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^^^^,,^ATED HlSTo,^^ 


ofoiA County 


Containing- a History <>f tin' County of Sommia fiMm tlic Earliest Period 

of its Occupancy to the Tresent Time, to<,'ethev witli (Himpses of 

its Prospective Future; witli Profuse Illustrations of its 

Beautiful Scenery, Full-Page Portraits of some of 

its most Eminent Men, and Biograjdiical 

Mention of Many of its I'ioneers and 

also of Pi-onnnent Citizens 

of To-day. 



11;! Ada.m.n St., Ciiicm.o, Ii.linoi.^. 
1 b 8 l> . 








A CnAPTEn OP C'F.NTrniF.s. 

California Discovered— Origin of Name— Sir Francis Dralie— Monterey Bay Discovered by Viscaino— San 
Franciscan Friars Plant the Cross at San Diego— Bay of San Francisco Discovered— Monterey Founded and 
Mission Establislied— San Francisco Bay Explored —Presidio and Mission Established al San Francisco— Call, 
fornia Weak and Defenseless — Ceutury Ends and no Settlement North of Verba Buena - - . . 4-11 


The Kt'ssians at Ross. 

The Russian American Fur Companj- — Razanof Visits San Francisco in 1805 — Fishinir for Otter along the 
Coast— In 1809 Kuskof Anchored in Bodega Bay— In 1811 the Russians Established Fort Ross— What the 
Frenchman, Durant ('illy, said of Ross in 1838 — Ross a Busy Bee-Hive of Industry - - - - 12-19 



After Forty Vears the Spaniards Secure Lodgment North of San Francisco — A Branch Mission Established at 
San Rafael in 181S— Exploring Expedition under Captain Argiiello in 1821 — In 1823 Padre Altimira Visited 
Petalnma and Sonoma Valleys and Chose Sonoma as a Mission Site — Missicra Dedicated as San Francisco 
Solano, April 4, 1824 20-28 


The RrssTASs and Ross to a CoNoi.rsiON. 

The Russians Realize Ihey have too Narrow a Fiehl — Will Buy more Territory or Sell their Establishments — 
Overtures not well Received by Mexican Authorities — Vallejo Comniandante at Sonoma in 18:J4 — Russians 
Sell to Captain John Sutter in 1811 and Depart for Alaska— P>idwell and Beunitz at Ross — Fort Ross in 188S 



Governor Figueroa Sets on Foot a Coloni/alion Enterprise — Attempts to Establish Settlements at Pelaluma 
and Santa Rosa in 18:!:!— In 183.j Sonoma Laid Out and made the Center of Military Power and Secular Coloni- 
zation North of the Bay — Vallejo Authorized to Otler C'olonists Grants of Land — Becomes the Controlling 
Power — Makes an Alliance with Indian Chief Solano — In 18:38 Sinall-Pox Among the Indians- - 37-44 



The C'ArTi'UE of Sonoma. 

Mexican Kule Neariiig ils EdJ — California Leaders Quarreling Among Themselves — War Expected Between 
United Stales and Jlexico— Americans in a Ticklish Position — What Larkin was Expected to do — What Fre- 
mont did do — Bancroft's Instructions to Commodore Sloal — Vallejo — Sutter — Fremont and Gillespie — Midnight 
Attack by Indians — Fremont's Uelurn Down the Sacramento Valley — Sonoma Captured — Capture of Vallejo — 
Taken to Sacramento — How Received by Fremont Ah-M 

ciTArTER vn. 

The Bkah Flag — Stars and STRirEs. 

Kevolutionists Found a New Government — Hear Flag Adopted — How and by Whom JIade — Captain Ide Issues 
a Proclamation — Lieutenant Missroon Arrives — Killing of Cowie and Fowler at Santa Rosa — Battle of Olom. 
Jiali — Castro Leads Troops Across the Bay — Fremont Hastens to Sonoma — Goes to San Bafael — C'alilornia Bat- 
talion Organized — Fremont Starts After Castro — Captain Montgomery Dispatched Lieutenant Revere to Sono- 
ma with an American Flag, and July 9 the Bear Flag came down and the Stars and Stripes went up - 57-G!l 


The Past and Present. 

The Bear Flag, how male— Names of Kevolutionists — State Seal — General M. G. Vallejo — General .7. A 
Sutter— Sonoma District Pioneers — Native Sons of the Golden West ....-.- 70-SS 


Military and Politicat. History. 

Sonoma Under Jlililaiy Rule — Civil OtHcers Appointed — How Justice was Administered — Constitutional C(Ui- 
vention — First Election — California Admitted into the Union — Machinery of Civil Government Set in Motion — 
Agitation of County Seat Removal— Santa Rosa Chosen — Early Court Accommodations — County Buildings 
- - - - . 89-101 


Location and Topograi'iiv. 

Boundaries of Sononia Cnunty—Her Mountain Ranges — Forests and Valleys .... 103-106 


American Occvpation. 

Sonoma a Central Point after the Bear Flag Revolution— Efl'ect of Discovery of the Mines— F. G. Blume's 
Staleraent— First Settlers at Petaluma— Bachelor Ranches— County as it was in 1854— Assessor's Report for 
1855 — First Fair in Sonoma County 107-117 


Reminiscent of a Third op a C'enti'ry Aoo. 

An Epitome of the First Year's Record of the Sonoma County Journal— The Geysers in 185(i— The Petaluma 
Hunters in 18(iO 118-l'i8 

The Coi nty Developing. 

Immigration Pours into Sonoma County -Products of Country Between Pelalumaand Bodega— Santa Rosa and 
Russian River \ alleys— The Year 18(it— Land Troubles— Bodega War— Healdsburg War— .Muldrew Shadow- 
Miranda Grant — Bnjori|ues (irant - - - ItiO-Hl 

rjONf Biffs. 



Basalt Rock — Asbestos — Chromic Iron — Cinnabiir — Suli>luir — Coi^per — Fossil Uemains — Petri fad ions 14'i-147 


MExrcAN Land Grants of Sonoma County. 

ItancUos Musalacon — ^Colate — Giiilicos — Canada lie Pogolome — Llano de Santa liosa— El Molino — Ilnichica — 
Yulpa — Guenoc — Soloyome — I'odega — Blucher — Callajomi — Muniz — Lagnna de San Antonio — Arroyo de San 
Antonio — Senode IMalconies— Uoblar de la l\[isera— Canada de la loniva — Eslero Americano — German — Peta- 
liima — San Miguel — 'I'zabaco — Caslamayome — Cabeza de Santa Kosa — Agua Caliente . - - 14y-lo6 


Haii.ways, Highways, Water Courses and Bays. 

San Francisco and Northern Pacific Railroad — North Pacific Coast Railroad — Santa Rosa and Carquinez Rail- 
road—Public Highways — The Last Stage Driver — Rivers and Water Courses— Bays and Coves— Colonel Peter 
Donahue - - - ir)7-104 


Events in Chronoi-ogicai, Order. 

A Record of Years — Incidents — Accidents — Discove.ies — Developments, etc. .... ]fi.")-170 


Indian Mass.^cres. 

Ill-fated Sonoma Countians — Doctor Smeathman— Canfield, Van Ostrand ami Borton — Barnes — .Jndson, 
Woodworth, Baker and Old Benjamin — Leihy — Mrs. Sallie Ann Canfield 171-177 


Sonoma and Marin County Agricultural Society. 

When Organized — Its Changes in Organization — Its Fairs and Officers — Change of Location of Fair Grounds — 
Its Good Ett'ect on Our Industries 178-1H3 


Nature's Laboratory- The Geysers. 

The Geysers — Visited in ISOri by Vice-President Schuyler Colfax and Samuel Bowles, Editor of the Springfield 
.Massachusetts, liepuhlican — What Mr. Bowles Wrote — Clark Fos.s — The Eartluiuake, 1808 184-188 


Redwood Forests. 

E.\tent of Redwood Forests — Lumber Output of Mills — Colonel Aimstrong's Grove — A ilousterTree — The Big 
Bottom Forests, etc. . - . 18!I-UI4 


Names Belonging to History. 

President Rutherford B. Hayes, Geneial William T. Sherman and Secretary of War Alexandei' Kauisey— Culo- 
nel Rod .Matheson—.Iolin Miller Cameron — Salmi Morse- - - 1!I5-'J00 


Animals Native of Sonoma County — Grizzly, Brown and Black Bear — Panther-Fox— Wolf— Coyote— Wild 
Cat— Mounrain Cat— Elk, Deer, Antelope, etc. 201-204 

Our Flora anm Conikera. - . . . 205-209 


" I.o Till-; Poou Indian." 

The Imliaus— Mission Record of Tribal Kaines— Vallejo's Esliiuatp of their Niimlier— Number at Time of 
American Settlement— Complexiou and Stature— How they Lived— Tlieir Implements— Interview with Cask., 
bel and Jose Viquaro — John Walker's Statement ;;iO-'2i:i 

General Htstory to a CoNcirPsiox. 

From 1870 Onward — The Southern Counties Open to Settlement— Its Etieft— Sonoma Prospers Without a 
Change in Iler Industries— Grain and Potatoes not Grown so Largely— Stock, Hay ami Fruit Growing— Kail- 
ro.ids Stimulate the Lumber Business— Statistical and Otherwise — Sonoma County's Future '.'H-SiO 

Santa Rosa. 

Town.ship History- Growth of tlie Cily— liusine^s Interests- Aildress of Hon. G. A. Johnson— Churches- 
Schools — The Press . 2i3-242 



Township History— Origin of Name- Chronological— Business Interests— Churches— The Press 24:^-'2(i4 

Township IIistoriks. 

Mendocino— Clovcnlale— Sonoma— Analy—Boilega — Russian River —Washington— Redwood— Ocean — Salt 
Point — Ivuighl's Valley — Vallejo 2(i5-:i0(i 



Abraham, Isidore 20!) 

Adams, John 43!) 

Agnew, S. J Cy'SH 

Aguillon, Camille TUT 

Akers, Stephen T3G 

Alexander, J. .M 2T0 

Alexander, L. M 311 

Allen, Otis .SOo 

Allen, S.I :i82 

Amesbury, William 722 

Anderson, L. S (iT5 

Anderson, T. H. B 48;i 

Andrews. Robert 581 

Arata, B 402 

Auradou, J. A (i:W 

.\iistin, Charles 400 

Austin, James 'MH 

Austin, J.S ry.M 


Baer,G. B 2TT 

Bailey, J. II 4fi(j 

Bailitr,John 588 

Baker, A. .M 729 

Bale, Edward T 70:i 

Barhani, .1. A .'U.5 

Barlow, S. Q .531 

Barnes, E. H fi40 

Barth, Adam T:^3 

Bayler, John .")11 

Baylis, T. F r,7-> 

Bell, R. W ()l(i 

Berry, B. B 818 

Berry, S. B ;i22 

Bidwell, Ira 41.5 

Bloch, George 809 

Bodwell, C. A 008 

Bolle, Henry 830 

Bohlin, F. A" 427 

Bouton, Andrew 477 

Bowman, J. H 497 

Braunern, William 725 

Briggs, Robert 419 

Brooke, T.J 407 

Brooks, Elmout 507 

Brown, F.T 700 

Brown, fl. C ,507 

Brown, John 398 

Brotherton, T. W 331 

Bryant, D. S 338 

Burnett, A. G 400 

Burnham, Albert 708 

Burris, L. W 088 

Butt, Allied 026 

Byce, L. C 548 

Byington, H. W .59!) 


Cady, M. K 434 

Caldwell, Albert .545 

Campbell, Joseph 578 

Campbell. J. T OOi 

Cantield, W. D 078 

Cary, Bartley 7 Ki 

Carithers, D. N 42!) 

Carr, Mark 41!) 

Carriger, C. C 08;i 

Caniger, Nicholas 009 

Carroll, Patrick 415 

Cassiday, Samuel 2."j8 

(;assidy, J. W 405 

Castens, Henry GT2 

Cavanagh, John 560 

Chalfanl, J. K .554 

Champion, John 541 

Chaniplin, C. C 584 

Chart, Obed .591 

Chase, M. E .' 500 

Chauvet, Joshua .525 

Clark, Benjamin ....412 

Clark, James 532 

Clitlord. Rev. G. B 077 


CoiUlin?, G. R 440 

C'otfey, lleury ('•i4 

C'olgau, E. P.' 00!) 

Colson limtliers 587 

C'orastock, William 40'2 

Cooper, S. K 'UD 

Cooper, K. M 4:)4 

Cooper, James ... .004 

Conuer, Joliu -ilG 

Cottle, B. H 2o8 

Crais, O. W 4i;8 

Cralle, L. J OJO 

Crane, Joel . . .■"'.">(! 

Crane, ]{i)ljert 40.') 

Curtis, J. II 478 


Davidson, J. ¥. 404 

Davidson, S. E 408 

Davis, G. W. ikE. W 707 

Davis, H. II 488 

Davis, U. S 403 

Davis, \V. S 008 

De Haj' Brothers 715 

Delalieia, H. II 440 

Dfumau, Hod. Ezekial 543 

De Turk, Isaac 310 

Dickenson, J. K 404 

Dickenson, AV. L 303 

Diet/., Gerhard 725 

Drayeiir, A. ct Brollicr 510 

Dresel, Julius 500 

Dunn, M. H 040 

Dunu,T. M 504 

Duuz, C. J 452 

Eardlev, W. J 522 

Edwards, J. L 384 

Ely, Elisha 311 

Esppy, G. T 590 

Evans, E. W. M 450 


Farrar, M. C 503 

Far(|uar, C. H 442 

Ferguson, J. N 543 

Ferguson, W. W 542 

Fitield, E. J 307 

Fitield, W. E 390 

Fischer, G. F 50!) 

Fisher it Kinslow 005 

Fisk, Kev S. b 541 

Filch, II. D 403 

Fowler, E.J 026 

Fowler, J. E 023 

Fowler, S. C 623 

Fowler. !S.L 624 

Fox, Henry 333 

Frasee, C. b 407 

Fulkerson, .lohii 328 

Fulkerson, Kirliard 327 

Fulkerson, S. T 330 

KulkersoM, T. W 329 

Fulton, Thomas 524 

Gale, D. I{ 612 

Gale, Otis 521 

Gallaway, A. J 3f5 

Gannon, J. P 310 

Gaver, A. P (103 

Gearini;, Charles 717 

Gibson, John 565 

Gibson, J. K 568 

Glaisler, T. S 5. 9 

Glynn, F. B .563 

Gobbi, P. & J. J 321 

Goodman, L. S 702 

Goss, Johu 605 

Grainger, W. C 338 

Granice, II. II ',81 

Grant, C. F 405 

Grant, J. I) 404 

Green, P. F 091 

Gregson, James 330 

Grillith, E.J 412 

Glover, CD 410 

Gundlach, Jacob 499 

Gunn, J. 0. B 540 


llafhl, Conrad 100 

Hall, George 585 

Hall, J. W - 487 

Hall, L. B 487 

Hall, Robert 517 

Haran, Owen 428 

Hardin, J. A 400 

Ilardin, L. A 009 

Harmon, G. AV 485 

Harris, Jacob 4.50 

Harris, T. L 300 

Harris, G. S 087 

Hartsock, Mrs. I. M 030 

Ilasbrouck, H. B 484 

Haskell, Barnabas 310 

Haskell, W. B 320 

Hathaway, E. L 731 

Hayden, E..\\ 440 

Hayne, W. H 445 

Heaton,S. O 028 

Hendri.x, Lewis 020 

Higgins, Asa 701 

Hill, Dickson it Goodl'ellow 454 

Hill, J. M 451 

Hill, William.... 352 

Hilton, W. H 001 

Hinkle, J. B 530 

Hoatr, O. H .503 

Holloway, J. C 530 

Holmes, H. P 728 

Hoist, Peter 582 

Hood, William 3.'0 

Hooper, G. F 047 

Hopkins, S. J 540 

Howe, Roben 017 

Howell, Orrin.' 619' 

Hubbard, Henry 504 

Hudson, David 710 

Hudson, 11. W 411 

Hudson, Martin 700 

Hunt, J. II 444 

Huntley, G. W 481 

Huntley, Will 372 


Ink, W. V 442 

Ivancuvich, George 331 


Jewett, D. G 308 

Jewetl. E. G 515 

Johnson, G. A 3S0 

Johnson. 3.7. 421 

Jones, W. D 480 


Kelly, J. W 378 

Kennedy, G. H 526 

Killam, A. F 724 

King, G. F 0.50 

King, John 435 

Kirch, Henry 431 

Knapp, A. H 734 

Knapp, W. L 583, Charles 714 

Kraucke, P. W 5.1 


Lal'ranclii, Giuseppi 732 

Lang, J.B (io2 

Lapum, Hicks 537 

Laughlin, A. D 450 

Laughlin, J. H 408 

Laughlin, J. M 432 

Lauler, Nathan A; Co 4-18 

Lee, A. G 731 

Le Febvre, O. j>1 508 

Lehn, Charles 5Ul 

Leininger, Joseph. . . 6~<7 

Lewis, J. B 470 

Lewis, R. E 380 

Lewis, W. A 606 

Light, E. H 712 

Likens, Levi 730 

Lippitt, E S 037 

Litchtield, Duraiit 638 

Litchfield, Jlarliu 600 

Longmore, William 607 

Loomis, F. C 514 

Losee, J. A 035 

Luce, Jirah 345 

Luce, M. Y 493 

Ludwig, T. J 370 

Lyon, R. B 711 


Manion, William 370 

Mauion, W. U 379 

Manuel, II. C 676 

Martin, Jlrs. F. Jlcti 642 

Martin, W. II ..406 

Mather, J 348 

Matheson, Col. Rod 340 

Matthews, C. W 523 

Mayuard, F. T .585 

McChristian, Owen 598 

McChristian, Patrick 5.0 

McClelland, Buchanan 711 

JlcCoimell, W. E (i.50 

McDonnell, William 492 

McGaughev, L. J 401 

McGee, J. Il (iOO 

JIcHarvey, Cliarles 041 

McMeaus.A. C 344 

McNabb, J. II 2.57 

McXear, J. A 518 

Meacham, Alonzo 643 

Mecham, Harrison 084 

Melson, J.R 425 

Merchanl, T. S 66!) 

Merrill, J. P 546 

Meyer, Claus 583 

Micliaels, Augu>l 700 

Michaelson, L. C .630 

Millingtou, Setli 555 

Miller, A.J 420 

Miller, C. S 66ii 

Miller, O. T 51(i 


Miller, T. B :547 

iMills, A. J 547 

Moore, A. P oOl 

Moore, Koberl 6«1 

Mordecai, ThoiiKis 480 

Morris, J. II. 1' 35S 

Morrow, E. E 574 

Mulgrew, F. B 691 

Mulgrew, J. F 351 


Nay, S. A 453 

Near,'C. D ms 

Norton, L. A 424 


O'Brien, Joliu 08!) 

Oliver, J. S U'Jo 

Ormsby, G. W 43:i 

On, .Julius 718 

Overton, A. P :J32 

Overton, J. II 714 


Paulieco, F. J 051 

Pajre. T. S ()^6 

Parker, Freman 511 

Parkerson, C. J 737 

Parks, I). H 474 

Passalacjua, F 723 

Patty, L. H 570 

Pearce, George 682 

Pepper, J. T 401 

Pepper. W. H 48!) 

Peny, C. A 604 

Peters, A. N 422 

Peters, J. T 482 

Peterson, A. .1 350 

Petitdidier, N 728 

Philips, Waller 575 

Piezzi, Victor 367 

Piggott, .1. K 473 

Pond, C. H 270 

Poulson, O. P 721 

Pratt, E. F 6.55 

Pressley, .1. G 580 

Prindle, William 426 

Proctor, T.J 377 

Puniphrev, A 671 

Putnam, D. W. C 513 

Putnam, T. C 507 

Katkliir, W. G 620 

Hagle,G. J 388 

Kagadale, ,1. W 309 

Range, Charles 505 

Kankin, .J. II 420 

Uasthen. Henry 472 

Keid, .1. B 397 

Iteiners, C. A ,574 

I'.icksecker. L. E 0.59 

Uidgwav, .Jeremiah 436 

l!ol)in.son, W. .J 519 

Kodgers, A. W 358 

Hodgers, J. P 345 

Rogers, E. A 343 

Rose, J. R .579 

Ross. Ijo.nsoTi 55S 

Kufus, Ernst .538 

Runyon, Arraslead 325 

Russell, W. F 671 

Rutledge, Thomas 690 

f^arguisson, Cornelius 557 

Sauhorn, G. N .560 

Savage, C. W 735 

Sbarboro, Andrea 48S 

Scanimon, CM 459 

Schmidt, Peter 727 

Schniltger, C. II 594 

.Schocken, Solomon 450 

Schroder, John 094 

Seaman, J. F 6.52 

Sears, Franklin 517 

Seavey, S. A 391 

Shattuck, D. O 5.52 

Shaw, I. E 459 

Shaw, S. H 409 

Shaw, William 690 

Simi, G 673 

Simpson & Roberts 674 

Sink, W. D 713 

Skillman, Theodore- 088 

Smith, R. P 662 

Snyder, J. R 413 

Soidale & Giacomini 4!)8 

Spencer, B. M ... 334 

Springer, ChrislopI 726 

Stamer & FeUhneyer 065 

Stearns, F. R 5.!6 

Steele, Frank 726 

Stephens, William 705 

Stevens, Lester 534 

Stewart, David 497 

Stewart. D. R 609 

Stolen, P. N 615 

Stridde, Charles 335 

Sti'ong, John 704 

Stuart, A B 341 

Stuart, A. McG 342 

Stuart, C. V 430 

Sullivan, I. W 349 

Surryhne, Edward 690 

S wain, R. ,M 392 ' 

Sylvester, D. n' 512 


Talbot, Coleman .559 

Talbot, Holmau 507 

Taylor, J. S 4.55 

Taylor, O. A 047 ; 

Thompson, A. J 6.54 

Thomson, E. P 053 

Tivnen, John 462 

Torr, C. L 0.53 ; 

Torrance, S. H 573 

Trapet, J. B 551 

Trip]), 11. L 548 I 

Tupper, G. A 3.55 [ 

U. ! 

Underbill, J. G 3.57 


Vallejo, M.G 72 I 

Vollmar, P. II 013 

M'agele, Conrad . . .732 

Walden i Co 509 - 

AValls, David 501 

A\'alters, Sol 709 

Warboys, J. W 365 

Ward, T. M 667 

Ware, A. 15 ,5.52 

Wartield,R. H 644 

Warner, A. L 469 

\\'egener, Julius 580 

Weguer, Edward 481 

Weils, I^leasaut 317 

Wells, W. R 314 

Weske, Adolph 535 

Weyl, Henry 443 

Whallon, Murray 656 

V\'hite, Harrison 381 

White, J. H 673 

Whitney, A. L. i: Co 617 

Whitney, A. P 447 

Whitney, W. B 681 

Wightman, Chauncev 504 

Wilbert, P .". , ','77 

Wilcox, W. O 411 

Wiley, J. W 597 

Williamson, J. R 723 

Wilson, J. E : 430 

Wilton, T.G 314 

Winans, D. M 6M2 

■Winkle, Henry 619 

Winkler, Clayton 627 

Winter, T. S 502 

Woodward, C. W 615 

Woodworth, FA 373 

■\Voolsev. E. W 576 

Worth, "W. H 3.55 

Wright, F. C 3.58 

Wright, W.S. M 479 


Yandle. F. J 6.55 

York, C. W 6-18 

Young, B S 374 

Young, J. S 592 


Zaitnian. William 555 

Zimiuerniau, George 503 


Allen, Otis, Residence of 394 

Adams, John 438 

Auradou, J. A 632 

Bouton, Andrew, Residence, Or- 
chard and Nursery of 476 

'Briggs, Robert 418 

Colgan, E. P 698 

Dickenson, W. L 360 

Dickenson, W. L , Residence of. .361 
Glynn, F. B., Residence and Mills 

of 562 

Johnson, G. A Frontispiece 

McChristian, Patrick .528 

Poulson, O. P 720 

Proctor, T. J 376 

Ragsdale, J. W 308 

Runyon, Annslead 324 

Scammon. C. M 4.58 

Shearer, M. M 223 

Sonoma County Court-House. . . . 99 
Stamer & Feldmeyer, Residence 

and Winery of 064 

Stewart, David 496 

Stuart, A. B 340 

Wiley, J. W 596 



tT first seeming the writing of a county 
history does not present the features of a 
difficult task, but tlie work once entered 
upon, it is found tliat the very narrowness of 
the field but serves to perplex and render more 
intricate the labor. As an integral part of the 
warp and woof of a great State it requires 
great care and nice discernment to determine 
where the shades of legitimate county history 
end and State history begins. This is more 
particularly true of Sonoma County than of any 
other county in the State, for she is the warp 
beam back to which is traceable every thread of 
California history since it passed under the 
dominion of the .Vmcricans. Nowhere else in 
the State is there presented such a tangled skein 
of history to unravel as in this same Sonoma 
County. At the very outset we are confronted 
with four distinct and different conditions of 
humanity, each fulfilling an allotted life-work — 
all living history. Compassed by different envi- 
ronments, and battling with that destiny that 
marks the fittest for survival, each has a claim 
for recognition and Justice from the pen of 
truthful, impartial history. Indians, Russians, 
Spaniards and Americans will each, in turn, re- 
ceive tliat attention and consideration that the 
importance of their respective being and life- 
mission may seem to warrant. There is now 
but a sad remnant of Sonoma County Indians 
left. Soon they will all have passed away. Of, 
and about them, coming generations will have 

a right to expect to find in the pages of history 
some authentic account. So, too, of the Rus- 
sians, who, in the early years of the century, 
and even before the Spaniards had tempted her 
wilds, had established a colony in the northern 
end of the now Sonoma County, it will be per- 
missible to give as extended an account as can 
be safely vouched for as being accurate and au- 
thentic. This Eussian occupation doubtless ac- 
celerated the coming hither of those under 
Spanish authority, and whatever there was of 
friction on account of this seeming joint occu- 
pancy of this territory by Spaniard and Musco- 
vite, comes within the legitimate scope of Sonoma 
County history. Of the Spanish occupation 
and rule, it will be our aim to use just discrimi- 
nation in drawing conclusions between the con- 
flicting statements and claims of the difierent 
historians of that period. For two decades pre- 
vious to the hoisting of the Dear Flag at 
Sonoma, and which ultimated in the termina- 
tion of Spanish rule on this coast, there seems 
to have existed an anomalous condition of attairs 
in California. Under the old Spanish rule, the 
San Franciscan friars had been granted liberal 
privileges, and with indomitable energy and zeal 
had extended their missions coastwise from San 
Diego to the center of the Territory. ,\s the 
honey bee is said to be tlic forerunnei- of civili- 
zation, so too, Mexican immigration seems to 
have followed with sleepy stops the paths made 
safe iiy the mori^ detci-mincl ['adres. These 


missions, whether or not they filled the full 
measure of expectations in the civilizing and 
Christianizing of the aborigines of California, 
certainly paved the way for the advance of a 
higher order of civilization. These ecclesiastical 
institutions, under the exclusive dominion of cul- 
tured ])riest3 of Castilian nativity, were con- 
ducted with a strict regard to system and 
business methods little understood by the im- 
migrants from Mexico who followed in their 
wake. Rich in herds and with granaries well 
stored with cereals, these missions became pur- 
veyors to the advancing colonists, as well as the 
army of soldiers sent hither by the Mexican 
Government. In this thrift of the missions, 
their seeming strength, lurked the concealed 
danger that ultimated in their doom. As slow 
as had been the progress of Spanish coloniza- 
tion, yet in 1821, when Mexico threw off the 
Castilian yoke, a liberal share of California's 
population were natives of the Territory. The 
better class had received the advantages of as 
liberal culture as the parochial schools of the 
missions afforded, and, naturally enough, began 
to assert themselves as factors in the political 
affairs of the Territory. Mexican independence 
achieved, those here, natives of Spain became 
the subjects of suspicion and surveillance; and 
in this class was embraced all the mission 
priests, who certainly laid themselves open to 
watchfulness by stubbornly refusing to take any 
oath of allegiance to the newly fledged Repub- 
lic of Mexico. In setting in motion the new 
machinery of Territorial Government, as ad- 
ministered from the City of Mexico, there came 
to the surface yet another disturbing agency, 
that gained force with the advancing years, and 
that was a growing animosity between those 
native of California and those sent hither by the 
^lexican Government to fill either civil or mili- 
tary positions. AYith that superciliousness not 
uncommon to those who have basked in the 
sunshine of a higher and more refined civiliza- 
tion, the Mexicans sent hither to fill positions 
of honor and emolument, evinced a contemptu- 
ous regard for those whose educational advan- 

tages and social opportunities had been confined 
to the circumscribed limits of mission and 
pueblo. This naturally met with the resent- 
ment at the hands of the " native sons " that it 
merited. This simply shadows forth existing 
conditions in California twenty years anterior 
to the commencement of American rule, and 
may be epitomized thus: The mission padres 
intuitively realized that republican govern- 
ment was the beginning of the end of the life- 
work to which they had consecrated the best 
years of their existence. The Government of 
Mexico, with an empty treasury, had already 
set lustful eyes upon the wealth of these mis- 
sions, the accumulations of years of depriva- 
tion, toil and danger, and as hush-money to 
conscience was willing to devote a share of the 
loot to the aid of colonization in California. 
The governing classes of the Territory were not 
averse to this confiscation of mission wealth, 
for they had already become used to exacting 
from the padres a liberal share of their sup- 
port — and then the fact that the Padres were 
natives of Spain was sufficient to sanctify the 
rigorous end contemplated. And, finally, the 
native Mexicans had a contempt for native Cali- 
fornians and the latter had a very warm hatred 
for the former — in truth, everybody appears to 
have been jealous and suspicious of everybody 
else. A sorry beginning for experiment of re- 
publican government, certainly I And to add 
to the seething of this kettle of broth, within 
the decade following Mexican independence 
there began to straggle into the Territory, over 
the crest of the Sierras, the hated Americans; 
more dreaded than the denizens from the frigid 
north who had so unceremoniously established 
themselves at Fort Ross. It was a rather cheer- 
less prospect, this, for a Territorial government 
that was constantly receiving floridly written 
orders from the parent government to guard 
every avenue of entrance to the Territory against 
the encroachments of foreigners, with no seem- 
ing thought or attempt to satisfy the cravings 
of an empty, Territorial, military exchequer. 
These fulminations from the ancient city of the 


Aztecs, that were usually months in reaching 
tlie C!alit'urnia government at Monterey, are 
only useful now to siiow how dense was the 
ignorance then in reference to the extent and 
t()pogra[)hy of California. AVhy, a thousand 
American colonists might have entered the 
mirtlicrn end of the Territory and sown and 
gathei-ed a cmp witliont the Governor of Cali- 
fornia knowing anything al)Out it. As the 
years came and went the Territorial authorities 
were more and more brought to a realization of 
the fact that the snow-capped Nevadas could not 
1)0 accounted a safe wall of protection against 
invasion from the P^ast. With but a few forts 
scattered from San Diego to San Francisco, and 
they garrisoned by soldiers numerically few, and 
they, proverbially on the ragged edge of revolt 
on account of arrearages of pay, it is not a mat- 
ter of wonder that California became tlie poach- 
ing ground of hunters, trappers and all kinds of 
adventurers. The drift of such was naturally 
toward the northern end of the Territory. Tliis, 

together with a view of circumscribing as much 
as possible the occuj)ation by the Russians, evi- 
dently hastened the inauguration of military 
authority on the north side of the bay. While 
this must be accounted a very important event 
in writing up the annals of Sonoma County, it 
should not 1)0 allowed to overshadow the fact 
that, as had been usual in California, the cross 
had long jireceded the sword- -in truth, right 
here met, and were planted in Sonoma County 
soil, the cross of the Catholic church, thus far 
north on the circuit of its mission from Home, 
and the triune cross of the (ireek church, re- 
lating back to the Czar of Russia, and thus far 
southward on its mission of pointing weary, 
earth-laden humanity to the haven of peace 
and rest above. In future chapters will be 
found, as nearly as possible, in chronological 
order, all mattersof im|)ortauce relating to Cali- 
fornia, and to Sonoma County, particularly, 
from the time that civilized man first visited it, 
down to the ])resent time. 



'Sy ®9'®'^^fe ^»»»«^^*^^^^^^^^ 



Francis Drake in 1579 — the wonderful things he saw in Marin County — Montekev 
v>ky discovered by viscaino in 1g03 a complete blank in history for a period of 


IN July, 1769, a party start overland for San Diego to establish a mission at Mon- 
terey — failing to recognize Monterey they continued on north, and on the 2d of 
November discovered the Bay of San Francisco — Monterey was founded, a mission 
established; and from there in 1772 ax expedition started to explore the Bay oi- 
San Francisco — following around the eastern shore of the bay, on the 27th of March 


MOUNTAINS — IN 1775 San Fraxcisco Bay was explored by water — IN 1776 a presidio 




— California weak and defenseless — the century ends and no settlement north of 
Yerba Buena. 

fHERE is nothing more attractive to the 
general reader, and more especially those 
in early life, than thrilling narrative of 
danger and adventure in the exploration and settle- 
ment of frontier territories. A desire to placate 
this somewhat morbid desire for sensational read 
ingsays a very great temptation in tlie way of the 
historian to draw somewhat upon his imagina- 
tion for his facts. However palatable tliis might 
be to the reader of the present, it would be a 
fraud upon coming generations, who will have 
a riglit to expect at the hand of the historian sub- 
stantial accuracy in the recital of historical 
events to be handed down to tliein. With this 
conception of what should be the highest aim 
of history, we turn to trace the first rays of 

civilization cast upon territory, now within the 
confines of Sonoma County. This necessitates 
a review of the early discovery and final settle- 
ment of California by the Spaniards. 

Of course tliere is great obscurity, and con- 
sequent contiicting opinions among historians 
relative to who was the actual discovei-er of 
California, and from whence the derivation of 
the name. The weight of the best authority, 
however, confers upon Juan Rodriguez Cabrillo, 
a Portuguese navigator in tlie Spanish service, 
the honor of liaving first visited the waters of 
our golden shores and set foot upon California 
soil. Cabrillo had under liis command two 
Spanish exploring vessels, and there seems little 
doubt that on the 28th of September, 1642, an- 


cliorage was reached in what is now San Diego 
liarbor, althongli the name tlien given was 
'• San Mignel." 

Tlie date of discovery, tlms disposed of, tlie 
next consideration is as to the probable origin 
of the name, California. Upon this point there 
is even a wider di\ergence of opinion among 
writers than as to who was the discoverer of 
the country. Upon this subject Hubert Ilowe 
Bancroft, who is in a position to arrive at as 
accurate conclusions on disputed historic points 
as any living man, says: "The name was ap- 
plied between 1535 and 153U to a locality. It 
was soon extended to the whole adjoining re- 
gion ; and as the region was supposed to be a 
group of islands, the name was often given in 
plural form, ' Las Californias.' " Whence came 
the name thus applied, or applied by C(')rtez 
as has been erroneously believed, was a ques- 
tion that gave rise to much conjecture before 
the truth was known. The Jesuit missionaries 
as represented by Venegas and Clavigero, sug- 
gested that it might have been deliberately 
made up from Latin or Greek roots; but favored 
the much more reasonable theory that the dis- 
coverers had founded the name on some mis- 
understood words of the natives. These theories 
have been often repeated by later wi'iters, with 
additions rivalling each other in absurdity. At 
last in 1862 Edward E. Ilale was so fortunate 
as to discover the source whence the discover- 
ers obtained the name. An old romance, the 
Serga/< of Esplandian, by Ordonez de Mon- 
talvo, translator of Amadh of GauJ, printed 
])crhaps in 1510, and certainly in editions of 
1519, 1521, 1525 and 152G in Spanish, men- 
tioned an island of California, " on the right 
hand of the Indies, very near the Terrestrial 
Paradise," peopled with black women, gritfins, 
and other creatures of the author's imagina- 
tion. There is no direct historical evidence of 
the aj)plication of this name; nor is any needed. 
No intelligent man will ever question the ac- 
curacy of Ilale's theory. The number of Span- 
ish editions would indicate that the book was 
popular at the time of th", discovery; indeed 

Eernal Diaz often mentions the Amadis of 
Gaul to which the esj>landi(ni was attached." 
This seems to set at rest definitely and forever 
the question of the origin of the name Cali- 

lieverling to Cabrillo's discovery of this 
coast, it only remains to say that that intrepid 
mariner died on one of the islands off from the 
Santa Barbara coast supposed to be San Miguel, 
from the effects of a broken arm, on the 3d of 
January, 1543, and there rests in an unmarked 
grave. Theie were other visitors to this coast 
following its discovery, but of their going and 
coming comparatively little is known, until Sir 
Francis Drake puts in an appearance, and finds 
a harbor, where he enters to make repairs on 
his vessel, the Golden Hind, on the 23d of 
July, 1579. What harbor was entered by Drake 
is yet, and perhaps always will be, a serious 
bone of contention among historians. The dis- 
putants are about equally divided between the 
Bay of San Francis^co, Drake's Bay (so called) 
in Marin County, and Bodega Bay in Sonoma 
County. Hubert Ilowe Bancrolt, in his recently 
published history of California, seems to be in 
some donbt himself, but as he evidently con- 
siders Drake a prince of prevaricators, he gives 
him the benefit of the donbt, and signifies his 
belief that the harbor now called Drake's Bay 
was his by right of discovery. But this is of 
small moment now, for all the records of Drake's 
visit to the coast are so extravagant and dis- 
torted that the conferring of his name upon an 
indentation in thecoast even as small as that just 
below Point Ileyes was more than he merited. 
In order that tiie reader ma}' judge for him 
self in reference to the degree of importance 
to be attached to Drake's statements, we give a 
sample of what was described as having occurred 
at the harbor where his vessel was being re- 

" The arrival of the English in California 
being soon known throughout the country, two 
persons in the character of embassadors, came 
to the Admiral and informed iiim, in the best 
manner they were alile, that the King would 


assist him if he might be assured of coming in 
safety. Being satisfied on this point, a numer- 
ous company soon appeared, in front of wliich 
was a very comely person bearing a kind of 
scepter, on whicli hung two crowns and three 
cliains of great lengtii; the cliains were of 
bones and tiie crowns of net-work curiously 
wrought with feathers of many colors. Next 
to the scepter-bearer came the King, a hand- 
some, majestic person, surrounded by a number 
of tall men, dressed in skins, who were fol- 
lowed by the common people, who, to make the 
grander appearance, had painted their faces of 
various colors, and all of them, even the chil- 
dren, being loaded with presents. The men 
being drawn up in line of battle, the Admiral 
stood ready to receive the King within the en- 
trance of his tent. The company having halted 
at a distance, the scepter- bearer made a speech 
half an Iiour long, at the end of which he be- 
gan singing and dancing, in which he was fol- 
lowed by the King and all his people — who, 
continuing to sing and dance, came quite up 
to the tent; when, sitting down, the King tak- 
ing off" his crown of feathers, placed it on the 
Admiral's head, and put upon him the other 
insignia of royalty; and made liim a solemn 
tender of his whole kingdom. All of which 
the Admiral accepted in the name of the 
Queen, his sovereign, in hope these pi'oceed- 
ings might one time or other contribute to 
the advantage of England.'" 

This dish of taff"y secured for Drake knight- 
hood at the hands of Queen Elizabeth, who, in 
conferring the title, said " that his actions did 
him more honor than his title.*' And all this 
is reputed to have transpired close by Sonoma 
County over three hundred years ago. 

The only definite discovery of real merit after 
that of t'abrillo, was the discovery of Monterey 
Bay by Yiscaino in 1603. Thenceforward for 
a period of 100 years, so far as relates to civil- 
ization, complete silence brooded over what is 
now called California. No doubt during those 
long years the aborigines were filled with won- 
der and conjecture as to what had become of 

the bearded, white strangers, who in big canoes 
propelled by wind had come and gone for the 
period of a generation. As common as was great 
longevity of life to those untutored children of 
nature, the e^'cs that had beheld either Cabrillo 
or Vizcaino had long been closed in death be- 
fore that eventful morning of April 11, 17G9, 
when Juan Perez brought the San Antonio to 
anchor in the l>ay of San Diego. On board of 
this vessel were two Franciscan friars, Juan 
Viscaino and Francisco Gomez, with all the 
necessary church appurtenances necessary for 
the establishing of two missions. Aside from 
the crew there were a few carjjenters and black- 
smiths, together with a cargo of miscellaneous 
supplies. The Indians were friendly, and still 
had a traditional knowledge of the former visit- 
ors to this coast. In addition to those who took 
jjassage on the San Antonio, others to the 
number of over one hundred, and among them 
Father Junipero Serra, started overland from 
lower California. They reached San Diego on 
the first of July. It required some time for 
needed preparation, and on Sunday, the 16th of 
July, with all the ceremonies common to such 
occasions, Father Serra blessed and planted the 
cross, around which was to cluster memories of 
the first permanent establishment of civilization 
in California. 

We have neither time and space, nor does it 
come within the scope of this county history, 
to enter into a minute detail of the struggles 
and vicissitudes which followed the line of the 
establishing of missions, and the slow' march of 
civil government up the California coast. Our 
object will have been accomplished when we 
have made complete the chain of Spanish occu- 
pancy from the founding of the first mission, 
San Diego de Alcala, at San Diego, down to the 
founding of the last mission San Francisco 
Solano, at Sonoma. 

On July 14, 1769, Tartola, with sixty men, 
including fathers Juan Crespi and Francisco 
Gomez, started from San Diego for the purpose 
of founding a mission at Monterey. Tiieir 
wanderings were l)y devious and sometimes 


rugged trails, as they deemed it necessary to 
keep near tlie coast in order not to miss the 
liaven of their destination. But mountains 
insnrnionntable'drove tlieni to lower levels, and 
they seem to iiave coine down the Salinas Val- 
ley and reached Monterey Bay just ojiposite the 
present town of Castroville. Lo(jking at the 
bay from the land, they failed to recognize it 
as the object of their search. The pine point, 
where is now Pacific Grove Ketreat, served to 
till the description of the navigator who had 
tlescribed Monterey Bay, but after exploring it 
by land as far south as Carniello they concluded 
that the bay tiiey were looking for lay further 
to the north; and, acting upon this decision, 
they resumed their inarch. 

As unfortunate as was this mistake to those 
weary, foot-sore pilgrims, tliey had the compen- 
sating honor of making a discovery of more 
importance to the world than the short delay 
in fonnding a mission at Monterey, for on the 
2d of JSovember they discovered the great Bay 
of San Francisco, destined to become one among 
the most consequential harbors in the world. 
But their orders were to found a mission at 
Monterey, and like good Catholics the^' wei-e 
obedient to the mandate given them; and being 
now convinced that that bay was the one lying 
under the shadow of Point Pinos, already vis- 
ited by them, they set out on their return jour- 
ney, and ou the 28th of November again reached 
Monterey, and passing over the hills to Car- 
mello Bay, they pitched camp and remained 
until the 10th of December, taking a general 
survey of the surrounding country. Grass was 
now abundant for their animals, but game 
and even iish were scarce. A mule was killed, 
and its flesh, together with that of the sea-gulls, 
was used to husband the flour that was already 
reduced to fourteen small sacks. At a council 
held it was decided to retrace their steps to 
San Diego. On an eminence, probably near where 
now stands the old San Carlos Mission, a cross 
was planted, at the foot of which was buried a 
document giving a brief sketch of the jouriiey- 
inifs and discoveries of Partola and his com- 

pany. On the 11th they started southward 
following the general road np which they had 
come, and without any serious mishap or ad- 
venture reached San Diego on January 24, 1770. 
While this expedition failed in the accomplish- 
ment of the object, for which it had been in- 
augurated, it is certainly entitled to precedence 
in the very fnjnt rank of all e.xplorations ever 
undertaken by the Spaniards in California. It 
must be borne in mind that the years of over 
a century and a half had run their course since 
keel had furrowed the Bay of San Diego, at 
the time the San Antonio with the missionaries 
landed there in the spring of 1769. It was 
only three months after the effecting of this foot- 
hold to civilization on this coast, and two days 
before the formal inauguration of the mission 
at San Diego, that Partola and his pilgrims 
started forth for a journey of several hundred 
miles, through the wilds of California. They 
were like a rudderless vessel at sea, without 
chart or compass, save that on their left they 
knew that the waves of the broad Pacific were 
ceaseless in their throbbing pulsations along 
California's shore. Of the interior they knew 
nothing. They had every reason to believe that 
it was populous with barbarians; and yet with 
all these dangers staring them in the face they 
went forth and achieved the results already nar- 
rated. To erect a monument to the memory 
of the members of that expedition would be 
useless; for more enduring than marble or 
granite shaft is the Bay of San Francisco, which 
they discovered. 

If we may be permitted the e.xpression, the 
happy mistake of Partola and his fellow ex- 
plorers had added the Bay of San Francisco to the 
geography of the world. It now seems inex- 
plicable why it was not at once made the center 
from which radiated other Spanish occupancies of 
the coast. But it must be remembered that 
California belonged to Mexico, and Mexico be- 
longed to Spain. It can well be understood 
that orders and mandates transmitted through 
the course of so circuitous a route, and so ham- 
pered by all the formalities of red tape, so dear 


to Spanisli officials, were very old, and some- 
times of impossible fulfillment when they 
reached this coast. And to still more compli- 
cate matters there seems to have been little 
nnity of feeling and action between the Padres 
who were alone intent upon founding missions 
for the Cliristianization of barbarians, and the 
military who were looking to colonization as the 
ultimate means of establishing permanent civil 
government on this coast. In a double sense, 
it was a " house divided against itself." The 
bonds of sympathy that had united Spain and 
Mexico were becoming strained; and there was 
a growing estrangement between civil and 
church polity in California which plainly indi- 
cated that the twain could not move harmoni- 
ously forward upon parallel lines in the same 
field. Either left to a free territory, would have 
acquired vigor and strength from the very diffi- 
culties to be surmounted; but occupying a 
common field and aiming at cross purposes was 
productive of enervation and inaction. The 
Padres, at first only seemingly fired by an hon- 
est zeal in behalf of the spiritual welfare of be- 
nighted luunanity, were not proof against the 
cravings for wealth and dominancy when their 
llocks and herds began to be numbered by the 
thousands, and they naturally became obstruc- 
tionists to the large acquirement of lands by 
those who came as colonists to seek homes in 
this land of productive soil and genial clime. 

While missions were being founded at incon- 
sequential places along the coast, and inland, to 
the southward, the waters of the Pacific contin- 
tinued to silently ebb and flow through the 
great Golden Gate. Three years had run their 
course since Partola and his adventurous ex- 
plorers had set foot on the sand dunes skirting 
the Pay of San Francisco, before further at- 
tempt was made at exploration to the north. 
And as strange as it niay seem, it was a San 
Francisco bay under the lea of Point Reyes 
that was yet the objective point by the Padres 
who wished to found a mission that would do 
suitable honor to San Francisco, their patron 
saint. With this dominant idea still in view. 

on March 20, 1772, Commandante Fajes, with 
Crespi, twelve soldiers, a muleteer, and an In- 
dian, left Monterey for the north. The Partola 
expedition had settled the matter that the San 
Francisco bay of which they were in search 
could not be reached by a land expedition 
around the west side of the inland sea they had 
encountered. Hence Fajes and his party de- 
termined to pass around it to the east. In this 
attempt they discovered San Pablo Pay on or 
about the 27th of March, 1772. And right 
then and there is probably the first time that 
the eyes of civilized man had a view of the hills 
and mountains now compassed within tiie 
bounds of Sonoma County. They passed upon 
the south shore of Canjuinez Straits, and on- 
ward to the junction of tlie Sacramento and 
San Joaquin rivers; then, turning southward 
passed east of Mount Diablo, going across the 
mountains, striking the trail up which they had 
traveled somewhere in Santa Clara Valley; and 
thence continued on their way back to Monte- 
rey. Considering the number of men, this was 
among the most notable expeditions on i-ecoi'd. 
Old Spain, with a seemingly more intelligent 
appreciation of the importance of this newly 
discovered harbor to her possessions on the 
Pacific coast than had either the Mexican or 
California authorities, became very importunate 
to have it speedily occupied. Orders were 
cheap, but the available means and colonists 
were not so readily obtainable. I'nt Lieutenant 
Agala set out with an expedition from Monte- 
rey, on the San Carlos, and entered the harbor 
of San Francisco on the first day of August, 
1775. He spent over forty days in explorations 
of the harbor, but neither the map nor diary 
of this survey is preserved. Several of the 
officers landed several times on the iu)rthern 
shore of the bay, and mention is made that 
Canizares was sent to explore the noi'tliern 
branch of the " round bay " (San Pablo), going 
up to fresh-water rivers, and bartering beads for 
fish with many friendly natives. They may 
possibly have navigated Petahima Creek, but 
this is uncerhiin. 


' The year following, on SepteiriLer 17tii, under 
the direction of Comniandante Moraga, the 
presidio of San Francisco was duly inaugurated 
amid the firing of cannons, ringing of bells and 
all the formalities usual to typify absolnte 
Spanish possession. The San Carlos had just 
arrived, and Captain Quiros, Canizares and Re- 
ville, master and mate, participated in the lay- 
ing of the corner-stone of this the future 
metropolis of the Pacific coast. Something 
over one hundred persons were present on that 
occasion. Rij^ht then and there it became a 
fi.xed finality that civilization held the keys to 
the Golden Gate to the Pacific coast. In order 
to punctuate this so as to rivet the attention of 
the reader,- we borrow the language of a writer 
in the Overland Monthly who says: "On that 
same 17th of September, on the other side of the 
continent, Lord Howe's Hessian and British 
troops were revelling in the city of New York." 
We might supplement this with the observation 
that if it took from 1776 to 1823 for Spanish 
occupation to extend its lines from San Fran- 
cisco to Sonoma, it should somewhat break the 
force of carping criticism in reference to the 
time consumed by Moses aiul the children of 
Israel in their emigration from Egypt up to 
the land of Canaan. But in this we anticipate 

On the 23d of September, Quiros, Canizares 
atid Cambon took the ship's boat and went on a 
voyage of discovery up the bay. The year 
])revious, on the 3d of October, Bodega y Ca- 
dra, in the schooner Sonora., had entered the 
bay named at the time Bodegfl. The parties 
who started out on this exp)loration of the bay 
from the ])rcsidio of what is now San Francisco, 
was imbued with the idea prevalent then that 
there was a strait connecting that bay with 
Bodega. It was but natural that they should 
seek a satisfactory solution of this question. 
They started on the 23d of September and re- 
turned on the 29th. Mr. Bancroft, in speaking 
of Quiros and this expedition, says: "Although 
prevented from e.xploring the great river, he 
was able to settle another disputed (piestiou. 

and proved that the 'round bay' (San Pablo), 
had no connection with Bodega; for, sailing in 
that direction, he had discovered a new estuary 
and followed it to its head, finding no passage 
to the sea, and beholding a lofty sierra which 
stretched toward the west aiuI ended, as Quiros 
thought, at Cape Mendocino. This was proba-/ 
bly the first voyage of Europeans up the wind- 
ings of Petaluma Creek." And thus it is 
probable that contemporaneous with the date of 
our declaration ot national independence on the 
Atlantic side, Quiros and his companions vis- 
ited the very site upon which Petaluma now 

The next mention we find that has any con 
nection, either near or remote, with Sonoma 
County, is the visit of Captain George Van- 
couver to this coast in 1792. It will be remem- 
bered that Drake, in his very florid recital of 
what had occurred on his visit to this coast, had 
accepted from the " King " everything far and 
near as a generous gift to his Queen, and in 
consideration of the striking resemblance of 
the sand dunes around Point Reyes to the 
chalky sea bluffs of Great Britain had named 
his newly -discovered country " New Albion." 
Vancouver seems to have had faith in the 
Drake fiction, and with true Briton stubborn- 
ness persisted in applying the name New 
Albion to this coast as far south as San Diego. 
While his mission was ostensibly one of 
scientific research and observation, it evidently 
excited distrust of English designs in the mind 
of Governor Arrillaga. Vancouver had arrived 
at San Francisco, Governor Arrillaga being at 
Monterey, the capital. Unwittingly the C!om- 
mandanto of San Francisco, in genuine Spanish 
hospitality, had not only given Vancouver a 
hospitable reception, but had furnished him an 
escort of soldiers to guard him on a snrt of 
picnic into the interior, as far iidand as the 
mission of Santa Clara. For tliis indiscretion 
Commandante Sal received a not unmerited 
reprimand from Arrillaga; for Vancouver in 
his report of this visit shows that he took in 
the whole situation; that Spain, with a few rusty 


(•aiiiKins and scarcely soldiers enough to man 
thein, was lioldinir peaceable possession of 

The story of British vessels hovering along 
the Pacific coast of course was transmitted to 
both Mexico and Spain, eliciting the usual in- 
junction to the Governor of (,'alifornia to keep 
all foreign vessels from landing in Pacific coast 
harbors. How such orders could be enforced 
when there were not more cannon at the San 
Francisco Presidio than there are fingers to a 
human hand (and at some of the sea coast mis- 
sions the two or three cannon possessed were 
not even mounted), it is difficult to understand. 
Ibit the mainsprii g to all authority in Califor- 
nia had evidently reached the conclusion that 
something heroic must be done. The whole 
story is told by Hubert Howe Bancroft in the 
following extract: 

•'Together with his order reijuiring precau- 
tions against the English and other foreigners 
with a special view of keeping Spanish weak- 
ness from their knowledge, and subsequently, 
tlie viceroy fmnounced his intention of remedy- 
ing that weakness by strengthening the four 
presidios and by the immediate occupation of 
Bodega. Tlie 16th of J uly Arrillaga sent in a 
report on the state and needs of Californian de- 
fenses. A^ancouver, nnwisely permitted to in- 
vestigate, had been surprised to find California 
so inadequately protected, and the Spaniards 
seem to have realized the utter insufficiency of 
their coast defenses at about the same time; but 
nothing was accomplished in 171*3 l)eyond an 
unsuccessful attempt to occupy Bodega Port. 
Tills Bodega scheme and the whole project of 
strengthening the California defense were de- 
vised by Viceroy Revilla Giedo, and urged most 
ably in his report of April 12, 1793, a docu- 
ment which covers the whole northern question 
from a Spanish standpoint, and although little 
consulted by modern writers, is a most important 

'•After giving a complete history of his sub- 
ject the distinguished author argues that dis- 
tant and costly outposts in the north are not 

desirable for Spain; and attention should be 
given exclusively to the preservation and utili- 
zation of tiie establishments now existing in 
California, and to prevent the too near appi'oach 
of any foreign power. To this end Bodega 
should be held, and the English plan of making 
a boundary of San Francisco Bay be thus de- 
feated. Probably this one measnre may suffice 
in the north; Nootka may be given up, and 
Fnca, and also the Entrada de Heceta, or Co- 
lumbia River, unless it should prove to aft'ord a 
passage to the Atlantic or to New Mexico. * * 
" Because of its supposed excellence as a har- 
bor, and because of its vicinity to San Francisco, 
making its occupation by England equivalent to 
an occupation of that harijor for purposes of 
contraband trade, it was decided to found a 
Spanish settlement at Bodega. Moreover, there 
were rumors that foreigners were already taking 
steps in that direction. To this end, the 10th of 
February the viceroy announced the giving of 
orders to the commandante at San Bias to des- 
patch a schooner and long-boat for the service, 
and Arrillaga was directed to go to San Francisco 
to meet the vessels. He gave orders the 20th of 
March to have a road opened from San Francisco 
across to Bodega. These instructions came up 
on the Acanzaza, which arrived at San Francisco 
on the 24:th of July. Arrillaga obtained boats 
from the vessels, set across some thirty liorses, 
and on the 5th of August Lieutenant Goycolchea, 
with a sergeant and ten men, set out to open 
the road and to meet at Bodega. Matute, who 
with the Sutil and Me.cleana had probably been 
sent direct to that port from San Bias. Unfor- 
tunately 1 have not found Goycolchea's diary 
which was sent to Mexico, and we know abso- 
lutely nothing of either the exploration by sea 
or land, save that Matute returned to San Fran- 
cisco on August 12th, and five days later Arril- 
laga informs the viceroy that the occupation of 
Bodega is put off for this year. The postpone- 
ment proved to be a permanent one, for some 
unexplained cause, and the ten soldiers and five 
mechanics with some stores intended for Bodega 
were retained by Sal at San Francisco." 


So nearly came Sonoma County to civilized 
occupancy before the commencement of the cur- 
rent century. The only other, ami more defi- 
nite statement, of Spanish visitation to territory 
now within Sonoma County jurisdiction during 
the early years of this century, is that in Sej)- 
tember of 1810. Moraga, a Spanish officer, 
visited l)odega, '■ discovering and exploring to 
some extent a fertile valley in that region, to 
whicli, however, lie gave no name." 

Thus, in a hurried way, have we followed the 
fortunes of the Catholic cross northward from 
San Diego until it wtis securely planted at 
Lone Mountain. Over a third of a century had 
been marked on the dial of time, and yet that 
emblem of Cliristianity was yet nnplanted on 
the northern side of the Ijay. The tloci<s and 

herds of the nineteen established missions had 
increased until their numbers were pressing upon 
the utmost limits of pasture supply. The opu 
lence of the Padres, taken in conjunction with 
the fact that they were being made largely to 
bear the burthen of civil and military govern- 
ment, seemed to have somewhat dampened their 
ardor in mission work; at least so far as related 
to venturing uut into new and unexplored fields. 
Here, for the pi-esent, we place a perioil to 
Spanish occupation, and turn to hyperliDrean 
latitudes to note the southward coming of the 
Greek triune cross. Before the close of our 
next chapter these emblems of two mighty 
churches, one being carried northward and the 
other southward, will have met and been planted 
within the limits of Sonoma County. 




The IIussian-Amkuican Frii Company — Razanof, its head JtANAUEii, visits San Franiisco in 
1805 — EETriixs TO Alaska with a cakcii) hf whicat — nsiiiNci for sea ottkr along the 

COAST becomes common THE MA(;Nn'lI>E OF THE lilSINKSS IN 1809, KuSKOF, AN OFFICER 

OF THE Alaska Fir Company, anchorkd in TIodioua Bav, anii with a lak(;e numiser of 
Aleut fishkumen who>[ he p,Ror(iHT ■\vrrii him, spent ekmit months fishixo and explor- 
ing — IN Isll THE Russians came hack to Bodega with an outfit to found a settle- 
ment — thev establish Fort Ross — were the first to estap.lish a permanent settlement 
IN Sonoma County — the California authorities object, but the Russians stay — they 


Duiiaut Cilly, said OF Ross in 1828 — what varied occupations Russians followed 


1 1 1 1 jE Spain was alwaj'S in a state of nn- 
rest coast possessions, slie was not 
bronglit face to in regard to the security 
of her Pacific face witli any real danger until in 
the first decade of the present century, At first it 
was England and France toward which lier appre- 
hensions were directed, with an occasional spasm 
of suspicion that the United States had a lust- 
ful desire for expansion in this direction. Of 
course Spain was having spats and wars witli 
other European powers, and tlie people of Cal- 
ifornia, when informed as to the government 
with which Spain for tiie time being was em- 
broiled, naturally felt uneasy when a vessel 
carrying the flag of such government was seen 
liovering along the California coast. 

The possessions of Russia up north had been 
turned to account and were then under the 
dominion of the Russian-American Fur Com- 
pany. As Russia and Spain were then as near 

at peace as was coinpatible with nations always 
in armed expectancy of war, no serious danger 
to California seemed to be apprehended from 
that source. Rut there were causes at work 
that turned tiie attention of Alaska authorities 
southward. The provision supplies they were 
dependent on from Russia, on account of ad- 
verse winds and other unavoidable causes, did 
not always reach tliem in season, and as a result, 
several times the gaunt wolf Famine stalked in 
their midst. Hunger knows no law, and in its 
presence the amenities usually observable be- 
tween nations at peace, are liable to be set at 
naught. In 1805 the newly appointed Russian 
Chamberlain, NicholiPetrovich Razanof, reached 
Sitka at a time wiien the inhabitants were in 
sore distress for food supplies. lie had a ves- 
sel laden with such articles as bethought would 
be needed by the presidios and missions of 
California and came down to San Francisco. 


Kazanof was too great a diplomat to let the 
Spaniards know the real-condition of att'airs at 
Alaska. He had to feel his way carefully, for 
the authorities were under injunctions to en- 
courage no trade with foreign vessels. The 
missions had plenty of wlieat, just what he most 
coveted, and he had many articles of utility and 
ornament that the Californians needed and 
wanted. To make a long story short, Kazanof 
returned to Alaska with liis vessel well stowed 
with wheat. And more than this, it did not 
escape his keen eyes that the whcjle coast 
north of San Francisco was lying idle and un- 
productive. And another thing he did not fail 
to observe was that the waters abounded with 
sea otter. This same thing seems to have 
been taken in by the lynx-eyed Yankees even 
before Itazanof visited this coast, for we find it 
recorded that in 1803-'4 Captain Joseph O'Cain, 
in the American vessel (TC'aiii, made a sea 
otter j)oacliing expedition along the coast, going 
certainly as far south as San Diego, and being 
rewarded with a take of 1,100 otter-skins. 

Arrillaga had been appointed Governor of Cal- 
ifornia, and on his arrival at Monterey, the cap- 
ital, in 1806, one of his tirst pronunciamentos 
was a determination to put an end to illicit 
and contraband trade. lie expressed liimself 
cognizant of the fact that instructions from the 
head government had been, if not entirely 
evaded, at least loosely obeyed, and that he 
should not connive at such flagrant abuses. His 
intentions were doubtless honest, but then, 
humanity is fallible ! Thenceforward there 
were always vessels hovering along the coast, 
and it seemed remarkable how often they run 
out of water, or provisions, or had to make some 
needed repairs, and found excuses for anchoring 
for a time near some coast mission. The (iov- 
ernor of California and his handful of military 
could froth and fume as much as they pleased, 
but then what could they do about it 'i While 
these coast poachers in Spanish waters may not 
have direct connection with Sonoma (J(jnnty 
history, yet their meanderings were all con- 
verging toward IJodcgii Bay and tlic ultiiiiate 

occupation of the country from that point north- 
ward by the Russians. In truth, the only way 
to convey to the readers an intelligent concep- 
tion why the Russians made this long skip from 
Alaska to Ross, is by taking into account the 
wealth offered by the sea as well as the pro- 
ductiveness of the shore. In 1806 Captain 
Jonathan Winship, in the American vessel 
CrCdin, with his brother Nathan as mate, made 
a seaotter expedition on this coast. They were 
acting under the auspices of the Russian-Amer- 
ican Fur Company, and were accompanied by 
northern Indians and canoes to do the lishing. 
The Farallone Islands were found a fruitful 
field of operation. In September uf that year 
Captain Winship returned to Alaska with 5,000 
otter-skins. In October of 1806 Captain Camp- 
bell, another American under contract with the 
Alaska Fur Company, and accompanied by 
Aleut tishermen with twelve bidaskes (tishing 
boats), passed a season on this coast and re- 
turned to Alaska in August of 1807 with 1,230 
otter-skins. In 1807 Captain Winship was 
back to the coast again accompanied by fifty 
native hunters from Alaska, and his objective 
point seems to have been the Farallone Islands. 
How great was his success may he known from 
the fact that he i-etnrned north in April. Sev- 
eral other vessels are mentioned as having 
fished along the coast, and in every instance 
they are reported to have made a profital)le 
catch of sea-otter. Although outside of the 
chronological order of occurrences to be re- 
corded in this history we, in order to make 
clear the magnitude of the sea-otter fisheries 
along this coast, (piote the following from 
Hubert Howe Bancroft's History of California: 
" On April 1, 1811, the Albatross sailed for the 
north, leaving the O'Cain to look after atfairs 
on the lower coast, andreturnedto the Farallones 
to leave supplies. Then she went to Drake Bay. 
where she was joined by the (/Cain, and Isabel 
on the 11th of May. Here the two vessels re- 
mained a month, often communicating with 
the different gangs of hunters l)y means of 
boats. In .June the AUj((tri)Ss went south 


again and was occupied in picking up for tinal 
departure the luinters and the product of their 
labors for l)oth ships; and on the I'Jtli she sailed 
for the north, arriving at the Russian settle- 
ments in August. After repairing the ship and 
discharging his Indians, Winship returned 
down the coast and anchored on the 27th of 
September at tiie South Farallones. The 2d of 
October, taking on board all the hunters, except 
Rrown with seven Kanakas, the Albatross 
sailed for the Islands, so loaded with furs that 
some water-casks had to be broken up and the 
hemp cables carried on deck." Ky reference to 
a note in the work above quoted from, we tind 
that the Alhatross, for the seasons of 1810 
and 1811 took 74,526 fur seal skins, of which 
73,402 were taken at the P'arallones. Besides 
these there is enumerated among the pelts 248 
beaver, 21 raccoon, 6 wild-cat, 153 land-otter. 
4 badger, 5 fox, 58 mink, 8 gray squirrel. 1 
skunk, 11 muskrat and 137 mole skins. The 
estimated value of this cargo of furs at Canton, 
China, was .$157,397. A Captain Smith is re- 
puted to have visited the Farallones in 1808 
accompanied by a band of Kadiac Indians and 
quite a Heet of bidaskes, remaining two years 
and departing with 130.000 seal, beside many 
otter skins. Alvarado is the anthority for the 
statement that there were months when 2,500 
sking, worth $90 each, were exported. In 
order not to speak hap-hazard upon this subject 
we interviewed General AI. G. Vallejo, par- 
ticularly in reference to the subject of sea-otter 
(»n this coast, and we have it from his own lips 
that the Bay of San Francisco and all the bays 
and estuaries along tlie coast were swarming 
with them in the early decades of the century. 
But we return to the year 1809. That year 
was made memorable to Sonoma County from 
the fact that on .the 8th of January Kiiskof, an 
officer of the Russian Fur Company on the 
Kadiac. I'etrof master, entered Bodega Bay and 
remained there continuously until the 29th of 
August. It seems to have been a mission of 
observation, exploration and fishing combined. 
Friendly relations with the Indians of the sur- 

rounding country were established and a few 
temporary habitations erected. While we sliall 
always, in referring to this bay designate it 
Bodega Bay. the reader should be apprized 
that the Russians called it " Roumiantzof Bay.'" 
Through tlie natives Governor Arrillaga soon 
learned of the presence of a large Russian ves- 
sel at Bodega and that the crew had erected 
huts on shore. The number of persons given 
by the Governor as belonging to the KadUic, 
were forty Russians and 150 Indians, including 
twenty women. Fifty canoes were reported as 
having been crossed over from Huymenes Bay 
to Pt. Boneta. And here it is in place to 
explain in order that the carrying of these 
canoes, called by the Russians '• bidaskes,'" may 
the more readily be understood by the reader. 
They were constructed with a very light, flex- 
ible frame, over which was stretched a sheath- 
ing of sealskins so sown together as to render 
the seams impervious to water. The hunter 
could readily take his boat on his back and 
carry it a long distance. The Aleuts were ex- 
perts in the handling of these tiny crafts and 
did not hesitate to venture quite a distance out 
to sea in them. 

A stay of over seven mouths at Bodega had 
enabled Kuskof to form a very intelligent 
opinion as to wliether or not there was any- 
thing in that latitude worth the Russian Fur 
Company's further attention. He seems to 
have reached an affirmative conclusion. As he 
took back with him over 2,000 otter-skins as 
tangible evidence to the company of the worth 
of the field in which he had been tarrying, it 
probably did not require much urging on his part 
to induce his co-laborers at Alaska to seek a 
foothold in this more southern and genial clime. 
Referring to this visit of Kuskof to Bodega Bay, 
Air. Bancroft says: "The native chiefs were 
made friends by the distribution of petty gifts, 
and there is not much doubt that they made, 
either now or the next year, . some kind of a 
formal cession of territory to the new-comers. 
The price paid, according to the statement of 
the natives in later years, as Payeras tells us, 


was "three Idaiikets, tliree ))airsof breeches, twu 
axes, three hoes, and some heads." It was upon 
Russian title derived through this jnunilicent 
purchase price paid, that Colonel Muldrcw, 
nearly half a century later, gave a great deal 
of disquiet to the American settlers all along 
the coast from Toniales Bay to Cape Mendocino. 
Raranof, the Chamberlain of Alaska, douljtless 
acting on instructions from St. Petersburg, took 
immediate stejis to found a settlement on the 
California coast. To this end, an expedition 
was fitted out and placed under the control of 
Knskof, who, on the Chirikof v{\i\i all necessary 
implements and supplies, left Alaska late in 
1811 or early in 1812 for his new field of 
operations. Of this expedition l>ancroft sajs: 
" There were in the company ninety-five men of 
Russian blood, including twenty-five mechanics, 
and probably eighty Aleuts in a hunting fleet 
of forty bidaskes. The arrival seems to have 
been in March or April of 1812, though of 
this and immediately succeeding events there 
is no detailed record. The Aleuts were sent 
out to hunt otter along the coast, apparently 
with instructions not to enter San Francisco 
Bay, for it was best not to oflfend the Spaniards 
just at this time. The Russians prepared 
timber for several months. When all was 
ready the Aleuts were recalled to aid the me- 
chanics, and everybody went to work with a 
will on a foi't and other necessary buildings, 
and in tlie course of a few months a fortified 
village had arisen on the shores of New Albion. 
The site, selected probably during the previous 
viirit, was some eighteen miles above Hodega 
Ray, called by the natives Mad-shui-nui, in 
latitude 38° 33', loniritude 123° 15' accordinor 
to Russian observations, and the fort with its 
ten cannons was erected on a blutt' some 
hundred feet or more above the sea. * '^ '■■ 
All was completed and ready for occupation 
early in September. On September 10th, or 
August 30th of the Russian calendar, the name- 
day of Emperor Alexander, the establishment 
was formally dedicated with great festivities 
and named Ross, from the root (jf the name 

Russia, a name extending far back into an 

From that day dates the permanent occupancy 
of Sonoma County by civilized man. Fort Ross 
was something more than a mere station for the 
rendezvous of a fleet of fishing bidaskes. In a 
very few years it had become a manufacturing 
community, largely furnishing various kinds of 
supplies to the less skilled Spaniards south of 
the Bay of San Francisco. Of this we sliall 
speak more fully hereafter. Their ccjining to 
Ross was most certainly an infringement upon 
the territorial rights of Spain. P>ut they 
claimed, or pretended to claim, that by right 
of discovery made by Sir Francis Drake New 
Albion extended south to San Francisco Bay. 
The Spaniards on the other hand claimed that 
Spanish dciminion extended north to the Straits 
of Fuca. Through the natives (for the S|mnish 
authorities at San Francisco had as yet made 
little atteni])t at exploi-ation north of the bay), 
the Spaniards were made aware of the presence 
and operations of ihe Russians at Bodega and 
Ross. As in duty bound, an envoy was sent 
to Ross to learn the objects and aims of the 
Muscovites. The information olttained was 
duly transmitted by the Comniandante of San 
Francisco to the (lovernor at Monterey; and the 
governor in turn communicated the information 
to the Viceroy of Mexico, and thus it was started 
on its course to the ultimate end, the myal 
presence in Spain. Back through this tortuous 
channel, after a long lapse of time, came the 
injunction to the Commandante of San Francisco 
that he must have the Russians march on. Just 
how he was to enforce this order, with four 
rusty cannons, when the fort at Ross bristled 
with ten cannons of larger caliber, the King 
of Spain did not point out. But ink was 
cheaper, and not half as dangerous as powder, 
and the result was a wordy correspondence be- 
tween the (-Jovernor of California and Knskof. 

For several years the communication between 
the California authorities and those at Ross 
was as slow as the courtship between deaf 
mutes, so far as related to the right or wrong 


of Russian occupancy here. It could not well 
l)e otlienvise. The Governor of CalitbrniH 
could oidy act on authority from the Viceroy 
at the city of Mexico; and the Viceroy derived 
his power from the King of Spain. On the 
other hand Kuskof at Fort Ross looked to the 
Chamberlain of Alaska for his instructions, and 
the Chamberlain took his commands from the 
Czar of Russia. And thus it came to pass that 
the conflicting interests of two of the miglity 
powers of Europe, for a time, centered right 
here within our own Sonoina County. While 
a i:;reat many orders of a mandatory character, 
rei^uiring the Russians at once and immediately 
to vacate Ross were duly delivered to Kuskof, as 
coming from the Viceroy of ]\[exico, it does 
not seem to have disturbed the friendly amenities 
tiiat appear to have existed between the Span 
iards and Russians here, for they seem to have 
done a great deal of bartering in violation of 
the revenue laws as intended to be administered 
by the Mexican authorities. This trade was 
carried on by means of Russian vessels. 

Tiie reader can keep in mind that year after 
year there was remonstrance made by the 
Spanish authorities of California against Rus- 
sian occupation at Ross, always accompanied by 
the fearful admonition that the Viceroy of Mex- 
ico would admit of no further delay in the 
matter. Moraga, the tirst to go to Ross to spy 
out what the Russians were about, was sent 
back to Ross late in 1813, and according to 
Spanish account delivered to Ivuskof the ulti- 
matum of speed}' departure from this coast; 
while Russian record of the same occurrence is, 
as Bancroft says: "That Moraga on this second 
visit brought witl) him not only twenty cattle 
and three horses as a gift, but also the verlial 
announcement, as welcome as unexpected, that 
Governor Arrillaga had consented to an ex- 
change of commodities on condition that pend- 
ing the Viceroy's decision, the company's ves- 
sels should not enter the ports, but transfer 
goods in boats. Accordingly Kuskof at once 
despatched his clerk Slobodchikof to San Fran- 
cisco with a cargo which, in the manner pre- 

scribed, and to t!<e value of $14,000, was 
exchanged for bread-stulfs. Trade was thus con- 
tinued for some time, but no particulars are 
given. That this traffic was allowed, consider- 
ing the urgent needs of California, is not 
strange; nor is the silence of the Spanish record 
to be wondered at, since the trade was illicit. 
There is no good reason to doubt the accuracy 
of the Russian statement. 

That the Russians had come to stay, the lo- 
cation selected and the permanency of the im- 
provements made, amply attested. While 
Bodega Bay, by them called Roumiantzof, was 
a desirable harbor so far as ingress and egress 
of vessels were concerned, yet it did not seem 
to till Kuskof 's conception of strategic strength 
for defensive jjurposes. The site selected for 
Fort Ross, about eighteen miles north of 
Bodega, could hardly be improved on for the 
purpose designed. The following pen-picture of 
Fort Ross and its surroundings is a translation 
from a French book written by Duhant Cilly. 
The author spent two or three days at Ross in 
1828. This is a very accurate description, and 
the more to be prized on account of its having 
been written so long ago: 

"At eleven o'clock in the morning, June, 
1828, we arrived at a colony which the Rus- 
sians had named Ross. It is a great square sur- 
rounded by a solidly built fence of boards 
twenty feet high. This fence is crowned by 
large, heavy war implements. On the south 
west and northeast angles, are two turrets of a 
hexagon shape, pierced with port-holes, for pro- 
tection. Upon the four sides which correspond 
with the four important points are port-holes 
with cannon. In the inside of the square are 
also tield-pieces of bronze, mimnted on w-agons. 
There is a nice house for the commander or 
director, good lodgings for the subordinate of- 
ficers, while the remainder of the square is 
taken up by store-houses and work-shops. A 
chapel and bastion occupy the southeast angle. 
The fort is built at the edge of an elevated piece 
of land about two hundred feet above the level 
of the sea. To the right and left are ravines 

nrsTonr of sonoma covnty. 

whicli give protection against attacks from the 
• north and south, while tlie steep blnfl' and sea 
defend the west. The two ravines open upon 
two little bays which serve as a shelter for 
sliipping. All the dwellings of Ross are built 
of wood, but they are built well and strong. In 
the I'ooms of the director's dwelling are found 
all the conveniences which are appreciated by 
luiropeans and which as yet are unknown in 
other parts of L'alifornia. On the outside of the 
S(|uare are buildings regularly ranged for sixty 
Russians, and low huts for eighty Kadiacs. 
Adjoining these are huts of as many poor 
(native ?) Indians. To the east of the settlement 
the ground gradually rises to a great height, 
which protects the settlement from eastern 
winds. These hills are covered with thick 
forests. The slopes are divided into fields, 
fenced in squares, for grain, French corn, pats, 
potatoes, etc. These fences ai-e used as pro- 
tectors of the crops against enemies and wild 

Such was Fort Ross as described sixty years 
ago. So far as location and general details are 
concerned, it is very accurate. The height of 
the mesa on which the fort stands is placed 
at too high a level above the sea, and the 
palisade wall of the fort is given about eigiit 
feet greater height than it really had. That 
the Russians were well prepared to defend 
themselves against attack is evidenced by a 
note in Bancroft's History which says: " Kuskof 
brought eight pieces of artillery in 1812, which 
number was soon increased to fifteen or twenty, 
and even to fort}' of various caliber by 1841 as 
it seems.'' 

But few of Sonoma County's most intelligent 
citizens, we apprehend, are fully advised in 
reference to the magnitude and importance of 
the operations of this Russian colony that 
planted the standard of civilization here. The 
oldest men among us were but mere boys when 
the whole coast of this county from the Estero 
Americano to the Gnalala River were teeming 
with life and enterprise. Aleuts in bidaskes 
were exi)ioring every bay, cove and estuary in 

quest of sea-otter, seal and acqnatic fowls. 
Coming from the frigid north where everything 
was utilized that would appease hunger or pro- 
tect the body from the chilling winds of the 
bleak, hyjjerborean climes, they gathered and 
utilized much that by the less provident 
Spaniards south of the Bay of San Francisco, 
would have been esteemed of no value. But 
Fort Ross was something more than a mere 
fishing station. As already stated they gave 
to Bodega Bay the euphonious name, Roumi- 
antzof; to the country and streams northward 
they gave names of equally as hard enunciation 
to American tongues. The country between 
Bodega Bay and Russian River they called 
Kostromitinof; to Russian River they gave the 
name Slavianki; while to the country adjacent 
to Ross itself, they gave the name Khlebnikof. 
In reference to the character- and number of 
inhabitants at Ross after it was founded, Mr. 
Bancroft says: "So far as I can judge from the 
complicated and contradictory statements of 
different M'riters, Russian and foreign, there 
were at Ross, after the foundation was fairly 
effected, from twenty-five to fifty men of Rus- 
sian blood, and from fifty to one-hundred and 
twenty Aleuts. No Russian women came to 
California, except perhaps the wives of one or 
twt) of the officers in the later years; but 
both Russians and Aleuts married or cohabited 
with native women, so that at the last the three 
races were inextricably mixed in the population 
of Ross. This population, including the native 
Californians who became permanent residents, 
may be estimated as having varied from 150 
to 400. All to a certain extent in the service 
of the company, though many cultivated small 
pieces of ground and traded the products on 
their own account. The Russians were ofticers, 
chiefs of hunting parties, and mechanics; the 
Aleuts were hunters, fishermen, and laborers; 
the Californians were laborers and servants; all 
were to a certain extent farmers and ti'aders and 

AV^hile there was a (ireek chapel, as already 
stated, at the fort, tJiere is nnthing to show 


that tliere was ever a regular chaplain assigned 
to the station. Under authorization of the 
bishop one of tlie officers officiated at funerals, 
solemnized marriages and administered the ordi- 
nance of l)a])tism. 

As this coast had been a common poaching 
grouiiil tor vessels engaged in taking sea-otter 
for neaily a decade before the advent of the 
llussians here, large returns from that kind of 
hunting were not of long duration and the 
Russians naturally turned their attention to 
mixed industries. Bancroft, wlio from his vast 
I'esonrces of data on this subject is in a position 
to speak with great accuracy, says: "As the 
hunt for otter became less and less protitalde, 
and as obstacles interfered with perfect success 
ill way of trade, the agents of the company 
turiKil tlifir attention more and more to home 
industries at Itoss. Agriculture was naturally 
one of the most imijortant of these industries, 
and results in this brarich are shown more or 
less complete in a note.'' Referring to this 
note, we gather the following information in 
reference to the Kussian's farming operations: 
Kuskof, about 1821, retired from command at 
Koss, and was succeeded by a young man, Carl 
Schmidt. Kuskof died in Russia in 1828. In 
reference to farming it is stated that all the fer- 
tile land around the fort was cultivated, and 
there were fields two miles away. In 182S the 
amount of land cultivated in various fields is 
stated to liave been about 175 acres. Seeding 
was done in November and December, after the 
first rains. Both oxen and horses werg used for 
farming purposes, and in rocky places Indians 
were employed to spade the soil. Vegetables 
were raised in abundance in the gardens, in- 
cluding pumpkins and watermelons. Pickled 
beets and cabbage were sent to Sitka. Potatoes 
were planted twice a year, but the yield was not 
large. Wild mustard seed was gathered for ex- 
portation. Fruit trees did well. The first 
peach-tree brought from San Francisco in 1S14 
bore in 1820. Other peach-trees were brought 
from Monterey, and also grape-vines from 
Lima in 1S17, the latter bearino- in 1823. In 

1820, 100 trees, apple, pear, cherry and peach 
were set out, bearing in 1828. As related to 
wheat, great efforts were made and great re- 
sults anticipated in 1826, but there was not 
over a half crop, in consequence of rust. In 
1833 wild-oats sprang up, and thereafter much 
of the land that had been tilled around Ross had 
to be pastured. Mice and gophers had become 
very destructive. Farming was then trans- 
ferred to the month of Russian River, with 
much success for a couple of years; but received 
a set-back by two years of failure. This will 
give a general idea of the farming operations of 
the Russians. 

In reference to stock we find the following: 
Of horned cattle there were about sixty in 
1817, 180 in 1821, 520 in 1829, 720 in 1833. 
and 1,700 in 1841; horses increased from ten 
in 1817 to 250 in 1829, 415 in 1833, and 900 
in 1841; there were IGO sheep in 1817, 800 in 
1822, 614 in 1829, 605 in 1833, and 900 in 
1841; and swine numbered 124 in 1821 and 
106 in 1829. There were about fifty mules in 
in 1841. Many cattle were killed by the bears 
and Indians. I'ulls used to come into the fort 
with lacerated flesh and bloody horns after en- 
counters with bears. In the last fifteen years 
216,000 pounds of salt beef and 17,(100 pounds 
of butter were sent to Sitka. Butter brought 
about thirty cents a pound at Sitka. Excellent 
leather was tanned and exported. The total 
product in good years of cattle and sheep was 
valued at 8,000 rubles. Bancroft says: "There 
was hardly any article of wood, iron or leather 
which the mechanics of Ross in the early years 
could not make of a ijuality sufficiently good 
for the California nuirUet, and to the very last 
they received frequent apjilications from the 
Spaniards. But in the later yeai's many^ minor 
articles were more cheaply obtained from Amer- 
ican and English traders. Several boats were 
built for Spanish officers or friars. Timlierand 
tiles were not only sent south, but north, and 
even in some instances to the Sandwich Islands. 
Pine pitch was also sent to Sitka in consider- 
able quantities, in barrels which, like those for 

iirsTonr of bonoma county. 

iiiuat and other exports, wei'c made l)y the 
Ross coopers." 

iJut the Russians were even more than fisher- 
men, farmers and artisans. lii^ht here in 
Simonia County within the lirst quarter of the 
present century not less than four schooners 
and ships were built and launched, the carry- 
ing capacity varying from 160 to 200 tons. 
The schooner Rotnninatzof, of IBO tons burthen 
was commenced in 1816 and launched in 1818. 
Aside from the labor of construction its cost 
was 20,212 rubles. The brig Buldakof, of 200 
tons burthen, a copper-bottomed vessel, was put 
on the ways in 1819 and completed and launched 
in 1820. Its cost of construction was about 80,- 
000 rubles. These vesselswereprincipally built 
of oak, while in tlie construction of the latter 
ones pine and redwood seem to have been 
])rincipally used. The Vohja, 160 tons, was 
begun in 1821 and was finished and launched 
in 1822, at a cost of about 36,189 rubles. The 
Kidklifa, of 200 tons burthen, was put on the 
ways in 1823, and completed and launched in 
1824, at a cost of 35,248 rubJes. These vessels 
do not seem to have been of long service, and 

this is not to be wondered at when we take 
into account the rawness and character of the 
wood used in their construction. But this in 
no wise militates against the cold facts of his- 
tory that when oui' oldest men we)-e mere boys, 
ship-building was carritd on right here in 
Sonoma County. We have been thus exact in 
giving dates and details because we believe 
every man, woman and child in the county 
ought to know these things. Sir William 
Blackstone says in his commentaries on the 
common law laid it down as a rule that every 
English gentleman ought to know and under- 
stand the groundwork of the laws of the country 
in which he lived. If this was true of English 
gentlemen as related to a knowledge of the laws 
of their country, how much more essential is it 
that every one laying claim to intelligence in 
our midst, should at least have a correct knowl- 
edge of the history of the county in which they 
live ! Having delineated the main features of 
Russian occupation of Sonoma County up to 
1830, we now devote a cha]itcr to Sj)anish pro- 
gress northward. 

iiismnv OF SONOMA couNrr. 





SJ'thk s;-'ANIaki'S ^:oRTH of the fay, ;^ 

23s^3aj wi?^^rpi'^^ ^^^si3ag?i.;^'^^:a3a.^^33ii 




After fortv years of wattixc the Spaniards sktre a i.ougment north of Sax F'RANnsco 



Cauqfinez; traveled n- the Sacramento Valley, i-iioiiAiiLY m Sha>ta, then crossed 




A MISSION site; VISITED Petaluma Yall]:y, Sonoma Yallioy, and finally chose Sonoma- 


Francisco Solano," was duly dedicated Sunday, the 4rii day of April, 182-1 — the 
Russians at Ross sent articles of decoration for the church at Sonoma — fruit trees 
and \ineyards planted — cattle, horses and sheep Mri.Tipi.Y, AND San Francisco Solano 


fORTY years had come anJ gone since pre- 
sidio and mission was founded at Yerba 
Buena,aiid yet no fruitful attempt had been 
made to establish settlement on tlie north side 
of the bay. And the lirst movement in that 
direction seems to have been impelled by a 
teeming necessity. At the mission Dolores 
were many hundred neophytes who had been 
gatliered in from the many Indian tribes south 
of the bay. Among these Indian converts there 
was an increasing and alarming mortality from 
])ulmoHary disease. The padres, as a sanitary 
measure, determined upon the founding of a 
branch mission in some more sheltered and 
genial clime on the north side of the bay. Tiie 
ju'esent site of San Rafael was the location de- 
termined upon. The establisliment was to be 
more in the nature of a rancho, witli cliapel, 
baptistry and cemetery, than a regularly or- 

dained mission. Padre Luis Gil yTahoada was 
detailed to take charge of this branch establish- 
ment of the church. In reference to this brancii 
mission P>aucroft says: "The site was proliably 
selected on tiie advice of Moraga, who had 
several times passed it on his way to and from 
Bodega; though there may have been a special 
examination Ijy the friars not recorded. Father 
Gil was accompanied by Derran, Abella, and 
Sarria, the latter of whom on December lith, 
with the same ceremonies that usually attended 
the dedication of a regular mission, founded 
the assistencia of San Rafael Arcangel, on the 
spot called by the natives Nanaguani. Though 
the establishment was at first only a l)ranch of 
San Francisco, an assistencia and not a mission, 
with a chapel instead of a church, under a 
supernumerary friar of San Francisco; yet there 
was no real ditt'erence between its manaij-einent 


and that of the other missions. The luimber 
of ncoiihytes trausfei red at first is supposed to 
have been about 280, but there is but very little 
evidence on the subject, and subsequent trans- 
fers, if any were made in eitlier direction, are not 
recorded. By the end of 1820 the population 
had ineTcased to 590. In 1818 an adobe build- 
ing eighty feet long, forty-two feet wide and 
eighteen feet high had been erected; divided 
by partitions into chapel, padre's house and all 
other apartments i'e(|uired, and furnished be- 
sides with a corridor of tules. Padre Gil y 
Taboada remained in charge of San Rafael until 
the summer of 1819, when lie was succeeded by 
Juan Anioros." 

That even the southern eud of what is now 
Sonoma County was yet a comparative terra 
incognito to the Spaniards, is evidenced by the 
fact that as late as May, 1818, on the occasion 
of a visit of President Payeras with Comniandante 
Arguello to San Rafael, they made quite an 
exploration of the surrounding country and re- 
ported having seen from the top of a hill " the 
Canada de los Olompalis and the Llano de los 
Petalnmas."' Thus, as Moses viewed the 
promised land from the summit of Mount Pisga, 
did priest and comniandante from the summit 
of a Marin County hill look down upon Peta- 
luma Valley in the year of grace, 1818. The 
comniandante referred to in this connection was 
Captain Luis Arguello. Governor Arrillaga 
having died in 1813, Ai-guelio filled the position 
of acting governor until Sola was appointed to 
that position. Ai-guello was a man of consider- 
able energy and dash, and it was but natural 
that Governor Sola should select him for a 
hazardous enterprise. Late in the summer of 
1821 the Governor determined to send an ex- 
ploring expedition up north. As this was one 
of the most consccpiential explorations ever 
undertaken under Spanish rule, and as it has 
an intimate connection with Sonoma County, 
we give place to Hubert Howe Bancroft's nar- 
ration of the meaniierings of the expedition. 
which is as follows: 

"Thirty live soldados de cuera and twenty 

infantes, part of the force coming from Mon- 
terey, were assembled at San l"'rancisco. Horses 
and much of the supplies were sent from Santa 
Clara and San Jose up to the Strait of the Car- 
quinez. The officers selected were Captain 
Luis Arguello, Alferez Francisco de Haro, 
Alferez Jose Antonio Sanchez, and Cadet 
Joaquin Estudillo, with Padre Bias Ordaz as 
chaplain and chronicler, and John Gilroy, called 
the 'English interpreter Juan Antonio.' Some 
neophytes were also attached to the force, and 
all was ready for the start the 18th of October. 
The company sailed from San Francisco at 11 
A. M. in the two lanchas of the presidio and 
mission, landing at Ruyuta, near what is now 
Point San Pedro, to pass the night. Next day 
they continued the voyage to the Carquinez, 
being joined by two other boats. Saturday and 
Sunday were spent in ferrying the horses across 
the strait, together with a band of Ululatos and 
Cauucaynios Indians, en route to visit their 
gentile homes, and in religious exercises. 
Monday morning they started for the north.. 

" The journey which followed was popularly 
known to the Spaniards at the time, and since 
as ' Arguello's expedition to the Columbia." 
The Columbia was the only northern region of 
which the Spaniards had any definite idea, or 
was rather to them a term nearly synonymous 
with the northern interior. It was from the 
Columbia that the strange people sought were 
supposed to have come; and it is not singular 
in the absence of any correct idea of distance, 
that the only expedition to the far north was 
greatly exaggerated in respect to the distance 
traveled. The narratives in my possession, 
written by old Californians, some of whom ac- 
companied Arguello, are unusually inaccurate 
in their versions of this affair, on which they • 
would throw Init very little light in the al)seuce 
of the original diary of Father Ordaz — a docu- 
ment that is fortunately extant. 

"Starting from the strait on the morning of 
October 22, Arguello and his company marched 
for nine days, averaging little less than eight 
hours a day, northward up the valley of the 


Sai-rainento, which they called the Jesus Maria. 
The names of raiiclierias 1 give in a note. Tliere 
is little else to be said of the march, the obsta- 
cles to be overcome having been few and slight. 
Tlie natives were either friendly, timid, or 
slightly hostile, having to be scattered once or 
twice by the noise of a cannon. The neophyte 
Rafael from San Francisco had but little diffi- 
cujtv in making himself understood. The most 
serious calamity was the loss of a mule that fell 
into the river with two thousand cartridges on 
its back. There were no indications of for- 

"On the 30th, to use the words of the diary, 
'the place where we are is situated at the foot 
of the Sierra Madre, whence there have been 
seen by the English interpreter, Juan Antonio, 
two mountains called Los Cuates — the Twins — 
on the opposite side of which are the presidio 
and river of the Columbia. The rancherias be- 
fore named are situated on the banks of the Rio 
de Jesns Maria, from which to-morrow a differ- 
ent direction will betaken.' Accordingly the 
the 31st they ' inarched west until they came to 
the foot of a mountain range, about fifteen 
leagues from the Sierra Nevada, which runs 
from north to south, terminating in the region 
of Bodega.' Exactly at what point the travel- 
ers left the river and entered the mountain 
range, now bounding Trinity County 07i the 
east, I do not attempt to determine, though 
it was evidently not below Red Bluff. The 
distance made up the valley, allowing an aver- 
age rate of three miles an hour for sixty-eight 
hours, the length of the return march of ninety- 
six hours through the mountains, at a rate of 
two miles an hour, and the possible identity of 
Capa, reached in forty-four hours from Car- 
quinez, with the Capaz of modern maps opposite 
Chico, would seem to point to the latitude of 
Shasta or Weaverville as the northern limit of 
this exploration. 

" For nine days, the explorers marched south- 
ward over the mountains. No distances ai'e 
given, and I shall not pretend to trace the exact 
route followed, though I give in a note the 

names recorded in the diary. Like tiiose in 
the valley, the savages were not, as a rule, hos- 
tile, though a few had to be killed in the ex- 
treme north; but their language could no longer 
be understood, and it was often diflicult to 
obtain guides from i-ancheria to rancheria. The 
natural difficulties of the mountain route were 
very great. Many horses died, and four pack- 
mules once fell down a precipice together. The 
3d of November, at Benenue, some l)lue cloth 
was found, said to have been obtained from the 
coast, probably from the Russians. On the 6th 
the ocean was first seen, and several soldiers 
recognized the 'coast of the Russian establish- 
ment at Bodega.' Next day from the Espinazo 
del Diablo was seen what was believed to be 
Cape Mendocino, twenty leagues away on the 
right. Finally, on the 10th, the party from the 
top of a mountain, higher than any before 
climbed, l)ut in sight of many worse ones, 
aliandoned by their guides at dusk, \v\\\\ only 
three days' rations, managed to struggle down 
and out through the dense undergrowth into a 

'• And down this valley of Libantiliyami, 
which could hardly have been any othei- than 
that of the Russian River, though at what point 
in the present Sonoma County, or from what 
direction they entered it I am at a loss to say, the 
returning wanderers hastened; over a route that 
seems to have presented no obstacles — doubtless 
near the sites of the modern Healdsburg and 
Santa Rosa — and on November 12th, at noon, 
after twenty hours' march in three da^'s, arrived 
at San Rafael. Next day, after a thanksgiving 
mass, the boats arrived and the w-ork of ferrying 
the horses across to Point San Pablo was be- 
gun. The infantry soldiers, who were mounted 
durinor the expedition, also took this route 
home, both to Monterey and San Francisco. 
Thus ended the most extensive northern expedi- 
tion ever made by the Spaniards in California." 

By reference to the notes referred to by Mr. 
Bancroft in the above, it is (juite certain that 
Arguello and his companions reached Russian 
River at or near the present site of Cloverdale. 


Be that as it may, it is lieyoml cavil that they 
were the tirst Sj)aiiianis to traverse the central 
valleys of Sunoiria County. While the expedi- 
tion was not fruitfnl of far-reaciiing results, yet 
it furnishes an importaut leaf to local history. 
iJeing the tirst of civilized race to traverse the 
territory of the county its whole length, entitles 
that little hand of explorers to kindly reniein- 
hrance and honorable mention in her annals. 

I'ut the time was close at hand when Sonoma 
County which had lain fallow all these years, 
except that jjortion of seaboard under occupancy 
by the Russians, was to come under Spanish 
domination. The establishment of a new mis- 
sion was determined upon. The causes which 
impelled this movement northward will seem 
.strange to the readers of the present generation. 
In the language of Bancroft, " In 1822 at a con- 
ference between Canon Fernandez, Prefect Pay- 
eras, and Governor Arguello, it had been 
decided to transfer the mission of San Francisco 
from the peninsula to the ' northeastern contra 
'■osta on the gentile frontier,' a decision based 
on the comparative sterility of the old site, the 
insalubrity of the peninsula climate, the broad- 
ness of tlie field for conversion in the north, the 
success of the experimental founding of tlie San 
liafael branch, and not improbably a desire on 
the part of two of the three dignitaries to throw 
tlie few fertile ranchos south of San Francisco 
into the hands of settlers. The matter next 
came up just before tlie death of Payeras, who 
seems to have had nothing more to say about it. 
March 23, 1823, Padre Jose Altimira, very 
likely at Arguello's instigation, presented to the 
de]>utacion a memorial in which he recom- 
mended the transfer, he being a party naturally 
interested as one of the ministers of San Fran- 
cisco. On April 9th, the deputacion voted in 
favor of the change. It was decreed that the 
assistencia of San liafael should be joined again 
to San Francisco, and transferred with it, and 
the suggestion made that the country of the 
Petalumas or of the Canicaimos, should be the 
new site. The suppression of Santa Cruz was 
also recommended. The Governor sent these 

resolutions to Mexico next day, and Altimira 
forwarded copies to the new prefect, Scnaii,un 
April 30th, but received no response. 

" An exploration was next in order, for the 
countiy between the Suisunes and Petalumas 
was as yet only little known, some parts of it 
having never been visited by the Spaniards. 
With this object in. view, Altimira and the 
disputado, Fi'ancisco Castro, with an escort of 
nineteen men under Alferez Jose Sanchez, em- 
barked at San Francisco on the 25th of dune, 
and spent the night at San Rafael. l!oth San- 
chez and Altimira kept a diary of the trip in 
nearly the same words. * * * The explor- 
ers went by way of Olompali to the Petal unia, 
Sonoma, Napa, and Suisun valleys in succes- 
sion, making a somewhat close examination of 
each. Sonoma was found to be best adapted for 
mission purposes by reason of its climate, loca- 
tion, abundance of wood and stone, including 
limestone as w^as thought, and above all for its 
innumerable and most excellent springs and 
streams. The plain of the Petaluma, broad and 
fertile, lacked water; that of tlie Suisunes was 
liable, more or less, to the same objection, and 
was also deemed too far from the old San Fran ■ 
cisco; but Sonoma, as a mission site, with 
eventually branch establishments, or at least 
cattle-ranchos at Petaluma and Napa, seemed to 
the three representatives of civil, military, and 
Francisian power to offer every advantage. 
Accordingly on July ith, a cross was blessed 
and set up on the site of a former gentile ran- 
cherai, now formally named New San Francisco. 
A volley of musketry was tired, sex'eral songs 
were sung, and holy mass was said. July ith 
might, therefore, with greater propriety than 
any other date be celebrated as the anniversary 
of the foundation, though the place was for a 
little time abandoned, and on the sixth all were 
back at Old San Francisco." 

We cannot give the reader a more correct 
idea of this tirst exploration of the southern end 
of Sonoma County than is given in the language 
of Padre Altimira's diary, which is epitomized 
as follows in Alley, liowen it Co.'s History of 


Souoiiiii County: '• The I'adre and his party left 
San Rafael, where a mission had been already 
founded, on the 25th of June. 1823, and during 
the day passed the position now occupied by 
the city of Petaluma, then called by the Span- 
iards, ' Pnnta de los Esteros,' and known to the 
Indians as ' Chocuale,' that night encamping 
on the 'Arroyo Lema," where the large adobe on 
the Petaluma Rancho was afterward constructed 
by General Vallejo. 

''Here a day's halt would appear to have 
been called, in order to take a glance at the 
beautiful country and devise jneans of further 
progress. On the 27th they reached the famous 

• Laguna de Tolly,' now, alas, nothing but a 
place, it having fallen into the hands of a Ger- 
man gentleman of marked utilitarian principles, 
who has drained and reclaimed it, and planted 
it with potatoes. Here the expedition took a 
northeasterly route, and entering the Sonoma 
Valley, which Father Altimira states was then 
so called by former Indian residents; the party 
encamped on the arroyo of ' Pulpula,' where J. 
A. Poppe, a merchant of Sonoma, has a large 
tish-breediug establishment, stocked with carp 
brought from Rhinefelt, in Germany, in 1871. 
The holy father's narrative of tiie beauties of 
Sonoma Valley, as seen by the new-comers, are 
so graphically portrayed by himself that we 
cannot refrain from quoting his own words: 

• At about 3 1'. M.,' (June 28, 1823,) ' leaving 
our camp and our boat on the slough near l)y, 
we started to explore, directing our course north- 
westward across the plain of Sonoma, until we 
reached a stream (Sonoma Creek) of aljout five 
hundred plumas of water, crystalline and most 
pleasing to the taste, flowing through a grove 
of beautiful and useful trees. The stream flows 
from some hills which enclose the plain, and 
terminate it on the north. We went on, pene- 
trating a broad grove of oaks; the trees were 
lofty and robust, aft'ordiug an external source of 
utility, both for firewood and carriage nmterial. 
This forest was about three leagues long from 
east to west, and a league and a half wide from 
north to south. The plain is watered by another 

arroyo still more copious and pleasant than the 
former, flowing from west to east, but traveling 
northward from the center of the plain. We 
explored this evening as far as the daylight 
permitted. The permanent springs, according 
to the statement of those who have seen -them 
in the extreme dry season, are almost innumer- 
able. No one can doubt the benignity of the 
Sonoma climate after noting the plants, the 
lofty and shady trees — alders, poplars, ash, 
laurel, and others — and especially the abundance 
and luxuriance of the wild grapes. We ^ib- 
served, also, that the launch ma}^ come up tlic 
creek to where a settlement can be founded, 
truly a most convenient circumstance. AVe saw 
from these and other facts that Sonoma is a 
most desirable site for a mission.' 

" Let us here note who are now located on 
the places brought pi-ominently forward by 
Padre Altimira. The hills which inclose the 
valley and ont of whose bosom the Sonoma 
Creek springs, is now occupied by the residence 
and vineyard of Mr. Edwards. The forest men- 
tioned covered the present site of the Leaven- 
worth vineyards, the Hayes' estate, and the 
farms of Wrutten, Carriger, Harrison, Craig. 
Herman, Wohler, Hill, Stewart, Wartield, 
Krous ct Williams, La Alotte, Hood, Kohler, 
Morris, and others. The second stream men- 
tioned as flowing northward from the center of 
the plains, is the ' Olema,' or flour-mill stream, 
on which Colonel -George F. Hooper resides, 
while the locality in which he states are innum- 
erable springs, is the tract of country where 
now are located the hacienda of Lachryma 
Montis, the residence of General M. G. Vallejo 
and the dwellings and vineyards of llaraszthy, 
Gillen, Tichner, Dressel, Winchel, Gundlach, 
Rnbus, Snyder, Nathanson, and the ground of 
the Buena Vista Vinicultural Society. The 
head of navigation noted is the place since 
called St. Louis, but usually known as the Em- 

Of this first exploration of the country round 
about Petaluma and Sonoma, every incident 
will be of interest to the reader. In Padre 


Altiinira's diarj, note is inaile of the killing of 1 
a bear on the Petaluina flat. Mention is also 
made that their first night's camp (probal)ly 
near where the old Vallejo adoba now stands.) 
was with eight or ten Petalumas ^Indian?) 
hiding there from their enemies, the Libantilo- 
queini, Indians of Santa Ivosa Valley. As 
alread}- stated, the exploration extended as far 
east as Suisun Valley, and .Mtiniira mentions | 
tliat uu the 30th of June they killed ten bears. 
(_)n returning they gave the Sonoma Valley a | 
more complete examination and crossed the | 
mountains back into the upper end of Petaluraa 
Valley and back to where they camped the first 
uight. From there they seem to have taken a : 
pretty direct route back to Sonoma, probably' 
about the route of the old road leading from 
Petaluma to Sonoma. This was on the 3d of 
July, and the next day the mission location 
was formally established at Sonoma. 

The prelate upon whose decision the Alti- 
mira enterprise depended for a full fruition had 
not yet been heard from. Altimira represented 
to him, and with a great deal of apparent truth, 
that " San Francisco was on its last legs, and 
that San Rafael could not subsist alone." But 
the desired sanction from the prelate had not 
yet come, (governor Arguello seemed impa- 
tient of delay and ordered Altimira to proceed 
with the work of founding the new mission, an 
order that Padre Altimira seemed to be only 
too ready to obey, for he seemed to have been a 
Hery, impetuous mortal, with more zeal than 
pi-udence. On the 12th of August he took 
possession of the effects of the San Rafael mis- 
sion by inventory, and by the 2;3d he was on his 
way to Xew San Francisco with an escort of 
twelve men, and an artilleryman to manage a 
cannon of two pound caliber. He was also 
accompanied by (juite a force of neophytes as 
laborers. By the 25th all hands were on the 
ground and the work i)f planting a mission cou)- 
menced. At the end of a week tlie work had 
so far progressed that it coidd be said of a surety 
that Sonoma Valley had passed under the do- 
minion of civilized man. But Altimira was 

destined to have his Christian forbearance 
tested. The jirelate refused to sanction the 
wiping out of the San Rafael mission. While 
he did not express a decided opinion on the 
propriety of the removal of the San Francisco 
mission, he expressed amazement at the hasty 
and unauthorized manner in which the deputa- 
cion had acted in the premises. On the 31st of 
August this decision reached the Padre at New 
San Francisco, and for the time put an end to 
his operations. That this interruption did not 
put Altimira in a very prayerful frame of mind 
is evidenced by the vinegar and gall apparent in 
his epistolatory record in connection with the 
subject. In a letter to Governor Arguello in 
reference to the prelate's decision, Altimira 
says: " I wish to know whether the deputacion 
has any authority in this ])rovince, and if these 
men can overthrow j'our honor's wise provis- 
ions. I came here to convert gentiles and 
to establish missions, and if I cannot do it here, 
where as we all agree is the best spot in Cali- 
fornia for the purpose, I will leave the country." 
As a plain missionary proposition Padre Alti- 
mira was right; but as an ecclesiastical fact he 
was restive under a harness of his own choos- 
ing, and was wrong. Sarriawas then president 
of the California missions. The seijuel to the 
prelate's decision is thus recited by Bancroft: 
"A correspondence followed between Sarria and 
Arguello, in which the former with many ex- 
pressions of respect for the governor and the 
secular government not unmixed with personal 
flattery of Arguello, justitied in a long argu- 
ment the position he had assumed. The (gov- 
ernor did not reply in detail to Sarria'o 
arguments, since it did not in his view matter 
much what this or that prelect had or had not 
approved, but took tiie ground that the deputa- 
cion was empowered to act for the public good 
in all such urgent matters as that under con- 
sideration, and that its decrees must be carried 
out. During tifty years the friars had made 
no progress in the conversion of northern gen- 
tries or occupation of northern territory: and 
now the secular authorities proposed to take 



cliarge ut' the coiu^uest in tlie temporal aspect 
at least. The new establishment would be sus- 
ta ned with its escolta under a inajordomo, and 
the prelate's refusal to authorize Altimira to 
care for its spiritual needs would be reported to 
the authorities in Mexico. 

" Yet, positive as was the Governor's tone in 
general, he declared that he would not insist on 
the suppression of San Rafael; and, though 
some of the correspondence has doulitless been 
lost, he seems to have consented readily enough 
to a compromise suggested by the prefect, and 
said by him to have been more or less fully ap- 
proved by Altimira. By the terms of this 
compromise new San Francisco was to remain 
as a mission in regular standing, and Padre 
Altimira was appointed its regular minister, 
subject to the decision of the college; T)ut 
neither old San Francisco nor San Rafael was 
to be suppressed, and Altimira was to be still 
associate minister of the former. Neophytes 
might go Voluntarily from old San Francisco to 
the new establishment, and also from San Jose 
and San Rafael, jirovided they came originally 
from the Sonoma region, and provided also that 
in the case of San Rafael they might return if 
they wished at any time within a year. New 
converts might come in from any direction to 
the mission they preferred, but no force was to 
be used." 

Under these conditions and restrictions the 
tiery Altimira entered upon the task of Chris- 
tianizing Sonoma County heathen. While he 
did not let pass an opportunity to enveigli 
against the perverse and narrow-gauge methods 
of the old missions, he seems to have entered 
with the zeal of a Paul into his missionary 
work. Pancruft, who has all the data to enable 
him to speak with absolute certainty, says: 
"Passion Sunday, April 4, 1824, the mission 
church, a somewhat rude structure 24 Ijy 105 
feet, built of boards and whitewashed, but well 
furnished and decorated in the interior, many 
articles having been presented by the Russians, 
was dedicated to San Francisco Solano, which 
from this date became the name of the mission. 

Hitherto it had been properlj' new San Fran- 
cisco, though Altimira had always dated his 
letters San Francisco simply, and referred to 
the peninsula establishment as Old San Fran- 
cisco; but this usage became inconvenient, and 
rather than honor St. F'rancis of Asisi with two 
missions it was agreed to dedicate the new one 
to San Francisco Solano, > the great apostle of 
the Indies.' It was largely from this early con- 
fusion of names, and also from the inconven- 
ience of adding Asisi and Solano to designate 
the respective Saints Francis and Solano that 
arose the popular usuage of calling the two 
missions Dolores and San Solano, the latter 
name being replaced ten years later by the 
original one of Sonoma."' 

Elsewhere we have said that right here in 
Sonoma County the Catholic and the Greek 
i Cross met, and it but lends luster to the pages 
of history to record that though coming by 
different roads they met in friendship; for, with 
deft hands, the communicants of the Greek 
church at Ross shaped gifts for ornamentation 
and decoration of the Catholic mission of So- 
; noma. Altimira remained in charge at Sonoma 
I until 1826 when he was superseded by Buena- 
ventura Fortuni. Altimira had displayed con- 
siderable energy in his iield of labor, for at 
Sonoma he had constructed a padre's house, 
granary and seven houses for the guard, besides 
the chapel, all of wood. Before the year 1824 
closed there had been constructed a large 
adobe 30 by 120 feet, seven feet high, with 
tiled roof and corridor, and a couple of other 
structures of adobe had been constructed ready 
to roof, when the excessive rains of that season 
set in and ruined the walls. A loom was set 
up and weaving was in operation. Quite an 
orchard of fruit trees was planted and a vine- 
yard of 3,000 vines was set out. Bancroft says: 
" Between 1824 and 1830 cattle increased from 
1,100 to 2,000; horses from 400 to 725; and 
sheep remained at 4,000, though as few as 1,500 
in 1826. Crops amounted to 1,875 bushels per 
year on an average, the largest yield being 
3,945 in 1826, and the smallest 510 in 182'^, 


when wlieat ami barley failed completely. At 
tlio end of 1824 the mission had 693 neophytes, 
of whom 322 had come from San Francisco, 
153 from San Jose, 02 from San Rafael, and 9() 
had been baptized on the spot. By 1830, (ioO 
had l)een baptized and 375 buried; but the 
number of neophytes had increased only to 
760, leaving a margin of over 100 for runaways, 
even on the supposition that all from San 
Rafael retired the first year to their old home. 
Notwithstanding the advantages of the site 
and Altimira's enthusiasm the mission at 

Sonoma was not prosperous during its short 

Thus far we have followed the foi-tunesof the 
cliurch in its missionary work on tins side of 
the bay. AVhile it was not as fruitful of results 
as the church probably expected, it at least 
paved the way for secular occupation. As it 
had been in the south, so too in the north an at- 
tempt at colonization was sure to follow in 
the paths made easy by the pluck and persever- 
ance of the padres. We again turn to Ross 
and ti'ace Russian occupation to a conclusion. 



^^ tig^miMjB^g^-. _. 








— iNVE.NTtiHv <iK THEiK i'i;oi'i;i;r V — IN 1841 THE RrssLws SELL Til Cai'taix JdHX A. Sit- 



^'S§(4A1N \vt3 turn to tliat busy bee-liive ot 
,-;xai indiistrv, the Muscovite settlement at Fort 
■^s^ Ross. We have somewhat in advance ^>f 
1880 shown what had been accomplished by 
tliat colony. The time had now come wlien its 
futuru u.vistence had to be determined. There 
was no motive for tiie Russians to hold an. occu- 
pancy limited by Rodetfa Bay on the south and 
the Gualala River on the north. At best, 
tiiere was but a narrow bench of seaboard avail- 
able for either farming or orazing purposes. 
True, there was a wealth of forest back of this 
mesa, but thev had already learned that this 
timber was not durable as material for ship- 
building. They had pretty well e\liauste<l the 
sujiply of timber from which pine jjitch ('(Uild 
be manufactured. Tan bark for the carrying 
on of their tanneries was their most promising 
continuing supply for the future. The agents 
of the Alaska Fur Company had already signi- 
fied to the California authorities a willingness 

to vacate Fort Ross upon payment for improve- 
ments. Through the intricate evolutions of red 
tape this was transmitted to the viceory of 
Mexico, and as that functionary took it as an 
evidence that tlie Russian colony at Ross was 
on its last legs, refusal was made on the ground 
that the Russians, having made improvements 
on ypanish territory, with material acquired 
from Spanish soil, they ought not to e.xpect 
payment for the same. While this is not the 
language, it is the spirit of the view the viceroy 
took of the subject. As a legal proposition 
this was doubtless true, but as a matter of fact, 
at any time after 1825 the superintendent at 
Ross had at his command sufMcieut of the arma- 
ment and munitions of war to have marched 
from Ross to San Diego without let or hin- 
drance, so far as the viceroy of Mexico was 
concerned. These Dons and Hidalgos seemed, 
however, to consider their rubrics to be more 
powerful than swords or cannon. As their 



overtures for sale had been thus summarily dis- 
posed of, the cold, impassive Muscovites pursued 
the eveu tenor of their way, and as the lauds 
around Fort Ross became exhausted by continu- 
ous farming they extended their farming opera- 
tions southward between tlie Russian River and 
Bodega Bay, and ultimately inland to the neigh- 
borhood of the present village of Bodega Corners. 
At the latter i)lace there were sevei-al Russian 
graves, in the midst of which there stood a 
(xreek cross, long after the Americans came into 
occupancy. The earliest American settlers in 
that neighborhood aver that the Russians had a 
grist-mill some two or three miles eastei'ly from 
Bodega Corners. Certain it is that the author- 
ities at San P'rancisco had notification that the 
Russians contemplated occupation for farming 
purposes as far inland as the present site of 
Santa Rosa. These rumors, whether true or 
not, doubtless accelerated the movement of 
Spanish colonization in that direction. 

Governor Wrangeli, now having control in 
Alaska, seems to have taken an intelligent view 
of the whole situation, and realized that unless 
the company, of which he was head representa- 
tive, could obtain undisputed possession of all 
the territory north of the Bay of San Francisco 
and eastward to the Sacramento, it was useless 
to attempt a continuance at Ross. To achieve 
this end the Alaska Company was willing to buy 
the establishments already at San RafViel and 
Sonoma. The fact that the California authori- 
ties submitted these 2")ropositions to the Mexican 
government, now free from the yoke of Spanish 
rule, would indicate that by them such a propo- 
sition was not considered in the light of a 
heinous offense. Alvarado was then at the 
head of the California government and no doubt 
lie looked with great distrust, if not alarm, 
upon the number of Americans who were be- 
ginning to find their way into California. But 
General Vallejo, who was now almost autocrat 
on the north side of the Bay of San Francisco, 
was not, probably, so averse to Americans, as he 
had already three brothers-in-law of Yardvce 
bluciil. Through these kinsmen, who were all 

gentlemen of good intelligence and education, 
A^allejo had become well informed in reference 
to the push and energy of the xVmerican people, 
and hence it is quite certain that he did not 
favor any permanent occupancy here by any 
European power. In truth, while the California 
government had confined itself to wordy pen 
remonstrances with the occupants of Ross, in 
1840 A'allejo seems to have made quite a show 
of calling Rotclief, the then sujieriutendent at 
Ross, to accountability for having allowed the 
American ship Lausanne to land and discharge 
passengers at Bodega as though it were a tree 
port. Some of these passengers, who went to 
Sonoma, were incarcerated by the irate Vallejo, 
and he even sent a file of soldiers to Bodega to 
give warning that such infractions would lead 
to .serious consequences if persisted in. This 
was the nearest to an open rupture of amicable 
relations that ever occurred between Spaniard and 
Muscovite on this coast that we find any record 
of, and this could not have been of a very san- 
guinary nature, for it seems that Vallejo and 
Rotchef were on social good terms afterward. 
The proposed accjuisition of territory by 
Governor Wrangeli met with no encouragement 
from the Mexican Government, in reference 
to this matter Bancroft says: "The intention of 
tiie Russians to abandon Ross and their wish to 
sell their property there, had, as we have seen, 
been announced to Alvarado, and by him to the 
Mexican government, before the end of 18-10. 
In January 1841, Vallejo, in reporting to the 
minister of war his controversy with Rotchef 
and Krupicurof, mentioned the prop(jsed aban- 
donment, taking more credit to himself than the 
facts could justify, as a result of that contro 
versy. The Russians had consulted him as to 
their power to sell the buildings as well as live- 
stock to a private person, and he had been told 
that 'the nation had the first right,' and would 
have to be consulted. The fear that impelled 
him at that time to answer thus cautiously was 
that some foreigners from tiie Columbia or else- 
where might outbid any citizen of California, 
and thus i-aise a question of sovereignty, which 



might prove ti-unlilesoirie in the future to Mexi- 
can interests. \'allej\i also urged tlie govern- 
ment to lurnisli a garrison, and authorize the 
jilantino- of a eolony at the abandoned post. In 
I'el/ruarVi Imwever, Kostromitiiiot', representing 
tlie company, proposed to sell the property to 
Vallejo himself lor !S30,000, payable half in 
money or ijills of the Hudson Bay Company, 
and lialf in produce delivered at Yei'ba Bueiia. 
The (xeneral e.xpressed a willingness to make tlie 
]iurchase, but could not pi'omise a definite deci- 
sion on the subject before July or August. 
I'emling the decision, the Russian agent seems 
to liave entered, perhaps secretly, into negotia- 
tions with Joliii A. Sutter, who at that time was 
not disposed to buy anything but moveable 
property. Meanwhile a reply came from 
Mexico, tiiough by no means a satisfactory one; 
since the government — evidently with some kind 
of an idea tliat the Russian officials had been 
frightened away, leaving a flourishing settle- 
ment to be taken possession of by the Califor- 
uians — simply sent useless instructions about tiie 
details of occupation and form of government 
to be established. In July Kostromitinof re- 
turned from Sitka, and negotiations were recom- 
mended. Alvarado was urged to come to 
Sonoma, but declined; thongh he advised 
Vallejo that in the absence of instructions from 
Mexico the Russians had no right to dispose of 
the real estate. An elaborate inventory of the 
property offered for sale at $30,000 was made 
out, but Vallejo's best offer seems to have been 
$9,000 for the live stock alone." 

In a foot note Bancroft gives the inventory of 
property offered for sale whicli is as follows: 
'• St^uare fort of logs, 1088 feet in circumfer- 
ence, twelve feet high, with two towers; com- 
mandant's house of logs (old), 36x48 feet double 
boarde<l roof, six rooms with corrider and 
kitchen; ditto (^new) of logs, 24x48 feet, six 
rooms and corridor; house for revenue officers, 
22x60 feet, ten rooms; barracks, 24x66 feet, 
eight rooms; three warehouses; new kitchen; 
jail; chapel, 24x36 feet, with a belfry, and 
a well fifteen feet deep. Outside of the 

I fort: blacksmith shop, tannery, liath-house, 
cooper's shoji, bakeiy, carpenter's shop, two 
windmills for grinding, one mill moved by 
animals, three threshing floors, a well, a stable, 
sheep-cote, hog-pen, dairy house, two cow 
stables, corral, ten sheds, eight baths, ten 
kitchens, and twenty-four houses, nearly every 
one having an orchard. At Kostromitinof 
rancho, house, farm buildings, corral, and boat 
for crossing the river Slaviauka. At Khlebnikof 
rancho, adobe house, farm buildings, bath, mill, 
cori'al. At Tschernich, or Don Jorge's rancho, 
house, sto e, fences, etc. At Bodega, warehouse 
30x60 feet, three small houses, bath, ovens, 
corrals. As this list of improvements was 
made out by Russian hands it may be accepted 
as a true statement of the conditions at and in 
the neighborhood of Ross in the last year of 
Russian occupation there. The only omission 
of consequence seems to have been the orchard 
some distance i)ack of the fort, on the hillside, 
and a vineyard of 2000 vines at what is desig- 
nated " Don Jorge's rancho." In reference to 
this rancho, Belcher in his notes of travel in 
1837, mentioned a i-ancho between Ross and 
Bodega claimed by a ci-devant Englishman (D. 
Gorgy), yielding 3,000 bushels of grain in good 

Governor Alvora as well as Vallejo evidently 
thought that they had Kostromitinof in a corner 
so far as his ability to sell the Ross property 
was concerned, and their only real concern was 
lest he would make a bonfire of the buildings 
rather than leave them for Mexican occupation. 
But in this they were mistaken, for a purchaser 
was found in Captain John A. Sutter. In refer- 
ence to the sale thus consummated Bancroft says: 
" Sutter, like Vallejo, had at first wished to pur- 
chase the live-stock only; but he would perhaps 
have bought anything at any price if it could 
be obtained on credit; at any rate, after a brief 
hesitation a bargain was made in Septeml)er. 
Tiie formal contract was signed by Kostromi- 
tinof and Sutter in the office of the sub-prefect 
at San Francisco, with Vioget and Leese as 
witnesses, December 13. By its terms Sutter 



was put ill possession of all the property at 
Ross and Bodega, except the land, as specified 
in the inventory, and he was to pay for it in 
four yearly installments, beginning September 
1, 1842. The first and second payments were 
to be !?i5,000 each, and the others of $10,000; 
the first three were to be in produce, cliiefiy 
wheat, delivered at San Francisco free of duties 
and tonnage; and the fourth was to lie in money. 
The establishment at New Helvetia and the 
property at Bodega and the two ranchos of 
Khlebnikof and Tschernich, which property was 
to be left intact in possession of the company's 
agents were pledged as guarantees for the pay- 
ment. It would seem that Alvarado, while 
insisting that the land did not belong to the 
company and could not be sold, had yielded his 
point about the buildings, perhaps in the belief 
tiiat no purchaser could be found ; for the Kus- 
sians say that the contract was approved by the 
California government, and it is certain that 
there was no official disapproval of its terms." 
It will be borne in mind that Kostroinitinof, 
who executed this contract with Captain Sut- 
ter, was the head officer of the Alaska govern- 
ment while, at the time, Liotchef was manager 
at Ross. When it came to a delivery of the 
property Sutter seems to have induced Mana- 
ger Rotchef to give him a writing ante-dating 
the contract above referred to one day, in which 
Rotchef certified that the lands held by the 
company for twenty-nine years was inchuled in 
the sale to M. Le Capitaine Sutter of the other 
effects of the comj^any for the sum of §30,000. 
It was upon the shadowy title to land thus ac- 
quired by certificate of a subordinate officer 
who haiVno jiowcr to confirm any such sale, that 
Ilussian title to land along the coast became a 
stalking spectacle among American settlers in 
after years. 

Previous to this sale of the lioss and Uodega 
j)r()perty to Sutter, a portion of the former oc- 
cupants there had Ijeen transferred to Alaska 
stations. Manager liotchef, together with the 
remaining emjdoyes of the company, took 
their departuie from Ross in the late days of 

1841 or early in January of 1842, on board the 
Constantine, bound for Alaska. While all of 
them, doubtless, had cherished associations and 
memories of the land to which they returned, 
we imagine that it was not without sore and 
sad hearts many of them watched the receding 
outlines of Fort Ross and the evergreen forests 
that forms its enchanting back-ground. Thus, 
in a day, where for near!}' a third of a century 
had been heard the ringing of hammer and 
anvil; the noisy labor of ship-carpenters and 
calkers and the din of coopers, a sudden silence 
fell, seemingly like that which hovered over 
that quiet spot just south of the fort where a 
(xreek cross marked the last resting place of 
those who had ended their life-work there. 
Even the stock that had been reared there were 
gathered together and driven to the Sacramento 
valley ranch of C!aptain Sutter. And as if the 
hand of fate had turned entirely against Ross, 
Sutter, by means of a schooner he had acquired 
in the purchase from the Russians, even carried 
away from Ross several buildings with which 
to adorn the inner court of his fort at New- 
Helvetia. This will account for the absence at 
Ross of many buildings enumerated in the cat- 
alogue at the time of sale by the Russians. As 
Fort Ross occupies a first prominence in the 
history of Sonoma Comity it will not be out of 
place to follow its history to its end in this 

In reference to the departure of the Rus- 
sians from Fort Ross, Bancroft says: '-One 
Russian, and perhaps several, remained on the 
ranches to look out for the company's interests. 
Sutter sent Robert Ridley to assume charge for 
him at first; but John J-iidwell took his place 
early in 1842, and was in turn succeeded iiy 
William Bennitz late in 1843. Meanwhile 
most of the moveable property, including the 
cannon, implements, and most of the cattle, was 
removed to New Helvetia. Tiie few hundred 
cattle left behind soon l)ecame so wild that if 
meat was needed it was easier to catch a deer 
or bear. The Californians made no effort to 
occupy the abandoned fortress; since having 



virtually consented to tlie sale of everytliing 
l)Ut the land, the govern nient liail iio pi'ojicrty 
tu he jiTdtected there." 

As already stated William llennitz took jios- 
session uf the Ross propei-ty as Gutter's agent 
ill 1843. He subsequently leased the property, 
ill about 1845, and still later purchased the 
Imildings and fort and became possessor of the 
Miiniz or Fort Ross grant e.xtending along tiie 
coast from the Russian River northward to a 
iioiiit just above tiie present Timber Cove. 
Mr. liennitz, with liis family, lived at i'"ort Ross 
until 1807, when he sold the property and re- 
moved tci ()akland. In 1874 he went to the 
Argentine Repuliiic, and died there in 187('). 

The writer visited Fort Ross twenty-seven 
years ago, when the palisade walls of the en- 
closure were still in good preservation, as also 
the buildings within, together with the (ireek 
ehapel and hectagonal block-houses described 
above by Duliant Cilly. As even then the 
country from Bodega to the Guaiala River was 
comparatively unsettled by Americans, we will 
liere introduce our description of the trip as it 
appeared under the caption of '-Editorial Jot- 
tings by the Wayside," in the Anjv-s of July 
30, 1861: 

" Leaving Petaluma in the afternoon, a few 
hours' ride brought us to Blooinfield, where we 
were greeted by numerous friends; and accepted 
the liospitality of our old friend W. B. Wood, 
of the firm of Wood it .\rthur. It is hardly 
necessary to inform our readers that this flour- 
ishing village is located in the center of Big 
Valley, and that the valley and upland sur- 
rounding is very prolific in its yield of cereals, 
' spuds,' and Republicans. A dress parade, in 
the evening, of a company of youthful zouaves, 
who marched to music extracted from a tin can, 
convinced us that the martial spirit of that vil- 
lage was thoroughly aroused, and that with such 
a home-guard Blooinfield can bid defiance to 
Davis and his emissaries. 

"At an early hour in the morning, we were 
galloping down the valley in the direction of 
Bodega Corners. On either side of the road. 

and as far as the eye could scan, was one unin- 
terrupted vista of grain fields, in every stage of 
harvesting, from the gavels that were drop]iing 
from the reapers that were clattering on every 
hand, up to the shock in the field or the new 
made stack in the barnyartl. Bodega Corners 
is on the Smith grant, and consists of a iiotel, 
two stores, a Catholic church, blacksmith shop, 
etc. After passing the Corners we were with- 
out chart or compass, having entered upon a 
region by us une.xplored. For several miles our 
course lay along Salmon Creek, the road in 
many places being arched over by the tangled 
wildvvood through which it was cut; then taking 
a bridle trail leading over a mountain that over- 
looked the deep blue ocean, we followed its zig- 
zag windings to the month of the Russian 
River. Here we performed a feat only second 
to that of Moses and his followers crossing the 
Red Sea with dry sandals: the sea swell iiaving 
cast up a barrier of sand across the mouth of 
the river, forming a bridge upon which we 
crossed, without our steed dipping his feet in 
water. He evidently regarded it as a dangerous 
undertaking, for every time the surf, after re- 
ceding as if to gather strength, would come 
rolling up hissing and seething, narrowing the 
space down to fifteen or twenty feet between the 
deep river on the one hand and the briny deep 
on the other, he would attempt to take the back 
track, apparently having lost all confidence in 
either our prudence or judgment. Across the 
river, our course lay along the coast; and as 
Fort Ross was twelve miles distant, without a 
liuman habitation intervening, we whiled away 
the hours by noting the ever-varying land8ca])e 
or watching tlie surf as it broke in a long line 
of white spray against the rock-bound coast; or 
anon the eye would be relieved by the appear- 
ance of a coaster, with fullrspread canvas, 
gliding over the billows with the grace of a sea 
gull. Passing over a spur of the mountain 
clothed with a heav}' forest of redwood and fir, 
we entered an opening from whence we looked 
down upon Fort Ross, on the level plain below. 
" Before proceeding further, it may not«be 


out of place to inroiiii niir reiiders tliat Fort 
Koss was tuiiiidcd soiiiu lil'ty years ago by Rus- 
sian!-, who settled at that point for the pui'pose 
of capturing sea otter; which pursuit they fol- 
lowed for perhaps twenty years. Aside from 
the fort buildings, enclosed by a higli and sub- 
stantial palisade wall over one hundred yards 
square, there was, at one period, some sixty 
dwellings; but they have crumi)leil and passed 
away. After tliey left this coast, the property 
changed hands several times; but was purchased 
by the present proprietor, Mr. Bennitz, eight- 
een years ago, and he has been in occupation 
ever since. 

''As we descended the slope toward the Fort 
we felt as if approaching a spot entitled to a 
prominent place in the antiquity of our State. 
The Greek churcli of Russian architecture that 
forms one corner of the quadrangle; the two- 
story hectagonal sentry-house of solid hewn 
tiinlier, forming the diagonal corners of the pali- 
sade, and witli loop-lioles for cannon and small 
arms; and the massive gates wliicli protect the 
front entrance; conjured up to our mind con- 
jectures of the scenes of which it was the 
theater, long, long years ago. 

'• Having a letter of introduction to Mr. 
I'ennitz, we dismounted, and the ponderous 
gate yielded to our pressure and swung back 
creaking upon its rusty liinges. All the ap- 
pointments inside were in keeping with those 
without; strength and durability predominating 
over tlie ornamental. The substantial dwelling, 
the outhouses ranged around tlie square, the 
well in the center, the four huge mastitis of the 
St. Bernard and Newfoundland l)reed that 
fondled around us as we approached the dwell- 
ing, completed a picture that came nearer our 
conception of the surroundings of some of the 
old feudal barons than anytliing we ever expe- 
rienced before. AVe presented our letter to Mr. 
Hennitz, wlio is a very intelligent German, and 
iu! at once extended to us the hospitality of iiis 
mansion. Mr. liennitz lives in a woi'ld by 
himself; iiaving a domain that extends from 
the moutli of Russian River, eighteen miles up 

the coast, and untenanted except by liis raijueros, 
who are stationed at various points to take care 
of his stock. His isolated position deprives his 
children of the advantages of a public school; 
but to atone for this lie has employed a private 
teacher, competent to impart instruction in both 
the English and (ilerman languages. 

" Refreshed by our night's sojourn at Fort Ross 
wo continued on our journey up the coast. The 
first place worthy of note above the Fort is 
Timber Cove. Here, our late fellow-townsman 
Mr. KalkitKin,is located, and in company with Mr. 
Snaple, owns a mill which is turning out aljout 
25,000 feet of lumber every twenty-four iiuurs. 
Two schooners were taking in cargoes of lumber 
for San Francisco market. The [)roprietoi-s 
have constructed a substantial railway extending 
from the mill half a mile up the canon, down 
which they bring saw-logs on a car. 

Four miles above Timber Cove we passed 
Salt Point. Duncan's mill used to be located at 
this place; but has been removed to a point two 
miles distant from the mouth of Russian River, 
in consequence of which this Point has lost 
considerable of its importance, as is manifest 
by its group of tenantless houses; but its qnarry 
of excellent stone, considerable of wliich is be- 
ing shipped to the navy yards at Mai-e Island, 
may give new vigor to the place. 

" b'our miles beyontl Salt Point we passed 
Fisk's mill. This mill cuts about S,000 feet of 
lumber daily. Its supply of timiier is inex- 
haustible; and we hope its proprietors may reap 
the rich reward wliich their enterprise merits. 

" I'y noon we had reached a distance of twen- 
ty miles above Fort Ross, and we stopped for 
refreshments at the Ranch House of Dealer, the 
claimant of the German grant. Here is a 
stretch of plain extending np and down the 
coast for ten miles, that is unsurpassed in beaiitv 
of location or fertility of soil anywhere between 
Point Reyes and I'oint Arenas. The plain 
varies from one-(|uarter to two miles in breadth, 
and with just sufficient incline from the footliills 
to the beach to afford a splendid sea view. The 
mountains borderinii; it arc er)\'ered with a 



perfect wildt-riiess of forest, of incalculable 

"Ten miles more had to be traversed up the 
coast before we turned our face homeward; and 
Chris. Stingle, of the Hauch House, volunteered 
to act as our guide and companion. AVe were 
soon dashing pellniell over the plain up the 
coast; Chris, in the meantime entertaining us 
by relating hunting adventures and pointing out 
spots where he liad killed elk, bear, or other 
game of lesserconsequence. Five miles brought 
us to the crossing of the Gualala Kiver, where 
we entered Mendocino County. Here the 
mountains closed in upon the beach, and timber 
stood so close upon the brink that if uprooted 
it would fall in the surf lielow. Up to this 
point we had found the roads and trails reasona- 
bly good, but those five miles from the Gualala 
to Fish Rock were the concentrated essence of 
break-neck roads. Deep gorge after gorge lay 
athwart our way, and in many places a false step 
would have precipitated both horse and rider 
down to certain destruction. Before reaching 
this point we had been so indiscreet as to inform 
our companion that we had had considerable 
equestrian experience, and as he took the lead 
and did not dismount, a sense of honor prompted 
us to remain in the saddle even at the risk of 
our neck. 

"At Fish Rock there is a mill in process of 
erection, in which will be placed the machinery 
formerly used in the Perkins mill, Bodega. 
This is a good location, thei-e being an inex- 
haustible supply of good timber and a secure 
harbor for vessels to lay while receiving cargoes 
of lumber. 

" We returned to the Ranch House that night, 
and as tired as we were, we did ample justice to 
the bachelor fare of Chris, and his two com- 
panions. In the morning we were in saddle 
bright and earl}', and accompanied by our com- 
panion of the previous day, who accompanied 
us several miles on our return, started on our 
way down the coast. We had rode about two 
miles when the practiced eye of Chris, spied 
a grey fox between us and the beach. It allowed 

us to approach within forty paces, when a shot 
from our revolver warned it to seek safety in the 
chapjjarel on the foot-hills half a mile distant. 
The chase across the level plain was spirited 
.and exciting, our horses seeming to enjoy the 
sport, strained every nerve to overhaul his fox- 
ship, and succeeded several times in doing so 
and attempted to jump upon him, but with the 
cunning, characteristic of his tribe, by tacking 
and doubling he finally outgeneraled us and 
reached cover. So ended our fox chase. A few 
miles further un we parted with our companion 
and continued on our course down the coast 
alone. At night-fall we were again welcomed 
to the hospitality of the Fort Ross mansion. 
The next day being the Sabbath, the rest for 
which it was set apart was needed by both our- 
self and our jaded horses, but as circumstances 
rendered our immediate return necessary, we bade 
our host and his excellent lady good-by at eight 
o'clock in the morning and at eight o'clock in 
the evening arrived in Petaluma, having rode 
forty-five miles mostly over a very mountainous 

At the time of our visit to Fort Ross above 
described, Mr. Bennitz related to us many thrill- 
ing adventures in connection with his residence 
there. Some years later we wrote a series of 
California sketches entitled "Wayside Memo- 
ries" and one of the sketches under the caption 
of " A Random Shot"' was a recital of an occur- 
rence near Fort Ross, as related to us by Bennitz. 
We reproduce it here: 

"Said Mr. Bennitz: 'At the time 1 purchased 
the Fort Ross property there were around and 
in the neighborhood of the Fort a large num- 
ber of Indians. Voluntarily they have become 
almost a part of the estate and as obedient to 
my orders as if mind, soul and body. I then 
raised a large amount of grain, and had thou- 
sands oi' head of cattle, which gave me ample 
opportunity to utilize the labor of these untu- 
tored aborigines. As my influence over them 
mainly depended on the kindness and considera- 
tion with which they were treated, I let no 
opportunity pass to give them evidence of my 


regard Inr tlifir plunMiiu and welfare. They, 
like all Indians 1 know ul', were passionately 
fund of personal decoration, and for ornamenta- 
tion prized nothini;- more higlily than the plu- 
mage of birds. Ono tlay my Indians wei-e noticing 
some vultures, or ('alifornia condors, on the 
pine trees some distance up the mountain side 
back of the Fort, and 1 overheard them express- 
ing a wisii that they had some of the feathers. 

"■Saying nothing I quietly took my gun and 
sallied forth, determined if possibe to gratify 
their desire. i>y tackino; backward and forward 
along the mountain side I gradually worked my 
way up to the trees where the vultures were. 
The heavy foliage of the pines prevented my 
getting a ready view of the game I was seeking. 
With my gun cocked and the muzzle pointing up 
I was moving cpiietly side- wise with eyes peer- 
ing into the canopy of l)oughs, when I was 
startled by tlie breaking of a stick close to my 

" ' (_)ne look was enough to set every hair of 
my head on end I Not much over the length of 
my gun from me stood, erect on its hind feet, a 
grizzly bear of monster size — at the time he 
seemed to me ten feet high! By impulse, I 
wheeled, brought my gun to a level, and with- 
out any attempt at taking aim, fired. The bear 
pitched forward upon me and we fell together — 
my gun flying out of ray hands, and some dis- 
tance away. I was frightened beyond the power 
of language to express. The bear and I had 
fallen together, but I had given myself a rolling 
lurch down the mountain which, for the moment, 
took rae out of the reach of his dreaded jaws. 
This advantage w;is not to be lost; and 1 kept 
going over and over without any regard to 
elegance of posture, until I had got at least two 
hundred yards from where 1 fi'll; and when I 
stopped rolling it was a problem with me which 
I was most, dead or alive. 

'"1 ventured upon my feet and looked cauti(jus- 
ly around, but could see no grizzly. To borrow a 
miner'sexpression, 'I began prospecting around.' 
I had an earnest desire to get hold of my gun, 
but a dislike to the neigjliborhood in which we 

had parted company. With the utmost caution 
I woi'ked my way up to a position overlooking 
the s|)ot where 1 and the grizzly together fell. 
To my surpiise, and gratification as well, there 
lay the bear stretched at full length, and dead. 
My random shot had proved what seldom occurs 
to grizzly bears, a dead shot. That,' said Mr. 
Bennitz, knocking the ashes out of an elegant 
meerschaum, 'was the biggest scare of my 
life.' ■• 

AVhile we have carried our chapter descrip- 
tive of Ross beyond the limits of Russian occu- 
pation we feel warranted, on account of its 
historic surroundings, in tracing its history to a 
conclusion in this chapter. As already stated, 
William Eennitz sold the Ross property in 1867, 
Charles Fairfax and a man named Dixon being 
the purchasers. They managed the property 
for a few years, when Fairfax died. In winding 
up the estate and business of the firm it became 
necessary to sell the property. J. W. Call be- 
came the purchaser of the upper and much the 
larger proportion of the ranch, on which stands 
the old Fort Ross buildings; and of the south- 
erly end Aaron Schroyer bought a large 'tract. 
These gentlemen are practical in their ideas of 
business and the property is now so handled as 
to yield a profit. After a lapse of twenty-seven 
years we visited Ross in October, 1888. We 
found a great change from conditions as thev 
were when Dennitz lived there. Through the 
very center of the grounds once enclosed Iiy a 
heavy stockade, now a county road runs. The 
Bennitz residence is converted into a public 
hotel, and a building once used as quarters for 
Russian officers is now a saloon. In an outside 
building is a store and postotficc. The towers 
in what was the diagonal corners of the fortress 
are now roofless, and, in consequence? of the 
worm-eaten condition of the K>gs are canting 
over, and it is only a (picstion of time when 
they will topple to the ground. The (ireek 
chapel yet stands erect with roof and belfry in 
fair preservation; but is no longei- used for holy 
purposes. Even the Russian cemetery to the 
south of the fort, that was quite plainly visible 

uiarour of ho^^/oma vounty. 

twenty-seven years ago is now nearly obliter- 
ated. Accompanied by Mr. Call we visited the 
old liiissian orchard half a mile back from the 
fort. Tiie fence made of heavy split boards by 
the liussians is still in fair preservation. We 
entered and plucked Spanish bellflower apples 
from trees planted by the Russians, back of 
1820. -The twenty or thirty apple, plum and 
prune trees yet standing are moss-covered and 
their bark honey-combed by the busy bills of 
birds. AVe went back still further and took a 
walk through the redwood forest of new growth 
that has sprung up from stumps of trees first 
cut by the liussians when tiiey settled at lloss. 
><'ot over half a dozen of the old redwood forest 
trees are standing in the grove, and but for 
the fact that the stumps are there yet from 

whicli the present forest sprang, we should not 
have recognized it as a forest growth of the 
present century. The trees have made mai'vel- 
ous growth. Having a pocket rule with us we 
measured a tree that was four and a half feet in 
diameter; and we were assured by Mr. Call that 
there were trees in the grove full live feet in 
diameter. This grove is, doubtless, of from 
.sixty to seventy-live years' growth. We are 
thus e.xact and explicit in reference to this forest 
of new growth because we know there is a wide- 
spread fear that in consequence of the rajjidity 
with which our redwood forests are being con- 
verted into lumber, that species of timber will 
ultimately become extinct. Kight there, uver- 
shadowing old Fort IJoss, is the refutation (.if 
such fallacy. 



me::!co urges colonisati north of m mim. 

•r^r^ ,J-, 1J ^r ^i^rrzrr^Torr;^^^ ^^-^-^ ^'^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^ jjIzrp^J^rt J^ ^^-^^; 











fCHEAUDIA had become Governor of 
California by appointment of the Mexican 
(Tovernment. He was ordered as early as 
in 1827 to establish a fort on the northern 
frontier, either at San Rafael or San Francisco 
Solano. The presence of the Russians at Ross 
doubtle.-s inspired this order, and then such a 
post would not only be a notice to those Mus- 
covites that they must not venture further 
south, but would be a source of security and 
protection to the newly founded missions as 
well. The (Tovernor had no funds to put in 
successful execution the order. The next year 
he seems to have ordered a i-econnoissance for a 
suitable place for a military station, but nothing 
further was done at that time. 

The years had sped; (Jalifornia was rent with 
internal disoord: the old missions Jiad been 

looted until they were fast going to ruin, and 
on the 14th of January, 1833, Figueroa arrived 
at Monterey, the newly appointed (Tovernor. 
To evolve order out of chaos seemed to lie his 
high resolve. B^igueroa liad received special 
instructions from the Mexican Government to 
push occupation and settlement of the northern 
frontier with energy. In obedience to these 
instructions Alferez Vallejo was ordered to 
make an exploration, select a site, and offer land 
to settlers. To aid in this work the old missions 
were exjiected to bear the principal expense. 
Either through inability or flagging zeal in be- 
half ol' ;i government that was always impecuni- 
ous, the padres did not respond to this new levy 
upon their resources. Vallejo, in obedience to 
orders, made a tour to IJodega and Ross. Tiiat 
fall Vallejo made an attempt to esta!)lisb scttU'- 


ments at Petaluma and Santa Rosa. Bancroft 
says: "Ten heads of families, tifty persons in 
all, agreed to settle at the former place (Peta- 
luma), hitherto unoccupied; but the padre at 
San Francisco Solano, hearing of the project, 
sent a few men to build a hut and place a band 
of horses at that point in order to estalilish a 
claim to the land as mission property. Two or 
three of the settlers remained and put in crops 
at Petaluma, Yallejo himself having ten bushels 
of wheat sown on his own account. The padre's 
representatives also remained, and the respective 
.claims were left to be settled in the future. 
Much the same thing seems to have been done 
at Santa Rosa, where a few settlers went, and to 
which point the padre sent two neophytes with 
some hogs as the nucleus of a mission claim. All 
this before January 8, 1834:. In his speech of May 
1st to the deputacion, Figueroa mentioned the 
plan for northern settlement, but said nothing 
to indicate that any actual progress had been 
made. Tlie 14tli of May, however, he sentenced 
a criminal to serve out his term of punishment 
at the new establishment about to be founded 
at Santa Rosa. In June the rancho of Petaluma 
was granted by the (xovernor to Yallejo, and the 
grant approved by the deputacion, this being 
virtually an end of the mission claim. Respect- 
ing subsequent developments of 1834r-'5 in the 
Santa Rosa Valley, the records are not satisfac- 
tui'v; but Figueroa, hearing of tiie approach of 
a colony from Mexico, resolved to malce some 
preparations for its reception, and naturally 
thought of the northern estalilishment, which 
he resolved to visit in person. All that we 
know positively of the trip is that he started 
late in August, extended his tour to Ross, e.x- 
amined the country, selected a site, and having 
left a small force on the frontier, returned to 
Monterey the 12th of September. To these 
facts there may be added, as probal)ly accurate, 
the statements of several Californians, to the 
effect that the site selected was where Vallejo's 
settlement and Solano neophytes had already 
erected some rude Imildings, that the new place 
was named Santa Anna y Farias, in hitnur of the 

President and Vice-President of Mexico, and 
that the settlement was abandoned the next 
year, because the colonists refused to venture 
into a country of hostile Indians." 

The scheme of founding a frontier post at or 
near Santa Rosa seems to have proved a failure; 
at least the next move with that end in view 
was in the direction of Sonoma, where the 
mission San Francisco Solano had already run 
its course under ecclesiastical rule, and was then 
in process of secularization under the manage- 
ment of M. G. Vallejo as cominissionado. This 
failure of the attempted estalilishment of a 
settlement at Santa Rosa by Governor Figueroa, 
in the face of the fact that eleven years previous 
Altimira, taking his life in his hand, had estab- 
lished a mission at Sonoma, inclines us to take 
off our hat in reverence to that padre, although 
his zeal may, at times, have befogged his better 
judgment. History should be both impartial 
and just, and the records unmistakably show 
that the Catholic missionaries had occupied the 
field embracing the main portion of Sonoma 
County at least ten years Ijefore the military 
and civil authorities exercised dominion here. 
Figueroa still adhered to his policy of establish- 
ing a frontier settlement and garrison north uf 
San Francisco Bay. 

The following, the letter of instruction to 
Gen. M. G. Vallejo from Governor Jose Fig- 
ueroa in relation to the locating and governing 
of "a village in the valley of Sonoma," was 
transmitted only a few njonths before that (Jov- 
ernor's death: 


" Comma ml ancy- General of Upper California. 
" Monterey, June 24, 1835. 
" In conformity with the orders and instruc- 
tions issued by the Supreme Government of the 
Confederation respecting the location of a village 
in the valley of Sonoma, this cominandancy 
urges upon you that, according to the topo- 
graphical plan of the place, it be divided into 
quarters or squares, seeing that the streets and 
jil(i~af; be regulated so as to make a beginning. 
The inhal>itants are to be governed entirely by 



said plan. This govennnciit ami coiiuuandancy 
approves entire!}' of the lines designated by you 
for outlets — recognizing, as the property of the 
village and public lands and privileges, the 
boundaries of 1 Vt;iliini;i, Agna Culienta, Tlan- 
chero de Iluertica, l.ena ile Sur, Salvador, 
Vallejo, and La Vernica, on the north of the 
city of Sonoma, as the limits of its property, 
rights, and privileges — requesting that it shall 
be commenc-ed immediately around the hillj 
where the fortification is to be erected, to pro- 
tect the inhabitants from incursions of the 
savages and all others. In order that the build- 
ing lots granted by you, as the person charged 
with colonization, may be fairly portioned, you 
will divide each square (inanzana) into four 
parts, as well for the location of each as to in- 
terest persons in the planting of kitchen gar- 
dens, so that every one shall have a hundred 
yards, more or less, which the government deems 
suttioient; and farther, lots of land may be 
granted, of from one hundred and fifty to two 
hundred yards, in openings for outlets, for 
other descriptions of tillage, subject to the laws 
and regulations on the sidiject, in such manner 
that at all times the uiunicipality shall possess 
the legal title. 

This government and commandancj'-general 
otters yon thanks for your efforts in erecting 
this new city, which will secure the frontier of 
the republic, and is contident that you will make 
new efforts for the national entirety. 

"(iod and liberty. Juse Frot'KKOA. 

" I)i)n 1\[. (-1. A', Military (Jommandante 
and Director (if C'lildiii/CMtion im the Northern 

Under these instructions Vallejo proceeded to 
lay out and found the pueblo, giving to it the 
Indian name of Sonoma. From this act virtu- 
ally dates the real Mexican occupancy of Sonoma 
(jounty under military and civil rule. There is 
but little of record during the balance of 1825, 
anil for 1826 the most important mention is 
that Vallejo, in conjunction with Chief Solano, 
went on an exj>edition to punish the rebellions 

Yolos. And right here it is in place to record 
the fact that this Chief Solano seems to have 
been a ruler among the Indian tribes in every 
direction. General Vallejo's language to us 
was, " Solano was a king among the Indians. 
All the tribes of Solano, Napa and Sonoma were 
under tribute to him." Vallejo made a treaty 
with Solano and seems to have found in him a 
valuable lieutenant in all his futui'e dealings 
with neighl)oring Indians. Now that a pueblo 
had been established at Sonoma with Vallejo as 
commandante of this northern district, it had 
become an important factor in the Territorial 
government of California. Vallejo was then in 
the full vigor of young life, tired with the ambi- 
tion of those who believed that to them belonged 
a liberal share of the management and rule in 
Territorial government, and his somewhat 
isolated position, which necessitated his exercise, 
at times, of almost autocratic power, placed him 
in a position to be courted by those even in 
higher authority. That he should use his 
power for self-aggrandizement, within certain 
limits, was but natural. With his complicity 
in the revolutions and counter revolutions that 
in rapid succession were making and deposing 
California governors, forms no part of the scope 
of this history, and we shall only follow his acts 
in their Ijearings upon the future of Sonoma 
County. With Vallejo there seems to have 
been two dominant ideas, and both had founda- 
tion in good, practical sense. The tirst was 
that the Indians had to be subjected to a strong 
hand, and when so subjected, they were to l)e 
the subjects of protection and justice. The 
second was that the greatest danger to continued 
]\Iexiean supremacy in California was from the 
eastward. While there may have been a degree 
of selfishness and jealousy to inspire it, he was 
none the less correct in his judgment that the 
Sutter establishment at New Helvetia was a 
center around which clustered dangers imt 
properly appreciated by the (Jalifornia govern- 
ment at IVIouterey. While he failed to arouse 
the authorities to the magnitude of the danger, 
he at least discharged his duty as an (illicer of 

UlsToUy of liONOMA aoUNTY. 

that government. Tlie triitli was tliat Sutter, 
after lie transfen-ed to Jlelvetia the armament 
of Ross was becoming a "power behind the 
tlirone greater tiian the throne itself," and 
Vallejo could not be blind to the fact that it 
was liable to prove a "Trojan horse with belly 
full of armed destruction '' to the future rule 
of Mexico in California. In the waning days of 
the rule of Micheltorena, Sutter had been 
clothed with power which almost rendered him 
potentate of the Sacramento Valley, and as his 
establishment was the iirst to be reached by 
immigration from the east, that year by year 
was increasing in volume, he did not fail to 
improve his opportunity to add to the strength 
of his surroundings. 

Although somewhat out of chronological 
order it is in place to follow the mission of San 
Francisco Solano to its end. Bancroft says: 
" Father Fortuni served at San Francisco Solano 
until 1833, when liis place was taken by the Za- 
cuteean, Josi- de Jesus Maria Gutierrez, who in 
turn changed places in March, 183i, with Pa- 
lire Lorenzo Qiiijas of San Francisco. Quijas 
remained in charge of ex-mission and pueblo as 
acting curate throughout the decade, but resided 
for the most part at San Rafael. Tiiough the 
neophyte population, as indicated by the reports, 
decreased from 7*50 to (550 in 1834 and 550 in 
1835, yet there was a gain in live-stock and but 
a slight falling off in crops; and the establish- 
ment must be regarded as having Honrished 
down to the date of secularization, being one of 
the ^tiw missiolis in California which reached 
tlieir iiighest population in the final decade, 
though this was natural enough in a new and 
frontier mission. Mariano C Vallejo was made 
commissionado in 1834, and in 1835-'6, with 
Antonio Ortega as majordomo, completed the 
secularization. Movable property was distribu- 
ted to the Indians, who were made entirely 
free, many of them retiring to their old ranche- 
rias. A little later, however, in consequence ot 
troubles with hostile gentiles, the ex-neophytes 
seem to have restored their live-stock to the 
care of Ceneral Vallejo, who iii^od th(^ property 

of the ex-mission for their benefit and protec- 
tion, and for the general development of the 
northern settlement. The General claimed that 
this was a legitimate use of the estate: and he 
would have established a new mission in the 
north if the padres wouhl have aiiled him. 
Doubtless his policy was a wise one, even if his 
position as guardian of the Indians in charge 
of their private property jiut by them in his 
care was not recognized b^' the laws. Moreover, 
there was a gain rather than a loss in live-stock. 
Thus the mission community haj no real exist- 
ence after 183)), though Pablo Ayula and Sal- 
vador Vallejo were nominally made administra- 
tors. The visitador made no visits in 1839, and 
apparently none were made in 1840. I suppose 
there may have been 100 of the ox-neophytes 
living at Sonoma at the end of the decade, with 
perhaps 500 more in the I'cgion not relajised 
into barbarism."' And here ends the career of 
the mission San Francisco Solano. If its san- 
guine founder, Padre Altimira, could revisit it, 
and the old San Francisco mission tliat he 
thought was •• on its last legs " he wouhl learn 
how fallible is human judgment. 

Sonoma was now a pueblo and (Tcneral M. G. 
Vallejo, ascommandante of the northern district, 
the most conspicuous personage in this latitude 
until the end of Mexican i-ule. As such it is 
in place to introduce him more fully to the 
reader. According to Bancroft "he was the 
son of the ' Sargento distinguido " Jgnacio ^'al- 
lejo and of .\[aria Antonia l^ugo, being, on the 
paternal side at least, of pure Spanish blood, 
and being entitled by the old rules to prefix the 
'Don" to his name. In childhood he had been 
* the associate of Alvarado and Castro at Monte- 
rey, and his educational advantages, of which 
he made good use, were substantially the same 
as theirs. Unlike his companions, he chose a 
military career, entering the Monterey company 
in 1823 as a cadet, and being promoted to be 
alferez of the San Francisco company in 1827. 
He served as habilitado and as conimandante of 
both coni|>anies, and took part in several cam- 
paigns against Indians, besides acting as fiscal or 


defensor in various military trials. In 1830 he 
was elected to the depntacion, and took a promi- 
nent part in the opposition of that body to Vic- 
toria. In 1832 he married Francisca l^enicia. 
daughter of Joquin C/arrillo, and in 1834 was 
elected dipntado snjdente to Congress, lie was 
a favorite of Figueroa, who gave him large tracts 
of land north of the bay, choosing him as com- 
niissionado to secularize San Francisco Solano, 
to found the town of Sonoma, and to command 
the frontier del norte. In his new position Val- 
lejo was doubtless the most independent man in 
California. His record was a good one, and 
both in ability and experience he was probal)l3' 
better fitted to take the position as command- 
ante general than any other Californian." This 
latter position was conferred upon Yallejo by 
Alvarado, who by a turn of the revolutionary 
wheel had become governor, (xeneral Vallejo 
was unquestionably the right man in the right 
place when he was placed in control at Sonoma 
after the secularization of the mission San 
Francisco Solano. As a military man he would 
not brook any insubordination to his will or 
commands, but in dealing with the Indians he 
seems to have pursued a policy wise and just 
beyond anything ever before attempted in Cali- 
fornia. In the Indian Chief Solano he saw the 
ready means to acquire easy control of all other 
Indians occupying a wide sweep of country. In 
making Solano his friend and coadjutor in keep- 
ing distant tribes in respectful submission, he 
seems not to have compromised himself in any 
manner so as not to hold Solano himself subject 
to control and accountability. Having been 
speaking of the turbulence of southern Indians 
for the years from 1836 to 1840 Mr. Bancroft 
says: "Turning to the northern frontier we find 
a diH'erent state of things. Here there was no 
semblance of Apache i-aids, no sacking of 
ranches, no loss of civilized life, and little col- 
lision between gentile and ('hristian natives. 
The northern Indians were more numerous 
than in the San Diego region, and many of the 
tribes were brave, warlike, and often hostile; 
but there was a comparatively strong force at 

Sonoma to keep them in check, and General 
Vallejo's Indian policy must be regarded as 
e.xcellent and effective when compared with any 
other policy ever followed in California. True, 
his wealth, his untrammelled power, anil other 
circumstances contributed much to his success; 
and he could by no means have done as well if 
placed in command at San Diego; yet he must 
be accredited besides with having managed 
wisely. Closely allied with Solano, the Suisnn 
chieftain, having always — except when asked 
to render some distasteful military service to 
his political associates in the south — at his com- 
mand a goodly numl)er of soldiers and citizens, 
made treaties with the gentile tribes, insisted 
on their being liberally and justly treated when 
at peace, and punished them severely for any 
manifestation of hostility. Doubtless the In- 
dians were wronged often enough in individual 
cases by Yallejo's subordinates; some of whom, 
and notably his brother Salvador, were with 
dilKculty controlled; but such reports have been 
greatly exaggerated, and acts of glaring injustice 
were comparatively' rare. 

" The Cainameros, or the Indians of Cainama, 
in the region toward Santa Rosa, had been for 
some years friendly, but for their services in 
returning stolen horses they got themselves into 
trouble with the Satiyomis, or Sotoyomes, gen- 
erally known as the Guapos, or braves, who in 
the sj)ring of 1836, in a sudden attack, killed 
twenty-two of their number and wounded fifty. 
Yallejo, on appeal of the chiefs, promised to 
avenge their wrongs, and started April 1st with 
fifty soldiers and one hundred Imlians besides 
the Cainamero force. A battle was fought on 
the 4th of April, and the Guapos, who had taken 
a strong j)Osition in the hills ot the Geyser region, 
were routed and driven back to their ranches, 
where most of them were killed. The expedi- 
tion was back at Sonoma on the 7th without 
having lost a man, killed or wounded. On June 
7th Yallejo conchuled a treaty of peace and 
alliance with the chiefs of seven tribes — the 
Indians of Yoloytoy, (iuilitoy, Ansatoy, Ligna- 
ytoy, Aclutoy, Chnmptoy and the Guaiios, who 



had voluntarily come to Sonoma for that pur- 
pose. Tlie treaty provided tliat tiiere sliould l)e 
friendsliip between tlie trii)es and tlie garrison, 
that the Cainauieros and Guapos should live at 
peace and respect each otiier's territory; that tlie 
Indians shonid give np all fngitive Cluijstians 
at the request of the commandante, and that 
they should not hurn the fields. It does not 
appear that Vallejo in return promised anything 
more definite than friendship. Twenty days 
later the compact was approved by Governor 
Chico. A year later, in June, 1837, Zampay, 
one of the chieftains of the Yoloytoy — town and 
rancheria of the Yoloy, perhaps meaning of 
the 'tnles,' and which gave the name to Yolo 
County — became troublesome, committing many 
outi-ages and trying to arouse the Sotoyomes 
again. The head chief of the tribe, however, 
named Moti, offered to aid in his capture, whicli 
was effect'ed by the combined forces of Solano 
and Salvador Yallejo. Zampay and some of 
his companions were held at first as captives at 
Sonoma, but after some years the chief, who had 
been a terror of the whole country, liecame a 
peiiceful citizen and industrious farmer."' 

"In January, 1838, Tobias, chief of the 
Gnilicos, and one of his men were brought to 
Sonoma and tried for the murder of two Indian 
fishermen. In March some of the gentile allied 
tribes attacked the Moquelumnes, recovered a 
tew stolen horses and brought them to Soijoma, 
wliere a grand feast was held for a week to cele- 
brate their good deeds. In August fifty Indian 
horse-thieves crossed the Sacrainento and ap- 
peared at Suseol with a band of tame horses, 
their aim being to stampede the horses at 
Sonoma. Thirty-four were killed in a Lattle 
with Vallejo's men, and the rest surrendered, 
the chief being shot at Sonoma for his crimes. 
On October 6, Vallejo issued a printed circular, 
in which he announced that Solano had grossly 
abused his power and the trust placed in him, 
and broken sacred compacts made with the 
Indian tribes by consenting to tlie seizure and 
sale of children. Vallejo indignantly denied 
the rumor that these outrages had been com- 

mitted with his consent, declaring that Solano 
had been arrested, and that a force had been 
sent out to restore all the children to their 
parents." \"al]ejo's statement in regard to this 
back-sliding of Chief Solano is that evil-dis- 
posed persons have plyed him with liquor until 
he was so dazed as not to be master of his 
actions, and that after being sobered up in the 
guard-house he was both ashamed and penitent. 
In this year, 1838, there came a terrible 
pestilence, the small-pox, which made sad havoc 
among the Indians. It is said that a Corporal 
named Ygnacio lliramontes contracted the dis- 
ease at Fort Koss and i-eturning to Sonoma the 
disease was soon broadcast among the Indians. 
General Vallejo is our authority that the In- 
dians died by the thousands. He thinks that 
not less than 75,000 died in the territory north 
of the bay and west of the Sacramento River. 
In some cases it almost blotted tribes out of ex- 
istence. The Indian panacea for all ills was 
resort to the sweat-house, supplemented by a 
plunge in cold water. Such being their remedy, 
it may well be believed that the small-pox left 
desolation in its track. Mr. John TValker, of 
Sebastopol, states that when he reached the 
Yount rancho, iXapa County, in 18-1(5, Mr. 
Yount pointed out to him an Indian girl, the 
sole survivor of her tribe after the small- 
pox had run its course. Yount stated that lie 
visited the rancheria and that dead Indians 
were lying everywhere, and the only living 
being was the girl referred to, she, an infant, 
was cuddled in an Indian/ basket. At Mr. 
Walker's ranch is a very aged Indian, and 
through an interpreter he recently informed us 
that during the prevalance of the small-pox his 
people at Sebastopol for a long time died at the 
rate of fi'om ten to twenty a day. During the 
present year (1888), while excavating earth 
with which to grade a road near Sebastopol a 
perfect charnel of human bones was found, 
doubtless where the small-pox victims of 1838 
were buried. As stated elsewhere, that pesti- 
lence paved the way for peaceable occupation of 
this territory liv immigrants. There were not 



enough Indians left to offer any serious resist- 
ance to tlie free occupancy of their former 
liunting grounds by civilized !naii. 

In 1830, as an evidence that colonization was 
advancing northward, it is recorded that twenty- 
five families had cast their lot in the northern 
frontier. Some of these families, doubtless, 
came with the Hijar-Padres colony that came 
from Mexico in 1834. Many of those colonists 
visited Sonoma — then San Francisco Solano — 
but owing to political complications Hijar was 
looked upon witJi suspicion, and his scheme of 
founding a colony came to nanglit. It is said 
that a few of his people remained north of the 
bay, but most of them returned south to the 
older settlements. We find I'ecord of a young 
Irishman named John T. Reed locating in 
Santa liosa Township, near the pi-esent place of 
Robert Crane, in 1837, but who was driven out 
l)y the Indians. And also the location near 
Santa Rosa, in 1838, of Senora Maria Ygnacia 
Lopez de ("arillo. Of the first attempt to 
found a settlement at, or near Santa Rosa, there 
is evidence that it pruved futile, and yet we 
find little of authentic record as to the reasons 
why the enterprise was abandoned, other than 
that settlers did not feel secure in so advanced a 
]iosition among untutored savages. We find, 
also, an accredited rumor that the mission San 
Francisco Solano was destroyed by the Indians a 
few years after it was founded. This story must be 
founded on uncertain tradition, for we have 
tbund no authentic record of such an occurrence. 

We have thus far, up to 1840, found little 
ditliculty in tracing the lines of reliable history. 
But the nearer we get to the final end which 
culminated in American occupancy the more we 
are befogged and in doubt of the di\ idirig line 
between facts and fiction. What tin intelligent 
reader will most want to kuoiv will be as to the 
actual settlement and occupancy of' Sonoma 
County by Californians prior to the raising of 
the Bear Hag at Sonoma. If we take as our 
guide the various Spanish grants and the dates 
of their reputed occupancy there was but little 
ot the arable laud of the county that was not 

already the habitation of civilized man; and yet 
we find but little tangible evidence of such 
advanced conditions of civilization. Vallejo 
had, with great enterprise and labor, reai'ed an 
establishment on the Petaluma grant that even 
yet stands as a monument to his energy and 
enterprise. The Corrillos had made lasting 
improvements at Santa Rosa and Sebasto])ol. 
Mark West had established himself at the creek 
that bore his name, and had erected substantial 
adobe buildings. Henry D. Fitch had reared 
buildings of permanency on Russian River, 
near the jjresent site of Ilealdsburg; Captain 
Stephen Smith had established a residence and 
mill at Bodega, and Jasper Ofurrell had made 
a good show of permanent occupancy at his 
place in the red woods. Fort Ross had now 
passed into the hands of William Eennitz, and 
was an establishment of comparative ancient 
date. Outside of the evidence of occupancy 
thus enumerated, except those of Sonoma \a\- 
ley, there wei-e only a few, and they of so transi- 
tory and ephemeral in character as almost to 
have jiassed from the memory of our pioneer 
American inhabitants. For a time Sonoma 
had been I'egarded as an important frontier mil- 
itary station by the California government, and 
seems to have received some fostering care and 
assistance, but dniing later years the govern- 
ment seems to have acted on the princii)le that, 
as Vallejo had all the glor^' of defending the 
frontier, he could do it at his own expense, lie 
seems to have, in time, tired of this expensive 
luxury. Bancroft says: "The ])residial com- 
pany in 1841-'43, and probably down to its dis- 
bandment by Vallejo in 1844, had between forty 
and fifty men under the command of Lieut. 
Jose Antonio Pico; and there were besides 
nearly sixty men lit for militia duty, to say 
nothing of an incidental mention by the alcalde 
of 100 citizens in his jurisdiction. ('aptain 
Salvador Vallejo was commandante of the post 
and no civil authority was recognized down to 
the end of 1843, from which time municipal 
affairs were directed l)y two alcaldes, Jacob P. 
Leese and Jose de la Rosa, holding successively 



t.lie first alcaldia." Tims, it will be seen, tliat 
there was virtually only two years of civil rule 
here previous to the Bear Flag revolution. 
AVliile "N'allejo still had an armament embracing 
nine cannon of small caliber, and, perhaps, two 
hundred muskets, yet the whole military estab- 
lishment seems to have been in a condition of 
" innocuous desuetude." The only notable event 
of local importance in 1845 was a raid, seem- 
ingly made by Sonoma rancheros. upon the 
Ross Indians to secure laborers. Several In- 

dians were killed and loU were eaptint.d. 
William Hennitz complained of outrages coni- 
•mitted on the Indians at his rauclio. That 
such matters were made the subject of court 
investigation shows that civil authority was l)e- 
ginning to assert itself. The leading offenders 
in this last instance of Indian mention under 
Mexican rule, were Antonio Castro and Rafael 
fxarcia. AVe have now reached the beginning 
of tlie end of ^Vfexifan rule, the conclusion of 
which will be found in the next chapter. 



Mexican kii.k ix Cafjimibma xeakink its knu — tiik Califuknia lkadkrs (,iuakkei,in(. amcuMt 



Bancroft's instructions to Commodore Sloat — Vallejo — Sutter — Fremont and Gilles- 


Sacramento Valley — the Americans naturally (;atiierei) around hiji — the settlers ripe 





N historic events like that of the taliiiig of 
Sonoma and the hoisting of the bear flag, 
we naturally expect to Unci some continuity 
of antecedent causes leading up to the occur- 
rence. Iiut that great event stands out, in Ijold 
relief, a conspicuous exception to the rule. Like 
Topsy who averred " I was not born'd — 1 jes 
growed up," the 15ear Flag party seemed to be 
■laboring under equal perplexity as to their or- 
igin and ultimate destiny. The happy outcome 
of their venture can be compressed into the sin- 
gle sentence, "All is well, that ends well." 
Search and sift history as we may there can be 
found no authentic connection between the 
little band of adventurers and any responsible 
United States authority. There has been a great 
deal said and written upon the subject that 
inclines the casual reader of history to believe 
that the taking of Sonoma was but the first act 

in a well matured j)hiu which was to ultiiiiate 
in placing California under the stars and 
stripes of the United States; but wu tiiul noth- 
ing to warrant such conclusion. The majority 
of the bear flag party were frontiersmen witii 
more nerve than education and to believe them 
capable of carrying out to a successful conclu- 
sion the secret orders of United States Govern- 
ment authorities, and never after disclosing the 
same, would be too great a tax upon even ex- 
treme credulity. It is true. General Fremont 
had been in California for some time, ostensibly 
at the head of a scientiflc expedition, but with 
a force at his back ample to render secure his 
travels while here, but till now it has never been 
revealed that he was clothed by the govern- 
ment that he represented with any powers of a 
revolutionary character. While his attitude 
had been defiant of California authority and 



liis hoisting of the American flag on Gabilan 
I'eak, ahiiost in sight of the California capita], 
a l)old affront to Castro, California's military 
chieftain, yet there is no evidence, as yet, that 
his acts were otlier than the efl'ervescence of an 
individual disposed to magnify the importance 
of his mission. The ettects of Fremont's acts 
were' two-fold. The Californians believing him 
to he acting under instructions from his govern- 
ment, iiatui'ally believed that he was here for 
the purpose of fomenting a revolutionary spirit 
among foreigners resident here, and they were 
more disposed than ever to enforce the laws 
priihibitoryof indiscriminate immigration. The 
American settlers finding themselves more and 
more the objects of suspicion by the California 
authorities, luiturally took it for granted that as 
Fremont had l)een the instrninent of inciting 
the authorities to a more rigid enforcement 
against them of existing immigration laws, lie 
knew what he was about, and would stand by 
them if tronble came. 

Aside trom the fact tluit all knew that war 
was imminent between the United States and 
Mexico, California was rent and torn by internal 
discord. The Territorial government had ever 
been, at best, a weak one, but during the past 
decade it had gone from bad to worse, until 
chaos seemed to brood over the TeiTitory from 
Sonoma to San Diego. The government was 
divided; one part being administered from Los 
Angeles and the other from Monterey, and each 
wing in open revolt against tlie authority of the 
other. In the very teeth of a threatened danger 
from without, Governor Pio Pico at Los An- 
geles and General Castro at Monterey were 
seemingly only intent on each other's overtiirow. 
The action of Fremont, already referred to, in 
flaunting the stars and stripes upon Gabilan 
Peak seems to have brought General Castro to 
sometliing like a correct appi-eciation of the 
fact that there was great need of unification 
and eti'ort among California anthorities. This 
he tried to impress upon Pico in the south, but 
the suspicious governor saw fit to construe the 
efforts of Castro to get the military upon a de- 

fensive basis, into a menace to himself; and the 
people of the entire South seemed to be in en- 
tire accord with him on the subject. In truth, 
the peojile of the lower and upper portion of 
the Territory seem to have been as completely 
estranged and soured against each other as if 
their origin had been from distinct races. 
Llence, was witnessed the pitiful endeavor of Pio 
Pico to gather together a force sufficient to pro- 
ceed to Monterey for the purpose of sultjugat- 
ing Castro, at the very time the latter was 
eqnally intent upon gathering a force to meet 
what he conceived to be a great danger on the 
northern frontier. To California, the early 
months of 1846 seems" to have been a dark 
period to all, fruitful of junto meetings and 
dark-i'oom cabals, when all were suspicious of 
.each othei-, and it seemed politic for no man to 
let his right hand kimw what his left hand was 

"While this comlition of doubt and uncer- 
tainty was nnmistakably trne as related to the 
Californians, it was only less trne, in a modified 
degi-ee, as related to the Americans then resi- 
dent here. Wliile they were united in heart 
and sentiment, they were completely out at sea 
without chart or compass, in the face of a 
brewing st<jrm. If Fremont's action in Monterey 
County had encouraged them to believe that he 
had authority to raise the standard of revolu- 
tion in California, that belief must have re- 
ceived a chill when he, a few weeks later, with 
his sixty men started northward to Oregon, 
with the avowed purpose of returning east by 
that ronte. That this was not a strategic move- 
ment on his part is evidenced by letters he 
wrote at the time both to his wife and his 
father-in-law, Hon. Thomas II. Benton. 

Thomas O. Larkin was the secret and confi- 
dential agent of the United States Government 
in California and he certainly' had no commi>- 
sion to do anything in the direction of encour- 
aging the raising of the standard of revolt in 
California. Fremont's conduct seems to have 
been to him a complete enigma. Larkin's in- 
structions were to feel the pulse of Californians 


as well as Americans in reference to jieaceable 
annexatiun to the United States, and any demon- 
stration on the part of the Americans in the 
direction of violence and force could bnt com- 
plicate and render more ditticnlt his task. lie 
had sagacity enough to understand this, and 
seems to have directed all his energies in the 
direction of a j)eaceal)le solution of the problem 
he was to assist in working out. It must be 
iiorne in mind that Tliomas O. Larkin had long 
been a resident merchant in California and that 
his intimate connection and association with the 
leading men of California, both natives and 
foreigners, peculiarly fitted him for this labor of 
paving the way for peaceable annexation of 
California to the United States, l^ut that he 
was not taken into all the secret councils of the 
nation is manifest from the instructions of Hon. 
George Bancroft, the then secretary of war un- 
der President Polk, under date of June 24, 1845, 
nearly a year before war was declared between 
the United States and Mexico. The secretary's 
instructions to Commodore Sloat were: 

" If you ascertain that Mexico has declared 
war against the United States, yon will at once 
possess yourself of the port of San Francisco, 
and occupy such other ports as your force may 
permit. You will be careful to preserve, if 
possilile, the most friendly relations with the 
inhabitants, and encourage them to adopt a 
course of neutrality." 

On the 13th of May, 1846, war was declared. 
On that very day Secretary Uancroft again in- 
structed Commodore Sloat to cari-y out his first 
orders "with energy and promptitude." Only 
two days later we find Secretary Bancroft writ- 
ing the following instructions to Commodore 
Sloat: " A connection between California and 
Mexico is supposed scarcely to exist. You will, 
as opportunity offers, conciliate the confidence 
of the people of California. Yon will conduct 
yourself in such a manner as will render your 
occupation t)f the country a benefit," etc. In a 
dispatch dated dune 8, 1840, the Aincriran 
Secretary conies out a little plainer. Ho says: 
" If California separates herself from our enemy, 

the Central Government of Mexico, and estab- 
lishes a government of its own under the auspices 
of the American Hag, you will take such meas- 
ures as will best promote the attachment of the 
people of California to the United States. Von 
will bear in mind that this country desires to 
find in California a friend; to be connected with 
it by near ties; to hold possession of it," etc. 
On July 12 he speaks still plainer: "The ob- 
ject t>f the United States has reference to ulti- 
mate ])eace, and if at that peace the basis of 
i\\Q '• utl puasiiJetis' shall be adopted, the (iov- 
ernment expects to be in possession of Califor- 

While the instructions to Larkin seem to 
have been of an entirely pacific and diplomatic 
character, it is quite evident that the authori- 
ties at Washington did not intend to allow the 
formalities of red tape to stand in the way of 
the acquisition of California. 

There were two men on the northern frontiei-, 
both occupying commanding positions, and each 
destined to fill a conspicuous place in the his- 
tory of those stirring times. One was General 
M. G. Vallejo, and the other Captain John A. 
Sutter. At this time, when California was 
Hearing her final struggle with manifest destiny, 
it is important to know just how and whei'e 
they stood. Much has been said and written 
on the subject, so much that it has become con- 
fusing and difficult to always determine where 
history ends and fiction begins. Vallejo and 
Sutter both were officers of the California gov- 
ernment and as such owed good faith and 
allegiance to their country. We find nothing 
to warrant the conclusion that either proved 
recreant to their trust. 

Vallejo evidently had a very sti-ong premoni- 
tion that California had reached the beginning 
of the end. So believing, he evidently had lit- 
tle heart or concern about the personal quarrels of 
Pico, Castro and other factious would-be leaders 
of California. When called into council on tiie 
alarming condition of the tiines, he was free to 
express his opinions, and so far as reliable evi- 
dence goes, it was always to the (jfiect that if 


it eaine to the worst and a change of government 
had to be made, that it was to the United States 
that California could look for the strongest arm 
of jirotection and speedy development of lier 
latent resources. While those were his senti- 
ments expressed in council with his country- 
men, he in no wise seems to ha\e abandoned 
hope that C'alif(.)rnia might yet be safely steered 
through her dangers. This is evidenced by two 
circumstances. Governor Pico addressed a let- 
ter to Valiejo, probably in April, in which he 
eluded him somewhat sharply for his apparent 
adhesion to Castro, the every act of whom Pico 
seemed to regard as dangerous usurpation of 
military' power, the ultimate aim of which was 
the overthrow of the civil government. Vailejo's 
reply to Pico was both temperate and patriotic. 
He did not liesitate to admonish Pico that he 
was allowing his jealousy to befog his better 
judgment — that Castro was making an etfort to 
properly face a real danger, and he warned Pico 
that the time had come when unity of action 
was imperative if California would continue to 
exist in her present form. He pointed out to 
the Governor the folly of expecting a General 
in the face of a threatened danger, to wait for 
the transmission of orders such a long distance as 
intervened between Los Angeles and Monterey. 
These wise and temperate counsels of Valiejo 
seem to have been wasted upon Pico, for he 
appears to have gone forward in his endeavor to 
marshal a sufficient force to march to Monterey 
and overthrow Castro. The second circum- 
stance which shows that Yallejo had not yet 
lost all hope is the fact that early in June Cas- 
tro visited Sonoma on his mission uf gathering 
war supplies, and secured a large number of 
horses. Of these horses more will be said a 
little further on. Of what occurred between 
Yallejo and Castro at that time there seezns to 
be little of record. Intelligent reflection draws 
two conclusions somewhat difficult to harmonize. 
That a matter of 170 horses was furnished by 
Valiejo to Castro would clearly indicate that 
the former was willing to contribute liberally 
otward the common defense, for Castro lacked 

the power, if he had the will, to exact from 
Valiejo forced contributions. The next ques- 
tion to harmonize with a cheerful desire of 
Valiejo to heartily second Castro's seem i no- 
patriotic eflbrts is, why was it that Sonoma 
with an armament of nine cannons of various 
caliber, and at least two hundred muskets, was 
not brought into requisitiuii in a time of such 
great 2ierii; It was to the east and north that 
Castro was looking for lurking danger, and if 
that General and Valiejo were working together 
in perfect accord it seems little short of aniaziuir 
that Sonoma was left to repose in sleepy security 
without a cannon shotted or a musket in hand 
or sentinel to signal the alarm of an approach- 
ing foe. 

Of Captain John A. Sutter little need be 
said. Being a citizen by naturalization, his 
position was ditferent froni that of Valiejo. It 
is trne he was holding position under the Cali- 
fornia government, but his attachment to the 
country of his adoption never seems to have 
outweighed his own personal objects and aims 
in busii.ess. But even he is not chargeable 
with having been guilty of gross perfidy to the 
laud that had given him wealth and honor. 
This is evidenced by the two-fold fact that he 
took pains to warn the government at Monterey 
that a man named Gillespie, who had been at 
Monterey and was then following Fremont 
north, was a secret emissary of the United 
States. At the same time, and with possibly a 
less patriotic motive, he again called the atten- 
tion of the California government to the im- 
portance of strengthening itself in the 
Sacramento Valley, and for that purpose oft'ered 
to sell his establishment at New Helvetia. This, 
on his part, was business, simon pure, and 
should not be allowel to counterbalance too 
much of the good deeds and kind offices of that 
historic pioneer to the weary, travel-worn 
American immigrants, so many of whom en- 
joyed his benefactions. Sutter was a man of 
pretty good common sense and was not blind to 
the fact that California was liable to be in an 
eruptive state atany moment: and. like Mic.iw- 


ber, '> was just waiting tor something to turn 

It was now in early May of 1846, and Gen- 
eral Fremont, with his sixty explorers, was well 
on his way northward, having pitched camp on 
the shores of Klamath Lake. General Castro, 
doubtless elated at having achieved a bloodless 
victory in taking the abandoned fort of F'remont 
on Gabilan I'eak, was now seeking new fields 
of glory. Pio Pico was yet in the south in- 
tent upon marshaling a sufficient force to war- 
rant him in visiting the northern end of the 
Territory of which he was governor. Consul 
Larkin was inditing confidential epistles to all 
such as to whom he thontrlit could be entrusted 
the secret and work of peaceable annexation of 
California to the United States. General il. G. 
Vallejo was in quiet repose at Sonoma, appar- 
ently having converted his sword into a plow- 
share, his spear into a jiruning hook, and his 
martial field-glasses into a medium through 
which to watch his herds and flocks upon a 
thousand hills. Captain John A. Sutter was 
looking after his fields of waving grain at Hawk 
Farm, doubtless anticipating a paying harvest, 
for the incoming immigration expected from 
over the mountains was variously estimated at 
from 1,000 to 5,000 souls. The hills and val- 
leys of this genial clime were doubtless clad in 
verdure and flowers; and yet the very air was 
oppi'essive with the forecast of revolution and 
sanguinary strife. 

A new Richmond, with closed visor, had now 
appeared upon the field. He anewered to the 
plain name of Archibald II. Gillespie, amd had 
reached Monterey the 17th of April. Larkin 
had already received a letter from James Bu- 
chanan, the then Secretary of State, informing 
him that, " Lieutenant Archibald II. Gillespie, 
of the marine corps, will immediately proceed to 
Monterey, and will probably reach you before 
this dispatch. He is a gentleman in whom the 
President reposes entire confidence. He has 
seen these instructions, and will co-operate as a 
confidential agent with you in carrying them 
into execution."' Gillespie was a month behind 

time in reaching Monterey in consequence of 
unavoidable delays in Mexico. That his dis- 
patches to Larkin were of a very important 
and secret character is evidenced by the fact 
that lest they might fall into Mexican hands, 
Gillespie had memorized them and then de- 
stroyed the paper upon which they were written. 
On reaching Monterey he was plain Mr. Gilles- 
pie, an American merchant, traveling for the 
benefit of his health. He was also the bearer 
of a letter of introduction from Hon. Thonjas 
H. Benton to his son-in-law. General Fremont, 
as well as a package of private letters from the 
same distinguished statesman to the " Path- 
finder." After lingering a little at Monterey, 
doubtless to give color to his assumed character, 
Lieutenant Gillespie one night embarked for 
New Helvetia, and arriving there at once began 
to arrange for an escort to accompany him on 
the trail of Fi-emont. It was then, as already 
stated, that Captain Sutter conveyed to the au- 
thorities at Monterey his suspicion that Gilles- 
pie was a secret emissary of the United States 
Government. Lieutenant Gillespie made all 
haste northward. Historian Bancroft gives the 
following graphic account of this journey and 
the tragic occurrences attending it: 

"This officer, of whose arrival I will have more 
to say presently, had reached Sutter's April 
28th, and Lassen's the 1st of May. From that 
point, with only five companions, Lassen, Xeal, 
Sigler, Stepp and a negro servant named Ben, 
he started May 2d, on Fremont's trail. On the 
7th two men were sent in advance, and the 
others encamped at the outlet of Klamath Lake, 
unable to ford the river, and having nothing to 
eat for forty hours. On the morning of the Oth 
a party of Indians made their appearance, who, 
with great apparent kindness, gave the travelers 
a fresli salmon for food, and ferried them ovei- 
the water in canoes. After a day's journey of 
some thirty miles, (iillespie met Fremont at 
sunset, at a stream named from the events of 
that night. Ambuscade Creek. The sixteen 
tired travelers retired early after the two parties 
were united on May 9th, and were soon sleep- 


iiig souiully- Freiuoiit sitting up later than the 
rest to read his dispatches and letters from 
liome. The Indians were deemed friendly, and 
no watch was kept. Just before midnight the 
cam]) was attacked by savages, Basil Lajeunesse 
and a Delaware were killed as they slept, by 
Itlows from axes. The sound of these blows 
aroused Carson and Owens, who gave the alarm; 
when the Indians fled, after killing with their 
arrows a Delaware named Crane, and leaving 
(lead a chief of their number, who proved to be 
the very man from whom Gillespie had that 
morning been furnislied with food and aid 
further south. Next morning they started 
northward to join the main body, burying the 
bodies of their slain comrades on the way. The 
whole party started on the lltli down the east- 
ern side of the lake, wreaking terrible vengeance 
on the innocent natives along the route, if we 
may credit the statement of Kit Carson, who 
played a leading part in the butcheries. They 
reached Lassen's rancho on their return the 
24th, and a few days later moved their camp 
down to the Buttes." 

This awakens the reflection that the greatest 
of human events are subject to the modifying 
influence of currents and cross-currents; for had 
the Indians who made that midnight attack been 
successful in their evident design to massacre 
all in that unguarded camp, it is more than 
probable that the bear flag revolution would 
never have formed a chapter of Sonoma County 
history. Mr. Bancroft expresses the opinion 
that Gillespie's meeting with Fremont had 
nothing to do with the latter's return north- 
ward — that '' the Captain had nearly deter- 
mined, on account of the difiiculty of crossing 
the mountains into Oregon on account of the 
snow,"' to retrace his steps. We dissent from 
this view of the subject. If Gillespie was only 
the bearer of instructions to Fremont couched 
in the same language of diplomacy as that used 
by Secretary Buchanan in imparting to Larkin 
the duties devolved u])on him by the President, 
then the continued presence of Fremont could 
have served no good end. In truth, his con- 

tinued presence would be detrimental to the 
very object Larkin was expected to achieve. 
Gillespie must have had full knowledge of what 
Fremont had done at Gabilon Peak, and as he 
was the duly accredited secret agent of the 
United States government it is but reasonable 
to suppose that he would have at least some ad- 
visory influence with Fremont. Then, again, 
Fremont and Larkin were occupying entirely 
difterent positions, and it is quite probable that 
while the latter was expected only to use the 
weapons of diplomacy, the former may have 
been accorded discretionary power, if circum- 
stances seemed to warrant, to use more weighty 
arguments. But outside of all this it must be 
remembered that Gillespie had placed in Fre- 
mont's hands letters from Hon. Thomas II. 
Benton. The latter was just as near to the 
war-making power as was James Buchanan, antl 
he was under no trammel to measure his words 
with red tape. While he was not in a position 
to give Fremont either instructions or orders, it 
is fair to presume that he would intimate to the 
husband of his favorite daughter the true con- 
dition of affairs and impress upon him the im- 
portance of holding himself in readiness to 
improve any opportunities, such as were liable 
to suddenly arise, for preferment and position. 
To believe that Fremont had an}' serious in- 
tention of leaving California just at a time when 
he mnst have known that right here and then 
he was upon the very eve of the fruition of Ben- 
ton's most ardent expectation, would be to im- 
pute to him a lack of regard for name and fame 
singularly at variance with reputed character of 
either himself or Mr. Benton. 

But we now put behind us matters specula 
tive and enter upon the domain of thrilling 
facts. During Fremont's absence north there 
were all kinds of wild rumors afloat, and they 
lost nothing as they passed from mouth to 
mouth. Castro's war preparations had been 
magnifled into an expressed purpose on his part 
to drive the American settlers out of the coun- 
try. It was rumored and so believed, that the 
Indians of the Sacramento Valley were being 


incited tu an iiprisiiifr and tliat as soon as the 
grain fields were far enough advanced to be 
conihustible, llie torch woiikl be applied. Cap- 
tain Sutter seems to have given credence to 
these stories, tor he was on an active Indian 
campaign against some of tlie lawless tribes. 
Fremont had moved camp from the IJuttes to 
Rear Iliver, near where Nicholas now stands. It 
was but natural that his camp should become 
tile head centre, around which the hopes and ex- 
pectations of his fellow-countrymen should clus- 
ter. The settlers knew that Gillespie was act- 
ing upon some authority of the United States 
government, and his swift haste northward af- 
ter Fremont, and the latter's e(j^ually speedy re- 
turn, had to them a significance that they were 
close to exciting times. There is nothing of re- 
cord to show that General Fremont either coun- 
selled action, or quiet, on the part of American 
settlers. He seems to have been a passive lis- 
tener to the recital of their plans and grievances, 
but somehow, the most unlettered of those 
frontiersmen, gathered from his very silence, 
assent that he would stand between tliem and 
harm. The people were ripe for revolution and 
the favored chance to strike the first blow op- 
portunely came. 

As has already been stated, General Castro's 
visit to General Vallejo in the first week of June 
resulted in his securing 170 horses. Having 
achieved this much toward placing himself up- 
on a stable war footing, Castro returned by boat 
to Yerba Buena, entrusting the horses to the 
care and management of his private secretary, 
Francisco Arce, Lieutenant Jose Alaria Alviso, 
and an escort of eight men for safe conduct to 
Santa Clara. Leaving Sonoma with the l>and 
of horses, they reached what is now Knight's 
Landing, on the Sacramento Iliver, where a 
crossing was effected, and on June 8tli they 
reached Sutter's Fort. It is alleged that Arce 
told some one on his I'oute that the horses were 
for Castro, and to he used in driving the Amer- 
ican settlers out; but this was probably idle 
rumor. But whether true or not, it served to in- 
tensify the excitement, which was now at about 

white heat. On the afternoon of June 9tii, 
eleven or twelve Americans started on the trail 
of Arce and Alviso and their band of horses. 
These men are said to have started from the 
neighborhood of Fremont's camp, and a man 
named Ilensley is the authority that they were 
sent by Fremont; but this lacks the evidence 
that should back a historic fact. In j)assing New 
Helvetia, this company was increased by two 
new recruits. Ezekiel Merritt commanded the 
expedition. Of its members, Sempel, Henry L. 
Ford and Granville V. Swift, afterward for 
long years a resident of Sonoma County, are 
the only names known with certainty. Cross- 
ing the American River late iu the evening, 
they made their first stop at the rancho of Allen 
Montgomery, who not only furnished them a 
supper, but he, with another man, accompanied 
them to lend a hand at striking this first blow 
of revolution. Arce and Alviso had stopped for 
the night at the rancho of Murphy, using his 
corral for their horses. Merritt and his men 
camped within three miles of the place, and at 
early dawn, on the morning of the ever memor- 
able lOtli of June, 184:6, swooped down upon 
the unsuspecting Arce and Alviso, and in a 
trice had them and their men disarmed. That 
Merritt and his men were not heartless desper- 
adoes is apparant from the fact that they allowed 
the vanquished to retain each a horse, and recog- 
nized Alviso's claim to a few more as private 
property; after which their arms were restored 
to them and they were made the bearers of a 
message to Castro, that if he wanted his horses 
he could come after them. Arce also reported 
to Castro that the insurgents had declared their 
purpose to take Sonoma. This declaration of 
their intent was a subject of official announce- 
ment at Monterey two days before Sonoma was 
captured, wliicli proves that Arce and Alviso 
had not falsely reported the utterance of Merritt 
and his followers. The revolutionists, with their 
band of horses, were back to the neighborhood 
of Fremont's camp within forty-eight hours af- 
ter they set out on their mission. While there 
seems to have been no ]>reconcerted action on 


the part u\' tlie Aniuricau settlers in this high- 
handed act, tliey all seemed to have assented to 
the fact tliat tlie bridges had been burned behind 
them, and all they had to do now was to 
"light it out on that line if it took them all 

It was the lltli of June that Merritt and his 
followers returned with Castro's horses. They 
seem to have acted on the principle of '• making 
hay while the sun shines," for on that afternoon 
the company was increased to twenty men, still 
led by lizekiel ilerritt, who took their departure 
in the direction of Sonoma. That night they 
reached Gordon's on Cache Creek where they 
halted for refreshments, and then made a night 
march to Napa Valley, which they reached on 
the forenoon of June 12th. In Napa Valley 
they remained two days, evidently for the pur- 
pose of strengthening their force; which they 
did by the enrollment of twelve or thirteen 
additional men. The force now numbered 
either thirty-two or thirty-three, who, so far as 
is now ascertainable, i-esponded to the following 
names: Ezekiel Merritt, AVilliam B. Ide, John 
Grigsby, Robert Semple, II. L. Ford, William 
Todd, William Fullon, William Knight, Will- 
iam Ilargrave, Sam Kelsey, G. F. Swift, Sam 
Gibson, W. W. Scott, Benj. Dewell, Thomas 
Cowie, William B. Elliott, Thomas Knight, 
Horace Sanders, Henry Booker, Dav. Hudson, 
John Sears, and most of the following: J. II. 
Kelly, C. C. Griffith, Harvey Porterfield, John 
Scott, Ira Stebbins, Marion Wise, Ferguson, 
I'eter Storm, Pat. McChristian, Bartlett Vines, 
Fowler, Jolin Gibbs, Andrew Kelsey, and Benj- 
amin Kelsey. It was about midnight of Satur- 
day the 13tli of June that this motley crowd of 
frontiersmen took to saddle and proceeded across 
the hills intervening between Napa Valley and 
the Pueblo of Sonoma. J ust at break of day 
they reached that fortified stronghold of north- 
ern California, and neither baying of watch- 
dog nor cackling of goose ai'oused the sleeping 
Sonomans to a sense of impending danger. 
Every reader will e.xpect to hear, in detail, ex- 
actly wh;it transpired on that memorable occa- 

sion. Hubert Howe Bancroft has in his pos- 
session many of the original documents con- 
nected with that event, or authenticated copies. 
He is certainly in a position to give as near the 
absolute facts in connection therewith as will 
ever be attaiiiable, as very many of the partici- 
pants in the capture of Sonoma are now dead. 
We have had from General Vallejo's own lips 
a statement of the individual part he played in 
the event, and it is substantially the same as 
recited by Mr. Bancroft. Believing that hist- 
orian Bancroft gives a true and reliable version 
of the whole occurrence we incorporate it here. 
It is as follows: 

'' At dayl)reak Vallejo was aroused by a noise, 
and on looking out saw that his house was sur- 
rounded by armed men. This state of things 
was sufficiently alarming in itself, and all the 
more so by reason of the uncouth and even fero- 
cious aspect of the strangers. Says Semple: 
Almost the whole party was dressed in leather 
hunting-shirts, many of them very greasy; tak- 
ing the whole party together, they were about 
as rough a looking set of men as one could well 
imagine. It is not to be wondered at that any 
one woiild feel some dread in falling into their 
hands. And Vallejo himself declares that 
there was l)y no means such a uniformit}- of 
dress as a greasy hunting-shirt for each man 
would imply. Vallejo's wife was even more 
alarmed than her husband, whom she begged to 
escape by a back door, but who deeming such a 
course undignified as well as impracticaljle, 
hastily dressed, ordered the front door opened, 
and met the intruders as they entered his sala, 
demanding who was their chief and what their 
business. Not much progress in explanation 
was made at first, though it soon became appar- 
ent that the Colonel, wdiile he was to consider 
himself a prisoner was not in danger of any per- 
sonal violence. Lieutenant-Colonel Prudon and 
Captain Salvador Vallejo entered the room a few- 
minutes later, attracted by the noise, or possibly 
were arrested at their houses and brought there; 
at any rate, they were put under arrest like the 
Colonel. Jacob P. Leese was sent for to serve 


as interpreter, after whicli imitnal expliuiations 
progresised more favorably. 

•' Early in the ensuing negotiations between 
prisoners and filibusters, it became apparent 
that the latter had neither acknowledged leader 
nor regular plan of operations beyond the seizure 
of government projjerty and of the officers. 
Some were acting, as in the capture of Arce's 
horses, merely with a view to obtain arms, 
animals, and hostage — to bring about hostilities, 
and at the same time to deprive the foe of his 
resources; others believed themselves to have, 
undertaken a revolution, in which the steps to 
be immediately taken were a formal declaration 
of independence and the election of officers, 
Merritt l)eing regarded rather as a guide than 
captain. All seemed to agree, however, that 
they were acting under Fremont's orders, and 
this to the prisoners was the most assuring feat- 
ure in the case, ^'allejo had for some time 
favored the annexation of California to the 
United States. He had expected and often 
predicted a movement to that end. There is no 
foundation for the suspicion that the taking of 
Sonoma and his own capture were planned by 
himself, in collusion with the filibuster chiefs, 
with a view to evade responsibility; yet it is cer- 
tain that he had little if any objection to an en- 
forced arrest by officers of the United States as a 
means of escaping from the delicacy of his posi- 
tion as a Mexican officer. Accordingly, being 
assured that the insurgents were acting under 
Fremont, he submitted to arrest, gave up keys 
to public property, and entered upon negotia- 
tions with a view to obtain guarantees of protec- 
tion for non-combatants. 

"The guarantees sought were then drawn up 
in writing and signed by the respective parties. 
The originals of those documents are in my 
possession, and are given in a note." 

The following are the documents referred to 
by Mr. Bancroft: 

"Sonoma, June 14, 184G. 

"Be it known by these presents, that, having 
been surprised by a numerous armed force 
wiiich took me j)risoner,. witli the chief and offi- 

cers belonging to the garrison of this place that 
the said force took possession of, having found 
it absolutely defenseless, myself as well as the 
undersigned officers pledge our word of lienor 
that, being under the guarantees of prisoners of 
war, we will not take up arms for or against the 
said armed forces, from whlcli we have received 
the present intimation, and a signed writing 
which guarantees our lives, families, and prop- 
erty, and those of all the residents of this ju- 
risdiction, so long as we make no opposition. 
M. J. Valle,to, 
Victor Prudon, 

" We, the undersigned, have resolved to es- 
tablish a government of on (upon?) republican 
principles, in connection with others of our 
fellow-citizens, and having taken up arms to 
support it, we have taken three Mexican officers 
as prisoners, Gen. M. J. Vallejo, Lieut. -Col. 
Victor Prudon, and Capt. D. Salvador Vallejo. 
having formed and published to the world no 
regular plan of governi^ent, feel it our duty to 
say it is not our intention to take or injure any 
person who is not found in opposition to the 
cause, nor will we take or destroy the property 
of private indi\;iduals further than is necessary 
for our support. Ezekiel Merritt, 

R. Semple, 
William Fallox, 
Samiel Kelsay." 

Mr. Bancroft, continuing says: "It was 
natui-ally to be expected, under the circum- 
stances, that the arrested officers would be re- 
leased on parole. Such was evidently the view 
taken on both sides at first. Ford says there 
were some who favored such a course. Leese. 
who had the best opportunities for understand- 
ing the matter, and who gives a more detailed 
account than any other writer, tells us that 
such a decision was reached; and finally, the 
documents which I iiave presented, Nos. 1 and 
2, being to all intents and purposes regular pa- 
role papers, leave no doubt u])on the subject. 
But ut)W difficulties arose, resjtectiiig some 


phase of which there is contradictory testi- 

"Thus far only a few of tlie insurgent leaders 
had entered, or at least remained in the house; 
and the negotiations liad in reality been con- 
ducted bj Semple and Leese very much in their 
own way. Ide testifies that Merritt, Semple 
and Wm. Knight, the latter accompanying the 
expedition merely as an interpreter, were the 
first to eTiter the house, while the rest waited 
outside; that presently hearing nothing, they 
became impatient, determined to choose a cap- 
tain, ami elected John (Trigsl)y, who thereupon 
went in; and after waiting what appeared an 
age, the men again lost patience and called upon 
the writer, Ide, to go and investigate the causes 
of delav. Now the discrepancies in testimony 
begin. Ide describes the slate of things which 
met his view as follows: 'The General's gen- 
erous spirits gave proof of his usual hospitality, 
as the richest wines and brandies sparkled in 
the glasses, and those who had thus uncere- 
moniously met soon became merry companions; 
more especially the merry visitors. There sat 
Dr. S., just modifying a long string of articles 
of capitulation. There sat ]V[erritt, his head 
fallen; there sat Knight, no longer able to in- 
terpret; and there sat the new-made captain, as 
mute as the seat he sat upon. The bottles had 
well-nigh vantpiished the captors!' Leese also 
states that the brandy was a potent factor in 
that morning's event; but aeconling to his ver- 
sion, it was on the company outside that its in- 
lluence was e.xerted, rendering them noisy and 
unmanageable, though an effort had been made 
by his advice to put the liquor out of reach. I 
do not, however, deem it at all likely that the 
leaders drank more than it was customary to 
drink in a Californian's parlor, or more than 
tliey could carry; but that some of the rough 
characters in the company became into.xicated 
we may well believe. 

"At any rate, disagreement ensued, the men 
refused entirely to ratify the capitulation made 
by their former leaders, insisting that the pris- 
oners must be sent to the Sacramento; some of 

them were inclined to be insubordinate and 
eager for plunder; while the lawless spirits were 
restrained from committing outrages by the 
eloquence of Semple and the voice of the ma- 
jority; yet the leaders could not agree. Cap- 
tain Grigsby declined to retain the leadership 
that had been conferred upon him. So William 
B. Ide was chosen in his stead, and the revolu- 
tionists immediately took possession of all pub- 
lic property, as well as of such horses and other 
private property as they needed, at the same 
time locking up all citizens that could be found. 
It would seem that the second of the documents 
I have presented was torn, and the third drawn 
up and signed at an early stage of the disagree- 
ments, after it became apparent that it might be 
best to send the prisoners to the Sacramento, 
the signatures showing that it could not have 
been later. Vallejo, though not encouraged at 
seeing that the leaders were not j)ermitted by 
their followers to keep their promises, was not 
very much displeased at being sent to New 
Helvetia. He was assured that the insurgents 
were acting by Fremont's orders; his own views 
were known to be favorable to the schemes of 
the United States; and he had no reason to 
doubt that on meeting Fremont he and his 
companions would at once be released on parole. 
"Before the departure of the prisoners and 
their escort a formal meeting of the revolution- 
ists was held. That Semple, secretary, made a 
speech counselling united action and modera- 
tion in the treatment of the natives, and that 
William B. Ide was chosen captain, is all that 
is known of this meeting, except what we may 
learn from Ide' snarrative. The leaders differed 
in their ideas, not only respecting the dispo- 
sition to be made of the prisoners, but about 
the chief object of the movement. Evidently 
there had been no definitely arranged plan of 
operations. Fremont bad succeeded in bring- 
ing about a state of open hostility without 
committing himself. Some of the men re- 
garded their movement as merely intended to 
provoke Castro to inake an attack on Fremont; 
or at least they dreaded the responsibility of 


engaging in a regular revDJution, especially 
when it was learned that no one con Id produce 
any definite pi-omise from Fremont in black and 
wl'.ite to support such a movement. Others 
were in favor of an immediate declaration of 
independence. That such differences of opinion 
did exist as Ide states, is in itself by no means 
improbable; and it is confirmed to some extent 
by the fact that Grigsby did resign his leader- 
ship, and by the somewhat strange circumstance 
that three such prominent men as Grigsby, 
]\Ierritt and Semple should have left Sonoma to 
accompany the prisoners. Ide writes that when 
Grigsby heard that no positive orders from 
Fremont could be produced, liis fears of doing 
wrong overcame his patriotism, and he inter- 
rupted the speaker by saying: ' (Tcntlemen, I 
have been deceived; I cannot go with you; I 
resign and back out of the scrape. I can take 
my family to the mountains as cheap as any of 
you' — and Dr. S. at that moment led liim into 
the house. Disorder and confusion prevailed. 
One swore he would not stay and guard the 
prisoners; another swore we would all have our 
throats cut; another called for fresh horses; and 
all were on the move, every man for himself, 
when the speaker [Ide] resumed liis efforts, 
raising his voice louder and more loud, as tlie 
men receded from the place, saying: ' We need 
no horses; saddle no horse for me; I can go to 
the Spaniards and make freemen of them. I will 
lay my bones here before I will take upon my- 
self the ignominy of commencing an honorable 
work and tlien flee like cowards, like thieves, 
when no enemy is in sight. In vain will you 
say yon had honorable motives. Who will be- 
lieve if? Flee this day, and the longest life 
cannot wear out your disgrace! Choose ye this 
day what you will be! We are robbers or we 
must becon<[uerors! ' and the speaker in despair 
turned his back on liis receding conqianions. 
With new hope they rallied around the despond- 
ing speaker, made him their commander, their 
cliief; and his next words commanded the 
taking of the fort." Subsequently " the three 
leaders of the party of the pi'imitive plan of 

' neutral eonrpiest ' left us alone in our glory." 
I find no reason to doubt that this version, 
though somewhat highly colored, is in sub- 
stance accurate; that Merritt, having captured 
horses and prisoners, was content to rest on his 
laurels; that Grigsby was timid about assuming 
the responsibility of declaring independence 
without a positive assurance of Fremont's co- 
operation; that Semple, while in favor of inde- 
pen lence, preferred that Sacramento should be 
the center of operations, uidess — what Vallejo 
and Leese also favored — Fremont could be in- 
duced to establish his headquarters at Sonoma; 
or finally, that Ide and his associate influenced 
the majority to complete their revolutionary 
work and take no backward steps. I think, how- 
ever, that Ide and all the rest counted con- 
fidently on Fremont's support; and that Semple 
and Grigsby were by no means regarded as 
abandoning the cause when they left Sonoma. 

"It was about 11 a. m., on June 14th, when 
the three prisoners, accompanied by Leese us 
interpreter at their request and that of the 
captors — not himself a prisoner as has been 
generally stated — and guarded by Grigsby, 
Semple, Merritt, Ilargrave, Knight and four of 
five others, started on horses from Yallejo's 
herds for the Sacramento. It will be most 
convenient to follow them before proceeding to 
narrate later developments at Sonoma. Before 
starting, and on the way, Vallejo was often 
questioned by ('alifornians as to the situation of 
afiairs; but could only counsel them to i-emain 
quiet, announcing that he would probably 
return within four or live days. His idea was 
that Fremont, after releasing hiin and his 
companions on parole, might be induced to 
establish his headquarters at Sonoma, an idea 
shared by Semple, Grigsby and Leese. Relations 
between captives and captors were altogether 
friendly, except in the case of some hostile 
feeling among a few individuals against Don 

" They encamjied that night at Yaca's rancho. 
No special pains wei-e taken to guanl the prison- 
ers, who, with Leese, slept on a |)ilf of >li:iw 


near tlie camp. Yallejo had desired to travel 
all night; luit the men declined to do so, having 
had no sleep the night before. Before dawn on 
the morning of the loth, a Californian succeeded 
in reaching the cai)tives, and informed Yallejo 
tha't a company of his countrymen had been 
organized to effect his rescue, and only awaited 
his orders. The Colonel refused to permit such 
an attempt to be made, both because he had no 
reason to fear any unpleasant results from his 
enforced visit to the Sacramento, and because 
he feared retaliation at Sonoma in case an 
attempt to escape should bring harm to any of 
the guards. On the 15th the party reached 
Hardy's place on the Sacramento. Here Merritt 
left the others, intending to visit Fremont's camp 
and return next morning, but as he did not 
come back Leese, with one companion, started 
in the forenoon of the Itith, also in quest of 
Fremont. Arriving at Allgeier's place, they 
Ioarne<l that the Captain had moved his camp 

to the American River; and starting for that 
point, they rejoined their companions before 
arrival. Here Grigsby presented an order from 
Fremont for Leese's arrest, for which, so far as 
known, no explanation was given. 

" Late in the afternoon they reached the 
camp, and the prisoners were brought into the 
presence of Fremont. That officer's reception 
of them was very different from what had been 
anticipated. His words and manner were re- 
served and mysterious. He denied when 
Yallejo demanded for what offenses and by 
what authority he had caused their arrest, that 
he was in any way responsible for what had 
been done; declared tiiat thej' were prisoners of 
the people, who had been driven to revolt for 
self-protection; refused to accept their paroles, 
and sent them that same night, under a guard 
composed in part if not wholly of his own 
men — Kit Carson and Merritt being sent in ad- 
vance — to be locked up at Sutter's Furt." 



■ ■ 1 1 ■ ■ H K» aA^H IX l\ II H 



'\vii(i>[ — tiii:y have nine cannons and two m'NDREn muskets — Captain Ide issues a proc- 




GER SENT TO Fremont -- Fremont hastens to Sonoma with ninety men — goes to San 


the California Battalion organize with Fremont and Gieee;spie as officers — Fremon-i- 


Captain- MoNT(ioMEi:Y, of the Portsmouth, that war existed p-etween the United 
States and Mexico, he, on the morning of the 9tii of Jui.y dispatched Lieutenant 
liEVEKE TO Sonoma with an American flag, and at noon of that day the bear flag 

CAME down and the stars and stripes went IP. 

.g^^ENEPwAL VALLEJO certainly had a riglit 
'livTP to lie sHvprisid at tlie foregoing treatment 
W^ I'V Fremont. Tiiat lie appreciated the 
real condition of affairs is made very plain by 
the following correspondence, a carefnl perusal 
of which will show that General Vallejo, when 
taken prisoner at Sonoma, felt warranted in 
looking to United States anthoritics for protec- 
tion. From John B. Montgomery, command- 
ing United States ship Portsmouth, he certainly 
received more of consideration and cheer than 
from (xeneral Fremont, and yet in both instances 
the action of the l>ear Flag party seems to have 
been repudiated and ignored entirely. Viewed 
from tills stniidnoint it is not a matter of 

wonder that Cajitain Grigsby and others of the 
Bear Flag party may have felt a tickling sensa- 
tion aronnd the neck when they ascertained 
that their taking of Sonoma was not backed by 
any positive anthority from Fremont or any 
body else clothed with United States authority. 
The rank and file of the Bear Flag party evi- 
dently acted npon the principle that a "wink 
was as good as a nod of assent;" and taking their 
lives in their hands they struck the blow, and 
took the chances. Like John Adams who, after 
affixing his name to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, remarked, "well, if we hang, we ail 
hang together," they captured Sonoma, and left 
to tilt' fntiirt' what the outcome of the venturi' 


should be. Tlio t'ollowinc; is tlie eorrespinulenee 
refeiTcd to: 


'• (ieneral Vallejo's niessaye to Captain Mont- 
gomery, the daxj of the capture of Sonoma 
— Montijom.ery's reply — Lieutenant Miss- 
roon's account of the revolutionists — Highly 
creditahle conduct of the Bears — ■ Ide\i 
pledge to Missioon. 

" United States Ship Pokts.mihtii. 
"San Franiisco, Au^^ust 17, 1847. 
" My Deae General: — I am now about to sail 
for Monterey, and avail myself of tliis mode of 
expressing to you my regret that I shall thus 
most probably be deprived of seeing you on 
your contemplated visit to Yerba Buena to- 
morrow, having anticipated much pleasure from 
this event; Init you well know how little we 
servants of the public are left to the disposition 
of our own time. 

'* I reached the Portsmouth from Sonoma very 
coinfortably on Friday last about ti o'clock in 
the afternoon, greatly pleased with my visit, 
and gratified by the very kind and hospitable 
attentions of my esteemed friends there, the i-e- 
membrance of which I shall long continue to 

" In compliance with your e.xpressed wisiies 
while I was at Sonoma, I herewith inclose you, 
my dear General, copies of tiie document for- 
warded to yon by De la Rosa in tlie commence- 
ment of the late revolution, and those liaving 
reference to Lieutenant Missroon's visit to 
Sonoma b\- my ordei's, with overtures to the in- 
surgent chief in behalf of prisoners and the 
helpless inhabitants of that place, which you are 
at liberty to use as you shall think proper. 

'' From Monterey it is most probable 1 shall 
make a cruise to the southward, and am not 
without hopes of soon returning with the pleas- 
ing intelligence of peace between the United 
States and Mexico, which I feel assured will be 
most welcome tidings for you and all who are 
interested in the prosperity of California. 

'' Be pleased to present my most respectful re- 

gards to Madam Vallejo and all the members 
of your interesting family, and express to them 
my uf their kind hospitality and attention 
to me and my little son during our recent visit; 
and believe me, my dear General. 1 am and 
shall ever be, with highest esteem and friend- 
ship, sincerely your obedient servant, 

" John B. MoNT(io.MEKy. 
"Gen. Guadalupe Vallejo, Sonoma." 

Statement of the interview hetween Senor Don 
Jose de la Rosa and Vommander John B. 
Montgomery, commanding United States 
ship Portsmouth, Lieutenant W. A. Bart- 
lett, United States Navy, interpreter. By 
order of the commander, John B. Mont- 

" Don Jose de la Rosa, on coming on board 
the ship, desired to inform Captain Montgomery 
that he brought information from Don Guada- 
lupe Vallejo, military commandante of Sonoma, 
which he desired to give the moment Captain 
Montgomery could receive him. 

" On being received by Captain jMontgomery I 
was directed to act as interpreter, when Senor 
de la Rosa proceeded to deliver his message, 
which 1 wrote, as follows: 

" Don Guadalupe Vallejo desires to inform 
Captain ]\[ontgomery of the proceedings which 
took place at Sonoma yesterday morning, at 5 
o'clock. There arrived at Sonoma a party of 
about eighty men, as they said, from the Sacra- 
mento. They at once took forcible jiossession 
of the place, and posted themselves on the 
" Cuartel." They then made prisoners of Gen- 
eral Vallejo, Captain Don Salvador Vallejo, and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Don Victor Prndhon, all of 
whom are officers of the Mexican army. 

" Then a Mr. Merritt, who appeared to liave 
command (U- exercise the authority with the 
party, handed the General a convention demand- 
ing of iiim the surrender of all the arms and 
government property in Sonoma, which place 
they should not leave. 

" The General replied that he must surrender 
to the force in arms, and did so surrender, when 

niaroRT of sonoma county. 

tiie party demanded fiirtlier that all the above- 
named ofticers slionld go with them to their 
eanip on the Sacramento liiver. 

" General Vallejo tiien re(|uested them to 
show their authority or determination (ct/iajo qtie 
jddiioy, and as they said they were Americans, 
lie desired tliey should exhibit tlieir authority 
from the Government of tiie United States. 
They replied that they did not come under the 
authority of the United States; but having 
seen a proclamation of Gen. Castro, threatening 
to drive all foreigners out of the country, they 
hail taken up arms in self-defense. 

'• Tiiey then made a prisoner of the Alcalde, 
and told him that if any person in the place or 
neighborhood attempted to notify other places 
of this act, or raise a force to oppose tliem, they 
would at once shoot the otKcers they tlien held 
prisoners. The Alcalde was then set at liberty, 
l)ut told that if he did not prevent any opposi- 
tion to them he would also be shot. 

" General Vallejo desires to inform CJaptain 
Montgomery of these facts, and to ask him to 
use his authority or exert his intiuence to pre- 
vent the commission of acts of violence by this 
party, inasmuch as they seemed to be without 
any effectual head or authority. To this end he 
hoped for an officer to be sent to the place, or a 
letter that would have the effect of saving 
the helpless inhabitants from violence and 

'• Senor Don Jose de la Rosa was directed by 
(Teneral Vallejo (at 11 a. m. yesterday) to come 
with this message, but could not leave until 3 
1'. M. A few moments jjast 11 the party left a 
garrison of twenty-five men at Sonoma pro- 
tected by seven pieces of cannon. The others, 
with the prisoners, left for the SacraiTUMito." 

Iitij/lt/ of VomvKmder MonfyoiiKiij to tin' mcs- 
■sriye of General Vdllejo. 

" Sik: — You will say to General Vallejo, on 
my part, that I at once and entirely disavo■\^ this 
movement as having proceeded under any 
authority of the United States, or myself as 
the agent ot my Government in this country. 

or on this coast. It is a movement entirely 
local, and with which I have nothing to do; nor 
can I in any way be induced to take part in the 
controversy whicli belongs entirely to the inter- 
nal politics of California. 

"If they are Americans, as they avow them- 
selves, they are l)eyond the jurisdiction of the 
laws and officers of the United States, and must 
now take all the responsibilities of the position 
in which they have placed themselves, being 
answerable to the laws of Mexico and Califor- 

" I have now for the first time heanl of this 
movement, and in making the most positive 
disavowal, for myself and for my Government, 
having in any wise instigated or aided this. I 
also disavow the same on the part of Captain 
Fremont, United States topographical engineer, 
now in the country for scientific purposes. 

" If my individual efforts can be at any time 
exercised to allay violence or prevent injury to 
innocent persons, it shall be exerted; but as an 
officer of the Government of the United States 
I cannot have anything to do with either party. 
They must take the responsibilities of their own 
acts. From what has already transpired I think 
it clear that no violence will be committed on 
any one who is not found with arms in their 
hands. You will assure General Don Guada- 
lupe Vallejo of my sympathy in his difficulties; 
but I cannot positively interfere in the hical 
politics of California." 

Senor de la Rosa then thanked Captain AFont- 
gomery for his sentiments and sympatii}'; stateil 
that all was distinctly undei'sfood and translated, 
and that he Would place his statement in the 
hands of Don Guadalupe Vallejo at tiie earliest 

" I hereby certifythat the ])receding statement 
is a fair translation (^i' the message and rej)ly 
read to Captain Montgomery and Senor de la 

" (Signed) W. A. Ii.vkti.ktt, 

" l>ieutenant United States Navy, 

" United States ship I'ni'txiiioiitlt, Saucelito, 
June 15, 18-1(;." 


nrsTonr of soNo^fA rorxrr 

[copy of OKDEK to r.IKlTENANT MISSl{(iOX.] 

" T^NiTKD States Sill I' Poktsnioitii, 

"San Francisco, June 15, 1S4G. 

" Stir. — IJy an especial messenger sent to me 
by Don (4nailalnpe Yallejo. I am notified of the 
forcible occupation of tlie town of Sonoma by 
a party of insurgents (foreign residents) of the 
country, among wliom are said to be some per- 
sons from tlie United States, and that General 
Don Guadalupe Yallejo, with several other 
Mexican officers, have been sent prisoners to the 
Sacramento and threatened to be detained as 
hostages for the quiet submission of the sur- 
rounding country, leaving their families and 
other inoft'ensive persons in and about Sonoma 
in a painful state of agitation through apjire- 
hcnsions of violence and cruel treatment from 
the insurgent party in charge of the town. In 
consequence of this state of things. General 
Yallejo has appealed to me, requesting the in- 
terposition of any authority or influence I may 
possess over the insurgents to prevent the perpe- 
tration of acts of violence on their part upon 
the defenseless people. 

"1 have, in ray reply to (General Yallejo (by the 
messenger), stated my previous ignorance of 
the popular movement in question; distinctly 
and emphatically disavowed all agency of the 
United States Government or myself as her 
representative in producing it, and disclaimed 
all right or authority to interfere between the 
opposing parties or in any M'ay to identify my 
movements with theirs. But, in compliance 
with the urgent calls of humanity, I deem it 
m}- duty to use my friendl}' endeavors with the 
dominant party to secure (by the power of God) 
for the defenseless people of Sonoma that 
security of life, jiroperty and privilege to which 
all are entitled. 

" In pursuance of these views, sir, you are di- 
rected to ])roceed in one of the sliip's boats to 
Sonoma, and, on your arrival there, you will 
wait on the officer or person commanding the 
party having possession of the town; and as it 
is possible he is not fully aware of the extent 

and nature of the feelings produced in the 
iTiinds of the population by this recent move- 
ment you will inform him of the state of appre- 
hension and terror into which it seems to have 
thrown them, and disclaiming all right or pur- 
pose on my part of interference between them 
and their actual opposers; and without touching 
upon the merits of their cause further than may 
not be avoided in course of conversation, be 
pleased (in such terms as your own sense, of 
propriety will dictate) respectfully to request 
from me, that he will extend his protecting care 
over the defenseless families of their prisoners 
and other inoffensive persons of Sonoma, and 
exert his infiuence with others in order to secure 
to them the uninterrupted enjoyment of their 
domestic and social privileges. 

"You will afterward wait on the Alcalde, or 
presiding civil officer of Sonoma, and inform 
him of what has been done (at the instance of 
Don Guadalupe Yallejo), communicating any 
satisfactory assurances which you may have re- 
ceived from the insurgent chief calculated to 
allay the general apprehension; after wliicli, 
when sufficiently I'ecruited, you will return to 
this ship and render to me a written report. 
"Respectfully, I am, sir, yourobedient servant 
" (Signed), John B. "Monti jomkkv, 

" Commander. 

" To Lieutenant John S. Missroon, Executive 
Officer United States ship Portsiaouthy 


" Dear Sir: — As an appendage to the orders 
handed you last evening, I wish you to endeavor 
in as forcible a manner as possible, to represent 
to the person or persons of the insurgent jiarty 
with whom you may confer at Sonoma and to 
impress their minds with a sense of the advan- 
tages wliich will accrue to their cause (whatever 
its intrinsic merits may be) from pursuing a 
course of kind and benevolent treatment of 
prisoners, as well as toward the defenseless in- 
habitants of the country generally, with whom 
they may have to do, and endeavor, as far as 
propriety will permit, to obtain a promise of 


kind and luiiiiane treatment toward General 

Vallejo and his conipaniuns in their possession 

as prisoners. 

" I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant 
" (Signed) John B. Mo.ntgomerv, 

>' Commander. 
" To Lieutenant John S. Missroon, United 

States ship Portsnujath. "' 

Report of Lieutewnit JIi>i»rooii on /lia return 
from Sonoiio', ir/t/i accoiiijiaui/hnj docu- 
ment " B." 

'• Unitkd Statks Snii' PuKTsMnrrn, 
" Sa.n Francisi(j, June 17, 1846. 

Sir: — In pursuance of your order of the 16th 
instant, to proceed to Sonoma and endeavor by 
all proper means in my power to secure to the 
females and unoffending portion of tiie popula- 
tion of that district some degree of security for 
their persons and property during the occupancy 
of the place by certain insurgents, chiefly 
foreigners, I have the honor to report, in ol)edi- 
ence to that order, that I left the ship on the 
day of receiving your instructions, and reached 
the town about sunset, where I found about 
twenty-iive men under arms, and having six or 
seven pieces of artillery with several hundred 
stand of arms. The whole party is only thirty- 

"I waited upon the commanding officer, Wm. 
I>. Ide, and received from him both verbal and 
written assurances of his intention to maintain 
order and to respect both the jiei'soiis and prop- 
erty of all persorrs residing within the limits of 
his command. He also handed nie a copy of a 
proclamation which he had issued on the day 
after his occupation of the town, and which I 
herewith present to you, marked " A," in which 
you will observe that these promises of pi'otec- 
tion are set forth in explicit terms, and which 1 
would remark to you, seemed to me to have fully 
assured the inhabitants of their safety, although 
Sonoma is evidently under martial law. 

" By tiiis proclamation you will also observe 
that California is declared to be an independent 
republic. The insurgent party has hoisted a 

ffuff with a white field, with a liorder or stripe 
of red on its lower ])art, and having a star and 
bear upon it. 

" I informed the commanding otticer of the 
state of terror into which his movement uiicm 
Sonoma had thrown the inhabitants in and 
about the Verba IJuena, as directed by my 

" I then waited upon the Alcalde of the place, 
informed him throiigh my interpreter that my 
visit was entirely of a peaceful character, and 
that it had been induced liy the message which 
my commander had received from the late 
Mexican commander. General Vallejo, now a 
prisoner in the hands of the insurgents, asking 
his (my commander's) interference for the pro- 
tection of females and unoffending inhabitants; 
that assurances of respect and protection were 
freely given me by the commanding officer of 
the party under arms, and that I explicity made 
it known to him, for the information of the sur- 
rounding country, that my commander dis- 
claimed any and all interference in the matter 
other than what was dictated by motives of 

" After these interviews I then called upon the 
family of General Vallejo and moderated their 
distress, by the assurance of safety for the Gen- 
eral, whicli I had received, and informing tlain 
that the prisoners were held as hostages. 

" Having completed the object for which I 
went to Sonoma, I left the place yesterday with 
the thanks of both parties, about meridian, and 
reached the ship about sunset. Before taking 
my departure I deemed it best to reassure the 
Alcalde, in order to prevent any necessity for 
future explanation, which is so apt to grow out 
of a business transacted with Mexicans, especi- 
ally through an interpreter. I therefore ad- 
dressed the letter marked " B,'' appending to it 
the written pledge, or a copy of the pledge, 
which I had obtained from the commander of 
tiie foreigners in possession of the place, and 
whicii I herewith hand you a co]>y of 

"It only remains, sir, for me to add that, so 
far as I could judge and observe, the utmost 


hrti-inoiiy and guud order prevail in tlie camp, 
and tliat 1 liavo every reason to believe that the 
pledges of kind treatment toward all wlio may 
fall into their hands will be faithfully obseri-ed. 

>' Respectfully, sir, your obedient servant, 

"(Signed). d. S. Misskoon, 

'> First Lieutenant United States ship Portn- 

"To Conmiander J no. J!, ^iontgoniery. com- 
manding United States ship 7'"/'i.s//<'>Mi'/', JSayof 
San Francisco."' 

Document " ij," arcumpiunjinij the fdrcijiiiinj 

" SiiN<iMA, June 17, 1846. 

"Sik: — As you were informed yesterday, 
through my interpreter, my visit to this place 
is of a strictly inediatorial character, and was 
induced by the application of General Vallejo 
through his messenger, Senor Kosa, to Captain 
Montgomery, requesting of him to ' adopt 
measures for tlie protection of the females and 
peaceable inhabitants of Sonoma. 

" I have the pleasure to assure you of the 
intention of the foreigners now in arms and 
occupying Sonoma, to respect the persons of all 
individuals and their property, who do not talve 
up arms against them, and I leave with you a 
copy of the pledge which the commander of the 
])arty has voluntarily given to me, with a view 
to the pacification of all alarm. 

>■ KespectfuUy, your obedient servant. 

"(Signed). J. S. Misskoon, 

" Jjieutenant United States Navy." 

"to the alcalde of so.nhma. 

" I pledge myself that I will use my utmost 
exertion to restrain and prevent the men in 
arms under my command, all iif whom present 
acknowledge my authority and approve the 
measure of forbearance and humanity, from jier- 
petrating any violence, or in any manner molest- 
ing the peaceable inhalntants, in pei-son or prop- 
erty, of California, while we continue in arms 
for the liberty of California. 

" (Signed), Wm. B. Iue, 

" Commander. 

" AVitness to the above signature, 

"(Signed), J. S. Misskoon, 

" Lieuteiumt United States Navy, and Execu- 
tive Otiicer of the United States ship l'ortt<- 

"So.NOMA, June 17, 184G." 

The revolutionists were now master id' the 
situation, having control of nine cannons anil 
about two hundred muskets. "While AVMIliam 
B. Ide, then the leader of the ISear Flag party, 
may have been a man of some eccentricity of 
character, he seems to have been a man of con- 
siderable culture, and there is little room for 
doubt that he shaped and controlled, to a large 
degree, the conduct of those under him. It was 
no sinecure position, this of Commander Ide. 
It is true, the prisoners sent to Sacramento were 
taken charge of by General Fremont, under the 
saving clause that he had nothing to do with 
their arrest — and it is also true that Commander 
Montgomery of the Purtsinoiith in an unofficial 
way, and in obedience to the dictates of human- 
ity, sent Lieutenant Missroon to SononiH. to 
counsel moderation and kindness on the part of 
the revolutionists toward the vanquished; but 
in neither case was there ought said or done 
that could be construed into leaving the door 
ajar for a safe retreat of the Bear Flag pai ty 
out of their difficulty should their i-ebellion 
prove abortive. To stand their ground and 
successfully maintain their position under such 
adverse circumstances re(juired not only nerve 
but real heroism. 

That they knew that they were acting outside 
of the pale of any responsible authority is ap- 
parent from the fact that one of the very first 
matters to claim their consideration was the 
adoption of a flag. There is little question tJiat 
the bear flag was made on the day of the taking 
of Sonoma, although it is quite possible it was 
not completed so as to be hoisted until the 
morning of the 15tli of June. As there has 
been much controversy as to how and by whom 
that flag was made, we give place to the follow- 
ing which we believe to be authentic: 

AVm. L. Todd in a letter to the editor of the 


Los Angeles E,vprci<s, under date of January 
11, 1878, gives the following version of the 
construction of the bear Hag: 

"Your letter of the 'Jtii inst. came duly to 
hand, and in answer I have to say in regard to 
the nialcing of the original hear flag of Califor- 
nia at Sonoma, in 184B, that when the Ameri- 
cans, who had taken up arms against the Span- 
ish regime, had determined what kind of a flag' 
should be adopted, the following persons per- 
formed the work: Granville P. Swift, Peter 
Storm, Henry L. Ford and myself; we procured 
in the house where we made our headquarters, a 
piece of new unbleached cotton domestic, not 
quite ayard wide, with stripesof red flannel about 
four inches wide, furnished by Mrs. John Sears, 
on the lower side of the canvas. On the xipper left 
hand corner was a star, and in the center was the 
image made to represent a grizzly he&r passant, so 
common inthiscountryatthe time. The bear and 
star "were painted with paint made of linseed oil 
and Venetian red or Spanish brown. Underneath 
the bear were the words 'California Kepublic' 
The other person engaged with me got the ma- 
terials together, while I acted as artist. The forms 
the bear and star and the letters were flrst lined of 
out with pen and ink by myself, and the two 
forms were filled in with the red paint, but the 
letters with ink. The flag mentioned by Mr. 
Hittell with the bear rampant, was made, as I 
always understood, at Santa Barbara, and was 
painted black. Allow me to say, that at that 
time there was not a wheelwright shop in Cali- 
fornia. The flag I painted I saw in the rooms 
of the California Pioneers in San Francisco, in 
1870, and the secretary will show it to any per- 
son who will call on him at any time. If it is the 
one that I painted, it will be known by a mistake 
in tinting out the words 'California Republic' 
The letters were flrst lined out with a pen, and 
I left out the letter ' 1,' and lined out the letter 
'C' in its place. lint afterward I lined out 
the letter ' I " over the ' (^ ' so that the last syl- 
lable of ' Republic " looks as if the tw-o last let- 
ters were blemled. Yours Respectfully, 

" AVji. L. Todd. "■ 

On the occasion of the Centennial e.vercises, 
held at Santa llosa on the 4th of July, 187(5, 
General M. G. Vallejo made the following 
statement in reference to the capture of Sono- 
ma in 1846 by tlie Americans : 

" I have now to say something of the epoch 
which inaugurated a new era for this county. 
A little before dawn on June 14, 1846, a party 
of hunters and trappers, with some foreign set- 
tlers, under command of C-aptain Merritt, 
Doctor Semple and AVilliam B. Ide, surrounded 
my residence at Sonoma, and without flring a 
shot, made a prisoner of myself, then com- 
mander of the northern frontier; of Lieutenant- 
Colonel Victor Prudon, Captain Salvador A^al- 
lejo, and Jacob P. Leese. I should here state 
that down to October, 1845, I had maintained 
at my own expense a respectable garrison at 
Sonoma, which often, in union with the settlers, 
did good service in campaign against the In- 
dians; but at last, tired of spending money 
which the Mexican Government never refunded, 
I disbanded the force, and most ot the soldiers 
who had constituted it left Sonoma. Thus in 
June, 1846, the Plaza was entirely unprotected, 
although there were ten war pieces of artillery, 
with other arms and munitions of war. The 
parties wdio unfurled the bear flag were well 
aware that Sonoma was without defense, and 
lost no time in taking ad vantage of this fact, and 
carrying out their plans. Years before I had 
urgently represented to the government of 
Mexico the necessity of stationing a sufiicient 
force on the frontier, else Sonoma would be 
lost, which would be equivalent to leaving the 
rest ot the country an easy prey to the invader. 
AVhat think you, my friends, were the instruc- 
tions sent me in reply to my repeated demands 
for means to fortify the country ? These in- 
structions were that I should at once force the 
immigrants to recross the Sierra Nevada, and 
depart from the territory of the Ilepublic. 
To say nothing of the inhumanity of these 
orders, their execution was physically iujpossi- 
ble — first, because the iirimigrants came in 
autumn wheu snow covered the Sierra so quickly 


as tu make a ntm-ii iiiijiractieable. Under the 
circiiiiiotitnces, nut only 1, but Cominandaiite 
General Castro, resolved to provide tlie iinnii- 
grauts with letters of security, that they might 
remain temporarily in the country. We 
always made a show of authority, i)ut well 
convinced all the time that we had had no 
power to resist the invasion, which was coming 
upon lis. "With the frankness of a soldier I can 
assure you that the American immigrants never 
had cause to complain of the treatment they 
received at the hands of either authorities or 
citizens. They carried us as prisoners to Sacra- 
mento, and kept us in a calaboose for sixty 
days < r more, until the United States made 
itself respected, and the honorable and hu- 
mane Commudore Stockton returned us to our 

•' On the seizure of their prisoners the revo- 
lutionists at once took steps to appoint a captain 
who was found in the person of John Grigsby, 
for Ezef<iel ilerritt wished not to retain the 
permanent command; a meeting was then called 
at the l)arracks, situated at the northeast corner 
of the Plaza, nnder the presidency of William 
15. Ide, Dr. Robert Semple being secretary. At 
this conference Semple urged tlie independence 
of the country, stating that having once com- 
menced they must i)roceed, for to turn back was 
certain death. Before the dissolution of the 
convention, however, rumors were rife that 
secret emissaries were being dispatched to the 
Mexican rancheros, to inform them of the 
recent occurrences, therefore to prevent any 
attempt at a rescue it was deemed best to trans- 
fer their prisoners to Sutter's. Fort, where the 
danger of such would be less.'' 

In order that the conijuest of California 
should be accomplished in a decent and orderly 
way and the record thereof be properly handed 
down to future generations, Captain William B. 
kle formulated the following declaration of 
purposes which was duly published to the world 
on the 18th of June: 

'' A proclamation to all persons and citizens 
of the district of Sonoma rec^uestiug them to 

remain at peace and follow their rightful 
occupations without fear of molestation. 

"The commander-in-chief of the troops as- 
sembled at the fortress of Sonoma gives his 
inviolable pledge to all persons in California, 
not found under arms, that they shall not be 
disturbed in their persons, their ]iroperty, or 
social relation, one with another, liy men under 
his co7ninand. 

"He also solemnly declares his object to be: 
First, to defend himself and conipanionsin arms, 
who were invited to this country by a promise 
of lands on which to settle themselves and 
families; who were also promised a Republican 
Government; when, having arrived in Califor- 
nia, they were denied the privilege of buying or 
renting lands of their friends, who instead of 
being allowed to participate in or being pro- 
tected by a Republican government, were op- 
pressed by a military despotism; who were even 
threatened by proclamation by the chief officers 
of the aforesaid despotism with extermination if 
they should not depart t)Ut of the country, leav- 
ing all their |)roperty,arms and beasts of burden; 
and thus de])rived of their means of flight or 
defense, were to be driven through deserts 
inhabited by hostile Indians, to certain destruc- 

"To overthrow a government which has 
seized upon the pros[)erity of the mission for its 
individual aggrandizement; which has ruined 
and shamefully oppressed the laboring people 
of California by enormous exactions on goods 
imported into the country, is the determined 
purpose of the brave men who are associated 
under my command. 

•• I also solemnly declare my object, in the 
second place, to be to invite all peaceable and 
good citizens of California who are friendly to 
the maintenance of good order and equal rights, 
and I do hereby invite them to repair to my camp 
at Sonoma without delay to assist us in estab- 
lishing and perpetuating a Republican govern- 
ment, which shall secure to all civil and religious 
liberty; which shall encourage virtue and 
literature; which shall leave unshackled by 


fetters agi-icii!tiire, coiuinerce ami mainifact- 

" 1 t'urtlier declare that I rely upon the recti- 
tude of our iiitentious, the favur of heaven and 
the bravery of those who are bound and asso- 
ciated with me by principles of- self-preservation, 
by the love of the truth and the hatred of 
tyranny, for my hopes of success. 

•• I furthermore declare thai I believe that a 
government to be prosperous and happy must 
originate with the people who are friendly to its 
existence, that the citizens are its guardians, the 
otfieers its servants, its glory its reward. 

•' William B. Iue."' 

Thus far the revolution had been a bloodless 
one,' but it was not destined to continue so to 
the end. There were two occurrences of thrill- 
ing character that came in (piick succession — 
the killing of Cowie and Fowler and the battle of 
Olompali. As Ilobert A. Thompson, who has 
gathered much of the early history of Sonoma 
Count}', got his information about the battle 
referred to from one of the participants therein 
we here incorporate his graphic account of those 
two events. 

About this time one of the most distressing 
events of the revolution occurred. It was dis- 
covered that the garrison had an insufficient sup- 
ply of powder. It was known that Moses 
Carson, at the Fitch ranch, on Russian River, 
had some on hand. Two men named T. Cowie 
and — Fowler, who had joined the party in 
Napa, volunteered to go and get the powder. 
They imprudently took the main traveled road, 
or returned to it near Santa Rosa, and were 
capture 1 by a scouting party, or, rather, a rov- 
ing band of cut-throats and thieves under the 
lead of Juan Padillo. The two men were 
kept in the Carillio house all night. The next 
morning they were taken up the little valley, 
near the present county farm, were first inliu- 
nianly treated, and then shot. Not satisfied 
with this, their bodies were mutilated in a lior- 
rid manner and were then thrown into a ditch. 
An Indian named Chanatc, who knew the men, 
told Mose Carson of their fate and condition, 

and he came and buried them under a pine 
tree, piling up a few rocks to mark the spot. 

Finding that Cowie and Fowler did not re- 
turn, there was much uneasiness in Sonoma. 
A party was sent up the valley to make inquiry, 
who learned the circumstances of their cruel 
muider and mutilation. Two others of the 
party who were out in search of horses, had 
been taken, and it was feared that thej', too, 
would be killed. 

The Bear Flag men were not of the class to 
suffer any indignity, much less a horrid outrage 
like this. It demanded instant and exemplary 
punishment. Volunteers were called for to go 
in search of the murderers. The whole garri- 
son volunteered. All could not go. Twenty- 
three were selected and put under command of 
Lieutenant W. L. Ford. Among the number was 
Frank Bidwell, to whom the writer is indebted 
for this account of the pursuit. Captain Ford 
and his command came first to Santa Rosa. Pa- 
dillo had fled. From Santa Rosa he went to the 
Roblar de la Miseria, Fadillo's ranch. He was 
there told by some Indians that the marauding 
band had gone, some three hours before, to the 
Laguna de San Antonio. Captain Ford pushed on 
to that point and bivouacked half a mile from the 
supposed headquarters. He charged upon the 
house next morning and found only four men 
there, whom he took prisoners. He left some 
of his men to guard the prisoners and horses 
which he had captured. 

With fourteen men he continued the pursuit. 
After a brief ride of a few miles he came to 
the Olompali ranch, now Dr. Burdell's place, in 
Marin County. He saw a number of horses in 
a corral near the house apparently in charge of a 
vaquero. He dashed up rapidly to prevent the 
man in charge from turning them loose, as he 
proposed to confiscate them. Getting nearer he 
was astonished to see the Californians pouring 
out of the house and hastily mounting their 
already saddled horses. He had run upon the 
combined forces of Captain Joaquin de la Torre 
and the Santa Rosa murderers, numbering all 
told eighty-three men. Both parties had been 


surprised. Fortunately there was a willow thick- 
et about sixty yards from the house. Wiiile 
the enemy were getting in motion Captain 
Ford ordered his men to fall back to the brush 
and to dismount, tie their horses, take position 
in the brush, and by no means to fire until 
" sure of a man." There was a mountaineer in 
the party who went by tlie name of "Old Red." 
lie was a dead shot, and was stationed in the 
upper end of the wood. Frank Bid well was 
some distance below him. The Californians, 
made bold by the supposed retreat, formed 
their lines and came up handsomely. Their ad- 
vance was led by a gallant young Sergeant. 
All was still in the willows. The sharp crack 
uf a rifle broke the silence, followed l)y a puff 
of smoke, which burst through the brush. It 
was "Old Red," who could not hold his tire. 
This brought on the tight. Other shots came in 
quick succession. In a very few moments eight 
of the assaulting party lay dead upon the plain, 
two were wounded, and a horse with an ugly 
bullet-hole in his neck was struggling in the 
tield. The young Sergeant was the last to fall, 
whereupon the whole band broke for the cover 
of the hills, receiving as they left a volley at 
long range as a parting salute. Twenty-three 
shots had been fired ; eleven took effect. '• Old 
Red's" excuse for tiring so soon was, that he was 
"sure of a man" anywhere in range. 

As soon as the tight began a woman in the 
house cut Todd's bonds, and he joined his com- 
rades before it was over. Captain Ford rested on 
his arms for some time thinking that the enemy 
would rally and renew the tight, but they made 
no sign. It was enough. He thereupon set 
out on his return to Sonoma with his rescued 
prisoners and his caj)tives. The captured horses 
he drove before him as the spoil of war. Tlie 
murder of Gowie and Fowler was avenged on 
the tield of Olompali. 

On the 20th of June, Castro made his tirst 
move in the direction of trying t(j recover lost 
ground north of the bay. On tiiat date Cap- 
tain Joaquin de la Torre crossed tlie bay with 
about seventy Californians and being joined by 

Padea and Correo, took a position near San 
Rafael. Of these movements F^remont was 
speedily apprised, and now for the tirst time 
gave o])en recognition of the claims of the rev- 
olutionists upon him for active aid. On the 
2.3d of June, Harrison Pierce, a pioneer settler 
of Najja Valley made a forced ride of eighty 
miles to Fremont's camp announcing the pres- 
ence of Castro's troops on the north side of the 
bayand the consequent peril of those who had cap- 
tured Sonoma. He received a promise from Fre- 
mont to come to their aid just as soon as he could 
put ninety men into saddle. Pierce, with this 
cheering news retraced the eighty miles fortnerly 
passed over, with but one change of horse, and 
soon carried the news to the little garrison at 
Sonoma, that I^remont was coming. On the 
evening of the A&y he had received the tidings 
Fremont and his men were on their way toward 
Sonoma. Of the make-up of F^-emont's force, 
one of the party wrote as follows: 

"There were Americans, French, English, 
Swiss, Poles, Russians, Prussians, Chileans, 
Germans; Greeks, Austrians, Pawnees, native 
Indians, etc., all riding side by side and talking 
a polyglot lingual hash never exceeded in di- 
versibility since the confusion of tongues at the 
tower of Babel. Some wore the relics of their 
home-spun garments, some relied upon the an- 
telope and the bear for their wardrobe, some 
lightly habited in buckskin leggings and a coat 
of war-paint, and their weapons were ecjualiy 
various. There was the grim old hunter with 
his long heavy ritie, the farmer with his double- 
barreled shot-gun, the Indian with his bow and 
arrows; and otiiers with horse-pistols, revolvers, 
sabres, ships' cutlasses, bowie-knives, and pep- 
per-boxes (Allen's revolvers)." Fremont, with 
this incongruous l)and, made forced marches 
and reached Sonoma on the morning of June 
25th. After a rest F'remont started for San 
Rafael in quest of Castro and Torre's forces. 
Castro had not crossed over as supposed and 
Torre was invisible. A decoy letter of Torre 
fell into Fremont's hands the purport of which 
was that Torre's force with some other imaginary 



ally \va> tu prucecd against Sonoma. Fremont at 
unce called tu saddle and his command went 
toward Sonoma as fast as muscle and tendon of 
mustang liorses would carry tliem. Arrived 
there, Fremont became satisfied tliat lie had 
been deceived, and ma<le swift haste l)ack 
toward San Rafael; but it was of no avail — 
the wiley Torre had succeeded in getting his 
troops across the bay and was out of reach ut' 
the clutches of the "Path Finder.'" 

It was on this occasion of the return of 
Fremont to San Rafael that occurred what has 
the resemblance of wanton sacrifice of human 
life. We allude to the shooting of Ramon and 
Fi'ancisco de Haro. They were of a i-espectable 
family living at YerbaBuena. They reacheti the 
San Rafael Embarcaduro in a boat managed by 
Jose R. Berryessa. The llaro's are said to ha\ e 
been (|uite young — only si.xteen or eighteen 
years of age. One version is that they were 
taken prisoners, as spies, and were regularly 
sentenced and shot. But the statement that 
Bancroft seems to give credence to is, that when 
they were seen to land. Kit Carson asked Fre- 
niiint, on starting witli a sijuad of men to meet 
them, whether he should take them prisoners, 
and that Fremont's reply was, "we have no use 
for prisoners.'' It is then claimeil that Carson 
and his men as soon as in shooting distance 
opened lire, killing them on the spot. The late 
Jasper O'Farrel is given as the authority for this 
version, and claimed to have witnessed the whole 
transaction. Unless there is more light cast on 
this transactit)!! than we have had as yet, 
the killing of tiiosc young men will always seem 
wantiin and ciiiel. 

Captain \Villiam I). l*lielj)s of Le.\ington, 
Massachusetts, who was lying at Saucelito with 
his bark, the '•"i\" remarks, says Mr. 
Lancey: - 

'' When Fremont passed San Rafael in pursuit 
of Captain de la Toi're's party, 1 had just left 
them, and he sent me wonl that he would drive 
them to Saucelito that night, when they could 
not escape unless they got my boats. I hastened 
back to the ship and made all safe. There was 

a large launch lying near the lieach; this was 
anchored further otl', and I put provisions on 
board to be ready for Fi-emont should he need 
her. ^Vt night there was not a boat on shore. 
Tone's |»iirty must shortly arrive and show tight 
or snri-ender. Toward morning we heard them 
arrive, and to our surprise they were seen pass- 
ing with a snniU boat from the shore to the 
launch (a small boat had arrived from Yerba 
Buena during the night which had proved their 
salvation). I dispatclied a note to the com- 
mander of the ' Portsuwitth,^ sloop-of-war, then 
lying at Yerba Buena, a cove (tiow San Fran- 
cisco) informing him of their movements, and 
intimating that a couple of his boats could 
easily intercept and cajiture them. Captain 
Montgomery replied that not having received 
any official notice of war existing he could not 
act in the matter. 

"It was thus the poor scamps escaped. Tliey 
pulled clear of the ship and thus escaped sup- 
ping on grape and canister which we had 
prepared for them. 

" Fremont arrived and camped ojijiosite my 
vessel, the bark ' JLiscoir^' the following nig-lit. 
They were early astir the next morning when I 
landed to visit Captain Fremont, and were all 
variously employed in taking care of their 
horses, mending saddles, cleaning their arms, 
etc. I had not up to this time seen Fremont, 
but from reports of his character and exploits 
my imagination hail painted him as a large- 
sized, martial-looking man or persoinige, tower- 
ing above his companions, whiskered and 
ferocious looking. 

" I took a survey of the party, l)ut eouM imt 
discover anyone who looked, as I thought, the 
cajjtain to look. Seeing a tall, lank, Kentucky- 
looking chap (Dr. R. Semplc), dressed in a 
greasy deer-skin hunting shirt, with trousers to 
match, and which terminated just below the 
knees, his head surmounted by a coon-skin cap, 
tail in front, who, I supposed, was an officer as 
he was giving orders to the men, I approached 
and asked if the captain was in camp. He looked 
and pointed out a slender-made, well-jiropor- 



tioneil man sitting in front of a tent, llis dress 
a blue woolen shirt of somewhat novel style, 
open at the neck, trimmed with white, and with 
a star on each point of the collar (a man-of- 
war's shirt), over this a deer skin hnnting shirt, 
trimmed and fringed, which had evidently seen 
hard times or service, his head unincumljered 
l>y hat or cap, but had a light cotton handker- 
chief bound around it, and deer skin moccasins 
completed the suit, which, if not fashionable for 
I'roadway, or for a presentation dress at court, 
struck nie as being an excellent rig to scud 
under or tiglit in. A few minutes' conversation 
convinceil me that I stood in the presence of 
the King of the Kocky Mountains." 

Fremont remained in the neighborhood of 
San Rafael until July ind, when he returned to 

On the 4th of July, our national holiday was 
celebrated with due pomp and ceremony, and 
on the 5th, the California Battalion of mounted 
riflemen, two hundred and tifty strong, was 
ori>-anized. Brevet Captain John C. Fremont, 
Second Lieutenant of Topographical Engineers, 
was chosen^commandante; First Lieutenant of 
Marines, Archibald H. Gillespie, Adjutant and 
Inspector, with the rank of captain. Both of 
the gentlemen named were otlicers of the United 
States Government, yet this organization was 
consummated under the fold of the Bear flag that 
yet kissed the breezes of the " Valley of the 
Moon." The next day, the Gth of July, Fre- 
mont at the head of his mounted riflemen, 
started to make the circuit of the head of the 
bay, to go south in pursuit of Castro. As 
there were now no California soldiers north of 
the bay it did not require a large garrison of 
the bear party to hold Sonoma. 

l)ut the end was hastening. On the 7th of 
July Commodore John Drake Sloat having 
received tidings that war existed between the 
United States and Mexico, demanded and 
received the surrender of Monterey. The news 
was immediately sent to San Francisco, where 
was anchored the American war vessel, PoHs- 
)iiouth. At two o'clock on the moniing of July 

9th, Lieutenant Warren lievere, left that vessel 
in one of lier boats, and reaching the Sonoma 
garrison, at noon of that day, lowered the l>ear 
flag and hoisted in its place the stars and stripts. 
And thus ended the bear flag revolution at 
Sonoma. Lieutenant Keverc also sent Amer- 
ican flags to be hoisted at Sutter's Fort and at 
the establishment of Captain Stephen Smith at 

Lieutenant lievere was sent to Sonoma by 
Montgomery of the I'ortsmouth, to command 
the garrison, consisting of Company B of the 
battalion, under Captain Grigsby. Lieutenant 
Grigsby tells us that "a few disartected Califor- 
nians were still prowling about the district, in 
pursuit of whom on one occasion he made an 
expedition with sixteen men to the region of 
Point Reyes. He did not And the party sought, 
but he was able to join in a very enjoyable elk- 
hunt." In August the Vallejos, Prudon, 
Leese and Carrillo were released trom durance 
vile, and restored to their families and friends. 
That very amiable relations existed between 
the victors and vanquished is evidenced by the 
fact that in September, while Lieutenant Re- 
vere was absent on an expedition, the Vallejos 
were commissioned to protect the Sonoma 
frontier with a force of Christian Indians. Some 
date previous to Septemlier lltli. Lieutenant 
John S. Mi.ssroon, of the Portsnidxitli, assumed 
command of the Sonoma garrison. 

On the 25th of September, a meeting of the 
"Old Bears " was held at Sonoma, at which J. 
B. Chiles presided and Jolin H. Nash acted as 
secretary, and a committee of three was ap- 
pointed to investigate and gather all the infor- 
mation possible in relation to the action of the 
bear flag party, and report at a subsequent 
meeting. Semple, (Grigsby and Nash were 
appointed the committee. Manuel E. Mcintosh 
was now alcalde of Sonoma. From the bear 
flag conquest of Sonoma, down to the discovery 
of gold in California in 1S4S there is little to 
note in connection with Sonoma. Grigsby, 
Revere, Missroon and Bruckett were the succes- 
sive military commaiidauts, and the Indians 


were easily lield in suhjection by Vallejo as was then an inten-egnuni of military rule, after 
snh-agent of Indian atl'airs. In 1848 Sonoma wiiicli John II. Nasii liecame alcalde, and 

had a total population of about 260 souls. | was superseded in 18+7 by Lilburn W. Boggs, 

-losr de los Santos Berryessa under Me.xican rule ■ who, aided by a council of six, administered tiie 

had been at the head of municipal affairs. There ' municipal government of Sonoma until 1848. 



TiiK Beai; Fr.AO. now made — xames of the revolutionists— State seal— General Mariano 
(iiAHAMi-K \'Ar.i.i:,in — Gexerai. Johx A. Sctter— S"xoma District pioxeeus— Native Son^ 
(IF the (4()i.1)i:n- West. 

fN the "Admission Day" edition of tlie 
Sonoma Coiniti/ Demoprat of Septeinlier 9, 
i>- 1885, jippuars tlie following. The writer, R. 
A. Thompson, with whom we are well ac- 
quainted, is painstaking and conscientious in 
collating facts, and as he states that mnch of 
his information is derived from actual partici- 
pants, it is entitled to confident credence: 

"The Independents were very proud of their 
flag. The bear made an apt illustration of their 
situation. The grizzly attended strictly to his 
own business, and would go on munching his 
berries and acorns if you let liim and his cubs 
alone. If you undertook to crowd him out, or 
to make him go any other way or any faster 
than lie wanted to go he would show fight, and 
when once in a tight he fought his way out or 
died in his tracks. 

The Independents were here, had cmne in 
good faith, and come to stay; were quiet and 
peaceable if let alone. General Castro under- 
took to crowd them. His grandiloquent proc- 
lamations were harmless, but vexatious. At 
last the crisis came. The Inde])endents, weary 
of threats and rumors of war, were forced, for 
the sake of peace, to fight, and having "gone 

in," to use the identical words of one of them, 
they did not intend to " back out." The bear 
was typical of that idea. 

The difl'erence of opinion about the make-up 
of the bear flag arises from the fact that there 
was more than one made. The first was a very 
iMulc affair. It is described in Lieutenant Miss- 
roon"s rcjiort to Captain ^lontgomery. Lieu- 
tenant Missroon arrived in Sonoma Tuesday, the 
Ifith of June, about forty-eight hours after the 
caj)ture. He i-ejiorts to Captain ^rontgomery 
on the ITtli that "tlie insurgent party had 
hoisted a jlaij with a white field, with a border 
or stripe of red on the lower part, and having a 
bear and star upon it." The words " California 
Hepuldic " were not on it at this time, or of 
course so important a feature would have been 
noted by Lientenant Missroon, who was on a 
sjjecial and e.xceedingly important mission from 
his commander. That these words were after- 
wards added is doubtless true. It is a matter 
of ver}' little importance, luit if any one wishes 
an exact description of the fiagas first raised, he 
can satisfy himself by an examination of the 
above-mentioned report. The flag with the bear 
standing is an after production, as is also the 


silk guerdon wliich Lieutenant Revere presentefl 
to the pioneers. The description of the flag 
given by Lieutenant Missroon accords witli tlie 
account of several of the }>arty whom the writer 
has personally interviewed. Of course, as tliere 
were, several flags made; each dift'ered from the 
other, in the material, I'rom whom the material 
was obtained, by whom the flag was made, and 
just how the flgures were placed upon it. Hence 
the confused and many diverse acconrits of it. 
All are right as to what they describe; but 
what they descril)e is not the flag flrst raised by 
the Independents. That was rather a rude 
aflair. In fact, the representation of the bear 
upon it resembled the species j^orcxis as much 
as it did tlie urxux fero.r or horrihlUs. 

There were tiiirty-three men in the Hear l^'iag 
party, more than lialf of whom came from the 
Sacramento Valley. Among the latter was the 
brave and gallant blacksmith, Saraiiel Neal, and 
Ezekiel Merritt, the captain of the company. 

Following is the first list ever published of 
the names of all the party. A number came 
into Sonoma tlie day after the capture, and they 
continued to come in for some time. It is very 
ditticnlt to separate these from the actual mem- 
l)crs lit tlie party who rode into Sonoma on the 
morning of June 14th. The accompanying list 
has been a number of years making, and has 
been revised many times and corrected from 
written records and by personal interviews. 
There are, doubtless, still some errors, which 
may be corrected upon a satisfactory showing: 

Sa('ka:mknto ^'at.lky. — Ezekiel Merritt, R. 
Semple, William Fallon, W. B. Ide, ILL. Ford, 
(I. P. Swift, Samuel Neal, William Potter, 
Sergeant Gibson, W. M. Scott, James (iibbs, II. 
Sanders, P. Storm. 

N.\i'A. Sainnci Kelsey, Penjamin Kelsey, 
John Grigsby, David Hudson, Will Hargrave, 
Harrison Peirce, William Porterfield, Patrick 
McChristian, Elias I'.arrett. ('. Grittith, AVilliam 
].,. Todd, Nathan Coombs, Lucien Ma.xwell. 

Sonoma. — Franklin Pidwell, Thomas Cowie, 
— Fowler, W. B. Elliott, licnjamin Dcwcll, 
John Sears, 'Old lied.'"' 


The convention which framed the Constitu- 
tion of the State of California (1849), passed a 
resolution appropriating $1,000 for a design for 
the Official Great Seal. One was presented by 
Mr. Lyons, of which he professed to be the 
author; it represented the Pay of San Francisco, 
as emblematic of the commercial importance ot 
the city and State, with the goddess Minerva in 
the foreground, illuslrating its sudden spring- 
ing into maturity; and the Sierra Nevada in 
the distance indicative of the mineral wealth of 
the country. The motto was the Greek word 
" Eureka " (I have found it). This was pre- 
sented to the committee, which consisted virtu- 
ally of Hon. John McDougal, his associate, 
Hon. Rodman M. Price, being absent. General 
McUongal was ]Jeased with the design, and 
wished it adopted with little- or no alteration; 
but finding that impossible, he consented to 
several minor additions. Thus the figure of the 
grizzly bear was added, as appropriate to the 
only section of the country producing that 
animal. This was especially insisted upon by 
some members, conspicuous among whom was 
the late Hon. -Jacob R. Snyder, then represent- 
ing Sacramento County. The native Califor- 
nians, on the other hand, opposed it, wrongly 
supposing that its introduction was intended to 
inimoi'talizc that event. The sheaf of wheat 
and bunch of grapes was also adopted, as em- 
blems of agricultural and horticultural interests 
of the southern sections of the State, ]iarticn- 
larly. With these exceptions the seal, as (1(>- 
signed by Mr. Lyons, was that selected. After 
it was accepted, some of the members claimed 
the original design of it ft)r Major (iariiett, 
who, however, had expresseil to Mr. Lymis, df 


Lyonsdale (as with harmless affectation the 
eccentric First Assistant Secretary loved to des- 
ignate himself), a desire that he alone should 
he known as its author. Dr. Wozencraft tried 
to have the gold-digger and the hear struck 
out, and General Yallejo wanted the hear re- 
moved, or else fastened hy a lassoo in the hands 
of a vaquero; hut the original suited the ma- 
jority, and it was not altered. 

September 29, 1849, Mr. Norton uttered the 
following, which was adopted: 

Fesoh-ed, That Mv. Caleb Ly..n i)e and he is 
hereby autiiorized, to superintend the engraving 
of the seal for the State, to furnish the same in 
the shortest possible time to the Secretary of 
the Convention, with the press and all necessary 
appendages to be My him delivered to the Sec- 
retary of State appointed under this Constitu- 
tion, ami that the sum of .si, 000 be paid to 
ilr. Lyon in full compensation and payment 
fur the design, seal, ])ress, and all append- 

Ji.'soh-td, That "the (Ireat Seal of the State 
(if Califurnia " be added tu the design. 

The seal is thus explained by its designer: 

•'Around the bend of the ring are i-epresented 
thirty-one stars, being the number of States of 
whicii the Union will consist upon the admis- 
sion of California. The foreground figure rep- 
resents the goddess ifinerva liaving sprung 
full-grown from tiie brain of ,hi]»iter. She is 
introduced as a type of political birth of the 
State of California, without having gone through 
the probation of a Territory. At her feet 
crouches a grizzly bear, feeding upon the clus- 
ters from a grape-vine, emblematic of the 
peculiar characteristics of the country. 

"A miner is engaged with his rocker and 
bowl at his side, illustrating the golden wealth 
of the Sacramento, upon whose waters are seen 
shipping, typical of commercial greatness; and 
the snow-clad peaks of tlie Sierra Nevada make 
up the background, while above is the Greek 
motto, 'Eureka' (I have found), applying either 
to the princijjle involved in the admission of 

the State, or tlie success of the minei- at 
work. Caleb Lv<>x, 

" Of Lyonsdale, New York. 
" AloxTE hi: V, Cai.., Sept.' 20, 1849." 


The above gives the history of the adoption 
of the great seal of the State, as shown b}' the 
i-ecord. Following is another version of its 
origin : 

Major K. S. Garnett of the United States 
army actuallj- made the design of the seal 
whicli was adopted. He declined to claim it, 
on the ground that the knowledge of the source 
from which it came would prevent the adoption 
of the design, owing to the hostility growing 
up between the existing military authorities and 
the nascent civil powers of California. Caleb 
Lyon humbly asked leave of Major (xarnett to 
appropriate and present it as his own. Major 
Garnett replied that lie had no idea of reaping 
either honor or reward from the design, and if 
Mr. Lyon could reconcile it to his conscience to 
represent himself as the author of another's 
work, he was lieartily welcome to what he could 
make of it. 

The last account has about it the earmark of 
truth, but as to which is the more reliable 
account we leave to tlie decision of the reader. 


A history of Sonoma County with General 
M. G. Yallejo ignored would be like tlie play of 
Hamlet with Hamlet left out. We visited him 
in 1888, and were saddened by the evidences 
apparent on every hand of decayed gentility. 
That he was the friend of the Americans is not 
a question of doubt — that the Americans prof- 
ited by his prodigality and are now indifferent 
to his needs are lamentably true. But his 
name will reach farther down the annals of 
history than it is in the power of gold to 
purchase name and fame. 

Mariano G. Yallejo was born in Alonterey, 
July 7, 1808. His father, Ignacio Yincente 
Ferrer Yallejo was a native of Spain, who came 


in his youth to the State of Guadalajara, Mex- 
ico. In 1774, wlien a young man, being of an 
adventurous nature, he secretly joined an ex- 
pedition under Captain Rivera for the explora 
tion of Upper California. He was probably 
with Captain Rivera's party on the 4th of 
December, when the large wooden cross was 
erected on the peninsula of San Francisco, 
which his son, General Vallejo, says he saw 
standing in 1829. At all events, he was an 
eye-witness of the founding of the mission of 
San Francisco, which event occurred October 4, 

On his arrival in Monterey, Senor Ignacio 
Vallejo saw for the iirst time his future wife. 
It was the day of her birth. He then asked 
permission of the parents of the infant to wed 
their daughter when she should become of age. 
Suhsequently, this proposition, made half in 
jest, was renewed, the sefiorita then heing a 
blooming young girl, and Seilor Vallejo a 
bachelor of forty. The marriage proved a happy 
one, and Mariano G. Vallejo was the eighth of 
thirteen children, the fruit of the union. 

Young Vallejo availed himself of every op- 
portunity to improve his mind by reading and 
study during his minority. He got possession 
of a library when quite young, which was of 
great service. From this source he probably 
acquired a fund of information, which made 
him the peer of the learned and distinguished 
persons from all parts of the world, with whom 
he was destined in after life to be ass(jciated. 

At the age of sixteen years he was a cadet in 
the army, and private secretary of Governor 

In l.S2y he was jiIucimI in chargf of the I're- 
sidio of San Francisco, which ])ositi(in he held 
until 1834, organizing in the interval the first 
city or town government of San Francisco. 

(Tovernor Figneroa, the most ])opular of all 
the Mexican Governors, had control of affairs 
in 1834. Having learned that a large number 
of colonists, some four hundred odd, were on 
their way to (ialifornia from Mexico, lie deter- 
■ mined to locate them in Sduoma, partly with 

the view of shutting out the Ttussians. and 
partly because it was one of the most inviting 
spots to colonize over which he had ever cast his 
experienced eyes. He selected Lieutenant A"al- 
lejo as the most suitable of his officers to com- 
mand the frontier and execute his plans. 
Together they visited the country, taking in 
their tour of observation the stronghold of the 
Russian squatters at Ross. Returning to the 
Santa Rosa Valley the Governor selected a 
site on Mark West Creek for the future colon}', 
giving it the name of " Santa Anna y Ferias," 
uniting these names prol)ably because he could 
not tell which of the rival political chiefs would 
be on top when he next heard from Mexico. He 
left a camp of soldiers there who were under the 
command of (4eneral Vallejo. The colonists 
were under the direction of Senor Hihas, who 
was a quarrelsome, ambitions and avaricious 
man. (Tovernor Figueroa had received orders 
to turn over the control of affairs to Hihas. On 
his return from Sonoma he met a courier with 
orders, countermanding the former instruction, 
and continuing the direction of affairs solely in 
his own hands. 

The colonists arrived in March, 1835, and 
were temporarily quartered in Sonoma. Hihas 
and his coadjutors among the colonists wei-e 
mnch disaffected, and threatened rebellion. 
Figueroa ordered their arrest. This order was 
executed by General Vallejo with much skill 
and judgment, without bloodshed or any per- 
sonal collision. Hihas and his cosmopolitan 
company were taken to San Francisco, and were 
soon after sent Jiack to Mexico. 

(ieneral Vallejo remained Iti charge of the 
fi'ontiei'. He removed his headquurtei's from 
Santa Anna y Ferias, on Mark West, to Sonoma, 
when, liy order of Figueroa, he, in the month 
of June, 1835, established the town of Sonoma. 

(ieneral Figueroa died soon after these events. 
His successor, (iovernor Carrillo, was deposed 
by Alvarado. The new governor appointed 
(Toneral Vallejo to the position of Command- 
ante (Tfueral of the frontier. 

In this position (xeueral Vallrjn did all in his 



powei' to promote tlie settlement of the frontier. 
Expeditions were sent ont against the Indians, 
agricnltnral industries were extendeti, and the 
raising of cattle, sheep and horses was in (>verv 
wa}' en con raged. 

Between 1840 and 1845 a large numljiT of 
immigrants came to northern California. Tliey 
were well received by the General, though the 
home government was continually " nagging" 
him because he did not send tlie foreigners ont 
of the country, at the same time giving him 
neither men nor means to carry ont their order. 

Jn the early part of the vear 1840, affairs in 
California were rapidly approaching a crisis. 
In April, a junta was called to meet at Monterey 
to consider the condition of affairs. Revere gives 
a summary of some of the speeches made. 
That of General A'^allejo was as follows: 

"I cannot, gentlemen, coincide with the mili- 
tary and civil functionaries who have advocated 
the cession of our country to France or Eng- 
land. It is most true that to rely any longeron 
Mexico to govern and defend ns would be idle 
and absunl. To this extent 1 fully agree with 
my colleagues. It is also true that we possess 
a noble country, every way calculated, from posi- 
tion and resources, to become great and power- 
ful. For that very reason I would not have her 
a mere dependency upon a foreign monarchy, 
naturally alien, or at least indifl'erent to our in- 
terests and our welfare. It is not to be denied 
that feeble natinns have in former times thrown 
themselves upon the protection of their power- 
ful neighbors. The I>ritons invoked the aid of 
the warlike Saxons, and fell an easy prey to 
tiieir protectors, who seized their lands and. 
treated them like slaves. Long before that 
time, feeble and distracted provinces had 
ajjpealed for aid to the all-conquering arms of 
imperial Rome, and they were at the same time 
protected and subjugated by their grasping 
ally. Even could we tolerate the idea of depend- 
ence, ought we to go to distant Europe for a 
master? What possible sj'mpathy could exist 
between us and a nation separated from us by 
two vast oceans;! Bnt wniving this insu]ierable 

objection, how could we eiulure to cdmo under 
the dominion of a monarchy? For, althdugh 
others speak lightly of a form of goverment, as 
a freeman, I cannot do so. We are republicans 
— badly governed and badly situated as we are — 
still we are all, in sentiment, republicans. So 
far as we are governed at all, we at least profess 
to be self-governed. Who, then, that possesses 
true patriotism will consent to subject himself 
and his cliildrfu U\ the capi-ices of a foreign 
king and his official minions? lint it is asked, 
if we do not throw ourselves upon the ])rotec- 
tion of France and England, what shall we do? 
I do not come here to support the existing order 
of things, but I come prepared to propose in- 
stant and ett'ective action to extricate our country 
from her ])resent forlorn condition. My opin- 
ion is made up tliat we must persevere in 
throwing oil the galling yoke of Mexico, and 
proclaim our independence of her forever. V\e 
have endnreil her official cormorants and her 
villainous soldiery until we can endui-e no 
longer. All will probably agree ^\itll nic that 
we ought at once to rid ourselves of what may 
remain of Mexican domination. But some 
profess to doubt our ability to maintain our 
position. To my niind there comes no doubt. 
Look at Texas, and see how long she withstood 
the power of uTiited Mexico. The resources of 
Texas were not to be compared with ours, and 
she was niucli nearer to her enemy than we are. 
Our position is so remote, either by land oi' 
sea, that we are in no danger from Mexican 
invasion. Why, then, should we hesitate still 
to assert our independence? We have indeed 
taken the first step by electing our own (gover- 
nor, but another remains to be taken. I will 
mention it plainly and distinctly — it is annex- 
ation to the United States. In contemplating 
this consummation of our destiny, I feel noth- 
ing but pleasure, and 1 ask you to share it. 
Discard old prejudices, disregard old customs, and 
prepare for the glorious change which a^-aits 
our country. Why should we shrink from in- 
corpoi-ating ourselves with the happiest and 
freest nation in the world, destined soon to lie- 


tlie most wealtliy and powerful^ ^^'^I'y should 
we go abroad for protection when this gi-eat 
nation is onr adjoining neiglilior? When we 
join our fortunes to liers, we shall not become 
subjects, but fellow-citizens, possessing all the 
rights of tlie people of tlie United States, and 
choosing our own federal and local rulers. We 
siiall have a stable government and just laws. 
California will grow strong and flourish, and her 
people will be prosperous, happy and free. Look 
not, therefore, with jealousy upon tlie hardy 
pioneers who scale onr mountains and cultivate 
onr unoccupied plains; l)ut rather welcome them 
as brothers, who come to share with us a com- 
7non destiny.'' 

Lieutenant Revere was in Monterey when the 
junta met; its prx^ceodings were secret, but he 
says it was notorious that two parties existed in 
the country, and that General Vallejo was the 
leader of the American party, while Castro was 
at the head of the European party. lie says he 
had his report of the meeting from documentary 
evidence, as well as sketches of the principal 
speeches. He also says that so soon as General 
Yallejo retired from the junta he addressed a 
letter to Governor Pio Pico embodying the views 
he had expressed in his speech and refusing ever 
again to assist in any project having for its end 
the establishment of a protectorate over Califor- 
nia by any other power than the United States. 

At last the long threatened storm broke upon 
the town of Sonoma, and its commandante and 
little garrison were captured by the Americans, 
(leneral Vallejo was kept as a prisoner for about 
a month, and released i)y order of Commodore 

General Vallejo, speaking of the condition of 
affairs in Northern California previous to the 
taking of Sonoma, said: 

" Years before I had urgently represented to 
the Government of Mexico the necessity of 
stationing a sufficient force on the frontier, else 
Sonoma would be lost; which would be equiva- 
lent to leaving the rest of the country an easy 
prey to the invader. AVhat think yon, my 
irieiids, were the instructions sent me in reply 

to my repeated demands for means to fortify the 
country? These instructions were that 1 slumld 
at once force the immigi-ants to recross the 
Sierra Nevada and depart from the territory of 
the Republic. To say nothing of the in- 
humanity of these orders, their execution was 
ph^'sically impossible; first, because I had no 
military force; and second, because the immi- 
grants came in the autumn, when snow covered 
the Sierra so quickly as to render return im- 
practicable. Under tiie circumstances not only 
L but Commandante-General Castro, resolved to 
provide tlie immigrants with letters of security, 
that they might remain temporarily in the 
country. We always made a show of authority, 
but were well convinced all the time that we had 
no power to resist the invasion which was coin- 
ing in upon us. With the frankness of a sol- 
dier I can assure j'ou that the American immi- 
grants never had cause to complain of the 
treatment they received at the hands of either 
authorities or citizens." 

General Vallejo on his release at once made 
his great influence as a friend of the United 
States felt throughout the country. He took 
active interest in public affairs always on the 
side of order and good government. lie was 
elected a member of the Constitutional Conven- 
tion which met in Monterey, and was a Senator 
from the Sonoma District in the first Legislature 
of California. And from that period down to 
the present he has been an enterprising, useful, 
and honored citizen of Sonoma. In priority of 
settlement, he is the first of the 35,0(10 inlialii- 
tants now living in this county. 

On the 6th of March, 1832, he married 
Senorita Benicia Francesca Carillo, who still 
survives with her distinguished husband. 

In person General Vallejo, even at his ad- 
vanced age, is a strikingly handsome man. lie 
is tall and erect in carriage, with the military 
air of one disciplined to arms in his early youth. 
He is a brilliant conversationalist, an eloquent 
s]i(>aker, even in English, which he acquired late 
in lilc. To these accomplishments may be addi^d 
the liT.icc of gesture and manner wliicii he in 


lierits with his hinoc 

from an ancestry of Spanish 

A. SiTTKi;. 

(Ji:nekai, . 

As tlie name of Captain Jolin A. Sutter is so 
intimately woven with the iiistory of tiie State 
as to be a part of the same, and as his purchase 
of the Ross property identified him directly 
with the early history of Sonoma County, \vc 
give place to the following letter written by 
him in 1845. It is interesting as showing the 
real conditions in California at the time it was 
written : 

Nkw Helvetia, 1st Jan., 1845. 

Sir and Dear Friend: — My reasons for not 
writing sooner is that I lacked an opportunity, 
since j-our young man was afraid of bad 

I was in hopes all the time that perhaps I 
might have the pleasure of seeing yon at Verba 

I spoke to Mr. Snyder and Alemans, M'ho 
lioth ])romised to go to Sonoma and pay yon a 
visit. The representation, etc., for Mr. ( 'astill- 
ero, I have left in the hands of Mr. Forbes, and 
hope that the former will have received them 
before his departure fromCalifornia to Mexico. 

I was astonished to hear over there the news 
that I had sold mj' establishment to the Govern- 
ment, and in fact Mr. Estudillo told me that 
yon had gone to see those gentlemen at the 
Moquelumne River, so that it seems that they 
have not kept the matter secret. What is your 
opinion about it, sir^ Do you think that the 
Government \vill buy it? I wish I was certain 
of that, so that I might take the necessary 
measures. In case the Government decided 
about this purchase, do yon think it would be 
possible to obtain a part of the sum on account. 
enough to pay a part of my debts? 

1 could put them in possession of the estab- 
lishment at the end of the harvest. It seems 
to me that the Government ought not to neglect 
that affair; for next autumn many emigrants 
are bound here from the United States, and one 
thing comforts me, that there will be many 

Germans, French ami Swiss amongst them. I 
have received letters to that etfect from a few 
friends, through the last little party of ten men. 

At all events, nothing conUI be more neces- 
sary for the (Government than a respectable posi- 
tion here, in this place. 

Among the emigrants who intend coming, 
are gentlemen of great means, capitalists, etc. 

liy some letters that I have received from 
New ^ ork, I see that one will bring over all 
the machinery tit for two steamers; one is 
destined to be a coaster, while the other will sail 
the l)ay to Sacramento. The Russians (or 
Russe) will also bring a little one for the Cap- 
tain Leidesdorff, and the Russian Captain (or 
the Captain Russe) Leinderherg, my friend, has 
made me a present of a little machine large 
enough for a sloop, which he had made for his 
pleasure; tliat will i)e very nice for the river. 
The Dr. McLonghlin, at Vancouver (Columbia), 
has retired from the Hudson Bay Co., and in- 
tends to come and live here. He will give a 
new impnlse to business; he is the great protec- 
tor of agriculture. A ship is going to bring us 
printing material, and I intend to have a news- 
paper published, half Spanish, half English. 
Such progress are made throughout civilization, 
and here we are so much behind. E]ven in 
Tahiti, there is a lithography, and a newspaper 
is published: FS Oceanic Francaisr. 

We expect a ship from New Vork in the 
course of about a month; it will bring us all the 
necessary implements of agricidture selected on 
purpose for our valley, comprising many plows, 
with farmers' garments, etc., etc. This shij) 
would enter without paying the Custom House 
duties, if the thing was possible, or, at least, pay 
them at a moderate rate; or do you think that 

arrangements could be made with Wv. 

by paying him four or six thousand dollars, 
that he might let the ship enter for the benefit 
of the inhabitants of Sacramento. This would 
render him quite popular among us; the advan- 
tage derived for the country would be great; the 
inhabitants of would have the same ad- 
vantage as we. In April will arrive another 


sliip, witli iiMotlier cargo well suited for our 
valley. The proprietor of these two ships are 
very rich, and t'onn one of the wealthiest firms 
in New York and I^ondoii. They contemplate 
l)uving a lot near the I'ay or Sacramento River, 
to open warehouses, and keep a stock (.>f articles 
we may need. They would sell on credit to all 
tliL' larmers who would desire their trust, and 
take in [i;iyineut wheat or any other of the pro- 
ducts of the country, as well as a great quantity 
of salted salmon. The other merchants wJio 
transact husiness in this unfortunate country, 
rcl'use to receive anything hut leather and tallow. 
This is the ruin of the country. If there was 
sucli a market and such a competition open, you 
would soon &ee a great difference. 

I liope that you will find some means of hav- 
ing that ship enter; pei'haps Mr. 

can assist you in the matter; (indeed I 

have heard that he was on very good terms 
with the jovial cajjtain), and that affair ought to 
have (juite as much interest for him as for us. 

1 regret very much heing so far from you, 
and not having more opportunities of corre- 
sponding, which is e8]jeciaily the case in winter. 

I wish you could write to me as soon as pos- 
sible, for I feel convinced that you would easily 
settle these affairs, since your position as secre- 
tary to , and your friendly terms with 

Capt. ■ are advantages which would soon 

lead us to enrich ourselves, with good manage- 

The Capt. Fremont of the United States 
Army has gone to meet his other company, 
commanded by the Capt. Walker (under his 
orders), who had been sent after the discovery 
of another passage through the mountains, 
more to the south; I expect them daily; they 
will spend the winter here, and depart again 
in spring for Columbia. 

Another small party of ten men has arrived 
since from the United States; this will be the 
last; they were fortunate in escaping the snow 
which fell in great abundance in the mountains 
at their arrival. 

Samuel Smith has been here during my ab- 

sence to Yerba Huena, and unfortunately I for- 
got to leave orders for his arrest. They told 
him that 1 had orders to detain him a prisoner, 
and he answered that he would conje another 
time when I should be present, but that he did 
not care to be a prisoner; since then he has imt 

I believe that he is still somewhere on the 
other side, and that he is likely to join, by and 
by, the company now preparing to go to 
Columbia. Anuuig the people in the upper 
valley are a few bad characters who stole some 
of my horses, and some mares and cows of Mr. 
Corelua's. They are disposed to steal a great 
deal more, and intend coming near Sonoma l)e- 
fore their departure, to steal as many cattle as 
possible. We must try to imprison some of 
the principal ones, and I hope I can depend on 
Capt. Fremont and his men. He will doubtless 
enable me to make his countrymen prisoners, 
for, to look over such acts, would be the worst 
influence for the future. However, in case Air. 
Fremont refuses to assist in the capture of the 
worst of his countrymen, I shall try to do it 
alone; and if 1 have not sutticient power to suc- 
ceed, 1 shall write to Mr. Vallejo for an auxil- 
iary, etc., etc. 

It was with the greatest displeasure that I 
heard from Mr. Wolfsquiell, who came here 
from Los Angeles, of that bad rascal Fluggo not 
being dead, but hope that you will do your best 
to secure that lot of ground which will )irove, 
no further than next year, a fortune for you 

I hope that Mr. Covarubias will assist you. 

In a few weeks the lauiiche will come to 
Sonoma with some of Heaulieu's garments, and 
will bi'ing at the same time some tanned leather 
for Mr. Vallejo. I therefore beg that you would 
deliver the ten fanegas of wheat to JMaintop, 
(captain of the launche). If you have any 
corn, 1 shall buy some. As lor the deer skins 
which you ha\f, 1 shall write by the same 
means ami tell you whether I shall take them 
or not. 

How inconvenient it is for us in the north, 
that the capitol should be so far distant. It 


takes at least four or iive mouths before receiv- 
iug au answer; it would be almost as well uot 
to write at all, for it tires one so inucli. 

I make uo more reports to the Governuient, 
e.\ce[)t to Mr. Castro, as he is the nearest, and 
he can make his statement to the i;overnmeut if 
he judges it necessary. 

1 have not as yet received an answer from 
the I'adre Real about the letter that you were 
kind enoiiuli to write for me abotit fruit trees 
and vines. 

Vuu know that Mr. Castro has given me the 
permission of receiving as much as I needed. 
Advise me, if you please, un what 1 can do. 
Will it be possibe to receive "some vine trees" 
in Sonoma? If you could have them ready in 
about three weeks, something like 2,000 of 
them, 1 would pay you as much as they cost. 

If I have vines here, you can have them 
(|uite near your farm. {^'.'iV) 

Leidesdortf is appointed agent of the Co. 
Amer. Ilusse, to receive the products from me, 
and iiuy from them. I had the pleasure to see 
the Captain de Lion, Mr. I5onnet, who told me 
the troop alone in Marquesas and Tahiti, leav- 
ing out the inhabitants, consume (550 arobas of 
tlour a day, and that the Govei'iiment would pre- 
fer to send here for the provisions, if we can 
sell them at the same price as in Chili, i?;! the* 
quintal; we could very well compete at that 
price if that cursed Custom House ceased to 

If this country dei'ived any utility from the 
Custom House one would not complain so 
much, but it is only good to provide for a lot of 
useless officers who devour the very marrow of 
the country. If at last a pajier could be pub- 
lished that would unseal the blind men's eyes, 
1 trust that you may take a ])art and interest in 
that affair of printing. 

I am now constructing ii mill with two pairs 
of mill-stones, for a great (juantity of flour will 
be needed next autumn when the enugrants 

A much better road, some -iOO miles shorter, 
has been discovered, and the Captain Fremont 

I has also found in the last chain of mountains a 
much easier passage than the otie known so far; 
every trip they make some new discovery. I 
can assure you that in five years more there will 

[ be a railroad from the United States here. 1 

I can see that. Already the llocky Mountains 
commence to be peopled, where eight years ago 

' I could see nothing bnt deserts with Indians, 
and where now stand quite consideraljle cities. 
The crowd of emigrants arriving in the United 
States increase the population to such an extent 
that it will tind its way even to the Pacific 
shores. A year and two more and no power 
will be able to stop that emigration. 

Next week you shall have more news from 
your devoted friend, 

J. A. Sl'ttek. 
While the above letter shows that Captain 
Sutter had an eye strictly to business, it also 
shows that he took in the real situation and 
knew that American rule was the ultimate des- 
tiny of California. 

We cannot better close this ciiajtter than by 
appending the following names of those who 
helped to establish permanent settlements on 
the north side of San h'rancisco Hay: 


The "Society of California pioneers, compris- 
ing the counties of Sonoma, Napa, Lake, Men- 
docino and Marin," was organized December 
25, 1867. 

Those who arrived in California jirior to the 
9th day of September, 1850, and their male de- 
scendants, are eligible to membership. The 
past presidents have been: Uriah Edwards, 
1867- 68; Nicholas Carriger, lS68-'72; William 
M. Boggs, 1872-'74; William McPherson Hill, 
1874-"76; John Cavanaugh, 1876-"78; Julius 
A. I'oppe, 1878-"79; Thomas EaH, 1879-81; 
Daniel H. Davisson, 1881-'8L 

The members are: William C. Adams, Louis 
Adler, Hierre Augards, Stephen Akers, John 
Abbott, S. J. Agnew, (J. S. Allen, J. M. Arm- 
strong, Joseph Albertson, AV. G. Alban, Thomas 
Allen, E. G. Alban, Horatio Appleton, N. H. 


Aiiiesbiiry, D. li. Alderson, John Hall Allison, 
Charles H. Allen, W. F. Allen, Charles Alex- 
ander, Charles G. Ames, William M. Boggs, J. 
15. Beam, William II. Brady, Herman Barnh. 
A. A. Basignano, E. Biggs, Louis Bruck. Edward 
F. Bale, John Brown, Samuel Brown, William 
Board, John F. lioyce, J. 8. Brackett, David 
Burris, I. S. Bradford, R. Bunnell, R. T. Barker, 
.W V. Barker, John N. Bailache, E. N. Boyntoii, 
Ar. Barney, J. I). Beam, H. H. Brower, Will 
mm V. Boyce, M. C. Briggs, H. AV. Baker, J. 
W. Boggs, Erwin Barry, Sim H. But'ord, San- 
ford Bennett, H. E. Boggs, Elias Barnett, 
AVilliam Baldbridge, A. C. Boggs, John M 
Boggs, George W. Boggs, Joseph O. Boggs, 
Theodors W. Boggs, L. W. Boggs, Jr., J. N. 
Bennett, P. G. Baxter, Jesse Jieasley, Z. Briggs, 
Robert Brownlie, Jonathan E. Bond, Peter D 
Bailey, John Bright, T. C. Brown, A. B. Bor- 
rell, John Bailiff, William Bradford, 11. C. 
Boggs, Nicholas (!arriger, Julio Carrillo, Will- 
iam Corj', Columbus Carlton, John Cavanagh, 
Howard Clark, G. W. Clark, Solomon H. Car- 
riger, W. W. Carpenter, C. C. Carriger, A. E. 
Carriger, B. L. Cook, T. S. Coo|)er, J. R. Cooper, 
W. L. Copeland. R. Crane, J. Clark, O. W. 
Craig, (i. AV. Cornwall, W. M. Coleman, E. 
Coleman, H. K. Clark, S. 1!. Carpenter, Y . 1'. 
Cook, D. Chamberlin, J. Cairn, O. Clark, W. 
R. Coburn, 1). W. Carriger, J. L. Cook, J. J. 
Cugill, Sr., L. Carson, J. C Crigler, J. Ciay- 
niiui, J. Chiles, J. Custer, B. Capell, J. Cyrus, 
A. J. Cox, S. Clark, L. Clia[)nian, JS'. Coombs, 
\). C. Crockett, Dr. C. Crouch, AV. R. Cook, J. 
Chauvet, H. Decker, JVl. Donohne, H. W. Dick- 
inson, D. D. Davidson, W. Dorman, B. W,,. 
Diffendurffei-, E. L. Davis, N. Dunljar, J. Dick- 
enson, A. J. Dullarhide, J. W. Easter, T. Earl, 
E. Emerson, J>. E. Edsall, L. F. Eaton, AV. 
Edgington, A. Y. Easterby, W. Ellis, J. Fer- 
nald, J. F. Fowler, J. M. Freeman, A. J. AV. 
Faure, J. T. Fortson, J. Fulton, J. AV'. I'lavell, 
H. Fowler, AV^ Fowler, W. A. Fisher, A. Far- 
ley, S. AV. Faudre, F. Fisher, J. M. Gregson, T. 
C. Grey, F. P. Green, (). Greig, J. Gibson, W. 
Green, J. F. (ireen, J.Gallagher, W. W. (ireen- 

ing, A. J. Gordon, J. Griffin, J. J. Goodin, Dr. 
J. B. Gordon, G. G. (lardner, AV'. Gordon, C. 
Griffith, J. Grigsby, R. A. Gill, G. Grigsby, P. 
D. Grigsby, A. J. Galbiaith, J. T. Grigsby, E. 
Gilleii, P. Gessford, J. Henly, AV. Hood, T. 
Hopper, H. Hall, L. AI. Harmon, C. Humph- 
ries, H. Hill, W. M. Hill, 1). Hudson, J. Henry, 
T. B. Hopper, C. Hopper, B. Hoen, H. H. Hall, 
S. H. Flyman, A. Hixson, A. Harasthy, L. C. 
Hubbard, H. P. Holmes, J. AV. Harlan. T. F. 
Hudson, AV. B. Hagans, C. Hazelrigg, J. 1). 
Hollaway, AV. H. Holleday, J. B. Horrel, J. 
Henry, AV. Hargrave, M. Hudson, J. Hudson, 
J. Harbin, M. Harbin, (4. Hallet, AV. A. Has- 
kins, J. Haskius, AV. A. Haskins, Jr., L. Hig- 
gins, F. M. Hackett, J. H. Howlaud, I. Howell, 
J. Howell, D. Howell, P. Howell, M. R. Hardin, 
R. S. Hardin, C. Hartson, II. D. Hopkins, W. 
Houx, A. Henry, L. Jlaskell, K. A. Harvey, M. 
Ingler, R. Jones, B. Joy, E. Justi, E. K. Jen- 
ner, D. Jones, C. Juarez, J. A. Jamieson, G. E. 
Jewett, A. Krippenstapul, F. Keller, H. Kreuse, 
A. Kohle, J. Knight, R. Kennedy, R. L. Kil- 
burn, T. Knight, AV. Kilburn, I. Kellogg, AV. 
W. Kennedy, A. W. King, 1. Kilburn, C. AV. 
Lubeck, N. Long, R. Lennox, G. AV. I.,ewis, J. 
H. Lane, C. H. Lamkin, J. A. Losse, J. Lut- 
gens, H. H. Lewis, II. I). Lay, A. J. Lafevie. 
15. Little, J. F. Lainden. J. 1>. Lamar, <i. Linn, 
J)r. T. AL Leavenworth, H. Ludolph, J. E. Ale 
Litos'', N. E. Manning, R. McGee, W. E. 
McConnell, J. McLaughlin, AV. Mock, S. AIc- 
Donough, AV. Montgomery, J. H. McCord, J. 
M. Mansfield, R. G. Merritt, D. ]>. Alorgan, P. 
McChristian, (4. W. McCain. A. J. Willis. J. 
Munday, M. T. McClellan, J. IMcCormick, L. 
AV. Mayer, J. AV. Morris, J. R. .Moore, Jr., A. 
C. McDonald, AV. J. .March, AV. II. Alanlove. J. 
LL Moore, J. .Martin, C. Alusgrove, AV. .Mc- 
Donald, J. Aloran, 11. Mygatt, A. Monmert, G. 
McMahon, R. McGarvey, \\ . Mclieynolds, AV. 
H. Morri.s, J. Neil, P. G. Norburn. S. S. Noble, 
AV. Neil, L. A. Norton, E. Neblett, AV. H. Nash, 
J. M. Nichols, G. W. Gman, A. A. Olmstead, 
A. P. Overton, 11. Ousley, S. Orr, J. H. Orr, 
W. Ousley, J. N. I'almer, G. I'earce, AV. Potter, 


J. C. Peavy, 11. J. Preston, J. Powell, M. 
Powell, A. P. Petit, 0. Peterson, G. AV. Peter- 
son, 1'. II. Plnirris, 11. L. Pierce, 1). Powell, T. 
J. Poulterer, E. D. Phillips, S. Porter, J. I). 
Patton, J. A. Pngli, T. Partiii, 11. Portertield, 

E. 11. Pierce, P. Polsten, J. Y. Porter, D. Pat- 
ton, J. Powell, R. Poppe, J. Poppe, C. Poppe, 
1). Qiiinliven, J. Robeson, T. Rocliford, V. 
Robin, C. Rogers, W. P. Reed, 11. Robinson, J. 
M. Robers, J. L. Ronner, D. Ripley, T. W. 
Richards, S. U. Rupe, J.Reynolds, A. F. Rede- 
nieyer, J. Regan, G. Reeve, B. Robinson, J. 
Robinson, B. L. Robinson, Col. Ritchie, A. J. 
Raney, 8. F. Raney, W. li. Russell, J. Selling, 
R. Spence, J. Smith, F. Starke, D. W. Sroufe, 
N. O. Stafford, E. W. Sax, P. Sneed, P. Shar- 
vein, J. W. Siiarp, D. Spencer, J. K. Smith, S. 
M. Shinn, J. Sedgley, J. H. Seipp, J. Singley, 

F. Sears, J. Stewart, A. Salaman. J. 11. Sturte- 
vant, ('. J. Son, J. F. Shinn, C Stewart, T. 
Smith, J.Stiltz, W. C. Smith, .1. .1. Swift, J. 
Somers, A. Stines, Dr. B. Shurtleff, J. Short, S. 
D. Towne, G. Tomking, E. Towne, W. S. 
Thomas, C. C. Toler. C. Talbott, R. Tucker, J. 
Tucker, G. Tucker, William Truebody, J. True- 
body, John Truebody, W. Truebody, S. Tucker, 
T. H. Thompson, AVilliani Topping, G. W. 
Thompson, J. Udall, F. Ulilhorn, F. Vanllallen, 
P. J. Vasquez, A. Von Quitzow, P. Van Berver, 
A. J. Van Winkle, M. G. Vallejo, S. Vallejo, 
D. Wharff, F. Wilsey, C. Weise, J. J. Weenis, 
L. C. Woodworth, W. Webb, W. S. M. Wright, 
Joseph Wright, H. L. AVeston, 11. M. Wilson, J. 

A. Williams, J. Walton, A. A. White, D. AY. 
AValker, J. Wooden, W. H. Winters, J. AYilson, 
J. AVestfall, R. B. Woodward, C. B. AVines, J. 

B. AValdan, J. M. AYhite, P. AVard, 1). Yurk, 
11. York, J. York, L. W. Znager. 


The tirst Parlor of the Native Sons of the 
Golden AVest, instituted in Sonoma County, was 
in the city of Petaluina. It took the appropriate 
name of Bear Flag Parlor. It was organized 
on the 1st of March, 1884, by District Deputy 
Grand President Charles W. Decker, of San 

Francisco, assisted by I'ast Grand President 
Grady, Past Grand Secretary Lunstedt and 
others. It is No. 27 in the order of its institu- 
tion. The following persons were elected and 
installed as its iirst othcers : J. B. Schlosser, 
P. P.;M. E. C. Monday, P.; John F. Naugh- 
ton, 1st A^ P.; C. R. Peters, 2d V. P.; AV. King, 
3rd V. P.; Frank P. Doyle, Treas.; L. F. 
Ellsworth, Roc. Sec; F. C. AVest, P^in. Sec; 
Fred Chamberlain, Marshal; J. Fenger, 1. S. ; 
James Wright, O. S.; A. Newburgh, C. AY. 
Brascombe and F. Green, Trustees. Alter the 
ceremonies were over, there v.-as an agreeable 
entertainment, and Bear Flag Parlor was fairly 
launched on its career of usefulness. The 
following 11th of May, the Bear Flag boys 
gave a picnic at Laurel Grove, San Rafael. All 
into.xicants were ruled out of order, and a most 
agreeable day was spent beneath the shade of a 
grove of native laurels. Following is a complete 
list of the present officers and members of the 
Bear Flag Parlor, for which we are indebted to 
the courtesy of Recording Secretary, 1). 11. 
White : 

Officers— Sr. P. P., AY. E. King; P. P., 11. 
Mc C. Weston; Pres., C. E. Dillon; 1st V. P., 
Dan Brown, Jr; 2d V. P., AV. 11. Robinson; 3d 
V. P., J. 1. Jewell; Rec Sec, D. \l. AVhite; 
Fin. Sec, F. C. AVest; Treas., N. G. Crowley; 
Mar., J. A. Fenger; O. S., F. E. Dowd; 1. S., R. 
J. Facey ; Trustees, G. L. Young, J. F. Dolan and 
H. C. Thompson; Surgeon, J. H. Crane, M. D. 

JVIembers — M. Y. llolton, AV. A. Chapman, 
W. F. Chamberlain, Chas. Towne, M. E. C. 
Munday, C. H. Myers, J. R. Denman, J. T. 
Studdert, L. B. Towne, J. ¥. Naughton, J. AV. 
Cowles, J. Tighe, E. O. Lefebre, T. F. Purring- 
ton, F. J. Bryan; S. (4. Stockdale, 11. J. East- 
man, B. E. O'llara, J. E. Mallen, F. A. 
Wickersham, J. Adler, C. E. Morris. 


AVestern Star Parlor, No. 28, Santa Rosa, 
was instituted March the 13tli, 188-4, by Dis- 
trict Deputy C. H. Decker, assisted by Grand 
Vice-President John fV. Steinback, Grand 



Lecturer, M. A. Doni, Past President, Frank 
•J. Iligj^ins, uikI actinii; (irand Secretary, li. 
Luiistetlt. I'acilic, Callt'ornia and 15ear Flag 
Parlurs were represented. President Harmon, 
of tlie Historic Parlor, California No. 1, occupied 
the chair during the initiatory ceremonies, siip- 
})orted by CTrand Lecturer Dorn and Messrs. 
Yale and Shannahan, of San Francisco, and 
other Grand and Acting Grand otHcers. At 
the close of the initiatory ceremonies the follow- 
ing officers were installed: Past President, H. 
L. Hranthaver; President, Geo. Honior Meyer; 
First Vice President, W. F. Russell; Second 
Vice President, L. W. Juilliard; Third Vice 
President, R. A. Harris; Recording Secretary, 
Emmet Seawell; Financial Secretary, George P. 
Duncan; Ti'easurer, George Hood, Jr; Marshal, 
Aubrey iiarham; Inside Sentinel, Alpheus Reed; 
Outside Sentinel, E. B, Rohrer; Executive 
Committee, Chas. M. Gstrum, J. McReynolds 
and John W. Lambert. After the installation 
there was an entertainment which passed most 
pleasantly. Messrs. Steinback, Higgins, Deck- 
er, Dorn and Lnnstedt, Hartuian, Meyer and 
Jefferies, making timely and eloquent ad- 

P'ollowing is a complete list of the present 
otHcers and members of Western Star Parlor 
No. 28, in the order of their admission into the 
parlor : 

Ufticers — Geo. I). Duncan, P. P.; W. F. iius- 
sell. P.; Don Mills, 1st V. P.; T. J. Hutchinson, 
2d V. P.; John McMinn, Jr., 3d V. P.; J. H. 
Adams, R. S.; L. W. Juilliard, F. S.; Geo. 
Hood, Jr., Treasurer; F. (4. Gerichten, Marshal; 
J. W. Irwin, I. S.: Chas. Underhill, O. S. ; 
John Hood, W. 1!. Atterbury, H. L. Hranthaver, 

Members — (ieo. H. Meyer, R. A. Harris, R. 
A. Radger, J. A. Harham, J. M. McReynolds, 
J. W. Lambert, II. Pariiey, W. M. Duncan, 
John Creagh, W. H. ilanion, W. M. Irwin; G. 
J. Rarnett, Emmet Seawell, J. W.Adams, J. F. 
R. Cook, Douglas I>adger, W. A. Ford, C. H. 
Holmes, Jr., J. S. Childers, F. R. McCutchin, 
R. L. Adams, F. (i. (Jerichten, J. N. Norris, W. 

S. I'. Coulter, C. V. Tupper, Dan P. Carter, H. 
(t. IJahman, E. P. Colgan, M. F. Ilauck; J. S. 
Ross, Julian Ilolman, R. D. Cannon, W. E. 
Ilealey, L. W. Jiurris, W. R. Carithers, W. T. 
Spridgeon; J. P. Overton, R. A. Long, Wm. 
Wilkins, J. S. Titus, Jr., M. II. Durbin, F. S. 

On Admission Day, September 1), 1885, the 
National Sons of the Golden West had a grand 
celebration at Santa Rosa. Every Parlor in the 
State was represented. There were about 1,000 
Native Sons in the procession, mariiiig time to 
the inspiring music of nine brass bands. It was 
a gala day long to be remembered. The liter- 
ary e.\ercises were held at the Santa Rosa Athe- 
naMim. J. II. McGee delivered the address of 
welcome, and Governor Stonenian spoke of 
pioneer times. The annual address was delivered 
by Charles T. Weller. It was as follows: 

His Excellency the Gocernor — Ladies and 
(Jentlemen — Natice Sons of the Golden West: 
Fifty years ago a lonely herdsman looking over 
the (piet harbor of Yerba J>uena, watching the 
waves as they lazily drifted up to the shore, 
kissed the sand and then receded to the boson) 
of their mother, Ocean, watching the priests as 
they went about their ditferent tasks in the little 
mission, whilst over all shone the rays of an 
almost tropical sun, bathing the sand plains 
with its radiant splendor and glorifying the 
good fathers as they taught their little wards of 
the life which was beyond. 

To this watcher, statiding carelessly there in 
the sunshine, no dream of the future sjilcudur 
of that scene could come. Had you tolil him 
of a time but a few years distant, when thou- 
sands of men from all the nations of the earth 
would crowd u)mn that sand, he would have 
thought you mad, for what was there to cause 
this human floods . Nothing but vast sandy 
plains and the everlasting hills — mute monu- 
ments of the Creator's power — presented them- 
selves to the eye. Surely this was not a land 
that would tempt a man to leave the fertile hills 
and valleys of the East and l)rave all dangers to 
reach its barren shores. 


Trnly, tlie priests had come. For a hundred 
years their missions liad been planted on the 
coast and they had endured privation, suffering, 
yea, even deatli itself for the cause they held so 
dear; but the world was used to this sight. 
Where in ail the earth had the zeal oi" the holy 
fathers not carried them? No journey was too 
hard for them to attempt — ready at the word to 
<ro unto the ends of the world. The pages of 
h'story have rarely shown such perfect organiza- 
tion. Never such implicit obedience as they 
exhibited. «.\nd so the quiet life of the old 
missions ran on one day so like another that the 
riight of time was scarcely marked, save when 
some old father, weary with the burden of his 
years and the labor performed for the good of 
his fellow-men, failed to appear at morning 
prayers, and his brothers going to his cell would 
find that he had been called to his reward. 

I love to dwell on this phase of the old life 
of our native State. It presents a picture so 
quiet and restful that one living in the wild 
rush of the present can hardly realize that it 
is not all a dream. Amid the universal strife 
for personal advancement so prevalent in our 
day, we have but a dim light with which to dis- 
cern the nobler humanity that led the fathers 
of old to sacrifice their all for the good of their 
fellows. "What though the recipient of their 
life work was but an ignorant savage — lowest, 
we are told, of the entire human race? Enough 
for them to know that he had a soul to save. 
The world's truest heroes are not always those 
whose names are on every tongue, and to whom 
monuments of marble pierce the sky. In many 
a lowly grave in the old mission churchyard, 
with naught save a simple cross to mark the 
spot, lies, perhaps, a brave, true heart, who, 
having sacrificed liimself without a murmur for 
the welfare of his brethren, is more worthy of 
praise than a Napoleon. 

But we must away from the pleasant picture 
of California life under the Padres. Suflice that 
now it is forever dead, and whilst with reverent 
hands we draw the curtain over that calm past, 
we cannot fail to acknowledge what a noble 

lesson to poor weak humanity the life and works 
of the holy fathers have been. 

The history of California before the discovery 
of gold and settlement by Americans, resembles 
that of the South American liepublics of to-day. 
Ruled first by Spain and then b}' Ale.xico, 
California in turn revolted from each three 
times. The Mexican power was broken. In- 
deed, in 1836, the successful Governor, Alvarado, 
was aided by a Tennesseeaii named (xraham, 
who evinced, at an early day in the history of 
our State, the fondness Americans are said to 
have for politics. Alvarado re|.iaid his debt of 
gratitude to his friend by soon sending him, 
with others, in chains to San Bias, only to see 
them return in a few months much the better 
for their exile. 

California at this, as in former times, was 
ever ready for a revolution. As a rule no one 
w'as hurt, and it generally required only one 
shot, as at the capture of Monterey by Alva- 
rado, to establish the downfall of one governor 
and the succession of another. And so the life 
of the Californians went on, the population at 
this time being less than 15,000, mostly engaged 
in stock-raisincp. For the herds of cattle intro- 
duced by Governor Portal and Father Junipero 
Serra had increased to vast numbers and the 
trade in hides had become quite extensive, the 
Boston traders keeping two ships on the coast, 
thus enabling the native Californians to indulge 
their love of finery, which had hitherto been 

But a different race was now to appear upon 
the scene, and henceforth revolutions were to be 
something more than a name. Early in 18-16 
Fremont arrived upon the frontiers of Califor- 
nia, and, with his company of some sixty odd 
men, halted about 100 miles from Monterey. 
He then proceeded alone to that place to inter- 
view the Mexican General Castro, asking of 
him permission to proceed to the San Joaquin 
Valley, that he might there rest and recuperate 
his party, who were on their way to Oregon. 
The request was freely granted, but no sooner 
had Fremont departed than Castro began to stir 


ii[> tlie Calit'urnians. Tlie c.\[)lorcrs were be- 
bicjjed for some four days near Monterey, but tlie 
Californians did not care to jiusli the iigliting, 
!-o at the end of tliis time Fi'einont and liis men 
took up tlieir route for Oregon. They were 
soon recalled, however, for the time liad at last 
arrived, vvlien California should come under the 
protection of the stars and sti'ipes. 

The (Tovernment at Washington had long 
cast eager glances westward, and on the 2d day 
of July, ISit), Commodore Sloat, on board tlie 
frigate Savannah, entered the harbor of Monte- 
rey. His position was a trying one, for if lie 
did not take possession of the country in the 
name of tlie United States, other powers might 
interfere. At the time the Sarannah left Ma- 
zatlan for Monterey, the English man-of-war 
C'lilliiKjiriioi/ t-Ailtid from San Bias for the same 

It was indeed a race between the Uiiitetl 
States and England on which perhaps depended 
the future of California. 

At this time Sloat did iKitknuw that war had 
lieen declared between the United States and 
Mexico, lie therefore hesitated to take a step 
which must provoke hostilities. 

Before this, indeed, the shock of war had 
been felt here on your own soil, and the bear 
flag had fluttered in the soft breezes of the 
Sonoma hills. 

This occasion, howexer, was ditl'erent; the 
power of the United States was about to Ije 
invoked and woe to those who dared its 

At last, on the 7th day of July, 181-f5, Com- 
modore Sloat raised the American Hag and de- 
clared California henceforth a part of the United 
States, and on the lOtli of the same month the 
stars and stripes reached Sonoma and were sub- 
stituted for the l)ear tiag, under which our 
fathers won their tirst victory. Much was still 
to be done ere the (juestiou was entirely settUnl, 
for Flores issued a prdclamation to the Califor- 
nians and gathered together some three hundred 
of them and made a last stand for independence. 
This emeute was soon tpielled, however, and the 

United States were in undisturbed possession of 
Uj)per California. 

In the spring ot 18-18 the treaty of peace.was 
ratified between our country and Mexico, and 
early in the following year came a great change 
to California. 

On the 19th day of January, 184:'J, James AV. 
Marshall, standing by a stream among the 
mountains of the present county of El Dorado, 
saw something glittering before him in the 
water. He gazes for a moment, then knows that 
it is gold, sought after through all ages. The 
secret is kept for a little time but soon gets 
abroad, and flies on the wings of the wind to the 
uttermost ends of the earth. Then commences 
to break upon our coast that great tide of hu- 
manity which flowing from all (piarters of the 
globe passed through the golden gate on to the 
golden shore. 

Never in the world's history has such a sight 
been presented as that which now broke upon 
the vision of the ipiiet inhabitants of California. 
The best and worst elements of the older civi- 
lization were set down on the sandy shore of 
the old mission Dolores, there to work out the 
eternal law of the survival of the fittest. 

The times were most auspicious for the 
bringing together of the bravest inanhood in 
this western world. The war with Mexico had 
closed and thousands of young men with the 
laurels of victory upon their brows and used to 
a life of adventure, were more than willing to 
risk their all in search of the hidden treasure 
concealed in the mountain fastnesses of the New 
El Dorado. 

There never was, there never can be a i)raver, 
truer race of men than those Argonauts, the 
pioneers of California, bound together as they 
were by no ordinary ties, far from home and 
kindred, with no family fireside around which 
to gather, with nothing to call forth the better 
side of man's nature, engaged as each man was 
in the wild search for gold, still their friendship 
was heroic in its trust and faithful unto death. 
And was it nut natural that it should be sn'. 
These men lunl encountered peril and danger 

ursroBY OF sonoma county. 

side l)y side, liad kept guard at midnight on the 
liarren phiins of Mexico and stood shoulder to 
slioulder at the attack on Monterey. A thou- 
sand times had they stood face to face with death 
and never quailed. Cemented by such ties, 
what wonder that there existed between these men 
a trust we can only imagine. The name of the 
pioneeis of California has ever been a synonym 
for all that was l)ravest and truest in manhood. 

At this time through all the broad land, from 
the Atlantic to the Mississippi, and from the 
Great Lakes to the Gulf, the cry was " West- 
ward-hol" Old and young alike spurred on by 
the hope of bettering their condition, left the 
(piiet steady life they had known so long and set 
forth with brave hearts for the new El Dorado. 
The sturdy jS'^ew England lad leaving his old 
home among the hills where he and his fathers 
before him had scarcely been alile to make both 
ends meet, went side by side with the college 
graduate fresh from the hills of Harvard. 
Whilst from the plantations of the South and 
from the farms of the then West came a human 
tide slowly forcing its way across the broad 
plains and over the ocean with bnt one thought, 
one dream, one aspiration — that of reaching 
California. How sad it is to realize that so few 
of all these countless thousands found the suc- 
cess they hoped for on these shores. 

I never cross the beautiful Bay of San Fran- 
cisco with its bright waters reflecting the rosy 
tints of the setting sun that my thoughts do not 
turn to the olden days, and looking out through 
the Golden Gate I can picture a gallant ship, 
with all sails set, slowly coming into port. Her 
sides are weather-stained with the hard usage 
she has encountered in beating around the Horn, 
and her passengers are more than weary with 
their months' of continement. Yet the smile 
of hope is on every face, for at last they are in 
sight of the long sought land. Then the eager 
wish to get ashore and into the mountains to 
search for gold. After that I ah! who can tell 
their fate! A few successful in their search, 
but the great majority going on fi-oni one place 
to another until at last they sink exhausted by 

the wayside, and the wife and children afar off 
in the little home on the rough New England 
hillside wait in vain for a step which never 
comes; for a voice that is silent forever; wait 
until even hope dies away and they know that 
their loved one is lost to them. 

And this was the sad fate of very many who, 
setting forth with the hope of procuring that 
which would gladden the hearts of the loved 
ones at home, found only a rough grave upon 
the mountain side, and the sleep which knows 
no waking. 

With the vast influx to this coast of Ameri- 
cans from all parts of the United States came a 
desire to secure the admission of California iuto 
the Union, but this was a favor more easily 
asked for than obtained. At the very threshold 
of Congress this ambition was met with that 
old question which had caused so much bitter- 
ness in the past and which was soon to bathe 
all the land in blood. Slavery stood in the way. 
It had long been the custom in order to main- 
tain a political balance of power for Congress to 
admit two States at the same time — one beluga 
slave State, the other free; but this was impos- 
sible at this time. No other State stood knock- 
ing at the doors of the National Capitol, and the 
question had to be squarely met. 

Attempts to give a territorial form of govern- 
ment to the new country acquired from Mexico 
had failed, three bills having such an object had 
been defeated in a previous session of Congress. 
And in 1848, Senator Douglas, of Illinois, in- 
troduced a bill admitting California into the 
Union. The battle waged long and violent, all 
the old passions were revived and sectional 
spirit ran as high as during the time of the 
Missouri Compromise or the Wilmot Proviso. 
Mr. Douglas did all that man could do, but the 
opposition was too strong, and after an all night 
session, on Sunday morning, March 4, 184rU, at 
7 o'clock, the Senate adjourned and California 
was still left without a State government. 

In the meantime the people of California had 
not been idle. When it became known that 
Congress had failed to grant any relief, General 

History op coi/Nry 


Riley called upon the people to elect delegates 
to form a Constitution for the State. A conven- 
tion met for this purpose on the third day of 
Septeinhei-, 1849, at Montert'v, and was in ses- 
sion some six weeks evolving the first Constitu- 
tion of California. This was soon after ratified 
by the people, and in December, 1849, the first 
session of the Legislature met at San Jose. 

The question of the admission of California 
came before Congress again at its ne.\t session, 
and the fight was renewed with the same bitter- 
ness. Early in March her Senators and Repre- 
sentatives were in Washington, asking for 
admission to the councils of the nation. 

All summer the question engaged the giant 
minds in the Senate, and at times the issue 
seemed most doubtfhl, but at last the friends of 
the new State conquered, and on the 9th day of 
Septemlier, 1850, President Fillmore signed the 
bill admitting California into the Union. 

To-day we are gathered together to celebrate 
the thirty-fifth anniversary of our admission in- 
to the sisterhood of States. Standing in this 
presence, viewing all the grand accomplishments 
of these few j'ears, it is almost impossible for 
us to realize that it is jiot all a dream; for thirty- 
five years is as nothing in the life of a country, 
and what wonders has our fair State not seen? 
Fiom a few missions scattered along the coast 
have sprung a dozen cities, and the old Mission 
Dolores has grown to lie the empire city of the 
AVest, sitting secure upon her hills by the Gold- 
en Gate, proud mistress of the Pacific. To her 
has come trilmto fi'mn the Orient and through 
her gateway gn Inrth ships whose sails whiten 
every sea. ('(nild but the sjiirit of some old 
father revisit the scenes where he had worked in 
his little garden among the siind hills he would 
indeed thiid< that tiie age of miracles had come 
onee more. 

Where thirty-five years ago were a few scattei-ed 
ranches with herds of wild cattle running over 
the vast plains are now thriving towns and 
beautiful farms. In no other land has nature 
been so lavish in her gifts to the children of 
men. With us all climes seem to meet and 

blend, and the hardy pine of the northern 
woods whispers iieside the orange blossom of 
the south. 

We have often been ridiculed for boasting so 
much of our climate. Vet 1 am sure we are fully 
justified in the facts. Stretching as our State 
does for hundreds of miles along the coast, with 
its fine harl)ors, that of San Francisco one of 
the best in the world, and with a land capable 
of growing almost every product of the tem- 
perate and torrid zones — the past is but an 
earnest of what the future has in store for us. 
Great as has been our progress during the past 
thirty-five years, I look forward with a confi- 
dent hope of yet grander achievements. 

With all our vast resources scarcely un- 
touched, with great mines of wealth yet un- 
worked, thousands of acres of fertile soil 
uncultivated, needing only the hand of man to 
cause it to spring forth and to blossom like the 
rose, we as a people are not faithful to the great 
charge entrusted to us, if we are satisfied with 
the glory of the past and content with the work 
done by our fathers. It is our saci'ed duty to 
go forward in the the patli laid out for iis by 
the pioneers, building up the prosperity an<l 
greatness of the grand heritage they have left 
us. Our task is much easier than was theirs; 
our lives have fallen in pleasant places; for 
them the weary months of toil over barren 
wastes and burning sands, the battle and the 
siege; for us the pleasant groves and vineyards, 
the arts and civilizatitni, and the security of the 

Shall we be less faithful, enjoying as we do 
the fruits of their labor, than were they with 
war and death on every sid(>; I am sure I can 
answer for y<in, my brothers, when I say that you 
will use every possilile means which you jiossess 
to establish stronger the bulwarks of our beloved 
State; that you will see to it that no act of 
yours will ever stain the fair shield of ('alifor- 
nia; that accepting from your fathers as a sacred 
trust the honor of your State, yon will ever 
strive to jierpetiiate its glory through ail the 


The years that are crowding fast upon us are 
full of responsiihilities. Whether we wish to 
or not there are grave ijuestiuns which must be 
met. Every day sees some old pioneer gathered 
to his reward, and the vast majority of them 
have already passed over the divide and rest on 
the other sliore. Tlie future of our State for 
weal or woe is in our hands, and there are prob- 
lems to be solved wliicli will require all our 
knowledge and courage. 

Though we are proud, as onh' those can be 
who live ujion their native soil, still there are 
elements within our State which must be 
checked if we desire to preserve untainted the 
liberty and equality which we have inherited. 

One of the great evils that lias grown up 
within our State is the vast power exercised by 
wealth. We are too prone in these latter days 
to worship the possessor of monej', caring little 
by what means it has been obtained. Let us 
rather return to the piineiples nf unr fathers, 
believing with tiiein that "an honest man is 
the noblest work of God;" for I fear they had 
a higlier standard by which to judge these 
things, and I believe old ways are best. 

With all our improvements in the past, with 
school-houses and churches on every hand, 1 do 
not know that we can boast of a higher tone of 
personal honor than that which existed among 
the rough and hardy pioneers who tirst landed 
on these shores. Then every .man's word was his 
bond, and to impugn a man'o truthfulness was 
cause enough for war. Now, 1 fear, we mistrust 
most men, and prone as the people are to be- 
lieve the worst, they iind themselves too often 
gratified. It is our duty to try and change 
these things. Let us prove that the high traits 
for which our fathers were justly praised, yet 
live in us, that honesty, integrity and manliness 
are not things of the past age, but exist now, 
and by our liel|) will continue through all the 

On an occasion of this kind, wlien our 
hearts are full of tender memories of the past, 
and our minds turn again to the golden days of 
boyhood, when life seemed all sunshine, and our 

highest dreams and aspirations were so quickly 
gratifie<l, ere we had learned the bitterness of 
defeat or the hollowness of victory — before we 
had drank of the cuj) of knowledge which 
brings sorrow, who of us, turning again to the 
sweet past, has failed to look for one form dearer 
than all others, the pioneer mothers of our State. 
Would that I had the eloquence with which to 
pay a fitting tribute to their memory — coming 
as they did across the desert plains and over 
thousands of miles of ocean, leaving behind 
them without a murmur all the comfort and re- 
finements of civilization, content to take their 
place beside the one tliey loved, and sufl'er all 
for his sake. Tiieir life work lies before us in 
the homes that are within our borders. 

Oh, firesides, dotting mountain, valley and 
plain, ye by your thousand voices bear testi- 
mony of the noble work and worth of the truest 
mothers of our State. A[ay God bless them to 
their latest day. 

Standing here to-day among the vine-clad 
hills of Sonoma, on ground rendered historic 
as being the place wliere the first blow was 
struck by Americans having for its object the 
Conquest of this fair land, almost in sight of 
the spot where the famous bear fiag fiuttered in 
the breezes of that summer day thirty-nine years 
ago, we are more than impressed with the vast 
evidences of jn'ogress tluit meet our view on 
every hand. Where once the mountain and 
hillside were covered by mighty forests inhab- 
ited by savage beasts or still more savage men, 
now we have the vine and the fruit tree, under 
the siiadow of which dwell the happy and con- 
tented liusbandman. 

The old pioneer, his life work almost finished, 
here rests and dreams of the stirring days of 
yore, happy in the knowledge that through his 
exertions this goodly heritage was secured and 
that his children's children will rise up and call 
him blessed. 

To the noble pioneers, California owes a debt 
of gratitude which can never be repaid. l'>y 
their efforts has she been placed within a few 
short years in a jiosition second to none in the 


sister-liood of States. Situated as we are, upon 
the utmost western border of the Republic, far 
from the center of Federal authority, we have 
not received the same amount of comfort and 
assistance from the general government that our 
sister States have enjoyed. 

Yet our loyalt}' and love for our common 
country has never wavered in the past nor will 
it ever falter in the future. Each star in tlie 
flag is dear to our hearts and we are content to 
bide the time when we shall be better under- 
stood. Standing at the gateway of the East, 
with the manners, customs and civilization of an 
alien race, old when our world was born, menac- 
ing our homes and institutions, we have been 
forced to bar the way to this servile flood, tiiat 
we might protect our own flresides. To the 
rest of the world California bids a most liearty 
welcome. On our great fertile plains is room 
for all, with enough of food to All the hungry of 
other lands. 

To those sitting in the darkness of a despot- 
ism kejit alive by force in the old world, we 
oft'er all the blessings which liberty ever brings 
to its happy possessor. 

Founded, as this State was by men of every 
clime under heaven, we have absolutely no prej- 
udices, judging all by their works and making 
none responsible for the errors of his ancestors. 

With these blessings on every hand and with 
the vast resources of our soil, there is practically 
no limit to our possibilities as a people. A 
grand destiny awaits our State. May each of us 
be prepared to act well his part with lionor to 
himself and his fatherland. 

To you, ]iioneer fathers, we turn this day 
with hearts full of gratitude for the l)lessings 
you by ydur valor have conferred upon us. To 
those who having passed over the divide, look 
down upon us from the heiglits of eternal bliss, 
guide, we pray you, the destinj- of the State you 
loved so well. 

To others who are still with us, we wish all 
of hapi)iness and peace. May their last days be 
indeed tlieir best ones, and when the sun, for 
them, shall for the last time shed liis brilliant 

rays upon the land they lield so dear, may its 
declining light guide them safely into the eter- 
nal rest. 

And now to thee. Oh, California, l)rightest 
and purest star in all the galaxy to us, we, thy 
children, do on this day renew our fealty to thee. 
Loving thee as no other people can love thee, 
springing from thy bosom and nurtured on thy 
breast, we pledge our lives, our honors to the 
pi'eservation of thy liberty in all its pristine 
strength ! 

May he be greatest among us wlio does the 
most for thee. 

And through all the cycles of the ages, God 
grant that thy fair shield shall shine far out 
over the western waters in all its radiant splen- 

At the close of this eloquent address, (ieorge 
Homer Meyer, the gifted Sonoma County Jioet, 
recited the following poem: 


With the flag of all others we love and reveie. 

And whose stars float above us to-day, 
Let us blend the worn folds of the brave pioneer, 

While we wreathe it with laurel and bay. 
With the names of our father.s its colors entwine, 

And no shadow its history mars, 
And to-day do we hold it as fitting to shine, 

By the side of the Stripes and the Stars. 

Tho' all rugged and rude on that far-a-way morn 

Was the banner they lifted in air, 
Yet the deed marked the day when an Empire was 

For the voice of God's Freedom was there. 
And the hands that decreed that that Freedont should 

Were as rude witli their labor-worn scars 
As the ensign they raised — yet it flo.ated .la free, 

As the flag of the Stripes and the Stars. 

And then far to the south where the swift breezes jilay 

O'er the wave-broken face of the tide. 
O'er the crests of the seas with their wild locks ol 

Lo ! two stately sea-warriors ride. 
And a banner blood-red from one lofty mast flows. 

With St. George's crossed, crimson-hued bars. 
While aflame in the .sunlight another tliere glows— 

The bright flag of the Stripes and the Stars. 

But sweet tidings have come to the chiefs o'er the sens, 
A dark glow as of joy lights theii eyes; 


Now like light is the canvas flung wide In the breeze, 

For a race, with an Empire the prize. 
And now strain every hallianl and bend every sail. 

And this day prove the strength of your spars — 
Sliall (he Cross and the Crown of proud England pre- 

Or the flag of the Stripes and the Stars? 

Bnt one springs to the front — like a shaft from the bow 

Does she cleave thro' the billow3' spray, 
And the foam in her track, like the pathway of snow. 

O'er the wind driven sea marks her waj-. 
The wild waves lash her siiles till her masts liend and 

And her mighty frame trembles and jars. 
Hut she rises erect on her iron shod keel. 

And above Hoats the Stripes and the Stars. 

And on, on ! ever on ! the wild sea rushes by, 

While the Briton comes following fast — 
And there, gleaming before them, the green valleys lie. 

For the wild race is ending at last. 
And now pause, ship of Britain, the contest is o'er, 

Lower down your vain canvas and spars, 
For there, rising in triumph above the green shore. 

Floats the flag of the Stripes and the Stars. 

And now speed the glad ti<lings away to the north. 

Let it fly on the winds of the air; 
To that camp in the hills let the knowledge go forth. 

To the true hearts awaiting it there. 
Let them lay their brave flag on the Altars of Fame, 

No dishonor its radiance mars. 
For unconqiiered it yields without shadow of shame, 

To the flag of the Stripes and the Stars. 




|[if' l=flF='F='l='r=^ ^^r=Jr=]n 


Military and Political History. 


Sonoma under mit.itarv rule — General Hiley aitoints civil officers — a si-EfiMEN of how 



chixerv (if civil (idvkknment set in motion elections am) nl'mher of votes i'ollkd ix 

Sonoma district — ueoin to agitate countv seat kejioval — a vote taken on the <jdes. 
TioN IN 1854 — Santa Eosa declared the county seat — earlv court accommodations at 



^S|S yet, Califoriiia was under military rule 
.toI ^"'^ «iuite a garrison was maintained at 
'■^^(^ Sonoma. It was tiie head center of the 
northern frontier, and when the gold fields of 
California began to attract immigration it be- 
came a place of much business importance. As 
a military post it was honored with the presence 
of several otticers, who afterward achieved 
national renown, notable among whom were 
Joe Hooker, Phil Ivearney, afterward killed at 
Antietam; Ceneral Stone, (Tcncral Stoneman, 
afterward Governor of California; an<l J.ienten- 
ant Derby, author of the Squibob Papers. 

In 1849 (reneral Itiley was commandant on 
the Pacific coast, and appears to have had the 
power to appoint civil otticers; for in August of 
that year he issued a commission to Stephen 
Cooper as judge of the first district, and 
appointed C. J*. Wilkins prefect of the district 
of Sonoma. That the justice administered by 
the officers so appointed was both grim and 

swift is evidenced by tiie first record in Stephen 
Cooper's court, which is as follows: 

"The people of California Territory vs. 
George Palmer — And now comes the said people 
by right of their attorney, and the said defend- 
ant by Seinple and O'AIelveny, and the prisoner 
having been arraigned on the indictment 
in this cause plead not guilty. Therefore a 
jury was chosen, selected and sworn, when, after 
hearing the evidence and arguments of couhspI, 
returned into court the tbllowiiig verdict, to 

"The jurymen in the case of Palmer, defend- 
ant, and the State of California, plaintiff, have 
found a verdict of guilty on both counts of the 
indictment, and sentence him to receive the 
following ])unishment, to wit: 

"On Saturday, the 24th day of November, to 
be conducted by the sheriff to some public 
])lace, ;uid there receive on his bare back seven- 
ty-live lashes, with such a weapon as'the sheriff 



may deem fit, on each count respectively, and 
to be banished from tlie district of Sonoma 
within twelve lionrs after whipping, under the 
])enalty of receiving the same number of laslies 
for each and every day he remains in the dis- 
trict after the first whipping. 

"(Signed) Ai.exaniikk Riddlk, 

•' Foreman. 

'•It is therefore ordered l>y the court, in ac- 
cordance with the above verdict that tlie forego- 
ing sentence be carried into etfect." 

It may seem strange to the reader tiiat the 
jury ]ia8sed sentence, hut they could, and in 
case of grand larceny, a jury could pass sentence 
of death; as they did, vide Tanner vs. the 
people of the State of California, 2nd Col. Re- 

As yet everything was in a chaotic fornuitive 
state. The civil authority related back to mili- 
tary authority. And yet the government seems 
to have been efficient and conducive to good 
order and justice. Tlie penalties imposed may 
n(j\v seem severe and even cruel, but we must 
remember that in taking up civilization where 
Mexican occupancy ended and American occu- 
pancy began perfection in either civil or crimi- 
nal practice would not be expected. There had 
to be a gradual shading up to a more advanced 
stage of civilization. In due time this came 
under the benign influence of American rule 
and the administration of American law. The 
whipping post as a punishment for petty crimes 
and the gallows. as the punishment for grand 
larceny marks the dividing line between Cali- 
fornia as a conquered province of Mexico, and a 
star in the galaxy of the States of the Union 
of the United States of America. If at first her 
justice was administered with a seemingly 
vigorous hand, it must be remembered that the 
civil and criminal authority related back to the 
military that ruled with the sword, the keen 
edge of which did not allow the gordian knots 
of law to impede the ends of swift and summary 
punishment for infractions of law. As seem- 
ingly severe as this administration of justice 
may seem to those of later days, it must liP 

borne in mind that the influx to California of a 
vast horde of gold-seekers, had precipitated upon 
this coast a people cosmopolitan in a degree 
never l)efore concentrated upon God's footstool; 
and nothing short of the most Vigorous methods 
of jurisprudence would meet the exigencies of 
the times. The interregnum between military 
and civil rule in California was a period fraught 
with many dangers to the weal of California, 
and it is a subject of congratulation that it was 
tided over with so few mistakes and errors. I'ut 
the military rule liad tilled its appointed office 
and the people came under the dominion of 
civil rule. 

California was now under the peaceful folds 
of the stars and stripes. On February 2, 184-8. 
a treaty of peace and friendship was formulated 
attTuadalupe Hidalgo; ratified by the President 
of the United States on March IG, 18-48; ex- 
changed at Queretaro, May 30, and was finally 
promulgated on the 4th of July ot the same 
year, by President Polk, and attested by Secre- 
tary of State, James lUielianan. In June, 1849, 
a proclamation was published calling an election 
to be held on the 1st of August, to elect dele- 
gates to a general convention to formulate a 
State constitution, and for filling the offices of 
judge of tlie superior court, prefects, sul)- 
prefects, and first alcalda as judge of the first 
instance, such appointments to be made by 
General Riley after being voted for. The 
Sonoma district elected as delegates to that con- 
vention General Yallejo, Joel Walker, R. 
Seniple and L. W. Boggs. The number of del- 
egates was fixed at thirty-seven, and they were 
to meet in convention at Monterey on the 1st 
of September, 184!l. 

The constitutional convention assembled at 
Monterey at the appointed time and R. Semjde, 
delegate from the Sonoma district, was chosen 
chairman. The session lasted six weeks. It 
seems to have been conducted with ability and 
decorum. A seal of the State was adopted with 
the motto " Eureka;'' a provision for the morals 
and education of the people of the State was 
made: the boundary (piestion between Califor- 


nia and Mexico deteniiined, and last, but not 
least, slavery was forever proiiibited within the 
boundary of the State. 

The constitution so framed, was submitted to 
the people for ratitication at an election held on 
the 13th of November. At the same election 
State officers were to lie elected. Tlie vote for 
the constitution was 12,064 for, and eleven 
against its adoption. For State officers there 
were two tickets in the field, both called the 
peoples' ticket. The first was: for Governor, 
John A. Sutter; for Lieutenant-Governor, John 
McDougall ; for Representatives in Congi'ess, 
William E. Shannon, Peter Ilalsted. The 
second was: Peter H. Burnett, for Governor; 
for Lieutenant-Governer, John McDougall; for 
Representatives in Congress, Edward Gilbert and 
George W. Wright. The result of this election 
was: Peter Burnett, (Governor; John McDougall, 
Lieutenant-Governor; and Edward Gilbert and 
George W. Wright sent to Congress. The total 
vote polled by Sonoma district in this election 
was 552 votes, of which 424 were for Jiurnett. 
For the State Senate the contest was between 
General M. G. Yallejo and Jonas Spect, a Meth- 
odist clergyman, afterward a resident of Two 
Rock Valley foi' many years. At first Jonas 
Spect was given his seat on the claim that he 
had received a majority of the votes cast at a 
precinct somewhere in the district called " Lar- 
kin's Rancho." But it seems that Spect had 
reckoned without his host, for when authentic 
returns came in from Larkin's Ranch it proved 
that Yallejo had lieen elected by eighteen ma- 
jority, and Spect had to vacate his seat in favor 
of Vallejo. The duly elected Representatives to 
the Assembly from the district of Sonoma was 
J. E. Brackett and J. S. Bradford. On the 15th 
of December, 1849, this, the first legislative 
body convened un<ler American rule, assembled 
at the Pueblo de San Jose, and the senate organ- 
ized with Mr. Cambcrlin as president pro tern., 
and John Bidwell as temporary secretary. The 
assembly organized with Mr. Walthall as chair- 
man /*/v) fern., and Mr. Moorchead as clerk pro 
tiHi. riio first session of the Legislature \ipon 

which was devolved the task of setting in 
motioTi the wheels of civil government had a 
difficult and intricate task to perform. It dis- 
charged its duties as well as could lie expected 
considering the multiform and intricate ques- 
tions pressed upon its considei'ation. At this 
session Robert Hopkins was appointed district 
judge of the district of which Sonoma County 
was a part, and J. E. Brackett Major-General of 
the second division of militia. Petaluma and 
Scmoma Creeks were also declared navigalde 
streams. Throughout the proceedings of this 
first legislative body of California seems to 
have been harmonious, except that there was 
apparent some friction over the charactei- of 
memorial to be sent to Congress asking for ad- 
mission into the sisterhood of States. The bone 
of contention was that clause of the constitution 
prohibiting slavery. This led to much acri- 
monious discussion and resulted in the rejection 
of all the florid addresses intended as accom- 
paniments to the constitution, to be submitted 
to Congress for ratification. 

The Legislature proceeded to divide the Ter- 
ritory into counties. The act sub-dividing into 
counties and establishing, seats of justice therein 
was finally passed and confirmed on the 25th of 
April, 1851, fixing the boundaries of Sonoma 
County as follows: 

" Beginning on the sea-coast, at the mouth 
of Russian River, and following up the middle 
of said river to its source in the range of moun- 
tains called Moyaemas; thence in a direct line 
to the northwestern corner of Napa County to 
its termination in ('amero Mountains; thence 
in a direct line to the nearest point of Camero 
Creek; thence down said creek to its entrance 
into Napa River; thence down the middle of 
Napa River to its mouth, excluding the island 
called Signor, or Mare Island; thence due south 
to the north line of Contra Costa County; thence 
down the middle of said bay to the corner of 
Marin County; thence following the boundary 
of IVIarin County to Petaluma Creek; thence up 
said ciTfk, following the boundary of Afarin 
Connt\ to the ocean, and thi'ee miles Therein; 

insTiiRY oF soNoMA diVNTY. 

thence in a northerly direction parallel with the 
coast to a point opposite the mouth of Russian 
River, and thence to said river, wliich was the 
place of heginning." If we take a map and 
follow the meanderings df this boundary we 
will find it very dissimihir to the present boun- 
daries of Sonoma Oounty. Sonoma was desig- 
nare<l as the seat uf county government. Pro- 
vision was made for a court consisting of a 
county judge, to be assisted in his deliberations 
by two justices of the peace, they to be cliosen 
by their brother justices from out of the whole 
number elected for the county. This court had 
great latitude of jurisdiction, for, aside from 
passing upon matters civil and criminal, it also 
discharged, substantially, all the functions now 
belonging to a county lioard of supervisors. 
The regular terms of this court were to com- 
mence on the second Monday of February, 
April, June, August, October and December, 
with quarterly sessions on the third Monday of 
February, May, August and November of each 

On the lull of September, 1850, California 
was admitted into the Union as a State. The 
first regular State Legislature assembled at San 
Jose on January 6, 1851. The Eleventh Sena- 
torial District then embraced the counties of 
Sonoma, S(dano, Napa, Marin, Colusa, Yolo, 
and Trinity, and was represented in the Senate 
by Martin E. Cook; while Sonoma, in conjunc- 
tion with Marin, Napa and Solano counties was 
represented in the Assembly by A. Stearns and 
John A. Bradford. 

There had l)een established a court of sessions 
at Sonoma with A. A. Oreen as County Judge 
and Charles Hudspeth and Refer Campbell as 
Associates. Judge Green died in 1851, and W- 
O. King was chosen to till his place. In Novem- 
l)er of that year C. R. Wilkins was elected 
County Judge, Israel I'rockman was sheriff 
and Dr. John llendley was county clerk and 

In July of 1852 Refer Campbell and J. M. 
Miller were associate justices on the bench 
with Judyc Wilkins: ami on the 3il of October 

they were superseded by A. C (iodwin and 
Phil. R. Thompson. The first Board of Super- 
visors for the county convened on July 5, 1852, 
at Sonoma, and took charge of county affairs 
not coming within tlie jurisdiction of the court 
of sessions. The members were D. O. Shat- 
tuck; William A. Hereford, of Santa Rosa Dis- 
trict, and Leonard I'. Hansen and James Sing- 
ley of Retalunm District. I). ( ). Shattuck was 
made Chairman of the Board. 

A* the Rresidential election, the fall of 1852, 
E. W. McKinstry was elected District Judge of 
this district, and J. M. Hudspeth, Senator, and 
H. S. Ewingand James McKamy, assemblymen. 
As an inspiration to the young men of Sonoma 
County of the future, not to despise the humlde 
vocations of life, we here mention that Joe 
Hooker, the afterward celebrated "Fighting Joe 
Hooker" of the civil war, was elected to and 
filled the position of road-master in Sonoma 
road district, in the year of grace, 185H. 

In 1852 Sonoma County played so little of a 
conspicuous figure in politics that we find no 
record of its attitude on the great national ques- 
tions of the day. It was then Whig and Dem- 
ocrat, but we find notlnng to show iiow the vote 
stood between Rierce and tiie hero of " Lundy's 
Lane," but judging from tiie complexion of the 
then population of Sonoma County, the vote 
was in favor of Rierce. 

In 1853 the Democratic convention which 
met at Santa Rosa nominated Joe Hooker an<l 
Lindsay Carson for the assembly, and a fuU 
county ticket. The Settlers' convention met on 
Aueust fith and nominated a full ticket, headed 
by James N. Bennett and Judge Robert Hop- 
kins for the assembly. It was a tie vote be- 
tween Bennett and Hooker. On the second 
election to decide this tie vote the removal of the 
county seat from Sonoma to Santa Rosa became 
a direct issue. Tiie election came off on Octo- 
ber 9, and Bennett, who lived and was sponsor 
for P.ennett Yalley, beat Hooker, a resident of 
Sonoma, l)y thirteen majority. Lindsay Carson 
having declined the election to tlie assembly a 
new election was called to fill the vacancy on 



the 23(1 uf December. Tlic candidates were W. 
J], llagiuit;, James Siiii;;lcy and Joseph W. Bel- 
den, and resulted in the election of AV. H. 

Ilitlierto we have had to grupe amid the im- 
pertect and defaced written records of Sonoma 
to rind the political history of the county. In 
September, 1855, there was a State and county 
election held. The AVhio- jiarty had subsitled 
and the contest was a straight one on the State 
ticket between the Democratic and Ameuican 
parties. The candidates for Governor were 
Rigler, Democratic, and Johnson, American. 
In Sonoma County Rigler received 988 votes 
and Johnson 892. In the county contest tlie 
tickets were Democratic and Settler. The Set- 
tler's ticket was elected from top to l^ottom. At 
this election was submitted the proposition 
"Prohibitory Liquor Law yes, and Prohibitory 
Liquor Law no,'' and the vote stood, yes, 591; 
and no, 676. The total vote polled in Sonoma 
and Mendocino counties at this election was 

As stated aliuve, the contest in 1853, between 
Joe Hooker and Bennett hinged upon the pro- 
posed removal of the county seat from Sonoma 
to Santa Rosa. This became a leading question 
in the political issues of the county. To give 
the reader a correct idea of the whole subject 
we cannot better do so than by incorporating 
here the whole history in connection with the 
county seat removal as lelated by R. A. Thomp- 
son in his excellent history of Santa Rosa Town- 
ship. It is as follows: 

" In the year of 1850, in the town of Sonoma, 
the county occupied a building owned by II. A. 
(Trreen, County Judge. The Court of Sessions 
then transacted the i)usini;ss of the county, now 
entrusted to the iJoard of Supervisors. The 
(Jourt consisted of the County Judge and a 
n\iinbcr of Associate Justices. At the time of 
which I write the meinbers^of the court were 
II. A. (4reen, County Judge, J*. Campbell and 
Charles Hudspeth, associates. On the I8th of 
March, 1850, H. A. Green presents iiis bill to 
his own court for rent of building for court- 

house, from the 20th of May to the 20th of 
Septenil)er, 1850 — four months, at .S125 jicr 
month — S500. The bill was allowed, and wa.s 
the lirst transaction of any kind regai'ding a 
court house. 

"On the iS'h of February, 1850, the Court 
made the rollowing oixlei', in the matter of pur- 
chasing a court-house: 'The (-ourt having con- 
sidered the expense accruing to the county 
annually, foi' rent of a court-house and offices, 
are of the opinion that it would be a saving to 
the county to ])urchase a house already built, 
and recommend the same to be taken into con- 
sideration as soon as possible. 

" At the next meeting, in March, Peter Camp- 
bell and Charles Hudspeth were appointed by the 
court to buy or erect a suitable building for a court- 
house, jail, otKces, etc. At tlio following meet- 
ing this order was rescinded, and John Cameron 
and A. C. McDonald were appointed in their 
stead. They reported at once, and recommended, 
quite innocently, the purchase of Judge Green's 
house, as, of course, was anticipated, for $5,500, 
to be paid for in seven warrants, three for iJioOO 
and four for $1,000 each, to bear 3 per cent, 
interest per month until paid. The court ac- 
cepted the report — generously, liowever, reduc- 
ing the interest to 2^ per cent, per month. 
Judge Green made a deed, and the county took 
possession of the old ' casa. dc tidohe^ (juurters. 
The interest ran up more than the rent, and was 
never paid; nor was the principal until long 
after the death of Mr. Green. The board of 
supervisors succeeded the court of sessions, and 
they considered it very (piestioiiable whether 
there was any law whatever for the purchase, 
and payment hung lire for a long time, but it 
was eventually paid, as will be seen. The county 
occupied this l)uilding until it left Sonoma. 

" In March, 1854, the bill authorizing a vote 
upon the question of removal of county seat 
passed the Legislature. It was introduced on 
the 18th of April, was approved on the 19th 
and became a law. It was entitled • An act to 
locate the county seat of Soimma." It jirovided 
for three commissioners, who were luimed in the 



liill: Charles Loper and Gilbert R. Brusli, of 
Maiiii Cuiiiity, and James McNear, of Napa, to 
locate anew the county seat of yonoma. Section 
second provided that the commissioners should 
locate the county seat ' a?; near the geograpiiical 
center of tiie valley portion, or agricultural por- 
tion of said county, as practicable, having due 
regard to ail local advantages in the selection of 
the site." 

" The commissioners wer€ to notify the su- 
pervisors of their selection, and the supervisors 
were to certify the same to tlie county judge, 
and the judge was directed to give notice to the 
(qualified electors of the county to vote foi- or 
against the new county seat at the following 
general election, li' a majority voted for tiie 
new county seat, the board were directed to re- 
move the archives to Santa Rosa and provide 
the requisite county buildings; if against the 
new county seat, then it should remain in 

"The contest for removal actually Ijcgan a 
year ijeforc in the race between Joe Hooker and 
J. AV. Bennett for the Legislature. In Santa 
Rosa Bennett received eighty-four votes to 
Hooker's two. Tlu; (piestion of removal gave 
him almost a solid vote, though- it was not 
publicly mentioned, lie carrieil the county by 
a majority of twenty-two votes. 

•• The Sonoma Bulletin,, then edited by that 
pioneer journalist, A. J. Cox, very warndy ad- 
vocated Mr. Hooker's election, and up to this 
date, in his admirably edited paper, had no 
reference to the removal of the county seat, 
though he must have thought about it. 

'•The grand jury, on the 7th of February, 
1854, condemned the old court-house — which 
they called ' an old dilapidated adobe of small 
dimensions, in part rootless and unlit for a cattle 
shed.' They say it had cost !«9,0U(), of which 
§3,000 had been paid and ^HOOO was still 

"Next week the Bulletin said, editorially: 
• The old court-house is about being deserted, 
and high time it should be, unless our worthy 
officers of the law would run the risk of being 

crushed beneath a mass of mud and shingles, 
for we really believe it will cave in the next 
heavy rain.' 

"AVhen it was known in Sonoma that Mr. 
Bei.nett's bill had been introduced, the Bulletin 
of Api-il 8, 1854, under head of ' Removal of 
County Seat,' said: 'Our representatives at Sac- 
ramento, hitherto inert and dumb, have at 
length bestirred themselves to action — some- 
thing to save appearances at the close of the 
session. This effort to do something, however, 
reminds our citizens that they are represented 
at the capital -a circumstance they had long 
since forgotten. The first intimation we had of 
the peoj)le' ft desire to remove the county seat 
from Sononui to Santa Rosa was through the 
legislative proceedings of March 28th, which 
inform us that the bill ha<l been introduced and 
passed for that purpose. From what source did 
our representatives derive the information that 
a change was demanded by our people? In the 
name of a large body of their constituents we 
protest against the measure as premature, un- 
authorized and impolitic. The county cannot 
even repair the miserable building, and theoidy 
one it possesses; how then can it bear the ex- 
pense of erecting new ones? Perhaps the 
Sonoma delegation can perform a financial 

"The session of the Legislature was drawing 
to a close, and there was no time to compass the 
defeat of the bill, hence the rather bitter tone 
of the above editorial. 

" In its issue of August 19th the Bulletin 
said: 'The removal of the county seat claims a 
large share of public interest. Will it be trans- 
ferred from Sonoma to Santa Rosa? Of course 
that can only be positively known when the 
ballots for and against the new county seat arc 
counted. J udging from what we call popular 
opinion of the matter, Santa Rosa has but a 
slim chance of success, although every one con- 
siders it a pretty little town, and located in a 
pretty spot.' Oue of the editor's arguments 
against removal was that if the county should 
be divided, Santa Rosa would l)e as extreme as 


Sonoma now is, and, like our famous State capi- 
tal, the county seat would have to ' roll its bones 

" The election took place on the tith of Sep- 
tember, as advertised, and the vote stood as 
t'oliows: for Santa Rosa, 716; for Sonoma, ot)8. 

" On tiie 14th day of the same month the 
editor of the BuUi'tin announces the vote as 
follows: 'The county seat — that's a gone or 
going case from Sonoma. The uji-country peo- 
ple battled furiously against us, and have come 
out victorious. B3' the way, the people of Santa 
Rosa, after being satisfied of their success, tired 
one hundred guns in honor of the event; that 
is an anvil supplied the place of a cannon, 
which was let oft" 100 times. A great country 
this, whether fenced in or not.' 

"The board of supervisors met in Sonoma on 
the 18th day of September as a board of can- 
vassers, and declared the above result. \i the 
same meeting they agreed to convene in Santa 
Rosa September 20th, for the purpose of pro- 
viding the necessary buildings for the different 
county officers, and for transacting any otlie 
business pertaining to tlie new county seat. 

"The district attorney was requested to ac- 
company the boa d on September 20th. A. 
Copeland,lI. G. Heald, R. E. Smith and Stephen 
L. Fowder, constituting a majority of the board 
of supervisors, met for the first time in Santa 
Rosa. Supervisor R. E. Smith was chairman of 
the Itoai'd. 

"Julio Carrillo, V. G. llahman, Herthold 
Iloen and W. P. Hartinaii appeared before the 
board, they being proprietors of the town of 
Santa Rosa, and agreed to furnish free of rent 
three rooms in the house owned and occupied by 
Julio Carrillo (now ex-Mayor James P. Clark's 
residence), to be used by the sheriff', clerk and 
treasurer until other buildings were provided. 
They also agreed that by the 3d day of Novem-. 
ber, 1854, they would have a court-house and 
suitable rooms for county officers, said building 
to be the property of the County of Sonoma for 
one year gratis. A bond to carry out this 
agreement was given. 

"The board then clinched tlie removal, and 
fixed the county seat in its new location by the 
following order, which was placed upon the 

" ' It is hereby certified that at an election 
held in the County of Sonoma on the fith day 
of September, 1854, in pursuance of an act of 
the Legislature entitled 'An act to locate the 
county seat of Sonoma County anew,' the new 
county seat received 716 votes, having a major- 
ity of the votes cast at said election. Now, 
therefore, know that the town of Santa Rosa is 
hereby declared to be the county seat of Sonoma 

" Supervisor Stephen E. Fowler offered the 

'•^ Ii'esidra/, l!y order of the lioaril of super- 
visors of Sonoma County, that the archives v\' 
said county be moved from the city of Sonoma 
to the town of Santa Rosa, by order of the 
board declared to be the county seat of Sonoma 
County on September 22, 1854.' 

"When the archives were finally taken the 
irrepressibly witty Sonoma editor gets off the 
following: Departed. — Last Friday the county 
officei's with the archives left town for tiie new 
capitol amidst the exulting grin of some, and 
silent disapproval (frowning visages) of others. 
We are only sorry they did not take the court- 
house along — not because it would be an orna- 
ment to Santa Rosa, but because its removal 
would have embellished our plaza. Alasl old 
^ caiid de ddohc.' No more do we see county 
lawyers and loafers in general, lazily engaged in 
the laudable effort of whittling asunder the 
veranda-posts — which, by the way, recpiired but 
little more to bring the whole fabric to the 
ground. Xo more shall we hear within and 
around it lengthy, logical political discussions, 
upon which were supposed to hang the fate of 
the world. The court-house is deserteil, like 
some old feudal castle, only tenanted, perhaps, 
by bats, rats and Heas. Li the classic language 
of no one in particular, ' Let 'er rip.' 

"At the first meeting of the lioard District 
Attorney McNair put in a l>ill for $250, for 


iielt)ing the siijiervisors tu get legally out of 
80110111a; he was allowed slUO. Tlie hoard 
thought they did must of the work — at least 
two-thirds of it. Jiin Williamson modestly put 
in a hill of $10, for getting away with the 
records, which was allowed, without a groan, as 
it ought to have heen. 

"The first said about a jail was December 
13, 1855, when Supervisor Harrison, of Geyser- 
ville, proposed to cast about for plans; the 
matter was laid over. 

•' The editor of the Bullitin. visited Santa 
Rosa in October, a month after the removal, 
and it is pleasant to know how it a])pears 
to one so capable of estimating it. Mr. Cox 
says: ' Our friends at Santa Rosa are displaying 
considerable energy in building np the town. 
We notice, among other evidences of enterprise, 
the partial erection of a court-house. It is a 
pretty building, and. though seemingly small to 
those accustomed to the palatial four-story edi- 
fices of Sonoma, is suthcieutly large for the pur- 
pose. The citizens of the town certainly possess, 
in an eminent degree, the great ingredients of 
success, industry and enterprise.' This is a 
handsome tribute to the early Santa Rosans. 

" The next reference to the subject appears 
November 30th, in which it is stated that 
> .ludge McKinstry has decided the mandamus 
to remove the county seat in favor of Santa 
Rosa. Citizens, let the question repose." 

"On Tuesday, October 2d, 1854, the Court 
of Sessions, Judge Frank W. Shattuck presid- 
ing, met for the first time, in the old Masonic 
Hall, opposite the Santa Rosa House. Judge 
I*. R. Thompson and James Prewett were 
elected Associate Justices. If his Honor, the 
presiding Judge, did not make a joke on the 
novelty of the situation, then he was less witty 
as a ' wise young Judge ' than he now^ is as the 
editor of the Petaluma Courier. 

" Iloen, Ilahinan and Carrillo, it will be re- 
membered, had given bonds to the Board, that 
they would have a building suitable for the pur- 
poses of the county ready by the 3d day of 
J^ovember. This building, which stood on the 

ground now occupied by C. D. Frazee's drug 
store, on Fourth street, near the corner of Meii- 
\ docino, was rapidly pushed, and was finished in 
December. The IJoard had to furnish it, and 
the following funny order aj)pears upon the 
minutes on the 12tli day of December, 1854: 

•• ' It is ordered that the clerk be authorized to 
receive sealed proposals for the construction of 
twelve benches for the court-room, seven and 
one-half feet long, and to be made of two-inch 
stuff, and fourteen inches wide, with strong 
backs to them, and the clerk be authorized to 
I set up for sealed proposals, to be delivered on 
the 26th inst.' 

" Whether the clerk ' set up ' all night to 
receive these proposals is not anywhere stated. 

"This temporary court-house moved down 
Fourth street in 1875, to make room for im- 
provements. It was mounted on two trucks, 
drawn by a big, six mule team. The mules 
stuck with it, just oj^posite the recorder's ofKce, 
on Fourth street, and it was pulled out by four 
little, half-breed mustangs, belonging to James 
Shaw\ of the Guilicos Valley, all of which is 
facetiously related by the chroniclers of that 

"The clerk was, at this December meeting of 
the Roard of Supervisors, authorized to receive 
deeds from Julio Carrillo for lots 406 and 407, 
upon which the court-house now stands. The 
lots donated by Ilahman and Iloen were sold at 
auction, and were purchased by Mr. Iloen, the 
original owMier. 

"On the 27th of Deceinljer II. V. MuUison 
was ordered to make a plan of the jail by June 
8th, 1855. The Board took no further steps in 
the matter until that time, when they deter- 
mined to build both court-house and jail. The 
plan of D. II. Huston was adopted, for which he 
was paid $150, and the lower story of the pres- 
ent court-house, not including sheriff's office, 
jail or Judge's chambers, was contracted for 
with James M. Philips; the building was to be 
set on the lots 406 and 407, deeded to the county 
by Julio Carrillo. 

"In iS'ovember, 1855. H. A. Green's execii- 



tors presented a bill for the old Sonuma two- 
iind-a-l)alf-per-ceiit-a-inouth-adol)e, aiiiouiitiiig 
to .<^10,843. The Board did not see it as the 
executor did — they finally offered !t^3,250 to 
settle the claim; it was accepted. The Hoard 
offered the old seat of justice, ' Casa de Adobe," 
for sale, and it was purchased by the Sonoma 
Lodge, I. C). U. F., No. 27, for their hall. The 
erection of a one-story court-house and jail 
was going on during the summer and tall of 
1S55. A >pecial meeting of tlie l>oard was 
calKil to receive it December 28, 1855. They 
met, but would not receive the building, on the 
ground that it was not built in accordance with 
])lans and specilications. Uoth sides got mad. 
The IJoard offered $7,000 to settle, which was 
promptly refused. On the 8th of February, 
1855, the F)oard went up to !B10,400, which was 
accej)ted by the contractor, and the county took 
possession of tlie premises. On the Gtli of 
March Judge W. Clmrchman, J. A. lieynolds, 
A. C. niedsoe and D. McDonald were appointed 
a cumniittcc to furnish the building at an ex- 
pense of .i;l,OOU. A. further appropriation of 
!r^500, for tlie same purpose, was made. Total 
cost of building, ^14,400; and furnishing, 

'• After this there was no more court-house 
trouble for four years, when it broke out again, 
the same old cry — more room; same trouble in 
getting plans, and same coniplications in settling 
with contractors was to follow, but all this was 
in the, then, future. The proposition this time 
was, as the saihjrs would say, to put an ' upper 
deck" on the one-story court-house of 1855, and 
attacli a jail and hospital as tender. It was 
ordered to be done on the 12th of May, 1851*. 
Uids were received on the 14th day of June, 
185U. Tiie contract was let to Mr. i'hilips and 
Joseph Nouges; Samuel West was ajjpointcd 
sujicrintcndent; tiie contract price was .^^15,000. 
The building was to be completed by Christmas; 
that ))ortion over the jail was originally in- 
tended for a iiospital. The work pi-ogresseil 
iluring the summer of 1859. On the 19th of 
November the Board made an order that, after- 

ward put tliLMH to much trouble; it was as fol- 

" 'That the superintendent of construction of 
public buildings, Samuel AVest, be empowered 
to make such changes in j)lan of jail and court- 
house as in his judgment is necessary, having 
in view the best interests of the county." 
Under this order radical changes were made. 

'•The Work was finished in January, 1800, and 
a special meeting of the Hoard was calleil to re- 
ceive the building and settle with contractors. 

'•The contractors furnished the following bill : 

Original lontiatt $1.5,000 00 

Charges extra 25,891 3:J 

By county lu-ilers received iJllT.OOO 

Work not done I,8l:j- 

.f40,S!ll -l-.i 
18,813 00 

liahince due uontrai-tors $22,078 33 

" The Ijoard could not settle, and John I). 
Grant, II. R. Leonard and Volney E. Howard 
were selected to arbitrate. A large number of 
witnesses were called, and finally the sum of 
!r;6,000 was awarded to the contractors — making 
$26,500 paid contractors in all. Cost of arbi- 
tration, paid by county, $1,(501; salary of Super- 
intendent West, $1,200. Total cost of building, 

" The building was occupied in ISliO, and all 
seemed well. lUit the Santa Kosans had hardly 
got througli admiring the blindfolded statue of 
Justice with equal scales, which surmounted the 
new court-house, when they found they had 
something to occupy them much nearer • terra 

'• The question of removing the county seat 
always breaks out when there is any change 
made in the court-house. The trouble with the 
contractors and the expense of the improve- 
ments brought on a violent attack of this sym- 
pathetic disease. Hefore the Santa IJosans 
knew it they were face to face with the same 
issue they had formerly made witli the good 
j)eople of the town of Sonoma. 

"Hon. Henry Edgerton introtlucedabill in the 
Legislature of 1861, in A])ril, providing that 
tlie question of removing the county seat of 


Sonoma should be voted on at the next general 
election. He put it through under whip and 
spur, and the Santa Ilosans were put upon the 
defense for their right to the new c-ourt-house, 
after all their trouble in building it. They met 
the issue fairly and squarely, and on the Ith 
day of Septeniljer their title to the county seat 
was again clinelied by a direct and decisive vote 
of the people. If the Santa Kosans had been at 
all alarmed, the .-e(|\iel to this agitation proved 
that they had no occasion to be so, as the tabu- 
lated vote upon the question will show: for re- 
moval, 814; against removal, 1,632. 

" For twenty years after this verdict there was 
no further county seat agitation. 

" In 1866 a new roof was put un the court- 
house, and it was plastered on the outside, at a 
total cost of $2,600. In 1867 the jail was re- 
built and improvements were made at a cost of 
.f8,'J99. Total cost of building, with furniture, 
about $60,000. Tiie old structure was recently 
sold for $26,000, which leaves the net cost of 
the court-house to the t-ounty $34,000. 

" The first district judge of Sonoma County 
Avas Jiobert Hopkins. He was practicing law 
in Sonoma in 184n. when the Legislature met 
in San Jose. There was a movement on foot to 
attach the Valley of Sonoma to Napa County. 
The citizens of Sonoma sent the Hon. George 
Pearce and Mi-. Hopkins as a committee to 
countci-act this scheme. AVhen they got to San 
Jose they found that the Legislature was about 
to appoint a district judge for the district who 
was a non-resident. Mr. I^earce proposed his 
colleague Mr. Hopkins on the committee, 
and had him appointed ti) the ottice. They 
returned home, having accomplished their object 
and also securing the appointment of district 

"The Hon. E. W. McKinstry succeeded Mr. 
Hopkins. He served a number of years, and is 
now a distinguished member of the Supreme 
Court of the State of California. 

"Judge J. B. Southard succeeded Judge Mc- 
Kinstry, and he was followed by Judge \V. C. 
Wallace and Jackson Temple. The superior 

judges succeeded under the new constitution 
to the jurisdiction of the district judges." 

Under the new organization of the court 
Jackson Temple and John (r. Pj-essley occupied 
the bench. Judge Temple having been elected 
one of the Supreme Judges of the State, Thomas 
Rutledge was appointed to fill the vacancy. At 
the election of 1888 S. K. Donglierty was 
elected to that position and now, with J. C 
Pressley, discharges the duties of that court. 

Lender the old county judge system we tind 
that the following named gentlemen served in 
that position in the order in which they are 
named: II. A. Green, Charles P. AVilkins, J. E. 
McNair, Frank Shattuck, P. R. Thompson, 
"William Churman, C. AV. Langdon, A. P. 
Overton and John G. Pressley. 

Sonoma County had so increased in popula- 
tion and wealth that all saw and admitted that 
her county buildings were inadequate to the 
county's need. .Vfter the usual amount of fric- 
tion and sparring about location and cost of 
court-house, the plaza of Santa Ilosa was selected 
as the site and the cost of building was fixed 
not to exceed $80,000. This was in 1883. Bids 
for constructing the building were advertised 
for, and the contract finally awarded to ]\[essrs. 
Carle ct Croly, at $80,000, with the condition 
that the building was to be cDinpleted by the 
1st of Januar}', 1885. ( >n the 7th of May, 1884, 
the corner-stone of this edifice was laid, with im^ 
posing ceremonies, and in due time reached com- 
pletion. It is ornate in appearance, and a credit 
to the people of Sonoma County. The building is 
classic in design and built jarincipally of stone, 
brick and iron. Its form approximates the 
(xreek cross with projecting center (^and flanks), 
having a dome. The building has four peudi- 
ments, each surmounted by a figure of the God- 
dess of Justice. The dome is topped with a 
figure of Minerva. It will measure 107 by 
115 feet, exclusive of porticoes, stairs and all 
other projections; besides the basement and 
dome, it is two full stories in height. Base- 
ment 12 feet, first story 15 feet, court-rooms 
in second story 22 feet, all other rooms in upper 


lor\orr\a ^our\ty (^oupt J1o\j§q 



story lU feet, and comprises business and ju- 
dicial apartments for the entire county govern- 
ment. The approaches to the first story of the 
building are granite staircases and !~teps 2i feet 
in width; these land in porticoes laid in Mosaic. 
Tiien cume the grand entrances into the corri- 
.iurs li by 112 feet. 

On the left are the clerk's otiices, one 21 
feet 3 inches by 53 feet 8 inches; the other 20 
I'cct 7 inches by '2U feet 8 inches, connected 
t(.)getht'r by an archway; ne.\t the supervisors, 
room 21 feet 3 inches by 38 feet, also connected 
with clerk's room; on the right the recorder's 
offices, 21 feet 3 inches by 73 feet 9 inches, and 

20 feet 7 inches by 29 feet 3 inches; the Super- 
intendent of public instruction's room, 18 feet 
(i inches by 21 feet 3 inciies; the grand jury 
room, 21 feet inciies by 21 feet 3 inches; stair- 
case leading to court-rooms and offices above, and 
also to the basement. In the upper story are two 
Superior Court rooms, one 38 feet 4 inches by 
59 feet 4 inches, and one 36 feet 8 inches by 54 
feet, two judges' chambers 14 feet 10 inciies 
by 20 feet 11 inches, two jury rooms 14 feet 

10 inches by 20 feet 11 inches, each connected 
with the court-rooms; district attorney's rooms 

21 feet 7 inches by 27 feet 2 inches, and 15 feet 

11 inches by 19 feet (> inches; hall and stairways 
19 by 43 feet; janitor's rooms and stairway 
leading to dome 15 feet 9 inches by 19 feet; 
this staircase leads to attic, thence a spiral stair- 
case to upper section of dome; the dome is 127 
I'ect hitih from the grade line of Fourth street; 
in the basement is the sheriff's rooms 21 feet 3 
inches by 35 feet 5 inches, one 14 feet 6 inches 
by 27 feet, and store room 19 by 21 feet 3 
inches; treasurer's office 23 feet inches by 21 
feet 3 inches, containing a fire and burglar proof 
vault, 7 by 8 feet; surveyor's rooms 17 feet 2 
inches by 21 feet 3 inciies, and 13 feet 6 inches 
Uy 21 I'cct 3 inches; W. C. 21 hy 20 feet 7 

inches; boiler room below, same size; the jail 
38 by 58 feet 8 inches, with 12 iron cells 7 by 
7 feet, and three 5 by 7 feet; said jail is lined 
with plate iron. In the construction of this 
[ edifice, it required eight hundred thousand 
(800,000) brick, two hundred and forty (240) 
tons of dressed granite; one hundred and thirty- 
seven (137) tons of wrought iron, thirty (30) 
tons of cast iron, three thousand nine hundred 
and twenty-two (3.922) feet of corrugated iron — 
besides lumber and other materials. The founda- 
tions alone rei^uired eight huiidrcd and fifty (850) 
. perch of basalt rock. 

The county is subdivided into fourteen town- 
ships as follows: .Vnaly, Bodega, Cloverdalc, 
Knight's Valley, Mendocino, Ocean, I'etaluma, 
Redwood, liussian lliver, Washington, Salt 
Point, Santa Itosa, Sonoma and Vallejo. The 
county government is managed by a Board of 
Supervisors comprised of five members, each 
representing a supervisorial district. 

The county is at ])resent represented in the 
Senate by E. C. Hinshaw; and in the Assembly 
by J. AV. Ragsdale, Robert Howe, and Plielix 

The following are the present county officers: 
J. (t. Pressley and S. K. Dougherty, Judges 
Superior Court; George Hall, Court Reporter; 
John Goss, Court Commissioner; Albert G. 
Burnett, District Attorney; L. W. Juilliard, 
County Clerk; W. F. Wines, Deputy Clerk; 
W. S. Coulter, Deputy; E. P. Colgan, Sherifi'; 
J. D. Earnett, LTnder-Sheriff; M. V. Vaiidcr- 
hoof and 11. Groshong, Deputies; P. N. Stofen, 
Treasurer; A. P. Moore, Auditor and Recorder; 
A. P. Mulligan, Deputy- Auditor and Recorder; 
Mrs. F. McG. Martin, Sup't. Public Schools; W. 
Longmore, Assessor; P. R. Davis, Surveyor; 
J. Tivnen, Coronor and Public Administrator; 
Benj. (ilark, (4. F. .Mien, M. K. Cady, G. V. 
Davis, F. A. Smith, Board of Supervisors. 




fEOGIJAPHICALLY coiisidertMl, Snnoiua 1 
County occupies onu uf tliu most favored 
positions of any county in the State. Her 
southern limb rests upon San Pabhj P)ay. tlie 
connecting link between tlie Straits of ('ai-(|uine/. 
and the ]>ay of San Francisco, lieaching in- 
land there are two tidal streams, the Petal unia 
Creek and Sonoma Creek, tlie former being nav- 
igable to steam and sailing crafts a distance U|» 
from the bay of twelve miles, and the latter a 
distance of about seven miles. These arteries 
of water transportation are of incalculal)le value 
to the agriculturists and ihiii-vineu of the sur- 
rounding country, insuring to them for all time 
to Come cheap transportation of their |ii-oducts 
to San Francisco, the great metropolis of the 
Pacific coast, that is only distant from the south- 
ern limits of the county about twenty miles. 
Along these tidal streams are vast areas of 
marsh land, much of which has already, and all 
of which in time, will be reclaimed and brought 
in subjection to profitable cultivation. The 
meanderings of Petaluiua Creek northward from 
San Pablo Hay to within four miles of Petaluma 
is the boundary between Sonoma and Marin 
counties, where the boundary line leaves tidal 
salt water and follows the serpentine course of 
the San Antonio Creek northward about nine 

miles, to the Lagoona San Antonio (once a tule 
marsh l>ut now drained and under cultivation), 
anil thence in a direct line to the head of the 
Kstero Americano, near Valley Ford, a tidal 
stream, that tending westerly, debouches in the 
Pacific Ocean aljout six miles ilistant from the 
latter place. From this jwint to the mouth of 
the (lualala River, a distance of about thirty 
miles, Sonoma County has for her boundary the 
broad Piicitic. The boundary between Sonoma 
andMendocino counties commences at the month 
of the (iualala River and following its meander- 
ings about two miles to a point just above the 
confluence of South Gualala, takes a straight 
line easterly over the mountains, about twenty- 
four miles to the summit of Redwood Mountain, 
where, with a sliglit angle, but with a still 
easterly deflection, the line continues on and 
across the Russian River canon at a point four 
miles northward from Cloverdale, and in a 
straight line about twelve miles to the Lake 
("ountv line on the summit of tiie Macuway 
Mountains. From this point, and at almost 
ricrht angles, the line of boundary between 
Sonoma County and Lake and Napa counties it 
rnus south in a straight line about forty-eight 
miles to the intersection of the boundary line 
between Napa and Solano counties; and from 



thence the boundiuy between Sonoma and 
Solano counties runs westerly, about six miles, 
to San F'ablo Bay, the place of beginning. 

It will tiius be seen that IVFarin County, with 
a l)road l)ase resting on tlie bays of San b'ran- 
ciscoand San Pablo, lays wedge-shaped l)etween 
Sonoma C'ounty and the Pacific Ocean, its north- 
ern and narrow end terminating at the Kstero 
Americano, very near the middle of tiie western 
boundary of Sonoma. According to Bower's 
map of Sonoma County, which we believe to be 
substantially correct, i*' is seventy miles in a 
straight line from the extreme southerly point 
of Sonoma County, on San Pablo Pa}-, to the 
Mendocino County line at the mouth of the 
(Inalala Piver, and its breadth gradually in- 
creases from about twenty miles at Petaluma, to 
about thirty-five miles, taking Cloverdale as 
the base of a straight line across. The fore- 
going is a correct statement of the present legal 
geograjihical boundaries of Sonoma County. 
Of course, like most newly organized communi- 
ties, she had contests over (lis])uted territorial 
jurisdiction, mention of which jiroperly belongs 
to the general history, in the chronological 
order in which they occurred. 

Sonoma County has an area of 1,550 S([nare 
miles, or about 992,000 acres, and ranks among 
counties in tiie State in point of territorial scope 
as seventh in magnitude. Within her borders 
could be placed some of the principalities of 
Europe, and even, at least, one of the older 
States of the Union, would find her l)oundaries 
a loose-fitting garment. A bird's-eye view of 
her topograph}' will reveal the secret of that 
wonderful progress and prosperity which has 
placed her in the front raidv among the counties 
of the State; for wliere in the wide worhl is 
presented in the same scope of teri'itory so 
varied and diversified a medley of soil, climate, 
scenery, and exhibitions of handiwork from 
Nature's laboratory as is to be found here? 

As stated at the outset, the southern ex- 
tremity of Sonoma County rests upon the 
northern t^hore of San Pablo Pay. At this ex- 
treme point a line drawn straight across from 

the ]\[arin County to the Napa County line 
would be about twelve miles in length, and 
incist of the distan<'e would be across marsh 
land, subject to overflow by spring tides. Radi- 
ating from this focal point are two chains of 
mountains'and one chain of hills. The Macuway 
Mountains, that extending northward form the 
boundary iietween Napa and Sonoma valleys, 
inland about thirty miles reach their crowning 
glory in Mt. St. Helena, in Napa County, with 
aTi altitude of 4,343 feet above sea level, and 
thence onward, forming the eastern background 
to Santa Rosa and Russian Itiver valleys, hold- 
ing in its embi-ace the far-famed Geyser Springs 
of Sonoma County, where its greatest elevation 
is Sulphur Peak, with an altitude of 3,470 feet. 

The Sonoma Mountains take their rise near 
San Pablo in the shape of smooth, grassy hills, 
but with increasing ruggedness to the north- 
ward, until at a point nearly east of, a!id about 
seven miles distant from Petaluma, they reach 
a height of 2,30(i feet. From that point they 
gradually shade off to the lower levels and break 
into a jumble of hills on the edge of the Santa 
Rosa plains just south of Santa Rosa. 

The range of hills referred to have no specific 
geographical name. They commence near the 
confluence of the San Anton and Petaluma 
creeks and running northward form the divide 
between the two valleys of like names. They 
do not rise to the diginity of mountains, and to 
the northward of Petaluma branching off in 
different directions form tlie southern curb of 
Two Rock Valley -the right wing ending in 
the undulating hills that mark the boundary 
between Petaluma and Santa Rosa ^' alleys and 
the left skirting Tomales Valley, ^larin County, 
until lost in the sand dunes around Tomales 

We have thus far bounded tiie valleys of the 
lower section of the county, and limned the 
rugged eastern back-ground to the Santa Posa 
and Russian River valleys and now we ap- 
l)roach the topography of a section of the 
county most difficult to describe, and yet it is a 
territory every part of wliich passed luuler our 


vision more tiiaii thirty years ago. It is 
bounded on the east by the Santa Rosa Valley, 
on tlie north by Russian River, on the west by 
the ocean and on the soutli by tlie Marin 
County line, and the hills between Petaluma 
and Two Rock Valley. Compassed in tliis dis- 
trict are IJlucher Valley, Green Valley, Two 
Rock Valley, Big Valley, and Bodega Valley, 
and the following towns: Forestville, Sebasto- 
pol, Stony Point, Bloomfield, Valley Ford, 
Bodega, Freestone, and Occidental. Of these 
valleys and towns more particular mention will 
be made hereafter — it is the configuration of 
the territory they occupy that is now lieing con- 
sidered. That portion of this counti-y laying 
north of a line drawn with Forestville as its 
initial point, and taking in Sebastopol and Free- 
stone on its course to i^odega. and from thence 
in a direct line to the mouth of Russian River, 
can properly be designated Redwood Mountains 
— Russian River seeming to have carved them 
out of the more rugged mountain forests be- 
yond. "While these mountains do not tower 
very high yet the Blumeand O'Ferrel redwoods 
surmounting some of them, although about 
twenty miles distant, with a hilly country be- 
tween, can be ])lainly seen from Petnluma. 
South of this line, commencing with the low 
hills forming the Mcstern border of the Santa 
Rosa A^alley, then swelling into hills of consid- 
erable height, and again subsiding into more 
gentle undulations, with an occasional subsid- 
ence into an approach to valley level, they reach 
away to the west, until in the narrow confines 
between Bodega Jiay and the Estero Americano 
they are met by the waves of the Pacific ocean. 
With a length of over fifteen miles and an 
average breadth of about six miles, this jumble 
of hills and vales presents a newness of appear- 
ance very suggestive of tender age, geologically 
considered. Except that the northern end of 
this territory had a fail- showing of oak timber, 
the most of it was smooth hills, covered with 
indigenous grasses, until the plow claimed them 
i'ov the raising of cereals and potatoes. 

The remaining topograiihy of the county, so 

far as relates to hill and mountain profile, pre- 
sents only two subdivisions. The first is that 
chain, almost too rugged to be called bills, and 
yet hardly of sufficiently pretentious altitude to 
be designated mountains (although on Bower's 
map two peaks are named), forming the divide 
between Russian River and Dry (.'reek valleys. 
Commencing in gradually increasing nndnhi- 
tions at the confiuenee of Russian River and 
Dry Creek, they extend back tt) a point just 
north of the line between Sonoma and ilenilo- 
cino counties, where they are chopped oft' by 
Dry Creek plunging down through a gorge in 
the hills. These hills jiresent a mixture of oak 
timber, chaparral, and grazing land, with a 
small showing of redwood timber along two or 
three of the side streams just bMow Dry ("reek 

There is now left the northwest corner of the 
county, bounded on the east by Dry Creek Val- 
ley, on the south by Russian River, on the west 
by the ocean, and on the north by ^Mendocino 
County. The territory embraced in this section 
of the county lias a length, coastwise, of about 
thirty miles, with an average breadth of about 
sixteen miles. AVith the exception of a sea-side 
mesa of breadth varying from one to two miles 
and extending from Fort Ross up to the mouth 
of theGualala River, this whole area is mountain 
and forest, interspersed with occasional glades 
that invite occupancy of such as prefer the soli- 
tude of rugged wilds fur themselves and fiocks. 
Here is an unliounded wealth of redwood foi-ests 
and tanbark oak, with a possilile treasure of 
hidden mineral wealth to be revealed in the 
future; for already at Mount Jackson there is a 
quicksilver mine being successfully antl profit- 
ably worked. The grandeur of the scenery of 
this vast stretch of country must be seen to be 
appreciated; but, even to the great mass of 
Sonoma County's own citizens it is a term incfx/- 
ni.ta. We do not speak at random about the wild 
grandeur of nature as exhibited in this field, for 
nearly three decades ago we spent days and 
weeks amid these scenes. Our impressions and 
experiences were then given to the public in a 



coininunication under caption of, "The Petalunia 
Hunters," and will lie reproduced in another 
cliapter of this work. 

Having given the skeleton (intlines of the 
iiills and mountains of Sonoma County, we now 
turn to the valley's. Fetainma Valley com- 
mences at San Pablo Bay and extends north- 
ward fifteen miles and ends where low rolling 
hills form the dividing line between it and 
Santa Rosa \'alley. it lias an average breadth 
of from three to five miles and is of inexhausti- 
ble fertility. The mountains to the east and 
the hills to the west are susceptible of cultiva- 
tion high up on their sides, and their summits 
are productive of indigenous gi-asses which fur- 
nish a never failing supply of a range to those 
engaged in dairying and stock-raising. The 
valley land is productive of wheat, barley and 
Iniy. The land immediately along the foot- 
hills is of the very best ([uality for orchards and 

Sonoma Valley has been so fully described in 
connection with the early establishment there of 
the mission "San l'"rancisco Solano," tliat it 
requires little further description. It is a per- 
fect gem of a valley, its foot resting upon tide- 
water and extending inland ten or twelve miles. 
It is the natural home of the \ine, the fig and 
tlie orange. Xow that it is penetrated by two 
railroads, its real worth and advantages will win 
for it that consideration that its refd worth and 
importance entitles it to. 

Passing north the wide sweeji of Santa liosa 
A'alley comes to view. This valley is a verit- 
able paradise. Undeniably this is one of 
the most lovely valleys in the State. Its 
fertility and geographical position which secures 
it against the harsh coast winds, and its j)erfect 
adaptability for the ])roductiou of all kinds of 
fruits marks it for a bright future of prosperity. 
With an average breadth of six miles and a 
length of eighteen miles it presents a wealth of 
valley and scenic grandeur worth the crossing 
of a continent to behoM. 

I'assing beyond the Santa Rosa Valley north- 
ward we come to the liussian Uiver Xalley. 

This valley is considerable narrower than the 
Santa Rosa Valley, but in richness of soil and 
variableness of scenery, it is not surpassed by 
any other valley in the State. From Ilealds- 
burg to Cloverdale this valley is becoming one 
continuous chain of vineyards and orchards. 
Here it is that corn grows with a luxuriance 
equal to that witnessed in the great IVfississijipi 

The Dry ('reek \'alley that unites with that 
of the Russian River near Healdsburg, is of 
equal fertility and has long been famous for its 
products of small grain, corn, fruit and ho^js. 
It reaches far nyi into the coast mountains, and 
is a favorite place of resort for campers and 

Cloverdale is at the head of Russian River 
Valley, but lieyond it in a pocket of the moun- 
tains is Oat Valley, not large, but a gem both 
in point of scenic surroundings and fertility of 

I-Casterly frdui Healdsburg is Alexander \'al- 
ley, a side cove to Russian River Valley. It is 
a valley of considerable extend and great fertil- 
ity. Mr. Alexander, after whom the valley was 
named, was a pioneer settler, and in the early 
fifties had a bearing orchard and other evideiu'es 
of thrift and enterprise around him. 

To the north and east of the Santa Rosa Val- 
ley is a perfect nest of mountain valleys of 
great productiveness. The (iuilicos Valley lays 
serenely at the foot of Hood IVIountain, and 
now that its solitude is broken by the whistle 
of the Santa Rosa and Carquine/. trains pass- 
ing through it, will soon become a famous sub- 
urban resort. Rincon N^alley is a little nest in 
the mountains three or four miles long by two 
wide. Shut in as it is l)y surrounding moun- 
tains it has a climate of unusual mildness and 
is famous for the good (juality of grapes and 
what that fruit produces. Dennett Valley is one 
of the largest of the group of valleys, lying 
easterly from Santa Rosa, its length being about 
seven miles with aii average breadth of over two 
miles. This valley is almost one continuous 
viiK^yard. High ui) in the mountains is the 



littlt' Alpine \'alley, mostly devoted to stock, 
liiit with a few vineyards. Elliot Valley, so 
named after the discoverer of the Geyser 
Springs, on Porter Creek, a tributary of Mark 
West Creek, is a small valley in which l>uth 
farming and fruit raising is carried on. 

Turning now to the west side of the county 
there, are the following designated valleys: 
(xreen Valley is an extremely rich and produc- 
tive belt of country of about six miles in length 
and two miles in breadth, lying in the red- 
woods north of Sebastopol. _ This valley, on 
account of its sheltered position, has always 
been productive of tine fruit and berries. For 
the growing of peaches and kindred fruit it is 
unrivalled. This was one among the earliest 
settled valleys in the county, and has always had 
a thrifty and enterprising population. 

Blucher Valley is located in the rolling iiills 
between the Santa Eosa and Two Kock valleys. 
It is a valley more in name than seeming for it 
is difficult to say where the valley ends and the 
undulations begin. It is land of great richness, 
and for all standard varieties of fruit it can 
hardly be excelled. 

Next comes Two Eock A'" alley, so named on 
acconnt of twin rocks at the northwest corner 
of the ranch now owned by Mr. Kzekiel Den- 
man. The Spaniards called it "Dos I'idros," 
and so the name continued down to 1854:-'5, 
when it gradually took on the American name. 
Two Rock. This valley is about three miles long 

and two miles wide. The soil is rich alluvial- 
and the valley has always lieen very productive 
of potatoes and grain. 

Big Valley occupies the basin forming tlie 
head waters of the Estero Americano. The 
valley and surrounding hills for miles around, 
in the years gone by have produced untold 
quantities of farm products. Being ccmtiguous 
to Bodega where farming was first inaugurated. 
Big Valley naturally invited early occupancy 
and soon took front rank among farming dis- 
tricts, 'and has maintained it to the end. 

The next, and last valley to be noted is that 
of the San Antonio. This is a narrow valley 
at best, and that portion of it on the Sonoma 
County side of the creek is extremely narrow. 
But the head of the San Antonio widens out 
and embraces several thousand acres of com- 
paratively level land. Here used to be two 
chain of lagoons; one at the head of the San 
Antonio Creek and the other at the head of Sal- 
mon Creek. But these lagoons have been 
drained and now are used for cultivatinn. 

We have thus given a birds-eye view of the 
general topography of Sonoma County. We 
tirst gave a skeleton of the mountain and hill 
ranges and have designated and locateil the val- 
leys. But it must be borne in mind thiit innch 
of what lias been designated hills, and eviMi 
portions classed as mountains, is susceptible of 
cultivation, and the remainder is excellent stock 





M^riAPTErv XI. 

Sonoma a central point avter the Bear Flag kevoli'tion — effect of disoovekv of the mixes 
— WHO WERE settlers i.\ Sonoma County at the time — F. (t. Bli'meV statemicnt- how wild 






ol' SciNoMA Corxiv. 

|i,aK|;|ITII tlie lioistiiu 
K Sonoma virtually 

of the bear flag at 
came Xo an end Span- 

ish rule here. Althoiiu-h it was two years 
later before California literally passed nnder 
American rnle by tlie treaty of Guadalupe Hi- 
dalgo, yet so far as the territory was concerned 
Anierioan rule was comjilete ami irrevocable. 
During the short interre_i,''iium that intervened 
between the capture of Sonoma and the discov- 
ery of the gold mines of California, the very 
fact that Sonoma was the center f)f the revcilu- 
tionary movement made it the head center of 
American immigrants and adventurers. During 
these adventurous and troublous times many 
families from the outlying country naturally 
sought Sonoma as a haven of security. This 
inflation of its jwpulatioii gave to it, for the 
time being, a marked prominence on tin- 
northern tVontier. But the discovery of the 
gold mines in 1848 turned tlie attention of 
everybody mouiitainward. F(H' a lime Sonoma 
was a sort of distributi\e ])oint from whence 
snp])lies were drawn for gold-seekers, but soon 
places more accessible to the mines sprung up. 

and Sonoma relapsed into a quiet hamlet, yet 
the county seat ot Sonoma ('onnty, but her 
most enduring glory being that around her 
clustered the memories of the flrst successful 
revolt against l\[exican rnle. 

It is interesting to note how manv and who 
were the settlers in Sonoma County at the time 
when it came under American jurisdiction. 
General Vallejo as commandante of the north- 
ern frontier had power to confer grants of land, 
subject to conflrmation by the Governor of Cal- 
ifornia. General Vallejo received this author- 
ization in 1885. The first exercise of this 
power seems to have been in the granting of 
lands to Messrs. Mcintosh, Black and Dawson 
in what is now r>odega Township. James 
Black afterward disposed of his interest to his 
partners and secured a grant in what is now 
Marin County. Mcrntosh and Dawson became 
naturalized citizens of Mexico, as they had to 
do, ill order to get thcii- grant approved. To 
Mcintosh was left the Inisiness of attending to 
getting the proper papers' for the grant, and he 
omitted to have his partner Dawson, maile a 



party tu tlie transaction. Tlii> led to tronble 
and a dissolution of the tirin. Dawson set up 
on his own account and received a grant for 
what is now the Poglolome Grant. Dawson, on 
tliis grant doubtless was the first, aside from 
tlie Russians, to saw lumber in Sonoma County. 
Ho established a saw-pit and with a whip-saw 
sawed lumber enough to build a house. 

In 184-0 Cyrus Alexander undertook the 
management of the Sotoyome, or Fitch grant, 
on Russian River. He agreed to manage the 
ranch and cattle tliereon for a period of four 
years at tlie end of wliich he was to receive 
two leagues of land for liis services. He fulfilled 
his contract and the two leagues of land placed 
him in the front rank among Sonoma County's 
substantial mrn. 

( 'aptain Stepiien Smith visited this coast in 
1839 or 1840. He seems to have been im- 
pressed with tlie opportunities here for a grand 
future for lie disposed of his cargo of liorns, 
hides and tallow. Wiule on tliis coast he had 
anclinrt'il in jiodega Uay and (loulitless fixed, at 
tiiat time upon that locality for a future home. 
Returning in ISlShe brought with him a boiler, 
engine, and complete outfit for a steam saw and 
grist mill, lie brought with him an assorted 
cargo of merchandise. With him came Henry 
Hegeler, a ship's carpenter, William A. Streeter, 
an engineer, and David D. Dutton, a mill- 
wright. Arrivinj; at San Francisco some time 
in 184:3, he secured the additional services of 
James Hudspeth, Alexander Copeland, Xathan- 
iel Cooml.)s and .Fohn Daubinbiss (the three 
former of wlKim reached prominence in subse- 
quent California historyV Anchorage was 
reached in iiodega i!ay sometime in September. 
1843. Captain Smith encountered some ditb- 
culty on his first arrival, as John tJidweli, then 
Sutter's agent, claimed that the land around 
Bodega belonged to Ca]>tain Sutter 1)y virtue of 
purchase from the Hussiaiis. 

In spite of these ju-otests, however. Captain 
Smith stood his ground and maintained his 
position. He immediately set about the con- 
htrnctioii of his mill, destined to be the first 

steain-niill of California. He selected as the 
site a point at the very edge of the redwood 
belt, about one mile easterly from the present 
location of Bodega ('orners. There were three 
boilers, each thirty-si.\ feet in length and two 
and one-half feet in diameter. Tliese boilers 
were set in masoni-y so that the fire passed 
around them, instead of througli them, as boilers 
are now constructed. The engine was of equally 
primitive construction. The grinding burrs 
were about fonr feet in diameter and eighteen 
inches in thickness, and encircled with heavy 
iron bands. The saw for cutting lumber was 
what is known as a sash or molding saw, being 
of up and down perpendicular motion. When 
everything was in readiness to start up this 
mill, a grand barliecne was prepared and peojile 
near and far came to behold the wonder. That 
it was accounted a momentous event is evi- 
denced by the fact that Ceneral Vallejo rode all 
the way from Sonoma to be present and partici- 
pate in the inauguration of this new California 
enterprise. Up to 1850 this mill did good ser- 
vice, and eventually a circular saw took the 
place of the muley. In 1855 the old mill 
building was burned and all that now marks its 
former site is the excavation in the bank where 
it stood, and the well from wliich was pumjied 
the water to feed its boilers. Captain Stephen 
Smith seems to have been a man of sagacity 
and great energy of character. Aside from his 
mill, he established a tannery in after years, 
which was in successful operation down to tiie 
time of tlie captain's death. His grant, the 
Bodega, contained 35,487 acres, and so long as 
the captain lived he managed it with care and 
intelligence, but after his death, which occurred 
in November, 1855. the vast estate was soon 
dissipated and wasted through the reckless 
management of Tyler Curtis, who married the 
widow, and it is doubtful if any of Captain 
."Smith's children have much now to show of the 
great wealth of their father. Here it is in place 
to give the reminiscences of a gentleman who 
settled at Freestone in the very earl }• days. His 
statement covers much historic ground; 

rtrfiTonr oP sonoma county. 

'■K. G. JJluini' of I'"iveritone, oiiu of the early 
pioneers of tliis State and county, i^ a (Tcrnian 
by birth, ami was edneateil a;; a piiysieian. In 
1S37 he accepted the jiosition of snri^eon on the 
whale ship Alexander Itarclay, of Bremen, 
whence he sailed for the whaling urotindsof the 
North Pacific. After a successful cruise, his 
ship dropped anchor in Saueelito harbor the 23d 
of December, 1843, wdiere she remained some 
time. l'"rom here Dr. ISlume went to the Sand- 
wich Islands, and in 1847 returned to Califor- 
nia, taking up his residence at Sonoma, where 
for a time he practiced his profession. He 
arrived soon after the hoisting of the bear flag, 
.and some months before the discovery of gold. 
He has a clear recollection of many of the his- 
toric events of that early period, and being an 
educated man and a close observer, a conversa- 
tion with him upon matters relating to the early 
history of this coast is highly interesting 
While engaged in whalingabont Sitka, previous to 
hisarrival in California, he and his shipmates had 
frequentdealingsand interviews with the Russian 
settlers of that region, whom he describes as the 
most generous, kind-hearted and hospitable peo- 
]ile he had ever met. Tiiere was a never-ending 
rivalry among them as to who should treat the 
stranger with the greatest kindness and hospi- 
tality. A ball given by the linssian oflicials at 
Sitka was a really grand affair. Then, as now, 
the principal employments of the itdiabitants 
was the producing of furs. He states that 
Alaska contains immense bodies of timber land 
which at a future time will become of great 
value for ship-lmilding and other ]iurposes. 

•'When the first gold dust was brought to So- 
noma there was much doubt as to its genuineness. 
Governor Hoggs and the military officers ])ro- 
nounced it gold, and their opinion was acceiitcd 
as connect. In a short time miners began to 
arrive with large (juantities of dust, and it be- 
came almost a drug in the market, 'i'hcre was 
but little coin in the country, and Coopei' iV 
lieasley, hotel keepers, bought large quantities 
of dust at from four tn five dollars jier ounce. 
Change smaller than one dollar especiallv 

scarce, and a blacksmith named Fling was often 
employed for hours in cutting JNIe.xican dollars 
into halves and (piarters. (Gambling was carried 
on on a large scale by a considerable portion of 
the inhabitants and visitors. Company D, 
United States Volunteers, Captain Brackett, was 
stationed at Sonoma, and Lieutenant, now (Jen- 
eral George Stoneman, was there. 

" Deer, bear, antelope, elk, and smaller game 
were abundant hereabouts and very tame. On 
more than one occasion Dr. Illume has driven 
cattle and elk into a corral together on the 
Tetalnma Ranch. In 1847 ammunition was 
'contraband,' and it was with much difficulty 
that it could be procured. Twenty-five cents 
was paid for gun caps, and but few would be 
obtained at that or any other price. In the sum- 
mer and fall the valleys and hillsides were 
covered with wild oats from four to eight feet 
in height, and ownership of lands which are 
now among the most valuable in the State could 
be secured for a mere trifle. There was not a 
house in Petaluma Townshij), and the only 
building between Sonoma and Freestone was 
the old adobe, near this city. 

"We have given l)ut an outline of a few of 
the many interesting events relating to the 
early history of the coast that came within the 
personal knowledge and exi)erience of this old 

"In 1848 Dr. Illume removed from Sonoma 
to Freestone, where he has since resided. He 
has been several times elected justice of the 
peace 'of llodega Township and is now servino- 
as postmaster of Freestone." 

Joseph O'Farrel having e.xchanged a ranch in 
iEarin County for the Canada de Joniva in 
.\naly 'i'ownshi]i, and accpiired by purchase 
from Melntosh the grant, in IJodega Township 
known as the Estero Americano, he established 
liis residence in a beautiful valley in the red- 
woods, wliere he was living in good style with 
all the comforts and conveniences of modern 
life around him, when American population be- 
gan to come in. The Corrillio families, both at 
Santa Rosa and Sebastopol, had erected adobe 


liouses and were surrouiidecl with other evidences 
of permanent residences. Mark West, occnpy- 
ing a grant on the creek that still bears his 
name, had erected a large adobe dwelling — so 
likewise had Henry F). Fitch on his Sotoyome 
grant on IJnssian River. Excepting the large 
adolje establishment of General ^'allejo, in 
\'allejo Township, near Petalnnia, the places 
above enumerated were about the only ones that 
could be called permanently established for any 
period ante-dating 1850. At all these ranches 
there was quite a showing of cattle and horses. 
Ihit taken as a whole, tiie present County of 
Sonoma was an uninhabited wild in 1850, save 
and except the small valley of Sonoma. N. X. 
Hedges, yet a resident of Petaluma, and who, 
in company with Stephen Fowler (long de- 
ceased), liuilt a house for Captain Sniith at 
liodega. says that at that time there was not a 
panel of fence on tlie trail between Petaluma 
and liodega except a corral in l>ig \' alley. As 
cioseas was Petaluma t<i San Francisco its neigh- 
boriiood did not lioast a resident until in 1850. 

'Die tirst to come was Dr. August Heyer- 
manu, in the early part of that year, lie reared 
a log cabin on the old A. ^\ . Rogers place, just 
south of Petaluma. Late that fall Tom Lock- 
wood, accompanied by a party of hunting com- 
panions, came up Petaluma Creek in a whale 
lioat and spent two months in camp near the 
head of Petaluma Creek. They were joined 
earlv in January of 1851 by Lemarcns Wiatt 
and John JJns. The company now consisted 
of Tom Lockwood, Lemarcns Wiatt, John Lins, 
Levi Pybui-n and a man named Pendleton. 
Their numl)er was afterward increased by the 
arrival of Tiiomas liayliss and David Flogdell, 
and all for a time continued to hunt game for 
the San Francisco market. 

Knowing that J. AV. Leigh, long the editor 
of the Monterey Deiiiorraf and now receiver of 
public moneys in the San Fi-ancisco land office, 
had spent several months of 1850 in company 
with other hunters, in the immediate vicinity 
of Petaluma. at cair I'eqnest he reduced his re- 
miniscences of the same to writini;-. Mi-. Leiii'h 

and his companions camped near the head of 
Petaluma Creek, probably somewhere between 
the present residence of Joseph Gossage and the 
Haines chicken ranch. It will be interesting to 
future generations to know the exact conditions 
around where a populous city now stands in the 
middle of the nineteenth century: 

" Referring to your request as to my reminis- 
cences of your county, I hardly know how to 
shape them in such position as to be interesting 
to the ordinary reader. Really, there is little to 
say except the mention of the extraordinary 
wealth of game that then existed in the country 
— elk b}' the hundred, antelopes on the plains 
like Hocks of sheep, deer ill the woodlands so 
numerous that at every clump of bushes a buck 
seemed hidden, jumping out as we passed like 
jack rabbits in the Fresno country now. My 
I'ecollections of the face of the country is that 
it wore a smiling and peaceful aspect, suggest- 
ing nothing of a wilderness, but looking rather 
like an Fhiglish park or the prairies of Iowa. 
Coyotes and wildcats abounded, and the wood- 
lands concealed lions and grizzlies as numerous, 
relatively, as the ipnidruDeds they preyed upon. 
So, too, there was no end of carrion crows, 
ravens, turkey-buzzards and vultures, the last 
named of huge size, rivaled only by the condors 
of South America, all of which seemed to re- 
gard ns as cateiers to their voracity, for they 
came to know the significance of the ritle, and 
flocked constantly after its report to eat what 
we threw away of the cjame killed by us, hardly 
waiting until we had taken our share, which 
was the haunches only. It was strange, while 
we were doing the murderous work alluded to, 
how calm and peaceful the landscape looked, 
with its copses of woodland, grassy open- 
ings and wide plain, on which herds of elk 
and bands of antelope fed apparently ignorant 
of the death-dealing quality of man — a new 
species of the carnivora who had come into their 
haunts. My observation was that their eyes in- 
formed them nothing of men. When to lee- 
ward of them they manifested curiosity, and 
mano'vering to approach ns, trusted to their 



organs of smell to make lis out. They would 
come ()uite close, or let us get near, but showed 
littlf of distrust until thoy got scent of us, 
when they would be off like a Hash, panie- 
stricken. From this performance 1 made out 
that man is like the lion, tiger and similar 
beasts of pi'ey. anil that liis body gives out an 
odor which offends the senses of his foui'-footed 
victims as would the scent of blood. We did 
not kill 'for the lust of killing;" profit was 
the object of the hunters witli whom I was, and 
they killed only the ' bucks,' carefully select- 
ing such as were in their prime. This was in 
September, ISot). In all the country through 
which we ranged -from the site of the present 
Petaluina to what is now the town of Santa 
Rosa, there was sign of but a single ' settle- 
ment," of some S(iHatter, mIio had fenced a few 
acres, plowed and sowed them to corn, potatoes 
and melons, and had gone off to the mines and 
left crows and raccoons to reap the product of 
his labors. My companions were but two, men 
who liad been trappers in the ' Rockies,' one 
from the shores of Chesapeake originally, and 
the other having been burn on the banks of the 
Cumberland River, in Tennessee. They had 
the skill of Cooper's ' Leather Stockim/," were 
tiioroughly versed in wood lore and knew the 
habits of their game as if 'to the manner born," 
but were rough and uncouth in speech and 
morals to a degree that amazed me. I had a 
tierce quarrel with one of them, I rememljer, to 
the point of a duel a Voutt'ciiyie, but patched up 
a truce with the understanding that neither 
knew what kind of a man the other was and so 
might give offense without meaning it." 

Such being the conditions around the head 
waters of I'etaUima Creek, at that time, and in 
fair view of the Vallejo buildings at the foot 
of the Sonoma Mountains, the reader can well 
understand how game must have abounded 
further back, where seldom disturbed by the 
presence of man. 

I5ut this was to be changed in thi' near 
future. Those who came to hunt, determined 
to locate here. Wiatt and Linus started a little 

trading post on the creek near the present "Wash- 
ington street; I'ayliss and Flogdell establislied 
a boarding house; J. M. Hudspeth erected a 
warehouse near the creek, and thus was started 
the city of Retaluma. There had been quite a 
number of new arrivals, and one among the 
\ery cai'liest of these was Major James Siiudey, 
who is yet one of Petaluma"s mi>st respected 
citizens. Among those of that eai-ly period 
whose names are at our command are (-ieorge \\. 
Williams, Robert Douglas and family; the 
Starkeys, the Tustins, the Lewises. The Mer- 
ritts had located temjiorarily in (ireen Valley, 
and John Merritt informs us that he ])iit ut) 
the first stack of hay ever seen at Retaluma 
the site now occupied by the ^[cCune JJlock, 
corner of Washington and Main streets. It is 
useless to attempt to particularize on individu- 
ality further. People were coming into the 
county in constantly increasing volume, and 
very many were intent upon securing liomes in 
the country. Hut where to find unclaimed lands 
was the rub. Go where they woidd they found 
the land i-esting under the shadow of some 
Spanish grant. In sheer desperation many set- 
tled on grants and ])re|)ared to build their 
homes, and leave the consequences to the 
future. The settlements thus formed were dif- 
ferent in character from those ever before wit- 
nessed in frontier settlements. It was largely 
made up of those who had tried their fortunes 
in the mines and becoming discouraged with 
the vocation of gold-seekers, determined to turn 
their attention either to farming; or the raising 
of stock. As a rule they were unmari-ied men, 
although among them were a few men wliu had 
families in the East. Hence it was that up to 
as late as ISoo a large proportion of the habi- 
tations in Sonoma (.'ounty were designated as 
" I'achelor ranchos."" The buildings, con- 
structed in many instances, as already stated, on 
land covered by some Spanish grant, were very 
rude habitations. The most common structures 
were built by setting posts in the ground. The 
weatherboarding was of boards split out of red- 
wood, usually twelve feet long, and the roof of 

Hf^TdUT f)F soyo.WA COUNT T. 

■ •lapboanls (sliakt^i tVnir <ir live I't'ct long. Usu- 
ally the grouiul was used for a floor, aitliotigli 
some indulged in the luxury of a plank floor, 
iiedsteads and bunks, such as could be con- 
structed with iiandsaw and hatciiet, was the 
furniture of the sleeping apartment, while a few 
shelves in the kitchen made of split boards usu- 
ally 6ufficed for a dish cupboard. AVitli the 
addition of a cook-stove the establishment was 
complete. Commencing with 1S51, these rude 
tenements sprung uj) like mushrooms, and 
inside of a few yeai's, throughout the length 
and breadth of the county, were scattered these 
bachelor domicils. In those years the man 
who did not do his own cooking and washing 
was an exception to the general rule. It was 
not a (question of choice, but of necessity. 
Neither did educatitin, pride or previous con- 
dition cut any figure in the case. Here were 
to be found men of every walk and grade of 
life working side by side, whether in field or 
kitchen. Society was democratic, simple and 
pure, in a degree never before witnessed in any 
country, and, perhaps, never to be repeated 
again. It was a rough and rugged experience, 
and yet it was just under such conditions that 
very many of Sonoma County's preseiit most 
substantial and respected citizens laid the founda- 
tion of their fortunes. It must not be supposed 
that even in those early years women and families 
were unknown in Sonoma County; but they 
were scj few in comparison to those who had 
bachelor ranches that they were the exception 
and not the rule. In the slow process of years, 
however, those cheerless homes of lienedicts 
gave ])lace to the more attractive and refining 
inllnence of the mothers of the native sons and 
daughters in Sonoma County. Many of these 
noble women, who by their presence and toil 
hel])cd to guide and cheer those engaged in 
pioneer work, have ended their weary life-mis- 
sion, but they richly eai'ned the right to have 
monuments of enduring marble erected to their 

We are describing conditions as they existed 
between 1848 and 1855. If the reader knows 

the meaning of the stock ])lirase "breeding 
back," lie will rightly appreciate the real condi- 
tions of Sonoma County at that time. Most of 
the men who took up ranches and entered upon 
agricultural or stock-raising pursuits were be- 
low the meridian of life, and easily adapted 
t htmselves to the conditions with which they 
found themselves environed. There was a cer- 
tain degree of dash and daring among the native 
Californiaus very captivating to the young 
Americans. .\.s expert riders and manipulators 
of the reatta the natives excelled. In almost 
every valley thei'e was ii baud (manada) of 
Spanish animals and from these sources the set- 
tlers di'ew a cheap supply of riding and work 
animals, although ox-teams were then largely 
used. To break and handle these California 
horses led to the adoption of California hal)its 
and methods. Hence the " bucharo "' saddle 
was in almost universal use, and Americans be- 
came enamored with the use of huge Mexican 
spurs, that, in the language of Chaucer, "sounded 
'een as loud as doth the chapel bell." In those 
days if a rider, either Califoruian or American, 
was approaching you, his coming was heralded 
by the ringing of his spurs. Everybody rode 
as if they were going for a doctor. The native 
horses had a power of endurance that would put 
to shame the nerve of candled and groomed 
horses of a later period. If engaged in the 
stock or dairying business, every man became 
in a degree a " bucharo" — that is he was in the 
saddle a great part of the time, and if he wished 
to catch a wild horse or cow, his ever-ready 
"reatta" was brought into requisition. The 
Americans soon acfjuired a wonderful dexterity 
in the throwing of the reatta. If a new saddle 
horse was needed the manada was driven into a 
corral and an animal selected, " lassed,"' blind- 
folded, saddled and mounted, and then fun 
began! The animal, if high metaled, of course 
bucked, and the rider received commendation 
from the spectators just in degree as he main- 
tained his position in the saddle. In those 
early days we have seen men I'ide such " buck- 
ius: " mustang's for the mere editication of the 



si>ectiitui-s. AVlieii we see young men of this 
day riding on the little American saddle, with 
their tooth-pick shoes crowded into little iron 
stirrups, and rising in tlieir sitting so that you 
could sine a hat between thcni and their saddle, 
we just smile wiien we think of what would be 
their fate if riding a bucking horse why, there 
would not be enough of them left to make shoe- 
strings. In the short space of a third of a 
century the art of horse-back riding has virtu- 
ally become a lost art in California. 

The drift of early settlement in Sonoma 
County was naturally toward Bodega because, 
not only the Russians had demonstrated its fit- 
ness for agriculture, but Captain Stephen Smith 
had established himself there and was in a posi- 
tion to assist immigrants in their venture in 
agricultural pursuits. It was a demonstrated 
fact that that region would produce in great 
abundance potatoes, much needed in the mines 
of California. Seed potatoes were very high. 
Captain Smith was in a position to furnish this, 
and found many ready to rent land and embark 
in the business of potato growing. In 1851 
such reaj)ed a rich reward. In 1852 seed pota- 
toes were available for others, and settlers in 
Big Valley and the coast hills embarked in the 
business, and with large profits. This led to 
the planting of an increased acreage of potatoes 
in 1853, and the result was an over-production, 
and conse(_[uent disaster to those engaged in the 
business. In 185-1 the potato crop was again 
in excess of the demand, and those who had en- 
gaged in the business of potato raising were 
virtually bankrupted. And, as if in veritication 
of the adage, " misfortunes never come alone," 
the wheat crop of the coast valley's for 1854: -'55 
were smitten with both smut and rust. ^Vlien 
we hear farmers of the present day growling 
about short crops, or low prices, our memory 
naturally reverts to those three years of unre- 
(piiteil toil of our farmcns', and we wonder as to 
what would be about the lengtli of Sonoma 
County farmers' faces now if they had to pass 
through similar experiences. early farmers of Sonoma County had 

settled upon the naked land. In many instances 
they first planted their crops, then turned their 
attention to building fences. If they had some 
means, they could buy slats and posts in the 
redwoods. If they had no money, as many of 
them had not, it involved the riving of slats and 
the splitting of posts themselves, and then the 
hauling and constructing of the same into fences. 
The toil involved was immense, and none but 
those who passed through those experiences will 
ever know wdiat of deprivation and physical 
eft'ort it cost to found the early settlements of 
Sonoma County. 

As this chapter is mainly intended to give 
the reader a correct conception of the Ilcwne^s 
and comparatively uninhabited condition of 
Sonoma County in the early fifties we give 
place here to a communication written by us in 
1877, reminiscent of the then long past: 

"Eds. AK(iUs: Noticing that you are about 
to lay upon the shelf your twenty-second volume 
it naturally causes my mind to drift back to that 
long-ago, verging close upon a (piarter of a 
century, the occasion of my advent into your 
county. .Vs these memories ante-date the birth 
of your journal, they may not be devoid of in- 
terest to some of your readers. In brief, the 
spring of 1851 found me in San Francisco, 
waiting, like Micawber, 'for something to turn 
up.' That something did turn up just in the 
nick of time, and was nothing more or less than 
the discoveiy of rich gold mines on Russian 

" Over three years experience in the Sierras hail 
failed to eliminate from my nature that credu- 
lity which kept so many miners following every 
l(jii'iK fatuun bearing the title of ' new gold 
mines.' .\t the time of whieh I write there 
were three steamboats plying between San 
Francisco and Petalunni. The Scrrefar;/ and a 
boat the name of which has passed from my 
mind, were running a spirited oj>pobition. 'i'lu: 
Reindeer, of which your fellow-townsman, E. 
Latapie, was captain, was running free and easy, 
on its own hook; making up in safety what it 
lacked in speed. Un the latter 1 took passage, 


;uul iVoiii it* ilcuk liad my lir^t view of the ile- 
viuiis iiieanderings of Ptjtaluina Creuk. In less 
than two weeks thereafter tlie Sc-n-f'tr;/ went 
up in a cloud of steam, aiul. like a leaden pluni- 
inct, to the bottom of the bay, carrying with her 
a score or more of passengers. There are resi- 
dent in your county yet some of those wlio took 
a salt-water bath on that occasion, but who were 
fortunately rescued by the boat with which the 
Scci-tfar;/ was racing at the time of the disaster. 
.\ t'ellow-passenger on the liLUuLer. who knew 
all the ins and outs of yo\ir then incipient city, 
conducted me to the -Tom and Da\e"s House,' 
where I found food and lodging. The title of 
this house was derived from a contraction of the 
given names of Thomas IJayliss and David 
Flogdell, who were its keepers. Proprietors 
and house, alike, liave passed away. As my 
destination was the Eldorado on Russian River, 
1 only tarried one night in Petaluma, and with 
carpet-l)ag on back hastened onward. 

" It was early in April, and as there had been 
copious rains vegetation was luxuriant, and the 
valleys and mountain sides as far as visi(jn could 
reach were one undulating sea of wild oats. 
The whole wide sweep of country beyond Peta- 
luma was very sparsely settled at that tiuie. 
About midway between Petaluma and Santa 
Rosa the Moffet Jirothers were dairying upon a 
large scale, and seemed to have free range of 
Santa Ro-a Valley for their stock. My recol- 
lection at present is that between the old C). E. 
Mathews place, adjacent to Petaluma, and Santa 
Rosa, there was l)ut one house immediately at 
the road-side, and in it I took refuge from an 
April shower. 

•• I reached Santa Rosa in time t'or a late din- 
ner. E. P. Colgan had just moved into the 
rooms under the old Masonic Hall. Everything 
was topsyturvy — tiic cooking stove having 
barely been got in place. Mrs. C, notwith- 
standing it was two o'clock r. m., inijirovised a 
dinner, and thus I claim the honor of being the 
first traveler to take a meal at a regular public 
hotel in Santa Rosa. 

"Although weary and foot-sore 1 determined 

to go as far as the old Mark West Ranch llou>e 
that evening. And just here I wish to record 
my impression at tluit time — and I have no de- 
sire to modify it now—that in all my wander- 
ings upon tliis earth I had never before traversed 
so Eden-like a vale as that between Santa Rosa 
and Mark West. It was nature's own park. 
Wild oats, clover and other indigenous grasses, 
intermingled with a profusion of wild tlowers 
of every shade and hue bedecked the broad ex- 
pause of plains, while the oak timber, just 
sparse enough {o give it an orchard-like appear- 
ance, was putting on its new foliage amid the 
drapery of pendent moss, that, like ten tlmu- 
sand banners, courted the balmy breeze. It was 
untarnished nature, neitiier marred nor scarred 
by the plowshare of relentless man. 

"At Mark West I found accommodations for 
the night with a couple of Frenchmen, who had 
a trading-post in one wing of the old Mark 
West Ranch House. Morning again found me 
a pedestrian on the Santa Rosa plains. My 
course lay some miles westerly from the present 
road of Healdsburg, bringing me to Russian 
River about five miles below Fitch's. I then 
traveled up the river, passing on the way a 
clapboard shanty, in which Lindsey Carson, 
brother of the famous Kit Carson, liad a little 
store. Arriving at Fitch's it was necessary to 
cross the river. There was a canoe moored at 
the opposite shore and a number of Indians 
lounging on the bank, but they were deaf to 
my entreaties to l)e ferried across. After wait- 
ing an hour one (.)f the Fitch's, a lad then of 
fourteen or fifteen, came to my relief and con- 
vinced the dusky savages that they had better 
cross me over. My objective point for dinner 
was Heald's, who occupied the present site of 
Healdsburg. 1 was, however, doomed to dis- 
appointment, as there was no one at home. 
P'rom this point onward I was like a sailor at 
sea without chart or compass. A dim road 
alone attested that civilization liad preceded 
me. Mile after mile was left behind, and yet 
no sign of human habitation. Night cast iier 
mantle over the earth, and I was alone in that 


vast solitiule. Before darkness obscured clear 
vision I noticed that the road was trending; 
westward, and apparently away from the river 
valley. At eii;ht o'clock at night, by the star- 
light, I could see that around me was an aniplii 
theater of mountains, rendered more somber by 
a forest of redwoods. I bad about concluded 
that supperless and bedless I was in for vigils 
during the silent watches of the nig;lit, when the 
barking of a dog further up the canon greeted 
my eai'. Never until tlieii did I appreciate the 
p let's rhapsody over ' tbedeep-iru)uthed liaying 
of the watch-dog." There are a great many 
worthless curs in the world who are libels on 
respectable canines, but for all that man has no 
truer, more steadfast and faithful friend than in 
his dog. The ringing bark of the dog told me 
as plainly as though in articulated words that 
he had a master, and acting on this assurance 1 
was soon by a blazing camp tire, and the reei|i- 
ient of genuine backwoods hospitality from a 
young man who had pitched camp there to get 
out redwood fencing material to be used in the 
valley.-^. My host shared with me his bed, and 
so fatigued was 1 that, notwithstanding the in- 
formation that the Indians had, oidy a week 
previous, killed a man in a cafKin nearby, 1 was 
soon oblivious to all worldly care. Tliis young 
man was able- to give me positive information 
concerning the reputed gold mines uj) the river 
— suHicient, at least, to convince me Ihat on 
Russian River was not located the (>pliir from 
which Solomon got the gold for his temple, and 
the ne.\t day I I'ctrcated in good urdcr, only 
varying my nuile from that traveled up in that 
I crossed over from Santa Kosa to the okl Mil- 
ler & Walker store, near the now town of Sebas- 
topol. and tlicncctd relMlnma by way of Stony 

"A comparisdii nf the present with the past 
as outlined by this hasty reminiscence of that 
long ago, will give mmi: maiked emphasis to 
the character and degree of progress made by 
Sonoma County in the space of twenty- three 

We cannot lietter give a correcl idea of the 

progress made in the settlement and development 
of Sonoma ('ounty up to 1855 than by append- 
ing the following: 

Smith 1). Towne, the then assessor of So- 
noma County, furnished to the Sonoma County 
■Jdiirnul ill AugUht of 1855 the following 
statistics relating to Sonoma and Mendocino 

■'Tlie ijuantity of the land enclosed in this 
and Mendocino counties, amounts to ;JT.t)5:2 
acres; about 22,400 acres of which is in the 
cultixation of the following ])roduct8: 

" \Vlic<t(. - The number of acres sown is, 12,- 
2i33, of which amount 3,500 acres only (mostly 
from Chili and Oregon seed) is good, or but 
very slightly affected with rust, and will average 
28 bushels to the acre; making a total of 98,- 
000 l)ushels. The remainder, or 8,733 acres, 
was entirely destroyed, or nearly so, by the 
'rust,' anil but a small portion was ever har- 
\ested. Last year tlie wheat from Oregon and 
Australia seed, was so badly 'smutted' that it 
lost favor with our farmers, and the kind coni- 
moidy known as the ' club-head,' became the 
favorite, and was largely sown, but most unfor- 
tunately it seems to have been the oidy kind 
ati'ected this year. 

''Oats. — The nnmher of aci'cs put down to 
oats is, 3,268; a portion of which, in the im^ 
mediate vicinity of the coast, has been affected 
by ' rust." 1 might have remarked that the 
scoui'ge has even extended its ravages to the 
indigenous plants and grasses of the soil. 
From the many incpiiries, I am led to lielieve 
that the total "lunnber of acres will make an 
average crop of 35 bushels to the acre, which 
gives a total of 104,380 bushels. 

" liiii'leij. — This grain seems to lia\e but few 
friends, and conse<|uently vei-y little was sown 
in comparison with last year. In some locali- 
ties, the 'cheat' has destroyed some kw fields; 
with this exception the grain is good. Numbei' 
of acres sown, 1,561; average yield, 32 bushels 
to the acre; total, 49,952 bushels. 

'• ('urn. Of this product thei'e ai-e 714 acres 
jilantcil, the most of which i.i in the Kussiaii 

insninv of sonoma county. 

]ii\'('r and l)ry ('reuk valleys, where it seems to 
llourish more luxuriantly than in any other por- 
tion of onr coiintv. From present indications 
there will undoubtedly be an abundant harvest; 
say 40 bushels to the acre, making 28,580 

^^ Rye. — Only 8 acres sown, merely as an ex- 

" Bucku-hcat. — Amount phinted, UU acres; 
seems well adapted to our soil and climate. As 
yet there has been none harvested; I cannot, 
therefore, tell how it will yield. 

'■' I'ean. — Number of acres loC); average yiekl, 
80 bushels per acre; total, ■i,ti80 luisliels. 

" Beans. — 177 acres. 

*' Potatoes. — The quantity planted is, l.ti'.tS 
acres, against 2,H00 last year, and will not prob- 
al)ly yield more than 40 sacks to the acre, ow- 
ing, perhaps, to the extreme hot dry weather in 
June, which gives us a total ot 07,720 sacks, of 
120 pounds each, i think this the outside tig- 
ure. There is, however, no indication of worms 
or insects disturbing them an<l what are raised 
will most likely be perfectly sound and good. 

" Pumpkins, Txirnlps, Beets, Onions, ete.,a.\\([ 
almost every kind of garden vegetaltles are 
raised in abundance and to spare. 

" Fruit Trees. — There are 6,730 set out, 
mostly young, from one to three years old, com- 
prising many varieties of apples, pears, peaches, 
plums, cherry, iigs, apricots, etc. About one- 
third of the number have commenced bearing 
and in another year we may anticipate an 
abundanre of fruit; and the present year, I 
thiidv our county will compare as favorably both 
as regartls i|iuintity, as any other county in the 

" Vliieijarils. — In addition to the orchards, 
there are many line vineyards, numbering in 
the aggregate some 24,800 vines, many of wdiich 
arc loaded with grapes. The estimated quan- 
tity gathered last year was 80 tons; the present 
season it will be fully doubled. 

'■^Atnerican Cattle. — JS' umber of milch cows, 
5,850; dry cows, 2,575; calves, 5,750; work 
open, 2,771; beef cattle, 1,922; yearlings, 4,2'J4; 

total number of .\merican cattle, 22,622. To 
this must be added the California cattle, 8,588; 
which gives a total number of cattle (American 
and California) 26,250. 

'■'■Horses. — Number of gentle horses, Ameri- 
can and Spanish, 3,708; wild California horses 
(manada) 1,250; total number of horses, 4,U58. 

"Of Mules there are 328; of //r;y.s-, l'J,45!t; 
of Sheep, 7,0t;5." 

The first fair of Sonoma County was held on 
the public square at Santa Ilosa and which was 
thus reported, and appeared in the J'etaluma 
Journal of October 20, 1855: 

"Our village was thronged yesterday with 
people from all parts of the county to attend the 
first fair of the .\gricultural Society. The 
shaded plaza in front of the court house, 
was selected for the place of exhibition, and 
here was gathered a tine collection of horses, 
mules, and horned cattle. 

"The large Durham bull belonging to Lo\ell 
& ISrothers, of Vallejo Township, attracted uni- 
versal attention. This animal is four years old; 
and received a premium at the recent exhibition 
at Sacramento. Several fine stallions were also 
much admired; particularly Sir CIiarles,-A dark 
bay, seven years old, Ijclonging to Mr. Seabringot 
l)odega; and a light bay, belonging to Mr. Tateot 
Santa liosa; latter the took the first premium. 

" After the crowd had gazed their full at the 
animals in a state of repose, they were en- 
livened by a display of the locomotive jiowers 
of the horses, both under the saddle and in 
harness. A large gray horse lielonging to Mr. 
Robinson of Petaluma. excited much remark; 
with good training, he will no doubt become a 
fine trotter. 

"At four o'clock the comjiany adjourned to 
the court house, and listened to a few introduc- 
tory remarks by Dr. Hill, the president of the 
society, and an interested address from C. 1*. 
Wilkins, Esq., on the imjwrtance of the applica- 
tion of the sciences to agricnlture. 

" The proceedings of the day were brought 
to a brilliant and harmonious close, by a ball at 
the Masonic Hall. 



"We subjoin a list of the premiums awiudL'd, 
fur which we are indebted to Mr. Powers, 
secretary of the society. Tlie first premiums 
were money, the second and tliird were dijiio- 
mas of tlie society. 

•' Best stallion, >^1U, to Air. Tate of Santa 
IJosa; second best, to Mr. Seabring, of itodega ; 
third best, to Mr. Manning of Green Valley. 

" I>est stud colt, premium to Mr. McMiuu; 
second best, to Mr. McDowell. 

''Best brood luare, $8, to.Iulio Carrillo, of 
Santa Kosa ; second best, to Mr. Stanley, of 
I'etalunui; third, to Mr. Watson. 

"Best colt, $5, to Mr. Seabring, of Bodega; 
second to Mr. Tate, of Santa Rosa. 

" Best riding horse, !?5, to Mr. Wright, of 
Santa Rosa. 

"Best buggy horse, So, to Mr. liobin^on, of 

" Hest draft horse, !ti5, to Mr. Stanley, of 

" ! Jest mule, premium to Mr. Wright, of Santa 

"liest bull. !f;8, to Buvell iV i'.rothers, of Val- 
lejo Township. 

"Bestcow, !B8, to Mr. Wrigiit, of Santa Kosa. 

•> Best calf !ji5, to Air. AVright, of Santa Rosa. 

" Hest beef steer, So, to Mr. Clark, of Santa 

" Best specimen of cheese, $)J, to Mr. Till'e, 
of I'etaluma. 

" Best specimen of wheat, S5, to Air. Neal, 
of Santa Rosa. 

" Best specimen of saddlery, !f;2.50, to Air. 
Barnard, of Santa Rosa." 

While the above showing of the assessor, as 
well as the rejiort of the County Fair, will 
seem small and inconsequential when con- 
trasted with he products of Sonoma County 
now, yet it shows that the people had accom- 
plished very much, considering the newness of 
the country. 







fllE first newspaper published in Petaiiiina 
: appeared on the 18th vi' August. 1855, 
^' and was entitled T/ie I'etalutna Weekly 
Joui'iuil and Sonoma County Advertiser. Hon. 
Thomas L. Thompson, now of the Santa Rosa 
Democrat, was proprietor, and H. L. AVcston, 
long one of the proprietors of the Anjus, 
and 3'et a citizen of Petaluma, was foreman of 
the otiicc, which was in a one-story wooden 
building situated on the present site of Towne's 
drug store. The only other paper being pulj- 
lislied in the county was the Sonoma Bulletin, 
bv A. J. Cox, and as it suspended publication 
in September of that year, the Journal became 
the repository of all matters of historic concern, 
not only of Sonoma, but of some of the adjacent 
counties that as yet had no public journals of 
their own. While the most of the matter con- 
tained in the tiles of this ]'ournal from the IStli 
of August, 1855, to the 18th of August, 185B, 
is local to Petaluma, yet there is so much of it 
that relates to the whole county that an epitome 
III' it properly falls within the scope of the 
county's general history. 

Among the items of general interest in the 
first issue we find the annual report of S. D. 
Towne, county assessor, from which it is 
learned that within the territory now constitut- 

ing the counties of Sonoma and Mendocino, 
there were 87,052 acres of enclosed land, of 
W'liich 22,400 were under cultivation. There 
were 12,233 acres of wheat, of which it was 
estimated that 3,500 acres would yield twenty - 
eight bushels per acre, the remainder being 
nearly all destroyed by rust. Rust also ex- 
tended its ravages to the indigenous plants and 

Among the Petaluma advertisers in this lirst 
i'ew.issues were: attorneys-at-law. AVni. I). Bliss, 
Wm. A. Cornwall, J. Chandlar, and I. G. 
Wickershani ; saddlery, Samuels & Gedney and 
W. Van Houghton; dry goods and groceries. 
Hill ct Lyon and Elder vN: Plinman; painting, 
Geo. W. Andrews and J. B. Bailey; lumber, H. 
S. Xewton and Geo. R. Perkins; hardware, 
Derby A: Baldwin; dealers in produce and 
agents for Petaluma line of packets, Kittrell it 
Co.; drug and book store, S. C. Haydon; Ameri- 
can Hotel, Anthony G. Oakes; general mer- 
chandise, Calish & x^ewman; steamer Reindeer, 
Edward Latapie, master; furniture, L. Chap- 
man; dentist, W. D. Trinque; Petaluma House, 
Ramsey it Light; stable and stock-yard, C. I. 
Robinson; Pioneer Hotel, D. "W. Flogdell. A. 
B. Bowers and Miss Morse were the teachers of 
the Petaluma public scliool. X, McC. Menefee 


was county clerk, and Tlioinas IT. Pyatt and 
Joel JNIiller, deputies; Israel Brockiuaii was 
slieriff and A. C. McKinnen, deputy. 

Tiie California State election was lield on the 
5th of Septeinher, and is reported as follows: 
J. Neely Johnson, Know Nothing, was elected 
Governor over John Bigler, Democrat, by 
a majority of 5,011 in a total vote of 96,885. 
In Petaluma the vote stood Johnson 277, Bigler 
204. The Settlers' elected their entire county 
ticket by a large majority. The following were 
the officers chosen: Assemblymen, 11. (1. lleald 
and J. S. Rathbnrn; County Judge, Wm. 
Churchman; District Attorney, I. G. Wicker- 
sham; County Clerk, N. McC. Menefee; Sheriii', 
A. C. Bledso; Treasurer, W. A. Buster; Super- 
intendent of Schools, B. n. Bonham; Surveyor, 
Wm. Mock; Assessor, W.G.Lee; Coroner, J. 
S. Williams; Public Administrator, "W.B. Atter- 
berry. The total vote polled in Sonoma and 
^[(Mulocino was 1,890. In the issne of the 8th 
(jf September the following mention is made: 
"The county seat was removed last fall from 
Sonoma to Santa Tiosa, at which time the latter 
place contained not more than one or two 
honses; it now boasts of three stores, two hotels, 
one restaurant, one blacksmith shop, a large 
livery stable, various private residences and 
several new houses in course of constrnction. 
The county buildings are not constructed but 
lumber is on the ground for their commence- 
ment." Tiie Sonoma BuUetin, about the 12tli 
of September, requested the Jcnnxil to an- 
nounce its demise. 

In Septeml)er and October we tind the follow- 
ing record: The Steamer (rcorc/ind, which had 
been running on the Sonoma and San Francisco 
line, commenced making regular trips between 
Petaluma and San Francisco tlic 17th of Sep- 
tember. The Kate Na//t'.i, under tlie command 
of Captain C. M. Baxter, was also making regu- 
lar trips. Among new advertisers who put in 
an appearance during the months of Septembei- 
and October, were C. P. Wilkins, attorney-at- 
law; W. L. Anderson and John S. liobberson, 
M. Weil & Co., U. Samuels and M. Amies, and 

John G. Huff, general merchandise; Thomas L. 
Barnes, S. W. Brown and T. A. Hylton, physi- 
cians and surgeons; B. Tannebaum, dry goods; 
A. Skill man and Wm. Zartman, and Dean & 
Bates, wagon and carriage- makers. The co- 
partnership of Wm. Zartman, John Fritscli and 
James Reed, who were engaged in lilacksmith- 
ing and wagon-making, was dissolved the 23d 
of October, James Reed having perished on the 
ill-fated Central Ami'rira that went down at sea. 
The Bodega steam saw-mill, owned by B. 
Phelps, of San Francisco, was destroyed by 
tire on the night of October 18, the loss beinc 
between $15,000 and !!;18,000. The first fair of 
Sonoma County was held in Santa Rosa on the 
plaza, in front of the court house, October 18. 
The board of managers of the society consisted 
of Dr. J. Hill, President; B. B. Munday, 
Vice-President; Mr. Jenkins, Treasurer; S. T. 
Power, Secretary; Judge Thompson, Dr. 
Ornisby, Major Beck, Major Ewing, .\. Cope- 
land and J. M. Hudspeth, Directors. The 
State fair was held at Sacramento during the 
last week of Se|)tember. Among the successful 
competitors for jireminms were the following 
named from Sonoma County: II. L. Lovell A: 
Brother, of Yallejo Township, for the best bull, 
California bred Durham, $50; second best 
cheese, Samuel Lewis, $15; best five acres or 
liiore of corn, H. M. Wilson, Russian River, $50. 
Between November 10 and December 15, 
1855, the Jovrnal contained the following : 
Among new advertisers were, E. B. Cooper, 
groceries ; Rosanna Loftus, Farmer's Hotel ; 
Sam Brown, American Hotel; Harmon Ramer 
and J. H. Knowles, Petaluma and IJodega Stage 
Line; J. E. Fowler, bakery and restaurant; 
George W. Miller, barber; E. \\. Lockley, attor- 
ney-at-la\v, Santa Rosa ; John llandley, dry 
goods, groceries and hardware, Santa Rosa. .\t 
ten o'clock, a. m., on the morning of Friday, 
November 23d, the boiler of the steamer Geonj- 
iiKi exploded while lying at her wharf in the 
creek at the foot of Fnglish street (now West- 
ern avenuej, taking on freight and passengers, 
killing .loliii Flood, fireman, and George Funk, 


and wounding G. IJiisher and Valentine Iken. 
Tiie coroner's jury returned a verdict to the 
eftect tliat Flood came to his deatli by the crim- 
inal conduct and inattention of the cajitain of 
the steamer, John Tiionipson, and of the owners. 
The Geortfina was owned by Wagner & I5ihler, 
of Sonoma. The jury consisted of J. V>. South- 
ard, E. S. McMurrj, James E. Gedney, S. P. 
Derby, Charles R. Arthur, Jonathan Adams, J. 
H. Sproule, S. J. Smith, Harrison Stanley, Wm. 
Shelton, J. D. Bartlett, George Harris and 
William Van Houten. A postoffice, with Seveir 
Lewis as postmaster, was estal)lished at Windsor 
about the 10th of November. Captain Stephen 
Smith, one of the pioneer American settlers in 
California, an<l owner of the Smith ranch in 
Bodega, died at San Francisco, on the Itith of 
November. He was a native of Danforth, 
Massachusetts, and aged sixty-nine years. But- 
ter from the Petaluma dairies, which were 
already famous thi-oughout the State, was worth 
si. 25 per jionnd in Sacramento. 

Between the dates of December 15, 1855, and 
March 1, 185('), appears the following: On Jan- 
nary 5th the following were installed officers of 
Betahima Loili;e, I. ( ). O. F. : 1). 1). Carder, 
N. G.; S. Payran..V. (i.;.I. 11. Siddons, Jl. S.; 
J. K. Cramer, P. S.; M. II. Jose, T.; J. E. (Jed- 
ney, C; R. Phinney, W. ; Ge irge Harris, li. S. 
N.'g.; Abraham Ward, L. S. N. (i.: \. K. 
Vietz, R. S. V. G.; John Stiitman, L. .^. \ . (i.; 
Thomas C. Gray, R. S. S.; James B. Il.igle, L. 
S. S. The new county buildings at Santa Rosa 
were completed about the 25th of December. 
Among the new Petaluma advertisements were 
E. F.Martin, groceries; G. P. Kellogg, dagner- 
rean artist; Robinson it Doyle, stable and stock 
yard; (tus Harris, groceries, dry goods, hard- 
ware, crockery, etc. On the 23d of January 
Mr. Schwartz exhibited to the editor of the 
Joirrnal half an ounce of gold taken from the 
Bodega Mines. It was of a rough, coarse char- 
acter, and of a rusty color, but very pure, and 
worth ^111 per oimee. On the 31st of January, 
James HoUonsby, a native of New York, and 
twentv seven vears of atfe was killed near Peta- 

luma by the accidental discharge of his gun. 
In February, a military conipanj' was organized, 
called the Petaluma Guard, with the following 
officers: Captain P. B. Hewlett; First Lieu- 
tenant, J. II. Siddons; Second Lieutenant, 
Frank Bray; Brevet Lieutenant, Thomas F. 
Baylis; First Sergeant, F.J. Benjamin; Second 
Sergeant, M. JI. Jose; Third Sergeant, G. B. 
Mathews; l'"onrth Sergeant, Warren G. Gibbs; 
First Corporal, O. T. Baldwin; Second Corporal, 
J. K. Cramer; Third Corporal, B. F. Cooper; 
Fourth Corporal, Samuel Brown. The company 
nninliered forty members, and offered to serve 
as a tire company if furnished with apparatus. 
On the 18th of February tJie Democracy met in 
mass convention at Santa Rosa, and elected M. 
E. Cook, Jasper O'Farrell, R. Harrison, P. R. 
Thompson, Josiah Moran, C. P. Wilkins and 
George Pearce as delegates to a State Conven- 
tion, to be held at Sacramento on the 5th of 

Between March 1 and June 7, ISotl, there 
was recoriled the following: At a meeting in 
Petaluma on the 15th of March it was decided, 
liy a majority of three, to incorporate. Thei'e 
is beginning to be manifested a bitter feeling 
between sellers and grant owners, as is evi- 
denced by several communications on each side 
of the question ; and on the 29th of March the 
Settler's Bill passed the California Senate. On 
the 5th of April there was reported trouble 
between tlu'(ireeii Valley and Tomales Indians, 
growing out of the killing of one of the former 
tribe, by one of the latter. The surrender of 
the offending Tomales Indian was demanded — 
if not delivered up war was lial)le to ensue. We 
find, however, no record of the war. On April 
19th Colonel A. C. Godwin, Julio Carrillo and 
J. Crane, directors of the Geyser Road Com- 
pany, made a report in which they mapped out 
what they believe to be a feasible route for a 
wagon road to those springs. April 26tli 
announcement is made that Captain Ray, with 
a large force of Indians is making rapid prog- 
ress in the construction of a road os'er Bald 
Mountains to the Geysers. In the Journal ot 


tlie 3rd of IVIay appears tlie valedictory of 
Tliomas L. Thompson, as editor and proprietor 
— H. L. Weston being his successor. Judge J. 
E. McNear, a pioneer of California, and formerly 
county judge of Sonoma, died in San Francisco 
on the Cth of May. Tiie following new adver- 
tisements had a|ipeared of new lieginners in 
Petahima : A. Meyer, lessons in music and 
singing; A. Ayres, saddlery and harness; .lames 
Daly, groceries and provisions; William R. 
Wells, physician and surgeon; Israel Cook, 
brick-laying and plastering; (leorge J. J>aus- 
tetter. Union ISilliard Saloon; II. P. lleintzel- 
man, agent for steamer Genercd /rtfar?i(?y, plying 
between Petaluma and San Francisco; Ceorge 
Ross, dealer in paints, oils, varnish, etc. In 
the issue of June 5th mention is made of (lov- 
ernor Johnson's proclamation on account of the 
vigilance committee, declaring San Francisco 
in a state of insurrection, and ordering all per- 
sons liable to military duty to report to Majoi' 
General W. T. Sherman. On the 14th of June 
James King, of William, of the San Francisco 
BnUetin was shot, and died on the 20th. On 
the 22(1 Casey and Cora were hung by the vigi- 
lance committee, and on the 31st Vankee Sul- 
livan, the noted prize-fighter, held in durance 
vile by the vigilance committee, committed sui- 
cide. The nearness of Petaluma to San Fran- 
cisco rendered these occurrences of thrilling 
interest to her people. 

Petween the 7tli of May and 2d of August 
the following record is made: The value of the 
butter, cheese, and eggs produced and sold in 
the vicinity of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, and Rus- 
sian River, during the month of May, was esti- 
mated at $i)2,39!). The steamers I\at,' ILiiji:^ 
and General Kearnc;/ were rimning in opposi- 
tion, to San Francisco, at twenty-five cents and 
one dollai-, respectively, for passengers. The 
new advertisers for Petaluma were: Mrs. W. 
II. Parker, school for young ladies; Acton, 
Ste])hens i^' Parker, produce depot, and W. P. 
Ewing, Geyser Hotel. St. John's Fpiscimal 
Chnrcli, Petaluma, was organized July 31st, by 
the election of the following vestrymen: John 

Keyes, Tomales; Dr. T. Ilendley, San^a Rosa; 
D. D. Carder, V,o\. J. P. Ilewie, P. R. Thomp- 
son, and J. Thompson Iliiie, V'allejo Township; 
I. G. Wickersham, S. C. Ilaydon, and O. T. 
Baldwin, of Petaluma. 

The following is made up trom the last two 
nnmbers of Volume I of the Journal — the re- 
spective dates being August 9 and 10, ISytJ: 
At three o'clock on the morning of August 4th, 
a two-story fire-proof building on Main street, 
(occupying ground upon which now stands the 
northern portion of PhfPnix I 'lock) fell to tiie 
ground and was almost a complete ruin. The 
building was owned by Gowen & McKay, and 
was occupied on the first floor by L. (Chapman 
as a furniture store, and on the second by the 
Odd Fellows and Masons. The front of the 
building fell into the street and the north side 
Tipon the adjoining wooden building, owned 
and occupied by S. V. Ilaydon as a drug store, 
completely demolishing the bnilding and de- 
stroying the goods. The south wall slid down 
an embankment into the cellars in the two ad- 
joining lots, the e.\cavating of which caused 
the catastrophe. Mr. Ilaydon narrowly escaped 
being killed. The following names were ap- 
pended to a call for a Republican mass conven- 
tion to be held at Petaluma, on August 20, 
1850, the first convention called by that j^arty 
in Sonoma County: J. Chandler, S. W. Brown, 
M. Aines, M. I Human, J. N. Newton, A. C. 
Salter, L. Chapman, J. FL Fowler, J. Palmer, 
O. T. Baldwin, W. D. Bliss, L. M. Judkins, 
George Harris, O. Walker, J. F. Reed, John 
Fritsch, J. II. Masten, G. Warnei-, F. J. Penja- 
min, Hiram Luce, N. ( ). Start'ord, (t. (". Trues- 
dell, Joel Merchant, O. II. Lovett, Jacob (iilbert, 
John Wells, C. P. Hatch, J. L. Pickett, W. (;. 
Gibbs, F. C. Davis, R. Douglass, G. AV. Mowci-, 
W. C. Conley, (i. W. Barnard, William Z;iit- 
man, John .1. Bind, G. Barry, E. Linn, Pliilc- 
mon Hill, Freeman Parker, J. D. Thompson. 

With its issue of the 16tli of August, lSo(i, 
the ./o?/;vi(7/ closed the first year of its existence. 
This chapter culled from its columns, as con- 
fuse<l and broken-jointed as it is, will not be 


devoid of interest to those of onr pioneers still 
left, for in it is the names of a very large pro- 
pcrtidH (if those who helpeil to hiy the founda- 
tion of Sonoma County'sgreatnessand prosperity 
— many of wiiom have already passed over the 
summit, to the lllimitaMe vales of tlie hitlilen 

rill i.KVSKKS IN ISoti. 

As an ailendum to this record of 1855-'5t:i, as 
collated from the first volume of the Journal, 
we can fitly append the following, descriptive 
of the country and tiie (ieyser Springs as seen 
in 185fi. Tlie writer, in company with (t. W. 
Heed, afterward a rejiresentative in tlie Califor 
nia Legislature from Sonoma County, traveled 
from Two iiock Valley to the (leysers. We 
rode California mustangs, as at that time there 
was only a hriille trail to the Geysers. Then 
Major Ewing was the proprietor of those springs 
and the buildings were all of canvas. Mr. 
Reed (long >ince deceased), who had been onr 
companion in the mines, wrote for the Sonoma 
County Jdiiniiil the following sketch of our trip: 

" Ho, for the (ieysersi" shouted my friend. 
'•Aye, for the (Jeysers," was the hearty re 
spouse. A few minutes hasty preparation ami 
we bade adieu to our friends, sprang into oiii' 
saddles and soon were galloping o\er the liills 
at a break-neck speed. The morning was beau- 
tiful. A cloudless sky and a refreshing breeze 
lent additional splendor to the scenery, and 
imparted buoyanry and elasticity to our spirits. 
Onr horses caught a spark of the enthusiasm 
that liurned in the heart, and beamed from the 
eyes of their riders, (living them the rein they 
bore us rapidly over the undulating hills in the 
vicinity of the Two Uocks, till, descending a 
narrow detile, we entereil the beautiful valley of 
Santa Rosa. Here, shaded by the wide-spread- 
ing oaks, planted by the hand of nature to 
adorn this lovely valley, and refreshed by the 
breeze that played among their branches, onr 
horses sprang forward with redoubled speed, 
and as we glided rapidly along, the sturdy old 
oaks appeared to be whirling in a giddy dance. 
Evervthino- was heautv and animation. Numer 

ous herds of horses and cattle were seen on 
every side; some luxuriating on the rich pastur- 
age, and others ruminating in the cool shade, 
with an air of calm enjoyment. Occasionally 
the outlines of a neat white cottage, indistinctly 
seen through the dark, green foliage of a thick 
clump of oaks, tlireiv ijuiet home-like appear 
ances over the whole scene. Delighted with 
the beauties of the valley, we deviated from our 
direct course, and arrived at the village of Santa 
Rosa, at 4 o'clock v. m., and halted for the night. 

"Santa Rosa has a pleasant situation, and the 
buildings look neat and attractive, in the 
morning we started early. An hour'rj ride 
brought us to a low range of hills, passing 
tlirongh which, we entered the valley of Rus- 
sian River, wliich in appearance is not less 
animated and l)eautiful than Santa Rosa. Tra- 
veling up the valley, three hours" ride brought 
us to the Mountain House, here we halted for 
i-efreshments. At tliis point, the road leading 
to the (leysers turns into the mountains. After 
resting an hour, we commenced the ascent of 
the mount:nn. The road is good, and the ascent 
was easy. We soon stood upon the summit of 
liald Hill. Certainly not a very poetical name, 
yet I iloiiht whether many of the mountains, 
famous in history an<l classic literature, can 
present a view so full of lieauty and sublimity. 
Arriving at the summit oi' this mountain, the 
valleys of Santa Rosa and Kussian Rivei- lay 
like a map at onr feet. The country which we 
had .~o much admired iluring onr ride, was now 
all presented at a single view, and we stood gaz- 
ing on the scene spread out liefore us, in mute 

"Reared upon the Fertile bosom ot the -prai- 
rieil west," from our earliest childhood we have 
l)een accustomed to contemplate the untarnished 
beauties of nature, but never l)efore did onr eyes 
rest upon a landscape that excited such lively 
emotions, as the one now at our feet. The 
broad expanse of the fertile valley, covered with 
rich grass of a golden tint, and variegated by 
groves of spreading oaks, apparently artistically 
arrantfcd, through which the river wound its 



serpentine conrse, with its bright erystal waters 
sparivling in the sunlight, contrasted finely with 
the dark cloud of tog that obscured the more 
elevated hills in the background. The whole 
gorgeously illuminated by the rays of the 
declining sun, reminded us of Addison's descrip- 
tion of the ' Happy Isles ' that arc to be the 
• abode of good men after death.' 

"This delightful valley, destined tu be the 
happy home of thousands, is but sparsely popu- 
lated, and its resources un<leveloped. But the 
tide of immigration is setting thitherward. 
The busy hum of the industrious pioneers will 
soon be heard in the valley; and at the fii-st wave 
of the potent wand of the Anglo-Saxon race, the 
earth will yield her abundance; fields of grain 
will wave gracefully in tlie breeze, and cottages, 
school-houses ami clinrches, will spring up to 
adorn onr land; the merry voice of happy chil- 
dren will echo through the valley, and a pros- 
perous community, happy in the enjoyment of 
civil and religious liberty, will thank heaven 
that they have found a home in this fair region. 

" Prom this ])oint the road is rough and im- 
pa88il)le f'oi' carriages. The scenery suddenly 
changes, and nature puts on her > rudest form.' 
The mountains rear their bold, rugged fronts 
athwart the traveler's way, like colossal embattle- 
inents, looking in this magnificent display of 
nature's wontlers, to impede the ativancing steps 
of the adventurous intruder. .Not aware of the 
difKculties we had to encounter, we lingered too 
long by the way, and night spi-ead her dusky 
mantle o'er the mountains, while the most ditti- 
cult part of the journey was yet to be made. 
After a laborious march, at eight o'clock in the 
evening, very much fatigued, and with the ardor 
of our enthusiasm somewhat abated, we arrived 
at our ilestination. The hearty welcome and 
generous hospitality of the [u-oprietors soon 
rendered ns forgetful «if our fatigues, and re- 
stored onr usual good spirits. Aftei' a hearty 
sujjper and a pleasant chat, we retired to our 
room, and forgetful alike of pain or pleasure, soon 
yielded to the sweet embrace of the sleepy god. 

"With the earliest dawn, we sprang from our 

conch, and sallied forth with eager curiosity to 
take our first peep at the Geysers. We found 
ourself on a bench or flat in the side of the 
mountain. In front, and two hundred feet 
below, was a rocky canon, while above us. on 
either side, the mountains rose to tlie height of 
a thousand feet, with their tops gilded with the 
first rays of the morning sun, while twilight 
lingered in the depths below. Dense clouds of 
steam, impenetrable to the eye, obscured the 
opposite slo])e, and a loud stunning noise like 
steam escaping from a hundred boilers, echoed 
through the hills. Descending into the canon, 
we climbed up through a narrow chasm in the 
rock, and truly stood in a " theatre of wonders." 
On either side, the rocks rose abruptly, and 
steam whistled through every crevice, while 
under our feet we could hear the gurgling 
sound of the boiling fluid. The whole moun- 
tain appeared to tremble as though it floated on 
the surface of a boiling lake. Fi'oin an eleva- 
tion of two or three liundred feet, down to the 
bed of the stream that flows through the canon, 
boiling water and jets of steam are issuing 
through the fissures of the rock. A grander 
e.xliibition of the wonderful in nature is seldom 
seen. Its contemplation awes the heart bv a 
conscious pi-esence of sn])erior j)owers, ami 
involuntarily turns the mind to reflect upon the 
power and wisdom of the (ireat Author of the 
universe. Innumerable ages, buried in the 
oblivion of the past, have run their course since 
these boiling fountains first burst through the 
rocky liarriers of the mountain. Countless 
years rolled away, while their sublime thunder 
echot'il through the dreary solitude, uidieai'd bv 
the ear, or uuaj)proacheil by the footstep ol 
civilized man. lint henceforth the invalid, the 
devotee of jileasnre, and the idle and curious of 
everj' land, will flock thither ; • silks rustle, 
jewels shine,' and fashion's g.ay, heartless throuif, 
will move to and fro, as though their ephemeral 
pleasure were as eternal as the hills."" 

Mr. Ileed, who penned the above, has long 
since crumbled to dust, and yet how prophetic 
his words! Of those who have visited those 


same geysers and marveled at the wonders of 
nature's laboratory, liovv many, after fretting np 
and down life's stage for a brief period, have 
passed on, and that they ever lixed is only 
evideneed liy a slab of "dull cold inai'blcf 


In tlic fall of 18H0, the writer in company 
with six boon companions spent about half a 
month hunting on the boundarj' line between 
Sonoma and Mendocino counties. The following 
is his description of the country and the adven- 
tures of his party written at the time for the 
Sonoma County Journal : 

"In life there is uo enjoyment liowe'erit ni;iy ;il)oun(l, 
Like luinting tlirontrli llie wckkIIiimiIs witli liHes and wilh 

'• On Monthly morning, the 24th of Septem- 
ber, 181)0, there might have been seen, not 'a 
solitary' (a In eJames), but seven horsemen gal- 
loping across the low hills that intervene be- 
tween the city of Petaluma and the Santa Itosa 
plains. The guns that hung ]iendant tVom the 
saddle bows, and the sable specimen of the 
canine family that brought up the I'car. marked 
them as disciples of Nimrod intent on pleasure 
and adventure. In brief, the object of our little 
party was to leave the haunts of civilization, and 
in the wild freedom of the forest and excite- 
ment of the chase, seek oblivion from the every 
day cares of life. With a leader whose name 
is a terror to bruin, and a guide familiar 
with the intricate paths and by-ways that thread 
tlie almost nninhabited region lying between 
the head waters of Dry Creek and the C!oast 
Range, we naturally anticipated rare sport. 
Elated with the pros])ect before us, we gave 
loose rein to our horses, and they, as if imbued 
witii the spirit of their riders, went dashing up 
the Santa liosa Valley, bearing us over level 
plain and through orchard-like groves, that con- 
trasted strangely with the Sonoma Mountains 
to our right, with their buckskin scenery varia- 
gated by an occasional clump of evergreen oak, 
or the somber appearance of the red-woods in 
perspective to our left. About 11 o'clock we 
passed the village of Santa ilosa, county seat of 

Sonoma. It is located on Santa Rosa Creek, 
and presents a neat and tidy appearance. One 
peculiarity that strikes the traveler approach- 
ing this village, is the uniformity disjdayed in 
the architecture of its buildings, and the an- 
tique appearance of its gable chimneys that 
stand like shot towers exposed to the weather. 
A ride of five miles brought us to Mark West 
Creek. At the crossing of this stream the 
Campbellites were holding their annual meet- 
ing. Hitching our horses in an adjacent 
grove, and (li\'esting ourselves of our hunting 
accoutrements, we approached the camp. It 
was at the close of 11 o'clock service, and tiie \ast 
concourse of people were singing, perhaps with 
the spii-it, !)ut with little i-egard to melody. .V 
minister occupying a prominent position on a 
bench, was exhoi'ting the impenitent to 'l)e- 
lieve and be ba])tised,' and some ten or twelve 
responded to the call. As impressive as was 
the scene, its effect upon ns was connteraoti'd 
l)y one of the ministers volunteering the admo- 
nition to the new converts, that they must re- 
gard their • religious neighbors as their reli- 
gions enemies.' Such illiberality might justly 
be regarded as a relic of that proscripti\e age 
that must e\er be remembered as the gloomy 
morn that heralded the dawn of a brighter day. 
The attendance at this meeting was greater than 
perhaps at any meeting of similar charactei- in 
this region, and we were informed that between 
eighty and a hundred had united with the church. 
"As we wished to reach Healdsburg in season 
to perfect our arrangements for camp life, we 
remonnted and rode toward Russian River. The 
mountains on either side gradually closed in, 
narrowing the valley down until lost in undu- 
lating hills, which indicated our approach to 
the river. Russian River is a stream of con- 
siderable magnitude when swollen by the winter 
rains, but at present is almost lost by filtering 
through the cobble-stone and sand over which it 
flows. The bottom land along this river is 
justly celebrated for the corn it produces. We 
have seen tall corn on tlie western prairies, but 
none that would bear comparison with the corn 



of Russian River. At five in tlie evening we 
lialted before tiie Sotoyome, tlie only lionse of 
public entertainment in Ileaklsbnrg. This vil- 
laj^e might with propriety be dubbed the ' Vil- 
lage of Woods,' as it is completely embowered 
in a grove of oak and madrono, giving to it an 
air of quiet and seclusion really inviting to 
those used to the bustle and confusion of more 
populous places. Occupying a position just 
al)ovc the continence of Dry Creek and Iiussian 
River, it is the natural channel through which 
the produce of both valleys must pass, thus 
giving to it superior advantages as an inland 
town. Here it was necessary to lay in our sup- 
ply of provisions and ammuintion, as there was 
no trading post higher up on the route we de- 
signed taking. A couple of sacks of Hour, tea, 
coffee, and necessary condiments, with a keg of 
powder, lead, shot, etc., completed our outtit; 
and as we had already bargained for a pack ani- 
mal til convey it to its destination in the moun- 
tains, we smoked our jdpes and retired to i-est, 
felicitating ourselves on the pi'ospect of an early 
start in tlie morning. In this, however, we 
were disappointed, for when ready to start, the 
Hibernian that presided over i/iat livery stable 
informed us that the horse he designed ns to 
have was on a ranc/io some distance from town, 
that he had sent after it, and was confident it 
would be brought in sometime during the day. 
This was annoying — it overcame our captain's 
usual ecjuanimity, causing him, we are sorry to 
say, to use language 7U)t to be found in the 
Westminister catechism. We remonstrated — 
we threatened- informed him that one of our 
number was a lawyer by profession, and heavy 
on livery stable practice, but it was no go, and 
only called forth a proposition that he would 
let us have a horse if we would pay doul)le the 
stipulated price. This did not tend to molify 
us, and we left that stable vowing that we would 
jiatronize some other establishment on our re- 
turn. After a delay of a couple of hours, we 
started up Dry Creek Valley with our muni- 
tions packed by an ill-visaged, iiall-faced animal 
tliat wonlil havi' passed as a duplicate of the 

famous ' Rosinante.' A youthful and inconsid- 
erate member of our company was in the hal)it 
of urging him forward by exclaiming 'git u]> 
and git, old bally,' but our captain very prop- 
erly checked him, by reminding him of the fate 
of forty rude boys in a land that aliounded in 

" It is about twelve miles from Ilealdsbui-g to 
the canon at the head of Dry Creek ^'alley. 
This valley consists of a rich loam formed by 
the decayed vegetation that is annually boi'ue 
down and deposited by the mountain streams. 
Its luxuriant fields of corn indicated its capacity 
to }noduce, and we are much mistaken if the 
(lay is far distant when hop and tobacco culture 
will claim the attention and jirove remuner- 
ative to those disposed to engage in it. At the 
head of the valley we bade adieu to ci\ilization 
and wagon roads, and taking the pack trail, be- 
gan the ascent of the rugged mountain. Onward 
and upward we toiled our way, some leading 
their horses, others preferring to let their's go 
ahead, therelty giving them the advantage of 
'tail holt' to assist them in their ascent. 
Before we reached the summit bandanas were 
ill requisition, and standing collars were meta- 
morphosed into drooping ' I'yrons.' .\s htbor- 
ions as was the ascent, we were amply i-opai<l 
by the extensive prospect that was opened to 
us, for as far as the e^'c could scan there was 
one confused jumble of mountains, clad with 
forests of redwood and fir, whose spiral to] s 
seemed to pierce the clouds. Ten miles ot 
rough roads lay between us and tlu' springs 
whei-e we designed ])itcliing camji that night, 
and urging oui' jaded hoi'ses forwartl along a 
tortuous trail that was liedg('(l in by chaparral 
and manzaneta thickets, we lialtcil at fi\e in tiie 
evening, weary and hungry. To picket oni' 
horses and build a camjt fire claimed our first 
attention; then camt; a scene worthy the jiencil 
of an artist. Men who were wont to turn up their 
noses at better victuals than graced the table ot 
'Dives,' might be seen devouring with avidity 
slices of bacon they had liroiled before the fire 
on the end of their ramroils; fratjrant coti'ee was 



sipped from tin cups, and the clatter of knives 
and forks upon tin plates, gave evidence that 
ample justice was done to the repast, notwith- 
standing tiie absence of delf. Spreading oiii- 
•blankets upon the earth, and witii our heads 
pillowed upon our saddles and the starry 
heavens for a canopy, we consigned ourselves 
to the embrace of ' tired nature's restorer.' We 
were up by early dawn and ready to take the 
trail leading to Flat Ridge, ten miles distant. 
The springs at which we camped, our guide in- 
formed us were without a name, and we chris- 
tened them 'Hunter's Springs.' 

" As we ascended a sharp ridge that towered 
above the surrounding mountains, the sun rose 
bright and clear above the mountains to the 
eastward, and its retlection upon the dense sea- 
fog, that had settled in the canons and gorges of 
the mountains, gave iis a view grand and sub- 
lime. Seas, l)ays, and friths, were mixed to- 
gether in admirable confusion. Their placid, 
mirror-like surface was unrippled by a breeze, 
and Minfurrowed by a keel.' l''or an hour we 
enjoyed the illusion, when the rays nf • Sol ' 
began to troulde the waters; at first, ripples 
appeared on the surface, then billow chased bil- 
low, and finally rising in fleecy folds, it floated 
heavenward revealing the wilderness of forest 
that had apparently iieen submerged. I'assing 
down a steep declivity toward Flat Ridge, we 
met with a mishap that might have materially 
atfected the sport of our company. Our keg of 
powder broke loose from its lashings, and went 
rolling down the mountains. As it disap])eared 
from view, disappointment and chagrin was 
visible on every countenance. The course it 
had taken was marked l)y a trail through the 
wild oats, with which the side of the mountain 
was clad, as if a boa-constrictor had taken its 
flight down the mountain. Taking the trail of 
our fugitive casket, we found it on a bench of 
the mountain five hundred yards distant, snugly 
ensconced in a bunch of. fern. We halted at 
Flat Ridge, and cooked dinner; then resumed 
our march for the Buckeye Springs, eight miles 
distant, where we designed going into perma- 

nent (juarters. Crossing the east fork of the 
Gualala and bearing toward the coast in the 
region of • Point Arenas,' we arrived at Buck- 
eye and pitched camp at four in the evening. 
As late as the hour, we could not restrain our 
impatience for the chase, and hurriedly unsad- 
dling our horses, and turning them loose to 
graze upon the lu.xuriant oats and clover with 
which our camp was surrounded, we sallied 
forth, some with rifles, others with shot-guns, 
each intent mi some daring e.xploit; but our 
zeal resulted in nothing, save that one of jiarty, 
armed with a fowling-piece, was reconnoitering 
a manzaneta grove for quail, when he suddeidy 
found himself face to face with a hugh bear, 
who was standing upon his hind legs quietlv 
reconnoitering him ; but as his piece was charged 
with quail shot, he did not deem it prudent to 
get into an affray with him, and acting on the 
principle that •' discretion was the better part 
of valor," he made tracks for camp. His bear- 
ship, notwithstanding his Heenan attitude, did 
not appear to be pluck, for u])(in i-etu ruing to 
the spot armed with rifles, it was discovered he 
had ingloriously forsaken the field. (>urcam]) 
was on a ridge that formed the divide between 
tlie east and west Gualala, and had been occu- 
pied by some adventurous stockjnan, who had 
erected and occupied a temporary shanty, but 
finding it an unprofitable speculation, had 
moved with his flocks to some other section ot 
the countiy, leaving the ' liuekeye House ' as 
a standing monument to his folly. We took 
formal possession of the premises, and made the 
house answer the doul)le purpose of dining 
room and sleeping apartments, whilst a hollow 
redvvood tree close by was converted into a 
magazine. After the usual routine of camp 
duty was dispatched, all hands were busy in 
running balls, cleaning guns, and making all 
needful preparations for the next day's sport. 
One after another, after having put their rifles in 
a condition, as they believed, to drive the center 
at any given distance, joined the circle around 
the camp fire, and the wreaths of smoke tliat 
circling aloft from half a dozen pipes, assuming 


all kinds of fantastic sliajjes, appeared to be the 
signal for stories of adventure and hairbreadth 
cscajjes. Our LTuide took the lead by recounting 
iticideiits that had occurred in that region- of 
two brothers out luinting. one shooting the 
other's arm ott", mistaking him for a deer; of a 
man hitciiing his mule close to the chaparal, 
to hunt down a cafion, and retnrning was de- 
ceived as to locality, and seeing his mule in tiie 
brush shot him supposing him to be a grizzly 
i>car: and several other incidents of like nature. 
Another member of the company related an 
instance of a hunter shooting a cow mistaking 
her for a sijuinvl; but the palm was awarded to 
our captain who relateil a circumstance of a 
jiarty of hunters of Santa Clara, going to the 
mountains to hunt bear, taking with them a 
donkey to pack bear; but who returned in a 
ehort time bringing with them the pack-saddle, 
the bears having unceremoniously packed off 
the donkey. The next day we scoured the 
forests and delved into dark canons in i^uest of 
^auie. AVe did not find deer as plenty as w'e 
had anticipated, l)ut every member of our com- 
pany managed to get a shot during the day, and 
each maintained that he had hit his deer, but 
owing to causes he could explain satisfactorily 
to themselves, the stricken deer eluded their 
grasji. Two of our company, however, more for- 
tunate than the rest, brought in substantial 
tokens of tlieir skill with the ritle. aixl that 
night there was atlded to the liill of I'arc of the 
I Buckeye House' roast \enison. venison stew, 
venison steak and broiled venison. The reverber- 
ations of our rifles through the mountains, 
awaked the solitudes and rendered the game 
weary. Deer had to be hunted from their lair 
in the underbrush, and the bear scented danger 
when afar off, and when seen were generally 
out of range of rifle shot, and showing a dis- 
position to avoid close ])ro.ximity to their new 
neighbors. Two of our company, hunting to- 
gether one day, however, were fortunate enough 
to surprise a black bear when up a tir tree 
lopping acorn's from an oak. whose branches 
intei'locked the fir. A AmA from a small riHe 

that carried a ball but a size larger than a buck- 
shot, caused him to let all holds go and drop to 
the earth, but did not prevent his flight. 
Hunter number two, to use his own language, 
'shot at the dust bruin kicked up,' but with 
no other effect than to accelerate his speed 
down the mountain. 

"At the end of the week the > smoke house' 
wc had extemporized was filled to overflowing 
with snmked venison, and we decided to move 
camji to ' iiear liidge,' eight miles distant, 
hojiing there to gratify our penchant for bear 
hunting, as we had already began to regard deer 
as rather small game. We did not take our 
departure from Buckeye without regret, and the 
week we spent there will always be looked back 
to by us as an oasis in life's desert. There is 
much in that region well calculated to arouse 
the enthusiasm of descriptive writers, but as we 
have neitbei' space nor talent wc consign 'llie 
task to some more facile pen. The most prom- 
inent land-mark in that region is the ■ Uock 
Pile,' three miles west of Buckeye, it being a 
conical shaped mountain fornied of massi\e 
rocks, and entirely destitute of vegetation. It 
both serves as a guide to hunters, and stands 
sentinel over a grave at its base, where rests an 
unfortunate adventurer, who was murdered hy 
an Indian two years since. 

"On our arrival at Bear Kidge, wc found, a- at 
Ibickeye, an untenanted cabin, of which we 
took possession; but there was a history con 
nected therewith that was recorded with the 
crimson current of life upon the floor and rude 
bed in the corner, that for a time cast a shadow 
o\er our party. Our guide informed us that 
al)out si.x months pi-evious two men not resi- 
dents there, were luinting on the ridge — that 
one was shot by the accidental xlischarge of his 
rifle, the ball tearing ott" one of his hands and 
entering his side. He was borne to the caliin 
and a surireon sent for from Healdslmrg. lie 
lingered thirty hours, and the surgeon arrived 
just in time to see him breath his last. Beneath 
the wide spread branches of a chestnut-oak. a 
short distance from the cabin, he sleeps his last 


long sleep. Kemoviiig, as far as possilile, all 
traces of the unfortunate sufferer, we occupied 
tlie cabin four days. As yet, we had failed to 
t-iglit a bear on i>ear Ridge, altliough we had 
added the carcasses of several deer to our larder. 
Our ease was becoming a desperate one, for we 
had baked the last of our flour, and worse still. 
our supply of tobacco was exhausted. It was 
Saturday morning, and we debated tlie pro- 
priety of subsisting upon meat alone for one day, 
rather than enter Healdslturg on Sabbath even- 
ing; but tobacco turned the scale, and it was 
voted to pack up and start, when it was dis- 
covered that one of our horses liad decamped 
during the night. By means of a trail made by 
a picket rope attached to the horse it was dis- 
covered tiiat it had taken an opposite direction 
from tiie trail by which we had entered, and 
three of our party started in pursuit. After an 
absence of two hours they returned, not only 
having the good fortune to lind the horse, but 
having shot a deer and also a large brown bear. 
This streak of good luck was hailed with delight 
by all, for it had not only enalded our company 
to return with a bear skin as a trophy of the 
chase, but quieted the nerves of individual 
members who disliked to return to their ' lady- 
loves' without the promised bottle of ' bar's 
ile,' with which to anoint their raven or golden 
locks, as the case might be. "We had achieved 
the object of our party, — our success was equal 
to our anticipations, and loaded down with 
venison, we commenced our homeward iiiiiieh. 
Before bidding a tinal adieu to I'ear liidge, 
we wish to note the existence on that and 
surrounding ridges of a species of timber we 
had supposed did not exist in California, we 
refer to the old-fashioned chestnut. The fruit 
is not yet ripe, but the ground under some of 
the trees is covered with !)urs that have been 
detached by the wind and birds. Some of the 
trees are two feet in diamater and remarkably 
tall, which to our mind precludes the idea, as sug- 
gested by some, of their being • chincapins.' 
"We halted at Flat Ridge, and were laid under 
lasting obligations to a resident stockman, who 

shared with us his tobacco and flour. "We will 
ever hold him in grateful remembrance, and 
may his shadow never grow less. As we had 
to make a forced march in order to reach 
Ilealdsburg that night, we were in the saddle 
bi-ight and early, and had soon surmounted a 
ridge from which we had a last view of our 
hunting grounds. Here our attention was 
called to a large madrone tree, close to the trail, 
npon which were carved various initials, wliich 
were almost obliterated by the growth of the 
tree; but high up and in legible characters, was 
inscribed 1841. As we rode onward, we could 
not but contrast the present California with the 
California of 1841, and wonder if they who left 
their record on the madrone tree have been 
spared to witness the change. As we drew 
near to Ilealdsburg the cravings of appetite 
increased our desire to patronize ' mine host ' 
of the Sotoyome; but again we were doomed to 
disappointment in Ilealdsburg; for the Sotoy 
ome and many other buildings had crumbleil 
before that ruthless element that has prostrated 
so many of California's fair villages; and so 
complete had been our isolation, that a week 
had elapsed since it was destroyed, and yet we 
had no intimation of the occurrence until we 
entei'ed the village. In the absence of a hotel, 
we resorted to a restaurant, and if the propri- 
etor made a profit on that meal, we are inclined 
to believe he will get rich, for seven hungrier 
men never entered that burg. We returned to 
Petaluma after an absence of sixteen days, feel- 
ing refreshed and rejuvenated by our camp life. 
In conclusion we will say to those afllicted with 
the dyspepsia, or any other fashionable disease, 
try Buckeye Camp two weeks, and if it does not 
effect a cure, why then prepare, for your end 
draweth nigh." 

Such was the experiences of the writer 
twenty-eight years ago in the regions described; 
and yet, long after he has passed away the sharp 
report of the sportsman's rifle will ring through 
those same forests, for those dark canons and chap- 
arral covered mountanis will ever aft'ord a safe 


r;j,jp , JH^rJ,-',J^,^';3;:jPrJ^r^r>.-'l -'r J r J |-lrJr J?»?Ji , 





DAIS Santa Rosa and Rissian Rivkk Valleys i-uodijc the he wheat axd ( ok.n — ihe yeak 


THE Miranda <;i;axt -the T'o-ioRtjuEs (iHANT. 

rf>TP to 1855 SoiioHiii roiiiity was in a coiuli- 
:*l}'jl tion of confused transition from almost 
^5P^ iiiitivo wilds to permanent civilized occn- 
]);unjy. AVliili' the county was largely covered 
hy y|)aiiisli yrants. yet the holders of such, as a 
class, had not yet accjuired flocks and herds to 
occupv their broad acres, and the adventurous 
Americans very often located within the lines 
of such grants with as little reverence as though 
settling upon government land. The grant 
holders, as a class, had little idea of land value, 
and many of them were willing to accept from 
settlers on their domain very moderate prices 
for the laud. Many, if not most of the settlers, 
got their land at prices not much above what 
they Would have had to pay had it been go^ern- 
inent land. There were c.vccptions, however, to 
tills rule, and in a few instances there was con- 
sideral)lc friction and trouble between settlers 
and grant owners, but this will be referred to 
later on. 

.Vbout 1855 a tidal-wave of immigration seemed 
to sweep over yonoma County, and it was really 
a marvel how soon every nook and corner of the 
county available for farming or grazino; was 
ferretted out and occupied. It was now families 

seeking homes who came, and following their 
coming school-houses and churches began to 
multiply. In truth, within the space of a few 
years, Sonoma County became one of the most 
I prosperous agricultural counties of the State. 
At first, famous for her Bodega potatoes, she 
I soon took first rank among the graiii-growini,'' 
and dairying counties in the State. 

In tlie space of a few years towns and villages 
came foi-ward with marvelous growth. J'eta- 
luma as a shipping point made rapid strides. 
Santa Rosa as the county seat was making siib- 
\ stantial progress. Ilealdsburg, where in 185-1 
! had been but a residence and blacksmith shop, 
I became a thriving village, and Cloverdale began 
to show evidence of its future destiny. Sonoma, 
; ever famous as a center around wiiich clustered 
historic memories, became far-famed for her 
productive veneyards. l^odega, old in her de- 
velopment there in connection with Russian 
occupation, took a new lease of life, and Hoilega 
Bay was whitened by a fleet of sails that carried 
her products to the San Francisco market. 
lUoomtield surrtuinded by as fei'tile a country as 
the sun ever sone upon became the center of a 
populous and pros|)erous farming district. 


In tlmse days the fatness was exuding from 
tlic !-t-iil of Sunoina County, and tlie crops 
gathered tlierefroin were abundant to the full 
measure. While the growing of potatoes coast- 
wise, e(_immencing with Two Rock Valley and 
extending to iJodega was yet a large industry, 
the irrowing of wheat, barley and oats soon 
took precedence and became a source of great 
profit to farmers. Farming of whatever kind, 
whether the growing of potatoes or cereals was 
usually conducted on a large scale. Fifty or a 
hundred acres of jiotatoes was not considered a 
large plant, and of grain it was no uncommon 
thing for a farmer to plant any where from one 
to three hundred acres, and a large farmer often 
went far beyond this. Our favorable sea- 
sons for seeding and planting of such vast 
crops was made easy by the improvements in 
farming imj)lemeuts, but the gathering of such 
vast crops often taxed to its utmost capacity the 
labor attainable. For potato digging, the rem- 
nant of the almost extinct Intlian tribes of this 
region were brought into re(juisitioti, and be- 
came quite effective aids in farming. The 
writer once had in employ twenty-two Russian 
River Indians, and found them excellent potato 
diggers. During the season tif gathering 
potatoes these dusky childi-en of nature used to 
perform a large portion of that kind of labor. 
But the vices of civilization was fast thinning 
their ranks, and in the course of years Chinese 
labor stepped in and did the main portion of the 
drudgeries ot farm work. 

The main valleys through the center of the 
county, Petaluma. Santa Rosa and Russian 
River were always devoted maiiily to the grow- 
ing of grain. The wealth- of grain produced 
by the virgin soil of these rich valleys is almost 
incalculable. Russian River Valley in a very 
early day jiroved its worth as a corn producing 
region, and in later years became famous for 
the ])roduction of hops. A writer some years 
ago drew the following pen picture of the Rus- 
sian River Valley: 

" For more than sixty miles in length Russian 
River before taking its tinal westerly course to- 

ward the ocean, perambulates from Mendocino 
County southerly through one of the widest 
and truly alluvial valleys in the State. As a 
corn growing country it is probably without a 
rival on the J'acitic coast, and a good corn 
country can always be relied upon as suitable 
for a large share of the staple products of tem- 
perate climes. 

•'We see, therefore, along this great alhnial 
belt, the whole family of cereals cultivated with 
singular success, and in the main cjuite free 
from smut, or injury from climatic influence. 
As far as any attemj)ts have been made to grow 
fruit, it succeeds admirably. Along the bor- 
ders of the \ alley, at the foot of the range of hills 
that bound it on either side, the vine flourishes 
luxuriantly, i)roducing grapes of fair size and a 
flavor of peculiar richness; and we cannot but 
believe that the time is near at hand when the 
acres of vineyards aloug this great valley may 
be counted by hundreds, if not thousands. 
What the effect of climate may be upon the 
health of vines and fruit trees along the more 
central [iortions of the valley, remains to be 
seen. Of the indigenous forest trees, the decid- 
uous oak predominates largely; and throughout 
nearly the entire extent of the valley may be 
seen this monarch of our lowland forests, in its 
wide-spreading, but varied and beautiful forms, 
standing apart and alone, or clustered in beauti- 
ful groups of a score or more upon a single 
•acre; and though at this season of the year 
without a single leat, all are draped in their 
beautiful pale green, mossy livery, that, pendu- 
lous from every twig and limli, imparts a mel- 
lowed softness to the breeze, that alike in 
summer and winter gently sweeps along the 

Taking the decade-aiid-a-half between 1855 
and 1870, farming in Sonoma County achieved 
its greatest results. Of course, there were 
variableness of seasons and prices, but taken as 
a whole the results were more tlian highly satis- 
factory. In the single season of 18B4 the 
farmers literally gathered a harvest of gold. 
That yea)' the whole southern portion of Cali- 


tbrnia was made barren by a drought. Here 
tlie crops were good, and wheat was sold at all 
the way from three to four iiiul-a-half cents pur 
liouiid. Even renters, who had [)ut in large 
crops on shares, found themselves coniparatively 
rich at the end ot" the season. 

The productiveness of our farms and the ac- 
cumulatinir wealth from dairy products and 
Ntock-raising were promotive of other industries 
and created in the people a desire for advance 
from the primitive surroundings that had 
marked their early-life struggles. Ornate coun- 
ti'y homes began to multiply, and the county 
from end to end began to show the evidences of 
])ermanency and solidity. This was not con- 
fined to the large valleys along the line of lead- 
ing tlioroughfares; in every little gem of a 
valley, sandwiched in among the hills and moun- 
tains, there was manifested a growing taste in 
the direction of more comfort and convenience 
in home surroundings. 

This advancement was made in the lace and 
teeth of ditticulties and discouragements seldom 
encountered by the pioneer settlers of any other 
country. As lias already been stated, many of 
the settlers went upon lands claimed as Spanish 
grants, hut of which the titles had not yet been 
adjudicated by the United States Government. 
In the early fifties a commission, consisting of 
three members, had been appointed to investi- 
gate these titles, and otdy such as passed mus- 
ter under their examination got standing in 
court, and were started on the tortuous way to 
the court of final resort at Washington City. 
The ijcnnineness of title to niany of these yrants 
\\eri; nf very fishy odor. Cnder the treaty of 
(Tuadalupe Hidalgo the United States Govern- 
ment had plighted its faith to give due credence 
to all genuine grants made by duly accredited 
authority of the Mexican go\ernment. This 
the government certainly did to the full measure. 
Elsewhere is published a list of the Spanish 
grants that in whole, or in ]iar% fell within the 
lines of Sonoma County. We have also j)ointed 
out the evidences of pwmaneiit habitation witiiin 
the boundai'ies(jf the county at the time Sonoma 

was captui'etl. It was for the courts, and nut 
the histoi'ian, to j)ass upon the validity of these 
giants. Jf there was wholesale perjury in- 
dulged in to secure many confirmations, that is 
now a matter between the consciences of wit- 
nesses and their (4od. It is now all happily 
passed, and all land titles are in perfect I'ejiose. 
All now buw to the rule. Stare (lecisi-<. 

I!ut it is the province of history to recite 
events the outgrowth of these confiicting lanil 
titles. There were numerous "Settlers' Leagues" 
organized to resist the confirmation of many of 
these grants. Lawyers were always to be found 
who would, for a liberal fee, give "squatters" 
on grants positive assurance that the grant was 
fraudulent and that he could " knock the bottom 
out of it." These leagues, in many instances, 
became secret conclaves, with all the pass-words 
aifd paraphenalia of secret oi-ganizations. That 
they should ultimate in resistance to legally 
constituted authorities was but natural. And 
even the claimants of grants sometimes were 
guilty of the assumption that they were higher 
than the law. While there had been a great 
deal of friction between settlers and grant hohl- 
ers the first serious collision occurred at Bodega. 
There was no end of land troubles in Sonoma 
County, growing out of occupation by settlers 
on what was believed to be fraudulent Sj)anisli 
grants. This led to a great deal of trouble, and 
ultimately to resistance to the mandates of law. 
To give the reader a clear conception of the real 
temper and feeling of the public at that time on 
this momentous (question we give the language 
of an editorial which appeared in the I'etaliima 
Journal of ]''ebruary 18, IHSH: 

"It is boldly asserted tliat there are eighty 
land grants in this State, which can be proved 
to have been forged and sworn thus far through 
the courts by perjury. They lie it is stated, in 
twenty-seven counties, and cover the homes of 
nearly 5,000 settlers. AVhether there are any 
located in this county, we are not informed. It 
would be a strange transaction if there are not. 
Our location, and the wull-known i-ichno^s of 
soil, would certainly be a >trong bait t" tempt 



the palate of the greedy land cormorants wlio 
have perpetrated these wholesale frauds. It 
therefore becomes all well-ineaiiiiig and right- 
thinking citizens to join wit!) their brethren of 
San Francisco, in the work of ferreting ont and 
exposing these fraudulent grants. To this end 
let every person remonstrate against the j)assage. 
by the Assembly, of tlie iniquitous and unjust 
resolution which was spawned by Senator Will- 
iams, petitioning Congress for the passage of a 
law to prevent reviews in cases wliere patents 
have issued; or in other words asking of Con- 
gress to screen the actual robber, and protect 
the receiver of stolen property under the name 
of ' bona tide purcliasers and encumbrancers.' 
Where, we ask, can a parallel be found to this 
act? Rob and defraud Uncle Sam of the public 
domain and then ask him to desist from investi- 
gation, the object of which is to prove the theft; 
and all because the receiver of stolen goods may 
lie a sufferer I As infamous as are the inten- 
tions of Mr. Williams' move, we nevertheless 
see the Senate passing favorably upon it. If we 
mistake not, our own representative in that body 
was among its supporter. A knowledge of the 
unscrupulous intentions of these landgrabbers' 
has clearly disclosed to settlers the precipice 
over which they are being rutldessly hurried. 
A just and proper spirit of resistance to the 
attempt is beginning to manifest itself in vari- 
ous sections. Meetings are being lield, reso- 
lutions of disproval of Mr. Williams' ' substi- 
tute ' passed, and Anti-Grant Leagues formed. 
If moderation and temperance of action pre- 
dominate, as we trust will be the case, immense 
good will result to the people at large. The 
recent developments in the Santillan claim, is 
conclusive evidence of this fact. Let a union of 
action be made and time and investigation will 
rend the screen that now obscures and darkens 
the homes of scores of the people of California. 
We shall look with confidence to our representa- 
ti\es in the Assembl)', to aid in arresting the 
passage of the resolution by that body." 

In continuance of the same subject the -Jvur- 
«'^? of Februarv 25, 1859, said: 

"Bv reference to another column, it will be 
seen that the people in this locality are begin- 
ning to move in the work of exposing the alleged 
land frauds, and of heading General Williams 
and Judge lialdwin in their infamous attempt 
to rob and despoil the people of California. In 
the eagerness of these pliant tools of Liinantour, 
I'reinont, etc., to do the bidding of their heart- 
less and unscrupulous masters, they have moved 
in so bold and hasty a manner as to neglect that 
precaution so necessary to successful villainy — 
the covering up and secreting of all evidence of 
evil intent. The object sought is too obvious 
to pass unnoticed by the most obtuse. As a 
natural conse(|uence, this course on the part of 
the land claimants, has aroused a just and pro- 
per spirit of opposition on the part of the people. 
The final result of this struggle, will, we believe, 
be the securing to the public domain of leagues 
upon leagues of land now claimed by land 
sharpers under forged titles. That many of 
these fraudulent claims are located on this side 
of the bay, we are told there no longer e.xists a 
doubt. Justice then demands that our people 
move with a united effort in exposing these 

"A brief reference to the land-claim history of 
California, presents some startling facts. In the 
year 1849 William Cary Jones was sent to Cali- 
fornia by the authorities at Washington, with 
instructions to ascertain the number and extent 
of Spanish land grants. In his report he states 
the result of his investigation to be the dis- 
covery of five hundred and seventy-six grants, 
large and small, several of which was unfinished. 
Of this number, several were afterward proved 
fraudulent and rejected. Upon the establish- 
ment of the land commission, no less than eight 
hundred and thirteen claims were filed in before 
it for action ! A writer in the Alta., asserts 
that Mr. Jones informed him that after he had 
returned to Washington, he was offered *20,000 
to insert in his rejiort one grant — fraudulent of 
course, and for which they wished a record in 
order to give it some show of validity I Com- 
ment is unnecessary. The facts alone tell the 



whole story, and bid our (iitizens to be up and 

The tii'st of these coiitliets over land titles 
tiiat assuuietl a very tlirealeiiiiig aspect was in 
June of 1859, and the scene of the disturl>ance 
was Hodega ranch. The foiiovving in a state- 
ment of the case and what occurred as touiid in 
tiie Sonoma County Jonriinl of June 3d, 185'J: 


"The original grantee of tliis ranch was Caj)- 
tain Stephen Smith, who claimed by grant 
eight leagues of land, which amount was con- 
firmed to him In' the Hoard of Land Commis- 
sioners. He tlien leased to Uethuel Phelps & 
Co. the right to cut and manufacture into lum- 
ber tlie red-wood belonging to the said eight 
leagues of land, for a term of ninety-nine years, 
for the sum of $65,000. Phelps & Co., imme- 
diately took possession of the lands so leased, 
and still continue in possession of the same. 
After setting apart to I'helps & Co. their leased 
portion of the claim, there was left a large tract 
of agricultural lands outside of said eight 
leagues, claimed l)y no one. which was then set- 
tled upon and divided up into (piarter sections. 
Thus matters stood at the death of Captain 
Smith. We would here state, that various sur- 
veys have lieen made from time to time by dif- 
fererit parties and among them one by Clement 
Co.\, United States Deputy Surveyor, in accord- 
ance with which the grant was finally patente<l. 
Some time after the death of Captain Smith. 
Mr. Curtis married the widow of Captain Smith, 
and became administrator of the estate and 
guardian of the minor heirs, thus becoming a 
party interested in the dispute. 

'• Some three months since, Mr. Tyler Curtis, 
on beiialf of himself and the heirs of Captain S. 
Smith, obtained judgment on a writ of eject- 
ment (by default) against forty-eiglit of the 
settlers on the Bodega ranch. Tlie writ of 
ejectment and restitution recpiired the sheritt' to 
dispossess the settlers, and keep possession for 
ei.xty days. ( )n Tuesday evening the sheriff, 
nnaccomj)'inie<l by any one, went to Bodega 

intending to execute the writ on Wednesday 

"On Tuesday evening Mr. Curtis, accom- 
panied by Mr. Nuttman, of San Francisco, and 
forty-eight men, arrived here and immediately 
took passage in coaches ft)r Bodega, where they 
arrived at live o'clock on Wednesday morning. 
The citizens of Petaluma, being ignorant of all 
the })roceedings in the case were at a loss to 
know the why and the wherefore of this great 
influx of armed men; and, failing to get satis- 
factory replies to their interrogatories, furtiier 
than that the j)arty were bound for Jiodega, 
were at once led to suppose that the crowd had 
been brought here for the purpose of taking for- 
cible possession of Bodega ranch. By nine 
o'clock in the evening the e.xcitement ran high, 
and about twenty men, armed and accoutred, 
started for the scene of action, arousing all the 
settlers as they passed along, who at once joined 
them, to render aid to their brethren, if found 
necessary. A messenger had been promptly 
dispatched to Bodega to inform the settlers on 
that ranch of what was going on. lie reached 
there at midnight, and found them entirely 
ignorant of the movements of Mr. Curtis and 
his satelites. So rapid and prompt were their 
movements that by the time Curtis' ' fighting 
men' had arrived some eighty or ninety set- 
tlers had collected, which number, by nine 
o'clock, A. M., was augmented to 250 or 300. 

"Early in the morning, it being ascertained 
that the sheriff had arrived tlie evening pre- 
vious, a conimittee waited upon him to ascer- 
tain the object of his visit. lie stated that he 
came there to discharge his duty as an officer, 
which was, to put Mr. Curtis in possession of 
his property; lie denied having anything to do 
with the forty-eight men brought there by 
Curtis, or even having any knowledge of their 
coming; and promised as soon as l)reakfast was 
over to go where the settlers were assembled 
and see them. This he did. A committee of 
ten was appointed ti) confer with him. which 
resulted in a stay of all proceedings for two 
hours, giving Sheriff ( ireen time to confer with 


Mr. Curtis, and convey to liini the wishes and 
will of the assemblage. Before the expiration 
of the two hours the sheriti' returned without 
any (Satisfactory answer, so far as Mr. Curtis 
was concerned; but for himself, declining to do 
anything in the matter, believing that the inju- 
dicious course pursued by Mr. Curtis, absolved 
him from the necessity of attempting to carry 
out liis instructions at that time. 

" ,\ committee of the citizens was then ap- 
pointed to wait on Mr. Curtis, whose instruc- 
tions were to inform him that tiiey considered 
he had committed a gross outrage upon the citi- 
zens of this county, and the settlers in particu- 
lar, in having brought there, from a neighboring 
town, an armed body of citizens, in violation of 
law and good order, and for purposes which 
could not be recognized or tolerated; and to de- 
mand their immediate return to the place from 
whence they came. To this peremptory demand 
Mr. Curtis demurred, believii^g, as he said, that 
tlie citizens were misinformed, and were unnec- 
essarily excited, and acting from a mistaken 
sense of duty; and that if they, the committee, 
would guarantee him protection from insult, he 
and I\[r. Nuttman would accompany them to 
the place of meeting, and explain the cause and 
motive of their procedure. Tiiey accordingly 
accompanied the committee and made an ex- 
planation, Mr. Curtis alleging that in employing 
these men, he did so with no intention of otter- 
ing an indignity or insult to the citizens of this 
county, but merely for the purpose of aiding 
himself in retaining possession of property 
which he thought to be justly his by the de- 
cisions of the legal tribunals of his country, 
when Sheriff Green, in the discharge of his duty, 
siiould give him such possession; and not for 
the purpose of taking forcible possession, or 
doing any overt act; and that he was willing to 
meet the settlers at any time and compromise 
all matters at variance, and lease them the lands 
on which they reside, at one-half the price for 
which lands on other ranches are leased. Mr. 
Muttinan then repudiated all connectiim with 
the 'lighting-men," and stated tiiat his visit to 

the county was for no particular or special 


"The demand for the removal of the armed 
forces was again made to Mr. Curtis, with a re- 
fusal to treat on any subject, until after their 
return. xVfter a few minutes conference with 
the sheriff, and one or two others, Mr. Curtis 
consented to their return, he paying the ex- 
penses of their transjiortation from there to »San 
Francisco. This ended the matter, so far as he 
was concerned. Wagons were then procured, 
and the 'deceived braves" and their two boxes 
of i/ovemment rifles (previously shipped from 
San Francisco, and directed to Tyler Curtis, 
Bodega), together with their ammunition and 
thirty days' outfit, started for Petaluma, accom- 
panied by one hundred or more of the settlers, 
where they arrived a little after dark, and were 
received by the firing of cannon and the liveliest 
demonstrations of joy at the happy and peaceful 
result of the injudicious and uncalled for move- 
ment. On Thursday morning they took their 
departure from this city for San Francisco, 
where it is to be hoped they will safely arrive, 
wiser, if not better men. In justice to the 
party we would state that those of them with 
whom we conversed, said that they were de- 
ceived in regard to the object of their mission — 
they believing it to be one of peace not war. 
During their sojourn liere their deportment was 
gentlemanly throughout." 


In 1862 the difficulties growing out tif sijuat- 
ter settlement on the Sotoyome Rancho, near 
Healdsburg, culminated in a resistance of the 
county authorities l)y the settlers. J. M. Bowles, 
yet a respected citizen of Petaluma, was their 
sheriff. Resistance was made to writs of eject- 
ment placed in his hands. The Petaluma An/us 
of July 19, 18(52, said editorially: 

'■Governor Stanford having declined tu inter- 
pose the gubernatorial authority until it had 
been made apparent that our county authorities 
are uueipial to the task of enforcing the laws, 
Slieritf Uowles has summoned fi posse eiDuitctux 


of about 300, wlio are notified to report tliem- 
selves, 'armed and equipped as the law directs,' 
at Healdslmrcr (yesterday I Tuesday, tlie IJtli 
inst. As ominous as this nntbrtnnate dithcnlty 
may seem to persons abroad, we do not appre- 
liend tliat any very serious consequences will, at 
present, result therefrom; but it is one of those 
peculiar cases, so common in California, which 
may, unless remedied l)y wholesome and just 
legislation, eventuate in scenes of anarchy, de- 
structive alike to the moral and industrial well- 
being of the inhabitants of our fair State." 

The result of this actiou of Sherift' Bowles is 
thus graphically described by the Healdsburg 
correspondent of the Ari/i/s under date of July 

'•At 9 o'clock this morning. Deputy Sheriff 
Latapie mounted a stump in front of the Sotoy- 
ome Hotel and called the names of several 
hundred men; when about two hundred and 
fifty answered to their names -pei'haps one-half 
of the whole number summoned. Sheriff Bowles 
then explained the nature of liusiness, inform- 
ing them that seven writs of restitution and 
ejectment were to be served on the settlei's — 
Scaggs. Rice, Miller, and others. The jwsse 
was notified to be readj' to march to the scene 
of action in fifteen minutes — and much to the 
disgust of the crowd, they were ordered to pro- 
ceed on foot; which was not very agreeable as 
the sun was pouring down in tropical style — 
the thermometer standing at ninety-two in the 

"x\t about half-past ten o'clock the sheriff took 
his jiofixr ti> the place occupied by Mr. Rice's 
family, about one mile northwest of Healdsburg. 
We arrived at Rice's at 11 o'clock, where we 
found about fifty resolute settlers insi<le of tlie 
yard fence, well armed and apparently deter- 
mined not to allow us to proceed further in that 
direction. We advanced holdly up to said 
fence — it being understood that the settlers 
were not to shoot until we crossed the line, 
which no one seemed inclined to do — when Mr. 
L. D. Latimer read some kind of a document — 
probably the 'riot act' — we were not able to 

hear a word from our position. Sheriff Bowles 
then read some papers, which we were also un- 
able to hear — supposed to be the order of the 
court. The sheriff then commanded \\\s 2)osse 
to assist him in the execution of his writs — 
2X)s-se mum — backward movement perceptible 
— settlers cocked their guns — leaders addressed 
them — another backward movement on the part 
of posse, explained on the ground that the atmos- 
phere was purer under the oak trees. Sheriff 
again demanded possession of the premises — 
most of hisj^w*«6' seated themselves on logs and 
the grass under the oaks. Considerable parley- 
ing between sheriff and settlers — when it beinff 
apparent to everybody that nothing could be 
done without the effusion of blood, the sheriff 
wisely dismissed his posse. Cheer upon cheer 
went up from the crowd — both j[«>ss<? and settlers 
joining in it heartily. The immense crowd then 
started back to town, ap]>arently satisfied with 
the day's woi'k. 

"It was generally believed that from two to 
four hundred armed settlers were in the imme- 
diate vicinity of the house during the time — 
though not more than fifty were to be seen. A 
friend informed me that he saw a large number 
of armed men in a ravine back of the house 
about one hundred and fifty yards off. 

"Not one of the men composing the posse 
carried a gun, and but few of them had small 

"The greatest order prevailed — not a drunken 
or disorderly man to be seen. Mr. (leo. Hran- 
stradder received a severe cut under the arm by 
falling from a stumj) and coming in contact 
with a jiicket fence. No other accident."! hap- 

The sheriff with his ^w^wc having failed to 
vindicate the law. the strong arm of the State 
was invoked as a denier resort. AVhat steps 
were taken is thus stated editorially in the 
Ar(/ns of the 24th of September: 

"The public mind is again being agitated bv 
the settlers' ditficulties in the nfigliburluio<i of 
Healdsburg. In compliance witii the re(iuisi- 
tion of Sheriff Bowles, (iovernor Stanford 


ordered out the two military eouipanies of this 
city, the Petahiina Guards and JMninet (iuards, 
to enforce the writ of ejectment against IMilier, 
liice, Scatfgs and others. The two companies 
aliove nameil. under tlie respective command of 
Captain 1". B. Hewlett and Captain T. F. Baylis, 
took up their line of march from this city for 
the scene of ditiiculty on Monday last. By a 
gentleman who came down on the Ilealdsburg 
stage yesterday, we learn that the military were 
at A[ark West Creek. The same gentleman 
also informed us that he conversed, just hefore 
leavino- Ilealdsburg, with several of the settlers, 
and they avowed their determination to resist the 
force sent against them. We sincerely trust 
they will think better of it, and listen to the 
dictates of cool judgment. The late decision 
of the courts, in favor of Bailhache, has done 
away with the pretext on which they predicted 
their right to resist the sherif!"'s^w.w<^. We ask 
our fellow citizens to retiect what serious conse- 
(piences the resisting of military might lead to. 
If in this instance law is set at defiance, there 
is a combustible element in ('aliforiiia which 
would accept it as a license for guerrilla warfare. 
We cannot, however, believe that our neighbors 
of Ilealdsburg will be guilty of lighting the 
torch of civil war in our midst." 

The Aiqux oi Ocioher 1st gives the following 
account of tlie termination of this vexed land 

"On Monday morning last the military com- 
panies which were ordered by the Governor to as- 
sist Sheritf Bowles in enforcing writs of ejectment 
against settlers near Healdsburg, returned to 
this city having faithfully discharged the duty 
for which they were ordered out. The majesty 
of the law has been asserted and maintained, 
and the serious consequences which it was 
feared might result therefrom have been averted. 
Our citizen soldiers, with their etticient otJicers, 
deserve much credit for the decided and yet 
humane manner in which they discharged the 
unpleasant task assigned them. Those families 
that have had to relinquish homes that cost 
them years of toil, are now the subject of 

sympathy, and should be encouraged and assisted 
in their endeavors to find new and more ]>erma- 
nent homes. Let the difficulties just past be 
remembered only to guai'd against the recur- 
rence of like scenes in the future." 


In 1801 there were about eighteen settlers 
who located on the (German grant, on the coast 
bordei-ing on the (iualala Kiver and extending 
southward toward Fort Ross. The claimant was 
William Beihler, and being a foreigner, he 
commenced suit of ejectment in the United 
States District Court. The writer, then a 
United States Deputy Marshal, had occasion to 
serve papers on those squatters in 1861 and 
knows how " sultry " they threatened to make 
it for Beihler if he over dared to " materialize 
in that neck of woods." Beihler got his ranch, 
notwithstanding, but he has seldom visited it. 
The grant has now largely passed into other 

Tin: Mrr.nuKW shadow. 

By reference to the last chapter on Russian 
occupation at Fort Ross it will be seen that 
reference is made to a bill of sale given to Cap- 
tain John A. Sutter, ])urporting to convey to 
him Bussian title to laud. Tiiis title was 
a source of considerable trouble to Sonoma 
County settlers along about 1S60-'1. One Col- 
onel Muldrew turned up then with that title 
and created quite a panic. The Joiirtnil of Alay 
11, 1860 said: 

"The Sutter, or Aluldrew claim, lying be- 
tween Cape Mendocino and Cape Drake, or 
Punta Reyes, and about which considerable in- 
terest is at present manifest by the people of 
this section, covers about two hundred and 
eighty leagues of land, and embraces within its 
bounds, in addition to a large area of public 
domain, several confirmed Spanish grants. As 
most of our readers are aware, this is tlie so- 
called Russian American Fur Company's claim; 
but we suggest that the territory should here- 
after be known as the "Muldrew Principality. 


Onr reason for this is. that the Colonel claims 
that the Russian Fur Company held and exer- 
cised exclusive control of the territory during 
a certain number of years (about thirty-three, 
we think), and then transferred their rights, 
privileges and immunities to Captain J. A. 
Sutter, who in turn sold to the present claimant, 
he, Muldrew, should of right now be entitled 
to exercise all the rights and privileges, l)oth civil 
and political, which belonged to the said original 
claimants. Let the claim then be known as the 
'Muldrew Principality, and let its rightful 
]triiice assert and exercise his authority! True, 
Uncle Sam may not relish the thing much, but 
how is he to help himself? It was Mexican 
territory alone that he conquered, and not that 
of the Russian Fur Company ! What right 
then has he to complain, though this principal- 
ity does lay 'adjacent to,' and is surrounded by 
his potato patch? ' Hy the law of nations" [ior 
the interpretation of which, and in further 
proof of the soundness of our arguments, we 
refer the reader to the articles in the Argus, 
over the signature of' Veritas,' which we think 
cannot fail to convince all as their author is 
known to be no less a person than the valiant 
Colonel Zabriskie, Colonel Muldrew's legal ad- 
viser and expounder), the Russians acquired 
sovereignty over it, and by the right of pur- 
chase, Colonel Muldrew is now the legitimate 
prince and ruler; but, like the ' Nephew of his 
Uncle,' we ojiine he will tind Jordan a hard 
road to travel, ere he is permitted to grasp the 
golden scepter of this 

' Kiiiiiilom liy the sea.'" 
Colonel Muldrew began to force his claim to 
this vast estate with much vigor. He had as 
his attorney Colonel .1. C. Zaliriskie, who as 
author of the " Laiul Laws of California" was 
recognized as a lawyer of much ability. Several 
settlers' meetings were held in Big \'alley, at 
which Colonel Zabriskie was present and ex- 
plained the nature of the title upon which his 
client set up a claim to lands, much ot which 
had already been purchased by the settlers from 
grantees holding under Mexican title. Most of 

the settlers failed to see the potency of the ar- 
guments used and Hatly refused to give any 
countenance to the Muldrew claims. Some, 
however, seem to have been fearful that his 
claim was something more than a mere shadow, 
and we have been informed that Mr. Rennitz of 
the Fort Ross grant was $6,000 poorer on ac- 
count of his credulity. Be this as it may, the 
Muldrew title reached a final disposition in a 
decision rendered by Judge ISIcKiiistry in Octo- 
ber of 1860, which was as follows: 

•'Curtis vs. Svtfer, et al. — This is a motion 
to dismiss the bill npon the pleadings. I grant 
the motion, assuming that all the facts stated 
in the complaint are true. The complainant does 
not content himself with stating that the de- 
fendants set up some claim or demands to his 
lands, but specitically decribes their alleged 
title from the Russian Fur Company to the de- 
fendant, Sutter. Admitting that the averment 
that the other defendants 'claim under Sntter,' 
as sufficient allegation that they have receiveil 
deeds from Sutter, still the • Russian Fur C'oin- 
pany ' is not a legitimate source of title. If an 
action of ejectment were Ijrought by defeiulants 
against a party in possession upon the deeds 
named., as referred to in the bill, those deeds 
could not constitute a color of title; the defend- 
ant in possession would not be required to in- 
troduce any testimony to impeach or rebut the 
deeds. Hence, upon the authority of Ctiiiin cs. 
Sntter, et al., and Pi.vleij rs. irii(/f//ns, 1 am of 
opinion that no preliminary injunction should 
have been issued in the present case, and that 
the injunction already issued ought not now to 
be made final or jierpetuaj. And since the only 
other remedy sought by the bill oi- whicli I'Luild 
be obtained after a feigned issue, had been de- 
cided in favor of j)laintit} is, that the deeds of 
defendants be canceled, which is not iMily a 
more effective remedy tlian an injunction, it 
a])](ears to me that if the Supivme Couit lia\e 
decided that no injunction should issue, they 
have also decideil that no decree ol cancelfitioii 
should be rendered. 

" Atfaiii, this bill does not show bv anv definite 



description of what portion of the rancho the 
plaintitf is in the actual possession. It admits 
tliat large portions of it are held adversely by 
persons not yiarties to this suit. This is not a 
case wliere any <locti'ine of constructive posses- 
sion can apply, nor does it follow that because 
in order to remove a cloud from a portion of 
which the plaintiff is in possession, it is neces- 
sary to examine the validity of the title to the 
whole Bodega Rancho — therefore, the court will 
interfere to remove a cloud from that of which 
third parties are in possession. Such examina- 
tion into the validity of the liodega title is in 
no degree binding upon those third parties hold- 
ing adversely. l!eing in possession they must 
be considered (until a judgment in a direct pro- 
ceeding against them) as tlie actual owners of 
the land they occupy. The pnr])ose of such a 
bill of peace is to remove a cloud from the title 
which threatens to disturb the quiet and peace- 
able possession of a plaintiff in the actual oc- 
cupancy of land, and since i*^ is inijiossible to 
ascertain from this bill that the ]iresent plaintiff 
is in the actual occupancy of any particular foot 
of land, the cause must be dismissed. 

'> K. ^V. Ml KiNSTRY, 

" District Judge." 
This decision seems to have effectually and 
forever, laid the ISIuldrew title to land acquired 
through Finssian occupancy at Foil Ross. 


This grant was a source of much disijiiict and 
unrest to settlers. Originally there were two 
claimants before the board of land commission- 
ers, Ortega and Miranda. Ortega had l>een a 
Mexican sicklier, and married the daughter of 
Miranda. He claimed to have received a grant 
of the Arroyo de San Antonio, and placed his 
father-in-law, Miranda, in occupancy thereof 
On account of domestic infelicity Ortega went 
to Oregon and was there when gold was discov- 
ered in California. In the meantime Miranda 
seems to have received a grant for the same land 
on the ground of abandonment by Ortega. The 
two titles passed into the hands respectively of 

James F. Stnart and Thomas I>. Valentine. 
They were both laid before the land commis- 
sioners, but ultimately Valentine witlxlrew his 
claim, alleging as a reason that he was satisHed 
that the Miranda claim was without good foun- 
dation. Stuart litigated the Ortega claim to 
the highest tribunal in the land, and it was re- 
jected. The land was then declared subject to 
entry as go\ernmeut land. The outside lands 
were so entei'cd, and the lands embraced within 
the city of Petaluma were entered in lots under 
what is known as the "town site bill." Now 
it was that Valentine went to Congress and 
sought the passage of a special bill to restore 
the Miranda grant to a hearing in court, claim- 
ing that he had discovered new evidence which 
showed the genuiness of that grant. For sev- 
eral years the settlers on the land and residents 
of Petaluma combatted and defeated every at- 
tempt to have the case reopened. Finally a 
compromise was made whei'eby Valentine agreed 
that if he made his title to the Arroyo de San 
Antonio grant he would accept " lien scrip " 
from the government for the same, and not at- 
tempt to disturb the title of settlers organized 
through government to lands embraced in that 
grant. The years had run their course and in 
1873 this compromise was reached. In the 
Petaluma Argvs of December 19, 1878. we find 
the following in relation thereto: 

•' The cloud that has hovered over the lands 
on which the city of Petaluma is situated is 
foi tiinately fast dispelling. The history of the 
various struggles for title that have involved the 
settlers here would form a voluminous book, and 
the inconvenience, dread, uncertainty and possi- 
ble insecurity of our title have in no small de- 
gree retarded our growth and prosperity as a 
city. The time seems to have arrived at last 
when perfect security of title can be claimed, 
without possibility of being overwhelmed or 
being alarmed at some further period by a 
'trumped up claim." The 'Ortega' has been 
killed by the Supreme Court, and the ' Miranda' 
will soon be tfoatel off on the public domain, no 
more to annoy or irritate people. Then, with 


ITncIe Sam's title in our pockets, Me can say, 
' These are onr lands; this is onr heritage; here 
we will hnild onr homes and fonnd a city that 
will rank first among the mnnicipalities of the 

"Below will lie found jnililislied entire the 
the decree issned in the C!irciiit Court for San 
Francisco, confirming the Miranda claim hut 
snhjecting the claimant to the proviso of the 
act of Congress, which says he ' may select, and 
shall be allowed patents for an equal quantity 
of unoccupied and unappropriated public lands 
fif the United States ' elsewhere. 

" Following is the decree which is in sub- 
stance the same as urged ujkju the court by the 
(Tnited States District Attorney Lattimer: 

" ' In this case, on hearing the proofs and 
allegations, it is ordered, adjudged and decreed 
that the said claim of the petitioners is valid, 
and that the same be and hereby is confirmed; 
but this decree and confirmation are hereby 
made subject to the restrictions and limitations 
prescribed in the act of (!ongress entitled, ' An 
act for the Ilelief of Thomas 15. A^alentine, 
approved June 5, 1872. 

"'The land of which confirmation is made is 
the same which was granted by Manuel Mich- 
eltorena, in the name of the Mexican Govern- 
ment to Juan Miranda, on the 8th day of 
( )ctol)er, 1844, and on which he resided in his 
life-time, and is known by the name of the 
Kanclio Arroyo de San Antonio, and bounded 
by the Lagnna and Arroyo of the same name, 
and the pass and Estredo of retaluma, and is 
in extent three square leagues, if that quantity 
is to be found within the exterior boundaries, 
and no more; and, if a less quantity is included 
in said boundaries, then said lesser (piantity is 

" JjOEE.N/.o Sawyer, 
" Circuit .Intlge.' " 
in January of 1S74 the following editorial 
relating to the Miranda grant appeared in the 
I'etaluina Argvs, and was conclusive of nil 
further trouble alwut Valentine's claim : 

•■When there is a shadow upon the title to 

oiir homes there is always an uneasiness tliat 
periodically breaks into downright fear, and 
oftentimes panic. There seems to be no secu- 
rity. \Vc build elegant residences and beautify 
our grounds, but so long as there is a question 
to the title of our lands, there is a lurking fear 
always that some day in our lifetime or of our 
children, the lands may be wrested from us, and 
we would have our ' trouble for onr pains." 
Again, in event of a desire to sell our realty, 
the shadow comes up, and our property is depre- 
ciated thereby. And this has been the case 
with Petaluma from the very day of its settle- 
ment. First we had the Ortega and Miranda 
grants to fight. As if to double teams against 
the settlers the Miranda claimant withdrew 
from the United States Commission upon a 
compromise and helped to fight the battle for the 
Ortega claim, which, after passing the Ctnnmis- 
sion, was adjudged a fraud by the Supreme 
Court. The Government then issued its pat- 
ents to the land claimed by the grant, and our 
people with Uncle Sam's title in their pockets, 
felt comparatively secure. But the trouble had 
not yet ceased. T. B. Valentine, the claimant 
under the Miranda saw that he had made a mis- 
take in his alliance with the Ortega, rushed to 
Washington and endeavored, by an act of C'on- 
gress, to get his claim reopened and before the 
courts. Here was trouble and vexation again. 
The Miranda claim was believed by many to be 
valid, while others took the countrary view. 
Whoever was right recent events go to show 
that it would have been a dangerous experiment 
had the bill l)een passed as it was first inti'o- 
dnced. Through the influence of onr represen- 
tatives, however, the bill was beaten. This ditl 
not seem to satisfy the claimant. At nearly 
every successive ('ongress he was on hainl with 
a bill for his relief. Finally to put tlie matter 
forever at rest, a bill passed Congress allowing 
him to jiresent his claim to the courts, and in 
the event that he should ])rove the validity of 
his title he was to execute a deed to the lands 
claimed under the grant, and in lieu thereof 
take a corresponding amount of public lands 



wlierever lie might find tliein ami elect. The 
suit was accordingly coniinenced in the Circuit 
(^oiirt in San Francisco, and npon trial a decree 
was issued to tiie piaintitl', when it was taken 
on appeal to tiie Supreme Court of tlie I'liited 
States for tiiuU adjudication. Many rumors 
have been rife that Mr. Valentine, haviiiii- ijot 
into court and proven liis claim, was not neces- 
sarily compelled by tlie terms of the act to take 
lien lands, hut might, upon the atHrmance of 
liis case at Washington, come ujion and dispos- 
sess the settlers here. A good deal of talk has 
been made, and a great deal of fear endured by 
our people over these complications. 

'• Finally, however, like all our worldly 
troubles this vexed and complicated question 
has been finally settled by Mr. Valentine giving 
a deed to government through our energetic 
and faithful Senator, Mr. Sargent, as the follow- 
ing dispatches will explain: 

" •WASuiNtiToN, Jan. 5. — Senator Sargent has 
received from T. B. Valentine, of San Fran- 
cisco, to be held in trust, a deed in favoi- of the 
United States, executed by \'alentine and wife, 
conveying the Miranda grant, in Sonoma 
( bounty; the deed to be delivered to the t'om- 
missioners of the (leneral Land Office on affirm- 
ance by the Supreme Court of the judgment 
recently rendered in Valentine's favor by the 
Circuit Court of California in an action autlior- 
ized by Congress. The deed conveys to the 
United States all of A^alentine's interest in said 
grant, and Valentine by the law of last session, 
is to receive land scrip to the same extent on un- 
occupied puldic land. This quiets title in favor 
of purchasers from the Government on thegrant.' 

"'W.\suiNuT()N,Jan.7. — The United Slates Su- 
preme (Jourthavingconfirmed the decision of the 
Circuit Court upholding the validity of the 
Miranda grant, its mandate to that effect was 
sent to California to-day, and the deed executed 
by Valentine conveying all his i-ight and title 
to the United States in trust for the settlers, 
was delivered to the Commissioner of the (len- 
eral Land Office this afternoon. This action 
perfects tlie settlers' title to all lands covered by 

the grant, including the town of Pctaluma. and 
puts an end to all litigation ai\d further uneasi- 
ness in the matter.' 

" AV^e may state also in this connection that 
i>ur fellow-townsman, lion, (ieorge Pearce, met 
Mr. A'alentine on the streets of San Francisco 
on Wednesday, when Valentine tul<l him per- 
sonally that he had executed and delivered the 
deed, thereby confirming the above dispatches. 
All hail to our homes, which are now withuut a 
cloud of uncertainty." 

L.\i:i;.\A UK SAN ANTdNld. 

This land, as will be seen by reference to the 
chapter on grants, was conceded to I'artolenius 
Bojorques, and embraced over 24,000 acres of 
land. Nearly half of this lay in Sonoma 
County, embracing the fertile Two Rock Valley. 
There never was any conflict over the confirma- 
tion of that grant. It passed to final confirma 
tion without let or hindrance. IJojorques %vas 
quite old when the Americans began to come 
in and settle on his grant, lie had eight sons 
and daughters, all grown up and married. To 
each of these he executed a deetl of one-ninth of 
his grant, reserving to himself a ninth. There 
was no partition, bnt father and children alike 
had an undivided ninth of the vast estate. Each 
sold land to the settlers as opportunity offered, 
and at prices nierely nominal. Bnt few of the 
settlers took the precaution to get other than 
the signature of the party from whom they 
purchased to their deed. When the grant was 
all absorbed by such loose-jointed titles, the out- 
come was inevitable. Some had barely title 
enongh to cover their holdings — some had moie 
than enough, and others had not a shadow of 
title. In the early sixties a suit was commenced 
for partition, and over two hundreil, persons 
were parties to the suit. Most of the settlers 
banded themselves together in what was called 
the " Bojorques League" and maile common 
cAuse for an adjustment of title. The suit 
jilayed shuttle-cock back and forth thiough the 
courts for a sjiace of over twenty years. It was 
one of the most tangled skeins of land title tver 



adjudicated by the California courts. It finally 
lendered a conclusion very recently, and may 
he ranked among the things of the past — 
although the " Bojorques League" still has an 
organized existence. 

In dismissing the subject of Spanish grants 
it is in ])lace to say that of all those vast estates, 
there is now only one in the county, the "Cotato 

grant,"' that remains unbroken, the balance 
liaving all been subdivided and sold to settlers. 
Of the original owners of these grants there are 
but few who are now even moderately well otl'; 
and very many are in really straitened circum- 
stances. The manner in which these vast prop- 
erties were dissipated shows how evanescent 
anti Heeting is what the world calls wealth. 

iirsronr of sonoma county. 





, ^^•V^^^V^^^x^<^v.A'^A^•v•^?F^.^A.^•^^A^•^,v^s=g;^Y: 


HasAI.T RimK ASlJK-ilV 



fi 1 1'^i late Dr. AV. W. Oarpenter, wlio was a 
student of science, speaking of tliis soc- 
•^- tion of California said: 
•'The county of Sononialias never Iteen honored 
with a jjeological survey. It is jn-etty evenly 
divided lietween xalley and niountiiin. The 
valleys having formerlv heen suhinertfcd with 
the waters of the ocean, were left upon their 
sulisidenee with a soil of adohe, hut have since 
received a coat of sedimentary deposit of allu- 
vium. The soil of the eastern part of Sonoma 
Valley rests upon a hard-pan of secondary for- 
mation. The sandy loaua comprisinu; the coun- 
try lying hetween Petaluma and the coast is 
modern alluvium. The redwood forests adjacent 
to tlie coast, helong to the second epodi of the 
tertiary period — the miocene of ]V[r. Lyell. The 
soil of the Russian River A' alley largely foi-med 
through glacial inHnence, helongs to the sec- 
onilary period. The mountains are volcanic. 
Trap, or basalt is tlie leading rock, although 
]iorphyry, sienite, granite, slate, ami especially 
carbonate, or magnesian limestone are found. 
The mountain range of basalt dividing the i'et- 
aluma and Sonoma valleys was poured out ot 
the crater of St. Helena and rolling onward, u 
mighty river of molten lava, couletl and hanl- 
ened where we now find it. The streets of San 
Francisco are largely paved with this i-ock. In 
quarrying it small caverns are levealed most 

beautifully lined, ami crystalized with carbonate 
of lime. Notwithstanding that Sonoma is 
classed as an agricultural county, its mineral re- 
sources are varied, and in the near future will 
be a source of great profit. 

•'('<)(//, of not by any means a superior (jiiality, 
has been found near the surface on Sonoma 
l\[ountain not more than five miles from IVt- 
aluma. Practical exjierieuce has upset many 
scientific theories. Science taught that the 
native deposit of gold was exclusively in quart/.. 
The miner reveals some of the richest leads in 
slate rock. Science formerly taught that the 
coal deposit was exclusively in the carboniferous 
formation. The same autliority now teaches 
that it may be found in any geological strata. 
It is true that all the coal thus far found be- 
longs to the tertiary, or secondary formation — 
lignite or brown coal — yet competent observers 
ai'e sanguine in the belief that when sutiicient 
depth shall have heen reached coal of good 
quality and in i-easonal)le abundance will be 

•> J^'trnleum, a sister product, is also known 
to exist in this county. It is a question whether 
oil wells will ever prove as productive in Cali- 
I'ornia as they are in Pennsylvania, for the reason 
that the horizontal wheels of the palaeozoic age 
confines the oil beneath the surface in the latter 
State, while the tertiary rocks of California, 



turned up ^m edge, allow it to lie forced to the 
surface by liydrostatic pressure, and capillary 
attraction, and thus wasted. Hence larj^c quan- 
tities of oil on the surface is an unfavorable in- 
dication for well-boring. 

•' It is for tills reason, and not because oil in 
quantities does not exLst, that the oil business has 
not a promising out-look on the Pacific coast. 

'' ^«ic'^'.<.;7/'c/'. - Quicksilver, j)rincipally in 
the form of cinnaliar, e.xists in this county in 
large quantities. During the (juicksilver ex- 
citement of four or five years ago many rich 
deposits were developed, and worked until the 
in)mense (quantities of the article found in every 
section of the State reduced its price below the 
cost of extraction, which necessarily compelled 
a discontinuance of operations. 

"The composition of ciimabar being 81| 
grains of (piicksilver and 19.^ grains of sul|ihur 
to the hundred, implies the existence of an 
abundance of the latter article also in the county. 
When (quicksilver exists where there is no sul- 
phur it must needs be in its native form. In 
the Rattlesnake mine, above Cloverdale, is the 
only place that it is found in this county, other- 
wise than in the form of cinnabar. In that 
mine the pure glolniles ai-e interspersed thi-ough 
soft tulcose rock. 

" Boriw. -Borate of soda has been found, liut 
not in paying quantities. 

"'Kaolin. -This article is found in this 
county, but kaolin being decomposed feldspar, 
and the pure atmosphere of California not pos- 
sessing the power of decomposing and disin- 
tegrating that article from its native rocks like 
the murky air of England, the (juantity is cor- 
respondingly small. So rapidly does the atmos- 
phere of England decompose feldspar, that 
granite, or sienite, exposed to the air. bec(;mes 
honey-coinbed in a few years. The reader is 
aware that fine porcelain ware is made of finely 
))ulverized (juartz crystals, kaolin, and the ashes 
of ferns — the fern ashes containing enough 
alkali, in the form of bicarbonate of potassa to 
produce the requisite effervescent action, in 
union with the silisic acid of the (piartz. to dc- 

velope the beautiful finish of that elegant ware. 
The kaolin for the immense quantity of porce- 
lain ware manufactured in England is gathered 
in Cornwall, where it is decomposed and disin- 
tegrated from the granite quarries. 

" Hod ami YMoio Cinher (terrd ih xleitJia), 
as well as other ochreous coloring earths of a 
sn|)crior quality, and in great abundance, are 
found in this county. No better material for 
paints exist upon the earth. 

^^ Petrifactlonx are found in this county 
and, in fact, everywhere on the coast — under 
circumstances which upset the accepted theory 
that petrifaction can (inh/ occur by saturating 
the wood in thcriiiHl waters. Petrifaction takes 
place on the surface of the earth — necessarily 
beyond the reach or intiuence of thermal waters. 
The large amount nf silex in the soil mav 
account for this in some instances, as there arc 
many cases in which an excess of that element 
causes wood to petrify instead of carbonize, 
even in the carboniferous formation. Still the 
proposition holds that petrifactions are found 
under circumstances which would seem to im- 
ply that atmospheric conditions mu^L have 
something to do with their transfornialion. 

" Afi/entlferoii,^ (jalena exists in the northern 
part of the county, and in the near future will 
become a paying industry. 

^•Copper. — Some rich deposits of c(qiper-- 
jirincipally in the form of red oxide — have also 
been discovei-ed in the northern section of the 

" I nni — Iron is found nearly everywhere, but 
the UKist valuable yet unearthed are the chromic 
iron oi'es in the mountains near ('lo\erdale. 
where the rock formation is mainly st^rpentine. 
Some of these ores have been in the process of 
extraction for several years with profit to the 
owners. .\ small amount of hematite ii'on \\a» 
found near Santa Ilosa. Magnetic and Titanic 
iron is found in more or less abundance as is 
usual in all volcanic rocks. 

•• I'ixolltex, OolUcx, and Oh.sidiiui aw among 
the pi-odncts found in attestation of the volcanic 



" Boiling i<pruiiis exist in several localities, 
the most noted, and reniarkableof whicli are the 
geysers. These springs are among the most 
wonderful and magnificent displays of nature in 
the world. Notwithstanding that the springs 
are located within close pro.ximity of each other, 
the chemical properties differ much. We have 
not at hand a chemical analysis of these waters, 
init chloritle of sodium (table salt), borate of 
sodium (borax), carbonate of sodium, sulpluu'i 
iron, and sulphate of sodium predominate. 
There is a trace of silica in all of them we 
believe. LittoTi springs and Mark West are 
well known places of resort for pleasure-seekers 
and invalids. 

"Imperfect skeletons of several mastotlonshave 
been found protruding from the l)ank8 of I'eta- 
luma (Jreek, a short distance above the town of 
I'etaluma, where the floods had exposed them 
to view; and one tusk found — and now in a cabi- 
net in the latter city — is ten inches in length. 
They were perhaps mired down while seeking 
water. Their discovery was merely accidental, 
paleontological research never having leceived 
any more attention in the county than its 
kindred sciences. 

Blo(Hhtone ami aytttc are the only valualile 
varieties of the quartz family, so far as we know, 
that have been found in this county. 

Suljihate of lime (gypsum) is found, but in 
comparatively small (juantities to that of the 
carbonate, or magnesian lime." 

As the ijuarries of basalt ])aving blocks in the 
neighborhood of i'etaluma, 8anta llosa and 
Sonoma have become one of Sonoma County's 
profital)le industries, the following from the 
Sonoma County Jonriud of September 25, 1857, 
is of interest: 

>' On the summit of a hill some threc-tjuarters 
of a mile to the south of I'etaluma, a very sing- 
ular ledge of rocks has recently been discovered 
by some persons engaged in (juarrying stone for 
building purposes. The singular structure and 
wonderful uniformity that prevails throughout 
the ledge, is the feature that renders it pecu- 
liarly interesting to the curious. It is well cal- 

culated to impress the mind with the idea of its 
being the work of art. 

"The ledge is composed of regular prismatic 
columns, inclined but a few degrees from the 
perpendicular toward the center of the hill. 
The columns generally have five sides, but we 
observed some that had but four. They are 
usually about twenty inches in thickness, and 
are divided into blocks varying from one to four 
feet in length, which are so closely joined and 
so firmly cemented together that it is (juiteditH- 
cult to separate them. The columns are bound 
to each other by a layer of grayish colored 
cement, about an inch in thickness. The rock 
is very hard, and of a dark color, and belongs to 
that class of rocks denominated basalt by ge- 
ologists. The whole ledge presents the appear- 
ance of a solid structure of masonry, reared, like 
the Jigyptian pyramids, to perpetuate the works 
and memory of man, in defiance of the flight of 
ages. So abundant, indeed, are the appearances 
of design, that we are not surprised that many 
persons have unhesitatingly pronounced it the 
work of art. There is abundant evidence, how- 
ever, tharf; precludes the possibility of such being 
the case. This columnar structure of rocks is 
not unfrequent. It is seen along the margin of 
Snake River, and in the passage of the Columbia 
River through the Cascade Mountains, perpen- 
dicular walls of this columnar structure are 
often seen rising to the height of forty or fifty 
feet. The basaltic columns of Lake Superior, 
Fingal's Cave, in the island of Staft'a, and the 
Giant's Causeway in the north of Ireland, are 
all examples of similar columnar structure. 
Geologists also speak of its occurring quite fre- 
quently west of the Ilocky Mountains. We are 
too incredulous to look upon this singular struc- 
ture as other than the work of the Divine Arclii 
tect, and as such it presents a wide range for 
human thought and study. 

'' The discovery of this ledge of rocks so near 
town, is particularly fortunate for Petaluma. 
The rocks arc easily quarried aiul brought to 
town, but the greatest advantage of all is their 
thorough adaptability to the construction of fire- 


proof Iniildings neither tire nor water affecting 
them in the least. We saw a cliip from one of 
the rocks subjected to fire until it became heated 
to a bright red color, after which it wa.s im- 
mediately thrown into cold water. No chantje 
whatever from its original appearance could be 

In March of 18H8 there was considerable ex- 
citement ill I'etaluma conseijuent upon the un- 
earthing at the head of I'etaluma Creek of the 
fosi^il remains of some animal of large propor- 
tioii^i. In reference to these bones h corres])ond- 
ent of the Ar<jni< under date of March 12th says: 

"To the question, ' AVhat is ItV when ap- 
plied to the jawbone which has excited so much 
curiosity, the following answer is submitted: 

"It is assumed that the bone in question is 
unmistakably a lower jawbone, and from thennm- 
ber and conformation of the teeth, it is not the 
jaw of a hippopotamus, for that animal has six 
grinders on each side of both jaws, also fonr 
incisors above and below, and a canine tooth on 
each side, above and below. Again, it cannot 
be the jaw of a rhinoceros, for that has seven 
grinders on each side of both jaws, and from 
two to four incisors in each jaw. The number 
of grinders in this jaw, the pairs of conical pro- 
jections on the same, the entire absence of in- 
cisors and canine teeth, together with the length 
(22 inches) of the shinbone exhibited, induces 
the writer to believe that it belongs to a narrow- 
toothed mastodon (mastodon angustidens). 
The dimensions of these grinders, seven inches 
in breadth by three inches in thickness, answer 
to the name. The word mastodon is derived 
from two (Treek words, meaning conical-shape 
and tooth. There were two species of mastodons, 
namely: the great mastodon ( M. giganteus) and 
the narrow-toothed mastodon. The last s])ecies 
\\a> one-third less in size than the great masto- 
don, and much lower on the legs. It was not 
unlike the elephant, being furnished with a 
trunk and two huge tusks, and fed upon the 
rank vegetation of the early world. Thi> was, 
probably, a juvenile of about seven years, its 
age lioing determined from the number of pairs 

of conical jioints found on the molar teeth, 
while his height is estimated to have been only 
about eight feet, the estimation being based up- 
on the supposition that the large bone e.xhibited 
last week was a shinbone. The imperfections 
of that bone render its identity somewhat difh- 
cult, still its superior articulations and triangu- 
lar shaft, lead to the belief that it is a tibia. 

"It is hoped that other discoveries will soon be 
made that will throw more light upon this in- 
teresting problem." 

In the Petahiuia Anjus of Feljruary 25,1869, 
ajipears this mention of fossil bones: 

"On Thursday last Messrs. Dickey and (-Jil 
more discovered the skeleti.m of a mastodon on 
Petaluma Creek about two miles north of tlii^ 
city. Portions of a tusk projected from the 
bank where the late storm had washed the dirt 
away. They (jomnienced excavating and have 
removed the dirt from the head which i.- nf 
enormous size. The tusk measures twenty-two 
inches in circumference, and the width of the 
skull is nearly three feet. It is well worth the 
investigation of scientific men. It will be re- 
membered that about a year ago |)ortions of 
undoubtedly the same skeleton were washed out 
at the same locality, and that we published an 
account of the same. Discoveries of fossil re- 
mains have become so common in CaliforniH, 
that they liave almost ceased to excite comment, 
save in scientific circles."' 

Again referring to the unearthing of fossil 
remains, the A/yiis of March 4, 1869, says: 

"Last week we mentioned the fact of the 
discovery of portions of a gigantic skeleton in 
the bank of Petaluma Creek. From Mr. S. li. 
Dickey, one of the discoverers, w'e receive 
further particulars. We have also received let- 
ters from several scientific gentlemen requesting 
information on the subject, which we cheerfully 
give. These bones cannot be a part of those 
found last s])ring, being found fifty yards further 
up the stream, imbedded eight feet deep in 
coarse gravel. They are undoubtedly horns, the 
ii|)per part of the head being found with them. 
The ilimensioiis are: From the lower part of 



the clieek Ikhic to the tip ot' the liurii, 
8 feet; eaxity nl the liraiii. iJ I'eet, making 
I'.t I'oet from ti|i to tip of the horns, which 
measuri'd ~2 ineiies at tlie base. One only was 
t'ounii. hut a eavitv in tlie earth corresponding 
in size plainly showed the former existence of 
another. Two feet ot the point was solid, also 
8 inches of the base; the balance crumbled to 
pieces on exposure. There were two teeth on 
each jaw measuring 11 inches in lentjth, and 3^ 
inches in width. They are solid in the jaw, of 
a darkish color, but resembling ivory in sub- 
stance. The cheek bones are solid, 18 inches in 
length. The lnu-iis shot outward from the head, 
curving to the >ide until within about 18 inches 
of the point, where they turned forward, the 
point being a little in front of the head as if 
for a means of defense. An outside shell simi- 
lar to that upon the horn of the common cow 
covered the horn. If the rest of the skeleton 
bore a proportio'iiate size to the head and horns, 
the animal was indeed a monster. 

The fossil remains found near Tetaluma was 
the subject of discussion by the California 
Academy of Natural Sciences. What those 
scientists thought on the subject, as well as the 
opinion of the I'etaluma editor, appeared in the 
Petahnna Aiyns of Api-il 1, ISi;',), aud is as 
follows : 

"At a lecent meeting of the Califoi'uia Acad- 
emy of Natural Sciences, at ISan Francisco, the 
subject of the recent discovery of the remains 
of the gigantic animal at Petaluma was brought 
up. Mr. Yale said he had been corresponding 
with the -discoverer of the skeleton of the 
mastodon lately found near I'etaluma; the 
bones he understood were being i-enioved, and 
the Academy ought to take some step toward 
preserving the remains. The head had been 
entirely carried away, and other )iorti<uis dis- 
turbed. Mr. Carlton remarked that the aninial 
was said to have been horned, but that which 
was taken for horns was more probably tusks. 
Dr. Cooper said the creature w'as either an ele- 
phant or a mastodon, aud probably the tusk had 
been taken for horns. Mr. Yale said that a 

similar discovery had been made last year in 
the vicinity of SaJi Jose. Dr. Cooper stated that 
Mr. llotimau. a membei' of the society, had ex- 
amined the remains of one of these animals 
which had been discovered in the valley of Saii 
Jose, and that upon its being exposed it cruuj- 
bled to pieces." 

The Ar(jui< said: •' As to the question whether 
the bones found \\:ei'e tusks or horns, we are de- 
cidedly of the oj)iniou that they are horns, as 
they grew from the top of the head, curving 
horizontally, for some distance, when they 
turned to the front as if for a means of defense. 
Mr. Dickey drew for us a diagram of the head, 
showing the position of the root of the horns, 
which was the same as in ordinary cattle. Had 
they been tusks they would have grown from 
another portion of the head." 

The Ar(ju8 of a still later date said : " So- 
noma and adjacent counties ajjpear to be a j)er- 
fect mine of interesting curiosities in the shape 
of petrifaction belonging to both the animal and 
vegetable kingdom. What is the most re- 
markable in relation thereto is the fact that 
these relics of liygone ages are often found in 
the alluvial deposits so near the surface of 
the earth as to frequently be revealed by the 
plow. We have before us a petrifaction re- 
cently plowed up on the ranch of Patrick J.,aw- 
lor on the Sonoma Mountains, four or five 
miles from this city, and at an altitude of 
several huiulred feet ai)ove the valley or tide 
level. The specimen is the head and neck {vs 
fei/iorls) of the fumur or thigh Iione of a 
mastadon or some other mammoth animal be- 
longing to the pre-historic period. It is a com- 
plete petrifaction nearly six inches in diameter 
across the crown and alioiit seven inches from 
apex of crown to base. It is virtually the head 
(os feinor'n<\ with not more than two or three 
inches of the neck remaining. Looking at its 
crown it has very much the resemblance of the 
somewhat round skull of a nearly grown person. 
It weighs eight pounds. We have seen several 
specimens of large bones found in tliis vicinity 
but this is the most perfect petrifaction of the 


kind that has come under our notice. As this 
was found so near the surface we doubt not that 
witli but little labor other bones belonging to 
tiie same monster animal of which this is a part, 
can be found.'' 

One of the wondrous freaks of Nature in this 
country and one which is well worth a visit by 
every one who cares for such sights, is the ])et- 
ritied forest of Sonoma. Away back in some 
pre-historic age, Mount St. Helena was an act- 
ive volcano and threw out vast bodies of scoria 
from its heart of living tire. Some of this scoria 
fell upon a forest of large trees and in this mass 
as if cast in a mold we have great bodies of 
vegetable matter while retaining their shape and 
fibre turned in lapse of ages into stone. These 
trees of stone lie in two tiers in a parallelogram 
a mile in extent from east to west and about a 
quarter of a mile from north to south, the roots 
of these prostrate trees being toward the north. 
They lie at an angle of from live to thirty-live 
degrees, the butts being on the lower ground. 
When discovered they were almost covered with 
volcanic ashes or tnta, and the ground sparkled 
with atoms of silica. IMucli of llic brush has 
been cleared awav and the loose superincum- 

bent deposit removed principally liy Charles 
Evans, "Petrified Charley," a Swede, who seeing 
its value for exhibition purposes, enclosed the 
ground in 1871, and charged a small fee to vis- 
itors to requite him for his labor in excavating 
around the trees. The largest tree thus ex- 
cavated is eleven feet in diameter at the butt 
and sixty-eight feet in length, but is broken 
into several pieces. Much laljor has been spent 
on the place in improvements until the thou.sands, 
who have visited the place pronounced it not 
only one of the great wonders of the world, but 
"one of the prettiest places" in the hills of 
California. The forest can be reached and ex- 
amined in a day by taking the Santa Rosa and 
Calistoga stage, it being only sixteen miles from 
the former place. Visitors to the Geysers liy 
the Cloverdale route, after they have exhausted 
the curiosities of that wonderful region, with its 
curious productions of one of Nature's under- 
ground laboratories, can reach the petrilied 
forest by taking the stage which runs between 
the Geysers and Calistoga. No Eastern or 
European tourist can truly say that he " has 
done California" unless he has seen the petrified 


Ranchos MrsALAcoN — CoTATE — GuiLicos — Canada ue Pogolome — Llaxo 1)E Santa Rosa — El 


— Laguna de Sax Antonio — Aeeoyo de San Antonio — Senode Mai.comes — Roblar de la 
MiSEKA — Canada de la Ioniva — Estero Ameeicano — Geeman — Petaluma — San Migvel 
— TzABAfo — Caslamayome — Cabeza de Santa Rosa — Agca CALfi;NTi:. 

tT will be of interest to future generations to 
know what value the Mexican government 
'■^ placed upon its public domain. When the 
reader of the next century scans these grants as 
listed below, and sees that these pioneer colon- 
ists of California asked for, and got land by the 
league, he will naturally conclude that the first 
half of the nineteenth century must have been 
a period of regal splendor here. But such was 
not the fact. The people were land and stock 
poor. They had but few of either the comforts 
or conveniences of civilized life, and could not 
stand the liglit of a higher civilization. Like 
the Indians, they have passed on. 

The United States, Appellants vs. Johnson 
Hokrell, claiming the Rancho Musalacon. — ■ 
This was a claim for two leagues of land in 
Sonoma County, situated in Cloverdale Town- 
ship, confirmed by the Board of Commissioners 
and appealed by the United States. The claim- 
ants in this case produced the original grant 
made by Governor Pio Pico to Francisco Ber- 
ryesa on May 2. 1846. The record of the 
approval of the Departmental Assembly was 
dated June 3, 1846. No doubt is suggested as 
to the genuineness of any of these documents. 
The grantee appears within the year prescribed 

by the grant to have entered into possession ut 
his land and to have resided in a wooden house 
built by him upon it. He also placed upon it 
cattle, and commenced its cultivation. There 
is no difficulty in identifying and locating the 
lauds by means of the description in the grant 
and the inaj) to which it refers, and which is 
contained in the expedient. The commis- 
sioners in their opinion on this case observe 
" that although the title was executed hut a 
short time before the American occupation, it 
appears to have been made in good faith and with 
due regard to the requirements of the law." 
The decision of the board was attirmed and a de- 
cree entered accordingly. On page 80 of the 
appendix we find: "Johnson Horrell. etui., 
claimants for Rincon de Musalacon, two S(juare 
leagues, in Mendocino and Sonoma counties, 
granted May 2, 1846, by Pio Pico to Francisco 
Berryesa, claim filed February 11, 1853, con- 
firmed by the Commission December 12, 1854, 
by the District Court, January 14, 1856, and 
appeal dismissed April 2, 1857. containing 
8,866.88 acres. 

The United States, Appellants rs. Thuma- 
S. Page, claiming the Rancho Votate. — This 
claim which was for four leagues of land in 


Suiioiiia Cuunty situated partly in Vallejo and 
partly in Santa Rosa townships, was cojilirmed 
l>y tlie Board, and appealed by the United 
States. Ill this case the original j^rant was not 
produced, hut its existence and loss are proved 
beyond all reasonalde doubt by the depositions 
uf the witnesses and tiie pioduction of the expe- 
diente from the archives containing the usual 
documents, and also a certificate of approval 
by the departmental assembly. The grant is 
also mentioned in the index of grants by the 
former government. j\o doubt was entertained 
liy the commissioners as to the sutticiency of the 
proofs on these points, nor is any objection 
raised in the District Court in regard to them. 
The evidence discloses a full compliance with 
the conditions, and the description in the grant 
and map determined its locality. No objection 
is raised on the part of the appellants to the 
confirmation of this claim, and on looking over 
the transcript the court did not perceive any 
reason to doubt its entire validity, I'age 48 of 
the appeiuiix tells us: "Thomas S. Page, 
claimant for Cotate, four s<piare leagues in 
Sonoma County, granted July 7, 1844, by Man- 
uel Micheltorena to Juan Castanida; claim filed 
September 21, 1852, confirmed by the Commis- 
sion August 27, 1854, by the District Court 
January 14, 1856, and appeal dismissed March 
21, 1857, containing 17.238.60 acres. Pat- 

Thk Uniteo States, Appellant)! i»i. J lan 
Wilson, claiming the liaiicho Guilico.s. —Claim 
for a tract of land, supposed to contain four 
leagues, in Sonoma County, situated in Santa 
Rosa and Sonoma townships, confirmed by the 
Hoard and appealed by the United States. The 
claim in this case was confirmed by the Board. 
iS'o doubt is suggested as to the authenticity of 
the dociiniciitary evidence submitted, and the 
only point upon winch a (piestion was made 
was whether the grant anil map accompanying 
it sutticiently indicate the granted laiui — there 
being no designation of the quantity or nuni- 
bef of leagues in the original grant. The grant 
bears date November 13, 1839, l)ut was not 

issued until the 20th. The signature of the 
Governor to the original grant is fully proved, 
and the expediente produced fnun the archives 
containing the proceedings upon the petition, 
the various orders of the Governor, and the 
decree of approval by the Departmental Assem- 
bly. The requirements of the regulations of 
1828 seem to have been substantially complied 
with, and the land cultivated and inhabited 
within reasonable time. AVith regard to locat- 
ing the ti'act, there seems to be no difficulty. 
The grant describes it as the parcel of land 
known by the name of " Guilicos,'' within the 
boundaries shown in the map which accom- 
panies tlie petition. On inspecting the map, 
those boundaries appear to be indicated with 
tolerable certainty, and it is presumed that by 
means of it no practical difficulty will be found 
by the surveyor in laying off to the claimant 
his land. A decree of confirmation must there- 
fore be entered. Page 5 of the appendix says: 
"Juan Wilson, claimant for Guilicos, four 
square leagues, in Sonoma County, granted 
November 13, 1839, by Juan B. Alvaralo to 
John Wilson; claim filed P'ebruary 10, 1852, 
confirmed by the Commissioner Deceember 27, 
1853, by the District Court March 3, 1856, and 
appeal dismissed December 8, 1856, containing 
18,833.86 acres. Patented." 
j TuE United States, Appellants m. Antonia 
j (Iazakes, claiviiiKj the Hancho Canada <1e Po- 
I (jolome. — "Claim for two leagues of land situ- 
: ated in Marin (and Sonoma] County, in Borlega 
j and Analy townships, confirmed by the Boai'd, 
and appealed by the United States."' It ap- 
pears from the documentary evidence in thi.s 
case that James Dawson, the deceased husband 
of the present claimant, on December 27, 1837, 
presented a petition to the commanding Gen- 
eral, setting forth that he, together with Mc- 
intosh and one James Black, had obtained a 
grant for the place called " La Punta del Este- 
rodel Americano;" that he had built a house 
upon it, and planted a large vineyard and an 
orchard with more than 200 fruit trees, and had 
placed upon it cattle, horses, etc. He further 

Hisroltr OF HOl^OMA COUNTY. 

represented that the grant had been obtained in 
partnership with the two persons mentioned, but 
that Mcintosh was attempting to eject him. 
lie, therefore, prayed that he might be protected 
in his rights. The petitioner, though he had 
long resided in the country, does not appear to 
have been naturalized at the time of making 
this petition, but the documents show that let- 
ters of naturalization were obtained by him on 
December 29, 1841. On September 18, 1843, 
he renewed his application to be put in posses- 
sion of the land, and the Governor, U> wliom 
this second petition was addressed, referred it 
to the Secretary for information. By the reports 
of that officer it appears, that althougli tlie pe- 
tition for the land had been in tlie name of the 
three applicants, yet the grant had been made 
to Mcintosh solely, as he alone possessed the 
essential requisite of being a naturalized Me.xi- 
can citizen. The Secretary, therefore, suggests 
that, although the request of Dawson cannot be 
granted, yet, inasmuch as he had since been 
naturalized, and had married a Mexican woman, 
his application for another piece of land should 
be favorably considered. The Governor, in ac- 
cordance with this suggestion, on October 21, 
1843, ordered the proceedings to be returned to 
the party interested for his information. It is 
presumed that it was in this way that these 
documents came into the parties' possession, and 
are not now found among the archives. It does 
not appear that Dawson petitioned for a grant 
before liis death, which occurred very soon after; 
but a grant is produced in which it is recited 
that his widow, the present claimant, has 
sufficiently proved the right of her deceased 
husband to petition for the land which she then 
occupied, and in consideration of the great 
losses sustained by her husband on separating 
himself from Mcintosh, and the favorable re- 
ports, etc., the Governor grants to her the land 
solicited, known by the name of • Canada de 
Pogolome,' to the extent of two square leagues, 
a little more or less. It is this land which is 
now claimed by the appellee. This grant was 
issued on February 12, 1844, and it appears to 

have been approved by the Departmental As- 
sembly on September 26, 1845. The genuine- 
ness of the above documents is fully proved, and 
it is also shown that the land was long occu- 
pied by Dawson before his decease, and since 
then by the present claimant. Although the 
expediente for this grant is not among the 
archives, yet, as observed by the commission- 
ers, 'its notoriety, the long possession, and the 
circumstances surrounding it, relieves it from 
any suspicion of fraud or forgery.' The boun- 
daries, as well as the extent of the land, are 
specified in the grant, and indicated with evi- 
dent precision on the map to which it refers. 
We think, therefore, that the claim is valid and 
ought to be confirmed."' Of this case, page 3, 
of the appendix, says: " Antonia Cazares, 
claimant for Canada de Pogolome, two square 
leagues, in Marin and Sonoma Counties, granted 
February 12, 1844, by Manuel Micheltorena to 
Antonia Cazares; claim filed February 3, 1852, 
confirmed by the commission April 11, 1853, 
by the District Court, March 24, 1856, and ap- 
peal dismissed December 8, 1856, containing 
8,780.81 acres.'" 

The United States, AppeUaiits vs. Joaquin 
Carrillo, claiming the Raiicho Llano de Santa. 
Rosa. — Claim for three leagues of land in So- 
noma County (situated in Santa Rosa and 
Analy Townships), confirmed by the board and 
appealed by the United States. " It appears 
from the expediente in this case that the claim- 
ant, on June 22, 1843, petitioned Governor 
Micheltorena for a grant of land on the plain 
adjoining the rancho of his mother. The Gov- 
ernor, however, suspended action on the subject, 
as no judicial measurement had been made of 
the adjoining ranchos, and the extent of the 
sobrante or surplus reserved was not ascer- 
tained." " On March 12, 1844, the claimant 
applied to the district for permission to sow, 
and build a house upon the laud, during the 
pendency of his application to the Governor for 
a grant. The Alcalde granted him leave to sow 
the land, holding himself responsible to the 
owners of the land if there should be any dam- 



age, but he refused him permission to build the 
house. On March 26, 1844, the claimant re- 
newed his application to the Governor, stating 
tliat his petition still remained unacted upon on 
account of tlie neglect of the colindantes or ad- 
joining proprietors to have their lands meas- 
ured according to law. The secretary to whom 
this second petition was referred, reported favor- 
ably to it, and advised a grant of not more than 
three square leagues, subject to the measure- 
ments of the adjoining proprietors. In accord- 
ance with this report the grant now produced 
was made; and it appears in evidence that he 
built, first, a small house and afterward a very 
large one on the land, on which he has contin- 
ued ever since to reside. He has also cultivated 
from 100 to 300 acres of it with corn, barley, 
wheat, etc. The handwriting of the grant in 
the possession of the party is fully proved, and 
there seems no reason to doubt the entire 
validity of this claim. The map and the desig- 
nation in the grant of the colindantes or con- 
teminous owners abundantly show the locality 
of the tract granted; and the claimant's title to 
the land solicited must be confirmed to the ex- 
tent of three leagues, subject to the measui'e- 
inents of the land previously granted to the 
colindantes. The decision of the board must, 
therefore, be affirmed." In reference to this 
case we find, on page 35 of the appendix, 
" .loaquin Carrillo, claimant for Llano de Santa 
liosa, three square leagues in Sonoma County, 
granted March 29, 1844, by Manuel Michelto- 
rena to Marcus West; claim tiled May 31, 
1852, contirmed by the commission ()ctol)er21, 
1><53. by the District Court, March 24, 1850, 
and appeal dismissed January 13, 1857, con- 
taining 13,33ti.55 acres.'' 

Tmk U.mtki) i^,Ajj/H'//(//it.n,'\s. Jim.N B. li. 
('ooPKK, rlaihiintj the Rancho El Molina. — 
Claim four leagues of land in Sonoma County 
(situated in Santa Rosa, Analy and Russian 
River townships), contirmed by the board and 
appealed by the United States. The claimant 
in this case, a naturalized Mexican citizen, ob- 
tuiiieii in December, 1833, a grant from the 

Governor for the place called Rio Ayoska. 
This grant was approved by the Departmental 
Assembly, and certificate of its confirmation de- 
livered to the grantee, as appears from the 
testimony, and the expediente filed in the case. 
" He subsequently appealed to the Governoi' 
for an exchange of the land granted for that 
now claimed by him. Rroceedings on this ap- 
plication were commenced by Governor 
Figueroa, and the new grant was made as 
desired by the petitioner, by Governor Gutierrez, 
on February 24, 1836. These facts are proved 
by the testimony of Harnell and Yallejo, whose 
evidence is corroborated by the expediente on 
file in the archives. The genuineness of the 
grant is fully established. Previously to ob- 
taining the last grant, the claimant had gone 
into possession of the tract solicited, and had 
bnilt a house upon it. He also had, as early as 
1834, placed a considerable number of cattle 
upon it and had commenced the erection of a 
mill, upon which he expended more than ten 
thousand dollars. He also erected a blacksmith 
shop, and for two years had employed upon his 
rancho men to the average number of sixteen, 
and sometimes thirty or forty Indians. It is 
clear that the grantee fulfilled the conditions 
and carried out the objects of the colonization 
laws to an extent very unusual in the then con- 
dition of the country. AVith regard to the 
location of the land, it appears from the testi- 
mony of O'Farrell and other witnesses who are 
acquainted with the adjacent country, that there 
is no difficulty in ascertaining its locality by 
means of the diseou which accompanies the 
grant. O'Farrell, who had long been a surveyor 
under the Mexicans, testifies that he has, by 
means of the grant and the diseon, made a sur- 
vey of the land, and that it contains, as surveyed 
by him, only the quantity specified in the grant. 
The claim was held to be valid by the Moard. 
No objections to it are suggested on the part of 
the United States, aiul we are of opinion that 
the decision of the board should be affirmed." 
Page 27 of the appendix, in regard to this grant, 
remarks: -'John 1!. R. Cooper claimant for El 



Molino or Rio Ayoska, ten and one-half square 
leagues in Sonoma County, granted December 
81, 1833, by Jose Figueroa, February 24, 1880, 
by Nicholas Gutierrez, to J. IJ. R. Cooper; 
claim filed April 20, 1852, confirmed by the 
commission November 14, 1854, by the District 
CJourt, March 24, 1866, and appeal dismissed 
December 15, 1856, containing 17,892.42 acres. 
Patented. " 

Thk United "Atktyis, AppeUants vs. Jacob i'. 
Lkese, ehimhig the Rancho IhileMca. — Claim 
for live leagues of land in Sonoma County (sit- 
uated in Sonoma Township), confirmed by the 
Board and appealed by the United States. 
"The claimant in this case obtained on October 
21, 1841, a grant from Manuel Jiineno, acting 
Governor of California, for two scjuai-e leagues 
of land as designated on the map which accom- 
panied his petition. Juridicia! possession was 
given of the tract as delineated on the map, but 
the extent of land measured to iiim largel}- ex- 
ceeded the quantity mentioned in the grant. 
He thereupon petitioned for an augmentation 
and July (5, 1844, he obtaineil from (governor 
Micheltorena an additi<inal grant for three and 
one-half leagues, making in all five leagues and 
a half The proofs show that as early as 1839 
tlie land was occupied and u house built upon 
it. The grantee also placed tiiere cattle and 
horses, and cultivated about two hundred acres 
of land. He has ever since continued to occupy 
it. The authenticity of the grant is shown by 
])ror)f (jf the genuineness of the signatures, and 
the production of the expediente fnim the 
archives of the former government. The claim 
was confirmed by the Board and no objections 
to it are suggested in this court. A decree of 
confirmation must therefore be entered." We 
find on piige 23 of the appendix the following: 
"Jacob P. Leese, claimant for Huichaca, two 
square leagues in Sonoma County, granted Octo- 
26, 1841, by Manuel Jimeno, and July 6, 1844, 
by Manuel Micheltorena, to J. P. Leese; claim 
filed April 6, 1852, confirmed by the commis- 
sion April 18, 1853, by the District Court, 
April 22, 1856, and appeal dismissed Decem- 

ber 24, 1856, containing 18,704.04 acres. 

Mariano G. A', claiming the Rancho 

Ynhipa i'.<i. THK Umtei) States. — Claim for 
three leagues of land in Sonoma County, re- 
jected by the Board, and appealed by the claim- 
ant. "The claimant iu this case has produced 
the original grant by Governor IVricheltorena to 

Miguel Alvarado, dated November 23, 1844. 
This grant was apjiroved \)y the Departmental 
Assembly on February 18, 1845. The genuine 
ness of the grant is fully proved, and the occupa- 
tion of and the cultivation of a portion of the 
land established by testimony. The claim was 
rejected by the Board for the reason that the 
tract granted was not segregated from the public 
domain. The land is described in the grant as 
known by the name of Yulupa, and bounded by 
the ranchos of Petaluma, Cotate, Santa Rosa 
and Los Guilicos. Jasper O'Farrell, who was a 
government surveyor in 1847 and 1848, and as 
such surveyed raiudios in the vicinity, states 
that he knows tiie latter well, and that the 
Rancho Yulupa is situated between them ; that 
it is near tlie town of Sonoma, and can easily be 
segregated from the adjoining ranchos. Julio 
Carrillo testifies that he has known the lands of 
Yulupa since 1838; and that it lies between the 
ranchos of ' Petaluma,' ' (lotate,' ■ Santa Rosa,' 
and ' Guilicos;' that it contains about three 
leagues and is well known. Tiie witness further 
states that Alvarado built a house on the land, 
and occupied it with cattle and horses in 1843 
or 1844. The evidence of these and other wit- 
nesses whose testimony has been taken in this 
court on appeal, sufticiently, in my (>])inion, 
establishes the identity of the land granted to 
Alvarado, and removes tiie only objection urged 
to a confirmation of the claim. A decree ot 
confirmation must therefore be entered. On 
page 35 of the appendix it is recorded: " Mari- 
ano Guadalupe Vallejo claimant for Yulupa, 
three square leagues, in Sonoma Count}', granted 
November 23, 1844, by Manuel ^[icheltorena to 
Miguel Alvarado; claim filed May 31, 1.S52, re- 
jected by the commission May 10, 1854 ; con- 



firmed by the District Court January 21, 1857; 
decree reversed liy the ITiiited States Supreme 
Court and cause remanded for further evidence." 
So far unfortunately do tliese cases go, we are, 
therefore, constrained to proceed to what in- 
formation can be gleaned out of the appendix, 
from whicli tlie following are taken: 

Archiljald A. Ritchie, claimant for Guenoea, 
six square leagues, in Sonoma County, granted 
May 8, 1845, by Pio Pico to George Kock; 
claim filed January 27, 1852; confirmed by the 
commission December IS, 1852, and appeal 
dismissed December 15, 1856; containing 21,- 
220.03 acres. Vide page 3, Appendix Hoff- 
man's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Josefa Carrillo Fitch et al., claimants for 
Sotoyome, eight square leagues, in Sonoma and 
Mendocino counties (situated in Mendocino and 
Russian River townships), granted September 
28, 1841, by Manuel Micheltorena to Henry D. 
Fitch; claim filed February 2, 1852, confirmed 
by the commission April 18, 1853, and appeal 
dismissed November 17, 1857; containing 48,- 
836.51 acres. Patented. Vide page 3, Ap- 
pendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Stephen Smith and Maiiuela T. Curtis, 
claimants for Bodega, eight square leagues in 
Sonoma County (situated in I'odega and Ocean 
townships), granted September 14, 1844, by 
Manuel Micheltorena to Stephen Smith; claim 
filed February 9, 1852, confirmed by the com- 
mission P'ebruary 21, 1853, by the District 
Court July 5, 1855, and appeal dismissed April 
5, 1857; containing 35,787.53 acres. Patented. 
\'ide jiage 4, App. Hofi'inan's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Ste])hen Smith, claimant for lUucher, six 
square leagues in Sonoma C'ounty (situated in 
Analy Township), granted October 14, 1844, by 
Manuel Micheltorena to Juan Vioget; claim 
filed February 9, 1852; confirmed by the com- 
mission ( )ctober 31, 1854, by the District Court 
January 21), 1857, and a])peal dismissed Novem- 
ber 24, 1856; containing 22,976.66 acres. Vide 
page 4, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Archibald A. Ritchie and Paul S. P'orbes, 
flairiiant^ for (Jallayome, three square leagues in 

Sonoma County granted January 17, 1845, by 
Manuel Micheltorena to Robert F. Ridley ; 
claim filed February 12, 1852; confirmed by the 
commission December 22, 1852, and appeal 
dismissed December 8, 1856; containing 8,- 
241.74 acres. V^ide page 6, Appendix Hoff- 
man's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Manuel Torres, claimant for Muniz, four 
square leagues in Mendocino County (now 
Sonoma, situated in Ocean and Salt Point town- 
ships), granted December 4, 1845, by Pio Pico 
to Manuel Torres; claim tiled February 17, 
1852; confirmed by the commission December 
27, 1853; by the District Court, October 17, 
1855, and appeal dismissed May 7, 1857, con- 
taining 17,760.75 acres. Patented. Vide page 
7, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Bartolome J)OJorquez, claimant for Laguna 
de San Antonio, six square leagues in Marin 
County (a great part in Sonoma County, Pet- 
aluma Township), granted November 5, 1845, 
by Pio Pico to B. Bojorquez; claim filed Feb- 
ruary 17, 1852; confirmed by the commission 
October 12, 1853; by the District Court Septem- 
ber 10, 1855, and appeal dismissed November 
24, 1856, containing 24,903.42 acres. Vide 
page 7, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Thomas !>. Valentine, claimant for Arroyo 
de San Antonio, three square leagues in Marin 
and Sonoma counties, part in Petaluma Town- 
ship, and embracing the city of Petaluma. 
Granted October 8, 1844, by Manuel Michel- 
torena to Juan Miranda. Claim filed February 
17, 1852, and discontinued February 6, 1855. 
The land was then eutei'ed by settlers as gov- 
ernment land, and the lots in Petaluma were 
entered under the "Town Site liill." \'alen- 
tine, by special act of Congress in 1873, got his 
claim reinstated before the courts, conditioiu-d 
that if he made good his claim to the Arroyo de 
San Antonio grant, he would not disturb the 
title of the settlers on the grant, but accept 
from the government " lien scrip," which could 
be located on government land elsewhere. Valen ■ 
tinereceived a confirmation of his grant, accepted 
his lien scriii in 1S74, ami so the matter ended. 



Jose de los Santos Berryesa, for Seno de 
Malaconies or Moristal y Plan de Agna Cali- 
ente, four leagues in Sonoma County (situated 
in Knight's Valley Township), granted October 
14, 1843, hy Manuel Miciieltorena to J. de los 
Santos Berryesa; claim filed February 20, 1852; 
confirmed by the commission June 27, 1854; 
by the District Court December 24, 1850, and 
appeal dismissed November 24, 1856, contain- 
ing 12,540.22 acres. Vide page 9, Appendi.x 
Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Lovett P. Rockwell and Thomas P. Knight, 
claimants for portion of Malacoines or ISIoristal, 
No. 58, two square leagues in Sonoma County 
(situated in Knight's Valley Township), granted 
October 14, 1843, by flannel Micheltorena to 
Jose de los Santos Berryesa; claim filed Feb- 
ruai-y 20, 1852; confirmed by the commission 
August 29, 185+, and ajipeal di.<missed Novem- 
ber 24, 1850, containing 8,328.85 acres. Vide 
page 9, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

David Wright ef al., claimant for Roblar de 
la Miseria, fonr scpiare leagues in Sonoma 
County (situated in PetalumaTownship), granted 
November 21, 1845, by Pio Pico to Juan Ne- 
pomasena Padillo; claim filed February 24, 
1852; confirmed by the commission February 
14, 1853; l)y the District Court September 10. 
1855, and appeal dismissed December 8, 1856, 
containing 1G,S87.45 acres. Patented. Vide 
page 10, Appendix Ilotfmau's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Jasper O'Farrell, claimant for Canada de la 
Jonive, two square leagues in Sonoma County 
(situated in Analy and Bodega Townships), 
granted February 5, 1845, bj' Pio Pico to James 
Black; claim filed l\[arch 2, 1852; confirmed 
by the commission April 18, 1853; by the Dis- 
trict Court July 16, 1855, and appeal dismissed 
December 22, 1856, containing 10.786.51 acres. 
Patented. Vide page 12, A])pendi\- llotfman's 
Reports, Vol. 1. 

M. G. Vallejo, claimant for lot 150 by 130 
varas, in Sonoma City, granted July 5, 1635, 
by Jose Figueroa to M. G. Vallejo; claim filed 
March 30, 1852; confirmed by the commission 
January 17, 1854, by the District Court Feb 

ruary 18, 1856, and appeal dismissed February 
23, 1857; containing 3.81 acres. Vide page 19, 
Appendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. The 
patent for this property is on record. 

Jaspar O'Farrell, claimant for Estero Ameri- 
cano, two square leagues in Sonoma County (sit- 
uated in Bodega Township), gi-anted September 
4, 1839, by Manuel Jimeno to Edward Manuel 
Mcintosh; claim filed March 30, 1852; confirmed 
by the commission April 11, 1853, and appeal 
dismissed February 2, 1857; containing 8,849.- 
13 acres. Patented. Vide page 19. Appendix 
Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Charles Mayer et al., claimant for German, 
five square leagues in Mendocino County (now 
Sonoma County, and situated in Salt Point 
Township), granted April 8, 1846, by Pio Pico 
to Ernest Rufus; claim filed April 27, 1852, 
confirmed by the commis.^ion December 22, 
1852, by the District Court, September 10, 
1855, and by the United States Supreme Court; 
containing 17,580.01 acres. Vide page 28, Ap- 
pendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Mayor and Common Council of Sonoma, 
claimant for Pueblo of Sonoma, four square 
leagues, granted .June 24, 1835, by M. G. Val- 
lejo to Pueblo of Sonoma; claim filed May 21, 
1852, and confirmed by the commission Jan- 
nary 25, 185(5. Vide page 33, Apperulix Hoff- 
man's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, claimant for 
Petaluma, ten square leagues, in Sonoma 
County (situated in Vallejo and Sonoma town- 
ships), granted October 22, 1843, by Manuel 
Micheltorena to M. G. Vallejo (grant), and five 
square leagues, June 22, 1844, by Manual 
Micheltorena to ^I. (t. Vallejo (sale by the gov- 
ernment); clain: filed Maj' 31. 1852. confirmed 
by the commission May 22, 1855, by the Dis- 
trict Court, March 16, 1857. and appeal dis- 
missed July 3. 1857; containing 66,622.17 
aci-es. Vide page 35, ApjitMidix llotfman's Re- 
ports, \i<\. 1. Patented. 

Guadalupe Vasqnez de West et al., claimant 
for San Miguel, six square leagues, in Sonoma 
I'uunty (situated in Sautu Rosa Tuwuship), 


granted November 2, 1840, by Juau B. Alvara- 
do, and October 14, 1844, by Manuel Michel- 
torena to Marcus West, claim tiled May 31, 
1852, rejected by the commission April 24, 
1855, confirmed by the District Court, June 2, 
1857, and decree confirmed by the United States 
Supreme Court tor one leagne and a half. Vide 
page 35, Apjiendix lloti'nuin's Reports, Vol. 1. 
J. Jesus et al., heirs of J. G. Pena, claim- 
ants for Tzabaco, four square leagues, in 
Sonoma (!onnty (situated in Medocino and 
Washington townships), granted October 14, 

1843, by Manuel Micheltorena to Jose German 
Pena; claim filed August 5, 1852, confirmed 
by tlie commission June 26, 1855, l»y the Dis- 
trict Court, March 9, 1857; and appeal dis- 
missed April 2, 1857; containing 15,439.32 
acres. Patented. Vide page 41, Appendix 
Hotiman's Report's, Vol. I. 

William P'orbs, claimant for La Laguna de 
los Crentiles or Caslamayome, eight square 
leagues in Sonoma County (situated in CMover- 
dale and Washington townships), granted 
March 20, 1844, by Manuel Micheltorena to 
Eugenio Montenegro; claim filed September 7, 
1852, and rejected by the commission Septem- 
ber 26, 1854. Vide page 45, Appendix llofl:'- 
man's Report, Vol. 1. 

John Hendly et al., claimants for Llano de 
Santa Rosa, one square league in Sonoma 
County (situated in Santa Rosa Township), 
granted March 20, 1844, by Manuel Micliel- 
torena to Joaquin Carrillo; claim filed Decem- 
ber 24, 1852, rejected by the commission 
January 23, 1855, and aj)peal dismissed for 
failure of prosecution April 21, 1856. Vide 
page 68, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Jacob P. Leese, claimant for Lac, 1,000 varas 
square, in Sonoma County, granted July 25, 

1844, by Manuel Micheltorena to Damaso Rod- 
riguez; claim filed February 21, 1853, confii-med 
by the commission December 12, 1854, and by 
the District Court December 28, 1857, and ap- 
peal dismissed December 28, 1857. A^ide page 
84, Appendix llottnuin'a Reports, \'ol. 1. 

Julio Carrillo, claimant for part of Cabeza de 
Santa Rosa, in Sonoma County (situated in 
Santa Rosa Township), granted September 30, 
1841, by Manuel Jimeno to Maria Ygnaeia 
Lopez; claim filed Feb. 28, 1853, confirmed by 
the commisson April 4, 1854; by the District 
Court, March 2, 1857, and appeal dismissed 
March 27, 1857; containing 4,500.42 acres. 
Vide 88, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Jabob R. Mayer ef al., claimants for part pf 
Cabeza de Santa Rosa, in Sonoma County (sit- 
uated in Santa Rosa Township), granted Septem- 
ber 30, 1853; confirmed by the commission April 
4, 1854, by District Court March 2, 1857, and 
appeal dismissed March 27, 1857; containing 
1,484.82 acres. Vide page 88, Appendix Hoff- 
man's Reports, Vol. 1. 

James Eldredge, claimant for part of Caabez 
de Santa Rosa, in Sonoma County, situated in 
Santa Rosa Township); granted September 30, 
1841, by Manuel Jimeno to Maria Ygnaeia 
Lopez; claim filed February 28, 1853; con- 
firmed by the commission April 4, 1854; by 
the District Court March 2, 1857, and appeal 
dismissed March 27, 1857; containing 1,667.68 
acres. Vide page 88, Appendix Hofi'man's 
Reports, Vol. 1. 

F^elicidad Carrillo, claimant for part of ( 'abeza 
de Santa Rosa, in Sonoma County (situated in 
Santa Rosa Township); granted September 30. 
1841, by Manuel Jimeno to Maria Ygnaeia 
Lopez; claim filed February 28, 1853; coiifirmed 
by the commission April 4, 1854, and by the 
District Court March 2, 1857. Vide page 88, 
Appendix Hoffman's Reports, \o\. 1. 

Juan de Jesus Mallagh, claimant for part of 
Cabeza de Santa Rosa, in Sonoma County (situ- 
ated in Santa Rosa Township); granted Sep- 
tember 30, 1841, by Manuel Jimeno to Maria 
Ygnaeia Lopez; claim filed February 28. 1853; 
confirmed by the commission April 4, 1854, 
and by the District Court March 2. 1857, and 
apjieal dismissed March 27, 1857; containing 
25<').1(^) acres. \'ide page 8S, Appendix IJoH' 
maiTs Ki"pi>rts, Vol. 1. 



Martin E. Cook et al., claimants for part of 
Maiacoines or Moristal, two miles square in 
Sonoma (,'onutj (situated in Knight's Valley 
'rownship); granted October, 1843, by Manuel 
Miclieltorena to Jose los Santos I'erryesa; claim 
tiled February 28, 1853; confirmed by the com- 
mission August 7, 1855, and appeal dismissed 
April It), 1857; containing 2,559.94 acres. 
Patented. Vide page 90, Appendix lloft'man's 
lieports. Vol. 1. 

John Henley, claimant for part of Cabeza de 
Santa Rosa, one mile square in Sonoma County 
(situated in Santa Rosa Township); granted 
September 30, 1841, l)y ^lanuel Jijneno to 
Maria "^'gnacia Lopez; claim tiled February 28, 
1853; confirmed by the commission December 
19. 1854; by the District Court March 2, 1857, 
and appeal dismissed March 27, 1857; con- 
taining 640.19 acres. Vide page 90, Appendix 
Hoffman's Report.s, \o\. 1. 

.Joseph Hooker, claimant tor part of Agua 
C^aliente, in Sonoma County (situated in Son- 
oma Township); granted July 13, 1840, by 
Juan B. Alvarado to Lazaro Pena; claim tiled 
March 2, 1853; confirmed by the commission 
April 24, 1855; by the District Court March 
2, 1857, and appeal dismissed March 27, 1857; 
containing 550. 8B acres. Vide page 100, Hoff- 
man's Reports, \'ol. L. Patented. 

Mariano Guadalupe Vallejo, claimant for 
Agua Caliente, in Sonoma County (sitviated in 
Sonoma Township); granted July 13, 1840. by 
Juan B. Alvarado to Lazaro Pena; claim filed 
March 2, 1853; rejected by the commission 
December, 1855, and by the District Court 
July 18, 1859. Vide page 100, Appendix 
Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Thaddeus M. Leavenworth, claimant for part 
of Agua Caliente, in Sonoma County (^situated 
in Sonoma Towhship); granted July 13, 1840, 
by Juan B. Alvardo to Lazaro Pena; claim tiled 
March 2, 1853; confirmed by the commission 
April 24, 1855, by the District Court March 2, 
1857, and appeal dismissed April 3. 1857; con- 

taining 320.33 acres. Vide page 102. Appen- 
dix Hoffman's Reports, Vol. 1. 

Oliver iioulio, claimant for part of Cabeza de 
Santa Rosa, 640 acres in Sonoma County (situ- 
ated in Santa Rosa Township); granted Seji- 
tember 30, 1841, by Manuel Jimeno to Maria 
Ygnacia Lopez; claim filed Marcii 2, 1S53; 
rejected by the commission January 30, 1855, 
and appeal dismissed for failure of prosecution 
April 21, 1856. Vide page 102, A].pen(li\ 
Hoffman's Reports, Vol 1. 

C. P. Stone, claimant for part of Agua Cali- 
ente, 300 acres in Sonoma (/ounty (situated in 
Sonoma Township); granted July 30, 1840, by 
Juan B. Alvarado to Lazaro Pena; claim filed 
Marcli 2, 1853; confirmed by the commission 
April 24. 1855, by the District Court March 2, 
1857, and appeal dismissed March 31, 1857. 
Vide page 104, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, 
Vol. 1. 

Cyrus Alexander, claimant, part of Sotoyome, 
two square leagues (situated in Mendocino 
Township); granted September 28, 1841. by 
Juan B. Alvarado to Henry D. Fitch; claim 
filed March 3, 1853; rejected by the commis- 
sion February 8, 1855, and appeal dismissed 
for failure of prosecution April 21, 185(). A'ide 
page 106, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, \(A. 1. 

James A. Watmough, claimant foi- part of 
Petaluma grant, one square mile in Sonoma 
County, granted October 22, 1843, by Manuel 
Miclieltorena to M. G. Vallejo; claim tiled 
March 3, 1853; rejected by the commis- 
sion January 30, 1855, and appeal dismissed for 
failure of prosecution April 21, 1856. Vide 
page 107, Appendix Hoffman's Reports, N'ol. 1. 

Jose Santos I'erryesa, claimant for 200 by 
300 varas, in Sonoma County; granted May 30, 
1846, by Joaquin Carrillo to J. S. Berryesa; 
claim filed March 3, 1853; rejected by the com- 
mission October 17, 1854, and appeal dismissed 
for failure of prosecution April 21, l!i56. 
V^ide page 108, Appendix Ifntf'mnn's itejioits. 
Vol. 1. 




fcyp cagji^Aw,A\jn 




ciiAPTEPt xvr. 

The San Fkanoisco and Northkrn Pacifk' Ha ilroad- -North Pacific Coast Railroad — Santa 
Rosa and Carquinez RAir.itoAn — m lu.ic highwavs — thk last stauk driver — rivers and 


fHE Sail I'^ranciseo and North Pacific liail- 
rt)ad has been tlie means of ilevelo|>ing 
tlie County of Sonoma. It has extended 
its soutliern terminus to Point Tiburon. The 
original terminus was at Donahue, eigiit miles 
l)elow Petaluina, and about thirty-four miles 
from San Francisco, at which point the steamer 
connected for San Francisco. The passengers 
from Sonoma also connected with this steamer 
by stage, coming for about eight miles over the 
divide between the waters of Sonoma and 
Petaluina Creeks. 

Donahue was named after the founder of the 
road, C!olonel Peter Donahue. Here was situ- 
ated all the workshops connected with the road, 
with hotel and cottages for workmen. 

TratHc and travel outgrew his terminus, and 
the road was extended on the west side of 
Petulama Creek to San llafael, where it con- 
nected by transfer to the cars of the San Fran- 
cisco and North Paciiic (Joast Railroad. The 
terminus was not found adequate for the rapidly 
increasing traffic of the road, and in 1883 Colo- 
nel Donahue pushed his broad gauge over the 
track of the S. F. & N. P. C. R. R., and fixed 
its terminus at Tiburon. And to Tiburon has 
been removed the buildings from Donahue. 

Leaving San Francisco on the magiiiticeiit 
donlile eiiiler stcnnier Tdntidii, |iasst'iigers in 

twenty minutes' time are transferred to the cars 
at Tiburon. A run of nine and a half miles 
through several considerable tunnels, brings 
the train to the beautiful city of San 
Rafael, overlooking the broad expanse of the 
bay. Steaming on through the suburbs of the 
town, up a grade, the train suddenly disappears 
in a tunnel bored through one of the ranges 
which encircle this pretty village. Emerging 
on the north side of the range, the scene has 
completely changed. Glimpses of the bay may 
be had as the train speeds along, now on tlie 
edge of the marsh, now over an intervening 
point, until the line between Sonoma and Marin 
counties is passed. The road next trends along 
the shore of I'etaliiin.i (!reek. Opposite and in 
bold relief, stands out the old terminus of 
I )onaliiie. 

(.Crossing Petaluma CJreek, after a run oi 
twenty-one miles from San Rafael, the train 
bowls into the commercial city of I'etaliiiiiu, at 
the head of navigation. I't'talnina is beaiitifullv 
and eligibly located. It is surrounded by 
country homes and orchards in the highest state 
of cultivation, and is distinguished for its pro- 
gressive and intelligent population. It is well 
drained, neatly built, and is one of the most 
prospe ous interior towns in California. 

I'Voiir I'etuhiina the train proceeds northerly. 



passing Ely's, Penn's Grove, Cotate and Oak 
(rrove stations for fifteen miles over an ex- 
tremely fertile country which brings us to the 
center of the County of Sonoma, and to its 
capital town, Santa Rosa. 

Santa Rosa is situated on the banks of Santa 
Rosa Creek, and is almost hidden in groves of 
trees and luxuriant shrubs and flowers. It has 
a rapidly increasing population, and is claimed 
by all who have seen it as one of the prettiest 
towns in the State of California. It stands 
upon an alluvial jilain, sloping gradually from 
the hills, and is surrounded by farms, orchards 
and vineyards. Santa Rosa is the passenger 
station for Mark West Springs. 

Leaving Santa Rosa, the next station, four 
miles distant, is Fulton, and here a branch road 
runs to Guerneville in the redwoods district, 
distant sixteen miles from Fulton. Trains to 
anil from (Tuerneville connect with the main 
line going north and south every day. 

From P^ilton, going north, the train passes 
through the village of Mark West to Windsor, 
distant four miles from I'ulton, then by Grant's 
Station to Healdsburg, distant six miles from 

Healdsburg is situated in the center of the 
wide-famed Russian River Valley, and is sur- 
rounded by a farming country of unsurpassed 

Beyond Healds])urg the road follows directly 
up the Russian River Valley to Geyserville, 
eight miles north of Healdsburg. Geysei'ville 
is a pretty village, in the midst of a fruit-grow- 
ing country. It is also the station where pas- 
sengers take stages for Skaggs' Warm Springs, 
one of the popular summer resorts in the State. 
From Geyserville to Cloverdale, the north ter- 
minus of the road, the distance is ten miles. 

Cloverdale is situated on Russian River, just 
south of the boundary line between Mendo- 
cino and Sonoma. Here stfiges connect with 
tlie train for Ukiah City, Round Valley, Pot- 
ter Valley :ni(l Humboldt County; also for the 
Great Geyser Springs, about .«ixteen miles from 
Cloverdale; also the Highland Springs, Lake- 

port, Kelseyville, Soda Ray, Bartlett Springs and 
the Blue Lakes. There is also a large freight 
traffic at Cloverdale, hence it is one of the 
busiest towns in the county. 

The entire length of the road by way of 
Donahue, with water connection, is ninety 
miles. By way of San Rafael it is eighty-four 
miles, as follow.'?: 


From San Francisco to Tiburon (i 

From Tiburon to San Rafael • • ■ • 9 

From San Rafael to Petal uma 21 

From Petaluma to Santa Rosa 15 

From Santa Rosa to Fulton 4 

From Fulton to Windsor 5 

From Windsor to Healdsburg 6 

From Healdsburg to Geyserville 8 

From Geyserville to Cloverdale 10 

But Cloverdale will soon lose its position as a 
terminal city, for the track is already graded and 
the mountains pierced with tunnels for an ex- 
tension of the road to Ukiah, the county town 
of Mendocino Count}'. This extension will be 
in running order early in 1889, and will open 
up to more complete development a county 
that has hitherto been without any facilities for 
convenient or ra|)iil communication with the 
outer world. 

Following is a description of the ferry-boat 
connecting the S. F. it N. P. R. R. with San 
Francisco. The Tifiuroii's dimensions are: 
Length between perpeiuliculars. 224 feet; beam, 
34 feet; length of cabin, 155 feet. She is of 
the pattern known as the *• (louble ender," and 
is nearly a duplicate of the Bay OUy, with 
slightly increased speed. She is equipped with 
powerful machinery by the Union Iron Works, 
the cylinder of the engine being tifty inches in 
diameter, with eleven feet stroke. Two low- 
pressure boilers of the most approved pattern 
afford the driving power; speed twenty miles an 
hour. There is an uppei--deck (•ai)in, like that 
of the (Kthlini(L The keel of the Tilnnon was 
laid on the 2yth of May, 1883, and the hull was 

HrsTonr of sonoua county. 

launched eight mouths, lacking one clay, after- 
ward. The Tibui'ou is the only douhle-ender 
that has ever been employed on this liay, outside 
the Oakland and Alameda terries. 


Of this road the San Francisco JoariMl of 
t'ouiiiieiTc says: 

" The scenic route of the 8tate is on the 
North Pacific Coast Railroad. Every variety 
and change is encountered on this line. Leav- 
ing the foot of Market street, San Francisco, 
by one of the fast ferry steamers of the com- 
pany, a rapid trip is made across the liay to 
Saucelito, where the ti'ain is awaiting passengers 
and freight for the north. ' All aboard !' and 
the train moves out of Saucelito and rolls along 
the shores of Richardson's Bay. Rounding the 
noted Mount Tamalpais into the beautiful Ross 
Valley, it arrives at San Anselmo station, where 
transfer is made to San Rafael and San Quentin 
and thence to Fairfax, one of the finest and 
most noted picnic resorts of the State. From 
this point on the scenery becomes wilder, 
grander and more varied. Climbing the steep 
canon sides, through tunnels, across trestle 
liridges hundreds of feet above the creek below, 
thence winding its way down, the train skirts 
along the hill-sides near Point Reyes to the 
shores of Tomales Bay. These are followed for 
a distance of fifteen miles, when a rich agricul- 
tural district is entered and the thriving com- 
munities of Tomales, Valley Ford, Bodega 
Roads, Freestone and Howards are passed in 
(juick succession and the ascent of the moun- 
tains of north-western Sonoma is begun. iVgain 
the grand scenery of deep canons and^ redwood 
forests is continued until the thriving town of 
Duncan's Mills is reached and then to Ingrams, 
the present terminus. Camp Taylor is on the 
line of this route, and is one of the linest iish- 
ing, camping and picnicing localities of the 

"The road cost over three millions of dollars, 
and is a magniticient piece of engineering skill. 
For its length we believe it possesses more 

varied scenery than any road in the United 
States. In a distance of 80 miles, hills, moun- 
tains, dales, valleys, deep canons, rivers, forests, 
follow each other in bewildering succession, 
and are presented to the view of the traveler as 
he passes through the most picturesque part of 
this State. It is a splendid field for the sports- 
man. The mountains and hills, valleys and 
canons abound with game, and the creeks and 
rivers are favorite resorts for the fisherman, who 
linds his time well occupied. During the sum- 
mer months the various places on the line of 
the road are resorted to l)y thousands of campers 
from the metropolis of the coast.'' 


This road is a branch of the Northern Pacilic. 
It now connects with the main Donahue line at 
Pacheco Station. It runs northward to the old 
town of Sonoma, and from thence to Glen Ellen, 
which is located in the north end of Sonoma 
Valley in a vale surrounded by sloping hills, 
which presents as desirable a location for a pros- 
perous community as could be selected. It is 
located in the heart of the wine section of the 
county, and for miles on both sides of the valley 
are to be seen hills clad with vines. In summer 
it is a great reso.t for camping parties bent on 
pleasure and to try their skill with the rod and 
gun. As many as 1,500 have camped in this 
vicinity at one time during the camping season. 


This road was completed in 1887. It is a 
branch of the Central Pacilic road. It leaves 
that line at Napa Junction; passes up the whole 
length of the Sonoma Valley to Glen Ellen; passes 
on through the Guilicos Valley and terminates 
at Santa Rosa. This road is of incalculable 
value to Sonoma County, as it affords a dii'ect 
and continuous connection with the eastern 
lines, and thus opens a way to ready market for 
the excellent fruit of this section of the State. 
There is now oidy needed a couple of branch 
roads, one to Sebastopol and (-Jreen Valley, and 
the other to Big Valley to reiidei' the whole 


county well i)rovided with conveniences for 
travel and the conveyance of freight to market. 


lU'l'ore the advent of i-aiiroads the jmlilic high- 
ways of the county were the mediums of travel 
and traffic. The central and most consequential 
road was that leading from Petaluma, taking in 
its way Santa Kosa, Windsor, llealdsburg, Uey- 
serville and Cloverdale. were the days 
of staging. Large coaches drawn by six horses 
made the trip daily. The stage driver was then 
a consequential man, courted and conciliated by 
those who had much traveling to do. .V scat 
with the driver was a seat of honor, to secure 
which it was generally necessary to make a 
special engagement. But the occu|)ation id' 
driver was not entirely a sinecure position, iiain 
or shine he had to mount his seat, and in ex- 
cessively wet winters he generally reached the 
end of his route in a terribly mud-bedraggled 
condition. Then lie was occasionally stopped 
by foot-pads, receiving a peremptory order to 
throw out the express box. Occasionally a 
driver would escape l)y giving lash to his 
team, but as one such got a bullet through his 
cheek and had a passenger killed on the seat 
along side of him, drivers concluded that such 
foolishness did not pay. and ever after they 
accorded to foot-j)ads that deference that their 
vocation seemed to entitle them to. The rail- 
road came, however, and ran close t(.> and paral- 
lel with this great artery of ti'a\el. This 
put an end to staging on that road, anil it is 
now mainly used for local purj)Oses by the in- 
habitants along its line. 

The next public highway of importance is the 
one leading from Petaluma up the coast. It takes 
in its route Two Rock, Ploomlield, Valley Ford, 
Bodega Corners, Bodega Bay, Markhams Mills, 
I'ort Ross and Gualala. That portion of this road 
from I'odega to Petaluma has been the medium 
of transportation of a vast amount of produce 
to market in the years gone by. but the Narrow 
Guage Coast Line Railroad now carries much of 
the Bodega produce direct to San Francisco. 

From near the mouth of Russian River north- 
ward this road is graded along the elifls over- 
hanging the ocean. For a distance of several 
miles the traveler looks down into the surt 
breaking ujion the rocks below, and occasionally 
the eye is I'elieved by seeing in the distance a 
jet of water thrown up by some sportive whale. 
When this spur of the Ross Mountain is passed 
the road is of comparatively easy grade to the 
Gualala River, the boundary line between 
Sonoma and Mendocino counties. 

One among the oldest roads in the county, 
but not extensively traveled, is the one leading 
from Petaluma to Sonoma, thence to Glen Ellen 
and so on through Guilicos Valley to Santa 
Rosa. This road is through a country of his- 
toric interest and at every turn the traveler 
encounters new and enchanting scenery. All 
along the line of this thoroughfare are delight- 
ful retreats, and it is becoming a favorite line 
of resort to pleasure seekers. 

The road from Petaluma to Sebastopol and 
thence to Green Valley, although an old one in 
point of use, did not for many years receive that 
care and consideration that its importance and 
utility entitled it to. Lately it has been much 
improved, and in time it will come into more 
general use as the shortest route to the redwood 

The roads mentioned all have a general course 
north and south, or lengthwise of the count}'. 
Of course there are many lUteral branches to 
these roads leading to valleys and settlements on 
either hand. From Cloverdale a good road ex- 
tends easterly to the far-famed Geysers; and 
westerly to Dry Creek Valley, and thence into 
the coast mountains. From Geyserville a road 
leads to the Skaggs Springs, a celebrated place 
of resort. From Healdsburg roads running 
both east and west tap a wide range of country. 
Santa Rosa is the focus of a regular system of 
lateral roads. The most important of these is 
the road by way of Forestville to Guerneville, 
and from thence by way of Ingrams to Fort 
Ross. That portion of this road between 
Guerneville and Ross is through a country 



of mountains and forests whicli will ever be a 
paradise to sportsmen. With two lines of rail- 
road, one ending at (Tuerneville and tlie otlier 
at Ingrams, these wilds of Sonoma County are 
rendered easy of access to those who seek a res- 
pite from the cares and toil of business life. 

Above mention is made that as the railroads 
advanced tlie stage coaches retired. With the 
exception of on a short line on the coast in the 
e.xtreme upper end of the county, and that be- 
tween Cloverdale and the Geyser Springs, the 
stages have entirely disappeared — they are a 
thing of the past. For many years after our 
raih'uads were completed, a man named Wash- 
ington Gilliam, who had long been a driver on 
our stage route, continued to run a two-horse 
thorough brace, taking a cross-route which gave 
accommodation to people between Stony Point 
and Tomales. At best, he made bnt a precari- 
ous living, but it was liis vocation, and he fol- 
lowed it to the end. On the occasion of his 
death, in 1882, his friend, Tom Gregory, of 
Bloomfield, penned the following graceful lines: 


"The old stage-driver came (juietly into town 
just as he had done off and on for some fourteen 
years. P>)it this time he came slower than 
usual. He had a new team, but the horses 
tramped solemnly along as if they knew that 
pace suited the occasion — or knew that some- 
tiiing was amiss with the solemn man behind 
them. The old driver had a strange look on 
his face that we had never seen before — the 
look of one who is moving deeply in a mystic 
spell. He always was rather (juiet, but now his 
silence was almost appalling. When the team 
stoi)ped, his old friends anxiously gathered 
around him, but lie did not seem to know them, 
for he spoke not a word. Gne grasped his 
hand, but no ]ires8ure was returned. The fu- 
neral that day was conducted by the Masons, and 
as he was a member of tluit mystic brntherhood, 
he took his place in the procession and with 
them moved toward the cometery. Soon they 
were all at the graveside. Pausing a moment 
on the brink, the old stage-driver went slowly 

and steadily down his last grade; the silver nail 
heads on the cotHn sparkled star-like in the 
gloom of the still, dark depths. Dust unto 
dust, ashes unto ashes. The bright little spray 
of evergreen and the dull valley clods mingled 
together as her dear mother earth folds around 
and hides away each home-returning child. 
They spread young wings for lofty Hights 
through life's warm golden dawn, but at chill 
eve come wearily back to slumber on her broad 
and loving breast. The crowd went quietly 
from out the enclosure and left him there alone. 
Now only a low narrow mound, which in a few 
days will be grass-grown, marks the spot where 
Wash. Gilham sleeps." 


The rivers and water-courses ot Sonoma 
County are peculiar in character. The Pet 
aluma and Sonoma creeks are estuaries of San 
Pablo Pay. The ebb and How of tide in these 
streams are about six feet in depth. This, 
with the natural depth of water at extreme low 
tide, enables vessels of from sixty to one hun- 
dred tons burthen to navigate them up to the 
cities of Petaluma and Sonoma, respectively. 
These tide streams are of incalculable \alue as 
arteries of commerce. They atford cheap trans- 
portation of freight to San Francisco, and ati'urd 
an effectual bar to freight extortions by other 
mediums of transportation. Both of these es- 
tuaries have, beyond the reach of salt water 
tides, fresh water fountains that abound in tis-h 
of various kinds. 

The San Antonio Creek that forms the 
boundary between Sonoma and Marin counties 
on the south takes its rise in what was called 
the Laguna de San Antonio (i)ut now drained) 
and has an entire length of not more than 
twelve miles. It does not atford much water 
in mid-summer, although in rainy seasons it 
becomes a torrent. The Santa Kosa and Mark 
West creeks are fed by innumerable tributaries 
taking their rise in the Macnway range of 
mountains, and which abound in trout. Dur- 
ing the summer months botli these streams are 


lost ill tliu Santa Kusa plains, luit during tlie 
winter or rainy months they debuiieh into the 
lagooiias north ot' Sehastopol, and from thence 
tlieir waters reach the Russian River. 

Sulphur Creek takes its rise in the (4eyser 
group of mountains and empties into the Rus- 
sian River north of Cloverdale. 

Dry Creek takes its rise in Mendocino Coun- 
ty and enters Sonoma County just below Dry 
Creek canon, and tiows into the Russian River 
near Healdsburg. During the suininer it is 
barely a trout stream, but in the winter it often 
becomes a roaring torrent. 

The Russian River is a stream of peculiarly va- 
riable moods. It heads high up in Mendocino 
County and is the artery of drainage to an im- 
mense section of country. In the summer months, 
in consequence of the gravelly and porous nature 
of the country it traverses it sinks away and is 
easily fordable at all points. But in the winter 
months, especially if the rain fall has been 
copious, it becomes an angry, incontrollable 
river. It enters Sonoma County just north of 
Cloverdale, and for many miles has a southerly 
course with but little fall, until it readies a 
point nearly opposite Healdsburg, where it sud- 
denly deflects to the west, plunges down 
through the redwood forests, and reaches the 
ocean a few miles north of liodega Bay. There 
are not a few who l)elieve that Russian River 
once flowed uiiinipeded to San Pablo Bay, but 
this is but the surmise of scientists. 

Austin Creek, heading in the north on the 
dividing line that forms the head waters of the 
southern branch of the Giialala River, flows 
south and falls into the Russian River at Dun- 
can's mills. It is a mild, placid stream from 
Ingrams down in the summer months, but in 
winter has its own way, and puts on the airs of 
a very consequential stream. 

The southern limb of the Gualala River 
takes its rise in the mountains immediately 
east of Fort Ross. It runs in an e.xactly oppo- 
site direction from the Austin Creek, and after 
traversing a country for many miles of the 
moBt wild and {'''atid scenic ifrandeur it falls into 

the main Gualala River about three miles above 
where the latter river flows into the Paciflc 
Ocean. The country traversed by the South 
Gualala, and its fountain streams, will ages 
hence be the resort of those who seek com- 
munion with the untarnished grandeur of Na- 
ture. Locked ill those fastnesses, beyond the 
sordid grasp of pelf and gain, is a wealth of 
respite from the toil and moil of life that will 
be appreciated by the generations of the future. 

The Estero Americano is a tide stream up 
to Valley Ford, and from thence upward is but 
the water conduit of the streams leading from 
Big Valley westward. These streams are in- 
consequential except in the winter season. 

The latest water-way to be noted is that drain- 
ing the water-shed of country compassed in 
Two Rock Valley. The water of these various 
streams And their way into an estuary of the 
ocean in Marin County, about midway between 
Tomales Bay and the Estero Americano. 

There is a peculiarity of the topography of 
the country right here worth mentioning. The 
ranch at present owned by Allen Rosebnrg, 
about eight miles north from Petaluma, is the 
saddle of a tridant. The water-shed of the 
northerly portion of the ranch sends its water 
down through Two Rock Valley and thence to 
the ocean through the channel last above de- 
scribed. The waters from the southerly slope 
of this ranch flow into the Petaluma Creek; 
and the water from the western side of the 
place flows westerly and through the medium of 
Salmon Creek falls into Tomales Bay. 


Along the ocean line of Sonoma County are 
several bays and coves affording good anchor- 
age for vessels. Bodega l!ay is a land-locked 
harbor affording good anchorage for vessels. It 
is about two miles long and one mile wide. Its 
entrance is somewhat narrow and dithcult of 
access in stormy weather, but vessels once inside 
are safe and secure. About ten miles north- 
ward, at Russian Gulch, there is a cove where 
vessels land and take on lumber by means of a 


chute. At Fort Ross there is a very good 
landing, and vessels come and go with great 
regularity, carrying to San Francisco railroad 
ties, cord wood and tan bark. At Timber Cove is 
also a landing for vessels. Salt Point has a very 
good landing for vessels, so also has Fisk's and 
Stuart's Points. At all these places are chutes 
for sliding lumber and freights of various kinds 
down into the vessels moored Ijelow. The 
traveler along the coast is constantly astonished 
to beliold the masts of vessels close in shore 
where lie would least expect to see them. These 
bays and coves on the northwest coast of Sono- 
ma County are the mediums of a lumber trade 
both vast and protitiible. 


As Sonoma County was largely indebted to 
the late Col. Peter Donahue for her railroad 
facilities we account it but just to afford his 
name some space in Sonoma County history. 
Of his death, the Petaluma Argus of November 
28, 1885, said: 

"Col. Peter Donahue died at his ri'sidence in 
San Francisco at 10 o'clock Thursday evening. 
He had been ill several days, but a fatal ter- 
mination was not anticipated until within a few 
hours of his death. He seemed to have had a 
complication of ailments, but diabetes is given 
as the immediate cause of death. Thus has 
come to an end a remarkably active aii<] useful 
life. Peter Donahue was eminently the archi- 
tect of his own fortune. The foundation of his 
fortune was laid with his own brawny arms 
while toiling at the forge. AVith far-seeing 
sagacity he made investments and inaugurated 
enterprises that not only brought himself rich 
returns, but gave lucrative employment and 
prosperity to thousand of others. With all his 
vast accumulations of wealth, Peter Donahue 
never forgot or looked down superciliously upon 
those occupying the walks of life he himself 
once trod. We have neither time nor space for 
more extended mention of the deceased at this 
time, and conclude by saying that in the death 
of Peter Donahue, San Francisco and California 

has lost a most enterprising and valuable citi- 

Continuing the Argus said: '• We last week 
announced the death of Colonel Peter Donahue. 
To the San Francisco BuUetiu we are indebted 
for the following biographical sketch: 

" The deceased was born of Irish parents in 
Glasgow, Scotland, on the 11th of January, 
1822. In 1835 he emigrated with his mother 
to America, settling at Matteawan, which is now 
a portion of Fishkill Township, Dutchess 
County, New York. He worked some two 
years in a cotton factory and then entered a 
locomotive manufactory in Patterson, New 
Jersey. In 1847 he was appointed engineer of 
the Peruvian war steamer Itimal. Mr. Donahue 
arrived in San Francisco on the steamer Oregon, 
June 18, 1849, and proceeded to the mines. 
Snlisequently he returned to this city, where he 
met his brothers James and Michael. lie and 
James established a blacksmith shop on Mont- 
gomery street, and about a year afterward they 
removed to First street. In 1852 tlie firm 
obtained the franchise for lighting the city with 
gas, and within two years gas works were estab- 

•' Peter Donahue also established a line of 
steamers on the Sacramento River. In 18(')1 
he obtained a street railroad franchise and estab- 
lished what is known as the Omnibus line. The 
same year he obtained a contract for raising and 
rebuilding the sunken monitor Comanche for the 
defense of this harbor. The first casting melted 
and molded in this State was done at the Union 
Foundry, by Messrs. Donahue, for the old pio- 
neer steamer McK'un, the blasts for the furnace 
being prepared by three blacksmiths' bellows, 
which are now the jT'operty of the Mechanics' 
Institute. The first quartz mill constructed in 
this State was made at the Donahue foundry. 
A building is now in the course of construction 
where the old Donahue shop and wharf existed 
on First street in 1850. In 1862 Mr. Donahue 
and a few associates built the railroad from this 
city to San Jose, and subsequently continued it 
to Gilroy, a distance of about eighty miles. This 


road was subsequeutlj sold to Stauford & Co. 
A broad gauge road was also built by Mr. 
Donahue from the town of Donahue, on Peta- 
luma Creek to Cloverdale, a distance of fifty 
miles. All of the rolling stock for this road 
was constructed at the Donahue foundry. A 
branch road was built from Fulton to Russian 
River, a distance of eighteen miles, and from 
Petaluma to San Rafael twenty-two miles in 
length. This latter branch has been extended 
from San Rafael to Point Tibnrou on Raccoon 
Straits, which is connected with this city by a 
ferry line. In 1879 Donahue and his associates 
purchaseil the unlinisiied narrow gauge from 
Sonoma to Sonoma Creek, which they completed. 
For a quarter of a century Mr. Donahue was 
director of the Ilibernia Bank, and for over 

twenty years a director of the iS'^ational Gold 
Bank. He was a life member of the Pioneer 

"The deceased married Miss JaneMcGnire in 
New York in 1852, by whom he had four chil- 
dren, two of whom are living. A few years ago 
the daughter married Baron von Scliroeder, and 
until recently lias resided in the southern part 
of the State. The son, Mervyn, a few years ago 
married the daughter of ex-Supreme Judge 
Wallace, and resides at San Rafael. On the death 
of the first wife, Mr. Donahue married Miss 
Anna Downey, sister of ex-Governor Downey. 

" The deceased was a courteous and companion- 
able gentleman who well represented the dignity 
of labor as an intelligent and industrious 




■>-j»t^ '«^. 







N anotlier chapter has been given an epitome 
of all the occnrrences of a year, as recorded 
^ in the only journal then published in the 
county. We now take up the thread of current 
events where these dropped, and follow it to the 

September I'.l, 1856 — The first Republican 
uiass convention assembled in the dining-room 
of the old Petaluma House. 

September 26, 1856 — The settlers held a mass 
convention at Santa Kosa. 

(October 3, 1856 -The subject of opening a 
road north to AV^eavervillc was being agitated. 

December 9, 1856— Dr. H. B. Bonham, 
county superintendent of public instruction, re- 
ported the condition of the schools in the 

January 23, 1857 — W. A. I)\ister, county 
treasurer, proved a defaulter for several thou- 
sand dollars — was tried; sentenced to the peni- 
tentiary for five years, and pai-doned by the 
Governor at the end of three years. 

April 10, 1857— The Round Valley Indian 
i-eser\atioti, Mendocino County, established an 
agent. John Hendley reported several thou- 
sand Indians there, and doing well. 

June 5, 1857 — J. A. Rudesill commenced 
running a stage from Petaluma to the Geyser 

June 12, 1857— At Bodega, an Indian killed 
one of his tribe — confessed the crime, and was 
hung by order of "Judge Lynch." 

September 4, 1857 — A large camp-meeting 
was held at Liberty school-house. 

September 16, 1857 — Three Indians were 
hung near Fort Ross by a vigilance committee. 
A peace ofiicer was present and forbade the 
hanging, but it was of no avail. 

October 23, 1857 — There was (|uite an ex- 
citement over the supposed discovery of coal in 
Two Rock Valley. 

November 27, 1857— An elk weighing 800 
pounds was killed near Healdsburg. This was 
the last elk that there is any record of, and 
probably the last one ever in the county. 

February 12, 1858 — There was some excite- 
ment over the supposed disco\ery of cinnabar, 
near Petaluma. 

April 23, 1858— The beginning of trouble 
about squatters on the Sotoyome grant, near 

October 4, 1858 — The celebrated comet that 
had for weeks been blazing in the heavens, be- 
gan to wane. 

April 8, 1859 — A. B. Bowers was workino- 
on a map of Sonoma County. When completed 
it was a most excellent farm maji, vei'v accurate 
in every detail. 



September 9, 1859 — The animal fair was lield 
at Healdsburg, and the interest manifested in 
Sonoma County industries was highly satisfac- 

February 10, 1860 —Discovery of quicksilver 
near Mount St. Helena and the Geysers. 

June 15, 1860 — A monster grizzly bear was 
killed on Salmon Creek, Marin County, by J. 
S. Brackett, the Estee brothers, and others. It 
was brought to Petaluma and exhibited. It 
weighed 1,000 pounds, and had been very de- 
structive to stock. 

July 6, 1860 — The boundary line between 
Sonoma and Marin counties was finally placed 
as located by Surveyor William Mock in 1856; 
that is, following a straight line from the head 
of the Laguna de San Antonio, to the head of 
the Estero Americano at Yalley Ford. 

August 10, 1860 — A quarry of asbestos was 
found near Windsor. 

April 12, 1861 — The Legislature passed a bill 
submitting the question of county seat removal 
to a vote of the people. 

May 24, 1861 — Joe Hooker, of Sonoma, left 
for the theater of the civil war. He became 
the celebrated " Fighting General Joe Hooker " 
of that unfortunate conflict. 

Ifoveniber 26, 1861 — Lady Franklin, relict of 
the ill-fated Sir John Franklin of Arctic Ocean 
fame, visited Sonoma County, accompanied by 
her niece. Miss Craycroft. 

January 21, 1862 — From Petaluma and other 
portions of the county liberal aid was sent to 
the sufterers by flood at Sacramento. 

February 11, 1862— Charles Minturn, of the 
Steamer line, straightens a couple of bends in 
the creek, below Petaluma. 

June 25, 1862 — There was considerable pros- 
pecting for coal in the easterly side of Santa 
Rosa Yalley, opposite the old Half-way House. 

November 9, 1862 — Judge McKinstry re- 
signed the position of judge of the seventli 
judicial district, and Hon. J. B. Southard was 
appointed to the position. 

December 3, 1862 — Suit was commenced for 
the partition of the Rancho Laguna de San 

Antonio, comprising over 24,000 acres. This 
ranch was familiarly known as the " Bojorques 
Rancho,'" and the history of this litigation is 
scattered through over- twenty volumes of the 
California Supreiue Court Reports. 

August 5, 1863 — There was great excitement 
about the discoveiy of copper in the mountains 
about eighteen miles westerly from Healds- 
bui'g. Copper, in small quantities, in a pure 
state, was found, and much prospecting was 
done, but with no paying results. 

November 2, 1865 — A railroad company was 
organized in Petaluma for the purpose of build- 
ing a railroad from Petaluma to Cloverdale. 
There were various moves and counter-moves 
about railroads. The question of location, and 
the granting of a subsidy of 85,000 a mile came 
to a vote on the 10th of September, 1868. The 
subsidy was voted, and the route from Petaluma 
to Cloverdale selected. Work was prosecuted 
for a time in 1869. then was stopped. Colonel 
Peter Donahue bought the road and franchise on 
August 10, 1870, and on October 29, 1870, the 
first cars ran between Petaluma and Santa Rosa. 
In 1872 the road was completed to Cloverdale. 

November 9, 1865 — There was a heavy rain- 
storm northward along the coast. At the Gua- 
lala River the saw-log boom of the Rutherford 
Milling Company broke, and about 4,000,000 
feet of lumber went out to sea. Three schooners 
were wrecked upon the coast. 

March 29, 1866 — Michael Ryan was executed 
at Santa Rosa, for the crime of killing his wife. 
This is the only case of capital punishment yet 
on record in Sonoma County. 

November 15, 1866 — A destructive lire oc- 
curred at Sonoma, and a number of buildings 
were destroyed. 

November 7, 1867 — Mineral paint of good 
quality was found near the mill of O. A. Olm- 
stead, in the redwoods. 

November 28, 1868 — A stage robbery 
occurred near Cloverdale. 

December 10, 1868— The schooner C. P. 
Heustis, Captain H. Piltz, went ashore near 
Fort Ross, and was a total wreck. No lives lost. 



January 21, 1869. — A petrified tree was 
found while grading for tlie railroad, on the 
Cotate Branch. 

March 18, 18(39 — According to the school 
census Sonoma County had more school chil- 
dren than any other comity in the State, except 
San Francisco. 

August 19, 1871 — A daring attempt was 
made to rob the Cloverdale stage. The driver, 
Sandy Woodworth, would not stop, and as a 
consequence got a bullet tlirough his cheek, and 
a young man, named Cofhn, on the seat beside 
him was killed. 

F^ebruary 24, 1872 — A large whale was 
stranded on the shore near Timber Cove, and 
the coast residents laid in a supply of whale oil. 

March 16, 1872— The Donahue line of rail- 
road was completed and in running order to 

May 25, 1872 — This was an era of road im- 
provement around Petaluma and in the county 
at large. Many miles of excellent macadam- 
ized roads were constructed. 

September 6, 1872 — A. Doty & Co. estab- 
lished a broom factory near Penn's Grove. 

August 1, 1873 — Elijah McMurray, a former 
resident of Two Rock Yalley, had a fearful en- 
coTinter with a wounded buck, and finally proved 
victor, although badly wounded and lacerated. 

November 21, 1873 — A telegraphic line was 
completed from Petaluma to Humboldt Bay, 
and there was Fraternal greeting between the 
presses of Sonoma and Humboldt counties. 

May 1, 1874 -The schooner Horace Tem,- 
plcton was wrecked in Petaluma Creek on what 
is known as the " sunken rock.'' 

May 29, 1874— The basalt blocks of Sonoma 
County began to be used extensively for paving 
in San Francisco. 

June 26, 1874— The Forestville Chair Factory 
becomes an important manufacturing industry. 

Sept&mber 18, 1874 — A destructive fire 
occurred at Bodega Corners. 

November 27, 1874 — This was a season of 
floods to Sonoma County, on account of excessive 

April 16, 1875 — The steamer James M. 
Donahue was completed and commenced run- 
ning between San Francisco and Lakeville. 

April 30, 1875— Granville P. Swift, one of 
the " Bear Flag party," and once a wealthy citi- 
zen of Sonoma County, who had money buried 
by the thousands of dollars, was found with his 
neck broken, in Solano County — his mule 
having stumbled and fallen over a precipice. 

June 4, 1875 — A new townshi p was created 
by the county board of supervisors called 
" Knight's Yallej'." 

June 18, 1875 — A test case was agreed upon 
to settle the disputed boundary question be- 
tween Sonoma and Napa Counties. The 
decision was in favor of Sonoma County. 

October 27, 1876— The Petaluma and San 
Rafael Narrow Guage Railroad was sold and 
transferred to Colonel Peter Donahue. 

January 18, 1878 — This was a season of un- 
usual floods to Sonoma Covmt^', and considera- 
ble damage was done. 

April 19, 1878 — The up-coast stage was 
robbed at a point near the Gualala River. 

December 27, 1878 — Congress was petioned 
for $25,000 to aid in improving Petaluma Creek. 
The subsidy was granted and tlie creek much 

January 30, 1880 — The valleys of Sonoma 
County were covered with snow, a very unusual 

August 20, 1881 — A destructive fire occurred 
at Sebastopol. 

February 3, 1882 — Foot-pads robbed the 
Cloverdale stage. 

September 1, 1882— J. R. Jewell of Peta- 
luma Township Iniilt the first silo in the county. 

March 17, 1883— The Pacific Narrow Guage 
Railroad was extended to Ingrams. 

October 6, 1883— The Northern Pacific Rail- 
road was completed to deep water at Tiburon. 

The new steamer Gold, to run between San 
Francisco and Petaluma, was completed. 

December 8, 1883 — The first stone of the 
new court-house at Santa Rosa was laid. 

September 25, 1886 — The first canning 


establislniient at Santa Rusa was destroyud by 

June 18, 1887 — Tlie work of building a 
branch railroad from Pacheco Station to con- 
nect with the Sonoma Valley Railroad was com- 

July 30, 1888~The northern end of the 
count}', from Santa Rosa upward, has a large 
showing of new vineyards and orchards. 

Below we give a full list of the present towns 
and villages of Sonoma County, in alphabetical 
order, outside of Petaluma, Santa Rosa, Sonoma 
and llealdsburg, that are i-egularly incorporated 

America is ten miles north of Santa Rosa; 
including the immediate vicinity; it has a popu- 
lation of 250. It is more wideh' known as 
Mark West Springs. It has a hotel and post- 
ottice and is a resort for tourists and invalids. 
A stage line affords communication with Santa 

Bloomfield is a thriving comumtiity at the 
head of Big Valley, twelve miles north of Peta- 
luma. The population is about 350. The 
village has a full complement of stores, churches 
and societies; a good hotel is maintained. It 
has communication by stage with Petaluma. 
It is growing and offers inducements to settlers. 

Bodega is eighteen miles north of Petaluma, 
and located on Bodega Bay in the midst of a 
line dairy country from which, with the fishing 
business, it derives its support. It boasts of a 
hotel, postoffice and express office. 

Clahr'dJe is located- twenty three miles north- 
west from Santa Rosa on the line of the S. F. 
cV- N. P. It. li. If is in the midst of a farming 
an<l vino growing disti'ict. There are sevei-al 
wineries in the inimediatt' neighborhdod. It 
has a population of l."U. Skaggs" S]irin<;s are 
six miles distant fnun tiiis point with which 
communication is maintained liy stage. 

Cliiverdale. — Cloverdale is fourth in point of 
wealth and population amongst the towns of 
Sonoma County. It is the present terminus of 
tlie San Francisco and North Pacific iiaiiroad, 
and is distaut thirty-three miles northwest of 

Santa Rosa and eighty-four miles from San Fran- 
cisco. It is in the midst of a large and pro- 
ductive region, and is the center of trade for 
the wool interest and extensive hop fields of 
this part of the country. The climate here is 
more bracing than in the southern portion of 
Sonoma, and is especially adapted to the growth 
of the hardier varieties of fruits. The popula- 
tion is about 1,400 and is steadily growing. 
The leading denominations have places of wor- 
ship with good congregations. All the leading 
secret and fraternal orders and societies have 
flourishing organizations. Hotel accommoda- 
tions are good. The town is amply supplied 
with water furnished by the Cloverdale Water 
Company. Real estate is low, and the oppor- 
tunities offered to the settler are unexcelled by 
those of other places. Stages leave here for 
Ukiah, Mendocino City, Eureka and other points 
on the North Coast, and for all points in Lake 
County and northern Napa. A railroad will, 
in a few months, connect it with Ukiah, Men- 
docino County. The Cloverdale Reveille ably 
advocates the interests of the community. It 
is published weekly. 

Cozzens. — A small burg located a i^^^ miles 
distant from Healdsburg. It has a population 
of 150 and is surrounded by a prosperous farm- 
ing and wine growing community. A sawmill 
is located here and a general merchandise store 
supplies the needed requirements of the village. 

JJuncan'x M\U>< is located fhirty miles north 
from Petaluma. It has communication with 
San Francisco by the North Pacific Coast "Rail- 
road. It is supported by important lumber, 
dairy and stock raising interests. The Duncan's 
Mill's LantI and Lumber t'omjiany saw mills are 
located here. The population is about 250. 
The surrounding coiintr}- is noted for its 
romantic and pictures(jue scenery, and abun- 
dance of game and fish. It is a favorite resor- 
for the tourist, the sportsman and for camping 
parties during the summer months. Stages 
leave here for all points in ^Lendocino anil Hum- 
boldt (tonnties. 

J''is/i<ri'iiiitii's lln/ is located on the coast 


above Fort Ross. A population of 200 is sup- 
ported by the farming interest and employment 
at the saw ami shingle mills which are located 

/'Isk's Mills is a small village of about 150 
population, in Salt Point Township, distant 
about twelve miles north of Fort Ross. Com- 
munication is had with Duncan's Mills by stage. 

Forestville is distant twelve miles northwest 
of Santa Rosa, on the S. F. tte N. P. R. R. 
Large quantities of tan-bark are shipped from 
this point. A rustic chair factory is located 
here. The business community consists of a 
hotel, blacksmith shops and two general mer- 
chandise stores. The surrounding country is 
devoted to farming. 

Fort lioss is a small settlement forty-two 
miles north of Petaluma. It contains many 
reminders of the early days wdien a Russian 
colony was located here. It is one of the old- 
est settlements on the northern coast of Califor- 
nia. The population is about 130, who are 
principally engaged in stock raising and farm- 
ing. It is connected with Duncan's Mills by 

Freestone is on the line of the North Pacific 
Coast Railroad. The population is about 175, 
supported by the dairying and farming carried 
on in the vicinity. 

Fvlton. — An ambitious and growing village 
on the line of the S. F. & N. P. R. R., four 
miles from Santa Rosa, is surrounded by a rich 
agricultural district. Considerable fruit is 
raised here. The population is 200, dependent 
upon the fruit and farming interests of the 
vicinity. From this place a branch of the S. 
F. it N. P. R. R. extends to (xuerneville. 

(jreyser Springs are located sixteen miles 
from Cloverdale, from whicli place they are 
reached by stage. It is a noted health and pleas- 
ure resort. The numerous mineral springs in 
the vicinity are the chief attraction. 

GuerneviUe. — The progressive and j^rosperous 
town of GuerneviUe is situated in the midst of 
a large lumber producing district, and is sur- 
rounded by forests of redwood; a branch of the 

8. F. & N. P. R. R. has its terminus at this 
point. The town derived its name from one of 
its pioneer residents who is engaged in the large 
milling interests of the town. There are four 
extensive lumber mills located in the town, em- 
ploying a large number of men. The present 
population is variously estimated at from 750 to 
900. As the forests are being cleared oft' the 
land is put under cultivation, producing fine 
crops of vegetables and cereals, and a large yield 
of fruit. The Korbel mills located about three 
miles up the Russian River, are the most exten- 
sive lumber mills in the county. Considerable 
attention has of late been paid to the vine, and 
many acres have been set out. In addition to 
the lumber mills, there is also a box factory and 
shingle mill in active operation. The prospects 
of this town are very bright. Its rapid growth 
and prosperity are assured. 

Kellogg. — A summer resort, sixteen miles 
from Santa Rosa, witli which it is connected by 

Lakeside is a thriving and growing village, 
twenty-two miles southeast of Santa Rosa. 
There are large farming, dairy and stock raising 
interests in the vicinity ; the population is about 

Litton Springs. — A noted health and pleas- 
ure resort, four miles from Healdsburg, on the 
S. F. & N. P. R. R. The water of the mineral 
springs located here is bottled and finds a mar- 
ket all over the State. The Litton Sprino-s 
College is located at this point. The countrv 
in the neighborhood is rich and productive, and 
inviting to settlement. 

Mark West is on the line of the S. F. ct N. 
P. R. R. six miles north of Santa Rosa. The 
leading interests of the vicinity ure farmiiio-, 
fruit and vine growing. The population is 
about 100. I'he surrounding country is I'ich 
and fertile and excellently ada])te(l to the growth 
of vines and fruit. 

Occidental. — This, growing and prosperous 
town is located on the line of the North Pacific 
Coast Railroad, about thirty miles north of Peta- 
luma. Farming, fruit growing and lumber 


iDamifacturing are the principal industries in 
wliicii tlie inhabitants are engaged. Tiie popula- 
tion is 225. 

Penn^s Grove is a sinall .<ettlen)ent live 
miles north of Petalnina mi tlif line of the S. F. 
& N. I'. R. R. It is in the midst of a large 
vine gniwiiig an<l wine producing district. The 
population is 125. 

Timlier Core is foi-tj'-tive miles north of 
Petahima, and has a popidation of 100. The 
occupation of the residents is mainly farming, 
stock raising, and dairying. It is known by 
the Post Oftice Department as ISeaview. 

iSkaf/ffs' Sjyringfi, — Has long been noted as a 
liealtli and pleasure resort, twenty-nine miles dis- 
tant from Santa Rosa. A stage connects it with 
Clairville, si.x miles distant. Tiie jiopulation is 
about 115, who are principally engaged in wool 

Smith's Iian<]i, or more generally known 
as Bodega Roads, is twenty-five miles north' of 
Petaluma, and is on the line of the North Paci- 
fic Coast Railroad. The people of the surround- 

ing country are principally engaged in dairying 
and farming, from which their support is chiefly 
derived. The population is about is 250. 

Stiiiiy Point — Is located seven miles north of 
Petaluma in the midst of a large fruit, dairy and 
farming region. Thepopidation is about 20U, in- 
cluding those residing in the immediate vicinity. 

Valley Ford is one of the prosperous com- 
munities of Sonotna. It is on the line of the 
North Pacific Coast R. R., eighteen miles north 
of Petahima. It boasts of a flouring mill. The 
population is about 250. It is snppoi-fed by 
the large dairying, farming, and stock raising 
interest by which it is surrounded. 

Windsor is another of the large aud thrifty 
villages of Sonoma County. It is ten miles 
northwest of Santa Rosa, in the midst of a large 
farming and fruit growing section. There are 
many vineyards in the neighborhooil aud several 
nurseries. It has a population of 400. The 
village boasts of a brick manufactory, several 
fruit-drying establishments, and other industries 
of minor imnortance. 




Ill-fated^ Sonoma Countians — -Doctor Smeathman — Canfield, Van NosTRANn and Borton 

Barnes — Judson, Woodworth, Baker and "Old Benjamin" — Leihy — Mrs. Sai.lie Ann 

flHE early American settlers of Sonoma 
W. Count}' luckily escaped the clangers and 
J bloody episodes of Indian warfare so com- 
mon to those who follow close upon the foot- 
steps of receding barbarism. Their immunity 
from these usual accompaniments of frontier 
life are traceable to three causes. As early as 
1811, as has already been shown, the Rus- 
sians had secured a lodgment on this coast, 
and held real, if not undisputed, sway from 
Bodega Bay to the Ciualala River. Those Mus- 
covites came, not only prepared with ample 
munitions of war to make their presence felt 
and respected, but they liriHight with them 
quite a little army of Koiliac Indians who, like 
all the Indians of the northern latitudes, were 
much superior in intelligence and physical 
courage to the dull apathetic Indians of Cen- 
tral California. AVhatever there may be yet of 
unwritten history clustering around Fort Ross, 
it is quite probable that the shortest chapter 
would be that compassing the recital of Indian 
warfare against the Russians. Then, again, 
for several years by actual official Dccupancy, the 
California government had exercised complete 

dominion over all the southern portion of the 
county and up the valleys, inland, as far north 
as the present site of Cloverdale. But there 
was another factor, the third and last, more 
effectual than the combined power of Spaniards 
and Russians in paving the way for a peaceable 
and bloodless occupation of this fair county by 
settlers, and that was the pestilence of 1837. 
Before its destroying breath, there is good 
reason to believe many thousand Indians per- 
ished within the territory now embraced in 
Sonoma, Marin, Napa and Solano counties. 
Where tribes were not entirely swept away, 
they were so reduced in numbers as to virtually 
put an end to organized tribal distinctions. 
Before they had time to rally from this broken 
and shattered condition, the tidal wave of ad- 
vancing civilization engulfed them. While the 
historian of Sonoma County is spared the re- 
cital of bloody and tragic deeds consequent 
upon civilization and barbarism meeting upon 
debatal)le grounds, they to whom shall fall the 
task of embalming in volumes the histories of 
Mendocino and Ilumbolt counties will have to 
dip their pens deep in blood. 


While the boundaries of Sonoma County was 
ever a sliield to lier citizens against danger from 
Indians, not a few wandered fortli and tVli vic- 
tims to Indian savagery elsewliei-c. It is due 
to the memory of such to give their names, and 
tragic manner of death, a place in this volume. 
They are given in chronological order, and with 
all the minuteness of time, place and attendant 
circumstances, at command. 
• In the early sixties Rev. H. O. G. Smeatli- 
inan was installed rector of St. John's Episcopal 
Church, Petal uma. He was an Englishman by 
birth, and had a tinished education, being a 
regular graduate of a medical college of the 
land of his nati\ity. lie was a gentleman as 
unassuming and honorable as he was a Chris- 
tian kind and exemplary. In 1863 he resigned 
the rectorship of his church and went to the 
tlien. Territory of Nevada. Having a good 
knowledge of mineralogy he entered with zeal 
into the search for hidden lodes of silver which 
just then was the center of attraction to the 
mining world. He was in the habit of ventur- 
ing forth alone and penetrating the depths of 
solitary wilds. The following brief letter, 
signed '-J. M. Case,'' and addressed to Mrs. 
Smeathman, tells the rest: 

"Star City, N. T., March 30, 1864. 

"Mrs. Sarah Smkatuman, Dear Friend: — 
" The party who went out to see after the 
remains of your husband liave just returned. 
Although it stormed every day they were gone, 
they succeeded in iinding his remains, unmo- 
lested by any wild beasts or anything after the 
Indians left him. They found that he was shot 
by aritle ball, entering the back of his head and 
coming out at his right eye. He had no other 
marks or bruises on his body, but his 
clothes were entirely stripped from him and 
taken away. The party found it impossiJile to 
bring the remains in without a wagon and a 
coffin, but they buried him as well as they 
could, so that if it is still the wish of his friends 
to have him sent to California it can be done, 
but it will cost considerable."' 

Close followiutf the cruel fate of the ill-starred 

Dr. Smeathman, three more of Sonoma Coun- 
ty's sons, citizens of Eloomfield, fell victims to 
savage atrocity, near the same place, and at the 
hands of the same Indians who killed the former. 
Hon. E. F. Dunne, a former Representative in 
the California Legislature fi-om Sonoma County, 
in a letter of date. Star City, N. T., May 9, 
1864, addressed to the " Wells Fargo Agent, 
Rloomlield," wrote as follows: 

" We have had another Indian massacre here, 
and three of your townsmen are killed — II. I>. 
Cantield, Perry Van Nostrand and J. W. Borton. 
E. M. Noble is shot in three places, and has 
almost miraculously escaped death, the slightest 
show that ever a man lived on in this world. 

"The above named persons were on their way 
to Boise, and on Queen's River, distant about 
seventy-five miles from here, fell in with three 
persons who were out prospecting. They had 
stopped for dinner, and had turned their horses 
out to graze, having taken oft' the saddles. 
They were surprised by a band of sixty Indians 
who fired upon them from behind some rocks. 
It was certain death to attempt to run away 
on foot, so they made for their horses. Noble 
got his horse sooner than the rest and had him 
saddled, having only taken oft' the bridle, and 
might have escaped without a shot, but he 
turned and with a six shooter in each hand stood 
his ground and kept the whole band at bay till 
his comrades should get their horses and saddle 
them. While standing thus he was struck in 
the neck with a ball, entering a little behind 
the left ear down below the hair, and coining 
out about the middle of the back of the neck, 
barely missing the neck bone. A few moments 
later he was struck in the abdomen, on the left 
side, in the lineof the navel, some five inches dis- 
tant therefrom. He thinks both these shots 
were fired by the same marksman, as he noticed 
him taking sight. He watched for his appear- 
ance the third time, and as he showed his head 
above the rock behind which he was concealed, 
he fired at him, and thinks he hit him, as he 
saw him no more. But the boys were not 
ready yet, and he still stood his ground. He 



was not knocked down by either shot. The 
otliors who were not yet killed, were now ready. 
Bnt just as Xohle was preparinn; to mount, he 
was struck again,])ing inure wonderfully 
than before. Tlie ball entered from the front, 
on the left side, striking right at tlie base of the 
])elvi8 and passing under it, came out a little 
back of the right hip joint, and yet apparently 
not injuring him in the least, further than the 
pain of a ilesli wound, (/antield, Van Nostrand, 
and I'orton, with Dodge one of the pros- 
pecting party, were already dead. The remain- 
ing two with Noble now jumped to their 
horses and escaped. The affair occurred Tues- 
day, May 3. The parties left struck for the 
Jjoise River trail, to get help to go back for 
the bodies, and met with Mr. Jordan (after 
whom Jordan Creek is named) and some men 
with him, some of whom took care of Noble, 
and Joi^dan and others with Gates (who was 
along and who, by the way, is an intimate friend 
of mine, and from whom 1 learn these particu- 
lars) went back to recover the bodies. But 
there had fallen fifteen inches of snow during 
the night and they could not find them, and the 
horses could not live, so they brought Noble 
down here, and a party will set out immediately 
from here to recover the bodies of the dead. 
Borton was killed the first shot. Canfield and 
Van Nostrand were hit. The broke from their 
horses and ran, and a number of Indians after 
them, and no more was seen of them. Dodge 
was killed on the second volley." 

The Petaluma Argus, of same date in which 
the above appeared, said editorially: 

" In another column will be found a letter 
from K. F. Unnne, Esij., giving an account of 
the murder, by Indians, of J. W. Borton, Berry 
Van Nostrand and II. B. Canfield, of Bloom- 
field, in this county. J. W. IJorton was, prior 
to the departure for the mines, our agent at 
J'loomtield; and when he bade us good-bye, we 
little dreamed that sucli an untimely fate was 
in store for him. Since Mr. Dunne's letter was 
placed in type we have received a communica- 
tion from our Star City, Nevada Territory, corre- 

spondent in relation to the same subject. The 
only apparent discrepancy between the two 
statements is in reference to i'orton. We make 
the following extract from the communication 
of our correspondent: 'While Dodge was sad- 
dling his horse he received a shot in the head 
and died instantly. Gates had the pi-esence of 
mind to grab the ammunition, and he. Noble 
and Kendall threw themselves on their horses 
and charged through the ranks of the savages 
who were fast closing around them, and under 
a perfect shower of balls and arrows — all their 
horses being pierced with several arrows each. 
Dodge was dead, Canfield and Van Nostrand 
dead or dying — while poor Borton was sitting 
where he was when shot — not even blessed with 
the sweet relief of a speedy death, with only 
his faithful watch-dug by his side, which, when 
last seen was determined tojierish in defense of 
his dying master.' " 

Cotemporaneous with the chronicling of the 
above bloody episode, the Argun contained the 
following brief mention: 

" James D. Barnes, who used tu reside in Two 
liock Valley, in this county, and brother to Dr. 
T. L. Barnes, of this city, was killed by Indians 
near Areata, Humboldt County, California, un 
the fifth inst. He was out some three miles 
from home looking for horses when he was at- 
tacked and wounded twice, once in the shoulder 
and once in the back. He succeeded in reach- 
ijig home, but died soon after. He was buried 
by the Masonic fraternity, of which order hi; 
was a member." 

Only eighteen months bud run their ccjurse 
when another requisition was made upon the 
citizens of I'loomfield and Big Valley for blood 
to slake savage thirst -the treacherous A})aches 
of Arizona Iteing the instrumentality, this 
time, of placing crape at the door of several 
Sonoma Countj' homes. In the early part of 
186t) there was much excitement over reported 
rich deposits of gold and silver in the Territory 
of Arizona. To every new liehl of mining ex- 
citement Sonoma County liad furnished her full 
(juota of seekers after the " golden fleece,'' and 


many of them were in the vanguard of pros- 
pectors lured to Arizona. Andrew Jmlson, 
Ira D. AA'^oodworth and Metcalf iiaker, all from 
the neighborhood of Bloomfield, were betruiled 
by the stories of mines of almost fahnlous rich- 
ness, to abandon tlie qniet pursuits of agricul- 
ture, and seek in Arizona a speedier road to 
wealth. After much prospecting they at length 
staked their chances upon a mineral ledge in 
Sacramento district, some distance from Hardy- 
viile in tliat Territory. In this mining enter- 
prise tliey had associated with them a Mr. 
Noodles and a man known by the sobriquet of 
" Old Benjamin." That they had earnest faith 
in the richness of their mine, is evidenced by 
the fact that through the stubborn rock they 
had excavated a shaft to the depth of about 100 
feet. Whether inistaken or not as to the wealth 
of mineral below them, it can well be under- 
stood that in that desert place, surrounded by 
somber rocks that had been placed in their 
settings by the mighty forces of Nature, was, to 
them, centered much of hope and expectation in 
life. On the morning of the 29t]i of October, 
18i)6. they repaired to their work, doubtless, 
little dreaming that they were under the shadow 
of an impending calamity. Andrew Judson 
(we knew him well from sunny boyhood up to 
estate of manhood) had been lowered to the 
dark depths of the shaft, while his companions 
stood ready to winze up the tub, as filled with 
rock below. Their horses were picketed in the 
flats close by, wherever forage was to be found. 
The first intimation they had that the treacher- 
ous Apaches lay concealed behind the rocks was 
the ringing report of rifles upon the morning 
air. Woodworth, Baker and " Old Benjamin'' 
bit the dust, and Noodles, although shot through 
the body, made swift foot, and with knife in 
hand severed the picket rope of a horse, and 
vaulting upon his back, was the only one to 
escape to recount the tragic occurrence. Of 
the balance, human tongue never told, and only 
the recording angel knows what was the agony 
of poor Judson when his murdered companions, 
and jagged rocks, were tumbled down the shaft 

upon him by cruel Apache hands. That now 
deserted shaft, hewn down through rock, will 
perpetuate the story of one of Arizona's most 
tragic scenes. 

Wiieii calamity came t<i Sonoma •citizens 
abroad, at tiie hands of Indians, the first seems 
always to have presaged the swift coming of 
anotiier. In less than two months Ironi the oc- 
currence above narrated the Ari/i/.t chronicled 
the following: 

'■There apjiears to be a singular fatality that 
marks citizens of this county as victims of 
the iu\tred and fiendish barbarity of the Indians 
of adjacent territories. Only a few weeks since 
we clironicled the killing of three of our citizens 
in Arizona Territory, and again we are pained 
by the intelligence that another of our citizens 
has fallen a victim to the treacherous foe. G. 
W. Leihy, of this city, Indian agent for Arizona, 
and H. C. Everts, his clerk, were, Mhile on the 
road from Prescott to La Paz, on the 18th of 
November, killed by the Indians, and tiieir 
bodies subjected to all the atrocities peculiar to 
savage barbarity. Mr. Leihy was a resident of 
this county; and his wife and only child have 
resided in this city during his absence in 
Arizona. * * * We knew him well, and 
esteemed him highly as a gentleman and friend. 
Only a few months since he visited our oftice, 
and gave us much valuable information about 
Arizona; and when he bade us good-b}' we lit- 
tle thought that we would so soon be called 
upon to chronicle his death, under circumstan- 
ces so painful. 

" Since the above was placed in type, the fol- 
lowing letter, written by Mr. J. H. Stewart, 
who used to reside near Petaluma, has been 
handed us for publication: 

" ' Sax Bernaedino, Dec. 3, 186(5. 

'•'Mrs. Sarau Leihy — Dear Madam: — I 
have a task to perform, the most unpleasant of 
my life. I have been putting it off" for two 
days, and during that time I have scarcely slept 
at all ; the news has fairly stunned me. George 
is dead — killed bj' the Indians, as also his clerk, 
Mr. Everts. They were killed this side of 



Prescott, at a place called Bell's Canon, the 
same place that Mr. liell and Mr. Sage were 
killed last year. They were traveling alone 
with two Indians; one of them was his old ser- 
vant, the other was one of the River Indians, 
who was taken prisoner at Skull Valley this 
summer. It is supposed that they were attacked 
by a large number of Indians. I have got my 
news from men that I am acquainted with. 
They left Prescott two days after Mr. Leihy 
left, and came to the ground two days after the 
murder and saw his grave. They were buried 
by one citizen and some soldiers. They knew 
Mr. Leihy. He had left their camp about an 
hour, when the mule that Mr. Everts rode came 
back to camp. They then followed on and 
found them dead. They took them near the 
station and buried them. The two Indians who 
were with thera have not been found. The 
Indians killed one of George's horses and cut 
all the ineat off of it and took the other with 
them. They also burned his carriage and de- 
stroyed or carried off all that he had with him. 
You may hear of his death before you get this 
— I hope that I may not be the first to break 
the dreadful news to you, but I thought you 
would rather hear some of the particulars from 
me. I probably know more in regard to his 
affairs than any one else, and I wish you to 
communicate with me freely and I will do all 
for you that I can.' " 

As stated above, the two Indians accompany- 
ing Leihy and Everts were not found — and 
opinion was divided as to whether they, in con- 
certed treachery, had led their over-conliding 
companions into an ambuscade of fellow savages; 
or whether they had themselves been taken 
prisoners, and reserved for still more cruel tor- 
ture and mutilation than that which had been 
visited upon the lamented Leihy, whose head 
had been literally pounded to a pulp with 
stones. Some six months after the tragic occur- 
rence above narrated, the Arizona Miner pub- 
lished the following, which would seem to 
exonerate the missing In<lian companions of 
Leihy fiom the suspicion of treachery : 

"Among some Apache prisoners lately cap- 
tured by Colonel Ilgis in the Mazatzal Moun- 
tains and taken to Fort McDowell, was a squaw 
who, through an interpreter, gave the following 
particulars concerning the murder of George 
W. Leihy, superintendent of Indian affairs for 
this Territory, at Bell's Canon, November 18, 
1866. From the circumstantial and connected 
way in which they are told they are believed by 
the officers at Fort McDowell to be entirely 
correct : 

" A band of Apaches from the Sierra Ancha 
Mountains (probably Tontos) had been visiting 
the Colorado River Indians, and were on their 
return, with passes given them upon the river. 
Upon reaching Bell's Canon they proposed 
coming to Fort Whipple for rations, thinking 
the passes would protect them and also procure 
the supplies they were in need of. While in 
consultation upon the subject, an Indian in 
their company, who had spent much time on 
the Colorado, saw Leihy and his clerk. Everts, 
approaching by the road, and announced to tiie 
band who they were. It was then concluded to 
kill Leihy; to kill the great chief of the whites, 
as they thought him to be, would alarm the 
whole white population and soon restore tlie 
country to the peaceable possession of the In- 
dians. Acting at once upon this idea, they 
brutally murdered the superintendent and 
Everts; and to make the work more shocking 
to the whites, the bodies were mutilated in the 
most terrible manner. The Indian taken in the 
famous Skull Valley tight (August 13, 1866), 
for whom Mr. Leihy, in mistaken kindness, had 
obtained a release from Fort Whipple, and 
whom he was taking to La Paz, is reported by 
the squaw to have been an Apache Mohave, 
and to have been killed in the attack. She does 
not state, however, whether it was intended to 
kill him. The other Indian, a Mohave, who 
went from here with Leihy, was taken by the 
band to be a Maricopa. It will be remembered 
that he had just been on a visit to the Marico- 
pas. He insisted that he was a Mohave, but 
the baud denied it and charged him with being 



afraid to acknowledge his tribe. He was taken 
some distance in the hills and tortured to death, 
according to the usual manner in which the 
Apaches deal with the Maricopas. His scalp 
was taken and the band started for their ran- 
cheria, near Meadow Valley, where they had a 
grand dance over it. A sub-chief, the husband 
of this siiuaw, was sent to Big Rump's village 
on the Saliscus River, near tli,e mouth of Tonto 
Creek, with a request that Big Rumj) would 
have mescal ready by the next full moon, when 
the band from the Sierra Anchas would be 
there to have a jubilee over their killing of the 
white chief, his clerk, and the Maricopa. On 
his journey upon this mission, this sub-chief 
and his companion, including iiis wife (the 
squaw in question), were attacked by Colonel 
Hgis's party. The sub-chief and the other were 
killed; the squaw and others captured, as already 

Thus ends all that will, probably, ever be 
known in reference to the motive and manner 
of the massacre of Leihy and his companions. 
In this act of perfidy, the Indians of Arizona 
struck down their best friend, for Mr. Leih}', in 
honest faith, was their confiding friend, and we 
know it from his own lips that he believed that 
the Indians of the Pacific Coast were " more 
sinned against than sinning." We account it a 
duty discharged to place this token of remem- 
brance upon that lonely grave in Arizona, in the 
deserts of which Aztec semi-civilization seems 
to have met its sunset. 


We cannot more fitly close this chapter of 
Indian horrors experienced by Sonoma County 
residents than by appending the following 
obituary notice taken from the Petaluma Anjus 
of Mrs. Sallie Ann Canfield, an aged lady whose 
name was almost a household word in Sonoma 
County, and who, although dying peacefully 
surrounded by her family, had passed through ex- 
periences of savage atrocity such as will give her 
name a certain passport to future generations: 

" It is with deep regret that we announce the 

death of Sallie Ann Canfield, beloved wife of 
William D. Canfield, of Blucher Valley, which 
occurred at 10 o'clock Tuesday evening, April 
3, 1888. Mrs. Cantield's maiden name was 
Sallie Ann Lee. She was born at Arlington, 
Vermont, August 20, 1810, and married to Mr. 
Canfield June 10, 1828. In 1837 they moved 
from Arlington to Springfield, Pennsylvania, 
where they remained two ycj^rs and then re- 
moved to Jensen County, Illinois. In 1812 
they again took up their westward line of march 
and settled in Iowa, upon the present site of the 
now flourishing city of Oskaloosa. Here Mr. 
Canfield erected the first house and laid out the 
public square, the lines of which has'e not been 
changed to this day — though the city has an 
estimated population of 40,000. In May, 1817, 
Mr. Canfield started through the wilderness with 
his wife, five children and a small party of 
friends, for (Oregon. They reached Whitman's 
Mission in Walla Walla Valley, in October of 
that year, where they proposed to spend the 
winter and look around for a favorable location. 
In this they were doomed to disappointment, 
for in a little more than one month from the 
time of their arrival the treacherous Indians 
surprised them and killed all the men of the 
settlement except Mr. Canfield and a man by 
the name of Osborn, who made his escape. Mr. 
Canfield was badly wounded, but managed to 
conceal himself in an old adobe house until the 
fellowing night, when he was informed by some 
children that the Indians intended to hunt him 
up and put him to death in the morning. He 
made a heroic effort, on foot, and reached Lap- 
way Station, in Washington Territory, a dis- 
tance of 140 miles, in a few hours less than one 
! week. The women and children were all made 
i prisoners and servants of the Indians, except 
Mrs. Whitman, who was killed. When it was 
ascertained that Mr. Canfield had escaped the 
red devils put on their war paint, surrounded 
the house that contained the poor women and 
children and were on the point of massacring 
them all, when ' Old Beardy,' a former chief, 
rode suddenly into camp and standing upright 


upon his lioi-fje pleaded eloquently for the lives 
of the prisoners. The savajres' after listening 
spell-bound to the old man's oration, informed 
the prisouers that their lives would be spared. 
Here a long story could be told, if space per- 
mitted, of the efforts of Mr. Canfield, and the 
trials of the party, but it is sufficient to state 
that he interested the men of the Hudson Bay 
I'ur ('(iiiipany, in behalf of the prisoners, and in 
one month's time the good Peter Ogden, chief of 
that Company, arrived from Vancouver, and after 
an ett'ort of three days and nights succeeded in 
purchasing their freedom — paying the Indians 
in blankets, guns, ammunition, knives and 
trinkets. After getting possession of the 
prisoners he made a contract with the Nez 
Perces to bring Mr. Canfield's family to Fort 
Walla Walla where he joined his grief-stricken 
wife and children who had mourned him as dead. 
Peter Ogden took the remainder of the party 
down the Columbia River in three small boats, 
landing at Oregon City January 12, 1848. 
Mr. Cantield and family had lost everything ex- 
cept the scanty clothing upon their backs, but 
as soon as they were comfortably situated, he 
joined a party and went back to punish the In- 
dians. The chief and four of the Indians were 

brought in and afterward hanged at Oregon 
City. March 4, 1849, Mr. Cantield and family 
sailed for San Francisco, where they landed on 
the 10th of that month. They remained in 
San Francisco until August 1, 1850, when 
they became residents of Sonoma County, first 
settling in the oM town of Sonoma. They have 
occupied their present Ijeautiful home in Blucher 
Valley ever since January 1, 1852. Here they 
have been honored and loved for all these lorn/ 
years by all who came in contact with them. 
Here the good old lady passed awa}', surrounded 
by all the surviving meyibers of her family, and 
thus closed an eventful life. Her daughter, 
Mrs. James H. Knowles, of this city, and her 
son Oscar, who arrived from Idaho a few days 
before her death, are the only surviving children. 
We now have before us an invitation to their 
' Golden AVedding,' which was celebrated June 
10, 1878, and it recalls many pleasant reminis- 
cences of the past. Mrs. Canfield will have been 
laid away in the family burying ground, on 
their own place, before this notice reaches our 
readers. If there is any reward beyond the 
grave — and we trust there is — -for a long life of 
virtue, honor and unselfish usefulness, our friend 
is well provided for now." 










'HE history of this society i>^ a part of tlic 
; liistory of Soiioiim County, and among its 
^^ iiroinotors in tiie early days will bo found 
many names of Sonoma County pioneers. 

Tiietirst organization of the society was made 
under tlie name of the Sonoma Agricultural and 
Mechanics" Society, on April 12, 1859. Pursu- 
ant to a call made by publication a large num- 
ber of snbscribers to the Sonoma County Fair 
met at the Masonic Hall, Uealdsburg, on Thurs- 
day evening, March 24, 1859, to devise the 
necessary ways and means of carrying out the 
enterprise. A temjwrary organization being 
deemed advisable, Hon. W. I'. Ewing was called 
to the chair, and stated the object of the meet- 
ing, .lames B. IJoggs appointed secretary. A 
committee of two from each township was ap- 
pointed to solicit further subscriptions. A 
committee of live was appointed to report per- 
manent organization and rules and regulations, 
to report at a future meeting. Meeting then 
adjourned to April 12, 1859, at which time the 
society was duly organized, with the following 
officers: President, Washington P. Ewing, and 
nine Vice-Presidents ; Secretary, J. B. Boggs ; 
Corresponding Secretary, G. W. Granniss; 
Treasurer, Lindsay Carson; and a Board of nine 
Directors, consisting of Colonel A. Haraszthy, 
Major J. Singley, C. J. Robinson, Josiah Mnrin, 
G. P. Brumtield, J . ]S\ Bailhache, Julio Carrillo, 

J. W. Wilbur, and D. I). Phillips. The first 
fair was held at Healdsburg. At the election 
of officers for the next year, J. Q. Shirly was 
elected President, and I. G. Wickersham, Secre- 
tar}'. At a meeting of the society held March 
3. 1860, on motion of Mr. Weston, a committee 
of live was appointed to confer with agricultural 
societies of the counties of Marin, Mendocino, 
Napa and Solano, and in case uo society e.xist 
in those counties, then with some ol the promi- 
nent agriculturists and stock-raisers therein, 
upon the subject of establishing a District Agri- 
cultural Society, to be known as the Sonoma and 
Napa District Society. II. L. Weston, I. G. 
Wickersham, Jasper O'Farrell. .1. S. Robbersoii 
and Rod Matheson were appointed said com- 
mittee. The second fair was held at Petaluma, 
on the grounds of Uriah Edwards, and for it 
premium lists were prepared under the direction 
of Mr. Wickersham. Col. Haraszthy made the 
opening address. Petaluma Band gave the 
music for the occasion, at the price of four hun- 
dred dollars. The records of the society for that 
year are very full and complete, made by the 
secretary, S. D. Towns, who had been elected to 
till the place of Mr. Boggs. E. Latapie was the 
marshal of the week. 

At the election held at the close of the fair. 
Dr. John Hendley was elected President; Wing- 
field Wright, Vice-President; W. H. Crowell, 



Secretary, and J. II. Iloliiics, Treasurer, and it 
was resolved to hold the next fair at Santa Rosa. 
Thereafter the fair was held at different points, 
until 1867, wlien the society was reorganized, 
witli J. li. Rose, I'resident. and Phillip Cowcn, 
Secretary. That year the pavilion was erected, 
and a large part of the cattle stalls and horse 
stalls constructed, and the society, under its 
management, held its first fair; J. P. Clark was 
marshal; X. C. Stafford, superintendent of the 
pavilion, and il. JJoyle. superintendent of the 
stock gnninds. To make the purchase of per- 
manentgrounds about 250 life memberships were 
sold at the price of $25 per share, with privilege 
of free admission to all subsequent fairs and right 
to exhibit. The old race-track, about two miles 
from the city, was still used for all races. The 
second annual election of the society was held 
on the second Saturday of May, 1868. The 
counties of Sonoma, Marin, Mendocino and Lake 
constituted the district at this time. J. R. 
Hose was re-elected President; Andrew Mills, 
Vice-President, and Phil. Cowen. Secretary, 
with nine Directors. The fair for 1868 was 
lield at the new grounds, September Slst to 
25th, inclusive. George Pearce made the open- 
ing address, and E. S. Lippitt the annual ad- 
dress. J. P. Clark acted as marshal, and F. W. 
Lougee and M. Doyle as superintendents of pavil- 
ion and stock grounds. This year, for the first 
time, the society confci-red diplomas for meri- 
torious exhibits. 

At the annual election, in May, l86'J, J. R. 
Rose was unanimously elected President; A. 
Mills, Vice-President; P. Cowen, Secretary; I. 
G. Wickersham, Treasurer; with the same num- 
ber of Directors. The fair this year was held 
September 27th to October 1st. N. L. Allen 
acted as marshal, D. W. C. Putnam was super- 
intendent of pavilion, and Thomas Rochford, 
superintendent of stock grt)unds. The fair was 
very creditable, and the society felt the need of 
more room. A committee was appointed to secure 
more ample grounds for the fair and race-track. 

On the 15th of January, I. (i. Wickersham 
presented a petition to send to the liegislature 

to solicit State aid, and a meeting of life mem- 
bers was called to meet April 2, 1870, to select 
new grounds for the fair. The result of the 
action of the meeting was to l)uy grounds adja- 
cent to the old fair grounds, and upon them 
construct a half-mile race-track, grand stand, and 
other conveniences for a permanent fairground. 
The new board of officers were elected in Dec- 
eml)er, 1870, and consisted of E. Dunnian, 
President; Lee Ellsworth and II. Mecham, Vice- 
Presidents; J. Grover, Secretary; and Williaui 
Hill, Treasurer. Society during this year duly 
incorporated, and J. R. Rose, to whom tho 
several parcels of land of the fair ground had 
lieen deeded, as trustee for the society, deeded 
them to the society. A committee, of E. Den- 
man and C. Tempel, was also appointed to make 
arrangements to pay the large indebtedness of 
the society. 

The fair for 1871 was held September 25th 
to BOth, and was well attended. The third stage 
of the society's existence had now commenced. 
The receipts were largely in excess of former 
years, amounting to .S3,370. The annual meeting 
for 1871 was adjourned until January 6, 1872, 
when an election of officers was had, with the 
following result: President, Lee Ellsworth: E. 
Denman and J. R. Rose, Vice-Presidents; Frank 
Lougee, Treasurer; and J. Grover, Secretary. 
The great expeiise of the new purchase and 
grand stand, and construction of race track, had 
been met by the generous action of the public- 
spirited citizens of the city of Petaluina and 
county, who assumed the liabilities by their 
joitit note, amounting to about 812,000. About 
forty signed the note. This amount was after- 
ward ])aid by them, as the note became due' ex- 
cept 85,000, which was paid by the city of 
Petaluma. The j)ayment of this debt by these 
men relieved the society from a great burden. 

The society's fair for 1872 was held Septem- 
ber (ith to llth, inclusive. B. Ilaskel was 
superintendent of pavilion. The receipts of the 
society this year were larger than any preceding 
year, amounting to -85,841, besides the sum of 
82,000 appropriated l>y the State. At the annual 


election held December 7, 1872, the retiring 
Tresident, L. Ellsworth, made a report to the 
society of their progress, from its reorganization 
in 18(37 to date, by which it appeared that the 
total receipts of the society had amounted to 
s29,633, and that the society had expended, for 
grounds, pavilion, grand stand and premiums, 
the sum of §40,751 leaving an indebtedness of 
$11,118, secured as heretofore stated. The fol- 
lowing officers were elected for ensuing year: 
Tresident, E. Denman ; Vice-Presidents, L. 
Ellsworth, William Zartman; Secretary, E. S. 
Lippitt; Treasurer, Kobert Seavey. 

The fair for 1873 was held October 6th to 
lltli, inclusive, Captain Watson acting as mar- 
shal. Ilev. G. B. Taylor delivered the annual 
address. The receipts for the year were $6,- 
200 besides s2,000 received from the 8tate, most 
of which was expended in enlarging the accom- 
modations for stock and enlargement of the 
grand stand. The annual meeting for 1873 
was held on December 7th, and the following 
officers were elected to serve for the ensuing 
year: President, J. E. Rose; Vice-Presidents, 
Lee Ellsworth and IT. Mecham; Secretary, E. 
S. Lippitt; Treasurer, A. J. Pierce; Directors, 
A. Morse and Robert Seavey. 

The fair for the year 187-1 was held Septem- 
ber 14th to 19th, inclusive. D. W. C. Putnam, 
was elected superintendent of pavilion, and 
Judge Shafter delivered the annual address. At 
the annual meeting in 1874 the following othcers 
were elected to serve for the ensuing year: Pres- 
ident, J. R. Rose; Vice-Presidents, H. Mecham, 
G. D. Green; Secretary, E. S. Lippitt; Treasurer, 
A. Morse; Directors, P. J. Shafter and Robert 
Crane. The district was enlarged now by taking 
in Napa and Solano counties, and exhibitors 
restricted to the district. 

At the fair held in 1875 Prof. Fitzgerald, 
State Superintendent of Public Schools, deliv- 
ered the annual address. This year the pavilion 
was enlarged by the addition of agricultural 
and horticultural halls. The receipts amounted 
to S5,614. At the annual election in 1875 the 
following othcers were elected for the ensuing 

year: President, L. Ellsworth; Vice-Presidents, 
A. P. Whitney and P. J. Shafter; Secretary, E. 
S. Lippitt; Treasurer, A. Morse; Directors, 
Robert Crane and H. Mecham. Mr. Ellsworth 
having resigned, H. Mecham was afterward 
elected by the Board of Directors to till his place. 

The fair for 1876 was held from October 9th 
to 14th, and was in extent and quality greatly 
in excess of any heretofore held. The display 
of stock was the finest exhibited at any of the 
fairs of the State, and the departments of agri- 
culture and horticulture were greatly in advaiice 
of former fairs. Major Armstrong acted as 
marshal. Judge Shafter delivered the annual 
address. At the annual meeting held December 
2, 1876, the following ofHcers were elected: 
President, li. Mecham; Vice-Presidents, A. P. 
Whitney, P. J. Shafter; Secretary, E. S. Lip- 
pitt; Treasurer, A. Morse; Directors, G. D. 
Green, Robert Crane. By action of the society 
the district was enlarged to take in the counties 
west of the Sacramento and north of the bay, 
including Humboldt and Yolo. The fair for 
1877 was held September 24-29. M. D. Bo- 
rnck delivered the annual address, James Arm- 
strong acting as marshal. The receipts were 
the largest ever held by the society, amounting 
to $7,577. The pavilion was enlarged by ex 
tending the west wing forty feet. A large 
number of stalls for horses and stock were Iniilt 
and the whole grounds thoroughly overhauled 
and repaired, which not only absorbed the 
large receipts but entailed a debt of $1,385. 
At the annual election this year, 1877, the old 
board of officers were re-elected and the time of 
fair fixed for September 21st to 28th inclusive. 
During this year the grounds had been greatly 
adorned by the planting of trees. An art gal- 
lery was built twenty-tive feet wide by eighty 
feet long and other permanent imjirovements of 
the grounds and buildings. 

The fair held in 1878 was the largest and 
most interesting of the whole series. The re- 
ceipts amounted to $7,665. The expenditures, 
$8,436. Leaving a small debt subsisting against 
the society. 



Tlie Legislature at the session of 1877-'8 
enacted a new law in regard to agricultural 
societies, making the president and two directors 
to be chosen eacli year and the treasurer and 
secretary to be other than members of the Board. 
At the last election held December, 1878, the 
following Board of Directors was elected: Pres- 
dent, A. P.Whitney; E. Denman and K. Crane, 
Directors forone year; J. McM. Shafter and PI. 
Mecham, for two years; A. Morse and R. Seavey, 
for three years. F. W. Lougee was by the Board 
elected Treasurer and W. E. Cox, Secretary. 

During the last year the same enterprising 
spirit has been exhibited by the Board — new 
gates to the park have been built and a new 
ticket office and treasurer's office. The grand 
stand was enlarged one-half its former dimci- 
sions. jVew trees planted and new stalls erected. 
The last fair was equal to any that preceded it. 
J. P. Clark was marshal of the week; D. W. C. 
Putnam, superintendent of the pavilion. E. S. 
Lippitt delivered the annual address. 

The fair of 1880 was held during the week 
commencing Monday the 6th of September. 
Hon. A. P. Wliitney was the president of the 
society. The fair that year was largely at- 
tended, and made memorable by the presence of 
President Rutherford B. Hayes, General Wm. 
T. Sherman, Secretary of War Ramsey and Gov- 
ernor George Perkins. 

In 1881 the district fair was held at Petal u- 
ma, commencing Monday the 5tli of Septemlier. 
A. I'. Whitney, President; P. J. Shafter, H. 
Mecham and Wm. Zartman, Directors. A very 
able annual address was delivered iiy Rev. E. R. 

Notwithstanding t)ie large amount of money 
that had been cxpendeil in fitting up tiie " old 
fair grounds'" in the northern portion of the 
city of Petaluma, it was found that the society 
was cramped for room. The race-tr.ack was a 
half mile one. and tlie exhiiiitsof stock was get- 
ting beyond the possii)le accommodations of 
stall room. Something had to be done. The 
society determined to sell the old grounds and 
purchase elsewhere. This change was made in 

1882, and the grounds selected was a tract of 
100 acres in the eastern edge of the city limits. 
A mile track was graded and put into excellent 
condition; and the pavilion, grand stand and 
other movable buildings from the old grounds 
were put up. On the western side of the 
grounds, between the pavilion and grand stand 
was planted several acres of miscellaneous shade 
trees. There is now nearly a running mile of 
stall room, with space for further additions, as 
may be required. Taken as a whole this is now 
one of the finest fair grounds in the State, in 
all its appointments. In truth, it is a conceded 
fact, that the Sonoma and Marin district fairs only 
rank second to the State fairs at Sacramento. 

The fair for 1882 commenced on the 28th of 
August and continued for a week. It was fully 
up to the standard of former fairs. A. P. 
Whitney elected President; Henry Lawrence 
and H. T. Fairbanks elected Directors. The 
annual address was delivered by Professor A. 
G. Burnett, then of Healdsburg. 

In 1883 the annual fair commenced on Mon- 
day, 28th of August. The list of entries and 
premium awards were unusually large. A. P. 
Whitney, President; Robert Crane and E. Den- 
man were re-elected Directors. 

The annual fair of 1884 commenced on the 
27th of August. Jiulge James McM. Shafter 
was president of the society and delivei-ed the 
opening address. Professor A. G. Burnett, the 
accomplished orator, delivered the annual ad 
dress. A. P. Whitney, President; M. Page and 
P. J. Shafter were elected Directors. 

On Monday, August 24, 1885, the district 
fair opened under most favorable auspices and 
was an entire success. J. H. White, President; 
J. H. White, II. F. Fairbanks and ,1. E. Gwin, 
elected Directors. Hon. E. C. Munday deliveretl 
the annual address. 

The annual fair for 1886 fell on Monday, 
the 23d of August. .1. II. White, President; 
George P. McNear, John Switzer, elected Di- 
rectors. L. C. Byel was stijierintendent of the 
pavilion. P. J. Shafter, of Marin County, de- 
livered the annual address. 


Ill 1887 the I'iiir wa.s held as usual in the 
last week of August. It showed au increased 
attendance. J. H. White was still President. 
J. E. Gwiu and Wilfred Page were re-elected 
members of the Duard of Directors. 

The fair of 1888 was by far the most suc- 
cessful one ever held. Notwithstanding the 
ftreat room-capacity of the stock-grounds, it was 
inadcijuate to meet all the requirements of ex- 
hibitors. The ]>avilion exhibits were better 
than Gw.v before. Tliis society has done a good 
work in pi-omoting Sonoma County industries. 
Its present otticers are: II. Mecham, Presi- 
dent; A. L. Whitney, A. W. Foster, T. C. Put- 
nam, W. H. Gartman, O. Hubble, Directors. 

At this fair of 1888, Hon. J. Iv. Dougherty, 
now one of Sonoma County's Superior Judges, 
delivered the following annual address: 

Mi:. Pkksidknt, Ladies and Gentlemen: — 
This association has done ine mucli honor in 
inviting me to deliver the annual address upon 
this occasion. In accepting the task I was 
aware of the responsibility incurred, and I had 
no grounds of encouragement. 

I remembered that the subject of agricultural 
fairs and festivals of this nature was one upon 
which I was not in the habit of bestowing much 

I remembered that from a crowd of people 
upon the grand-stand, where there is so much 
else to occupy its attention, I could not expect 
close attention or be heard. 

I remembered, too, that my closest listeners 
would be those most interested in the fair and 
better qualiiied and more capable of addressing 
you than I myself. So that it is with a feeling 
of awe that I undertake the task, and I would 
that I were more qualified to do justice to the 
theme, that iny appreciation of the honor might 
lie better shown. 

AVlien I begun to revolve the subject over in 
my mind, to determine what 1 should say, the 
first question that I naturally asked myself was, 
what is the origin of the American fair? Is it 
a legacy from some foreign country or the pro- 
duct of American enterprise, ambition and in- 

genuity. Wherein docs it diti'cr from the 
prehistoric harvest festival or the fairs of ancient 
and modern time of other countries. 

Py some, the word fair is derived from a 
Latin word nicaning holiday, a day exeni[)t 
from labor; by others, from a Latin word mean- 
ing to trade, to barter. 

There were festival occasions in early times, 
the object of which would make either deriva- 
tion acceptal)le. 

Heathen mythology aixuinds with allusions to 
the festivals held in honor of their gods. Under 
the inspiration of a false yet beautiful theology, 
it was the custom at stated intervals to render 
homage at temples consecrated to their deities. 

Gifts were brought to propitiate the all-pow- 
erful Demeter — the fabled representative of 

We read of the corn and harvest festivals 
held in honor of Ceres. 

Horace sings from his Sabine farm of the 
festival of golden fruits in honor of Pomona. 

When the harvest season was over, when the 
wine press had been laid away, Italia's vine- 
dressers used to meet at some nook on the vine- 
clad hills and tap the last year's cask in hoiun- 
of Bacchus. 

The old Roman used to seek the excitement 
of the hippodrome and witness the horse races 
and chariot races. 

These were purely holiday festivals. There 
is another class of festivals in foreign lands of 
early origin and now common in many parts of 
Europe and Asia. It is called the Fair. Lord 
Coke defines it as ''a greater species of market 
recurring at more distant intervals " and calls 
them legalized public places for the sale, ex- 
change and barter of commodities. 

These fairs originated because of the want of 
proper communications between producers and 

One of the most noted of these is that of 
Hurdniar, on the upper course of the Ganges. 
A quarter of a million of people annually visit 
the exposition, and every twelfth year a million 
or upward make a special pilgrimage from all 



parts of" Asia taking tliithor Persian shawls, 
rugs and carpets, Indian silks, Cassimere shawls, 
preserved fruits, spices, drugs, et cetera, together 
with immense numbers of cattle, liorses, slieep 
and camels. 

The annual fairs of Beaucaire in France, of 
Nihni Norgorod of Russia, the German fairs of 
Frankfort and Leipsic, wliere gather the pro- 
ducers and traveling merchants from the four 
corners of the earth, bringino; with them their 
fabrics and costly wares, are all the outgrowth 
of a necessary common center of exchange. 

The American Agricultural i'^airis peculiarly 
an American institution. We come not here to 
do sacrifice to an imaginary protectress or .scat- 
ter offerings npon her saci'ed shrine. 

We come not here solely to barter our own 
jiecnliar productions. 

Ours the better part to meet together for 
mutual counsel and improvement, to compare 
e.xperiences, to witness the achievements of the 
present, and seek to expand, enlarge and perfect 
our capacities for future usefulness. 

The harvest having closed, the season's work 
being over, it is a holiday week when the farmer 
throws aside his tools, selects the choicest of 
his grain, vegetables and live stock; the fruit 
grower brings his peach, jiear, apple, fig, apri- 
cot, plum aad olive; the wine-grower, the pure 
juices of his press; the merchant, his stock of 
goods, wares and merchandise; the stock-raiser 
liis finest herds of imported cattle and thorongh- 
l)red standard work and ti'otting horses; the 
mother brings the little baby, the daughter her 
needlework, to exhibit them to the world, to 
compare them with their neighbors, and with 
frietully rivalry contend for a prize. 

How grand is the scene before ns! a mile of 
stalls filled with blooded horses with ears erect 
and nostrils extended ready for a race. Live 
stock of every description from every nook and 
corner of the district, and a pavilion filled to 
overflowing. * •'■ " * * 

In belialf of this association and its directors, 
a cordial welcome is extended to all. 

This association has great cause to rejoice at 

the rapid progress which our j)eople are making 
in all that tends to build up a great and powerful 

The lively interest which is now manifested 
in the improvement of all sorts of stock has 
given us in our genial climate the best variety 
of animals in tiie world. 

Our rich lands are largely under cultivation, 
and we are not dependent upon others for the 
necessaries of life. 

The yearly reports which this society, is com- 
pelled to make to the State Board, show a vast 
increase in every department of agriculture 
from year to year. 

Indeed we have within our own district com- 
prising the counties of Sonoma and Marin all 
the elements of true greatness. 

With a population nnsurpassed for intelli- 
gence and patriotism, with as rich and pro- 
ductive lands as the world affords, and sufficient 
rainfall to insure annual crops without irriga- 
tion, if we act wisely and use properly the 
means which have been so profusely spread 
before us, there is for ns a glorious future. 

I am asked by members of this association to 
extend to its courteous president, active secre- 
tary and able board, its thanks for their liberal 
attention and successful work in its behalf. 

The management and work of the year must 
necessarily fall upon them, but there is work 
for every man and woman in the district. 

If we are to have a good fair and pleasing 
exhibition, we must bring sometluTig here to 

The larger and more varied the exliiliit the 
better the record among the archives of State, 
the better pleased the visitors, the better its 
financial condition. 

County and county, city and city, town ami 
town must all co-operate in order that each an- 
nual meeting shall sur[iass the last and iiiipai't 
an abiding good. 

It is not for to-day or for to-morrow, nor for 
tlie brief period of existence allowed to those 
who particii)ate here to day that wo perpetuate 
these fairs. 


Natukh's Laboratory— ThI' Geysers 

h^^;jl3Tj;j jp j^ ^'^ ^^^^ j^a j^ ^ jjatx: 

iS^' '^■i^^^^^zri^-^^^^c::::^:::^^^'^ ><^^: 



Bowles, editor of the Si>KiN(;FiKr.ii, ]\[as-;aohi'setts. Republican — what Mr. Bowles wrote 
— Clark Foss — the kahtiujuake, 1808. 

fHE present terininns of tlie Donalme Roail, 
otherwise tlie San Francisco A: North 
Pacific Railroad, is Cloverdale, jnst eiglity 
miles from the city of San Francisco. A pleas- 
ant journey of three hours in the handsome new 
cars with which the company have lately 
equipped the road will land the traveler all safe 
and sound at that place. Leaving San Fran- 
cisco at 8 A. M., the journey is finished by 11 
o'clock, in time for noon refreshments. As the 
dinner progresses, the sound and hustle of the 
preparation of many lines of stages with passen- 
gers for the upper coast of Mendocino, the 
Geysers, Flighland Springs and other splendid 
summer resorts fill the air. The Geysers of 
Sonoma County are pre-eminently the one un- 
paralleled wonder, the something which no other 
country in the world can duplicate, illustrati\e 
of the wondrous waj's of Providence visible in 
this world below. FVom Cloverdale to the 
Geysers is sixteen miles, making the whole dis- 
tance from San Francisco ninety-six miles and 
al)out six hours' journey. 

A distinguished European geologist describes 
the California Geysers as " fearful, wonderful." 
The visitor is surrounded by all kinds of con- 
tending elements, boiling, roaring, thundering. 

hissing, bubbling, spurting and steaming here 
extremes meet in a most astonishing way — if a 
diversity of mineral springs can be called ex- 
tremes — as there are over three hundred in 
number that possess every variety of character- 
istic. Some are hot; others icy cold; some con- 
tain iron; some soda; others sulphur. Side by 
side boil and bubble the hottest of hot springs 
and the coldest of cold ones, being, frequently, 
but a few inches apart. Indeed so closely do 
they lie together that the greatest care must be 
exercised lest one should step knee-deep into a 
" cauldron '' or an " icy bath.'' Even the rocks 
become thoroughly heated, and quantities of 
magnesia, sulphur, alum and many other chemi- 
cals lie thickl}' strewn about the lava beds, 
making a sort of druggists' paradise. The noise, 
too, and the smell are as diversified as the char- 
acter of the springs. Of the lioiling springs 
and steam receptacles, one is known as the 
" Devil's Grist Mill," another, " The Calliope," 
then, the "Steamboat (xeysers," the "Witches' 
Cauldron," the " Mouutain of Fire,'' the latter 
of which contains several hundred apertures. 
In all of these are shown, each for itself, some 
interesting and remarkable peculiarity. 

It is a place that recalls to our mind the 



Witches" Retreat in Shakespeare's Macbeth. 
The water in a pool of the stream forms 
Nature's Cauldron, and one cannot liut repeat: 

" Round about the CiUlUli-on go; 
In tlie poisoned entrails throw — 
Toail, that under coUlest stone, 
Days and nights has thirty-one. 
Swelter'd venom sleeping got, 
Boil thou first i'the cliarmed pot ! 

Double, double, toil and trouble; 
Fire, burn; and cauldron biililile. 

" Fillet of a fennj' snake. 
In the cauldron boil and bake; 
Eye of newt, and toe of frog. 
Wool of bat, and tongue of dog, 
Ailder's fork, and blind-worm's sting, 
Lizzard's leg, and owlet's wing, 
For a charm of powerful trouble. 
Like a hell-broth boil and bubble. 

Double, double, toil and trouble ; 
Fire, burn ; and cauldron bubble." 

(Jf tlie Geysers, the most enjoyable features 
is the stage ride from Oloverdale through Sul- 
piiur Creek Canon. The road is of easy grade, 
and the scenery inost picturesque. 

Samuel Bowles (since deceased), editor of the 
Springfield, Massachusetts, liepuhliean, accom- 
]ianied Vice-President Colfa.x to this county in 
1865, and they visited the Geysers. The fol- 
lowing is Mi;. I)Owles' description of what they 
saw in their journeyings: 

"Similar and prolonged experience, with 
some added and fresh elements, came from a 
rai)id three day's journey northerly to see the 
Geysers or famous boiling springs, and the 
neighboring valleys, famous for farms and fruits 
and vineyards. A steamer took us up through 
San Pablo Uay, one of the widen ings of the 
outcoiTiing waters of the interior, and Petaluma 
Creek, to the thriving town of the latter naine. 
I took a sharp look at it because of its persistent 
desire to steal your neighbor, llev. Mr. Harding, 
away from Longmeadow, and found it one of 
the most prosperous and pleasant of California 
towns, at the foot of one of the richest agricul- 
tural regions of the coast. The rest of the day 
we rode through driest dust and reposing 
nature, up through the Petaluma Valley and 

over into that of the Russian River, famous and 
peculiar here for its especial kindliness to our 
Indian corn, also for its toothsome grouse, first 
cousin to our partridge; stopping at the village 
of Healdsburg for brass band, speeches and 
supper, and after a rapid hour's drive by moon- 
light, at a solitary ranch under the (Teyser 
Mountain for the night. 

"Sunrise the ne.xt morning found us whirling 
along a rough road over the mountains to the 
especial object of the excursion. But the drive 
of the morning was the more remarkable fea- 
ture. We supposed the Plains and the Sierras 
had exhausted possibilities for us in that re- 
spect, but they were both outwitted here. For 
bold daring and brilliant execution, our driver 
this morning must take the palm of tl'ie world, 
1 verily believe. The distance was twelve miles, 
up and down steep hills, through inclosed pas- 
tures; the vehicle an open wagon, the passen- 
gers six, the horses four and gay, and changed 
once; and the driver, Clark T. Foss, our land- 
lord over night and the owner of the route. 
For several miles the road lay along the llog's 
Back, the crest of a mountain that ran away 
from that point or edge, like the side of a roof, 
several thousand feet to the ravine below, and 
so narrow that, pressed down and widened as 
much as was possible, it was rarely over ten or 
twelve feet wide, and in one place but seven 
feet, winding in and out, and yet we went over 
this narrow causeway on the full gallop. 

" After going up and down several inountains, 
having rare views of valleys and ravines and 
peaks, under the shadows and inists of early 
morning, we came to a point overlooking the 
Gej'sers. Far belovv in the valley we could see 
the hot steam pouring out of the ground, and 
wide was the waste arouml. The descent was 
alinost j^erpendicular; the road ran down 1,600 
feet in the two miles to the hotel, and it had 
thirty-five sliarp turns in its course. 'Look;it 
your watch,' said Foss, iis ho started on the 
steep decline; crack, crack, went the whip o\(>r 
the heads f)f the leaders, as the sharp corners came 
in sight, and they plunged with seeming reck- 


lessness aliead, and in nine minntes and a lialf 
they were pulled up at the bottom and we took 
breath. Going l)ack, the team was an liour and 
a ijuarter in the same passage. Wlien we won- 
dered at Foss tor liis perilous and rajiid di'i\ing 
down sucli a steep road, he said: 'Oh, there's 
no danger or ditiiculty in it. All it needs is to 
Ivcep your liead cool, and the leaders out of the 
way." l)Ut nevertheless I was convinced it not 
only does require a quiclc and cool Ijrain, but a 
ready and strong and experienced hand. The 
whole morning ride was accomplished in two 
hours and a quarter, and thougii everybody pre- 
dicts a catastrophe from its apparent dangers, 
Foss has driven it after this style for many 
years, and never liad an accident. 

"The Geysers are exhausted in a couple of 
hours. Tiiey are certainly a curiosity, a mar- 
vel, but there is no element of beauty; there is 
nothing to be studied, to grow into or upon 
you. We had seen something similar, but less 
extensive, in Nevada, and like a three-legged 
calf, or the Siamese twins, or P. T. Ijarnum, or 
James Gordon Hennett, once seeing is satisfac- 
toi-y for a life-time. They are a sort of grand 
natural chemical shoj) in disorder. In a little 
ravine from ofi' the valley is their jirincijial the- 
ater. The ground is white, and yellow, and 
gi-ay, poi-ous and mtten with long and high heat. 
The air is also hot aiul sulphurous to an un- 
pleasant degree. All along the bottom of the 
ravine and up its sides the earth seems hollow 
and full of boiling water. In frequent little 
cracks and pin holes it finds vent, and out of 
these it bubbles and emits steam like so many 
tiny tea kettles at high tide. In one place the 
earth yawns wide, and the 'Witches' Cauldron,' 
several feet in diameter, seethes and sprouts a 
black, inky water, so hot as to boil an egg in- 
stantly, and capable of reducing a human body 
to pulp at short notice. The water is thrown 
up four to si.K feet in height, and the general ef- 
i'ect is very devilish indeed. The ' Witches' 
Cauldron ' is reproduced a dozen times in min- 
iature — handy little pools for cookinfr your 
breakfast and dinner, if they were only in your 

kitchen or back yard. Farther up you follow a 
puffing noise, exactly like that of a steamboat in 
progress, and you come to a couple of volumes 
of steam struggling out of tiny holes, but 
mounting high and spreading wide from their 
force and heat. 

" You grow faint with the heat and smell, your 
feet seem burning, and the air is loaded with a 
mixture of salts, sulphur, iron, magnesia, .soda, 
ammonia, all the chemicals and compounds of a 
doctor's shop. You feel as if the ground might 
any moment open, and let you down to a genu- 
ine hell. You recall the line from Milton, or 
somebody: 'Here is hell — myself am hell." 
And, most dreadful of all, you lose all appetite 
for the breakfast of venison, trout and grouse 
that awaits your return to the hotel. So you 
struggle out of the ravine, every step among 
tin}- volumes of steam, and over bubbling pools 
of water, and cool and refresh yourself among 
the trees on the mountain side beyond. Then, 
not to omit any sight, you go back through two 
other ravines where the same phenomena are re- 
peated, thougli less extensively. All around by 
the hot pools and escape valves are delicate and 
beautiful little crystals of sulphur and soila, and 
other distinct elements of the combustibles be- 
low, taking substance again on the surface. 

" All this wonder-working isgoing on day and 
night, year after year, answering to-day exactly 
to the descriptions of yesterday and five 
years ago. Most of the waters are black as ink, 
and some as thick; others are quite light and 
transparent; and they are of all degrees of 
temperature from 150 to 500. ^sear by, too, 
are springs of cold water, some as cold as 
these are hot, almost. The phenomena carries 
its own explanation; the chemist will reproduce 
for you the same thing, on a small scale, by 
mixing sulphuric acid and cold water, and the 
other unkindred elements that have here, in 
nature's lal)oratory chanced to get together. 
Yolcanic action is also most probably connected 
with some of the demonstrations here. There 
must be utility in these waters for the cure of 
rheumatism and other blood and skin diseases 



The Indians have long used some of the pools 
in this way, with results that seem like fables. 
One of tiie pools has fame for eyes; and with 
clinical examination and scientific application, 
doubtless large benefits might l)e reasonably 
assured among invalids from a resort to these 
waters. At present there is only a rough little 
bathing-house, collecting the waters from the 
ravine, and the visitors to the valley, save for 
curiosity, are but very few. It is a wild, unre- 
deemed spot, all around the Geysers; beautiful 
with deep forests, a mountain stream, and clear 
air. Game, too, abounds; deer and grouse and 
trout seemed plentier than in any region we 
liave visited. There is a comfortable hotel; but 
otherwise this valley is uninhabited. 

" Back on the route of our morning ride, we 
then turned off into the neighboring valley of 
Napa, celebrated for its agricultural beauty and 
productiveness, and also, for its Calistoga and 
Warm Springs, charmingly located, the one in 
the plains and the other close among mountains, 
and consisting of the fashionable summer resort 
for San Franciscans. The water is sulphurous; 
the bathing delicious, softening the skin to the 
texture of a babe's; the country charming; but 
we found both establishments, though with ca- 
pacious headquarters and family cottages, 
almost deserted of people. I'assed farms and 
orchards, through parks of evergreen oak that 
looked as perfect as the work of art, we stopped 
at the village of Napa, twin and rival to Peta- 
luma, and from here, crossing anothing spur of 
the West Range, we entered still another 
beautiful and fertile valley — that of Sonoma. 

"Here are some of the largest vineyards of 
northern California, and we visited that of the 
Enena Vista Viiiicultural Society, under the 
management of Colonel Ilarasztliy, a Hunga- 
rian. This estate embraces about 5,000 acres 
of land, a princely-looking house, large wine 
manufactory and cellars, and about a million 
vines, foreign and native. Tiie whole value of 
its property is half a niillii)n dollai's. including 
$100,000 worth of wine bratidii's ready and in 
preparation for market. We tasted the liquors, 

we shared the generous hospitality of the estate 
and superinteiident; bnt we failed to obtain, 
here or elsewhere, any satisfactory information 
as to the success of wine-making yet in Cali- 
fornia. The business is still very much in its 
infancy, indeed; and this one enterprise does 
not seem well managed. Nor do we find the 
wine very inviting; they partake of the general 
character of the Rhine wines and the Ohio 
Catawba, bnt are rougher, harsh and beady — 
needing apparantly both some improvement in 
culture and manufacture and time for softe?iing. 
I have drank, indeed, much better CJalifornia 
wine in Springfield than out here.'' 

As a Knight of the Whip, Clark Foss had a 
wide reputation only equalled by that of " Hank 
Monk." But he was caught by death on the 
down grade, and his foot could not reach the 
break-bar. The Santa Rosa Democrat of Sep- 
tember 5, 1885, said: 

"James P. Clark received a dispatch from J. 
A. Chesboro, of Calistoga, announcing the death 
of Clark Foss, which occurred at his residence 
near Kellogg, (ui Tuesdaj' afternoon. Mr. Foss 
was one of the most widely known men on the 
Pacific coast. Ilis reputation as a skillful 
driver was second only to Hank Monk of the 
old Overland stage line. For the past thirty 
years he has run stages to and from the Geyser 
Springs. He was for a long time a resident of 
Ilealdsbui'g, and ran stages from there to Ray's 
Station, from whence passengers were taken over 
the Geyser Peak to the springs. When the 
railroad was completed up Napa Yalley, he 
moved to Calistoga, built a toll-road over the 
mountain by way of Pine Flat and thence 
down Sulphur Creek to the springs, and put on 
a line of six-horse wagons. Until the comple- 
tion of the Donahue mad to Clovurdale all travel 
went by that route. .Mr. I-'oss was a man of 
great nerve, and you could not rake up six of 
the most vicious mustang tribe that he would 
not tone down after a very short experience. He 
would whirl around the curves on his grand 
road at a gait that would stiffen the hair on the 
head of a timid tourist." 


A^ the forces of nature as exhibited by tiiese 
tkr-taiiied Geysers are very siio^gestivp fif vol- 
canic ornptions and eartiiquakes, we cannot 
more titly close tliis chapter than with a descrip- 
tion of the heaviest earthquake experienced in 
California since its occupancy by Americans, 
that of October 27. 1868. Its force and effect 
at Petaluma is tlius described by the Anjus : 

'• Yestenlay moining, at abont nine minutes 
to eight o'clock, an earthquake was felt in this 
city wliich for severity and damaging results 
surpassed anything of the kind ever before ex- 
perienced in this vicinity. The oscillation of 
the earth seemed to be from east to west, and 
there were three distinct shocks, following each 
other in rapid succession, lasting, we should 
think, from ten to fifteen seconds. liuildings 
seemed to sway back and forth like reeds in a 
storm, and onr excited and panic-stricken citi- 
zens of conrse made hurried movements to get 
in the streets. Horses plunged and fretted as 
the earth trembled beneath their feet. All 
nature seemed for the moment to tremble in 
fear at. the threatened convulsion. Several 
buildings were badly damaged on Main street, 
though none fell — the most of the damages 
done being in the stores wherein were piled 
goods of a perishable nature, ^fany chimneys 
were toppled and thrown down, and a stone 
dwelling in the southern portion of the city had 
its front shaken out, but the family occupying 
it being abed when the shock occurred, miracu- 
lously escaped injury. A great deal of crockery 
ware was also broken, and most of the clocks in 
the town stopped; in fact, for the moment, it 
looked like the end of all time. From all we 
can leai'n before going to press, the following 
are the names of those suffering damaofes: F. 

T. Maynard, breaking of bottles and loss of 
drugs, §1,000; 8. I). Towne, ditto, !?l()0; Man- 
ning & Son, $20; DeMartin & Co., $200; 
Symonds, !f;75; Lamoreaux ^ Cox, $20; A. !'. 
Whitney, $150; Carothers A: Todd, $100; and 
several others whose damages are comparatively 
trivial. During the whole forenoon of yester- 
day light shocks were felt, and every one seemed 
to be more or less nervous lest another heavy 
shock might visit us with more disastrous re- 
sults. There were no casualties. Up to present 
writing everything is quiet, and the fright of 
our people is diminishing. There was a report 
that the brick school-honse was badly damaged, 
but this, like a thousand other reports, is totally 
without foundation or truth." 

In continuation of matters in relation to that 
memorable earthquake, the Petaluma Anpix of 
October 211th, said: 

'• In this city the earthquake did little damage 
outside of what was mentioned in last week's 
paper. A brick kiln, in the lower part of town, 
the property of C. A. Hough, sustained consid- 
erable damage, there being about twenty thou- 
sand brick broken. We have experienced 
several shocks since, but none that compared in 
severity with the one on Wednesday of last 
week. The effect on San Francisco turns out 
not to be so damaging as at first reported. ( )nly 
five persons were killed outright. The damages 
to property is quite large, and will probably 
reach over two millions of dollars. In other 
portions of the State, at San Jose. San Leandro, 
Oakland, Napa, Ilaywoods and Gilroy the shock, 
was more or less severe, doing considerable 
damage and resulting in the loss of two or tliree 
lives. At Sacramento and above tlie shock was 
felt, but was comparatively light." 



Extent of ekdwood forests — the lumber output of mills — Coloxel Armstrong's grove — 


IXTENDTNG from Mendocino southward 
long the coast line of the county, to a 
distance averaging about ten miles inland, 
is a magniticent redwood belt of timber. There 
are considerable quantities along Russian River 
and tlieGualalaand at intermediate points, possi- 
bly' one thousand millions of feet of lumber if all 
the lumber is accessible. 

The soil, generally throughoit this region is 
very fertile. The valley's are mainly sandy loam, 
the deposits of ages. The hillsides, usually 
a dark loose mold of vegetable matter, some- 
times with gravel, and clay and rocks. It would 
seem as if the earth that produces this enor- 
mous growth ought to raise almost any kind of 
vegetation, and so far as tried, it does. There 
is no better land in the State for general farming 
purposes. Fruit, grapes, alfalfa, corn, vines, 
etc., grow to perfection. The land too is cheap 
as compared with other more vaunted localities. 
But it is rough and laborious work to put these 
raw clearings, left by the loggers, in shape for 
the plow. Rears, apj)les, peaches, figs, grapes 
and especially French prunes flourish in perfec- 
tion, and produce with unbroken regularity. 
It is a section of the State little heard from 
heretofore and destined to become better 

To give the reader some idea of the resources 
of tiie redwoods — what is left of them — it may 
be stated that Occidental, Duncan's Mills and 
Guerneville are villages which are sustained 
mostly by saw-mills and lumber industries. 
The daily average .shipments from Guerneville 
are about eighteen carloads, of which ten are 
lumber furnished by the Rig Bottom saw-mill. 
The annual output of lumber, ties, posts, pickets, 
shingles, cordwood, bark and piles is about half 
a million dollars from these little stations on 
Russian River. Near the mouth of the Gualala 
River there is a fine mill, owning an immense 
tract of 15,000 acres of timber, and making 
extensive shipments. 

NotwithstaTiding the great value of this tim- 
l>er for exj)ort, its chief value is its proximity 
to the Santa Rosa and Petaluma valleys, which 
extend from fifty to sixty miles northward 
from the Bay of San Francisco. Throughout 
that entire country all the fencing and building 
lias been furnished by thcs.' redwoods. The 
first settlers went there and camped while they 
made rails, shingles and ])ickets on Uncle Sam's 
domain. It was common property. When the 
first saw-mill was built by Powers on the river, 
and after he had taken up the land, he was 
powerless to keep the farmers of the valley from 


felling the timber under his nose and carrying 
it ott". Things are l)etter managed imw. 

liedwodds are far taller than the xequoia 
(jujantea of Calaveras, whicli do not attain a 
greater heiglit than about 250 feet. J. umber 
men have cut timber here,- and can still show it 
in Big Bottom, over 350 feet high. The 
diameter is less, ranging from saplings to 18 
feet across the stump. Fifty acres of this heavy 
timber lias been set apart for a public park by 
Colonel Armstrong, with an extension of the 
Donahue Itailroad leading to it, and completed 
but for a link in the line crossing lands owned 
by parties who will neither lease nor sell, near 
the village of Guerneville. The road will doubt- 
less be finished after resorting to the courts, 
when future generations can have free access to 
the picnic ground. It will be the last remnant 
of a mighty forest before ten years, and the 
nearest one accessible (seventy miles distant by 
rail) to the city of San Francisco. 

The Petaluma ^[/yus of October, 1S82, says: 
" Some months ago mention was maile in the 
Aiyii.'^ of the felling of a mammoth redwood 
tree on the land of John Torrence, near Guerne- 
ville, in this county. The following additional 
particulars concerning this giant of the forest is 
furnished us by Wm. L. Van Doren, of this 
city: The standing heiglit of the tree was 34:7 
feet, and its diameter, near the ground, was 14 
feet. In falling the top was broken off 200 feet 
distant from the stump, and up to the point of 
breaking the tree was perfectly sound. From 
the tree saw-logs were cut of the following 
lengths and diameters: 1st, 14 feet long, 9 feet 
diameter; 2d, 12 feet long, 8 feet diameter; 
3d, 12 feet long, 7 feet 7 inches diameter; 4tli, 
14 feet long, 7 feet G inches diameter; 5tli, 10 
feet long, 6 feet 10 inches diameter; 7tli, 10 
feet long, 6 feet 6 inches diameter; 8tli, 10 feet 
long, feet 4 inches diameter; 9tli, 10 feet 
long, feet 3 inches diameter; 10th, 18 feet 
long, feet diameter; 11th, 12 feet long, 5 feet 
10 inches diameter; 12tli, 18 feet long, 5 feet 6 
inches diameter. It will thus be seen that 180 
feet of this remarkable tree was converted into 

saw-logs. As the length and diameter of each 
log is given, the reader can. at leisure, figure 
out the quantity of inch lumber the tree con- 
tained. If, instead of being cut into lumber, it 
had been worked up into seven foot pickets it 
would have afforded fencing material to enclose 
a good sized ranch." 

A correspondent of the Healdsburg Fla<j, 
who some years ago visited the saw-mill of 
Guerne it Heald in the l^ig Bottom redwood 
forest on Russian liiver, thus describes what he 
saw : 

"The mill has been running in its present 
location about one year. It is a very substan- 
tial and well arranged structure, the workman- 
ship of ilessrs. Bagley and Goddart of this 
town. It has a new 48-horse power engine, 
14 cylinders and 18 inch stroke, and runs a 
double circle saw — the lower one 02 and the 
upper one 70 inches — edger and planer. The 
capacity of the mill is 20,000 feet per day. 
The mill is twenty miles from Healdsburg by 
the road — about twenty-five miles by the course 
of the river. J. W. Bagley is head sawyer. 
We remained but one niglit at the mill, and the 
next morning penetrated into the foi-est for the 
pur])ose of seeing one of the resources of 
Sonoma County — her redwoods. Three and a 
half miles from the mills we found • Outch 
John " making shingles. This stalwart speci- 
men of Teutonic muscle eats, sleeps, cooks, 
lives and battles with the giants of the forests 
alone. Sometimes he does not see a human 
form or hear a human voice, but his own, for 
weeks at a time. He has felled trees. Two 

of them are nearly worked up, and he has now 
on hand, made from them, over 200,000 shingles. 
He informed us that on his place trees that 
would make 180,000 shingles are common. 
Some will go to 200,000. I applied the tape- 
line to one tree that measured 07 feet in cir- 
cumference two feet above the ground. This 
monster of the forest measures nearly 200 feet 
in height to the first limb, at which point it is 
about ten or twelve feet through. Mr. Bagley 
made a calculation upon this huge trunk, from 



wliicli lio says it would cut 180,000 feet of 
luiulicr, make pickets to fence a ten acre lot 
and fifty cord of wood. The Plaza church in 
IlealdBljurg is 80x40 feet, and has a steeple 20 
feet higli; it contains aI)out 30,000 feet of lum- 
ber. This tree, then, would cut luinf)er enough 
to make six such buildings. 

" Near Ileald's mill is a very large tree, kuowji 
as 'The Htable,' which is hollow at the ground, 
inside of which a man can stand upright and walk 
fifteen feet. It measures inside twenty seven feet 
across, and is capaljle of staliliiig twelve horses, 
with a haymow to supply them for one winter. 

" Not far from this is the ' Bean Pole.' This 
is a large tree, but it is somewhat tall. A meas- 
urement taken by professional mechanics gives 
this sprout a height of 844 feet. This is one of 
the finest bodies of timber on the coast, and is 
of a superior quality. 

" Mr. J. G. Dow has taken a section of the bark 
from around one of these trees — thirteen feet in 
diameter — in pieces three feet long and one foot 
wide, which may be set up .like the staves of a 
tub, showing the size of the tree. This bark is 
from live to ten inches thick, lie also had a 
piece of bark six feet long and about two feet 
wide, which is twenty inches thick, lie designs 
taking these barks East for exhibition. They 
will be on exhibition at the Mechanics' Pavilion 
in San Francisco during the fair this fall. He 
will perhaps give the people of llealdsburg, who 
may wish it, an opportunity of seeing this won- 
derful. growth before removing it to the city. He 
has had the tree photographed and will have for 
sale the pictures, in sizes to suit the wishes of all. 

" We visited the Steamer Jititei'prise, lying one 
mile below the mill. Captain King is quite 
confident that he will visit llealdsburg by steam- 
er before Christmas. Says he intends next sum- 
mer to make regular trips three times a week to 
llealdsburg. Next Saturday he intends making 
his first trip to the mouth of the river." 

In speaking of these redwood forests, J. P. 
Munro-Frascr a few years ago penned the follow- 
ing in reference tn the lumbiTing business in 
Ocean Township: 

"There are several very large saw-mills in 
this townshij), in fact, there is more mill capac- 
ity in it than in any other in the county at the 
present time, aggregating about 150,000 feet 
daily. The Duncan's Mill Land ami J^umbcr 
Association's mill will cut 30,000 feet a day. 
The mills owned by the llussian River J^and 
and Lumber Association at Moscow, Tyrone, 
Russian River Station, and at other points in 
the Howard Canon, will eacli cut 30,000 feet 
daily; none of the mills belonging to the last- 
named association are running at the present 
time, but the mill of the first named is in ope- 
ration. To give a history of Duncan's mill, we 
must needs go back to the pioneer days both of 
California and of saw-milling. In 1840 a num- 
ber of carpenters, employed in the erection of 
the barracks at Beuicia, conceived the idea of 
forming into a company and starting a saw-mill. 
Lumber at that time was worth $;300 per 1,000 
feet, and of course at that rate the business 
would pay far better profits than even mining. 
The company was organized under the name of 
the Blumedale Saw-mill and Lumber Company, 
in honor of F. G. Blume, of whom they leased 
the timber land. It was located on Ebabias 
Creek, in Analy Township, a few miles east of 
the present site of Freestone. Clias. McDer- 
mot was president, and John Bailiff, secretary 
of the company. They formed the company 
and rented the land in 1848, but it was not un- 
til November of 1840 that the mill was got into 
operation, but by this time the price of lumber 
had so materially decreased, and the expense of 
getting it to market was so great, that but little 
lumber was ever cut by this company. In 1850 
General George Stoiieman (then lieutenant), 
Joshuallendy, and Samuel Al. Duncan purchased 
the property of the Blumedale Mill and Lumber 
Company, and continued to run it at that place 
until the spring of 1852. In the meantime, 
however, either late in 1851 or early in 1852, 
Stoneman disposed of his interest to his part- 
ners, and they continued in business under the 
firm name of Ilendy A: Duncan. 

In 1852 Messrs, Ucndy iV Duncan moved 



their mill to a mining camp known as Yankee 
Jim's. Here they remained a year, and in 1858 
tlie macliineiy was moved to Michigan Blutt's, 
another mining town. In 1854 they brought 
the machinery back to Sonoma County, locating 
at Salt Point, and establishing the first steam 
saw-mill in Sonoma County, north of Russian 
[liver. Up to this time the capacity of the mill 
had only l)een 5,000 feet per day, but the new 
boilers were procured, making it a sixteen-horse 
power engine, and increasing the capacity to 
12,000 feet a day. In 1855 Joshua Ilendy dis- 
posed of his interest to Alex. Duncan, and un- 
der the firm name of Duncan IJrothers, the bus- 
iness was conducted very successfully at this 
point until 1860, when the mill was moved to 
the old mill site near the mouth of Kus?ian 

While at Salt I'oint they sawed 30,000,000 
feet of lumber, being an average of 5,000,000 
per year. At the time the mill was moved to 
Russian Ri\er, its machinery was greatly en- 
larged and improved, and its capacity increased 
to 25,000 per diem. While tiie mill was locat- 
ed at this place, tliey cut about 100.000,000 feet 
of lumber. No one has any conception of what 
those figures mean, or how much luml)er it is; 
yet even that great number would iiave been 
greatly increased, had it not been that almost 
every year large quaTi titles of logs were carried 
out to sea during the freshets. The winter of 
1862 was the worst, carrying away probaljly 
7,000,000 feet of lumber in the logs. It seemed 
almost impossible to construct booms strong 
enough to withstand the mighty force of the 
raging floods of water. In 1877 the Duncan's 
Mill Land and Lumber Association was formed, 
and the mill moved to its present location. At 
that time it was enlarged to a capacity of 35,- 
000 feet per day. whicli is about the greatest 
capacity of any mill in this section. The ma- 
cliinery in the mill consists of one pair of 
doulde circular saws, each sixty inches in diam- 
eter; one pony saw, forty inches in diameter; 
one muley saw, capable of cutting a log eight 
feet in diameter; two planing machines, one 

picket lieader, one shingle machine, together 
with edgers, jointers, trimmers, and all the nec- 
essary machinery and appliances for conducting 
the business of sawing and working up lumber 

We will now give a detailed description of 
the modux operandi of converting monster 
redwood trees into lumber, as we saw it done 
at this mill. We will begin with the tree 
as it stands on the mountain side. The 
woodsman chooses his tree, then proceeds 
to build a scaffold u]) Ijeside it tliat will 
elevate him to such a height as he may de- 
cide upon cutting the stump. Many of the 
trees have been burned about tlie roots, or have 
grown ill-shaped near the ground, so that it is 
often necessary to build the scaffold from ten to 
twenty feet liigh. This .scaffold, by the way, is 
an ingenious contrivance. Notches are cut at 
intervals around the tree at the proper height, 
deep enough for the end of a cross-piece to rest 
in securely. One end of the cross-piece is then 
inserted in the notch, and the other is made fast 
to an upright post, out some distance from the 
tree. Loose boards are then laid upon these 
cross-pieces, and the scaffold is completed. The 
work of felling the tree then begins. If the 
tree is above four feet in diameter an ax is used 
with an extra long helve, when one man works 
alone, but the usual method is for two men to 
work together, one chopping "right-handed" 
and the other "left-handed." When the tree 
is once down it is carefully trimmed up as far 
as it will do for saw-logs. A cross-cut saw is 
now brought into re(juisition, which one man 
plies with case in the largest of logs, and the 
tree is cut into the reijuired lengths. The 
logs are then stripped of their bark, which pro- 
cess is accomplished sometimes by burning it 
off. Then the ox-team puts in an apj)earance. 
These teams usually consist of three or more 
yoke of oxen. The chain is divided into two 
parts near the end, and on the end of each 
part there is a nearly right-angled hook. One 
of these liooks is driven into either side of 
the log, near the end next the team, and then, 



witli many a surge, a gee, and a liaw. and 
an occasional (^) uatli, the log is drawn out tu 
the main trail to the landing-place. If on 
the road there should he any up hill, or other- 
wise rough ground, the trail is frequently wet, 
so that the logs may slip along more easily. 
Once at the landing-place, the hooks at the end 
of the ciiain are withdrawn, and the oxen move 
slowly hack into the woods for another log. 
The train has just come up, and our log, a great 
eight-foot fellow, is carefully loaded on one of 
the cars. As we go along the track on this 
novel train on our road to the mill let us exam- 
ine it a little. Beginning at the foundation, we 
wilj look at the track first. We find that the 
road bed has been well graded, cuts made where 
necessary', fills made when practicable, and 
trestle work constructed where needed. On the 
ground are laid heavy cross-ties, and on them a 
six by six square timber. On this an iron bar, 
about half an inch thick and two and a half 
inches wide, is spiked the entire length of the 
track. The two rails are five feet and live inches 
apart, and the entire length of the tramway is 
five miles. Mow we come to the cars which run 
on this (pieerly-constructed track. They are 
made nearly scjuare, but so arranged that by 
fastening them together with ropes a combina- 
tion car of almost any length can be formed. 
And lastly, but by no means the least, we come 
to the peculiarly-contrived j)iece of machinery 
which they call a "dummy," which is the motor 
power on this railroad. This engine, boiler, 
tender and all, stands on four wheels, each about 
two and a half feet in diameter. They are con- 
nected together on each side by a shaft. On the 
axle of the front pair of wheels is placed a 
large cog-wheel. Into this a very small cog- 
wheel works, which is on a shaft, to which the 
power of the engine is applied. There is an 
engineer on either side of the boiler, and they 
have a reverse lever, so that the dummy can go 
one way as well as another. By the cog-wheel 
combination great power is gained, but not so 
much can be said for its speed, though a maxi- 
mum of five miles an hour can be obtained. On 

our way to the mill we passed through a little 
village of shanties and cottages, which jiroved 
to be the residences of the choppers and men 
engaged in the woods. Farther on we pass 
through a barren, deserted section, whence the 
trees have all been cut years ago, and naught 
but their blackened stumps stand now, grim ves- 
tiges of the pristine glory of the forest prime- 
val. Now we pass around a grade, high, 
overhanging the river, and, with a grand 
sweep, enter the limits of the mill-yard. (Jur 
great log is rolled off the car on to the plat- 
form, and in his turn passes to the small car 
used for drawing logs up into the mill. A 
long rope attached to a drum in the mill is 
fastened to the car, and slowly, but surely, it 
travels up to the platform near the saw. Our 
log is too large to go at once to the double cir- 
cular, hence the "muley,'' a long saw, similar 
to a cross-cut saw. oidy it is a rip saw, and 
stands perpendicular, must rip it in two in the 
middle to get it into such a size that the double 
circular can reach through it. This is rather 
a slow process, and as we have nearly thirty 
minutes on our hands while waiting for our 
log to pass through this saw, let us i)ay a visit 
to the shingle machine. This we find on a 
lower floor. The timlter out of which shingles 
are made is cut into triangular or wedge- 
shaped pieces, about four feet long, and about 
sixteen inches in diameter. These are called 
"bolts.'" The first process is to saw them off 
into proper lengths. These blocks are then 
fastened into a rack, which passes by a saw, and 
as the rack passes back a ratchet is brought into 
requisition, which moves the bottom of the 
block in toward the saw, just the thickness of 
the thick end of the shingle and the top end 
to correspond with the thickness of the thin 
end. The l)lock is then shoved past the saw, 
and a shingle is made, except that the edges are 
of course, rough, and the two ends probably not 
at all of the same width. To remedy all this, 
the edge of the shingle is subjected to a trim- 
mer, when it becomes a first-class shingle. 
They are packed into bunches, and arc tlien 


ready fur tlio market. We will now return to 
(lur ki^-. It lias just lieen run back uii the car- 
ria>j;e, an<l awaits further processes. A rope at- 
tached to aside drum is made fast to one-half of 
it, and it is soon lying on its back on the car- 
riage in front of the double circular saws. 
Through this it passes in rapid rotation till it 
is sawed into l)road slabs of the proper thick- 
ness to make the desired lumber. It is then 
jia^sed alonjj^ on rollers to the "pony'" saw, 
when it is a^•ain cut in jiieces of lumber of dif- 
ferent sizes as required, such as two by four, 
four by four, four by si.\, etc. It is then piled 
u]«)ii a truck and wheeled into the yard, and 
piled up ready for the market. The other half 
of the log is sawed into boards, three-quarters 
of an inch thick. At-the "pony'" saw, part of it 
is ripi)ed into boards, ten inches wide, and part 
into plank, four inches wide. The boards, ten 
inciies wide, pass along to a planing machine, 
and it comes out rustic siding. The four-inch 
plank passes through another planing machine, 
and comes out tongued and grooved ceiling. 
The heavy slabs which we saw come off the 
tirst and second time the saw passed through 
are cut into different lengths, and sawed into 
the right size for pickets. They are then passed 
through a planer, then througii a picket-header, 
a machine with a series of revolving knives, 
wliich cut out the design of the picket-head the 
same as the ditierent niembersof a molding are 
cut out. Thus have we taken our readers 
through the entire piocess of converting the 
mighty forest monarchs into lumber. We 
hojie we have succeeded in making the dcsci'ip- 
tion of the process, in a small measure at least, 
as interesting to our readers as it was to us 
wlien, for the first time, we witnessed it. AVheti 
you have witnessed the process of making lum- 
ber in one mill you have seen it in all, with the 
e.xception of here and there a minor detail. 
There are but few mills which use a "dum- 
my" engine to draw their logs to the mill, 
most of them using iiorses or cattle on the 
tramwavs. The lumber and wood industi'ies 

of this township will always n.iake it of con- 
siderable importance, and a prosperous future 
may reasonably be expected. 

In reference to these redwood forests, the 
engineer of the California State Board of For- 
estry recently said: 

'• r am indebted to J. AV. Jiagley, C. E. of 
Guerneville, for interesting figures, lioth as to 
the size of trees, and yields of redwood lumber 
near that formerly famous vicinity. Mr. Hag- 
ley measured one tree 84!) feet nine inches in 
height, and another nineteen feet in diameter 
underneath the bark, and states that the yield 
of one measured acre scaled in milled lumber 
1,431,530 feet board measure." 

There are thousands of acres that will yield 
this amount. During the past few years many 
thousand acres of redwood timber land, as fast 
as surveyed, have been taken by individuals in 
160 acre locations under the act peculiar to 
the Pacific States and Territories, for tlie sale 
of public timber lands, and under the home- 
stead and pre-emption laws. Tracts from 160 
to 640 acres in extent of land as good as any 
that has yet been cut over, can be found in the 
hands of the original locators, for sale at prices 
varying with the individual financial needs or 
business shrewdness of the owners. To secure 
larger tracts, however, requires a constantly in- 
creasing amount of perseverance, energy and 
capital, in consolidating these small holdings. 

The exports of redwood from California have 
until within two or three years, been merely 
nominal, and yet with only the local demand, 
over one-third of the redwood timber area has 
been cut. As an evidence of the growing scar- 
city of the wood, we will mention that around 
Guerneville, in Sonoma County, the price of 
stumpage has appreciated to ^-4.50 per 1,000 
feet. Eight hundred acres at Willow Gulch, 
in Sonoma County, were sold some time ago by 
the -North Pacific Coast Ilailroad Company, to 
Mr. A. Markham, of Duncan's Mills, at the 
rate of $3.00 ]ier 1,000 feet stumpage. This 
tract, it is estimated, will cut 100,000,000 feet. 




Names Belonging to Histoey. i^ 





X tliu I'ctiiluiiia AnjKS of Septeiiilier lOtli, 
<]1 1880, the' folluwiiig iiieiitioii is made of 
-V several di.-jtiiiguislieil visitors to Sonoma 

" According to aunouncumeiit I'resideat 
Hayes and party, together with Governor Per- 
kins and staff, arrived in this city at 11 o'clock 
a. m., Friday. The news ot" their coming had 
been widely made known both ijy telegraph 
and the daily Anjas, and as was to be expected 
there was attracted to Petaluma the largest con- 
course of people ever seen here before. At an 
early hour the people came pouring in from all 
parts of the surrounding country, and from 
every part of this and contiguous counties easy 
of access to railroads. On the arrival of the 
cars from San Rafael conveying our dis- 
tinguished visitors, together with the commit- 
tee of our citizens who met them at San Rafael 
to escort them up, a jjresident's salute of twen- 
ty-one guns was tired from the eminence at the 
western end of Washington street. While the 
cannon was looming forth a welcome, the pro- 
cession, consisting of a long train of coaches 
and carriages of all kinds, moved through our 
streets in the direction of the fair grounds. 
The |)rocessioii was led by the Petaluma Cornet 
Hand, llewston (Guards, St. Vincent Cadets and 
the Swiss Society. The carriage in which Pres- 
ident Hayes rode was drawn by four elegant 
caparisoned iiorses; tiien followed carriages with 
(feneral Slieririan, Secretary li.imsey, Ciovernor 

Perkins, Burchard Hayes, Colonel John AIc- 
Comb and other distinguished visitors. The 
streets along which the procession moved were 
a perfect cloud of banners. Considering the 
short notice, we have reason to feel proud of 
our city's holiday attire. Arriving at the grand 
stand a large number present paid their respects 
to and took by the hands our national digni- 
taries. When the first flutter of excitement 
had passed, and the vast audience had become 
settled, Hon. J. McM. Shafter, in a few well- 
timed and elo(^uent i-emarks, referred to the dis- 
tinguished gentlemen present on the stand, and 
introduced President Hayes, who was received 
with hearty applause. Mr. Hayes spoke about 
an hour a'ld his expression of encomium and 
sallies of wit called forth repeated ajiplause. 
Secretary of War Alexander Ramsey, was next 
inti'oduced, and made a pungent speech of about 
fifteen minutes, which produced both mirth and 
applause. General Wm. T. Sherman was next 
presente<l and hailed with enthusiastic applause. 
His speech was short, and related mainly to his 
visit to this part of the Pacific Coast in 1848. 
TheCieneral expressed his utter astonishment at 
the change that has taken place in thirty years. 
Governor Perkins, who was to delivei- the an- 
nual address of the fair, was then iiitroduceil, 
and spoke for about half an hour in a vein 
which kept the audience in a continuous uproar 
of merriment, lie exhiliited tjic adilress in 
nninuscript, wliii-h lie bad iiiteiiile(| u> (jeliver. 


but said it would answer for some other fair, 
and he would, like the gentlemen who preceded 
him, rest content witli an extemporaneous eilbrt. 
After witnessing the races, our visitors repaired 
to the residence of Professor E. S. Lippitt, 
where lunch was served, and at four oVdock, \: 
M., were escorted to tlie cars and departed for San 
Francisco. This is necessarily but brief mention 
of an event whicli will long be remembered by 
our citizens as a noted day in l^etaluma. 


Wiien civil war came it found Rod Matlieson 
the principal of an academy he had established 
at Ilcaldsburg in this county. From tlie very 
outset he had identified himself with tlie Free 
Soil party and when the civil war came, incited 
as lie believed by the slave power, lie was not 
long in determining tliat his duty lay at the 
front. Taking his life in his hand he went 
forth to battle for tlie right, as God gave him 
to see the right. His intelligence and dash 
marked him fur a leadfer, and he was made 
Colonel of the First California (Tliirty-secoml 
New York) llegiment. lie led his regiment in 
the memorable battle of South Mountain on the 
14th of October, 1S()2. Like the true and 
bi-ave man that he was, although in tlie face of 
defeat and disaster, he only left the field when 
borne away " on his shield.'" The following com- 
memorative of his worth and the esteem in which 
he was held by ins neighbors and fellow-citizens 
legitimately belongs to Sonoma County history. 

In September, 18(51, a war coirespondent of 
the San Francisco Alt<( wrote: •' 1 visited Hod 
Matheson"s regiment, composed alinust exclu- 
sively of returned Californians, and a finer body 
of men I never saw. They are drilled like 
veterans, and have a happy facnlty of getting 
along better than most uf the other regiments 
about them. 1 was impressed into their service 
for four days, and became the guest of tlie 
Colonel and Major l-"rank Lemon. They seem 
to live off tiie fat of the land, have a theatrical 
company among their members, a band of 
serenaders, and seem to have more fun going on 

in their encampment, than all the others put 
together. Strict discipline, while on diity, is 
maintained, and the men appear cheerful and 
contented. George Wilkes and Tom IJattel. 
and other choice spirits, make tliis regiment 
their headcpiarters. At the battle of Bull Run, 
about 150 outsiders, all Californians, well armed, 
did duty as irregulars with the regiment. It 
rendered the most effective service in covering 
the retreat of the Union forces, dro\e back the 
pursuing secession cavalry, and were the last 
to return to Alexandria, which they di<l not 
till the next day, in good order, saving 150 
wagons, most of the artillery, and the best por- 
tion of the baggage. The}' elected Matlieson 
General pro fuu.^ when ever}' other (reneral had 
left the field, and being joined by Col. IJlen- 
ker's (ierman regiment, succeeded in holding 
in check any attempt of the rebels to pursue. 
These two regiments, alone, saved several mill- 
ions worth of property. They had a battery of 
liglit artillery in the command, and did good 
service with it. They lost none killed, but sev- 
era Islightly wounded." 

The death of Col. Rod Mathesun. and the 
events preceding and following it are thus 
described in Washington correspondence of the 
New York Ilerahl, dated October 5, 18ti2: 

"The body of Col. Matlieson, of the First 
(Jalifoi'Tiia (Thirty-second New York) Regiment, 
was brom/ht here and embalmed to-day by Doc- 
tor> Ibiiwn and .Mexander. Col. ^[athesmi was 
wiiundfd while leading his regiment in the 
meiiKirable battle of South Mountain, on the 
l-lth lilt. It was found impossible to shell the 
rebels out of Coinpton (/iap, and General Slocum 
determined, after consulting with his I'rigadier 
(xenerals, to take by assault with iiit'antry the 
mountain which commanded the gap. It was 
one of the most brilliant atiairs of the war. The 
division cliarged up the steep mountain side, on 
which the rebels were posted behind three stone 
walls, with batteries placed on the crest of the 
mountain. The division, composed of l>artlett's, 
Newton's an<l Torbett"s brigades, advanced in 
line steadily up the hill under a terrible fire, 

HIsrollY OF tiONoMA VOliNTT. 


forming upon tlieir colors after passing tlie bar- 
riers successfully, and drove the rebels from the 
]iositiun. A rebel J\[ajor who was wounded and 
t.iken prisonei', said the}' had been told that the 
Union troops to come against them were green; 
but when they saw their steady advance, in 
which they moved as if on dress parade, the 
word ran through the rebel lines: ' These are 
no recruits — these are from that damned old 
Army of the Potomac.' In this'charge Colonel 
Matheson was wounded, while in front of his 
regiment calling them on. A ball lacerated the 
arteries of his right leg and fractured the bone. 
He died of secondary hemoi'rhage. 

" Tiie Californians in this e,\ty met to day at 
the residence of Mr. William Dayton, and passed 
resolutions expressing their sense of the high 
cliaracter and gallant conduct of Colonel Mathe- 
son. Senator McDougall, who presided, paid 
an eloquent tribute to the excellent qualities of 
the deceased, and Cajjtain Fish, of the First 
California Regiment, spoke feelingly in praise of 
his late commander. 

" Atameeting of Californians now here. Sena- 
tor McDougall, chairman, the following named 
gentlemen of this city were a])pointed a com- 
mittee to receive the remains of the gallant 
dead: Messrs. C. K. Garrison, (4eorge Wilkes, 
W. T. Coleman, Warren J-eland, Charles X. 
Stetson and Alfred E. Tiiton. These gentle- 
men are expected to meet at the Astor House 
on Sunday to make the necessary arrangements 
to carry into effect the part assigned them. 

"The body will be conveyed to New York 
this afternoon, where it will lie in state a few days 
before l)eing carried to San Francisco for burial.'" 

When tlie news of the <lcath of Colonel Math- 
eson reached Ilealdsburg on < )ct(ibcr 24, 1802, 
a public meeting was at once called, which was 
presided over by Captain L. A. Norton — J. J. 
Maxwell, secretary — at which the following 
action was taken: 

On motion of i)r. I'iper a conimittee of five 
was appointed to draft resr)lutions expressive 
of the feeling of the meeting. The |]iesi(lcnt 
appointed Dr. Tiper, Ju<lge Spencer, J. .J. .May, 

J. A. Bagley, and the president was added by 
the meeting. 

The president said he would bu glad to hear 
from the gentlemen present. Mr. Fenno, in 
behalf of the Sotoyome Guards, of which Col- 
onel Matheson was a member, moved that the 
membei-s of the guard wear mourning upon the 
right arm thirty days in memory of the deceased. 

Kemarks were offered by various gentlemen 
present, after which the committee on resolutions 
made the following report which was adopted: 

WnicKEAs, Recent telegraphic dispatches have 
contirnied therumored death of our fellow-towns- 
man, Colonelllod Matheson, while bravely and 
heroically defending the honor of onr national 
tlag; therefore, 

liexidi'ed, That we bow submissively to this 
atHictive dispensation of Divine Providence, 
and in common with others, nionni the loss of 
a pure patriot. 

Rcsiili-ed, That in the death of Colonel 
Matheson, the nation has lost a brave defender, 
the army an etttcient othcer and daring soldier, 
the people of California one who has nobly rep- 
resented them on the field of battle, his parents 
a ilutiful son, his wife an affectionate husband, 
his children a kind and indulgent parent, and 
the people of Sonoma a worthy citizen, whose 
name will be long cherished and honored. 

liesoli'ctl, That we sincerely and heartily 
sympathize with the family of the deceased in 
their deep atHiction, and that a committee be 
a])pointe(l by this meeting to tender them the 
sympathy of this meeting, and a copy of these 

Ri'siilr,',!, That a committee of three be ap- 
pointed to confer with the mayorof the city of San 
Francisco with regai-d to the conveyaTice of there- 
mains of the deceased to this place for interment. 

A committee to report the proceedings ot 
this meeting to the widow was appointed by 
the president. William i)ow,.ludge Spencer and 
P. Griost. were a])j)oiiitcd on that (;c.mmittee. 

Committee ap|>ointed liy the jiresident lo 
confer with the mayor cjI' San Francisco: Mr. 
Ilhjoni, Mr. I'iehls and .I..J. May. 



In the Petaluma Argus of xsovember 12, 
1862, the following appeared: 

"On Thursday evenint^ last tlie remains of 
Colonel IJoderick Matlieson, who died troiii 
wounds roeeired at the battle of Cheat Moun- 
tain, Octoljer '2d, arrived in San Francisco on 
the steamer Sonora. The remains of the fallen 
hero were borne to i'latt's Ilall and laid in 
state, whither vast throngs of people repaired 
to take a last look at all that remained of the 
lamented Matlieson. The funeral pageant was 
solemn and imposing. Rev. Starr King deliv. 
ered the funeral oration on Saturday, after which 
the body was conducted aboard of the steamer 
PcUiluind with due milit.iiry and civic lionors. 

'•The steamer /'e^<?^««i'« with the remains of 
Colonel Matlieson, in charge of a detachment 
of the National (Guards, of San Francisco, 
reached her landing, below the city, at 7 o'clock 
Saturday evening. His remains were escorted 
to this city from the boat by the Healdsbnrg 
Band, retaluma Gurds, Emmet Rifles and eight 
pall-bearers, consisting of E. F. Dunne, Will- 
iam Ordway, Captain Creorge E. Lovejoy, 
George Campbell, T. K. Wilson, F. D. Coltoii, 
II. L. Weston and Samuel Cassiday. .Night 
had cast her sable mantle over the earth, thus 
lending additional solemnity to the occasion. 
The plaintive strains of the funeral marches 
played by the band floated mournfully on the 
still night air; with slow ami measured tread the 
procession entered our city, and passing up 
Main street halted in front uf ^[(-('une's Ilall. 
Tiie pall-bearers received the cothn from the 
hearse and bearing it up the flight of stairs to 
the hall, ]ilaced it on the eatafahjue prepared foi' 
the occasion. A guard of honor was detailed, 
and stationed in the hall, after which the cottin 
was opened, and for several hours there was a 
throng of visitors to look at the corpse of the 
gallant soldier whose life has l)een sacriflced 
upon the altar of his country. Although con- 
siderably emaciated the features of the deceased 
had not undergone sufficient change to prevent 
thosewhokncw him from recogniziiifj his familiar 

" About 9 o'clock Sunday morning, the pro- 
cession was again formed — the coffin was placed 
in the hearse and escorted out of the city. A 
detachment of the Petaluma (iuards, in con- 
iunction with the detachment from the National 
(iiiards, proceeded witli the body to Ilealdsliurg. 
Six pall-bearers, selected by the citizens of 
Santa Rosa, met and escorted the corpse to the 
2)laza, in that town, where an appropriate ad- 
dress was delivered by General O. Hinton. Tlie 
procession again took up its line of march for 
liealdsburg. arriving at tlie residence of the 
lamented Roderick Matheson at 8 o'clock in 
the evening. The citizens of liealdsburg had 
made every necessary preparation to pay suita- 
ble honor to the memory of their esteemed 
fellow-citizen, who was to lind a last resting 
place in their midst. At 11 o'clock on Monday, 
the Rev. Mr. Thomas, of San Francisco, deliv- 
ered an appropriate and touching funeral dis- 
course, after which the body of Colonel 
Matheson was consigned to its mother earth, 
and a military salute flred over his grave. 

" He sleeps his last sleep, he has fought his last baule. 
Xo sound can awake him to glory again." 

.loHN yi. CAMEKOX. 

The following sketch of the life of John Mil- 
ler Cameron, who, together with his wife, re- 
poses in the Sebastopol Cemetery, is worthy a 
place in this history, not only on account of liis 
own merits and Worth, but because in his family 
young Abraham Lincoln made his home, all un- 
conscious of the measure he was to till in the 
drama of life. In all the histories of Lincoln 
mention is made i)f his residence witli the Cam- 
eron family: 

" Rev. John Miller Cameron, a resident of 
Sebastopol, Sonoma County, California, and a 
minister of the gospel in I'acific Presbytery, of 
the C.'umberland Presbyter/an Church, was born 
in Elbert County, Georgia, on the 12th of 
August, 17111, and died at his residence at Se- 
bastopol, Sonoma (bounty, after a painful and 
distressing aflliction of two months, on the 12th 
of February, 1878, being eighty-six years, six 
months and nine days old, 


" The deceased went with his t'atlieraud i'umily, 
while a youth, to Kentucky, in the year 1S04. 
and settled near the mouth of the Green River, 
in Henderson County, at which place he was 
married to IMary (^reiidorrt', in l>Sll; from 
which place he removed to the Territoi'y of Illi- 
nois, and settled in what is now White (Jonnty, 
in 1813. He removed from there to JJellviliu, 
in St. Clair County, in ISKJ, and from there to 
Sangamon County in 1818. This last move 
was made about the time Illinois was admitted 
into the Union. He stopped for a time near 
Springfield, after whicli he settled on Uock 
Creek, in the same county. lie was at the time 
a candidate for the ministry in the bounds of 
Sangamon Presbytery, and about the year 1827 
was licensed to preach, and devoted the principal 
part of his life-time to the ministry until 1S32, 
when he removed to Fulton County, Illinois, 
where he was instrumental in buildino; up seve- 
ral church organizations. He remained there 
until 1887, when he removed to the Territory 
of Iowa, and settled in Jefferson County, whei-e 
he was instrumental in building several more 
church organizations. Shortly after the admis- 
sion of the State into the Union, he again re- 
moved to Oskaloosa, Mahaska County, Iowa, 
and at that place built up an organization and 
erected the first house of worship in the place, 
devoting a portion of his time to preaching in 
the counties of Mahaska, Wa'pello, Van Huren, 
Jefferson, Ivcokuk, Henry, Jasper and others. 
He was always punctual in attendance to the 
appointments of the church, and seldom failed 
to meet his own. In the spring of 1840 he 
started with his family across the plains to (,'al- 
ifornia, and arrived at a place known as Fre- 
mont about the 1st of October the same year, 
remaining there but a short time. He then 
went to Sacramento, wiierc lie remained during 
the winter. In the summer of 185(J he removed 
to Martinez, preaching occasionally until the 
fall of 1851, when he removed to Sonoma ('oun- 
ty, near the present town of Sebastopol, where 
he purchased a farm, on which he has since re- 
sided. He was set a])art to the whole wf)rk of 

the ministry by California I'l-esbylery of tlie 
Cumberland Fresbyterian Church in 1854, after 
which his time was mostly spent in visiting 
destitute places, preaching and organizing 
churches, and after the organization in visiting 
and supplying said chui'cjies, until prevented by 
affliction and extreme old age. 

•' His wife died after a short illness, at her home 
in Sonoma County, on the 25th of March, 187t'), 
at the advanced age of eighty-two years. He 
and his wife had eleven children — ten daughters 
and one son. Nine of the daughters are still 
living, all but one in California. Thomas Por- 
ter Cameron, his son, was killed by the explo- 
sion of the steamer Secretary in 1854, near San 
F]-ancisco. One daughter, the wife of A. Mc 
Namer, died at the family home in 1855; one 
resides with her family near Cincinnati; the 
others are Mrs. Judge B. B. Berry, Mrs. S. M. 
Martin. Mrs. liev. B. JS'. i'onham and Mrs. C. 
Purvine, of Sonoma County; Mrs. Judge T. A. 
Brown, of Contra Costa County; Mrs. Hr. B. 
B. I'onham, of Butte County; Mrs. Henry Lys- 
tor, of Monterey County and Mrs. Cynthia War- 
ner, of Petaluma, the widow of the son deceased. 
The deceased liad at the time of his death filty- 
one grand-children and sixty-live great-grand- 
children. Since the deatli of the wife of tic- 
ceased, he has seemed to be broken down in 
spirits, discontented, lonely and dejected. 
Father Cameron was eminently a pioneer at the 
time of his settlement in Illinois in 1813, in 
Iowa in 1837, and in California in 1849; those 
States respectively not having been admitted 
into tiie Union. His life has been spent upon 
the frontier, and his occupation practically to 
clear the way for those who would follow. He 
was a devoted husband, kind and affectionate 
fathci' and generous neighbor. He died as he had 
lived, faithful to every obligation; was beloved 
Ijy all who knew him, and a large number of rel- 
atives ;ind friends mourn hisloss. He wasamem- 
ber 111' the Masonic fraternity about fifty years." 

SAI.MI MoliSi:. 

The Petal nma Arytis of March 1, 1884. said 
editorially: •' On last Saturday a telegraphic dis- 


patch from JS'ew York announced tiie liii(iingol'the 
body of Salmi Morse in tlie Hudson River under 
circumstances strongly indicating deliberate sui- 
cide. For several years past the name of Salmi 
Morse has been prominently before the people of 
United States in connection with his persistent the 
etforts to gain for his " Passion I'lay," the right 
of exhil)ition. His long and fruitless struggle 
to achieve this end in New York City is familiar 
to all who keep posted on the current news of 
our country, but we hazard little in saying that 
many persons in Sonoma and adjoining counties 
who personally knew Mr. Morse, have never 
once thought of associating him with the Salmi 
Morse of ' Passion Play ' fame. The attention 
of the writer was first attracted to Mr. Morse 
at a Methodist camp-meeting, near Liberty 
school house in this county, the summer of 
either 1856 or 1857. After the usual sermon 
the exercises consisted in alternate singing and 
prayer. A call was made for Brother Morse to 
lead in prayer. As is usual in Methodist meet- 
ing the entire membership assumed a kneeling 
posture, when Mr. Morse, a man small in 
stature and bald-headed, stepped upon a bench 
and with his head thrown back, delivered a very 
earnest, eloquent invocation, to which emphasis 
was given l)y a rapid forward and backwai-d 
movement of the head. At that time we got 
the impression that he either was or iiad been 
a Baptist minister. Time sped on and in a few 
years we were involved in civil war. Mr. Morse 
was a Unionist of the most radical type. He 
contributed many communications to the Argus 
on national politics. He was a vigorous and 
forcible writer, but so ultra that even the Argus, 
accounted among the most radical of journals, 
often found it necessary to tone down and ex- 
tract some of the vinegar and gall from his 
articles. His whole soul seemed to be wrought 
up to a white heat of righteous indignation over 
the iniquity of human slavery, and he never 
seemed to tire in anathematizing that accursed 
institution. He was a frequent visitor of the 
Argus sanctum dnriiig war time, and lie never 

departed without leaving it vapory with his in- 
vective against those who were trying to found 
a government with human slavery as its 'chief 
corner-stone.' He was a great reader, and 
evidently a close student of the Bible. One of 
his most telling shots was the calling the atten- 
tion of the ri'aders of the Argus to the 12th 
chapter of Nnmliers as an unanswerable refu- 
tation of the pro-slavery theoiy that the black 
race was to be servile and despised on acconnt 
of the curse of God visited upon Ham and 
his descendants. During the closing j'ears cif 
the civil war, Mr. Morse had a ranch in the 
upper part of Mendocino County, from whence 
he sent occasional contributions to the Argus. 
That his ranching business was not a financial 
success will readily be inferred from the fact 
that in the spring time of each year he usually 
came to the lower valleys and devoted his 
time to grafting and budding fruit trees. 
From and after 186t) the Argus lost sight of 
Mr. Morse for more than a decade, and only had 
knowledge of him again when there w-as a 
furor over the introduction of the ' Passion 
Play' in San Francisco. H was during this 
lapse of years, probably, that he traveled 
abroad and visited the Holy Land, from whence 
he drew the inspiration for his biblical play. 
His career has certainly l)een a most checkered 
one. Earnest and zealous in all his undertak- 
ings, his life became essentially a ' warfare.' 
Even before his great life struggle had fairly 
begun, there was a glint to his eyes, when 
aroused to earnestness on any subject, that be- 
tokened a brain very sensitive to morbid influ- 
ences. His was not an organism fitted to 
challenge the ' slings and arrows ' of a great 
city like New York. What the outcome would 
be was only a question of time. The time came 
at the noon of night. On the one hand was the 
city that he thought had wrongfully proscribed 
the ' Passion Play,' the crowning work of his 
life, and on the other the placid Hudson. 
Of the latter Salmi Morse asked and received 
rel)ii~e friun the moil of life." 









Animals xati\k of Sonuma Coixtv — gkizzi.v, urown and black ukak — paxthkr — fox — 


tITTELL, who is good authority, enumer- 
ates the indigenous animals of California 
as follows: The grizzly bear ; the black 
bear ; the cinnamon bear; the elk ; one deer ; 
one antelope ; the mountain-sheep; the panther ; 
the wild cat ; the gray wolf ; the coyote ; three 
foxes ; the badger ; the raccoon ; the opossum ; 
the mountain-cat ; the weasel ; two skunks ; one 
porcupine ; three squirrels ; two spermophiles ; 
two ground-squirrels ; three rats ; three jumping- 
rats ; one jumping-monse ; nine mice ; one mole; 
three hares ; two rabbits ; the seal ; the sea- 
otter ; the sea-lion ; the beaver ; two vultures ; 
the golden eagle ; the bald eagle ; the tislih;iwk; 
eighteen other hawks ; nine owls ; the road- 
runner ; twelve woodpeckers ; four humming- 
birds ; eleven tlyeatchers ; one hundred and 
nine singers ; one pigeon ; two doves ; three 
grouse ; three quails ; one sandhill crane ; forty- 
one waders ; sixty-six swimmers, including two 
swans and five geese ; about two dozen snakes, 
including the rattlesnake ; half a dozen salmon ; 
two codlish ; and one mackerel. 

Of these, all were indigenous to Sonoma 
(bounty except the oj)08sum, the jnmping-rats, 
the mountain-sheej), and possibly a few varie- 
ties of the birds and salmon. Our grizzly bear 
(^f'rxii.t horriliiliti) is the largest an<l most 
fnnniilablc of the (iiiadnijicds. lie grows to be 

four feet high and seven feet long, with a weight, 
when very large and fat, of a thousand pounds, 
being the largest of the carnivorous animals, 
and )nuch heavier than the lion or tiger ever 
get to be. The grizzly bear, however, as ordi- 
narily seen, does not exceed eight hundred or 
nine hundred pounds in weight. In color the 
l)ody is a light grayish-brown, dark brown about 
the ears and along the ridge of the back, and 
nearly black on the legs. The hair is long, 
coarse, and wiry, and stiff on the top of the neck 
and between the shoulders. The " grizzly." as 
he is usually called, was at one time exceedingly 
numerous for so large an animal ; but he offered 
so much meat for the hunters, and did so much 
damage to the farmers, that he has been indus- 
triously hunted, and his numbers have been 
greatly reduced. The grizzly is very tenacious 
of life, and he is seldom immediately killed l)y 
a siuirle bullet. His thick, wirv hair, toiiyfli 
skin, heavy coats of fat when in good condition, 
and large bones, go far to protect his vital 
organs ; but he often seems to preserve all his 
strength and activity for an hour or more after 
having been shot through tlie lungs and liver 
with large rifle balls. He is one of the most 
d-angerous animals to attack. There is much 
probability that wlicn shot he will not be killed 
ontficrbt. Wlien mei'dy wounded he is fero- 


cious ; liis weight and strength are so great that 
lie bears down all opposition before him ; and 
he is very quick, his speed in running being 
nearly equal to that of the horse. In attacking 
a man, he usually rises on his hind-legs, strikes 
his enemy with one of his powert'u! fore-paws, 
and then commences to bite him. 

The black bear ( Ursus Ameiicanns) is found 
in the timbered portions of the county. Dr. 
Newberry, speaking of the food of the black 
bear, says: "The subsistence of the black bears 
in the northern portion of California is evid- 
ently, for the most part, vegetable. The man- 
zanita, wild plum, and wild cherry, which fruit 
profusely, and are very low, assist in making up 
his bill of fare. 

The brown, or cinnamon bear, is also common 
to Sonoma County. The panther, supposed by 
Dr. Jsewberry t(j be the Felis conrolor — the 
same with the panther found on the Atlantic 
slope of the continent — has a body larger than 
that of the common sheep, and a tail more than 
half the length of the body. Its color is dirty- 
white on the belly, and elsewhere a brownish- 
yellow, mottled with dark tips on all the hairs. 
The panther is a cowardly animal, and, except 
when driven by some extraordinary motive, 
never attacks man. The jianther is nocturnal 
in his habits, and always prefers the night as a 
time for attacking colts, which are a favorite 
prey with hiin. 

Tlie American wild-cat {Lyn.r ruftis) is com- 
mon here. 

The gray wolf [L!anis occidcntalis) is found 
here, but is not abundant. 

The coyote used to be very common, and 
occupied the same place here with that occupied 
in tlie Mississippi Valley by the prairie-wolf. Dr. 
Xewberry thinks the two belong to the same 
species (( 'a /lis latrans). The color of the coyote 
has a reddish tinge. His food consists chiefly 
of rabbits, grouse, small birds, inice, lizzards, 
and frogs ; and in time of scarcity he will eat 
carrion, grasshoppers, and bugs. lie is very 
fond of poultry, ])igs, and lambs, and will destroy 
almost as nnuiy of tiiem as would a fnx. lie is 

one of the worst eneiiiies and most troublesome 
pests of the farmer. 

The gray fox {Vu/j>es Virghi'nouis] is the 
only animal of that species we know to exist in 
Sonoma County, although many years ago, we 
heard that a black fox had been killed in the 
northern end of the county. 

The American badger {Ta.cidea Americavr/) 
used to be common here, but they are now 
nearly extinct. 

The black-footed raccoon (^Proycon hernande:;- 
sii) is very common in the forests and along the 
water courses of the county. 

Of the yellow-haired porcupine [Erethison 
epixantJnis), a few have been found in Sonoma 
County, but they are very rare. 

The mountain-cat, or striped bassaris [Bks- 
saris astida), is occassionally found liere, but 
are not numerous. The body is about the size 
of that of the domestic cat, but the nose is vevy 
long and sharp, and the tail very long and large. 
The color of the animal is dark gray, with rings 
of black on the tail. The miners call it the 
"mountain-cat," and frequently tame it. It is 
a favorite pet with them, becomes very playful 
and familiar, and is far more atlectionate than 
the common cat, which it might replace, for it 
is very good at catching mice. 

The yellow-cheeked weasel (^I'tdoriiix .nintho- 
fjenyif) is found here, but are not numerous. 

The common mink {Put<irini< r/.w/zlhasa" 
skin as valuable as that of •the beaver ; the fin- 
is of a dark, brownish, chestnut color, with a 
white spot on the end of the chin. They exist 
here, but are very rare. 

California has two skunks (^Jlejy/titis orci- 
denfalis and Mephitis bicolor'), very common 
animals. The Jlejdiitis bicolor, or little stri])ed 
skunk, is chiefly found south of latitude 3!)° ; 
the other in the northern and central parts of 
the State. The colors of both are black and white. 
They both have a place in Sonoma C'ounty. 

T/ie S<iuirrei Faiiidij. — The California gray 
squirrel (iSciurui fossory the most beautiful 
and one of the largest of the squirrel genus, 
inhal>its all the jjine forests of tlie State. Its 

nrsToRT OF sotroMA county. 


color on tlio hack is a tiiiely-Lrfizzled l)luisli 
fj;ray, and white, heneath. At tiie haso of the 
ear is a little woolly tuft, of a chestnut culor. 
The sides of tiie feet are covered with hair in 
the winter, hut are l)are in the summer ; the 
hod}' is more slender and delicate in sliape than 
that of the Atlantic, gray squirrel. It some- 
times erows to he twelve inches long in the head 
and hody, and fifteen inches in the tail, making 
the entire length twenty-seven inches. Dr.New- 
herry says: "The t'alifornian gray squirrel is 
eminently a tree-squirrel, scarcely descending to 
the ground but for food and water, and it sub- 
sists almost exclusively on the seeds of the 
.largest and loftiest pine known (^2mius lamher- 
tiana), the ' sugar-pine ' of the Western coast. 
Tliese squirrels inhaliit the forests of Sonoma 

The Missouri striped ground-squirrel has five 
dark-brown stripes on the iiack, separated by 
four gray stripes; the sides are reddish-brown, 
the belly grayish-white, and the tail rusty-black 
above and rusty-brown beneath. The animal is 
four or five inches long. It is found in the 
northern part of the State. It eats acorns and 
the seeds of the pine, inanzanita, and ceanothns, 
in the thickets of which last-named bush it prefers 
to hide its stores. This species of squirrel is 
e.\ceedingly rare in Sonoma County. 

The Sj)cr)iio2>hile has two species in Califor- 
nia, which resemble each other so closely, that 
they are usually sup])0sed to be the same; the}' 
are popularly known as the California ground- 
squirrels, the little pests which are so destruc- 
tive to the grain crops. Their bodies arc ten or 
eleven inches long in the largest specimens; the 
tail is eight inches long and bushy, the ears 
large, the cheeks pouched, and herein consists 
the chief difference between them and squiri-els; 
the color above black, yellowish lnown, and 
brown, in indistinct mottlings, hoary-yellowish 
on the sides of the head and neck, and pale yel- 
lowish-brown on the under side of the body and 
legs. They dwell in burrows, and usually live 
in communities in the open, fertile valleys, pre- 
fering to nnike their burrows under the shade of 

an oak tree. Sometimes, iiowover, single spcr- 
mophiles will be found living in a solitary man- 
ner, remote from their fellows. Their burrows, 
like those of the prairie-dog, are often used by 
the rattlesnake and the little owl. Dr. New- 
berry says: ''The}' are very timid, starting at 
every noise, and on every intrusion into their 
privacy dro])])ing from the trees, or hurrying in 
from their wanderings, and scudding to their 
hole's with all possible celerity; arriving at the 
entrance, however, they stop to reconnoitre, 
standing erect, as squirrels rarely and spermo- 
philes habitually do, and looking about to satisfv 
themselves of the nature and designs of the in- 
truder. Should this second view justify their 
flight, or a motion or step forward still further 
alarm them, with a peculiar movement, like that 
of a diving duck, they plunge into their bur- 
rows, not to venture out till all cause of fear is 
past. The scpiii'rels of this species were exceed- 
ingly rare in Sonoma County until within the 
past decade. They seem to have effected an en- 
trance from the valleys to the east, and are iu>w 
multiplying along the foot-hills of the Sonoma 
range of mountains. The farmers, as yet, seem 
not to realize the magnitude of the damage these 
squirrels will ultimately accomplish. 

The California gopher ( Thonionii/s: bidljirorus) 
is the most al)iindant and most troublesome 
rodent of the county. AVhen full grown, it has 
a body six or eight inches long, with a tail of 
two inches. The back and sides are of a chest- 
nut-brown color, ])aler on the under parts of the 
body and legs; the tail and feet are of grayish- 
white; the ears are very short. In the cheeks 
are large jjouches, covered with fur inside, white 
to their margin, which is dark-brown. 

Of rats and mice there are many species in 
Sonoma County. There is very common in 
the forests a wood-rat that builds conical- 
shaped burrows l)y means of piling up sticks 
and i)ramble. ^Ve have seen these rat houses 
as much as ten feet in diameter at the base and 
five or six feet high. Of mice there are many 
species of both field and house pests. We have 
seen here two or three specimens of the Jerboa 



family, called by some kangaroo mice, on ac-. 
count of their great length of hind legs, from 
whicli they spring, as does the kangaroo. 

The American elk [Cermis atnadensix) used 
to be ])lentifiil in Sonoma County, but is now 
extinct. Tliis animal was nearly as hirge as u 
horse. It freiiiiently readied the weight of 
from six hundred to one thousand pounds. 
The color was a chestnut-brown, dark on the 
head, neck, and legs, lighter and yellowish 
on the back and sides. The horns were very 
large, sometimes more than four feet long, three 
feet across from tip to tip, measuring three 
inches in diameter above the burr, and weigh- 
ing, with the skull, exclusive of the lower jaw, 
forty pounds. The horns of the old bucks had 
from seven to nine, perhaps more, i)rongs, all 
o-rowing forward, the main stem running uj)- 
ward and backward. 

In Sonoma County there never were any 
white-tailed liuei-, l)ut instead, we have the black- 
tailed deer [i'erriix ri>lir>/i/>ianus), which is a 
little larger and has brighter colors, but does 
not furnish as good venison, the meat lacking the 
juiciness and savory taste of the venison in the 
IVIississippi Valley. The average weight of the 
buck is about one hundred and twenty pounds, 
and of the doe one hundred pounds, but bucks 
have been found to weigh two hundred and 
seventy-five pounds. The summer coat of the 
black-tailed deer is composed of rather long and 
coarse hair, of a tawny brown, approaching 
chestnut on the back, in September this hair 
becrins to come otf, exposing what the hunters 
call the '•blue coat," which is at tirst fine and 
silkv, and of a bluish-gray color, afterward be- 
coming chestnut brown, inclining to gray on the 
' sides, and to l)lack along the back. Occasion- 
ally deer purely white are found. The horn, 
when long, is about two feet long, and forks 
near mid- length, and each prong forks again, 
making four points, to wdiicli a little spur, issu- 
ino- from near the base of tiie horn, may be 
added, making five in all. This is the general 
form of tlie burn; sometimes. howe\er. old 
bucks are fouml with but two points. 

The prong-horned antelope (^ji7itilocajria 
americana) used to range the valleys of Sono- 
ma (bounty like bands of sheep. They are new 
extinct. In size the antelope was not quite so 
large as the California deer, which it resembled 
closely ill form and general appearance. They 
were distinguished at a distance by their mcition; 
the antelope canters, wliile the deer runs; the 
antelope went in herds, and moved in a line 
following the lead of an old buck, like sheep, 
to which they are related, while deer more fre- 
quently are alone, and if in a herd they are 
more independent, and move each in the way 
that suits him best. In color, the back, upper 
part of the sides and outside of the thighs and 
forelegs were yellowish-brown; the under parts, 
lower part of the sides, and the buttckos as 
seen from behiiul, were white. The hair was 
very coarse, thick, spongy, tubular, slightly 
crimped or waved, and like short lengths of 
coarse threads cut otf bluntly. The horns were 
very irregular in size and form, but usually they 
were about eight inches long, rose almost per- 
pendicularly, had a short, blunt prong in front, 
several inches from the base, and made a slioi-t 
backward crook at the top. The female had 
horns as well as the male. The hoof was heai-t- 
sliaped, and its jnint upon the ground could be 
readily distinguished from the long, narrow 
track of the deer. The antelope was about two 
feet and a half high, and four feet long from the 
nose to the end of the tail. 

' Audubon's hare (Zejcw-v auduhonii) is the 
most common species in Sonoma County. Its 
tail is about three inches long, and its color is 
mixed with yellowish-brown and black above, 
white beneath, thigiis and rump grayish. 

The sage rabbit [LepuK arfe>nlsi</) is also 
found here. 

Of the birds and fish of Sonoma County we 
will not undertake to speak. Of the former 
there is almost an infinite variety, and to at- 
tempt to classify and describe each would re(|uire 
a vast amount of labor and research. Of fresh 
water, salt water and shell tish, the varieties 
nearly equal that of the birds and fowls. 



, -i' ^ -til 


5i-^»>ri " ' '^' ^^-''-^- — ,. 7,~ 



fori the flora and conifera of Sonoma County 
we are indebted to W. A. T. Stratton, the 
Of Fetahuiia florist, who has given the sub- 
ject years of patient research and study: 

"The emerald sheen of hill and dale, the 
gorgeous kaleidoscopic picture whifli no pen or 
brush could ever portray, in justice to nature's 
bounteous gifts, should engage a far more facile 
])en than mine. Indeed, so inexpressibly beau- 
tiful are all our primitive flora, the multiplicity 
of forms and colors, my effort, no matter how 
exhaustive it might be to even faintly mention 
the more jjrominent, would be wholly inade- 
(piate to do justice to so glorious a sulyect. 

" In early spring, our golden A'sehsc/iolfzias 
dancingly nod and kiss the morning breeze in 
wavy masses, the first to tell us of nat\ire's 
awakening, while in sheltered vales delicate 
ferns come forth anew clotiied as it were in na- 
ture's wedding garb of faultless, yet exquisite 
loveliness. Then successively come our Bi'o- 
diaeafi, our Tritdeiai^, our C'atiKtsaias and Stni- 
hiciimx, intersj)ersed and commingled with 
Lupins in charming shades and forms, while 
Fr'ilUltii'hifi and the butterfly tuli[)S [Cdlvo- 
limidn) in countless myriads bleml their beati- 
ful colors so bright, so lovely, that 'language is 
useless, its expression dumb.' 

" Nothing was known, comparatively, of our 
tbira, till D(jugl:iss made his first exj)lririiti(jn in 

tlie year 179(). Menzies, Lindley, Lowson and 
Michaux had traversed Puget yonnd. and fol- 
lowing down the coast to the Columbia, and 
some of them penetrated the northern portion 
of our State; but Douglass, the energetic En- 
glish botanist, followed down the coast range to 
San Francisco Bay, and has said in his report 
no section of the world ever presented so ricii 
and varied a flora as that section of country 
lying adjacent to and' north of the bay; and 
more especially, its coast i-ange and valleys; 
and in honor to his eminent services our peer- 
less conifera Ahies DoiitjUisxil was named, one 
of our most beautiful native evergreen trees. 

" IVEany enthusiastic explorers then visited 
our region, and Alta California soon gave the 
world many floral treasures, for which our cool, 
moist climate was so favorable for the devel- 
opment of. And yet what a sad remnant of the 
past; vandalism, the greed for gain, so rapidly 
obliterated our forests of those noble structures 
that nature's effort took centuries to build; 
our hills and vales swej)t as it were by flames, 
are nearly obliterated of all those gems of crim- 
son and gold, and the cottage and trellis deck 
the once primitive scene. Our choicest flora is 
cast aside for the less l)eautiful forms of other 

"Of the evergreen trees indigenous to our 
section may be prominently mentiuncd our red- 



wood Seijno'ui tSenipervi'rens,o{ whose mam moth 
proportions all are well a&niainted, forming 
as it were so extensive and valuable forests all 
over our county; but it is not generally known 
that its relative S. Gigantea, also grows here, 
but in ver^' limited quantities. Some years ago, 
a gentleman hunting along on our northern 
boundary found a small grove on a tributary of 
the Russian Kiver, and very thoughtfully 
brought me a small liml) and some cones, to be 
certain of their identity. The trees were very 
small comparatively, growing less than 100 feet 
high and very stunted in habit. Abies Douglassii 
is very plentiful, growing to regal proportions 
near the coast in sheltered places, and we can 
justly feel proud of this beautiful conifera as 
the most beautiful of all trees i.ative of Cali- 
fornia. I have seen natural specimens of this 
noble tree nearly 150 feet high, clothed from 
near the ground in natural graceful outlines, as 
perfect in form as the hand of man could make, 
and vet how few are ever to be found in culti- 
vation. It is I if \ery rapid growth and worthy 
of attention. In the vicinity of Sebastopol it was 
very plentiful, the ynung trees being largely used 
for Christmas trees. A. Pattonlana (Patton's 
giant spruce), is also foimd sparingly. It is of 
a bright glaucous green, growing 150 feet high, 
existing only near the coast. I'hiun Murt<ata 
(Bishop's jiine), a s])aringly clothed tree of 
medium size, may be found only in the more 
southern [Kirtion. It is of no use in the arts or 
for ornament. /'. i//t>i)/ti/x (Oregon pitch pine), 
is a very beautiful species plentiful all over our 
county especially in the middle and northern 
part, but a few comiiaratively are found in cul- 
tivation, though for some years quantities were 
grown for forest culture; but its value for tim- 
ber is worthless. /'. tuherculata in stunted 
form may be found along the Mark West Creek, 
growing 70 to 100 feet high; it is of very slow 
growth, though lieautiful in lorm, color and 
outline. /'. Sah'uina, Sabine's pine, is one of 
the most l)eautinil of all our native ])ines. It is 
only found in the nortjiwestern portion, growing 
in natural tapering outline 100 to 150 feet. It 

is more commonly known as bull piue, tiie seed 
or nuts being very large and are gathered by 
Indians as a staple article of food. P. radiatn, 
grows only over in canons near the coast; it is 
a small tree, but the timber is said to be val- 
uable, being exceedingly tough and strong. J'. 
nuicrocarj>a,is vevy near\y related to J', insignis 
and is the variety so largely found in our yards 
and gardens. There may be other species of 
the pine family to l)e found in scattered local- 
ities, but I have luentioned all of those I have 
personally found growing here. I had forgot- 
ten a beautiful species of the pine sub-family, 
ahies nohilis, noble silver lir; and, as its name 
implies, is one of our most magnificent pro- 
dtictions. It is a singular, majestic tree grow- 
ing along our most northern border, producing 
timber of fine quality, in some localities grows 
200 feet high; but further northward to Oregon 
thence to the Columbia, its size increases, be- 
comes nmre plentiful, occupying almost ex- 
clusive entire tracts of countrj'. It is a fitting 
companion to ^1. Poiiglassii, two of the most 
magnificent evergreens of the Pacific coast. We 
can boast of one jnnipev ./an Ijieni.i <iri<h'iit((li.-<, 
a small tree of about filfy feet high, growing 
sparsely along Jhe San Antonio Creek. It is a 
handsome tree and well suited for dry, rocky 

" Some few specimens, I am told, may be found 
of Thttja Gigantea, giant arbor vitiK, over near 
the mouth of Russian River. In more favored 
locations it grows 200 feet high and -10 feet in 
diameter. In cultivation it is of majestic ap- 
pearance, of most pleasing contour and color, 
and well worthy of attention. 

'• Of the cypress family we have cuj)resfiti>i 
Laiusoniana, a very beauitful ornamental tree 
so well known in our gardens. It is found sc> 
far as I know only in tiie most northeastern 
portion of our county. C. fragrdns is a small 
tree of about forty feet high, of a bright glaucous 
green, and exceedingly beautiful; its slender 
branches droop gracefully down, and form a 
charming tree. I have found it over near 
Sonoma, in the upper end of the valley. It is 


!i<)t generally known that our California nut- 
meg-tree is a conifer. It belongs to the yew 
sub-family, botauically known as To/rei/ t'al- 
ifoiiini'ii. There is imtiiing very beautiful 
about it, but it is a plant to be seen but to be 
let alone, as it possesses in a large degree the 
unpleasant odor of the family; and hence is 
called the stinking yew. 

"Of other prominent trees of our county men- 
tion must be made of the noble family of oaks. 
Ot the genus Queix-nx, we have (J.falcata, the 
tanbark oak; (J. ii'kji'u, the black oak; Q. alba, 
the white oak; C/ aijtiafica, the water oak; Q. 
liiurifolio, the laurel-leaf oak; and Q. ile.i\ the 
holly-leaf oak. There several sub-species of 
these interesting trees, all well-known to 'the 
native born.' 

"We now mention a more interesting group, 
our flowering plants, of which we have countless 
numbers; and as the lily deservedly is the 
(pieen of our native tiora, it sliall have the 
jirecetience in these brietly written notes. 

'■'■ L'dhuii Washingtoiilaniiiii. This beauti- 
ful species is found only on the highest hill- 
tops. It is an Alpine plant, and when grown 
in low localities slowly pines away. It is of a 
p"nre white color, becoming of a purj)lish cast 
with age; often delicately dotted. To tiiosewho 
attempt its cultivation, let me waiii them it is 
sensitive to all stimulants, and must be gi-own 
in a cool, shady place. It is our most lovely na- 
tive species, and worthy of generous care, in the 
hopes of ultimately succeeding in its more suc- 
cessful culture. L. ruheKceiis is in reality a sub- 
species of the foregoing. It has been found on 
the moutitains near Sonoma and in iJedwoods 
near Guernevilie, often seven fert high, flowers 
nearly white, ciianging to purple or rose lilac 
in coloi'. /,. parrHin, is another pretty variety 
of an orange-yellow color. It is of easy cul 
ture and grows well in any cool, di-y soil. /,. 
Pardalinuia is of a bright orange color, and 
enjoys a very moist, deep soil. I have seen 
large quantities of these i)eautil'iil lilies on the 
banks of the San Antonio that at times of the 
year must be subirjerged by overHowing wa- 

ters. It has succeeded well with me, and well 
repays any generous attention. L. IlximhohUii 
may be found only, as far as I can learn, on the 
coast near Foi't Iloss. It grows three to four 
feet high, much resembling our-tiger lily in col- 
or. A sub variety of this lily, L. Colauibiamnn, 
was sent nie from Ilealdsburg some years ago, 
having broad, flats terns and massive large, creep- 
ing root-like bulbs. In fact, all our California 
lilies possess this characteristic form more or less, 
that so plainly distinguishes them from the 
more common forms of lilies. Of the lily sub- 
family the Vaiochortus ranks ne.xt in beauty of 
our native flora. They are more commonly 
known as Mariposa, or Butterfly Tulips, so 
named from their gaudy, showy colors; of these 
we have C. jia/o/igllus, of a beautiful orange- 
yellow color, with darkliloches on each petal. It 
comes very late in flower, generally in July and 
August, and is plentifully found in tiry pas- 
tures and hill-sides. 

" C jViuIus, a very beautiful dwarf species, 
scarcely one foot in height, of a delicate lilac, 
and white color, grows only in the shade of 
trees. ('. yialii is of a deep yellow color, 
blooming in June, often we have seen it spot- 
ted a pure magenta, giving it a unique ap- 
pearance. V. Lupins is of a deep yellow color, 
spatted brown and purple, exceedingly showy. 

'•f)f our Fi'itillarias, also a sub variety of our 
lilies, and more popularly known as Cn.iwn Im- 
perials, we have some most beautiful species, 
and to those who know of them we heartily 
commend them as well worthy of extended cul- 
tivation. They all have most beautiful flow- 
ers, and succeed well ill most any position: in 
fact, are one of the lew that don't c.-ire what 
treatment they recei\'e, only jilant them in th(> 
ground. 7''. r<-fnri\i. is \ery lieautil'ul, beiuLCol' 
a yelluw spotted brown color, generally found 
in dry pastures in loose, sandy soil. Cultivation 
largely improves the flowers, they being fully as 
beautiful as anyof the foi-eign species. F. hlffora 
has flowers of a darl<-l)rowii purple, I inted green, 
and grows oidy over near the coast. W'e often 
have seen it in the dry, sliilting sands on the sea 


sliore, indifferent to exposure alike, be it spray 
from the ocean ur the dry, parching winds and 
sunsliine. F. L<inreolaf<t is of tlie most deli- 
cate structure and habit. Its dark purple flow- 
ers mottled with greenish yellow, so frail and 
slender, seem incapable of withstanding the 
rough frontier life, yet its delicate chalice, 
drooping modestly, seems indifferent to the 
praise of its admirers. F. plurlliora is of a 
reddish purple color, and to us the more beauti- 
ful of the species. It may be found only in 
the shade of fences or trees or on tiie north 
side of rocky hill-sides. Some lovely speci- 
mens may be found in April or May on the 
shady banks of dry creeks, and possil)]y many 
other similar locations all over our county. Its 
l>entlnlous, drooping flowers are of most ex- 
ijuisite loveliness, and as it takes kindly to cul- 
tivation, should be more extensively grown. 

"The next most interesting genius of flower- 
ing bulbous plants are the Brodiaeas. All the 
species are of the easiest cultivation an<l will 
repay the most simple attention. Many of them 
grow with me in hard walks, dry corners, where 
they get no care or attention; but when tlie 
slightest interest is given tiiem, most amply re- 
pay, with grateful appreciati<^n. /*. M idtiliour 
is of a most lovely violet-purple color, growing 
about one foot in height, and the earliest variety 
to flower. B. CviHjeMn, is of a lovely purple 
color, often flowering when two or three inches 
high. It is the easiest grown of the species, and 
in cultivation blooms almost continuously from 
May to August. B. Capitata blooms the eai'- 
liest of all, generally from January to May. Its 
dark purple flowers are \ery attractive and 
showy, usually growing one and a half feet 
high. (Tather some bulbs of Itrodeas, friends, 
no matter if in full flower, give them kiml at- 
tention, and a rich reward awaits you. 

" 1 now chauge to a highly interesting group 
of plants, one admired by all — Ferns — which 
our county possesses in matchless beauty. I 
shall not attempt a botanical description. The 
reader in the pursuit of knowledge must inter- 
view a more competent teacher. Our California 

Botany, edited by the gifted Prof. Asa Gray, and 
the California Flora, are authorities of unques- 
tionable character. The most noble and majes- 
tic of all our species is Woodwordia radican.s. 
I have gathered fronds of this beautiful variety 
fully ten feet long. In dark, moist canons near 
the coast, sheltered from winds and sunshine, 
it may be found in its best estate. In cultiva- 
tion it seems to pine out a miserable existence, 
growing at best not more than four feet high. 
Near the head of Bear Valley in Marin Coiiii- 
ty some massive beauties were growing a few 
years ago. Their graceful, arching fronds made a 
leafy bower of fairy splendor. One specimen I 
measured covered a space of twenty feet across. 
Another beautiful fei-n, not by any means plen- 
tiful, is Lomari'i Sj^irant. At the base of Spring 
Hill, a few miles from our city, some most love- 
ly specimens may be found, the fronds growing 
six to seven feet high; the beauty of this fern is 
the finely dissected leaves or fronds. 

"There are but few ferns, however small in 
structure, so delicately divided in formation, and 
though large and massive ini'orm, is of most ex- 
(juisite grace and loveliness. Of the Adiantuni, 
or maiden-hair ferns, we have only two species. 
A jhjdatuiii or bird-foot fern, or nnjre common- 
ly known as five-ttnger fern, is a most graceful 
and attractive plant. Under good culture its 
delicate fronds gi'ow to regal beauty. A. Va^i- 
illxs reui'-r/n, often known as ,1. Cliilensis, is 
of low growth, yet most beautiful and attractive. 
It does not take kindly to cultivation and much 
prefers the wilds of its I'ocky hoioe. In 
Eurojje, however, it is a variety of deep in- 
terest, where it appears to stand on its good be- 
havior. PeJlea denna is indeed a most ex- 
quisite and lovely fern. Years ago I found this 
variety near Ilealdsburg, almost completely 
covering a huge rock. Interspersed in cracks 
and Assures was one matchless CheUimtheH 
Cidiforihica or lace fern, almost completely cov- 
ering from sight the little mossy covering that 
seemed to alone give life and nutrition, while at 
its base were tine specimens of l'(dyj>odiiiiii 
Vahjare, I*. T'a/ca^itm and 1'. Cal-iforicuvi, 



stately, grand sentinels of tlieir more delicate 
relatives above tlieni. Of other species of ferns 
found growing in our county, 1 mention Gi//n- 
noijiHinvie t/'ian(/ul(trh<i, the gold-back fern, 
and possibly some others. 1 have often sent 
specimens for identification to different botan- 
ists, and their classification often caused con- 

''As yet, much remains to be learned as to the 
botany of our State. Changes are repeatedly l)e- 
ing made by savants, showing conclusively of 
tlieir indecision, and years must elapse, — years 
of study, and a comjjarison of notes and speci- 
mens, — before a final permanent basis is reached. 

" I have very hastily and very briefly sketched 
these rambling notes of history, and though 
but a mere mention of our vast flora has been 
noticed, it is to l>e hoped it may afford some lit- 

tle pleasure to onr readers. It is to be hoped 
that at no distant day an earnest effort may be 
made to collect and classify the many different 
genera of plants growing in our county. 

" It would be of great interest to the student 
of nature, and a valuable auxiliary for all fu- 
ture generations in learning of uur primitive 
flora. Such a monograph could be easily ac- 
complished by the higher academic classes of 
onr schools. In fact, when elementary botany 
is taught, students should be instructed to bring 
in specimens of all jilants they could And at all 
times of the year. These should be mounted 
and exchanged with different sections, thus se- 
curing many different forms froni all locations. 
Let me suggest a permanent herbarium for all 
our schools, be they of a primary or more ad- 
vanced graile, and if need be it should lie com- 





Bi 11 

VM?i>Miii''!ii1 1 ^ »» fe^ < ?jr i ii'(it ife '»g 

4^t^^^ i^^'m < (Mi> i 'fs> i'Vitii' ^l^) 


Tin; Indians — mis-kin kki oki> mi- ri;ii!Ai, xamks — Yai-le-ih's estimaii: oi-- tiikik ximrkr — thkik 
Ni mi;i;k at timk oi- Amkrhan sKiri.KMKNr — iiikiu c imitjixiox and stati kk — iiuw tiiev j.i\ ed 



N those chapters historic of Padre ^Vltiiiiira's 
tbiiiiding tlie mission San Francisco Sohiiio 
^ at Sonoma, and the iirst colonization of tliis 
county by tlie Spaniards, necessarily appeared 
most of what is authentic history in connection 
with the Indian tribes occupyino; tlie territory 
embraced in the subject of this history. It is 
to be regretted that much of this is su indefi- 
nite as to preclude a possibility of writing with 
specific e.xactness in reference to the names of 
tribes; their numerical strength, or the bounda- 
ries of the territory over which each triljc 
claimed jurisdiction. 

According to the mission books of Sonoma 
the following named Indian tribes furnished 
neophytes to that institution: Alocjuiomi, Aten- 
oniac, C'anoma, ("arcpiin, C^anijolmano, Caymus, 
Chemoco, Chichoyoini, CliinMivi'iii, Coyayomi, 
Iluiluc, Ilnymen, Lacatiut, Loiujuionii Libayto, 
Locnoma, Afayacma, Mnticoimo, Malacu, Na- 
pato, Oleomi, Putto, Polnomanoc, Pacjue, Peta- 
luina, Suisun, Satayonii, Soneto, Tolen, 
Tlayacma, Tamal, Tojiayto, L'lulato, Zadow and 

But tlie heathen thus gathered in evidentlv 
took the wide range between Toniales, Afarin 
County, and Canjiiiiicz Straits. There were 
uniniBtakably tribes bearing the; following 

names: The Petalmnas, occupying the country 
north of San Pablo Pay and contiguous to 
the Petaluma Creek. This is evidenced by the 
record of the expedition of I'adre Altiniira. in 
which mention is made that their first encamp- 
ment in Petahinia Valley was with some Peta- 
luma Indians who were hiding from their 
enemies, the Cainemeros Indians of the now 
Santa Rosa I'e^-ond the Cainemeros of Santa 
Rosa were the Soteomelos, or Yapos (braves), 
who occupied the Russian River country from 
the neigliborliood of the present Healdsburg 
northward to Cloverdale. That this was a pow- 
erful and aggressive tribe is evidenced by tJie 
fact that they overcame and slaughtered a large 
number of the Cainemeros, whose wrongs were 
avenged by the assistance of Salvador Vallejo 
and his troops in battle np in the (Peyser 
Mountains, as appears in another chapter. Thus 
it would seem that the centi'al valleys of the 
County from Petaluma northward was occupied 
by three distinct tribes of Indians: the Peta- 
lumas, the Cainemeros and the Soteomelos or 
\ apos. 

Wliile every lateral valley, subsidiary to these 
main valleys, in the early days seem to have 
been the center of an Indian rancharie, yet it 
is doubtful if they had separate and distinct. 


i\'i' ti'ilial L'xititoiicu. (icDd'al Vallt'jcj lirst vis- 
itod tliu territory now uuibraced in Sonuiiia 
Coiiiity in 1828, and we liave it direct from his 
li]is, that in every little valley was a rancharie 
ot' Indian?. To use his exact lanonage: ''The 
Indians were swarming every where.'" In refer- 
ence to the possible nnniber of Indians here as 
late as in 1835, the reader is referred to an ad- 
dress of (General Vallejo delivered on the occa- 
sion of the laying of the corner-stone of the 
iK'W court-l'.ouse at Santa llosa in 1884. 

Making due allnwance for exti'avaganee of 
estimate of Indian population in what is now 
embraced in Sonoma County, in 1835, there 
must have been several tiionsand of these dusky 
children of nature here. I>ut the small-pox 
pestilence in 1838 must have made sad havoc 
among them, for never since American occu- 
]taney could they have mustered 1,000 all 
told. In 185-4 the writer traveled afoot and 
alone, with only a small pocket pistol as a 
weapon of defense, from Petaluma to a point 
twelve miles above Ilealdsburg, a total distance 
(if over forty miles, and he did not see fifty 
Indians in the whole distance. At that time 
there was (jnite a rancharie at Cioverdale; one 
near Ilealdsburg, another in the neighborhood 
of the lagoonas about Sebastopol and a small 
number of Indians who made a precarious living 
by hunting around Smith's Ranch and Hodega 
r>ay. As hiW. as 1854 "55 there was finite a 
rancharie of Indians at Toinales !!ay. Marin 
(Jounty; and a very small lancharie in the 
edge of Marin Countv, about tive miles distant 
from Petaluma. The last Indians we find any 
trace of as living apart by themseKcs in a 
rancharie, in the neiglibiji-lidod ot' Petaluma, 
was on what is now known as tlie l'"i-('il Starkie 
place, about two miles nm-tb nf that citv. At 
the present wi'iting tbci-e is mil to exceed 100 
Indians left in the county. Most of these are 
hovering, like the last shadows of their race, 
around Ilealdsburg and Cioverdale, eking out 
a miserable existence as the servitors of the race 
that has supplanted then). 

Tlie Indians of this regic>n are very ^imilal• in 

stature, complexion, and habits of life to those 
of other portions of California. They arc very 
thick in the, and have voices of wonderful 
strength. The children are clumsy, and heavy 
set. The women are very wide in the shoulders 
and hips, and strongly built. Men and women 
are large in the body, and slim in the legs and 
arms, as compared with Caucasians. They are 
physically and intellectually inferior to their 
relatives in Nevada Territory, and far inferior 
to the Indians who dwelt during the last cen- 
tury east of the Mississippi River. They are of 
a very dark com])!exion, and their hair always 
black, is coarse to the verge of that of a horse's 
mane. The women (niohalas) cut their hair 
straight across the forehead just above the eye- 
brows, inueh as their Caucasian sisters do for 
" bangs." In their native state the-se Indians 
were far from models of neatness or cleanliness; 
bTit now that most of them wear modern gar- 
ments and often seek labor on ranches, they 
have in a measure ahjured their former filthy 
habits. Their rancharie habitations were of the 
rudest and cheapest possible construction. The 
indispensable sweat-house, however, was a sort 
of joint-stock structure, and as it generally con- 
sisted of an excavation in the ground, with a 
surface structure made tight by baid<ing up the 
earth arouml it, its construction cost some 

Their food was composed chiefly of acorns, 
clover-grass, grass-seeds, grasshoppers, hr)rse- 
chestnuts. fish, game, ])ine-nuts, edible roots, 
and berries. The acorns are large, abundant, 
and some (jf them not unpleasant to the taste, 
but they do not cimtain mncb nutriment as 
compared with an ei|ual imlk of those articles 
conininnly used bir loixl by the Caucasian race. 
The aci.i-iis were gathered by tli(' scjuaws, and 
preserved in various methods. The m(;st coiri- 
mon plan was to build a basket with twigs and 
rushes in an oak-tree, and keep the acorns there. 
The ac(jrns were ])repared for eating by grind- 
ing them and hoiling them ^ith watci- into a 
thick paste, or by baking them in bread, 'i'lin 
oven was a hojc in the ground about eighteen 


inches cubic. Ked liot stones were ])laci'd at the 
liottdui of the liole, a little dry sand ur loam 
llitdwii over them, and next came a layer of dry 
leaves. The dough or jwste was poured into 
the hole until it was two inches or three inches 
d<'e[). Then came anotiier layer of leaves, more 
sand, red-hot stones, and finally dirt. At the 
end of five or six hours the oven had cooled 
down, and the bread was taken out, an irregular 
mass nearly black in color, not at all handsome 
to the eye or agreeable to the jialate, and mixed 
through with leaves and dirt. l''or grinding 
the acoi'us a stone mortar was used. This mor- 
tar was sometimes nearly Hat, with a iiollow not 
more than two inches deep; and occasionally 
one will be seen fifteen inches deep, anil not 
more than three inches thick in any part of it. 
The pestle was of stone, round, ten inches long 
and three thick. 

llorsechestnuts were usually made into a gruel 
or soup. After being ground in the mortar, 
they were mi.xed with water in a waterproof 
basket, into which redhot stones were thrown, 
and thus the soup was cooked. As the stones 
when taken from the fire had dirt and ashes ad- 
liering to them, the soup was not clean, and it 
often set the teeth on edge. 

(-irass-seeds were ground in the moi'tar and 
I'oasted or made into soup. 

Grasshoppers were roasted, and eaten without 
further preparation, or mashed U]) with berries. 

Fish and meat were broiled on the coals. 
The intestines and l)lood wei-c eaten as well as 
the muscle. 

Clover and grass were eaten i-aw. The In- 
dians would go out into the clover patches, pull 
up the clover with their hands, and eat stalks, 
leaves, and flowers. They considered clover a 
great blessing, and got fat on it. The [)ine- 
nnts, edible roots, and ben-ies were eaten raw. 
Bugs, lizards, and snakes were all considered 
good for food. In those places where the tnles 
grow, the roots of those rashes were eaten. 

They used very few tools. The bow was the 
only weapon for killing quadrupeds. It was 
tixidn of a v«ddish wood, and on th« Itack the 

bow was strengthened by a covering of deer's 
sinews, which gave to it greater strength and 
elasticity. Salmon were killed with stones and 
clubs in shallow water, and were caught with 
spears. Their most ingenious spear had a head 
of bone about one inch and a half long anil 
sharp at both ends. To the middle was fastened 
a string, which was attached to the spear-sliaft. 
One end of the head tit into a socket at the end 
of the spear-shaft. When the spear was thrown 
the head came out of the socket and turned 
cross-ways in the fish, and then there was no 
danger that it would tear out. The Indians 
rarely hunted the grizzly bear." .VIong the 
ocean Ijeach they got barnacles. Their method 
of catching grasshoppers was to dig a hole sev- 
eral feet deep, in a valley where this species of 
game abounded. A large number of the In- 
dians then armed themselves with bushes, and 
commenced at a distance to drive the grasshop- 
pers from all sides toward the hole, into which 
the insects finally fell, and from which they 
could not escape. The pine-nuts were sought 
at the tops of the pine-trees, whicli the "bucks'' 
ascend by holding to the rough bark with their 
hands, and pressing out with their legs, so that 
they do not touch the body to the trunk of the 
tree in going u[). Is is more like walking then 

The bow and arrow, the spear, the net, the 
obsidian knife, the mortar, and the basket were 
the only tools made by the Indians. The obsi- 
dian knife was merely a piece of obsidian as 
large as a hand and sharp on one side. The 
baskets wei-e all made of wire-grass, a grass 
with a round jointless stem, about a sixteenth 
of an inch thick and a foot long. The basket- 
work made with this wire-grass resembled the 
te.xture of a coarse Panama hat, and was water- 
proof. All the basket-work of the Californian 
Indians was made of this material. Tlie most 
common shape for the basket was a perpendicu- 
lar half of a cone, three feet long and eighteen 
inches wide, open at the top. The basket, car- 
ried on the back of the squaws, was used for 
carrying food, miscellaneous articleg, and chil- 


dren. This outline of tlie lives and habits of 
the aborigine nice that once held undisputed 
sway in Sonoma County will be of interest to 
future generations. 

Only a few months ago the writer visited the 
ranch of Mr. John Walker, near Sebastopol, 
where is now the last rancheria of Indians south 
yf Healdsburg. Fifteen Indians, all told, now 
constitute the tribe. Mr. Walker, who speaks 
Spanish, and Jose Viquero, the head Indian, a 
chief who speaks very good English, accom- 
panied us and did the interpreting. Our mis- 
sion was to interview an Indian named Caski- 
bel, wlio is now supposed to be 100 years old. 
Mr. Walker has known him forty years, and has 
no doul)t al)ont his being- a centenarian. Cas- 
kibel has been stone blind for twenty years. 
He was sitting tlat on the ground busily remov- 
ing the hulls from acorns, his native and favor- 
ite food. It was Sunday morning, and as we 
took a seat with note-book in hand to jot down 
such information as might be elicited from Cas- 
kibel, every nieml)er of the tribe stood by, ap- 
parently interested spectators. From him we 
gathered the following information about the 
long past: When the Americans catne to Cali- 
fornia, the chief of his tribe was named Francis- 
co, and the Chief of the Russian River Indians 
was named Ocata. In those days creeks, rivers 
and mountain ranges marked the boundaries be- 
tween Indian tribes. It was nut permissible 
for the Indians of one tribe to enter upon the 
territory of another tribe to hunt or lish, with- 
out permission. The tribes, so far as Caskibel 
knew, spoke the same language — that is, they 
could make eacli other readily understood. Tlie 
different tribes had (jccasional wars. It was a 
common thing for Indians of different tribes to 
inter-marry. Tattooing was practiced. This 
was tlonc witli jnilverized charcoal made trom 
willow wood. They only had knives made ot 
obsidian, and for killing small game they used 
bows and arrows. The most common way of 

capturing elk, deer and antelope was by means 
of snares. We questioned Caskibel particular- 
ly in reference to the pestilence that swept away 
the Indians. He could not give the year, but 
said that it was long ago, and the Indians of his 
tribe for a long time died to the number of from 
ten to twenty a day. In some tribes nearly all 
died. He describes the Indians as having been 
very numerous previous to that pestilence, 
which he said was small-pox. 

Jose Viquero, through whom we elicited this 
information from the aged Caskibel, must 
be sixty years Old himself, but he seems to be 
in full vigor of middle age. He informed us 
that he was at Sonoma when it was captured by 
the Americans, and that he received from Fre- 
mont a pass which allowed him to go and come 
as lie chose. Mr. Walker stated that Viquero 
was virtually the chief of all the Indians now- 
left in Sonoma County. He also gave informa- 
tion as to a custom prevalent among the Indians 
when he came to the county over forty years 
ago. In the fall, after having gathered in store 
their winter's supply of acorns and other food, 
each rancheria gave what might be termed a 
harvest feast, inviting to it the Indians of neigh- 
boring rancharies. On such occasions a large 
fire was built, and when everything was ready 
for the feast, but befoi-e anyone partook of food, 
the eliief, together with the aged men and 
squaws, marched in procession around this fire, 
each casting into it handfuls of acorns, grass seed, 
and in fact, some of each and all kinds of the 
provisions that had been laid in store. From 
whence came this custom of a burnt-offering 
among these untutored children of nature? 

It was not without a feeling of sadness that 
we turned away from that little group — the last 
remnant of a race soon to become extinct. 
They arc rapidly melting away, and their rude- 
ly fashioned stone mortars and pestels will be 
the only material evidence that generations ot 
the future will have that they ever existed at all. 





^Sl ^^^^A.^.KSi's^^ss^sxia! ^^ 












fN a previous chapter we brought the general 
developments of Sonoma County forward to 
^ 1870. AVe now continue it to the end. 
Elsewhere it has been shown that at that period 
Sonoma County ranked next to the County of 
■San Francisco in number of school children. 
As one among the youngest counties of the 
State she had thus suddenly- come to the very 
front in population and productiveness. We 
hazzard nothing in saying that up to 1870 
Sonoma County liad been productive of more 
wealth to the State in the shape of cereals, pota- 
toes, butter and cheese tiian the three counties 
of Los Angeles, San I'ernardino and San Diego 
combined. This wealth of products gave to her 
land a li.xed value, and hence it was that lands 
came to be valued, even at tliat early day, at 
from $50 to .*!75 an acre, according to its near- 
ness to or remoteness from market. 

.\t tiiat time ]irincipal]y. the whole State 
south of Santa (Jiara County was yet in a com- 
parative state of nature. .Vround town.s an<l 
old missions were orchards and vineyards, but 
the most of the country was yet an open range 
for bands and herds of Spanish horses and cattle. 
Tlie lands were yet lield in large grants and the 
holders thereof liad little seeming concejition of 
the real value of tlieir broad acres. In the 

years leading up to 1S70, men who had learned 
the real value of laud in Sonoma ami adjacent 
counties began to spy out the laiuls of the 
southern portion of the State, and many of 
them secured large tracts at prices varying from 
%1 to %'b per acre. In the space of a very few- 
years the wlude southern country from IMonterey 
to San Diego County was an inviting field for 
immigration. The sudden opening up of so 
wide a Held lor occujiancy was most certainly 
not conducive to the material prosperity of 
Sonoma County. The number of former resi- 
dents here who now rank among the wealthy 
and intliieiitia] nion of those southern counties 
attest how imich Sonoma County contributed 
toward building up that jjortion of the State, 
now famous for oranges and "booms." 

But even with all this drain upon her vitality 
and resources '-Old Sonoma" ))ursned the even 
tenor of iier way, making stea<]y and permanent 
progress. Tlie developments in other portions 
of the State ileprived her (jf a monopoly of the 
grain and potato growing industry, lint with 
a facility of expedients rendered easy by her 
wmiderful diversity of soil and climate her peo- 
ple readily adapted themselves to new conditions 
and have largely taken to the channels of new 


I'ruiii Two lluck \ iillty to IJodujfu, once 
almost a continuous i^rain aiul potato field, the 
c'onnttT, almost entire, is now devoted to dairy- 
ing and stock-raising. Tiiis is now a good pay- 
ing industry, and will so continue, as the rapid 
settling of the southern portion of the State 
insures a never failing market. In the southern 
end of the county grain has largely given place 
to the growing of hay, that is a ci'op easily 
handled, and that finds a never failing market 
in San Franci.sco and at remunerative prices. 

The upper valleys of the central portion of 
the county are being largely devoted to grape 
and fruit growing. The most marked develop- 
ments in this direction is noticeable from Santa 
Jiosa northward to Cloverdale. That region be- 
gins to assume the appearance of what the 
whole county ought to present — that is, small 
holdings with cheerful home surroundings. 

The completion of the Northern Pacific liail- 
road in 1872 to Cloverdale, had much to do 
with changing the currents of old-time habits 
and customs of the people, and the hinging of 
life-conditions into nearer harmony with the 
great metropolitan center to which they were 
brought so near by rapid communication. And 
this was soon supplemented by the building of 
the Coast Narrow (Tauge Railroad, that entered 
Sonoma County at ^'alley Ford, and after rest- 
ing for a time at Duncan's Mills, again pushed 
forward to Cazadero, in the very heart of forest 
wilds. The building of these roads for a time 
may have proved damaging to the few, but to 
the great mass of Sonoma County's citizens they 
but heralded the dawn of a yet more prosperous 
future. The e.xtensions of the Donahue line to 
Sonoma, and thence to Glen Ellen, as also the 
building of the recently constructed road be- 
tween Santa Rosa and Napa Junction, are addi- 
tional avenues of commerce and travel of incal- 
culable value to the county. With one or two 
branch roads to meet the requirements of that 
fertile belt of country interme<liate between the 
San Francisco and North Pacific and the Coast 
Line Narrow Cauge railroads, the whole of 
Sonoma County will be brought into close rela- 

tionship Willi the very center of wealth and 
commerce on the Pacific coast. 

We cannot better emphasize the progress 
made in the development of Sonoma County 
than by giving the following extract from an 
opening address delivered before the agricultural 
society at retaluma in 186U by Hon. George 
Pearce, who came to California with General 
Phil. Kearney in 1847. Mr. Pearce, taking a 
then retrospective view, says: 

" We meet here to exhibit and compare the 
products of our labor and the soil, and to 
challenge competition with each other and the 
world in both. Some bring for exhibition pro- 
ductions of the vegetable kingdom, others of 
the animal; while others bring productions of 
and improvements in the mechanic arts, the 
handi-work of man, but all come for the same 
purpose, viz.: mutual improvement of each in 
his particular vocation — one in the manufacture 
and improvement of machinery, another in the 
more perfect specimens of the animal king- 
dom, and others still greater varieties and more 
perfe.ct productions of the varied climates and 
soils with which the peojile of this region are 

" Hut a few short years ago little else than 
the antelojie, the elk, the deer, the droves of 
mustangs, the herds of wild, inferior cattle, and 
an occasional adol)e habitation, would have at- 
tracted the attention of the stranger travelino' 
through Sonoma at this season of the year. He 
would naturally have inquired how these ani- 
mals subsisted in a region apparently so sterile, 
barren and dry, and liave shaken the dust from 
his feet, and left this region, impressed with 
the belief that it was unfit for the habitation 
of an energetic and enterprising stock-grower, 
much less mechanics or agriculturists. 

" The speaker visited this region very little 
in advance of the periotl indicated by the fore- 
going remarks, and well remembers the first 
impressions made on his mind by the then gen- 
eral appearance of the country, and although he 
here pitched his tent and has remained ever 
since, no small fortune would then have induced 


liisronr of sonoma couNty. 

his cunsent to do so. 13iit as time passed aloug 
lie witnessed first the experiments, tlien the 
successes, and afterward the almost miraculous 
improvement in the animal and vegetable king- 
doms, and still later, the wonderful progress 
and development in agricultural and the me- 
chanic arts. He could, therefore, speak of them 
both from observation and some slight practical 
experience. But it would consume too much 
time and weary your patience to give a detailed 
history of tliese things; let it snfKce to note 
some of the singular changes wrought by the 
progress and development referred to. Then 
we usually went to tlie valleys of the Sacra- 
mento and its tributaries on the mustang: to 
San Francisco on what was commonly called a 
launch, taking generally from two to four days 
in crossing the bay; and as long as we pleased 
in going to Sacramento, but nearly always 
giving the mustang his natural gait — a lope or 
a gallop. AVe generally carried our bed with us, 
and slept wherever dai'kness overtook us. Every 
one carried a jiistol and knife — indeed it was 
considered a crime to go without them. Now 
we go to San Francisco in four hours, on steam- 
boats; to Sacramento in ten hours, on steam- 
boats and railroads; we iind no necessity for 
taking a bed, or even sleeping on the journey, 
and we punish men for carrying knives and 
pistols. Then it was considered impossible to 
cultivate the soil without irrigation; now it is 
well known to be quite injurious to irrigate. 

"The great valleys of this region were then 
thought to be adapted to and lit for grazing 
purposes only, except as they could be irrigated; 
and now they are devoted almost exclusively to 
agriculture, and without a thought of irrigation. 
The mountains and hills then believed to be 
barren waste are now known to be the best 
grazing lands, and in some instances even for 
agricultural purposes. Then iifty, or at most, 
$100,000, would have purchased all the landed 
estates of piivate individuals within what is now 
known as the County of Sonoma. Now a single 
vineyard on the mountain side will almost, if 
nut i|uite, command iIkiI sum. Tlicii the entire 

taxable property in her liorders wotiid, perhaps, 
have reached !f<200,000; now it reaches about 

" Wild grasses covered her plains and valleys 
then, now corn, wheat, oats, barley and rye. 
Extensive orchards abound in almost every sec- 
tion, and vineyards have taken the place of the 
barren patch; the corral has been supplanted 
by the commodious stable and barn; the rude 
adobe habitations by handsome, comfortable, 
and, in many instances, almost palatial brick, 
wooden and stone edilices, beautilied and 
adorned with all the improvements in modern 
architecture and mechanic arts. 

" Sonoma Valley, ' the valley of the moon,' 
from which this county takes its name, forms 
but a small though important portion of the 
region now called Sonoma County. Sonoma 
proper is where ' Old Pap Merritt,' as he was 
familiarly called, Mcintosh, Cooper, Nicholas 
Carriger, Brockman, Griffith, and others, first 
picked their flints for the contest which ended 
in the acquisition of this State, and gave birth 
and rise in a very great degree to the progress, 
improvement and development which ensued. 

"Old Sonoma! her memory is dear to me I 
May she and heir many noble citizens be long 
and abundantly blessed." 

Such was the languageof lion. George Pcarce 
in 1869, reminiscent of the then psist, and yet 
he has lived to see the day when he can step 
aboard of cushioned cars and reach San Francisco 
in two hours from Petaluma, or in less than 
two hours and-a-half from Santa Rosa, and 
when the assessed value of the property of 
Sonoma County, instead of being !?8,000,000. 
has reached the sum of $80,121,898. 

With the exception of the phihixera that 
proved destructive to the old vineyards of Sonoma 
Valley, frcan the year 1870 down, the entire 
County of Sonoma has made slow but sure pro- 
gress in material prosperity. For a long series 
of years she had but little market for her.sujier- 
abundance of fruit. As h consequence much 
fruit went to waste, and orchards were uiioared 
foi' and neglected. Tiie discovery I'f the process 


of fruit cauuiug, howe\er, lias worked a eoiii- 
plete revolution in the matter of fruit-growing. 
Old oi'chards have been pruned and cultivated, 
and new orchards are being planted on every 
hand. This is now coining to the front as one 
of Sonoma County's most enduring industries. 
Here, without any irrigation whatever, all kinds 
of deciduous trees grow luxiiriaiitij. So, too, 
with grape-vines. And in many portions of 
the county even semi-tropical fruits grow in a 
high state of perfection. 

The following, compiled from the assessor's 
reports for 1887-88, will give the reader an 
accurate estimate of the present and future of 
Sonoma Count}': 

The cultivation of wheat has decreased con- 
siderably, having fallen in the interval between 
1870 and 1887 from 45,000 acres to 21,785 
acres according to the assessor's report, or a de- 
crease of over 50 [)er cent. The yield, however, 
in 1888, an admittedly dry season, is estimated 
at about 550,000 to 600,000 bushels or only a 
reduction of about 30 per cent. This is prob- 
ably due to the better system of cultivation and 
more general practice of summer fallowing. 
The breadth of land sown to barley in 1887 ac- 
cording to the same official was 22,8fi'J acres 
against 21,213 in 1870; a trifling increase of 
7| per cent, in area, but a iiiiich larger one in 
yield, the crop being estimated at 762,450 
l)usliels against 424,200 eleven years before. 
Oats are not much grown in Sonoma, e.xcept on 
the coast and the acreage accordinjc to the asses- 
sor in 1887 was only 4,6U5 acres. Hay had 
increased from 47,744 acres to 80,561. In 
1887 the assessor reported seventy-two thorough- 
bred horses and 364 graded horses and all other 
kinds 7,624. To any one who has seen the ex- 
hibits of stock at the Sonoma and Marin Agri- 
cultural Fairs and been much in the streets of 
the towns and visited farms where breeding is 
not made a specialty, it seems absurd to put 
down the number of graded horses at 364, but 
if farmers have a grailed horse or two they are 
not likely to boast of it to the assessor. Mules 
were set down at 386. 

Thoroughbred cows were repoited at eighty, 
a ridiculously small number considering the 
many herds of Jersey, Holstein and short-horns 
there are in Sonoma, but we suppose only those 
whose owners had had them registered in the 
herd-books were mentioneil as thoroughbreds. 
American cows were reported 18,21!t; stock 
cattle at 3,066; beef cattle at 430; calves at 
1,730; hogs at 15,450; Cashmere and Angora 
goats 250 ; slieeji, including 1,935 graded, 
150,710 head, and lambs 12,460. 

The assessor reports 656,657 fruit trees; this 
at eighty trees to the acre would only give 
about 8,208 acres which was probably much 
below the facts at that time and hardly two- 
thirds of what it now is, with the new trees 
that have since been planted. Luther Eurbank. 
a well versed and reliable nursery man of Santa 
Rosa, after a careful estimate of the fruit and 
n«t trees planted in 1887, says the following 
statement is a fair and close approximate of the 
number and ditierent varieties of trees planted 
in Sonoma County: ( )lives, 20,000 trees; apples, 
12,000; pe^trs, 30,000; plums, 6,000; prunes, 
15,000; cherries, 6,000; apricots, 4,000; peaches, 
25,000; nuts, mostly walnuts and chestnuts, 

These figures do not include old orchards, 
most prominent among which is Warren But- 
ton's prune orchard of 20,000 trees — the largest 
in the world — situated near Santa Rosa. 

The Italian-Swiss colony near Heaklsburg 
has also a very extensive orchard. Prune trees 
were in such demand last year that the supply 
failed or the acreage would have been greatly 
increased and the demand this spring has not 
fallen off but rather enlarged. 

The assessment roll showed in 1887 21,683 
acres set out in vines. Viticulturists estimate 
that the planting of vines last season exceeded 
anything in the history of the county, being not 
less than 8,000 acres. This would bring the 
acreage in vines up to 29,683 acres. As asses- 
sors' figures are generally below rather than 
above the facts, it is not stretching figures to 
estimate the total number of acres at 35,000, 



iiicludiiig table grapes and non-bearing first and 
second year vines from cuttings or rooted plants. 

The assessor's report shows the production of 
wine in 1886 Ity districts, was as follows: 
Cloverdale, 200,000 gallons; Geyserville, 150,- 
000; Ilealdsburg, 200,000; Windsor, 150,000; 
Fulton, 40,000; Santa Rosa, 500,000; Fountain 
Grove, 80.000; Laguna and Korbell, 100,000; 
Sebastopol, 80,000; Petaluma, 40,000; Glen 
Ellen, 500,090; Los Guilicos, 200,000; Sonoma, 
1.000,000; Bennett Valley, 200,000. Total, 
3,500,000 gallons. 

The State Board of Eijualization makes a 
very moderate estimate in giving the following 
report of the vines in Sonoma County: Table 
and raisin — One year, fifty acres; two years, 
400 acres ; five years, 1,450 ; total, 1,900. 
Wine grapes — One year, 7,000 acres; two 
years, 5,272 acres; three years, 3,640 acres; 
four years, 1,225 acres; five years, 6,046; total, 
23,183; grand total, 25,083. It is, however, as 
the Board admits, the first in respect to the 
area, under wine grapes of any county in the 

Sonoma County enjoys a perfect imnninity 
from drouths, as the following iiietereological 
report will show: 

In the records of Sonoma County since rain 
guages were established, we find that in 1853- 
'54, 29 inches fell in Santa Rosa, which city 
may be accepted as a central locality that gives 
the mean precipitation, leaving the wooded 
slopes facing the ocean out of consideration. In 
1854-'55, 30 inches fell; in 1855-'56, 25 inches; 
in 1856-'27, 25 inches; in 1857-'58, 23 inches; 
in 1858-'59, 23 inches; in 1859-'G0, 21 inches; 
in 1860-'61,17 inches; in 18Bl-'62, 46 inches; 
in 18()2-'63, 17 inches; in 1863-'64, 12 inches; 
in 1864-'65, '2() inches, and yet the two latter 
seasons were the driest ever known in California, 
and while the crops and grasses were an abso- 
lute failure in the great valleys and in all South- 
ern California, yet in Sonoma, especially in the 
latter year, and as regards other parts of the 
St>ate, driest season ever known, the yield was 
enormous. In the seasons of lS()5-'66. the fall 

was 30 inches ; in 1866-'67, 40 inciics ; in 
1867-'68, 50 inches; in 1868-'69, 26 inches; in 
1869-70, 25 inches; in 1S70-'71, 17 inches; in 
1871-72, 40 inches; in lS72-'73, 21.58 inches; 
in 1873-'74, 29.54 inches; in 1874-'75, 23.30 
inches; in 1875-"7t'), over 32 inches, showing a 
mean annual raintall in the twenty-three years 
of which we give a record, of over twenty-seven 
inches each season, with a maximum of fifty 
inches from autumn to spring, and a minimum 
of twelve inches. It has been truly said of 
Sonoma, that no crop ever failed for want ot 
moisture. Corn is planted on the rich bottom 
lands in April, and though often it does not re- 
ceive one drop of rain after it appears above the 
ground, yields from eighty to 100 bushels to the 

Ilavinw siven a record of the rainfall for the 
twenty-three years beginning in the season ot 
1853-'54, and ending with that of 1875-76, 
according to observations made in Santa Rosa, 
we will now give the record for the succeeding 
period of ten years, from 1876-'77 to 1885-'86, 
as observed at Petaluma, 'oy Major James Sing- 
ley, at the office of the San Francisco & >sortb 
Pacific Railroad Co. In the season of 1876- 
'77, 13.15 inches fell; in the season of 1877-'78, 
39.24 inches; in the season of 1878 -'79, 20.83 
inches; in the season of 1879-'80, 26.83 inches, 
in 1880-81, 24.55 inches; in 1881-82, 17.04 
inches; in 1882-83, 19.15 inches; in 1883-'84, 
24.55 inches; in 1884-'85, 14.96 inches, and in 
1885-'86, 28.89 inches. In the ten rainy sea- 
sons, ending June 30, 1886, the average rainfall 
was 23.14 inches in the southern or Petulaina 
end of the great valley. 

While the above relates mainly to the annual 
direct products of her soil, Sonoma County has 
a wealth in her forests and mines, the accumu- 
lation of the ages. Previous to 1870, her lum- 
ber and timber industries were largely confined 
to her belt of seaboard, where water transporta- 
tion oflfered facilities for transportation of her 
forest products to market. The building of the 
Northern Pacific and the Coast Line Narrow 
Gauire Railroads cbangeil all this, for they pen- 


otratcd tliebe fields of wcaltli, ami snoii tlie liiim 
of Imndreds of saws was heard wiiere silence 
had reigned supreme for untold ages. Else- 
where extended mention has heen made of the 
inagnitude of the forests of Sonoma County, 
also the process of manufacturing these giants 
of tlie forest into marketable lumber. Taking 
the wealtli of these forests alone as represented 
bv lumber, railroad ties, posts, pickets, cord- 
woo<l and tanbark, and it is immense, to say 
nothing about the untold wealth of minerals, 
that in time will be exploited from mines of en- 
during richness. The successful operations of 
the Mt. Jackson (Quicksilver Mines in those 
wilds is tangible evidence of the hidden wealth 
locked up in those forest-clad mountains. 

No section of California has acquired such 
fame in producing fine stock as Sonoma County, 
especially superior horses. Wherever you travel 
in California, in fact anywhere on the Coast, if 
you see a very fine animal, and inquire where it 
came from, the answer most likely will lie Peta- 
luma or Santa Rosa. Hordering upon the bay, 
and with a large ocean frontage, with the ex- 
tensive bottom land, and grassy mountain slopes 
and hill sides, together with the regular period- 
icity of rains, nearly all portions of this county 
are celebrated for producing fine horses, cattle 
and sheep. The hilly and lower mountain sec- 
tions of the northern part of the county are the 
wool growing districts. The section bordering 
on the Pacific is noted for dairying, while the 
southern l)ay section for producing fine horses. 
Two hundred and fifty carloads of live stock are 
shipped annually by railroad from this county. 
Sonoma County has been noted from its earliest 
settlement for the amount and superiority of its 
dairy products, which have always brought the 
highest prices in the San Francisco market. 
The annual yield of butter is about 1,500 tons, 
or 3,000,000 ])oun(ls, giving an income of over 
s()00,000. J'etaluma is one of the largest ship- 
ping points in the State, of dairy products. 

In another place reference has been made to 
the basalt rock (juarrics of Sonoma C!ounty. In 
the past ten years the making of liasalt paving 

blocks for the San I'rancisco market has grown 
into a large and lucrative industry. These 
quarries are found near Petaluma, Santa IJosa 
and Sonoma, from Santa Ilosa they are 
shipped by rail to Tiburon, and thence by water 
to San Francisco. I'^rom Petaluma they are 
shipped direct l)y water, several schooners 
being re(juired to do the carrying. FroiTi Sono- 
ma they are shipjied by rail to a point on Peta- 
luma Creek, below Tikeville, and from thence 
by water. From these three points the quanti- 
ty (jf paving blocks shipped annually amounts 
to many thousand carloads. 

The present material wealth of Sonoma Coun- 
ty is best told in the annual report of the State 
Board of Equalization of California for the year 
1888. As is well known, the assessed valuation 
of property is usually gieatly under the real 
value. Sonoma is not an exception to the rule. 
The following figures are taken from the report: 

Yalue of real estate, personal property, money, 
solvents and assessments of railroads, !!;30,121,- 
898, an increase of .«!3,000,000 over last year; 
nnmber of acres sown to wheat, lit.S-iO; oats, 
4,960; barley, 24,950; corn, 29,230; hay, 8(),- 
370; number of growing frnit trees, 940,800; 
number of acres of table grapes. 1,100; wine 
grapes, 22,845 acres; raisin grapes. 350 acres. 

Put while we are thus careful to note the 
growth and material prosperity of Sonoma Coun- 
ty, we are not unmindful of her educational and 
moral advancement. This has kept pace with 
her growth and development. The people with 
no niggard hand have liberally contributed to- 
ward the maintenance of all institutions that 
mai'ch in the van of a higher civilization. On 
every hand churches and scliool houses liave 
multiplied, and now the county can boast of an 
educational system and organizations promotive 
of public morals, second to none in the State. 

That this is true is evidenced by tlie follow- 

We are indebted to Mrs. F. McG. ilai'tin, 
County Superintendent of Public Scliools, for 
the following information on matters in lier de- 
partment. 'I'hcre are 128 school districts and 



tlie last census sliowed 8,441 children between 
five and seventeen years of ajre. The value of 
the school huildings is !5;22S,121, exclusive of 
the ^18,000 building going up in Petaluma. 
The number of children enrolled in the public 
schools is 6,'J41t and the average attendance 4,- 
32t). Of high schools there are four, of gram- 
mar schools there are fifty-six, of primary 120. 
There are thirty-one male teachers and 149 
ladies, making a total of 180. The average 
monthly salary of the male teachers is $74.19 
and of the lady teachers is $53.51; 119 districts 
maintain schools eight months and over in the 
year. The county school tax is fourteen cents 
on the $100 assessed value, which yields $42,- 
345.40. The State apportionment is $54,000, 
which makes the total school income for county 
purposes $96,345.40. 

In Santa Ilosa Court House District, there 
are 1,400 children between five and seventeen 
and 4()9 under five years of age. The number 
of enrolled pupils of the public schools is 1,014 
and the average attendance 723. The number 
of pupils attending private schools is 132 and 
the number attending no school is 261. 

In Petaluma there are l,04t) children between 
five anil seventeen years and under five 284. 
The number of scholars enrolled is 848, and the 
average attendance is 621. The number of 
scholars attending private schools is twenty-two. 
The number who have attended no school dur- 
ing the past year is 176. 

In llealdsburg there are 485 children between 
five and seventeen years and 189 under five. 
The number between five and seventeen, who 
have attended school within the year is 400, be- 
sides fifty-two who have attended private 
schools. The number now enrolled in the pub- 
lic schools is 319 with an average attendance ot 
301. Ten white children and three Indians at- 
tended no school. 

In Cloverdale there are 3(')1 childron between 
five and seventeen, of whom 273 are enrolled 
scholars, with an average daily attendance of 
200 schola s. The number of pupils attend- 
ing private schools is twenty-five, and sixty- 

three children attending no school during the 

" In Sonoma City there are 336 children be- 
tween five and seventeen and under five years 
eighty-six. Tlie rolls show that 140 have at- 
tended within the year and the average attend- 
ance has l)een 118. The number attending pri- 
vate acliools is seventy-one and attending none 

The following are the names of the school dis- 
tricts of Sonoma County: 

Alder Glen. Alexander, Alpine. American 
Valley, Austin Creek, Bay, Bliss, Bloomtield, 
Bodega, Burns, Burnside, Canfield. Cinnabar, 
Cloverdale. Coleman Valley, Copeland, Court 
House. Creighton Ridge. Davis, Dirigo, Dry 
Creek, Dunbar, Dunham, Eagle, Enterprise, Eu- 
reka, Fisk's Mills, Flowery, Fort lioss, Franz. 
Freestone. Fulton. Creyser Peak, Geyserville. 
Goodman, Grape, Green N'alley, Gaulala, Guil- 
ford, Hall, Hamilton, Harvey. Healdsburg. 
Ilearn, Hill, lloricon, Huichica, Icarir, Inde- 
pendence, Iowa, Jonive, Junction, Knight's 
Valley, La Fayette, Laguna, Lake. Lakeville. 
Laurel Grove, Lewis, Liljerty, Llano, Lone Ked- 
wood, Madrona, jSIanzanita, Mark West, Marin, 
Mayacama, JMeeker, Mendocino, Mill Creek. 
Miriam, Monroe. Mountain, Mountain View, 
Mount Jackson, Mount Vernon. Muniz, Oak 
Grove, Occidental, Ocean, Ocean A'iew, Oriental. 
Payran, Pena, Petaluma. Finer, Pine liidge. 
Pine Mountain. Pleasant Hill, Porter Creek, 
Potter. Iledwood, Ilideidiour, Rincon, Rodgers, 
Rose Hill, Russian River, San Antonio, San 
Luis, Santa Rosa, Scotta, Sheridan, Sonoma, So- 
toyome, Spring Hill, Star, Steuben, Stewart's 
Point, Stony Point, Stra>vberry, Summit, Sum- 
mit Point, Table Mountain, Tarwater, Timber 
Cove, Todd, Two Rock, Vine Hill, Walker, Wal- 
lace. Washington, Watmaugh, Watson, Waugh, 
W^heeler, Wilson, Windsor, Wright. 

There are sixty churches in this county, rep- 
resenting the following religious denominations, 
with the number of organizations of eacli: 
Methodist Episcopal, 13; Methodist Episcopal 
South, 8; German Methodist, 2; Presbyterian, 


U, with one mission; Catliolif, (i; ('liristiuii, 7; 
CoiigregationaU 3; Baptist, 8; Episcopal, 8, 
witli two embryo; miscellaneous, fi; total. HO, 
with three einbrjo-missions. 

Tn tlieso chapters we have endeavored to 
t'aitiifiiii}' delineate the progress made by So- 
noma County since it came under American 
occupancy. AVe found it a comparative wild, 
with elk. deer and antelo[ie grazing in perfect 
security on the shores of San Pablo Bay, and 
we leave it with orchards and vineyards sur- 
rounding Cloverdale, a thriving incorporated 
town on her northern border. While we may 
seem to have been boastful of the progress made 
in less than four decades, yet we now east the 
horoscope of the future of Sonoma County, and 
predict that the historian ot her next four 
decades will have the pleasing task of recording 
more remarkal)le strides in growth and material 
prosperity than it has been our privilege to 
record ; for then thousands upon thousands of 
acres of land now used as sheep-walks and cow- 
pastures will be devoted to orchards and vines, 
and a happy, thrifty population will be found 
where now large land holdings present a bar to 
progress and development. The present large 
land-holdings is sim])ly an aftermath of Spanish 
granti*, and as those grants like the Roman 
Empire, fell to pieces of their own weight, so 
too will these accumulations of broad acres be a 
thing of the past within the next generation. 

There is no extravagance in claiming that 
Sonoma County, as a whole, is one of the most 
favored counties in the State. l*'or diversity of 
soul, climate, scenery atul productions, she can 
challenge comparison with almost any territory 
of like scope in the world. This, taken in con- 
nection with her geographical position and 
ready facilities for rapid and cheap communica- 
tions with San Francisco, the great metropolis 
of the Pacific Coast, predestines her to grand 
achievements in the line of population aiul 
wealth. With her southern extremity washed 
by San Pablo Bay and a long stretch of her 
western border laved by the Pacific Ocean, and 
at short intervals coves iind estuaries artbrd- 

ing safe mooring to coasting vessels, it gives a 
facility for cheap transportation which jtrecludcs 
the possibility of her ever lieing forced to pay 
tribute to exacting freight moiuipolies. In con- 
junction with these advantages her geographical 
position places her in a most favored situation 
as relates to rain and moisture. The unerring 
testimony of the weather-guage for a long series 
of years is that Sonoma ('Oiinty represents the 
etjuitable mean betwixt the excessive humidity 
of the northern tier of counties and the tendency 
to periodic droughts of the southern portion of 
the State. Here there is no scanning of the 
heavens with wistful gazeand the watching with 
solicitude every cloud that flecks the sky wearied 
with conjecture as to whether or no seed time 
and harvest will come. AVitli Sonoma County 
there never has lieen and never can be any fear 
of failure of crops on account of drought. There 
mijy be variableness of seasons and light crops 
contradistinction to heavy crops, but a total crop 
failure, never. Many there are in this county 
who, we apprehend, do not themselves fullv 
appreciate the blessings they enjoy in this 
respect. Such have become so accustomed to 
gathering where they have not strewn, and reap- 
ing where they have not tilled, that they have 
come to accept these bounties as a right rather 
than a great and priceless boon to be thankful 
for. As yet our people have been mainly con- 
tent to gather the fat that has spontaneouslv 
exuded from an over generous soil. This skim- 
ming process has had its day and a new condi- 
tion of affairs is slowly but surely obtaining, 
and the adaptability of our soil to an almost 
infinite variety of products of farm, orchard and 
garden, cannot fail to invite a population such 
as will take a(l\antage of all these favorable 
conditions and woo aiul win from the eartli its 
yet reserved treasures. Our twenty-five miles 
of breadth and fifty miles of length of county is 
in itself a principality in point of diversified re- 
sources. While our field for husbandry alone 
is ample to insure, in time, a dense population, 
yet we are possessed of other and inexhaustible 
sources ot' industry and wealth. Our vast red- 


nrsTonr op sonoma cotTNTY. 

wood forests arc iniiies ol' untold wealth, wliicli 
for ages to oome will jrive employinciit to laljor 
and capital. The (quicksilver mines in our 
mountain fastnesses arc deveio])ing into im- 
portance, and their jjroducts are goin<^ forth to 
swell the commerce of tlic world. Lever and 
last have unlocked our vast quarries and tlie 
time is drawing near when a wliole fleet of 
small vessels will be requisite to supply the 
demand of San Francisco for our indispensahle 
pavinir blocks. This industry is in its infancy 
yet ; but that our durable sipiare paving mater- 
ial is destined, in time, to wholly supplant the 
liitherto rough and noise-producing cobble pave- 
ments of San Francisco is fust as certain as that 
the steam thresher has supplanted the tlail on 
the farm. These are only a few of the manj' 
growing industries adjunct to our staple pro- 
ducts of farm and dairy. And in conjunction 
with all this where in the wide world is pre- 
sented in the same scope of territory so varied 
and diversitied a medley of climate and scenery ? 
The fnrnuT embi-aces every deiJree from the 

ciiol and invigorating hcasliore climate to a 
degree of warmth verging upon tropical heat. 
The latter presents a pleasing panorama, enibrac- 
ing every shade of scenery from placid valleys 
mellowed by the golden tints of ripeiungharvests 
to mountain gorges and beetling cliffs where tlie 
murmering of evergreen foi-ests have for untold 
ages been the harp-like accompaniment to the 
music of rippling streams and thunderincr cata- 
racts. For all time to come the mountains of 
Sonoma (njunty will be a favorite place of resort 
for thdsc ill quest of health and ])leasu.-e. In 
her mountain wilds are innumerable mineral 
springs, many of which have already attained 
wide celebrity on account of their health-restor- 
ing properties. Thus in a very brief way we 
have made mention of our country's resources 
and her possible future. "We have seen her first 
third of a century's progress, and feel confident 
tliat she has but just entered upon the threshold 
of a brighter future yet in store for her. We 
leave her resting to the future, for •• the eternal 
years of (iod are hers." 




3H Jffi i£^SZP-i? FITPPlFSBfgHSIg E S HgJ 

BANa"A Rosa, i 





fANTA liOSA Towiislii]) has a wealtli of 
soil and climate that, as yet, is not Cully 
appreciated, and the "City of Roses" has 
a I'uture of greatness and prosperity ahead of it 
which this generation little wots of. In de- 
lineating the history of this township and city 
we have, by permission, drawn largely upon the 
excellent history of it written by Hon. II. A. 
Thompson, who is a long resident of that place, 
and as County Clerk, was in a position to speak 
with great accuracy upon all subjects upon 
which he used his facile pen. 

■'Santa Rosa Township is in the heart (if the 
County of Sonoma. It extends from the sum- 
mit of the high range separating Napa from 
Sonoma County across the great Central Valley 
of Santa Rosa to the Laguna, which is its 
western boundary. On the north it is bounded 
by Knight's Valley and Russian River Town- 
ship, on the south by retahnna, Vallejound So- 
noma 'J'ownships. 

" It has a larger proportion of level than of hill 
land, and a number of beautiful subsidiary val- 
leys tributary to the main valley, all of which 
will hereafter be fully described. 

>' The honor of giving the beautiful name of 
Santa Rosa to this section is due t(j I'athcr 
.Juan .\nior<jso, the foumler of the Mission i)\' 

San Rafael. This zealous priest, on the 8()th 
day of August, 182U, was in this region on a 
proselyting expedition, in company with one 
Jose Cantua. He was driven otf by the hos- 
tiles while in the act of conferring upon a young 
Indian woman the rite ot baptism. The priest 
and his companion took hurriedly to their 
horses, and Hod with all possible speed down 
the valley, escaping their pursuers. It being 
the day on which the church celebrated the 
feast of Santa Rosa de Lima, I-"atlier Amoroso 
named the stream from that circumstance. The 
valley then came to be called after the stream 
--the Valley of Santa Rosa - fortunately one ot 
the most beautiful names, as its original was 
one of the most beautiful eharacters in the 
calendar of American saints. It is related of 
Father .\moroso, who must have had some 
poetry as well as piety in his nature, that he 
named the horse which bore him so swiftly over 
the ])lain, "Centella," meaning lightning in 
the English vernaculai'. All honor to the gal- 
lant friar and his companion Jose, to whose 
courageous spirit we owe the legacy which this 
expedition left us — the name of Santa Rosa. 

" The first settlement was made, and the first 
furrow was turmiil in Santa itosa Township by 
a plucky young Irishman, whose name was 


John T. Read. He was born in Dublin in 1805. 
He had an uncle wlio was a sea-faring man. 
Young Read left Ireland with hini at the age of 
fifteen years, bound upon a voyage to Mexico. 
He sailed from Acapulco for California, and 
reached this State in 1820, just after he had at- 
tained his majoi-ity. He settled in Sancelito, 
and applied for a grant there, but failed to get 
it on *^he ground that the land was wanted for 
the use of the Government. He was not discour- 
aged, nor was he timid. He came into what is 
now Sonoma County, and made the first settle- 
ment outside the mission at Sonoma. Moreover, 
he was the lirst English-speaking settler in the 
count}', and was the first Irishman who settled 
anywhere in the State. He made application 
in 1827 for a grant of his settlement, which 
was in the vicinity of the residence of Robert 
Crane, but before he could perfect it the In- 
dians drove him off, burning his crop of wheat 
and all of his improvements. He was set back, 
but not disheartened. Soon after this disaster 
he engaged with Padre Quivas as mayor-domo 
of San Rafael. In 1832 he went to reside at 
Saucelito, and sailed a small craft iietween the 
peninsula and San Francisco — the first ferry es- 
tablished on the bay or in the State of California. 

•' Young Read made a second effort to get 
a grant at Saucelito, and failed. He then uni- 
ted himself in marriage with one of the hand- 
some hijasdel 2M>^i and soon after was granted 
the rancho Cort de Madera del Presidio, in 
Marin County. He established himself on his 
ranch, but in 1843, seven years after his mar 
riage, he was taken with a fever, and dieil at the 
age of thirty -eight years. 

''This brief notice is due .^[r. Read, who was 
the very first settler of any nationality in San- 
ta Rosa Township. It is to be regretted that 
lie did not live to enjoy the reward of his per- 
severance, and to have seen the future, of which 
he must sometimee have mused and dreamed in 
his lonely settlement under the shadow of Co- 
tatc Peak. 

•' The next settlement in Santa Rosa Town- 
ship was in the Guillucos Rancho; The next, 

and first permanent settler in the neighliorhood 
of the present town of Santa Rosa, was Senora 
Maria Y'gnacia Lopez de Carrillo. 

''This lady came upon the invitation of 
(jeneral Vallejo, as a colonist from San Diego, 
al)ont the time of the Hijar colonization scheme. 
She reached Sonoma in 1837, resided there onv 
year, and came to Santa Rosa. 

" Senora Carrillo was a woman of more than 
average courage and energy, as is proven be 
her settlement on the frontier, in the midst of 
hostile Indians. She had a large family — five 
boys and seven girls — and she carved for 
them out of the wilderness, but a beautiful 
wilderness it was, a local liabitation and a home. 
That she had good taste and judgment, as well 
as courage and industry, is evidenced by her 
choice of Santa Rosa, when all the valleys of 
this county were open to occupation. The pio- 
neer mother in Santa Rosa died in iN^li, ami 
her estate was divided among her children. All 
of the site of the present city of Santa Rosa 
was included in the boundaries of the grant 
made to Senoi'a Carrilhi. 

•' It is said that at the time of the occupation 
of the valley by Senora Carrillo there were 
3,000 Indians living in the neighborhood of the 
present city. The principal rancheria was on 
the Smith farm, just below the bridge, at the 
crossing of Santa Rosa Creek, on the road lead- 
ing to Sebastopol. Upon this site a mission 
was commenced, probably by Father Amoroso, 
whose zeal in the cause of Christianity kept 
him always on the debatable line between the 
natives and •' la gente de razon,'" as the Cali- 
fornians were called, or called themselves. 

" The Indians rose up and destroyed the in- 
cipient mission buildings about the same time 
that the mission of Sonoma was devastated. 
Tiiere was not one adobe left upon another. 
Julio Carrillo says that when he came, in 1838. 
the uuirks where the buildings stood were plain- 
ly discernable. 

" The chief of the Cainemeros tribe, when 
the first settlement was made in Santa Rosa, 
was called Junipero — his baptiamal name^aft^ 


er tlie founder of the missions of Alta Cali- 
fornlH. His tribe was munerous and powerful. 
Tliere were many tliousands Indians in the 
county at this time, but they were doomed to 
!-]ieedy destruction, and even tlien were under 
tlie shadow of an approaching pestilence. 

" In the year 1838 a corporal by the name of 
Ygnacio Miramontes contracted the disease of 
small-pox at Ross. It spread to the Indians. 
They fled to their " temescales " or sweat-houses, 
and from thence to a cold bath. Death speedily 
came to the relief of the plague-stricken native. 

''Tliey burned their dead. Julio Carrillo 
says he has often seen the process. They would 
build up a mausoleum of dry wood and twigs, 
lay the body upon it, and cover it over with 
other inflammable material. They would then 
collect around the burning pyre, lacerate their 
flesh, and utter dismal moans as the body slow- 
ly consumed. When the burning was over, 
which took but a short time, they gathered up 
the ashes of the dead and strewed them over the 
ground, and thus returned to the dust, from 
whence it sprung, the ashes of the aborigines, 
who came into possession of the soil with the 
sequoias which shaded the rivei's in which they 
trapped the iridescent trout, and the oaks which 
furnished the acorns upon which they fed. 

"There was nothing of interest connected 
with this section from 1841 to 1840, when, on 
the 14th day of June of that year, the revolt in 
Sonoma began, which was to terminate only 
with the transfer of the sovereignty of the 
whole of Alta California to the United States, 
which, with a rapidity unecjualed in the history 
of the world, had extended her frontier, in flfty 
years, from the Alleghany Mountains to the 
Pacific Ocean." 

Among the earliest farmers in Santa liosa 
Township may be enumerated S. T. Coulter, 
"William, David and Martin Hudson, James 
Xeal, James and Charles Hudspeth, John 
Adams, Itobert Smith, John Ingrew, J. N. Ben- 
nett, the Elliotts, Ben Dewell, Achilles and Joe 
Richardson, Wesley Matthews and Peterson 

Santa Rosa Township is thus accurately de- 
scribed by li. A. Thompson in his "Township 
History: "' 

" Santa Rosa Township contains an ai-ea 
equal to fifteen miles square, about 13().()00 
acres of land, one-half of which is rich alluvial 
soil, occnpying the center of the groat central 
valley of Sunonia (bounty.. The l)ottoin lands 
are of unsurpassed' fertility, suited to the growth 
of wheat, corn, oats, rye, barley, hops, and 
especially for stone and seed fruit culture. The 
remaining lands in the township may be classed 
as hill, foothill and tributary valley land — the 
latter meaning a number of valleys, of greater 
or less extent, tributary t(j the central valley. 
In each of the smaller valleys there is alluvial 
soil along tlie water courses and volcanic soil in 
the foothills. They are largely devoted to grape 
culture. In these valleys, and upon the sur- 
rounding hill lands, the best of the celebrated 
vineyards of Sonoma County are located. .\o- 
where is the planting of the vine so rapidly in- 
creasing as in this class of lands. 

"The climate is better than in the main \ al- 
ley, which, being lower, catches more frost in 
winter, and is more exposed to the fog and sea 
breeze of summer. For staple crops and hardy 
fruit-, prunes, plums, pears, apples and berries, 
the rich alluvial of the bottom is especially 
adapted. To ubtaiii the delicate flavor of the 
grape, upon which the wine depends, the vol- 
canic soil and more genial climate of the up- 
lands is essential. The two locations combine 
conditions rarely met in the same locality, 
covering a wide range of agricultural pro<luots, 
from the gross feeding hardy staples tu the 
most <lelicate of the fruit and nut trees, includ- 
ing the almond, apricot and the olive. ^ 

'• The valleys tributary to Santa Rosa are the 
Guilioos, liennett, Pleasant, or Chaiiate, Rincoii 
and Elliott. 

"The first of these, the (iuilicos, is on the 
southeasterly fork of Santa Rosa Creek. It is 
one of the most beautiful locations in the State. 
Hood Mountain overlooks it. At the base of 
this peak is the celebrated Guilicus vineyard, 



now tlie property of Mrs. William Iloud. It 
includes 350 acres, and lias long been culcbrated 
for the superiority of its wine and brandy. The 
soil is red in color> and very productive. In 
this section there are a number of vinegrovver.-;, 
Samuel Hutchinson, Henry Bolle, James I^. 
Clark, AV. 15. Atterbury and others. The area 
in grapes is rapidly extending. 

"The stream fiowing from the Guilicos 
northward, unites with the Alamos branch, 
coming into the valley from about due east. 
The united w.iters take the name of Santa Rosa 
Creek, and, soon after, this stream debouches 
on the Santa Rosa plain, across wliich it flows 
in a westerly direction to the Laguna. Before 
reaching the plain, however, Santa Rosa Creek 
cuts across the face of two other valleys of 
considerable e.xtent and importance, the Rincou 
and r>enuett valleys. 

"The 'Alamos' branch of Santa Rosa Creek 
rises in the high hills separating Napa from 
Sonoma County. Mark West Creek, which 
biiunds Santa Rosa Townshij) on the north, 
I'ises in the same crest, flows north and then 
turns across the plain, uniting with the Laguna, 
antl ultimately fimling its outlet, through Rus- 
sian River, to the sea. Sonoma Creek, which 
partly bounds Santa Rosa Township on the 
south, rises on the opposite side of the same 
hills. It flows southwesterly, then almost due 
^iiuth, through Sonoma Valley into the Ray of 
San Francisco. In all these streams trout are 
caught, affording good sport to lovers of the 
rod and reel. 

" Rincon, in the Spanish language, means a 
corner, and Rincou Valley is literally a corner 
in the hills. It is a rich corner, a jiockct, out 
of which a considerable sum of coin is taken 
year after yeai', in agricultural jiroducts. 

"The Rincon lies north of Santa Rosa Creek, 
and is about two miles in width and three and 
a half or four miles in length. Tlie climate is 
mild and the soil is well adapted to gra|>(^ and 
fruit culture. 

" It is becoming quite a favorite location for 
fruit and vine culture. The celebrated Wells 

vineyards are in the hills, at the head of the 
Rincon, one of the very best grape plantations 
in Sonoma County. This vine3'ard was recently 
purchased by Charles Duntz, and contains, old 
and new vines, 145 acres. The total acreage of 
old and new vines in the valley is 527 acres. 

" The Rincon is separated from Santa Rosa 
Valley by a ridge known as Rincon Heights, 
which forms the background of the city of 
Santa Rosa. Guy E. (-Jrosse, Esq., the owner of 
the land, built a grade road over the heights at 
his own private cost. This drive is a great ad- 
dition to the suburban attractions of the city. 
From the summit of the heights, about two 
miles from the city, the view is one of e.xti-aor- 
dinary beauty. The roofs of the taller houses, 
church and college steeples, show up through 
the trees in which the city is embosomed. The 
great plain of Santa Rosa extends north and 
south of the city for a distance of twenty-five 
.miles. Scattered groves of oak grow over the 
plain, giving an artistic finish to the landscape. 
On the west the view is arrested by the Coast 
Range, at whose notched and rock-pinnacled base 
the restless sea leaps and falls back with un- 
ceasing moan. 

" Turning eastward, Bennett, (Tuilicosand liin- 
con valleys, interlaced amid mountains, meet 
the view. The Yulupa, or Bennett Beak, Hood 
ilountain and its twin volcanic sister, on the 
south side of Sonoma Creek, stand up in l>old 
relief, and challenge admiration. If there is 
anything finer than tlie west view from Rincon 
Heights it is the grouping of valley and mount- 
ain, which makes up the landscape on its 
southeasterly side. 

" Bennett Valley is -the largest of the valleys 
tributary to Santa luisa. It has an average 
length of seven miles and is from two and a 
half to three miles in width. It opens out a 
wide frontage on Santa Rosa Creek, the stream 
which flows through the valley, emptying into 
Santa Rosa Creek within the corporate limits of 
the city. This stream is called Matanzas Creek_ 
South of the town, the range which separates 
Bennett from Santa Rosa Valley appears. It is 


a spur of the main Sonoma Range. Tliis ridge 
is of open land of considerable value; first, be- 
cause tlie soil is good, and next, because it lies 
just within the warm belt and is exempt from 

" I'ennett Valley is largely devoted to grape 
culture. In the center of the valley is the vine- 
yard of Mr. De Turk, one of the State Viticult- 
ural Commissioners, and the owner of the 
superbly equipped wine cellar in Santa liosa, 
whicii lias a capacity for the manufacture of 
300,000 gallons of wine. 

" Bennett Valley has about 15,000 acres of 
land, and has a population of 300; there is an- 
nually produced 500 tons of grapes, 5,000 
boxes of apples, 4,000 boxes of other fruit, 
1,450 tons of hay, 25,000 bushels of wheat, 600 
bushels of oats, 15,000 bushels of barley, 400 
horses, 1,000 head of cattle, 4,000 sheep, 2,000 

" Bennett Valley can justly claim the honor 
of having a school and a school-house among 
the first, if not the very first, in the township. 
It was called Santa Rosa District, took prece- 
dence in the name, and forced the district in 
Santa Rosa, which was organized afterward, to 
adopt the not very happy name of court-house 
district. This school was first taught in an old 
building on the Glen Cook place. David Ogan 
was the teacher, and received a salary of .^100 
a month. In the fall of 1853 a good building 
was put up near the bridge. When it was built 
there were just thirteen contributoi's to it 
there was no school fund out of which to Iniild 
school-houses in those days. Thirty children 
attended the school. 

" Alpine Valley is distant aliout six miles 
from Santa Rosa. It is reached by a road from 
the Rincon, over a low divide, wliich separates 
the two valleys. It is not large, Init has a con- 
siderable stock interest, and some vineyards. 

" Elliott Valley, on Porter (^reek, a branch of 
Mark West, lies east of the Mark West Springs, 
and about nine miles from Santa Rosa. This is 
a small but fertile valley, inliabited by a number 
of eiiterprising farmers, among whom may be 

mentioned M. W. Tarwater and W. J. Arnold 
This valley has no especial name, and might 
most appropriately be called Elliott Valley. 

•' W. I>. Elliott, the discoverer of Geyser 
Springs, and a daring hunter and pioneer, re- 
sided at this place in 1846, when the bear fiag 
war began. He related to me, just prior to his 
death, the particulars of his residence there and 
his discovery of the Geyser Springs. 

"Considerable farming is done in this valley, 
and there is an increasing fruit and grape inter- 
est. The hills surrounding Elliott Valley are 
covered with a soil having very marked charac- 
teristics, and it would not be surprising if the 
grapes from this section should produce a wine 
of great excellence. Not far from here, n])on 
like soil, the Schramm vineyard, which pro- 
duces the celebrated Schramm berger wine, is 
situated. It is possible that the Elliott Valley 
wine may prove of equal value. 

"There is a small valley near Santa Rosa in 
which the County Farm is located, known as 
Pleasant Valley. It is largely devoted to grape 
culture. This valley is principally noted for 
being the scene of the assassination of the Bear 
Flag party by the Californians. There is a large 
grape interest just north of Santa Rosa, in the 
foothills, bordering the Santa Rosa plain on the 
east, extending to Mark West Creek. Follow- 
ing are the principal grape-growers and the 
number of acres set out: T. L. Harris, Fount- 
aingrove farm, 380 acres, one of the largest 
vineyards in the county; II. P. Holmes, ninety 
acres; H. II. Harris, thirty; J. Stewart, fifty; 
R. Forsythe, twenty-five; W. J. Breitlauch. 
twenty-five; M. Maillard, forty. Total acreage 
in that district, 640 acres. 

"The country we have described is the back- 
ground of Santa Rosa. The principal agricult- 
ural wealth of the township is in the level 
plain extending west of the town to Sebastopol, 
for about eight miles, and north and south foi' 
a greater distance. This laud is principally 
deep alluvial soil, which in the season of 1882 
produced in the main fifty bushels of wheat to 
the acre. That was an extra good wheat year; 



but it will average thirty bushels one season 
with another. This land, which has heretofore 
been largely devoted to the growth of wiieat and 
otiier staple crops, is now being snl>divide<l into 
small tracts, and is now, or will be, set to fruit, 
to the growth of which it seems to be especially 
adapted. It will produce any crop reijuiring a 
strong soil. Grapes and some fruits make too 
much wood, but for pears, prunes, and other 
fruits, it cannot be surpassed." 

Santa Rosa, designated as the " City of 
Roses,"' is well entitled to the appellation, for 
it certainly ranks next to San Jose and Santa 
(^lara as a Sylvan retreat. It has an energetic, 
wide-awake population wlio know that their 
lives have been cast in a pleasant place, and 
they are willing to have others come and enfoy 
it with them. 

It was founded in iSoS and became the 
county-seat of Sonoma County in 1854:. The 
first house built in the town of Santa Rosa was 
built by John Bailiff for Julio Carrillo. A 
town had already been started at wliat is now 
the junction of the Sonoma, Bodegar & Russian 
River roads, called Franklin Town, and some 
business houses started there; but this town was 
drawn into the vorte.\ of Santa Rosa, and its 
projectors Ijecame active participants in found- 
ing a fcity that has made marvelous progress 
According to R. A. Thompson's Township Ills-' 
tory among the very tirst residents of Santa 
Rosa were Obe Rippeto, Jim Williamson, J. M. 
Case, John Ingram, Dr. Boyce, the late William 
Ross, Judge Temple, W. B. Atterbur}', S. G. 
and J. P. Clark, and Charles W. Wliite. 

ilr. Ilahman sold out his business to B. 
Goldfish. He was joined by Morris and Henry 
A¥ise, under the firm name of Wise & Goldfish. 
Mr. William Wilson bought into tiie firm witliin 
the past few years, and it is now Goldfish, Wil- 
son & Co., the oldest established business in 
Santa Rosa. 

Judge Jackson Temple and the late Colonel 
William Ross came to Santa Rosa with the 
county seat. The late William Williamson, of 
the Samoan Islands, tauglit the first school in 

the old Masonic Hall. Donald McDonald was 

postmaster at the " Old Adobe." He Was suc- 
ceeded l)y F. G. Ilahman, who first servc^d as Post- 
master in tlic city of Santa Rosa. Barney Iloen 
was the agent of Adams iV Co.'s Express; J. 
W. Ball built a small house, II. Beaver, a black- 
smith shop, C. C. More, a house and wagon 
shop, W. S. Burch, a saddle-tree factory. The 
old Masonic Lodge Hall was the first public 
building in the town. 

Among the very first merchants in Santa 
Rosa were B. Marks, now of Ukiah, and his part- 
ner, M. Rosenberg, still residing here. 

Mr. Iloen sold out his business to G. ^'. 
Miller, who was an original character, but very 
popular. He was succeeded in business by the 
late Dr. John Henley. 

The growth of Santa Rosa was slow but 
steady for about fifteen years, when it suddenly 
went forward with amazing rapidity — doubling 
its population in the decade between 1860 and 
1870; and from that time onward its progress 
has been steady and substantial. In 1867 Santa 
Rosa was incorporated as a city with the follow- 
ing officers: C. W. Langdon, J. F. Boyce, T. B. 
Hood, B. Marks, A. P. Petit, Trustees; E. T. 
Turner, Treasurer; H. E. Parks, Marshal; J. 
H. Richardson, Assessor. 

In 1869 Santa Rosa secured the location there 
of the Pacific Methodist College that had lon^ 
been conducted at Yacaville, Solano County. 
This naturally attracted to the place many fami- 
lies on account of the educational advantages 

In 1870 the o^s^orthern Pacific Railroad was 
completed to Santa Rosa and it seemed to give 
to it an impetus that lasted for years, and what 
had been a modest village of the plains l)egan to 
take on the form of a wide-awake bustling city. 

The completion of the Santa Rosa »fc Carqui- 
nez Railroad to that place in 1887 has made it 
a fixed finality that Santa Rosa is to grow into 
the magnitude of one of the most populous in- 
land cities in the State. It has made marvelous 
strides in the last decade, aiul will round u{) 
the century with a showing of progress such as 


is seldom seen exliibitcd by a city of its age. 
Alrea<ly it presents a sliowinji of iron front 
Imildings, paved streets and patent stone side- 
walks tliat gives to it quite a metropolitan 
appearance. Its street railroads are great con- 
veniences, and are great aids in attracting a de- 
sirable class of residents to the place. It is a 
veritable " City of Roses," an<l to its enterpris- 
ing people are to be congratulated, for most 
assuredly " their lives have fallen in pleasant 

Santa llosa has fostered and built up a large 
number of manufacturing industries. Every 
line of mechanical' art is well represented. These 
industries are so varied and numerous as to pre- 
clude description and speciticatiou of each. So, 
too, every line of general business is fully repre- 
sented, and conducted on a scale worthy of that 
prosperous and growing city. 

We note a few of the most important institu- 
tions of that city: 

Santa Rosa Bank.- -The. oldest bankinghouse 
in the city of Santa Rosa was incorporated 
August 20, 1870, and opened its doors for busi- 
ness November 21st of that year with a capital 
stock of $100,000. Owing to the rapid develop- 
ment of tlie country and the consequent growth 
of business, it was found necessary to increase 
the capital stock in 1873 to s300,000, its present 
volume. The iirst board of directors was com- 
posed of E. T. Farmer, A. Thomas, T.N. Willis, 
David Hnnis and C". G. .\mes. E. T. Farmer 
was president of the bank from its organization 
till his death, in October, 1885. AVilliam E. 
McConnell was then elected president and has 
filled the otKce up to the present time. C. G. 
Ames was the iirst cashier, and was succeeded 
in December, 1878, by W. B. Atterberry, who 
served in that capacity until Sejttcmber 1882, 
when bo resigned and Mi-. L. \V. liunis, the 
present cashier, was elected. • In 1878 thenum- 
berof directors was increased from five to seven; 
the board is now coMij)osed of AVilliam \\. Mc- 
Connell, Thomas Hopper, James II. Laughlin, 
John S. Taylor, David iJunis, J. C. Maddox and 
Allen A. Curtis. In addition to the gentlemen 

above named E. II. Barns, David Clark, John 
A. Paxton, J. Temple, W. E. Cooke and 
Richard Fulkerson have been members of the 
board of directors since the bank was opened. 
From its inception Santa Rosa Bank has always 
been under the control of some of the oldest 
and most judicious business men of Sonoma 
County, and the policy of the management has 
ever been conservative and safe. Hence it has 
done a large business and its career has been one 
of uninterrupted prosperity. The stock, on 
which the bank has been and is now paying 
eight per cent, dividends, is nearly all owned by 
citizens of this county. The bank has an 
accumulated reserve of §85,000 and a surplus 
of over $20,000. Having been the first bank 
organized, and for a number of years the only 
one in Santa Rosa, it lias had much to do with 
the important public enterprises connected with 
- the city. The bank is situated on Exchant^e 
Avenue, opposite the court-house. The first 
bank building was erected in 1872, and occupied 
by the bank until September, 1888, when it was 
moved into the more commodious new building 
then completed for the purpose, one door north 
of the old one. The new twostory building is 
beautifully and tastefully finished and furnished, 
and is one of the most elegant banking houses 
in the State. It is furnishetl with a large safe 
deposit vault, 10x20 feet in size inside and two 
stories in height. It is fitted up with nearly 
400 private safe deposit boxes of the most aj)- 
proved patterns and convenient in arrangement 
for the accommodation of patrons, the whole 
being both fire and burglar proof. 

Santa Rosa Savings Bank. — The Santa Rosa 
Savings Bank was organized in 1873, with a 
cajjital stock of $100,000. A. F^. Overton was 
elected first president of the bank, and has held 
that position down to the present day. The late F. 
(4. Ilahman was the first cashier. He was suc- 
ceeded by the ])reseut cashier, Mr. G. I'. Noo- 
nan, a gentleman of high st;uiding and thorough 
business capacity. The assistant cashier is 
Mr. John P. Overton. Since its organization 
the bank has increased its capital stock to $150,- 



000. The bank was a success from its start, 
under the intelligent tinancial management of 
Mr. Overton. 

Sonoma Voiinti/ A<jricultiiral Park. — In tlie 
latter part of 1878 a number of prominent 
citizens determined to organize an association 
uiidei- the corporate name of "Tlie Sonoma 
County Agricultural Park Association." On 
the 3()th day of December, 1878, the following 
persons signed the articles of incorporation: 
Dr. W. Finlaw, J. P. Clark, James Adams, II. 
AV. Byington, Baker & Ross, Jos. Wright, W. 
(i. Atkins, Murphy Bros., E. Latapie, U. P. 
Quackenbusli, G. W. Savage, J.S.Taylor, Rags- 
dale Bros., E. T. Mills. ' The articles of incor- 
poration were filed in the office of the county 
clerk on the 9th day of January, 187i). Follow- 
ing were the first directors of the association: 
Jos. Wright, James P. Clark, James Adams, 
Wm. Finlaw, H. AV. Byington, E. Latapie, 
Wymau Murphy. The capital stock of the 
corporation was fi.xed at $25,000. Tiie sum paid 
in amounted to $7,000 — about $500 apiece for 
each of the original promoters. A tract of 
eighty acres of land, adioining and partly in 
tlie city limits, was purchased of the estate of 
Dr. John Hendley for the sum of $5,000. For 
tiie purpose of constructing a mile track, erect- 
ing fences, stalls, grand stand, etc., a further 
assessment was levied and collected, aggregating 
tlie sum of $5,000. During the following year 
the track and necessary buildings were com- 

The fair of 1888 was largely attended and 
was a decided success. Hon. George A. John- 
son, State Attorney-General, delivered the fol- 
lowing able address: 

Mr. President, Ladiks and (ii:NTi.i:MEN: — It 
is pleasant to meet together again on this an- 
nual occasion, to witness the exhibit of the 
growing industries of Sonoma County, and talk 
over its retrospect and its prospects. . 

Some of yon when you first came hither were 
young men flushed with excitement and hope 
amid your new surroundings, but however rose- 
colored were your dreams as to the future of 

this county, tiiey have been more than realized, 
thus proving that at times truth is stranger 
than fiction. Time and again you have liad to 
take back your dogmatic assertions as to Cali- 
fornia's possibilities and impossibilities, in the 
face of the all-convincing facts. In honor of 
you,' the early projectors of our present pros- 
perity, I will have sometliing to say in regard 
to Sonoma's ^last, and then in honor of you all, 
including this greater grouping of young men 
and women of native sons and daughters, I will 
have something to sa}' in regard to Sonoma's 
present and future. 

AVc refer with conimendalile pride to the 
fact tliat here in this county the first steps were 
taken to found a Republic in California. Here, 
first of all, Americans severed their relations 
with their sister country Mexico, and deter- 
mined to set up for themselves. And they had 
no sooner so determined than with characteristic 
energy they made a successful assault, took 
prisoners, and raised a flag. The bear flag 
meant that they were in earnest; it typified per- 
sistence and down-right stubbornness. It was 
no gala-day flag, or flag appealing to esthetic 
principles or wants. It \vas uncouth in its de- 
sign and texture, but there was something about 
it that rallied together a few hardy men to strike 
for liberty and self-government. Sloat in Mon- 
terey Bay soon hoisted another flag, the flag of 
our common country, the bear flag w-as at once 
taken down, and in its place the star spangled 
banner run up. Then came others to Sonoma, 
whose names have since become national — Per- 
sifer F. Smith, Philip Kearney, George Stone- 
man, Tecumseh Sherman, Old Joe Hooker, 
Halleck, Fremont and Stone. Hooker was 
elected road overseer, but got defeated when his 
ambition led him to aspire as high as a seat in 
the Legislature of California. Sherman capt- 
ured a justice of the peace by the name of 
Nash, because he was so pretentious as to claim 
to be chief justice of the country, and took him 
before Governor Mason, who proceeded to repri- 
mand severely the chief justice, and then re- 
leased him. Besides these leaders and generals 


there were others who, though not written up 
in history, were equally heroic. I mean the 
privates in the ranks, many of whom have be- 
come a part of the hone and sinew of Sonoma's 
strength, and some of whom I see before me 
to-day. Afterward others came to add laurels 
to her civic wreatli. A young man all the way 
from Massachusetts settled at Petaluma, having 
lirst taken the precaution to appear in high-top 
boots in honor of her tiien muddy streets, which 
liave been since converted into the best of 
tliorough fares, nailed np his law sign and began 
to look about for business. He has since be- 
come a distinguished jurist, of whom Sonoma is 
justly proud. Among her lawyers, by common 
consent, Wilkins was brilliant and Thomas pro- 

But it is not so much of the men of Sonoma 
of whom I am to-day to speak as of her general 
industrial development, the improvement of her 
general well being; it is of her rise from a 
wilderness, from her primitive adobe buildings, 
lier mustang horses, her long-horned Spanish 
cattle, to the Sonoma of today, with the prize 
given her at the last Mechanics' Kair for the 
best display of citrus fruits, with her vine- 
covered hills and valleys, with her palatial resi- 
dences, the homes of thrifty culture, with her 
blooded stock, with her communication by rail 
with the North and South, and lastly with the 
East, and with the symmetrical development 
under the best of climatic influences of a vigor- 
ous manhood and lovely womanhood. Thus we 
have fully realized the prophesy of Bayard Tay- 
lor in respect to Sonoma, e.xpressed in those 
matchless words: 

"The wild, barbaric beauty of llij' face 
Shall round to classic lines." 

The little town of Sonoma was at one time 

the most prosperous city north of the Bay of 

San Francisco. Here, in this county, was first 

erected a church north of the ])ay, the (Ireek 

Church at Fort Ross, and here north of the bay 

were first grown fruits and grain, planted or 

sown by the Russians from Sitka. Now, how 

changed is the landscape. Over the great cen- 

tral valley, embracing the Petaluma, Santa Rosa 
and Russian River valleys, has budded forth 
into loveliness opening flowers of urban beauty 
all along the line of the San Francisco & North 
Pacific Railroad; and the picturesque valleys of 
the Rincon, Los Gruilicos and Sonoma, so long 
hidden from the view of the traveler, are brought 
into direct communication with the East by the 
new Carquinez Railroad. The earlier settle- 
ment at Sonoma, though it has not kept pace 
with the luxuriant development of other towns, 
will always be rememliered for its historic in- 
terest, and for the general culture of the people, 
who have their happy homes in the country 
around it. As great as has been the progress 
of this country from the times when Charles V 
sent forth his galleons to Mexico and Peru to 
carry the Spanish arms to success under Cortez 
and Pizarro; as great as has been its ])rogress 
froin the time when Mexico declared her inde- 
pendence of Spain, and the Monroe doctrine was 
officially announced, which gave a final quietus 
to the encroaching claims of Russia in these 
borders; as great as has been its progress since 
the bear Hag was raised and the star-spangled 
banner gave the protection of a great people to 
these far-off occidental shores; still greater will 
be onr development in the future, when the 
fertility and adaptation of our soil shall have 
become better known, when the fact that here 
degrees of latitude make no appreciable diflei-- 
ence in climatic deinarkation shall have become 
better understood, and that Riverside and 
Sonoma have nearly the same winter and sum- 
mer temperature, although the latteris hundreds 
of miles further to the north; when more per- 
fect and expeditious shall have become our 
communication with the East, by new discover- 
ies and appliances, such as better motor power, 
and the practical realization for long distances 
of the newly-discovered electric pneumatic tube 
in sending parcels, with the aid of the improved 
phonograph in transmitting messages. 

Agriculture is the greatest industry of the 
world. Labor is the source of all wealth, and 
Sonoma County is specially adapted for agricult- 


lire. Our rainfall is oue-fourth greater tliau 
that around San Francisco, and even without it 
the dews of heaven are sufficient to fructify our 
crops. The husbandman need not sow or plant 
here as in many localities with uncertain hopes, 
for a failure would be almost an anomaly in 
life's experience. This of itself, with the 
protection furnished by our coast range against 
unpleasant and destructive winds, should concen- 
trate attention on Sonoma. Tlie inter-commun- 
ication by rail, which I have already spoken of, 
opens up to us all tlie avenues of trade and 
commerce. No better sanitarium can be found 
for the invalid, nor more healthful airs to give 
bloom to the cheek or tension to the muscles. 
Our people, too, are a moral people, yielding 
cheerful obedience to the laws. The young 
generation among us is growing up nnder the 
sheltering care of enlightened schools and col- 
leges and the Christian church. When this 
enumeration of our advantages is borne in mind, 
it is no extravagance to predict the great appre- 
ciation in landed property, which is destined 
inevitably to come, and that, too, in the near 

Every male person should have an art or 
trade, and let not the generous soil of Sonoma 
be forgotten by our young people in making 
their selection. If, in after years, they should 
turn their attention to purely professional or 
intellectual pursuits, the trade will be an aid 
instead of an obstrnction. 

It was in the shipyards of England that Peter 
the Great learned how to teach the builders of 
his navy. Henry the Eighth, with many other 
accomplishments, was proficient in laying the 
keel of a vessel. The present Prince of Wales 
and his brother, the Duke of Edinburg, passed 
their apprenticeship like any other midshipman 
ill liritannia's waters. 

Let our large holdings be subdivided, and 
our young men have an opportunity to give in- 
creased productiveness to the soil. If it is true 
anywhere it is true of many parts of old Sonoma, 
that every rod of ground can be made to main- 
tain her man. When this condition of things 

can be realized, even this successful tenth an- 
nual fair of your association will be thrown far 
into shadow by the princely outcome-of Ilnssian . 
River and Dry Creek bottoms. The people may 
hereafter call some of your boys from turning 
what is metaphorically the stubborn glebe, to 
the halls of legislation, the seat of justice, or 
the government of the great State itself. Cin- 
cinnatus was taken from the plow to honor the 
headship of the Roman legions. Elisha was 
holdino- well in hand his yokes of cattle when 
the mantle of Elijah fell upon him. Cromwell, 
amid the fadeless glories of his Ironsides, and 
the discomfiture of the fiery Rupert, sighed for 
the pastoral ditties of the home-land, where 
jocund he used to drive his team afield. Joan 
of Arc, amid the splendors of the coronation of 
her King at Rheims, preferred to doff her un- 
sullied suit of white armor and tend the sheep 
which had been her care in the Vosges forest. 
And, lastly, our Washington, who was called 
from rural life to the leadership of our armies, 
sheathed the sword which had won freedom for 
a nation, and betook himself again to his home 
at Mount Vernon, where he could see from his 
porches the traucpiil flow of the Potomac and 
dispense a varied culture and boundless hospi- 
tality among the scions of old English stock. 

Although the husbandman has his days of 
toil, yet they have been greatly lessened by 
modern discoveries and appliances ; and he has 
many opportunities for (piiet research and suc- 
cessful observation and experimentation. 

The greatest discoveries have been made in 
this way, not only in the fleld of agricultural 
labor, but in all great inquiries. Many a man 
following in the footsteps of Archimedes of old, 
has exclaimed " Eureka '" as he has seen all at 
once the object for which he has so long striven 

Noticing the falling of an apple ultimately 
settled the question of universal gravitation. 
The swinging of a church lamp enabled Galileo 
to grasp at the idea of the pendulum and the 
exact measurement of time, and tins siiould 
operate as an incentive to some of you who are 


presumably a little lax in your church attend- 
ance. Jacob not only learned, but lias fought, a 
lesson in seeing his piebald flock disporting 
themselves among the peeled poplars and hazels. 
Indeed, you have nothing to do in order to 
verify these observations but to look upon your 
vineyards, whicli, standing with the old Mission 
stock, have been improved by grafts from Italy^ 
Spain, France and Germany, until Sonoma lias 
now become the recognized habitat of the most 
successful viticulture. You know that the 
potato was once a semi-poisonons tuber, that 
the apple has grown into all its lusciousness 
from its dwarfed paternal crab, and that even 
the sheep with its soft merino wool had its great 
ancestor with a different coating, like the hair of 
a goat. Our modern flowers, with their rich 
varied hues and perfumed essences, liave been 
the outgrowth of constant labor in propagation 
and successful experimentation. 

The age is an utilitarian age. It is the age of 
positive and appreciable results. If men set 
their heads together to breed ahorse which will 
lower the record of Maud S and trot his mile in 
two minutes, the chronicles of some subsequent 
fair will tell you the feat has been accomplished. 
If the object to be attained is an orange more 
luscious than that of Riverside, if a flower more 
delicate than the \iolet, if a perfume nmrc 
sweetly diff'using tiian the helioti-o])e, if a rose 
redder than the jacqueminot, if a grajje more 
flaming than the Flaming Tokay, the result of 
continued observation, experiment and compari- 
son of views will be the attainment of these 
new fruits and flowers to be added to the present 
wealth of our horticulture and floral kingdoms. 

It requires patience, intelligence, persistence, 
hopefulness, but the end will sooner or later be 
reached, and the man who succeeds has done 
something to increase tlie blessings of mankind, 
and to perpetuate his name to posterity. 

I'"()r successful agricultural work where it 
accords with your children's inclinations and 
aptitudes, they should be sent to the liigher 
technical schools, where they may learn the 
principles of applied science, become skilled in 

electralysis or the analysis of soils, be taught 
meteorology even if there is no danger of our 
weather becoming cyclonic as in the East, and 
become learned in insects and their parasites, 
which is all important in our fruit-growing and 
wine-producing counties. The French Govern 
ment has a standing reward of a large amount 
offered for the discovery of an antidote to the 
phyloxera. Such a discovery would not only 
revitalize old French vineyards, but would re- 
clothe or maintain in their pristine luxuriance 
and prolificness the vineyards of California. 

If the orange suffers from the scale, some- 
thing should be found to act as the scale's evil 
genius and destroy the destroyer. 

Even our purely cereal-producing counties are 
interested in arresting the ravages of these little 
pests or discovering some insectivorous parasites. 

These discoveries will be made, and a crown- 
ing triumph yet awaits the discoverers, not only, 
it is to be hoped, in universal benediction, and 
a memory which the world will not willingly 
let fade from the long roll of its benefactors, but 
also in well-earned compensation. 

But if any one has no aptitude or inclination 
for this kind of labor and research, it should 
not be enforced, for science delights in always 
having a free and voluntary homage from the 
votaries at her shrine. 

There are two departments of scientiflc in- 
(piiry, and neither should be despised ; one is 
the imaginative or theoretical, the other the 
mechanical or practical. Some of the greatest 
discoveries have been made as if by intention, 
and without any previous training of thought. 
Other men took up the idea and practicalized it 
in the workshop, the laboratory or on the forge. 
One workman was the compliment of the other, 
and neither could be a success without the other's 
assistance. Both combining their eff'orts, 
civilization and well-being of the age have been 
immeasurably advanced. Morse could see clearer 
than others that the electric telegraph would 
work successfully, and that all that was neces- 
sary to do was to make it work. It took the 
cool head and plastic touch of a mechanician 


like Aaron Vail to surround it with the jiruper 
appliances and adaptations and thus the com- 
bined efforts of tlie two have given the world 
substantially the working telegraphy of the pres- 
ent day. 

We are to perform a mission here according 
to our respective talents. Let them not be kept 
buried, but burnished. "We need clearly to ap- 
prehend the wants of the time, and then to 
move on to the attainment of the best results. 
Let the poor, crazy Knight of La Mancha do all 
the fighting with the windmills. Our aim 
should be to deal with the practical and tangi- 
ble. We should take advantage of the con- 
quests of others, of all the discoveries, endeavor 
to add to them, and not fight over again the 
same old battles when there is no foeman to 

Let our civil and religious liberties severely 
alone. They are doing well enough, baptized 
as they are in blood, written in charters nearly 
a thousand years old. and now secured by the 
double-plated armor of constitutional law. 

These contests ha^'e had their day, and the 
right finally triumphed. There was a principle at 
stake and the principle was won. The names of 
the heroes are written in history, consecrated in 
song, and the mention of them still stirs our 
hearts like a trumpet, as Sidney's heart was 
stirred by the old story of Percy and Douglass. 
To tight for and acquire these rights was indeed 
true glory; not the false glory which inspired 
an Alexander, a Ca;sar or a Napoleon, who little 
recked of the thousands and hundreds of thou- 
sands who fell in their bloody triumphs to gain 
for them pelf, power and place. The country is 
exposed to no stern alarums that may be bounded 
by some border foe. It will not do to trifle with 
the majesty of a great nation, which at almost 
a moment's call can have three millions of sol- 
diers marching from center to circumference for 
the purposes of a common defense. 

Therefore, we should dismiss all cliimerical 
conceits, and address ourselves to important 
questions, questions which concern our material 
development, the furnishing of a Itctter well- 

l)eing, tiie adding of home comforts and fireside 


Are you aware of tlie fact that our niotlier 
country had no fireside till aliout tlie reign of 
Queen Elizabeth? Then the hearth was laid 
and the mantle covered with ornaments instead 
of smoke curling among tlie rafters or lilacken- 
ing the unglazed windows. It was the com- 
mencement of the rude home life of our fore- 
fatiiers, the influences of whicli were destined 
to radiate from the domestic circle for the better- 
ment of the State. 

Here, in this far-away- land, under your own 
vine and fig tree, with a generous soil and a 
genial climate, or rather an aggregation of cli- 
mates, made still more genial by the appliances 
of drainage and arboculture, you can greatly add 
to the happiness, the conveniences and beauty 
of your homes. You can place on your tables 
for reading the best of our magazines and peri- 
odicals that deal in the literature of the farm. 
By these aids and your daily observation you 
can inaugurate a thorough experimentation that 
will afterward bear fruit in improved agricult- 
ural methods, better and more varied products, 
thoroughbred stock, and general home comforts. 
A society or neighborhood with such facilities as 
you have or can have, by frequent interchange 
of views, enlightened l)y special reading and a 
comparison of results, will not oidy leave its 
impress upon the immediate local community, 
but will afiect favorably the county and State at 
large, and add to the thoroughness and success 
of these annual occasions. It will also tend to 
implant a more general desire in others for the 
cultivation of the soil and rural comforts. 
Young men will gradually be drawn away from 
the vortex of city dissipation, and will begin to 
build up for themselves some lofty, bucolic ideal. 
Many a panorama of scenic beauty, as yet un- 
disclosed, will be opened up. A succession of 
charming villas, the abode of thrifty culture, 
will dot the landscape over and remind us of the 
far-famed beauties of the Hudson and the Rhine. 

This picture is destined to be the future of 
much of this conntv, which is situated near the 


iiietropolis, and which is so admirably and con- 
veniently located, with reference to the avennes 
and centers of trade. 

As Sonoma Connty was first among the early 
settlements of this State, as it is greater than 
any other county in its early historic associa- 
tions and interests, so let it be our endeavor to 
make it stand forth in the fore-front of the pro- 
ducing counties, crowned not only with its well- 
deserved citrus wreath, but with other agricult- 
ural wreaths as well, the proud aiiiding place 
of intelligent and cultured farmers, wide-awake 
to every imjM'overaent, unceasing in experimen- 
tation, characterized by a thorough, thrifty and 
cleanly husbandry, with peaceful, happy and 
charming homes scattered all along these pictur- 
esque hills and valleys. Don't forget that a 
subdivision of your lands into smaller holdings, 
where they are suitable for viticulture or fruit, 
is of prime importance and will be attended 
with the most beneficial results. Twenty-acre 
or forty-acre farms, planted to the vine, the 
peach, the pear or the prune, would be the 
crowning glory of old Sonoma. It woidd place 
on her brow a richer diadem than that which 
sparkles even on the front of the mining coun- 
ties. It would mean thoroughness in farming, 
beautiful gardens, architectural models and dis- 
play, a general lauded appreciation, huiiie com- 
forts and the security of our liorticuUnral au<l 
viticultnral renown. 

When we bear in mind the I'icli soil from the 
decomposed granite and slate in the foot-hill 
counties, their eligible location on the line of 
eastern travel, their growing amhitioii for the 
cultivation of the vine and of fruits, and their 
climatic equability, it must he ackiujwledged 
that they are formidnblc rivals U\ Sonoma and 
may yet eclipse her. 

By a judicious sul)di\i(ling of our large hold- 
ings we may retain the vintage that we now 
enjoy; otiierwise, sooner or later, the finest dis- 
plays will be seen at the Placer, El Dorado and 
Nevada fairs, or in the sunny land of Southern 

The farmer's life can be made more pleasant 

and successful than almost any other. 1 refer 
to the enterprising and enlightened farmer. He 
can surround himself with all the conveniences 
of life, keep abreast of the general culture of 
the times, maintain his independence and 
dignity, live on the best productions which his 
farm will permit of, and market the remainder. 
He can have his cool grottoes, his shady nooks, 
his books within his cultured home. He ought 
to grow happy and joyful with his opeti-air feel- 
ings, soothed by wild-wood notes, and in some 
little natural or artificial forest of .\rden be- 
come philosophical as he meditates: 

'■ And this our life, exempt from publio haimt, 
Finds tongues in trees, books in the running l)roolis, 
Sermons in stones, and good in everything. 
I would not change it." 

Ilefreshing slumbers come to him unsouo-ht, 
and the morrow's sun finds him like some oiled 
Olympian wrestler ready for the fray. 

I want to see our young men aspiring after 
these rural pleasures and building up for them- 
selves homes in the country, where they can fol- 
low out some lofty, bucolic ideal, instead of 
lieing lured away by the city's falsetto tones and 
iTiaddening strife. It is the way to enjoy a 
healthful and successful manhood, an honorable 
and contented old age. Cicero was never so 
much delighted as in his Tiisciiluin villa, and 
Horace on his Sabine farm. And the coinin<>' 
generations, as long as time shall last, will be 
taught to read the praises of agriculture in the 
beautiful and finshed poetic numbers of Man- 
tua's bard. 

The Sonoma Democrat was first issued Octo- 
ber 16, 1857, by A. W. Kussel. The following 
year he sold the paper to E. R. Budd and L. TI. 
Fisher. Mr. Fisher sold his interest to B. F. 
Pinckham. Hudd and Pinckham could not 
agree politically, and Mr. I'.udd purchased the 
interest of Mr. Pinckham and became sole pro- 
prietor. Mr. Kudd issued a very good paper, 
neat in its appearance and well edited. At the 
close of his volume, October 13, 185!), he 
says: " For two years we have labored with a 
zeal that deserves a degree of success; we have 



grappled with nearly every question of im- 
portance brought to our notice, and liave 
decided for onrselves on their several merits. 
Hitherto onr paper has been an experiment; it 
is now an established fact."' In 1860 the iJem- 
ocrat was purchased by T. L. Thompson, and 
was much enlarged and improved. In 1866 a 
Hoe cylinder press, the first in Sonoma County, 
was added to the office, the paper at this time, 
having very hxrgely increased in business and 
in general circulation. From 18(58 to 1871 the 
Democrat was run by Peabody, Ferral »S: Co. 
In the latter year it was rejiurcliased Ijy Mr. 
Thompson. K. .\. aiul I'". P. Thompson were 
associated with him until 1877. The Sunoma 
Democrat has devoted much space to the in- 
dustrial development of Sonoma County. The 
paper is now under the management of T. L. 
Thompson. The Daily Democrat was begun 
in 1875, was discontinued in 1877, and reissued 
in 187'J. It is now published daily. The weekly 
edition is issued every Saturday morning. 
Theofiice is provided with steam-power presses, 
and a job office com])lete in all its appoint- 

Daihj ami Weeklij Republican. — This paper 
was established as the Press by W. A. AVheeler. 
In January, 1875, it was purchased by Ceo. II. 
Mari', anil the name changed to the Times. Mr. 
(i. 11. Marr was the publisher until his death, 
which occurred in March, 1878. It was then 
purchased by T. N. and J. W. llagsdale, who 
commenced the publication of the Daily Times. 
Mr. T. X. Kagsdale died in December, 1879, 
and shortly after the paper was jnirchased by 
Colonel J. 13. Armstrong. Colonel Armstrong 
gave the paper its present name — the Repub- 
lican. He is a writer very much above the 
average of men, and had, besides, a large ex- 
perience as correspondent of some of "the leading 
eastern papers. Under his control the Repxib- 
lican at once took rank as one of the best 
country papers in this State. The editor was 
especially well up in agriculture. He devoted 
also much attention to local matters. Colonel 
Armstrong, haviiii; other aft'airs to engage liis 

attention, sold the pajjer to J. W. llagsdale, who 
soon after sold a half interest to John Fitch. 
Mr. Fitch and Mr. James O'Meara purchased 
the remaining interest of Mr. Kagsdale, and 
the paper was run for some months under their 
management. In the fall of 1883 the interest 
of the latter gentleman was purchased by Mr. 
E. W. Davis, who, on account of failing health, 
sold the establishment to Richard Cannon, who 
published the paper until 1887, wlien he sold 
to the present proprietor, A. B. Lemnion. 

The Graml Hotel is a first-class house, situ- 
ated at the corner of Main and E streets. It is 
a large bi'ick building, in the center of the city, 
and it accommodates a large and regular cus- 
tom from all parts of the county and State. 

The Occidental Hotel is situated on the cor- 
ner of Fourth and B streets. It is a commodi- 
ous brick building, and handsomely furnished. 
G. A. Tupper is a widely known citizen of So- 
noma, public spirited, attentive to his guests, and 
deservedly one of the most popular landlords in 
the State. 

The following is a list of the principal cor- 
porations doing Ijusiness in Santa liosa, other 
than banks and railroads: 

Santa Rosa Gas Light Company. — John A. 
Paxton, deceased, President; Santa Rosa Bank, 
Treasurer; A. G. Murdock, Secretary and Su- 

Santa Rosa Athena>um Company. — B. M. 
Spencer, President; Guy F. Grosse, Vice-Pres- 
ident; C. A. Wright, Secretary; L. W. Burris, 
Treasurer; Trustees: B. M. Spencer, S. Hutch- 
inson, J. C. Mailer, I. DeTurk, (tuy E. Grosse, 
AV. C. Good, C. A.Wright. 

Ayricultural Park Association. — J. N. Bail- 
liache. President; S. T. Allen, Vice-Pre.sident; 
G. A. Tupper, Secretary; E. W. Davis, Treas- 
\irer; Directors: B. M. Spencer, Jas. H. Laugh- 
lin, S. I. Allen, J. N. Bailhache, I. DeTurk, 
Guy E. Grosse, E. W. Davis. 

Masonic Hall Association. — John S. Taylor, 
President; E. Noblet, Vice-President; B. M. 
Spencer, Secretary; L. W. Burris, Treasurer; 
Directors, B. M. Spencer, J. S. Taylor, W. C. 



(4ood, A. D. Laughliu, E. NoUlet, 11. \.. Trij.p, 
(iiiy E. Grusse. 

Stock Breeding Association. — I. DeTiirk, 
President; L. W. P>nrris, Secretary; J. II. Laugli- 
liii. Treasurer; Directors, 1. DeTiirk, \\. Mur- 
phy, J. II. Laughlin, Geo. E. Gufrne, (Tuy E. 

F'niit and Grape Growers' Association. — 
Jonathan Roberts, President; W. C. Kellogg, 
Secretary; Guy E. Grosse, Treasurer. 

llojy Growers' Association. — Guy E. Grosse, 
President; Ferdinand lienzel, ^'ice- President, 
Fulton District; J. P. Graham, Vice-Presi- 
dent, Mark West Creek District; Lossen Ross, 
Vice President; Green Valley District; T. P. 
Miller, Vice-President, Santa Rosa Creek Dis- 
trict; J. E. Hall, Vice-President, Santa Rosa 
Creek District; Otis Allen, Vice-President, Se- 
bastopol and Laguna District; V. ^yatson, Vice- 
President, F^'eestone District; C. R. Farmer, 
Treasurer; N. AVinants, Secretary. 

Santa Jiosa Water Cornpanij. — Mark. L. 
McDonald, President and Manager; Directors: 
M. L. McDonald, T. J. Proctor, 1. G. Wicker- 
sham, R. Press Davis. 

Santa Rosa Street Car Company. — Operates 
on Fourth sti'eet and McsDonald avenue; Mark L. 
McDonald, President and Managtsr. 

People's Street /iailwai/ Coinjiani/. — Presi- 
dent, A. Shaw; Vice-President, S. I. Allen; Secre- 
tary, J. D. Iiarnett; Treasurer, J. W. Warboys; 
Directors: J. I). Parnett, A. Sliaw, S. I. .Mien, 
J. W. AV'arboys, P. M. Spencer. 

Santit Jiosa Woolen Mills Conipa/u/. — John 
Walker, President; P. M. Walker, Secretary and 
Treasurer; F. X. Longhery, Superintemlent. 

Santa Jiosa J'aekimj anil Caiinimj Coin- 
pany. — A branch of the Cutting Packing (Jom- 
]iany, of San Francisco. J. l»lack. President; 
C. A. i'erry, Secretary, Ti-easnrcr and Su|ierin- 

Methodist Episcopal Chai'rli, Sajita liosa. — 
Organized about 1855; among the first, if not 
the first, pastors was Rev. R. Williamson. The 
deed to the property secured December 15,1858, 
deeded by lloen, Ilartman and Ilahman, as a 

donation from them. Property comprises four 
city lots on the corner of Third and D streets. 
The first church building was erected in 1861, 
under the supervision of Rev. James Corwiii, 
it was enlarged in 1877 by Rev. Lovejoy, in- 
cluding a prayer room and a pastor's study. 
Tiie auditorium has a seating capacity of 2t)-t: 
persons. The following are the pastors who 
have ministered to the church: Rev. R. W. 
Williamson, John Walker, James Corwin, 
Noah IJurton, Wm. Hulbert, A. L. S. P.ate- 
inan, George Clifford, Wm. Anguin, George 
Walter. G. D. Pineo, Lovejoy, C. E. Rich, 
E. I. Jones, George Adams. T. H. Woodward, 
Geo. Clifford. The present parsonage was 
erected in 1884 under the supervision of Rev. 
T. II. Woodward. The present membership is 
about 150. The Sunday school has 100 scholars 
enrolled and the regular attendance is about 118. 

The Christian Church., Santa Rosa. — To El- 
der Thomas Thompson is the honor due of or- 
ganizing this congregation in November, 1854, 
and preaching the first sermon to them in that 
month. The original members of the church 
were: T. P.. Hood and wife, Mrs. C. E. Hood, 
Joel Miller, Sarah Miller (now Mrs. Shane), 
Elizabeth Miller, Harrison Valentine, W. R. 
O'llowell, J. M. Case, Samuel Hand and wife. 
Mrs. Coleman Talbot, and R. Fulkerson and 
wife. Services were then held in the town of 
FVanklin, in the Paptist church, and continued 
there until the town was moved to Santa Rosa, 
when the congregation met in the court-house, 
but after the removal of the church building 
from Franklin to Santa Rosa in 1S5(), then in 
that edifice, where they prosecuted their devo- 
tions until the erection in 1857 of their own 
place of worship on the corner of F'ourth and B 
streets, which, in 187J, was transferred to its 
present position on Fifth street. The entire 
cost of the church, inclusive of lot, bell, fixtures, 
etc., was about $3,000, while its size is 38 .\ GO 

J'resbyterian. Charch.~(h\ J\Iarch 17, 1850, 
Mr. Woods organized the Presbyterian ("hurch, 
consisting of twelve members: Cyrus Alexan- 

iirsTonr of sonoma countt. 

(ler. A. P. Wilson, John Barbour, Joliii Tread- 
way, Mrs. Henrietta Treadsvay, Mrs. E. A. 
Woods, Mrs. JaneOrrnsbj, Mrs. Ilattie Hendly, 
Mrs. Jane Drum. ilrs. Elizabetli Bledsoe, 
]V[rs. Ivate Green, and Mrs. Louisa McDonald. 
CjM-us Alexander and John Treadwa}- were 
elected ruling elders. Mr. Alexander was or- 
dained and installed, and Mr. Treadway, having 
been previously ordained, was duly installed. 

Bcqjtist Church. — Early in the year 1873 
the tru.-;tees of the Baptist CMiureh of Santa Rosa 
pnrcliased a lot on tiio corner of I! and Cen- 
ter streets on which, in the month of Febrnar\\ 
they commenced the erection of a building, Gotii- 
ic in style of architecture, and of the following 
dimensions: The main church building, 5(ix.37 
feet, with an elevatiim of thirty-two feet. Ad- 
ioining the main building, in the rear, is a 
chapel 30x40 feet, containing, besides accom- 
modation for the Sunday-school, the library and 
committee rooms. Over the front entrance to 
the church is a large G(^thic window. From 
the base to elevation of tower and spire, located 
at the left front corner of the edifice, is sixty- 
nine feet. The building cost about $5,000. 
Tlie first house of worship was built in 1854 at 
Franklin, a mile and a half from Santa llosa, 
but, in 1855, it was removed with the rest of 
tiiat short-lived village to this town and placed 
upon the lot on Third street where it now stands, 
being used as a tenement lH)Use. It was the 
third Protestant churcli erected in the county, 
James Crane being tiie contractor. Tlie cost of 
the building was defrayed by public subscription, 
with the provisions that it should be free to all 
denominations when not in use by the Baptists. 
Klder J. McCorkle hold tlie first services in the 

Kpm'oi>al Church. — On the 14th of Octol)er, 
1872. the preliminary steps were taken to 
organi/.c a parish at Santa Rosa under the 
Episcopal Church, by electing the following 
gentlemen as officers: Dr. R. !'. Smith, Senior 
Warden; W. H. Bond, Junior Warden; E. W. 
Maslin, G. W.. Jones, F. G. Nagle, L. A. 
Martin and F. P. Thompson, Vestrymen. The 

Rev. G. C. Lane, who bad been officiating, noti- 
fied the bishop of the election of church officers, 
and re(piested his consent to the organizatitm, 
which was granted by Bishop Kip on the ISth of 
December, and tlie vestry formed by electing F. 
G. Nagle, Secretary, and L. A. Martin, Treas- 
urer, the parish, on the motion of Dr. Smith, 
receiving the name of " The Parish of the In- 
carnation," and Rev. G. C. Lane appointed Rec- 
tor for the ensuing year. 

Santa Rosa Water CoinjMiiy. — Articles of 
incorporation of the Santa Rosa Water Company 
were filed on February 27, 1873, the capital 
stock being $100,000 divided into 1,000 shares 
of 8100 each, the Directors being E. T. Farmer, 
C. F. Juillard, F. G. Ilahman, Jackson Temple 
and James P. Clark; term of existence fifty 
years. In reference to this undertaking the 
water is taken from the junction of the Alamo 
and Santa Rosa creeks and conveyed on the 
south side of the latter to the reservoir, one mile 
below, on the lauds of the Gibb's estate. The 
fall, from where the water is taken at the creeks, 
to the reservoir is thirty-five feet; the supply 
pipe to the reservoir is eleven-inch, and the 
mains, from the reservoir to the town, are nine- 
inch for a portion of the way and seven-inch for 
the remainder. The reservoir has a cajiacity of 
not less than 30,000.000 gallons. 

Santa Rosa Gaslight Cvuipany. — The Max ■ 
im Gas Company was incorporated April, 1872, 
the citizens of Santa Rosa taking one half the 
stock, and the Maxim Gas Company of San 
Francisco holding the balance. The whole stock 
was subsequently purchased by the citizens and 
the Maxim Works run by them until the spring 
of 1876, when they were disposed of to Santa 
Rosa Gaslight Company, which had been incor- 
porated March i), 187t), under the supervision 
of L. A. Kelly. The new company, at an ex- 
pense of s30,000. erected their works on First 
street, just below Main, which consist of a large 
brick retort-house, with iron roof, brick purifying 
house in the rear, office and workshop, with 
large holder, 20,000 cubic feet capacity, with 
brick cistern. 



Santa Rosa Commandery of Knights Tem- 
plar. — This order was organized under dispen- 
sation March 11, 1878, the charter being granted 
April 11, 1879. The charter members being 
Sir Leonard Harrison Buckland, Sir Thomas 
Piiipps I'axter, Sir Samuel Hard, Sir Arthur 
Lockard Co.x, Sir Miln Suiitli Davis, Sir (iuy 
Emanuel (irrosse. Sir (ieorge Ashbury Jolinson, 
Sir John Mcllmoil, Sir James Clark ^[ailer. Sir 
Byron M. Spencer. The original othccrs were: 
Sir George Ashbury Johnson, Eminent Com- 
mander; Sir Byron M. Spencer, Generalissimo; 
Sir Leonard Harrison J>nckland, Captain-Gen- 
eral; Sir Thomas Phipps Baxter, Pi-elate; Sir 
(luy Emanuel Grosse, Senior AVarden; Sir 
James Clark Mailer, .Junior AVarden; Sir Sam- 
uel Bard, Treasurer; Sir .Vrthur Lockard Cox, 
Recorder; Sir Milo Smith Davis, AVarden; Sir 
John McHmoil, SentineL 

Santa Rosa Encantpment, No. J-A 1 .(>. (J. V. 
— This order was instituted in Santa Rosa on 
December 14, 1875, the charter members be- 
ing: J. J. McClelland, A. G. Shannon, A. P. 
Petit, George T. Gregg, C. D. Frazie, AV. II. 
Morris, AVilliam Strom; the original officers 
being: C. D. Frazie, C. P.; A. (4. Shannon, H. 
P.; J. J. McClelland, S. AV.; William, Strong; 
AVilliam R. Morris, Treasurer; A. P. Petit, J. 
AV.; S. T. Coulter, Guide. 

Santa Rosa Lodge, No. ■'>■!. 1. (>. <>. F. 
Tliis lodge was instituted February ^S, 1856, 
the following being the charter members: John 
llendley, Jacob M. Gallagher, Adam Shane, AV. 
R. Smith, James A. Reynolds, Horace B. Alar- 
tiu, Julio Carrillo and AV. M. Menefee. The 
order held their meetings in Good Templars' 
Hall, No. 222 Third street, until the comple- 
tion of their own building, at a cost of !f^l8,()0(), 
on the corner of Third street and Exchange ave- 
nue. The first officers were: John Hendley, 
N. G.; AV. R. Smith, V. G.; Adam Shane, Re- 
cording Secretary; N.McC. Menefee, Treasurer. 

I'urltii Lodge, No. ,iJ, /. (). G. T.— AVas 
first organized May 14, 1861, in Temperance 
Hall, 222 Third street, there l)eing seventeen 
charter members. The following were elected 

offiers: AVilliam Churchman, AV. C. T.; Maud 
Latimer, AV. V. T.; Frank AV. Brown, AV. S.; 
T. J. Smith, AV. F. S.; Caroline E. Hood, AV. 
T.; AV. AV. Morrow, AV. M.; J. W. Town, AV. 
L G.; C. G. Ames, AV. O. G. 

Santa Rosa Lodge, No. 370, L <). (J. T.— The 
charter members being: Harry Rich,D. S. Lacey, 
Harry T. Case, C.T.Barnes, T. H. Barnes, Ben- 
jamin Farmer, James AForrow, Jr., S. Cliilders,J. 
D. Stockton, Rebecca Stockton, P. B. Owen, Mrs. 
L. R. Latimer, Miss A. Small, James Roberts, 
AV. Churchman, J. M. White, O. D. Metcalf, 
Miss S. M. Baxter, J. T. Littaker, Mrs. Dora 
Metzler, AV. H. Alead, AValter Ferrall, Mrs. E. 
Hodgson, \^. Fortson; the officers a})pointed 
were: D. S. Lacey, AV. C. T.; AH-s. S. R. Lati- 
mer, AV. V. T.; Rev. G. D. Pinneo, AV. C; 
Walter Ferrall, W. S. ; Miss Fannie Farmer, 
AV. A. S.; O. D. Aletcalf, AV. F. S.; Miss T. 
AL Baxter, AV. T.; James Morrow, Jr., AV. AI.; 
Miss Abbie Small, AV. D. M.; Rebecca Stock- 
ton, AV. I. G.; James Roberts, AV. O. G.; Airs. 
Dora Aletzler, AV. R. H. S.; Aliss Lizzie Fort- 
son, AV. L. H. S.; L D. Stockton, P. W. C. T. 

Par'ifia Methodist College. — The first regu- 
lar session of the college was opened in July, 
1861, with Professor C. S. Smyth, department 
of mathematics; Professor S. B. Morse, depart- 
ment of languages, and Aliss A. E. Caldwell in 
charge of the primary department. The first 
day showed an attendance of only thirteen 
students; within four months the number had 
increased to forty-six. Three weeks before the 
close of the session Rev. AV. T. Lucky, who had 
been elected president, arrived and took charge 
of the institution. The first annual catalogue, 
published in May, 1862, contained the names of 
over eighty students. There was a period of 
uninterrupted prosperity from 1862 to April, 
1865, when the main college building was de- 
stroyed by fire — the work of an incendiary. 
Provision w'as made for the accommodation of 
classes, and the exercises of the institution went 
on without the loss of a single" recitation. Af- 
ter a 3'ear and a half of zealous effort on the 
part of the agent, Rev. AV. M. AVinters, another 



building was erected, at a cost of §16,000. In 
December, 1860, Dr. Lucky tendered bis resig- 
nation, to take etlect in May, 1867. At tlie 
annual meeting of tlie board of trustees, iti Mny, 
Dr. .1. R. Tbomas, of Emory College, Georgia, 
was elected president. The institution contin- 
ued its session in Vacaviile until May, 1870, 
when, by vote of the trustees, it was removed 
to Santa Hosa. The citizens of Santa Kosa 
donated ten acres of land and erected thereon a 
college l)uilding, at a cost of !?25,O00. The 
present value of the building and grounds is 
estimated at S30,000. The college grounds are 
situated in the northeastern part of the city. 
The building is commodious, aftbrding accom- 
modations for 300 students. There are two 
literary societies connected with the college. 
The libraries of the two societies contain about 
800 volumes. The tirst regular session in Santa 
Rosa was opened in August, 1871, with A. h. 
Fitzgerald, A. M., president and professor of 
mental and moral science; C. S. Smyth, pro- 
fessor of mathematics; Charles King, professor 
t)f languages. In July, 1876, President A. L. 
Fitzgerald tendered his resignation, to take 
effect in October, when Rev. W. .\. Finley was 
elected to take charge of the institution. I'lie 
prospects of the college are now encouraging. 
At no time in its history have its friends been 
more determined to sustain it with their means 
and influence. The graduates niimlier 101. The 
larger portion of tiie interest-bearing debt has 
been paid. Tiiree gold medals are given annu- 
ally, one for best declamation, one for the best 
select reading, and one for excellence in scholar- 
ship and deportment. The medal for scliolar- 
ship and deportment has been endowed by T.J. 
Brooke, and is known as the Brooke medal; that 
for select reading by T. II. 1!. .Vnderson, and is 
known as the Anderson medal: the one for best 
declamation by Senator Cx. A. Johnson, and is 
known as the Johnson medal. The situation of 
the college is all that could bu desireil. At no 
place in California are students under better 
influence than in Santa Rosa. The course of 
instruction consists of Greek, Latin, Cierman, 

French, Spanish, and a course of English mathe- 
matics, philosophy and the natural pliysical 
sciences. Colonel J. M.Austin, A. M., is presi- 
dent, with the following corps of professors and 
teachers: Rev. S. M. (iodby, A. M., Ferdinand 
Kenyon, Rev. George B. Winton, A. M., E. 
Lerch and Miss Callie Brook. This institu- 
tion is deservedly popular. The college building 
is a fine structure. 

The Ursuliiie Academy is beautifully located 
on B street, surrounded by large and commodi- 
ous grounds, beautifully ornamented with trees, 
shrubs and flowers. The building is a fine ar- 
chitectural structure in a six-acre plot of ground 
in the center of the city. Sister Alphonse Cas- 
tillo is superioress, assisted by seven other 
sister. Latin, French, Spanish, and vocal and 
instrumental music are taught in this academy. 
There are quite a number of boarders. Xear 
the academy and adjoining St. Rose Church, is 
a large free day-school in charge of Sisters 
Angela Gallagher and Crsuline Maxwell. 

o CD 

The Santa Rosa Ladies Sem'marij is owned 
and presided over the Misses Chase, two excel- 
lent educationists, who give a thorough course 
of instruction and have made this a popular 
institution of learning. The ^[isses Cliase have 
two assistants. 

The Santa Ju/Sfi Yvunij Ladies' Collcije is 
an excellent institution of learning of a very 
high order, with Rev. W. A. Finley, A. M., D. D., 
president, assisted by an able corps of professors 
and teachers. This college stands deservedly 

I'lre JJejxiftyneitt. The Santa Rosa tire de- 
partment is one of the most notable and the 
most deserving institution in this city. It never 
balks or sulks, liut answers every call upon it, 
whether tu save life or property, regardless of 
any risks to its meml)ers. Tiie Santa Rosa en- 
gine company was organized in 1860. T. L. 
Thompson was the first foreman, C. Kessing first 
assistant, M. Wise second assistant, J. Doycliet 
secretary, and Joe Richardson treasurer. The 
present officers of Engine Company ^o. 1 are: 
i E. P. Colgan, president ; Henry Baker, fore- 


man ; L. Keser, Jr., tirst assistant ; J. F. Fick, 
second assistant ; M. J. Steining, secretary, and 
J. n. Kicliardson, treasurer. The Santa Rosa 
liook and ladder company was organize(l in 1871:. 
A. Korhel was tirst foreman and J. lioyal was 
lirst assistant. 

City Hall. — In 1883 a very neat building 
for a City Hall was erected. Tlie lower part is 
used for the engine of Santa Kosa Engine Com- 
pany No. 1, and the upstairs for a council cham- 
ber and library rooms. The building is located 
on the east side of the plaza, and is i]uite an or- 
nament to that heretofore neglected part of the 
town. It was built by T. J. Ludwig, at a cost 
of $-1,500. It was a graceful and proper thing 
to do, to house in comfortable and roomy quar- 
ters tlie engine, and to give the brave fellows 
who guard the property of the people a respect- 
able room. It was Justly due them, and no one 
should for a moment complain of the outlay. 
If there is anything to complain of, it is that 
the building is not so good as the company 

One of the most important, if not the most 
important enterprise in Santa Rosa, is I. IJe 
Turk's winery. The buildings occupy an entire 
block between Railroad and Adams streets. Mr. 
Isaac L)e Turk is, we believe, a native of Penn- 
sylvania and commenced planting vines in 181)3 
and laid out a vineyard of twent}- acres near 
Santa Rosa, lie increased this vineyard, and 
added a wine cellar. Later, to take advantage 
of the great (juantity of grapes coming in from 
small vineyards in the vicinity, he established a 
branch winery in Santa Rosa. The Santa Rosa 
winery soon exceeded the home place in extent 
of business. A few years ago, the buihling be- 
ing wood, was partially destroyed by fire, and 
water being scarce, the contents of the vats were 
useil to extinguish the flames. Mr. Do Turk 
immediately rebuilt with Itrick. This building 
is the lower one in the roar of the main and 
larger cellar, and is 100 feet by 6ti feet, two 
stories. This building is also of brick, and like 
the first one two stories high, but lias more 
elevation. The two buildings with tlie yard, 

offices and distillery occupy the entire block, 
and tiie capacity of the establishment is 1,000,- 
000 gallons, and the estimated stock of wine on 
hand at the beginning of this year was said to 
be 700,000 gallons. The cooper's shop, which 
is necessarily a large establishment, is on the 
block opposite to the winery. The winery is 
.said to be the largest in California, that of Sena- 
tor Stanford, at Vina, excepted. The crushing 
room is furnished with two crushers and stem- 
mers each having a capacity of six tons an hour, 
fed by tramway trucks running up from the 
scales. The distillery is in a detached building 
and is fitted with two stills, one for pummace 
and one for wine. Mr. De Turk has been for 
years recognized as one of our leading viticul- 
turists. For two terms he has held the honor- 
able position of State Viticultural Commissioner 
for his district, and has always been respected 
as one of the most experienced and practical 
members of that body. The wines of Mr. De 
Turk are well known all o\'er the United States, 
and it is no uncommon thing to see a train load 
of cars leave his warehouse loaded with wine for 
Chicago, St. Louis or New York. Mr. DeTurk 
has gained a reputation for the purity of his 
wines, and has always been an uncompromising 
ojiponent of advocates of stretching, flavciring, 
cohjring and other schemes of that demon of the 
wine cellar, the so-called " chemist." Mr. De 
Turk's great specialty is his clarets, but it is 
hard to decide whether his choicest product is 
his claret, or his Riesling or his brandy. Mr. 
De Turk makes sweet wines, both red and white, 
and sherries. Santa Rosa may well be proud 
of its enterprising citizen, Isaac De Turk. 

'Tlie Santa Rosa Holler Floui'liuj MUIh has 
a capacity of 200 barrels of Hour a day, besides 
grinding meals, feed, etc., anil would be a credit 
to any city of five times its population. This 
mill affords a home market for much of the 
grain raised on Santa Rosa's fertile plains. 

TIte Santa Rosa Woolen 2Iilh is an enter- 
prise of primary importance to this ])lace, as it 
opens up a home market for the iminense wool 
product of Sonoma County. The looms are of 


the latest design and the inacliinery of the 
most improved kind. It employs foi'ty hands, 
and has a capacity of using 1,400 pounds of 
wool a day. The fabrics it turns out are first- 

T/ie Santa Horn Tannery is the largest in 
Sonoma County; its yearly product is $50,000. 
This industry is of great importance liere, as 
Sonoma is a great stock-raising county. 

The Santa Rosa Planing Mill is an im- 
mense establisliment, and of great importance, 
as it is so near the great lumber regions of So- 
noma County and as there is a large demand for 
the tanks, casks, etc., which it manufactures 
for wine and water pur])Oses, liesides the im- 
mense amount of building material it tarns 

The Gas Works ha\e a capacity of 20,000 
cubic feet a day. They use a Cummer engine, 
of 150 horse power. In the electric light de- 
partment are four dynamos with a combined 
capacity of ninety-seven lights. They are run- 
ning eighty-five lights now. They use the 
Thompson ct Houston system. They intend soon 
put in an incandescent dynamo to run sevei'al 
hundred lights at a much less e.xjtense to the 
consumer. The late John A. Pa.xton Mas pre- 
sident of this corporation at the time of his 
death. A. G. Murdock, secretary and super- 
intendent, and the Santa llosa Bank, Treasurer. 


li. W. Byington, Mayor; II. II. Churchill, 
Clerk; ^\\ F. Russell, Attorney; W. X. Seawell, 
Recorder; Jacolj J. Lowery. Marshal; E. F. 
Woodward, Treasurer; R. McGeorge, Assessor; 
W. J. Steadman, Street Commissioner. City 
Council: J. W. Warboys, Orin Howell, W. J. 
Doggett J. F. Smith, L. W. Burris, Win. Doran. 

Council meets in regular session, in city hall, 
first Tuesday of each month. 

Police Force — Night Patrol: I. B. Charles, 
E. Gardner, W. S. Mead, S. R. Yoho. 

Public Library: C. E. Ilutton, Rresident; 
R. M. Swain, Seci'etary. Mrs. Binkley, Lib- 
rarian. Open every day (except on Sundays), 
from 1 to 5 and 7 to 9 o'clock r. m. 

Board of Health: Dr. R. Press Smith, Pre- 
sident; J. J. Lowery, Health Ofiicer. 

Fire Depirtment: J. A. Doubleday, Chief 
Engineer; W. II. Lee, First Assistant Engineer; 
J. K. Piggott, Second Assistant Engineer; W. 
J. Steadman, Fire Marshal. 

Board i>f Education: J. U. Barnett, Presi- 
dent; George Hall, Secretary; L. E. lloud. As- 
sessor and Collector. 

Santa liosa Board of Trad,': A. P. Overlon, 
President; B.M. Spencer, First Vice-President; 
S. I. Allen, Second Vice-President; J. W. 
Warboys, Secretary; W. E. McConnell, Treas- 





f[L8EWlIERE mention has been made of 
tlie earliest residents and fonnders of Peta- 
. luma. Also an epitome of the record fur- 
nished by the Sonoma County Journal from 
August, 1855, to August, 1866, gives the prog- 
ress made up to that date, and the names of 
most of those identified with the founding of 
Petaluma. We now give a resume of the most 
important events historic of both Petaluma 
Township and the city of Petaluma. 

The origin or meaning of the word " Petalu- 
ma" is yet a mooted question, but it is agreed 
that it is an Indian word, signifying either 
'•duck hills," or '-little hills." Petaluma is 
situated at the head of navigation on the Peta- 
luma Creek, a tide-stream that is an arm of San 
Pablo Bay. The first authentic history extant 
of the navigation of tliis creek is, that it was 
ascended in 1776, by Captain Quiros and a 
party of explorers, with the expectation of find- 
ing in it a connecting channel between the bays 
of San Francisco and Podcga. The next authen- 
tic record of a vi.iit to this valley is that of 
Father Altimira, in 1823, in search of aplace to 
found a mission. In 1836 General M. G. Val- 
lejo built the first house in Petaluma A'alley. 
The building, a large adobe structure, now fast 
crumbling to ruins, stands in fair view three 
miles eastward of Petaluma. While as early as 
1850 there svei'e but a few Americans in the 
neighborhood of the present site of Petaluma, 


mostly engaged killing game that abounded 
here in great profusion, yet the first permanent 
locations were made here for business and trade 
in 1851. Some time in the latter part of 
1851, or the early part of 1852, the first move 
was in the direction of platting a town and of- 
fering lots for sale. The location was happily 
chosen, for the head of navigation on the Pet- 
aluma Creek was to the vast scope of rich agri- 
cultural and grazing lands lying l)ack of it what 
the Bay of San F'rancisco was to the balance of 
the State. As population poured into the sur- 
rounding country it accelerated the growth and 
business of Petaluma. This growth has been 
of a steady, healthy clniracter, and now when 
having reached a population of over 5,000, it 
can be truthfully said that Petaluma is \\\ as 
prosperous and thrifty a condition as any other 
city of its size on the Pacific coast. Its growth 
has not been spasmodic and forced, but healthy 
and permanent. For an interior city of a little 
over thirty years' growth, the people have rea- 
son to be proud of Petaluma, and feel that her 
future growth and development will not be a 
discredit to her jjast history. 

Turning to the journals of the day we cull 
the following, which we give in tlie chronologi- 
cal order in which we find them recorded: 

November 7, 1856 — Rev. A. A. Baker, pastor 
of tlie Congregational Church, makes a plea in 
behalf of improving the Petaluma cemetery. 



December 5, 1856 — Mr. J. Dickinson, broth- 
er of the afterward famous Miss Anna Dickin- 
son, was teaching a private school in Petaluraa. 

November 20, 1857— The Petaluma Hook 
and Ladder Company was organized. 

July 17,1857 — The Congregational Church, 
Petaluma, M-as dedicated —Rev. J. A. Benton, 
of Sacramento, delivering the discourse. 

August 13, 1857 — At the close of term of 
the Petaluma public school, Mr. James Den- 
man, principal, delivered an able address. 

May 14,1857 — A draw-bridge was completed 
at the crossing of the Petaluma Creek, on 
Washington street. 

January 15, 1858 — The first flour-mill of 
Petaluma commenced operations. 

On the 12t]i of April, 1858, the California 
Legislature enacted a city charter for Petaluma. 

On April 23rd, 1858, the first city election 
was held and the following otticers elected: 

Trustees: W. L. Anderson. "Wm. Elder, 
Sam'l. Tustin, E. IJ. Cooper, AVm. Ordway; 
Recorder, William Haydon ; Treasurer, L. Lam- 
berton; Marshal, J. H. Siddons; Assessor, 
Moses Arms. 

Ordinance No. 1, formulated by this Board of 
Trustees, was promulgated on the 21st of May. 
Of these, the first officers of the city of Peta- 
luma, W. L. Anderson and E. B. Cooper are 
the only ones now living. 

June 25, 1858 — McCune"s Hlock, and several 
otlier substantial buildings completcil in Peta- 

July 4, 1858 — This was a memorable natal 
day in Petaluma. The eloquent orator. Colonel 
E. D. Baker, delivered the oration. There were 
banner presentations by the ladies of Petaluma 
to the Fire Engine and Ilook and Ladder com- 
panies, and also a banner presentation to the 
Congregational Sabbath-school. 

September 24, 1858 — The Congregational 
Church procured a 600 pound bell. 

(October 8, 1858— The Baptist Church pur- 
chased a bell weighing 1,000 pounds. It is the 
bell used by tiie San Francisco A'igilance Com- 
mittee in 1856. 

June 17, 1859 — The steamer Rambler, built 
to run between Petaluma and San Francisco, 
was completed. 

July 1, 1859 — Colonel E. D. Baker and Be- 
laud Stanford addressed a Republican meeting at 

August 12, 1S59 — The corner-stone of the 
Petaluma brick school building was laid with 
appropriate ceremonies. 

September 2, 1859 — The ladies of Petaluma 
2)resentetl a banner to the Petaluma Guards. 

September 23, 1859 — The celebrated traveler. 
Bayard Taylor, lectured in Petaluma. 

October 14, 1859 — Announcement was made 
that a new Journal, the Petaluma Argu'<, was to 
be published, J. J. Pennypacker, proprietor. 

December 9, 1859-^Dr. T. A. Ilylton, a pio- 
neer physician of Petaluma, died suddenly while 
crossing the mountains to Nevada Territory. 

February 10, 1860 — St. John's Episcopal 
Church, Petaluma, was consecrated. 

Novemljer 30, 1860 — The schooner Elsie J. 
Cline, twenty-two tons burthen, liuilt at Peta- 
luma, was safely launched. 

December 21, 1861 — A savings and loan 
society was organized. 

April 20, 1861 — A tannery was started in 
Petaluma by C. II. Bailey. 

February 4, 1862 — Dr. S. W. Brown, one of 
Petaluma's most respected and esteemed citizens, 
and a sterling patron of education, died very 

April 9, 1862 — The Legislature amended the 
city charter of Petaluma. 

September 17, 1862 — The Ortega claim to 
the Arroyo de San Antonio grant finally rejected. 

April 15, 1863 — J. C. Bradbury was found 
dead in his room. lie was a brother of W. B. 
Bradljury. the noted composer of music. Mr. 
Bradl)ury was an architect, and built the Congre- 
gational Church in Petaluma and the Two 
Rock Church. He had many friends, and was 
his own worst enemy. He sleeps in an unmarked 
grave in the old cemetery. 

June 3, 1863 — The Petaluma Guards pre- 
sented a sword to Captain P. B. Hewlett. 



July 4r, 1863— Hon. Newton Booth delivered 
the oration at Petahuna. 

December 23, 1863 — Arteiniis Ward (Charles 
Brown), the celebrated wit, lectured in Petaluina. 

December 23, 1863 — Fetaliima for the lirst 
tinje was lighted with gas. 

May 26, 1864— McN ear BrotliL^rs built a brick 
warehouse 150 feet square. 

July 21,1864: — Rev. Doctor Uellows acknowl- 
edges the receipt of $2,000 from the ladies of 
Petaluma in aid of the Sanitary Commission, for 
tlie relief of Union soldiei's during the civil war. 

September 8, 1864 — The steamboat Ware- 
house, owned by Colonel Joshua H. Lewis, was 
burned, together with a large amount of freiglit. 

April 20, 1865 — Petaluma was draped in 
mourning on account of the assassination of 
Lincoln. There was a funeral procession, and 
I'rofessor E. S. Lijjpett delivered an elorpient 

It may not be inappropriate here to quote the 
following tribute from the Petaluma Argus of 
April 20, 1865: 

"Fullness of speech may not be indulged, 
while a sable-clad nation weeps at the tomb of 
its mighty fallen. Pearly drops from humid 
eyes speak a language that tongue cannot utter, 
nor pen indite; the language of the heart as it 
has been since the stars sang together on the 
morn'of creation. As Mary knelt weeping by 
the sepnlclire of the world's Pedeemei', eigh- 
teen hundred years ago, even so now a nation 
mourns at the tomb of its saviour. The harsh 
notes of trumpet-tongued courier did not blazon 
his fall, but from where the boisterous Atlantic 
hurls its crested waves against Plymouth liock 
to where the placid Pacific laves our golden 
shores, the swift-winged messenger, with the 
rapidity of thought, and the low cadence of sum- 
mer winds, told the story of tlie assassin's deed; 
and scarce had the vaulted arch of Heaven been 
cleft to receive his noble spirit up on high, liefore 
around a million hearts sat unmanned manhood 
weeping, as it is seemly that women alone might 
weep. Never since the earth reeled as if rocked 
by a mighty tempest, and the vail of the temple 

was rent in twain, has mankind, universal, bled 
in the representative of principle so pure, so 
lofty, and so God-like in their adaptability to all 
the wants and requirements of humanity', the 
world over, as in the person of Auk ah am Lincoln. 
Not like the meteor's fitful gleam athwart the 
sky, fading into the dark chaos of night, has been 
his going out; but as the bright orb of day 
sinking to rest behind the western hills leaves 
its last golden rays illumining the mountain 
gorge, and beetling clitf, so too will the light of 
his pui"e self-sacrificing devotion to justice and 
freedom, irradiate the dark corners of the 
earth, and the history of his life, and the story 
of his death, will be assigned a place in the 
world's archives; will be read by the glare of 
lamps, trimmed by servile hands, and do the 
bidding of those who claim to rule by right 
Divine; will be studied by peasants on sunny 
plains and Alpine hills; and yet farther on, 
where day and night comes and goes but ouce a 
year, the fur-clad Laplander, by the amber 
light of the Aurora Borealis will read the story 
and pray that the assassin who struck him down, 
may be exiled to some frigid clime, where even 
the rays of a polar sun may be denied him. A 
chieftain has fallen ; his grave is in the hearts 
of his countrymen; let those pay heed whose 
foul tongues, in unbridled license, have aspersed 
his name! The assassin has done your work! 
Leave us alone with our dead!" Thus had the 
mighty fallen! 

" Hush, tlie Dead March wails iu the people's ears ; 
The dark crowd moves, aud there are sobs and tears; 
The black earth yawns ; the mortal disappears, 
Ashes to ashes, dust to dust; 
He is gone who seemed so great — 
Gone; but nothing can bereave him 
Of the force he made his own 
Being here, aud we believe him 
Something far advanced in stale. 
And that he wears a truer crown 
Than any wreath that man can weave him. 
Speak no more of his renown, 
Lay your earthly fancies down. 
And iu the vast cathedral leave him. 
God accept him, Christ receive him.'' 

June 15, 1865 — The cornerstone of the new 



Methodist Episcopal Church was laid, liev. M. 
C. Briggi^ officiating. 

Deeeiiiljcr 7, 18(55 — A'ice- President Sclniyler 
Colfax visited relatives in Petahuiia, and was 
waited upon l)y a large delegation of her people, 
to whom he delivered an eloquent address. 

June 28, 1866 — A fire occurred in I'etaluina 
destroying several buildings, among tlicm tlic 
Franlilin and Sullivan hotels. 

August 30, 1860— The boiler of the locomo- 
tive that was used for the carrying of passen- 
gers and freight between Petaluma and the 
" Haystack Landing," exploded at the l^eta- 
luma warehouse, killitig the engineer; Dodge, 
the warehouse keeper; J. II. Lewis, the owner 
of the building, and a boy- named Thompson. 
Several otliers were injured. 

December 20, 18(i6 — Tiburico A'asquez, the 
afterward notorious banditti, was arrested by 
city marshal, James H. Knowles, for burglar- 
izing a store. County Judge C. W. Langdon, 
sentenced him to four years at San Quinten. 
lie served his time out, aud developed into a 
full-Hedged robber. He paid the penalty of his 
crimes on the gallows at San Jose about 1875. 

January 3, 1867 — A public library was or- 
ganized under the auspices of the Odd Fellows 
society. It was finally merged into a city 
library, aud now has several thousand volumes. 

January 10, 1867 — AVm. Ordway, one of 
I'etaluma's most widely known and successful 
mechanics, passed away. 

April 4, 1867 — The convent, school ij^ the 
Catholic Church was duly inaugurated, and for 
many years was a prominent educational institu- 
tion under thedirection of the Sistei-s of Charity. 

June 13, 1867 — The ladies of the Congrega- 
tional Church presented the Petaluma Guards, 
Captain James Armstrong con:mandiiig, an 
elegant banner. 

August 1, 1867 — A planing mill and sash 
factory was put in succesful operation in East 

September 12, 1867 — Petaluma lost one of 
her oldest and most enterprising citizens, by 
the deatli of Captain T. F. Baylis. 

September 26, 1867 — The city of Petaluma 
added a new engine tu its fire-department. 

September 26, 1867 — Professor E. S. Lippitt 
started a high school in Petaluma. 

October 10, 1867 — Solomon Pearce, a higidy 
respected citizen, met witli a railroad accident 
in Napa Valley, which resulted in his death. 

March 12, 1868 — A soap factoi-y was estali- 
lished in Petaluma. 

June 25, 1868 — E. Z. C. Judson (Xed Bunt- 
line) delivered a temperance lecture in I'etaluma. 

July 16, 1868 — Petaluma was scourged with 
the small pox. There were ten or fifteen deaths. 

July 23, 1868 — Petaluma had a pottery in 
successful operation. 

October 1, 1868 — Petaluma was visited with 
a disastrous fire. The American hotel and sev- 
eral other valuable buildings were destroyed. 

October 8, 1868 — Uriah Edwards fell a victim 
to the small-pox. He was an old and lionored 
citizen, having served the county in the State 

October 22, 1868 -The Mutual Relief Associ- 
ation of Petaluma was organized. 

September 9, 1869 — Mr. and Mrs. TomThumli 
visited Petaluma. 

March 15, 1870 — A company was organized 
to build a theater. A fine edifice was erected 
and opened to the public on the 10th of October. 

April 9, 1870 — Petaluma lost a good and 
valuable citizen by the death of Dr. "Wm. 15ur- 
nett. He was a State Senator at the time of 
his demise. 

January 21, 1S71 — Louis Parnes (colored) 
died at a ri]>e old age. He had been a slave the 
most of his life. He was esteemed by all who 
knew him. 

July 22, 1871 — The corner stone of Odd 
Fellows Block was laid, with appropriate cere- 

Xovember 11, 1871--Captain J. S. Cutter, 
one of the firm of Baylis cV: Co., passed away. 
He had been a good and useful citizen. 

March 23, 1872--Petalnina was visited by a 
destructive fire whicrh swept away ^75. 000 worth 
of property. 



April 20, 1872 — The water t-uinpanies uf 
Petalnma were consolidated, and action was 
taken to secure a larger supply of water. 

^[ay 18, 1872 — This was a season of great im- 
provement in Petaluma. The estimated cost of 
the buildings erected was ift225,0O0. 

June 22, 1872 — S. Levy, one of I'etaluma's 
larii;est dry goods merchants, died. 

July 0, 1872 — A joint-stock manufacturing 
company was formed iti Petaluma. A full out- 
fit was purchased and a woolen mill was set in 

September 13, 1872 — (Jencral Joseph Hook- 
er visited Petaluma, where he spent several 
days, the guest I. G. Wickersham, and family. 

October 25, 1872 — The new Washington 
Hotel was completed and oi^ened to the public. 

January 10, 1873 — The Miranda claim to 
the Arroyo de San Antonio grant, on which 
Petaluma stands, was finally confirmed by the 
United States Supreme Court. 

April 25,1873 — Simon ("onrad, oneof Pet- 
aluma's most energetic mechanics, who carried 
on a large blacksmithing establishment, died. 

June 27, 1873 — Petaluma was visited by a 
destructive fire, and the American Hotel ai.d 
adjacent buildings were again reiluced to ashes. 

July 4, 1873 — Petaluma was again called 
upon to part with one of its respected and pioneer 
citizens, Dr. J. L. Bond. 

July 25, 1873 — The last member of the old 
firm of T. F. Paylis & Co., Captain 1). SnlHvan, 
paid the last debt of nature. 

January 2, 1874 — Petaluma was again visited 
with a destructive fire. 

January 23, 1874 — E. C. Thomas, a promi- 
nent citizen of Petaluma, and a son of liev. E. 
Thomas who was killed in the (ieneral ('anby 
massacre by tlie Modnc Indians,. died in Peta- 

March 13, 1874 — Uev. John L. Stephens, 
who had grown up in Petaluma, was most foully 
murdered in Ahulco, ^Mexico, where* he had 
gone as a Protestant missionary. His remains 
were brought back and now repose in (^ypress 
Hill Cemetery. 

May 1, 1874 — Charles Cobb died, why was 
long a machinist in the foundry of C. P. Hatch, 

May 22, 1874.^John J. Ellis, formerly a 
citizen of Petaluma, and once sheriff of Sonoma 
County, was frozen to ileath in Nevada Territory. 

September 25, 1874— The First National Gold 
Pank of California was organized at Petaluma, 
with I. G. Wickerham as president, and H. H. 
Atwater as cashier. 

January 1, 1875— J. P. Lookie, one of i'eta- 
luma's valued citizens, passed away. 

January 1, 1875 — Tiie new Methodist Epis- 
copal Church was formally dedicated. 

January 15, 1875 — Petaluma lost an old-time 
and valued citizen in the person of Deacon Jacob 

July (), 1875 — 1'he coriier-.'^tone of the new 
Catholic Ciiurch of Pi'taluina was laid with be- 
coming ceremonies. 

September 24, 1875 ('. P. Thomas, a son of 
Ezra Thomas, killed in the Canby massacre by 
the ]\[odoc Indians, died in Petaluma. 

March 3, 1870 — The centennial building of 
John Pfun was completed. 

April 21, 1876— Captain C. M. Baxter, long 
acaptainon the Minturn line of steamers i)lying 
between Petaluma and San Francisco, died. 

May 19, 1876— The Petaluma Catholic 
Church was formally dedicated. 

July 14, 1870— A. C. St. John, a prominent 
dealer in improved breeds of stock, died. 

Septendier 22, lS76-Wm. Elder died, who 
was one of Petaluma's most respected jiioneer 

September 29, 1876— .\. G. Medley, who was 
one of Petaluma's earliest jewelers, died. 

December 29, 1876 — Wm. B. Spear, a prom- 
inent capitalist of Petaluma, died. 

January 19, 1877 — Stephen I 'ay ran, long a 
resident of East Petalnma and for many veai\s 
a justice of tlie peace, died. 

April 20, 1877 Petaluma has an exciting 
time in deciding whether or not a colored boy 
answering to the unusual name of "Jones," shall 
be admitted to the privilege of iier public schools. 



June 8, 1877 — Parker E. Weeks, an old-time 
resident of Petaluma, passed on. 

August 24, 1877 — " Cogniac,"' a Norman 
stallion that acquired the title of the " man 
eater," killed a man at the Petaluma Fair 
Grounds. Cugniac took tlie man and shook 
him like a dog would a rabbit, until he was 
dead. The horse was valued at 810,000, but he 
was a terror to humanity. 

October 12, 1877— F. D. Colton, long a law- 
yer of prominence in Petaluma, died in San 

February 22, 1878 — J. N. McCune, a former 
resident of Petaluma, but for many years a 
commission merchant of San Francisco, died. 

March 15, 1878 — D. D. Cardie, a lawyer and 
one of Petaluma's pioneer citizens, died. 

Jnue 14, 1878— X. O. Stafford, a pioneer res- 
ident of Petaluma, died at Tustin City, Los 
Angelos County. 

August 9, 1878 — J. M. ]>owles started a new 
flowering mill in Petaluma. 

September 6, 1878 — Martin llarr, the manu- 
facturer of the celebrated saddle-trees bearing 
his name, died. 

September 0, 1878 — Kev. Henry Ward 
Beecher, the eminent pulpit orator, delivered a 
lecture in Petaluma. 

October IS, 1S78— Petaluma sent sl,u97.25 
to the yellow fever sufferers of the South. 

November 29, 1878 — Daniel S. Lane, who 
for eight years had been a principal writer on 
the Argus staff, died. 

November 14, 1879 — Captain Edward Lata- 
pie, long of Petaluma, until elected county 
sheriff', died. 

April 30, 1880— F. P. McNear, assistant 
cashier of tlie l>ank of Sonoma Count}', died. 

March 4, 1881 — Harlow Hinkston, an aged 
gentleman of Petaluma, died. 

May 13, 1881— Captain Weimer sold tlie 
steamer Pilot to A. McFnrland & Co. 

June 3, 1881 — Wm. II. Dalton, one of Peta- 
Inma's most valued business men, died. 

June 22, 1881 — A California lion of large 
size was killed within the limits of Petaluma. 

May 12, 1882 — The new water reservoir for 
Petaluma, with a capacity of 2,500,000, was 

June 2, 1882 — Captain Oliver Allen, an 
esteemed citizen, died. 

July 28, 1882— Josiah Chandler, one of the 
oldest citizens of Petaluma and a lawyer of good 
ability, died. 

March 3, 1883 — A company was organized 
and a fruit caimer}' started in Petaluma. 

May 19, 1883 — A. J. J. Pearce, a young man 
of prominence in Petaluma, died. 

May 26, 1883 — The steamer Pilot blew up a 
few miles below Petaluma, and seven lives were 

December 8, 1883 — The Main street of 
Petaluma was being paved with basalt blocks. 

February 16, 1884— Hon. A. P. Whitney, 
one of Petaluma's most stirring business men, 

July 5, 1884 — G. R. Codding, who had long 
been identified with Petaluma, died. 

August 16, 1884 — A fruit dryer was put in 
operation in Petaluma. 

September 13, 1884 — Dr. J. B. Christie, one 
of Petaluma's most cultured professional men, 

September 27, 1884 — Colonel Robert Inger- 
soll, the great orator, lectured in Petaluma. 

December 6, 1884 — Dr. Isaac L. Dias, a 
dentist and quite an inventor, was killed 
accidentally while hunting. 

December 13. 1884 — Captain James Kennell v, 
a well-known and much respected mechanic, 

December 27, 1884— The Petaluma Golden 
Eagle Flour Mills were burned. 

April 18, 1885 — Dr. A. P. Lovejoy, a dentist 
and for many years telegraph operator in 
Petaluma, died. 

September 19, 1885— "Josh Billings" (H. 
W. Shaw), the humorist, lectured in Petaluma. 
It was ne.xt to the last lecturS he ever delivered, 
as he died very suddenly at the Hotel Del 
Monte, Monterey, a few days thereafter. 

October 17, 1885 — Captain Cornelius Iloyer, 



wlio bad liad long experience as a sea captain, 
died at a rijie old age. 

April 24, 1886— William L. Van Doren, an 
old-time resident, and a pioneer hotel-keeper in 
Petaluma, died. 

September 4, 1886 — Tbe residence of Mr. 
Henry Homes, of Petaluma, was burned, and 
his little daughter Pearl, nine years of age, 
perished in the flames. 

October 9, 1886— Henry (ioldstein, who had 
been in business in Petaluma over a quarter of 
a century, died. 

October 10, 1886 — Jerome B. Gossage, an old 
resident near Petaluma, died. 

October 25, 1886— J. McA. Brown was 
thrown violently from his vehicle and sustained 
injuries that resulted in death. 

October 30, 1886— C. P. Bigsby, one of the 
first niembers of the Congregational Church in 
Petaluma, died. 

November 6, 1886— AVilliam D. Bliss, one of 
Petaluma's most cultured citizens, and a lawyer 
of long practice, died. His mother, now de- 
ceased a few years, was the wife of George 
Bancroft, the American historian. 

December 3, 1887 — Jolin i'owman, an octo- 
genarian, and esteemed by all, died. 

December 17, 1887 — Ifenry Gregory, a good 
and useful citizen, died suddenly at his brother's 
ranch in the country. 

December 24, 1887 — Julius Bloom was killed 
at Petaluma by a railroad accident. He was 
city marshal of Petaluma. 

December 31, 1887— AVilliam L. Keys, than 
whom amore conscientious man never lived, died. 

January 22, 1888— H. Haskell, an old-time 
merchant of Petaluma, died. 

January 22, 1888 — James D. Thompson, one 
of Petaluma's oldest citizens, died. 

February 4, 1888 — Joshua S! Brackett, one 
of Sonoma County's pioneers, died. 

March 3, 1888 — Deacon David Stuart, a good 
and exemplary citizen, died. 

May 5, 1888 — The corner-stone of the Catho- 
lic convent buildinj; was laid with the usual 


July 28, 1888— By the death of Dr. W. W. 
Carpenter, Petaluma lost one of its most cul- 
tured citizens. 

AVe have given in their chronological order 
the deaths of many of Petaluma's pioneer and 
prominent men. It is in place to mention the 
names of some of the matrons who were pioneer 
residents of Petaluma. In the Petaluma Argus 
of June 11, 1880, we find the following: 

" Thursday last was the occasion of a very 
pleasant gathering of aged ladies in this city, at 
the residence of Mrs. Jacob Gilbert, who on 
that day had reached her seventy-eighth birth- 
day. Some seventeen of her aged lady friends 
organized a surprise and in a body called upon 
Mrs. Gilbert. Although it may not be con- 
sidered very gallant in us to give to the world 
the respective ages of these mothers in Israel, 
yet, as we have them from one who knows, we 
give them as follows: Mrs. Button, Vermont, 
70; Mrs. Colby, Vermont, 73; Mrs. AVeber, 
A^ermont, 75; Mrs. Otis, Vermont, 71; Mrs. 
Pierce, Vermont, 06; Mrs. Donaldson, New 
York, 70; Mrs. Pickett, New York, 78; Mrs. 
Gilbert, New York, 78; Mrs. Cooper, New 
York, 66; Mrs. Sweatland, Massachusetts, 79; 
Mrs. Eickert, Massachusetts, 64; Mrs. Mc- 
Curdy, Maine, 76; Mrs. Lewis, Virginia, 62; 
Mrs. (Barrett, Maine, 60; Mrs. AVilliams, Maine, 
88; Mrs. Galispie, Indiana, 60; Mrs. Keys, 
England, 06; Mrs. Brown, Ohio, 79. Total 
ages, 1,287; average ages, seventy-one years 
and six months. Of the eighteen assembled 
sixteen were widows. AYe presume that these 
now aged matrons little dreamed in the long 
ago that life's sunset would find them on the 
golden shores of the Pacific." 

Of these aged ladies who met in social re- 
union in 1880, at the present writing (1888), 
the feet of two thirds of them have pressed 
already the summit between earth and the illim- 
itable vales of the great evermore. 

Below we give a fair statement of the magni- 
tude and importance of Petaluma, its industries 
and advantages: 

Petaluma lias a present population of nearly 



5,000. She is located about thirty-eight miles 
by rail, north of San Francisco. She commands 
the head of navigation on an arm of San Pablo 
Kay, and occupies a position of freight advant- 
ages, considering- the vast amount of produce of 
which she is the shipping center, enjoyed by no 
other city of the size in the State. Back of, 
and tributary to Petaluma, is an extent of rich 
teri'itory of an average of twelve miles in width 
and twenty miles in lengtii, that sends all of its 
]iroduce this way, including nuicli produced 
outside of these lines that seeks IVtaiunia for 
vheap transportation. 

Referring back to statistics published we find 
the foHowing in reference to the magnitude of 
the railroad tratHc between Tetaluma and San 
Francisco: In 1877 the railroad company took 
in for passenger fares !?213,879.23; fur freight, 
i^208,25G.OO ; for other items, §;8,546.13 ; a 
trrand total of $-1:30,081.36. By reference to a 
statistical article it will be seen what the traffic 
on the creek mute was in 1880. By combining 
these figures of the two carrying routes the 
reader will get an approximate idea of the busi- 
ness of I'etaluma and surrounding country at 
the present time. 

In' order that people of future generations 
may rightly understand the extent of Petaluma 
as a trade-center we submit the following com- 
pilation of statistics for the year 1880. These 
statistics were prepared by I. G. AVickersham, 
.John A. McNear and A. P. Whitney (since de- 
ceased) and submitted to the city rrustees of 
Petaluma at the time Congressional aid was be- 
ing asked to straighten tlie creek. The report 
is prefaced by saying: "The steamer Pilot 
makes daily trips to and from San Francisco, 
and in addition to her freight, has carried 13,000 
passengers. Thirty schooners, of an average 
tonnage of lifty tons, are engaged regularly in 
the trade, and about twenty other transient 
schooners a portion of the year. AVe have not 
included in our estimate shipments made over 
the railroad by way ot Donahue, many shippers 
preferring that route on account of the delay 
and uncertainty of time by tiie creek." The 

following showing was then made for the year 
on the creek route alone: 

Wheat, 28,825tons; barley, 3,000 tons; oats, 
3,425 tons; potatoes, 9,997 tons; bran and mid- 
dlings, 375 tons; corn, 250 tons; hay, 5,700 
tons; coal, 1,800 tons; fruit, G0,000 boxes, 
1,333 tons; butter, 1,277 tons; cheese, 129 
tons; salt, 200 tons; wool, 81 tons; leather, 80 
tons; other and mixed merchandise, 31,200 
tons; eggs, 95,6(58 dozen; wood, 1,000 cords; 
tan-bark, 250 cords; brick, 100,000; lumber, 
1,230,000 feet; lime, 1,000 barrels; basalt pav- 
ing blocks, 1,583,000; live-stock, 53,200 head; 
poultry, 5,380 dozen; quail and other game, 
5,100 dozen; hides (green), 6,418; sheep pelts, 

It should be remembered that all these figures 
relate to the ti-affic for one year by water route 
between Petaluma and San Francisco, and that 
there must be added thereto the heav^- business 
done by way of the railroad. 

Another great advantage which Petaluma 
possesses — and which can never be taken from 
her — is competition between rail and water in 
getting her products to market. There are no 
hydraulic miners on the high ground to fill up 
the channel with debris. Xo farmers are im- 
poverishing the soil hy washing the finer par- 
ticles into the stream by irrigation, for here 
irrigation is unknown and entirely unnecessar}-, 
as nature abundantly sup23lies us with the neces- 
sary' moisture from the clouds to produce a crop 
in the drj^est years. For a town of only 5,000 
inhabitants, Petaluma enjoys a very large trade. 
The merchants of Petaluma, in consequence of 
the low freights to San Francisco, can pay a 
higher price for produce than otliers not so well 
situated. The town is surrounded b}' a rich and 
productive country, and all tlie produce of this 
region is shipped from here. Among the many 
advantages J^etaluma possesses as a place for 
residence, it may be mentioned that the death 
rate is as low here as it is in any town of its 
size that we have any account of. The climate is 
as near perfect as could be reasonably desired. 
The temperature, as will be seen by the table 



furnished by the accommodating agent of the 
S. F. & N. P. R. II., appearing in another col- 
umn, is ahout as even as at San Diego. It is 
rarely below 32° in the winter or above 90^ in 
the summer months. Petalnma lias more clear, 
sunny days tlian any place on the Pacitic coast 
from which the Signal Service makes reports — 
except Fort i'uma. Petaluina is abundantly 
sujiplied with good, pure water from the Sonoma 
Mountains. The manufacturing industries are 
quite an important item — and constantly grow- 
ing. The public and private schools, the high- 
school, are a credit to tlie place, and our school 
facilities will soon be materially enlarged. She 
lias a tine public library, and churches of all 
denominations — e.xcept Mormon. The business 
streets are paved with basalt rock blocks, and all 
the streets are liberally lighted with gas. Liv- 
ing is clieap in Petaluma, and the markets well 
supplied with fresh vegetables every month in 
the year, that are raised in this city and its im- 
mediate vicinity. In order to reach Petaluma 
from San Francisco, get on the Tiburon ferry- 
boat at the foot of Market street and it will 
land you at the cars which run through the 
M'hoie length of Sonoma County. You can ob- 
tain an excursion ticket to Petaluma and return 
for $1. If you have plenty of time and wish 
-to see the splendid bays of San Francisco and San 
Pablo, and the fine scenery on the way, take the 
steamer (fol(/, which leaves Jackson -street wharf 
every day at 2:30 v. m. The fare by this route 
is 50 cents, including the ride in the 'bus from 
the steamer landing to the hotels in Petaluma. 
There is not another city in the State of its 
size that has as good a system of water-works as 
lias Peteluma. The water comes pure from the 
streams of the Sonoma Mountains about four 
miles distant and rills a reservoir of near three 
million gallons capacity. This reservoir is at 
such an altitude as to give great pressure upon 
the water pipes of the city. As a consequence 
our numerous hydrants give almost absolute 
security against tires. This, in addition to our 
excellent lire department, reduces tire insurance 
to the lowest rate. 

Petaluma has as complete a system of gas 
works as is to be found in the State. All the 
leading streets are illuminated. On account of 
the cheap transportation of coal the gas is fur- 
nished at prices as low as in any city outside of 
San Francisco. The gas works are of capacity 
sufficient to accommodate a large increase ot 

The health of a city is largely dependent 
upon good sewerage. Petaluma, in this respect, 
occupies a most favored position. Twice a day, 
with a rise and fall of six feet, salt water fi-esh 
from San Francisco I'ay ebbs and Hows through 
the city. The streets have ample grade, and a 
thorough system of stone-pipe sewers precipi- 
tates the drainage into this ever moving salt 
water. Tiiere are inland cities of California 
that would gladly give $100,000 for Petal uma's 
drainage facilities. 

Masonic Temple is an imposing sti-ucturc 
erected by the Masonic lodges of IMastei- Ma- 
sons of Petaluma fit a cost of about ife40,000. 
It is a three-story building, and the hall, proper, 
is one of the most ornate rooms in the State, in 
which two lodges of JVEasons, the chajiter of 
Iloyal Arch Masons, the Knights Templar and 
the Eastern Star hold their stated meetings. 

The Mutual Relief Association of Petaluma, 
out of its reserve fund, has built one of the 
finest three-story, tire-proof buildings in the 

The new city hall is a very imjiosing struct- 
ure, and cost the city over $16,000. It is an 
ornament to the city, and strangers visiting 
here will see in it a sample of Petaluma's thrift 
and prosperity. But few cities in the State can 
afl;brd so elegant an editice simply for municipal 

The Petaluma Tannery is an old and well 
established manufacturing establishment of 
Petaluma. The out-put of leather from this 
establishment is very large every year, and it 
takes rank with the best leather manufactured 
west of the Rocky Jfountains. This tannery 
has been in successful o]ieration tor twelve or 
tifteen years. 



Mr. W. Worth who had previously occupied 
the position of superiuteudent and foreman of 
tiie great Union Iron Works of San Francisco, 
came to Petahuiia in 1880 and bouglit out the 
foundry business then owned by Mr. Hatch. 
On his actpiring possession he turned liis at- 
tention to the wants of Sonoma and Marin 
counties, the former being largely interested in 
grape growing and wine making, and the latter . 
principally dairying. Mr. Worth, who pos- 
sesses more than ordinary genius for mechanical 
appliances, has patented his justly celebrated 
dairy horse-power, which has proved a great 
success and can be found in nearly all well 
e(iuipped dairies in the State. He next turned 
his mind to assist the vigneron in the produc- 
tion of wines, and therefore manufactured a wine 
press, which he had invented and patented in 
1884. Previous to Mr. Worth's introducing 
his press there was in use the old Spanish style 
of press, consisting merely of a timber 20x24 
inches thick and about thirty feet long, built 
usually where they could find a tree for a ful- 
crum using a basket held by two hoops with the 
staves bolted to them, leaving spaces between 
for the juice to escape. 

The Petaluma Woolen Mills have the rcjiuta- 
tion of turning out theltest flannels and blankets 
manufactured in the State. Its flannels are in 
such demand that our local merchants can hardly 
secure their fair share for 4he home trade. As 
time progresses its manufacturing capacity will 
be enlarged and we expect to see the day when 
the woolen goods manufactured in Petaluma 
will be sought for far and wide. The wool from 
Sonoma, Mendocino and Humboldt counties is 
the best and cleanest in the State, which enables 
this mill to do superior work. 

Petaluma is not behind any city in the State 
of her size in reference to her capacity to turn 
out good merchantable flour. The Oriental 
Mills have for long years turned out a good 
quality of domestic flour, and have built up a 
wide trade. The Golden Eagle ililling Co. has 
established a large manufactory by the roller 
process, which is turning out flour of as good 

quality as can be found in the State. This mill 
is a four-story brick structure with one of the 
largest warehouses in the county from whicii 
it draws choice grain for milling purposes. 

Petaluma has become famous for its manu- 
facture of wagons and carts. All up and down 
the State her wheeled vehicles are in common 
use. This attests that our various manufactur- 
ers in this line have the capacity and mechani- 
cal skill to mar.ufacture all kinds of wheeled 
vehicles of best quality and pattern. Wher- 
ever you go in California you see Petaluma 
inscribed upon the axles of vehicles. 

K^ext to natural advantages a manufacturing 
enterprise is conducive to the welfare of any 
community in which it is situated, but when one 
like the Petaluma Fruit Packing Company, 
purchasing the products of the surrounding 
country, paying the highest market price there- 
for, and producing an article that is in demand 
all over the land, is there situated, it becomes 
an institution such that the benefits resultant 
therefrom can hardly be computed. In this 
respect the citizens of Petaluma have special 
cause for congratulation, and regard the Peta- 
luma Fruit Packing Company as one in which 
they take an individual pride; and not only is 
the industry of local interest, but it is one 
whose renown is as wide as the boundaries of 
the State. The company was organized in 1883. 
The firm of De Long, Ashby tt Co. succeeded 
to the interests of the Petaluma Fruit Packing 
Company about three years ago, and have under 
the able management of j\Ir. D. E. Ashby, estab- 
lished a business that is equal to any in the State. 

The Odd Fellows have a fine iron front block 
in which they have a large, commodious hall. 
This organization has a large membership, and 
is financially prosperous. It is one of the solid 
and enduring institutions of Petaluma. 

For long years a planing mill has been in suc- 
cessful operation in Petaluma. In all Peta- 
luma's vast improvements it has turned out the 
sash, doors, moldings, cornice and brackets for 
local use. It is one of her useful and perma- 
nent industries. 



There are hut few cities on the Pacific coast 
with the pojiulation of Petaluina (ahout 5,000) 
that has four hanks. Petahima lias fonr hanks 
capitalized as follows: First National Bank, 
paid-up capital, 8200,000, surplus, $75,800; 
Hunk of Sonoma County, paid-up capital §300,- 
000, surplus, 820,000; Pctaluma Savings Bank, 
paid-up capital, $100,000, surplus, §00,000; 
Hill & Son, capital, §150,000. It will thus he 
seen that the capital of our hanks aloneamounts 
to over §1)00,000. 

There is not a city in the State of like popu- 
lation that has a hetter showing of public school 
edifices than Petaluma. She had already five 
school edifices, but to meet a growing need, a 
new building costing over §16,000 is just near- 
ing completion. 

The outlying country around Petaluma, em- 
braced in Petaluma Township, amounts to over 
40,000 acres of good farming, fruit and dairy 
lands. Immediately north of Petaluma, and 
bordering on the city limits, are several thou- 
sand acres of choice fruit land. Two Rock Val- 
ley is in this township, and it is oneof the ricli- 
est and most productive little valleys in the 
county. West of Petaluma, and extending to the 
San Antonio Creek, is a fine dairy and stock re- 
gion. The assessed value of property in city and 
township is over §3,200,000. 

Stony Point (sometimes designated Washoe 
House) is in Petaluma Township. It is in the 
midst of a productive fruit country, and has a 
hotel, postoftice and blacksmith shop. 

The following members of the medical jiro- 
fession have occupied the Petaluma field: 

Dr. S. W. Brown, died in 1.SG2. 

Dr. Wm. Wells is a pioneer of Petaluma. 

Dr. T. A. Ilylton, died on his way to Neva- 
da, in 1859. 

Dr. T. L. Barnes left Petaluma about 1805, 
and went to Ukiah, where he now resides. 

Dr. Hoffman staid but a short time. 

Dr. Bond died here about 1870. 

Dr. Burnett was elected State Senator and 
died liefore his term expired. 

Dr. Cluness was partner of Dr. Burnett; went 

to Sacramento in 1870, to succeed Dr. J. F. 
Morse, and still resides there. 

Dr. Voellen went to Sacramento, and is there 
at present. 

Dr. Alex. Stewart succeeded^Dr. Wells; went 
to San Francisco about 1875 and died there. 

Dr. Gildersleave succeeded Dr. Stewart, and 
left aljout 1878 for Arizona. 

Dr. Patty succeeded Dr. Gildersleave, and is 
now in Petaluma. 

Dr. McTaggert resided in I'etaluma a short 
time, then went to Sonoma and from there to 
San Francisco. 

Mrs. Dr. S. Nichols resided in Petaluma 
about seven years and left in 1887; is now in San 
Diego County. 

Dr. McWhinnie came to Petaluma from New 
York, practiced two or three years and died at 

Mrs. Perkins practiced in Petaluma, wlieiv she 
is now^ living. 

Dr. and Mrs. Remarque have been in Peta- 
luma for twenty years and still remain. 

Dr. and Mrs. Fifield have been in Petaluma 
five or six years. 

Dr. Ivancovich has been in Petaluma about 
eight years. 

Dr. Proctor came to Petaluma about two 
years ago and is still practicing. 

Dr. J. B. Smith came to Petaluma from Ukiah 
about fifteen years ago and is still in practice. 

Dr. Trenholtz has been in Petaluma three or 
four years. 

Dr. G. B. Davis succeeded ]\[rs. Nichols and 
is still practicing here. 

Dr. W. W. Carpenter came here about twenty 
years ago and died lately in San Francisco. 

Dr. Goshen, specialist. 

Dr. ]\r. Donald, specialist. 

Dr. Warren came to Petaluma from Valley 
Ford; died recently in San Francisco. 

Dr. Shepperd lias been in Petaluma over 
twenty-five years and is now liere. 

Dr. Christie came to Petaluma from Canada; 
practiced a few years and died. 

Dr. McGuire practiced a few years in Peta- 



liiiiui, tlieii went to (iiierucvillc, where he 

George Walker Graves, M. D., born in Vir- 
ginia, near lliclimond, in 1831; commenced 
medical studies in 1855; entered Medical College 
of Virginia and graduated March 9, 1858; caine 
to Fetaluma in spring of 1869; been liere since. 

Josiah II. Crane, M. D., born in Warren 
County, Ohio, August 31, 1820, near Lebanon; 
commenced the study of medicine in St. Louis; 
graduated from St. Louis Medical College in 
1844; located in the spring of 1844 in St. Jos- 
eph, Mo.; came to Petal u ma in 1805. 

In the following we summarize a few of the 
most important institutidus and in<lustries of 

Petaluma Lochje F. cL' .1. M. — Organized 
January 15, 1855; with Dr. T. L. Ilarnes, S. J. 
Smith, W. R. Swinerton, Uriah Edwards, II. 
iiassett, 15. Newman, A. I\ Barton, L. Han- 
cock, L. Walker, Wm. t'onley, James Samuels, 
J. G. Ilntf, I. K. Walker and J. C. Derrick, as 
charter members. 

PetaJidiia Chcqjter, Nv. ~~', li. A. J/. — This 
chapter was organized under dispensation and 
granted a charter, the members applying for 
such being Thomas L. Barnes, Philip R. Thomp- 
son, L. E. Brooks, M. R. Evans, William Bur- 
nett, P. W. Eandle, S. Powell, Job Cash, 
AV^illiam Ross, and others. The first holders of 
otlice were: High Priest, Thomas L. Barnes; 
King, Philip R. Thompson; Scribe, L. E. Brooks. 

Areturus Lothje, No. ISO, F. c6 A. J/".— This 
lodge was organized c)n Octobler 11, 1866, 
and a charter granted by the Grand Lodge of 
California to Right Worshipful Master^ C. Sim- 
mons; Senior Warden, Simon Conrad, and 
.luniiir AVarden, Benjamin F. Tuttle, who hehl 
utbce under dispensation. The lodge now has a 
roll of seventy-five members. 

Relief Encainjjineiit, No. ,19., I. 0. 0. F. — 
Was instituted July 11, 1868, the charter mem- 
bers being David Sullivan, G. Warren, B. Bow- 
man, J. S. Cutter, L. Ellsworth, James K. 
Knowles, William Zartman, Moses Korn. The 
first officers of the encampment were: G. War- 

ren, C. P.; J. S. Cutter, II. P.; L. Ellsworth, 
S. W.: B. Bowen, Scribe; William Zartman. 
Treasurer; David Sull