehres & Hertrich, $300, insured ; Sprague In- 
dependent, $2,000; Dr. Jacobs, dentist, $500, 
insured ; Murphy & Burns, four buildings, 
$10,000; stock. $5,000; Stooke & Amery, stock 
of hardware, $10,000, insurance, $5,000; va- 
cant livery barn; Davis & Gray, grocers, $10,- 
000, insurance, $5,000; Mrs. M. Heard, build- 
ing and millinery stock, $5,000 insured; \Y. A. 
Buckley, $200 ; Knights of Pythias building, 
$300 ; James Coy, laundry, $500 ; R. Winters, 
saloon, stock and fixtures, $500; Commercial 
Hotel, building and contents. $30,000: J. W. 
Littlefield, bakery, $3,500. insurance $1,500; 
Sprague Packing Company. $10,000; C. W. 
Littlefield, grocer, $5,000; J. F. Hall, general 
merchandise. $8,000, insured ; Cooper & San- 
derson. $300. insured; E. M. Kinnear, capi- 
talist, $30,000, partially insured. His loss in- 
eluded two rows of buildings; one on 
B street and one on First street, about 
ten in all ; Merritt & Salisbury, law- 
yers, $200, insured; H. X. Martin, law- 
yer, $200, insured ; Fred Stipes, shoemaker, 
S400; T. F. Meagher, postmaster, $1,000. in- 
surance $500; J. J. Burns, saloon, $800; C. F. 
Eckhart. cigarmaker, $500; Frank Parker, 
shoemaker. $100; George Troy, restaurant, 
S500,. insured : "YY. P. Murray, two store build- 
ings, $500; Model Restaurant, $600, insured; 
E. H. Peterson, barber, $400 ; J. H. Finder. 
tobacconist, $1,200; J. \Y. Reed, jeweler, 
$1,000, insured; Hugh McOuaid. fish, $200; 
Charles Hagen, carpenter, $800, insured ; Mrs. 
Moore, $300; H. P. Hicks, tinsmith, $150; 
J. W. Ryan, saloon, $5,000, insured lor $4.51 k i : 
R. Newman & Company, general merchandise. 
$20,000, insurance $12,000; city hall and jail. 
$6,000, insurance, $5,000: Sprague Journal, 
$500; Palmer & Rey, tw<> presses, $300; A. 
Lowe, household goods. $300; L. F. Williams. 
household goods, $500: R. B. Morrison, house 
and contents, $1,200: Judge X. T. Caton, 
building, $250, insured: Daniel Winter, house 
and contents, Methodisl Church. 
$2,000, insured; R. R. Janes, house and con- 

tent-. $800, insured: Masonic Hall. $4,000. in- 
sured; county jail. $2,500, insured: W. I'. 
Putnam, drugs. $3,500. insured; Pacific Hotel, 
$5,000; National Hotel, $3,500, insured; Otto 
Arnold, $800: A. Van Allen, blacksmith, $400;' 
Williams Brothers, second hand goods, $600; 
A. W. Holland, building. $500, insured; James 
Culross, tailor, $300; Herbring Block, $24,000. 
insurance $18,000; W. H. Olds, drugs, $4,000, 
insurance $2,000: G. II. Gilpin, dry goods, 
$15,000, insurance $7,000; Chicago Store, 
$10,000, insurance. $7,000; Hen Ettleson, sa- 
loon, $3,000: John Kirk, butcher, $2,500: W. 
A. Peters, harness. S500. insured; George Cos- 
grove, saloon, $2,000. insured: W. R. White, 
tailor, $1,000; R. L. Wells, jeweler. $1,000; 
Lee & Astrup, saloon. $800; Joseph Wormald, 
building. $500: Paul Herold, barber, $800: E. 
Weyer, boots and shoes, $1,000; Thomas 
Smith, vacant building, $300. 

The day following the fire was the Sabbath, 
but for the stricken people of Sprague it was a 
day of unceasing labor instead of rest. And 
there were throngs of people upon the street 
viewing the scenes of the recent conflagration. 
No new fires originated, but throughout the 
burnt district embers were still smoking and in 
a few places the fire had not diminished t<> any 
appreciable extent. The forenoon was passed 
in tearing down dangerous walls and removing 
every possible structure which might cause a 
recrudescence of the flames. The Northern 
Pacific coal bunkers were still burning at a 
lively rate. With the exception of an old hand 
car house the company's property was com- 
pletely wiped out in Sprague. This was fitted 
up fur a depot and telegraph office and Super- 
intendent Gilbert at once began the construction 
of a temporary building for railroad use. Sun- 
day morning found the city without a saloon, 
hotel or restaurant or eating house of any de- 
scription, and but three stores. But so fast as 
workmen could nail boards together new 
structures were run up. By evening a number 
of business houses were established in sheds, 

1 86 


tents and in the limited number of residence 
houses left standing. 

The morning of November 22, 1896, Spo- 
kane became the terminus of the passenger and 
freight division of the 'Northern Pacific Corn- 
pan}-, under Superintendent Gilbert. Between 
forty and sixty families removed from Sprague 
within ten days, many of them following divis- 
ion headquarters to Spokane. 

For a number of years following the great 
fire Sprague was, indeed, a stricken city. Peo- 
ple who had previously done all in their power 
toward building up the town became discour- 
aged and apathetic. The fire, the removal of 
the railway shops, the loss of the county seat, 
desertions of business men and erstwhile influ- 
ential citizens were severe blows to a once 
prosperous and energetic city. A heavy debt 
contracted by the city in palmier days was left 
to the new Sprague. Two years of exceedingly 
stringent times followed, and the town which 
contained 2.500 people August 3, 1895, num- 
bered hardly 400 during the succeeding few 
years. Then came a most gratifying change. 
Agricultural pursuits began to pay better and 
new life was infused into those who had re- 
mained and faced the storm. Speaking of the 
condition of Sprague in 190 1 the Times of 
March 29th said : 

"Today we can look upon our city with a 
feeling of extreme pride, as few places have 
ever overcome so many obstacles and prospered 
as has Sprague during the past four years. 
Signs of prosperity are all around us. Resi- 
dence property offered for sale in 1896 for $50 
with no buyers is now greedily purchased for 
$200. More than 200,000 acres of farm lands 
in this immediate vicinity have been purchased 
and improved. Thousands of dollars have been 
invested by men of means who have energv 
and push inestimable in value. Not a vacant 
dwelling house stands within the city limits. 
Good sidewalks, good streets and a splendid 
water system are sustained by the city with 
funds to spare. While working on a local 

paper shortly after the fire the editor of the 
Times penned these words : 'Phoenix-like, from 
the ashes of the old Sprague will arise a new 
Sprague that will be greater than Sprague has 
ever been." And he still hopes to live to realize 
the truth of that statement." 

The Sprague Roller Mills were burned at 
an early hour Saturday morning, January 18, 
1902, entailing a loss of $60,000 fully covered 
by insurance. They were erected in 1887 with 
a capacity of 350 barrels per day. 

Church societies are represented in Sprague 
by the Baptist, Methodist Episcopal, Free Meth- 
odists, German Lutheran and Catholic. The 
fraternal institutions comprise the A. F. & A. 
M., K. P.. I. O. O. F., United Artisans, Mac- 
cabees, W. O. W., M. W. A. and Foresters. 


One of the youngest towns in Lincoln coun- 
ty is Crystal City. It lies on the bank of the 
Spokane river just above the site of old Fort 
Spokane. It is understood that the owners of 
the Crystal mine are to install a smelter near 
their property and this has, doubtless, proved 
the incentive for the existence of Crystal City. 
The townsite was laid out December 23, 1903, 
by B. \Y. YYolverton at which time the plat 
was filed. There is considerable ore taken from 
the Cedar Canyon district which is tributary to 
to the new town. January 1, 1904, the Lincoln 
County Times said: 

"The long looked for Crystal City has made 
a start, and several new buildings are going up, 
but the scarcity of lumber is retarding opera- 
tions. Mr. Kennet, formerly salesman for Ben- 
ham & Griffith, wholesale grocers of Spokane, 
is erecting a store and it is reported that Grutt 
& Sons have purchased the old O'Shea build- 
ing and are going to put in a store. Mr. Kennet 
is also putting up a livery and feed stable. J. 
H. Gardner is putting up a building supposed 
to be a blacksmith shop. Lots are going like 
the proverbial hot cakes, and Captain Gray 
s-ivs the smelter is a sure thing." 



The new town appears to be the outgrowth, 
or successor, rather, of Grayville, which came 
into existence in May, 1899. It was located 
some 600 feet from the Crystal mine. But July 
[Oth, of that year, fully one-fourth of Grayville 
went up in smoke and ashes. The only store 
in the place owned by W. M. Stevens and G. J. 
Neumeister was destroyed entailing a loss of 
about $3,000 upon which there was $1,400 in- 
surance. Since that event Grayville appears to 
have languished until it was supplanted by the 
new town of Crystal City. The postoffice, 
known as Miles, was established in the early 

The pioneer general mercantile store of La- 
mona was opened in 1896 by J. M. Newland. 
This establishment was subsequently disposed 
of to J. H. Lamona who became, practically, 
the founder of the town. It is a pretty site for 
a village lying about midway between Mohler 
and Odessa, on the main line of the Great 
Northern railway. Mr. Lamona is at present 
a resident of Spokane. 

Where stands the town of Irby is one of the 
oldest settled portions of Lincoln county. The 
Irby ranch was taken up by Mr. I. Irby about 
1878 and he held it continuously until 1902 
when it was sold to A". A. Johnson. In 1903 
it was sold to the Babcock-Cornish Company. 
Writing of Irby in 1903 the Spokesman-Review 
said : 

"The company that will handle the prop- 
erty has been incorporated under the name of 
the Babcock-Cornish Company. One of the 
principal stockholders is E. J. Babcock, of Dav- 
enport, Iowa, the secretary and manager of the 
Security Fire Insurance Company. There is a 
large wheat belt contiguous to the ranch, but 
the farmers have been compelled to haul to 
Krupp or Odessa because the railroad hereto- 

fore has not been able to acquire sufficient 
ground for a commercial siding. Ground for 
this purpose has now been obtained ami within 
a short time the siding will be built. Work will 
soon be commenced in the erection of wheat 
warehouses, and it is believed that the first year's 
haul to them will amount to between 300,000 
and 400,000 bushels. The corporation will es- 
tablish a bank at the place early in the season, 
and plans have also been drawn for the erection 
of a Hour mill. On the property there is a fall 
on the creek that gives 60-horse power, and the 
mill will be placed here this summer. At pres- 
ent there is nothing at the station of Irby save 
the ranch and station house. Many attempts 
have been made to secure ground for ware- 
houses but the former owners would not sell. 
The department at Washington, D. C. has 
granted a postoffice for the place and it will 
31 on he established and a -lore opened."' 

In March. 1893, it was a consensus of opin- 
oin that in the town of Mohler, on the Great 
Northern railway and a few miles east of I I 
sa. Harrington had a formidable rival. August 
24, 1894, the Lincoln County Times said : 

"Yarwood Brothers have just opened a gen- 
eral store at Mohler station, and the people of 
that vicinity arc pleased to have the convenience 
of such an enterprise. The new store will cer- 
tainly prosper and bids fair to become an im- 
portant factor toward the establishment of a 
flourishing little town. The next thing wanted 
at that place is a postoffice." 

But in December. 1900. the Spokesman-Re- 
view supplemented the above with the follow- 

"The de.atli knell of the prosperous little 
town i<\ Mohler. situated eight miles southwest 
of Harrington, has been sounded by one of the 
two parties interested in its dissolutii in. Mi ihler 
is on the main line of the Great Northern rail- 
way and is an important wheat station on that 


road, some 500,000 bushels of grain having 
been marketed there this season. There are two 
stores, saloon, meat market, hotel, blacksmith 
shop, five warehouses and other business estab- 
lishments, and a large amount of trading was 
done between these different business men and 
farmers who live in the surrounding country. 
The Great Northern in laying out improvements 
for the coming summer decided to add another 
sidetrack to its yard at Mohler, provided the 
necessary ground could be secured. Yarwood 
Brothers, owners of the townsite demanded 
$1,000 for the land on which to build a siding, 
but this was considered entirely out of reason 
by the officials. The Great Northern is making 
preparations to tear up the siding already at 
Mohler, and will move the same two miles 
north, where a station will be erected and side- 
tracks put in. To make doubly sure of the case 
another station and siding will be located four 
miles southwest of Mohler. This action will 
cause a removal of the five warehouses now lo- 
cated at Mohler to these new towns and thus 
effectually shut out all trade with Mohler. Two 
warehouses belong to the Great Northern, one 
to the Orondo Shipping Company, one to Yar- 
wood Brothers, and one to Crowley & Will- 

These drastic measures were taken by the 
railway company, and Mohler passed into his- 
tory. Following the removal of the sidetracks 
Great Northern trains ceased to stop at the 
station. In May, 1903 the Lincoln County 
Times sounded the following requiem over the 
death of the once lively little burg: 

"The town of Mohler, on the Great North- 
ern road, has gone out of business. The few 
little business houses that were there were a 
short time ago loaded on to flat cars and carried 
over to Downs, a distance of four miles. The 
sidetrack at Mohler, it will be remembered, was 
taken up by the railroad company a few weeks 
ago, since which time the trains have been pass- 
ing through without stopping. This abandon- 
ment of the town by the company is believed to 

have been inspired by a desire on the part of the 
officials to punish the townsite owners who a 
couple of years ago refused to part with some 
of their property at figures agreeable to said 
officials. Since that time it was given out that 
the place was to be wiped from the map — and 
it has come to pass." 


In 1881 a postoffice was established a few 
miles north of where now is Creston, and it was 
called Brents. This was the only postal station 
west of the old Mondovi postoffice. Pioneers 
of northern Lincoln county tells us that the resi- 
dents had a hard time to preserve the existence 
of this office as no one desired the honor of 
serving as postmaster. Nearly all the people 
in the vicinity at one time 011 another held the 
position. For many years Josiah Cole kept 
a small grocery store at Brents Postoffice. He 
disposed of his business about the time the Cen- 
tral "Washington railroad was built through 
the county and subsequently removed to Wil- 
bur. Brents postoffice was discontinued in 1890, 
when a postoffice was established at the station 
of Creston. 

Hellgate is a postoffice situated on the Col- 
umbia river in the northern part of the county. 
It was formerly known as Layton postoffice, 
but in 1894, by petition of patrons of the office, 
the name was changed to Hellgate. The change 
was made on account of the weakness 
of the average penman for flourishes. Fre- 
quently addresses were so written the mail went 
to Dayton instead of the proper destination, 

Rocklyn is a station on the Central Wash- 
ington railroad west of Davenport. The place 
is quite an important grain shipping point. 
There are three warehouses and a general store 
in the place. Two or three families comprise 
the town. The postoffice was established in 
Spetember, 1898. During that year the first 
warehouse was erected and the German Evan- 
gelists built a church edifice. 




Waukon is a postoffice and station on the 
Great Northern railroad in the extreme eastern 
part of Lincoln county. It is a grain shipping 

pi nut anil maintains one store. 

Gravelle was platted May 18, 1889, by A. 
M. Gannon and Alphonse Gravelle. The place 
was mi the line of the old Seattle, Lake Shore' 
& Eastern railroad and was quite a grain ship- 

ping point during the short time the mail was 
operated. There was a store there. 

Other postoffices in the county at tin 
cut time are Tipso, Plum, Clark, Sherman. 1 [es- 
seltine. Teach, Egypt and Larene, in the north- 
ern part <if the county, and Earl, Crab Creek 
and Latt in the southern portion, none of which 
are located on railroads. 



To write a history of the Big Bend coun- 
try without the prefatory introduction of Lin- 
coln county would he like the play of "Hamlet" 
with Hamlet ten thousand miles away. If one 
will consult a map of the state of Washington 
he will see that, to the Great Bend of the Col- 
umbia, from the southwest corner of the Spo- 
kane Indian Reservation to Pasco, near the 
confluence of the Snake and Columbia rivers. 
Lincoln county is the door-way from the east. 
Within this territory, recognized as the Great 
Bend, are embraced a close approximation of 
10,014 square miles. Practically it includes 
the counties of Lincoln, Douglas, Adams and 
Franklin. But a writer in the Spokesman- 
Review has more particularly generalized this 
limitation as follows : 

"The purpose of this sketch is to define just 
what part of the state comprises the Big Bend 
country, and to call attention more especially 
to thai part of the bend beyond the Grand Cou 
lee and nearest .-mil closesl within the embrace 
of the great Columbia river. 

"People speak of it as anywhere west of 
Spokane city to the Columbia, which is rather 
indefinite. Neither would a line drawn from 
where the Columbia coming down from Can- 
ada veers westward at the mouth of the Spo- 
kane river, to a little below the mouth of the 

Snake river at Wallula, enclose all of the land 
that belongs to the bend. Such a line, though 
it would touch both horns of the great crescent 
formed by the Columbia, would yet leave out 
vast areas that are part and parcel of the land 
in question. The line for instance would 
pass miles west of Davenport. And would you 
ask a man of Davenport his nationality he 
would aver he was a Big Bender. And he 
would be right. In point of fad all of Lincoln 
count}-. Adams. Franklin, "Where the Bade) 
Grows," Douglas of course, and parts of Spo- 
kane and Whitman counties make up this pe- 
culiar country. A Spokane county man living 
east or north of the city of Spokane will tell 
you he lives in the Inland Empire; and of course 
he does. ( io we^t . ir in nth 1 if 1 )eep I 'reek in the 
same county and he will tell you he lives in the 
Bend. And though geographically he may not 
so far as lines and boundaries go. yet according 
to the character of the country and the nature 
of the soil he does. 

"(io south of Spokane city and you are on 
Moran prairie: which in itself is an enviable 
distinction as the Moran Prairieites will care- 
fully explain to you, though they will not easily 
allow ymi to become one of their chosen num- 
ber — except at a price — the market price of 
Moran prairie land. * * * Whitman 



county is given over to the Palouse, and 
all within range of Steptoe Butte be- 
longs to it, as all within sight or ken 
of Pilot Rock, on the west wall of the 
Grand Coulee, belongs of right to the Bend. 
So should the northwest corner of Whitman, 
by virtue of the character of the soil, even as 
the southeast portion of Adams is of the Pa- 
louse. But all of Lincoln and all of Douglas 
is Bend country. Franklin is given over to 
the powers that be in irrigating ditches, and so 
is between the Palouse and much water. 

"So the Big Bend country of Washington 
comprises all that land lying within the bend 
of the_Columbia river proper, which is west of 
a line drawn from the mouth of the Spokane 
river southwest to Wallula, a little below the 
mouth of the Snake river. And besides this, all 
that land lying west of Deep Creek and south 
of Spokane river, from the mouth of the former 
to the mouth of the latter. It is a high rolling 
plateau, much diversified by butte and coulee 
and draw, and two thousand feet above the 
level of the sea. A land of lost creeks and blind 
springs, rich in a lava soil that has the knack 
of growing crops with the aid of a minimum 
rainfall. A drive straight west from Spokane 
will bring you through a series of well appoint- 
ed farms that have long ago passed the home- 
steading stage and have all the earmarks of 
prosperity. Davenport, Creston, Wilbur, Go- 
van, Almira and Hartline are towns along the 
Washington Central railway that thrive under 
the stimulus of the backing of farms whose soil 
is as good as any in Washington. You will be 
struck with the business activity of these towns 
no less than by their neat appearance. The 
man fresh from the smoky east is startled, to 
say the least, at the newness of — say Almira, for 
instance. She looks as if just from the hand of 
the workman. Like an easter bonnet just out 
of the bandbox. A peculiarity of the climate 
is that a house looks new for years even though 
not painted. And whereas, in the smoky cities 
of the east all houses attain a uniform color in 

so long a time — which is short — though the 
colors be ever so varied, here in the Big Bend 
color is color, and remains blue, green, yellow 
or red, as the case may be, until the pigment 
itself has lived the term of its natural life. The 
effect is one of indescribable neatness, and you 
can't help but believe but that the artist of the 
'spotless town' famous in the trolley cars, came 
here for inspiration and a model. 

"North of Almira and extending to the 
Columbia, and from Creston in the east to the 
wall of the Grand Coulee, is the Ridge country. 
This section is claimed to be the best wheat 
land in the state. Here is the "California set- 
tlement," of men who found better lands than 
those in the Golden State. Working with a 
threshing outfit there last fall, the writer has 
seen an output of twelve hundred sacks a day, 
and an average of one thousand sacks for thirty- 
six days running, and the machine never got 
beyond a distance of two and one-half miles 
from the spot where it threshed the first stand. 
This was Tipso, and it was not a good year for 
wheat either. West from Davenport you will 
drive through a long stretch of rocky land — 
"scab rock," as it is called. Much of the land 
here it fit only for grazing. But from Creston 
on to the Coulee you will be traversing the best 
wheat lands in the state, and will also be within 
striking distance of the famed Wilsoncreek 
country, south of Almira, and Hartline, in 
Douglas county." 

That vast semi-circle or liquid periphery, 
the Columbia river, was immortalized by Will- 
iam Cullen Bryant in his poem "Thanatopsis," 
as "The Mighty Oregon." From the point 
mentioned, on the Spokane reservation, it 
makes a bold sweep to the westward. This 
great turn made by the swiftly flowing river 
on its way to the sea, if closely examined, will 
be seen to form the profile of a human face, of 
aspect stern, yet dignified, and looking intre- 
pidly across the Cascade Range to the wave- 
swept western limits of the state. It is with the 
territory bounded in the main by the Columbia 



that this history has to deal and describe, as 
candidly and fairly as the ability of the writers 
and facts carefully collated will permit. Natur- 
ally, owing to its geographical position, Lin- 
coln county will be first considered. There has 
been much written so far in this work concern- 
ing its impressive history. It becomes the pro- 
vince of this chapter to describe its topography, 
boundaries, general agricultural and industrial 
classification and resources. 

Lincoln county is reached and penetrated 
from Spokane by three railway lines, the Great 
Northern, Northern Pacific, and the Washing- 
ton Central, a branch of the Northern Pacific. 
What is known as the Spokane & Seattle branch 
of the latter system, a line fifteen miles and 
961 feet in length, was completed out from Dav- 
enport, the county seat of Lincoln county, to 
the southeast, but is not at the present time in 
operation. The proceedings of the State Board 
of Equalization for 1903 gives the lengths of 
the line in operation in the county as follows : 
Great Northern, 64 miles, 4.964 feet ; Wash- 
ington Central, 66 miles, 375 feet; Northern 
Pacific, 16 miles, 2,025 feet. The equalized 
rate of taxation was fixed at $6,600 per mile. 

Lincoln is bounded on the north by Ferry 
county and the Spokane Indian reservation, 
separated by the Columbia and Spokane rivers; 
on the west by Douglas ; on the south by Adams 
and a portion of Whitman counties.'and on the 
east by Spokane county. Its area is 2,299 
square miles, or about 1,471,360 acres. The 
mean elevation of the county is about 2,000 feet 
above sea level. One of the highest points is at 
Davenport, which is 2.470 feet. Geographi- 
cally illustrative of the size of Lincoln county 
General Tyner said: "If a single county in 
Delaware or Rhode Island should be enlarged 
to the dimensions of Lincoln county, then the 
balance of either of these states would not af- 
ford room enough on which to hold a world's 

East and west across the county the distance 
is 54 miles; north and south an average 

miles. Of this area four-fifths is rolling prairie ; 
the remainder timber land lying along the 
streams in the canyons of the Columbia river. 
The soil is a decomposed volcanic ash of vary- 
ing depth, exceedingly fertile, and while it is an 
ideal soil for wheat culture it is equally adap- 
ted to nearly all descripti* ms of agricultural 
products indigenous to the temperate zone. Of 
the entire area of the county about 750,000 
acres are agricultural, 400,000 grazing and 
about 300,000 acres timber lands. A writer in 
the Northern Pacific Railway Bulletin say- : 

"The agricultural lands are rolling, undul- 
ating prairies, and for the most part produce 
equally well throughout the county. Occ 1 
ally, however, in some of the lower altitudes 
the rainfall is deficient and on this account the 
agricultural lands are graded, first, second and 
third class. The first-class lands are quite well 
settled and under cultivation, and here but little 
opportunity exists for cattle raising, which is 
one of the great industries of the county, but 
in the second and third-class districts there is 
sufficient "open range" contiguous to enable the 
farmer to graze his cattle on the range during 
eight or ten months of the year, and pasture 
them on his stubble and feed at his straw stacks 
in the winter. Thus it is that examples of the 
most thrifty and industrious farmers in the 
county are found upon these second and third- 
class lands. The yield of wheat varies from 14 
bushels on the third-class lands to 45 bushels 
per acre on the choicest lands. While the staple 
crop of the county is wheat, oats, barley and 
rve yield equally well on the rolling f< •- -t lands. 
The wheat fields of the Big Bend country find 
no competitor- outside of the state of Wash- 
ington, and here their only rivals are t' E 
the far- famed Palouse country, which is sim- 
ilar in character and soil. The harvesting of 
the crop is always >n under thi 
favorable conditions. No rains prevail to dis- 
color the grain, nor winds to shell it. The 
threshed wheat lies in piles on the field 1 
railway platforms, sacked, and ready for ship- 



ment without danger of injury by the elements. 

"Fruits of all kinds also thrive here, such 
as apples, pears, peaches, apricots, cherries, 
plums, prunes, grapes and all sorts of berries. 
Peaches, apricots and grapes grow only in deep 
canyons. By diversifying his products, includ- 
ing stock-raising, the farmer of Lincoln county 
finds himself prosperous."' 

The report of the Washington State Bureau 
of Statistics, Agriculture and Immigration, for 
1903, published at Olympia, states that the total 
number of acres of land in Lincoln county, ex- 
clusive of town and city lots, was 1.140,392, 
and that the total number of acres of improved 
land was 373.159 at the date of publication of 
the report. Since then these latter figures have 
been materially increased. The valuation of 
real and personal property in the county for 
1903 is given as follows : 

Valuation of land, including city and town 
lots, exclusive of improvements, $5,941,325; 
valuation of improvements on land, town and 
city lots, $969,589 ; valuation of land, town and 
city lots, including improvements, $6,910,914; 
valuation of personal property, $2,399,981 ; 
valuation of railroad tracks, $955,610; total 
valuation of real and personal property includ- 
ing railroad tracks, $10,266,505. 

Assessors' returns for the same year show 
18,414 horses, mules and asses of an average 
value of $25, and a total value of $406,350; 
20,310 cattle, of an average value of $16 and a 
total of $324,960; 1,174 sheep at a valuation, of 
$2 a head, and totaling $2,348; 6,840 hogs of a 
total valuation of $19,440. But it should be re- 
membered that all these figures have wonder- 
fully increased since the date of the publication 
of the report. Yet at the present writing they 
are the only late authentic reports obtainable. 

The claim is made, and authentically sus- 
tained, that Lincoln is the largest wheat pro- 
ducing county in the United States, raising in 
1900 and 1901 more bushels of this standard 
cereal than any other one county within the 
limits of the union. The two principal varie- 

ties of wheat grown here are Little Club and 
Blue Stem, the latter ranging higher in price 
than the former. The average yield per acre 
will range in the neighborhood of twenty bush- 
els. Yet in many instances crops have been 
marketed that gave returns to the producer of 
from 50 to 60 bushels to the acre. Fall and 
spring wheat are both sown and do equally 
well. In size farms range from 80 to 3,000 
acres. The bulk of the crop is harvested with 
headers and threshers and combined harvesters. 
These latter machines are operated by ^2 
horses, simultaneously reaping, threshing and 
sacking the wheat. Harvesting usually begins 
about the latter part of July, continuing through 
August and into September. During these 
months there is but little precipitation, they be- 
ing the dryest of the year. 

The governmait records for a period of ten 
years show that the annual precipitation of rain 
and snow in Lincoln county was 13.06 inches, 
and the mean monthly temperature, as recorded 
by the government observators at Fort Spo- 
kane, Lincoln county, for 1895, shows that Jan- 
uary was the coldest month, with a mean of 
23.8 degrees above zero, while July was the 
hottest, with a mean of 67.5 degrees, the mean 
temperature for August being 67. The county 
may be said to be as near absolutely free from 
cyclones and tornadoes, or violent atmospheric 
disturbances as any other in the world. The 
air is clear, bracing and invigorating, with an 
unusual number of sunny days continuing 
through the summer months, with cool nights. 
Rarely does the thermometer indicate a tem- 
perature below zero or above 80 degrees. The 
water supply of the county is ample. On its 
northern boundary flow the Spokane and Col- 
umbia rivers. There are many smaller streams 
flowing through the territory and the county is 
dotted with lakes. Bituminous coal of the most 
desirable description is mined east of the Cas- 
cades which is laid down here at a fair price, 
but it is not in great demand owing to the gen- 
erous quantities of wood in the county. The 



question of grasses is treated by the editor of 
the Lincoln Times as follows : 

"One of the domestic grasses grown with 
most success in Lincoln county is what is km iwn 
as brome grass. It roots deeply, forms a tough 
sod, withstands the drought and also thrives 
under tramping and pasturing. It appears to 
be the only grass particularly adapted to this 
soil. Clover and timothy are cultivated with 
some success on bottoms where there is more 
moisture, and those who have had experience 
with these grasses in Minnesota and Wiscon- 
sin claim that they were not any more of a suc- 
cess in those states in early days, but that in- 
crease in the rainfall, together with the fertiliz- 
ing of the soil, enabled the farmers to produce 
both clover and timothy with great success in 
late years. It is claimed that the same will he 
tme of our upland farm lauds after a few vears 
of fertilization. The native bunch grass indi- 
genous to Lincoln county, while very nutritious, 
will not endure close pasturing, matures the first 
of July, and, therefore, does not grow any more 
that season. Stock like it however, better than 
other grass and they fatten on it. Even after it 
bleaches out with rain and snow stock seek 
after it and thrive on it. But as before stated, 
it will not stand steady pasturing, so that other 
grasses are being introduced to take its place 
on stuck farms." 

The '"barbed wire telephone"' in Lincoln 
county is unique, although it has no monopoly 
in this particular district. It is a net work of 
telephone lines extending throughout the coun- 
try districts, the farmers utilizing their barbed 
wire fences for lines. The only expense in- 
curred is the purchase of instruments which en- 
able them to become connected, not only with 
the outside world, but what is in reality a super- 
ior advantage, with their immediate neighbors, 
some of whom may reside many miles distant 
so large are the farms in some localities. 
Wherever these country telephones have been 
introduced, and they may appear extremely pri- 
mitive, they are regarded as an indispensable 

convenience. The barbed wire telephone has 
robbed farm and ranch life of its former isola- 
tion. The farmers' wives can call up their neigh- 
bors at pleasure. The family physician ma) In- 
summoned by wire at critical moments. It is 
unnecessary to dispatch a hurried messenger 
boy on horseback. The farmer who breaks any 
of his machinery may converse with lws dealer 
in town, ora machine factory hundreds of miles 
distant. In many other ways he finds this prim- 
itive service of the greatest benefit to him. 

Orchard Valley, a district entirely .1. 
to fruit culture, is situated near the mouth of 
Hawk creek. In this it resembles the farms 
along the Columbia and Spokane river bottom-. 
Orchard Valley, in common with these river 
fruit farms, comprises sandy bottom lands, 
more than one thousand feet below the upland 
wheat fields, that can lie irrigated and will pro- 
duce almost every variety of fruit aside from 
those of a purely tropical nature. Each recur- 
rent season the Orchard Valley fruit 1 
ship car-loads of strawberries, apples, peaches, 
and pears. The first crop of strawberries is 
marketable in June and July; in October a sec- 
ond crop matures. These fruit farm- are all 
irrigated, and the land is valuable. A few- 
acres of fruit-bearing orchard are all that one 
man. or the average-sized family can success- 
fully manage. The Orchard Valley bottom, on 
which s.mie forty families reside, resembles a 
large village. There is yet considerable fruit 
land along the river and canyon bottoms, more 
elevated and difficult to irrigate than the im- 
proved farms lower down, but in time this, too, 
will be supplied with irrigating ditches, and 
planted to fruits and berries. These fruit farm- 
ers are in comfortable circumstances. Their 
land has become quite valuable. A large por- 
tion of the fruit product is shipped to Sppkane 
and other outside points at a distance. Peaches 
usually retail on the market from 50 to 60 cents 
per box, apples from 50 to 95 cents, prunes 
from 40 to 50 cents per crate, plums from 40 to 
j^, cents, pears from 50 to 90 cents and for 

1 94 


strawberries the producer generally receives 
$1.50 per crate. 

The last half dozen years has witnessed the 
greatest development in the fruit industry of 
Lincoln county. Mr. Robert Neal was the first 
to engage in it about fifteen years ago, on the 
Columbia river. Not many years since the 
Orchard Valley flat was an open waste on which 
horses and cattle ranged the year round. It is, 
and was then, a beautiful spot. It overlooked 
the river and was sheltered on both sides by 
timbered hills and grassy glades, over which 
roamed large bands of horses and cattle. Its 
beauty has been still further enhanced by ele- 
gant homes and fruitful orchards — scenes of 
thrift and enterprise. In the midst of this ely- 
sian scene is a fine school house building, and 
though it is situated several miles from a rail- 
road the community is supplied with a telephone 
system connecting them with the surrounding 
towns and cities. Altogether it is one of the 
most prosperous and happy neighborhoods in 
the county. 

Nearly all the rich bottom lands along the 
Spokane and Columbia rivers and the deep can- 
yons that lead down to them from the upland 
prairies are devoted, almost exclusively, to the 
cultivation of apples, pears, peaches, plums, 
apricots, cherries, strawberries, blackberries, 
etc.. and these lands are very valuable. The 
river channels lie about one thousand feet be- 
low the level of the prairie land, the descent in 
many places being quite steep, and occasion- 
ally the slopes are covered with forests and 
brush. In ether places the hillsides are rocky 
and rough, and again the descent is formed by 
a series of plateaus, or terraces, covered with 
more or less timber or brush, over which stock 
ranges both summer and winter, the locality 
once being the retreat of deer and other wild 

Concerning the cultivation of fruit the 
Northern Pacific Bulletin says in 1897, and 
quite conservatively : 

"While Lincoln countv has never claimed 

to be a fruit country (which statement would 
not at present be borne out by the evidence), 
there is hardly a farm to be found which has 
been occupied for any length of time, which 
does not possess its orchard sufficient not only 
for supplying the wants of its owners, but also 
to enable him to add to his income by sale of 
fruit. Certain localities are especially famous 
for their fruit, the warm, sandy river bottoms 
where irrigation can be easily applied, being 
utilized almost exclusively in this direction. * 
* * As many as 10,000 quarts of strawber- 
ries have been taken off a single acre. Lincoln 
county is especially famous for its apples, which 
possess keeping qualities of a very high order. 
It is not unusual to find Ben Davis apples and 
Newton pippins from Lincoln county on the 
markets in good condition in June and July. 
Aside from its grain and fruits the county is 
noted for its dairy products, the native grass 
being extremely nutritious, while alfalfa is a 
very profitable crop. Poultry, also, is raised 
quite successfully, and the farmers are learning 
that the poultry yard can be counted upon to 
furnish a very considerable addition to their 
revenues. The farmer who knows how to 
handle bees is also sure of a handsome income 
from this source." 

It is interesting to watch the evolution of 
any new county. Each successive year it pre- 
sents a new aspect. The editor of the Lincoln 
County Times thus describes that portion of the 
county under consideration lying between 
Sprague and Davenport, as it appeared in 1 888 : 

"The road runs up hill and down, the face 
of the country everywhere being decidedly un- 
dulating. On the rounded summits of the hills 
one can see far off, north, east and west, over 
vast stretches of the same hilly prairie. On the 
southern horizon lies the long, pine timber belt. 
This woody district terminates about ten miles 
east of Sprague. The highest elevation sur- 
mounted during our drive from Sprague to 
Davenport affords a pleasant view down the 
valley of Crab creek, and also into Lord's Val- 



ley which, it is claimed, is the finest agricultural 
region in this vicinity. On the far northern 
horizon, 60 or 70 miles distant, you see the blue 
summits of the mountains lying north of the 
Big Bend of the Columbia river, between the 
mouths of the Spokane and Okanogan rivers. 
The prospect affords a striking impression of 
an immense fertile region, rich in possibilities 
for agricultural development and very sparsely 
occupied as yet by settlers. All this region be- 
longs to what is known throughout the state of 
Washington under the general name of the 
'Big Bend Country.' It contains more good land 
still in possession of the United States govern- 
ment, and open to homestead entry, and pre- 
emption claims, than can be found in any other 
region west of the Rocky Mountains." 

Surprising, indeed, is the change that has 
taken place in the physical aspect of Lincoln 
county since the above lines were written. Six- 
teen years have elapsed and there is no more 
government land open to homestead entry. The 
absence of settlers noted has been supplied with 
a thrifty class of solid, substantial farmers, and 
the wide waste of rolling prairie — virgin soil — 
is now dotted with farm houses, cattle and or- 
chards. It is a transformation worthy the en- 
terprise and business sagacity of the inhabitants 
of Lincoln county, and one upon which it is 
good for the eye of man to dwell. 

The mining industries of Lincoln county, 
while not approaching in importance those of 
the northern tier of counties in the state, are 
not unworthy of serious consideration. Within 
its limits there are no large deposits of mineral 
bearing ore or numerous "flattering prospects." 
Still, Cedar Canyon, in the southern portion of 
Stevens county is, practically, contributary to 
Davenport, and this city transacts considerable 
business with that district in the way of mining 
and other supplies. According to the report of 
the Washington Geological Survey, "Lincoln 
County lies, practically, altogether within the 
domain of the Columbia basalt, a formation in 
which metalliferous veins do not occur." mg 

the northern boundary of the county, however, 
especially near the confluence of the Columbia 
and Spokane rivers, metamorphic rocks appear 
which were never covered by the lava, and in 
these veins of ore occur. For several years 
mining has been carried on in this section and 
many ledges prospected, some of which prom- 
ise to become valuable producers in the future. 
The contemplated erection of a smelter at the 
new town of Crystal City has renewed activity 
in mining circles. The formation of the ( irys- 
tal City district is granite, traversed by feldsite 
and blue porphyry dikes and innumerable 
quartz veins. Rhyolite, andisite, and phonolite 
dikes are also in evidence. Pitney llutte, one 
of the heaviest mineralized buttes in this section, 
has been the scene of considerably activity. 

In 1889 a large tody of high grade ore was 
exposed on the Pennsylvania. A shaft was 
sunk to the 100-foot level and two drifts run on 
the vein. Two cars of ore were shipped during 
development. In the fall of 1901 the shaft 
house and other buildings were swept away by 
fire since which time nothing but assessment has 
been done. L. N. Miner and associates are driv- 
ing a tunnel on the Nettie M., and are now in 
150 feet with ore in the face showing brittle sil- 
ver carrying gold. These people also run the 
Silver Cup No. 1 and 1 1 , Big Bend and Great 
Western. Several hundred feet of tunnels and 
drifts have been run on the Silver Cup No. 1 1, 
several shoots being encountered carrying val- 
ues of from $4 to $40. A picked sample from 
the surface of this property assayed 230 ounces 
of gold, and 278 ounces in silver. The Big 
Bend has a 30-foot ledge averaging $14. This 
property has been developed by a 40-foot shaft 
and a 30- foot drift. The Great Western is a 
promising property showing free gold. James 
Young is working on a feldsite dike carrying 
free gold. 

C. Grutt and sons are pioneers in this camp 
and have done considerable development work 
on their several properties among which are the 
Cupid. Independence and Storm King on Pit- 



ney Butte and White Faun, Blushing Morn and 
Lone Cabin on Grutt's Butte. The Cupid is on 
the Pennsylvania lead and carries the same 
grade of ore. This property is equipped with 
a large shaft house, bunk house and blacksmith 
shop. The Lone Cabin was the first location in 
the camp, then 'known as the Egypt. It is de- 
veloped by several tunnels and shafts. The ore 
averages about $35 in gold, copper, silver and 
lead. Clarence McCullough and associates are 
doing assessment work at Carp Lake and are 
taking out some high grade gray copper ore 
running as high as $85 to the ton. Mr. Mc- 
Cullough is one of the pioneers of this district 
and has unbounded faith in its ore bodies. , 

Drs. Turney and Kelley have a finely equip- 
ped property in the old LeMarch. A 100-foot 
shaft on the ledge has opened showing a shaft 
of fine ore. The latest strike is on the Thomp- 
son property, situated on the river road. High 
grade chloride ore has been encountered in the 
150 foot tunnel. Perhaps this is destined to 
become one of the big mines of the northwest. 
A crew of men have been at work to determine 
the extent of the ore body. The Drum Lom- 
mond, a recently incorporated company, has a 
fine ledge showing and has a force of men at 
work developing the property. 

The Crystal mine is located about a quarter 
of a mile east of the old Fort Spokane buildings, 
on a slight ridge, somewhat above the flat 
stretch of bench land upon which the govern- 
ment buildings are located. A ridge that is 
one of a succession of raises that piled up to- 
gether make the bluffs that mark the course of 
the brawling Spokane river, that, through cen- 
turies of erosion, has eaten an erratic pathway 
far down below the level of the plateau. The 
Crystal mine is not a recently discovered prop- 
erty. Away back in 1 88 1 . when Fort Spokane 
was first selected as a site for an army post, J. 
W. Nicholls and another party located the 
claim and did upon it a vast amount of work. 
Two shafts were sunk on the lead to a consid- 
erable depth, but the owners did not have the 

means to push the work. At one time Frank R. 
Moore, who conducted a store near the post, 
contributed means towards opening the ledge. 
An expert was imported who declared there 
was nothing in it, and consequently the sinews 
of war were not forthcoming. The property 
has seen many changes of ownership and there 
has been considerable litigation over it. In the 
spring of 1896 the Crystal Mining Company of 
Spokane, began work upon two ledges one and 
one-half miles to the eastward of the mouth 
of the Spokane river. One of these ledges is 
nine, and the other eight feet in width. Each 
has a northeast and southwest strike. In the 
development of this property three shafts have 
been sunk an aggregate depth of 425 feet ! drifts 
have also been driven to the extent of 540 feet. 
The average assay value of the ore is about 
$40 per ton, in silver and lead. The company 
has a 32-horse-power hoisting engine and a 
50-horse-power boiler. The total cost of all 
development work in 1902 was estimated at 
$28,000. The manager was John Gray, of 

In addition to the Crystal, in the same vi- 
cinity, are the Gray Eagle and Spokane mines, 
upon which a great deal of development has 
been done. A short distance north of there, on 
the Pitney Butte mountain, are the Pennsyl- 
vania, Pitney Butte. Silver King and Egypt 
properties, which show ore, and upon which 
some development was done a few years ago. 
The work on the latter properties has been 
nearly all done by Davenport parties. 

Egypt, lying twenty miles north of Daven- 
port, is one of the most familiar localities in the 
county. Very fertile are the lands of this sec- 
tion, timber; is abundant, and Egypt was one of 
the first places to attract the attention of pros- 
pective settlers. The district to which the name 
of Egypt is applied is about ten miles long and 
from two to four miles in width. Along the 
east side a range of low timbered hills skirt 
the body of farming land. Nearly 1.000 feet 
below Hows the Spokane river, from three to 






six miles east, and from this range of hills 
the country falls off suddenly into a series 
of benches, or rough, timbered hills, with an 
occasional valley threading down between them. 
To the west is Hawk Creek canyon and tribu- 
taries. This huge canyon which debouches into 
the Columbia river has its source just below 
Davenport, perhaps two miles distant, and its 
depth ranges from a few, to over 1,000 feet, 
increasing in depth as it approaches the Colum- 
bia. Egypt lies between this mammoth can- 
yon on one side, and the basin of the Spokane 
river on the other. This makes the approach 
from either way quite steep, and through which 
vehicles can proceed in a few places only. It 
forms one of the most picturesque sections in 
Lino 'In county. There is an abundance of 
timber on either side. To the east and north 
lie the great Spokane and Columbia river 
basins ; beyond are the timbered mountains and 
fertile valleys of the Colville Indian Reserva- 

The first settlers of Lincoln county were at- 
tracted to this district because of its dark, rich 
soil and the generous abundance of timber, sup- 
plying them not only with ample quantities of 
fuel, but enabling them to build log houses and 
fences at a period when lumber was not to be 
had at any price. In Egypt all the tillable land 
is now under cultivation; its grain fields have 
added wealth and comfort to the thrifty, pros- 
perous population. Nearly every quarter sec- 
tion of land is supplied with commodious barns 
and comfortable residences. Still, a productive 
soil is not the only resource of Egypt. The 
pine forests that mantle the hill slope down to 
the river banks have provided employment for 
many sawmills during the past ten or fifteen 
. years; its mines are an added resource, the im- 
portance of which cannot be even approximately 
estimated at the present time. 

Allusion has been made previously to Or- 
chard Valley. The visitor to this spot is re- 
minded of a village in the midst of beautiful 
surroundings. This locality, sometimes called 

Orchard, and sometimes I 'each Valley, is at the 
month of Hawk Creek canyon, just above its 
confluence with the Columbia river. This land 
is devoted to the cultivation of fruit, but as yet 
only about 320 acres are irrigated and planted 
to orchards. It is a neighborhood of neat, hand- 
some residences and well-to-do citizens. This 
community has a postomce, store, church build- 
ing, a large, two-story school house, a public 
hall and a fruit dryer. These Orchard Valley 
fruit lands are worth from $150 to S500 per 
acre. There is very little on the market at these 
prices. There are about. 800 acres of unirri- 
gated fruit lands adjoining, ami on a higher 
elevation. Doubtless these will be equally valu- 
able in the future after the construction of an 
irrigating ditch. Orchard Valley Irs more 
than 1,000 feet below the prairie farming lands, 
and is so completely sheltered that the temper- 
ature is mild and it is free from late and early 

One of the noted scenes of Lincoln county's 
many natural attractions is Hell Gate. Of this 
locality George W. Curtis writes as follows: 

"Hell Gate is where the waters of the Col- 
umbia river dash down through a rocky gorge, 
whose perpendicular walls rise hundreds ol 
feet above the water's level. Here in the ecu 
ter of the stream are two giant pillars of rock. 
grim and foreboding; they stand like evil sen- 
tinels over this angry flood that sweeps irresist- 
ably through the narrow gate at their feet. With 
a ceaseless roar the river forces its way through 
these gaps, tearing its waters into froth and 
foam and bearing the flakes like silent sails on 
toward the sea. Ere the confines of these spec 
tral rocks are reached, the water, like a troubled 
spirit, recoils, leaps, bounds, circles and eddies 
— then, like a maddened beast, springs against 
the immovable walls of rock and loses itself in 
the seething maelstrom below." 

The appended interesting statistics concern- 
ing the growth and development of Lincoln 
county are from the Wilbur Register of Octo- 
ber. 1901 : 


"The earlier records of the county are im- 
perfect, and the first year's reports in which we 
could find a record of the number of acres of 
land under cultivation is for 1886, when the 
total was given as 42,665. From our own 
knowledge of the rapid strides in improvement 
during those early years, we are positive that 
the first assessment in 1884 did not show over 
20,000 acres under cultivation. Indeed, we be- 
lieve it was much under that figure. In 1892 
the assessors' returns showed 125,626 acres. 
For the year 1901 the figures have jumped up 
to 397,258, and the probability is that the 
amount broken this year will bring the aggre- 
gate fully up to a half million acres. In as- 
sessed valuation -for each year the records are 
more perfect, though the total is given for the 
original assessment in some years and in others 
the total of the equalization by the state board. 
Following is the valuation for each year: 

1884 $1,107,871 

1886 1,752,807 

1888 2,338,043 

1S90 5,138,597 

1892 5-399.897 

1894 5-555-545 

1S96 5-235-734 

1898 5.671,832 

1900 6,497,070 

1885 $1-623,395 

1887 2,060.936 

1889 3.39i,88o 

1891 5.632,439 

1893 6.147,636 

1895 5.512,251 

1897 5,399,8i5 

1899 6,322.542 

1901 5.839.883 

"This, as equalized by the state board, was 


"The total assessment for 1902 was $7,940,- 
158; for 1903, it was $7,089,357. 

"These figures show a rapid and uniform in- 
crease with two exceptions. The first was in 
1900 when the lieu lands were assessed for 
the first time, which made an unusual and fic- 
tional increase in the total valuation. The other 
break was due to shrinkage of values caused by 
the financial panic of 1893. The recovery was 
slow, the figures of 1893 not being reached un- 
til 1899. In 1897 when the tide had fully 
turned, the figures are almost identical with 
those of 1892. Since that time the increase has 
made the same steady growth of former years, 
with the exception of 1901, when the "bumper" 
wheat crop incited the state board of equaliza- 
tion to make quite a heavy raise in the assess- 

Crab creek is an erratic stream which flows 
through the southern portion of Lincoln and 
Douglas counties, in a torturous course 150 
miles before reaching the Columbia river. The 
source of the main stream is near the town of 
Reardan in the extreme eastern portion of Lin- 
coln county. In certain localities Crab creek 
is a large, deep stream and again it sinks from 
sight to reappear miles beyond, until far west- 
ward, and south, the thirsty sands of the desert 
drink it up, and it finds its way to the Colum- 
bia underground. A few miles east of the 
source of Crab creek is the source of Deep 
creek, which flows eastward and northward, 
and becomes a stream of respectable size before 
contributing its contents to the turbulent Spo- 
kane river. 



By the legislative act creating Lincoln coun- 
ty, John Bartol, E. D. Willis and John Mc- 
Gourin were named as county commissioners. 
They were empowered to appoint the other 
county officials, and were to serve until the sec- 
ond Monday in January. 1885. At the first 
meeting of the board, December 18, 1883, the 
commissioners appointed officers as follows : 
Auditor, James H. Robertson ; Sheriff, John 
Cody; Treasurer, C. C. May; Assessor, R. A. 
Hutchinson; Probate Judge, W. H. Small- 
wood; Surveyor, J. E. Ludy; Coroner, J. S. 
Smith; Superintendent of Schools, C. W. Wal- 
ters; Sheep Commissioner, J. R. Whittaker. 

Mr. May, the appointee for county treas- 
urer, declined to serve, and William Yarwood 
was appointed to this office. Dr. Smith re- 
moved from the county, and the office of coro- 
ner was first held by Dr. W. H. Olds. Mr. 
Whittaker declined the office of sheep commis- 
sioner and W. F. Glasscock was elected to the 
position. In the fall of 1884 Commissioner 
Willis died and on November 3d W. A. Busey. 
of Crab Creek, was elected for the unexpired 

For a number of years the political com- 
plexion of the candidates cut a small figure. Of 
the first officers John Bertol, chairman of the 
board of county commissioners, was a Demo- 
crat. A majority of the county officials, how- 
ever, were Republicans. 

For the first few years in Lincoln county 
election returns were not retained on tile. 1 [ow- 
ever, we find the following officers serving, be- 
ginning the first of January, 1S85, having been 

chosen at the November election of 1884: 
County Commissioners, J. H. Lamona. chair- 
man; Horace Haynes; R. O. Porak; Auditor, 
P. K. Spencer; Probate Judge, E. F. Benson; 
Superintendent of Schools, C. H. Pryor; Sher- 
iff, John Cody ; Surveyor, J. E. Ludy ; Treas- 
urer, William Yarwood. 

At the election of 1884 — the first — nearly 
the whole Republican ticket was elected, many 
of the officers who had been previously ap- 
pointed being continued in office. 

The election of 1886 was devoid of sensa- 
tional features, and resulted as follows : Audi- 
tor, P. K. Spencer; Sheriff, R. D. Riordan; 
Probate Judge, William M. Chandler; Asses- 
sor, D. K. McDonald; Surveyor, A. (I. Mit- 
chum; Superintendent of Schools, C. H. Pryor, 
who was succeeded by .Mrs. Pryor after his 
death; Coroner, J. S. Smith; Treasurer, T. M. 
Cooper; Commissioners. John [nkster, Sr., 
Charles Schroeder and G. Garber. Inkster was 
elected chairman of the board. 

At the election of 1886 the political status 
of the county administration was completely re- 
versed, and nearly the entire Democratic ticket 
was successful. 

The Democratic county convention was 
held at Davenport Saturday. August 4. [888. 
R. A. Hutchinson, chairman of the county 
central committee, was named for presiding of- 
ficer, and D. K. McDonald was made secre- 
tarv. The event of this convention was the 
deadlock forsheriff. T. X. Murphy, of Sprague, 
R. 1 >. Riordan, of Sprague. and Charles Bethel, 
of Wilson Creek Precinct, were placed in nom- 


ination. Thomas Ledgerwood, of Larene, and 
V. W. Brooks, of Davenport, were then placed 
in nomination and Bethel withdrew in favor 
of Ledgerwood. Two more ballots resulted in 
no selection, when Riordan withdrew in favor 
of Ledgerwood ; then Brooks and Murphy did 
the same, and Ledgerwood was chosen by ac- 
clamation. Otherwise the convention was har- 

Wednesday, August 15th, the Republican 
county convention was held at Sprague. There 
was a good representation of delegates from all 
parts of the county. Major Boyd, retired, of 
Fort Spokane, chairman of the Republican 
county central committee, called the convention 
to order, W. A. Fairweather was made per- 
manent chairman and Guy Smith secretary. 
This convention was sensational and exciting, 
there being a number of candidates for nearly 
every office. There was a lack of harmony in 
Republican ranks, and many accusations of 
"jobbery" were bandied to and fro. 

The election was held. Despite the coolness 
of the day the largest vote heretofore cast in 
Lincoln county was polled November 6, 1888. 
The result, although a surprise in certain par- 
ticulars, proved satisfactory to the residents of 
the county. The difference in size of the num- 
ber of votes cast for the different officers can 
only be explained by the fact that many of the 
voters did not cast a full ballot. It will be seen 
that the Democrats and Republicans each had 
representation at the court house for the suc- 
ceeding two years. The vote : 

For Congressman: — John B. Allen. 908; 
Charles S. Voorhees, Democrat. 713; Judge 
Green, 1 1. 

For Adjutant General: — Hillory Butler, 
Democrat, 892; R. C. O'Brien, Republican, 
872 ; Brown, 4. 

For Brigadier, General : — J. J. Hunt, Demo- 
crat- 753 ; A. P. Curry, Republican, 969 ; Broo- 
man, 4. 

For Joint Councilman : — Clay Fruit, Demo- 

crat, 749: J. M. Snow, Republican, 870; Wal- 
ters, 4. 

For Joint Representative : — Frank M. Ouin- 
land. Democrat, 635; P. K. Spencer, Repub- 
lican, 992. 

For Prosecuting Attorney : — N. T. Caton, 
Democrat, 731: Wallace Mount, Republican, 


For County Auditor: — T. M. Cooper, 
Democrat, 862; W. B. Lottman, Republican, 
747 : Sanderson, 12. 

For Sheriff : — Thomas Ledgerwood, Dem- 
ocrat, 715; Richard Fish, Republican. 906. 

For Treasurer : — R. H. Chilton, Democrat, 
864; Guy Smith, Republican, 7^8: Willough- 
by, 1. 

For Assessor : — D. K. McDonald, Demo- 
crat, 893: C. E. Willoughby, Republican. 744; 
Chandler, 1. 

For Probate Judge : — C. H. Hannum, Dem- 
ocrat, 785 ; Jackson Brock, Republican, 847. 

For Surveyor: — A. G. Mitchum, Demo- 
crat, 829; Jerry Rockhold, Republican, 793. 

For School Superintendent : — S. R. Wesp, 
Democrat, 597; Mrs. C. H. Pryor, Republican, 
1,001 ; Smith, 12. 

For Coroner: — H. J. Whitney, 1632; Olds, 

For County Commissioners : — Matthew 
Brislawn, Democrat, 718; Gotlieb Garber, Dem- 
ocrat, 769 ; Charles Schroeder, Democrat, 787 ; 
John Inkster, Sr., Republican, 864; T. B. Ca- 
rey, Republican, 866 ; Matt Breeze, Republican, 

May 14, 1889, an election was held in Lin- 
coln county to choose delegates to the Wash- 
ington Constitutional Convention. The state 
was about to be admitted into the union. The 
district comprised all of Lincoln, and a portion 
of Douglas county. The Democrats met in 
convention at Davenport and named H. L. 
Frost, of Wilbur, and B. B. Glasscock, of 
Sprague, as their nominees. The Republican 
convention was held at Sprague. and Frank M. 


Dallam, editor of the Lincoln County Times, 
and Hon. H. W. Fairweather, of Sprague, were 
selected as candidates. The restdt of the elec- 
tion was in the nature of a grand surprise. It 
resulted in the election of one Democrat, Glass- 
cock, and two Republicans, Fairweather and 
Dallam, to serve as delegates in the constitu- 
tional convention. In the following result, by 
precincts, the vote of a few precincts in Doug- 
las county,. which was in the district with Lin- 
coln county, is not given, but they did not 
affect the general result in the least : 

Precincts Fairweather Dallam Glasscock Frost 

Sprague 299 51 304 47 

Davenport 61 109 35 21 

Mondovi 55 58 10 5 

Miles 23 21 4 2 

Inkster 15 12 14 10 

Harrington 10 4 26 18 

Larine 15 21 10 3 

Yarwood n 1 12 2 

Crab Creek 14 6 22 10 

Hinshaw 10 8 14 8 

Sa-^ni 26 10 19 2 

Fairview 15 14 8 5 

Spring Creek 24 23 20 1 

Welch Creek 6 8 13 18 

Sedalia 21 19 16 6 

Grand Coulee 3 12 8 3 

Grand Bluff 12 o o 12 

Earl 3 4 4 3 

Condon 16 18 u 33 

Wilson Creek 17 84 

Union ' 3 11 9 7 

Butte 11 16 6 5 

Rrents 23 44 9 39 

Enos 20 1 19 o 

Meridian 9 II 3 2 

706 489 604 26s 

These figures show that hardly more than a 
third of the vote of the county was polled. Local 
preferences and indifference in others tended 
to influence voters to such an extent that no po- 
litical significance could be drawn from the 
result. The question of party was ignored 
throughout the territory, and this election was 
no criterion of the comparative strength of the 
two political organizations. 

The first election after the admittance of 
Washington into the union was held October 1, 

1889. The first named in the following table 
are Republicans; the last Democrats: 

I'm- Governor: — K. 1'. l-'erry. 1.104: Eu- 
gene Semple, 863. 

bur State Representatives: — E. K. Spen- 
cer. 1,063; C. T. Blackfan, [,032; II. W. 
Brpoke. 966; ( '. II. Schroeder, 847. 

For Superior Judge: — W. .Mount. 1.033; 
X. T. Caton, 922. 

lor State Senator: — II. \V. Fairweather, 
972 ; C. C. May. 961. 

For State Senator Fourth District: — F. H. 
Luce, 1,169: H. F. Smith. 788. 

For County Clerk: — H. Spining, 1,035: J. 
W. Anderson, 919. 

For Constitution: — 1,477. 

Against Constitution : — 293. 

For Woman Suffrage: — 487. Against 
Woman Suffrage. 1 . 1 79. 

For Prohibition: — 674. Against Prohibi- 
tion, 1,082. 

For State Capital: — North Yakima. 767. 
Ellensburgh. 999. Olvmpia. 82. 

The political atmosphere of the spring of 
1890 was highly charged with the Farmers' 
Alliance sentiment. Many organizations were 
perfected throughout the county, and the tidal 
wave swept nearly every farmer into one or an- 
other of these camps. July 12. 1890. there was 
organized at Davenport a Lincoln Countj 
Farmers' Alliance. Previously local orders 
bad been organized in eight different localities 
in the county. As this organization was to play 
an important part in the political history of the 
county for some years to come, an account ol 
this initial meeting will prove of interest. W. 
E. Allison, county organizer, called the meet- 
ing to order and was elected temporary chair- 
man. George M. Witt was -elected for tem- 
porary secretary. Following is a list of the 
several alliance orders in the county at the time, 
and the members who participated in the organ- 
ization of the county bead center. 

Harrington Alliance; Frank Glasscock, Wil- 
liam Yarwood, George M. Witt. J. L. Hall. 


Union Alliance ; James Lower} - , John Saw- 
yer, Peter Leipham, W. P. Nichols. 

Reardan Alliance ; J. S. Capps, Fred Gar- 
ber, W. H. Capps. 

Libert_y Alliance ; T. C. Lakin, Jacob Smith, 
Miller, Kruger. 

Crescent Alliance; M. S. Taylor, Joseph 

Bald Ridge Alliance; A. W. Plummer, L. 
Rowse, George Smith, Levi Rouse. 

Mondovi Alliance; John Mowyer, John 
Glazebrook, W. E. Allison. 

Lincoln Alliance; G. W. Stuart, H. N. Mar- 
tin, I. Minnick, R. A. Hutchinson. 

The officers of the Lincoln County Farm- 
ers' Alliance elected were R. A. Hutchinson, 
president; John Glazebrook, vice president; 
Jacob Smith, treasurer; H. X. Martin, secre- 
tary; W. H. Capps, Inner Doorkeeper; Fred 
Garber, Outer Doorkeeper. 

As illustrative of the strength of the Farm- 
ers' Alliance movement in Washington, it may 
be said that there were 186 organized local al- 
liances in the state in 1891. Whitman county 
headed the list with 49. Next came Spokane 
county with 25; then Lincoln, 22; Garfield, 17; 
Walla Walla, 15; Columbia n, etc. 

In the general election of November, 1890, 
party lines were not drawn very closely in any 
of the various precincts in Lincoln county. Few 
straight tickets were cast on either side. But a 
faint idea of the politics of the county could be 
gleaned from the vote cast this year. But, in the 
main, the Democratic ticket prevailed over that 
of the Republicans. There was, however, con- 
siderable sectional feeling displayed. Append- 
ed is the official vote of Lincoln county for 1890, 
as compiled by Auditor Cooper, Judge Brock 
and Commissioner Breeze, while sitting as a 
canvassing board : 

For Member of Congress: — John L. Wil- 
son, Republican. 875 ; Thomas Carroll, Demo- 
crat, 812. Wilson's plurality, 63. 

For State Representative: — Frank Atkin- 
son. Democrat. 850: J. S. Capps, Republican, 

711; L. N. Cushman, Republican, 867; R. A. 
Hutchinson. Democrat, 1,022. Hutchinson's 
plurality, 155; Cushman's, 17. 

For County Attorney : — J. W. Merritt, Re- 
publican, 1,029; T. A. Wickham, Democrat, 
1,001. Merritt' s majority, 28. 

For County Clerk : — Howard Spining, Re- 
publican, 1,134; John Thomason, Democrat, 
853. Spining's plurality, 281. 

For County Auditor : — J. W. Anderson, 
Democrat, 1,220; B. A. Knapp, Republican, 
804. Anderson's plurality, 416. 

For Sheriff : — Richard Fish, Republican, 
1,026; A. G. Mitchum, Democrat, 1,006. Fish's 
plurality, 20. 

For County Treasurer: — R. H. Chilton, 
Democrat, 1,139; W. H. Howard, Republican, 
847. Chilton's plurality, 292. 

For Assessor : — D. K. McDonald, Demo- 
crat, 12 17; W. H. McOuarrie, Republican, 
656. McDonald's plurality, 561. 

For Surveyor : — C. H. Hannum, Democrat, 
1,096; R. J. Reeves, Republican, 620. Han- 
num's majority, 476. 

For School Superintendent : — H. N. Mar- 
tin, Democrat, 954; Mrs. C. H. Pryor, Repub- 
lican, 1,103. Mrs. Pryor's majority, 149. 

For Coroner : — J. P. Tamiesie, Republican, 
930; B. H. Yount, Democrat, 870. Tamiesie's 
plurality, 60. 

For Sheep Inspector : — James Lowery, Re- 
publican, 1,077; W. L. Smith, Democrat, 918. 
Lowery's majority, 159. 

For Commissioner, District No. 1 : — C. F. 
Bassett, Republican, 693 ; B. Ettleson, Demo- 
crat, 824 ; S. A. Gibson, Independent. 484. 
Ettleson's plurality, 131. 

For Commissioner, District No. 2. — John 
Inkster, Sr., Republican, 1.030; J. F. Nee, Dem- 
ocrat, 916. Inkster's majority, 114. 

For Commissioner, District No. 3 : — H. 
McManis, Republican, 860; A. J. Stookey, 
Democrat, 1,029. Stookey's majority, 169. 

For Bonding the County, 394 ; against, 



For County Seat: — Davenport, 1,212; 
Sprague, 956. 

Sprague's majority over the three-fifths 
necessary for removal of the count)- seat was 

The birth of the Populist party was nothing 
more nor less than the Farmers' Alliance or- 
ganization entering politics. This propaganda, 
introduced in the count)' in the winter of 1889- 
90, was organized to advance the interests of 
agriculture. Enthusiastically it was taken up 
by many energetic farmers, and some politi- 
cians. The latter, after the organization had 
been thoroughly completed, began agitation for 
a political union and the formation of a new 
party. At first the results were anything but 
encouraging, especially to the advocates of po- 
litical reform. But they were far from being 
discouraged, and after a number of futile at- 
tempts the alliance voted to enter politics. The 
success of this new party during the succeed- 
ing few years may be gleaned from the results 
of the elections. 

Saturday, May 14, 1892, marks the date of 
the advent of the People's Party into Lincoln 
county politics. On that date a large number 
of farmers from all parts of the county gath- 
ered at Davenport to participate in the initial 
ceremonies taken in the organization of the new 
party. T. H. Burns, organizer of the F. A. & 
I. U., was present and was the leading spirit 
of the affair. W. A. Grant was made perman- 
ent chairman and George Witt secretary. All 
present who were willing- to renounce allegiance 
to the old parties and endorse the platform of 
the St. Louis Industrial conference of Febru- 
ary 24th, were allowed to participate in the 
organization. Some twenty-eight signified 
their intention of becoming members of the new 
part\-. Executive and county central com- 
mittees were appointed, a date set for the coun- 
ty convention, and the People's Party was born 
— in Lincoln county. July 13th the party met 
at Davenport and placed in the field a full coun- 
tv ticket. 

June 15. [892, Lincoln count)- was honored 
by a state convention within the limits of her 
boundaries. The new-born People's Part) o n- 
vened a't Sprague on that day and chose dele- 
gates to the National Convention at Omaha, 
July 4. 

The election of 1892 was hotly contested. 
There were four count)- tickets in the field — 
Democratic, Republican, People's Party and 
Prohibition. For the first time in her history 
one of the citizens of Lincoln count)- received 
a place on the Republican state ticket, or any 
other state ticket, for that matter. F. H. Luce, 
of Davenport, was the unanimous choice of the 
state convention for Lieutenant Governor, and 
he was elected. 

Following is the vote in detail : 

Presidential Electors : — Harrison. 015: 
Cleveland, 933; Weaver, 559. 

For Governor: — John H. McGraw, K., 
858; Henry J. Snively, D.. 866: C. W. Young. 
P., 687. 

For Members of Congress: — William II. 
Doolittle, R., 863: John L. Wilson, R, 872; 
Thomas Carroll, D., 902; James A. Mundey, 
D., 832; J. C. Wan Patten, P., 609; M. F. 
Knox, P., 594. 

For State Representatives: — T. C. Lakin, 
R.. 834; W. X. McNew, R.. 842; John I-'. 
Green, D., 916; Isaac II. Long, D., 800; Will- 
iam Priest, P., 617. 

For Joint Senator: — Rollin J. Reeves. R.. 
050; R, A. Hutchinson, D., 1,185. 

Lor Superior Court Judge: — Wallace 
Mount, R., 1,041 : X. T. Caton, D., 852; Jack- 
son Brock, P., 529. 

For Prosecuting Attorney : — J. W. Mer- 
ritt, R, 1.046; C. LI. Xeal. D.. 1.134. 

For Auditor:— E. W. Watson, R.. 838; J. 
W. Anderson, D.. 1.090; R. D. Duffield, P., 

For County Clerk: — J. 1'.. Gray, R.. 1,015; 
J. W. Hartline, 1).. j<<j ; Frank Garber, 1'.. 


For Sheriff: — T. P. Donahue. R.. 1.044: 



D. K. McDonald, D., 767; W. A. Grant, P., 

For Treasurer: — Howard Spining, R., 957; 
R. H. Chilton. D., 860; J. J. Brown, P., 613. 

For Commissioner. First District : — L. V. 
Allen, R., 1,011; B. Ettleson, D., /2T,: C. A. 
Belfre. P., 636. 

For Commissioner, Second District : — C. 
P. Turner, R.,779; John Moylan. D.. 837; 
Peter Leipam, P., 669. 

For Commissioner, Third District : — M. F. 
LaFollett, R., 844; A. J. Stookey, D.. 842; 
Luke Hale. P.. 539. 

For School Superintendent : — A. S. Mel- 
cher. R., 858; H. N. Martin, D.. 1.000: C. C. 
Gibson, P., 549. 

For Assessor: — J. E. Yest, R.. 884: Ferd 
Brislawn, D., 834: E. \Y Thorp. P.. 663. 

For Surveyor: — Jerry Rockhold, R., 1,030; 
Josiah Cole, D., 1,030. There two candidates 
drew lots and Rockhold won. 

For Coroner:— W. H. Olds, R.. 911 ; B. H. 
Yount, D., 895; R. A. Burge, P., 596. 

The general election of 1894. in this county, 
may be regarded as a landslide lor the Popu- 
lists. There were three tickets in the field, 
Republicans, Democrats and Populists. The 
campaign conducted by the latter party was ag- 
gressive. Still, the vote was close, and the 
Populists won mainly through a most perfect 
organization, backed by intense enthusiasm. 

The official vote in the county was as fol- 
lows : 

For Congressmen : — W. H. Doolittle. Re- 
publican. 860; S. C. Hdye. Republican, 925; 
N. T. Caton. Democrat, 589; B. F. Hueston, 
Democrat, 432 ; W. P. C. Adams, Populist, 
1.020: J. C. Yan Patten, Populist. 1,030. 

For Judge Superior Court : — R. O. Dun- 
bar. Republican. 926; M. J. Gardon, Republi- 
can. 882: T. N. Allen. Democrat. 481: B. L. 
Sharpstein, Democrat, 447: H. L. Forrest, 
Populist, 1,031; J. M. Ready, Populist, 980. 

For Representatives to the Legislature : — 
J. B. Irvine, Republican. 871 : C. E. Meyers, 

Republican. 884: J. F. Green, Democrat, 637; 
J. W. Johnson, Democrat, 385 ; P. K. Spencer, 
Populist, 985; G. M. Witt, Populist, 1,063. 

For Assessor : — J. E. Vest, Republican, 
926; John Moylan, Democrat, 708; H. L. 
Amine, Populist, 868. 

For County Attorney : — \Y T. Warren, 
Republican, 802: A. C. Shaw, Democrat. 744; 
Jackson Brock, Populist, 916. 

For Auditor: — E. W. Watson, R., 902; G. 
F. Kennedy. D., 599; John Gunning, P., 980. 

For County Clerk: — J. C. Martin. R., 1,- 
016; John Hartline, D., 499; S. E. DeRackin, 
P., 920. 

For School Superintendent : — E. F. Elliot, 
R.. 1,025 : W. W. Hutton, D.. 473; E. F. Scar- 
borough, P., 968. 

For Sheriff: — T. P. Donahue. R.. 1,131 ; 
S. A. Stanfield. D., 209; William Williams, 
P.. 1,159. 

For Surveyor: — Jerry Rockhold, R., 1,- 
008; Josiah Cole, D.. 455; J. W. Scwarer, P., 

For Treasurer : — J. J. Inkster, Republican, 
999; A. G Mitchum, Democrat. 443; J. J. 
Brown, Populist, 1,011. 

For Coroner : — L. Lewis, Republican, 952 ; 
O. B. Parks, Populist, 1,119. 

For Commissioner, Second District : — J. 
Inkster, Sr., Republican, 321 ; T. M. Snyder, 
Democrat, 158: T. G. Stevenson. Populist, 

For Commissioner, Third District : — M. F. 
LaFollett. Republican. t,2>7' J- Grimm, Demo- 
crat. 138: A. L. Stookey, Populist, 423. 

On the tenth day following this election, 
the last allowed by law for the filing- of an 
election contest, the few defeated populists, and 
the Republicans both entered contest suits. The 
Populists contested the entire Sprague vote, 
alleging- illegal registration. The Republicans 
contested the vote of several precincts, alleg- 
ing illegal voting. S. E. De Rackin, Populist 
candidate for county clerk, filed a contest 
against J. C. Martin, the Republican clerk elect, 



alleging that the registration in the city of 

Sprague was ilk-gal. and that the three Sprague 
precincts should he thrown out. This would 
have given the election to the plaintiff. On the 
same grounds Harry Amine, Populist candi- 
date for assessor, filed a contest against J. E. 
Vest, and Oliver Terwillager brought suit 
against E. F. Elliot, candidate for school super- 
intendent. Following the filing of these con- 
tests T. P. Donahue filed. contest against Will- 
iam H. Williams, Populist sheriff elect, claim- 
ing that in Harrington, Yarwood, Columbia, 
Reardan, Grand Coulee, Fairview, Mondovi, 
Sassin. Willow Springs, Sedalia, Liberty and 
Crab Creek precincts, votes were cast for him- 
self and counted for Williams, and that the 
ballots were not officially stamped in some of 
the precincts. J. J. Inkster, also, filed a con- 
test against J. J. Brown, Populist treasurer 
elect, taking the same legal position as Don- 

These contest cases were all withdrawn by 
the middle of December. The Lincoln County 
Times said : 

"This was, doubtless, the best thing to do. 
Any changing of the result, whatever good 
reason there might have been, would have 
been resisted by many people who would have 
expressed their disapproval on the first op- 
portunity presented." 

During the year 1895 political affairs in 
Lincoln county were kept at concert pitch by 
sundry efforts to remove Sheriff S. E. De 
Rackin from office. De Rackin was the editor 
of a People's Party paper, published at 
Sprague, and had been made sheriff by the 
board of county commissioners upon the resig- 
nation of William Williams, who had been 
elected at the election of 1894. It is claimed 
that De Rackin was quite unpopular, not only 
with his political opponents, hut with members 
of his own party, as well. His bondsmen were 
released from liability, and being unable to 
procure others, he was deposed bj action of the 
commissioners. Sheriff Rackin. however, re- 

fused to vacate, and for nearly a year the con- 
test waged warmly. The matter found its 
way into court and De Rackin lost. An ap- 
peal was taken to the supreme court, but in 
January, 1896. De Rackin voluntarily resigned 
the office of sheriff and wound Up the contest 
which had been long drawn out. hitter and ex- 
pensive. But he still continued to mix in mat- 
ters political. February 2, 1890. he caused the 
arrest of County Commissioner Steven- 
a charge of having overdrawn his salary. The 
trial of Stevenson was held in March, and he- 
was promptly acquitted. Following is the 
record of the commissioners' proceedings in re 
Rackin : 

"In the matter of the resignation of S. E. 
De Rackin, the board having declared the of- 
fice of sheriff vacant and appointed Frank 
Garber as sheriff to fill said vacancy, and said 
De Rackin having been contesting the appoint- 
ment of said Garber, and said resignation hav- 
ing been filed by way of compromise, the same 
is hereby accepted." 

The political raid on Sheriff De Rackin by 
members of his own party could have hut one 
result. It split the People's Party asunder. 
The campaign of 1896 commenced under a 
cloud. The antagonists were known as the 
Martin-De Rackin, and the McMillan-Conway, 
factions. The Populist county convention was 
held at Davenport. June 18th, and resulted 
in the seating of the McMillan-Conway forces 
and the complete humiliation and overthrow of 
the opposing faction. A full Populist ticket 
was nominated. 

August loth the Republican count) con- 
vention was held at Wilbur, and another ticket 
placed invitingly before the people for their 
franchise. The fusion forces. Democrats, free 
silver Republicans and a number of recalcitrant 
Populists gol together in county convention at 
Harrington and placed a third ticket in the 
field. The general election of [896 was held. 
A canvass of the votes developed the fact that 
the Populists had a plurality of from 800 to 



1,000 on the state ticket, and from ioo to 500 
on the county ticket. The Republicans cast 
nearly 800 votes. The Populists from 1,000 
to 1,400 and the free silver people from 100 to 
600. The silver ticket did not have the 
strength with which it had been credited. Fol- 
lowing is the vote in Lincoln county : 

McKinley electors. 779; Bryan electors, 1,- 

For Governor : — P. C. Sullivan, Republi- 
can, 816; John R. Rogers, Populist, 1,613. 

For Joint State Senator : — S. H. Chase, Re- 
publican, 795; F. M. Baum, Populist, 1,640. 

For Representatives : — G. W. Stewart, Re- 
publican, 774; H. C. Anderson, Republican, 
785 ; John Wickham, Free Silver, 5 59 ; George 
Witt, Populist, 1.584; C. T. Irvin, Populist, 

For Judge Superior Court : — Wallace 
Mount, Republican, 1.066; C. H. Neal, Popu- 
list, 1.444. 

For Sheriff : — W. H. Yarwood, Republi- 
can, 744; T. M. Cooper, Silver, 682; O. G. 
Devenish, Populist, 1,098. 

For County Clerk : — J. C. Martin, Repub- 
lican, 1,062; J. L. Alkire. Populist, 1,406. 

For Auditor : — J. E. Vest, Republican, 
699; John W. Siegman, Silver, 592; J. W. 
Gunning. Populist, 1.257. 

For Treasurer : — J. H. Nicholls, Republi- 
can, 829; E. E. Shafer. Silver, 100; O. G. 
Griffith, Populist, 1.283. . 

For Prosecuting Attorney : — Llewellyn 
Davies, Republican, 844 : A. W. Salisbury, 
Silver, 644; Jackson Brock, Populist, 1,044. 

For Assessor: — A. S. Campbell, Republi- 
can, 813; P. H. Wolford, Silver, 368; P. M. 
Lyse. Populist, 1,341. 

For Superintendent of Schools : — E. F. 
Elliott, Republican, 1,066; Alice Neal, Popu- 
list, 1.443. 

For Surveyor : — Finch, Silver, 445 ; Ludy, 
Populist, 1,528. 

For Commissioner, First District : — Au- 

gust Dawell, Silver, 568; F. G. Crisp, Popu- 
list, 1,356. 

For Commissioner, Third District : — I. N. 
Cushman, Republican, 835 ; W. L. Robinson, 
Silver, 433; A. E. Stookey, Populist, 1,201. 

County Seat Removal : — For Davenport, 
1,582; for Harrington, 240. Against removal, 


The sweeping victory of Populism in 1896 
inspired an enthusiasm that carried the party 
into the campaign of 1898 apparently vig- 
orous and confident. Their convention was 
held in Davenport Thursday, June 23d. It 
proved an interesting convocation. W. M. 
Priest, of Fairview, was made chairman and 
I. J. Minnick, secretary. Early in the day ani- 
mation was imparted to the affair by the with- 
drawal of the Reardan delegation from the 
convention hall, the reason assigned being that 
all their delegates had not been seated. Some 
time before the convention was called to order 
a committee of Populists had investigated the 
acts of the county commissioners in regard to 
the county's settlement with the railroads con- 
cerning the payment of delinquent taxes, and 
had reported that the railroads had secured the 
best of the agreement. As a result the Popu- 
lists incorporated in their platform the follow- 
ing plank : 

Whereas the people's party has been a strenuous 
advocate of the imperative mandate, claiming it would 
be a great safeguard against corrupt and insufficient 
office holders, and in harmony with free institutions and 
would secure more competent and faithful servants as 
office holders, and whereas the commissioners of Lin- 
coln county have proven themselves* incompetent to care 
for the best interests of the people of this county by their 
unbusinesslike methods of compromising the railroad 
taxes whereby the county suffered great loss. 

Therefore we ask s'aid commissioners to resign their 
offices on the ground of unbusinesslike methods, thus 
putting in practice what we preach so far as we have 
the power. 

Instead of resigning in accordance with this 
singular request the commissioners came before 
the convention and explained their acts con- 



cerning the taxation of railroads and other 
matters. The Populists then turned their at- 
tention to the nomination of a full county ticket. 

The Lincoln county Republicans gathered 
in ci invention at Davenport Wednesday, July 
27th, and placed in nomination a county ticket. 
J. F. Hill was selected chairman and J. P. 
Lawrence, secretary of the convention, which 
was harmonious throughout. The Democratic 
convention was held at Davenport Thursday. 
September 1st. T. M. Cooper was chosen 
chairman and Henry Anderson, secretary. 

The election of November 8, 1898, was pre- 
ceded by a long campaign. The three tickets 
in the field contained, each, candidates for all 
the various offices. Fusion between the Demo- 
crats and Populists did not materialize, al- 
though an attempt was made to defeat the Re- 
publican candidate for representative by com- 
bining the vote of the Democrats and Popu- 
lists on two of the candidates, one Populist and 
one Democrat. But a great change had oc- 
curred in the complexion of Lincoln county 
politics within two years. The Populists who 
had proved so strong in 1896 were completely 
overthrown in 1898. Not one of their candi- 
dates was elected. The cause of the Populists' 
defeat was the voluntary support given Repub- 
licans by Democrats. The county went strong- 
ly Republican; every candidate, with the ex- 
ception of prosecuting attorney and auditor, be- 
ing elected, the two latter offices being cap- 
tured by the Democrats. The official vote of 
the county is appended : 

For Members of Congress : — F. W. Cush- 
man. Republican, 1.055; W. L. Jones, Repub- 
lican, 1,016; J. Hamilton Lewis, Populist, 805; 
W. C. Jones, Populist, 742; A. C. Dickinson, 
Prohibitionist. 34; C. L. Haggard. Prohibi- 
tionist, 25 : Walter Y\*alker, Socialist Labor, 
27; M. A. Hamilton, Socialist Labor, 33. 

For - State Representatives : — IT. A. P. 
Meyers, Republican, 1.076; James M. Parrish, 
Republican. 1.093: Charles W. Bethel, Demo- 
crat. 428; Byron W. Richards, Democrat, 298; 

George M. Witt, Populist, jjt>; \\". M. Priest, 
I '' ipulist, 415. 

For Sheriff: — J. II. Gardner, Republican, 
903; John Moylan, Democrat, o_>5 ; O. G. De- 
Vinish. Populist, .{• i< >. 

For County Clerk: — William II. Yarwood, 
Republican, 932 ; R. P. Short, Democrat. 342 ; 
J. 1'. Alkine, Populist, 721. 

For Auditor: — George W. Weaks, Repub- 
lican, 819; J. W. Anderson. Democrat. 840; 
E. J. Holland, Populist, 354. 

For Treasurer: — S. S. Shipherd, Republi- 
can, 891 ; P. H. Dencer, Democrat, 386; C. G. 
Griffith, Populist, J7,y. 

For Prosecuting Attorney : — Llewllyn Dav- 
ies, Republican, 747; N. T. Caton, Democrat, 
881 ; Joseph Sessions, Populist, 399. 

For Assessor : — George G Grimes, Repub- 
lican, 976; J. W. Mann, Democrat, 418; I. J. 
Minnick, Populist, 598. 

For Superintendent of Schools: — Lena 
Bemis, Republican, 883 ; Mrs. Dora Morgan, 
Democrat, 337; Alice E. Neal. Populist, 789. 

For- Surveyor : — Jerry Rockhold, Republi- 
can, 1.008; J. E. Ludy, Democrat, 852. 

For Coroner: — C. M. McKinley, Republi- 
can, 985; M. T. Setters, Democrat, 550; Daniel 
Winters, Populist, 429. 

For Commissioner, First District: — Hugh 
S. McNeilly, Republican, 1.005 ; Jacob Smith, 
Democrat, 506; L. Y. Williams. Populist, 458. 

For Commissioner, Second District: — Eli 
1). Kellogg. Republican, 854; Frank Hardin, 
Democrat, 053; J. B. Pershall, Populist, 1^3. 

The Republican county convention of 1900 
was held at Davenport, Tuesday, July 10th. 
Lieutenant Governor F. II. Luce was elected 
chairman, and H. J. Xeilly. of Wilbur, secre- 
tary. Nearly every precinct in the county was 
nted and the convention moved without 
. A full county ticket was nominated. 
Throughout the county, at this period, many 
McKinley and Roosevelt and Bryan clul re 

organized. The Democrat-- and Populists held 
their conventions at Davenport Wednesday, 



July 1 8th, and the resulting movement was 
complete fusion of the two parties which, practi- 
cally, sounded the death knell of the Populist 
party. The candidates nominated all went on 
the ticket as Democrats. Still, the Populists 
named candidates for one representative, com- 
missioner for the second district, sheriff, treas- 
urer, clerk and assessor. The Democrats 
named candidates for one representative, com- 
missioner for the third district, auditor, prose- 
cuting attorney, school superintendent, sur- 
veyor and coroner. Of the Populist conven- 
tion T. G. Stevenson presided as temporary 
chairman and E. A. Hesseltine as temporary 
secretary. George M. Witt was made perma- 
nent chairman and E. A. Hesseltine was con- 
tinued permanent secretary. The Democratic 
convention was presided over by John Bartol, 
chairman, and Edward Sharp served as secre- 
tary. The campaign was spirited, but one of 
the cleanest ever known in Lincoln county. 
Personalities were conspicuous by their ab- 
sence. There were polled in Lincoln county 
3.184 votes. 

For Governor: — J. M. Frink, Republican, 
1,130; John R. Rogers, Democrat, 1,851 ; R. E. 
Dunlap,' Prohibition, 62; William McCormick, 
Social Labor. 6; W. C. B. Randolph. Social 
Democrat, 27. 

For State Senator: — M. E. Hay, Repub- 
lican. 1.390: Gotleib Garber, Democrat, 1,621. 

For State Representatives : — A. L. Smaller, 
Republican, 1.355: J. A. Talkington. Republi- 
can. 1. 261; John Raymer, Democrat, 1,610; 
J. J. Cameron, Democrat, 1,536. 

For Superior Court Judge : — H. A. P. 
Meyers, Republican, 1,286; C. H. Neal, Demo- 
crat. 1,740. 

For Sheriff : — J. H. Gardner, Republican. 
1,632; L. A. Kennedy, Democrat, 1,389. 

For County Clerk : — W. H. Yarwood, Re- 
publican, 1.573; C. C. Gibson, Democrat, 
1 .460. 

For Auditor: — R. D. Anderson. Republi- 

can, 949; J. W. Anderson, Democrat, 2,099. 

For Treasurer: — S. S. Shepherd, Republi- 
can, 1,388; I. J. Minnick, Democrat, 1,616. 

For Prosecuting Attorney : — W. T. War- 
ren. Republican, 1,211; X. T. Caton, Demo- 
crat, 1,838. 

For Assessor : — G. G Grimes, Republican, 
1,403; D. M. McRea, Democrat, 1,612. 

For Superintendent of Schools : — Lena 
Bemis, Republican, 1,486; Alice Neal, Demo- 
crat, 1,556. 

For Surveyor : — E. C. Davis, Republican, 
1,361 ; George R. Sawyer. Democrat, 1,642. 

For Coroner : — C. P. Richards, Republican, 
1.203; R- P- -Moore, Democrat, 1,716. 

For Commissioner, Second District : — E. 
D. Kellogg, Republican, 1,331: J. R. David- 
son, Democrat, 1,700. 

For Commissioner, Third District: — Will- 
iam Gemmill, Republican, 1,361 : Henry 
Thompson. Democrat, 1,625. 

The Lincoln county Republican conven- 
tion of 1902 was held at Wilbur, Thursday, 
July 10th. C. E. Meyers presided over the 
convention and R. M. Dye was elected secre- 
tary. The Democrats convened at Harring- 
ton Tuesday. July 15th. and placed in nomina- 
tion a full count}- ticket. P. W. Dillon presided 
over the convention and Frank Garber served 
as secretary. During the two years previous 
there had been a considerable influx of popu- 
lation in Lincoln county, and this added vote 
seems to have materially aided the Republican 
party. The remarkable splitting up of the vote 
shows that there was a strong independent 
sentiment to be reckoned with which neither 
of the two parties was able to control. We ap- 
pend the vote : 

For Congressmen : — F. W. Cushman. Re- 
publican, 1.553: W. L. Jones. Republican, 
1,531; W. E. Humphrey, 1,512; Cottrill, 
Democrat, 1.252; Holcomb, Democrat. 1,258; 
Cole, Democrat. 1,249. 

For State Representatives : — George E. 



Smith, Republican, 1,421; J. E. Howard, Re- 
publican, 1,460; J. J. Cameron, Democrat, 1,- 

Eor Sheriff: — J. J. Inkster, Republican, 
1,579; J. F. Hall, Democrat, 1,372. 

For County Clerk : — W. W. Downey, Re- 
publican, 1,528; F. B. Squires, Democrat. 1,- 

For Auditor: — W. H. Yarwood. Republi- 
can. 1.364; A. S. Brown, 1,570. 

For Treasurer: — C. G. Hettman. Republi- 
can, 1,269; I- S. Minnick, Democrat, 

For Prosecuting Attorney: — R. M. Dye, 
Republican, 1,554; T. M. Maxwell, Democrat. 

For Assessor: — S. G. Noble, Republican, 
1,508; David McRea, Democrat, 1,409. 

For Superintendent of Schools : — Charles 
Deets, Republican, 1,425; Alice Xeal, Demo- 
crat, 1,500. 

For Surveyor: — Jerry Rockhold, Republi- 
can, 1,445; George R. Sawyer, Democrat, 

For Coroner: — Freer, Republican. 1,461; 
: Dr. Setters, Democrat, 1,421. 

For Commissioner, First District : — 
Charles Kellum, Republican, 1.473: Charles 
Bethel, Democrat, 1,399. 

For Commissioner, Third District : — J. P. 

Martin, Republican, 1,574; Bishop, 

Democrat, 1,293. 



In the Territorial days of 1884 the first 
board of education of Lincoln county convened 
at Davenport Wednesday. August 13th. The 
members were C. R. Walters, Superintenden', 
C. H. Pryor and Jessie M. Harvey. The board 
organized by electing Mr. Pryor, chairman, 
and Jessie M. Harvey, secretary. The purpose 
of this meeting was to examine applicants 
for teachers' certificates. Only three were pres- 
ent; Miss Maude Brace. Miss Edna Benson 
and Mrs. M. A. Markham. Each of these 
cam Dilates for pedagogic distinction having 
passed the examinations successfully was 
granted a third grade certificate. 

At Sprague, February 11. [885, was held 
the second meeting of the educational board. 
There were eight successful candidates for cer- 
tificates, viz: First Grade — Marian 11. Parker 
and Dell Turner: Second grade — Addie 
Turner, Sadie McGourin, J. W. Shearer, Lottie 

A. Bartlett, Maude Brace and Miss F. T. Ben- 
son. At the following meeting the same vear, 
in August, there were nine successful candi- 
dates for certificates. 

The first teachers' institu'e ever held in the 
county convened at Sprague August 4th . ..> 
nth, inclusive, 1885. Those present were: 
Carrie Vest, A. G. Maxey, Carlotta A. Bart- 
lett. J. L. Medium. Mrs. Kate Devenish, 
Maude Brace. Edward Davis. George \\ . 
Jackson, Sr.. Dora Hinshaw, Lizzie Yarwood, 
L. S. Brooks, Minnie Keaton, Anna Hughes, 
William Yarwood, Rosa Hughes, J. L. Rea- 
sonet, M. H. Barker, J. W. Shearer. Mis- I. I.. 
Walters, C. R. Walters, A. G. Mitehum. C. 
11. Pryor, Dell Turner, Addie Turner. Sadie 
Me* iourin. 

Since then these highly beneficent institutes 
have been held annually. 

In 1883 the few who had cast their lot 


within that portion of Washington in which 
Davenport is located organized the first school 
district and built a frame building which, at 
that period, was considered quite pretentious. 
The board of school directors comprised O. 
B. Parks, J. D. Woodin and L. A. Kennedy. 
Mrs. Bond was clerk of the district. Mr. C. 
H. Pryor, who afterward became county super- 
intendent of schools, was the first teacher in 
Davenport. With the construction of the Cen- 
tral Washington railroad, quickly followed by 
a voluminous increase of population, more 
school room to accommodate the children was 
found absolutely necessary. In 1890 the old 
school building was vacated and a new one 
containing four rooms was erected on the plat- 
eau south of the business portion of Davenport. 
But even this commodious building soon 
proved inadequate to accommodate the number 
of pupils seeking instruction; two additional 
spacious rooms were added. From this period 
the growth of the Davenport school district 
was rapid. The succeeding years culminated 
in 1 89 1 in the erection of the handsome, mod- 
ern two-story and basement brick building ; the 
Davenport High School. It contains nine 
rooms, is heated by a furnace and provided with 
the latest improved system of sanitary drain- 

In 1898 Professor J. H. Perkins was prin- 
cipal of the Davenport schools. Aside from 
the eight grades of the common schools, a 
high school course was added, requiring four 
years for graduation. The first to graduate 
under this improved and augmented curri- 
culum were Minnie M. Level, Bertha John- 
son. Nettie Hale and Kate Rogers. 

For the purpose of comparison with later 
data the school report of County Superintend- 
ent C. H. Pryor for 1S87 is given: 

Value of all school property in county $14,405 

Nttmber of scb ol houses in county 40 

Number of districts in county 55 

Number of schools maintained 47 

Teachers' salaries — 
.Male— $39. 
Female — $31. 

Children enrolled — 1,020. 

Average attendance — 827. 

Since the organization of Lincoln county the num- 
ber of schools has increased from 25 to 55. It is true 
that most districts supplied but a short term of school, 
and comparing our schools' and pay with that of older 
counties, it seems, at first glance to be discouraging, 
but when we realize that the count} is yet in its in- 
fancy and note the progress that it has made in the 
past three or four years, the prospect is' most encour- 
aging. Few new counties contain as much. 

December 20, 1889, closed the first term 
of the Cortland Academy, at Sherman. It was 
considered very successful. There were in at- 
tendance 25 pupils. August 15, 1890, the Wil- 
bur Register said : 

"The chief objection to the Big Bend is 
removed. A good education can now be re- 
ceived at home. At the Cortland Academy 
and Business College, near Sherman, there is 
the commercial course which prepares for busi- 
ness, the normal course for teaching, the classi- 
cal course for college or practical life, also the 
course in the common branches which affords 
instruction in the elementary studies, for both 
children and adults. Rev. Arthur B. Cort is 
principal and E. M. Bogart, of Omaha, business 
college associate principal, assisted by Mrs. 
Cort and others." 

It was proposed to build a town to be called 
Cortland at this college. Forty acres were to 
be platted and placed on the market. The lots 
were to be sold to families on the following 
plan. Those paying $100 tuition to the academy 
and erecting a building at a cost of $150 were 
to be given a warranty deed for a lot. No 
saloons or immoral houses were to be allowed 
to operate with the the limits of the proposed 
college town. Of the Cortland Academy the 
following officers and trustees were elected : 
A. B. Cort, president; M. E. Hay, treasurer; 
John Thomison, secretary ; J. P. Tamiesie and 
J. M. Parrish. In June, 1891. the Lincoln 
Coftntv Times said : 


"Cortland is a place of which many have 
heard, and some have a vague idea as to what 
it is and where it is. but few understand what 
the real purpose and character of the place 
is. It is situated about eight or nine miles north 
of Wilbur, and at present consists of Cortland 
Academy, a number of lodging houses for 
pupils and a few residence buildings. It takes 
its name from Rev. Cort, a Presbyterian min- 
ister who located on the land some two or three 
years ago, and conceived the idea of laying the 
foundation of important future work by begin- 
ning in a small way to build up a school. He 
diligently set to work and built a large log 
structure in which he began teaching, first with 
only a few scholars who later increased in num- 
bers. He succeeded in awakening great in- 
terest, not only among the pupils who attended, 
but among the people of the Big Bend in gen- 
eral who are interested in its success. Today 
he employs three assistant teachers, including 
his wife, and is now arranging to erect a large 
frame building which will be as well equipped 
for academic work as any academy in the 
state. Mr. Cort is enthusiastic in the work 
he has begun, and expects to see the time when 
Cortland will be an important place, known far 
and wide for its educational advantages." 

Despite this flattering endorsement and the 
conscientious work of Mr. and Mrs. Cort. the 
academy was not a financial success, and in 
1892 it ceased to exist. 

The long-heralded school for the Indian 
children of the Spokane and Colville reserva- 
tions opened Monday, April 2, 1900, at old 
Fort Spokane, Miles postoffice, Lincoln coun- 
ty, with 135 pupils on the roll. The post build- 
ings, or such as were fit for the purpose were 
turned over to the Department of Indian Af- 
fairs by the War Office soon after the abandon- 
ment (if the place as a military post, following 
the Spanish war. This is perhaps one of the 
nmst interesting institutions in Lincoln county, 
or in this portion of the state. For school pur- 
poses the location is an ideal one; claimed by 

inspectors and other supervising officials to be 
about the finest that is occupied by any Indian 
school in the United States. 

In February, 1903, Superintendent F. F. 
Avery published the following description of 
the school in the Lincoln County Times: 

"The Fort Spokane school though not 
strictly on an Indian reservation is classed as 
a reservation boarding school for the reason 
that it draws its pupils directly from ra- 
tions, not from other schools, and is under 
general supervision of an Indian agency. 

"About 22^ pupils were enrolled last year 
(1902). Each year those who are enrolled 
are gathered in as early as practicable in the 
fall and remain until the end of June, the 
months of July and August being a vacation 
period during which they are allowed to go 
home, and during which employees, also, al- 
ternate in taking leaves of absence, thirty days 
with pay being allowed for ten months" contin- 
uous service. As nearly as possible the school 
is made a comfortable and pleasant home for 
the pupils, and they are in every way reasonably 
provided for. In clothing each boy is allowed 
three suits and extra pair of pantaloons per 
year, one of the suits being a substantial and 
handsome uniform. Each girl is allowed one 
dress of all wool dress flannel, and four other 
dresses, none of them of less desirable material 
than an ordinary quality of gingham. For 
both boys and girls the allowance of shoes, un- 
derwear, etc.. are also sufficienty liberal 
pupil has a single bed properly furnished. Each 
has three or four clean towels per week; and 
in every possible way well being is provided tor 
and correct tastes and habits are cultivated. 
This is regarded as being, perhaps, the most 
important part of Indian education. 

"The pupils range in years froni live to 
eighteen years. About one-half are full ; 

tndians, many of whom entered school unable 
ik a word of English. The remainder 
are of mixed blood. Both clashes average 
fairly well in natural intelligence and both are 


more easily controlled than average white chil- 
dren. The primary and intermediate grades 
of an ordinary common school education are 
given, and the best text books and appliances 
are supplied and good teachers employed. But 
more stress is laid upon domestic and other 
industrial training than upon class work. Each 
pupil goes to school one-half of each class-day 
(from Monday until Friday, inclusive), and 
works one half of each day from Monday 
to Saturday inclusive. Only the little ones 
are omitted from this program, and for them 
a kindergarten is provided. The boys rotate 
through the carpenter shop, the bakery, the 
farmers' department and the industrial teach- 
ers' details, which latter include all kinds of 
miscellaneous chores. The girls rotate through 
every department of domestic work, the 
kitchen, the laundry, the sewing room and mis- 
cellaneous work. In the sewing room, for ex- 
ample, they are taught to cut and fit as well as 
to make their own clothing, and to do all 
kinds of repairing neatly and properly. The 
same general method is followed in each de- 
partment. And, as a rule, the results are rea- 
sonably satisfactory. The girls who receive 
this training for a few years go out and make 
a good deal better homes than those who do 
not receive it. The boys as a rule do very much 
better than those who grow up in ignorance 
ami without forming any habits of systematic 
industry. The force of employees is such as 
is necessary for a school organized on the lines 
indicated. There is a superintendent ; a nrj - 
tron and two assistant matrons; a seamstress, 
a cook, a baker, a laundress, a farmer, a car- 
penter, an industrial teacher, four class-room 
teachers, and a few miscellaneous employees 
most of whom are assistants of those men 
tioned. All of these are expected to be, and 
required to be, not only workers, but instruc- 
tors; and no position in an Indian school is 
easy to fill satisfactorily. Yet the service us- 
ually becomes attractive to those who remain 
long enough in it to become thoroughly ac- 

customed to it, and the civil service commis- 
sion usually has ample lists of eligibles from 
which to certify applicants for most classes of 

"Visitors with any intelligent interest and 
with tact enough to realize that the pupils are 
simply human, and do not care to be looked 
upon and talked about as though they were 
wild animals, are always welcome. There is a 
story told of one visitor at an Indian school, 
who, with more curiosity than tact, stopped a 
little Indian boy with the inquiry : 'Say ! Are 
you civilized?' To which he very promptly and 
pertinently replied, 'Yes; are you?' And this 
story is quite illustrative, as well as properly 
vouched for." 

November 27, 1903, the School Bulletin, an 
eight-page monthly educational journal, edited 
and published by Miss Alice Neal, County 
Superintendent of Public Instruction and de- 
voted to the interests of Lincoln county, made 
its initial appearance. Following is the annual 
report of Miss Neal for the year 1903 : 

Number of children 5 to 21 years old 5.449 

Enrolled in public schools 4,923 

Average daily attendance 3-°S l 

Number of departments maintained 153 

Average monthly salary ; male $48.6S 

Average monthly salary ; female $45-86 

Pupils graduated from common schools during year. .94 

Number of s'chool houses in county 121 

Of these 115 were frame buildings, one log and 5 brick. 

Total seating capacity 5,8oi 

Estimated value of county's school property. .$154,244.50 

Total number of districts in county 12S 

Teachers holding state or territorial certificates.... 2 

Normal department state university I 

Elementary certificate state normal 6 

Advanced cours'e state normal 2 

First grade certificates T 9 

Second grade certificates 86- 

Third grade certificates 16. 

There are graded schools at Sprague, Reardan. Dav- 
enport, Harrington, Wilbur, Almira, Creston, Peach, 
Edwall, Mohler, and Odessa. The Davenport school is. 
a high school. 

From Monday, April nth, to the 15th. 
inclusive, 1904, there was held at Davenport 



one of the most interesting and instructive 
teachers' institutes that ever assembled in the 
state. The program arranged by Miss Neal 
was one calculated to prove of great benefit 
ti 1 every teacher in the county. The exercises 
were attended by Professor A. E. Winship, 
of Boston, one of the most prominent educators 
in the United States, and throughout the week- 
he delivered daily addresses which were listened 
to with profound attention. 

Following is the complete roster of the 
school teachers of Lincoln county, January 1 , 

Alice Lang, Mrs. J. A. Rife, Nellie Lan- 
gan, Eva Switzer, Frank Beck, of Mondovi ; 
Cbjoe Wilcox, Belle Baldwin, P. T. Mellon, 
Elnora Strong, May Baldwin, \Y. H. Scott, 
of Edwall; Earl Yule, C. A. Hersey, T. A. 
Davies. Marva Frink. Louise Kirkpatrick; Gert- 
rude Cosgrove, Ella Craig, Margaret Craig, E. 
McDonald, Robt. Simmons, Maggie Orlowski, 
Mrs. J. A. Gee, Katie Xeilly, Edith Mills, 
Alice Bartlett, J. X. Moore, of Sprague; 
Brooks Livingston, W. H. Padley, Kate Wol- 
ford, Maude Clifford, Oma Hamilton, 1). M. 
Smith. Anna L. Evans, Daisy Kenworthy, of 
Reardan ; Lillian Mackey, George E. Craig, 
Sadie Hettman, Alice Brookings, W. D. Mof- 
fatt. Minnie Level, Josie O'Leary, Mrs. E. S. 
Graf, Grace Donnell, Bertha Johnson, Bertha 
L. Powell, Eloise Knowles, Carrie B. Weir. 
Kathryn Lentz, B. E. Mower, C. W. Jarvis, 
J. R. Williams, Bernice Jones, Jennie Heald, 
Ora Pershall, of Davenport; Blanche Switzer, 
Florence Samis, Andrew Brown, of Egypl : 
Stella Cheeley. Mrs. J. A. Hall. Ida L. Will- 
iams, F. E. Emmett, F. E. Stokes, Louise 
Peffley, Anna L. Cole, Mabel M. Moody. Har- 
vey Jones, of Creston ; Leonard Heaphy, La- 
Dona Williams, Harry W. Davis, Alvan 
Clarendon, Bernetta Stookey. Bessie Robert-;, 
Bessie M. Agnew, Pearl Owen, Delia E. Green, 
Ella Davies, E. C. Bierbaum, Mary Waltman, 
Abigail E. White, Emilie R. Mode, Addie 
Saxe, Ida Hankel, L W. Falkner, of Wilbur; 

Mrs. J. Childs, Grace Berner, of Rocklyn; Ora 
M. Seidell, Elfleda Graves, C. W. Crippen, 
Mary Dew, of Mohler; W. A. Cummings, 
Mrs. C. Mapes, of Tyler; Blanche Shane, Jo- 
seph Rung, Edgar Hopkins, Mrs. Hendryx, of 
Sherman; Frank Thomas, C. C. Hiker, Mar- 
tha Samuels, Bessie Fox, Margaret Scott, Lil- 
lian Scott, Delia E. Wilson. James A. Braden, 
Mollie I. Swing, S. R. Wesp, Minnie Kerr, of 
Harrington; F. E. Hoskins, Effie 1.. Jackson, 
of Moscow; M. L. Cory. Edgar Allison. May 
Ryan, of Larene; W. J. Phipps, of Hesseltine; 
Xettie Williams, of Clark; Robert Pitzer, 
Charles Deets, Elsie 1. Turley. Nellie John- 
son. ( '. L. Goodyear, Rosa Sanford, of Almira; 
Maude Bennett, W. (i. Hardy, of Govan; 1). 
Dallas, Sarah Williams, of Peach; W. J. 
Beaghley, Marjorie Nichols, of Waukon; Irene 
Hennessy, of Lamona ; Nettie Lang, of Curby; 
Caroline Clements, Clara Weisgerber. Sara R. 
Howard, Grace Austin. Alice C. Dorman, Mar- 
tha Kottke, Eura J. Snow hill, Ida E. Wilson, 
J. G. Wardin, Agnes J. Lambert, of Odessa; 
Dulce Wallace, of Griffith; Ida Grinn, of 
Knipp; E. H. Gipson, Estella V. Hinckley, of 
Downs; Segrid Lehn. of Manila. 

St. Joseph"s Academy is a convent and 
school instituted at Sprague in 1S86 — at first 
on a limited scale — but is at present quite a 
prominent educational institution along re- 
ligious lines. It is attended by scholars from 
all parts of the state, and even from outside 
the boundaries. 

The object of the academy is to impart 
a thorough and refined Ghristian education to 
young ladies. Simplicity and solidity are com- 
bined in the methods of instruction. Care is 
taken to strengthen and develop the character 
by the triple culture of the mind, heart and 
body: and thus make of the students pr 
young women ami useful members of 
— an honor to themselves and a benefit to their 
fellow creatures. As regards religious instruc- 
tion no distinction is made in the reception of 
pupils on account of their religious opinions, 



and no interference is made with the religious 
convictions of non-Catholics ; but, for the main- 
tenance of good order, all are required to con- 
form to the regulations of the house. 

The preparatory department aims at im- 
parting a thorough English education. This 
object is obtained by careful instruction in 
Christian doctrine, reading, spelling, etymology, 
elements of rhetoroic, arithmetic, civil govern- 
ment, geography, grammar, sacred history, 
composition, elements of algebra, United States 
history, physiology, national literature. A thor- 
ough knowledge of these branches are required 
for promotion to the academic department, and 

a certificate of proficiency is granted on com- 
pletion of the grammar course. The academic 
department is commercial, literary and scienti- 
fic. The first year is devoted to Christian doc- 
trine, Bible and church history, higher arith- 
metic and algebra, general history, classical 
literature, rhetoric and composition, science, 
physics and botany and bookkeeping. The sec- 
ond year to Christian doctrine, geometry, as- 
tronomy, literary analysis, logic, rhetoric, and 
composition. The third year to church his- 
tory, geometry, rhetoric, literature, criticisms, 
review common branches. Drawing and men- 
tal arithmetic are taught in all the grades. 







LEROY FURGESON is a farmer re- 
siding two miles east of Larene, and eight miles 
north of Davenport. He is a native of Putnam 
county, Indiana, born October 15, 1848. His 
father, also Leroy by christian name, was a 
native of North Carolina, and his mother, 
Lavina (Condray) Furgeson, was born in 
Knoxville, Tennessee. Mr. Furgeson has one 
brother, Thomas T., residing at Sweet Home, 
Linn county, Oregon, and he served twenty- 
two months in the Union army during - the Civil 
War, and was wounded in the battle of Pea 
Ridge. Later he was honorably discharged 
and returned to the duties of the civilian. 

When a child, our subject removed with 
his parents to Marion county, Iowa, during the 
early days of that commonwealth, was brought 
up there on a farm, and married, October 1 1 . 
1868, to Sarah A. Pope, a native of Oskaloosa, 

Mrs. Ferguson's father, William Pope, was 
a native of the state of Xew York, and died in 
California at the age of seventy-seven. His 
father, Benjamin, was a soldier of the Revolu- 
tion, and died in Iowa at the advanced age of 
ninety-four. The mother of Mrs. Furgeson, 
Dorcas (Lathors) Pope, was born in Adams 
county, Ohio, and is now living with her 
daughter in her eighty-fourth year. 

In 1873 Mr. and Mrs. Furgeson came to 
Santa Clara county, California, and five years 
later they drove overland to Linn county, 
Oregon, where Mr. Furgeson engaged in fann- 
ing. They came in a wagon to their presenl 
home in 1888. Having brought from Oregon 
with them a small herd of stock, they took land 

and engaged at once in farming and stock raw- 
ing. They now own a section of land, about 
500 acres of which are choice tillable soil; They 
have good buildings; improvements, et cetera, 
plenty of line water, and a quantity of timber. 
Mr. Furgeson now makes a specialty of raising 

Both Mr. Furgeson and his wife are active 
members of the Methodist Episcopal church at 

Mr. and Mrs. Furgeson have been parents 
of seven children, two of whom. Amy M. and 
Bertie M., have departed this life. Those living 
are: William T., married to Mollie Ledger- 
wood; James Edmund, married to Myrtle 
Hubler; Floyd, married to Ella Howard: 
Frances, wife of W. L. Slater, of Douglas 
county, and Mildred. 

Mrs. Furgeson's three brothers. George 
James, and Edmond, served in the Union army 
during the Civil War, the last two in the 
Seventeenth Iowa. 

Mr. Furgeson is one of the substantial, 
well-to-do and influential citizens of his lo- 

Wynhoff, a native of Germany, together with 
his two brothers. Anthony and Jacob, all con- 
cert players, and his wife. Dora (Appledorn) 

Wynhoff. a native of Holland, came to the 
United States in 1S54. and settled near Mil- 
waukee. Wisconsin. With them came their 
family of children, of which our subject. I Icnry 
S.. was a member. His brothers and sisters 



are : John. Herbert, Mrs. Fredrika Look, Jacob 
and Mrs. Dora Ritchie. The following mem- 
bers of the family are dead, Mrs. Johanna 
Hage, Mrs. Mary Verfurth, who owned the 
first store in Creston ; Theodore, who died in 
service during the Civil war, and Henry, who 
died in Germany prior to the parents coming to 

Henry S. Wynhoff lived with his parents 
on a farm near Milwaukee, until he grew to 
manhood. November 8, 1870, he was married 
to Mary O. Haas, born in Racine county. Wis- 
consin, July 22, 1 85 1. Her father, Phillip 
Haas, and mother, Rosa (Seitz) Haas, both 
native Germans, came to the United States in 
1844. and settled in Wisconsin. She is the 
third of nine children, Mrs. Alice Moritz. 
Jacob. Joseph. Phillip, deceased, Peter B., Fer- 
dinand, Henry. Rosa and August. 

In 1876 Mr. and Mrs. Wynhoff removed to 
Kankakee county, Illinois; in 1881 to Bremer 
county, Iowa; in 1888 to Spokane. Washing- 
ton, and thence to Hell Gate on the Columbia. 
In this sparsely settled country they took a pre- 
emption claim, kept a store, and raised fruit. 
Selling all their land except forty-four acres, 
they moved in the spring of 1898 to their pre- 
sent home six miles south of Peach. Here they 
have 800 acres on the banks of Hawk creek, 
300 acres of which are hay land, a good home, 
a barn of two hundred and fifty tons of hay 
capacity, an orchard, and a large berry patch. 
Mr. Wynhoff makes a specialty of raising hay, 
cattle and horses. 

Mr. and Mrs. Wynhoff have been parents 
of nine children, Theodore, Anna, Addie, wife 
of Charles Cole, with the Spokesman-Review, 
Spokane; Veronica, wife of Frank Young, 
with the Spokesman-Review, Spokane; Leo, 
attending Blair Business College, Spokane; 
Ottile Mary; Frank J., and Walter S. On 
August 25, 1890, occurred an event of great 
sadness to this family. Anna and Ottile 
Mary, aged sixteen and six, respectively, were 
accidentally drowned at Whiteshore, on the 

WILLIAM ROBERTSON, one of the in- 
trepid pioneers, whose labors have made the 
Big Bend the garden spot of Washington, 
dwells now about two miles northeast from 
Sherman, where he has a magnificent estate of 

about twelve hundred acres of choice wheat 
land. This holding he secured partly by gov- 
ernment rights and partly by purchase. The 
improvements are in keeping with the value of 
the place and Mr. Robertson is one of the 
wealthiest men of this portion of the county. 
He has gained this enviable position by reason 
of real worth and by manifestation of marked 
industry, wisdom and thrift. Seeing the value 
of the country, he purchased and improved land 
which in turn has produced bounteous returns. 
William Robertson was born in Aberdeen, 
Scotland, on July 11. 1852, the son of Charles 
and Elizabeth ( Mutch) Robertson, natives of 
Scotia's fair hills, also. In 1861, the family re- 
moved to Ontario, where the father farmed. 
There our subject completed his education 
which was well begun in his native land, and in 
1875 he journeyed to the Golden State and 
soon thereafter went north to British Columbia, 
where he did sawmilling. Thence he returned 
to Ontario and farmed for some time. In 1882, 
he came west a second time, this journey end- 
ing temporarily in Dayton. Washington, but 
during the same year, he found his way to 
Lincoln county and selected a homestead where 
he now resides. Since then, Mr. Robertson has 
continued in wise labors here and is one of the 
leading and substantial men of the region. 

In 1S79, Mr. Robertson married Miss 
Catherine Galloway, who was born in Ontario, 
on June 25. 1861, the daughter of Mathew and 
Jeannette (McKay) Galloway, natives of On- 
tario, and of Irish and Scotch parentage, re- 
spectively. To this marriage the following 
named children have been born, Mrs. Annie E. 
Carpenter, Mary C, Charles M., William H., 
Grace J., Archie M., David M.. Tames G, and 
John H. 

FREDRICK S. KINER. For more than 
a decade the subject of this article has been 
one of the energetic and substantial agricul- 
turists of Lincoln county and has certainly 
done well his share in the development and up- 
building of the country. He was born in Iowa 
on January 24, 1863, the son of William H. 
and Sarah A. (Wheeler) Kiner, natives of 
Ohio. The father followed coopering and 
farming. Our subject was educated in the 
common schools and spent the interims in 
working on the farm. After the days with 



school books were over, he remained with his 
father until twenty-two, being engaged on the 
farm. Then he went to farming for himself 
and continued with success there until 1892, 
when he came to Wilbur, taking a homestead 
about sixteen miles southwest of Wilbur. Later 
he bought a quarter section about five miles 
southeast from Wilbur, where his home is at 
present, and here he has devoted himself to 
farming and stockraising since that time. Dur- 
ing these years, Mr. Kiner has been adding to 
his estate, until he now has four hundred and 
eighty acres of fertile wheat land, which is 
laid under tribute to produce annually divi- 
dends in excellent crops. 

In 1886, Mr. Kiner married Miss Idella J., 
daughter of Levi A. and Mary J. ( Latta ) 
Courtney, natives of Iowa. Mrs. Kiner was 
born in Iowa on January 28, 1865. She has 
one sister, Mrs. Anna Greenhard, at Birming- 
ham, Iowa; two half sisters, Mrs. Amelia 
Kuhn, in Washington, Iowa; Mrs. Clara Peter- 
son, in Batavia, Iowa; and one half brother, 
Alvin Cassidy, of Fairfield, Iowa. Mr. Kiner 
has the following brothers and sisters : James 
M., Rosa A., deceased, Joseph L.. Frank S., 
Edward A., Rebecca J., and Mary E. Mr. 
Kiner has prospered well since coming to Lin- 
coln county owing to his energy, skill, and 
sagacity in handling the resources of the coun- 
try. He stands well among the residents and 
is a man of good ability. Fraternally, he is 
affiliated with the W. W. 

Five children have been born In Mr. and 
Mrs. Kiner, Iva P., Maida M., Glenn !•'.. 
Lilla I., and Blanche H. 

BRUNO W. FELDER. in his chosen oc- 
cupation, that of jeweler, has done creditably 
as is evidenced constantly by his skillful and 
careful work. He has a fine establishment in 
Wilbur and handles a thriving business. 
carries a large stock of g< m ids and he does much 

Bruno W. Felder was born in Missouri, in 
1853, being the son of Abraham and Kather- 
ine (Mettler) Felder, natives of Switzerland. 
Bruno W. Felder's ancestors came from the 
country whence hail the finest jewelers and 
mechanics the world has ever known. The fa- 
ther came to Missouri when thirty-five years 

of age and followed his profession, being a 
physician of very high reputation. He re- 
ceived his degree from Heidelberg university, 
Germany, as well as from some of the other 
leading universities of the world and started 
very high in the profession, lie died in 1883. 
The mother's father. Dr. Mettler, was one of 
the most prominent and skillful physicians in 
Switzerland. After a primary training in the 
public schools, our subject received a college 
education in Weston. Missouri, after which he 
took up the jeweler business, becoming very 
skillful and proficient, for five years, he was 
thus engaged in St. Louis and in 1871 went to 
Atchison, Kansas, continuing there in the same 
business for four years. After that, he did 
business in Alton, Illinois, for a short time, 
and then spent eight years in Colorado. Fol- 
lowing that, we find him in the jeweler business 
in Los Angek^. and on January 13. 1890, he 
located at Wilbur. Washington. Here he 
opened a jeweler store and has since continued 
steadily in business. He has a handsome resi- 
dence in Wilbur besides other property and also 
half a section of land in Yakima county. Wash- 

In January. [891, at Los Angeles, Califor- 
nia, Mr. Felder married Miss Emma Fleshman. 
who was born in Humboldt county. Califor- 
nia, on October 2, [866. Her father. Herman 
Fleshman, was a wealthy merchant of Hom- 
boldt county. Mr. Felder has the following 
brothers and sifter-. Zeno, Harry. Louis, 
Nina, Eliza, Paulina. Gussie and May. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Felder one child has been born. Her- 
man A. 

Mr. Felder is affiliated with the A. < >. U. 
W., the W. W., and the K. O. T. M. He is 
a substantial member of society, wealthy and 
well esteemed. 

FLOYD HUDKINS resides one mile 
south from Sherman where he has a large es- 
tate of eight hundred acres, the same having 
been cleared through his industry ami wise 
ement. The farm is well improved with 
buildings, fences and so forth and supplied 
with plenty of stock and machinery. Mr. 1 lud- 
kins came to the Big Bend six years ago and 
he had fifteen hundred dollars in cash. He 
went into debt for one half section of land and 
raised enough wheat the first year to pay for 



the same, two thousand eight hundred and sev- 
enty-five dollars. He then bought another half 
section for five thousand dollars and paid for 
that in two years. He has added more by pur- 
chase having his fine large estate. 

Floyd Hudkins was born in West Virginia, 
on February I, 1847, being the son of Elisha 
and Rachel (Mearns) Hudkins, both natives 
of West Virginia and people of substantial 
wealth and excellent standing. Our subject 
came with his people to Illinois when a boy 
and there received his education. When he had 
arrived at his majority he emigrated to north- 
west Missouri and took up farming. For fif- 
teen vears, he toiled there and then went down 
to southwest Missouri where he farmed for a 
time. In 1897, Mr. Hudkins came to Oregon 
and remained for a shor'. time traveling thence 
to his present location in Lincoln county, be- 
ing one mile south from Sherman. 

In 1874, Mr. Hudkins married Miss Mar- 
garet, daughter of Daniel and Emily (Thomp- 
son) Diamond, natives of Pennsylvania and 
Delaware, respectively. Daniel Diamond was 
descended from Irish and Holland Dutch an- 
cestors, who settled in Pennsylvania in very 
early days. He was a pioneer in Iowa, where 
he opened up a farm. About 1861, he traveled 
to Nodaway county, Missouri, where he en- 
dured the rigors of a pioneer life, having to 
transport all his supplies for seventy-five miles 
by wagon. For twenty-one years he resided 
there. Mrs. Hudkins was born in Iowa, in 
1854, and has the following named brothers 
and sisters. Walter, Arthur, Abe, Hugh, Mrs. 
Jessie Patrick, and John. Mr. Hudkins has 
brothers and sisters named as follows. Walker, 
Andrew. Mrs. Lea Brant, and Mrs. Mary Mc- 
Call. Mr. Hudkins has an enviable standing 
in the community and is recognized by all as a 
man of ability and integrity. He is always 
found on the side of those principles which are 
for the advancement and benefit of all. 

THORN E HOUSTON is one of the 
substantial and wealthy farmers of Lincoln 
ci unity. He resides about one-half mile east 
from Sherman where he owns a fine farm of 
nearly four hundred acres. He acquired title 
to the same by purchase, having gained all he 
possesses, since coming to Lincoln county. 

through his own industry and wise manage- 

Thome Houston was born in Smith coun- 
ty, Virginia, on December 20. 1875, tne son 0I 
Robert and Mattie (Cole) Houston, both na- 
tives of Virginia. The father was occupied in 
farming and mercandising during his life. The 
'common schools furnished the educational 
training of our subject and with his mother, 
one brother, and two sisters he came to Lin- 
coln county in 1885. They settled near Sher- 
man and owing to the fact that their financial 
assets were very low, the boys were forced to 
work out to get the means to improve their 
homesteads. They believed in the resources 
of this country and soon began to purchase 
land. In 1897, our subject bought one-half 
section just one mile east from Sherman. He 
has made various other purchases since, hav- 
ing given his entire attention during these years 
to farming. He has made an excellent record, 
and the skill with which he has improved his 
farm and made it productive has shown him 
to be a capable and wise man. 

In 1899, Mr. Houston married Miss Nellie, 
daughter of Frank and Carrie ( Shane) Hop- 
kins, who now dwell three miles east from 
Sherman. Mrs. Houston was born in Asotin, 
Washington, on January 15, 1878. She has 
two brothers, William and Edgar, and one sis- 
ter, Ruth. Mr. Houston has one brother, Wal- 
ter and two sisters, Mrs. Maude Jones and Mrs. 
Bertha Graybill. To Mr. and Mrs. Houston 
one child. Esther, has been born. 

the pioneers of Lincoln county and has so suc- 
cessfully wrought here that he is the possessor 
now of four hundred acres, well stocked and 
improved, which lies about three miles north 
from Sherman. Mr. Hopkins has shown com- 
mendable industry and wisdom in his efforts 
in this county and is classed as one of the in- 
fluential and substantial citizens. He was 
born in Iowa on May 6, 1855. His 
parents were Miles S. and Laura A. 
(Culver) Hopkins, natives of New York. 
The father came to Council Bluffs. Iowa, 
in 1852 and there engaged in mercantile 
business. Later, he went to Nebraska and fol- 
lowed merchandising in that state. He was 



descended from Stephen Hopkins a signer of 
the Declaration of Independence. The family 
is an old and prominent one, having many mem- 
bers of literary distinction, both in the profes- 
sions and in commercial life. Our subject was 
educated in Iowa and Nebraska, then learned 
the printer's trade, being engaged on the Burt 
Comity Pilot and The Burtonian, both news- 
papers in Burt county. Nebraska. He contin- 
ued in this occupation until 1877, when he came 
to Walla Walla. He immediately took the 
contract of freighting military supplies during 
the Bannock and Nez Perce wars. In 1878, 
Mr. Hopkins took a pre-emption in the Palouse, 
which, however, he sold in 1880, coming thence 
to Sherman, Lincoln county. Thus we see that 
for nearly a quarter, of a century, he has de- 
voted himself to improving and building up 
this party of the country, achieving a success 
commensurate with his efforts. In 1884. Mr. 
Hopkins settled on a portion of his present es- 
tate as a homestead and has since added until 
he has now the large farm mentioned above. 

On March 15. 1887, Mr. Hopkins married 
Miss Caroline A., daughter of Henry and Mar- 
tha ( Taylor) Shane. The mother was born 
in ( )hio where also Mrs. Hopkins was born on 
September 13, 1856. The father was a native 
of Ohio also and came to Nebraska in 1874. 
The grandparents of Mrs. Hopkins were early 
pioneers of Ohio and among the first settlers 
of that now thriving state. Mrs. Hopkins has 
one brother, Stanley and six sisters. Mrs. Ellen 
Crabbe, Mrs. W. jack. Mrs. Martha Wallace, 
Airs. Esther Clark, Mrs. Margaret Rogers, and 
Blanch Shane. To Mr. and Mrs. Hopkins the 
following children have been born, Mrs. Nellie 
Houston, Stanley, who died at the age of seven, 
Edgar A., William H.. Ralph, who died when 
an infant, and Ruth E. 

PETER MARTIN is one of the venerable 
residents of Lincoln county. He has wrought 
here since 1888, with marked industry and sa- 
gacity and has gained as a result of his labors 
a fine estate, well improved and productive. He 
resides about four miles north of Sherman and 
is one of the respected and esteemed citizens. 
Mr. Martin is a descendant of the old Norse- 
men whose explorations are among the most 
wonderful of any nation on the globe. He is 
possessed of the vigor and progressiveness of 

his people and has manifested the same during 
a long and useful career. 

Peter Martin was born in Norway, on 1 >e- 
cember 15. [832, being the son of Martin and 
Dorotha (Paulson) Hanson, natives of Nor- 
way. They came to Minnesota in 1854. which 
state was then an unsur.veyed vastness of prairie 
with no railroad connections nearer than Chi- 
ago. Our subject received his education in 
the common schools of Norway and when twen- 
ty-one came to the United States, settling with 
his parents in .Minnesota in 1N54. For thirty 
four years, he was an industrious tiller of the 
soil there and then lie decided to sell his prop- 
erty and cmue to Lincoln county. This was in 
[888 and since that time, Mr. .Martin has been 
one of the well known farmers here. In 1S74. 
Air. Martin married Miss Alete. daughter of 
Martin and Carrie 1 Peterson 1 Thompson. The 
following children have been born to our sub- 
ject, Martin, Andrew, John. Marie. Albert, 
Clara D., Peter, M. Lizzie. Henry, and Emil. 
Mr. Martin is now seventy-one years of age 
and is entitled to pass the closing years of his 
well spent life in the quiet enjoyment of that 
competence which his industry and success have 
amassed for him. He has held many offices of 
public trust in this country and has ever shown 
himself worthy of the confidence of the peo- 
ple. Mr. Martin's spirit may be discerned from 
the fact that when he came to this country, he 
immediately set to work to master the English 
language and soon became a very proficient 
English scholar. 

D. FRANK PEFFLEY was born near the 
little town of Bainbridge, Putnam county. In- 
diana, on May 5. 1854. I lis father owned a 
sawmill and a small farm, and in work in anil 
on these possessions, the youthful days of our 
subject were spent. Peffley Pere believed in 
the strenuous life for hoys and followed his 
theories rather severely. 

At the age of seventeen, Frank quit the pa- 
rental roof and began life for himself. He did 
various work and then learned the carpenter 
trade. Having always been inclined toward 
books, he began work in earnest t,, acquire a 
good education, and sought it until he was the 
proud possessor of his first certificate tor teach- 
ing. Then he taught, went to school, and did 
private studying for some years. 


In the spring of 1880, he turned his face 
Avestward for the last time, having previously 
sojourned in trans-Mississippi territory and 
returned each time to his native place. Loca- 
tion was made in Bourbon county, Kansas, and 
the following sixteen years were spent in or 
near Fort Scott, with the exception of one and 
one-half years in New Mexicco. He taught 
but gradually relinquished his hold on that 
profession for newspaper work, taking up 
reportorial and editorial labors on the Fort 
Scott dailies. Later he mastered the mechanical 
portion of the business. He also had some of 
the unusual experiences of the novice as pub- 
lisher of a weekly. In the spring of 1896, he 
left Fort Scott, which for years had been the 
scene of his labors and hardships, together with 
some degree of success. He engaged in teach- 
ing and in newspaper work in Iowa until the 
fall of 1899, when he journeyed on west to 
Lincoln county. Locating near Wilbur, he took 
up teaching for a year and then went to Cres- 
ton, where he filled the principal's chair for 
one year. 

In August. 1901. Mr. Peffley began the 
publication of the Crcston News, a venture of 
"his own. 

Mr. Peffley was married in 1883, at Fort 
Scott, Miss Susan Martin becoming his bride. 
Two daughters have been born to this union, 
Louise and Sara, now grown to womanhood. 

Mr. Peffley has written much of a literary 
character, both in verse and prose, besides num- 
erous contributions to school journals and on 
political and other, topics. He handles the pen 
with ease and fluency and many of his produc- 
tions have received the recognition of compe- 
tent literary people. But he has- never had the 
ambition to write for money and has made no 
effort to get before more than his own little 
world in letters. 

JAMES P. TUFTS dwells about four 
miles northwest of Sherman. He came to 
Lincoln county in 1885 and has been instru- 
mental in opening up the country and building 
up the county, which is one of the leading ones 
in the great state of Washington. From the 
time when Mr. Tufts settled in Lincoln county 
until the present, he has given his attention to 
farming and also to stock raising. In the form- 
er occupation he has made an excellent success 

and is known as one of the substantial and in- 
dustrious agriculturists of the region. 

James P. Tufts was born in Springfield, 
Illinois, and there gained his early education 
from the city schools. After, that, he went to 
farming and continued steadily in the same in 
that section of the country until he came west 
and took a homestead where he now resides. 

In 1902, Mr. Tufts married Mrs. Artie 
Penix, daughter of James and Katherine 
(Benn) Unsell, natives of Missouri. Mrs. 
Tufts was born in Missouri, on December 2, 
1862. Mr. Tufts has always taken an active 
interest in politics and has held a number of 
offices of trust, always discharging the duties 
encumbent upon him in a capable and faithful 

WILLIAM H.HOWARD is a well known 
business man of Creston, being at the head of 
a prosperous real estate and insurance business. 
He has demonstrated his ability to make a suc- 
cess of the enterprise and is considered one of 
the most capable men of this section. 

W. H. Howard was born in Monmouth, 
Illinois, on September 5, 1840, being the son 
of Henry C. and Cynthia A. (Bonner) How- 
ard, natives of Kentucky. In 1843, tne father, 
moved with his family to Missouri and there 
was judge of Barry county, besides holding 
other offices of trust. After attending the pub- 
lic schools of Missouri, our subject completed 
his education in the Cherry Grove Seminary 
of Abingdon. Illinois. When rebels invaded 
Springfield, Missouri, our. subject was thrust 
through with a sabre and left weltering in his 
own blood for dead. His father and brother 
were taken prisoners and desolation reigned on 
every hand. Fate decreed that Mr. Howard 
should not end his existence in that untimely 
way. Recovering from his wound he enlisted 
in the Seventy-first Illinois Infantry. For 
three months, he was in active duty and re- 
ceived his discharge, his time being out. He 
immediately re-enlisted in the One Hundred 
and Thirty-seventh Illinois Infantry for one 
hundred days and served the time with great 
credit to himself. As soon as those days were 
done he again enlisted, this time in the Seventh 
Illinois Calvary where he served with distinc- 
tion until the close of the war, then he gave his 
attention to farming in Iowa and South Dakota 


until 1880, when he came to what is now (.'res- 
ton, Washington. This time stamps him as 
one of the early pioneers of this favored region 
and for nearly a quarter of a century, Air. How- 
ard has devoted himself steadily in faithful la- 
bors in this county. He did general farming 
and stock raising until 1900, when he sold a 
portion of his interests and devoted himself to 
real estate and insurance. Mr. Howard has al- 
ways been a prominent man in this section, has 
held many offices, and at the present time is 
police judge. 

In 1872, Air. Howard married Miss Mari- 
etta J. Wilson, of Sidney, Iowa. In 1881, he 
was called to mourn her death. In 1894, Mr. 
Howard married Mrs. Desdemona Dearling 
of Davenport, Washington. By his first wife, 
the following named children have been born to 
Mr. Howard : J. Edgar, an abstractor in Dav- 
enport, Washington, and representative to the 
legislature for his district; Mrs. Ena Fergu- 
son, living on the ranch; George L., a profes- 
sor in the Western Iowa College at Council 
Bluffs, Iowa. Mr. Howard is secretary and 
part owner of the Silver Hill mining company. 

NATHAN E. WALKER. This respect- 
able and esteemed citizen, who is also to be 
classed as one of the early pioneers of Lin- 
coln county, is now dwelling just south from 
Sherman where he has four hundred and eightv 
acres of land. As early as 1886, he settled in 
this vicinity and has since given himself to 
the basic art of agriculture. He has always 
labored for those measures which have tended 
to upbuild and improve these sections and is 
known as a progressive man. He is an advo- 
cate of good schools, better roads and all those 
things that make an enlightened and advanced 

Nathan E. Walker was born in Virginia, on 
February 26, 1857, being the son of Garrett 
B. and Adeline Y. (Skinner) Walker, natives 
of Virginia and tillers of the soil. The first 
twenty years of our subject's life were spent 
in his native state, during which time he gained 
an education, then he journeyed west to Kan- 
sas. For about six years he remained in that 
country then came on to the more favored sec- 
tion of Washington, taking his present place as 
a homestead. 

In 1887, Mr. Walker married Miss 
ence M., daughter of John W. and Alary 1-:. 
1 ECees) Highland, natives of Iowa. Air. and 
Mrs. Walker are highly respected people owing 
to their uprightness and real worth. 

CHARLES A. STRAUB is proprietor of 

the O. K. livery stables at Creston, Washing- 
ton. He has a nice assortment of rigs, keeps 
line horses, and does a good business. Mr. 
Straub is known as a man who never leaves 
undone anything that will enhance the comfort 
and safety of his patrons and is ever alert in 
the interest of his business. 

Charles A. Straub was born in Ohio, on 
October 1, 1861, being the son of George and 
Elvina (Coffman) Straub, natives of Ohio. 
The father was a wagon maker and followed 
that business during his life. He was a vet- 
eran also of the Civil War. Our subject re- 
ceived a good common school education in his 
native state and resided there until 1890. when 
he turned to the west and traveled in every 
state and territory west of the Mississippi val- 
ley. Having thoroughly satisfied himself as 
to the resources of every portion, he finally se- 
lected Creston as his stopping place, settling 
here in 1891. He took a homestead just south 
from town which he proved up on. In 1898. 
Mr. Straub built the O. K. Stables and since 
that time has been engaged in the livery busi- 

In 1893, Mr. Straub married Miss Ida Gol 
lur. a native of Illinois. They are highly re- 
spected people having hosts of friends in this 
part <>f the coiintr.3 . 

FRED E. WATSON is owner and man- 
ager of the Creston roller mills. This is one 
of the important industries of Lincoln county 
and has been built by the subject of this article. 
Tlie plant is fitted with all the latest improved 
milling machinery and has an output capacity 
of four hundred barrels per day. Air. WatSOll 
is a practical business man ami has demon- 
strated his ability to handle large industries, 
being possessed of the happy faculty which en- 
ables him to grasp the outlines of business yet 
allows no details t> escape bis notice 


Fred L. Watson was born in Michigan, on 
March 5, 1862, the son of J. B. and Kate 
(Fryant) Watson, natives of New York. The 
father was a prominent and influential citizen 
in Michigan and held various offices of trust. 
Our subject received his education at Valpa- 
raiso, Indiana, there gaining the degree of 
Bachelor of Arts in 1885. After finishing his 
college course he went to the farm in Michigan 
and turned his attention to the cultivation of 
the soil until 1892, when he came to Wash- 
ington. He soon located at Creston and com- 
menced buying wheat. In this business he was 
prospered until 1892, when he erected the mill 
spoken of above and continued in buying wheat 
and handled the milling business also. 

Mr. Watson is one of the well known busi- 
ness men of Lincoln county and has established 
for. himself a very enviable reputation. 

In 1895, Mr. Watson married Miss Anna, 
daughter of August Lillengreen, a native of 
Minnesota. To this union one child, Beatrice, 
was born in 1899. 

E. C. LANTER, M. D. Creston is to be 
congratulated in securing as a resident this tal- 
ented and skillful physician. Just entering the 
prime of life, Dr. Lanter has demonstrated him- 
self to be a thoroughly proficient man and mas- 
ter of the arts of medicine and surgery. The 
high standard demanded by the public in phy- 
sicians is fully met in every particular in Dr. 
Lanter. A man of integrity and uprightness, 
thoroughly imbued with a high sense of honor 
and the deep responsibility of his stewardship, 
the doctor, has inspired in the public a confi- 
dence in his wisdom and ability as a success- 
ful physician. In addition to this, Dr. Lanter 
is a thorough student and possessed of a keen 
perception and force which he brings to bear 
in his studies. This has marked him as a man 
of excellent ability. In fact, Dr. Lanter is a 
man who is thoroughly abreast of the advanc- 
ing times in medicine. He has one of the finest 
equipped offices in the county and as is to be 
expected is handling a large practice. 

E. C. Lanter was born in Green Forest, Ar- 
kansas, on June 16, 1878, being the son of C. 
F. and Mattie (Ross) Lanter, natives of Knox- 
ville, Tennessee and Dardanelle. Arkansas, re- 
spectively. The father was mayor of Vernon 

City, Texas, and held other offices of prom- 
inence, being an influential man. The mother's 
father was a professor in the Arkansas Indus- 
trial university. After graduation from the 
high school in Green Forest our subject en- 
tered the Marion Simms college at St. Louis. 
Due time was spent in training there and in 
1896 he matriculated in the Vanderbilt Uni- 
versity of Nashville, Tennessee. He received 
his degree of Doctor of Medicine and at once 
entered upon the practice at Green Forest. He 
soon had a very large practice on his hands 
but in July, 1900, he determined to come west 
and accordingly in that year, located in Creston. 
From the beginning, Dr. Lanter had a good 
practice and is now considered one of the lead- 
ing physicians of this part of the county. 

In 1903, Dr. Lanter married Miss Ella Vi- 
vian Frazer who was born in Slayton, Minne- 
sota, on May 30, 1879. 

ALFRED E. STOOKEY is at the present 
time at the head of a lumber business in Cres- 
ton, where he has prospered as he has done in 
all his efforts since coming to the west. Mr. 
Stookey is one of the best known business men 
in Lincoln county. So well has his ability and 
wisdom been appreciated that he was chosen by 
the people for county commissioner of Lin- 
coln county, and served for six years. In all 
of this public service he has manifested the same 
wisdom, integrity and uprightness that charac- 
terized him in his private enterprises. 

Alfred E. Stookey was born in Illinois, on 
March 4, 1845, being the son of E. and Jane 
(Parker) Stookey, natives of Ohio. The fa- 
ther was a farmer and settled in Illinois when 
a young man. Alfred E. was reared and edu- 
cated in Illinois and engaged there in farming 
until 1S68 when he journeyed to Kansas and 
continued in the same occupation. He returned 
to Illinois in 1874 and farmed until 1882 when 
he came to Lincoln county, taking up govern- 
ment land. He gave his attention to the culti- 
vation of the soil and bought and sold land, 
having now an estate of five hundred and twen- 
ty acres of first class wheat land. Mr. Stookey 
was prospered in his labors in Lincoln county 
as a farmer and in 1898 bought a half interest 
in a general merchandise establishment at Cres- 
ton. He was ensaeed in this business and in 



overseeing his estates until 1903, when he sold 
the store and opened a lumber business in which 
he is engaged at the present time. Mr. Stook- 
ey has a beautiful and commodious residence 
in Creston and other property in -addition to 
what has been mentioned. 

In 1868, Mr. Stookey married Miss Mary, 
daughter of M. F. and Elizabeth (Harrison) 
Wooley, natives of Illinois. Mrs. Stookey was 
born in Illinois, on March 7, 1852. To this 
union the following children have been born; 
Mrs. Lenora Wilcox, in Seattle; Mrs. Lizzie 
Huddleston, living at Creston; Elgin M. ; and 
Edward B. 

In 1892 Mr. Stookey was called to mourn 
the death of his beloved wife. She had always 
lived a devout Christian and died soothed and 
sustained by the faith which had been her, 
guide throughout life. Mr. Stookey is a con- 
sistent member of the Baptist church and a 
man of excellent standing. 

JAMES ELLIOTT is proprietor of the 
Big Bend stables and city marshal of Creston, 
Washington. He is one of the progressive 
business men of this town and is always allied 
with the cause of advancement and progress, 
having demonstrated his ability in many lines of 
endeavor. Mr. Elliott has always been dwell- 
ing on the frontier and most of his life has been 
spent in sections where there were no railroads. 
In his career he has shown those stanch qualities 
of the true pioneer and has assisted materially 
in opening many sections that are now well 

James Elliott was born in Ontario, Canada, 
on October 28, 1859, being the son of Robert 
and Sarah J. (Young) Elliott. The father 
was a native of Ontario and a prominent citi- 
zen there, having held various offices of import- 
ance. The mother was born in Ireland and 
came to Canada when a child. Our subject re- 
ceived his education in the world-famous 
schools of Ontario and then came on West to 
North Dakota. He soon journeyed from there 
to Coeur d' Alene and just after Col. Wallace 
had completed his cabin in what is now Wal- 
lace, Idaho, Mr. Elliotl completed the second. 
This was in jS8=;. Mr. Elliott operated the 
first pack train into Wardner and wa 
known throughout northern Mali'). In iS.-'o. 

he came to the I Jig I lend country and 
up a farm. for three years he was ei ,• 
in Freighting into the Okanogan country. In 
1891, Mr. Elliott first located in Creston and 
operated from that place as his headquarters. 
Later, he took up the hotel and \eut\ stable 
business and has continued in the same since. 

in 1890, Mr. Elliott married Miss Bettie 
J., daughter, of S. R. and Amanda (York) 
Comer, natives of Kentucky and Tennessee, re 
Spectively. The father was a veteran of the 
Civil War and was one of the earliest pioneers 
to California. To Mr. and Mrs. Elliott, two 
children have been born. Harvey L. and Carl 
V. Mr. Elliott is a member of the W. W. 

JAMES J. DODD is one of the well 
known professional men of Lincoln county. 
On March 13, 1894. Mr. Dodd was admitted 
to practice law in the superior courts of the 
State of Washington. In January. 1899, he 
was admitted to the supreme court and to the 
United States district and circuit courts. At 
the time of his admission the Lincoln county 
papers contained the following paragraph: "J. 
J. Dodd, of Creston, one of the best known 
citizens of Lincoln county, successfully passed 
his examination for admiss : on to the bar on 
Monday and was ordered admitted by Judge 
Mount. The examination was conducted by C. 
H. Neal and Judge Caton. and Mr. Dodd an- 
swered every question correctly with one excep- 
tion. He was highly complimented by Judge 
Mount who said that Mr. Dodd had passed the 
best and highest of any applicant ever admit- 
ted to practice law in Lincoln county." 

J. J. Dodd was born in Jacksonville. Illi- 
nois, on February 8, 1831, the son of Uriah 
and Ally D. (Hutchins) Dodd. natives of Vir- 
ginia. The father went to Kentucky when a 
1m iv and later to Illinois where he fi 
farming. He had two uncles of the Dodd fam- 
ily and three uncles on his mother's side, who 
foughl in the Revolutionary war. The latter 
were named Cook. The two oldest were killed 
at the battle of Hunker Hill. The mother had 
two uncles also in the war of Independence. 
Our subject had very scanty opportunities to 
gain an education in his youthful days and the 
little log school house in Hancock county. Illi- 
nois, was the scene of his studies until four- 
teen when In 'lit to meet the 1 

22 4 


sibilities of life. In 1857 he commenced read- 
ing law under Judge Thomas S. Richardson, 
of Memphis, Missouri, having in previous years 
given himself to arduous personal research in 
literary lines. During this study his health 
broke down and he desisted to crossed the 
plains in 1859 to California. He remained at 
St. Helena. Napa county, until 1862, then re- 
turned to Illinois and in 1865 to Missouri. In 
1876 he went to Kansas. In 1880, we find him 
in the Cherokee nation and in 1888, he came on 
to Lincoln county, with teams. Here in 1890, 
he again commenced the study of law under 
Judge J. Brock of Davenport and was admit- 
ted to the bar as stated above. 

In 1 85 1, Mr. Dodd married Adeline A. 
Browning, who was a very scholarly lady. She 
was born in Tennessee, on December 31, 1830. 
In 1868, Mr. Dodd contracted a second mar- 
riage, his former wife having died, and Miss 
Mary A. Moss of Kentucky, then became Mrs. 
Dodd. The following children have been born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Dodd ; Uriah E., Mrs. Adelina 
Ettenborough, Mrs. Allie L. Covey, John B., 
George H. and Moxey M. Mr. Dodd voted 
for, Franklin Pierce in 1852 and has voted for 
every Democratic president since. He is one 
of the stanch and stable men of the party and 
has ever manifested a keen interest in political 
matters. Mr. Dodd has certainly gained a 
marked distinction in fitting himself for the 
practice of law at the stage of life in which he 
did, as well as in having the successful practice 
he has conducted since. 

HENRY HILLS resides about five miles 
south from Creston, where he owns a nice 
large estate, a part of which was secured 
•through the government rights of homestead, 
preemption, and timber culture, and the bal- 
ance by purchase. He has labored faithfully 
here for more than twenty years and now has a 
good showing to demonstrate the wisdom and 
energy he possesses. 

Henry Hills w : as born in Minnesota, on 
March 12, 1859, being the son of James L. and 
Minerva (Thomas) Hills, natives of New 
York. The other children are: Adella Amoaii, 
Charles C. and Mrs. Hattie Harmon. The 
father came to Minnesota in the early fifties 
and began to open up a farm. In 1862, during 

the famous Sioux Indian raid, he and his fam- 
ily were driven from the home and were forced 
to flee to save their lives. In 1882, Mr. Hills 
came to Walla Walla and resided in different 
parts of Washington for a year. Our subject 
was educated in Minnesota, Nebraska and Kan- 
sas, where the family lived previous to coming 
to Lincoln county. Owing to the fact that thev 
were on the frontier most of the time, opportun- 
ity for education was scant, and young Hills 
had to gather as best he could from the early 
district schools and home study. In 1883, he 
came to Lincoln county and settled where we 
find him today. He was forced to make annual 
pilgrimages to the Palouse and Walla Walla 
countries to earn money during harvest seasons 
to purchase food supplies for the ranch. His 
labors were trying and his path beset with 
many hardships and obstacles, but he succeeded 
in spite of all opposing forces and now has a 
splendid estate in a fertile and rich country. 
Such reward to the sturdy pioneers is certainly 
very becoming and one is pleased to see those 
who bore the burden and heat of the day now 
enjoying the fruit of their labors in this favored 

In 1880, Mr. Hills married Miss Rosetta, 
daughter of John P. and Eliza (Thompson) 
Harris. The father was a pioneer to Sullivan 
county, Indiana, and the mother was born in 
that state. They w^ere the parents of the follow- 
ing named children : William, James, deceased, 
Nannie, Tyra, Herbert, John, and Elizabeth. 
From Indiana, the parents came to the Big 
Bend country and have materially assisted in its 
upbuilding. Airs. Hills is a native of Indiana. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Hills one child has been born, 
Mildred, now living and three deceased in in- 

THEODORE D. GEER is not only a pio- 
neer but a descendant from ancestors who made 
worthy records in this land. He is closely re- 
lated to some of the leading men of the west 
and has done a lion's share in the development 
of the country. He now resides in Wilbur. 
Washington, and came to> what is now Lincoln 
county, in 1880, nearly a quarter of a century 
ago and since that time has has been a progress- 
ive, prominent and capable citizen. 

T. D. Geer was born in Illinois, on October 
13, 1843. His father, Frederick W. Geer. was 







born in Columbus, Ohio, and crossed the plains 
in 1846, settling in Oregon, where he engaged 
in lumbering. Later, he gave his attention to 
the mercantile business and also operated a hotel 
at Butteville, twenty miles from Portland. He 
died in 1900, aged eighty-one. The mother of 
our subject was Mary ( Prentice) Geer, a na- 
tive of New York. She shared her husband's 
journey across the plains and other pioneer 
labors and was a noble and faithful woman. 
Her death occurred in 1892. Our subject 
was three years of age when he came with his 
parents on the western trip and in Oregon he 
grew up and received his education. In ad- 
dition to working on a farm, he also labored 
with his father in the store and when twenty 
years of age went to farming for himself. For 
four years he conducted his father's estate and 
in 1867 went to the. mines at Warren, Idaho. 
Fie labored there nine months and in 1868, 
went to work on a steamboat on the Willamette 
river. In 1876, we find him in eastern Oregon 
engaged in the stock business. Then he went to 
western Oregon again and finally came to what 
is now Lincoln county, settling about seven 
miles southeast from where the town of Wilbur 
now stands. He owns four hundred and forty 
acres of fine, well improved land, a good resi- 
dence in Wilbur, and a block of lots in the same 

In 1863, occurred the marriage of T. D. 
Geer and Philomane Matthew, a native of St. 
Louis, Oregon. Airs. Geer's father, Francis 
X. Matthew, was born in Montreal, Canada. 
and came to Oregon in 1842. He is still living 
on the old donation claim that he took that 
year, being aged eighty-six. It is right near 
Portland and he is one of the early pioneers 
of that now thriving state. During his earlier 
years, he was employed by The American Fur 
Company and was closely identified with the 
early history making incidents of Oregon. He 
was a very active participant in the settlement 
of Oregon and a strong and patriotic American. 
Mr. Geer is a full cousin of ex-governor 
Geer of Oregon and also of Davenport, the 
great cartoonist. Ik- was the second posl 
master in Lincoln county and is well known to 
all the old timers. His firsl vote was cast for 
Abraham Lincoln and he has been a stanch Re- 
publican since. 

I o Mr. and Mrs. (leer the Following named 
children have been born, Fred I'"... Henry R., 

Stella May, Walter T., Charles V., Eva A., 
Ida R., Hattie F., Lester G., and Annette A. 

By way of reminiscence it is interesting to 
note regarding the worthy pioneer, Francis X. 
Matthew, that, in the trying times of the strug- 
gle between the Hudson's Lay Company men 
and the American settlers as to who would 
have the supremacy in the early days, he was a 
stanch worker f ir the American interests. 
When the curcial test came in the meeting called 
in the Willamette valley, it was found tl 
hundred and two were there, fifty for the es- 
tablishment of a provisional government by the 
Americans and fifty solidly for the J I nelson's 
Bay Company, which was trying to hold the 
territory for the kingdom of Great Britain, and 
two who were doubtful. Mr. Matthew was 
successful in influencing these two for the 
American cause and so the day won, in the 
glory of which he should receive no small 

EDWARD DUNHAM, M. 1).. is well 
known in Lincoln county, having been identi- 
fied with its interests for years. During his 
stay here, as well as before, he has been occu- 
pied in the practice of medicine together with 
dispensing drugs and at the present time he 
stands the owner and operator of a good drug 
store and a large practice in medicine. 

Edward Dunham was born in Xew York, 
on October 17. 1827, being the son of Daniel 
and Harriet (Sturdevant) Dunham, natives of 
Connecticut, and both active and prominent 
members of the Baptist church. Our subject 
received his education in Michigan whither the 
family moved when he was a child. Upon com- 
pleting school life he gave himself to the study 
of medicine, operating under different precep- 
tors until he received his degree. In 1N71, he 
began the practice in Michigan and continued 
there successfully until iocX<). when he came to 
Lincoln county. In 1898, he settled in Creston 
and established a good practice besides hand- 
ling a first clas-, drug store and the doctor is 
well known throughout this part of the coun- 
trj and has shown himself to be a strictly pro- 
fessii mal gentleman. 

In [882, Dr. Dunham married Miss Emma 
Schram, a native of Canada and the daughter 
of William and Sarah Ann Schram. 

In [849, Dr. Dunham was united in mar- 



riage to Miss Susan ' Ellis, a native of New 
York and the daughter, of James and Triphosa 
Ellis, also natives of New York. To this mar- 
riage were born Mrs. Addie Jones, of Dayton, 
Washington, and Mrs. Francelia J. Green, of 

WILLIAM H. EVANS is master of the 
king of trades, blacksmithing, and has so con- 
ducted his labors that he has wrought out a 
first class success. He has shown himself a 
natural mechanic and in addition has so closely 
followed the art, that he has gained a skill 
which places him in the lead in all kinds of 
work turned out of a blacksmith shop. At 
present he owns a large shop, twenty-five by 
seventy feet, on Second street in Sprague, and 
it is well equipped with a full supply of all 
kinds of tools and appliances for modern black- 
smithing. He has secured and holds a large 
patronage and has the reputation of being as 
fine a workman as there is in the country. 

William H. Evans was born in Dodge coun- 
ty, Wisconsin, on September, 7, 1866, the son 
of Robert T. and Annie (Prichard) Evans, na- 
tives of Wales and immigrants to the United 
States when young. The father is now living 
retired in Columbus, Wisconsin. The mother 
died in 1889. William was sent to the common 
schools until he had acquired a good education 
and then gave his time to the assistance of his 
father on the farm until twenty. At that age 
he came to Sprague and for a time wrought 
in a dairy here, after which he worked in the 
railroad shops. Six months later, he returned 
east to attend the funeral of his mother. He 
remained there for some time and then re- 
turned to Sprague and entered the blacksmith 
shop of Snider Brothers, and after learning the 
trade worked at it until four years had 
passed by. The next year was spent in the rail- 
road shops, after which he bought a half in- 
terest in the shop of Gill, Jack & Company, 
where he wrought until the fire swept this un- 
fortunate town. Following that he wrought in 
the shop of Van Allen until 1898, when he 
started a shop of his own. Here he has con- 
tinued steadily until the present, increasing his 
equipment and patronage all the time. Mr. 
Evans is one of the good citizens of the town 
and has the confidence of the people. 

At Spokane, on July 19, 1892, Mr. Evans 

married Miss Gina, daughter of James A. and 
Christina (Peterson) Sievertsen, natives of 
Norway. The father was a sea captain and 
died thirty-one years since. The mother is 
now dwelling in Minneapolis, Minnesota. To 
our subject and Iris wife, four children have 
been born, Annie, Ethel. Nellie, and Raymond. 
Mr. Evans has a pleasant and comfortable 
home on Second street and other property be- 
sides what has been mentioned. He came -here 
without capital of any kind and has made every 
dollar he now possesses, besides winning his 
success by dint of hard and honest labor, and 
his anvil sings out each day the merry chimes 
of honest industry. Mr. Evans is a member 
of the K. P. and' the M. W. A. He is also 
chief of the fire department and was first ser- 
geant of the National Guards, Troop A., during 
the Northern Pacific strike in 1886. 

JOSEPH E. BITTNER, M. D., is a prac- 
ticing physician of good repute in Sprague, 
who has won the esteem and confidence of all 
because of his meritorious work and kindly 
qualities. In addition to being possessed of a 
natural ability of high order, fitting- him es- 
pecially for the work that he has taken up, he 
had fortified himself in the best courses before 
he began action and in addition thereto keeps 
thoroughly posted in the times by careful and 
extensive reading. Dr. Bittner has had ample 
experience in practice in addition to the pre- 
paration mentioned above and this combined 
with his other chances, places him high in the 
school of physicians in the state of Washington. 

Joseph E. Bittner was born in Quebec. Can- 
ada, on October 10. 1862. being the son of 
Joseph G. and Domitilde (Ioncas) Bittner, na- 
tives of Quebec. The father was in the em- 
ploy of the Canadian government until his 
death, in July, 1894. The mother, died in 
1903. Joseph E. was first placed in the Que- 
bec seminary where he graduated with honors, 
receiving the degree of B. A. in 1881. Imme- 
diately subsequent thereto, he had matriculated 
in the college of physicians and surgeons at 
Quebec, from which institution he was grad- 
uated in due time, having followed the most 
extensive course in the curriculum. Then Dr. 
Bittner removed to Newport, Tennessee, where 
he entered general practice and was physician 



for a large company for some time. A fter that, 
he entered into partnership with Dr. R. G 
Smith in Newport and together they practiced 
until February, 1889, when our subject came 
to Pasco, Washington. That was the scene 
of his labors until 1896, when he removed to 
Sprague where he has been ever since. He re- 
ceived excellent patronage here, and now has 
as much work as he can handle. He has shown 
himself a man of ability and in addition to his 
general practice is medical examiner for the 
local insurance orders in Sprague, for the New 
York Life Insurance Company, The Mutual 
Life of New York, The Etna of Hartford, The 
Fidelity .Mutual of Pennsylvania. The North- 
western of New York and The Banker's Life 
of Des Moines, Iowa. 

On November 25, 1886, at Newport, Ten- 
nessee, Dr. Bittner married Miss Minnie T- 
Clark, who died in 1892, leaving one child, 
Godfrey E., now attending Gonzaga college in 
Spokane. In 1894. Dr. Bittner contracted a 
second marriage, Miss Lillian M. Henry becom- 
ing his bride at this time. Her parents are 
Marshall M. and Mary (Ottinger) Henry, 
both deceased. By the second marriage,' Dr. 
Bittner, has two children, Joseph E. and Ber- 
tha D. 

The doctor owns a beautiful residence at 
the corner of Third and D streets, which is sur- 
rounded with a lovely lawn, supplied with or- 
namental trees, shrubs and so forth. The house 
is modern in every respect. He has recently 
furnished more extensive offices and operating 
rooms, which are supplied with the most up-to- 
date appliances known to the science. 

ELLSWORTH M. THORP, who now re- 
sides about nine miles east from Sprague, is 
one of the first pioneers to the Big Bend coun- 
try. His labors here for thirty years have been 
commendable, both in improving the country 
and in making for himself a comfortable for- 
tune for the golden years of his life, now soon 
beginning to run apace. He is also to be highly 
commended as one of those brave men who 
hazarded their lives that there might be pre- 
served to those who now enjoy them, the free 
institutions of our. beloved country, and save 
unsullied from treason's minions, the 
and stripes, which now. thanks t<> those same 

brave men and their fathers who fought be- 
fore them, float over the proudest and grand- 
est nation the sun ever shone on. 

Ellsworth M. Thorp was born in Boone 
county, Illinois, on December 6, [846, the son 
of Edward and Phoebe (Ellsworth) Thorp. 
The father was burn in Manchester, England, 
came to this country with his father when 
twelve, and died in Kansas, in 1809. The 
mother of our subject died when he was nine 
years of age. She was burn in Indiana. Flls- 
worth was educated in the public sell..,,], in 
Iowa and when only seventeen enlisted in Com- 
pany F, Thirty-eighth Iowa [nfantry, being 
mustered in at West Union, [owa, in' March, 
1862, for three years or until the war closed. 
He was at the taking of Yickslmrg, fought at 
Yazoo Pass, Fort Morgan, Fort Blakely, then 
was at Mobile, and later was on duty at Gal- 
veston and Houston. At the expiration of his 
time, he was mustered out, having served as a 
faithful private in arduous and trying places 
for the entire time. He was mustered ouf at 
Keokuk, Iowa. After the war. he settled in 
Iowa for a time then went to Kansas, remain- 
ing there until 1S68. In that year, he en ssed 
the plains with an immigrant train, landing 
in the little mining town of Helena, Montana. 
For two years he sought the precious metal in 
that section, being in company with 1 )r. At- 
kinson, who is said to be the first discoverer 
of gold in Montana. His brother was with him 
and about 1870. they came to the Big Bend 
country. The brother stopped on Crab creek 
and our subject went on to the sound. Win- 
tering there and in the Willamette valley, he 
decided to return to this side of the mountains 
and accordingly came to Walla Walla. In the 
fall of 1873. Mr. Thorp came thence to Crab 
creek and took a piece of land. He cultivated 
the same but did not file on it. In 1875. he 
went thence to Los Angeles county, California, 
with an immigrant train, and there met his 
future wife. Seven years were spent in that 
country and in 1SS2. he came back to the Big 
lie landed here with a four-horse team 
and twenty dollars, lie homesteaded a place 
near where he now lives and bought mi ire. I lis 
estate consists now of eight hundred and forty- 
acres of choice hay land, which is well im- 
proved with excellent seven-room residence, 
barns, and other buildings, besides fences, and 
everything needed to make the place first class 


and up to date. Mr. Thorp has been school 
director and road overseer at different times 
and he evinces a keen interest in the welfare of 
the country and its progress. 

At Los Angeles, California, in 1876, Mr. 
Thorp married Mrs. Elizabeth Knight, the 
daughter of Simon and Deborah (Daily) 
Feeler, natives of Virginia and North Carolina, 
respectively. The father followed farming in 
Missouri, and there remained until his death. 
The mother also died there. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Thorp the following named children have been 
born, Mrs. Eva Puis, who is the mother of two 
children and is living in Lincoln county; Ed- 
ward, in Montana; Alice Gibson, with her par- 
ents ; and Mrs. Frances Bogle, in Lincoln coun- 
ty. Mr. Thorp is a cousin of Colonel Ells- 
worth, who was said to be the first man killed 
in the Rebellion. 

LOUIS V. ALLEN, who resides about five 
miles southeast from Harrington, is one of the 
well known and highly respected citizens of 
Lincoln county. He owns a half section of 
choice wheat land where he resides and his in- 
dustry and thrift have improved jt in fine shape. 
His residence is a tasty cottage, beautifully sur- 
rounded with elegant shade trees and his em 
tire place bears the stamp of the man. Commo- 
dious buildings are in evidence and all machin- 
ery and other accoutrements necessary on a 
first class farm are supplied in abundance. He 
also raises some stock. 

Louis V. Allen was born in Moore prairie, 
Jefferson county, Illinois, on April 19, 1841, 
the son of Able and Prudence (Wilkes) Allen, 
natives of Kentucky and South Carolina, re- 
spectively. The father was a pioneer of Illi- 
nois and a man of prominence, being especially 
interested in school matters. He died in the 
Prairie State in 1863. The mother died in Illi- 
nois in 1866. She was descended from the pa- 
triot stock which furnished fighting men for 
the Revolution and the War of 1812. Our 
subject received his education in the public 
schools of his native place and labored with 
his father on the farm until twenty. At that 
time, he was one of the young men filled with 
patriotism and love of country, so that when 
the call came for, men, true and brave, to beat 
back the hosts of treason, he promptly stepped 

forward and offered his services, and life, too,. 
if such need should be, to save our beloved in- 
stitutions and the land of the free. He was 
enrolled at McLeansboro as private, in Com- 
pany D. Sixth Illinois Cavalry, in General 
Sherman's command. Words are not needed 
to describe his service, as an outline of his ca- 
reer there is better encomium than words could 
possibly be. We append herewith a partial list 
of the engagements participated in by Mr. Al- 
len ; Dyersburg, Olivebranch, Coffeville, Boli- 
ver, Ripley, Covington, Belmont, an expedition 
for sixteen days in the midst of the confeder- 
acy, Port Hudson, Clinton Plains, Byhalis, 
Granada, Salem, Oxford, Pulaski, Franklin 
and Nashville, besides others. He was dis- 
charged on March 18, 1863, re-enlisted on the 
same day and was later promoted to the rank of 
first lieutenant. His honorable discharge oc- 
curred on October 16, 1865, at Salem, Ala- 
bama. Following that he came to Illinois and 
farmed there until 1869, then moved to another 
portion of the state and dwelt until 1872. Next 
we see him in Jasper county, Missouri, whence 
in 1877, he went to Salem, Oregon. It was in 
1879, that he came to Waitsburg, Washington, 
that being his first trip to this state. One year 
later he journeyed to the territory now occu- 
pied by Lincoln county and located where he 
lives today. It was his lot to land here with- 
out capital, except a good stock of determina- 
tion and hands willing to labor. The success 
he has the privilege of enjoying at this time, 
is the result of his labors and of it, Mr. Allen 
may well be proud. In political matters, he 
has always taken a lively interest and has served 
the county as commissioner, for five years. His 
name appeared on the Republican ticket, the 
principles of which party he supports. He has 
also been school clerk. 

At Spring-field, Illinois, on February 15, 
1864, Mr. Allen married Miss Ruth M. Knox, 
who is the daughter of Thomas J. and Mary 
(Danley) Knox. The father was born in 
Wheeling. Virginia, and later removed to Illi- 
nois and for, many years was treasurer of San- 
gamon county and also served as justice of the 
peace. He died in 1857. The mother was 
born in Lexington, Kentucky, and died in Illi- 
nois, in 1861. One child was born to them, 
Mrs. Estella Howard, who resides in Daven- 
port, Washington. Mr. Allen is a member of 
the G. A. R. and takes great interest in it. 



NOAH B. McKY has for eighteen years 
been a section foreman on the Northern Pacific 
railroad. He is a man of real worth and sub- 
stantial qualities, and his long service in this 
important capacity is abundant proof of his 
ability to handle successfully the labors en- 
trusted to him. His stand in the community 
is of the best and the nice property that he has 
accumulated shows his success in faithful en- 

Noah B. McKy was born in Fayette coun- 
ty, on April 1, 1852, being the son of John and 
Sarah (Jackson) McKy, natives of Ohio. The 
father was sheriff of Richland county. Wiscon- 
sin for a time and served in the Civil War in 
the Twenty-fifth Wisconsin Volunteers, being 
an orderly sergeant. He died in Richland 
county, Wisconsin, in 1896. The mother died 
in Wisconsin, in April, 1898. 

Our subject was educated in the schools 
where he lived and resided with his father on 
the farm until twenty-one years of age, then 
began independent action, taking up stock buy- 
ing. He bought for one firm for five years 
then purchased a farm for himself and oper- 
ated the same until 1880. when he came to 
Ritzville, Washington. Shortly after, he en- 
tered the employ of the Northern Pacific and 
later was transferred to Sprague, having charge 
of the yards here and the section. His faith- 
fullness and reliability have won for him the 
confidence and good will of his employers and 
he has done well in the line for promotion. 

In 1880, at Richland, Wisconsin, Mr. McKy 
married Katie A. Halin, who is the daugh- 
ter of Bernard C. and Guenney (Davis) Halin. 
The father was a marble cutter and also did 
farming. He served as auditor of Richland 
county, Wisconsin for some time and during 
the Civil War, was captain in the regiment. 
He died in the Badger State in 1890. The 
mother was born in Wales and came to Ohio 
with her parents when young. She died in 
Wisconsin, in 1895. O ur subject has the fol- 
lowing brothers and sisters. John, Newton, 
Jasper, Jerome. Mrs. Mary J. Conkals, Mrs. 
Julia Ewen. and Mrs. Lucy Berrett. ^Nlrs. 
McKy has nine brothers and sisters; Thomas 
J.; Harry; Arthur; John; Edward: Emmett, 
with the United States army in the Philippines ; 
Mrs. Alice Person, in Chicago; Mrs. Lucy 
Costello in Richmond. Wisconsin; and Mrs. 
Bertha Gunniner, in Lincoln county. 

To Mr. and Mrs. McKy the following 
named children have been born; Gertrude, 
teaching instrumental and vocal music in Whit- 
man college; Gwen, teaching music in Sprague; 

and Oscar, at home. Mr. McKy's daughters 
have shown marked talent in music and are 
building a fine reputation for themselves in 
this art. The family home is a beautiful seven 
room cottage, tastily surrounded with lawn 
and shade trees on the corner of Fourth avenue 
and C street. The good taste of Mrs. McKy 
is manifested in the furnishings of the beauti- 
ful home and she is known as a lady of refine- 
ment. Mr. McKy owns in addition to the prop- 
erty above mentione'd, a section of wheat land, 
all under cultivation. Mrs. McKy is handling 
a fine dressmaking and millinery business in 
the building next to the postoffice in Sprague 
and has much patronage. 

They are estimable people and have won 
their position in society by reason of their 
worth, uprightness and industry. 

Mr. McKy is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and has served on the city council for five years, 
being in office at this time. 

WILLIAM BRADLEY is one of the well 
known pioneer citizens of Sprague. At the 
present time he holds a responsible position on 
the Idaho division of the Northern Pacific. He 
has risen to this position and held it for many 
years by reason of real worth and ability. An 
account of his life will be interesting and en- 
couraging to many who are laboring to obtain 
success and it is with pleasure that we append 
the same. 

William Bradley was born in Ireland, in 
[859, the son of William ami Mary 1 Feeley) 
Bradlev. both natives of the Emerald Isle. 
where also they remained until the time of 
their death. The common schools of his na- 
tive country furnished the educational training 
for young Bradley and when twenty he started 
for the Yew World, sailing for New Y. >rk 
where he arrived in due time. After three 
months in that metropolis, he came on to Min- 
nesota where he worked on the Northern Pa- 
cific. He was in the constructii n department 
for three years and in the spring of 1883, came 
to Sprague, taking a position in the same de- 
partment and on the same road. For three 



months, he was an ordinary hand on the sec- 
tion, then was promoted to the position of sec- 
tion foreman. For six years he faithfully dis- 
charged the duties of that position before the 
next step of promotion came and during this 
time as during all the years of his service for 
the company, he had been making an especial 
study of everything connected with the con- 
struction department of the railroad. There 
was no detail too small to escape his notice nor 
was there any problem too great but that he 
ultimately solved it and the result was that 
when he was fully competent for his promotion, 
he was called to take up the responsible and im- 
portant position of road master. He was duly 
installed in this position and since that time, 
has continuously served on the Great Northern 
Pacific railroad with ability and execution that 
have made him a very important factor on this 
division. Mr. Bradley has not only displayed 
a thorough knowledge of everything connected 
with his department but is also well acquainted 
with the railroad in general. In addition to the 
happy faculty of handling men to the best ad- 
vantage, he is a man of excellent judgment and 
very keen in observation. Very nearly a quar- 
ter of a century has elapsed since he first en- 
tered the employ of the Northern Pacific rail- 
road and he is practically the only one of the 
old railroad men with the company now who 
were here with them when he came to Sprague. 
It is not merely chance that Mr. Bradley has 
won and held the position that he occupies but 
it is the result of painstaking labor and stanch 
attention to business in every detail and those 
who would emulate such a career must banish 
the idea from the mind forever that it is "luck" 
and a "pull" that bring success in the indus- 
trial world. On the contrary it is merit and 
ability and a man who is handling large inter- 
ests today, learned yesterday to care for every 
detail of the affairs that were under his super- 
vision however small they might be. All of 
which is proof of the old proverb, "He that 
is faithful in the least is faithful in much." 

On November 6, 1894, Mr. Bradley married 
Miss Mamie, daughter of Frank and Helen 
(Morey) Wilcox, the wedding occurring in 
Sprague. The father was born in Wisconsin, 
followed merchandising, and now lives in Port- 
land. The mother died in Portland a number 
of years ago. Mrs. Bradley has the following 
brothers and sisters, Guv R., Paul D., Gert- 

rude, Elmer. Mr. Bradley was one of a family 
of five children, those besides himself being, 
James, Robert, Mrs. Norah Finan, and Mrs. 
Annie Mahoney. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bradley are both members of 
the Catholic church and are devoted and sub- 
stantial people. They own a handsome brick 
residence on the top of the hill near the Catholic 
church in Sprague and the grounds are beauti- 
fully laid out and supplied with lawn, flowers, 
shrubbery, trees and so forth. Mr. Bradley 
also owns a half-section of wheat land which 
is well improved and the land rented. He 
came here with no capital and is now a man 
of means. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Bradley, three children 
have been born, Robert, Marie, and Loretta, 
all at home and attending school. 

CHARLES HOFFMAN has won a suc- 
cess in the Big Bend country of which he may 
justly be proud. He is to be classed as one 
of the pioneers of this section, as well as many 
other portions of the west, and the real pioneer 
spirit has been manifested in him during these 
days of labor and self denial. Intimately ac- 
quainted with mining in the well known camps, 
being associated there in the days when much 
lawlessness existed, Mr. Hoffman has seen 
much of the hard side of mining life. 

Preferring the quieter life of the farm, he 
turned to that occupation and has worked with 
gratifying success which will be mentioned 

Charles Hoffman was born in Saxony, Ger- 
many, on January 14, 1846. His father, 
Charles Hoffman was a butcher and was born 
in Saxony where also he died. The mother, 
Teresa (Leudhoff) Hoffman, was a native of 
the same country and died when our subject 
was born. Charles received a fine education in 
the schools of Germany during eight succes- 
sive years, under the best of training, then was 
accepted as a reserve in the army but was never 
called into the service. In 1873, he started 
from Hamburg to New York and went thence 
to St. Louis, where he followed butchering for 
a year and half. Next we see him in Denver, 
Colorado, in the same business, then he went 
to the mining districts of Colorado and the 
adjacent territories, and was especially ac- 



quainted in Leadville in the early days of its 
excitement. Then he started for the Coeur d' 
Alene country, but owing to the heavy fall of 
snow, had to stop at Thompson Falls. There 
he followed butchering for three months then 
came on through to Washington. As Sprague 
was the more lively and promising of the two 
towns of Spokane and Sprague, he located there 
and opened a butcher shop. Two years later, 
he sold out his shop and bought a place where 
he now resides, eight miles northwest from 
town. Then he gave himself to stock raising 
and finding the hills productive of wheat, 
turned his attention to that and thus he has 
continued since. 

At Denver, Colorado, in 1875, Mr. Hoff- 
men married Miss Aggie, daughter of David 
and Edith Schaufler, natives of Germany, 
where they remained until their death. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Hoffman the following children have 
been born ; Edward, deceased ; Albert, living 
in Portland, Oregon; Rose Miller, in Lincoln 
county; Carl, Anna, Marie, George, Frank 
and Walter, all at home and Maudie, deceased. 
Their home is a nice two story, nine room 
residence provided with all modern conven- 
iences. It is situated in Crab Creek valley, in 
beautifully laid out grounds, surrounded by 
handsome shade trees and fine orchards. Mr. 
Hoffman has provided a fine waterworks sys- 
tem which brings water to every portion of the 
house and grounds of the lawn. He has a fine 
windmill and pump house surrounded by a fine 
orchard. He owns eight hundred acres of land 
together with a lease of four hundred and 
eighty acres of school land. He raises many 
thousands of bushels of wheat each year in ad- 
dition to handling considerable stock. At the 
present time he has some well bred cattle and a 
good band of horses. The place is provided 
with all machinery, buildings and other im- 
provements that are needed on a first class farm 
and Mr. Hoffman is to be commended upon 
the magnificent success that he has won. 

JAMES MACDONALD dwells about 
fourteen miles southeast from Sprague and is 
occupied in farming and stock raising. Like 
many of the leading men of the Big Bend coun- 
try, Mr. Macdonald came here without any 
means. By careful attention to business and 
making much of the resources here given, he 

has (-Mine to he a wealthy and prosperous man. 
His home is a fine story and one-half, eight 
room cottage, well supplied with every con- 
venience and surrounded with everything that 
makes a place comfortable and attractive. It 
is the center of an estate of one thousand and 
furty acres of excellent wheat laud. In addi- 
tion t<> this. Mr. Macdonald owns a section and 
one-half of pasture land and handles a sectii n 
and a half to wheat. He owns nearly two hun- 
dred head of cattle, plenty of horses for the 
carrying on of his large estate and all machin- 
ery necessary. 

James Macdonald was horn in county An- 
trim, Ireland, on December i_\ [848, tin- son 
of Alexander and Isabella (McCapin) Mac- 
donald, natives also of that county, where they 
both died, the father in 1807 and the mother 
in 1894. James received his educational train- 
ing during the first thirteen years of his life 
then assisted his father on the farm, after which 
he went to the city of Belfast and engaged as 
clerk in a grocery store, retaining that position 
for nine years. In April, 1870, he sailed from 
Glasgow, Scotland, to New York by way of 
Quebec, Canada. For a time he operated in a 
lumber yard in the metropolis of America, then 
went to Lehigh county, Pennsylvania and 
wrought in the iron works for six years. After 
this he journeyed to Nashua. New Hampshire, 
and wrought two years in the machine shops. 
Then he determined to come west and accord- 
ingly journeyed to the Big Bend country via 
San Francisco. For two years, he was fireman 
on the Northern Pacific here then took a home- 
stead where he now resides. Mr. Macdonald 
has one brother and two sisters, Isabella and 
May, living with him, and Thomas A., de- 
ceased, who was a machinist on the Northern 
Pacific for fifteen years. In addition to the 
property mentioned, Mr. Macdonald owns a 
half interest in a threshing machine outfit which 
does a good business each year in the adjacent 

Fraternally, he is a member of the Masons, 
while in religious persuasions he belongs to the 
Episcopal church. Mr. Macdonald has great 
to take pride in the labors he has per- 
formed in this country and tin- success which 
In- has achieved, while also he has so conducted 
himself that he has won the good will I 

who know him and is considered one of the 
leading men of this part of the country. 



HENRY C. STANLEY, born August 27, 
1838, in Edwards county, Illinois, was the son 
of William and Maria (Gum) Stanley, pio- 
neers of Edwards county. William Stanley 
was born in Washington county, Ohio, re- 
moved at an early age to Edwards county, 
where he held the office of justice of the peace 
for twenty years, and where he died, February, 
1892, being at the time of his death in his sev- 
enty-seventh year. His wife was native of 
Wabash county, Illinois, lived for a time in 
Ohio, and died about five years ago in the same 
county as did her husband, and at about the 
same age. 

Mr. Stanley grew to manhood in the county 
of his nativity, where he attended school held in 
a primitive log house, one of his schoolmates 
being Elmina Gould, to whom, August 30. 
1859, he was married:" Mrs. Stanley's father 
was Philander Gould, born in West Virginia, 
but reared in New York. At the age of nine- 
teen he removed to Edwards county, where he 
spent the remainder of his life, dying in his 
seventy- fourth year, in 1890. Mrs. Stanley's 
mother, Sarah Knowlton in single life, was 
born in Amherst, Massachusetts, in 181 6. 
raised a family of ten children, to whom she 
was ever a faithful and devoted mother, and 
died in 1876. Both she and her husband were 
ambitious, energetic and relentless workers 
throughout their lives. 

Soon after their marriage, Mr. and Mrs. 
Stanley migrated to Clay county, Illinois, and 
in 1877 to Murray county, Minnesota, where 
they continued to make their home until coming 
to Lincoln county, Washington, in 1892. Ar- 
riving here they at once settled on their present 
farm, seven miles north and two miles east of 
Mondovi, which at that time was unimproved 
railroad land. With the scanty means at his 
command, Mr. Stanley at once began earnestly 
to improve his land, and as times permitted 
added to his original holdings until he now has 
four hundred acres, for the most part agricul- 
tural land, adorned with a good seven-room 
house, commodious barn, outbuildings, etc., all 
of which represent the work of his own hands. 
Besides his home, he has a quarter section of 
land near Fruitland, Stevens county. 

Nine children, six of whom are living, have 
been born to Mr. and Mrs. Stanley. The 
names of those living are: Ira P. and William 
T., of Stevens county; and Edson G, Elmer 

C, Florrie E. Reynolds, and Rollo C, all of 
Lincoln county. 

Both the parents are devoted members of 
the United Bretheren church and are actively 
interested in educational matters. 

Mr. Stanley served in the Civil war, en- 
listing in Company F, One Hundred and Forty- 
third Illinois Regular Infantry, in April, 1864, 
and was given an honorable discharge in the 
fall 1 d the same year, his service having been 
chiefly in the states of Tennessee and Arkansas. 
Mr. Stanley cast his first vote for Abraham 
Lincoln, in i860, and has since been an un- 
swerving Republican. 

OLE S. HAIR has resided in Davenport 
for a number of years and owns considerable 
property here at the present time. He also 
operates the Granite saloon and is well known 
throughout the county. He was born in 
Thorndhjem, Norway, the son of Simon and 
Martin (Nilson) Hair, natives of Norway. 
The family is one of the old and prominent ones, 
dating its history back for four hundred years. 
The members of the family are all long lived. 
The grandfather lived to be one hundred and 
eighteen. Some of them own vessels on the sea 
and others follow various industries. Our sub- 
ject was one of five children, Caroline, Sophie, 
Annie, Matilda, and Ole S. His education was 
secured in his native place and at the age of 
fifteen, he started to work for himself. He 
learned shoe making and followed that trade 
until nineteen, then came to America in 1880. 
He wrought in Minnesota for two years, then 
went to Winnipeg and did railroading for four 
years and later, we find him in Port Arthur, 
Ontario, where he started a saloon. In 1889, 
he was in Tacoma, later in Sandpoint and 
finally, about 1892, he came to Davenport 
which has been his home place since. He 
bought a saloon and has operated it until the 
present. Mr. Hair owns various city property, 
among which is a brick block where he con- 
ducts his business, and a tree claim which has 
two million feet of fine pine timber. It is in 
Klickitat county. He also has considerable 
mining property, which is considered very 

In political matters he takes a keen and 
active part. Fraternally, he is a member of 







the F. A. and in 1899 was appointed deputy 
grand chief ranger, having heen appointed 
twice since. He also belongs to the Red Men, 
having passed the chairs in that lodge. 

WILLIAM L. SMITH is one of the largest 
property owners of Lincoln county. His suc- 
cess in the financial world has been achieved 
through his careful and devoted labors and the 
wise handling of the resources of this country. 
From the time of his settlement here, he was 
one of the foremost among the progressive men 
and every one who knows him can testify to his 
uprightness and ability. 

William L. Smith was born in Santa Clara 
county, California, on December 8, i860. His 
father, Laurence S.. was born in Ireland and 
came to America when a young man. He lo- 
cated on a farm where Sacramento now stands, 
being one of the pioneers of California. Fie is 
now a wealthy and leading citizen of the Sacra- 
mento valley. The mother of our subject was 
Ann (Kits) Smith, a native of Ireland. She 
was married in her native country and came to 
America with her husband. Our subject re- 
ceived his education in the district schools of 
California, and then came on to Oregon, where 
he took up freighting. He is well acquainted 
by experience with the different phases of fron- 
tier life and has had many thrilling adventures. 
In 1882 he took government land in western 
Oregon and farmed for one year. It was one 
year later when he located his place, six miles 
m irtb from where Odessa now stands and en- 
gaged in stock raising and general farming. 
He continued to purchase land at various times 
until he now owns over four thousand acres 
throughout the county, besides one of the finest 
residences in Odessa, property in Ritzville and 
much other property. He has beetr devoting 
his attention largely to feeding stock, horses. 
cattle and sheep, and is one of the best known 
stockmen in this portion of Washington. He 
has brought some fine Mom led stock into the 
county and has done much to improve the 
grades here. Recently, he sold his sheep and is 
handling cattle almost exclusively. Mr. Smith. 
like many of the worth v men here, began life as 
a poor boy and everything that he now pos- 
sesses is the result of his own efforts. It seems 
that he has been especially favored by Dame 

Fortune, as he can nut remember any enterprise 
in which he has started wherein he h 
gained success. To the observant eye, the main 
reason for all this is the ability and close atten- 
tion to business manifested by Mr. Smith, lie 
now dwells in ( Idessa and owns a very line 
1 usiness block there. No man of the iunty has 
done more to build up the country than has our 
subject. In educational matters and local af- 
fairs he has always been deeply interested and 
has been very liberal in public donations. 

Mr. Smith was married in 1883 to Ella I. 
Despain, a native of Oregon. To this couple, 
seven children have been born: Charles M.. a 
business man of Odessa; Anna M.. Ruby, 
William P.. Hazel. Mark and Joseph. On 
December 10. 1901, Mrs. Smith was called 
hence by death. She was a noble woman, be- 
loved by all. 

In fraternal affiliations, Mr. Smith is a 
member of the I. O. O. F. 

GEORGE E. DARBY, who resides about 
four miles south from Downs, is one of the 
leading stock men of the Big Bend country and 
owns one of the largest estates in central Wash- 
ington. He was born in Hartford. Connecti- 
cut, on August 19, t86o. being the son of 
John E. and Sarah (Bradshaw) Darby. The 
father was born in Connecticut and followed 
carpentering. He journeyed to Chicago in the 
early seventies, where he remained the balance 
of his life. His ancestors came to the United 
States in 1650 and some of them participated 
in every war of the colonies and of the United 
States. The mother of our subject was the