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! co 







THE ILLUSTRATED 

HISTORY OF THE WORLD, 

FOR THE ENGLISH PEOPLE. 

FROM THE EARLIEST PERIOD 
TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



WITH MANY ORIGINAL HIGH-CLASS ENGRAVINGS. 



Histories make men wise." SIR FRANCIS BACON. 



VOL. II. 



WARD, LOCK, & CO., WARWICK HOUSE, 

SALISBURY SQUARE, E.G. 
NEW YORK: BOND STREET. 



IS 
V.2 




CONTENTS. 



THE HISTORY OF MODERN TIMES. 
Kntrotiucttan. 

PIG'S 

STATE or VARIOUS NATIONS AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF MODERN TIMES. SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 
CASTILE. PORTUGAL. SPAIN UNDER FERDINAND AND ISABELLA. THE OPPRESSION AND 
EXPULSION OF THE MOORS. THE LATTER PERIOD OF THE REIGN OF FERDINAND THE CATHO- 
LIC. THE EMPEROR CHARLES (I. OF SPAIN, V. OF GERMANY) AND CARDINAL XIMENEZ. 
THE NKW KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY, WITH LORRAINE AND ALSACE. SCANDINAVIA AND 
SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN. THE KINGDOM OF SCANDINAVIA BEFORE THE UNION OF CALMAR. 
SCANDINAVIA AFTER THE UNION OF CALMAR. HUNGARY UNDER THE ROYAL HOUSE OF ARPAD 
(UNTIL 1301). HUNGARY AS AN ELECTIVE KINGDOM. POLAND UNDER THE PIASTS TILL 1386. 
POLAND UNDER THE JAGELLONS FAMILY (1386-1572). THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. THE KING- 
DOM OF THE OSMANLI TURKS. TlMUR. CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE. TERMINATION OF 

THE PERIOD OF THE MIDDLE AGES 1 

THE PRECURSORS OF THE NEW TIMES. 

DISCOVERY OF AMERICA BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. FIRST VOYAGE OF THE ADMIRAL, 1792. 
FURTHER VOYAGES OF COLUMBUS. CONQUESTS AND DISCOVERIES IN THE NEW WORLD. 
INVENTIONS, DISCOVERIES AND PROGRESS 27 

THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW STATES UNDER CHARLES V. GREAT POWER OF THE AUSTRIAN HOUSE. 
FRANCIS I. -AND HENRY VIII. PROGRESS OF THE REFORMATION IN EUROPE. THE 
LUTHERAN CHURCH. THE REFORMED CHURCH: ITS BRANCHES AND ITS PREACHERS. 
ZWINGLI AND CALVIN. THE GERMAN REFORMATION : ITS CAUSES. DR. MARTIN LUTHER. 
THE NINETY-FIVE THESES AND THEIR CONSEQUENCES. FREDERICK, THE ELECTOR OF 

SAXONY 41 

THE STRIFE OF THE REFORMATION. 

THE DISPUTATION AT LEIPSIC. THE SENTENCE OF EXCOMMUNICATION. THE DIET AT WORMS. 
LUTHER FACE TO FACE WITH THE PAPACY. THE REFUGE AT THE WARTBURG. ORIGIN OF 
THE SCHISM IN GERMANY. TROUBLES AND UPRISINGS AMONG THE PEOPLE; THE PEASANTS' 
WAR. THOMAS MUNZER, THE FANATIC. ATTITUDE OF ULRICH VON HUTTEN, FRANZ VON 

SlCKINGEN, AND OTHER MEN OF THE TlME. POPULAR LEADERS ; G6TZ VON BERLICHINGEN, 

ETC. CRUELTIES OF THE PEASANTS. VIOLENT PUTTING DOWN OF THE MOVEMENT . . 54 
THE WAR IN ITALY j AND PROTESTANT CONFESSIONS OF GERMANY AND 

* SWITZERLAND. 

WAR OF CHARLES V. AND FRANCIS I. MILAN CONQUERED. BATTLE OF PAVIA, 1525. TREATY 
OF MADRID. ROME PLUNDERED BY THE SOLDIERS OF CHARLES V. THE PROTESTATION IN ' 
GERMANY, 1529. THE CONFESSION OF AUGSBURG, 1530. THE RELIGIOUS TREATY OF NU- 
REMBERG. THE REFORMATION IN SWITZERLAND BY ZWINGLI. RELIGIOUS WAR OF THE 
Swiss CONFEDERATES . . 64 

THE PERIOD OF THE RELIGIOUS WARS IN GERMANY. 

FRANCIS I. THE RIVAL OF THE HAPSBURG HOUSE. NEGOTIATIONS WITH POPE PAUL III. 
ENTERPRISES OF CHARLES V. IN THE EAST. AFFAIRS IN ITALY. TREATY OF CRESPY. 
AFFAIRS IN GERMANY. THE ANABAPTISTS OF MUNSTER. JOHN OF LEYDEN AND KNIPPER- 
DOLLING : THEIR FATE. RELIGIOUS CONFERENCE AT RATISBON. LUTHER'S DEATH. THE 
SMALKALDIC WAR. PREPARATIONS AND ALLIANCES. MAURICE OF SAXONY. THE CAMPAIGN 
ON THE DANUBE. SCHARTLIN. JOHN FREDERICK, THE ELECTOR. CAMPAIGN ON THE ELBE. 
BATTLE OF MUHLBURG. TRIUMPH OF CHARLES V. IMPRISONMENT OF JOHN FREDERICK 
AND OF PHILIP OF HESSE 74 

END OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES V. SWITZERLAND AND THE REFORMATION. 
CHARLES V. AND THE COUNCIL OF TRENT. DIFFICULTIES. THE AUGSBURG INTERIM. LEAGUE 
OF PROTESTANT PRINCES. ALBERT OF BRANDENBURG AND SCHARTLIN. ALLIANCE WITH 
FRANCE. INNSBRUCK AND PASSAU. DEFECTION OF MAURICE OF SAXONY. DANGER OF THE 
EMPEROR : HIS NARROW ESCAPE. RELEASE OF THE ELECTOR JOHN FREDERICK. BATTLE OF 
SIEVENHAUSEN. DEATH OF MAURICE OF SAXONY. TRANQUILLITY RESTORED IN GERMANY. 
THE RELIGIOUS PEACE OF AUGSBURG. CHARLES V. AT ST. JUSTE : HIS LAST DAYS AND 
DEATH, 1558. THE Loss OF THE IMPERIAL DOMINIONS IN LORRAINE. THE BISHOPRICS OF 
TOUL, MET/, AND VERDUN. THE CONSTABLE DE MONTMORENCY. TRIUMPH OF FRENCH 
INTERVENTION. THE REFORMATION IN SWITZERLAND : CALVIN AT GENEVA .... 88 

II. a 



ii CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

ENGLAND IN THE TUDOR TIMES. THE ANGLICAN AND THE PRESBYTERIAN 

CHURCHES. 

HENRY VIII. AND CATHERINE OF ARRAGON. CARDINAL WOLSEY. SUPPRESSION OF THE MONAS- 
TERIES. SEPARATION FROM ROME. EDWARD VI., 1547-1553. THE ANGLICAN CHURCH. 
LADY JANE GREY. REIGN OF MARY, 1553-1558. THE ROMISH CHURCH RESTORED. FEB. 
SECUTIONS. ACCESSION OF ELIZABETH, 1558. SETTLEMENT OF CHURCH AFFAIRS. ACT OF 
UNIFORMITY, 1559. AFFAIRS OF SCOTLAND.T-JAMES V. : HIS DEATH, IN 1542. MARY QUEEN 
OF SCOTS. THE REFORMATION IN SCOTLAND. WISHART AND CARDINAL BEATOUN. MARY OF 
GUISE. JOHN KNOX. ESTABLISHMENT OF CALVINISM IN SCOTLAND. THE PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH . 102 

SCANDINAVIA, POLAND, AND HUNGARY IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 

KING CHRISTIAN II., 1513-1523. DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION OF CALMAR. KING GUSTAVUS 
VASA, 1523-1559. SWEDEN UNDER THE SONS OF GUSTAVUS VASA. POLAND. SIGISMUND 
AUGUSTUS II., 1558-1572. PERIOD OF STRIFE. ELECTION OF HENRY OF ANJOU AS KING OF 
POLAND, 1573. PAX DISSIDENTIUM. STEPHEN BATHORI OF TRANSYLVANIA. SIGISMUND III., 
1587-1632. HUNGARY AND THE AUSTRIAN STATES. FERDINAND I., 1556-1564. MAXIMILIAN 
II M 1564-1576. FOUNDATION OF THE ORDER OF THE JESUITS. IGNATIUS LOYOLA . . .112 

REACTION. PROGRESS. 

PERIOD OF PHILIP THE SECOND OF SPAIN, 1556-1598, AND OF ELIZABETH OF 

ENGLAND, 1558-1603. 

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL IN THE TIME OF PHILIP II. SINISTER POLICY OF THE KING. THE IN- 
QUISITION AND THE AUTOS DA FE. THE PEACE OF THE CHATEAU-CAMBRESIS. POPE PAUL 

IV. UNITED ACTION OF FRANCE AND SPAIN. ACQUISITION OF PORTUGAL BY SPAIN. DE- 
CLINE OF PORTUGAL. BATTLE OF ALCASSAR IN 1578. THE FALSE SEBASTIANS. PORTUGUESE 
TRADE DESTROYED. THE STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM IN THE NETHERLANDS. THE GOVERNOR- 
SHIP OF MARGARET OF PARMA. DISCONTENTS IN THE NETHERLANDS AND THEIR CAUSES. 
TYRANNY IN THE CHURCH. CARDINAL GRANVELLA. THE INQUISITION. RELIGIOUS DISTUKB- 
ANCES : IMAGE BREAKING. THE PETITION OF THE NOBLES PRESENTED TO MARGARET. 
ITS REJECTION BY THE KING 119 

THE STRUGGLE IN THE NETHERLANDS, AND THE CLOSE OF THE REIGN OF 

PHILIP II. 

THE LAST DAYS OF MARGARET OF PARMA IN BRUSSELS. IMAGE BREAKING. ARRIVAL OF ALVA ; 
HIS REGENCY, 1567-1573. TERROR IN FLANDERS. CRUELTIES OF ALVA. EXECUTION OF 
COUNTS EGMONT AND HOORN. TYRANNY AND EXACTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT. REVOLT OF 
BUILL AND OTHER MARITIME TOWNS. UTRECHT AND HAARLEM. WlLLIAM THE 8 ILK NT, 
PRINCE OF OUANGE, AND DON JOHN OF AUSTRIA. THE HEROISM OF LEYDEN. GOVERNMENT 
OF DON JOHN, 1573-1578. ALEXANDER FARNESE OF PARMA, 1578-1592. CONFEDERATION OF 
THE UNITED PROVINCES. ASSASSINATION OF WILLIAM THE SILENT, 1584. THE INVINCIBLE 
ARMADA, 1588. NETHERLANDS FREE. THE END OF MARGARET OF PARMA'S REGENCY. . 127 

FRANCE DURING THE RELIGIOUS WARS. 

DEATH OF HENRY II., 1559. REIGN OF FRANCIS II., 1559-1560. THE FAMILY OF THE GUISES. 
FRANCOIS DE GUISE. ANTOINE, KING OF NAVARRE. THE BOURBONS. THE PRINCE DE 
CONDE. THE CONSPIRACY OF AMBOISE. REIGN OF CHARLES IX., 1560-1574. CATHARINE 
DE MEDICIS. THE FIRST THREE RELIGIOUS WARS, 1561-1570. MASSACRE OF VASSY. 
BATTLE OF DREUX. HENRY OF GUISE. TREATY OF AMBOISE, 1563. RENEWAL OF THE 
WAR. SECOND PEACE. ROCHELLE AND JARNAC, 1569. BATTLE OF MONCONTOUR. PEACE 
OF ST. GERMAINS, 1570. CHARLES IX. AND THE HUGUENOTS. OSTENSIBLE RECONCILIATION. 
THE KING AND ADMIRAL COLIGNI. MARRIAGE OF HENRY OF NAVARRE AND MARGARET 
OF VALOIS. MASSACRE OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW. DEATH OF CHARLES IX. REIGN OF HENRY 
III.. 1574-1589. THE KING'S DOUBTFUL POLICY. THE HOLY LEAGUE. THE BARRICADES. 
MURDER OF GUISE AND THE CARDINAL. DEATH OF HENRY III., ETC 140 

ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

ELIZABETH'S CHARACTER AND GOVERNMENT. MARY STUART IN SCOTLAND. RIZZIO, DARNLEY, 
BOTHWELL. BATTLE OF LANGSIDE. MARY IN ENGLAND. HER LONG IMPRISONMENT. THE 
DUKE OF NORFOLK. CONSPIRACIES. BABINGTON'S PLOT. EXECUTION OF MARY. EXCITE- 
MENT ON THE CONTINENT. CLOSE OF ELIZABETH'S REIGN. ESSEX : HIS DISGRACE AND EX- 
ECUTION. DEATH OF THE QUEEN, 1603 156 

CULTURE AND LEARNED MEN. FROM THE REFORMATION TO LOUIS XIV. 

ASTRONOMERS : COPERNICUS, TYCHO BRAHE, KEPLER, GALILEO, NEWTON. HISTORICAL WRITERS : 
SLEIDAN, SECKENDORF, GROTIUS, RALEIGH. PHILOSOPHIC WRITERS : ITALY GIORDANO 
BRUNO, ETC., MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE, FRANCIS BACON, HOBBES, DESCARTES, SPINOZA. 
ITALIAN PROSE AND POETRY : MACHIAVELLI, DAVILA, ARIOSTO, VITTORIA COLONNA, TASSO. 
SPAIN CERVANTES, LOPE DE VEGA, CALDERON. PORTUGAL CAMOENS. FRANCE RAP.ELAIS, 
MAROT, MARGUERITE DE NAVARRE. ENGLAND CHAUCER ; THE DRAMA: SHAKESPEARE; 
SPENSER, MILTON, DRYDEN, BUTLER, ETC. GERMANY HANS SACHS, FISCHART, LUTHER, 
ETC 165 



CONTENTS. ii. 

PAGE 

THE SEVENTEENTH CENTUEY. FIRST PERIOD OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR- 
(TO THE EDICT OF RESTITUTION). 

REIGN OP FERDINAND I., AND OF MAXIMILIAN II. PROSPERITY OF GERMANY. RUDOLF II. 
REACTION TOWARDS ROMANISM. THE PROTESTANT UNION AND THE CATHOLIC LEAGUE. 
SCHEMES OF HENRY IV. OF FRANCE. THE EMPEROR MATTHIAS. DISCONTENTS IN BOHEMIA. 
THE OUTRAGE ON THE IMPERIAL ENVOYS. COMMENCEMENT OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. 
THE EMPEROR FERDINAND II. COUNT THURN. THE PALSGRAVE FREDERICK V. MADE 
KING OF BOHEMIA. BATTLE OF THE WHITE MOUNTAIN, 1620. THE WAR OF THE PALATIN- 
ATE. TILLY AND MANSFELD. CHRISTIAN OF BRUNSWICK. THE DANISH WAR. CHRISTIAN 
IV. WALLENSTEIN, HIS GREAT INFLUENCE. VICTORIES OF WALLENSTEIN AND TILLY. 
TRIUMPH OF THE EMPEROR. SUPREMACY OF AUSTRIA. EDICT OF RESTITUTION. DISMISSAL 

OF WALLENSTEIN 180 

SECOND PERIOD OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR, FROM THE SWEDISH INTER- 

VENTION TO 1648. 

GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS OF SWEDEN. His METHOD OF WARFARE. ADVANCE INTO GERMANY. 
TILLY, AND THE DESTRUCTION OF MAGDEBURG. DEFEAT OF TILLY AT THE BATTLE OF 
BREITENFELD. BRILLIANT SUCCESS OF GUSTAVUS. THE PASSAGE OF THE LECH. DEATH 
OF TILLY. RETURN OF WALLENSTEIN; His UNPRECEDENTED POWER; His SUSPICIOUS- 
POLICY. THE CAMP AT NUREMBERG. FAILURE OF GUSTAVUS TO STORM IT. His RETREAT 
TOWARDS SAXONY. THE BATTLE OF LUTZEN ; DEATH OF GUSTAVUS. THE LEAGUE OF HEIL- 
BRONN. VICTORY OF WALLENSTEIN IN STEINAU. RENEWED' EFFORTS OF HIS ENEMIES AT 
VIENNA. OUTLAWRY OF WALLENSTEIN. His ASSASSINATION. BATTLE OF NORDLINGEN. 
DEFEAT OF BERNHARD OF WEIMAR AND THE SWEDES. PEACE OF PRAGUE WITH SAXONY. 
OPEN INTERVENTION OF FRANCE. RlCHELIEU AND HIS POLICY. THE EMPEROR FERDI- 
NAND III. VICTORIES OF CONDE AND TURENNE. FRESH EXPLOITS OF THE SWEDISH 
LEADERS. PEACE OF WESTPHALIA ; ITS CONDITIONS. CONSEQUENCES OP THE WAR . . 195 
THE NORTHERN POWERS. 

SWEDEN UNDER QUEEN CHRISTINA. CONDITION OF THE COUNTRY. THE QUEEN'S ABDICATION. 
REIGN OF CHARLES X. WAR WITH POLAND. JOHN CASIMIR OF POLAND. TREATIES OF 
WKLAN, OLIVA, AND ANDRUSSON. JOHN SOBIESKI. WAR BETWEEN DENMARK AND SWEDEN. 
FREDERICK III. OF DENMARK. DEATH OF CHARLES X. PEACE OF COPENHAGEN. CON- 
STITUTIONAL CHANGES. KING CHRISTIAN V. NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. CHARLES XI. 
OF SWEDEN : His CHARACTER AND RULE 207 

THE STUART KINGS OF ENGLAND (1603 TO THE LONG PARLIAMENT, 1640). 
REIGN OF JAMES I. CHARACTER OF THE KING. CARR, EARL OF SOMERSET, AND VILLIERS, 
DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM. THE GREAT DIVISIONS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. THE GUN- 
POWDER PLOT. SYSTEM OF RULE. PRINCE CHARLES. MARRIAGE NEGOTIATION WITH SPAIN. 
RUPTURE WITH THE SPANISH COURT. MARRIAGE WITH HENRIETTA MARIA OF FRANCE. 
JAMES AND HIS PARLIAMENTS. ARBITRARY MEASURES OF THE KING. DEATH OF JAMES AND 
ACCESSION OF CHARLES I., 1625. THE FRENCH WAR. QUARRELS WITH THE PARLIAMENT. 
DISMISSAL. PERIOD OF ABSOLUTE RULE. STRAFFORD AND LAUD. ARBITRARY TAXATION. 
SHIP-MONEY. TRIAL OF JOHN HAMPDEN. PERSECUTION OF THE PURITANS. - THE 
LITURGY IN SCOTLAND. REVOLT. THE COVENANT. THE SHORT PARLIAMENT SUMMONED 
AND DISMISSED. MEETING OF THE LONG PARLIAMENT 213 

THE LONG PARLIAMENT AND THE CIVIL WAR, 1640-1049. 

FIRST ACTS OF THE LONG PARLIAMENT. IMPEACHMENT OF STRAFFORD AND LAUD. EXECUTION 
OF STRAFFORD. REBELLION AND MASSACRE IN IRELAND. CAVALIERS AND ROUNDHEADS. 
ATTEMPT TO ARREST THE FIVE MEMBERS. COMMENCEMENT OF THE CIVIL WAR. OLIVER 
CROMWELL. THE SCOTS. MARSTON MOOR. VICTORY OF THE INDEPENDENTS. THE PRES- 
BYTERIANS' SKLF-DENYING ORDINANCE. SUPREMACY -OK CROMWELL. CHARLES AND THE 
SCOTS. ESCAPE OF THE KING TO THE CAMP AT NEWARK. SURRENDER TO THE PARLIAMENTARY 
CHIEFS. STRIFE BETWEEN INDEPENDENTS AND PRESBYTERIANS. TRIAL AND EXECUTION OF 

THE KING 227 

PERIOD OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 

VICTORIES OF CROMWELL. IRELAND: DROGHEDA AND WEXFORD. SCOTLAND: DUNBAR AND EDIN- 
BURGH. CHARLI s II. IN ENGLAND. BATTLE OF WORCESTER. THE NETHERLANDS ; WAR WITH 
HOLLAND. BLAKE, DE RUYTER, AND VAN TROMP. CONSTITUTIONAL STRUGGLES. " BARE- 
BONE'S" PARLIAMENT. THE PROTECTORATE. RICHARD CROMWELL. THE RESTORATION. 
SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. DEGENERACY OF SPAIN UNDER PHILIP III. AND PHILIP IV. 
OLIVAREZ THE COUNT-DUKE. REVOLT OF PORTUGAL FROM SPAIN. JOHN IV. AND HIS 
SUCCESSORS. NAPLES : RISING UNDER MASANIELLO. DEATH OF CHARLES II. OF SPAIN . 23/ 

FRANCE UNDER RICHELIEU AND MAZARIN, AND LOUIS XIV. 
REGENCY OF MARIE DE MEDICIS. CONCINI, MARSHAL D'ANCRE ; His ASSASSINATION. Louis 
XIII. AND DE LUYNES. SUPREMACY OF RICHELIEU ; HIS POLICY OF ABSOLUTISM. LA Ro- 

CHELLE AND THE HUGUENOTS. FOREIGN POLICY OF RlCHELIEU. CARDINAL MAZARIN, THE 
PUPIL OF RlCHELIEU. THE FRONDE RlOTS. ANNE OF AUSTRIA. END OF THE FRONDE 

DISTURBANCES. MAJORITY OF Louis XIV. COMPLETE TRIUMPH OF MAZARIN AT THE PEACE 
OF THE PYRENEES; His DEATH. Louis XIV. AND His MINISTERS AND GENERALS; His 
WARS.-TH SPANISH WAR, 1662-1668. PEACE OF Aix LA CHAPELLE. THE DUTCH WAR, 
1672 -1079 -INVASION OF THE NETHERLANDS. DISTRESS OF THE DUTCH. MURDER OF THE 
BROTHEKS DK WITT. WILLIAM OF ORANGE. SPIRITED RESISTANCE. BRANDENBURG AND 
THE G:I BAT ELECTOR. FEHRBELLIN. THE PALATINATE. PEACE OF NYMEGUEN . . . 24o 
II. 



iv CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

FRANCE IN THE PERIOD OF LOUIS XIV. AND ABSOLUTE RULE. 
POWER AND PROSPERITY OP THE " GRAND MONARQUE." GREAT AND COSTLY ENTERPRISES AND 
SCHEMES. COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. JANSENISM. BLAISE PASCAL. PERSECUTION OP THE 
HUGUENOTS. REVOCATION OP THE EDICT OF NANTES. DRAGONNADES. ARROGANCE OP 
Louis XIV. DIFFICULTIES OP AUSTRIA. AGGKESSIVE AMBITION OP THE FRENCH KING. 
THE "IRON MASK." AFFAIRS OF AUSTRIA. THE TURKS BEFORE VIENNA. HEROISM OP 
JOHN SOBIESKI 258 

ENGLAND UNDER CHARLES II., JAMES II., AND WILLIAM III. AND MARY II. 

CHARLES II. PLAGUE AND FIRE OF LONDON. CONVENTICLE ACT EDICT OF TOLERATION. 
TEST ACT. CAREER OF SHAFTESBURY. OATES AND BEDLOE. RYE HOUSE PLOT. FATE OF 
LORD WILLIAM RUSSELL AND ALGERNON SYDNEY. REIGN OF JAMES II. ILLEGAL ACTION 
OF THE KING. THE REBELLION OF 1688. WILLIAM III. AND MARY II. CONSTITUTIONAL 
GOVERNMENT AND BILL OF RIGHTS. ACCESSION OF ANNE .284 

FIRST HALF OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. SOUTHERN AND WESTERN EUROPE. 

AFFAIRS OF SPAIN. CHARLES II. AND THE PARTITION TREATY. SPAIN BEQUEATHED TO PHILIP 
OF ANJOU. WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCESSION. BLENHEIM. MARLBOROUGH AND PRINCE 
EUGENE OF SAVOY. KING PHILIP V. OF SPAIN. RAMILLIES. TURIN. MALPLAQUET. - 
HUMILIATION OF FRANCE. TREATY OF UTRECHT, 1713. FRANCE. INTERNAL CONDITIONS 
UNDER THE REGENCY OF THE DUKE OP ORLEANS. LAW AND HIS FINANCIAL SCHEMES. 
SPAIN AND HER ASPIRATIONS. THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE. SUCCESSORS OF PHILIP V. 
NORTHERN ITALY. CHARLES EMMANUEL THE GREAT AND HIS SUCCESSORS. CENTRAL ITALY. 
FLORENCE A DUKEDOM. THE FAMILY OF THE MEDICI. PARMA AND MODENA. STATES OP 
THE CHURCH. SOUTHERN ITALY. ENGLAND UNDER THE HOUSE OP HANOVER . . . 277 

THE NORTH AND EAST OF EUROPE. 
POWER of SWEDEN IN THE TIME OF CHARLES XI. ACCESSION OF CHARLES XII. CONFEDERACY 

AGAINST HIM. RUSSIA UNDER THE ROMANOFFS. PETER THE GREAT (1689-1725). REFORMS 

IN RUSSIA. POLAND. VICTORIOUS CAMPAIGNS OF CHARLES XII. CHARLES IN SAXONY. 
RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN. PULTOWA AND ITS CONSEQUENCES. CHARLES XII. A FUGITIVE IN 
TURKEY. RETURN TO SWEDEN. WAR WITH DENMARK. DEATH OP THE KING AT FRIED- 
RICHSHALL. INTERNAL CONDITION OF THE NORTHERN POWERS. SWEDEN. RUSSIA UNDER 
THE SUCCESSORS OF PETER THE GREAT. POLAND 289 

PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA ; PROGRESS AND CONTENTION. 

PRUSSIA UNDER THE GREAT ELECTOR. MILITARY POWER. THE ELECTOR FREDKRICK III. 

PRUSSIA A MONARCHY UNDER FREDERICK I. IMPORTANT REIGN OF FREDERICK WILLIAM I. 
ENERGY AND ECCENTRICITY OF THE KING. THE QUARRELS WITH THE CROWN PRINCE. THE 
YOUTH OF FREDERICK II. His IMPRISONMENT AT KUSTRIN. MARRIAGE OF THE CROWN 
PRINCE. FREDERICK THE GREAT AND THE AUSTRIAN WAR OF SUCCESSION. THE TURKISH 
WARS OF CHARLES VI. THE PRAGMATIC SANCTION. ACCESSION OF MARIA THERESA. 
BREAKING OUT OF WAR, 1740. CONQUEST OF SILESIA. THE EMPEROR CHARLES VII. AND 
HIS MISFORTUNES. TREATY OF BRESLAU. BATTLB: OF DETTINGEN, ETC. TREATY OF Aix LA. 
CHAPELLE. THE SEVEN YEARS' WAR (1756-1763), LOWOSITZ, PIRNA, PRAGUE, KOLLIN, 
ROSSBACH, LEUTHEN, ZORNDORF. DISASTERS OF HOCHKIRCH AND KUNNERSDORF. VICTORIES 
OF LlEGNITZ AND TORGAU. CONCLUSION OF THE WAR. TREATY OF HUBERTSBURG. . . 298 

THE PERIOD OF REVOLUTION. 

PRECURSORS OF THE REVOLUTION. THE PHILOSOPHERS. SIR ISAAC NEWTON. JOHN LOCKE. 
SHAFTESBURY. TINDAL. BOLINGBROKE. GIBBON AND HUME THE HISTORIANS. THE 
HETERODOX LITERATURE OF FRANCE. VOLTAIRE, THE CHIEF OF THE SCEPTICS. MONTES- 
QUIEU. JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU. THE HOLBACH CLUB AND THE ENCYCLOPEDISTS. 
DIDEROT 313 

ATTEMPTS AT REFORM IN VARIOUS STATES OF EUROPE. 
PORTUGAL UNDER PETER II. AND HIS SUCCESSORS, JOHN V., JOSEPH EMMANUEL I. OPPOSITION 

TO THE JESUITS. POMBAL AND HIS REFORMS. CHARLES IV. THE NORTH OF EUROPE. 

DENMARK. STRUENSEE. FREDERICK IV. CHRISTIAN VI. FREDERICK V. CHRISTIAN VII. 
COUNT STRUENSEE, HIS CAREER AND DEATH. SWEDEN. WILLMANSTRAND. GUSTAVUS III. 
GUSTAVUS IV. GERMANY IN THE TIME OF FREDERICK II. THE GERMAN EMPIRE. 
BAVARIAN SUCCESSION. MARIA THERESA 317 

THE TIMES OF THE EMPEROR JOSEPH II. AND HIS SUCCESSORS. 
BENEVOLENT DESIGNS OF JOSEPH II. His DISAPPOINTMENT AND EARLY DEATH. EMPEROR 
LEOPOLD II. REACTION AGAINST REFORMS. FRANCIS II. RUSSIA AND ITS CONDITION. 
FREDERICK WILLIAM II., THE SUCCESSOR OF THE GREAT FREDERICK. CONGRESS OF REICH- 
ENBACH. THE COUNTESS OF LICHTENSTEIN. THE KING AND HIS MINISTERS. DESPOTIC 
POWER OF PRUSSIAN MONARCHS . 327 

RUSSIA AND POLAND UNDER CATHARINE II. 

INSURRECTIONS IN RUSSIA. PUGATSCHEFF. FIRST PARTITION OF POLAND, AND THE FIRST 
TURKISH WAR. WEAKNESS OF POLAND. STANISLAUS PONIATOWSKI. THE FIRST DIVISION 
OF POLAND. THE CONQUEST OF THE CRIMEA. THE SECOND PARTITION OF POLAND, AND 
SECOND TURKISH WAR. THE CONSTITUTION OF POLAND. KOSCIUSZKO, AND THE CON- 
FEDERATES OF TARGOWICZ. DOWNFALL OF POLAND. CLASSICAL LITERATURE OF GERMANY. 
PROGRESS AND DEVELOPMENT. POETRY. PROSE. LITERATURE. 332 



CONTENTS. v 

PAGE 

FRANCE ON THE EYE OF REVOLUTION. 

LOUIS XV. AND HTS COURT. HlS GOVERNMENT. CONFUSION. CHOISEUL. TAXATION AND 

OPPRESSION. DEFICIT. QUARRELS WITH THE PARLIAMENTS. LETTRES DE CACHET. Louis 
XVI. 1774-1793. CHARACTER OF THE KING. QUEEN MARIE ANTOINETTE. ATTEMPTED 
REFORMS OF MALESHERBES AND TURGOT. CRITICAL FINANCIAL CONDITION. LOMENTE DE 
BRIENNE. SUMMONING OF THE ETATS GENERAUX. MIRABEAU. THE CONSTITUENT AS- 
SEMBLY, MAY, 1781), TO SEPTEMBER, 1791. NATIONAL REPRESENTATIVES. ROYAL SITTINGS. 
THE TENNIS-COURT OATH. STORMING OF THE BASTILLE. THE TRICOLOR . . . .345 

ENGLAND AND AMERICA. 

COLONIES IN NORTH AMERICA. RALEIGH. LORD BALTIMORE. THE NEW ENGLAND COLONIES 
FOUNDED. "NEW NETHERLANDS." PHILADELPHIA. CAUSES OF THE WAR OF INDEPEN- 
DENCE. TAXATION OF THE COLONIES. DISCONTENTS AND RESISTANCE. EVENTS or THE 
WAR. LEXINGTON. BUNKER'S HILL. WASHINGTON. SURRENDER AT SARATOGA. YORK- 
TOWN. THE ARMED NEUTRALITY. GIBRALTAR. TREATIES 355 

THE FRENCH REPUBLIC. THE REIGN OF TERROR. 

THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. THE 4TH OF AUGUST, 1789. ABOLITION OF FEUDAL PRIVILEGES. 
THE KING AND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY IN PARIS. CONFISCATION OF CHURCH PROPERTY. FETE 
OF THE FEDERATION. FLIGHT OF THE KING. THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, OCTOBER, 1791, 
TO SEPTEMBER, 1792. GROWTH OF REPUBLICANISM. THE VARIOUS PARTIES. GIRONDISTS, 
JACOBINS, ETC. AGITATION AGAINST ROYALTY. THE PEOPLE IN THE PALACE. THE TENTH 
OF AUGUST, 1792. OVERTHROW OF THE MONARCHY. MASSACRE OF THE Swiss GUARDS. 
THK SEPTEMBER DAYS OP MASSACRE. THE NATIONAL CONVENTION, SEPTEMBER, 1792, TO 
OCTOBER, 1795. EXECUTION OF THE KING. THE WAR AND ITS EVENTS. FALL OF THE 
GIRONDISTS. THE REIGN OF TERROR. OUTRAGES IN THE SOUTH. INSURRECTION IN BRE- 

TAGNE AND LA VENDEE 305 

THE GREAT WAR. EUROPE AGAINST FRANCE. 

FORMATION OF THE FIRST COALITION. PITT AND THE TORY PARTY. INVASION OF FRANCE BY 
THE ALLIES. ENERGY OF THE GOVERNMENT. THE "LEVEE EN MASSE." THE INVADERS 
REPULSED. PRUSSIA. THE TREATY OF BASLE. THE AUSTRIAN'S. THE REIGN OF TERROR 
IN FRANCE. EXECUTION OF MARIE ANTOINETTE. FALL OF THE GIRONDISTS. REPUBLICAN 
CHANGES. THE NEW CALENDAR. FALL OF DANTON AND HIS COMPANIONS. THE 9TH OF 
THERMIDOR. FALL OF ROBESPIERRE. LAST DAYS OF THE CONVENTION. PUNISHMENT OF 
THE TERRORISTS. REPRESSION OF THE MOB. BONAPARTE AND THE OUTBREAK OF THE SEC- 
TIONS ON THE 13TH OF VENDEMIAIRE 379 

FRANCE UNDER THE DIRECTORY. OCTOBER, 1795, TO NOVEMBER, 1799. 

EXPLOITS AND VICTORIES OF BONAPARTE IN ITALY. MILLESIMO, MONTENOTTE, LODI, ETC. 
TREATY OF TOLENTINO. TREATY OF CAMPO FORMIO. INTERNAL RULE OF THE DIRECTORY. 
DISTURBANCES IN ROME. NAPLES. SWITZERLAND. THE NEW COALITION. WAR. CONFLICTS 
IN SWITZERLAND AND HOLLAND. BATTLE OF ZURICH, ETC. BONAPARTE IN EGYPT AND 
SYRIA. BATTLE OF THE PYRAMIDS, ETC. THE 18TH OF BRUMAIRE, 1799. CHANGE OF 
GOVERNMENT 336 

THE CONSULATE. 1800-1804. 

NEW CONSTITUTION, AND THE THREE CONSULS. POWER OF BONAPARTE. BATTLES OF MARENGO 
AND HOHENLINDEN. TREATY OF LUNEVILLE. ASSASSINATION OF THE EMPEROR PAUL OF 
RUSSIA. THE PEACE OF AMIENS, 1802. AFFAIRS IN EGYPT. DEATH OF KLEBER. SUCCESSES 
OF THE ENGLISH. RENEWED WAR. ST. DOMINGO. INTERNAL AFFAIRS. CONCORDAT WITH 
THE POPE. CONSPIRACIES AGAINST BONAPARTE. PREPARATIONS FOR THE EMPIRE. . . 394 

THE FRENCH EMPIRE. 

A NEW COALITION. CAMPAIGN OF 1805. AUSTERLITZ. PEACE OF PRESBURG. CONFEDERATION 
OF THE RHINE. WAR WITH PRUSSIA, 1806. BATTLE OF JENA. CAMPAIGN OF 1807. EYLAU 
AND FRIEDLAND. TREATY OF TILSIT. POWER OF THE FRENCH EMPEROR. THE AFFAIRS OF 
TURKEY 400 

THE PENINSULAR, AUSTRIAN, AND RUSSIAN WARS, 1808-1812. 

AFFAIRS OF THE PENINSULA, PORTUGAL. PROCEEDINGS AT BAYONNE. CARLOS IV., PRINCE 
FERDINAND, AND GODOY. THE PENINSULAR WAR. BAYLEN. ROLTCA AND VIMIERO CON- 
VENTION OF CINTRA. SARAGOSSA. SIR JOHN MOORE'S DISASTER. TALAVERA. SALAMANCA. 
VITTORIA. ADVANCE INTO FRANCE. NAPOLEON AND THE POPE. WAR OF 1809, WITH 
AUSTRIA. HOFER AND THE TYROL. MAGDEBURG. VICTORY OF WA GRAM. TREATY OF 
SCHONBRUNN. NAPOLEON'S DlVORCE. MARRIAGE WITH MARIA LOUISA. WAR WITH 
RUSSIA, 1812. SMOLENSK. BATTLE OF BORODINO. BURNING OF Moscow. DISASTROUS 
RETREAT. DESTRUCTION OF THE FRENCH ARMY 411 

THE FALL OF NAPOLEON. 1813-1815. 

PERILOUS POSITION OF THE EMPIRE. CAMPAIGN OF 1813. BATTLES OF LUTZEN, WURTZEN, AND 
BAUTZEN. ARMISTICE. VICTORY OF NAPOLEON AT DRESDEN. GREAT BATTLE OF LEIPSIC. 
CAMPAIGN OF 1814. THE ALLIES IN PARIS. ABDICATION OF NAPOLEON. ACCESSION OF 
Louis XVIII. CONGRESS OF VIENNA. ERRORS OF THE GOVERNMENT. 1815. RETURN or 
NAPOLEON FROM ELBA. THE 100 DAYS. LIGNY AND WATERLOO. SECOND RESTORATION OF 
THE BOURBONS. NAPOLEON'S CAPTIVITY AND DEATH . 433 



fi CONTENTS. 

PACK 

THE PERIOD OF REACTION. FROM 1815 TO 1830. 

THE HOLY ALLIANCE. GERMAN ROMANTICISM. FRANCE UNDER Louis XVIII. AND CHARLES X. 
THE REACTIONARY TENDENCY. SPAIN AND ITALY. ENGLAND ; STATE OF CLASSES. 
INDIA. STRUGGLE IN GREECE 433 

THE NEW PERIOD OF REVOLUTIONS. FROM 1830. 

THE BELGIAN REVOLUTION OF 1830. THE NETHERLANDS. THE INSURRECTION IN POLAND. 
DEFEAT AT OSTROLENKA. UTTER ANNIHILATION OF POLISH LIBERTY. RULE OF THE 
EMPEROR NICHOLAS. LITERARY AUTHORS AND WRITINGS OF THE PERIOD. RETROSPECT OF 
THE STATE OF AFFAIRS 441 

LITERATURE AND ART IN FRANCE AND GERMANY. 
FRANCE. LITERATURE AND POLITICS. CREBILLON AND DE SADB. MADAME ROLAND. CON- 

DORCET. ROUGET DE L'lSLE. LEBRUN. CONSTITUTIONAL TENDENCY. MADAME DE STAEL. 

CHATEAUBRIAND. LAMARTINE. VICTOR HUGO AND HIS WORKS. ALFRED DE VIGNY. 
OPPOSITION TO THE CLASSICAL SCHOOL. LA HARPE, ARNAULT, BARTHELEMY, ETC. 
BERANGER. SOCIAL ROMANCE WRITERS. BALZAC, EUGENE SUE. MADAME DUDEVANT 
(GEORGES SAND), ETC. ; DUMAS THE ELDER AND THE YOUNGER. HISTORIANS. GUIZOT, 
BARANTE, THIERS, MICHELET, MIGNET, ETC. Music. PALESTRINA, PERI, SCARLATTI, ETC. ; 
GLUCK, HAYDN, MOZART, BEETHOVEN, SCHUBERT, ETC. ; CHERUBINI, BOIELDIEU, WEBER, 
MEYERBEER, WAGNER, MENDELSSOHN 452 

EUROPE AFTER THE JULY REVOLUTION OF 1830. 

POLITICAL CONDITION OF NATIONS. THE WEST CONSTITUTIONAL; THE EAST ABSOLUTE. THE 
MINOR STATES : GERMANY, SPAIN, PORTUGAL, HOLLAND, BELGIUM, ETC. THE KINGDOM OF 
GREECE. THE REPUBLICS : SWITZERLAND AND THE UNITED STATES. THE STRUGGLE OF 
NATIONALITIES. THE WEST. CENTRAL EUROPE. THE SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN DIFFICULTY. 
ITALY, AND ITALIAN UNITY. THE EAST OF EUROPE SLAVS AND MAGYARS. CONDITION OF 
POLAND. PAUPERISM AND SOCIAL REFORM. THEORISTS AND THEIR PLANS. ST. SIMON. 
BAZARD. SOCIALISM AND FOURIER. ROBERT OWEN, ETC 464 

RELIGION AND THE CHURCHES. POPULAR MOVEMENTS. 

THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH; THE SOUTH. ULTRAMONTANISM AND ITS INFLUENCES. Es- 
PARTERO. THE WKST. CATHOLICISM IN FRANCE. CATHOLIC EMANCIPATION IN IRELAND, 
ETC. PRUSSIA ; THE DISPUTE REGARDING MlXED MARRIAGES. THE PROTESTANT CHURCH 
RELIGIOUS MOVEMENTS. FREDERICK WILLIAM THE FOURTH. THE ANGLICAN CHURCH. 
HIGH CHURCH AND Low CHURCH. DR. PUSF.Y. RITUALISM. MOVEMENT IN SCOTLAND. 
LITERATURE AND CULTURE IN GERMANY. DISTINGUISHED WRITERS 473 

THE GOVERNMENTS AND THEIR SYSTEMS. 

POSITION OF THE CONSTITUTIONAL STATES. FRANCE UNDER Louis PHILIPPE. REACTION, AND 
ABANDONING OF POPULAR PRINCIPLES. RESTRICTION OF ELECTIONS. ENEMIES OF TEE 
GOVERNMENT. THE LEGITIMISTS AND "HENRI V." THE REPUBLICANS. NAPOLEON'S 
FUNERAL. FRANCE'S POSITION ABROAD. ALGERIA. THR EAST. MEHEMET ALI AND THE 
SULTAN OF TURKEY. THE PYRENEAN PENINSULA. CARLISTS AND CHRISTINOS. FRENCH 
INFLUENCE. PORTUGAL. DON MIGUEL AND DONNA MARIA DA GLORIA. TRIUMPH OF THE 
QUEEN. HER DEATH 483 

GREAT BRITAIN AND THE DESPOTIC POWERS. 

ENGLAND AT THE ACCESSION OF WILLIAM IV. EARL GREY AND THE REFORM BILL. COBBETT 
AND THE RADICALS. THE CHARTISTS. CORN LAWS. INCOME TAX, ETC. IRISH AFFAIRS. 
DANIEL O'CONNELL AND REPEAL. CAUSES OF IRISH DISCONTENT. PROJECTED MEASURES 
OF CONCILIATION. THE MELBOURNE MINISTRY. ANTAGONISM BETWEEN "CELT" AND 
" SAXON." THE IRISH OUTBREAK OF 1848. FOREIGN AFFAIRS. CANADA : DISCONTENTS AND 
INSURRECTION. ENGLAND AND THE EAST. AFGHANISTAN AND DOST MOHAMMED KHAN. SIR 
CHARLES NAPIER AND SCINDE. WAR WITH CHINA. THE DESPOTIC STATES OF EUROPE. 
AUSTRIA. REPRESSIVE MEASURES AGAINST LIBERALISM. BOHEMIA. THE ITALIAN PRO- 
VINCES. METTERNICH'S SYSTEM. PRUSSIA UNDER FREDERICK WILLIAM IV. : CHARACTER OF 
THE KING. RUSSIA. POWER OF THE EMPEROR NICHOLAS. TYRANNY OF THE CZAR. 
POLAND. INTRIGUES WITH TURKEY. WAR IN THE CAUCASUS 494 

REVOLUTIONARY OUTBREAKS AND FALL OF THRONES, 1848-1849. 
ITALIAN AFFAIRS. Pius IX. NAPLES AND SICILY UNDER KING FERDINAND "BOMBA." GERMANY 
AND SWITZERLAND. PRUSSIA. BAVARIA AND ITS TROUBLES. FREE CORPS AND THE SON- 

DERBUND IN SWITZERLAND. THE REVOLUTION OF FEBRUARY, 1848, IN PARIS. THE REFORM 

BANQUETS. UNPOPULARITY OF THE GOVERNMENT. THE OUTBREAK. ESTABLISHMENT OF THE 
SECOND REPUBLIC. LAMARTINE AND Louis BLANC. NATIONAL WORKSHOPS. THE JUNE 
OUTBREAK AND CAVAIGNAC. Louis NAPOLEON, PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC. . . . 505 

PROGRESS OF THE REVOLUTION. 

GERMANY. REVIVAL OF POPULAR SPIRIT. DEMANDS FOR REFORM AND CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERN- 
MENT. OUTBREAK IN BADEN. AUSTRIA AND HETTERNICH. FLIGHT AND RETURN OF THE 
EMPEROR FERDINAND. ATTEMPTS TO UNITE GERMANY. PRELIMINARY PARLIAMENT AND 
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. ARCHDUKE JOHN OF AUSTRIA. SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN AND POSEN. 
ITALY'S VICISSITUDES AND INSURRECTIONS. THE PAPAL STATES. ROMAN REPUBLIC. 
GARABALDI. INTERFERENCE OF FRANCE. CHARLES ALBERT OF SARDINIA, AND VICTOR 
EMMANUEL. THE GERMAN NATIONAL ASSEMBLY AT FRANKFORT. THE BERLIN ASSEMBLY. 
THE AUSTRIAN DIET AND THE INSURRECTION IN VIENNA 515 



CONTENTS. vii 

PAQB 

POLITICAL CONDITION OF FRANCE AND ENGLAND, 1852-1869. 

THE FRENCH EMPIRE OF 1852. POLICY OF NAPOLEON III. FRIENDSHIP WITH ENGLAND. THE 
POWER OF AUSTRIA IN ITALY SHATTERED BY FRANCE. DISTRUST AND INSECURITY IN GERMANY. 
AUGMENTATION OF THE FRENCH ARMY. ATTEMPT TO INTRODUCE CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERN- 
MENT IN FRANCE. EMILE OLLIVIER AND THE PLEBISCITE. LNGLAND. RECOGNITION OF 
THE FRENCH EMPIRE. FEKLING OF APPREHENSION. INCREASE OF THE FLEET AND ARMY. 
JUDICIOUS POLICY OF LORD PALMERSTON TOWARDS FRANCE. CO-OPERATION OF THE TWO 
POWRRS AGAINST RUSSIA. UNPOPULARITY OF ENGLAND IN CONSEQUENCE OF ENFORCEMENT 
OF NATIONAL RIGHTS. INTERVENTION IN THE DANISH WAR. COLONIAL AFFAIRS. INSUR- 
RECTION IN JAMAICA. GOVERNOR EYRE. IRISH DISCONTENT. THE FENIAN ORGANIZATION. 
DISESTABLISHMENT OF THE IRISH CHURCH. COERCIVE MEASURES. THE WAR IN ABYSSINIA. 
THE ALABAMA CLAIMS .' 529 

TURKEY AND THE CRIMEAN WAR. 

RUSSIA AND TURKEY. ATTITUDE OF SUPREMACY OF THE CZAR. DESIGNS OF THE CZAR NICHOLAS. 
ATTEMPT TO CONCILIATE ENGLAND. OPPOSITION OF ENGLAND TO THE EMPEROR'S DESIGNS. 
THE PORTE IN DANGER AND DIFFICULTY. ALLIANCE OF ENGLAND AND FRANCE. OUTBREAK 
OF THE RUSSO-TURKISH WAR. INTERVENTION OF THE WESTERN POWERS. DECLARATION OF 
HOSTILITIES. THE WAR ON THE DANUBE, AND THE EXPEDITION TO THE BALTIC. THE 
CRIMEA. ALMA, BALAKLAVA, AND INKERMANN. THE WINTER CAMPAIGN BEFORE SEVASTOPOL. 
SARDINIA JOINS THE ALLIES. DEATH OF THE EMPEROR NICHOLAS AND ACCESSION OF 
ALEXANDER II. CAPTURE OF SEBASTOPOL AND CONCLUSION OF THE WAR. PEACE CONGRESS 
IN PARIS, IN 1856. CONDITIONS OF THE TREATY. RUSSIA AND POLAND UNDER ALEXANDER 
II. REFORMS AND CHANGES IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE .536 

THE FIRST GERMAN PARLIAMENT. AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA. 

THE AUSTRIAN QUESTION IN THE PARLIAMENT. THE VARIOUS PARTIES. THE CONSTITUTION OF - 
THE GERMAN EMPIRE. ANTAGONISM BETWEEN AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA. COMPLETION OF THE 
CONSTITUTION. URGENT NECESSITY FOR REFORMS. SECOND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY IN BERLIN. 
OFFER OF THE IMPERIAL CROWN TO PRUSSIA. REFUSAL OF THE OFFER BY FREDERICK. 
WILLIAM IV. LATER DAYS OF THE FRANKFORT ASSEMBLY. THE SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN 
QUESTION. REVOLT OF SAXONY. INSURRECTION IN DRESDEN. END OF THE FRANKFORT 
ASSEMBLY. THE RUMP PARLIAMENT. RETIREMENT OF GAGERN AND HIS FOLLOWERS. 
TRIUMPH OF THE DEMOCRATIC LEFT. TRANSFER OF THE PARLIAMENT TO STUTTGART. 
ACTION OF THE MINISTER ROMER. HUMILIATING CONCLUSION OF THE ASSEMBLY'S SITTINGS 549 

REVOLTS AND THEIR SUPPRESSION. 

EXCITEMENT IN GERMANY. THE PALATINATE AND BADEN. SOCIALISTIC AND REPUBLICAN IDEAS. 
THE MILITARY MUTINY. ITS FORMIDABLE NATURE. ITS SUPPRESSION BY THE INTERVEN- 
TION OF PRUSSIA. CONDITION OF HUNGARY. THE MAGYARS, SERBS, CROATS, ETC. CON- 
FLICT OF RACES. REFORMS PROMISED UNWILLINGLY BY AUSTRIA. BATHYANI AND KOSSUTH. 
JELLACHICH AND THE CROATS. PRINCE WINDISCHGRATZ. REVOLT IN HUNGARY. BEM 
AND DEMBINSKI. VICTORIES OF THE HUNGARIANS. BATTLES AND SIEGES. INTERVENTION 
OF RUSSIA. HAYNAU AND PASKEWITCH. GORGEY'S TREASON. SURRENDER AT VILLAGOS. 
CALAMITOUS FATE OF THE CONQUERED NATION. CRUELTIES OF HAYNAU. SUPPRESSION OF 
MAGYAR INDEPENDENCE. FLIGHT OF KOSSUTH, DEMBINSKI, AND OTHER CHIEFS . . . 565 

FRANCE : A RETROSPECT. REPUBLIC. EMPIRE.-COMMUNISM. 

NATURE OF THE SECOND REPUBLIC. Irs ORIGIN. ASPIRATIONS OF THE VARIOUS FACTIONS. 
THE EXTREME REPUBLICANS. THE PRESIDENT AND THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. THE 
FOUNDATION OF THE SECOND FRENCH EMPIRE. THE 2ND OF DECEMBER, 1851 ; THE COUP 
D'ETAT. IMPRISONMENT AND TRANSPORTATION OF DEPUTIES. THE VOTES FOR THE TEN YEARS' 
PRESIDENCY, AND FOR THE EMPIRE. THE SYSTEM OF ASSOCIATION, AND THE "!NTER- 
' NATIONAL." SOCIALISTIC DOCTRINES AMONG THR WORKING CLASSES. ENMITY AGAINST 
PROPERTY AND WEALTH. IDEA OF OVERTURNING EXISTING INSTITUTIONS. EFFECTS OF THE 
COUP D'ETAT ON THE OLD MONARCHIES OF EUROPE. NAPOLEON III. AND HIS PROMISES. 
" THE EMPIRE is PEACE." INFLUENCE OF THE PEOPLE ACKNOWLEDGED AS A PRINCIPLE. 
EFFORTS OF NAPOLEON III. TO ATTAIN POPULARITY. ASSISTANCE GIVEN TO THE STRUGGLING 
CLASSES. GREAT BUILDING OPERATIONS. IMPROVEMENTS IN PARIS, ETC. STATE OF POLITICAL 
PARTIES. LEGITIMISTS AND ORLEANISTS. MONTALEMBERT, GUIZOT, AND THIERS . . .579 

RUSSIA AND POLAND. THE LAST POLISH INSURRECTION. 

CONCILIATORY POLICY OF ALEXANDER II. EXCITEMENT IN POLAND. INFLAMMATORY MATERIALS 
IN THE STATE. INFLUENCE OF THE CLERGY. DEMONSTRATIONS AND POPULAR TUMULTS IN 
WARSAW. ENCOUNTERS WITH THE MILITARY. EFFORTS AT CONCILIATION. MARTIAL LAW 

PROCLAIMED BY GoRTSCHAKOFF, THE GOVERNOR. THE GRAND DUKE CONSTANTINE. THE 

LAW OF CONSCRIPTION ENFORCED. OUTBREAK OF THE INSURRECTION. ATTEMPTED INTER- 
VENTION OF THE GREAT POWERS. TERMINATION OF THE NATIONAL STRUGGLE IN POLAND. 
HOPELESSNESS OF THE STRUGGLE. THE RUSSIAN POLICY OF UNIFORMITY. THE EMPEROR s 
POPULARITY DESTROYED. ATIEMIT ON ins LIVE IN PARIS 59o 

AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA. REACTION AND REMONSTRANCE. 

RIVALRY BETWEEN AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA. TENDENCY TO REACTION. OPPOSITION TO LIBERAL 
IDEAS AND DESIRES. AUSTRIA AND THE REACTION. PECUNIARY DIFFICULTIES OF THE STATE. 
METTERNICH'S SYSTEM. CONDITION OF HUNGARY. THE FEBRUARY CONSTITUTION OF 1861. 



viii CONTENTS. 

PAGB 

GOVERNMENT PROTEST AGAINST SEPARATISM IN THE EMPIRE. PRUSSIA. THE LAST YEARS 
AND DEATH OF FREDERICK WILLIAM IV. REACTION TOWARDS ABSOLUTISM. PREPONDER- 
ANCE OF THE ARISTOCRATIC CLASS. INCREASED SEVERITY OF THE CRIMINAL LAWS. PRESS 
RESTRICTIONS, ETC. REGENCY AND REIGN OF WILLIAM I. THE NEW ERA. AGITATION FOR 
PROGRESS. TRIUMPH OF THE FEUDAL REACTIONARY PARTY. COUNT BISMARCK-SCHONHAUSEN. 
SciiLEswiG-HoLSTEiN. THE DIPLOMATIC WAR. CHRISTIAN IX. OF DENMARK. THE 
FEDERAL EXECUTION IN HOLSTEIN. ADVANCE OF FIELD-MARSHAL VON WRANGEL. THE 
GERMANS IN SCHLESWIG. GRAVENSTEIN. INVASION OF JUTLAND. TAKING OF DUPPEL. 
THE LONDON CONFERENCE. PEACE OF VIENNA 609 

FOUNDING OF THE KINGDOM OF ITALY. 

THE POLITICAL CONDITION OF ITALY. CONFLICTING PARTIES. THE SARDINIAN GOVERNMENT 
AND VICTOR EMMANUEL. SYSTEM OF REPRESSION IN ITALY. AUSTRIA AND SARDINIA ; THEIR 
ANTAGONISM. NAPLES UNDER FERDINAND II. AGITATION IN ITALY. REMONSTRANCES or 
ENGLAND AND FRANCE. GLADSTONE'S REPORT. DIPLOMATIC INTERCOURSE BROKEN OFF. 
ENTERPRISE OF PISICANE. THE C A GLIARL TRANSPORTATION OF POLITICAL PRISONERS. 
NAPOLEON III. AND HIS ATTITUDE TOWARDS ITALY. FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN FRANCE AND 
RUSSIA. INVASION OF ITALY BY THE FRENCH. BATTLE OF MONTEBELLO. MAGENTA . . 626 

THE KINGDOM OF ITALY. 

POLITICAL STATE OF ITALY. IDEAS OF THE PEOPLE. ISOLATED POSITION OF AUSTRIA. PRIN- 
CIPLE OF NON-INTERVENTION. BATTLE OF SOLFERINO, AND TREATY OF VILLAFRANCA. 
TRANSFER OF LOMBARDY TO FRANCE, AND THEN TO SARDINIA. TREATY OF ZURICH. SAVOY 
AND NICE CEDED TO FRANCE BY VICTOR EMMANUEL. PROGRESS OF THE WORK OF UNIFICA- 
TION. FRANCIS II., KING OF NAPLES. EXPEDITION OF GARIBALDI TO SICILY. His RAPID 
PROGRESS. ADVANCE TO THE MAINLAND. ENTRY OF GARIBALDI INTO NAPLES. EVENTS IN 
THE STATES OF THE CHURCH; GAKTA. THE KINGDOM oe ITALY. RETIREMENT OF GARI- 
BALDI. His SECOND ATTEMPT. ASPROMONTE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ..... 641 

THE INDIAN MUTINY OF 1857-1858. 

THE CAUSES OF THE MUTINY, AND ITS COMMENCEMENT. OUTBREAK AT MEERUT. REBELLION 
AT DELHI. MASSACRE AT CAWNPORE. LUCKNOW. LAWRENCE AND HAVELOCK. " LUCKNOW 
KAVANAGH." DEFENCE AND RELIEF OF LUCKNOW. SIR JAMES OUTRAM. SUPPRESSION OF 
THE REBELLION. RECONSTRUCTION OF THE INDIAN EMPIRE 661 

MEXICO AND MAXIMILIAN. 

THE FRENCH EXPEDITION TO MEXICO. CONFUSED STATE OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS. THE CONVEN- 
TION OF LONDON, 1861. JUAREZ. ALMONTE. SIEGE OF PUEBLA. THE ARCHDUKE MAXI- 
MILIAN OF AUSTRIA CHOSEN EMPEROR OF MEXICO BY A FATION. INEFFECTUAL STRUGGLE 
AGAINST JUAREZ. INTERVENTION OF THE UNITED STATES. RETIREMENT OF MARSHAL 
BAZAINE AND THE FRENCH TROOPS. EXPEDITION OF MAXIMILIAN AGAINST QUERETARO. 
His CAPTURE, CONDEMNATION, AND EXECUTION. CONDITION or THE STATES IN CENTRAL 
AND SOUTH AMERICA 669 

CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICA. 

CONDITION OF THE CENTRAL AND SOUTH AMERICAN STATES. COLUMBIA AND ITS DIVISIONS. 
VENEZUELA AND NEW GRANADA. THE STATE OF ECUADOR. PERU AND ITS INDEPENDENCE. 
NATURE OF THE GOVERNMENT. ITS PRESIDENTS AND THEIR POWER. THE CAREER OF SANTA 
CRUZ. THE STATE OF CHILI AND ITS GOVERNMENT. PRESIDENT PRIETO. PRESIDENT 
PEREZ. THE SPANISH-PERUVIAN WAR. THE STATES OF LA PLATA. THE ARGENTINE 
REPUBLIC AND BUENOS AYRES. INSURRECTION. THE STATE OF URUGUAY. CIVIL WAR AND 
FOREIGN INTERVENTION. FLORES. His ASSASSINATION. PARAGUAY. WAR WITH BRAZIL. 
LOPEZ 677 

THE UNITED STATES, AND THE GREAT CIVIL WAR. 

POSITION OF PARTIES IN THE UNITED STATES. RAPID GROWTH AND INCREASED WEALTH AND 
IMPORTANCE. RIVALRY AND JEALOUSY BETWEEN NORTHERN AND SOUTHERN STATES OF THE 
UNION. THE QUESTION CONCERNING SLAVERY, AND ITS DIFFICULTIES. ABOLITIONISTS' AND 
FREESOTLERS' OUTCRY AGAINST SLAVERY. " UNCLE TOM'S CABIN." KANSAS-NEBRASKA 
BILL. PRESIDENT BUCHANAN. PRESIDENT LINCOLN. SECESSION. BREAKING OUT OF THE 
CIVIL WAR. SOUTH CAROLINA, GEORGIA, FLORIDA, ALABAMA, AND MISSISSIPPI SECEDE. 
FORT SUMTER. SPREAD OF THE WAR. SLIDELL AND MASON. QUESTION OF QUARREL WITH 
ENGLAND. M'CLELLAN. PROGRESS OF THE WAR. ABOLITION OF SLAVERY. GENERAL 
BURNSIDE. GENERAL GRANT AND HIS VICTORIES. RE-ELECTION OF LINCOLN. His AS- 
SASSINATION BY WILKES BOOTH. CLOSE OF THE WAB. TRIUMPH OF THE NORTH, AND RE- 
CONSTRUCTION OF THE CNION. EFFECTS OF THE RESTORATION OF PEACE IN AMERICA UPON 
THE PROSPERITY OF EUROPE 687 

PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA. 

EVENTS FROM 1865 TO 1870. AFFAIRS OF SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN. MARCH OF THE PRUSSIANS ON 
ALTONA. PRINCF BISMARCK'S POLICY. His MINISTRY AND THAT OF BELCREDI. TUB 
GASTEIN CONVENTION. MISUNDERSTANDINGS. PREPARATIONS FOR WAR. POPULAR 
TERRORISM. ATTEMPT AT MEDIATION BETWEEN SAXONY AND PRUSSIA. MANTEUFFEL TAKES 
POSSESSION OF HOLSTEIN. GENERAL DISSATISFACTION ........ 700 



CONTENTS. ix 

PA.GB 

THE WAR BETWEEN PEUSSIA AND AUSTRIA IN 1866. 

WARLIKE PREPARATIONS. THE COMMENCEMENT OF HOSTILITIES. OPERATIONS AGAINST THE 
KINGDOM OP HANOVER. SAXONY IN THE POWER OP PRUSSIA. THE WAR IN BOHEMIA. 
GREAT DEFEAT OF THE AUSTRIANS AT KONIGGRATZ. PROGRESS OP THE STRUGGLE ON THE 
Po AND THE MAINE. BATTLE OF DERMBACH. RETREAT OP THE BAVARIANS. ATTEMPT OP 
AUSTRIA TO GAIN PRANCE AS AN ALLY. VICTORIOUS ADVANCE OF THE PRUSSIANS. PRES- 
BURG ATTACKED BY PRINCE FllIEDRICH KARL. ARMED TRUCE OF NlKOLSBURG. PEACE OF 
PRAGUE. ISSUE OF THE WAR. NEW ARRANGEMENTS. PRUSSIA IN A COMMANDING POSITION 

TOWARDS WlJRTEMBERG, SAXONY, AND HESSE-DARMSTADT 713 

ITALY AND VENETIA; AND PRUSSIA'S SUPREMACY IN 1867. 

COURSE OF THE WAR IN ITALY. CIALDINI IN VENETIA. GARIBALDI AND MEDICI. NAVAL 
DEFEAT OF THE ITALIANS AT LISSA. CESSION OF VENETIA BY AUSTRIA. ENTRY OF VICTOR, 
EMMANUEL INTO VENICE. GARIBALDI'S ATTACK ON THE POPE'S TERRITORY IN 1867 
REPULSED. THE KING AND THE NATION IN PRUSSIA. PROPOSAL FOR A GENERAL ARMY 
UNDER THE DIRECTION AND CONTROL OF PRUSSIA. HANOVER, HESSE, NASSAU, AND FilANKFORT 
ANNEXED TO THE PRUSSIAN KINGDOM. HOLSTEIN AND SCHLESWIG. NEW PRUSSIAN CON- 
STITUTION. TRIUMPHANT POSITION OF PRUSSIA IN 1867. FURTHER AIMS AND ASPIRATIONS 
OF THE GREAT NORTH GERMAN POWER 726 

POLITICAL EVENTS IN SPAIN ; AND THE (ECUMENICAL COUNCIL AT ROME. 

STATE OF SPAIN IN 1848. THE VARIOUS PARTIES ; PROGRESSISTS AND CARLISTS. NARVAEZ, 
DUKE OF VALENCIA. LOPEZ IN CUBA. INTRIGUES OF MARIA CHRISTINA. THE LIBERAL 
UNION. RISING OF 1854. NARVAEZ AND O'DONNELL. WAR WITH MOROCCO. BATTLE OP 
TETUAN. DIFFICULTIES OF QUEEN ISABELLA'S GOVERNMENT. FREQUENT PRONUNCIAMENTOS. 
THE SPANISH REVOLUTION OF 1868. ANGER AGAINST THE MINISTRY OF GONSALEZ BRAVO. 
VICTORY OF SERRANO NEAR CORDOVA. EXPULSION OF QUEEN ISABELLA. AMADEUS, SON OF 
VICTOR EMMANUEL, CHOSK.N KING OF SPAIN. SPANISH REPUBLIC. THE OECUMENICAL 
COUNCIL IN ROME. DOGMA OF PAPAL INFALLIBILITY. THE YEAR 18/0. ROME BECOMES 
THE CAPITAL OP THE KINGDOM OF ITALY 736 

THE FRANCO-GERMAN WAR OF 1870-1871. 

THE GREAT YEAR 1870-1871. ORIGIN OF THE WAR. FEELING AGAINST PRUSSIA IN PARIS. THE 
CANDIDATURE FOR THE SPANISH THRONE, AND EVENTS AT EMS. ENTHUSIASM IN GERMANY. 
" DIE WACHT AM RHEIN."T MARCH OF THE FRENCH ARMIES TO THE FRONTIER. Tna 
FIRST ENCOUNTER; SAARBRUCK. THE GREAT BATTLE OF WOERTH-REICHSHOFEN; DEFEAT 
OF THE FRENCH ARMY. THE ARMIES IN LORRAINE. WAR AROUND METZ. BATTLES OF 
BORNY AND MARS LA TOUR. THE STRUGGLE OF GllAVELOTTE. THE CATASTROPHE OF SEDAN, 
AND DESTRUCTION OF THE SECOND FRENCH EMPIRE. SURRENDER OF NAPOLEON III. TO 
THE KING OF PRUSSIA 749 

PARIS IN 1870; FALL OF THE EMPIRE. 

EXCITEMENT IN PARIS. THE EMPIRE DECLARED ABOLISHED. THE NEW REPUBLICAN GOVERN- 
MENT. GAMBETTA, GENERAL TROCEU, ETC. ESCAPE OF THE EMPRESS AND THE PRINCE 
IMPERIAL TO ENGLAND. THE THIRD REPUBLIC AND THE NEUTRALS. THE SIEGE OF PARIS. 
' HEROIC RESISTANCE OF THE CAPITAL. SUFFERINGS OF THE BESIEGED. INTERVENTION OF 
THE POWERS REFUSED BY BlSMARCK. WARLIKE OPERATIONS BEFORE STRASBURG. BRAVE 
DEFENCE OP GENERAL UHRICH. THE FALL OF METZ. VERSAILLES. PARIS CLOSELY EN- 
VIRONED. GAMBETTA AT TOURS. TROCHU AND JULES FAVRE. GOVERNMENT IN THE 
PROVINCES 769 

THE GREAT WAR (continued). 

MARSHAL BAZAINE AT METZ. FALL OF THE CITY. SURRENDER OF THREE MARSHALS AND 
150,000 SOLDIERS. HEAVY CENSURES ON MARSHAL BAZAINE. REJOICINGS AT THE GERMAN 
HEAD-QUARTERS AT VERSAILLES. NEGOTIATIONS FOR A TRUCE. BELLEVILLE AND THE COM- 
MUNISTS. FAILURE OP THE NEGOTIATIONS OF THIERS. INCREASED DISTRESS IN THE CAPITAL. 
THE REVOLUTIONARY TERRORISM IN FRANCE AND THE WINTER CAMPAIGN. GAMBETTA 
AND THE MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL DEFENCE. STRUGGLE AROUND THE LOIRE AND BARTHE. 
BEFORE ORLEANS. THE ARMY OP THE LOIRE SCATTERED. SUFFERINGS OP THE WAR. 
AMIENS, BAPAUME, AND ST. QUENTIN. TRIUMPH OF THE GERMAN ARMS 781 

THE NEW GERMAN EMPIRE AND THE PEACE. 

THE VARIOUS GERMAN GOVERNMENTS. THE NORTH GERMAN EMPIRE INAUGURATED. THE 
BOMBARDMENT OP PARIS, AND LAST SALLY OF THE DEFENDERS. THE CONVENTION OF PARIS. 
THE FRENCH FLEET. Nurrs AND HKRICOURT. ANNIHILATION OF THE EASTERN ARMY. 
BELFORT, AND THE PRELIMINARIES OF PEACE AT VERSAILLES. ENTRY OF THE GERMAN 
TROOPS INTO PARIS. STATE OP AFFAIRS IN FRANCE AND GERMANY. THE COMMUNE AND 
ITS WORK OP DEVASTATION. VENGEANCE ON THE COMMUNISTS. REJOICIKGS IN GERMANY . 796 



x CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

GERMANY AND THE PAPAL CHURCH AFTER THE PEACE OF FRANKFORT. 

THE FIKST DIET OF THE NORTH GERMAN EMPIRE. DESIRE TO REVIVE THE PAPAL POWER. 
CLERICAL ENCROACHMENTS ON THE STATE. THE ULTRAMONTANES. BISMARCK'S POLICY AT 
HOME AND ABROAD IN 1872. ENDEAVOURS TO CONCILIATE AUSTRIA. IMPROVED CONDITION 
OP FEELING IN THE SCANDINAVIAN KINGDOMS. THE CHURCH AND THE STATE NEGOTIATIONS 
WITH THE VATICAN. Pius IX. AND HIS PRETENSIONS. POWER OF THE GOVERNMENT, AND 
EPISCOPAL EXCOMMUNICATIONS. STRONG MEASURES ADOPTED AT BERLIN. STRICT ENFORCE- 
MENT OF THE NEW LAWS AND REGULATIONS 811 

AUSTRIA AND RUSSIA. 

ANTAGONISM OF AUSTRIA TO THE EMPIRE OF NORTH GERMANY. HOSTILE ELEMENT IN THE 
REICHSRATH. MEETING OF THE EMPERORS AT ISCHL. BOHEMIA AND HUNGARY. PROCEED- 
INGS OF THE IMPERIAL CHANCELLOR, COUNT BEUST. AUSTRIA DURING THE YEARS 1873 AND 
1874. GALICIA AND THE POLES. FRANCIS JOSEPH AND COUNT ANDRASSY. NEW LAWS TO 
REGULATE CHURCH AND STATE. AUSTRO-HUNGARY. RELATIONS WITH RUSSIA. STATE OF 
THAT EMPIRE. INTERNAL REFORMS IN RUSSIA, AND THE EXPEDITION TO KHIVA. EXER- 
TIONS OF THE CZVR ALEXANDER II. RUSSIA AND TUKKEY. QUARRELS AND HOSTILITIES. 
MAHMOUD PASHA. CAPTURE OF KHIVA. POSITION OF RUSSIA IN POLAND .... 822 

ENGLAND AND HER PROGRESS ; HOLLAND. 

THE GLADSTONE MINISTRY. POLICY OF NEUTRALITY. MINISTERIAL TASKS AND DIFFICULTIES. 
D'lSRAELI AND THE CONSERVATIVE PARTY. THE ASHANTKE WAR AND ENGLAND'S COLONIAL 
POLICY. COOMASSIE. LIVINGSTONE AND AFRICAN EXPLORAT'ON. THE DUTCH IN SUMATRA. 
HOLLAND'S COLONIAL WAR. TRIUMPH OF THE DUTCH. 834 

FRANCE: THE THIRD REPUBLIC. 

THIERS, AND THE VARIOUS POLITICAL PARTIES. TRIUMPH OF THE MODERATE REPUBLICANS. 
THE COMTE DE CHAMBORD. " HENRI V." His PROCLAMATION. THIERS' LABOURS AT THE 
HEAD OF THE REPUBLIC. PUBLIC EDUCATION AND THE CLERICAL PARTY. THE NEW ARMY. 
OPPOSITION TO THIERS AND HIS MEASURES. THE " THIRTY CHINESE." BAZAINE. PRESI- 
DENCY OF MARSHAL MACMAHON. QUARRELS AT LYONS. THE NAPOLEONIC PARTY . . 843 

FRANCE AND THE VATICAN ; SWITZERLAND AND ITALY. 

CLERICALS AND LEGITIMISTS. PILGRIMAGES AND MIRACULOUS APPEARANCES. THE COMTE DE 
PARIS AND THE COMTE DE CHAMBORD. A KNIGHT-ERRANT OF LEGITIMACY. ATTEMPT TO 
RE-ESTABLISH OLD INSTITUTIONS. THK RESULT OF THE ATTEMPT. CHAMBORD'S MANIFESTO. 
TRICOLOUR AND WHITE FLAG. TRIAL OF MARSHAL BAZAINE. ALTERATIONS IN THE NEW 
REPUBLICAN CONSTITUTION. NEW REGULATIONS. SWITZERLAND AND ITALY. CLERICAL AGI- 
TATION IN THE CONFEDERACY. ROYAL ROME AND THE VATICAN 851 

SPAIN. 

THE REPUBLIC IN SPAIN. ATTEMPTED RESTORATION IN THE NORTH BY DON CARLOS. FAILURE 
OF THE ENTERPRISE. CUBA IN REVOLT. COUP D'ETAT IN SPAIN. DICTATORSHIP AND RES- 
TORATION OF THE MONARCHY. MARTINEZ CAMPOS AND ALPHONSO XII. CONCLUSION . . 8G4 





THE 



HISTORY OF MODERN TIMES, 



jhttrnluicttoiu 

STATE OF VARIOUS NATIONS AT THE COMMENCEMENT OF MODERN 

TIMES. 

THE division between the history of the Middle 
Ages, and that of modern times, naturally 
occurs at the time when new ideas and new forms 
of government were everywhere displacing the old. 
The bondage in which the human intellect had been 
kept during many centuries, was loosened by the 
great movement that led to the Reformation. The 
boundaries of the known world were widened by 
great maritime discoveries, especially towards the 
close of the I5th century. The whole system of 
war was altered by the employment of disciplined 

and regular armies, instead of the irregular hordes of chivalric times ; 
infantry, in most cases, taking the place of the mounted bands. A wider 
system of rule, with leagues between nations, for the attaining of common 
ends, now takes the place of the narrower and separate governments of 
the Middle Ages. A large spirit of enterprise marks the commencement of a 
new era, in which a more wide-spread intelligence and an increase of know- 




2 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

ledge show the progress of the various kingdoms. The course of history 
also moves faster ; and changes are effected, sometimes in the course of a few 
years, that in the earlier slow-moving mediaeval times, would not have been 
accomplished in centuries. 

In the Middle Ages, the German Empire had been, without comparison, the 
most important, and the chief of European powers. Before the end of that 
time, however, other powers had arisen, and had attained a degree of import- 
ance, sufficient to enable them to stand forth as its rivals, as in the case of 
France, or to double its influence, if united with it, as in the case of Spain. 
The formidable Turkish power, advancing like a threatening thunder-cloud 
to overwhelm the fair and ancient civilization of the Byzantine Empire, causes 
the learning, long stored up at Constantinople, to spread over Western 
Europe, by way of beauteous Italy. Now Russia and Poland and Hungary 
play their part in the history of the new times. Of the nations that come 
prominently forward in the history of Modern Europe, we have now to 
speak; with reference, in the first instance, to their earlier rise and progress. 



SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 

FOR centuries, the kingdoms of Aragon and 
Castile existed side by side as separate 
and independent States ; the former seeking 
to extend itself by conquests on the eastern 
coast, the latter by widening its borders to- 
wards the south. Thus the powerful James 
I., the Conqueror (1213-1276), united the 
Moorish States of Valencia and Murcia with 
his kingdom of Aragon, that had already been 
strengthened by Catalonia. The proud sol- 
dierly qualities of the Aragonese, the maritime 
and commercial energy of the Catalonians, 
and the fierce Oriental enthusiasm of the in- 
habitants of Valencia, all contributed to form 
a people possessing a strong national char- 
acter and a powerful influence in the State. 
There was much of the ancient Roman spirit 
in the State of Aragon ; freedom, the rights of 
citizenship, honour that was to be transmitted 
without spot or blemish from father to son, and 
warlike fame and prowess, were the things 
considered most valuable by the Aragonian. 
There was no high poetic excellence to be at- 
tained in the State; but Aragon, like Rome, pre- 
served the records of jurisprudence and history ; 
and from the earliest times could boast of 
statesmen and lawyers of great importance. 
Peter III., the son of James I. (1276-1285), added Sicily to the three States 
already mentioned, after the Sicilian Vespers of 1282; and although the island 
was afterwards converted into an independent State, the foundation was laid 
of the influence of the House of Aragon, in lower Italy. The islands of 
Majorca and Minorca, and for a time that of Sardinia, were also subject to the 
Spanish sceptre. Very considerable rights were held by the Diet, or Parlia- 




1U.ANCIIE OF CASTILE. 



INTRODUCTION. 



mentary assembly, the Cortes ; consisting of the deputies of the higher and 
lower nobility, called Infanzones and Hidalgos, of the clergy, and of the 
towns, already flourishing by trade, commerce, and manufacturing industry. 
Without the consent of the Cortes nothing of importance could be done in 
the making of laws or the taxing of the people. 

Under the next two kings, James II. (1291-1327) and Alfonso IV. (1327- 
1336), these privileges, which greatly curtailed the power of the kings, re- 
mained in force. Under the next monarch, the hard and passionate Peter IV. 
(1336-1387), they were somewhat diminished ; but the chief judge or Justicia 
was, on the other hand, invested with the office of umpire in all quarrels be- 
tween the king and the Cortes, for the maintaining of the subjects' rights. 

After the short reign of John I. (1387-1395), Martin V. succeeded, and with 
him, in the beginning of the I5th century (1410), the Barcelonian line of the 
old royal house became extinct ; whereupon Ferdinand, Infant of Castile, was 
chosen as king of Aragon and Sicily, as the next heir in the female line, by the 
Cortes of Aragon, Catalonia, and Valencia. His son and successor, Alfonso V. 
(1416-1458), died, after a long reign, of wounds received at the siege of Genoa; 
whereupon his brother, John II, inherited the Spanish possessions of the 
house, while Naples was transferred to Ferdinand I., Alfonso's natural son. 
The reign of John II. (1458-1479), was troubled by civil war, and by a long 
fight for the succession, originally caused by the ambition of the king's second 
wife, who wished to secure the inheritance for her own son, to the exclusion 
of the Infant Charles of Viana ; whose sudden and suspicious death, in 1460, 
gave rise to formidable insurrections in Catalonia. John's son and successor, 
Ferdinand the Catholic (1479-1516), a politic and enterprising ruler, prepared 
the way for the union of the two Spanish monarchies of Aragon and Castile, 
which he had increased by the acquisition of Navarre. This he effected by 
marrying Isabella, the Queen of Castile. 

CASTILE. 



cession 
country 



FERDINAND III., the Saint (1217-1252), 
through his successful wars with the 
Moors, obtained possession of Cordova, 
I Seville, and Cadiz, which he united to the 
! kingdom of Castile and Leon. His son, Al- 
i fonso X., the Wise, the son of a daughter of 
the Hohenstaufen Emperor, Philip of Swabia, 
| devoted his attention to science and art, 
especially astronomy and astrology from 
him the Alfonsine tables of stars take their 
name enlarged the University of Salamanca, 
and drew up a book of law. But he was 
: wanting in knowledge of the world, and lav- 
ished his treasures on luxury and display, 
and in the vain attempt to obtain the im- 
perial crown of Germany, while his people 
were oppressed with excessive taxation, and 
great numbers of the nomadic Saracens spread 
themselves over southern Spain. After his 
death civil wars and combats for the sue- 
arose, which for forty years spread misery and confusion through the 
. But when Alfonso XI. ascended the throne, in 1312, he for a time 




THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




WAR OF PETER THE CRUEL IN CASTILE. 



restored internal peace, and, in conjunction with Portugal, completely and 
permanently broke the power of the Moors by the glorious victory on the 
river Salado, and through the conquest of the strong town of Algesiras, 
which the Moors obstinately defended as the key to southern Spain. His 
son, Peter the Cruel (1350-1369), was of a fierce and violent disposition, and 
was in constant feud with his brothers and relations, his wives, nobility, and 
people; till at last his chivalrous half-brother Henry, surnamed of Tras- 
tamara, with the assistance of French troops commanded by the brave 
Bertrand du Guesclin, took up arms against him. Peter was defeated and 
slain after a bloody and decisive war, during which the Black Prince Edward 
undertook an expedition across the Pyrenees to his aid, and was succeeded 
by Henry II. in 1369. During the reigns of Henry's successors, John I. 
(1379-1390), Henry III. (1390-1406), John II. (1406-1454), and Henry IV. 
(1454-1474), Castile was a prey to internal conflicts, during which the 
nobility and clergy contrived to get the chief power into their own hands ; 
so that when at last Isabella (1474-1504) ascended the throne, the royal 
office was without power and authority. Right and justice were cultivated no 
longer, and the land was filled with rapine, the feud of noble families, and 
bloodshed. 



INTRODUCTION. 




PORTUGAL. 

OUNT HENRY OF BURGUNDY, who died in 1112, was the 
brave founder of the kingdom of Portugal, or the district round 
Oporto (Porto Cale, hence Portugal), which he had taken from 
the Arabs, and held first as a dependency under the crown of 
Castile, and then as a separate State. His son and successor, 
Alfonso L, assumed the title of king, and declared the country 
independent of Castile. Soon afterwards he conquered Lisbon, 
and made it the capital of the country and his seat of govern- 
ment His brave son Sancho I. (1185-1211) gave strength and 
durability to the kingdom by his great victory over the fanatical sect of the 
Almohades, near Santarem. 

He fostered agriculture, and obtained the name of the "peasants' friend." 
Until the fifteenth century the history of the country is a continual record of 
internal struggle between the kings and the powerful aristocracy, wars with 
the Moors and Castilians, and disputes between the kings and the Pope. 
Alfonso III. was succeeded by Dionysius (1279-1325), the steadfast champion 
of the country's rights against the encroachments of the Pope. During his 
reign Portugal grew prosperous in trade and navigation ; and the country 
flourished still more under his successor Alfonso IV. (1325-57). The con- 
clusion of this king's reign was disturbed by a civil war, for he had caused 
Inez de Castro, who, though of lower birth, was the lawful wife of his son 
Pedro, to be put to death in a monastery at Coimbra, that she and her children 
might not inherit the royal rights. Shortly before his death he was reconciled 
to his son ; but the latter had no sooner obtained the throne than he took the 
most terrible revenge on the murderers of his wife, to whose corpse he caused 
royal honours to be publicly paid. His hardness and cruelty caused him 
to be surnamed "The Stern." During the reign of Pedro's son Ferdinand 
(1367-1383), Portugal was plunged into war and confusion by the ambitious 
intrigues of a designing woman, Lenore Telley, whom the king had carried off 
from her first husband, and afterwards married. Her schemes were frustrated, 
however, by Ferdinand's half-brother, John the Bastard (1385-1433), who 
obtained the crown of Portugal by the glorious victory over the Castilians at 
Aljubarota, near Lisbon, and bequeathed it to his descendants, Edward I. 
(1433-1438), Alfonso V. (1438-1481), and John II. (1481-1495). During 
the reigns of these kings the Portuguese commenced their discoveries and 
conquests in Africa, especially through the influence and assistance of Prince 
Henry, surnamed the Navigator. 




INTRODUCTION. 




SPAIN UNDER FERDINAND AND ISABELLA. 

THE union of Aragon and Castile by the marriage 
of the reigning heads was only nominal, as Ferdi- 
nand and Isabella both ruled independently and 
prevented any amalgamation between the two coun- 
tries. Yet the efforts of both were directed towards 
the same object, that of uniting the whole of Spain 
into one kingdom and reducing the turbulent nobility 
to submission and vassalage. In this design they 
found a judicious adviser and assistant in the High 
Chancellor Pedro Gonsalez de Mendoza, Archbishop of 
Toledo, and a still more useful coadjutor in the Arch- 
bishop's successor Ximenez de Cisneros, a prelate and statesman of great 
intelligence and energy. 

The royal pair sought chiefly to lessen the power of the grandees and 
clergy ; and with this object, the crafty Ferdinand the Catholic procured 
from the Pope the grand mastership of the Castilian orders of knights, and 
the right of appointing all Spanish bishops. The most important step 
towards the elevation and increase of the royal power was the re-establishment 
of the court of the Inquisition (1480), in which the king held the right of ap- 
pointing the Chief Inquisitor and all the judges ; for the court of the Inquisi- 
tion, established at first as a terror to the nominally converted Jews and Moors 
(Moriscos), became, under the cruel Inquisitor Thomas Torquemada, a 
political court of justice, that not only directed its terrible weapons against 
heretics^ and " new" Christians, and provoked the most fearful persecution of 
all Jews and believers in the Mosaic law throughout the whole Pyrenean 
peninsula, but kept both nobility and clergy in a state of fear and apprehen- 
sion, and imposed heavy fetters on the free exercise of religious thought. In 
Aragon the severity and cruelty with which the Inquisitor Arbues d'Epila 
applied the terrors of the Inquisition, produced such irritation that he was 
murdered by some conspirators in the cathedral. Never were the throne and 
altar united in so dangerous a league against the liberty of the people as in 
Spain during the reign of this formidable and ruthless tribunal. But in spite 
of the spiritual oppression of that period, the Spaniard looks back with pride 
to the eventful and brilliant reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, as to a time 
rendered illustrious by great deeds and the elevation of the Spanish monarchy. 

THE OPPRESSION AND EXPULSION OF THE MOORS. 

ERDINAND and Isabella, having strengthened the royal 
power, effected the conquest of Granada in 1492, with its 
celebrated palace of the Alhambra, after a war against the 
Moors that lasted for ten years. The dethroned prince, 
Abu Abdallas or Boabdil, escaped with a small escort of 
followers to Africa, where he fell fighting bravely in a war 
with Morocco. In elegies and mournful war-songs the Moors 
lamented the loss of their kingdom and the sorrowful fate of 
its defenders. Fanaticism and the spirit of persecution was 
stronger than the faith of treaties. The promises to the van- 
quished of perfect religious freedom were soon disregarded, and 
the Mohammedans were allowed only the choice of leaving the 
country or of embracing Christianity. 




8 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

The Archbishop Ximenez, who, with pious Vandalism, caused all Arabic 
books to be burnt, drove the Moors to baptism by scourgings and imprison- 
ments. Many quitted their native soil, and became corsairs or pirates ; in 
which warlike profession they carried on eternal warfare with their oppressors. 
The struggle with the Moors was bitter and merciless ; for it was . at one and 
the same time a war of race and a war of religion. Every victory was con- 
sidered by their fanatical foes as a step towards heaven ; it was fully believed 
that every earthly sin could be expiated in the blood of the infidel enemy. At 
a later period, under the despotic Philip II., a command was issued that the 
descendants of the Moors should henceforth renounce their language and 
costume, their nationality and peculiar customs. The oppressed people there- 
upon took up arms, with Don Fernando, a descendant of the ancient royal 
race of the Pruj jades, at their head, in the vain hope of preserving the last 
remains of their religion and nationality. But after a bloody war of two 
years they were vanquished, but far from ingloriously, by the consummate 
martial skill of Don John, Philip's half-brother, and compelled to a mournful 
and reluctant submission. The clergy, however, still regarded them with 
distrust, and at length, in 1609, persuaded Philip III., the successor of the 
fanatic Philip II., to issue the decree that the remaining descendants of the 
Moors should be driven from the Spanish soil and sent into exile ; a command 
which was carried out with the utmost severity. Upwards of 800,000 Moors, 
men and women, old men and children, quitted the land of their birth, their 
flourishing fields, and the dwellings which they had erected with their own 
hands, to lead once more a Bedouin life on the coast of Africa, or, as free- 
booters, to wreak their vengeance on the ships of their oppressors. The 
flourishing plains of southern Spain soon became a scene of desolation. 
Agriculture declined, industry was at a standstill ; prosperous villages fell 
into ruins, and busy towns were depopulated ; and where wealth and pros- 
perity had once reigned, the land became a wretched scene of abject poverty 
squalor and misery. 

THE LATTER PERIOD OF THE REIGN OF FERDINAND THE CATHOLIC. 

A cruel fate carried off most of the children of Ferdinand and Isabella to 
an early grave ; so that when, bowed with grief, the queen passed away " to 
a nobler existence," their daughter Joanna and her husband, Philip of 
Burgundy, were recognised as the legitimate rulers of Castile ; for, as has 
been said, Aragon and Castile were still kept separate. King Philip, however, 
died of a rapid fever soon after his accession, at the age of twenty-eight years ; 
and his wife, after his death, became a prey to mental disorder. She fell into 
a deep brooding melancholy, and was considered unfit to hold the reins of 
government. Therefore, at the instigation of Ximenez, the regency was 
placed in the hands of her father Ferdinand, who had just returned from 
receiving the homage of his subjects at Naples. He provided his daughter 
with a suitable home in the palace at Tordesillas, where she passed the 
remainder of her days, a dreary period of forty-seven years. All public 
documents were made out in her name and that of her son Charles ; but she 
took no part in public affairs. Ferdinand's authority was more firmly estab- 
lished than before ; and as there was no issue from his second marriage, which 
he concluded somewhat hastily, with a niece of Louis XII., his eldest grandson, 
Charles of Burgundy, was regarded as his successor. Ferdinand had availed 
himself of the disturbances and wars produced in France by the " Holy 



INTRODUCTION. 




ISABELLA OF CASTILE. 



RUDOLF OF HAPSBURG. 



FERDINAND THE CATHOLIC. 



League," to deprive the King of Navarre, John d'Albret, of a portion of his 
kingdom, and soon afterwards he died while on a journey to Andalusia 
(January, 1516), much respected by his contemporaries for his statesmanship 
and for his astute policy. 



THE EMPEROR CHARLES (I. OF SPAIN, V. OF GERMANY), AND CARDINAL 

XIMENEZ. 

After Ferdinand's death Ximenez undertook the regency of Castile for the 
youthful Charles, who was in the Netherlands ; and so zealously did he pro- 
mote the interests of the absent prince, that Charles was recognised as king of 
Castile and Aragon in 1517, though Joanna still lived, and was not suffering 
from incurable mental disorder. The young king, however, after obtaining the 
crown, repaid the services of the faithful Cardinal with ingratitude, and filled 
all the influential posts in Church and State with Netherlanders. This pro- 
voked such discontent throughout the country, that during Charles's absence 
in Germany the nobility united with the towns in a rebellion, and, with Don 
Juan Padilla of Toledo at their head, demanded the dismissal of foreign 
ministers, the restriction of the royal power, and the extension of civil rights. 
But soon there was a quarrel between the citizens and the nobles, the former 
demanding a democratic government and the abolition of immunity from 
taxation enjoyed by the aristocracy. This dissension among his opponents 
resulted in victory to the cause of the king in 1521. Joanna, who had been 
temporarily liberated from her imprisonment at Tordesillas, was now taken 
back to prison, and closely guarded until her death, in 1555. From the 
period of her second imprisonment she fell into a state of idiotcy. 

We have learnt how completely the whole Spanish history of the Middle 
Ages was associated with the " Holy Wars"; and on this soil also grew the 
romances, the epic-lyrical national songs, which, written to immortalize the 
deeds and destinies of certain distinguished warriors, left their impress on 



10 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



the imagination and memory of the people. Many of these, such as the 
romances of Count Alarcos, have been translated into all languages. Among 
the most ancient specimens were the Romances of the Cid, a hundred in 
number, which were either transmitted from mouth to mouth, or written down 
on loose leaves, until they were arranged in several collections of romances 
in the sixteenth century. In these romances truth is mingled with fiction ; 
and recent investigations have shown that the hero, Rodrigo Ruy Dias, 
called Compeador, " the champion," and Cid, " the master," was born of a 
noble Castilian family, and distinguished himself during the reigns of 
Ferdinand I. and his two sons. He died in 1699, and was interred with his 
wife Ximena in the convent chapel of S. Pedro di Gardenias. 

THE NEW KINGDOM OF BURGUNDY, WITH LORRAINE AND ALSACE. 

T)HILIP THE BOLD (1363-1404), a son of 
JL King John of France, received from his 
father the dukedom of Burgundy as an here- 
ditary fief. With it he united, by his marriage, 
the free county (Franche Comte) of 'Burgundy, 
which had formerly belonged to the German 
Empire, and likewise the rich Flemish pro- 
vinces, with Malines, Artois, Antwerp, and 
others, the magnificent marriage portion 
brought him by his wife, Margaret of Flanders. 
The dukedom was also further extended by 
his son, John the Fearless, and his grandson, 
Philip the Good, who obtained possession, 
either by force of arms or by inheritance, of 
Holland, Friseland, Zealand, Hainault, Bra- 
bant, Namur, Luxembourg, Limburg, and 
other territories, and founded a kingdom 
which, in civilization, industry, and prosperity, 
vied with Italy itself. Charles the Bold, son of 
Philip the Good, who began his rule in 1467, 
obtained possession also of Guelderland and 
Zutphen ; and after he had reduced the rebel- 
lious town of Liege to submission (1468), he entered into negotiations with 
the Emperor Frederick III., for obtaining from his hands the crown of Bur- 
gundy, promising in return the hand of his only daughter and heiress, 
Mary, to Maximilian, the Emperor's son. The treaty was to be ratified at 
a solemn meeting at Treves, in 1473 ; but Frederick was so disgusted with 
the pride and arrogance which the Duke displayed, that he suddenly broke 
off the negotiations, and quitted the town the day before that appointed for 
the coronation. Charles now became a determined enemy of the Haps- 
burgs, and allied himself with their foe, the Count Palatine. 

The Duke Sigismund of Austria had formerly pawned the Hapsburg 
possessions in Alsace, Sundgau, and Brisgau, with the towns on the Lower 
Rhine, to Charles the Bold, to cover the cost of an unfortunate war. When 
Louis XI. of France, jealous of the increasing possessions of his powerful 
neighbour, Charles of Burgundy, procured for the Duke of Austria the money 
for the ransom of his pawned territory, Charles delayed the surrender of 
the provinces ; whereupon the oppressed Alsacians expelled the Burgundian. 




INTRODUCTION. 



il 



garrison, and put the Governor to death. Charles then obtained possession 
of Lorraine, the capital of which, Nancy, he designed for his seat of govern- 
ment. He suffered a severe defeat, however, at the hands of the Swiss in the 
battle of Granson (1476), which was followed a few months later by a similar 
disastrous check in the battle of Murten. The Duke of Lorraine had now 
possessed himself once more of his lost kingdom ; and when the exasperated 
Charles made one more desperate attempt to assert his arms, the haughty 
Duke sustained a third terrible defeat in the battle of Nancy, and was slain 
while endeavouring to make his way through a frozen marsh, where his dis- 
figured corpse was found soon afterwards. 




HEROISM OF ARNOLD OF WINKELRIED AT SEMPACH. 

Louis XL now claimed the dukedom of Burgundy as a vacant fief of the 
French crown, and also meditated the acquisition of other territory. Where- 
upon, Mary of Burgundy married the chivalrous Maximilian of Austria, who 
defeated the French in the first battle of Guinegate. After the death of 
Mary, who had been intended by her father, Charles of Burgundy, for 
Maximilian of Austria, Louis XI. renewed his intrigues to incite the towns of 
the Netherlands against Maximilian, who acted as regent for his youthfu 1 c on 
Philip. Several of the towns wavered in their allegiance ; but Maximilian, by 
his decision and bravery, at last compelled the whole of the Netherlands to 
a recognition of his rights as regent ; and the French were subsequently 
decisively defeated in the second battle of Guinegate (1513) at the hands of 
Maximilian and King Henry VIII. of England. This was the well-known 
" Battle of the Spurs." Philip's Son, Charles V., inherited in course of time 



12 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




THE EMPEROR CHARLES V. 



MAXIMILIAN I. 



all the possessions of his parents and grandparents ; and by the addition of 
Friseland, Groeningen, Overyssel, and Utrecht, united the provinces of the 
Netherlands into one whole. 

SCANDINAVIA AND SCHLESWIG-HOLSTEIN. 

Introduction of Christianity, and its Results. After the adventurous voyages 
and wanderings of the Normans and Danes had become things of the distant 
past, certain enterprising princes succeeded in raising themselves above the 
other chiefs or princes of the districts, and, by the union of different tribes, in 
establishing a kingdom. This was the case in Norway, through the exertions 
of Harold Harfagra ; in Denmark, through Gorm ; and in Sweden, by the 
Ynglings. But only under great compulsion did the warlike Norman chiefs 
submit to the supremacy of a king ; and many who were discontented re- 
turned once more to their life of piracy, or sought a new home in foreign 
countries. Thus Rollo (Rolf, Ganga-Rolf, afterwards baptized by the name 
of Robert) with his bold followers made a settlement in French Normandy, 
while others began to people the distant country of Iceland. The history of 
Scandinavia in the Middle Ages consists therefore of a succession of struggles 
among the chiefs, who each believed he had an equal right with the others to 
the crown. The continuous wars of the kings with the chieftains of the 
Norman navigators, impeded the introduction of Christianity into Scandinavia. 
For although the Gospel had been preached as early as the Qth century by 
British missionaries and others, and several of the kings had been converted 
to Christianity, yet still, for more than a century, the worship of Odin main- 
tained its ascendency over the religion of the crucified Saviour, and many 
believers in the Gospel died a martyr's death. In Denmark, however, 
Christianity most quickly made its way, through the exertions of Canute the 
Great. A little later St. Olaf attempted, with success, to Christianize the 
people of Norway and Iceland ; but in Sweden it was not till the I2th century 
that the nation became generally converted to Christianity, during the reign 
of St. Eric IX. In the next century the Gospel was made known also to the 
Finns. 



INTRODUCTION. 13 

THE KINGDOM OF SCANDINAVIA BEFORE THE UNION OF CALMAR. 

Denmark. There reigned in Denmark during the I2th and I3th centuries 
the descendants of Canute's nephew, Svend Estrithson. Their reigns were 
sullied by bloody deeds. and cruel crimes, and they themselves for the most 
part came to a violent end. With Waldemar I. (i 157-1 182) begins the period 
of the power and greatness of Denmark, which was considerably increased 
during the reigns of his sons Kriud VII. and Waldemar II. the "Conqueror." 
Spurred on by the spirit of enterprise, and guided by the advice of the wise 
and energetic Absalon (Axel), Archbishop of Lund, Waldemar and Canute 
subjugated Holstein, Rugen, Pomerania, Mecklenburg, and other coast 
countries and islands of the Baltic, and cast off the feudal supremacy of 
Germany over Denmark. In conjunction with king Otto IV, Canute crossed 
the Eider in 1201, and after the victory of Stilnow, obtained possession -of the 
country north of the Elbe, and forced the towns of Hamburg, Ratzeburg, 
Gadebusch, and Lubeck to recognise the supremacy of Denmark. Waldemar 
II. (1202-1241) continued the conquests of his father and brother with such 
success that he united all the Sclavonian coast countries on the Baltic with 
his other states, and was able to declare himself King of the Danes and 
Sclavonians, and Master of Schleswig-Holstein. But his harshness provoked 
anger and rebellion, so that when he was taken prisoner, while hunting, by the 
exasperated Duke Henry of Schwerin, who kept him and his youthful son 
in confinement for over two years, all the subject princes revolted from him. 
Waldemar, after obtaining his liberation by renouncing his supremacy over 
Holstein and the Sclavonian countries, attempted to reconquer his lost 
dominions ; but the princes succeeded in gaining a victory over the perjured 
king in the battle of Bornhovede (1227). Thus the proud structure of the 
power of the Waldemars was shaken to the ground, and of all their former 
conquests Denmark only retained Rugen and Esthland ; and these also 
were ceded respectively to Pomerania and to the Teutonic Order in 1325 
and 1347. 

With Waldemar's death there commenced in Denmark a disastrous period 
of internal dissension, which resulted in the gradual weakening of the kingly 
power. Waldemar IV. (1340-1375), an enterprising and vigorous prince, at 
last succeeded in restoring internal quietude, regaining for the crown its 
formal power, and uniting the lost provinces once more under the sway of 
Denmark. His daughter Margaret (1397-1412), who was married to Hakon 
VIII. of Norway, united, by the Union of Calmar, the three Scandinavian 
kingdoms under her sceptre. The " black death," which devastated Europe 
in the middle of the I4th century, spread such, havoc in Norway, that the 
country was entirely depopulated ; and in Denmark it carried off a third of 
the inhabitants. 

Norway. In Norway, where Harold the Hard in the nth century trans- 
ferred the seat of government from Drontheim to Christiania, there ruled for 
nearly three centuries the ancient royal race descended from Harold Harfagar, 
sometimes one king reigning alone, sometimes several together. During 
this period the country also was distracted by wars of succession, and the 
crown was less powerful than in Denmark and Sweden, for clergy and people 
possessed more extended rights. During the reign of Hakon V. (1217-1263) 
the supremacy of Norway extended over Iceland ' and Greenland, the 
Hebrides and the Orkney Islands. Hakon's son and successor, Magnus VII. 
(1263-1280) , earned for himself the title of " Improver of the Laws." A regu- 



14 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

lation was laid down for the succession to the throne, according to which the 
royal authority was to descend to the eldest-born of the royal family in the 
male line ; which put an end to the frequent separation of the kingdom into 
parts and to the electoral claims of the hierarchy. On the death of Hakon 
VII. (1298-1319), the second son of Magnus, the male line of the Norwegian 
royal family became extinct ; and the union of Norway and Sweden was 
finally accomplished, after some wars and contentions, under Margaret, the 
wife of Hakon VIII. This king died in 1380. 

Sweden. In Sweden also during the I2th and I3th centuries there was so 
much strife concerning the succession to the throne, that only a few of the 
rulers died a natural death. Even the powerful race of the Folkungs, which, 
beginning with Waldemar I. in the middle of the 1 3th century, gave peace 
and law to the country, succumbed after a few generations to the hard fate 
which befell all the reigning families of Sweden. Of seven kings belonging 
to this renowned race, five were dethroned and died in prison or in exile. 
The most distinguished, successful, and just among the race, was Magnus 
Ladulas (1275-1290), who has been already mentioned. He was buried in the 
resting-place which he had designed for himself in the Franciscan Monastery 
at Stockholm, having expressed the wish " that his memory might not die 
away with the sound of the bells over his grave." 

After the last Folkungs, Magnus II. (i 3 19-1 363), who ruled Norway also, and 
his son Hakon, had been deposed, the Swedish crown fell to Duke Albrecht, 
of Mecklenburg (1363-1389), the nephew of Magnus. But the nobles who 
conferred it upon him, divested it of all power, and after a few years made it 
over to Margaret (1412), the queen of Denmark, and a war ensued that lasted 
for eight years, and ended in the triumph of Margaret, who took Albert 
prisoner, and united the three kingdoms by the Union of Calmar ; each to 
keep its own form of government. 

Norway. At the beginning of the next century, the Duke of Schleswig 
was. slain in battle. Margaret then made an attempt, which was continued 
after her death by her foster-son, Eric of Pomerania, to obtain by force 
and treachery repossession of the dukedom. But the design was frustrated. 
Adolphus VIII., son of the slain duke, Gerhard, retained the dukedom of 
Schleswig as the hereditary feudal possession of his house ; and after his 
death his kinsman Christian of Oldenburg, who also held the Danish crown, 
was recognised by the assembled Estates as Duke of Schleswig and Count of 
Holstein. This choice was a source of much future trouble. 

SCANDINAVIA AFTER THE UNION OF CALMAR. 

IHE Union of Calmar was disastrous for all three kingdoms, 
both on account of national hatred and jealousy, as well as 
the feebleness of most of the rulers ; consequently it did not 
take deep root. In Denmark the kings were so restricted 
by the landed aristocracy that they appeared rather as the 
principals of the Senate than the rulers of a free people ; 
Norway lost its independence, and Sweden only escaped 
sharing the same fate by its obstinate and vigorous resist- 
ance, and the weakness of the Danish kings. The foreign 
governors who ruled in Sweden were expelled, and a stipulation was made 
that only natives should be invested with the dignity of an administrator 
of the kingdom ; when, however, one of these rulers attempted to seize the 




INTRODUCTION. 15 

royal crown, like Karl Knutson, about the middle of the I5th century, all 
the companions of his own rank united against him. This peculiar state of 
things was recognised by the brave, wise, and popular governor, Sten Sture 
(1471-1504), who allowed the shadow of a Danish sovereignty to continue 
under Christian I. (1443-81), with whom the house of Oldenburg began to 
reign in Denmark, under Christian's John ; but ruled vigorously and wisely 
in Sweden as an independent administrator of the kingdom. He kept 
the nobility in obedience and subjection ; he prevented insurrections by 
craftily keeping up the jealousy between the spiritual and temporal nobles, 
and created a powerful enemy for both in the deputies of the towns and the 
free peasantry. He also raised the mental culture of the country by founding 
the university of Upsala, invited scholars into his dominions, and promoted 
the establishment of printing houses. But when his second successor, Sten 
Sture the younger, quarrelled with the Archbishop of Upsala, the enterprising 
Christian II. succeeded with the help of the latter in re-establishing the 
supremacy of Denmark over Sweden (1520). Sten Sture was defeated in 
battle and fatally wounded, and Christian caused ninety-four of the most 
influential and powerful nobles in Stockholm to be beheaded. The deed is 
known as the Massacre of Stockholm. This severity, however, caused the 
bond between Denmark and Sweden to be irrevocably severed a few years 
later. 




SIEGE OF A TOWN IN THE I5TH CENTURY. 



i6 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 







HUNGARIANS EMIGRATING TO THEIR NEW HOMES. 

HUNGARY UNDER THE ROYAL HOUSE OF ARPAD (UNTIL 1301). 

SOON after the victory of Otto the Great on the Lechfield had put an end 
to the incursions of the Hungarians, Geisa (9/2-997) became converted 
to Christianity, and caused the teachings of the Gospel to be imparted to his 
people also by means of German missionaries. But his heart remained hard 
and cruel ; he slew with his own hand whoever excited his anger ; and while he 
raged with wild violence against idolaters, he himself sacrificed to false gods. 
The work of conversion was however completed, with the help of the mis- 
sionaries Radla and Astrick, by his son Stephen I., the Saint (997-1038), who 
received from Pope Silvester II. the sacred diadem as "first Christian king," 
with which all his successors were afterwards crowned. He endeavoured at 
the same time to elevate the new royal power by dividing the whole country 
into counties ; he allotted the control of the army and the administration of 
justice to governors appointed by himself, and gradually deprived the chief- 
tains of wild hordes' of their great power. By promoting agriculture as well 
as by the introduction of suitable laws, he earned for himself the titles of 
Founder of the Hierarchy, Ruler of the State, and Lawgiver of the People. 
Stephen's preference for Germans and Italians provoked great resistance 
towards his Church and State reforms on the part of the Magyars, who were 
jealous of their old customs, till at last, when his successor pursued a similar 
course, a destructive war of succession commenced, which resulted in the 
Hungarian crown becoming a fief of the German emperor, Henry III. Peace 



INTRODUCTION. , 7 

was not restored till the time of Ladislaus (1077-1095), when the nation not 
only obtained its old independence, but also conquered Croatia and Dal- 
matia. The kingdom was soon plunged into fresh disturbance. 

Under Geisa II. (1141-1161), bands of Flemish and South German settlers 
established themselves in the district now called Transylvania, where, under 
the name of Saxons, they have retained their national customs, language, and 
institutions until the present day, and by their industry and perseverance 
have transformed the country from a desert to a prosperous district. About 
1160 a noble citizen from Nuremberg founded Hermannstadt ; the other 
larger towns, such as Klausenburg and Cronstadt, arose soon afterwards. In 
the 1 3th century the Hungarian magnates obtained a letter of freedom, which, 
like the Magna Charta in England, became the foundation of Hungary's 
national liberties. 

HUNGARY AS AN ELECTIVE KINGDOM. 

When the Arpad dynasty became extinct, on the death of Andreas III., the 
throne was in a tottering condition for a few years, until Charles Robert 
(1308-1342), of the reigning house of Anjou, strengthened it, and then 
bequeathed it to his son, Louis the Great (1342-1382). Under this ruler 
Hungary attained to the summit of outward power and inward culture. 
Louis obtained the crown of Poland, extended the boundary of Hungary to 
the lower Danube, including Walachia, Bulgaria, etc., and extorted a yearly 
tribute from the Venetians. In his time the hills around Tokay were planted 
with vines, and cultivation and progress were everywhere evident. After 
his death, Hungary became once more a prey to quarrels and combats of 
parties for the throne, until the German emperor Sigismund obtained the 
crown, and on his death bequeathed it to his daughter Elizabeth (1437), who 
was married first to Albrecht, of Austria, and then to Wladislav, of Poland. 

After Wladislav had fallen in the battle of Varna against the Osmanli 
Turks, the government was carried on by the heroic Hunyad, who acted as 
regent of Hungary during the minority of Albrecht's son, Ladistaus. After 
the death of Ladislaus, Hunyad's son, Matthias Corvinus, ascended the throne 
(1458-1490), and proved himself a worthy successor of St. Stephen and Louis 
the Great. He gained possession of Bosnia, besides making other extensive 
conquests, founded new universities in Open (Buda) and Presburg, and en- 
couraged art, industry, and agriculture. Under his successors, Ladislav, of 
Bohemia, and his son, Louis II., these advantages were once more lost, and 
the Turks reconquered Bosnia and stormed Belgrade. The royal power was 
enfeebled, and the country was reduced through .the depredations of the 
Turks, to a state of misery and desolation. The Turks, pacified for a time by 
a shameful capitulation, reappeared in 1526, and King Louis was defeated 
and slain in the terrible battle of Mohacz in that year. After Louis' death 
there arose an unfortunate contest for the throne between John Zapolya, a 
wealthy nobleman, and Ferdinand of Austria, who, as the husband of Louis' 
sister Anna, had a claim to the Hungarian crown. The country was at last 
divided into Transylvania and East Hungary, which stood under Turkish 
supremacy, and West Hungary, which Ferdinand united with his other 
dominions in consideration of the payment of a yearly tribute, but which he 
was obliged during his whole reign to defend by force of arms. 



18 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



POLAND UNDER THE PIASTS TILL 1386. 

extensive plains on the Vistula and the countries on the Oder and 
the Warthe were inhabited by Sclavonian races. Since the conversion 
of the Duke Miesko (Miecislav) to Christianity (966) by German missionaries, 
Poland was regarded as a fief of the empire, but at last obtained its freedom 
during the reign of Frederick II. Many divisions weakened and disturbed 
the Polish kingdom, till at last in the I2th century the Silesian principalities 
on the Oder severed themselves from the community and became Germanized. 
The power and influence of the princes was weakened by the aristocracy and 
by the immunities of the Church, and the privileges and advantages of German 
settlers in the Polish towns also diminished the royal supremacy. Poland 
first gained importance in the I4th century, when Wladislav Loktick (1305- 
33), the fourth duke of that name, permanently united the princedoms on the 
Warthe as Great Poland with the countries on the Vistula (Little Poland), 
caused himself to be crowned at Cracow as King Wladislav I., and bequeathed 
his royal dignity to his successors. His son Kasimir the Great (1333-70), 
who replaced the lost territory in the north by the conquest of Galicia and 
Red Russia, won for himself great renown as a legislator. He endeavoured 
to weaken the power of the nobility by favouring the towns, and through his 
means the university of Cracow was established. But the influence of cities 
and citizens could not perhaps increase among so warlike and uncultured a 
people as the Poles. Kasimir died from the effects of a fall while hunting, 1 370, 
and was buried in the cathedral of Cracow. The whole country mourned for 
him. He was the last Polish king of the house of the Piasts, with which the 
destinies of the nation had been so closely allied for many centuries. After 
Kasimir's death the Poles presented the crown to his nephew Louis the Great 
of Hungary (1370-82), who gained the favour of the nobility by granting them 
many privileges, and freedom from taxation. Heavy days of sorrow now 
came upon the country, caused by the fierce disputes of the Poles with the 
Magyars, the- latter being greatly favoured by the regent's mother Elizabeth, in 
consequence of which more than a hundred Hungarian courtiers and office- 
holders were put to death, and the queen angrily quitted the kingdom and 
returned to her native Hungary. Louis left no son to succeed him, there- 
fore Poland was again separated from Hungary, and made over to his second 
daughter Hedwig and her husband, Duke Jagellon, .of Lithuania. After 
Hedwig's death Jagellon married her niece Anna. 

POLAND UNDER THE JAGELLONS FAMILY (1386-1572). 

FROM that time forward Poland was an elective 
kingdom. Jagellon, or Wladislav II., as he was 
called, on receiving baptism together with the crown, 
annexed Lithuania to the kingdom of Poland after 
having introduced Christianity into the country and 
overthrown the idolaters. Poles and Lithuanians 
were incorporated more and more into one nation. 
Nevertheless Lithuania maintained its national cha- 
racteristics even after its union with Poland, especially 
so long as the warlike and energetic Grand Duke 
Witold, who died in 1430, and was a near relative of 
Jagellon's, possessed the governorship of his native 
land. After thoroughly weakening the Teutonic 
order of Knights, and depriving it of its indepen- 




INTRODUCTION. 



dence, Jagellon paved the way for the election of his son Wladislav III. 
(1434-44), by granting privileges to the nobility ; and when, after a short, 
independent reign, Wladislav fell in the battle of Varna against the Turks, 
and was succeeded by his uncle Kasimir (1447-92), the nobility gained 
such power, that they were henceforward regarded as the only true national 
representatives. 

During the short reigns of Kasimir's three sons, John Albert, Alexander, 
and Sigismund, the elective right of the nation was more freely practised than 
before, and the republic of nobles was still more clearly defined, and increased 
its influence. It is true King Sigismund (1506-48), during the time of the 
Reformation, strengthened the supremacy of Poland over the newly-established 
dukedom that had been founded by the grand master of the Teutonic order 
of Prussia, and united Livonia and Courland to the Polish kingdom ; but 
the overwhelming and encroaching power of the Russians in the east and 
north, and the depredations of the Osmanli on the south, inflicted terrible 
injury on the country, especially as the selfishness of the nobility threw on 
the king all the expense of defending the kingdom against invaders. 

THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE. 



jT T 7HEN the great-grandson of the Varangian 
V V chief Rurik, Wladimir the Great, who dwelt 
in his capital at Kiev, introduced the Greek Chris- 
tian Church into his kingdom (1000), and over- 
threw the sacrificial altars of the idols, his country 
extended from the Dnieper to Lake Ladoga and 
to the banks of the Dwina. But under his suc- 
cessors of the reigning family of " Ruriks " the 
nation was enfeebled by internal wars and dis- 
putes, so that the warlike Lithuanians, Poles, etc., 
were enabled to seize large territories in the west, 
and the Mongols, also called Tartars, from the 
chief troops, penetrated as far as the Dnieper, 
after the bloody battle on the Kalka in 1224. 
Fifteen years later the Tartars resumed their 
expeditions of conquest. They stormed Kiev, 
the brilliant seat of government, murdered the 
inhabitants, and reduced the rich commercial city 
with all its monuments to ashes ; and after sub- 
jugating all the country from the Dnieper to the 
Vistula, they made the whole kingdom tributary. 
The grand khan of the golden horde of Kaptchak, whose residence was east- 
ward of the Volga, exacted tribute during two centuries from the Russian 
rulers. It was not till the time of the Grand Duke Iwan Wasiljewitsch the 
Great (1462-1505) of Moscow that the kingdom was liberated from this yoke, 
and by successful wars was extended on all sides. The wealthy trading town 
of Novgorod, which belonged to the Hanseatic League, and had succeeded in 
withdrawing itself from Russian supremacy and establishing a republican 
commonwealth, was subjugated in 1478, and deprived of its rights. The 
Tartar principality of Kasan was compelled to pay tribute to the grand dukes 
of Moscow, and even Lithuania was made to feel that a new spirit had come 
upon Russia. Iwan's marriage with a niece of the last Christian emperor of 




20 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




ENTRANCE OF IWAN INTO KASAN. 

Constantinople promoted the introduction of Byzantine culture into the Mus- 
covite kingdom. That ruler began to direct his attention to the Eastern Roman 
empire, whose two-headed eagle he adopted on the Russian arms, and thus 
imposed on his successors the duty of regarding the Byzantine state as the 
legitimate inheritance of the Muscovite rulers, and of acting accordingly. 
Iwan was not only a mighty conqueror, but also a lawgiver and ruler. He 
endeavoured to plant the germs of civilization among his barbarous people. 
Iwan's grandson, Iwan Wasiljewitsch II. (1533-84), called the Terrible, who 
first assumed the title of a Czar, or " ruler of all the Russias," followed in the 
blood-stained footsteps of his ancestor, and sought by the same means to 
civilize and enlarge Russia. He conquered Kasan and Astrachan, extended 
his empire to the Caucasus, and made preparations for the subjugation of 
Siberia. His ferocity made him the scourge of the nation he governed. In 
a campaign against Novgorod, that had not forgotten its ancient freedom, he 
is said to have slaughtered 60,000 persons. With his own hand he slew his 
eldest son. By instituting the Strelzi or Strelitz guard he laid the foundation 
of a standing army. He was succeeded by his son Fedor, with whom in 1598 
the Rurik Kne became extinct, after the empire had grown to five times its 
original extent under the authority of those barbarous chiefs. 

Siberia. When the Cossack Jermak conquered Siberia, it was under the 
rule of the Tartars or Mongols. After Jermak's death in 1584, the Cossacks 



INTRODUCTION. 



21 



from the Don wandered in troops into Siberia, but still under Russian supre- 
macy and guidance ; and in the course of two centuries the whole country 
was subjugated to Russian rule. As Siberia comprises more than a third of 
the whole of Asia, it has naturally throughout its vast extent a great variety 
of climate and vegetation. The northern coast countries, where the snow 
begins to melt in June, consist of morasses and marshy districts ; further 
south there begin to be signs of vegetation, while the whole southern portion 
of north Siberia is covered with boundless forests. The soil of central Siberia 
is of marvellous fertility ; with the poorest cultivation it yields rich harvests 
of corn of all kinds, garden fruits, flax, hemp, and even melons. The most 
southerly portion of Siberia, where the summers are very hot and the winters 
stormy, is a great desert, without towns, villages, or roads. There are no 
rivers whatever, but only salt water lakes. 

THE KINGDOM OF THE OSMANLI TURKS. 

COWARDS the end of the thirteenth century the 
~ Osmanli quitted their former dwelling-places in 
the eastern territory of the Caspian Sea to escape 
the sword of the Mongols. They conquered for 
themselves the remains of the Seljukian kingdom 
in Asia Minor. Accompanied by warlike hordes, 
who were incited by the Mohammedan dervishes 
to make war against the Christians, and spurred 
on by the prospect of booty, Osman penetrated 
in 1299 to Bithynia, made Bursa his seat of 
government, and maintained his conquests against 
the enervated Greeks, and their allies the Cata- 
lonians. Soon Nicomedia, Nicaea, and the classic 
territory of Ilium obeyed the Sultan of Bursa, 
while the Byzantine court became more and more 
enfeebled by party quarrels and intrigues. After 
Murad I. (1361-89), the special founder of the indomitable power of the 
Janissaries, had subjugated the whole of Asia Minor, he advanced into Europe, 
and in the course of a few campaigns conquered all the country from the 
Hellespont to the Balkan range. Adrianople was made his capital, and the 
warlike Servians and Bulgarians alone succeeded in resisting him for a time. 
But after the bloody battle of Kossova in 1389, in which Murad himself met 
his death, they also bent before the violence of the Janissaries. Murad's son 
Bajazet (1389), who won for himself the honourable surname of the Light- 
ning, gained possession of Macedonia and Thessaly, penetrated into Greece, 
and stormed Argos. At last western Christendom began to take up arms 
against the terrible enemy. The emperor Sigismund and John of Burgundy, 
with many German and Bohemian nobles, advanced, with over a hundred 
thousand men, to the Lower Danube. But in spite of their heroism and 
bravery, the bloody battle of Nicopolis in 1396 resulted in favour of the 
infidels against the Christians, and Bosnia was the fruit of the victory. Sigis- 
mund with difficulty escaped by sea with a few followers. The French 
nobles and knights had to pay a heavy ransom for their liberty, and Bajazet 
slaughtered ten thousand prisoners of low rank to avenge those who had fallen 
on his side. He then marched against Constantinople, and laid siege to the 
city. 




22 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




KUBLAI KHAN IN His ELEPHANT CAR. (From the " Livre des Merveilles,") 

TlMUR. 

A new enemy now appeared, more formidable and fierce than Bajazet 
himself, in the person of the warlike Mongol ruler, Timur the Lame (Tamer- 
Ian, Timurlank), a descendant of Dschengis-Chan, whose degenerate kingdom 
he resolved to set up again. Persia was soon deluged with blood. In India 
all the prisoners of war were cut down under the walls of Delhi, that " the 
great Mogul " of Timur's family might with security hold the government of 
Hindostan. After Timur had destroyed Bagdad for the second time, had 
burnt Damascus, and conquered Syria from the Mameluks, he spread terror 
and destruction through Asia Minor and the countries on the Volga. At last 
Bajazet desisted from the siege of Constantinople, and advanced to meet the 
mighty conqueror. Near Angora, in Galatia, a fierce battle was fought (1402), 
which, in spite of the bravery and martial skill of the Turks, was decided in 
favour of the warlike shepherd nation. Bajazet was taken prisoner, and died 
of grief in the following year. Timur soon followed him to the grave, and 
his empire fell to pieces as quickly as it had arisen, while the power of the 
Osmanli, shattered for a time, once more attained to its former splendour, 
because neither the weak Byzantine empire nor the divided kingdoms of the 
West seized the opportunity to combat it. The grandson of Bajazet, Murad 
II. (1421-51), succeeded in re-asserting his supremacy over the rebels of 
Asia Minor, and then commenced anew the conquests on the Danube and the 
Haemus. Thereupon John VII., Palseologos, endeavoured, like his two pre- 
decessors, John VI. and Manuel, to procure the help of western Christendom 
by a union of the Eastern with the Roman Church. The only result, however, 
of these negociations, and the many theological disputes to which they gave 
rise, was an attempt on the part of the Pope to organize a crusade against the 
Turks. Wladislav, king of Hungary and Poland, and the brave Hunyad, 



INTRODUCTION. 




whose warlike skill and prowess had already disconcerted the Turks on fre- 
quent occasions, crossed the Danube and advanced to the coast of the Black 
Sea. There Murad hastened to meet them, and in the bloody battle of 
Varna (1444) gained an overwhelming victory over the Christian army. The 
young king was slain, and the fruits of all his victories were lost. 

CONQUEST OF CONSTANTINOPLE. 

HEN Murad's ambitious and bloodthirsty son, 
Mohammed II., became sultan of the Osmanli, 
the last hour of the eastern Roman empire was 
approaching. Determined to make Constanti- 
nople his capital, Mohammed declared war against 
the tributary Byzantine emperor, and commenced 
to besiege the town, which for the space of fifty 
days defied all attacks and assaults. But at last 
the ramparts were carried by storm, and then 
the heroic emperor Constantine died bravely 
fighting on the walls of his capital, in the thickest 
of the fray (1453). Beautiful Constantinople, the 
ancient abode of Byzantine splendour, now be- 
came the residence of the sultans. The church 
of St. Sophia was transformed into a mosque, 
the Christian inhabitants were placed under the 
yoke of slavery, and on the ruins of Christian 

culture was planted the crescent of Turkish Islam. The fall of Constantinople 
was quickly followed by the conquest of the Trapezuntian kingdom, the sub- 
jugation of the principal islands in the ^Egean Sea, with Greece and the 
Morea. In vain did Popes Nicholas V. and Pius II. endeavour to awaken the 
slumbering religious zeal of the nations for a crusade against the Turks, the 
determined foes of Christianity ; only a few irregular and undisciplined troops 
at last mustered under the guidance of the Franciscan monk Capistrano, to 
render aid to the heroic Hunyad, who in Belgrade was defending himself des- 
perately against the attacks of the Turks. The victory before this town, when 
the Turks, after many fruitless assaults, were compelled to a disastrous retreat, 
pursued by the Hungarians and the army of the Cross, was the last glorious 
exploit of the Christians. All further attempts to rouse the nations to a 
renewed attack on the infidels were futile. Servia and Wallachia were incor- 
porated with the Osmanli empire, and Moldavia became tributary ; only in 
the mountainous districts of Albania, and especially in Epirus, its southern 
point, the warlike hero Alexander Castriola, called Skanderbeg, maintained 
until his death in 1467 an independent rule, and Hungary's freedom was 
defended by the brave arms of the followers of Hunyad. In the east also the 
mighty conqueror established the supremacy of the Osmanli. On the remains 
of the Turkoman sovereignty, Shah Ismail, ruler of Tebris in Aserberdjan, an 
enthusiastic disciple of AH and the Shiite form of belief, after the defeat of 
Usunhasan, the Turcoman sultan, in the battle of Terdshan in 1478, founded 
the new Persian kingdom of the StafH or Sofi. Mohammed had already set 
foot in distracted Italy and turned his glance towards Rome, thinking by the 
capture of that city to extirpate Christianity from the whole earth, when 
death put an end to his designs (1481). At once a conqueror, warrior and a 
legislator, he founded the system of government afterwards developed by 



24 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

Solyman. The first half of the i6th century was the most brilliant period of 
the victories of the Osmanli. After a temporary cessation of expeditions of 
conquest during the reign of Mohammed's successor, Bajazet II. (1481-1512), 
a fresh period of victory and glory came to the Osmanli kingdom under the 
sway of Selim I. (1512-20), who made the Tigris the eastern boundary of his 
empire in the direction of Persia, conquered the Marrfeluks in two bloody 
battles, and annexed Mesopotamia, Syria, and Egypt to his dominions, 
son Solyman, or Suleiman the Magnificent (1520-66), continued the conquests 
of his father. After an arduous siege he at last gained possession of the island 
of Rhodes which was bravely defended by 6,000 knights of St. John under 
their grand master Villiers de lisle Adam against 150,000 Turks, and then 
proceeded to the conquest of Belgrade and Peterwardein ; and after the 
bloody battle of Mohacz in 1526 (in which king Louis II. of Hungary and 

Bohemia lost his life), com- 
pelled half of Hungary 
with the city of Ofen to ac- 
knowledge his supremacy. 
Ferdinand of Austria was 
recognised as Louis' suc- 
cessor, but Solyman de- 
cided in favour of his rival 
Zapolya of Transylvania, 
and marched with an army 
to the walls of Vienna, but 
after a fruitless siege was 
compelled to retire. The 
heroic defence of Vienna 
saved Germany. But Soly- 
man, who returned devas- 
tating and plundering, to 
his empire, extended his 
dominions in Asia ; Bag- 
dad, Basra, Mosul, and 
Jemen were conquered, and 
in north Africa the Porte 
obtained the protectorate 
over the pirate states . of 
Algiers, Tunis, and Tripo- 
lis, which the bold Horush 
and Hayraddin Barbarossa 
had torn from their Arab possessors. In conjunction with Francis I. of France, 
Solyman repeatedly threatened southern Italy, but it succeeded in resisting 
his power, as did also the island of Malta, which he strove hard to conquer. 
He was proceeding to fresh conquests in Hungary, at an advanced age, when 
he died in 1566 before the walls of Sigeth, in defending which city the brave 
Count Zriny met a hero's death. 

With Solyman the power of the Osmanli came to an end. His feeble suc- 
cessors forgot in the enervating sensual pleasures of the seraglio the warlike 
virtues of their forefathers, though their power was based on the sword ; and 
in place of the chivalrous spirit which had been fostered by the state in 
bygone times, an arrogant temper and mischievous spirit of rebellion began 
to prevail. Judges and governors allowed themselves to be bribed and cor- 




MOHAMMED II. 



INTRODUCTION 25 

rupted, oppression and extortion depopulated the provinces, oriental effeminacy 
and enervating sensual enjoyment sapped the strength of the people. The 
countries lying under Byzantine rule were devastated and impoverished, the 
population of conquered districts was often completely exterminated in times 
of war, and agriculture and every kind of industry suffered severely. No 
prosperous harbours now adorned the shores of the Black Sea ; that had now 
become the " inhospitable," and on which from time to time wild nomad 
tribes wandered with their herds. Indolence of temperament checked any 
possibility of development among the Turks, and the religion of the country, 
which fostered a hatred of Christianity, impeded the spread and advance of 
Western civilization. Under these conditions, it would have been easy for the 
Christian states to dispossess the Turks of a portion of their conquests, had 
not mutual envy and jealousy prevented any concerted enterprise. Con- 
sequently the brilliant victory which Don Juan of Austria, the natural son of 
Charles V., gained over the Turks in the sea-fight of Lepanto (15/1), effected 
no result beyond the destruction of the Turkish fleet. 



TERMINATION OF THE PERIOD OF THE MIDDLE AGES. 




T 



iHE reign of the Emperor 
Maximilian of Germany 
may be regarded as the transi- 
tion period of the Middle Ages 
to modern times. For while 
there is a character of mediaeval- 
ism in his brave deeds of war 
and tournament, his fondness for 
the ancient poetry of love and 
chivalry, and his martial ex- 
ploits in the Netherlands, Hun- 
gary, and Italy, we recognise in 
the political alliances in Italy, 
the diplomatic intrigues, and the 
dissensions and reconciliations of 
courts, the existence of a period 
in which dynastic and political 
interests form the essence of 
state life, when alliances and 
counter-alliances begin to con- 
stitute a European policy, and 
in which the destinies of one 
state re-act upon all the others. 
Wars, alliances, and treaties of 
peace promote the intercourse 
of nations ; the severance and 
isolation of governments that 
prevailed in the Middle Ages 

gradually gives place to a developed state system. And as states and nations 

enter into a closer connection and relationship with each other, so also do the 

different classes attain to a closer equality. 

In proportion as the institution of knighthood deteriorate^ and becomes 

unworthy of its ancient renown, and the service of love and chivalry de- 



26 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



generates into voluptuousness and sensuality, does the citizen class raise itself, 
and compensate for the lack of privileges of birth, by culture, prosperity, 
and vigour. A powerful citizen army, which marches into the field on foot, 
and in the great battles of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries encounters 
with heroism the assaults of the armed ranks of the mounted nobility, ousts 
the knights from the supremacy in arms and martial prowess which they have 
hitherto held ; the introduction of fire-arms, and the increasing habit of 
fighting battles with mercenary troops, completely deprives the nobility of 
their superiority, and reduces them in battle to the rank of the aspiring 
citizen-class. 

The two great lights of the Middle Ages, the Empire and the Papacy, had 
lost their splendour, the former through the increasing power of the princes of 
the land, the latter through the evil use which the heads of the Church made of 
their position during their residence at Avignon, and through the degeneracy 
of the clergy, who gave themselves up to every vice and pleasure, and instead 
of a divine simplicity encouraged a temper of servility. The great church 
councils and assemblies of the fifteenth century exposed the degeneracy of 
ecclesiastical government and the decay of the Papacy. The proud edifice of 
the feudal monarchy and papal supremacy had become utterly rotten ; and 
therefore could not withstand the attacks which were made against it simul- 
taneously on both sides. A deadly stagnation had fallen upon State and 
Church ; and if this stagnation was not to produce universal corruption, a 
new and mighty struggle must be begun that should diffuse fresh strength and 
vitality among the nations of the world. 




TIMUR. 




TRIUMPHAL ENTRY OF MAXIMILIAN I. AND MARY OF BURGUNDY. 



THE PRECURSORS OF THE NEW TIMES. 

DISCOVERY OF AMERICA BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. FIRST VOYAGE OF 
THE ADMIRAL, 1792. FURTHER VOYAGES OF COLUMBUS. CONQUESTS 
AND DISCOVERIES IN THE NEW WORLD. INVENTIONS, DISCOVERIES 
AND PROGRESS, 



THE MARINER'S COMPASS. GUNPOWDER. THE ART OF PRINTING. 

IN the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries several important discoveries were 
made which had the greatest influence on the development of the world 
of the Middle Ages. The curious property possessed by the magnet of 
pointing to the north was known in early times to different nations, but was 
first made use of in navigation by Flavio Gioja at the beginning of the 
fourteenth century, with incalculable results. Whether gunpowder was 
known to the Chinese, Indians, and Arabs, or was first invented by the 
German monk Berthold Schwarz of Freiburg, is a debated point, but it is an 
ascertained fact that it came into use towards the middle of the fourteenth 
century, and that it had as important results with regard to warfare as the 
compass in connection with navigation. The invention of the art of printing 



28 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



belongs to the German citizen John Guttenberg, who was born at Mayence, 
but dwelt for a long time as Strasburg. In conjunction with Fust, or Faust, a 
goldsmith of Mayence, who supplied the necessary money for the undertaking, 
and assisted by Peter Schoffer, a transcriber of books, Guttenberg soon brought 
the new invention to such perfection that already, in 1456, a Latin Bible could 
be printed with great accuracy. But the inventor was not fated to enjoy the 
reward of his efforts. Faust quarrelled with him, set up a legal claim for the 
repayment of his advances of money, and for the type and instruments he had 
provided, and then, having entered into partnership with Schoffer, he con- 
tinued the work of printing on a larger scale. With the assistance of a 
Mayence councillor, Guttenberg was once more placed in a position to set up 
a printing press, which, with the other, continued in operation for some time. 
His bitter experiences had, however, cut him to the heart. He subsequently 
entered the service of the Archbishop Adolf, and died on the 24th February, 
1467. 

DISCOVERY OF AMERICA BY CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS. 

THE zeal for discovery 
which the Portuguese 
enterprises had awakened, 
aroused a desire in the 
Genoese navigator Christo- 
pher Columbus, one of the 
bravest and noblest men 
mentioned in history, to 
discover, by a voyage to 
the West, a new way to the 
East Indies. Mysterious 
legends from the past of a 
vanished island Atlantis, 
and fictitious accounts of 
unknown wonder-lands had 
filled his imagination, and 
the proud thought of open- 
ing to the world these new 
countries gained strength 
with time, and the opposi- 
tion he encountered only 
tended to increase his re- 
solution. He imparted his 
project to King John II. of 
Portugal, but could obtain 
no support from him. His 
plan was declared to be a 
fanciful delusion, but an 
attempt was nevertheless 
made behind his back, by sending out a secret expedition, to discover if there 
were any truth in his assertions. Annoyed at this dishonourable proceeding, 
Columbus quitted Lisbon and went to Spain, while his brother Bartholomaeus 
set out for England, to endeavour to obtain the patronage and assistance of 
King Henry VII. In Spain also Columbus for a long time failed in getting 
a hearing ; at last, however, Isabella of Castile, in the joy of her heart at 




COLUMBUS. 



THE PRECURSORS OF THE NEW TIMES. 29 

the fortunate conquest of Granada, allowed three ships to be fitted out and 
entrusted to the bold navigator. The dignity of commander-in-chief and 
vice-regent of all the discovered countries and islands, with the tenth part of 
the hoped-for revenues from the new lands, and elevation to the rank of the 
nobles, for himself and his descendants, was promised him as the price of his 
success. On the 3rd August, 1492, the small squadron with ninety sailors, i 
among them three brothers belonging to the experienced family of navigators 
named Pinzon, quitted the Andalusian harbour of Palos, and sailed away , 
past the Canary Islands to the westward. Traditional accounts have declared 
that the sailors entered into a conspiracy to compel the admiral to return, 
and that his life was threatened, but these stories are probably only the 
misrepresentations which frequently occur in connection with world-famed 
enterprises. As a promise of an annuity of thirty gold pieces was made 
to whoever should first catch sight of land, many signals were given which 
turned out to be false, till Columbus at last declared that whoever excited 
. expectations by false alarms, should forfeit his claim to the reward. On the 
first days of October there were increasing signs that land was near. Flights 
of small coloured birds swarmed round the admiral's vessel, and then 
flew off towards the south-west ; tunny-fishes disported themselves in the 
quiet waters, and fresh, green herbs were seen that had been carried off by 
the waves from the shore. The vessel turned its course a little towards the 
south ; the air was as soft and balmy as the spring breezes in Seville. On 
the nth of October the commander believed he saw a distant light moving 
in the clear autumn evening. After the customary evening song he therefore 
ordered his men to keep a good watch, and promised to the first one who 
should spy land a silk vest, in addition to the royal gift. At two o'clock in 
the morning, on Friday, the I2th of October, a sailor descried the glimmering 
streak of a projecting shore. With the joyful cry of " Land ! Land ! " he 
seized the nearest gun to give, the signal. But the reward was subsequently 
conferred on the admiral, because he had seen the light earlier. As soon as 
day dawned Columbus landed, wearing a scarlet admiral's dress, and bearing 
the royal banner of Castile, on Watling's Island, which the inhabitants called 
Guanahani, but which received from the discoverer the name of San Salvador. 
They found a beautiful fertile forest country inhabited by naked savages of 
a copper brown colour, who unsuspiciously looked on at the solemn occupa- 
tion of their land in the name of the Spanish sovereigns, and who bartered 
their best possessions for spangles, glass beads, shells, and playthings. But 
the anticipated treasures in gold, precious stones, and pearls, were not found 
in the hoped-for abundance either here or in the two larger islands of Cuba 
and Hayti (Hispaniola, St. Domingo), which were discovered soon after- 
wards. 

After Columbus had built the fortress of Navidad on the " Spanish island," 
and had founded a colony, he set out for Castile, and, after a dangerous 
voyage, carried to Europe the astounding intelligence of a new world, to 
which was given the name of the West Indies. A papal deed of gift con- 
ferred on the Spaniards all the recently discovered countries within 370 miles 
to the west of the Azores. The proud declaration of the Church that the 
heathen and their inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth, should 
fall into its possession, appeared likely to be fulfilled through the important 
discovery. 




THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



THE FURTHER VOYAGES OF COLUMBUS. 

N the two following expeditions which Columbus undertook 
to the New World in 1493 and 1498, he discovered several 
other islands, Jamaica, and the small Antilles, with the vigor- 
ous race of kidnapping savages called Caraibs (Cannibals), 
and at last found the southern continent not far from the 
mouth of the Orinoco. Nevertheless the New World did not 
receive its name from the discoverer, but from its first historian, 
the Florentine Amerigo Vespucci of Seville, who in the ca- 
pacity of a pilot sailed in 1499 with Alonzo de Hojeda, a former 
companion of the great admiral. The expedition of Hojeda 
followed in the track of Columbus, and navigated the coasts 
of Guiana and the mouths of the Amazon river ; and Amerigo Vespucci 
wrote a description of the voyage. Columbus shared the fate of many 
great and ingenious men, in that he was not permitted to enjoy the fruits of 
his labours. The garrison which was left behind at Hispaniola became dis- 
organized through the quarrels of the colonists among themselves, and by 
disputes with the oppressed and ill-treated natives, who had received the 
strangers hospitably, and had generously shared with them the fruits and pro- 
ducts of their fertile country. The licentiousness and immoral life of the 
new-comers significantly weakened the respect with which the admiral and his 
company had inspired the natives by his dignified and judicious demeanour, 
and brought about their overthrow. Columbus restored a good understand- 
ing with the natives, founded the colonial settlements of Isabella and San 
Domingo, and made vigorous efforts, both by warlike expeditions and 
peaceful negotiations and treaties, to strengthen the Spanish supremacy. 
The Cacique Caonabo, the brave chief of the most warlike and hostile 
tribe in the island, was carried off from his people by the bold Hojeda, and 
handed over to the admiral, who sent him as a prisoner to Spain. The 
" proud lord of the golden house," as the once powerful ruler of the Cibao 
country was called, died on the voyage of a broken heart, from grief at his 
unfortunate fate. Soon however mutinies and conspiracies broke out once 
more among the garrison at Hispaniola, and impeded the progress of the 
work of discovery. Columbus, in his efforts to restore peace, punished the 
rebels or sent them to Europe, where, out of anger and malice, they proceeded 
to calumniate him at the Spanish court, and to represent his administration 
in the blackest light. King Ferdinand of Aragon, who was not so friendly 
to the great discoverer as his generous and enlightened consort Queen Isabella, 
at once despatched a narrow-minded, inefficient officer, named Francisco de 
Bobadilla, to Columbus's government, to investigate the state of affairs. This 
officer, misinterpreting or exceeding the limits of his powers, commenced his 
work by deposing Columbus from the governorship and causing him to be 
imprisoned and bound with chains ; thereupon the great discoverer was sent 
back a disgraced man to Spain. Here, it is true, he was restored to honour, 
for the outcry in Europe at the insult and cruelty was great ; but the court 
of Castile knew how to evade and put aside the stipulated agreement, 
and his office was not given back to the admiral. 

While Columbus was still in Spain, the new commander Ovando sailed 
with a large fleet of colonists to the island-world of the West Indies, to^ 
complete his work, but the envy and jealousy of the Spaniards still pursued 



THE PRECURSORS OF THE NEW TIMES. 31 

the great Genoese and his brother. As he was not permitted to go to His- 
paniola, he undertook, in company with his energetic brother Bartholomew, a 
fourth voyage of discovery (1502-1504), in the hope of finding a western 
passage in Central America. This enterprise resulted, however, in an unfortu- 
nate failure, partly through many accidents by land and sea, and also through 
the hostilities and treachery of a mutinous band among his sailors at the 




COLUMBUS IN CHAINS. 



island of Jamaica, where he was compelled to land. Ill and exhausted, he 
returned to Spain. Shortlybefore his arrival home his patroness Isabella had 
died ; and the last two years of his life were joyless and desolate. Robbed 
of his office, and honours, he died, deeply wounded at the ingratitude of 
Ferdinand, at Valladolid (1506), whence his corpse was taken subsequently 
to St. Domingo, and thence to Cuba (1796). The chains in which he had 
been brought fettered to Spain, were placed in his grave, according to his 
wish, by his son Diego. 



32 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

Posterity alone recognised the sterling greatness of this noble man, who 
stood forth so prominently among his contemporaries, distinguished alike for 
his services, and also for his royal nature. In spite of the bitterest experiences, 
Columbus never lost his generous temper, nor his belief in fidelity and human 
virtue, and in the midst of his practical life he still preserved a perceptible 
taste for the inoffensive life of simple men in childlike innocence, and for the 
mighty ruling of a wondrous nature. 

FURTHER DISCOVERIES AND CONQUESTS IN THE NEW WORLD. 

Balboa^ Magellan. Even before Columbus had discovered mainland or the 
southern continent of America, another enterprising Italian, John Cabot of 
Venice, whose lively imagination had been excited by the laurels won by his 
Genoese compatriot, had sailed northwards with his three sons in English ships 
from Bristol, and had discovered the distant country of Labrador (1497) with 
its polar bears, rocks, and wild inhabitants ; yet the northern coast-land, which 
was discovered in its full extent from Florida to the country of the Esqui- 
maux by his enterprising son Sebastian Cabot and the Portuguese Cortereal 
(1501), was not destined at that time to take its place in history ; its influence 
on the life of Europe lay concealed in the future. Amid incredible diffi- 
culties, which the nature of the country, the wild animals, and the hostile 
hordes of natives led by warlike chiefs, presented to the valiant adventurers, 
the brave, simple-minded Balboa crossed the mountainous isthmus of Panama, 
and discovered the great Pacific Ocean or South Sea (1515). With sword in 
hand, and waving a banner bearing the figure of the Holy Virgin, he advanced 
knee-deep into the waves, proclaiming loudly that he took possession of these 
seas, lands, islands, and shores in the name of the monarchs of Castile and 
Aragon. His death at the hands of the executioner, to which the envy of 
his incapable, hypocritical successor Pedrarias Davila condemned him, on an 
accusation of treason (1517), put an end to his extensive plans of conquest. 
Some years later the Portuguese Magellan, who had entered the Spanish 
service, succeeded in reaching the Pacific Ocean through the straits called 
after his name, and after the most terrible sufferings from hunger, arrived 
at the East India islands (the Ladrones and Philippines 1519-21), and thus 
paved the way for the first voyage round the world. The terrible death 
of his predecessor Diaz de Solis, who had been slain and devoured by the 
savages when landing on the banks of the broad La Plata river, had not availed 
to deter him from his enterprises. He, however, also died a violent death 
at the hands of the wild inhabitants of the Philippines (1521), and was 
compelled to leave to others the completion of his undertaking. The South 
Sea, which Magellan had believed to be a vast solitude, was found by these 
discoveries to be covered with islands, which however, from the want of exact 
astronomical knowledge, occupied ambiguous positions in the maps of the 
period. 





THE BAPTISM OF ST. STEPHEN OF HUNGARY. 



VOL. II. 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



CORTEZ IN MEXICO. 

IN the second 
decade of 
the eventful i6th 
century, the val- 
iant Ferdinand 
Cortez com- 
menced the con- 
quest of the 
Mexican .king- 
dom in the coun- 
try of Anahuac, 
the inhabitants 
of which dwelt 
in populous 
towns, . carried 
on their arts and 
industries, and 
lived under a 
distinct form of 
government with 
a despotic king 
who was sup- 
ported by a 
wealthy aristo- 
cracy and a 
powerful priest- 
hood with 700 
brave Spaniards, 
and some of the 
native popula- 
tion, the Tlasca- 
lans, as allies. 
Cortez subjugat- 
ed a thickly po- 
pulated nation which was deficient neither in warlike courage nor in patriotism, 
carried off its king Montezuma as a prisoner to his palace, and conquered the 
great seagirt capital of Mexico, the " Venice of the West," with itc white towers, 
and lofty, pyramidal temples. The terrible destruction of the thundering can- 
non, the horsemen on their plunging war-steeds, who exercised a mysterious 
power over the imagination of the natives, and the splendour of the European 
mode of warfare, created among the natives the belief that the white men were 
of a more exalted nature, whom they, with their insignificant powers and feeble 
weapons (for iron was unknown to them) could not resist. Nevertheless the 
Mexicans defended their country and their liberty heroically. They stoned 
their king, who was inclined to be favourable to the Spaniards, compelled the 
foreign intruders to make a disastrous retreat after a desperate resistance in 
the famous " night of sorrow " (from 1st to 2nd of July, 1520), and would have 
cut them off to the last man, had not Cortez, with resolute action, overthrown 
their leader, and thus compelled the army to take flight in wild disorder. But 
neither the brave resistance of the natives nor the hostile attacks of the 




CORTEZ. 



THE PRECURSORS OF THE NEW TIMES. 



35 



Spanish troops despatched by the envious governor Velasquez of Cuba 
against Cortez, availed to deter the brave general from his enterprise. Within 
two years Cortez had conquered the country, put an end to the horrible 
idolatry to which thousands of human beings were annually sacrificed, and 
already contemplated measures for healing the wounds of warfare and pro- 
moting the introduction of European culture and Christian morals, when 
jealousy and calumny united to effect his recall. He was deprived of the 
administration of the conquered country, that he might not be tempted to found 
a kingdom of his own. His elevation to the rank of a noble (Marquis del 
Balle), and the award of some property and territories on the beautiful Gulf of 
Mexico, were the only rewards for untold difficulties and dangers. His services 
were soon forgotten, though, to satisfy the active longing of his soul, he under- 
took fresh expeditions to Honduras, and discovered California, " a barren, 
treeless peninsula" (1536). Grief and mortification at the ingratitude of his 
sovereign shortened his days. He died in Spain in the year 1547. 



PIZARRO IN PERU. 

FRANCISCO 
PIZARRO and 

Almagro, who pos- 
sessed as ardent a 
spirit of enterprise 
and warlike courage 
as Cortez, but neither 
position nor culture, 
and were inspired 
only by self-seeking 
and violent passions, 
accomplished the con- 
quest of Peru with 
even less assistance 
than had been at 
the command of the 
conqueror of Mexico. 
The Peruvians, who 
were governed by the 
wealthy royal family 
of the Incas, were a 
civilized, prosperous 
people, of gentle tem- 
per, sharing neither 
the cruel idolatry nor 
the warlike spirit of 
the Mexicans. A 
dispute for the throne 
in the reigning house 
facilitated the conquest of the country, and of the capital Cuzco (1532) by 
the Spaniards. In accordance with the command of the powerful ruler, Inca 
Huazna Copac, his sons Huascar and Atahualpa, divided the kingdom between 
them ; the former reigned over the south including Cuzco, the latter over the 
north, the newly acquired kingdom of Quito. Quarrels with regard to the 




PIZARRO. 



3 6 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

boundary soon led to a war, in which the more powerful Atahualpa vanquished 
his brother and allowed him to die in prison. But he was not destined long 
to enjoy his victory. While he was engaged at an interview with Pizarro at 
Caxamalca, he and his nobles were' suddenly surprised by the Spaniards, 
the king was taken prisoner, and his retinue treacherously slaughtered. 
Atahualpa desired to purchase his liberty with his treasures ; and when 
Pizarro consented to the arrangement, he procured from the temples and 
palaces an immense quantity of gold ; but the cruel Castilian failed to keep 
his word, for he was afraid that if the Inca were liberated, he would excite 
his people to insurrection. He therefore caused the royal prisoner to be 
sentenced to death by a court-martial, and publicly executed, for pretended 
blasphemy. He then subjugated the beautiful country, which abounded in 
gold mines, and founded the new capital of Lima (1535). Soon, however, 
Pizarro and his two brothers quarrelled with Almagro, the discoverer of Chili, 
and turned their arms against him. Almagro was vanquished and beheaded, 
but his death was subsequently avenged by his son, who, with a band of con- 
spirators, surprised and slew Francis Pizarro in his own house (1541). He 
himself, however, died by the hands of the hangman in the following year, 
when attempting to possess himself illegally of the governorship. 

The savage temper of the conquerors soon brought the state to the brink 
of destruction ; and the oppressed and ill-treated people endeavoured by 
rebellion to relieve themselves of their despotic rulers. At last the emperor, 
Charles V., despatched to Peru a wise priest named Pedro de la Gasca, as 
governor, who, without an army, soon asserted his authority, conquered the 
rebellious troops, and caused the last of the Pizarros to be executed on the 
gallows (1548). 

A little later the Maranon, or Amazon River was discovered by Orellana, 
who by his marvellous description of a land of gold (Eldorado), fired the 
imagination of the Spaniards, and led them on to undertake fresh enterprises. 

GREAT MEN OF THE TIME. 

Among the remarkable men of this period was Erasmus, of Rotterdam 
(1467-1536). He was persuaded in his youth to enter a cloister, though his 
whole nature revolted against the monastic life. With the assistance of the 
bishop of Cambray he after a time obtained his liberty, and permission to 
study theology in Paris. Here he took such a dislike to scholastic divinity, 
that throughout his life he attacked it and also monasticism with all the 
weapons of his wit and intelligence. Soon his fame extended through all 
the nations of Europe, and princes and nobles lavished on him their bounties 
and flatteries, and endeavoured by brilliant promises to allure him to their 
countries. But he preferred the free profession of literature to any office that 
was offered him ; he travelled through all the states of civilized Europe, and 
at last took up his residence chiefly at Basle, where, in conjunction with the 
printer Froben, he published a number of books in the language and spirit 
of the ancients. Among his numerous works are the "Encomium Moriae" 
and the correct edition of the New Testament in the original Greek text with 
Latin translation and paraphrases. When the contest between the old and 
the new assumed such large proportions on the appearance of Luther, Eras- 
mus, who was a cautious man and. fond of the peaceful enjoyment of life, 
timidly retired, and attacked Luther's proceedings, of which he had at first 
expressed approval. Nearest to Erasmus in temper and Cental bias was the 



THE PRECURSORS OF THE NEW TIMES. 



37 



English chancellor Thomas More, the witty and intellectual author of "Utopia," 
a work in which the existing blemishes in State and Church were hinted at 
by the description of the ideal conditions of a fabulous land of bliss. Like 
Erasmus, More became later an opponent of the Reformation, and availed 
himself of his judicial position to persecute reformers. But Nemesis overtook 
him. He died on the scaffold, because he did not approve of the measures 
taken by Henry VIII. for freeing England from the Papal supremacy, and 
because he held firmly to the doctrine of transubstantiation. For the rest, 
More was a highly estimable man, and an incorruptible judge in office, and he 
met death with the tranquillity and firmness of a philosopher. 

THE ART OF PAINTING. 



IN Florence, which under the Medicis 
was the centre of all intellectual as- 
pirations, the art of painting first received 
a free impetus. From the calm earnest- 
ness and elevated dignity of a Masaccio, 
the tenderness and religious intensity 
of a Giovanni da Fiesole and Seb. del 
Piombo, and the cheerful grace of Andrea 
del Sarto, it at last reached its climax 
in the renowned painter Michael Angelo 
Buonarotti(i474~i563). This great artist, 
who was master of all arts, laboured at 
first in Florence, until he was summoned 
to Rome, where he accomplished his 
most important works. 

The Roman school attained to its 
highest perfection in the person of Ra- 
phael Sanzio of Urbino (1483-1520), 
who was patronized by the art-loving 
Popes Julius II. and Leo X. His earliest 
pictures are in the style of his teacher 
Pietro Perugino, and the Umbrian school, 
but he soon superseded all other artists, 
and accomplished those noble works 
which still remain incomparable treasures 
of art. 

The greatest ornament of the Vene- 
tian school, in which colouring was 

especially developed, was Titian (1477-1576), whose numerous pictures, espe- 
cially portraits, are conceived with all the warmth of life, and with all the 
charm of light and colour. 

The Lombard School Next to Raphael stands his elder contemporary 
Leonardo da Vinci of Florence (died 1519), who worked principally at Milan, 
at the court of Francis Sforza. The most important production of this highly 
cultured painter, who was distinguished also as a poet and a refined man of 
the world, is the picture of the Last Supper, on a monastery wall at Milan. 
He died in France, where he had been summoned by the art-loving Francis I. 
Besides Leonardo, Corregio (died 1543) also ranks among the first masters. 
His pictures, in which all the conditions of the soul are pourtrayed with fan- 




STATUE OF LORENZO DE MEDICI, BY MICHAEL 
ANGELO. 



THE PRECURSORS OF THE NEW TIMES. 39 

ciful variability, led his imitators into sentimentality and affectation. Among 
his most celebrated works are the Adoration of the Shepherds, known under 
the name of " Night," the repentant Magdalen, at Dresden, and his fresco 
paintings at Parma. 

The Dutch school of painting was founded by the brothers Van Eyck (in 
the 1 5th century), the painters of the beautiful allegorical altar picture of the 
Unspotted Lamb of Revelation, at Ghent and Berlin. While the Flemish and 
Brabantine schools took the great ancient masters for their models, the 
Dutch followed a free and independent course. To the former belongs P. P. 
Rubens (1577-1640), whose pictures combine life and animation of composi- 
tion with beauty of colouring. The principal artist of the Dutch school is 
Rembrandt (1606-1674), in whose twilight pictures a gloomy defiant temper 
is united with faithful and fervent perception of nature, and an element of 
poetic sensibility. 

The German School. While Italian painting has developed the ideal, and 
the Dutch school has brought to perfection the pourtrayal of real life, the 
German school stands between the two, uniting with a true perception of 
nature, and sharp delineation of character, a tender and self-contained 
temper. Among its principal artists are Holbein (died 1554) and Albrecht 
Dtirer (1471-1548). 

This art also attained to great perfection in the i6th and I7th centuries in 
Spain, where Murillo (1618-1682) distinguished himself by his ardent inspir- 
ation and elevated spirit, combined with clearly defined forms and lively 
colouring. With him we may rank Velasquez (1599-1660), who was cele- 
brated for his portraits. 

In England the art 1 obtained a more tardy development. The most 
memorable of the older painters is William Hogarth (1697-1764), famed for 
his satirical and humorous representations of social traits. 




THE ESCURIAL, THE PALACE OF PHILIP II., MADRID. 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD 



THE ART OF Music. 




HANDEL. 



MUSICAL art was entirely reared in the 
bosom of the Church, and the liturgy 
learned its first language in Latin. The an- 
tiphonics, hymns, and vigils which are still 
used in the Catholic Church, are said to have 
been introduced by St. Ambrose, Archbishop 
of Milan (374-397), though the so-called Am- 
brosian Hymn of Praise, Te Deum laudamits, 
is by an unknown later composer. Pope 
Gregory the Great (590-604), the founder of a 
school for singing at Rome, was the author 
of the choral singing in unison called after his 
name, which soon spread throughout the whole 
of Christendom, and was especially promoted 
and fostered by Charles the Great and Alfred. 
The development of music in its theoretical 
form lay for a long time in the hands of the 
Church. Hucbald, a Flemish monk (died 930), made the first attempts at a 
system of harmony, and the Benedictine monk Guido von Arezzo's method 
of instruction in singing met with wide acceptance. The art of contrapuntal 
treatment was still further developed by Dufay in the 1 5th, and Ockenheim 
in the i6th century. 

Palestrina, the great composer of church music and the author of many 
immortal works, was born in 1524. He raised the hitherto abstract know- 
ledge of theories of sound to a noble, and purely ecclesiastical art. Alles- 
sandro Scarlatti (1658-1725) was the founder of the Neapolitan school of 
music, which also included the notable composers, Durante, Leo, and Astorga. 
Among a large number of composers of a free artistic development, such as 
Jomelli, Piccini, Sacchini, etc., Pergolese (1710-1737) was especially renowned 
for his beautiful and devout Stabat Mater. 

In contradistinction to the Italian school, German music, which had been 
practically promoted by Luther himself and his friend Ludwig Senfl, had 
in the meantime assumed a preponderating Protestant character. John 
Sebastian Bach (born in 1685 at Eisenach, died at Leipzig in 1750), obtained 
his artistic method from the Dutch school, and reproduced its contrapuntal 
art with the vigour of his own mystic intensity. He became, by his noble 
and elevated ecclesiastical style, the musical representative of Lutheranism, 
the original hardness of which he preserved even in his manner of composition. 
His beautiful and moving Passion music, and the incomparable Fugues for 
organ and piano (" Das wohltemperirte Clavier"), etc., are marvellous creations 
of genius. 

George Frederick Handel was born at Halle in 1685, and died in London 
in 1759. He was a giant both in body and in mind, and influenced by the 
original genius of his unsurpassed oratorios the musical tendencies of the 
whole of the succeeding century. The chief monument of his fame was 
the "Messiah," "a true Christian epic in tones" (Herder), which pourtrayed 
the life and sufferings of the Saviour. His remaining oratorios are " Joshua," 
"Jephtha," "Samson," "Saul," "Judas Maccabeus," and "Israel in Egypt." 




JOHN HUSS, AT THE STAKE, SUMMONED TO RECANT. 



THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION. 

ESTABLISHMENT OF NEW STATES UNDER CHARLES V. GREAT POWER 
OF THE AUSTRIAN HOUSE. FRANCIS I. AND HENRY VIIL PRO- 
GRESS OF THE REFORMATION IN EUROPE. THE LUTHERAN CHURCH. 
THE REFORMED CHURCH : ITS BRANCHES AND ITS PREACHERS. 

ZWINGLI AND CALVIN THE GERMAN RE- 
FORMATION : ITS CAUSES. DR. MARTIN 
LUTHER. THE NINETY-FIVE THESES AND 
THEIR CONSEQUENCES. FREDERICK, THE 
ELECTOR OF SAXONY. 

CHARLES THE FIFTH (1510-1556). 

IN the first half of the i6th century the Burgun- 
dian-Hapsburg reigning house was in possession 
of a kingdom such as had not existed since the days 
of Charlemagne. The representative of the house 
was Charles V., a man of rare wisdom, astute and 
cunning temper, and unwearied energy ; great in 
the Cabinet as a wise administrator of state business, and brave in the 
battle-field as a leader of troops of war. He held all the threads of politics 




42 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

in his hand, and directed them according to the secret plans of his soul, in 
the accomplishment of which every means, even falsehood and breach of 
faith, were deemed by him admissible. Frail in body, and with a melancholy 
expression on his pale face, he did not at the first glance exhibit the over- 
powering energy of his mind. While still, in his minority he was already i 
auler of the Netherlands, which fell to him as a paternal inheritance ; and 
as a youth, after the death of his maternal grandfather, Ferdinand the 
Catholic, he obtained possession of the united Spanish monarchy (15 16), 
with the beautiful kingdom of Naples and Sicily, the newly discovered 
countries of America, and the fruitful islands of the West Indies. He also 
inherited the Hapsburg- Austrian States, which he made over to his brother 
Ferdinand, and at last, through the choice of the electors, became the suc- 
cessor of his grandfather Maximilian on the throne of the German empire' 
(June, 1519). He could with truth say that the sun never set on his 
dominions. In all these states there existed powers hostile to the reigning 
monarch, in the subjugation of which different methods had to be employed. 
In the Netherlands a distrustful citizen-class, imbued with a proud party 
spirit, watched every action of the ruler of the country, that no encroachment 
might be made on its , privileges ; and was always ready, according to the 
ancient custom, to band 'itself together under the banner of insurrection, and 
fight with sword and shield. In Spain the haughty temper of the powerful 
feudal nobility, and the stubborn strength of a free citizen-class, could only be 
repressed with violence ; and even after the diminution and weakening of civil 
rights and liberties, the national pride of the Spaniards still demanded 
judicious treatment and supervision. 

In Southern Italy and Sicily the beautiful plains were disturbed by the 
Osmanli and the North African pirates, who destroyed trade and commerce, 
and carried off the Christians into slavery ; and on the frontier of the Austrian 
States the Turks made havoc with the sword, and the impetuous Moslem 
burned with the desire of planting the crescent on the battlements of 
Vienna. In Germany the numerous princes and nobles dreaded the return 
to a powerful Imperial rule, under which they would forfeit their rights and 
possessions, and therefore endeavoured to tie the hands of their ruler at his 
coronation by restrictions and stipulations. The greatest complication was, 
however, brought about by the religious schism, in which the emperor's plans 
and interests were opposed by the wishes of the people and the privileges 
of the princes. Charles boldly encountered every difficulty ; and though he 
could not vanquish all the obstacles before him, yet he resisted them with 
dignity and composure. His plan, however, for giving unity once more to the 
separate States of the German empire, and to the divided Church, and restor- 
ing the past splendour of the Imperial crown, and the old supremacy over the 
Papal see, was frustrated by events brought about by a higher power, which 
mocked at all human wisdom and calculation. Next to the schism in the 
Church, he detested republican constitutions and civil and municipal rights ; 
but there was no longer a place in Europe for an absolute universal mon- 
archy with religious uniformity, such as he desired to establish. 



THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION. 



43 




ANNE BOLEYN. 



JANE SEYMOUR. 



CATHERINE PARR. 



FRANCIS I. AND HENRY VIII. 




I^HE most prominent contempo- 
raneous sovereigns were Francis 
I. of France, and Henry VIII. of 
England, two princes who resembled 
each other in many particulars ; for 
while they derived their chivalrous 
characteristics from the bygone 
period of the Middle Ages, they 
both, by their love of art and know- 
ledge, their frivolous passion for 
pleasure, and their despotic temper, 
made themselves the foremost fig- 
ures of their own day. In many 
particulars Francis and Henry formed a contrast to Charles ; they were 
as impetuous, rash, and careless, as he was wise, circumspect, and thoughtful. 
All three were subject to feminine influence ; but while the two former 
allowed themselves to be led in the most important matters by female 
advisers Francis laying the foundation of the intrigues which prevailed, 
to the advantage of the country, and Henry, by his love for Anne Boleyn, 
hastening the separation of the English Church from Rome Charles fol- 
lowed the counsels of wise statesmen, especially the cultured and astute 
Granvella, and the dictates of his own judgment ; and only availed himself of 
female influence when he could, by such means, the more readily attain his 
end. It was a happy thing for the liberty of the nations that these three 
princes, who regarded neither national nor human rights, were held back 
from coalition by the different nature of their interests, and were even disposed 
to make war with each other. Between Francis and Charles there existed 
an unquenchable jealousy, caused by the similarity of their efforts and aspira- 
tions. In the proud consciousness of their powers, and spurred on by ambition 



44 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



and love of fame, each desired to be the first prince in Europe, and eagerly 
endeavoured to gain the imperial crown, which alone could confer this supe- 
riority. Charles was victorious, and Francis henceforward sought to weaken 
his power by always espousing the cause of his enemies. In the first rank of 
these enemies stood Henry of Albret, son of the king John whom Ferdinand 
had deprived of Upper Navarre, which he united with Castile. Henry, who 
had married Margaret, the sister of Francis, possessed only Lower Navarre 
with the little country of Beam to the north of the Pyrenees ; and with the 
help of his brother-in-law he now wished to regain possession of the whole 
kingdom. Among Charles's other enemies were the Dutch princes Charles 
of Egmont, who defended Guelderland against the aggression of Burgundy, 
and William of Cleve, who was then at war with the Emperor regarding the 
possession of the same dukedom of Burgundy ; and finally the Protestant 
princes of Germany. Even with the Turks did the " most Christian " king of 
France ally himself against his hated rival, who everywhere gained the advan- 
tage over him. Had Henry VIII. been a diplomatic prince, he might easily 
have derived advantage from this state of affairs ; but as he only followed 
his own caprices, and, without political motives, first espoused one side and 
then the other, he had little influence on the progress of events. By his 
divorce from Catherine of Aragon, he quarrelled with his nephew, the 
Emperor, and henceforward allied himself more closely to France. 




KING HENRY VIII., FROM A PORTRAIT BY HOLBEIN. 



THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION. 



45 




CATHEDRAL AT DRONTHEIM. 



PROGRESS OF THE REFORMATION IN EUROPE. 
THE LUTHERAN CHURCH. 

FROM the University of 
Wittenberg there origi- 
nated, from small begin- 
nings, the spiritual move- 
ment which inflicted the 
most powerful blow on the 
hierarchical structure of the 
Middle Ages. From Saxony 
and Hesse, which first adop- 
ted the new religious form, 
the Lutheran reformation 
gradually extended, amid 
many conflicts, through the 
neighbouring countries, 
gained the supremacy in 
the north of Germany, pene- 
trated into Franconia and 
Swabia, to the Rhine and the 
Danube, and made its way from Strasburg to Alsace and Lorraine. The nume- 
rous towns of the empire, with their educated citizen-class, were the head- 
quarters of evangelical doctrine. Luther's teaching soon penetrated to the 
Vistula, where the grand-master of the Teutonic order, Albrecht of Branden- 
burg, beset by the Poles and the warlike citizens of Dantzig and Elbing, and 
deserted by the emperor, joined the Evangelical Church (1525), transformed 
Prussia into a hereditary dukedom, and exchanged the German for the Polish 
supremacy. The same thing was accomplished in Courland and Livonia by 
the commander of the sword-bearers, and Luther's doctrine also reached the 
countries of the Baltic. In Sweden Gustavus Vasa changed the constitution 
and the church (1527) ; he created an independent kingdom, introduced 
the Augsburg Confession, and conferred on the newly-established throne a 
portion of the Church revenues. In Denmark, Norway and Iceland the 
victory of the evangelical faith was connected with the issues of the struggle 
for the throne, by means of which the Lutheran king, Christian III., ob- 
tained the supremacy (1536). In Bohemia the old Hussite agitation was 
re-awakened, and facilitated the importation of evangelical doctrine ; but 
neither there nor in Hungary and Transylvania did the new gospel obtain a 
complete victory, because the Hapsburg reigning house favoured the old 
Church in all its states. Nevertheless the numerous believers in the Lutheran 
Confession obtained in these countries both religious freedom and equality. 

More zealously than the first Austrian princes Ferdinand I. and Maxi- 
milian II. did the two dukes of Bavaria exert themselves for the maintenance 
of the old faith, which possessed an active seminary in the University of 
Ingolstadt. The ecclesiastical body in the empire also remained for the most 
part in the Catholic Church ; for the clergy had no wish to risk their revenues, 
and their independent position as" abbots. In Cologne only did the aged 
and venerable archbishop Hermann of Wied commence a reformation of a 
moderate character ; but the emperor's victory near Miihlberg resulted in his 
removal and the suppression of his undertaking. 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



THE REFORMED CHURCH. 




i 



MEMORIAL MEDAL OF THE CONFESSION OF 
AUGSBURG. 



N the meantime Ulrich Zwingli 
had commenced in Zurich the 
reformation of Switzerland (1518). 
While the thoughtful Luther, who was 
tortured by inward struggles and the 
overpowering feeling of the helpless- 
ness of men through sin, with his 
monarchical predilections, worked on 
the basis of existing things ; and 
sought by the purification of faith, 
on which alone he declared justifica- 
tion to rest, to influence daily social 
life ; Zwingli, who was a free, light- 
hearted republican, went back to the 
original state of Christianity ; and in 
his sense of the necessities of practical 
existence, sought first of all to im- 
prove life and morals, and to give a 
new aspect to the confederacy in its 
moral, ecclesiastical, and political relationship. Unfortunately the various 
conceptions of the doctrine of the Lord's Supper soon brought about a new 
schism in the Church. Zwingli's active reformation took root in Zurich and 
Berne, in the Rhine valley, and in the eastern cantons, and would probably 
have penetrated throughout the whole confederacy, had not the battle of 
Kappel (1531), where Zwingli and the flower of the Protestant citizens of 
Zurich died a heroic death, put a stop to its extension. 

Greater in its extent and operations was the Reformed Church of Calvin, 
who coincided with Luther in his narrow Augustinian doctrine of predestina- 
tion, but agreed with Zwingli with regard to Church constitution and discipline, 
and in the conception of the Lord's Supper occupied a middle position 
between the two. The beautiful town of Geneva, situated on the boundary of 
Savoy and France, became the headquarters of that democratic Calvinism 
which made rapid progress through Italian Switzerland which in the northern 
provinces of the Netherlands advanced victoriously with political inde- 
pendence which was recognised in the south of France by over two thousand 
communities which numbered adherents in Italy and Spain and in the vicinity 
of the Pope and emperor and which, in its extreme form, planted its banner 
on the ruins of the cloisters and cathedrals, as the Presbyterian Church of 
Scotland. Calvin's doctrines even penetrated to Germany, and increased the 
schism and disunion. In the Rhenish Palatinate the Calvinistic faith, which 
was laid down in the Heidelberg catechism, obtained the supremacy, which 
excited such irritation among the Lutheran princes, that the Elector felt 
himself obliged to enter into an alliance with foreign states (the Netherlands, 
England, and France) to secure himself against attacks. 

In France the old and new Churches long strove together for the victory. 
Francis I., who was allied with the Protestant princes of Germany and with 
the schismatic king of England, was frequently invited to revolt from Rome. 
He also often meditated the subject of a reformation, and caused urgent 
invitations to be sent to Melancthon. But partly his alliance with the Pope, 
who made over to the king the appointment of ecclesiastical offices, and who 



THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION. 



47 



appeared indispensable to his recovery of the dukedom of Milan and partly 
his despotic temper, which disposed him to hate every free popular movement, 
kept him fast to the old Church. Religion was as much regarded at the court 
as in Italy ; but it was hardly possible that voluptuous and pleasure-loving 
courtiers could find satisfaction in the severe morality of Calvinism. Soon^ 




TROUBLES IN GERMANY DESTRUCTION OF A PRINTING OFFICE. 

therefore, commands were issued against the publication of Calvinistic and 
Lutheran writings ; the boldest reformers died in the flames, and the destruc- 
tion of several districts in Provence inhabited by Waldenses, proved the 
earnest intention of the court to maintain the old Church in its accustomed 
ascendancy. 

In Spain the Inquisition soon put an end to Protestantism ; suspected 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



believers either died in horrible dungeons or on the funeral pile (autos daft], 
the favourite popular show. In Italy the enemies of the hierarchy greeted 
the new movement with delight. In all the larger towns the evangelical 
doctrine gained adherents, especially in Ferrara under the support of the duchess 
of Este ; but the spirituality of German and French Protestantism could 
not become the popular cause among so artistic a people. Therefore, when 
the danger was recognised at Rome, and a tribunal of the Inquisition was 
established with terrible powers, many escaped across the Alps ; others recanted, 
and degenerated into frivolity, indifference, or madness. Fearful of the mighty 
eloquence of martyrdom, the Inquisition struck terror by means of imprison- 
ment, the galleys, and secret execution. In Calabria only, some Waldenses 
were hunted like wild beasts. Towards the end of the century the traces of 

every Protestant community 
had vanished. Among the 
fugitives were highly es- 
teemed theologians and pre- 
lates. With a few exceptions 
they pined away in foreign 
countries. In Spain and 
Italy, where every one who 
abjured the doctrines of the 
Church was persecuted with 
equal severity, a few thinkers 
formulated theories which 
were rejected as heretical, 
even by the reformers them- 
selves ; as, for instance, the 
two Italians, Socinus, who 
denied the Divinity of Christ 
and the doctrine of the 
Trinity, and who founded the 
far-spreading sect of Socin- 
ians or Unitarians ; and the 
Spaniard, Michael Servetus, 
who was burnt to death at 
Geneva, at Calvin's instiga- 
tion, on account of his fana- 
tical opinions regarding the 
Trinity. In England the 
followers of Luther, the old Lollards, were at first cruelly persecuted ; until 
Henry VIII. quarrelled with the Pope concerning his divorce, caused the 
English Church to be separated from Rome, and declared himself its supreme 
head. But with the exception of the dissolution of the monasteries and the 
destruction of the sacred images, nothing was accomplished in his reign for 
the purification of the Church. Lutherans and Papists died on the same 
gallows. 

Not till the reign of Henry's son Edward VI. (1547-1553) was the English 
Church established by means of Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury. The 
next sovereign, Mary (1553-1558), endeavoured to annul his work, and to 
restore Catholicism by burning the reformers ; but the Act of Uniformity of 
her sister Elizabeth gave the victory to the Anglican religion. On the other 
hand the Puritans, who strove for the purification of the Church according to 




CALVIN. 



THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION. 



49 



the principles of Calvin, were cruelly persecuted, and were compelled to 
fly to the free soil of North America, where, split up into numerous sects, 
they brought to perfect development the democratic system of that reformer. 
In Ireland the old faith remained the religion of the people, although the 
sovereigns of England endeavoured by tyrannical laws to procure recognition 
there of the religious decrees of Parliament, and divided the whole Irish 
Church property among the English hierarchy and aristocracy. The Irish 
people, who were badly instructed in the new doctrine, and were not ripe for 
the intellectual conception of Christianity, preferred to obey the exhortations 
of their priests rather than the commands of their hated neighbours, particu- 
larly as the gospel in the English language was as incomprehensible to them 
as the Latin mass. 



THE GERMAN REFORMATION. * 




SINCE the hopes 
that had been 
raised by the great 
councils at Con- 
stance and Basle 
had died away, ill- 
humour and dis- 
satisfaction had 
prevailed through- 
out all classes in 
Germany at the 
condition of ec- 
clesiastical affairs. 
The princes were 
angry that all their 
remonstrances with 
the popes, to in- 
duce them to un- 
dertake a volun- 
tary reformation of 
the Church, re- 
mained unheeded ; 
that ecclesiastical 
jurisdiction im- 
peded the course 
of civil justice; that 
the Papal Court, 



through the exten- 
rights 



sion of its 
of dispensation and 
other privileges, 
LUTHER TEACHING CHILDREN. absorbed every- 

thing into itself; that by means of the annates, the appointment of foreign 
cardinals to benefices, the exaction of fines, and the taxation of the churches 
of the land, the country was being drained of its riches. The German prelates 
were vexed at the encroachments on their privileges made by the Roman 

VOL. II. E 



50 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

Curiae. The lower clergy regarded with envy the mendicant friars, who, 
endowed with high privileges by the Roman see, used them with great in- 
fluence among the people. The pious took umbrage at the worldly conduct 
of the prelates, and the immorality of many of the clergy. The enlightened 
party or men of progress were indignant at the superstition which was pur- 
posely fostered among the people, and which showed itself in the exaggerated 
worship of images and relics, and in the veneration of the saints. The 
philosophers looked down with contempt on the ignorance, stupidity, and 
intellectual sluggishness of too many of the monks and clergy, while they at 
the same time attacked the artificial structure of scholasticism and church 
doctrine, partly with the philosophical weapons of classic antiquity, and partly 
by investigation of the Holy Scriptures, to which the people had no access, 
and of the writings of the Fathers of the Church. The towns of the empire 
found themselves prejudiced in many ways by the freedom of the clergy from 
their laws and institutions ; their privileges were frequently violated ; the right 
of asylum interfered with the exercise of civil justice and the police, the 
monasteries and the frequent saints' days encouraged begging and knavery, 
which was above all obnoxious to the respectable citizen class. No wonder, 
therefore, that the popular literature directed its satirical attacks and mockery 
chiefly at the monks and clergy. In Saxony and the neighbouring districts 
the seeds of the Hussite heresy were not yet entirely exterminated, and 
fostered a spirit of opposition in the common man, who was often injured by 
the high taxes imposed by a Church whose indifferent pastors gave him little 
consolation in time of trouble. 




PRINTING THE FIRST SHEET OF THE BIBLE. 



THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION. 



M 



DR. MARTIN LUTHER. 

ARTIN LUTHER 
was born at Eisle- 
ben on the loth of Novem- 
ber, 1483. His father was 
a miner belonging to a 
peasant family at Mohra, 
which afterwards migrated 
' to Mansfeld. Here in the 
healthy mountain air of the 
Thuringian Forest Luther 
grew up under strict dis- 
cipline. As his father de- 
signed him for the study of 
the law, he was sent in his 
fifteenth year to school at 
Eisenach, and afterwards 
to the University of Erfurt. 
For four years he diligently 
pursued his studies there, 
until his painful solicitude 
regarding the salvation of 
his soul, the sudden death 
of a friend, and his own 
narrow escape in a heavy 
thunderstorm, made him 
resolve to enter a monas- 
tery. On one last occa- 
sion he made merry with 
his friends with song and 
wine, and then withdrew to the quiet cell of an Augustine monastery. Here 
he fulfilled conscientiously all the duties and services of a mendicant friar ; 
but neither self-abasement and mortification nor the indefatigable study of 
theology could alleviate the sadness of his soul, and the painful longing of the 
creature for union with his Creator. The inactive life in a solitary cell in- 
creased his tendency to mysticism, and added to his melancholy and mental 
sufferings, until at last he found peace in the belief that man will be saved, 
not through his own works, but through his belief in the mercy of God through 
Christ. At the command of Staupitz, the principal of the order, who had 
won Luther's confidence, and had given him consolation and guidance, he 
went in 1508 to Wittenberg, to give theological lectures at the University 
recently established by the elector Frederick the Wise. In this congenial 
field of labour he soon displayed the greatest activity. He fulfilled his duty 
as preacher and guardian of souls ; he interested himself in the concerns of 
his monastery, for which in 1511 he undertook a journey to Rome, and he 
delivered lectures and engaged -In intellectual labours, which were partly 
aimed at the interpretation of Holy Scriptures, and partly at the counter- 
action of scholasticism and self-righteousness. 




LUTHER AND MELANCTHON. 




LUTHER AND THE NINETY-FIVE THESES. 



THE PERIOD OF THE REFORMATION. 



53 



THE NINETY-FIVE THESES. 

A3OUT this time the Elector Albrecht of Mayence, at the instigation of 
Leo X., and to provide means for building St. Peter's Church, caused an 
indulgence to be offered for sale, in which the purchaser was promised forgive- 
ness of sins, the attainment once more of the grace of God, and liberation 
from the punishment of hell-fire. Albrecht, who took half the profit, engaged 
the services of a Dominican named Tetzel, who went so noisily to work that 
Luther, who saw that true penitence and the authority of the confessional 
would be thereby endangered, felt himself compelled to issue the ninety-five 
Theses, which were nailed to the door of the church at Wittenberg on the 
Eve of All Saints', 1517. In these propositions he contested the validity of 
remission without repentance, denied that the Pope had the right to give 
absolution to others than penitents, and declared that the indulgence could 
only save from Church punishment, but could not confer the grace of God. 
He also testified to the difference between false penances and true penitence, 
between formal creeds and inward faith, between a dead self-righteousness 
and truly good works. The bold action of a man whose deep religious ear- 
sestness could not be doubted met with great sympathy throughout Germany, 
especially among the cultivated youth ; and this interest was still further 
increased by the feeble arguments with which Tetzel and other champions of 
Papal supremacy endeavoured to confute him. 

The Curiae caused Luther to be summoned to Rome ; but on the interces- 
sion of the Elector, who was favourable to the reformer, the Papal nuncio, 
the learned Dominican Cajetanus, held the trial at Augsburg (1518). The 
proud prince of the Church believed he should easily confute the humble 
monk with his scholastic learning ; but Luther showed more depth and erudi- 
tion than he had given him credit for. After a short disputation, Cajetan 
commanded him to depart, and not to appear before him again until he was 
recalled. After issuing an appeal to a Pope to be better instructed, Luther 
escaped from Augsburg with the assistance of a few friends. In vain 
did Cajetan demand of the Elector either to surrender the audacious 
preacher at Rome,, or to banish him from his states ; Frederick replied that 
Luther's demand to be tried before an impartial tribunal appeared to him just. 
Partly approval of Luther's evangelical temper, and partly regard for the 
welfare of the university and for public opinion, decided the brave prince to 
espouse his cause. 





THE STRIFE OF THE REFORMATION. 

THE DISPUTATION AT LEIPSIC. THE SENTENCE OF EXCOMMUNICATION. 
THE DIET AT WORMS. LUTHER FACE TO FACE WITH THE PA- 
PACY. THE REFUGE AT THE WARTBURG. ORIGIN OF THE SCHISM 
IN GERMANY. TROUBLES AND UPRISINGS AMONG THE PEOPLE ; 
THE PEASANTS' WAR. THOMAS MUNZER, THE FANATIC. ATTITUDE 
OF ULRICH VON HUTTEN, FRANZ VON SICKINGEN, AND OTHER MEN 
OF THE TIME. POPULAR LEADERS ; GOTZ VON BERLICHINGEN, ETC. 
CRUELTIES OF THE PEASANTS. VIOLENT PUTTING DOWN OF THE 
MOVEMENT. 

THE LEIPSIC DISPUTATION. 



IN the January of 1519, the Emperor Maximilian 
died. Until the quarrelsome electors agreed in 
the choice of a successor, Frederick the Wise carried 
on the administration of the government in Northern 
Germany, and it was generally desired that he him- 
self should wear the Imperial crown. This state of 
affairs served Luther's purpose. The Pope, who 
dreaded the return of mediaeval Imperialism if the 
choice fell on the powerful and diplomatic Charles, 
secretly favoured the candidature of the French 
king Francis I., and therefore endeavoured to win 
over Frederick to his side. He despatched his 
chamberlain Miltiz, an accomplished Saxon noble- 
man, with a golden rose, the sign of Papal favour, to 
the chamberlain. Miltiz summoned Luther to an in- 
terview, declared him right with regard to the abuses 
of the indulgence, which he unfeignedly censured, and by means of friendly 
representations as to the disadvantages of a rupture, and the assurance that 
the scandalous proceeding should be discontinued, obtained from him the 
promise that he would drop the dispute regarding the indulgence, if his 




THE STRIFE OF THE REFORMATION. 55 

opponents would also be silent on the subject. At the same time Luther 
promised to encourage obedience and veneration for the Roman see, and to 
assure the Pope in a letter that it had never been his intention to interfere 
with the privileges of the Papal crown. And both these assurances he openly 
and honourably fulfilled. Not long afterwards John Eck, professor at 
Ingolstadt, invited the Wittenberg theologians, Dr. Carlstadt and Luther to a 
disputation. This took place at Leipsic (1519), in the presence of the duke 
and many distinguished listeners. On this occasion Luther disputed the 
assertion of Eck that the primateship of the Pope was derived through Peter 
from Christ Himself, and proved that the Bishop of Rome had become the 
head of the Church, not through Divine right, but through the human insti- 
tution of later centuries. Eck, who could not refute Luther's arguments, cast 
at him the reproach of Hussite heresy, and thus extorted from him the 
bold assertion that there might be some essentially Christian and evangelical 
doctrines in the teachings of Huss, and that it would be difficult to prove the 
infallibility of the councils. 



THE SENTENCE OF EXCOMMUNICATION. 

T)HILIP MELANCTHON of Bretten 
J7 (1497-1560), who, shortly before the 
disputation, had been summoned to Wit- 
tenberg as a teacher of Greek and Hebrew 
literature, had accompanied Luther to 
Leipsic, entered with enthusiasm into all 
his plans, and endeavoured as friend, coun- 
sellor, and mediator, to further his schemes 
to the utmost. While Luther's vehement 
and impetuous strength was directed to- 
wards the pulling down of abuses, Melanc- 
thon's gentle and pliable nature was more 
adapted to the work of reconstruction. 
Under Melancthon's influence the Saxon 
university and Church system reached a 
state of prosperity ; and learning as well 
as Protestant theology honoured in him 
one of its greatest promoters. 

W T hile Luther and Melancthon, in their 
different ways, were both attaining to the conception that the Papacy was not 
a Divine institution, and neither it nor the councils could claim infallibility, 
Eck wrote a learned book, in which from the Papal decrees and the Fathers 
of the Church, he sought to establish the opposite theory ; and hastened with 
it to Rome, where he met with a very favourable reception. At his instiga- 
tion a sentence of excommunication was issued (1520), in which a number of 
Luther's doctrines were condemned as heterodox, his writings were ordered to 
be burnt, and he himself was threatened with excommunication if he did not 
recant within sixty days. Eck then returned in triumph to Germany, where, 
as the Papal plenipotentiary, he proclaimed the bull with great ostentation. 
But in Cologne, Mayence, and Louvain only, was the command for the burn- 
ing of Luther's writings complied with ; in Saxony the bull was not even 
regarded, and there was great indignation throughout the whole of Germany 
at the sentence of condemnation which the court of Rome, without havin^ 




MELANCTHON. 



56 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

heard the accused, had promulgated under the influence of his greatest op- 
ponent. 

In this state of feeling, Luther's two publications, " To the Christian Nobility 
of Germany," and " The Babylonian Captivity and Christian Freedom," made 
a powerful impression. Encouraged by the enthusiasm with which these 
works were received, Luther now ventured on a step which separated him 
with an impassable chasm from the Romish Church. He advanced at the 
head of the whole student class before the Elster gate of Wittenberg, and by 
way of retaliation for the burning of his own writings, cast the ban of excom- 
munication, with the canonical book of law, into the flames, with the words : 
" Because thou hast grieved the holy ones of the Lord, mayst thou be 
consumed by eternal fire." 




LUTHER AT THE UNIVERSITY OF WITTENBERG. 



THE DIET AT WORMS (APRIL, 1521). 

WHEN the young emperor, Charles V., proceeded up the Rhine after hii 
coronation at Aix-la-Chapelle in the beginning of the year 1521, 
Sickingen and other champions of national liberty eagerly conjured him to 
place himself at the head of the movement, and to promote the establishment 
of a national Church of Germany. But Charles comprehended neither the 
language nor the character of the people whose crown he wore ; and his own 
convictions and the persuasive art of the Papal delegate, Alexander, made 
him from the first an opponent of the Reformation. 



THE STRIFE OF THE REFORMATION. 57 

Luther now received a summons to attend the Diet at Worms, which he 
obeyed not without fear of experiencing the fate of Huss, but steadfastly 
relying on his confidence in God. The brilliant assembly, at which besides 
the emperor and nuncio, many princes, lords, prelates, and municipal delegates 
were present, at first disconcerted him. When asked to recant, he begged to 
be allowed to consider until the following *3ay. On his second appearance, 
however, he had entirely regained his strength and composure, and the ex- 
pectant interest of the numerous assembly filled him with animation. Frankly 
and openly he declared himself the author of the writings placed before him, 
repelled the invitation to recant with the declaration that as long as he was 
not convicted of error by the words of Holy Scripture, he could not and 
would not recant, because his conscience was imprisoned in the word of God, 
and concluded, according to an old tradition, with the exclamation : " Here I 
stand. I can say nothing else. God help me ! Amen !" All attempts to in- 
duce him to make a more moderate declaration were fruitless ; but the interest 
and enthusiasm of nobles and people were expressed so unrestrainedly, that it 
was impossible to have recourse to force. Luther departed unharmed, and 
several princes and deputies did likewise. Then only was the ban of the 
empire pronounced against Luther and his followers, and his writings were 
condemned to be burnt. Charles V., now in close alliance with the Pope, was 
determined to exterminate heresy. 

THE WARTBURG. 

TUTHER, however, was already in safety. On his homeward journey the 
1 ^ Elector Frederick caused him to be taken and detained as a prisoner at 
the Wartburg. Here he remained for nearly a year, at first lamented by his 
friends, until spirited letters against the confessional, monastic oaths, etc., and 
an indignant epistle to Albrecht of Mayence, who once more disposed of an 
indulgence, convinced them that he still lived. Albrecht, however, repented, 
and dropped the transaction. While Luther led an active existence at the 
Wartburg, though much tried with ill health and melancholy, there arose 
disturbances at Wittenberg, caused by the innovations of a new reformer, Dr. 
Carlstadt, who abolished mass, gave the cup to the laity at the sacrament, 
and waged war against images and ceremonies. Soon there were allied with 
him the so-called Zwickau Prophets, men without culture, and dominated by 
fanatical opinions ; who inveighed against infant baptism, because, in their 
view, a sacrament without faith had no meaning, and who combined with the 
re-baptism of adults, whence they obtained the name of Anabaptists, all kinds 
of fanatical opinions of direct inspiration from God. In some of the churches 
images and priestly robes were destroyed monks and nuns escaped from the 
cloister, and confusion everywhere prevailed. Luther could now no longer 
rest at the Wartburg. He hastened to Wittenberg, preached daily for a week 
against precipitate, lawless innovations, repelled the fanatics of Zwickau, and 
won over the public mind to a peaceful development of the Reformation. 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD 



ORIGIN OF THE GREAT RELIGIOUS QUARREL IN GERMANY. 

Pope Adrian VI. (1522-1523), once professor at Louvain and the instructor 
of Charles V., was a learned and amiable man, and was averse to the abuses 
of the Church, no less than the Lutheran reformers. He abolished simony and 
the sale of indulgences, and restrained within bounds the luxury of the court ; 
thereby rousing the ill will of his Italian courtiers, who missed in him the 
elevated taste and refined culture of his predecessors, and had little esteem 
for his severe moral life. To the joy of the frivolous-minded Romans, he 




THE WARTBURG, AS RESTORED AT THE PRESENT DAY. 

died in the second year of his pontificate, and Clement VII. (1523-1534), ?: 
Medicis, became his successor. This wise and cultured prince, who had equally 
at heart the extension of the Church-state and the aggrandizement of his 
house, and the welfare of the Church, believed that with diplomatic skill and 
the refined arts of the Cabinet he could check the powerful Church movement. 
But what he succeeded in gaining in one quarter he lost doubly in another. 
Under the mediation of his nuncio, Cardinal Campeggio, the Duke of Bavaria, 
Ferdinand of Austria, and most of the South German bishops entered into a 
league at Regensburg for mutual protection and the exclusion of the Witten- 
berg innovations from their countries. In vain did the princes who favoured 



THE STRIFE OF THE REFORMATION. 



59 



the evangelical party endeavour to rouse their followers to united action with 
regard to ecclesiastical affairs, and with this object proposed a general meeting 
at Spires. The emperor, who was now the Pope's ally, forbade the assembly, 
and induced the latter to strengthen himself by establishing the Anti-league 
of Torgau for mutual co-operation against every attack on the word of God 
(1526). 

It is true that shortly afterwards Charles, who had quarrelled with the Pope 
concerning affairs in Italy, permitted the assembly at Spires ; but it was soon 
evident that a general reform of the German Church was not yet practicable, 




ATTACK ON TRAVELLERS IN THE THURINGIAN FOREST. 

therefore it was conceded to every class in the kingdom " so to regard the 
edict of Worms as he could answer it before God and the Emperor's majesty/' 
and at the same time permitted to every lord of the soil to regulate the con- 
ditions of the Church in his own territory according to his discretion, until a 
free council should make universal decisions. Thus the axiom cujus regio 
ejus religio prevailed, and the seeds of an unfortunate rupture were scattered 
in Germany just at the moment when the freedom and independence of the 
nation was the aspiration of its noblest spirits. 



60 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

THE PEASANTS' WAR. 

THE powerlessness of the temporal authorities, combined with the tyranny 
of a rude aristocracy whose Juxury and self-indulgence increased the 
burdens of the lower classes, at last excited, at the beginning of the sixteenth 
century, a general movement of revolt among the oppressed people. Signs 
of rebellion had already shown themselves in the Netherlands, where large 
bands of peasants marched up and down the country, displaying on their 
banner "Cheese and Bread." The subjects of the Abbot of Kempten expelled 
their harsh master, and obtained for themselves better conditions, and at 
Spires, Schlettstadt, and in the Rhine districts, the " Shoe-league " raised the 
standard of insurrection. With the most terrible oaths the leaguers swore 
fidelity and secrecy. In Swabia the oppressive taxation and the debasement 
of the weights and measures by the extravagant Duke Ulrich of Wurtemberg 
led to an armed rising of the peasants' league " of poor Conrad." In Austria 
and Carinthia also, threatening movements took place, and in Hungary the 
people had taken up arms against the nobility and clergy. Besides relief of 
their material needs, the German peasants also demanded the abolition of 
ecclesiastical courts of justice; they did not wish to be judged by jurists 
according to the laws of Rome. 

Though these different insurrections were soon repressed, they were never- 
theless indications of a far-reaching, embittered feeling, and might be regarded 
as forewarnings of a great conflict. The remembrance of these events had 
not yet vanished when the general call to freedom and independence, which, 
since Luther's appearance, had resounded throughout Germany, excited 
among the peasant classes bold aspirations and desires, which were fostered 
by different circumstances. 

At first Sickingen, Hutten, and others appear to have favoured the move- 
ment with the view of placing themselves at its head, and accomplishing with 
the sword the political and religious reformation of Germany. Sickingen's 
quarrel with the Archbishop of Treves is said to have caused the commence- 
ment of the conflict. As Luther, however, disapproved of every violent pro- 
ceeding, and did not wish the word of God to be protected by weapons of the 
flesh, Sickingen's undertaking did not meet with the desired support ; and his 
death at the siege of his fortress, Landstuhl, delayed the outbreak of the 
rebellion for two years. Then several Anabaptists, who had been driven out 
of Saxony, especially the fanatical Thomas Miinzer, traversed South Germany, 
spoke of the abolition of spiritual and temporal power, and the establishment 
of a heavenly kingdom where all men would be equal, and all disparity be- 
tween rich and poor, noble and commoner, would disappear. These doctrines 
penetrated as far as the Black Forest and the district round the Lake of 
Constance, where the example of the neighbouring country of Switzerland, 
, which, with its own strength alone, had broken the power of foreign despotism, 
1 excited emulation, and where the Austrian Government sought with extreme 
| severity to maintain old institutions, and thus provoked a feeling of bitterness. 
; Before long all the] population from the Wirbach to the Dreisam gathered 
round Hans Miiller of Bulgenbach, who had formerly been a soldier, and now 
offered himself to the peasants as their leader. Bearing with them twelve 
Articles, which they were prepared to enforce with the edge of the sword, they 
marched from place to place, demanding right of hunting, fishing, wood- 
gathering, etc., the abolition of serfdom, of feudal compulsory labour and 
tithes, the right of choosing their clergy, and the free preaching of the gospel. 



THE STRIFE OF THE REFORMATION. 



61 



The example of the North was soon followed by the peasants in the 
Odenwald, on the Neckar, and in Franconia, under the leadership of the bold 
George Metzler of Ballenberg. They compelled the Counts of Hohenlohe, 
Lowenstein, Wertheim, Gemmingen, the principals of the German orders at 
Mergentheim, and others to accept the Articles, and whoever ventured to 
resist them died a violent death. Burning and destroying all before them, 
they marched through the country, obeying only the dictates of their rude 
and vehement nature, destroying fortresses and monasteries, and taking 
bloody vengeance on their adversaries. Under the guidance of brave leaders, 
such as Florian Geier and Gotz von Berlichingen, they traversed the Wiirzburg 
district, while the other bands ravaged the Baden country, expelled the Mar- 




MARP.URG, 



grave Ernst, who would not yield to their demands, and detroyed his castles 
Soon the rebellion spread through the whole of Swabia, Franconia, Alsace, 
and all the country on both banks of the Rhine. The spiritual and temporal 
lords were now overcome with fear, and agreed to the demands of the 
peasants. The Elector of the Palatinate entered into a treaty with them ; 
the small towns, which had suffered much through the arrogance and brutality 
of the rapacious nobility, espoused their cause, and even in the larger towns 
popular fermentations showed themselves in a similar manner. 

In Thuringia and on the Harz Mountains the insurrection was inspired 
more by religious fanaticism. At Miihlhausen, Thomas Miinzer was held in x 
high esteem, and had obtained the renown of a prophet. He rejected 
Luther's moderate opinions, girded himself with the "sword of Gideon," and 
wished to establish a kingdom of God, with perfect liberty and equality of 



62 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



all members. Carried away by his preaching, the people in their wild fury 
destroyed castles and monasteries, and all the memorials of antiquity. 

At the commencement, when the rebellion had not assumed such a threaten- 
ing aspect, Luther counselled peace*; he restrained the princes and lords of 
the soil from acts of violence, and at the same time admonished the peasantry 
to desist from the rebellion. When the danger increased, however, he issued 
a violent manifesto against "the rapacious and murderous peasantry," in 
which he implored the authorities to have recourse to the sword and to exercise 
no compassion. Thereupon princes and warriors flocked together from all 
sides, and took up arms against the rebels. The Elector John of Saxony, 




WANDERING HANDS OF INSURGENTS. 



Landgrave Philip of Hesse, and others, marched into Thuringia, and won, by 
means of their guns and well-disciplined mercenaries, an easy victory over 
Thomas Miinzer and his badly armed infatuated band of peasants, who, 
singing and praying, awaited the intervention of heavenly hosts on their behalf 
(1525). At Miihlhausen the gallows were destroyed, on which the " prophet " 
of Thuringia had met his bloody death after cruel tortures, and in Franken- 
hausen the warriors waded in the blood of the whole male population. About 
the same time the peasantry of Alsace succumbed to the troops of Duke 
Anton of Lorraine ; in spite of the treaty that had been concluded, they were 
surprised as they were retiring, and 17,000 men were slain. Their leader 
Erasmus was tied to a willow-tree, and amid derision was cruelly put to 






THE STRIFE OF THE REFORMATION. 63 

death. In Swabia the Lord High Steward of Waldburg, captain of the 
Swabian league, restored tranquillity, and then, having joined the Palsgrave of 
the Rhine and the warlike Archbishop of Treves, he marched against the 
Franconian troops, who were besieging the fortified castle of Wiirzburg. Here 
also superior skill and weapons triumphed over the undisciplined masses. 
After a short resistance they betook themselves to disorderly flight, in which 
the greater part met their death. 

Similar event took place on the Middle Rhine, where the united troops of 
Treves and Basle scattered the insurrectionists, and restored order. In the 
Black Forest and in the district near the sources of the Danube, the Lord 
High Steward of Waldburg and the renowned warrior George of Frundsberg 
met with greater resistance ; but fire and murder soon thinned the ranks of 
the insurgents, and here also peace was once more established. In most of 
the countries the peasantry were again oppressed by all their former burdens ; 
as the beginning of the peasant war was nothing but a wild act of violence, 
so its conclusion was nothing but an act of revenge, an inglorious victory of 
state discipline without inward cure. No new life germinated from the wild 
deeds of destruction ; and only a few owners of the soil were gracious enough 
to agree to some terms of relief. . The Lutherans in particular, to whom was 
attributed the origin of the insurrection, were special objects of revenge on 
the part of the princes, prelates, and land-owners. 





THE WAR IN ITALY; 

AND PROTESTANT CONFESSIONS OF GERMANY AND 

SWITZERLAND. 

WAR OF CHARLES V. AND FRANCIS L MILAN CONQUERED. BATTLE 
OF PAVIA, 1525. TREATY OF MADRID. ROME PLUNDERED BY THE 
SOLDIERS OF CHARLES V. THE PROTESTATION IN GERMANY, 1529. 
THE CONFESSION OF AUGSBURG, 1530. THE RELIGIOUS TREATY 
OF NUREMBERG. THE REFORMATION IN SWITZERLAND BY ZWINGLI. 
RELIGIOUS WAR OF THE Swiss CONFEDERATES. 



THE FRENCH-ITALIAN WAR OF CHARLES V. (1521-1529). CONQUEST 

OF MILAN. 

the battle of Marignano, Francis I. had become master of 
Milan, Genoa, and a large part of Lombardy. But scarcely 
had Charles V. obtained the crown of Germany than he asserted 
the old feudal right of the empire over northern Italy, which 
the Emperor Maximilian had endeavoured to secure by con- 
ferring the crown of Lombardy on his relative, Louis Moro. 
This, combined with other circumstances, brought about a bloody 
war in which Swiss and French fought side by side, while German 
landsknechte, mercenary troops under the brave leaders George 
of Frundsberg, Schartlin, and others, formed the chief body of the 
imperial army. At that time wars were carried on with merce- 
naries, and no nation could compare for such troops with the Helve- 
tians and Germans. The Pope, the King of England, and Venice 
were on the side of the Emperor. To these united forces the French, 
who were hated on account of their tyranny and arrogance, were soon com- 
pelled to yield. Milan was conquered (1521), and the legitimate heir, Francis 




THE WAR IN ITALY. 




ITALY: ELECTION OF A DOGE IN .GENOA. 

Sforza, to the joy of the people, was installed as duke under imperial supre- 
macy. Soon Genoa also fell into the hands of the allies, and the French 
found themselves driven back across the Alps. It was in vain that in the 
following year Bonnivet, with a noble army, undertook the reconquest of the 
beautiful country. For the second time the imperial troops were victorious, 
and pursued the French across the Alps. During the retreat the brave Bayard, 
the chevalier sans peur et sans reproche, fell by the ball of a German arquebusier. 
This fortunate result Charles owed chiefly to a French general, the brave 
Constable de Bourbon. This prince, who, next to the king, was the richest 
and most powerful nobleman in France, possessed two dukedoms besides five 
other dominions, and had even raised his eyes to the royal crown itself. He 
had,, however, been neglected by the French court, injured by the intrigues of 
the king's mother, Louise of Savoy, and threatened with the loss of his most 
IT. F 



66 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



important possessions. Filled with indignation, he had escaped to Italy, and 
offered himself as general to the Emperor (1523). As such he now advanced, 
thirsting for revenge, with his mixed and motley army of Germans, Spaniards, 
and Italians, across the western Alps. into France, and already dreamed of the 
conquest of the country, when his attack on Marseilles was frustrated by the 
brave resistance of the citizens. The army slowly retreated, and after a time 
dispersed in all directions. 



BATTLE OF PAVIA, 1525. 




T 



'HIS great fight was brought about by 
the rashness of the King of France, 
who now advanced across the Alps at the 
head of a splendid army. In a very short 
time all the country as far as the Tessin was 
in his power. But while he was halting 
before the walls of Pavia, where a brave 
garrison of German landsknechte, in con- 
junction with the Ghibelline citizens, bade 
defiance to all attacks, the active Bourbon 
succeeded in collecting fresh troops from the 
German districts, and uniting his forces with 
the Spanish general Pescara. But the with- 
holding of their pay and want of provisions 
soon brought the combined armies into great 
straits, while the rich camp of the French 
contained abundance of all necessaries. This state of affairs afforded Bourbon 
and Frundsberg an opportunity of rallying the landsknechte to a fierce attack 
on the enemy. A nocturnal sally became the occasion of a bloody battle (24th 
February, 1525), which, in spite of the favourable position and the bravery of 
the French, ended in their complete defeat. Francis himself was compelled to 
surrender himself a prisoner, after a spirited resistance. He was at once carried 
off captive to Madrid. He wrote to Louise of Savoy, declaring that all was 
lost save honour. Ten thousand soldiers met their death on the battle-field or 
in the waters of the Tessin. While, however, Charles V. compelled his op- 
ponent, to whom a long captivity was unendurable, to accept the treaty of 
Madrid (1526), in which Francis, with secret protest, swore to renounce his 
claims to Milan, to surrender Burgundy, and to withdraw protection from the 
enemies of the Emperor, a league was formed, at the instigation of Pope 
Clement VII., for the liberation of Italy from Spanish rule. 





THE WAR IN ITALY. 67 



THE PLUNDERING OF ROME. 

CARCELY had Francis reached French soil, after surren- 
dering his two sons as hostages and, breathing again the 
air of freedom, had once more been inspired with a feeling 
of the power and honour of France, when the Pope made 
overtures to him, absolved him from his oath, and concluded 
with him, with Henry of England, and with several Italian 
princes, the so-called Holy League against Spain (1527). At 
the same time the Parliament of Paris declared that the cession 
of the dukedom of Burgundy curtailed the rights of the kingdom, 
^ v and that an extorted treaty of peace was of no effect. This was 
^]f 71 1 the signal for another appeal to arms. Once more the savagery 
*$3-\ of warfare broke out in Italy ; once more the trumpet resounded 
in the towns of Germany, calling the landsknechte to arms. As 
the struggle was directed against the Pope, the Lutherans collected together 
in bands, so that the brave Frundsberg was able in a short time to lead 
a powerful army across the Alps, and to ally himself with Bourbon. But 
they were soon in want of money for pay for the troops ; the ill-humour 
of the mercenary soldiers increased to open insurrection, and their threats 
made such an impression on Frundsberg that he was struck speechless by 
a fit of apoplexy, and soon afterwards died. They demanded to be led to 
Rome, and Bourbon conceded their request. Qn the 6th of May, 1527, the 
Spanish and German troops scaled without difficulty the walls of Rome. 
Amongst the first to fall was Bourbon. Without a leader, the rapacious 
hordes now spread through the streets of the city, and repeated the scenes 
of the period of Vandalism. Splendid palaces and dwelling-houses were 
plundered, churches were robbed of their vessels and ornaments ; in the 
Vatican the captains lighted their watch-fires ; and the Germans ridiculed 
the Pope and cardinals with mummeries and processions, while the Spaniards 
gave themselves up to immorality and sensual pleasures. Clement waited in 
vain in the Castle of St. Angelo for the advent of the allied army. He was 
compelled to purchase his liberty with hard conditions, and availed himself of 
the first opportunity to take to flight. 

The Emperor showed pain and vexation at the misfortune experienced by 
the. head of the Church, although he rejoiced greatly in his heart at the 
humiliation of his opponent. In the meantime the French made conquests 
in Northern Italy,- and then marched into Naples, to take that kingdom from 
the Spaniards (1528). But the desertion of the Genoese Andreas Doria from 
France to the Emperor's cause, and the destruction of a great part of the 
French army by a plague, with a disorderly retreat from Naples to Aversa, 
put an end to this enterprise ; and as the number of the Imperial landsknechte 
had dwindled away to one-half by their dissipated life at Rome, and the 
burden of war pressed heavily on the different nations, peace was unani- 
mously desired. Through the mediation of the mother of Francis, and 
Charles's aunt, the quarrelsome kings agreed, in the so-called " Peace of the 
Ladies" (1529), that Francis should renounce his claim to Milan, and should 
pay two millions of crowns for the liberation of his sons, but on the other 
hand should retain possession of Burgundy. Soon afterwards the Pope and 
the Italian states also made their peace with the Emperor, under conditions 
which secured his supremacy over Italy. Clement VII., who was concerned at 



63 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



the progress of the Lutheran reformation in Germany, and indignant that the 
Medicis had been driven out from Florence, became reconciled with the 
Emperor, who promised him his help in the extermination of heresy, and 




in the chastisement of the presumptuous republic. After Charles had 
received at Bologna, where he dwelt for some time with Clement under one 
roof, the crowns of Rome and Lombardy, he deprived Florence, after a hard 



THE WAR IN ITALY. 



69 



siege, of its republican constitution, and established there a Medici as duke, 
and at the same time he summoned an assembly at Augsburg for the settle- 
ment of the divisions in the Church. 

THE PROTESTATION (1529). 



r I ^HE progress of the 
JL Reformation caused 
grave anxiety to the Ca- 
tholic princes, spiritual as 
well as temporal.' In Ba- 
varia and Austria, Cologne 
and Mayence, efforts were 
made, by supervision of. the 
press, by severe and de- 
grading punishment of the 
reformers, and even by 
burning the evangelical 
preachers, to uphold the 
supremacy of the orthodox 
Church. Through the al- 
liance of the Pope and the 
Emperor, the party now 
obtained the preponder- - 
ance ; and at the assembly 
of Spires (1529) they drew 
up an alteration of the 
earlier decision in the fol- 
lowing terms : " Whoever 
has hitherto upheld the 
edict of Worms shall con- 
tinue to do so. In the 
districts where it has been 
departed from no further 
innovations shall be made, 
and no one shall be pre- 
vented from holding mass. 
No ecclesiastical body shall 
be deprived of its rights." 
Against this manifesto of the diet, by which the reformation was sentenced to 
a dead stagnation, Saxony, Hesse, Liineburg, Anhalt, the Margrave of Bran- 
denburg, and fourteen towns of the empire, among which were Strasburg, 
Augsburg, Nuremberg, Ulm, and others, brought forward a protestation, and 
appealed to the Emperor for a general or a German council and impartial 
Christian judges (i9th April, 1529). From this time forth all those who 
rejected the authority of the Pope and the doctrines of the Roman Catholic 
Church obtained the name of Protestants. As the Emperor refused to accept 
the protestation, which was brought to him in Italy, a league of defence would 
have already been concluded between the Protestant princes and towns, had 
not Luther and the evangelical theologians set up the theory of suffering 
obedience, disdained protection of the Word of God by worldly weapons, and 
discountenanced a union with the followers of Zwingli, whose doctrine of the 
Lord's Supper found acceptance in several towns of south Germany. 




THE BIBLE IN GERMANY. 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



THE CONFESSION OF AUGSBURG (1530). 

T^ARLY in the year the Emperor 
1^ marched across the Alps to the 
opening of the diet, which was summoned 
at Augsburg, resolved to bring back the 
apostates to the Church, or to revenge the 
disgrace to the name of Christ. The 
assembly was numerous and splendid. 
The Protestant classes handed in their 
Confession, which had been drawn up by 
Melancthon and approved by Luther, in 
which they endeavoured to point out that 
they organized no new Church, but only 
desired that the old one should be restored 
and purified. After the reading of the 
Confession, the most zealous opponents were 
of opinion that war was the only reply to it; 
but the moderate view prevailed, that every 
means should be used to promote a recon- 
ciliation, and that the first point should be 
the refutation of the evangelical declaration. 
The confutation, which was drawn up by 
Eck, Cochlaeus, and others, and in which 
a justification of Romish doctrines and 
usages was attempted, made, however, but 
little impression through its weak method 
of argument ; therefore an attempt was 
made to bring about an understanding by 
a conference between suitable men of both 

parties. On this occasion they actually 

arrived at an agreement over most of the 

dogmas ; but with regard to the ceremonies and constitution the attempt was 
fruitless. The Pope was opposed to an understanding; and Luther, who, as a 
proscribed man, could not be present at the diet, and therefore remained 
during the deliberation at the fortress of Coburg, pronounced against further 
concession. It appeared, therefore, that the sword must effect a decision, and 
the Emperor already assumed a warlike attitude. But notwithstanding the 
dangers which a longer resistance might draw down on the evangelical party, 
and though it was distasteful to the peaceable princes to disobey the Em- 
peror, the Protestant princes as well as the most important towns rejected 
the decree of the diet, in which they were forbidden to profJagate their doc- 
trine, and were designated as a sect whose confession of faith could be refuted 
with good arguments from Holy Scripture. Melancthon's defence (apology) 
of the confession proved to the world the falseness of this declaration ; where- 
upon the evangelical party, after handing in their protestation, quitted the 
assembly without awaiting its conclusion. The manifesto of the diet (of the 
1 9th November), which was drawn up after their departure, in which the new 
sect was threatened with speedy extermination, and the ban was pronounced 
on all its followers who did not renounce their presumptuous innovations 
within a certain time, terrified neither the princes, who regarded the peace 
of their own consciences higher than the favour of the Emperor, nor the 




THE WAR IN ITALY. 



Wittenberg reformers, whose steadfastness and trust in God was then at its 
highest, as shown in the hymn which originated in this stormy period : Em* 
feste Burg ist imser Gott, which has been rightly termed, " Luther's heroic 
song." 

THE RELIGIOUS TREATY OF NUREMBERG. 



ELYING on the manifesto of the diet, the courts of justice now took steps 
against the evangelical party for confiscation of ecclesiastical property 
and judicial prosecutions. The Protestant princes and towns who saw in this 
the commencement of hostilities, at once formed a league at Schmalkalden, in 
the Thuringian Forest (1530), for mutual protection in case any one among 
them should be attacked for the sake of God's word. At a second meeting 
at Frankfort more particular resolutions were arrived at, and the Elector ot 
Saxony and the Landgrave of Hesse were recognised as the chiefs of the 
league. This occurred at the same moment as the election and coronation of 
Ferdinand as king of Rome, which was brought about in spite of the legis- 
lature of the empire, and which excited dissatisfaction, and brought new 
members to the league ; and also at a time when the Turks were threatening 
Hungary and Austria with another invasion. Consequently the Emperor 
gave up the idea of a violent extermination of the religious reformers ; and 
while measures were being brought forward at a new diet at Regensburg for 
an effectual defence of the frontier, entered with the league into the treaty of 
Nuremberg (1532), in which both parties promised that they would not have 
recourse to hostilities until the council met which the Emperor and Clement 
were eagerly endeavouring to call together. The judicial proceedings were 
in the meantime to cease, but the treaty was to include those only who had 
already accepted the Confession of Augsburg. This arrangement tied the 
hands of the Protestants without affording them security for the future. Soon 
after this Elector John passed away, and bequeathed the work of reformation 
to his son, John Frederick (1532-54) for completion. 




LUTHER'S STUDY, 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




GENEVA. 



THE REFORMATION OF SWITZERLAND BY ZWINGLI (1518-1531). 

ULRICH ZWINGLI 
(born 1484), an in- 
telligent, cultivated theolo- 
gian, first preached against 
the service of mercenary 
soldiers while a pastor at a 
small town of Switzerland. 
When summoned to Zu- 
rich in 15 19, he endeavoured 
with all his power to im-. 
prove the conditions of the 
state, Church, and general 
life. Assiduous study of 
the Holy Scriptures had led 
him, already filled as he 
was with the sentiment of republican freedom, to theories which were anta- 
gonistic to the dominant Church. As, however, he was wanting in Luther's 
penetration, and had not experienced his mental conflicts, he did not, like the 
latter, make the reform of doctrine and faith the chief aim of his activity, but 
aimed rather at the improvement of morals and of life. He also prosecuted 
his work with more vigour ; for while Luther remained within the Church, 
and only abolished what was in contradiction with the words of Scripture, 
Zwingli sought to restore the simplest conditions of Christianity, and wished 
to do away with everything which could not be justified in the Bible. Accord- 
ing to his view, the ecclesiastical power lay in the community, which, however, 
declared its wishes, not in popular assemblies, but by its representatives, the 
civil authorities ; therefore, after delivering two religious discourses at Zurich, 
he undertook, in conjunction with the great council, a complete revision of 
Church doctrines and usages (1523) ; caused allimages, crosses, altars, etc., to 
be removed from the churches; and administered the Lord's Supper, in which 
he recognised only a sign of remembrance and communion, after the fashion 
of the primitive Christian love-feast, the bread and wine being handed to the 
believers as they sat at long tables. 

THE RELIGIOUS WAR OF THE Swiss CONFEDERATES. 

IN the ancient cantons of Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, as well as Lucerne 
and Zug, the new doctrine met with determined opposition. These five 
cantons followed the example of Austria and Bavaria. They prevented the 
propagation of the new doctrines by strict regulations ; inflicted degrading 
punishments on the evangelical preachers and their followers ; and burnt to 
death those priests who were not deterred by the prohibition. The relentless 
proceedings of the inhabitants of Berne and Zurich in the domains and terri- 
tories jointly governed by the confederates, where monasteries, images, and 
church ornaments were given up to the flames, increased the feeling of exas- 
peration, and brought about hostilities. The Protestant cantons established 
among themselves and with Strasburg and Constance a " Christian right of 
security." The Catholic cantons, on the other hand, entered with Austria, 
the hereditary enemy of the country, into an alliance for the preservation of 
the old faith and for mutual support (1529). Zurich then prepared for war. 



THE WAR IN ITALY. 73 

Zwingli himself accompanied the troops, and kept them in obedience and the 
fear of God." But before a battle occurred, a peace was arranged in which the 
" forest-towns " surrendered to the Austrian alliance, and promised to punish 
the abuse directed against the reformation, and not to interfere with free 
preaching. Zwingli had been opposed to the peace. His scheme was so to 
transform the political condition of Switzerland that the two most powerful 
towns, Berne and Zurich, should obtain pre-eminence. 

It was soon evident that the mediation had effected no reconciliation. The 
abuse continued, and the demand of the people of Zurich to have the blas- 
phemers silenced, and evangelical doctrines tolerated among them, met with 
no response. The council of Zurich, in which Zwingli held a prominent 
position, wished by a new recourse to arms to compel their opponents to 
permit the free preaching of the Gospel, and to consent to the constitution of 
the confederacy; but Berne, jealous of the commanding superiority of the 
neighbouring republic, attacked its warlike opponents with great courage 
and pertinacity. In spite of Zwingli's warning, the proposition of the Bernese 
was accepted. The northern cantons stopped up the high roads of commerce, 
and prevented the conveyance of merchandise and provisions. This roused 
the indignation of the separatists. They secretly prepared for war, and in- 
vaded the Zurich district. The inhabitants, surprised and irresolute, and 
deserted by the Bernese, advanced with a small band of troops to meet the 
overpowering forces of the enemy, but experienced near Kappel a bloody 
defeat (1531), in which the patriotic Zwingli was slain. This result filled the 
Catholics with confidence and the Protestants with apprehension. The former 
were strong and united, while the Bernese, who were envious of the growing 
strength of Zurich, evidenced but little zeal. At last a peace was arranged, 
in which every canton was awarded the right of free regulation of its religion ; 
but in places where opinion was still undecided, the old Church was generally 
established. 




' J 




THE PERIOD OF THE RELIGIOUS WARS IN 

GERMANY. 

FRANCIS I. THE RIVAL OF THE HAPSBURG HOUSE. NEGOTIATIONS WITH 
POPE PAUL III. ENTERPRISES OF CHARLES V. IN THE EAST.- 
AFFAIRS IN ITALY. TREATY OF CRESPY. AFFAIRS IN GERMANY. 
THE ANABAPTISTS OF MUNSTER. JOHN OF LEYDEN AND KNIPPER- 

DOLLING: THEIR FATE. RELIGIOUS CONFERENCE AT RATISBON. 

LUTHER'S DEATH. THE SMALKALDIC WAR. PREPARATIONS AND 
ALLIANCES. MAURICE OF SAXONY. THE CAMPAIGN ON THE 
DANUBE. SCHARTLIN. JOHN FREDERICK, THE ELECTOR. CAM- 
PAIGN ON THE ELBE. BATTLE OF MUHLBURG. TRIUMPH OF 
CHARLES V. IMPRISONMENT OF JOHN FREDERICK AND OF PHILIP 
OF HESSE. 




T 



k HE mighty power of the house of Haps- 
burg excited general .apprehension. 
Francis I., who had by no means relinquished 
the idea of a reconquest of Milan, and was en- 
deavouring at least to secure the claim of his 
sons to it, maintained alliances with all the 
opponents of the Emperor ; and after the mar- 
riage of his son Henry with the Pope's niece, 
Catherine de Medicis, he entered into a close 
understanding, in 1535, with Clement, who had 
quarrelled with the Emperor. In the same year, 
after Charles by a valiant feat of arms had con- 
quered Tunis, put an end to the piracies of the 
Mohammedan Corsair chief, Hayraddin Bar- 
barossa, and set twenty thousand Christian 
slaves at liberty, Francis Sforza died at Milan. The French king thereupon 
renewed his claims to the dukedom, and in an energetic campaign took 
speedy possession of the neighbouring territory of the Duke of Savoy and 
Piedmont. Charles then marched into Provence with a powerful army in 1536, 
to fight his opponent in his own country ; but the enterprise failed, partly 
through the tactics of the French general, the Constable De Montmorency, and 
partly through the brave resistance offered by Marseilles to the Emperor's 
attacks. After sustaining great losses, Charles was compelled to desist from 
the contest. But great indignation prevailed throughout Christendom at the 
French king's alliance with the Osmanli, who had carried their devastations to 
southern Italy and the Greek islands. Then the new Pope, Paul III., came for- 



MEDAL OF JOHN, DUKE OF SAXONY. 



THE PERIOD OF THE RELIGIOUS WARS IN GERMANY. 75 

ward as a mediator, and brought about the conclusion of this third war by the 
ten years' truce of Nice, in which it was provided that each one should keep 
what he held in his possession at that time, 1538. A personal interview between 
the two monarchs appeared to have effectually extinguished the quarrel ; and 
Charles was so convinced of the chivalrous good faith of his rival, that in 




THE WAR : LANDSKNECHTE LEVYING CONTRIBUTIONS ON A NOBLEMAN'S HOUSE. 

the following year, when a rebellion in Ghent necessitated his speedy presence 
in the Netherlands, he took his way to the Low Countries through Paris. 

But envy and jealousy had taken root too deeply to allow of the continu- 
ance of peace. The enemies of the Emperor found continual encouragement 
and assistance at the French Court ; and the support which the Sultan received 
from Francis rendered all the Turkish campaigns of the Emperor unavailing. 
And yet to gain the victory over this enemy of Christendom was the great 



7 6 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

aim of the Emperor, next to the healing of the breach in the Church. He 
therefore not only energetically entered into the Hungarian campaign, but 
also in 1541 undertook a second African expedition for the complete repres- 
sion of the Corsairs, who now from Algiers, as formerly from Tunis, rendered 
the Mediterranean unsafe. But the storms and rains of late autumn, com- 
bined with the onslaughts of the enemy, doubly dangerous on the marshy soil, 
rendered this enterprise fruitless. After heavy losses in men and ships, the 
Emperor, who magnanimously shared all dangers and hardships with the 
common soldiers, was compelled to retire discomfited. This result inspired 
the French king with the hope of at last overpowering his rival. The murder 
of two negotiators from the French Court, who were travelling secretly through 
Lombardy to Venice and Constantinople, afforded the king the desired 




FLEET OF THE TIME OF CHARLES V. 



opportunity of commencing, in conjunction with the Duke of Cleves and the 
Sultan, a fourth war against the Emperor, who was allied with England. The 
frontier countries on the side of Spain, Italy, and the Netherlands were cruelly 
devastated ; but when Charles, after having conquered the Duke of Cleves, 
and compelled him to renounce his claim to Guelderland and Ziitphen, in- 
vaded Champagne, and after a two days' march approached the terrified 
capital, Francis eagerly held out the hand of peace, and a treaty was concluded 
at Crespy in 1544, by which it was stipulated that all conquests should be 
given up. The expectation held out to the king of acquiring Milan for one 
of his sons was but a delusion. The supremacy of the Hapsburgs in Italy 
remained from that time forward undisputed. Three years later, in 1547, 
Francis I. died ; a magnificent prince, a patron of art and science, and 
one who succeeded in maintaining the independence of France against his 
formidable foe, the Emperor Charles V. 



THE PERIOD OF THE RELIGIOUS WARS IN GERMANY. 




CAPTURED CITIZENS BROUGHT BEFORE AN ANABAPTIST LEADER. 






THE ANABAPTISTS IN MUNSTER, 1533-1535. 

URING the peasants' war, the Anabaptists had been almost 
exterminated ; but their teachings still prevailed here and 
there in spite of persecutions from the government and 
from German and Swiss reformers. In Westphalia, the re- 
forming party had been completely victorious, in spite of 
the opposition of the nobility and clergy ; and at Miinster 
the bishops and canons and some councillors, who were 
attached to the old faith, were driven out, and only allowed 
to return on promising that they would not in future 
prevent the free preaching of the gospel. It was soon 
evident, however, that the most influential preacher of the 
town, Rottmann, cherished Anabaptist views. It was in 
vain that the moderate men in the council and among the 
citizen-class endeavoured to resist his influence. His 
talents and engaging presence gained him followers, and when the wandering 
prophet, Jan Matthiesen, a baker of Leyden, with his fellow townsman and 
disciple, John Bockhold, called John of Leyden, arrived in Munster from 
the Netherlands, their party soon obtained such ascendency that they over- 




78 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

threw the civil government, filled the council and all the offices with their 
partisans ; and at last, urged on by fanaticism and avarice, drove out of the 
towns all those citizens who opposed their doctrines, and divided the property 
of the expelled burghers among them'selves. 



THE FALL OF THE ANABAPTISTS. 

RELIGIOUS commonwealth was now established, 
in which Matthiesen possessed unlimited power, 
introducing community of property, sending out 
prophets, and conducting the defence of the town 
against the besieging army of the bishop, who was 
supported by Cologne and Hesse. Fanaticism reached 
its height when Matthiesen was slain during a sally, 
and Bockhold became the head of the commonwealth. 
In obedience to pretended Divine inspiration, the 
alleged source of all his commands and institutions, 
the latter gave up the control of the town to twelve 
elders, chosen from the most fanatical enthusiasts, 
among whom Knipperdolling played the most impor- 
tant part as burgomaster and hangman. He then 
introduced polygamy, and caused his opponents, who 
were incensed at this insult to Christian morals, to be 
pitilessly executed. When the fanatical mania had reached its highest point, 
the prophet, at the instigation of one of his followers, assumed the title of 
" King of the New Israel/' Decorated with the insignia of royalty a crown 
and a ball, representing the earth, hanging to a gold chain and clad in robes 
of royal splendour, John, " King, by the grace of God, in the new temple," 
held a court of justice in -the market of Mimster, where the "seat of David " 
was established; and introduced a fanatical, despotic government, in which 
spiritual pride went side by side with sensuality, and pious devotion and self- 
sacrifice were offensively blended with bloodthirsty barbarism and degrading 
love of coarse enjoyment. 

For a long time the Anabaptists successfully and spiritedly resisted the 
badly armed troops of the besiegers. As a consequence of this, Anabaptist 
risings occurred in the towns of the Rhine and in different districts of South 
Germany, which filled the princes and government with alarm, and caused 
them to obtain reinforcements from the empire for the besieging army. 
There soon arose a terrible famine in the town, which was cut off from all 
supplies ; but the fanatics showed no signs of pusillanimity and relying on 
help being sent them by their wandering prophets, who were preaching 
throughout the country, they persisted in their resistance. Even when the 
enemy was at last within the walls, they still fought on with the courage of 
despair, and only surrendered on conditions which, however, were not regarded 
by the infuriated landsknechte. Rottmann, the preacher, is said to have 
perished in the fight ; John of Leyden, Knipperdolling, and Krechting were 
taken prisoners, tortured to death, and then gibbeted from a church tower in 
iron cages ; and those who did not fall in the attack on the town, were either 
hunted to death or executed. The expelled party now returned, civil rights 
and liberties were annulled, the supremacy of the hierarchy and the nobility 




THE PERIOD OF THE RELIGIOUS WARS IN GERMANY. 



79 




THE LAST MOMENTS OF JURGEN WULLENWEBER. 

was restored, and Catholicism was again introduced with all its ceremonies 
and rigour. 

The defeat of the Anabaptists at Miinster was at the same time a victory 
of the aristocracy in the North German towns over the democracy of the 
guilds, who had for a time obtained the rule. In Liibeck the bold burgo- 
master, Jiirgen Wullenweber, who stood at the head of the malcontents and 
democrats, wanted to procure for the Hanseatic League the sovereignty of the 
Baltic, Denmark, and the Sound. He had already made himself master of 
Copenhagen, when he was degraded from his office, as " an innovating mis- 
creant," and led away captive to Wolfenbuttel, where he was tortured, and 
afterwards executed, his companion and coadjutor Max Mejer, having already 
undergone the same fate. Both were enterprising men of patriotic spirit, 
whose great fault was that " they measured a degenerate race according to 
their own standard." 

The Hanseatic League declined from the time of the death of Jiirgen 
Wullenweber, who was executed at Tollenstein, near Wolfenbuttel, on the 
24th September, 1537. 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




RELIGIOUS CONFERENCE AT RATISBON, AND LUTHER'S DEATH. 



HEN the Diet of Ratisbon met, in January, 1541, 
another attempt at conciliation was made by 
Melancthon, the pious and tolerant legate Con- 
tarini, and some equally moderate-minded men, 
such as Julius Pflug and others. In the four most 
important articles of faith, they actually arrived 
at something more like an agreement than had 
been till then achieved, so that the moderate 
deputies at the Diet urged an immediate arrange- 
ment, of which their points of agreement should 
be made the basis, while the points of dispute 
should be reserved for the decision of a council. But the Pope, who suspected 
treachery in the pliability of his legate, and, indeed, Luther and the Elector also, 
who regarded the whole scheme as a trap, opposed every means of conciliation. 
Charles now relinquished the idea of a peaceful solution of the difficulty, so 
long as foreign wars occupied his attention ; he endeavoured to preserve the 
peace of Germany by treaties and alliances .; but after he had concluded peace 
with France, and agreed to an armed truce with the Turks, he took determined 
steps for the forcible repression of the religious innovations. His first efforts 
were made in 1544, in the bishopric of Cologne and in the dukedom of Cleve, 
for he saw that from thence evangelical doctrines might easily penetrate to 
the Netherlands. The Protestant princes looked on with indifference while 
the Duke of Cleve, who was on the point of joining the Smalkaldic League, 
was compelled to desist from the reform which had been commenced in his 
own territories, while legal proceedings were taken against the Archbishop 
Hermann at the instigation of the chapter of Cologne ; and in the Nether- 
lands Protestant preachers were burnt to death, and their followers persecuted 
with the utmost cruelty. With grave anxiety did Luther look forward to the 
result of the approaching conflict. But he was mercifully spared the pain of 
beholding the labour of his life threatened and jeopardized. He had long 
been a great sufferer from bodily ailments; he died on the i8th February, 
1546, at his birthplace, Eisleben, to which town he had been summoned to 
act as mediator and bring about an accommodation in a quarrel between the 
Counts of Mansfeld. His body was brought to Wittenberg with much 
funeral pomp and ceremony, the procession being accompanied by numbers 
of people who poured forth to meet it from all parts. 



THE PERIOD OF THE RELIGIOUS WARS IN GERMANY. 




SMALKALDIC WAR. PREPARATIONS AND ALLIANCES. 

A FEW months before Luther's death, Paul 
III. had summoned a general council, in 
December, 1545, at the town of Trent, in the 
Tyrol. But the Protestants, who foresaw that 
their principles would be condemned by such 
a council, formed and acting under the in- 
fluence of the Pope, rejected it as a partisan 
assembly, altogether wanting in independence ; 
and demanded a church congress of the 
German nation. This destroyed the last hope 
of the Emperor for a peaceful termination of 
the religious quarrel, at a time when "the 
Smalkaldic League had become more dis- 
CENTENARY MEDAL TO COMMEMORATE united than ever, through the moroseness, 
THE CONFESSION OF AUGSBURG. dissensions, and lukewarmness of different 
members, and when the advice of religious zealots had gained great influence 
with the Emperor. By an alliance with the Pope, Charles obtained consider- 
able pecuniary aid, with which he set about making warlike preparations in 
Italy, Germany, and the Netherlands. The Duke of Bavaria was won over 
by the hope of obtaining the dignity of Elector of the Palatinate ; the spiritual 
princes of the empire already supported the Emperor, who had also gained an 
ally in one of the most influential of the Protestant princes, the Duke Maurice 
of Saxony. This youthful, talented, and warlike prince, who in 1541 succeeded 
his father Henry in the Albertinian 
portion of Saxony, had long since 
renounced the Smalkaldic League 
out of enmity to his cousin, John 
Frederick, with whom he lived in a 
continual state of strife ; and joined 
the Emperor, although Philip of 
Hesse was his father-in-law. At 
the Diet at Ratisbon, in March, 
1546, at which no Protestant princes 
were present except Maurice, Mar- 
grave John of Ciistrin, and Albert 
of Bayreuth, the ambitious Maurice 
was induced by the prospect of an 
extension of his dukedom and the 
office of protector over the bishop- 
rics of Magdeburg and Halber- 
stadt, to renounce his relatives and 
his comradeship with the Evan- 
gelicals. He also promised in a 
treaty to render homage and 
obedience to the Emperor, and to 
recognise the decisions of the 
Council of Trent ; stipulating, how- 
ever, for a verbal declaration to MAURICE OF SAXONY. 
himself and his two Protestant allies, that in the three chief points, the cup, the 
marriage of ecclesiastics, and justification by faith, no alteration was to be 
made throughout their territories. 

II. G 




82 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



THE CAMPAIGN ON THE DANUBE. 




Emperor was still in Ratisbon, when 
the Smalkaldic League, terrified by a 
vague and threatening answer given to its 
inquiry as to the object of the war prepar- 
ations, quickly summoned its forces, and 
brought forty thousand men into the field. 
The Protestants had so little suspicion of 
the alliance of the Emperor with the Saxon 
duke, that on marching out with the troops 
the Elector entrusted the administration of 
the Electoral dominions to his cousin 
Maurice ; and the heads of the league, out 
of regard for the supposed neutrality of 
Ferdinand and the Duke of Bavaria, rejected 
the prudent counsels of Sebastian Schartlin 
of Burtenbach, who had been chosen as 
their leader by the North German towns. 
This astute general desired, by a rapid 
march on Ratisbon, where the Emperor was 
posted with only a small body of troops, 
to bring about a decisive conflict as speedily 
as possible ; but the council of war pro- 
hibited this, for fear of offending Bavaria. 
_ Schartlin therefore immediately marched 
LANDGRAVE PHILIP THE MAGNANIMOUS, into the Tyrol, gained possession of the 
OF HESSE. narrow pass near Fiissen, and was proposing 

to advance into the mountainous district in order to bar the passage of the 
Italian troops, or to disperse the council of Trent, when this enterprise also 
was forbidden, that Ferdinand might not be annoyed. Thus Charles, who 
had already pronounced the ban of the empire against the Elector and the 
Landgrave, for high treason towards the Emperor, gained sufficient time to 
obtain auxiliary troops from Italy, and to take up a strong position in 
Ingolstadt. The publication of the ban of the empire at first made many 
pause and hesitate, particularly as the Emperor endeavoured to deprecate the 
idea that he intended kindling a religious war. But an intercepted com- 
munication from the Pope to the Catholic party in Switzerland opened the 
eyes of the Protestants concerning the alliance between Charles and Rome, 
and the object of the war ; and anger and indignation at the deception per- 
vaded the ranks of the Protestant army. A defensive document was issued, 
refuting the accusations put forward in the ban, and a number of violent 
pamphlets inciting the nation to resistance against an emperor " who, instead 
of being the chief of the empire, had made himself the assistant partisan of 
the Pope, and against whom, therefore, the people had with justice taken up 
arms." In the meantime the Elector and the Landgrave had themselves 
undertaken the command, and at Ingolstadt commenced their attack on the 
Emperor, to whom they were considerably superior in numbers. In vain did 
Schartlin counsel a decisive onslaught ; they wasted their time in petty 
skirmishes, until the troops from the Netherlands had joined the Imperial 
army, and Charles was in a position to act on the offensive. He marched 
into Swabia. The rival forces were still equal in numbers ; and as the cold, 



THE PERIOD OF THE RELIGIOUS WARS IN GERMANY. 83 

wet climate occasioned diseases among the Spanish and Italian troops, the 
Protestants, who had kept close to the Emperor with their army, had a right 
to expect a just and favourable treaty, though Charles, for the moment, would 
hear of nothing but unconditional surrender ; when the news of the treachery 
of Maurice reached the camp at Giengen, and spread terror on the one side 
and joy on the other. 

After Maurice had allayed the fears of the deputies in his states regarding 
the religious reforms, and had obtained through Ferdinand, with whom he 
made an arrangement for the dividing the territories of Electoral Saxony 
in Bohemia, the Emperor's promise of the Electoral dignity and the chief part 
of his cousin's dominions, he marched his army into the Electoral territory, 




RELIGIOUS CONFERENCE. 

with the view, as he declared, to prevent its occupation by the Emperor; 
and he quickly conquered one town after another. When this intelligence 
reached him, John Frederick hastened back into his own states ; and as want 
of supplies at the same time made itself felt in the Imperial army, while the 
North German towns refused further subsidies, and the mercenaries deserted 
in masses, towards the end of the autumn the whole Smalkaldic army melted 
away. The Landgrave and the other leaders returned home, to make fresh 
preparations for the beginning of the next year. South Germany now lay open 
to the Emperor. Friendly counsellors endeavoured to induce him to give 
freedom of religion, and thus to bring back all parties to loyalty and obedience. 
But Charles had greater and more ambitious plans. Through the submission 
of the Protestants to the council, he wished to give back to the Imperial power 



THE PERIOD OF THE RELIGIOUS WARS IN GERMANY. 85 

its old authority, to exalt it alike over the princes of the empire and over the 
Pope, and to lay the foundation of a new order of things in State and Church. 
He therefore demanded of the representatives of the North German towns 
unconditional surrender, and that they should give up the Smalkaldic League. 
The terrified towns, in which the merchant classes who were filled with anxiety 
for their trade and treasures had the chief influence and authority, surrendered 
precipitately, and under extremely unfavourable conditions. Ulm gave up 
its cannon and ammunition, and purchased pardon from the Emperor by large 
sacrifices of money ; and Heilbronn, Esslingen, Reutlingen, and other towns 
followed its example. Augsburg was so well furnished with arms and pro- 
visions, that Schartlin offered to hold the town " for a year and a day," until 
the Protestant districts of Germany should have recovered from their panic 
and have made fresh preparations for war ; but the timid counsels of the 
merchants, and especially of the Fugger family, prevailed, and Augsburg 
submitted. With the town the Emperor gained some excellent artillery and 
large sums of money. Frankfort and Strasburg were also soon brought to 
submission. The old Duke Ulrich of Wiirtemberg humbled himself to 
Charles, paid a war fine, and gave up possession of his most important 
fortresses for the Imperial troops. The aged Elector Hermann, of Cologne, 
who had been excommunicated by the Pope, menaced by the Spanish troops, 
and at last deserted by his town-deputies, abdicated his throne and made way 
for a successor attached to the old faith, who quickly abolished the religious 
worship, and substituted for it the service of the mass. By the beginning of 
the year the whole of South Germany had been brought to obedience without 
the necessity of striking a single blow. Schartlin, who had been placed under 
the ban of the empire, took service with the French Government. 

THE CAMPAIGN ON THE ELBE. 




IN the meantime John Frederick had repulsed 
Maurice's troops. He gained possession of his 
country once more with little difficulty, and con- 
quered the greater part of Albertine Saxony, with 
the exception of Dresden and Leipzig. Every- 
where he was greeted with acclamations by the 
Protestant population. In Bohemia the Hussite 
spirit had once more awoke ; the deputies of the 
parliament met together at Prague, with the in- 
tention of depriving Ferdinand of the throne, and 
allying themselves with Saxony. In Silesia and 
Lusatia the people rose against the Austrian government ; the north German 
towns maintained a defiant attitude towards the Imperial military com- 
manders ; and France and England declared their readiness to assist. But 
John Frederick was not an enterprising man. He had taken up arms only for 
the defence of his faith ; in his pious heart the inherited veneration for the 
Emperor was not extinguished, though he had been outlawed and placed 
under the ban ; and he disdained foreign aid. In their distress, Maurice and 
Ferdinand appealed for help to the Emperor. Thereupon Charles, in spite 
of the feeble state of his health, hastened at once with an army to Bohemia, 
joined his allies at Egra, and then advanced to meet the enemy, who, six 
thousand men strong, had taken up a position on the Elbe. The death of 
his old adversary Francis I., which happened at this time, appeared to favour 



86 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




THE ELECTOR JOHN FREDERICK SURRENDERS AT MUHLBERG. 

Charles's plans. On the approach of the Emperor, John Frederick wished to 
withdraw with a few troops to the fortress of Wittenberg, until he could 
collect the scattered divisions of his army ; but the imperial army, 27,000 
strong, crossed the Elbe under the guidance of a peasant, surprised the re- 
tiring horse-soldiers on a Sunday morning while the Elector was attending 
Divine service, and won an easy victory in the battle of Miihlberg on the 24th 
of April, 1547, on the Lochau heath. John Frederick, a man of unwieldy and 
ponderous build, was wounded in the face, and after a brave resistance was 
taken prisoner. The same fate befel his comrade, Duke Ernst of Braun- 
schweig-Luneburg. During his imprisonment, John Frederick exhibited the 
tranquillity of soul which results from a good conscience and firm confidence 
in God. Without even discontinuing the game of chess in which he was 
engaged, he heard with the greatest composure the sentence of death 
which the Emperor had passed upon him. But Charles did not dare to carry 
out the sentence; he preferred to alter the punishment of death into im- 
prisonment for life, with the stipulations that John Frederick should surrender 
his fortresses, and should give up to Maurice by the " Wittenberg Capitula- 
tion " the whole of his country with the Electoral dignity (1547). The third 
condition, that the fallen Elector should submit to the Trident Council, was 
rejected by John Frederick. Thus the Electoral title passed from the Ernestine 
to the Albertine line in Saxony. 



THE PERIOD OF THE RELIGIOUS WARS IN GERMANY. 




CHARLES'S TRIUMPH. 

'T now appeared expedient to chastise also the Landgrave 
of Hesse. Maurice, and Joachim of Brandenburg, who had 
also remained obedient to the Emperor, but had taken no 
part in the war, interceded on his behalf, and obtained the 
assurance " that if he would surrender uncon- 
ditionally, sue for pardon, and deliver up his for- 
tresses to the Emperor, he should suffer neither 
bodily punishment nor should perpetual imprison- 
ment be inflicted on him." These conditions 
were still further mitigated by verbal negotiations 
with the Emperor, in which it was stipulated that 
the Landgrave, after his submission, " was not to 
be injured either with regard to his life or pro- 
perty ; nor was he to be punished by confiscation of his lands or by im- 
prisonment." With this assurance, which was guaranteed by Maurice and 
Joachim, Philip accepted the capitulation, and provided with " free, secure, 
honourable, and safe escort," he set out for Halle, where the Imperial camp 
was stationed. After imploring pardon on his knees in the solemn assembly, 
he presented himself at the castle, where he had been invited to the evening 
repast ; thereupon he was detained, in spite of all his remonstrances, as a 
prisoner. The Emperor had ordered this step, contrary to Ferdinand's advice ; 
he could not deny himself the triumph of having his two greatest opponents 
in his power. He replied to the astounded and startled Electors who be- 
sieged him next day with entreaties for the release of the Landgrave of 
Hesse, that he would abide by his original promise, " that he would not keep 
Philjp in lifelong imprisonment." Filled with indignation, the deluded 
princes quitted the Court. Soon afterwards Charles set out for North Germany 
with his two prisoners, to regulate the affairs of the Church ; while Ferdinand 
inflicted severe chastisement on his enemies in Bohemia and Lusatia, and the 
Imperial commanders occupied themselves in bringing the towns of Southern 
Saxony to subjection. But the strong walls of Bremen and the heroic courage 
of the Protestant citizens of North Germany opposed an insurmountable 
obstacle to the victorious course of the Emperor. In these places the Pro- 
testant cause maintained the upper hand ; and though denounced for rebellion, 
Magdeburg became the stronghold of Protestantism. 

Meanwhile the Council of Trent that had been opened in December, 1545, 
continued its deliberations. Though intended for Germany, it was com- 
posed almost exclusively of Spaniards and Italians, under the presidency of a 
papal legate. The tone of the assembly was hostile to the Protestants. The 
Vulgate edition was declared to be the only authentic version of the Bible. 
Tradition was pronounced equal in authority to Holy Writ. In the doctrine of 
justification the efficacy of good works was insisted on ; the seven sacraments 
were maintained, and the hierarchical priesthood declared to be of sacred 
origin. The Emperor was dissatisfied at the progress of events in the council, 
and Pope Paul III., who divined Charles's intention of weakening the papacy, 
published the decrees of the council, against the Emperor's wish, and trans- 
ferred the assembly to Bologna, under the pretext of a plague, withdrew his 
troops from the Imperial service, and entered into negotiations with France. 
A small number of prelates remained at Trent, in obedience to the Emperor's 
command, and continued their deliberations. Thus was the council divided 
against itself. 




END OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES V. 
SWITZERLAND AND THE REFORMATION. 

CHARLES V. AND THE COUNCIL OF TRENT.~DIFFICULTIES.~THE AUGS- 
BURG INTERIM. LEAGUE OF PROTESTANT PRINCES. ALBERT OF 
BRANDENBURG AND SCHARTLIN. ALLIANCE WITH FRANCE. INNS- 
BRUCK AND PASSAU. DEFECTION OF MAURICE OF SAXONY. DANGER 
OF THE EMPEROR : HIS NARROW ESCAPE. RELEASE OF THE ELECTOR 
JOHN FREDERICK. BATTLE OF SIEVENHAUSEN. DEATH OF MAURICE 
OF SAXONY. TRANQUILLITY RESTORED IN GERMANY. THE RELI- 
GIOUS PEACE OF AUGSBURG. CHARLES V. AT ST. JUSTE : HIS LAST 

DAYS AND DEATH, 1558. THE 
Loss OF THE IMPERIAL DO- 
MINIONS IN LORRAINE. THE 
BISHOPRICS OF TOUL, METZ, 
AND VERDUN. THE CONSTABLE 

DE MONTMORENCY. TRIUMPH 

OF FRENCH INTERVENTION. 
THE REFORMATION IN SWITZER- 
LAND : CALVIN AT GENEVA. 

MAURICE OF SAXONY. 

IN this state of affairs the news of 
the Emperor's complete victory in 
Germany was extremely unpalatable 
to the Pope. Political points of dis- 
pute had become mixed up with ec- 
clesiastical affairs, and made the breach 
still wider. Charles now summoned 
a brilliant diet to meet at Augsburg 
in February, 1 548. Here he obtained 
from the Protestant princes a promise 
that they would submit to the council, 
if it were removed back to Trent, and 

the points that had been already decided were offered to fresh consideration. 

But as neither the Pope nor the theologians who met together at Bologna 




END OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES V. 89 

could be brought to acquiesce in this view, the Emperor, who was now at the 
height of his power, and found the German princes awaiting his commands 
with the greatest respect and humility, formed the resolution to undertake, of 
his own sovereign might, a reformation of the German Church, and to cause 
an order to be issued as to the regulation of religious affairs until the decision 
of the council. This was accomplished by the Augsburg Interim, published 
in May, 1548 ; in the drawing up of which document Julius Pflug, a moderate 
Catholic, and Agricola, a Protestant theologian of Brandenburg, had the chief 
part. 

At the moment when Pope Julius III., who was subservient to the 
Emperor, had removed the council once more to Trent, in September, 1551, 
and when the fact that it was attended both by the Catholic and Evan- 
gelical representatives appeared to favour the accomplishment of Charles's 
long-cherished wishes when all classes had united to elevate him as the 
temporal lord of Christendom in the mediaeval sense, and he was already 
conceiving the idea of causing his son to be chosen as his successor, and thus 
making the renewed Imperial power hereditary in his family then it was that 
he found an unexpected opponent in the man to whom he chiefly owed his 
previous victories and triumphs, Maurice of Saxony. The Emperor's plans 
threatened to bring about a transformation in the rule of the German empire, 
which would be prejudicial to the princely power ; the continual presence of 
Spanish and Italian troops in South Germany was an oppressive burden to 
the country ; the heavy punishment with which every transgression of the 
Catholic rites was visited promoted ill-feeling ; and it appeared as though 
Germany were about to be transformed into a Spanish province. 

The discontent and anger reached their highest point when Maurice, the 
hated betrayer of the Protestant cause and its leaders, undertook in the name 
of the Emperor to put into execution the sentence decreed against Magdeburg 
(Oct., 1550), and began to besiege the town "where alone the pure word of 
the gospel had found refuge." This indignation against Maurice was only 
equalled by the exultation with which the news was heard of the heroic 
deeds of the Magdeburg citizens, who, in confident reliance on the assistance 
of God, for whose cause they were fighting, and strong in the oath they had 
taken to stand by one another in life or death, fearlessly repelled every attack 
and assault. In Saxony great excitement prevailed, and the representatives 
of the people already turned their eyes towards Maurice's brother Augustus. 
Then at last the eyes of the gallant young prince were opened as to his own 
position. His repeated intercession for the liberation of his father-in-law 
Philip, who had been detained a prisoner at Mechlin, had hitherto remained 
unsuccessful ; in fact, after a fruitless attempt at flight, the prisoner was kept 
in still closer confinement, and the pledged word of the Elector, that he 
should be free, appeared to have little weight i with the Emperor. Maurice's 
honour was sullied for ever, if he could not once more establish it by a 
decided deed ; and how was it possible for him to win over public opinion, 
to which no prominent man is indifferent, more satisfactorily than by restor- 
ing to the nation with one blow the liberty of the empire and of the Church ? 
With this object he allied himself first with his zealous confederate of Mag- 
deburg, the enterprising Margrave John of Ciistrin, with whom he had till 
then often been at enmity. This prince worked hard to effect a reconciliation 
between the two Saxon houses, and the arrangement of the dispute with 
Magdeburg. Soon the Duke of Mecklenburg, the sons of the Landgrave of 
Hesse, and others joined the league, and the chivalrous Margrave Albert of 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



Brandenburg-Culmbach followed the same course. It was the Elector of 
Brandenburg also who, supported by the proscribed Schartlin, first effected 
an alliance with France. In the treaty which Maurice then concluded with 
King Henry II., the French king was permitted, in return for assistance 
rendered to the Protestant princes, to occupy the towns of Metz, Toul, Verdun, 
and Cambray, with the reservation, however, of the privileges of the empire. 




CHARLES V. ESCAPING ACROSS THE MOUNTAINS. 



/ '" 'I'H 'I ' "V'l'ir.i v \ ] I!'!" 1 ', 




INNSBRUCK AND PASSAU. 



( URING these -transactions Maurice was ' apparently 
prosecuting the siege of Magdeburg. But immedi- 
ately upon the conclusion of the treaty with France, 
he offered the town pardon and religious freedom, and 
thus brought it to render him homage and to recognise 
his power (November, 1551). The Emperor remained 
without troops at Innsbruck, engaged with the affairs 
of the Council of Trent and his own schemes. Warn- 
rPJT" ings reached him in vain ; Maurice, who was cunning 
and secret, and a master of dissimulation, found a 
method to dispel the Emperor's suspicions. He concealed his deep-laid 
schemes under an appearance of geniality; and his jovial banquets, his love of 
hunting, and his adventures of gallantry often served him as a veil, and often 



END OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES V. 91 

as a means for diving without suspicion into the plans of others. Charles, 
who was accustomed to Spanish and Italian intrigue, thought himself perfectly 
safe, and that it was impossible he could be over-reached by a German. 
Suddenly three armies, under Maurice, Albert, and William of Hesse, son of 
the Landgrave, marched southwards, occupied Augsburg, April, 1552, where 
the old popular constitution of the guilds and the religious peace were again 
restored, and defeating the Emperor's scattered garrisons, penetrated into the 
Tyrol; while the French troops conquered Metz and advanced through 
Lorraine to Alsace and the Upper Rhine. Maurice had already stormed the 
narrow pass of Ehrenberg and approached Innsbruck to capture the Emperor, 
who was in the greatest distress, when a mutiny among the German troops 
afforded him an opportunity for escape. The council had already separated 
in great confusion. Charles set at liberty the imprisoned Elector John 
Frederick, and then, ill and exhausted with sleeplessness and nocturnal vigils, 
escaped across the snow-covered Tyrolean Alps, through the Puster Valley, to 
Villach, in Carinthia. The difficult task of establishing peace was now en- 
trusted to his brother Ferdinand, who did not share the Emperor's views and 
interests, and was more favourably inclined towards the Germans. After 
arranging an armed truce, he met the six electors, and the dukes of Pomerania 
Wiirtemberg, Bavaria, Braunschweig, and others, in a deliberative council, 
from which resulted the treaty of Passau, August, 1552. 



THE DEATH OF MAURICE. 




THE Emperor, still intent on the re- 
establishment of religious unity, 
rejected the article of the unconditional 
peace ; but the Franco-Turkish war, which 
had broken out with renewed violence, 
withdrew his attention from German 
affairs. While the Imperial troops were 
vainly besieging the town of Metz, which 
was occupied by the French and bravely 
defended by the Duke of Guise ; while 
Maurice and Ferdinand were attacking 
the Turks in Hungary, and a Franco- 
Turkish fleet was threatening Naples, 
Margrave Albert of Brandenburg, who 
had not been a party to the treaty of 
Passau, commenced a predatory war 
against the Bishops of Bamberg and 
Wiirzburg, and endeavoured to defray 
his war expenses by the plunder and 
destruction of monasteries and religious 
foundations. As the Emperor looked on 
with seeming indifference at these depre- 
dations, and gave Albert impunity, be- 
cause he intended to make use of him 
against the French and occasionally 
against the German princes, Maurice 
allied himself with Ferdinand, Henry of 



92 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

Braunschweig (who, after the battle of Miihlberg, had regained his liberty 
and his dominions), and the spiritual princes, who were at enmity with the 
Margrave, for the preservation of the peace of the country, and secretly 
renewed his treaty with France. To prevent the coalition of the enemy's 
forces, Albert, who was a bold, enterprising warrior, now attacked Henry of 
Braunschweig, and committed sa'vage devastations in Lower Saxony. 
Maurice then advanced to encounter him ; and near the village of Sieven- 
hausen, on the spot where three centuries later a memorial was erected, a 
bloody battle was fought on the Qth of July, 1553. Maurice gained the 
victory, but received a gunshot wound in the melee, from the effects of 
which he died two days afterwards, in the flower of his manhood and strength. 
He was a man of rare qualities, " thoughtful and secret, enterprising and 
energetic, with an intelligent insight into the future, and excellent in the 
carrying out of a scheme." With the death-wound in his breast, he still 
devoted himself to the military and political affairs of Germany. The 




CHRIST AND ANTICHRIST. BY LUCAS CRANACH. 



manliness of his character made him at last the hero of the Protestant 
people. His fall gave new hope to the Margrave, who after a time renewed 
his attack on Braunschweig ; but defeated for the second time, and laid 
under the ban, as a disturber of the peace, by the Imperial chamber and also 
by the Emperor, he was compelled to abandon his dominions, Bayreuth and 
Hof, to his enemies, and to seek protection as a fugitive in France. Gradually 
peace returned to the German states. 

After the lapse of two years, Albert came back once again to Germany, 
but found an early grave, in 1557, in the castle of Pforzheim, where his 
brother-in-law, the Margrave of Baden, had granted him protection. 



END OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES V. 



93 



THE RELIGIOUS PEACE OF AUGSBURG, AND THE LAST DAYS OF 

CHARLES V. 

BY bitter experience the followers of both the Confessions had come to 
the conclusion that the peace of the empire could only be secured by 
mutual recognition of freedom of belief. This recognition completely 
destroyed Charles's plans and schemes with regard to the Church and the 
Imperial power. It was no wonder, therefore, that he felt disgusted with the 
affairs of Germany, and made over to his brother the presidency of the diet 




ABDICATION OF THE EMPEROR CHARLES V. 



that had been appointed in the treaty of Passau to take place, that he might 
not experience the humiliation of having publicly to give up the cherished 
aim of his life. At this memorable diet, which was held at Augsburg, in 
September, 1555, a religious peace was at last agreed upon, after long and 
animated deliberations ; a peace by which the Protestant party was not only 
permitted perfect freedom of conscience and religion, but also political 
equality with the Catholics ; and the continued possession of Church property 
that had already been declared confiscated. The most violent dispute was 
excited by the demand of the old, or Catholic, party that those ecclesiastical 
representatives who should in the future join the New Church should forfeit 



94 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD, 

their office and revenues. As an agreement could not be arrived at on this 
point, the so-called " ecclesiastical proviso " was drawn up as an Imperial 
declaration, and proclaimed as the law of the empire, though at the same time 
the protest put forward by the Protestant representatives was admitted 
against it. Thus the whole question with regard to ecclesiastical property 
remained undecided, as the seed of future conflict and bloodshed. The treaty 
of Augsburg was thus by no means a final settlement of the German religious 
question, but only a compromise for the moment, brought about by the 
exhaustion of both parties, and the common aspiration for tranquillity 
and rest. 

The Emperor, who saw that the aim of his life, the securing of uniformity 
for the Western Church, was destroyed by the religious peace, lost all the 
interest he had till then taken in mundane affairs ; and, bowed down by bodily 
afflictions, he formed the resolution of abdicating his rule and withdrawing 
from the world, to spend the remainder of his days in the retirement of the 
cloister. With this object he made over to his son Philip, at a solemn 
assembly at Brussels, in October, 1555, first the government of the Nether- 
lands, and sometime afterwards, in 1556, the kingdoms of Spain and Naples, 
as well as his possessions in the New World ; the Austrian states, however, 
and the control of German affairs were left in the hands of his brother 
Ferdinand. After having divested himself also of the Imperial crown, on the 
7th September, 1556, he set out for the west of Spain, where close to the 
monastery of San Juste, near Placenzia, he caused a dwelling to be erected 
for himself on the pleasant slope of one of the wooded hills. Here for two 
years he lived in peaceful retirement, passing his time in mechanical pursuits, 
religious exercises, and pious meditations ; but continuing, notwithstanding 
his retirement, to watch the affairs of the empire, and retaining in some 
degree t his influence on the government of the country. Popular tradition 
has recorded as a fact, that in order to accustom himself to the thought of 
death, he celebrated his own obsequies, shortly before his death, by solemnly 
holding the funeral service for the dead. 

Ferdinand I., who had been already chosen emperor by the German princes, 
now united the Imperial crown with the Austrian hereditary dominions, after 
having pledged himself to uphold the religious peace, to maintain the peace 
of the country according to the renewed judicial regulation, and never to 
govern without the advice and consent of the deputies of the empire. This 
oath Ferdinand conscientiously regarded. He, and his benevolent son and 
successor, Maximilian II., opposed no hindrance to the spread of Evangelical 
doctrines. 




END OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES V. 



THE Loss OF THE IMPERIAL DOMINIONS IN LORRAINE. 

r I ^HE Smalkaldic war had not only 
JL destroyed the hopes of the patriots 
for the establishment of a German 
National Church, based on Evangelica 
principles, and independent of Rome ; 
it had also sacrificed German territory 
to the covetous neighbour of the 
empire. The ducal family governing 
Lorraine had for the last century 
shown more sympathy for France than 
for the distracted German Empire ; on 
the other hand, the three bishops of 
Metz, Toul, and Verdun, whose posses- 
sions lay in the dukedom of Lorraine, 
were considered as princes of the 
German Empire, obtained their inves- 
titure from the Emperor, and belonged to the metropolitan 
union of Treves. The three cities were free Imperial cities, 
and stood under the supremacy of the Emperor only ; and 
in legal affairs recognised the Imperial chamber at Spires as 
the highest judicial tribunal. At Metz, in 1356, the diet was 
held at which the fundamental Imperial law of Germany, 
the Golden Bull, was established. The citizens, German in 
language, customs, and habits of thought, remained at all 
times faithful to the German nation. When Maurice of 
Saxony reluctantly accepted the proposed offensive and 
defensive alliance, in order to save the independence of 
Germany and the very existence of Protestantism from the Imperial Catholic 
policy of Charles V., he did not contemplate surrendering these western 
towns of the empire to the French. The long wars between France and 
Hapsburg, the apprehension of the French court at the growing supremacy 
of the Spanish-Austrian ruling house, might well lead the German princes 
to believe that Henry II. had no other aim than to oppose this increas- 
ing power, to maintain the independence of Germany, and to protect the 
Protestant princes in their religious freedom ; for such was the plausible 
tenour of the hypocritical treaty. Maurice might have been of opinion that 
the general interest of the nation against the common enemy was a sufficient 
basis for a political alliance. Though on this occasion the three ecclesiastical 
lords might forfeit their temporal supremacy, and pay for the expenses of the 
war with a part of their possessions, such a secularization would probably not 
appear a great misfortune to the evangelical Electors. The proceedings of 
the French king towards his own reformed subjects might certainly have con- 
vinced him that Henry II. of Valois would be an unreliable protector of the 
" evangelical liberty " of the German people ; but such a policy was neverthe- 
less practicable, and was at different times unhesitatingly pursued by France. 
Thus the alliance was brought about, against the advice of Melancthon, 
who protested against it, and against the representations of the Saxon party, 
as the prophets of Judah had declaimed against the alliance of their people 
with Egypt. A manifesto which was issued in the German language by the 
French Government from Fontainebleau, proclaimed to the world "that all 




THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



kinds of grave complaints from many princes and other persons of import- 
ance of the German communities had been made to the King of France, in 
which it had been set forth that they suffered unendurable bondage and 
tyranny from the Emperor, and were.brought down to slavery and ^ ruin ; this 

could not occur without injury to the 
crown of France, as the German nation 
was a strong fortress of the whole of 
Christendom. For this reason he had 
not considered it right to deny his help 
to the German princes and parties ; 
but, on the contrary, impelled by a 
Divine prompting, had established a 
league with them, and had formed the 
strong resolution of placing at their 
disposal himself, his influence, and his 
friends. At the same time he had 
no other aim than of his free royal 
pleasure to promote the liberty of the 
German nation and of the sacred 
kingdom, to liberate the princes from 
the pitiful subjection in which they 
were held, to release Duke John 
Frederick of Saxony and the Land- 
grave Philip of Hesse from their 
lengthy imprisonment, and by this 
means to obtain, like Flamininus in 
Greece, an immortal name. There 
was no cause to fear any violence, as 
the king merely undertook the war to 
give back to each one his lost honours, 
possessions, and liberties." 

This solemn declaration of the king 
who, ,to show that he sought no 
personal advantage or profit, even 
ELECTOR JOHN FREDERICK OF SAXONY. designated himself in the title of the 
manifesto as the " protector of German liberty, and of the imprisoned princes " 
was intended to deceive the Elector Moritz and the other allies, and to give 
them a false impression of security. Soon afterwards the king prepared for 
a temporary occupation of the towns of Metz, Toul, and Verdun. 





END OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES V. 



97 



THE CONSTABLE DE MONTMORENCY. TRIUMPH OF THE FRENCH 

INTERVENTION. 




A' 



T the same time that 
Maurice took the field 
against the Emperor, the 
Constable dc Montmorency, 
with a considerable army of 
cavalry and infantry, marched 
into Lorraine, subjugated 
Toul, Verdun, and Nancy, 
deprived the Duchess Chris- 
tina of Denmark, a niece of 
the Emperor, of the regency 
which she had carried on for 
her youthful son Charles since 
the death of her husband, 
Duke Francis, in 1545, and 
entrusted the government to 
the Count of Vaudemont, a 
devoted servant of France. The young prince, who was sent to Paris to com- 
plete his education, was afterwards married to the king's daughter. Marguerite ; 
and thus was the. way paved for ultimate annexation. The Emperor Charles, 
for his part, offered no assistance to the threatened country; and a refutation 
of the French manifesto was all he undertook for the protection of Lorraine. 
Henry's plan, nevertheless, would be imperfectly carried out unless he also 
gained possession of Metz, the inhabitants of which city still remained faithful 
to the empire. But the French king found ways and means to attain his aim 
by deception and trickery ; and France obtained, as she did a century later in 
her intrigues to gain possession of Strasburg, a willing instrument in the 
Bishop of Metz, a cardinal and dignitary of the Church. For the Roman 
Catholic clergy at all times felt more prosperous and secure under the pro- 
tection of the " most Christian king," than under the feeble supremacy of the 
diets of the empire, where Protestant princes and deputies sat and voted 
with the rest. Relying on the efforts of Bishop Robert, who endeavoured to 
create a French party in the town, the Constable de Montmorency requested 
that his army might pass through Metz. This proposition was resolutely 
opposed by the citizens ; but the intriguing arts of the French partizans at 
last induced them to consent that the general himself should pass through 
their city, followed by a troop of the guards and by the cavaliers of his staff, 
but not by the army. This partial permission was all tha-t Montmorency 
required. The one company of soldiers was followed by the guard, and after 
these came trooping the whole army. When the citizens remonstrated, the 
Constable pretended to be indignant at the intrusion of the crowd, but 
declared that the city would suffer no harm if the whole army "passed 
through " it. But so soon as the last man had entered the gates, the troops 
were quartered on the citizens and nothing more was said concerning the 
promise of a withdrawal. The farce had been well organized and performed, 
but it was to terminate with a tragedy. In order to convert the magistracy 
into a suitable instrument of French policy, Montmorency invited those 
members who were not of his party, into his room, and stabbed with his own 
hand the chief of the council of bailiffs, while his guards fell upon the others 
II II 



9 8 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



and cut them down. After this no further resistance was possible. When 
the king marched into Metz, on the i8th of April, 1552, he was proclaimed 
the " Protector of the holy Roman empire," and replied to the petition of the 
magistrates that the city might be maintained in the enjoyment of its liberties 
and privileges, with the evasive answer : " I will treat you as I treat my own 
subjects." 

This success in Lorraine inspired Henry II. with the hope of winning 
Strasburg also, and of establishing a league with the electoral princes of the 
Rhine under the protectorship of France. But the time for such a measure 




GEORGE OF FRUNDSBERG AND GERMAN LANDSKNECHTE. 

had not arrived When the people of Strasburg showed signs of resisting the 
further advance of this upholder of German liberties by force of arms, and 
the Rhenish electors and other princes of the country rejected the proposed 
alliance in the most decided fashion, at an assembly at Worms, the king 
desisted from his attempts, and contented himself with marching through 
Strasburg with a small retinue, and receiving the ceremonious hospitality of 
the council. The conclusion of the treaty of Passau warned him to be 
moderate. He declared to the ambassadors of the Diet of Worms, " that inas- 
much as, through his efforts, the empire had regained its liberty, he regarded 



END OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES V. 99 

his work as concluded, and should take his army back to Lorraine." Never- 
theless, on the return journey Luxemburg was devastated by fire and sword, 
and thus this border-land was from the first involved in the sorrows and 
sufferings of the German empire. The three bishoprics, however, whose 
temporary occupation had been permitted to the king in the treaty with 
Maurice, were not evacuated ; on the contrary, the towns of Metz, Toul, and 
Verdun were incorporated with the French kingdom ; and thus a valuable and 
-extensive territory, containing a population of 300,000 souls, mostly Germans, r 
was estranged from the empire. Henry regarded the city of Metz as neces- 
sary for the safe keeping of the bishoprics of Lorraine, and the dukedoms of 
Bar and Champagne, and even as the key to France itself; as it had, till then, 
been the key to Germany. He therefore established as governor a man who 
would not lightly allow the place to be torn from him Duke Francis of Guise. 
This energetic commander repaired the fortifications, placed a strong garrison j 
in the town, and made all preparations for a protracted defence. It was not 
uncalled for. For when the French king refused to withdraw from the 
temporary occupation he had been allowed to carry out as Vicar of the 
empire, an Imperial army was despatched against the town. But the 
Emperor's advance was slow, and it was not till the end of October, 1552, 
that the siege of Metz was commenced, under the direction of the Duke of [ 
Alva. The severe cold of the winter proved disastrous to the Imperial troops ; 
thousands were frozen to death or fell victims to epidemic diseases. At last 
the order was given to break up the camp and march towards Thionville, 
after the army had dwindled away to one-half its former strength ; and those 
who remained were half frozen and famished. Margrave Albrecht conducted , 
this disastrous retreat, of January, 1553, which was soon transformed into a ' 
complete rout. The roads were strewn with dead and dying men and 
horses, with weapons and deserted baggage wagons. Prisoners and booty 
were carried into the town, the fate of which was decided by this termination 
to the siege. The bishop-cardinal assumed the control of spiritual and tem- 
poral affairs, established a new council, and strenuously encouraged the 
alliance with France. 

With the liberty of the empire the germs of Protestantism were also 
destroyed in Metz ; all heretical books were hunted out and burnt. The 
clergy and nobility rejoiced, but the citizens long mourned their lost liberty 
and civil government. The rights of the empire had certainly been reserved 
in the capitulation, and for a century had a legal existence ; the towns and 
bishops were still regarded as belonging to the empire ; imperial investiture 
still prevailed in theory, and representatives were occasionally sent to the 
diet of the empire ; but it was only a fiction that had no more signification 
than the supreme rights still arrogated by the empire over, the dukedom of 
Lorraine. 




100 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




MARTYRDOM OF SAVONAROLA. 



THE REFORMED CHURCH IN SWITZERLAND. CALVIN IN GENEVA. 




T 



new faith had penetrated even to the Italian 
part of Switzerland. William Farel, of Dauphine", 
an ardent believer in the evangelical teaching, and 
the eloquent Viret, were the first dauntless preachers 
of the gospel, who, with the courage of the old 
apostles of the heathen, attacked superstition and 
self-righteousness, and by their bold speaking en- 
deavoured both in the field and in the market-place, 
in the pulpit and the churchyards, to win over the 
people to the new faith. Waadt, which had been 
conquered by Berne from Savoy, accepted the 
religion of the new ruler ; and in Aigle, Murten, 
Neuchatel, and other places, Farel's eloquence proved successful. Geneva, 
where the bishops, who were appointed by the 1 dukes of Savoy, had long 



END OF THE REIGN OF CHARLES V. 101 



. proved themselves the enemies of civil liberty, was liberated from Savoy, and 
brought to give in its adhesion to the reformation and the confederacy. 
Nevertheless the constitution was ill established, the people were degenerating, 
and manners were licentious, when John Calvin (1509-1564), of Noyon, in 
Picardy, who had given up the study of jurisprudence for theology, had suf- 
fered persecution, and had been compelled to take flight on account of his 
reforming views, established himself at Geneva, and became the orderer of the 
republican commonwealth, the reformer of morals, and the true founder of the 
Church. His severe church discipline at first excited suspicion and jealousy, 
and led to his expulsion ; but better counsels soon prevailed. He was recalled, 
and from that time until his death, like the lawgivers of antiquity, he exercised 
the most powerful influence on the constitution, religion, morals, and culture 
of the city, which owes to him alone its importance and advantages. Geneva 
became through him as remarkable a centre of reforming energy in the south 
as Wittenberg in the north. In the Geneva school, where Calvin's faithful 
comrade in office, Theodore Beza (1519-1605), a highly-gifted French noble- 
man, developed his varied activity, were educated, formed, and sent forth 
those zealous preachers who, in constant peril of their lives, carried the gospel 
on to foreign lands. Genevese printing presses furnished the principal reformed 
churches with religious writings. Many ecclesiastics and scholars of all 
nationalities who were persecuted for their belief, found in Geneva shelter and 
protection, and contributed to the advance of civilization as well as to the 
importance of the republic. Calvin himself, by his writings, his extensive 
correspondence, his advice and good judgment, attained to a position of 
worth and a legislative authority like that of Luther and Melancthon. He 
was a man of limited imagination but of elevated understanding, and of 
inflexible seventy both in thought and action. Hard towards others as 
towards himself, yet not without deep feeling, hostile to every earthly plea- 
sure, and careless of popular favour, he governed minds by the veneration 
inspired by his strong, pure will. The teaching of Calvin, as he has set it 
forth in his " Exposition of the Christian Religion," bears the character of its 
author severity and simplicity. In his article of faith he for the most part 
agrees with Zwingli ; yet, as regards the Lord's Supper, he occupies an inter- 
mediate position between him and Luther, and in the doctrine of election 
follows the sternest Augustine theory, which holds that the human will 
is fettered in consequence of original sin, and incapable of good of its own 
strength ; that while one portion of mankind is fated by the Divine 
decree of predestination to partake of future happiness, the other portion is 
irrevocably destined to suffer eternal misery ; so that the salvation of the 
elect, even though they err and fall, cannot be forfeited, while the lost are 
hopelessly excluded from heavenly bliss. 





OLD ST. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, LONDON. 



ENGLAND IN THE TUDOR TIMES. 
THE ANGLICAN AND THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES. 

HENRY VIII. AND CATHERINE OF ARRAGON. CARDINAL WOLSEY. 
SUPPRESSION OF THE MONASTERIES. SEPARATION FROM ROME. 
EDWARD VI., 1547-1553. THE ANGLICAN CHURCH. LADY JANE 
GREY. REIGN OF MARY, 1553-1558. THE ROMISH CHURCH 
RESTORED. PERSECUTIONS. ACCESSION OF ELIZABETH, 1558. 
SETTLEMENT OF CHURCH AFFAIRS. ACT OF UNIFORMITY, 1559. 
AFFAIRS OF SCOTLAND. JAMES V.: HIS DEATH, IN 1542. MARY 
QUEEN OF SCOTS. THE REFORMATION IN SCOTLAND. WISHART 
AND CARDINAL BEATOUN. MARY OF GUISE. JOHN KNOX. ESTAB- 
LISHMENT OF CALVINISM IN SCOTLAND. THE PRESBYTERIAN 
CHURCH. 

HENRY VIII. AND THE REFORMATION. 

HENRY VIII. (1509-47), a prince who was well 
versed in scholastic knowledge, at first attacked 
Luther's views in a controversial essay on the seven 
sacraments, and punished the Reformer's followers 
with imprisonment and the scaffold. But his devo- 
tion to the Roman see, which, as a reward for his 
zeal, conferred on him the title of Defender of the 
Faith, was changed to hatred when Clement VII., 
out of regard for the Emperor Charles V, would not 
concede to the king's desire for a divorce from his 
Spanish wife, Catherine of Arragon, though he had 
formerly flattered him with the hope that his request 
would be granted. Partly, perhaps, from scruples of 
conscience as to the validity of his marriage with 
Catherine, who had been the wife of his deceased 
brother Arthur, and partly the desire of espousing 




ENGLAND IN THE TUDOR TIMES. 



103 



the beautiful Anne Boleyn, at last made Henry decide to render a divorce 
from Catherine practicable, by separating himself from Rome. Relying on 
a number of judgments given by native and foreign universities, and by the 
decisions of learned bodies as to the illegality of his marriage, he caused 
himself to be arbitrarily divorced by Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canter- 
bury, after he had been already privately married to Anne Boleyn, in 
1532. He also compelled the clergy to recognise him as the head of the 
English Church, and insisted that the servile parliament should accept a 
number of resolutions, by which the Pope's authority in England was 
abolished, any further payment of money to Rome was forbidden, and any 
appeal to the ecclesiastical court was rendered a penal offence. The haughty 
and ambitious Cardinal Wolsey, who had, until then, exercised unlimited 

influence over the king, fell 
into disgrace, and at ' last 
died broken-hearted, be- 
cause he had given feeble 
support to the divorce ; and 
Thomas Cromwell, an ob- 
sequious servant of a de- 
spotic master, attained the 
dignity of a vicar-general, 
and keeper of the seals, and, 
in conjunction with Cran- 
mer, instituted Church re- 
forms according to Henry's 
pleasure. 

The numerous monas- 
teries were arbitrarily dis- 
solved, and their rich pos- 
sessions were forfeited to 
the crown, the monks and 
nuns being barely kept 
from starvation ; and the 
treasures of ancient art and 




knowledge were attacked with a rude vandalism. 
Becket's grave was desecrated and pillaged ; the 
memory of the old saint was ridiculed by an absurd 
mock ceremonial. In flames which were kindled 
with the wooden images of saints, both Papists and 
Lutherans were consumed ; the former incurred 
the anger of the despotic king because, like the venerable Bishop Fisher, and 
like Sir Thomas More, the chancellor, who was imbued with classic learning 
and Hellenic wit, they objected to his arbitrary proceedings towards the Pope 
and the Church ; the latter excited the anger of the scholastic theologian, who 
still asserted the doctrines which he had maintained against Luther from the 
first. Accordingly, he not only maintained all the dogmas, customs, cere- 
monies, and hierarchical arrangements of the old Church, but qualified and 
narrowed the permission he had once accorded, rendering lawful the use of 
the English Bible, the translation of the fugitive Tyndal ; and by the law 
of the Six Articles, designated by a harsher name by the people, he com- 
manded, on pain of death, the maintenance and observance of priestly celibacy, 
auricular confession, monastic vows, silent masses, transubstantiation, and the 
withholding of the cup from the laity. 



104 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



While Henry VIII. played a despotic game with the religious conscious- 
ness of the people, he also acted in a similar manner with regard to the lives 
and liberties of his nobles, and the heads of his wives. When the execution 
of Fisher and More, and the bloody persecution of the Carthusians and other 



Illill 




MEDIAEVAL FANATICISM : IMAGE BREAKING. 



supporters of the Pope excited the anger of the Court of Rome, and an 
indignant sentence of excommunication was issued against the king and his 
adherents, and was proclaimed by the English Cardinal, Reginald Pole, a 
connection of the roval family, Henry caused the aged Countes of Salis- 



ENGLAND IN THE TUDOR TIMES. 



105 



bury, the mother of the cardinal, one of the last descendants of the glorious 
Plantagenets, to be put to death, with many of Pole's other relatives and 
friends ; and when the discontent produced by the dissolution of the monas- 
teries in the north of the country led to a rebellion, in which the monks 
marched with the malcontents in what was called the " pilgrimage of grace," 
both abbots and friars were handed over to the executioner, and put to death 
in the clerical garb of their order. The despotic temper of the king was 
shown most openly in his treatment of his wives. Soon after the decease of 
the divorced Catherine, whose end was hastened, if not caused, by grief at 
the wrongs she had endured, and who expired in the Priory at Kimbolton, 
where, far from the court, she led a life of severe penance, her rival, Ann 
Boleyn, was beheaded in the Tower, on the iQth of May, 1536, at the com- 
mand of her husband, whose jealousy had been excited by wicked slanders, 
and whose fancy was now enthralled by a new object. His third wife, the 
young and gentle Jane Seymour, died in 1537, a few days after the birth of 
her son Edward, a weakly and delicate child. Henry was afterwards induced 
by the persuasion of his minister, Cromwell, and by the charms depicted in 
a portrait by the painter Holbein, to offer his hand, in 1540, to Anne of 
Cleves, the daughter of a German prince. But neither her face nor her man- 
ners pleased the peremptory king. A very insignificant pretext was made 
the excuse for another separation, which resulted in Cromwell's disgrace and 
execution. Catherine Howard, Henry's fifth wife, continued to bestow marks 
of favour and affection upon a former lover, and paid the penalty for her 
imprudence on the scaffold, in 1542; and it was only owing to the great 
prudence of his last queen, Catherine Parr, that she also did not become a 
sacrifice to her zeal for the Reformation. Since the days of Nero and Domi- 
tian no monarch had appeared who was so dominated by the impulses of 
a despotic nature, a bloodthirsty temper, and a tyrannical will. Even on his 
death-bed he gave the order for the execution of the Catholic Duke of Nor- 
folk and his high-minded, chivalrous son, the Earl of Surrey. Like the 
grim tyrant in Uhland's ballad : " What he spoke was scourging, and what 
he wrote was blood." 




SIR THOMAS MORE. 



ic6 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



EDWARD VI., 1547-1553. 




AT his father's death, the young king 
was only ten years of age ; there- 
fore a regency had been appointed by 
Henry for the conduct of the govern- 
ment, in which Edward's maternal uncle, 
the Duke of Somerset, and Archbishop 
Cranmer obtained the chief influence. 
The former, who was declared Protector 
of England, gradually concentrated the 
whole power in his own hands, and pro- 
moted the reform of the Church, which 
was undertaken with care and moderation 
by his friend and adviser Cranmer the 
Archbishop. 

By a decision of parliament, the so- 
called Bloody Statute of the Six Articles 
was abolished, but the king, as head of 
j the Church, was declared possessed of the 
right to choose and appoint bishops. 
The people were instructed in religious 
matters by means of the Catechism, formed on the Lutheran model ; and 
the Book of Common Prayer was drawn up under the Archbishop's direction, 
and was ratified by parliament. The mass and the celibacy of the priest- 
hood were abolished ; and the Declaration of Faith embodied in the Thirty- 
nine (at first forty-two) Articles, placed the Anglican Church in the category 
of Protestant communities. Gardiner, Bishop of Winchester, a cunning 
prelate, who was indignant that he had been excluded from participation in 
the government, and Bonner, Bishop of London, a coarse, vindictive bigot, 
disputed the right of the regency to undertake reforms during the minority 
~r ^~ !___ . f or t kj s ^y were Deprived of their offices, and put in prison. 



EDWARD VI. 



of the king 



MARY I. 



SOMERSET'S love of power 
and harsh character drew on 
him the enmity of the other mem- 
bers of the regency ; and through 
his endeavours to relieve the 
country people, who were op- 
pressed by the new possessors of 
what 'had formerly been convent 
property, he incurred the hatred 
of the nobility. A powerful faction 
was organized against him, and, 
by intrigues and conspiracies, 
brought about first his overthrow 
and ultimately his impeachment 
and execution in 1552. He was 
succeeded by the head of the 
opposite party, the ambitious Dudley, Earl of Warwick, who, as Duke of 
Northumberland, ruled the weak sovereign and the kingdom as absolutely 




ENGLAND IN THE TUDOR TIMES. 



ro/ 




LONDON : THE STEELYARD, DEPOT OF THE HANSEATIC MERCHANTS. 




LADY JANE GREY. 



as his predecessor Somerset had 
done. To increase his influence, 
and prolong his term of power, 
he persuaded Edward, whose end 
was approaching, to alter the 
testamentary dispositions of his 
father, by which the crown would 
pass to his sister Mary, and to 
appoint as his successor Jane 
Grey, a great niece of Henry VIII. 
through his sister Mary, who had 
married Charles Brandon, Duke 
of Suffolk. Lady Jane was a Pro- 
testant, and was married to Lord 
Guilford Dudley, a son of the 
Duke of Northumberland. But 
partly hatred of the ambitious 
Northumberland, partly an in- 
herited veneration for the line 
of succession, and for the princi- 
ple of hereditary right, operated 



loS 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



in favour of Mary, and prevented the proclamation of Jane as queen from 
finding acceptance with the people. Queen Mary, on her part, issued a solemn 
assurance that no one should be interfered with or injured for the sake of 
matters of faith ; she thus quickly won over the people to her side and 
obtained the throne. The Duke of Northumberland, after a vain endeavour 
to uphold the cause of his daughter-in-law, whose nominal reign lasted only 
ten days, was arrested as a traitor, and expiated his rash enterprise on the 
scaffold. Lord Guilford Dudley, and the noble and cultivated Jane Grey, 
who was as well versed in the writings of Plato as in the Bible, languished 
for a time in prison, and ultimately, after the rebellion of Wyatt, they shared 

the same fate. Lady Jane. 
Grey was only seventeen 
years of age when she 
mounted the scaffold in 
1554. Her zeal for her 
religion had inspired her 
with a strength before 
which death lost its ter- 
rors; but it had also im- 
pressed on her heart a 
deep resentment towards 
the ancient Church. 

Mary did not remain 
faithful to her original 
promise, that toleration 
should be extended to the 
Protestants. Educated 
in the strictest tenets of 
the faith of the Catholic 
Church, for which her 
mother Catherine had 
suffered, she was animated 
with the desire of re- 
establishing its supre- 
macy. She induced par- 
liament to abolish the 
regulations for church 
government which had 
been introduced in her 
brother's reign, deprived 
Cranmer and the opposing bishops qf their dignities, and caused the zealous 
reformers Ridley and Latimer to be burnt to death at Oxford. Cardinal 
Pole, the learned champion of the papal primate, and the deadly enemy of 
her father, was appointed to the archbishopric of Canterbury, and, conjointly 
with Gardiner and Bonner, wrought zealously for the restoration of the papal 
power and the extermination of heresy. 

When Mary gave her hand to the stern and fanatical Philip of Spain, in 
1554, the persecution increased. In consequence of this union, England was 
immediately drawn into participation in Philip's war with France, and the 
important fortress of Calais, the last relic of the glorious conquests of the 
fifteenth century, was lost. This disaster, combined with grief at her 
husband's evident aversion, and aggravated by melancholy and misanthropy, 




MARY I. OF ENGLAND. 



ENGLAND IN THE TUDOR TIMES. 



109 






partly caused by the consciousness of her own unpopularity, shortened Mary's 
days. After having for some time indulged herself with the vain hope of 
giving a Catholic heir to the English nation, she died in November, 1558. 
Her sister Elizabeth, the object of her jealousy and hatred, the daughter of 
the unfortunate Anne Boleyn, then exchanged her former abode in a country 
house, where, under the guardianship of a Catholic gentleman, she had been 
detained in a kind of honourable custody, after her release from the Tower, 




TRIUMPHANT ENTRY OF THE CATHOLIC BISHOPS INTO LONDON, UNDER MARY I. 

for the royal palace. She could not permit the supremacy of a Church 
according to whose principles she was illegitimate and incapable of governing. 
She restored religious matters to the state they had been in at the completion 
of the Reformation under Edward VI., and provided for peaceable submission 
by the Act of Uniformity passed in 1559. She possessed the despotic tempei 
of her father, consequently the democratic views of the Calvinist Puritans 
found little favour in her eyes. 



no 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




JOHN KNOX BEFORE MARY QUEEN OF SCOTS. 



SCOTLAND. 

HEN Elizabeth had succeeded to the throne of England, 
the new faith gained a complete victory in Scotland also. 
For a long while the people, who were seeking for the light 
of the gospel, strove with the court and the clergy for the 
precious privilege of freedom of conscience. King James V. 
upheld the Papacy and the old faith in a conflict with his 
uncle Henry VIII., and sacrificed the happiness of his life 
in the cause. After the loss of a battle in 1542, he died 
overwhelmed with melancholy, a few days after the birth 
of his daughter Mary Stuart, afterwards the famous and 
unfortunate Queen of Scots, in whose name her mother, 
Mary of Guise, a French princess belonging to a devout 
Catholic family, fulfilled the duties of regent. Supported 
by France, the court and clergy were well able to repress the. 
reformation with the most vigorous measures. Executions, 
imprisonment, and flight diminished the ranks of the most dauntless ad- 
herents of the reformation in Scotland, and terrified the faint-hearted. From 
the day when the young nobleman, Patrick Hamilton, whose studies in 
Germany had made him incline to the new doctrine, died the death of a 
martyr at the stake in 1527, until the martyrdom of the prophetic preacher 
Wishart, many victims died, sacrifices to the vengeance of the old faith. But 




ENGLAND IN THE TUDOR TIMES. in 

martyrdom was the most powerful means of spreading the new faith among 
a rude, thoughtful, and true-hearted people. Cardinal Beatoun, the author 
of most of the executions, fell under the blows of a band of conspirators in 
his own house in 1546 ; and though most of the perpetrators expiated their 
deed of violence by long imprisonment on board French galleys, yet during 
Mary of Guise's feeble regency the gospel obtained, through the influence of 
England, a firmer footing and wider propagation among the people. John 
Knox, who had been in league with Beatoun's murderers and had shared their 
fate, returned home after eventful years of wandering, and united the 
reformers into a " Congregation of Christ " in 1557. An arduous struggle now 
commenced, which lasted over three years. The queen obtained troops from 
France, where her daughter, who was affianced to the Dauphin, was educated, 
and where the seeds were sown that produced so fatal a harvest in the young 
queen's disastrous life, and the reformers found support in England, ' for 
Elizabeth was obliged to protect her crown and faith against Mary's claims. 
Knox, who had no regard for the sorrows and joys of an earthly existence, 
placed himself at the head of the troops, encouraged the wavering and in- 
dolent by the strength of his rude eloquence, and caused the firebrand to be 
hurled into monasteries and cathedrals. The death of the queen at last 
procured the reformers the victory. By a decision of parliament, the declara- 
tion of faith, the ritual, and synod of the Calvinist Church were introduced 
into Scotland, the mass and the " idolatry " of the Romish Church were 
forbidden under pain of forfeiture of life and property, and most of the Church 
possessions were bestowed on the nobility, so that the throne and the new 
Church, afterwards called, from its regular assemblies, Presbyterian, remained 
poor. All monasteries, art-treasures, and cathedrals were attacked with the 
undiscriminating fury of religious vandalism. 





SCANDINAVIA, POLAND, AND HUNGARY 
IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 

KING CHRISTIAN II., 1513-1523. DISSOLUTION OF THE UNION OF 
CALMAR. KING GUSTAVUS VASA, 1523-1559. SWEDEN UNDER 
THE SONS OF GUSTAVUS VASA. POLAND. SIGISMUND AUGUSTUS II., 
1558-1572. PERIOD OF STRIFE. ELECTION OF HENRY OF ANJOU 
AS KING OF POLAND, 1573. PAX DISSIDENTIUM. STEPHEN BATHORI 
OF TRANSYLVANIA. SIGISMUND III., 1587-1632. HUNGARY AND THE 
AUSTRIAN STATES. FERDINAND L, 1556-1564. MAXIMILIAN II., 
1564-1576. FOUNDATION OF THE ORDER OF THE JESUITS. IGNATIUS 
LOYOLA. 

CHRISTIAN II., THE LAST KING OF THE UNION, 1513-23. 

CHRISTIAN II., who was a crafty and clever 
V^x but cruel and revengeful prince, was at 
last recognised, after many conflicts, as the king 
of the Union of the three Scandinavian kingdoms. 
As such he directed his efforts to achieve the 
establishment of an unlimited royal power, and 
to the increase of his crown revenues ; and at 
the same time he engaged in an arduous strife ; 
righting against the aristocracy, the commercial 
supremacy of the Hanseatic League, and the 
power of the clergy. At one time, with the assist- 
ance of the Archbishop of Upsala, Gustavus 
Trolle, and strengthened by a papal decree, he 
caused the most powerful members of the upper 
classes, to the number of ninety-four, to be exe- 
cuted in the massacre of Stockholm. But far from 
strengthening his government by such measures, 
and freeing it from the restrictions imposed by 
the elective capitulation, he hastened his own 
overthrow, and the dissolution of the Union of 
Calmar. Instigated and supported by the in- 
habitants of Lubeck, the nobility of Jutland rose 
up against the despotic prince, chose Christian's 




SCANDINAVIA, POLAND, AND HUNGARY. 113 

uncle, Frederick of Schleswig-Holstein, as their king, and compelled the 
deposed monarch to fly from the country. At the same time Frederick I. 
was recognised also by Zealand, Fiinen, and Schonen, in 1523. 



GUSTAVUS VASA. 




i 



GUSTAVAS VASA. 



N Sweden Christian's bad, bloodthirsty 
3vernment was overthrown even 
earlier. Gustavas Vasa, a manly youth, 
on whom had descended the courage and 
wisdom of his ancestors the Stures, had 
been sent as a hostage to Denmark by 
Christian II., who might have known that 
a man of his character would never bend 
his neck under a foreign yoke. The 
prisoner soon found an opportunity to 
escape to Lubeck, where he not only 
obtained protection, but also received 
money and promises of assistance in his 
projected attempt for the liberation of his 
fatherland. In the same year, 1520, when 
the Stockholm massacre filled the nation 
with terror, and the Danish rule seemed 
stronger than ever, Gustavus landed, from a merchant vessel, on his native 
shores. After innumerable dangers and adventures, he repeatedly escaped, 
through his own undaunted resolution and the fidelity of his countrymen, 
from the persecutions of Christian, whose executioners were always at his 
heels until he at last found help and protection among the rude inhabitants 
of the valleys of the north. With a troop of hardy peasants he conquered 
Falun, with the Kupferberg, or copper mountain, defeated the troops of the 
archbishop and his allies who were favourable to the Danes, and took posses- 
sion of Westeras and Upsala in 1521. The renown of his name and the 
alluring cry inviting to freedom resounded throughout the land, and numbers 
of soldiers rallied round him. The Diet of Wadstena appointed Gustavus 
Vasa governor and commander of the army ; and the people of Lubeck 
supplied him with troops, ammunition, and money. By this means his 
influence and authority became so firmly established, that the Danish garrison 
in Stockholm quitted Sweden and left the enemy in possession of the field. 
At the same time when Christian II. was seeking assistance from abroad 
against Denmark, Gustavus Vasa, who was elected king at the Diet of 
Streugnas, made his entry into the capital of Sweden in June, 1523. Nearly 
all the fortresses and strongholds in the kingdom voluntarily opened their 
gates to him, and at Malmoe a lasting peace was concluded between Denmark 
and Sweden, through the mediation of the people of Lubeck, whose continued 
assistance he procured by the granting of great privileges and commercial 
advantages in 1524. The League of Calmar was thus entirely dissolved ; the 
new kingdom of Sweden nevertheless remained, at first, an elective monarchy, 
until, twenty years later, the Diet of Westeras declared the crown hereditary. 
Both Sweden and Denmark adopted the reformed faith. 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




KING ERIC XIV. 



SWEDEN UNDER THE SONS OF GUSTAVUS VASA. 

THE reigns of Gustavus's 
sons, of whom the great 
king left four, Eric, John, 
Magnus, and Charles, proved a 
disastrous period for Sweden. 
Eric XIV. (1560-68), who by 
the acquisition of Esthland, 
had laid the foundation of 
sovereignty over the east 
coast of the Baltic, was of 
such a passionate nature that 
his mind became totally un- 
hinged, and he fell into a 
state of furious insanity. In 
this condition he murdered 
with his own hand several 
members of the noble-hearted 
family of the Stures, and 
terrified all the nobles with a 
prospect of a similar fate. 
His brothers John and Charles, 
whose lives and property were 
threatened by the gloomy sus- 
picion and envy of the king, at 

last formed a conspiracy against him which resulted in 'Eric's deposition. The 
unhappy king was thrown into prison, where, after enduring ill-treatment, he 
at last died, in 1574, of poison, which was administered to him by his brother 
and successor John, in obedience to a decision of the council of the kingdom. 
John III. (1568-92) was a feeble prince of extremely vacillating character. 
Nevertheless, he compelled Denmark to renounce her claims to Sweden in 
the peace of Stellin, and strengthened his supremacy over the Baltic against 
the Russians ; but in his own country his ill-advised change of religion 
excited violent attacks against the throne. Entirely under the influence of 
his wife, a Polish princess of strict Catholic principles, he sought to effect a 
gradual restoration of the old form of religion. But his efforts were rendered 
fruitless by the resistance that the people everywhere offered to the per- 
formance of Catholic ceremonies. The weak king even allowed himself to 
be persuaded by the crafty Jesuit Possevino to abjure the Lutheran faith, 
and to educate his son as a Catholic ; but when his second wife, whose pre- 
dilections were in favour of the Evangelical doctrine, endeavoured to uphold 
the Protestant Church, he repented of the steps he had taken, and 
endeavoured to. bring about the expulsion of the Jesuits. And in order 
that during the reign of his son and successor, the Catholic Sigismund 
(1592-1600), who was already king of Poland, the Lutheran Confession 
might not again be endangered, the Synod of Upsala, at the instigation of 
Charles of Sudermania, the youngest son of Gustavus Vasa, established the 
Evangelical Church doctrines, which had been introduced by Gustavus Vasa, 
as the religion of the country in 1593. When, however, Sigismund acted in 
opposition *o this decree, which he had himself confirmed, the diet of the 



SCANDINAVIA, POLAND, AND HUNGARY. 115 

kingdom issued a proclamation declaring that the Evangelical-Lutheran 
faith should be the only prevailing and the only permitted religion in 
Sweden ; and when Sigismund had returned to Poland, appointed his uncle 
Charles of Sudermania administrator of the kingdom (1598). Sigismund, 
who was displeased at this proceeding, took up arms, but was defeated by 
his uncle near Stangobro ; whereupon a diet of the kingdom summoned by 
Charles, demanded of Sigismund that he should either renounce the Popish 
religion and come home to rule his country in person, or send his son within 
five months to Sweden, that he might be brought up in the State religion of 
the land. As Sigismund refused this request, Charles IX. (1600-1611), the 
defender of Protestantism, obtained the throne, to which he had long aspired. 
A new law of succession secured the throne to Charles's descendants. The 
war with Poland, a struggle which was inherited by his son Gustavus 
Adolphus, ended to the advantage of Sweden ; for Liefland and a portion of 
Prussia were soon united with its other Baltic possessions (Finland, Esth- 
land, etc.). 

POLAND. 

ERSECUTED and fugitive religious reformers from different 
countries found in Poland a place of refuge, under the pro- 
tection of Sigismund Augustus II. (1558-72), and different 
nobles, Bohemian brothers, Lutherans, and reformers estab- 
lished communities ; and even those whose doctrines were 
rejected by Luther and Calvin (such as the Socinians) were 
tolerated in Poland. After long wars, all the opponents of 
the Roman Catholic Church who were designated Dissidents 
met together at a synod of Sandomir for the purpose of 
drawing up a common declaration of faith, in 1570. 
After Sigismund Augustus II., with whom the race in Poland became 
extinct, a stormy period succeeded, until final agreement was arrived at in 
the election of a king in the person of the French prince, Henry of Anjou 
(1573). During this interregnum a religious peace, known as the Pax 
Dissidentium, was concluded, on the strength of which Catholics and Dis- 
senters were to enjoy continual peace and equal civil rights ; but the bishoprics 
and church benefices were to remain in the possession of the Catholic party. 
The ratification of this peace was one of the articles of the elective capitula- 
tion, which was confirmed by Henry of Anjou, and after his secret flight and 
consequent deposition, was also accepted by his successor, Stephen Bathori 
of Transylvania. But even under the Swedish king Sigismund III. (15*87- 
1632), the Catholic party increased in strength by reason of the attractions 
which the Crown and the Church were able to offer to the nobility ; while 
many Dissidents, who were dissatisfied by the common declaration of faith, 
renewed their internal dissensions. Sigismund's long and feeble reign was an 
unfortunate period for Poland. The nobility, who were split up into factions, 
forgot obedience and respect for the law, and extended their privileges at the 
expense of the Crown. Disastrous wars with Sweden, Russia, and Turkey, 
impeded all attempts at improvement and civilization, and what Poland 
gained from Russia on the east, such as Smolensk, Severia, etc., was a small 
compensation for the lost territories on the Baltic, which it was compelled to 
yield up to Sweden. 




THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




THE CATHEDRAL OF CASSAU, HUNGARY. 

HUNGARY AND THE AUSTRIAN STATES. 

Though during the reign of Ferdinand I. (1556-1564), who in his latter 
days no longer prevented the preaching and spreading of the new faith, the 
reformation nad already found many adherents, their number still further 
increased under the gentle and humane Maximilian II. (1564-1576). This 
benevolent prince granted to the Austrian nobility who were especially in 
favour of the new doctrine, and also to the towns, perfect freedom of conscience 
and religion, regardless of the anger of the Pope. In Hungary the reforma- 
tion made still greater progress, for at an early period the teachings of Luther 
had penetrated into the country, and had been disseminated partly by natives 
who had studied at Wittenberg, and partly by German troops, who were the 
champions of the claims of the Hapsburgs to the throne of Hungary. The 
Germans in Hungary for the most part held to the Augsburg Confession, and 
among the Magyars Calvinism found numerous disciples. Luther's writings 
were brought to Transylvania by merchants of Hermannstadt from the fair 
at Leipzig, and after many persecutions aU the States of Saxony declared 
in favour of the Confession of Augsburg. In Bohemia the Lutherans and 
Utraquists survived the persecution of Ferdinand. Their number increased 
during the reign of Maximilian, and even the priest-ridden Rudolph II. (1576- 
1612), who oppressed the Protestants in all his dominions, found himself 
compelled to grant the Evangelical party in Bohemia, by a royal charter 
freedom of religion, equality with the Catholics, and specially appointed 
defenders for the protection of their rights (July, 1609). 



SCANDI'NAVIA, POLAND, AND HUNGARY. 



117 



THE ORDER OF JESUITS. 




A : 



MONO the most 
important events of 
this epoch was the estab- 
lishment of the Order of 
the Jesuits. The founder 
of this corporation, Ig- 
natius Loyola, was the 
son of a poor Spanish 
nobleman from the Basque 
mountains. During the 
heroic defence of Pam- 
peluna against the French 
( 1 5 2 1 ) he received a severe 
wound, which laid him on 
a sick bed. The perusal 
of the lives of the saints 
during a long and painful 
recovery excited in him a 
longing " to obtain, like 
St. Franciscus, heavenly 
bliss by means of earthly 
misery." He hung up his 
sword and dagger in the 
chapel of the Holy Virgin 
of Montserrat, to whose 
pure worship he dedicated 
himself, girded his loins 
with a rope, and under- 
took a pilgrimage to the 
Holy Land. He wandered, 
begging from place to 
place, his body worn by 
self-mortification and pen- 
ances ; by a daily seven 
hours' prayer he fed the 
flame of piety, and held 
temptation at bay. After 
having stilled his longing by fervent prayer at the Holy Sepulchre, he con- 
ceived the idea of becoming the founder of a new order. With incredible 
perseverance he obtained the necessary culture in Salamanca, and afterwards 
in Paris (1534). 

In the following year Ignatius passed through Spain, where he was venerated 
as a saint, to Italy, to make suitable arrangements with his followers in Venice. 
Atter some consideration. Pope Paul III. gave his approval to the formation 
of the Society of Jesus. Ignatius was the first general of the order, but the 
society owes not to him, but to his wise successor, the Spaniard Lainez, who 
died 1564, its finely conceived organization, and subsequent power and in- 
fluence. Ignatius Loyola died in 1556. 



IGNATIUS LOYOLA. 




n3 




PERIOD OF 
PHILIP THE SECOND OF SPAIN, 1556-1598, 

AND OF 

ELIZABETH OF ENGLAND, 1558-1603. 

SPAIN AND PORTUGAL IN THE TIME OF PHILIP II. SINISTER POLICY 
OF THE KING. THE INQUISITION AND THE AUTOS DA F. THE 
PEACE OF THE CHATEAU-CAMBRESIS. POPE PAUL IV. UNITED 
ACTION OF FRANCE AND SPAIN. ACQUISITION OF PORTUGAL BY 
SPAIN. DECLINE OF PORTUGAL. BATTLE OF ALCASSAR IN 1578. 
THE FALSE SABASTIANS. PORTUGUESE TRADE DESTROYED. THE 
STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM IN THE NETHERLANDS. THE GOVERNOR* 
SHIP OF MARGARET OF PARMA. DISCONTENTS IN THE NETHER- 
LANDS AND THEIR CAUSES. TYRANNY IN THE CHURCH. CARDINAL 

GRANVELLA. THE INQUISITION. RELIGIOUS DISTURBANCES : IMAGE 
BREAKING. THE PETITION OF THE NOBLES PRESENTED TO MAR- 
GARET. ITS REJECTION BY THE KING. 



SPAIN AND PORTUGAL UNDER PHILIP II. 



(HERE were three things which the gloomy, cold, and sus- 
picious Philip II. regarded as the aim of his life the increase 
of his power, the extermination of Protestantism, and the 
annulling of all popular rights. To these misanthropic aspi- 
rations he sacrificed the happiness of nations, and the love 
of his people and of his nearest relatives. While he des- 
patched his fleets and armies against his Protestant subjects, 
and made war on prosperous states and industrious citizens,. 
the Corsairs, with their bold piracies, destroyed the trade, 
of the Mediterranean and plundered the coast countries ; and the weak- 
ened Porte found time to recover from the loss of Lepanto, and to oppress; 
Christian countries with its despotic sway. His costly wars (the Dutch war' 
alone is said to have cost five hundred and sixty-four millions), and .his false 
policy, founded on bribery and corruption, consumed the marrow of ttye* 
country ; and in spite of the treasures of America and the West Indies,, 




I2J 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



brought the finances into such a lamentable condition at the time of his death, 
that a bankruptcy of the State was only averted by recourse to extreme 
measures. Philip was led also by his blighting suspicion to take cruel venge- 
ance on his own relatives. The chivalrous Don John of Austria was so 
feebly supported by his envious half-brother in his enterprises against Tunis 
and the Mohammedan Corsairs of North Africa, that he was able to accomplish 
nothing ; and when he afterwards created a suitable sphere of activity for his 
energies in the Netherlands, Philip surrounded him with a tissue of deceit, 
treachery, and slander, so that he died prematurely of grief and vexation 

(1578). Philip's vehement, 
passionate son, Don Car- 
los, died, burdened by 
a terrible accusation, in 
the privacy of the palace, 
under circumstances that 
pointed to the possibility 
of a death by violence 
(1568); and when, a few 
months afterwards, the 
king's French wife, the 
virtuous Elizabeth, also 
suddenly passed away, a 
terrible connection was 
suspected between the 
two events ; but these 
speculations come within 
the domain only of ro- 
mance and poetry, not of 
history. 

In combination with 
the priesthood, Philip de- 
veloped the inhuman po- 
licy, made up of spying 
and of police despotism, 
which has since remained 
the curse of most Catholic 
countries, and which, in 
the peninsulas of the Py- 
renees and Apennines, 
has resulted in a deadly 
stagnation and incapacity 
for progress. Philip did 
not, like his father, march 
at the head of his armies through the countries of Europe ; he kept concealed 
behind the walls of his palace in Madrid, and controlled the destinies of 
his people from Spain, and by means of Spaniards. After a reign of 
two and forty years, which was the grave of Spanish liberty, he died of 
a terrible disease. Unwept and unregretted, he was interred, in 1598, in a 
marble vault of the magnificent church of the Escurial, which he had had 
erected in memory of the victory of St. Quentin. The proud position to 
which Spain had attained under Philip's predecessors certainly remained, 
but it was only the after-growth of a former greatness ; for neither arts nor 




WILLIAM THE SILENT, PRINCE OF ORANGE. 



PERIOD OF PHILIP II. OF SPAIN AND OF ELIZABETH OF ENGLAND. 121 

science, nor any of the activities of a free spirit, could flourish under a prince 
who favoured the Inquisition and the Jesuits, and took pleasure in the horrors 
of autos dafe. 



THE PEACE OF CHATEAU-CAMBRESIS. 

THOUGH Philip II. 
regarded it as his 
most important duty to 
win back the lost supre- 
macy of the Roman 
Church, and according 
to his own account 
t( would rather cease to 
be king than rule over 
unbelievers," it was 
nevertheless the head 
of the Church, the 
violent Pope Paul IV., 
who, - in conjunction 
with Henry II. of 
France, endeavoured to 
drive the hated Span- 
iards from Italy and 
seize part of their do- 
minions. Alva's sudden 
invasion of the state 
of the Church, and his 
victorious advance to 
the vicinity of Rome, 
certainly frustrated 
Paul's schemes, but the 
bigoted king granted 
the spiritual prince an 
advantageous peace, 
while he continued the war with Henry II. for three years longer, until the 
victories of the Spanish-Dutch troops under Philibert of Savoy, and Egmont, 
compelled the French to accept the Peace of Chateau-Cambresis (1559), in 
which they surrendered all their conquests, especially Piedmont and Savoy, 
but, on the other hand, remained in possession of Calais and the towns of 
Metz, Toul, and Verdun. A double marriage cemented the treaty of peace: 
Philip, who had shortly before lost his wife, Queen Mary of England, es- 
poused Henry's daughter Elizabeth, who had formerly been betrothed to Don 
Carlos ; and Emanuel Philibert, of Savoy, won the hand of Henry's sister, 
Margaret. But the marriage festivities were marred by the death of the 
chivalrous French king, who fell pierced by the lance of a knight named 
Montgomeri, in the tournament held in honour of the occasion. 










122 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



PORTUGAL UNITED WITH SPAIN. 




DURING the reign of 
John III. (1521-1557), 
the son of Emanuel the ^ 
Great, expeditions of dis-; 
covery were continued in the 
Indies, and the knowledge of 
the countries and the trade' 
of Portugal were greatly in- 
creased. But industry did 
not keep pace with the 
quickly won wealth, and dis- 
astrous consequences were 
the result ; for while the 
treasures of the Indies were 
accumulated in a fewfamilies, 
the mass of the nation was sunk in indolence and poverty ; and when in 
addition the Jesuits and the court of the Inquisition were actively engaged in 
binding the people with spiritual fetters, and thus paralysing their powers, 
the prosperity of Portugal quickly passed away, leaving no trace behind. 
The old rights and privileges succumbed, as in Spain, to the absolute royal 
power and to the hierarchy ; the people were kept in subjection, and soon lost 
the heroic temper which had formerly inspired them to mighty deeds. The 
new judicial regulations which had been introduced by John, and the transfer 
of the grand mastership of the order of knights to the crown, still further 
increased the royal supremacy. 

During the minority of John's grandson, Sebastian (1557-78), the Jesuits 
obtained great influence in the government; and as they took the education 
of the young king entirely into their own hands, they sought to give him a 
tendency that would be favourable to the security of their supremacy. Obe- 
dience to the Pope and conflict with unbelievers were held up to him as the 
highest virtues of a Christian prince, and he was imbued with the fanatical 
temper of a crusader. He had therefore scarcely attained his majority before 
he contemplated adventurous enterprises; and when a deposed prince of 
Morocco applied to him for help, he eagerly seized the opportunity of march- 
ing against the infidel Moors, and thus satisfying at the same time his zeal 
for conversion and his love of conquest. On a sultry day in August he 
suddenly attacked the superior army of the enemy in the plain of Alcassar, 
in Africa, and sustained a terrible defeat (1578). Twelve thousand Christian 
warriors covered the battle-field ; among the missing was King Sebastian, 
and his corpse was never discovered. 

This was a disastrous event for Portugal for when two years later the 
brother of John III., the old cardinal Henry (1578-80), who had unexpectedly 
succeeded to the throne, died without issue, three pretenders, among them 
Philip II., the son of the eldest sister of John III., laid claim to the Portuguese 
throne. The nobles and people, out of national hatred and jealousy, were 
opposed to a union with Spain, and favoured another candidate, the Maltese 
Prior Antonio, who declared himself to be a legitimate grandson of Emanuel ; 
but Philip asserted his claim by an army commanded by Alva. His rival 
was defeated and put to flight (1580), Lisbon surrendered, and soon the whole 
land followed the example of the capital. After the executioner's axe had 



PERIOD OF PHILIP II. OF SPAIN AND OF ELIZABETH OF ENGLAND. 123 




THE TRIUMPH OF ISLAM AT ALCASSAR. 



made away with the most influential opponents of Spanish supremacy, the 
trembling people obeyed Philip's mandates. 

But hatred of the oppressive tyranny, which in Portugal was aggravated by 
suspicion, could not be eradicated. The Portuguese looked on with sorrow 
while the repeated attempts of Antonio, who was supported by England and 
France, were brought to nought ; and directed their expectant glances to the 
false Sebastians, who from time to time promised a liberation from the 
Spanish yoke. When, however, Antonio died miserably in Paris, in poverty 
and in constant fear of death, and the fourth Sebastian, whose legitimacy was 
generally believed, was put to death in a Spanish prison, they bowed to the 
inevitable (1598). It is true that its constitution, laws, and separate admin- 
istration were secured to the country; but the gradual annulling of the power 
of the nobility, and the systematic alienation of royal domains, showed signi- 
ficantly that the endeavour of the Spanish government was to render the 
independence of Portugal under a national king impossible. But it was this 
very effort which awakened the national feeling of the Portuguese, and brought 
about the liberation of the country through the wealthy and distinguished 
Duke of Braganza. 

The disastrous Spanish rule lasted for sixty years, during which time the 
naval power of the Portuguese was destroyed, their transmarine possessions 
fell mostly into the hands of the Dutch, and European trade transferred its 
principal mart from Lisbon to Amsterdam and London. 



124 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




THE DUTCH WARS FOR FREEDOM. MARGARET 
OF PARMA'S GOVERNORSHIP. 

'N former years Charles V. had already given much 
cause of complaint to the Dutch provinces, which 
were jealous of their inherited liberties and privileges. 
The frequent demands of taxation, the constant pre- 
sence of foreign troops, the severe exercise of the 
Edict of Worms against the Lutherans, of whom many 
died in prison or on the scaffold, had created much 
discontent, and even excited the people of Ghent to 
insurrection, for which they had been heavily chas- 
tised. But Charles was a Fleming ; he felt for the 
people among whom he was born ; he loved their 
customs and their character, and bore their ill-humour 
with indulgence ; he was friendly and agreeable to 
the nobility and citizens, and flattered their national 
pride by preferring them to his other subjects. It 
was quite otherwise with Philip. He was a Spaniard, 
and treated the Netherlands like the Italian States, 
merely as provinces, which he ruled with Spanish 
officials and guarded with Spanish troops. His pride and cold reserve wounded 
the citizens, and his hatred of all popular rights made him the natural op- 
ponent of the Dutch, whose whole existence was made up of their civil rights 
and liberties. Among these liberties the most important were the power of 
self-taxation, independent jurisdiction, and freedom from the presence of 
Spanish troops and officials. 

Discontent was at first excited because Philip, after installing his half-sister, 
Margaret of Parma, a woman of masculine temper and judicious demeanour, 
as stadtholder at Brussels (1559), made the council of state, which was com- 
posed of the first nobles in the country, subordinate to a foreigner of obscure 
birth, the crafty Cardinal Granvella, son of the Imperial Chancellor, and 
established a Spanish garrison in the country. For the lively and excitable 
Netherlanders hated the cold, arrogant stranger. This ill-feeling increased 
when, in order to guard the pure faith and the order of the Church, the laws 
against heresy were intensified, and fourteen new bishoprics were established, 
which were placed under the supervision of Cardinal Granvella, who had been 
appointed Archbishop of Mechlin, for the support of which see sums of 
money had been drawn from other benefices and monasteries. This addition 
to the already existing bishoprics of the country, without the consent of the 
estates, excited all the more apprehension as the ultimate object of the inno- 
vation appeared to be the introduction of the tyrannous Spanish Inquisition ; 
for in the papal bull two Inquisitors were nominated for each of the new 
bishoprics, and the cardinal already bore the title of a grand Inquisitor. In 
vain did the patriotic party, who were intent on the protection of the institu- 
tions of the country from the destructive plans of the Spanish government, 
seek to induce the king to relinquish this unconstitutional policy, and to recall 
the hated cardinal ; Philip returned evasive answers, and only agreed to the 
dismissal of Granvella, which was urgently demanded even by the cardinal 
himself, when William of Orange, stadtholder of Holland, Lamoral, Count of 



PERIOD OF PHILIP II. OF SPAIN AND OF ELIZABETH OF ENGLAND. 125 

Egmont, stadtholder of Flanders, and Count Von Hoorn, ceased to attend the 
sittings in the council of state, and the regent also counselled the withdrawal. 
But Granvella's Machiavelan views found defenders even after his recall 
(1564), and the king's desire to introduce into the country the decisions of the 




THE PROCESSION OF THE PETITIONING NOBLES (sec 112X1 } age). 

Council of Trent proved that the thought of church uniformity lay deep within 
him, and that a mitigation of the laws against heretics, or the granting of 
freedom of belief, was not to be expected. This was verified in the answer 
which he gave to Egmont, who had been despatched to Madrid by the council 



126 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



of state and by the regent, that " he would rather die a thousand times, and 
lose every square foot of his kingdom, than permit the slightest alteration in 
religion" (1565). Stricter instructions .to the Inquisitors and the increasing 
executions, imprisonments, and cruel persecutions, proved the earnestness of 
these words. William of Orange, who was born of Lutheran parents, but had 
been brought up in the Roman Church, was so much aggrieved at this severity, 
which condemned many of his countrymen to banishment or the scaffold, that 
he about this time embraced the Evangelical faith, which was the recognised 
religion of his subjects. 

THE CONFEDERATION OF THE GUEUX, OR BEGGARS, AND THE 
DESTRUCTION OF IMAGES. 

THE new Church found followers among the citizen class alone ; the 
nobility remained constant, for the most part, to the old faith, but were 
resolved to strenuously oppose the Inquisition, in which they perceived the 
grave of national liberty. 

With this object some four hundred nobles signed the so-called compromise 
(November, 1565) for resistance against the Inquisition, and for mutual aid in 
religious persecutions, and then drew up a petition for the abolition of the 
laws against heresy, and the suspension of the proceedings of the Inquisition. 
When they marched up to the palace of the stadtholder, Margaret was in 
consternation at the number of the petitioners who belonged to the first families 
(April, 1566). One of the councillors, who was standing near her, besought her 
not to be afraid of " those rogues (Gueux)," an expression which ultimately be- 
came the watchword of their league. They called themselves "The Beggars," 
and in future wore round their necks a medal with Philip's head and the 
inscription : "Faithful to the king to the beggar's wallet." The petition, how- 
ever, was unsuccessful. The bishops, to whom was made over the control of 
the Inquisition, continued to punish heretics with execution, banishment, and 
loss of property ; and the general pardon which was granted at the request of 
the regent was rendered illusory by a secret protest of the king. In spite 
of this the religious reform gained ground ; psalms were sung, the open-air 
preaching of evangelical ministers was attended by thousands, and priests, 
monks, images of the Virgin, and holy relics were treated with derision. 
Everywhere there prevailed in the atmosphere that electric tension which 
precedes a storm. 




MEDAL OF THE GUEUX. 




o.i-o i o to i o t 0-1 o i-o 1^0 r o 



I QUQ 



THE STRUGGLE IN THE NETHERLANDS, 
AND THE CLOSE OF THE REIGN OF PHILIP II. 

THE LAST DAYS OF MARGARET OF PARMA IN BRUSSELS. IMAGE 
BREAKING. ARRIVAL OF ALVA; HIS REGENCY, 1567-1573. TERROR 
IN FLANDERS. CRUELTIES OF ALVA. EXECUTION OF COUNTS EG- 
MONT AND HOORN. TYRANNY AND EXACTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT. 

REVOLT OF BRILL AND 
OTHER MARITIME TOWNS. 
UTRECHT AND HAAR- 
LEM. WILLIAM THE SI- 
LENT, PRINCE OF ORANGE, 
ANDDONJOHN OF AUSTRIA. 
THE HEROISM OF LEY- 
DEN. GOVERNMENT OF 
DON JOHN, 1573-1578. 
ALEXANDER FARNESE OF 
PARMA, 1578-1592. CON- 
FEDERATION OF THE 
UNITED PROVINCES. AS- 
SASSINATION OF WILLIAM 
THE SILENT, 1584. THE 
INVINCIBLE ARMADA, 1588 
NETHERLANDS FREE. 
THE END OF MARGARET 
OF PARMA'S REGENCY. 




A 



T last, in the Flemish 
cities, Antwerp and 
Brussels, and throughout 
Flanders and Brabant, the 
long-restrained wrath of the 
people broke forth in violent tumult at the religious intolerance (August, 1566). 
A mob of people belonging to the lowest class mutilated several crucifixes and 
images of the Virgin, which were placed along the road ; soon the increasing 



LAMORAL, COUNT EGMONT. 



127 



123 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

crowd attacked churches and monasteries, pillaged or destroyed sacred vessels 
and ornaments, and indulged in riot and desecration. In three days four hun- 
dred churches and chapels were dismantled. The streets were strewn with 
broken images of the Virgin and the Saviour, and with fragments of sacred 
works of art. 

These events brought about a breach between the heads of the nation. 
Those nobles who upheld the old Church separated themselves from those 
who espoused the new doctrine. The regent, who was a wise woman, and 
practised in the arts of dissimulation, succeeded therefore, by severity on the 
one hand and moderation on the other, in firmly establishing peace. By 
means of some hastily collected troops, she forced several rebellious towns, 
such as the bravely defended Valenciennes, and a little later Antwerp, to 
submission, established a strict tribunal over the inconoclasts and religious 
reformers, and won over the moderate party by promising to mitigate the 
laws against heresy, and to draw the veil of forgiveness and oblivion over 
the past. 

THE DUKE OF ALVA (1567-1573). 

T was otherwise decided at the court of Madrid. After 
long deliberation as to whether the leniency of the 
regent, or the severe measures demanded by Alva would 
most quickly and surely reduce the nation to obedience, 
the latter opinion was victorious, and Alva, the despotic 
servant of a tyrannical master, marched with a select 
army, composed of Spaniards and Italians, into the 
Netherlands (August, 1567). The terror which was 
inspired by his approach, drove the inhabitants to flight ; 
over a hundred thousand merchants and workmen 
carried their industries and their property to other 
countries, especially to England. William of Orange, the head of the patri- 
otic party, a thoughtful, cautious man, in the full vigour of his years, resolute, 
energetic, and silent, avoided the storm, and set out for Germany, the land of 
his birth, where many valued friends gathered round him. He parted with 
tears from Egmont, whom he had vainly endeavoured to persuade to the 
same step. It was not in Egmont's cheerful nature to believe in Spanish 
treachery, of which Orange warned him. In the consciousness of his hon- 
ourable aspiration, and confiding in his past services and continued fidelity 
and devotion to the reigning house, he awaited Alva's arrival. He did not 
possess the far-reaching glance of his friend, and hesitated to leave his 
Flemish dominion. But scarcely had the proud duke arrived in Brussels, 
furnished with unlimited powers, than he caused the inoffensive Egmont, the 
people's idol, and the brave von Hoorn, to be imprisoned ' by his natural son 
Ferdinand of Toledo, in his palace of the Eulemborg-haus, and then caused 
them to be accused of high treason before the newly-established " Council of 
Disturbances," when both of them, together with eighteen other nobles, 
were sentenced to death, and beheaded in the market-place at Brussels, in 
June, 1568. 

By removing the heads of the nobility, on whom chiefly lay the burden of 
the insurrection, it was hoped that the nation, deprived of leadership, would 
easily be brought to a mute obedience. Fearful havoc did the executioner's 





II. 



129 



K 



130 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



axe now make throughout the unfortunate country. The regent Margaret, 
horrified at the cruelty of the despotism, which she was compelled passively 
to behold, renounced her office, and set out for Italy, remembered with 
veneration by her subjects. The Council of Disturbances, established by 
Alva, called by the Netherlanders the " Council of Blood," now continued its 
proceedings with incredible severity. A hard, unscrupulous Spaniard named 
Vargas, who was unfamiliar with the laws and customs of the people, now assumed 
the presidency, and carried out the commands of the tyrannical duke. Avarice, 
cruelty, and fanaticism, all claimed their victims. In every place the gallows 

were erected ; funeral piles 
were lighted for Protestant 
preachers and stiff-necked 
believers in the gospel. 
Both iconoclastic reformers 
and peaceful Calvinists and 
Lutherans were hung to 
the beams of demolished 
chapels. The happy na- 
tional existence of the Ne- 
therlands had entirely dis- 
appeared, and the horror 
of an immense universal 
tomb filled all minds. The 
citizens of Antwerp were 
compelled to furnish the 
money for the construction 
of the citadels by means 
of which Alva endeavoured 
to fetter both town and 
country. The son of 
William of Orange, who 
had been left behind at 
Liege, was brought by the 
king to Madrid, where ef- 
forts were made to instil 
into him, by a fanatical 
education, hatred towards 
the new faith, and towards 




STATUE OF JACQUES D'ARTEVELDE OF GHENT. 

While the terrible Council of Blood threatened life and liberty, Alva's 
schemes of taxation endangered prosperity and trade. Dissatisfied with the 
legal regulation, by means of which taxes could only be granted by the 
classes of every district for a short term, and could be imposed and abolished 
at pleasure, Alva demanded a continuous tax at high interest, and imposed 
it in a manner extremely disadvantageous to trade and commerce. In spite 
of protests, Alva persisted in his demand ; but through this arbitrary attack on 
the laws of the country, which threatened the merchant as well as the land- 
owner, the Catholic as well as the Protestant with equal ruin, he awakened the 
cowed spirit of opposition, and brought together those disputants who had 
been separated by the controversy over the Confession. When Alva caused 
a heavy tax on each sale or transfer of goods to be arbitrarily collected, the 
Brussels merchants closed their warehouses, the grocers, bakers, etc., shut up 



THE STRUGGLE IN THE NETHERLANDS. 






their shops, and refused payment. The tyrannical duke had already threatened 
to hang the refractory citizens before their houses, when the news arrived 
that a band of emigrants, who had become rovers on the ocean, and had in 
consequence obtained the name of Sea-Gueux, had conquered the harbour 
town of Brill, and that several towns in Holland and Zealand had gone over 
to them ; this intelligence encouraged timid minds, and disconcerted the 




ARRIVAL OF THE DUKE OF ALVA IN BRUSSELS. 



Spaniards (April, 1572). Soon afterwards William of Orange, who had re- 
turned, succeeded in bringing about a union between the northern provinces. 
He was recognised as stadtholder of Holland, Zealand, Utrecht, and Frise- 
land, and was supplied with money and military forces. The resistance now 
took a more serious form. The cruelties which were perpetrated by the 




132 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

Spanish troops at Alva's command in some of the rebellious towns, like 
Haarlem, Naarden, etc., where they cut down the inhabitants without regard 
to sex or age, plundered the dwellings, and after having satiated themselves 
in murder, pillage, and brutal sensuality, threw lighted torches into the 
desolate houses and churches, spread "horror and indignation throughout the 
whole country, and induced the Court at Madrid to decide on Alva's recall, 
in December, 1573. 

THE PRINCE OF ORANGE AND DON JOHN 
OF AUSTRIA. 

'LVA'S successor, Louis of Zuinga and Requescens, cer- 
tainly gave evidence, by his abolition of the Council of 
Disturbances, of a more indulgent temper ; as, however, 
he could neither protect liberty of conscience nor re- 
strain the brutality of the troops, to whom he owed pay, 
nor abolish the oppressive taxation, neither his restricted 
amnesty, nor the repeated attempts at mediation of the 
well-meaning Emperor Maximilian II., could restore the 
lost confidence and induce the indignant provinces to 
lay down their weapons. The stadtholder, it is true, 
won the battle on the Mooker Heath near Nimeguen 
(1574), where two brothers of Orange met a hero's death ; but his success was 
rendered fruitless by the passion for liberty, and the bravery of the citizens 
of Leyden. When the town could no longer endure the ordeal of hunger, 
pestilence, and hostile attacks, the citizens opened the dams and let in the 
waters of the North Sea, which had long been an enemy to their prosperity, 
so that a large number of the enemy's forces were drowned in the flood, and 
boats, laden with provisions, could approach the walls, bringing deliverance 
to the hungry townspeople. A Protestant university was the reward for this 
act of sacrifice ; for in the same year the northern provinces had accepted 
the Heidelberg Catechism at a synod in Dordrecht, established Calvinism as 
the religion of the country, and increased their military forces with confiscated 
church property. This religious opposition widened the breach between the 
Netherlander and the Spaniards ; consequently the peace congress at Breda 
(1575), which was summoned under the mediation of the German Emperor 
Maximilian II., was productive of no result. 

Soon afterwards Zuinga died ; and until the arrival of the new stadtholder, 
the Council of State conducted the administration and controlled the military 
power. As it was not in a position, however, to restrain the violence of the 
lawless and unpaid troops, who wrecked and pillaged the wealthy towns of 
Maestricht and Antwerp, Orange, who was invested with greater power in the 
northern provinces, succeeded in uniting all the districts by the Treaty of 
Ghent (1576), with the object of rendering each other mutual assistance in the 
expulsion of the Spanish army, and until the church affairs should be properly 
regulated not to permit punishment to be inflicted on any man on the score 
of religion. ' These points formed the basis of the so-called " Eternal Treaty " 
concluded between the new Spanish stadtholder, Don Juan, and the provinces, 
in 1577. But the vague manner to which the article on religious toleration 
was drawn up, and the simultaneous appearance of a threatening bull of the 
Pope, induced the states of Holland and Zealand to refuse their acquiescence 
in the treaty, and to continue the conflict. Soon the other provinces observed 



THE STRUGGLE IN THE NETHERLANDS. 



133 



that Don Juan did not act honestly and fairly towards them, that he gave the 
preference to Spaniards in the distribution of appointments and offices, made 
preparations for commencing fresh religious persecutions, and endeavoured to 
gain possession of the rebellious towns by violence. The Estates of Brabant, 
therefore, refused obedience to him, and elected William of Orange as stadt- 
holder ; but as the native nobility and the strict believers did not love the 




THE MARKET-PLACE AT BRUGES IN THE l6TH CENTURY. 



Calvinist Prince of Orange, the Arch-duke Matthias of Austria was made 
joint ruler with him, while the French-speaking Walloon districts (Hainault 
and Artois) entered into an alliance with Duke Francis of Anjou. 

Thus the power of resistance and the number of enemies increased at the 
very moment when Don Juan breathed his last, in 1578, his end hastened by 
chagrin and vexation at the failure of his plans. 




'34 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



ALEXANDER FARNESE OF PARMA (i57 8 - I 59 2 )- 




i 



POPE SIXTUS V. 



T was, however, through the 
dissensions between the ruling 
powers, which divided interests 
and fostered jealousy and quarrel- 
ling, that it became possible 
for the wise, adroit, and martial 
successor of Don Juan, Duke 
Alexander Farnese, of Parma, 
the son of the former stadtholder 
Margaret, to uphold the totter- 
ing supremacy of Spain in the 
south. He awakened the jealousy 
of the Brabantine nobility against 
the Prince of Orange, and aroused 
the religious zeal of the Catholic 
south against the Evangelical 
north. This induced Orange to 
unite the northern states (Hol- 
land, Zealand, Guelderland, 
Utrecht, Overijssel, Friseland, 
Groningen), by means of the 
" Union of Utrecht " (1579), into 
a close alliance for mutual co- 
operation, and for defiance of all religious restraint. This treaty, the first 
draft of which was very vague, was the foundation of the United States of the 
Protestant Netherlands. Two years later, allegiance to the king of Spain 
was formally renounced on the ground " that a people possesses the natural 
right to refuse obedience to a tyrant, who has acted in opposition to his duty 
after he has been admonished in vain." 

In the south there was not such unanimity of opinion. Matthias quitted 
Brabant, where he had played but an insignificant part, in 1581, and the Duke 
of Anjou so completely lost all his influence by his effort to obtain the chief 
authority with French aid, that he returned to France, where he died soon 
afterwards, in 1583. The energetic Parma availed himself of this confusion to 
bring back many towns to obedience. The insurrection, it appeared, would 
be at an end if the efforts to put the Prince of Orange out of the way should 
prove successful. Against this prince Philip's whole wrath was accordingly 
directed. He had already been declared an outlaw, and whosoever should 
surrender him, living or dead, was promised a large reward and the rank of 
a noble. These alluring promises, and the activity of rancorous priests, had 
given occasion for more than one attempt at assassination. Orange had es- 
caped several attacks, but the pistol bullet of the fanatical Gerard from Franche- 
Comte* laid him low at the door of the dining-hall in his palace at Delft, in 
July, 1584. The assassin was captured, and instead of receiving the hoped-for 
reward, underwent a painful execution. Still, the death of the founder of 
Dutch liberty did not bring about the overthrow of his work. The northern 
provinces, which would not hear of a reconciliation with a king who obstinately 
refused toleration of their religion, transferred the stadtholdership and the 
conduct of the war to Maurice, the second son of the late Prince of Orange, 
while the Council of State, in which the circumspect Oldenbarneveld had the 



THE STRUGGLE IN THE NETHERLANDS. 



135 



chief authority, managed internal affairs. But the successful enterprises of 
Parma, who conquered Ghent, Brussels, Mechlin, Nimuegen, and at last 
Antwerp, convinced the Netherlanders that without foreign aid they could not 
be a match for the Spaniards. They therefore first offered the government 
to King Henry III. of France, and, when that monarch refused it from religious 




MURDER OF WILLIAM OF ORANGE. 



scruples, made offer of it to Elizabeth, queen of England. The British queen 
also refused the invitation, but sent troops under the command of her favourite, 
the Earl of Leicester, on whom the Netherlanders conferred the dignity of a 
general-stadtholder, with extensive power (1585). It was not long, however, 
before his equivocal and injudicious conduct, and his intriguing policy excited 
the suspicion of the deputies ; they set obstacles in his path, and thus brought 
about his resignation. 



136 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



THE INVINCIBLE ARMADA. 




B 



ADMIRAL LORD HOWARD OF EFFINGHAM. 



UT the danger with which both 
_J states were threatened by the 
great armada, kept the English and 
Dutch united (1588). This "in- 
vincible armada," the cost of which 
was calculated at sixty million dol- 
lars, was intended to strike an over- 
powering blow at all enemies of the 
Roman Church, and above all to 
crush England, the hotbed of 
heresy, and her excommunicated 
queen, at whose command the 
Catholic Mary Stuart had shortly 
before been beheaded, and through 
whose help the Dutch and the 
French Huguenots had been able 
to offer so spirited a resistance to 
their enemies. But the undertak- 
ing resulted in the disgrace and 
discomfiture of Spain. The fleet, 
which was commanded by Medina 
Sidonia, and supported by the Duke 
of Parma, was shattered by storms, and defeated by the skill and bravery of the 
English ; and those who escaped the fire-ships, the rocks, and the attacks of the 
enemy in the channel, were most of them dashed to pieces on the coasts of the 
Hebrides and Shetland isles, for Sidonia determined to return to Spain round 
Scotland ; so that the humiliated admiral only brought back a few shattered 
remains of the once proud fleet. It was a fatal blow. Even Philip recog- 
nised its true character, when he comforted the trembling commander with 
the words : " I sent you forth against men, not against storms and rocks." 
This result broke the supremacy of Spain over the sea, and secured the inde- 
pendence of the Netherlands, the more completely because soon afterwards 
Philip took an active part in the French religious wars, and Parma was there- 
fore obliged on two occasions to lead his troops to France. Consequently his 
enterprises in the Netherlands were paralysed, and Maurice found an oppor- 
tunity, by his brilliant martial deeds, to display his talents as a general, and to 
raise his authority. Parma's death, in 1592, was hastened by mortification at 
the failure of his enterprises. 

Never had the true greatness of Elizabeth, as a queen, appeared so con- 
spicuously as when her throne was menaced by this tremendous peril. She 
thoroughly identified her own cause with that of her people ; and especially, 
alike in words and actions, she expressed her confidence in her subjects, of 
every rank and degree. This attack of a foreign power upon her do- 
minions she professed to look upon as an insult offered to every Englishman 
in her realm ; and she boldly expressed her belief, that on this great occasion 
all private questions and minor disagreements would be put aside, and that 
men^ of every shade of religious belief, and of the most various political 
opinions, would alike stand together for the defence of the laws and liberties 
of the land. At the same time she was particularly careful to cultivate the 
confidence and secure the help of those Catholics who did not conceive that 



THE STRUGGLE IN THE NETHERLANDS. 



137 



their religious opinions absolved them from their duties as loyal subjects ; and 
they, fully recognising the trust with which their sovereign honoured them, 
entered in numbers as volunteers for the sea and land service. Never had 
the nation been so thoroughly united, to the effacing of all differences of 
creed and party, as at that memorable crisis. 

The spirit of the queen was thoroughly exemplified in the speech she made 
to the army in the camp at Tilbury, where she appeared on horseback, and 
excited the enthusiasm and loyalty of the troops by her noble words. " My 
loving people," said the great queen, " we have been persuaded by some that 




QUEEN ELIZABETH AT TILBURY FORT. 



are careful of our safety to take heed how we commit ourselves to armed 
multitudes, for fear of treachery ; but, I assure you, I do not desire to live to 
distrust my loving and faithful people. Let tyrants fear : I have always so 
behaved myself, that under God I have placed my chiefest strength and safe- 
guard in the loyal hearts and goodwill of my subjects ; and therefore I am 
come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not as for my recreation and 
disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die 
amongst you all." 



138 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



INDEPENDENCE OF THE NETHERLANDS. 



WHAT the enterprising Par- 
ma had failed to accomplish 
was even less feasible in the hands 
of his incapable successor. There- 
fore shortly before his death, Philip, 
in. 1598, conceived the idea of 
making over the Netherlands and 
Franche-Comte to his daughter, 
Isabella Clara Eugenia, on her 
marriage with the Archduke Al- 
brecht of Austria, with the stipu- 
lation that if there should be no 
issue of the marriage, the countries 
should revert to Spain. The 
southern provinces, comprised in 
Belgium, agreed to this arrange- 
ment, and accepted Albrecht as 
their stadtholder, after he had 
guaranteed their rights ; but the 
northern district, Holland, whose 
independence had been recognised 
by several courts, rejected the 
treacherous arrangement, which 
endangered their religious freedom 
anew, and steadfastly continued 
the struggle for liberty and self- 
government, the blessings of which 
they had already experienced. It is true the Spanish general Spinola, of 
Genoa, succeeded alter a three years' siege in subjugating the famished and 
depopulated town of Ostend, and was able to maintain the honour of the 
Spanish arms against the brave Maurice of Orange ; on the other hand, the 
United Provinces made the most important conquests at sea, and laid the 
foundation of their commercial greatness. 

As Dutch ships, especially during the reign of the feeble King Philip III., 
were forbidden to enter Spanish and Portuguese harbours, and consequently 
the intermediate trade in East Indian wares, on which the prosperity of 
Holland depended, was destroyed, the Dutch sought out for themselves a 
way to the Indies, and established direct trading communications with such 
success that they soon founded colonies, and conquered many possessions of 
the Portuguese. In return for an annual tribute to the Estates, the East 
India Company obtained the exclusive trade beyond the Cape of Good Hope. 
Dutch vessels now ruled the seas, to the detriment of the Spanish and Portu- 
guese commerce in the East and West Indies ; and this gave the last blow to 
the rotten government of the successor of Philip II. 

For this reason both the King of Spain and the Archduke Albrecht were 
rejoiced when the mediation of Henry IV. of France succeeded in bringing 
Maurice and the states of the Netherlands to agree to an armed truce (1609), 
which secured their independence, religious freedom, and direct trade with 
the East Indies. The subsequent wars with Spain were to the advantage of 




UTRECHT. 



THE STRUGGLE IN THE NETHERLANDS. 



139 



the Netherlands, so that when the independence of the States-General of 
Holland was recognised in the Peace of Westphalia, the country had not 
only acquired great possessions in India, but also considerable territories in 
Brabant and Flanders. 




EASTERN TRADE. 



During the war of liberation, the constitution of the States-General was 
developed chiefly through the exertions of the great statesman Oldenbarne- 
veld, who in 1586 was appointed Grand Pensionary of Holland. The 
province of Holland had the predominance over the others in power, wealth 
and influence, and her colonial wealth was greatly increased by the monopoly 
for a time enjoyed in the trade in spices. 




FRANCE DURING THE RELIGIOUS WARS. 

DEATH OF HENRY II., 1559.- REIGN OF FRANCIS II., 1559-1560. THE 
FAMILY OF THE GUISES. FRANCOIS DE GUISE. ANTOINE, KING OF 
NAVARRE. THE BOURBONS. THE PRINCE DE COND& THE CON- 
SPIRACY OF AMBOISE. REIGN OF CHARLES IX., 1560-1574. CATHA- 
RINE DE MEDICIS. THE FIRST THREE RELIGIOUS WARS, 1561- 

1570. MASSACRE OF VASSY. 
BATTLE OF DREUX. HENRY 
OF GUISE. TREATY OF AM- 
BOISE, 1563. RENEWAL OF THE 
WAR. SECOND PEACE. Ro- 
CHELLE AND JARNAC, 1569. 
BATTLE OF MONCONTOUR. 
PEACE OF ST. GERMAINS, 1570. 
CHARLES IX. AND THE HU- 
GUENOTS. OSTENSIBLE RE- 
CONCILIATION. THE KING 
AND ADMIRAL COLIGNI. 
MARRIAGE OF HENRY OF 
NAVARRE AND MARGARET OF 
VALOIS. MASSACRE OF ST. 
BARTHOLOMEW. DEATH OF 
CHARLES IX. -- REIGN OF 
HENRY III., 1574-1589. THE 
KING'S DOUBTFUL POLICY. 
THE HOLY LEAGUE. THE 
BARRICADES. MURDER OF 
GUISE AND THE CARDINAL, 
DEATH OF HENRY III., ETC. 

THE RISE OF THE GUISEAN FACTION. 

AT a tournament held at the marriage festivities of two daughters of the 
French royal house, Henry II., who was as brave and chivalrous, and 
as unwearied in hunting and in martial games as his father, but even more 
severe in his persecution of religious reformers, received a wound in the eye 




HENRY OF GUISE. 



FRANCE DURING THE RELIGIOUS WARS. 



141 



by the lance of Montgomeri, his opponent, from which wound he died (1559). 
During the reign of his feeble, sickly son, Francis II. (1559-60), the Guises, 
who were the uncles of the Scotch Mary Stuart, the charming wife of the 
young king, obtained great power at court. The warlike Duke Frangois de 
Guise, and his noble brother, the eloquent and wise Cardinal of Lorraine, were 
the most important members of this proud and ambitious family. They were 
zealous champions of the papal authority, on which depended the claims of their 
niece Mary to the crown of England, for the papal see declared Elizabeth 
illegitimate, not recognising the marriage of Henry VIII. with Anne Boleyn. 
The burning to death of the noble parliamentary councillor Dubourg, whom 
the Elector Palatine vainly sought to save by an appeal to the University of 
Heidelberg, was the first indication of that religious bigotry which was to 
prevail under the influence of the 
great family of the Guises. Their 
increasing importance awakened 
jealousy in the family of the Bour- 
bons, relatives of the ruling house. 
At the head of the Bourbons were 
the pusillanimous Antoine, titular 
King of Navarre, and his brother, 
the chivalrous Prince of Conde. 
A similar feeling of enmity was 
aroused in the noble family of 
Chatillon, to which the energetic 
Admiral Coligni belonged. While, 
therefore, the Guises relied on the 
Pope and the Catholic part of the 
nation, their rivals allied them- 
selves with the aspiring citizen 
class in the south, and became 
the leaders of the Huguenots. 

The conspiracy of Amboise, in 
1560, which was organised by a 
Calvinist nobleman named La 




THE PRINCE DE CONDE. 



Renaudie, had for its object the 
removal of the Guises, the capture 
by the conspirators of the person of the king, and the reform of the 
government by the Estates of the realm. The attempt failed ; La Re- 
naudie fell in battle, and the other leaders were beheaded. The influence 
of the Guises increased, and it was only with difficulty that the wise and 
moderate Chancellor L'Hopital prevented the introduction of the Spanish 
Inquisition, by consenting to a severe edict against heretics. A diet, sum- 
moned at Orleans, to regulate religious matters and the finances, was used 
by the Guises for the overthrow of the Bourbons, to whom the conspiracy of 
Amboise was attributed. Conde and Antoine of Navarre were imprisoned ; 
the former was sentenced to be executed for high treason, the latter was to 
be kept a prisoner ; when, by the sudden death of the king, both the prisoners 
were released and summoned to honour and power. 

The queen-mother, Catharine de Medicis, who had till then had little influ- 
ence in state matters, now assumed the chief place in the government during 
the minority of her second son, Charles IX. (1560-74). Antoine, who, as the 
nearest kinsman to the reigning house, was entitled to the regency, contented 



I 4 2 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

himself with the rank of a controller-general of the kingdom, and president 
of the council. Enraged at the neglect they had experienced, the Guises, 
with their niece Mary Stuart, withdrew to Lorraine, whence the young 
dowager queen soon afterwards started on her disastrous journey to her 
native Scotland. With a sad heart she bade farewell to the beautiful country 
where she had experienced so much happiness and pleasure. 



THE FIRST THREE RELIGIOUS WARS (1562-70). 

CATHARINE, who saw that in the dissensions of the party chiefs lay the 
V_y security of her government, at first maintained a neutral attitude in 
the religious struggle ; although in her heart she always remained zealously 
faithful to the Catholic Church. She therefore agreed, after the holding 
of the religious disputation in which Theodore Beza and Peter Martyr main- 
tained the cause of the Bible against the Cardinal of Lorraine and the Jesuit 
general, Lainez of Poissy (1561), that the former severe religious edict should, 
at L'H6pital's suggestion, be mitigated, and that the Calvinists should be per- 
mitted to enjoy the privileges of preaching and prayer, and the free exercise 
of their religion. It seemed as though Protestantism would win the upper 
hand in France, and at the same time lead to the establishment of freer 
political institutions. At the diet of Pontoise, held at the same time as the 
ecclesiastical assembly at Poissy, the temporal States demanded " an elective 
magistracy, chosen only for a stated time, and then removable ; the sale of 
ecclesiastical property for the use of the king as well as of the nobility and 
Estates ; a clergy deriving their pay from the state exchequer; and the control 
of the royal power by periodical assemblies of the States every two years." 

Alarmed at these indications of a general aspiration for reform, the clergy 
granted the court, for six years, a subsidy of more than one and a half 
million livres, and by this means brought it into a more favourable frame of 
mind. At the same time the three most important members of the Catholic 
nobility united their powers for mutual resistance ; for the Duke de Guise, 
with the Constable de Montmorenci, the most influential general and coun- 
sellor of Henry II., and the Marshal de St. Audre, formed a triumvirate for 
the preservation of 'the old faith. Soon they brought over to their side the 
pusillanimous Antoine of Navarre, to the great grief of his evangelical wife, 
Jeanne d'Albret, who had introduced the Reformation, by means of Beza, 
into her dominion of Beam, the French part of Navarre, and was educating 
her son Henry in the new faith. By means of assistance from Spain and 
Rome, the league soon attained such power that it had no longer cause to 
fear a conflict The massacre perpetrated in March, 1562, by the Guises and 
their followers after their return to Paris, upon a congregation of defenceless 
Calvinists, who were assembled for worship in a barn in the small town of 
Vassy, was the signal for the first religious war a war which was followed by 
seven others, with but slight intervals of peace. The scornful violation of 
the granted liberty of conscience which was exhibited in this bloody deed of 
violence called aloud for vengeance. 

Soon all France was divided into two hostile camps, which attacked each 
other with bitter violence. Religious passion and long-fostered hatred 
resulted in horrible acts of crime, especially in the southern provinces. In 
Toulouse the fanatical citizens slaughtered four thousand Huguenots, who 
were endeavouring to leave the town, after laying down their arms in accordance 



FRANCE DURING THE RELIGIOUS WARS. 143 

with the treaty. Wherever the Calvinists were victorious they destroyed the 
images and decorations of the churches, mocked the sacred relics, and overthew 
altars and crucifixes. When the opposite party conquered, they burnt the bibles 
and religious books, slew the evangelical clergy, and compelled those who had 
been baptised or married by Protestant clergymen to go through the rite 
again according to the Catholic form. The kingdom was shaken to its very 
foundation. As a counterbalancing influence to the assistance rendered by 
Spain and Rome, the Huguenots obtained the support of Elizabeth, and 
Germany and Switzerland sent mercenary soldiers. The war was disastrous 
to the party chiefs. Antoine of Navarre died before Rouen ; in the in- 
decisive battle of Dreux, Montmorenci was taken prisoner by the Huguenots, 
Conde by the Catholics, and St. Audr was put to death ; and when Fran- 
ois de Guise advanced towards Orleans, which the Calvinists had chosen for 
their head-quarters, he met his death through the hand of an assassin. The 




JOAN D'ALBRET AND MARGARET OF NAVARRE. 

perpetrator of the murder, Poltrot, unjustly accused the leaders of the Hugue- 
nots, Coligni and Beza, who were present in Orleans, of complicity in the 
crime. Henry de Guise succeeded his father in his offices and his aspirations. 
The Peace of Amboise, signed in 1563, accorded to the Calvinists liberty of 
worship in all towns where their religion was already established, with the 
exception of the capital ; moreover, the Huguenots were awarded a place for 
religious worship in every district, and all the nobility were to have the right 
of living according to their own religious confession, with their vassals. 

The sight of the mutilated crucifixes and objects of veneration, which 
struck the notice of the queen-regent during a journey which was undertaken 
by Catharine and the young king shortly after the peace, together with the 
advice of the Duke of Alva, with whom she had an interview at Bayonne, and 
the threatening attitude of the Catholic nobility and people, led to a change 



144 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



of sentiment at the court, full of danger and disadvantage to the religious 
reformers. The Edict of Amboise was consequently violated in many ways ; 
and the delight of the Catholics at Alva's violent proceedings in the Nether- 
lands might be regarded as a foreshadowing of what was to befal religious 
innovators in France. This induced the Protestants once more to take up 
arms, in 1567, for the protection of their threatened faith. Condd's plan of 
gaining possession of the person of the king and of the queen-mother was not 
successful, and the project excited the hatred of Catharine to an ungovernable 
fury; and the battle of St. Denis, though Montmorenci was slain, was unfavour- 




TOULOUSE. 



able to the Huguenots. As, however, the Catholics had not a skilful general to 
lead them, they confirmed once more to their adversaries the previous reli- 
gious edict, and undertook the payment of the German mercenaries, whom 
Casimir, the Count Palatine, had sent to the assistance of his co-religionists. 

But again on this occasion, the conditions of peace were disregarded. 
Acts of violence on the one side, recrimination on the other, and mutual 
accusations filled all minds with rancour and discord. The Calvinists held 
La Rochelle and other Huguenot towns with strong garrisons, and the court 
allowed the parliament, Jesuits, and monks to carry on their designs un- 
hindered, prevented religious assemblies, and encouraged persecution and 
assassination. The advice of the Cardinal of Lorraine, supported by the 
admonitions of the King of Spain and of the Holy Father at Rome, was 
again of great weight with the council. 

L'Hopital, who opposed severe measures against the Huguenots, and 
especially their exclusion from state offices, was dismissed from the Council 
of State, while the conduct of the war was entrusted to Catharine's 



FRANCE DURING THE RELIGIOUS WARS. 145 

favourite son, Henry of Anjou. This prince desired the renewal of the war, 
in which he hoped to obtain laurels for himself; and, supported by money 
from the court of Rome, advanced against La Rochelle, which the Huguenots 
had chosen for their head-quarters and place of refuge. Conde having with 
difficulty escaped being taken prisoner, in which case the fate of Egmont 



=^r-T^ 




SIEGE OF LA ROCHELLE. 



would probably have awaited him, once more placed himself at the head of 
.the warlike Calvinists, who gathered together from all sides to La Rochelle 
(1569), for the defence of liberty of conscience. Elizabeth of England con- 
tributed money and warlike stores for the defence, Wolfgang of Deweponts 
sent bands of mercenary troops ; but the superior numbers of the enemy gave 
II. k 



146 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



them the victory. The day of Jarnac, in 1569, resulted in the defeat of the 
Huguenots Conde was treacherously shot after he had surrendered himself 
a prisoner His son with the youthful Henry of Navarre (Beam), whose 
heroic, mother, Jeanne d'Albret, the daughter of Margaret, the clever sister 
of Francis L, had taken refuge in La Rochelle now assumed the command 
of the Huguenot troops ; but the soul of the whole confederation was the 
brave Coligni, who acted as general and counsellor to the prince. A second 
battle, near Moncontour, in the same year, was indeed once more unfavour- 
able in its result to the reformers ; but the dissensions of the opposite party, 
the queen's dread of the superior power of Spain, and their own steadfast- 
ness, led at last to a fortunate conclusion. The Peace of St. Germams, in 1 570, 
granted the Huguenots free exercise of their religion in a more extended 
sense than before, and they were declared eligible to every office in the state. 



THE EVE OF ST. BARTHOLOMEW, AUGUST 24, 1572. 

CHARLES IX. appeared ear- 
\_s nestly to desire peace. And 
indeed he could scarcely be ex- 
pected to behold with equanimity 
all the ties of law and order 
loosened and public morality shaken 
by the dangerous casuistry of the 
Jesuits, who declared that it was 
not wrong to break faith with 
heretics, the arts of peace and the 
prosperity of the country lost amid 
the tumult of arms, and the mali- 
cious delight of foreign powers at 
the suicidal conflict maintained by 
the great nation. He accordingly 
sought, by a scrupulous fulfilment 
of the conditions of peace, to allay 
the distrust of the Huguenots. 
He made friendly advances to the 
Netherlands and to the Queen of 
England. He summoned Coligni 
to the court. He took into serious 
consideration the various reasons 
for commencing a war with Spain 
for the benefit of the Netherlands ; 
and he seized every opportunity 
for showing favour to the leaders of 
the Huguenots. With the view of uniting both religious parties by a firm 
bond, he brought about the marriage of his sister, Margaret of Valois, with 
the Bourbon, Henry of Beam, the chief of the Huguenots. But the queen- 
mother, Catharine of Medicis, and the Duke of Anjou, did not share the king's 
views. They hated Admiral Coligni, and feared that a war with Spain 
would be fraught with danger to France and to the Catholic Church. Catha- 
rine acted up to the precept of her family, " that for the maintenance of 
power every action is permissible." Faithful to the teaching which Alva had 
given her, and which he himself had applied in the Netherlands with what 




NOTRE DAME IN THE l6TH CENTURY. 



FRANCE DURING THE RELIGIOUS WARS. 



147 



appeared like success, she sought, in conjunction with the Guises, to remove 
the leaders of the reformers, that the bands, deprived of their chiefs, might 
the more easily be overpowered. Jeanne d'Albret, the zealous follower of 
Calvin and Beza, died shortly before the marriage of her son, in 1572, not 
without a suspicion of poison. A plot was organised for the murder of 
Coligni by a hired assassin ; but the bullet fired at him only shattered his 
arm ; exposure and ignominy threatened the conspirators ; therefore they 
considered it advisable to project a fresh plan of assassination. 

Just at this time a suitable opportunity was afforded by the marriage of 
Henry of Beam and Margaret of Valois ; many prominent Huguenots had 
hastened to the capital to be present at the ceremony. Catharine and the 







THE CASTLE OF HEIDELBERG. 

Guises concocted the plan of a terrible massacre to be perpetrated on the eve 
of St. Bartholomew ; a hideous crime which turned the wedding celebration 
of Henry and Margaret into a marriage of blood. At midnight, when the 
alarm-bell of St. Germain 1'Auxerrois gave the signal, armed bands of 
murderers suddenly surprised and attacked the defenceless Calvinists. The 
venerable hero, Coligni, was the first victim ; he was attacked in his chamber, 
and without regard for his grey hairs, the hired ruffians, it is said, wounded 
him mortally, and then hurled him, still breathing, from the window. He 
endeavoured with his left arm to cling to one of the pillars of a window ; but 
with renewed blows they thrust him out into the courtyard, where Guise and 
Angouleme were waiting to receive the victim, who expired a few moments 



I4 8 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

after his fall. Then the bands of murderers rushed tumultuously through 
every quarter of the town, filling the houses and streets with blood, and 
strewing corpses around, laughing to scorn feeling, humanity, and justice. 
For three days the slaughter lasted. It was imitated in several towns ; and 
according to the most moderate calculation 25,000 Huguenots must have 
perished at that fearful time. The king, who had been informed of the plan 
shortly before it was carried into effect, followed the savage impulses and 
innate cruelty of his nature, and himself assisted in the work by shooting 
down the fugitives with his own hand. Not content with the murder of the 
more important Huguenot leaders, to which the original design appears to 
have been limited, the murderers extended the massacre to all supporters 
of the reformed faith; and when, after the crime had been accomplished 
the Guises were pointed out as its authors by the public voice, and were 
summoned to answer for the deed, Charles took on himself the whole burden 
of the transaction, and excused the massacre on the untenable plea of the 
existence of a conspiracy. 

HENRY III. 

TWO years after the massacre of St. Bartholomew, Charles IX. died, in 
March, 1574, in the twenty-fourth year of his age, tortured by pangs of 
conscience and terrified by evil dreams. His brother Henry (1574-89), 
previously Duke of Anjou, and for a year king elect of Poland, secretly 
escaped from the wild region of the Vistula to pass through Italy to France, 
where a nobler crown and a more pleasurable capital awaited him. After he 
became king of France Henry III. showed no trace of his former energy. 
Effeminacy, love of pleasure, and vanity excluded all serious thoughts from 
his mind. Shut up in the interior of his palace with his favourites and lap- 
dogs, he forgot his kingdom and the storms and troubles that agitated it ; and 
if remorse seized him at times for his sinful life, he sought consolation in acts 
of superstitious devotion, in pilgrimages, and processions, penances and self- 
castigation. The religious peace which was extorted from him, sword in 
hand, soon after his accession, by the discontented party of the Politicians, 
and their allies the Huguenots, destroyed the fruits of all former efforts, and 
excited the anger of the Catholics. Under the guidance of Henry of Guise, 
and in conjunction with Philip II., they accordingly united in forming a Holy 
League, in 1576, for the protection of their menaced religion. By the efforts 
of zealots, in the persons of priests, monks, and Jesuits, many adherents werje 
gained for the league. Alarmed at this agitation, the weak and faithless 
king opened negotiations with the Catholic zealots, declared himself the head 
of the League, and caused the privileges guaranteed by the religious peace 
to? be curtailed. Though this step led to a renewal of the war, .it at the 
same time broke the power of the League, whose secret object, besides the 
extermination of Calvinism, had been to bring about a limitation of the royal 
power or a change of dynasty. Dreading the effects of the widespread party 
hatreds, Henry sought to put an end to the war as soon as possible by 
offering fair conditions. This object was attained in the Peace of Poitiers, 
in 1577, in which the Huguenots obtained the privilege of free exercise 
of their religion, were declared eligible to all offices in the state, and mixed 
parliamentary assemblies were instituted, with some limitations. 

THE LEAGUE. 

AFTER some years of uncertain peace, Francis, Duke of Anjou, the last 
surviving brother of the childless king, died, and thus, in 1584, the 
Bourbon, Henry of Navarre, became the heir to the throne. Thereupon 



FRANCE DURING THE RELIGIOUS WARS. 



149 



the Duke of Guise summoned the League to renewed life and action. 
The prospect of the succession of a Protestant king terrified Catholic 
France, and gave greater emphasis to the whisperings of priests and the 
intrigues of Jesuits. The persecutions of Catholics in England, which were 
painted in the most repulsive colours, were held up as a representation of the 
dangers which might overtake the French nation. Where exhortations from 
the pulpit and the confessional did not suffice, money, of which there was no 
lack since Philip II. had joined the League, was called into aid. The nobility, 
who had been neglected by the court, and superseded by low-born favourites, 
eagerly joined together in a league, which not only aimed at the preservation 
of the Catholic faith, but at the abolition of old abuses, and the enrichment 
of the nobility by means of the confiscated property of the Huguenots. In a 
short time, under the guidance of the clever and energetic Henry of Guise, 




PROCESSION OF THE LEAGUE. 



the League became a terrible power, Henry of Navarre was placed under a 
ban by Pope Sixtus V., and was declared incapable of succeeding to the 
throne ; the weak and despicable king of France was compelled to revoke all 
his former treaties with the Huguenots, to declare for the extermination of 
heresy, and to ratify all the regulations of the League. Once more France 
was tprn^ by civil strife in a new conflict, known as the " war of the three 
Henries," of Valois, Guise, and Navarre ; and in spite of the bravery with 
which the Calvinists combated for the rights of their leader and their own 
liberty of conscience, the superior numbers of their opponents gave the victory 
to the League. Emboldened by his triumph, and strong in the favour of the 
people, who greeted him as a second Gideon, the Duke, Henry of Guise, 
now aspired to the throne itself, to which he considered he had more ancient 
claims reputing himself a descendant of the Carlovingians than the reign- 
ing family. 



ISO 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



THE BARRICADES. 

IN the year 1588 a conspiracy was set on foot in Paris for deposing and 
imprisoning the king. Warned of the threatened danger, Henry sought 
to protect himself by obtaining troops of mercenaries or " Swiss," which pro- 
duced consternation among the conspirators. To inspire his followers with 
fresh courage and energy, the duke, in spite of the king's prohibition, set out 
for Paris, where in a short time thirty thousand allies gathered round him. 
The rumour that all the leaders of the League were to be put to death 
increased the prevailing excitement to such a degree, that when the arrival 
of fresh troops appeared to confirm their fears, the people rose in a body, 
erected barricades in the streets and on the bridges, captured the scattered 
bodies of reinforcing troops, and slaughtered a number of them on the " day 
of the barricades," on, the twelfth of May, 1588. The king escaped in terror 
to ^Chartres, and abandoned the capital to his opponent, who now rilled the 
chief offices with reliable supporters of his own, secured the Bastille and other 
fortified buildings, and then compelled the king to grant him the most 
absolute command over all the armies. These concessions did not, however, 
lead to a reconciliation. At an assembly at Blois, in'which the Guise party 
were in the ascendant, it was not only suggested ihat the Bourbons should 
be driven from the throne and Calvinism utterly rooted out, but also that the 
government should be changed, the royal revenues curtailed, and the chief 
power placed in the hands of the Guises. Then Henry ventured on a bold 
step. He caused the Duke of Guise and his brother, Cardinal Louis, to be 
murdered ; and he threw the most influential leaders of their party into 
prison. Gloomy forebodings as to the consequences of this act hastened the 
death of the queen-mother, Catharine de Medicis, who died in January, 1589. 
On her guilty head is accumulated the weight of all the misery of this dis- 
astrous period. 

DEATH OF HENRY III. 

THE murder of the two Guises caused a 
fearful excitement throughout the king- 
dom, and the general cry was for revenge on 
the degenerate king who had overthrown the 
pillars of the Catholic faith. Paris was in 
a state of feverish tumult ; fanatical public 
orators kept the excitable inhabitants in 
constant agitation. Guise's brother, Charles, 
Duke of Mayenne, an ambitious, energetic 
man, placed himself at the head of the 
League and of the allied troops ; obedience 
to the king was renounced ; in a large part 
of the kingdom the power passed from the 
royal officials to the Council of Forty insti- 
tuted by the League, and in Paris to the 
democratic Council of Sixteen, who assumed 
the administration of civil affairs. In vain 
did Henry III. attempt to lull the storm and 
pacify the public mind. Excommunicated 
by the Pope, deserted by his friends, de- 
spised by his people, and without money 
or troops, no other resource was left open 




SOLDIER IN GOLDEN ARMOUR. 



FRANCE DURING THE RELIGIOUS WARS. 




ENTERTAINMENT AT THE COURT OF HENRY III. OF FRANCE. 

to him but an alliance with Henry of Navarre and the Huguenots. Once 
more civil war raged more fiercely than ever ; but fortune was against the 
League. Henry was already besieging Paris, and threatening to reduce the 
faithless town to a heap of ashes, when a fanatical Dominican monk, Jacques 
Clement, revenged the murder of the Guises by stabbing the king with a 
dagger. It was on the 1st August, 1559, that the last of the Valois kings 
died by the hand of an assassin. On his death-bed Henry appointed as his 
successor Henry of Navarre and Beam, who was indeed the next heir to the 
throne ; for he was a direct descendant of the fourth son of Louis IX. 




POTE KADRIAN VI. 



152 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



HENRY IV. (1589-1610). 




T 



HENRY IV. OF FRANCE. 



HE new king found it ne- 
cessary to engage in a 
severe struggle before he could 
consider the great prize, the 
royal crown of France, as really 
his own. The members of the 
League, led by Mayenne, and 
supported by the Spanish troops 
of the warlike Parma, put forth 
their utmost strength in. bitter 
and uncompromising resistance 
to the Calvinist heir to the 
throne. In their religious ani- 
mosity, they were ready sooner 
to accept a king from the hand 
of Philip II, and to place them- 
selves under the protectorship 
of Spain, than quietly endure a 
heretic on the throne, however 
much they admired his chival- 
rous qualities. After his brilliant 
victory over Mayenne and the 
League, in the battle of Ivry, 
in 1590, Henry besieged Paris. 
The unfortunate inhabitants were compelled to suffer all the horrors of famine 
and warfare. Indeed, the kind heart of the king was touched by their distress,, 
and it is told how he allowed sacks of corn to be conveyed into the town for 
the solace of the starving citizens, at the time when they were still maintain- 
ing the defence against him. The number of his enemies, however, increased, 
and whole provinces threatened to separate from the kingdom, and win an in- 
dependent position under native princes. The king was therefore at last 
convinced that he would never obtain the peaceful possession of the French 
throne by battles and victories, and feeling " that the crown of France was 
worth a mass," he made submission to the Catholic Church in July, 1593, at 
the Cathedral of St. Denis, and was received into her communion. He thus 
broke the strength of the League. Paris now opened its gates, and received 
the peacemaker with delight ; the heads of the League hastened to conciliate 
him, the Pope withdrew the ban, and Philip II., whose influence on European 
affairs had greatly decreased, consented to the Peace of Vervins, in 1598. 

After peace had been restored, both at home and abroad, Henry inaugu- 
rated his reign by the Edict of Nantes (April, 1598), granting his former 
Protestant allies religious toleration, full civil rights, and other favours. It 
cost him great pains and many sacrifices to obtain the consent of the various 
classes to this great and important measure. 

The reign of Henry IV. proved a blessing to the country. The nation 
rejoiced in the long-desired peace under a prince who possessed a sympa- 
thetic heart for the sorrows and joys of his people, whose truly French 
character and amiable temper won the love of his people, while his warlike 
fame flattered the national vanity. Consequently the attempts of discon- 



FRANCE DURING THE RELIGIOUS WARS. 



153 




HENRY IV. HAS MERCY ON STARVING PARIS. 



54 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




tented nobles to renew the civil war were rendered fruitless, and their leader, 
the brave and chivalrous Biron, paid for his turbulent disaffection with his life. 

Through the wise control of 
the finances exercised by 
Maximilian de Bethune, Duke 
of Sully, Henry's faithful 
comrade in times of distress, 
the state exchequer was al- 
ways full, while at the same 
time the people had no cause 
to complain of oppressive 
taxation ; and agriculture, 
trade, and commerce flourish- 
ed vigorously. Even Henry's 
special weakness, his exceed- 
ing susceptibility to the 
charms of women, as seen in 
the case of the beautiful 
Gabrielle d'Estrees, was a 
pardonable failing in the eyes 
of the French, and Sully 
earnestly opposed any exer- 
cise of political power on the 
part of his master's favourites. 
The intended marriage of the 
king with the beautiful Gab- 
rielle was prevented by her 
sudden death. Soon after- 
wards, with the consent of the 
Pope, who had declared his 
first marriage with Marguerite 
of Valois null and void, Henry, 
in 1599, espoused Marie de 
Medicis as his second wife. 
But fanaticism was only slum- 
bering, and Henry's indulgent 
temper towards the heretics 
aroused it and provoked an 
outburst. His enlightened 
political view already contem- 
plated the great scheme of 
establishing a Christian em- 
pire, with equality of rights 
for the three Confessions, in 
conjunction with the German 
Union and other European 
powers, and of thus putting 
an end to the supremacy of 
the house of Hapsburg, when 
he fell under the dagger of 
the assassin Ravaillac ; that 
miserable fanatic stabbed the 



MAXIMILIAN DUG DE SULLY. 




MARIE DE MEDICIS. 



FRANCE DURING THE RELIGIOUS WARS. 



'55 







MURDER OF HENRY IV. OF FRANCE. 



king as he was driving through Paris, May 14, 1610. "When God is for 
us, who can resist us ? " exultingly exclaimed the Cardinal of Toledo on 
receiving the news of the king's death. This exctamation sufficiently 
showed the hatred of the Spaniards towards Henry of Navarre and his 
policy of a great reformation that should be cemented by mutual tolerance 
and goodwill. 





LONDON IN THE DAYS OF ELIZABETH. 



ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 

ELIZABETH'S CHARACTER AND GOVERNMENT. MARY STUART IN SCOT- 
LAND. RIZZIO, DARNLEY, BOTHWELL. BATTLE OF LANGSIDE. 
MARY IN ENGLAND. HER LONG IMPRISONMENT. THE DUKE OF 
NORFOLK. CONSPIRACIES. BABINGTON'S PLOT. EXECUTION OF 
MARY. EXCITEMENT ON THE CONTINENT. CLOSE OF ELIZABETH'S 
REIGN. ESSEX : HIS DISGRACE AND EXECUTION. DEATH OF THE 
QUEEN, 1603. 

CHARACTER AND POLICY OF ELIZABETH. 




TTLIZABETH'S character had been formed in 
ij the school of adversity during the reign of 
her gloomy sister Mary. She possessed her 
father's arrogant temper, and wielded the sceptre 
with sternness and severity ; but she did not 
sacrifice, like that truculent monarch, the welfare 
of the state to her passions and caprices. She 
imposed restrictions on the political and religious 
liberty of her people, but acted in accordance 
with a fixed and politic principle, and had a 
respect for justice. Accustomed at an early age 
to serious study and meditation, she brought 
with her to the throne a cultured mind, an acute 
and ready understanding, of which she gave evidence both in the choice of 
her counsellors, among whom was the wise Cecil, Lord Burleigh, and in her 
policy ; but the habit of dissimulation which she had practised even in her 
youth, caused her to find pleasure in the tortuous paths of cunning and false- 
hood, and in a disingenuous statecraft. The virtue of frugality, which she had 
learnt in her earlier days, she carried to an extreme parsimony, which in 
her later years increased almost to avarice. Even her adversaries have not 
denied that she possessed great talents for government, and the prosperity 
of England in trade, maritime commerce, agriculture, manufactures, art, and 
literature, which she founded, proves how truly she had at heart the welfare 
of the state. 

156 



OUTER GATE OF THE TOWER. 



ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 



157 



MARY STUART IN SCOTLAND. 




1 / T~^HE charming queen who in 1560, two 
JL years after Elizabeth's accession to 
the throne, had exchanged the fair and 
smiling realm of France for her uncon- 
genial and unfamiliar Scottish home, was 
in her character, temperament, surround- 
ings, and destiny, a complete contrast to 
her neighbour and rival. While Elizabeth, 
from the hard circumstances of her youth, 
had been rendered somewhat unamiable, 
grave, false, and envious, the beautiful 
Mary, after a youth passed in happiness 
and pleasure, brought with her to the 
throne of Scotland an affectionate, cheer- 
ful temper, frank and cordial manners, and 
a lively disposition ; and while Elizabeth's 
hopes and destiny in life had been from 

QUEEN MARY'S BATH, EDINBURGH. the first interwoven with Protestantism, 
Mary, attracted by her imaginative and artistic nature to Catholicism, had 
been identified by her own and her^ family interests with the Papacy. 
Elizabeth elevated her form of religion into an honourable and secure 
position in the nation, and thus united the interest of the people with her 
own. Mary, with her Catholic creed, stood alone among a rude people, 
who despised the Mass as idolatry, and whose sacrilegious hands did not 
even respect the sanctity of the queen's private chapel ; and when she de- 
sired to introduce at her court the cheerful, gay pastimes and pleasures, and 
the easy manners of the French, and by her secret alliance with Rome and 
with her uncles betrayed the aspiration and wish of her heart for a res- 
toration of popery, she was menaced by the severe and ascetic John Knox, 
who, like the prophets who threatened the idolatrous kings of Israel, 
thundered his exhortations in her ears both from the pulpit and in the palace, 
untouched by her tears and unmoved by her indignant protestations. 

As Mary refused to confirm the Treaty of Edinburgh (1560), which had 
been drawn up by the Scotch nobles and the English queen, by which she 
would have surrendered her claim to the English crown, and ratified the Re- 
formation in Scotland, she found herself from the very beginning of her reign 
in a position hostile to Elizabeth and to her own people, who sympathized 
with England. This hostile condition of things, nevertheless, became to 
some degree modified in course of time, and Mary even applied to the English 
queen for advice in the important question of the choice of a second husband ; 
but the false and equivocal behaviour of Elizabeth, who first proposed one 
suitor and then another, and afterwards refused her consent and grew violently 
angry when at last Mary, in 1565, gave her hand to her cousin, the young 
Scottish noble, Lord Darnley, produced a renewal of ill-feeling. The marriage 
proved an unhappy one. The whole delight of the vain and thoughtless 
husband was in hunting and feasting ; and at last the queen became indignant, 
was entirely estranged from him, and devoted herself to the singer, Rizzio, of 
Turin, who acted as her agent in her correspondence with the Guises and the 
Pope. Stung by jealousy and by a sense of wounded honour, Darnley entered 



i S 8 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 



159 



into a conspiracy with some nobles who were envious of the favour Rizzio 
enjoyed, and apprehensive of the overthrow of the Reformed Church ; and 
at last Mary's presumptuous favourite was assassinated before the eyes of his 
mistress, being despatched with many wounds by the conspirators, in her own 
apartments, in the year 1566. 

This horrible deed filled the heart of the queen with bitter anger towards 
her husband, of whose complicity in the crime she felt convinced in spite of 
his denial. She became even more estranged from him, contemplated the 
idea of a separation, and bestowed her favour on a Scottish noble, the Earl of 
Bothwell, who had recently returned from France. Not till Darnley was at- 
tacked by a severe illness did her anger seem to abate ; then she appeared 
reconciled to him. She nursed him with great solicitude in an isolated 
country house, the Kirk of Field, near Edinburgh. But on the night of the 
10th of February, 1567, 
when Mary was away, the 
neighbourhood was alarmed 
by a terrible explosion. The 
country house of the king 
had been blown up ; and 
Darnley's corpse was found 
in an adjacent meadow, with 
evident marks of suffocation. 
Public opinion pointed to 
Bothwell as the perpetrator 
of the crime, and three 
months later this very man 
had become Mary's husband. 
He was declared innocent by 
a hastily summoned tribu- 
nal, and after putting away 
his wife, to enable him to 
contract a fresh marriage, 
he waylaid the queen on a 
journey, carried her off, ap- 
parently by force, and then 
obtained her hand. It was 
scarcely to be marvelled at 
that she was accused of 
complicity in Bothwell's 




JOHN KNOX'S HOUSE AT EDINBURGH. 



crime. Indignant at this criminal marriage, the Scottish nobility took up 
arms against her. After suffering defeat on the battlefield, Bothwell 
escaped, but Mary was carried in triumph to Edinburgh, amid the curses of 
the people, and was shortly afterwards imprisoned in the island fortress of 
Loch Leven, where she was compelled to sign an abdication of the throne, and 
to make over the government to her half-brother Murray, who was to act as 
regent during the minority of her son, James VI. Mary made her escape 
from prison through the help of the Hamilton family, and retracted her 
abdication ; but being defeated shortly afterwards in the battle of Langside, 
in 1568, she set out in great haste for England, to implore Elizabeth's aid and 
protection. 



i6o 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




CECIL, LORD BURLEIGH. 



MARY IN ENGLAND. THE ARMADA. 

THE English queen re- 
fused to grant her 
Scottish sister an interview 
until Mary should have 
cleared herself of the terrible 
accusation of the murder of 
her husband. The Queen 
of Scots, on the other hand, 
refused, as an independent 
monarch, to submit to an 
investigation by a foreign 
court of justice, Murray 
the regent, her accuser, also 
hesitated to acknowledge the 
supremacy of England im- 
plied in accepting the arbi- 
tration, and she was accord- 
ingly detained a prisoner in 
England. But her presence 
was a constant source of 
danger to Elizabeth. The 
Duke of Norfolk aspired to 
the hand of the captive queen ; he conspired to set her at liberty, and lost, in 
consequence, first his liberty and ultimately his life, in 1572. In the northern 
counties the ancient Church still numbered many adherents, and the Earls of 
Northumberland and Westmoreland raised the banner of insurrection, to 
compel their queen to set Mary at liberty and declare her the successor to 
the throne. They, at the same time, proclaimed the restoration of the 
Catholic Church, and summoned foreign powers to their aid. But their 
scheme was frustrated, and Northumberland, given up by the Scotch as a 
fugitive, died on the scaffold (1569). Mary was suspected of being an ac- 
complice in this conspiracy ; and the unsettled condition of Scotland where 
Murray fell a victim to the vengeance of the Hamiltons, his successor, 
Darnley's father, was slain, and the last regent, Morton, perished on the 
scaffold appeared to render her continued imprisonment a matter of necessity. 
She could expect no help from her son James, who had learned to look upon 
her as an idolatrous woman, accused of the death of his father. The murder 
of the Prince of Orange, the continual plots and intrigues of the Jesuits, 
and the horrible religious wars on the Continent, kept the English in con- 
stant terror of conspiracies. It needed but a slight occasion to bring about the 
death of Mary, whose fortress-prison was regarded as the centre of all con- 
spiracies. This occasion was afforded by the conspiracy of Babington and 
his accomplices, who had conceived the design of murdering Elizabeth and 
placing Mary on the throne of England. The project was discovered ; the 
conspirators died on the scaffold, and when it was proved on investigation 
that Mary had been privy to the scheme, she also was declared guilty and 
condemned to death. Elizabeth was now entreated by Parliament, for the pre- 
servation of religion, the security of the kingdom, and the safety of her own 
person, to allow justice to take its course. But though she desired the death 



ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 



161 



of her rival and enemy, she dreaded the consequences the captive queen's 
execution might bring. At last the conflict in Elizabeth's mind was decided ; 
she signed the death-warrant, and Burleigh caused it to be carried out with- 
out delay. On the 8th of February, 1587, Mary was beheaded, in the forty- 
fifth year of her age and the nineteenth of her imprisonment, at Fotheringhay 
Castle, in Northamptonshire. But Elizabeth affected great indignation, and 
declared that her ministers had caused the sentence of death to be carried 
out in defiance of her orders ; and she punished her secretary Davison with 
heavy fine and imprisonment for having allowed the death-warrant to pass 
out of his hands. 




THE LAST MOMENTS OF MARY STUART. 



Pope Sixtus V. and Philip II. were filled with horror at the news of Mary's 
death. The Pope denounced the heretical queen as an excommunicated 
outlaw, entrusted the King of Spain with the duty of conquering England, 
and promised him considerable pecuniary aid in the enterprise. Philip 
had sufficient reasons for revenge ; Elizabeth had refused his hand on her 
accession to the throne, had sent aid to the revolted Netherlands, and had 
captured his trading vessels ; and the moment when all Catholics were in- 
dignant at the Scottish queen's death seemed a favourable time to attempt 
the conquest of England and the foundation of a Catholic Empire in the 
West of Europe. But the destruction of the Armada raised the renown of 

II. M 



162 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



England. The whole country was thrilled with a strong impulse of patriotic 
enthusiasm. Admiral Howard of Effingham, the destroyer of the Armada, 

Sir Francis Drake, the re- 
nowed sailor who had circum- 
navigated the world, and other 
heroes who had made the 
name of England famous on 
the waves, discovered the ele- 
ment on which England's 
power and greatness might be 
best established. Trade and 
navigation the sinews of the 
nation from that time for- 
ward made rapid progress. 
Fugitives from Flanders helped 
to establish the important 
stocking manufacture ; and the 
incorporation of the East India 
Company in 1600, and the ac- 
quisition of Virginia in North 
America, laid the foundation of 
the colonial system of Eng- 
land. Sir Walter Raleigh, "the 
remote and original ancestor of 
the United States of America," 
pointed out the transatlantic 
unions and settlements, and 
the elevation of industry, as 
the basis of the wealth and 
power of the nation. Pro- 
testantism and naval power had 
passed through their period of 
probation at the same time. A retrograde step was now impossible. 




SIR FRANCIS DRAKE. 




FOTHERINGHAY CASTLE. 



ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND. 



163 




QUEEN ELIZABETH. (From a Painting by Zucchcro.} 

ELIZABETH'S DEATH. 

THE Virgin Queen could not reconcile herself to the idea of sharing the 
government with a husband ; she rejected all her suitors, here and 
there not without great reluctance, as in the case of Duke Francis of Anjou, 
the brother of Henry III. of France, and suffered no interference of Parlia- 
ment in the affairs of her household. Nevertheless, two English nobles, the 
Earl of Leicester, and after him his step-son, the chivalrous Essex, long 
enjoyed her especial favour. Leicester was a finished courtier, but a man of 
mediocre talents as a statesman and general, and of no elevation of sentiment 
or character. Essex was more worthy of the favour of the queen, who took 
pleasure in his frank, straightforward character ; but his fortunate star paled 
in Ireland. That island, which had been conquered for centuries, but had 
never been entirely in the possession of England, had been constituted a 
kingdom by Henry VII I., and had been made subject to the religious laws 
of England. But the Reformation was only recognised in the eastern por- 
tion of the island, the Irish, as a rule, remaining faithful to the old religion 



i6 4 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



and to their old clergy. Elizabeth endeavoured to bring Ireland into more 
complete dependence under the English crown, and to effect a transformation 
both in Church and State. This attempt was resisted by the Earl of Tyrone, 
a warlike Irish chief, who, trusting to the Catholic population and expecting 
to receive assistance from Spain and Rome, demanded protection for the 
ancient faith. Essex requested and obtained the governorship of Ireland ; 
but instead of attacking Tyrone, he concluded with him a disgraceful treaty, 
equally disadvantageous to the English government and to the cause of 
Protestantism. In consequence of this, Essex fell into disfavour with the 
queen ; and after an unsuccessful conspiracy with the object of removing the 
queen's counsellors from about her, and proclaiming the succession of James I. 
of Scotland, he attempted an insurrection, and was imprisoned and executed 
in the Tower in 1601. Grief at the death of her favourite, and at the discovery 
that her own servants and attendants, and her trusted counsellor, the younger 
Cecil (Burleigh) were in secret treaty with the King of Scotland, and also that 
the affection of her people had cooled towards her since the execution of 
Essex, filled the last years of the queen's life with bitterness. At length her 
spirits gave way entirely ; she sat sullenly on the ground, with her eyes cast 
downwards and her ringers in her mouth, refusing counsel and consolation, till 
death put an end to her sorrows in the seventieth year of her age, on the 
24th of March, 1603. The jealously guarded secret of the succession to the 
throne was only divulged by her at the last moment, when she declared 
that she would be followed by no " rascal " ; but that a king should be her 
successor namely, James of Scotland, the son of the unhappy queen who 
had perished at Fotheringhay. 




ROBERT DEVEREUX, EARL OF ESSEX 




CULTURE AND LEARNED MEN. 
FROM THE REFORMATION TO LOUIS XIV. 

ASTRONOMERS : COPERNICUS, TYCHO BRAKE, KEPLER, GALILEO, NEW- 
TON. HISTORICAL WRITERS : SLEIDAN, SECKENDORF, GROTIUS, 
RALEIGH. PHILOSOPHIC WRITERS : ITALY GIORDANO BRUNO, ETC 
MICHEL DE MONTAIGNE, FRANCIS BACON, HOBBES, DESCARTES, 
SPINOZA. ITALIAN PROSE AND POETRY: MACHIAVELLI, DAVILA, 

ARIOSTO, VITTORIA COLONNA, 
TASSO. SPAIN CERVANTES, LOPE 
DE VEGA, CALDERON. PORTUGAL 
CAMOENS. FRANCE RABELAIS, 
MAROT, MARGUERITE DE NA- 
VARRE. ENGLAND CHAUCER; THE 
DRAMA: SHAKESPEARE; SPENSER, 
MILTON, DRYDEN, BUTLER, ETC 
GERMANY HANS SACHS, FISCH- 
ART, LUTHER, ETC. 

THE GREAT ASTRONOMERS. 

THE fifteenth century witnessed an 
entirely new development of as- 
tronomy as a science. The improbability 
of the old Ptolemaic conception of the 
universe had long been recognised by 
men of serious thought ; but Nicholas 
Copernicus of Thorn (1473-1543), Canon 
of Frauenberg, was the first who had the 
courage and the creative genius decisively 
to throw off the old preconceived opinions, 
and to substitute a new and fruitful con- 
ception for the old theory that had beera 
proved untenable. After a course of deep 
165 




NICHOLAS COPERNICUS. 



166 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



study and close observation of the heavenly bodies, he arrived at the conclusion 
that the sun is the central point of the planetary system, and revolves on its 
axis ; while the earth, like the other planets, not only moves round its axis, but 
also round the sun. His theories were to some extent contradicted by the 
great Danish astronomer, Tycho de Brahe (1546-1601), who could not bring 
himself to the belief that the earth moved ; and it remained for Johann Kepler 
(1571-1631), the needy assistant of De Brahe, to carry out the teachings of 
Copernicus, and further develop them by the results of his own investigations. 
Kepler's merits attracted the attention of the Emperor Rudolf of Germany, 
who accorded to the astronomer a useful though not very munificent patron- 
age. In the three great laws concerning the movements of the heavenly 




JOHANN KEPLER, THE ASTRONOMER, AND THE EMPEROR RUDOLF II. 



bodies, promulgated and established by Kepler, we have the foundation of 
that theory of gravitation afterwards demonstrated by Newton, and with which 
the name of the great English astronomer will be always associated. 

Kepler's great contemporary, Galileo of Pisa (1564-1642), also distinguished 
himself, and obtained immortal fame by his discoveries in the province of 
mechanics and physics. With the help of the telescope, which had shortly 
before been invented in Holland, he discovered the satellites of Jupiter and 
other heavenly bodies, whose existence had not till then been suspected. But 
by his declaration that it was the earth that moved, and not the sun, he gave 
offence to the upholders of the old theory, and in particular excited the anger 
of the strict clerical party, who declared the Copernican theory to be heretical 



CULTURE AND LEARNED MEN. 



167 



and opposed to the teachings of Holy Scripture. He was ultimately com- 
pelled to renounce his views before a tribunal of the Inquisition. His work, 
in which he had set forth his discoveries, was prohibited, and he himself was 
compelled for a time to languish in the cells of the Inquisition. There he 
contracted an affection of the eyes, which afterwards ended in complete blind- 
ness. In spite of the enforced recantation he remained steadfast in his opinion ; 
and chafing at the spiritual intolerance to which he had been subjected, he is 
said, after reading his recantation, to have uttered aside : " E pur si muove ! " 
" But it moves, for all that ! " 




EARLY GEOGRAPHY : MAP OF AFRICA, DRAWN IN I5<DO. 

What Kepler and Galileo had left unfinished was brought to a completion 
by the great English philosopher, Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727. By his 
great discovery of gravitation, the true physical force or active power that 
directs the motions of the planets was elucidated, and the Copernican system 
and the correctness of the laws of Kepler were thus confirmed in their 
smallest particulars. 



i68 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



HISTORICAL WRITERS. 




T 



Ofe 



k HE history of the Reformation from 
the time of Luther till the resignation 
of Charles V. found an excellent chronicler 
in the person of Johann Sleidan (1506-56), 
a student of law at Strasburg, and the 
historian of the Smalkaldic League ; and 
another, a century later, in the learned 
statesman Seckendorf, who died in 1692. 
On the philosophy of government and the 
rights of nations, the French author, Jean 
Bodin (1530-1596), the learned Nether- 
lander, Hugo de Groot, or Grotius (1583- 
1645), and the German, Samuel Puffendorf 

(1632-1694), were the best writers. The wars of liberty in the Netherlands 
were described by the above-named Hugo Grotius, who took the style and 
form of Tacitus as his model. Later again, one of the greatest geniuses of the 
age of Elizabeth, the sagacious and far-seeing Sir Walter Raleigh (1552-1618), 

who was renowned 

as a soldier, as the 
founder of the settle- 
ments in North 
America, and as the 
discoverer of distant 
countries, wrote the 
first history of the 
world in his own 
language, during a 
fifteen years' impri- 
sonment, which had 
befallen him for par- 
ticipation in a con- 
spiracyagainst James 
I. After having been 
conditionally re- 
leased, he ultimately 
died on the scaffold 
a sacrifice to the 
perfidy of the time- 
serving James I., who 
caused him to be put 
to death on the sen- 
tence pronounced 
many years before, 
to please the Spanish 
Court ; as the mar- 
riage of Prince 
Charles with the In- 
fanta of Spain was 
at that time in con- 
templation. 




CULTURE AND LEARNED MEN. 



169 



PHILOSOPHY. NEW SYSTEMS. 

T TALY, the land of mental activity and scientific culture, was rich in new 
J[ philosophical ideas and conceptions, but the superficial vivacity of the 
people caused philosophy as well as theology to assume a vague, obscure, and 
visionary character. Giordano Bruno, who died in 1600, a highly gifted man, 
who had escaped from the Dominican order, after attempting to hold philo- 
sophical lectures at Padua, was given up by the Venetians to the Inquisition, 
and ultimately burnt to death at Rome. His doctrine that the universe, as 
the created nature, is one with the divinity, or the creative force, is an 
ingeniously framed and powerfully enunciated revival of the old Hellenic 
Pantheism. This variety of old and new systems led some minds, accustomed 
to quiet, independent thinking, to scepticism. The most famous amongst 
such thinkers was the intellectual and highly cultured Frenchman, Michel de 
Montaigne, who died in 1592. This agreeable writer, in the philosophy laid 
down in his essays, touched not so much on 
the high problems of humanity, but regarded 
the world from a supreme elevation, and 
sought to instil into the mind sentiments of 
peace and equanimity. 

After such immense strides had been taken 
in different departments of thought, while, in 
the meantime, mathematics, astronomy, na- 
tural science and philosophy had also been 
developed, there was needed a practical and 
incisive mind to penetrate through the con- 
fusion which prevailed, and to bring the whole 
range of knowledge into systematic unity and 
logical order. This great and necessary task 
was accomplished by Francis Bacon, Lord 
Verulam (1561-1626), a man of distinguished 
talents though not of spotless character, 
though Pope's celebrated line, in which he 
is designated, " The wisest, brightest, meanest 
of mankind," is unduly severe. He was Lord 
Chancellor under James L, and filled other 
important offices in the State ; but having 
been convicted of grave misdemeanours, in the direction of bribery and cor- 
ruption, before a court of justice, he was punished by the loss of his property, 
liberty, and honour. His inductive philosophy, which is founded on observa- 
tion and experience, and which he propounded in his principal work, Novum 
Organum, has long been a prevailing philosophical method. 

Incited by the example of Bacon's experimental philosophy, his fellow- 
countryman, Hobbes (1588-1679), developed his philosophy of materialism, by 
which he drew upon himself the reproach of atheism. The accusation of 
absolutism, however, is better founded ; for, in opposition to the republican 
principles of his time, he declared the absolute power of the ruler, and the 
absolute obedience of the subject as indispensible to the maintenance of the 
State. 

In opposition to Bacon and Hobbes, the abstruse thinker, Descartes, of 
Touraine, developed a system of Idealism, founded on free speculation. 
Descartes wrote most of his works in Holland, where he resided, after having 




MONUMENT OF FRANCIS BACON. 



I/O 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



relinquished the military career to which he had at first devoted himself. 
Towards the end of his life, in obedience to an invitation from Christian of 
Sweden, he repaired to Stockholm, where he took up his residence, and where 
he died, in 1650. Among his opponents, the famous mathematician and physi- 
cist, Gassendi, who died a few years after him, in 1655, is the most celebrated, 
and his most noted adherent was the pious Malebranche. 

The idealism of Descartes was principally developed by Baruch Spinoza 
(1632-77), a member of the Hebrew community in Amsterdam, who, re- 
jected by those of his own creed, and shunned by Christians on account of 
the undeserved accusation of atheism, developed, in peaceful retirement, his 
peculiar system of philosophy, in which, for the first time, Pantheism was pro- 
pounded in all' its severe and unmitigated characteristics. Spinoza ascribes 
everything to a first Great Cause, and denies the existence of such a thing as 
chance, everything with him being produced by necessity. 



ITALY. ITALIAN PROSE AND POETRY. 

N Florence there lived and laboured in the earlier part of 
the sixteenth century the eminent statesman, politician, and 
historian, Nicolo Machiavelli, who died in 1527, one of the 
most intellectual and sagacious men of any age or country. 
Among his most noted works are his Discourse on Titus 
Livius, and his History of Florence. Among his political 
writings, his much defamed book, " The Prince," is the most 
remarkable. In this work, which was undertaken for 
Lorenzo de Medicis, called " The Magnificent," the father of 
the French queen Catharine, and written in enforced retire- 
ment in a miserable country-house, Machiavelli represents 
a prince a tyrant who, like Caesar Borgia and others, was 
able by his astute and consistent action, without regard for 
virtue, morality, or religion, to establish his despotic govern- 
ment in the State which he had subjugated, and to consti- 
tute his will an unquestioned law. For this reason a faith- 
less policy, which pursues its own path regardless of all 
humanity and morality in government, and considers every 
means as justifiable for obtaining that material success 
which is its motive for action, has always been known by 
the term Machiavellism. These theories gave so much 
offence in later times, that Frederick II. of Prussia, and 
Voltaire, undertook to confute them, and the former, when 
Crown Prince, produced the " Anti-Machiavel " ; nevertheless, they appear 
so much opposed to Machiavelli's principles, as enunciated elsewhere in his 
works, that it has been conjectured that he desired by this description to warn 
his countrymen against the power of a single ruler, and to impress on them 
the importance of maintaining republicanism. 

The historian of the French civil wars that filled the latter half of the 
sixteenth century, was the Venetian Davila (1567-1631), who lived for a long 
time in France, and had an intimate knowledge of the principal persons 
engaged in the national conflicts. 




CULTURE AND LEARNED MEN. 



171 



ITALIAN POETRY. 

Among the most famous poets of his age was the author of " Orlando 
Furioso," the talented Ludovico Ariosto, born at Reggio in 1474. His father 
desired him to become a priest. This, however, was distasteful to him, and 
after a close study of ancient literature, and especially poetry, he wrote, first, 
comedies, such as " Cassaria," and " The Exchanges," after the model of 
Plautus and Terence. This was followed, in 15 16, by other poems. His great 
work contains the fabulous story of the adventures of Roland and various 
paladins of the time of Charlemagne, written with especial reference to the 
glories of the house of Este, to please the poet's patron, the Duke of Ferrara. 

Special mention should be made, also, of the Italian poetesses who flourished 
at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The most celebrated of these 
was Vittoria Colonna (1490-1547), daughter of the brave Fabricio Colonna, 
and widow of Fernando d'Avalos, Marquis of Pescara. After the early death 
of her husband, with whom she had spent very happy years in the island of 
Ischia, she lived in great retirement, though in constant communication with 
the poets and learned men of the time. She subsequently took up her abode 
in Rome, where her poems were first published in 1538. 

Next to Ariosto, Torquato Tasso (1544-1595) occupies the foremost place 
among Italian poets. He was born at Sorrento, was educated at Jesuit col- 
leges at Naples and Rome, and in his thirteenth year entered the University 
of Padua. Before he was nineteen he obtained some amount of fame by 
his first epic " Rinaldo "; and in 1572 his pastoral play, " Aminta," was 
performed with great approval before the Court at Ferrara. 




MACHIAVELLI. 




MICHAEL ANGELO, TASSO, AND LUDOVICO ARIOSTO, AT VITTORIA COLONNA'S. 

172 



CULTURE AND LEARNED MEN. 



173 




MIGUEL CERVANTES DE SAAVEDRA. 



SPAIN : CERVANTES ; LOPE DE VEGA. 

THE highest poetic renown in Spain was attained in romance and the 
drama. After Mendoza had laid the foundation of the style of satirical 
romance, in his " Lazarilla de Tonnes," Michael Cervantes de Saavedra be- 
came, by his comic-satirical romance, Don Quixote, the creator of a new style. 
The first part of that wonderful book, enitled " The life and actions of the 
noble and ingenious Knight, Don Quixote de la Mancha," appeared in 1605 ; 
the second part was published ten years later. The contrast between the 
imaginative and chivalrous enthusiast and his matter-of-fact esquire, Sancho 
Panza, is admirable. Another work of Cervantes, Persiles and Sigismunde, a 
story of northern adventures, did not appear until after his death. Cervantes 
also attempted dramatic composition (The Fall of Numantid), but in this branch 
of literature he was surpassed by his contemporary, Lope de Vega (1552-1635), 
who may be regarded as the special founder of the Spanish national theatre, 
for which he is said to have written no less than 1,500 comedies. His con- 
temporary, Calderon de la Barca (1600-1681), who is considered the greatest 



174 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



of the Spanish dramatists, was less prolific than Lope de Vega, but his 
superior in literary and constructive skill. 

At the same period, Portugal produced a great lyric and epic poet in the 
person of Luis de Camoens (1525-1679), the son of an eminent sea captain. 
Camoens devoted himself to the sea service, and after losing an eye in the 
attack on Ceuta, undertook long voyages to the East Indies. Banished from 
the Portuguese settlement of Goa to Macao, for writing a satirical poem, he 
undertook, in his exile, the great epic The Lusiad, giving an account of the 
circumnavigation of Africa and the discovery of the maritime route to India 
by Vasco de Gama. 




CAMOENS. 



CULTURE AND LEARNED MEN. 



175 



FRANCE. 

THE period of the Renaissance was a rich 
pasture-ground, full of wheat and tares. 
In no writer is this shown more significantly 
than in Frangois Rabelais (1483-1553), monk 
and humorist, physician and priest, in whose 
writings every aspect of life, and every vice 
and virtue of his time, is graphically pour- 
trayed. His great work is the humorous 
romance Gargantua and Pantagrnel, rich in 
wit and humour, but unpardonably gross in 
its images and allusions. 

Clement Marot (1484-1544) was a lyric 
poet of great renown among his contem- 
poraries. Already as a youth he won the 
favour of King Francis I. by his allegorical 
poem, " The Temple of Cupid." He drew 
on himself the anger of the clergy by his 
translation of the Psalms, and was thrown 
into prison on a charge of heresy ; but the 
influence of the king caused him to be set at liberty, and he revenged himself 
on his adversaries by writing an allegorical satirical poem entitled " Hell." 
Marot's patroness, Queen Marguerite of Navarre, shared with him, not only 
his free religious opinions, but also his preference for classic literature and 
Italian poetry. Her romances, which she named " Heptameron," after the 
" Decamerone " of Boccaccio, are a proof of this. The names of Ronsard, 
Malherbe and Regnier also belong to this period of French history. 

ENGLAND : OSSIAN, CHAUCER, THE DRAMA. 




RABELAIS. 




THE most ancient Celtic inhabitants of Britain 
were rich in poetical and legendary lore, and 
possessed a class of poets or bards, who had 
maintained their position in those districts, such 
as Wales, Ireland, and the Scotch Highlands, 
which had not been conquered by Anglo-Saxon 
and Norman settlers. Traces of the songs of 
these bards, which were orally transmitted, may 
possibly form the foundation of effusions known 
as the poems of Ossian, the original form having 
been altered and utterly obscured by additions 
and interpolations. In England the development 
of national poetry was [at a standstill until, in the fourteenth century, 
Geoffrey Chaucer (1328-1400), a student of the law and a diplomatist, a man 
of the world and in an influential position in society, and zealous for the reforms 
of Wickliffe, imitated the romances of Boccaccio in his "Canterbury Tales," and 
by his establishment of the language of poetry and the development of form, 
became " the father of English poetry." But the great period of poetical 
literature dawned upon England when, after the wars of the Reformation, 
the basis of England's internal and external greatness was laid in the glorious 
reign of Elizabeth, and London became the centre of every art and talent. 



CHAUCER. 



7 6 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



The poet-laureate, Spenser (1553-1599), the author of the "Fairy Queen," 
was, on account of his euphonious language and softness of style, designated 
as the creator of pastoral poetry. 




SCENE FROM CANTERBURY TALES. 



It was, however, in the department of dramatic poetry that England, in the 
second half of the sixteenth and the first half of the seventeenth century, 



CULTURE AND LEARNED MEN. 



177 




EARLY DRAMA : A PASSION PLAY. 

attained to a degree of perfection such as has been equalled at no other time 
.and in no other country. Passing over the names of some lesser dramatic 
writers, such as Lily, Marlow, and Robert Greene, who flourished at the end of 
the sixteenth century, we come to one of the greatest geniuses of all times, 
William Shakspeare (1564-1616), who, standing on the boundary of two 
periods of the world, scans with an equally steadfast glance "the splendour, 
greatness, and power of the departed feudal world and of vanished chivalry," 
and the new world "of self-conscious morality, of reason, and of worldly 
wisdom," which had been developed by the Reformation. Shakspeare is 
equally great in comedy and in tragedy, and in his sonnets he unveils to us 
his own deep world of feeling, and allows us a glance into his own life, which 
had been darkened by many youthful glooms and disappointments. His 
II. N 



178 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



plays are thirty-five in number. The tragedies treat either of historical 
events or of human nature and its destinies from universal points of view. In 
the delineation of character Shakspeare exhibits an overpowering mastery ; 
actions are developed naturally from the characteristics, temperaments, and 
passions of the actors ; and whatever has a place in the innermost depths of 
the human heart is pourtrayed with a startling truthfulness in his works. 

Among Shakspeare's contemporaries may be mentioned the dramatists 
Beaumont (15 85-1616) and Fletcher (1576-1625), who wrote plays conjointly ; 
also Ben Jonson (1574-1637), a cultivated, classical writer, who, after a gloomy 
and adventurous life, devoted himself to dramatic poetry. But he is more 




A STAGE PLAY IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 



remarkable for wit and a happy treatment of playful situations, than for feel- 
ing and imagination. 

The enthusiasm for religion and the Church was now predominant, and 
gave its colour both to poetry and life. John Milton (1608-1674), a re- 
publican of puritanical severity, who was for a long time secretary under 
Cromwell, though he had become blind, has described in his religious epic, 
Paradise Lost," the story of the Fall, through which evil came into the world. 
The second part, entitled " Paradise Regained," treats of the temptation of 
Christ in the wilderness, and is inferior to the first poem. 

While the pious earnestness of the age is exhibited by the republican 
Milton, the derision of the Royalists at the various extravagances of Puritan 
and Presbyterian zeal is pourtrayed by Samuel Butler (1612-73), who lived 
during the reign of Charles II. The comic epic, " Hudibras," is a satire on 



CULTURE AND LEARNED MEN. 



179 



religious and political fanaticism. It follows to a certain extent the lines of 
Don Quixote. The poem was a great favourite with Charles II. 

With the Stuarts effeminacy and frivolity once more took possession of 
the Court. This social condition is pourtrayed by Dryden (1631-1701), the 
obsequious, flattering poet-laureate, who first sought to win over Cromwell 
by a laudatory poem, then glorified Charles II., and at last went over, with 
James II., to the Catholic Church, and derided the Protestant sects. 

The eighteenth century was richer in philosophy than poetry ; even the 
witty and accomplished Pope (1688-1744), who published a free translation 
of Homer, and was the successful writer of several satires, didactic poems, 
etc., was more a philosopher than a poet, as is proved by his "Essay on Man." 
Thomson's "Seasons" alone contain the faithful poetic representations of nature 
by a true poet. The "Night Thoughts" of Young (1681-1765), or lamentations 
on life and death, are philosophical meditations in the melancholy style of 
old popular poetry. Light prose, on the other hand, was brought to great 
perfection, in the shape of attractive and amusing books. Swift (1667-1745) 
describes in his satirical tales ("Gulliver's Travels," "The Tale of a Tub," etc.) 
all the absurdities and perversities of his age with excellent humour. Addi- 
son (1662-1719), in the Spectator \ presents a picture of the manners of his time, 
which he treats now with gravity, now with ridicule and irony. Among 
writers of romance may be mentioned Richardson (died 1671), the author of 
"Clarissa" and "Grandison," Fielding (died 1754), and especially Sterne 
(1713-68), who, in his "Sentimental Journey" and "Tristram Shandy," 
represents with the most good-natured humour the peculiarities of mankind 
in their customs, habits, etc. The much-read story of the "Vicar of Wake- 
field," by Oliver Goldsmith (died 1774), is a moving family romance, in 
which tender and beautiful relationships are described with a natural truth- 
fulness. In Smollett's " Humphry Clinker," life is pourtrayed in the cheerful 
manner of comedy. 

GERMANY. POPULAR LITERATURE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY. 

HANS SACHS (1494-1576) was one 
of the most fertile and varied 
writers of this active period. He was a 
popular poet, but avoided the rude and 
plebeian tone of the prevailing literature. 
His works comprise the "Wittenberg 
Nightingale," under which title he greeted 
the advent of Luther as the dawn of a new 
day, his " Lamentation on the Death of 
Luther," historical and mythological tales, 
biblical stories, etc. John Fischart (1545- 
1589), of Mainz, is the most fertile and 
varied writer in the satirical popular style. 
His principal works are "The Ship of Fortune," "Gargantua," and some 
satirical writings aimed at the orders of monks and at the Jesuits. 

In the religious branch of literature may be mentioned Luther's church 
songs, sermons, his translation of the Bible, and controversial writings. 
Among the most famous poets of church songs was Paul Gerhard (1606-76), 
of Saxony, for a long time preacher at Berlin, who followed Luther's model 
and preserved in his temper the cheerful trust and reliance on God which 
is breathed forth in the old songs. 





THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 

FIRST PERIOD OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR; 
(TO THE EDICT OF RESTITUTION). 

REIGN OF FERDINAND I., AND OF MAXIMILIAN II. PROSPERITY OF 
GERMANY. RUDOLF II. REACTION TOWARDS ROMANISM. THE 
PROTESTANT UNION AND THE CATHOLIC LEAGUE. SCHEMES OF 
HENRY IV. OF FRANCE. THE EMPEROR MATTHIAS. DISCONTENTS 
IN BOHEMIA. THE OUTRAGE ON THE IMPERIAL ENVOYS. COM- 
MENCEMENT OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. THE EMPEROR FERDI- 
NAND II. COUNT THURN. THE PALSGRAVE FREDERICK V. MADE 
KING OF BOHEMIA. BATTLE OF THE WHITE MOUNTAIN, 1620. 
THE WAR OF THE PALATINATE. TILLY AND MANSFELD. CHRISTIAN 
OF BRUNSWICK. THE DANISH WAR. CHRISTIAN IV. WALLEN- 

STEIN, HIS GREAT INFLUENCE. VICTORIES OF WALLENSTEIN AND 

TILLY. TRIUMPH OF THE EMPEROR. SUPREMACY OF AUSTRIA. 
EDICT OF RESTITUTION. DISMISSAL OF WALLENSTEIN. 



GERMANY UNDER FERDINAND I. AND MAXIMILIAN II. 

WHILE the western countries of Europe 
were engaged in persistent and dis- 
astrous conflicts, Germany was at peace under 
the mild rule of Ferdinand I. (1556-64), and 
of his son Maximilian II. The dissensions 
of theologians, however, were maintained 
with acrimonious violence. The divisions 
which thus arose in the Protestant world 
afforded the Jesuits a welcome opportunity 
for extending the field of their activity, and 
they availed themselves of it with equal zeal 
and astuteness. Both Ferdinand and Maxi- 
milian maintained the religious peace in a 
just and impartial manner ; and Protestantism spread without hindrance 
throughout the German empire, and even made converts in tne Austrian 

180 




THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 



181 



hereditary states. Maximilian II. (1564-76) was a just and prudent ruler, 
who always pursued a conciliatory policy ; the finances and military system 
were in a flourishing condition under his sway, so that the imperial arms not 
only put a speedy end to the temporary disturbances in the empire, such as 
the well-known quarrel occasioned and maintained by the knight Grumbach, 
but also offered an effectual resistance to the Turkish incursions. All this 
was changed when Rudolf II. (1576-1612), who was a cultivated prince, but 
with little capacity as a ruler, and a zealous Catholic, succeeded his father. 
The dissensions, factions, and party animosities in the empire increased to 
such an alarming extent that the Emperor's nearest relatives, dreading that 




RUDOLF II. GRANTING THE BOHEMIAN CHARTER, OK. "LETTER OF MAJESTY." 

the Hapsburg house would lose its former influence through his carelessness 
and incapacity, compelled him, in 1608, to make over the government of 
Austria, Moravia, and Hungary to his brother Matthias. Bohemia, with its 
capital, Prague, which city he had selected for his residence, he kept for 
some time faithful to him by the gift of a charter, or " letter of majesty," 
which gave the Utraquists and Lutherans equal privileges with the Catholics, 
and by other concessions in the same direction ; but when his mercenaries 
oppressed the land with pillage and murder, Rudolf was compelled to give 
up Bohemia, Silesia, and Lusatia also to his brother Matthias ; so that the 
powerless imperial crown was all that remained to him when death put an 
end to his inglorious career, in the year 1612. 



>82 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

While the indolent Rudolf was neglecting the business of his government, 
and wasting his time and powers in astrological and alchymical dreams, the 
empire was distracted by religious conflicts, and the greatest excitement and 
confusion prevailed everywhere. The ever-increasing extension of the Re- 
formation brought about fresh confiscations of Church property; and this 
was a cause of grievance to the Catholic party, while on the other hand the 
Evangelical sects were indignant at the frequent violation of the conditions 
guaranteed by the religious peace of Augsburg. When Gebhard, Archbishop of 
Cologne, joined the reformed Church, and, in spite of the opposition of the 
chapter and senate of Cologne, introduced the new doctrine into most of the 
towns of the archbishopric, he was excommunicated by the Pope, and deprived 
of his offices and dignities. A prelate, a member of the Bavarian ruling house, 
was then appointed to the vacant see, and with the help of the Spaniards 
reduced the rebellious towns, such as Bonn, Neuss, etc., to submission. In 
Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola, the Archduke Ferdinand, a grandson of the 
Emperor Ferdinand I., who had been educated and was influenced by the 
Jesuits, refused the numerous Protestants the religious liberty they had 
previously enjoyed, destroyed their churches, and burned their Bibles. In 
the imperial city of Aix-la-Chapelle, after a long and arduous struggle, the 
Protestant magistrate was expelled, and replaced by a Catholic one ; the 
Evangelical preachers were also driven away, and a powerful counter- 
reformation was commenced. The imperial city of Donauworth, also, which 
was chiefly Protestant, was placed under the ban for having interrupted a 
icligious procession. It was taken by the intolerant Elector of Bavaria, 
Maximilian I., and deprived of its religious freedom. 



THE UNION AND THE LEAGUE. 

S the complaints of the Evangelical 
party at the violation of the religious 
peace met with no attention or redress from 
the weak-minded Emperor, and Maximilian 
threatened to annex Donauworth, the 
Calvinist chiefs and the Lutheran princes, in 
1608, entered into a combination called 
the Protestant Union, with the ruling prin- 
ces of Wiirtemberg, Baden-Durlach, and 
Pfalz-Neuburg, the Brandenburg Margraves 
in Franconia, and fifteen towns of the em- 
pire, at the suggestion of the young Palsgrave 
Frederick, and of Prince Christian of Anhalt, 
for mutual support against attacks and violence. In opposition to this 
alliance, there was speedily organized the Catholic League, which Maximilian 
of Bavaria concluded with the Bishops of Wiirzburg, Salzburg, Regensburg, 
Augsburg, and Passau, and with the three spiritual electorates, Treves, 
Mayence, and Cologne. The death of the imbecile, childless Duke of Cleves, 
Jiilich, and Berg, which occurred about this time, gave the first occasion for 
a hostile encounter between the two religious parties. As the succession was 
disputed, the Emperor claimed the dominions until the matter should be 
decided ; but the two princes who set up pretensions to the succession, the 
Elector of Brandenburg and Palsgrave Wolfgang of Neuburg, adjusted their 




THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 



183 




SIEGE OF JULICH. (From Gottfried's "-Historic Chronicle"} 

differences, and in alliance with each other took speedy possession of the 
province. A bloody war already threatened the distracted country ; for the 
Spaniards under Spinola had, in the name of the Emperor, advanced towards 
Wesel, and the League was making warlike preparations ; but the "princes 
in possession " appealed for help to the Union, which was in alliance with 
Henry IV. of France and with the Dutch. Henry was already making 
preparations for a war which was intended to work a complete change in the 
European political system, and to shatter the supremacy of the Hapsburg 
house for ever, when Ravaillac's murderous hand frustrated his design ; and 
thus the outbreak of the general war was delayed for a few years longer. 




1 84 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




THE BOHEMIAN WAR. 

ATTHIAS (1612-19) possessed as little 
power and capacity for government as 
Rudolf, whose crown he had taken ; 
and as he was old and childless, he 
resolved, with the concurrence of his 
brothers, to appoint his cousin Ferdi- 
nand as his successor in Austria, 
Hungary, and Bohemia. The choice 
of a prince who had showed in Styria 
and Carinthia that he regarded the 
task of winning a victory for Catholic- 
ism as his first duty as a ruler, caused 
many misgivings among the Bohemian 
Utraquists and Lutherans, more es- 
pecially as the Catholic party, relying 
on his support, proudly raised its head, 
and the Jesuits set up the maxim of 
novus rex y nova lex. At the building 
of two Protestants churches on the domain of the Abbot of Brauna, there 
arose a controversy as to whether free exercise of their religion was accorded 
to Evangelical subjects of the ecclesiastical class, or whether the charter, 
called the " letter of majesty," secured it only to the class of knights and gentry, 
and the royal towns and territories. When this question was decided to the 
disadvantage of the Evangelicals, the prevailing excitement increased. The 
official defenders, or " defensores," who were appointed by the Protestants for 
the protection of their rights, held a meeting, and drew up a representation, 
which was sent to Matthias, who was absent in Hungary. But the answer of 
the Emperor was couched in terms of reproof; and Matthias forbade all 
further meetings of the malcontents. Then the deputies of the Utraquist 
party, under the leadership of the fiery Count von Thurn, appeared armed in 
their council chamber in the castle of the Ratchin, in Prague, to hold an 
interview with the imperial councillors who were entrusted with the adminis- 
tration of Bohemia. After a short but very heated controversy, the enraged 
Protestants seized two of the imperial envoys, Martinitz and Slawata, who 
were especially hated for being zealous Catholics, and flung them out of the 
castle window, together with their secretary, Fabricius. In spite of the 
height from which they fell, and the shots that were fired after them, they 
escaped with their lives. 

Schiller, in his tragedy of " Wallenstein," alludes to the unfortunate event 
of that day, from which the downfall and misfortunes of Bohemia dated. 
The old cellarer, showing the great service cup on which the incident is 
depicted, says : 

" O let me never more hear of that day : 
It seems to me as t'were but yesterday. 
From that unlucky day it all began, 
From that day until now 'tis sixteen years, 
And never has there once been peace on earth." 



THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 




MARTINITZ AND SLAWATA THROWN FROM THE WINDOW OF THE PALACE IN PRAGUE. 



FERDINAND II. 

S the sole way to escape punishment for this rash act, the 
Utraquist deputies now possessed themselves of the 
government of the country, drove out the Jesuits, and 
equipped an army which they placed under the com- 
mand of Thurn. The news of these proceedings filled 
the mind of the feeble and decrepit sick emperor with 
terror and dismay ; but his proposals, which tended to- 
wards leniency and conciliation, were opposed by 
Ferdinand. An imperial army marched into the revol- 
ted country, but Thurn, supported by the brave leader 
Ernest of Mansfeld, repulsed the army of the enemy 
in 1619, and then, encouraged by the news of Matthias* 
death, advanced toward Brunn ; the deputies of 
Moravia, like the Silesians and Lusatians, joined the Bohemians, and expelled 
the Jesuits. In a short time Thurn stood with a hostile army before the 
gates of Vienna. Ferdinand, resolved to take up the challenge flung down by 
the Bohemians, remained steadfastly and courageously in his capital, clearly 
perceiving that his flight would lead to the invasion of Austria, and would 




186 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD 

shake the Hapsburgs' throne to its foundations. The Protestants then 
entered into an alliance with Thurn ; their deputies penetrated even into the 
imperial palace, and threateningly demanded equality of religious rights with 
the Catholics, and other important privileges. Ferdinand's obstinate resist- 
ance would have brought him into danger had not some cavalry under the 
imperial leader, Dampierre, at the same moment dashed into the courtyard 
of the castle and rescued him from his difficult position. Thurn was then com- 
pelled to retire, on account of unfavourable weather and want of money and 
provisions. 

Soon afterwards Ferdinand II. (1619-37) was chosen German Emperor, at 
Frankfort ; but even before the coronation, the States of Bohemia, Moravia, 
and Silesia revolted from the house of Austria, and chose the head of the 
Protestant Union, the Elector Frederick V. of the Palatinate as their king. 

While the Palsgrave Frederick, however, was wasting his time in empty 
pageants in Bohemia, and was provoking the Utraquists and Lutherans with 
his Calvinistic zeal, which extended to the breaking of images and the dese- 
cration of holy places and ornaments, Ferdinand entered into a treaty with the 
League, made an alliance with Spain, and won over the Lutheran Elector, 
John George of Saxony to the Austrian side, by the promise of Lusatia. In 
vain did Thurn, in conjunction with the astute Bethlem Gabor (Gabriel 
Bethlem), Prince of Transylvania, an ambitious ruler who coveted the crown of 
Hungary, once more approach the walls of Vienna with a hostile force; he was 
again obliged to retire without having accomplished his purpose ; and Ferdin- 
and was now able to reduce the rebellious Austrian States to submission, 
while the experienced general, Spinola, advanced with a Spanish army into 
the Palatinate. Maximilian of Bavaria, with whom John Czerklaes, Count 
Tilly, a warlike Fleming, had taken service as general, now marched into 
Bohemia with a well-armed force sent forth by the League, and, reinforced by 
Ferdinand's troops, advanced upon Prague without waiting to enter into 
negotiations, on the 7th of November, 1620. Soon afterwards the battle of 
the White Mountain was fought under the walls of Prague, when Frederick's 
wearied soldiers, led by Thurn and Christian of Anhalt, were unable to stand 
against the superior forces of the enemy, and sought safety in tumultuous and 
disorderly flight. A single hour decided the fate of Bohemia. Frederick, the 
"winter king," so completely lost all courage and presence of mind that he 
fled in great haste on the following morning to Silesia, although considerable 
armed forces, under the command of his friends Bethlem Gabor and Mansfeld, 
were in the neighbourhood, and the citizens of Prague were ready to defend 
him. He continued his flight with panic speed, hastened from Breslau to 
Berlin, and from Berlin to the Netherlands, pursued by the imperial ban, 
which deprived him of his inheritance of the Palatinate. Within a few months 
Bohemia, Moravia, and Silesia were once more brought into subjection by the 
Austrian house. Cruel vengeance was inflicted on the prostrate country. 
Twenty-seven of the greatest nobles perished on the scaffold ; hundreds were 
banished and their estates confiscated to enrich the victors and the returned 
Jesuits. The prosperity of Bohemia and the independence of the unhappy 
country were gone for ever. 




BETHLEM GABOR, PRINCE OF TRANSYLVANIA. 

187 



1 88 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



THE WAR IN THE PALATINATE OF THE RHINE. 
TILLY AND MANSFELD. 




GENERAL TILLY. 



WHILE the Emperor was 
meditating some means of 
giving the Catholic Church uni- 
versal supremacy, rewarding his 
friends, and revenging himself on 
his enemies, three men, Duke 
Christian of Brunswick, Ernest 
of Mansfeld, and the Margrave 
George Frederick of Baden- 
Durlach, ventured to take the 
field in the cause of the outlawed 
Elector, and for the defence of 
the threatened Protestant faith. 
While Christian of Brunswick, a 
bold rough warrior, who called 
himself "the friend of God 
and the enemy of priests," in- 
vaded Westphalia, despoiled 
monasteries and ecclesiastical 
institutions, and carried the fire- 
brand of warfare as far as the 
Maine, the brave and martial 
Mansfeld marched through Fran- 
conia to the Rhenish Palatinate. 
His warlike renown brought to his banner from every district many soldiers 
who were eager for booty ; plunder and rapine were the means by which 
he procured subsistence for his troops. In a short time his power had so- 
increased that the fugitive Palsgrave ventured, under his protection, to return 
to his hereditary states. In conjunction with George Frederick of Baden, 
Mansfeld fought a victorious battle near Wiesloch, April 29th, 1622, against 
Tilly, the victor of the White Mountain, who had marched into the Palatinate. 
As the two victorious generals soon afterwards separated, George Frederick on 
the 6th of the following month lost the important battle of Wimpfen against 
Tilly, and would have fallen into the hands of his enemies had not four 
hundred citizens of Pforzheim, as the old legend relates the event, fought 
heroically for him to the death, sacrificing themselves to the last man, to cover 
his retreat. A few weeks later Christian of Brunswick was also beaten, 
near Hochst, June iQth, 1622, in an encounter with the well-disciplined troops 
of the general of the League ; and on the 6th of August in the following 
year, the bloody battle of Stadtlohn, in which Christian was forced to engage 
before he could effect an intended coalition with Mansfeld, destroyed the 
last hope of the Protestants. The vanquished leaders fled to foreign lands, 
pursued by the ban of the empire. Maximilian of Bavaria was rewarded with 
the prize he had longed to win the Rhenish Palatinate. 

But the contest which thus seemed terminated was destined to be renewed 
on a larger scale, and to swell to greater European importance, in the course 
of the next few years. 



THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 



189 




THE DANISH WAR. WALLENSTEIN. 

HE increasing power of Austria excited considerable appre- 
hension both at the French Court and in the free States ot 
the Netherlands. King James of England, who had till 
then abstained from rendering any vigorous support to his 
son-in-law, lest he should by so doing damage the prospect 
of a marriage alliance between his son, Prince Charles, and 
a Spanish Infanta, now changed his policy, and placed the 
enterprising Ernest of Mansfeld in a position to march once 
more into the field. Soon also a new defender of the Protestant 
cause appeared in the person of King Christian IV. of Denmark, 
the uncle of Elizabeth, the daughter of James I. and wife of the 
banished Palsgrave Frederick V. Religious zeal and the hope of 
acquiring possessions in northern Germany induced him to take 
the field. England and Holland concluded treaties with him, and 
Cardinal Richelieu, the great minister of the French king, Louis XIII., 
promised pecuniary aid. Then 
the Emperor, who was suspi- 
cious of the tendencies of the 
League, and of the high au- 
thority of Maximilian, into 
whose hands he saw that the 
direction of the affairs of Ger- 
many was passing more and 
more, determined to collect an 
army that should belong to him 
alone. Thereupon Albrecht 
von Wallen stein, a Bohemian 
nobleman from the vicinity of 
Konigingratz, offered his ser- 
vices. Born of Lutheran pa- 
rents, but converted in a Jesuit 
seminary to the Catholic 
Church, Wallenstein entered 
the imperial army after having 
completed his studies at Alt- 
dorf and Padua, and on several 
occasions he had given evi- 
dence of his devotion to the 
imperial cause, his talent for 
generalship, and his power of governing soldiers and attaching them to 
himself. He was a wealthy man, and possessed a very large extent of 
landed property, which he had partly inherited and partly obtained by mar- 
riage, while he had increased his possessions by the purchase of forfeited 
estates in the Bohemian war. Wallenstein appeared before Ferdinand with 
the declaration that he would maintain an army for the Emperor at his own 
expense, on condition that he was endowed with the supreme command and 
indemnified for his expense by territories in the countries he might conquer. 
It is said that when it was proposed he should raise 20,000 men, he replied 
that he could not maintain them, but that he would raise 50,000 who would 




RICHELIEU. 



190 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



not die of hunger. He meant that the larger number would be strong enough 
to take what they wanted from friend or foe. After some hesitation, Ferdin- 
and agreed to the proposal of the bold adventurer. He had already conferred 
on him the dominion of Friedland, on the northern boundary of Bohemia, 
with the title of duke, for his services in the Bohemian war ; he now elevated 
him to the rank of a prince of the Empire. 



THE VICTORIES OF WALLENSTEIN AND TILLY. 




i 



N the spring of the year 1624, 
Christian IV., who had made 
an alliance with England and Hol- 
land, and was supported by the 
other Protestant generals, opened 
the campaign against Tilly on the 
Weser, without effecting anything 
decisive. But when Wallenstein 
with his fierce troops took posses- 
sion of the district near the Elbe, 
which had until then been left un- 
scathed by warfare, and made a 
coalition with Tilly, the combined 
forces of the Emperor and the 
League soon gained the upper hand 
over the weakened troops of the 
Protestant commanders. Mansfeld, 
after a defeat near the bridge of 
Dessau, in 1626, was compelled to 
retreat, and was pursued by Wal- 
lenstein as he retired with the 
remains of his army to Hungary, 
where he hoped to effect a junction 
with Bethlem Gabor ; but he was unable to carry out this scheme, for that 
wavering prince once more made peace with the Emperor ; Mansfeld there- 
fore disbanded his troops, and, accompanied by a few followers, retreated 
still farther, intending to reach Venice. On his way through Bosnia he was 
seized with a fever, brought on by excessive privation and fatigue. Arrayed 
in his armour, and with his sword girded about him, and standing erect, 
supported by two servants, he calmly awaited death. His corpse lies buried 
at Spalatro. 

Two other champions of the Protestant cause, Christian of Brunswick and 
Duke John Ernest of Saxe-Weimar, also died in that same year (1626). 
The whole of southern Germany was now defenceless, and lay at the mercy 
of the army of the League ; and the Protestant States hastened to make 
their peace with the Emperor, even though the conditions offered them 
were hard. Christian IV, indeed, made one further attempt on the Elbe ; 
but when Wallenstein, after the victorious battle near Cosel, in 1627, drove 
the enemy out of Silesia, expelled the two Dukes of Mecklenburg from 
their country, and then united his forces with those of Tilly, the Danish- 
German army, weakened by dissensions, was compelled to yield to the 
superior power of the enemy ; for on the 2/th of August, 1626, Christian 
IV. had been beaten with great loss by Tilly, who had almost succeeded 



WALLENSTEIN. 



THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 



191 




SOLDIERS OF WALLENSTEIN IN THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. 

in taking him prisoner. In a short time, Holstein, Schleswig, and Jutland 
fell into the hands of the imperialists, and Wallenstein formed the project 
of wresting these countries from their hereditary prince, and placing them 
under Ferdinand's immediate supremacy. The Spaniards, in the hope of 
regaining possession of the Netherlands, supported the plans of the ambitious 
and haughty leader in north Germany ; and nothing but the fear of an 
obstinate war, the want of an extensive naval power, and the heroic courage 
of the population of Stralsund, who were determined to defend their city 
to the last, caused the duke to desist from his scheme. By the peace of 
Liibeck, in 1629, Christian IV. was once more put into possession of his 
devastated lands ; but he was compelled to promise that he would abstain 
from any further interference in German affairs. 



192 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




i 



THE SUPREMACY OF AUSTRIA. 

FTER the battle of .Lutter, Ferdinand's power in Germany 
now seemed as securely established as in his hereditary 
states. Disunited among themselves, the quarrelsome 
Protestants were either conquered by force, won over by 
cajolery, or intimidated into acquiescence in the Romish 
supremacy. If the Emperor had held out the hand of 
reconciliation, the power of the Hapsburgs would have 
been greater than ever in Germany. But Ferdinand's 
religious bigotry stood in the way of a peaceful . policy. 
He cared for no victory that was not at the same time the 
triumph of Catholicism over the humiliated heretical 
Confessions ; and the persecutions of heretics in Bohemia 
and Austria were therefore continued with renewed severity. Maximilian of 
Bavaria, the head of the League, adopted a similar policy in the upper Pala- 
tinate, which had been conferred on him first as a fief, and then as a hereditary 
possession, by the Emperor ; and in the lower Palatinate the Jesuits were 
allowed to pursue their policy of conversion without let or hindrance. The 
districts in the north were threatened with similar treatment ; for Wallenstein 
had obtained the dukedom of Mecklenburg with Rostock from the Emperor, 
and after the victory near Wolgast over the Danish king, had contemplated 
extending it by conquests on the east coasts of Pomerania. The example of 
the grievances suffered by the Duke of Pomerania, who was compelled to 
give up his dominions to the devastating troops of the Friedlander, and by 
the Elector of Brandenburg, who had till then been favourably inclined and 
loyal to the Emperor, and in whose States imperial garrisons were quartered, 
terrified all Protestant princes. It was not to be denied that Wallenstein 'was 
endeavouring to render the power of the Emperor absolute, by divesting it 
of those limitations that had been imposed upon it by the constitution of 
Germany, and to crush the ancient independence of the various States that 
made up the empire. The ancient imperial laws and immunities, and the 
sovereign rights of the princes, were but little regarded by Wallenstein ; and 
when the ambitious general on whom the Emperor, grateful for his services 
to the throne, conferred, in addition to his huge military authority, the chief 
command at sea made preparations for establishing a German naval power 
on the Baltic, with a purpose to exclude the enemies of the Emperor from 
trading in that sea, and with this object sought to possess himself of all the 
coast towns and harbours, not only the Hanseatic and all the other Baltic 
States, but the Dutch and the English were filled with distrust and apprehen- 
sion. 




THE SEVENTEENTH CENTURY. 



193 



THE EDICT OF RESTITUTION, AND THE DISMISSAL OF WALLENSTEIN. 




NDER these difficult circumstances, Stral- 
sund presented to the world a noble example 
of patriotism and of heroic courage. The 
citizens of that glorious old sea-town firmly 
refused to receive within their walls the gar- 
rison of Wallenstein's troops, whom the Em- 
peror and his general endeavoured to force 
upon them. Wallenstein then advanced 
against the town, and appeared before it 
with his savage troops. It is said that in 
his wrathful pride he swore that he would 
conquer the stubborn city, and bring down 
its haughty spirit, though it were bound with 
chains to the heavens. But all assaults were 
rendered fruitless by the strong fortifications 
of the Baltic city and the heroic courage of 
the citizens, who had sworn that they would 
sacrifice their lives and their property, to the 
last doit, for the maintenance of their religion 
and their ancient rights and privileges. 

Further strengthened and encouraged by assistance from Denmark and 
Sweden, Stralsund for ten weeks defied every assault ; and the besieging 
general sacrificed 12,000 men in vain. The example of Stralsund served to 
rouse the courage and zeal of Magdeburg. 

In March, 1629, the Emperor, at the instigation of the ecclesiastical Electors 
(of Treves, etc.) issued the Edict of Restitution, by which it was decreed that 
all the benefices and ecclesiastical property that had been transferred to the 
Reformed Church since the Treaty of Passau, were to be restored to the 
Catholic Church, while the Calvinists were to be excluded from the religious 
peace, and the Catholic States were not to be opposed in the endeavour to 
convert their subjects. This edict, which introduced the most revolutionary 
changes into the constitution of the empire, and laid the axe to the root of 
the whole work of the Reformation, prolonged the unhappy war; for it com- 
pelled the Emperor to keep his troops under arms, as by military force alone 
could he hope to effect its accomplishment. A stupefaction of terror seized 
the whole of Protestant Germany. Even Wallenstein was opposed to the 
injudicious religious zeal of the imperial court, but was unable to restrain the 
policy of fanaticism. At last Magdeburg, whose citizens had formerly rejected 
the Interim, resisted the carrying out of the edict, and refused to admit an 
imperial garrison. The terrible Pappenheim, one of the most renowned of 
Wallenstein's captains, was already marching against this "nest of heretics;" 
but the storm which was drawing together threateningly over the head 
of the great freebooter, brought a short respite. At Ferdinand's first Diet at 
Regensburg, in 1630, the princes of the empire brought forward loud and 
vehement complaints concerning the terrible devastation of their territories by 
the barbarous method of warfare pursued by the Duke of Friedland. They also 
inveighed against his arbitrary encroachments on the imperial constitution ; 
and Maximilian of Bavaria urgently demanded the removal of this presump- 
tuous and arrogant rival. Ferdinand, who wished to create a favourable 
II. O 



i 9 4 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




DEATH OF RICHELIEU. 

impression in view of the forthcoming election of his son as his successor in 
the imperial dignity, found himself obliged to pronounce the dismissal of 
Wallenstein, and to diminish his army. In the midst of his astrological 
studies at Memmingen, the general was informed of this decision. " The 
stars," said he to the deputation, pointing to the starry heavens "the 
stars foretell that the spirit of the Bavarian will dominate the spirit of the 
Emperor." Contrary to expectation, he submitted to the decree of dismissal, 
and retired to his vast Bohemian estates, where, in proud tranquillity, and in 
the enjoyment of royal magnificence and state, he awaited the time when 
his presence and aid would be again needed by his imperial master. 




EARLY CANNON. 




SECOND PERIOD OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR, 

FROM THE SWEDISH [INTERVENTION TO 1648. 

GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS OF SWEDEN. His METHOD OF WARFARE. 
ADVANCE INTO GERMANY. TILLY, AND THE DESTRUCTION OF 
MAGDEBURG. DEFEAT OF TILLY AT THE BATTLE OF BREITENFELD. 
BRILLIANT SUCCESS OF GUSTAVUS. THE PASSAGE OF THE LECH. 
DEATH OF TILLY. RETURN OF WALLENSTEIN ; His UNPRE- 
CEDENTED POWER ; His SUSPICIOUS POLICY. THE CAMP AT NUREM- 
BERG. FAILURE OF GUSTAVUS TO STORM IT. His RETREAT 
TOWARDS SAXONY. THE BATTLE OF LUTZEN ; DEATH OF GUSTAVUS. 
THE LEAGUE OF HEILBRONN. VICTORY OF WALLENSTEIN AT 
STEINAU. RENEWED EFFORTS OF His ENEMIES AT VIENNA. 
OUTLAWRY OF WALLENSTEIN. His ASSASSINATION. BATTLE OF 
N6RDLINGEN. DEFEAT OF BERNHARD OF WEIMAR AND THE SWEDES. 
PEACE OF PRAGUE WITH SAXONY. OPEN INTERVENTION OF 

FRANCE. RICHELIEU AND His POLICY. 

THE EMPEROR FERDINAND III. 

VICTORIES OF CONDE AND TURENNE. 

FRESH EXPLOITS OF THE SWEDISH 

LEADERS. PEACE OF WESTPHALIA ; 

ITS CONDITIONS. CONSEQUENCES OF 

THE WAR. 

THE INTERVENTION OF SWEDEN. 
GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS. 

WHILE the Protestant States of Ger- 
many were helplessly and timidly 
submitting to the superior power of Austria, 
and awaited in terrified expectation the 
enforcing of the Edict of Restitution, there 
appeared a foreign ruler on German soil, 
who, by his great and paramount influ- 
195 




196 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



ence, was enabled to unite the divided and quarrelsome co-religionists on? 
the Protestant side. This man of power was the Swedish king, Gustavus 
Adolphus. Offended at the deposition of his kinsmen the Dukes of Mecklen- 
burg, and at the assistance which the Emperor had rendered to his enemies 
the Poles, and anxious to preserve the dominion of the Baltic, endangered by 
Wallenstein's plans, Gustavus Adolphus determined to intervene in the Ger- 
man war, partly to support the threatened Evangelical faith in Germany, 
partly to secure the power of Sweden and to extend it over the whole of the 
Baltic. Cardinal Richelieu, though he was the great opponent of the French 
Huguenots, did not hesitate to enter into an alliance with Gustavus Adolphus 




LANDING OF GUSTAVUS ADOLPHUS IN GERMANY. 

for the protection of the German Protestants, that he might thereby counteract 
the increasing influence of the powerful house of Hapsburg. The co-operation 
established between the French and Swedish policy effected the establishment 
of the League in a very short time. Even the Elector Maximilian of Bavaria, 
and the heads of the League, alarmed at the prospect of such an imperial su- 
premacy as Wallenstein sought to establish, were favourable to the intervention 
of France. After an armed truce, brought about by French mediation, had 
been concluded between Sweden and Poland, Gustavus Adolphus effected a 
landing on the coast of Pomerania in June, 1630. Bogislav, the old duke of 
that oppressed territory, which had suffered grievously from the devastations 



SECOND PERIOD OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. 



197 



of the imperial troops, concluded a treaty with the Swedes, whereupon the 
latter captured Stettin, expelled the enemy, and gained possession of all 
Pomerania with the island of Riigen. The piety of Gustavus, and the severe 
discipline maintained among his soldiers, who assembled twice daily for 
Divine service, formed a striking contrast to the rapacious and destructive 
warfare of Tilly and Wallenstein ; consequently the people everywhere greeted 
the Swedes and their high-spirited king as saviours and liberators. Not so 
the princes of Germany, who, fearing to draw upon themselves the Emperor's 
vengeance, rejected the proffered alliance of the Swedish king, and maintained 
a neutral position ; but on the other hand, resolved to prevent by force of 
arms the carrying out of the Edict of Restitution. Only Magdeburg, the 
Dukes of Liineburg, Saxe-Weimar, and Lauenburg, and Landgrave William 
of Hesse-Cassel joined the standard of the King of Sweden. 



THE DESTRUCTION OF MAGDEBURG AND THE BATTLE OF LEIPZIG. 




w 



HILE the Swedes were advancing along 
the Oder, and were storming Frankfort, 
Tilly, who had now the chief command of the 
imperial troops, as well as of the forces of the 
League, marched upon Magdeburg, where 
Colonel Falkenberg, who had taken service with 
the Swedes, was conducting the preparations for 
defence. Gustavus promised the city speedy 
help ; but when the Elector John George of 
Saxony obstinately refused to allow him to pass 
through his country, the Swedish king was de- 
layed by negotiations, and Magdeburg was 
taken by storm, after an arduous siege and 
repeated assaults, by Tilly and Pappenheim, 
and almost utterly destroyed, in May, 1631. A 
three days' plundering of the wealthy stronghold 
of the Protestants had been promised to the 
imperial troops. Carried away by rapacity and 
revenge, the inhuman soldiers rushed headlong 
through the streets of the unhappy town, which 
became the scene of the most horrible outrages 
and of fearful carnage, until a conflagration at 
last transformed the whole place into a heap of 
ruins. Falkenberg was among the slain. While 
Gustavus Adolphus took possession of the 
country between the Oder and the Elbe, and 
reinstated the Dukes of Mecklenburg in their 
states, Tilly advanced against Hesse and Weimar, 
ARMOUR OF DON JOHN OF AUSTRIA, to chastise the rulers of those principalities for 
their alliance with Sweden, and then turned his arms against Electoral 
Saxony, the head of the Leipzig league. Halle, Merseburg, Naumburg, and 
other places had already fallen at the hands of the imperialists, when the 
Saxon Elector, in his extremity, concluded a treaty with Gustavus, and 
implored his aid against Tilly's murderous troops. Then was fought, on the 
7th of September, 1631, the bloody battle of Leipzig and Breitenfeld, in which 
the well-disciplined imperial troops under Tilly experienced a severe defeat ; 



198 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



the Swedish king's eminent talents as a commander, and the steadfast bravery 
of his soldiers, gaining him the victory. Tilly was compelled to withdraw to 
the south, with the loss of 7,000 men ; while the Saxons, under Field-marshal 
Arnim, invaded Bohemia, and Gustavus Adolphus, who now beheld all 
Germany open before him, advanced towards the Maine and Rhine, to put 
himself into closer communication with his French allies. Before the winter 
was over, the bishopric of Wiirzburg, and the greater part of the Lower 
Palatinate, were in the hands of the Swedes. 




THE MASSACRE OF MAGDEBURG. 



The see of Wiirzburg, deserted by its bishop, was compelled to do homage 
to the king, and to accept a Swedish government for the territory. The 
splendid library of the Jesuits was removed to Upsala. Gustavus now pro- 
ceeded to the conquest of Mayence, Worms, Mannheim, Spires, and other 
places in the Palatinate. In many districts he demanded that homage should 
be paid him as the feudal lord ; and his ambitious behaviour seemed to indi- 
cate in many ways that he intended to keep a firm footing in Germany, and 
perhaps even to endeavour to obtain the imperial crown. If he succeeded in 
reinstating the banished Count Palatine and depriving Maximilian of Bavaria 
of his newly-won territories, the Protestants would have a majority in the 
Electoral College, and Gustavus might be legally chosen. Endowed with 



SECOND PERIOD OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. 



199 



every physical and mental advantage, he gained ascendancy more and more 
over the hearts of the people. His genial and kindly character, and his 
sincere piety, awakened as much affection as his wise government, his courage 
and genius as a commander, excited respect and admiration. In the spring 
of the year 1632, Gustavus marched through Nuremberg, where he was re- 
ceived with rejoicings, to the Danube, to prosecute the war against Bavaria 
and measure his strength with Tilly, who had taken up a strong position 
near the junction of the Lech with the Danube. Gustavus forced the passage 
of the Lech in spite of a valiant resistance. During the storming of the 
enemy's trenches Tilly was so dangerously wounded that he died a fortnight 




AUGSBURG FRESCOES ON THE HOUSE OF THE FUGGERS. 

afterwards at Ingoldstadt. His mind was occupied to the very moment of his 
death in military schemes. After gaining possession of Augsburg, where he 
demanded the homage of the people, restored the Lutheran worship, and gave 
back to the Protestants the rule of the town, the Swedish army made a fruit- 
less attack on Ingoldstadt, and then marched into the heart of Bohemia, while 
Maximilian hastened to Regensburg to conduct the defence of that important 
town. In May, Gustavus Adolphus entered Munich, which had been deserted 
by the Court. A fine in money and the removal of 140 cannon, that were 
found hidden away, was the only punishment which the king imposed on the 
trembling Bavarians. 



200 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



WALLENSTEIN'S RETURN ; LUTZEN. 

IN the meantime the Emperor Ferdinand, in his utmost need, once more 
had recourse to Wallenstein. The proud duke had at first contem- 
plated an alliance with .Sweden and Saxony, to revenge himself for his dis- 
missal. But after being kept in suspense by Gustavus Adolphus, he changed 
his policy, and negotiated with the imperial court with respect to a resumption 
of the command of the army. At first, however, he affected reluctance ; and 
at length he undertook the chief command only on conditions' which afforded 
him nearly unlimited power, and which placed both the regulation of all 
military movements, and the line of policy to be adopted in the war, entirely 
in his own hands. Not only did the Emperor appoint him generalissimo of 
all the imperial armies, and promise him the possession of Mecklenburg or 
some other possession of equal value ; but he was also permitted to make 
confiscations or grants in the conquered countries according to his pleasure, 
to appoint new officials, and in case of opposition to appeal directly to the 
Emperor himself. It was now generally expected that Wallenstein would 
immediately expel the Swedes from Bavaria ; but probably from animosity 
to Maximilian, the author of his former dismissal, he adopted an entirely 
different course, and advanced towards Bohemia, where the Saxons, after the 
taking of Prague, were somewhat languidly opposing Gustavus Adolphus. 
Not until he had reconquered Prague, and had liberated the whole country, 
with but little effort, from the enemy, did he pay any attention to the urgent 
requests of Elector Maximilian and the admonitions of the Emperor, and 
approach the Bavarian frontier. Scattering ruin and destruction as they went, 
Wallenstein's troops at last took up a strong position on a hill near Nurem- 
berg. Never had such an intrenched camp been seen in Germany. In vain 
did Gustavus Adolphus offer battle to his adversary. At length, after several 
months' delay, during which the hostile armies stood opposed to each other, 
when the country had been devastated for miles round, and the abundant 
supplies from Nuremberg began to dwindle and fail, the Swedish king deter- 
mined to make an attack on Wallenstein's camp ; but the bold besiegers 
could not make their footing good in face of the terrible firing from the 
extensive lines of fortification. After heavy losses, the attempt was perforce 
relinquished, and the Swedes, after leaving behind them a strong garrison for 
the protection of Nuremberg, turned once more towards the Danube, in the 
hope of attracting the enemy. 

But Wallenstein had other plans in view. After setting fire to his camp, 
he marched into Saxony, took Leipzig and effected a junction of forces with 
those of Pappenheim. Urgently did the threatened Elector of Saxony 
implore the help of Gustavus ; and the Swedish king advanced once more 
with forced marches towards the Saale to the rescue of his undependable 
ally. On a gloomy autumn day, the 6th of November, 1632, the important 
battle of Liitzen took place, in which the Swedes were indeed victorious, but 
with the loss of their king, who died the death of a hero on the field. He 
was in his thirty-ninth year ; and with him the grandest and most patriotic 
figure vanishes from the bloodstained arena of the war. The redoubtable 
Pappenheim was carried from the field mortally wounded. Wallenstein 
broke up his camp during the night, and retreated. Thus it was that the 
Swedes were able to claim the victory. 



SECOND PERIOD OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. 201 

THE LEAGUE OF HEILBRONN. 

THE Swedish council of regency which carried on the government during 
the minority of Christina, the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, decided 
on continuing to prosecute the war, and gave the direction of the contest to 
the chancellor Oxenstjerna, an energetic and sagacious statesman. Never- 
theless, as the lower German States desired to emancipate themselves from the 
Swedish supremacy, Oxenstjerna was only able to combine the Protestant 
States of Franconia, Swabia, and the upper and lower Rhine in the League 
of Heilbronn, in April, 1633. The chief command of the army was conferred 




TILLY MORTALLY WOUNDED AT THE LECH. 

on Bernhard of Weimar, who had had awarded him the dukedom of Franconia 
and the bishoprics of Bamberg and Wurzburg ; the Swedish general, Horn, 
was also appointed with him. The war now broke out in the south and 
north with renewed violence. Bavaria was cruelly devastated by the Swedes ; 
for Wallenstein, out of malice and revenge against Maximilian, refused to 
come to the assistance of the oppressed country. At the same time another 
general of the Heilbronn league, Duke George of Brunswick-Luneburg, 
vigorously carried on the war in the south of Germany. 

After the battle of Lutzen, Wallenstein had not shown his former zeal 
and enterprise ; the vigour of the old days seemed to have departed from 



202 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

him. After some unimportant engagements with the enemy, he agreed to an 
armed truce, and entered into negotiations with the Electors of Saxony and 
Brandenburg, and even with Oxenstjerna himself, which might have resulted 
in a peaceful arrangement ; but the Catholic zealots at the court of Vienna 
found matter for suspicion in these negotiations. His victory over the 
Swedes at Steinau, in 1633, and the conquest of the fortified places on the 
Oder, were not sufficient to remove the unfavourable impressions produced 
by some of his proceedings. He set at liberty the captured Count von 
Thurn, the implacable enemy of the house of Hapsburg and originator of the 
Bohemian war ; and instead of expelling the Swedes from Bavaria, as the 
Emperor had commanded him to do, he returned after a short campaign, to 
Bohemia, made his headquarters at Pilsen, and burdened and pillaged the 
Austrian States by quartering his ruthless soldiers in the Emperor's dominions. 
In the meantime, Regensburg, the bulwark of Bavaria, fell into the hands of 
Bernhard of Weimar, and the old episcopal city once more saw the evan- 
gelical worship performed within its walls. 

However much the strategic policy of Wallenstein might be justified by 
experience, it nevertheless gave his numerous detractors and adversaries at 
the Court of Vienna many opportunities for disseminating injurious reports 
against him. The duke's independent attitude and presumptuous bearing 
also gave offence. His negotiations with Bohemian exiles, his secret in- 
trigues with Fouquiere, Richelieu's ambassador, and his refusal to assist in 
the Spanish designs on the Netherlands by despatching a portion of his 
troops to that country, at the command of the Emperor, excited grave anger 
and suspicion. Not the Court of Vienna, but Wallenstein's camp was the 
central point of European politics, where the threads of state policy united 
into a web of mystery ; and it was not the Emperor, but the Duke of Friedland 
who appeared to dominate the world. Malevolent whispers and insinuations 
of enemies exaggerated the arbitrary negotiations for peace undertaken by 
the commander into treacherous designs. The monks and Jesuits hated 
the duke on account of his freethinking and his broad notions in religious 
matters, the Spaniards were indignant at his selfish policy, and the members 
of the League and the friends of Maximilian of Bavaria were determined to 
bring him to ruin. The Emperor, thoroughly alarmed at the extent of the 
power which he himself had injudiciously placed in the hands of an ambitious 
and arrogant subject, became suspicious ; and as a second dismissal of the 
great leader of armies appeared a dangerous expedient, the Vienna Court 
on this occasion acted as the Sultans of Turkey were accustomed to act in 
dealing with disobedient Pashas. Treason was fostered among the trusted 
adherents of the commander-in-chief ; and when the emissaries of the Court 
had won over the most influential . of Wallenstein's generals, Gallas, Picco- 
lomini, and Aldringer, the Emperor pronounced Wallenstein's dismissal. 
Thereupon the betrayed general advanced with the remains of his army 
who still remained faithful, to Eger, in Bohemia, to be nearer the Swedes, 
with whom he meditated a junction ; but he was murdered, with his three 
most faithful followers Terzky, Illo, and Kinsky by the Irishman Butler, 
and some other conspirators, on the 25th of February, 1634. The assassins 
were rewarded by the Court with dignities, honours, and wealth. On the 
other hand, all those who had remained faithful to the great general were 
put to death. The Spaniards regarded the murder of Wallenstein as " a 
great mercy which God had vouchsafed to bestow on the house of Austria." 



SECOND PERIOD OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. 203 

THE BATTLE OF NORDLINGEN. 

THE Emperor now conferred the chief command on his son Ferdinand, 
with the experienced Gallas as his adviser ; and the allied imperialists 
marched into Bavaria, triumphantly retook the bravely defended town of 
Regensburg, and in conjunction with the Bavarian army gained a victory 
over the weakened army of the Swedes in the bloody battle of Nordlingen, in 
September, 1634. This battle, in which Bernhard of Weimar engaged, con- 
trary to the advice of the experienced and sagacious leader Horn, destroyed 
the supremacy of the Swedes. Horn was taken prisoner ; and the greater 
part of the ammunition and baggage of the Swedes fell into the hands of the 
enemy. Bernhard of Weimar advanced towards Lorraine to seek help from 
France. The Elector of Saxony again, however, forsook the cause of his 
co-religionists, and concluded with the Emperor the separate Peace of Prague, 
in May, 1635 ; in which, besides the confirmation of the Treaty of Passau, 
and of the Peace of Augsburg, there was confirmed to him for forty 
years the peaceful possession of the ecclesiastical property that had been 
confiscated since 1627, as well as the government of Upper and Lower Lusatia, 
and other districts. Most of the other States gradually joined this treaty, 
and only Hesse-Cassel, Baden, and Wurtemberg remained faithful to the 
Swedes. 

THE OPEN INTERVENTION OF FRANCE. 

THUS the Emperor once more gained the upper hand and was supreme 
throughout Germany. The Swedish troops were driven back to the 
coast of the Baltic, and on the upper Rhine, Bernhard of Weimar was com- 
pelled to give way to the imperial troops, when the league which Richelieu 
formed with Oxenstjerna and the brave Prince of Weimar once more restored 
the balance of power. This great cardinal, who had just triumphantly 
finished the Huguenot war, kept steadfastly in view the old aim of French 
policy, the lessening of the Hapsburg power, and the extension of the 
frontier of France towards the Rhine. 

Soon the Swedish army was once more in the ascendant. Baner, the most 
energetic of the generals reared in the school of Gustavus Adolphus, com- 
pletely defeated the Saxons near Domitz, in November, 1633, devastated the 
province of Brandenburg, and gained a decisive victory near Wittstock over 
the imperial general Hazfeld a victory which delivered Pomerania, Thuringia, 
and Saxony into the hands of the enemy. The inhabitants were now 
chastised with terrible severity for the revolt of their princes. The fruitful 
plains between the Oder and the Elbe were transformed into desolate wastes ; 
and famine and pestilential diseases depopulated whole towns. At this 
moment the Emperor Ferdinand II. died, in February, 1637. His son, 
Ferdinand III. (1637-57), was appointed his successor, and carried on the 
government in a similar manner, and on the same intolerant principles, only 
with less energy. At this period, also, the old Duke Bogislav, of Pomerania 
and Riigen, died, and his possessions became an object of contention between 
the Elector of Brandenburg, on whom the dukedom by right devolved, by a 
treaty of inheritance, and the Swedes, who had conquered the territory on the 
Baltic, and would not evacuate it. 

Ferdinand III. despatched Gallas with a powerful Austrian army against 
the Swedes in north Germany. This step procured success for the enterprises 



204 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




SECOND PERIOD OF THE THIRTY YEARS' WAR. 205, 

in which Bernhard of Weimar was engaged in connection with France on the 
upper Rhine. After a succession of victories, Bernhard conceived the design 
of establishing an independent principality on both banks of the Rhine, and 
of allying himself with the heroic Landgravine Amalia of Hesse. This in- 
volved him in vexatious negotiations with the French Court ; and when he 
shortly afterwards died suddenly, in the bloom of manhood, it was suspected 
that he had been poisoned. Be this as it may, France ingeniously availed 
herself of the opportunity, by taking speedy possession of Alsace, and by 
enticing, with specious promises, Bernhard's army into the French service. 
Together with the French troops, the late duke's forces were subsequently 
placed under the command of the Duke of Enghien, afterwards famous as the 
Prince de Conde, and under that of Turenne, who conducted the war in the 
south of Germany against the imperial and Bavarian army, while in the north 
Baner successfully attacked the enemy, and visited Bohemia with all the 
terrors of warfare. Baner's bold project of taking the 'Emperor and the 
princes prisoners at a Diet at Regensburg failed, and he died soon after- 
wards ; but Conde's brilliant victory at Rocroi, in May, 1643, and the capture 
of the important fortress of Thionville, strengthened the position of the French, 
who already cast covetous glances towards Flanders and the Spanish Franche- 
comte. 

Baner was succeeded by Torstenson, who conquered Silesia, won a glorious 
battle near Leipzig, in November, 1642, over Piccolomini, and advanced once 
more towards Moravia, where he carried off the library of Olmiitz, and made 
the Emperor tremble in his capital. He then suddenly appeared on the lower 
Elbe, took possession of Holstein and Schleswig, and compelled King Chris- 
tian IV., who had assumed a hostile attitude towards the neighbouring 
country, to accept the disadvantageous peace of Bromsebro, by which Sweden 
obtained some provinces and islands, such as Gothland, and immunity for all 
its subjects from the oppressive Sound dues exacted by the Danish govern- 
ment. Against such an enemy it was impossible for the imperial commander 
to maintain the field. After a victory on Mount Tabor, in Bohemia, Torsten- 
son marched for the third time towards Moravia ; but the want of necessary 
reinforcements compelled him to retire to Bohemia, where, exhausted by 
bodily maladies, and full of disgust at the lukewarmness of his allies, he 
relinquished his command. He was succeeded by the brave Wrangel, who, 
in conjunction with Conde and Turenne, continued the war against Bavaria. 
After the defeat and death of the imperial Field-marshal Mercy, near Allers- 
heim, in 1645, the way to south Germany lay open to the French ; and 
Maximilian, anxious for the safety of his territories, concluded a truce with his 
enemies at Ulm ; but when Turenne and Wrangel had withdrawn their forces, 
he once more declared himself on the side of Austria. Both generals then 
came forward to avenge this faithlessness, compelled the Elector to fly to 
Salzburg, and committed terrible devastations in his lands. His unhappy 
subjects had to pay the penalty of their ruler's treachery. Wrangel even con- 
templated a new expedition to Bohemia, where the Swedish general, Konig- 
mark, was besieging Prague, when the news of the conclusion of the Peace of 
Westphalia, signed on the 24th of October, 1648, put an end to further war- 
like enterprises. In Prague, where the war had begun, it was destined to end. 



206 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

THE PEACE OF WESTPHALIA, AND THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE WAR. 

EVER since the year 1643 negotiations for peace had been carried on at 
Osnabruck between the Emperdr and the Catholics on one side, and the 
Swedes and Protestants on the other, and at Miinster between France and 
Germany ; but the exaggerated demands of France, and other causes, had 
long delayed the settlement. The final points of agreement, however, were 
as follows : France, besides being confirmed in the possession of the bishoprics 
and imperial towns of Metz, Toul, and Verdun, which had been gained in the 
Smalkaldic war, obtained the Austrian Landgraviate in Upper and Lower 
Alsace, with Sundgaa, the town of Breisach, and the protectorate of the ten 
imperial towns situated in Alsace ; but on the other hand was obliged to 
secure to the Imperial towns and the other free principalities in Alsace their 
former liberties, and the maintenance of their relations with the German empire. 
A sum of three million livres was the compensation which Austria received 
for the surrender of the old Hapsburg title of right and possession. Sweden 
gained Upper Pomerania, and in Lower Pomerania, Stettin and other towns, 
the island of Rugen, the town of Wismar and the bishoprics of Bremen and 
Verden ; but these she held under the supreme authority of the German 
empire. She also received an indemnity of five millions of dollars. The 
eastern portion of Lower Pomerania was awarded to Brandenburg. Mecklen- 
burg obtained as an equivalent for the cession of Wismar the bishoprics of 
.Schwerin and Ratzeburg ; while Saxony had Lusatia and four Magdeburg 
districts. Hesse, besides an indemnity in money, obtained the abbacy of 
Hersfeld and some districts of the bishopric of Minden (Schaumburg). 

Bavaria was confirmed in the possession of the Upper Palatinate, with the 
'electoral dignity. The Lower Palatinate, with the newly-created eighth 
electorship was given back to the son of the outlawed Frederick V., who had 
died almost forgotten and unnoticed in 1632. The other princes and imperial 
dignitaries remained in their original position, and Switzerland and the 
Netherlands were recognised as independent States. 

But more than a century was required to efface the traces which the horrible 
struggle had left on the German land. 




O G QOQOQGQQOQO 




THE NORTHERN POWERS. 

SWEDEN UNDER QUEEN CHRISTINA. CONDITION OF THE COUNTRY. 
THE QUEEN'S ABDICATION. REIGN OF CHARLES X. WAR WITH 
POLAND. JOHN CASIMIR OF POLAND. TREATIES OF WELAN, OLIVA, 
AND ANDRUSSON. JOHN SOBIESKL WAR BETWEEN DENMARK AND 
SWEDEN. FREDERICK III. OF DENMARK. DEATH OF CHARLES X. 
PEACE OF COPENHAGEN. CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGES. KING 
CHRISTIAN V. NEW SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT. CHARLES XL OF 
SWEDEN : His CHARACTER AND RULE. 

CHRISTINA OF SWEDEN. 




T TNDER the vigorous and judicious rule 
LJ of Gustavus Adolphus, Sweden had made 
gigantic strides, and was prosperous at home 
and respected and honoured abroad. During 
the minority of his daughter Christina, the 
affairs of the government were conducted for 
twelve years by the five highest officials, 
among whom Axel Oxenstierna and two of 
his relatives exercised the greatest influence. 
Under this government the nobility succeeded 
in extending its already important privileges, 
so that from that time forward a powerful 
aristocracy took up a position of continual 
antagonism against the royal power. The 
peasant class was poor and oppressed ; the 
Crown had but a small revenue, which, during 
Christina's reign, was still further decreased, 
because that princess, in order to satisfy her 
taste for the arts and sciences, as well as her 
inclination for brilliant court festivals, and a 
liberality that degenerated into extravagance 



207 



208 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




SIGNING THE TREATY OF WESTPHALIA. 



THE NORTHERN POWERS. 






sold many of the Crown lands. By the promotion of the arts and sciences, 
Christina conferred great renown on her country. She herself possessed much 
varied knowledge, and took pleasure in intercourse with scholars and learned 
men, many of whom, such as Salmasius, Descartes, Heinsius, Hugo Grotius, and 
others, she invited to reside in Sweden. Her culture was masculine, like her 
character and appearance ; but the rude Protestant North was uncongenial to 
her temperament. After an independent reign of ten years, Christina abdicated 
the throne of Sweden in favour of her cousin, Charles Gustavus. At a later 
period she abjured the Protestant religion, and was received into the Catholic 
Church ; and after travelling through the Netherlands, France, and Italy, took 
up her permanent residence in Rome, where poets and artists vied in sur- 
rounding her with homage and adulation. She lies buried in St. Peter's 
Church. Her great fault was vanity. 




THE KING OF SWEDEN'S ROOM IN THE CASTLE OF KALMAR. 

CHARLES X. (1654-60). 

THE immunity from taxation of the property which had been acquired 
by the nobility, had so diminished the royal revenues at the time of 
Christina's abdication, that without increasing the already excessive burden of 
taxation on the peasant class, it was impossible to defray the expenses of the 
government. Wishing to confer at least an external brilliancy on the restricted 
royal power, the new king Charles (X.) Gustavus of Deuxponts (Kleeburg) 
endeavoured to renew the warlike renown of Sweden. With this object in 
view, he lent a willing ear to the suggestions of a treacherous Polish vice- 
chancellor, and made war on Poland, which was threatened by enemies from 
without, and distracted by factions within its borders. The refusal of John 
Casimir of Poland to recognise the new Swedish king, and to renounce the 
^claims he had inherited from his father Sigismund to the crown of Sweden, 
II. P 



210 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

was made to serve as the feeble pretext for the war. The treacherous gover- 
nors, or Starosts, of Poland and Kalisch surrendered the provinces that had 
been entrusted to them, to the Swedish general, Wittenberg. Charles Gus- 
tavus himself, who was ambitious of warlike fame and glory, took possession 
of Warsaw and Cracow, compelled John Casimir to fly to Silesia, and con- 
quered Masovia and other districts ; and after Lithuania, which had been 
threatened by the Russians, had also submitted to Sweden, he was able to 
regard himself as sovereign of Poland. The more effectually to secure his 
conquest, he concluded a treaty in 1656, at Labian, with the great Elector 
Frederick William of Brandenburg and Prussia, in which the latter, in con- 
sideration of the removal of the feudal dependence in which Prussia had until 
then stood towards Poland, promised his assistance to the Swedish king. 
The independence of Poland, was threatened. The nobility took up arms ; 
the people, who were everywhere stirred up by the Jesuits to resist the Protes- 
tant enemy, made common cause with them. Peace was concluded with the 
Russians and Cossacks, with whom they had previously been at war ; and the 
Emperor, with Saxony and Denmark, apprehensive of the increasing power 
of Sweden, promised assistance. The fugitive John Casimir returned, and 
placed himself at the head of the army. Now it was that the warlike skill 
and bravery of Charles X. were shown in the most brilliant light. In con- 
junction with Frederick William, he marched forth against the united Polish 
army ; and in the great three days' battle of Warsaw, in July, 1656, he won a 
glorious victory with but a limited number of troops. For the second time 
he was master of the country. But he was soon called away by an invasion 
of the Danes into Swedish territory ; and after his departure the Swedish 
garrisons could not withstand the more numerous forces of the enemy. 
Poland once more obtained its independence ; but in order to gain the assist- 
ance of the Elector Frederick William, was compelled to recognise the 
independence or sovereignty of Prussia, in the treaty of Welan, in 1657. 

Three years later, John Casimir, in the Peace of Oliva, signed in April, 1660,. 
gave up all claim to the crown of Sweden, as well as to Esthland and Liefland, 
and in return for these concessions received back Courland, Marienburg, and 
Elbing. On the other hand, the war with Russia broke out anew, and con- 
tinued for seven years, until the Peace of Andrusson, in 1667, by which Russia 
retained Smolensk, Severia, and other conquered places. The Dneiper was 
declared the boundary on the side of the kingdom of the Cossacks. 

In the following year, 1668, John Casimir laid down his sceptre, and retired 
to end his days in a French monastery. His abdication led to long and angry 
disputes with regard to the succession ; but ultimately the heroic warrior 
and chief, John Sobiesky (1674-96) obtained the crown. 

Charles Gustavus was in Lithuania when the intelligence reached him of the 
hostile invasion of the Danes into the Swedish dominions. He immediately 
quitted Poland, and with a small but well-disciplined army advanced with 
rapid marches along the coast of the Baltic to the Elbe. The Danish army 
offered no resistance, so that before the beginning of the winter Schleswig and 
Jutland, with the exception of the fortress of Fried ericia, were in the hands 
of the Swedes. This fortress was also taken during the winter by a bold 
assault, commanded by Wrangel; and the king, jealous of the brilliant 
achievement of his general, at once set out with his army, provided with all 
the material of war, on an extraordinary march across the frozen surface of 
the Great and Little Belt, to Fiinen and Zealand ; and, striking terror into his 
enemies 'by his sudden appearance, ultimately compelled Frederick III. to- 



THE NORTHERN POWERS. 



211 



agree to the surrender of the Danish provinces in the south of Sweden, the 
Norwegian bishopric of Drontheim, and the island of Bornholm ; and to the 
reinstatement in his posses- 
sions of the banished Danish 
noble, Korfiz Ulfeld, who 
had been the betrayer of his 
country. But notwitstand- 
ing the advantages gained 
by Sweden in the Treaty of 
Roeskild, concluded in Feb- 
ruary, 1658, the ambitious 
Charles X. was not content. 
The great prospect which 
filled his warlike mind was 
the idea of uniting the 
three Scandinavian king- 
doms under his supremacy, 
and making himself the 
ruler of all the north. After 
a few months, accordingly, 
he commenced the war 
anew. The self-seeking 
Danish nobility, fearing for 
their possessions, counselled 
submission ; but King Fred- 
erick III. and the inhabit- 
ants of Copenhagen declared 
that they would rather perish 
in an honourable struggle 
than calmly behold the dis- 
graceful surrender of their 
country. The announce- 
ment of this spirited resolu- 
tion, and the rewards which 
the king promised to all his 
soldiers, led to a brave re- 
sistance on the part of the 
inhabitants when the Swedes 
commenced the siege of Co- 
penhagen. Holland brought 
provisions to the starving 
town; and the simultaneous 
hostile movements com- 
menced by the Branden- 
burg, Polish, and Austrian 
troops in the Netherlands 
against the Swedes, which 
rendered a division of the 
army necessary, and weak- 
ened the numbers of the 
besiegers, delayed the conquest of the capital of Denmark. A prolonged war 
seemed inevitable, when the sudden death of Charles X., in 1660, caused a 





212 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

speedy change in the aspect of affairs. The Peace of Copenhagen, which was 
now concluded, was almost similar to the Roeskild treaty, except that Sweden 
surrendered Drontheim and Bornholm. Korfiz Ulfeld, who had once more 
acted the part of the traitor, ended his days as a fugitive in foreign countries. 

^ CONSTITUTIONAL 
^ CHANGES. 

THE death of Charles 
X. brought about 
internal changes of an 
important character in 
both Scandinavian king- 
doms. In Sweden a 
regency was established. 
This government was 
formed of the five high- 

_^_^^^^^^ est officers in the State, 

seconded by the Council 

of the Kingdom. The chiefs availed themselves of their newly-acquired position 
to elevate the status of the aristocracy ; while in Denmark, on the other hand, 
by means of a bloodless revolution, the most limited monarchy in Europe was 
transformed into the most despotic government, and the powerful nobility 
were deprived of their rights. 

Until that time the Danish kings had, on their election to the throne, been 
compelled to sign a charter, by which all power in the government was made 
over to an aristocratic Council of the Kingdom and to the nobility, who thus 
acquired considerable privileges. After the conclusion of the war, at an 
assembly of the States summoned to deliberate on the means of paying the 
heavy expenses of the contest, the nobility endeavoured to impute to the citizen 
class every possible crime. The ill-feeling thus provoked afforded the queen 
and the cunning Secretary of State, Gabel, an opportunity for the overthrow of 
the existing constitution (1660). The elective monarchy and the charter or 
" Capitulation " were abolished. It was declared that the crown should be 
hereditary in the family of Frederick III., male and female descendants 
being alike entitled to reign ; and, a few years later, the Act of Sovereignty, 
which was drawn up by Gabel, conferred on the monarch absolute power. 
Nevertheless Frederick III. went cautiously to work in the task of trans- 
forming the whole plan of government. A new method of taxation, a stand- 
ing army, and the raising of the rents 'exacted for crown domains, were 
the most important innovations. Under Frederick's successor, Christian V. 
(1670-99), the new system of government was completely organized. 

These events were not without their influence on Sweden, where Charles XI. 
(1660-97), a wise and upright prince, had in the meantime assumed the 
reins of government. By the demand, which was severely enforced, for the 
restitution of all Crown property, a regulation through which many a noble- 
man forfeited all his possessions, the king so largely increased the revenue 
of the State, that the burden of public debt was considerably diminished, 
and it was possible to render taxation less oppressive to the people. Charles 
XI. ruled almost as absolutely as the Danish kings ; but the " institutions " 
remained uncancelled, and subsequently afforded the nobility an opportunity 
of regaining their former power. 




THE STUART KINGS OF ENGLAND 
(1603 TO THE LONG PARLIAMENT, 1640). 

REIGN OF JAMES I. CHARACTER OF THE KING. CARR, EARL OF 
SOMERSET, AND VILLIERS, DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM. THE GREAT 
DIVISIONS OF THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH. THE GUNPOWDER PLOT. 
SYSTEM OF RULE. PRINCE CHARLES. MARRIAGE NEGOTIATION 
WITH SPAIN. RUPTURE WITH THE SPANISH COURT. MARRIAGE 
WITH HENRIETTA MARIA OF FRANCE. JAMES AND HIS PARLIA- 
MENTS. ARBITRARY MEASURES OF THE KING. DEATH OF JAMES 
AND ACCESSION OF CHARLES L, 1625. THE FRENCH WAR. 
QUARRELS WITH THE PARLIAMENT. DISMISSAL. PERIOD OF 
ABSOLUTE RULE. STRAFFORD AND LAUD. ARBITRARY TAXATION. 
SHIP-MONEY. TRIAL OF JOHN HAMPDEN. PERSECUTION OF THE 
PURITANS. THE LITURGY IN SCOTLAND. REVOLT. THE COVENANT. 
THE SHORT PARLIAMENT SUMMONED AND DISMISSED. MEETING 
OF THE LONG PARLIAMENT. 

JAMES I. CHARACTER AND PRINCIPLES. 

THE son of the unfortunate Mary Queen of 
Scotland, James I. (1603-25), had not been 
highly favoured by nature with endowments of 
mind or body. With an ill-favoured countenance 
and ungracious bearing he united a limited 
understanding, a boundless arrogance, and a one- 
sided and pedantic education. Brought up amid 
the strife and turmoil of wrangling Presbyterian 
preachers, he was well versed in theological 
learning, and entered eagerly into ecclesiastical 
controversies. In writing and conversation he 
frequently showed the acquirements of an ac- 
complished scholar; but as a statesman and a 
213 




2/4 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



ruler he was shortsighted, and, in spite of his boasted " kingcraft," eminently 
liable to be deceived. A lover of peace from timidity of character, he sacrificed 
the honour of his country to preserve internal' tranquillity ; and unworthy 
favourites especially Robert Carr, who was made Duke of Somerset, and 
George Villiers, the worthless Duke of Buckingham who knew how to 
manage the humour of the weak monarch, were loaded with honours and 
riches, and, after the death of the prudent and sagacious Robert Cecil, Lord 
Burleigh, were appointed to influential State offices and posts of importance 
which should have been filled by deserving men. Of the royal prerogative 
he cherished the most exalted conceptions ; he was firmly convinced that the 
king's power proceeded directly from God and was illimitable, and sought 
for proofs of this theory of the " right divine " in the Old Testament. For 
this reason the Presbyterian Church of Scotland, in which he had been 
brought up, was utterly abhorrent to him, because, in accordance with its 

democratic principles of the 
equality of all before God, the 
king was placed on a level with 
the lowest member of the Church 
community. Against the Catholic 
Church he was not so much pre- 
judiced, except that it placed the 
Pope in the position which, ac- 
cording to his theory, belonged 
to the king alone. Of the three 
prevailing forms of religion, that 
of the Episcopal Church of Eng- 
land was most in accordance with 
his sentiments, because in it the 
king was regarded as the source 
of all spiritual power; and the 
Anglican bishops, by their subser- 
vience and veneration, amounting 
to fulsome flattery, contributed 
not. a little to increase the pro- 
pensity of the vain monarch to 
believe in his own infallible wis- 
dom. "No bishop, no king!" 
was, from the time of the accession of the first Stuart monarch of England, the 
motto of all the family ; and the struggle between the opposite theories of the 
Presbyterians and Puritans forms the central point of their eventful history. 
James commenced this contest by ejecting from their livings the Puritan clergy 
in England who had refused the oath of allegiance, and by conferring the title 
of Bishop on thirteen Scottish preachers, giving them the presidency in the 
synods and presbyteries, and causing them to be consecrated by English 
bishops. Soon they obtained even a higher position ; and when the Scottish 
Parliament granted them ecclesiastical jurisdiction, and passed the law com- 
pelling ministers of religion to subscribe to the oath of supremacy, and the 
oath of obedience to the bishops, the episcopal system in Scotland appeared to 
have taken the place of the Calvinist Church of Knox. James, who was the 
first to adopt the title of " King of Great Britain and Ireland," sought to make 
Ireland also more amenable to British rule. With that view he introduced 
the English judicial system, confiscated the dominions of the native chiefs, 




THE STUART KINGS OF ENGLAND. 



215 



whose turbulent spirit had been repressed since the putting down of Tyrone's 
rebellion, and sold their estates, as fiefs of the Crown, to English colonists, 
thus weakening the power of the landed aristocracy, and bringing money 
into his own coffers. The greater part of the country in Ulster and on the 
coast from Dublin to Waterford was confiscated to the Crown, and was sold to 
.English Protestants, to the great injury of the old possessors. Against these 
new proprietors the whole anger of the Irish people was now directed. 




CHAPEL IN THE TOWER OF LONDON. 



THE GUNPOWDER PLOT. PRINCE CHARLES. THE PARLIAMENT. 




1 



^HREE points are especially noteworthy in the 
reign of James, namely, the Gunpowder Plot, the 
events connected with the marriage of the Prince of 
Wales, and the increasing opposition in Parliament. 
James had promised the English Catholics toleration ; 
for he was anxious togain their support tohis succession 
to the throne. But so soon as this object was achieved, 
he arbitrarily collected from all Nonconformists the 
heavy poll-tax which had been remitted by Elizabeth, 
and employed the proceeds for the enrichment of his 
favourites, and in defraying the expenses of his court 
festivals. Certain fanatical Catholics thereupon, in 
the year 1605, entered into a conspiracy with a 



216 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



Jesuit missionary, with the object of blowing up the king and all the mem- 
bers of the Upper and Lower Houses, by means of an explosion of gunpowder, 
which was to destroy at one blow the House of Parliament and the assembled 
representatives ; and after this they intended to subvert the Government. In 
consequence, however, of a warning letter received by the Catholic Lord Mont- 




THE CONSPIRATORS AT WORK. 

eagle, the attempt was discovered and frustrated. The man to whom the 
carrying out of the scheme had been entrusted, Guy Fawkes, was seized, im- 
prisoned, and executed ; the other principal conspirators died fighting des- 
perately against the men sent to capture them. The Catholics in England, 
besides being subjected to the payment of a heavy fine, were then forced to 
ender a new " oath of fidelity " to the King, in which they were compelled to 



THE STUART KINGS OF ENGLAND. 



217 



swear that they would not allow themselves, by any command or excommuni- 
cation of the Papal See, to be led into treason towards the throne. 

In his pride, James thought that only the daughter of a king of the first 
rank was worthy to become the wife of his son, and therefore opened 
negotiations, on behalf of his son Charles, to obtain for him the hand of a 
Spanish princess. The thought of a Catholic queen, however, was at that 
time unendurable to the English, and the project excited all the more vexa- 
tion as the negotiations for the removal of all difficulties deprived the English 
king of all opportunity of giving assistance and support to his exiled Protest- 
ant son-in-law, Frederick V. of the Palatinate. The peace-loving James was 
egregibusly duped by Spanish dissimulation, and allowed himself to be kept 
in suspense by a delusive prospect of a peaceful settlement of affairs in the 
Palatinate. He not only consented that the future queen and her retinue 
should enjoy the free exercise of their religion, but also promised that the 
penal statutes enacted against 
the Catholics should not be 
carried into effect. At last the 
Pope and the Spanish court 
gave their consent, and nothing 
further appeared to stand in the 
way of the marriage. At this 
time, however, the vain Duke of 
Buckingham persuaded Prince 
Charles to make a journey to 
Madrid ; and the king, who, in 
his youth, had undertaken a 
similar expedition to carry home 
his bride, Anne of Denmark, 
favoured the undertaking. Un- 
der false names, Charles and 
Buckingham arrived at Madrid, 
and on being recognised were 
treated with great distinction. 
But Buckingham's frivolous and 
presumptuous demeanour soon 
gave great offence at the cere- 
monious Spanish court. Diplo- 
matic complications with regard 
to the signing of the marriage treaty increased the difficulties in completing 
the negotiation. The powerful favourite quarrelled with the Count Duke 
Olivarez, whose influence was at that time paramount in Spain ; and when 
he distinctly foresaw that in the event of the marriage of Charles and the 
Infanta, his own overthrow would follow, he endeavoured to throw obstacles 
in the way of the wedding, which was equally unpopular with the English 
and with the Spanish nations. A rupture between the courts of Spain and 
England soon occurred, the old enmity was re-awakened, and James, shortly 
before his death, made arrangements for active participation in the Thirty 
Years' War. Henrietta Maria of France, the sister of Louis XIIL, became 
the wife of Prince Charles. 




CHARLES I. 



THE STUART KINGS OF ENGLAND. 



219 




THE CHARTERHOUSE, LONDON. 



JAMES AND THE PARLIAMENT. 

THE Tudors had made the Parliament an 
obedient instrument of their despotism. 
James, who was imbued with an overpower- 
ing sense of the grandeur and majesty of the 
royal power, which he declared to be directly 
derived from God, was of necessity averse to 
removing the restrictions imposed on the as- 
sembly. But he neither possessed Elizabeth's 
talent for government and for restraining the 
growing spirit of resistance, nor could he, like 
her, render his despotism acceptable by the 
brilliancy and splendour of his reign. He 
was also destitute of the talent of making a 
concession gracefully. In order to meet the 
difficulties in wrftch his extravagance plunged 
him, he compelled his wealthier subjects to 
accommodate him with gifts and with nominal 
loans, which he never dreamed of repaying. 
He sold rights of monopoly, and set up a 
regular tariff for the sale of the title of baronet. 
CONDUIT IN JAMES THE FIRST'S TIME. j t was but to ask, to pay, and to have ; " 
and when this expedient was not sufficiently remunerative, and Parliament 
showed a certain reluctance in granting supplies, he imposed arbitrary taxes 
on all imported and exported goods, without asking the consent of Parliament. 
This arbitrary taxation was declared by the Commons to be an infringement 
of their rights. In vain did the king threaten and bluster, dissolve Parliament, 




220 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



and cause the boldest speakers to be imprisoned; every fresh Parliament made 
the same declaration. The Commons not only resisted all encroachments on 
their old privileges, but generally and unreservedly expressed their disapproval 
of the negotiations with the court of .Spain, and the neglect of the Protestant 
cause, shown in the withholding of help from the Palsgrave. The members 
of the Lower House then recorded a protest on the journals of the House, in 
which they declared the liberties of Parliament to be the undoubted birthright 
and inheritance of the people of England, claimed the right, not only of making 
laws and granting taxation, but also of giving their counsel in difficult matters 
and of bringing forward grievances ; they also demanded perfect freedom of 
speech and personal security against arbitrary imprisonment for all members 
of Parliament. Enraged at what he considered the presumption of this re- 
quest, the king tore up the protest with his own hand out of the journal of the 
House, dissolved Parliament, and caused some of the members to be im- 
prisoned. But the spirit of opposition was roused among the people, and in- 
creased still more when Charles L, who in many qualities was far superior to 
his father, but who forfeited the confidence of the people by his arrogance and 
love of dissimulation, succeeded to the throne of England, in 1625. 

CHARLES I. AND THE PARLIAMENT. 




w 



ITH the reign of Charles I. com- 
mences a violent conflict with 
Parliament, which was twice dissolved 
within the first two years of the new 
king's rule. The proud arrogance of the 
king would not bend to the spirit of 
the time ; and his haughty nature took 
umbrage at the parsimoniousness of 
Parliament, which endeavoured to make 
the king's need of money a method of 
securing the Houses against encroach- 
ments on the popular rights, and was 
therefore not only extremely sparing in its grants, but refused to permit the 
levying of tonnage and poundage by the king's authority on imported and 
exported goods. But when Charles was in need of supplies for his unsuccess- 
ful war with Spain, and for the support of the commanders in Germany, he 
levied tonnage and poundage without the consent of Parliament, extorted 
gifts and forced loans from his subjects, and sold domains and monopolies. 
He also allowed himself to be persuaded by the frivolous Buckingham into a 
fresh war with France, ostensibly in aid of the Huguenots, but in reality be- 
cause the vain favourite desired to revenge himself on the French court for a 
slight to which he had been subjected by Richelieu, and which he had drawn 
upon himself by impertinence towards Anne, the queen. 

When the war with France was also carried on without skill or success 
by Buckingham, and English blood and English honour were disgracefully 
wasted, there arose in the third Parliament such a violent storm against the 
unworthy favourite, that the king was obliged to recognise the Petition of 
Right, which was presented to him by both Houses, in order to save his 
minion, to whom he remained obstinately attached. 

In this petition the old rights of personal security and the inviolability of 
the property of Englishmen were so explicitly stated, that when it was once 
agreed to, every arbitrary imprisonment of parliamentary members, and every 




CHARLES I. INTERROGATING THE SPEAKER IN PARLIAMENT, 

221 



222 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



despotic method of taxation, 
would in future be regarded as 
an unconstitutional encroach- 
ment. Nevertheless Parliament 
was still irreconcilable. Buck- 
ingham was looked upon as 
the cause of all the people's 
sufferings ; his murder by Fel- 
ton, in 1629, may therefore be 
regarded as not only the work 
of private revenge, but also as 
the consequence of the pre- 
vailing popular excitement. 
A new spirit had come upon 
the people ; the third Parlia- 
ment summoned by Charles 
was also dissolved, after a 
stormy sitting, in which it was 
declared that every levy of a 
tax without consent of Parlia- 
ment was illegal, and that 
every one who paid tonnage 
. GEORGE VILLIERS, DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM. an( j poundage was a traitor 

to his country. Nine members, including the energetic Hollis, were im- 
prisoned. One of these, Sir John Elliot, died in the Tower of London, after 
vainly petitioning for some relaxation of his captivity. 





SIR J. ELLIOT. 



THE STUART KINGS OF ENGLAND. 



223 



STRAFFORD AND LAUD. 




OLD LONDON WATCHMAN. 



I^HE king had been partly persuaded to 
this violent measure by Thomas Went- 
worth, once a popular leader, but one who 
had been induced by ambition to quit the 
side of the Opposition in the House of 
Commons, and to become a violent partisan 
of the king and of absolute government. 
He now advanced with rapid strides in royal 
favour, and soon became governor of Ire- 
land and Earl of Strafford. He was a 
harsh but energetic and talented man, who, 
while he desired to give the Crown supreme 
power, was anxious that this power should 
be used for the benefit of the nation. 

He therefore counselled the king to make 
the attempt of governing without a Par- 
liament, and conceived the idea of estab- 
lishing a standing army for the protection 
of the throne and the subjugation of the 
people. To lessen the public expenditure, peace was quickly made with 
Spain and France, and the cause of the Palsgrave and that of the Huguenots 
were alike given up ; to procure money for the current expenses, the Govern- 
ment caused the previous taxes to be again levied without the consent or the 
assembling of a Parliament, and either instituted new demands or re-asserted 
old and forgotten prerogatives of the Crown. Monopolies were reintroduced 
in a more oppressive form than ever. The most important necessaries of 
life, such as wine, salt, soap, leather, etc., were taxed; and finally, in accordance 
with an old law which had been occasionally brought forward for the as- 
sembling and maintenance of the fleet in time of war and public peril, an 
annual levy of ship-money was demanded under new and oppressive con- 
ditions, for the royal exchequer. While the levying of the ship-money pro- 
voked general discontent, and the judicial proceedings instituted against the 
patriotic and resolute John Hampden, who refused payment of the tax, threw 
the whole country into excitement, the severity with which attempts were 
made to strengthen the Anglican Church Establishment and to repress 
Puritanism provoked great and widespread discontent. Many members of 
the Opposition upheld the democratic principles of the Puritans and Presby- 
terians, and their religious views gained ground in the same proportion as 
their political principles. Both their religious and political tendencies, how- 
ever, were strongly opposed by Charles ; and while he allowed himself to be 
guided by Strafford in political matters, he was advised in all ecclesiastical 
affairs by Laud, Bishop of London, whose doctrine of the divine right of 
kings and of the passive obedience which he declared to be the duty of every 
people, was as welcome to his arrogant nature as the bishop's inclination 
for church ceremonial and a pompous worship was acceptable to his secret 
preference for Catholicism. 

The oppressive courts of High Commission and the Star Chamber decreed 
severe punishments against the Nonconformists. Thus Prynne, a barrister 
who had rendered himself obnoxious by his Puritan zeal, and especially by 
writing a book against stage plays, was condemned to lose both his ears on 



224 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



the pillory, and to suffer imprisonment for life, because he had condemned the 
dancing, masquerades, etc., which were the delight of the court, as temptations 
of the devil. The effect of these persecutions and cruelties was to produce 

fresh remonstrance and resist- 
ance. Many Puritans were ready 
to suffer the hardest punishments 
for the sake of their creed. Their 
courage aroused sympathy, and 
from a despised sect they be- 
came the renowned champions 
of religious and political liberty. 
The secret inclination of the 
Stuarts for Catholicism, and the 
influence of the Catholic queen, 
increased the widespread distrust 
and discontent among the people. 
Puritan preachers, who had been 
pitilessly driven from their livings 
and their homes by the bigoted 
prelate, wandered through the 
country, and still further excited 
the angry feelings of the masses 
by their fanatical discourses. At 
this period of distress many 
Puritans quitted, their native 
land to seek a haven of safety 
and liberty beyond the seas, 
and pitched their tents in the 
barren wildernesses of America, that they might enjoy civil and religious 
freedom. They were the forefathers of the Anglo-Saxon population of the 
present United States. Among those who intended emigrating, but were 
stopped when they had already embarked, by a royal warrant, were Hampden 
and Oliver Cromwell. "They remained," says Lord Macaulay, "and with 
them remained the evil genius of the house of Stuart." 




JOHN HAMPDEN. 



SCOTLAND. 

HARLES did not perceive that his throne rested on a heaving volcano, 
until Scotland, burning with religious zeal, raised the standard of in- 
surrection. There also an effort had been made, by means of the episcopal 
jurisdiction imperfectly established by James, to replace the democratic pres- 
byteries and synods by a strict government by bishops, to impede the free 
and bold preaching of the gospel by introducing the liturgy, or Book of 
Common Prayer, and to break the pride of equality and awaken ambition, 
egotism, and human weakness among the preachers, by the establish- 
ment of a hierarchical order. But when the first religious service, according 
to the English ritual, was celebrated in the cathedral church at Edinburgh, 
on July the 23rd, 1637, a tumult arose against the institution of the "worship 
of Baal." The people cried out, " Pope ! Antichrist ! Stone him!" threw 
.sticks and stones at the minister, and drove him out. An old woman, Jenny 
Geddes, is remembered as having flung the stool on which she had been 



THE STUART KINGS OF ENGLAND. 



225 



sitting, at the head of the clergyman who, she indignantly declared, was saying 
the mass to her face. Amid prayers and fasting the old bond, or Covenant, 
for the protection of the pure religion and the Church against Papal errors, 
was once more renewed. A representation of the people conducted the 
cause of the armed nation, in defiance of the authority of the Government. 
The episcopate and all the institutions introduced by the Stuarts were sud- 
denly abolished at the general synod at Glasgow, held under the presidency 
of the bold Henderson. Thereupon Charles decided on war ; and to procure 




HAMPDEN AND CROMWELL PREVENTED FROM EMIGRATING. 



the necessary supplies, he again summoned a Parliament early in 1640, after 
an interval of eleven years, during which his rule had been absolute. But to 
the surprise even of the king's friends and partisans, though the Commons 
were ready, under certain restrictions, to vote the desired supplies, and merely 
wished to make the grant in such a manner as to guard against a renewal of 
the despotic system called by Strafford the " Thorough," and advocated by 
him in Church and State, the king suddenly dissolved the "Short Par- 
liament " with every token of displeasure. This step was, as before, followed 
II. Q 



226 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



by the imprisonment of the boldest speakers at the very moment when the 
Scots with their army were advancing across the border. In vain did the 
king seek help from the nobility ; the Upper House did not venture to 
oppose the menacing demand of the people for a free Parliament ; and after 
the royal troops had been disgracefully defeated by the zealous army of the 
Scots, who marched into the field with prayer and the singing of psalms, 
nothing remained for Charles but once more to summon a Parliament, which 
accordingly met in November, 1640. 




THE OATH OF THE COVENANT. 




THE LONG PARLIAMENT AND THE CIVIL WAR, 

1640-1649. 

FIRST ACTS OF THE LONG PARLIAMENT. IMPEACHMENT OF STRAFFORD 
AND LAUD. EXECUTION OF STRAFFORD. REBELLION AND MAS- 
SACRE IN IRELAND. CAVALIERS AND ROUNDHEADS. ATTEMPT TO 
ARREST THE FIVE MEMBERS. COMMENCEMENT OF THE CIVIL WAR 
OLIVER CROMWELL. THE SCOTS. MARSTON MOOR. VICTORY 
OF THE INDEPENDENTS. THE PRESBYTERIANS' SELF-DENYING 

ORDINANCE. SUPREMACY OF 
CROMWELL. CHARLES AND 
THE SCOTS. ESCAPE OF THE 
KING TO THE CAMP AT 
NEWARK. SURRENDER TO 
THE PARLIAMENTARY CHIEFS. 
STRIFE BETWEEN INDE- 
PENDENTS AND PRESBYTE- 
RIANS. TRIAL AND EXECU- 
TION OF THE KING. 

THE LONG PARLIAMENT. 

AS a consequence of the pre- 
vailing distrust towards the 
court, the choice of members fell 
principally on opponents of the 
Government on Puritans, or men 
who did not belong to the Epis- 
copal Church, such as John Hamp- 
den ; eager champions of religious 
and political liberty, such as Pym 
and Hollis ; religious zealots, such 
as Henry Vane, Haslerig, and the 




PYM. 



227 



228 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



learned Selden ; and men resolute in opposition to prerogative, like Oliver 
Cromwell. This extraordinary man, a distant relative of the Thomas Crom- 
well, Earl of Essex, who, under Henry VIII. , had been for a time the successor 
of the imperious Wolsey in the favour of the king, had shown himself from 
the commencement of the parliamentary struggle to be a resolute champion 
of civil and religious liberty, and won such general esteem in his native place, 
Huntingdon, that he was elected as its representative in Parliament. He soon 
attained a prominent position. Simple and even countrified in his dress and 
demeanour, and wanting in brilliant oratorical gifts, he dominated his con- 
temporaries by the mere superiority of his mind, the energy of his will, and 
by his resolute, energetic character. He knew how to conceal the ardour of 
his soul with devout actions and language. Most of his associates in the new 
Parliament were, or became, Puritans ; and their democratic sentiments soon 

spread from the Church to 
politics, and awakened re- 
publican theories. In place 
of the rule of bishop and 
king, they wished to see the 
popular power of the synods 
and of Parliament pre-eminent 
in Church and State. 

Instead of at once granting 
supplies against the Scotch 
" rebels," as the speech from 
the throne demanded, Par- 
liament, on the contrary, en- 
tered into secret alliance with 
the Scots, and by the promise 
of money for the maintenance 
of the army, induced the 
forces to maintain their posi- 
tion on the border. They then 
directed their attacks against 
the arbitrary regulations in 
Church and State. Prynn and 
his companions in misfortune 
were declared innocent, and 
the judges of the Star Cham- 
ber were sentenced to a fine. 
Strafford, " the great apostate," whom the king had summoned from Ireland, 
and Archbishop Laud, were impeached for high treason and thrown into the 
Tower. Anxious to save the lives of his friends, the king showed signs of 
compliance. He chose a new ministry from am6ng the members of the 
Opposition ; he gave his consent to the law that in future tonnage and pound- 
age should only be levied with the consent of Parliament, and signed the bill 
providing that a Parliament should be summoned every third year. Never- 
theless the Lower House did not relinquish its revengeful plans against the 
prisoners. Strafford was accused by the Commons of various crimes, the 
chief allegation being that he had incited the king to make war on his 
subjects. His arguments disconcerted the peers ; and his speech in defence 
produced such an effect, that it was anticipated that he would be acquitted. 
The House of Commons then toqk despotic measures ; it declared by a so- 




ARCHBISHOP LAUD. 



THE LONG PARLIAMENT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 



229 



called bill of attainder, that Strafford was proved to have contemplated over- 
throwing the liberties of the country. The majority of the Upper House 
joined in this bill, and the king had the weakness to confirm it, and thus 
sacrifice his most devoted servant to the popular wrath. " Put not your faith 
in princes ! " cried Strafford, " for in them is no help ! " He died on the 
scaffold with great composure (May nth, 1641). His comrade in misfortune, 
Laud, remained in confinement for three years ; but the abolition of the 




CHARLES I. HOOTED BY THE PEOPLE. 



Star Chamber and of the High Commission, and, somewhat later, the exclu- 
sion of the bishops from the House of Lords, were the prelude to the over- 
throw of the hierarchical Church Establishment. 

Soon afterwards Charles made a journey to Scotland, with the object of 
obtaining evidence of the treasonable connivance between the Parliament and 
the Scotch army. The Puritan members were filled with anxiety. At this 
moment the English nation was seized with terror and indignation by the 
news of a general massacre of the Protestant colonists of Ireland by the 



2 3 o THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

Catholic population. This outrage, which had been brought about by the 
despotic proceedings of the king and by the severity of Strafford, was be- 
lieved to have been instigated by the court, and especially by the queen ; and 
the Puritans in Parliament availed themselves of the occurrence to excite the 
people to a feverish state of agitation by the rumour of a coalition of the 
Papists, bishops, and courtiers for the destruction of their faith and liberty. 
Armed societies were formed for the protection of Parliament, while, on the 
other hand, many of the landed aristocracy and officials rallied round the king, 
whose rights and privileges were threatened. The Royalists were called by the 
people Cavaliers ; the Puritans received from their opponents the nickname of 
Roundheads, from their mode of wearing their hair. Pamphlets and periodi- 
cals, the recent products of a free press, and fervid discourses in churches 
and assemblies, kept the people in a constant state of excitement and agita- 
tion. The introduction of a bill providing that in future the control of the 
army and the appointment of commanders should be dependent on the de- 
cision of Parliament, caused the outbreak of the war. The king came down 
with an armed guard to the House of Commons on the 5th of January, 1642, 
and endeavoured to arrest and imprison five members of the Opposition, 
Hampden, Pym, Hollis, Haslerig, and Strode, on the accusation of high 
treason. They however escaped, remained for a few days concealed, and 
were then escorted in triumph to the House of Commons by the city digni- 
taries and an immense multitude of people. Charles could hold out no longer. 
He set out for York, and decided on war. 

THE CIVIL WAR (1642-1646). 

JUST as the king had previously given cause for complaint by his violation 
of popular rights, so Parliament was now guilty of a similar violation of 
the royal prerogative. Not content with having restricted the monarchical 
power within legal limits, it assumed the sole legislative authority in Church 
and State, and usurped the whole power in the government, by demanding 
the removal of the higher State officers and military commanders, and by 
endeavouring to bring both the land and naval forces under its control, and 
even seeking to regulate the education and marriage of the royal children. 
These demands the king could not grant. He gathered round him at York 
those members of both houses of Parliament who were devoted to him, while 
the queen escaped to Holland, to seek foreign aid. But as the entire military 
forces of the Continent were engaged in the Thirty Years' War, no assistance 
could be obtained from abroad. The war therefore commenced, with un- 
equally matched forces. For while the king sorely lacked money, and his 
army was often ill-provided, sometimes even wanting every necessary, the 
Parliament not only possessed the public revenues, but was also largely 
supported by private contributions. On both sides, indeed, at the first demand 
families brought their silver vessels to be melted down into coin, women con- 
tributed their ornaments for the cause ; and all the taxes and tithes which had 
been obstinately refused to the king, were willingly offered to the Parliament. 
Nevertheless Charles's small army, consisting of practised toops and of men 
used to riding and to athletic and warlike sports, was at first victorious over 
the raw Parliamentary forces with which the Earl of Essex marched into the 
field. In two battles the royal cavalry, led by Charles's impetuous nephew, 
Rupert, of the Palatinate, proved themselves formidable opponents. The 
second year also began with Parliamentary misfortunes, of which the fall of 



THE LONG PARLIAMENT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 



231 



the brave and virtuous John Hampden, mortally wounded in a skirmish at 
Chalgrove-field near Oxford, was the most important. When, however, Oliver 
Cromwell, the zealous Puritan, put himself at the head of his redoubtable corps 
of Ironsides, a resolute band of soldiers, who fearing no danger, and inspired 
with fierce religious enthusiasm, marched into the battle-field with the 
assurance of victory, and when Parliament entered into an alliance with the 




PRINCE RUPERT'S CAVALRY. 

Scots, who once more marched across the border affairs took a different turn. 
In the battle of Marston Moor, in July, 1644, Rupert and his fiery cavaliers 
were completely defeated by Cromwell's grim, resolute, imperturbable warriors. 
Ten thousand Royalists perished on the battle-field; and the king's faithful city 
of York fell into the hands of the Puritans. From that day forward Cromwell's 
name was omnipotent in the army, particularly as Pym was dead and Essex 
had been unfortunate in the field. 



232 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



VICTORY OF THE INDEPENDENTS. 




POCKET PIECE OF CHARLES I. 



* HEIR successes in the battle-field encouraged 
_ the Puritans to attempt the overthrow of the 
unpopular Episcopal Church Establishment, al- 
though they clearly foresaw that by so doing they 
would completely alienate the Upper House ; but 
their Puritanical zeal disdained worldly considera- 
tions. The Book of Common Prayer and the 
Anglican liturgy were superseded by the Presby- 
terians' and Independents' form of worship, and 
the Episcopal system was replaced by the Presby- 
terian constitution of synods. Organs, images, and 
ornaments were sternly banished from the churches; 
painted windows were broken ; monuments, which were regarded as the 
emblems of superstition and idolatry, were destroyed ; and festivals were pro- 
hibited. The Puritan clergy, who had been ousted from their livings by 
Laud, were at once reinstated, and helped to keep fanaticism alive ; while 
the archbishop himself, after long imprisonment, died upon the scaffold ; and 
the Anglican clergy who would not submit to the new Church regulations, 
or renounce the use of their ecclesiastical vestments, were deprived of their 
livings. But a short time afterwards dissension broke out in the camp of the 
victors. The Independents, who had obtained great influence by their zeal, 
energy, and enthusiasm, and were -not willing to subordinate their hard- 
won liberties and independence to the domination of a Church, were dis- 
satisfied because ecclesiastical despotism had only taken another form ; and 
they demanded that every Church community should have the power of self- 
direction in matters of faith, worship, and discipline ; that all Church com- 
munities, consisting of the voluntary union of believers who were of one mind 
among themselves, should be recognised ; that no one should be compelled 

to force his conscience to 
accept a universal doctrine, 
but that every one should 
worship God according to his 
own judgment. 

Dreading the increasing 
power of the Independents, 
the Presbyterian party in Par- 
liament sought a reconciliation 
with Charles. But the negotia- 
tions of Uxbridge were ren- 
dered fruitless by the Puritans' 
demand for the abolition of 
the episcopacy, and for the 
surrender of the command of 
the land and sea forces to the 
Lower House. The Inde- 
pendents now went to work 

OBELISK ON THE FIELD OF NASEBY. with even greater boldness. 

They procured the passing of 

the Self-denying Ordinance in February, 1645, * n accordance with which 
measure no member of Parliament could hold the office of commander or 




THE LONG PARLIAMENT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 



233 



take any other post. Thus Essex was compelled to resign his command ; 
and Fairfax, a talented general, but entirely influenced by Cromwell, was 
placed at the head of the whole army. Cromwell, who was the leader of the 
Independents, had been a zealous promoter of the Self-denying Ordinance, 
and he now resigned the command into Fairfax's hands. But that general at 
once declared that Cromwell was indispensable as a leader in the army ; for 
that wherever he fought in the name of the Lord with his saintly warriors, 
there victory was always sure to be. Parliament gave its consent that Crom- 
well should resume his appointment ; and the battle of Naseby, near North- 
ampton, in June, 1645, where the royal army was utterly routed and scattered, 
and Charles's last hope was destroyed, proved what a revolution had been 
brought about by the energy of the Independents. 



THE KING IN ADVERSITY; CONFLICTING SECTS. 




FROM that time forward the struggle assumed a 
more violent character. The king's cabinet of 
private letters, in which he appealed for help to foreign 
princes, fell into the hands of the enemy ; and the 
contents of these captured documents proved most 
damaging to Charles and his cause. In consequence 
of a rumour that he had incited the Irish to rebellion, 
all Irish prisoners were shot down in the most merciless 
manner, by order of Parliament. From the Land's 
End to the Highlands of Scotland there raged a bloody 
civil and religious war ; but the energy of the fanatics 
BEESTON CASTLE SHILLING. an d Republicans gained them the victory. In vain did 
the humiliated king now hold out the hand of reconciliation ; he was trusted 
no longer ; and Cromwell and Fairfax 
made preparations for besieging him 
at Oxford. Charles then formed a 
desperate resolution. Disguised as a 
servant, he escaped from Oxford with 
two attendants, and made his appear- 
ance in the Scottish camp at Newark, 
in the hope of re-awakening senti- 
ments of devotion and loyalty among 
his own countrymen. But all venera- 
tion for fallen greatness was extin- 
guished among the Scots, who were 
completely under the influence of their 
severe and uncompromising ecclesias- 
tics. They kept the king in close 
confinement, compelled him to attend 
the long services of the Presbyterian 
preachers, whose ordinary subject of 
discourse was the misdeeds of himself 
and his ancestors. Moreover, they 
entered into negotiations with the 
English Parliament with regard to 
the custody of his person. And when 
Charles refused to sign the Covenant, 




FAIRFAX. 



234 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



to abolish the Episcopacy, to consign the land and naval forces to the control 
of the Parliament for twenty years, and to surrender his most faithful 
adherents to the revenge of his adversaries, the Scots sacrificed their king for 
a sum of money which they declared, to be due to the Presbyterian army for 
pay. He was handed over to the Parliament, and confined in the strong 
castle of Holmby, in January, 1647. 

Dissensions now sprang up between the Parliament, which was chiefly com- 
posed of Presbyterians, and the army, in which the Independents were pre- 
dominant in number and paramount in power, and which was completely 
under the control of Cromwell. In accordance with the secret command 
of that great chief, a certain Cornet Joyce, a devout Puritan, with a band of 
soldiers, carried off Charles from his place of detention at Holmby, and 
brought him to Hampton Court, where he was entirely in the power of the 
army. The Presbyterians were alarmed at this proceeding, and urged a 




CARISBROOKE CASTLE. 



reconciliation with the king. But the army had already approached the 
gates of London, and demanded the exclusion of eleven Presbyterians from 
Parliament. The Lower House submitted to this military dictation. The 
excluded members, however, among whom was Hollis, excited the citizens of 
London to insurrection, and these, with arms in their hands, threatened the 
Independents. Thereupon many members of Parliament, with the Speaker at 
their head, escaped and joined the army, which then marched into the capital 
and brought back the fugitives in triumph to their seats. The opposite 
party at last gave way to the overpowering influence of the Independents, 
who had now gained the upper hand both in Parliament and the army. 

During these eventful days Cromwell appeared at one time not disinclined 
to set up the king once more on the throne, and to content himself with some 
high office under him. The army had already become suspicious ; his 
fanatical supporters took umbrage, and the soldiers formed hostile organiza- 
tions. A fanatical sect called the Levellers demanded equality of all classes, 



THE LONG PARLIAMENT AND THE CIVIL WAR. 



235 



the abolition of the rights of property, a constitution by which the people 
could govern themselves, and perfect religious liberty without Church com- 
munities or any established form of divine worship. But Cromwell was soon 
convinced, by an intercepted letter, of the false intentions and double dealing 
of the king. Jie broke off the 
negotiations,^peedily regained his 
old influence, and by his resolu- 
tion and energy broke up the 
conspiracy of the Levellers, who 
were equally dreaded by the Pres- 
byterians and Independents. From 
that day forward irreconcilable 
hatred existed between Cromwell 
and the king. Once more, how- 
ever, Charles's star appeared to be 
in the ascendant. He escaped to 
the Isle of Wight at the very 
moment that the Scots, ashamed 
of having sold their sovereign for 
filthy lucre, took up arms in his 
defence ; and an alarming agitation 
arose in Wales and Ireland. But 
Cromwell's energy was equal to the 
danger. With a small army he 
repulsed the Scots, invaded their 
country, and compelled them to 
renew the alliance with England. 
The Parliament heard with secret BRADSHAW. 

dismay of Cromwell's victory ; for Charles, expectant of aid from Ireland 
and the Continent, rejected the final negotiations for peace on the part of 
the Presbyterians. 





CHARLES'S TRIAL AND DEATH. 

T the instigation of his fanatical son-in-law 
Ireton, Cromwell had already determined 
on Charles's death, though he continued to 
exhibit in Parliament the same Christian 
humility and devout temper. In accordance 
with his secret instructions, the army seized 
the person of the king, and placed him as a 
prisoner in a desolate, gloomy castle on the 
sea-coast. General Pride then surrounded 
the Parliament house with his troops (Dec. 1648), and caused eighty-one 
Presbyterian members, with Prynn among them, to be forcibly excluded. 
After this proceeding, which is known as Pride's purge, Cromwell took pos- 
session of the royal apartments at Whitehall. He was now lord and master ; 
and the so-called Rump Parliament, consisting of Independents, was only a 
feeble instrument in his hand. He at last determined to bring the king to 
trial for treason before a special tribunal, on the accusation of having made war 
on the Parliament. When the Upper House, which had dwindled down to 



236 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

twelve members, opposed this design, the Independents declared that " their 
will alone was law, as the source of all legitimate power was in the people, 
and that they alone were the people's representatives." Consequently 
" Charles Stuart" was four times examined before a "high court of justice," 
consisting of one hundred and thirty-five persons, and presided over by the 
learned lawyer Bradshaw ; and was finally sentenced to death as a tyrant, 
traitor, murderer, and enemy of his country. He was allowed three days for 
preparation and for taking leave of his children ; and was executed in front 
of Whitehall on the 3<Dth of January, 1649. An immense crowd silently 
beheld the awful and heartrending spectacle of his death ; not till the execu- 
tioner held up the lifeless, gory head by the hair and cried aloud : " This is 
the head of a traitor ! " did the assembled multitude give vent to their stifled 
feelings with a low shuddering groan. 



THE GEORGE OF CHARLES I. 








PERIOD OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 



VICTORIES OF CROMWELL. IRELAND : DROGHEDA AND WEXFORD. 
SCOTLAND : DUNBAR AND EDINBURGH. CHARLES II. IN ENGLAND. 
BATTLE OF WORCESTER. THE NETHERLANDS; WAR WITH 
HOLLAND. BLAKE, DE RUYTER, AND VAN TROMR CONSTITU- 
TIONAL STRUGGLES." BAREBONE'S " PARLIAMENT. THE PROTEC- 
TORATE. RICHARD CROMWELL. THE RESTORATION. SPAIN AND 
PORTUGAL. DEGENERACY OF SPAIN UNDER PHILIP III. AND PHILIP 
IV. OLIVAREZ THE COUNT-DUKE. REVOLT OF PORTUGAL FROM 
SPAIN. JOHN IV. AND HIS SUCCESSORS. NAPLES : RISING UNDER 
MASANIELLO. DEATH OF CHARLES II. OF SPAIN. 

CROMWELL'S VICTORIES. 




1 



Rump Parliament, which had dwindled 
away to eighty members, was now increased 
by fresh elections to one hundred and fifty, and, 
after the abolition of the Upper House, was in- 
vested, as the Parliament of England, with the 
highest power. The executive authority was 
placed in the hands of a Council of State, consist- 
ing of forty- two members, of whom Bradshaw 
was the president and Milton one of the secreta- 
ries. A high court of justice took cognizance of 
offences against the State, like the Star-chamber in former times. The Pres- 
byterian Church remained the prevailing form of religion ; but new sects 
arose, among which may be mentioned the community of Friends, popularly 
known by the name of Quakers, founded by the shoemaker George Fox. 

The news of the king's death produced great excitement in Scotland and 
Ireland. The chivalrous Montrose, who had long upheld the royal banner 
in the Highlands, was at last defeated by the army of the Covenanters. 
Nevertheless, after a short time, the Prince of Wales was summoned from 
Holland, and recognised as king Charles II., though he was first compelled 
to sign the Covenant and join the Presbyterian Churcl). Ireland also recog- 

237 



2 3 8 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



nised the new king, and took up arms in his support. Cromwell then advanced 
at the head of his army against the disobedient island, and after a series of 
victories completely quelled the rising insurrection ; but the severities exer- 
cised at Drogheda, Wexford, and elsewhere caused his name to be remembered 
for ages with equal terror and hatred. 

When Fairfax resigned his command, Cromwell was appointed as general 
in chief of the whole army, and went forth to do battle against the Presbyte- 
rian army in Scotland. After gain- 
ing a great victory at the battle of 
Dunbar, on an anniversary of his 
birthday (September 3rd, 1650), 
Cromwell conquered Edinburgh 
and advanced into the heart of 
Scotland. Charles II. had in the 
meantime been crowned at Scone, 
and he now formed a desperate re- 
solution, tie advanced across the 
border with his troops, and sum- 
moned all the adherents of royalty 
to his assistance. But fear and ir- 
resolution kept many from ventur- 
ing their lives and property on his 
behalf. Thus it happened that on 
the 3rd of September, 1651, the an- 
niversary of the battle of Dunbar, 
the Royalist army sustained a severe 
defeat near Worcester. This battle, 
which Cromwell used to designate 
as his "crowning mercy," rendered 
Charles a homeless fugitive; and 
amid dangers and privations, by 
men as the Penderells of Boscobel and trusty 




the 



MARQUIS OF MONTROSE 

help of such faithful 



Captain Tettersall, he escaped in disguise to France. Scotland was now 
compelled to submit to the sword of the Republican general Monk, and to 
agree to a union with the English Republic. 



THE NETHERLANDS. 

THE government of the British Commonwealth at first contemplated an 
alliance with the republic of the States General. When, however, the 
English ambassador was murdered at the Hague by some Royalist refugees, 
and the perpetrators were not expelled, a rupture took place between Great 
Britain and Holland. After the passing of the Navigation Act, in October, 
1651, which dealt a terrible blow at the international carrying trade of 
Holland, the war broke out. At first the Dutch maintained their renown in 
naval warfare ; great battles were fought, and the Dutch naval heroes, Van 
Tromp and De Ruyter sailed up the Thames and committed devastations on 
the shores. Soon, however, the English navy, which had been neglected under 
the Stuarts, received a powerful impetus ; the glorious days of the Armada 
returned ; and the English admiral Blake gained a victory in a three days' 
battle over Van Tromp and De Ruyter in 1653. Monk, who was equally 
experienced and successful in land and sea battles, increased the renown of 



PERIOD OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 239. 

England by new naval victories. Holland was obliged to conclude a dis- 
advantageous peace in April, 1654, to expel the Stuarts from the country, 
and to exclude the youthful prince William of Orange, son of a daughter of 
Charles I., from the Stadtholdership. The Navigation Act, however, remained 
in existence. A war with Spain also had a successful issue for Great Britain. 
The harbour of Dunkirk, then once more in the possession of the Spaniards, 
and the fruitful island of Jamaica, were added to the foreign territory of the 
republic. 




CROMWELL TURNING OUT THE LONG PARLIAMENT. 

CONSTITUTIONAL STRUGGLES. 

THE ambitious schemes of Parliament now filled Cromwell with appre- 
hension for the maintenance of his power ; he therefore decided on dis- 
solving the assembly. He surrounded the House with his troops, turned out 
the members by force, and caused a fresh assembly to be summoned, which 
was nicknamed the Barebone Parliament, from Barbon of Fleet Street, one 
of the members. The new members, however, by their projected reforms, 
excited a strong feeling of antagonism, and Cromwell took advantage of their 
unpopularity to dissolve Parliament once more. A new Constitution was then 



240 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



drawn up by General Lambert. A Parliament was to be formed of 400 
members and summoned every three years ; and in 1654 Cromwell was 
appointed Lord Protector, with the right of electing his successor. As Pro- 
tector, Cromwell established a rule of power and renown at home and abroad. 
France entered into an alliance with him ; Savoy was compelled to desist 
from the persecution of the Waldenses, when, as the protector of Protestantism, 
he exerted himself on their behalf ; Holland adopted a conciliatory policy ; 
and the English fleet rode triumphant in the Atlantic, and gained the victory 
completely over the power of Spain. At home, on the other hand, Cromwell 
had many opponents among the Republicans. Power in the hand of a single 
individual, who was not a legitimate heir to the throne, excited jealousy and 
discontent. For this reason Cromwell began to aspire to the royal title. 
Parliament was won over ; but the opposition of the officers and of the army 
compelled the Protector to relinquish the design. A prey to gloomy sus- 
picions, and saddened by many losses, especially by the death of his favourite 
daughter, Mrs. Claypole, and in constant dread of conspiracies, Cromwell died 
on September the third, 1658, on his birthday, which to him had always been 
a day of good fortune. He passed away in the firm belief that the grace 
of God had been vouchsafed to him. 



RENEWED CONFLICT, AND THE RESTORATION. 



OLIVER'S son, Richard Cromwell, 
a weak and frivolous man, suc- 
ceeded to his father in the office of 
Lord Protector. His quiet and do- 
mestic qualities, however, unfitted him 
for the high office he was called upon 
to fill, and he was soon embroiled both 
with the Parliament and the army, 
which was led by Monk and Lambert. 
The military power triumphed in the 
struggle ; Parliament was dissolved, 
and the old Rump Parliament was 
again summoned. Richard Cromwell 
was compelled to abdicate, and was 
glad to make his escape from the 
country. Soon there was a deadly 
quarrel between the army and the 
Rump Parliament, in which the ener- 
getic Haslerig once more raised his 
voice. Parliament was again dis- 
solved by force ; discontent and con- 
fusion prevailed everywhere, and a fresh civil war threatened to break out. 
The question whether it was practicable to restore the royal family to the 
throne began to occupy all minds. General Monk had already entered into 
secret negotiations with Charles Stuart, who was wandering with his exiled 
court in various places in the Netherlands ; but it was not until the Long 
Parliament was replaced by a new assembly, consisting chiefly of royalists, 
that the restoration of the Stuarts was finally decided on. The blind poet 
Milton in vain raised his voice in favour of a republican Constitution ; Monk, 
supported by the people, who longed for peace and order, and were accus- 




GENERAL MONK. 



PERIOD OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 



241 



tomed to monarchical institutions, offered Charles the royal crown, without 
placing any restrictions on his power. An amnesty and freedom of conscience 
were the only stipulations which the new 
king had to guarantee on his triumphant 
entry into London, on May 2Qth, 1660; and 
he did not keep faith even in this moderate 
concession. The English Church recovered 
again all its rights and benefices ; the power 
of the bishops prevailed once more in Eng- 
land and Scotland ; and the renewal of the 
Act of Uniformity compelled all to conform 
to the rites and accept the doctrines of the 
Episcopal system. In consequence of this, 
upwards of two thousand Puritan ministers 
lost their livings. The purchasers of confis- 
cated property were driven from their newly 
acquired possessions without compensation. 
Such a system of revenge created a new 
breach between throne and people, and laid 
the basis for a second revolution. JOHN MILTON. 




SPAIN AND PORTUGAL. 




LL through the reign of Philip III. (1598-1621) Spain 
afforded a sorrowful picture of the deepest degrada- 
tion. The king was governed by an all-powerful 
favourite, the Duke of Lerma, who squandered the 
State revenues, while the greatest distress and want 
prevailed throughout the kingdom. Trade and in- 
dustry fell into the hands of strangers, and oppressive 
taxation drained the resources of the kingdom. Still 
more lamentable was the condition of the country 
under Philip IV. (162 1-65), in spite of the efforts made 
by the powerful minister, the Count-Duke Olivarez, 
for the removal of abuses. In order to defray the cost 
of participation in the Thirty Years' War in Germany, and the campaigns in 
Italy and the Netherlands, it was necessary to levy fresh tolls and imposts. 
Crown property was sold, the colonies were drained of their wealth, and the 
right of appointing to benefices was assumed by the Crown. At last, when a 
disastrous war broke out with France, Olivarez decided to include the pro- 
vinces of Catalonia and Arragon under the same constitution as Castille, and, 
by the removal of all special provincial institutions, to introduce a uniform 
and universal method of government. The Catalonians protested, and a 
rising took place in Barcelona and the surrounding country. The French 
Government afforded the insurgents assistance, and an obstinate civil war 
took place which lasted ten years. France was on the point of extending her 
possessions as far as the Ebro for the simultaneous rebellion of Portugal, 
Andalusia, and Naples occupied the warlike forces of Spain ; but the internal 
disturbances of France under the ministry of Mazarin preserved Spain from 
dismemberment. Portugal alone shook off the heavy yoke of Spanish 
despotism. 

II. R 



242 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




WEDDING CASKET OF PHILIP III. OF SPAIN. 




PORTUGAL'S REVOLT FROM SPAIN. 

N the preceding period Portugal had been thoroughly 
roused into a state of excitement by the presumptuous 
arrogance of Spanish governors and officials, and by the 
unjust imposition of taxes. Following the example of 
Lisbon, the whole kingdom rose in insurrection ; and 
finally the Duke of Braganza, of the old royal family, 
ascended the throne of Portugal with the title of John IV. 
(1640-56). The European powers recognised the revolu- 
tion ; only the Papal See refused to acknowledge the restored kingdom, out of 
regard for Spain, for twenty-eight years. John IV. maintained himself with- 
out great effort against the feeble attacks of Spain, and was succeeded by his 
eldest son, Alphonso VI. (1656-67). But this king's weakness, incapacity, 
and immoral life brought on him the contempt of his people, and he was at 
last induced to abdicate the throne by Don Pedro, his younger brother, who 
assumed the office of regent until his death, and was then proclaimed King 
Peter II. (1683-1705). During his regency a peace was concluded with Hol- 
land, which secured to the Portuguese Brazil and the rest of their East Indian 
possessions. The war with Spain was also zealously prosecuted, and ended 
in the recognition on the part of the Court of Madrid of the independence of 
Portugal, in the Peace of Lisbon in 1668. The securing of the Portuguese 



PERIOD OF THE COMMONWEALTH. 



245 



throne was, however, disadvantageous to the liberty of the nation. The 
Cortes, which had obtained great power during the Revolution and the con- 
sequent wars and conflicts, soon proved troublesome to the princely house 
of Braganza. By degrees it ceased to be convoked, and King John V. (1705-50) 
reigned like a sovereign "who is king by right and by the will of God." 




EXPULSION OF MOORS FROM SPAIN. 



The insurrection of Catalonia and Portugal brought about the overthrow of 
Olivarez, and the elevation of Don Luis de Haro to the premiership. Soon 
the oppressive taxation and the recruiting for the army excited threaten- 
ing agitations in Naples and Sicily. The indignant populace rallied under 
the leadership of a fisherman of Atrani, called Tomaso Ahiello, or Masa- 
niello, took possession of the capital, and compelled the viceroy to seek 



244 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



protection in the citadel (1647). Masaniello subsequently fell a victim to an 
attack of insanity, consequent, it is said, upon a dose of poison ; nevertheless 
the rebellion was not repressed, and Naples was governed as a republic. Not 
until the Spanish Government ha4 recalled the unpopular vice-king, and 
lessened the burden of taxation, did tranquillity gradually return. 

Philip IV. was succeeded by his youthful son, Charles II. (1665-1700), for 
whom the new king's mother acted as regent. When, however, the dowager 
queen placed her entire confidence in a German Jesuit named Neidhard, the 
Spanish national pride was roused. Neidhard was summoned to Rome, but 
only to make way for an unworthy and incapable lover of the queen-mother. 
When the king at last assumed the reins of power, the condition of the coun- 
try was but little improved. In dire want of money, the Government, both at 
home and abroad, was without power or authority ; and at the same time there 
was an ambitious monarch on the throne of France, who wrested one tract 
of country after another from the Spanish kingdom, until at last he stretched 
out his hand to grasp the whole. When Charles II. died childless, the Haps- 
burg line became extinct in Spain, and the disastrous War of Succession was 
brought about. 





FRANCE UNDER RICHELIEU AND MAZARIN, 

AND LOUIS XIV. 



REGENCY OF MARIE DE MEDICIS. CONCINI, MARSHAL D'ANCRE; His 
ASSASSINATION. Louis XIII. AND DE LUYNES. SUPREMACY OF 
RICHELIEU ; His POLICY OF ABSOLUTISM. LA ROCHELLE AND 
THE HUGUENOTS. FOREIGN POLICY OF RICHELIEU. CARDINAL 
MAZARIN, THE PUPIL OF RICHELIEU. THE FRONDE RIOTS. ANNE 
OF AUSTRIA. END OF THE FRONDE DISTURBANCES. MAJORITY OF 
Louis XIV. COMPLETE TRIUMPH OF MAZARIN AT THE PEACE OF 
THE PYRENEES ; His DEATH. Louis XIV. AND HIS MINISTERS AND 
GENERALS ; His WARS. THE SPANISH WAR, 1662-1668. PEACE OF 
Aix LA CHAPELLE. THE DUTCH WAR, 1672-1679. INVASION OF 
THE NETHERLANDS. DISTRESS OF THE DUTCH. MURDER OF THE 
BROTHERS DE WITT. WILLIAM OF ORANGE. SPIRITED RESIST- 
ANCE. BRANDENBURG AND THE GREAT ELECTOR. FEHRBELLIN. 
THE PALATINATE. PEACE OF NYMEGUEN. 

MARIE DE MEDICIS AND Louis XIII. 

BY a decision of the Parliament of Paris, Marie 
de Medicis was appointed regent during the 
minority of her son, Louis XIII. A hostile party, 
however, soon arose, headed by the Prince de 
Conde, who, indignant at the power exercised by 
the queen's favourites, the Italian Leonore Galigai 
and her husband the Marquis d'Ancre, endeavoured 
to bring about a change in the administration. 
By means of gifts and annuities from the public 
treasury the weak queen at first purchased peace 
and tranquillity, which induced the Duke of Sully 
to take leave of " the temple of the goddess Mam- 
mon " in a haughty manifesto, and to retire to his province of Poitou. In 
vain did Louis XIII. summon for the last time the Estates of the empire ; 

245 




2 4 5 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




MURDER OF CONCINI, MARSHAL D'ANCRE. 

the prevailing discontent prevented any result being arrived at ; the nobility 
and clergy had the upper hand, and the tyranny of Marie and her favourites 
continued. At last Louis XIIL, at the instigation of his friend and comrade 
Luynes, determined to make a stand against the supremacy of the pre- 
sumptuous foreigners, and was finally induced, by representations as to the 
dangers which threatened himself and his empire, to give his consent to 
the assassination of the Marshal d'Ancre. The Italian was murdered at the 
entrance of the Louvre ; the queen-mother was banished to Blois ; and Armand 
Richelieu, bishop of Lugon, was compelled to quit the service of the State. 
But Louis XIIL was not independent enough to dispense with foreign 
guidance ; and Luynes now filled the post held by Marshal d'Ancre, attained 
to the dignities of duke and Constable, and disposed of the treasures and 
offices of the State according to his pleasure. The nation, however, gained 
nothing by the exchange ; de Luynes was as avaricious and incapable as his 
predecessor the Italian ; and the nobles, jealous of the supremacy of the new 
favourite, entered into an alliance with the queen-mother. Two courts and 
two factions thus stood opposed to each other. It is true that Richelieu, 
brought about an outward reconciliation between the mother and son, and 
thus gained for himself the cardinal's hat and paved the way for his return to 
the service of the State ; but the distrust and ill-feeling continued. And the 
party disputes of the nobles took an even more serious turn, when the Hugue- 
nots, indignant at the frequent violation of the Edict of Nantes, took up arms, 
and several nobles, in particular de Rohan and Soubise, placed themselves 
at their head. During the war which, on account of defective weapons and 
equipments, proved disastrous to the Huguenots de Luynes died (1621), to- 



FRANCE UNDER RICHELIEU AND MAZARIN, t ND LOUIS XIV. 247 






the joy both of the. nation and the king, who was already wearied of him. 
Soon afterwards Richelieu entered the Royal council, and through him the 
State received a powerful impetus. 

RICHELIEU. 

THIS great statesman re- 
tained for eighteen years 
an almost dictatorial power 
over the kingdom and the 
court, although he was no 
favourite with the king, and 
was unpopular with the queen 
and the nobility. His efforts 
were directed to the extension 
and consolidation of the power 
of France abroad, and to the 
elevation and strengthening of 
the royal power at home. To 
attain the first object, he re- 
turned to the old policy of the 
kings aimed at the weakening 
the Hapsburgs secured the 
influence of France in Italy, 
entered into alliances with the 
enemies of the Emperor in 
Germany, gave his support to 

LOUIS xm. the Dutch, and attacked Spain 

on the northern and southern 

frontier. His home policy aimed at the annihilation of all limitations and 
control of the royal power. With this object in view, he attacked the Hugue- 
nots, who had formed an almost independent federal State in the south and 
west of France, conquered their stronghold La Rochelle (1628) after a pro- 
longed siege, deprived them of their political power and independent re- 
publican institutions, but granted them in the Edict of Nimes religious liberty 
and equal rights with Catholic subjects. He also attempted to break the 
power of the nobles ; and when the queen-mother, Marie de Medicis, and her 
second son, Duke Gaston of Orleans, conspired for the overthrow of the hated 
cardinal, the queen was compelled to quit the kingdom, and the duke was 
overcome with arms in his hand, and was compelled to see his most faithful 
supporter, the brave Duke de Montmorenci, die by the hand of the executioner 
at Toulouse. Against the aristocracy in Parliament and the officials Richelieu 
also directed his attacks. By the introduction of edicts which proceeded 
from the minister himself, he weakened the power of provincial officials, and 
by the establishment of extraordinary courts of justice for political offences, 
he lessened the business sphere of the parliamentary courts. Thus, out of all 
the follies and conspiracies of political parties in France, as well as out of the 
weakness of the German Empire, and the feebleness of Spain, Richelieu made 
capital wherewith to strengthen the supreme power of the king. He also 
took up the position of lawgiver with regard to French literature, and by the 
establishment of the French Academy, consisting of forty members, en- 
deavoured to create a supreme court of taste and culture. 




2 4 8 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



MAZARIN AND THE FRONDE; 




i 



MAZARIN. 



N December of the year 
1642 Richelieu died, hated 
and feared by king and people. 
Louis XI II., a prince without 
either great vices or great 
virtues, and dependent on any 
one who knew how to obtain 
his favour, followed him to 
the grave, after a few months, 
in April, 1643. ^ n accordance 
with his last desire, a regency 
was then established, during 
the minority of his son, in 
which Queen Anne of Austria, 
a sister of Philip IV. of Spain, 
held only a subordinate place, 
and of which the Italian Maza- 
rin, the inheritor of Richelieu's 
office and political principles, 
was the practical head. Ma- 
zarin's administration was, 
however, unpopular with the 
nobility, and they soon formed 
a party, with the Duke of Beaufort at their head, with the object of annulling 
the testament of Louis XI II., and placing the regency solely in the hands 
of the queen. But Anne was not inclined to submit to those limitations 
of the royal power which Richelieu had set aside. Scarcely was she ap- 
pointed regent, than she took as her adviser Cardinal Mazarin, the diplomatic, 
subtle, and ambitious statesman who alone seemed to hold the threads of 
policy in the labyrinth of European state-craft Mazarin endeavoured to 
justify her confidence by the greatest devotion to France. The deceived 
nobles now allied themselves with the Parliament, to bring about the removal 
of the minister ; and their agitation gave rise to the War of the Fronde (1648- 
53). This war was commenced by arbitrary imprisonment of some members 
of Parliament (Blancmenil and Broussel), who opposed Mazarin's irregular 
method of taxation ; the citizens of Paris rose in rebellion, erected barricades, 
and compelled the surrender of the prisoners. The most prominent members 
of the popular party were the intellectual Paul de Conti, and Cardinal de 
Retz, who made common cause with the Parliament in demanding the dis- 
missal of Mazarin. The queen escaped with her family and with the out- 
lawed and unpopular minister to St. Germain, and left the great Conde 
(due d'Enghien), who had distinguished himself in the Thirty Years' War by 
the victories of Rocroy and Sens against the Spaniards in the Netherlands, 
to carry on the conflict with the citizens in the capital ; but in the end the 
court found itself compelled to surrender; and concluded a peace with Parlia- 
ment, in which it was stipulated that the taxes were to be lessened, and the 
personal safety of members of Parliament against arbitrary imprisonment was 
secured. Conde now behaved with arrogance and presumption towards the 
court, on the strength of the services he had rendered ; and the queen, in order 



FRANCE UNDER RICHELIEU AND MAZARIN, AND LOUIS XIV. 249 

to effect his overthrow, entered into negotiations with the heads of the Fronde, 
which resulted in the imprisonment of the Prince, with his brother Conti, and 
his brother-in-law Longueville. This unnatural alliance, however, could not 
be of long duration ; the clamour for the dismissal of the minister became 
more and more ominous, and the cardinal at last found himself obliged to quit 
France for a time. He however retained the unalterable regard of the queen, 
who treated him with such affection that a secret marriage was even suspected 
between them. He now exercised as much influence from Cologne, where he 
had taken up his residence, as he had formerly done in Paris ; and when Conde 
persisted in his implacable animosity towards the queen, he at last made 
preparations for marching to Paris at the head of a large and devoted army. 




Parliament now set a price upon his head ; and the great Conde, who was once 
more regarded with suspicion, entered into an alliance with the Fronde, and, 
in conjunction with the Duke of Orleans, raised the standard of civil war at 
the same time that the youthful king Louis XIV. attained his majority and 
assumed the reins of government (1651). A violent struggle commenced; 
the citizens of Paris took part with the prince and his adherents ; but Conde, 
after the celebrated battle in the suburb St. Antoine, was compelled to with- 
draw to the south, and the Royalists soon asserted their supremacy in the 
capital. Mazarin returned in triumph ; at the gates of the capital he was 
received by the king and the youthful nobility ; and soon afterwards Bordeaux, 
the headquarters of the insurrection, also opened its gates to him. 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




MAZARIN'S TRIUMPHAL ENTRY INTO PARIS. 



MAZARIN'S DEATH. 




M 



AZARIN'S triumphal 
entry into Paris was the 
signal that the absolute royal 
power, with the aid of the 
military forces, had proved 
victorious, and that henceforth 
the will of the monarch would 
be paramount. For six years 
the minister enjoyed in France 
and Europe an influence such 
as Richelieu had scarcely pos- 
sessed. Cardinal de Retz and 
Conde were compelled to leave 
the country ; Mazarin's nieces, 
Italians without name or posi- 
tion, were richly dowered, and 
were sought in marriage by 
distinguished suitors ; and the 
members of Parliament were 
compelled to submit to his 
mandates. Louis XIV. was 
now able to assert the principle : L'Etat, c'est moi. The peace of the Pyrenees 
with Spain was Mazarin's last achievement (Nov., 1659). By this treaty 



LOUIS XIV. 



FRANCE UNDER RICHELIEU AND MAZARIN, AND LOUIS XIV. 251. 

France obtained, in the north, Artois and Arras, and several places in Flanders 
and Luxembourg ; in the south, Perpignan and Rousillon, with the Italian 
Pignerol ; and Louis, who, at the earnest solicitation of the cardinal, sacrificed 
his affection for Mazarin's beautiful niece for the welfare of the State, obtained 
the hand of the Infanta Maria Theresa. Soon afterwards the minister died 
(March, 1661), leaving behind him an immense property, valuable books and 
works of art, and splendid palaces and gardens. His death occurred at the 
moment when Louis was beginning to weary of him, and longed to take the 
reins of government in his own strong hand. Mazarin's niece Olympia, who 
was ultimately married to the Count of Soissons, of the Savoy-Carignan line, 
was the mother of Prince Eugene. Long held in favour by the king, she 
subsequently fell into his ill-graces, and took up her abode at Brussels. 




THE "BRODHUIS" IN THE MARKET-PLACE, BRUSSELS. 



Louis XIV. AND HIS MINISTERS AND GENERALS. 

IN Louis XIV. (1643-1715) the royal supremacy reached its highest point. 
The whole public life revolved round the court and the person of the 
monarch. To estimate the various aspects of the long and brilliant reign 
of Louis XIV, the four leading characteristics of his nature must be kept 
in view ; desire for power, pride, love of splendour, and religious devo- 
tion. The first led him to plunge all Europe into ferment by four bloody^ 
wars ; his pride made him claim precedence for the court of Versailles : his 



252 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



love of splendour made France the model of taste in art, literature, fashion, 
and social institutions ; and the religious devotion, which now and then pene- 
trated his sinful life, impelled him to the persecution of the Huguenots. All 
his actions, moreover, had their origin ip the aristocratic temper of the despot, 
who also gave evidence of his love of governing by enduring no prime minister 
after Mazarin's death, and by compelling immediate reference to be made to 
himself by all the different ministers. The most distinguished servants of the 
Crown at this period were Colbert, the controller-general, who administered 
the finances of the kingdom with such wisdom, that he not only procured 
money for the costly wars, for brilliant festivals, and for the bribery of foreign 
ministers without oppressive measures, but also gave fresh impetus to the 
industries of France by encouraging manufactures and commerce ; the 
chancellor Le Tellier, who undertook the administration of home affairs ; and 
his ambitious son the war minister, Louvois (1666), famed for his new and 
excellent organization of the army. Colbert's son also, the Marquis of 
Seignelai (died 1690), and his brother Croissy Colbert, now won high distinc- 
tion as ministers. The royal troops were commanded by Turenne, Conde, 
Luxembourg; and Du Quesne and Tourville conferred great renown on the 
naval power. 



THE FIRST Two WARS. -THE SPANISH WAR (1667-1668). 

AFTER Louis XIV. had devoted the first years of 
his reign to forming alliances with the Princes 
of the Rhine, and to asserting the pre-eminence of 
France over England, over Spain, which yielded the 
precedence to the French ambassador, and even over 
the Pope, he seized the opportunity occasioned by 
the death of his father-in-law Philip IV. of Spain, to 
lay claim, in the name of his wife, to the Spanish 
Netherlands. He himself subjugated with but little 
trouble trie free dukedom of Burgundy (Franche- 
Comte), while his generals made easy and rapid con- 
quests in Flanders. The impotence of the Spanish 
Government during the minority of the Spanish king Charles II., and the 
dissensions of the Orange and Republican parties in the Netherlands, favoured 
the enterprise. The rapid advance of the ambitious king meanwhile filled 
the Dutch with apprehension. Under the mediation, therefore, of the British 
ambassador, Sir William Temple, a league was formed with England, which, 
after Sweden had joined it, was called the Triple Alliance, and which aimed 
at the maintenance of the Spanish rule in Flanders and Brabant. In con- 
sequence of this, Louis XIV. found himself compelled to agree to the Peace 
of Aix la Chapelle (May, 1668), in which the conquered Dutch towns of 
Charleroi, Douai, Tournai, Courtrai, Lille, and Oudenarde remained in the 
hands of the French, but Franche-Comte was given back to the Spaniards. 




FRANCE UNDER RICHELIEU AND MAZARIN, AND LOUIS XIV. 253 



THE DUTCH WAR (1672-79). 







EVEN before the declaration of war 
against the States General, Louis 
had taken possession of Lorraine, 
whose duke, Charles 1 1 1. (IV.), alarmed 
at the aggressive proceedings of 
France, had entered into an alliance 
with the Dutch. The king now 
marched at the head of a well- 
equipped army commanded by the 
excellent generals Conde, Turenne, 
and Vauban, through the territory 
of the Elector of Cologne, who had 
allowed himself to be persuaded by 
the ambitious Furstenberg into an 
alliance with the enemy of the Em- 
pire "for the sake of the Catholic 
religion," forced his passage across the 
Rhine near Tolhuis, and penetrated 
in rapid marches into the heart of 
the States General. Holland was now in dire perplexity. Many of the in- 
habitants escaped to Zealand, and even to Hamburg and Denmark. The 
Republicans, who had hitherto controlled the State, had been more intent on 
the extension of the naval power than on the maintenance and increase of 
the land forces ; and though the great Elector of Brandenburg, the uncle of 
the young William of Orange, out of apprehension for his hereditary lands 
and for the threatened Evangelical faith, espoused the cause of the oppressed 
nation, neither his forces nor the Dutch troops were able to resist the 
superior strength of the enemy. Liege, Utrecht, and other towns fell into 
the hands of the invaders ; French dragoons already penetrated into the 
province of Holland, and approached within two miles of the capital. The 
terrified Republicans begged humbly for peace ; but, in spite ol the offer of a 
large indemnity and of the surrender of some provinces, they obtained no 
hearing. Not till they had given up Gelderland with Nymeguen, and had 
secured to the Catholics free exercise of their religion and access to public 
offices, was peace granted to them. Had the king taken Conde's advice, and 
marched on Amsterdam, Holland would have been lost. Louvois' counsel, to 
capture the fortresses first, and secure them with garrisons, weakened the 
French forces, and gave the Dutch time to collect their strength. Louis, who 
desired only fame and profit, but disliked the hardships of a campaign, soon 

in Holland the Orange party, 
force of arms, took 



hastened back to his court festivals ; while 



energetic 



after having asserted their supremacy by 
measures for the protection of their Country. 

The adherents of the prince shifted the whole blame of their national 
misfortune on to the Republicans, who had left the country in an insufficient 
state of defence ; they also blamed the Grand Pensionary De Witt for the 
arrangement with France, and excited such an agitation among the people, 
that they not only demanded arid obtained the abolition of the perpetual 
edict and the reinstatement of the Prince of Orange in the stadtholdership of 
Holland and Zealand, but the noble-minded John de Witt and his brother 
Cornelius were murdered in a popular rising in the streets of the Hague, and 



254 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



their corpses were derided and insulted by the enraged mob (August, 1672). 
Disgraceful as this deed was for Holland and the Prince, it gave the State 
unity and power. The turbulent popular spirit had with terrible instinct 
recognised and chosen the way to deliverance. 



^^ -=^ _= - =^=^. . -im^B 




SHIPS AND GALLEYS, FROM AN OLD PRINT. 




WILLIAM OF ORANGE. 

WILLIAM III. of Orange (1672-1702), on 
whom had descended both the wise circum- 
spection, the strength of character, and the talent 
for generalship of his predecessors, inspired the 
disputants with warlike temper and patriotic en- 
thusiasm. He was resolved to maintain the Re- 
public, the guidance of which had now fallen into 
his own hands, in its full integrity, and in com- 
plete religious and political independence. The 
Dutch now pierced through the dams, and made 
their inundated country inaccessible to the French ; 
the walls of Groningen long kept the enemy at 
bay ; storms destroyed the English-French fleet 
which had cast anchor in the Texel, and the bold 
march of the Marshal of Luxemburg to Amster- 
dam on the frozen waters was suddenly frustrated 
by the setting in of a thaw. Thus the elements 
and the nature of the country united in supporting 
the patriotic efforts of the Dutch. At the same 
time the great Elector of Brandenburg, who with 



FRANCE UNDER RICHELIEU AND MAZARIN, AND LOUIS XIV. 255 

patriotic feeling had resisted all the allurements of France, induced the 
Emperor Leopold to take part in the war. The appearance of their united 
troops on the Lower and Middle Rhine compelled Marshal Turenne to change 
the seat of hostilities. It is true that Frederick William found himself com- 
pelled in the following year to conclude a neutral treaty with the French (June, 




PAYING HOMAGE TO THE GREAT ELECTOR AT KON1GSBERG. 

1673), because the Imperial general Montecuculli had received instructions 
from his court not to engage in any battle, and thus was obliged to adopt 
such a doubtful attitude that the Brandenburg and Austrian troops were 
not a match for the French. When, however, the French sovereign seized 
Trier, Cleves, and other places, gained possession of several Imperial towns 
in Alsace, and made known his arrogance by an inconsiderate violation ot 
the German territory and the old guaranteed rights, Leopold at last declared 
open war, in which Spain also joined. 



2 5 6 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

SASSBACH AND FEHRBELLIN. 



BUT as the number of her enemies increased, so also did France's military 
resources. Turenne crossed the Rhine and carried his devastations into 
Franconia ; while Conde and Luxemburg subjugated Franche-Comte, and 
did battle with the Spanish-Dutch 'forces in the Netherlands. With the 
incapacity and the equivocal attitude of the Imperial generals and the dissen- 



.--,- 




A MEDIEVAL CUSTOM. THE PILLORY. 



sions of the German princes, the conquests of France would have been even 
more brilliant, had not the great Elector and the talented and brave William 
of Orange, who maintained his position in the bloody battle of Senef (August, 
1674) against the impetuous Conde, saved the honour of warfare until mat- 
ters took another turn. 

^ About this time, when the English Parliament had compelled the king and 
his ministry to relinquish the naval war, and to conclude peace for a sum of 



FRANCE UNDER RICHELIEU AND MAZARIN AND LOUIS XIV. 257 






indemnity, the spiritual princes of Cologne and Munster were compelled by the 
Diet of the Empire to renounce the French alliance ; and the Imperial generals 
induced the Emperor to dismiss the minister Lobkowitz, who had been bribed 
by France. The result was soon apparent. The French found themselves com- 
pelled, after the unsuccessful battle of Sassbach (July, 1675), when Turenne was 
killed by a cannon-ball, to quit the right bank of the Rhine, and retreat across 
the river. Shortly before the battle, Louis XIV. had induced his allies, the 
Swedes, to invade the Brandenburg territory, in order to compel the great 
Elector and his brave general, Derflinger, to withdraw from the army on the 
Rhine. Before the enemy had the slightest suspicion, the energetic prince 
appeared in the Palatinate, which had been cruelly devastated by Sweden 
defeated the surprised Swedish army in the glorious battle of Fehrbellin (June, 
I ^7S)> an d conquered Stettin and the greater part of Pomerania, while the 
Dutch and Danish fleets took possession of Riigen, Gothland, and other places. 
This battle laid the foundation of Prussia's greatness. Henceforth the war 
was carried on principally in the Netherlands, where William III., on whom 
the stadtholdership had been conferred as the hereditary dignity of his family, 
held the field with honour, in spite of the superior power of the French. The 
barbarous system of land devastation, practised by the French, was now con- 
tinued on the Moselle and the Saar ; but when England seemed about to 
conclude an alliance with Holland, and thus increase the number of France's 
enemies, Louis decided to put an end to the strife. The Peace of Nymeguen 
was then arranged (February, 1679), which was as advantageous for France 
and Holland as it was disgraceful for the Emperor, the Empire, and the other 
participators in the war. France gave back to Holland all her conquests, 
but obtained from Spain the often won, and often forfeited Burgundian free 
dukedom, and all the strong places in a line from Valenciennes, Conde, and 
Maubeuge (so that the Spanish Netherlands stood open to the French without 
any protection), and received from Germany, instead of the surrendered right 
of garrisoning Philipsburg, the more important town of Freiburg in Breisgau. 




MARSHAL TURENNE. 



II. 




FRANCE IN THE PERIOD OF LOUIS XIV. AND 
ABSOLUTE RULE. 

POWER AND PROSPERITY OF THE "GRAND MONARQUE." GREAT AND 
COSTLY ENTERPRISES AND SCHEMES. COLONIAL POSSESSIONS. 
JANSENISM. BLAISE PASCAL. PERSECUTION OF THE HUGUENOTS. 
REVOCATION OF THE EDICT OF NANTES. DRAGONNADES. ARRO- 
GANCE OF Louis XIV. DIFFICULTIES OF AUSTRIA. AGGRESSIVE 
AMBITION OF THE FRENCH KING. THE " IRON MASK." AFFAIRS OF 
AUSTRIA. THE TURKS BEFORE VIENNA. HEROISM OF JOHN SOBIESKI. 

PROSPERITY OF Louis XIV. 



FROM the Peace of Nymeguen 
till the end of the century, 
France was at the summit of her 
power abroad, and of her pros- 
perity at home, so that the century 
of Louis XIV. is glorified in the 
annals of history as the golden age 
of France. In the universal pros- 
perity of the kingdom men saw 
the splendid fruits of Colbert's 
labours. Manufactures and indus- 
tries of all kinds had increased, and there existed a large foreign trade which, 
on account of the extraordinary power possessed by the king in Europe, was 
carried on on the most advantageous terms. France had also become a naval 
power ; she possessed a hundred ships of the line, while England had only 

258 




FRANCE IN THE PERIOD OF LOUIS XIV. AND ABSOLUTE RULE. 259 

sixty. Marseilles and Toulon were the principal depots of Levantine trade ; 
at Pondicherry there arose the first French colony in the East Indies ; in 
Cayenne, St. Domingo, Madagascar, and other places settlements were made ; 
Canada raised itself by royal support from the state of weakness and danger 
in which it had existed, and the Antilles were again brought into close alli- 
ance with the mother country. Splendid buildings, such as the Hotel des 
Invalides, noble libraries, institutions for natural science, astronomy, etc., and 
academies for art and science increased the splendour and renown of the 
great monarch. 

JANSENISM. 

SINCE religious matters had given place to the policy of States, temporal 
interests had gained the ascendant among the order of Jesuits, and the 
power and wealth of the Society was made the paramount object. The con- 
sequence was, that the Jesuits in their teaching adapted themselves more to 
the tendencies of the age. The doctrines of mental reservation and of the 
sanctification of means to the end were still further extended by the theory 
of Probability, according to which, a man in a doubtful or equivocal case is 
equally justified in taking the probably true or the probably false view of the 
matter. These teachings were opposed by the pious Jansen, bishop of Ypres, 
who, in his book on "Augustine," re-asserted the old severe doctrine of that 
father of the Church. His theories, which aimed at the awakening of religious 
feeling and of inward Christian sentiments, won in particular many adherents 
among the nuns of the cloister of Port Royal, which became the head-quarters 
of the movement ; and some of the first thinkers in France, such as Arnauld, 
Pascal, Nicole, etc., also endorsed the Jansenist teaching. A long feud was 
carried on between the contending sects, in which members of the most dis- 
tinguished noble families took part, until the " Peace of the Church " was 
brought about through the mediation of Louis XIV. 

Among the most eminent Jansenists was Pascal, who was equally dis- 
tinguished as an intellectual writer and as a philosopher and mathematician. 
His chief works are his " Provincial Letters," an attack upon the casuistry of 
the Jesuits, and his " Pensees," published by his friends after his death. 

PERSECUTION OF THE HUGUENOTS. 

EUIS* conviction that the unity of the Church was necessary for the 
true maintenance of the monarchy had caused him to become the 
oppressor of the Jansenists and the persecutor of the Calvinists and Hugue- 
nots. For a long time Colbert, who prized the Huguenots as honest and 
industrious citizens, had succeeded in averting any arbitrary measures ; but 
his judicious counsel was at length over-ruled by the personal friends and 
advisers of the king. To bring down the resolute demeanour of the Hugue- 
not citizens, Louis at last caused the oppressive Dragonnades to be organized. 
At the command of Louvois, regiments of cavalry were quartered in the 
dwellings of Huguenots in the southern districts of the Pyrenees, the Garonne, 
and the Rhone. Soon all the prosperity of the industrious citizens had 
vanished ; their property was squandered by the rude dragoons, who subjected 
them to every kind of brutality and ill-treatment. Thousands escaped from 
the country, to preserve their faith on foreign soil ; but in the prisons of 
Toulouse there languished at this time no less than sixty reforming preachers. 




ROME AND THE LANZKNECHTE. 




FRANCE IN THE PERIOD OF LOUIS XIV. AND ABSOLUTE RULE. 261 

The distress increased, however, when the king decided on the revocation of 
the Edict of Nantes (Oct., 1685), which inaugurated a new period of oppres- 
sion and persecution. The Huguenots were now plungecl in despair ; their 
religious worship was entirely prohibited, their churches were destroyed, their 
schools closed, and their preachers banished from the country. In spite of 
every attempt to stop emigration, 500,000 French Calvinists left their homes 
and carried their industry, faith, and devotion into foreign lands ; but in 
France the great and envied prosperity of the southern provinces was a 
thing of the past. 



ARROGANCE OF Louis XIV., AND AUSTRIA'S DILEMMA. 



HE articles of the Peace of Nymeguen had been accepted by 
the European powers exactly as they had been drawn up 
by the king of France, who exercised a close personal in- 
fluence over the negotiations. Encouraged by this timidity 
of demeanour, Louis now proceeded to the unprecedented 
" Reunions." While during the war he had already subju- 
gated the ten Alsacian district towns, and caused them to be 
fortified, he now laid claim to a number of places and posses- 
sions, on the plea that they had formerly belonged to the 
districts ceded to France in the treaties of Westphalia and Nymeguen, and 
that consequently he had a right to them. 

In order to give the measure an appearance of legality, Louis established 
at Metz, Besangon, Doornik, and Breisach the so-called Cameralia, or chamber 
tribunals, and thus became, in his own single person, accuser, judge, and 
executive. During the peace Louis also obtained possession, with the assist- 
ance of the treacherous bishop of Furstenberg and a few corrupt councillors, 
of the free town of Strasbourg. The once free citizens were compelled on 
their knees to take the oath of subjection to the foreign despot ; the cathedral 
was once more given up to Catholic worship ; the arsenal was emptied. 

Instead of punishing the presumption of the French king, and giving heed 
to the admonitions of William of Orange, the Emperor, Spain, and the divided 
German Empire concluded with the despotic monarch a twenty years' truce at 
Regensburg (Aug., 1684), in which all the districts and territories taken by 
Louis, including Strasbourg, were formally surrendered. But the patient 
endurance of his neighbours only increased Louis' avarice and ambition. 
Not only were religious perscutions, in spite of the express stipulation of the 
treaty, commenced against the Protestants in Alsace ; but the limitations of 
the frontier were violated ; the Chamber of Metz took possession, in the name 
of France, of the most important towns and districts in Lorraine as fiefs of 
the three bishoprics, and Louvois and his despotic sovereign even extended 
their violent measures to Italy. Casale, the key to Milan, was invested at the 
same time as Strasbourg, and the treacherous, equivocal diplomatist Matthioli 
was imprisoned for life (under the disguise of the "iron mask"?); proud 
Genoa also did penance for its devotion to its ancient liberties, by a terrible 
bombardment, and was compelled to offer a humble apology at Versailles 
for having shown more partisanship for Spain than for France (1684). The 
world was enslaved with terror. 




262 






FRANCE IN THE PERIOD OF LOUIS XIV. AND ABSOLUTE RULE. 263 

THE TURKS BEFORE VIENNA. 

DURING the whole of this period the Emperor Leopold was engaged 
in the east of his empire. In Hungary the persecutions of the Pro- 
testants by the Austrian government, the violation of civil rights, and the 
tyrannical treatment of some magnates had excited dangerous rebellions just 
at the time when some enterprising grand viziers were renewing former plans 
of conquest and awakening the warlike spirit of their masters. The prince 
of Transylvania was compelled to pay the Porte a high tribute ; and when the 
nobility of the country endeavoured, with assistance from Austria, to shake 
off the Turkish yoke, Transylvania was not only placed in a condition of 
greater subjection, but the Osmanli invested the whole of southern Hungary, 
and would have penetrated even further had not Montecuculi's brilliant 
victory near the St. Gothard stopped their course. When the armed truce 
concluded, the Turks afforded the Austrian government, and in particular the 
hostile minister Lobkowitz, an opportunity for the gradual annihilation of 
Hungarian rights and liberties. 

But these violent measures awakened the patriotism and warlike courage 
of the Hungarians. Emmerich Tokoli, an energetic, talented nobleman, 
whose property had been confiscated, raised the banner of insurrection ; he 
received assistance from Louis XIV. and from the Porte, which recognised 
him as tributary king of Hungary, and once more carried war into the heart 
of Austria for his protection (1682). With an army of 200,000 men the 
grand-vizier Kara Mustapha advanced before the walls of Vienna. But for 
sixty days the brave citizens, under the command of Riidiger von Staremberg, 
resisted every attack, until the Imperial army, led by Charles of Lorraine, 
and an allied Polish army, under the heroic king John Sobieski, came to the 
assistance of the oppressed town. A bloody battle under the walls of Vienna 
was decided against the Turks, and they retired precipitately, leaving im- 
mense booty in the hands of the victors. Charles of Lorraine conquered one 
Hungarian town after another ; and when Ofen, which had belonged to the 
Turks for 146 years, also fell into the hands of the Austrians, Leopold 
believed that his long-cherished plans towards Hungary could be carried out. 
The tribunal of Eperies deprived the nobility of its most enterprising leaders, 
and so terrified the nation, that the States at the Diet of Presburg agreed to 
the abolition of the elective sovereignty, and surrendered the important right 
of opposing unconstitutional regulations. 

The Osmanli, who had been completely defeated in the Morea and in 
ancient Hellas, and had been driven by the Austrians out of Hungary and 
Transylvania, deposed their sultan and established another in his place ; 
but Charles of Lorraine, Prince Eugene, and Louis of Baden maintained the 
victory for the banner of Austria. Belgrade, however, came again into the 
hands of the Turks in 1688 ; but Louis of Baden's brilliant victory near 
Salankemen in 1691, when 26,000 Turks, including the grand-vizier himself, 
lay slain on the battle-field, and the bloody battle of Zeutha on the Theiss 
(1697), at last compelled the Porte to agree to the Peace of Carlo witz (Jan. 
1699). Transylvania and all the country between the Danube and the Theiss 
were ceded to Austria ; Morea and a few islands fell to Venice ; and Russia, 
which had also at the last taken part in the war, retained the captured town 
of Asow. Thus Austria came forth with honour from a conflict which had 
begun so ominously. Count Tokoli, on whom the Sultan conferred the title 
of a Prince of Widdin, died (1705) an exile, on an estate near Nicomedia, far 
from the home whose liberation had been the object of his life. 




ENGLAND UNDER CHARLES II., JAMES II., AND 
WILLIAM III. AND MARY II. 



CHARLES II. PLAGUE AND FIRE OF LONDON. CONVENTICLE ACT. 
EDICT OF TOLERATION. TEST ACT. CAREER OF SHAFTESBURY. 
GATES AND BEDLOE. RYE HOUSE PLOT. FATE OF LORD WILLIAM 
RUSSELL AND ALGERNON SYDNEY. REIGN OF JAMES II. ILLEGAL 
ACTION OF THE KING. THE REBELLION OF 1688. WILLIAM III. 
AND MARY II. CONSTITUTIONAL GOVERNMENT AND BILL OF 
RIGHTS. ACCESSION OF ANNE. 



CHARLES II. (1660-1685). 

THE reign of the frivolous, weak, and voluptuous 
Charles II. was disastrous for England. Neither 
his father's fate nor his own painful experiences served 
him as a lesson or warning. Scarcely was the ven- 
geance of the royalists on the Puritans and Republicans 
pacified, when the country was visited with heavy 
calamities. A contagious disease plunged into the 
grave in a single summer a hundred thousand in- 
habitants of the capital (1665) ; in the following year 
two-thirds of London was consumed by flames (13,000 
houses and 89 churches) ; and soon afterwards the 
Dutch fleet navigated the Thames, burnt the ships 
of war, and captured several vessels. The frivolous 
king made but little attempt at resistance ; and 
with shameless disregard of patriotic or honourable feeling, he sold to 
France the town of Dunkirk, which had been gained by Cromwell, and 

squandered away the purchase-money on his own pleasures ; and when 

264 




CHARLES II., JAMES II., AND WILLIAM III. AND MARY II. 265 




LONDON DURING THE FIRE. 

the extravagance of his court increased his debts and need of money, and 
Parliament was not so liberal in its grants as he desired, he listened to the 
enticing suggestions of France, and bartered the honour and well-being of his 
country and his own faith for 
money, and became a pensioner 
of Louis XIV. The Duke of 
York, the king's brother, changed 
his religion ; he entered the 
Roman Church, and also in- 
duced his wife, Anne Hyde, a 
daughter of the minister Claren- 
don, the Royalist historian of the 
English " Rebellion," to take the 
same step ; and Charles 1 1. only 
concealed his Catholic convic- 
tions within his own breast by 
the advice of Louis XIV., who 
feared that a. sudden conversion 
would be fraught with danger to 
the throne and injury to his own 
interests. The people, however, 
suspected their king's change of 
faith, although they only ob- 
tained proof of it when Charles, 
on his death-bed, took the Sacra- 
ment according to the Catholic 
ntes. JOHN DE WITT. 




266 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



CONVENTICLE ACT. -EDICT OF TOLERATION. TEST ACT. 




THE promise that had been given by Charles II. 
at the time of the Restoration, permitting per- 
fect freedom of conscience, remained unfulfilled 
as long as the majority of the English nation and 
the intolerant clergy were intent on venting all their 
anger on the Puritans for the humiliation they had 
suffered at their hands. In accordance with the new 
Act of Uniformity, now passed, the king suffered two 
thousand Puritan ministers to be deprived of their 
livings, and thus plunged, with their wives and families, 
into complete misery ; and when the deceived and 
outraged preachers endeavoured to institute secret 
services of devotion, they were debarred from even 
this consolation by the passing of the Conventicle Act, which declared all 
religious meetings of more than five persons at which the Book of Common 
Prayer was not used, to be unlawful, and threatened with heavy punishment 
those who took part in them. This Conventicle Act was also extended to 
Scotland, where the Episcopal system was introduced in all its severity ; only 
to the most moderate Presbyterians a sort of toleration was granted under 
the name of an indulgence. But when the Episcopalians had sated their 
vengeance on the Dissenters, and the severity of the Nonconformist laws be- 
gan to affect the Catholics also, Charles again recollected his promise, and 
endeavoured to mitigate the oppression. He therefore, without reference to 
Parliament, issued the Edict of Toleration, in which he assumed the power of 
suspending all penal laws against the Nonconformists, of permitting religious 
services in appointed places, and of placing the dissenting clergy under the 
protection of the authorities. But this measure excited such indignation 
throughout the whole kingdom, that the king found himself obliged, not only 
to withdraw the measure, but also to confirm the Test Act demanded by 
Parliament, according to which all who refused to render the oath of fidelity, 
to partake of the Sacrament according to the rites of the Anglican Church, 
and to sign a declaration rejecting the doctrine of transubstantiation, were 
declared incapable of holding any office or military post, or of being elected 
to Parliament or the Council of State. The Duke of York would not tender 
the Test oath, but laid down his office of High Admiral. 

After the death of his first wife, Anne Hyde, the Duke of York became 
still more unpopular, when he espoused as his second wife a Catholic princess, 
Mary of Modena, of the d'Este family. The Duke's two daughters, Mary, 
who married William, the Stadtholder of Holland, and Anne, who became 
the wife of Prince George of Denmark, remained Protestants. 




CHARLES II., JAMES II., AND WILLIAM III. AND MARY II. 267 

SHAFTESBURY'S CAREER. 

A?TER eight years' honourable administration of 
his office, Charles's minister Clarendon fell into 
ill favour with the king and the nation. He was 
disgraced; and, being deprived of his office, was forced 
to end his days as an exile in foreign lands (1668). 
A ministry, called, after the initials of its mem- 
bers (Clifford, Ashley, Buckingham, Arlington, and 
Lauderdale), the Cabal ministry, conducted the 
government according to the king's pleasure, from 
1669 to 1674, without regard for the rights and 
honour of the nation. Once more a violent conflict 
arose between the sovereign, who strove for supreme power, and the Parlia- 
ment, which defended the rights of the people and the religion of the country. 
Supported by this ministry, Charles now undertook the unpopular war with 
Holland, which brought to himself French gold for his partisanship, but to 
his country loss and dishonour. Bribery and venality were now no longer 
considered disgraceful in higher circles. In vain did Parliament, at the end of 
a few years, urge the king to put an end to the war. Charles, who was appre- 
hensive on the score of his pecuniary interests with the French king, allowed 
his natural son Monmouth, with some thousands of English soldiers, to enter 
into the pay of the French ; and when the Lower House urgently demanded 
the recall of these troops, the king, who was once more bought over by Louis 
XIV., prorogued the Parliament, and bound himself by a contract to enter 
into no alliance with Holland without the consent of the French king (1675). 
Counting on the maintenance of this agreement, Louis continued the war in 
the Netherlands until he felt convinced that his ally could no longer resist 
the vehement demands of the English people, and the prevailing feeling in 
Holland seemed to promise him an advantageous peace (Nymeguen). 

In the meantime the members of the Cabal ministry had one by one 
resigned their posts ; and several of them, including Ashley Cooper, Earl of 
Shaftesbury, joined the opposite party, fearing that the king's unconstitutional 
measures would bring disgrace and danger on themselves. In order to gain 
the confidence of the nation, Shaftesbury availed himself of the rumour of a 
Papist plot against the life of the king, founded on the statements of two 
men named Gates and Bedloe. These statements were manifestly and 
palpably an empty invention ; but so great was the weakness of the king, 
that, though convinced of the untruthfulness of the story, he gave his consent 
to violent measures against the Papists, in consequence of which two thousand 
people were imprisoned, and several Catholic ecclesiastics were executed. 

It was in vain that Charles dissolved the Parliament, with which he had 
governed for eighteen years, in January 1679; the new one uttered the 
same hostile language against the Catholic tendency of the court and the 
dangerous schemes of the Papists, till the king was compelled to send his 
brother out of the country, to dismiss his trusted minister Danby, to appoint 
a new ministry under the guidance of Sir William Temple and Lord Shaftes- 
bury, and to strengthen the Council of State by the addition of popular men. 
This ministry gained for itself an immortal name in English history by the 
Habeas Corpus Act, the Palladium of the personal liberty of Englishmen 
(1679)* But when the new Parliament continued the persecutions and im- 
prisonments of the Papists in spite of the Habeas Corpus Act, when it caused 



258 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



the aged William Howard, Lord Stafford, to be executed, and urged with 
renewed determination the bill excluding the Duke of York from the succes- 
sion to the throne, Charles again dissolved the assembly. Relying on the 
pecuniary aid he received from France, the king had frequent recourse to 
this measure, until the nation, fearing a repetition of the civil war, showed a 
more moderate temper. From this time were developed the two political 
parties, bearing the names of Whigs and Tories, who to this day, under the 
more modern name of Liberals and Conservatives, divide the country into 
two great political camps. 

Against the leaders of the Whigs, including Shaftesbury. Lord William 
Russell, Algernon Sidney, Grey, and others, who demanded the Duke of 
York's exclusion from the throne, and who partly contemplated the restora- 
tion of the Republic and partly the handing over the crown to Charles's 
illegitimate son Monmouth, the whole anger of the court was now directed. 
Shaftesbury escaped the danger by flying to Holland, where he soon after- 
wards died ; but his friends succumbed to the violent measures of their 
opponents. Lord William Russell and Algernon Sidney, having been found 
guilty of high treason by Tory judges, were condemned to death on the 
scaffold, for alleged participation in the Rye House plot. Monmouth escaped 
to Holland. Then the nation, weary of conspiracies, and unfavourable to 
the Republicans, became tranquil and apathetic, so that the Duke of York 
was again able to resume his office, and Charles, until his death, ruled as 
absolutely as he pleased. 




SHAFTESBURY. 



CHARLES II., JAMES II., AND WILLIAM III. AND MARY II. 269 




STAR CHAMBER COURT. 



JAMES II. (1685-1688). 

A FEW weeks after 
James's accession 
to the throne, the 
Duke of Monmouth, 
the natural son of the 
late king, a handsome, 
wealthy, and extreme- 
ly popular nobleman, 
landed in England 
with a band of English 
exiles, and, in the West, 
raised the standard of 
rebellion against his 
uncle. The attempt 
was frustrated, partly 
by the cowardice and 
want of judgment of 
the commander, and 
the dissensions of his 
followers. Monmouth, routed at Sedgmoor and found hiding in a ditch, was 
captured, and died a miserable death on the scaffold in 1685 ; but James's 
cruelty towards all the participators in the insurrection, of whom 330 were 
executed, and over 800 transported to the West Indies in the terrible bloody 
assize held by the infamous judge Jefferies and Colonel Kirk, extinguished 
the last spark of devotion to the king in fche hearts of the people. The 
name of the chief judge Jeffreys, who marched through the counties with 
an executioner's axe and a band of hangmen, is marked with odium in 
the annals of English history. And when he became Lord Chancellor, 
when the number of Catholic officials increased, when the evasion of the 
Test Act by the extension of the royal dispensing power claimed by the 
king, and the projected introduction of a toleration edict appeared to fore- 
shadow the gradual re-establishment of Catholicism, and every proceeding 
seemed to signify that James sought to bring about a transformation in the 
ecclesiastical constitution of England, the nation was stirred to its depths, 
and the outbreak of a revolution seemed inevitable. 

The dissatisfaction of the English people reached its climax when, at 
the same time that the Emperor, Holland, Brandenburg, several princes of 
the German empire, Spain, and Sweden were uniting against France in the 
league of Augsburg (1686), James entered into an alliance with Louis XIV., 
and summoned home the English troops who for years had been in the 
pay of Holland. Six-and-thirty officers and a few common soldiers alone 
responded to the command ; the others remained with the Prince of Orange 
who, as husband of James's eldest daughter Mary, and as the king's nephew, 
possessed a claim to the throne of England, and who had publicly expressed 
his disapproval of his father-in-law's measures by his declaration against the 
abolition of the Test Act. Just at this time the news that a son had been 
born to the king annihilated the hopes of the English for a speedy release 
from the yoke of Popery, and gave rise to the idea of liberation by means of 
assistance from William of Orange. With inconceivable blindness James 
beheld the preparations of the General States, who now requited their Stadt- 



CHARLES II., JAMES II., AND WILLIAM III. AND MARY II. 271 




MEDAL OK WILL1AM 



MARY - 



holder for their own liberation by a generous support. Even the representa- 
tions of Louis XIV. were not effectual in opening the eyes of the king. Not 
till William landed on the coast of England, and gave the signal for a general 
rising, did James perceive the vol- 
cano on which his throne stood. It 
was in vain that he withdrew every 
unconstitutional measure ; the con- 
fidence of the people was forfeited 
for ever. And when Lord Churchill, 
who subsequently became the famous 
Duke of Marlborough, passed over 
with his troops to William's side ; 
when even James's favourite daugh- 
ter Anne and her Danish husband 
George, half voluntarily and half 
under compulsion, espoused the na- 
tion's cause, and the temper of the 
army and navy warned the king of 
his fall, he sent off his wife, Mary of 
Modena, with the infant prince, to 
France, threw the great seal into the 
Thames, and then made his escape, 
in despair, from the land of his fathers, in December, 1688. The remainder 
of his life, after his attempt to regain the throne, with the help of Irish in- 
surgents, had been frustrated, was passed at St. Germains. 

WILLIAM AND MARY. 

AFTER 
James's 
flight, the re- 
presentatives 
of the English 
people, the 
parliamentary 

convention 

that had been 

summoned to consider the state of 
affairs, declared the throne vacant, 
and after long deliberation decided 
that the Catholic line of the Stuarts 
should be excluded from the go- 
vernment, and that the crown 
should be made over to the royal 
pair, William and Mary. But hav- 
ing learnt a lesson from experience, 
Parliament secured the ancient 
rights and institutions of the nation 
from future arbitrary measures by 
passing the Bill of Rights (Feb., 
1689), which denned the limits of 
the king's authority, without in- 
fringing on the dignity of the 





THE FIRST EAST INDIA HOUSE. 



272 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



crown. The alleged dispensing power claimed by the Stuart kings was 
declared to have no existence, and the responsibility of the ministers for all 
government measures was established ; but the strict maintenance of the Test 
Act and the laws of Church uniformity proved that the virtue of toleration in 
religious matters had not yet reached the consciousness of the Englishman. 
The Scotch nation willingly recognised the new order of things, especially as 
William consented to the "abolition of the hated Episcopacy and the restora- 
tion of the Presbyterian synod constitution ; but the Irish, who received 
support from France, and were led in battle by James himself, were only 
compelled to recognition of William and Mary by the bloody battle on 
the Boyne (July 20, 1690). Cromwell's cruel measures were again adopted 
towards this unfortunate island, which, as a conquered country, was compelled 
to forfeit all its rights. During William's reign the last foundation was laid 
of England's liberty and greatness. The exchequer was separated from the 
civil list of the king, and the liberty of the press took firm root ; the London 
Bank also came into existence, and the East India Company was extended. 




THE PALSGRAVINE ELIZABETH. 



forms its chief feature, we shall have presently to speak. 



QUEEN ANNE. 

ON the death of William, in 
1702, he was succeeded by 
James's younger daughter, Anne 
(born 1664), under whom was ac- 
complished the complete union of 
Scotland and England (1707). 
She survived her husband and all 
her children, and the English crown 
then passed to the Elector George 
of Hanover, the grandson of the 
unfortunate Palsgravine Elizabeth, 
queen of Bohemia. Anne would 
willingly have appointed her half- 
brother, the pretender James III., 
as her successor ; but her design 
was frustrated by the disfavour 
with which the nation regarded 
the Catholic line of the Stuarts. 

Of the great struggle which oc- 
cupied the reign of Anne, and 




CHARLES II., JAMES II., AND WILLIAM III. AND MARY II. 273 




THE FRENCH IN THE PALATINATE. 



THIRD (ORLEANS) WAR OF Louis XIV. (1689-1697). 




HE League of Augsburg (1686) proved to 
Louis XIV. that the nations of Europe 
were weary of France's supremacy ; and as his 
ally the Turkish Sultan was at the same time 
overpowered by the arms of Austria, he once 
more decided on war. The succession of the 
Palatinate and the election of the Archbishop 
of Cologne afforded a welcome opportunity 
for a declaration of hostilities. This third war 
commenced with a barbarous measure. In 
order to prevent the enemy from marching 
into France, Louvois, with the concurrence of 
his despotic sovereign, determined to create a 
wilderness between the two kingdoms by the 
devastation of the Rhenish territory of the 
Palatinate. The terrible work now com- 
menced ; Heidelberg was partly destroyed by 
fire ; Rohrbach, Wiesbach, Kirchheim, Baden, etc., were demolished, Worms 
was reduced to ashes, and at Spires the people were driven from the town, 
which, with its venerable cathedral, was then consumed by the flames (June, 
II. T 



274 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



1689). In spite of the superior numbers of the enemy, the French on the 
whole maintained their supremacy. In the Netherlands the genius of the 
great Marshal de Luxemburg gained two victories, at Fleurus and Steinkirk ; 
in Italy the brave Marshal Catinat .won for Louis the battle of Staffarda 
(Aug. 1690), while Admiral Tourville gained a victory at Dieppe ; and an 
unsuccessful naval battle near La Hogue was quickly followed by a brilliant 
victory at Neerwinden (1693). In spite of these successes, however, Louis 
at last agreed to the Peace of Ryswick (1697), by which he only retained a 
part of his Spanish conquests, with the island of St. Domingo ; all the Duke 
of Savoy's possessions were restored to him. Holland obtained commercial 
advantages ; but Germany had to surrender Strasburg and the Alsacian 
reunions to the French. 



FRENCH LITERATURE. THE DRAMA. CORNEILLE, RACINE, MOLIERE. 



WHEN Corneille ventured, without the 
consent of the Cardinal or the Academy, 
to bring out on the stage his principal drama, 
" The Cid," the Cardinal and his friends found 
much to censure in the new style, but were 
compelled to acknowledge that the national 
voice, which was so universally repressed, had 
at least its weight in literature. Corneille's- 
drama met with such popular approval, that 
he was encouraged to produce soon afterwards 
two other pieces, " les Horaces," and " Cinna," 
the latter being deeply imbued with the pre- 
vailing ideas of the time with regard to 
royalty and supreme power. His other dra- 
matic writings, thirty-three in number, include 
"Polyeucte," "Nicomede," the "Death of 
Pompey," etc. The most perfect dramatic 
poet of France, although inferior in vigour 
and delineation of character to the preceding, 
writer, is Jean Racine (1639-1699), whose 
elegance of form, beauty of language, and measured flow of eloquence are 
unsurpassable. In his first two works he appears as an imitator of Corneille,. 
but in his " Andromaque " and " Britannicus " he struck out a path for him- 
self; in "Iphygenie" and " Phedre," which were declared by French critics 
to be modelled on pieces of Euripides, Racine reaches the highest point of 
his poetic development. Two others of his works, "Esther" and "Athalie," 
are expositions of sacred subjects. Contemporary with Racine was the clever 
dramatist Poquelin de Moliere(i62O-i673), who brought French comedy to a 
high degree of perfection. His masterpieces are "The Misanthrope," "Le& 
Precietises ridicules? "Le Mtdecin malgre lui? "Le Malade imaginaire? and. 
" Le Tartuffe^ Among other dramatic writers may be mentioned Regnard 
(1647-1709), author of "The Gambler" and "The Universal Testator," and 
Beaumarchais (i73 2 -i799)> the writer of the piquant comedy, "Figaro's 
Wedding." 




CORNEILLE. 



CHARLES II., JAMES II., AND WILLIAM III. AND MARY II. 275 



OTHER BRANCHES OF POETRY. 




o 



NE of the most dis- 
tinguished poets in 
the time of Louis XIV. 
was Boileau-Despreaux 
(1636-1711), the Horace 
of the French. His great 
merit consists in his per- 
fect development of the 
French language and 
style, which caused him 
to be the dictator of .poetic 
forms and taste. His most 
important work is his "Sa- 
tires;" in his "Epistles" 
he appears as the base 
flatterer of the king, whose 
favour and protection he 
won in this manner. The 
most cultured poet of 
France is La Fontaine 
(died 1694), whose "Fa- 
bles" and "Stories" are 
still universally read. In 
a world of constraint 
and artificiality, he invari- 
ably preserved his innate 
naivete, his cheerful candour, and his childlike nature. Among writers of 
romance, mention must be made of Le Sage (died 1747), author of the 
" Spanish Romances," of which the much-read " History of Gil Bias of San- 
tillana " and " The Lame Devil " are the best known. The epic style appears 
in the " Adventures of Telemachus," in poetic prose, by Fenelon, archbishop 
of Cambray, a work of noble feeling and liberal political principle. 



PROSE LITERATURE OF THE FRENCH. 

ONE of the most acute critics and clearest thinkers of the time was Bayle 
(1647-1706), a scholar who had taken refuge in the Netherlands during 
the Huguenot persecutions in France. His theory, that the human reason is 
only capable of discovering error, but incapable of recognising truth, impresses 
on all his philosophical investigations a vague and indefinite character. His 
principal work is his "Historical and Geographical Dictionary." He also 
wrote, when suffering the woes of persecution, his small book on " Religious 
Toleration." Of a totally opposite character were the writings of the famous 
pulpit orator and Catholic zealot, Bossuet, bishop of Meaux (1627-1704). 
Besides his intellectual discourses and polemic writings against the Protes- 
tants, his best-known work is the " Discourse on Universal History," of which 
he treated from a Christian, theological point of view. His "Policy," in 
which he sought to prove the agreement between the form of French monarchy 
and the teachings of Holy Writ, permitted the ruler unlimited power and 
authority, and the subjects, as the sole remedy against oppression and tyranny 



2 7 6 



THE HISTORY OF THE \VORLD. 



humble remonstrances and prayers. Bossuet, as well as his famous rivals 
for the palm of pulpit eloquence, Fle*chier, Bourdaloue, etc., did not hesitate 
to glorify the extermination of Calvinist heresy as the most praiseworthy 
action of the Grand Monarque. Among historical writers may be mentioned 
Mezerai (died 1683), author of the "History of France," and d'Aubigne*, the 
historian of the wars of the Huguenots. More celebrated than either, how- 
ever, was Madame de Sevigne (1626-1696), who in her famous "Letters," 
describes with incomparable gracefulness of style the events and affairs of the 
day, and well represents the social culture of the time. La Rochefoucauld 
(1613-1680), whose axiom was, that "self-love is the spring of every action," 
must also be mentioned, as the author of "Maxims and Reflections"; his 
house was the resort of all the greatest thinkers of the time. 




LA FONTAINE. 




FIRST HALF OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 
SOUTHERN AND WESTERN EUROPE. 

AFFAIRS OF SPAIN. CHARLES II. AND THE PARTITION TREATY. SPAIN 
BEQUEATHED TO PHILIP OF ANJOU. WAR OF THE SPANISH SUCCES- 
SION. BLENHEIM. MARLBOROUGH AND PRINCE EUGENE OF SAVOY. 
KING PHILIP V. OF SPAIN. RAMILLIES. TURIN. MALPLAQUET. 
HUMILIATION OF FRANCE. TREATY OF UTRECHT, 1713. FRANCE. 
INTERNAL CONDITIONS UNDER THE REGENCY OF THE DUKE OF 
ORLEANS. LAW AND HIS FINANCIAL SCHEMES. SPAIN AND HER 
ASPIRATIONS. THE QUADRUPLE ALLIANCE. SUCCESSORS OF PHILIP 
V. NORTHERN ITALY. CHARLES EMMANUEL THE GREAT AND 
HIS SUCCESSORS. CENTRAL ITALY. FLORENCE A DUKEDOM. THE 
FAMILY OF THE MEDICI. PARMA AND MODENA. STATES OF THE 
CHURCH. SOUTHERN ITALY. ENGLAND UNDER THE HOUSE OF 
HANOVER. 

THE SPANISH WAR or SUCCESSION (1701-1714). 

THE Peace of Ryswick (1697) had been hastily 
concluded by France, because Louis wished 
to have his hands free on account of the impend- 
ing vacancy on the Spanish throne. Even during 
the lifetime of the last Spanish Hapsburg, the 
childless Charles II. of Spain, the naval powers 
and France had concluded at the Hague a par- 
tition treaty, dividing his dominions among 
them. This proceeding so much exasperated 
the king of Spain, that he appointed the Bava- x 
rian prince Joseph Ferdinand, whose mother was 
a Hapsburg, to be his successor. But the youth- 
ful prince died before the royal testator, which 
afforded the French ambassador at Madrid an 
opportunity of persuading the weak-minded king 
to appoint secretly, as the successor to the whole 
Spanish monarchy, Duke Philip of Anjou, the 
XIV., with the stipulation that the two crowns 

77 




second grandson of Louis 



278 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

should never be united. At the beginning of the new century (1700) Charles 
II. died ; and Louis XIV., after some consideration, decided, for the sake 
of the aggrandizement of France, to withdraw from his agreement with the 
other powers, and to accept the splendid legacy ; and at a solemn assembly, 
Philip was declared king of Spain by the. court of Versailles. This led to a 
war far more violent than all the preceding contests. The Emperor Leopold 
took up arms to gain the inheritance of the Hapsburgs for his second son 
Charles. France, which had now exhausted her energies, which was being 
mismanaged by incapable ministers and deserted by her former allies, Savoy 
and Portugal, took part in the struggle on this occasion with less prospect 
of success ; while on the side of Austria were not only most of the princes of 
Germany, but the naval powers, England and Holland. 




CAPTURE OF TALLARD AT BLENHEIM. 

HOCHSTADT, OR BLENHEIM. 

point most favourable, on this occasion, to the success of the arms 
of Austria and England, was the commanding genius of the two greatest 
generals of the time, Prince Eugene of Savoy and the Duke of Marlborough. 
The great chief, belonging to a princely house of Savoy, quitted the land of 
his birth and, following the dictates of his warlike nature, entered the service 
of the Austrian State. The French were quickly driven from their position 
in the Alpine passes ; and, without engaging in a battle, Eugene forced the 
brave general Catinat to withdraw to Milan, invested Mirandola and Modena, 
and took Catinat's successor, Villeroi, prisoner at Cremona. By these sue- 



FIRST HALF OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



cesses Austria won the confidence of the other powers ; and when Marl- 
borough, the leader of the Whigs after the accession of Queen Anne, appeared 
in the Netherlands with a large army, and repulsed the French, who were 
allied with the ruler of Bavaria, the allies soon asserted their supremacy 
over the enemy in a decisive manner. The capture of Augsburg and Passau, 
by which Max Emanuel, a brave, enterprising prince, hoped to gain com- 
pensation, was the last successful feat of arms of the French and Bavarians. 
When neither the admonitions of the Emperor nor the devastation of the 
prince's kingdom of Bavaria availed to induce him to relinquish his alliance 
with France, Eugene combined his forces with those of Louis of Baden, the 
Imperial commander, and entered Suabia, to do battle with the enemy. Soon 
also Marlborough, after a masterly campaign on the Rhine and the Moselle, 
added his forces to the allied army, and there quickly followed on this coali- 
tion the brilliant victory of Blenheim (Aug. I3th, 1704), when the French and 
Bavarian army was completely defeated, and twenty thousand men were left 
slain upon the battle-field. In order to chastise the Bavarian princely house 
for its unpatriotic partisanship, the new Emperor, Joseph I. (1705-1711), pro- 
nounced the ban of the Empire upon Max Emanuel and his brother Maxi- 
milian, the Elector of Cologne, and gave back the Upper Palatinate to the 
Palsgrave of the Rhine. The Duke of Marlborough, on the other hand, he 
raised to the rank of a prince of the Empire. 

SPAIN. 

k HE feeble 
govern- 
ment of Philip 
V., over which 
the Countess 
Orsini, chief 
lady- in-wait- 
ing to the 
young queen, 
exercised the 
most power- 
ful influence, 
caused many 
discontented 

nobles to rally under the banner of the 
enemy. Before long the Pyrenean penin- 
sula became the scene of a violent civil 
war. The Austrian candidate for the 
throne, Charles III., was recognised by 
Arragon ; and Barcelona, Valencia, and 
other important towns also espoused his cause, while 
the English fleet cut off all intercourse with Spanish 
America and conquered Gibraltar (1704) ; and the 
Portuguese invested Madrid, and compelled the court 
to take flight to Burgos. The incapacity of the arch- 
duke, however, combined with the jealousy with which 
Spain regarded her Dutch ? and Portuguese allies, re- 
sulted in the French asserting their supremacy; and the 
victory of Philip V. near Almanza (April, 1707) secured him the throne of Spain. 







THE ROCK OF GIBRALTAR. 



280 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




MARLBORO UGH AT MALPLAQUET. 

RAMILLIES. TURIN. 

THE year 1706 was distinguished by memor- 
able deeds of warfare. In the Netherlands 
Marlborough gained a victory near Ramillies 
(May, 1706) over the incapable Marshal Villeroi, 
when the Spanish Netherlands were compelled 
to submit to the allies, and recognise the Aus- 
trian candidate to the throne as their ruler, and 
the states of Brabant and Flanders swore fidelity 
to Charles III.. This was quickly followed by 
the victory of Prince Eugene over the French 
forces in the battle of Turin (Sept. 1706), which 
brought the whole of northern Italy into the 
hands of the victors. In the following year the 
kingdom of Naples was also won in a single 
easy campaign for Charles of Austria. 
Despairing of a successful issue of the war, Louis XIV. now wished for 
peace ; but the proposal was rejected, at the instigation of Eugene and Marl- 
borough, by England, Holland, and Austria. The brilliant victory gained at 
Oudenarde (July, 1708) over the quarrelsome French commanders, Vendome 
and the Duke of Burgundy, completely destroyed Louis' last hopes ; and he 
was now in a condition in which he was willing to listen to the most humi- 
liating suggestions with regard to a proposed treaty. He consented to the 







FIRST HALF OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 281 

unconditional surrender of Spain, Milan, and the Netherlands, and would 
even have agreed to the cession of Alsace and Strasbourg, had not the further 
demand that Louis should himself assist in driving his own grandson out of 
Spain, excited such indignation at the French court that the war was allowed 
to continue. But in the exceptionally bloody and terrible battle of Mal- 
plaquet, in September, 1709, another hard-fought victory for Marlborough, 
when 33,000 men were left slain upon the battle-field, the losses of France were 
greater than in any previous defeat ; and it would now have been necessary 
to accept every condition of the peace, had not Divine justice interposed to 
chastise the arrogance of the enemy, that mankind might learn the virtue of 
moderation. 

THE TERMS OF PEACE. 

A DISPUTE between the proud wife of Marlborough and Queen Anne 
2\, had resulted in the exclusion of the former from the court ; and the Whig 
ministry, which was devoted to the duke, was replaced by the Tories, headed 
by the famous Bolingbroke (St. John) and the Earl of Oxford. The queen 
and the Parliament now insisted on peace. The arrangement of an armed 
truce afforded the enemies of Marlborough an opportunity for revenge. The 
victorious hero lost all his offices, and was accused by Parliament of fraud. 
England and France now entered into the Peace of Utrecht (April, 1713), 
in which Holland, Prussia, Savoy, and Portugal soon also joined. By the 
terms of this treaty Spain and the Indies remained to the Bourbon King 
Philip V., on the condition that the Spanish and French crowns should never 
be united ; Holland, besides some trading advantages, obtained the right of 
garrisoning several fortresses on the Spanish-Dutch frontier ; Prussia gained 
part of Guelderland ; to Savoy was awarded the island of Sicily, which it was 
compelled seven years later to exchange for Sardinia ; England received 
from France, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and Hudson's Bay, and from Spain 
Gibraltar and Minorca. The Emperor, Charles VI., was not a party to the 
Peace of Utrecht, and continued the war for a short time ; but the victory of 
the French at Denain and other subsequent successes at last induced him to 
give his consent to the peace of Radstadt in March, 1714. In this treaty 
Austria obtained the Spanish Netherlands, Naples, Milan, and Sardinia, and 
the Electors of Bavaria and Cologne got back their lands and titles. In 
the following year Louis XIV. died (Sept., 1715), weary of life, and bowed 
down with heavy afflictions. Within two years he had lost his son and his 
two grandsons ; and his youngest great-grandson, a child five years old, now 
inherited the throne as Louis XV. 




INTERNAL AFFAIRS OF FRANCE. 

^ TTRTNf 



-> URING the minority of Louis XV. the Duke of 



Orleans, nephew of Louis XIV., acted as regent 
(1715-23). The duke and his former tutor, Cardinal 
Dubois, were talented and intellectual, but extremely 
profligate men, who despised religion and morality, 
and regarded selfishness and ambition as the only 
motives for action, and sensual enjoyment as the only 
aim of existence. The extravagance and love of 
pleasure of these spendthrifts so drained the revenues 

of the State that in order to raise money to meet the increasing 
; burden of debt, they entered into negotiations with a Scotchman 

named John Law, who proposed to establish a Paper Bank, 



282 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



which not only promised large profits, but held out prospects of considerable 
gains in Louisiana in America. Soon all the coined money flowed into the 
bank and was exchanged for paper money ; the value of the shares increased, 
and fortunes were rapidly made. Law was the most popular man of the 
day ; he changed his religion and obtained the post of Controller-General of 
Finance. This apparent prosperity was, however, of only temporary dura- 
tion ; a panic followed, the paper notes could not be realized, and complete 
bankruptcy ensued. The author of this misfortune was compelled to fly 
from the fury of the people, and took refuge in Venice, where he soon after- 
wards died. 

SPAIN. 

PHILIP V. was a weak ruler, and entirely under the sway of women. His 
second wife, Elizabeth of Parma, and her confidential minister, the intri- 
guing Italian Alberoni, gradually assumed the chief power in the government ; 
and their efforts were directed towards regaining the Italian States that had 
been taken from the king in the Peace of Utrecht. Sardinia and Sicily were 
already in the hands of the Spaniards, when the threatening attitude of the 
Quadruple Alliance (France, England, Austria, and Holland) so terrified the 
timid Philip that he was compelled to dismiss Alberoni and surrender the 
conquests (1719). But the intriguing queen succeeded after a time in obtain- 
ing the kingdom of Naples and Sicily, and the dukedoms of Parma, Piacenza, 
and Guastalla for her sons Charles and Philip ; thus these States were placed 
under Bourbon rulers. When Philip V., who was afflicted with a tendency to 
melancholy, at last sank into the grave, he was succeeded by his second son 
of the first marriage, Ferdinand VI. (1746-59) ; the new king, however, in- 
herited his father's mental infirmity, proving but an incapable ruler, and 
great influence was exercised at court by the opera singer Farinelli. Ferdi- 
nand was succeeded by his half-brother Charles (1759-1788), hitherto king of 
Naples and Sicily, which kingdom he now made over to his third son, Ferdi- 
nand. 

NORTHERN ITALY. 

r I ^HE dukes of Savoy and Piedmont 
JL knew how to make a wise use of 
the political conditions of the time, and 
by successful alliances with powerful 
princes, to extend their territory in times 
of war. Charles Emanuel the Great 
(1580-1630) gained many advantages 
from the French religious wars and the 
Church schism in Switzerland. Victor 
Emanuel I. (1630-1637) obtained, on the 
occasion of the dispute for the succes- 
sion at Mantua, a handsome portion of 
the dukedom of Montferrat ; and again 
later, under Victor Amadeus II. (1675- 
1730) the dukedom was so much enlarged that its rulers henceforth bore the 
title of kings of Sardinia. Charles Emanuel III. (1730-1773) gained, during 
the Austrian wars of succession, some considerable tracts of territory from 
the dukedom of Milan, and endeavoured by a well-regulated State expendi- 
ture, and by compelling the clergy to contribute to the taxes of the country, 







^v\ 



}\\^f^y^ 




283 



28 4 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



to cover the heavy expenses which were incurred by the maintenance of .a 
costly militia commanded by aristocratic officers ; many of his good but 
faulty reforms were further developed by his son, Victor Amadeus III. 
(1773-1796) ; but the feeble and untutored nation did not possess the innate 
strength to resist any shock from without, and when the French Revolution 
struck a blow at the gates of Savoy and Piedmont, the country soon fell a 
prey to its violent neighbours. 

The republics of Venice and Genoa sought to maintain their aristocratic 
constitutions in the old form. The Turkish wars did not fail to bring renown 

to the former ; but they 
nevertheless ended with 
the loss of its posses- 
sions in the east of the 
Mediterranean. Cyprus 
was taken by the Os- 
manli in 15 71, who also 
gained possession of 
Candia about a century 
later; and the Morea 
was again ceded to the 
Turks in the peace of 
Passarowitz, in 1718. 
Genoa, on account of 
its situation, was not 
able to maintain such 
an isolated position as 
Venice. Its conflicts 
with powerful neigh- 
bours, who strove for 
the possession of the 
beautiful free State, 
form the tenour of the 
history of Genoa during 
the two last centuries. 
The island of Corsica, 
after an effort to free it- 
self from the tyrannical 
supremacy of Genoa, 
was at last subdued 
with the assistance of 
the French, to whom it 
was formally ceded in 
1768, shortly before the 
birth of Napoleon. In 
the peace of Aix la Chapelle (1748) the republic got back again all its former 
territory. Milan, with Mantua, remained after the Peace of Utrecht (1713) in 
the possession of Austria. 

The ancient republic of Florence was first transformed into a dukedom 
(1530), and about 1569 into a grand dukedom of Tuscany, and for two- 
centuries was governed, not without renown, by the family of Medicis. Cosmo- 
(1537-74), a wise, enterprising, but faithless prince, extended his territory by 
the acquisition of Sienna and other territories ; he vanquished the Florentine 




VENICE. INNER COURT OF THE DOGE S PALACE. 



FIRST HALF OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



28: 



emigrants, who had made hostile invasions into Tuscany (1554), and then 
directed his whole energy to the destruction of the republican forms, and the 
establishment of a single absolute power. While he thus sought to strengthen 
his own supremacy, he also directed his efforts to the promotion of trade 




and manufactures ; and the fine arts, too, found in him a liberal patron. 
Like the emperor Augustus, to whom he has been compared, the grand duke 
Cosmo suffered from severe domestic misfortunes ; and terrible crimes also 



286 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

have been imputed both to himself and to members of his family. Bowed 
down by many sorrows, Cosmo, even before his death, placed the government 
in the hands of his son Francesco (15/5-1587), who, like his father, was a 
promoter of trade and manufactures, but whose intrigue with the beautiful 
Venetian Bianca Capello caused him much domestic unhappiness. His death 
was ascribed to poison, which had been prepared by Bianca for his brother 
Ferdinand, who now ascended the throne as Ferdinand I. (1587-1609). The 
reign of this king proved a prosperous one for the State, and under his 
successor, Cosmo II. (1609-1621), Tuscany continued to maintain its wealth 
and splendour. In art and science Florence took even a higher rank ; but 
the succeeding regency and afterwards the long reign of Ferdinand IL 
(1628-70) was a turning-point for the wors-e in Florentine history. Groaning 
under the evils of bad government and a visitation of the plague, the country 
from this time forth commenced its downward course to the depths of 
degeneration into which most of the other States of Italy had already fallen. 
Cosmo III. (1670-1723) regarded the glorification of the Church and the 
conversion of heretics as his supreme duty. The State groaned under an 
oppressive burden of debt, and all prosperity, vanished from the country. 
With Cosmo's second son, John Gasto (1723-1737), the Medicean house became 
extinct ; and shortly before the death of this ruler the European powers agreed 
that Francis Stephen, husband of the empress Maria Theresa, should inherit 
the grand dukedom. Francis Stephen was succeeded by his second son 
Leopold (1765), under whom the country once more enjoyed a period of 
prosperity. On his accession to the throne of Austria, he made over Tuscany 
to his second son, Ferdinand Joseph (1790). 

Parma, which had been created a dukedom by Pope Paul III., had been 
governed since the middle of the seventeenth century by the house of 
Farnese ; when this family became extinct, the dukedom of Parma, with 
Piacenza and Guastalla, was conferred on a Spanish Bourbon prince, Don 
Carlos, who, on his accession to the throne of Naples, was succeeded by Don 
Philip. Philip's son and successor, Ferdinand (1765-1804), became involved 
in a dispute with the Pope ; after his death the country was added to the 
French possessions in northern Italy. 

The dukedom of Modena, with Reggio, Mirandola, and Massa-Carrara, 
was governed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries by members of the 
house of Este ; the last duke was Hercules III., who was compelled to 
surrender his country to the French (1796). 

The States of the Church suffered from the incurable evils which the 
ecclesiastical government inflicted on the prosperity and liberty of the 
people. Innocent X. (1644-1655) destroyed Roman agriculture by his corn 
monopoly. His successor, Alexander VII. (1655-1667), and his third 
successor, Innocent XL (1676-1689), had many conflicts with Louis XIV, 
who not only encroached on the rights of the Pope, but even threatened the 
Holy Father in the Eternal City through the medium of his ambassadors. 
Innocent XII. (1691-1700) alone succeeded in re-establishing peace with 
France. The succeeding Popes were Clement XL (1700-21), Benedict XIII. 
(1724-30), and Benedict XIV. (1740-58), who endeavoured to maintain the 
dignity of the Curia against the Catholic princes by means of important 
grants. Clement XIII. (1758-69) was succeeded by Clement XIV., Gan- 
ganelli (1769-74), a liberal-minded man, who made his reign memorable 
by the abolition of the order of Jesuits. His successor, Pius VI. (i774~99)> 
in vain sought to defend the dignity and power of the Church during an 
irreligious period. 



FIRST HALF OF THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



287 



SOUTHERN ITALY. 




FOR two centuries the 
kingdom of Naples and 
Sicily remained under the 
Spanish rule, since Ferdinand 
the Catholic had by force 
and stratagem possessed him- 
self of the beautiful country 
(1504). It was governed by 
Spanish vice-kings, under 
whom its liberties were gradu- 
ally annihilated, and its pros- 
perity destroyed by exorbi- 
tant taxation. The popular 
rising at Naples under Masa- 
niello (1647) was rendered fruitless by the incapacity of the leaders, and the 
insufficient support rendered by the French. Naples and the island of Sicily 
subsequently fell into the hands of the Austrians ; but sixteen years later the 
Emperor Charles VI., in order to obtain recognition of the " Pragmatic 
Sanction," agreed that Naples should be handed over to Don Carlos, who 
again, on his accession to the throne of Spain as Charles III. (1759), made 
over the government to his youthful son Ferdinand IV., whose eventful reign 
lasted through the storms of the French Revolution and the Restoration. He 
died as Ferdinand I, king of the two Sicilies, in the year 1825. 

ENGLAND. 




UNDER the rulers of the House of Hanover 
George I. (1714-27), George II. (1727-60), and 
George III. (1760-1820) the free institutions of 
England obtained such durability that the personal 
characters of the kings exercised but little influence 
on the progress of events. George I., who was not 
highly endowed either in his mental or moral quali- 
ties, placed his confidence in the Whigs, and caused 
the Tory ministers (Bolingbroke, Ormond, etc.) to 
be accused of high treason on the score of favouring 

the Pretender. The impeached statesmen escaped to 

James, who, with the assistance of the discontented 

Tories or Jacobites, made an attempt to obtain the crown of England (1715).. 
The enterprise was, however, defeated through the decision of the minister, 
Robert Walpole, who, under George I. and his successor, conducted the busi- 
ness of the State for twenty-one years. And in order that peace might be 
the better preserved, the law for Septennial Parliaments was introduced 
(1716), and the increase of the land forces was decided on. After one more 
fruitless attempt of the Jacobites, at the instigation of the Swedish Baron 
Gortz, the intriguing counsellor of Charles XII., and Alberoni, the nation 
was left in peace to carry on its trade and industries ; and the prosperity of 
the country sustained but slight injury from the dangerous experiment of 
the South Sea Company, which, offering to buy up the national debt, inaugu- 



288 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



rated a system of swindling and speculation similar to that originated by Law 
in France. The government, which was responsible to the representatives of 
the people, had only the welfare of the country in view ; and the misconduct 
which prevailed at the English court under the first two Georges, in con- 
nection with favourites and mistresses, did not avail to materially retard this 
great object. In the year 1769, James Watt, of Greenock, in Scotland, im- 
proved the steam engine, which, by its application to shipping and locomo- 
tives, created a new era in the traffic of the world ; and about the same 
time the spinning-jenny was brought out by Arkwright. At the same 
period also Adam Smith (1723-90), professor at Glasgow, founded a new 
epoch in the science of political economy by his famous work, the " Wealth 
of Nations." During the reign of George II., Charles Edward Stuart, son of 
James III., effected a landing in Scotland ; but, after some temporary successes, 
was completely defeated in the battle of Culloden (April 27th, 1746), when 
the hopes of the Stuarts were destroyed for ever. 




GEORGE I. 




THE NORTH AND EAST OF EUROPE. 



POWER OF SWEDEN IN THE TIME OF CHARLES XL ACCESSION OF 
CHARLES XII. CONFEDERACY AGAINST HIM. RUSSIA UNDER THE 
ROMANOFFS. PETER THE GREAT (1689-1725). REFORMS IN RUSSIA. 
POLAND. VICTORIOUS CAMPAIGNS OF CHARLES XII. CHARLES IN 
SAXONY. RUSSIAN CAMPAIGN. PULTOWA AND ITS CONSEQUENCES. 
CHARLES XII. A FUGITIVE IN TURKEY. RETURN TO SWEDEN. 
WAR WITH DENMARK. DEATH OF THE KING AT FRIEDRICHSHALL. 
INTERNAL CONDITION OF THE NORTHERN POWERS. SWEDEN. 
RUSSIA UNDER THE SUCCESSORS OF PETER THE GREAT. POLAND. 




II. 



THE GREAT NORTHERN WAR 
(1700-1718). 

CHARLES XII. AND HIS OPPONENTS. 

AT the death of Charles XL (1697), 
Sweden stood at the summit of its 
power. The diplomatic despotism of 
the king had invested the Crown with 
unlimited power ; and the complete con- 
fiscation of the alienated crown property, 
combined with the parsimoniousness of 
the monarch, had filled the State ex- 
chequer. In possession of the coast 
countries and of the wealthy towns of 
Stralsund, Stettin, Riga, and Revel, 
Sweden dominated the trade of the 
Baltic, and met the deficiency of its 
own poverty by imposing lucrative tolls. 
The neighbouring princes, however, re- 
garded the Swedish supremacy with 
289 u 



2 9 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



envious eyes, and when Charles XL was succeeded by his son Charles XIL 
(1697-1718), then only seventeen years of age, who, with the help of his adviser 
Piper, set aside the regency appointed by his father, and took the supreme 
royal power into his own hands, the favourable moment seemed to have 
arrived for breaking the power of Sweden for ever ; for it was hardly possible 
for a young and inexperienced prince to resist the three powerful rulers of 
Russia, Poland, and Denmark, who, under the auspices of the Livlander 
Patkul, entered into a league against Sweden (1699). 




PALM SUNDAY IN RUSSIA. 



RUSSIA UNDER THE HOUSE OF ROMANOFF. 

WHEN the royal House of Rurik became extinct with Feodor, a period 
of violence and lawlessness commenced in Russia. Boris (1598-1605), 
a wise and upright prince, was dispossessed of a portion of his territory by a 
pretended brother of Feodor, named Demetrius. Boris put an end to his 
life in despair, and the pretender obtained the throne as the False Demetrius 
(1605-6). A period of complete anarchy now set in, during which no less 
than three false Demetriuses 'paraded before the nation, and the Poles and 
Swedes succeeded in extending their territories. Peace was only restored 
when Michael Romanoff (1613-45), who, on his mother's side, was a descen- 
dant of the ancient line of Czars, was elected to fill the throne with unlimited 
sway. With him commences the royal line of Romanoff, to which Russia 



THE NORTH AND EAST OF EUROPE. 



291 



owes its greatness and its development into one of the great European powers. 
After a long and peaceful reign, Michael was succeeded by his son Alexis 
(1645-76), who gained possession of Smolensk and other towns in the great 
Polish war, and compelled the warlike Cossacks to recognise Russia's 
supremacy. Alexis also opened highways for commerce through Siberia to 
Persia and China. His eldest son, Feodor (1676-82), took an important step 
towards Imperial supreme rule by the annihilation of the family register, or 
Rosrad, on which rested the claims of the noble families. After the death of 
Feodor, the appointed succession to the throne was set aside ; and the crown 
was offered to his brother Ivan, who, however, was ultimately dispossessed 
by Peter, the youngest son of Alexis. 

PETER THE GREAT (1689-1725). 



r I ^HE young Czar proved an extraordinary 



man, possessing an energy which was never 
paralysed, and a sense of truth which could be 
confused by no religious or political advantage. 
Boundless as was his ambition, it never led 
him into vanity ; and though his activity was 
unresting, he was steadfast in pursuing all his 
plans. In order to carry out his great aim of 
transforming the Russian empire from an Asiatic 
to a European State, he promoted the immigra- 
tion of foreign manufacturers, sailors, and offi- 
cers into Russia ; and also undertook a journey 
to England, where he studied the shipping and 
visited the docks, workshops, and manufac- 
tories. So great was his admiration of the Eng- 
lish navy that he exclaimed : " Were I not Czar 
of Russia, I would be an English admiral ! " He was, however, summoned 
home from his foreign travels by an insurrection of the Strelitzers (1698), in 
which his ambitious sister, Sophie, was a participator ; the rebellion was 
cruelly repressed, and his sister was condemned to close confinement for the 
rest of her days. Peter now directed his attention to strengthening and im- 
proving the army ; foreign officers entered the Russian service and exercised 
the troops in the European method of warfare ; and these tactics were crowned 
with such success, that the Czar soon obtained a firm footing in the Black Sea, 
having gained possession, in the peace of Carlowitz, of various conquered 
towns, and then founded the town of Taganrog. 




o 



POLAND. 

N the death of the warlike king, John Sobieski (1696), a fresh conflict 
arose between the adherents of the French candidate for the throne, and 
the partisans of the Elector Frederick Augustus of Saxony. The latter, how- 
ever, proved victorious, and was proclaimed king of Poland, after having first 
entered the Church of Rome (June, 1697). The Polish nobility alone possessed 
civil rights and filled government offices, while the peasantry languished in 
bondage and misery ; the high clergy shared the privileges of the nobility, 
the lower participated in the superstitions and ignorance of the bondsmen, 
while the numerous population of Jews were in possession of the retail trade 
and the few manufactures. 



292 THE HISTORY OF THE; WORLD. 

VICTORIOUS CAMPAIGNS OF CHARLES XII. 

AFTER the alliance had been concluded, Frederick Augustus marched 
towards the frontier of Livland, while the Russians invaded Esthland 
and besieged Narwa, and Frederick IV. of Denmark attacked the duke of 
Holstein-Gottorp. To the astonishment of Europe, however, the young king 
of Sweden showed himself equal to the emergency ; he crossed to the island 
of Zealand with a brave army and well-manned fleet, and in a few weeks 
compelled Frederick to withdraw from the alliance and promise an indemnity 
to the duke of Holstein in the Peace of Travendal (August, 1700). This 
success was followed by the defeat of the Russians before Narwa in the same 
year, and the invasion of Kurland, where he destroyed a Russo-Saxon 
army, and threatened to make war on the Poles, if they would not depose 
their king. When this demand was rejected, Charles marched with his 
Swedish troops into Poland, and in a few days stood before the gates of 
Warsaw. The town quickly surrendered, and shortly afterwards Cracow also 
fell into his hands. Frederick Augustus, who had escaped from the country, 
was now declared to have forfeited the throne, and Charles's candidate, 
Stanislaus Lesczinski, Voyvode of Posen, was proclaimed king (July, 1704). 

CHARLES XII. IN SAXONY. 

IN order to frustrate a projected alliance between the Russians and Saxons, 
with whom the appointment of the Polish king was unpopular, Charles 
made an expedition into Galicia and conquered Lemberg ; he also forced the 
Saxons to retire from Warsaw, which they had attacked in his absence, and 
then advanced into Lithuania and Poland, where he compelled the Russians 
to beat a retreat, and enforced the recognition of Stanislaus as king. He 
then united his forces with those of his brave general Rhenskjold, marched 
through Silesia into Lusatia, and in a short time stood in the heart of 
Saxony. The inhabitants were overwhelmed with terror, and the royal family 
consented to the disgraceful peace of Altranstadt (September, 1706), in which 
they renounced the Polish crown for themselves and their descendants, and 
promised to dissolve their alliance with the Czar. 



PULTOWA. 

IN the meantime Peter had availed himself of the absence of the Swedish 
military forces, to subjugate Ingermanland, and a portion of Livland and 
Esthland. He also built the fortresses of Schllisselburg and Cronstadt, and 
laid the foundation of the new capital of St. Petersburg (1703). Charles XII. 
now hastened from Germany, determined to measure his strength against his 
last and most powerful foe. He captured Grodno and Wilna, and then 
advanced towards Smolensk (1708). The turning-point in Charles's success- 
ful career was, however, at hand. In spite of the severity of the winter, he 
continued his march, and commenced the siege of the strong town of Pultowa. 
Peter then advanced at the head of a considerable army, and on the 8th of July, 
1709, compelled the Swedish king to engage in the battle of Pultowa, in which 
the Swedes were completely defeated. Charles made his escape to Turkey ; 
and the remnant of his army was scattered and destroyed. 




PETER I. AT PULTOWA. 

2Q3 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



CHARLES XII. IN TURKEY. 




H ARLES was respectfully received, and 
generously treated by the Turks. In his 
camp before Bender he lived in royal fashion 
as the guest of the Sultan ; but the thought 
of returning vanquished and without an army 
to his own States, was unendurable to his 
proud spirit. His three enemies now renewed 
their former league against Sweden, and Peter 
extended his conquests on the Baltic. At 
last Charles succeeded in inducing the Turks 
to declare war against Russia. A Turkish 
army was despatched to Moldavia ; but the 
campaign produced no definite result, and 
when Charles obstinately persisted in remain- 
ing under Turkish protection, the Porte at 
length withdrew its hospitality, and commanded him to quit the country. 
He still, however, lingered on for several months, until the news reached him 
that his German possessions also had fallen into the hands of the enemy, and 
that the Swedes were about to appoint a regent, when he suddenly quitted 
Turkey, after a five years' sojourn, and journeying without rest or intermission 
through Hungary and Germany, at last presented himself before the gates 
of Stralsund (November, 1714). 



DEATH OF CHARLES XII. 

THE Swedes in the meantime had made noble efforts to resist their 
numerous enemies ; but the impoverished country was no match for the 
united forces of the five neighbouring States. The whole of Pomerania, with 
the island of Riigen, had fallen into the hands of the Prussians, and Wismar 
also was lost. Still the self-willed king would not hear of peace; and after an 
expedition into Norway which had ended in total failure, he once more made 
an attempt at invasion with two armed forces. The smaller division, under 
Armfeld, directed its attack on Drontheim, but on the approach of winter was 
compelled to retire without accomplishing anything. About the same time 
the king was killed before the fortress of Friedrichshall (Dec. 1718), which 
he was engaged in besieging. As he was standing on a parapet, watching the 
workmen in the trenches, he was killed by a ball, probably despatched by the 
hand of an assassin. Charles's death was followed by a transformation in the 
Constitution, and by a succession of disadvantageous treaties with the allied 
powers. 

INTERNAL CONDITION OF THE NORTHERN COUNTRIES. 

SWEDEN. 

'HP* HE Swedish nobility, weary of the long military despotism, now availed 
JL themselves of the dispute for the crown to obtain their forfeited rights. 
Before Ulrica, the younger sister of Charles XII., and her husband Frederick 
of Hesse- Cassel were raised to the Swedish throne, they were compelled to 
renounce absolute royal power, and to grant the newly-established aristocratic 



296 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

Council such an independent position that it gradually attained equal powers 
of jurisdiction. From this time the royal dignity degenerated to a powerless 
office, and the Constitution of Sweden became an oppressive oligarchy; and 
that the Council of State might enjoy its newly gained power in peace and 
security, treaties were at once concluded with the allied powers, in which the 
aristocracy showed more regard for their own well-being than for the ad- 
vantage and honour of the country. 

RUSSIA. 

IN quite a different fashion did Russia come forth from the conflict. The 
Czar, who had now assumed the title of Emperor, had added cultivated and 
prosperous lands to his empire ; his newly-established navy had opened out 
two seas ; commerce and manufactures rejoiced in his especial patronage ; and 
rich mines increased the internal wealth of the country. But in spite of the 
benefits which Peter conferred upon his country, he himself remained a 
gluttonous and sensual despot to the end of his life. He treated his son 
Alexis, on whom he vented the aversion which he bore to his neglected wife, 
with great cruelty ; and when the latter openly displayed his dislike of all 
his father's reforms and innovations, and finally quitted the country, Peter, 
who was concerned for the existence of his new institutions, caused him to be 
captured and sentenced to death ; but whether Alexis was really executed, or 
died before the fulfilment of the sentence, is not known. After the death of 
Peter the Great (1725) there intervened a succession of feeble governments 
and stormy revolutions. The minister Menzikoff had procured the throne for 
his former domestic servant, the Empress Katharine, and in her name con- 
ducted a despotic government (Katharine I., 1725-27). The same ambitious 
statesman held the regency during the minority of Peter II. (1727-30), son 
of the unhappy Alexis, who succeeded Katharine. Dolgorucky, an enter- 
prising nobleman, at last succeeded, however, in bringing about the overthrow 
of the presumptuous minister, and then organized a regime as despotic as that 
of his predecessor. Peter II. was succeeded by his widow Anna (1730-40), 
who endeavoured to restore the absolute Imperial power, and placed her whole 
confidence in her favourite Biron and the two energetic Germans, Ostermann 
and Miinnich, the latter of whom proved himself a brave and capable 
general. Biron was appointed to act as regent during the minority of Anna's 
successor I wan (1740) ; but Miinnich brought about his overthrow, and Iwan's 
parents, Anna and her husband, Anton Ulrich of Braunschweig Luneberg, 
undertook the regency. A conspiracy was however set on foot to subvert the 
government ; Iwan and his parents were imprisoned ; and Elizabeth (1741-62), 
youngest daughter of Peter the Great, was raised to the throne. The im- 
morality of the court of St. Petersburg reached its climax under this 
voluptuous sovereign ; the finances fell into confusion, and the prosperity of the 
country dwindled away. Lestocq, who had been the means of her acquiring 
the crown, was banished in 1748 to Siberia ; and a new minister, named 
Bestucheff, then took the management of affairs, to the advantage of Austria, 
until Elizabeth's death and the accession of Peter III. again brought about 
a change in affairs. 



THE NORTH AND EAST OF EUROPE. 297- 

POLAND. 

THE scheme of Frederick Augustus II., after his re-instatement, of setting V 
up a royal power in Poland, was rendered fruitless by the resistance of 
the nobility. His attempt, however, to break the warlike spirit of the aris- 
tocracy by the introduction of extravagant luxury and corrupt morality met 
with more success. Little by little, self-indulgence, sensuality, and love of 
splendour destroyed the last moral force among the nobility, and were all the 
more disastrous in their effects, as outward refinement was united with in- 
ward coarseness and sensual brutality. With their other misdeeds the Poles 
also combined a system of persecution against heretics. In violation of the 
Peace of Oliva, the aristocracy, led by the Jesuits, endeavoured to deprive the 
dissenters of the civil and religious rights which they had enjoyed for two* 
centuries ; and a law was introduced by the Diet forbidding them to build 
churches. Shortly before the death of Frederick Augustus II. (1733), who 
dared not take any step in favour of his former religious associates, all dissen- 
ters were excluded by a decision of the Diet from national representation, as 
well as from all State offices. It was therefore hardly to be wondered at that 
the dissenters should turn their expectant glances towards Russia, who knew 
how to avail itself advantageously of these dissensions. 



THE POLISH WAR OF SUCCESSION (1733 AND 1734). 

AFTER the death of Frederick Augustus II., the nobles, who met together 
in a convocation, swore that they would only recognise a native king, 
and conferred the crown on Stanislaus Lesczinski, whose daughter was married 
to Louis XV. of France. Russia and Austria, however, favoured the can- 
didature of the son of Frederick Augustus of Saxony, Frederick Augustus 
III. (1733-1763), who had also gone over to the Catholic Church. Stanislaus 
Lesczinski, though recognised by the majority of the Polish nation, and 
assured of French aid, was compelled to yield, and made his escape to 
Dantzig ; but, on his formally renouncing his claim to the crown of Poland, 
obtained the dukedom of Lorraine. In order to withhold France from war, 
and to procure its assent to the Pragmatic Sanction, Charles VI. agreed to 
the extremely disadvantageous preliminary peace of Vienna (Oct. 1735),, 
in which - Francis Stephen, duke of Lorraine, son-in-law of the Emperor, 
exchanged his inheritance for the vacant throne of Tuscany ; Lorraine and 
Bar, on the other hand, fell to Stanislaus, and after his death reverted to 
France ; and Naples and Sicily were handed over to the Spanish prince Doa 
Carlos. 







PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA; 
PROGRESS AND CONTENTION. 

PRUSSIA UNDER THE GREAT ELECTOR. MILITARY POWER. THE 

ELECTOR FREDERICK III. PRUSSIA A MONARCHY UNDER FREDE- 
RICK I. IMPORTANT REIGN OF FREDERICK WILLIAM I. ENERGY 
AND ECCENTRICITY OF THE KING. THE QUARRELS WITH THE 
CROWN PRINCE. THE YOUTH OF FREDERICK II. His IMPRISON- 
MENT AT KiisTRiN. MARRIAGE OF THE CROWN PRINCE. FREDERICK 
THE GREAT AND THE AUSTRIAN WAR OF SUCCESSION. THE TURKISH 
WARS OF CHARLES VI. THE PRAGMATIC SANCTION. ACCESSION 
OF MARIA THERESA. BREAKING OUT OF WAR, 1740. CONQUEST OF 
SILESIA. THE EMPEROR CHARLES VII. AND HIS MISFORTUNES. 

TREATY OF BRESLAU. 
BATTLE OF DETTINGEN, 
ETC. TREATY OF Aix 
LA CHAPELLE. THE 
SEVEN YEARS' WAR (1756- 
1763), LOWOSITZ, PIRN A, 
PRAGUE, KOLLIN, ROSS- 
BACH, LEUTHEN, ZORN- 
DORF. DISASTERS OF 
HOCHKIRCH AND KUN- 
NERSDORF. VICTORIES 

OF LlEGNITZ AND TOR- 

GAU. CONCLUSION OF 
THE WAR. TREATY OF 
HUBERTSBURG. 

PRUSSIA. 

T7REDERICK WIL- 
LI AM, the Great Elector 
of Brandenburg (1640 1688), 
increased the stability of his 

FREDERICK WILLIAM, THE GREAT ELECTOR. States partly by uniting the 

298 




300 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

provinces of Prussia and Cleve more closely with the main dominion of Bran- 
denburg, and also by encouraging industrious settlers from various parts 
to take up their abode in his territory ; and lastly by the formation of an 
important military force, with which he gained for his kingdom an inde- 
pendent position. This judicious and energetic prince was succeeded by his 
pleasure-loving son, the elector Frederick III. (1688-1713), whom Carlyle 
rightly designates " a very expensive Herr ; " for to him the outward splen- 
dour with which Louis XIV. had surrounded the court of Versailles, appeared 
the highest triumph of kingly dignity. He regarded with envy the electors 
of Hanover and Saxony, to whom what appeared to him an inestimable 
treasure, a royal crown, had been awarded ; and great was his delight when 
the Emperor Leopold, after much hesitation, consented to his assuming the 
royal title ; and he was solemnly crowned at Konigsberg under the style and 
title of King Frederick I. of Prussia. The new king then made a brilliant 
entry into Berlin, which city he endeavoured to make worthy of a royal 
residence by improving the buildings, laying out gardens and parks, and 
undertaking great public works. He also showed himself an enlightened 
patron of the arts and sciences ; but his lavish expenditure, combined with 
the maintenance of a considerable armed force, weighed heavily on the im- 
poverished country. Fortunately, however, this extravagant prince was 
succeeded by the parsimonious and indeed avaricious Frederick William I. 
(1713-1740), who was in everything the contrast of his predecessor. Any- 
thing that bordered on luxury was now banished from the court ; and the 
jewels and costly vessels which the father had laboriously acquired, were sold 
by the son to defray the great debts that had been accumulating. All the 
actions of this wise but eccentric prince bore witness to a strong and often 
hard nature. He frequently showed a just and upright sentiment and a 
practical understanding that was proof against the corruptions of luxury 
and outward pomp. The example of this king practically demonstrated 
in his government how much might be accomplished by wise economy 
and the employment of every energy ; though one of his eccentricities was 
his constant endeavour to procure " tall fellows " from every country in 
Europe for his Potsdam guard of giants, in which force he took great delight. 
He established many useful institutions, and purchased Stettin and the 
western portion of Lower Pomerania from Sweden. He left at his death a 
well-filled treasury, for he had regulated and greatly increased the revenue 
of the State ; and he had also given to Prussia a large and excellently organized 
army. 

Among the eccentric institutions of Frederick William I. was that strange 
tobacco club, or "Tabagie," at which the king sat, with councillors and 
generals, sipping Swedish beer between the puffs of the pipe, and at which 
undignified practical jokes and horseplay were often allowed and encouraged. 




PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA. 



301 




THE TOBACCO CLUB, OR "TABAGIE," OF FREDERICK WILLIAM I. 

THE YOUTH OF FREDERICK II. 

i ^REDERICK the Crown Prince was in many 
Ji respects the opposite of his father. While 
the sturdy, old-fashioned, and rough-mannered 
king was engaged in wild sports and hunting, 
the talented and intellectual prince would oc- 
cupy himself with the study of French authors, 
and with playing the flute, of which instrument 
he was passionately fond. The estrangement 
caused by the difference in their natures became 
intensified into an actual and bitter quarrel 
when the king refused his consent to his son's 
marriage with an English princess, a daughter 
of George II., to whom the queen of Prussia, a 
sister of the English king, wished to see her son 
united. When the young prince attempted to 
escape from paternal control by secretly flying 
from the country, he was apprehended by his 
father's order and confined in the strong for- 
tress of Kiistrin, whence he was not released 
until he had humbly implored the king's pardon. Soon afterwards followed 
Frederick's marriage with a princess of the Brunswick family; but his intellect 




302 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



found small satisfaction in the narrow bounds of domestic life ; he saw his 
wife but seldom, and devoted his time to gathering a polite and literary circle 
round him at Rheinsberg, and reading French translations of ancient writers. 
For French literature he had a high admiration, and conceived such a vene- 
ration for Voltaire that he wrote him the most flattering letters, and regarded 
his own personal intercourse with so great a thinker as his highest happiness. 



THE AUSTRIAN WARS OF SUCCESSION (1740-48). THE TURKISH WARS 

OF CHARLES VI. 

THE Emperor Charles 
VI. was a well-in- 
tentioned but in no way 
influential prince, who in 
his later years forfeited 
by disadvantageous trea- 
ties several of the con- 
quests which had been 
added to the Austrian 
monarchy at the begin- 
ning of his reign. Scarce- 
ly was the Spanish War 
of Succession terminated, 
before the Porte already 
broke the peace of Car- 
lowitz (1714), and once 
more wrested the wealthy 
commercial State in the 
Morea from Venetian 
supremacy. Austria at 
once entered into an 
alliance with the Vene- 
tians, which afforded the 
Osmanli an opportunity 
for declaring war against 
Austria. This time, how- 
ever, the Imperial troops 
maintained the upper 
hand. The brilliant vic- 
tories of Eugene of Savoy at Peterwardein and Belgrade compelled the Porte 
to consent to the disadvantageous peace of Passarowitz (July 1718), in which, 
though Turkey retained possession of the Peloponnesus, the Porte was 
obliged to surrender part of Wallachia, Bosnia, and Servia to Austria. In 
the next period, however, the military system so degenerated in Austria 
after Eugene's death, that in the Turkish War in which the Emperor, as the 
ally of Russia, engaged shortly before his own decease, victory remained 
with the Osmanli, while the Russians, under the command of MUnnich, made 
bold invasions into Turkish territory; This was quickly followed by the 
treaty of Belgrade (September 1739), which was disadvantageous to Austria, 
for in it everything that Austria had gained by the bravery and genius of 
Eugene was given back to the Turks. 

The Pragmatic Sanction. As Charles VI. had no male heir, it was his most 




PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA. 






earnest desire to secure the inheritance of the Austrian hereditary States to 
his only daughter, Maria Theresa, who was married to duke Francis Stephen 
of Lorraine. But instead of placing the army in such a condition that his- 
daughter, might be able to repel any attack, he purchased at great sacrifices 
the solemn recognition of this arrangement from all the courts of Europe. 
The arrangement in question was called the Pragmatic Sanction, in accordance 
with which the Austrian hereditary territory was to remain undivided, and in 
case of the male line becoming extinct, was to devolve to the female line. But 
the Emperor Charles's eyes were scarcely closed before Charles Albert, elector 
of Bavaria, the husband of Maria Amelia, daughter of the Emperor Joseph I., 
laid claim to the Austrian States ; and his pretensions were backed with aid 
from France, Spain, and other powers, who gave their countenance and assistance 
under the disgraceful condition that, as Emperor of Germany and heir of Austria, 
he should not demand back again the conquests of the French on the Rhine 
and in the Netherlands, and should leave the Spaniards unmolested in pos- 
session of Italy. Frederick II. of Prussia, however, would not allow this 
favourable opportunity to pass for asserting the old hereditary claims of his 
house to the Silesian province, which had been taken by Austria during the 
Thirty Years' War ; and he consequently upheld the Bavarian elector both in 
his claims to Austria, Hungary, and Bohemia and in his candidature for the 
Imperial crown. Russia, being -involved in a war with Sweden, remained 
neutral. 

AUSTRIA'S DISASTERS. 

A FEW weeks after the death of Charles VL 
(October, 1740), Frederick II. marched into 
Silesia with his great and well-disciplined army^ 
to assert the claims which he derived from the 
relationship of the Brandenburg house with 
the earlier princes of Leignitz, Brieg, Jagern- 
dorf, and Wohlau. This first Silesian war 
(1740-42) soon proved that the Prussian people 
were animated by a new spirit. The troops 
were commanded by the two practised generals, 
Fieldmarshal Schwerin and Prince Leopold of 
Dessau, the former of whom gained a victory 
over the Austrians in the bloody battle of 
Molwitz (April, 1741), by which the Prussians 
gained possession of the larger part of Upper 
and Lower Silesia. Soon afterwards the French 
crossed the Rhine with an armed force, .one 
division of which coalesced with the troops of 
Charles Albert of Bavaria, who, without meet- 
ing with any special resistance, penetrated into 
Austria, and in October received homage as 
Archduke at Lintz (1741). This was followed 

by other successes ; Prague was taken, and the Elector of Hanover, George II. 
of England, was compelled to promise that he would render no aid to the 
" Queen of Hungary." Indeed, Maria Theresa was at length driven to very 
great straits when Frederick II. marched his troops into Moravia and Bohemia. 
In her distress the injured princess, assaulted on all sides, at last turned to 
Hungary. At a diet at Presburg, where, according to the generally received 




304 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




STATUE OF PRINCE EUGENE OF SAVOY. 

tradition, she appeared with her infant son Joseph in her arms, she excited 
such enthusiasm among the magnates by the account of her misfortunes and 
by an appeal to their loyalty and patriotism, that they cried with one, voice, 
" Vivat Maria Theresa Rex ! Moriamur pro rege nostro ! " and called their 
vassals to arms. In a short time a powerful army from the States of Hungary 
marched into the field, expelled the French and Bavarian troops, re-conquered 
the invested towns, and carried their devastations into Bavaria. At the same 
time also that Charles Albert was being invested with the much-coveted 
Imperial Crown at Frankfort, in January, 1742, the enemy marched into his 
capital, Munich, which was occupied by a hostile force, and led on their wild 
troops as far as the Lech. Robbed of his hereditary possession, the new 
Emperor Charles VII. soon fell into such straits, that he was only able with 
French aid to pay for a miserable maintenance. Shortly afterwards, Maria 
Theresa agreed to the Peace of Breslau, in July, 1742, in which nearly the 
whole of Upper and Lower Silesia was ceded to Prussia. In a short time the 
.greater part of Bohemia was again in the hands of the Austrians, and siege 
was already laid to Prague, from which the French commander, Belleisle, 



PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA. 



305 



made a sudden retreat to Eger in the middle of winter. In the following 
year Maria Theresa was crowned at Prague (1743), and at the same time 
obtained a powerful ally in George II. of Hanover and England. An expe- 
rienced fenglish general led the so-called " Pragmatic army " to the Maine, 
accompanied by the king himself and one of his sons, the Duke of Cumber- 
land ; and in the battle of Dettingen, not far from Aschaffenburg, gained a 
decisive victory over the French under Marshal Noailles, in July,. 1743. This 
success was quickly followed by alliances between Austria and Sardinia and 
Saxony. 



PROGRESS OF THE WAR. 




battle of Dettingen and the treaties with 
Sardinia and Saxony made the Austrian .War 
of succession a European conflict. France, until that 
time the ally of Charles Albert, now declared war 
against England and Austria (1744), and entered 
again into an alliance with Frederick of Prussia, who, 
in justifiable apprehension that Austria and her new 
allies would once more dispossess him of Silesia, 
commenced the second Silesian war against Maria 
Theresa. While Frederick, as the ally of the threat- 
ened Emperor, invaded Bohemia, Charles VII. found 
an opportunity of winning back his inheritance of 
Bavaria, and of re-entering Munich, his capital. 
When, however, Frederick was driven, with heavy 
losses, out of Bohemia, the Emperor would have 
been again compelled to take flight, had not death 
liberated him from all his misfortunes (Jan. 1745). 
Charles Albert's son, the elector Maximilian Joseph, after a disastrous cam- 
paign, offered the hand of peace ; and in the treaty of Fiissen he renounced all 
claim to Austria in return for the complete surrender of Bavaria ; and on the 
election of a new Emperor, gave his vote to the husband of Maria Theresa 
Francis of Lorraine who was shortly afterwards crowned at Frankfort as 
Francis I. At the end of the same year the Peace of Dresden was arranged, 
in December, 1745, by which Frederick remained in possession of Silesia and 
Glatz, recognised Duke Francis Stephen as Emperor, and received a million 
dollars in consideration of the evacuation of Saxony by his troops. The war, 
which was now ended in Germany, continued for some time longer in the 
Netherlands and Italy, where the French fought with success under the cele- 
brated Marshal Saxe, a natural son of Frederick Augustus II., called the 
Strong. On the I2th of May, 1745, the battle of Fontenoy was won by the 
French, and gloriously lost by the English ; and in the following year, after the 
victory of Raucoux, the Marshal conquered the Austrian Netherlands as far as 
Luxemburg and Limburg, and threatened the frontier of the States General. 
Here, as formerly, in the year 1672, the nation was divided into the aristocratic- 
republican, and the Orange factions. Since the death of William III., the 
former party had maintained the ascendency ; consequently for several years 
the office of stadtholder remained vacant. Now, however, the people began 
to rebel against the aristocratic government, and at last succeeded, not only 
in appointing William IV. (1747-51), of Nassau- Orange, son-in-law of George 
II., stadtholder and governor of the United States, but declared this office to 
II. X 



306 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



be hereditary in his male and female descendants. The war, which now broke 
out with renewed violence, proved to the advantage of the English at sea. 
The battle off Cape Finisterre (May, 1747), when Anson, the brave navigator, 
was in command, annihilated the French navy and shipping. By land, on 
the other hand, the French still continued their victories, in the battle of 
Laffeld and the brilliant conquest of Maestricht, until the Peace of Aix la 
Chapelle, which was finally concluded in October, 1748. 



THE SEVEN YEARS' WAR (1756-1763). ALLIANCES IN 1755. 




T 



HE eight years of peace after the Austrian 
War of Succession were taken advantage of by 
Frederick the Great for the promotion of industry, 
the improvement of the peasant-class, and the 
extension and organization of the army ; and by 
Maria Theresa for the reform of many abuses in 
the administration, and for concluding important 
alliances. The Empress could not forget the loss 
of Silesia to her most hated rival. As early as 
the year 1746, Elizabeth, the voluptuous sovereign 
of Russia, who was offended with Frederick's de- 
risive comments on her immoral life, and hoped 
to gain possession of the favourably-situated pro- 
vinces on the Baltic, had, through her minister 
Bestucheff, entered into an alliance with Maria 
Theresa. This alliance was now renewed, and 
was also followed by a coalition between Maria 
Theresa and the French court, brought about by 
a flattering letter addressed to the Marquise de 
Pompadour, the all-powerful mistress of Louis 
XV., with the object of depriving the king of 
Prussia of his conquests. This close alliance be- 
tween France and Austria filled England, who 
was at variance with the French court regarding 
the frontiers in North America, with apprehension, and brought about a 
coalition between Frederick II. and George II. for the removal of foreign 
soldiers from German soil (Jan., 1756). 

Pirna (1756). Frederick, determined to be beforehand with his opponents, 
suddenly marched into Saxony with an army of 70,000 brave Prussians, 
invested Leipzig, Torgau, Wittenberg, and Dresden, from which capital the 
elector-king made a precipitate escape, and established a Prussian adminis- 
tration of the country. The Saxon troops had taken up a strong position 
near Pirna, on the Elbe, where they were only compelled by hunger to 
surrender. Frederick surrounded them with one portion of his army, and 
with the other advanced to meet the Austrian field-marshal, Brown, near 
Lowositz, where, on October the first, 1756, he inflicted on him a decisive 
defeat with his much smaller army, and compelled the famished Saxon troops 
to capitulate. 



PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA. 



307 




FREDERICK THE GREAT AFTER THE BATTLE OF KOLLIN. 

Prague, Kollin, Rossbach, LeutJten, 1757. Frederick now left the conflict 
with the French, who had crossed the Rhine and were approaching the Weser, 
to his allies, England, Hanover, etc., and sending a portion of his troops 
against the Russians, who had invaded Prussia, he himself advanced with the 
main army to attack the Austrians in Bohemia. Through the brave efforts 
of his troops and the courage and heroic death of Schwerin, Frederick won 
the brilliant, but dearly- bought, victory of Prague (May, 1757). The capital, 
however, still resisted all attacks ; and in the following month the defeat at 
Kollin deprived the king of Prussia of all his advantages. Pursued by the 
Austrians, he retired with the remains of his army to Upper Lusatia, and soon 
afterwards gained the brilliant battle of Rossbach (November, 1757) over the 
French troops, commanded by Prince Soubise. From that time Frederick 
was the hero of the day, and the pride of Protestant Germany. 

In the meantime, the Austrians had made successful advances into Silesia. 
Winterfeld, Frederick's confidant, had fallen, Schweidnitz and Breslau, with 
their well-filled magazines and arsenals, fell into the hands of the enemy, and 
many brave Prussians languished in confinement. Frederick now appeared, 
however, and with his " Berlin serjeant's-guard," as the foe mockingly termed 
his army, brought about a speedy transformation of affairs. In the battle of 
Leuthen he won a glorious victory over the three times stronger forces of the 
enemy, and once more gained possession of Breslau and the whole of Silesia. 




3 o8 



PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA. 309 

Zorndorf, Hochkirch (1/58). Since the battle of Rossbach, Frederick had 
been the idol of the people in England ; and the ministry, in which the elder 
Pitt (Lord Chatham) possessed the greatest influence, now offered the king of 
Prussia support in money and troops, and allowed him to nominate the 
general. Frederick appointed as commander of the allied army the astute 
Ferdinand of Braunschweig, who, at the beginning of the spring, drove the 
French across the Rhine, defeated them in the battle of Crefeld (1758), and 
through the whole summer defended North Germany from their rapacious 
invasions. The Russian minister Bestucheff had in the meantime fallen into 
ill-favour with Elizabeth, and was now replaced by Fermor, who conducted a 
large army to the Oder. Prussia was occupied, and the citizens of Konigsberg 
were compelled to render homage ; the savage hordes next overran Branden- 
burg, laid Kiistrin in ashes, and spread fire, murder, and devastation through- 
out the country. Then Frederick made a masterly retreat from Moravia to 
the Oder, and checked the further advance of the Russians by the murderous 
battle of Zorndorf (August, 1758), when the Prussians, principally through 
the skill of the brave cavalry leader, Seydlitz, the hero of Rossbach, obtained 
a dearly-bought victory. Frederick now wished to go to the relief of his 
brother Henry in Saxony ; but having been surprised in an unfavourable 
position, he lost in the night surprise of Hochkirch all his ammunition and 
many brave warriors. 



REVERSES AND DISASTER. 



OON, however, a fresh storm broke over Frederick's head. 
Maria Theresa once more obtained the assurance of renewed 
assistance in men and money from France ; and Elizabeth 
endeavoured by new victories to wipe out the remembrance 
of Zorndorf, and despatched fresh troops, under Soltikoff, to 
take the field against the Prussians. A division of his army 
which Frederick despatched against the Russians, to prevent 
their coalition with the Austrians, was defeated near Ziillichau 
(July, 1759) ; and when he himself attacked the united forces of his 
opponents, not far from Frankfort, with a much smaller army, he 
sustained such a complete defeat in the bloody battle of Kuners- 
dorf (August, 1 2th), that he began to despair of a successful issue 
of the war, and despondently longed for death. " Everything is lost," he 
wrote to his minister, Finkenstein ; " let the royal family make its escape. 
Adieu for ever ! " Among the numerous warriors who fell on the battle-field 
of Kunersdorf was the poet Ewald von Kleist, " both a poet and a hero." 
The way to Berlin now stood open to the enemy ; but the disunion between 
the Russians and Austrians proved that the victory would not be profited by 
as Maria Theresa desired. On the contrary, Dresden and other parts of 
Saxony were again lost, after the unfortunate capitulation of Maxen (Novem- 
ber, 1759). 

In the meantime, Frederick's allies, under Ferdinand of Braunschweig, 
fought against the French with more success. Certainly the Duke de Broglie 
gained the ascendency in the. battle of Bergen, near Frankfort ; but Ferdi- 
nand's brilliant victory near Minden drove the French army back across the 
Rhine, and saved Westphalia and Hanover. 




THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




DEATH OF MARSHAL SCHWERIN AT PRAGUE. 



LlEGNITZ. TORGAU (1760). 

DISASTERS had so weakened the Prussian army, that on the war break- 
ing out again the king was obliged, contrary to his usual custom, to act 
on the defensive. After the loss of Silesia in the defeat of Fouquet near 
Landshut, Frederick surrendered Saxony, in order to reconquer Silesia. And 
though two Austrian armies endeavoured to frustrate his design, he neverthe- 
less achieved his object by the brilliant victory of Liegnitz on the Katzbach 
over Laudon's troops (August, 1760), and prevented the union of the Austrian 
and Russian forces. This was followed in the same year by the hard-won 
victory of Torgau, by which the Prussian king regained possession of Saxony, 
and was able to take up his winter quarters in Leipzig. 

In spite, however, of the warlike deeds of the Prussian armies, Frederick 
seemed as though he must inevitably succumb to the evil fates which assailed 
him on all sides. Dresden and a portion of Saxony were in Daun's power ; 
and through the possession of the fortress of Glatz, Laudon had made a stand 
in Upper Silesia. Prussia was in the hands of the Russians ; the Swedes 
were in Pomerania ; and two French armies of more than 150,000 men had 
crossed the Rhine. The number of his enemies was also increased by the 
addition of Spain, which, since the accession of Charles III., had been allied 
with France, and which soon afterwards became most closely connected with 
French interests, through the family league of the Bourbon courts. But 



PRUSSIA AND AUSTRIA. 311 

Frederick went forward courageously and resolutely to meet his foes. While 
Prince Henry defended Saxony against Daun, and Ferdinand of Braun- 
schweig and his nephew successfully repelled the French forces under Marshals 
Broglie and Soubise in the west of Germany, Frederick himself endeavoured 
to drive the Austrians out of Silesia, and to prevent their union with the 
Russians. 




w 



CONCLUSION OF THE WAR. TREATY OF PEACE (1762-1763). 

*HILE Frederick was in his greatest ex- 
tremity, the Empress Elizabeth died 
(Jan., 1762), and her nephew, Peter III., the 
greatest admirer of the Prussian monarch, 
ascended the throne. This change soon brought 
about a transformation in affairs ; Peter, a good- 
natured but thoughtless prince, who went so far 
in his admiration for Frederick that he wore 
Prussian uniform, at once set the prisoners of 
war at liberty, and not only surrendered every 
conquest, but concluded with Frederick a league 
of offence and defence, in consequence of which 
a Russian army united with the Prussians. 
Sweden also renounced participation in a war 
which brought the country neither honour nor 
profit. Peter III., however, was barbarously mur- 
dered, at the instigation of his wife Katharine, 
after a six months' reign (July, 1762); but 
Katharine II., who now seized the power which 
rightly belonged to her son Paul, ratified the 
concluded treaty. She nevertheless dissolved 
the alliance with Frederick, and summoned her 
troops home. But before their retirement the 
king of Prussia, with the help of the Russian 
general, won the battle of Buckersdorf, when Frederick with great efforts re- 
gained possession of Schweidnitz and the larger part of Silesia ; while Prince 
Henry, after the victory of Freiberg, cleared Saxony of the Imperial troops. 
The German people, whose lands were devastated and whose prosperity was 
utterly destroyed, despairing, begged for peace ; Austria also was exhausted 
by the long war. An armed truce, concluded between Prussia, France, and 
Austria, afforded an opportunity for negotiations, which at the beginning 
of the following year resulted in the Peace of Paris, and a few days later in 
the Peace of Hubertsburg (Feb., 1763). In this peace the possession of 
Silesia was secured to the king of Prussia for ever, while he was compelled to 
surrender all his other conquests. From this time forth Prussia took its rank 
among the five great European powers. 

In the meantime a variable war by sea and land was being carried on 
between England and France in America and Europe. When the island of 
Minorca, which was ceded to England in the Peace of Utrecht, was captured 
by the Duke de Richelieu, and the troops sent by England fought with but 
small success, the English nation gave such loud expression to their dissatis- 
faction that the ministry resolved to conciliate the people by a sacrifice. . 
They put the blame of the loss of Minorca on Admiral Byng, and caused 



31.2 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



him to be tried by a court-martial, and shot on the deck of his ship. But 
when William Pitt entered the ministry affairs took a different turn. The 
English commanders conquered Quebec, where the victorious General Wolfe 
died a hero's death, and occupied Canada ; and English admirals defeated the 
French fleets and stopped all intercourse with America. But by the influence 
of Lord Bute, Pitt was dismissed, and the English ministry abolished the 
treaty with Prussia, and then entered into negotiations with France and 
Spain. In the Peace of Paris, England was richly compensated by the 
acquisition of Canada and Florida (for which Spain obtained Louisiana from 
France) and of the island of Granada. 




WILLIAM PITT, EARL OF CHATHAM. 




THE PERIOD OF REVOLUTION. 



PRECURSORS OF THE REVOLUTION. THE PHILOSOPHERS. SIR ISAAC 
NEWTON. JOHN LOCKE. SHAFTESBURY. TINDAL. BOLINGBROKE. 
GIBBON AND HUME THE HISTORIANS. THE HETERODOX LITERA- 
TURE OF FRANCE. VOLTAIRE, THE CHIEF OF THE SCEPTICS. 
MONTESQUIEU. JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU. THE HOLBACH CLUB 
AND THE ENCYCLOPAEDISTS. DIDEROT. 

SCEPTICISM AND FREETHOUGHT, AND ITS LITERATURE. 

HE attacks which were directed throughout the course of the 
1 8th century against religion and the Church, and against 
existing State constitutions and social conditions, led to a 
complete transformation in the opinions and habits of 
thought of the higher classes. Superstition and ecclesiasti- 
cal restriction disappeared ; the absolute form of govern- 
ment and patriarchal rule were shaken ; but the blows which 
were aimed at tyranny and abuses, also tended to dispel venera- 
tion toward princes and rulers from the hearts of the people. It 
was a mighty struggle between philosophy, primitive slavery, old- 
fashioned abuses, and everything in Church and State which ran 
counter to the inviolable rights of the spirit and intellect. The con- 
flict with ecclesiastical beliefs proceeded from England, where two 
powerful minds, Newton (1642-1727) and Locke (1632-1704), laid 
the basis for a new development of culture. Newton's discovery of gravitation 
as the all-governing principle of the universe, exercised a powerful influence, 
not only on natural science and astronomy, but also on the conceptions of 
religion. Locke, the tutor and friend of the intellectual Earl of Shaftesbury, 
after having established, in his " Essay on the Human Understanding," a 




3 H 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



system which, starting from the perception of the senses, destroys all know- 
ledge of super-sensual things, in so far as they are not results of our own 
mental activity, endeavoured by a number of writings on Church, State, and 
education, to introduce into the Chujrch rationalism and religious toleration, 
without however making a hostile attack on the Establishment. Through 
Condillac his doctrines found access into France. Incited by Locke, the 
witty and intellectual Shaftesbury (died 1713), grandson of the before- 
mentioned statesman, devoted himself to the study of sceptical philosophy, 
which had been originated in the Netherlands by Bayle and other French- 
men, and directed his fine irony, his wit, and satire against the doctrines of 
the Church and all religion founded on revelation. His principal works are 
*' Characteristics of Men, Manners, and Times," "The Moralist," and the 
treatise on " Merit and Virtue." 

Not out of an inclination for mockery and satire, like Shaftesbury, but from 
motives of vanity, Locke's learned friend Collins (died 1729) arrived at 

similar results. Participation in the dis- 
putes of two orthodox believers led him 
to scepticism. Among his writings the 
" Discourse on Freethought," and the " In- 
vestigation of Biblical Prophecies," are the 
best known. The Church was also at- 
tacked more boldly, but to a certain ex- 
tent less skilfully, by a number of writers 
who are known by the name of Deists, 
because they opposed the doctrine of the 
Trinity, and taught that worship should 
only be rendered to one Supreme Being. 
Of these writers may be mentioned Tindal 
(died 1733), author of a book on the "False 
Churches," and " Christianity as Old as the 
World;" Wollaston (died 1724), who en- 
deavoured to establish, in his " Descrip- 
tion of Natural Religion," a religion of 
pure reason ; and Morgan, Mandeville, 
and various others. 

More important than these Deist writers 
was the celebrated Lord Bolingbroke 
(died 1751), famous as a statesman and party leader, of whom his friend 
Voltaire declared that he united with the philosophy of an Englishman all the 
finesse of a Frenchman. His most remarkable work is his " Letters on the 
Study of History." To his doctrines leaned England's greatest historians : 
Gibbon (died 1797), the talented author of the "Decline and Fall of the 
Roman Empire," and Hume (died 1776), who wrote a "History of England," 
and a light, sceptical philosophy of life. The Scotch divine, Robertson (died 
1793), on the other hand, showed neither the French culture nor the heretical 
opinions of these sceptical writers. His valuable works, " History of 
Scotland in the Reign of Mary Stuart," " History of the Reign of Charles V.," 
and " History of America," are conscientious and reliable, but dry and wanting 
in inspiration. The poet Pope (died 1744), on the other hand, who made 
Homer accessible to the English people, did homage to French refinement and 
the philosophy of Bolingbroke, which maintained that men were guided in 
worldly things by selfishness, and in religion must obey the dictates of their 




VOLTAIRE. 



THE PERIOD OF REVOLUTION. 



3'S 



reason; and in the "Satires "of Swift (died 1745), ecclesiasticism and the 
faith of the Church were equally derided with the vanities of society and the 
faults of the government. 



THE HETERODOX LITERATURE OF 
FRANCE. 

VOLTAIRE, MONTESQUIEU, ROUSSEAU. 

'HE literary activity of these three men, whose 
philosophical works, embellished with all the 
charm of language and style, were read by the 
whole of cultured Europe, contributed more 
than anything else to the transformation in the 
traditional views of Church and State, as well as 
to the extermination of prejudices and abuses. 
Their paths were diverse, but the results were 
similar. Among all the writers who have operated powerfully 
on their time, none has, at any period, exercised a greater 
influence over his contemporaries than Voltaire (1694-1778). 
Brought up among the higher circles of society, in which 
a light and playful satire was the prevailing intellectual 
tone, this gifted writer devoted himself to satirical poetry. 
This species of writing, however, soon led to his banishment 
from Paris, and caused him for a time to take up his residence 
in England (1726-29). After his return to France, he made 
his countrymen acquainted with the political and social life, 
the literature and the religious state of England in his " English 
Letters." Voltaire set forth his views in works of the most varied description 
in satires, romances, and poems, the most celebrated of the latter being his 
epic poem, the " Henriade." Among his historical writings are the Histories 
of the " Period of Louis XIV.," of " Charles XII.," and " Peter the Great," and 
many political disquisitions. 

^ Montesquieu. -In the " Persian Letters," Montesquieu attacks, with the same 
light raillery as Voltaire, the religious belief of the age, and the whole system 
of French education and government, and throws ridicule on the customs and 
social conditions of his contemporaries. In his philosophical treatise on " The 
Cause of the Greatness and Decline of Rome," he sought to represent that 
patriotism and confidence in one's own strength makes a State great, but that 
despotism leads to its destruction. His third work is called " The Spirit of 
the Laws." 

Rousseau. The greatest influence on the transformation of the opinions 
and thoughts of the time was exercised by Jean Jacques Rousseau. He was 
born at Geneva, and it was intended that he should follow his father's trade 
of a watchmaker ; he however made his escape from the severity of his 
teacher, and afterwards led an eventful life, now in Savoy and Northern Italy, 
now in Paris, now as the persecuted fugitive from the Holy Orifice, in the 
Canton of Neuenburg, under the protection of Frederick II., and again in 
England with the historian Hume, until, weighed down with melancholy and 
weariness of life, he died suddenly at the residence of one of his admirers, 




316 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

not far from Paris. His principal works are his " Confessions," a memoir of 
his life, "The Social Contract," and "The New Heloise." 

The Holbach Club and the Encyclopedists. A number of talented writers, 
who for the most part gathered round the German Baron Holbach, in Paris, 
now carried their destructive zeal to the greatest extreme, agreeing as to the 
negative side of the doctrines of Condillac and Locke, but leaving the positive 
meaning out of the question. Several works, such as " The Natural System," of 
which Holbach himself was regarded as the author, and "Spirit," by Helvetius 
(died 1771), sought to prove the eternal character of matter (Materialists) and 
to represent self-love and selfishness as the only motives of human action. 
In the union of this impulse with the public welfare, they recognised the 
measure of morality and truth. Similar views were held by the so-called 
Encyclopaedists the writers of the famous Encyclopaedia, edited by the 
indefatigable Diderot, who died in 1784, and the acute philosopher and mathe- 
matician d'Alembert. 




THE FRAUENKIRCHE IN DRESDEN. 







ATTEMPTS AT REFORM IN VARIOUS STATES 

OF EUROPE. 

PORTUGAL UNDER PETER II. AND HIS SUCCESSORS., JOHN V., JOSEPH 

EMANUEL I. OPPOSITION TO 

THE JESUITS. POMBAL AND HIS 

REFORMS. CHARLES IV. THE 
NORTH OF EUROPE. DENMARK. 
STRUENSEE. FREDERICK IV. 
CHRISTIAN VI. FREDERICK V. 
CHRISTIAN VIL COUNT STRU- 
ENSEE, His CAREER AND DEATH. 
SWEDEN. WILLMANSTRAND. 
GUSTAVUS III. GUSTAVUS IV. 
GERMANY IN THE TIME OF 
FREDERICK II. THE GERMAN 
EMPIRE. BAVARIAN SUCCESSION. 
MARIA THERESA. 

PORTUGAL AND POMBAL. 

HE period of king Peter II., and his feeble successors was a disastrous 
time for Portugal. The colonies fell into the hands of foreign posses- 
sors, trade and navigation were at a standstill, and native industry was 
paralysed, especially since the commercial dominion of the British had been 
established in the country by means of the treaty of 1703, which procured 
English woollen goods free entrance into Portugal, and made the once 
active people entirely dependent upon England. John V. (1705-1750), who 
was blindly devoted to the clergy, squandered the revenues of the country 
in the building of churches and monasteries, and left the government in the 
hands of the clergy. To this state of affairs the enlightened but despotic 
Pombal, the all-powerful minister of king Joseph Emanuel I. (1750-1777), 
endeavoured to offer an effectual check ; and, as he regarded the Jesuits as 
the chief authors of the prevailing misery, he first directed his attacks against 
the wealthy and powerful Society of Jesus. A land dispute in South America, 
where the order had established in Paraguay a kingdom of its own, in- 
accessible to all strangers, and possessing a patriarchial constitution, afforded 
the welcome opportunity for the first hostile steps. But not till a mysterious 

317 




3i 8 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

attempt against the king's life on the part of the noble family of Tavora, 
which appeared to have been instigated by the Jesuits (1758), was their 
banishment decided on, and carried out with great severity. With the same 
earnestness Pombal sought to improve -the faulty condition of the administra- 
tion, of agriculture, the military system, and the administration of justice. 
When a terrible earthquake at Lisbon destroyed 30,000 houses (Nov., 1755), 
and crime and desperation threatened to loosen every bond, he set himself 
assiduously to the rectification of the disaster. On the rebuilding of the town 
he irisisted on the necessity of having broad streets, and suitable, well-built 
dwelling-houses ; and beautified Lisbon with handsome, commodious buildings, 
such as the Bourse, Merchants' House, Arsenal, etc. When Portugal, the ally 
of England, was threatened by Spain in the Seven Years' War, and the mis- 
erable condition of the army became apparent, Pombal summoned the famous 
general, Duke William of Lippe-Schaumburg, and with his help soon brought 




RUINS OF ST. NICOLAS'S CHURCH IN LISBON AFTER THE EARTHQUAKE OF 1755. 

the Portuguese army to such a state of efficiency that it was second to that 
of no other nation. Nevertheless Pombal gave ample evidence, that with the 
exalted courage of an enterprising reformer he combined the cruelty and 
capricious temper of a despot. All the prisons were filled with priests and 
nobles, and threatening voices_were raised against him, when, in the reign of 
Joseph's weak and superstitious daughter Maria, the released prisoners 
came forth in hundreds from their dungeons, and loudly demanded vengeance. 
Pombal was tried before a court of justice, and was then banished from the 
neighbourhood of the royal residence. In a short time all his reforms were 
annulled ; priests and monks again held sway at court ; superstition, im- 



ATTEMPTS AT REFORM IN VARIOUS STATES OF EUROPE. 319 

morality, and ignorance once more prevailed among the people, and the 
nation again fell into the lamentable condition from which Pombal's vigor- 
ous hand had endeavoured to rescue it. Maria at last became deranged, 
so that her son John VI. was compelled to take the government upon himself 
(1816). 



SPAIN AND NAPLES UNDER CHARLES III. AND HIS MINISTERS. 



CHARLES III. (1759-1788) en- 
deavoured, first as king of Naples 
(since 1735), and then as king of Spain, 
by means of his ministers Aranda, Grim- 
aldi, etc., to reform the conditions of Church 
and State in the manner demanded by the 
development of the people and the national 
prosperity. As the order of Jesuits, how- 
ever, opposed hindrances to all his efforts, 
the Bourbon court contemplated following 
the example of Pombal. In France, fresh 
evidence had come to light showing the 
loose morality and dangerous principles 
of the order, which had caused the king, 
at the instigation of his minister Choiseul, 
to declare the existence of the order of 
Jesuits to be incompatible with the welfare of the State, and to order their 
colleges to be closed. This incited the Spanish minister Aranda to a bold 
stroke. After a pretended insurrection on the part of the Jesuits, he caused 
5,000 members of the order to be imprisoned in one night, their property to 
be confiscated, and their institutions closed. Similar violent measures were 
taken in the Spanish and Portuguese colonies of America, in Naples, where 
Janucci ruled almost absolutely under Ferdinand IV. (1759-1825), and in 
Parma, where the Pope endeavoured by a threatening bull to prevent the 
Duke de Bourbon and his French minister from venturing on any Church 
innovations. After many useful reforms, Aranda was subsequently dismissed 
from his office, and the priests once more asserted their influence over the 
aged Charles III. A similar change of sentiment was experienced by 
another Spanish minister, Florida Blanca, who, during the reign of Charles 
IV. (1788-1808), was glorified as a Maecenas, because he favoured learning 
and culture, patronized the arts, and beautified the capital. 





3 20 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



THE NORTH OF EUROPE. 
DENMARK. STRUENSEE. 




B 



Y means of the change effected in the 
Constitution, the Danish sovereignty, 
from the year 1660, had become absolute, 
and the state of the country was determined 
only by the characteristics of its ruler. 
Frederick IV. (1700-1730) imitated the 
magnificence of the French court, but left 
behind him a prosperous country and a 
well-filled exchequer. His successor, Chris- 
tian VI. (1730-1746), was a devotee, and 
so completely neglected his administration 
that the kingdom fell into debt. The 
reign of Frederick V. (1746-1766) is re- 
nowned as the golden age of Denmark in 
science and art. Magnificent buildings 
were erected, academies were established, 
a botanical garden was laid out ; and plays 
and operas, which had been forbidden 
during the previous reign, again delighted 
the nobility and inhabitants of the capital. 
Klopstock received an annuity for the 
completion of his "Messiah ; " and large 
sums were expended on an expedition 
undertaken by celebrated scholars (among 
whom was the elder Niebuhr) to the East ; but for the improvement of the 
condition of the poorer classes, the peasants and labourers, little was at- 
tempted ; and it was only through the exertions of Count Bernstorf the 
elder, who set at liberty the enslaved peasantry on his estate, that the Crown 
and the nobility were at last compelled to turn their attention to the amelior- 
ation of the condition of the common people. Christian VII. (1766-1808) 
was a feeble and misguided prince, who was devoted to sensual indulgences 
and foolish extravagance. Soon after his accession to the throne he under- 
took an unnecessary and expensive journey, the outlay for which fell heavily 
on the poor nation. From this journey the king returned weakened in body 
and shaken in mind ; thereupon the German physician Struensee, a handsome 
and cultivated young man, who was born at Halle and had won the favour 
of the king by his lively companionship during the journey, was able without 
difficulty to make himself indispensable to his sovereign, and, with the help 
of queen Caroline Matilda, a sister of George III. of England, to rise step by 
step until, as Count and all-powerful minister, he governed the monarch and 
the State according to his own pleasure. He dismissed all the former ministers 
and companions of the king, and surrounded the monarch, whose feebleness 
of mind became more and more evident, with reliable persons ; among these 
was an able man named Brand, who, like Struensee, had been raised to the rank 
of duke, and who was remarkable both for the influence he exercised and for 
his tragic death. Struensee then instituted a number of reforms in Denmark, 
through which the power of the government was increased and social equality 
was established ; but he offended the national feeling by the use of the German 




II. 



MONUMENT TO THE GREAT ELECTOR AT BERLIN. 

321 



322 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

language in his edicts and in the administration of justice, and annoyed the 
clergy by lessening the severe Church discipline. Under these circumstances 
the abolition of the censorship was a very hazardous proceeding, as the press 
now principally directed its attacks against the minister himself. The 
threatening storm soon broke forth ; and the outburst was hastened by the 
want of courage and decision shown by Struensee. Together with Brand, he 
was thrown into prison, and after a confinement of five weeks, was brought 
before a special tribunal, and sentenced to be beheaded (April, 1772). 

SWEDEN UNDER GUSTAVUS III. 

*THHE government of the nobility under the apparent supremacy of a king, 
J. which was established after the murder of Charles XII. of Sweden, 
brought about a period of dishonour. The dominant aristocracy, or oligarchy, 
consisted of people without honourable feeling or patriotism, who sold them- 
selves to foreign States, and served those courts from which they obtained the 
largest sums. Two hostile parties stood opposed to one another, the one 
being in the pay of France, the other of Russia. On the breaking out of the 
Austrian War of Succession, the French government wished to engage the atten- 
tion of Russia, to avert its coalition with Maria Theresa. Through the agency 
of the French party in Sweden, war was therefore declared against Russia, an 
occasion having been afforded by the murder of a Swedish ambassador by 
Russian soldiers (1741). The Swedish troops were, however, decisively beaten 
at Willmanstrand, in Finland, and were so entirely surrounded at Helsing- 
fors that they would have been compelled to surrender Finland to the 
Russians, had not the empress Elizabeth abated her demands in the Peace of 
Abo, with the stipulation that the injustice to the kindred line of Holstein- 
Gottorp should be redressed. The Swedes appointed the Duke of Holstein- 
Gottorp, Adolphus Frederick, as heir to the throne, and agreed to the surrender 
of Finland as far as the river Kymene. During the reign of the weak king 
Adolphus Frederick (1757-71), the Swedish nobility were able to limit the royal 
prerogative still further, and to completely destroy all the power and authority 
of the Crown. In opposition to the wishes of the king, who was related to the 
Prussian court, Sweden was drawn into the Seven Years' War, which brought 
the impoverished country into the most lamentable condition. This led to 
the overthrow of the French party ; but the new oligarchy of the Russian 
party tyrannized over king and people no less than their predecessors, until 
Adolphus Frederick, by the threat of relinquishing the crown, compelled 
the despots to summon a special diet, which resulted in the king regaining 
somewhat of his lost authority. 

On the death of Adolphus Frederick, his son Gustavus III. (1771-92) as- 
cended the throne, and availing himself of the dissensions among the nobility, 
and the hatred of the people towards the prevailing oligarchy, succeeded in 
obtaining the allegiance of the guards in the capital, in subverting the Con- 
stitution, and once more establishing the authority and supremacy of the 
throne (1772). Of the reforms set on foot by Gustavus III. after this revolu- 
tion in the government, some, such as the improvements in the courts of 
justice and the founding of hospitals, were to the advantage of the people ; 
but the greater part proceeded from the king's love of splendour and desire of 
imitating French institutions. His often ill-advised innovations excited the 
anger of the nobility against him ; and their hostile sentiments were soon shown 
when Gustavus, without appealing to the States, commenced a war against 



ATTEMPTS AT REFORM IN VARIOUS STATES OF EUROPE. 323 

Russia (1788), in order to re-conquer the former Swedish possessions. The 
Finnish army, corrupted by Russian negotiators, declared, after a few battles, 
that it was opposed to the unconstitutional war. Completely confounded, 
Gustavus quitted the army, and appealed to the people, especially to the vigo- 
rous Dalekarls in the northern mountainous region, who soon placed him in a 
position to take vengeance on his enemies. By means of the Unification and 
Security Act, the king assumed the right of making war without appealing to 
the States, abolished the Assembly of the kingdom, and permitted the citizen 
class.o have access to all offices. After concluding the Peace of Werelae 
with Russia (Aug., 1790), Gustavus entered into an alliance with his former 
enemy, with the object of making war on France, to oppose the propagation of 
revolutionary ideas, and to keep alive his sense of chivalry by aiding in the 
protection of the unfortunate Louis XVI. He was, however, shortly after- 
wards assassinated at a masked ball, by his former officer of the guard, Ankar- 
stroem. His son, Gustavus IV. (1792-1809), who was placed under the 
guidance of his uncle Charles of Sudermania until he attained his majority, in- 
herited his father's chivalrous caprices, but carried them to such an unfortunate 
extreme that they ultimately brought about his deposition. 



GERMANY IN THE TIME OF FREDERICK THE GREAT. THE GERMAN 

EMPIRE. 



OR a long time the German Empire had lost all importance 
as a united State ; and both the head and the different 
members followed their own interests, without regard for 
the general welfare. The diet at Regensburg had forfeited 
all authority ; it spent its energies in speeches and negotia- 
tions, but rarely arrived at any decision, or if it did, 
possessed no power to enforce it. Foreigners, or native 
princes whose interests were estranged from the Empire, 
made Germany the scene of their disputes, and treated the 
divided and quarrelsome States with arrogance and contempt. When, after 
many years' deliberation, the establishment of an Imperial army was decided 
on, it was in such a defective and miserable condition that it was the subject 
of general ridicule. The declaration of the ban against Frederick II. in the 
Seven Years' War was received with laughter and derision ; and so little weight 
had the German Empire in the issues of the war, that it was not represented 
at the peace negotiations at Hubertsburg, and the decisions were made with- 
out its co-operation. The diet had only the Emperor to thank for having, 
with patriotic solicitude for the preservation of the Constitution, had regard to 
the dignity and liberty of the Empire, though Germany's desolate plains and 
plundered districts long bore witness to the wounds which war had inflicted. 




PLANS OF JOSEPH II. 

HE .lamentable condition of the German Empire filled the energetic 
Emperor, Joseph II. (1765-90), with dissatisfaction, and awakened within 
him the desire of removing the prevailing evils by suitable reforms. Scarcely 
therefore had he become the possessor of the Imperial throne of Germany, on 
the death of his father, than he strictly forbade the Imperial Court of Vienna, 



T 



324 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



which in many respects had a far worse notoriety than the judicial court at 
Wetzlar, from receiving any kind of gift or " recognition," and compelled 
it to undertake a more expeditious despatch of public business. But although 
every one was convinced of the necessity of an improvement in the adminis- 
tration of justice, yet the inquiry instituted soon came to a standstill on account 
of the dread of the States of any innovation. After nine years' labour the 
Commission separated " with mutual bitterness." While this attempt to rectify 
the most apparent evils in the rotten structure had inspired the princes with 
alarm, the Emperor's scheme of availing himself of the change of throne in 
Bavaria to acquire some of the favourably situated lands, was still more 
critical. With Maximilian Joseph the Bavarian line of the house of Wittels- 
bach became extinct (1777), and the electorate fell to the next heir, Charles 




MARIA THERESA'S GENERALS, DAUN AND LAUDOHN. 

Theodore of the Palatinate. This prince, having no lawful heir and no love 
for his inherited country, was easily persuaded to recognise Joseph's claims 
to Lower Bavaria and the Upper Palatinate, that by the surrender of these 
districts he might obtain advantages for his natural children. Frederick II.,. 
apprehensive at the aggrandisement of Austria and at the Emperor's rapacity, 
endeavoured to prevent this design by inducing the next heir to protest 
against the convention in the Diet ; and, when this proved unavailing, by 
despatching an army into Bohemia, to oppose by force any alteration in the 
existing order of things. This led to the Bavarian War of Succession (1778- 
79), in which, however, more was effected by the pen in the learned dis- 
putations of jurists, than by the sword in the battlefield ; and as all the 
States decried a general war, Russia and France succeeded in inducing the 



ATTEMPTS AT REFORM IN VARIOUS STATES OF EUROPE. 325 

Empress Maria Theresa to accept the Peace of Tischen (May 1779), ' m which 
Bavaria was secured to the Palatinate house, Innviertel and Brannan were 
given to the house of Austria, and the right of succession in the margravates 




MARIA THERESA, THE EMPRESS-QUEEN. 



of Ansbach and Bayreuth was awarded to Prussia. This peace afforded 
Russian statecraft the first opportunity for interference in the affairs of 
the German Empire. After the death of Maria Theresa, the Emperor, who 
was indignant at the frustration of his plans, made a second attempt to gain 



326 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

possession of Bavaria, by endeavouring to exchange the Austrian Nether- 
lands for the kingdom of Burgundy. Charles Theodore also allowed himself 
to be persuaded to this arrangement, and Russian diplomatists endeavoured 
with flattering promises to gain the consent of the Duke of Deuxponts. 
But Frederick II. sought, by the organization of the princely league (1785), 
the aim of which was the independence of the princes and the preservation 
of the Empire in its existing condition, to counteract this scheme also, and to 
secure the succession in Bavaria once more to the Palatinate line. The 
princes' alliance elevated the power and importance of the Prussian king in 
the same proportion that it undermined the authority of the Emperor. For 
this transformation in the previous history of both States, Frederick had to 
thank the " Prussian Union," which in former years he had on many occasions 
endeavoured to counteract. Thus the king of Prussia became the protector 
of the German Constitution. But in spite of this feeble union, the bonds 
which kept the German Empire together became more and more loosened. 
Every prince strove for. independent, unlimited power, and formed a small 
court which, in splendour, extravagance, language, art, and literature, was an 
imitation of the cdurt of Versailles. 

Austria. In Austria, where the States did not limit the Imperial power, 
Joseph II. could carry out his reforms with better success than in Germany. 
Maria Theresa had during her forty years' reign (1740-80) already abolished 
many abuses, and introduced many suitable reforms in the army and navy, 
the administration of justice, and the control of the finances. But in all her 
regulations she had had regard to, the rights of the nations subject to her 
sceptre, to the faith of the people, and to the relationships between the States, 
and therefore prevented her too impetuous son from participating in the 
administration of the hereditary States, and allowed him as little influence in 
State affairs as her husband Francis I. Scarcely had the young Emperor 
become supreme ruler of the Austrian Empire, by the death of his mother 
(Nov. 1780), than he commenced a succession of reforms, some of which gave 
offence to the clergy, while others annoyed the privileged nobility, although 
all his schemes were inspired by the noblest aims and motives. 





THE TIMES OF THE EMPEROR JOSEPH II. 
AND HIS SUCCESSORS. 



BENEVOLENT DESIGNS OF JOSEPH II. His DISAPPOINTMENT AND 
EARLY DEATH. EMPEROR LEOPOLD II. REACTION AGAINST RE- 
FORMS. FRANCIS II. RUSSIA AND ITS CONDITION. FREDERICK 
WILLIAM II., THE SUCCESSOR OF THE GREAT FREDERICK. CONGRESS 
OF REICHENBACH. THE COUNTESS OF LICHTENSTEIN. THE KING 
AND HIS MINISTERS. DESPOTIC POWER OF PRUSSIAN MONARCHS. 

JOSEPH II. His DISPUTE WITH THE NETHERLANDS AND HUNGARY. 
.UNIFORM ORGANIZATION OF THE STATE. 

OSEPH'S scheme of transforming into one empire, and 
governing according to one constitutional form, the dif- 
ferent nations who were subject to the Austrian sceptre, 
was next frustrated in Belgium and Hungary. His efforts 
to lessen the influence of the all-powerful clergy led to 
an insurrection among the students of the University 
of Louvain, which was scarcely repressed when the pre- 
valent discontent was shown by a general rebellion, instigated by 
the clergy and nobility, and accompanied by rude popular ex- 
cesses. The States of Brabant refused to pay the taxes until the 
reforms were cancelled ; and the towns established an. armed force 
to compel the restoration of the former conditions. As the Emperor, the 
ally of Russia, was at the time involved in a war with the Turks, the discon- 
certed government promised to yield to the demand in order to put an end 
to the rebellion. But Joseph refused his consent ; he promised, it is true, to 
comply with their petitions with regard to the administration and courts of 
justice, but the Church reforms and the changes in the University were to be 
maintained. The storm now broke out anew ; the aristocratic-clerical party 
united with the democratic party for mutual resistance, the former led by Van 
der Noots, and the latter by Boucks, both advocates in the sovereign's council 

327 




328 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



of Brabant. In vain did the Austrian military force endeavour to repress the 
insurrection ; the enraged people repulsed the weak army, and the Netherland 
provinces declared their independence and established a Congress at Brussels 
(June 1790). Now, however, the unnatural alliance between the parties became 
severed, and the clergy, with the masses acting on their behalf, directed their 
anger against the Bouckists, who werethreatened and ill-treated. The prisons 
were soon overflowing with citizens, and a system of terror and repression pre- 
vailed throughout the capital. The influence of France in these proceedings 
was not to be doubted, different as were the objects striven for by the two 
countries ; for the struggle in Belgium was for the maintenance of clerical 




JOSEPH II. AND HIS MINISTER KAUNITZ. 

supremacy with all its abuses, against which France was at the same time 
directing all her efforts of repression. 

" What a pity," exclaimed Camille Desmoulins at Paris, " that these priests 
should so spoil the Brabantine revolution." These events and similar oc- 
currences in Hungary broke the Emperor's heart. The ill-success of his well- 
intentioned schemes and the misrepresentation of his noblest aspirations 
undermined his health and hastened his death. His last words, " that he 
had had the unhappiness of seeing all his schemes frustrated," showed how 
much his soul had been wounded by the sorrowful consciousness of a fruitless 
life's activity. His brother and successor, Leopold II. (1790-92), who was 
more amiable and yielding than Joseph, and of a less excitable temper, 



THE TIMES OF THE EMPEROR JOSEPH II. AND HIS SUCCESSORS. 329 

restored the old Constitution in Belgium and Hungary, pacified the nobility 
by plausible promises, and re-established a good understanding with Prussia. 
Thus peace gradually returned to the Empire. With inward reluctance the 
Emperor consented to the withdrawal of the reforms in the Netherlands, in 
order to be free from the importunity of the clergy ; but in spite of his com- 
pliance, he was compelled to enforce the dissolution of the Congress by 
force of arms (1791). But the violence which was exercised in the repression 
of the insurrection in Brussels, Louvain, etc., by the Austrian soldiers and 
officers, roused such indignation among all classes, that the French armies, 
which included many Dutch fugitives, were universally received with open 
arms, as liberators. 

LEOPOLD II. AND FRANCIS II. 

LEOPOLD, as Grand Duke of Tuscany, was as zealous a reformer as 
his brother, though more circumspect. As Emperor he recognised the 
opposing principles of the time by not only again abolishing most of his 
brother's reforms in Church and State, but, from the fear of French revolution- 
ary ideas, he limited the freedom of speech and of the press, and entered into 
an alliance with Prussia against France. His sudden death preserved him 
from the disastrous war into which Frederick William II. sought to force him, 
and which became the inheritance of his son Francis II. (1792-1835), a prince 
in whose character the most contradictory traits were united. Jealously 
apprehensive for his unlimited power, and filled with the selfish delusion that 
the preservation of his own person must be the most important object of the 
whole State, he persecuted everything which was opposed to this absolute 
princely power, and which appeared to endanger the safety of his person. 



PRUSSIA. 

six-and-forty years Frederick II. governed the Prussian 
State with unlimited power (1740-86), and added to his 
dominions Silesia, a part of Poland, and the principality 
of East Friesland. As an arbitrary ruler, without active 
ministers, favourites, or influential mistresses, he governed 
the State in a completely despotic manner, and introduced 
many needful reforms. His principal care was the material 
improvement of his States, and the increase of his revenues. 
He promoted agriculture, the cultivation of forests, and the working 
of mines. He also improved the army, and devoted great attention 
to the reform of the courts of justice, in which he abolished a host 
of abuses. Torture and the cruel and degrading punishments of 
the Middle Ages were done away with ; the course of justice was 
simplified, and was made more expeditious ; the laws underwent suitable 
reform ; and the new book of laws introduced by his successor, Frederick 
William II., as the law of Prussia, was prepared during the reign of Frederick.. 
But more important than all his ordinances and institutions, was Frederick's 
close attention to all matters connected with his administration. By his 
unwearied activity from early morning till late at night, he obtained a com- 
prehensive insight into all the conditions of his kingdom, and his dictatorial 
bearing struck terror into the indolent and dishonourable. 




330 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




FREDERICK WILLIAM II. 



FREDERICK WILLIAM II. (1786-1798). 



ERY different principles were fol- 
lowed in many respects by this king 
after his uncle's death. Many op- 
pressive taxes were abolished, trade 
and husbandry met with encourage- 
ment, and commercial intercourse 
was facilitated by the laying out of 
well-made roads. But, through a 
preverted policy abroad, an immoral 
Court life, and the restriction of the 
spirit of freedom at home, the Prussian 
State lost its dignity and the inde- 
pendent character which Frederick 
had conferred upon it. The Minister 
Herzberg persuaded the king into 
an aimless alliance with the Porte, 
in order to prevent Austria and Russia from extending their frontiers towards 
Turkey, or to bring about a fresh division of the countries, in consequence 
of which Dantzig and Thorn would become Prussian possessions. This 
policy, which, for a time, appeared to make Prussia the arbiter of European 




THE TIMES OF THE EMPEROR JOSEPH II. AND HIS SUCCESSORS. 331' 

affairs, at last assumed an unfavourable turn through the uncertain and 
irresolute attitude of Frederick William ; the maintenance of a considerable 
army necessitated great expenses, through which a large portion of Frederick's 
savings were fruitlessly squandered away. But the moral defeat was even 
worse. Outwitted by Austria in the Congress of Reichenbach (July, 1790), 
Prussia surrendered her arbitrary position without having obtained the hoped- 
for extension of territory or any other advantage. The next result was the 
complete victory of Austria in the Netherlands and at Liege. Here the 
subjects had induced the Bishop to abolish some of the abuses and to intro- 
duce reforms in the Constitution. The Bishop, however, escaped, recalled all 
his promises, and obtained help from the Imperial Chamber. Troops were 
despatched to the scene, but were repulsed. In vain did Prussia now attempt 
to bring about a reconciliation. The influence of Treves and Cologne pre- 




FREDERICK WILLIAM II. REVIEWING HIS TROOPS. 

ponderated at Wetzlau, which resulted in the Austrian army from Brabant 
invading Liege, and restoring the old condition of the law by force of arms. 
This soon, led to the revolt of this frontier district to France. Still less did 
the internal government of Frederick William II. meet with satisfaction and 
approval. In order to counteract the heterodox theories which, under the 
auspices of Frederick II., had gained an access into Prussia, as well as to 
repress the rationalist tendency of German literature, the king published the 
famous religious edict, which forbade the clergy, on pain of dismissal, to make 
any deviations from the doctrine of the Church, made the appointment of 
preachers and teachers dependent on their orthodoxy, and subjected them to 
strict supervision. This restriction on liberty of thought in religion excited 
violent opposition, which was not allayed by strict regulations. 




RUSSIA AND POLAND, UNDER CATHARINE II. 

INSURRECTIONS IN RUSSIA. PUGATSCHEFF. FIRST PARTITION OF 
POLAND, AND THE FIRST TURKISH WAR. WEAKNESS OF POLAND. 
STANISLAUS PONIATOWSKI. THE FIRST DIVISION OF POLAND. 
THE CONQUEST OF THE CRIMEA. THE SECOND PARTITION OF 
POLAND, AND SECOND TURKISH WAR. THE CONSTITUTION OF 
POLAND. KOSCIUSZKO, AND THE CONFEDERATES OF TARGOWICZ. 
DOWNFALL OF POLAND. CLASSICAL LITERATURE OF GERMANY. 

PROGRESS AND DEVELOPMENT. POETRY. PROSE. 

LITERATURE. 

PUGATSCHEFF AND POTEMKIN. 

*ATHARINE II. was seated on a blood-stained throne, 
which was not hers by right. The first attempt to 
dispossess her of the crown cost the unfortunate 
I wan III. his life. Ten years later there rose up 
Pugatscheff, a Cossack, who bore some likeness to 
Peter III., and who declared himself to be that unfor- 
tunate prince. Supported by the clergy and the 
orthodox Russians, who were indignant at the changes introduced 
by Catharine in some Church customs, he collected large bands of 
Cossacks and peasant serfs, whom he promised liberation from the 
yoke of the lords of the soil ; and with these forces he advanced 
into the district of the Volga ( 1773-75). He gained possession of the 
town of Kasan, caused money to be coined with the image of Peter 
III., and directed his course towards Moscow, where he expected to 
find many supporters ; but the Russian commanders succeeded in 
driving him back across the Volga, and ultimately in taking him prisoner. 
Pugatscheff was at length beheaded at Moscow, in January, 1775. Catharine II. 

332 




RUSSIA AND POLAND UNDER CATHERINE II. 



333 



possessed great talent for government, and a keen intellect ; and, had she 
been less devoted to selfish enjoyment, would have been a worthy successor 
of Peter the Great. She was a highly cultured woman, was greatly attracted 
by modern French philosophy, declared herself "a Republican at heart," entered 
into correspondence with Voltaire and men of his way of thinking, and induced 
the poet and philosopher Diderot to take up his residence for a time in St. 
Petersburg. The appellation of " the Semiramis of the North," which the 
French writers conferred upon her, was fitting and appropriate. She shared all 
the characteristics, the majestic nature, the beauty, and the voluptuousness of the 
mythical queen. Many of the reforms which she projected with a liberal spirit, 
she found to be unsuited for the uncivilized Russian nation ; among these was 
the introduction throughout the empire of a general book of law according to 
the principles of Montesquieu, a scheme, of the impracticability of which she 
was speedily convinced dur- 
ing the first deliberations 
held at St. Petersburg. On 
the other hand, the ad- 
ministration of justice was 
improved, and the business 
of the Government was 
better regulated. The Em- 
press promoted the increase 
of a free citizen class by 
founding town communities ; 
she alleviated the condition 
of the serfs, and endeavoured 
to civilize the country by 
building schools, and by ed- 
ucational institutions. She 
caused foreign books to be 
translated into Russian, and 
herself assisted in the work. 
She wrote books for children 
and dramas for her grand- 
children, and founded an 
Academy after the model 
of the French establishment 
for the development of the 
Russian language. The arts 
and sciences found in her a liberal patroness, and she practised religious 
toleration to a great extent. Much, however, which was extolled as true 
Liberalism by Voltaire and others, was mere show and pretence, and had no 
more real value than the delusive creations of Potemkin on the occasion of 
Catharine's journey through the southern provinces, in 1787, when artificial 
villages were erected, and numbers of shepherds and flocks driven together 
from various districts, while rustic festivities were set on foot, to furnish forth 
a brave show, and to make the Empress believe that the country was populous 
and prospering. 

Catharine prevented her son Paul from taking any part in the business 
of the government, neglected his education, and kept him under the 
closest supervision ; so that he could make no attempt to gain the crown, 
which of right belonged to him. The most enduring service rendered by 




THE EMPRESS CATHARINE II. 



334 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




MOSCOW. 



Catharine to the country she governed, was the promotion of trade, by 
which the newly-conquered districts were completely amalgamated with 
the older provinces ; she also promoted the increase of industry, gave 
encouragement to the merchant class, and worked zealously for the im- 
provement of the navy and shipping. With regard to the Russian court 
and Catharine's private life, St. Petersburg could compare, in immoral- 
ity, -luxury, and self-indulgence, even with Paris and Versailles. Like the 
mistresses who held sway over the weak and ignoble Louis XV., in Russia, 
favourites directed the helm of the State, and squandered the country's 
revenues. Among those who thus ruled the destinies of the empire none 
enjoyed such enduring favour from his sovereign, and used his influence so 
much for the satisfaction of his own ambition, as Potemkin, the Taurian. For 
sixteen years he controlled the affairs of the State, and during that time led a 
life of fabulous magnificence and splendour ; and even after Catharine had 
taken other courtiers into her favour, this presumptuous minister still main- 
tained his powerful position. 




RUSSIA AND POLAND UNDER CATHERINE II. 335 

THE FIRST DIVISION OF POLAND AND THE FIRST TURKISH WAR. 
THE WEAKNESS OF POLAND. 

URING the feeble reign of Augustus III., confusion and 
misrule increased in Poland to such an extent, that the 
continuance of the kingdom under the existing consti- 
tution appeared an impossibility. The Crown was di- 
vested of all power by the strictest law of election (pacta 
conventa) ; the crown lands were in the hands of the 
nobility, or Starosts ; the higher nobility, who took on 
themselves the control of the army, the administration 
of justice, of the police, and other important departments 

of the State, received no commands from the king, nor did he call them to 
account, for indeed he regarded these posts and offices only as means for the 
increase of his revenues. The law of the liberum veto, and the law of armed 
confederations, made peaceful reforms impossible, and provoked passionate 
party conflicts, which completely upset the authority of the State. The 
elective Constitution had long made the nation a prey to venality, and had 
exposed to the eager watchfulness of neighbouring States all its deficiencies 
and weaknesses. The Polish kingdom was a rotten structure, which was only 
able to maintain its existence through the dissensions and jealousies of the 
adjoining States, not by its own strength and civil virtue. 

Soon after the conclusion of the Peace of Hubertsburg, the death of 
Augustus III., in 1763, left the kingdom of Poland again a prey to the old 
disputes regarding the election of a monarch. Two parties were formed, one 
of which, headed by the Potocki family and the younger Prince Radzivil, 
desired to uphold the old condition of affairs, but to exclude any foreign 
influence in the election of a king ; while the other, that of the Czartoryskis 
and Poniatowskis, strove for a reform in the Constitution, although this 
reform were obtained by means of aid from without. Russia and Prussia, 
animated by the hope and prospect of aggrandizing themselves at the 
expense of the distracted neighbouring State, entered into an alliance for 
the maintenance of the Polish elective Constitution, for the protection of 
the unreasonable malcontents, and for the elevation of the Polish Prince 
Stanislaus Poniatowski, a former lover of the Russian Empress, to the 
powerless throne of Warsaw. After a stormy conflict, Poniatowski was 
declared king, amid the waving of Russian sabres on the plains of Wola, 
in September, 1764, and his opponents were put to flight ; but the new king, 
a weak though amiable and intellectual man, was at once forced to consent 
to Russia's appropriation of a tract of Polish territory. 

It was about this time that the malcontents, or Dissidents, among whom 
were not only Protestants and Socinians, but also members of the Greek 
Church, demanded the restoration of their religious rights, and equality with 
the Catholics. Their petition was rejected through the influence of the clergy; 
and in conjunction with the discontented party they then established the 
general confederation of Radom, in July, 1767, intending, under the protection 
of Repnin and his Russian army, to enforce their demands by violence. The 
Diet then granted them free exercise of their religion, access to all offices in 
the State, the right of voting in the National Assembly, and the possession of 
the churches they had held in the year 1717. 

Surrounded by Russian troops, the deputies, at the express command 



336 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



of the Empress, signed the Act of Toleration, which was greeted throughout 
Europe with delight, but which was more significant of t the feebleness of 
Poland than of the triumph of religious enlightenment. And that this state of 
feebleness might be perpetuated, the same Diet was compelled to decide on 
the continuance of the liberum veto and other disastrous laws of the old Con- 
stitution. Without the consent of Russia, which stood as the guarantee of the 
Polish Constitution, no decision of the Diet could in future be carried into 
effect. Thus Russia contrived to make a profit out of the irrational intoler- 
ance of the priests and the orthodox, in the name of religious toleration, and 




1 



r 



THE STRELITZ GUARD. 



to bring down into still deeper disrepute the power and administration of the 
law, giving protection for their own purposes to everything that was unsound and 
pernicious in the Polish government. These proceedings wounded the national 
feeling in Poland, and awakened the religious hatred of the Catholic zealots. 
The Podolian Counter-confederation of Bar (February, 1768) had for its 
object the repudiation of the Russian supremacy and the annulling of the 
rights granted to the Dissidents. Repnin now forced the Senate to request 
that the Empress would not withdraw her armies from Poland. A hot dispute 
arose between the Confederates, who were supplied with officers and money 
from France, and the Russians and their Polish adherents. After the storm- 



RUSSIA AND POLAND UNDER CATHERINE II. 



337 



ing of the fortresses of Bar and Cracow, the Confederates were driven to take 
refuge on Turkish territory. The Russians followed them, and continued their 
savage depredations even on foreign soil ; in a Turkish town they murdered 
thousands of men, women, and children, and burnt down a Mohammedan 
mosque. This violence resulted in a declaration of war by the Porte against 
Russia, which was greeted with delight by the Polish Confederates, who availed 
themselves of the consternation of their opponents to wreak bloody vengeance 
on the opposite party (October, 1768). 

The murderous war which now broke out between Russia and Turkey, was 
carried on at one and the same time in several places with terrible fury, and 
was accompanied by horrible excesses. While the brave Romanzoff con- 
quered Moldavia and Wallachia, and the terrible storming of Bender (Sept. 
26th, 1770) filled Europe with astonishment and horror, the Morea, where the 
Greeks, relying on Russian aid, had risen against the oppressive dominion of 
the Turks, was cruelly devastated by the Ottoman armies, whole tracts of 
country being laid desolate and left strewn with corpses'. At the same time 
there raged a most terrible naval war. In the harbour of Tschesme, opposite 
the island of Chios, the whole Turkish fleet was set on fire. The renown of 
the Russian arms resounded throughout Europe ; the Empress was called 
Catharine the Great ; and the Bey of Egypt renounced obedience to the 
Sultan and entered into alliance with Russia in 1771. But the conquered 
countries were converted into desolate and blood-stained deserts, while the 
ruins, burnt towns, and trains of wailing starving people marked the path of 
the Russian arms ; and to heighten the calamities of the unfortunate nation, 
a terrible plague broke out, which carried off 90,000 men in Moscow alone. 

THE FIRST PARTITION OF POLAND. 




MENTSCHIKOFF. 



II. 



IN the meantime Poland 
was overrun by bands of 
quarrelsome Confederates, 
intent only on pillage and 
plunder. With these Du- 
mourier and other French 
officers entered into an 
alliance. They declared 
the king to have forfeited 
the throne, and attempted 
to carry him off from 
Warsaw ; and only by a 
miracle did Poniatowski 
escape out of the hands 
of the conspirators. The 
outrages committed on 
the Dissidents excited the 
Russians to similar vio- 
lence ; and bloody ven- 
geance was taken on the 
Catholic Poles for old 
grievances committed 
against members of the 
Greek Church. The Polish 
Z 



338 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

kingdom was torn with dissensions, and its powerless'ness invited the depreda- 
tions of plunderers. Desire of aggrandizement led Prussia and Austria to 
follow a false and unjust policy. That Poland might not become the sole 
prey of the Russians, these powers determined to secure for themselves a share 
of the spoil ; and a treaty of partition was at last arranged between Russia, 
Prussia, and Austria, in August, 1772, in accordance with which each of these 
States possessed itself of the Polish territory bordering on its own dominions. 
The king and the Diet at once emphatically protested against this measure ; 
the Assembly proved that the alleged rights by which the territory was 
claimed had long been forfeited, and solemnly denounced before God and the 
whole world the injustice of the great powers that thus parcelled out the Polish 
kingdom among themselves. Neither threats nor promises availed to break 
the opposition of the Diet ; even the ill-treatment and oppression of the 
insurrectionists, through the quartering of Russian soldiers upon them, was 
powerless to move the deputies, who, on this occasion, exhibited a noble 
patriotism. It was only the threat that further resistance would result m the 
whole of Poland being partitioned among foreign powers, that at last compelled 
the Diet to accede to the cession of territory, particularly as the hope of 
receiving Turkish aid had been destroyed since the Peace of Kudschuck 
Kainardsche, in July, 1774, which the Porte had been compelled to conclude 
with Russia. The remainder of the Polish kingdom continued to maintain its 
form of elective sovereignty, its liberum veto, and all the disastrous conditions 
of the old Constitution ; and the establishment of a permanent elective Council 
without the consent of the king, chosen from among the nobility and acting 
according to the directions of Catharine's ambassadors, deprived the sovereign 
of the last remnant of regal power. From that time the Russian ambassador 
at Warsaw was the real ruler of the Republic of Poland. 

THE CONQUEST OF THE CRIMEA. 

HE Empress did not long content herself with the conditions 
of the peace of Kudschuck Kainardsche. By means of 
money, promises, and intrigues, the all-powerful favourite 
Potemkin induced the weak-minded Khan of the Tartars 
to lay aside his dignity and submit voluntarily to the 
sceptre of the Empress. Russian armies enforced this 
submission. With barbarous severity the terrible Potem- 
kin crushed the resistance of the people ; and after 30,000 
human begins of every age and both sexes had been murdered, the unfor- 
tunate country surrendered to its conquerors. The Khan, deceived by 
Potemkin with regard to his yearly stipend, was detained a prisoner in 
Turkey, and was punished for his foolish credulity by a violent death ; the 
feeble Porte, unable to resist the arms of the savage conqueror, felt itself 
compelled to recognise the supremacy of Russia over the Crimea, Kuban, and 
Taman, and to consent to a disgraceful commercial treaty. The old name of 
Tauria was restored ; colonists from Germany were summoned to the desolate 
steppes ; the trading towns of Cherson and Odessa sprang into existence ; and 
an outward appearance of culture dazzled the world. " But the once free and 
wealthy people," says a contemporary writer, " have decreased lamentably in 
numbers, and have degenerated into a famishing population of beggars ; the 
once splendid tent-towns have, become encampments for gipsies, and its 
houses, villages, and palaces built of stone, have fallen to ruins." 





RUSSIA AND POLAND UNDER CATHERINE II. 339 

THE SECOND PARTITION OF POLAND. SECOND TURKISH WAR. 

IB* 

v 

USSIA'S ambition and presumption, the influence of the Eng- 
lish, and the prospect of help from the King of Prussia, who 
was jealous of the supremacy of Russia, induced the Porte to 
make a fresh declaration of war against the Muscovite empire 
in 1787. The Emperor Joseph II. of Germany necessarily 
took the side of Russia, to earn a share of the expected con- 
quests on the Danube. This time also victory declared for 
the Russian armies and their terrible leaders. From Trieste 
to the mouths of the Danube there raged a terrible war by sea 
and land. In the middle of the winter of 1788 Potemkin stormed 
the fortress of Oczakon, after the trenches were choked with 
bloodstained corpses. His lieutenant-general, the brave and talented 
SuwaroiT, defeated the Turks in several bloody battles, and captured 
f the fortress of Ismail, while Laudon, the Austrian general, conquered 
Belgrade. The way to Constantinople stood open to the Russians ; and the 
name of Catharine's second grandson, Constantine, was declared to have a 
secret significance, indicating the intention of the Empress that a Christian 
prince should be established in the Byzantine capital. Potemkin, at the 
summit of his power, and liberally rewarded by his grateful Empress with 
dignities and honours, already regarded himself as prince of Moldavia and 
Wallachia. But partly on account of the death of Catharine's ally, Joseph II., 
whose successor, Leopold, purchased peace from the Porte by the surrender 
of Belgrade and his other conquests ; partly because of the threatening atti- 
tude of England and the warlike preparations of the Poles, and partly on 
account of the enervation brought about through Asiatic luxury and a fabu- 
lous extravagance, the Russian Empress was induced to consent to the Peace 
of Jassy with Turkey, in February, 1792, in which the river Dniester was 
declared to be the boundary between Russia and Turkey. Potemkin did not 
live to see this peace. A few months before, while on a journey far from the 
capital, he had died in the arms of his niece, the Countess Branicka. 

THE CONSTITUTION OF POLAND. KOSCIUSZKO. 

S the Russian armies were engaged in the Turkish war and 
at the same time were involved in a war with Sweden, and 
England and Prussia had assumed a hostile attitude towards 
the presumptuous Muscovite empire, the moment appeared 
to have arrived for Poland to extricate herself from the 
dominating influence of Russia, and to re-assert her poli- 
tical independence. This was only possible if the existing Con- 
stitution, for the existence of which Russia was guarantee, could 
be reformed. Under the auspices of Prussia and of the Prussian 
minister, He.rzberg, an enthusiastic zeal was awakened among the 
opponents of Russia, for the recasting of the Constitution and the 
independence and liberation of the country. In spite of the opposi- 
tion of many nobles, an alliance was concluded with Prussia, who 
hoped to obtain the territory of Thorn and Danzig ; the permanent 
Council, was abolished ; and at a stormy meeting the new Constitu- 
tion was finally adopted in May, 1791. Even the king, who had 




340 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

been, till then, an obedient dependant of the Russian Empress, was carried 
away by the enthusiasm, and favoured the movement for reform. According 
to the new Constitution, the pernicious elective sovereignty was to cease, 
Poland was to become an hereditary kingdom, and the Crown, after Poniatow- 
ski's death, was to be the inheritance .of the Electors of Saxony. 

The whole of Europe greeted this constitutional change with approval. 
Frederick William 1 1. declared himself favourable to the scheme ; and even 
Catharine concealed her chagrin under an appearance of acquiescence. Many 
nobles, however, were dissatisfied with the change. A distribution of Russian 
money increased the number of the discontented, and raised the spirit of 
opposition, and a party was formed for the preservation of " Polish liberty," 
as, in their self-deception, the malcontents termed the old Constitution ; and 
this party appealed for aid to the Empress. Soon a great Russian army was 
despatched into the heart of Poland to give effect to the demands of the 
Targowicz Confederation, which had been established to bring about a resto- 
ration of the old elective Constitution. The hopes of the patriotic party for 
Prussian aid proved futile. Frederick William II. whose monarchical and 
despotic temper and mystic religious tendency made resistance to revolutionary 
ideas and the restoration of the legitimate throne in France appear as the 
most important object for which all European princes should work together 
refused all assistance, and the Elector of Saxony followed his example. 
Nevertheless the Poles did not despair of the triumph of their just cause. 
The Diet behaved with dignity ; the king feigned enthusiasm, and once more 
swore allegiance to the Constitution, and the citizens offered to take up arms 
for the defence of their country. Kosciuszko, a brave soldier, who had fought 
for the cause of liberty under Washington in America, placed himself, with 
Potocki and Collontoy and others, at the head of the patriots, and made a 
successful stand against the Russian forces at Dubienka, in July, 1792. But 
party quarrels, treachery, and, above all, the want of money, paralysed the 
powers of the patriots ; the king fell again into his former state of indecision, 
and at last was so intimidated by a threatening letter from Catharine, that in 
order to save his tottering throne, he joined the Targowicz alliance, condemned 
the transactions of the Diet, and forbade all hostilities against the Empress, 
" the restorer of Polish liberty." Filled with rage and sorrow, the brave 
champions of Polish freedom sheathed their swords and quitted' their native 
land, to escape the certain contempt and the probable vengeance of their 
enemies ; and the restoration of the old Constitution, with all its absurdities and 
abuses, was the result of the victory of the Targowicz confederates, and glori- 
fied the overwhelming power of Russia. 

But soon the victors perceived that they were merely the instruments of 
foreign ambition, and that self-seeking and not love of their neighbours was 
the inspiring motive of their protection. In April, 1793, Prussia and Russia 
declared that they were compelled to enclose Poland. within narrower limits, 
to crush the wild aspirations for freedom which had penetrated from France 
to the Republic, and to protect the neighbouring States from any infection 
from democratic Jacobinism. At the same time the Prussians occupied the 
western districts of Poland, and compelled Danzic to surrender. In vain did 
the Diet, assembled at Grodno, oppose the new treaty of partition. Russian 
troops surrounded the session-house, and by the threat of a declaration of 
war, extorted the cession of the districts coveted by Catharine Lithuania, 
Lesser Poland, the remainder of Volhynia, Podolia, the Ukraine an enormous 
territory with more than 3 000,000 inhabitants. 







RUSSIA AND POLAND UNDER CATHERINE II. 341 

Anxious to deprive the remainder of the Polish kingdom and its powerless 
king of the last remnant of independence, Catharine procured the re- 
establishment of the permanent Council ; and a new alliance was concluded 
with Russia, in accordance with Avhich the Poles could undertake no change 
in the Constitution without the permission of the Empress, nor could they 
enter into a treaty with any foreign power, while the Russian troops retained 
the right of marching into the kingdom at any time. 



THE DOWNFALL OF POLAND. 

ELYING on the various divisions of the Russian and Prussian 
armies, which did not evacuate the country even after the 
conclusion of the treaty, Catharine's ambassador, the harsh 
and presumptuous Ingelstrom, ruled with despotic insolence 
at Warsaw. But the Polish national feeling was aroused 
once more. One last attempt was made by Kosciuszko, 
who was appointed commander-in-chief of the national forces, 
to incite the people to another struggle for the liberty and 
independence of their country. A victory of the insurgents 
over a division of the Russian forces induced the inhabitants of the capital 
to take part in the insurrection (1794). The Russian garrison was attacked 
in Warsaw, Ingelstrom's palace was destroyed by flames, and four of the 
most prominent adherents of Russia perished on the gallows. Wilna and 
Lithuania followed the example of the capital ; the king himself declared in 
favour of the independence of the oppressed nation, and everything seemed 
to promise a successful result. The Prussians who, after the capture of 
Cracow, attempted to besiege the capital Warsaw were driven back by the 
brave generals Kosciuszko, Dombrowski, and Joseph Poniatowski, the king's 
nephew. But the successes of the Poles only increased the resentment of 
their enemies. In alliance with Austria and Prussia, Catharine now des- 
patched the most ferocious of her generals, Suwaroff, with a large army to 
Poland, when Kosciuszko was compelled at last to yield. After an unsuccess- 
ful battle near Inacziejowicze in October, 1794, he fell wounded from his 
horse, crying, " Poland's end ; " and after he had lain for a time unconscious 
on the battlefield, he was carried away a prisoner by the Russians. This 
disaster was followed by the storming of Praga on the fourth of November, 
and five days later Suwaroff made his victorious entry into Warsaw. Ponia- 
towski received the command to abdicate the crown ; and a few months 
later, in January, 1795, the three powers declared that they had decided, from 
love of peace and regard for the welfare of their subjects, to partition the 
whole of the Polish State among themselves. 

In this division Austria obtained the territory in the south, with Cracow ; 
Prussia, the country to the left of the Vistula, with the capital, Warsaw, and 
the territory as far as the Niemen, which, under the name of " New Eastern 
Prussia," had been united with the monarchy ; it contained about a million 
of inhabitants. The remainder, by far the larger portion, Russia appropriated 
to herself as the "lion's share," at the same time that the duchy of Courland, 
which for two centuries had been under the supremacy of Poland, was also 
obliged to surrender. Russian intrigues induced the Courland Diet to agree 
to the union with Russia ; and the last duke, Peter Biron, voluntarily resigned 
his position in return for a yearly payment. 



342 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



THE CLASSICAL LITERATURE OF GERMANY. POETRY. 
PROGRESS OF POETIC DEVELOPMENT. 




i 



KLOPSTOCK. 



N the second half of the eighteenth 
century, the literature, poetic art, 
science, and whole intellectual life of 
the German nation received a power- 
ful impetus. Highly gifted men of the 
most varied intellectual endowments 
struck out fresh paths of mental activity, 
and partly through attacking ancient 
errors and prejudices, partly through 
genial creations in the region of poetry 
or science, established a high standard 
of culture. It was to the art of poetry, 
however, that the greatest minds in the 
nation devoted their talents. Klop- 
stock (1724-1803) awakened sensibility 
and enthusiasm among the people by 
pouring into the hearts of aspiring 
youth his Christian faith, warmth of 
feeling, and patriotic sense of liberty. 
Lessing (1729-1781) brandished his 
scourge of criticism over French theat- 
rical literature, and showed in his own 
dramas the way by which a true dra- 
matic poetry may be attained, at the 
same time that in his " Laokoon " he opened the eyes of thoughtful men as to 
the nature of poetry and the creative art, the comprehension of which was 
simultaneously attained by Winckelmann in another way. In Lessing's track 
followed the imaginative, intellectual Herder (1744-1803), who went back to 
the origin of all language and poetry, unveiled the beauties of the Eastern 
poetry of nature, and the deep meaning of the artless popular songs of dif- 
ferent nations ; and in his " Ideas on the Philosophy; of the History of 
Humanity," offered a powerful incentive for further investigations. Wieland 
( I 733- I ^ I 3) tne cheerful philosopher of life, extolled in his romances 
(" Agathon"), which had their origin principally in old Greek life with modern 
colouring, the philosophy and mental tendency of the higher, cultured classes 
in France, and preached in light and lively language a wise enjoyment of life, 
while at the same time in his " Oberon," an epic in the spirit, and after the 
form of Ariosto, he revived with the breath of cheerful irony the romantic heroic 
poetry of the Middle Ages. By these three men, German prose underwent 
an entire transformation. Lessing gave it strength, incisiveness, and clear- 
ness ; Herder, inspiration and wealth of imagery ; Wieland, lightness and 
charm. On the soil which they had cultivated, the greatest genius of the 
century, Goethe (1749-1832), planted his creations, in which are reflected both 
the intellectual life of the nation and his own mental development. In the 
" storm " period of the seventy years, when impetuous and aspiring youth set 
all rules of art and conventionality at defiance, and venerated only the produc- 
tions of genius, " The Sorrows of Werther," and " Gotz von Berlichingen," 
excited a storm of enthusiasm ; when Lessing and Winckelmann had awakened 



RUSSIA AND POLAND UNDER CATHERINE II. 



343 



the interest for ancient art in Germany, there appeared at the appointed hour 
the classic dramas of "Tasso " and " Iphigenia," inspired by the personal im- 
pressions and sentiments which Goethe had imbibed on his journey to Italy, 
and which are also portrayed in the unsurpassed popular scenes in the tragedy 
of " Egmont." The idyllic epic " Hermann and Dorothea " originated in the 
mighty political events of the time, and in the trials of the emigrants ; the 
romance "Wilhelm Meister," and the novel "Die Wahl'verwandtschaften," 
show the influence of romantic poetry, with its love for the marvellous, myste- 
rious, and fabulous ; in " Dichtung und Wahrheit," Goethe describes the story 
of his own life, and the circumstances which contributed to his mental de- 
velopment ; and in the mighty dramatic poem of " Faust," over which we 
learn he was engaged throughout the whole of his life, he bequeathed to pos- 
terity a representation of the state of his innermost soul. In the meantime, 




GOETHE. 



SCHILLER. 



while the political world had assumed an overpowering form, and the attention 
of the nations was turned to history and government, Schiller (1759-1805) 
came forth with his historical dramas, and, with his enthusiasm for liberty, his 
fatherland, and the happiness of mankind, found the string which vibrated 
most deeply in the hearts of the people. His first three tragedies, "Die 
Rauber," " Kabale und Liebe," and " Fiesco," belong to the stormy period of 
youth ; and with the drama of " Don Carlos," a new and more enlightened 
period sets in. During his residence at Jena, as professor of history, he was 
occupied with "The Thirty Years' War," "The Revolt of the Netherlands," 
and the drama of " Wallenstein," and during the last years of his life he wrote 
4t Maria Stuart," " Die Jungfrau von Orleans," " Die Braut von Messina," and 
the noble drama " Wilhelm Tell." The integrity of his sentiments and the 
truth of his aspirations won him the friendship of Goethe, different as were 
the natures of the two men ; and their combined activity forms the great 



344 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

climax of German poetry ; for through their intercourse the eternal contradic- 
tions of idealism and realism, subjectivity and objectivity were brought into 
harmony with each other. 

PROSE LITERATURE. 

Scientific Activity. Not only the art of poetry, but theology, philosophy, 
history, the subject of education, in short, the whole intellectual life, under- 
went at this same period a mighty transformation. Protestant preachers 
investigated the Bible, and represented Christian doctrine according to the 
particular tendency of their own minds. Some, like the Zurich preacher 
Lavater (1741-1801), sought by their pious effusions to keep the world in 
strict orthodoxy, and to establish the conviction that man, by means of prayer, 
stands in immediate relationship with God ; others, like the bookseller and 
author Nicolai (1733-1811), desired that human reason alone should be 
regarded as supreme in Divine matters, and declared everything which ran 
counter to it to be superstition. The former were called Supernaturalists, the 
latter Rationalists, or free-thinkers. A third party, to which Hamaun, the 
philosopher, Fr. H. Jacobi (1743-1819), and the poet Fr. Count of Stolberg 
(1759-1819) belonged, made religion a matter of feeling, like the mystics in 
the middle ages. Lavater was also the creator of the " Study of the Physiog- 
nomy," that doubtful science which teaches that the character and the pre- 
dominant qualities of men may be recognised by the development of their 
heads and their features. In philosophy, the great thinker Kant, of Konigs- 
berg (1724-1804), established a system of thought which quickly penetrated 
all other sciences, and powerfully moved and influenced the intellectual world 
of Germany; his great pupil, Fichte (1762-1814), passed from criticism of 
the Kant philosophy to pure idealism. As the bold champion of popular 
liberty, in his " Address to the German nation," delivered at Berlin, Fichte's 
name is held in veneration throughout Germany. His disciple, Fr. W. J. 
Schelling (1775-1854), combined this idealism with natural philosophy, 
and George Fr. W. Hegel (1770-1831) created by his dialectic philosophy, a 
system of thought which had the greatest influence on the whole intellectual 
life of his time. In historical writing, which received a new impulse from 
Herde/s "ideas," both Spittler (1752-1810) and Johann Miiller (1752-1809) 
founded a new period ; and, as writers of educational works and books for the 
young, Basedow, Campe, and Salzmann may be mentioned. 





FRANCE ON THE EVE OF REVOLUTION. 

Louis XV. AND HIS COURT. His GOVERNMENT. CONFUSION. 
CHOISEUL. TAXATION AND OPPRESSION. DEFICIT. QUARRELS 
WITH THE PARLIAMENTS. LETTRES DE CACHET. Louis XVI. 1774- 
1793. CHARACTER OF THE KING. QUEEN MARIE ANTOINETTE. 
ATTEMPTED REFORMS OF MALESHERBES AND TURGOT. CRITICAL 
FINANCIAL CONDITION. LOMENIE DE BRIENNE. SUMMONING OF 
THE ETATS GENERAUX. MIRABEAU. THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY, 
MAY, 1789 TO SEPTEMBER, 1791. NATIONAL REPRESENTATIVES. 
ROYAL SITTINGS. THE TENNIS-COURT OATH. STORMING OF THE 
BASTILLE. THE TRICOLOR. 

THE LAST PERIOD OF ABSOLUTE ROYAL POWER. DEATH OF Louis XV. 

COURT LIFE. 

OUIS XV. at first possessed the love of his people to such a 
degree that he was called the Well-beloved ; 
and when, early in his reign, he was attacked 
by a dangerous illness at Metz, the whole 
country gave way to mourning, and his re- 
covery was celebrated with the greatest re- 
joicing. But this affection gradually changed 
to hatred and contempt, when the king gave 
himself up to the most shameless debauchery, 
and surrendered the government of his country 
and the control of his armies to the companions of his revelries, while his mis- 
tresses ruled the court and spread confusion throughout the kingdom without 
shame or decency. Among the court favourites none exercised a greater or 
more lasting influence than the Marquise de Pompadour, who died in 1764, 

345 




346 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

This woman for twenty years directed the whole State-life of France, appointed 
her favourites to the most important offices, conferred the first place in the 
ministry on her friend Choiseul, concluded treaties and declared war ; and so 
controlled the State exchequer, as well as her own finances, that, after living 
in luxury and extravagance, she left behind her at her death a fortune of 
several millions. She nevertheless used her 4 position and influence with dignity, 
tact, and judgment ; but when she was superseded by the Countess Du Barry, 
a woman who had sprung from the lowest class, the French court lost all 
authority and respect in the eyes of Europe. Choiseul was dismissed to make 
way for a flatterer of the new mistress ; the former warlike renown was 
destroyed, and the country's political importance fell to such a low ebb, that 
Poland, France's old ally, was partitioned with impunity, and France could 
not interfere. It was a reign of voluptuousness and shameless extravagance, 
under which the State revenues were recklessly squandered, while the people 
languished under the greatest oppression, and were excluded from all par- 
ticipation in the government. From want of class representation, the nation 
was without the organization by which to carry out necessary reforms ; and 
the cultivated and enlightened citizen classes had no means of enforcing their 
just rights. In vain, therefore, did the Government punish with imprisonment 
and banishment those bold and ingenious writers who protested against this 
state of things ; that which these men asserted was thought and felt by the 
whole nation to be true. The splendour of the Crown and the majesty of the 
sovereign were gone for ever ; and the nation longed to see the end of the 
wretched oppression and wrong taxation. 

TAXATION. 

THE luxury of the court, the extravagant pensions, and the costly, useless 
wars had exhausted the exchequer and increased the burden of debt. 
Taxes and loans were the only means of covering the deficit, which increased 
with every year ; but both were oppressive for the country. As the Govern- 
ment had forfeited alike confidence and credit, loans were only granted for 
high and constantly increasing interest ; and with regard to taxes and imposts, 
though the sums obtained by this means were far below the amount annually 
levied by the taxation of our own times, the fact of their being collected by 
the farmers-general and their bloodthirsty and rapacious officials, as well as 
their being drawn from the citizen and peasant classes for the wealthy 
aristocracy and the priests enjoyed immunity from taxation made them 
-extremely oppressive to the lower orders and the nation generally. The 
land and property tax, poll-tax, house-tax, the gabelle, or impost on salt, 
and numerous other exactions, took from the common man the fruits of his 
industry, and prevented the growth of a prosperous citizen-class, while the 
farmers-general, to whom the Government made over all the taxes for a fixed 
sum, made such profits that their enormous wealth became proverbial. 

Quarrels with the Parliaments. There existed at this time a custom 
rendering it obligatory to register all edicts of taxation and laws in the 
supreme court of justice, or Parliament, in Paris. It followed, therefore, that 
in the absence of the Estates General of the realm, which had not been sum- 
moned since 1614, the validity of imposts and taxes depended on the con- 
firmation of the Parliament, which thus possessed the right of opposing laws 
and decrees by a refusal to register. This gave rise, at every fresh tax, to such 
a violent dispute between the court of Parliament and the Government, that the 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 347 

king held a personal council, or lit de justice, and broke down the opposition ; 
for Louis XV. was not willing to diminish the royal prerogative as it had been 
exercised by his predecessors. Besides the edicts of taxation, the arbitrary 
lettres de cachet, or warrants for imprisonment, which were encroachments on 
the privileges of Parliament, were an object of contention between the courts 
of justice and the Government. These terrible sealed letters, which could 
easily be procured, not only by ministers, but also by sub-officials, bishops, 
fathers of families, and people in authority, or favourites, were a despotic 
interference with personal liberty, as by this means any one might be im- 
prisoned and kept in durance indefinitely without a trial. For ten years the 
Paris Parliament carried on a struggle with the court and the Government, 
more, however, for the sake of its own privileges than for popular freedom. 
At last the king, weary of its obstinate resistance, caused the most refractory 
of its members to be arrested, and curtailed its power and privileges (1771). 
When Louis XVI., soon after his accession to the throne, allowed himself to 
be persuaded by his weak adviser, Maurepas, to give back to the Parliament 
its old power and constitution, and thus to provoke the struggle anew, the 
first false step was taken by the unfortunate sovereign. 

Louis XVI. (1774-1793). THE COURT. 

GUIS XV. was at last carried off by a terrible disease 
at a time when the exchequer was exhausted, and 
when the kingdom was burdened with a debt of four 
thousand millions. Credit was gone, and the people 
were oppressed with heavy taxes. Under these un- 
fortunate circumstances, a prince ascended the throne 
who certainly possessed the kindest of hearts, but who 
had a weak head and no firmness of will. Louis was 
generous enough to desire to remove existing evils ; 
but he had neither sufficient strength of character to 
restrain the extravagance and frivolity of his brothers, the Comte de Provence 
(afterwards Louis XVIII.) and the Comte d'Artois (afterwards Charles X.), 
nor sufficient independence to resist the reactionary and baleful influence of 
his wife, Marie Antoinette, the highly accomplished daughter of the Em- 
press-queen Maria Theresa. The high-spirited young queen was wedded to 
the aristocratic splendour and to the system of the old court. By her proud 
demeanour she drew down on herself the dislike of the populace, so that the 
people were only too inclined to place an evil construction on the liberties 
which she allowed herself in private life, innocent as her proceedings might 
be. Her enemies, and in particular the Duke of Orleans, busied themselves 
with spreading abroad odious calumnies and disseminating caricatures, which 
were calculated to destroy, in the hearts of the people, the last remnants of 
respect towards the queen and the whole court. The terrible calamity that 
occurred in Paris at the celebration of her marriage festivities, in May, 1770, 
when, during a display of fireworks, several hundred people were crushed to 
death and trodden under foot in the throng, was an occurrence of fatal omen. 
Soon after his accession to the throne, Louis XVL, in 1776, summoned 
two men into the ministry who had both the inclination and the power to 
introduce thorough reforms in the administration and to give renewed stability 
to the tottering throne. These men were Turgot and Malesherbes. They 
brought about an entire transformation in the government. They suggested 




348 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

many reforms in the administration, urged the admission of citizens to the 
higher offices in the State and to judicial posts, the abolition of the secret 
police, economy in the expenditure, and other beneficial innovations. In a 
similar manner the minister of war, St. Germain, sought to abolish the abuses 
prevailing in the army. These proposals met with such violent opposition, 
partly from the court and nobility with the exception of the king partly 
from Parliament, and especially from the clergy, that the ministers were com- 
pelled to resign. 

The state of affairs was not improved under the administration of the 
banker Necker, who undertook the department of finance, after Turgot, which 
he occupied from 1777 to 1781. While as a citizen and a Protestant his 
position was a difficult one from the beginning, the means by which he sought 
to remedy the disastrous state of the administration made him detested by 
the court and aristocracy ; and the revelation of the financial condition of the 
nation he made on the occasion of a loan, by his " comptes rendus," excited 
such dissatisfaction that he was compelled to apply for his dismissal. His 
resignation freed the court from an irksome system .of economy ; but the finan- 
cial confusion increased when the frivolous and extravagant Calonne took 
office in 1783. The new minister's proposal for the general taxation of all 
classes, including the clergy and the nobility, was steadfastly resisted by the 
Assembly of Notables ; and when the amount of the deficit was discovered, 
the storm became so violent that*Calonne renounced his post, and went to 
London to escape the impeachment with which he was threatened. His 
most zealous opponent in the Assembly of Notables, Lome'nie de Brienne, 
Archbishop of Toulouse, became his successor, and held office in 1787 and 1788. 
Brienne had a difficult position to fill. His proposals for taxation met with 
such violent opposition from Parliament, that the king had recourse to his 
accustomed means of compulsion, the lit de justice, and when this was of no 
avail, banished the boldest councillors to Troyes. The greatest interest was 
exhibited by the people in the struggle ; they surrounded the session-house 
and greeted the Opposition speakers with acclamation, and the Government 
party with yells of contumely. There was a general clamour for an assembly 
of the Estates General ; further imprisonments took place, and the discontent 
of the people was shown by insurrections and wild excesses in Provence, 
Languedoc, Dauphine, and especially in Brittany, and by the burning of the 
minister in effigy. 

SUMMONING OF THE ESTATES GENERAL. 

THE constantly increasing storm against the minister at last compelled 
the court to agree to Brienne's dismissal (August, 1788), at a time when 
the need for money was so great that all cash payments had to be suspended, 
and a State bankruptcy appeared inevitable. The post of finance minister 
was now once more entrusted to the popular Necker, in 1788. That financial 
reformer at once proceeded to liberate the imprisoned councillors, to with- 
draw the edicts against the Parliament, and to introduce necessary regula- 
tions. Parliament now very soon showed that it only did homage to the 
spirit of progress in so far as the innovations did not endanger its own 
interests ; for it was of opinion, as were also the Notables, who were again con- 
sulted, that the new Assembly should be modelled on the old lines of 1614, 
with regard to the number of deputies and the management of affairs; 
whereas Necker wished to assign a double number of members to the citizens, 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



349 



or tiers etat, and to have the votes taken according to heads, or individually, 
and not one only for each estate. A number of clever pamphlets were written 
and published to support this view. Among these none made a greater 
impression than the pamphlet of Abbe Sieyes, "What is the Third Estate ? " 
Though himself at once a noble and a priest, he attacked the clergy and 
nobility alike, and asserted the leading principle of the Revolution, that " the 




MIRABEAU IN THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. 

third estate is the nation, the nation in its true sovereignty and supremacy." 
A royal decree fixed the number of the noble and ecclesiastical members at 
three hundred, and that of the representatives of the citizens at six hundred, 
and appointed the first of May of the following year as the time for opening 
the session. Too late, did the unpopular Parliament repent of its contumacy, 
and seek by compliance with public opinion to regain its former position ; 
the popular favour had been trifled with, and the splendour which shone round 



350 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

the new assembly threw the Parliament so completely into the shade, that 
its subsequent dissolution took place almost unnoticed. Necker was the hero 
of the day ; but he was not the guide of the ship of the State, and " only 
drifted before the wind." Without plan or preparation, the short-sighted 
representative of the Government ca/ne forward to do battle with the repre- 
sentatives of the people, who were filled with the boldest and most diverse 
theories. By a faulty system of election, the ownership of land was insuf- 
ficiently represented in the new assembly, and many ill-digested schemes of 
reform, such as the abolition of absolute royalty and of feudal conditions, 
improvement in the administration of justice, and the lessening of the power 
and wealth of the hierarchy, were brought forward in the chamber. " Through- 
out France but one idea prevailed, that a new era had now commenced for 
the people and the kingdom, and that, whatever obstacles were placed in its 
way, it must complete itself." The most eloquent exponent of this theory 
was Honore Gabriel Victor Riquetti, Comte de Mirabeau, born in Provence, 
March 9, 1749, a highly gifted man, who, in his youth, underwent much un- 
kind treatment from an irascible and tyrannical father, by whom he was even 
imprisoned for a time in the prison of Vincennes. He subsequently visited 
England and Germany, and took up his residence for some time at Berlin. 
A remarkable work on the Prussian Mo'narchy was the fruit of his immediate 
observations. By this and other political writings, the name of the Comte de 
Mirabeau had already obtained a wide notoriety, when the Revolution sum- 
moned him to a larger field of action. " Now is my time," cried the man, 
who in the prison of Vincennes had learnt to know what absolutism meant in 
its severest form. Rejected by the nobility, he came forward as a candidate 
for the third estate, and became the most eager opponent of the privileged 
classes and of absolute monarchy. 

THE CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY, STH MAY, 1789, TO SOTH SEPTEMBER, 1791. 

r 

_ OR the beginning of May the deputies of the three 
1| estates, among them the most talented and gifted 
r| men in France, had been summoned ; and they 
^ accordingly assembled at Versailles. Even in cos- 
, x ti tume for the nobles wore black velvet mantles 
) embroidered with gold, and hats with feathers, while 
the citizens wore plain black stuff mantles and hats 
the representatives of the third estate felt them- 
selves insulted and undervalued ; and that this was 
the case became more evident when the proceedings 
commenced. They gained, however, in importance 
even after the ceremony of opening. At the first sittings they came into 
collision with the two higher estates and the Government regarding the verifi- 
cation of the elective powers, as the two higher estates demanded that the 
verification should be carried on separately, while the citizens insisted that it 
should be done in common. As this would involve as the consequence that 
the three estates would deliberate together and the votes would be taken 
according to heads, in which case the nobility and clergy would be placed at 
a disadvantage, this dispute was obstinately prolonged for several weeks, until, 
by a bold and important step, it was decided in favour of the third estate. 
The citizen deputies who < had chosen the astronomer Bailly, the noble 




THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



35' 



patriotic, and enthusiastic deputy for Paris, as their president, but were guided 
by the superior talents of Sieyes and Mirabeau declared themselves a 
national assembly, and invited the other estates to join them ; when a part of 
the lower clergy made common cause with the citizen class, while the other 
persisted in their resistance. The decisions arrived at by the National As- 
sembly after this important step, that they would not separate until they had 




THE TENNIS-COURT OATH. 

restored to the nation its former rights, and in the meantime would take pre- 
cautions that the existing taxes, unjust though they might be, should still be 
levied, and the interest of the national debt be paid, so long as the Estates 
were not dissolved on any pretext whatever, were wisely calculated tolterrify 
the court and to interest the nation, especially the government creditors, in 
the maintenance of the assembly. 

These proceedings created uneasiness among the court party, and at last 



352 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD 



gave rise to the idea that it would be advisable to confer a new Constitution on 
the nation, and thus make the Estates of the Kingdom unnecessary. With this 
object a royal sitting was fixed for the 23rd of June, and in the meantime the 
assembly-hall was closed, in order to make the necessary preparations. When 
Bailly, who had only just heard of jthe scheme, appeared therefore with all 
the deputies, he was refused entrance, whereupon they repaired to the empty 
hall of the Tennis Court, accompanied by an immense crowd of people, 
and there raised their hands in a solemn oath, that they would not separ- 
ate until they had given the country a new Constitution. This was the 
celebrated tennis-court oath (serment du jeu de paume) of June 2Oth, 1789. 
At their next meeting, most of the clergy, with several bishops at their head, 
joined the citizens. On the 23rd of June the solemn sitting took place. The 
declaration of the king, which was filled with threats and reproaches, excited 
the greater indignation, as the absence of Necker, by whom the first draft had 
been originated, seemed to indicate that he did not approve of the subsequent 
changes ; for which reason the projected State reform was very coldly received. 
The assurance that no one should be disturbed in the enjoyment of his 
property gave offence, as the privileged classes engrossed for themselves, as 
their exclusive property, all those rights which it was the object of the third 
estate to abolish. When the sitting was ended, the king called on the 
assembly to separate. The nobility and clergy obeyed ; but the deputies of 
the third estate remained sitting unmoved ; and when they were requested to 
withdraw by the master of the ceremonies, Mirabeau, after having reminded 
the assembly of its oath, and admonished it to resistance, cried out : " Tell 
your master that we are here by the will of the nation, and that we are only 
to be driven forth at the point of the bayonet." The good-natured king did 
not venture to meet this determined opposition with forcible measures. The 
assembly declared itself inviolable, and soon a number of the higher clergy, 
among them Talleyrand Perigord, Bishop of Autun, and Henry Gregoire, 
afterwards Bishop of Blois, and many of the nobility, with the profligate and 
ambitious Duke of Orleans at their head, joined the citizens, so that Louis 
himself now advised a compromise and union among the different estates. 




TALLEYRAND. 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



353 





FRENCH INFANTRY SOLDIERS OF 1789. 

HIS victory of the third estate, and still more the turbulent 
agitation in the capital, terrified the aristocratic Court party, 
and led the advisers of the king to form a scheme for de- 
livering themselves, by a master-stroke, from the threaten- 
ing danger. As the guards, who sympathized with the 
popular cause, were not to be trusted, the king was per- 
suaded to summon some Swiss and German troops, under 
the command of Marshal Broglie, to Versailles, in spite 
of the opposition of the National Assembly. By means of 
these troops it was intended to overawe the discontent of 
the capital. In the meantime a democratic association had been formed in 
Paris. The mainspring of the activity of this association was hatred of the 
upper classes ; and by means of revolutionary publications and violent dis- 
courses, the lower orders were kept in a continual state of agitation. In 
the Palais Royal, the residence of the Duke of Orleans, and in public places 
and cafes, crowds of idle and daring men listened eagerly to the exciting 
discourses of the highly-gifted and enthusiastic young advocate, Camille 
Desmoulins, and other demagogues, on popular liberty, rights of man, and the 
equality of all classes. It was at this time that the basis was laid of the 
national guard, the germ of which was composed of a regiment of the guard 
which had revolted. 

The intelligence of the calling together of the troops ^which was repre- 
sented by the secret agitators of Mirabeau and Orleans as a public proof of 
an intended arbitrary interference with the National Assembly had already 
roused the people to great excitement, when suddenly the news flew through 
Paris and France on the I2th of July, that Necker had been dismissed 
II. A A 



354 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

and banished from the country, and that Foulon, a favourite of the queen 
and of the hated Comte d'Artois, was to take his place. This was regarded 
as the first step towards despotic measures, and was the signal for a formidable 
rising. Rude mobs paraded the streets, decorated with the newly-invented 
national cockade ; the alarm bells were sounded, workshops and arsenals 
were plundered, and tumult and confusion prevailed everywhere. On the 
I4th of July, after the people had carried off from the Hotel des Invalides 
thirty thousand muskets and some cannon, the storming of the Bastille took 
place. The destruction of this stronghold was not only intended to secure 
the capital against a possible attack, but also to commemorate the end of 
despotism and of the lettres de cachet, the victory of the new age over medi- 
aeval feudal conditions, and the sovereignty of the people over the monarchy 
by the grace of God. The governor of the Bastille, Delaunay, and seven 
men of the garrison fell victims to the popular wrath. Their heads were 
carried on pikes through the streets, amid wild cries of delight ; and the popu- 
lace proved, by the murder of several men who were known as aristocrats, 
such as the burgomaster Flesselles, that law and authority were powerless, 
and that the supreme power was already in their hands. Even the leaders of 
the rebels, the retired officer Helie, and the bold Swiss Hulin, who desired to 
take the prisoners to the council-house to be tried, could scarcely escape with 
their own lives from the anger of the raging mob. The banished Necker 
was now recalled ; his journey through the towns and villages of France re- 
sembled the triumphal progress of a victorious hero ; and Besenval, the hated 
captain of the Swiss guard, who had promised help to the commander of the 
Bastille, and thus encouraged him to resistance, was saved from death by his 
intercession. Terrified by these displays of hostile popular feeling, and angry 
that the king could not be persuaded to repress the agitation by bloodshed 
and civil war, Artois, Conde, the Polignacs, and other nobles who were hated 
as aristocrats, quitted their native land and gave the signal for that eventful 
emigration, by which ancient royalist France, with all its corruption, extrava- 
gance, and impecuniosity, became represented by " foreign refugees." The 
appointment of Lafayette as leader of the national guard, the elevation of 
Bailly to the mayoralty of the capital, and the journey of the king to Paris, 
when he showed himself to the people with a cockade in his hat on the bal- 
cony of the Hotel de Ville, and thus expressed his approval of what had 
occurred, formed the climax of this event, which was the death knell of 
absolute royal power, and constituted the first great victory of the new era. 
From that time prescriptive law and order were at an end, and violence and 
innovation prevailed in the capital as well as in the provinces. Foulon and 
his son-in-law, Berthier de Sauvigny, fell victims to the angry mob. The 
country people set fire to the castles of the landed proprietors, and ceased to- 
pay deference to the aristocracy and the Church. 

The Tricolor. When Camille Desmoulins was describing to the assem- 
bled multitude in the Palais Royal the dangers which menaced the people 
through the summoning of foreign troops to the capital, he plucked a leaf 
from a tree, stuck it in his hat, and admonished the crowd to do the same, 
that patriots might have a sign by which to recognise each other. Soon all 
the trees in the Palais Royal were stripped of their leaves, which were eagerly 
adopted as emblems by the audience. As green, however, was the colour of 
the hated Artois, the people adopted the colours of the city of Paris, blue and 
red ; and subsequently, at Lafayette's suggestion, added white, the colour of 
the Bourbons, to show the unity of the nation and of royalty. Thus origin- 
ated the memorable tricolor. 




NEW AMSTERDAM. 



ENGLAND AND AMERICA. 

COLONIES IN NORTH AMERICA. RALEIGH. LORD BALTIMORE. THE 
NEW ENGLAND COLONIES FOUNDED. "NEW NETHERLANDS." 
PHILADELPHIA. CAUSES OF THE WAR OF INDEPENDENCE. TAXA- 
TION OF THE COLONIES. DISCONTENTS AND RESISTANCE. EVENTS 
OF THE WAR. LEXINGTON. BUNKER'S HILL. WASHINGTON. SUR- 
RENDER AT SARATOGA. YORKTOWN. THE ARMED NEUTRALITY. 
GIBRALTAR.- TREATIES. 

THE NORTH AMERICAN STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM. INTRODUCTION. 



SINCE the days when the first settlement 
of English was founded in Virginia by 
Sir Walter Raleigh, in the reign of Eliza- 
beth, until the time when the Quaker, 
William Penn, sought protection in Penn- 
sylvania from the religious persecutions of 
the old country, numerous colonies had 
sprung up in North America, so that in 
the first half of the i8th century the Eng- 
lish colonies consisted of the following 
thirteen States : i. Massachusetts, with the 
capital, Boston; 2. Connecticut; 3. Rhode 
Island ; 4. New Hampshire, with Concord 
(these four together formed New England) ; 
5. New Jersey ; 6. Maryland ; 7. New 
York, with Albany ; 8. Pennsylvania, 
with Philadelphia ; 9. Delaware ; 10. Virginia, with the present Washing- 
ton ; ii and 12. North and South Carolina; 13. Georgia. 




B. FRANKLIN. 



356 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



The first colony, planted by the celebrated Sir Walter Raleigh, was on 
Roanoke Island, in 1585 ; and not long afterwards a second settlement was 
made in Virginia, and the " City of Raleigh " was established on the site ot 
the former colony. The colony of Roanoke was not long-lived, however, 
and a century passed away before any permanent colonization had been 
effected by the English. In the reign of James I. the territory of Virginia 
was divided into two portions, and placed in the hands of the London and 
Plymouth companies. The settlement of Maryland was formed in 1629, 
when George Calvert, Lord Baltimore, came to seek refuge in Virginia 
from the Catholic persecutions in England, and received from the king the 
grant of a tract of territory to the north of the Potomac, which obtained the 




EMIGRATION OF EVANGELICAL PROTESTANTS. 



name of Maryland. The Catholic emigrants now enjoyed religious toleration 
until they were temporarily dispossessed by a large body of Puritan settlers ; 
but in 1715 the fourth Lord Baltimore recovered the government of the 
country. 

In 1620 the Mayflower arrived in the harbour of Cape Cod, with a small 
band of pilgrims who had made their escape from the persecutions of the 
mother-country. The new settlers proceeded to found the colony of Plymouth 
amid many hardships and privations brought upon them by the severity of 
the climate and inadequate harvests. The Plymouth colony remained inde- 
pendent until 1692, when it was incorporated with Massachusetts Bay. The 
stream of Puritan emigration still continued to flow, and a number of smaller 
settlements came into existence, in which the chief power was placed in the 



ENGLAND AND AMERICA. 357 

hands of a governor chosen by the people themselves. In 1643 the settle- 
ments of Massachusetts Bay, Plymouth, New Haven, and Connecticut were 
united under the title of The United Colonies of New England. 

The settlement of Connecticut was formed by colonists from Massachusetts, 
under the guidance of John Steele, who established the foundation of Hart- 
ford, and of the clergyman Thomas Hooker. A liberal charter was granted by 
Charles I. ; but after the lapse of several years the liberties of the people were 
subverted by a high-handed proceeding on the part of governor Andros, who 
marched from Boston to Hartford, entered the assembly-house, and demanded 
the immediate surrender of the charter. During the altercation the lights were 
put out, and the charter was seized by a man named William Wadsworth, 
who escaped and hid it in the hollow of a tree, afterwards known as the 
Charter Oak. The governor then instituted a most despotic form of govern- 
ment, until he was finally deposed, and the rights and liberties of the people 
were again restored to them. 

The settlement of New York was a Dutch colony, and was originally 
founded in 1609 by Henry Hudson, the English navigator, who gave his name 
to the noble river on which stands the great cosmopolitan city of New York. 
The wild, uncultivated tract of country was speedily reclaimed and civilized 
by a diligent band of emigrants ; fresh colonists were drafted off from the 
mother-country, and the new settlement was entitled by Holland, " New 
Netherlands." The first governor was Peter Minuits (1626), who founded the 
city of New Amsterdam, afterwards New York ; but his term of office was 
disturbed by quarrels between the Dutch and the foreign settlers. A more 
prosperous period began under Governor Stuyvesant. He acted as a peace- 
maker between the quarrelsome tribes, encouraged Dutch industry, and 
favoured the settlement of foreigners within the prosperous colony. In 1664 
the city lost its independence ; an English fleet sailed into the harbour 
of New York, and demanded the surrender of the town, which was finally 
effected with but little attempt at resistance. The English now remained 
masters of New York, with the exception of a temporary re-assertion of their 
authority on the part of the Dutch. The next governor, Andros, proved a 
tyrannical ruler; many restrictions were imposed on the people's liberties, 
and the colony was finally annexed to New England. 

The settlement of Pennsylvania, founded by the English Quaker, William 
Penn, was a model community of civil and religious freedom. The people 
alone possessed the power of making laws and imposing taxation ; and perfect 
toleration was enjoyed by every religious sect. 

The town of Philadelphia, on the Delaware, was founded in 1683. 

The territory of North and South Carolina was apportioned in 1663 by 
Charles II., of England, to several of his courtiers. The growth of the new 
settlement was rapid. Thither flocked Huguenot refugees, Dutch reformers, 
and English emigrants, who speedily raised the prosperity of the country. 
The cultivation of the rice plant, and of the olive and mulberry which were 
introduced from France, also tended to the increase of industry, and added 
greatly to the wealth of the new territory. 

The settlement of Georgia was founded by James Oglethorpe in the reign 
of George II. This colony also was an asylum for the oppressed and the 
persecuted of all countries, and was for a time the home of John and Charles 
Wesley, who came over full of eager zeal for the conversion of the Indian 
tribes. The city of Savannah was founded in 1733. 

The wars of the European continent, and especially those between France 



358 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

and England, usually led to corresponding wars in the colonies. In these 
struggles the French and English colonists were generally pitted against each 
other in their efforts to obtain the supremacy in the colony ; and the Indians 
usually espoused the cause of the French. Thus, in the Spanish War of Suc- 
cession the Americans were drawn into the contest, which ended in the 
cession of Acadia by the French to the English in the Peace of Utrecht. 
Subsequently a war arose between England and France in consequence of 
the French claim to the Mississippi territory. This war was terminated by the 
Treaty of Paris, and further increased the power of the English in North 
America, as they gained Canada from the French and Florida from Spain 
in 1763. 

Causes of the War. The extension of the colonial territory in the Peace 
of Paris had only been obtained by England with great efforts and an 
increase of its burden of debt. This deficiency it endeavoured to meet by 
imposing taxes on imported goods in the colonies, notwithstanding that these 
encroachments were regarded with great disfavour by the Americans, who 
felt that it was principally through the assistance they had rendered that 
England had come forth victoriously from her conflicts. When, therefore, 
their discontent was still further increased by the introduction of the Stamp 
Act (March 1765), an important agitation soon made itself felt. The Ameri- 
cans declared that a Parliament in which they were not represented should 
not impose taxes upon them. Their grievances met with sympathy among 
a large portion of the English nation ; and a strong Opposition, with the great 
orator and statesman William Pitt, Lord Chatham, at its head, attacked 
in both houses of Parliament the measures of the Government against the 
colonists. This state of affairs soon led to a change of ministry and the 
withdrawal of the Stamp Act (1766). As, however, the right of taxation in 
the colonies was expressly reserved to Parliament in a supplementary bill, 
and in the following year a small tax was laid on tea, glass, paper, and 
painters' colours, the spirit of resistance increased. The merchants of Boston 
determined to admit none of the taxed articles, and their example was soon 
followed by the other provinces ; which so sensibly injured English trade that 
public opinion in England demanded the withdrawal of this bill also, after 
the open resistance to the taxing officers in Boston had compelled the Govern- 
ment to place troops in the town. The right of taxation was however still 
upheld, though the English Government endeavoured to make it bear as 
leniently as possible upon the Americans. But to such a point had the feeling 
of bitterness increased against the whole system of taxes, that at Boston a 
number of men dressed as savages threw three shiploads of tea into the sea. 
This was followed by the passing of three acts of Parliament : by one, the 
harbour of Boston was closed ; by the second, the free constitution of Mas- 
sachusetts was greatly limited ; and by a third, the frontier of Canada was 
extended towards the United States, and thus the absolute government 
prevailing in the former extended also over the adjoining territory. During 
these events considerable excitement and great conflict of opinion prevailed 
in England with. regard to the measures of the Government ; and this agita- 
tion was still further increased in the period from the year 1769 to 1772 by 
the publication of the famous "Letters of Junius," pamphlets remarkable 
for vigour of language and beauty of style, as well as for powerful invective, 
The author of these letters has, up to the present day, never been identified 
with certainty. The English democrat, Thomas Paine, also wrote in the 
interests of the Americans. 



ENGLAND AND AMERICA. 



359 




( 

4 



SURRENDER OF BURGOYNE AT SARATOGA. 




EVENTS OF THE WAR. 

HE Boston Harbour Bill and the two other parliamentary 
measures produced general excitement in America, and gave 
rise to a systematic resistance. A Congress of deputies from 
all the colonies met together at Philadelphia, in September, 
1774, and declared that no goods and merchandise should 
be admitted from England, and also drew up an address to 
the king, the English people, the inhabitants of Canada, etc., 
in which it was declared that the Americans only desired to 
protect their painfully acquired rights from the tyranny of 
the English Government and Parliament. The English thereupon declared 
Massachusetts to be in a state of rebellion, renounced all intercourse with the 
American colonies, and forbade any importation of arms and war ammunition. 
The Americans then strengthened their militia, forcibly took possession of 
English weapons, and established in Concord an arsenal of warlike stores. 
In order to destroy this, the commander of the Boston garrison marched out 
with his troops, but was attacked near Lexington (iQth April, 1775), where 
the first 'civil bloodshed occurred. 

Both sides were now prepared for war, and the first important battle was 
fought at Bunker's Hill, in June, 1775, where, it is true, the Americans were 
defeated, after being three times repulsed ; but the English lost so many men 
that they were soon obliged to evacuate Boston. This result the Americans 
owed to their noble-minded compatriot George Washington, of Virginia, who 
devoted all his energy and ability to the high aim of liberating his fatherland. 
While he fought for his countrymen with his sword on the field of battle, the 



360 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

renowned inventor of the lightning-conductor, Benjamin Franklin, who repre- 
sented his country at the Courts of London and Paris, carried on the struggle 
both by writing and speaking. The appearance of this homely, sensible man 
in his simple Quaker dress produced such an enthusiasm for liberty and 
democracy in the excitable capital of France, that the young and wealthy 
Marquis de Lafayette and other similar-minded nobles crossed the ocean to 
venture their lives and blood in the American struggle for liberty, through 
which they believed that the ideals of Rousseau would be realized. Relying 
on the prevailing feeling in France, the deputies of the thirteen united States 
now declared the American colonies independent of England (July, 1776), in 




WASHINGTON. 



a manifesto drawn up by the wise American statesman, Jefferson. But in 
spite of the general sympathy which prevailed, which was shared even by the 
English Opposition leaders Pitt and Fox, and in spite of the efforts of the 
high-spirited leader of the young State, the cause of the Americans appeared 
to be in a bad plight when the English Government at last concluded treaties 
with several German princes, and despatched a large army of Hessians 
and Hanoverians across the sea, in order to test their European art of war- 
fare against the free sons of the New World. Admirably provided with men 
and munitions of war, the English general Howe now succeeded in gaining 
possession of New York, while other commanders successfully resisted the 
Americans in Canada, where another revolt had been projected. But through 



ENGLAND AND AMERICA. 361 

the carelessness of Howe, who, during the winter season devoted himself to 
his pleasures and amusements, the watchful Washington succeeded, on Christ- 
mas night, in crossing the frozen Delaware, taking prisoners a division of 
Hessian troops, and defeating the English near Princetown. 

Though these advantages were again lost by Washington's defeat on the 
river Brandywine, by the brave English general Cornwallis, the capitulation of 
Saratoga (October, 1777), which occurred soon afterwards, when 7,000 men of 
the English army fell into the hands of the American general Gates, changed 
the aspect of affairs so greatly tov the advantage of the young free State, 
that the French, who had long regarded with envy the growing prosperity of 
the English colonies, hesitated no longer to enter into an alliance with the 
Americans. 

Extension of the War. After the news of the capitulation of Saratoga had 
been received with acclamation in France, the French Government, having 
more regard to public opinion than to the welfare of the State, recognised the 
independence of America, in February, 1778, and promised to assist the 
United States with all its might until this independence was firmly estab- 
lished. The attempt of the English ministry to prevent this alliance by 
entering into negotiations with America, was frustrated by the judicious tact 
of the Congress, which was not slow to perceive that it would gain greater 
advantages from a French than from an English alliance. 

At first the French only supported their allies with money and ships, until 
Lafayette appeared in Paris and procured the despatch of an army, in the 
ranks of which were many men distinguished by birth, wealth, and talent. 
The English now withdrew from Pennsylvania to New York, and then decided 
to remove the seat of war to the southern States of Carolina and Georgia, 
where lived many adherents of English royalty. They then conquered 
Savannah and Charlestown, and won two battles under the brave Cornwallis. 
These misfortunes, together with the want of money, mutinies among the 
troops, and the treachery of the American general Arnold, brought the young 
Republic into great straits. A sudden change was, however, brought about in 
this state of affairs when the French-American army under Lafayette and 
Washington surrounded General Cornwallis in Yorktown, in October, 1781, 
compelled him to surrender ; in consequence of which, his army of 7,000 men, 
with all his ammunition, fell into the hands of the victors. This disaster 
decided the fate of the war ; not only were the English now compelled to 
turn their arms against their European enemies, but the new ministry, in- 
cluding Sheridan, Burke, and Fox, was more inclined to enter into a peaceful 
agreement with America than the former cabinet under Lord North had been. 
Pitt had already died, in May, 1778. A violent speech against the measures 
of the Government on the news of America's alliance with France, had so 
shaken his weakened health that he fell down while in the House of Commons, 
and expired soon afterwards at his country estate. 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



THE ARMED NEUTRALITY. HOLLAND. 




DUTCH GUARDS OF WILLIAM III. 



I^HE alliance 
concluded be- 
tween France and 
America, in June, 
1779, which was 
joined soon after- 
wards by Spain, 
had resulted in a 
violent naval war 
with England but 
for a time the lat- 
ter maintained its 
maritime ascend- 
ancy unimpaired. 
When, however, 
the scheme for an 
armed league of 
neutrality was set 
on foot by Cathar- 
ine II. of Russia, 
England's suprem- 
acy over the sea 
appeared likely to be jeopardized. This neutral alliance was gradually joined 
by Russia, Sweden, Denmark, Prussia, the Emperor, Naples, and Portugal. 
Holland, however, delayed so long in announcing its participation in the league, 
that at last England declared war against the Dutch. Holla'nd came forth 
from this conflict with damaged fortunes ; for the dissensions which continued 
during the war between the Government and the patriots so paralysed the 
powers of the Republic, that in spite of the indecisive naval battle on the 
Doggerbank (August, 1781), on the English coast, the ancient renown of the 
Dutch sustained a dangerous blow. The greatest loss was, however, inflicted 
fey the English admiral Rodney, by the conquest'of the island of Martinique ; 
and though the French some time afterwards assisted in regaining possession 
of it, nevertheless, the whole war in the East and West Indies proved so ex- 
tremely disadvantageous, that Holland entirely forfeited its naval position, the 
Dutch East and West India Companies sustained irreparable losses, and trade 
was irrevocably injured The cession of the East Indian town of Negapatam 
to England in the Peace of Versailles, was the smallest calamity which the 
Republic sustained in this disastrous conflict. 

These events had so roused the indignation of the people against their 
hereditary Stadtholder, that he deemed it advisable to relinquish his dignities, 
and to leave the country. The people, however, who had become imbued with 
the new democratic principles of the rights of man, were not content with 
this, but directed their anger also against the Stadtholder himself. William V. 
was compelled first to quit the Hague ; then the whole province of Holland 
rose up, under the guidance of the patriots, deprived the Stadtholder of the 
chief command in the army, and began to alter the Constitution (1785). A 
revolutionary movement soon showed itself throughout the whole of Holland ; 
and when the wife of the hereditary Stadtholder, an energetic and resolute 
woman, set out on a journey from Guelderland, where she then held her 



ENGLAND AND AMERICA. 



363 



court, to the Hague, she was detained on the frontier, and compelled by the 
militia of citizens to return. This proceeding, which was represented by the 
princess and the English ambassador as a grievous outrage on the lawful 
authority, appeared to render it incumbent on King Frederick William II. of 
Prussia to undertake the chivalrous duty of protecting his injured sister. He 
caused a considerable army, under the Duke of Brunswick, to march into 
Holland to reinstate the prince in his office (Sept., 1787), and as the patriotic 
party appealed in vain to France for assistance, Utrecht and Amsterdam 
were easily secured, and the Constitution was again restored to its original 
form. 

GIBRALTAR. TREATIES. 




GIBRALTAR. 



IN the meantime France and 
Spain were carrying on a 
conflict with England with 
better success. A French- 
Spanish fleet attacked the 
island of Minorca, which for 
eighty years had been in the 
possession of the English, 
though it had temporarily 
fallen into the hands of the 
French at the beginning of 
the Seven Years' War. Par- 
tial success filled the allies 
with the hope of seizing 
Jamaica and Gibraltar also. 
In order to accomplish the 
first enterprise, the French 
Admiral de Grasse endeavoured to torm a coalition with the Spanish fleet, 
but was suddenly attacked with such success by Rodney, near Dominica (April, 
1782), that his fleet was broken through, and he himself fell into the hands 
of the English. The capture of Gibraltar, however, was more confidently 
relied on ; but after the expenditure of unheard-of efforts in the organization 
of an extensive blockade, the attack was triumphantly repulsed by the Eng- 
lish commander, Elliot, who was created Lord Heathfield. Soon after, a 
provisional treaty was concluded between the free States of America and the 
English ministry, by which the young Republic not only obtained the recogni- 
tion of its independence, but also a more advantageous frontier, and a share 
in the fisheries of Newfoundland (Nov., 1782). This latter point was also 
agreed to by France, which, moreover, obtained the island of Tobago, and in 
the East Indies and Africa got back again her lost possessions. Spain gave 
up her claims to Gibraltar in return for the surrender of Florida and Minorca. 
In England the arrangement of these preliminaries created such dissatisfaction 
throughout the nation and in Parliament, that the ministers were compelled 
to resign, and a so-called Coalition ministry, consisting of the chiefs of the 
two opposing parties, North and Fox, took their place. The new cabinet 
also deemed the confirmation of the peace advisable, as the burden of debt 
in England had increased enormously during the war. 

Thus had America gained her liberty, and Washington was able to relin- 
quish his command into the hands of Congress, and, like a second Cincinnatus, 
to retire to his estate at Mount Vernon in Virginia (Dec. 1783). But many 



364 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



internal conflicts had still to be undergone before America attained the 
Constitution which she enjoys to-day. Unanimity was needed between the 
different States to meet the debt of the Union, to maintain the necessary 
troops for the protection of the whole, and to subordinate the democratic 
representative institutions and liberties to the control of a common govern- 
ment. When the Congress appeale'd to Washington to assert his influence 
in the abolition of abuses, he replied : " What you need is government, not 
influence." Thereupon Alexander Hamilton, who had fought under Wash- 
ington as his adjutant in the war of liberation, and had then become an 




advocate and member of the legislative body at New York, devised the^right 
form of government. He suggested that the different States, with their several 
characteristics, should continue their separate existence, but that at the same 
time, for all practical common interests, a single joint legislature, govern- 
ment, and administration of the laws should be established. For a long time 
his theories met with great opposition, till at last, in the year 1787, most of 
' ; States agreed that the legislative power and the supreme government of 
J :i jii should be placed in the hands of a Congress and of a responsible 
president, to be newly elected every four years. 




THE FRENCH REPU B]L I C . 
THE REIGN OF TERROR. 

THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. THE 4TH OF AUGUST, 1789. ABOLITION OF 
FEUDAL PRIVILEGES. THE KING AND NATIONAL ASSEMBLY IN 
PARIS. CONFISCATION OF CHURCH PROPERTY. FETE OF THE FEDE- 
RATION. FLIGHT OF THE KING. THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, 
OCTOBER, 1791, TO SEPTEMBER, 1792. GROWTH OF REPUBLICANISM. 
THE VARIOUS PARTIES. GIRONDISTS, JACOBINS, ETC. AGITATION 
AGAINST ROYALTY. THE PEOPLE IN THE PALACE. THE TENTH OF 
AUGUST, 1792. OVERTHROW OF THE MONARCHY MASSACRE OF 
THE Swiss GUARDS. THE SEPTEMBER DAYS OF MASSACRE. THE 
NATIONAL CONVENTION. SEPTEMBER, 1792, TO OCTOBER, 1795. 
EXECUTION OF THE KING. THE WAR AND ITS EVENTS. FALL 
OF THE GIRONDISTS. THE REIGN OF TERROR. OUTRAGES IN THE 

SOUTH. INSURRECTION IN BRETAGNE AND LA 

VENDEE. 

THE PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. 
THE KING BROUGHT TO PARIS. 

AS the Government had made no drafts of a new 
Constitution, and was powerless to direct the 
course of public business, it followed that the deputies, 
obeying the impulse of the times and imitating the 
precedent of the American free States, began, as the 
Americans had done before them, with the declara- 
tion of the rights of man. The assertion of this uni- 
versal theory, prompted by enthusiasm for popular 
liberty, was intended to show that the principal aim 
was the abolition of the despotism and irresponsibil- 
ity of royal power and of the privileges of the upper 
classes ; but, instead of this, it led to the tyranny ot 
the masses. On the 4th of August, the Viscount de 
365 




366 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



Noailles, Lafayette's brother-in-law, made the proposition that the privileged 
classes should prove to the people by deeds that they desired to lighten their 
burdens ; and as a proof of the sincerity of their goodwill they should of 
their own accord renounce all their feudal rights, dating from the middle 
ages. This proposal excited a storm of enthusiasm ; towns, states, and pro- 
vinces vied with each other for the 'honour of making the greatest sacrifice 
for the common weal. Propositions followed one another with feverish haste 
and rapidity, so that in a single sitting, prolonged into the night, the com- 
plicated structure of a form of government which had endured for more than 
a thousand years was destroyed, and the condition of France was entirely 
transformed. 




ROYALIST CAVALRY ATTACKING A PARISIAN CROWD. 

A single chamber was appointed, which was not subordinate, but equal 
to the king. This assembly was to possess the sole legislative power and 
the right of initiating laws and abrogating laws. The king was only 
permitted to exercise a suspensive veto, on the strength of which a law 
which had been carried by the chamber could be suspended for four years. 

When the king delayed to proclaim the Constitution, a rumour was 
spread abroad that some arbitrary measure was intended ; and this rumour 
was very generally believed when the regiment called " Flanders " was sum- 
moned to Versailles, and at a banquet given to the new comers, the king 
and queen and their children appeared among the half-tipsy soldiers, and 
reactionary toasts and cries resounded through the hall. The excitement of 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



367 



the people was still further increased by the want of bread, a dearth which 
was ascribed to the absence of the Court from Paris. On the 5th of October, 
an immense crowd of people, chiefly composed of women, marched to 
Versailles under the leadership of the Bastille hero Maillard, to demand from 
the king an alleviation of their famishing condition, and the return of the 
Court to Paris. The king endeavoured to pacify them with a favourable 
answer ; but in the night a wing of the castle was stormed, and several of the 
body-guards at the entrance were massacred. On the following day the king 
was compelled to consent to come back to Paris with his family, under the 
escort of the terrible mob ; he took up his abode in the palace of the 
Tuileries, which had not been inhabited for many years. 

The Founding of New Conditions. As the 4th of August had shattered the 
power of the nobility, and the 5th of October had dragged the splendour 
of royalty down into the dust, so in November and the following months the 
independent position of the clergy and the jurisdiction of Parliament were 
destroyed, and the way was paved for the " liberty and equality " of all French 
" citizens." At Talleyrand's suggestion, the property of the Church was 
confiscated to the State ; and the payment of the clergy, as well as the 
maintenance of public worship and the care of the poor, devolved upon the 
Government. This was followed also by the dissolution of the monasteries 
and ecclesiastical orders. After all class distinctions had been annihilated, 
the National Assembly took the extreme step of declaring universal equality, 
and abolishing the hereditary nobility and every mark of class distinction, such 
as titles, heraldic bearings, etc., as well as the main source of difference of 
wealth, the law of primogeniture. 

While the National Assembly was engaged with these labours, the power 
fell gradually into the hands of the masses, who were kept in a constant state 
of excitement by violent demagogues and inflammatory publications. Among 
these newspapers none exercised such a disastrous influence as the " People's 
Friend," by the odious and bloodthirsty Marat, a vulgar horse-doctor of 
Neuchatel. The different sections in Paris set the laws and authorities at 
defiance ; they were led by the democratic clubs, who obtained the names of 
Jacobins (Dominicans) and Cordeliers (Franciscans), after the monasteries 
where they held their meetings. At the head of the latter party were the 
terrible Danton and the talented and popular orator and advocate, Camille 
Desmoulins. 




368 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 





LOUIS XVI. BROUGHT BACK TO PARIS. 



FETE OF THE FEDERATION. FLIGHT OF 
THE KING. 



N the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille, a 
gigantic federation festival was organized, July 
1 4th, 1790, in an amphitheatre erected on the 
Champ de Mars at Paris, when Talleyrand, Bishop 
of Autun, consecrated the banners of the eighty- 
three departments into which France had just 
been divided for the purpose of representation ; and 
Lafayette, in the name of the national guard, the 
president of the National Assembly, and at last the 
king himself, swore fidelity to the Constitution amid a scene of 
the greatest enthusiasm. The joyous excitement, however, passed 
away, and the position of the king became more difficult than 
ever. Necker, incapable of guiding the popular movement as he 
desired, quitted France and went to Switzerland. Mirabeau, who 
had been won over by the Court, and who opposed with all his 
might any further limitations of the royal prerogative, died at this 
crisis, at the age of forty-two, in April, 1791. 

Louis' delay in confirming the civil order of priesthood, and his refusal to 
avail himself of the services of ecclesiastics who had taken the oath, and also 
to declare those emigrants traitors who had endeavoured to induce foreign 
courts to make war on France, gave the enemies of the monarchy and the 
friends of disorder fresh material for exciting the passions of the people. The 
king now formed the desperate resolution of escaping secretly by the northern 
frontier of the kingdom. Leaving behind him a document, which set forth in- 
numerable grievances, and which contained a protest against everything that 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



369 



had been extorted from him since October, 1789, the king made his escape 
with his family in a large carnage from Paris, on the night of the 2ist of 
June, 1791. He was, however, recognised by the son of the postmaster 
Drouet, at St. Menehould ; was detained at Varennes ; and by the command 
of the National Assembly, who, at the first intelligence of the secret escape, 
had pronounced the suspension of the king, and had taken possession of the 
executive and of the royal seals, he was brought back again, with his terrified 
family, accompanied throughout the fatal journey by an immense crowd of 
people. This lamentable flight, and the repeal of the draft of the Constitu- 
tion, deprived the king of the last remnant of respect and authority. A 
large party now urged that Louis should be placed upon his trial, and some 
of his enemies even demanded his deposition, but this was over-ruled by the 
constitutional party. The suspension, however, still remained in force, until, 
at the end of September, the king swore to observe and proclaim the com- 
pleted Constitution. 




THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY, OCTOBER i, 1791, TO SEPTEMBER 20, 1792. 

Y the completion of the Constitution the work of 
the Constituent Assembly was finished. That 
body was accordingly dissolved and made way for 
another, which was to complete the work by the 
addition of a new legislature, and therefore 
assumed the title of the Legislative Assembly. 
The number of the new deputies was 745. The 
Right, composed of adherents of the constitu- 
tional monarchy, became daily weaker ; while the 
Left, the side chosen by the Republicans, con- 
1^ stantly increased. The latter divided into two 
camps, the Mountain, where the most de- 
cided Democrats and Radicals sat (Chabot, 
Bazire, Couthon, Thuriot, Cambon, etc.), 
and the Plain, where the most moderate 
Republicans or Girondists placed them- 
selves. 

The citizens of Paris, who made the Re- 
publican Petion their mayor in place of 
Bailly, and elected the monsters Danton 
and Robespierre to the common council, 
exercised a terrible power. The Jacobins 
club increased in power and importance, 
and enlarged the sphere of its influence in 
the provinces. Robespierre, Marat, the 
actor Collot d'Herbois, the journalist Tal- 
lien, and also Danton and Camille Des- 
moulins, the leaders of the Cordeliers, took 
part in the sittings of the Jacobins club. 
The Girondists at first rallied round Roland 




ROBESPIERRE. 



and his gifted and virtuous wife ; but at a later period Brissot held the most 

prominent position. 

The most important members were Guadet, Vergniaud, the philosopher 
II. B B 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



Condorcet, Buzot, Huard, Barbaroux, the friend of Charlotte Corday, and also 
general Dumouriez. 

Agitation against Royalty. The new Assembly directed its attacks princi- 
pally against those priests who refused the oath, and against the emigrants 
who made Coblentz, Worms, and other places, a " hot-bed of counter-revolu- 
a.: j n ]sj ov ember, a decree appeared commanding that lists should be 



tion. 7 




THE I4TH OF JUNE, 1792. 

drawn up of those priests who had taken the oath, and those who had not ; 
that the latter should lose their pensions, and in case they provoked rebellion 
against the law, should undergo a two years' imprisonment. Against this 
proclamation, which was completely opposed to religious liberty, the king 
placed his veto, and also against the simultaneous proposal that all emigrants 
who had not returned to France by January, 1792, should be sentenced to 
death as traitors and conspirators against their fatherland, and that their 
property should be handed over to the nation. 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



371 



Against the emigrants the whole wrath of the popular representatives was 
directed. When the German courts paid no attention to the complaints of 
the Girondist ministry regarding the warlike prepations made by the emigrants, 
and Prussia and Austria assumed a menacing attitude, war was declared 
against both, and the king was compelled to give his consent, with the tears 
in his eyes. It was proposed to summon a detachment of 20,000 national 
guards (Federates) from the southern provinces for the protection of Paris. 
To this, however, the king steadfastly refused to give his consent ; and a letter 
drawn up by Madame Roland, in which the king was sharply censured for 
his obstinacy, still further increased the popular agitation. On the 2Oth of 
June, the anniversary of the taking of the oath in the tennis-court, a terrible 
mob, armed with pikes came forth from the suburbs, under the leadership of 
the brewer Santerre, the butcher Legendre, and the coppersmith Rossignol, 
and entered first the National Assembly and then the royal palace, in order to 

compel the king to ratify the ^_^^ ' 

decrees against the priests 
who had not taken the oath, 
and to summon the Feder- 
ates. Louis, however, re- 
mained steadfast. He defied, 
for several hours, the derision 
of the populace, who even 
placed the red Jacobin's cap 
upon his head ; until the tardy 
arrival of. Petion with the 
guard of citizens freed him 




from the dangerous position. 
This occurrence induced La- 
fayette to leave the army in 
the north arid to travel of 
his own accord to Paris, to 
protect the Constitution and 
save the poor king. But 
the dislike which the queen 
bore towards the "citizen 
general," combined with his 
own indecision, rendered the 

plan fruitless. He returned to the army in the north, followed by the hatred 
and distrust of the Jacobins. 

The Overthrow of the Sovereignty on the loth of August. The war had 
at last broken out, to the great delight of the Prussian officers, who promised 
themselves but little trouble and handsome profits from the French campaign. 
A Prussian army immediately marched into Lorraine under the command 
of Duke Ferdinand of Brunswick, who, on setting out, issued a manifesto 
full of offensive threats against the National Assembly and the city of Paris, 
if the king were subjected to any further violence ; but if the inhabitants of 
Paris would show themselves submissive, their royal -and imperial majesties 
promised to intercede with king Louis on their behalf when the army entered 
the capital. This arrogant language made a powerful impression on the 
people, who were filled with new-born ardour for their liberties and indepen- 
dence ; and the Jacobins availed themselves of the excited state of public 
feeling to attempt the overthrow of the king. The revolutionary party had 



372 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



already caused the accusations against the leaders of the town council, Petion 
and Manuel, for popular excesses to be set aside ; they had availed them- 
selves of the declaration of the popular assembly that " the country was in 
danger," to procure bands of the lowest class of people from Marseilles and 
Brest, and to establish in all the towns and villages a new military force ; 
the Jacobins also set up a revolutionary committee, and prepared the rude 
inhabitants of the suburbs for the great attack on the sovereignty. On 
the loth of August the alarm-bell resounded at midnight. The scum of the 
population from the sea-port towns, with Danton, Camille Desmoulins, and 
Carra at their head, and the Paris mob, led by Westermann and Santerre, 
marched first to the council-house to instal a new municipal government 
composed of the fiercest democrats, and then directed their attacks against 
the Tuileries. Cannons were turned upon the palace, men with pikes made 




FRENCH ARTILLERYMEN OF 1792. 

their way through every entrance, and the people loudly demanded the 
deposition of the king, who at last made his escape with his family, and 
sought protection in the hall of the National Assembly. In the meantime the 
Swiss guards offered resistance, and gallantly defended the entrance to the 
palace until a command was extorted from the intimidated king forbidding 
his guards to fire ; when the faithful protectors of the monarch were given 
over to destruction. Upwards of 5,000 men, of whom 700 were Swiss, died 
in the conflict, or fell afterwards, victims to the wrath of the people. Mean- 
while, at the suggestion of Vergniaud, the National Assembly passed a resolu- 
tion declaring that " the royal power should be suspended, that the king and 
his family should be placed under supervision, that the prince should be 
handed over to a tutor, and that a national convention should be summoned 
to decide on the future constitution of France." 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



373 



TJie September Days. After the suspension of the king, a fresh ministry was 
appointed, of which the terrible Danton, who took the post of Minister of 
Justice and Keeper of the Seals, was the soul. He and the new Common 
Council of Paris, who had installed themselves and added to their number by 
the admission of members who were appalled by no crime, now shared the 
power betv/een them. Soon all the prisons were filled with suspected persons 
and aristocrats. When the news arrived of the advance of the allies, an army 




THE ROYAL FAMILY CARRIED PRISONERS TO THE "TEMPLE." 



of 30,000 men was got together, and the municipal council established a watch 
committee and a provisional court of justice. When the prisons were full to 
overflowing with aristocrats and suspected royalists, a terrible decree was 
issued, commanding a general massacre of the prisoners. From the 2nd 
to the 5th of September bands of hired murderers and miscreants went 
through the prisons, twelve of them officiating as jurymen and judges, the 
others as executioners. Upwards of 3,000 persons, among them some of the 



374 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

most worthy and distinguished men in France, were slain by these murderous 
bands, who received daily pay for their " labours " from the common council. 
Similar violence was also perpetrated in several towns. Lafayette, who was 
opposed to the overthrow of the monarchy, and was consequently declared a 
traitor by the National Assembly, at last attempted to escape to North 
America. He, however, fell into the hands of his enemies, who detained him 
as a prisoner of war, and caused him to languish for five years in the prisons 
of Magdeburg and Olmiitz. Talleyrand obtained a pass from Danton for 
England ; and then waited in America for more peaceful times. 

THE NATIONAL CONVENTION (SEPT., 1792, TILL OCT., 1795). 

Execution of the King. In the new Assembly, which was brought together 
under the influence of the Jacobins and the most violent republicans and 
demagogues, the Girondists had at first the preponderance ; but soon the 
bloodthirsty tyrants, Robespierre, Danton, Marat, Couthon, Fouche, the Duke 
of Orleans, who now bore the name of Egalite, the Marquis St. Just, and 
Barriere, the " Anacreon of the guillotine," soon proved themselves invincible. 
The Jacobins and Cordeliers governed the common council, which possessed 
in the national guard and in the " Sansculottes," as the mob was called, a 
terrible armed force with which to overcome the Convention. The guillotine, 
invented by the deputy Guillotin, and called after his name, proved an expe- 
ditious engine of public executions. 

The trial of the king, " Louis Capet," was one of the first transactions of 
the National Convention. Some secret letters had been discovered which 
seemed to indicate that the French Court was not only in alliance with Aus- 
stria and the emigrants for the overthrow of the Constitution, but that it had 
endeavoured to bribe different members of the National Assembly. Upon 
this the Republicans founded an accusation of treason and conspiracy against 
the king, who twice appeared before the Convention. But in spite of his 
dignified bearing and defence and the efforts of the Girondist party, Louis 
was sentenced to death at a stormy sitting which was prolonged far into the 
night, by a small majority of votes (Jan. I7th, 1793).' In vain did the Giron- 
dists and moderate party endeavour to obtain a respite ; their opposition only 
hastened their downfall. On the 2ist of January the unfortunate king as- 
cended the scaffold. The beating of the drums drowned his last words, and 
" Robespierre's women" saluted his bleeding head with the exclamation, " Long 
live the Republic ! " Thus in these fatal days two great crimes were com- 
mitted, in France a king was murdered, in Poland a nation was destroyed. 



EVENTS OF THE WAR. 

LOWLY and methodically did the Prussian- 
Austrian army, under Brunswick, march 
through Lorraine in spite of the efforts made 
by Frederick William II., who burned, with 
the desire of avenging the violated sove- 
reignty, to induce the duke to make a hasty 
attack upon Paris. When, therefore, the 
French generals, Dumouriez and Keller- 
man, successfully repulsed the attack of the 




THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



375 



enemy, the Prussian army relinquished the project of a further advance, and 
quitted French territory. After the withdrawal of the Prussian troops, 
Dumouriez marched against the Austrian army in Belgium, won the battle 
of Jemappes (Nov. 6th, 1792), and not only conquered the Austrian Nether- 
lands with Liege, but also took possession of the fortresses on the Dutch 
frontier, and threatened Holland with a similar fate. Brilliant conquests were 
also made in Sardinia and Savoy, which had now joined the enemies of France. 




CUSTINE AND HIS HUSSARS. 



Dumouriez, who was influenced by the Girondists, and was displeased 
with the barbarous proceedings of the Convention, soon drew upon himself 
the hatred and suspicion of the powerful democratic party ; a watch was 
kept upon him by Convention deputies, who undermined his authority with 
the army. It was about this time that a new Austrian army, under the 



376 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

Prince of Coburg, appeared in the Netherlands, defeated the French on 
the Maas, and foiled Dumouriez himself near Neerwinden (March, 1793). 
This defeat the French general ascribed principally to the Jacobins, declaring 
they had corrupted the army, mismanaged the supplies, and had appointed 
an incompetent general to act with him. In his vexation he allowed it to be 
seen that he contemplated the overthrow of the Convention, and the restora- 
tion of a monarchy with the duke of Orleans as king. Threatened by the 
Convention with an accusation of treason, he went over into the enemy's 
camp with Louis Philippe, son of the duke of Orleans, and about 1,500 men. 
Belgium thus fell into the hands of the allies, and paid a heavy penalty for 
its Republican sympathies. 

In the autumn the hussar general, Custine, had invaded the Rhine 
districts, and with little difficulty had invested the towns of Speyer, Worms, 
Mayence, and even Frankfort. The lively and pleasure-loving citizens of 
Mayence were easily persuaded to an annexation to France and the estab- 
lishment of a republican Constitution and Jacobin club. 

Among the " Clubbists of Mayence " was George Forster, who had sailed 
round the world, a man of ardent temperament and inspired with enthusiasm 
for the cause of liberty. 

Fall of the Girondists. After the death of the king, the Convention 
assumed the executive and legislative power, and the public business was 
undertaken by different committees; the Committee of Public Safety, however, 
soon absorbed all the power in the government. The principal instrument 
of tyranny was the terrible revolutionary tribunal, which passed sentences 
of death, against which there was no appeal. Marat, who, next to Robes- 
pierre, had possessed the most authority in the Jacobin's club, soon found 
himself superseded by Hubert, who, in the publication Pere Duchesne, reached 
the extreme limits of cynicism, and openly incited the people to murder and 
rebellion. Power was now entirely in the hands of the masses, and all the 
well-to-do lived in constant danger of being robbed, and were compelled to 
submit to heavy contributions for the maintenance of the hungry multitude. 
The supremacy of the Paris common council at last 'suggested to the followers 
of Brissot the idea of transforming France into a federate State, consisting of 
several small republics, in order to avert the danger of centralization. From 
this there arose a life-and-death struggle between the Federalists (Brissotists 
of the Gironde) and the Jacobins. 

Scarcely had the Orleanist party been scattered, through Dumouriez' 
flight and treason, before the democrats of the Mountain directed their attacks 
against the Gironde. Their spokesman, Robespierre, brought forward the 
proposal that the leaders of the Girondist party should be brought before the 
revolutionary tribunal as accomplices of Dumouriez. His suggestion was, 
however, defeated by the overpowering eloquence of the accused ; and when 
Marat tried to excite the people to rebellion against the enemies of the 
Republic and the authors of the prevailing famine, the Girondists availed 
themselves of the opportunity of bringing an accusation against the tyrant 
himself. Marat was, however, absolved by the court of justice, which was 
composed of Jacobins, and was carried off by the people in triumph to the 
Convention. A decree was then passed by the Girondists, appointing a 
commission of twelve members for inquiry into the daily disturbances and the 
discovery of the instigators. This led to the imprisonment of the journalist, 
Hebert, and other agitators ; but on the following day the mob insisted on 
their liberation, and on the 3ist of May an agitation commenced which was 



THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. 



377 



continued through the two following days ; and the Tuileries, where the 
Convention now held its sittings, was besieged by a threatening crowd, who 
loudly demanded the abolition of the Commission of Twelve, and the im- 
mediate exclusion of the Girondists and Moderates. The mob forced their 
way into the assembly-hall, and the members, with the president, Herault de 
Sechelles, at their head, endeavoured to leave in a mass, but being driven 
back by Henriot, nothing remained for them but to agree to the demands of 
the people and the Mountain party, and to recognise the sovereignty of the 
masses. Four-and-thirty Girondists were immediately excluded and im- 
prisoned ; twenty of 
them, however, es- 
caped, and appealed 
to the inhabitants of 
Brittany and Nor- 
mandy to take up 
arms against the Ja- 
cobins. But the in- 
surrection had no 
successful result, and 
only hastened the 
overthrow of its in- 
stigators, especially 
as Marat's murder 
by the enthusiast, 
Charlotte Corday, af- 
forded the members 
of the Mountain a 
welcome opportunity 
for encouraging the 
agitation among the 
people (July, 1793). 
Charlotte Corday 
died on the scaffold ; 
Marat, on the other 
hand, was interred in 
the Pantheon. 

On the 3 ist of 
October all the Gi- 
rondists in Paris were 
guillotined ; and of 
those who had es- 
caped, some, like Roland and Condorcet, committed suicide. Madame 
Roland died on the scaffold. 

Outrages in the South. The bloody sway of the Jacobins provoked insur- 
rections in the interior of France, which were all repressed with inhuman 
cruelty. The inhabitants of Normandy and Brittany were severely punished 
for an attempt to reinstate the Girondists ; and horrible cruelties were perpe- 
trated by the Jacobins in the towns of Lyons, Marseilles, and Toulon. The 
Royalists of Toulon had summoned the English to their aid, and, with the 
assistance of Spanish and Italian troops, defied their Republican adversaries. 
But the army of "sansculottes," in which the young Corsican Napoleon 
Bonaparte gave the first proofs of his talents for generalship, overcame every 




CHARLOTTE CORDAY. 



378 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



obstacle, Toulon was carried by storm ; and the English, unable to hold the 
town, set fire to the fleet, and left the unfortunate inhabitants to the horrible 
vengeance of the Convention. 

Napoleon Bonaparte, the son of a Corsican nobleman, was born at Ajaccio- 
on the 1 5th of August, 1769, two months after the subjugation of the island 
by the French. At ten years of age he entered the military school at 
Brienne, where he remained for five years ; he then entered the military school 
of Paris. At both places he devoted himself especially to mathematical and 
historical studies, which always remained his favourite pursuits. After enter- 
ing the French army, he soon made himself remarkable for his courage and 
skill ; and in February, 1792, was promoted to be captain of artillery. Filled 
with zeal for liberty and revolutionary ideas, he was a welcome assistant to 
the new French despots ; and his ambition led him quickly to recognise the 
advantages of a union with the Mountain party. 




REPUBLICAN PRISONER IN A PEASANT'S HUT. 

The Scenes of Carnage in La Vendee. The most terrible fate 01 all befell 
the inhabitants of La Vendee, who lived peacefully in a western province of 
France in the simplicity of olden times. The peasants and farmers were 
devoted to their lords of the manor, loved their king, and regarded the clergy 
with reverence and affection ; and their indignation at the violent excesses of 
the National Assembly at last drove them to open revolt. The first army 
despatched by the Jacobins was successfully repulsed ; but the second, com- 
manded by Westermann, and composed of the very scum of the population, 
fell like raving wolves upon the unfortunate inhabitants, set fire to towns and 
villages, and sought by terror and violence to break the resistance of the 
" Royalists." For a time the courage of the Vendeans remained unsubdued, 
until fresh detachments of troops under Kleber forced the miserable people to 
submit, after their once prosperous country, had been transformed into a 
wilderness. 




THE GREAT WAR. EUROPE AGAINST FRANCE. 



FORMATION OF THE FIRST COALITION. PITT AND THE TORY PARTY. 
INVASION OF FRANCE BY THE ALLIES. ENERGY OF THE GOVERN- 
MENT. THE "LEVEE EN MASSE." THE INVADERS REPULSED. 
PRUSSIA. THE TREATY OF BASLE. THE AUSTRIANS. THE REIGN 
OF TERROR IN FRANCE. EXECUTION OF MARIE ANTOINETTE. FALL 
OF THE GIRONDISTS. REPUBLICAN CHANGES. THE NEW CALENDAR. 
FALL OF DANTON AND HIS COMPANIONS. THE 9TH OF THER- 
MIDOR. FALL OF ROBESPIERRE. LAST DAYS OF THE CONVENTION. 
PUNISHMENT OF THE TERRORISTS. REPRESSION OF THE MOB. 
BONAPARTE AND THE OUTBREAK OF THE SECTIONS ON THE 13 
OF VENDEMIAIRE. 

THE FIRST WAR OF THE COALITION (1793-1796). 

T first the English government felt reluctant ta 
begin a conflict with the revolutionary party in 
L France. The nation was soon divided into two 
|p parties ; the one, with Edmund Burke and the Tories 
at its head, regarded the French Revolution with 
^ indignation and horror ; and the other, headed by 
Fox, and possessing a zealous spokesman in Tom 
Paine, the champion of American liberties, approved 
of the principles of the Revolution, though not of its 
bloody excesses. At that time the younger Pitt, 
son of the great Lord Chatham, was at the head of 

the ministry ; and he and his colleagues, the Tories, were unfavourable to re- 
publican theories, and praised and rewarded Burke's monarchical zeal as dis- 
played in his work on the French Revolution. The English Government did 
not, however, take up a publicly hostile position towards France until the 
king's head had fallen ; when warlike preparations were commenced both by 
land and sea, and the vacillating European powers were induced to make 
common cause against the general enemy. 

379 




380 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

In the summer of 1793 nearly the whole of Europe threatened the French 
frontiers. While the English fleet endeavoured to destroy the French navy, the 
Dutch, Austrians, and English marched from the Netherlands into Flanders, 
German and Prussian troops crossed the Rhine, Sardinia was threatened, and 
Spanish and Portuguese armies had appeared on the Pyrenees. But the in- 
capability and aimlessness of the commanders, combined with the dissensions 
of the allies, prevented any brilliant results. The Austrians, after the cap- 
ture of Conde and Valenciennes (July, 1793), wished to take up a position in 
French Flanders, and regarded with envy the extension of territory which 
Prussia was gaining at the time in Poland ; the English aimed at the recon- 
quest of Dunkirk ; and in the Netherlands the Anglo-Dutch army was so in- 
sufficiently supported by the distrustful Austrians that the Republican general 
Houchard was able to gain a not unimportant victory, near Hondschooten, 
over the Dutch and Hanoverians (Sept. 8). An attempted counter-revolution 
under the auspices of the Austrian general Wurmser in Alsace was soon frus- 
trated, and drew down the bloody vengeance of the Republicans. For the 
Convention, regarding every defeat and mishap as the result of aristocratic 
treachery, developed a terrible energy, and endeavoured to triumph by terror. 
Thus Houchard, the victor of Hondschooten, died on the guillotine, like 
Custine and Beauharnais, because he had been compelled to yield to the 
superior force of the enemy at Courtray ; and the gifted general Hoche 
suffered in prison the penalty of his defeat at Kaiserslautern. Under these 
circumstances, the prospect of overpowering the French Republic became 
even more remote when the energetic Carnot entered the Committee of 
Public Safety, and with terrible energy proceeded to reorganize the military 
system. Everywhere weapons were being forged and cannons cast ; and by a 
levte en. masse the whole nation was made to take part in the war. Near 
Wattignies the new armies first measured their strength in a succession of 
battles with the Austrians ; but more decisive advantages were gained by the 
French troops on the Rhine. Wurmser was compelled, after his losses at 
Hagenau (Sept. 29), to withdraw across the Rhine, and the Prussians failed to 
conquer Landau. The king of Prussia was now desirous of concluding peace, 
but the naval powers of England and Holland succeeded by dint of per- 
suasion in keeping him still longer with the Coalition. In consequence of 
this, Mollendorff and the hussar general Blucher once more measured their 
strength with the enemy on the blood-stained heights of Kaiserslautern ; but 
the refusal of the field-marshal to respond to the appeal of the naval powers 
in the Netherlands to aid in repulsing the French, caused the alliance 
to be again dissolved, and Flanders to be surrendered to the enemy. In June 
(1794) Pichegru conquered Ypres, and Jourdan, after being four times re- 
pulsed across the Sambre, at last defeated the enemy decisively on June 25th, 
and compelled the evacuation of Belgium. By the beginning of the autumn 
not only were the Austrian Netherlands again in the possession of the 
French, but also Treves and the Dutch fortresses on the frontier. 

HOLLAND AND THE RHINE. 

T TNDER such circumstances, it was not difficult for General Pichegru to 
\J attempt in December and January a bold campaign against the States 
of Holland, and, even with a badly equipped army, to gain possession of the 
whole country, and force the English troops under the Duke of York to beat 
a disastrous retreat. The Stadtholder, William V., resigned his office and 



THE GREAT WAR. EUROPE AGAINST FRANCE. 381 

took refuge in England, and the patriotic party gave their assistance to the 
French Republicans in establishing a Republic of Batavia, founded on demo- 
cratic principles, with the object of allying the wealthy country more closely 
with the Republic of France. But the Dutch people soon discovered the 
disadvantages of this alliance, as by a treaty concluded with France on 
the 1 6th of May, 1795, the French Government not only obtained the right of 
free navigation and the use of the harbours, but also extorted the sum of a 
hundred millions as indemnity for the expenses of the war, gained possession 
of Dutch Flanders with Maestricht, and asserted the right of garrisoning the 
most important fortresses. 

The Batavian Republic shared all the vicissitudes of the French nation. 
Until 1798 a democratic Convention was at the head of affairs, and the sove- 




RUINS OF THE CASTLE OF HEIDELBERG. 

reignty of the different provinces was abolished. Napoleon, however, restored 
the old division of the provinces, and subsequently appointed his brother 
Louis Bonaparte to be king of Holland in 1806. 

Equally successful were the arms of France on the Rhine. In October the 
Prussian troops retreated across the river, and yielded the territory on the 
other side to the enemy. Soon afterwards the Prussian Government entered into 
negotiations with France which led to the Peace of Basle (May, 1795). The 
other German powers, with Spain and Tuscany, also concluded treaties with 
France, and thus the coalition was scattered, and the theory of the consolidated 
interests of all the monarchical States, as opposed to the Revolution, was 
exploded. England, however, obstinately continued the war, and the Aus- 
trians, under Clairfait and Wurmser, successfully resisted the French troops. 



382 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

After Clairfait's victory at Handschuhsheim over Pichegru (24th Sept., 
1795), and his successful encounter on the Nidda with Jourdan, the French 
retreated across the Rhine. The glorious victory near Mayence in October 
procured the Austrian commander the possession of the country on the other 
side of the Rhine, and also led to the capture of Heidelberg and the fortified 
town of Mannheim, which the Palatine commander, Oberndorf, had disgrace- 
fully surrendered to the enemy at the first demand. The victorious general 
however, displeased at the intriguing administration of Thugut, and the 
reproaches of the council of war, suddenly, to the astonishment of all, de- 
manded and obtained his dismissal. His successor was the Archduke Charles, 
the Emperor's brother, who soon gave brilliant proofs of distinguished military 
talents. He successfully resisted the two armies under Jourdan and Moreau ; 
he defeated the former near Wetzlar (June, 1796), and also at Wtirzburg a 
few months later, when he compelled him to make a hasty retreat across the 
Rhine. The German governments now imitated the example of Prussia ; and 
Wurtemberg, Baden, and Bavaria all entered into a treaty with the French 
Republic. 

THE REIGN OF TERROR. 

I OR a whole year, from July, 1793, to July, 1794, 
France bent under the terrible tyranny of the Com- 
mittee of Public Safety, at the head of which 
stood the three men whose names long remained 
the terror of the country the envious, malicious, 
and self-seeking Robespierre, the bloodthirsty 
Couthon, and the fanatical Republican St. Just 
The other members of the Committee were 
principally creatures of Robespierre's. The ex- 
treme democratic Constitution, which had been 
drawn up in haste, was temporarily put on one 
side, and a revolutionary Government was founded 
under the supervision of the Committee of 
Public Safety. How this Government used its power for the destruction of 
the upholders of the old state of things, may be shown by the single fact that 
in the months of June and July, 1794, no less than 1,285 persons died by 
the guillotine. The most effectual means of destroying all who stood in the 
way of the dominant party, was the terrible law against the suspected, which 
threatened with death all " enemies of the fatherland." The prisons were 
filled to overflowing, and every one of wealth or rank was in constant danger 
of death. The evil slander of an enemy, the denunciation of a spy, or the 
hatred of a sansculotte was sufficient to bring a guiltless person to prison, and 
from the prison to the scaffold. The transition was so swift that death lost 
its terrors, and the prisons became the centres of cheerful and refined society 
and of intellectual intercourse. Among the victims were the former minister 
Malesherbes, Bailly, Barnave, Linguet, and many moderate Republicans ; 
also several scholars and writers, such as the chemist Lavoisier, the poets 
Andre Chenier, Roucher, etc. Florian wrote his " William Tell " shortly 
before his death in prison. Among them also was the deeply afflicted queen 
Marie Antoinette, who, both at her trial and her death (i6th of October, 
1793) exhibited the steadfastness and courage of soul worthy of her birth and 
breeding. Her son died under the cruel discipline of a Jacobin, the shoe- 
maker Simon; and her daughter, the Duchess of Angouleme, retained through- 




THE GREAT WAR. EUROPE AGAINST FRANCE. 383 

out her life a melancholy spirit and a bitter heart. The queen was followed 
to the scaffold by Elizabeth, the pious sister of Louis XVI. (loth of May, 
. 1794), and a few weeks after the execution of the Girondists, the profligate 
Duke of Orleans was also beheaded. Every town had one or more Terrorists, 
who imitated Robespierre and the other " mighty monsters," and with their 
bands of armed men, disposed as they pleased of the lives and property ot 
the citizens. 

Until the end of July, 1/93, Marie Antoinette remained with her two 
children in the Temple. At last, however, by a decree of the Committee of 
Public Safety, the mother was to be separated from her children, and in the 
middle of the night officers were despatched to carry out the command. A 
terrible scene ensued. For more than an hour she clung to her children in 
spite of threats and persuasion, until suddenly one of the monsters seized her 
daughter, and declared that he would stab the girl if she did not surrender 
her son. Then the poor captive submitted, and allowed one child to be 
taken from her in order to save the other. On the I4th of October the 
queen was brought before the revolutionary tribunal. She appeared in 
ragged garments, with hair that had turned grey, but maintained a demeanour 
of such tranquil dignity and resignation, that the audience could not help 
being moved by feelings of respect and compassion. Sentence of death was 
ultimately passed ; and on the i6th of October the queen died on the 
scaffold. 

This cruelty and savagery at last roused the indignation of the leaders of 
the Cordeliers, Danton and Camille Desmoulins, who were weary of the 
wholesale murders, and consequently drew upon themselves the anger of the 
Jacobins. About this time some friends and followers of Danton were ac- 
cused of dishonesty and fraud on the occasion of the abolition of the East 
India Company ; and the Committee of Public Safety availed itself of this 
opportunity for destroying Danton's whole party. Since the Convention had 
changed the calendar and the names of the months, had altered the beginning 
of the year and the new era to the 22nd September, 1792, and had abolished 
Sunday, and in place of it introduced decadis and " festivals of the sans- 
culottes," several of the Dantonists had given great offence by their animosity 
against Christianity and the priesthood. They plundered and desecrated the 
churches, violated the graves of the kings at St. Denis, and at last passed the 
decree that the worship of Reason should be established, in place of the 
Catholic religion. A festive celebration at Notre Dame, at which Momoro's 
beautiful wife represented the goddess of Reason, marked the commence- 
ment of this new era of licentious liberty. The churches were closed, and 
the bishop of Paris (Gobel) and others renounced Christianity. This gave 
offence to Robespierre, who determined to overthrow the violent Republicans, 
and to involve Camille Desmoulins and Danton in their fall. Scarcely had 
Danton again taken his seat in the Convention in February, 1794, than St. 
Just commenced the struggle by bringing torward his report, in which he 
urged the punishment of the enemies of the Republic, whom he divided into 
Corrupted, Ultra-Revolutionary, and Moderate. In consequence of this report 
nineteen Ultra-Revolutionaries and several members of the Common Council 
were led off to the guillotine. On the 3ist of March the Corrupted were 
brought before the revolutionary tribunal, and Danton, Camille Desmoulins, 
and others were accused of being accomplices. The latter however demanded 
with threatening vehemence to be put face-to-face with their accusers. For 
the space of three days Danton's stentorian voice and the tumult of the 



384 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



people, who were devoted to the accused, rendered a sentence of condemna- 
tion impossible, until at last, by a special law passed by the Convention, the 
blood-stained hero of the loth of August and of the September days was 
condemned without a further trial, and beheaded on April 5th, 1794. 

Overthrow of Robespierre, the gth Thermidor(2jth of July), 1794. The occa- 
sion of Danton's fall was Robespierre's last triumph ; the dictator was stifled 




DANTON AND HIS COMPANIONS ON THE WAY TO THE GUILLOTINE. 

by the blood of his great adversary. Though the three chiefs of the Public 
Safety Committee still maintained their posts, they had lost their power with 
the community and the confidence of the Convention, and were conscious 
that they had become objects of dread and hatred with the nation. The 
number of their enemies increased when Robespierre, in order to put an end 
to the blasphemous proceedings of the disciples of the worship of Reason, in- 
duced the Convention to pass a decree in May, declaring that : " The existence 



THE GREAT WAR. EUROPE AGAINST FRANCE. 385 

of a Supreme Being and the immortality of the soul were truths" and at the 
new festivals of the Supreme Being in the gardens of the Tuileries made 
himself both odious and ridiculous by his arrogance as high-priest. Among 
his opponents were Tallien, Freron, Fouche, Badier, and the glib orator 
Barere. On the Qth of Thermidor a life-and-death struggle commenced in 
the Convention, which ended in the three chiefs of the Public Safety Com- 
mittee being led off to imprisonment in the Luxembourg. On the way they 
were liberated by the populace ; but the National Convention arrived at a 
speedy decision ; a publicly proclaimed proscription suddenly destroyed 
Henriot's army, while the citizens, who were opposed to the Jacobins, 
gathered in bands round the Convention. The accused men were once more 
imprisoned in the council-house. Henriot concealed himself in a sewer, from 
which he was drawn forth with difficulty. Robespierre endeavoured to shoot 
himself with a pistol, but only shattered his jaw-bone; and, terribly disfigured, 
was led off amid the curses and imprecations of the people, first before the 
revolutionary tribunal, and then to the guillotine with twenty-one of his 
followers. On the two following days seventy-two Jacobins were beheaded. 

THE LAST DAYS OF THE CONVENTION. 



T 






"CHOUGH the overthrow of Robespierre 
and his friends was only a work of 
personal revenge, it was nevertheless the 
beginning of a return to order and mod- 
eration. The power of the Jacobins 
was gradually broken ; the Convention, 
which was governed by the party of 
Thermidorians, ventured in November 
to close the club, and this was followed 
by the execution of the worst ruffians, 
Carrier and his colleagues, the cruel 
state-accuser Fouquier Tinville, with 
eleven judges of the Revolutionary 
tribunal. The Jacobins made a last 
attempt to rally their powers, and in- 
cited the desperate people to make a 
terrible resistance ; and, supported by 
the remains of the Mountain party, 
the Terrorists would probably have 
gained the victory, had not Pichegru, who was then in Paris, come with his 
soldiers to the assistance of the Convention. The power of the Jacobins 
was at an end. The Thermidorians were now opposed by a far more power- 
ful ^ enemy in ^ the Royalists, who had been ousted from power by the new 
(third) Constitution. According to this Constitution, the executive power 
was to belong to a Directory composed of five persons, and the legislative 
power was to be placed in the hands of a Council of Elders and a Council of 
Five Hundred ; the Convention at the same time reserving to itself the 
privilege of having two-thirds of both councils elected from its own members. 
Incited by^the Royalists, the Sections took up arms against the Convention, 
who^ commissioned General Napojeon Bonaparte to undertake the repression of 
the insurrection. The bloody victory gained in the streets of Paris on the 1 3th 
Vendemiaire (Oct. 5th) procured Napoleon the command of the Italian army. 
n - C C 





FRANCE UNDER THE DIRECTORY. 

. OCTOBER, 1795, TO NOVEMBER, 1799. 
EXPLOITS AND VICTORIES OF BONAPARTE IN ITALY. MILLESIMO, 

MONTENOTTE, LODI, ETC. TREATY OF TOLENTINO. TREATY OF 

CAMPO FORMIO. INTERNAL RULE OF THE DIRECTORY. DISTURB- 
ANCES IN ROME. NAPLES. SWITZERLAND. THE NEW COALITION. 
WAR. CONFLICTS IN SWITZERLAND AND HOLLAND. BATTLE OF 
ZURICH, ETC. BONAPARTE IN EGYPT AND SYRIA. BATTLE OF THE 
PYRAMIDS, ETC. THE ISTH OF BRUMAIRE, 1799. CHANGE OF 
GOVERNMENT. 

BONAPARTE'S ITALIAN CAMPAIGNS, 1796-1797. 

ICTOR AMADEUS III., King of Sardinia and Pied- 
mont, had established a magnificent army, but his troops 
succumbed before the attacks of the enthusiastic troops 
of the French Republicans. The change of govern- 
ment in Paris, however, and the dishonesty of the army 
contractors, soon brought the French army in Italy into 
a miserable condition, and their strength seemed about 
to waver, when suddenly Napoleon Bonaparte appeared 
as their commander-in-chief. Endowed by nature with 
remarkable capacity for generalship, the new leader 
knew so well how to instil fresh courage into the 
dispirited troops and to gain their devotion, that under his guidance they 
defied every danger, and followed him from victory to victory. On the nth 
and 1 2th of April (1796), Napoleon defeated the aged Austrian General 
Beaulieu near Millesimo, and on the I3th and I4th near Montenotte; and after 
the victorious battle of Mondovi (22nd of April), compelled King Victor 
Amadeus to consent to a disgraceful peace, in which he yielded Savoy and 
Nice to the French Republic. After the peace with Piedmont, Napoleon 
quickly prosecuted further victories. He forced a passage over the bridge of 

386 




FRANCE UNDER THE DIRECTORY. 



387 



Lodi (May, 1796), marched into Milan, and so terrified the Italian princes by 
his military successes and by his haughty demeanour, that they endeavoured 
to obtain from the bold conqueror peace at any price. Wurmser now took 
the place of the old commander, Beaulieu. But he also was defeated near 
Castiglione (Aug. 1/96), when the French surrounded the strong town of 
Mantua. An army under Alvinzi, despatched to his assistance, sustained 
three bloody defeats near Arcola, Rivoli, and La Favorita, when the great 
Austrian army was partly destroyed and partly taken captive, and Mantua 
fell into the hands of the victors. Terrified at this rapid success, Pope Pius 
VI. consented to the disadvantageous Peace of Tolentino (Feb. 1797), to pre- 
vent the victorious army from entering the States of the Church. After some 
further successes, Napoleon proceeded to the humiliation of the once proud 
and powerful Venice. Instead of offering a courageous resistance to> the 
threatening enemy, the senators of Venice humbly implored the mercy of the 




BONAPARTE AND POPE PIUS.- 

proud victor, and consented to yield the executive power into the hands of a 
democratic council, newly elected by the people. This was the prelude to 
the complete overthrow of the Free State, as Napoleon merely concealed, 
with Machiavellian policy, his intention of destroying the town, until every 
possibility of resistance had disappeared and the Directory had given its 
consent. In May the French entered the city of lagoons, carried off the 
shipping, robbed the churches, wrecked the galleries and libraries of their art- 
treasures, and kept the place garrisoned until the negotiations with Austria 
had so far succeeded that the peace of Campo Formio was concluded (i7th of 
October, 1797), by which Northern Italy, as the Cisalpine Republic, fell under 
the dominion of France, and Belgium and the left bank of the Rhine were also 
won by the Republic. 

The members of the Council of Elders and the Council of Five Hundred 
were chiefly men of moderate Republican sentiments ; the five Directors 



388 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

on the other hand, who were chosen by the Councillors from their own 
body, were zealous Republicans, partly Girondists, like La Reveillere- 
Lepeaux, partly Jacobins, like Carnot, Barras, and Reubel. The Directorial 
government was moreover hated both by the violent Republicans of the Con- 
vention, or Terrorists, and by the Royalists, and had to endure attacks from 
both. The first attempt at an overthrow was made by the Republicans, under 
the leadership of Gracchus Babeuf; but the attempt was frustrated by the 
watchfulness of the Government. Babeuf stabbed himself; and his adherents 
were either executed or banished. His memory, however, was held in venera- 
tion by his followers, and his theories regarding the equality of property 
formed the basis of the subsequent political combinations of the Communists 
and Socialists. Still greater was the danger which threatened the Directory 
Government on the part of the Royalists, who numbered many adherents in 
the Legislative Assembly. Among them was Pichegru, who, as president of 
the Council of Five Hundred, sought to bring about the re-establishment of 
royalty. The Republicans in the Directory turned for aid to Bonaparte, who 
despatched a division of his army under Bernadotte and Augereau to Paris 
(September, 1797). On the i8th of Fructidor, Augereau surrounded the 
Tuileries with his troops, and took the Royalist deputies prisoners ; while 
several members of both councils, including Pichegru, and two Directors, 
Barthelemy and Carnot, were sentenced to transportation to Cayenne in 
South America. 

While the Directorial Government was thus weak and undecided at home, 
it was arrogant, rapacious, and tyrannical in its intercourse with foreign 
countries. In the winter of 1797 Republican agitations occurred in Rome and 
other parts of the States of the Church, which afforded the French Government 
an opportunity for despatching Berthier with an army to Rome. The Pope 
was deprived of his temporal power and ultimately carried off to France, and 
a Republican government was established, modelled on the French constitution 
(February, 1798). Genoa also received a democratic constitution, and, as the 
Ligurian Republic, was made subordinate to France, until it was finally an- 
nexed in 1805. Lucca forfeited, with its aristocratic constitution, its wealth of 
treasures ; and when the king of Sardinia also signed the act of renunciation 
of Piedmont, when Naples succumbed to the victorious French army and 
submitted to the commands of the Directory, France was on the point of 
bringing under its sway the whole of the beautiful peninsula, which had been 
.the object of ambition of so many French kings and the grave of so many 
.brave warriors. The cowardly king Ferdinand IV. of Naples fled with his 
haughty wife Caroline, a daughter of Maria Theresa, to Sicily, having set fire to 
his own fleet, and abandoned the capital and the whole country to the victors. 

About this time also the constitution of Switzerland was changed. For a 
long time the government of the different Cantons had been in the hands of 
a few patrician families, who refused the people any share in the administra- 
tion. At last the inhabitants of Waadtland appealed to the French Govern- 
ment for protection, and finally procured their independence from the supre- 
macy of Berne. As some French soldiers had been killed in the struggle, 
however, General Brune obtained the desired opportunity for occupying 
Berne, possessing himself of its wealthy treasures, and extorting large sums 
of money by war taxes and plunder, and ultimately establishing a Constitu- 
tion formed after the model of the French government. 

The Republic of Switzerland was declared dissolved (March, 1798), in order 
to make way for a single and indivisible Helvetian Republic, with five directors 



FRANCE UNDER THE DIRECTORY. 



389 



and two legislative councils. Geneva was added to the French territory, and 
Zurich, Lucerne, and other places were severely punished by pillage and 
extortion. In vain did the Catholic Cantons of the country take up arms to 
resist this decree ; after a vigorous opposition and many bloody battles, they 
were conquered, and compelled to submit to the new arrangement. 

THE NEW COALITION WAR (1798-1799). ITS ORIGIN. 




*~ ~^HE success of the French arms, com- 
1 bined with the arrogance of the Re- 
publicans, induced most of the European 
powers to enter into a new alliance. 
Austria was concerned with regard 
to Italy ; England feared danger to 
its foreign possessions, and owed a 
grudge to France, because the Direc- 
tory in Paris had encouraged the 
agitation prevailing in Ireland. In 
Russia, since 1796, Katharine's only 
son Paul had possessed the crown ; 
and he cherished the greatest hatred 
of the principles of the Revolution. 
Even the Sultan joined the Coalition 
when the bold Republicans threat- 
ened Turkey from Egypt and Syria. 
Prussia alone, where the feeble 
but upright Frederick William III. 

ascended the throne on the i6th of November, 1797, remained neutral, in 
spite of the efforts made by England and Russia to induce it to join the 
alliance. 

RASTATT AND ITALY. 



capture of Ehren- 
JL breitstein (January, 
1799), the brave garrison 
of which was compelled to 
surrender by the French, 
formed the commencement 
of the fresh sanguinary 
war, which, however, soon 
took a turn unfavourable 
to France. In Germany 
Jourdan was defeated by 
the Archduke Charles near 
Osterach and Stockach, 
and compelled to retreat 
across the Rhine. This 
induced the French am- 
bassadors who were conducting the peace negotiations -at Rastatt, and who 
had made themselves unpopular by their arrogance, to obtain passports for 
their return home. But on leaving the town in the night they were attacked 
by some hussars, were robbed of their papers, and cruelly ill-treated. This 
violent proceeding excited general indignation, and afforded the Directory an 




COBLENTZ AND EHRENBREITSTEIN. 



390 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



opportunity for inflaming the people with a desire for revenge. Affairs were 
still worse in Italy. While the commander-in-chief was among the glowing 
sands of Egypt with 40,000 men of the best disciplined troops, his Italian 
conquests vanished beneath the attacks of the Russian troops led by Suwaroff. 
In a few weeks the Russians, and the Austrians who were led by Kray, 
conquered the Cisalpine republic (1799), and the bloody defeat of the French 
in the battle of Novi (August 15), when the youthful general Joubert, intended 




FRENCH ARMY IN THE ST. GOTHARD. 

by the suspicious Directory to be the future rival of Napoleon, died a hero's 
death, completed the loss of Italy. France was now in a bad predicament, 
but the dissensions of the allies preserved it from the last extremity. 

The Ligurian republic was also quickly dissolved, and after the retirement 
of the French a period of anarchy intervened, in which many cruelties were 
perpetrated. 






. FRANCE, UNDER THE DIRECTORY. 391 

Conflicts in Switzerland and Holland. In Switzerland the French proved 
more successful in maintaining their position. Massena, a brave but cruel 
and avaricious general, fought with success against the Imperial field-marshal 
Hotze, a native Swiss, and pursued him to the Tyrol ; while Lecourbe con- 
quered the Engadine, and Lessoles marched into the Austrian territory. 
Massena's position became more precarious, however, when Suwaroff re- 
ceived orders to quit Italy and to unite his forces with the Austrians and a 
second Russian army under Korsakoff in Switzerland. With wonderful bold- 
ness Suwaroff crossed the impassable ice-mountains and Alps, to drive the 
French from their position at Zurich. On the Gotthard and the Devil's Bridge, 
battles were waged, both with nature and the enemy, which belong to the 
boldest deeds of warfare in the history of the world. On mountain-passes, 
which had hitherto only been accessible to single wayfarers, and on heights 
which an army had never crossed before, soldiers encamped, and battles were 
fought. But in spite of incredible efforts, they could not expel the French 
from Switzerland. Even before their union with the friendly troops, the 
quarrelsome Austrians and Russians succumbed to the assaults of the French 
in the battle of Zurich (September, 1799). On the capture of the town of 
Zurich, the preacher Lavater was slain by a French soldier. Suwaroff, who 
was at variance with the Imperial generals and the Vienna cabinet, returned 
home in December with the remains of his army, and died a few months after- 
wards of grief at the undeserved displeasure of his emperor. While in Italy 
and Switzerland the Austrians had impeded the success of the Russian arms 
by their perverse measures and their envy and avarice, the English also 
proved, when the Duke of York,, in conjunction with the Russians, tried to 
drive the French under Brune out of Holland, and to re-instate the Stadt- 
holder, that they also were not free from selfishness and love of gain. 
After the unskilful commander-in-chief had sacrificed the Russians to the 
enemy, he purchased safe retreat for himself and his men by a disgraceful 
capitulation. This proceeding so roused the indignation of the Emperor 
Paul against the coalition, that he withdrew from it, and some time after- 
wards entered into an alliance with Bonaparte. 

BONAPARTE IN EGYPT AND SYRIA. 

During these events, Napoleon led his army against Cairo. He conquered 
the Mamelukes in the battle of the Pyramids (2tst July, 1798), and then 
advanced into Cairo ; and after the capture of the French fleet at Aboukir 
by Nelson had deprived him of the hope of a speedy return, he set about 
establishing a new administration, system of taxation, etc. In spite, how- 
ever, of the forbearance shown by Bonaparte and his soldiers towards the 
religious customs of the Mohammedans, and the outward deference paid 
to their priests, mosques, and ceremonies, fanaticism was kindled in the 
hearts of the Mussulmans, and rendered the supremacy of the Christians 
extremely detestable to them. A terrible insurrection took place in Cairo 
(2 ist October), which was only with difficulty repressed after upwards of 
six thousand Mamelukes were slain. In the beginning of the following 
year Napoleon proceeded to the conquest of Joppa, and then prepared to 
lay siege to St. Jean d'Acre. Here he sustained his first repulse. The 
Turks, who were lavishly provided with ammunition by the English naval 
commander, Sidney Smith, repelled all the attacks of the French ; and at 
the same time a Turkish army threatened the European forces in the interior 



392 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




LORD NELSON. 



FRANCE UNDER THE DIRECTORY. 393 

of the country. When pestilence also broke out amongst the French troops, 
Bonaparte found himself compelled to leave St. Jean d'Acre, and after a 
great devastation, to make his retreat. The troops suffered from the most 
fearful hunger, and terrible were the dangers and hardships which beset them, 
all of which Napoleon shared with the commonest soldier of his army. The 
story that he incited the physician of the staff to poison with opium the 
plague-stricken soldiers who had to be left behind at Joppa, to which the 
latter replied, that " his vocation was to heal men, not to kill them," has been 
declared to be a slanderous invention of his enemies. In June (1799), Bona- 
parte again -arrived at Cairo, and in the following month defeated at Aboukir 
a Turkish army three times stronger than his own. About a month later, 
having resigned the chief command into the hands of Kleber, he returned to 
France, where he was greeted with the acclamations of the people. 

THE i8TH BRUMAIRE. 

The Directorial Government had lost all esteem and authority. The 
Executive Directors, among whom Sieves replaced the Republican Reubel, 
were at variance with the Legislative Assembly of Five Hundred. The 
mishaps of the war, and the restrictions on the freedom of the press, were 
used by the opposition, headed by Napoleon's brother, Lucien Bonaparte, as 
grounds for attacks on the government. The exclusion of the brave La 
Reveillere-Lepeaux and two of his colleagues, in the so-called revolution of 
the 3<Dth Prairial, increased the prevailing discontent. In the provinces the 
Royalists bestirred themselves ; in Paris the Jacobins held meetings in the 
Riding School, and revived the old club under another form. The disasters 
in Italy were ascribed to the absence of Bonaparte, whom the Directory had 
banished to Egypt out of mere envy. The Government could count on 
no friends, and every one was convinced of the necessity of a change in the 
Constitution, when the news of Napoleon's landing directed all eyes towards 
that general. Soon after his arrival in Paris, Bonaparte, in conjunction with 
Sieyes and his brother Lucien, who was elected President of the Five 
Hundred, determined to overthrow the Directorial Constitution. With this 
end in view, he assured himself of the support of the troops and officers who 
were present in Paris, and then, through Lucien's agency, caused the sittings 
of the Government to be removed to St. Cloud, that the members of the 
Council might be placed in the power of the soldiers. The Directors were 
either initiated, like Sieyes and Roger Ducos, into the conspiracy, or resigned 
their offices voluntarily, or under compulsion. 

At St. Cloud, Napoleon attempted first of all, by persuasion, to win over 
the deputies to his plans ; but when this did not succeed, and the assembly 
of the Five Hundred overwhelmed him with threats and reproaches, he gave 
his grenadiers the command to clear the assembly hall with bayonets. The 
republicans, who met the danger courageously, were compelled at last to yield 
to superior force, and to make their escape through doors and windows. The 
exclusion of sixty-one members from the Council of Five Hundred, the forma- 
tion of a Consulate Government, to which Sieyes, Roger Ducos, and Bonaparte 
were appointed, and the nomination of a commission of fifty persons, who during 
the adjournment of the sittings of the Council were to exercise the right of 
legislation, and to prepare the draft of a new constitution, formed the con- 
clusion of this bold measure. The decree, which was issued two days later, 
in accordance with which thirty-seven of the most violent Jacobins were exiled, 
and twenty-two were banished to the west coast, was soon withdrawn. 




THE CONSULATE. 1800-1804. 

NEW CONSTITUTION, AND THE THREE CONSULS. POWER OF BONAPARTE. 
BATTLES OF MARENGO AND HOHENLINDEN. TREATY OF LUNE- 
VILLE. ASSASSINATION OF THE EMPEROR PAUL OF RUSSIA. THE 
PEACE OF AMIENS, 1802. AFFAIRS IN EGYPT. DEATH OF KLEBER. 
SUCCESSES OF THE ENGLISH. RENEWED WAR. ST. DOMINGO. 
INTERNAL AFFAIRS. CONCORDAT WITH THE POPE. CONSPIRACIES 
AGAINST BONAPARTE. PREPARATIONS FOR THE EMPIRE. 

CONSTITUTION OF THE CONSULATE. 

'HE new (fourth) Constitution, which was accepted 
by the votes of the whole nation, allowed the sem- 
blance of a republic to remain, but practically 
created a military monarchy, as it invested the 
First Consul with almost royal power. The es- 
sential conditions of the Constitution were the 
following : I. That the Senate, consisting of 80 
members, should possess the privilege of electing 
from the lists of names sent in from the depart- 
ments the members of the legislative body, and 
the chief officials and judges. 2. That the legis- 
lative chamber, deprived of its right of initiative, 
should be divided into the Tribune, composed 
of 100 members, and the Legislative Body of 300 
members. 3. That the Government should con- 
sist of three Consuls, chosen every ten years, Bona- 
parte, Cambac^res, and Lebrun, the former to 
possess the chief power. 
Marengo and Hohenlinden. It is not to be doubted that the idea of being 
a peacemaker in the republic, and a supreme mediator between the different 
parties, had originated in the mind of Napoleon before he was carried away 
by the passion of ambition. After establishing the new Constitution, Napoleon 

394 




THE CONSULATE. 395 

wrote with his own hand to the king of England a letter, full of high-sounding 
phrases, in which he offered the hand of peace, and sent a similar letter to 
the Emperor. But this unusual proceeding met with little response. A cold 
diplomatic reply spoke of the reinstatement of the Bourbons, and of a return 
to the old frontiers. The contrast between the apparent warmth and open- 
ness of Napoleon, and the studied coldness of the cabinets of London and 
Vienna, excited a storm of enthusiasm and warlike ardour among the fiery 
French people. From all sides brave soldiers gathered round the Consul, 
whom he formed into a powerful army and stationed in the neighbourhood of 
the Lake of Geneva, while the so-called reserve army, under Berthier, deceived 
the world, and excited the irony of the English. More fortunate was Napo- 
leon in his endeavour to bring the Russian emperor over to his side. Wisely 
availing himself of Paul's predilection for soldiers, and his resentment against 
his selfish allies, who would not exchange the Russians who had been taken 
prisoners, Napoleon sent some thousands of these captives, newly clad and 
armed, without ransom money and under their own leaders, back to Russia, 
and by this means made such an impression on the capricious emperor, that 
he entered into correspondence with the Consul and favoured his enterprises 
against Austria and England. After the conclusion of these preparations, 
Napoleon hastened to Geneva, where he had an interview with Necker ; and 
then, with the main army, undertook the marvellous expedition across the 
ice-covered St. Bernard (May 16-20, 1800), while other divisions of the 
army marched into Italy over the Simplon, St. Gotthard, and other passes. 
This bold undertaking, with its hardships and dangers, was worthy of the 
heroic times of Hannibal. Thus the French reached northern Italy quite 
unexpectedly at the very moment when their last possession, Genoa, had 
been surrendered to the Austrians by the brave generals Massena and Soult. 
This state of affairs was soon changed, however. Five days after the fall of 
Genoa the Austrians suffered a defeat at Montebello (June Qth), and shortly 
afterwards Napoleon gained the brilliant victory of Marengo (June i5th), 
when the Austrians were put to flight. The victory was complete, and the 
Vienna Cabinet hastened to save the remains of their army by the armed 
truce of Alessandria, and abandoned Lombardy for the second time. Desaix, 
one of the noblest men of the revolutionary period, died the death of a hero 
on the battlefield. To him and to the bold cavalry leader, Kellermann, be- 
longed the honour of the day. At the same time an army under Moreau, 
Lecourbe, etc., had entered Swabia and Bavaria, defeated the Austrians at 
Stockach, Moskirch, and on the famous battlefield of Hochstadt and Blen- 
heim (June iQth), and compelled them to agree to the armed truce of Pars- 
dorf, which surrendered the south of Germany to the French as completely as 
the treaty of Alessandria had surrendered Italy. As, however, the Vienna 
cabinet hesitated to agree to a peace without the concurrence of England, the 
war was soon renewed. But Moreau's splendid victory in the bloody battle 
of Hohenlinden (Dec. 3rd), which opened to the French the way to Vienna, 
compelled the Austrians, in the peace of Luneville (February, 1801), to agree 
to the conditions of Campo Formio, and to recognise the valley of the Etsch 
and the Rhine as the boundary of the kingdom of France. The establish- 
ment of an Italian republic, under the presidency of Bonaparte, and the stipu- 
lation that the German princes and states who had incurred losses, should be 
indemnified by means of secularized church property and cession of land 
on the right bank of the Rhine, were the most important articles of the peace 
of Luneville. The closer fulfilment of the different stipulations made by Ger- 



396 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



many, then ensued ; and after many debates, the completion of the peace of 
Luneville. 

Death of the Emperor Paul of Russia. During these occurrences an im- 
portant event had occurred in Russia. Paul's relationship to Austria and 
England had become hostile in the same proportion as his alliance with 
Bonaparte had taken a more friendly and intimate form. He once more had 
recourse to his mother's scheme, of breaking the naval supremacy of England 
by an armed neutral alliance with Denmark, Sweden, and Prussia, and sought 
in conjunction with the French Consul, to direct affairs in Italy to the advan- 
tage of Austria. As however most of the proceedings of this singular 
monarch proved that he was unaccountable for his actions, some of his nobles, 
who were offended at his wild caprices and arbitrary measures, or were 
menaced by his gloomy suspicions, formed a conspiracy, at the head of which 
was the powerful Count Pahlen, minister of police and governor of St. 
Petersburg. In consequence of this plot the Emperor Paul was surprised in 
his sleeping room by Suboff, Orloff, Benningsen and others, and when he 
refused the demanded resignation of his crown, the conspirators cruelly 
strangled him with a scarf, and then proclaimed his son Alexander emperor 
(i2th of March, 1801). The murderers obtained rewards and honours for 
the deed, and in the higher circles the day of the emperor's death was cele- 
brated as a " day of renown and satisfaction." The reconciliation with 
England, and the dissolution of the neutral alliance, was the next consequence 
of this catastrophe ; a good understanding was nevertheless maintained with 
France, and was strengthened by a formal treaty of peace (8th Oct., 1801). 



THE PEACE OF AMIENS. 




A FTER Spain and Portugal had also 
l\. concluded peace with France, England 
alone among the powers of the great Coali- 
tion remained under arms. This energetic 
island, with its free constitution, and its 
inexhaustible wealth, had gained in power 
by war by sea and in the colonies, in the 
same degree that France had increased its 
influence on the continent. But here also 
the people longed for peace, especially since 
the Russian emperor Paul had renewed the 
alliance of armed neutrality with Prussia, 
Sweden, and Denmark, in consequence of which England was involved in a 
war with the Danes, and compelled to maintain a fleet of war in the Sound. 
Negotiations were commenced which for a long time led to no result, because 
no agreement could be arrived at with regard to Egypt ; only when the 
English were convinced that neither the British land army nor the clumsy 
Turkish troops were in a position to overcome the practised war troops of the 
French in the Nile country, did the English cabinet consent to an arrange- 
ment with regard to Egypt, and then, after a change of ministry had taken 
place, agree to the unfavourable peace of Amiens (27th March, 1802), in 
which it was stipulated that the chief part of the foreign conquests should be 
surrendered. 

Egypt. After Bonaparte's return, the discontented Kleber, whom the 
Consul had generously installed in the post of commander-in-chief, in spite 



THE CONSULATE. 



397 



of the old feud between them, concluded a treaty with the English commander 
Sidney Smith and the Turks, for a free withdrawal of the army. When, how- 
ever, the English government would not confirm the treaty, but insisted on 
the French soldiers being made prisoners of 
war, Kleber reluctantly broke off all negotia- 
tions, vanquished the Turks in the battle of 
Heliopolis with a six times smaller army, and 
again conquered the capital city, Cairo (June, 
1800). But on the day of the battle of Ma- 
rengo he was struck down in the garden of his 
palace by the dagger of a fanatical Moham- 
medan. Kleber's successor, the incapable 
Menou, was only able to maintain his position 
against the English troops, commanded by the 
brave general Abercromby, with great difficulty, 
and not till after the death of the victorous 
Abercromby in the battle of Canopus, was a 
treaty at last arranged, in consequence of 
which the French troops, numbering 24,000 
men, were carried off with their arms and 
ammunition in English ships to France. In 
the peace of Amiens, the English, who had 
given back to the order of St. John the island 
of Malta, which they had taken from the 




ABERCROMBY. 



French, promised that Egypt, as well as the republic of the Ionian islands, 
should return under the supremacy of the Porte. 



FRESH DISCORD. 

r I S HE peace of Amiens was concluded on the part of England with great 
1. precipitation ; for which reason the press raised its voice loudly against 
it, and also adopted a hostile tone against Bonaparte. The Protectorate 
which the French government had adopted, not only over Italy, but over 
Holland and Switzerland, was represented as an intolerable tyranny. These 
attacks on Bonaparte excited his great displeasure, and the Moniteur, the 
French official paper, replied in an indignant tone, which became more and 
more bitter as England delayed with the evacuation of Malta. Finally war 
was again declared against France by England, and the return of Pitt to 
the ministry, at the head of which he remained till his death (1806), was 
regarded as a proof that the English government was determined to attack 
the new military ruler and his despotic protectorate over the neighbouring 
states, as energetically as it had formerly done the Revolution. 

This new war proved a hindrance to the French government in its re- 
conquest of the island of St. Domingo. In consequence of the declaration of 
human rights and the liberation of the slaves in this French colony, terrible 
disturbances had broken out. The mulattos and negroes had risen up against 
the white planters, had demanded equality of rights, and had at last estab- 
lished a negro republic under the crafty and enterprising Toussaint l'Ouverture. 
This popular leader was, however, ultimately taken prisoner and carried off 
to France, where he soon died. 



398 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

INTERNAL AFFAIRS. 

HE new court and the Concordat. Bonaparte's original endeavour to 
reconcile the old with the new, and to combine the conquests of the Re- 
volution with the institutions of royalty, was wise and praiseworthy ; but all too 
soon he allowed himself to be carried away by the predilection of his followers 
for monarchical forms of government, and to attempt an absolute restoration 
of the old conditions, customs, and usages. At the court of the First Consul 
in the Tuileries, the fashions, modes, and forms of the old etiquette, and the 
elegance of royalty reappeared. Bonaparte's vain, but affectionate wife, 
Josephine, her children Eugene and Hortense Beauharnais, her sisters, espe- 
cially Pauline, and her brother-in-law Murat, were remarkable for their per- 
sonal attractions, and aided by their social qualities in forwarding the aims 
which Napoleon had in view. 

Many royalist emigrants now returned home ; and Madame de Stael, 
Necker's daughter, gathered together, as in former times, a circle of cultured 
and famous men, who assembled in her salons. One of the first cares of the 
Consul was the restoration of Christian worship in the French churches. After 
he had abolished the Republican festivals, and had again introduced the 
respect for Sunday, he entered into negotiations with the Romish court which 
led to the conclusion of the Concordat. As he was equally averse to the restor- 
ation of the old Gallican Church, with its synods and proud independence, 
and to the continuance of the democratic clergy of the revolutionary period, 
he desired to establish a state of things in which the French Church would 
sink to the position of a servant of the Pope and of the temporal sovereign. 

The Concordat, which had been arranged in conjunction with the Papal 
minister, Consalvi, and which was celebrated on Easter-day by a public 
thanksgiving festival, contained the following resolutions : Ten archbishops 
and fifty bishops were to be appointed and paid by the government, and con- 
firmed by the Pope. All ecclesiastics were to renounce their posts, but could 
be reinstalled. Those who had been excluded were to be again admitted into 
the bosom of the Church, and to receive a salary from the State until their 
death. 

The confiscated Church property was to remain in the hands of the present 
possessors, and the number of festival days was limited. The monarchical 
State obtained great power through the transfer of the system of educa- 
tion to the temporal government. By this means, as all teachers and educa- 
tional institutions were dependent on the State, the latter obtained the same 
influence over the intellectual tendency of the people as had formerly been 
possessed by the Church. 

CONSPIRACIES. 

APOLEON, like all men accustomed to military dis- 
cipline, was of a despotic nature. He limited the 
political rights of the citizens, persecuted the Jacobins, 
and placed his confidence in his guard and his police. 
These persecutions increased when a bold Corsican ad- 
venturer and the talented sculptor, Cerrachi, formed 
the design of overthrowing the First Consul, but were 
discovered by Fouche", and paid the penalty of the 
conspiracy with their lives. Napoleon's life also was 




THE CONSULATE. 399 

attempted by the explosion of a so-called infernal machine as he was driving 
to the opera-house, when he had a narrow escape. In consequence of this out- 
rage, a hundred and thirty suspected Jacobins were sentenced to transportation. 
More dangerous and ominous, however, were the conspiracies against Bona- 
parte, when, by the voice of the people, the consulship was made over to him 
for life, and it fell to his lot to appoint his successor. The Bourbons, whose last 
hopes were destroyed, now strained every nerve to overthrow Napoleon, and 
obtained the assistance of the bold George Cadoudal and the vigorous General 
Pichegru. These entered into negotiations with Moreau, but were discovered 
and imprisoned, with forty conspirators. Even before their fate was decided, 
Napoleon caused the Due d'Enghien, who had been represented to him as the 
soul of all the royalist conspiracies, to be brought in haste to Paris, and sen- 
tenced to death (i5th March, 1804). This deed excited general indignation 
throughout Europe, and silenced the laudatory tongues of Napoleon's admirers. 
The romantic poet Chateaubriand, the author of the famous work, " Genius of 
Christendom," which had paved the way for the return to religious worship 
and the arrangement of the Concordat, now renounced his official post, and 
repaired to Switzerland. 

These conspiracies afforded Napoleon the opportunity for carrying out his 
long-cherished plan, the establishment of a hereditary monarchy. Through 
the machinations of his blind adherents, he caused the proposition to be 
brought forward in the tribune that the hereditary Imperial dignity should be 
conferred on the First Consul, which was then confirmed by the senate and 
ratified by the votes of the nation. While, therefore, the public mind was 
still in a state of painful excitement in consequence of the bloody executions, 
Napoleon I. was proclaimed Emperor of the French, and at the end of the 
year was solemnly anointed by the Pope in the Cathedral of Notre Dame 
(2nd Dec., 1804). He himself, however, placed the crown upon his own head, 
and also on his wife, Josephine, who knelt before him. 

The new emperor surrounded his throne with a brilliant court pageant, 
and though he himself always maintained a military simplicity, the members 
of his family were entitled princes and princesses. Richly paid court officials, 
flatterers, and spies again appeared in numbers, and the people once more 
forgot, amid festivities and pageantry, the forfeiture of its rights and liberties. 
Carnot and Lafayette alone refused homage to the new sovereign, and there- 
fore obtained no reward in dignities or titles. The old calendar was intro- 
duced, and all the republican regulations and institutions were gradually 
abolished. 





THE FRENCH EMPIRE. 

A NEW COALITION. CAMPAIGN OF 1805. AUSTERLITZ. PEACE OF 
PRESBURG. CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE. WAR WITH PRUSSIA, 
1806. BATTLE OF JENA. CAMPAIGN OF 1807. EYLAU AND FRIED- 
LAND. TREATY OF TILSIT. POWER OF THE FRENCH EMPEROR. 
THE AFFAIRS OF TURKEY. 

THE THIRD COALITION WAR. THE NEW COALITION. 



WHILE the English had availed themselves of 
the fresh outbreak of war with France to 
seize upon Dutch and French ships, Bonaparte 
despatched his troops, under Mortier, to the Weser, 
m order to occupy the Electorate of Hanover, 
which belonged to the king of England. The 
people and the army were resolute to defend their 
country, but the self-seeking nobility and the 
cowardly officials preferred a disgraceful capitula- 
tion to an honourable, though possibly unsuccessful, 
conflict. After concluding the treaty of Suhlingen 
(June, 1803), the arms, ammunition, and horses of 
the Hanoverians fell into the hands of the French, 
who now occupied the land with their troops. By 
the middle of July there was no longer a Hanoverian 

army, and the unfortunate people were abandoned, undefended, to the foreign 

despotism. 

The English minister, Pitt, who was impressed with the idea that there 

could be no peace for England and Europe so long as the dangerous theories 

of the revolution were current in France and might be asserted by a despotic, 




THE FRENCH EMPIRE. 401 

military emperor, now again rejected the peace proffered by Napoleon, and 
entered into negotiations with Russia for the formation of a new coalition. 
The Emperor Alexander, who was jealous and apprehensive of Napoleon's 
growing power in Italy, where he had been declared king, and crowned with 
the iron crown of Lombardy at Milan (March, 1805), and also of his influence 
in Germany and Spain, entered into an alliance with England to protect 
Europe from the Emperor's rapacity and love of power, and to compel France 
to retire to its former frontiers. Soon Austria, Sweden, and even Naples 
joined the coalition, while Prussia remained neutral. 

THE AUSTERLITZ CAMPAIGN. 

While the attention of the whole of Europe was directed towards the west 
coast of France, where Napoleon was making great naval preparations, having 
also collected a large army at Boulogne, in order, as it was imagined, to effect 
a landing on the English coasts, he was quietly preparing his plans for 
the memorable campaign of 1805. Assured of the assistance of most of 
the south German princes, he in the autumn crossed the Rhine with seven 
divisions of his army, commanded by generals Ney, Lannes, Marmont, Soult, 
Murat, etc., in order to attack the Austrians, who had marched into Bavaria, 
and proceeded to occupy Munich ; while Bernadotte, without regard for the 
neutrality of Prussia, advanced towards the Danube through the territory of 
the Brandenburg Margravate of Anspach, and by so doing gave such dire 
offence to the vacillating Frederick William III., that he decided to join the 
Coalition. Napoleon marched into Swabia. The rulers of Baden, Wur- 
temberg, and Bavaria strengthened with reinforcements the army of the 
powerful enemy, from whose favour they had as much to hope as they had 
reason to fear his anger. The Dukes of Hesse, Nassau, etc., took a similar 
course. By October the French were already masters of both banks ot 
the Danube ; they then occupied Augsburg and Munich, while the Austrian 
commander, Mack, with incredible short-sightedness, tarried with his army 
in the fortress of Ulm, and allowed the enemy to surround him. Then an 
incredible occurrence took place. After an encounter, in which Ney proved 
victorious, at Elchingen (i4th Oct.), Mack was entirely shut in at Ulm, and 
was cut off from the main army. Helpless and despairing of deliverance, the 
incapable general entered into negotiations with the victor, which ended in 
the disgraceful Capitulation of Ulm (Oct. 20). 

In consequence of this dishonourable treaty, 23,000 Austrians and 18 
generals became prisoners of war. Overcome with shame, the brave warriors 
marched past Napoleon, laid their weapons and banners at his feet, and 
surrendered a number of cannons. Too late was it perceived at Vienna that 
general Mack was not fitted for his high post, and he was deprived by the 
sentence of a court martial of his office and honours. 

The contemporaneous naval victory of the English at Trafalgar (2ist Oct., 
1805), which resulted in the loss of the whole French fleet, lessened, however, 
Napoleon's joy at his unheard-of success. For a generation there was now 
no French naval power ; and the fleet, which was to have helped to conquer 
England, drifted in wrecks on the Andalusian coast, and the British dominion 
over the sea was without a rival. But the delight of the English was not 
without a cloud, for their renowned hero, Nelson, had perished. His last 
great signal to the fleet, " England expects every man to do his duty," 
produced a wonderful effect. 

II. D D 




4 02 



THE FRENCH EMPIRE. 403 

The catastrophe of Ulm also decided the fate of the Italian campaign. In 
spite of the bravery with which the Archduke Charles upheld the honour of 
the Austrian arms against Massena, near Caldiero, on the 3Oth of October, 
the Imperial troops were compelled to retreat across the Isonzo, and abandon 
northern Italy to the enemy. 

While Frederick William III. of Prussia, indignant at the high-handed 
violation of his neutrality, and urged on by the patriotic war-party, permitted 
the Russians and the Swedes to pass through his dominions to Hanover, 
renewed a league of perpetual friendship with the weak and susceptible 
Emperor Alexander, and then despatched his minister Haugwitz to Napo- 
leon with a threatening demand that he should restore the former treaties in 
Germany, Italy, Holland, and Switzerland as the basis of peace the French 
advanced, amid bloody battles and conflicts with the Austrians and Russians, 
along the Danube towards the Austrian states. The troops of the Austrian 
general, Merveldt, were scattered, while Mortier sustained great losses at the 
hands of the Russian general, Kutusoff, near Diirrenstein. But while the 
bloody battle of Durrenstein, fought on the nth of November, proved to the 
French that they had in the Russians enemies who were as brave as they 
were warlike and circumspect, the ease with which Murat possessed himself 
of the capital, Vienna, and the foolishness of the Prince of Auersperg, who 
allowed himself to be duped by the bold cunning of the French commander, 
filled the invaders with the greatest confidence. The indecision and faint- 
heartedness of the Emperor Francis, as well as the want of union among the 
Austrians and Russians, facilitated the victory of the French, who, laden with 
an immense booty of war, pursued the Russo-Austrian army amid continual 
conflicts to Moravia. In that province, not far from Brunn, was fought the 
murderous battle of Austerlitz, on the 2nd of December, 1805, when the 
winter's sun shone down on the most tremendous and brilliant victory that 
had yet crowned the arms of Napoleon. 



THE PEACE OF PRESBURG AND ITS RESULTS, 

N order to be freed from the presence of the great army 
of the enemy, who oppressed the land with their rapa- 
city and extortion, the Austrian government hastened 
to conclude with Napoleon the Peace of Presburg, 
although by this capitulation important possessions, 
such as the Tyrol and the Venetian territory, were 
taken from the empire. The crowns of Naples and 
Holland were conferred on members of the Bona- 
partist family, and the German Empire was placed 
under the immediate influence of the French despot, 

with whom the courts of Baden, Wurtemberg, and Bavaria were also connected 
by the ties of relationship. 

T/te Confederation of the Rhine. Through the elevation of the Electors cf 
Bavaria and Wurtemberg to sovereign dignity, which was one result of the 
Peace of Presburg, the constitution of the German Empire was already practi- 
cally dissolved. Napoleon therefore conceived the idea of withdrawing the 
South and West of Germany from Austrian influence, and binding it to himself 
by the establishment of a Confederation of the Rhine. The selfishness of 
most of the German princes, and the prevalent dread of the powerful ruler 




404 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



who always held the fortunes of war in his hand, rendered it easy for the 
crafty Talleyrand and the Elector Archchancellor Charles Theodore of 
Dalberg to induce a number of princes and States to separate from the 
German Empire and to enter into a close connection with France. On the 
1 2th of July, 1806, in Paris, there was signed the basis of the treaty, on the 
strength of which Napoleon, as the protector of the Confederation, recognised 
the independent sovereignty of the different members with regard to taxation, 
legislation, etc., in consideration of an agreement to place a certain number 
of troops at the Emperor's disposal. Dalberg, who was appointed Prince 
Primate, was chosen as Napoleon's representative in the League. By means 
of increase of territory and the arbitrary subordination of many small States 
under the supremacy of the more important princes, in whose borders they 
were included, the power of the members of the League increased to a signifi- 
cant extent. The Emperor Francis II., who had already shown his slight 
confidence in the maintenance of the Empire by transferring the Imperial 
dignity to the Austrian hereditary States, resigned the Imperial crown of 
Germany, assumed the title of Francis I., Emperor of Austria, and with- 
drew all his States from the German Imperial Confederation (6th Aug., 1806). 
Thus the Holy Roman Empire of the German nation was dissolved. Through 
internal dissensions and feeble separate governments, it had long ago dwin- 
dled to a shadow. Its 'most powerful members were now the vassals of a 
foreign despot. 

THE PRUSSIAN WAR (1806). 

WHILE the French Emperor was filled with 
resentment on account of the wavering atti- 
tude of Prussia and the indecision of its peace-loving 
king, two causes widened the already existing breach, 
and excited in the Prussians a feeling of exasperation 
which led to the declaration of war. Before the Con- 
federation had been concluded, Prussia had contem- 
plated entering into a " close alliance" with Saxony 
and Hesse-Cassel, to protect its own existence and 
independence. This project was prevented by 
Napoleon, who originated the scheme of a " North- 
German Union," in order to remove beforehand all 
objections to the Confederation of the Rhine. 
Scarcely, however, was the Union concluded, when 
French diplomacy was directed towards thwarting 
the efforts of the Prussian league in every way 
^possible. The Berlin cabinet discovered that 
Napokon, on renewing the peace negotiations with 

the English ministry/had held out a prospect of the surrender of the Electorate 
of Hanover, which had been ceded to Prussia, without conferring with the 
Prussian Government on the matter. The destruction of the French fleet in 
the tremendous conflict off Cape Trafalgar, near Cadiz, on the 2istof October, 
1805, when the immortal Nelson closed his glorious career with a hero's 
death, had once more convinced the Emperor that, in spite of all his victories 
on land, he could not overcome the naval power of England ; and the death 
of Pitt, which brought the liberal-minded Fox into the ministry, filled him 
with the hope of a treaty of peace. But before the negotiations were con- 




THE FRENCH EMPIRE. 



405 



eluded Fox died, and the war party again obtained the upper hand. Prussia 
now brought forward the so-called Ultimatum, in which the evacuation by the 
French of South Germany was demanded ; and when this request was scorn- 
fully rejected, all further negotiations with France were broken off. 

Jena. While the final answer of France was being awaited at Berlin, 
and the preparations for war were idly carried on under the delusive hope 
of peace, the French troops under Napoleon were already in the heart of 
Thuringia and Saxony ; the elector, after some resistance, having formed an 
alliance with Prussia. Even the first battle, near Saalfeld, on October ioth r 
was decided against Prussia ; but terrible and disastrous was the defeat of 
the army commanded by the old Duke of Brunswick in the great double 




FRENCH FLAGS SUSPENDED IN NOTRE DAME, 

battle pf Jena and Auerstadt (October I4th, 1806), which decided the fate of 
the countries between the Rhine and the Elbe. As no precautions had been 
taken for a retreat, the armies separated into several divisions, and each 
became the prey of the rapidly advancing conqueror. On the i/th of October 
Duke Eugene of Wurtemberg experienced a defeat near Halle, which entirely 
scattered the reserve army under his command ; and the old Duke of 
Hohenlohe, who, after a brave struggle, retired with the main army along 
by-ways to Magdeburg, was obliged with his twelve thousand men to lay 
down his arms at Prenzlow (October 28th), and to surrender his wearied and 
hungry troops as prisoners of war. No further resistance was now attempted. 
The crossing of the Elbe by the Duke of York, the spirited attitude of Prince 
Augustus, and, above all, Blucher's advance on Mecklenburg, and the battle at 



406 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



Lubeck, were the only gleams of light in this disastrous period. Thirteen 
days after the battle of Jena, Napoleon marched into Berlin and possessed 
himself of the supplies of powder and weapons. 

From Berlin the victorious Emperor issued his decrees, by which the North 
of Germany was brought into even greater subjection than the South. The 
elector of Hesse was compelled to abandon his army and country to the 
enemy, and to make his escape to Prague. The wounded and sightless Duke 
of Brunswick took refuge on Danish soil. Mecklenburg and Oldenburg 
were occupied ; Jever and East Friesland were united with Holland ; the 
Hanseatic towns, as well as Leipzig, were burdened with heavy war-levies ; 
and the treasures of art and trophies of former victories were carried off from 
all the provinces. 

The Elector of Saxony, whose troops had fought with the Prussian army at 




NAPOLEON AT THE TOMB OF FREDERICK THE GREAT. 

Jena, alone experienced lenient treatment from the conqueror. The Saxon 
prisoners were set at liberty, and the elector was granted a favourable peace, 
and, adorned with the royal title, joined the Confederation of the Rhine in 
common with the other Saxon dukes (December, 1806). After that, Frederick 
Augustus, unfortunately for himself and for his people, felt bound by the ties 
of gratitude to Napoleon. 

Charles Augustus, of Saxe-Weimar, had distinguished himself as a 
Prussian general at Jena, and on the return march, and had consequently 
excited the displeasure of Napoleon ; but the dignified and courageous 
attitude with which the duchess met the victorious Emperor made a great 
impression on him, and induced him to consent to pardon the duke, and to 
allow him to retain his sovereignty on condition that he would quit his army 
and recall his troops. The king of Prussia had first escaped to Graudenz, 



THE FRENCH EMPIRE. 



407 



and then to Konigsberg, whence he sought in vain to make peace with the 
conqueror. Napoleon's demands increased with his success, and Frederick 
-William was compelled of necessity to continue the war with his wrathful 
opponent, who, in his rude and blunt behaviour did not even spare the queen, 
"Prussia's Helena." 




POLISH LANCERS. 




EYLAU. FRIEDLAND. TILSIT. 

N his extremity the king turned to his friend Alexander, 
who, indignant that Napoleon, as the ally of the Porte, had 
sought to oppose Russia's designs on Moldavia and Wal- 
Ijp lachia, immediately despatched two Russian armies under 
Benningsen, Buxhowden, etc., to East Prussia, to prevent the 
French from crossing the Vistula. Napoleon then issued his 
appeal to the Poles, in which he summoned that injured 
nation to come forth and do battle for their liberty and in- 
dependence. Inspired by the thought that the old kingdom of Poland would 
again be called into existence, the patriotic Poles immediately allied them- 
selves with the French Emperor, who promised them liberation from their 
heavy yoke and revenge on their adversaries. On the 2nd of January, 1807, 
Napoleon marched into Warsaw, amid the acclamations of the multitude ; 
but only too soon did the people discover that the foreign conqueror, whose 
soldiers they fed and clothed, and for whom their bravest warriors marched 
into the field, was more intent on the satisfaction of his ambition than on the 
reorganization of their kingdom. He enriched his military nobility with 
their property ; but the kingdom of Poland never came into existence again. 

Murderous battles were fought on the banks of the Vistula, and torrents of 
blood were shed at Pultusk and Morungen. But the master-blow was struck 
in the battle of Eylau (February 8th, 1807), when the warlike ardour of the 
French and Russians, and the courageous attitude of the Prussians under the 
brave and resolute Lestocq, resulted in a battle which, for loss of life, com- 
pares with the bloodiest annals of the world's history. Upwards of 60,000 
dead and wounded covered the wide snowy plains of the battle-field. Both 
parties claimed the victory, and the exhaustion was so great that the war. was 



408 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



discontinued for four months. The king of Prussia was now anxious for 
peace ; and when the fortresses on the Oder fell into the hands of the French, 
when Danzig, deprived of help from without, was compelled to surrender to 

Marshal Lefebvre, and when the Em- 
peror of Russia, misled by evil counsellors, 
appeared to desire a reconciliation with 
Napoleon, the king lost all confidence in 
a successful issue of the war. Therefore, 
after the French had gained a brilliant 
victory in the battle of Friedland (June 
1 4th, 1807), and had invested Konigsberg, 
and threatened the Russian frontiers, the 
allied monarchs deemed it advisable to 
consent to the peace of Tilsit, in July, in 
spite of its oppressive conditions. The 
two Emperors met on a raft, on the Nie- 
men, to arrange the particulars of the 
treaty. 

By this peace Frederick William lost 
the larger half of his States ; he was com- 
pelled to consent to the surrender of all 
the countries between the Rhine and the 
Elbe, to agree to the establishment of a 
dukedom of Warsaw, under the supremacy of the King of Saxony, and to 
the elevation of Danzig with the surrounding district into a free State. The 
territory ceded by Prussia, with the electorate of Hesse, Brunswick, and 
South Hanover, were united by Napoleon into a new kingdom of Westphalia, 
with the capital Cassel ; and his youngest brother, Jerome, was appointed 
king. 




ALEXANDER I. OF RUSSIA. 




NAPOLEON AND ALEXANDER PROCEEDING TO THE RAFT AT TILSIT. 

Turkey. In the peace of Tilsit the Danubian countries (Moldavia and Wal- 
lachia) were given back to the Porte. The grand Sultan, Selim III. (1789- 
1807), endeavoured to permit the conversion of Turks to Christianity, and in- 
troduced many reforms which were disliked by the Mohammedan zealots. An 



THE FRENCH EMPIRE. 409 

insurrection at last took place ; and, overcome with terror, the childless Sultan 
relinquished his power in favour of his nephew, Mustapha IV. (1807), who, by 
the removal of all the innovations, pacified the rebellion. Mustapha's reign 
was not, however, of long duration. Beiraktar, Pasha of Rustchuk, an 
adherent of Selim, rose in insurrection, marched into the capital, and 
stormed the seraglio ; but his intention of reinstating Selim as Sultan led to 
the murder of the latter by Mustapha. Beiraktar revenged this bloody deed 
by the murder of all the counsellors of Mustapha and the deposition of the 
Sultan. His brother, Mahmud II. (1808-39), became the ruler of the faithful, 
and Beiraktar, as grand vizier, restored Selim's reforms ; but by so doing pro- 
voked a fresh insurrection of the janissaries, who overcame him and his troops 
after the bravest resistance. After the murder of the former Sultan Mustapha, 
Mahmud consented to revive the old Turkish Constitution, and thus saved 
his throne. The close alliance of Napoleon and Alexander after the meeting 
at Erfurfc, led to a league between the Porte and England. Soon afterwards 
there arose a three' years' bloody war between Russia and Turkey with 
regard to the possession of the Danubian countries, which, through the media- 
tion of England, was concluded by the peace of Bukarest (May, 1812), at 
the very moment when Napoleon had raised all Europe in arms against 
Russia. In this peace the Pruth was declared the boundary stream between 
the two kingdoms. 

THE ASSEMBLY OF PRINCES AT ERFURT. 

INCE the peace of Tilsit, the liberty and independence 
of Europe had been threatened on three sides 
by France, Russia, and England. Alexander of 
Russia endeavoured to increase his dominions in 
the south against Turkey and in the north-west 
?; against Sweden, while Napoleon attempted con- 
^ x quests in the Pyrenean Peninsula, and England 
ruled the sea as despotically as Napoleon governed 

ff , - -^-^na. .^_ grzsrz-r-" ^e Continent. Since the interview of Napoleon 

with Alexander, at the great meeting of princes 

at Erfurt (27th of September, 1808), where the whole pageant of European 
power was unfolded, and where four kings and four-and-thirty German princes 
met together to render homage to the all-powerful ruler, Europe had been 
in danger of falling partly under French, partly under Russian supre- 
macy. Strengthened by the friendship of Russia, Napoleon now directed his 
whole animosity against the indomitable island. The notorious blockade 
regulation, the "Berlin decree" of the year 1806, which forbade all commer- 
cial intercourse with England, and commanded all British merchandise to be 
captured, was the commencement of that oppressive Continental system 
which the English ministry, the Duke of Portland, Canning, Castlereagh, etc., 
met by issuing the order that any neutral ship which sailed from a harbour 
belonging to France or her allies, might be captured. 

Events in Scandinavia. King Gustavus IV. of Sweden, who had previously 
carried on war with the French in conjunction with Prussia and Russia, did 
not enter into the peace of Tilsit, but, supported by subsidies from England, 
continued the struggle alone. Impressed by the sanctity of the royal office, 
he denied the Imperial title to " General Bonaparte," who had risen to be 
ruler of France. by the might of the sword, and not by the grace of God. 




4io 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



Under the influence of religious fanaticism, he believed himself appointed by 
Providence to reinstate the Bourbons and to overthrow the " apocalyptic 
animal." When Prussia and Russia concluded peace with the usurper, he 
dismissed their ambassadors from Stockholm, and by this means brought 
down on his people untold misfortune. The French conquered Stralsund and 
the island of Riigen in February, 1807, and took from the Swedes their last 
possessions in Germany ; while the Russians penetrated into Finland and 
easily gained possession of this favourably situated country. The English 
now offered to send their fleet to the protection of Denmark ; but this sugges- 
tion was indignantly declined by the king. An English fleet then appeared 
in the Sound, bombarded Copenhagen from the 2nd to the 5th of September, 
1807, did great damage to the town, and carried off the Danish vessels. This 
breach of international justice produced such strong feeling in Denmark that 
the Crown Prince Frederick, who was reigning in the name of his insane 
father, entered into a close alliance with France, and declared war on the 
English and their ally, the king of Sweden. The other powers also took up 
a position hostile to England, and Gustavus IV. of Sweden remained the 
only British ally. The Russians were already approaching the capital, and the 
Swedish frontiers were already threatened by the Danes, when a conspiracy 
was formed, in consequence of which Gustavus was imprisoned, and was 
compelled to resign his throne. A hastily assembled diet then declared that 
Gustavus IV. and his descendants had forfeited the crown, and proclaimed 
his uncle, Charles XIII., of Sudermania, king. This revolution was quickly 
followed by a peace with Russia, Denmark, and France. 

To the Russians Sweden made over Finland and some islands, while it 
got back from France its Pomeranian possessions. The choice of a successor 
to the throne, rendered necessary by the advanced age of the childless king, 
fell ultimately on Bernadotte, who had won great favour during the Prussian 
war by his humane treatment of the Swedish troops. He was declared 
successor to the Swedish throne (August, 1810), and after joining the 
Lutheran Church, was adopted by Charles XIII. 








THE PENINSULAR, AUSTRIAN, AND 

WARS, 1808-1812. 



RUSSIAN 



AFFAIRS OF THE PENINSULA, PORTUGAL. PROCEEDINGS AT BAYONNE. 
CARLOS IV., PRINCE FERDINAND, AND GODOY. THE PENINSULAR 
WAR. BAYLEN. ROLICA AND VIMIERO. CONVENTION OF CINTRA. 
SARAGOSSA. SIR JOHN MOORE'S DISASTER. TALAVERA. SALA- 
MANCA. VITTORIA. ADVANCE INTO FRANCE. NAPOLEON AND THE 
POPE. WAR OF 1809, WITH AUSTRIA. HOFER AND THE TYROL. 
MAGDEBURG. VICTORY OF WAGRAM. TREATY OF SCHONBRUNN. 
NAPOLEON'S DIVORCE. MARRIAGE WITH MARIA LOUISA. WAR WITH 
RUSSIA, 1812. SMOLENSK. BATTLE OF BORODINO. BURNING OF 
Moscow. DISASTROUS RETREAT. DESTRUCTION OF THE FRENCH 
ARMY. 

^ 

EVENTS IN THE PYRENEAN PENINSULA, PORTUGAL. 

APOLEON'S efforts were now directed to the subjuga- 
tion of the Pyrenean Peninsula, and to gaining posses- 
sion of the still unconquered States in Italy. The 
refusal of the Portuguese government to renounce its 
alliance with England afforded the Emperor the desired 
opportunity for despatching an army, under Marshal 
Junot, into Portugal, with the connivance of the all- 
powerful Spanish minister, Godoy. The court at Lisbon 
did not await the arrival of the enemy, but immediately 
escaped with all its treasures, in English ships, to Brazil ; when Junot, who 
was appointed Duke of Abrantes, obtained possession of the capital and of the 
whole country, imposed heavy war-taxes, and declared, in the name of his 
sovereign, that "the House of Braganza had ceased to reign" (February, 
1808). 

The Game of Intrigue at Bayonne. In the Treaty of Fontainebleau, the 
dishonourable Godoy, who, through the unbounded weakness of Charles IV., 
had become the supreme head of the administration, and the practical ruler 




412 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



of Spain, delivered his country entirely into the hands of Napoleon. The East 
and West of Spain were already occupied by 100,000 French soldiers, when 
the intriguer Godoy, apprehensive of these warlike preparations, and trembling 
before the wrath of the people, formed the design of escaping with the court 
to America. A popular insurrection, however, broke out at Madrid. The 
palace of the hated Prince of Peace was plundered, and he himself was 
threatened with death (March, 1808). Terrified at the danger which beset his 
favourite, the weak king, Charles IV., endeavoured to pacify the popular 
wrath by resigning the throne in favour of his eldest son, Ferdinand, who, as 
the enemy of Godoy, was beloved by the people. Napoleon, however, who 
desired to make Spain a feudal kingdom for his family, commenced the 
formation of a scheme for the overthrow of this arrangement. In compliance 
with his invitation, the old royal pair, the Prince of Peace, and Ferdinand, met 
together for a personal interview at Bayonne, where the weak-minded Charles 
IV. allowed himself to be persuaded to withdraw his resignation of the throne, 
but only to renounce it again both for himself and his descendants in favour 
of Napoleon and his family. The irresolute Ferdinand was also induced to 
consent to this piece of diplomatic strategy, and lived henceforward in France, 
in the enjoyment of an annuity. Napoleon then caused his brother Joseph to 
be declared King of Spain (June 6th, 1808), and endeavoured by a liberal form 
of government to win the good graces of the people ; but a terrible insurrection 
at Madrid proved that the nation would not submit so easily to foreign 
despotism as the impotent royal house. 




FONTAINEBLEAU. 



THE PENINSULAR, AUSTRIAN, AND RUSSIAN WARS. 



413 



THE PENINSULAR WAR. 




E 



VEN before Joseph Bonaparte, after yielding the 
kingdom of Naples to his brother-in-law Murat, 
had made his triumphant entry into Madrid, the 
people had already given evidence of their hatred 
of the new order of things by the establishment of 
juntas in the most important towns, and by bloody 
rebellions against the French. With astonishment 
did Europe behold the unaccustomed sight of a 
national war, extending from Spain to Portugal, 
which could not be repressed by Napoleon's brave 
warriors. It is true that Bessieres gained a brilliant 
victory over the undisciplined native troops at 
Medina del Rio-Secco on the I4th of July, 1808, 
and it appeared as though even the resistance of the 
Spanish people would only increase the triumph of 
the warlike Emperor when the news was spread 
abroad of Dupont's capitulation at Baylen (22nd of 
July), through which twenty thousand Frenchmen 
were made prisoners of war, and for the most part perished miserably. This 
success filled the nation with enthusiasm. The French armies retired across 
the Ebro ; and when soon afterwards the intelligence arrived that in Portugal 
also the French would have been obliged to yield to the united forces o*f 
the Junta and the English, commanded by Sir Arthur Wellesley, Moore, 
Napier, and other generals, and would have experienced a fate similar to that 
of Dupont's army, had not the English, in the capitulation of Cintra, con- 
sented to the free withdrawal of Junot's troops, the cause of the French in the 
Pyrenean Peninsula appeared to be lost. 

The Constitution from tlie Year 1812. 111 could Napoleon's pride brook the 
thought of his armies retreating before unpractised troops, and leaving a clear 
field to the hated English ; therefore, after strengthening his forces with fresh 
recruits, he himself marched, at the head of a powerful, well-equipped army, 
across the Pyrenees. The Spaniards were now easily overpowered ; and the 
Emperor, after a few weeks, was able to march into Madrid and re-instate his 
brother on the throne. In the meantime Saragossa was taken, after the most 
desperate resistance (2ist December, 1808), and Palafox was carried, a prisoner, 
to France. The English armies confined themselves to the defence oi 
Portugal, after Moore's heroic conflict and death at Corunna (i6th January), 
and Wellesley's victory at Talavera (28th of July, 1809), had proved that 
the British land troops were not inferior in spirit and bravery to the naval 
forces. 

Seville, also, and the whole of Andalusia, with Granada, fell into the 
hands of the French. Nevertheless Spain did not yield. The warlike spirit 
of the ancient Spaniards was re-awakened ; and while the national government 
at Cadiz thundered forth its decrees against Joseph and his adherents, and, by 
convening a national representation, introduced the Constitution of the Cortes, 
which bore such an important influence on the future of Spain, bold guerilla 
leaders kept warlike ardour, fanaticism, and self-confidence awake among the 
people. 

Issue of the Peninsular War. When, in the year 1809, the new war with 
Austria summoned the Emperor from Spain, he left behind him a numerous 



THE PENINSULAR, AUSTRIAN, AND RUSSIAN WARS. 



415 



army, which, under the most capable leaders Soult, Massena, Suchet, Ney, 
etc. marched through the different provinces and increased the renown of 
the French arms. But victories did but augment the hatred to the French ; 
guerilla warfare was carried on more and more fiercely, and the greatest feats 
of heroism accomplished by Napoleon's practised soldiers did not avail to 
bring about the peaceful possession of the country. The Russian campaign 
compelled the Emperor to lessen the Spanish army, while the British troops 
were increased, and with Wellington as commander-in-chief, made their way 
into Spain. After Marmont's defeat at Salamanca (July 22nd, 1812) by Wel- 
lington, the English occupied Madrid, and expelled the French king ; and 




WELLINGTON. 



though Joseph was afterwards reinstated for a time, he was ultimately obliged 
to quit Spanish soil. There now followed the brilliant victory of Vittoria, on 
the 2 1st of June, 1813, after which Wellington pursued the fugitives across 
the Pyrenees, repulsed Soult near Orthez, and invested Bordeaux. Heroically 
did the warlike marshal resist the advancing enemy near Toulouse, even on the 
loth of April, when the allies were already encamped on the Champs Elysees 
at Paris. Napoleon's overthrow brought the hypocritical Ferdinand VII. 
again to the throne ; but the nation, which had purchased the liberty of the 
country with its heart-blood, reaped but a poor reward. 

Capture of the Pope. The refusal of the Pope to exclude English ships 



4i6 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



from the harbours of the States of the Church, and to enter into an alliance 
with France, had so offended the Emperor, that he not only threatened him 
with the confiscation of all the lands which his "distinguished ancestor," 
Charlemagne, had conferred upon the Bishop of Rome, but he also made 
demands, the granting of which would have materially lessened the spiritual 
power of the Prince of the Church. When Pius VII. met these demands with 
a decided refusal, Napoleon took forcible possession of Ancona, Urbino, and 
other districts of the Church States, and united them with the kingdom of 
Italy. The Emperor then issued a decree declaring the cessation of the tem- 
poral power of the Pope (i6th of May, 1809), caused him to be carried off by 
force from Rome to Savona, and annexed the Church States to the French 
territory. This violent proceeding brought down on the Emperor the ana- 
thema of the Church, which, though it was generally regarded with contempt, 
was not without its effect in Spain. 

After the Russian campaign, the Emperor succeeded in inducing the Pope 
to agree to a Concordat, by which the Pope was deprived of the power of 
appointing bishops at his pleasure. But the overthrow of the powerful con- 
queror brought about the liberation of the Prince of the Church and the 
restoration of the Church States. 





STREET IN VIENNA. 

NAPOLEON'S SECOND WAR WITH AUSTRIA (1809). 

ATRIOTIC impulses had arisen in Austria. The 
Spanish war had filled the Vienna Cabinet, in which 
the vigorous and patriotic Count Stadion was the 
leader, with the hope of regaining its lost power by 
a new coalition ; and in April, 1809, Austria renewed 
the war with France, while its armies penetrated 
into Bavaria, Italy, and the dukedom of Warsaw, 
where the Russians, as the allies of Napoleon, and 
the Poles, under Poniatowski, were threatening 
Galicia. Napoleon now advanced with a large 






THE PENINSULAR, AUSTRIAN, AND RUSSIAN WARS. 41? 

army down the Danube, repulsed the enemy in a succession of victories at 
Hausen, Abensberg, Landshut, etc., and marched for the second time into the 
heart of Austria. On the loth of May the French Emperor stood before the 
walls of the capital, which after three days he entered s victor, and appealed 
to the Hungarians to choose another king, and win back their old indepen- 
dence. When, however, the French army endeavoured to cross the river from 
the island of Lobau, they met with such resistance in the two days' battle of 
Aspern and Esslingen (May 2ist and 22nd, 1809), that they were compelled to 
desist from their attempt. This murderous though indecisive battle shook for 
the first time the belief in Napoleon's invincibility, and raised the confidence 
of the oppressed people. Not till the Emperor had obtained fresh reinforce- 
ments and Eugene Beauharnais had joined the main army, did the French 
army once more attempt and this time with more success to cross the 
Danube, and compel the archduke Charles, after the horrible battle of Wagram 
(5th July), to withdraw. The losses on both sides were nearly equal ; and as 
the French had now lost their finest soldiers and most skilful officers, it was 
only through Napoleon's unsurpassed military talents that victory still re- 
mained with his banner. The armed truce of Znaim, which was concluded a 
few days later, liberated the Emperor from a critical position. The Peace of 
Vienna, which was arranged on the I4th of October, again diminished the em- 
pire of Austria, and compelled the government to join the Continental system 
and to recognise the new constitution of Italy. 

The Popular War in the Tyrol The mountainous region of the Tyrol, 
whose honest, simple inhabitants were faithfully attached to Austria, had 
fallen, in the Peace of Presburg, to Bavaria. A change in the organization of 
the government, combined with increased taxation and the tyranny of officials, 
at last roused such discontent and hostile feeling, that it was not difficult for 
the Austrians, on the renewed outbreak of the war, to persuade the Tyrolese 
by fair promises to rebel against the French and the Bavarians. By means of 
reliable messengers a secret negotiation was formed with Archduke John, the 
beloved prince of the mountain land. At the head of the insurgents was 
Andreas Hofer, " the bearded," a man of great authority among his country- 
men, both on account of his bodily strength and bravery, as well as his religious 
zeal, his patriotic temper, and his steadfast and upright character. With him 
were associated the historian of the war, Hormayr, the bold and crafty Speck- 
bacher, Martin Teimer, a good patriot, and Joseph Straub. With festive 
processions, joyful acclamations, and the ringing of bells, the Tyrolese received 
the Austrian troops as their liberators ; and like lightning the insurrection 
thrilled throughout the whole country. Soon the Bavarian and French 
troops, after an unsuccessful battle near Sterzing (nth April, 1809), withdrew 
towards Innsbruck, revenging their defeat as they went by devastations and 
outrages. The Bavarian garrison of the capital was compelled to surrender 
after the bravest resistance ; and the energetic commander, Ditfurth, was 
taken prisoner. This was followed by a disgraceful capitulation, by the French 
general, Bisson, and at the same time the hated foreign yoke was thrown off,, 
and Trient and Roveredo were wrested from the French. All Europe looked 
on with amazement at the heroic deeds of a peasant people who, within five 
days, had freed their country from its oppressors, and, without having^ stained 
the victory with any cruelty or violence, had restored its old constitution, and 
had again formed its broken alliance with Austria. But the delight in these 
victories was of short duration. Fresh troops were despatched by the enemy 
under Wrede and Lefebvre. The Bavarians stormed the bravely defended 

II. E E 



4 i8 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

Innsbruck ; and finally the capital with the north of the Tyrol fell into the 
hands of the French and Bavarians, who on the iQth of May made their entry 
into Innsbruck. 

Andreas Hofer again rallied his troops, however, for a renewed attack ; 
and after the victorious battle of Inselberg, the Tyrolese once more gained 
possession of the capital. Shortly afterwards the armed truce of Znaim was 
declared, and for a time a delusive hope of security prevailed, until the 
Austrians retired, abandoning the country to the French and Bavarians, whose 
revengeful proclamations were soon confirmed by deeds of terror and savage 
cruelty. 

Driven to desperation, the deceived people for the third time took up 
arms. Bloody vengeance now awaited the enemy. At Brixen (August 1st), 
and again at the Pontlatzer Bridge, the French forces were completely routed, 
and on August i$th the innkeeper of Passeyr marched for the third time into 
Innsbruck, and, as an Imperial " chief commander " in the Tyrol, ruled the 
country according to the old custom. But the dream of independence was of 
short duration : when, after the conclusion of the Peace of Vienna, the enemy 
with strong reinforcements attacked the unfortunate country simultaneously 
on three sides, and revenged the slaughter of their allies and brothers in arms, 
by savage outrages and depredations, the resistance of the brave people was 
broken at last. Innsbruck fell again into the hands of the Bavarians. Speck- 
bacher and other leaders took refuge in flight, but Hofer was at last captured, 
and by Eugene's orders was shot at Mantua (February, 1810). " Base, con- 
temptible world," he wrote a few hours before his death ; " so easy does death 
seem to me, that my eyes have never once moistened." He died with the 
courage of a hero and a martyr, and his memory was held in reverence by 
his countrymen. The Tyrol was divided into three parts, of which one fell to 
the kingdom of Italy, the other to Illyria, while the third remained in the 
possession of Bavaria. Thus were the brave mountaineers sacrificed, and 
surrendered with bound hands into the power of their three-times vanquished 
adversaries. 

Foreshadowings of the North German War. Rash and foolhardy as were 
the attempts made about this time to throw off the foreign yoke of servitude 
in different districts of North Germany, yet they were of significance as proofs 
of the deep discontent which everywhere prevailed, and of the longing for 
deliverance. This feeling was especially fostered by the Tugendbund, or bond 
of virtue, to which belonged many men who were filled with patriotism, and 
eager to throw off the foreign despotism. A conspiracy was formed which 
spread through the whole of Westphalia, and penetrated even to Prussia, 
and which was intended to promote, by simultaneous insurrections, the enter- 
prises of Austria. While the Prussian officer Von Katt made preparations 
for taking possession of the fortress of Magdeburg, the commander-in-chief 
Dornberg, who had formerly been in the Prussian service, and had then been 
appointed by Jerome commander of his forces, was to take the king of West- 
phalia prisoner, and to bring back the elector. Both attempts failed ; but 
through Jerome's mild and conciliatory policy, the enterprise passed off with- 
out any disastrous effects. The failure of the Hessian rebellion did not how- 
ever deter the young and courageous Schill, who was initiated into the plans 
of Katt and Dornberg, from attempting a similar enterprise. Confiding in 
the popular favour, which he had largely excited, he believed himself sum- 
moned to bring about the overthrow of foreign supremacy. Deceived by 
the false intelligence of Austrian victories, he marched with his devoted 



THE PENINSULAR, AUSTRIAN, AND RUSSIAN WARS. 419 

troops to Dessau and Halle, disarmed a small Westphalian garrison, and en- 
gaged in a successful battle with a French commander at Dodendorf, not far 
from Magdeburg (May 5, 1809). But the news of the Austrian disasters, 
the people's fear of the great Emperor, and the disapproval of the king, 
had a paralysing effect on the enterprise. After the successful battle near 
Damgarten, Schill took possession of the strong town of Stralsund, deter- 
mined to make it another Saragossa, or to maintain his position there against 
the enemy until he effected his embarkation to England. But being sur- 
rounded by General Gratien and a besieging army, he fell at the storming of 
the town, after the most determined struggle, while his followers were taken 
prisoners. The officers, eleven in number, were sentenced to be shot, and 
underwent their tragic fate with heroic fortitude. Chained two and two 
together, they awaited, standing and with uncovered eyes, the fire of the 
enemy's guns ; they cheered for their King, and then gave the word to fire. 
The next moment ten lay on the ground ; the eleventh was only wounded 
in the arm ; he tore open his vest, and pointing to his heart, called out : 
" Here, grenadiers ! " A moment later, he also was dead. 

William of Braunschweig. More fortunate was Duke Frederick William 
of Braunschweig, a man of passionate, excitable nature, whom the fate of his 
family, his father's terrible end, and his wife's death, had rendered morose 
and sinister. He hated in Napoleon the author of his public and private 
misfortunes ; and the feud in which he was engaged was both for asserting the 
cause of Germany, and at the same time was a war of revenge of quite a 
personal kind. Supported by Austrian troops, under general Am Ende, the 
duke invaded Saxony, to induce the people to ally themselves with Austria. 
But his enterprise led to no permanent success ; he was repulsed by King 
Jerome, and by Junot, until the truce of Znaim deprived him of the support 
of Austria, and paralysed his efforts. He however attempted to get as- 
sistance from England, and in furtherance of this scheme, made his way 
through Hanover and embarked for Heligoland, whence his " black men " 
escaped in British ships to England (Aug., 1809), to await a more favourable 
opportunity. Not only in the North, but in the southern states of the Rhine 
Confederation, an intense feeling was shown by all the people during this 
war, and an earnest desire for liberation from the hated yoke of the foreign 
despot. 

It was about this period that the English, with 40,000 men and 144 heavy 
guns, landed on the island of Walcheren, in order to take possession of 
Antwerp and the mouth of the Scheldt ; but the enterprise was so badly 
conducted, that the destruction of the fortified works of Flushing was the 
only result of the costly enterprise. Castlereagh and Canning had such a 
violent dispute with regard to this affair, that a duel took place between 
them. Fouche, who, by a proclamation which offended the Emperor, had 
summoned the French national guard for the defence of the Netherlands, 
fell into disfavour, and lost his ministerial post, as Talleyrand had previously 
done when he expressed disapproval of Napoleon's proceedings towards 
Spain. 

After the Peace of Vienna, Napoleon stood at the summit of his power 
and greatness. The thought of having no heir alone tormented him ; and in 
consequence of this, he caused himself to be divorced from his much-loved 
Empress Josephine, and espoused Maria Louisa, daughter of the Emperor of 
Austria. When, in the following year, a son was born to him, who bore the 
ostentatious title of a king of Rome, his good fortune appeared complete 



420 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



and the future of France decided ; while the hopes of the Bourbons, on the 
other hand, seemed destroyed for ever. Yet pride and ambition still urged 
on the insatiable man to fresh enterprises, and made his name the terror 
both of princes and of peoples ; while a terrible system of police repressed the 
last remnant of liberty at home, and .threatened every suspected person with 
arbitrary imprisonment in the numerous state prisons. Towards England, 
which alone remained unsubdued, and rejected all proposals of peace, the 
whole wrath of the despot was directed ; and as he believed he could vanquish 
it only by the destruction of its trade with the Continent, the continental 
restrictions, to the despair of the commercial and trading classes, were made 
still more severe. Only through the purchase of licences could ships bring 
foreign products, such as indigo, cochineal, skins, etc., which were used in 
inland industries, into French harbours. These measures threatened the 
prosperity of the kingdom of Holland ; and king Louis, who felt for the 
calamities of his people, vainly appealed to his brother to lessen the restric- 
tions of the commercial embargo. Napoleon followed up his refusal by 
despatching an armed naval force to watch the Dutch coasts, and finally 
united Zealand and north Brabant with the French Empire. This ill-treat- 
ment of a people who had hitherto sacrificed their lives and property for 
their powerful neighbour, excited the anger of the humane Louis. With 
reluctance, he resigned, in favour of his son, a throne which he could no 
longer fill with honour, but by so doing gave the Emperor the opportunity, 
in spite of his brother's stipulations, of uniting the kingdom of Holland with 
France in July, 1810. 




KING OF ROME. 



THE PENINSULAR, AUSTRIAN, AND RUSSIAN WARS. 421 





BURNING OF MOSCOW. 

THE WAR WITH RUSSIA (1812). 

NFORTUNATELY, the extension of the French 
territory to the coast of the Baltic, by which the 
Duke of Oldenburg, a near relative of the Russian 
Imperial house, was deprived of his dominion, 
was a severe blow to the friendship of Alexander 
and Napoleon. The breach between the two 
courts was soon shown in the excited language 
of diplomatists, and was further increased by 
Alexander establishing a new tariff which inter- 
fered with the import of French goods, while it 
favoured English merchandise. At this the wrath of the proud Emperor 
broke forth anew, and a fresh war was immediately projected. 

In May, 1812, Napoleon appeared with his wife at Dresden, where all the 
princes of the Rhenish Confederation, as well as the Emperor of Austria and 
King of Prussia, met together to pay their homage to the powerful ruler, who 
now summoned half Europe to take up arms against Russia. At the head of 
one division of an immense army he set out in the following June across the 
Niemen, and marched into Wilna, the former capital of Lithuania. The ap- 
pearance of the French awakened the repressed national feeling of the Poles, 
and they enthusiastically greeted Napoleon as their deliverer, while the Diet 
of Warsaw proclaimed the restoration of the kingdom of Poland ; and in spite 
of the Emperor's declaration that he could not, out of regard for Austria, 
consent to the revival of the old republic in its whole extent, the Polish army, 
under Poniatowski and other leaders, took up arms to do battle with the 
hereditary enemy of their nation. 

Moscow, " the heart of Russia," was Napoleon's goal ; but the first battle 
took place at Smolensk (August, 1812), and though Bloody was indecisive. 
The Russians quitted the town in the night, burning it to the ground. A 
council of war was now held ; but though many voices were raised against 
continuing the expedition, Napoleon insisted on the conquest of Moscow, and 



422 , THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

set out across the Dnieper. Souvarrov's comrade in arms, Kutusoff, was now 
appointed commandant-in-chief of the Russian troops, in place of the former 
general, Barclay, and the struggle soon developed into a national war. 
Everywhere the inhabitants escaped before the on-pressing enemy, having 
first set fire to their dwellings and villages. Terribly was the mighty army 
diminished by hunger, disease, and the attacks of the enemy. The sacred city 
of Moscow had now to be defended at all costs, if Kutusoff would not lose 
the popular favour. The battle of Borodino, on the Moskwa, was fought on 
the 7th of September, in which, though the French maintained the field, the 
Russians were able to retire in order. Over 70,000 dead and wounded 
covered the battle-field ; and Ney, " prince of the Moskwa," was the hero of 
the day. On the 14th of September, the French marched into the old capital 
of Moscow, which had previously been deserted by the nobility and well- 
to-do citizens, most of the houses being left empty, and the populace only 
remaining in possession of the town. Even on their entry a secret horror 
took possession of the soldiers at the silence around them ; but who can 
describe their terror, when the four-days' burning of Moscow which, in the 
absence of any means of extinguishing the flames, soon developed into a sea 
of fire, laid nine-tenths of the wooden-built town in ashes, together with the 
ancient Kremlin, which Napoleon had selected for his residence, and with one 
blow destroyed all their hopes. The governor, Rostopschin, had given the 
order for this horrible deed without the command of the Emperor, in order to 
deprive the great army of their winter quarters, and to compel them to a 
disastrous retreat. Napoleon, with incredible blindness, allowed himself to be 
detained for thirty-four days at Moscow by the delusive hope of a peace, 
without perceiving that Kutusoff sought to delay him till the beginning of 
winter, that the cold might destroy his ill-clad and unprotected soldiers. The 
Russian general attained his object. At the end of October, the disastrous 
retreat was commenced, which has no equal in the annals of warfare. After the 
horrible battle of Malo-Jaroslavetz (October 24), the French army struck out 
a path across the blood-stained battle-field of Borodino towards Smolensk. 
Who can picture all the sufferings, struggles, and obstacles by which this 
great army was gradually exterminated ! Famine, frost, and weariness made 
even greater devastations than the balls of the Russians or the lances of the 
Cossacks. When, about the middle of November, Smolensk was at last 
reached, the army still numbered about 40,000 soldiers ; but the greatest 
misery was still to come, for through faulty arrangements the expected supply 
of arms and provisions was not forthcoming ; and the Russians, strengthened 
with fresh reinforcements, waylaid them at every step. The hero of the retreat 
was Ney, the leader of the rear-guard, the "bravest of the brave" ; his passage 
over the frozen Dnieper in the night-time, watched by the Russians, was one of 
the boldest deeds in the history of the world. On the 25th of November, the 
army reached the memorable river Beresina, which was crossed in full view 
of the enemy, into whose hands fell 18,000 stragglers, while many perished in 
the ice-cold stream, or were trodden to death in the press. On the 3rd of 
December Napoleon despatched the famous bulletin which brought to his 
expectant people, who had been for months without any intelligence, the 
news that the Emperor was well, but that the great army was as good as 
destroyed. Two days afterwards he surrendered the chief command to 
Murat, and hastened to Paris to make fresh preparations. 




THE FALL OF NAPOLEON. 1813-1815. 

PERILOUS POSITION OF THE EMPIRE. CAMPAIGN OF 1813. BATTLES OF 
LUTZEN, WURTZEN, AND BAUTZEN. ARMISTICE VICTORY OF 
NAPOLEON AT DRESDEN. GREAT BATTLE OF LEIPSIC. CAMPAIGN 
OF 1814. THE ALLIES IN PARIS. ABDICATION OF NAPOLEON. 
ACCESSION OF Louis XVIII. CONGRESS OF VIENNA. ERRORS OF 
THE GOVERNMENT. 1815. RETURN OF NAPOLEON FROM ELBA. 
THE 100 DAYS. LIGNY AND WATERLOO SECOND RESTORATION 
OF THE BOURBONS. NAPOLEON'S CAPTIVITY AND DEATH. 

NAPOLEON'S OVERTHROW. 

k { OW Talleyrand's reported observation, that the 
Russian campaign " was the beginning of the 
end " soon proved itself true. On the 3Oth of 
December, 1812, the Prussian General York, who 
was serving on the coast of the Baltic under 
Macdonald, concluded the treaty of Tauroggen 
with the Russian general Diebitsch, and abstained 
with his troops from further conflict. This was 
soon followed by the alliance concluded be- 
tween Prussia and Russia, for the liberation of 
Europe by means of a mutual struggle with France. The summons to arms 
was received throughout Prussia with enthusiasm, and in March the French 
had already quitted Berlin, and the Russian general Wittgenstein and Count 
York, who had been reinstated in his military honours, took possession of the 
capital. 

In the first battles near Gross-Gorschen and near Bautzen, the French, it is 
true, held their own on the battle-field ; but the heroic courage of the young 

423 




424 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

German warriors proved to the enemy that another spirit than that which had 
animated them at Jena had come over the Prussians. For the first time a 
dim foreboding as to the vicissitudes of life appeared to creep into Napoleon's 
breast. But pride and arrogance carried him on. He, however, agreed to 
the truce of Plaswitz in order to gain time for making fresh levies, which 
afforded Austria an opportunity for concluding the treaty of Reichenbach 
with Russia, Prussia, and England. On the I2th of August Austria formally 
declared war against France ; and though Napoleon was once more triumphant 
in the battle of Dresden (August 26 and 27) yet the expected fruits of this 
victory, which forced the allied army to retreat to Bohemia, were destroyed, 
first, by Bliicher's glorious battle on the Katzbach (August 26th) in Silesia, 
with Macdonald ; secondly, by the surrounding and taking prisoner of the 
energetic general Vandamme, with 10,000 Frenchmen, in the battle of Culm 
in Bohemia (August 29 and 30) ; thirdly, by the brilliant exploits of the 
Prussian-Swedish army in the two battles of Gross-Beeren (August 25) and 
Dednewitz (Sept. 6) under Bernadotte, Billow, Tauenzien, etc., which frus- 
trated the intended capture of Berlin by Marshals Oudinot and Ney; and 
fourthly, by the battle of Hagelsberg (August 27), where the brave volunteers 
under Hirschfeld cut down the troops of Girard, consisting of French, 
Italians, and Westphalians. A few weeks afterwards the union of the 
Silesian army with the army of the North took the place ; after which Count 
York, supported by the brave general Horn, forced his passage across the 
Elbe in the face of the enemy, and gained the brilliant victory of Warten- 
burg on October the 3rd. 

Leipsic. In the autumn the issue of the great struggle became hardly 
more doubtful ; the German troops, in part, deserted Napoleon's banner, and 
went over to their countrymen ; while the appearance of a Russian army 
before Cassel compelled King Jerome to take flight temporarily from his 
capital, and Bavaria joined the allies. In October the allied armies took tip 
their position in the plains of Leipsic, the Austrians under the Prince of 
Schwarzenberg, the Russians under Barclay, Wittgenstein, etc., the Prussians 
under Bliicher, York, and Billow, and the Swedes under Bernadotte. The 
combined forces numbered 300,000 men, 100,000 more than the French army. 
The bloody battle of Liebertwolkwitz was a worthy prelude of the great 
decisive battle which was to follow. In vain did the crowned warrior, whom 
the god of war had so often favoured, display his unsurpassed talent for 
generalship on the plains of Leipzic ; in vain did his most distinguished 
generals, Ney, Murat, Augerau, Macdonald, the Pole Poniatowsky and 
others exert their utmost powers, the three-days' battle of Leipsic (16, 17, 
1 8 Oct.) was the grave of the French Empire. 

Pursued by the enemy, the French reached the Rhine through Erfurt in 
hasty marches. The troops were exhausted and hungry ; and their sullen 
humour was already partly directed against the author of all their misery. 
Napoleon himself, whose proud and unemotional demeanour had hitherto 
remained unmoved, was now shaken, his mien showed his depression. At 
Hanau, General Wrede, with an army of Bavarians and Austrians, barred the 
progress of the fugitives, who, with heavy losses, forced their way through 
Frankfort to the Rhine. But the unfortunate soldiers all bore within them 
the germs of deadly disease ; and even before the end of the year half of 
them died in overflowing hospitals. 

Results of tJie Battle of Leipsic. In Germany the battle of Leipsic had 
wrought a great transformation. The dissolution of the kingdom of West- 



THE FALL OF NAPOLEON. 



425 



phalia, the return of the elector of Hesse, and the dukes of Brunswick and 
Oldenburg to their States, were the first consequences of this memorable 
catastrophe. The Confederation of the Rhine was dissolved ; Wurtemberg, 
Baden, Hesse-Darmstadt, Nassau, concluded treaties with Austria, and placed 
their troops under the banners of the Allies. Denmark, since 1807, Napoleon's 
most faithful ally, could not resist the combined attacks of its neighbouring 
enemies. It renounced the French alliance in the Peace of Kiel (i4th Jan., 
1714), and agreed to the cession of Norway to Sweden, and of Heligoland to 
England, while in return it received the dukedom of Lauenberg from Prussia. 
In Italy also the governments of Napoleon were overthrown. The vice-king 
Eugene, after a brave resistance, yielded the field to the Austrians, who also 
gained possession of the plentiful plains of Lombardy. The grand-duke 
Ferdinand returned to Tuscany, and the Church-State received back again 




THE COSSACKS IN FRANCE, IN 1814. 

the much-tried Pope, Pius VII. The return of the old man from his French 
imprisonment resembled a triumphal procession. 

Napoleon's last Struggle (1814). In Frankfort the allied monarchs, with 
their ministers and generals, held council together as to whether they should 
cross the German "boundary stream." A draft of a peace was however 
ultimately drawn up, and presented to the French Emperor, in which he was 
assured of the possession of France within its natural boundaries, the Rhine, 
the Alps, and the Pyrenees, if he would consent to the independence of 
Germany, Holland, and Italy, and to the restoration of the ancient dynasty in 
Spain. When only a dubious and undecided answer was given to this ulti- 
matum, it was finally decided to cross the Rhine, chiefly at the instigation 
of the Baron von Stein, a great and enlightened statesman, who had much 
influence on the Emperor Alexander. On New Year's Day, 1814, Bliicher 



426 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



crossed the Rhine between Mannheim and Coblentz, while Schwarzenberg 
with the main army marched through Switzerland to the south-east of 
France. The Pyrenees were crossed by the English from Spain, and the 
kingdom of Italy was threatened by Austria. 

In Champagne the armies of Bliicher formed a junction with that of 
Schwarzenberg ; and the victory of La Rothiere, which followed on the bloody 
but indecisive conflict of Brienne, promised the Allies a speedily successful 
issue. The French army, despairing of the Emperor's further success, lost 
courage. Now, however, the genius of the great general once more shone 
forth with all its former splendour. Leaving only a small number of troops 







DEFENCE OF PARIS. 

to encounter Schwarzenberg's army, he attacked, with his remaining forces, 
Blucher's victorious Silesian troops, defeated them within five days in five 
successive battles, and compelled them to retreat. Negotiations for peace 
were entered upon, and an arrangement was nearly arrived at, but Napoleon's 
double-dealing frustrated it Presently, Bliicher succeeded in gaining some 
advantages over the weakened French army at Craonne and Laon, on the 
7th and gth of March. The Allies saw the opportunity the enemy's exhaus- 
tion gave them. A march upon Paris and the dethronement of Napoleon 
were decided on. The battle of Arcis-sur-Aube on March 2Oth and 2ist, 
soon convinced the French Emperor that his diminished and exhausted 
army could no longer make head against the serried and well-appointed 



THE FALL OF NAPOLEON. 427 

legions of the enemy ; and this conviction rendered him undecided as to his 
course. Suddenly he marched to the defence of Paris, where his presence 
was so much needed ; but he could only get as far as Fontainebleau before 
he heard that the capital had surrendered. The unappreciated Carnot, who 
had formerly rejected the favour of the powerful ruler, now offered his 
assistance to the Emperor, who confided to him the defence of the citadel 
of Antwerp, made his disheartened brother Joseph commander-in-chief of the 
national guard, appointed the Empress head of the regency, and allowed men 
of small capacity to fill the most important offices in the State. Scarcely, 
however, had the enemy's army stormed Montmartre on the 3Oth of March, 
before Joseph resigned his authority in favour of Mortier and Marmont, and 
quitted the threatened capital. The two marshals were compelled, after the 
most heroic efforts, to yield to the superior force of the enemy, and surrender 
the town by treaty. 

Then followed the entry of the Allies into Paris, on the 3ist of March, 1814. 



ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NEW GOVERNMENT. 



^REMATURELY abandoning her post, the Empress, 
P== Marie Louise, had already repaired to Blois with 
her little son, the King of Rome, and her ministers, 
and by so doing had facilitated the efforts made 
by the cunning Talleyrand in the interests of the 
exiled royal family. The regency at Blois soon 
lost all power and authority when the Emperor 
Alexander took up his abode in Talleyrand's 
palace, and allowed himself to be swayed by the 
counsels of the wise and astute diplomatist. Great 
efforts were now made by the returning emigrants 
to awaken the sympathies of the people for the old royal family; and on the 
ist of April, the Senators present in Paris proclaimed the dethronement of 
Napoleon ; and a provisional government was formed with Talleyrand at its 
head. The prevailing sentiment of the nation (especially in the south and 
west) appeared to favour the restoration of the legitimate royal family. 

Napoleon's Abdication. In the meantime Napoleon tarried at Fontainebleau, 
helplessly vacillating between different plans, until the news of Marmont's 
desertion made him resolve to abdicate the throne in favour of his son. But 
this conditional resignation was not accepted by the Allies ; and the Emperor 
was at last obliged, on the 7th of April, 1814, to sign an unconditional act of 
abdication, as drawn up by the European Powers. He was awarded the 
island of Elba, with an annual income of 2,000,000 francs and permission to 
keep 400 of his faithful guard around him. The Duchy of Parma was con- 
ferred on the Empress, with hereditary succession for her son, the Duke de 
Reichstadt, who died in 1832; Josephine, who only survived these events a 
few weeks, and all the members of the Bonapartist family received handsome 
dowries and princely titles. 

On the 2Oth of April Napoleon took a touching farewell of the grenadiers 
of his guard at Fontainebleau, and then set out for the south coast, pursued 
with scoffing derision by the same people who, in the following year, were 




428 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

again to receive him with acclamation and delight. On the 4th of May he 
landed at Elba. The only generals who remained faithful to the Emperor, 
even after his good fortune had deserted him, were Bertrand and Macdonald. 

Soon after the departure of Napoleon, to the delight of the people, who 
were weary of warfare, the first Peace of Paris was concluded (3Oth of May, 
1814), in accordance with which Louis XVIII. was appointed king, and 
France obtained its old frontiers of 1792, with most of the colonies which it 
had lost to England, Portugal, and Sweden. The foreign armies quitted 
the French soil. The Emperor of Russia and the King of Prussia paid a visit 
to their Allies in London, where they were magnificently entertained by the 
Prince Regent. 

The Congress of Vienna. The return of the legitimate royal house to its 
lost throne, and the complete abolition of the republican constitution, were 
the two principles which were most quickly agreed upon by the Congress of 
Vienna, which was to undertake the reconstitution of Europe. Disputes 
however arose as to the disposal of the countries which had been conquered 
from the French and their allies ; while the union of Saxony with Prussia, 
and Russia's attempt to appropriate the whole of Poland, were opposed 
by England, France, and Austria. A fresh war already threatened to break 
out, when the news of Napoleon's landing at Cannes, on March 1st, 1815, 
compelled the princes to a speedy reconciliation and to united and vigorous 
action. 

The Provisional Government had hastily drawn up a Constitution, in which 
the Bourbons obtained royal power ; the Senators, permanent office ; the 
army, maintenance of grades and privileges ; and the people, religious liberty 
and freedom of the press. When, however, the Comte d'Artois appeared in 
Paris, and temporarily undertook the governorship, he soon allowed it to be 
seen that the principle of the Revolution, according to which the royal dignity 
was considered as conferred by contract with the nation, and not as granted 
by the grace of God to the legitimate occupant of the throne, had no signfi- 
cation in the eyes of the Bourbons. It was only too soon apparent that the 
old royal family "had learnt nothing and had forgotten nothing." All traces 
of the Revolution and of the Empire were as quickly as possible obliterated. 
For the tricoloured national cockade was substituted as an emblem the white 
badge of the Bourbons ; the officers of the great army were compelled to 
retire on half-pay ; and the court lived in luxury, while the people were 
oppressed with the burden of undiminished taxation. Added to this, Louis 
XVIII. was a man of awkward and undignified presence, though not without 
understanding and goodness of heart ; but obstinate and full of prejudice, 
violently opposed to modern ideas. The clergy for the most part longed for 
a return to mediaeval darkness and superstition ; the nobility, for a revival of 
feudal ordinances ; and the court, for the repossession of its former supreme 
power. General discontent took possession of the nation, the desire for 
change was once more aroused, especially as upwards of 100,000 soldiers 
had returned home, and now spread their Bonapartist sympathies through- 
out the entire land. 



THE FALL OF NAPOLEON. 



429 




THE PERIOD OF THE HUNDRED DAYS. 

APOLEON soon heard of the mistakes committed 
by the Bourbons. He was told that the emigrants 
were to be reinstated in their property "because 
they had turned to the right path ; " and presently 
he was informed by Fouche, Carnot, and others 
of his adherents, of the feeling of the people ; then 
he determined to try his fortune once more, and to 
regain the throne he had lost. With nine hundred 
men he landed on the south coast of France, near 
Cannes, on the 1st of March; and by the issue of 
several judiciously worded proclamations, in which 
he promised security of property to the people, to the soldiers martial. fame, 
and to the citizen class a Constitution in accordance with the demands of the 
age, he quickly won all hearts. The tricolour was brought forth from its 
concealment, and publicly set up everywhere again ; the troops sent against 
him rallied round his banner, and the citizens of Grenoble opened their gates 
to him. In vain did the Count d'Artois hasten to Lyons to save his brother's 
throne ; he was encountered by the universal cry : " Vive VEmpereur ! " And 
when Ney, who had been despatched with a force against Napoleon, also 
espoused the cause of his former comrade in arms, and the enthusiasm spread 
through all classes, the Bourbons at last recognised that their throne had 
been set up on the smouldering fires of a volcano ; and in a panic of dismay 
they for the second time quitted their native soil. Louis XVIII. took up his 
residence at Ghent ; while Napoleon, on the 3<Dth of March, entered the Tuil- 
eries, and appointed a ministry composed of men of the revolutionary period, 
Carnot, Maret, Fouche, Cambaceres, and others. Thus began the strange 

feverish period of the Hundred Days, under 
the most favourable auspices for Napoleon. 
Nevertheless, he secretly disliked the re- 
forms and liberties he had sanctioned ; and 
though he was compelled to some extent 
to render homage to the spirit of the time, 
he still aimed at the restoration of the 
Imperial power. 

Murafs Death. Even before Napoleon's 
abdication, Murat had severed his fortunes 
from those of his brother-in-law, and had 
entered into a treaty with Austria, on the 
strength of which he was to be allowed to 
keep the sovereignty of Naples, while in 
return he was to make war on the vice-king 
of Italy. But Murat soon recoiled from 
this unnatural proceeding, and his soldier- 
like temper revolted against the idea of 
such treachery to the common cause. After 
MARSHAL NEY. the i an ding of Napoleon, therefore, he de- 

clared war against Austria, and summoned the people of Italy to arms. The 
battle of Tolentino, in May, 1815, was, however, decided against him; the 
Austrians marched into his capital, and gave back the vacant throne to its 




430 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




THE FALL OF NAPOLEON. 4^1 

former possessor, Ferdinand. Soon after the battle of Waterloo, Murat 
attempted to excite another popular rebellion against Ferdinand in Calabria, 
but was taken prisoner and shot, on the 1 3th of October, 1815. 




WELLINGTON AT WATERLOO, 




WATERLOO. 



VEN earlier than this, Napoleon's fate had been 
decided. Austria and Russia were not yet ready 
for the conflict. While they were preparing their 
armies of half a million soldiers, an efficient force 
under Bliicher and Wellington was brought into 
the field by the European powers against the in- 
vading usurper. Napoleon led his army into 
Belgium. The English and Prussians marched 
forth to encounter him on the i6th of June. The 
Prussians were beaten by Napoleon at Ligny, 
while the English held their ground against Ney 
at Quatre Bras. On the I7th, while Bliicher retreated towards Wavre, Wel- 
lington took up a new position at Waterloo. On the i8th, the decisive day, 
' victory long wavered in the balance. It was, as the victorious general 
described it, a battle of giants. The English sustained the shock of the attack 
during the whole day. The Prussians, facing all obstacles and dangers, 
arrived in the afternoon on the field, to give assistance to Wellington's army, 
while Marshal Grouchy, who had been despatched by Napoleon to follow up 
Bliicher, kept aloof from the battle-field. The French, in spite of the heroic 
bravery of Napoleon's veteran warriors, were completely defeated. This was 
the battle of Belle Alliance, or Waterloo, on the famous i8th of June, 1815. 
Terrible was the struggle on the height of Mont St. Jean, from which place 
the French give the battle its name ; and the words which were subsequently 



432 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

falsely attributed to General Cambronne "The guard dies, but does not 
yield " were held in reverent remembrance by the nation as the last echo of 
a great conflict, and of a glorious period that had passed away. Pale and 
confused, Napoleon, who appeared to have lost, together with his old success, 
all his old elasticity and wealth of resources, allowed himself to be led off by 
Soult from the battle-field, and, pursued by the enemy, threw himself without 
hat or sword on to a horse, and hastened to Paris. Flight soon became 
general, and all the ammunition fell into the hands of the enemy. 

The Chambers in Paris immediately requested the Emperor to resign the 
crown. This the humbled ruler consented to do in favour of his son ; and 
when the victorious armies made their appearance for the second time before 
the gates of Paris, he hastened to Rochefort, and took refuge in an English 
ship of war, the Bellerophon, trusting to the generosity of the British people, 
and demanding to be allowed to live in England. On his arrival at Plymouth, 
however, he learnt the terrible news that he was to conclude his days as a 
State prisoner on the island of St. Helena. In vain did he energetically pro- 
test against this decision. On the i8th of October he landed at the place of 
his banishment in the midst of the mighty Atlantic. Here he dwelt a 
chained Prometheus, separated from his followers, in an unhealthy climate, 
and under the supervision of the stern and unbending but not altogether 
unkindly governor, Sir Hudson Lowe. Grief at his irremediable overthrow, 
the cessation of his accustomed activity, and indignation at the strict and, 
as he considered it, unworthy treatment to which he was subjected, broke 
down his vigorous constitution and humbled his proud spirit. After six 
sorrowful years, he died, on the 5th of May, 1821. 

THE RESTORATION. 

After Napoleon's abdication, a Provisional Government was established 
under Fouchd's direction, which shortly afterwards surrendered the capital 
into the hands of the Allies. This was soon followed by the reinstalment of 
the Bourbons, under the protection of foreign bayonets, at the Tuileries, the 
dissolution of the Chambers, and the disbanding of the army. The allied 
monarchs once more took up their abode in Paris, and supported the Bour- 
bons in the establishment of the new Government. At last, when the 
Restoration appeared secure, the second Peace of Paris was arranged, in 
November, 1815, by which France was limited to the frontiers of 1790, was 
compelled to pay seven hundred million francs as war indemnity, and for five 
years was to be occupied by an army of the Allies, who were quartered in Paris 
and in the seventeen fortresses of the frontiers. The proposal of Prussia that 
the former German provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, with Strasburg, should 
be again united with Germany, was negatived by Russia and England, who 
regarded a strong French kingdom as necessary for the tranquillity of Europe 
and for a lasting peace. 





THE PERIOD OF REACTION. 

FROM 1815 TO 1830. 

THE HOLY ALLIANCE. GERMAN ROMANTICISM. FRANCE UNDER Louis 
XVIII. AND CHARLES X. THE REACTIONARY TENDENCY. SPAIN 
AND ITALY. ENGLAND ; STATE OF CLASSES. INDIA. STRUGGLE 
IN GREECE. 

THE HOLY ALLIANCE. 

NDER the new regime, on the 2 5th of September, 
1815, the three allied monarchs, the Emperor Alex- 
ander, the pious king, Frederick William of Prussia, 
and the Emperor Francis of Austria, entered into a 
compact called the Holy Alliance, which was soon 
joined by all the European powers with the excep- 
tion of England and the Pope. In this Holy 
Alliance, which was formed without regard to diver- 
sities of creed, the three sovereigns swore, "in ac- 
cordance with the teachings of Holy Scripture, which 
commands all men to love each other as brothers, to 
remain united by the bonds of a true and indissoluble brotherly love, to 
render each other help and assistance, to govern their subjects in a paternal 
manner, and to uphold religion, peace, and justice." For more than a decade 
Europe remained under the influence of the Holy Alliance. Repression of 
all revolutionary ideas, and of every aspiration after popular sovereignty or 
democratic forms of constitution, was the principal object of the league. The 
death of the Emperor Alexander robbed the Alliance of its most important 
supporter, and paved the way for its entire annihilation by the eventful 
revolution of July, 1830, which called into existence a "citizen kingship" 
and the principle of national sovereignty in France, and destroyed the 
labours of the Vienna Congress by the separation of Belgium from the king- 
dom of the Netherlands, and by the elevation of Poland. 

II. 3 F F 




434 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



German literature during this period took the romantic form. Among the 
romantic writers of the period may be mentioned Hermes (1738-1821) of 
Pomerania, Musaus (1735-87) of Jena, who sought in his " Popular Tales" to 
awaken an interest in the traditions of the fatherland, and Lafontaine 
(1759-1831), whose refined romances had for their aim the shaking off of 
prejudice in matters of education and the pulling down of the pedantic class 
distinctions which had retarded the development of Germany. In the first 
rank among writers of humorous romances stands Jean Paul Friedrich 
Richter (1763-1825) of Wunsiedel, whose works, being the exact representa- 
tion of his inner life, and narrow, restricted world of feeling, are only to be 
understood from a knowledge of the history of his own mental development. 




THE OLD COUNCIL HOUSE AT RATISBON. 

His earliest works had a satirical tendency, and showed that he had deeply 
studied Swift. The lyric poet Novalis (1772-1801) was regarded as the head 
of the romantic school of poetry, Which included also the brothers August 
William and Frederick von Schlegel, sons of a preacher at Hanover, and 
their friend and associate, Louis Tieck, of Berlin (1773-1853). Among the 
German poets who sang in honour of liberty and the unity of the fatherland, 
were Korner (1791-1813), Uhland (1787-1862), who, besides his writings 
entitled " Lyric Poems, Ballads, and Romances," was also the author of 
several dramatic works, and Arndt (1769-1860), who excited the anger of 
Napoleon by his heterodox work " Geist der Zeit" 




THE PERIOD OF REACTION. 435 



FRANCE UNDER Louis XVIII. AND CHARLES X. 

MID the confines of the deeply-stirred French 
Empire, the Restoration wrought a memorable 
revolution in thought and sentiment. At first ten- 
dencies hostile to revolutionary ideas were pre- 
dominant ; as on the memorable occasion when 
the conscientious sovereign was only able with 
great efforts to protect the fundamental law of the 
Constitution from the zeal of the ultra Royalists. 
A temper of fanatical, religious credulity now took 
the place' of heterodoxy and freethought, and, in 
conjunction with an ardent Royalism, gave rise to many scenes of violence in 
the South of France, which surpassed even the wildest excesses of the revolu- 
tionary period. The election of the " regicide " Gre"goire, formerly member 
of the Convention, and still more the assassination of the Due de Berry on 
the 1 3th of February, 1820, by a fanatical enthusiast named Louvel, furthered 
the aims of the reactionists, and compelled the king to dismiss the moder- 
ate ministry of Decazes, and to consent to restrictions on the liberty of the 
press and the right of election. Under the ministry of Villele, Royalist zeal 
reached its climax (1823). 

Charles X. Louis XVIII. closed his chequered and eventful career Sept. 
1 6th, 1824, and was succeeded by his brother, the Comte d'Artois, under the 
title of Charles X. His solemn and ceremonious coronation seemed to indi- 
cate that he intended to govern after the fashion of " most Christian kings ; " 
and the grant of 1,000 million francs to Royalist emigrants quickly created 
a bad impression throughout the country. He also conferred favours and 
indulgences on the Jesuits, believing that the Church's restoration would 
form a barrier against revolutionary ideas ; while at the same time young and 
ardent minds were eagerly drinking in liberal doctrines from the professors 
at the Paris University (Guizot, Villemain, etc.), and reading the bold articles 
of the Opposition press, while the citizens devoured cheap editions of Voltaire 
and descriptions of the great Revolution. 

The Revolution of July. Regardless of the altered temper of the nation, 
Charles X. continued his reactionary policy. The Liberal ministry was re- 
placed by one of ultra Royalist tendencies, with Polignac at its head. The 
Chamber, proving refractory with regard to the Government measures, was 
dissolved ; but after a fresh election, the Opposition members appeared in 
redoubled force. And finally, when the Government organ, the Moniteur, in 
July, 1830, published the famous decrees, suspending the freedom of the press, 
dissolving the Chamber of Deputies before it had met, and altering the 
system of election, the Revolution of July broke out ; and after three days' 
heroic fighting, the nation threw off the yoke of the House of Bourbon. A 
Provisional Government was formed until the Constitutional party proved 
victorious, and Louis Philippe, Duke of Orleans, was chosen to preside over 
what was to be the constitutional monarchy of France. 

For the third time Charles X., with his family, retired into exile, while his 
prudent kinsman swore allegiance to a revised charter, and ascended the 
throne as King of the French. 



436 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 




CONSTITUTIONAL STRUGGLES IN SPAIN AND ITALY. ABSOLUTISM AND 

CAMARILLA IN SPAIN. 

EMOCRATIC and revolutionary ideas had not 
yet reached the priest-ridden peoples of the South ; 
they were confined to the educated classes, and 
were propagated by secret societies in Spain and 
Portugal, and in Italy, where the chief association 
was that of the Carbonari. 

Ferdinand VII., on his return to Spain, got rid 
of the Cortes Constitution, which he hated, and 
placed himself entirely under the guidance of the 
reactionists, or Camarilla. This led to a revolu- 
tionary outbreak in Cadiz, on the 1st of January, 
1820, headed by Riego and Quiroga ; which was followed by a series of 
violent struggles between the adherents of the king and the constitutional 
party. 

Popular Insurrections in Portugal, Naples, and Sardinia. Portugal and 
Italy quickly followed Spain's example. The Inquisition was abolished, and 
freedom of the press was granted in Lisbon and Oporto. In Naples insur- 
rections were fostered by the Carbonari, and in Piedmont the king, Victor 
Emanuel, endeavoured to efface all traces of French rule by the restoration 
of the old Constitution. The re-instalment of the Jesuits and nobility in all 
their old privileges excited general discontent, and ultimately the king was 
obliged to renounce the throne in favour of his brother. 

Intervention of the Holy Alliance. The heads of the Holy Alliance, uneasy 
at the revolutionary spirit that was abroad, despatched an Austrian army to 
Naples, and reinstated the absolute royal power. Turin and Alessandria 
were also invested by the Austrians, and Absolutism was again restored in its 
severest form. A similar fate befell the Spanish Cortes. An attempt to sub- 
vert the Constitution and place greater power in the hands of the king was 
vehemently opposed by the democratic classes ; but when a French army, 
under the Bourbon Duke of Angouleme, marched into the country, the 
Cortes vainly summoned the people to resistance ; the French were greeted 
as deliverers, marched as victors into Madrid, and after the escape of the 
Cortes and the king, established a regency. Cadiz was now the next object 
of attack for the French ; but after negotiations between the Cortes and the 
besiegers, Ferdinand was reinstated by the aid of foreign bayonets, and the 
Apostolic party, who had chosen absolute monarchy as their watch-word, 
turned all their wrath on their opponents. Riego died by the hand of the 
executioner. Thus in Spain the same fierce passions had been excited for 
the preservation of the old order of things, which had previously raged in 
France for the destruction of everything that was ancient and obsolete. 

Constitutional Struggle in Portugal The disastrous fate of the Spanish 
Cortes inspired the queen of Portugal, the sister of Fredinand VI., and her 
second son, Don Miguel, with the desire of attempting, by an arbitrary 
measure, to overthrow the hated Constitution. Encouraged by a conspiracy 
headed by Don Miguel, the feeble king, John VI., abolished the Cortes, and 
commenced a persecution of the Constitutional party in 1823. When John 
died, his eldest son, Don Pedro, then Emperor of Brazil, made over the 
government to his daughter, Maria da Gloria, and granted the Portuguese a 



Si: 



THE PERIOD OF REACTION. 



437 



liberal Constitution., Don Miguel was appointed regent during the minority 
of the queen Donna Maria, and availed himself of his position to endea- 
vour to obtain for himself the royal power; but was finally defeated. "and 
banished from the country. 




THE FREE STATES OF SOUTH AMERICA. 

For three centuries the vast districts of South America and of Mexico had 
borne the heavy yoke of the Spanish mother country and every attempt to 
rouse the different States to rebellion, even when aided by the English and 
French, was frustrated by the sluggishness of the people, and by class 
jealousies and dissensions. Even at the beginning of the present century 




438 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 

the Spanish possessions in America consisted of four vice-kingdoms (New 
Granada, Mexico, Rio de la Plata, and Peru) and five dependencies ; but with 
the expulsion of the Bourbons from the Spanish throne, the bond which had 
united the colonies with the mother country was dissolved, and the aspira- 
tions of the patriotic party after independence met with their fulfilment. 

GREAT BRITAIN.-^STATE OF CLASSES IN ENGLAND. 

N GLAND had come forth, powerful and victorious, from the 
twenty years' war ; it had asserted its naval supremacy, ex- 
tended its West Indian possessions, obtained in the East Indies 
an empire which, in size and population, far surpassed the 
mother country, and by means of bold navigators, like Cook 
and others, had brought several distant islands under the sway 
of its sceptre. The possession of Gibraltar and Malta, the 
protectorate of the Ionian Islands, and the free passage 
through the Dardanelles, secured to the British Empire, in the 
Treaty of Paris, the dominion of the Mediterranean and intercourse with the 
Levant. While, however, one portion of the nation amassed enormous 
wealth, the mass of the people had sunk into the lowest depths of poverty, 
a state of affairs which had been brought about by costly wars, burdensome 
taxation, and the oppressive corn-laws, which prevented any importation of 
foreign corn. This condition led to frequent popular risings, which, however, 
were easily repressed by military force ; but the cruel onslaught on an 
unarmed assemblage of men, women, and children at Manchester, in 1819, 
known as the " Peterloo Massacre," had drawn severe reproach upon the 
Government. 

Ireland, which has continued up to the present day to be .the cause of 
danger and difficulty to the British Empire, was still smouldering with hatred 
towards the English nation ; both on account of the cruel treatment of the 
poor country people by the owners of the land, who had come over from 
England and had settled in the conquered island, and also through the 
unnatural condition of the Church establishment, an unemployed English 
Protestant clergy being in possession of all the temporal property of the 
Church, while the poverty-stricken Catholic population had to maintain their 
unpaid priesthood out cf their necessity. Not till the following reign was 
a decisive step taken towards effecting a reconciliation, by means of the 
Emancipation Act (1829), which granted the Catholic Irish access to the 
English Parliament. 

After the arduous wars with Napoleon, England had relapsed into a con- 
dition of enervation ; King George IV. (1820-30) gave all his confidence to 
the Tory party, and still further alienated the good-will of his people by a 
vexatious suit of divorce in the House of Lords against his wife, Caroline 
of Brunswick, in 1821. When the queen died, in the following year, the 
sympathy, or rather the compassion, of the whole nation followed her to the 
grave. After the suicide of the minister Castlereagh, for many years the 
confidant and associate of the king, George retired into gloomy seclusion, 
while the great statesman Canning, who upheld the principles of the Whigs, 
once more asserted the former pre-eminence of the English Empire. As the 
only daughter of George IV., the princess Charlotte of Wales, who had been 
married to Prince Leopold of Coburg, died without children, the king, on 



THE PERIOD OF REACTION. 



439 



his death, was succeeded by his brother, William IV., on the 26th of June, 
1830. Under this sovereign, the "sailor king," the emancipation of the slaves 
in the West India Colonies was at last effected, a result for which Wilberforce, 
Buxton, and other philanthropists had laboured for many years. After 
William IV., his niece Victoria, who on the loth of February, 1840, married 
Prince Albert of Coburg, ascended the throne of England (2oth of June, 1837). 
Establishment of the English Supremacy in the East Indies. By means of 
conquests and trading intercourse, the territory of India was rapidly falling 
under the sway of England. In 1698, Calcutta was raised to a presidency, 
and the subsequent quarrels between the native rulers of India, the Nizams 
and Nabobs, still further strengthened the hands of the English. In 1756, 
after the inhuman Surajah Dowlah, Nabob of Bengal, had captured Fort 
William at Calcutta, and the atrocious massacre of the Black Hole of Calcutta 
had taken place, Clive, the enterprising warrior who had been appointed to a 
high post by the Company, hastened from Madras, defeated the Nabob, and 
took possession of Calcutta; and soon afterwards the entire supremacy of 
Bengal was obtained for an annual payment, of a million pounds sterling. 
During the governorship of the talented but unscrupulous Warren Hastings, 
the whole country was thrown into great commotion by the aggressive pro- 
ceedings on the part of the East India Company. For many years they 
waged fierce wars against Hyder Ali, Sultan of Mysore, and his son and 
successor Tippoo Sahib, who was finally defeated and slain in battle at the 
taking of his capital, Seringapatam, in 1799. In 1817, followed the entire 
subjugation of the Mahratta States. 




LORD CLIVE. 




-44 THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



STRUGGLE FOR LIBERTY IN GREECE. 

HE Greeks began to aspire to freedom. In the year 1814 
two Societies were- formed in Greece, the object of both 
being the emancipation of the country from thraldom ; the 
latter being a purely political combination, which in 1820 
was placed under the presidency of Alexander Ypsilanti, a 
Moldavian nobleman in the service of Russia. Through his 
efforts the Greeks were incited to rise in rebellion against 
their Turkish masters; but in a desperate battle near Dra- 
gatschan, on the iQth of June, 1821, the "sacred band" of the 
Greeks was entirely exterminated, and Ypsilanti was compelled to make his 
escape to Austria. Almost simultaneously the population of the Pelopon- 
nesus took up arms, arid incurred the bloody vengeance of the Turks. The 
Turkish fleet was, however, successfully attacked by the Greeks, who also 
maintained their ascendancy on land. After the victorious battle of Valtezi, 
the town of Tripoli fell into the hands of the Greeks, and on the first of 
January, 1822, the first Greek national assembly was held at Piadka, when a 
Constitution was drawn up for the country. In this national struggle of the 
Greeks, the famous English poet, Lord Byron, devoted his talent, his pro- 
perty, and his energy to the cause of Greek liberty, until his death was 
-brought about from the effect of the climate and the fatigues of the campaign. 
In 1824, the Porte gained the assistance of its vassal, the Viceroy of Egypt, 
Mahomed Ali, in repressing its insubordinate subjects, and for two years the 
^Peloponnesus was cruelly devastated, until the fall of Missolonghi, on April 
22nd, 1826. 

Shortly before this event the Emperor Alexander had died suddenly after 
a short illness, at Taganrog, in December, 1825, and was succeeded by his 
second brother, Nicholas. In England the rudder of the State was confided 
to the noble and patriotic statesman, George Canning, who succeeded, through 
the agency of Wellington, in bringing about an alliance between England and 
Russia, which was subsequently joined by France, for mediating between 
Greece and Turkey. Shortly afterwards the Turkish fleet was attacked in 
the harbour of Navarino, and after a fierce contest lasting four hours, was 
entirely destroyed, in October, 1827. In the spring of the following year, war 
broke out between Russia and Turkey. The campaign, however, proved un- 
favourable to the former power ; the Russian general, Diebitsch, crossed the 
Balkans to Adrianople, but his troops were so much reduced in number by 
hunger and disease, that he was unable to maintain his position in the hostile 
territory. The Porte at last consented to the peace of Adrianople, in 
September, 1829, and soon afterwards the London Conference resulted in 
the protocol of the 3rd of February, 1830, which recognised the independ- 
ence of Greece, established an hereditary monarchy, and appointed Otho I., 
of the house of Bavaria, as king, in May, 1830. 







THE NEW PERIOD OF REVOLUTIONS, 

FROM 1830. 

THE BELGIAN REVOLUTION OF 1830. THE NETHERLANDS. THE INSUR- 
RECTION IN POLAND. DEFEAT AT OSTROLENKA. UTTER ANNIHIL- 
ATION OF POLISH LIBERTY. RULE OF THE EMPEROR NICHOLAS. 
LITERARY AUTHORS AND WRITINGS OF THE PERIOD. RETROSPECT 
OF THE STATE OF AFFAIRS. 

THE BELGIAN REVOLUTION AND THE RISING OF POLAND. THE 

NETHERLANDS. 

ITH difficulty had the Holy Alliance for fifteen years main- 
tained the conditions which had been created by the Vienna 
Congress. At last the news of the July Revolution in Paris 
awoke in the hearts of all the down-trodden and oppressed 
a hope and desire for a change. The example of France 
was first imitated by the neighbouring country of Belgium, 
which, regardless of difference of nature, religion, language, 
and interests, united itself with the Dutch provinces into the 
kingdom of the Netherlands. The Dutch, however, who 
regarded themselves as the dominant people, were despotic 
and oppressive in their treatment of the Belgians, and speedily aroused a 
spirit of revolt. The insurrection soon gained large proportions ; the 
Belgians made entire separation from Holland their aim, and endeavoured to 
wrest the town of Antwerp from the hands of their hated neighbour. The 
five great Powers met for a conference in London, when it was decided, after 
lengthy diplomatic negotiations, in which Talleyrand took part in the interest 

of the Government of July, that the independence of Belgium should be 

441 




442. 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



recognised and its boundaries on the Dutch side regulated, and Leopold of 
Saxe-Coburg was appointed king (June, 1831). 

Poland. The successful issue of the French and Belgian revolutions at last 
roused the Poles to insurrection. Although under Russian supremacy, Poland 
had attained to a higher prosperity than during its former anarchy ; never- 
theless the foreign rule had many opponents among the higher classes, the 
officials and the military, and a strong opposition arose, which ultimately 
developed into secret conspiracies. Nevertheless, owing to the divided in- 
terests and aims of the different party-leaders, and the hazardous position of 
the country between three absolute kingdoms, the Poles would scarcely have 
resolved on a general rising, had not the news of the Paris Revolution acted 
as a spark on the inflammable material, and awakened in the excitable nation 
an enthusiasm which led to speedy action, and put an end to all scruples and 
deliberation. On the 2Qth of November, 1830, some armed students from the 
University forced their way into the palace of the vice-king, in order to put 

him to death, while other 
conspirators summoned the 
people of the capital to arms. 
Only with difficulty did Con- 
stantine escape the fate in- 
tended for him, and two days 
later escaped with his Russian 
soldiers and officials from the 
land. A provisional govern- 
ment was now established, 
of which Chlopicki, formerly 
commander of the army, was 
appointed dictator. The new 
ruler, with his aristocratic ad- 
visers, immediately entered 
into negotiations with the 
Emperor, but quarrels and 
dissensions prevented any ar- 
rangement being arrived at, 
and the Emperor Nicholas 
commenced preparations for 
despatching an army of 
120,000 men into Poland. Confused by the diverse and conflicting feelings 
that were afloat with regard to war or reconciliation, Chlopicki determined 
to resign his dictatorship^ His successor as commander-in-chief was the 
wealthy Prince Radzivil ; and a few days later the Diet proclaimed that the 
Emperor Nicholas and the house of Romanoff had forfeited the crown of 
Poland (Jan., 1831). A fierce struggle now commenced, in which the Poles 
gained several successes, and marked their course by many brilliant feats of 
arms. The Russian general, Diebitsch, was completely defeated in the bloody 
battle of Praga on the iQth and 2Oth of February, and his projected attack on 
Warsaw was frustrated. In the following April, however, he succeeded in 
obtaining a victory over the Polish troops in the battle of Ostrolenka, which 
proved the turning-point in the Polish revolution. Dissensions, party ani- 
mosity, treachery, and the syren voices of French mediators, rapidly brought 
about the Poles' destruction. In the autumn of the same year Krukowiecki, 
a general of democratic principles, was appointed by the Diet President of the 




NICHOLAS OF RUSSIA. 



THE NEW PERIOD OF REVOLUTIONS, FROM 1830. 443 

Government, with dictatorial powers ; he however evinced on every emergency 
great pusillanimity ancl want of decision ; the army still bravely resisted the 
onslaughts of the enemy, but with no avail ; in the beginning of September 
Krukowiecki abandoned Warsaw and Praga to the Russian field-marshal^ 
and then surrendered himself to the victorious enemy as a prisoner of war. 
The Emperor then granted an amnesty, and allowed most of the army to 
return to their own homes. Distrusting the pardon of the angry Emperor, 
however, the Polish patriots turned their backs in thousands on their native 
land, and wandered to France, England, Switzerland, and other countries, rather 
preferring to eat the bread of adversity in a free though foreign land, than 
to witness patiently the gradual annihilation of the Polish nationality. In 
Poland, Lithuania, and other provinces, cruel punishments were inflicted on 
the guilty ; and the snowy plains of Siberia were populated with the con- 
demned patriots. Those who had quitted the country forfeited their property, 
rank, and civil rights. Through an imperial ordinance passed in February, 
1832, Poland lost its Constitution, Diet, and council-chamber, and was incor- 
porated as a Russian province, with a separate government and administration 
of the law. The universities of Warsaw and Wilna were closed, the treasures 
of art were carried to Russia, and the national army was disbanded. 

MODERN FOREIGN LITERATURE. ITALY. RETROSPECT. 



HE creative power of the Italians had in the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries gradually fallen away. They 
began to appropriate the treasures of the great past, 
and to imitate the works of their forefathers. Petrarch 
and Ariosto both served as models to modern writers, 
and among the most distinguished imitators of the 
latter were Gabr. Chiasbrera, of Savona (1552-1673), the 
composer of five epic poems, and Fortiguerra (1674-1735) 
of Rome. Also the special development of poetic art, the true 
comic epic, was derived from Ariosto. The principal writers of the 
period in lyric poetry were Testi (1593-1646), Guidi (1650-1712), 
and Filicaja of Florence (1642), the author of several beautify 1 odes and 
sonnets. More powerful and artistic, however, did the Italians show them- 
selves in dramatic poetry, and especially in the opera and melodrama ; 
while in prose literature, besides the greatest Italian poet of recent times, 
Alexander Manzoni, of Milan (1784-1873), author of Inni sacri, and the 
well-known romance I promessi Sposi, there were the historical writers of 
the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Muratori, Giannone, Tiraboschi, 
Colletta, etc. 

England. Popular Poetry. In the second half of the eighteenth century, 
English literature gradually freed itself from French influence, and returned 
once more to its national peculiarities, native subject-matter, and poets. 
This return to the past had in England the special result of causing an 
attempt to bring the mediaeval period more closely within the range of 
knowledge of the younger generation, by the collection of ancient ballads 
and popular poetry (Macpherson's Ossian, Bishop Percy's Reliques, etc.), 
or by romances and historical descriptions of the life of the past. Scotland, 
however, was the first to deviate from the artificiality of French taste ; and 




444 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



a number of Scotch poets, principally belonging to the lower classes, opposed 
to the artificial French poetry a simple, heart-felt poetic art, which had 
its source in the noble and thoughtful nature of the people themselves. 
The first of such writers were Allan Ramsay (1686-1758), author of "The 
Gentle Shepherd," Fergusson (1751-1774), and Lady Barnard (1750-1825), 
the writer of " Auld Robin Gray." But the characteristic Scotch national 
poet and popular favourite was Robert Burns (1759-1796), a poor peasant 
of Ayr. The depressing conditions from which he suffered all through life, 
were not able to stifle his innate poetic talent, yet they clogged his flight, 
and filled his genial, musical nature with gloom and despondency. The 
unmixed delight with which Burns's poems were everywhere greeted, had the 
result of causing this species of poetry to be immoderately cultivated ; and 

the number of so-called na- 
tural poets in Scotland in- 
creased enormously. Among 
such, the following are con- 
spicuous : Joanna Baillie 
(1765-1851), the friend of 
Walter Scott, Allan Cun- 
ningham (1784-1842), and 
the so-called Ettrick shep- 
herd, James Hogg (1772- 
1835), who, inspired by old 
legends and popular songs, 
began to make poems while 
but a shepherd-boy, before 
he had even learnt to read 
or write. Among his numer- 
ous works the best known is 
the " Queen's Wake," a col- 
lection of ballads and tales. 
Many of these ingenious 
popular poems had also a 
satirical and epigrammatic 
tendency. In this branch 
of poetry Thomas Hoggart, 
a relative of the famous 
painter Hogarth, was also 
distinguished. But the great- 
est influence was exercised 
on modern literature, not 
only in England but also on the Continent, by the great " Wizard of the 
North," the many-sided, fertile Scotch poet, Walter Scott, of Edinburgh 
(1771-1832), who, besides being an indefatigable and judicious collector of old 
national ballads, drew upon the facts of history for his epic narratives and 
romances the Waverley Novels in which he depicted attractive pictures of 
the life of the past by a free colouring of the habits, manners, and institutions 
of various nations, and by admirable delineations of the characters of the 
different personages. 

Natural Poetry. The Lake School. At this period, also, successful attempts 
were made in England to replace French taste and a conventional poetic art 
by a truthful realistic poetry of nature and popular ballads and songs. After 




BURNS. 



THE NEW PERIOD OF REVOLUTIONS, FROM 1830. 



445 




SIR WALTER SCOTT. 

Thomson and Young, who were the first to represent outward nature and the 
inner soul of man with feeling and earnestness, followed William Cowper 
(1731-1800), a poet filled with religious zeal almost amounting to fanaticism, 
and afflicted with a diseased melancholy, who, 
in his didactic poem, " The Task," evidences 
a warm sentiment for justice, liberty, and 
country ; and in his humorous ballad " John 
Gilpin," revives the old English style of 
popular narrative poetry. Still more famous 
was the ballad, "Admiral Hosier's Ghost," 
by Richard Glover (1712-85). "The Bard," 
the " Ode on a Distant Prospect of Eton," 
and the " Elegy " of Thomas Gray, maintain 
their wide-spread popularity to the present 
day. The many-sided Oliver Goldsmith also 
(1729-74), famous as a poet, historian, critic, 
and agreeable romance writer, who " touched 
nothing that he did not adorn," has, in his 
ballads, songs, etc., struck the true note of 
popular poetry, and presented a truthful por- 
trayal of nature. His tender and humorous 
romance, "The Vicar of Wakefield," is one THOMAS CHATTERTON. 




446 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



of the most generally read works of fiction of any nation. A gifted and 
highly imaginative poet was the unfortunate Thomas Chatterton (1752-70), 
of Bristol, who, after a strenuous attempt to push his fortunes in London, 
committed suicide, when a youth of eighteen, in a fit of melancholy, caused 
by wounded pride and extreme poverty. The achievements of this mar- 
vellous boy are unequalled by any other author so young. George Crabbe 
(1754-1832), the poet of real life, first a surgeon and then a minister of 
religion, author of "The Village," "Tales," etc., was distinguished by his 
truthful and vivid descriptions of nature. He depicted country life with all 
its squalor and sin, not according to the pastoral fiction. 

Of a nobler and more 
elevated style stands forth 
the natural art of William 
Wordsworth (1770-1850), a 
great traveller and student, 
who in his little country cot- 
tage at Rydal-water, West- 
moreland, devoted himself 
entirely to the poetic art, 
and to the contemplation of 
nature ; his principal works 
are " The Excursion," " Peter 
Bell," "The Wagoner/' son- 
nets, ballads, etc. A friend of 
Wordsworth, though widely 
different in 'character, and 
possessing far less fertility of 
genius, was Samuel Taylor 
Coleridge, of Ottery St. Mary, 
Devonshire (1772-1834). He 
was an original poet, of glow- 
ing imagination and deep 
sensibility; with him, admira- 
tion for nature amounted to 
a kind of mystic natural sym- 
bolism, which is especially 
noticeable in his works 
" Christobel," " The Ancient 
Mariner," as well as in some 
of his ballads and smaller 
lyric poems. Robert Southey 
(1774-1843), the third of the 
" Lake-poets," a cultivated and fertile writer, selected lyric poetry as his es- 
pecial field of labour; his principal works are, "The Curse of Kehama," 
" Wat Tyler," a number of ballads, and a capital Life of Nelson, etc. The 
writings of the Scotch poet John Wilson (1785-1854) also were disinguished 
by a masculine beauty and vigorous style. 

Among didactic poets may be mentioned Samuel Rogers, of London 
(1762-1855), author of the "Voyage of Columbus," "Jacqueline," "Italy," 
and numerous tuneful lyrics ; Thomas Campbell (1777-1844), whose stirring 
" Hohenlinden," " Battle of the Baltic," and other ballads, will last as long 
as the literature of England ; a Scotch writer, James Montgomery, son of 




ST. MARY, REDCLYFFE, BRISTOL. 



THE NEW PERIOD OF REVOLUTIONS, FROM 1830. 



447 




a preacher of Ayrshire. Felicia Hemans (1794-1835) stands pre-eminent 

among the English poetesses of her time for her depth of feeling as well as 

for her perfection of poetic style. The " Songs of 

the Cid," " Lays of Many Lands," besides many 

short pieces, lays, and ballads are included among 

her works. Two equally gifted poetesses also 'are 

Caroline Norton, niece of the famous Sheridan, 

and Elizabeth Barrett Browning (1809), "the 

Byron among English poetesses," author of the 

" Sorrows of Rosalie," " The Dream," the " Child 

of the Islands," and " A Drama of Exile," " The 

Cry of the Children," " the Rhyme of Duchess 

May/' etc. Her husband, Robert Browning, a 

poet bearing some similarity in his style to 

Shelley, is the author of many dramatic poems 

and other works FELICIA HEMANS , 

Lord Byron. The greatest name among poets 

in modern England, is that of Lord Byron (1788-1824). From him and from 
his friends, Thomas Moore, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and others, arose the most 
genial creations of modern English poetry. Lord Byron, a man of high poetic 
gifts and lofty imagination, but of excitable, ungovernable temperament, led 
an aimless life of wandering, by which he endeavoured to still the ardour of 
his soul, until, having taken up the cause 
of the freedom of Greece, he met his death 
through a fever at Missolonghi. He has 
embodied all the experiences of his ex- 
tensive travels in his two larger lyric poems, 
" Childe Harold " and the unfinished " Don 
Juan ; " besides these, his chief poems are 
"The Corsair," "The Bride of Abydos," 
"The Giaour," "Alp, or the Siege of Cor- 
inth," with dramas, lyrics, ballads, etc. An 
enthusiast for liberty, Byron availed him- 
self of the Greek struggle for independence 
to express his hatred of tyranny and his 
love of liberty in some noble poems ; and 
that his words proceeded from innate con- 
viction was proved by his participation in 
the dangerous conflicts in Greece. 




LORD BYRON. 



THOMAS MOORE, AND THE MOST RECENT LYRIC POETS. 

r I ^HE friend of Lord Byron with whom he remained in long intercourse, 
A the Irishman Thomas Moore (1780-1852), commencing with a trans- 
lation of Anacreon's light and cheerful poems, at last won the palm of lyric 
poetry by his charming " Irish Melodies," which remain a noble record of 
patriotic feeling and warm devotion to the unfortunate green isle. Worthy to 
be ranked with these "Irish Melodies" are the "Sacred Songs" and "National 
Songs," besides his most important work, the Eastern poem " Lalla Rookh." 
Among his other writings is his biography of the poet and parliamentary 
orator, Sheridan (1752-1816), the author of the witty comedy, "The School 
for Scandal." A highly-gifted 'poet, of extremely sceptical views, was Percy 



448 



THE HISTORY OF THE WORLD. 



Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822). Banished from Oxford on account of his 
heterodox opinions, rejected by his father because of his unfortunate mar- 
riage, and deprived by a legal sentence of the custody of his children, Shelley 
led a restless life, clouded by constant mental conflicts and bodily infirmities, 
until, while still in early manhood, he was drowned in a sudden storm while 
endeavouring to sail in an open boat .from Leghorn to Lerici. His body, cast 
up by the waves, was burnt by the direction of his friend Lord Byron, and the 
ashes placed in the pyramid of Cestius at Rome. In his principal work, 
" Queen Mab," he brought the measure of philosophical speculation to bear 
on political, religious, and social conditions, which he wished to remodel in 
accordance with a boundless individual liberty. More powerful in form as 
well as more concrete in matter, is " Alastor," a poem tinged with a breath 




THOMAS MOORE. 

of melancholy ; while his dramatic poems, " Prometheus Unbound," and 
" Hellas," served him for the glorification of liberty and of the Greek 
struggle for independence. In the touching elegy, "Adonais," he laments the 
premature death of the youthful poet, John Keats (1796-1820), who died in 
Rome, the author of the melancholy poems " Endymion," " Hyperion," etc. 
Besides these poets, who for a longer or shorter period took up their abode in 
Italy, may be added Walter Savage Landor (1775-1864), the enthusiastic 
worshipper of an ideal liberty, which he glorified in Latin and English verses, 
" Heroic Idyls," " Imaginary Conversations," " Helenics," etc., and the critic 
and satirist, Leigh Hunt (1784-1859). 

The most prominent among all living poets at the present time is Alfred 
Tennyson (born 1810), the son of an English clergyman. He is the successor 



THE NEW PERIOD OF REVOLUTION, FROM 1830. 



449 



of Wordsworth and Southey in the honourable post of Poet Laureate, and 
besides the sorrowful lament, " In Memoriam," dedicated to the memory of 
a dead friend, he has produced the three romances, " The Princess," " Maud," 
and " King Arthur," besides " Enoch Arden," etc. 

Worthy to be ranked with 
the poets of the mother-coun- 
try are several of the North 
Americ