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Full text of "An illustrated history of the Big Bend country, embracing Lincoln, Douglas, Adams, and Franklin counties, state of Washington"

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The white man's history of Douglas county- 
begins with the year 1871. It was at this pe- 
riod that the first white settler took 
up a residence in what is now Doug- 
las county, but which, at that period, 
was still a portion of Stevens coun- 
ty. The fact that what is now Douglas county 
was inhabited by a white man so early is, we 
believe, not generally known throughout the 
county, it being generally believed that George 
Urquhart and Philip McEntee were entitled to 
the honor of being the first to make their homes 
in the county. 

John Marlin, who had a family consisting 
of a wife and ten children, in 1871, came to the 
place where the town of Krupp now stands. 
Here he built a log house and engaged in rais- 
ing stock, making his home on what was then 
the frontier until 1876. Although during these 
five years Marlin was the sole resident of Doug- 
las county, he had a few neighbors who were 
engaged in stock raising along Crab Creek far- 
ther to the east. These were a man named Irby, 
the Walter Brothers and John Enos, colloquial- 
ly known as "Portuguese Joe." In 1876 George 
Urquhart came to the country and purchased 
Mr. Marlin's interests, the latter going to South 
America. The town of Krupp now stands on 
the land upon which Marlin first located, and 

later occupied by Mr. Urquhart, the latter hav- 
ing resided here since 1876. Donald Urquhart 
came to his brother's place in 1877, where he 
has since made his home. The Urquhart 
Brothers are the oldest living settlers in Doug- 
las county. 

But among the earliest to come to this coun- 
try were the Chinese. Placer mining was the 
fruition of their most sanguine hopes. Up and 
down the Columbia and its numerous tributar- 
ies they wandered, and panned and rocked out 
a satisfying, if not an enormous, volume of 
auriferous deposits from the various bars and 
creeks. A majority of these celestials came, 
originally from California, following the trails 
of Indians, fur dealers and miners. And thus 
it chanced that all along the banks of the big, 
roaring, treacherous stream, wherever wash 
soil could be found on which water could be 
obtained, or to which it could be carried, one 
finds today the abandoned prospect holes of the 
original Chinese placer miner. It developed a 
fruitful field; for many years it was worked 
industriously; frequently with wonderful 

Opposite the mouth of the Chelan river, 
where it debouches into the Columbia, from the 
west, are the ruins of a Chinese village within 
the limits of what is now Douglas county. The 



remains of this early settlement may be seen 
from Chelan Falls across the river, half a mile 
away. It was built mainly from cedar boards 
split from the log like shakes pegged 
against upright posts and roofed with 
logs and brush. At present nothing but 
the shells of these huts remain. In this 
early settlement there was a store. It was 
the first business enterprise in the country, and 
the proprietor was a Chinese merchant. To the 
Chinese workers along the river he supplied 
goods, and he made considerable money. A 
pack train of forty horses he owned with which 
he brought in his miscellaneous assortment of 
English, American and Chinese merchandise. 
It is stated that no stranger ever appeared at 
his store who was not made welcome by the 
old Chinese merchant. 

A tragedy, tinged with romance, is con- 
nected with this Oriental settlement. On one 
side of the site there was a garden, now over- 
grown with mustard plants and weeds. It was 
enclosed by a low picket fence and a gate led 
inward. It was a token of advanced civiliza- 
tion. The proprietor of the little kitchen gar- 
den was a moon-eyed youth with a voice like 
a muffled bell. He was in love with a dusky 
maiden who lived across the Columbia on the 
banks of Lake Chelan. But this celestial had 
made a peculiar vow never to declare his love. 
And this vow had been registered before the 
great Joss of the little Chinese community. 
Hence he was moody and became "cjueer," 
unsocial, melancholy and distrait. While others 
flocked to the gaming house he remained soli- 
tary and alone in his garden. He would sit 
there and brood over his unspoken love, until 

"Night hung her sable curtain out. 
And pinned it with a star." 

So he sighed and dreamed away his life. 
Everyone sympathised with him in accordance 
with the old, old adage, "All the world loves 
a lover." But his friends could do him no fur- 
ther good. One morning he was found dead in 

the little kitchen garden. No one knew when 
or how death had come to him. Some of his 
comrades spoke of a broken heart, and then 
they buried him in the little patch he had so 
assiduously attended. When the village was 
deserted no vandal hand disturbed his garden. 

Many years ago this settlement was aban- 
doned. The finances of the old Chinese mer- 
chant were running low, for he had "grub- 
staked" too many of his countrymen in then" 
precarious search for gold. In a big mine up 
on the Okanogan river he had an interest, and 
there he moved taking his lares and penates, 
his goods, his horses and even the number of 
his store with him. One b}- one others fol- 
lowed him, and wandered awa)-, up or down 
the trail. The "diggings" are deserted ; the 
village is a ruin ; the cabins the abode of snakes 
and rodents. With the progress of civilization 
in the Columbia valley these old placer marks 
will disappear; the cabins will be torn down 
and real prosperity will sweep grandly over the 

All this was in 1875. It was, practically, 
an Indian war against the Chinese that drove 
them away, but at the time this was not gen- 
erally known. Along the Methow river the In- 
dians began attacking the Chinese of whom 
they killed several. The news rapidly circu- 
lated among their comrades. When the Si- 
washes came to the settlement intent upon its 
demolishment, they found nobody save a few 
stragglers. There were several sharp skir- 
mishes in which some were killed on both sides. 
A correspondent of the Spokcsinaii-Rcviczi' 
says : 

When the Indians reached a point on the Columbia 
a few miles below where Chelan Falls now stands they 
dist:overed a number of Chinamen at work on the 
benches three hundred feet above. The savages advanced 
cautiously and surrounded the celestials on three sides, 
leaving only the steep bluff unguarded. Then began an 
uneven fight. The Chinamen were unprotected and 
unable to escape; they proved an easy prey to their 
savage antagonists. How many were massacred was 
never known, but it is positive that not one was left to 
tell the tale. It was an awful fight that sent terror into 



the hearts of the other Chinamen along the river. After 
that there was little placer mining done for months ; 
then one by one the celestials returned, but never could 
one of them be induced to go on the bench where 
the massacre occurred and open up the diggings' again. 
Today they are in exactly the same condition as that 
in which they were when the workers were slaughtered 
by the Indians. 

One of the very earliest settlers of Douglas 
county was Philip McEntee. He came to 
Washington first in 1877, being a member of 
a .surveying party which was establishing the 
boundary line between the United States and 
British Columbia. He made considerable 
money while in the employment of the govern- 
ment and upon the completion of the survey 
invested his earnings in cattle and located where 
Coulee City now stands, building in the spring 
of 1 88 1 the first house in that part of the coun- 
ty. During the winter of 1880-81 he lost heavily 
in cattle, but with indomitable energy started in 
to retrieve his lost fortune. From the time 
Mr. McEntee first came to Washington, he had 
been acquainted with the spot where he after- 
ward built his home. 

Mr. McEntee's life was a romantic one, full 
of lights and shadows; made up of adventure 
and hardships such as but few, if any, of the 
present generation will ever experience. He 
was one of those unflinching, energetic char- 
acters who made the history of the west — ac- 
cepting no defeat and perservering where other 
weaker spirits relinquished hope and turned 
back to civilization. No' privation was too 
great, no reverse of fortune sufficient to sub- 
due the iron will of this man, who did more 
than is realized by most people toward convert- 
ing a wilderness into one of the leading states 
in the union. 

In the early days when this portion of the 
' state (then a Territory) was uninhabited ex- 
cept by Indians and an occasional white man, 
Mr. McEntee would start from where Coulee 
City now stands with a band of cattle, drive 
them across several hundred miles of unbroken 
wilderness away up into British Columbia, 

where he would sell them, together with his 
pack horse, and make the return journey on 
foot, swimming rivers, sleeping on the snow- 
covered ground with only a blanket to protect 
him from the inclemency of the weather, and 
no companion within a hundred miles. 

Among other early pioneers of this part of 
the county who shared in the hardships of the 
wilderness, were Dan Paul, John R. Lewis, 
Tony Richardson, Charles Sprague and others( 
who, however, did not arrive until several years 
after Mr. McEntee. The latter died July 8, 
1 90 1, at Coulee City, where he had lived for 
over twenty years. 

During the winter of 1879-80 some of the 
companies of the Second United States Infan- 
try were stationed at the mouth of Foster Creek, 
and it is said they passed a very uncomfortable 
winter. In the spring of 1880 these troops re- 
moved to Lake Chelan, and Camp Chelan was 
established where is now the town of Chelan. 
Later the soldiers were taken to the mouth of 
the Spokane river, and Fort Spokane was es- 

While it was not until 1883 that the first 
settlers, with the exception of the four cattle- 
men mentioned, arrived in what later became 
Douglas county, during the years 1879 and 
1880 Lieutenant Thomas W. Symon's Corps 
of Engineers, Chief Engineer, Department of 
the Columbia, traversed the county from one 
end to the other, and laid out a wagon road 
from Ritzville, in Adams county, by way of 
White Bluffs in the southern part of Douglas 
county, through the county to the foot of Lake 
Chelan. Here was then established a United 
States military post. We here append Lieuten- 
ant Symon's report of his trip through the 
country locating a route made to the chief of 
engineers in 1 880 : 

In August, 1879. I left Walla Walla and proceeded 
to Wallula, and thence up the Columbia to the White 
Bluffs. At the head of the long Island we left the river 
to look out for a practicable route for a wagon road 
to the military camp, then in the vicinity of the mouth 



of the Okanogan, on the supposition that it was to be 
permanently located there. 

We reached the top of the bluffs', which are here 
about 540 feet high, by going up through a long gulch 
greatly beaten by cattle. The soil is dry and is ground 
to powder by the feet of the cattle wherever they make 
a path, and is not well suited for a road. We, however, 
found a short distance down the river, a gulch up which 
to ascend to the top of the bluffs, easy and gradual. 
From the summit the country spreads out gently roll- 
ing, as far as' the eye could reach to the northeast and 
east. To the north and northwest a small mountain 
chain, devoid of timber stretched itself from east to 
west across our way. It is called Saddle Mountain. The 
country was covered with a luxuriant growth of bunch 
grass, with here and there a tract of sage brush. The 
soil is of firm and excellent quality. Quite a large 
number of cattle were seen, all of which had to descend 
to the river for water. Proceeding somewhat to the 
northeast to skirt Saddle Mountain, we soon found our- 
selves getting into a country more sandy and more 
rolling, and our mules and horses had greater difficulty 
in getting along. In the afternoon, being on the look- 
out for water, we made for a green looking spot off to 
the east, hoping it was a spring. In this we were dis- 
appointed, and we continued on our way until nine 
o'clock at night, when, not finding any water, we un- 
loaded and made ourselves as comfortable as possible 
without it. The next morning before daylight we took 
up our laborsome march through the sands of the desert 
and traveled until about two in the afternoon, when, 
as our animals were suffering intensely, from thirst, 
and as we were uncertain about what lay before us, 
we concluded to strike to the westward, as from all the 
indications it was more likely to give a supply of water. 
About three o'clock we came to the old road, which 
gave indications of having at one time been well trav- 
eled, and we turned and followed it to the northward, 
trusting that it would take us to water. 

At five o'clock our animals seemed utterly unable 
to carry their packs any further, and so we unloaded 
them and piled up our baggage, and kept on without it. 
About nine o'clock that night we came to a small alkali 
pond which, vile as it was, seemed like nectar to us 
and to our poor horses and mules. The country we 
had traveled was covered partly with sage brush, bunch 
grass and weeds, and was utterly waterless and lifeless. 
Not even the cheerful coyote lived there, for not one 
lulled us to sleep, or molested our abandoned provisions 
and camp equippage. The next day we found the fine 
spring which feeds the alkali pond above mentioned. 
I afterwards learned that it goes by the name of Black 
Rock Spring. Here the face of the country changes 
to a certain extent and becomes more broken up. Black 
Rock Spring is at the head of a coulee which extends 
off to the southwest, and, probably, as far as Moses 
Lake. From Black Rock Spring we kept to the north, 
and in about nine miles came to Crab Creek, which is 

here quite a stream, flowing through a rich bottom 
half a mile wide: Up the stream the bottom narrows 
and becomes a chasm, formed by the perpendicular and 
overhanging walls of basaltic rock. Lower down the 
bottom becomes a marsh, entirely filling the space be- 
tween the basaltic walls in which the creek sinks to 
collect again further below. Where we crossed it the 
bottom was good and the descent and ascent from the 
great table land were comparatively easy. A goodly 
number of fine, fat cattle inhabited this valley and the 
adjoining high grounds, and no doubt fine gardens could 
be made and nearly every garden vegetable raised. 

Leaving Crab Creek we went nearly northward, 
taking as a guide Pilot Rock, a mass of rock about thirty 
feet high, but which, on account of the general features 
of the country can be seen for a great distance in every 
direction. Soon we crossed Kinewaw Run, the dry 
bed of a winter stream, now containing a scanty supply 
of water in lakes and springs. Leaving this we crossed 
shortly afterwards Wilson Creek, a fine little stream 
flowing through a rich bottom. It and Kenewaw Run 
are deeply embedded below the general surface of the 
Great Plain of the Columbia, have fine soil and abundant 
grazing in the bottom and the adjacent hills and upper 
plains for great numbers of cattle or horses. The 
scarcity of timber of any kind for fuel and building 
purposes is, and must always be, a great drawback to 
the settlement of this section. Keeping on over the 
part of the great plain lying between Wilson Creek and 
the Grand Coulee, a rich, rolling country covered with a 
luxuriant growth of bunch grass, we descended by mis- 
take into the Cold Spring Coulee, down which runs the 
great trail of the Indians from the Spokane country to 
the Wenatchee and Moses Lake countries. We climbed 
out of this coulee and passing over the broken and 
rocky summit between the two coulees, we descended 
by a long, gradual slope of about three miles into the 
Grand Coulee. The Pilot Rock was right above us, on 
the western bank to the north. Here in this vicinity is 
the best place to cross the coulee for a road going east 
and west. The bottom of the coulee is uneven and 
more than a thousand feet above the present level of 
the river. The sides show no water marks. We went 
north through the coulee, its perpendicular walls form- 
ing a vista like some grand old ruined, roofless hall, 
down which we traveled hour after hour. The walls 
are about 300 to 400 feet high. At about seven miles 
from the river a trail crosses the coulee and we turned 
her and went to the west until we struck Foster Creek, 
down which we kept, following the wagon road made by 
the troops which preceded us, to the winter camp, 
and which crosses the coulee at its juncture with the 
Columbia river. 

Some good ranching land lies along Foster Creek, 
and all over the southern portion of the Great Plain 
bunch grass grows in the greatest luxuriance. There 
are numerous little ponds which, fed by springs, keep 
a supply of water all the year, and also numerous springs 



of excellent water. Pursuant to instructions from Gen- 
eral Howard, Lieutenant Merriam and I began a search 
for the most s'uitable location for the new post. We 
examined both sides of the river from the mouth of the 
Okanogan to Lake Chelan, and decided that the most 
advantageous site, taking everything into consideration, 
was at the outlet of Lake Chelan, the plateau on the 
north side of the lake and river. 

In a later report, made in 1881, Lieutenant 
Symons, who during these years had become 
quite well acquainted with the western Big 
Bend country, tells of its condition before the 
advent of the settlers. In regard to the Crab 
Creek and Grande Coulee sections he said : 

This is a portion of the country which is and has 
been very little known. Its remoteness has deterred 
settlers from going to it. Before I went into the section, 
in 1879, I could obtain but little information in regard 
to it. Then all the inhabitants were three or four 
cattle raisers living along Crab Creek — "Portugese Joe," 
living on Kenawaw Run, and "Wild Goose Bill," on the 
headwaters of the Wilson Creek. The establishment in 
1879, and abandonment in 1880, of the military post at 
Camp Chelan, caused many people in the capacity of 
teamsters and other government employes, as well as 
the military, to go over the country, and a knowledge of 
it has been thus acquired and disseminated, and now 
there are quite a number of settlers who have gone into 
the country to make themselves homes. Of course it 
cannot become much of an agricultural country until a 
market for its products is afforded by the construction 
of a railroad into it. This section has never seemed to 
enter into the minds of people except as a broken and 
almost desert land, but I speak from a knowledge ac- 
quired by traveling over nearly the whole of it, and I 
shall not hesitate to characterize it as a very fine agri- 
cultural and grazing section. The country between 
Crab Creek and the Columbia is well watered by streams 
heading along the divide already mentioned, which lies 
quite near the Columbia ; these streams flow with more 
or less water, according to the season of the year 
through valleys of varying width, in a southwesterly 
direction, to Crab Creek. The land about the heads of 
the creeks and that lying between the creeks along 
their lower course is of the finest quality, growing the 
most luxuriant bunch grass and giving every evidence 
of being a magnificent grain country. 

In 1880 I laid out a wagon road from Ritzville, on 
the Northern Pacific railroad, to Camp Chelan, a dis- 
tance of one hundred and seven miles. Over nearly the 
whole of this' distance I found the bunch grass growing 
strongly and well, and the soil of undoubted fertility. 
The rolling hills to the south of Crab Creek for a dis- 
tance of from five to twenty miles are of the same ex- 
cellent quality as those to the north. Of course there 

is some poor land in the area east of the Grand Coulee, 
but as a whole it is scarcely to be surpassed. 

The Grand Coulee is the most singular, prominent, 
and noted feature of this portion of the country. It 
commences on the Columbia between the mouths of the 
Sans Poil and Nespelim rivers and extends in a south- 
westerly direction for fifty-five miles, when it merges 
into the boulder-covered, prehistoric Columbia Lake. 
Except at one point it is a deep chasm, with vertical, 
impassable walls', averaging about 350 feet in height. 
About midway between its extremities these walls are 
broken down, entirely so on the east, and so much so 
on the west that a wagon has no difficulty in ascending. 
The coulee here is partially filled up by the broken down 
hills. The cause of this break seems to have been a 
flood of water or ice coming in from the northeast and 
flowing off down through the Coulee chasm. Many 
rounded boulders are here found in the soil, and great 
rocks of large size, which could only have been trans- 
ported by the agency of ice. To the north of this mid- 
dle pass the bottom is quite level ; it has some springs 
and small ponds and can be traveled without difficulty. 
It is in some places nearly four miles wide. The south- 
ern portion is very narrow, and the bottom is filled with 
a succession of lakes, the northern ones being of clear, 
white, sweet water filled with fish ; toward the south 
the lakes become more and more strongly impregnated 
with alkali, until the one at the end of the coulee is of 
the most detestable, unpalatable nature. At its junc- 
ture with the Columbia the Coulee is crossed by a very 
bad wagon road, and a trail crosses it about s^ven 
miles from the Columbia. The only other place where 
it can be crossed is at the middle pass mentioned above. 

I first called attention to this middle pass in 1879, 
and located a wagon road across it in 1880. It is the 
only place where, by any means, the Coulee can be 
crossed by a railroad from the Columbia to its end 
near J^Ioses Lake. The southern portion of the Coulee 
from this point cannot be crossed or traversed owing to 
the lakes and steep walls. To the west of the Grand 
Coulee there is another running nearly parallel with it, 
known as Moses, or Little Coulee. This has a number 
of springs and much good land in it. The land between 
the two coulees is mostly rich and covered with bunch 
grass. This Moses Coulee comes to an abrupt end, 
enclosing a little lake. Foster Creek, with its many 
branches and fertile soil lies to the north. Many springs 
and little lakes exist throughout this portion of the sec- 
tion under discussion. There is every inducement in 
the way of natural advantages for thousands of settlers 
in this portion of the country. West of Moses Coulee 
there is a considerable area of timber land, and the vege- 
tation indicates a rich soil, but water is not plentiful. 
It may be obtained by digging, but this has not been 
tried. In the southwestern portion of this section lies 
Badger Mountain. This could only be called a moun- 
tain in a country as flat as the Great Plain, and does 
not deserve the name. It is a long, rolling divide, whose 



sides are cut by gullies, in many of which springs are 
to be found. The soil of this mountain appears to be 
exceedingly rich and, indeed, if I were asked to name 
the richest, most fertile area in the whole Columbia 
basin, I know of none that I would name before Badger 
Mountain. The vegetation is indicative of it? fertility, 
being, besides bunch grass, rose bushes, choke-cherry 
bushes, willows, etc., all growing thick and strong. The 
country is well watered and will in time have an easy 
outlet by the Columbia river, and deserves the attention 
of everybody having the great transportation and other 
interests of the country in hand. 

The following clipping taken from the Columbia 
Daily Chronicle, published at Dayton, Washington, of 
April 2, 1884, voices the poor opinion held by some 
people concerning the value of the Big Bend soil in the 
earlier days of settlement : 

"Thomas Smith, of this place, returned from the 
Badger Mountain country yesterday, bringing with him 
a s'ample of the soil. It is of very poor quality and of 
a yellowish cast, full of dry lumps and alkali. Mr. 
Smith thinks he does not want any of it for farming 
purposes. He reports that the section of the coimtry 
which goes by the name of Badger Mountain is a level 
plateau, or elevated table land, covered with a low 
growth of sage brush with some bunch grass. It might 
do for a summer range for stock, but for farms will 
likely prove a disappointment. It is situated in the 
'Big Bend' of the Columbia, and is, no doubt, greatly 
overrated, though it is settling up quite fast." 

Throughout this section of the Great Plain lies 
about 2,000 to 2,500 feet above the river level, and it is 
extremely difficult to get from one to the other. West 
of the Grand Coulee, the only practicable railroad route 
to the Columbia, that I am sure of, is by way of Foster 
Creek. By this route an excellent grade can be made 
to the river. It is possible that by way of Moses Coulee, 
or the southern side of Badger Mountain, an easy way 
to the river may be discovered. The commercial center 
of this section will probably be somewhere in the vicin- 
ity of the middle pass of Grand Coulee. Another, and 
greater center will be located near the mouth of the 

Speaking of tlie I\lo,ses Lake, or as lie de- 
scribes it, thei "de.sert"' .section. Lieutenant 
Symons said : 

This last one of the four sections which I have been 
considering, can be dismissed with a few words, and 
those almost entirely of condemnation. It is a desert, 
pure and simple, an almost waterless, lifeless, desert. 
A few cattle exist along the Columbia, where they can 
reach the river for water, and some more along the 
lower Crab Creek below Moses Lake. This section is 
much lower than the rcmaiiulor of the Great Plain and 
evidently was a lake for luuulreds of years, forming 

deposits several hundred feet in thickness, and which 
are plainly shown at the White Bluffs and Crab Creek 
Coulee. A large portion is covered with boulders em- 
bedded in a loose, light, ashy soil ; other portions are 
covered with drifting sands, and, taken all in all, it is 
a desolation where even the most hopeful can find noth- 
ing in its future prospects to cheer. 

Crab creek sinks soon after receiving the waters of 
Wilson creek and rises just above Moses' Lake, of 
which it is the only feeder. At this point the water is 
passably gqod to drink. JVIoses Lake is stagnant, alka- 
line and unfit for any use. At its lower end are great 
sand dunes and sandy wastes. The water seeps through 
the sand and rises again a few miles to the south and 
flows southwesterly to Saddle Mountain," where it is 
turned to the west, sinking and rising several times'. I 
do not thing that now it ever reaches the Columbia. 
Below JNIoses Lake the creek water is alkaline, filled 
with organic matter and unpalatable. 

The first survey of western Spokane, now 
Douglas county, was made in 1880. Anticipat- 
ing the intention of the government to obtain 
a survey of the country, a party of surveyors 
in 1880 made a private survey, but contrary 
to expectation of the surveyors their survey 
was not accepted. During the years 1880-81 
and 1882 Mr. J. M. Snow was engaged as sur- 
veyor in surveying the modern Douglas county. 
There was no settlement in this part of the 
country at that time, but during his work here 
Mr. Snow decided that this was the best agri- 
cultural region in the territory open to settle- 
ment. .With a view to the probable rapid dcr 
velopment of this region Mr. Snow, in the surn- 
mer of 1885, made settlement on a homestead 
near the present town of Waterville, and be- 
came an honored citizen of the county, being 
elected Territorial councilman in 1888. The 
survey made by Snow and others resulted in 
some changes from the former one. This sur- 
vey was accepted by the government, but it 
was not until 1888 that settlers could obtain 
title owing to delays of the Department at 
Washington. Prior to this date settlers held 
land simply by "squatter's rights."" Although 
they were squatters the land had been surveyed 
and the survey awaited only the approval of the 
government, and the settlers had no difficulty 
when the official survey was accepted. 



The Columbia, the greatest river of the 
west, is one of the most remarkable streams in 
the world. Situated, as it is, hundreds of feet 
below the level of the surrounding country, it 
can be reached only in places where deep can- 
yons lead down to the ri\'er. The upper Colum- 
bia is broken by rapids and eddies and is very 
treacherous. It is fitting that that part of the 
Columbia which makes the boundaries of the 
Big Bend country should be considered at some 

The Columbia river was first called the 
Oregon, from the mention of the name by Car- 
ver. In 1575 it was called Assumption Inlet, 
by Heceta. In the charts of his voyage, soon 
after published, it was called Ensenada de 
Heceta, and Rio de San Roque. In 1789 it 
was called Deception Bay, by Meares. 

It was in 1792 that Gray called it the Col- 
umbia. Captain Clarke asserts that in 1805 
the Indians called it the Shocatilcum, and an- 
other tribe called it Chockalilum, both being 
the same name differently pronounced, in all 
probability. This Indian name is, quite prob- 
ably, Waterfriend, of Friendly Water. In the 
Chinook language. Chuck signifies water, and 
tillicum, friend. Hence the name Chuck-tilli- 
cum, or Shocatilcum. 

During the months of September and Octo- 
ber, 1 88 1, Lieutenant Thomas Symons, corps 
of engineers, Chief Engineer Department of the 
Columbia, and Alfred Downing, Topograph- 
ical Assistant United States Army, accompan- 
ied by five Indians, made a trip of exploration 
down the Columbia river from Fort Colville 
to the mouth of Snake river. Of the prepara- 
tions for this perilous trip Lieutenant Symons, 
in his report to the chief engineer, says : 

I was fortunate enough to procure from John 
Rickey, a settler and trader, who lives at the Grand 
Rapids, a strongly built bateau, and had his assistance 
in selecting a crew of Indians for the journey. The 
bateau was about thirty feet long, four feet wide at 
the gunwales, and two feet deep, and is as small a boat 
as the voyage should ever be attempted in, if it is con- 
templated to go through all the rapids. My first look- 

out had been to secure the services of "Old Pierre 
Agare" as steersman, and I had to carry on negotiations 
with him for several days before he finally consented 
to go. Old Pierre is the only one of the ancient Hud- 
son's Bay Company's Iroquois voyageurs' now left 'who 
knows the river thoroughly at all stages of water from 
Colville to its mouth. In the palmy days of the fur 
traders he came with them from Canada, and made 
many voyages down and up the Columbia, married and 
settled at Colville, and now has a large family of chil- 
dren, grandchildren and great-grandchildren about him. 
The old man is seventy years' of age, and hale and 
hearty, although his eyesight is somewhat defective, 
which is almost a certain accompainment of old age 
with an Indian. 

The other Indians engaged were Pen-waw, Big 
Pierre, Little Pierre and Joseph. They had never made 
the trip all the way down the river, and their minds 
were full of the dangers and terrors of the great rapids 
below. It "was a long time before we could prevail 
upon them to go, by promising them a high price and 
stipulating for their return by rail and stage. Old 
Pierre and John Rickey labored and talked with them 
long and faithfully to gain their consent, and I am sure 
that they started off with as many misgivings about get- 
ting safely through as we had who had to trust our 
lives to their s'kill, promptness and obedience. When 
all was ready we entered the boat and took our sta- 
tions. Old Pierre in the stern at the steering oar; next 
our baggage, upon which I took my station ; then came 
the four Indian oarsmen and ini the bow Mr. Down- 
ing, topographical assistant. Mr. Downing and myself 
worked independently in getting as thorough knowl- 
edge of the river as poss'ible, he taking the courses with 
a prismatic compass, and estimating distances by the 
eye, and sketching in the topographical features of the 
adjoining country, while I, also, estimated the distance 
to marked points and paid particular attention to the 
bed of the river, sounding whenever there were indica- 
tions' of shallowness. 

The party safely made the trip to the mouth 
of the Spokane river. The following extracts 
from Syinons report of the trip from the latter 
point to the mouth of the Snake river, estimated 
a distance of 3093^ miles, describes that por- 
tion of the Columbia which bounds the Big 
Bend country. 

Having finished work about Camp Spokane on 
October 3, at II 145 a. m., we pushed out from the 
Spokane river and took our course down the Columbia. 
At 12:15 we had run the five miles to the mouth of 
Hawk Creek, and the ranch and trading post of Will- 
iam Covington, generally known as "Virginia Bill." 
Hawk Creek heads at Cottonwood Springs, on the old 



White Bluffs road. It is about 25 miles long and flows 
for the greater part of the way through an extremely 
deep and precipitous canyon. "Virginia Bill" has con- 
structed a wagon road from the great plain near Cot- 
tonwood Springs' to his ranch, which is an excellent 
road and the best way to reach the Columbia from the 
upper plain with which I am acquainted. There is an 
easy grade and a firm soil all the way, and I believe 
a practicable railroad route could be laid out to the 
river in the vicinity of this road. The river between 
the Spokane and Hawk Creek is very swift and strong, 
the current running from six to eight miles an hour. 

A couple of miles further on we passed the mouth 
of Welch creek, so named from a settler on its banks in 
the valley about four or five miles from the river. Some 
of the prettiest country in the world is situated upon 
Welch Creek and its branches. There are beautiful 
little valleys nestled in among the rolling timbered hills, 
and beyond, up on the Great Plain, mile after mile of 
bunch grass covered gently sloping prairie. The river 
now becomes very deeply encanyoned with steep, rocky, 
and in swrne cases, perpendicular, bluffs, on one or both 
sides. The canyon is in many places very beautiful; 
the rocks composing the bluffs are many colored, black, 
brown, pink and white, and have many patches of bright 
red and yellow moss. To this must be added the green 
of the trees of which all shades, from the darkest to the 
brightest appear, the bright autumnal tints of the 
brushes and beyond, above, and about all, the old gold, 
of the withered bunch grass shining in the sunlight. 
The rocks take all imaginable forms, showing up as 
pinnacles', terraces, perpendicular bluffs, devils' slides, 
and giants' causeways, the whole forming one of the 
grandest, most beautiful sights in the universe. The 
material of which the rock is composed is all, apparent- 
ly, of igneous origin, trachyte and basalt. With this, 
especially on the north s'ide of the river, there is a 
great deal of volcanic tufa in a more or less friable 

About eight miles further on we come to the 
Whitestone, a noted landmark, consisting of a gigantic 
grayish white rock, 500 feet high, standing perpendicu- 
larly up from the water, on the left bank of the river, 
and being partially detached from the rocks to the rear. 
It is split down the middle by some great convulsion. 
The Indians have a legend concerning this' rock of 
which the skunk is the hero. It would seem that in the 
long ago a skunk, a coyote, and a ratlesnake each had 
a farm on the top of the Whitestone. These were the 
days before the skunk was as odorous as he is now, 
but was' esteemed a good fellow and pleasant compan- 
ion by other animals. As in some other small communi- 
ties jealousies, dissensions and intrigues arose in this 
one. The result wa? that the coyote and rattlesnake 
took a mean advantage of the skunk one night when he 
was asleep, and threw him off the rock away down into 
the river. He was not drowned, however, but flfiated 
on and on, far away to the south and west, until he 

came to the mouth of the river where lived a great med- 
icine man and magician. To him the skunk applied 
and was fitted out with an apparatus warranted to give 
immunity from, and conquest over, all enemies. Back 
he journeyed along the river to his old home, where 
he arrived, much to the surprise of the rattlesnake and 
coyote, and commenced to make it so unpleasant for 
them with his pungent perfumery apparatus, the gift of 
the magician, that they soon left him in undisputed pos- 
session of his rocky home, which he has maintained 
ever since. 

Oppos-ite the Whitestone comes in Whitestone 
creek from the north. Near here we came to a trad- 
ing post on the left bank of the stream, occupied by a 
man named Friedlander, who carries on quite a trade 
with the Indians and Chinamen along the river. He 
reaches his place by a wagon road from the Great 
Plain above. He informed me that it was an excellent 
road and one of the best ways of getting to the river 
that there is. We remained with him until 3:10, in- 
quiring about the country, the Indians, etc., and at a 
distance of two miles from his place we reached Hell 
Gate. At the head of the rapids a great jutting point 
sticks out from the left bank narrowing the channel ; 
below this, in the middle of the river, is a great rock 
island, with the channel to the left ; below and nearer 
the right bank are two other rock islands. These islands 
form a partial dam to the water and cause rapids which 
commence between the jutting point and the first great 
island and continue for a cons'iderable distance below 
the last rock island. The channel is very crooked. 
.Although a bad place it seems to me that a good steamer 
would easily ascend the rapids and go through if the 
proper course was taken. This course, I should say, 
would be to hug the north bank until nearly to the is- 
lands, then cross over the south bank and steam well 
up to the jutting point of rocks, and then cross over be- 
tween this jutting point and the first islands, and then 
around the jutting point. The only danger that a 
steamer would encounter coming down would be that 
something might happen to the steering gear. During 
a high stage of water the jutting point mentioned above 
becomes an island, and the currents are changed, and 
it probably would be a much worse place to go through 
than during low and medium stages. 

Three miles below we passed the mouth of the Sans 
Poil river. This comes in from the north, rising in the 
mountains nearly due west of Kettle Falls, and flows 
through a region in which there is much good farming 
land. This word has been variously spelled but the 
above I believe is correct, as it seems to be a French 
name applied to the Indians living along its banks on 
account, either of the scarcity or shortness of their hair, 
and beard, or from the fact that they were very poor 
and had no furs to sell to the traders. Old Pierre told 
me that the latter was the origin of the word. 

.■\fter passing through two ripples we went into 
camp at 4:30 p. m., on the left bank near an immense 



spring which came pouring out from the rocks about 
fifty feet above the river. This day we made about 
twenty-three and one-half miles. 

Without going more fully into the details 
of this rather uneventful trip down the Colum- 
bia made by Lieutenant Symons, it is sufficient 
to say that the journey was successfully accom- 
plished and the mouth of Snake river reached 
Sunday morning, October 9th. While this 
portion of our history might, naturally come 
under the head of "descriptive," it is historical, 
in fact, because it describes the existing condi- 
tions of Douglas county and the Columbia river 
in 1881. 

For a few years Philip INIcEntee and the 
Urquharts were the only white men whO' lived 
in eastern Douglas county. In 1880 a man 
named Bibi had a bunch of cattle in the Wilson 
Creek country, but in 1883 he sold his stock 
to George Popple. In iS^L- Dan Paul canie to 
the country and raised stock. He recognized 
the possibilities of the coulee and settled down 
to await for the incoming of settlers. When 
they came his honesty and personality won their 
warmest respect and in 1896 he was elected 
senator in which position he served until 1900. 
Others who dated their settlement in this part 
of the county in 1883 were John O'Flaherty, 
Charles Yungck, P. J. Young, Anthony Rusho, 
Frank Rusho, F. H. Bosworth and Frank Day. 
In the extreme eastern portion of Douglas 
county among the very first settlers were Kerby 
and Sherlock, who in the fall of 1882 did their 
first work toward establishing their residences 
a few miles southwest of what is known as the 
California settlement, which is just over the 
line in Lincoln county, both Douglas and Lin- 
coln counties then being part of Spokane coun- 
ty. These were immediately followed by James 
Fulton, James Heathman, John O'Niel, Will- 
iam Scully, Edward Schrock, James Schrock, 
James Jump and eight or ten others. 

In 1883 a few more settlers came to the 
coulee portion of the country, among them 
John R. Lewis, who arrived in the spring of 

that year. From Mr. Lewis we learn that when 
he came there were in the whole of eastern 
Douglas county the following people: Jack 
Harding, near Steamboat Rock, Philip Mc- 
Entee, where Coulee City now stands, Dan 
Paul, Tony Richardson, George and Donald 
Urquhart, George Popple and "Bub" Duffield, 
in the Wilson Creek country. These men were 
all stock men and the thought that crops could 
be raised in this soil never entered their heads. 
An interesting item in the history of Doug- 
las county during the year 1883 was the prairie 
fire which took place the latter part of June. 
Stockmen who lived in the country at that time 
tell us that the prairie country east of Grand 
Coulee was covered with a rich growth of 
grass, such as was never seen after that time. 
The fire was originated by Indians in the coulee. 
It got beyond their control and before the 
flames could be checked the entire territory east 
of the coulee as far as where Almira now stands 
was burned over. The few stock raisers in the 
country turned out, fought the fierce flames, 
and finally succeeded in stopping their ravages. 
No damage was done except to the grass. A 
prairie fire in June may appear peculiar in the 
east, but those who took an active part in sub- 
jugating these flames say that the grass burned 
like dry hay. 

It was also in 1883 that the pioneers of 
Douglas county passed through the incipient 
stages of an Indian scare. The population of 
the entire territory now embraced in Douglas 
county would not much exceed one hundred. 
The Indians did not take kindly to the arrival 
of the few stockmen who came in 1 883 and for 
a time it looked as though there would be seri- 
ous trouble. A few became alarmed and bury- 
ing what treasure they had moved to Sprague 
until the trouble should have blown over. Five 
hundred soldiers were sent to the threatened 
district and during the summer of 1883 they 
were stationed on Foster Creek, near the pres- 
ent site of Bridgeport. These troops held the 
hostile Indians in check and no outrages were 



committed. The supressioii of the contempla- 
ted outbreak was assisted by the report of Chief 
IMoses who "returned from his trip to \\'ash- 
ington, D. C. about this time. The Indians 
of this vicinity ditl not reahze the strength of 
the whites in numbers, and beheved that the 
white race consisted of the people with whom 
they came in contact, or of whom they had 
heard from the tribes in the vicinity. Chief 
Moses on his trip was compelled to realize the 
overwhelming numbers of the whites, and his 
report to his followers is said to have been sen- 
sational. His people were mobilized on the 
banks of the Columbia river. Seizing a hand- 
ful of sand he exhibited it to the braves and 
said : 

"Siwashes." Then waving his arm in the 
direction of the nmuntains, he continued : 
"Boston men!" 

The hint was taken, and upon the advice 
of Moses the threatened outbreak was quelled 
before the Indians were made to feel the power 
of the whites, which were as mountains to a 
handful of sand in comparison with the red 

So far we have spoken only of the settlers 
of eastern Douglas county, or that portion lying 
east of the Grand Coulee. We have found that 
while, practically, the first settlers came in 1883, 
there were a few stockmen in the county prior 
to that time. 

In that ]3ortion of the county west of the 
Grand Coulee we find that before 1883 there 
had never been a white settler. To Mr. Piatt 
Corbaley belongs the distinguished honor of 
being the first to locate west of the coulees. He 
came in April. 1883, and took up his residence 
just north of Badger Mountain, and only a 
couple of miles southwest of the present town 
of Waterville. With Mr. Corbaley were his 
wife and wife's mother. Mrs. Mary Jefferson. 
An interesting bit of historical data is a list of 
names written by F. M. Alexander in Decem- 
Ijer, 1883, the list being a census of those who 
passed the winter of 1883-4 in the Badger 

Mountain country. Being taken at the time, 
it is, undoubtedly, correct, and in any case 
more reliable than if the list were prepared from 
memory at this late day. The names are : 

Piatt Corbaley, Helen Corbaley, Ida Cor- 
baley, (one year old), Mrs. Jefferson, Al Pier- 
pont, O. H. Kimball, Peter Bracken, John Ban- 
neck, Hector Patterson. Ferring, Charles Fer- 
ring, Benjamin Ackers, F. M. Alexander, Her- 
bert Corson, William Gould, Henry Calkins, 
Captain H. A. Miles, J. W. Stephens, Robert 
Halfhill, W. R. Wilson, Ed Hall, 'Major E. D. 
Nash, Arch Borrowman, George Kneever, wife 
and two children, Mr. Cooper, David Ford, 
Smith Hardin, John Buzzard, Morris Buzzard, 
Thomas Paine, wife (now Mrs. Akers), John 
Paine, James Melvin, A. E. Cornell, Sam 
McCoy, Peter Scott, James Cunningham, Mc- 
Arthur, wife and two children, Burton, wife 
and three children, (D. J. Titchenal, Louis Tit- 
chenal, Frank Greene, Frank Kaufman, J. 
Crawford, Howard Honor, Walter Mann, 
Wright and family of nine, Taylor and wife. 

In addition to these Mr. Alexander append- 
ed a list of those who were in the country dur- 
the summer, and fall, but who went out to spend 
the winter. These were : H. N. Wilcox, Will- 
iam Walters, Isaiah Brown, William Mitchell, 
J. W. Adams, Hadley Barnhart, and Dickey. 
This census which, practically, represented the 
whole of the western portion of what is now 
Douglas county, shows a population at that 
time of less than eighty people. 

That year will be remembered by all those 
pioneers as one of privation and hanlship. It 
was these people who demonstrated that the 
country beyond the coulees was susceptible of 
supporting a population. It was this handful 
of early settlers that laid the foundations of 
society, morality and commercialism upon 
which others builded. 

It was the timber on Badger Mountain that 
encouraged the brave pioneers to attempt the 
experiment of trying to build homes in western 
Douglas county. But it was a tedious task to 



hew out timber and liaiil it miles for houses. 
Consequently Nash & Stephens undertook the 
bold enterprise of hauling in a saw mill and lo- 
cating it on Badger Mountain in 1883. As a 
business investment the enterprise was a fail- 
ure. The cost of keeping up repairs, freight- 
ing in provisions and horse feed exceeded the 
receipts for lumber. Settlers were glad of an 
opportunity to work, and many secured the 
lumber for their buildings by exchanging 
work at the mill. 

J. H. Christianson was one of the 1883 set- 
tlers in Douglas county, taking up his residence 
in Moses Coulee. In a recent interview Mr. 
Christianson said : 

"Great changes have taken place in the' 
county since I located here in 1883. At that 
time Waterville was not on the map, but we 
came to Okanogan City instead. In driving 
from my place in the coulee to that town there 
was not a single fence or road to guide travel- 
ers. The only landmarks were distant buttes. 
I was a bachelor the first few years of my resi- 
dence in Moses Coulee and it is unnecessary to 
say that I found it a lonely life. Many is the 
time that if I could have conveniently arranged 
it I would have deserted the country. But now 
I am not sorry that I remained." 

The first white child born in Douglas coun- 
ty was Nellie Rusho, born November 24, 1883, 
the daughter of Frank and Magdalene Rusho. 

It was in 1883 that the first religious serv- 
ices were held in Douglas county. Rev. Charles 
Yungck, who settled in eastern Douglas county 
that year, began holding services in German at 
his house upon his arrival and for many years 
thereafter held services regularly every week. 
West of the Grand Coulee the first religious 
service was held at Mr. Shannon's house and 
conducted by Elder Richard Corbaley on May 
8, 1884. There were present about twenty- 
five people. 

Pioneers of the Badger Mountain country 
tell us that at quite on early date, presumably 
in the fall of 1883 or spring of 1884, a small 

store was located about one and one-half miles 
south of the present site of Waterville on what 
is now known as the William Fitch place. It 
was continued until 1887, when the enterprise 
was abandoned. This store was conducted by 
W. S. Crouch. Only a small stock of goods 
was carried. 

The bill creating the county of Douglas was 
approved by the governor November 28, 1883. 
We shall now discuss the conditions of the 
county on this date and the causes that led to 
the formation of the county. 

At the time of the organization of the coun- 
ty the population was small, dififerent authori- 
ties placing the number at figures ranging from 
50 to 150. R. S. Steiner, who arrived in the 
county in the spring of 1884 places the number 
at about 50, while ex-Sheriff S. C. Robins, who 
arrived at the same time says, possibly 60. 
Others estimated the number from 100 to 150. 
From the list of names of persons who passed 
the winter of 1883-4 in western Douglas coun- 
ty, prepared by F. M. Alexander, we find that 
he has nearly eighty names of men, women and 
children in that portion of the county. There 
certainly were not that many in the eastern 
part of the county, but we believe there were 
enough to bring the total to something over 

On the date the governor signed the bill 
authorizing the creation of the county it con- 
tained but one town. This was Okanogan, 
which had been platted for the express purpose 
of having a place to designate as the county 
seat. This town consisted of one tent, and the 
sole inhabitant was Walter Mann, who had 
undertaken to "hold down" the site. There 
was not a store, postoffice, saloon, or black- 
smith shop, a railway train or a stage line in 
the whole territory to be subsequently known 
as Douglas county, a territory as large as the 
state of Connecticut. 

In a previous chapter the dififerent county 

formations and divisions of eastern Washing- 

I ton have been traced from the act of 1846, au- 



thorizing the creation of Walla Walla county, 
to 1883, when Spokane county was divided, 
the western portion becoming Lincoln and 
Douglas counties. We find at the 1883 ses- 
sion of the Washington Territorial Legislature 
that the territory which now embraces Lincoln 
and Douglas counties was cut off from Spo- 
kane county and given the name of Lincoln 
county. But before the session adjourned the 
western portion of Lincoln was cut off and 
authority given for the organization of a new 
county to be known as Douglas. The question 
naturally arose, "Why?" Under what kind of 
a spell were the Washington legislators brought 
that they should authorize the creation of a 
county containing, say, only 100 inhabitants, 
counting men, women and children ? 

The answer in three words is. "J. ^^'. 
Adams." It was through the influence of J. 
W. Adams that the county of Douglas was 
formed ; that Okanogan was named as the coun- 
ty seat, and that several other things connected 
with the early history of the county occurred. 
Mr. Adams was a professional townsite boomer 
from Kansas. He was a man with a knack 
of doing things, and having aft'airs go his way 
politically whenever they jumped with his 
plans. Mr. Adams came to the Territory of 
Washington and was pleased with the country. 
The legislature which was in session at the time 
appeared to him to have gone mad on county 
division schemes. He conceived the idea of 
having a county all his own formed. He asso- 
ciated with him Walter Mann, and H. A. Mey- 
ers under the firm name of Adams, Mann & 
Company, and having placed script on land in 
the western part of the proposed county, six 
miles east of the present town of Waterville, 
the company platted the townsite of Okanogan. 
Of this firm Mr. Adams was the prime mover 
— the mainspring of the combination. He re- 
mained in the county until the autumn of 1886. 
when, his plans having failed, he left the coun- 
try. Walter Mann remained in the county and 
became a respected and influential citizen, 

leaving only a few years ago to take up his resi- 
dence on the Sound. Mr. ]\leyers was a resi- 
dent of Illinois and although he was named as 
one of the commissioners of the new county 
and was present at the first meeting, he was 
never a resident of the Territory. 

Following is the organic act which ]\Ir. 
Adams and his associates succeeded in having 
passed by the legislature : 

"An Act to organize the county of Doug- 

"Sec. I. Be it enacted by the Legislative 
Assembly of the Territory of Washington : 
That all that portion of the county of Lincoln 
described as follows, towit : Beginning at the 
point where the Columbia guide meridian in- 
tersects the Columbia river on the northern 
boundary of Lincoln covmty; and thence run- 
ning south on said Columbia guide meridian to^ 
the township line between townships Nos. 16 
and 17; thence running west on said township 
line to the range line between ranges 27 and 28 ; 
thence south on said range line to the section 
line between sections 24 and 25 in township 14, 
north ; range 27 east ; thence west on said sec- 
tion line to the mid-channel of the Columbia 
river, thence up said channel of said river to 
the place of beginning, shall be known and 
designated as the county of Douglas. 

"Sec. 2. That J. W. Adams, H. A. Mey- 
ers and P. M. Corbaley are hereby appointed 
commissioners of said county of Douglas. 

"Sec. 3. The county commissioners above 
named are hereby authorized within ninety 
days after the approval of this act, and upon ten 
days notice by said commissioners, to meet at 
the county seat of said county, to qualify and 
enter upon the duties of their ofifice; and the 
said commissioners are hereby authorized and 
empowered to appoint all county officers, in- 
cluding a county attorney and justices of the 
peace and constables and all precinct officers. 
And said county commissioners, and the county 
and precinct officers, so appointed by them, 
shall hold their offices and discharge their du- 



ties therefore until the next general election, 
and until their successors are elected and ciuali- 
fied. And the said county and precinct officers 
shall receive for their services the same fees as 
are provided by the statutes of Washington 
Territory for other counties. 

"Sec. 4. The county seat of the county of 
Douglas is hereby located at the town of Okan- 
ogan, until the next general election, at which 
time the permanent location of the county seat 
shall be submitted to the qualified electors of 
said county, and the place receiving a majority 
of all votes cast at said election shall be the 
county seat of said county. 

"Sec. 5. The county of Douglas shall be 
attached to the county of Lincoln for legisla- 
tive and judicial purposes until otherwise pro- 
vided by law. 

"Sec. 6. All acts and parts of acts in con- 
flict with this act are hereby repealed. 

"Sec. 7. This act shall take effect from 
and after its passage and approval. 

"Approved November 28, 1883." 

February 28, 1884, Colonel H. A. Meyers, 
and Captain J. W. Adams, two of the commis- 
sioners named in the act creating the county, 
met at Okanogan, which had been named as the 
temporary county seat. It is doubtful if the 
initial meeting of any law-making body was 
ever held under more, inauspicuous circum- 
stances. Okanogan, the county seat was a 
platted town. Here, in a tent, since the pre- 
ceding fall, had lived Walter Mann who was 
''holding down" the location. This tent was 
the only "building" in the town, and in it the 
first session of the board of commissioners of 
Douglas county was held. P. M. Corbaley, 
the other commissioner, was not present at the 
meeting which was adjourned without trans- 
acting any business, the two commissioners 
awaiting the arrival of their colleague. On the 
29th all three of the members were present and 
the organization of Douglas county was per- 
fected. The board appointed the county offi- 
cials, a list of whom will be found in the poli- 

tical ciiapter devoted to Douglas county. The 
commissioners" journal in reporting this initial 
meeting of the Douglas county board states that 
Colonel Meyers was elected chairman, but his 
removal from the county created a vacancy. His 
place was filled by the appointment of David 
Soper at the succeeding meeting of the board, 
which was not held until September 6th. At 
that time J. W. Adams was elected chairman 
which position he continued to hold until the 
beginning of 1885. 

The formation of the county government 
created a "boom" in the vicinity of the place 
named as the county seat, and it was a wild 
one. The entire country contiguous to the 
scanty settlement was staked solid. Okanogan 
City was to be a metropolis. Literature de- 
scribing the resources of the country was scat- 
tered broadcast. One circular contained the 
statement that every quarter-section of land 
had at least one good spring and that there was 
living water all over the country. But this 
water was a myth. When it was discovered, 
with dismay, that water could not be procured 
in this vicinity the locators drifted to other sec- 
tions of the county where it could be found and 
not one claim in ten was proved up by the ori- 
ginal locators. 

As the town of Okanogan was the only one 
in the county at this time, and as the history of 
the county was centered here for the next few 
years, we shall gWe a short sketch of the place 
which Adams, Mann & Company tried so hard 
to convert into a city. The townsite was platted 
in the autumn of 1883. Then Mr. Mann 
erected his tent and there passed the winter. 
But in the spring of 1884 more permanent im- 
provements were made at the county seat. It 
was in April that Mr. B. L. Martin was in- 
duced to cast his lot in the new city. At that 
period he completed a store building 24x36 
feet, the first edifice in town, and this he stocked 
with goods. While Okanogan remained the 
county seat this building was used as a court 
house and Mr. Martin was made auditor. It 



was during the summer or fall of the same year 
that the second building was erected. This was 
a hotel and is said to have been a first-class 
hostelry, all things considered. About the same 
time Mr. Mann erected a dwelling house. One 
or two other residences were put up and these 
completed the town of Okanogan. It was not 
until the fall of 1884 that a postoffice was se- 
cured for the county seat. B. L. Martin was 
appointed postmaster. Prior to that time mail 
for Douglas county residents was secured by 
way of Spokane Falls and it was brought in 
quite irregularly by freighters who occasion- 
ally made trips to the Falls city for supplies. 
For this service settlers paid thirty-five cents a 

Okanogan continued to hold a place on the 
map until the spring of 1887, when, losing 
the county seat, it lost its identity as a town. 
B. L. Martin closed his store and he, Walter 
Alann and F. H. Bosworth, the only bona fide 
residents of the place sought other localities. 
With one exception all the buildings were sold 
to ranchers living in the vicinity, who utilized 
them for farm buildings. The one exception 
was the residence of Walter Mann which re- 
mained to mark the spot where once was Okan- 
ogan until a few years ago, when Mr. Mann 
moved it to Waterville and used the material 
in the construction of a new home. The down- 
fall of Okanogan was entirely due to lack of 
water. When J. \V. Adams and his associates 
came to western Spokane county and like Cecil 
Rhodes, started in to "build an empire," they 
neglected to ascertain if water could be pro- 
cured. It was a fatal mistake. Only after the 
script had been placed on the land, the townsite 
platted and the "town" designated as the county 
seat was an effort made to secure water. Then 
to the chagrin of these boomers was it found 
that water was not easy to obtain. One or two 
holes had been dug to a depth of 60 or 80 
feet but not a sign of water was discovered. 
Affairs looked desperate. In the summer of 
1885 a last and thorough attempt was made to 

secure water. A well-drilling machine was 
brought in by Jack Lockwood and throughout 
the summer this was at work in Okanogan. A 
hole 285 feet deep was the result and no water. 
From that time on Okanogan was doomed. 
Where before settlers were pouring into the 
country in response to the glowing accounts of 
the country as advertised by Adams, Mann & 
Company, they now would come, gaze down 
into the earth 285 feet, and then leave the coun- 
try. Prospective settlers who came to the vi- 
cinity of Okanogan with the expectation of 
finding things as advertised, were led to believe 
that the whole country was in the same pre- 
dicament and many did not stop to investigate 
in other portions of the county, but immediately 
pulled out, and doubtless gave Douglas county 
considerable free advertising as the result of 
their trip. One of the stories these disappoint- 
ed homeseekers would tell in all seriousness 
was to the effect that it was a customary sight 
to see posted on the doors of settlers' cabins, 
the sign: "Gone for water; will be back in a 

The year 1884 did not witness many excit- 
ing events in Douglas county. A number of 
new settlers came most of whom located in the 
Badger, Mountain country. It was during this 
year that the first postoffice in the county was 
established. It was at Piatt Corbaley's house, 
near the foot of Badger Mountain. It \vas 
called Badger postoffice and Mr. Corbaley 
was postmaster. The first mail route into 
Douglas county was opened in 1884, Badger 
postoffice being the western terminus, and 
Brents, an office in western Lincohi county the 
eastern terminus. 

The first death to occur in the county was 
that of Harvey Day, living east of Grand Cou- 
lee, June 26, 1884. 

March 15, 1888, the Big Bend Empire said : 

"Rev. Richard Corbaley returned from Spo- 
kane a few days ago where he had passed the 
winter. He made us a pleasant call Tuesday. 
During the conversation he infonnecl us that 



he conducted the first reHgious service, preached 
the first funeral sermon and married the first 
couple in Douglas county — in 1884. Some- 
time in the misty future the searcher of histor- 
ical reminiscences will come across this item 
which will contribute to the pages of Dogulas 
county historical lore." 

It will be remembered that the act creating 
Douglas county provided for the temporary lo- 
cation of the county seat at Okanogan, and that 
at the next general election the qualified elec- 
tors should decide where the permanent county 
capital should be located. The failure of the 
Okanogan crowd to make good, in the matter, 
of water, led to the establishment of another 
town in the Badger Mountain country, which 
should become a candidate for the county seat. 
This was at the November election of 1884. 
This town was named Nashland, in honor of 
Major E. D. Nash, one of the pioneers of the 
county. Mr. Nash during the early days was 
engaged in freighting goods from Spokane 
Falls to the Badger Mountain country. At 
this period he was financially embarrassed and 
was often compelled to borrow money with 
which to make the trip. Occasionally he would 
purchase some of the necessities of life on his 
own account and dispose of them to the settlers, 
making a fair profit on each lot. It was in the 
autumn of 1884 that Mr. Nash built a small 
building near Mr. Piatt Corbaley's place (which 
building still stands), and established a store. 
Thus Mr. Nash becomes distinguished as the, 
pioneer merchant of the Big Bend. Here he 
laid the foundation for his future success as a 
merchant. By fair dealing and accommoda- 
tions to his fellow pioneers he made, and re- 
tained, many friends. 

The Badger postoffice was transferred from 
Mr. Corbaley's house and Mr. Nash became 
postmaster. This initial ofifice of Douglas 
county continud to exist until April, 1890. 
Synchronous with the opening of Mr. Nash's 
store a gentleman named Huff started a black- 
smith shop near Mr,. Nash's place of business. 

It was here that the Badger Mountain settlers 
decided to locate the permanent county seat. 
Accordingly Nashland was platted in the fall 
of 1884, being the first townsite platted 
in the county following its creation. It 
was laid out October 27, 1884, by Lucian 
B. Nash and Laura Nash, his wife. The 
townsite consisted of sixteen blocks. The 
streets were First, Second, Third and 
Fourth, and the avenues Jefferson, Curry, 
Armstrong and Corbaley. The plat was not 
filed for record until November 3, 1886, just 
before the election for the removal of the county 
seat. Nashland remained a townsite until Feb- 
ruary 4, 1889, when on petition of Piatt Cor- 
balej', and others, is was ordered vacated by the 
county commissioners. 

The only contestants for the county seat 
at this election were Okanogan and Nashland. 
Data relating to this election is unobtainable. 
The county records are silent upon the subject. 
But from a number of residents of the county 
at the time we learn that a lively contest was 
waged and that Okanogan was successful by a 
majority of one vote only. 

The very earliest pioneers of eastern Doug- 
las county devoted their whole energies to 
stock growing, not believing that the soil would 
produce a crop. John R. Lewis, in 1884, mere- 
ly in the nature of an experiment, sowed ten 
acres of wheat, the seed of which he had pro- 
cured the preceding 3'ear from east of Daven- 
port. Mr. Lewis' account of the harvesting of 
this, the first crop ever raised in Douglas coun- 
ty east of the Coulees, is interesting. Follow- 
ing the cutting of the grain he stacked it and 
built a corral around the stack. Into this he 
turned a small band of cayuses, and the thresh- 
ing of the grain was accomplished by the ani- ' 
mals treading upon it, which from time to time 
was thrown to the ground from the stack in 
small quantities. In course of time the entire 
crop was threshed. Then came the more diffi- 
cult task of cleaning the grain. This was ac- 
complished by utilizing the wind, the grain 



being spread out on a smooth surface, and after 
several weeks labor it was perfectly clean and 
ready for market. Mr. Lewis disposed of the 
yield to settlers in the Voorhees country. That 
was the genesis. Thereafter others tried their 
"prentice hands" at grain raising, at first on an 
exceedingly small scale, but it was demonstrat- 
ed beyond a doubt that what had before been 
considered only a stock-raising country, would 
certainly produce excellent crops of grain. Sub- 
sequently the flail came into use for threshing 
purposes; this was followed by horse-power; 
threshers ; then steam ; and then came the grand 
achievement of the present, the combination 
harvester and thresher. Truly, a wonderful 
advance from Mr. Lewis's cayuses. 

In 1885 a few more adventurers were added 
to the settlement in western Douglas county. 
Among these were Judge J. M. Snow, the 
Brownfield Brothers, O. Ruud, A. T. Greene, 
Edwin Wallberg, T. N. Ogle, and W. H. An- 
derson and some others. It was during the 
summer of this year that the first marriage 
ceremony in Douglas county was performed. 
The contracting parties were Jesse Wallace 
and Jessie Soper. The ceremony was per- 
formed by Elder Richard Corbaley. The year. 
1885 also brought Jacob Bunger, a representa- 
tive type of a prosperous German farmer. He 
settled near the old town of Okanogan. Mr. 
Bunger was instrumental in attracting a colony 
of German citizens, who settled near Okan- 
ogan, and formed one of the most thrifty set- 
tlements in eastern Washington Territory in 
the early days. Nat James and the Ernst 
Brothers came in 1885. There are undoubted- 
ly others whose names should have Ijeen en- 
rolled on the pages of early history of Douglas 
county. During this year the first death to 
occur west of the coulees was that of Thomas 
Jerdon, who passed away May 3d. Funeral 
services were held by Elder Corbaley. 

There were two settlements in the Badger 
Mountain country in the pioneer days. One 
was known as "Sour Dough Flat," and the 

other "Thieves' Gulch." F. M. Alexander is 
quoted in the Douglas County Press as follows 
concerning these settlements : 

"You have doubtless heard of 'Sour Dough 
Flat.' All the old timers know of it. This 
name was applied to the settlement around 
Waterville and was occasioned by the bachelor 
habit of making the celebrated sour dough 
bread. We were the 'sour doughers,' and in 
retaliation the settlement on the mountain 
toward Titchenal's was called 'Thieves' Gulch.' 
A. T. Greene, James Melvin, the Wilcox 
Brothers, Colonel Cornell, William Walters, 
Buzzard Brothers, Al. Pierpont, Boise Broth- 
ers, Smith, Hardis, Sanford Hundley and my- 
self were members of the 'sour dough' fra- 
ternity. The first census taken showed seven- 
teen single men and one single woman." 

On of the pleasing incidents of early days 
in Douglas county, a sharp contrast to the un- 
eventful life led by the pioneers of this new 
country, was a Fourth of July celebration held 
on Badger Mountain in 1885. The exercises 
were held under the trees at Nash & 
Stephens saw mill. R. S. Steiner was orator 
of the day, and he delivered a very able 
address. There was vocal and instru- 
mental music. One of the settlers possessed a 
little organ, whose strains accompanied the 
sweet voices of the singers. The singing of 
Mrs. B. L. Martin was one of the pleasing 
features of the days' entertainment. Follow- 
ing the exercises the company dined, each one 
having brought lunch. This was, undoubtedly, 
the most generally attended meeting ever held 
in Douglas county up to date. Although the 
number present was estimated at less than 100, 
it is said that every one living in western Doug- 
las county was present. Two men were at w(irk 
part of the day putting up hay, but a com- 
mittee waited on them, and later they made 
their appearance on the festive scene, thus mak- 
ing it unanimous. 

The assessment rolls of Douglas county for 
the year 1S85, the first taken 'in the county, 



show that an even 239 residents were assessed. 
The number of acres of land in the county 
represented on the rolls was 8,250, and of these 
but 191 acres were improved. Of course the 
bulk of the land had not yet been patented and 
therefore was not assessable. The total cash 
value of all the land assessed was placed at 
$20,447.50, and the cash value of all improve- 
ments was $920.00. The aggregate cash value 
of all personal property was $117,332.80, 
making a total valuation of all property as- 
sessed of $138,700.30. The total amount of 
taxes for the j^ear amounted to $3,421.57. Fol- 
lowing is the list of all names appearing on the 
rolls and the amount of taxes paid by each : 

J. W. Adams $061 

Jordan estate 3 8° 

Benj. Akers 6 30 

F. M. Alexander 6 14 

W. P. Baldwin 13 5° 

S. Banihart 4 22 

W. E. Barber 3 45 

George Bechtoed 2 04 

G. INI. Bowker ig 82 

F. H. Bosworth 2 74 

R. W. Bonwell 3 42 

A. W. Borrowman 2 99 

Ed Brockhausen 25 

J. M. Brownfield 5 67 

C. D. Bradshaw 25 

Peter Brackin 2 84 

Eva C. Brown 25 

I. Brown 1303 

Thos. Burke & Sons 12 12 

M. W. Buzzard 4 5i 

N. O. Carter 11 50 

J. H. Christianson 481 

Chang Syig Yuen 14 62 

John Clawson 11 53 

Orville Clark 7 01 

Collins & Davis 4 05 

Caleb Cooper 2 27 

N. M. Corbaley 64 57 

W. G. Corbaley 8 55 

Richard Corbaley 90 

A. L. Corbaley 2 78 

S. A. Coyle 3 69 

E. A. Cornell 4 04 

W, T. Henne 9 So 

J. E. Heathman 9 27 

W. B. Holbert 25 

J. E. Hetley 42/ 

Joseph Heoshnier 25 

John Huff $242 

H. H. Huff I 01 

Smith Harding i 67 

S. Hundley 7 70 

John Hardy 126 61 

W. F. Hall 6 23 

R. H. Hoernig 4 74 

Captain John H. Jack 27 

James Jump 10 69 

Alice E. Jones 3 32 

John Jetneck 6 00 

Jamison & Leach 42 75 

Frank Kaufman 3 67 

Patrick Kelley 6 40 

O. H. Kimball 5 64 

Robert Kirby 4 75 

J. H. Kincaid 5 94 

George Kunever 3 54 

Earnest Komer 61 

F. B. Lewis 61 

Lilley 48 

J. W. Livers 2 37 

James Lammon 7 13 

Daniel E. Leahy 27 64 

G. C. Alexander 3 55 

L. W. Armstrong 64 61 

R. M. Bacon 10 45 

J. A. Banneck 18 37 

H. F.Gowley 14 

J. Coby 2 72- 

Eli Collins II 50 

W. S. Crouch 19 61 

O. A. Dale i 47 

William Davis 25 

B. F Dewey 5 59 

Joan Delvy 61 

Frank Dickey 9 SO 

John Dickey 14 

Frank Day 831 

Robert Dunn 107 74 

L. F. Dutwiler 2 35 

William Domese 3 85 

R. F. Duffield 8 32 

John Ennis 53 45 

Ole Erlands'on i 20 

J. E. Erwin 6 05 

John Eddon 6 54 

Robert Fresher 25 

Thomas B. Fulton I7 01 

Walter France 48 

D. H. Ford 61 

W. H. Greenburg 25 

L. C. Gandy 4 52 

Gillispie & Snow 3 61 

J. E. Hall 3 22 

W. Hadley 9 50 

.A.. ;\I. Horton 9 50 

Walter ]Mann I7 30 



D. W. Martin . . $o 37 

B. L. Martin 26 72 

H. A. Meyers 2 74 

James Melvin 4 29 

H. A. Miles 481 

Richard Miles i 50 

W. W. Mitchell 5 19 

M. :Miller 8 40 

John F. Mohr 14 

Charles W. Mohr 14 

Samuel McCoy 6 17 

Hugh McCool 35 63 

Philip McEntee Iii 02 

C. H. McCollaugh 2 62 

H. K. Newland i 19 

Newland, Druinheller & Co 362 10 

E. D. Nash 6 28 

Nash & Stephens 57 90 

John O'Neil 16 96 

Osborn Brothers II 59 

Stephen Olney 60 13 

Edward Owens 8 58 

R. B. Okner & Bro 5 67 

John O'Flaherty 6 86 

O'Neil & Scully . . . ; 4 05 

H. Patterson 6 94 

George Popple 161 16 

Dan Paul 71 25 

L, Lyon 95 

M. Lambert 5 25 

Alfred Pierpont 5 93 

D. R. Peeler 14 

Thomas Payne 4 72 

David Richard? 2 ^2 

Frank Rusho 36 26 

Anthony Rusho 17 06 

O. Ruud 5 90 

H. A. Powell 9 05 

R. R. Rounds 2 99 

George R. Roberts 6 95 

R. B. Roberts i 67 

S. C. Robins 2 76 

Robins & Steiner 3 25 

H. P. Reeyes 48 

Tony F. Richardson 23 38 

Richardson & Bowker 7 94 

Oscar Redfield 2 70 

R. S. Steiner 2 87 

F. S. Steiner 4 89 

Israel Sanford 5 46 

Lilley Sanford 4 89 

Schuster i t^2 

Thomas Snyder 2 yz 

Snyder & Richards 3 80 

J. W. Stephen* 76 

John Stephens 2 38 

William Savage 216 13 

J. II. Sutherland 15 73 

E. F. Shrock $15 50 

James P. Shrock : 7 70 

Charles A. Wilcox g 54 

G. L. Williams 149 40 

M. W. Wi.xson 7 55 

W. A. Whir.rey 4 72 

William B. Whitmore 20 92 

W. H. White 3 69 

Woolen 61 

A. H. Youngk 2 15 

P. J. Youngk 15 74 

Charles F. Youngk 8 13 

Jacob F. Youngk 38 

Frank Zeigler 14 

John Zimmerman 5 95 

Frank Zuchlke 7 00 

Michael Buckley 9 50 

Charles J. Biesner 9 50 

James F. Bybee 9 50 

John Biesner 9 50 

iNIary Day 9 50 

Lewis Griffith 9 50 

James Day 9 50 

Robert Kirby 9 50 

George W. Long 9 50 

Gabriel Justice 9 50 

Thomas H. Marshall 9 50 

Horace Parker : 56 05 

F. A. Powers' 3 3S 

J. W. Shannon 8 80 

Charles M. Sprague 4 88 

David Soper 3 34 

James Skey 2 61 

John H. Smith 5 09 

H. B. Thompson 54 

Williain Tipler 2 85 

William Tipler & Co 6 15 

Louis Titchenal 12 '>fi 

Norman Titchenal 72 

D. J. Titchenal 10 37 

C. G. Tibbits 54 

Donald Urquhart 10 97 

Urquhart Brothers 263 99 

J. R. Kent .*. . 7 70 

A. Wallace 2 99 

J. C. Wallace 4 05 

William Watters 2 56 

R. J. Waters 3 94 

R. P. Webb I 48. 

Edward Walburg 6r 

Webb & Thompson 4 81 

David Wilson II 39 

A. Wilson 13 

Wilson Brothers 4 28 

G. C. Wilson 13 12 

J. D. Wilson 6 53 

L. G. Wilson II 98 

William Wilson 3 90 



H. N. Wilcox %7 22 

John Norton 9 50 

Thomas Mockler 9 50 

Tony F. Richardson 9 50 

Thomas F. McGowan 9 50 

A. P. Cornell 9 50 

J. H. Smith 9 50 

Charles H. Stafford 9 5o 

William Scully 9 50 

Frank M, Rayburn 9 5° 

Margaret McCann 9 50 

Frank M. Wesley 9 50 

Andrew Flynn 9 50 

Eugene Whitney 9 5o 

Thomas J. Wampler 9 50 

John Lynch 9 39 

Greene 95 

John Burgland 2 99 

H. L. Burgoyne i 20 

E. Cornell 9 5° 

Jeff Gilmer 9 5° 

Joseph Hopp 9 50 

Benedict Jannasson 9 50 

Joseph W. Mitchell 9 5° 

Joseph Murray 9 50 

The first attempt to remove the capital of 
Douglas county from Okanogan was made in 
the spring of 1886. This plan was originated 
by Commissioner Miles. His scheme was to 
move to the lake near where the town of Doug- 
las now stands, by action of the board of coun- 
ty commissioners without consulting the wishes 
of the people. This proposition was immed- 
iately voted down by the other commissioners 
who, evidently, were aware that tlie removal 
would not be in accordance with law no matter 
how badly they were in need of water. The 
story IS briefly told in the report of the com- 
missioners' proceedings for May 3, 1886: 

"On motion of R. Miles, that the county 
seat be moved to the lake, two and one-half 
miles west and south to the lake, motion not 
carried. R. Miles, yes (i), and F. H. Bos- 
worth and Charles A. Wilcox, no (2)."' 

An interesting incident in the history of 
Douglas county was furnished in 1886. This 
was trouble between sheep men and settlers 
in the vicinity of Badger Mountain. In the 
spring of that year George Popple and Jack 
Walters, sheep men from the Crab Creek range, 

drove into the Badger Mountain country a band 
of 4,000 or 5,000 sheep. , Prior to this no 
sheep had been in the vicinity and the settlers, 
who invariably had a small band of cattle or 
horses, did not take kindly to the invasion, and 
were not at all modest in making their hostility 
known. This was first displayed by the oc- 
casional killing of sheep by shooting, with the 
evident desire of discouraging the continuance 
of the Badger Mountain countijy as a sheep 

This did not have the desired effect and 
finally an indignation meeting was held by the 
settlers at Nash's store, in "Nashland." A 
committee was appointed to wait on the sheep- 
men, requesting the removal of their flocks to 
other pastures. This was done and the sheep 
owners drove their flocks from the country. 
Simultaneous with their departure there ap- 
peared at different points on the mountain and 
along the foothills fires which threatened to 
destroy all the timber on the mountain. This 
would have been a fatal disaster to the in- 
terests of the country, and the fires also en- 
dangered much other property. The disap- 
pearance of the sheep men and the starting of 
these fires is invariably told in one story by 
the residents of the county who participated in 
this exciting event. All the settlers turned out 
and only after hard work were the fires over- 
come, the damage that was done amounting to 
many thousands of dollars. Never since that 
period has western Douglas county been 
utilized as a sheep range. Official notice was 
taken of the starting of these disastrous fires 
by the passage of the following resolution by 
the board of county commissioners on May 
6, 1886: 

"Whereas, certain lawless persons, or per- 
son, have willfully and maliciously set out fire 
on and in the vicinity of Badger Mountain, 
Douglas county, with intent to injure and de- 
stroy the property of many of the citizens of 
said coimty, and by reason of the setting out of 
said fires not only thousands of dollars' worth 



of personal property belonging to divers in- 
dividuals was burned and more or less in- 
jured, also destroying large quantities of tbe 
standing timber on said mountain, being the 
principal in said county upon which the citi- 
zens rely for firewood and fencing, therefore 
be it resolved that the board of commissioners 
of said Douglas county do hereby ofTer a re- 
ward of three hundred dollars ($300) to any 
person or persons who will secure the appre- 
hension and conviction of the person or per- 
sons setting out the aforesaid fire, to be paid 
out of the county treasury from any funds not 
otherwise appropriated." 

The offer of this reward did not result in 
throwing any light on the matter. The inci- 
dent is shrouded in the same mystery that pre- 
vailed in 1886. 

It was not until 1886 that the Foster Creek 
section of the Big Bend received settlement. 
Mr. and Mrs. Downey were the first couple to 
locate on South Foster Creek. This was in 
October, 188$. In October, 1887, W. H. 
Knemeyer and wife located on the place now 
owned by them. On East Foster Creek Mrs. 
Patrick Haynes was the first woman. Those 
were lonely, trying days to the new, struggling 
settlers. All supplies were brought from 
Ellensburg. At that period there was no 
thought that Foster Creek could possibly be- 
come the prosperous, thickly settled section that 
it is today. 

There may be a few counties in Washing- 
ton that have not passed through a county seat 
war. But they are not many. Douglas coun- 
ty's came in 1886, and at the time created con- 
siderable bitterness between the settlers on the 
east side of Grand Coulee and those on the 
west. This was caused by what the east Doug- 
las county settlers termed the high-handed 
methods of the county commissioners in throw- 
ing out most of the east side votes. All bitter- 
ness has now, however, disappeared, and lioth 
factions can discuss the matter in an impartial 
and unbiased manner. Whether the commit 

sioners exceeded their authority in taking the 
action they did we shall not attempt to say, 
simply confining ourselves to the facts as they 
they occurred. The reader must judge for 

The fact that no water could be found in 
the vicinity of Okanogan made it highly prob- 
able that the county seat would not long re- 
main in that place. And far-sighted people 
were not long in laying plans for the impend- 
ing removal. Through the influence of parties 
in the Badger Mountain country the legisla- 
ture of 1885-6 passed the following special 
law : 

"An act to provide for the location of the 
county seat of Douglas County, Washington 
Territory, by the vote of the qualified voters 
of said county. 

"Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly 
of the Territory of Washington : 

"Sec. I. That the qualified electors of the 
county of Douglas are hereby aiithorized to 
vote at the next general election for delegate 
to Congress in the Territory in the year 1886, 
for the location of the county seat of saidi 
county, and the ofiicers of election shall re- 
ceive said vote and make return thereof to the 
county commissioners who shall canvass thel 
same and announce the result in like manner 
as the result of the vote for county officials. 

"Sec. 2. That the place receiving a majority 
of all the votes cast at said election in favor 
of the location of the county seat is hereby 
declared to be the county seat of Douglas 

"Sec. 3. All acts and parts of acts in con- 
flict of this act are hereby repealed. 

"Sec. 4. This act shall take effect from and 
after its passage and approval by the gov- 

"Approved January 16, 1886." 

It was during this year that A. T. Greene 
and J. M. Snow planned the building of the 
town of Waterville, so called because there 
was water in the wells where it was proposed 



to build the new town. Of course the removal 
of the county seat to the new town entered into 
their calculation and plans were laid to secure 
it. Following the platting of the town of 
Waterville by Judge Snow, in 1886, the spon- 
sers for the new town announced that they 
were going to remove the county seat. This 
statement was made at the Democratic conven- 
tion at Okanogan. All the friends of the new 
town were on hand and a feature of the conven- 
tion was a barrel of water hauled from Water- 
ville to Okanogan, showing conclusively that 
the boasted water of the new town was no 
myth. The board of trustees of Waterville, 
Judson Murray, John Bronwfield, and J. H. 
Kincaid, announced that should Waterville be 
selected as the capital of the county, they would 
see that the county should have a free building 
for two years. This was a bombshell in the 
Okanogan camp, and the point was made in the 
convention that this offer was a proposition to 
bribe the people and in violation of Territorial 

This point is invariably raised in all county 
seat contests, but the contention is, of course, 
never sustained. Besides Waterville there were 
interested in the race Douglas City, the cross- 
ing of Grand Coulee, where the town of Coulee 
City now stands, and Okanogan. On election 
day there was a large vote and great interest 
was taken in the contest. The vote on the lo- 
cation of the county seat, at the regular elec- 
tion of November, 1886, was not canvassed by 
the old board of county commissioners, or at 
least the result of the canvass was not officially 
made, they, doubtless, desiring to shift the 
responsibility onto the shoulders of the incom- 
ing board. The new board made this their 
first official act after their organization on May 
2, 1887, a petition having been presented ask- 
ing that the canvass be made. Following is 
the official record of the findings of the board 
in this exciting and sensational incident in the 
history of Douglas county : 

"Upon the presentation of a petition ask- 

ing that the vote cast for county seat at the 
general election held in Douglas county on the 
2d day of November, 1886, be canvassed and 
the result announced by the board of com- 
missioners in accordance with section i, pages 
454 and 455, session laws of 1885-6, it was 
ordered that the record of commissioners' pro- 
ceedings be examined to determine whether the 
former board of commissioners had or had not 
canvassed said vote as provided by law. Noth- 
ing appearing upon such record showing that 
the said vote had been canvassed, it was there- 
fore ordered that the canvass be made forth- 
with. After an examination of all the election 
returns and the papers relating thereto, it w&s 
announced by the board that the vote for coun- 
ty seat of Douglas county at the above men- 
tioned election was, and is as follows : "Water- 
ville, 112 votes; Douglas City, 56; Okanogan, 
7; Oneida, i; section 3, township 24, range 
28, east, 5." 

The "section 3, town 24, range 28 east," 
accredited with five votes, in the commission- 
ers" canvass, was the Grand Coulee crossing 
location. In addition to this vote counted by 
the canvassers there were 75 votes cast for 
"Grand Coulee" and a few for "Grand Coulee 
Crossing," which were thrown out. This 
action of throwing out this vote was defended 
by the commissioners on the ground that the 
location of a county seat according to law 
must be at a place with definite boundaries. 
Waterville, Okanogan and Douglas City were 
platted towns and their vote was counted. 
Section 3, town 24, range 28, east was held 
by them to be a definite location and the few 
votes for this place were counted. But the 75 
votes cast for Grand Coulee was a different 
proposition. Grand Coulee, as popularly in- 
terpreted, was a huge gash in the earth some 
50 miles long and of indefinite width. A 
county seat located at "Grand Coulee" might 
be anywhere in that territory. The vote for 
"Grand Coulee Crossing" was thrown out on 
similar grounds. The commissioners main- 



tained that there were a number of Indian 
trails across Grand Coulee and that they could 
not determine which one of these was meant. 

The total vote for the Grand Coulee loca- 
tion, if all had been counted, would not have 
been a majority, which was necessary to remove 
from Okanogan. But had these been counted 
neither would Waterville have had a majority 
and the county seat would have remained at 
Okanogan, a consummation not devoutly 
wished. By throwing out all the "indefinite 
and uncertain" location votes Waterville had a 

After certifying to, and signing the result of 
the canvass, the board passed the following 
resolution May 2d, ordering the removal of the 
county records. 

"County Commissioners' Court, Douglas 
County, Washington Territory: It appearing 
from an official canvass of the vote for county 
seat, cast at the general election held in Doug- 
las county, Washington Territory, on the 2d 
day of November, 1886, that Waterville has a 
majority of all votes cast for county seat; 
therefore, we, the county commissioners of 
Douglas county, in conformity with an act en- 
titled 'An Act to provide for the location of 
the county seat of Douglas county, Washington 
Territory, by the vote of the qualified electors 
of said county." pages 454 and 455, session 
laws of 1885-6, do hereby declare that the 
county seat of said Douglas county is removed 
from Okanogan and established at Waterville, 
county and territory above written ; and it is 
hereby ordered that all county officers required 
b\' law to have and keep an office at the county 
seat remove their said offices from Okanogan to 
Waterville forthwith — and furthermore, re- 
move all papers, records and other matter be- 
longing to said county offices to the same place 
above declared to be the county seat of Doug- 
las county, Washington Territory. 

"Seal. J. W. Stephens, P. J. Young, H. 
N. Wilco.x." 

The following day. May 3d, the board met 

at Waterville. Their action in declaring Water- 
\'ille the county seat was far from meeting the 
approval of many residents of the county. 
Among those who did not approve of the 
action of the board was County Auditor R. S. 
Steiner, who, w'hile he desired the county seat 
to be removed to Waterville, did not consider 
that a proper canvass oi the votes had been 
made. He presented to the board at its first 
meeting at Waterville the following letter : 

"Okanogan, Washington Territory, May 
3d, 1887 — To the Honorable Board of Com- 
missioners of Douglas County, Washington 
Territory : Gentlemen — I hereby decline to 
comply with your order of May 2, 1887, 
relative to the removal of the auditor's office 
and the records therein from Okanogan to 
Waterville, county and Territory above 

"R. S. Steiner, 
"Auditor Douglas county." 

This action of the auditor was met by the 
commissioners by the following resolution : 

"Board of County Commissioners, County 
O'f Douglas, Territory of Washington : Where- 
as, on the 2d day of May, 1887, by virtue of 
the canvass duly made according to law of the 
vote cast for the location of the county seat 
of said Douglas county, said county seat was 
declared removed to, and established at Water- 
ville, in said county and Territory, and 

"Whereas, R. S. Steiner, the auditor of 
said Douglas county, did on the 3d day of 
May. 1887. decline to comply with the general 
order of removal issued by the board of county 
commissioners to county officers, and does now 
hold his office and keep the records thereof at 
Okanogan, contrary to law and the order of 
this board, to the great detriment of public busi- 
ness, and especially the business of tlie board 
of county commissioners, who are without 
records or files, therefore, 

"Be it ordered by the board of county com- 
missioners in session assembled at Waterville, 
in said Douglas county, that H. N. Wilcox, a 



member of this board, proceed forthwith to 
make apphcation to the Honorable Judge of 
the District Court of the Fourth Judicial Dis- 
trict, Washington Territory, for a writ of 
Mandate to compel said R. S. Steiner, auditor 
of said Douglas county to remo\"e his office 
records and files forthwith to said established 
county seat of Douglas county at Waterville, 
or show cause why such removal should not 
be made. 

"Witness our hands and the seal of the 
board of county commissioners of Douglas 
county, Washington Territory, this 3d day of 
May, A. D., 1887. 

"J. W. Stephens, 
"H. N. Wilcox, 
"P. J. Young. 
"County Commissioners." 

The next meeting of the board was held on 
May 23d, Mr. Wilcox reported that in com- 
pliance with the order he had proceeded at once 
to Sprague, the point at which the court for 
the Fourth Judicial District held its terms, to 
find that the said court had adjourned and that 
the judge thereof had proceeded to Spokane 
Falls. He thereupon interviewed the prose- 
cuting attorney of the Fourth Judicial District, 
who instructed him to return to Waterville and 
issue an order to the sheriff, by authority of the 
board, requiring said sheriff to remove the 
county records, files, etc., from Okanogan tO' 
Waterville. This order was issued to the sheriff 
and that official executed the same. 

During this sensational period the rival 
factions kept a close watch on one another. 
It was deemed best by the Waterville parties 
to keep the mission of County Commissioner 
Wilcox, a secret, and he left ostensibly, to 
visit his timber claim, which was in another 
direction from the road to Sprague. Mr. Wil- 
cox, after making a trip out in the direction of 
his claim, changed his course and headed for 
Sprague. He was well on his journey when 
he met one of the Okanogan sympathisers, who 
was returning from a trip to Spokane Falls. 

Greetings were exchanged and each proceeded 
on his journey. The Okanogan man had his 
suspicions aroused and when he reached home 
he saw A. T. Greene and in an off hand way 
stated that he had met Mr. Wilcox and won- 
dered where he was going. Mr. Wilcox was 
credited with intending to get married at an 
early day, and Mr. Greene, not desiring to in- 
form his questioner of the true mission upon 
which the commissioners were engaged, turned 
the attentions of his neighbor to good account, 
in suggesting a probable reason for his visit to 
Sprague. Mr. Greene thought a moment, and 
then imparted the doubtful information that 
Mr. Wilcox, being a county officer, it would be 
natural for him to obtain a marriage license 
from the clerk of the district court whose office 
was at Sprague, and that perhaps was his mis- 
sfbn to the Lincoln county capital. 

"Why, of course; I might have thought of 
that before," exclaimed the Okanogan sym- 
pathiser, and he at once spread the news that 
H. N. Wilcox had gone to Sprague to secure 
a marriage license. 

Sheriff Robins, in accordance with his in- 
structions, went to Okanogan, loaded the coun- 
ty's possessions on a wagon and brought them 
to Waterville. The outfit consisted of a stove, 
a home-made table, the commissioners' journal 
and a very few books and papers of record. 

This removal to Waterville was the ^.duse 
of the passage of an act by the Territorial 
Legislative Assembly in 1888. The legality of 
the acts of the county commissioners and other 
county officers was brought into question be- 
cause of the alleged irregularities in counting 
the vote for county seat location and the subse- 
quent removal of the capital of Douglas county. 
The act of the law-making Ixidy of the Terri- 
tory regarding this matter was as follows : 

"An Act legalizing the acts of the county 
officers of Douglas county, Washington Terri- 
tory : 

"Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly 
of the Territory of Washington : 



"Sec. I. That all acts of all county officers 
of Douglas county, Washington Territory, 
done either at Okanogan or Waterville, in said 
county, since the second day of November, A. 
D., 1886, so far as said acts affect, or are af- 
fected by the location of the county seat of 
said Douglas county, be, and the same are 
hereby declared and made legal. 

"Sec. 2. This act shall take effect and be in 
force from and after its passage and approval. 

"Approved January 31, 1888." 

This legislation was secured through the in- 
fluence of Judge J. M. Snow, one of the most 
ardent supporters of Waterville in the contest, 
and who upheld the action of the commission- 
ers in every particular. He repaired to Olym- 
pia as a lobbyist and laid the matter before the 
legislature in this light: 

"Our commissioners have put us in a box. 
They have moved the county seat from Okan- 
ogan to Waterville, possibly without proper 
authority. But at any rate, all kinds of trouble 
is brewing for us unless the acts of the county 
commissioners while in session at Waterville 
are legalized." 

The act was passed and, undoubtedly, saved 
the county much litigation and expense. 

When the county records were brought 
down to Waterville from Okanogan the county 
officials were confronted with the problem of 
securing a court house. Buildings in Water- 
ville at that period were not so plentiful as they 
might have been, and had a newspaper been 
published in the shire town of Douglas county 
it could have said with hearty truthfulness, 
"There is not a vacant building in the town." 
But preparations had beenmadefor just such an 
emergency. Isaac Newhouse had been induced 
by J. M. Snow to erect a building which the 

latter had agreed to rent, ostensibly for a real 
estate office, but in reality to use as a court 
house should the county seat be removed. This 
was the second building erected in the town. 
In this edifice the county business was trans- 
acted until the handsome new court house was 
presented to the county. 

This little building when die county took 
possession was roughly put up, without battens, 
and daylight could be seen between the boards 
in many places. A dry goods box was used as 
a desk for the auditor and the commissioners 
sat at a table made by placing boards on saw 
horses, and in place of chairs the commissioners 
sat on the ends of the "horses." Of course 
better accommodations were added later, but 
for some time the condition above described' 
prevailed. This building was, also, the post- 
office, and Judge Snow used the rear portion 
as an office. During this period of the county's 
history business was not rushing. No deputies 
were allowed, nor were they necessary. On 
one occasion, so we are reliably informed, all 
the regular county officers went off on a vaca- 
tion of several weeks. R. W. Starr, then a resi- 
dent of the county, for only about six weeks, 
was deputized as auditor, clerk, treasurer and 
probate judge, and creditably performed the 
duties of all four offices until the return of the 
regular county officials. One can imagine the 
consternation that would be created by an act 
of this kind at the present day. But then con- 
ditions were vastly different. The tax payers 
of the county had their affairs managed in a 
manner satisfactory to them, and the slight 
irregularity of a resident of the county of only 
a few weeks' standing presiding over most of 
the county offices for a period of a few weeks, 
more or less, did not cause a ripple of protest. 






CURRENT EVENTS— 1886 TO 1904. 

Following the advent of the first settlers in 
Douglas county in 1883 there was for several 
years little immigration. But during the 
years 1886, 1887 and 1888 there was an inflow 
of settlers who came in advance of the Central 
Washington railroad, which it was thought 
would build through the county. No one be- 
lieved that the road would not push on to a 
destination in the heart of the rich, virgin terri- 
tory, and the railroad promoters, to all intents 
and purposes, themselves entertained the idea, 
vmtil complications arose and financial diffi- 
culties appeared which blocked progress and 
the railroad stopped on the eastern edge of the 

Many settlers came in 1887. That was the 
banner year up to that period. Nearly all 
came into the county by way of Ellensburg, 
that being the nearest railroad point prior to 
the building of the Central Washington a few 
years later. There were lively times in Coulee 
City during the summer of 1888. The Central 
Washington, backed by the Northern Pacific 
Company, and the Seattle & Lake Shore were 
each striving for the supremacy — sparring for 
position. Approaching from the east there 
were scarcely two equally accessible points of 
entry, and going out on the west side the task 
was still more difficult for parallel lines, and 
at a point about one and one-half miles west 
of town the problem was most discouraging for 
two to "pass through the gate at once." 

Each company had a large crew of men at 
work and considerable ill-feeling arose during 
the grading at the east side of town — each com- 
pany striving all the time to hold the right of 

way on the best ground. At one point, just 
outside the yard limits the Seattle, Lake Shore 
& Eastern graded squarely across the other 
track, raising their roadbed some six or eight 
feet above that of the Central Washington. 
It looked as if a collision was certain to come 
whenever the S. L. S. & E. filled up the gap 
over the other track with either earth or trestle 
work. That time of trouble was postponed 
owing to the forces being hurried forward to 
the more inaccessible spot west of the town of 
Coulee City. There a rocky barrier arose in the 
form of a ridge which the lines must pierce, 
while there was one low gap just beyond an 
opening in the rocks, scarcely wide enough for 
two lines to be laid parallel without one, or 
both, being forced to excavate a cut on one or 
both sides, well into a rock wall ten to fifteen 
feet high. There was room for one track 
which would require only a shallow cut. Both 
companies hurried forward with feverish haste, 
each striving to gain the gap, and pre-empt the 
passage, and the superintendents of the work 
took no greater interest in the race than did 
their men. White man and dago each felt a 
personal interest in the outcome, and each crew 
of workmen looked upon the other as an inter- 
loper — an antagonist to be beaten by any 
means, fair or foul. 

The Central Washington line runs direct 
from town to that rock cut, while the route 
of the Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern swung 
around from the north side and approached 
the cut at an acute angle, coming from the 
northeast. As the two grades approached 
closer together and nearer the objective point, 



the feeling grew intense; the situation became 
critical. Each party sought to gain possession 
of the whole ground, and neither dared vacate 
for a moment. Each worked a double shift 
night and day. There was only a narrow back- 
bone of rock left between the two cuts and 
soon the S. L. S. & E. would strike into the 
other which had kept a slight lead. The work 
in progress was on ground inside of Senator 
Dan Paul's homestead and the time was just 
in haying season. Senator Paul was making 
hay in the field close by, and he and his men 
were witnesses of performances daily for some 
time which fall to the lot of few to see in 
a lifetime. Each crew was doing all in its 
power to interrupt the labors of the other, and 
watching for an opportunity to take possession 
of the whole ground. One would drill a hoie, 
tamp in a shot of giant powder, light the fuse 
and shout "fire!" Of course everybody had to 
run, but they all scrambled back before the 
rocks had scarcely ceased falling, and the other 
fellows had their shot in ready to fire before 
ven,' much work could be accomplished. That 
kind of work could not long continue, of course, 
but the climax came without culminating in a 
general riot, though it missed it only by a 
hair. Much of the excavated rock was carted 
back and dumped o\-er the low wall into the 
lower ground — in fact the Central Washington 
Company completed the fill and trestle clear 
back over the swamps, and track was laid nearly 
to the cut. 

When affairs had reached an extremely 
high tension a jnan named Malone, working 
with the S., L. S. & E. gang, backed his horse 
and cart against two or three of the Central 
Washington workmen, and pushed them over 
the little hill. The foreman of that side stepped 
up quickly, catching the horse by the bridle and 
remonstrated with Malone, telling him that he 
was taking an unfair advantage. The fore- 
man's action was the signal for a big rush of 
dagos and whites from the S.. L. S. & E. cut. 
all brandishing picks, shovels, and other im- 

provised weapons and all chattering angrily. 
The Central Washington foreman was just as 
quickly backed up by the workmen from his 
side, and for awhile it looked like war. Every- 
body was ready for a fight, but somehow the 
crisis was passed without bloodshed. After 
consideration convinced the foreman that fur- 
ther operations were dangerous in the present 
humor of the men, so they reported conditions 
to headquarters at Spokane, but as the only 
means of communication was a messenger on 
horseback, they called a truce and sat down to 
await orders. Neither dared vacate, so the 
day and night shifts of the two companies sat 
in their respective cuts and held the fort. The 
haymakers down in the field could hear the men 
telling stories and singing songs any time of 
the night. Plenty of rest, three meals a day 
and wages drawn regularly put the men all in 
good humor, and animosities were all forgot- 
ten. After weeks of waiting and guard duty, 
the camp was vacated; all the men were called 
ofY. The companies had arrived at some kind 
of a compromise ; work was suspended and re- 
mains so to this day. The rock cut is just as 
it was when those men were pushed off the 
grade and marks the peaceful ending of what 
came perilously near being a bloody riot. 

By an act of the Legislative Assembly of 
Washington Territory, approved January 28, 
1888, the district court of the county of Doug- 
las was created. On the loth day of Septem- 
ber, 1888, the first court convened at Water- 
ville. The officers in attendance were Hon. 
L. B. Nash, associate justice of the supreme 
court of Washington Territory, and judge of 
the fourth judicial district; N. T. Caton, prose- 
cuting attorney for the counties of Douglas, 
Adams and Lincoln ; R. S. Steiner, clerk of 
court: and L. C. Robins, sheriff. Nat James 
and E. A. Cornell were made bailiffs. 

The following citizens were chosen to 
serve as the first grand jurors : Edmund Burke, 
J. P. Schrock, Frank Rusho, William Scully, 
W. P. Thomson, Patrick Haynes, R. J. Waters, 



D. H. Ford, William Crisp, Judson Murray, 
I. Taylor, F. M. Strieker, A. T. Greene. S. 
Brenesholz, Thomas Butler and Edwin Fitz- 
gerald. Those who served as petit jurors were 
John Salmon, H. C. Godlove, James Jump, 
William Condin, B. Liversay, Charles Osborn, 
Edward Owens, M. M. McDermitt, Thomas 
Powers, George Dick, H. B. Lovejoy, M. S. 
Holland. C. A. Powers and William Jamieson. 

The year 1888 will be remembered by set- 
tlers of the county on account of a strange 
epidemic which proved fatal to many of the 
inhabitants. The malady made a sudden ap- 
pearance and as suddenly disappeared. The 
disease was known as typhoid malarial fever 
and its fatality was the wonder of all the old 
settlers who had endured the hardships inci- 
dent to a pioneer life for several years and had 
always enjoyed the best of health. The direct 
causes of the great number of deaths in 1888 
were traceable to no unhealthful conditions of 
the county, but were generally accepted among 
physicians as an epidemic such as visits all 
countries periodically. Nothing of the kind 
was e\-er before known in the county previous 
to that period, nor has it since made a reap- 
pearance. There were about thirty deaths. It 
attacked in various degrees of severity nearly 
every man, woman and child in the county. 

According to an enumeration of Douglas 
county's inhabitants by Assessor John E. 
Hoppe on June i, 1889, the population was 
2,651. These were divided among the pre- 
cincts as follows : Okanogan, 467 ; Waterville, 
442; Grand Coulee, 276; Midland, 254; Fair- 
view, 245; Mountain, 205; Beaver Creek. 165; 
Foster Creek, 129;. Paradise, 126; Columbia, 
113; Chester, 71; Havod, 61; Moses Coulee, 
38; Moses Lake, 7,^: Crab Creek, 29. This 
population was otherwise divided as follows : 
Males. 1,642: Females, 1,009; whites, 2,- 
632; Indians and half-breeds, 6; Chinese, 13; 
males over 21, 994; females over 21, 459; mar- 
ried, 955; single, 583; males over 21 single. 

497; females over 18 single, 96; over 15 who 
could not read or write, 22. 

June 2j, 1889, the Big Bctid Empire said: 

"There can be no real advantage in attempt- 
ing to conceal the fact that crops in the Big 
Bend have been damaged by a protracted per- 
iod of hot, dry weather. Added to this the 
country has been greatly damaged by ground 
squirrels. In many places these little pests 
have destroyed whole fields of grain. Six 
weeks ago the Big Bend promised to have a 
larg'e surplus of everything in the way of grain 
and vegetables, but heavy rains immediately 
followed by unusually warm weather have 
caused a great deal of grain to 'burn' or mature 
before the berry has attained its growth. This 
misfortune will not only be a loss to farmers, 
perhaps compelling them to look to some other 
source other than a large crop for their winter's 
subsistence, but will be generally felt by all 
branches of business." 

On Saturday, the 23d inst., the board of 
county commissioners met in adjourned session 
to open and consider proposals for building a 
court house. Having opened and read four or 
five bids the clerk came to that of Mr. Greene, 
in which he proposed to erect on block 31 in 
his second addition a court house to cost not 
less than $3,000, and to give the county a deed 
in fee simple to the block and building when the 
same shall be completed and accepted, for the 
sum of one dollar. It is needless to say that 
the board at once accepted the proposition and 
the contract and bonds were drawn and signed 
at once. It was the opinion of Mr. Greene at 
the time that the building would cost fully 

Friday e\-ening, September 6, 1889, the 
formal opening of the court house presented 
to the county by A. T. Greene and wife took 
place. \ Nearly every resident of Waterville 
was present; the new building was crowded. 
R. W. Starr presided and introduced Mr. 
Greene, who, in a few well worded remarks. 



presented the court house to the county. 
Toasts were responded to as follows : "Wash- 
ington," — Rev. J. M. C. Warren; "Our Pio- 
neers," — Rev. Richard Corbaley; "Douglas 
County." — J. W. Stephens. 

According to an itemized statement the 
cost of the court house to Mr. Greene was $4,- 

For several years beginning wath 1889 
Douglas county experienced the same trouble 
as Lincoln county w'ith squirrels. In place of 
offering bounties for their scalps Douglas 
county used strychnine which was furnished 
free of charge to ranchers. Five hundred dol- 
lars' worth was distributed. March 15, 1893, 
the county purchased $2,000 worth of this 
poison wdiich was sold to the farmers at cost. 
January 9, 1895, the last lot was ordered, 
1,000 ounces, and this was disposed of at cost. 

During the year 1890 the Central Wash- 
ington railroad was built a short distance into 
Douglas county from the east and this was fol- 
lowed by an influx of settlers in the country 
east of the coulees. February 27, 1890, the 
Big Bend Empire published the following: 

"Tomorrow, February 28, according to 
standard time, is the close of the winter 1889- 
90. It has been a memorable one for the entire 
west and northwest, and one that will be long 
remembered by the people of the Big Bend. 
The ground has been covered with snow since 
the loth day of December, some of the time to 
a depth of from two to three feet. The coldest 
the thermometer has registered is 17 degrees 
below zero, February 24th. The winter has 
been severely felt, especially by new settlers 
who were not yet provided for a protracted 
period of severe cold. In the settlement of a 
new country there are many things to be done 
to get in readiness for such a winter as the 
past, which we all hope is about to be changed 
for a bright spring. But the calamity which 
enlists the deepest of human sympathy is the 
suffering and loss there has been to stock. It 

is impossible at this time to arrive at anything 
like a correct estimate of the per cent of the 
loss of horses and cattle. Some ranges have 
suffered more than others, but it is certain that 
the loss of range horses will be 20 per cent and 
cattle 40 per cent. Many usually well-to-do 
farmers who have fed their animals up to the 
present time, have fed out everything they 
have, including their grain for spring sowing, 
and unless the grass is soon uncovered through 
the influence of the 'chinook' many of these 
animals must perish from cold and hunger. 

"This is a gloomy but truthful side of the 
picture. There is another more encouraging 
view of the case. The Big Bend has for years 
been known as a great 'stock country.' By 
that is meant that stock will winter without 
feeding. A stockman's investment ordinarily 
is a cabin, a saddle horse or two, and perhaps 
a little rye grass hay for his saddle animals — 
the balance is his herd of horses and cattle. 
The average 'stockman' as applied to here 
would scorn the idea of putting up hay for his 
stock and sincerely thinks that it will not pay 
to raise stock and feed. Large herds have been 
brought in from adjoining^ ranges until the 
range here has been eaten out. A hard winter, 
such as might be expected in a northern latitude 
has come, and the stock business as carried on 
at present suffers seriously. The effect will be 
to cause an entire transformation in the busi- 
ness of farming and stock raising in the Big 
Bend. Instead of large herds every farmer 
will have a few well kept animals that will sell 
at any time at a good price. Stock raising will 
be conducted as it is in the east, in connection 
with farming. And while our winter, abouf to 
leave us, will undoubtedly be a damage to the 
country for the present, w-orking a great loss 
and hardship to the many, it is well demon- 
strated that it is not safe to attempt to winter 
stock here without providing feed, and that 
in summer is the time to prepare for winter. 
The country is all right and in time will contain 



much more wealth than if it were purely a 
'stock country," as the term has been used on 
the Pacific coast." 

This was supplemented by the Empire 
January i6, 1890, as follows: 

"A gentleman just in from Mr. Gilbert's 
place on Grand Coulee reports deeper snow 
there than in the vicinity of Waterville. Stock 
was beginning to die when he left there a week 
ago. A great many cattle have drowned in 
attempting to get water from the lakes, which 
are covered with snow. Our informant was 
told that one lake contained 500 dead cattle. 
The animals in attempting to find water would 
break through the ice, and as the water was 
<leep it was impossible for them to get out. 
Messrs. Philip McEntee, Dan Paul, Clarence 
Grimes and Jimmy Burden are heavy losers." 

The spring following this hard Avinter 
found many places in the country covered with 
carcasses of dead animals that had perished 
from starvation during the severe winter. The 
stench from these was unbearable and threat- 
ened an epidemic. This spring found the set- 
tlers of western Douglas county in a sad plight. 
Most of the stock had died and there was no 
seed grain in the country; money was scarcer 
than that, if possible. These conditions were 
overcome only by diplomatic measures. A 
note for $2,500 was made out and signed by 
residents of the county. This note was placed 
in the hands of A. L. Rogers and to him was 
given the task of raising the money and getting 
the grain back to the settlers. In the early 
spring Mr. Rogers started out on snow shoes 
for the east. In due time he reached Almira, 
to which point the Central Washington railway 
had won its \\-ay, and thence he proceeded by 
rail to Davenport. Here he was successful in 
securing the $2,500 from C. C. May's bank, 
and in due time returned with the grain. This 
note, which was paid upon the harvesting of 
the next crop, is now in possession of R. S. 
Steiner, and is an interesting memento of the 
early days. 

The war between the sheep and cattle men 
in 1890 is thus described by a Ritzville corre- 
spondent of the Oregonian : 

"February 28, 1890, occurred a bloody bat- 
tle in the vicinity of Moses Lake in wdiich four 
men were seriously wounded. The particulars 
are about as follows : 

"L. G. Wilson claimed to have purchased 
a stack of hay of Messrs. Urquharts, which 
was situated on a Mr. Lyons' place. Mr. 
Blythe had a bill of sale from Mr. Lyons for 
the same stack, which contained about 50 tons. 
Blythe forbade Wilson taking or selling any of 
the hay. A bad feeling arose in consequence 
and Wilson continued using the hay and is 
said to have guarded it with a Winchester. . 
This angered Blythe who sent three men on 
the morning of February 28th, armed, to take 
possession of the hay. They arrived on the 
ground before Wilson and his men. When the 
latter arrived fire was opened with disastrous 
results. L. G. Wilson was shot in the ab- 
domen, Virgil Wilson, a brother, was shot in 
the back, Dick Garlick was shot in the breast 
and a German was shot in the head and hand. 
The two last named were men working for 
Blythe. Two others were engaged in the affray, 
but escaped unhurt. Having fired all the loads 
from the guns the men came to close quarters 
and used their weapons as clubs. When the 
fight was finished all crawled into a sleigh 
and drove to the Blythe ranch and sent for a 

"Dr. Burroughs, of Ritzville, went to the 
scene of the battle and upon his return gave 
the following graphic account of the fight : 

" 'It seems that Mr. Blythe had purchased 
the hay of Mr. Lyons and had sold the same to 
the sheep men and went down on the morning 
of the 27th to where it was stacked with the 
parties to show them the stack and give posses- 
sion. There they found the Wilson boys, who 
ordered them to leave, or at least the sheep 
men, and one discharged his revolver in order 
to frighten them. Others say he gripped the 

5 so 


pistol so tightly, it being' self-acting, that it 
was discharged accidentally. Mr. Blythe and 
the purchasers of the stack of hay went away 
leaving the Wilson boys in possession. The 
following morning the sheep men and another 
person went to the stack and were loading the 
hay onto a Avagon when tlie Wilson boys com- 
menced shooting. Virgil was armed with a 
41 -calibre Colt's revolver and a double-bar- 
reled breach-loading shot gun loaded with 
buck shot. He discharged one barrel, missing 
his aim; the second charge taking efTect in 
Dick Garlick's left shoulder; one near the nip- 
ple and ranging up ; one through the flesh of 
the shoulder blade and one ranging upward 
from the shoulder. L. G. Wilson then opened 
fire on Dutch Ben, firing four times, one shot 
making a slight scalp wound over the left ear 
and three piercing his hat. The men closed 
in on the shooters. Garlick, who was a heavy- 
set German, disarmed Virgil Wilson, who was 
a small man, broke the shot gun and, obtaining 
possession of the Colt's revolver, it seems, he 
shot Virgil through the right lung from the 
back, the ball lodging near the right nipple; 
then turning his attention to L. G. Wilson, who 
was wrestling with Dutch Ben for the posses- 
sion of the Winchester. 

" 'Both were stout, and it seems that W'il- 
son was getting the better of his man when 
Garlick came to the rescue and fired two shots, 
one entering the small of the back, on the right 
side, ranging downward, the second entering 
the right arm. The Winchester was broken 
and twisted, showing the desperate struggle 
that had ensued for the supremacy. An eye 
witness several rods distant saw the weapons 
flash in the sunlight and could hear the dull, 
sickening thuds as they fell on the heads and 
bodies of the men. The Wilson boys under- 
stood that the hay belonged to them, and they 
were fighting for their own and wanted the 
feed for their cattle. A bad feeling usually 
exists lietween the sheep and cattle men, and 
there mav have existed such between the ^^'il- 

sons and the sheep men. This fight occurred 
20 miles from any town.' " 

The United States Land Office was estab- 
lished at Waterville in the autumn of 1890, J. 
C. Lawrence, register, and Frank M. Dallam, 
receiver. It was opened for business Novem- 
ber 6th. Previous to this important event all 
settlers in this vicinity were compelled to repair 
to Yakima to transact business connected with 
their homesteads. The history of the creation 
of a new United States Land District in east- 
ern Washington, with headquarters at Water- 
ville in 1890, is told by the Big Bend Empire 
of February 27th, of that year : 

"A land ofiice to be located at Waterville 
has been desired by our citizens for the past 
year, but it was not until Charles Liftchild got 
after Senator Snow, then on his sick bed, that 
the first step was taken to secure it. Though 
Judge Snow pleaded sickness Mr. Liftchild 
brought legal cap and ink into the sick room 
and insisted upon his writing to his friend. 
Congressman Wilson, of our desires, with 
reasons for the establishment of a new land 
district. This letter was kindly copied by our 
genial minister. Rev. Warren, on his type- 
writer. Thus armed Liftchild pulled from the 
wall of his office liis map of Washington, and 
outlining the proposed district, enclosed it with 
Snow's letter and sent it to Congressman Wil- 
son. Not contented with this action, he later 
inti-oduced a memorial to our senators and 
congressmen favoring the establishment of this 
district, in the Douglas County Board of 
Trade, which was passed and a copy sent to 
each of these gentlemen by J. P. Moore, Esq., 
chairman of the legislative committee. A day 
after the passage of the memorial M. B. Howe 
and Charles Liftchild composed a plea, show- 
ing every reason why the new land district 
should be created, and why Waterville should 
be the seat of the land office. This, with a 
sworn statement of Douglas county's propor- 
tion of the land business of the Yakima Land 
District, furnished bv the kindness of R. W. 



Starr, was sent to Congressman Wilson. The 
result of this rustling has practically brought 
about the establishment of the new Columbia 
Land Office at Waterville." 

In September, 1891, there was great activ- 
ity among the government officials in their en- 
deavors to suppress the cutting of government 
timber. September 3d, of that year, the Big 
Bend Empire published the following account 
of the prosecution of Mr. Harris, the Badger 
Mountain saw mill man : 

"The EUensburg stage arriving Tuesday 
evening, August 25th, brought among its pas- 
sengers a Mr. C. E. Bayard, of Seattle. Wed- 
nesday he made his appearance at C. A. Harris" 
saw mill, on Badger ^Mountain and made 
known the object of his visit to Waterville. 
He was a special land agent from the United 
States government and had a direct commission 
from Washington to investigate and act upon 
complaints against J\Ir. Harris made to the 
Interior Department. ***** ifhe mill 
was not ordered closed down. United States 
Commissioner Pendergast fixed Mr. Harris' 
bond at $500, which was promptly furnished 
with H. N. Wilcox, as security. 3>Ir. R. S. 
Steiner and Mr. Wilcox, both of whom had 
accompanied the agent up the mountain, un- 
wittingly, not knowing his designs upon Mr. 
Harris, were subpoened as witnesses and or- 
dered to appear at the same time and place as 
the defendant. Mr. Bayard took his departure 
the following- day. He is reported as having 
said that in his report to the government he 
should apprise them that Nash & Stephens were 
in the same boat with Mr. Harris, and equally 
liable to prosecution. News of the arrest of Harris cpiickly got abroad. Much alarm 
was manifested at the prospect of the lumber 
supply being cut short. The outcome of Mr. 
Harris' trial became at once the general sub- 
ject of discussion, and fears were expressed 
that not only one but Ijoth mills would be 
obliged to stop their saws. That such a con- 
tingency would be in the nature of a public 

calamity was the universal opinion. 'It will 
practically amount to closing our land office, 
entirely stopping our immigratioin and par- 
alyzing out trades, said a prominent business 
man. A consultation was determined upon 
and the office of ^Matthews & Loucks selected 
as a place for the meeting. Nearly every busi- 
ness and professional man in Waterville was on 
hand. A number of speeches were made, and 
the following resolutions were unanimously 
adopted : 

"Whereas, it has come to the knowledge 
of the people of Douglas county, Washington, 
that a special agent of the Interior Department 
has caused the arrest of one, C. A. Harris, a 
sawmill man, charging liim with cutting timber 
from government land in this county, and 

"A\'hereas, it has been further learned that 
prosecutions are about to be instituted against 
all mill owners operating saw mills on govern- 
ment land in this county, 

"Therefore, be it resolved that in view of 
the fact that the cutting of said timber and the 
manufacturing of it into lumber is absolutely 
necessary for the continued development of 
Douglas county, that all of said lumber is used 
for domestic purposes and is applied by settlers 
in making needed improvements upon their 
lands thus enabling them to fulfill the require- 
ments of the law and obtain title to their homes. 

"There being no means of transportation 
from such places where other lumber is manu- 
factured, except at excessive cost to the settler 
for hauling the same for a distance of sixty to 
eighty miles, and being compelled to pay almost 
double the price of the lumber manufactured 
in this county. 

"That Badger Alountain lumber is of in- 
ferior quality and would have no market value 
were there any transportation facilities from 
lumber markets. 

"That it is believed that the complaints en- 
tered againgt the said sawmill men were act- 
uated by selfish motives and that if the Interior 
Department were informed of the true state 



of affairs and of the needs of the settlers, these, 
or any prosecutions would never have been iii- 

"Therefore, be it further resolved that this 
meeting view with apprehension the action of 
the government in this matter and are unani- 
mous in determining to use all honorable means 
to secure the dismissalof the prosecutions." 

The following affidavit was circulated and 
unanimously signed by residents of Douglas 
county and forwarded to Congressman Wilson 
with a view to having the cases against Badger 
Mountain mill men stopped. 

State of Washington, County of Douglas, ss. : 

We, the affiants, whose names are hereunto s'ub- 
scribed, on our several oaths, do depose and say : That 
we are residents of Douglas county, Washington; that 
we are weH acquainted with the topography of s'aid 
county, which is 60 miles' wide and 100 miles long, and 
consists almost entirely of rolling bunch grass prairie; 
that there is no timber in this county except in the ex- 
treme western portion upon the summit of what is 
known as Badger Mountain, 4,000 feet above sea level ; 
that this' timber is 50 miles distant from the nearest 
railroad point; that there is but little timber in the 
counties west of Douglas county and east of the Cas- 
cade mountains ; and what there is, with the present and 
previous facilities for transportation, is absolutely in- 
accessible to the residents of Douglas county from the 
fact that to reach it it is necessary to cross the Colum- 
bia river, which is 1,800 or 2,000 feet lower than the 
table land which comprises Douglas county; that there 
is no timber near enough in any other direction to be 
available for building or fencing purposes ; that without 
the use of timber from Badger Mountain it would have 
been impossible to have settled the lands in Douglas 
county west of Grand Coulee, and will be absolutely im- 
possible to further develop it; that there has been taken 
up by settlers, up to the present time, 300,000 acres of 
land west of Grand Coulee, in Douglas county, Wash- 
ington, and that the settlers of all these lands have 
drawn their supply of timber and lumber from Badger 
Mountain ; that if each individual settler had taken his 
supply of timber necessary for his building in the shape 
of logs, he would not have as good and valuable improve- 
ments as he now has, and each and every settler would 
have used so much greater an amount of timber that 
the timber on Badger Mountain would by this time 
be exhausted, and none left for future improvements, 
and in all cases, except that of settlers living in the im- 
mediate vicinity of Badger Mountain, he was enabled 
to make his improvements at a much less cost to him- 
self by purchasing the lumber cut on Badger Mountain, 

than had he expended the large amounts necessary to 
haul the timber in the log to his respective claim. 

We further state that the timber cut on the lands 
upon which the alleged trespass was done has been an 
indiscriminate cutting by the settlers and the saw mill 
men, and" that much of it has been done by the settlers 
living near Badger Mountain for the improvement of 
their claims, and much of it done before the saw mills 
came into the country and' that the tops of trees cut 
have been almost all used for fuel. 

We further state that none of the timber cut 
and manufactured into lumber on Badger Mountain 
has been exported from the country, but it has been 
used in the country adjacent thereto for domestic pur- 
poses, for the building and improvement of the coun- 
try; that the lumber manufactured from the timber on 
Badger Mountain is of a very poor quality, and that it 
could only be used in the pioneer periods of the country; 
that as soon as transportation facilities are such that 
other and better lumber can be obtained, that the lum- 
ber from Badger Mountain will be driven from the 
market ; that because the timber is so scattering and of 
so poor a quality few individuals can be found who are 
willing to sacrifice a timber right in order to obtain 
title to the land. 

And we further depose and s'ay, it is our firm belief 
that, as the timber is indispensible to the development of 
Douglas county, as above represented, any action by the 
United States, either civil or criminal, against so-called 
timber trespassers on Badger Mountain would be harsh, 
uncalled for and oppressive, and that such persecutions 
would be in pursuance of a mistaken policy, and without 
full knowledge of existing conditions, and would result 
disastrously to this community. 

Meanwhile the criminal prosecution 
against C. A. Harris was disposed of temporar- 
ily by the finding of the grand jury which re- 
turned "Not a True Bill." The civil action 
instituted against alleged timber trespassers 
were carried over until the next sitting of the 
United States district court. The following 
correspondence wound up the whole afifair : 

"September 22. 1892. 
"Register and Receiver U. S. Land Office, 
"Waterville, Washington. 
"Gentlemen : My understanding of what 
are known as the Badger Mountain cases is 
that they were measurably excused by the local 
necessities of a pioneer neighborhood and that 
the trespasses were not for the purpose of 
shipping timber to other points and did not 



amount to a profitable speculation in govern- 
ment property. I have decided to dismiss the 
pending civil cases and unless the public good 
demands a criminal prosecution, no further 
action will be taken. I desire your views on 
this subject and also wish to know whether the 
parties sued — ^Messrs. Cannon, Harris, Rogers, 
Howe, et al., have ceased to trespass on the 
lands in question. If so, then the whole busi- 
ness will be dropped. Please notify me of your 
opinion at once. Yours truly, 

"P. H. WiNSTOX, U. S. Attorney." 

To this I\Ir. Dallam replied as follows : 
"Hon. P. H. Winston, 

"U. S. Attorney, Spokane, Washington. 

"Dear sir : We are in receipt of your letter 
of the 22d inst. In reply we will say that the 
depredations have been discontinued on 
Badger Mountain for more than a year. As 
a matter: of fact, as indicated in your letter, 
depredations were excused by local necessities. 
***** A dismissal of the criminal 
cases would be an act of justice and appreciated 
by the whole community. Please notify us 
when the cases are dismissed, that parties may 
be saved the necessity of an expensive trip to 
attend court. 

"F. ^I. Dallam, Receiver. 
"J. C. Lawrence, Register." 

In 1892 the Great Northern Railway Com- 
pany extended its line through the southern 
portion of Douglas county. At this period 
that part of the county was considered worth- 
less as an agricultural country and no settle- 
ment was added by reason of building of the 
road until several years later. 

The year 1893 was a severe one for Doug- 
las county — as well as the rest of the country. 
The conditions which wrecked financial, com- 
mercial and manufacturing industries through- 
out the length and breadth of the land necessar- 
ily left their mark in Douglas county by pro- 
hibiting public and private improvements and 
almost totally stopping immigration. Early 

in the spring the prospects seemed good for 
the addition of a large population to the county, 
but the arrival of homeseekers ceased and the 
progress' for the year, so propitious in the 
spring, was nullified by the "hard times." It 
was, indeed, a trying time for the residents of 
the county. It proved to be a set-back which 
was not overcome for several years. Yet con- 
ditions in Douglas county were not worse than 
elsewhere. In fact we have the best authority 
for the statement that the depression for the 
few years in the middle 90's was felt less in 
the Big Bend country than in most portions of 
the west. But many settlers became discour- 
aged. In times of financial distress and de- 
pression the idea invariably prevails that some- 
where else one can do better. Some A\ho had 
cast their lot with Douglas county disposed of 
their holdings or abandoned them and sought 
other fields. On these accounts little progress 
was made for the years between 1893 and 1896. 
This condition was relieved by the immense 
wheat crop of 1897 and the prevailing high 
price for that cereal. 

The June floods of 1894 will not be for- 
gotten by pioneers. The following accounts 
are from the Spokane Rcz'iciu and the Empire. 
The Reviezi' correspondent, writing from 
W^aterville under date of June 6, says : 

"The Columbia river is higher than ever 
known by white men and at last reports was 
still rising. Some orchards along the river are 
badly damaged. A Mr. Sparks, living a couple 
of miles below Orondo, is a great sufferer. He 
had one of the finest orchards on the river. 
The water covers every acre, and Sunday, 
June 3, his residence was washed away. Not 
a ferry is in operation on the river and cross- 
ings are made in skiffs. A brief, but severe 
storm, in the nature of a tornado, struck here 
Sunday, the 3d. Chimneys were wrecked, out- 
houses blown down and fences prostrated. In 
some localities hailstones as large as hickory 
nuts fell. No such blow was ever liefore ex- 



The Empire of June 14th said: 

"The rapid rise of the Columbia the past 
three weeks lias rather changed the face of 
nature along the river bottoms and considerable 
damage has been done near here. The Orondo 
Shipping Company's warehouse stands in about 
tweh'e feet of water anchored down with three 
tons of potatoes and fastened to the bank with 
ropes ; all the grain was saved. W. Z. Cooper's 
house stands in nine feet of water and is fasten- 
ed with ropes. In all probability both of these 
houses will stand the flood. All the wood from 
the \vood}-ard has gone out and a great many 
logs' have followed the procession. Captain 
Knapp had quite an experience with his steamer 
in trying to bring in a house which was sailing 
past. After trying in vain to secure it he was 
compelled to cut loose and, drifting upon a 
rock, broke a fluke from the screw of the 
steamer. He landed about five miles down the 
ri\-er. Fortunatelv he has several extra screws 
at the ferry and the accident has been repaired. 
All along the river to Orondo the orchards 
have suffered and a great many fine bear- 
ing trees washed away. The fine nursery of 
Stephen Konkel is flooded and in all probability 
entirely destroyed. This will be a great loss ; 
for the condition of it was at the point of 
where his years of patient industrv were Ijeing 

At Orondo a warehouse and stable went 
out. The warehouse was loaded down with 
rocks and sand, but the current was too strong 
for even this stout resistance. Many rods of 
fence belonging to Messrs. Kunkle, Thompson, 
Howe and Miles were carried away. A raft 
of logs broke loose from a steamer near Oron- 
do. and went down the river with two men 
aboard. It was finally landed at Sparks' 

The giild excitement of 1894 is thus de- 
scribed by the Empire. 

"It has been known for years that the banks 
of the Columbia river contained fine gfild. 
Almost anv of the dirt will show color, but the 

best showing is taken from a yellow sand and 
clay streak that can be found on both sides of 
the river above general high water mark. This 
strata runs all the way from a few inches to 
two or three feet in thickness, and in places will 
pan out several hundred colors, but the colors 
are so infinitesimal as a rule that they can hardly 
be seen with the naked eye. The high water 
of tliis summer in many places has exposed 
this old pay streak, or rather washed off the 
top sand and dirt until it is uncovered. It was 
while prospecting one of these uncovered de- 
posits that Mr. S. A. Pearl's attention was at- 
tracted to the Banty process, then being 
operated in Oregon, and he at once made a trip 
to that state, met the inventor, induced him to 
come up here and finally purchased three of 
the machines, ^^'hat they will really do is yet 
to be proven by a thorough test. The Pearls 
have not been able to secure a retort that would 
work and hence are not in a position to state 
what wages can be made working Columbia 
river dirt. The writer has seen the process in 
operation and is satisfied that it will save gold. 
The inventor claims that it will save 90 per 
cent of the g"old and we think it will. The only 
question to be settled is, is there sufficient gold 
in the dirt to pay for working? If the dirt runs 
only from 50 cents to $1 a ton the process will 
not pay. big for the simple reason that its capac- 
ity is limited. With such low grade dirt the 
problem of returns reduces itself to the quan- 
tity that can be handled. * * * * Until 
Mr. Pearl can give the process a thorough and 
complete test the public is at sea as regards its 
value as a gold saving invention." 

Continuing, the Empire said on August 
30th : 

"Mr. Banty, of Oregon, who has a new 
chemical process for saving flour gold tried the 
experiment on the river at Troy, last Saturday 
(August 15), and it seems to have proven a 
success. The work of shoveling the pay dirt 
and carrying the water in buckets to the sluice 
l)oxes occupied an hour and a half and at the 



cleanup it was found that the process had saved 
something over $4 worth of gold. Parties 
present being satislied with the work done 
bought several machines, the Pearl boys pur- 
chasing three. The excitement for the past 
week over placer mining claims has been at 
fever heat and claims have been taken up all 
along the river from Wenatchee to Virginia 
City and, probably, some above that point. 
Should the process continue to be a success, 
which we hope it will, the country here will 
soon be flooded with gold. Air. Banty, after 
making the experiment, left Tuesday for 
Alaska, where he had promised to go. Another 
trial will be made by the Pearls next Saturday, 
and if successful they will sell several 

While for a time there was considerable 
excitement over the machines, it was found to 
be a slow process of extracting wealth from 
mother earth, and gradually conditions resolved 
themselves into the normal, and again attention 
was turned to the surer methods of agriculture 
and stock growing. 

The year 1895 "^vitnessed the beginning of 
the end of hard times. In its resume of the 
progress of the county during this year the 
Empire said, December 26th : 

"With the weight of disaster in financial 
centers yet bearing with crushing effect upon 
development and progress ; with all the distress 
of 'hard times,' so much about which has been 
heard throughout the breadth and scope of the 
nation, shutting up manufactories and reducing 
wheat and farm stuffs to the minimum ; with 
disadvantages in transportation and marketing 
facilities such as no other country of like size, 
fertility and development was ever known to be 
so long without — with these disadvantages to 
meet and difficulties to overcome — the year 
1895, now about to close, has brought greater 
prosperity to the people of the western Big 
Bend and leaves them in better shape, freer 
from debt and with more money on hand ac- 
cording to population than ha\-e the people of 

any other agricultural section in the Pacific 
Northwest. Indeed, the year has been full 
of material benefits. Wheat advanced in the 
spring and farmers unloaded their hold-over 
supply, at saving figures and went ahead to 
grow more of it. A broad acreage was sown 
and vast fields of peas, beans and potatoes were 
planted. Corn, barley, oats went in all over 
the country for feeding purposes, and the live 
stock interests experienced a boom by the 
branching out of agriculturalists into beef, pork 
and dairying. In this way the foundation was 
laid on the plains for a season of abundance at 
harvest time, while along the valley of the 
Columbia orchards were budding with the 
promise of a sure yield of the fullest weight the 
frail branches might bear. 

"The growing season, it is true, might 
have been more propititious, as the summer was 
phenomenally dry, and there were fields upon 
which no rain fell after planting, yet the crop 
yield generally was wonderfully abundant. The 
harvest time was a splendid period, and from 
early fall to a week ago no weather could have 
been better suited." 

It was not, however, until the "bumper" 
crop of 1897 that conditions began to regain 
their former bright hue. 

The first Douglas County Industrial Ex- 
position was held October 3d, 4th and 5th, at 
Waterville. There were fully 2,500 or 3,000 
people present. They came early and remained 
late. They swarmed the streets and pushed 
and jostled and jammed the exposition grounds. 
The stock parade took place at noon and the 
free barbacue was an immense success. The 
people assembled at the grand stand and Con- 
gressman S. C. Hyde, of Spokane, delivered 
an address. He was introduced by Mr. R. S. 
Steiner. The exposition was in every respect 
a grand success financially and socially. 

A mass convention of Douglas county 
citizens held at Waterville, February 14, 1896, 
was a step taken toward securing immigration 
and it resulted in much good to the de\'elop- 



ment of the county that year. It was attended 
by 200 citizens and every section of the county 
was represented. W. H. Anderson, of Moun- 
tain View, was chosen president and Fred 
IMcDermott, of Waterville, was made secretary. 
A'aluable papers were read by Messrs. P. D. 
Sutor. of Fairview ; R. H. Thomas, of Pleasant 
Hill ; Judson Murray ; A. L. Maltbie ; John R. 
Morgan and John Wilson. A permanent or- 
ganization \\;as effected, and owing to plans 
originated at this convention a large immigra- 
tion was subsequently brought to the county. 

The year 1897 was the most prosperous 
ever witnessed in Douglas county up to that 
date. There was a large wheat crop, high 
prices, every body made money and all were 
prosperous. From this year until 1902 the 
county continued to enjoy a steady growth, 
although not in such proportion as in the later 
9o's. The financial depression had left the 
county in poor shape, and these were the years 
of reconstruction. In the spring of 1902 many 
eastern settlers came to the county. There was 
plenty of good government land at that period. 
The Coulee City Ncn's on March 28, 1902, 
explained why the county was behind its 
neighbors in the matter of settlement as fol- 
lows : 

"Ever since the boom this town experienced 
when the Central Washington Railway built 
in here ten years ago Douglas county has lain 
dormant. Last spring an exodus of settlers 
from the east gave a slight impetus to the real 
estate market, but the effect on the condition 
of affairs was only temporary. While the sur- 
rounding counties which had ordinary trans- 
portation facilities went ahead, Douglas county 
remained in the same old rut, and all because 
the management of the Northern Pacific made 
the huge mistake of making an alkali flat situ- 
ated in a coulee i ,000 feet below the surround- 
ing country, its terminal point. This town being 
the only egress for grain shipment from a 
wheat belt several thousand square miles in 
area, it is no wonder, although our soil is first 

class, settlers have given Douglas county the 
goby and located in other and less fertile dis- 
tricts where a shipping point could be reached 
without ascending and descending a hill five 
miles long and in places nearly perpendicular. 
Douglas county's present influx of population 
can be regarded as a natural course of events." 

But despite this gloomy outlook in 1902' 
e\'ery train and every stage brought men and 
their families to the county seeking investments 
and homes. Parties who had for several years 
lived in the county, but who had never taken 
the trouble to file a homestead, now commenced 
to hustle and file on land before all the choice 
selections were taken. The following figures 
illustrate the rapid settlement of the county and 
other territory in the Columbia Land District 
during the year 1902 : In the year ending July 
1st, there were 2,166 filings in the Waterville 
land office. During the first ten years the office 
was opened there were only 2,170 filings, and 
the one year's business came within four of 
being as large as the whole of the first ten 
years' business. These filings represented 
320,428 acres divided by counties as follows: 
Okanogan, 58,271; Chelan, 28,181; Filings; 
Douglas, I, 588; Chelan, 198; Okanogan, 380. 

The Coulee City-Adrian "cut-off" was com- 
pleted in 1903. This is a connection by rail 
between the Central Washington and the Great 
Northern railways, between Coulee City and 
Adrian. As a piece of engineering there is no 
road in the state that can surpass it. For many 
miles it is a tangent cutting through obstruc- 
tions however formidable. Every cut found a 
depression nearby which was filled, making a 
roadbed of solid rock and gravel. In the 
twentj^-two miles there is little curvature and 
but few bridges, and these are to be found at 
the southern end, where the ground is almost 
level and material to make the fill not so con- 
venient. Mr. Mellen's estimate of cost of con- 
struction, off-hand at the time of construction 
was first announced, was $250,000. It has cost 
nearlv twice that sum, because when thev made 



the preliminary and final surveys they carried 
the line straight as possible and allowed no 
rocky wall to turn them a hair's breadth. 
When the engineer and contractor had com- 
pleted their work in a scientific and conscien- 
tious manner, those who passed on the rails 
failed. In a number of instances there are 
found rails that have seen hard service, splin- 
tered and worn, turned for the wheel flange. 
The adjoining rail, most likely, is a 70-pound, 
serviceable one, while the next one is fit only 
to remain in the scrap heap from which it was 
taken. Someone, through incompetency, ren- 
dered this fine piece of construction a useless 
commodity, as those who were called upon to 
pass on the road refused their consent to per- 
mit heavy wheat trains to run over the defective 
rails. Under these conditions there is only one 
proper recourse; replace the condemned 
material with good. To do this will require 
some time. 

January 3, 1904, there was organized at 
Waterville a society known as the Douglas 
County Old Settlers Association, composed of 
settlers who have lived in the county before and 
during 1890. The following offic'ers were 
elected : A. T. Greene, president ; A. A. Pier- 
pont, first vice president ; Charles F. Will, sec- 
retary; M. B. Howe, treasurer; Ole Ruud, 
recording secretary; S. E. Jordan, marshal; 
Mrs. S. C. Robins, librarian; Trustees: A. L. 
Rogers, three years ; H. N. Wilcox, two years ; 
J. A. Banneck, one year. Following is a list 
of the names of the charter members and the 
date of their arrival in the county : 

Mrs. J. H. Kincaid, 1889; Agnes Jordan, 
1888: Al Enrich, 1889; Sarah Owens, 1890; 
Belle Patterson, 1888; Ethel Pearl, 1886; John 

Shearer, 1888; Christina Jansen, 1887; John 
McLean, 1888; Charles Kellogg, 1888; S. E. 
Jordan, 1888; Joseph Ogle, 1888; A. N. 
Gormley, 1888; Mrs. Fitzgerald, 1889; John 
Hall, 1888; A. T. Greene, 1885; R. J. Waters, 
1884; Elmer Thompson, 1890; J. M. Johnson, 
1888; Al Pierpont, 1883; Mrs. W. W. Fitch, 
1888; Charles Cumbo, 1888; E. C. Ogle, 1886; 
J. F. Metlin, 1886; Fred Carpenter, 1888; T. 
N. Ogle, 1886; M. B. Howe, 1888; Orville 
Clark, 1884; J. D. Logan, 1888; Mrs. Etta M. 
Jordan, 1888; Mrs. Hattie Waters, 1884; Mrs 
Teddy Enrich, 1889; Lizzie C. Hall, 1887 
Mrs. Alice Speed, 1888; Mrs. S. A. Pearl 
1886; Gerde Jamison, 1887; F. C. Tyler, 1886 
Hattie C. Kellogg, 1888; C. W. Hensel, 1887 
Edward Ownens, 1883; J. N. Gormley, 1888 
J. J. Fitzgerald, 1889; George Bradley, 1887 
C. F. Will, 1885; G. W. Philbrick, 1887; G. 
M. Cumbo, 1888; J. A. Banneck, 1883; W. W, 
Fitch, 1887; O. Ruud, 1883; F. M. Alexander 
1883; S. A. Pearl, 1886; James Pattie, 1885 
H. N. Wilcox, 1883; J. S. Withrow, 1888; T, 
A. Power, 1883; T. J. Cusick, 1889; C. H 
Wilcox, 1886; J. F. Hunt, 1887. 

According to a census taken by the assessor 
during the summer of 1892 it was shown that 
the population of Douglas county was 4,284. 
The commissioners therefore, on December 12, 
1892, raised the county's class from the 25th 
to the 23d. January 15, 1902, it was raised to 
the 2 1 St class, having, a population of over 
5,000. July 6, 1903, it was raised to the i6th 
class, the assessor's census showing a popula- 
tion of 9,183. According to a census taken 
by Assessor Will and his deputies in the spring 
of 1903 the population of the county at that 
time was 10,168. 




Although not the largest village within the 
limits of Douglas county, Coulee City is, cer- 
tainly, the most picturesque and, perhaps, the 
most interesting from a historical view point. 
It is situated in the bed of the Grand Coulee 
and almost overshadowed by its lofty, imposing- 
walls. W^ith no large area of agricultural land 
in the immediate neighborhood one might at 
first blush be led to doubt that there was a 
reasonable excuse for the existence of Coulee 
City. But a more careful investigation reveals 
the fact that the town is admirably located. It 
is on a level piece of ground. The view of the 
coulee walls is an inspiring sight. Here the 
town lies in an opening of that wonderful 
creation of nature, the Grand Coulee, and one 
never tires of gazing at the towering walls of 
the portion of the coulee which extends to the 
north\\ est. A few minutes" walk to the south 
reveals other marvelous sights unfolded. Sur- 
rounding the town are a number of springs of 
pure water which furnish the town with its sup- 
ply. Around these springs which are just out- 
side of the original platted townsite, are groves 
of trees at whose roots cluster the lovliest 
flowers imaginable, covering the banks of the 
springs and the tiny brooks which flow from 
them — a veritable oasis in the "scab rock" 
country which surrounds Coulee City for sev- 
eral miles. 

The site where now stands Coulee City was 
for many years known as IMcEntee's Crossing 

of the Grand Coulee. Here for an extended 
period lived Philip ]\IcEntee, the pioneer of 
Douglas county. In 1881 he erected a log 
cabin on what would now be the outskirts of 
the town. During the following few years 
other settlers came to the \-icinity, but it was 
not until 18S8 that enough of them had come 
into the country to warrant the establishment 
of a store. In June of that year Mr. George 
R. Roberts, who had come into Douglas county 
in 1883, opened a general mercandise store 
about three-quarters of a mile north of the pre- 
sent business portion of the town of Coulee 
City. A postoffice called McEntee, in honor 
of the first settler, was established, and I\Ir. 
Roberts was named and ser\-ed as the first post- 
master. In November of the following year 
i\Ir. Roberts took his brother-in law, Mr. 
Thomas Parry, into partnership with him. The 
business was subsequently conducted under the 
firm name of Roberts & Parry. The "town" 
of McEntee was enlarged in the fall of 1888 
by the establishment of a second store and a 
blacksmith shop, both enterprises being financed 
by Le^•i Salmon. Mr. Salmon conducted the 
blacksmith shop, and his son, Arthur, was in 
charge of the store. Dan Twining also con- 
ducted a saloon in McEntee. 

The town of McEntee lost its identity with 
the platting and building up of the town of 
Coulee City in the spring and summer of 1890. 
Roberts & Parry engaged in business in the 
new town, and here, too, Mr. Salmon moved 
his shop, but closed out his mercantile business 



in McEntee. The postoffice of McEntee was 
transferred to the new location and was there- 
after known as Coulee City. 

But its history really dates from the build- 
ing of the Central Washington railroad to that 
point, or more properly, from the contem- 
plated construction of the road to the crossing 
of the Grand Coulee. Let us examine the 
prospects for a town at this point before the 
road reached the spot where Coulee City after- 
ward appeared, from the viewpoint of that 
veteran editor, Frank ]\I. Dallam. April 28, 
1890, he said: 

"It is confidently expected that trains will 
be running- into the coulee by the first of July. 
This point will be the end of a division and 
the railroad company will make extensive im- 
provements. Round houses, shops and all the 
buildings necessary at a division will be con- 
structed. The company will spend thousands 
of dollars in this work, and a large force of men 
will be employed. It is proposed to build the 
round houses of brick, opening a profitable 
industry to some one. Quite a town is bound 
to spring up at this point. It will be by far 
the most important place between Davenport 
and the , Columbia river. Already arrange- 
ments have been perfected for putting up a 
large number of buildings. A gentleman was 
on the way to the place Monday for the purpose 
of constructing a large hotel. A paper will be 
issued at Coulee City before the road is com- 
pleted. A very large number of lots have been 
sold in the town and the demand for property 
is so great that the price of lots is soon to be 
advanced. No town has ever been started on 
the road with brighter prospects than Coulee 
Citv, and in time it will become a very impor- 
tant place. The public will hear more of Coulee 
City in a few weeks, as it is already attracting 
a large number of people." 

The town was platted and dedicated April 
13, 1890, by Levi Salmon. Reed's plat of 
Coulee City was filed April 17, 1890, by G. K. 
Reed. Additions to the town have been platted 

since as follows: McEntee's First Addition^ 
May 29, 1890, by Philip McEntee. South 
Side Addition September 24, 1892, by L. 
I\IcLean, as trustee. First Addition July i, 
1892, by H. S. Huson and C. C. May. 

Following the advent of the railroad the 
growth of the new town was something phe- 
nomenal. Its history during the first few weeks 
of its existence is told in the initial issue of 
the Coulee City Nez^'s which appeared June 30, 
1890, under the guidance of that veteran pub- 
lisher, James Odgers : 

"George R. Roberts is the pioneer mer- 
chant, having located about one mile north of 
the present townsite two years ago. He has 
been postmaster of McEntee ever since the 
office was established. One year ago he took 
Thomas Parry, his brother-in-law, as partner. 
Roberts & Parry carry a full stock of general 
merchandise and enjoy the fruits of squai'e 
dealing in a good, prosperous trade. John J. 
Thomas was, also, one of the first to see in 
the head of the coulee a good business site and 
an opening for a hotel and feed stable. He 
erected a building close to the store of George 
R. Roberts and has enjoyed an excellent pa- 
tronage from the traveling public. He has just 
completed one of the best hotel buildings be- 
tween Spokane Falls and the Sound. The long 
acquaintance of himself and estimable wife in 
this section will enable them to know and meet 
the wants of the traveling public. 

"Barker & Madden erected the first build- 
ing on the present townsite. which was followed 
shortly by another built by Michael Fredo. 
Both places were used for saloons and they 
still cater in that capacity. The townsite com- 
pany held out inducements for a first-class hotel 
to be erected in short order. E. A. Foreman, 
of Medical Lake, agreed to have a hotel of 
twenty rooms completed and furnished in thirty 
days following the contract. Mr. Foreman ful- 
filled the agreement to a dot, and the Central 
Hotel is the result. James Hunter, formerly of 
Cloverdale, North Dakota, in looking for a 



location for a general store, settled here when 
the town was first located. He immediately 
erected a large tent and commenced business. 
His stock is large and new and consists of 
almost everything that is called for in the mer- 
chandise line. He is daily adding to his large 
stock as his fast increasing trade demands. 
Tony F. Richardson & Company have erected a 
large and commodious livery barn that is a 
credit to the place. They immediately stocked 
it with good driving- and saddle horses, and 
several new carriages and buggies. They also 
run a lumber yard where all kinds of building 
material can be had at current prices. 

"Adron & Thurman also have a livery and 
feed stable where they take pleasure in giving 
the best care to all stock entrusted to them. 
'Billy,' as "Sir. Adron is commonly known, has 
run a hack between this place and Almira ever 
since the town has been established, and being 
a rustler he still gets his share of the partonage. 
John Brown, our restaurant keeper, is one of 
those good-hearted, whole-souled pioneers who 
have seen the country grow up and develop for 
years. His tables are always supplied with the 
best the market affords and to feed at the City 
Restaurant is to fare sumptuously. Frank A. 
Losekamp, of the 'Blue Front,' is always on 
deck to sell you a suit of clothes or fit you with 
a pair of nice shoes. Frank has had consider- 
able experience in the gents' furnishing line 
and knows the needs of the western trade. Mr. 
Losekamp and wife are a worthy addition to 
our fast growing city. Hill & Evans, dealers 
in lumber, sash, blinds, coal, etc., are men of 
good business principles and will make it a 
point to deal in first-class building material 
and we predict for them a good trade. Bisbee 
& Cooper have just finished a substantial build- 
ing on Main street and opened up a well- 
ordered saloon. Both managers are well 
known along the line of the Central Washing- 
ton. For the past year both have been located 
at Wilbur. Davis & Raridon, formerly of Wil- 
bur, are now located here. They have a well 

equipped shop and we are able to recommend 
them as first-class general blacksmiths and 

"M. Gilfoil & Shook are the proprietors of 
one of the Main street saloons. They occupy 
a good building, and the R. R. is always popu- 
lar. Both gentlemen are former residents of 
Davenport. In a rapidly growing town like 
this there are always scores of carpenters. 
Prominent among them is the contractor and 
architect, Thomas East. He has superintended 
the erection of some of the best buildings in 
town and they are monuments of his skill. Mr. 
East is an excellent mechanic. A Chinaman 
has already found his way among us and put 
up a wash house. He is, of course, prosperous 
and happy. A meat market will soon be opened 
here by Dan Paul whose experience recom- 
mends him to all. 

"A bakery has just been opened and is 
doing an increasing business. A jeweler, we 
are told, has come among us, although his 
shingle has not been swung. A building has 
just been completed on Main street by a gentle- 
man from Wenatchee, which we are informed, 
is soon to be opened as a short order restaurant. 
A large double building is being erected on 
Main street near the depot which will be occu- 
pied on one side as a barber shop, while the 
other will, doubtless, be opened as a saloon." 

Such were the business conditions of Coulee 
City in 1890, the outcome of but a few short 
years of municipal existence. And aside from 
this business activity there was considerable 
"life" of another description. The town was 
overrun with railroad laborers and, incident- 
ally, a number of rather sanguinary cowboys. 
Personal encounters were frequent and con- 
siderable disorder reigned for a few months. 
This was a condition, however, that could hard- 
ly be averted and one not unusual to nearly all 
new railroad towns. But there was a brighter 
side to the picture. June 27, 1890, the Coulee 
City Ncics said: 

"Only surprise is pictured on the faces of 








those who visit out city after a few weeks 
absence. They hardly reahze that in so short 
a time such substantial business houses could 
be constructed so far from the base of supplies. 
Where a few weeks ago bare crust, grease wood 
and ungainly knolls were to be seen, today are 
broad, graded streets and avenues. With the 
advent of the railroad in a few days the rush 
will begin and we may look for a still greater 
improvement. A model railroad yard is here 
waiting for the finishing touches. A round 
house of six stalls, built entirely of brick, black- 
smith and repair shops of the same material, 
sand house, material house, coal bunkers, t\\o 
water tanks, turn table, a large, artistic depot 
and station house will all combine to make 
Coulee City resemble a railroad center of im- 

The Central Washington railroad was com- 
pleted to Coulee City and in operation in the 
fall of 1890. Between this time and the 
"boom" of 1892 the population rose to nearly 
300 people. The town was on a most sub- 
stantial basis. But during a portion of the 
year 1892 Coulee City was on the anxious 
seat. Her condition might aptly be termed 
feverish. It then appeared probable that the 
Great Northern railway would cross the Grand 
Coulee at that point. In fact it was considered 
by many that this was the only available point 
where a crossing could be made. We have told 
in a previous chapter how the route along Crab 
Creek was finally selected. But the rumor 
that the road might, and probably would, cross 
at Coulee City precipitated a boom that could 
not have been surpassed had the road actually 
passed through the heart of the town. Material 
for the construction of the greater portion of 
the road through Southern Lincoln and Doug- 
las counties was shipped over the Central 
Washington via Coulee City. During the sum- 
mer of 1892 the town was a typical railroad 
camp. Residents of that year tell us that the 
place had a population of 1,200 to 1,500. Tem- 
porary buildings were run up and all kinds of 

business, good, bad and indifferent was added 
to the town. The class of people who follow 
the building of railroads were there in all their 
commendable or pernicious activity. Coulee 
City gained a reputation that summer for 
"toughness" which was only equalled later by 
Wenatchee and Cascade Tunnel, at the time 
the army of railroad builders made those places 
their headc|uarters. But with the removal of 
these railroaders Coulee City resumed its nor- 
mal condition — that of a town possessing a 
class of most estimable citizens. The buildings 
erected for temporary use were torn down, or 
sold and removed to adjacent ranches. For 
the succeeding decade the town remained a 
country village, being the trading and shipping- 
point for a vast but thinly populated territory. 

Between twelve and one o'clock, Sunday 
morning, July 14, 1895, the six-stall, brick 
round house was discovered to be on fire. 
The flames had spread to such an extent that it 
was impossible to check them with the water 
facilities at hand, and all the wood-work was 
rapidly consumed. Locomotive Xo. 119 was 
in the house and was nearly ruined. 

The growth of Coulee City during the 
decade from 1892 to 1902 was insignificant. 
Still, it was the terminal of the Central Wash- 
ington railway, and this fact made for the bet- 
terment of a business that, otherwise, would 
have been stagnant. The town also drew trade 
from an immense expanse of territory. How- 
ever, there was very little settlement during the 
term of years mentioned. But there was 
destined to be a revival. In No\-ember, 1902, 
the work of grading for the Coulee City-Adrian 
cut-off was commenced, and business of the 
town improved perceptibly in consequence. 
Trains entering the town were loaded with 
laborers consigned to work on the cut-off, a 
piece of rocky road bed twenty-two miles in 
length extending from Coulee City to Adrian, 
on the Great Northern road to the south. 
Again the little to\^•n assumed the appearance 
of a bustling mining camp. Se\-eral hundred 



laborers were at once set to work on the new 
road. The resuh was the erection of many 
new buildings in the town to be used for saloons 
and lodging houses. 

In June, 1903, according to the assessor's 
returns, the population of Coulee City was 
placed at only 122. It is at the present writing 
June, 1904, about 300. 

Late in 1S88, when the Central Washing- 
ton and Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern rail- 
roads were running their surveys through west- 
ern Lincoln and eastern Douglas counties, there 
sprung into existence, in Douglas county, a 
town known as Parnell. It was on the survey 
of the Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern railroad, 
and was four and one-half miles soittheast of 
the present town of Hartline. Here, in the 
spring of 1889, D. F. Reeves and E. J. Brower 
established a store under the firm name of 
Brower & Reeves. This was the only business 
house in Parnell, and Mr. Brower soon after- 
ward severed his connection with the enter- 
prise. J. \\\ Hartline was interested in the 
building of a town at this point, and had not 
the construction of the Seattle road been aban- 
doned quite a thriving village, doubtless, would 
have made its appearance at Parnell. The fol- 
lowing from the W^ilbur Register of June 14, 
1889, supplies an account of one incident in the 
brief, ephemeral history of the town of Par- 
nell : 

"J. \y. Hartline, of the promising town of 
Parnell. situated about ten or twelve miles west 
of Davisine, was in town Tuesday to get some 
posters announcing a celebration of the Fourth 
to take place there. If I\Ir. Hartline is a repre- 
sentative, with the amount of push and enter- 
prise which he possesses, of the population of 
that infant city, and from previous knowledge 
and reports from that community we believe 
his neighbors are alike progressive, the place is 
sure to come to the front as one of the sub- 

stantial trading points of this section. There 
are about ten or fifteen miles of first-class farm- 
ing land between Parnell and the coulee, and 
about twenty-five west of Wilbur, giving ample 
room for a good station. They expect to have 
a ver}^ pleasant time the Fourth and have an 
interesting program arranged." 

Although the town of Parnell never con- 
sisted of more than one store, preparations were 
made for the building of a city, and with the 
characteristic energy of the western townsite 
boomer, those interested in the building of the 
town sent out enthusiastic reports of its pro- 
gress. The following Parnell notes are taken 
from the issue of the Big Bend Empire of 
December 27, 1888: 

"A meeting of the citizens was held at Par- 
nell Saturday, December 7th, to take action on 
matters relative to the welfare of the town, G. 
K. Reed in the chair and John Hartline, sec- 
retary. All present expressed themselves ready 
to rush matters, and the future prospects are 
bright. Such was the enthusiasm raised at the 
meeting that the cry was not, 'my kingdom for 
a horse !" but 'a kingdom for a shower of lum- 
ber with a sprinkling of shingles !' so that the 
building could go on to completion, as the mills 
cannot supply the demand." 

"Isaac Deeter, of Terre Haute, Indiana, is 
now home closing his affairs to engage in the 
merchandise business here. Messrs. Hartline 
& Lingle will soon complete their livery and 
feed stable. A. L. Ross, of Nebraska, bought 
three residence lots and a business lot for a 
home and drug store. 

"W. R. Urnley will erect a suitable building 
for hotel purposes, while D. D. Utt will erect 
two more substantial business houses, and 
Parnell will be on the road to prosperity, and 
with the coming of spring will he the second 
city in the Big Bend, and will make an effort to 
reach her sister city in the west." 

It was not until September that a postoffice 
was established at the new town with E. J. 
Brower as postmaster. Shortly afterward the 



store, which constituted the town, was removed 
to tlie present site of Harthne and ParneU 
■ceased to exist. The reason for the abandon- 
ment of Parnell and the upbuilding of the town 
•of Harthne was the faihire in construction of 
tlie Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern railwa}'. 
A railroad was the great desideratum and the 
boomers gave up their project at Parnell and 
transported their lares and penates to where a 
railroad was sure to come. 

In the spring of 1889 John W. Hartline 
took up the quarter section of land upon which 
Hartline is now situated, having been located 
on the same by James Odgers. This homestead 
Mr. Hartline commuted. Here he erected a 
small shack just east of where the Hartline pub- 
lic school building now stands. This cabin 
was the first edifice on the Hartline townsite. 
Mr. Reeves, who had conducted the store at 
P^arnell, in 1890 erected a store building on Mr. 
Hartline's land and moved his stock of goods 
up from his former place of business. This 
action was taken by Mr. Reeves because it was 
considered certain that the Central Washing- 
ton railway would extend w^est earlier than the: 
Seattle, Lake Shore & Eastern, and the new- 
site was on the surveyed line of the former 
road. A postoffice was secured at the time of 
the removal to the new place and named Hart- 
line in honor of the homesteader of the land 
on which the postoffice was established. Mr. 
Ree\'es \\as named as postmaster. Hartline 
that same year enjoyed an era of prosperity. 
P. J. Young erected a dwelling house and a sec- 
tion house was built by the railway company. 
Grif Humphrey came down from Broad Ax 
Springs, in Lincoln county, and established a 
blacksmith shop. P. J. Young put in a small 
stock of lumber and in the fall of the year, 
there being severaj families in the new town 
and in the vicinity, a school was established. 
This pioneer educational institution of Hartline 
was held in the J. W. Hartline shack, and con- 
sisted of eight scholars who were instructed 
by Miss Alice Cope. 

The town was platted June 5, 1890, by John 
W. Hartline. Additions to the town have been 
platted since as follows : Hammerly's Addi- 
tion, April 7, 1902, by John Hammerly. Hill's 
First Addition, October 8, 1902, by James H. 

The coming of the railroad did not bring 
with it an abnormal prosperity as was the case 
with so many other places along the line. 
George R. Roberts erected a platform along the 
track before the railroad was in operation and 
bought wheat in the new town, thus distin- 
guishing himself as the pioneer grain dealer. 
He did not, however, locate here permanently 
at this time, and soon disposed of his business. 
Late in the year 1891 was established the sec- 
ond store, by D. C. Johnson, which continued 
in operation two years. 

In 1891 the town of Hartline contained 
the following people : D. F. Reeves and wife ; 
P. J. Young, wife and three children; Grif 
Humphrey, wife and two children. Within a 
radius of a mile or two of the town lived Carey 
Carr, William Bundschue, James Hill, H. H. 
Ames, Charles Ames, D. F. Ames and ^Villiam 
Hart. In 1893 John and George McDonald 
established themselves in the grain business in 
Hartline and Coulee City, building a warehouse 
in each place. John looked after the firm's 
interests at Hartline; his brother attended to 
the Coulee City business. In 1894 Mr. Reeves 
died and the store building and goods were pur- 
chased by McDonald Brothers, who continued 
the business for eight years. The next store 
to be opened in Hartline was erected by Patrick 
Kane in 1898. 

Lentil 1902 Hartline did not accomplish 
much in the way of improvement. It was a 
trading point for the few settlers in the vicin- 
ity; only this and nothing more. Two ware- 
houses conducted by John McDonald and 
George R. Roberts took care of the wheat 
raised in the vicinity, while the stores of Mr. 
McDonald and Patrick Kane comprised the 
business houses of the place. In the year above 



mentioned the town received an impetus that 
advanced it to one of the more prosperous vil- 
lages of eastern Douglas county. The most 
important enterprise of this year was the erec- 
tion of a large brick store building bv ]\I. E. & 
E. T. Hay, of Wilbur, an edifice that would 
be a credit to a city of several thousand inhab- 
itants. Other enterprises of this year were the 
establishment of the Hartlinc Standard by 
Spining & Bassett, of Wilbur; the building of a 
hotel by R. S. Faubion, erection of a public 
hall and lodge room and several other business 
houses, the Hays' lumber yard, Dr. Harris' 
drug store, etc. These improvements were 
the result of rapid development and settlement 
of the surrounding territory. The improve- 
ments of 1902 were supplemented the follow- 
ing year by others, notably the establishment 
of the Hartline State Bank. 

The population in June, 1903, as given by 
the county assessor, was 140, but the increase 
since then has been considerable and Hartline 
is today a town of about 300 population. It 
is one of the principal grain shipping points in 
the Big Bend, supporting five warehouses. In 
point of population it is the third town in 
Douglas county and contains many wide 
awake and enterprising citizens, public-spirited 
and entluisiastic in behalf of their locality. No 
town on tlie Central Washington railway is 
more beautifully located, and no other is blessed 
with a more plentiful supply of pure water. 
Three miles to the north rises quite a majestic 
ridge, comprising exceedingly fertile soil. To 
the east is another slight raise, more properly 
a wave or roll of earth, which trends southeast, 
passing eight miles south of town. All the ter- 
ritory lying between the two is comparatively 
level, and the view in a southwest, or westerly 
direction is, practically, unobstructed for fifteen 
or twenty miles. Hartline enjoys a perspective 
more extensive, perhaps, than any other town 
in eastern Washington. The townsite proper 
is situated on nearly a dead level. That por- 
tion of territory north of Hartline known as 

the "ridge country," was first settled in the 
8o's'with the first rush of immigration into the 
Big Bend. The earlier settlers who came were 
informed by the few pioneer stockmen that the 
lighter colored soil south of the ridge was 
worthless except for stock range. People from 
tlie Mississippi Valley states were easily per- 
suaded to avoid the light colored land. The 
darker soil of the ridge was what they were 
more accustomed to, and so long as there was 
land to be had in the darker soils no one would 
settle farther south. Gradually the ridge land 
was taken and a few took homesteads on the flat. 
The enforced hasty and crude methods of farm- 
ing during the earlier history of settlement did 
not yield satisfactory results in that locality. In 
pioneer farming the ridge had a great deal the 
best of it, and the knowledge that the lighter 
soils could be made just as profitable as the 
other came as a gradual revelation. The differ- 
ence between the two soils is this : the heavier, 
darker soil of the ridge packed or settled down 
more rapidly and the wild nature disappeared 
more rapidly than it did from the lighter, dryer 
soils. But the slightly better average moisture 
is offset by the advantage of much earlier seed- 
ing in the spring for the lighter lands, which 
enables them to avoid an occasional risk which 
the ridge cannot escape. But both the ridge 
and flat produce immense crops of wheat and 
their productiveness has been the principal, in- 
deed, the material cause of Hartline's acknowl- 
edged prosperity. 


Waterville, the county seat and metropolis 
of Douglas county, is situated in the north- 
western part of the county, distant about nine 
miles from the Columbia river to the west. It 
is an inland town, 28 miles east from Wenat- 
chee, the nearest railway point. Daily stages 
run from Waterville to the steamboat landing 
on the Columbia river, and also to Coulee City, 
the western terminus of the Central Washing- 



ton railway, 45 miles to the east. \Yaterville 
is 2,600 feet above sea level. The townsite is 
as lovely as one could have selected within this 
scope of the country, the table lands gradually 
sloping to the south and affording easy and 
natural darinage to the place. Says the Big 
Bend Empire, published at Waterville : 

"Talk about scenery! What's the matter 
with the view that may be had any day from 
Waterville? To the south skirt the Badger 
Mountains. Farther away to the west extends 
the Cascade range with their snow-capped 
peaks rivalling one another in their ambition 
to reach the skies. As the eye follows along 
to the north it will see Mount Chelan, the home 
of every wild animal known to a north tem- 
perate zone climate, and a landmark for all 
tribes of Indians to the northwest. Next the 
beholder views the rugged mountains of Okan- 
ogan county, their bosoms filled with gold and 
silver, and rivers glistening with mountain 
trout. When this interesting panoramic view 
has been satisfied let the eye rest on the great 
expanse of rolling prairie of thousands of acres, 
here and there dotted with the cabin of the im- 
migrant, where peace, happiness and content- 
ment dwell as nowhere else in the Big Bend. 

"In the midst of this scene is the mighty 
Columbia river winding its way through the 
center of diversified resources as though to 
serve as a medium to float the overproductions 
of the country to the sea. When an observa- 
tory has been erected at Waterville no city in 
the world can excel her in extent and variety 
of natural scenery." 

The quarter section of land which is now 
known as the original townsite of Waterville 
and Green's First and Second Additions, was 
taken as a squatter's claim by Stephen Boise 
in 1883, the year that witnessed the arrival 
of the first settlers to Western Douglas county. 
At this period the government had not accepted 
the survey of this part of the country and Mr. 
Boise could only secure a squatter's right. A 
private survey had jjeen made, however, and 

this was, practically, the same as the one aft- 
erward made by the government. 

Here ^Ir. Boise built a log cabin, a log 
barn, and dug a well. He passed the winter 
pf 1883-4 here and the following year fenced 
about fifteen acres of land where the court yard 
is now. Ten acres of this land he had under 
cultivation. These pioneer buildings have long 
since been removed, but the place where stood 
the cabin is marked by a depression in the 
ground which served Mr. Boise, and later Mr. 
Greene, as a cellar. They were located near 
the center of the quarter section, the cabin be- 
ing just south of what is now \\'alnut street ; 
the barn near the Big Bend Hotel and the well 
being in the middlg of Walnut street. 

In the summer of 1883 H. N. Wilcox came 
with the vanguard of pioneers to the western 
portion of the Big Bend country. They settled 
on the quarter section of land just north of the 
Boise quarter, and what is now Wilcox's addi- 
tion. ]\Ir. ^^^iIcox remained on the place dur- 
ing the summer and fall. He then returned 
to Cottonwood Springs (later known as Da- 
venport) to pass the winter. It was currently 
reported that Mr. Wilcox had abandoned the 
place, and the following spring the land was 
"jumped" by Howard Honor. The outcome of 
this act was told by Dr. J. B. Smith, one of the 
pioneers of the ^^'aterville country, in the first 
issue of the Orondo Nci^-s, in July, 1S89: 

"In the latter days of March, 1884, we met 
Howard Honor hauling a load of lumber from 
Xash & Stephens', Badger Mountain, saw mill. 
^^'e were invited to get aboard and go out with 
him to 'Jumpers' Flat', (now the site of Water- 
ville), as he had jumped the ranch of H. N. 
Wilcox. * * .* We helped Mr. Honor 
put up a cabin and stopped with him at the 
ranch of Mr. Charles Hall, ^^'ithin a few days 
^Ir. ^^'ilcox pulled in to occupy his ranch, and 
current report of those days said there was a 
parley between the Wilcox and Honor parties 
in which the use of Winchesters was proposed, 
but reason prevailed and Howard Honor re- 



tired from the contest and took up his present 
ranch. It is worthy of mention that in the 
early days of the settlement, although the coun- 
try was, practically, without officers, or law, 
breaches of the peace very seldom occurred. 
This speaks volumes for the excellent character 
of the early settlers of the Big Bend." 

The building of a town on the location of 
the present W'aterville was conceived by A. 
T. Greene, who is known as the "Father of 
Waterville." Mr. Green first came to the 
Big Bend country in 1884. Land in the west- 
ern Big Bend was then unsurve3^ed, but in the 
spring of 1S85 Mr. Greene came out from 
Davenport and purchased the Boise claim. 
During the summer of 1865 he remained on 
his claim and sowed a crop. It was during this 
period that he decided to build there a town. 
To the writer Mr. Greene has stated just how 
there happened to be the town of ^^'aterville, 
and the circumstances which combined to bring 
about the founding of a town in a country 
which at that time, certainly, was not very 
promising. Ever since chiklhood, when Mr. 
Greene li\-ed with his parents in New England, 
his ambition had been to either engage in lit- 
erary work or to become the founder of a city. 
These ideas clung to him when he had arrived 
at manhood. When first he came to the west- 
ern Big Bend it was not with the intention of 
carrying out his early dreams, however. But 
this identical idea came strongly upon him one 
night, during the summer of 1885, as he lay 
by his hay stack, where he slept during the 
heated term. Here he was in possession of a 
claim to which he hoped some day to secure a 
clear title. Why not lay out a townsite and 
realize his ambition ? Stranger things had hap- 
pened than the building of a town in a new 
country like the one in which he had cast his 
lot. But ]\Ir. Greene did not at once reveal 
his plans to his neighbors, yet from that time 
out tlie fnunding of the town of \\'aterville 
was assured. 

During the month of June. 1904, the writer 
enjoyed the pleasure of a drive in company 
with Mr. Greene from that gentleman's ranch, 
four miles northwest of W^aterville, into the 
city for which preparations for building had 
been planned just nineteen years previous. As 
we arrived at the summit of an elevation, and 
the beautiful city of Waterville burst into \-iew, 
and the "Father of Waterville" pointed out the 
various landmarks, reminscences of the early 
days, it certainly must have been with a feel- 
ing of pride. Where nineteen years before he 
had lived, the sole inhabitant, he now gazed 
down upon a little city of 1,000 people; a city 
of which he was the founder and a city whose 
welfare has ever engaged his best attentions. 

Mr. Greene returned to Davenport in the 
fall, and in November, 1886, he was married 
to Miss Dell Turner. Immediately upon the 
arrival of Mr. and Mrs. Greene plans were 
made for the platting of a townsite. Being 
unsurveyed land it was necessary to lay it out 
as a government townsite. 

A few days after their marriage Mr. Greene- 
and his bride had started for their new home. 
The possessions of the newly married couple 
consisted of a span of horses, a second-hand 
wagon, a supply of provisions and a firm de- 
termination to build a city on the young hus- 
band's land. Waterville at this period, the 
fall of 1886, consisted of Mr. Greene's log 
cabin, and what was a rarity in those days, a 
fine well of water. 

Mr. Greene interested J. M. Snow, a sur- 
veyor, in the building of a town here, which 
should become a candidate for county seat 
honors. Mr. Snow surveyed the townsite and 
these two gentlemen laid their plans for secur- 
ing inhabitants for the town, and, incidentally, 
the county seat. The settlers in the immediate 
vicinity of the proposed town at this period 
were A. T. Greene and wife, Harmon Wilcox, 
H. N. Wilcox. J. M. Snow. James H. Kinciid, 
wife and three children. .\1 Pierpont, Alorris 



Buzzard, John Buzzard, William Wilson, John 
Barrowman, Arch Barrowman, E. A. Cornell, 
James Melvin, Frank Silvea. 

In October, 1886, Mr. Greene relinquished 
40 acres of his ranch to be used as a govern- 
ment townsite. If this action had not been 
taken by Mr. Greene at that time, it is doubtful 
if Waterville or a town by any other name 
would be in existence there today. It was 
proposed to build a town that would become a 
candidate for county seat honors. The town 
was named ^Vaterville in consideration of the 
fine well which was a sharp contrast to the 
dry well of Okanogan, the county seat. There 
is said to be nothing in a name, liut there was 
something significant, in the naming of this 
town. People in the neighborhood for several 
miles around would come to ]\Ir. Greene's 
place for their supply of water and his ranch 
began, at an early day, to be called "Water- 
ville." And yet visitors to the capital of Doug- 
las county marvel at the name applied to a 
town which is miles from water, other than 

The town was platted by a board of trus- 
tees. Following is the dedication of the Water- 
ville townsite : 

"Territory of Washington, 
"County of Douglas, ss. 

"Know all men by these presents that we, 
John Brownfield, James H. Kincaid, and Jud- 
son Murray, ti-ustees, all of Douglas County, 
Washington Territory, desiring to locate a 
townsite under the laws of the United States 
government, governing the location of towns 
upon the pubic lands of the United States, have 
caused to be surveyed and platted upon the 
northeast quarter of the southeast quarter of 
section 21, in township No. 25, north of range 
22, East Willamette Meredian, W. T., in the 
county of Douglas, the town of Waterville as 
herein shown. And that we hereby dedicate 
to the use of the public forever the Park Square 
and all streets and allevs herein shown ; also 

that we hereby dedicate to the county of Doug- 
las, to the town of Waterville, to the Free Ma- 
sons, to the Independent Order of Odd Fellows 
and to the public schools, and to their suc- 
cessors, assignees and trustees fore\-er, those 
several tracts respectively marked for them on 
the herein plat and map. \Vitness our hands 
and seals this 26th day of October, A. D., 1886. 
"John Brownfield, 
"James H. Kixcaid, 
"JuDsoN Murray, 

"In the presence of Emily D. Brownfield 
and J. M. Snow." 

To the town of Waterville additions have 
since been platted -as follows: Greene's First 
Addition, December 22, 1888, by A. L. Greene. 
Greene's Second Addition, February 20, 1889, 
by .\. L. Greene. Kincaid's First Addition, 
February 25, 1889, by James H. Kincaid. 
\\'alter's First Addition, Februarv 26. i88(), 
by William Walters. Park Acre Addition, 
August 26, 1889, by H. C. Thomas. Attorney 
in fact for Enos A. Cornell. Cornell's First 
Addition, April 24. 1890, bv E. A. Cornell. 
Cornell's Second Addition, April 24, i8go. by 
E. A. Coi-nell. Cornell's Addition, Jan- 
uary 12, 1891, by E. A. Cornell. Walter's 
Second Addition, January 5, 1891, bv William 
M. Walters. Walter's Third Addition, Jan- 
uary 19, 1891, by William M. \\'alters. Edd- 
son Addition, February 2. 1891, bv David 
Orr, Gus Pagel, T. R. Busteed, J. B. Bliss, 
Walter Guson. Kincaid's Second Addition, 
January 26, 1891, by James H. Kincaid. Wil- 
cox's First Addition, February 28, 1891. by 
H. M. Wilcox. Columbia Park Addition, 
March 14, 1891. by C. M. Stephens. ^lel- 
vin's First Addition, April 2. 1891, liv James 
Melvin. Kellogg's First Addition, November 
28, 1903, by L. E. Kellogg. 

The platting of these additions during the 
years 1889-91, many of them of liberal pro- 
portions, resulted in extending the town of 



Waterville over a generous territorj^ Illus- 
trative of the extent of these plattings a story 
is related of a citizen of Waterville who ap- 
peared on the streets of Spokane one day. The 
gentleman from Waterville was accosted by a 
friend with the remark: "Well, I thought you 
belonged in \\'aterville; what are you doing 

"Oh," replied the Douglas county citizen, 
"I had to make a trip to one of our newly plat- 
ted additions, and being so close thought I 
would drop in and see you." 

When the Waterville townsite was sur- 
veyed by Judge Snow the only building on the 
proposed location, was the cabin of Mr. Greene. 
Until the spring of 1887 Waterville remained- 
without improvements. That spring, however, 
a building was run up. Sometime previous a 
blacksmith. E. E. Stowell, had come to Bad- 
ger mountain settlement with his tools and 
there located. Under the influence of Mr. 
Greene and other settlers Stowell located at 
Waterville on the new townsite. As an in- 
ducement to do this all the neighbors turned 
out and hauled lumber to the townsite and as- 
sisted the blacksmith in erecting the first build- 
ing in Waterville. This original edifice is still 

The second building was erected, also, dur- 
ing the spring of 1887. This was put up by 
Isaac Newhouse for the ostensible purpose of 
being- utilized as an office by Judge Snow. It 
was, however, subsequently utilized as a court 
house. Judge Snow occupying but a portion of 
the edifice. This building occupied the site 
where now stands the Piper brick store, on 
Walnut street. It was remo\-ed to another 
part of town and is now used as a residence. 
The same summer Mr. Newhouse erected an- 
other small building and put in a stock of 
goods, thus becoming the pioneer merchant of 
Waterville. Here Mr. Newhouse conducted 
business until the spring 1889. Mr. Newhouse 
had been the first to build his campfire on tbe 
present site of \\^ater\-ille and to tread down 

the thistles for those who followed later. It 
was his money and his energy that contributed 
to a large degree to the present success of the 
town. Mr. Newhouse died near \\^aterville, 
February 12, 1901. 

Following the platting of the town the em- 
bryo city at once waged a warm county seat 
contest an account of which will be found in 
the current history chapters of this work. 
Judge J. M. Snow did much of the head work 
that secured an early boom for the town. 

The removal of the county seat to Water- 
ville, which was accomplished on May 3, 1887, 
did not create any undue excitement. While 
Waterville had secured the honor of being the 
county's capital, it was without a postoffice. 
It was not within the province of the board of 
county commissioners to legislate the Okano- 
gan postoffice to Waterville, and for some time 
following the removal of the records Okanogan 
was a town with a name only — and a postoffice. 
To this postoffice it was necessary for the 
county officials to go for their mail. Some 
people had their mail directed to Badger posl- 
office. The official trip for mail was made by 
Auditor R. S. Steiner on horseback, once or 
twice a week. Of course this plan was quite 
unsatisfactory. But in December. 1887, a post- 
office was secured for Waterville and A. T. 
Greene was named as postmaster. In point 
of fact Mr. Greene was the only bona fide resi- 
dent of the new town, and legally entitled to 
hold the office. The county officers who con- 
stituted the balance of the town's population 
were all residents of other places in the vicinity 
where they were "holding- down" claims. Au- 
ditor R. S. Steiner was made deputy postmaster 
and one corner of his office was set apart as the 
postoffice. This condition of affairs continued 
until the spring of 1888. Then Rogers & 
Howe opened a mercantile business and the 
postoffice was taken in by them, Mr. Howe 
becoming postmaster. 

During the fall of 1887 George Bradley 
came to \\'ater\-ille and erected the first per- 



manent building, and one that was, certainly, 
pretentious for that period. The- upper story 
was arranged for a public hall, the lower por- 
tion being utilized for store purposes. But it 
was not occupied in this line until the spring of 
1889. The building was completed Christmas, 

1887, and was dedicated by a grand ball, the 
first ever given in Waterville. Following this 
event the sale of town lots became quite brisk. 
Preparations were made for lively times in the 
spring and the results fully justified the 

Speaking of these pioneer days the Big 
Bend Empire of date January 30, 1896, said: 

"Mail in those days (1887-8) was received 
at odd times from Spokane, about 150 to 160 
miles by stage line east, and from Ellensburg, 
75 miles across the Columbia and over the Kit- 
titas mountain to the southwest. Provisions 
■and supplies of the settlement were freighted 
from these points at rates ranging from $40 
to $60 per ton. Flour, bacon,, feed and grain 
brought enormous figures. Few luxuries were 
then known to pioneer's table; necessaries only 
were handled by the one grocery shop, (New- 
house's), and the want of these at times — flour, 
meat, salt and lard, the writer recalls, threat- 
ened periods of famine, forcing the settlement 
to halt rations, while the arrival of wagon 
trains was awaited from the far away stations." 

The Empire states that in the spring of 
1888 only eight buildings could be found on the 
Waterville townsite. This condition of affairs 
did not long continue. Building operations 
began and in a few short months Waterville 
was a town of some size. Nearly all branches 
-of business were represented. Fred McDer- 
mott, who came to Waterville in the spring of 

1888, describes conditions prevailing in the lit- 
tle town at that period as follows : 

"The writer well recalls that e\-en then 
'there were but few prairie cabins and no fences 
teyond a distance of six or eight miles from the 
•embryo city of the county seat. Waterville 
•was only a hamlet, and on the day, particularly 

that we arrived after a long journey across the 
southern deserts from the Dalles, in Oregon, 
there \\ere but two stores in operation and 
neither of these had on hand as much as a side 
of bacon or a sack of flour. In fact a tempor- 
ary famine was imminent and want of bread 
stared the few citizens in the face until, luckily, 
an accidental outfit, laden with flour and meat 
for the Okanogan mines, appeared on the 'off- 
ing' outside the townsite, shortly following the 
writers arrival. It cost them at the rate of 
$60 per ton to get anything into Waterville 
from the railroad at Spokane Falls. Ritzville 
or Ellensburg, though it was not until the first 
of June of that year, 1888. that wagon naviga- 
tion opened on the Kittitas mountain so as to 
admit of the import of supplies from that point. 
Spokane was about 150 miles distant by the 
freight road: Ritzville 9i and Ellensburg 75 
miles. The rush to the Okanogan, or Salmon 
river mines, was great at that time and for a 
year following there were scores of packing 
outfits going through Waterville every week 
bound for the north. Money was plentiful, 
too, in those days, and twenty dollar gold pieces 
appeared to he as freely circulated as the nickels 
are todav. A marvelous develonment began 
that summer and continued into the next year 
throughout the whole country. Cabins snrung 
up p11 over the plains and during; the fall and 
winter — the Ifitter beinc: remarka1-ily ooen and 
mild — over a hundred laree and substantial 
business and residence buildings were added to 
the cHv of Waterville." 

Julv -L, 1888. was t1ie first Tndenendence 
Dav celebration lield in \\'atervi1I'^. The fol- 
lowing- account is taken from the file of the Big 
Pe»d Fmpire^ 

"TI1P neonle of t'^e' P-^'-id n^ay well fe-1 
proud of their celebrat'on of July 4. 1888. It 
1 marks the era of a new and grand existence 
that has dawned noon the heretofore almost 
isolated resrion west of the Grand Coulee that 
is destined to become a great commonwealth. 
Although the day was made disagreeable by a 



heavy wind which made it almost impossible 
to go out of doors those who had the manage- 
ment of the exercises were not to be discour- 
aged and the program was carried out almost 
exactly as arranged. At an early hour in the 
morning the streets were thronged with people 
and the town was beautifully decorated with 
evergreen trees and national flags. The pro- 
cession started from Bradley Hall, and was of 
such imposing splendor as would have done 
justice to much older and larger towns. The 
Liberty Car gotten up exclusively by our enter- 
prising citizen, Mr. G. W. Philbrick, was the 
admiration of all. !Much praise is also due the 
ladies, Mrs. E. E. Stevens, Mrs. G. W. Phil- 
brick, Mrs. Phillips, and Mrs. Harden, for their 
success in finding the 38 little girls for the 
Liberty Car. 

"The exercises at the grand stand were of 
more than usual interest as was shown by the 
marked attention of the people who were able 
to secure seats. ]\Iiss Eunice Derifield did 
herself credit for the excellent manner in which 
she rendered the Declaration of Independence. 
Orator Bradley acquitted himself well, as was 
indicated by the frequent bursts of applause. 
His speech was prefaced by interesting al- 
lusions to our own new country ; then he re- 
viewed the history of our government and the 
theory of our free institutions. He rose above 
political parties and interested his hearers with 
the grander thought of American liberty. H. 
Hilscher responded to a call from the G. A. R. 
boys and made an off-hand speech that was 
heartily applauded. His reference to the Re- 
bellion and to those who fought on the other 
side was especially well received. Judge Snow, 
as president of the day. proved himself equal 
to this, as all other occasions, by his dignified 
bearing and many winning ways. 

"The vocal and instrumental music ren- 
dered by Miss Frankie Whaley, as organist, 
Mrs. Rounds, Mrs. Van Alstine and Messrs. 
Murray. Corbaley, and Clark, was one of the 
most enjoya])le features of the day. The wind 

did not blow too hard to plainly hear the sweet 
notes of the organ in perfect time with the 
clear voices of the singers. At the conclusion 
of exercises at the stand the multitude repaired 
to dinner, after which the program of sports, 
was witnessed, when dancing was commenced 
and was continued till sometime the next day. 
There \A-ere many strangers and new comers- 
present and all agreed that it was the most suc- 
cessful and every way agreeable Fourth of July 
celebration they ever witnessed. The crowd 
in attendance was variously estimated from 
1,200 to 1,800." 

It may be justly said that the merchants of 
Waterville, during the infancy of the town, 
were devoid of one fault too common with the 
business men of nearly all new towns. There 
was no jealous rivalry among them. All were 
on friendly terms; all worked for a common 
object, the welfare of Waterville. The same 
is true today, there being few towns where 
such goodwill and unanimity of purpose pre- 
vail among the business men. 

One of the notable improvements in ^^'ater- 
ville during the year 1888 was the establish- 
ment of a brickyard by J. C. McFarland. He 
secured a contract for 75,000 brick in the town. 
He immediately set to work under all the dis- 
advantages that confront such enterprises in a 
frontier country, but in July he opened his first 
kiln and produced a. fine product. This enter- 
prise was continued two years. 

During the fall of 1888 considerable 
trouble was engendered by jumping of lots on 
the townsite. Waterville was located on a gov- 
ernment townsite dedicated to the public use. 
Consequently the lots were the property of the 
persons who chose to take possession of them 
for the purpose of making homes or engaging 
in business and were held somewhat as other 
unoccupied lands were held, by actual use or 
occupancy. For the purpose of liberality to 
the public and enlisting as many as possible- 
toward the townsite enterprise, which at the 
bep-inning of the vear 1888, was little else than 



a "site," certain lots had been dedicated for re- 
ligious, educational and benevolent purposes. 
The town was laid out similar to other towns 
with streets, alleys and a public square. 

This condition went well until the summer 
of 1888. Then the surging tide of immigration 
brought all classes of people who engaged in 
various lines of business and people de- 
siring lots were far more plentiful than 
were the lots. Some maintained, logic- 
ally or otherwise, that the townsite be- 
ing on government land, even the streets 
and public scfuares were convertible to private 
use by occupancy. It was, perhaps, owing to 
such chaotic condition of affairs in the status 
of the townsite that led to several cases of lot 
jumping, or less harshly, "conflict of titles." 
Concerning a well-remembered case of lot 
jumping' the Big Bend Empire of October 11, 
1888, said : 

"But the climax was reached last Saturday 
(October 6), when it was whispered that some 
individual was about to take possession of the 
lot dedicated to the Masonic order. This lot 
has now become quite valuable, and who the 
greedy one could be that would attempt to ap- 
propriate the property that by common consent 
had been dedicated to a benevolent institution 
was a matter of some conjecture. In due time 
the parties came in sight and proceeded to dig. 
Ever and anon they would turn up their 
weather eyes as though wondering if it were 
going to rain. It was also learned that teams 
had gone to the mill for lumber. About this 
time several of our well-known business men, 
members of the mystic tie, appeared in a body 
and commenced remonstrating with the bold 
intruders. But it appears the latter reckoned 
on at least a wordy combat, and they stoutlv in- 
sisted on proceeding with their improvements. 
During the day operations were quite lively in 
that neighborhood, and by sundown the build- 
ings were well under course of construction ; 
one of which, we are informed is designed as a 
Masonic hall. Our night editor is, also, of the 

belief that he could plainly see figures of indi- 
viduals passing to and fro at the bewitching 
hour of midnight, 'when graveyards yawn,' 
but upon visiting the scene the apparitions van- 
ished. All parties are now uninterruptedly- 
building and will, probabl)-, occupy the lot un- 
til the question of title is finally adjudicated. 

"For the information of our readers abroad 
it is proper to add that the difficulty concerning 
the title is owing to delay of the government 
in accepting the surveys ; that the surveys have 
never been accejjted, and settlers holding claims 
adjoining the townsite will in a few days be 
prepared to give good titles, and the days of 
'jumping' will be remembered simply as other 
pioneer incidents." 

To this the Empire added : 

"It will be remembered that Waterville is 
a government townsite : that is. that lot claim- 
ants acquire title to their lots through the gen- 
eral land office at Washington, D. C, by a pro- 
cess similar to that pursued by homestead or 
pre-emption claimants. Owing to work being 
about two years behind in the general land of- 
fice lot owners on the original townsite have 
had no shadow of title to their lots except the 
improvements which, as might naturally be ex- 
pected, have been of such a character as would 
answer the demands of their business." 

May 29, i8go, the Empire said : 

"The patent to the original townsite of 
Waterville has been issued to Joseph M. Snow, 
the duly constituted trustee, who will in due 
time convey to claimants and occupants of lots 
good and sufficient deeds. Thus ends a source 
of much uneasiness and doubt regarding the 
final titles to lots on the government townsite 
of Waterville. The seeming long delay has 
been caused by the overwhelming accumula- 
tion of business in the general land office at 
Washington, and the matter has been hastened 
beyond its regular order by R. W. Starr, Esq., 
of this place and his associate counsel at Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

"The question of deeds to lots in the orig- 



inal townsite has retarded the growth of the 
town to a great extent as well as to greatly 
lessen the number of real estate transactions, 
not only in the 'old,' or original townsite, but 
addition property as well, for the reason that 
government townsites are generally little un- 
derstood here and people who have not taken 
the trouble to examine the subject have been 
inclined not to meddle with property they could 
not see a perfect title to. But those who have 
examined the prospects for titles to the original 
townsite, and among them our able local at- 
torney, have been satisfied all the time that no 
titles in the world could be better than those of 
W'aterville town lots, and the formal accept- 
ance of the proof by the department of Wash- 
ington confirms the correctness of their posi- 

It was not until December, 1890, that the 
lot owners secured deeds to their lots. The 
patent to the townsite was received in May, 
i8go, by J. M. Snow, trustee, and the deeds to 
the lots were made out by Mr. Snow. 

The first church edifice erected in Water- 
ville was begun in November, 1888, a Method- 
ist Episcopal church, 28 by 40 feet in size. Sub- 
scriptions were taken and several hundred dol- 
lars secured for this purpose. 

Waterville in 1888 was willing to become 
the capital of Washington Territory. The 
Empire in its issue of December 27, of that 
year, told why the town was qualified to become 
the capital city of the commonwealth as fol- 
lows : 

"Waterville is approximately the geograph- 
ical center of the Territory; it is so accessible 
from all parts of the Territory that three differ- 
ent railroads are breaking their necks to get 
here first ; it is midway between the Queen City 
of the Sound and the 'Minneapolis of the West,' 
Spokane. Three months ago Waterville was 
pothing, now it is a booming city with over a 
liundred fine buildings the shingles of which 
are not discolored by wintry storms. Among 

the enterprises under contemplation for spring 
are a system of waterworks, street cars and 
electric lights. It has the most wideawake mer- 
chants and greatest number of beautiful women 
of any town in the United States. It is a 
boomer ; it is a bird ; it's going to be the capital." 

In the vote for the location of the capital in 
1889 Waterville was not a candidate, but re- 
ceived a few votes in Douglas county. 

At the beginning of the year 1889 the pop- 
ulation of Waterville was estimated from 300 
to 350. There were two general merchandise 
stores, three hardware stores, four grocery and 
provision stores, two hotels, one restaurant, 
three blacksmith shops, one drug store, two 
butcher shops, four saloons, five attorneys, 
three physicians, one undertaker, one news- 
paper and two bakeries. 

Following is the opinion of Mr. Sam Vin- 
son, agent of the general land department, con- 
cerning Waterville, voiced while paying the 
town a visit March, 1889: 

"It is the best town in the Big Bend coun- 
try, and I regard it as the second Spokane 
Falls. All that are lacking are transportation 
facilities. It is ten miles from the Columbia 
river in a beautiful and productive valley. 
Water can be obtained from the springs in the 
Badger Mountain, with a fall of 300 feet, that 
will supply a population of 20,000. In all my 
travels over Washington I have never seen a 
better location for a city — with the exception 
of Spokane Falls, of course." 

During the fall of 1888 agitation for the 
incorporation of the town was begun. Water- 
ville at this time was the recognized metropolis 
of an immense territory and during the pre- 
ceding summer Iiad enjoyed a rapid growth. 
But the town was not incorporated until the 
following spring. The growth of the town 
and its increasing importance made a city gov- 
ernment imperative. A petition was circulated 
and it was signed by nearly e\ery tax-paying 
citizen in the town praying that the district 



court issue an order granting the incorporation 
prayed for. Following is a copy of the peti- 

"To Hon. L. B. Nash, Judge of the Fourth 
Judicial District of Washington Territory, and 
holding terms of court in and for the county of 
Douglas : 

"We, your petitioners, being taxable inhab- 
itants of the town of Waterville, in said county, 
respectfully pray that said town may be incor- 
porated and police established for the local gov- 
ernment thereof. Your petitioners desire that 
said incorporated town of Waterville shall in- 
clude the following territory, to wit : The east 
half of the southeast quarter of section 21, in 
town 25, north of range 22, east of the Willa- 
mette Meridian; in Douglas county, Washing- 
ton Territory. 

"Signed : H. R. Hilscher, \Y. F. Allender, 
W. M. Crisp, Ivirk Whited, Geo. A. Allen, D. 
Woods, F. M. Strieker, G. W. Hollingshead, 
Albert T. Greene. L. E. Kellogg, D. F. Riggs, 
C. M. Stephens, S. W. Phillips, D. C. Johnson, 
C. Gilchrist, Colin Campbell, William Fergu- 
son, J. M. Willis, Henry Lieurance, C. H. 

March 22, 1889, the petition was granted 
by the following order : 

"In the District Court of Washington Ter- 
ritory, Fourth Judicial District, holding terms 
at Waterville, in and for the County of Doug- 
las : 

"In the matter of the incorporation of the 
City of Waterville. 

"A petition having been presented to the 
court praying that the inhabitants of the follow- 
ing described tract of land situated in the coun- 
ty of Douglas and Territory of ^^'ashington, 
and more particularly described as follows, to- 
wit : The east half of the southeast quarter of 
section 21, township 25. north of range 22, east 
of the W. M., be incorporated under the name 
of the town of W'aterville, and police be estab- 
lished for their local government ; and it appear- 
ing to the court that said petition has been 

signed by a majority of the taxable inhabitants 
of the tract of land aforesaid, and sought to be 
incorporated as such town ; and the court being 
fully advised of the premises, it is ordered, 
adjudged and decreed that they are hereby duly 
incorporated under the name of the town of 
Water\ille within the limits of the tract of land 
above described, and that they are henceforth 
declared to be a body corporate under the said 
name of the town of \\'aterville. 

"And it is further ordered that C. N. 
Stephens, Albert T. Greene, W. F. Allender, 
L. E. Kellogg and S. W. Phillips be, and they 
are, hereb}- declared to be the trustees of said 
town, and to continue in said office until their 
successors shall be elected and qualified. 

"And it is further ordered that said petition 
and this order be entered in full on the records 
of this court. 

"Done in chambers this March 22, 1889. 
"L. B. Nash. 

"Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of 
\\'ashington Territory, of the Fourth Judicial 
District thereof." 

In pursuance with this order the gentlemen 
named in the decree met at the office of Snow 
& Greene on Thursday, March 7th, took the 
oath of office before R. S. Steiner, clerk of the 
district court for Douglas county, and formally 
organized as board of trustees for the town of 
Waterville. A. T. Greene was the unanimous 
choice for chairman of the board. Kirk ^^'hited 
was appointed clerk of the board and city at- 
torney; M. B. Howe, treasurer; W. Z. Cooper, 
marshall. The only business transacted was 
the calling of an election to be held on Monday, 
April I, to select town officers. F. M. Strieker 
was named judge of the election, and Charles 
Peach and A. M. Tenny, clerks. At this elec- 
tion A. T. Greene, M. B. Howe, P. J. Knight. 
S. W. Phillips and John Robb were elected 

In District Court, Judge W^ H. Calkins 
presiding, on June 17, 1889, the following ter- 
ritory was added to the corporate limits of the 



town : Greene's second addition, Kincaid's 
iirst addition and the southwest quarter of the 
southwest quarter of section 22. 

An organization that did much to advance 
the interests of the town was the Waterville 
Board of Trade, organized in April, 1889. Fol- 
lowing were the first officers of the board : A. 
T. Greene, president; P. E. Berry, secretary; 
C. M. Stephens, committee on finance; W. F. 
Allender, committee on immigration and public 
lands ; R. W. Starr, committee on manufactures 
and public improvements. 

This organization was shortly afterwards 
■christened the Douglas County Board of Trade 
and was a lively factor in the settlement of the 
county as well as the town of Waterville. 

The first fire company in Waterville was 
organized Wednesday evening, May 8, 1889. 
There were 26 members. A. H. Murdock was 

Writing to the Tacoiiia Globe in May, 1889, 
a correspondent said : 

"They are hustling, bustling, go-ahead fel- 
lows, these business men of Waterville. 
Nothing is too good for their pretty little city 
and they all pitch in for the common purpose 
of beautifying and benefiting the town. One 
donates a town lot for this, another puts his 
hand down deep in his pocket to help that en- 
terprise, and so they pass the work around the 
ring, no one shirking responsibility or refusing 

October 10, 1889, the Empire stated that 
there were 246 buildings in Waterville, an in- 
crease of 238 in a little over a year. 

People who were residing in Waterville 
during the winter of 1889-90 relate interesting 
tales of how they passed several weeks in the 
town completely isolated from the outside 
world. For more than two weeks the town was 
completely cut ofi by a heavy fall of snow ; no 
mail was received or sent. January 30th a 
mail was received from Ellensburg. The stage 
had become blocked with snow at the mouth of 

Corbaley canyon and a Waterville rescue party 
went to his assistance with shovels and tobog- 
gan, and hauled the mail in by hand. The fol- 
lowing day mail went out on 'the toboggan as 
far as the stage had come the day before. Feb- 
ruary 5th another party started' out on snow 
shoes to meet the stage at Orondo. This party 
comprised A. T. Greene, Sheriff Gillespie, M. 
B. Howe, R. W. Starr, C. A. Carpenter, 
Eugene Woodin, A. M. Tenny, Henry Smith, 
A. L. Rogers, Elder J. M. C. Warren, and W. 
M. Walters. A portion of this party returned 
the same evening with the news that the mail 
had not come over the mountain. The follow- 
ing day W. R. Wetsel headed a party of snow 
shovelers to relieve the stage. The following 
day the stage came in, but without the mail, as 
the late snow on the mountain had put a stop 
to all travel. 

One of the results of this blockade was the 
prevention of a regular meeting of the board of 
Douglas county commissioners. Commissioner 
Stephens was the only member on deck. After 
"Assembling" and "adjourning" from day to 
day for a time, waiting for his colleagiies, 
Messrs. Godlove and Lewis, Stephens, too, 
abandoned the field. As there was much im- 
portant business to be transacted a special meet- 
ing was called later. February 12th mails 
arrived from both east and west. The eastern 
mail consisted of letters only and was brought 
in from Grand Coulee on snow shoes. The 
western mail consisted of letters and papers, 
the latter being rather aged so far as the news 
features were concerned. This serious block- 
ade was not entirely raised until the following 
April. In the issue of the Empire, March 27th, 
we find these items : 

"Provisions are getting scarce in town. 
Our merchants are out of meat, lard, sugar, 
baking powder, and flour is getting low. And 
there is not a pound of hay or grain for sale in 
town. It will be several days before teams can 
get to Almira. 



"Many of our merchants are temporarily 
out of business — sold out — pending the arrival 
of goods from the railroad." 

At a regular meeting of the board of. trus- 
tees April 14, 1890, a petition signed by 30 
residents of Waterville was presented asking 
for a special towii election to vote on the pro- 
position of the town of Waterville being organ- 
ized and incorporated under the general laws 
of the state, such incorporation to take the 
l^Iace of the old incorporation which was accom- 
plished under the Territorial laws. Washing- 
ton was now a state, and the old corporation 
had been declared void by the state courts. 
This petition was granted and Saturday, May 
3d was named as the day for holding the special 
election. The following persons were named 
as officers of this new election : Judge, A. C. 
Porter ; inspectors, W. H. Calkins, Robert Gil- 
liland ; clerks, C. C. King, William Crisp. 
Although the vote was light there was no op- 
jjosition to the proposition to reincorporate. 
Under the new organization the first officers 
were: Mayor, A. J. Davis; councilmen, P. J. 
Knight, C. M. Stephens, Joseph Lovett, M. D. 
Smith, C. F. Abel. Police magistrate, A. C. 
Porter ; clerk, D. C. De Galia ; city marshall, J. 
B. Valentine. 

The first flouring mills in operation in 
Douglas county were the Waterville Roller 
Mills, of 50 barrel capacity. They were placed 
in operation Tuesday, December 20, iSgo, by 
D. J. Herstine. 

The fall of 1890 and spring of 1891 were 
prosperous times for Waterville. Among other 
enterprises which served to add to this pros- 
perity was the creating here of a United States 
Land Office, the building of the flouring mill, 
the establishment of two banks. First National 
and Douglas County Bank and the building of 
a $10,000 school house. 

In December, 1890. steps were taken by 
prominent citizens to interest Seattle capital in 
Waterville. The result was the establishment 
of the First National Bank bv Seattle men and 

the formation of a company among Seattle 
capitalists known as the Waterville Improve- 
ment Company. About 600 acres of fine agri- 
cultural land adjacent to town was donated to 
this company conditional that the company 
should place in Waterville a system of water 
works and' electric lights. Success attended 
these efforts and both the water works and 
electric lights were installed in 1892. 

,A militia company was organized and mus- 
tered in as the First Unattached. Company Na- 
tional Guard of Washington, Wednesday 
evening, October 26, 1892, by Captain E. ^V. 
Lyons, of Company G, Second Infantry, of 
Spokane. The officers of this company were 
W. J. Canton, captain; F. M. Dallam, First 
Lieutenant ; A. E. Case, second lieutenant. Mr. 
Dallam soon after resigned, Case was made first 
lieutenant and J. M. F. Cooper, second lieuten- 
ant. The complete roster at the date of muster 
was as follows: W. J. Canton, Frank M. Dal- 
lam, A. E. Case, J. C. Lawrence, A. T. Greene, 
J. M. F. Cooper, George A. Newsalt, P. A. 
Snyder, O. D. Porter, J. H. Dickson, S. L., 
Behon, Edward Johnson, C. O. Steiner, Perry 
^^'ilcox, Charles W. McDermott, Will Day, 
Henry Lieurance, H. C. Hupe, M. S. Crisp, J. 
W. Pearl, Charles J. Nokes, Philo M. Crisp, J. 
R. Pearl, C. H. Kirkland, Robert Beyers, 
Lewis Wetsel, Charles ^^'. Hudson, Charles 
Harris, August Hupe. 

This organization retained its individuality 
three years and was highly esteemed by the 
citizens of Waterville. July 1895, the First 
Unattached Militia Company was mustered out 
of the service. The reason for the disbandment 
is told in the following letter : 

"Olympia, June 29, 1895 — Captain W. J. 
Canton, Waterville, Washington — Sir: I am 
directed by the commander in chief to inform 
3'ou that the disbandment of the First Unat- 
tached Company has been announced in Gen- 
eral Order No. 7, in pursuance of the provisions 
of Section 59, of the military code. 

"The disbandment of your company car- 



ries with it no reflection in the shghtest degree 
upon your patriotism or efiiciency. The mil- 
itary code in providing for a reduction in the 
Guard requires that companies shall be station- 
ed in such localities as the necessities and ad- 
vantages of the service require, with reference 
to the means of rapid concentration^ The mus- 
tering out of your company was wholly due 
to the fact that a careful consideration of all 
the existing circumstances has forced the con- 
clusion that your location is not so accessible 
nor of such strategic importance as that of 
other companies. 

"The commander-in-chief desires to ex- 
press for himself personally, and the citizens of 
Washington, his appreciation of the valuable 
services rendered by your company. Your re- 
cord has at all times been most excellent, and 
your severance from the guard was determined 
with regret. 

"Yours respectfully. 

"E. C. MacDonald, 
"Acting- Adjutant General." 

Up to, and including the year 1892, there 
was great activity in the bustling town of 
Waterville. Business houses were erected and 
new enterprises inaugurated. Preparations 
were made for great events. A railroad was 
expected to arrive at almost any time — in fact 
at one period it looked as though three different 
railroads were striving to get to Wateville. 
Additions were platted which extended far out 
into the country. But all this was changed. 
"Financial depression" which has so often been 
recorded in this history, effected a marvelous 
change in the prosperity of Waterville. Build- 
ing operations were brought to a standstill ; for 
many years the young city which started out 
with most flattering prospects, was suddenly 
halted in its once rapid progression. The latter 
part of the 90's witnessed a slight change for 
the better, but it was not until the season of 
1902 that the old time prosperous gait was 
again reached. This, of course, was brought 

about by the rapid settlement of the county at 
that time. 

At all times since the reincorporation of the 
town of Waterville there had lurked in the 
minds of the people a suspicion that such action 
had not been valid. The citizens decided to 
make a third attempt to set matters right. This 
occurred March 25, 1894, The people had, 
gone to the city council for permission tO' re- 
incorporate. A palpable error. Now they 
made application to the board of county com- 
missioners. The population of the territory 
according to a census taken by order of the 
commissioners just prior to the election which 
was called by them was 503. The result of the 
election was : votes cast, 105 ; For incorporation, 
65 ; against incorporation, 28, 12 not voting 
on the question. For mayor— P. E. Berry, 
republican, and endorsed by the democratic con- 
vention, 89. 

For councilmen — A. L. Maltbie, rep., 65 ; 
E. W. Porter, rep., 56; W. J. Stanley, rep., 67; 
M. S. Holland, rep., 53 ; C. M. Stephens, dem., 
54; G. E. Steiner, dem., 40; J. H. Brockman, 
dem.. 35 ; C. C. King, dem., 41 ; W. R. Wetsel, 
dem., 35. 

For Treasurer — H. C. Thomas, dem., 44; 
George Hollingshead. rep., 42. 

Even after the town had voted thrice on 
the question of incorporation complications 
arose. Doubts were expressed concerning the 
validity of the last election. The matter found 
its way into the courts. In September, 1894, 
Judge Wallace Mount, of the superior court, 
held that the old, or second incorporation, was 
good, and that the old council should be re- 
seated, and that the new incorporation was null 
and void. The case was carried to the supreme 
court. A dispatch from Olympia dated Novem- 
ber II, 1895, said: 

"The supreme court in the case of the State 
of Washington ex rel, George Bradley, prose- 
cuting attorney, respondent, vs. P. E. Berry et 
al., appellants, affirms the judgment of the 
lower court. This is a proceeding involving 




the validity of the organization and existence 
of the town of Waterville as a municipal corpo- 
ration. The question has been fully decided 
several times before by the supreme court, and 
they decline to entertain further discussion." 
Thus the Gordian knot was cut, and the 
second incorporation stood. 

Dtiring the Spanish-American war Water- 
ville was represented by a company of her 
young men and officered by Waterville citizens. 
A number of Wenatchee boys also joined this 
company. The company departed for Tacoma, 
the muster-in point, July 8, 1898. Here they 
were mustered in as Company D, Twenty-sec- 
ond Washington Volunteer Infantry. July 
2 1 St Company D moved to Vancouver Bar- 
racks. Early in September orders were re- 
ceived to muster out the company, which was 
accordingly consummated October 30th. The 
officers of Company D were Captain P. G. 
Maltbie ; First Lieutenant, Edward Johnson ; 
Second Lieutenant, J. N. Kiesling. 

The United States census of 1900 gave 
Waterville a population of 482. 

The year 1902 was, perhaps, the most pros- 
perous one in the town's history. The arrival 
of new settlers from the east and the rapid 
filling upi of the country in the Waterville 
neighborhood caused the county seat town to 
assume many of the features of a "boom." 
New brick blocks replaced frame buildings 
which had done service since the days of 1888 
and 1889. In June, 1903, the assessor's census 
gave a population of 760. The population of 
Waterville at the present writing (July, 1904) 
is fully 1,000. Religious denominations were 
represented by the Methodists, Presbyterians, 
Baptists, Church of God, Catholics and Chris- 

The fraternal societies number eight," viz : 
Masonic. Odd Fellows. Maccabees, M. W. A., 
W. O. W., Eastern Star. Rebekahs, and Grand 
Army of the Republic. 

Waterville is destined to become one of the 
leading cities of Central Washington. To 

every one who has visited the place this is 
patent. It is situated in the midst of one of the 
richest agricultural sections of the state. Bar- 
ren of transportation and against great odds it 
has risen to a town of 1,000 people, a town 
which for progressiveness and enterprise can 
not be excelled. When a railroad builds 
through the country and the land surrounding 
Waterville is occupied by settlers, many of 
whom it is able to support, then will Waterville 
become a city of importance. 


Wilsoncreek is the second town in size in 
Douglas county. Aside from Waterville it is 
the only one incorporated. It is on the Great 
Northern railroad, a minor freight division 
point of that line. Here are located an eleven- 
stall round-house, a large coal chute and other 
buildings common to railroad division. Some 
of these buildings were erected in the early 90's, 
shortly after the advent of the road. It was 
many years later before the town of Wilson- 
creek came into existence. While there was 
much homestead land in other portions of 
Douglas county, that lying along Crab and 
Wilson Creeks was not considered worthy of 
being termed farm land. But the rush of im- 
migration in 1902 induced people to examine 
these lands, then experiment, and the result was 
that the land was discovered to be "agricul- 
tural" in every sense of the word. Towns be- 
came numerous throughout the south country 
and Wilsoncreek easily distanced all competi- 

A postoffice was established in December, 
1894. Previous to this the stock men of Doug- 
las county were compelled to go to Lind, in 
Adams county, for their mail. Concerning 
the earlier history of Wilsoncreek, the Big 
Bold Chief, of December 27, 1901, said: 

"Some three years ago, (1898) one Moltke, 
(whether he was a relation of the late count is 
not certain) was induced to open a small store 



near where Gentry & Goldsmith's lumber yard 
now stands. It is said that there were various 
articles of merchandise and stomach bitters for 
sale there. W. T. is an authority for the state- 
ment that one bottle of those bitters was suffi- 
cient to make a man steal from one pocket and 
put it in another. However, the count sold 
the shop to one Sanders who, in turn, disposed 
of it to R. L. Playfair. Playfair thought it a 
white elephant and coaxed Nichols Brothers to 
take it off from his hands. The Nichols 
Brothers closed out to G. D. Miller. In the 
meantime George Swanson had opened up a 
merchandising store just west of the bank." 

Practically, this was the inception of Wil- 
soncreek. Almost the entire trade of the 
pioneer store was from the neighboring stock- 
men and cowboys. Old timers tell us of the 
high jinks of the "buckaroo," at the place where 
the town now stands. The gaming table was 
the principal recreation and money and bitters 
flowed as free as water. On January i, 1900, 
seven people would complete the census of 
Wilsoncreek. One small store sufficed to more 
than supply the demands of the adjacent coun- 
try, and the Wilsoncreek hotel had recently 
been completed by William Blanchard. The 
guests were like angels' visits, few and far be- 
tween. But they soon became more numerous. 
According to the United States census taken at 
that time the population was 26. With the 
opening of the year 1901 Wilsoncreek con- 
sisted of a school house, one small store, the 
Wilsoncreek hotel and the Great Northern 

The town was platted January 31, 1901, by 
Robert L. Playfair. The following additions 
have since been made. Playfair's First Addi- 
tion, April 3, 1902, by R. L. Playfair. 

Taggart Addition, April i, 1902, by W. H. 
O'Larey, F. E. Taggart and A. A. Mclntyre. 

First Addition, September 10, 1902, by 
Jesse Gentry and A. A. Goldsmith. 

Schroeder's College Addition, October 25, 
1902, by J. P. Schroeder. 

School lot addition, April 25, 1903, by 
Zack Finney, W. H. O'Leary, Julius L. Stuart, 
directors, and A. J. Miles, clerk. 

Urquhart's First Addition, August 12, 
1903, by Donald Urquhart. 

October 20, 1901, the Big Bend Chief said : 

"A train load of immigrants from Jackson 
county, Minnesota, came to Wilsoncreek. Some 
of these engaged in business in the town and 
the majority settled on land in the vicinity. 
This was the signal for a big growth of the 
town. At this time there were in the village 
only a part of the Douglas hotel building, the 
old Wilsoncreek hotel, Stapp's restaurant, three 
stores. Goldsmith & Bagley's, G. D. Miller's 
and the People's Trading Company (Swanson 
Brothers), a blacksmith shop, butcher shop, 
the Big Bend Land Office, R. J. Armstrong's 
livery stable and two saloons. Gentry & Gold- 
smith's and Finney & Patees' lumber yards." 

But the last two months of the year 1901 
witnessed a marvelous growth in Wilsoncreek, 
The Chief stated that during the montb of 
November and December sixty actual residents 
were added to the town and many others took 
up residence in the surrounding country. 

Friday night, January 20, 1902, fire de- 
stroyed the coal chutes of the Great Northern 
railway, causing considerable loss to the com- 
pany. The fire originated near the west end 
of the chutes and within ten minutes the entire 
structure was a mass of seething flames. Six 
car-loads were stading on the track near by, 
together with two cars of lumber. All were 
burned. This was a serious disaster, yet the 
destruction of these chutes marked the begin- 
ning of considerable improvement in the rail- 
road buildings at Wilsoncreek. Another con- 
flagration is thus described by the Big Bend 
Chief of date August 29, 1902. 

"Wilsoncreek's most disastrous fire occur- 
red last Friday morning, (August 22d). At 
3 :45 o'clock, just as No. 16 was pulling into 
the yards the engineer noticed what looked like 
a bright light in the general store of J. H. 



Benson. It flamed up, and he blew the whistle 
to awaken the people. Many heard it but sup- 
posed it was for cattle rather than a fire. Night- 
watchman, William Astell saw" it about the 
same time and when the watchman and 
Engineer Dygon reached the store the lower 
floor seemed a mass of flames. J. H. Benson 
and wife were in Seattle, and E. E. Benson, 
Mrs. Miller, Miss Grant and J. H. Benson's 
little son were sleeping over the store. They 
barely escaped in their night clothes. E. E. 
Benson had taken the precaution to convey the 
books to his room and saved them, but forgot 
to take a wallet which he had placed under his 
pillow. William Lair and Watchman Astell 
made the rounds and awakened the citizens. 
As quickly as possible every one in the village 
was at work. The flames soon spread on the 
east to the drug store of Lee Brothers, and but 
little of the stock was saved. P. J. Wegele's 
pump establishment was the next to go, but 
nearly all the stock and tools were taken off 
before the fire reached it. Strenuous efforts 
were then made to save the livery stable and 
shed across the street and with wet blankets 
and water this was accomplished. The Wilson- 
creek hotel, occupied by Dr. J. M. Corpening 
and owned by A. V. Swift, was also burned 
with the shack just back of it, which was the 
property of Thomas Kemp. To the west of 
Benson's store the war against the flames was 
just as fiercely waged. G. D. Miller succeeded 
in saving about $i,ooo worth of his stock, and 
Maltbie, Friel & Maltbie managed to remove 
close to $800 worth of their hardware stock 
before the fire ran them out. J. W. Enimert's 
dwelling was the next to go, but the household 
goods had all been taken out before the fire 
had reached the house. Then came the tug of 
war with the bank. Albert Nelson stood in the 
hottest of it throwing water when older men 
had failed. With prompt and constant work 
the fire was held here, but Mr. Swanson, the 
cashier, had succeeded in removing all of his 
household goods and everything of value in 

the bank had been put into the vault or moved 
across the street to places of safety. It was a 
wild time, and by 5 :30 o'clock a. m., there was 
not a stick left standing in the burned district. 

"Every possible effort was made to save 
the buildings and the citizens did good work in 
rescuing stock from the flames. Jesse Gentry 
and J. F. Moore stood at their posts in R. J. 
Armstrong's shed with wet blankets on their 
heads to permit them to work at all. A. A. 
Goldsmith and A. V. Swift were on top of the 
livery barn, while scores of men, boys, women 
and girls were carrying water so soon as the 
bulk of the stocks had been got to safety. At 
the bank Albert Nelson, Floyd Miller, Sam 
Fader and many others were fighting the flames 
with all their strength and cunning. They all 
unite in giving Mr. Nelson credit for saving 
the bank building, as he seemed not to feel the 
scorching heat which was driving others back. 
The losses of this fire are as follows : 

"J. W. Emmert, house and carpets, about 
$500, with insurance of $300 on house and 
$400 on furniture. 

"Joseph Mitchell, building, $750, no insur- 

"Alaltbie, Freil & Maltbie, stock $2,500, 
with insurance of $1,000. 

"Nichols Brothers, building, $600, no in- 

"G. D. Miller, stock, $3,000, with insur- 
ance of $1,000. 

"J. H. Benson, building, household furni- 
ture and stock, $6,850, with insurance of $2,- 

"Lee Brothers, building, stock and fixtures, 
$3,300, with insurance of $2,375. 

"P. J. Wegele, building, $300, with insur- 
ance of $200. 

"A. V. Swift, the old Wilsoncreek hotel 
building, $350; no insurance." 

The rapidity with which the town recovered 
from this serious disaster is thus voiced by a 
correspondent : 

"Wilsoncreek merchants are rustlers. This 



is well illustrated by the rapidity with which the 
business men who were burned out by the big 
fire of August 22d, have rebuilt their places of 
business. Every merchant who shared in the 
$20,000 loss only a month ago, is now doing 
business at the old stand, but in a more com- 
modious structure." 

The first steps toward incorporation were 
taken at a mass meeting held February 23, 
1903. It was almost unanimously decided to 
arrange for a special election to vote on the 
proposition. A committee consisting of A. A. 
Goldsmith, J. H. Benson, W. H. O'Larey, R. 
H. Lee, and L. M. Dow was named to circulate 
a petition. It received 67 signers. The county 
commissioners granted the request of the peti- 
tion and named April 24th as the day for hold- 
ing said election. There were 49 votes cast 
with the following result : For incorporation, 
40; against, 3. 

For Mayor — G. F. Goldsmith, 40; B. E. 
'Butler, I. 

For Councilman — J. W. Emmert, 45 ; D. 
O. Freil, 47; W. H. O'Larey, 45; A. A. Gold- 
smith, 41 ; R. H. Lee, 22 ; William Newlove, 
27; Jesse Gentry, 2; P. J. Wegele, 2; William 
Schumacher, i. 

For Treasurer — A. J. Swanson, 42. 

The first meeting of the newly elected city 
council was held April 28th. The incorpora- 
tion of Wilsoncreek at this time illustrates the 
swiftness which marks the growth of western 
towns. Two years prior Wilsoncreek consisted 
of a postoffice, a depot and one residence. 

The population in June, 1903, according to 
the returns of the assessor, was 246. The edu- 
cational facilities include a handsome, four- 
room brick school house erected at a cost of 
$7,000 during the summer of 1903. There is 
one Presbyterian church edifice. The fraternal 
societies are represented by the Royal Neigh- 
bors of America, Modern Woodmen of Amer- 
ica and the Foresters. 


Bridgeport is located near the northern part 
of the county near the junction of Foster Creek 
with the Columbia river. It is favorably sit- 
uated to command the trade of the surrounding 
country. It lies fifty miles northeast of Water- 

Business men of Bridgeport, Connecticut, 
were largely interested in building the town. 
It was proposed to make Bridgeport a com- 
mercial center for the northern part of Douglas 
county. The town was platted November 30, 
1 89 1, by Butler Liversay. Quite substantial 
improvements were made in the spring of 1892. 
Energy and enterprise, backed by unlimited 
capital were at work to make Bridgeport a city 
worthy of the name. The principal streets were 
graded and a steam ferry was put on the river. 

The peculiar configuration of the ground 
where the new town was located made it appear 
that the expected railroad to the Okanogan 
country would be compelled to build to the town 
and cross the Columbia near this point. It was 
expected at this time that the Northern Pacific 
railway was about to build to the Okanogan 
country. The forks of Foster Creek at this 
point converge as they reach the Columbia and 
afford ^a natural and feasible highway for a 
railway. At the mouth of the creek is a long 
and level plateau, and here it was that the new 
town was laid out. 

The company responsible for the establish- 
ment of Bridgeport was the Western Land & 
Improvement Association. The store of Boyd 
Teter was opened for business in July, 1893. 
Shortly after the inauguration of the town of 
Bridgeport some trouble arose in connection 
with financial matters which came perilously 
near causing an abandonment of the project. 
August 2, 1892, a correspondent writing from 
Bridgeport said : 

"The new town of Bridgeport is again on 



the top wave of excitement. The townsite 
company dug up a few thousands and paid off 
the brick yard contractors and hands. The out- 
side walls of the brick hotel are up, about four 
feet, and a raft of lumber is expected this week. 
Teams are busy hauling lumber, iron, etc, from 
Coulee City for the steam ferry boat that is to 
make daily runs from Bridgeport to Port 
Columbia, and all around is the busy hum of 
an embryo city." 

In January, 1894, Bridgeport consisted of 
the big, $15,000 hotel, one store, the postoffice 
and a newspaper. During the summer of 1894 
F. J. Eitel put in operation a brick flouring 
mill with a capacity of from 75 to 100 barrels 
a day. 

While Bridgeport did not succeed in be- 
coming the city that its builders intended, it 
has, since its establishment, been an important 
trading point for the rich country in which it 
is fortunately situated. It is a thriving, pros- 
perous town. The census of 1900 accredited 
it with a population of no, which has been 
materially increased. The religious denomina- 
tions comprise Presbyterian and Methodist 


Is located on the Great Northern railway, 
thirty-two miles esat of Wenatchee. Until the 
latter part of 1901 Quincy was simply a siding 
on the Great Northern. The Big Bend Chief 
of December 27, 1901, said of this place: 

"One of the towns to the west that is certain 
to be of some importance in the near future is 
the siding on the Great Northern known as 
Quincy. A. V. Swift, W. T. Nichols and Ray 
Crothers are interested in the development of 
the country thereabouts and report a large in- 
flux of population at that point in the last two 

. The town was platted February 28. 1902, 
by Richard Coleman. The following additions 
have been made : 

Richardson's First Addition, August 18, 
1 90 1, by David Richardson. 

Central Quincy, September 3, 1902, by 
Quincy Land & Improvement Company, by H. 
S. Kergsley, president, and Charles H. Ross, 

March 28, 1902, the Big Bend Chief said 

"A few weeks ago Quincy, Washington, 
was simply an unused sidetrack on the Great 
Northern, in the desert. Now, however, the 
plain is taking on the appearance of a village 
and people are coming in and breaking up the 
bunch grass, preparatory to growing crops. 
The town at present consists of a hotel under 
the management of R. Coleman, a general store 
in charge of J. Muellerleile, a hardware store 
conducted under canvas until lumber can be 
obtained, by John Stambaugh; a lumber yard 
and a livery stable in charge of R. WilHams and 
D. C. Crosby represents the real estate end of 
the enterprise. A petition has been in for some 
time for the establishment of a postoffice and it 
is expected that Quincy mail will be delivered 
from the railway within a month." 

In June, 1903, according to the returns of 
the county assessor, the census was 140, which 
entitled it to rank in company with Hartline, 
as the third town in the county in point of size, 
Waterville and Wilsoncreek only having larger 


This town is situated on the Great Northern 
railway, 123 miles west of Spokane. It has a 
bank, several warehouses, hotel and several 
general stores. It was first settled in September, 
1 90 1. Ephrata is beautifully located on a high 
flat, with ample drainage in three directions. 
\\'ith an excellent spring one-fourth of a mile 
from the railway station the town is abundant- 
ly supplied with clear, cold water. For many 
years stockmen used the site where now stands 
Ephrata as a camping ground in time of round- 
ups, on account of the water in that vicinity. 



At that period the place was known as Beasley 
Springs. The townsite was platted Jul)' lo, 
1901, by Jesse Cyrus. The following additions 
have been made: 

Cyrus' First Addition, September 9, 1901, 
by Jesse Cyrus. 

Cyrus' Second Addition, September 9, 1901, 
by Jesse Cyrus. 

Third Addition, May 31, 1902, by Jesse 

Although Ephrata did not gain much of 
a standing as a town until 1902, for several 
years before that period it had been quite a 
grain shipping point. Then the rush of settlers 
to the "south country" changed the condition 
of affairs in this neighborhood, and a town of 
considerable importance made its appearance 
as if by magic. The following relating to the 
early hislpry of the place is taken from the Big 
Bend Chief of July 18, 1902 : 

"Ephrata is one of the new towns to the 
west which betoken marked improvement. 
Eighteen month ago Uncle Jesse Cyrus, the 
'Farther of Ephrata,' was sleeping securely in 
his cabin, free from cares and worriments more 
common to neighbors in a village. But immi- 
gration came thick and fast to this neck of the 
Big Bend and last summer he found it was 
necessary to plat a town. Even then Mr. Cyrus 
was doubtful whether his tranquility was great- 
ly to be disturbed, wnth his stock, and located 
as he is, with a beautiful spring of water at his 
door, he had arranged to irrigate sufficient land 
to provide feed for his stock through 
the winter; had planted an orchard for 
his own use, and contracted to supply 
the railroad company with water. But 
the little plat of ground soon passed 
into the hands of tradesmen, and as if by magic 
a town sprung up with all its tributary evils 
and advantages. Uncle Jesse, although he had 
come to believe he would pass his days in com- 
parative solitude at the foot of the bunch grass 
hill, was not slow to get himself in line with 
the march of progress and some months ago he 

installed a system of water works by means of 
which he could serve the purest water in the 
second stories of the buildings in the village, 
and now in addition to his other duties he makes 
his monthly round and collects the rent." 

In June, 1903, the population of Ephrata, 
according to the returns of the assessor, was 
87. Since then these figures have been ma- 
teriallv increased. 

About six miles east of Wilsoncreek, on 
the Great Northern railway, and just within 
the boundaries of Douglas county, is located 
the pleasant little town of Krupp. Situated as 
it is in the valley of the beautiful stream known 
as Crab Creek, surrounded by most picturesque 
scenery, it presents a pleasing sight to one who 
has ascended the westerly divide and pauses 
to take a survey of the little town nestling in 
the valley below. Krupp is in the center of a 
grain and cattle country which guarantees for 
the future a good and increasing business. 
Here the first settler who ever came into Doug- 
las county located away back in 1871. 

Impressed with the idea that as the country 
filled up there must be a place where the sur- 
rounding settlers might market their products 
and purchase their supplies, Geo'rge Urquhart, 
who for many years had made his home on 
this spot, platted the town of Krupp July 14, 
1902. He gave it his earnest support in its 
development. The first business house in the 
new town was a general store erected in the 
summer of 1901 by F. A. Windgate. It was 
platted July 14, 1902, by George Uruquart. 
The population in June, 1903, as reported by 
the assessor was only 45, but the past year has 
witnessed a wonderful improvement. 

Five miles southeast of Waterville, on the 
Waterville-Coulee City stage road, is the little 
town of Douglas, a village of about 75 popula- 
tion. The business houses of this town com- 



prise a general store, a hardware and imple- 
ment store, a feedmill and two blacksmith 
shops. One church graces the place, of the 
German Lutheran faith. 

Douglas is one of the oldest towns in the 
county, and at one time occupied a position of 
importance in a political and commercial way. 
It was in 1884 that the site of Douglas was 
taken up as a place of residence by Ole Dale. 
In 1886 the townsite of Douglas was platted 
and the town entered the race for the county 
seat honors, and polled a number of votes. It 
is claimed that Douglas would have become the 
commercial center of the western Big Bend 
country and occupied the position now enjoyed 
by Waterville, had it not been for the over- 
confidence and nearsighted policy of the town- 
site proprietors. The first business enterprise 
in Douglas was a blacksmith shop instituted 
by Henry Thompson in the fall of 1885. In 
1887 a general store was opened by S. Barn- 
hart and the same year O. O. Wright put in a 
drug store, afterward for many years engaging 
in the general merchandise business. Follow- 
ing the county seat removal from Okanogan, 
and when that town had become but a memory, 
its place was taken by Douglas, and in 1887 it 
fell heir to the Okanogan postoffice. 

Douglas is situated at the intersection of 
the Ritzville and Spokane Falls road, and was 
the nearest route from Ellensburg to the Sal- 
mon River mines of the Okanogan country. 
The rush to those mines in 1887-88 made the 
little town of Douglas an important one as a 
stopping point. Sunday morning, October 11, 
1891, lire destroyed the general merchandise 
store of O. O. Wright. It was with great 
difficulty that the entire town was saved from 
destruction, owing to the prevailing heavy 
gale. The loss was about $4,000, insurance 
being carried for about one-half the loss. 


This Shakesperian hamlet is located on the 

Great Northern railway, eight miles west of 
Wilsoncreek. Of this village the Big Bend 
Empire of date of September 16, 1897, said: 

"J- C. Atwood, Leonard F. Spear and many 
other settlers upon the public lands in town- 
ship 22, north ranges 27, and 28 east, on the 
line of the Great Northern railway in Douglas 
county, Washington, have petitioned the 
Fourth Assistant Postmaster General for the 
establishment of a postoffice at Stratford sta- 
tion, to be known as Stratford, and for the ap- 
pointment of Swen Kerr, of that place as post- 
master. The nearest office at the present time 
is on the Great Northern railway at Wilson- 
creek, eight miles east of Stratford station. 
The only other postoffice in that section of the 
county is at Coulee City, twenty miles north, 
and there is no wagon road between Coulee City 
and Stratford station. 

"The petition states that owing to the 
rapid construction of the Co-operative Com- 
pany's irrigating ditch, and the consequent ir- 
rigation of the land there is certain to be a large 
community at Startford in the near future. 
Some of the signers of the petition live at a 
place known as Adrian, and these are compelled 
to travel sixteen miles for their mail. There 
is no wagon road, and they are obliged to follow 
the most convenient route along the railroad. 
For two months, this year, it is stated, these 
settlers could secure their mail at the Wilson- 
creek postoffice only by crossing the flooded 
streams on railroad bridges. For these reasons 
immediate action has been urged on the part of 
the postoffice department." 

William Stevens was the pioneer merchant 
of Stratford and he was alone until the sum- 
mer of 1902, when Young Brothers put in a 
store and lumber yard. J. T. Gollehon also 
established a lumber yard a few months before 
the Young Brothers. In 1903 Mr. Gollehon 
also built a hotel. Moore & Company are 
proprietors of a livery stable, blacksmith shop, 
flour and feed store and implement warehouse, 
all of which might be termed "diversified com- 



mercialism." A fine church has been erected 
and a number of dwehings completed. 

The town of Stratford was platted January 
17. 1903, by J. T. Young. 

Riverview Postoffice, or as it is more gener- 
ally called, Orondo, is a little town on the 
Columbia river, ten miles southwest of Water- 
ville. This is a landing for the steamers which 
ply the Columbia river and is Waterville's port 
of entry. Stages meet all boats and several 
trips a day are made between the river town 
and Waterville. At Orondo are a general store, 
a hotel and three grain warehouses. But the 
Orondo which enters more particularly into 
this history was the one a mile and a half above 
the present place, and which, at one period, 
was heavily boomed. 

The townsite of Orondo, "the town which 
held the key." was platted by J. B. Smith, June 
10, 1887. It was laid out along the river 
front. The streets were First, Second, Third 
and Fourth, and the avenues were Riverside, 
Orondo and Columbia. The first addition to 
Orondo was platted May 19, 1888, by Mr. 
Smith. The second addition, May 29, 1889, 
by the same party. The following is the copy 
of an advertisement which appeared in the Big 
Bend Empire February 16, 1888, showing that 
this Orondo was to be no common town : 

"Orondo has a boom in town lots and the 
era of building and industrial development has 
commenced to call that attention to her natural 
position and advantages that she is entitled to 
as the coming commercial and industrial em- 
porium of the Big Bend. A glance at the map 
of Washington Territory will convince the 
eagle eye of the business man that Orondo 
holds the key to the future of great magnitude. 
A history of the Big Bend cannot be written 
without Orondo unlocking her stores of wealth 
contained in the rolling water of the mighty 
Columbia river in her long journey from the 

Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. A line 
drawn eastward from Puget Sound, near the 
Sixth Standard Parallel, will pass almost 
directly through Seattle, Orondo, Davenport 
and Spokane Falls, the four depots of industry 
that stand at the gateways of Puget Sound, the 
Columbia river and the Rocky Mountains that 
by virtue of their natural positions will control 
the commerce and manufactures of Central 

"Orondo is located on the east bank of the 
Columbia river, about one and one-half miles 
below the confluence of the Entiat river with 
the same, and is within five miles of the great 
wheat fields of the Big Bend. Her gardens will 
produce peaches, grapes, tomatoes, apples, 
pears, sweet potatoes and peanuts in semi- 
tropical luxuriance. Her splendid water power 
is now being improved so that power will be 
furnished for a roller mill to grind the flour 
of the Big Bend and the new steamer can trans- 
port it to the Salmon River mines and the upper 
country. The majestic cedars of the upper 
Columbia and the aspiring pines and firs of 
the Columbia and its tributaries can be sawn 
into lumber and manufactured into windows, 
doors, tubs, pails, furniture, pen holders, 
matches, etc., etc., while the wool of the thou- 
sands of sheep that graze on the hills can be 
manufactured into fabrics to keep the people 

"The ore of the miner can be crushed and 
smelted and manufactured into implements of 
industry and the uses of man. It is con- 
templated to furnish water from the Columbia 
river to the citizens of Orondo to drink and 
irrigate their gardens. These are a few of the 
industrial fields open to practical men. Orondo 
was laid out in July, 1887, and already the 
proprietor has disposed of a half interest in 
the water power, and 1 50 town lots. A store has 
been running full blast for a few months, a 
hotel is to be built in the early spring and the 
water power is now being improved. A new 
steamer is to run from Rock Island to near the 


Salmon mines in the spring. Power and lots 
will be rented or sold for industrial and other 
purposes. For further information call on or 
write to J. B. Smith, Orondo, Badger Post- 
office, Douglas county, Washington Territor}^." 

A later advertisement in the Empire stated 
that "a warehouse, newspaper, flouring mill, 
tannery and blacksmith shop were to be added 
to her store." 

The altitude of Orondo, being only 665 feet 
above the ocean, the climate is grand and the 
productions almost semi-tropical — the growing 
of tobacco, sweet potatoes and peanuts has been 
fully tested with success, and the plum, prune, 
apricot, pear, cherry, grape, peach and apple 
mature to perfection without irrigation. 

In 1899 a rival town was started at what 
was known as McMillan's Landing, and called 
Riverview. A correspondent in the Empire of 
January 25, 1900, facetiously wrote that "the 
booming new town of Riverview has caught 
up with Orondo — has three inhabitants and two 
vacant buildings." 


- About all that can be said of this place is 
embraced in the following: The postofiice was 
established in 1901. By order of the depart- 
ment it was remo\'ed from Orondo and the 
name changed. J. H. Mason is postmaster. 


All towns which come into existence do not 
succeed in becoming the metropolis which their 
sanguine promoters plan. Some, in fact, are 
very short lived, but their brief careers often 
contain a modicum of history. Such a place 
was Port Columbia. July 23, 1891, the Big 
Bend Empire said : 

"A company styling itself the Port Colum- 
bia Townsite & Land Company has recently 
■been organized. Its capital stock is $25,000, all 
of which is taken. It officers are H. W. Bonne, 
president ; Walter Gerson, secretary ; J. P. Car- 

vette, treasurer. These gentlemen are from 
Spokane. Frank R. Loucks, of Waterville, is 
general manager. The directors are H. W. 
Bonne, Walton Gerson, and I. W. Matthews, 
the latter also of Waterville. This company 
has purchased 400 acres of land on the banks 
of the Columbia river, about 40 miles from 
Waterville, and propose to there start a town 
to be called Port Columbia. The site chosen 
is opposite the mouth of the Okanogan river, on 
a long stretch of the south side of the Colum- 
bia river basin. They have put over $8,000 in 
cash into the enterprise and evidently mean 
businenss. Eighty acres is to be platted and 
cut up into business lots, the plat to be filed 
this week and the property put on the market 
at once. The company claims they have re- 
served eight blocks for a railroad at the request 
of the railroad officials ; that they will build a 
$3,000 hotel in about a month; that Port 
Columbia will be the Columbia river terminus 
for the steamboat now being built by Birch 
Brothers, for Okanogan river service ; that they 
will build a road to Central Ferry and also put 
in a propeller ferry at the town landing, and 
lastly that they have building stone directly 
south of the proposed townsite. They say 
further that that portion of their land which 
abutts the river is subirrigated, and as fine land 
as there is in the world." 

Port Columbia was platted July 24, 1891, 
by H. W. Bonne, Walter Gerson and I. W. 
Matthews, trustees Port Columbia Townsite & 
Land Company. Columbia Park Addition was 
platted December 28, 1891, by Ella Manntell, 
and Mantell's Riverside Addition, by Ella Man- 
tell, the same date. 


Adrian is fifteen miles west of Wilsoncreek, 
on the line of the Great Northern railway, the 
junction of the Great Northern and the Adrian- 
Coulee City cut-off. It is simply a station con- 
taining a few railroad buildings. 



Bonita is a new postoffice in the northern 
part of the county. 

Hammond is another new office and flag 
station across the Cohimbia river from Rock 

Pittsburg postoffice has recently been estab- 
lished in the southern part of the county, across 
the line from Lind, Adams county. Mr. Peters 
is postmaster. 

Barry Postoffice is on the Columbia river 
in the northwestern portion of the county, 65 
miles northeast of Waterville, and 35 miles 
northwest of \\'ilbur, which is its shipping 
point. It has one general store. 

Brays is a postoffice at a landing on the 
Columbia river, 12 miles northwest of Water- 
ville. It is a grain shipping point. 

Bright is a country postoffice between 
Grand and Moses Coulees, 25 miles southeast 
of Waterville, and 17 miles north of Ephrata. 

Dye Postoffice is 38 miles northeast of 
Waterville, and 8 miles west of Bridgeport. 
There are many other postoffices scattered 
throughout the county, in fact, Douglas county 

is very conveniently supplied with postal fa- 

Rock Island is a flag station on the Great 
Northern railway, where it crosses the Co- 
lumbia river eleven miles southeast of Wenat- 
chee. In 1892-3 Rock Island was a town of 
considerable importance and for a time sup- 
ported several stores and other enterprises. 
For a few weeks a newspaper was published 
at this point. These lively times in Rock Isl- 
and's history were due to the building of the 
railroad and the bridge across the Columbia 
river. Prior to the construction of the bridge 
the trains were ferried across the river by a 
steamer, the Nixon. In the spring of 1893 the 
mammoth bridge was completed and the first 
train crossed on Thursday, May 2, of that year. 
This event marked the downfall of the town of 
Rock Island. The laborers who had been em- 
ployed at this point moved away and the busi- 
ness houses were discontinued. J. E. Keane 
was the founder and proprietor of the once 
flourishing town. 



Douglas is exclusively an agricultural— it 
might be said — a wheat county. Geograph- 
ically it is located nearly in the center of the 
state of Washington. The greater portion of 
it consists of high, rolling prairie, 2,800 feet 
above the sea level. With the exception of the 
Columbia Guide Meridian which forms its 
eastern boundary between Lincoln and Adams 
counties, it is circumscribed by the Columbia 
river on the north, west and extreme southern 
portions. It lies in the "bight" of the Big 
Bend, Okanogan county being on the north, 
Chelan and Kittitas on the west, and Yakima 

county on the south. Its agricultural industries 
embrace general farming and stock', raising. 
The soil, a volcanic ash, is pronounced by ex- 
perts the most fertile and durable soil known 
to geologists. Like many portions of Cali- 
fornia Douglas county possesses two distinct 
climates; first, that of a high, rolling plateau, 
which is temperate and adapted to all agricul- 
tural pursuits, with abundance of moisture for 
the growth and maturity of crops. , No irri- 
gation is required. It is but recently that a 
gentleman from Illinois observed with marked 
astonishment, "This is the first countrv I ever 


heard of where one could raise a full crop of 
wheat without a drop of rain." This has been 
done in Douglas county, but the fact by no 
means implies that it is a rainless climate. Far 
from it. Hot winds, such as sweep the corn 
plains of Nebraska, Kansas and portions of 
Iowa never occur. The summers are not so 
warm nor the winters so cold as in the same 
latitude in the Mississippi valley. Four months 
is the average length of the winters, which are 
accompanied by very little extreme' cold 
weather, the mercury seldom dropping below 
zero_, usually registering only a few degrees 
below freezing. In the climate of the plateau 
small fruits, currents, raspberries, gooseberries 
and strawberries, and hardy varieties of large 
fruit, apples, pears, prunes, apricots and cher- 
ries are grown, likewise a great variety of 
"garden truck." 

Quite different is the climate of the Colum- 
bia valley, which forms a semi-circle more than 
half way around Douglas county. This is a 
semitropical climate. The soil is light and 
sandy, producing the finest of all varieties of 
fruit, with irrigation, and immense crops of 
alfalfa hay. All conditions considered the cli- 
mate of the Columbia valley is, probably, un- 
excelled in the world. Among the numerous 
varieties of fruit grown on the Columbia river 
are peaches, prunes, pears, plums, apricots, and 
all kinds of figs can be cultivated. Nearly all 
varieties of farm products are successfully 
grown in this country in large quantities. Po- 
tatoes and other root crops are brought to per- 
fection and with but little work, comparatively. 
The seed of potatoes is plowed in and the crop 
plowed out, with, perhaps, one harrowing dur- 
ing the season. So far potato bugs and other 
insects detrimental to crops have not made 
their appearance. 

The following extract is from a paper read 
by Mr. A. L. Rogers before the State Immi- 
gration Convention held at Seattle, January 
13, 1896: 

"Topographically and geologically consid- 

ered Douglas county is a region of much inter- 
est. The northern part is a high, rolling 
plateau of fertile prairie land, broken here and 
there by canyons of greater or less size, the 
approaches of which are often covered with 
scattering timber, convenient to the settlers on 
the adjoining prairie. Many springs of the 
purest water abound in these localities, and the 
rough land in the immediate vicinities affords 
excellent pasturage for numerous bands of cat- 
tle and horses. If the walls of these canyons 
are perpendicular, as frequently happens, they 
are called coulees. 

"The southern half of the county dift'ers 
much from the portion described above. Con- 
siderably lower in altitude it has a warmer 
climate, the soil is a sandy loam and possesses 
many of the characteristics of the bench lands 
of the Columbia, so prolific in fruit growing. 
There can be no doubt that with proper irri- 
gation facilities for the southern part of the 
county it will become one of the greatest fruit 
producing regions in the world. To date no- 
thing has been done in this direction, and the 
country is utilized as a great winter range for 
horses and cattle." 

Writing September 22, 1903, the editor of 
the Lincoln County Times said : 

"A Times representative recently had occa- 
sion to make a trip into Douglas county, beyond 
Coulee City, where the stream of new settlers 
has been pouring for the last two years. A 
remarkable and rapid transformation is being 
wrought in that magnificent farming country, 
extending from Grand Coulee to the Colum- 
bia river on the north and west. Hundreds of 
new settlers have located there in the last 
eighteen months — rriany of them during the 
past six months. Those who have not had oc- 
casion to travel over the county mentioned have 
little idea of its extent and productiveness or 
its prospective value. The government land 
has been exhausted, and the work of convert- 
ing the prairie into wheat fields is in progress 
on almost every quarter section. Here and 



there may be found old settlers who have lived 
there three, eight, ten or twelve yars, who have 
well improved farms and who are in comfort- 
able circumstances, but the majority of set- 
tlers are new comers who have little or no 
means, but who are getting their places in shape 
to become profitable. The land in most places 
lies better than it does here in Lincoln county, 
and when well improved will be fertile and in- 
viting as well as a very attractive wheat section. 
There are two reasons why that country is not 
already under as high a state of cultivation as 
any other part of eastern Washington : One is 
its comparative isolation, and the other is the 
dreary aspect that confronts the traveler when 
he drops off the train at Coulee City and looks 
at the sand, sage brush and rocks over which 
the road winds before reaching the top of the 
hill, three or four miles beyond, where the good 
lands again appear. 

"The prospect of early railroad building 
has filled the country up with settlers, however, 
and when connected by rail with the markets 
of the world it will be a delightful country in 
Avhich to live. It broad slopes fall away gently 
and even, and away to the west rise the snow- 
capped peaks of the Cascades, and below lie the 
forest clad foothills, sloping downward. 
Nearer, and to the southwest. Badger Moun- 
tain, with its scattered woods, appears in view, 
and the steep cliffs near Chelan, and also the 
chain of timbered hills beyond the Columbia, 
to the north, add interest and charm to the 
scene. A large city will spring up somewhere 
between these two Coulees with the building of 
the first road across the country, in the near 
future. The country from Grand Coulee to the 
Columbia river includes a great many town- 
ships of fertile land that will quickly be reduced 
to a high state of cultivation, and we venture 
the assertion that one or two large towns will 
spring up within a year after the survey for a 
railroad has been definitely located. 

"The Walla Walla country had its bonm 
da\-s : later the Palouse had its turn ; then Lin- 

coln county had its boom with the building of 
the Central Washington railroad, but the last, 
and perhaps the biggest boom of them all will 
occur in Douglas county when the first railroad 
builds across from Coulee City to the river, 
which will, doubtless, be inside of two years. 
One, if not two roads, will build across, and 
Douglas county, one of the best of the great 
agricultural counties of eastern Washington, 
will fill up with settlers ; owing to its isolation 
it will be the objective point of a great army of 
homeseekers who will overrun it the moment 
railroad building begins." 

As has been noted, Douglas county is an 
extensive open prairie country with a gently 
rolling surface, almost every acre of which is 
susceptible of a high state of cultivation. A 
most peculiar feature of this favored county is 
the two great Coulees, Grand and Moses. They 
are vast gorges extending north and south. 
Evidently at one period, aeons ago, they were 
beds of majestic rivers, possibly one of them 
being the old basin of the Columbia. The alti- 
tude of this region is about 2,800 feet, or 2,200 
feet above the valley of the Columbia river. 
Compared with Grand, Moses Coulee is an 
infant. Still, it stretches for many~ miles and 
can be crossed only at a few points, and pre- 
sents rugged outlines only a small degree less 
striking than those so conspicuous in Grand 
Coulee. The word Coulee is taken from the 
French, Coulcr, meaning to flow. It was with 
this thought in mind that the name was, evi- 
dently, applied to these stupendous gorges. 
Concerning these Coulees the report of the 
W^ashington Geological Survey says : 

"In some parts of the Columbia plain, nota- 
bly within the Big Bend of the Columbia river, 
the country is much cut up by old river courses, 
now wholly abandoned by streams, and known 
locally as Coulees. Of these Moses and Grand 
Coulees are good types. The Coulees are often 
500 or 600 feet in depth, with precipitous walls, 
and represent the course of streams which have 
now sousrht other channels, or which ha\-e with- 



ered away because of a decrease in the amount 
of rainfall. Each Coulee now has within it 
usually a chain of small alkali lakes." 

The Grand Coulee is justly entitled to the 
name. When one stands in the center of this 
great fissure and gazes on the towering walls, 
from 1,000 to 1,500 feet high, and notes the 
different strata of each, he can distinctly see 
that at one time they were joined. Although 
the great depression extending from the Co- 
lumbia river in the northeastern part of Doug- 
las county to the Columbia river in the south- 
western part of the county is frequently men- 
tioned as Grand Coulee, still it is also stated 
that Grand Coulee proper commences at Coulee 
City and runs in a northeasterly direction to the 
Columbia river, the river running through the 
gorge 400 feet below the bottom of the Coulee. 
While the Coulee in itself is a whole panorama 
of natural wonders, it has its special features, 
one being Steamboat Rock. This gigantic 
basaltic mass stands in the center of the Coulee 
and in area covers about 600 acres. Here the 
earth, when cooling, created two great fissures, 
instead of one, and left a formation that would 
strike a nautical eye with its resemblance to 
great steamboats. West of Steamboat Rock 
is a canyon leading from the plateau above, 
known as Hall's. Here would be a study for a 
Humboldt or a Darwin. On one side of the 
canyon is the cinder like basalt ; on the other a 
wall of the purest white granite. How this 
beautiful deposit of the purest of granite passed 
unscathed when within less than 100 yards its 
surroundings were a seething mass is a problem 
worthy of the attention of our greatest natural- 

Blue Lake Coulee, a continuance of Grand 
Coulee, to the southwest, is worthy of a visit by 
any one who wishes a treat in gazing on a 
wild, weird piece of scenery, accentuated by 
some lakes of unknown depth. Blue Lake 
Coulee is another depression of over 400 feet 
below the Grand Coulee, and is surrounded by 
a basaltic rock formation, torn and rent into 

fantastic shapes. The lakes are three in num- 
ber and extend from Coulee City to within 
two miles of the Great Northern railroad. The 
most clever word painter will fail to do justice 
to these surroundings. They must be seen to 
he appreciated. 

Writing of the Grand Coulee of Washing- 
ton, Harry Jefferson Brown says : 

"The Grand Coulee is a huge crack in the 
earth, and it is safe to say that it's the biggest 
thing of its kind in nature. It starts at the 
Columbia river where Lincoln, Douglas and 
Okanogan counties join, and runs in a double 
curve entirely through the length of Douglas 
county to the Columbia again, at the head of 
Priest Rapids. And Douglas, you will remem- 
ber, is about the biggest county in Washington. 
One hundred miles is an estimate well within 
the limit of the length of this freak of nature. 
The walls average twelve hundred feet high in 
the north half, from Coulee City to the Colum- 
bia. These, at least, are the figures given by 
those who live there. They look to be all of 
that height. It is claimed, too, that the lower 
half of the Grand Coulee is not so deep or wide. 
This sketch concerns the upper, or north half, 
only, for this alone has the writer seen. But 
it was enough. 

"Whatever desire for the grand in nature 
one may have is here amply filled. No one 
could walk between these towering walls or 
peer down from their dizzy heights without 
feeling something of awe for the greatness 
that made them. In its way the Grand Coulee 
is more wonderful and awe inspiring than 
mountain or cavern. Chiefly, perhaps, because 
of its mysterious origin. Mankind is afraid of 
the unknown and unexplainable. You approach 
a mountain by degrees. You see it afar off and 
you approach it generally all too slow. You are 
prepared for the sight, and you anticipate. 
And lucky for you if you are not disappointed 
in size and grandeur, of cliff and canyon by 
that very anticipation. Witness, Niagara. So 
with a great cave. You know somewhat of it 



before you enter. You have already an idea 
of the nature and scenery of a cavern. Some 
of the things you see are the expected. And 
then again it unfolds itself to view only by 
degrees. You see but the part illuminated by 
your candle — pardon me — electric light. But 
you meet the Coulee under quite dif- 
ferent circumstances. It is evening and 
you are on the prairie among the bunch grass 
and sage brush. Perhaps you are peering about 
for a jackrabbit or the wily coyote. You 
saunter along, noting the rolling of the plains 
and marking a few low ridges of basaltic rock 
here and there, and guessing, perhaps, at their 
distances in the deceptive atmosphere. You 
ascend a gently sloping 'rise' whose top has 
cut the horizon, shutting out the view beyond. 
As you near the top of the 'rise' you observe 
a low line of clifflike rocks ahead, that may 
be a mile away and may be ten, and that un- 
accountably grows taller as you walk, increas- 
ing in size so rapidly that you suspect the effects 
of a mirage. This suspicion brings with it a 
sense of relief, which, however, is very short- 
lived, for there at your feet is the edge of the 
Coulee wall, the beginning of a sheer drop of 
a quarter of a mile. 

"Another .step or two and you would be 
over. So suddenly have you come upon the 
precipice that you have no time for fear. You 
are only startled. If your nerves are good they 
will steady themselves presently and you may 
advance, putting your foot part way over the 
very edge and stopping, lool<: down. How- 
ever, I don't think you will do this. You will 
be too busy wondering how it all happened. 
Where had this immense canyon been hiding 
that you did not see it sooner ? You didn't even 
suspect its existence. So intent were you 
watching the opposite wall that you supposed 
was a low line of cliffs of uncertain distance 
that you looked clear across the chasm and did 
not distinguish 'empty space and nothingness' 
from tlie surrounding prairie. And the shad- 
ows of evening helped in the deceiving. While 

you are figuring all this out you have made 
another startling discovery. The bottom of 
this huge crack in the earth is inhabited. Away 
down — down so far that homesteads look like 
squares on a chess board — and houses, not 
shacks, mind you, and 'ten-by-ten-shanties,' but 
homes, two stories with attic, look like toy 
blocks, you discover another world; a whole 
community underground. They are as com- 
pletely cut off, so far as you can see, from the 
upper earth as Symme's Hole was supposed to 
be in the famous Symme's theory of the con- 
centric circle formation of the earth. Double 
teams hauling wheat in trail wagon trains look 
like beetles crawling along earth-worn tracks. 
Individuals you can scarcely discern. What 
seems but a small potato patch proves to be a 
large orchard when examined with the glass. 
"You note the opposite wall. It does not 
seem far away if you forget for a moment what 
you have seen below. Naturally you pick up 
a stone and essay to throw it — well, perhaps not 
entirely across, but at least some distance out, 
enough to give an intelligent idea of how far 
away the other side of the Coulee is. You 
throw your best and out goes the stone. Now 
you are going to be surprised some more. That 
stone, seemingly contrary to all the laws of 
nature, comes back to you in a graceful curve 
and passes whizzing apparently under your feet 
into what must, as you suppose, be a hollowed 
part of the wall. Instinctively you lean for- 
ward to see what becomes of the stone and to 
learn why it acted so queerly — and you are 
brought suddenly face to face with the fact that 
you are leaning over 1,200 feet of empty space. 
It does not take long for a realization of this 
to soak into you. You remember then how 
soon that stone began to whiz. You have 
looked the precipice in the eye and it was not 
hollow but sheer. You know then that those 
laws and forces of nature are immutable and 
.that it was your own malinterpretation of ap- 
pearances that made things look so queer' 
And when vou have sat down at a safe distance 



from the brink to do a little pondering, from 
away across the Coulee you catch a faint echo of 
the fall of the stone you threw. That wall was 
all of three miles away and you were foolish 
enough to attempt to measure the Coulee with 
a little of man's strength exerted on a small 

stone hurled across . But you laugh at 

the matter and dismiss the feeling of smallness 
that has crept over you, supplying its place with 
a gratifying sense of discovery. Here was 
something new — and found by yourself. By 
accident, "tis true, but none the less your very 
own discovery. 

"Therefore there is a desire to know more, 
to look farther, to go down there into the bow- 
els of the earth and learn what manner of peo- 
ple there make their homes. So follow along 
the brink and look for a place of descent. Here 
is an old trail worn deep with much travel, 
though now it is unused. Speculation as to 
why this disuse is set at rest very soon when a 
barbed wire fence is found to cross at right 
angles and corner on the very edge of the wall, 
large stones being used to fix the posts upright. 
Those who know will tell you that this is the 
old Indian trail, and has been used for time out 
of mind by the red men in his journeys north 
and south. Now it is hopelessly cut up from all 
practical use by the advent of the homesteader 
and his ever present and necessary barbed wire 
fence. The Bell trail is the only means of de- 
scent in 40 miles on the west side, or from 
Coulee City to the Columbia. That is, the only 
practicable means. You can jump off at any 
point you please, but your respected remains 
would not be worth the picking up. There are 
other ways of getting down, it is said, but the 
men of the plains who ride a cayuse once and 
then call it a 'plumb broke lioss,' be it ever such 
a bucker, are apt to take the same liberal \iew 
of what is a safe trail down the Coulee wall. 
The Bell trail is so called from Frank Bell's 
ranch, one of the oldest and best on the west 
wall. You can not see much of this descent at 
any one time. A steep incline 18 inches o» so 

wide starts at the edge of the wall, and disap- 
pears down around some jagged, jutting rocks 
a few feet below. This much is all you will 
ever see of the trail. And perhaps 'tis well that 
this is so — well for the nerves and your reputa- 
tion as a man of courage. If you are this, and 
a little foolhardy besides, you will venture 
down. But you will be prudent and humane 
enough to leave your horse should you be rid- 
ing, staked above on the prairie. 

"The descent is a series of slides, of wild 
scrambles to reach the nearest mass of ragged 
rock below; a clambering around abutments, 
and a pressing flat to the face of the wall, with 
one fearful, fleeting glimpse of theivorld below, 
looking now down farther than ever. You 
should by this time be enjoying the scenery 
above, below and around abovit. The pleasure 
of this comes later, when you have time to re- 
call it, but just now every faculty is put to 
other and, mayhap, better use in making the 
descent safely. At no time do you feel secure. 
Every foot of the way is attended with a slip, 
a slide or an arresting lurch against one of the 
numerous rocks that line the trail. And yet 
pack-horses, with the jump of the bunch grass 
in them still, are led up and down here, even in 
the night and winter time at that. You must 
know that this allusion to bunch grass is made 
advisedly. There are men who have lived 
among it all their lives who will tell you that 
bunch grass has the unaccountable quality of 
imparting 'jump' to the horse that grazes it. 
Put. they will say, the good, staid, old reliable 
carriage horse on a summer's grazing of bunch 
grass and the owner won't know it again. 
Neither will he want to renew acquaintance. 
For the bunch grass has put the jump in him. 
. Only those westerners say 'buck' when they 
want to express it. And this is not to be ex- 
plained, though it may serve to throw some 
light on the formation of western character. 

"Howbeit, cattle are also driven up and 
down on occasions. To be sure, there are 
stories of some of the animals slipping and roll- 



ing to their death. The wonder is, not that 
some were killed, but that any made the trip 
in safety. Two-thirds of the way down the 
Bell trail there is an amphitheatre like forma- 
tion of the wall that has remarkable acoustic 
qualities. The echo here is fine. A little ex- 
perimenting will find the foci of sound. The 
fine effects to be obtained are well worth the 
trouble, the fatigue and the danger of the trip." 

Continuing his graphic description of this 
wonderful natural phenomenon in Douglas 
County, Mr. Brown says : 

"There is a w-agon road from Coulee City 
to the Columbia river that is forty miles long 
and is as level as a floor. When it reaches the 
river it finds itself 300 feet above the water and 
1 ,000 feet below the general level of the coun- 
try. This road alters the Grand Coulee, where 
the east wall is lacking, and winds its way in 
a general northeast direction through the can- 
yon to a point near the Columbia, where it is 
left literally 'up in the air.' The traveler must 
either descend to water level or climb to the 
surface of the ground. By this road those who 
live in the bottom of the Coulee find their way 
to the railroad at Coulee City, to the river at 
Barry, or to the justly celebrated Ridge country 
that lies between the Central Washington rail- 
road and the Columbia whose postoffices are 
Tipso, Lincoln, Hasseltine, Sherman, Layton 
and Clark. A word here about this ridge may 
not be amiss. The chief towns and shipping 
points for this part of the Big Bend country 
are Almira, Hartline, Govan, Wilbur, and 
Creston, on the Central Washington branch 
of the Northern Pacific. These are flourishing 
towns because of the fine wheat producing 
country back of them. The future of this por- 
tion of the Big Bend, which is in the north- 
west quarter of Lincoln, and the northeast 
corner of Douglas county, is easy to predict. 
There is no valid reason why towns to compare 
favorably wath Almira or Wilbur should not 
spring up along the line of any competing 
common carrier of rapid transit ready to convey 

the produce of this country to the northwest 
coast or to Spokane and the east. Let the 
freight trains and the steamboats come and the 
'Ridge' will be there with the goods. Let him 
who doubts this stand on one of the highest 
points of this ridge near the postoffice of Tipso 
in the spring or in the harvest time, and these 
doubts will be dispelled. Let him in the spring 
attempt to measure with his eye the vastness of 
the billowy green carpet ; let him in the har- 
vest time attempt to count the number of 
threshing machines at work in the wheat, the 
oats and the barley. Let him reckon up all he 
can hear, all he can see and all he can guess at. 
He will not guess wrong, guided by the smoke, 
and steam and dust. * * *. 

"Harking back to the Coulee road, a trip 
along it will disclose the bottom of the Grand 
Coulee, from end to end of the 40-mile section 
from Coulee City to the Columbia, covered with 
well tilled and productive farms. Many of 
these are irrigated and are object lessons show- 
ing w-hat the once despised 'ashes' that com- 
pose the lava soil will do when it comes into 
seasonable contact with water. 

"The first comers naturally chose out for 
settlement the land where water was found on 
the surface, and the appearance of their farms 
today amplyi justifies their choice. It is true 
that irrigation is not now conducted in the Cou- 
lee on anything like a large scale. That will 
come when the engineering problem presented 
by the condition found is solved, and water is 
brought in, either from the Spokane or the 
Columbia. But just now the numerous large 
springs scattered over the Coulee bottom give 
water copious enough in flow to supply or- 
chards and gardens, and in some instances, 
even hay and wheat fields. It is true, also, that 
some of the Coulee bottom has been taken up 
under the desert claim law and is now held un- 
der the conditions laid down by that law. But 
this does not prove anything against the fertil- 
ity of the coulee bottom — the which you can 
easily verify by undertaking to buy a farm- 




there. And again, it is true that many poor 
houses are found, particularly in the northern 
end. These are the 'shacks' of the bachelor 
homesteader, who is a comparatively late 
comer. What will these same shacks grow to 
in a short time? It may be taken for granted 
tJiat every bachelor in the coulee — and for that 
matter in the whole of the Big Bend — looks 
forward to a cosy, comfortable home, and a 
'queen of the fireside' with whom to patrioti- 
cally carry out the injunction of the president in 
whom is the virility of the west, and see to it 
that this nation does not decay for lack of na- 
tive citizens, and incidentally, old age. And 
this is the present bachelor's Ultima Thule, 
and is as it should be. Only, he goes a step 
farther, and proposes that his future happy 
state will also be a prosperous one. 

"And so he goes literally into the bowels of 
the earth, makes claim there to the dead ashes 
of an extinct volcano, strikes for living waters 
— and, by the way, finds tliem-r— and makes the 
desert to grow green with young, vigorous life. 
He builds his home, or the beginning thereof, 
near to running water, or a likely place to dig 
for it. He keeps away from the crumbling 
coulee wall, for this precaution is necessary 
from the nature of the rock, which disinteg- 
rates quickly under the action of heat, cold, 
sun, wind and rain, and is continually falling 
in small fragments. Occasionally — which 
means that an old residenter can cite a few in- 
stances — a huge chunk comes hurling down to 
the base of the wall, and the homesteader is 
grateful to exclaim, 'Never touched me!' As 
you ride through the chasm you can hear the 
constant drip, as it were, of the stone, and the 
effect of the echoes from wall to wall is very 
similar to the reverberations of drip water in 
a great cave. Similarly, too, these sounds, 
perhaps because peculiar to so strange a place, 
one always associates in memory with any act 
or phase of the coulee. It is the same with all 
other sounds there. They take on a strange- 
ness of their own, and all those evidences of 

life, the lowing of cattle, the call of wild fowl,, 
the shout of men, the throb of threshing ma- 
chines assume a weird fantastic quality entire- 
ly in keeping with their apparently unnatural 
surroundings. It is impossible to locate any 
sound. It is curious to watch a man, for in- 
stance nailing boards on a barn and at some dis- 
tance from you. The sounds of the hammer 
will come any direction other than the barn, 
and they will be multiplied to your mystifica- 

"These are some of the things that leave 
ineffaceable impressions with the traveler in 
the coulee. It is an ideal place to experience 
that auricular illusion caused by a dying echo. 
A shot, say from a rifle, echoes and re-echoes, 
and seems to travel miles away from up the 
coulee, zigzagging from wall to wall until it 
gets so far away you can't hear it. You can 
follow it in imagination until it goes out the 
other end. This is your impression, and it must 
be confessed 'tis a strong one and hard to shake 
off. The coulee walls are, of course, lava. 
You can plainly see on their thousand foot 
depth of face, how thick were the successive 
flows of molten volcanic rock and how many. 
How long ago the first of these flows occurred 
is for geology to say. What time elapsed be- 
tween each successive flow is a question belong- 
ing to geology, also. What . made this gap 
gigantic in the earth, anyhow, is a question 
too big to discuss here. The coloring of the 
walls is something worth going a long journey 
to see. Not that the work itself is anything 
but black. That is the natural color, if color 
it can be called, of basaltic lava. It is the moss, 
the lichens, the weather stains, the sage brush, 
the wild currants, the grease wood, the small 
pines, firs and mountain ash. covering the whole 
face of the coulee wall and growing in every 
crack and crevice, that give the color. Modi- 
fied, all. by distance and the rarity and purity 
of the air. Glorious color it is, blended in all 
hues, of all shades and gradations. Contrasts 
and harmonies there are. Contrasts as gor- 



geolis and glaring as the headgear of the south- 
ern negro woman. Harmonies as soothing to 
the eye as any caught and fixed upon perishable 
canvas. Here be 'atmosphere' for the artistic 
in plenty and 'breadth' in unlimited quantities. 
Though the painted desert of Nevada and New 
Mexico may be beyond compare, yet here are 
found fragments of it, caught, enclosed, ready 
framed between walls more ornamental than 
any moulding of plaster of paris and wood, 
waiting to be examined, analyzed and admired, 
seen, known and loved." 

Another of Nature's many wonders in 
Douglas county is Steamboat Rock, in the 
Grand Coulee. There are those, perhaps, fa- 
miliar with the rock formations of the south- 
west, particularly in New Mexico, who may be 
disposed to sneer at this massive and pictur- 
esque natural statuary. But all this will be 
before thev have visited Steamboat Rock and 
grasped the full significance of its gigantic 
proportions. After that their respect will have 
been magnified. Steamboat Rock is enormous. 
So extensive are its proportions that it has 
found a place on the map of the state of Wash- 
ington. And its size inspires thoughts com- 
mensurate with the size of the subject. It 
stand out boldly, alone, isolated, sharply de- 
fined against the uncanny scenery with which 
it is surrounded, split, hewn off from the ad- 
joining county, whose edge you can see as a 
wail reaching up 1.200 feet. Steamboat Rock 
is several miles long and a number of thousand 
feet in width. Although destitute of military 
masts and turrets, the rock is moulded into an 
exceedingly life-like representation of a huge 
battleship from stem to stern. The sides are 
perpendicular ; the rams at bow and stern incline 
at an angle of 45 degrees; they have been 
formed by fallen fragments of disintegrated 
lava. The lines of demarcation have left main 
decks, spar decks and gun decks, caused by 
different flows of lava. Of superstructure 
there is no trace; nothing but the huge, frown- 
ing hull. And on the upper deck of this mon- 

ster rock is a peaceful farm — a hanging garden 
— hundreds of acres in extent. The soil is the 
same as that of the prairie land throughout 
Douglas county. There is a good road leading 
up to this aerial ranch from the bottom of the 
coulee; the ship's companionway, as it were. 

Steamboat Rock is productive of a strange 
optical illusion. There are distant mountain 
peaks overcapping the rock, and glimpses of 
them may be caught as you attempt to walk 
rapidly along the sides of the sculptured fabric ; 
but the faster you walk the more rapidly ap- 
pears this stone ship to move. Of course this 
is a case of "misplaced optics," but the illusion 
is perfect. One can scarcely compel himself 
to believe that the stone ship is really anchored 
at the bottom of Grand Coulee. And there are 
many farms nestling at its base. From a dis- 
tance the rock appears to be surrounded by 
water. This illusion is more pronounced if 
you approach it by way of the Bell Trail down 
into the coulee.. It is caused by alkali lakes, 
destitute of water, but dazzling, snow-white 
beds of soda. During the winter season they 
become lakes of real water. However, com- 
pared to the wide extent of fertile, arable land, 
these alkali "blight spots" are insignificant. 

In the marshy sedges of the real lakes, and 
there are se\eral in the coulee, ducks, brant, 
swans, and cranes come in flocks of thousands. 
Especially true is this of Devil's Lake, called 
by some Tule Lake. In hunting these birds a 
retriever is absolutel}- necessary. To shoot 
winged game from the coulee walls is a piece of 
inanity. It may be rare sport to see the wound- 
ed bird drop a thousand feet into the boson of 
the earth, but it is decidedly unprofitable. 
Neither man nor dog can retrieve it; it might 
as well have gone a mile up into the hea\'ens. 
Of the far famed Pilot Rock, one more of 
Douglas county's geological freaks, Mr. Harry 
Jefferson Brown writes : 

"Pilot Rock, Washington, stands on the 
west wall of the Grand Coulee, eight miles 
from Coulee City, Douglas county, and is the 



finger post marking- the gateway to the Big 
Bend country and pointing the way to the fer- 
tile plains lying within the embrace of the 
greatest river of the great northwest. Long 
before you get into the Big Bend proper, and 
while 3'ou are puzzling out the intricacies of the 
scab rock country beyond Davenport, you will 
see that rock silhouetted against the horizon, 
and you will know that it stands on the only 
spot where it is practicable to cross the Grand 
Coulee, at any point within a length of sixty 
miles, with a wagon. And if you are a wise 
man you will know that this is the point you 
should aim for, since beyond lies the land for 
the homemaker. Later you will see that rock 
outlined against the snowy summits of the Cas- 
cade mountains, with Glacier peak glistening 
like a day star over Lake Chelan. 

"But this is only when you have climbed 
the long hill to Pilot Rock from Coulee city 
that's in the bottom of the Grand Coulee. The 
climb is made for eight miles in an involved 
series of loops, slants and switchboards, Hay- 
stack Rock, the old settlers call it. Likely they, 
being from the east, made the same mistake as 
the tenderfoot did lately, who riding through 
the Big Bend, remarked on the quantity of hay 
they raised in that country and the hug'e stacks 
they made. 

" 'Where ?' said the guide. 

" 'Why, right over there in that field,' said 
the tenderfoot, pointing to Haystack, or Pilot 

" 'Them's rocks,' said the guide senten- 

"But nothing would satisfy that tenderfoot 
but a personal in\estigation, and nothing would 
do but that he should go 'right over there,' 
which proved to be a three mile hike, and stand 
and gaze before a grim 60 feet of lava that, 
pilot to the Inland Empire as it was, yet bore 
an exact resemblance to the weather blackened 
haystacks of the Mississippi and Ohio valleys. 
Great indeed was this tenderfoot's surprise 
and warm his imagination when he was shown 

the true 'wheat hay' of the land, all bright, 
'green and gold.' 

" 'I never saw the like before,' said the 
tenderfoot. And he hadn't. 

" 'How do they produce that exquisite col- 
oring?' he asks again, for he is here to learn. 

" 'Grow it,' said the guide. And it is suffi- 
cient to know but this. But later when it was 
learned that hay was sold for $18 a ton, a ro- 
seate hue was added to its other tints for the 

"But haystack or rock be it taken for, it is 
a safe pilot for those west of the coulee seeking 
through that great fissure the overland route 
to Spokane; and to those from the east it is a 
landmark to be seen from afar, guiding the 
way to the wheat country in the Columbia plat- 
eau and to the fruit country of the Columbia 

To one who is seeking a taste of the old 
romance of the stage coaching days, Coulee 
City offers an excellent opportunity to find it. 
There is more than a romantic flavor about the 
sight of the stage from Bridgeport, and the 
Okanogan, swinging down the winding, doub- 
ling, twisting road from Pilot Rock on the top 
of the wall to Coulee City at the bottom, the 
four ponies at their natural gait, the lope, the 
driver interpelating a few choice remarks in 
stage driver language, punctuated with fre- 
quent sharp cracks of the whip, and the pas- 
sengers hanging on for dear life, in enjoyment 
or fear, as suits each temperament. They swing 
into sight a mere speck at the top of the hill, 
heralded, if it is summer, by a cloud of dust. 
Every team on the hill, and there are many in 
the harvest time, seeks a safe siding to give 
a clear road to Uncle Sam's mail train. This 
is no easy task, to get out of the way ; but those 
who know keep but of the 'chutes,' that short 
circuit, the loops and turns. The novice or the 
tenderfoot teamster is very apt to plant himself 
squarely in the middle of the right of way, and 
when the meeting comes, as inevitably it must, 
that particular locality is a good place to be 



absent from for those whose ears are easily 
shocked, and those of the passengers who es- 
cape unscathed are treated to a warmth of col- 
loquy equaled only by the glow of the local 
color, and a flow of language whose pictures- 
queness is only rivaled by that of the surround- 
ing scenery. And only in the great northwest, 
and only where it comes in touch again with the 
palmy days of the old stage coach, could such 
things be found. It is indeed an inspiring 
scene, and that 'tis duly appreciated is shown 
in the fact that all Coulee City is out to see and 
get the news from Okanogan and the north. 
For Coulee City, at the bottom of the canyon, 
is interested in what takes place in the north. 
Her people want keenly to know just where and 
when that railroad from Bellingham, of the 
new birth, is coming through the Cascades, 
and what feeders and feelers it will throw out, 
and where. They wish to learn, too, as soon as 
may be, what foundation there is for the talk 
of the Canadian roads coming down into Wash- 
ington and just where they will come and 
when. For although Coulee City has a direct 
outlet now through Adrain to the Pacific coast, 
yet much of the wheat shipped from there must 
be hauled overland distances as great as 30 
miles or more. And particularly'is there a de- 
sire to learn whether these roads, even though 
they may pass to Spokane far to the north, 
Avill, by tapping the rich Methow valley, and 
the Colville Reservation country soon to be 
opened for settlement, induce the Central 
Washington to extend its line over the Coulee 
wall, past St. Andrews, and so on to Water- 
ville, to connect again with the main line to the 
coast at Wenatchee. These are matters of big 
imiX)rt to the people of the Grand Coulee bot- 
tom of the Big Bend. 

"There is what seems to be an abortive at- 
tempt to extend this road over the Coulee wall. 
You can see the grade making about up the hill, 
coiling and doubling back upon itself, but scale- 
less — naked — devoid of ties or rails. There is 
also the gradeway of a rival road, though it 

does not climb so high ; and it shows signs of 
violent and abrupt disintegration in spots, not 
due entirely to the natural disruptive forces of 
gravitation on the steep hillsides. People say 
that these grades were built fourteen years ago> 
more for the sake of circumventing and fore- 
stalling the fellow that owned the other road 
than through any serious attempt to reach the 
Columbia plateau beyond. And the people are 
anxious to see the road go over the hills in 
earnest, and would wish nothing better than 
that any of t^ie proposed roads from the north 
penetrating the Inland Empire will prove the 
loadstone that will draw the Northern Pacific 
over the Coulee wall. 

"The view from the top of Pilot Rock on a 
clear day — and all the days in summer in the 
Big Bend are clear — is very extensive. If 'dis- 
tance lends enchantment to the view," then it's 
most enchanting, for the distance at which you 
can see the prominent natural features of cen- 
tral Washington are great. The Blue Moun- 
tains of historic Wallowa are too far under the 
horizon to discover, but Steptoe Butte, down 
in Whitman county, can be seen if looked for 
in the right place. This butte is named as a 
memorial of the fight Colonel Steptoe had with 
the Indians back in the '50s. Almost due east 
Mica Peak, 'Old Mike Peak,' pricks out a point 
against the blue of the Coeur d'Alenes that 
form the sky line; and all between is color — 
gorgeous color. The purple plain spreads, ap- 
parently unlimited, to the north, east and south, 
and merges almost undistinguishably into the 
blue of the sky. You see no definition to the 
prairie except the landmarks named. • Right 
under you, a quarter of a mile down and eight 
miles away, lies Coulee City, looking like a 
bunch of sardine, oyster and tomato cans just 
swept out of a back door, with here and there 
an abandoned 'growler,' looming up to rep- 
resent the public school house, the largest hotel 
and the railroad warehouses. Or, to make a 
more pleasing comparison, the city resembles 
from this height and distance a handful of 



brightly colored toys scattered and forgotten 
by a sleepy child tired of its playthings. A 
dozen miles further east you can see Hartline, 
lying on the purple prairie like an artist's pal- 
ette, conspicuous only by a few dots of bright 
colors. .And stretchihg away clear across Lin- 
coln county 1o the east and to the south are 
rows of many towns and villages, mere specks 
on the plain, but spots hazy with the smoke of 
industry. Material evidence they are of the 
westward march of enterprise. To the east 
and a little north you catch glimpses of Mount 
Carleton's bald head — 'Old Baldy' — as the 
Spokane people love to call him. Farther 
south are the Summit mountains, and these are 
the ones you see as you journey west from the 
city of Spokane, and that persist in racing west- 
ward with you, getting ahead of you until you'd 
swear they were voyaging down on the swift 
current of the Columbia. Mitre Rock, at Spo- 
kane rapids, is hidden by the bluff in the elbow 
formed by the quick turn of the Columbia's 
course from south to west. These bluffs ex- 
tend from the rock to Hellgate, above the 
mouth of the Sans Foil river. Here, at Hell- 
gate, is the proposed crossing of the railroad 
from Bellingham Bay to Spokane. 

"To the north, and almost in a line with 
the pole. Mount Bonaparte, 'Old Boney,' looms 
up, overtopping the bunch grass hills of the 
Okanogan and Colville country and indicating 
the northern limit of United States territory. 
Farther to the west, and a little more distant, 
are Mounts Chapaca and Palmer, in Okanogan 
county, the latter the scene of the recent phe- 
nomenal gold find. Between you and these 
lies the valley of the Okanogan, surely des- 
tined for speedy development by the penetra- 
tion of railroads from the north and from the 
coast. Conconully, the county seat, lies in the 
line of sight, but shows no sign form your view 
point. To the west a little farther are the 
Okanogan mountains, and west of these again 
you can see the ultramarine of the Methow 
range showing clear against the purity of the 

snow capped Cascades. There is a white point 
of mountain top, barely discernable, showing 
between the peaks of the Cascades in the north- 
west. This point must be the summit of either 
Mount Baker in Whalcom county, or Mount 
Shuksan, the watershed of the Hokullam river, 
one of the branches of the Skagit. Interest 
centers in the headwaters of the Skagit, for 
here are to be found the only feasible routes for 
railroads from the west through the Cascade 
range, the great dividing line between the 
coast country and the Inland Empire. Glacier 
Peak will catch your eye, undoubtedly, if the 
sun is right, and then you will be looking 
across the full length of Lake Chelan. Lucky 
you are if the weather is right and Chelan does 
not obscure the 'eye of the Cascades' with her 
rising mists. Away to the west and south, to 
complete the circuit, are Mount Howard, at 
Stevens Pass, Mount Stuart, with its three 
peaks, resembling the Three Sisters in Ver- 
mont, just beyond Wenatchee of the 
rosy apples. But for the Badger Moun- 
tains, a low range extending from a 
point on the Columbia river southwest 
of Waterville, Douglas county, to the 
Columbia again, at the mouth of Moses 
Coulee, you might catch a glimpse of Mount 
Ranier, or Tah-co-mah, as the Indians love to 
call it. A peak as perfect in form as famed 
Fujiama, in Japan, and the delight and pride 
of the people of the city of Tacoma on Ad- 
mirality inlet. 

"And so with one last look around to feast 
the eyes on color and to fix in the mind a 
grander panorama than even the classic Alps 
can afford, you climb down from Pilot Rock 
with sincere regret, and with a determination 
to renew acquaintance with these great things 
of the northwest, that undoubtedly have left 
their impress upon the character of her people, 
and are typical of her future greatness." 

As one travels on cars or steamboats he sees 
little or none of the beauties of the fertile 
prairie country of Douglas county. These con- 



ventional lines of travel he must leave and go 
out and up and over it, when an agreeable sur- 
prise awaits the investigator. Here and there 
most attractive homes accentuate the possi- 
bilities for him who will possess himself of a 
few acres of this productive land, and improve 
the opportunities which lie at his feet. To the 
eastern man the qualit}^ of the soil will prove a 
revelation. He has been accustomed to the 
black loam or sandy soil so common in the east 
or middle west. Here the soil is neither. It 
is a light gray color, termed by geologists vol- 
canic ash. It has been formed by the corroding 
and disintegration of the lava rock with which 
the soil is underlaid. And it as fertile as the 
faipous river valleys of the east; it has the ex- 
cellent quality of never washing nor baking 
should it be worked when too damp. Another 
important quality is its wonderful retention of 
moisture. Properly prepared a good crop of 
spring wheat may be secured without a drop of 
rain between spring time and harvest. In many 
instances this wonderful soil is sixty feet in 
depth. A well-known traveler who tarried for 
awhile in Douglas county wrote as follows to 
an eastern journal : 

"This is the great wheat producing region 
of Central Washington and for which it has 
become noted all over the world. A yield of 
thirty bushels per acre is usual, while forty to 
fifty bushels of wheat is not an uncommon 
yield. To make the greatest success, wheat is 
sown on land that has been summer fallowed 
the preceding year and but one-half bushel per 
acre is required for seed. Oats, barley and 
other cereals succeed equally with wheat, while 
all garden vegetables and root crops are grown 
with success and satisfaction. AVhile the Big- 
Bend country has never claimed to be a fruit 
growing region, it is not because fruit cannot 
be grown there. A sight of the many fine or- 
chards would soon overcome that idea. Ap- 
ples, pears, prunes, cherries and all the smaller 
varieties of hardy fruits and berries are grown 
with success, but not so much for profit as an 

accompaniment of the well-established home. 
With better facilities for market, fruit growing 
will become a money making proposition in the 
Big Bend country." 

Unless one employs an experienced expert 
he will be scarcely able to find any suitable 
government land in Douglas county at the pres- 
ent writing. The best lands have all been 
taken. What are known as the "gravelly flats" 
extend from Hartline to Coulee City. They 
lie, practically to the north and south, but ex- 
tend only a short distance. But there are rich 
surroundings in the vicinity of Wilsoncreek, 
and bej'ond Coulee City, westward, toward 
Waterville, are some of the most valuable and 
productive farms in the county. The chief 
city is Waterville, the county seat; miles away 
from any railroad as yet, but still a bustling, 
busy, metropolitan town of which much more 
is said in another chapter. A singularly wrong 
impression has been gained of the fertility of 
this section of the country by travelers. Rid- 
ing from Coulee City to Waterville in a stage, 
unless the season be winter, one is enveloped in 
a cloud of dust. It can only be equalled in the 
\'icinity of Pasco, Franklin county. But this 
dust is a money maker. It is simply volcanic 
ash. Scoria; and just ofif the stage line in the 
quiet fields it is growing stupenduous crops of 
wheat, oats and barley, and the finest speci- 
mens of kitchen garden products, prize takers 
at county fairs. The snows of winter supply 
the place of summer and spring rains. Yet this 
spring (1904) there has been plenty of pre- 
cipitation ; a spring unusual for the quantity 
of moisture. To you the people of Douglas 
county will explain that the nature of the soil 
and the closeness of the lava bed rock to the 
surface makes the lack of rain by no means det- 
rimental to the making of a crop. They will 
tell you, also, that at all times, even in the 
dryest, when for months not a drop of water 
i-ias fallen, moisture is found only a few inches 
from the surface. The crops themselves bear 
witness to the truth of their assertions. Well 



water may be obtained at a depth of from ten to 
fifty feet. /Vt times the drilhng is hard, and 
the "shots" of giant powder dropped in the 
cavity may not always produce the desired re- 
sult; but patience will invariably reward the 
farmer who really wants a well. Therefore it 
need not surprise the traveler through Doug- 
las county to see so many residences pitched in 
the valleys instead of on the highlands ; in these 
Ir cations water is more accessible. 

Douglas county is situated in tiie central 
p^.r[ion of the state; is 120 by 60 miles in area, 
tnd constitutes an important section of what 
is recognized as the Big Bend country. It is 
penetrated by the Centnd Washington railway 
to Coulee City, nineteen miles, 2,640 feet; trav- 
eled by the Great Northern road 72 miles, 
686 feet, and the "Adrian Cut-off," from Cou- 
lee City to Adrian, about 22 miles. 

Of the famous alkali lakes of Douglas coun- 
ty the report of the Washington Geological sur- 
vey says : 

"The alkali lakes of the state are neither 
numerous nor large. Among the largest are 
Moses Lake, Blue Lake and Sanitarium, or 
Soap Lake. These, together with numerous 
temporary ponds and a chain of fresh water 
lakes occupy the former bed of the Columbia — 
the Grand Coulee. 

"Moses Lake, which lies about twelve miles 
southeast of Ephrata, on the Great Northern 
railway, is about eighteen miles long and a mile 
wide. It is very shallow. The average depth 
is, approximately, twenty feet. It lies in a 
shallow basin with low banks, so that a rise of 
but a few feet would inundate a large section 
of country. The water is unfit for drinking 
purposes, but is not strongly alkaline and could 
probably be used in irrigation. The section of 
country in which these lakes are located is, of 
course, very dry and supports only a scanty 
vegetation. Where there is water, however, 
the soil is very fertile. The lake drains a large 
area through upper Crab Creek. It has no 
outlet, but across its foot lies a low range of 

sand hills through which the water seeps into 
the sources of lower Crab Creek, which occu- 
pies the bed of the canyon below. Along this 
canyon lie numerous shallow ponds which dry 
up in summer. The deposits left by these are 
not of any considerable value, though they con- 
tain an appreciable quantity of borax. An in- 
teresting feature of Moses Lake is the fact that 
it is gradually rising, having risen about ten 
feet in the last seven years. If it continues to 
rise a few more feet it will break through a 
clear course into lower Crab Creek and empty 
into the Columbia. The analysis of the water 
of Moses Lake, by H. G. Knight, is as follows : 


Total solids 0.32357 

Volatile solids 0.10095 

Non-volatile solids 0.22262 

Silica 0.01502 

Alumina and iron oxide 0.00331 

Calcium carbonate 0.06235 

Magnesium carbonate 0.07525 

Sodium sulphate 0.01258 

Sodium chloride 0.01895 

Sodium carbonate 0.10914 

The following is from the Wenatchee Ad- 
vance : 

"Parties who have recently arrived from 
Moses Lake and the lower Crab Creek country 
tell a sad tale in regard to the ruination of valu- 
able ranches on lower Crab Creek caused by the 
washing out of the natural land dyke at the foot 
of Moses Lake. The water cut a channel 
through the sand dunes as wide as the Wenat- 
chee river and washed tone and tons of sand 
down over valuable alfalfa lands virtually ruin- 
ing them. The lake is twelve feet lower than 
ever before known and is dry for miles down 
from the head, and if the channel is cut deep 
enough the lake is very likely to go completely 

"There is a tradition among the Indians to 
the effect that years and years ago there was no 
Moses Lake — only a creek — but two or three 
dry seasons intervened in succession and the 
creek went almost dry. Then the wind blew a 



terrific gale for months and drifted the sand 
back and forth until it had completely filled the 
creek bed and threw up a dam twenty feet high 
and miles and miles in length at the lower end. 
When the water came again in the spring the 
space filled up and made the present Moses 
Lake. This is the Indian explanation of the 
matter, and it look reasonable, for there are pot 
holes and sand dunes at the lower end of the 
lake which are continually shifting as the winds 
will it. It is through these dunes that the 
waters of the lake ha\e cut a channel and 
^vashed a great mass of sand down on the beau- 
tiful ranches that are located below." 

"More interesting is the so-called Soap, or 
Sanitarium Lake, situated about six miles 
north of Ephrata. This lake is so called be- 
cause it is so strongly alkaline as to be soapy 
to the touch, and when a strong wind blows 
across it the water along the shore is beaten 
into great rolls of foam. Fish cannot live in 
the water, nor is there any vegetation in this as 
in Moses Lake. The water is used for bathing, 
but to those unaccustomed to its use the water 
has a slightly caustic or irritating effect. It 
is also claimed that it is useful medicinally. 
There is much of peculiar interest about the' 
lake. It is about two and a quarter by three- 
quarters miles in extent, is very deep in places, 
and probably averages about forty feet. 
It drains only a very small area of 
country and has neither inlet or out- 
let, in the form of streams. It is lo- 
cated in a deep basin walled to the height of 
loo feet or more on the east and west by cliffs 
of black basalt. The land to the north and 
south rises slowly; on the south to nearly the 
height of the cliffs, but on the north the rise is 
so slight that should the lake rise fifteen feet 
it would empty into the next of the chain of 
lakes to the north. The source of the water 
of the lake is said to be a spring in the center. 
Indians of the neighborhood assert that only a 
few years since the lake was very small and was 
fed by this strong alkaline spring. Fresh water 

is, however, continually seeping in from the 
shores, as is shown by the fact that fresh water 
wells may be sunk even but a few feet from the 
shore, and that the cattle disliking the strong 
alkaline water face the shore to obtain the 
sweeter seepage. The water of the lake con- 
tains calcareous matter to such an extent that 
the stones and debris at the bottom are in- 
crusted with a frost-like coating of calcium 
carbonate. An analysis of the water is as fol- 
lows : 


Total solids 28.2669 

Volatile solids 0.62503 

Non-volatile solids 27,64186 

Silica 0.12816 

Alumina and iron oxide Trace. 

Calicium sulphate Trace 

Calcium carbonate Trace. 

Magnesium sulphate 0.39099 

Sodium sulphate 6.34872 

Sodium chloride 5.81384 

Sodium carbonate 14.08901 

Potasium carbonate 0.51177 

Lithium sulphate Trace. 

Phosphorus pentaxidi 0.12018 

Carbon dioxide (semi-combined) 137034 

Borax None. 

Iodine None. 

Free Ammonia 03400 

Allumenoid ammonia 1.1060 

The specific gravity 1.0260 

Of this singular lake the EUciisburg Local- 
izer said : 

"There is a lake about one mile wide by 
two miles long some distance from the borax 
beds in Douglas county, which has been a great 
resort for the Indians when afflicted with erup- 
tions of any kind. It is reported to be very 
efficacious is curing all cutaneous diseases and 
even syphilitic disorders. It is called by the 
Indians 'Big Pe Lake,' The water has a yellow- 
ish tinge, but is very clear. i\ person can see 
to the bottom of it where it is thirty feet deep. 
There is something peculiar about it; the sur- 
face reflects images equal to a mirror, and mag- 
nifies objects many fold. It will magnify a 
child to the proportions of a giant. Our in- 
formant says : 'The hand or foot reflected 



from the lake's surface is magnified most as- 
tonishingly. This lake has been used by the 
Indians from time immemorial, and is still util- 
ized for the purposes named. There is no 
doubt that on account of its healing properties 
it will be taken up and some day become a 
great watering place, eclipsing the' famous 
Medical Lake, in Spokane county.' " 

In April, 1903, the big span of the Rock 
Island bridge across the Columbia, on the Great 
Northern railway, was swung into place. Seri- 
ous difficulty was encountered in throwing this 
span across 416 feet of space between the 
arches. It was impossible to build false work, as 
at that point the river is from eighty to one hun- 
dred feet deep. It courses through under the 
bridge like a mill race. It was, to the engin- 
eers, a new problem. General Manager Mit- 
chell, of the Great Northern Company, solved 
it by an intricate system of ties and counter 
balances which enabled the builders to carry 
the bridge out from each beam 208 feet without 
support, meeting in the center, a feat never be- 
fore attempted, and which is considered a tri- 
umph of engineering skill. 

In the spring of 1901 preparations were 
made for sinking oil wells in Douglas county. 
The sites where valuable fields were supposed 
to e.xist were near Central Ferry, across the 
Columbia river, and on the Douglas county 
side. A company known as the Wenatchee 
Oil & Coal Company was organized with the 
following officers : C. C. Bireley, president ; 
F. W. Mauser, secretary and treasurer; T. L. 
Brophly, superintendent, and George H. Wal- 
ter, director and a heavy stockholder. The 
company secured a 25-years-lease of two quarter 
sections of land on which the oil discovery was 
made, and shipped in machinery for drilling 
wells. When oil indications were first discov- 
ered it appeared on the surface of the ground 
among the springs which here and there issue 
forth. Later, however, a cloud burst occurred 
just above the place which washed an immense 
gorge through the land where there indications 

appeared, revealing the geological formation 
to a depth of thirty or forty feet. The pre- 
dominating rock is cretaceous sandstone, in 
folds of six to eight feet, lying one 
above the other. Where these springs 
issued forth the surface of the ground 
for some distance around was saturated 
with a greasy oil fluid. Oil experts, 
of course examined it, and it was largely upon 
their recommendation that capital became in- 
terested and the necessary machinery purchased 
to begin active operations. But so far there has 
been no result worthy of the first excitement 
occasioned by the early discoveries. 

One of the peculiar attractions a new comer 
will notice in the northwestern portion of Doug- 
las county is the frequency of what are termed 
"haystack rocks." Geological experts have ex- 
plained their presence, as being meteors, having 
been deposited in prehistoric ages. In shape 
and size they are in the exact form of an or- 
dinary haystack. Some of . them are small, 
possibly four of five feet in diameter and the 
same in height. Others stand fully forty to 
sixty feet in height and about thirty feet in 
diameter at the base. They are usually oval 
or rounding until they gradually taper to a 
small, round top, exactly similar to a haystack. 
At a distance the eye is easily deceived. Some 
of them have been deposited in the best portions 
of the farming lands in the county, and splen- 
did loam creeps up to their very base. Many 
stand alone like sentinels ; in other localities 
some farms of 320 acres possess three or four 
of them. 

With the exceptions of Grand and ]\Ioses 
Coulees the most conspicuous landmark in 
Douglas county is Badger Mountain, a long, 
rambling elevation extending from the Colum- 
bia river in a southeasterly direction, rising to 
an elevation of several hundred feet above the 
level of the surface of the country, the sur- 
rounding plain, and 4,000 feet above sea level. 
Not a great many years ago the west end of 
Badger Mountain was covered with a thick 



growth of pine timber. This was, in fact, the 
only body of timber in Douglas county, and 
without its presence the settlement of the 
western portion of the Big Bend would have 
been retarded for a number of years. This 
mountain forest supplied fuel, fencing and 
building material for miles around. It ap- 
peared as though a kind providence had pro- 
vided this timber that the choice agricultural 
lands of the western Big Bend country might 
be developed. Today the western portion of 
Badger Mountain has only a straggling growth 
of scraggy timber, while the town of Water- 
ville and the hundreds of farm residences which 
can be seen from the summit of the mountain 
show what has become of the once handsome 
growth of timber which was there. 

Douglas county contains about 5.200 
square miles, or four times the size of the whole 
state of Rhode Island. The states of Rhode 
Island and Delaware could both be placed in 
Douglas county and then there would be 700 
square miles residue. It is as large as the state 
of Connecticut, and covers a stretch of coun- 
try greater in extent than the distance between 
New York and Philadelphia. 

In the earlier portion of this chapter we 
alluded to the phenomena of "crops without 
rain." The annual precipitation over the 
northern half of the Big Bend country or the 
plateau is between ten and fifteen inches. Over 
the most of this area it is nearly uniform and 
ranges from twelve to fourteen inches. That 
is, all the rain and melted snow of the year 
would, if preserved, make a layer of water 
from twelve to fourteen inches deep. Now, an 
annual rainfall of twelve to fourteen inches 
seems scanty to persons unacquainted with the 
country and it would be scanty in most locali- 
ties, but in the Big Bend country there are 
some peculiarities which modify this feature 
and make it less felt — make it, in fact, sufifi- 
cient. How it happens that this country, par- 
ticularly Douglas county, with such slight pre- 
cipitation, has become famous as the greatest 

wheat producing country in the United States 
is a most vitally interesting study, and the 
reason is not generally tmderstood from a 
scientific viewpoint. We here produce ex- 
cerpts from a speech delivered by Professor 
;\Iark V. Harrington, in 1896, president of the 
Washington State University, at the second 
Douglas County Industrial Exposition held in 
^^'aterville, October 2, 1896, which fully ex- 
plains the matter. Professor Harrington said : 

"This region lies in temperate and rather 
cool latitudes. It is in hot climates that the in- 
sufficiency of water is most felt. Spain has 
many inclosed basins something like this. They 
generally get more rain than you do here, but 
they lie from six to ten degrees further south 
and the plateaus are dry and arid. On the other 
hand the rainfall in Sweden is as little as here 
and in some places is less, but there is no 
trouble in Sweden in growing trees or raising 
crops in ordinary seasons. But this is from 
fi\-e to eight degrees further north than you are, 
the mean temperatures for the same elevation 
are lower, and the evaporation of moisture is 
consequently less. 

"The soil in this region is usually light 
and fine. These qualities make it, when dry 
and not protected by vegetation, powder easily 
under the wheels of heavy wagons, and it is 
easily lifted by the wind and may be carried 
long distances. It almost floats in the air. This 
lightness is not due to its being intrinsically 
lighter when powdered than when solid. A 
bushel of wheat weighs as much when ground 
as when entire in the grain and yet it may be 
ground so fine as to float is such quantities in 
the air as to make the latter semi-explosive. 
The fine soil which you have here is commin- 
uted rock and has not lost any of its weight in 
being powdered. Its faculty of floating is due 
to this : Each solid particle has adhering to it 
a thin skin of air thinner and less adherent 
when the surface is polished, thicker and more 
tenacious when the body has a rough surface. 
This tliin skin of air does not lessen the weight 



of a particle, but when the latter is minute and 
especially if it is rough, the adhering air forms 
a large part of the entire particle, and the two 
together have a greater bulk for the same 
weight and fall more slowly. 

"It is this layer of air which makes the fine 
soil useful in saving ground water. It retards 
the evaporation of moisture because the crevices 
between particles being filled with air, the heat 
is slower in penetrating and evaporation is 
slower. Again this very fineness facilitates the 
absorbtion of water, which falls upon the sur- 
face and this prevents running off. The water 
replaces air ver}' readily and forms a surround- 
ing envelope of its own. Capillary attraction 
which will hold water powerfully in a tube 
holds it as powerfully in a'fine soil. The water 
is more easily taken up by such a soil and more 
firmly held when it is taken up. Capillary at- 
traction yields onl}' to evaporation and to se- 
ductive force of the tips of growing roots. 
These draw water more powerfully than does 
capillary attraction in the soil. The dust and 
fine soil of this region play other parts in its 
natural economy, both beneficial and harmful, 
but these belong to other questions than that 
now under discussion. 

"The precipitation of the Big Bend country 
is not distributed wastefully through the whole 
year, when it is not needed as well as when it 
it, as is the Case in eastern states. Nor does it 
fall chiefly when it is not wanted, at or after 
harvest as in some places, notably Florida. It 
falls here chiefly in two seasons, so convenient 
for the farmer that it could scarcely have been 
more so had he arranged it himself. The first 
precipitation season is the winter from Novem- 
ber to February, inclusive. The precipitation 
is greatest in quantity at this season and de- 
scends as snow. It drifts but little, lies long 
and affords a long period of sleighing. In the 
spring it melts gradually, feeding the wafer 
slowly to the soil, which takes it up like a 
sponge, allowing very little to flow off. Mean- 
while the snow covering in winter is a valuable 

feature. It protects the soil from sudden 
changes of temperature, defends young plants 
of winter crops, and tends to keep the tempera- 
ture of air even, preventing the sudden changes 
of thawing and freezing, which are so injurious 
to plant life. This season of great precipitation 
corresponds to that of the adjacent Pacific 

"The second season of precipitation is of 
about six weeks duration in late spring — in 
April and May. Between this and the preced- 
ing has been a period of several weeks free 
from rain, a time for the farmer to sow his 
crops and giving them a period of sunny 
weather to bring them up and prevent them 
from rotting in the ground. Then during the 
growing season are rains which feed the crops 
when they most need it. In this rainy season 
the Big Bend country shows its alliance to the 
Montana and Dakota region, where the rainy 
season is from April to June. Then follows a 
long, dry season for the harvesting of crops 
and the fall plowing. During the two precip- 
itation seasons — a short six months — about 
three-quarters of the rain falls. This makes it 
as effective as a half more falling indifferently 
through the year, without counting the advant- 
ages of being sure of a dry harvest." 

"Located in the extreme northeast part of 
Douglas county," says a correspondent of the 
Big Bend Empire, writing in May, 1896, "and 
bordering on the Colville reservation is a sec- 
tion of country which, though not widely 
known, is one of the most fertile regions of the 
Big Bend. This is the 'Little Bend.' Here 
the Columbia river runs from the mouth of the 
Grand Coulee almost north for twelve miles. 
Coming around to within a distance of fifteen 
miles of the coulee walls, then widening out in 
that sweep which borders the Big Bend proper. 
Across this narrow northeastern peak is the 
wagon road running from Wilbur to the Okan- 
ogan mines. There the settler has the choice 
of locating in any altitude desired between the 
Columbia river and the high, rolling prairie 



land as this part is formed of benches extend- 
ing from the river to the high lands. Should 
the wayfaring homeseeker conclude he did not 
want to go into farming wheat and hardy prod- 
ucts he has only to move a few benches down 
toward the river where he has a location espe- 
cially adapted to the culture of fruit and ber- 
ries equal in every respect to the golden state 
of California. On these benches may be seen 
springs of pure, clear water gushing out of the 
hillsides, and immediately below, caused by 
this moisture, are beautiful groves of birch and 
balm to greet the stockman on a summer day 
while riding among his herds. This is the 
ideal bunch grass region of the Big Bend, ow- 
ing to the richness of soil and abundance of 

That portion of Douglas county lying be- 
twen Grand and Moses Coulees is known as 
the Highland country. The following de- 
scriptive matter of this section of the county is 
from the pen of J. Harry Noonan : 

"Lying at such an altitude as to overlook 
the greater part of Douglas county, the giant 
country of the Evergreen State, and much of 
the higher portions of Washington, as well as 
points in Idaho, Oregon and British Columbia, 
rests the beautiful Highland country, the home 
ideal of num.bers of happy, enterprising and 
self-sustaining tillers of the soil. This land 
ranges from 2,000 to 2,500 feet above the sea 
level and occupies that high ridgeway extend- 
ing between Grand and Moses Coulees, occupy- 
ing most of townships 22, 23, 24, and 25. range 
26, the center of township 24, range 26, being 
aljout 16 miles from Coulee City and 20 miles 
from Ephrata on the Great Northern Railway. 
This coutnry being highly elevated the crops 
are not subject to severe frosts like that of the 
lower lands, and the higher elevation insures 
us sufficient snow and rain during the year to 
saturate the ground, and being a brown clay 
soil and wonderfully adapted to the retention of 
moisture, good crops could be raised without 
a drop of water from May until August." 

The idea of building a tramway from the 
plateau west of Waterville to the Columbia 
river for the more economical transportation of 
wheat was conceived by A. L. Rogers, who 
worked hard to get the farmers interested in 
the enterprise. Later Mr. Rogers sold his in- 
terests to the Columbia River Tramway Com- 
pany. The tramway was completed in Novem- 
ber, 1902. It carries grain from the plateau 
to the Columbia river, and thus saves the hard 
hauls down the canyons to the shipping points 
from 2,000 to 2,500 feet below the level of the 

In December, 1903, a writer in the Seattle 
Post-IiitcUigcnccr said : 

"Douglas, one of the last counties in the 
state to receive .settlement and its lands to be 
brought under cultivation, has made a very 
substantial and satisfactory growth during the 
year 1903, not only in population but in build- 
ing improvements and in the general prosper- 
ity of its people. This is the county that only 
a few years ago contained but a few stockmen. 
According to the report of Assessor Will the 
population is a little over 12,000. Douglas has 
made the largest percentage of gain in popula- 
tion of any county in the state except Franklin, 
since 1900. Since then the gain is 5.794. or 
1 16.8 per cent. The assessor's rolls show that 
there are 23,033 head of cattle, valued at $412,- 
150, and 12, 780 horses valued at $361,505, 
and a total increase for taxation of over $5,- 
000,000 since last year. The county raised 
about 6,000,000 bushels of wheat this year, for 
which something like $3,600,000 will be paid. 

Especially along the Great Northern rail- 
way is the growth of the county noticable. The 
towns of Quincy, Ephrata, Wilsoncreek, Strat- 
ford, and Knipp have all made very substantial 
gains, while the land adjacent, which only a 
few years ago was called the Big Bend Desert, 
is being made to blossom and yield abund- 

In October of the same year the Douglas 
Coiiiify Press, published at Waterville, said: 



"A rapid transformation is being wrought 
in that section lying along the Great Northern 
railway. A few years ago land there was sold 
by E. F. Benson, then in the employment of 
the Northern Pacific land department, for a 
few cents per acre. While in Quincy we heard 
of a number of sections of the same land being 
sold at from $15 to $20 per acre. Messrs. 
Babcock, Blythe, Richardson, Urquhart and 
other stock men figured on this being a perpet- 
ual home for stock and good for nothing but 
range. Standing on an eminence this side of 
Quincy and Winchester as far as the vision can 
reach the shack of the homesteader dots the 
level plain. On driving through we found 
considerable breaking being done, orchards 
planted and the work going on to convert 
wheat from the sands of what was once known 
as the Big Bend desert. We can remember 
when the Ritzville country was said to be too 
dry for farming; money loaners would not go 
into the Horse Heaven nor Washtuchna sec- 
tions as they were thought to be worthless. 
Ritzville today is one of the greatest wheat 
shipping points in the world. In the two latter 
sections land is now selling for from twenty 
to thirty dollars per acre. 

"At one time our own section of the Big 
Bend was considered arid. Now we prophesy 
that Quincy, Winchester, Ephrata, Adrian. 
Wilsoncreek, and in fact all' the points along 
the railroad will yet be great shipping marts 
for wheat. All this is going to make Douglas 
a wealthy county. In a few years we believe 
that the territory now embraced in Douglas 
county will be sustaining a population one hun- 
dred times greater than at present. Water is 
now being found in great quantities at a depth 

of from 200 to 300 feet. There are now about 
a dozen good wells adjacent to Quincy and it 
is believed that artesian water will be found 
there. All through that section we found the 
settlers hopeful that Uncle Sam will carry out 
the proposed irrigation scheme and put that 
country under water. Should that be done 
this will be one of the most productive sections 
of the west. Where the stock men of a few 
years ago ruled supreme will be the fields of 
alfalfa and fruit — a few acres being sufficient 
for a living." 

Frank ^I. Dallam, writing for the Big 
Bend Empire under date November 30, 1S93, 
had this to say of southern Douglas county, 
which at that time was regarded by all as a 
sandy desert, worthless as farming land or for 
any other purposes : 

"The southern portion is flat and sandy, 
covered with sage brush and at present little 
better than a desert. Yet this sandy land that 
in its present condition is so uninviting will at 
some future day be dotted with valuable farms 
and orchards, providing homes for hundreds of 
people and adding very materially to the wealth 
of the state. It has been fully demonstrated 
in isolated spots, where water for irrigation 
could be secured, that the soil is prodigally pro- 
ductive, and fruits and vegetables raised that 
cannot be surpassed in size and flavor any- 
where. It is a thousand or more feet lower 
than the northern division of the county, the 
climate is much more temperate and the sum- 
mer longer. It is especially adapted to the 
growth of both large and small fruits. All that 
is needed is water and some day the requisite 
capital will be forthcoming to sink artesian 
wells and secure water to reclaim this Sahara." 



The genesis of things is usually the most 
interesting in matters pertaining to history. 
So with the political history of Douglas county, 
the names of those pioneers who first served 
the county in official capacities will be perused 
with greater interest than will those of later 
administrations. By provisions of the bill 
creating the county Messrs. H. A. Meyers, J. 
W. Adams and P. M. Corbaley were named 
as county commissioners, and authority was 
invested in them to appoint all other county 
officers who should serve until their successors 
were elected and cjualified. 

Accordingly on the 29th day of February, 
1884, the original county commissioners met 
and perfected the county organization. The 
officers named by them at this time to serve as 
the first officials were : 

H. L. Burgoyne, auditor; Peter Bracken, 
treasurer: A. Pierpont, sheriff; Walter Mann, 
probate judge; Hector Patterson, assessor; 
Arthur Holliday, county attorney; Lester Pop- 
ple, sheep commissioner; D. Urquhart, justice 
of the peace, eastern precinct; D. J. Titchenal, 
justice of the peace, western precinct. 

Several changes were made in the personnel 
of the officers who served during the year 1884. 
Commissioner Meyers removed from the 
county. At a meeting of the board September 
6, David Soper was appointed to supply the va- 
cancy. Mr. Pierpont failed to qualify for 
sheriff. September 8th Thomas Jordon was 
appointed to that office and became the first 
executive officer of the county of Douglas. H. 
L. Burgoyne also failed to qualify as auditor 

and B. L. Martin, who had been appointed 
clerk pro tem was selected to fill this vacancy. 
Evidently county officers were not in so great 
demand during 1884 as they have been many 
times since. The proverbial case of the "of- 
fice seeking the man" was of frequent occur- 
rence. Then Peter Bracken resigned the office 
of treasurer and his position was filled by the 
appointment of Captain H. A. Miles. Septem- 
ber 8th Miss Eva Brown was appointed su- 
perintendent of the county schools. 

The initial election in Douglas county was 
held in November, 1884. In its then sparsely 
settled condition the county did not require 
elaborate preparations for an election. At a 
special meeting of the commissioners, held 
September 6th, the county was divided into six 
election precincts. Following is a list of them, 
the location of the polling places, together with 
the officers of election : 

No. I. — Grand Coulee precinct; polling 
place at Lincoln postoffice; P. J. Young and 
Mr. Hall, judges; Frank H. Bosworth, inspec- 

No. 2. — Crab Creek precinct; polling place 
at the Hill ranch ; Donald Urquhart and George 
Popple, judges ; George Bowker, inspector. 

No. 3. — Moses Coulee precinct; polling 
place at Charles Wilcox's house ; Charles Wil- 
cox and H. A. Rowell, judges; George W. 
Ward, inspector. 

No. 4. — Okanogan precinct ; polling place, 
Martin & Benson's store; J. E. Coyle and B. 
L. ^Lirtin, judges; Mrs. Ella Barnhart, in- 



No. 5. — Badger City, precinct; poll- 
ing place, Crouche's store; Hector Patterson 
and M. W. Wixson, judges; F. M. Alexander, 

No. 6. — Bracken precinct ; polling place, 
Kimball's store; Peter Bracken and D. J. Tit- 
chenal, judges; Caleb Cooper, inspector. 

It is, indeed, unfortunate that the returns 
for this pioneer election have not been preserved. 
However, we are enabled to give the names of 
those \\ho succeeded in securing election to the 
several offices, and who assumed their positions 
at the beginning of the year 1885 : 

County Commissioners — R. Miles, chair- 
man, Charles Wilcox and F. H. Bosworth. 

Auditor — B. L. Martin. 

Treasurer — H. A. Miles elected, but failed 
to qualify. S. A. Coyle was appointed March 
31, 1885. Coyle resigned and Stuart Barn- 
hart was appointed August 11, 1885. 

Sheriff — Thomas Jordan, who died. His 
place was filled by the appointment of S. C. 
Robins on May 3, 1886. 

Probate Judge — Walter Mann, who re- 
signed and J. M. Snow was appointed. 

Assessor — -John E. Winn. He resigned 
and Oscar Redfield was appointed, March 30, 

School Superintendent — Eva Brown. 

Surveyor — O. Ruud. 

At the following election, in 1886, the fol- 
lowing officials secured certificates of election 
and qualified for office : Auditor, R. L. Steiner ; 
Treasurer, Charles H. Balton; Sheriff, S. C. 
Robins; Assessor, Oscar Redfield; Probate 
Judge, Joseph M. Snow; Surveyor. O. Ruud; 
Coroner, Dr. J. B. Smith; School Superin- 
tendent, C. C. Ladd: County Commissioners, 
J. W. Stephens, P. J. Young and H. N. Wil- 

Previous to the election of 1888 party lines 
had been rather loosely drawn. At the two 
preceding elections there had not been a great 
demand for county offices, and most of those 
who served in an official capacity did so more 

from a sense of duty than from any glowing 
expectation of personal profit. However, 
Douglas county was being rapidly settled and 
at the election of 1888 we find that nearly 500 
votes were cast. Party lines were drawn and 
both the republican and democratic elements 
held conventions and nominated candidates for 
all the offices. We give at some length the 
proceedings of these conventions and the 
names of those who participated in both : 

The Republican county convention assem- 
bled at Bradley's hall, in Waterville, Saturday, 
September i, 1888, to place in nomination can- 
didates for county offices. The convention was 
called to order by Caleb Cooper. Captain H. 
A. Miles was the unanimous choice for chair- 
man, and C. C. Ladd, of Grand Coulee, was 
named as secretary. The delegates who par- 
ticipated in this convention from the different 
precincts were : 

Midland — John Fletcher, Sim A. Barnes, 
John A. Leach and Will Tenney. 

Chester — D. F. Riggs, William Jamison, I. 
P. Hopkins, by D. F. Riggs, proxy. 

Okanogan — F. C. Zuehlke, Levi Tibbetts, 
Charles P. Peach, David ^NlcClellan, D. J. 
Crisp and W. E. Carlton. 

Grand Coulee — C. C. Ladd, J. J. Thomas, 
John R. Lewis, George R. Roberts, J. H. Hud- 
son, J. J. Jump, the four last named being 
represented by their proxy, C. C. Ladd. 

Foster Creek — William McLean. 

Moses Coulee — H. C. Godlove, L. C. 

Mountain — Captain H. A. Miles, T. Sny- 
der, T. N. Ogle. 

W^aterville— J. B. Smith, A. T. Greene, S. 
Bremshaltz, R. Corbaley, R. J. Waters and J. 
D. Maltbie. 

A full county ticket was nominated and 
Captain H. A. Miles and L. E. Kellogg were 
elected as delegates to the Territorial Conven- 
tion which was held at Ellensburg. 

On September 22d, following, the demo- 
cratic county convention was held at the same 



hall at the same place. The convention was 
called to order by J. W. Stephens, chairman of 
the democratic county committee. E. A. Cor- 
nell was selected chairman of the convention. 
The following delegates participated : 

Columbia — G. C. Wilson, two votes. 

Foster Creek — A. A. Pierpont, James Pier- 
son and Daniel Leahy. 

Grand Coulee— J. H. Smith, E. F. Schrock, 
A. E. House, by J. H. Smith, proxy, John 
Flaraty and John Jelonce by E. F. Schrock, 
proxy, J. W. Scully, and James Schrock. by 
J. W. Scully, proxy. 

Crab Creek — Frank Pierpont, two votes. 

Moses Coulee — E. Owen, two votes. 

Chester — J. P. Moore, two votes. 

Okanogan — James Cloninger, Charles Mc- 
Cullough, O. O. Wright, J. E. Hoppe, J. Bun- 
ger, G. W. De Wald. 

Mountain — D. H. Ford, W. C. Whenery, 

F. Fitzgerald, J. Wooks, J. B. Ballard. 
Waterville— E. D. Nash, R. P. Webb, 

James Melvin, W.-M. Grames, D. H. Derifiekl, 
E. A. Cornell, George Dick. 

Midland— J. M. Simson, J. C. McFarland, 
C. G. Stone. 

Nominees for a full county ticket were 
named at this convention. For the first time 
in its history Douglas county was represented 
on the Territorial ticket in 1888, Mr. Joseph 
M. Snow being nominated on the republican 
ticket for joint councilman for the Fifth Dis- 
trict. He was elected. The election of 1888 
was very close. Nearly 500 votes were cast, 
and a majority of the republicans were elected 
to county offices. Following is the official 
vote : 

For Congress — Charles S. Voorhees, dem- 
ocrat, 198; John B. Allen, republican, 262; 
R. S. Green, 2. 

For Brigadier General — A. P. Curry, re- 
publican, 236; J. J. Hunt, democrat, 214; Ross 

G. O'Brien, 12. 

For Prosecuting Attorney — N. T. Caton, 

democrat, 231; Wallace ]\Iount, republican, 
228; P. K. Spencer, i. 

For Joint Councilman — For Douglas, Lin- 
coln, Kittitas, Yakima, Adams and Franklin; 
Clay U. Fruit, democrat, 182; Joseph M. 
Snow, republican, 266. 

For Joint Representative — For Lincoln, 
Franklin, Adams and Douglas : Frank Quinlan, 
democrat, 207 ; P. K. Spencer, republican, 253. 

For Auditor — R. S. Steiner, democrat, 
304; Charles P. Peach, republican, 154. 

For Sheriff — Nat James, democrat, 206; 
A. C. Gillispie, republican, 254. 

For Treasurer — D. H. Ford, democrat, 
210; Charles H. Bolton, republican, 244. 

For Probate Judge — R. W. Starr, demo- 
crat, 220 ; L. C. Gandy, republican, 237. 

For County Commissioners — J. W. Steph- 
ens, 243, W. P. Thompson, 193, O. O. Wright, 
166, democrats; John Banneck, 242, John R. 
Lewis, 240, H. C. Godlove, 291, republicans. 

For School Superintendent — A. E. House, 
democrat, 205; C. C. Ladd, republican, 241. 

For Assessor — John E. Hoppe, democrat, 
248 ; William Jamison, republican, 205. 

For Surveyor — J. H. Ballard, democrat, 
231 ; O. Ruud, republican, 226. 

For Coroner — G. W. Philbrick, democrat, 
149; J. H. Husey, republican, 300. 

For Sheep Commissioner — A. A. Pierpont, 
democrat, 243; Frank Rusho, republican, 212. 

The first state election in Washington was 
held October i, 1889, to elect state officers, 
congressmen, to vote on constitution, to vote 
on location of state capital, to select senators 
and superior judge, and to elect county clerks 
of court, which office was provided for by the 
new constitution. Douglas county cast 619 
votes, an increase of over 100 in a year, as fol- 
lows : 

For Congressman — John L. Wilson, repub- 
lican, 357; Griffiths, democrat, 262. 

For Governor — E. P. Ferry, republican, 
353 ; Eugene Semple, democrat, 265. 



For Joint Senator — J. M. Snow, republi- 
can, 336 ; R. W. Starr, democrat, 269. 

For Representative — A. E. McDonald, re- 
publican, 235; E. D. Xasb, democrat, 263; 
Day, 114. 

For Superior Judge — Wallace Mount, re- 
publican, 337; N. T. Caton, democrat, 282. 

For Clerk of Court — E. W. Porter, repub- 
lican, 335; John W. Hartline, democrat, 278. 

For Constitution — 449; against constitu- 
tion, 113. 

For Woman Suffrage — 197; against, 361. 

For Prohibition — 251 ; against, 299. 

For location state capital — Olympia, ^t,; 
Ellensburg, 296; North Yakima, 213; Water- 
ville, 54. 

Nash for representative was the only demo- 
crat on the ticket who carried the county at this 
election. The Douglas county republican con- 
vention was held at Waterville, September 20, 
1890. S. W. Barnes, of Midland precinct was 
made chairman and E. M. Bogart, of Chester 
precinct, secretary. Aside from the nomina- 
tion of a full county ticket Matt W. Miles, H. 
C. Sessions, James Odgers, Charles Brown 
and Frank Corbaley were named as delegates 
to the state convention. The new county cen- 
tral committee comprised L. E. Kellogg, C. C. 
Ladd and H. C. Godlove. 

Saturday, September 27th, the democratic 
county convention assembled at Waterville. 
G. C. Wilson, of Columbia precinct was chosen 
temporary chairman and W. W. Mitchell, of 
Mountain precinct, temporary secretary. R. 
E. Mason was chosen permanent chairman, 
and R. W. Starr, Dan Paul and Tony Rich- 
ardson were selected as a county central com- 
mittee. The convention was harmonious, many 
of the candidates named being chosen without 
opposition. At the following election of 1890 
Douglas county cast over 700 votes. Officers 
elected were divided between the two parties, 
so far as the county ticket was concerned. The 
result : 

For Congressman — Robert Abernathy, pro- 

hibitionist, 23; Thomas Carroll, democrat, 
239; John L. Wilson, republican, 298. 

For Representative — William H. Ander- 
son, democrat, 337; P. E. Berrv, republican, 

For Sheriff — Frank Day, democrat, 445; 
A. C. Gillispie, republican, 281. 

For County Clerk— O. W. Earnest, demo- 
crat, 338; G. W. Hendricks, republican, 350. 

For Auditor — C. C. Ladd, republican, 351 ; 
E. C. Young, democrat, ^y^. 

For Treasurer — ^J. W. Cunningham, re- 
publican, 356; Walter :\Iann, democrat, 372. 

For County Attorney— J. S. Andrews, 
democrat, 389 ; D. C. De Golia, republican, 322. 

For Assessor — Louis Brandt, democrat, 
296; Oscar Redfield, republican, 431. 

For School Superintendent — E. M. Bogart, 
republican, 325 ; A. C. Porter, democrat, 399. 

For County Surveyor— J. B. Ballard, dem- 
ocrat, 317; Ole Ruud, republican, 397. 

For Coroner — ^J. M. F. Cooper, democrat, 
301 ; Colin Gilchrist, republican, 410. 

For County Commissioners — S. C. Rob- 
ins, democrat, 380; R. J. Waters, republican, 
317; John R. Lewis, republican, 389; George 
C. Wilson, democrat, 312; Thomas McMana- 
man, republican, 353; Henry Mitchell, demo- 
crat, 335. 

For location state capital — Ellensburg, 
299; North Yakima, 118; Olympia, 223. 

At the general election of 1892 Douglas 
county polled over one thousand votes. This 
election was the closest of any that had then 
been held in the county. There were four tick- 
ets in the field: republican, democratic, people's 
party and prohibition. The county was car- 
ried by the republican presidential electors and 
the republican candidate for representative by 
narrow pluralities. The people's party candi- 
date for governor carried the county and the 
candidates for other state officers were divided 
between the republicans and the people's party. 
On the county ticket the republicans elected two 
commissioners, joint senator, superior court 


judge, surveyor, coroner. The people's party 
elected their candidates for representative, 
sheriff, auditor, treasurer, assessor, school su- 
perintendent, prosecuting attorney and one 
commissioner. The democrats elected their 
candidate for clerk. The official vote : 

For President — Republican electors, 347; 
democratic, 253; people's party, 299; prohibi- 
tion, 19. 

For Congressmen — John L. Wilson, repub- 
lican, 376; William H. Doolittle, repulican, 
337: James A. IMunday, democrat, 259; 
Thomas Carroll, democrat, 263; M. F. Knox, 
people's party, 351 ; J. C. Van Patten, people's 
party, 332; C. E. Newberrv, prohibitionist, 19; 
A. C. Dickinson, prohibitionist, 19. 

For Governor — John H. McGraw, republi- 
can, 353 ; Henry J. Snively, democrat, 263 ; C. 
W. Young, people's party, 383; Roger S. 
Greene, prohibitionist, 24. 

For Joint Senator— Charles I. Helm, re- 
publican, 333; W. H. Peterson, democrat, 275; 
John T. Greenwood, people's party, 332 ; D. H. 
Haight, prohibitionist, 12. 

For Superior Judge — Wallace Mount, re- 
publican, 434; N. T. Caton, democrat, 230; 
Jackson Brock, people's party, 309. 

For Representative — H. C. Godlove, repub- 
lican. 451 ; John B. Smith, people's party, 478; 
D. D. Utt, prohibitionist, 14. 

For Sheriff — George R. Roberts, republi- 
can, 363 ; Francis W. ]McCann, democrat, 289 ; 
James B. Valentine, people's party, 375 ; D. W. 
Godfrey, prohibition, 13. 

For Auditor — Charles F. Will, republican, 
379; Edway C. Young, people's party, 524; 
Arthur S. Hardenbrook, prohibitionist, 16. 

For treasurer — Howard Honner, republi- 
can, 422; Walter Mann, people's party, 334; 
Isaac M. Cravens, prohibition, 16. 

For Clerk — H. J. Piersol, republican, 254; 
Orin W. Ernst, democrat, 447 ; James A. Gard, 
people's ])arty. 311; William Pawson, prohi- 
bition, II. 

For Assessor — William F. Haynes, repub- 

lican, 370; Albert W. DeBolt, democrat, 296; 
Charles E. Mitchell, people's party, 376; D. 
W. Sanderson, prohibition, 18. 

For School Superintendent — O. D. Porter, 
republican, 344; Mary A. Pryor, democrat, 
312; Edgar M. Bogart, peoples party, 367. 

For prosecuting attorney — E. K. Pender- 
gast, republican, 465 ; George Bradley, people's 
party, 470. 

For Surveyor — Perry T. Sargeant, repub- 
lican, 379; James B. Ballard, democrat, 248; 
John Zimmerman, people's party, 368 ; W. W. 
Reid, prohibition, 13. 

For Coroner — Colin Gilchrist, republican, 
411; John M. F. Cooper, democrat, 245; Eli 
Hollingshead, people's party, 334. 

For Commissioner, First District — C. E. 
Boynton, republican, 381 ; Levi Rickard, demo- 
crat, 263 ; Benjamin M. Chapman, people's 
party, 330; W. C. Piper, prohibition, 17. 

For Commissioner, Second District — - 
Charles M. Sprague, republican, 393 ; Daniel 
Twining, democrat, 222 ; Isaac Deeter, peo- 
ple's party, 332; John Rink, prohibition, 18. 

For Commissioner, Third District — Henry 
Mitchell, democrat, 371 ; Joseph E. Eikelber- 
ner, people's party, 375 ; Henry S. Hedges, 
prohibition, 23. 

For bonding county — 211 ; against, 499. 
The populist party county convention was 
held at the St. Andrews school house July 17, 
1894. The element was out in force and there 
was considerable enthusiasm. A complete 
county ticket was placed in the field. The con- 
vention was called to order by Judge Morgan. 
G. W. Schaeffer was chosen chairman and C. 
C. Ladd, secretary. 

September 8th, of the same year, the Doug- 
las county republicans assembled in convention 
at Coulee City. They placed in the field a full 
ticket. I. \V. Matthews, chairman of the 
county central committee called them to order. 
M. B. Malloy and Oscar Redfield served as 
chairman and secretary respectively. Forty- 
sex-en delegates participated in this convention, 



which was entirely harmonious, nearly all 
the candidates being chosen without opposi- 

The democrats assembled on the 22d at 
Waterville. William Anderson presided as 
chairman and Dr. Cooper served as secretary. 
There were only ten or twelve delegates in at- 
tendance. With the exception of the offices 
of county attorney and surveyor a full county 
ticket was placed in the field. 

The election of 1894 was bitterly contested. 
Personalities were indulged in to a considerable 
extent, and the result left many sore spots. 
Around the office of sheriff centered the prin- 
cipal fight. Eleven hundred and fifty-three 
votes were cast. The republicans elected all 
the county officers with the exception of sheriff 
and assessor which were captured by the peo- 
ple's party candidates, and one commissioner 
elected by the democrats. Following is the of- 
ficial vote: 

For Congressmen — S. C. Hyde, republican, 
396; W. H. Doolittle, republican, 391; X. T. 
Caton, democrat, 129; B. F. Heuston, demo- 
crat, 124; J. C. Van Patten, people's party, 
382 ; W. P. C. Adams, people's party, 397. 

For Representative — M. W. Miles, repub- 
lican, 41 1 ; Dan Paul, democrat, 320 ; Thomas 
N. Ogle, people's party, 391. 

For Sheriff — John R. Lewis, republican, 
327; F. Sigel Steiner, democrat, 289; James 
B. Valentine, people's party, 492. 

For Auditor — Frank M. Dallam, republi- 
can, 399; Orin W. Ernst, democrat, 387; 
George S. Lord, people's party, 303. 

For Treasurer — James H. Hill, republican, 
477; John Urquhart, democrat, 188: R. S. 
Saltmarsh, people's party, 404. 

For Clerk — F. F. Illsley, republican, 440; 
Tolaver T. Richardson, democrat. 271 : Frank 
R. Silverthorn, people's party, 371. 

For Assessor — William Domrese, republi- 
can, 388; James P. Schrock, democrat, 164; 
Charles E. Mitchell, people's party. 525. 

For School Superintendent — J. W. Wol- 

\-erton, republican, 499; Lucy A. Andrews, 
democrat, 108; Edgar M. Bogart, people's 
party, 468. 

For County Attorney — ^L B. Malloy, re- 
publican, 510; W. J. Canton, people's party, 

For Coroner — E. L. Sessions, republican, 
483; A. J. Andrews, democrat, 147; B. L. 
Brigham, people's party, 381. 

For Surveyor — P. T. Sargeant, republican, 
499; Ole Ruud, people's party, 497. 

For Commissioner, Second District — Wil- 
liam F. Haynes, republican, 152; Thomas East, 
democrat, 56; Joseph W. Mitchell, people's 
party, 105. 

For Commissioner, Third District — M. R. 
Kern, republican, 66; Edward Owens, demo- 
crat, 144; Adam P. Kiser, people's party, 116. 

The republican county convention of 1896, 
the "Silver Year," was held at Waterville, Au- 
gust 20th. A. E. McDonald was chairman 
and J. G. Tuttle, secretary. Forty-one dele- 
gates were in attendance. Nearly all the can- 
didates were chosen unanimously. I. W. Mat- 
thews and M. B. Malloy were selected chair- 
man and secretary of the new county central 

For this election the people's party nomi- 
nated candidates for county offices by the pri- 
mary election method. These votes were can- 
vassed by the county's central committee com- 
posed of one member from each precinct at 
Waterville, Saturday, September 12th. G. W. 
Shaffer was selected chairman and L. J. Silver- 
thorn, secretary, of the county central com- 
mittee. By a complete fusion between the 
democrats and populists they elected every can- 
didate on their ticket by overwhelming majori- 
ties, a marked contrast to the election of two 
years previous which was exceedingly close. 
The total vote of the 1896 election in Douglas 
county was 1106. The result: 

For Presidential Electors — Republicans, 
334; democrats, 11; people's party, 722; pro- 
hibition, 10: national, o. 



For Congressman — S. C. Hyde, republican, 
374; W. H. Doolittle, republican, 336; James 
Hamilton Lewis, people's party, 712. 

For Governor — P. C. Sullivan, republican, 
346; John R. Rogers, people's party, 715. 

For Superior Judge — Wallace Mount, re- 
publican, 334; C. H. Neal, people's party, 715. 

For State Senator — Hollis L. Stowell, re- 
publican, 299; Dan Paul, people's party, 761. 

For Representative — M. W. Miles, repub- 
lican, 342; J. B. Smith, people's party, 714. 

For Sheriff — Charles Brenesholz, republi- 
can, 399; Thomas Snyder, people's party, 655. 

For Auditor — Frank M. Dallman, repub- 
lican, 389; Walter Mann people's party, 670. 

For Treasurer — James H. Hill, republican, 
467; L. J. Silverthorn, people's party, 600. 

For Clerk — F. F. Illsley, republican, 388; 
Thomas East, people's party, 659. 

For Assessor — George R. Roberts, repub- 
lican, 399; N. C. Larsen, people's' party, 665. 

For School Superintendent — J. W. Wol- 
verton, republican, 437; G. S. Floyd, people's 
party, 623. 

For County z\ttorney — M. B. Malloy, re- 
publican, 385 ; E. K. Pendergast, people's party, 

For Coroner — E. Hollingshead, republican, 
395 ; Henry Lienrance, people's party, 659. 

For Surveyor — I. W. Matthews, republi- 
can, 382; Ole Ruud, people's party, 681. 

For Commissioner, First District — L. W. 
McLean, republican, 359; H. N. Wilcox, peo- 
ple's party, 701. 

For Commissioner, Third District — 

W. J. Slack, republican, 355 ; D. W. Mar- 
tin, people's party, 695. 

For the campaign of 1898 the democrats 
and populists again formed a combination on 
county ocers, each party selecting a portion 
of the various candidates. The conventions 
of the two parties were held at Waterville on 
the same day, June 26th. Of llie democratic 
convention William Anderson was chairman 
and L. C. Knemeyer secretary. R. S. Salt- 

marsh, of Almira, and Edward Johnson, of 
Waterville, were chairman and secretary of 
the populist convention. Each convention was 
well represented by delegates from all districts 
in the county. Conference committees were 
appointed which endeavored to divide the 
county offices equally and satisfactorily be- 
tween the two wings of the fusionists. There 
was considerable difficulty in doing this, and 
there developed a certain degree of friction. 
The following morning, however, an agree- 
ment was reached whereby the democrats were 
to name the candidates for auditor, clerk, prose- 
cuting attorney and school superintendent, and 
the populists the balance of the county and 
legislative ticket. The populists named their 
candidates by the primary election method Sat- 
urday, September 24th. 

September loth the republican convention 
assembled at Waterville. H. C. Keeler was 
chairman and E. W. Porter, secretary. There 
was a large attendance and plenty of harmony. 
A full ticket was placed in the field and A. L. 
Maltbie was elected chairman of the county 
central committee with M. B. Malloy as secre- 

As in the election two years previous that 
of 1898 resulted in an almost complete victory 
for the fusion forces, the republicans electing 
only one of the county commissioners. Fol- 
lowing is the official vote : 

For Congressmen — Francis W. Cushman^ 
republican, 358; Wesley L. Jones, republican, 
351 ; James H. Lewis, fusionist, 479; William 
C. Jones, fusionist, 458. 

For Representative — W. F. Haynes, repub- 
lican, 385 ; E. K. Pendergast, fusionist, 466. 

For Sheriff — A. L. Maltbie, republican, 
400; C. V. Ogle, fusionist, 453. 

For Clerk — E. B. Porter, republican. 371 ; 
Thomas East, fusionist, 463. 

For Auditor — H. Williams, republican, 
288: W. H. Anderson, fusionist, 483. 

For Treasurer — H. C. Godlove, republican, 
384; L. J. Silverthorn, fusionist, 461. 



For County Attorney — P. E. Berry, repub- 
lican, 394; R. W. Starr, fusionist, 452. 

For Assessor — A. N. Thompson, republi- 
can, 404; N. C. Larson, fusionist, 477. 

For School Superintendent — E. F. Elliott, 
republican, 370 ; Sevilla Steiner, fusionist, 477. 

For Surveyor — A. L. Rogers, republican, 
311 : Ole Ruud, fusionist, 455. 

For Coroner — Eli Hollingshead, republi- 
can, 401 ; Henry Lienrance, fusionist, 431. 

For Commissioner, First District — O. A. 
Ruud, republican, 429; Louis Brandt, fusion- 
ist, 416. 

For Commissioner, Second District — W. 
H. Johnson, republican, 365 ; William Scully, 
fusionist, 458. 

The republican convention preceding the 
campaign of 1900 was held at \Vaterville Sat- 
urday, August 4th. I. W. Matthews was 
chosen chairman and E. B. Porter secretary. 
Nearly all the nominations for a full ticket 
were made by acclamation. L. E. Kellogg was 
elected chairman of the county central commit- 
tee and M. B. Malloy, secretary. Again there 
was a close fusion between the democrats and 
populists. They held their conventions at 
W'aterville Monday, September loth. Each 
party was permitted to name six of the tweh-e 
candidates on the county and legislative tickets, 
the combination to sail under the name, "dem- 
ocratic." The populists selected candidates for 
representative, treasurer, clerk, assessor, county 
attorney and one commissioner. The demo- 
crats named candidates for sheriff, auditor, 
school superintendent, surx-eyor and one com- 

There were cast at the 1900 election 11 67 
votes. The fusion forces carried every office 
in Douglas county with the exception of asses- 
sor. Following is the official vote : 

For President — Republican electors, 508: 
democratic, 609 ; prohibition, 20 ; socialist la- 
bor, I ; social democratic, 12. 

For Congressmen — W. L. Jones, republi- 
can, 496; F. W. Cushman, republican, 502; 

F. C. Robertson, democrat, 609 ; J. T. Ronald, 
democrat, 603. 

For Governor — J. M. Frink, republican, 
444; John R. Rogers, democratic, 673. 

For Joint Senator — J. P. Sharp, republican, 
507; Samuel T. Packwood, democratic, 618. 

For Representative — W. F. Haynes, repub- 
lican, 536; J. F. Badger, democrat, 586. 

For Judge Superior Court — H. A. P. Mey- 
ers, republican, 458; C. H. Neal, democrat, 

For Sheriff — John D. Logan, republican, 
493; A. W. De Bolt, democratic, 641. 

For Clerk — J. W. \Volverton, republican, 
558; F. W. McCann, democratic, 577. 

For Auditor — Oscar F. Dickson, republi- 
can, 445 ; W. H. Anderson, democratic, 689. 

For Treasurer — T. H. McCormick, repub- 
lican, 507; E. M. Bogart, democrat, 628. 

For Prosecuting Attorney — E. K. Pender- 
gast, democrat, 672. 

For Assessor — C. F. Will, republican, 616; 
George M. Stapish, democrat, 524. 

For Superintendent of Schools — Charles 
W. Weedin, republican, 451 ; Sevilla Steiner, 
democrat, 685. 

For Surveyor — John Zimmerman, demo- 
crat, 701. 

For Coroner — E. Hollingshead, republican, 
516; Adam Thompson, democrat, 598. 

For County Commissioner, Second District 
— Jacob Steinbach, republican, 491 ; L. A. Mc- 
Naught, democrat, 626. 

For County Commissioner, Third District 
— I. N. Simmons, republican, 542 ; Thomas 
Snyder, democrat, 578. 

In 1902 the republicans of Douglas county 
assembled in convention at Waterville Satur- 
day, July 19th. T. H. McCormick, of Bridge- 
port, was chairman and Joseph G. Tuttle, of 
Waterville. secretary. There were a number 
of candidates for most of the offices. A. L. 
Rogers was chosen chairman and L. E. Kel- 
logg, secretary, of the county central commit- 
tee. There was developed considerable interest 



in the proposed plank relating to a railway com- 

Fusion between the democarts and populists 
was again accomplished for the impending 
campaign of 1902. The two conventions as- 
sembled at Waterville Saturday, August 9th. 
J. B. Johnson presided over the democratic con- 
vention and Edward Johnson was chairman 
of the populist assembly. The populists named 
candidates for representative, assessor, clerk, 
commissioner first district, treasurer and sur- 
veyor. The democrats selected candidates for 
auditor, school superintendent, coroner, sheriff, 
prosecuting attorney and commissioner for the 
third district. 

The election of 1902 in Douglas county 
resulted in a surprise. It was a complete re- 
versal of the administrative affairs of the 
county. Whereas, in 1900 every candidate 
but one on the fusion ticket was elected, the 
result in 1902 shows that every republican 
candidate was elected. The best the republi- 
cans had hoped for was to carry some of the 
offices, but that all were to be elected exceeded 
the hopes of the most sanguine. , The contest, 
however, was spirited and gingery throughout. 
The Big Bend Empire (republican) speaking 
of the election said : "The result of the elec- 
tion in the county last week no doubt was 
somewhat of a surprise to every one. Nearly 
all thought that it might be possible for the 
republicans to elect two or three of the county 
officers, but they did not expect a clean sweep." 

Over 1400 votes were cast with the follow- 
ing result : 

For Congress — F. W. ■ Cushman, republi- 
can. 778; W. L. Jones, republican, 775 ; W. H. 
Humphry, republican, 754; G. F. Cotterill, 
democrat, 605 ; O. R. Holcomb, democrat, 603 ; 
F. B. Cole, democrat, 609. 

For Joint Senator — George J. Hurley, re- 
publican, 746; J. M. F, Cooper, democrat, 669. 

For Representative — W. F. Haynes, repub- 
lican, 774; J. F. Badger, democrat, 640. 

For Sheriff — A. A. Lytle, republican, 751; 
A. W. De Bolt, democrat, 679. 

For Clerk — A. N. Maltbie, republican, 745 ; 
F. ^V. McCann, democrat, 664. 

For Auditor — L. E. Kellogg, republican, 
802; Ross Lord, democrat, 605. 

For Treasurer — E. C. Davis, republican, 
709; E. M. Bogart, democrat, 699. 

For Prosecuting Attorney — E. T. Trimble, 
republican, 818; W. A. Reneau, democrat, 


For Assessor — C. F. Will, republican, 818; 
J. E. Eikelberner, democrat, 594. 

For School Superintendent — Eva Hagen, 
republican, 818; W. B. Dutcher, democrat, 


For Surveyor — Ole Ruud, 724. 

For Coroner — J. Frank Harris, republican, 
730; P. J. Friesinger, democrat, 671. 

For Commissioner, First District — L. Mc- 
Lean, republican, 757; H. N. Wilcox, demo- 
crat, 622. 

For Commissioner, Third District — J. L. 
Stuart, republican, 736; John Doneen, demo- 
crat, 666. 



The first school district organized in Doug- 
las county was on May 4, 1885, by E. E. 
Brown, superintendent of pubhc instruction. 
It was District No. i, and was in the CaHfor- 
nia settlement, north of where is now located 
Hartline, and consisted of all of township 27, 
except sections 6, 7, 18, 19, 30 and 31. August 
4, 1886, the boundaries were changed as fol- 
lows : 

Beginning at the northeast corner of Doug- 
las county, running west on county line to 
range 29, thence south on range line to town- 
ship 27, thence east one mile to county line, 
thence north to place of beginning. Of this 
district, A. Davis was clerk, David Wilson and 
John O'Neil directors. 

District No. 2 was created also on May 4, 

1885, Frank Day, clerk, A. Rusho, I. P. 
Schock and J. H. Smith, directors. The first 
school building erected in the county was put 
up in district No. 2, in 1885, and the first school 
taught in the county was conducted there. The 
term began September 5, 1885, and closed Jan- 
uary I, 1886. The whole number of scholars 
was fifteen boys and ten girls, with an average 
attendance of 18. C. C. Ladd. 

The first public school taught west of the 
coulees and the second in the county opened 
December 7, 1885, and closed February 26, 

1886. R. S. Steiner, still a resident of Water- 
ville, was the teacher. Following are the 
names of the pupils who attended this school : 
Albert Bonwell, Bertha Bonwell, Francis Bon- 
well, James Bonwell. Willie Gorman, Albert 
Miles, Fred Miles, George Miles, Lulu Miles, 

Stella Miles, Edward Owens, John Owens, 
James Owens, Robert Owens, Rachael Owens, 
Clara Kommer, Ida Kommer and Karl Kom- 

The third district was created August 4, 
1886, on the north side of Badger Mountain. 
The clerk was' R. Miles and Robert Bonwell, 
Ole Ruud and D. W. Martin were directors. 
May 3, 1886, the fourth district was created 
with J. O. Wallace, clerk, James Simons, Da- 
vid Soper and Amel Johnson, directors. 

No. '5, the Waterville district, was created 
May 4, 1886. F. M. Alexander was clerk, W. 
M. Wixson, H. N. Wilcox and J. C. Brown- 
field, were the directors. N'ovember 29, 1888, 
the Big Bend Empire said : 

"Next Monday, December 2, 1888, the 
boys and girls of \^^aterville will take their 
books and slates and, assisted by Miss Hattie 
Fuller, (afterward Mrs. L. E. Kellogg), as 
teacher, will organize the first public school of 

This was the pioneer school of Waterville 
and there were twenty-three pupils enrolled the 
first day. The attendance was increased in one 
month to forty pupils and many were turned 
away on account of lack of accommodations. 

The first Douglas County Teachers' Insti- 
tute was held at Waterville on Monday, Tues- 
day and Wednesday, November 11, 12 and 13, 
1889, under the direction of County Superin- 
tendent C. C. Ladd. This initial institute of 
Douglas county teachers was in every way a 
success and one that will be remembered bv all 
who participated in the same. The teachers 



present were : E. M. Bogart, C. E. Bateman, 
Mrs. S. Bateman, Eva E. Brown, Cora Brown, 
J. J. Brownfield, R. H. Brownfield. J. V. Crisp, 
O. ^^^ Ernst, Mrs. Clara Fitch. George L. 
Fitch, Georgiana Day, H. G. W. Hendricks, 
Eva Howland, Mrs. L. E. Kellogg, Will Le- 
man, Fannie Minton, Mrs. Julia Morris, Mrs. 
A. Rogers, A. C. Porter, O. D. Porter, P. E. 
Berry, Phoebe Titchenal, Clara Wright. Kate 

In the fall of 1889 Waterville began the 
erection of a $3,000 school house, quite an in- 
stitution for the town at that time. James H. 
Kincaid was the moving spirit in this enter- 
prise, he contributing $500 in cash and a site 
for the building. A special tax was voted by 
the residents of the district to complete the 
amount. At this period the school directors 
were F. M. Scheble, A. L. Rogers and P. G. 
Van Alstine. 

A report of the condition of the schools of 
Douglas county was not made by any of the 
county superintendents until 1890. From the 
report of that year we learn that there were 
966 children in the county between the ages of 
five and twenty-one years. Of these 665 were 
enrolled as students in the public schools and 
the average attendance was 490. There were 
28 districts in the county, but only 11 school 
houses — one log building and 10 frame struc- 
tures. The total value of all school property 
was estimated by the school superintendent at 
$8,302. Thirty-three teachers were employed 
during the year. The average monthly salary 
of male teachers was $43 and that of female 
teachers, $38.50. 

From this humble beginning the schools of 
Douglas county have made a wonderful ad- 
vancement and no county in the state can boast 
of better schools than Douglas. From the sup- 
erintendent's report from 1903 we learned that 
the towns containing more than one district 
were Waterville, Coulee City, Bridgeport, Wil- 
soncreek and Hartline. The number of chil- 

dren of from 5 to 21 years of age were 3,053. 
Of these there were enrolled in public schools 
2,448. The average daily attendance was i,- 
493. There were no departments maintained 
in the county during the year 1898. The whole 
number of teachers employed during the year 
were 133. The average inonthly salary was, 
males, $50.21: females, $50.49. The number 
of pupils taking the first year's course were 
624 : second, 315; fourth, 367 ; fifth, 505 ; 
si.xth, 193; seventh, 140; eighth, 124; ninth, 
10: tenth, 14; eleventh, 10; twelfth, 4. There 
were 13 in attendance on private schools. The 
number of school houses in the county were, 
log, 3 : frame, 59; brick, i, and the total seating 
capacity of these structures was 2,083. The 
total value of this property was $58,467. The 
number of districts in the county had increased 
to 76. There was one graded school and one 
high school at Waterville. The number of 
temporary certificates issued during this year 
were 48. Teachers having Territorial certi- 
ficates were 2 ; normal department State Uni- 
versity, I ; elementary certificates from normal 
schools, I ; first grade certificates, 7 ; second 
grade 50, and third grade, 20. 

In preceding chapters it has been shown 
that at the time of the organization of Douglas 
county early in 1884, the population was any- 
thing but dense. Many of these early settlers 
were single men or men who had come to seek 
a home in the new county, leaving their famil- 
ies behind until their homes should have been 
prepared. On account of these conditions the 
years 1883 and 1884 did not witness the estab- 
lishment of a single school in any portion of 
Douglas county. By 1885, however, active 
preparations were made for the organization 
of schools in two settlements, one east of 
Grand Coulee and the other in the Badger 
Mountain country. \''era Brown was superin- 
tendent of schools and May 4, 1885, she created 
Districts No. i and 2. 







GEORGE R. ROBERTS is now doing a 
large business in grain and implements in Hart- 
line. He has the distinction of being the pio- 
neer merchant of the coulee country and since 
the days of 1883, he has remained in this sec- 
tion and has by his integrity, worth and affable 
treatment of all, won hosts of friends in all 
parts of the country. Mr. Roberts is a man of 
stirring qualities and has wrought here with 
energy accomplishing very much in fostering 
the settlement and upbuilding of Douglas coun- 
George R. Roberts was born in Wildrose, 
Wisconsin, on September 25, 1859, the son of 
Robert G. and Elizabeth (Williams) Roberts, 
natives of Wales. The common schools of 
Wisconsin furnished the educational training of 
our subject, and he remained the first twenty- 
four 3-ears of his life in that section. For eight 
years of that time he worked in the lumber 
woods and became used to the arduous labors 
there done. In 1883, Mr. Roberts came out 
w^est and after due deliberations settled in the 
Big Bend country. He immediately took up a 
pre-emption just east from where Hartline now 
stands and engaged in farming and stockrais- 
ing. This continued until 1888, when he 
opened a store at McEntee Springs, handling 
general merchandise. In i88g, he took as part- 
ner, Thomas Parry and the firm was known as 
Roberts & Parry. They did a large business 
and continued until 1895, when they dissolved 
partnership and our subject engaged in buying 
grain at Hartline. In this lie has continued 
since, having added implements later. He now 
does a large business and is a prominent man of 
this town. 

Mr. Roberts has four brothers and five 
sisters; Robert. John, David, James, Mrs. 
Elizabeth Parry, Sarah, Ellen, Marion, and 

In 1888, Mr. Roberts married Miss Esther 
Elias, a native of Ohio. She died the follow- 
ing year in Coulee City. On June 8, 1898, Mr. 
Roberts married Miss Mary Elias, also a native 
of Ohio, and the daughter of Daniel and Mar- 
garet (Morgan) Elias, natives of Wales, who 
now reside in Ohio. Mrs. Roberts was born 
in 1873. They have one adopted child, Ethel, 
three years of age. Mr. Roberts is a member of 
the I. O. O. E., the Maccabees, and the IM. W. 
A., while he and his wife belong to the ]\Iethod- 
ist church. 

HUGO E. HARTMAN is one of the lead- 
ing and wealthy citizens of Hartline. In ad- 
dition to doing a good farming business on a 
estate adjoining the town, Mr. Hartman con- 
ducts a large butchering establishment and buys 
and sells stock. He began business with a very 
limited capital and owing to his thrift and wis- 
dom has increased until he has now in the but- 
chering enterprise alone a large sum invested 
and is doing an extensive and thriving business. 

Hugo F. Hartman was born in Wurtem- 
berg, Germany, on April 27, 1871, being the 
son of Albert and Christina (Schuele) Hart- 
man, natives of Germany. He received thor- 
ough instruction in the common schools of 
Stuttgart. He attended the high school there 
and later after coming to Spokane was under 
the instruction of Father Held. He came to 
the United States in 1886 and was soon en- 



gaged with Drumheller and Wilson, butchers 
of Spokane. Thence he went to San Francisco, 
and engaged in the same vocation for a year 
there. We find him next in Montana and then 
at Cripple Creek, where he did business for four 
years. After this, Mr. Hartman returned to 
Coeur d' Alene and in 1891 he was again in 
Spokane. There he was with Dumke. Imme- 
diately subsequent to that. Mr. Hartman went 
into business relations for himself and opened 
the Montana Meat Market, at Spokane, which 
he conducted until 1896, then removed to Hart- 
line where he has remained until the present 
time. During three years of this time, Mr. 
Hartman did business in Davenport, Wash- 
ington. He has a fine farm adjoining Hartline 
and a large band of cattle and horses. Mr. 
Hartman has one brother, Julius, at Spokane, 
and one sister. Ana, residing at his birthplace 
in Germany. 

At Spokane, in 1893, Mr. Hartman married 
Miss Emma, daughter of August and Earnest- 
ine Delzer, natives of Germany. Mrs. Hart- 
man was born in Forest Junction, Calumet 
county, Wisconsin, on October 13, 1872. She 
has four sisters; Mrs. Frederick Cusse, Mrs. 
Fred Wilson, both living in Spokane; Mrs. 
Lizzie Muller, of Washington, Wisconsin; Mrs. 
]\Iinnie Filer, of Depere, Wisconsin; and one 
brother, William Delzer, of Forest Junction, 
Wiscons-.n. To Mr. and Mrs. Hartman one 
child has been born, Oscar A., in Spokane, on 
Julv 13. 1894. Mr. Hartman is a member of 
the I. O. O. F., the W. W., the Maccabees, and 
and the M. W. A. 

' PERRY T. SARGEANT, who is one of 
the most prosperous farmers in the vicinity of 
Hartline, having a very excellent, well im- 
proved and well cultivated holding, is also one 
of the leading men of the county, having shown 
his ability in various capacities and his progres- 
siveness and iuflustry in his achievements here. 
Perry T. Sargeant was born in Vander- 
burg county, Indiana, on September 16, 1864. 
His parents, Orsames P. and Rachel C. (Tay- 
lor) Sargeant, were natives of Vermont and 
Virginia, respectively. Perry T. was educated 
in the common schools and also studied under 
private teachers, being especiallv inclined to- 
'v-ard matliematics. Although he never took a 

degree from any college, he made a special 
study of mathematics and has won considerable 
distinction in this line. From Indiana, he re- 
moved to Texas, where he was engaged on the 
cattle range for three years, then he returned 
to his native state, by way of New Orleans. 
One year later, he came to Kansas and in a 
short time we see him in California, whence he 
journeyed to Portland, Oregon, and from that 
place came on to Ellensburg and engaged on 
the Northern Pacific as a civil engineer. After 
six years of service in this capacity he com-^ 
pleted the training that he had been so desirous 
of obtaining in mathematics. In 1886, Mr. 
Sargeant moved to Douglas county and settled 
in the Coulee, six miles north of Coulee City, 
where he took up a homestead, which was later 
sold to Adolph Young. He bought five hun- 
dred and sixty acres, his present estate, and 
which is one of the finest farms in this section 
of the country. In 1894. Mr. Sargeant was 
elected surveyor on the Republican ticket and 
two years later, so well did he fill the ofiice, he 
was re-elected. After these four years of ser- 
vice he returned to his farm and has devoted 
his attention to private enterprises until re- 
cently, when he was appointed road supervisor 
of district number two. Douglas county, in 
which capacity he is operating at the present 
time. Mr. Sargeant has two brothers and two 
sisters, Eugene G., Morris H., Mrs. Thomas 
Leach, and Mrs. Charles Crampton. 

At the Welch cfiurch, on February 2, 1891, 
Mr. Sargeant married Miss Clara J. Jones. Her 
parents, William and Alice E. (Owens) Jones, 
are natives of Wales. Mrs. Sargeant was born 
in Wisconsin, on November 30, 1870, and has 
the following brothers and sisters : William 
E., John G., Mrs. Maggie Allen, Ealenor N., 
and Phoebe. Two children have been the fruit 
of this marriage: Alice R., born in Spokane 
on October 15, 1897; and William O.. born 
near Hartline, on February 16, 1899. Mr. 
Sargeant is a member of the I. O. O. F., the 
Maccabees and the K. P. In religious persuas- 
ion he is allied with the Cumberland Presby- 
terian church but is a liberal supporter of all 

PHILLIP J. YOUNG, who is now one of 
the leading business men of Hartline. is also 
one of the pioneers of Douglas county, and has 



labored steadily for twenty years to advance 
and build up the country and his excellent 
efforts have materially assisted to bring about 
the present state of prosperity and thriving 
growtli of this favored section. 

Phillip J. Young was born in Ripley county, 
Indiana, on October 17, 1845, the son of 
Charles F. and Margaret (Gesell) Young, na- 
tives of Germany. They came to the United 
States in early days and were pioneer settlers 
in Indiana. Phillip J. was educated in the 
common schools of Indiana and Iowa, later 
completing his training ill the state Normal at 
Galena, Illinois. In 1856 the family removed 
to Winneshiek county, Iowa, where our sub- 
ject was trained in the ways of farm work by 
his father. He there grew to manhood and 
remained until 1881, when he removed to Ne- 
braska. After a short residence in that state, 
Mr. Young came on to Idaho, then looked over 
Oregon, and finally in 1883. settled in Douglas 
countv, taking a pre-emption and later a home- 
stead near the Grand Coulee. He at once set 
to work to improve his places and began rais- 
ing stock. Of horses and cattle he raised many 
and was very successful until the winter of 
1889-90, when, like the others in this same 
business in all lines, always carrying a full 
daunted, however, he went to work in the same 
lines, and in 1890 also opened a lumber yard 
in Hartline. He did well in this business and 
later added paints, oils, glass, and so forth. He 
also handles coal and wood and does a good 
business in all the lines, always carrying a full 
stock. In 1886 Mr. Young was elected county 
commissioner and did good service for the 
county for two years. He also served as jus- 
tice of the peace for six years. 

Mr. Young has five brothers and one sis- 
ter, Charlie W., Adolph, Jacob, William, Louis, 
and Mrs. Louise Henning. 

In Howard county. Iowa, on December 26, 

1873, ^Ir. Young married Miss Louisa Stand- 
ard, whose parents, John and Julia (Shutt) 
Standard, were natives of Denmark. Mrs. 
Young was born in Denmark, on Jvme 13, 1851. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Young the following children 
have been born; Edward H.. on November 9, 

1874, now a sugar manufacturer in Waverly, 
Washington; Ida C, on January 24, 1876, now 
teaching school: and Francis J., on October 7, 
1880, now teaching school. The children were 

all born in Iowa. Mr. and ]Mrs. Young are ad- 
herents of the Lutheran church and are exem- 
plary citizens. 

JOHN C. BROWNFIELD, who resides 
four miles south from Farmer postoffice, is 
one of the best known men in Douglas county. 
He has lived here since the early days of set- 
tlement and has ever taken a leading part in all 
enterprises of a public nature, which are for 
the benefit of all. Mr. Brownfield has been 
exceptionally successful in handling stock, es- 
pecially the Clyde horses, specimens of which 
can now be seen on almost every farm in Doug- 
las county. 

John C. Brownfield was born in Cooper 
county, Missouri, on September 12, 1841, the 
son of John and Mary (Potter) Bro\\Tifield. 
The father was born in Virginia, becoming a 
pioneer settler of Illinois and in 1832 moved 
to Missouri. The mother was a native of Ken- 
tucky. Our subject was trained in the early 
schools of Cooper county, Missouri, and there 
remained until he grew to manhood. On April 
15, 1861, he enlisted in Company K, Twenty- 
seventh Missouri Volunteers under Captain 
Parker, the same being for ninety days, but he 
served nine months before he was discharged. 
On the same day that he was mustered out, he 
re-enlisted in Company D, Seventh Missouri 
Cavalry, of the State Militia, under Captain 
Tarley and served for three years and two 
months or until the close of the war. Air. 
Brownfield never participated in any heavy bat- 
tles but was in that most annoying of all war- 
fare, constant skirmishing with the bushwhack- 
ers. His general was E. B. Brown, a brother- 
in-law of General Price, the enemy. In April, 
1865, Mr. Brownfield received his honorable 
discharge and returned to the duties of the 
cfvilian. He settled in Bates county, Alissouri, 
and there farmed for seventeen years. In 
1884, he came west to Spokane, locating on 
Five Mile prairie, just out from that city, 
whence two years later, he came to Douglas 
county, locating near Waterville. He took a 
farm about a mile northeast from the town, 
which was sold later. Afterwards, he took a 
homestead where he now lives and to which 
he has added until he now has four hundred and 
twentv acres of fertile land. This esatte is near- 


ly all under cultivation and is improved in first 
class shape, with good wells of water, fences, 
outbuildings, barns, residences and so forth. 
Mr. Brownfield has some very excellent Clyde 
horses and is giving his entire attention to gen- 
eral farming and raising stock. He has the 
following brothers and sisters, Jasper, Daniel, 
Mrs. Elizabeth Weedin, Mrs. Susan Weedin, 
Mrs. Ann Stanley, and Mrs. Minerva Tur- 

The marriage of Mr. Brownfield and Miss 
Emily Thomas occurred in Pettis county, Mis- 
souri, on April 17, 1864. The wife's parents 
are Joel and Christiana (Comer) Thomas, na- 
tives of North Carolina. They came to Mis- 
souri in 1832 and are still residing there. Mrs. 
Brownfield was born in Pettis county, on Feb- 
ruary 29, 1840, and has three brothers and two 
sisters, Henry, Joel, U. S. Grant, Mrs. Syntha 
Carver, and Mrs. Eliza Greer. The names of 
children of Mr. and Mrs. Brownfield, together' 
with the dates and places of their births are 
given herewith: John T., Pettis county, Mis- 
souri, June 24, 1865 : George W., Pettis coun- 
ty, Missouri, November 5, 1866, now living at 
Waterville; Mary C, Bates county, Missouri, 
August 22, 1868, now living in Lincoln coun- 
ty; Joel J., Bates county, Missouri, May 15, 
1870; Robert H., Bates county, DecemlDer 5, 
1872; Daniel L., Bates county, February 6, 
1876: and Rose M., Spokane county. Washing- 
ton, May 3, 1884. 

Mr. Brownfield is a member of the G. A. 
R., and quite active in this realm. He and his 
wife are members of the Christian church and 
have always exerted a good moral influence 
where they have dwelt, being people of integ- 
rity and good principles. 

GEORGE D. BROWN, who resides about 
eight miles northeast from Toler, is one of the 
well-to-do farmers of Douglas county, who 
adds to the good work of raising the cereals 
and handlins" stock, the business of the pro- 
moter. In all these capacities, he has been suc- 
cessful and is one of the widely and favorablv 
known men of this locality. He is a native of 
Ontario, Canada, being born on February 23, 
1869, the son of George and Margaret (Wig- 
gans) Brown, looth natives of Canada. In the 
excellent schools of Ontario, our subject was 

trained and remained in his native place until 
grown to manhood. At Orangeville, he was 
engaged for two years as apprentice in the 
Flemming tiour mills, learning the art of the 
miller. In 1890, he came west and after due 
search and investigation located on the place 
he now owns, buying the right to the same from 
Sarah Morgan. His location here was in 1891, 
and the year previous was largely spent in the 
F"raser river valley. Since coming here. Mr. 
Brown has continued steadily in operating his 
farm, which is handled largely to the cereals. 
In 1898, he organized the M. M. & B. Co., for 
the purpose of handling and developing the 
water power in the Chelan river. They have 
about thirty thousand horse power in the falls 
and will develop it to a higher amount by the 
addition of machinery. Mr. Brown has the 
following brothers and sisters, John A., Will- 
iam J., Robert A., Samuel J., Joshua, Levi, 
Alfred G., Frederick W., Mrs. M. McKenzie, 
and Mrs. Thomas J. Manley. 

The wedding clay of Mr. Brown was on 
July 19, 1893, ^"d li^s marriage to Miss Amelia 
Marshall occurred in this county. The parents 
of the wife are Robert and Hester (Timney) 
Marshall, natives of Canada. She was born in 
Ontario, Canada, on March i, 1868, and has 
three brothers and two sisters, Henry, John, 
James, Mrs. John Brown and Mrs. Eliza Mar- 
shall. The children born to this worthy couple 
are named as follows with the dates of their 
respective births: Margaret H.', July 17, 1894; 
Mary G., June i, 1895; Lillian A., August 4, 
1897: Anna L.. January 7, 1899: Marshall W., 
July 18, 1901. All of the children are natives 
of Douglas county except the last one, who was 
born in Chelan county. Mr. and Mrs. Brown 
are members of the Presbyterian church and 
have always evinced a great interest in the 
moral as well as the material welfare of the 
community, being progressive and capable peo- 

WILLIAM BAKER is one of the wide 
awake and well-to-do farmers of Douglas 
county. He resides about twelve miles north- 
east from Waterville, upon an estate of a 
half section, part of which he acquired by pur- 
chase and part by government right. The farm 
produces cereals, mostly. The few years he 
lias resided here, Mr. Baker has been known as 



one of the thrifty and wise farmers, whose suc- 
cess proclaims his abihty and tenacity, better 
dian words can tell. 

William Baker was born in Tippecanoe 
countv, Indiana, on September 8, 1855. The 
father, Alexander B., was born in London, 
England and came to the United States quite 
young, settling as a pioneer in Indiana, where 
he married Martha Boggs, a native of Ohio. 
Our subject was educated in a log cabin school 
house in Indiana and there remained until he 
had arrived at manhood's estate. In 1881. he 
went to Missouri, settling in Atchison county 
and was known as one of the industrious tillers 
of the soil there until 1888, which was the year 
that marks his advent to Douglas county. He 
at once took a homestead where he resides at 
present and since that time has remained con- 
stantly engaged in general farming and stock 
raising. Mr. Baker has one sister, Ella, and 
one brother, David. 

In Atchison county, Missouri, on February 
4, 1882, occurred the marriage of ^Vi!liam 
Baker and Miss Laura Smith. Her parents 
were Abner and Ersley (Bovee) Smith, natives 
of Tennessee and Indiana, respectively. Mrs. 
Baker was born in Atchison county, Missouri, 
July 2, 1866 and has the following brothers and 
sisters, Frank, Tulley, Mrs. Ella Jackson, Mrs. 
Nancy Payne, Mrs. Mary Jackson, Mrs. Matil- 
da Mutchlor, Mrs. Cora Randies and Mrs. 
Minnie Van Dusen. The children born to our 
subject and his wife are named as follows: 
Jennie M., born on July i, 1885 and now the 
wife of J. M. Shepperson, both residing in this 
county; Catherine C, born on February 11, 
1888. Both daughters are natives of Atchison 
county, Missouri. 

In religious persuasion our subject belongs 
to the Baptist denomination but is not an active 
cummunicant with anv church. 

JOHN M. FLETCHER, who resides 
about four miles northeast from Toler. is one 
of the heavy real estate owners of Douglas 
county. His total holdings recently were near- 
ly two sections but at the present time he has 
sold some to four of his sons and has not quite 
so large an acreage. He dwells in a fine, large 
two story, eleven room house, which is sur- 
rounded by pleasant grounds, barns, outbuild- 

ings and other improvements. His attention is 
devoted entirely to general farming and some 
stock raising. His labors have been so success- 
ful that he has gained a liberal competence of 
this world's goods and he is known as a leading 
and reliable citizen. 

John J\I. Fletcher was born in Carroll coun- 
ty, Ohio, on September 17, 1840, the son of 
Thomas J. and Susannah (Leslie) Fletcher. 
The latter was born in Ohio, and the former in 
England and came to the United States while 
young. The district schools of Ohio con- 
tributed the educational training of our subject 
for a short time, he not being privileged to 
spend many years in study. The family 
migrated to Iowa in 1848, one year later to 
Missouri, and thence in two years the entire 
family crossed the plains with ox teams to 
Clarke county, Washington. It was the family 
home for nineteen years. In 1870, our subject 
went to Polk county, Oregon, dwelling near 
Independence for three years. After that, he 
removed to the vicinity of Pilot Rock, in Uma- 
tilla county and three years later went thence 
to Pendleton and engaged in the butcher busi- 
ness. He operated in Pendleton and Weston 
until 1887, when he journeyed into the Big 
Bend country and settled on his present place 
as a pre-emption. He took a timber culture and 
has also added as stated above until he has a 
very large estate, part of which belongs now 
to other members of the family. 

In 1855-6, Mr. Fletcher served with the 
Washington Territory Volunteers against the 
Indians, under Captain Kelley. Mr. Fletcher 
has six brothers and three sisters, named as fol- 
lows, William, Arthur J., Thomas L., Eli H., 
Robert A., George L., Mrs. C. Gibbons, Mrs. 
Sarah Gibbons and Mrs. Mary Pendleton. 

In Clarke county, Washington, on July 21, 
1867, Mr. Fletcher married Miss Nancy A., 
daughter of James and Delila (Thompson) 
McAllister, natives of Pennsylvania and In- 
diana, respectively. Mrs. ■ Fletcher was 
born in Wayne county, Indiana on Feb- 
ruary 18, 1847, and the next year was 
brought by her parents across the plains to 
Clarke county, Washington. She has five 
brothers and one sister, named as follows, 
Alexander, Garrison, Joseph, Jasper, Walter 
F., Mrs. Ester Clark, and two half sisters, Mrs. 
Mary E. Negley and Mrs. Anna M. Tucker. 
To ^Ir. and Mrs. Fletcher, the following chil- 



dren have been born: Esther E., in Vancouver, 
Washington, May 4, 1868, and now the wife 
of David Gillespie, and living at Brewster, 
\\'ashington; William H., in Vancouver, on 
August 23, 1869, now residing at Greenlake, 
Washington; Charles E., in Vancouver, on 
September 10, 1870, now at Waterville; Walter 
J., in Pilot Rock, on July 17, 1874, died Feb- 
ruary 28, 1888; Albert F., in Weston, Oregon, 
on June 25, 1877; Ralph A., at Weston, Ore- 
gon, on November 17, 1879, now at Greenlake; 
Olive I., in Weston, Oregon, on March 4, 1882 ; 
Carrie E., at Weston, Oregon, on April 21, 
1886; Fred T., in this county, on March 25, 
1889; Ruby E., in this county, on February i, 
1891 ; Crystal M., in this county, on October 
26, 1892; and Royal Pearl, in this county, on 
June 27, 1895. 

Mr. Fletcher is a member of the A. F. & 
A. M. and takes a keen interest in political 
matters and the questions of the day. 

SANFORD E. JORDAN. About eight 
miles northeast from the town of Waterville, 
we find the estate of the subject of this article, 
W'hich consists of one-half section of fertile 
prairie land. The same is in a high state of 
cultivation and produces annually bounteous 
returns of the cereals and other crops, under 
the skillful husbandry of the owner. Mr. Jor- 
dan has devoted himself to the improvement 
and cultivation of his farm continuously since 
his settlement here and is now considered one 
of the best farmers in this vicinity. He is a 
man of broad public mind, generous to a fault 
and stands exceptionally well with all who 
know him. 

Sanford E. Jordan was born in Crawford 
county, Iowa, November 21, 1862, the son of 
Abel W. and Mary (Palmer) Jordan, natives 
of Iowa and Illinois, respectively. His youth- 
ful days were spent assisting his father and 
gaining an education from the public schools 
of Crawford county and he remained on the old 
home place, until he had grown to manhood. 
It was in 1884, that he journeyed to Plymouth 
county, Iowa, where four years werp spent in 
farming. In 1888, he came to Douglas county, 
taking a portion of his present estate by home- 
stead, the balance has been added later by pur- 
chase. In addition to raising grain and other 

crops, he also handles a band of cattle and has 
some nice grades at the present time. Mr. 
Jordan also raises a good many fine hogs. 

Our subject has the following sisters, Mrs. 
Ida Dobson, Mrs. Lura Gritfin, Mrs. Eva 
Arnold, and Mrs. Lovina Winn. Mr. 
Jordan is not a member of any religious de- 
nomination although he is strictly in sympathy 
with the work of the church. He is ready to 
aid materially in building up good schools and 
in the general improvement of the country and 
has always been an industrious laborer for 
the general good. 

JOHN H. WITTE resides about eighty 
rods south from Southside Postoffice, where 
he has an estate of one-half section of good 
farming land. All of this land is under culti- 
vation and produces excellent crops of small 
grains. The place is provided with a comfort- 
able residence, barns, and so forth and shows 
in every detail the skill and thrift of the owner. 
Mr.Witte has gained considerable distinction in 
breeding Poland China hogs. He raises excel- 
lent animals and is becoming a very expert 
producer. He also handles good cattle and 
some horses. 

John H. Witte was born in Mecklenburg, 
Germany, on August 17, 1872, the son of 
August H. and Sophia (Shroder) Witte, 
natives of Germany. The father served in the 
Franco-Prussian war. Our subject came with 
his father to the United States in 1876, and was 
educated in the public schools of Iroquois coun- 
ty, Illinois where he remained until nineteen. 
1 89 1 marks the year in which he came to Doug- 
las county, choosing the homestead where he 
now resides as his place of settlement. Since 
that time, he has wrought here without inter- 
ruption in general farming and stock raising 
and is known over the county as one of the sub- 
stantial men who is ever laboring for the gen- 
eral advancement as well as the forwarding of 
his own business enterprises. 

Mr. Witte has two brothers, August H. 
and Charles J., and one sister, Lena Dohmeyer. 

The marriage of Mr. ^^'itte and Miss Maud 
Johnson occurred at Waterville, on January 31, 
1895. The parents of the bride are J. M. and 
Eliza (Andrews) Johnson, natives of Missouri 
and living in this county. Mrs, Witte was born 



in Butler, ]\Iissouri, on October i, 1878 and has 
four brothers and one sister, Buford C, Ed- 
ward B., Gihner, WiUiam, and Mrs. Jessie M. 
Atkinson, all living in this county except the 
first one, who resides in Montana. Mr. and 
Mrs. Witte have been blessed by the advent of 
two children : John Keith, born January 7, 
1896; Mabel May, born on January 22, 1900. 
Mr. Witte was raised under the influence of 
the Lutheran church and is a supporter of that 
institution and of public enterprises for the 
good of the communit)'. 

RICHARD J. WATERS resides about 
five miles north fi^om Waterville on an estate 
of two hundred acres, the title to which he 
secured by homestead right and by purchase. 
From the raw prairie, Mr. Waters has made 
one of the best farms of the section. It is now 
all under cultivation, well fenced, wisely laid 
out and is provided with all necessary improve- 
ments. In addition to general farming, Mr. 
A\^aters has gone very e.'vtensively into fruit 
raising and has now at least thirty-five acres 
set to leading varieties of trees. This is one of 
the best orchards in central ^\'ashington and is 
kept in most excellent shape, Mr. Waters going 
on the motto, that what is worth doing at all 
is worth well doing. The fruit is largely apples, 
apricots, and cherries. The leading varieties 
of apples are Black Ben Davis, Missouri Pip- 
pins, Winesaps, Jonathans, Senators, Apples of 
Commerce, and of cherries Ro)^al Ann, Rag, 
and General Wood. W^ithout doubt, Mr. 
Waters has shown himself one of the leading 
orchardists of the country and we may well 
look for large returns from his labors. 

Richard J. Waters was born in Mercer 
county. Illinois, on March 4. 1857, the son of 
Aron P. and Eliza (Stroup) Waters. The 
former born in Ohio and the latter in Indiana. 
Aron P. Waters was one of the pioneer settlers 
in Kansas and in 1862, when the call came for 
men to fight for the stars and stripes, he enlisted 
among the volunteer troops under Captain 
Harlow. His service was largely in Missouri, 
against General Price and he received his hon- 
orable discharge at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, 
at the close of the war. :\Ir. Water's regiment 
made a good record and for days did much 
hard fighting. Our subject was educated in 

the common schools of Illinois, and in Kansas 
completed the high school course. At the age 
of fifteen he departed from home and soon 
thereafter began work on a farm in Pike coun- 
ty, Illinois, where he remained until 1877, then 
journeyed to Minnesota, settling in Stillwater. 
Sawmilling occupied him for some time there, 
after which he moved to Kansas City and tilled 
the soil until he went to Wyoming a year or so 
later, where he took up railroading. He re- 
mained there until July, 1881, then came on to. 
Idaho then settled across the river from where 
Payette now stands, being the locator of the 
town. In the spring of 1884, he came to this 
county and took a portion of his estate as a 
homestead. In addition to the property above 
mentioned, he has some lots in Waterville and 
is a very prosperous farmer and orchardist. 

Mr. Waters has the following brothers and 
sisters, Thomas, James, Charles, William, Mrs. 
Lincoln Hamilton, Mrs. William Frederick, 
and Mrs. Frank Lyon. The marriage of our 
subject and Miss Hattie L. Clement, occurred 
at Payette, Idaho, on December 27, 1882. Mrs. 
Waters' parents are James and Lucy (Hayes) 
Clement, natives of Michigan and Ohio, re- 
spectively. She was born on July 12, 1866 in 
Allegan county, Michigan and has one brother, 
Roswell, and one sister, Mrs. Edna Boyd. Five 
children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Waters, Grace D., on September 27, 1887; 
Belva L., on June 12, 1889: Madge H., on 
September 30, 1893; Richard J., on September 
10, 1895; and Newton D., ■May 2-j, 1897. All 
are natives of this county. 

Politically, Mr. Waters is satisfied with the 
principles of the Republican party and in local 
matters, he maintains an independent position, 
always preferring to vote for the man, not the 

OSCAR W. NEELY is one of the younger 
men who have struggled for and gained abund- 
ant success in general farming and stock rais- 
ing in Douglas county. His home place, which 
consists of one quarter section of land, lies 
about ten miles southwest from Waterville. In 
addition to this, he has a section of school land 
rented, both of which places are well stocked 
and improved. His principal crops are cereals, 
while in stock raising he is handling the Short- 
horn and Hereford breeds. He has about sixty- 



five head of fine grades and he is producing 
some of the finest cattle in this section. It is 
very gratifying to see that Mr. Neely has 
achieved such success in breeding fine stock and 
it is sincerely hoped that his endeavors will 
stimulate others in the same line of enterprise, 
for it is well known that the thoroughbred cat- 
tle are far more profitable to the farmer than 
ordinary stock. 

Oscar W. Neely was born in Decatur, 
Illinois on January lo, 1870. His father, George 
Neely, was born in Philadelphia and married 
Miss Mollie M. Hunt, a native of Illinois. The 
subject of this article was educated in the com- 
mon schools of Decatur, and came to Douglas 
county in 1890. He took his present place as a 
homestead and has added since a section of rail- 
roadland, by purchase, in addition to the school 
land mentioned above. Mr. Neely has labored 
continuously on his estate here since settling, 
and his efforts which have been wisely bestowed 
have brought about his present prosperous con- 
dition. Mr. Neely has one sister, Elma L. 
Neely, living in Chicago. The marriage of our 
subject and Miss Emma E. Lamb occurred at 
Fairmount, Nebraska, February 3, 1888. The 
wife's parents are George and Francis J. 
(Kelso) Lamb. The mother is deceased but 
the father is now living in this county. Mrs. 
Neely was born in Saline county, Nebraska, on 
January 20, 1872. She has one brother and 
one sister, Elmer E., and Mrs. Lou J. Waters. 
On November 27, 1892, one son, Claude W., 
was born to Mr. and Mrs. Neely. Mr. Neely is 
a member of the Maccabees and his wife belongs 
to the Ladies Auxiliary of the same order. 
They were both raised in the Christian faith 
and are greatly in sympathy with that denom- 
ination at the present time. 

JAMES A. BUCKINGHAM was born in 
Sangamon county, Illinois, on September 18, 
1 83 1. His father, John B., was a native of old 
Virginia, and his mother, Amanda M. (Eaton) 
Buckingham, was a native of Kentucky. Our 
subject attended the common schools of Illi- 
nois, which were very primitive at that time and 
wiien he grew to manhood remained in 
that state until 1852, then the family 
went to Pierce county, Wisconsin, where 
five years were spent in farming. In 
1857, he returned to his old home in 

Illinois, and farmed until 1867. At that time, 
he removed to Pike county, Missouri, stopping 
there for a short time, then went on to Audrian 
county, the same state, in which place he was 
a tiller of the soil for twenty years. After the 
expiration of that long period, Mr. Buckingham 
removed to Washington, spending his first year 
in the Evergreen State, near Cheney. Then he 
searched out a place in Douglas county and set- 
tled where we now find him, about four miles 
east from Buckingham postoffice. He took 
land under the government right and in addi- 
tion to improving the farm, he gave his atten- 
tion to stock raising. Like the other immi- 
grants to this country, he made annual. pilgrim- 
ages from this country for the purpose of gain- 
ing money for food. During the winter of 
1889-90 he had a small band of cattle which 
he succeeded in saving although most of the 
cattle of the country died. His base of supplies 
was Spokane and the lumber of which his house 
is built was hauled from Cheney and the Bad- 
ger Mountains. His nearest neighbor was ^Ir. 
Downey, living six miles west. Mr. Bucking- 
ham labored faithfully and long during the 
hard years of early life in Douglas county and 
he is now one of the wealthy men of the section. 
His place is on the old trail to the mines and 
was known as one of the leading places in the 
county. He has held various county offices and 
was appointed postmaster by John Wanamaker, 
whi. . position he held for nine years. Mi: 
Buckingham has two brothers who died in the 
Reljellion and two others, John W. and Elisha,, 
who are now living. He also has one sister, 
Mrs. Louisa Shannon. 

At Trimble, Wisconsin, in July, 1855, ^^i"- 
Buckingham married Martha Ryan, who was 
born in Meadville, Pennsylvania, on June 20, 
1830. For nearly half a century, she was his 
faithful companion in all the reverses and suc- 
cesses on their pilgrimage journey until July, 
1901, she departed this life, being aged seventy- 
one. She had one brother, Simeon, and one sis- 
ter, Katherine. To Mr. and Mrs. Buckingham, 
six children were born, named as follows ; Mrs. 
Annie A. Smith. Mrs. Clara IMerchand, ^^"ill- 
iam O., Albert J., Mrs. Regina V. Shamblin, 
and James A. 

Mr. Buckingham was raised in the ]\Iethod- 
ist church and although not a member of any 
denomination at the present time strongly leans 
toward that faith. 













MORRIS W. BUZZARD came to Doug- 
las county in tlie early days when supplies had 
to be hauled from Spokane. There were only 
twelve settlers in the entire region, when he lo- 
cated where he now resides, about one mile 
southeast from ^Vaterville. From that time un- 
til the present, Mr. Buzzard has continued here 
without interruption and has constantly been 
devoting his efforts to tilling the soil and im- 
proving his farm. He has a fine quarter sec- 
tion, which raises diversified crops. Among 
the especially fine improvements we may men- 
tion an orchard so situated as to be protected 
by elevated land, which produces as fine fruit 
as can be found in Washington, and he has all 
the varieties of fruit that grow in this latitude. 
Morris W. Buzzard was born in Harrison 
county, Kentucky, November 23, 1853. His 
father, William Buzzard, a native of Kentucky, 
married Miss Sallie Williams, who was also 
born in the Blue Grass State. Her people came 
from North Carolina. He was a prosperous 
farmer and stock man during his life, and his 
ancestors were among the very first settlers in 
Kentucky. Our subject was educated in his 
native state, after which he settled in Cham- 
paign county, Illinois, and farmed for seven 
years. It was as early as 1883, that Mr. Buz- 
zard settled in Douglas county and took his 
present land as a homestead. Since then, he 
has bought eighty acres in Okanogan county 
and owns considerable other property. 

Mr. Buzzard has always pulled in single 
harness and still remains free from matrimonial 
cares. He has two brothers and three sisters, 
Marion, George W., Mrs. Mattie Taylor, Mrs. 
Sarah J. Florence, and Mrs. Eliza Rankin, all 
living in Harrison county, Kentucky. 

GUSTAV ZUDE, deceased. Among the 
most active and stirring men of Douglas coun- 
ty could be mentioned the subject of this me- 
morial when he was living. He led an upright 
and faithful life and won hosts of friends, be- 
ing highly esteemed by all. His labors in this 
county and elsewhere speak for themselves and 
it was a day of sincere mourning when the sad 
news of his death was announced. 

Gustav Zude was born in western Prussia, 1 
on August 7, 1853, the son of August and 
Caroline Zude, Ixith natives of Germany. 

The father served in the regular army of Ger- 
many and was a good and well known man. 
Our subject was educated in the schools where 
he was born and in 1872, came thence to Pilot 
Knob, Missouri. He was soon engaged in the 
iron mines of Iron county and for twelve years 
wrought steadily there. Then on account of 
failing health he determined to retire from act- 
ive work for a time. He accordingly traveled 
west to Utah and later went into the mines 
there, remaining for three years. After that he 
went to Elkhorn, Montana, where he engaged 
in mining for two years. It was in 1890 that 
Mr. Zude came on to Douglas county, and after 
due search he took a pre-emption and later a 
homestead where the family now reside, about 
two miles northeast from Farmer. He devoted 
himself industriously to general farming and 
stock raising and won the good success that his 
labors merited. He continued here and was al- 
ways found on the side of those movements 
which were for the betterment of the commun- 
ity and always exerted a good influence. In 
1903, Mr. Zude failed in health and no means 
found seemed to relieve the progress of dis- 
integration and finally on March 11, 1903, he 
passed to the world beyond. His memory is 
fragrant through a well spent life, wise coun- 
sels and good deeds. Mrs. Zude is now hand- 
ling the estate, which is well improved and she 
has taken up the burdens devolving upon her 
with a fortitude and spirit which presage good 
success in her efforts. 

Mr. Zude had one brother, Carl, and one 
sister, Mrs. Minnie Gunther. The marriage of 
Mr. Zude and Miss Amelia Janka occurred in 
Missouri, on October 2, 1872. The parents of 
the bride were George and Minnie (Zude) 
Janka, natives of Germany. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Zude the following named children have been 
born; Herman, on November 2, 1873; Lena 
W., on January 20, 1886; Alfred, on December 
24, 1890; Alma A., on April i, 1893. The 
first t\^-o are natives of Pilot Knob and the 
others were born in this county. Mrs. Zude 
is a member of the Lutheran church, the de- 
nomination to which her husband belonged. 

ALBERT F. YEAGER is one of the 
younger men of Douglas county that has dem- 
onstrated his worth and ability by commend- 



able labors. He was born in Blue Eartb coun- 
ty, Minnesota, on January 19, 1873, the son of 
Henry G. and Louisa (Koch) Yeager, natives 
of Saxony, Germany, and mentioned elsewhere 
in tliis work. Albert F. received his education 
in tlie common schools of Blue Earth county 
but in 1888 came with his parents to Douglas 
county. He now lives about two miles south 
from Buckingham on a half section of land, 
■which he took as a homestead, and purchas.ed 
from his father. He devotes his attention to 
■cattle raising and farming, having in the last 
few years paid more attention to the latter busi- 
ricss. He has his place well provided with all 
farm machinery necessary, buildings, and so 
forth, and is a successful agriculturist. For 
several terms he has served as road supervisor 
and did very good work. His brothers and sis- 
ters are named in another portion of this work. 
At the old home place in Douglas county, 
on March 17, 1895, Mr. Yeager married Mrs. 
Ella J. Wyatt, the daughter of Daniel F. and 
Julia J. (Hadley) Davis, natives of Colorado 
and very early settlers in Walla Walla. Mrs. 
Yeager was born in Colorado on June 17, 1872, 
and has two brothers, Charles and William S., 
and one sister, ]\Irs. Etta Loucks. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Yeager, five children have been born ; 
Ghdis ]\I., in Bridgeport, on December 30, 
1896; All^ert F., Jr., at the ranch, on October 
28, 1S98: Charles H., at the homestead, on 
September 26, 1900; Violo E., at the ranch, on 
March 10, 1902; and Vera J., on February 29, 
1904. By her former marriage, Mrs. Yeager 
has three children, Zella M. Wyatt, born in 
Oregon, on December 16, 1888; Oswell Wyatt, 
born in Oregon, on June 12, 1891 ; Buelah A., 
born in Oregon, October 6, 1893. 

Mr. Yeager is a member of the M. W. A. 
and an adherent of the old school Presbyterian 

OLIVER A. RUDD, who lives about five 
miles south from Bridgeport, was born in 
Draman, Norway, on July 12, 1861. His par- 
ents, Andrew and Dora (Christenson) Rudd, 
were natives of- Norway. He was educated in 
the common schools there and when twenty 
years of age came to the United States, set- 
tling first in Grand Rapids, Wisconsin. 
He wrought in the lumljer woods for 
nearly two years and in 1883, came 

west to Washington, stopping first in Walla 
^Valla. Then he journeyed to Colfax, 
Washington, where he wrought on a farm for 
three years. It was 1886 when he went on a 
visit to his native country, then returned to 
Wi'Sconsin, and a year and a half later came to 
Garfield county, it being 1888. He did general 
work for two years and in the fall of 1890, 
came to Douglas county, selecting a homestead 
where he resides at the present time. He com- 
menced breeding cattle and horses when he first 
came to the country and has continued in that 
business since. He has some very choice Here- 
ford animals and has been prospered in his la- 
bors. Mr. Rudd owns one-half section of land 
well supplied with springs, and well improved. 
He cultivates about one hundred and twenty- 
five acres to hay and the balance to various 
crops. He has a handsome residence and has 
manifested thrift and good taste in his labors 
on the farm. 

In political matters, Mr. Rudd is allied with 
the Republican party and is a firm supporter of 
their principles. In 1898, his name appeared 
on that ticket for county commissioner against 
Lewis Brant. He won by thirteen majority, 
l:eing the only Republican elected on the ticket. 
He served for four years to the satisfaction of 
fill. For two years from July 10, 1899, he was 
deputy sheriff, under C. Y. Ogle. Mr. Rudd 
has one brother, Knud, and two sisters, Mrs. 
Sarah Thomson and Mrs. Georgie Gurrick. 

He was raised under the influence of the 
Lutheran church and is a supporter of that de- 
nomination at this time. His standing in the 
community is of the best and he receives gener- 
ously the confidence and good will of his neigh- 

At Deedsville, Indiana, on April 24, 1904, 
Mr. Rudd married Mrs. Eliza Lewis, daughter 
of James and Isabella Fites, natives of Maine. 
]Mrs. Rudd was born in Deedsville, Indiana. 

LEON ALBOUCQ is one of the leading 
lousiness men of Hartline. He opened his pres- 
ent line in this prosperous town in 1902 and 
now carries a large stock of feed, posts, fencing 
material, implements, buggies and wagons. He 
has a thriving patronage and has shown himself 
a substantial and capable business man. 

Leon All)oucq was born in the sunny land 



of France, his native heath being- Mount St. 
Jean, Department of Aisne. The date of his 
nativity is January 11, 1864. The parents of 
our subject are Alexis and Aglae (Jerard) Al- 
boucq, bcth natives of France. Mr. Alboucq 
^vas educated in the common schools and grew 
to manhood in his native land. At the early- 
age of twenty-one he enlisted in the regular 
army of France and for five years served in the 
infantry, never leaving his native place during 
these years. In 1S89, he bade farewell to home 
and friends and journeyed to the United States; 
living first at Broken Bow, Nebraska. For two 
years that was his home and farming occupied 
his attention. Then he moved to Douglas coun- 
ty, Washington, and selected a homestead eight 
miles north from Hartline, where he lived un- 
til 1902. He has added land to his holdings, 
by purchase, until he owns a section, which he 
farms, in addition to his business in town. Mr. 
Alboucq has no brothers or sisters in the United 
States, but those in France are: Mrs. Eugenie 
Lemeret, of Aoust ; Eug-ene Cyril, of Mezieres ; 
Mrs. Marie Deville, also of Mezieres ; and I\Irs. 
Claire Julien, of La Fere, all in the department 
of Ardennes. 

The marriag-e of Leon Alboucq and ]\Iiss 
Elsie Sleicher was consummated on March 7, 
1889, in Paris, France. Mrs. Alboucq was born 
in Karlsruhe, Baden, Germany, on December 
10, 1866, and has one brother, James A., a ma- 
chinist, at Reading, Pennsylvania. The fruit 
of this marriage is as follows: Louis E., born 
July 21, 1894; Blanche Leona, born May i, 
1896; Claire Aglae, born April 22, 1902 : Hart- 
line is the nati\'e place of all three children. 
Mr. Alboucq was first banker of lodge number 
9874, of the M. \\'. A. He and his family are 
adherents of the Catholic church. 

J. ALBERT ANDERSON is one of the 
enterprising agriculturists of Douglas county, 
and his home is now in Bridgeport. He owns 
land adjoining the city and has fine improve- 
ments on his property. He devotes his atten- 
tion to general farming and handling grain at 

J. Albert Anderson was born in Norway.on 
June 19, 1867, the son of J. Andrew and Susan- 
nah (Anderson) Anderson, natives of Sweden. 
The early education of our subject was gained 

in the common schools of his native country 
and in the spring of 1880, he landed in New 
York city. For eight years, he labored on the 
farms on Long Island, in factories ad- 
jacent to New York city and in various other 
kinds of work. He has labored with some 
of the largest contracting firms along the 
Atlantic coast and worked at various places. 
One of the largest undertakings he was em- 
ployed upon was the Croton River aqueduct. 
The contractors were Brown, Howard & Com- 
pany. While in their employ he learned the 
trade of a rigger and worked there until 1889, 
when he came to Washington, and here, also, he 
has done contracting for himself. Settlement 
was made near Bridgeport where he used differ- 
ent government rights to secure his land and 
since then has devoted himself almost entirely 
to general farming and stock raising. Mr. An- 
derson is heavily interested in the town site of 
Bridgeport and has clone much to forward set- ' 
tlement of this portion of the country. 

At Bridgeport, nn December 26, 1899, Mr. 
Anderson married Miss Jessie E., daughter of 
Donald and Jane (Havidson) McDonald, na- 
tives of Canada. Mrs. Anderson was born in 
Bay City, ^ilichigan, on May 26, 1881. She has 
two brothers, Clyde R., and James A. D. Mr. 
and Mrs. .-Vnderson are communicants of the 
Lutheran church and are well respected people. 
In 1894, Mr. Anderson had the misfortune to 
lose his residence by the overflow of the Col- 
umbia river. Yet notwithstanding the various 
losses together with the hardships of frontier 
life he has so wisely labored that he now is 
blessed with a large holding and excellent pros- 

One child, Clydie Bell, has been born to Mr. 
and ;\Irs. Anderson, the date being December 
31, 1901. 

HANS N. HANSON, a prosperous farmer 
and stock man residing about a nijle west from 
Bridgeport, has so conducted himself in his 
labors in Douglas county, that he has both won 
the respect of all who know him and gained a 
fine property holding. He was born in Bergen. 
Norway, on December 23. i860, the son of 
George F. and Inger P. (Reese) Hanson, na- 
tives of Norway. The father was captain of a 
sailing vessel. Our subject was well educated 
in the Bergen Academy and did bookkeeping 



for a mercantile house. In 1879, he shipped on 
a saihng vessel for the United States and at 
Baltimore, in 1880, quit his vessel. For a short 
time thereafter, he was in the Burlington shops 
in Chicago after which he was in the employ- 
ment of David Rankin, a large stockman. He 
left this business and traveled in various sections 
but soon returned to Mr. Rankin, where he re- 
mained for seven years, handling stock. In 
1888, Mr. Hanson came to Spokane and thence 
to Douglas county, settling on Douglas creek, 
about two miles below the town of Douglas. 
He pro\-ed up on a pre-emption there, which was 
his home until 1895. In tnat year he moved to 
his present location and took a homestead. He 
handles about four hundred and eighty acres 
of land here and has over fifty head of fine cat- 
tle on the range. His land is largely productive 
of hay. Mr. Hanson has three sisters, all in 

In Atchison county, Missouri, on March 16, 
1886, Mr. Hanson married Martha E. Ander- 
son, daughter of Anders H. and Seneca (Sam- 
uelson) Moberg. Mrs. Hanson was born in 
Moberg, Norway, on March 2, 1861. To our 
subject and his wife, five children have been 
bom, Lula I., Minnie S., Stella M., Georgie A. 
and Frank I. 

Mr. and Mrs. Hanson are members of the 
Lutheran church and they are good substantial 
people. He has served as road supervisor for 
several years and has also labored for the up- 
building of the community. Mrs. Hanson has 
two brothers, Sam and Haldo. Mr. and Mrs. 
Hanson have a fine family of children and are 
doing everything in their power to give them a 
good education and a nice start in life. 

WILLIAM PAWSON stands among the 
most substantial citizens of Douglas county. 
Coming here in an early day, he located on 
g-overnment land about two miles north from 
where Waterville now stands and has added by 
purchase until he has a half section of some of 
the best land to be found in the county. He has 
labored assiduously here since coming and has 
gained his present competence by virtue of his 
industry and wise management. 

William Pawson was born in Yorkshire. 
England, on January 10, 1863, the son of Isaac 
and Sarah (Turner) Pawson, also natives of 

England. They came to Canada in 1892 and 
there reside at the present time. Before leaving 
England, our subject received his educational 
training from the public schools. When he had 
reached manhood's estate, he looked to the new 
world to find his fortune and in 1885, he sailed 
hither and was soon in Douglas county, where 
he took his present place as a pre-emption. He 
has brought the farm to a high state of culti- 
vation and has provided excellent improve- 
ments. A large barn, good dwelling, outbuild- 
ings, fence, and so forth are in evidence and he 
is one of the progressive and prosperous men of 
the section. Mr. Pawson has three brothers 
and two sisters, Henry, George, John, Mrs. 
Sarah Grawbargar.and Mary E., 

At Waterville, on July 23, 1902, Mr. Paw- 
son married Miss Coatney, daughter of Aaron 
and Leanno (Buracker) Craven, natives of In- 
diana and Ohio, respectively. Mrs. Pawson 
has three brothers and one sister, Joseph, Isaac,. 
Alva, and Mrs. Curtis Bateman. Mr. and Mrs. 
Pawson are not members of any denomination 
but are closely allied with the Methodist doc- 
trine. They stand exceptionally well amongf 
the people and have the good will of all. Mr. 
Pawson is a good neighbor, a true friend, and 
a man of reliability and worth of character. 
During the years past, he has always been care- 
ful to labor for the advancement of the country 
and substantial upbuilding and improvements, 
while he has ever been a warm advocate for 
good schools and good roads. 

sides about one mile north from Fairview, is 
one of the leading orchardists of the Columbia 
valley. He has ten acres devoted to apples, 
pears, peaches, apricots, plums, grapes and ber- 
ries, with water right sufficient to handle a 
farm of forty-three acres. His orchard is a 
veritable picture and produces as fine fruit as 
can be found in the world. Spokane, Seattle 
and Wenatchee are his shipping points and Mr. 
Robinson does a good business. 

Augustus E. Robinson was born in Roches- 
ter, Wisconsin, December z-j. 185a, the son of 
James and Elizabeth (Sweet) Robinson, na- 
tives of Vermont. Our subject completed his 
education in the academy of Owatonna, Minne- 
sota whence the family had moved from Wis- 
consin. After school davs, he learned harness 



making and established himself in business at 
Long Prairie and began harness making and 
remained there until 1898, in which year he 
moved to his present place in Doug'las county. 
Since coming here, Mr. Robinson has given his 
whole time and attention to the culture of fruit 
and to the study of the science of fruit raising. 
The result is that he is one of the best posted 
men of the county and is thoroughly practical 
in all his efforts. Mr. Robinson has one sister, 
]\Irs. Emma Wyman. 

On July 13, 1873, while in Minnesota, Mr. 
Robinson married Miss Luella Coons. Her 
father was a native of Pennsylvania and a 
pioneer to Ohio. She was born in Little San- 
dusky, Ohio, on May 23, 1856 and has one 
sister, Mrs. J. H. McNeice. Mr. and Mrs. 
Robinson have two children, Earl A., born on 
August 25, 1886 and Clair T., born July 25, 
1888, both at Long Prarie, Minnesota. Mr. 
Robinson was a charter member of the I. O. 
O. F. at Long Prairie and for twelve years 
served as secretary of his lodge. He also passed 
all the chairs of the same and is now a member 
of the M. W. A. He is a Methodist at heart 
but belongs to no denomination at the present 

HENRY C. GODLOVE is residing at 
the present time about one mile southeast from 
Waterville and is occupied in general farming 
and raising stock, giving most of his attention 
to the former industry. He was born in Pot- 
tawatomie county, Kansas, on March 8, i860, 
the son of Henry and Minerva (Custer) 
Godlove, natives of Indiana and Iowa, respect- 
ively. The father was one of the pioneers of 
Kansas, dwelling in that, then turbulent state 
in 1859. He enlisted in Company K, of the 
Eleventh Kansas Volunteer Infantry and 
served three years for his country, being most 
of the time in Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas and 
Indian Territory. At the end he received an 
honorable discharge, returned to the quieter 
joys of life and is still residing in Kansas. Our 
subject was trained in the common schools, that 
great educator of the American youth, and as 
soon as he had arrived at manhood's estate, 
began operations for himself. In 1883, he 
landed in EUensburg, Washington, and the 
next two years were spent in tlie \-icinity of that 
town. It was 1885, when he settled in Doughs 

county, on a pre-emption in Moses coulee. He 
remained there for a decade and engaged in 
the stock business and then bought one half 
section of land where he now lives. He has 
plenty of spring water besides two good wells, 
a large barn and other fine improvements. 

Mr. Godlove has seven brothers and one 
sister, Oliver C, Lincoln, Perry, Sherman C, 
Walter S., Isaac A., John, and Mrs. Elihu W. 
Henshaw. In Holton county, Kansas, on 
March 12, 1894, occurred the marriage of Mr. 
Godlove and Miss Ida M., daughter of Hugh 
and Mary (Strickland) Southerland, natives 
of Scotland and Pennsylvania, respectively. 
Mrs. Godlove has two brothers and five sisters, 
John H., George D., Mrs. Mary H. Rogar, 
Mrs. Jeannette Cram, Mrs. Lorena Wilson, 
Nettie B., and Maude N. Mr. and Mrs. 
Godlove have three children : Hugh S., born on 
May 17, 1896; Rein C, born on April 19, 1898 
and Nettie S., born August 15, 1903. They 
are all natives of this county. 

In 1888, Mr. Godlove was elected county 
commissioner, his name appearing on the Re- 
publican ticket and he served as chairman of 
the board for two years. During his term of 
office, various improvements were inaugurated, 
among which may be mentioned the enlarge- 
ment of the court house and the addition of 
steel cells to the jail, and others equally import- 
ant. Mr. Godlove served as one of the ap- 
praisers of the school land of this vicinity. 
Fraternally, he is affiliated with the A. F. & 
A. M. and the W. W. Mr. and Mrs. Godlove 
are known as upright and moral people and are 
the center of a large circle of admiring friends. 

JOHN YOUNG TURNER is one of the 
most prosperous and industrious farmers of 
Douglas county. His farm lies about three 
miles northeast from Waterville and displays 
in every part, genuine thrift and care of detail. 
Mr. Turner came here in early day, selected a 
good place and has since given careful and 
continuous attention to the improvement of the 
same,which has resulted in making it one of 
the fine and valuable farms of central ^^'ashing- 

John Y. Turner was born in Howard coun- 
tv, INIissouri, on October 7, 1855, the son of 
Ephraim and .\ngeline R. Turner, natives of 
Missouri. When our subject was eleven years 



of age, he accoinpnnied his parents across the 
plains with ox teams to Linn county, Oregon, 
where the father secured a donation claim. 
John Y. completed his education and lived with 
his father until 1882. It that year, he moved 
to Kittitas county, settling near Ellensburg. 
It was 1888, that he came to Douglas county 
and took a pre-emption where he now lives. 
Later he added a quarter section by purchase, 
and the farm now consists of one half section 
and is all under cultivation. Among the im- 
provements, we may mention a fine orchard, 
a fine modern residence built of brick, plenty of 
outbuildings, three wells of water and so forth. 
Mr. Turner does diversified farming, rais- 
ing stock and also gives much attention -to rais- 
ing poultry, of which latter he has six hundred 
thoroughbred white leghorns. 

Mr. Turner has the following brothers and 
sisters, Sterling P., James W., Doynes, Dorson, 
George C. Ira M. K., Charles D., Mrs. Annie 
Allison, Mrs. Sarah J. Hulbart, and Mrs. Millie 
V. Kinsey. 

On November 13, 1878, in Linn county, 
Oregon, Mr. Turner married Miss Melissa, 
daughter of John W. and Mary A. (Hen- 
dricks) Richardson, natives of Illinois and 
Kentucky, respectively, and now residing in 
Oregon. Mrs. Turner was born in Linn 
county, Oregon, on May 22, i860, and has two 
brothers and two sisters, . named as follows, 
Willis, Trumon, Mrs. Myra Curl, and Mrs. 
Melvina Brener. To Mr. and Mrs. Turner, the 
following children have been born : Mary A., 
in Linn county, Oregon, May 13, 1879; Norma 
M., in Polk county, Oregon, March 13, 1882; 
Ethel L., in Douglas county, Washington, Jan- 
uary 6, 1898. They also have adopted one 
child. Jay R. Powell, who was born in Water- 
ville, February 12. 1891. 

Mr. and Mrs. Turner are staunch members 
of the Christian church at Waterville and are 
among the leading people of this part of the 

DANIEL E. HARSH, one of the indus- 
trious agriculturists in Douglas county, resides 
about two miles northeast from Waterville. 
He was born in Owen county, Indiana, on 
September 7, 1865, the son of Daniel and 
Catherine (Keely) Harsh, natives of Ohio. 
The father enlisted in the Forty-ninth Volun- 

teer Infantry under Captain David M. Dobson 
and died in the hospital at Nashville, Tennessee. 
The mother died in Douglas county. South 
Dakota, in February, 1902, aged sixty- four. 
Our subject was educated in the district schools 
of Owen county, Indiana, where he remained 
the first fourteen years of his life. In 1881, 
he moved to Boone county, Iowa, and engaged 
in farming and later he tilled the soil in Greene 
count3^ of the same state, after which he lived 
in South Dakota and did farming for twelve 
years. In 1896, he came to Douglas county, 
Washington by wagon and settled on a quarter 
section where he now lives. Since that time 
he has devoted himself steadily to cultivating 
and improving his* farm and he has now a com- 
fortable home, good farm, plenty of stock, 
machinery and improvements and does not owe 
a dollar in the world. 

Mr.Harsh has one brother, John W. While 
in Armour, South Dakota, Mr. Harsh married 
Miss Melissa Kuder, the wedding occurring 
March 30, 1890. Her parents were George W. 
and Isabel (Brock) Kuder, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania and Indiana, respectively. The father 
died at Waterville on June 9, 1903 and his 
widow on June 17, 1903. Mrs. Harsh was 
born in Greene county, Iowa, on December 26, 
1868 and has two brothers, Madison M. and 
George F., and two sisters, Arra B. Whitehall 
and Jennie G. Whitehall. 

Four children have been born to our sub- 
ject and his wife. Bethel B., on March i, 1891 ; 
George B., on May 21, 1893; Franklin, on 
April 12, 1896; and Beatrice Hope, on Febru- 
ary 15, 1904, on the farm. All the others were 
born in Walnut Grove. South Dakota. 

Mr. and Mrs. Harsh are members of the 
Seventh Day Adventist church and are good 
substantial people. 

FRED C. TYLER. There is no doubt 
that the most important class of people on the 
face of the earth to-day are those who till the 
soil, and some of the finest specimens of human- 
ity are found in this calling. Douglas county is 
not lacking in intelligent farmers and stockmen 
who have made this political division what it is 
to-day. Among the leading ones, it is with 
pleasure that we mention the subject of this 
article, who resides about six miles southeast 
of Waterville and is known as one of the lead- 



ing citizens. He was born in Sullivan county, 
New York, on February 27, i860. The father 
was Colonel Rockwell Tyler, a native of 
Wayne county, Pennsyh-ania and a man of 
prominence both in Pennsylvania and New 
York. He entered the ser\ice in the Civil War. 
as captain in the Fifty-sixth New York Vol- 
unteer Infantry and was soon promoted as 
Colonel of the regiment. He did valiant and 
faithful service, for his country in those dark 
days of internecine strife and was a commander 
who led rather than sent his men. After ful- 
filling his military service, he returned to New 
York state and was revenue collector for a 
number of years. His death occurred on May 
27, 1893. Colonel Tyler married Miss Mary J. 
Hill, a native of Connecticut, who died in Doug- 
las county, Washington, on October 28, 1898. 

Reverting more particularly to the subject 
of this article, we note that his early education 
was gained in Sullivan county, New York. At 
the early age of fifteen, he was sent to Connec- 
ticut and from that time forward has not only 
been an active and industrious person but also 
a great investigator of the cjuestions of the day 
and a wide reader. In the spring of 1882, our 
subject left Connecticut and went to Millbank, 
Dakota, where he was salesman in the mercan- 
tile establishment of J. C. Drake, for three 
years. In 1885, he came to Spokane, then jour- 
neyed on through Douglas county and later 
went to Oregon. After two years of residence 
in Oregon, he returned to Douglas county and 
took a pre-emption. After proving upon this, 
he located a homestead. He sold these proper- 
ties and bought his present place and upon this 
he has made his home since. He has a 
two-story six-room residence, outbuildings, 
excellent well of water and a good band of 
cattle. Mr. Tyler had two brothers, Charles 
v., deceased, and Ebenezer. 

At Wilmot, Dakota, on June 2, 1884, oc- 
curred the marriage of Mr. Tyler and Miss Ida 
M., daughter of Charles and Elizabeth (Ander- 
son) Smith, natives of Ohio and New Hamp- 
shire, respectively. They came to Dakota in 
1880. Mrs. Tyler has the following brothers 
and sisters, Warren J., Charles A., Mrs. Emily 
Newhouse, Mrs. Nettie Nancarow, Mrs. Susan 
Gary, Mrs. Lizzie Drake. Mrs. Helen Stoddard 
and Mrs. Emeline Reinhart. deceased. 

In religious persuasion, Mr. Tyler is inclined 
toward the Baptist church, although he is not 

actively connected with any denomination. He 
and his wife are well known and have hosts of 
warm friends throughout the country. Mr. 
Tyler is a man that the people look up to and 
they esteem him for his worth and wisdom. 

the most progressive and active business men 
of Dauglas county. He is at present conduct- 
ing a general merchandise establishment at 
Douglas and is meeting with the well earned 
success of a gratifying patronage, while he re- 
ceives the esteem and the respect of all. Mr. 
Woolverton has also shown himself one of the 
capable and successful educators of the county. 
It is very evident that the salient points of his 
career should be named in a volume purporting 
to grant representation to leading citizens of 
this section, and we therefore append the same. 

Joseph W. Wooh'erton was born in Bliss- 
field, Michigan, on February 12, 1873. His 
father, Milton Woolverton, is a native of Penn- 
sylvania and now a farmer in Michigan. He 
married Miss Ellen Bullard, of New York. 
She also is living in Michigan. Our subject 
continued his training until after he had fin- 
ished the high school course, then in 1892, came 
to Douglas county, settling about eighteen miles 
east of Waterville on a homestead. He taught 
school for two years while living on the home- 
stead and in 1894, was elected superintendent 
of schools for this county. His name appeared 
on the Republican ticket and he gained the day 
over E. M. Bogart, by thirtv majority. Mr. 
Woolverton was just twenty-one years old at 
this time and was the youngest elected officer 
in the state of Washington. -After two years 
of very acceptable service in this important of- 
fice, ]\Ir. Woolverton again turned his attention 
to teaching school, continuing the same until 
1898. He served in the postoffice at Waterville 
for some time and finally, in 1901, located at 
Douglas, where he opened a general merchan- 
dise store. He carries a fine assortment of 
goods of everything demanded by the trade in 
this section and by his genality and deferential 
treatment of partons has won for himself a very 
lucrative trade. Mr. Woolverton is considered 
one of the best business men in this section. 
]\Ir. F. Brockman, of Spokane, also is interested 
in the store. 



Mr. Woolverton has two sisters, Mrs. E. 
J. Malloy and Mrs. J. M. Friel. 

On November 15, 1896 at Waterville, Mr. 
Woolverton married Miss Mary E., daughter 
of John and Mary A. (McCann) Kelley. The 
father died in Waterville, on April 30, 1903 
and the widow still resides there. Mrs. Wool- 
verton was born in New Jersey, on December 9, 
1873 and has the following brothers and sisters, 
Edward F., John H., Joseph P. and James L. 
Mr. and Mrs. Woolverton are the parents of 
the following named children: James M., bom 
on August 2"], 1897 ; Irene L., born on Novem- 
ber 12, 1899; Ethel M., born April 3, 1901. 
All were born in Waterville. Mr. Woolverton 
is a member of the W. W., and a broad-minded 
and progressive man. 

EDDIE HO:\IER OGLE is one of ^}^f 
younger agriculturists of Douglas count}^ who 
has met with remarkable success on account of 
his industry and sagacity. He resides about a 
mile southwest from Waterville, upon an estate 
he purchased, which is well imoroved with good 
residence, barns and so forth and is very pro- 
ductive. He is known as a man of industry and 
worth and stands exceptionally well in the com- 
munity. His place is very neat and attractive 
and shows forth the skill and taste of the 

Eddie Homer Ogle was born in Republic 
county, Kansas, on September 26, 1873, the son 
of William and Susana (Jackson) Ogle, natives 
of Indiana and Illinois, respectively. He re- 
ceived his education in the district schools of 
Nebraska and the high schools at Chester, in 
that state, completing the same in this county. 
At the age of eighteen, he engaged in work for 
himself, giving his attention to farming. Later, 
he homesteaded a quarter section, eighteen 
miles southeast from Waterville, which he sold 
and then purchased his place of one hundred 
and twenty acres, mentioned above. Mr. Ogle 
has the following brothers and sisters, Ira W., 
]\Irs. Clara E. Owens, and Nola C. At Moses 
coulee, October 7, 1901, Mr. Ogle married Miss 
Myrtle A., daughter of Edward and Amanda 
J. (Dodson) Owen. The father was a pioneer 
of this county and now lives in Moses Coulee. 
He is a native of Maine. The mother was born 
in West Virginia and died in the year 1894. 
Mrs. Ogle was born in Dayton, Washington, 

on May 16, 1882 and has three brothers and 
two sisters, James S., John T., Edward'M., Mrs. 
Rachel E. Horing, and Mrs. Ellen A. Cun- 
ningham. On February 9, 1903, a daughter 
was born to Mr. and Mrs. Ogle and was named 
Eula Mildred. Mr. Ogle is a member of the 
M. W. A. and in political matters is decidedly 
independent. He in an adherent of the Christian 
church as is also his wife. They have labored 
faithfully in this country and now enjoying 
a goodly competence as the result of their years 
of industry. 

ERNST KUMMER is one of the heav- 
iest property owners in Douglas county and it 
is greatly to his credit, when we note the fact 
that he came here with very limited means and 
has gained his present princely holdings by his 
own labor and wisdom. Mr. Kummer resides 
about two and one-half miles east of Water- 
ville, on his estate of eight hundred acres, 
which is all laid under tribute to produce various 
crops. He has a very fine residence, built of 
brick containing ten rooms and supplied with 
all modern conveniences. He also has a fine 
cellar thirty by thirty-two and his house is one 
of the finest in the county. Other improve- 
ments, such as barns, wells, orchard, outbuild- 
ings, fences and so forth, enhance the value and 
add to the beauty of the estate. 

Ernst Kummer was born in Blumenau, 
Waldenburg, Germany, on March 17, 1848, the 
son of John and Charlotte (Alter) Kummer, 
natives of Germany. Our subject was educated 
in the public schools and learned the wagon 
maker's trade before he was twenty years of 
age. When twenty he joined the regular army 
and participated in the Franco-Prussian war, 
taking part in the battles of Weisserburg, 
Worth, Sedan and Metz. He Avas also at the 
surrender of Paris. For three years, he faith- 
fully followed martial life, then was discharged 
at Dingnets in 1871. Hoffman Van Der Mibby 
was the captain of our subject's company. In 
1882, he came to Lasalle county, Illinois and 
did general work there for three years. It was 
1885, that he settled in Douglas county and 
since that he has been one of the most sub- 
stantial and prosperous farmers of the entire 
county. He has two brothers, Herman and 
Rinehardt, the former in Spokane and the lat- 
ter in this county. At Hosdorff. Germanv, on 



September 2, 1873, ■Mr. Kummer married 
Miss Caroline, daughter of William and Johana 
Weltz, natives of Germany. Mrs. Kummer 
was born in Germany, on April 8. 1856 and has 
one brother, William, and one sister, Henrietta 
Hoffman. Mr. and Mrs. Kummer have be- 
come the parents of the following named chil- 
dren : Karl, born in Germany, April 29, 1877; 
Clara, wife of George Brodius, died in North- 
port, October 7, 1897; Ida M., born in Ger- 
many, March 14, i88o:Adfreda,born in Illinois, 
October 27, 1882, wife of Charles Fletcher now 
living in Waterville ; Louisa, born in Montana, 
March 27, 1885 : Ernest K., born in this county, 
October 10, 1886; Adilino, born in this county, 
August 8, 1889 and died on December 17. 
1902 ; and Henry H., born in this county, April 
13, 1892, living- at home. Mr. and Mrs. Kum- 
mer are adherents of the Lutheran church. 
Their children have been educated in the 
schools at Waterville. 

WILLIAM OGLE is a well known and in- 
telligent farmer of Douglas county and resides 
about two miles southwest from Waterville. 
He was born in Fountain county, Indiana, on 
February 16, 1847, the son of James C. and 
Elizabeth (Smith) Ogle, both natives of Ohio 
and tillers of the soil. Our subject was edu- 
cated in the common schools of Illinois, to- 
gether with private instructions and remained 
Avith his father until he arrived at his majority. 
Then he commenced farming in Mercer county, 
Illinois, for himself, where he remained for 
•eighteen years. After that, he removed to Re- 
public county, Kansas and continued in the 
basic art of agriculture, taking up a homestead 
and remaining there until 1889. In that year, 
he removed to Douglas county and pre-empted 
a quarter section seventeen miles east from 
Waterville. Later he removed to his present 
place which is a well improved farm. He does 
general farming and stock raising and is well 
known as one of the substantial men of the 

Mr. Ogle had four brothers in the war, 
three in the Thirtieth Illinois and one in the 
Forty-third. James was killed at Vicksburg; 
Van died at Fort Donelson ; and John died in 
the hospital in Illinois. The other children of 
the family are: Ruth. Sarah, Mary E., Joseph 
D., deceased, Frank, Alexander C, Thomas N., 

Jasper C. and Mrs. Emma Richardson. On 
December 24, 1868, at Keithsburg, Illinois, 
Mr. Ogle married Miss Susana, the daughter 
of Joseph and Elizabeth Jackson, natives of 
England and New Jersey, respectively. Mrs. 
Ogle was born in Keithsburg, Illinois, April 4, 
1 854, and has the following brothers and sisters, 
James H., John W., Mallon, and Mrs. Sarah F. 
Owens. Mr. and Mrs. Ogle have become the 
parents of the following children : Ira W., born 
on June 25, 1871 ; Edward H., born September 
26, 1873; Clara E., born March 17, 1879, now 
the wife of Edward Owens and living in this 
county; Nola C, born in this county, on Febru- 
ary 3, 1892, living at home. 

Mr. Ogle and his wife belong to the Chris- 
tian church. They are highly respected people 
and first class citizens. 

GEORGE SHULTZ is one of the leading 
and most prosperous farmers of Douglas coun- 
ty, as is evidenced by his achievements and his 
holdings. His farm of nearly one quarter sec- 
tion lies about one mile northwest from Water- 
ville and is a model in every respect. It is laid 
out wisely, cultivated skilfully and is a very 
valuable estate. A good large residence of 
modern design, commodious and substantial 
barn, good fences, orchards and so forth em- 
bellish and beautify the place so that ]\Ir. 
Schultz's rural abode is one of the choicest to 
be found. 

George Shultz was born near Elgin, Illinois, 
on April 21, 1840, the son of Barney and Betsey 
(Martel) Shultz, both natives of Pennsylvania. 
The father fought under Captain Drake in the 
War of 1812. Our subject was educated in the 
common schools of Columbia county, Wiscon- 
sin and began life for himself at the age of six- 
teen. He did farming for fifteen years and in 
1879, moved to Nebraska, settling in Burt 
county. He bought one hundred and sixty 
acres of land at five dollars per acre and twenty- 
three years later, 1901, he sold the place for 
sixty dollars per acre. At that time, he moved 
to Douglas county and bought three quarter 
sections where he now lives. It was formerly 
known as the Murray farm. In addition to 
general farming and fruit raising, he raises 
stock and has some Shorthorn cattle, among 
which are some very g-ood specimens. 

Mr. Shultz has the following brothers and 



sisters, William, Mrs. Harriett Hammond, 
Mrs. Olive Hidden and Mrs. Sarah Richards. 
At Charles City, Iowa, on August 29, 1873, 
Mr. Shultz married Miss Mary E., daughter of 
Thomas and Julia (Rapp) Warner, natives of 
Wisconsin and Pennsylvania, respectively. 
Mrs. Shultz was born on December 10, 1853, 
in Wisconsin, and has the following half broth- 
ers and sisters, her mother having married Mr. 
Andrew McFarland, Andrew and Peter, twins, 
Albert, Charles,William, Levi, and Martha. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Shultz have been born the 
following children: Emma R., wife of Ira C. 
Richards, living in Chelan county ; George R., 
. Maude M. ; Louisa A. ; Authur R., and Norman 
F. ; all living atihome. 

Politically, Mr. Shultz is independent and 
always selects his own man. He is a member of 
the I. O. O. F. and the M. W. A. He was 
raised under the Presbyterian church but does 
not adhere to any denomination at the present 
time. Mr. Shultz is one of those progressive 
and thrifty men, who always provide the best 
of everything- for their use and his farm is 
supplied with the finest machinery and equip- 
ments that can be bought. 

demonstrated his ability to handle successfully 
a large general farm, where he lives one mile 
north from Waterville. For a number of years, 
he has devoted himself to stock raising, farm- 
ing and freighting, and has come to be one of 
the prosperous men of Douglas county. The 
property where he now lives, he purchased for 
one thousand dollars. The same is now valued 
at over four thousand dollars and has annually 
produced abundant crops. 

Barclay W. Whitehall was born in Foun- 
tain county, Indiana, on June 2, 1853, the son 
of James and Elizabeth (Clark) Whitehall, 
both natives of that county. The family moved 
to Illinois when our subject was young and in 
Mercer and Henderson counties of that state, 
he received his education and remained there 
until 1875. -^fter that time, Mr. Whitehall 
moved to Iowa and made settlement in Greene 
county. For twenty-one years he was engaged 
there in general farming and also taught school. 
He taught six terms in the graded schools of 
Illinois and Iowa and left a record as a first 
class instructor. Desiring to see the west and 

ascertain its resources, Mr. Whitehall came to 
Waterville, having made the trip overland from 
Iowa with wagons. He started on April 12, 
1896 and four months later was in Douglas 

Among the improvements of Mr. \\'hite- 
hall's farm, may be mentioned a good orcliard,^ 
besides first class buildings, fences and so forth. 
Mr. Whitehall has one sister and four brothers, 
Henry T., Alva Curtis, Nicolas C, Charlie A., 
and Mrs. Carrie Badger, deceased. 

Near Scranton, Iowa, on December 5, 1881,. 
Mr. Whitehall married Miss Jennie G., daugh- 
ter of George -W. and Isabel (Brock) Kuder, 
natives of Pennsylvania and Indiana, respect- 
ively, and early pioneers in the state of Iowa. 
Mrs. Whitehall was born in Illionis, on Feb- 
ruray 26, 1864 and has the following brothers 
and sisters, Monroe M., G. Frank, Arra B. and 
Melissa C. Mr. and Mrs. Whitehall have be- 
copie the parents of the following children : 
Effie E., born on November 13, 1883 in Greene 
county, Iowa, later married to Charles F. 
Wickers, and died March 29, 1904; Earl B., 
born in Greene county, Iowa, on July 22, 1887; 
Orla J., born in Greene county, Iowa, on Febru- 
ary 14, 1891 ; Lester L., born in Greene county, 
Iowa, April 14, 1894; Henry W., born in 
Douglas county, Washington, June 8, 1898; 
Maggie Mae, born in this county, on March 13, 
1900; Etta Irene, born January 9, 1904; and 
Pressie J., born in Greene county, Iowa, July 
27, 1885 and died May 29, 1900. Mr. White- 
hall is active in the realm of politics and holds 
strongly to the Populist principles. He and 
his wife belong to the Seventh Day Church of 

JASPER GARLAND is one of the large 
stockmen of Douglas county. He is an ex- 
emplification of what grit and determination 
can do, as will be seen by reviewing his career. 

Jasper Garland was born in Alexandria. 
Louisiana, on April 19, 1847. His father, 
Hambleton Garland, was a native of North 
Carolina and marr'ed Miss Jane McNease, a 
native of Tennessee. Our subject was educated 
in the common schools of his native county and 
there remained until 1866, when he journeyed 
west to Texas and dwelt in Henderson and 
Kaufman counties of that state, for fifteen 
vears. Then he removed to Colorado and 



Utah and for two years did contract work on 
the construction of the Rio Grande & Denver 
railroad. FoUowing that, Mr. Garland settled 
in Gilliam county, Oregon and devoted himself 
to ranching and stock raising. In 1 888, he took 
a large band of sheep on shares and the follow- 
ing" year moved his sheep and other stock to 
Douglas county and made settlement in the 
vicinity of Moses Lake. Adverse circumstances 
accompanied his trip, while inclement weather 
and other things continued, until Mr. Garland 
had not a head left. Not being made of the 
stuff, however, that gives way to discourage- 
ment, he immediatel)' hired out for a sheep 
herder for T. J. Ferguson and for five years 
did that most tiresome and arduous work. He 
saved his money and bought a band of sheep for 
himself and now has over six thousand of these 
profitable animals. In addition, Mr. Garland 
owns three quarter sections of fine land, five 
miles west of Coulee City, where he makes his 
headquarters. He has a good range and his 
sheep are the ^lerino breed. His markets are 
Seattle and Spokane. In addition to sheep, Mr. 
Garland has a fine band of horses and some 

The marriage of Mr. Garland and Miss 
Eveline Holbrook occurred in Kaufman county, 
Texas, on September 10, 1874. The parents 
of Mrs. Garland are Amerous and Seline 
(Dunn) Holbrook, natives of Mississippi. 
Mrs. Garland was born in Louisiana in March, 
1852, and has one brother, Albert and one sis- 
ter, Mrs. ]\Iartha McAdams. Mr. Garland has 
one brother, Marion. To this union the fol- 
lowing children have been born, Mrs. Minnie 
McDonough, Jasper, Albert M., Grover C, and 
Charles C. The first two were born in Texas, 
the third in Idaho, the next in Oregon, and»the 
last in Coulee City. 

Mr. Garland is a member of the A. F. & A. 
M. and in church matters favors the Method- 

HIRAM H. HUTTON is one of the well 
known business men of Coulee City and is 
handling a large lumber yard, where he has 
been in business for the past twelve years. 

Hiram H. Hutton was born in Saint Clair 
county, Michigan, on June 11, 1868, the son 
of William H. and Mary J. ("Higgins) Hutton, 
natives of New York state. The father fought 

for the union in the Civil War and sustains a 
fine record as a soldier. Qur subject was edu- 
cated in the public schools of his native and 
Lapeer counties, and remained in Michigan 
until he was twenty. Then he went west to 
Chicago and there was in the railway tele- 
graphic service for two years. He was with 
the Grand Trunk until 1888, when he came 
on west and entered the employ of the North- 
ern Pacific. Among other places he served at 
Cheney and Rathdrum. He then went to Cou- 
lee City, and soon started a confectionery store. 
In 1892 he sold this enterprise and started a 
saloon and a lumber yard and has operated both 

Mr. Hutton has the following- named broth- 
ers and sisters, Frank, Emmett J., William W., 
Cassius A., Angus P., H. Wells and iNIrs. Etta 

The marriage of Mr. Hutton and ^liss 
Asdie M. Salisbury was celebrated at Spokane, 
on March i, 1897. ]\Irs. Hutton's parents are 
natives of Iowa. She has one brother. Earl, 
living in The Dales, Oregon. To Mr. and ^Irs. 
Hutton, the following named children have 
been born: Lena M., on March 2, 1898; Henry 
L., on January 2, 1900; Zella M.. on July 4, 
1902. All are natives of Coulee City. 

FREDERICK J. JOHNSON is one of the 
younger men of Douglas county, who has 
gained an especial distinction in the business 
world, owing to the fact that he has won his 
success by reason of intelligence and wisdom 
that place him among the leading operators in 
this part of the state. He is a lumber dealer 
in Coulee City at the present time, and handles, 
in connection therewith, paints, oils, glass, wall- 
paper and so forth. He has done a very exten- 
sive business since coming here, handling over 
eight million feet of lumber alone. 

Frederick J. Johnson was born at Howard 
Lake, IMinnesota, on December 30, 1869. His 
parents were John A. and Katherine (Stoltz) 
Johnson, natives of England and Germany, re- 
spectively, and now living in Lincoln county, 

Our subject was educated in the schools 
of Wright county, Minnesota and the Blair 
Business College of Spokane. In 1887 he 
moved to Lincoln county and settled just north 



from Davenport, where he engaged in saw- 
milling, also handled a planing mill. He con- 
tinued with marked success there until about 
two years since, when he opened his present 
business in Coulee City. Since that time, he 
has done remarkably well here and is consid- 
ered now one of the very prosperous and sub- 
stantial business men of the town. Mr. John- 
son sold his milling interests before he came 
to Coulee City. He also owns one-half section 
of land, which is well improved and devoted 
to stock and general farming, the stock con- 
sisting of cattle and horses. The land lies 
mostly northwest from Coulee City. 

Mr. Johnson had two brothers and three 
sisters, William J., Eugene A., Mrs. Lucretia 
Weygant, Mrs. Viola West, Mrs. Blanche 

The marriage of ]\Ir. Johnson and ^Nliss 
Katie ]\IcGillivray occurred at Cheney, on ]\Iay 
13. 1895. Mrs. Johnson's parents are Neil 
and Sarah (McCloud) McGillivray, natives of 
Canada. She was born in Canada, on Septem- 
ber 12. 1878 and has the following brothers 
and sisters, Tohn, Neil, Mrs. Christopher Phar, 
and ]Mrs. ^lary Ledg'erwood. To our subject 
and his wife, the following children have been 
born: Valentine F., on February 17, 1896; 
Merle K., on January 27, 1898; and Raymond 
in January, 1901. They are all natives of 
Lincoln county. Mr. Johnson is possessed of 
the happy faculty of winning friends and his 
genialty has made him the center of a large 
circle of admirers. He is a prominent and 
upright citizen and Coulee City is to be con- 
gratulated in gaining him as one of her prom- 
inent residents. 

GEORGE AI. Mcdonald has won a 
brilliant success in the mercantile world in 
Douglas county and it is with pleasure we ac- 
cord him representation in the work which 
chronicles the history of this interesting poli- 
tical division. He has come to the front, not 
by reason of any "streak of luck," as is so often 
hurled at leading men, but has won the present 
position by dint of hard labor, steady appli- 
cation to business, and display of keen discrim- 
hiation and business sagacity. He has always 
shown uprightness and integrity in his deal- 
ings and has thus won the confidence of the 
people, \\hich is richly deserved. 

George ^l. McDonald was born in Decatur 
county, Iowa, on February 26, 1857, being the 
son of William McDonald, who was born in 
Ohio but came as a pioneer to Iowa. Before 
coming to the Hawkeye State he married an 
Ohio girl, Neoma Montgomery and when the 
awful Rebellion broke out he tore himself from 
his home and enlisted in the Twenty-fourth 
Iowa Volunteer Infantry, to fight for his coun- 
try. He was put in the hospital later and there 
died, giving his life for his flag-. Our subject 
was educated in Iowa and there remained en- 
gaged variously until 1881 when he caine to 
Harrington, Kansas. For two years he did a 
livery business there and then sold and traveled 
until 1887, when he settled at Medical Lake, 
Washington. One year later he did building in 
Spokane, whence he came to Almira and 
opened a lumber yard and feed store. One 
year later Mr. McDonald located in Coulee 
City and started a feed and implement store. 
For two years this engaged him and then 
he added a general stock of merchandise 
and at once began to do a large and thriving 
business. For eleven years he has con- 
tinued in this business nd has come 
to be second to no mercantile house in 
the county. Early in 1903, Mr. McDonald 
sold the hardware and grocery departments of 
his business to DeBolt & McCann, and con- 
tinued handling dry goods and gents' furnish- 
ings together with boots and shoes until re- 
cently he added a grocery and hardware de- 
partments. Mr. McDonald has shown excel- 
lent wisdom in selecting and buving his goods 
to meet the needs of this section and herein 
lies much of his success. In addition to the 
enterprises mentioned, Mr. McDonald buys 
much wheat independently and does well in sell- 
ing to the general market. Politically, he is 
decidedly independent and although often so- 
licited to hold office he has absolutely refused 
to allow his name to appear on any ticket. 

Mr. McDonald has two brothers, Albert T., 
and Tohn W., and one half-sister. Mary L. 

At Spokane, in 1900, Mr. McDonald mar- 
ried Miss Josephine Bonner, a daughter of 
Peter and ]\Targaret fWhalan) Bonner, the 
former a native of Holvoke. IMassachusetts, 
and the latter of ]\Iilwaukee, Wisconsin. She 
has the following named brothers and sisters. 
Mrs. Marv ATarlow, Thomns Tames. Mrs. Nel- 
lie Sprague, William S., Mrs. Isabella Carr, 



Mrs. Catherine Hagey, Fred M., Frank R., 
and Grace. Mr. and Mrs. McDonald have no 
children of their own, but one adopted daugh- 
ter, Beulah D., born May 26, 1900. 

Mr. McDonald is fraternally connected 
with the A. F. & A. M. and the I. O. O. F. 
and is a leading spirit in the county. 

HON. DANIEL PAUL is one of the best 
known men in Douglas county. He resides in 
Coulee City and has the distinction of being 
the first man who settled permanently on land 
here. He owns about one thousand acres of 
land and is principally engaged in stock raising, 
and has continued steadily in the business since 
the early days of the eighties and has been suc- 

Daniel Paul was born in county Antrim, 
Ireland, on November 12, 1849, being the son 
of Andrew and Margaret (Murray) Paul, na- 
tives of Ireland. Daniel was well educated in 
the public schools in his native country and 
there remained until he was nineteen, when he 
migrated to the United States. Settlement was 
made in Maryland and for five 3'ears he was 
engaged in general work. Then he came on 
to Montana and for several years was engaged 
in mining. His work was near Cedar creek 
and during the latter portion of his stay in that 
state, he was engaged in the stock business and 
also was proprietor of a large butcher shop in 
Missoula. He continued in this latter business 
until 1883 when he came farther west to Doug- 
las county, in Washington. Soon after com- 
ing here, and in fact from the very beginning, 
he engaged in the stock business and in 1885 
located a pre-emption. Soon thereafter he took 
a homestead which is his home at the present 
time. Mr. Paul is a man possessed of the 
happy ability to adapt himself to the conditions 
and environments with which he is in touch 
and thus he has made a special success in the 
lines of enterprise taken up in this county. 
In 1896 the people of this county decided to 
send Mr. Paul to the legislature and conse- 
quently he was chosen for the upper house. 
He held several important committee positions, 
among which may be mentioned those of live 
stock, agriclutural and railroads. Mr. Paul's 
resourcefulness, his large fund of general in- 
formation and his thorough acquaintance with 

what the people needed, coupled with his in- 
tegrity which is always unswerving, amply 
fitted him to do good work for his constituents 
in the legislature. 

It is interesting to note that when Mr. Paul 
first came to this country, he was obliged to 
travel clear to Spokane for supplies and mail 
which was one of the obstacles the early set- 
tlers had to contend with. His cattle have 
always been of good breeds and now he has 
all grades. He finds market in the leading 
centers and does his own shipping. 

Mr. Paul has one sister, Mrs. Maggie Mar- 
tin, residing with him at Coulee City. Fra- 
ternally, he is affiliated with the Elks.' 


THOMAS PARRY is the present ef- 
ficient and genial encumbent of the post office 
at Coulee City. He received his appointment 
in 1897 and has held the position since, to the 
entire satisfaction of the patrons of the office. 
Mr. Parry is a thorough business man and in 
company with Mr. Roberts handled one of the 
first machine shops in this vicinity. He is 
now heavily interested in land and sheep rais- 
ing, being one of the prosperous men of Doug- 
las county. Thomas P. was born in Denbigh- 
shire. North Wales, on May 16, 1861, the son 
of Edward and Ann Morgan Parry, natives 
of Wales. He was educated' in the 
National schools of his native land and 
there remained until he grew to manhood. 
1882 marks the date when he first set 
foot in the United States, and he soon 
selected Mazon, Grundy county, Illinois, as 
the place for his settlement and for two 
years he was occupied there in tilling the soil. 
In 1884, he came to Sprague, Lincoln county 
and engaged as wiper in the round house there. 
He worked his way up until he Ijecame en- 
gineer and remained witii the Northern Pacific 
railroad until 1889. Then he entered part- 
nership with George R. Roberts and opened a 
general merchandise establishment at McEntee, 
the firm being known as Roberts & Parry. 
They did a large business there until 1895, 
and then dissolved partnership, Mr. Parry go- 
ing into business for himself. He did a con- 
fectionary and drug business until appointed 
to the post office and since has devoted liimself 
to the office, together with his land and stock 



interests. Mr. Parry has four brothers and 
one sister, all living in Wales. 

At Sprague, on November 2, 1887 occurred 
the marriage of Thomas Parry and Miss Eliz- 
abeth E. Roberts. The parents of the bride 
are Robert G. and Elizabeth (Williams) Rob- 
erts, natives of Wales and now living in this 
country. . Mrs. Parry has five brothers and 
four sisters, named as follows, George R., Rob- 
ert D., John, David, James, Sarah, Mrs. Ellen 
Rhyddarch, Mrs. Mariem Muir, and Mary. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Parry, the following children 
have been born, Esther A., Edith F., Lila S., 
and George S. 

Mr. Parry does not belong to any denom- 
ination but is a supporter of all. He is known 
as a very energetic and stirring man and one of 
the upright and sagacious business men who 
have done much for the country. 

FRANCIS W. McCANN is a member of 
the firm of De Bolt & McCann, who do a nice 
business in the hardware and grocery line in 
Coulee City. Mr. McCann is one of the pio- 
neers of the county and is a first class business 
man, well known, and popular. 

Francis W. McCann was born in Luzerne 
county, Pennsylvania, on April 7, 1867, and 
his father, William McCann was also a native 
of the Keystone State and served in the Seven- 
teenth Pennsylvania Volunteer Cavalry for 
three years and eight months during the Civil 
Avar, being an excellent soldier. He is now a 
member of the G. A. R. After the war, he 
went to Colorado, mining and made a fortune. 
Later, he wrought in the Transvaal diamond 
and gold fields of Africa and accumulated a 
large amount of money. He then set sail for 
his native land and when in sight of it, the 
steamer was wrecked and he lost all his money. 
Both parents are now residing in Wyoming. 

Mr. McCann married Miss Margaret A. 
Day, a native of Pennsylvania and our subject 
was the only child. He was educated in the 
schools of Pennsylvania, Nebraska, and Doug- 
las county, Washington, having the distinction 
of attending the first school in this county. It 
was located about seven miles north of Hart- 
line and taught by C. C. Ladd. Following are 
the names of the other pupils who attended the 
same school: Edward and William Day; Al- 

mira, Effie, Earl, and Elizabeth Rusho; Estes 
Higginbotham ; Henry Elmer; Ada, Ella, and 
Kitty Rusho ; James, Lucy and William Smith ; 
Edwin and Ida Young. He was only eleven 
when the family went from Pennsylvania to Ne- 
braska and from that state, they journeyed to 
this county, landing here on September 16, 
1883. Settlement was made about seven miles 
north from Hartline and there he remained 
until he attained his majority. In 1889, Mr. 
McCann took an active part in political matters 
and became deputy sheriff under Frank Day, 
the first elected sheriff in the county under the 
state constitution. Later, he was nominated 
for sheriff but was swept aside by the popu- 
listic wa\-e and served as deputy sheriff under 
Charles Ogle. In 1900, Mr. McCann was 
elected on the Fusion ticket as county clerk, 
by a small majority, over J. W. Wolverton, 
the Republican. He served in this capacity, 
with satisfaction to all, until January, 1903, 
when he entered into his present business, 
forming a co-partnership with Mr. De Bolt, who 
is named in another part of this work. 

On May 13, 1896, Mr. McCann married 
Miss Mary E., daughter of John C. and Sarah 
(Browning) Higginbotham. Mrs. McCann 
was born in Missouri, on July 3, 1878 and has 
four brothers and two sisters, James F., Mar- 
shall, George, Thomas, Mrs. Lecta Drinkard, 
and Sallie. To our subject and his wife, three 
children have been born, Ralph W., Frances 
F., and John C. 

Mr. McCann is an adherent of the Roman 
Catholic church, while in political matters, he 
maintains an independent position. He is very 
active in the interests of the community and 
is known as a progressive and capable man. 

ALBERT W. De BOLT is one of the 
pioneer settlers of Douglas county and is now 
handling a large mercantile establishment in 
Coulee City. He has been active in various 
other- capacities here and won especial distinc- 
tion in different lines as will appear in recount- 
ing the salient points of his career. Mr. De 
Bolt is as well known as any man in Douglas 
county, being distinguished by his energy, 
strength of purpose, and spirit. He was born 
in Fayette county, Indiana, on IMay 26, 1856, 
the son of Joseph and Ann E. (Silvey) De 



Bolt, natives of Pennsylvania and Ohio, re- 
spectively. The father was a stock dealer and 
was a member of the legislature for two terms, 
from his county, in the seventies. Our subject 
was favored with a high school education in 
Lafayette county, Missouri, whither the fam- 
ily had removed when he was ten years of age. 
In 1877, he journeyed thence to Linn county, 
Oregon, making a stop there of one year. The 
next move was to the vicinity of Pullman in 
Whitman county, this state, being a pioneer 
settler there. He was 'occupied for a decade 
in farming and in 1887 came to Douglas 
county, settling near Bridg-eport. He engaged 
in the stock business and also took government 
land to which he added by purchase until he 
has one thousand acres. For thirteen years, 
Mr. De Bolt pursued the labors of farmer and 
stock raiser with abundant success. In 1903, 
he removed^ from the farm to Coulee City and 
opened a grocery and hardware store, handling 
also farming implements and vehicles. He 
has been favored with a fine patronage from 
the start and carries a large stock of goods. 

While Mr. De Bolt was residing on the 
ranch, he was very active in breaking up the 
bands of cattle thieves which infested the coun- 
try and was occupied as justice of the peace for 
eight years by an appreciative public. On ac- 
count of his persistency in following the thieves, 
he was elected sheriff of Douglas county in 
1900, defeating J. D. Logan, the Repubhcan 
candidate by a majority of one hundred and 
fifty-two. Mr. De Bolt went for cattle thieves 
in such a manner that the county became well 
rid of them and he deserves the credit and 
praise of every property owner in the county 
of Douglas as well as central Washington. 
His fearlessness, his keenness, and his deter- 
mination, ha\-e wr)n for him a fine name as well 
as enabling him tr; do untold good for the 
citizens of this county. When the notorious 
Tracy crossed the Columbia, ]\Ir. De Bolt or- 
ganized a posse and took up the trail from 
which he never varied until he assisted to sur- 
round the outlaw in the wheat field near Cres- 

Mr. De Bolt has the following brothers and 
sisters, Henrv A., Charles C, Herman, Frank, 
Mrs. Flora Younger and JMrs. Elizabeth Whit- 

The marriage of 'Mr. De Bolt and Miss 
Elizabeth Lowerv, was celebrated in Whitman 

county, on December i, 1878 and to them have 
been born five children. Lulu F., in Whitman 
county, on January 10, 1881 ; lone, in Whit- 
man county, on January 23, 1883; Wilmer, in 
\Vhitman county, on October 4, 1887; Leslie, 
in this county, near Bridgeport, on November 
17, 1890; and Orville, in this county, on May 
16, 1895. Mrs. De Bolt was born in Illinois, 
on January 25, 1865. Her father \\as David 
Lowery, a native of Illinois and' pioneer to 
Whitman county. She has two brothers and 
one sister, George, John, and Mrs. Harriet Ris- 
ley. Air. and Mrs. De Bolt are adherents of 
the Presbyterian church and they are very sub- 
stantial and estimable people. 

DANIEL TWINING is one of the lead- 
ing business men in Coulee City, where he op- 
erates a coal and wood office. He has also dealt 
extensively in wheat and land and has done 
business all over the Big- Bend country. 

Daniel Twining" was born in Pembrock- 
shire, Wales, on October 20, 1854, the son of 
Thomas and Margaret (Jones) Twining, both 
natives of Wales. The father was a sawyer 
by trade. Our subject received his educational 
training in the common school of Carmathen- 
shire and learned the trade of hammerman, 
when he had grown to manhood. In 1882, he 
came from Wales to the United States and at 
once set to work with zest to carve a fortune 
in the new world. After spending one winter 
in Illinois, he came on west with the true pio- 
neer spirit, settling in Sprague, Lincoln county, 
h'or some time he was occupied variously there 
and then journeved to near where Almira is 
now located, where he selected a homestead. 
After residing there five years he came to Mc- 
Entee and took a pre-emption on which he now 
resides. It is ,well improved and supplied with 
running water. Mr. Twining has improved 
the place in good shape and in addition to 
handing it to general crops is also raising cat- 
tle. He has a fine band of stock and is one of 
the prosperous men in these lines. In addition 
to these enterprises, Mr. Twining is doing an 
excellent trade in coal, wood and ice, besides 
handling the butcher business. 

At Spokane, on March 17, 1888. Mr. Twin- 
ing married Miss Ann Howell, the daughter 
of John and Mary (Evans) Howell, natives of 



Wales. Airs. Twining was born in Carmar- 
then, Wales, on February 17, 1859, and died in 
Coulee City, on February 28, 1903. Mrs. 
Twining had one sister, Jane Llewellyn. Five 
children were born to this marriage: Thomas 
H., on June 19, 1889; Alfred J., on March 25, 
1891 ; Daniel C, on November 29, 1893; Wen- 
deline A., on May 19, 1895; William L., on 
July 3, 1897. Mrs. Twining was a good 
woman and had the love and high esteem of 
all who knew her. Mr. Twining was a mem- 
ber of the Foresters and was raised under the 
influence of the Baptist church. He was elected 
justice of the peace but declined. He holds 
the office of county road supervisor. He was 
one of the pioneer settlers of this vicinity and 
has always shown a progressive spirit and la- 
bored for the improvement and upbuilding of 
the community. 

WELLER EMRICK is an agriculturist, 
living about five miles northwest from Water- 
ville. who has manifested rare executive ability, 
together with thrift and industry in his labors 
in Douglas county. He is a man of consider- 
able property, stands well in the community and 
is well and favorably known. 

Weller Emrick was born in Preble county, 
Ohio, on March 28, 1853, the son of Jacob and 
Lavina (Enoch) Emrick. natives of Berks 
county, Pennsylvania, and Ohio, respectively. 
The district school of his native place furnished 
our subject his educational training and when 
the family moved to Missouri, in 1866, he went 
also. They settled in Cass county and engaged 
in farming. For twenty years our subject re- 
mained under the parental roof, then started in 
life for himself. He went to Cowley county, 
Kansas, in 1875. where he bought land and for 
eleven years devoted himself to the basic art of 
agriculture. Then he went with a co-operative 
colony to Mexico, Jopolobampo, Sinaloa, being 
their postoffice. He remained there six years 
and was superintendent of agriculture for one 
year. From there, he came to Washington and 
settled in Douglas county, where he now re- 
sides. He at first purchased one quarter section 
but later added as much more. His farm pro- 
duces abundant crops of wheat, oats as well as 
of vegetables and fruit. Mr. Emrick has im- 
proved his farm in excellent shape and has a 
very comfortable rural abode. So well satis- 

fied is he with the Big Bend country, he declares 
that this shall be the place in which he shall re- 
main until death calls him hence. 

Mr. Emrick has the following brothers and 
sisters, Leander, Malvina and Marilus, all 
dwelling in Missouri. On July i, 1875, in 
Missouri, Mr. Emrick married Miss Samantha, 
daughter of James and Delilah (Jackson) 
Blakely, natives of Virginia and Missouri, re- 
spectively. Mrs. Emrick was born in Cass 
county, Missouri, on February 16, 1857. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Emrick have been born four chil- 
dren, Ove, in Cowley county, Kansas, on Sep- 
tember 8, 1878; H. Hampton, on July 14, 
1881 ; Reuben E., in Cowley county, Kansas, on 
April 19, 1885; and Dora E., September 27,, 
1888, and now deceased. The three children 
living are at home. Mr. Emrick is well enough 
posted on the issues of the day, that he does not 
tie himself to any party but manifests an inde- 
pendent position in political matters. 

LEONARD SCHNEIDER has a fine es- 
tate of five hundred and sixty acres, about seven 
miles northeast from Waterville, which is his 
home at the present time. He has been known 
as one of the leading agriculturists in this sec- 
tion of the country for a number of years, on 
account the thrift displayed in the care of his 
farm and the sagacity in his business life. 

Leonard Schneider was born in Racine 
county, Wisconsin, on February 12, i860, the 
son of Godthart and Margaret (Jacobs) Schnei- 
der, natives of Germany and immigrants to the 
United States in 1856. Our subject was edu- 
cated in Racine county, Wisconsin, and Blue 
Earth county, Minnesota, whither he came with 
his parents. He remained at home until twen- 
ty-one years of age, then started out for him- 
self without a dollar in his pocket. For two 
years he worked on a neighboring farm, for 
eighteen dollars per month and in 1883, jour- 
neyed west to Garfield county, Washington. 
He took a pre-emption there, which he sold in 
1888. It was 1885, that Mr. Schneider took a 
homestead about nine miles northeast of Water- 
ville. which land he sold to his brother recently. 
Mr. Schneider then took up his residence on his 
wife's homestead, and to which he has added 
by purchase as stated above. The land is all 
first class and is well cultivated. He has abund- 



^^ A 






ance of horses for farm work, and raises good 
thoroughbred cattle and Poland China hogs. 
Mr. Schneider is a man of intelligence, good 
judgment, and executive ability, which is very 
apparent from the success he has attained by 
his labors in Douglas county. Mr. Schneider 
has the following brothers and, sisters, John, 
Phillip, Joseph, Anthony, Mrs. Catherine Ber- 
inger, Mrs. Mary Rubanzer, Mrs. Annie Foster 
and Mrs. Agnes Richter. 

Mr. Schnieder married at Waterville, on 
October 20, 1897, Mrs. Mary E. Longacre, be- 
coming his wife at that time. She is a daugh- 
ter of Richard G. S. and Elizabeth (Pitts) 
Burke, natives of Kentucky. Mrs. Schneider 
was born in Johnson county, Missouri, on 
March 20, 1861, and has the following named 
brothers and sisters, Mrs. Marcella F. Blewins, 
James P., John H., Frederick S., Warren A., 
Richard W., Isaac N. and Frances M., twins, 
Mrs. Lou A. Lauderman, Mrs. Laura C. Mor- 
ris, Mrs. Flora G. Taylor and Mrs. Sarah L. 
Allison. By her former marriage Mrs. Schnei- 
der had three children, Willis R., James W., 
and Edmond G. 

Mr. and Mrs. Schneider ha\'e become the 
parents of three children, Benjamin F., Laura 
I., and Frederick L. 

Mr. Schneider is a member of the Roman 
Catholic church while his wife is a Baptist. 

WILLIAM DOMRESE is to be classed 
as one of the pioneers of Douglas county. Since 
the early days when the prairies were without 
human habitation and when many hardships 
had to be borne by those who sought homes in 
this section, and until the present time, Mr. 
Domrese has devoted himself steadily to the 
labors of upbuilding and improving. His pres- 
ent fine holding has been gained as the result 
of his industry and he is to be addressed as one 
of the leading citizens of the county. 

William Domrese was born in Prussia, on 
March 26, 1844, the son of Carl and Lottie 
(Litchew) Domrese. both natives of Prussia. 
They came to the L'nited States in i860, settling 
in Chicago. Before leaving the old country, 
our subject had begun his education and con- 
tinued the same in the Garden State, until nine- 
teen. In that year, being 1863, he enlisted at 
Chicago in the L'nited States na\'y. lie was on 

the Monitor, Osage, Naid, Onichita, Fairplay 
and Neosho, and received his honorable dis- 
charge at Mound City, Illinois, on August 17, 
1867. He had participated in the Mississippi 
campaign under Admiral Porter and was at 
New Orleans, Vicksburg and Baton Rouge. 
He was wounded while on the Naid by a glanc- 
ing shell, which kept him in the hospital for five 
months. Following his discharge, he returned 
to Chicago and there remainned for si.x months, 
during which time occurred the Chicago fire. 
In 1873, he removed to Winona countv, Min- 
nesota, where his residence was for seven vears. 
during which time he was engaged in carpen- 
tering and building. From that city, he jour- 
neyed to Stafford county, Kansas, and contin- 
ued the same business, and among the different 
edifices erected by him were the school house 
and court house at St. John. 

In 1884, Mr. Domrese provided himself 
with teams and wagons and crossed the plains 
to Washing-ton, consuming six months in the 
journey. It was in October when he landed in 
Douglas county and he took by squatter's right 
a place near the old town of Okanogan, which 
was six miles east from where Waterville now 
stands. After a short residence there, he re- 
moved to where Mr. Teller now lives, but only 
remained a few months. In 1886, he took up a 
pre-emption and timber cluture, which was a 
nucleus of his present estate, which lies about 
seven miles northeast from Waterville. To 
that one-half section, he has added as much 
more by purchase and the whole section of land 
is one of the finest farms to be found anvwhere 
in this region. It has been brought to 'a high 
state of cultivation and is very productive. This 
estate is supplied with good buildings and im- 
provements. Mr. Domrese has a nice band of 
cattle and in addition to farming and stock 
raising he has done considerable contracting 
and building in Waterville and other places, 
since settling here. 

Politically, Mr. Domrese has always been 
acti\-e and was one of the first delegates from 
this county to the Republican convention at 
Seattle. Our subject has two brothers and one 
sister, Herman, Edward and Mrs. Lena Nhels. 

At Chicago, in 1872, Mr. Domrese married 
Miss Helen, daughter of Carl H. and Albertine 
(Braun) Zachow, natives of Prussia and now 
living- in Chicago. Mr. Zachow was an active 
educator in the school room for fitv-two ^■ears. 



In April 1903. he came on a visit to his daugh- 
ter here in Douglas county and here passed 
from earth to the Hfe beyond, after having 
spent eiglity-eight years and eight months so 
faithfullv in noble labors. Mrs. Domrese was 
]x)rn in Prussia on January 21, 1854. and has 
one brother and three sisters, John, Airs. Anna 
Knobelsdorff, Airs. Louisa Bollman and Aliss 
Matilda Jacobson. To Mr. and Mrs. Domrese, 
the following children have been born ; Charles 
A., in Winona county, Minnesota, April 7, 
1874; Adele K.. in Winona county, Minnesota, 
on June 27, 1876, now the wife of William 
McKay, Louis E., in Winona county, Minne- 
sota, on August 29, 1877; Henry J., in Kansas, 
on December 23, 1882; Lucy M., in Douglas 
county, March 27, 1885 ; Lilly D., in this coun- 
ty, on July 8, 1892; and Bernice A., in this 
county on September 5, 1893. 

Mr. Domrese is an active member of the G. 
A. R., and he and his wife are communicants 
at the Lutheran church. In his labors and walk 
in this countv and elsewhere he has always 
shown marked integrity and sound principles, 
coupled with industry and sagacity, which have 
won for him, not only an enviable position in 
this community but also a fine competence in 
this world's goods. 

OR\'ILL CL.\RK is one of the pioneers of 
Douglas county and resides now on his place 
about a mile south from Waterville, where he 
settled in 1884. He has improved the farm well 
and in addition to raising diversified crops, has 
given his attention to raising horses. 

Orvill Clark was born in Ann Artor, Mich- 
igan, on May 18, 1838. the son of Elias S. and 
Mary A. (Fletcher) Clark, natives of New 
York and Canada, respectively, and descendants 
of old colonial stock. Mr. Clark was educated 
in the public .schools of his native state and at 
the age of nineteen, went to work for himself. 
He operated his farm in Michigan until 1878. 
then started to California to seek his health. He 
j^ot no farther than Laramie, Wyoming, and 
there remained for one year. Being improved, 
he returned to Michigan, sold his property and 
journeyed to Colorado. After tilling the soil 
for sometime in that state, he went on to San 
Francisco and thence m^de his way to Spokane. 
It was on March 30, 1884, that Mr. Clark took 

his present place by a squatter's right and since 
that time he has been one of the steady laborers 
for progress and development of this county. 
Air. Clark has four brothers and two sisters, 
Albert. Andrew C, L. Frank, Russell A., Mrs. 
Adeline Raymond, and Airs. Mandany M. 

At Stockbridge, Bingham county, Mich- 
igan, on September 4, 1859, Air. Clark married 
Aliss Adeline Carr, a native of Wheatfield, in 
the same county. Her parents were William 
and Mary Carr, descendants from early colonial 
stock. The fruit of this union is Scott E., born 
in Wheatfield, Alichigan, now a farmer in Clin- 
ton, that state; Floyd B., born in DeWitt, Clin- 
ton county, Alichigan, also residing in that 
state; Flora A., born in Gilford, Michigan, now 
living in this county, the wife of Alichael AIc- 
Grew an engineer. Air. Clark has held various 
offices in places where he has lived and is a man 
of energy and good judgment. 

It is of interest in an article of this kind to 
note that Air. Clark had a full share of the trials 
and adversities with the struggling pioneers 
contemporary with him, in opening this country 
and securing a support for himself and his fam- 
ih'. Provisions could only be had in Spokane, 
one huntlred and fifty miles distant. Other 
places nearer were simply little supply points 
where goods were brought to from Sjx^kane and 
other places on the railroad and the prices were 
greatly in excess of those ruling in Spokane. 
Consequently men of limited means could do 
no better than to take their rigs and make the 
trip to Spokane, whence they freighted their 
supplies to their claims. Mr. Clark had his part 
in this and it would take thirteen days and 
nights to make the journey and while out he 
never slept in a house. Those days are past and 
now he has the prosperity that his wise labors 

HENRY PRANGE. If one-fourth of the 
hardships endured and labors performed and 
the suffering undergone by the pioneers were 
written, books would be multiplied in an untold 
degree. It is only when one comes in contact 
with real pioneers, and face to face with the 
actual conditions as they exist that he can real- 
ize these things. Douglas county has lieen no 
exception to pioneer history and many could re- 
peat tales of actual experience stranger than 



fiction. We are pleased to have the privilege of 
recording some of the incidents in the career of 
the subject of this article, who, with his faith- 
ful wife, has labored most assiduously and has 
gained, also, a very brilliant and gratifying suc- 
cess, in which latter, every one, who knows 
their history, will take great pleasure. Henry 
Prange was born in Hanover, Germanv, on 
June 10, 1854. His parents, John and Annie 
(Prigge) Prange, were also nati\es of Han- 
over. He was educated in the public schools of 
his native place and there remained until 1882 
when he came to the United States, settling in 
South Dakota. He did general work there for 
a while and then farmed for five vears. In 
1888 he came to Douglas county and took a pre- 
emption near his present homestead which lies 
about two miles southeast from Farmer. He 
also took a pre-emption. He went to Kittitas 
county and worked to get money to move his 
family on the claim and then came hither with 
them. Mr. Prange was forced to work out to 
gain food for the family and his wife cared for 
the place. On Sundays, he would come home 
and haul a supply of water for the week from a 
well nine miles distant then return to his work 
on Sunday night. During these times, his 
wife cut fifteen acres of grain with a knife and 
so industrious was she that she saved the entire 
amount. Such faithful lators as these could 
but gain success. Although both were beset 
with many adverse circumstances, they have 
steadily climbed up the grade until now they 
are among the most prosperous people in Doug- 
las county. To the claim they have added one- 
half section by purchase and now they have a 
mag-nificent estate of one section, with good 
residence, large barn, plenty of water and all 
other improvements necessary. In addition to 
farming, they handle fine graded cattle and also 
good horses. The farm is supplied with the lat- 
est improvements in machinery. Everything 
about the premises, from the broad acres to 
every part of the house, shows a real industry 
thrift and prosperity. Mr. Prange has three 
brothers and two sisters in Germany while his 
wife has one brother and four half-sisters in 

In South Dakota on May 6, 1883, Mr. 
Prange married Miss Annie, daughter of Cars- 
tan and Kathrina (Schreider) Prange, natives 
of Hanover. Germany. To this union the fol- 
lowing children have been born; Annie C, in 

South Dakota, March 27, 1884; William John 
Henry, in South Dakota, on August 11, 1885; 
Otto A. J., in South Dakotat, on December 11, 
1887; John H., in Ellensburg, on Ivlarch 20, 
1890; Emma M., in Douglas county, on May 
13, 1893; William H., in Douglas county, on 
October 11, 1895; and Maria M., in Douglas 
county, on February 23, 1898. 

In their labors to gain prosperity in tem- 
poral things, Mr. and Mrs. Prange have not 
forgotten the true spirit life and are devoted 
members of the Lutheran church. Mr. Prange 
is full}' satisfied with the country of his adop- 
tion and feels, also, that his choice of Douglas 
county has not been a mistake. It is a pleasure 
to note that he has made another valuable citi- 
zen to the land of the Stars and Stripes, coming 
from the land which has given us so many of 
sturdv worth. 

OLE RUUD is one of the most substantial 
men of Douglas county, and perhaps no other 
settler is as well known in his section of the 
country as he. Doubtless, too, no other man in 
Washington is as well accjuainted with Doug- 
las county as Mr. Ruud. Since 1884 he has 
been surveyor of the county and although he is 
a Republican in politics, and his name appears 
on that ticket, still he is the recipient of the con- 
fidence of all parties and has given a general 
and thorough satisfaction during his long term 
of service. 

Ole Ruud was born in Parish Hole, Nor- 
way, on December 24, 1 847. the son of Ole and 
Johanna (Vig) Ruud, natives of the same 
place as our subject. The father is deceased, 
but the mother is still living in Norway. After 
attending the common schools of his native 
country, Ole was confirmed in the Lutheran 
church and then finished his education in the 
agricultural college of Aws, Norway, in 1870. 
After that he was engaged in the mercantile, 
lumber business, and farming there until 1879. 
the vear in which he came to the United States. 
He landed in Hamilton county, Iowa, and en- 
gaged in various occupations there including 
coal mining and so forth. Later, he sold the 
property that he had acquired and came on to 
San Francisco. From there, he journeyed on 
to Portland, then to Walla Walla and finally 
came out to Brents postoffice in 1882. In May 



of the following year, in company with John 
Bannick he came to Douglas county and arrived 
here on the eight of the month. On the I2th 
of May, 1883, he posted a notice on a claim he 
had selected, it being at the foot of Badger 
mountain, and is two and three-fourths miles 
due south of Waterville. The only flowing- 
water in that section is on Mr. Ruud's farm. He 
had added three fourths of a section to this and 
now has an excellent estate which is laid out 
with the best of wisdom and taste and is a 
model Washington farm. On the 17th of May 
after his location he had the ground prepared 
and planted a crop of potatoes which was the 
first crop in the Waterville section. Mr. Ruud 
had to endure the hardships incident to pioneer 
life and knows what it is to labor hard with 
scant supplies. In 1884, under the territorial 
government he was selected surveyor and since 
then has been in that office. He had studied 
civil engineering and surveying in the old coun- 
try. In addition to the occupation mentioned, 
Mr. Ruud also does stock breeding and has a 
fine herd of graded cattle. He has three broth- 
ers and one sister, Andrew. Martin, Christian, 

At Waterville, on November 24, 1892, Mr. 
Ruud married Miss Christina Larson, the 
daughter of Lars M. and Sara S. (Jenson) 
Larson, both natives of Sweden. Mrs. Ruud 
was born in Lind Brufal, Sweden, on September 
9, 1864, and came to the United States on 
April 13, 1883. To this union six children 
have been born, Agnes I. J., Signe Kristiana 
Jane, Synneva Augusta O., Karl Oliver, Albert 
Martin, and Gustav Adolph. Mr. Ruud is a 
member of the Old Settlers Association of 
Douglas county, while he and his wife belong 
to the Lutheran church. They are highly re- 
spected people and have labored faithfully for 
the advancement of the interests of Douglas 
county since coming here. 

BYRUM S. DODD lives at St. Andrews, 
in Douglas county, where he has a fine 
estate of four hundred and eighty acres, 
which is in a high state of cultivation 
and cropped mostly to small grains. He 
was born in Knox county, Ohio, on August 
12, 1851. His parents, Josephus and Sarah 
(Rines) Dodd, were natives of Ohio and 

pioneers to Illinois. In Whiteside county of 
the latter state our subject received his edu- 
cation and there remained for thirty-four years, 
engaged in farming. It was in 1890, that he 
came to Douglas county and settled on a pre- 
emption, taking also later a timber culture and 
homestead, which now make the estate mention- 
ed above. The soil is very fertile and is handled 
skilfully for the production of grain. Mr. 
Dodd has a good orchard of well selected fruit 
besides various other improvements on the 
farm. He raises cattle besides some other stock. 
Mr. Dodd has one brother and three sisters, 
Stephen, Mrs. Mary M. Austin, Mrs. Phoebe 
E. Seavey and Mrs. Vianne Bills, deceased. 
At Morrison, Illinois, on December 15, 1874, 
Mr. Dodd married Miss Charlotte A., daughter 
of Thomas and Eliza (Courtney) Elliott, natives 
of New York city. Mrs. Dodd was born in 
New York city, on January i, 1856, and has. 
two brothers, John and Thomas. To Mr. and 
Mrs. Dodd two children have been born ; Sarah 
E., in Illinois, on March 11, 1876 and is at 
present postmistress at St. Andrews; Alfred J.,, 
in Illinois, on August 12, 1880. Mr. Dodd is 
a member of the I. O. O. F. and the M. W. A. 

EIELT J. COORDES is a native of the 
province of Hanover, Germany and comes from 
the stanch blood \\-hence has sprung some of 
the most noted men of the world. Possessed 
of that sturdiness which is characteristic of his. 
race, and guided with consummate wisdom, he 
has pursued his way steadily and has gained 
a success which is the sure meed of merit. At 
the present time he is the owner of eight hun- 
dred acres of fine land lying where the old town 
of Okanogan used to stand, and in fact a por- 
tion of his farm is the site of that early burg. 
This excellent estate is all in crop and produces 
annually large returns of wheat and other small 
grains. Good substantial impro\-ements are in 
evidence and Mr. Coordes is considered one of 
the leading agriculturists in the county, and it 
is sure that dame fortune has smiled on his 

Eielt J. Coordes was born on March 10, 
1854, the son of John E. and Wubike O. 
( Agena ) Coordes, natives of the province of 
Hanover Germany. Our subject was well edu- 
cated in the public schools of Thune, his native 



city, and there remained until he had reached 
manhood's estate, ^^"hen twenty, he enhsted 
in the Seventy-eighth Regiment, Company 
Two, of the regular German army and served 
until 1876, being under Captain Weckmann. 
Mr. Coordes was an expert shot and held the 
honors of his company during his entire time 
•of service. Following his military career, he 
returned to the life of the civilian and remained 
still in Germany until 1883. In that year he 
came from the Fatherland, bidding good-bye 
to dear ones and cherished scenes, determined 
to try his fortune in the new world. For the 
first two years after arriving here he was in 
Woodford county, Illinois, engaged in rail- 
road contracting. Then he came west to Ritz- 
ville, Washington, where he remained until the 
spring of 1887. Thence he came to his present 
location and here he has remained since, achiev- 
ing the success that comes to the truly indus- 
trious who are guided by wisdom. In addition 
to his farming, he has devoted considerable 
attention to raising cattle and the result is that 
he has a large band of well graded stock. 

Mr. Coordes has two sisters, Mrs. Ettje 
Dirkzen, and Mrs. Johanna J. Eben, both living 
in the province of Hanover. 

In Illinois, on November 10, 1883, Mr. 
Coordes married Miss Mary, daughter of Jur- 
gen and Euke O. (Agena) Kutcher, natives of 
Germany. Mrs. Coordes was born in the pro- 
vince of Hanover, on November 15, 1856. To 
this worthy couple the following children have 
been born; Anna E., on December 2, 1884; 
John E., on August 5, 1886: William E., on 
April 10, 1892: Amy E., on September 16, 
1894; and Owen E., on June 12, 1897. The 
first two were natives of Illinois and the last 
three of this county. Mr. and Mrs. Coordes 
are consistent members of the Lutheran church 
in Douglas and from childhood up they have 
been under the influence of this denomination. 

ROBERT D. ROBERTS lives about two 
miles south from St. Andrews where he does 
general farming. He is also interested in hand- 
ling farm machinery and brought in some of 
the first steam threshers in this section. ]\Ir. 
Roberts was also one of the first to introduce 
Clyde horses in this countv, and is altogether 
a progressive and enterprising' man. 

Robert D. Roberts was born in Wisconsin, 
on October 14, 1861, the son of Robert G. 
and Elizabeth (Williams) Roberts, natives of 
Wales and emigrants to \Visconsin, while it 
was yet a frontier country. Our subject re- 
ceived the ordinary education of the Wisconsin 
youth in the public schools and remained in 
the Badger State until twenty years of age. 
He came to Douglas county in 1881, settling 
just north of Hartline where he took a' timber 
culture and preemption and homestead later. 
Subsequently, he removed to his present estate 
of one quarter section, which has been the home 
place ever since. 

Mr. Roberts has the following brothers and 
sisters, George R., John, David, James, Mrs. 
Lizzie Perry, Miss Sarah, Mrs. Ellen Hut- 
retherch, Mrs. Mariem Muir and Mary. 

At Hartline, in 1889, Mr. Roberts mar- 
ried Kate Williams and to them three children 
have been born, Evelyn M., Walter and Bessie, 
all natives of this county. Owing to unavoid- 
able and compelling circumstances, Mr. Roberts 
was obliged to secure a decree, annulling this 
marriage. On June 27, 1900, Mr. Roberts 
married Mrs. Lulu Warrington, daughter of 
H. H. and Opha M. (Cook) Ames, natives o£ 
New York and pioneers to Douglas county. 
To this marriage two children have been born, 
Mary Ethlyn on August 27, 1902; and Evan 
H., on August II, 1904. Mrs. Roberts was 
born in Borden county, Minnesota, on June 7, 
1865 and has six brothers, Charles B., John W., 
Arthur, Freemont D., George L., and Frederick 
C. By her former mariage, IMrs. Roberts has 
two children. Orrin P. and Tom E. 

Mr. Roberts is a member of the M. W. A. 
and is one of the prosperous and energetic 
citizens of the county. 

. GEORGE LOGG, who is a native of Sco- 
tia's rugged hills, and filled with the indomit- 
able spirit of that leading race of people, now 
lives three miles west from Baird, where he 
has a nice large estate and where he devotes 
himself to general farming and stock raising. 
June 24,. 1850 marks the date of his birth and 
his parents were John and Jennie (Jemison) 
Logg, both natives of Scotland. He was edu- 
cated in the public schools of his native country 
and there grew to manhood, coming to Canada 



in 1872. In a short time he returned to Scot- 
land, where he remained until 1875. In that 
year, he came to the United States, setthng in 
the mining districts of Colorado and embarking 
in the mining industry until 1888. That was 
the year in which he came to Douglas county, 
settling his family in Waterville to school the 
children, while he took a pre-emption and tim- 
ber culture, where he now resides. After im- 
proving the claims in good shape, he brought 
his family in 1890 to the new home and then 
located his homestead. He built a nice large 
two story house and made other improvements 
commensurate therewith and since that time 
has steadily gone forward in the way of the 
agriculturist, gaining a good success as is pro- 
per and meet to his industry and painstaking 

Mr. Logg has one brother, John, and one 
sister, Mrs. Jennie Lloyd. On December 25, 
1882, at Georgetown, Colorado, occurred the 
marriage of George Logg and Mrs. Emilie, 
daughter of Johannes and Ingrie K. (Nilson) 
Peterson, natives of Sweden. Mrs. Logg was 
born in Sw-eden also, the date being March 18, 
1858. She has the following named brothers 
and sister, Nels P., John E., Karl G., living in 
Sweden ; Frans, Enoch and Theodore, living in 
Colorado and Mrs. Amanda Solomon, living 
in Sweden. The children born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Logg are named as follows, William J. .George 
E., Ernest M., Clarence A., David G., Charles 
P. and Frank S. 

Our subject and his wife are adherents of 
the Presbyterian church and are known as very 
substantial and thrifty people. 

EMMETT L. RICKS, who resides near 
Baird and is engaged in stock raising and gen- 
eral farming, is one of the leading citizens of 
Douglas county and has earned this position 
by reason of merit and worthy endeavors. Jie 
has manifested commendable wisdom and pro- 
gressiveness since coming to this county and 
has done much for its substantial improvement 
and material upbuilding. 

Emmett L. Ricks was born in Pettis county, 
Missouri, on April 23, 186^, the son of Will- 
iam and Mary J. (Harvey) Ricks, natives of 
Kentucky and Missouri, respectively. The 
father was a pioneer to the frontier regions of 
the latter state and wrought faithfully to open 

and subdue the country. The common scliools 
of Pettis county were the alma mater of our 
subject and within its precincts he remained 
until 1889, having spent the years of his man- 
hood until that time, in doing general farming. 
Upon arriving in Douglas county on ]\Iarch 
2-], 1889, Mr. Ricks selected a homestead and 
a timber culture claim and set himself to im- 
prove and open them up. He made a good 
farm of that half section and then sold only to 
purchase an estate of four hundred acres where 
he resides at the present time. LTpon this place 
he has erected a fine two-story residence of 
beautiful design, commodious barns and out- 
buildings, besides making numerous other im- 
provements, w'hich add materially to the value 
of the farm. Mr. Ricks does general farming 
and also has a large bunch of good graded cattle 
besides some horses and hogs. Mr. Ricks was 
one of the first settlers between the two coulees 
and is well and favorably known all over the 
county. He has brothers and sisters named as 
follows, Marion, William, DeWitt M., James 
L., Vernon, Joseph, Marvin, Mrs. D. McClure, 
Mrs. M. Hartman, Mrs. C. Forest and Eliza- 

Near Coulee City, on April 23, 1895, oc- 
curred the marriage of Emmett L. Ricks and 
Miss Viola Gilbert, and to them have been born 
four children, Edith M.. on February 6, 1897; 
Leonard G., on September 21, 1898; Mildred 
M., on June 2, 1900; and Lela P., on April 
3, 1902. Mrs. Ricks' parents are Riley and 
Nancy D. (Allen) Gilbert. They are both 
natives of Oregon, w'here also Mrs. Ricks was 
born on October 23, 1868, Junction City being 
the locality. The other children of the family 
are, Granville M., Corington G., and Mrs. Ella 

Mr. Ricks is a member of the M. W. A., 
while he and his wife are communicants of the 
Presbyterian church. Mr. Ricks and his esti- 
mable wife have always labored well for the 
good of the community and they are highly 
esteemed by their neighbors and all because of 
their real worth and sagacious endeavors. 

STEPHEN DODD, who resides about 
one-half mile west from St. Andrews, is one 
of the men whose labors have been crowned 
with success in Douglas county and who is now 
one of the leading citizens. He is engaged 



in farming and has a good estate, wliich pro- 
duces abundantly. Mr. Dodd has won the 
esteem of his fellows and has shown upright- 
ness and sound principles in his walk here. He 
was born in Sparta, Ohio, on November 9, 
1855, the son of Josephus and Sarah (Rines) 
Dodd, natives of Ohio and pioneers to Illinois. 
Our subject was educated in the common 
schools of Whiteside county, Illinois and lived 
there until 1889, engaging in farming after he 
had attained his majority. In the spring of 
1889, he removed to Douglas county and took 
a pre-emption near the town of Douglas, which 
he later sold. Then he took his present place 
as a homestead and has since continued here. 
Recently, Mr. Dodd had the great misfortune 
to lose his house and all its contents by fire, 
but he has replaced it by a handsome two story 
structure of modern architectural design, which 
makes a very attractive and comfortable home. 
Mr. Dodd has the following named brothers 
and sisters, Byron S., Elias B., Mrs. Phoebe E. 
Seavey, Mrs. Mary Austin. 

The marriage of Mr. Dodd and Miss Carrie 
E. Holt occurred at Morrison, Illinois, on July 
3, 1879. Her father, Alexander Holt, was a 
soldier in the Sixteenth Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry and served through the entire war. For 
eighteen months he had the awful lot to lan- 
guish in Libby, Andersonville, and other 
prisons in the south. He was honorably dis- 
charged from the service in June, 1865, and is 
still living. He was a native of Indiana and 
married Miss Sarah S. Roland, a native of 
Kentucky. Mrs. Dodd was born in Clinton 
county, iowa, on December 19, 1862 and has 
the following brothers and sisters, George W., 
Elmer E., Frank F., Mrs. Elzina M. Baker, 
Mrs. Cora B. Schenck, Mrs. Hester A. Leslie 
and Mrs. Lulu C. Judd. Mr. and Mrs. Dodd 
have never had any children but raised one 
adopted daughter, Clara M., now the wife of 
J. W. Bogart, of this county. Mr. Dodd is a 
member of the M. W. A. and he as well as his 
wife are adherents of the Methodist church. 

earliest days of settlement in Douglas county, 
until the present time, yir. Pierpoint has been 
a leading and prominent figure both in business 
and. in public enterprises. He is a man of 
strong character and consummate energy and is 

dominated by a spirit that brooks no defeat; 
which on many occasions has been demon- 
strated in his public career. L'pright. in his 
pri\-ate walk, wise in business methods, success 
in every line has been his pleasant lot and it is 
eminently deser\-ed. 

Alfred Pierpoint was born in Jasper coun- 
ty, Illinois, on August 5, 1858, the son of 
Charles and Margaret (Rollins) Pierpoint, na- 
tives of Kentucky and Illinois, respectively. 
He was educated in the public schools of Jas- 
per county and when seventeen, started with 
wagon train to Boise, Idaho. One year later, 
he went to Eugene, Oregon, whence in a year 
he returned to Illinois. He remained there 
until 1881 and again suffered a severe attack 
of the western fever which led him to take a 
trip through Texas, New Mexico, Old jMexico, 
Arizona, California, and the Willamette Val- 
ley which consumed a year. Soon thereafter, 
he came to Cheney then to Spokane. Thence 
he went to Crab Creek and wrought for a year 
on Biggham's stock ranch. It was in April, 
1883, when the coyotes and red skins had full 
sway over the land where large wheat fields 
now stand that Mr. Pierpoint made his way to 
this section and took a squatter's right just 
one mile south from where Waterville now 
stands. To gain possession of the claim, he 
had forcibly to eject some Indians, which he 
promptly did. He built a cabin, the second in 
the county and which is still in use. Later he 
relinquished this claim and took another just 
north of it where he built a more elaborate 
house, which is now the property of A. L. 
Rogers and is still used as a dwelling. These 
claims, Mr. Pierpont sold and took another 
squatter's right on the Columbia river which 
he improved and sold to Senator Helm. Then 
he came to his present place and took pre- 
emption, timber culture and homestead claims 
in due time and improved them and has ^Iso 
added land until he owns more than a section. 
The whole estate is now in a high state of culti- 
vation and produces abundance of the cereals. 
The farm is supplied with comfortable dwell- 
ings, granary, large barn and other improve- 
ments. In addition to general farming, Mr. 
Pierpoint devotes considerable attention to 
stock raising and has one of the finest bands of 
cattle in Douglas county. He is also breeding 
a most excellent strain of draft horses, some of 
the best to be found in this part of the state. 



In 1884, Mr. Pierpoint was appointed to 
the office of sheriff of Douglas county, by the 
legislature, being the first sheriff of the county. 
He assisted to forcibly remove the old county 
seat from the old town of Okanogan to VVater- 
ville and has had an many occasions sharp en- 
counters with the Indians. 

yiv. Pierpoint had one brother, Frank, who 
was frozen to death on February 6, 1893. The 
marriage of our subject and Miss Estella Card 
occurred at Waterville, on October 20, 1895 
and to them have been born four children. 
Hazel, Gladdis, Alf C, and Dick. Mrs. Pier- 
point's parents are Washington and Eliza 
(Hand) Gard, natives of Ohio and Tennessee, 
respectively. She w'as born in California, on 
October 25, 1876 and has the following named 
brothers and sisters, Isaac, Joel R., James D., 
Arthur G., Mrs. Martha Kelsey and Mrs. Anna 
Corbaley. Mr. and Mrs. Pierpoint are well 
known and substantial people. 

JOSEPH R. MITCHELL lives about one 
mile east from St. Andrews on land he secured 
from the government, and is occupied in gen- 
eral farming. He has gained good success in 
two distinct lines, that in which he is now en- 
gaged and also the work of a machinist, having 
spent many years in that interesting business. 

He was born in the vicinity of Baltimore, 
Maryland, on June 18, 1843, the son of Abel 
and Elizabeth (Howard) Mitchell, both natives 
of England and emigrants to this country in 
1 84 1. The common schools of Maryland con- 
tributed the early education of our subject and 
at the tender age of nine, he went to work in 
the cotton mills. His only opportunity then 
to continue his education was in the night 
schools where he studied with great diligence 
until seventeen, then he apprenticed himself to 
learn the machinist's trade, being in a marine 
shop in Baltimore. In 1864, he left Maryland 
for Ohio, whence six months later, he journey- 
ed to Ouincy, Illinois and worked at his trade 
for five years. He then returned to Ohio, re- 
maining until 1874, working at his trade. 
After this, he journeyed to California and 
wrought two years in Hayward and two years 
in San Francisco. At the close of this period, 
he went to Oakland and opened a machine shop 
with a partner and operated successfully until 

1889, in which year he came on to Douglas 
county and took a pre-emption and timber cul- 
ture where he now lives. Mr. Mitchell in- 
vented a straw burning boiler which is now in 
use with engines, as well as various other con- 
trivances which have been patented and are in 
use. He is a man of modest and unassuming 
mien and has been asked on various occasions 
to run for the legislature but has always de- 

On May i, 1872, at Salem, Ohio, Mr. 
Mitchell married Miss Sara E., daughter of 
John and Sarah A. (Harlan) Trago, natives of 
Pennsylvania and Ohio, respectively. Mrs. 
Mitchell was born in Mahoning county, Ohio, 
on July 27, 1846 and has one sister, Mrs. 
Hanna A. Piatt. To Mr. and Mrs. Mitchell 
one child, Mabel E., was born, the date being 
April 20, 1878, and her native place San Fran- 
cisco. She died on April 27, 1898, in this 

Mrs. Mitchell is a well educated lady, being 
a graduate of the high school in Salem, Ohio. 
She belongs to the Society of Friends, some- 
times known as Quakers. Mr. Mitchell does 
not belong to any denomination, although he 
strongly adheres to the Presbyterian faith. 
They are both excellent people and stand ex- 
ceptionally well in the community. 

EDGAR M. BOGART has won distinction 
in various lines in Douglas county. He owns 
a half section of fertile land near St. Andrews, 
which is all cropped to small grain and well 
improved with good residence, barns, and other 
buildings. In addition to overseeing this, Mr. 
Bogart has taught in various places in the coun- 
ty and for three years was principal of the Wil- 
bur schools. In 1892, he was elected county 
superintendent of schools here. His name was 
on the Peoples Party ticket and he gave a fine 
administration, continuing until 1895. In 1900, 
Mr. Bogart was elected county treasurer, his 
name appearing on the Fusion ticket. He ful- 
filled the duties of the office in a good manner 
and to the entire satisfaction of all. 

Edgar M. Bogart was born in Johnson 
county, Indiana, on November 17, 1859, the 
son of William T., and Hannah J. (Smock) 
Bogart, natives of Kentucky and Indiana, re- 
spectively. The other children of this family 



are Joseph W., IMorton A., Lorin E., and Mrs. 
Mar)^ D. Pope. After our subject had com- 
pleted the common school course of Pottawat- 
tamie county, Iowa, he took a course in the 
Omaha Business College. Later he studied in 
a private academy. He then resumed teaching 
and in 1884 settled in Wayne county, Nebraska 
and taught until 1888. Then he removed to 
Douglas county and pre-empted a quarter and 
took a timber culture claim. Since then he has 
been acti\'e here as stated above and is now 
one of the leading citizens of the county. 

At Avoca, Iowa, on August 23, 1881, Mr. 
Bogart married Miss Ada A., daughter of 
James A. and Martha (Adkisson) Sinclair, 
who were born in Indiana and Kentucky, re- 
spectively. The parents were pioneers to Iowa 
and later came west to Douglas county. Mrs. 
Bogart was born in Pottawattamie county, 
Iowa, on January 13, 1861 and has three broth- 
ers and two sisters, James L., Frank E., Foy 
W., Mrs. Cora A. Palmer, and Mrs. Emma M. 
Randall. Three children have been born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Bogart; Wendell D., on May 12, 
1883: Adella M., on November 6, 1889; Ber- 
tha A., on July 29, 1891. The first one is a 
native of Iowa and the latter two of this county. 
Mr. and Mrs. Bogart are active members of the 
Presbyterian church and have exerted a wide 
influence for good. He is considered not only 
one of the leading business men of the county 
but one of the best educators in this part of the 

PETER ANDERSON is an industrious 
and prosperous farmer, residing about two 
miles southwest from Baird. He was born in 
Sweden, on February 14, 1854, the son of 
Andrew and Carolina (Anderson) Larson, na- 
tives of Sweden. His education was obtained 
in the public schools of his native land, where 
he remained until 1881. In that year, he came 
to the United States and settled in New Britain, 
•Connecticut, and there was occupied eight years 
in the Stanley works. In 1889, he removed to 
San Francisco and one year later, came to Spo- 
kane. His family soon came and he located 
them in Spokane, after which he came to Doug- 
las county, securing a location. He took up 
land where he now resides and improved the 
same while the familv remained in Spokane for 
the purpose of schooling the children. In those 

early days, Mr. Anderson used to pack his 
blankets and provisions and walk all the way 
from his homestead to Spokane to visit the fam- 
ily. ]Many other trials and hardships were un- 
dergone by him but he persevered and has pros- 
pered until he now has a large estate, all under 
cultivation and producing fine crops. He also 
has a large band of cattle, good improvements 
on the place, plenty of farming implements, be- 
sides other property. Mr. Anderson has one 
sister, Mrs. Matilda Kalin ' and one brother, 

The marriage of Mr. Anderson occurred in 
Sweden, on December 18, 1879, when Johanna 
C. Nyberg became his wife. Her parents are 
Andrew and Johannah (Erichson) Nyberg, na- 
tives of Sweden, where she was born on Feb- 
ruary 29, 1852. The other children of her 
father's family are Andrew, Mrs. Annie Linden, 
Mrs. Matilda Larson and Mrs. Hada Lundin. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Anderson, two children have 
been born, Carl Alben on June 29, 1881 ; Annie 
Victoria, on March i, 1884, both natives of 
New Britain, Connectictit. 

Mr. Anderson has held various offices where 
he has lived and is a man of reliability and in- 
tegrity. He and his wife are members of the 
Lutheran church. 

LEWIS JENSEN. Douglas county has 
her full share of wide awake and progressive 
farmers, who have taken hold with their hands 
and have developed the country to such an ex;- 
tent that the claims taken years since are now 
well tilled and valuable farms. Among this 
class of excellent citizens, we are constrained to 
mention the subject of this article, whose labors 
and life are exemplary and who has not only 
done much to build up the interests of the 
county but has also stimulated many others in 
this good work. 

Lewis Jensen was born in Sjaelland. Den- 
mark, on May 12, 1843, the son of Jens and 
Kersten (Larsen) Andersen, natives of Den- 
mark. The parents removed to Illinois in 1869 
and the father died in Nebraska, in 1887. Our 
subject was educated in the public schools of 
his native place and when he had arrived at 
young manhood's estate joined the regular 
armv where he served for eighteen months. In 
1869. he came with his parents to Illinois and 



farmed in that state for eleven years. Next 
he spent seven years in tilhng the soil in How- 
ard county, Nebraska, whence in 1887, he came 
to this county and took land where he now lives. 
The next year he brought his family to dwell 
on the land and has since resided here. Mr. 
Jensen has since bought considerable land and 
he now owns about a section and one half of 
well improved and fertile land. In addition to 
general farming, he has given considerable at- 
tention to raising stock and has some fine ani- 
mals, among which may be mentioned a mag- 
nificent Shire stallion, which weighs eighteen 
hundred pounds. Two or three others are as- 
sociated with Mr. Jensen in the ownership of 
this animal and they take a pardonable pride 
in the fact that he has won several blue ribbons. 
Mr. Jensen is one of three children and the 
other two are Martin and Mrs. Secilia Mark. 
The marriage of our subject and Miss Anna 
M. Nelson occurred in Illinois, on April 22, 
1876. Mrs. Jensen was born in Denmark, on 
November 18, 1855 and has one brother, Jens 
Nelsen. To our subject and his wife the fol- 
lowing named children have been bom : Maria, 
in Illinois, on January 24, 1877, and now the 
wife of J. Brownfield; Jens W., in Illinois, on 
December 14, 1879; Nels G., in Nebraska, on 
March i, 1881 ; Martina O., in Nebraska, on 
January 4, 1883: Christian W., in Nebraska, 
on February 12, 1885 ; Louis J., in this county, 
on October 26, 1888; Carl M.,"in Douglas coun- 
ty, on April 3, 1891 ; Ella G., in this county, on 
October 5, 1895 ; Pearl M., in this county, on 
May 26, 1898. Mr. and Mrs. Jensen are mem- 
bers of the Lutheran church and stand well in 
the commuifitv. 

NIELS PEDERSEN is one of the indus- 
trious and intelligent agriculturists of Douglas 
county and his present residence, which is one 
half mile north from Farmer postoffice, is on 
land which he secured from the government by 
homestead and timber culture right. He has a 
good farm, which he has made very producti\-e 
and upon which he has bestowed his labors for 
all the time since coming here. He does general 
-farming, raising mostly, however, the cereals, 
but pIso handling some stock. 

Niels Pedersen was born in Jutland, Den- 
mark, nn August 26, 1863, the son of Peter and 

Mary (Petersen) Pedersen, natives of Den- 
mark. He was educated in his native place and 
there remained until he had grown to young 
manhood. It was 1882, that he came to the 
United States, settling first in Nebraska, where 
Harvard county was the scene of his labors for 
a time. Thence he remo\'ed to Umatilla coun- 
ty, Oregon, and there he farmed for a time, 
also. It was from that place, Mr. Pedersen 
came to Douglas county and took his claims as 
stated before. He has in addition to his farm 
property some fine graded cattle and horses and 
is one of the skillful breeders of stock in this 

The marriage of Mr. Pedersen occurred in 
this county, on November 13, 1890, when Miss 
Christina, daughter of Niels Peter and Mary 
(Jensen) Hanson, became his bride. Her 
parents are natives of Denmark, where they 
still live. The father served for considerable 
time in the Danish army. Mrs. Pedersen has 
one half brother, James Christensen. To ]\Ir. 
and Mrs. Pedersen the following children have 
been born; Mary N., on July 26, 1891 : Emma 
O., on December 14, 1894; Albert P., on Jan- 
uary 15, 1896; Ellcie C, on August zj, 1897, 
now deceased; Walter M., on March i, 1901 ; 
and Rosa M., on June 17, 1903. The children 
were all born in this county. Mr. and Mrs. 
Pedersen are members of the Lutheran church 
and are good people. 

JOHN MOHR is a farmer and stockman 
dwelling about two miles southwest from 
Farmer, where he owns a good large estate. 
On this place of one section he raises mostly 
the cereals, although he handles diversified 
crops somewhat. In addition to this work, ]\Ir. 
Mohr has some excellent horses, among which 
may be mentioned three stallions, all thorough- 
bred. One is a Percheron, weighing two thou- 
sand pounds; another is a Cleveland Bay, the 
only one on the prairie; and the other is a fine 
Clyde animal. He also owns about one hun- 
dred and fifty brood mares on the range and a 
band of Durham cattle. Mr. Mohr has shown- 
good ability in handling the large enterprises at 
the he^d of which he stands and he is occounted 
one of the most successful stockmen in the 

Jdhn Mohr was Iiorn in Kiel, Germany, on 



January 31, 1855, the son of John and Annie 
(Gail) JMohr, natives of Germany and now liv- 
ing in this country. The father served for 
thirty-five years in the regular army and par- 
ticipated in the war of 184S and also the Franco- 
Prussian conflict. He was a major in the royal 
cavalry. Our subject was educated in the 
schools of his native place and later learned the 
drug business in Kiel. At the age of seventeen 
he joined the German army and ser\-ed through 
the Franco-Prussian war. In 1S71, became to 
the United States and handled a delivery wagon 
for John D. Rockefeller in Cleveland, Ohio, 
for two years. Then a year was spent in the 
lumber business after which he went to Kan- 
sas in 1874 and raised stock in Washington 
county. In 1881, Mr. Mohr journeyed to Cal- 
ifornia and sixteen months later returned to 
Kansas, whence he soon came to Washington, 
selecting Douglas county as his permanent 
abode. He took a homestead, a pre-emption and 
a timber culture claim and also bought a quar- 
ter section. This is now his estate and it is 
well improved and valuable. Mr. Mohr has 
one brother, Henry. 

In Washington county, Kansas, in 1883, 
Mr. Mohr married Miss Emma, daughter of 
Andrew and Caroline Olandt, natives of Ger- 
many and immigrants to Kansas. Mrs. Mohr 
was born in Lapeer county, Michigan, in 1863 
and had one brother and one sister, Charles, 
and Mrs. Elma Thompson. To Mr. and Mrs. 
]\Iohr two children were born : John, in Kan- 
sas, on March 15, 1884; and Jessie, in Ellens- 
burg, on July 16, 1885. 

In 1878-9, Mr. Mohr was county com- 
missioner of Washington county, Kansas, and 
he has always taken a great interest in political 
matters. He and his wife are members of the 
Lutheran church and are industrious and 
capable people. 

HANS PETER LARSON resides about 
two miles southeast from Farmer postoftice and 
was born in Aalburg. Denmark, on December 
12, 1856. His parents, Lars Christian and 
Karen M. (Pingel) Larson, were natives of 
Denmark. The father is deceased but the 
mother is still living. The father served in the 
war of 1848-9. Our subject was educated in 
the schools of his native land and remained 
there until he was twenty-two years of age. At 

that time he enlisted in the regular armv and 
served for sixteen months. In the spring of 
1883. he came to the United States and settled 
in Menard county, Illinois, where he farmed 
for six years. In 1889, he moved to this county 
and settled on a homestead, where he resides 
at the present time. He added another quarter 
section by purchase and the whole estate now 
is farmed to small grains. The labor of Mr. 
and Mrs. Larson has been abundantly rewarded 
and they are now among the most prosperous 
people of this section. They have a comfort- 
able five room residence, large barn, fine well of 
water and many other improvements besides 
much other property. Mr. Larson has one 
brother and two sisters, Nels C, Mrs. Mary 
Christianson, and Mrs. Johannah Nelsen. 

On January 17, 1885, while still in Illinois, 
Mr. Larson married Miss Lorine, daughter of 
Christian and IMary A. (Thomson) Sorenson 
both natives of Denmark. Mrs. Larson was 
born in Denmark, on October 9, 1862. Three 
children have been born to this union : Harry 
C, on July 18, 1885 : Hannah M., in this coun- 
ty, on June 30, 1892; and Sena C, in this 
county, on June 13, 1894. Mr. and Mrs. Lar- 
son are members of the Lutheran church and 
are very active laborers for the moral welfare 
of the community. They have been verv suc- 
cessful in temporal matters, while' also' their 
upright walk has won for them the friendship 
and respect of the leading people of this section. 

county can produce some of the finest farms in 
the state of Washington as is evidenced by the 
well kept estates in various portions of the 
county. Among the best of them we are con- 
strained to mention that of Mr. Petersen, com- 
posed of a half section, and lying about one 
mile northwest from Farmer postoffice. Sagac- 
ity, wisdom and skill have been manifested in 
laying out the farm and directing the improve- 
ments. It is doubtless one of the best in this 
respect to be found in the Big Bend country. 
Mr. Petersen has made a study of his farm and 
brains as well as brawn have been brought into 
requisition to secure the gratifying results he 
has achieved. He raises abundant crops of 
small grain and also does some diversified farm- 
ing. He has a fine band of cattle and some ex- 


cellent specimens of well bred Clyde horses, be- 
sides other property. 

Christian Petersen was born on the Island 
of Lolland, under the dominion of Denmark, 
on July 29, 1861. His parents, Morton and 
Bodel (Jorgensen) Petersen, were natives of 
Denmark and tillers of the soil. Christian was 
educated in the public schools and on the farm 
of his father. He remained thus engaged until 
1 88 1, when he came to the United States, set- 
tling first in Alichigan. He was occupied three 
years in the lumber woods, then moved to 
Illinois where he did farming near Springfield, 
for a couple of years. After this he went to 
Nebraska and took a homestead but owing to 
ad\-erse circumstances and surroundings, he 
abandoned the same and journeyed west to 
Douglas county. After due search in this sec- 
tion, as well as on the Sound and in Oregon, 
he finally located his present place, and took two 
quarters, one a preemption and the other a 
timber culture claim. Since the time of his lo- 
cation, Mr. Petersen began to plan the laying 
out of the estate and the improvement of the 
same and the result has been most gratifying, 
both in manifested skill and in financial returns. 

Mr. Petersen has one brother, John M., 
living in Michigan. On February i, 1900, in 
Michigan, Mr. Petersen married Miss Maren 
Rasmussen, a native of Denmark, where also 
her parents were born. She has one brother, 
Hans, living in Muskegan, Michigan. Mr. and 
]\Irs. Petersen are members of the Lutheran 

DAVID S. ARBUCKLE is rightly num- 
bered with the pioneers of Douglas county, 
since he came here when all supplies had to be 
brought from Sookane and no post office was 
nearer than Ritz^'ille. He labored through all 
the years of opening the country, the result of 
which is that he is now one of the wealthv 

David S. Arbuckle was born in Sterling- 
shire, Scotland, on February 3, 1870, being the 
son of Hugh and Elizabeth f Smith") Arbuckle, 
both natives of Lanarkshire, Scotland. The 
parochial schools of his native shire contributed 
the education of our subject for the earlier 
years of his life, then he studied in Glascow 
academy, after which he worked for four years 
in the designing department of the Napier slu'p 

company on the river Clyde. In 1888 Mr. 
Arbuckle came to the United States, settling 
in Spokane. He remained three months there 
and witnessed the terrible fire in that city, then 
came to McEntee, the only settlement on the 
Grand Coulee. Here he worked for John 
Lewis, then took up a pre-emption just south- 
west from Coulee City. Later, he was in the 
employ of George Urquhart of Crab Creek, and 
of Mr. Blythe. He also labored for Phillip 
McEntee and Dan Paul. During all these years 
of hard labor, Mr. Arbuckle was very careful to 
husband his resources and the result was that 
he soon had a small band of cattle. By careful 
attention to business, he has increased his herd 
until he now has good graded stock of Short- 
horn and Hereford cattle, and Percheron 
horses. He owns about a section and one-half 
of e.xcellent wheat land, supplied with good 
running spring water, and much other property. 
In addition to this, Mr. Arbuckle has recently 
opened a saloon in Coulee City. Mr. Arbuckle 
has one brother, Hugh, and one sister, Ellen. 
As yet he has never entered the matrimonial 
state and is one of the jolly bachelors of the 
Big- Bend. 

stirring, capable and industrious farmer, hav- 
ing achieved e.xcellent success in his labors in 
this county. He resides about three miles 
southeast from Farmer postoffice, where he has 
an estate of a half section. The same is all fer- 
tile land and under the plow. He harvests an- 
nually abundant crops of small grains and also 
handles some stock. He is part owner of a fine 
Shire stallion, weighing nineteen hundred 
pounds and the winner of the animal's prize 
at Spokane. 

Nicholas C. Whitehall was born in Mercer 
county, Illinois, on March 4, 1864. His parents 
are James and Elizabeth (Clark) Whitehall, 
natives of Indiana, where the father did farm- 
ing and preached the gospel. Our subject was 
educated in the district schools of Mercer coun- 
ty, Illinois, and Greene countv, Iowa, in which 
latter place he remained until he had gained 
his majority, having lived for twenty-two years 
there. In 1896 he pulled up stakes and traveled 
to Douglas county, Washington. After due 
search, he selected his present place, taking a 
lion^estead, and bought another quarter section. 



Mr. Whitehall has four brothers and one sister, 
Barclay W., Henry T., A. Curtis, Charles A., 
and Carrie Badges. The latter died on October 
6, 1901. The brothers live in this county, ex- 
cept Henry T., who is in Greene county, Iowa. 
Charles A. married Lura Smith, of Greene 
county, Iowa, who died on December 25, 1901, 
leaving one son, Lloyd, aged six, and one 
daughter, Helen, born December 25, 1901. 

Mr. Whitehall was married in Green county, 
Iowa, on November 11, 1885 to Ella, daughter 
of James F. and Lodusky (Booth) Badger. 
Mrs. Whitehall's parents were natives of Ohio 
and she was born in Steuben county, Indiana, 
on February 26, 1868 and has one brother, 
Louis E., a farmer in this county. Mr. and 
Mrs. Whitehall are parents of the following 
named children ; LeRoy, born in Greene county, 
Iowa, on December 22, 1886; Oris F., born in 
Carroll county, Iowa, on June 13, 1891 ; Edith 
E., born in Greene county, Iowa, on November 
II, 1894; Pearl L., born in Greene county, 
Iowa, on November 12, 1896; Ralph, born in 
Douglas county, Washington, on August 6, 
1898; Harvey O., born in this county, on July 
5, 1899 ; and James O., also born in this county, 
September 19, 1904. 

Mr. Whitehall is not affiliated with any 
fraternal order and he and his wife belong to 
the Seventh Day Church of God and are warm 
supporters of their faith. 

GEORGE M. STAPISH is a leading busi- 
ness man at Hartline. He carries a full line of 
undertaking goods and agricultural implements 
and does a very thriving business. He was 
born in Chelsea, Michigan, on May 25, 1862. 
His parents, Michael and Emma (Franz) 
Stapish, were natives of Germany. The com- 
mon schools of Michigan furnished the educa- 
tional training of our subject and he continued 
there until he had completed the high school 
course. Then he learned the butcher trade and 
remained in Michigan until twenty eight years 
of age. It was in 1890, when he first came 
west and settled on a homestead about five miles 
south of Hartline. He turned his attention to 
farming and improved the place in good shape, 
then sold the property. After that, he bought 
a section of verv choice wheat land just south 
from Hartline, which he owns at the present 

time. The estate is provided with a fine two 
story residence, barns and so forth and is one 
of the choice ones of this section. ]\Ir. Stapish 
oversees this estate and gives his time almost 
entirely to conducting his business. In 1891, 
he graduated from the Spokane college of em- 
balming and is very expert and successful in 
this line of work. Mr. Stapish has given much 
study and careful investigation to perefcting 
himself in this art and he has gained great pro- 
ficiency. He holds a state license. 

Mr. Stapish has four brothers and two 
sisters, Frank, Henry, Frederick, Thomas, Mrs. 
Leonard Binder and Kate. 

At Hartline, in 1896, occurred the marriage 
of Mr. Stapish and Miss Maggie, daughter of 
David and Phemia (Bonham) Utt, natives of 
Ohio and Wisconsin, respectively. Mrs. Stap- 
ish was born in Wisconsin, on November 6, 
1855. She has six sisters, Nora, Mrs. Emlie 
Mason, Mrs. Charles Gage, Mrs. Thomas 
O'Neal, Mrs. James F. Harris and Mrs. James 

Mr. Stapish was raised in the Roman 
Catholic church, and is a well respected and 
substantial citizen. 

JOHN \\. McDonald, who stands at 
the head of a very prosperous business as com- 
mission merchant in grain and dealer in agri- 
cultural implements, is also president of the 
Hartline bank, in the organization of which he 
was the moving spirit. The enterprise, adapt- 
ability, and good judgment of Mr. McDonald 
have established him in the esteem of the people 
and without doubt he has done a great deal 
towards building up this thriving village. 

John W. McDonald was born in Decatur 
county, Iowa, on July 7, 1862, being the son 
of William and Neoma (Montgomery) Mc- 
Donald, natives of Ohio, and pioneers of Iowa. 
John W. McDonald was well educated in the 
schools in Decatur county and there grew to 
manhood. At the age of twenty, he went to 
Kansas where he operated a hvery stable and 
later opened a drug store. For five years he 
resided there then came, in 1888, to Medical 
Lake, Washington and there did contracting 
and building, having become efficient in this 
line of industry in later days. After the fire 
in Spokane, he went there and assisted to re- 



build that stricken city. Later, he removed to 
Ahnira and opened a feed and lumber business 
where he continued for one year and then began 
buying- grain for the Northern Pacific Elevator 
Company. In 1893, Mr. McDonald launched 
out in this enterprise for himself, feeling his 
way cautiously. He has succeeded well and is 
now one of the large grain buyers of Douglas 
county. In 1894, he bought out D. E. Reeves, 
the pioneer merchant of Hartline, and who 
owned the only stock of merchandise in the 
town at that time. Mr. McDonald operated the 
business six years. After becoming established 
in the grain buying business, Mr. McDonald 
added farming implements and later began 
handling all kinds of vehicles. He carries now, 
a most complete stock and does a very large 
business. Seeing the need of a financial insti- 
tution in Hartline, Mr. McDonald took upon 
himself the organization of the same and was 
successful in securing sufficient local capital to 
establish the Hartline bank, which began to do 
business in 1903. Mr. McDonald is the presi- 
dent and moving spirit in the institution and 
his success in the financial world, together with 
keen discrimination and business integrity, have 
given him the confidence of the people. Mr. 
McDonald has two brothers and one sister, 
Albert, George, and Mrs. Mary Lilly. 

At Spokane, on August 9, 1894, Mr. ^Mc- 
Donald married Miss Ella, daughter of Andrew 
and Julia Hagey, natives of Iowa. Mrs. Mc- 
Donald was born at Walla Walla, on February 
16, 1872 and has one brother, Thomas, and two 
sisters, Mrs. Clara Yelton and Mrs. Katie 
Sager. Two children have been the fruit of 
this union; Clive W., born on July 7, 1895; 
and Darrell W., born on September 15, 1900; 
both being natives of Douglas county. 

Mr. McDonald is a member of the A. F. & 
A. M. and is progressive and broad-minded. 

RILEY GILBERT, who dwells about six 
miles west from Coulee City, is known as one 
of the representative men of Douglas county, 
capable and upright. His holdings entitle him 
to be placed with the leading agriculturists of 
the Big Bend country and his standing is of 
the very best. 

Riley Gilbert was born in Allen county, 
Ohio, on February 9, 1841, the son of Lorenzo 

Dow and Hannah (Belknap) Gilbert, natives 
of New York state, the former deceased, and 
the latter now dwelling near Rockford, Wash- 
ington. The mother is aged eighty-nine. The 
family removed to Van Buren county, Iowa 
soon after the birth of our subject and in 1847, 
they crossed the plains to the Willamette valley, 
the Mecca of the west then. In that place the 
education that Mr. Gilbert had begun in Iowa 
was completed. Lane county was the home 
place and there he remained until manhood's 
estate was reached. Then he took up farming 
and remained continuously at that labor until 
1887, in which year he made his way thence to 
the Big Bend country. After due search and in- 
vestigation, he selected his present estate, taking 
a homestead and timber culture claim. He has 
given his attention closely to improving his 
place since those days and the result is he has 
a farm second to none in its cultivation and 
productiveness. His improvements are well 
bestowed and all about the premises shows 
the care and thrift which characterize the 
owner. Mr. Gilbert has some fine thorough- 
bred cattle and horses and his fine pasture is 
provided with a spring of living water. 

Mr. Gilbert has the following named 
brothers and sisters, Philander, Phineas, Jesse 
B.. Mrs. Jane Clark, Mrs. Mary Edwards, and 
Mrs. Emma Watts. In political matters he has 
taken a zealous part and has done good service 
as justice of the peace and notary public, while 
in his efiforts for general upbuilding, he has 
labored wisely and well. 

In 1865, while in Oregon, Mr. Gilbert mar- 
ried Miss Nancy D. Allen, who died in Junction 
City, Oregon, in 1875, leaving four cliildren, 
Granville M., born in Oregon, Mrs. Viola 
Ricks, Corrington, and Mrs. Ella Salmon, all 
in the Big Bend country. 

At Junction City, Oregon, in 1878, Mr. 
Gilbert married Miss Emma C, daughter of 
Adam N. and Margaret (Wheatley) Cum- 
mings, natives of Ohio and Maryland, respect- 
ively. The father crossed the plains in 1861. 
Mrs. Gilbert was born in Des Moines, Iowa, on 
March 21, 1859, and she has the following 
named brothers and sisters, James M., Adam 
C, Dorsey E., Mrs. Hester Walters, Mrs. 
Anna R. Page, Mrs. Ida M. Evens, and Clara 
E. To. Mr. and Mrs. Gilbert five children have 
been born : Stanley C, at Junction City, 
Oregon, on September 12, 1880; Clara E., in 



Oregon, on April 15, 

Walter L., 

Alden P., and Theresa, all born on the farm and 
on the dates mentioned, respectively, May 9, 
1888, August 16, 1890, and January 19, 1894, 

JAMES H. HILL. There is no mistaking 
the popularity of the subject of this anicle, m 
Douglas county. In 1894, his name appeared 
on the Republican ticket, for treasurer of the 
county, and he was one of four on the ticket 
who were elected. His majority was general 
and expected by e\'erybody in the county. He 
made a most excellent and reliable officer and 
pleased his supporters in every respect. He 
now has a farm of over one section in the 
vicinity of Hartline, well stocked and under cul- 
tivation, to the management of which he gives 
his attention, largely. In addition to this Mr. 
Hill has been engaged in business with ]\Ir. J. 
W. McDonald for years. 

James H. Hill was born in Spring Green, 
Wisconsin, on September 24, i860, the son of 
Thomas and Margaret (Mort) Hill, natives of 
England and pioneers to Wisconsin in 1854. 
Like the balance of the American youth, our 
subject received the bulk of his education in 
the public schools, finishing the same in the 
high school, and in the business college at 
Keokuk, Iowa. Being thus\vell fortified for 
business life, he came west in 1887, took a pre- 
emption and later a homestead, which are part 
of his present estate. He immediately and 
wisely added by purchase until he has one of 
the finest estates in this section, and which is 
in a very high state of cultivation, producing 
annually in excellent abundance. When Mr. 
Hill first located here he was without financial 
means but is now one of the most prosperous 
men of the section. In 1892, he was elected 
justice of the peace and later was re-elected but 
refused to qualify the second time. Following 
his retirement from the treasury of Douglas 
county, Mr. Hill returned to his farm and con- 
tinued steadily in this ever since. He has four 
brothers, Thomas, John. William. Charles, and 
one sister, Mrs. Marv East, who died recently 
at Waterville. 

At Spring Green, Wisconsin, on February 
19, 1884, Mr. Hill married Miss Susie, daugh- 
ter of Joseph and Christine (Schmitt) Schmitz, 
natives of Germany. Mrs. Hill was born in 

Wisconsin, in August, 1862, and has one 
brother, John, and six sisters, Mrs. Catherine 
Rick, Mrs. Emma Greenhick, Mrs. Celine 
Weidenfeld, Mrs. Gertrude Elder, Mrs. 
Maggie Greenhick, and Mrs. Hellen Green- 
hick. To Mr. and Mrs. Hill, one child, 
Carl J., was born in Douglas county, 
on April 9, 1902. On December 12, 
of the same year, they were called upon to 
mourn his death. Mr. and Mrs. Hill are not 
members of any denomination but have been 
brought up under the influence of- the Congre- 
gational church and are upright andw reliable 

EUGENE O. WHITNEY, who is now 
hvnig at Hartline, has the distinction of being 
one of the earliest pioneers of Douglas county. 
Since those days of frontier life, Mr. \Miitney 
has given his attention to farming and stock 
raising in this county and has achieved success 
commensurate with the labors he has bestowed. 
He is one of the well known men of the coun- 
try, of excellent standing and real worth. 

Eugene O. Whitney was born in Marquette 
county, Wisconsin, on January 29, 1853. His 
parents, Loren J. and Fannie (Forbes") Whit- 
ney, were natives of Wisconsin and very early 
pioneers in Minnesota. Our subject was edu- 
cated in the common schools of Faribault coun- 
ty, Adinnesota, and when he arrived at man- 
hood's estate, gave his attention to farming. 
When t\\-ent}--fi\-e j-ears of age, he came thence 
to Washington and settled in Douglas county 
about eleven miles north of Hartline, near the 
present postofiice of Lincoln. He first took a 
preemption and then a homestead and turned 
his attention to raising grain and stock. He 
has a large herd of fine cattle and has been well 
prospered in his labors. Mr. Whitney has one 
brother, Jessie S., and one sister, Mrs. Marian 

At Bluearth City, Minnesota, on April 10, 
1879, occurred the marriage of Mr. Whitney 
and Miss Flora Rusho and to this marriage two 
children have been born : Maude, on January 
21. 1880 and now the wife of Medley Osborne; 
Loren J., born May 15, 1885. living at home. 
The former is a native of Minnesota and the 
latter of Idaho. ,Mrs. Whitney's parents, 
Anthony and Almira (Morris) Rusho, were 
natives of Canada. She has the following 



brothers and sisters: Anthony, dwelhng at 
Cusick, Washington; Joseph, in Taylor, 
Nebraska; Charles, in Dakota; Frank, who 
died in Usk, Washington, on June 9, 1889; 
Mrs. Alniira Boyer; Mrs. Philmay Chees- 
brough, in Los Angeles, California ; Mrs. Mar- 
garet Wilcutt, in Lane county, Oregon; Mrs. 
Cornelia Payne, who died at Lagrande, Ore- 
gon, in 1900; Mary, who died in Minnesota at 
the age of nineteen. 

Mr. \\niitney is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and was raised under the influence of the Bap- 
tist church. 

\MLLIAAI J. SMITH is one of the oldest 
pioneers of Douglas county and so long has he 
been identified with the country and its interests 
that one might say that his life has been prac- 
tically all spent here. He resides about^ six 
miles north from Mold on a fine tract of land 
of six hundred and forty acres, most of which 
is under cultivation. The farm is a model one 
supplied with modern and commodious build- 
ings and all other improvements needed. Mr. 
Smith gives his attention both to raising small 
grains and breeding horses. He has a fine band 
and a good Shire and Percheron stallion. His 
thrift and industry have made him one of the 
wealthy and leading men of the county and he 
has richly deserved the confidence and esteem 
given him by his fellows. 

William J. Smith was born in Schuyler 
county, Missouri, on March 6, 1867, being the 
son of John H. and Sarah C. (Horton) Smith, 
natives of Tennessee and Missouri, respect- 
ively. Our subject began his education in 
Adair county, Missouri, and in 1883, came with 
his parents by wagon across the country to 
Douglas county. He was a pupil in the first 
school taught in the county, C. C. Ladd being 
the instructor. Much of Mr. Smith's youth 
was spent in the saddle riding for stock. The 
father had located in what was known as the 
California settlement and later, our subject 
took a claim also. Finally, he purchased his fa- 
ther's land, and in 1901, took a homestead, all 
of which makes him the estate mentioned above. 
Mr. Smith has one brother, James H., and one 
sister, Mrs. Loucina Mitchel, and one half- 
brother, Arthur L., and one half-sister, INIrs. 
Bertha Sims. 

Ill the California settlement on March 3, 

1895, Mr. Smith married Miss Clara F. Boone, 
She was born in Salem. Oregon, on March 21, 
1878, being a daughter of Frank B. and Jennie 
(Tyler) Boone, natives of Oregon and Mis- 
souri, respectively, and now residing in British 
Columbia. She has the following brothers and 
sisters; Arthur H., born in Salem, Oregon; 
Nellie E., born in Waitsburg, Washington; 
Mabel A., also born in Waitsburg: Harvey H., 
born in Douglas county; and Elsie, also born in 
this county. To Mr. and ^Irs. Smith, five chil- 
dren have been bom; Bessie A., on May 14, 
1896; Vera M., on August 28, 1898; Leroy, 
on March 15, 1900: Clara P., on July 11, 1902, 
and Itha, on April 2, 1904. All were born in 
Douglas county. ^Ir. Smith is a member of 
the Maccabees. 

chosen representative to the state legislature 
from Douglas county, his election occurring in 
1902, when he secured the position by a major- 
ity of one hundred and thirty-five over the 
fusionist candidate, his own name appearing on 
the Republican ticket. Mr. Haynes has been 
efficient and active in the legislature and 
brought forward the bill legalizing the opening 
of reads on all section lines. He is a member of 
the committee on railroads, also is on the com- 
mittee on irrigation and agriculture, and is 
chairman of the committee on dairy and live 

William F. Haynes was born in Clinton 
county, Ohio, on October 28, 1837, the son of 
Charles and Maria (Franklin) Haynes, natives 
of New York, and pioneers in Ohio and In- 
diana. Our subject was educated in the_ public 
schools of his native county and there and in 
Indiana grew to manhood. When eighteen, he 
engag'ed in the mercantile business and con- 
tinued in the same from 1856 to 1862. Then 
he sold out and shipped cattle to eastern mar- 
kets. This occupied him until 1878 in which 
year he was chosen clerk for the circuit court 
at Danville, Hendricks county, Indiana, where 
he served for four years. During this time he 
owned and operated a flouring- mill, continuing 
in the same until 1888. In that year, Mr. 
Haynes sold out his property in the east and 
came to Douglas county. He selected his pres- 
ent place and took a half section by homestead' 












and pre-emption rights. To this he has added 
much since and he lias now a large estate, which 
produces much small grain and hay. He also 
raises cattle and has a large band on the range 
besides some horses and other stock. Mr. 
Haynes has manifested excellent business abil- 
ity in his enterprises in this county and is a 
man of careful discrimination and while con- 
ser\-ative is possessed of a progressive spirit 
and the interests of the county are well in his 
hands. From 1894 to 1898 he was commis- 
sioner of Douglas county and conserved the 
people's interest well. 

Mr. Haynes has the following brothers and 
sisters, Charles, Samuel, Thomas. Mrs. Aman- 
da Henson, Mrs. Mary Bowsman, and Mrs. 
Almira Haines. 

At Danville, Indiana, on November 15, 
i860, Mr. Haynes married Miss Asbarine H. 
Cash, who was born in the same town, on 
December 12, 1841. To this union four chil- 
dren were born, Harrj' S., Charles, Aggie, wife 
of Fred Sisson, in Colorado, and Frank D. On 
April 6, 1875, Mr. Haynes was called to mourn 
the death of his w'ife. 

On June 3, 1S78, Mr. Haynes married a 
second time, Eva Ferguson, a native of Dan- 
ville, Indiana, becoming his bride on that oc- 
casion. To this marriage two children were 
born, William, on November 14, 1883: Arthur, 
on January 2, 1890, both native to this county. 
At Coulee City, on March 22, 1893, Mr. Hay- 
nes was again called to mourn at the hand of 
death, his wife crossing the river on that date. 

Mr. Haynes is a member of the A. F. & 
A. M. He is a man of broad public mind and 
has labored wisely and well in the endeavor to 
build up the interests of the county and enhance 
the prosperity of the section. 

WILLIAM B. ESTES lives about two 
miles southwest from Southside, where he has 
a fine large estate. One section is in his own 
right and the balance is school land, leased from 
the state. Mr. Estes does general farming and 
raises stock. xAmong the latter may be men- 
tioned some of the fine Clyde horses to be found 
in this section of the country. He also has some 
cattle and a number of weW bred Poland China 
hogs. Mr. Estes has just completed a large 
eight-room house, niodern in every respect, be- 

ing supplied with bath and so forth, and it is 
one of the largest dwellings in Douglas county. 
The place is well supplied with water, orchard 
and other conveniences and is a very pleasant 
rural abode. 

William B. Estes was born in JefTerson 
county, Tennessee, on February 16, 1857. the 
son of Samuel and Sarah J. (McBride)' Estes, 
both natives of Tennessee. The father served 
in the confederate army and was at Vicksburg 
under General Pemberton. He was twice a 
prisoner during the war. In 1875, the family 
migrated to Linn county, Oregon, where set- 
tlement was made and our subject completed 
his education which he had begun in Tennessee. 
He grew to manhood's estate in Oregon, having 
li\-ed in both Linn and Lmiatilla counties. In 
1888. he came to Douglas county and took a 
homestead to which he has added' bv purchase, 
until he has the estate mentioned abo\-e. Mr. 
Estes came here with very little capital and his 
present large and gratifying holdings have been 
gained entirely by his own industry and wise 
management and he is to be congratulated upon 
the abundant success which he has achieved. 

Mr. Estes has one sister, Mrs. Catherine 
Dick, li\-ing at Pilot Rock, Oregon. On Feb- 
ruary 13, 1889. Mr. Estes married Miss Lizzie. 
daughter of William C. and Susannah (Len- 
nox) White, natives of Tennessee and Mis- 
souri, respectively and now residing at Echo, 
Oregon. Mrs. Estes was born in Oregon, on 
January 12, 1863. Mrs. White's father, David 
T. Lennox, was captain of the first wagon 
train that ever crossed the plains, it being un- 
der the leadership of Marcus Whitman. David 
T. Lenno.x was also organizer of the first Bap- 
tist church on the Pacific coast. 

Mrs. Estes has the following brothers and 
sisters,- William S., Louis O., Thomas O., John 
E., Millard F., Mrs. Rose Hammer, Mrs. 
Nancy C. Means, Jessie M. White, Mrs. Har- 
riett F. Ward, and Mrs. Dellia M. Getchell. 
The last two named are deceased. The names 
of the children born to Mr. and Mrs. Estes 
with the dates of their respective birth, are as 
follows; Bessie M., August 18, 1890: William 
C, September 20, 1893; Cora E., March 22., 
1895: Lottie B., September 12, 1898; Lonola 
A., April 16, 1.900; and Annie L., September 
28, 1903. Mr. and Mrs. Estes are both members 
of the -American Yoenian and were both raised 
in the Baptist church| They are people that 



ha\-e tlie good will of all, having shown by their 
labors and walk, their uprightness and integ- 

JOHN R. LEWIS, who lives about a mile 
north from Coulee City, is, doubtless, one of the 
best known men in Douglas county. Since the 
very early days, he has been prominent in every 
line of industry in the building up and im- 
provement of the country, and has labored here 
with excellent results. After settling here, he 
at once gave his attention to niaking known 
the resources of the country and especially to 
his countrymen, the Welsh people having a 
desire for a large settlement in the Big Bend 
country. He wrote numerous newspaper 
articles and assisted settlers in finding good lo- 
cations and in every way possible was very in- 
fluential in getting the country filled up with a 
good substantial people. 

John R. Lewis was born in Cardiganshire, 
Wales, on January lo, 1855, being the son of 
Thomas and Mary (Jones) Lewis, natives of 
Wales, also. His educational training was 
received in the common schools and he re- 
mained in that country vmtil September 24, 
1880. On that date, he landed in Philadelphia, 
from which place he went to Braddock, Penn- 
sylvania, and took up work at his trade, that of 
the stonemason, which he had thoroughly mas- 
tered in his own country. For two and one- 
half years, he labored there, working on the 
Edgar Thompson steel works. Mr. Lewis then 
came west via San Francisco and in March, 
1883, filed on a pre-emption and timber culture 
claim near the present town of Almira. After 
spending some years there in building up and 
getting the country settled, he came to his 
present location and took a homestead. But 
one other settler, Philip McEntee, was in the 
Coulee. Mr. Lewis has given his attention al- 
most exclusively to stock raising, since settling 
in the Coulee, and he has gained remarkable 
success in this line. During the year of 1889- 
90 he lust twii-thirds of his cattle, owing to the 
heavy winter and storms. Since that time. 
however, he has increased his herds until he has 
a very fine holding at the present time. Mr, 
Lewis has always taken a very active interest 
in political matters and from 1888 to 1892. 
he served as county commissioner of Douglas 
county. He is at the present time, a member 

of the state central committee of the Republi- 
can party and has always attended the county 
conventions and many of the state conventions. 
In 1904, Mr. Lewis received the unanimous 
voice of the convention nominating him for the 
state legislature; but owing to the railroad 
complications, which, as he viewed the field, 
deterred him from doing what he deemed his 
duty for the people in that capacity, he refused 
the nomination. Mr. Lewis is a progressive, 
wide awake and talented man. 

In August, 1880, at Aberystwith, Wales, 
Mr. Lewis married Miss Ellen, daughter of 
David and Ellen Jones, natives of Wales. To 
this union ten children have been born, named 
as follows: David, March 19, 1884; Mary, 
April 24, 1885; Edith, March 9, 1887; Olwen, 
February 7, 1890; Arthur, October 10, 1891 ; 
Ellen, January i, 1893; Blodwen August 14, 
1894; Annie, October 18, 1897; Sarah, March 
II, 1900; and John, January 28, 1903. 

Mr. and Mrs. Lewis were raised under the 
influence of the Presbyterian church and are 
stanch and upright people who have won hosts 
of friends and are deserving of the esteem and 
confidence granted them by their fellows-. 

JAMES H. SMITH dwells about five miles 
southwest h-cmi Coulee City, on one of the best 
locations in the entire Grand Coulee. His es- 
tate is situated at the head of Blue Lake, with 
sufficient water to irrigate a good portion of it 
and with a grand panoramic view of the tower- 
ing walls of the coulee and other scenery which 
is \'ery inspiring. Mr. Smith is known as one 
of the large stock raisers in Douglas county 
and has accumulated a nice fortune in this in- 

James H. Smith was born in Adair county, 
Missouri. The father's ancestors dwelt in Vir- 
ginia. The family came to this country in 
1882, locating in the California settlement. 
Our subject was a pupil in the first school or- 
ganized in the county, which was taught by C. 
C. Ladd and under his training, be received 
most of his education. At the age of twenty 
he engaged in the stock business and has con- 
tinued in the same since. He has a large band 
of choice Hereford cattle and a bunch of horses. 
Mr. Smith's estate is provided with a good two- 
story residence, plenty of barns, outbuildings 



and so forth and is devoted largely to the pro- 
duction of hay. He has a fine alfalfa field, 
irrigated, and raises in addition to that some 
grain and hay. He also has a very fine orchard 
of select fruit. Mr. Smith has two brothers, 
William J. and Arthur L., and two sisters, Mrs. 
Lou Mitchell and Mrs. Bertha Sims. 

Near Hartline, on January i, 1890, Mr. 
Smith married Miss Melissa, daughter of Alex- 
ander and Polly (Helton) Osborne, natives of 
Illinois and Kentucky, respectively. Mrs. 
Smith was born in Missouri, on August 27, 
1871, and has two brothers, Willis aad Medley, 
and one sister, Mrs. Maggie Wallock. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Smith five children have been born ; 
Mabel, on January 13, 1891 ; Elbert L., on June 
II, 1892; Altha L., on November 3, 1894; 
Elsie M., on December 10, 1896; and Charles 
F., on October 17, 1898. 

Mr. Smith was raised under the influence 
of the Salvation Army but at present is not a 
member of any denomination. 

L. OSBORNE. The firm of Osborne Brothers 
composed of the gentlemen, whose names ap- 
pear at the head of this article, is one of the 
largest stock concerns of the Big Bend country. 
They reside about five miles northwest from 
Lincoln where they have a very large estate, 
fitted up as a first-class Washington stock farm. 
They are known as very progressive and ca- 
pable men and have demonstrated their ability 
in achieving a success that has placed them 
among the leading stock men of the state. The\ 
have at the present time about one thousand 
head of choice Red Durham and Hereford 
cattle, besides \ery much other property. They 
were born in Loudon county, Tennessee, in 
1859 and 1866, respectively, be'mg the sons of 
Thomas and Eveline (Alatlock) Osborne, na- 
tives of North Carolina and Tennessee, re- 
spectively. Oscar F. came to Washington in 
the spring of 1882 and settled in the coulee in 
the fall of 1883, where he took a homestead and 
timber culture claims. The following spring, 
his brother Charles joined him and took up 
some more land. They joined their labors in 
improving the estates and in stock raising and 
since that time, they ha\'e been together in all 
of their ventures. The home place is on the 

homestead taken by Oscar. It is well supplied 
with fine buildings, corrals and all the conven- 
iences needed to make it both valuable and at- 
tractive. Osborne Brothers were among the 
first to introduce thoroughbred stock and their 
brand is on some of the most valuable animals 
in this county, \\dien they first came here all 
supplies had to be freighted from Spokane and 
Sprague and in going this distance they would 
pass but five or six settlers' cabins on the road. 
Their first cattle market was at Fort Spokane. 
Afterward they sold in Seattle, having to drive 
to Ellensburg for shipment. They crossed the 
Columbia river at the mouth of Moses Coulee 
on a hand ferry. They continued steadily at 
their labors and have now become wealthy and 
leading citizens. Our subjects have two 
brothers and five sisters, John W., Wilbur J., 
Mrs. Louisa Blair, Mrs. Annie Kaylor, Mrs. 
Addie Robinson, Mrs. Florence Penland, and 

Oscar Osborne was married in 1896, to 
Miss Lillie Scheibener, the daughter of F. M. 
and J. E. Scheibener, who are mentioned else- 
where in this volume. Two children have been 
born to this union, Floyd and Joannah. Our 
subjects were both received in the Presbyterian 
church and are upright and substantial men. 

WALTER C. COX, M. D., stands at the 
head of a large and increasing practice in Doug- 
las county. He is located at Hartline where 
he has been actively engaged in his profession 
since 1902. His skill, erudition and integrity 
have placed him in the front ranks of pro- 
fessional men in this part of the state. 

Walter C. Cox was born in Montgomery 
county, [Missouri, on June 16, 1868, being the 
son of Milton and Mickey (Helms) Cox, na- 
tives of Missouri. The father was a judge in 
Montgomery county for eight years, was prom- 
inent in the county affairs and was a soldier in 
the late war. After completing a course in 
the state university of Columbia, our subject 
entered the Marion Sims school of medicine in 
St. Louis. In due time he graduated from this 
institution with especially high honors, 
being leader of his class. Following 
that, he took a post graduate course 
in the Chicago Post Graduate Medical 
College and received an excellent diploma 



from that also. He began the practice of med- 
icine in Shamrock, Missouri, in 1892, where he 
remained for ten years. Then he came west 
and settled at Hartline and opened an office 
where he has been busily engaged since. Dr. 
Cox has the confidence of the people throughout 
the country and is well known in the profession 
as a man of skill. He has four brothers and 
one sister, James A., William H., John, Samuel 
S., and Mrs. Lucretia M. Jones. 

At' Middleton, Missouri, on October 15, 
1892, Dr. Cox married Miss Lena M., daughter 
of Lucien and Anna Savage, natives of Mis- 
souri. Mrs. Cox was born in Lincoln county, 
Missouri, on September 20, 1870. She has two 
sisters. Bell and Maude. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Cox, the following children have been born : 
William A., on July 18, 1893; Anna M., on 
Janary 10, 1896; Lucien M., on April 10, 1899 
and Champ C, in Hartline, on March 5, 1903. 

The doctor is a member of the A. F. &. A. 
M., the I. O. O. F., and the M. W. A. 

CALVIN R. STEELE is the efficient and 
successful manager of the Hayden Lumber 
Company at Hartline. He has won his present 
prominent position among business men of this 
town by industry and manifestation of ability. 
He is one of the leading citizens of this part of 
Douglas county. 

Calvin R. Steele was born in Burlington, 
Iowa, on April 25, 1872. When an infant, he 
was adopted by his grandparents, Samuel and 
Rebecca Steele, to be raised and remained in 
their family until he reached manhood. He is 
a self educated man. having gained his own 
training both in the common school and the 
commercial college of Western Iowa. In that 
state he was in the employ of the state deaf 
and dumb institution and in other capacities. 
In 1895, he came west, settling near Hartline on 
a homestead. For the first year, he was en- 
gaged on a farm, working for wages, and then 
began the improvement and cultivation of his 
place, after whicli he opened a barlser business 
in Hartline. He added, later, confectionery 
and jewelry. After a successful time in this 
line of business, Mr. Steele was engaged by M. 
E. and E. T. Hay in handling the lumber de- 
partment of their business. Finally in 1902, 
he took entire charge of the business of the 

Hayden Lumber Company at Hartline, in 
which capacity we find him operating at the 
present time. 

At Council Bluffs, Iowa, in September, 
1893, occurred the marriage of Mr. Steele and 
Miss Cleora, daughter of John I. and Margaret 
(Elliott) Fulton, both natives of Ohio. The 
father was a veteran of the Rebellion, having 
served in the Eighth Iowa Cavalry under Gen- 
eral McCook and is now a member of the G. 
A. R. Mrs. Steele was born in Jefferson coun- 
ty, Iowa, on June 6, 1874. She has the follow- 
ing brothers and sisters, Orlander E., Simon, 
Dwight, Pearl, Mrs. Charles Blanchard. and 
Mrs. James Clark. To Mr. and Mrs. Steele, 
three children have been born, named as fol- 
lows : Lester W., on June 17, 1896; Vivian M., 
on JMarch 30, 1899; and Lloyd, on June 6,, 
1 90 1. All are natives of Hartline. . Mr. 
Steele is master and senior warden of Lodge 
No. 120, A. F. & A. M. ; is recording secretary 
of Lodge No. 201, I. O. O. F. ; is charter mem- 
ber of the Maccabees and belongs to the M. W. 
A., all in Hartline. 

Mr. Steele and his family are adherents of 
the Methodist church. 

JOHN F. DUNCAN is a gentleman of 
first-class standing in Douglas county and is 
one of the pioneers of the Big Bend country. 
He has a fine estate of one section about two 
miles north from Hartline, which is all laid 
under tribute for the production of wheat. In 
addition to this, he owns real estate in different 
sections of the county, besides various other 
property holdings. 

John F. Duncan was born in McDonough 
county, Illinois, on August 25, 1862. being the 
son of John and Margaret (Chapin) Duncan, 
natives of Illinois and Ohio, respectively. The 
father was a veteran of the Civil War. Our 
subject was educated in the public schools of 
Hancock county, Illinois and there remained 
until he grew to manhood, taking up farming' 
after he arrived at his majority. In 1886, he 
came to Lincoln county, Washington, settling 
near Wilbur, where he made his home for five 
years. After that he took a homestead near 
Baird postoffice, Douglas county and improved 
the same in good season. Tiien he purchased 
his present home place and since then has de- 


66 1 

voted his energies largeh' to the improvement 
and cultivation of his farm, and in stock rais- 
ing. He has a fine band of well graded cattle 
and horses. i\Ir. Duncan has two brothers and 
one sister, Elmer E., Ralph J., and Mrs. Loretta 
B. Fry. 

At Wilbur, Washington, on December 27," 
1891, Mr. Duncan married Miss Minnie, daugh- 
ter of Samuel C. and Louisa (Davis) Hyde, 
natives of Wisconsin and New Hampshire, re- 
spectively. Mr. Hyde is a veteran of the Civil 
War. Mrs. Duncan was born in Pierce county, 
Wisconsin, on September 9, 1869 and has one 
brother, Fred and one sister, Mrs. Nellie Lewis. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Duncan have been born Pearl 
Fern, on December 11, 1897 and two children, 
a girl and a boy, who died when six months 
of age, and one son, Glenn E., on November 
29, 1903. 

Fraternally, Mr. Duncan is affiliated with 
the A. F. & A. M., the I. O. O. F., the Mac- 
cabees and the M. W. A. He and his wife 
are members of the Methodist church at Hart- 
line and are the center of a large circle of 
friends. In addition to his other labors, Mr. 
Duncan is now serving as deputy treasurer and 
delinciuent tax collector of Douglas county, in 
■which capacity he gives entire satisfaction. 

JAMES P. SCHROCK has labored in 
Douglas county with becoming energ}^ and wis- 
dom since the earliest days in which the white 
men settled 'here. He now dwells about six 
miles north from Hartline on an estate of 
nearly one thousand acres which he has secured 
and the place is in a high state of cultivation. 
It is devoted to hay and the cereals and im- 
proved in excellent shape. Commodious and 
tasty buildings, fences, orchard, well and so 
forth, are in evidence, and in fact everything 
needed on a first class grain and fruit farm. 
Mr. Schrock divides his attention between 
general farming and stock raising, having now 
over three hundred head of choice Durham cat- 
tle besides horses and so forth. Mr. Schrock is 
one of the real pioneers of the country, whose 
labors have done much to open up the country 
and stimulate others in these excellent enter- 
prises. He has introcfuced choice Shorthorn 
and Durham cattle into this country and it is 
pleasant to see one who has labored thus hard 

and skillfully for wealth, to make a home, and 
develop the country, enjoy the fruits of his toil 
in abundance as does Mr. Schrock. 

James P. Schrock was born in Linn 
county, Missouri, on September 14, 1850. being 
the son of Joseph and Mary (Gilmer) Schrock, 
natives of Virginia and early settlers in Mis- 
souri. From the common schools of his native 
state, our subject received his education and 
there remained until twenty-three years of age. 
Then he traveled to Idaho and Nevada, re- 
maining until 1876, when he returned to Mis- 
souri, and in 1883 came to Douglas county. 
He took government claims and soon added by 
purchase until he possessed the large estate 
mentioned. Mr. Schrock has the following 
brothers and sisters, Andrew J., Davis G., 
Samuel, Lee, Edward F., Willis E., Joseph, 
]\Irs. Dora Street, and Mrs. Mary Gibbon. 

In Linn county, Missouri, on September 16, 
1883, Mr. Schrock married Miss Sarah E., 
daughter of Elias and Annie (Owen) Coker- 
ham, natives of Kentucky. Mrs. Schrock was 
born in Linn county, Missouri, on September 
II, 1859 and has two sisters, Mrs. Frances 
Ogle and Mrs. Eveline Williams. To our sub- 
ject and his wife, these children have been born, 
Charles, Edgar. Clara M., Elsie M., Joseph W., 
Davis L!, and Vera G. 

Mr. Scrock was raised a Methodist and 
with his family belongs to that denomination 
at the present time. Like the other pioneers 
that wended their way into this unbroken do- 
main of nature, Mr. Schrock was obliged to 
travel to Spokane and Sprague for his supplies, 
each trip consuming a week or more ; but he 
labored faithfully on and has made a brilliant 
success in financial matters. 

who is proprietor of the drug store in Hartline 
is also at the head of a large practice of medi- 
cine in and around the same town. His equip- 
ment for this profession is as good as money 
can buy and his library is as fine as there is in 
eastern W'ashington. Dr. Harris has met with 
excellent success in his profession, owing to his 
skill and erudition as a physician. His standing 
in the communitv is of the best and the confi- 
dence inspired by his uprightness and ability 
is widespread. 



J. F. Harris was born in Bloomfield, Iowa, 
on April i, 1853, being the son of John O. and 
Emmehne (Shelton) Harris, natives of Indiana 
and Ohio, respecti\'ely. The parents were 
pioneers to Iowa and the father was a member 
of the Second Missouri State Mihtia and also 
served three years and four months during the 
war of the Rebellion. Our subject received 
his literary training in Missouri and then en- 
tered the American Medical College in St. 
Louis, graduating in 1882 and being one of 
four to recei\-e honorable mention out of a large 
class. Immediately subsequent to receiving 
his degree, he began the practice of medicine 
in J\Iercer\'ille, Missouri. One year later, he 
went to Goldsberry of the same state. In 1890, 
Dr. Harris sought larger fields in the west 
and came to Washington. For three years 
he practiced at Medical Lake, then went to 
Harrington. Later, we find him in Northport, 
Stevens county, where he followed his pro- 
fession for five years. He was a member of 
the first city council of that town and the second 
mayor elected. In 1901, Dr. Harris came to 
Hartline, opened a drug store and began the 
practice of medicine. Since that time, he has 
been closely identified with the interests of the 
town and gained in addition to a large practice, 
an excellent patronage in his store. He has 
also been a foremost man in every effort and 
movement to build up the country. His store is 
well stocked with a choice selection of drugs 
and sudries and is a first class establishment. 
Dr. Harris is now coroner of Douglas county, 
having been elected on the Republican ticket 
against P. J. Fresinger, of Waterville. Our 
subject is one of five children, the other four 
being mentioned as follows, James W., Mrs. 
Laura Boyles, Mrs. William Easlev, and Mrs. 
William V\Tight. 

At Macon, Missouri, in 1872, Dr. Harris 
married Mary B.. the daughter of William and 
Matilda (Gunnells) Grifiin, natives of Ken- 
tucky. To this union the following children 
were born, W'ilbur A., Oma E., E. Verna, who 
died at Harrington, Lucretia, who died when 
an infant, and OtJia W. The latter was born 
in Washington and the other four first saw the 
hght in I\Iissouri. Dr. Harris is a prominent 
man in fraternal circles, being a member of the 
A. F. & A. ?^I.. of the I. O. O^F., having passed 
all tlie chairs in this latter order, the ^Maccabees, 
the W. \V., and the Foresters. 

He is a substantial, progressive and leading 
man, and has won the esteem and confidence of 
all, being known as one of the influential men 
of the county. 

CHARLES E. FLYNN has the distinction 
of being one of the early pioneers of Douglas 
county and is now one of its well to do citizens. 
He resides about six miles north from Hartline 
on an estate of one half section which he se- 
cured by homestead right and by purchase. He 
has comfortable improvements on the farm and 
devotes his attention to stock raising and farm- 

Charles E. Flynn was born in Huntington 
county, Canada, on June 9, 1858, being the son 
of Bernard and Katherine (Bennett) Flynn 
who now resides in Oregon. Our subject 
was educated in the public schools of 
Canada, Iowa and Oregon, and in the latter 
place he lived fourteen years. In 1884, he 
mo\-ed to Yakima where one year was spent. 
Then came the journey to Douglas county and 
he selected his present place as a preemption, 
taking it later also as a homestead. Here he 
has remained since, always laboring with 
energy and wisdom in the accumulation of a 
good holding and in the worthy labors of for- 
warding the interests of the country. Before 
leaving Oregon, he was section foreman on the 
Southern Pacific, being the first one in charge 
of the section out of Roseburg. Mr. Flynn has 
three brothers and three sisters who have been 
mentioned in another portion of this work, and 
also a half brother, P. A. Flynn, now in Cal- 

On August Ti, 1902, Mr. Flynn married 
]\liss Winifred Dwyer. Her parents, John and 
Julia ( ^Murray ) Dwyer, are natives of Ireland. 
Mrs. Flynn has three brothers in this country, 
Michael. Patrick and William T., and three 
brothers and four sisters in Canada. 

The conditions obtaining at the time of ^h. 
Flynn's settlement here were so different from 
what they are to-day that one must draw upon 
his imagination to realize them. In place of 
fertile farms in every section, it was barren 
prairie covered with sage brush, and crops for 
the first few years wei* almost nothing. 

AMiatever trading was to be done, had to 
be done in Spokane or Sprague, over one hun- 
dred miles away. Being possessed of but little 



capital, he was forced to go to the Palouse 
country and Walla Walla to work in the har- 
vest fields to gain nn mey to improve his farm. 
This continued until it had become self sup- 
porting and since that time, he has labored 
here with proper returns of prosperity and 

sides about six miles north from Hartline and 
was born in Wayne county, Kentucky, on Feb- 
rury 13, 1848. His parents were J. and Pris- 
cilla A. (Cullum) Higginbotham, natives of 
Kentucky. The common schools of Kentucky, 
Illinois, Iowa, and Missouri contributed to the 
education of our subject and in 1881, he crossed 
the plains with two teams of horses and mules, 
to Oregon, settling in Union county. In 1885, 
he came to Douglas county, Washington, and 
took up a homestead where he now resides. 
To this he has added a quarter section that 
adjoins his place. The whole estate is tmder 
cultivation and supplied with all the improve- 
ments needed on a first-class grain and stock 
farm. He gave his attention to general farm- 
ing and stock raising and although he landed 
here with but forty dollars cash and a team 
and wagon, he is now one of the prosperous 
and leading men of the section. He has some 
fine bands of cattle and horses and in addition 
to his farm, has other property. Mr. Higgin- 
botham has five sisters and brothers, John C, 
George C, Thomas, Mrs. Mary Alexander, and 
Mrs. Ellen Darr. 

In Linn county, Missouri, on September 2, 
1875, Mr. Higginbotham married Miss Mag- 
gie, daughter of John and Historian (Run- 
nells) Gier, natives of Madison and Gillespie 
counties, Kentucky, respectively. The mother 
died in 1862 and the father now resides with 
our subject. Mrs. Higginbotham was born in 
Linn county, Missouri, on May 21, 1857 and 
has one brother and five sisters. Henry, Mrs. 
Ellen Lambert, Mrs. Fanny Jenkins, Mrs. 
Nannie Long, Mrs. Elizabeth Stanton, and 
Mrs. Sarah Lambert, deceased. Ti> Mr. and 
Mrs. Higginbotham five sons and li\-e daugh- 
ters have been born, Estes E., William A., de- 
ceased, J. Alva, Mrs. Ada B. Stinebaugh, 
Delia M., Hattie A., Odis A., Linneaus W., 
]\Iaggie J., deceased, and Eva B. 

Mr. Higginbotham was raised in the faith 

of the Christian church and he and his wife 
are now members of the Salvation Armv, which 
has the local headquarters at Spokane. They 
are substantial people and have the respect and 
confidence of all. 

JOHN JONKE, an industrious and pro- 
gressive Douglas county agriculturist lives 
about one-half mile east from Lincoln county 
and devotes his attention to both general farm- 
ing and stock raising. He was born in Austria, 
in December, 1855, being the son of John and 
Cecilia Jonke, natives of Austria. Our subject 
received a good high school education in this 
country then learned the hat makers' trade. In 
1870, he journeyed to the United States and 
settled in Philadelphia. Four years later, he 
came thence to Spokane Falls and wrought in 
various capacities there, being with Holly 
Mason Marks, and the Spokane Gas Company. 
Lie was one of the earliest settlers in Spokane 
county and after some years came to Douglas 
county, where he took a preemption on which 
he now lives. Later he took a homestead which 
is across the line in Lincoln county. He has 
improved his property in first-class shape and 
has a nice stock of well bred cattle and horses. 
Mr. Jonke is an enterprising and progressive 
man and has labored with the reward deserved 
for himself. 

At Spokane, in 1897, Mr. Jonke married 
Miss Margaret Pasic and to them three chil- 
dren have been born: Joseph, on February 16, 
1899; Antonio, on August 2y, 1900; and Mar- 
garet, on April 2, 1902. 

Mr. and Mrs. Jonke are adherents of the 
Catholic church and are well respected people. 

the men who early in\raded the wilds of Doug- 
las county and has fought steadily on through 
all sorts of reverses, overcoming obstacles and 
finally winning a success of which he is emi- 
nently worthy. He was born in Grundy county, 
Missouri, on April i, 1857, being the son of 
W^illiam and JMartha (Wilson) Drinkard. The 
mother was born in North Carolina and the 
father in Missouri. He took part with the 
Confederates in the Civil War. In iSf,^. the 
family came across the ])Iains to Linn conn- 



t)% Oregon, where our subject received his 
education and grew to manhood. In 1886 he 
left that country and located in Douglas county. 
He took a preemption and homestead. His 
land is well improved with good buildings and 
is farmed to small grain almost entirely. Mi. 
Drinkard also has some cattle and horses. He 
has won considerable property and is one of 
the well-to-do men in this portion of the coun- 
ty. The earlier years here were fraught with 
much hardship and self denial. Mr. Drinkard 
has five brothers and four sisters, James O., 
William J., Robert, George W., Homer, Mrs. 
Flora B. Taylor, Anne, Mrs. Etta Taylor and 
Mrs. Hattie Jenks. 

At Colfax, Washington, on September 25, 
1887, Mr. Drinkard married Miss Sarah, 
daughter of Silas and Mary Pearl Keeney, 
pioneers of Oregon. Mrs. Drinkard was born 
in Linn county, Oregon, on July 13, 1864 and 
died September 20, 1892. Slie had one half 
brother, Enoch, and one sister, Mrs. Laura 
Taylor. To Mr. and Mrs. Drinkard two chil- 
dren were born. Vera Grace, on November 6, 
1888 and Ada Etta, on March 18, 1890, the 
former in Linn county, Oregon, and the latter 
in Douglas county. Mr. Drinkard contracted 
a second marriage on January 16, 1897, Anna 
McHargue, the daughter of Z. Taylor and 
Malvina (Boyce) McHargue, natives of Mis- 
souri, becoming his bride at that time. Mrs. 
Drinkard was born in Grundy county, Missouri, 
on March 15. 1873. 

Mr. Drinkard is a member of the Macca- 
bees while he and his wife are adherents of the 
Methodist churcli. 

JAMES DAY, one of the pioneers of 
Douglas county, who weathered the trying 
times of early days, is now one of the pro.^per- 
ous citizens here and lives eight and one-lialf 
miles north from Hartline. In the years he lias 
remained here he has shown remarkable forti- 
tude, excellent wisdom and progressiveness and 
the result is tliat he lias hosts of friends, a good 
competence, and has become one of the re- 
spected men of the county. 

James Day was born in Susquahanna, 
Pennsylvania, on October 30, 1849, being the 
son of Edward and Mary (Clark) Day, natives 
of Ireland and New York, resjiectively. The 
father died in New Orleans in 1849. Our 

subject was educated in the common schools of 
his native country and remained in Pennsyl- 
vania until he reached manhood's estate. In 
1878, he moved to Nebraska, settling in Valley 
county, where he engaged in farming for four 
years. In April, 1882, he moved to Idaho and 
later to Walla Walla. It was in 1884, when 
Mr. Day settled in Douglas county and took 
up a homestead where he now resides. He has 
improved the land in good shape and has a very 
nice home place. 

Mr. Day has one brother, Frank, and one 
sister, Mrs. Margaret McCann. 

At Spokane, on May 27, 1891, Mr. Day 
married Mrs. Mary Hayes, daughter of James 
and Ellen Hollarn, natives of Ireland and New 
York City, respectively. Mrs. Day was born in 
Scranton, Pennsylvania, on December 16, 1857, 
and has two brothers, Michael and James. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Day. three children have been 
born: James E., on May i, 1893 ; Elizabeth A., 
on February 22, 1896; and John F. While in 
Pennsylvania, Mr. Day spent fourteen years in 
the Elkhill coal mines. 

Mr. and Mrs. Day are adherents of the 
Catholic church and are well known through- 
out Douglas county, having walked in a man- 
ner that commended them to all. 

WILLIAM SCULLY. When the first 
settlers were beginning to locate in Douglas 
county they were largely without money and 
property. Our subject was in the same condi- 
tion at the time he secured a government claim 
ten miles northwest from Almira where he has 
resided since. He has a nice farm in a high 
state of cultivation, well improved, with sub- 
stantial buildings and other conveniences, and 
all the result of his industry and labor. 

William Scully was born in New Bruns- 
wick, Canada, on November 27, 1848, being the 
son of Patrick and Jane (Kearney) Scully, na- 
tives of Ireland and New Brunswick, respect- 
ively. The father settled in Canada when f|uite 
young. Our subject was educated in New 
Brunswick and there remained until 1872, being 
engaged in the lumber business. In the year 
last mentioned, he came to the United States, 
making settlement in Wisconsin. Lumliering 
occupied him for .sometime and next we see 
liim across tlie continent on Puget Sound. He 
labored in the \icinity of Hood's canal for some- 



time lumljering, then moved to Yakima. Until 
1883, he was occupied- there, driving logs on 
the river for the Northern Pacific. Then he 
•came to Douglas county and took a preemption 
where he now lives. He also took a timber 
culture, and his is one of the valuable estates of 
the county. Mr. Scully also takes a keen inter- 
€St in politics and other questions of importance 
and in 1898, was called by his fellow citizens to 
fill the important office of county commissioner, 
his name appearing on the Fusion ticket. Mr. 
Scully has two brothers, Michael and Patrick, 
and one sister Mrs. Margaret Daley. 

In Spokane, on November 20, 1898, 
occurred the marriage of Mr. Scully and Miss 
Annie Doyle. Her parents, John and Bridget 
(Deveraux) Doyle, were natives of Ireland and 
New Brunswick, respectively. She was born 
in New Brunswick, on May 16, 1853 and has 
three sisters and three brothers, John, Patrick, 
Paul. Mrs. Ellen Murphy, Mrs. Catherine 
Nolan and Miss Margaret. Mr. and Mrs. 
Scully are members of the Roman Catholic 
church and are highly respected people. Their 
walk has been such in Douglas county that they 
have won the confidence and esteem of all who 
know them, and their labors have been very 
wisely bestowed, achieving abundant success in 
financial matters. 

D.WID WILSON, who resides seven and 
one-half miles northwest from Almira, is one 
of the well known and popular men of Doug- 
las county. His labors, his wisdom, his up- 
rightness, and his genialty, have won for him 
both a brilliant success and financial favors, as 
well as hosts of friends from every quarter. 
He is to-day one of the influential and re- 
■spected men who haA-e made Douglas county 
what it is. 

Da\-id Wilson was born in McDonough 
■countv, Illinois, on July 6, 1859, being the son 
of Albert and Elizabeth (Burchett) Wilson, 
natives of Illinois and Ohio, respectively. The 
common schools of his native county was the 
place of his educational training and he re- 
mained in the Prairie State until twenty-three 
years of age. In 1882, he came to Seattle, 
later to Oregon, then to Walla Walla, and 
finally, in October, 1883. he landed in Douglas 
county. He at once made filing on the south- 
east quarter of section 26, township 27, range 

30, as a preemption. The next year, he took 
up a homestead and in 1887, a timber culture 
claim and the entire estate now is well culti- 
vated and productive of annual returns of ex- 
cellent crops. He was the first school director 
of the Union school established in 1886, being 
associated in this work with J. O'Neil, J. 
O'Flarity and A. L. Davis. Mrs. P. J. Young 
was the teacher. Mr. Wilson bought the first 
reaper in Douglas county and has ever been a 
progressive man, having his estate supplied 
with the best and latest machinery and also 
laboring for the advancement and development 
of the county. Mr. Wilson has three brothers 
and one sister. Lyman, .\lonzo, James and Mrs. 
Lucy Nebergal. 

At Cheney, Washington, on November 12, 
1885, Mr. Wilson married Miss M. Alice, 
daughter of William and Matilda (McHargue) 
Montgomery, natives of Missouri. They 
crossed the plains to Oregon in 1865, making 
settlement in Linn county. The father is 
still living, but the mother is deceased. Mrs. 
Wilson was born in Macon county, Missouri, 
on May 6, i8^q and has one brother, James, 
and three sisters, Mrs. Mary Bowers, Mrs. 
Laura Martin and Mrs. Ella Herron. To this 
v. orthy couple four children have been born : 
Eva Inis, on March 17, 1889; Clarence R., on 
June 19, 1890; Irna E., on May 6, 1892; and 
Hazel Dell, on September 10, 1895. 

Mr. Wilson is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and he and his wife are adherents of the Pro- 
testant churches. Mr. Wilson may take the 
pleasure of reviewing his labors in Douglas 
county with the assurance that he has made a 
satisfactory success and that he has done well 
the part of the pioneer and substantial citizen 
and has reared here an excellent familv. 

JASON CO\'ERT, one of the indus- 
trious and wide awake young agriculturists of 
Douglas county, resides seven and one-half 
miles northwest from .\lmira, where he does 
general farming and stock raising. He was 
born in Bartholomew county, Indiana, on De- 
cember 6, 1871, being the son of Marshall M. 
and Jane S. TMahaffev) Covert, natives of 
Indiana and Ohio, respectively and pioneers 
in Douglas countv. Marshall M. is a blood 
relative of John and Henrv Co\-ert. of San 



Joaquin county, California. The earl}^ settlers 
of New York colony included some from Hol- 
land who were members of the Covert family, 
and the name was originally spelled Coover. 
The common schools of Indiana and Sprague, 
Lincoln county, furnished the educational train- 
ing of our subject. He came here with his par- 
ents when fifteen and they remained in Sprague 
for one winter. Later, they came to Douglas 
county and our subject took a homestead 
when twenty-one years of age. This continued 
to be his home until June, last, when he re- 
moved on to one hundred and sixty acres which 
he had received from his father, where he has 
built a fine residence, large bams, and made 
other improvements. Mr. Covert has made a 
good success in raising small grain and also 
pays attention to handling cattle, horses and 
hogs, having some fine thoroughbred specimens. 
He has one brother, Leroy, living in this county. 

At Columbus, Indiana, on January 6, 1900, 
Mr. Covert married Miss Lizzie B., daughter 
of Robert and Jemima A. (Fuel) White, na- 
tives of Indiana. The father is still living, but 
the mother is deceased. Mrs. Covert was born 
in Bartholomew county, Indiana, on June 26, 
1880. She has one brother, three half brothers, 
and one half sister, named as follows, Albert 
C, John W., \VilIiam R., Henry F. and Mrs. 
Cora Mobley. To IMr. and Mrs. Covert, one 
child has been born, Bernice, on February 7, 

Mr. Covert is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and he and his wife are adherents of the Baptist 
church. When the Washington Central Rail- 
road was built through Douglas and Lincoln 
counties, Mr. Covert was employed on it much 
of the time. He has shown himself a man of 
energy and industry, being also a patriotic and 
progressive citizen. 

conducting a general merchandise establish- 
ment at Bridgeport, Washington. Perhaps no 
other man has ever been in Douglas county, 
who is more popular with the public than Mr. 
Valentine, who deservedly holds this position 
as will be found when reading an account of 
his life. As a business man, he is upright, pro- 
gressive and skillful: as a citizen he is loval, 
broad minded and very active in the upbuilding 

of the country. In his social life he is a man 
who finds and retains many friends, both be- 
cause of his geniality and his sterling worth. 

James B. Valentine was born in Montrose, 
Scotland, on January 26, 1868, the son of 
Stewart S. and Isabella (Grieve) Valentine, 
natives of Scotland, where they still reside. 
Our subject received a good common school 
education and then learned the blacksmith trade. 
In 1884, he emigrated to the United States and 
after a short stay in Boston, came on to Um- 
atilla county, Oregon, where he worked at 
the blacksmith's trade until 1888. In that year, 
Mr. Valentine came to Douglas county, locat- 
ing a preemption and timber culture claim 
about twenty miles north from ^^"aterville. 
That was his home until 1897, in which year, 
he moved to Bridgeport and took up his pre- 
sent occupation. In 1892, Mr. Valentine was 
elected to the sheriff's office of Douglas county, 
his name appearing on the Populist ticket, and 
his majority was just twelve votes. Two years 
later, he was called to the same office by a 
regular landslide, almost everybody voting for 
him. It had' been ascertained in the two years 
previous that he was a man above reproach, 
and he brought to bear in the fulfillment of the 
important duites encumbent upon him in that 
capacity, a wealth of wisdom, courage, and 
integrity that made him a terror to evil doers 
and a friend of every peace loving and law 
abiding citizen of the county. Many were the 
desperate characters whom he captured, among 
them being E. A. Henderson, Del Woods, and 
Bill Gibbon, a gang of horse thieves and out- 
laws, who had been terrorizing the country for 
years but found a short end under Mr. Valen- 
tine's term of office. Perhaps no man ever left 
an ofiice in Douglas county with so many 
regrets from the people as did Mr. Valentine 
at the expiration of his second term. Untold 
good has resulted, from this excellent demon- 
stration and crooks and thieves learned to cease 
their operations in this section. 

At Wenatchee, on October 29, 1899, Mr. 
Valentine married Mrs. Frances A. Scully. 
Her parents were W. D. and Phoebe (Spencer) 
Reeder, natives of Missouri and Pennsyh'ania, 
respectively. The father is a veteran of the 
Civil War and belongs to the G. A. R. Mrs. 
Valentine was born in Davis county, Iowa, on 
September 30, 1864. She has four brothers 
and one sister, Elwood, Charles E., William, 



John C, and Mrs. Martha J. Crammer. To 
this union t\\o children have been born: Isa- 
bella, on June 30, 1900; Etta Burnett, on 
AugTJst 10, 1903, both at Bridgeport. By her 
former marriage Mrs. Valentine has five 
children, John W., Edward C, Elizabeth A., 
Henr)^, and Mrs. Alta G. Mackey. 

Mr. Valentine has one brother, Charles W., 
who lives in Morrow county, Oregon, and sev- 
eral brothers and sisters in the old country. He 
is a member of the M. W. A. and an adherent 
of the Presbyterian church. Mr. Valentine is 
making excellent success of his present business 
and is one of the leading men of the county in 
business affairs and finance as well as other- 

HERMAN CORNEHL is one of the very 
busy men of Douglas county. Possessed of 
energy, push and enterprise, a good physiciue 
and plenty of spirit, he has found in this west- 
ern country an arena for operation congenial 
to his make up. .At the present time he is 
operating a large mercantile establishment in 
company with Mr. Valentine, who is mentioned 
in another portion of this work. In 1898, he 
started in business at Bridgeport with a small 
stock of goods but the firm now carries between 
twelve and fifteen thousand dollars worth of 
goods on their shelves and in their warehouses. 
They are the largest merchants north of Water- 
ville and do an immense business. 

Herman Cornehl was born in Hamburg, 
Germanv. on November 23, 1863, the son of 
Henry and .A.nnie K. (Schmidt) Cornehl, na- 
tives of Hamburg. Educated in the schools of 
his native land, our subject there grew to man- 
hood, and in 1883. came to the United States. 
He soon crossed this continent to San Francisco 
and engaged in general work for three and one- 
half years, then went irrto business for himself 
in Alameda, handling coal, wood and feed. 
Two years later, we find him in Fresno, selling 
real estate. .\fter that, Mr. Cornehl went to 
Oklahoma and participated in that excitement. 
Not being pleased with the country, he sold out 
and journeyed to Guthrie, then to Arkansas 
City, after which he made a visit to Germany, 
then came to the Big Bend country. He took 
government claims in the fall of 1890, at the 
head of W'est Foster creek, where he now 
owns one section of land, highly improved and 

cultivated. Mr. Cornehl immediately gave his 
attention to stock raising upon arriving here 
and has continued in the same until the present 
time, having large herds on his farm which he 
oversees from his home in Bridgeport. As 
stated before, he began business in Bridgeport 
in 1898, having as a partner, Mr. McLean. In 
1899, Mr. McLean sold to Mr. Valentine and 
since then, these two enterprising men have 
conducted the business. They buy grain and 
handle agricultural implements, in addition to 
general merchandise. Mr. Cornehl has the fol- 
lowing brothers and sisters, Heinrich, William, 
Gustavus, Hinrich, Ernest and Ferdinand. 

On May 18, 1904, JMr. Cornehl married 
Miss Pearl Galbraith. daughter of G. W. and 
M. T. (Weaver) Galbraith, natives of North 
Carolina and Texas, respectively. Mrs. Cor- 
nehl has the following named brothers and 
sisters, George R., William N., Claude, Percy, 
Lottie and Mandie. 

Mr. Cornehl is a member of the M. ^^^ .A., 
and also be'ongs to the Lutheran church. He is 
active in educational matters and also is a mem- 
ber of the county central committee of the Re- 
publican party. He has so conducted himself 
in the business that he has won the respect and 
confidence of every one who knows him and 
stands among the leading business men of 
Douglas county. 

CHARLES A. BELL has resided in the 
Big Bend country for some years. During this 
time, he has devoted himself to farming and 
stock raising and now has a large estate about 
five miles northeast from Mold and also owns a 
herd of well graded cattle. He cultivates about 
two hundred acres of land and expects soon to 
handle considerable more. 

Charles A. Bell was born in Laclede county, 
Missouri, on September 24, 1867, being the son 
of William and Lavina A. (Williams) Bell, 
natives of North Carolina. The district schools 
of Dade county, Missouri furnished his edu- 
cational training and the early years of his 
life were spent on a farm. He came with his 
parents and the family west to Oregon in 1883 
and three years kiter moved to the vicinity of 
Egypt, in Lincoln county. It was 1896. when 
I\Ir. Bell took land where he now resides and 
soon after gave his attention to the improve- 



ment of his place, doing general farming and 
stock raising. His brothers .and sisters are 
mentioned in aliother portion of this work. 

On December 26, 1891, in Spokane, Mr. 
Bell married Miss Etta A. Duncan. Her par- 
ents, William E. and Minerva J. (Southard) 
Duncan, were natives of Illinois. Mrs. Bell 
was born in Erath county, Texas, on April 8, 
1872 and. has one brother, William, and one 
sister, Mrs. Martha Hart. 

To this couple two children have been born, 
John B., in Lincoln county, on November 27, 
1894, and Katie J., in Douglas county, on Sep- 
tember 4, 1 90 1. 

Mr. Bell is a member of the A. O. U. W. 

DANIEL E. LEAHY lives at Leahy post- 
office and is occupied in general farming and 
stock raising. He is one of the oldest pioneers 
of Douglas county and is known as one of the 
most successful men within its precincts. He 
owns a section of good wheat land, besides one 
hundred head of choice, well bred cattle, and 
a band of horses. His estate is well improved, 
has fine buildings, fences, corrals and buildings 
with all conveniences needed on a first-class 
farm. These large holdings liave all been 
gained by the efforts of Mr. Leahy since coming 
to Douglas county and he is known as one of 
the most .substantial men of this part of the 

Daniel E. Leahy was born in the Province 
of Quebec, Canada, on May 1 1, 1850, being the 
son of James and Catherine (Barrett) Leahy. 
The father was born in Cork county, Ireland 
and came to the United States in 18 19. The 
mother was a native of Canada. Our subject 
attended the district schools of Canada and 
labored on his father's farm until twenty-one 
years of age, then he went to Grand Rapids, 
Michigan, and did lumbering for two years. 
After that, he spent a year in Canada, a couple 
in New York state and after a visit home, came 
to Silver City, Idaho. He was engaged in 
mining on the Golden Chariot in Idaho, near 
Boise City and in other sections of the county. 
Mr. Leahy was head tunnelman in the Sutro 
tunnel, at Virginia City, Nevada, and in the 
Standard mine, Bodie, California, for years. 
In 1883. he journeyed north to ^^'ashington 
and camped on Douglas creek four months. 

Being well impressed with the country, he took 
a homestead on Eoster creek, where he resides 
now and which has been added to until he owns 
a large estate. . First Mr. Leahy gave his at- 
tention to general farming and raising horses, 
later he added cattle and is now handling a 
large bunch of them. He has one fine heifer 
that took second prize at the Spokane fair in 
1 90 1. Mr. Leahy was forced, like other 
pioneers, to tra\-el clear to Sprague for his 
supplies but he continued steadily in his labors 
until he has seen the country develop about him 
to be one of the best portions of the great state 
of Washington. 

In Spokane, on November i, 1896, Mr. 
Leahy married Miss Mary O'Farrell. Her 
father, Jasper O'Farrell, was a native of Cal- 
ifornia and followed civil engineering. He as- 
sisted to lay out a portion of the land now 
occupied by San Francisco and has one street 
named in his honor. He married Miss Mary 
Christian, a native of Maine. Mrs. Leahy was 
born in Sonoma county, California, on Decem- 
ber 28, 1 86 1 and has four brothers and one 
sister, John J., Louis J., Cathol, Gerald, and 

To Mr. and Mrs. Leahy four children have 
been boni : Dorotha T., on September 18, 1897 ; 
Catherine, on June 12, 1899: Cecelia G., on 
October _I4. 1900; Mary C, on August 11, 

Mr. and Mrs. Leahy are members of the 
Roman Catholic church . 

Sometime after Mr. Leahy had located in 
Douglas county, his brother Dennis, came 
from California and entered into partnership in 
stock raising. This continued until 1897, when 
b}' mutual consent they dissolved and each 
handles his own brand. 

JAMES B. LEAHY was born in Quebec, 
Canada, on October 14, 1858, being the son of 
James and Catherine (Barrett) Leahy, natives 
of Ireland. Our subject spent his youthful 
days on the farm and gained his education from 
the district schools. When sixteen, he started 
out in life for himself and went to Cornwall, 
Canada, where he shipped on a lake steamer 
that was plying between Montreal and Chicago. 
In 1878, young Leahy came west to Nevada 
and engaged in mining. Lr.ter, he went to 



Leadville and prospected for a time. Next we 
see him in Bodie, California, operating in the 
Standard gold mines where he continued seven 
years. Then he went to Mill City, Nevada, one 
year later, to Park City, Utah, thence to the 
Woodriver country, Idaho, and later, returned 
to Park Cit}', Utah. During all this time, he 
was occupied in the various leading mines in 
the sections that he visited, becoming very ex- 
pert in that industry. From Utah, Mr. Leahy 
came to Douglas county and selected govern- 
ment claims where he now lives. He is giving 
his undivided attention to general farming and 
stock raising and now has a large estate and 
over three hundred head of fine graded cattle. 
He has some excellent Durham bulls and keeps 
nothing but first-class stock. Leahy Postoffice 
is located at his home, he being appointed post- 
master by John Wanamaker in 1891. In all 
the years since, Mr. Leahy has discharged the 
duties encumbent vipon him in this capacity in 
a manner satisfactory to all the patrons. He 
has also been road supervisor and is one of the 
leading men of this portion of the county. Mr. 
Leahy h^s the following brothers and sisters : 
Daniel E., in this county; Patrick, in Butte 
City, ^Montana; Dennis J. and Michael R., both 
living in this county; Mrs. Eliza Timlin, living 
in Tonepah, Nevada; Mrs. Bridget Murphy, 
living in Canada ; Mrs. Teresa Brennan and 
Mrs. Ella Nelson in Oakland, California ; Mrs. 
Mary Murphy, living in Nebraska ; and Mrs. 
Ersella Maddin, living in Butte, Montana. 

At Park City, Utah, on February 2-j, 1889, 
Mr. Leahy married Josephine A. Conners, 
daughter of Thomas and iMaguilla (Cady) 
Conners, natives of New York and Ireland, re- 
spectively. The parents crossed the plains with 
ox teams in 1866 when Mrs. Leahy was an in- 
fant. She was born on April 30, 1866. Mrs. 
Leahy is a cousin of John Conners, of the 
United States Army who comliianded the 
United States Volunteers in LTtah during the 
Civil war. She has the following brothers and 
sisters : James, who died in Stockton, Utah ; ' 
John, living in Stockton, Utah; Mrs. Mary 
Paxton, living in Park City, Utah; Mrs. 
Ella Leary at Coulee City, Washington. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Leahy one child has been born, 
Frank B., on July 27, 1895, the birthplace 
being at Park City, Utah. 

Mr. Leahy is a member of the A. O. U. \V. 
and an adherent of the Catholic church. \Vhen 

he first settled in this country, he was obliged 
to haul all his supplies one hundred and twenty 
miles and his nearest postoffice, Barry, was 
twenty-fi\'e miles distant. He knows well the 
hardships and labors of the pioneer and has 
been very successful, having demonstrated him- 
self to be a man of ability and energy. His 
labors have ever shown a mai'ked wisdom and 
Mr. Leahy rightfully stands one of the leading 
men of Douglas county. 

WILLIAM F. BELL, who resides about 
five miles northeast from Mold, is known as 
one of the industrious farmers of the Big Bend 
country. In addition to handling his estate of 
one-half section, where he resides, he has for 
the last two years, spent a great deal of time in 
locating homeseekers in the country, having 
assisted over fifty families to select good places 
in Douglas county. 

William F. Bell was born in Surry county, 
North Carolina, on December 23, 1854. His 
parents were William and Lavina A. (Will- 
iams) Bell, natives of North Carolina, and they 
are still living on the homestead in Douglas 
county. Our subject was educated in the com- 
mon schools of Iowa and Missouri, whither his 
father had moved with his family when our 
subject was cjuite young. After finishing his 
school days, he learned the carpenter's trade 
which he followed for some time. In 1883, 
Mr. Bell moved to Oregon, stopping in Doug- 
las county near Oakland and there followed 
his trade. It was 1886 when he came to Lin- 
coln county and g'ave attention to farming in 
the Egypt country. In 1890, he took up a pre- 
emption in Douglas county, which is his present 
home. He added a timber culture claim later 
and the whole is now in a high state of cultiva- 
tion. He has a farm well improved and sup- 
plied with all kinds of machinery and every- 
thing necessary for a first-class farm. 

Mr. Bell has three brothers and one sister, 
Robert S.. John D., Charles, and Mrs. ]\Iartha 
J. Shook. 

The marriage of Mr. Bell and Miss Dora 
B. Hampton occurred on February 20, 1880, at 
Kingspoint. Missouri. Mrs. Bell's parents, 
Lindley H. and Phoebe J. ( Richardson) 
Hampton, were natix'es of Indiana and Ohio, 
respecti\'ely. She was born in Lee county. 



Iowa, on April i, 1867 and has the following 
brothers and sisters, John Frank, James, Mrs. 
Gertrude Crumb and Mrs. Myrtle Viles. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Bell, eight children have 
been born; Lulu M., deceased; Martha J., wife 
of Lee Smith ; Ida A., William L., Charles R., 
John F., George A., deceased, and James L. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bell are highly respected 

DAVID L. HEINLEN, who resides 
about two miles southeast from Mold, is one of 
Douglas county's industrious and well known 
farmers. His estate consists of one-half sec- 
tion and is well improved with buildings, fences 
and all things necessary to make it a first-class 
grain and stock farm. Mr. Heinlen cultivates 
the estate in a first-class manner and has sloown 
himself to be a number one farmer. 

David L. Heinlen was born in Gratiot coun- 
ty, Michigan, on February 20, 1858, being the 
son of Emanuel and Mahala (Gale) Heinlen, 
natives of Ohio and of German ancestry. The 
father is still living, but the mother is deceased. 
Our subject received his education in the com- 
mon schools of Delaware county, Ohio and was 
reared on the farm. He moved to Missouri, in 
1873 in company with his father and the 
balance of the family, making the settlement in 
Schuyler county, near Lancaster. In 1885, he 
moved to Linn county, near Brookfield. In 
1 89 1, he came to Washington, settling- on a 
homestead in the vicinity of St. Andrews. Hav- 
ing proved up on the claim, he sold it after eight 
years and bought his present home place. 
During all the years spent in the various states, 
Mr. Heinlen has devoted himself to farming. 
He has three brothers and two sisters, John W., 
James P., Isaac S., Mrs. Mary A. West, and 
Mrs. Effie Bierbowers. 

In Schuyler county, Missouri, on June 19, 
1881, Mr., Heinlen married Miss Elsie F. 
daughter of Nathan L. and Mary M. (Sanders) 
Gier, natives of Missouri. Mrs. Heinlen was 
born in Schuyler county, Missouri, on January 
28, 1863 and died at Mold, April 9, 1903. Her 
remains were brought to St. Andrews. She 
was the mother of the following named chil- 
dren : Cora, born in Schuyler county, Missouri, 
on Mav 5. 1884: Jesse E., bom in Linn county, 
Missouri. February 3, 1886; Lester L., born 
in Linn county, ^Missouri, on October 5, 1887; 

Katie E., born in Linn county, Missouri, 
August 5, 1889; Annie I., born in Linn county, 
Missouri, on Januar}^ 20, 1891 ; Charles B., 
born in Douglas county, February 27, 1893; 
Emma V., born in Douglas county, February 
14, 1895; Arza C, bom in Douglas county, 
December 16, 1896; David F., born in Douglas 
county, March 20, 1899, and died January 20, 
1900; Bertha N., born in Douglas county, 
April 20, 1901. 

Mr. Heinlen is a member of the INI. W. A., 
while in church affiliations, he is connected with 
the Methodist denomination. He is a man en- 
titled to receive the respect and confidence of 
his fellows and is known as one of the sub- 
stantial citizens of the countv. 

ALFRED E. McDONALD resides about 
two miles southwest from Mold. He was born 
in Chatham, North Carolina, on May 10, 1844. 
His parents, Simeon and Anna R. (Elliott) 
McDonald, were natives of North Carolina. 
Our subject received his primary training in 
the public schools of Illinois then completed a 
course at Westfield College. He grew to man- 
hood in Clark county and in the spring of 1861, 
enlisted in Company G, Tenth Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry, under Colonel B. M. Prentiss. At 
the expiration of his term of service, he re-en- 
listed in the same company and regiment. He 
was engaged at New Madrid and Island No. 
10. His regiment and the Sixteenth Illinois 
under General Pope succeeded in capturing 
nearly six thousand rebels. He was present at 
the siege of Corinth, took part at Chickamagua, 
fought at Missionary Ridge and was with the 
column sent to relieve Knoxville. His second 
term of service began on January i, 1864, at 
Rossville, Georgia. On the 27th day of Au- 
gust, during a movement of Sherman's army 
near Atlanta, he was captured and learned by 
experience, the terrible horrors of the Anderson- 
ville prison. He was at Florence, South Caro- 
lina, later, and finally on December 13th was 
paroled and delivered to the Federal authorities 
on the 1 6th at Charlestown. He returned home 
for a time then- rejoined his regiment at Ra- 
leigh, at the time of Johnson's surrender. Then 
he marched to Washington and participated in 
the grand review of Sherman's army, which 
took place on May 24, 1865. On July 4, he 



was mustered out at Louisville, Kentuck)- and 
his regiment was disbanded at Chicago on the 
I2th. In 1870, Mr. McDonald entered Ann 
Arbor University, in Michig-an and graduated 
from the law department in 1874. He then 
located in Waxahachie, Texas and later set- 
tled in Hoopeston, Illinois, where he practiced 
for five years. In 1881, he came to Oregon 
and took up mining and the sheep industry near 
Roseburg. In June, 1888, ]\Ir. IMcDonald 
came to Washington and took land where he 
now lives. He gives his attention now to farm- 
ing. For a time, during his residence here, he 
took charge of a lumber yard for Nash & 
Stevens at Waterville. Just after that, he en- 
tered the race for the legislature, subsequent 
to which he returned to his farm where he now 
lives. Mr. McDonald was a charter member 
of the I. O. O. F. at Waterville and belongs to 
the G. A. R. He entered the army as private 
and came out as sergeant. Mr. McDonald 'has 
the following brothers and sisters, Thomas J., 
B. F., George W.. \^^illiam E., Orle P., Mrs. 
Roxana P. Trout, and Mrs. Dora Pearsall. 
His mother, aged seventy-nine, is now living on 
the homestead in Clark county, Illinois, taken 
by her husband in 1844. 

RICHARD R. PARROTT resides about 
ten miles southeast from Hartline on one of 
the choice estates of Douglas county. He has 
fifteen hundred acres, all improved and devoted 
to pasture and grain. The estate is well pro- 
vided with buildings and machinery. Mr. Par- 
rott handles a steam thresher and contem- 
plates plowing his land by steam in the near 
future. In addition to this property, he has a 
large band of well bred horses and has made 
an excellent success in horse raising. His ani- 
mals are all large and he owns one stallion, 
perhaps the best bred horse in Douglas county, 
which weighs eighteen hundred and fifty 
pounds and is valued at two thousand dollars. 
Mr. Parrott is one of the best known stock- 
men and grain growers in the entire Big Bend 

Mr. Parrott was born in Cheshire. England, 
on December 2, 1861, the son of William and 
Jennie (Tzett) Parrott, natives of England and 
Scotland, respectively. The father's occupa- 
tion was landscape gardening. At Frederick 

City, Maryland, our subject received his edu- 
cation, the family having come there when he 
was six years old. As soon as his school days 
were completed, he learned the carpenter trade 
and in 1872, came with his father and the fam- 
ily to Lincoln, Nebraska. He wrought at his 
trade and farming until 1883, then came to 
Washington, stopping first in EUensburg where 
he worked three years in bridge building for 
the Northern Pacific. It was 1886, when Mr. 
Parrott came to Douglas county and took up 
stock raising. In the spring of 1887, he took, 
a preemption and timber culture and later a 
homestead, where he now lives. He has added 
by purchase until he has the estate mentioned, 
which is highly improved and very skillfully 
handled, fourteen hundred hundred acres being 
devoted to wheat and other small grains. 

Mr. Parrott has the. following brothers and 
sisters, John J., Robert J., Thomas, William, 
Mrs. Euphemia Chase, and Mrs. Jennie 
Casey. Mr. Parrott was raised under the in- 
fluence of the Methodist church and has al- 
ways favored the denomination although not 
a member of any. He has certainly made a 
good success from a financial point of view in 
his labors in the Big Bend country. He sells 
horses in the local market and his brand can 
be seen throughout the entire Big Bend coun- 
try and his horses are known as excellent ones 
wherever found. 

GRIFFITH HUGHES, who resides about 
three miles northwest from Almira, is one of 
the thrifty agriculturists in his section and also 
a first class tradesman in carpentering. He was 
born in Carnarvon county, Wales, on June 4, 
1859, being the son of John and Janet (Jones) 
Hughes, both natives of that -[jlace. His edu- 
cation was secured in the common schools of 
his native county and there he remained until 
young manhood, during which time he learned 
the carpenter trade. In 1883 he came to the 
United States, settling first in Utica, New; 
York, where he did carpenter work for two 
vears. Next we see him in Long Creek, Iowa, 
after which he went to Chicago and worked 
at his trade, then returned to Iowa. In 1887, 
Mr. Hughes made his way to the Big Bend 
country and after due investigation settled on 
a homestead and also took a timber culture 



claim. He worked at his trade in Spokane and 
later bought one-half section of land in Doug- 
las county which is his home. This entire 
section is now in a high state of cultivation and 
produces excellent returns annually in small 
grains. The county line runs right through 
the premises of Mr. Hughes, his house being 
in Douglas county and his barn in Lincoln 
county. It is of note that one hundred and 
nineteenth degree of longitude west from 
Washington, D. C.,. also passes through his 
door yard. Mr. Hughes has three brothers, 
Hugh J., John J., William and one sister, Jane. 
At the residence of Robert T. Roberts, on 
July 26, 1892, Mr. Hughes married Miss Mary 
J., daughter of Robert T. and Ann William 
Roberts, who are mentioned elsewhere in this 
volume. Mrs. Hughes was born in Beloit, 
Wisconsin, on September 17, 1876. Her sis- 
ters are mentioned elsewhere in this work. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Hughes, five children have been 
born, named as follows: John R., on December 
21, 1893; ^ son, on November 22, 1896, and 
died in infancy; Emrys T., on May 3, 1899; 
R. Glyndwr, on September 16, 1900; and a 
son, on April 9, 1902, who died in infancy. 
Mr. and Mrs. Hughes are members of the Cal- 
vinistic Methodist church and stand exception- 
allv well in this community. 

MICHAEL R. CASSIDY. who lives about 
four miles north from Hartline, is one of the 
best known and wealthiest farmers of Douglas 
county. He was one of the pioneers of the 
county and has labored continuously and as- 
siduously since in the opening and building up 
of this wealthy section of the state of Washing- 
ton. Mr. Cassidy owns five hundred and sixty 
acres of vei"y fertile land and cultivates annu- 
ally about three hundred and twenty acres. 

Michael R. Cassidy was born in Ontario, 
Canada, on February 18, 1858. being the son 
of Bartholomew and Ellen (Dwyer) Cassidy, 
natives of Ireland and emigrants to Canada 
when young. Our subject was educated in the 
common schools of his native section and there 
grew to young manhood and in 1886, went to 
Michigan, dwelling for a time in Saginaw and 
being engaged in the lumber business. After 
that he removed to Iowa and settled in Floyd 
county where he was engaged in general work 

for two years. In 1888, we find him in Idaho, 
mining in the Bunkerhill and Sullivan at Ward- 
ner. There he continued until 1891, when he 
moved to Douglas county and bought the re- 
linquishment of a settler and took the land as 
a homestead. This was the nucleus of his 
present large estate and he dwells on the same 
spot where he first settled. Mr. Cassidy has 
been in partnership with his brother, John, 
largely since coming here and they have been 
instrumental in doing much in the stock busi- 
ness as well as in farming. They have some 
very fine thoroughbred stallions, one Clyde and 
one English Shire, which have improved the 
horses in the county. They continued in the 
stock business until recently when they dis- 
posed of most of their livestock and turned 
their attention exclusively to farming. Besides 
his brother, who has been a partner, Mi". Cas- 
sidy has two other brothers, James and Peter, 
both dwelling in Canada, and three sisters, Mrs. 
Lizzie O'Neal, Miss Winfer C, and Mrs. El- 
len Foley. 

In Ontario, Canada, on February 18, 1901, 
Mr. Cassidy married Miss Katherine, daughter 
of Thomas and Bridget (O'Connell) Walsh, 
both natives of Ireland. Mrs. Cassidy was 
born in Ontario, in 1878, and has two brothers, 
Michael and John, the former in Alaska, and 
the latter in Canada, and one sister, Mrs. Jonas 

Mr. and Mrs. Cassidy were raised Roman 
Catholics and are now supporters of the faith. 

PATRICK KELLEY. Among the pioneers 
of Douglas county there is no more worthy 
representative than the gentleman whose name 
is mentioned above. He met and overcame all 
the obstacles to be encountered in settling the 
frontier country and has remained here until 
now he is one of the well-to-do citizens. He 
resides about eight miles northwest of Hartline 
on land that he took as a pre-emption at the first 
and the little log cabin and the smoke-house, 
his first improvements, are still in evidence on 
the estate. Mr. Kelley has erected a fine two- 
story residence, large barn and other improve- 
ments which have beautified and made valuable 
the home place. He does general farming and 
raises fine thoroughbred stock ha\-ing a large 
herd of cattle and horses at the present time. 

Patrick Kellev was born in Hoboken, New 






Jersey, on January i, 1846, being the son of 
John and Margaret (Casey) Kelley. natives of 
the Emerald Isle. While our subject was but 
a lad the family moved to Illinois, and in Jer- 
sey county of that state he received his educa- 
tion from the common schools. He remained 
in the Prairie State until he was grown to 
manhood, then began to work for himself. 
He farmed in Madison county until October, 
1893 when he came to Cheney, Washington. 
He made that town his headc|uarters but soon 
was out in the Big Bend where he selected his 
place as a pre-emption. He went to work and 
has assiduously continued in the same until 
the present time. Mr. Kelley has two brothers, 
John and George, and two sisters, Mrs. Eliza 
Cotter, and Mrs. IMary Bell. 

It is of interest to note a point in Mr. 
Kelley's history. When he arrived in Cheney, 
he had fifteen hundred dollars in cash. His 
first venture was two purchase a team. Shortly 
thereafter, his children were taken with a severe 
type of diphtheria, and before the long siege 
was through, his wife was also attacked by the 
same dread malady. This necessitated Mr. 
Kelley leaving his work and attending to the 
family. Before the scourge was ended, he had 
spent all his money for doctor bills and nurs- 
ing, and was penniless. He borrowed forty 
dollars on his team and landed on the claim in 
the Big Bend, without food or comforts for 
winter. A friend introduced him to a kind 
storekeeper, who trusted him with supplies for 
the winter, and the next spring, he went to 
work and paid up all his debts. So, starting 
with less than nothing, Mr. Kelley has arisen 
to his present position by virtue of his sagacity 
and industry. 

At Marion, Illinois, on June 19, 1873, Mr. 
Kelley married Miss Phobe, daughter of John 
and Lena Troutener, natives of Germany. Mrs. 
Kelley has one sister, Mrs. Matilda Bockemuhl. 
To Mr. and ]\Irs. Kelley, the following children 
have been born, Margaret, who died in Doug- 
las county, on October 16, 1898: John J., Will- 
iam P., Charles E., Mary M. and Elizabeth 
A., twins, and Teresa A. and Emma J., twins. 

Mr. and Mrs. Kelley are adherents of the 
Roman Catholic church. In addition to general 
stock raising and farming Mr. Kelley has done 
some fine work as an orchardist and in 1892 
took the first prize on apples at the Spokane 

the industrious men who have filled up the Big 
Bend country and brought it to its present 
state of prosperity. He resides about two miles 
south from Dyer postoffice on his estate of 
three hundred and sixty acres, part of which 
was taken by homestead right and part secured 
through purchase. From the time he came here 
until two years since, he devoted his energies 
to stock raising and made a good success of 
that enterprise. Then he sold his stock and 
bought some land and is now attending to grain 
raising almost entirely. He has improved his 
place in good shape and receives fine returns 
annually for his labors. 

D. T. Alexander was born in New York 
city, on May 14, 1858. His parents, John and 
Mary A. (Trusdell) Alexander, were natives 
of New Hampshire and New York, respectively, 
and followed farming. The father served in 
the Rebellion with the New York Volunteer 
Infantry for three years, and on account of the 
hardships, his health was so shattered that he 
died soon after his discharge. Our subject at- 
tended the district schools of his native coun- 
try until he secured a homestead and then re- 
mained on the farm caring for his mother until 
her death in 1884. He then went to Pennsyl- 
vania, later to Maryland, looking the country 
over, and afterwards returned to his home. lii 
a short time, he went back to Pennsylvania and 
did logging at Blossburg for about three years. 
In 1889 ^^1". .Alexander went to Rochester, New 
York, and engaged in railroading. From tha'i 
place he journeyed to Omaha, Nebraska, still 
following railroading. It was 1889, when he 
arrived at Pasco, this state, and from there he 
went to Seattle and did logging for two years. 
In the spring of 1892, he located in Douglas 
county, taking a homestead where he now re- 
sides. This was taken in May and as stated, 
he began stock raising, continuing in the same 
until 1902. 

Mr. Alexander has one sister, Mrs. Marin- 
da Swartwood and two brothers, Benjamin and 
Josiah. The marriage of Mr. Alexander and 
Mrs. Ellen Gilbert occurred at Douglas, in this 
county, on November 15, 1896, D. W. Martin, 
justice of the peace, officiating. Mrs. Alex- 
ander's parents were Joseph and Margaret 
(Byer) Miller, natives of Pennsylvania. She 
was born in Danville, Pennsylvania, on May 
5, 1867, and has one brother, Amos, and two 



sisters, Mrs. Susie E. Cannon, and Mrs. Mattie 
Morgan. By her former marriage, Mrs. Alex- 
ander has two children, Charles and Carrie 
Gilbert. Mrs. Alexander's father served in the 
Rebellion with the New York Volunteer In- 
fantry for three years. His health was so 
shattered that soon after his discharge he died. 
Our subject and his wife were raised under 
the influence of the Baptist church, but do 
not belong to any denomination. They are 
prosperous and wealthy people and have a very 
comfortable and tasty home, one of the best in 
the community. 

HERMAN G. HENNING, who resides 
about two miles south from Lincoln postoffice, 
has one of the choice estates of Douglas county 
and is possessed of much other property be- 
sides. He came here when the country was 
wild and endured the hardships and trials in- 
cident to the pioneer life and has labored with 
wisdom during these years, thus gaining his 
present holding. He has the esteem and con- 
fidence of all and he stands today one of the 
influential and leading men in this portion of 
the country. 

Herman Henning was bom in Prussia, near 
Berwald, on February 24, 1845. His parents, 
John and Henrietta (Kresz) Henning, were 
natives of Prussia also. The father followed 
wagon making. Our subject received his edu- 
cational training in the public schools of his 
native country and then learned his father's 
trade. He followed the same until 1866, when 
he left the fatherland and journeyed to Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin. He was employed in 
brick making for a time, then returned to his 
trade, pursuing the same in Milwaukee, in 
Cedarsburg, and in other points in Wisconsin 
until 1869, when he came to Iowa. He wrought 
about ten vears in his own shop and in 1878 
sold out his business and bought a farm. He 
tilled the soil there for about nine years, then 
came to Douglas coimty and took a home- 
stead where he now resides. He has added 
since until he has a farm of eight hundred 
acres all in a choice condition and productive 
of good crops of grain. Everything about the 
pre-emption of Mr'. Henning indicates his thrift 
and skill in farming. His place is well im- 
proved with comfortable buildings and other 

conveniences and he handles a good stock of 
graded cattle and horses. Like the other pion- 
eers of this country, he had to bring all his sup- 
plies from Sprague and Spokane, the trip con- 
suming from six to eight days. Mr. Henning 
has three brothers, John, Ferdinand and Henry. 

In Winneshiek county, Iowa, on February 
4, 1873, Mr. Henning married Miss Louise 
Young. Her parents, Charles F. and Margaret 
(Gesein Young, were natives of Germany. 
Mrs. Henning has the following brothers and 
sisters, Philip J., Charles, Adolph, Jacob, Will- 
iam, Louise, Mrs. Caroline Bloomenrader, 
Mrs. Christine Hess and Mrs. Katherine Ru- 
dolph. To Mr. and Mrs. Henning six chil- 
dren have been born : Amanda M., wife of An- 
drew FljTin in this county; Julia A., wife of 
Boone Thompson; William, Alvina, Edward 
H., and Otto E. 

Our subject and his wafe are members of the 
Lutheran church and are very worthy people. 
He has served in various capacities in public 
life as justice of the peace, school director, and 
so forth, and has always given excellent satis- 
faction in these positions. 

FRED T. SCHEIBNER resides in the 
vicinity of Lincoln postofifice, Douglas county, 
and is one of the prominent farmers and fruit 
raisers in that section. He is the son of F. M. 
and Johanna (Wollersdorf) Scheibner, natives 
of Germany and pioneers to the Big Bend 
country. A review of their lives appears else- 
where in this work. Our subject was born 
on June 21, 1872, in Roane county, Tennes- 
see and there and at the graded schools in 
Wilbur, he received his education. He re- 
mained with his father until of age assisting 
in opening up the frontier farm and had the sat- 
isfaction of seeing' almost the entire estate 
broken up before he started in life for himself. 
For a time he labored for wages on the farm 
in the Big Bend and Palouse countries and then 
bought three hundred and twenty acres of land, 
from the railroad company, which lies nine 
miles northwest from Almira. He devoted 
himself to the improvement of this until 1902, 
when he sold the estate and took a homestead 
in Grand Coulee, in Douglas county. He pur- 
chased one hundred and sixty acres adjoining 
the same, making him a very fine estate, valu- 



able and fertile. He has erected commodious 
buildings and impro^•ed it with everything 
necessary for a stock and grain farm. Mr. 
Scheibner has a twelve acre apple orchard and 
displays marked thrift in all his labors. He 
is one of the Big Bend's stirring, progressive 
and substantial citizens and has passed through 
all the ups and downs and hardships incident 
to a pioneer life. He has the following named 
brothers and sisters, Charles F., Laura, wife of 
J. S. Jenkins, William F., Louisa, wife of E. 
T. Eckel, Lily M.. wife of Oscar Osborn, 
Oswald R. and Henry. 

Thus far in life, Mr. Scheibner has not 
seen fit to take unto himself a wife but is still 
a jolly bachelor. 

ANDREW FLYNN. When the first wave 
of civilization began to roll into the Big Bend 
country, Andrew Flynn was on the crest. He 
took the land which is his home place and 
started to work, both to make for himself a 
fortune and to assist materiall}^ in the upbuild- 
ing of the country. Judging from the pos- 
session that he now holds, we see that he made 
no mistake in settling in this country. He has 
a large estate, and on the home place, about six 
miles north from Hartline, has some of the 
most beautiful and commodious buildings in the 
entire Big Bend country. He has spared no 
effort in arranging his place and making im- 
provements and excellent wisdom, thrift and 
progress are manifested throughout the entire 

Andrew Flynn was born in Albany, New 
York, on April 5, 1857. His parents, Bernard 
and Catherine (Bennett) Flynn, were natives 
of Leland and are now living in Marion coun- 
ty, Oregon, having crossed the plains thither, 
in i86q, with ox and mule teams. Our sub- 
ject was educated in Canada and Oregon. In 
the latter place, he remained until arriving at 
manhood's estate and then learned the brick- 
layer's trade. For ten years, he wrought in 
the Webfoot State, then came to Washington 
and took up railroading, as bridge builder. 
Two years later, he settled in Douglas county, 
taking a pre-emption and timber culture claim 
which he brought to a high state of cultivation. 
Then he selected his homestead, where he re- 
sides at the present time. He has, in addition to 

this property, large herds of fine graded cattle 
and other stock and is known as one of the 
leading and wealthy men of the country. When 
Mr. Flynn first settled in this country, there 
were no settlers near and the nearest trading 
point was Sprague, Washington. He came in 
company with Jim Fleathman and Michael 
Buckley. Mr. Flynn has three brothers and 
three sisters, Charles, Eugene, William, Mrs. 
Mary Mallen, Mrs. Kate Manhoney, and Ellen. 

In this country, on May 26, 1892, occurred 
the marriage of Andrew Flynn and Miss 
Amanda M. Henning. Her parents were Her- 
man and Louisa (Young) Henning, the former 
a native of Germany and the latter of Indiana. 
She was born in Winneshiek county, Iowa, on 
June 17, 1874, and has three brothers and two 
sisters, William, Edward, Otto, Mrs. Julia 
Thompson, and Elvina. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Flynn the following named children have been 
born : Walter, on March 7, 1893 ; Lila A., April 
26, 1894; Bertholima, August 16, 1895; Ed- 
ward Leo, February 3, 1897; and Van Dudley, 
on January 18, 1901. 

Mr. Flynn was raised a Catholic. He is 
active in everything that is for the benefit and 
welfare of the community and has always been 
a progressive and energetic man. No man is 
better known in the community than Mr. Flynn 
and he is justly entitled to the esteem and con- 
fidence so liberally given him by all. 

LEWIS A. McNAUGHT is one of the 
well known and leading property owners of 
Douglas county. He lives seven and one-half 
miles northeast from Hartline where he has a 
very choice estate, well improved and in a high 
state of cultivation. He has gained his entire 
holding through his own labor and careful 
business methods and so thoroughly has he im- 
pressed all that know him with his careful wis- 
dom and reliability that in 1900, they chose 
him to the office of county commissioner, in 
.which capacity he has served with distinction 
for four years. 

Lewis A. McNaught was born in Van 
Buren county, Iowa, on October 27, 1858, the 
son of George F. and Nancy (McNight) Mc- 
Naught, natives of Indiana. The father was of 
Scotch extraction and is deceased. The 
mother's ancestors were early pioneers of Ken- 



tucky. She is making her home with Lewis 
A., her son. Our subject attended the common 
schools of Greene and Union counties, Iowa, 
and remained on the farm until seventeen. In 
the spring- of 1880, he went to the Black Hills 
and farmed for two years. At the expiration of 
that time, he returned to Iowa and for two years 
was farming near Creston, Iowa. After that, 
he took a trip with a team into Arkansas and 
soon returned to Iowa. In March, 1885, he 
came west to Washington. For a year he was 
occupied in the sheep business in Walla Walla 
and in the spring of 1886, settled on a home- 
stead where he now resides. His filing was 
made in June of that year, and since then he 
has added three quarters of a section by pur- 
chase. From that time until the present Mr. 
McNaught has given his attention strictly to 
farming and has made an excellent success in 
his labors. He has a fine nine room residence 
beautifully finished and supplied with every 
convenience which makes it one of the best 
dwellings in the entire county. Other buildings 
and improvements are in evidence and alto- 
gether, Mr. McNaught is one of the most 
thrifty and progressive farmers in the state. 
He has the following brothers and sisters, Will- 
iam F., Mrs. Lillian Emerson, Mrs. Julietta 
Brannon, Mrs. Theresa Gertson, Mrs. Ersula 
Downing, and Elizabeth. 

Mr. McNaught is a member of the I. O. 
O. F.. the Encampment and the Maccabees. 
In political matters, he has always taken an 
active part and is well informed, holding 
strongly to the old Jeffersonian principles of 
Democracy. He was raised under the influ- 
ence of the Baptist church. Although he is not 
a member of any denomination, still he is a 
supporter of the churches. 

JACOB FARLEY has a model farm three 
miles northwest from Hartline. . Every detail 
of the estate shows the marked wisdom, taste, 
and executive ability of the proprietor. It is. 
one of the best places to be found in this part 
of the state. Mr. Farley has put his whole soul 
into his farm and has certainly achieved a suc- 
cess in which he may take pride, and which has 
stimulated many to better work in this country. 

Jacob Farley was born in Tipton county, 
Indiana, on March 15, 1852. His parents. 

Matt and Mary (Stroup) Farley, were natives 
of Virginia and Ohio respectively. Like the 
ordinary American boy, our subject was edu- 
cated in the common schools and then ga\e his 
attention to farming in his native place until 
1882, when he came to Colorado. He remained 
one year farming, but lost the entire crop by 
hail, then he went to Montana and later, March 
15, 1884, we find him in Walla Walla. It was 
1888, when Mr. Farley came to Douglas 
county and took a pre-emption and homestead 
where he now dwells. The place is provided 
with comfortable improvements and is a model 
specimen of energy and thrift. He handles 
some stock, but his attention is almost entirely 
given to producing grain. Mr. Farley has one 
brother, two half brothers, and two half sisters, 
Henry, John, Matt, Mrs. Mary McCooI, and 
Mrs. Naoma Nesbit. 

At Palmyra, Iowa, on May 25, 1875, occur- 
red the marriage of Jacob Farley and Miss 
Martha A., daughter of Sylvester and Elizabeth 
(Paul) Farley, natives of Virginia and Indiana, 
respectively. Mrs. Farley was born in Ma- 
haska county, on February 7, 1858, and has one 
brother and two sisters, Joseph H., Mrs. A. 
Talbot, and Mrs. Mary ' Webster. To this 
couple, three children have been born : Alyrtle 
E., wife of Richard Heathman ; Altha M., 
and Royal J. The last two are living at home. 

Mr. and Mrs. Farley are members of the 
Methodist church and are known as good, up- 
right people. 

LL^KE MELIN is one of the best known 
stockmen in Douglas county. He resides about 
nine miles north of Coulee City, where he has 
about four hundred and eighty acres of good 
farm land and two hundred head of fine graded 
cattle. Mr. Melin has been very active in pro- 
ducing better grades of stock as Hereford and 
Durham and has done much for the stock in- 
dustry of Douglas county. 

Luke Melin was born in the county of 
Roscommon, Ireland, on March 8, 1840. being 
the son of Patrick and Bridget (Corrigan) 
Melin, also natives of Roscommon county. The 
schools of his home place afforded the training 
for young Melin and he remained there until 
1862 in which year he sailed from Cork to 
Melbourne, Australia. The vigor of his young 
manhood was well directed by abundant wis- 



dom and he soon gained a large holding in 
property but on account of ill health was com- 
pelled to leave Australia. He arrived in San 
Francisco, in July, 1868, and soon settled in 
Placer county, where he wrought in the mines 
for two years. Next we find him in Vir- 
ginia City, Nevada, following mining in the 
Yellow Jacket properties. Seven years were 
consumed there and his next venture was at 
Tombstone, Arizona, where he mined for three 
years. After this, he went to [Mexico and was 
engaged in the Maria silver mines as foreman. 
For five years, he held that position then re- 
turned to Virginia City and one year later made 
his way to the Grand Coulee in the Big Bend 
country. He soon selected a portion of his 
present estate as a pre-emption and began the 
stock business. He bought his first cattle from 
Philip McEntee and has steadily followed this 
industry with magnificent success since. The 
broad acres of his estate are utilized for hay to 
feed his stock during the winter and ]\Ir. Melin 
is certainly one of the most j^rosperous men in 
Douglas county. He has with him at the pres- 
ent time, a nephew, John M.. who assists him 
in the care of his large properties. This young 
man is a son of Mr. ]\Ielin's oldest brother and 
is a native of Ireland. ]\Ir. Melin was raised 
in the doctrines of the Catholic church and is 
an adherent of the same institution at the pres- 
ent time. Fie has hosts of friends throughout 
the county and is considered one of its good 

JOHN EVAN WILLIA^IS, who resides 
about three miles east from Hartline, is a man 
of excellent standing and possessed of a com- 
fortable competence. He has gained the former 
by his uprightness, integrity and kindness to 
all, while the latter is the result of continued 
labor and thrift, wisely bestowed in this coun- 
try. He was born in Anglesey, Wales, on De- 
cember 16. 1835. the son of William and Ann 
(Jones ) Williams, natives of the same country. 
The mother died in 1882, at Oshkosh, Wiscon- 
sin. Our subject received a good educational 
training from the schools of his native land 
and there remained until 1856. when he sailed 
for the United States. Settlement was made in 
W'innebago county, Wisconsin, and for four- 
teen years he was occupied in general farm la- 
bors. Thirty-two years were spent in that state 

altogether. Then he sold his holdings, and in 
1888, came to Sprague, Washington. A time 
was spent in labor at the round house there, 
after which he came on to Douglas county and 
secured a pre-emption which is his home at 
the present time. He has added a quarter since 
by purchase and this all is in a very high state 
of cultivation, the proceeds of which make a 
fine annual income. 

At Sprague, on July 14, 1890, Mr. William 
married Mrs. Elizabeth Hughes, the daughter 
of Edward and Margaret (Evans) Davies, na- 
tives of Wales, and immigrants to the United 
States in 1872. Mrs. Williams was born in 
Llanarmon, 'N Vales, on October 20, 1852, and 
came to the United States in 1884. By her 
former marriage, Mrs. Williams has two sons ; 
David O. Hughes, born in Wales, September 
6, 1878; and Owen Davies Hughes, born in 
Virginia, United States, on January 30, 1889. 
She has two brothers, David E. and Edward 
E., and two sisters, Mrs. Mary Morgan and 
Mrs. Ann Jones. Mr. and Mrs. Wil- 
liams are devout members of the Calvinistic 
Methodist church and are highly respected 
people. They have labored faithfully for the 
years past and it is very pleasing at this time to 
note that they can enjoy the fruits of their 
toil now as the golden years begin to run apace. 

JOHN J. PUGH is a fine example of what 
a thrifty, energetic man can do in the Big Bend 
country. About ten years ago, he came to this 
country from Wales and worked at various 
lines for three years, then took a homestead 
about six miles west from Hartline. He has 
a half section six miles west from Almira se- 
cured by purchase and it is one of the best farms 
of the entire country. It is improved in excel- 
lent shape, producing abundant returns of 
wheat and is kept in first class shape in every 
respect. By his labors and careful manage- 
ment, Mr. Pugh has come to be the owner of 
as good a home as any in this section. His 
entire holding has been gained on his estate 
here. John J. Pugh was born in Port Modock, 
Wales, on August 5. 1873. being the son of 
William and Catherine (Williams) Pugh, na- 
tives of Wales and pioneer settlers of Douglas 
county. In his nati\-e land, our subject was 
educated in tlie common schools, then learned 



the plasterer's trade. At the age of nineteen, 
he came hither accompanied by his mother and 
joined the father, who had been here some 
years, preparing a place for his family. As 
stated above, onr subject gave his attention to 
general work for sometime, being too young 
to take a homestead, but as soon as he had 
reached his majority, he took land and began 
laboring for himself. He has a very nice home 
and valuable farm and has gained a standing 
among his fellows which places him among the 
influential and substantial men in the commun- 
ity. Mr. Pugh has two brothers and three sis- 
ters, Robert, William, Mrs. Martha Jones, Jane 
and Ellen A. 

At the Welsh church on January 5, 1898, 
Mr. Pugh married Miss Kate Williams. Her 
parents, Robert and Ann (Davis) Williams, 
were natives of Wales and she was born in 
Denbighshire, Wales, on July 31, 1868. To 
this marriage, four children have been born : 
Thomas J., on December 28, 1898; Hellan J., 
on July 10, 1900; Robert E., March 6, 1902; 
and William R., on February 3, 1904. 

Mr. and Mrs. Pugh are members of the 
Calvinistic Methodist church and are highly 
respected people. 

JOHN TINNER, who resides seven and 
one-half miles northwest from Almira, was 
born in Ray county, Missouri, on August i, 
1847. His parents, William and Abbie 
(Odell) Tinner, were natives of Tennessee and 
early settlers of ^Missouri. The father was a 
veteran of the iMexican War. They died when 
our subject was but se\-en years of age and he 
was thrown out on the unsympathetic world to 
find his way from tender childhood up. The 
result was that he had very little opportunity 
to gain an education but is rich in experience 
in the ways of the world. He remained in his 
native country, engaged in farming and in vari- 
ous occupations until 1889, when he moved to 
Douglas county and settled on a pre-emption, 
where he resides at the present time. He has a 
fine stock of cattle and horses and does general 
farming, Ijeing one of the industrious men of 
that section. Mr. Tinner has one brother, Wil- 

In Missouri, on June 5, 1881, occurred the 
marriage of Tohn Tinner and Miss Nancy Mul- 

lennix. Her parents, James and Elizabeth 
(Powell) Mullennix, were natives of Tennes- 
see. She was born in Nashville, Tennessee, 
on June 4, 1861, and has two brothers and 
one sister, George, James B., and Mrs. Sarah 
Leach. To this marriage the following chil- 
dren have been born; James W., on March 10, 
1882; Mamie L., on November 5, 1883; John 
A., January 5, 1885 ; Ella O., December 30, 
1886; Elizabeth, May 20, 1888; Leonard E., 
September 7, 1889; Earl €., June 8, 1891 ; 
Myrtle B., May 25, 1893 ; Beulah F., July 2, 
1898; and Annie Violet, July 23, 1902. 

Mr. Tinner has done his share to develop 
and build up the Big Bend country and is to 
be classed as one of its respected and progres- 
sive citizens. 

ORSON P. SHEPARD, who resides three 
and one-half miles northwest from Hartline, 
was born in Erie county. New York, on Janu- 
ary 31, 1 85 1. His parents, Ormon R. and Lu- 
cinda (Buck) Shepard, were natives of Erie 
county, also. Our subject was educated in the 
schools of Wisconsin, whither he went at an 
early age with his father. For thirty-three 
years he lived in that country, except two, 
which he spent in Hillsdale county. Michigan. 
In 1886, Mr. Shepard came to Washington, 
first settling in Sprague, where he remained 
three years carpentering and building. In 
1889, he moved to Douglas county and took 
up a homestead on which place his family re- 
sided while he labored in the improvement of 
it and also in building in Sprague. He had 
very little means when he came here but has 
labored faithfully and has helped to build many 
of the finest houses in this county. He built 
the first house in Coulee City, which is now 
occupied by Hanson's blacksmith shop, also 
the first house in Almira. He has built five 
school houses in the vicinity and done much 
other work. Mr. Shepard has given especial 
attention to farming in addition to carpentering 
and has gained a fine estate of one entire sec- 
tion, all of which is in a high state of cultiva- 
tion, it being as choice wheat land as can be 
found in the county. During his residence 
here, he has also taken an active interest in 
political matters and local affairs, having held 
various offices, as constable, school director and 
so forth. He has one brother and- three sis- 



ters, Amos A., Mrs. Julia Cady, Mrs. Maggie 
Pelton, Mrs. Alvira Klutz. 

On November 2, 1872, at Leoue, Wiscon- 
sin, Mr. Sheparcl married Miss Ada Empy, 
who died in Wisconsin in 1880, leaving two 
children, Gertrude, who also died in Wisconsin, 
and Mrs. Lillie Porter, now living in Bernam- 
wood, Wi.sconsin. On Juh- 2, 1882, in Au- 
roraville, Wisconsin, Mr. Shepard contracted 
a second marriage, Mrs. Ellen B. Dildine be- 
coming his wife. Her parents, Thomas and 
Catherine (Wilson) Campbell, were natives of 
Ireland and England, respectively, and the lat- 
ter of Scotch ancestrage. She was born in 
Wisconsin, in 1851, and has the following 
brothers and sisters: Thomas, James, Robert, 
William, Luke, Frank, Marv. Grace, Mrs. 
Kate Peterman, and Mrs. Jennie Summers. 
To this marriage three children have been born, 
Clyde, Jennie B., and Nellie V. Mrs. Shepard 
has three children by her former husband, 
Mrs. Kate Buchanan, Mrs. Mary Rice, and 
Mrs. Martha Carr, all living in the Big Bend 

Mr. Shepard is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and the Maccabees. In religious persuasions 
he and his wife are members of the Salvation 

HENRY G. YEAGER is one of the pa- 
triarchs of Douglas county and a man whose 
fund of wisdom and e.xperience, dominated by 
genialty and integrity, have made him highly 
esteemed by all. He is now dwelling with his 
son about three miles south from Bridgeport. 
He was born in Germany, on March 4, 1840, 
the son of Carl and Marie (Uitch) Yeager, 
also a native of Germany. The father was a 
soldier under Napoleon and later came to Wis- 
consin. Our subject attended the public schools 
of Germany until 1852, then came with his 
parents to Dodge county, Wisconsin, where he 
finished his education. He remained there until 
1865, then settled in Minnesota, Blue Earth 
county, in which place he fanned for twenty- 
three years. In 1885, Mr. Yeager moved to 
Washington, first stopping in the Palouse coun- 
try and finally settling on a pre-emption at the 
head of West Foster creek, in Douglas county, 
where he lived for twelve years, giving his at- 
tention to cultivating and improving his farm, 
then moved to his son's homestead as above 

stated and there is dwelling at the present time. 
In 1879, through the malpractice of an incom- 
petent physician, Mr. Yeager had the great 
misfortune to lose his right limb. This has 
been a great blow to him, nevertheless he mani- 
fests a fortitude and spirit quite becoming the 
man. Mr. Yeager has three sisters, Louisa, 
Fredericka and Mrs. Augusta Miesner. He 
had one brother, Herman, who was killed in 
the war by guerrillas while on his way to the 

On December 26, 1864, at Watertown, 
^^'isconsin, Mr. Yeager married Miss Louisa 
Koch. Her parents, Augvist and Christina 
(Guirbe) Koch, are natives of Saxony, Ger- 
many. Mrs. Yeager was born on April 10, 
1848, in Sinderhousen, Saxony. She has one 
brother, Frederick, and one sister, Mrs. Teresa 
Scherer. To Mr. and Mrs. Koch, eleven chil- 
dren have been born, Charles, Augustus M., 
Henry C, Mary A., Lena B., Fitz Albert, 
France F., Henrietta W., Louisa T., John W. 
and Stephen J. 

Mr. Yeager was raised under the influence 
of the Lutheran church. 

the very skillful fruit growers in the Columbia 
valley. In 1903, grapes raised on his ranch 
took the first prize at the Spokane Interstate 
Fair. He has twenty-one acres put out to all 
kinds of fruit that does well in this section 
such as apples, pears, peaches, grapes and 
prunes. His ranch is two miles east from 
Pateros and adjoins a nice steamboat landing, 
whence he ships his fruit to Wenatchee and to 
the coast towns. Mr. Paslay is a very pro- 
gressive and energetic fruit man and. is one of 
the rising men in this industry in this portion 
of the state. 

William R. Paslay was born in Benton 
county, Arkansas on September 13, 1858, the 
son of Thomas and Susannah (Ruble) Pas- 
lay, natives of Kentucky and Virginia, re- 
spectively. He wras educated in the district 
schools of Barry county, Missouri, and re- 
mained there until 1878, when he moved to 
\A^ashington and settled near Uniontown in 
Whitman county. With others, he crossed the 
plains by teams and owing, to the Bannock 
Indians, being on the war path, they had much 



trouble. However, they arrived -safely at their 
destination and took up farming on a pre- 
emption until 1886, wiien he moved to Doug- 
las county and secured his present home place. 
His improvements on the farm show his thrift 
and skill and he is one of the prosperous men of 
the section. Mr. Paslay has two brothers and 
two sisters, George W., Thomas, Mrs. Eliza 
Tutle and Mrs. Aneliza Adams. 

In Barry county, Missouri, on April 9, 
1876. Mv. Paslay married Miss Mildred, the 
daughter of Berry and Pyrleey J. (Yandell) 
Tuttle, natives of Illinois and Tennessee, re- 
spectively. The father v\-as a soldier in the 
Rebellion. To Mr. and Mrs. Paslay nine chil- 
dren have been born, named as follows : Vol- 
lev, \\'alter, Thomas, William T., Oscar, Bes- 
sie, Pearl, Ruth, and Herbert. Mrs. Paslay 
was born in Kentucky, in 1858. Mr. Paslay's 
father was a strong Union man and was forced 
to remove from Arkansas during the troublous 
times. He settled in Kansas. Mr. and Mrs. 
Paslay are adherents of the Christian church. * 

TONY F. RICHARDSON, who lives four 
miles west from Wilson creek, is one of the 
best known stock men in the state of Wash- 
ington. He has operated over the whole range 
of country from the Cascades to the Missouri 
river and has been connected with some of the 
largest deals and drives in this wonderful stock 
countrv. To give a detailed account of his life 

* Since the above was written it has been learned 
that Mr. Paslay had been for some time suffering with 
heart disease, which indirectly caused his death on 
September 13, 1904. He was then aged forty-six years', 
one month and twenty-eight days. Too much can 
scarcely be said in commendation of the hearty spirit 
and worthy efforts displayed by Mr. Paslay during his 
life here in Douglas county. With his brother, Mor- 
gan, now also deceased, he braved the dangers and hard- 
ships of pioneer days, overcame all obstacles and diffi- 
culties that were in the way, and they were not few, 
and lived to show forth the one thing which he had 
done so much to demonstrate, namely, that Douglas 
county can produce fruit second to none in this fav- 
ored state of Washington. He made a success of life. 
He was warmly beloved by his friends, who were many, 
and respected by all who knew him. As he lived, so 
he died and his works remain to show the manner of 
man he was. In his death Douglas county lost a noble 
citizen, his friends a stanch companion, and his family 
a loving and wi?e father and husband. 

would be to write a volume, therefore, we can 
only append the more salient points, which 
will be found very interesting. 

Tony F. Richardson was born in Laurens 
county. South Carolina, on September 22, 1855. 
His father, David A. Richardson, was a native 
of South Carolina and graduated from the 
Medical College of Kentucky at Lexington 
and was a surgeon in the confederate army. 
His mother, Edna L. (Fuller) Richardson, 
was also a native of South Carolina. Turner 
Richardson, the paternal grandfather of oui 
subject, was a state senator several years and 
was also colonel of a regiment in the Seminole 
war. David Anderson, the great-grandfather 
of Tony F., was auditor of Laurens county for 
years. Dr. A. C. Fuller, a maternal uncle of 
our subject, was a colonel in the confederate 
army, and this gentleman's brother. Dr. F. G. 
Fuller, was a surgeon in the southern army. 
Mr. Richardson's family and connections were 
among the largest slave holders prior to the 
war. A great uncle. Captain George Anderson, 
was the father of three daughters and fourteen 
sons. All of the latter served in the Civil 
war and the youngest was only sixteen when 
he was in the army. Our subject was well 
equipped with a fine education in his youthful 
days then studied for two years in the Wofford 
college, after which he completed a thorough 
commercial course in Baltimore. At the end 
of his studies he took up general merchandising, 
which, however, was not congenial to his tastes. 
A year later, he tried farming but that did not 
suit him, then he went to Tennessee and joined 
his cousin in the stock business for four years. 
The tempting rumors of the west stirred the 
adventurous spirit of young Richardson so 
much that he determined to see for himself 
and so started to Texas. In a very short time 
he was with the foremost of the ranchers and 
was soon in business with Sprolus Carothers, 
one of the large stock growers of Texas. He 
was well known to the leading stock men there 
and operated through that state, then assisted 
to drive two thousand nine hundred head of 
cattle to Wyoming over the old Chisolm trail. 
Swan Brothers bought the stock and Mr. Rich- 
ardson entered their employ for a time, riding 
through Utah and Wyoming, then he came to 
Oregon and finally to Washington. He worked 
in a Initcher estalilishment for Mr. Gillice at 
Pomerov, for a time, but not liking the work. 




68 1 

he engaged himself to the corps of United 
States surveyors, who were sectionizing Lincohi 
count}-. They were in charge by Truax & 
Briggs, and Mr. C. C. May of Davenport, was 
one of the party. Our subject quit this busi- 
ness as soon as he arrived at the Cokimbia 
river near where Barry now is located and at 
once entered upon his career of stockman for 
himself. He was engaged with Mr. Estes in 
handling cattle, and also drove for Austin & 
Hardy to Montana. In 1883, he purchased a 
bunch of Indian ponies and began horse breed- 
ing. He improved the stock and ranged with 
his horses to various sections of the Big Bend 
country, making his home much of the time 
with Wild Goose Bill and Philip McEntee. In 
1884, Mr. Richardson took a claim, which is 
the nucleus of his present large estate. In 
1882, he had assisted Piatt Corbaley and Al 
Pierpoint to locate their claims near Water- 
ville. theirs being- the first locations west of the 
Coulee. In 1896-7, Mr. Richardson sold his 
horses, about three thousand head, at three 
dollars apiece, then he gave his attention largely 
to handling- cattle. He has now a very large 
herd of fine thoroughbreds. He also owns a 
great many sheep. Mr. Richardson's place is 
an ideal stock farm. It is located at the head 
of Brook Lake and is a very beautiful place. 
A large portion of the estate is under irrigation 
and last year he cut over six hundred tons of 

Mr. Richardson has one brother and four 
sisters, Butler P., Mrs. Annie P. Brown, Mrs. 
Mamie Huff, Mrs. Lulu Profit, and Mrs. L. 
Stokes, deceased. 

In Douglas county, on December 31, 1885, 
Mr. Richardson married Miss Lucy Smith, a 
daughter of one of the old settlers. They were 
the first couple to be married in Douglas county. 
To them four children have been born, x\nnie 
C, David A., Laura L., and Ruby A. 

CHARLES W. HENSEL, who resides five 
miles north from Waterville, was born in Prus- 
sia, on August 25, 1839. His parents, Gott- 
fried and Christian Hensel, both natives of the 
same place, came to the L^nited States in 1850. 
Settlement was made in \Visconsin where the 
father labored in clearing the land and there 
lived until his decease, in 1865. The mother 
died in 1900. being nearly ninety years of age. 

Our subject gained a good education in Ger- 
many, before coming to this country and 
labored at home until he was twenty-two years 
of age. He went to Minnesota, bought land 
and farmed for nearly twenty years in Waseca 
county. In March, 1887, he came to Spokane, 
and October loth moved to Douglas county 
and took up a pre-emption, where he now re- 
sides. He later changed it to a homestead and 
has boug-ht a quarter section in addition. 

Mr. Hensel has devoted himself with energy 
and assiduity to diversified farming- and stock 
raising since his settlement here and without 
doubt he has one of the finest places in the 
state of Washington. The quality of land is 
no better than that of others. The only differ- 
ence lies in that Mr. Hensel has made a study of 
horticulture and has put into practical demon- 
stration the knowledge he has obtained. 

No man in Douglas county is better posted 
on what this section will produce and how to 
handle it to get the finest yield, than is Mr. 
Hensel. He raises brome grass, alfalfa, the 
cereals, fruit and vegetables, also has a fine 
band of registered cattle, and some of the best 
Poland-China hogs in the county. He is erect- 
ing a new residence and is to add larger barns 
to his estate. Mr. Hensel has not only gained 
a good success for himself but his farm stands 
as an object lesson in the Big Bend country and 
it has induced hundreds of settlers to make this 
their home. Too much cannot be said in favor 
of the excellent work which he has accomplished 
in Douglas county and it is with great pleasure 
that we are privileged to chronicle these items 
in the history of the county. We also wish 
to note that Mr. Hensel is a great reader and 
keeps his library well stocked with the latest 
journals on general subjects and especially 
horticulture and stock raising. 

Mr. Hensel has three brothers, Ernest. Otto 
and Albert, and three sisters, Tena Snell, Emilie 
Kletzine and Ida Burke. 

On November 25, 1865, at Fond du Lac, 
Wisconsin. Mr. Hensel married Miss Minnie, 
daughter of Frederick and Rosetta (Buch) 
Lawrence, both natives of Prussia as was also 
Mrs. Hensel. The father died when Mrs. 
Hensel was nine months old. The widow later 
married R. M. ^^^^hlegmuth. who died in i8gi. 
leaving two children, Bertie and Eustino. 
Mrs. Wahlegmuth died in Wisconsin in 1902. 
To Mr. and ]\Irs. Hensel ten children have been 



born, named as follows : George A., a farmer 
adjoining our subject: Charles F., a miller on 
Puget Sound; Levi H., at Rosalia, Washing- 
ton; Samuel W., deputy treasurer in Douglas 
county; Alfred B., a postal clerk on the rail- 
road; Arthur T., a clerk in Waterville post- 
office; Alice, wife of R. P. Webb, proprietor of 
the Invale farm at Wenatchee; Ida, residing 
in Spokane; Winnie and Rosetta at home. 

Mr. Hensel is a Republican and always 
takes an active part in political matters. He 
has been a delegate to nearly all the county con- 
ventions and the state convention of 1902. He 
materially assisted in organizing the first school 
in the district and has been a hearty supporter 
of education during his stay here. He has been 
either clerk or director for seventeen years, 
occupying both positions now. Also he has 
been justice of the peace for the same length 
of time. 

_ BALEY J. TUTTLE resides about three 
miles southwest from Brewster in the Central 
Ferry Canyon where he owns a farm of one 
hundred and sixty acres, the title of which was 
secured through the timber culture right. Mr. 
Tuttle raises about one hundred acres of grain 
each year and handles stock but most of his 
time is devoted to his orchards. He has fif- 
teen acres of irrigated land, the water coming 
from large springs and this with some more 
besides is planted to apples, pears, peaches, 
plums, grapes and so forth. He raises excellent 
fruit in abundance. . He supplies the home 
market and also ships to Spokane and Seattle. 
In the lines of endeavor in which we find him, 
he has made an excellent success and is one of 
the prosperous men of Douglas county. 

Bailey J. Tuttle was born in Kentuckv, on 
February 11, 1854, the son of Berry and Per- 
lissa (Tyndall) Tuttle, natives of Illinois and 
Tennessee, respectively. The father partici- 
pated in the war of the Rebellion. Our sub- 
ject attended the district schools in Berry 
county, Missouri and there grew to manhood, 
remaining with his parents until twenty-three 
years of age. At that time, he came west with 
wagons across the plains via the Green River 
route and settled in Uniontown, Whitman 
county, where he took a homestead and pre- 
emption and devoted himself to farming. In 
1892. he sold this property and came to his 

present location in Douglas county. Since 
that time, he has been occupied as stated above 
and is to be numbered with the industrious and 
successful residents in this county. Mr. Tuttle 
has one brother, Andrew R., and two sisters, 
Mrs. Mildred Paslay and Mrs. Sarah E. 

In \\'hitman county, near Uniontown, on 
September 22, 1882, Mr. Tuttle married Ju- 
liza Paslay, the daughter of Thomas and Su- 
sannah (Ruble) Paslay, natives of Kentucky 
and Virginia, respectively. Mrs. Tuttle was 
born in Berry county, Missouri, on August 21, 
1866. and has the following brothers and sis- 
ters, George \Y.. William R., Thomas and Mrs. 
Anneliz'a Adams. To Mr. and Mrs. Tuttle, 
six children have been born, named as follows: 
Gaines M., born in Latah county, Idaho, on 
July I, 1884; Thomas V., born in Latah 
county, Idaho, February 22, 1886; Chester A., 
bom in Whitman county, on May 11, 1889; 
Mildred J., born in Whitman county, Novem- 
ber I, 1890; Frederick J., born in Douglas 
county, on March 14, 1893; ^"d Nina Leona, 
born in Douglas county, June 5, 1900. 

Mr. Tuttle has been director of his district 
for some time and takes a lively interest in 
political matters and local affairs. 

FRANK HAINER is one of the substan- 
tial agriculturists of Douglas county. He re- 
sides about two miles north from Dyer on a 
half section of land, which is in a high state of 
cultivation. His industry and thrift have im- 
proved the same in a becoming manner and he 
is numbered with the progressive and leading 
men of this section. 

Frank Hainer was born in Jackson county, 
Iowa, on September 21, 1858. His parents, 
Benjamin P. and Martha (Griffin) Hainer, 
are natives of Canada and were early pioneers 
in Iowa. They now live in Minnesota. Our 
subject attended the common schools of Can- 
ada where the first twenty-three years of his 
life were spent then he moved to Minnesota 
and settled ini Becker county, where he did 
farming. Twelve years later, or in 1891, he 
moved to Washington and settled on his pres- 
ent place as a homestead. He added another 
quarter section by purchase and has continued 
in the occupation of g-eneral farming since his 



settlement here. When he first came, he was 
possessed of a very httle means and hke many 
of the other people in this section, was obliged 
to go to the Palouse country to earn money 
for food. For four years he made those pil- 
grimages, then succeeded in raising enough on 
his own place to sustain him. He now has 
gained a g'ood competence and in addition to 
farming has a nice band of cattle and horses 
all well graded. 

Mr. Hainer has one brother and three sis- 

At Manchester, New York, on October 11, 
1879, Mr. Hainer married Miss Nora Mc- 
Carty. She is a daughter of Patrick and Ella 
(Lynch) IMcCarty, natives of County Cork, 
Ireland. Mrs. Hainer has one brother, Dan- 
iel, and one sister, Mrs. Ellen Wilcox. To this 
worthy couple, nine children have been born, 
whose names, dates of birth and native places 
are given as follows : Mrs. Martha E. Garland, 
Canada, October 16, 1880; Mrs. Katie Lee, 
Minnesota, May 7, 1882; Nellie, Minnesota, 
December 20, 1884; Francis, Minnesota, Sep- 
tember 22, 1887; George E., Minnesota, March 
3, 1890; Warren, Douglas county, October 
II, 1892; Frederick, ]\Iarch 2, 1896; Law- 
rence, August 9, 1899: and Herbert, April 12, 
1903. The last three were born on the farm. 

JOSEPH BOUSKA, who is now con- 
ducting a mercantile establishment in Bridge- 
port, has spent a \;ery active career thus far in 
his life as will be noticed by the following. 
He Avas born in Bohemia, on September 12, 
1856, the son of Karel and Barbara (Benesh) 
Bouska, natives of Bohemia. The father was 
a weaver by trade. Our subject was educated 
in the common schools and in the parochial 
schools of the Catholic church in the village 
of Hlinsko. In 1866, he came with his parents 
to the United States, the family settling near 
Racine, Wisconsin. For three years he at- 
tended the common schools in Racine and then 
began to learn the trade of the miller, at Un- 
ion Grove, James J. Jones, being his superior 
in this business. Later, he went to Kewaunee, 
Wisconsin, and then engaged with his uncle in 
the mill business for seven years. In 1879, he 
journeyed to Oregon City, Oregon and oper- 
ated for the Portland flour milling company for 

five years. After that he came to Cheney and 
engaged with ex-Governor George E. Cole as 
head miller of the Cheney flour mill. Two 
years later, we find him in Pine City, Wash- 
ington, as lessee of the mill owned by A. J. 
Smith, which he operated for one year. He 
handled other mills in the vicinity and later 
came to Sprague in the same business. It was 
1888, that he was appointed head miller and 
sawyer at the Nespelim Indian sub-agency and 
had charge for three and one half years, re- 
signing at the election of Cleveland. After 
that Mr. Bouska, went to Ritzville and took 
an interest in the milling plant owned by J. G. 
Stevens, Adams Company Bank, and W. E. 
Blackmer. where he remained for one and one- 
half 3'ears. Selling out, he came to Bridgeport 
and operated a flour mill there for seven years. 
In 1901, he resigned his position and moved to 
his ranch near Port Columbia. Later, he sold 
this property and removed to Bridgeport where 
he opened a general merchandise establishment 
also handling furniture and undertaking goods. 
He is doing a good business and is one of the 
leading men in the town of Bridgeport. ^Ir. 
Bouska has two sisters, ]\Irs. Annie Pulda and 
Mrs. Kate B. Phillips. 

At Kewaunee, Wisconsin, on ^lay 7, 1878, 
occurred the marriage of Mr. Bouska and Mary 
J. \Valender. Her father was Joseph \\^alen- 
"der, a native of Austria. He now lives in Cal- 
mar, Iowa. Mrs. Bouska was born in Mani- 
towoc, Wisconsin, on January 9, 1856, and 
has one brother, Dr. Joseph Walender, and 
three sisters, Mrs. Pauline Scotland, Mrs. Gus- 
sie Henderson and Mrs. Lizzie Patnand. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Bouska two children have been 
born; Blanche A., in 1881, at Oregon City; 
and Joseph W., on January 10, 1887, now liv- 
ing at Bridgeport, Douglas county. 

Mr. Bouska is a member of the I. O. O. 
F. and the A. F. & A. M. He was raised 
under the influence of the Roman Catholic 
church, but he and his wife are now memters 
of the Christian Catholic church of Zion City, 

PETER PETERSON resides about three 
miles west from Bridgeport on an estate of more 
than one-half section, where he gives his atten- 
tion to general farming and stock raising, 
mostlv to the latter. He was born in Skudes- 



nes, Norway, on June 4, 1859, being the son 
of Peter and Johanna (Madison) Olson, na- 
tives of Norway. The father was a sea faring 
man and mercliant. Our subject gained liis 
education in the high school, after which he re- 
ceived a certificate for teaching. Then he en- 
tered his father's store as clerk until 1881, 
when he emigrated to the United States. He 
landed in Boston and made his way to an 
uncle's home in Dickinson county, Iowa, where 
he engaged in farming until 1888, then he re- 
moved to Idaho and was there a short time 
occupied in laboring on an alfalfa farm. 
Thence he journeyed to Douglas county and 
took a pre-emption to which he later added a 
homestead and which is now his home place. 
He devotes his land almost entirely to rais- 
ing hay for his stock and has a large band of 
horses and cattle. Mr. Peterson has one 
brother, Ole N., living near Bridgeport, and 
three sisters living in Norway. 

On December 25, 1885, in Douglas county, 
Iowa. Mr. Peterson married Miss Serena Peter- 
son, a native of Norway. Mrs. Peterson has 
three brothers and one sister, Oman, Peter, 
Knud, and Annie. To this union, three chil- 
dren have been born, Caroline J., in Dickinson 
county, Iowa, and now teaching in the public 
schools; Olga M., in Waterville, on September 
26, 1891 ; and Mamie at the home place, on 
January 29, 1894. 

Mr. Peterson is a member of the M. W. 
A. and also an adherent of the Lutheran 
church. He and his wife conducted the 
Bridgeport hotel for two years and also oper- 
ated a Star Route for one year. He is a pros- 
perous and substantial citizen. 

ALFRED MORRELL is well known and 
one of Douglas county's popular ferrymen at 
Bridgeport. He owns and operates a first class 
boat about one mile below Bridgeport where 
he does a large business. In addition to this 
property, he has various other holdings 
throughout the county, as farms and so forth. 

Alfred Morrell was born in Ontario, Can- 
ada, on March 20, 1853, being the son of Sam- 
uel and Theodore (Doty) Morrell, natives of 
Canada. The excellent schools of Ontario 
furnished the educational training of our sub- 
ject anrl he remained in his native country un- 

til grown to manhood. In earl)^ manhood, he 
enlisted in the Thirty-second military company 
under Colonel Sprout and for three years was 
in the London barracks and at other military 
points. Following his term of service he re- 
turned to civil life and in December, 1888, 
came to the United States. One year was spent 
in Seattle then he came to Douglas county and 
took a homestead about twelve miles south 
from Waterville. After that, we find him op- 
erating on the Okanogan river with John H. 
Thompson. He put in the first .ferry on the 
Okanogan river and for three years was ac- 
ively engaged in conducting this business. 
Then he operated a ' ferry at Port Columbia 
for a short time. Subsequent to that, he moved 
to his present place and put in a boat which 
he is now operating. While Mr. Morrell has 
had the misfortune to lose his right arm, he 
is able to handle his business in good shape. 
He has four brothers and three sisters, George 
W., Melven, Joshua, John, Mary J., Ellen and 

Mr. Morrell is a member of the M. AV. A. 
While his early training was under the Bap- 
tist denomination, he is now an adherent of the 
First Church of Christian Scientists, of Bos- 
ton, Massachusetts. 

LOUIS BRANDT is in partnership with 
Mr. Hopp, mentioned in another portion of this 
work, and together they handle a fine mercan- 
tile business at Bridgeport. In addition to this, 
Mr. Brandt owns about one section of excellent 
land, four hundred and sixty acres of which 
are producing wheat. He has other property 
in this county and is One of the wealthy and 
influential men. 

Louis Brandt was born in the province of 
Hanover, Germany, on January .17, 1862, the 
son of John and Maria (Vibrock) Brandt, na- 
tives of Hanover. After completing the high 
school course, our subject entered the normal 
school and received a very thorough education. 
On ]\Iay 6. 1880. he landed in New York and 
for two years subsequent was engaged as sales- 
man in a mercantile house. Then he came to 
Woodford county, Illinois, in the same occu- 
pation. In 1884, we find Mr. Brandt in San 
Francisco, whence he journeyed to Walla 
Walla and Pendleton, spending four years in 



these places, being engaged variously. It was 
1889, when he came to Douglas county, stop- 
ping- the first year in Douglas City. Then he 
began to work for Charles Harris, conducting 
a lumber business in Badger Mountain and in 
Waterville. Later, he was deputy assessor un- 
der John E. Hopp, during which time he filed 
on a pre-emption in the Bridgeport community. 
He also collected taxes for Walter Mann, the 
county treasurer. In 1892, Mr. Brandt began 
giving his attention to his land and added to 
the same until he now has about one section. 
He raised stock and did general farming until 

1902, when he entered into partnership with 
Mr. Hopp as stated above and together they 
are operating a large business in Bridgeport 
at this time. 

Mr. Brandt has one brother, John and one 
sister, Mrs. Katrina Holsten. 

At Bridgeport, on April 18, 1897, ^^^'■ 
Brandt married Miss Tillie Kropp, daughter 
of Lewis and Annie (Klouth) Kropp, natives 
of Germany. Mrs. Brandt was born 
on October 20, 1880, in Lincoln county, 
Nebraska, and has one brother, John. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Brandt three children have been bom : 
Annie M., October 7, 1899; Lillie H., Decem- 
ber 9, 1900; and Ruby Rachel, August 18, 

1903. All were born in Bridgeport. 

Mr. and Mrs. Brandt are both adherents 
of the Lutheran church. 

JOHN N. GORMLEY resides about five 
miles south from Douglas, where he has a 
choice farm of two hundred acres, all of which 
is cropped to wheat annually. The place is 
well improved and bears the appearance of 
thrift and wise management. In addition to 
a full c^uota of all kinds of farm machinery 
needed on a first-class grain ranch, Mr. Gorm- 
ley owns and operates each year a fine threshing 
outfit. He also has a bunch of well bred cattle 
and some fine horses. 

John N. w^as bom in Knox county, Illinois, 
on September 20, 1855. His parents, William 
and Elizabeth (Gerl) Gormley, were natives 
of Pennsylvania and ^^'est Virginia, respec- 
tively. The common schools of his native 
county furnished the education for our sub- 
ject and his early days were spent in assisting 
his father on the farm. \\'hen sixteen, he went 

to Wright county, ^Missouri, and engaged in 
farming near Hartville. That was his home 
until 1887, in the fall of which year he had a 
very severe attack of western fever. The only 
cure was found to be a trip to the west and 
soon after coming here he made settlement in 
Douglas county, taking a homestead which is 
the nucleus of his present estate. When he 
located here, Mr. Gormley was practically with- 
out funds and like many of the other settlers, 
he was forced to the Palouse and Walla Walla 
harvest fields to gain money for food and other 
necessaries. However, he labored along faith- 
fully and improved the place little by little until 
he has one of the choice farms of the country 
and is a prosperous and well-to-do man. Mr. 
Gormley has one brother, Chester P., and one 
sister, Mrs. Lydia A. Hasten. 

At Hartville, Missouri, on September 30, 
1875, Mr. Gormley married Miss Lucy C, the 
daughter of James and Mary Cavanaugh, na- 
tives of Indiana and Tennessee, respectively. 
Mrs. Gormley was born in Bedford county, 
Tennessee, on June 12, 1855, and has three 
brothers and two sisters, Henry, Jackson L., 
John H., Mrs. Mary E. Shaddy, Mrs. Sarah 
Burgess. To Mr. and Mrs. Gormley five chil- 
dren have been born, Evaline, in Missouri and 
died in Columbia count)-, Washington; Albert 
N., born in Wright county. Missouri, on June 
25, 1878; William H., in Wright county, Mis- 
souri, on November 20, 1880; Wesley A., in 
Wright county, Missouri, on November 3, 
1883 ; and Mary E., deceased. 

Mr. Gormley is a member of the Old Set- 
tlers" Association of Douglas county and always 
takes a keen interest in everything that is for 
the advancement and betterment of the residents 
of the community and the upbuilding of the 
country. He is a good man, highly esteemed 
and to be commended for his worthy labors. 

THOMAS P. HOPP is a pioneer merchant 
of Bridgeport, Washington, where he still con- 
ducts a large establishment, carrying general 
merchandise, agricultural implements, and buy- 
ing grain. He commenced here in a very small 
wav, selling goods on commission, adding to his 
greatly increasing trade until his present large 
holdings have l^een acquired and he has also 
won the respect and esteem of all who know 



Thomas P. Hopp was born in Clayton 
county, Iowa, on January 20, 1863. His 
father, John F. Hopp, was a native of Ger- 
many and a pioneer settler in Iowa, in 1845. 
He served three years in Company F., Twen- 
ty-first Illinois , Volunteer Infantry dur- 
ing the Rebellion and is now a member 
of the G. A. R. The mother of our subject, 
Sarah (Ganby) Hopp, was a native of Penn- 
sylvania. Thomas was'educated in the common 
schools and completed his training in the Iowa 
University, then learned the creamery business 
and the printer's trade. In 1881, being just 
eighteen years of age, he went to South Dakota 
and engaged in the newspaper business for sev- 
eral years. During this time he established 
four papers, all of which are thriving to-day 
and among them may be mentioned the 
Medicine Valley Times. In 1888, he came to 
W'ashington and during the succeeding few 
years, he established the first Union City paper, 
the Globe at Marysville, and The Bridgeport 
Standard. Later, 'from 1888 to 1892, he was 
special agent of the United States treasury, lo- 
cated at Whatcom, and during this time seized 
large amounts of opium. In February, 1893, 
he came to Bridgeport and started the news- 
paper mentioned above, and in 1898 opened a 
mercantile establishment in a small way, as 
stated previously. He also in addition to his 
business, owns a good farm and does general 
farming and stock raising. He was postmaster 
here for four years and in 1903 was appointed 
United States commissioner by Judge Hanford. 
He was appointed notary public under Gov- 
ernors McGraw and Rogers. Mr. Hopp has 
a well assorted stock of merchandise, and his 
store is well patronized by all. His uniform 
and upright methods of doing business and his 
geniality to all have won and improved this 
excellent patronage. 

Mr. Hopp has the following brothers and 
sisters. George W., John, Jacob W., Henry, 
and Mrs. Mary A. Willerton. 

In Clark, South Dakota, in November, 1890, 
Mr. Hopp married Miss Abbie M. Stillwell. 
Her father, Edward C. Stillwell, was a native 
of Indiana and served in the Rebellion. He 
now belongs to the G. A. R. and is doing a 
mercantile business. Mrs. Hopp was born in 
Ohio, on December 28, 1873, and has one 
brother, Newton E., and one sister, Mrs. Maude 
E. Crosby. To this couple six children have 

been born, F. Roscoe, Dora L., Grace E., 
Maude M., Arthur G., and Alva L. 

Mr. Hopp is a member of the M. W. A., 
and the I. O. O. F., and was raised under the 
influence of the Lutheran church. 

MARSHALL GARRETT is one of the 
younger men of Douglas county who has won 
success in the commercial world that would do 
credit to a life time of commendable efforts. 
He is a salesman of energy and enthusiasm 
while his reliability and upright principles have 
gained for him the confidence of the people. At 
the present time he is handling an extensive 
hardware trade at Douglas. 

Marshall Garrett was born in Grove Spring, 
Wright county, Missouri, on March 4, 1877, 
the son of James J. and Mary J. (Stevens) 
Garrett, natives of Alabama and Georgia, re- 
spectively. Thev now live in Douglas county, 
having been here fifteen years. The father is a 
blacksmith. Our subject was educated in the 
Dayton, Washington, high school, having also 
studied some in the common schools. 
From a skillful and worthy father, he 
learned well the blacksmith / trade and 
wrought at it until 1900, when he em- 
barked in the commercial field. He opened 
a hardware business in Douglas and carries 
as complete a stock as can be found in 
the county. Among other things may be men- 
tioned the Fish wagons, Rock Island plows, 
Acme Harvester Company's goods, edge tools, 
Buckeye binders, mowers, Anderson hacks and 
buggies, tiger drills, Dempster windniills and 
pumps, Minneapolis threshers, engines and 
horse powers, besides many other lines of im- 
plements needed in this section. He carries a 
full line of shelf and heavy hardware, tinware, 
stoves, harness, guns and ammunition and in 
fact everything to be found in a first-class hard- 
ware store. In addition to this, Mr. Garrett 
buys grain for the Orondo Shipping Company. 
His zeal in his work and his tireless care for 
every detail, and his wisdom that supplies every 
line of goods that is needed in this country have 
combined to make him one of the most success- 
ful men in Douglas county. 

Mr. Garrett has one brother, John F., and 
one sister, Frances L. Lowery. 

At Douglas in 1896, on March 22, Mr. 



Garrett married ]\Iiss Mamie L., daughter of 
John and Ehzabeth (Tierney) Hall, natives 
of Michigan and now dwelling in Douglas 
country, having been early pioneers here. Mrs. 
Hall has two sisters, Lottie and Grace Wright. 
To our subject and his wife, one child, Harold, 
^\•as born on May i , 1 897. 

Mr. Garrett always takes an active part in 
political matters and in 1902 was elected con- 
stable of Douglas precinct. In church relations 
he is an adherent of the Baptist denomination. 
Mr. Garrett remarks that much of the success 
that he has won is due to the careful training of 
a wise father. He has won hosts of friends 
here and the fact that he has placed himself at 
the head of one of the most prosperous and 
extensive businesses in the county, is sufficient 
evidence of his ability in this field. 

IRA HAMILTON has lived a good many 
years in the Big Bend country and believes 
to-day that it is one of the choice regions of 
the west . His estate lies four miles east from 
Bridgeport and his attention is given almost 
entirely to raising horses. He has made excel- 
lent success in this enterprise and won a reputa- 
tion for himself that has made his stock sought 
for on every hand. When he first came to 
Douglas county in the early eighties, he took a 
pre-emption which later the government re- 
served for school land and he was forced to 
take a homestead where he now lives. He 
bought land in addition to this and has devoted 
the same to hay and crops to support his stock. 
He first went into cattle raising and soon sold 
out and secured horses. He bought' the best 
grades he could find in the Palouse country and 
bred them up with choice Percheron and Shire 
animals until his draft horses are known all 
over the country as the very choicest to be had. 
He always receives the top price on the market 
whenever he has animals to sell. He now has 
sixty brood mares on the range besides a band 
of young horses. When he first came here, his 
nearest neighbor was eight miles distant on 
Foster Creek. His postoffice was Barr)-,twenty- 
four miles away and his base of supjilies. AVil- 
bur. He has labored steadily and faithfully and 
has not only won excellent success in temporal 
matters but also the respect and esteem of his 
fellows. He has hosts of friends and is known 

all through the country. Mr. Hamilton has one 
brother, Alvah J., and the following sisters, 
Mrs. Mary A. Gaines, Eliza, Emma, Nora, 
Alice, Bertha, Nellie, Edith and Rue. They are 
all married except the last two. Mr. Hamilton 
was raised under the intiuence of the Baptist 
church and in political matters is a Democrat. 
The birth place of our subject was Leon, 
Iowa, and he first saw the light on December 3, 
1863, being the son of Jonathan P. and Mary 
J. (Smith) Hamilton, natives of Indiana and 
Ohio, respectively. The father is now a retired 
farmer and stockman. Ira received his educa- 
tion in the common and high schools of his 
native place and first worked at a general mer- 
chandise store for two years. In June, 1884, 
he lived in Pine City, Whitman county, Wash- 
ington, and secured a relinquishment of a home- 
stead. After farming a year, it lapsed to the 
government and he came on to Douglas county, 
and since that time he has been one of the sub- 
stantial men of this section. 

DANIEL YOCKEY resides two and one- 
half miles southeast from Dyer and is one of 
the substantial and venerable men of the coun- 
try. His life has been filled with stirring activ- 
ity, as will be seen by an account of the same. 
He \\'as born in Armstrong county, Pennsyl- 
vania, on January 18, 1837. the son of Henry 
and Mary fRosenberger) Yockey. natives of 
Pennsylvania. He attended the public schools 
of his native county and received ver}' scant 
opportunities to gain an education. He re- 
mained on the farm until manhood's estate, 
then \\ent to the oil regions where he worked 
until the war broke out. In July. 1862, he en- 
listed in the One Hundred and Thirty-ninth 
Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry, Company B, 
under Captain James L. McLain and Colonel 
Collier. He was placed in the army of the Po- 
tomac under Generals Franklin and Sedgwick. 
His regiment was formed in Pittsburg and 
went to the front in 1862 where his first labor 
was to assist in burying the dead on the battle- 
field of the Second Bull Run. He then fought 
in the battles of Antietam and Fredericksburg. 
His winter quarters were at Equit creek after 
which he was a participant in the battle of 
Chancellorsville where he lost a finger and was 
then sent back to the hospitals of Washington 


and Philadelphia. He was retained there until 
1863, when he rejoined his command at Brandy 
station near Culpepper court house. He was in 
the great battle of the Wilderness, Grant's first 
large fight against Lee, and was wounded in 
the shoulder the evening of the first day. He 
was sent to the above named hospitals again and 
regained his regiment at the beginning of the 
siege of Petersburg. He took part in the Shen- 
andoah Valley campaign and also fought the 
famous guerilla, General Mosby, during the 
winter of 1863. Their winter quarters that 
year were near Harper's Ferry and in the spring 
of 1864, they took part in various actions, then 
went to Washington to defend the city and 
fought at Fort Stevens, against Early. He took 
part in the battle of Winchester, then partici- 
pated at Fisher's Hill and Cedar Creek. After 
this he was in General Grant's command in the 
campaign against Lee until his surrender. He 
was then sent to Danville to assist Sherman and 
later participated in the grand review at Wash- 
ington. He was finally mustered out in June, 
1865, as a corporal, having the satisfaction of 
knowing that he had done praiseworthy service 
for his country. He returned to the oil regions 
and wrought until 1867, then he went to his old 
home and farmed for two years. Then he 
removed to LaClede county, Missouri, and 
farmed for eight years. In 1877, Mr. 
Yockey came to Washington by wagon train 
across the plains and settlement was made in 
Garfield county where he remained on the pre- 
emption for twelve years. It was 1890, when 
he came to Douglas county and took up a timber 
culture just southeast from Dyer, where he lives 
at the present time. His farm is in a high 
state of cultivation and well improved and he 
breeds cattle and horses in addition to doing 
farming. Mr. Yockey has three brothers and 
one sister. Frederick, Jacob, John, and Mrs. 
Elizabeth Hill. 

In Armstrong county, Pennsylvania, on 
January 17, 1867, Mr. Yockey married Martha 
Wassom. Her parents, John and Susannah 
(Trennels) Wassom. are natives of Pennsyl- 
vania. The father fought in the Rebellion. 
Mrs. Yockey was born in Pennsylvania, on 
January 17. 1846, and has one sister, Mrs. 
Delilah Salsbery. Our subject and his wife 
have eight children, named as follows : William, 
an adopted one, Charlott A. Rigg, Mrs. Mil- 

dred McLean, Henry, Mrs. Emma Stout, 
Mrs. Mary Nolan and Mrs. Minnie Smith. 

Mr. Yockey is a member of the G. A. R. 
and a very enthusiastic supporter of the prin- 
ciples of the Republican party. He cast his 
first vote for Abraham Lincoln at his second 
term, being then in the army. He is a man of 
reliabilitv and excellent standing. 

EDWARD F. SCHROCK, who dwells 
about five miles west from Lincoln postofiice, in 
the vicinity of the noted land mark, Steamboat 
Rock, is one of the largest stock men of the 
entire Big Bend country. He controls nearly 
two thousand acres of pasture, besides a large 
amount of hay producing land. His place 
is certainly an ideal one, located as it is in 
the Grand Coulee, and well laid out and im- 
proved with good residence, extensive barns, 
animal corrals, buildings, and other accessories. 
Mr. Schrock is one of the earliest pioneers in 
this section and his labors have always been 
characterized with wisdom and excellent judg- 
ment. He is a man of influence and worth 
and has the good will and esteem of all who 
know him. 

Edward F. Schrock was born in Linn coun- 
ty, Missouri, on July 19, 1859, being the son 
of Joseph and Mary (Gilmer) Schrock, na- 
tives of Virginia and pioneer settlers of Mis- 
souri. The public schools of his native coun- 
try furnished our subject with his educational 
training and until 1881, his life was spent there. 
Then he crossed the plains in wagons, stopping 
for a short time in Walla Walla. It was in 
the year, 1883, that he first settled in Douglas 
county, taking a pre-emption and later a home- 
stead and a timber culture. In 1885, he bought 
out William H. Fleet, who built the first house 
in the Coulee. This property had been owned 
by Jack Hardy, who was among the very first 
white men to settle in tlife Big Bend country. 
Mr. Schrock has continued on this estate since 
those days and has applied himself somewhat 
to general farming but almost entirely to stock 
raising. He has a large holding in thorough- 
bred cattle, perhaps the finest on the range. 

Mr. Schrock has the following brothers and 
sisters, Andrew J., Mrs. Arbella Taylor, de- 
ceased, James, David, Joseph, Samuel, \\'illis. 


■■^ y''"^''" 





George L., Mrs. Dora Streeter, and Mrs. Mollie 

At Spokane, on April 7, 1897, E. F. 
Schrock married Miss Anor A., daughter of 
^Villiam and Clara (Silver) Bernard, natives 
of Illinois and Maine, respectively. The 
mother is now living in Wilbur. Mrs. Schrock 
was born in California, on May 16, 1875, and 
has five brothers and two sisters, Herbert J., 
Walter G., deceased, Victor C, Joseph W., 
Emma G., deceased, Rolland G., and Mrs. 
Jessie White. To Mr. and Mrs. Schrock three 
children have been born : Ethel G., on May 4, 
1899; Doris N. on February 13, 1901 ; and 
Walter B., on October 19, 1902. 

Mr. Schrock is a supporter of the Methodist 
church and an active and progressive citizen, 
always allied with those measures that are for 
the advancement and upbuilding of the com- 
munity. His labors have not onl}^ won for 
him a very generous holding in property but 
have stimulated others and he certainly has 
done a lion's share in the development of the 

WILLIAM McLEAX. a wealthy and pro- 
perous stockman, who lives eight miles south 
from Bridgeport, was born in Huntington 
county, Quebec, on June 2, i86t. His father, 
Alexander M., was born in Iverness shire, Scot- 
land, and was an early settler in Canada. He 
had served in the British Cavalry during the 
Canadian Rebellion. The mother was Jennett 
(McNaughton) McLean, a native of Scotland. 
In his home country, our subject received his 
education in the common schools. In 1882, 
he came to the United States, first settling at 
Dallas, Texas. He was at Fort Worth and 
Galveston, then returned to Canada. In 1883. 
he started to California and stopped at Bodie, 
where, he engaged in the Syndicate mines for 
one and one-half years. After that he was in 
other mines and mills until 1886, when he came 
to Washington, settling first at \Vaverly. The 
next ^-ear he came on to Douglas county and 
in 1888, he took a timber culture where he now 
lives. He has added since by purchase until he 
has an estate of seven hundred and twenty acres, 
which is devoted to grain. In the winter of 
1889-90, he lost what stock he had and after 
that began to raise graded animals. He has 
some \-erv fine Hereford cattle, a large band of 

them, and gives his entire attention to breeding 
stock and raising grain. In the spring of 1897, 
Mr. McLean went into the mercantile business- 
at Bridgeport with Herman Cornell, conducting 
a general store for two years, then our sub- 
ject sold to B. Valentine and returned to his^ 
ranch where he has continued since. Mr. Mc- 
Lean has the following brothers and sisters, 
Lauchlan, Mrs. Agnes Stewart, Mrs. J. Mc- 
Bain, Jennie and John. The latter died on the 
farm in 1893. 

At Spokane, on December 13, 1899. Mr. 
McLean married ]\Iiss Grace M., daughter of 
Franklin B. and Marie S. (Bonner) Nixon, 
natives of Michigan and New York, respect- 
ively, and now dwelling at The Dalles, Oregon. 
Mrs. McLean was born in Adrian, Michigan, 
in May, 1863, and has two brothers. Frank L. 
and William E., and one sister. Miss Josephine 
Nixon. To Mr. and Mrs. McLean, three chil- 
dren have been born : Franklin A., on the farm, 
on December 17, 1900; Walter W., on the 
farm, on March 11, 1902; Robert B., on the 
farm, November 4, 1903. 

Mr. McLean is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and was raised in the influence of the old school 
Presbyterian church. In 1896 he took an ex- 
tended trip on a visit to his old home place and 
friends and relatives there. He is wide awake 
to the resources of the country and the progress 
of the state in general and stands well where 
he is known. 

JULIUS F. STANKEY was born in 
Snyder Mull, Prussia, on October 14. 1839. 
His parents, George and Rosina (Cluck) 
Stankey, were natives of Prussia. The father 
was overseer of forests there. The mother died 
in Nebraska. Our subject received his educa- 
tion in the common schools of Prussia and when 
seventeen came to the United States. He 
settled in Laporte county, Indiana, and engaged 
in farming for four years. In i860, he went 
to Colorado, but just before going, cast his first 
vote for Abraham Lincoln. In 1861, he re- 
turned to Nebraska and settled in Washington 
county near Fort Calhoun. In 1862 he en- 
listed in the second Nebraska Cavalry under 
Captain Peter S. Reed, in Company A and was 
placed in General Sulley's command and saw 
considerable service in fighting the Sioux In- 
dians. Later, he \\as stationed at Fort Randall. 



In 1863, he was discharged at Omaha and re- 
turned to \\'ashington county, Nebraska, where 
he farmed for twenty-seven years. In 1889, 
INIr. Stankey came to the Sound country and 
after visiting Spokane and other portions of 
the state, he finally settled on the top of Badger 
jNIountain, taking a homestead. That was his 
home for eight years, then he removed to his 
present location about one mile south from 
Buckingham. He owns a half section of choice 
wheat land and his two sons own as much more. 
Since settling here, he has given his entire at- 
tention to raising grain and in 1903, took the 
county prize on White Amber wheat. He has 
a good stock of horses and cattle, his farm is 
well supplied with machinery' and improved, 
and he is one of the substantial and leading men 
of the community. Mr. Stankey has one 
brother. Frederick G., and one sister, Mrs. 
Minnie Vooknitz. 

At Calhoun. Nebraska, on January i. 1869, 
Mr. Stankey married Miss Rosina, daughter of 
August and Joustina (Kluck) Bruck. natives 
of Germany. They both died in Nebraska. 
Mrs. Stankey was born in Prussia, in March, 
1843. She has one brother, John, and one sis- 
ter, Mrs. Julia Staijkey. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Stankey, four children have been born, Emma, 
Carl O., Minnie, John F., Jr. 

Mr. Stankey is a member of the G. A. R., 
while he and his wife belong to the Lutheran 
church. Mr. Stankey served as justice of the 
peace in Nebraska and was also elected to that 
position here in 1896, but failed to qualify. 
He has been a life long, stanch Republican, 
but took no part in the silver movement that 
rent the party recently. He is one of the lead- 
ing men of the county and is looked up to and 
respected by e\-ery one who knows him. 

LACHLAN McLEAN. who resides al)out 
seven miles south from Bridgeport, enjoys the 
distinction of having one of the largest stock 
ranches in the Big Bend country. He also is the 
sole owner of a large band of cattle and horses 
and is a respected citizen. He was born in the 
Province of Quebec, Canada, on April 20, 1858. 
His father, Alexander McLean, was a native 
of Inverness. Scotland, and an early settler of 
Canada. He was a soldier in the British cav- 
alry during the Rebellion in Canada. The 

mother of our subject, Jennett (McNaughton) 
McLean, was a native of Scotland. 

Lachlan attended the common schools of 
Huntington county and then finished his educa- 
tion in the academy at the same place. After 
that he perfected himself in the trade of car- 
penter, at which he operated for three years. 
He remained in Canada until nineteen and in 
1877, came to the L^nited States. He first went 
to California and mined for some time. He 
also did timber work in the Bodie mines for 
nine years. After that, he came to Washington, 
settling first at Waverly, Spokane county, with 
his brother. In 1887, he came thence to his 
present location taking a homestead and timber 
culture claims. He has improved the estate in 
nice shape and has given his attention steadily 
to cattle raising since coming here. He got 
his first stock from Colville and in the winter of 
1889-90, out of one hundred and sixty head, he 
had only seventeen left. Many of the stockmen 
of the county lost their entire herds. Mr. Mc- 
Lean was very deeply crippled by this, but he 
continued in the same business with persever- 
ance and pluck, which have been amply re- 
warded by his large possessions at the present 
time. In those early days, Mr. McLean's near- 
est neighbor was W. P. Downey, whose claim 
was four miles distant. That gentleman now 
resides in Everett. Their postoffice was Water- 
ville, thirty-five miles away. Spokane was the 
base of supplies, one hundred and eighty miles 
distant, and Ellensburg was their market, across 
the Columbia river. Mr. McLean has always 
taken an active interest in the affairs and pol- 
itics, being an adherent of the Republican party. 
His name appeared recently on that ticket and 
he was elected as county commissioner from 
district number one. He makes a first-class 
officer, bringing to bear upon public questions, 
the same wisdom and excellent judgment that 
have brought success for him in his own private 
enterprises. Mr. McLean has the following 
brothers and sisters, William, Mrs. Agnes 
Stewart. Mrs. Jane McBain, Jennie and John, 

Fraternally, he is affiliated with the I. O. O. 
F. and has passed all the chairs in that order. 
Mr. McLean was raised under the salutary 
influence of the good old Presbyterian church 
and those principles are thoroughly embedded 
in his make up to this day. Once since coming 
from his Canadian home, Mr. McLean has 



gone thither on a visit to renew old acquaint- 
ances and early friendships, yet he has never 
seen fit to retire from the bachelor's domain. 
He is considered an upright man of integrity 
and worth. 

PHILIP McENTEE, Deceased. The 
memory of Philip McEntee is green in the 
hearts of ail the old timers in Douglas county. 
No words that we could utter would fully por- 
tray the real worth and excellence of the man 
as a bright business man and a true pioneer and 
capable frontiersman. It is fitting, however, 
that in the volume which pictures the history 
of this interesting section, a review of his life 
should occur and it is with pleasure that we 
append this memoir. 

Philip jMcEntee was born in Ireland, in 
1830, and there remained the first sixteen years 
of his life. His educational training was there 
secured and at the age mentioned, he came to 
New York as a stowaway. He was soon learn- 
ing the plumber's trade in that metropolis, and 
this was followed until the early sixties, when 
he was forced by the western fever to cross the 
plains, and finally drifted into British Columbia, 
where he mined on the Eraser river. In the 
seventies he went thence to Bear Gulch, Mon- 
tana, and there sought the golden sands until 
1877, when he made his way to W^ashington, 
and joined a surveying party which was estab- 
lishing the north line of the United States. 
While in this employ, he was favored and did 
well in financial matters. With his earnings he 
bought cattle and located where Coulee City 
now stands. In the spring of 1881, he built 
the first house here. The winter previous as 
also in 1890-1, he lost heavily on account of the 
rigorous weather. He was not a man to be 
daunted by such reverses, however, and he con- 
tinued in the business with commendable pluck 
and energy. When Mv. :McEntee located here 
there were no inhabitants, except the Indians 
and an occasional stockman. He would take 
bands of cattle and unaided drive them clear 
to British Columbia and there sell to the mines, 
making his way back alone. Such great ex- 
ertions as these besides many others incident to 
the stock business in a new country, were the 
lot of ;\Ir. ■\IcEntee. and few people know the 
real hardships of the pioneer, unless they have 
taken part in them. He saw the country settle 

up and was always a broad minded man, ever 
welcoming the ingress of farmers, although a 
stockman, whose interests, should he consider 
himself alone, were adverse to the farmers. 

Three years before his death, j\lr. McEntee 
was thrown from his horse and sustained severe 
injuries in his left side. Later tuberculosis of 
the stomach developed and in 1901, he was in 
the hands of the doctors receiving the best at- 
tention that could be given. All was futile, 
however, and on the eighth day of July, 1901, 
it being Monday, he fell asleep peacefully, 
although he had been a great sufferer during 
his illness. His remains were interred with irh- 
pressive ceremonies and the whole country was 
draped in real mourning, for they well knew 
one of the stalwarts had gone. In the land 
where he had met the adversities and hardships 
known only to the progressive pioneer, had met 
and overcome, where he had labored wisely and 
well to bring in the dawn of one of the states 
to be of this great nation, where he won such 
success owing to his great endurance and capa- 
bilities, there sleeps quietly the casket where 
dwelt the fearless soul and dauntless spirit of 
one of the grand men of \Vashington. 

In 1891, Mr. McEntee married Miss Eliza- 
beth Evans, a native of Pennsylvania and the 
daughter of William D. Evans. To this union 
two children have been born, Mary and Philip. 
Mrs. McEntee is now dwelling in Spokane and 
has the advantage offered by the city schools 
for her children. Mr. McEntee was enabled 
to leave to his loved ones a goodly competence 
and his widow is to be commended for the wis- 
dom manifested in the management of the 

DOMENIC C. CAVADINI is the post- 
master of the Buckingham office, and devotes 
his time to general farming and merchandising. 
He owns a half section of land which is well 
improved and he has recently opened a mer- 
cantile store at the postoffice. He intends in 
a very short time to add a stock of general 
goods which is warranted by the development 
of the community and the excellent patronage 
he has secured. He is a man of first-class 
principles and manifests wisdom and energy in 
business lines. 

Domenic C. Cavadini was born in Lom- 
bardv, Italy, on October 12, 1856, the son of 



Dominic and Catherina (Revolta) Cavadini, 
natives of Italy. They settled in La Crosse, 
Wisconsin, in 1864, where our subject received 
his education and grew to manhood. After 
completing a high school course, he took a 
course in the business college and later began 
traveling in various portions of the country. 
In the vicinity of Cheyenne, Wyoming, Mr. 
Cavadini followed well drilling for seven years, 
then returned to his old home in Wisconsin on 
a visit, after which he came west and followed 
well drilling for five years longer. In 1889 
he made his way to Douglas county, spending 
the first winter near Coulee City. In the spring 
of 1890, he moved to the estate where he now 
lives and has been here continuously since. He 
added much more land by purchase and has the 
balance well improved, his thrift being demon- 
strated by all the particulars of the estate. :\Ir. 
Cavadini is an excellent postmaster and has 
won the respect and esteem of the entire com- 
munity and is the recipient of a very fine patron- 
age in business. He has three brothers and one 
sister, all living in Wisconsin. 

On November 27, igoi, at St. Peter's 
church, in La Crosse, Wisconsin, Mr. Cavadini 
married Mrs. Elizabeth Cavadini, the daughter 
of Henry and Annie (Gresemer) Reichert, na- 
tives of Germany and early seltlers of Wiscon- 
sin, where they now live. Mrs. Cavadini was 
born in Chicago, on April 16, 1858, and has 
three brothers and six sisters. By her former 
marriage to Joseph Cavadini, she has one child, 
Mary. Our subject and his wife are members 
of the Catholic church and devout supporters of 
the faith. 

the pioneers who have made Douglas county 
what she is to-day, we have great reason to 
mention the subject of this review, whose labors 
in this county have met with the most gratify- 
ing success. As a physician. Dr. Hollingshead 
stands a real leader, being not only especially 
endowed with natural ability for the important 
position of a medical practitioner, but also pos- 
sessed of unswerving integrity, skilled by long 
associations in the profession and fortified with 
abundant erudition in medical lore. Dr. Hol- 
lingshead has won, as he surely would do, the 
confidence of all the residents of the county and 
has gained marked distinction as a phvsician 

and surgeon. Desiring to be relieved from the 
constant strain incident to a large and con- 
scientious practice of medicine, the doctor 
turned a portion of his time to investigating 
the resources of the county and accumulating a 
fine property by handling them in a wise man- 
ner. The doctor now has one of the choicest 
farms, just south from Waterville, that is to be 
found in this part of the state. It consists of 
two hundred acres, is laid out with display of 
great wisdom and skill, and is improved with 
consummate taste and sagacity. Dr. Hollings- 
head gives his especial attention to the super- 
vision of this farm and has made it a most beau- 
tiful as well as profitable place. In addition to 
this Dr. Hollingshead has about sixteen hun- 
dred acres of land and a large band of stock. 
He directs the entire estate from his home in 
Waterville and has gained in the financial world 
as also in the medical profession a marked and 
gratifying success. The confidence of the peo- 
ple of Waterville as well as those in the sur- 
rounding country is unhesitatingly reposed in 
Dr. Hollingshead, and with good reason, for 
he has endeared himself to the people by his 
frankness, his skill, his real sympathy and in- 

Eli Hollingshead was born in Ontario, 
Canada, on May 11, 1836, the son of George 
and Jane (Kinsey) Hollingshead, natives of 
Vermont and Pennsylvania, respectively and 
now deceased. After a thorough training in 
the famous schools of Ontario, our subject then 
entered the Eclectic Medical Institute of Cincin- 
nati, and with honors took his degree in 1873. 
Dr. John Scudder, one of America's foremost 
physicians and the real father of Specific Medi- 
cation, founded this college, the first of its kind 
in the United States. Immediately following 
his graduation. Dr. Hollingshead commenced 
practice in Forrester, Michigan, where he did 
excellent work for eleven years. Then came 
a six years" practice in Oscoda, Michigan, 
whence, in 1888, he came to Waterville to join 
his son, mentioned elsewhere in this volume. 
He immediately commenced practice in ^^^^ter- 
ville and has continued here since. The doctor 
has a two-story residence in Waterville and con- 
siderable property besides that already men- 
tioned. The other children in his father's fam- 
ily are: Amos, William, Sarah Webb, and 
Susannah Millard. 

At Newmarket, Ontario, in 18^8, Dr. Hoi- 



lingshead married i\Iiss Hannah Mount, a na- 
tive of New Jersey. She has one brother, 
Lewis. To Dr. and INIrs. HolHngshead three 
children have been born, George, Herbert, and 
Jennie Elhott. The first one is specifically 
mentioned in this work ; Herbert is handling a 
large furniture business for his father ; and 
the daughter is the wife of Prof. Elliott. Dr. 
Hollingshead is a member of the Foresters, and 
the K. O. T. M. In professional lines he is a 
member of the State JNIedical Society and also 
the National Eclectic Association. He is ex- 
aminer of the government for pensions and 
medical adviser for the M. W. A. Politically, 
Dr. Hollingshead is allied with the Republicans, 
but does not assume great activity in this realm, 
being too busy with his other large enterprises ; 
however. Doctor Hollingshead takes a keen in- 
terest in seeing the best men and measures in 
the ascendency. 

JOHN O'NEIL, who resides seven miles 
northeast from Hartline, and is one of the lead- 
ing citizens of Douglas county, was born in 
New Brunswick, Canada, , in 1844. His parents, 
John and Ann O'Neil, were natives of Ireland. 
The first twenty-seven years of our subject's 
life were spent in Canada, where he received a 
good education. In 1871 he came to the United 
States, settling in Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, 
where his cousin lived and where he worked for 
several years. In 1875 he came on to Puget 
Sound, Washington, and labored variously for 
six years. Then he journeyed to the Yakima 
country and did log driving for a couple of 
years but finally in 1883, he came to Douglas 
county. He immediately located a pre-emption 
and a timber culture claim and later took a 
homestead. To this he added eighty acres by 
purchase, making nearly fi^•e hundred and sixty 
acres of choice land in his estate to-day. It is 
nearly all in cultivation, is well improved and 
skillfully handled. All buildings needed are at 
hand, including a modern and commodious 
dwelling, and everything about the premises in- 
dicates the thrift and enterprise of the owner. 
Mr. O'Neil passed all through the hardships 
and trials incident to the pioneer life of the 
west and he has so faithfullv continued in his 
labors that he is one of the wealthy men of 
the section to-day and is a respected citizen. 

On January 15, 1903, Mr. O'Neill married 
Miss Lizzie Cassiday, the daughter of Michael 
R. and Catherine Cassiday, natives of Ontario, 
who are mentioned in another portion of this 

Mr. and Mrs. O'Neil are members of the 
Roman Catholic church and are very highly 
respected people. Their settlement here was 
cotemporaneous with ^'arious others such as 
Andrew and Charles E. Flynn, Patrick Kelley, 
Michael Cassiday, David Wilson, the Schrock 
brothers and many more. It is very difficult 
for one at this time, traveling through the Big 
Bend, to picture the conditions of pioneer life. 
Fifty and one hundred miles had to be traveled 
to get mail and provisions ; the country was a 
barren prairie, dry and uninhabited; fuel had 
to be obtained from distant points, hard- to be 
reached ; crops \\ere then not nearly so good 
as now; and every force of nature seemed to 
try and drive the settler out. Notwithstanding 
all these things, Mr. O'Neil labored along con- 
stantly, never knowing the word fail and his 
industry, determination, and carefulness finally 
brought the success of which he is fully worthy. 

WILLIAM E. JONES is the son of Will- 
iam G. Jones, a native of Wisconsin. In 1883, 
he brought his family to Douglas county. 
Washing-ton, and three months later was taken 
away by death. He had married Alice Owens, a 
native of the Badger State and to them seven 
children had been bom. named as follows : 
Griffith; Maggie, wife of T. J. Allen, living in 
Spokane; Clara, wife of Perry Sargeant, of 
Hartline; William E., who is the subject of 
this sketch ; Nellie, unmarried ; John, a farmer 
in Douglas county; and Phoebe. William E. 
was born in \Vildrose, Wisconsin, on October 
31, 1874. For one year, only, he had the 
privilege of attending school, but he made the 
most of that as he has also of his opportunities 
for study and investigation since. Early in life 
he became ver\' skillful in handling stock and 
learned the business thoroughly. When his 
father came west, this son was one to assist in 
the stock business which the father took up. 
His sudden death, however, changed matters 
much and A\'illiam was forced to meet the stem 
realities of life while very young. He took 
advantap-e of his knowledge in the stock busi- 



ness and followed it with energy and wisdom, 
and has been occupied with that and farming 
continuously since coming to this country. He 
now resides on a choice estate, which lies about 
four miles east from Hartline, one of the best 
in this part of the country, and which has been 
rendered valuable by the wise cultivation and 
improvement bestowed by Mr. Jones. The 
other members of the family are also heavy 
property owners in this county and elsewhere 
and are progressive people. 

Mr. Jones was united in marriage to Miss 
Martha S. Pugh, the daughter of William Pugh. 
of Hartline, and one of the well known and 
estimable 3'oung ladies of the county. The 
fruit of this union is one child, a charming 
little lass of three years, named Mabelle. 

Mr. Jones is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and a man of sound judgment and excellent 
executive ability. He has so walked in his life 
that he has won the esteem of all who know him 
and is a man of worth and influence. 

MILTON B. HOWE is a member of the 
firm of Rogers and How^e, pioneers and leading 
merchants of Waterville. The firm does a large 
business and in addition to merchandise have 
been leaders in various other enterprises in this 

Milton B. Howe was born in Faribault, 
Minnesota, on October zj, i860. His father, 
George G. Howe, was a native of New York 
and the paternal grandfather of our subject 
was torn in South Farmingham, Massachu- 
setts, and the wife of that gentleman w^as born 
In New York state. The father was a surveyor 
and for many years followed his profession in 
Minnesota, doing a large portion of the govern- 
ment surveying in the southern part of that 
state. He was several years in the land depart- 
ment of the Great Northern railroad. Leaving 
there in i8qo, he came to Water\'ille and joined 
his son. The mother of our subject w'as Emily 
A. (Nutting) Howe, a native of South Am- 
herst. Massachusetts, and descended from the 
original noted family that was prominent in 
colonial times. She was killed in an accident 
on the Great Northern railroad, while enroute 
to her husband at Waterville, in i8go. 

Our subject received his education in Fari- 
Ijault, Miiuiesota, completing there the high 

school course. After his graduation he entered 
the employ of J. B. Wheeler a wholesale and 
retail merchant, and for seven years continued 
in that capacity, five of the years being spent 
in the management of the office. In March, 
1888, he came to Waterville and soon opened 
his present business with his brother-in-law, 
A. L. Rogers, who is named elsewhere in this 
w ork. Since that time, the firm has been doing 
a large business and now own a great deal of 
property in this part of the citv. 

In June, 1897, at Spokane, Mr. Howe mar- 
ried Miss Bessie L., daughter of Charles H. and 
Mary (Lockwood) Amistrong, natives of New 
York and now- residing in Spokane. The 
mother's father was an Episcopal minister in 
China for two years and is now deceased. ]\Irs. 
Howe has two brothers, Edwin and Henry, and 
one sister, Josephine. To Mr. and Mrs. Howe, 
two children have been born : Margaret, aged 
five; and Laurence, aged six months. Mr. 
Howe is a member of the A. F. & A. M., being 
a past master. 

Politically, he is a Republican and has been 
delegate to the conventions and he is now ser\'- 
ing as director of the high school and chairman 
of the school board of \\^aterville. He was 
several years city councilman. Mrs. How^e is 
a member of the Episcopal church. 

tinguished as having established the first drug 
store in the town of Waterville, which he is 
still operating. He has gained a good success 
in this business and stands among the leading 
business men in this city. He was born in 
.Ontario, Canada, on July 31, 1859, being the 
son of Eli Hollingshead, a native of Canada 
and a practicing physician now in Waterville. 
Our subject was educated and reared in Mich- 
igan, remaining there until twenty-eight. Then 
he came to Spokane and in 1888, on to Water- 
ville. He brought with him a stock of goods 
and opened the first drug store in the town. In 
addition to handling this successfully since. 
Mr. Hollingshead has also been engaged in 
stock raising. He owns sixteen hundred acres 
of land. Immediately after his school days, our 
subject entered the employ of Dr. Weirs, a 
druggist in Oscoda, Michigan, and with him he 
learned to be a skilled druggist. After serving 



due time in tliis store, he opened business for 
himself, and there remained until he came west. 
Our subject has one brother, Herbert A., and 
one sister, Jennie Elliott. 

In 1884, JMr. HoUingshead married Aliss 
Carrie M. McFarland, a native of ^Michigan. 
Her father, Andrew McFarland, was a native 
of New York and married Mary Winchell, a 
native of the same state and now living in 
Michigan. When the war broke out, he en- 
listed in Company C, Second Michigan Cavalry, 
and served three years and nine months. At 
the battle of Gettysburg, he was shot through 
the left lung and died from the effects of tlie 
wound ten years later. The paternal grand- 
father of our subject came from Nova Scotia 
and the McFarland family is prominent in com- 
mercial and professional circles in the state of 
New York at present. 

To Mr. and Mrs. Hollingshead, one child, 
Ethel, has been born, aged eight. Mr. Hollings- 
head is a member of the I. O. O. F. and the 
K. O. T. M. He is a good staunch Republican 
but not especially active, although interested in 
everything which is for the advancement of the 

years' residence in Douglas county entitles the 
subject of this article to be classed as one of 
the pioneers, and the fact is he was one of the 
very first settlers in the prairie where Water- 
ville now stands. Since those early days, Mr. 
Alexander has remained here and he has shown 
himself a man of integrity and ability, always 
laboring for general upbuilding and material 
advancement. He located two miles northeast 
from where Waterville is now located, in 1883, 
and there acquired an estate of two hundred and 
forty acres. His attention was directed to the 
improvement and culture of this farm until 
recently he sold the place and built a residence 
in Waterville, where he is now making his 
home. He also owns a large block of lots in 
town besides other property. Having can- 
vassed the field thoroughly before, on October 
I, 1903, Mr. Alexander embarked in com- 
mercial life, opening a general merchandise 
establishment in Water\-ille. He carries a full 
and complete stock and is doing a good busi- 
ness at this time, being highly spoken of and 
known as a substantia! business man. 

Frank M. Alexander was born in Broome 
county. New York, on March 17, 1853, being 
the son of Peter and Eliza (McClure) Alex- 
ander. The father was a native of New York 
as were his parents, but his grandparents came 
from England. The mother was also born in 
New York and her ancestors came from Scot- 
land. Her grandfather was prominent in the 
Revolution and received for his service as quar- 
termaster general a large tract of land. Our 
subject was raised principally in Wisconsin, 
whither the family migrated in 1856, being 
pioneers in the Badger State. He received his 
education in the primitive log cabin school 
houses and in the graded schools of Avoca, 
Wisconsin. Our subject remained with his 
father, who was a blacksmith, until he was 
about thirty, then came direct to the Big Bend 
country. Since then he has been known among 
us as one of the leading citizens. Mr. Alexan- 
der has been justice of the peace, being the first 
inr-umbent of that office, and has also been 
active in political matters, being allied with the 
Democratic party. 

Mr. Alexander married Miss Agatha Lude- 
man, at the residence of her parents, in this 
county, on October 12, 1890, and to them have 
been born five children. Myrtle, Grace, Floyd, 
Edith, and Frances. Mrs. Alexander's parents 
are Benjamin and Grace (Seggerman) Lude- 
man, natives of Germany and now living east 
from Waterville, in this county. Mrs. Alex- 
ander was born in Illinois and has three broth- 
ers, Heiko, Henry, Dirk, and two sisters, Mar- 
garet Brownfield, and Jesena Cchacht. Mr. 
Alexander has the following named brothers, 
Charles, Forrest, Spencer, Elmer and Fred. 
Charles served four years in the Civil war, 
being in Company I, Nineteenth Wisconsin 
Volunteers. Mr. and Mrs. Alexander are both 
consistent members of the Christian church and 
he is deacon in that organization. 

JOHN A. BANNECK. Among the 
worthy and strong men of Douglas count)-, it 
is fitting to mention the subject of this re\-ie\v. 
He resides about three miles south from A\'ater- 
ville, where he owns an estate of three hundred 
and twenty acres all under cultivation. The 
farm is devoted to the production of the cereals 
and legumes. He has been verv successful in 



agriculture aud produces some, of the very best 
crops of the county- 
John A. Banneck was born in Schleswig- 
Holstein, Germany, in December, 1849. His 
parents, Glaus and Frederika (MoUer) Ban- 
neck, were natives of the same place and died 
in 1873 ^"d 1 893 1 respectively. Our subject 
served in the regular army, participating in the 
Franco-Prussian war. He remained in his 
native country until 1873, gaining during those 
years, not only a good education but a splendid 
military training in the regidar army. In the 
year last mentioned, Mr. Banneck came to 
Lyons, Iowa, and engaged there in sawmilling, 
later going to Minnesota, where he entered the 
flour mills, having thoroughly learned the art 
of the flour miller in Germany. After nine 
years in some of the leading mills in Minnesota, 
he came thence, the time being 1882, to Cheney, 
Washington. On May 12, 1883, our subject 
landed in Douglas county, which entitles him 
to be ranked with the very earliest pioneers in 
this part of Washington. He squatted on a 
piece of land which was later taken by the 
homestead right and is now a portion of his 
estate. He added to this by purchase until he 
has one-half section farmed as named above. 
In addition, Mr. Banneck devotes considerable 
attention to raising fruit and has a fine three 
acre orchard. He also handles a great deal of 
stock and owns atout seventy head of cattle 
and horses. 

Politically, he is now allied with the Pop- 
ulists, but formerlv was a Republican. 

Mr. Banneck has one half brother, Jurgen 
Nissen, and three sisters, Kathrina Schnack, 
■Christina Jacobson, and Magretha. They are 
all in Germany. Mr. Banneck, to use his own 
laconic remark, has never yet met his wife, con- 
sequently, he is enjoying the freedom and pleas- 
tires of the celibatarian. In financial circles, he 
has made an excellent success and his standing 
in the community is of the very best, being a 
kind, genial and substantial man. 

JAMES H. KINCAID, who is one of the 
earliest pioneers of Douglas county, is now in 
charge of a feed barn in Waterville, where he 
does a good business. He was born in Ohio, 
on January 3, i8^i, the son of Jacob and Eliza- 
beth (Clearv) Kincaid, natives of Ohio and 

descendants from German and Irish ancestors, 
respectively.. Both are now deceased. Our 
subject remained in Ohio until he was sixteen, 
there gaining his education from the district 
schools, and then came with his parents to Jvlis- 
souri. He remained under the parental roof 
until twenty years of age, then was engaged in 
various occupations for five or six years. From 
Missouri he journeyed to Nebraska and there 
bought land which he tilled for four years. In 
1884, Mr. Kincaid came to Garfield county, 
Washington, settling in the vicinity of Pome- 
roy. After renting land there for a time, he 
came in 1885, to Douglas county and squatted 
on a quarter section of government land. 
Eighty acres of this quarter are now a part of 
the townsite of Waterville. He still owns one 
block of twenty lots in the city limits. Until 
1893, M^"- Kincaid was engaged in farming, 
then he took up freighting and teaming and 
continued in the same until August. 1903, when 
he built his present feed barn and engaged in 
the livery business. Mr. Kincaid is a Repub- 
lican but not active in the realm of politics. 
He has two brothers, William and John, and 
two sisters, Mary Weimer and Sarah Weimer. 
The marriage of Mr. Kincaid and Miss Alice 
Thornberry occurred in Missouri. Her parents 
were natives of Indiana and are now deceased. 
Mrs. Kincaid has two brothers, Joseph and 
Samuel, and also five sisters. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Kincaid five children have been born, named as 
follows : Robert, Fred, Otis, Jessie, and Mabel. 

ANTOINE GUIBERT is among the 
prosperous and successful business men in 
Waterville. He is at the head of a large 
jewelry establishment and is doing a very thriv- 
ing business. His business is located in a hand- 
some brick structure, and the stock is the most 
complete in the Big Bend country. He also 
owns a residence in Waterville and one of the 
finest sections of land in the county. The land 
lies about five miles north from Waterville, 
and is all under cultivation. 

Antoine Guibert was born in Paris, France, 
on January 17, 1861. His father, Antoine 
Guibert, was born in southwestern France and 
died when our subject was four years of age. 
He came from a prominent French familv 
and was a verv extensive traveler. He 



had married Miss Barthilda Honvanx, a 
native of Dunkerque, France, the niarrriage 
occurring in Paris. After the death of 
her first husband, Mrs. Guil^ert married 
Charles Rousselle, paymaster of the army 
in the Franco-Prussian war and a man of abil- 
ity and education. He has since died and she 
is now living in Waterville. When twenty, 
our subject came with the balance of the family 
to the United States, settling in Council Bluffs, 
Iowa, where he completed his education. Later 
they moved to San Francisco. Our subject 
came on to Ellensburg and the step-father came 
later. In the spring of 1886, Mr. Guibert 
came to this part of Douglas county and took 
land and in 1890 all of the family came hither. 
In 1891. our subject opened his present business 
and since that time has been steadily engaged in 
the same, with the exception of a short period 
immediately following the depression of the 
early nineties. During those days, he and his 
wife visited in Belgium and on July 4, 1897, 
located a second time in Waterville. 

Politically, Mr. Guibert is a Democrat and 
has been a member of the Waterville City 
council for some time. Fraternally, he belorigs 
to the A. F. and A. M., having been secretary 
for two years. 

At Brussels, Belgium, on May 30, 1891, 
Mr. Guibert married Miss Maria Michaels, 
George W. Roosevelt, uncle of our president, 
and United States consul at Brussels at that 
time, witnessed the ceremony. Mrs. Guibert's 
parents were natives of Belgium and prominent 

SAMUEL C. ROBINS is and has been one 
of the prominent men in Douglas county, owing 
to the excellent manner in which he has handled 
the resources at his command here and the wis- 
dom displayed in laboring for the welfare of the 
county at large. He is now engaged in farm- 
ing and resides about two miles south from 
Water\-ille. He was born in Miami county, 
Indiana, on November 30. 1848, being the son 
of Samuel C. and Katherine (Ryan) Robins, 
natives of New Jersey. The father died on 
March 14, 1863, in Miami county, Indiana, and 
was descended from an old New Jersey family. 
The mother died in 1850, in Indiana. Her an- 
cestors were natives of Ireland. The first 
twenty-one vears of our subject's life were 

spent in Indiana, during which time he gained 
his education from the public schools and also 
in special training in farming and the ways of 
the world, having been left an orphan at the age 
of fifteen. From Indiana, he went to Minne- 
sota and for fi\-e years was in various employ- 
ments, then returned to his native state, remain- 
ing there until February 19, 1884, the date 
when he started west. On March 29th of the 
same year, he located where he now resides and 
since that time has been one of the substantial 
and wide awake men of the Big Bend country. 
In 1886, he was appointed sheriff to serve out 
the unexpired term of Mr. Jordan, deceased, 
and at the expiration of that time was formally 
elected to that office, his name appearing on the 
Democratic ticket. In 1890, he was elected 
county commissioner, running far ahead of his 
ticket. He has been school director of the dis- 
trict since its organization and has also been 
director of the Waterville high school since its 
establishment. In the fall of 1890, Mr. Robins 
was elected at a mass meeting of the citizens in 
Waterville and took charge of the Douglas 
county exhibit of the first Inter State Exposi- 
tion held in Spokane. His knowledge and wis- 
dom displayed in brining to the front the pro- 
ducts of this county and its resources, resulted 
in untold good to Douglas county. 

Fraternallv, Mr. Robins is a member of the 
A. F. and A. M. and of the O. E. S. His wife 
also belonging to the latter. 

Mr. Robins has two brothers, Charles E. 
and Ezekiel V., and one sister, Margaret N. 
Deeds, and one half sister, Katherine Brower. 

On May 7, 1880, at Peru, Indiana, occurred 
the marriage of Mr. Robins and Miss Ida H. 
Steiner, a native of Lima, Ohio. Her parents. 
Gottleb and Mary M. (Steiner) Steiner, were 
natives of Germany and are now living in 
Waterville. Three children are the fruit of 
this marriage, Edwin S.. Nellie M. and Flor- 
ence S. 

A. E. CASE, who is well known in Douglas 
county as one of the financial leaders, is a man 
whose life has been largely spent in financial 
circles, in which he has won a good success, 
owing to his conservative and wise manipula- 
tion of resources. He is now at the head of 
the bank in Waterville, having established the 
enterprise in 1890, in company with Mr. Ford, 



a former associate in banking business in the 
east, and now one of the heavy property owners 
in Michigan and Ohio. Mr. Case has been the 
head of the bank here since estabhshment and 
its success is due to his sound principles and 
wise methods of operation. 

A. E. Case was born in Michigan, on 
October 5, 1857, the son of A. E. and Chloe 
(Barton) Case. His ancestors on both sides 
were distinguished people in New England, 
and various members of the families have 
gained a wide distinction in business. They 
were identified also with the struggles of the 
colonies for independence as well as for their 
existence afterward when the coveted goal had 
been obtained. The father of our subject was 
born in New York state and died on the old 
homestead in Michigan in i8g8. The mother 
was born in Vermont and died in 1873, at the 
Michigan homestead. Our subject was edu- 
cated in the graded and high schools of his na- 
tive place and later took a thorough course in 
the business college at Detroit, Michigan. 
After this, he taught for four years and then 
associated himself with a large lumber firm as 
bookkeeper, later becoming a member of the 
firm. The firm organized a bank in one of the 
Michigan towns and installed Mr. Case as cash- 
ier. Making a success of this venture, they 
soon organized and established two more banks 
and Mr. Case was associated with Mr. Ford, 
with whom he established a banking house, be- 
ing still cashier of the first one. In 1890, they 
disposed of their entire business and the same 
year came to Waterville, opening business here 
in November. Mr. Ford resides in Birming- 
ham, Michigan, and is one of the influential 
and prominent men of that portion of the state. 
Mr. Case owns a section of first-class wheat 
land, which produces abundant crops. He also 
has a handsome residence in Waterville, be- 
sides other property. Mr. Case has one brother 
and two sisters, Daniel, Mary Sylvester, and 
Kate Bower. 

The marriage of Mr. Case and Miss Eva 
Stanway was celebrated at California, Missouri, 
on September 26, 1893. The parents of Mrs. 
Case are David and Maria Stanway, natives 
of England, and now residing in Warrensburg, 
Missouri, having been married in Ypsilanti, 
Michigan. The father served three years in 
the Civil war and was severely wounded in the 
battle of the Wilderness. Mrs. has one 

brother and two sisters. Perry, Grace S. Pizer, 
and Minnie S. Thomas. Two sons have been 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Case; Randall S., aged 
nine, and Austin F., aged seven. Mr. Case is 
a member of the A. F. & A. M., the R. A. M.. 
and the K. T. Politically, he is associated with 
the Democrats, but does not desire personal 
preferment, having refused to allow his name 
to be placed on the ticket. Mrs. Case is a mem- 
ber of the Christian church. 

LUCIEN E. KELLOGG is at the present 
time the efficient and popular incumbent of the 
auditor's ofiice in Waterville, having gained 
the ofiice by running two hundred and thirty 
a head of his ticket. Previous to this incum- 
bency, Mr. Kellogg was receiver of the L'nited 
States land ofiice for four years. He is well 
known and one of the leading men of the county 
and has always labored faithfully for general 
development. Mr. Kellogg has been a very 
successful newspaper man as will appear in the 

Lucien E. Kellog was born in Ashtabula, 
Ohio, on August 3, 1850, being the son of 
Lucien H. and Amanda (Harmon) Kellogg. 
The father was born in Ohio and his ancestors 
were from the state of Massachusetts, the fam- 
ily being- prominent in early American history. 
The mother was also born in Ohio, and came 
from a stanch Amercian family. Our subject 
was well educated, finishing at the Grand River 
Institute in Austinsburg, Ohio. Immediately 
following his graduation he went to learn the 
printer's trade and in 1876, came west to Wash- 
ington and in company with Charles B. Hop- 
kins, now L^nited States marshal for the state 
of Washington, with headquarters at Tacoma, 
started the Palousc Ga::cttc at Colfax. Later 
he sold out and started the Norf/rwcsf Tribune. 
which he removed to Cheney, one }'ear later 
and there was active in the county seat fight. 
.\fter tliat conflict had subsided, Mr. Kellogg 
sold his paper to George Schorr and removed 
to Spokane. In 1888, he came thence to Water- 
ville and established the Big Bend Empire 
which he conducted for eight years, making- 
it one of the forceful factors in this section. 
Selling this to D. C. DeGolia, Mr. Kellogg 
bought a half interest in the Adva)icc at Wenat- 
chee. One year later he sold his interest to O. 



B. Fuller and then established the Cliclan Her- 
ald which he conducted until 1897. In that 
year he received the appointment to the re- 
ceix-ership mentioned and since then has given 
his time to duties outside the newspaper realm. 
]\Ir. Kellogg has three brothers, Frank, William 
and Charles. The latter was nominee for 
superior judge in the Whatcom judicial district 
at the time of his death. He had served for 
four years in the Civil War. 

Mr. Kellogg was Irrst married in Spokane, 
Louisa M. Jillson becoming his wife then. 
Afterward. unavoidablecircumstances compelled 
the annulling of this marriage. One child had 
been born, Lucien T., a printer in Spokane. 
Later Mr. Kellogg married Miss Hattie C. 
Fuller, a native of Ashtabula, Ohio. Her par- 
ents are Byron and Rachel (Gary) Fuller, na- 
tives of Ohio. To Mr. and Mrs. Kellogg, five 
children have been born, Charles M., Carlyle, 
Ruth, Marion, Katherine. Mrs. Kellogg "has 
two brothers, Otis B. and Harry. Mr. Kellogg 
is a member of the I. O. O. F. and the K. O. 
T. M. 

class of men do greater responsibilities rest as 
touching the issues of life, than upon the physi- 
cians of our land. Therefore it is that popular 
spirit demands that they be men of high moral 
character, recognized ability, and unswerving 
integrity. As no exception to this high ideal, 
which is justly required, stands the gentleman 
Avhose name initiates this article. Dr. Gilchrist 
has won for himself in the Columbia valley a 
reputation which can only be gained as the re- 
sult of merit and wisdom. He is well known 
throughout Douglas and Chelan counties and 
stands at the present time at the head of a 
large and constantly increasing practice, being 
located in the town of Wenatchee. His repu- 
tation extends over both counties mentioned 
and his time is so fullv occupied in attending to 
the calls of the sick that he is unable to attend 
to the duties of coroner of Chelan county, to 
which his fellows have called him. He did 
serve for several terms in that capacity, then 
located in Waterville, but pressing calls now 
demand his entire time. He has a good office 
and a cosy home in Wenatchee, and also owns a 
choice tract of fruit land of ten acres on the 
border of the city, where he expects in the near 

future to erect a commodious hospital, which 
will be a great addition to Wenatchee. A de- 
tailed account of his career will be very accept- 
able to the citizens of these counties, and it is 
with pleasure that we append the salient points. 
Colin Gilchrist was born in Ontario, Can- 
ada, on February 5. 1861, the son of James 
and Marion (Campbell) Gilchrist, natives of 
Scotland and married in Canada. The father 
dwelt in Canada forty-fi\-e years and was 
known as one of the stanch men of his section. 
His death occurred on December 16, 1902. The 
mother still resides on the old homestead, 
where she has already spent forty-six years. 
Our subject was reared on the farm and partici- 
pated in the invigorating exercise there to be 
found until twenty-one. He had, in the mean- 
time, received a thorough educational training 
from the grammar and high schools of Onta- 
rio, which are famed over the world as the best 
in the domain of the English language. Then 
he spent several years teaching in Michigan, 
saving his means to gain a medical education. 
In 1885, Mr. Gilchrist entered the College of 
Medicine, in Detroit, and three years later re- 
ceived his diploma, with honors. Five years 
later he took a three month post-graduate course 
in Detroit and in 1903 took two courses in Chi- 
cago. He soon came from the scene of study 
and triumphs to the far west, selecting Water- 
ville as the place of his first practice. He at 
once began his life work and from the outset 
he was fax'ored with a patronage which only 
skill and erudition can win. In addition to this 
work he opened a drug store and dispensed 
medicines during his practice. In 1897, Dr. 
Gilchrist came to Wenatchee and since that 
time has continued in active practive here and 
in the adjoining country. The doctor secured 
a quarter section of land under the preemption 
right while in Douglas county but has sold it 
since. At the present time he is county physi- 
cian, chairman of the board of health, and 
school director. He has one brother, William, 
on the old homestead in Canada ; and three sis- 
ters, Mary. Sarah, and Maggie, all in Canada. 
On April 7. 1889, Dr. Gilchrist married 
Miss Mary C. daughter of Charles and Mary 
V. (Chenoweth) Aberly, natives of Germany 
and West Virginia, respectively. Mrs. Gil- 
christ was born in Lagrande, Oregon, and there 
received her education. Her father died in 
1875. The mother married Charles Preston, 


of Lagrande, who is now a boot and shoe mer- 
chant there. She came from an old and prom- 
inent A'irginia famil_v and crossed the plains 
with her parents when young. Mrs. Gilchrist 
has two half-sisters, Charlotte and Myrtle. To 
Dr. and Mrs. Gilchrist two children, Marion 
\^ and Hugh B. have been born. The youngest 
died when fifteen months old. The doctor and 
his wife belong to the Rebekahs, while he also 
is a member of the I. O. O. F., the Brotherhood 
of American Yeoman, the W. W., the M. W. 
A., the Royal Neighbors, and the Eagles. They 
both belong to the Episcopal church and are 
exemplary citizens. 

JOHN M. FRIEL, of the firm of Chris- 
tenson & Friel, leading real estate men of Wa- 
terville, is one of the early settlers of Douglas 
county and has wrought with courage and suc- 
cess here since those days of pioneering. His 
father. Neil P. Friel, was bom in Donegal coun- 
ty, Ireland, and came to the United States in 
1848, settling in Philadelphia. Three years 
later, he moved to Amboy, Illinois, where our 
subject was born, in 1861. He is now living 
near Westport, South Dakota. He married 
Miss Margaret McMenamin, a native of Done- 
gal^ county, Ireland, who died in November, 
1903, at Westport, South Dakota. Our sub- 
ject was reared in Illinois until eighteen, hav- 
ing gained his education from the district 
schools, finishing the same in the high school of 
Amboy. At the age last mentioned, he went 
to Chicago and operated in the steel mill for five 
years. After that he joined the police force in 
Chicago, remaining in the same until 1886. 
when he went to South Dakota and visited his 
parents. In the fall of 1887, he journeyed to 
Puget Sound, and the spring followinsr that 
came to Waterville. He filed on a pre-emption 
and a timber culture which later he sold, then 
bought land, now owning six hundred and fifty 
five acres, which is rented. His residence is in 
Waterville, where he has a comfortable dwell- 
ing. For four years and nine months. Mr. 
Friel was deputy sheriff of Douglas county and 
during that time he was known as a termr to 
horse thieves and evil doers and the marked 
efficiency in discharging the duties incumbent 
upon him in that capacity manifested him as 
one of the energetic, thorough, substantial and 

spirited men of this section. On January 15, 
1903, Mr. Friel, engaged in the real estate busi- 
ness with Mr. Christenson and they are hand- 
ling farming land, principally, doing a good 
business. Mr. Friel has one brother, Dennis 
O., and the following sisters, Kate, Margaret, 
Mary Johnson, Ella, Celia, Adeline and Mrs. 
Ed Stearns. 

On December 7, 1897. at Waterville, Mr. 
Friel married Miss Mary M. Woolverton, a na- 
tive of Blissfield, Michigan. Her parents, Mil- 
ton and Ella (BooneJ Woolverton, are natives 
of Ohio and now residing at Blissfield. Mrs. 
Friel has one brother, Warner J., and one sister, 
Rose Mallory. To our subject and his wife, 
four children have been born, John Bryan, Neil 
P., Warner, and Agnes. 

Fraternally, Mr. Friel is a member of the 
I. O. O.F., and the W. W. He was originally 
a Republican, then a Populist, but is now an 
ardent admirer of the great Nebraskan Bryan, 
for whom his son is named. While Mr. Friel 
takes a keen interest in the matters of the day, 
he does not manifest especial activity in politics. 
He is one of those genial, fearless and upright 
men who win friends on every occasion and is 
known as one of our leading citizens. 

JAMES L. KELLY is now one of the lead- 
ing- merchant of Waterville. Although a young 
man, he had attained his present prominent po- 
sition by reason of splendid executive ability and 
keen wisdom in the business world and an out- 
line of his career will form very interesting 
reading matter for the history of Douglas 

James L. Kelly was born in New York city, 
on September 24, 1869, being the son of John 
and Mary A. (McCann) Kelly, natives of Ire- 
land, where they were married. They came to 
the LInited States in 1849, settling in New 
York. The father died on April 30, 1903, at 
Waterville and the mother is still living with 
our subject. James L. was reared principally 
in Cleveland and Springfield, Ohio, and attend- 
ed school until fourteen years of age. Then he 
entered as a clerk in a large dry goods store and 
for four years continued in that excellent train- 
ing. In 1888, he came with the balance of the 
family to \\^ashington. Each male member of 
the family took land as they became of age. 



Our subject entered the employ of Rogers and 
Howe, well known pioneer merchants at \Vater- 
ville. and for three years was an active salesman 
in their large establishment. Then he was with 
Mr. Coleman and later went to ^Moscow, taking- 
charge of the clothing department for Durnam, 
Kaufifman & Company, for nearly three years. 
Returning to Waterville, a few weeks later he 
purchased the general merchandise business of 
Fred Brockman at Douglas. He operated the 
same for fifteen months and then sold to M. S. 
Cannon and bought the stock and business of 
Jerry Patternande and soon thereafter pur- 
chased the entire business of his former em- 
ployer, A. L. Coleman. The rapid strides made 
by Mr. Kelly in the business world proclaim 
better than words can do. his ability and clever- 
ness. He is a thorough merchant, well in- 
formed, a careul buyer and one of the best busi- 
ness men in this section of the country. 

Mr. Kelly has three brothers, John H.. Ed 
F., and Joseph P.. and one sister, Mary E. Wol- 
verton. Mr. Kelly is a member of the K. O. 
T. M., and in political matters, is a Republican. 
For two years he was treasurer and now is 
councilman of Waterville. He is possessed of 
a geniality and warm heartedness that have won 
for him many friends and one may predict for 
him, presaging the future by the past, a most 
successful and bright career. 

ALTON A. LYTLE is at the present time 
the efficient and popular sheriff of Douglas 
county. He was elected to this office in 1902, 
running a number of votes ahead of his ticket. 
Mr. Lytle is well known throughout Douglas 
county, having been engaged in farming and 
stock raising here five years. He is a man who 
has secured the confidence of the people by vir- 
tue of real worth. Reverting more particularly 
to his early life, we notice that his birth oc- 
curred in New York, on November i, 1855. His 
parents, David G., and Anna (Flake) Lytle, 
being natives also of the Empire State. The 
father's family was one of the old colonial ones 
and his grandfather, the great-grandfather of 
our subject, was captain in the war of 181 2. 
The father died in 1890, at the old homestead 
in New York state. The mother now lives at 
Pottsdam. New York, and also came from a 
very prominent old New York family. The 

district schools contributed to the earlier edu- 
cation of Alton A., but later he continued his 
studies at the state normal, finishing his edu- 
cation in the Bryant-Stratton business college 
of Ogdensburg. After school days, he returned 
to the farm and labored with his father for two 
years, then journeyed on west to Wisconsin, 
opening a livery business in Waupaca. For 
three years he was engaged thus, then returned 
to New York. One year later, he came again 
to Eau Claire. Wisconsin, and there operated 
a livery stable for four years. For two years 
of that time he owned some fine trotting horses, 
among- which were Belle D., Little Sherm, and 
Billy Dayton, all noted race horses of that day. 
Belle D. had a great trotting record and trotted 
as fast as two minutes, seventeen and three- 
fourth seconds, which was very rapid for that 
time. In 1888. Mr. Lytle came to Waterville 
and engaged in farming and stock raising, 
handling horses principally. He filed on a quar- 
ter section as a pre-emption but sold the same 
later and bought a half section twelve miles 
west from Waterville, which he owns at the 
present time. The place is well improved and 
devoted almost entirely to stock raising. As 
stated before, in 1902, Mr. Lytle was chosen to 
fill the position of sheriff of Douglas county 
and is making a very excellent officer, filling 
the expectations of his constituents in even,- re- 

Fraternallv, our subject is affiliated with 
the I. O. O. F., and the A. F. & A. M. At the 
present time, Mr. Lytle has about sixty-five 
head of full blood Percheron horses, which are 
believed to be the finest in this part of Washing- 
ton. He also owns some Clydes and other 
animals. Mr. Lytle is a single man and still 
has ahead of him the choice of matrimonial re- 

JOHN D. LOGAN, who is holding the 
position of deputy sheriff of Douglas county, is 
one of the heavy property owners, leading stock 
men. and agriculturists of this section. He 
was born in Iowa, on May 3, 1863, being the 
son of Franklin W. and -Martha (Metcalf) 
Logan. The father was bom in Kentucky and 
his ancestors were natives of that state and Vir- 
ginia, being descended from the prominent and 
old Logan family of colonial times. His death 
occurred in 1873. The niother was born in 



Liverpool, England, and died at Albany, 
Oreg-on, in 1900. In 1873, the family came 
across the plains to the Willamette valley and 
there our subject was educated in the graded 
schools and college at that place. Since 
then he has followed various employments, 
especially farming. In September, 1888, 
Mr. Logan came to Douglas county, taking 
a pre-emption and timber culture claim 
about twenty miles northeast from Water- 
ville. To this he has added by purchase until, 
he has a magnificent estate of eight hundred 
acres, seven hundred and eighty acres of which 
are under cultivation. The farm has an excel- 
lent two-story, six-room house, one barn, forty- 
eight by sixty, costing over fifteen hundred dol- 
lars, and another forty-four by fifty-six, besides 
various other buildings and valuable improve- 
ments. It is one of the finest places in the en- 
tire Big Bend country and speaks volumes for 
the industry and wise management of Mr. 
Logan. In addition to cultivating the soil, he 
handles about seventy-five head of horses and 
cattle each year besides a large drove of hogs. 
He is one of the most thrifty farmers in our 
country. Mr. Logan has one brother, Samuel 
S., a machinist in Troutdale, Oregon. 

In November, 1886, at Junction City, Ore- 
gan, Mr. Logan married Miss Mary M. Lloyd, 
a native of the Willamette valley. Her pa- 
rents, Mary and William (Goodman) Lloyd, 
crossed the plains in early days with wagons 
and farmed in the Willamette valley until the 
father's death, in 1873. The mother's parents 
were among the early pioneers to settle in the 
Willamette valley and our subject lived there. 
Mrs. Logan has one brother, Alvin, one half- 
brother, William, and two half-sisters, Mrs. 
Iva Taylor and Miss Rena Garrett. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Logan, three children have been born, 
Carrie, Gladys and Harry. 

Politically, Mr. Logan is satisfied with the 
principles of the Republican party. In his 
official capacity in the county he has shown 
marked diligence for the enforcement of the 
law and impartiality in conducting his duties. 

IRVING W. M.VTTHEWS is the owner 
of the Douglas County Abstract Company and 
operates the same. He is one of the leading 
business men in Waterville, and has wrought 
very faithfully here for a good many years. 

having both the approbation of the citizens and 
the good will and esteem of all who know him. 

Irving W. Matthews was born in Sun Prai- 
rie, \\'isconsin, on August 15, 1857. His father, 
Caleb W. Matthews, was born in Vermont, 
in 1816 and was a minister of the Congregation- 
al church. His father, the paternal grandfather 
of our subject, was bom in Royalston, Massa- 
chusetts, while the wife of that venerable patriot 
was a native of Vermont, coming from a prom- 
inent New England family. Our subject's fa- 
ther married Susan Knight, a native of Maine. 
The Knight family was one of the stirring and 
patriotic families who had fought for American 
independence. The grandfather of Mrs. Matt- 
hews served in the Revolutionary war, with dis- 
tinction and the family were able participants 
in every struggle of the colonies since the set- 
tlement of this country. Our subject's father 
died Jn 1895 and his widow now lives in Bay 
Center, Washington. 

Irving W. passed through the common, 
graded and high schools, receiving his diploma 
from thestateuniversity atMinneapolis,in 1884. 
When sixteen, he came with the family from 
Wisconsin to Minnesota. After his graduation 
having completed a thorough civil engineering 
course, he took up that business with the rail- 
road, being assistant in various lines and about 
1886 went to Broken Bow, Nebraska, where he 
followed his profession for four years. In the 
spring of 1890. he located at Waterville and in 
partnership with a man, organized the Douglas 
County Title and Abstract Company, doing 
therewith a real estate and insurance business. 
Two years after, Mr. Matthews bought out his 
partner and continued the business until 1890, 
when owing to the heavy increase of transfers, 
he was obliged to drop the real estate and in- 
surance business and give his entire attention to 
the abstract work. Mr. Matthews has the only 
set of complete abstract and transcript books in 
the county and is now doing a very large busi- 
ness. Mr. Matthews is a Republican and has 
been very acti\-e in this realm ever since coming 
west. He has been to the county and state con- 
ventions "and in the fall of 1894 was installed 
chairman of the county central committee. Two 
years later in the same capacity, he was not so 
fortunate. He has been justice of the peace 
and is now school director. Fraternally, our 
subject is affiliated with the A. F. & A. M., and 
the K. of P. 



On March 4, 1886. at Clymer, New York, 
]\Ir. Matthews married Miss Arabella Carpen- 
ter, a native of Jamestown. New York. Her 
father. Warren C. was a native of Vermont 
and his ancestors came from Ireland prior to 
the Revolution. The Carpenter family was 
allied with the colonists in all their struggles 
for independence. Mr. Carpenter married Miss 
Eliza Berbert, and they have two children, Mrs. 
Matthews and Willis. To Mr. and Mrs. Mat- 
thews, four children have been bom, Willis G., 
Edith E., Minnie L. and Dorothy H. 

\\TLLIAM A. RENEAU has followed the 
practice of law in various parts of the United 
States during his career and is now actively 
engaged in his profession in Waterville, where 
he has won distinction for himself and is known 
as one of the 'leading men of ability in the coun- 
ty. He has also given attention to other lines 
as will be mentioned and is meeting with a flat- 
tering success financially. 

\Villiam A. Reneau was born in Pontotoc, 
Mississippi, on January 27, 1850. His father, 
George G. Reneau, was born in Alabama and 
his ancestors were descended from the stanch 
French Huguenots who braved the wilds of the 
Indian land for the purpose of religious free- 
dom. Tlie}^ were wealthy planters and prom- 
inent people in the south. The father was ad- 
mitted to the bar but never actively engaged in 
the practice of law. He married Miss Emily 
Criark, daughter of Solomon G. Clark, a lead- 
ing southern planter. She died in 1863, and 
her husband about ten years later, at the old 
Mississippi homestead. Our subject was edu- 
cated in the Pontotoc schools, later taking an 
academic course for which he spent some time 
under the private tutorage of Rev. J. D. \Vest, 
being there fitted for the junior year at college. 
Owing to the reverses of war, our subject did 
not attend college but gave his attention to 
clerking in a store and to the study of law. On 
account of his extra diligence, he was soon en- 
abled to be admitted to the bar and commenced 
the practice. He remained in IMississippi, un- 
til 1878, then went to Texas but not liking the 
outlook there, turned his attention to handling 
stock on the range rather than the practice of 
law. Later, he took a large band of cattle to 
Kansas, and there practiced law and partici- 

pated in stock raising. Next, we see him in 
Ellensburg, Washington, where he practiced a 
few months and in 1889, he came to Water- 
ville. where he has since been actively engaged 
in his profession. Mr. Reneau took up land 
soon after coming here and bought until he 
now has about one section, all of which except 
the homestead is used for stock purposes. He 
owns about one hundred and twenty-five head 
of cattle all of which are good grades and some 
thoroughbreds. He owns a thoroughbred stal- 
lion and is one of the leading stockmen of 
Douglas county. His ranch is most favorably 
situated for stock purposes and is very \'alu- 
able. Mr. Reneau, also owns city propertv and 
is one of the well to do men of the Big Bend 

He has one brother, who died in the con- 
federate army, being a midshipman in the 
navy ; and one sister, Mary S. Rau. 

On April 8. 1892, at Waterville, Mr. Ren- 
eau married Miss Avarilla, a native of Denton, 
Texas, and the daughter of Riley and Nancy 
Wetsel. The parents are natives of Texas and 
now reside in Waterville where the father 
carries on a butcher business. To our subject 
and his wife, three children have been born; 
Lock C, aged ten: Lelia B., aged eight; and 
Raymond, aged six. 

Politically. Mr. Reneau is a Democrat but 
has never shown a partial spirit, being a lib- 
eral, while in general matters, he is very pro- 
gressive and active. 

HARMON WILCOX has resided in Doug- 
las county nearly twenty years and at this date 
that means he was one of the first men to settle 
in this vicinity. He has labored wisely and 
well for the furthering of his enterprises and 
the general good since the day of settlement 
and his competence and excellent standing in 
the community show his unbounded success. 

Harmon Wilcox was born in Miami county, 
Kansas, on October 6, 1862, being the son of 
Harmon and Polly A. (Perry) Wilcox, who 
are mentioned elsewhere in this volume. Our 
subject remained in his nati\'e place for the first 
twenty years of his life, gaining both educa- 
tional training from the district schools and 
experience and knowledge from farm work 
with his father. Then he went to San Joa- 



quin valley in California, and did farm work 
for two years. It was in 1884, he came thence 
to Douglas county and squatted on his present 
place, one mile no'rth from Waterville. Owing 
to careful saving of his wages, Mr. Wilcox had 
sufficient to start with and since those days has 
devoted himself steadily to farming and stock 
raising. He now owns two hundred and eighty 
acres, has it well improved, and has a nice band 
of cattle and horses. His stock is all well bred 
and he owns one valuable Hereford bull, regis- 
tered. Among other improvements, we may 
mention the first class orchard which Mr. Wil- 
cox has grown. It has the leading varieties and 
has produced some of the best fruit to be seen 
in any part of the state. 

At the residence of the bride's parents, on 
Tune 3, 1889, Mr. Wilcox married Miss Elsie 
E., daughter of Isaiah and Mary Brown, who 
are mentioned in another portion of this vol- 
ume. Two children have been born to this 
union, Gordon and Clare, aged twelve and nine, 
respectively. Mr. Wilcox is a member of the 
K. T. ]\I..'and the A. F. & A. M. Politically, 
he is allied with the Republican party, but while 
he takes the interest every good citizen should 
in these matters, he is not specially active and 
never asks for personal preferment, although 
he has been pressed to serve on the school board, 
which he has done to the satisfaction of all. 

EDWARD S. CHASE. Among the 
wealthy citizens of Douglas county, there 
stands today none more popular and secure in 
the esteem of the people, than the well-to-do 
gentleman, whose name initiates this paragraph. 
He and his estimable wife have traveled the 
pilgrim way in this county for a good many 
years and have won hosts of friends in every 
walk of life, having demonstrated themselves 
to be upright, wise and faithful. 

Edward S. Chase was born in Salt Lake, 
Utah, on February 18. 1849, ^^is parents, 
Charles A. and Susan (Stearns) Chase, being 
natives of Maine and Vermont, respectively. 
In 1848, the father crossed the dreary plains 
but on account of ill health, stopped for two 
years in Salt Lake, where our subject first saw 
light. In 1851, they continued their journey on 
toward the mecca of the day, Oregon, and there 
settled. They were members of the Methodist 
clnuxh and good, substantial people. 

Our subject grew up amid the surroundings 
of the wild and undeveloped west, knowing 
from his birth the rugged existence of the pion- 
eer and frontiersman. He received his educa- 
tional training from the early schools of the 
Willamette valley and did much work to 
develop and bring out the resources of that 
coimtry where he remained until 1873. ^^ 
was engaged in the sawmill business after he 
arrived at manhood's estate and in the year 
last mentioned, removed his mill to the Palouse 
river in Whitman county, Washington. The 
mill furnished the lumber for the new buildings 
in that then pioneer section and also provided 
flour for the settlers even as far north as Spo- 
kane, which was then a small trading village. 
Later, Mr. Chase's father took charge of the 
operations of the mill and in 1886, our sub- 
ject came to Douglas county where he settled, 
taking a pre-emption and timber claim which 
are now well improved and producing abundant 
crops of the cereals. He also has a large herd 
of fine graded cattle and a good band of horses. 
Mr. Chase is a descendant of the family from 
whence came Salmon P. Chase, one of the able 
members of Lincoln's cabinet. He has one 
brother. Marshall C, and two sisters, Mrs. 
Emma Linn and Mrs. S. Miranda Stone- 

On November 26, 1891 at the farm home, 
Air. Chase married Mrs. Alice E., daughter 
of William and Jane J. (Kashow) Parsons, 
natives of Ohio and of Scotch and German ex- 
traction, respectively. Her parents crossed the 
plains in 1865 and were settlers in Oregon. 
Mrs. Chase was born in Indiana on September 
26, 1854, and has the following brothers and 
sisters, Thomas J-. Lewis H., George W., 
Charles D., and Mrs. Sarah E. Day. She was 
reared in the Baptist faith. Mr. and Mrs. 
Chase have no children of their own and are 
giving- their care and attention to the rearing of 
two orphans. 

It is also to be recorded that Mrs. Chase 
came to Douglas county in 1888, accompanied 
by her brother. She took government claims, 
pre-emption, homestead, and timber culture. 
and the family is now residing on her homestead. 
The labors of herself and her husband are 
richly deserving of the recompense of a good 
estate of eight hundred acres which they now 
own. In the hardships of the pioneer life, they 
have bdth shown fortitude and pluck. IMany 





times in the winter, the liard trips to Coulee City 
and Waterville, were attended with great suf- 
fering and trial owing to the deep snow and 

JOHN F. HUNT is a member of the firm 
of Hunt & Towne, liverymen at Waterville. 
They own a large and well appointed barn, 
which is stocked with plenty of first class 
horses and supplied with abundance of modern 
facilities. The firm are doing a fine business 
at the present time, being well known as men 
of energy and wisdom and use every care for 
the comfort, convenience, and safety of theTr 

John F. Hunt was born in Orange county, 
New York, on September 26, 1862. His par- 
ents, Hugh L. and Julia A. (Cortright) Hunt 
were natives of New York and are still living 
on the old homestead. The father was de- 
scended from Scotch ancestry and the mother 
comes from German extraction. Our subject 
received his education in New York and when 
twenty-one left the farm for the busy scenes of 
the great metropolis. For two years he was in 
the milk business in New York city and then 
went to Wisconsin and worked on a arm for 
two months. After that, he journeyed on to 
South Dakota where he was ill for half a year. 
He engaged in trading after that and bought 
a section of land which he rented. In the fall 
of i88g, he came to Ellensburg and a short 
time thereafter was at Orondo. After one 
winter at that point, he took up a location on 
the Entiat. remaining for three years. After 
that he returned to Orondo and took up grain 
buying. He also bought a tract of land and set 
out an orchard which is now one of the finest 
on the river, being all in bearing. It was in 
1902 that Mr. Hunt came to Waterville and 
bought out Geddis and McClellan, being asso- 
ciated with Mr. Towne in this deal. The}- 
secured with the barn about forty-two head of 
horses and eighteen rigs to which they have 
added materially since. Mr. Hunt sold his 
Orondo orchard and South Dakota farm and 
is now giving his entire attention to the livery 
business and his Big Bend ranches. He has 
one brother, William H., and one sister, Eliza- 
beth Russell. 

At Dartford, Wisconsin, on August 25, 
1893, Mr. Hunt married }iliss Emily Fordham, 

a native of England, as were also her parents. 
Her father resides at Dartford, and the mother 
is deceased. Mrs. Hunt came to this country 
when fourteen. She has four brothers^ 
Charles, William, John and David, and four 
sisters, Susan Tucker, Agnes INIalcolm, Lizzie 
Malcolm, and Maude. To Mr. and Mrs. Hunt 
two children ha\e been born. Hazel and 

Mr. Hunt is a Republican, although not 
especially active in this realm and is one of 
the substantial business men of the town. 

ALBERT L. ROGERS, of the firm of 
Rogers & Howe, leading general merchants of 
Waterville, is one of the men whose efforts 
have resulted in great good for the county of 
Douglas and who stands at the present time a 
real leader in commercial enterprises and cheer- 
fully participating in all movements originated 
for the advancement of the country. He is 
heavily interested in different lines of property, 
among which may be mentioned merchandis- 
ing, farming, irrigating and so forth. 

Albert L. Rogers was born in Waterville, 
Minnesota, on June 19, 1859, being the son of 
Caleb E. and Jennie (Shouts) Rogers. The 
father was born in Orleans, Massachusetts, 
coming from a very old and prominent colon- 
ial family, who first came to the new world on 
the Sparrowhawk shortly after the Mavflower 
had landed. The mother was born in New- 
York, descending from a Dutch family. Thejr 
both' are living in Waterville. Our subject 
was early trained in the public schools in ]\Iin- 
nesota and later completed his education in the 
Shattuck college of Faribault, taking a special 
course in civil eng-ineering. At the earl}- age 
of seventeen, Mr. Rogers entered the employ 
of the M. & St. L. railroad under his uncle. A. 
B. Rogers, chief engineer. He continued in 
railroad work, being with various companies 
until 1 88 1, when they went to Canada and 
joined the force of the Canadian Pacific. Mr. 
Rogers was the first white man to come 
through the Rogers pass in the Selkirks and he 
now possesses a fine watch presented by the 
directors for his meritorious service in this 
work. After the completion of the road he 
had charge of the mountain di\-ision for nearly 
a year. In 1886 Mr. Rogers entered the em- 



ploy of J. J. Hill of the Great Northern and 
made a reconnaissance of the country from 
Montana to the Sound, spending about two 
years in this work. After the completion of 
this labor, Mr. Rogers decided to get married 
and settle down to commercial life in partner- 
ship with his brother-in-law, M. B. Howe. 
They were the pioneer merchants of Water- 
ville', and have conducted a thriving business 
here since those days. In addition to this the 
firm has conducted a milling, banking and 
farming business with their merchandising. 
They have a one half interest in the Entiat 
Improvement Company, which owns one thou- 
sand acres of valuable land on the Entiat, wat- 
ered through a seven mile ditch. The company 
does a large business in raising stock and al- 
falfa. Mr. Rogers also promoted the tram- 
way to the Columbia river, made the su-rvey, 
and sold the terminals to the present owners. 

The brothers of our subject are mentioned 
as follows, John G., James E., Milton E. The 
•marriage of Mr. Rogers and Miss Mary N. 
Howe was celebrated at Faribault, Minnesota, 
on December 14, 1887. and to them two chil- 
dren have been born, Emily, aged fifteen, and 
Jennie, aged thirteen. 

Mr. Rogers is a member of the A. F. & A. 
M., the W. W., and the K. T. M. He has 
served at various times on the school board 
and is now chairman of the county central 
committee, having also been frequently dele- 
gate to the conventions. Mr. Rogers served 
as representative from his county to the 
World's fair and did excellent work in bring- 
ing to the notice of the public the resources 
and wealth of tlie Bio- Bend-country. 

ALBERT L. EURICH is a genial and 
obliging host of the Thomas Hotel in Water- 
ville which be has conducted since July, 1901, 
when he Ixiught the business and furnishing of 
the house. Mr. Eurich-is well adapted to the 
hotel business and makes a first class host, 
making many friends with the traveling public. 

Albert L. Enrich was born in Michigan on 
July 14, 1859. the son of John and Dora 
(Stryker) Enrich, the father was born in Ger- 
many, came to the United States in 1856. set- 
tling in Michigan and now lives at Cedar 
Springs in that place. The mother was born 

in Ohio and came from an old Pennsylvania 
family. She died in Michigan in 1902. Our 
subject was reared and educated in his native 
state and remained with his father until 1881, 
in which year he journeyed to Jamestown, 
North Dakota, continuing at various employ- 
ments for four years. It was 1885, that he 
came to Washington and engaged in hard 
work in the Cascades. Later, he spent a year 
in Seattle and the same length of time in Kit- 
titas county, whence he came to Waterville 
and after a time at general employments, 
rented land. He also operated a freight team 
and then in July, 1901, as stated above, bought 
the Thomas House. Mr. Enrich has .four 
brothers, William. Edward, John and Fred 
and one sister, Icelia Felice. At Waterville in 
1895 Mr. Enrich married Miss Rose Hardin, 
and to them one child was born, Lotta. In 
1900, Mr. Enrich married Mrs. Tedy Crounse, 
a daughter of Hinklejr McCarty. Of her form- 
er marriage, Mrs. Enrich has one daughter, 
Ethel Crounse. Mrs. Eurich has two sisters, 
Midge Groggins, and Delia Ford. 

Politically, our subject is allied with the 
Republicans and takes an interest that every 
good citizen should in that realm. 

SILAS A. PEARL resides about three 
miles northwest from Waterville, where he has 
a nice large estate which is devoted entirely to 
small grains and hay for his stock. Mr. Pearl 
handles from fifty to one hundred head of 
stock annually and owns over a half section of 
pasture land on the mountains. He also has 
a good residence in \\"aterville where the fam- 
ily live a part of the year. 

Silas A. Pearl was born in the Willamette 
valley, Oregon, on September 16, 1,856. His 
father, James Pearl was a native of Ohio and 
descended from English ancestors. He crossed 
the plains with ox teams to the Willamette 
valley in 1852, settling on a donation claim 
near Browns\-ille. Our subject was educated 
in the public schools of the valley and when 
the parents moved to town, operated the home 
place until 1886. That was the year in which 
he came to the vicinity of Waterville and took 
a portion of his present place as a homestead. 
Since that time, he has been actively engaged 
in general farming and stock raising and in 



addition to the cattle mentioned, he has a band 
of horses and about fifty hogs. Mr. Pearl also 
owns a threshing outfit and does threshing, for 
the valley. 

He has two brothers, Redman and Sher- 
man and two sisters, Florence M. Steward and 
Henrietta McDaniels. 

At the home of the bride in Halsey, Ore- 
gon, on JNIarch 4, 1882, Mr. Pearl married 
Miss Ella R. Raider, a native of Linn county, 
Oregon. Her father, Archibald Raider, came 
across the plains in 1846 with ox teams and is 
now deceased. He married Drusilla Summers, 
who still lives at Halsey. Mr. Pearl has one 
brother, Thomas and two sisters, Martha Irv- 
ing and Linnie Tyler. To Mr. and Mrs. Pearl 
three children have been born. Ethel I., aged 
twenty; Arlie A., aged eighteen, and Riley M., 
aged three. 

Mr. Pearl is a member of the I. O. F., and 
the W. W., while in political matters, he is a 
strong Republican, active and well informed. 
They are good people who have labored faith- 
fully and successfully to make Doug'las coun- 
ty what it is today, also gaining good compe- 
tence for themselves. 

ALBERT T. GREENE has probably been 
more intimately associated with Waterville 
and its immediate vicinity than any other man 
now residing here. He owns a half section of 
land northwest of the town and in addition to 
doing general farming and stock raising, he 
has been considerably interested in handling 
real estate, being now one of the prominent men 
of the county. 

Albert T. Greene was born in Tremont, 
'Illinois, on March 15,- 1854. While still an in- 
fant, he went to New Hampshire with his 
mother and there received his education from 
the public schools. When thirteen he began 
the carpenter trade and later studied law, 
not, however, with the intention of prac- 
ticing. In the fall of 1878 he came to 
the Pacific coast via the Isthmus and 
after some time spent in the vicinity 
of Santa Barbara, California, came to the 
Willamette valley, Oregon. After three years 
of carpentry and farm work there, he came to 
the Big Bend, then on -through to Clark's Fork, 
Idaho. Returning to Davenport, he did car- 
penter work until March 23, 1885, wdien he 

came to where Waterville now stands and pur- 
chased a squatter's right from Stephen Boyce. 
The idea of founding a town in the west had 
been a picture in the mind of Mr. Greene from 
his boyhood days and when by act of legisla- 
ture, Douglas county was formed, he saw the 
opportunity. The county seat was located at 
Okanogan, some six miles east of Waterville. 
but it was unsatisfactory on account of lack of 
water. So Mr. Greene in company with J. 
M. Snow, laid out a town site of forty acres of 
the former's farm. Mr. Greene had a very ex- 
cellent well from which many people hauled 
water for miles in every direction and it seemed 
very appropriate to call the place Waterville. 
In 1886, the new town entered the race for the 
county seat and after a hot contest, it was 
awarded the prize. A small wooden structure 
had been built in Waterville to which the coun- 
ty records were moved and the rent of which 
Mr. J. M. Snow paid for two years. Later 
Mr. Greene devoted a site and building for 
the county court house. In due time, he ac- 
quired title to the other one hundred and twen- 
ty of his quarter section and later gained a 
half section northwest from Waterville, where 
he lives at the present time. During the panic 
of 1893, Mr. Greene suffered heavy financial 
loss but was enabled to retain his land and is 
now again one of the prosperous men of the 
section. He has always been very active in 
building up the country and especially labor- 
ing for better educational facilities. He is 
president of the board at Waterville and a live 
supporter of good schools. 

On November 6, 1886, near Davenport, 
Mr. Greene married Miss Florence A., daugh- 
ter of George P. and Sarah J. (Dotson) Tur- 
ner, and to them one child, Albert D., has been 
born. Mrs. Greene was born in Lucas coun- 
ty, Iowa. Her father was a native of London, 
England, and her mother of Pennsylvania. 
The mother now lives at Davenport, Wash- 
ington, the father having died in 1894. Mr. 
Greene is a member of the I. O. O. F., having 
passed all the chairs in that order. On Jan- 
uary 30, 1898, Mrs. Greene was called away 
by death. 

SOLOMON LEIGHTON resides three 
miles west from Baird, Washington. He was 
born in Hamilton county, Ohio, on October 


13, 1845, the son of John C. and Alcesta 
(Miller) Leighton, natives of Ohio also. In 
1855, the family moved to Stark county, Illi- 
nois, where our subject was reared and edu- 
cated in the public schools. He made his home 
there until his thirty-seventh year, then jour- 
neyed west to Iowa where he remained until 
1889. In that year, he came direct to his pres- 
ent place and took a homestead of one hundred 
and sixty acres. He has the same well im- 
proved and in a high state of cultivation, hav- 
ing made a very comfortable home here. Mr. 
Leighton is one of the thrifty and progressive 
men of Douglas county and has so conducted 
himself that he has not only won success in 
financial matters but has the esteem, confidence 
and good will of all who know him. He had 
two brothers, George W., a soldier in the Civil 
war who died during his term of enlistment 
and Albert, also deceased. He has one sister, 
Mrs. Eliza J. Douglas, now residing in 

In 1869, Mr. Leighton married Miss Sarah 
E. Snell, a native of Ohio and the daughter of 

William and Snell also natives of the 

same state. She has one brother, Alfred, now 
living in Nebraska and one sister, Alvoise 
Hunter, residing in Iowa. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Leighton, four sons have been born, William 
E., in 1869; Arthur, in 1870; Roley, in 1875, 
and John C, in 1880. Mr. Leighton has se- 
cured what property he owns, since coming to 
the Big Bend country through his own labors 
and he is to be rated as one of the capaMe 
and substantial men of Douglas county. 

HORATIO N. WILCOX is one of the 
earliest settlers in the vicinity of Waterville, 
and he has labored steadily here since the days 
of pioneering. He is now possessed of one 
thousand acres of fertile soil and has most of 
it rented. He personally oversees two hun- 
dred acres adjoining the town of Waterville 
and has shown himself to be one of the most 
skillful farmers in this section. Mr. Wilcox 
had an exhil^it at the New Orleans exposition 
and received awards for the same. The winter 
of 18S3-4 was the first one spent by Mr. Wil- 
cox in the Big Bend country and he was asso- 
ciated then with ]\Ir. C. C. May at Davenport. 
It was June, 1883. that he came to where 

Waterville now stands, and selected his present 
home. Stephen Boyce was his companion and 
he took the land where Waterville now stands. 

Horatio N. Wilcox was born in Iowa, on 
October 3, 1853, the son of Harmon and Polly 
A. (Perry) Wilcox, natives of New York and 
Kentucky, respectively. The father died in 
Kansas in 1886. The mother was from a 
prominent southern family and still lives in the 
old Kansas home. 

The family moved to a location about sixty 
miles south from Kansas City, in i860, and 
there endured, all through the war, the hor- 
rors of border ruffianism. The father tried 
several times to enlist but was refused on ac- 
count of physical disability. Our subject was 
reared in the Kansas home and educated in the 
log cabin school house, remaining with his fa- 
ther until twenty-one. Then he returned to- 
Iowa and worked out for a time, subsequently 
journeying to the Sacramento valley in Cali- 
fornia. From 1878 to 1883 he lived there and 
then came to Spokane and on to his present 
home as has been narrated. For twenty years, 
Mr. Wilcox has continued here and has been 
one of the substantial and leading men of the 
community. He has served several terms as 
county commissioner and one term as treas- 
urer. He always was ahead of his ticket and 
while he formerly was allied with Republican- 
ism, he is now a firm Democrat. Mr. Wilcox 
has four brothers, Harmon, Perry, Otis, and 
Columbus, also has two sisters, Julia Williams 
and Olive Stoker. , 

On January 20, 1893, ^t Waterville, Mr. 
Wilcox married Miss Eva E. Brown, a native 
of Wisconsin. Her parents are Isaiah and 
Marietta (Byers) Brown, natives of Ohio and 
Pennsylvania, respectively. Mrs. Wilcox has 
two brothers and two sisters, George, Frank, 
Elsie Wilcox, and Cora. One son has been 
born to this marriage, George H. -Mr. Wilcox 
is a member of the K. T. M. 

DONALD UROUHART is one of the 
busiest men who own interests in Douglas 
county. His career reads like a fairy tale 
owing to the rapidity of his movements and 
the abundant success that has attended him in 
all his efforts. Not that his life has been free 
from hardships and obstacles, for it will be 



seen that lie has met the rugged side of busi- 
ness acti\-ity, but the energy and sagacity that 
ha\-e led him to surmount that which others 
would have gix-en up to stand all the more 
prominent in the light of prosperity that he 
has won. 

Donald Urquhart was born in Wevis, 
Scotland, on November 12, 1853, being the son 
of Ducan and Catherine (Mcintosh) Urqu- 
hart, both natives of Wevis. The schools of 
his native place furnished the educational 
training for Donald and he grew to young 
manhood surrounded by salutary home influ- 
ences and amid the rugged hills of Scotia's 
historic land. During the portions of the year 
when not occupied with his studies, he was as- 
sisting his father in his work as stock fancier. 
Soon after his eighteenth birthday, young 
Urquhart determined to bid farewell to the 
native heath and seek his fortune in the new 
world where opportunities were more in ac- 
cord with his progressive spirit. On March 
13, 1871, he first set foot on American soil. 
New York being- the gate of reception, whence 
he went soon to his brother's home in Fayette, 
Upper Michigan. This brother, Leo, had 
come to America some time previous to this. 
Our subject soon secured employment in the 
machine shop of the Jackson Iron Company, 
where he wrought for two years." The, next 
move was to wend his way to the Golden Gate 
and for a time on the Pacific slope he was 
numbered with the sheep herders, after which 
experience, we see him in Portland in the 
Web-Foot State. Here he joined his brother 
and after several months they went to Silver 
City, Idaho, Donald soon being installed as 
engineer in the coal mines there. We next 
find him in Boise, again in the sheep business 
whence he went to Carson City, Nevada and 
from there to Portland. He was then en- 
gaged by the O. S. N. Co. in their steamboat- 
ing work, and he gained the position of chief 
engineer, remaining six years with this com- 
pany. Mr. Urquhart still holds his marine 
engineer's license. Immediately subsequent to 
this extended service, Mr. Urf|uhart, in com- 
pany with his two brothers. Alexander and 
George, came to Douglas county and located 
on Crab creek, where they purchased a stock 
ranch and a large band of sheep. This venture 
was a success from the incejMion as also were 
the other enterprises that Mr. Urquhart had 

in tow. In company with his brother, Alex- 
ander, our subject had a large ranch in Oregon, 
near the John Day river. A second cousin of 
the Urquhart boys was at this ranch and one 
day they were in bathing and getting beyond 
his depth he was in danger of drowning, when 
Alexander regardless of his own safety in the 
treacherous rapids, rushed to the rescue. The 
rushing water was too much, even for that 
young man's skill and strength, for he was 
drawn under and they were both drowned. 
Our subject hurried to the scene and for ten 
days and nights, he dragged the river with 
others and finally, when all were about ready 
to abandon the search, being worn almost to 
helplessness, they were rewarded by finding 
the todies. This was a severe blow to Mr. 
Urquhart. Alexander was his twin brother 
and they had always pulled together and were 
partners in almost every venture. Nine years 
since, our subject sold his Crab creek interests 
to his brother, George, although he still owns 
much property in Douglas county. In 1897, 
Mr. Urquhart embarked in the retail and 
wholesale butcher business in Spokane with his 
brother, under the firm name of Urquhart 
Brothers. They did well until the fire de- 
stroyed their entire business and entailed heavy 
losses. Then the}- withdrew from that busi- 
ness. In 1901, Mr. Urquhart was one of the 
organizers of the State Bank in Wilsoncreek, 
Douglas county and is president of that insti- 
tution at this time. The bank was incorporated 
for twenty-five thousand dollars and is doing 
a large business at this time. On December 16, 
1903, Mr. Urquhart organized the Farmers 
and Mechanics Bank of Spokane and at the 
present time is launching that promising 
financial institution. The place of business is 
on the corner of North Monroe and Broadway 
and the bank starts out with a fine outlook. 
Mr. Urquhart is also president of the Farmers' 
Grain & Supply Company. He is giving his 
personal attention to the Farmers & Mechanics 
Bank and will spend considerable time in Spo- 
kane. Mr. Urquhart still personally manages 
his other large interests in Douglas county and 
in other sections, always manifesting that keen 
discrimination and foresight that always char- 
acterize the truly successful financier. 

Mr. Urquhart was married to Miss Abbey 

In political matters. ]Mr. Urquhart is allied 



with the Repubhcans and he ahvays manifests 
a keen interest in the campaigns, being a pro- 
gressive man and a hard worker for the good 
of the community and the general advance- 

about four miles south from Farmer postoffice. 
He owns there one-half section of choice wheat 
land which is well clutivated and improved. 
The homestead taken was on homestead and 
pre-emption rights in 1889 and since then has 
been the home of Mr. Chirstensen. When he 
settled here, he was practically without means 
and was obliged to leave his home and family 
during portions of the year and work in the 
harvest fields of the older settled portions of 
the state. By hard labor and much self denial, 
Mr. Christensen finally succeeded in making 
his home place productive and each year added 
more of the prairie to the cultivated portions 
until the whole farm was producing abundant 
crops of wheat. He has become very prosperous 
since, owing to his careful management of the 
farm and he is one of the well-to-do citizens 
of Douglas county. 

Soran C. Christensen was born in the 
northern part of Denmark on February 18, 
1842. His parents were Christian and Keasken 
(Soranson) Peterson, natives of Denmark. 
The educational training of our subject was 
secured in the common schools of his native 
land during the first fourteen years of his life, 
then he devoted his entire time to the assistance 
nf his father on the home farm until he was 
twenty-two years of age. At that time he 
joined the Danish army and sen'cd for about 
four years, being a member of the royal guard 
which is considered a great honor in that coun- 
try. The royal guard is quartered adjacent to 
the King's palace and is supposed to be the 
flower of the Danish army. In 1875, voung 
Christensen determined to try his fortune in 
the New World, consequently he crossed the 
ocean and made his way to Menard county, 
Illinois. He was engaged in general work 
there for sometime, then did contracting on 
drainage canals until 1889. In which year he 
came west and after due investigation settled 
in Douglas county where we now find him. 
Mr. Christensen is one of the pioneers of the 
county and is to be classed as a real builder of 

Douglas county. He always takes a keen in- 
terest in political matters and educational af- 
fairs and has given of his time to serve upon 
the school board. 

In Menard county, Illinois, on November 
14, 1876, Mr. Christensen married ]Mary B. 
Peterson. She was born in Denmark on Sep- 
tember 8, 1854, and died in Douglas county on 
July 5, 1890. To this marriage the following 
named children were born, Christena M., in 
Illinois, on March 14, 1878; Sena C, in Illi- 
nois, on August 28, 1879, now the wife of Paul 
Matson; Robert P., born on June 28, 1883; 
Henry R., born on November 21, 1885 and 
Arthur C, born on May 28, 1888. 

Mr.. Christensen is a member of the 
Lutheran church and a firm supporter of the 
faith. He is a genial, upright gentleman and 
is now favored with a goodly competence for 
the latter years of his life which comes as a 
reward for his industry and thrift. 

WILLIAM H. ELI is one of Douglas 
county's substantial farmers and dwells about 
seven miles southeast from Douglas. He has 
a good property and has shown marked in- 
dustry and thrift in his lalxirs here for the last 
fifteen years. This residence entitles him to 
be classed with the pioneers who have made 
this Big Bend countn- the choicest region of 
the west ; and brought here, where once dwelt 
the coyote and the rattlesnake, the comforts 
of civilization and the happy times of pros- 
perity. William H. Eli has had a good portion 
in this excellent work and has done his share 
well. He is a native of Connecticut, being born 
in Tolland county, on October 19. 1849. His 
parents, George and Sarah A. (Roe) Eli, were 
natives of England and came to the United 
States in the early 'forties. The father fol- 
lowed mining. After spending- the usual time 
in the common schools, while also portions of 
the year were used in fann work, William H. 
was fitted for the more responsible duties of 
life and in 1870, he left the parental roof. The 
ne.xt two years were spent in Newburg, Ohio, 
in work at the barber trade. Then came a 
period of travel over the western states, and 
two years later he returned again to Newburg. 
Two years were spent there and then three' in 
his old home. After that, Mr. Eli went to 



Kansas and Missouri and wrought in the coal 
mines. He was in all the leading mines in those 
states and finally came to Washington. For a 
time he worked in the coal mines of King coun- 
ty then was in Yakima before the railroad was 
put through. After that, Mr. Eli was employed 
in the mines in Boise and Silver City, Idaho, 
and in the rush was in the Coeur, d'Alenes. 
Finally, in 1890, he quit the mines, and came 
to the Big Bend country. He selected a home- 
stead and pre-emption and secured title to a 
half section of good land. To the improve- 
ment and development of this he has given 
his attention since that time. He has gained 
a good amount of property and is blessed with 
a fine compentence for the balance of his 
natural life. 

Mr. Eli has the following named brothers 
and sisters, George A., in Leavenworth; 
Robert A., mining in Okanogan county ; John 
T., at Hanna, Wyoming: J\Irs. Lizzie Eblen, 
in Missouri ; and Mrs. Sarah Pollster, at 
Hanna, Wyoming. Mr. Eli has many friends 
and his walk in life has been such that he merits 
and receives the respect and esteem of all who 
may have the pleasure of his acquaintance. 

the well known men of Douglas county and has 
gained a host of friends since coming here. 
His geniality, uprightness and industry have 
given him a standing of the best, as well as 
provided a goodly competence in property. He 
is a native of Indiana, being born in Madison, 
JefTerson county, on December 31, 1862, the 
son of Clelland and Laura (Key t) Cunningham. 
The mother dwells in Los Angeles, California. 
The father was captain of Company L, in the 
Fourth Indiana Volunteer Cavalry, and is now 
deceased. James attended the common schools 
early in life then finished his education in Han- 
over college. In 1883, he determined to come 
west and of all the alluring places, Washing- 
ton seemed the Ijest and accordingly he came 
hither. He soon selected a homestead at the 
foot of Badger mountain and engaged in farm- 
ing. Later he went to the flat where Ephrata 
is now built and engaged in raising stock. He 
now has a choice farm three miles east from 
Farmer which is well improved and a com- 
fortable rural abode. In addition to handling 

his stock, and overseeing his farm, Mr. Cun- 
ningham also has the contract of carrying the 
United States mail from Coulee City to Water- 
ville, a distance of forty-five miles. He also 
keeps a road house for the accommodation of 
passengers and travelers. Mr. Cunningham has 
displayed excellent ability in his labors and in 
addition to being one of the old pioneers, he 
is to be accredited with being one of the thrifty 
and successful men of means, who has accumu- 
lated his holding by a wise use of the re- 
sources of the country. 

At Waterville, ^Vashington, on December 
25, 1890, occurred the marriage of Mr. Cun- 
ningham and Miss Ella Owens, only child of 
Edward and Amanda (Dodson) Owens, na- 
tives of Ohio and Linn county, Oregon, re- 
spectively. The father was a pioneer in Ore- 
gon as well as in Douglas county. Mrs. Cun- 
ningham was born in Silver City, Idaho, on 
June 4, 1873. To this worthy couple there 
have been born five children, named as fol- 
lows; Cleland T., on November 17, 1891 ; Ed- 
ward O., March 16, 1893; Margaret L., May 
15, 1895; Henry J., July 31, 1896; and Will- 
iam K., on July 30, 1898. They were all born 
in Coulee City. Mr. Cunningham is a mem- 
ber of the A. O. U. W. and always takes a 
great interest in public measures and whatever 
is for the welfare of the country. 

]\IARK NOBLE resides just west from 
Baird and has one of the choicest estates in 
Washington. It is said that Mr. Noble dis- 
plays the best skill, judging from results ob- 
tained, of any farmer in the country. Surely 
it may be said, that he has a model farm and 
one in which a pardonable pride can be taken. 

Mark Noble was born in Darby, England, 
on May 9, 1852, the son of Mark and Mary 
(Graves) Noble, also natives of England. 
The father was a miner and later came to the 
United States with his family and made settle- 
ment in Ohio. Later he removed to Iowa and 
there remained until his death. Our subject 
was educated in the parochial schools of the 
Episcopal church in England and in 1870 came 
to the United States. His younger brother 
came with him and they stopped for a time at 
Letona, Ohio, and wrought in the iron and 
coal mines. Several years were thus spent 


in different sections of that state and Pennsyl- 
vania, when Mr. Noble secured a team and 
wagon and traveled to Centerville, Iowa. In 
1S73, he went to Kansas, but was eaten out by 
grasshoppers and returned to Iowa. Previous 
to this return, however, he spent some time 
in Colorado hunting buffalo. He opened a 
coal mine in Adams county, Iowa, and operated 
it for fourteen years. Then he purchased a 
farm ten miles out from Creston, Iowa, and 
soon thereafter a cyclone tore all the buildings 
to pieces. Again we find Mr. Noble in Kan- 
sas, after that in Iowa, and later in Missouri 
as manager of the Santa Fe coal mines. Finally 
he turned his face to the west and landed in 
Washington. Stopping a time in Rockford, 
he then came to Spokane and did various work 
until he located in Douglas county, where he 
lives now. In 1892, he brought his family 
here and since then he has given ever}' effort 
to make his farm one of the best to be had. 
In the winters he would go to Roslyn to earn 
money in the coal mines to continue his im- 
provement. The first winter he lost all his 
horses and this was a great set back as it de- 
layed him more than a year. However, Mr. 
Noble was possessed of the grit that never 
gives up and he continued although the odds 
were all against him. The result is that today 
he has a section and one-half of choice wheat 
land, the best of improvements, plenty of cat- 
tle and horses and everything that makes com- 
fortable and valuable a first class Washing- 
ton ranch. He is one of the eminently suc- 
cessful men of the entire Big Bend counrry. 
Mr. Noble has the following brothers and sis- 
ters, Samuel, Thomas, Mrs. Elizabeth Maybe, 
Mrs. Mary A. Warr, Mrs. Rose Adams, and 
Mrs. Jemima Lynam. 

The marriage of Mr. Noble and Miss Eliza- 
beth A. Barrow occurred at Red Oak, Iowa, 
■on September 10, 1873. Mrs. Noble is the 
daughter of Richard and Elizabeth Barrow, 
natives of England, and she was born in Lan- 
castershire, England, on January 29, 1856. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Noble, the following named chil- 
dren have been born; Emma W., the wife of 
Robert G. Eraser, living in Spokane; Harriett 
L., wife of R. Leighton, living near by; 
Minnie, wife of L. McDonald, near Baird; 
Mark C. ; Daisy: Elizabeth A.; Jessa; Myrtle 
B.. and George S. The last named died in 
Baird, in 1899. Mr. and Mrs. Noble are both 

members of the Episcopalian church and are 
esteemed people. Mr. Noble constructed all 
the irrigation ditches on the large Blythe ranch. 

JAMES F. POPPLE, better known as 
Uncle Jim Popple, resides about two miles 
northwest from Wilsoncreek. He was born in 
Allegany county, New York, on June 13, 1836, 
in what he describes as one of the most "God 
forsaken spots on the map of New York." 
His father, Billings Popple, was born in New 
Jersey, in 1810, the son of Billings Popple. 
The mother of our subject was Sarah Ann 
(McCray) Popple. She was born in New 
Jersey, in 1806, the daughter of Samuel Mc- 
Cray. James was the second of five chil- 
dren, named as follows : George, who died at 
Almira sometime since; Lester, residing at 
Odessa; Alonzo, who ,died in Cairo, Illinois, 
in 1863, being a soldier in the Eighth Minne- 
sota Volunteer Infantry; Susan A., who died 
at Odessa, Lincoln county, in 1891. In speak- 
ing of his education, Mr. Popple says ; "My 
education was strictly attended to. I was 
started to school at five years of age and con- 
tinued regularily for about three months of 
each year. My task was to learn by l>eart a 
page of something in the front of the spelling 
book. When I had that learned the term was 
out. I never knew at that time what it was 
and do not yet. Howe\'er, I expect sometime 
to go back and hunt up the old speller and learn 
what it was." When fourteen, James was 
hired to a farmer living near by, for four bush- 
els of wheat per month. Two years later, his 
father died and he then began to assist his 
mother in the support of the family. When 
seven or eight years of age, Mr. Popple dis- 
tinctly remembers the first matches that were 
brought out. Previous to that, it was a very 
common thing for the children to run to the 
neighbors to get fire. At the time the first 
matches appeared, the first cook stoves were 
manufactured. When twenty years of age, 
Mr. Popple came to Minnesota, his oldest 
brother having come three years previous. Six 
months after he arrived his mother and the bal- 
ance of the family came and they located at the 
mouth of the Piatt river in Morrison county, 
one hundred miles north from St. Paul. For 
eleven years, Mr. Popple was on the spring 



drives and actively engaged in tlie lumber 
woods in winter. In speaking of that country, 
Mr. Popple remarks "There were two seasons 
■only, one is the mosquito and the other the 
winter." However, he remained there until 
1888 and then journeyed west with his horses 
and cattle to join his brother who was in the 
sheep business on Crab Creek. The first winter 
was fine but the second winter the thermometer 
ranged forty degrees below zero and the stock 
had to be fed for one hundred and twenty days. 
Mr. Popple paid as high as twenty-five dollars 
per ton for hay and hauled it seven miles to 
keep the stock from starving. He took a ranch 
at the mouth of Sylvan lake and farmed it for 
two seasons then traded it for a band of seventy 
horses. He put these on the range in the care 
of his brother, who attended them until his 
death, in 1894. Since then, Mr. Popple has 
given his attention to them and now has some 
of the finest horses in the entire Big Bend coun- 
try. In addition to his home place, he leases 
two thousand acres south of Wilsoncreek which 
was devoted to pasture. Mr. Popple is well 
and favorably known all over this country and 
has many friends. He has never seen fit to 
discard the joys of the celibatarian for the un- 
certain seas of matrimony. 

JOHN A. SEMRO is at the present time 
•operating a first class hotel in Wilsoncreek. 
Although not classed as one of the earliest 
pioneers of the Big Bend country, still, Mr. 
Semro has manifested such energy and zeal in 
the building up of the country since coming 
that he is entitled to the rank with the leading 
citizens of Douglas county. He was born in 
West Prussia. Germany, on March i, 1855, 
the son of David and Henrietta (Reston) 
Semro, also natives of Prussia. His education 
■was received in his native land and there he 
resided until 1882, when he shipped for the 
United States, landing in Brooklyn. After a 
short service there, he came west to Milwaukee 
and did general work in that city for some time. 
Then he went to Ripon. ^^'isc.1nsin. and en- 
gaged in farming. Two years later, he jour- 
neyed to Redwood county, Minnesota, and after 
two years in general work, he bought a farm. 
That' was his home until 1901 when he sold 
and came to Washington. He first settled on 

a ranch near Wilsoncreek which he later sold. 
After that, he moved to Wilsoncreek and 
bought a hotel which he is now operating. In 
addition to this, he has erected a fine dwelling 
house and he also owns other property. He has 
improved the hotel until it is now a very pleas- 
ant and convenient stopping place and Mr. 
Semro has the happy faculty of making his 
guests comfortable and entirely at home. Mr. 
Semro has one brother, Julius, who also lives 
in Douglas. 

In Green Lake county, Wisconsin, in No- 
vember, 1883, Mr. Semro married Miss Ida 
Schmidlock, who was born in Green Lake 
county, in 1866. To this union nine children 
have been born, named as follows, Sarah, Ar- 
thur, Agnes, Harrison, Augusta, Alice, Lenora, 
Grace and Ralph. Mr. Semro is a man of re- 
liability and integrity and has won many 
friends since coming here. He keeps a fine 
hotel and is popular with the traveling public. 

YOUNG BROTHERS is the style of a 
mercantile house in Stratford. The members 
of the firm are Louis C. and Jacob T. Young. 
They were the promoters of Stratford and own 
the only general merchandise store in the place. 
They carry a complete stock of goods wisely 
selected for the needs of the people of this sec- 
tion and also handle implements and other 
goods. While they are pioneers of this county 
they have not been long in this line of business 
which now occupies them, still they have al- 
ready a fine patronage and are to be numbered 
with' the leading merchants of the southern 
part of Douglas county. 

Jacob T. Young was born in \\'inneshiek 
county, Iowa, on June 4, 1861, while Louis C. 
Young was born in the same county on July 
4, 1867. Their parents are Charles F. and 
Margaret (Gezel!) Young, natives of Ger- 
many and Pennsylvania, respectively. The 
mother died in Iowa. The father came to the 
United States when young and settled as one 
of the pioneers of Iowa. His death occurred 
at Hartline. The brothers were educated in 
the common schools of their native county and 
when 1 88 1 came, they went on to Nebraska, 
where they traveled about and worked on the 
railroads. The next year they made their way 
to Idaho and in 1883, they came to Washing- 



ton. They first made settlement in the Cah- 
fornia community, nine miles north from where 
Hartline now stands. In 1S87, they settled in 
the Grand Coulee at the head of Blue Lake, in 
the section known as the "Park." They soon 
established a cattle ranch and improved the 
place in good shape. They stocked the lake 
with fish and made their place both valuable 
and attractive. Here they raised stock until 
June 19, 1902, when they sold the entire prop- 
erty to James H. Smith, the present owner. 
The following September, the Young Brothers 
opened a general merchandise store in Strat- 
ford, having previously purchased the land 
here and laid out a townsite. They have built 
up the place and are enterprising and public 
minded business men. 

Our subjects have the following brothers 
and sisters. Phillip J., Charles W., Adolph H., 
William H., j\Irs. Caroline Blumerader, Airs. 
Louisa Henning, Mrs. Christian Hess, and 
Mrs. Kate Rudolph. 

The marriage of Jacob T. Young and Miss 
Violet E. Shaw occurred at Waterville, in 1899 
and to them two children have been born -. 
Charles F.. at the Park, on June 22, 1900; 
and Merrill M., at Stratford, on March 9, 
1903. Mrs. Violet Young was born in Wis- 
consin, in 1872. At Coulee City, in 1897, Mr. 
Louis C. Young married Miss Jessie McClel- 
lan, the daughter of William and Lucy Mc- 
Clellan, natives of Iowa, where also Mrs. 
Young was born. To this union two children 
have been born, Violet M., at the Park, on 
May 22, 1898, and Vernie E., also at the Park, 
June 21, 1900. The Lutheran church appeals 
more strongly in its tenets and doctrines to our 
subjects, although they do not belong to any 

HENRY AIITCHELL, M. D., is well 
known all over Douglas county and rightly, 
too, for he has done a good work here and is 
to-day enjoying the competence which his la- 
bors and wisdom have provided. He owns a 
beautiful home in Wilsoncreek, the same being 
tastily furnished and surrounded with hand- 
some grounds. The doctor takes especial pride 
in some excellent fruit trees which he has 
raised and which are first class, while Mrs. Mit- 
chell has some of the finest Plvmouth Rock 

chickens to be found in this section of the coun- 
try. They are happy people and have won 
hosts of friends from all parts of the country. 

Henry Mitchell was born in Obion county, 
Tennessee, on March 29, 1849, the son of Rev. 
William R. and Mehala (Thompson) Mitchell, 
natives of North Carolina. The father was 
a minister of the Primitive Baptist denomina- 
tion. Henry was trained in the district schools 
of Linn and Macon counties, Missouri, whither 
his father had removed, and then completed a 
course in Kirksville Normal school. At the age 
of twenty-three, he began the study of medi- 
cine under the tuition of Dr. S. R. Cox, of New 
Boston, Missouri, and there continued steadily 
for six years, taking an extended course of 
reading. Then he matriculated in the Col- 
lege of Physicians and Surgeons in Keokuk, 
Iowa, graduating in the class of 1878. Fie 
immediately returned to New Boston, Missouri, 
and took up his profession. He w'as favored 
with a large practice, owing to his skill and suc- 
cess, but the ordeal of attending to such an ex- 
tensive labor wore on his health and he broke 
down. Being assured that he must give up his 
medical labors, he determined to come west and 
take up the stock business. Accordingly, he 
made his way to \\'ashington and chose a place 
in Douglas county for the start. Ritzville, 
fortj'-five miles away, was his nearest post of- 
fice, then Coulee City was established in 1890, 
and finally, in 1894, an office was located at 
Wilsoncreek. The doctor had discarded his 
medicine case, but as the people became aware 
that a skillful physician and surgeon was in 
their midst he had calls from every quarter 
and as they came more and more, as the coun- 
try settled, he was obliged to respond to the 
suffering sick. However, the salubrious and 
health giving climate had wiped out his sick- 
ness and given him a stock of vitality sufficient 
to again take up the practice, and so Dr. Mit- 
chell could not say no. Accordingly, he was 
obliged to relax his grasp of the stock business 
and is now entirely engaged in the medical 
work. His success is what has won for him a 
marked favor among- the people and Dr. Mit- 
chell has the confidence and esteem of all who 
know him. His long and careful study coupled 
with an adaptiblity for this line of investigation 
and the doctor's care to keep abreast of the 
progressing science of medicine together with 
his conscientiousness in handling every case to 



the best advantage combine to give the success 
which is so envied. 

Dr. Mitchell has two brothers and two sis- 
ters, John F., Thomas C, Mrs. Nancy A. Todd, 
and Mrs. Mary E. Barbee. His marriage oc- 
cured in Linn county, Missouri, in 1879, 
March 18, when Miss Julia M. Stone betame 
his bride. Her parents, Granville H. and Mary 
E. (Bailey) Stone, were natives of Virginia 
and Missouri, respectively. She was born in 
Linn county, Missouri, on January 27, 1861. 
Four children have been born to them, but all 
died in infancy. They adopted one son, Jo- 
seph Hensley Mitchell, who is now living in 
Leavenworth, Washington. The doctor is a 
member of the M. W. A., the Foresters and the 
Royal Neighbors. He is medical examiner for 
all the old line insurance companies which do 
business in his section and is also examiner for 
the fraternal societies to which he belongs. 

PHILO E. SUMMERS is one of the stir- 
ring stockmen of Douglas county and has made 
a good success in this line of business. He 
dwells about ten miles north from Ephrata, 
where his headquarters are and where he has 
land which produces the hay necessary for his 
herds. He has had large experience in the 
stock business in various sections of the west 
and is a man well posted in all that pertains to 
this business. He is a native of the Occident, 
being born in Benton county, Oregon, on Sep- 
tember 6, 1858, the son of Eli and Rhoda 
(King) Summers, natives of Ohio and Mis- 
souri, respectively. They now reside in Ore- 
gon, and crossed the plains in very early days 
with ox teams. Philo attended the common 
schools until fourteen then gave his attention 
almost exclusively to handling stock for his 
father until 1883. Then he went to eastern 
Oregon, and there engaged in the horse busi- 
ness for himself. For eight years he followed 
this line and in 1889 made a visit to Douglas 
county, Washington. Returning to Oregon, 
he disposed of his interests, and in April, 1892, 
he came hither to settle. He selected his pres- 
ent place as a homestead and at once began im- 
provements. During the early years of his res- 
idence here he was in the employ of T. S. 
Blythe and J. F. Beazley. After this he went 
to the Yakima countrv and for two years \\as 

engaged with Bounds & Meyers in the stock 
business. Then he returned to his home in 
Douglas county and at once began raising stock 
for himself. He has now some fine graded 
herds as well as excellent well bred horses, 
among which are some of the choicest animals 
on the range, and Mr. Summers shows good 
skill in handling his business. His brand is 
I T on the left hip of the horses and I T on the 
right hip of the cattle. 

Mr. Summers has two brothers, Daniel D., 
who dwells at Lexington, Morrow county, Ore- 
gon, and Otto A., living near the same place. 
Mr. Summers was raised under the influence 
of the Methodist church but does not belong 
to any denomination. He is interested in po- 
litical matters and the general progress of the 
county and always is found on the side of all 

THOMAS J. FERGUSON lives at Eph- 
rata and devotes his attention to handling stock 
and raising hay. He is a man whose experience 
extends over many years of western life and 
who has gained a liberal fund of knowledge 
from actual contact with the ways and man- 
ners of many men in many different lines. He 
is to be classed as one of the pioneers of Doug- 
las county and is one of the real builders of this 
political division. His birth occurred in the 
vcinity of Owensburg, Greene county, Indiana, 
on Christmas day, 1832, and his parents are 
James and Elizabeth (Riddle) Ferguson, na- 
tives of Virginia. Like the children of other 
pioneers, our subject was educated in the log 
cabin school houses of those early communi- 
ties and he well remembers the rude benches 
and the puncheon floors. However, he made 
the best of his opportunities and was soon well 
trained in the common branches. During the 
portions of the year when not at school, he was 
laboring with his father on the farm. This 
continued until 1852, when, being twenty years 
of age, he determined to come west. His first 
journey was to southwestern Missouri, and 
after one year there, he joined a train bound 
for California, being in company with an elder 
brother. In due time they landed in Tehama 
county and in the vicinity of Red Bluffs, he 
went to farming. For a decade, he continued 
in this line, doing well. Then he migrated to 
Nevada, and there selected a location on the 



Humboldt river and planted a large acreage to 
potatoes. Owing to various causes, he lost 
the entire crop and this was the means of 
changing his career for a time, at least. He 
abandoned the farm and gave attention to min- 
ing and freighting. He also prospected some 
and shortly made his way to Boise, Idaho. 
Here he continued the occupations he had been 
engaged in and also did freighting for the 
Central Pacific railway. Next we see him in 
Linn county. Oregon, where he went back to 
farming again. Two years later he located in 
Avhat is now Gilliam county, Oregon, and took 
np wool growing. He operated on an extensive 
scale there until 1889, when he sold out and 
came to his present location. He purchased 
seven hundred and twenty acres from the rail- 
road company and at once went to raising stock. 
Later years he has sold his stock and is devot- 
ing himself to raising hay. He has over two 
hundred acres of the finest^ meadow, which 
produces red top and native grasses. Mr. Fer- 
guson has been well prospered in his labors and 
has the joy of having a good competence for 
the golden years of his life, which are running 
apace. He has won the esteem and confidence 
of the people and has many warm friends. He 
has one half-brother, Lovell R. Ferguson, who 
dwells in Bloomfield, Indiana; and two sisters. 
Mrs. Martha Davis, living at the old home in 
Indiana; and Mrs. Nancy Cook, at Freedonia, 
Kansas. He also has two nieces, Mrs. William 
N. Pate, at Wenatchee, and Mrs. Henry 
Decter, at Hartline, this county. He was raised 
under the influence of the Christian church but 
belongs to no denomination. 

JOHN T. OWENS resides at Ephrata 
and is one of the leading citizens of that pro- 
gressive little city. He is engaged in liandling 
grain for the Orondo Shipping Company of 
Wenatchee and out of the one hundred and 
thirty thousand bushels shipped from Ephrata 
last year, he handled sixty thousand, thus in- 
dicating that he is doing a very prosperous 

John T. Owens was born in the Weise 
Valley, Idaho, on November 15, 1871. His 
parents are Edward and Amanda (Dodson) 
Owens, natives of ]\Iaine and Virginia, respec- 
tively. The father was a pioneer in Oreeon 
and also in Douglas county, Washington. The 

mother died in Moses coulee, in 1894. Our 
subject attended the schools in various places 
and completed his training in the Ellensburg 
high school in this state. Then he spent some- 
time in partnership with his father in the stock 
business and also was engaged in riding the 
range in various places. Later, he took a home- 
stead which he relinquished in 1896. He went 
to North \'akima, there purchasing a large 
tract of land. For two years he raised hay, 
then sold it and returned to Moses coulee and 
engaged again in business with his father, giv- 
ing attention to farming and fruit raising. In 
1 90 1, he sold his interests there to his father 
and moved to Ephrata where he erected a liv- 
ery stable. He operated it for some time then 
sold and built several dwelling houses which 
he rents at the present time. It was 1902, 
when Mr. Owens engaged with the Orondo 
Shipping Company and since then he has been 
actively interested in promoting the town of 
Ephrata. He is personally interested in con- 
siderable property here and has done much to 
forward the welfare of the place. ]\Ir. Owens 
is a stirring business man and judging the fu- 
ture by the past, we feel sure that he will be one 
of the leading property owners of Douglas 
county in a short time. 

Mr. Owens is one of a family of six chil- 
dren, the other five being named as follows; 
James, Edward, Mrs. Rachel Harring, Mrs. 
Ella Cunningham, and Mrs. Myrtle Ogle. 

The marriage of our subject and Mrs. Eliz- 
abeth Vincent occurred on October i, 1895, 
at Waterville. ]\Irs. Owens' parents are Wil- 
liam and Mary M. Howard, natives of Tennes- 
see and now dwelling at Rock Creek, Whitman 
county, Washington. The father served in the 
Confederate army. Mrs. Owens has two broth- 
ers and three sisters, Lee, George, Mrs. Kittie 
Helma, ]\Irs. Ollie Spates, and Elsie. By her 
former marriage, Mrs. Owens has one daugh- 
ter, Bessie. Slie is a member of the Baptist 
church, but her husband does not belong to any 
denomination. They are people of excellent 
standing and have many friends in this section, 
where they have labored enthusiastically for its 
upbuilding and promotion. 

L.A.ND are among the earliest pioneers of 
Douglas county. \\'hen they came here, the 



Indians had many settlements up and down 
the coulee and continued there for many years 
afterward. Undaunted by the wildness of 
savages and hardsVips, these doughty men de- 
termined to stay and build for themselves a 
comfortable and good home, which they have 
done. During the years since, they have ac- 
cumulated a fine holding of property. The 
wisdom of the Sutherland brothers is mani- 
fested very plainly in the laying out of their 
ranch, which is so wisely and aJroitly planned. 
They have a fine field of alfalfa and a good 
large orchard of choice trees. The entire es- 
tate is irrigated from tine mountain streams 
pouring into the coulee and altogether, they 
have one of the most valuable and choice loca- 
tions to be found in the covmtry. 

John H. Sutherland was born at Salt Lake 
City, Utah. George D. Sutherland was born 
in Pottawotomie county, Kansas, on Novem- 
ber 15, 1859. They are the sons of Hugh 
and Hannah (Sutherland) Sutherland, natives 
of Scotland and Pennsylvania, respectively. 
Both of the boys gained their education from 
the common schools of Kansas conducted near 
Onaga. They were reared on the farm and 
as soon as John H. had arrived at manhood's 
estate, he came west. For a while he lingered 
in Kittitas county and finally came thence to 
Moses coulee, selecting the site of his present 
stock ranch as a homestead. In 1887 George 
came on to join his brother and since then they 
have been steadily engaged in the stock busi- 
ness, raising cattle principally. However, of 
late they have had a fine stock of horses and 
have some of the best bred animals, both horses 
and cattle, to be found in the county. When 
locatioij was made here, all supplies had to be 
brought over the mountains and across the 
Columbia river to Ellensburg, fifty miles away. 
This was no small task, not counting the labor 
necessary to secure the funds to buy supplies. 
However, there was no such word as gWe up 
in the vocabulary of these men and the result 
is, they have won distinction and wealth. Dur- 
ing the hard winter of 1889-90, owing to the 
shelter which they had provided for their stock 
and the hay that had been provided wisely. 
Sutherland iDrothers did not lose as much as the 
more unfortunate ones through the country. 

Our subjects have six sisters named as fol- 
lows : Mrs. Mary E. Regar, living in Onaga, 
Kansas ; Mrs. Jeannette Crum, at Onaga, Kan- 

sas; Mrs. Lorena Wilson at Onaga, Kansas; 
Mrs. Ida Godlove at Waterville; Nettie and 
Maude, in Spokane. ■ 

The Messrs. Sutherland are among the 
substantial and wealthy men and they have 
won many friends in this section and are 
counted among the leading citizens of Douglas 
county today. 

JULIUS HELLWIG is one of the pros- 
perous farmers and stockmen of Douglas coun- 
ty and resides about eleven miles northwest 
from Ephrata. He was born near Marien- 
werder. Prussia, Germany, on March 28. 
1855, the son of Christopher and Florentina 
(Toelk) Hellwig, natives of Prussia. The 
father was a soldier for many years. The 
public schools of his native country supplied 
the educational training of our subject and 
when sixteen years of age, he bade farewell to 
the Fatherland and sailed to the United States. 
For a time he worked in New York and then 
went to Boston, Massachusetts, and engaged 
in the sugar refinery for a year. From there 
he journeyed to Bloomington, Illinois, and did 
general work until 1876, when he returned 
to Germany on a visit. The next year, he 
came back to the United States and concluded 
to try the western portion. Accordingly he 
went to Montana, but finding it too cold, he 
went thence to California. Afterwards, he 
made his way north to Washington. He went 
thence to Alberta, where he engaged in the 
stock business for some time. He operated 
along the High river until 1883, then moved to 
North Dakota and farmed, taking up a pre- 
emption. Selling that, he came back to Wash- 
ington and in 1887 settled where' we now find 
him. He now has three hundred and twenty 
acres of land under cultivation, well improved 
and a fine stock of cattle and horses. Mr. 
Hellwig has three brothers and one sister, Karl, 
William, Hermann, and Mrs. Augusta Lutz. 

At Cheyenne. Dakota, in 1884. :\Ir. Hell- 
wig married Miss Amelia, the daughter of 
Gotfred and Louisa Ponto, natives of Prussia. 
Mrs. Hellwig has three brothers and one sis- 
ter, Julius, August, Frank and Alvena Todd. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Hellwig, two children have 
been born, Lillie, on February 16, 1886, and 
E.sther, on July 28, 1895. The former in 



North Dakota and the latter on Sage Brush 
flat, Douglas county. Mr. and Mrs. Helhvig 
are adherents of the Lutheran church and are 
very worthy people. 

Mr. He'llwig's brother, Karl, served in the 
Franco-Prussian war, being actively engaged 
through every battle of that conflict. The 
Emperor of Germany, William First, person- 
ally .presented him with two fine medals. 

CHARLES F. WILL is at present county 
assessor at Waterville, which office he has ac- 
ceptably filled for some time. He is also en- 
gaged in stock raising and general farming, 
having a fine estate about six miles southeast 
from Waterville. He has labored in Douglas 
county with energy and wisdom for many 
years and has not only secured a good holding 
of property but also the good will and esteem 
of all who may have the pleasure of his ac- 

Charles F. Will was born in Vinton county, 
Ohio, on January 19, 1862, the son of George 
B. and Helen A. (French) Will, natives of 
Philadelphia and Connecticut, respectively. 
The father followed merchandising and also 
served in the United States army. Our sub- 
ject was educated in the common schools and 
later studied in the high school at McArthur, 
in his native county. At the early age of 
twelve he stepped out into the world to do for 
himself and soon went to Nodaway county, 
Missouri, and there lived with an uncle for 
four years. In 1878 he made a visit to his 
former home and the next year he went with 
his uncle to Fort Scott, Kansas, and there 
farmed for one year. Returning to Missouri, 
he worked on the farms for wages for three 
years, then moved to the vicinity of Kearney, 
Nebraska, and there farmed until the spring 
of 1885. Then came a journey to Washing- 
ton, and on December 14, 1885, he filed on a 
homestead where his residence is at the present 
time. He has improved it splendidly and has 
it all in a high state of cultivation. Good 
Ijuildings of every kind needed are in evidence 
and he has added l)y purchase until the estate 
is now four hundred acres. In addition to 
handling the farm, Mr. Will has also given at- 
tention to stock raising and has at the present 
time one hundred and sixtv head of cattle. 

When he first came here, Mr. Will worked for 
John W. Stephens, and while in labor atout the 
sawmill he had the misfortune to lose his left 
hand. The nearest medical aid was in Spokane 
and thither he journeyed to get the member 
attended to. After his recovery, he was re- 
tained by the company as bookkeeper and in 
the spring of 1891 he was chosen deputy as- 
sessor of the county. Following that service, 
he was again on the farm, where he took the 
oversight of his business until 1900, when he 
was called by the people to the office of assessor 
of the county. The next term he was elected by 
two hundred majority, an increase of ten over 
his former term. He was the only Republican 
on the ticket who was favored with election, 
which demonstrated beyond a doubt his popu- 
larity with the people. 

Mr. Will has one brother, Joseph K., and 
two sisters, Mrs. Henrietta K. Drake, and Mrs. 
Eugene Hoyt. At Kearney, Nebraska, on No- 
vember 4, 1884. Mr. Will married Miss Mary 
E., daughter of Campbell and Polly Engle, 
natives of Kentucky. Mrs. Will was born in 
Nodaway county. Missouri, on September 24, 
1862. Mr. and Mrs. Will have four children : 
Claud C, born April 26, 1886; Frederick R., 
born March 23, 1888; Arthur L., born May 19, 
1893: and Helen G., born March 18, 1901. 
Mr. Will is a member of the Maccabees and is 
a popular and first-class man. 

Mr. Will remarks that when he first came 
here he had two trunks and a wife. Owing to 
the excellence of his helpmeet and his own 
energ\r and ability he has transformed the two 
trunks into a fine estate, a large holding of stock 
and is attended with much prosperity. 

LEO L. SCHMIDT resides in Moses 
coulee, about sixteen miles south from Dousrlas 
postoffice. He has a very fine estate which is 
irrigated from a creek in the coulee and thus is 
made to produce abundant crops of alfalfa, red 
clover and timothy. In addition to this. Mr. 
Schmidt has a large fruit orchard which brings 
fine returns each year. He raises a large band 
of stock and is one of the prosperous men of 
Douglas county. 

Leo L. Schmidt was born in Davenport, 
Iowa, on March t8, 1869, the son of Ausaist 
F. and Mary S. Schmidt, natives of Holstein, 



Germany and Denmark, respectively. They 
came to the United States when young and 
settled in Iowa. Our subject received his edu- 
cation in the common schools and in the busi- 
ness college at Davenport. Iowa, and there 
remained until he had gained his majority. At 
that time, he determined to see the west and 
accordingly turned his face to the setting sun 
and traveled until convinced that Douglas 
county was the place to settle. He bought his 
present farm from Otto G. Smith, who in turn 
had purchased it from Mr. Ward, who settled 
upon it in 1883. Mr. Schmidt has about eighty 
acres of land planted to hay and fruit. The 
place is well improved, having commodious 
buildings, and a fine eight-room house, hand- 
somely painted and surrounded with trees and 
shrubbery. His cattle are all graded and he 
has some very fine specimens. Mr. Schmidt 
has one brother and two sisters. Otto B., Mrs. 
Dora Smith and Mrs. Emma Witt. 

In Davenport, Iowa, on May i, 1900, Mr. 
Schmidt married Miss Emma E., the daughter 
of Peter L. and Cacielie Peters, natives of 
Holstein, Germany. Mrs. Schmidt was born 
on March 7, 1869. She has one brother and 
six sisters, named as follows : John L., Mrs. 
Katherine Langbehn, Mrs. Sophia Wolflin, 
Mrs. Anna Martin, Mrs. Cacielie Enke, Mrs. 
Hellen Thiessen, and Bertha. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Schmidt two children have been born : Walter 
A. on February 4, 1901 ; and Zella E., on May 
19, 1902. Mr. and Mrs. Schmidt were botli 
raised under the influence of the Lutheran 
church and are excellent people. Their place 
contains several Indian burying grounds and 
was a rendezvous for the early inhabitants of 
this country. 

SHEEHAN are enterprising and prosperous 
stockmen, dwelling about twenty miles south- 
west from Waterville. They were born in 
Charleston, jMassachusetts, on August 26, 
1869. and December 18, 1871, respectively. 
The father, John S., was a native of Cork, 
Ireland, and came to the L^nited States in the 
early 'forties. He died in Douglas countv on 
July 4, 1894. During the terrible war of the 
Rebellion, he enlisted in Company A, First 
Regiment, New Jersey Light Artillery, under 
Captain A. N. Parsons, and took part in the 

battle of Gettysburg, besides other great strug- 
gles. He was a member of the G. A. R. and 
a prominent citizen until his death. He mar- 
ried Mary Brown, a native of county Limer- 
ick, Ireland, who also came to the United 
States in early days. Our subjects attended the 
common schools of Mono county, California, 
whither the family went in 1878. After a 
residence of four years there they moved to 
Nevada and did mining for eight years, being 
occupied in the Northern Bell mine. In 1888-9 
these two enterprising young men came from 
Nevada to Washington and settled on a home- 
stead in section 26, range 22, township 23. 
Their labors were bestowed to improve tlie 
land in stockraising, and they have been very 
successful in their efforts. They now have a 
fine band of well-bred horses and a great many 
graded cattle, besides other property. Their 
home place is supplied with all the improve- 
ments necessary for the successful operation of 
a first-class stock ranch. When they first 
settled here, all supplies had to be brought 
from Ellensburg and they well know the hard- 
ships encountered in opening up a new coun- 
try and following a pioneer life. Our sub- 
jects have three sisters: Mrs. Augusta Geary, 
living in Redwood City, California; Mrs. 
Mary Usher, the widow of George Lusher, 
now dwelling in Hillyard, Washington ; and 
Mrs. Annie Casey, the widow of Henry Casey, 
dwelling in Seattle. In addition to handling 
their stock and ranch, Thomas Sheehan was 
for some time in the employ of the government 
in the improvement of Cabinet Rapids, on the 
Columbia river, while his brother worked for 
John W. Stevens in a sawmill on Badger 

They are among the best known stockmen 
in the entire Big Bend country and they have 
many friends wherever they are known. In 
political matters they are both active and well 
informed, while in religious persuasions, they 
are adherents of the Roman Catholic church. 

PETER J. FRIESINGER is one of the 
leading business men of Waterville, where he 
has wrought for nearly a decade in such manner 
that success has attended his efforts in a liigh 
degree. He is owner and operator of the drug 
store and has a fine trade. In addition to this, 



Mr. Friesinger practices as a veterinary. He 
is a man of social qualities and has many 
friends in the town and surrounding country. 

Peter J. Friesinger was born near Trier, 
Germany, on April 20, 1877. His parents, 
Nichols and Mary A. (Josephs) Friesinger, 
were also natives of Germany. They came to 
the United States in 1881 and are now living 
in Little Falls, Minnesota. Our subject at- 
tended the German schools in McHenry 
county, Illinois, and then the schools in Little 
Falls,' Minnesota, after which he completed a 
good business course. During a good portion 
of this time he was also occupied in the drug 
store of M. V. Wetzel, in Little Falls, where he 
became very proficient in pharmacy. He con- 
tinued there until 1897, when a move was made 
to Spokane, after which he went to Stevens 
county, Washington. Only a short time was 
spent there and he came on to Waterville, hav- 
ing been appointed trustee of the Hobson stock 
of drugs in this town, the same being in litiga- 
tion. Judge Hanford, of the United States 
court, made the appointment. Later, Mr. 
Friesinger bought the stock and since that time 
has conducted the drug store, where he has 
done a good business. His stock is complete 
and well selected, being full in every line 
usually carried by a druggist. Mr. Friesinger 
has two brothers, Matthew, Hubert, and one 
sister, Mrs. Lizzie Klinek. 

At Baldwin, Wisconsin, on January 15, 
igoo. Mr. Friesinger married Miss Zulla R. 
G., the daughter of John D. and Levina 
(Phellps) Wood, now dwelling in Lake City, 
Minnesota. Mrs. Friesinger was born in Good- 
hue county, Minnesota, on November 2, 1S78, 
and she has one brother and two sisters, John 
D., Mrs. Zana Van Hacke, and Irene. Mr. 
Friesinger is a memter of the Maccabees, and 
is chief of the fire department. He is a man 
of energy and is well posted in the issues of the 
day. ever taking a lively part in political matters 
and also in the general progress of the county 
and the town. 

JAMES HOWELL is one of the best 
known men in Douglas county. He held the 
pulpit of the Presbyterian church in Coulee 
City and Almira for a long time and is now 
ministering to congregations in Paradise val- 

ley and Coulee City. In connection with his 
ministerial work Mr. Howell has also pursued 
other avocations. For some time he served 
the people as justice of the peace and won con- 
fidence and esteem from all in this capacity. In 
1897, he was appointed United States court 
commissioner by Judge Hanford and in 1901 
by the same judge was reappointed. Mr. 
Howell has been very active in locating home- 
seekers and has taken more filings in his oftice 
than in all others combined in this section. 
He also receives a large number of final proofs, 
attends to contests and has done a large work in 
getting settlers into this country. Mr. Howell 
is a man of letters and has done his work well' 
in whatever capacity he has wrought. 

James Howell was born in Carmarthen, 
Wales, on July 18, 1848, the son of Thomas 
and Frances (Griftlths) Howell, both natives 
of Wales. The Howell family is one of the 
old and prominent families of that country and 
are able to trace their ancestrage back seven- 
hundred years and to "Howell the Good." Our 
subject's father was parish guardian for many 
years. His mother's people were prominent in 
Presbyterian circles and there were a number 
of ministers in the family. Our subject was 
thoroughly trained from his youngest days, 
finishing his education in the Presbyterian col- 
lege in Carmarthen. He served as pastor of the 
church in Pembrocke county for four years, 
and pastor at large for six years, and then in 
1884 came to this country. After being a 
pastor in Kansas for three and one-half years 
Mr. Howell came on to Douglas county, arriv- 
ing here in October, 1887. He was all through 
the Big Bend country for some time before set- 
tling definitely at Coulee City. Since then he 
has been one of the leading men of the county 
and is a highly respected citizen. Mr. Howell 
and his wife brought seven thousand dollars of 
English cash with them to Douglas county, 
where most of it has been invested in land. 
They also own large tracts of land in Lincoln 
county, as well, and nearly all of their real 
estate holdings are in cultivation, producing 
abundant crops of the cereals. Mr. Howell has 
always been ready to assist any movement for 
the advancement and upbuilding of the coun- 
try, and has labored assiduously for the good J 
of all. He has ministered to the people far and 
near both in bereavement and in joy and has the 
distinction of having officiated in more funerals 




and marriages in this county and adjacent terri- 
tory than any other minister liere. He is a 
substantial man with staying quahties and his 
friends are legion. 

Mr. Howell has four brothers and five 
sisters. His marriage occurred in Carmarthen, 
Wales, on April lo. 1884. Miss Mary E. 
Walters becoming his wife at that time. Mrs. 
Howell's parents are Thomas and Sarah 
(Nichols) Walters, prominent people in their 
native place. The father is a gentleman of 
property, being a large coal mine owner as well 
as having large landed estates. Mrs. Howell 
was born in Pembrocke county, Wales, on Oc- 
tober 23, 1858, and has four brothers, John W., 
David, \Villiam, and James. To Mr. and Mrs. 
Howell three children have been born ; Frances 
S., on April 22, 1885, and now attending Whit- 
worth college at Tacoma; Rose A., on June 
22, 1886, and died on September 14, 1896: 
Thomas J., on February 18, 1895. The first 
two are native to Kansas, but the last was born 
in Coulee Citv. ' 

SPENCER PERRY HITE is master of 
the king of all trades, blacksmithing\ and has 
the finest and best equipped shop in Douglas 
county. In addition to having all tools and 
arrangements necessary for all kinds of black- 
smithing-, he has an extensive horseshoeing 
shop and a very large wagon shop. He is a 
thorough mechanic and a master of every 3e- 
tail in the entire business and his energy and 
close attention to business have won for him 
an excellent patronage while prosperity has at- 
tended his efforts. 

Spencer P. Hite was born in Halifax 
county, Virginia, on December 21, 1863, the 
son of Spencer and Martha J. (Wilkens) Hite, 
natives of Virginia. The father was a farmer 
and ser\'ed in the confederate army. Our sub- 
ject had very limited means of education, but 
impro\-ed them well and remained with his 
father until nineteen years of age. At that time 
he removed to Arkansas, making settlement in 
Jackson county. For some time he did farm- 
ing, then began work in a wheelwright shop at 
Franklin, Arkansas. Two years later, so pro- 
ficient had he become in this work, he opened an 
establishment for himself and soon thereafter 
had a blacksmith shop, too. He continued thus 
until 1890. when he sold and moved to Hardy, 

Arkansas, and conducted a shop there for two 
years. After that, he engaged in the butcher 
and grocery business and also held the office of 
city marshal. This he conducted until March, 
1892, when he sold his entire business and came 
to Washington. He at once opened a general 
blacksmith and machine shop in Waterville and 
has improved and enlarged the business until 
it has reached the dimensions mentioned above. 

Mr. Hite has four brothers and four sisters 
living, named as follows: George B., Charles 
S., Ruben S., William D., Mrs. Matilda A. 
Whitt, Mrs. Elizabeth Wilkins, Margaret F. 
and Mrs. Louisana A. Sydnor, and five de- 
ceased : James, Stephen G. T., Rebecca J.. 
Bailey G., and Nannie. 

In Halifax county, Virginia, on October 
II, 1882, Mr. Hite married Mrs. Mary E., 
daughter of Isaac J. and Maria A. Tynes, na- 
tives of Virginia. The father was a soldier in the 
confederate army. The fruit of this union has 
been ten children, whose names and the dates 
of their birth are given below : P. E., on July 
20, 1884, and now deceased; Martha A., on 
February 10, 1886: Mildred N. V., on Decem- 
ber 20. 1887, and now deceased; Minnie G., on 
September 9, 1889; Nora A., on November 3, 
1891 ; Mattie, on April 28, 1894; Willie M., on 
March 24, 1896; Thomas Dewey, on June 25. 
1898; Georgia Omar, on September 17, 1900; 
and Edward S., on May 14, 1903. The first 
was born in Virginia, eight were born in Ar- 
kansas, and the last one in Waterville. 

Fraternallv. Mr. Hite is affiliated with the 
W. W., the A. P. & A. M., and the M. W. A. 
He and his wife are members of the Baptist 
church and are zealous supporters of their faith. 
Mr. Hite in Arkansas held the position of jus- 
tice of the peace for eight years, besides other 
offices. He is a man who receives the respect 
and confidence of his fellows and stands well in 
this communitv. 

HARRY C. DeCA^IP is without doubt 
one of the earliest pioneers and one of the best 
known and posted men in Douglas county to- 
day. He has traveled all over this county and 
knows its resources as well if not better than 
any other man living. He has always been a 
close observer and is a careful weigher of facts 
and figures, while he is also possessed of good 



judgment and keen foresight. These quahties 
combined have made him the business man he 
is today, while his geniahty and kindness have 
Avon him hosts of friends from ah quarters. 

Harry C. DeCamp was born in Portsmouth, 
Ohio, on February ii, 1858, the son of Joseph 
DeCamp, a native of Ohio, also, and a farmer. 
When our subject was six years of age he was 
deprived of his mother by death and five years 
later his father died. Thus left an orphan a*- 
an early date he found some of the hard lessons 
of life in early childhood days. However, tHis 
was not lost, for it has given him a wider range 
of affairs as he grew up and thus served a use- 
ful end finally. He received his education in 
Ohio and there remained until twenty-two, 
working on the farVns. In 1880, he was 
stricken with a hard attack of the western fever, 
which led him to Kansas. Not being relieved 
in a year there, he came on to San Francisco in 
1 88 1 and for three years was engaged in gen- 
eral labors. For a goodly portion of that time 
he was salesman in the large furniture estab- 
lishment of Jack Hillman, at the corner of 
Taylor and Market streets. Next he came to 
Oregon and for one year stopped in Linn 
county, and thence came to Douglas county in 
assisting Al N. Thompson to move hither. He 
soon entered the employ of John W. Stephens, 
handling logs for the sawmill on Badger 
mountain. He secured a homestead just north- 
east from Water vi lie and has improved it in 
good shape. He soon divided his attention be- 
tween farming and handling produce for the 
mines in British Columbia and the Okanogan 
country. Later he has been associated with O. 
P. Hyde in handling real estate and has done 
well in this business. He is a member of the 
Old Settlers' Association and is a popular man. 
Mr. DeCamp has three sisters, named as 
follows : Mrs. IMeneaver Lobner, living in 
Holsey, Oregon : Mrs. Ida Wedge, in Cooley- 
ville, Ohio ; and Sarah. 

WILLIAM J. CANTON is one of the 
leading attorneys of Douglas county. Being 
endowed with an analytical mind and forensic 
ability which have been fortified with the best 
of training and thorough and extensive read- 
ing, the subject of .this article is especially 
fitted to win distinction in his chosen profes- 

sion in which he has made rapid strides and 
done excellent work. He is at the head of a 
fine practice in Douglas county and has won 
many friends, distinction and honors, especially 
in the military line. 

William J. Canton was born in Leeds coun- 
ty, Ontario, Canada, on November 5, 1861 and 
was raised on a farm. Like the ordinary 
youth of the land, William J. commenced his 
education in the common schools. Then he 
pressed on through the excellent high schools 
of Ontario, and later took a thorough univer- 
sity course. He also took his degree from the 
law department in the university in 1879, be- 
ing the youngest member of the large class and 
yet the recipient of special honors. For two 
years subsequent to his graduation he taught 
school at New Market, in Ontario, and in July, 
1883, he enlisted in Company C, Fifteenth 
United States Infantry under Captain C. H. 
Conrad. For four years he served, first as 
sergeant and then asked for his discharge that 
he might take up the practice of law. In 1887, 
he was honorably discharged and took up his 
profession at O'Neil, Nebraska, in company 
with Hon. Thomas M. Carlon, where he re- 
mained until 1890. In July of that year, Mr. 
Canton determined to come west and accord- 
ingly selected Washington as the objective 
point. For a time he remained in South Bend 
and in June. 1891, located at Waterville and 
opened an office. Since that time, he has given 
himself largely to the practice of his profes- 
sion, and has maintained an office in Water- 
ville continuously. In 1892, Mr. Canton or- 
ganized a company of militia which took the 
prize at the encampment in 1894. In May, 
1898, he was appointed adjutant general of the 
state, by Governor John R. Rogers and fitted 
out the troops for the Spanish-American war. 
In the fall of the same year he was appointed 
major of the First Washington Volunteer In- 
fantry and went to the Philippine Islands. For 
eleven months he saw active service there and 
participated in the heaviest part of the fighting. 
On No\'ember i, 1899, he was mustered out at 
San Francisco and immediately returned to 
Waterville and gave himself to the practice of 
law. In the November election, 1904, Mr. 
Canton was chosen prosecuting attorney for 
Douglas county. 

At Yankton, South Dakota, on November 
26, 1888, Mr. Canton married Lillian M. Rey- 



nolds, a niece of General Philip Sheridan, and 
the daughter of William E. and Mary E. Rey- 
nolds, natives of Vermont. She was born in 
Island Pond, Vermont, and to this marriage 
two children have been born, William R., in 
Nebraska, in October, 1889, and Florence J., 
in Waterville, in 1891. 

Mr. Canton is a member of the Spanish- 
American war veterans and has the distinc- 
tion of being one of the best drilled men in 
military tactics in the state of Washington. He 
has won riimierous prizes at contests and he is 
certainly very proficient in this line. 

ALBERT SOPER is handling horses in 
Wilson creek and also raises stock. He has 
some fine Clyde horses on the range and a very 
well bred stallion. He has been in the stock 
business for a good many years in the Big Bend 
country and is well posted in this business and 
in the geography of the country. He was 
born in Kent county, Michigan, on October 24, 
1 87 1, the son of David and Margretta (Allen) 
Soper, natives of New York, the mother de- 
ceased, the father now living in Seattle. He 
completed his education in the graded schools 
in Grand Rapids, Michigan. In the fall of 
1882, he came with his father to Walla Walla 
and in April of the next year, they arrived in 
Waterville. Location was made near the old 
town of Okanogan and our subject remained 
there for five years, then he located on Moses 
creek near Ed Owen's ranch, where he en- 
gaged in the stock business, bringing his cattle 
from Walla Walla. He took up his first claim 
on Wilson creek in 1898 which he has improved 
in good shape. In 1903, he entered the li\'ery 
business in the town of Wilsoncreek and con- 
tinued in the same to May, 1904. In the early 
days, Mr. Soper not only rode the range for 
himself but also was engaged for some of the 
leading stockmen of the countrj-, thus becom- 
ing well acquainted in the Big Bend country. 
Mr. Soper has one brother, Graff D. and two 
sisters, Mrs. Jesse Wallace and Mrs. Maude 

At Douglas in this county, on May 8, 1892, 
Mr. Soper married Miss Georgiana Day, the 
daughter of Llewellen and Mary (Rickard) 
Day, natives of Ohio. The father served in the 
Fifty-fifth Ohio Volunteer Infantry during the 

Rebellion. Mrs. Soper was born in Ohio near 
New London on January i, 1874. To our 
subject and his wife, four children have been 
born, Allie May, Helen M., George E. and 
Carrie L. 

Mr. Soper belongs to the M. W. A. His 
wife was raised under the influence of the 
Methodist church, but they do not belong to 
any denomination. 

AMOS H. MASON dwells three and one- 
half miles east from Bridgeport, where he has 
one of the largest fruit ranches in this por- 
tion of the state. He was born in Benton 
county, Oregon, on April 17, i860. His 
father, Jerry H. Mason, was a native of Penn- 
sylvania, and crossed the 'plains in the early 
'fifties, with wagon train, settling in Benton 
county, where he remained. There he married 
Mrs. Hope Jones, a native of Ohio. By her 
former marriage, Mrs. Mason had one son, 
E. A. Jones. She also had the following named 
brothers and sisters, Amos, Sallie Edlemen, 
Roda Pitman, Serepty Rexford, and Margret 
Irven, all living in Oregon, at present, but 
one. Mrs. Mason's maiden name was Halock. 
The children born to Mr. and Mrs. Mason, be- 
sides our subject, are Mrs. Dan Longbotham; 
George J., who died in Oregon when thirty- 
three years old; Jessie, who was drowned in 
Oregon when a child ; Heamon J., who died 
at Medical Lake. Washington, in 1901, being 
aged forty-two ; Walter G., who was killed by 
a horse falling on him, when twenty-one. Mrs. 
Mason died when the children were small, our 
subject being but eight. Several years later, 
the father married Miss Elizabeth Haydon. 
He died in June, 1902, and his widow is still 
residing on the old donation claim in Oregon. 
The father had two brothers and three sisters, 
of whom Levrea H., and Mrs. Davies are still 
living. Amos H. attended the district schools 
in Benton county, until sixteen and in 1877, 
came to Washington. Settlement was made 
in Columbia county but soon he removed thence 
to the vicinity of Pullman in Whitman county 
and took a pre-emption. He labored there for 
eight years. He sold the farm and bought a 
butcher shop in Pullman, operating it two 
years, then sold out and engaged in the hotel 
and hardware business in the town of Sholley. 



Whitman county. This occupied him until 
1 89 1, when he sold out and followed butcher- 
ing for about one year. In the spring of 1892, 
he moved to Douglas county and took a home- 
stead which is a part of his present estate. He 
has a half section, one hundred acres of which 
are nicely irrigated from springs on the estate. 
During the first four years of his residence 
in Douglas county, he gave attention to freight- 
ing to Loomis and Republic, then he began set-' 
ting out an orchard. He has all the leading 
varieties of fruits, indigenous to this latitude 
and has made an excellent success, having some 
very choice bearers. Twenty-five acres are 
thus employed and one hundred acres more are 
being set to fruit at the present time. He also 
raises several hundred acres of grain and 
handles a large band of cattle and horses. Mr. 
Mason's place is very valuable and has been 
handled in a skillful manner by himself. With 
the entire amount planted to fruit as he has 
planned, it will be an exceedingly valuable 
estate. Mr. Mason has one brother living, 
Rufus B., and one half-sister, Irene. 

In Latah county, Idaho, on August 9, 1884, 
Mr. Mason married Miss Annie E. Smith. 
She was born in Minnesota, on November i, 
1868, the daughter of Peter and Lydia M. 
(Freeman) Smith, natives of England and 
Ohio, respectively. Mr. Smith was a soldier 
in the Rebellion. Mrs. Mason has one brother, 
Everett E. To Mr. and Mrs. Mason, five chil- 
dren have been born named as follows : Audry 
Helena, born in Whitman county and died in 
Bridgeport, January 25, 1897; Ada E., near 
Pullman, on January 9, 1887; Walter, on May 
10, 1897; Adrian L.,on December 16. 1899; 
and Ruby G., on June 25, 1901. The last three 
were born on the farm. 

Mr. Mason is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and the M. W. A. He and his wife are ad- 
herents of the Presbyterian church, while in 
politics he is an active and well informed Re- 
publican. On Mr. Mason's side of the house 
are some men who have been prominent in poli- 
tics in Oregon, as Saul King and the Honorable 
James Chambers. 

GEORGE F. JAMISON was born in Sac- 
ramento county, California, on May i. 1873, 
the son of Stephen and Susan (Theobold) Jam- 
ison, natives of Iowa and California, respec- 

tively. He received his education in California 
and in Whitman county, Washington, whither 
the family came in early eighties. In 1885, 
he accompanied his brother to California and 
there did general work for fourteen years, then 
returned to his family, they having moved to 
Coulee City and here he entered the employ of 
Dan Paul and T. S. Blythe, stockmen of Doug- 
las county. He rode on the range for three 
years, then took a ranch between the coulees, 
which he improved and sold. After that, we 
find him in Bridgeport, handling a livery stable 
which later was sold, then Mr. Jamison en- 
tered into partnership with J. G. Priest in the 
mercantile business the firm being known as 
G. T. Jamison & Co. They are established at 
Dyer and do a large business. Their stock is 
complete and well selected, comprising all kinds 
needed in this section and is worth about ten 
thousand dollars. Mr. Jamison was appointed 
post master at Dyer and is giving entire satis- 
faction in that capacity at the present time. 
He is a born business man and is respected and 
esteemed by all who know him. In addition 
to the lines above mentioned, Mr. Jamison rep- 
resents the Seattle Grain Company. Mr. Jam- 
ison has two brothers and one sister, John W., 
Charles R. and Mrs. J. G. Priest. 

Fraternally, he is connected with the M. 
W. A., while in religious persuasions he be- 
longs: to the United Brethren church. Mr. 
Jamison has ever been active in all lines of im- 
provement, being a believer in good roads, good 
schools and general progress for which he la- 
bors incessantly. 

AUGUST W. MANKE, resides about 
three miles northeast from Buckingham post- 
office. He was born in Crawford county, Wis- 
consin, on May 14, 1871, the son of William 
J. and Albertina (Voth) Manke, natives of 
Germany and emigrants to the United States. 
in 1865. He attended the public schools of 
Prairie du Chien and finished his education in 
the high schools of that state. After that, he 
worked in the paper mills as ruler for some 
time, then began the study of medicine under 
Dr. Barney in Prairie du Chien. Three win- 
ters were spent in reading this science, but not 
being favorably impressed with this, he jour- 
neyed to the west. He spent some time travel- 



ing through Montana. California, Oregon and 
^^'ashington, principally on foot. In 1894 we 
find him in Douglas county and not long there- 
after he took a homestead where he lives at 
the present time. He has added since as much 
more by purchase and has made valuable and 
becoming improvements upon the estate. His 
attention has been devoted principally to stock 
raising and general farming until lately. Now 
he is engaged more especially in raising grain. 
Mr. Manke is also considerably interested in 
horse breeding and has a nice young and very 
fine Clyde stallion, which is valued at over two 
thousand dollars. He has other good animals 
and is very skillful in this enterprise. Mr. 
Manke has been prospered in his labors and is 
a progressive and substantial citizen. He has 
six brothers and three sisters. \\"illiam, Ar- 
thur. Frank. Edward, Clarence, Herbert. Mrs. 
Ida Boyd, Moran Agnes, and Laura. 

At Bridgeport, Washington, on October 13, 
1897, Mr. Manke married Miss Louisa T. 
Yeager, the daughter of Henry G. and Louisa 
( Koch ) Yeager, who are mentioned in another 
portion of this work. Mrs. Manke's brothers 
and sisters are also named in another portion of 
this volume. 

To our subject and his wife, two children 
have been born, Lela, on August 14, 1898, and 
Arthur G., on September 10, 1899. Mr. and 
Mrs. ]\Ianke are members of the Methodist 

Mr. Manke has a great liking for music 
and possesses talent in that line. From 1889 
to 1891, he was a member of the famous North- 
western Brass Band, handling various instru- 
ments. Since retiring from that, he has de- 
voted his entire attention in the musical line 
to the violin, which instrument he handles skill- 
fully at this time. 

THERON W. LANE was born near Ken- 
dallville, Iowa, on May 26, 1858, the son of 
Abraham and Sarah Lane, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania and pioneers to Iowa. There were seven 
children, five boys and two girls, in the family. 
Two of the boys and both of the girls are now 
deceased. Theron W. was the oldest of the 
family and resides at Bridgeport. W. D., the 
youngest, resides at Seattle and is a well known 
member of the firm of Douglas, Lane & Doug- 

las. Rev. L. L. is a minister of the gospel at 
Sisseton, South Dakota. Our subject spent his 
early life on the farm and as the father had 
very poor health, it required the utmost labors 
of them all to maintain the family. After the 
death of his father, our subject started out in 
life for himself, leaving the family and the 
aged mother to the care of the younger broth- 
ers. After acquiring a fair English education, 
he gathered sufficient means to enable him to 
enter the law department of the State Lini- 
versity of Iowa, whence he graduated on June 
22, 1 88 1, receiving the degree of LL. B. He 
also received a diploma of admission to the su- 
preme court in the state of Iowa and the United 
States district and circuit courts. In Novem- 
ber, 1 88 1, he formed a partnership with Eli 
Bennett of Big Stone City, Dakota, which 
was dissolved in a few months. Mr. Lane then 
opened a law office at \Vilmot, South Dakota, 
and was soon elected district attorney of Rob- 
erts county. Owing to the county seat contest, 
which was not settled in the courts, the matter 
was taken to the legislature and a rider of the 
bill that established the county seat contro- 
versey, inaugurated Mr.. Lane's opponent as 
prosecuting attorney. Rather than quarrel, 
even though he had been wronged, Mr. Lane 
turned to the west and arrived at Spokane 
Falls, in Mav, 1885. After looking about for 
some time, he came to Okanogan, then the 
county seat of Douglas county. As the coun- 
try was very new and no legal business to be 
done, he entered a pre-emption and timber cul- 
ture, one mile east from town. After that, he 
went to Walla Walla, where he was joined by 
his wife and thev journeyed to Weston. Ore- 
gon, where they taught school for several 
months. Following that, they came to Doug- . 
las and taught school and followed various 
other enterprises until finally after two years 
there, Mr. Lane was called to attend the first 
case tried in the county, so far as he kiiows. 
It was before Captain Miles, justice of the 
peace on Badger Mountain. He also tried a 
case before J. E. Hetley, justice of the peace, 
that same winter. This was the last of the law 
business for some time, and in fact Mr. Lane 
has never engaged in the practice of law for a 
livelihood, although he has done thousands of 
dollars worth of business in the county. 

In South Dakota. Mr. Lane married Miss 
Marv ]\Iiller. a native of Westheld, Wisconsin. 



To this union, four children have been born: 
Arthur, aged eighteen; Goldie, aged fifteen; 
Mabel, aged eleven, and Lillian, aged two. 
Mr. Lane, does not seek to engage in profes- 
sional life, preferring to reside on his farm to 
earning his living by the sweat of his face. 
Many come to him seeking legal advice and 
are never turned away, but he is better satis- 
fied with the quietness of the agricluturist's 
career than the stormy life of an attorney. 

JAMES T. McLEAN resides two miles 
west from Bridgeport and gives his attention 
to general farming and stock raising. He was 
born in New Brunswick near New Castle, on 
February 7, i860, the son of Laughlan and 
Rebecca (McTavish) McLean, natives of the 
Isles of Mull and Tyre, respectively. The fa- 
ther followed lumbering. Our subject had but 
poor privileges to gain an education in New 
Brunswick, but he well improved all his ad- 
vantages, until seventeen,, then began lumber- 
ing for himself. He journeyed from New 
Brunswick to Stillwater, Minnesota, and con- 
tinued lumbering for two years. Then he went 
to the Black Hills, Dakota, and worked for a 
year. Later, he took up lumbering and came 
to Powder river, Montana, where also he raised 
stock. He visited Yellowstone Park and then 
in company with others, rode across the coun- 
try to Yakima, where he engaged in lumbering 
for Seward and Grover. In 1887, he moved 
to Douglas county and took a pre-emption and 
timber culture claim where he now resides. He 
later took up a homestead and his estate is well 
improved. He grows small grain in addition 
to handling stock and is one of the prosperous 
men in this county. He has a large band of 
Avell graded cattle and some horses. Mr. Mc- 
Lean has been road supervisor and has also 
held various other offices. He has three broth- 
ers and two sisters, Laughlan, Isaac M., Wil- 
liam, Mrs. Margaret AlcCurdy, Mrs. Alice 

At Waterville, on July 21, 1890, Mr. Mc- 
Lean married Miss Mildred Tackey, the daugh- 
ter of Daniel and Martha (Wasson) Tackey, 
natives of Pennsylvania. Mrs. McLean was 
born in Laclede county, Missouri, on October 
3, 1871, and has one brother and four sisters, 
Henry, Mrs. Charlotte Rigg. Mrs. Emma 

Stout, Mrs. Mary Nolan and Mrs. Minnie 
Smith. Mr. and Mrs. McLean have the fol- 
lowing named children: Ira D., born on De- 
cember 29, 1891 ; Charles H., born November 
9, 1893; Floyd J., born July 5, 1901 ; and 
Maud, born March 27, 1904. 

Mr. McLean is an Orangeman and was 
raised in the church of Scotland. He is a very 
popular man and receives the respect of all. 
He is a first class citizen and has labored stead- 
ily and well for the building up of the country 
as well as gaining the confidence that he now 

DENNIS J. LEAHY who resides about 
one mile west from Leahy postoffice, was born 
in the Province of Quebec, Canada, on June 18, 
1862, being the son of James and Catherine 
(Barrett) Leahy, natives of the county of Cork, 
Ireland and Canada, respectively. He received 
his educational training in the district schools 
of his native country and remained there assist- 
ing his father until eighteen years of age, then 
he journeyed across the continent to California 
and settled in Bodie. He was engaged in mining 
on the Standard for about three years. After 
that he caine to Washington, settling on Foster 
creek, near where his brother Daniel was, who 
is mentioned in another portion of this work. 
He also took other government claims and 
turned his attention to general farming and 
stock raising. He has continued this steadily 
until the present time and now is one of the 
wealthy men of Douglas county. He farms 
over two' hundred and fifty acres of land about 
ninety-five of which are producing hay. Mr. 
Leahy has three or four hundred head of cattle, 
all of fine Hereford strain, grazing on the 
prairies near his home, and also owns a good 
many horses. He has been blessed with abund- 
ant success since coming here, owing to his care- 
ful labors and the wisdom with which they have 
been bestowed. His horses are all Percheron 
stock and are fine driving animals. 

At Spokane, on October 24, 1899, ]\Ir. 
Leahy married Miss Mae Halterman. Her pa- 
rents were Ephraim and Eliza (Johnson) Hal- 
terman, natives of West Virginia and Ohio, 
respectively. Mrs. Leahy was bom in Gar- 
field county, Washington, on May 5, 1881. She 
has two brothers and four sisters. Alfred, Ed- 
mond, I\Irs. Dora Cuerland, Carrie. Nellie, 



Eula. To this marriage one child has been 
born, James Ehner on April 23, 1901. 

Mr. and Mrs. Leahy are members of the 
Roman Catholic church and he belongs to the 
A. O. U. W. They are well respected people 
and good citizens of the county. 

GEORGE M. BOWKER is certainly one 
of the earliest pioneers in the Big Bend coun- 
try, and since those days of trials and hardship, 
has bestowed his labors here with becoming 
wisdom and is now reaping the rewards of good 
possessions due to his industry and skill. He 
resides about twelve miles northeast from Wil- 
soncreek, where he has a large estate of nearly 
one thousand acres. Three hundred acres of 
this land are well supplied with irrigating water 
and produce more hay than his stock is using. 
He handles well bred cattle, having introduced 
some excellent red Durham bulls and other 
good breeds. Formerly Mr. Bowker gave his 
attention to raising horses, but as the market 
became low, he sold for nine dollars per head 
and is now handling cattle altogether. 

George M. Bowker was born in Phippsburg. 
Maine, on June' 28, 1S52, the son of Timothy 
B. and Elizabeth (Morrison) Bowker, natives 
of Maine. The father was one of the large 
lumber operators in Maine and also a large ship 
builder. He was prominent in politics and held 
a seat in the legislature. Our subject was edu- 
cated in the public schools of Cambridge, Mas- 
sachusetts, and in 1877, came west to Oregon. 
Settling at Cooks bay, he operated in lumber 
lines, then journeyed to San Francisco. It was 
in 1879, that he came to the Big Bend and 
here worked for Peter Myer, on Crab creek. 
Later he wrought for George Urquhart and 
during this time started in the horse breeding 
business for himself. He bought a section of 
land from the Northern Pacific where he now 
lives and has since added by government rights. 
Mr. Bowker has continued steadily in the horse 
and cattle business here and is now recognized 
as one of the leaders in this enterprise. He 
has won the good will of all and is really a part 
and parcel of the Big Bend. Mr. Bowker has 
two brothers. Freeman C. and William R., 
and four sisters, Mrs. Maria Perry, Mrs. Emma 
Campbell, Mrs. Lottie Rogers, and Mrs. Lena 

The marriage of Mr. Bowker occurred in 
Spokane, in June, 1892, Mrs. Olive A. Willis 
becoming his bride then. Her parents, Oliver 
R. and Ruth E. (Malcolm) Spinning, are na- 
tives of Maine and of English and Scotch an- 
cestors. Mrs. Bowker was born in Phippsburg, 
Maine, in 1859. By her former marriage she 
had one son, John Clarence. He was born in 
Phippsburg, Maine, on June 14, 1880, and died 
in Douglas county, on October 16, 1902. Mr. 
and Mrs. Bowker are adherents of the Congre- 
gational church. In 1897, they had the great 
misfortune to lose their residence and all its 
contents by fire. 

It is of note that Mr. Bowker's grandfather 
fought in the war of 1812. 

HENRY LIETZOW, deceased. It is very 
fitting that we incorporate in this volume 
memoirs of the -well known gentleman whose 
name appears above. For many years, he 
labored in the Big Bend with a good degree of 
success and also won hosts of friends wherever 
he was known. His death was very sudden 
and his departure was mourned universally. 
Henry Lietzow was born in Pommern, Prussia, 
on February 4, 1862, the son of William and 
Teresa (Bartelt) Lietzow, natives of Germany. 
The father died in Spokane in 1897 and the 
mother now lives near that city. Our subject 
was educated in the high schools of Germany, 
then learned the miller's trade. After arriving 
at manhood's estate, he served three years in 
the German army, being in the Second Grena- 
diers, under General Waldow. He was both 
drill and swimming master, while in the army. 
In 1886, Mr. Lietzow came to the United States 
and settled at Latah, where he was occupied 
with A. Wheeler in the flour mill. Two years 
later, he moved to Douglas county and took a 
pre-emption, and then a homestead about two 
miles north from Hartline. He gave his at- 
tention to general farming and stock raising 
and owned a nice stock of graded horses and 
cattle. Mr. Lietzow had one sister, Mrs. Fred 
Jurgins and one brother, Paul. 

On February 18, 1886, in Germany, ]\Ir. 
Lietzow married Miss Martha, daughter of 
Frederick W. and Amelia (Falbe) Beyer, na- 
tives of Germany. Mrs. Lietzow was born in 
Germany on March 12, 1861 and has one 


brother. Paul. To this union three children 
were born, Elsie D. F., Emma M., Harry Fred, 

Mr. Lietzow was a member of the Macca- 
bees, while he and his wife were adherents of 
the Lutheran church. 

On December i6th, while returning from 
Hartline, Mr. Lietzow was injured by the fall 
of his horse. He was immediately taken to the 
Sacred Heart Hospital in Spokane for treat- 
ment, but despite all that could be done, he 
passed away on the 19th, three days after his 
injury. His remains were brought to Hartline 
where they were interred with proper ceremony. 

about three miles south from Mold, where he 
has an estate of nearly one section, which his 
thrift and industry has made to produce annual- 
h- bounteous crops of cereals. In addition to 
these labors, Mr. Halterman raises considerable 
stock. He has one Percheron stallion, Ma- 
homet, a fine registered animal worth two thou- 
sand dollars and weighing one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty pounds. Mr. Halterman has 
made excellent success in stock raising and 
farming and is a very prosperous man. He 
has met with very gratifying success in his 
association with his fellow men, having by his 
integrity and uprightness won hosts of friends 
in all parts of the county. 

Edward Halterman was born in Lewis 
county. West Virginia, on June 9, 1849. His 
parents, George and Mary (Waybright) 
Halterman, were natives of Virginia and Ohio, 
respectively. The family moved to Illinois 
then to Iowa and to Missouri, being on the 
frontier the most of the time. On account of 
this, our subject was not permitted to attend 
school, consequently his education had to l^e 
gained by studying at home, carefully im- 
proving all odd moments, which he has most 
thoroughly done with the result that he is one 
of the well posted men of the county. In 1867, 
our subject went ,to Missouri and three years 
later, journeyed to Page county, Iowa, where 
he farmed for fifteen years, then took a home- 
stead in Sully county. South Dakota. After 
selling that property, he came to Washington, 
and explored various portions of the state, go- 
ing from the Sound to the Palouse and other 
sections. He finally selected the Big Bend as 

the place and took a pre-emption where he now 
dwells. He bought other land and has now a 
fine farm. He has a good house and the farm 
is provided witli all the improvements necessary. 
Mr. Halterman raises a great many Poland- 
China hogs and has a fine stock at present. He 
has two brothers, Ephraim and Andrew, and 
one sister, Mrs. Harriett Reeve. 

FRANK A. WINGATE, who is operating 
a large mercantile establishment in Krupp, is 
one of the progressive and capable men of 
Douglas county. He is the sole owner of the 
Krupp Mercantile Company, which carries a 
large stock of all kinds of goods, and under the 
skillful management of Mr. Wingate, is one 
of the leading business houses in the Big Bend 

Frank A. Wingate was born in Rome, New 
York, on May i, i860, the son of Moses and 
Martha D. (Walker) \\^ingate, natives of New 
Hampshire and Maine, respectively. Our sub- 
ject was educated in the public schools and the 
academy in Rome and at the age of nineteen 
left his native city to try his fortune in Color- 
ado. He operated in mining and other in- 
dustries in the Centennial State for some years, 
and finally was connected 'with the National 
Bank of Durango. From that point he came 
to Spokane in 1897 and was soon engaged by 
Holly, Mason & Marks, large merchants of 
that city. After a year in the Falls City, Mr. 
Wingate came out into the Big Bend country 
and was operating for a time in Wilbur. About 
two years after that, he opened a store in 
Krupp, and from time to time, as the patronage 
justified it, he has enlarged the business, and 
now is carrying a large, well assorted and com- 
plete stock of general merchandise, implements, 
and so forth. 

The Wingate family, originally English, 
dates back to 11 54, A. D., and receives the 
name from a valorous act of one, who, being 
a man of wonderful strength, wrenched a gate 
from its place on a castle fortification, thus 
enabling the attacking hosts to enter and over- 
come the enemy. Many prominent and talented 
people have come from tlie family and they are 
a strong and progressive people. Our subject 
has one brother, John W., and one sister, Mrs. 
Henry V. Adams. 



At Silverton, Colorado, in 1886, Mr. Win- 
gate married Miss Carrie Tucker, whose pa- 
rents, Marcus and Harriett Tucker, were na- 
tives of New York. To Mr. and Mrs. Win- 
gate, three children have been born; Ahna M., 
on December 15, 1887, attending school at 
Brunot Hall, Spokane; Erie T., on March 6. 
1894; and John W., whose birthday was July 
4, 1900. The two older ones were born in 
Colarado and the youngest in Douglas county. 
Mr. Wingate is a member of the A. F. & A. M. 
and the W. W. He and his wife are adherents 
of the Presbyterian church. Mr. Wingate is 
assistant postmaster at Krupp and is a thorough 
and upright business man, whose friends are 
numbered by the score from every c[uarter. 

W^\DE WAGLAY, who resides about 
four miles north' from Krupp on an estate of 
over one thousand acres of fine pasture land, 
is one of the wealthy and substantial men of 
the Big Bend. He has labored here for all the 
years' since May, 1887, the date of his settle- 
ment on a pre-emption where he now resides. 
His attention has been directed for the main 
part to stock raising. In this industry, he has 
gained a marked success and has fine herds at 
this time. Naturally, as a prudent man, he has 
taken considerable interest in general farming 
that he might have sufficient forage to keep his 
stock through the hard winters, and the terrible 
losses sustained by different stockmen ha\-e not 
fallen on him. 

Wade Waglay was born in Crosby county, 
Texas, on March 16, i860, the son of Joseph 
and Ann (Coffey) Waglay. natives of Louis- 
iana, and of German ancestrage. Wade was 
educated in the public schools of Austin. Texas, 
and there remained until 1882. Then he mi- 
grated to New Mexico, and began work in the 
stock business for the firm of Lyon & Campbell, 
the largest operators in that territory. Four 
years later, he returned to Texas and at the date 
mentioned above he came to Washington and 
settled. He took up stock raising at first with 
J. F. Popple. Mr. Waglav is a man of thor- 
oughness and excellent ability and the success 
he lias achieved is the direct result of his ef- 
forts bestowed in wisdom. He is widely kn(i\\n 
and universally respected and esteemed. 

At Spokane, on April 8, 1903. Mr. W'aglay 

married Mrs. Clara Wheatley, the daughter of 
Noah and Anna Reams, natives of Ohio, and 
early immigrants to California via the Horn. 
Mrs. Waglay was born in Sutter county, Cali- 
fornia, in i860. By her former marriage she 
has three children, Ethel, Maud, and Roy, all 
born in California. 

GEORGE UROUHART was born in 
Rossshire, Scotland, on January 22, 1847. His 
father, Duncan Urquhart, an extensive sheep 
raiser in the Highlands of Scotland, married 
Miss Catherine Mcintosh and the subject of 
this sketch was the oldest of seven children 
born to this couple. He was educated in his 
native country and in early manhood emigrated 
to America. Here he was employed in various 
occupations in New Jersey, Wisconsin and 
Michigan, until 1874, when he journeyed to the 
Pacific coast, visiting San Francisco, Portland, 
Oregon, and the placer mines in central Idaho. 
After this he entered the employ of the Ore- 
gon Steam Navigation Company, and remained 
with them some time. In 1876, he came to 
Washington, traveling overland from Walla 
Walla in this territory to his present place. 
Walla Walla, three hundred miles distant was 
his nearest supply point and postofiice. He 
purchased a squatter's right of 'Henry Marlin 
to various tracts of meadow land lying along 
Crab creek and began stock raising. At that 
time, there were no railroads in the territory of 
Washington, nor had the Northern Pacific re- 
ceived its grant of land for building to the 
coast. Consequently Mr. Urquhart ranks as 
one of the very earliest settlers in this section 
of the country. In 1878, he was in imminent 
danger of losing his life, owing to an Indian 
outbreak, which drove the half dozen settlers 
along the creek to Fort Walla Walla. Mr. 
L^rquhart determined to stay on the ranch, how- 
ever, and escaped without injury. 

In 1887, Mr. L^rquhart visited his native 
country and there married Helen Sime of Inch- 
ture, Perthshire. They ha\-e four sur\-iving 
children, Kate, (irace, David S., and Alister 
McN. Mr. and Mrs. L^rquhart are adherents 
of the Presbyterian church and are leading and 
highly esteemed people. Besides owning large 
tracts of land in Lincoln and Douglas counties, 
they are owners of the townsite of Krupp, one 



of the newest and the most promising towns of 
the Big Bend country. Mr. Urquhart is a man 
of strong personaHty and has always been 
closely identified with the progress and im- 
provement of this resourceful country. 
He maintains on his home place, about 
one hundred head of registered Short- 
horn cattle in which he takes a great 
pride. He also has a large number of 
other cattle and sheep on the public domain, 
being one of the pioneer and extensive cattle 
raisers of the Big Bend country. He was a 
resident of this section prior to the formation 
of the counties of Lincoln and Douglas, when 
the entire country north of the Snake was 
known as Stevens county, with Colville as its 
county seat. 

ROBERT L. PLAYFAIR is one of the 
younger men of Douglas county and has 
achieved a brilliant success in his labors. He is 
at the present time, residing about two and one- 
half miles southeast from Wilsoncreek where he 
has a fine home place and is giving his attention 
to raising stock. Robert L. Playfair was born 
in Perthshire, Scotland, on September 8, 1871. 
the son of Charles G. and Margaret (Lunnan) 
Playfair, natives also of Scotland. He was edu- 
cated in the parochial schools and in the high 
school of Dundee. He remained in his native 
land until 1888, when he came direct to Wash- 
ington and began work for the Urquhart 
Brothers. After sometime in their employ, he 
located the land where he now lives as a home- 
stead and turned his attention to raising cattle. 
He began with the ordinary stock to be had here 
but has bred them up until he has now a large 
herd of very fine stock. In 1901 he opened a 
general merchandise establishment at Wilson- 
creek, carrying all kinds of supplies in addition 
to store goods and soon after the business was 
well started, he sold out to the Nichols Broth- 
ers, then gave his entire attention to stock rais- 
ing. In addition to the property mentioned, 
Mr. Playfair owns one hundred and sixty acres 
of land where the residence portion of Wilson- 
creek is being built. He bas one brother, 
Charles W. and two sisters, Margaret L. and 
Isabella C. 

On February 16, 1896. at Cheney, Wash- 
ington, Mr. Playfair married Miss Gertrude 
Hull. Her father, Thomas Hull, now deceased. 

was a native of Ohio and 'served in Company 
'D, Eleventh Wisconsin _ Volunteer Infantry, 
during the Civil war. He was a resident of 
Douglas county at the time of his death. His 
wife, Angeline (Corothers) Hull, is a native 
of Indiana. Mrs. Playfair was born in Sher- 
burn, Minnesota, in 1877, and has three broth- 
ers and four sisters, John R., James E., Eugene 
T., Mrs. Elizabeth Ford, Mrs. Ulilla Powell, 
Mrs. Loretta Gillespie and Mrs. Alice Orrock. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Playfair, one child has been 
born, Athol Christy. The date of his birth 
was February 22, 1897. Mr. and Mrs. Play- 
fair are members of the Presbyterian church. 
He is a man of great energy and possessed of 
an aggressive spirit, yet all of his labors have 
been marked with due conservatism and guided 
by excellent wisdom, so much so that every 
venture of his has culminated in success. 

ZACHARIAH FINNEY, who resides 
about two miles west from Wilsoncreek, is one 
of the earliest settlers in the Crab creek country. 
He is now one of the heavy stock raisers and 
also does general farming. He has a large 
amount of fine natural meadow land besides 
considerable irrigated land. A large portion of 
this is given to the production of hay for his 
stock and he is one of the progressive and 
wealthy men in the Crab creek valley. 

Zachariah Finney was born in Barren coun- 
ty, Kentucky, on November 30, 1852. His pa- 
rents, Franklin and Nancy J. (Hizer) Finney, 
were natives of Pennsylvania and followed 
farming. Later, they moved to Linn county, 
Missouri, where our subject was educated and 
remained until he had arrived at manhood's 
estate. His youthful labors were on the farm. 
In 1876, he moved to Iowa, then later returned 
to Missouri after which he went to Colorado. 
He returned from Colorado to Missouri and 
in 1886 came to the Big Bend country. He 
first located land where Odessa now stands. 
Then he took his present place, a timber culture 
claim, and has added by purchase and desert 
act until he has about one thousand acres. He 
at once commenced to handle stock. He im- 
proved his herds by the introduction of Short- 
horn and Hereford strains and now has some 
very valuable cattle. When first here, Mr. 
Finney found the whole country open and but 



few people settled in the valley. The hills 
formed the finest range to be found in the 
west and he took advantage of the same. 

Mr. Finney has nine brothers and two sis- 
ters, John W., James T., Benjamin F., Robert, 
Louis S., George W., Sterling P., Andrew ].', 
Alexander, Dora A. McCallu-m, and Mary A. 

In Linn county, Missouri, November 12, 
1883, Mr. Finney married Miss Elizabeth, 
daughter of Squire and Mary (McLean) Put- 
nam. She was born in Linn county, Missouri, 
on April 15, 1865. To this couple four chil- 
dren have been born ; Roy E., in Linn county, 
Missouri, on November 5, 1884; Oscar, at 
Odessa, Washington, on July 18, 1886; Archie, 
in Lincoln county, on August 22, 1889; Cora, 
on August 24, 1894. The last is a native of 
Douglas county. 

Mr. and Mrs. Finney are communicants of 
the Methodist church and are known as good 
people, having hosts of friends. 

GEORGE F. GOLDSMITH has the dis- 
tinction of being the first mayor of Wilson- 
creek after the city charter was adopted. The 
election occurred in 1903. The following May 
he took his oath of office and is at the present 
time acting in this capacity. He has proved an 
efficient and wise executive officer, as he has 
also a capable and thrifty business man. He 
is now at the head of a large lumber business 
which has grown under his direction until it is 
now one of the best in the county. He handles 
a full supply of building material and does a 
thriving business. 

George F. Goldsmith was born in Cairo, 
Illinois, on May 14, 1866. being the son of 
George and Ruth E. (Hewke) Goldsmith, 
natives of England and emigrants to the 
United States in early days. The father served 
in the union navy during the Rebellion. The 
common schools of his native place gave the 
educational training to our subject and in early 
manhood he learned the carpenter trade. He 
continued at Cairo until twenty-three years of 
age, and then went to St. Louis, where he was 
engaged at his trade for seven years. In 1896 
he removed west, settling just north of Wil- 
bur, where he bought half interest in his broth- 
er's wheat ranch. He was occupied in conduct- 

ing this for one year, then moved into Wilbur 
and opened a mercantile establishment. After 
one year in this business, he went to Everett, 
Washington, and there engaged in contract 
work for a short time. After that, he came 
back to eastern Washington and selected Wil- 
soncreek as his permanent place of abode. He 
opened a lumber yard in this thriving center in 
company with Jesse Gentry and from that time 
until the present he has given his entire atten- 
tion to the upbuilding of his business, and the 
result is he stands now a prosperous and re- 
spected business man of Douglas county. Mr. 
Goldsmith has three brothers, Herbert H., 
Louis D. and z'Vdelbert A., and three sisters, 
Mrs. Edith Bradbury, Mrs. Mabel Goe and 
Mrs. Ruth Aldrich. 

At St. Louis, Missouri, on February 26, 
1902, Mr. Goldsmith married Miss Ida Schop- 
mier, whose parents were natives of Germany 
and early settlers in St. Louis. She was born in 
St. Louis, on December 19, 1871, and has two 
brothers, Henry and August, and one sister, 
Emma, all living in St. Louis. On December 
9, 1902, at Wilsoncreek, Ralph A. was born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Goldsmith. Mr. Goldsmith 
and his wife were reared under the influence of 
the Presbyterian church, but are not members 
of anv denomination. 

A. JACKSON JEFFERS is one of the 
industrious and substantial farmers of Douglas 
county whose estate of one-half section lies 
about four miles southwest of Almira. He was 
born in Clay county, Indiana, on March 7, 
1862, being the son of Reese and Amanda 
(Fogen) Jeffers. natives of Pennsylvania and 
Ohio, respectively, and early pioneers of Indi- 
ana. In the common schools of his native land 
our subject received his educational training 
and there grew to manhood. In 1884 he moved 
to Kansas and in a short time went thence to 
Colorado, whence he returned to Indiana. 
Later, we' find him in the Oklahoma country 
and then again in Colorado, whence he came 
to Washington, settling in Lincoln county, 
where he lived for many years. He then took 
a portion of his present estate as a homestead 
and added another quarter section of railroad 
land by purchase. To the improvement and 
cultivation of this estate he has devoted him- 



self continuously since and the result is that he 
has a fine, well cultivated farm, productive of 
good dividends. Mr. Jeffers passed through 
the hardships and trials of the pioneer and used 
in early days to go to the Palouse country har- 
vesting to buy the bread for the family for the 
rest of the year. Now he has a fine estate and 
is one of the prosperous agriculturists of this 
part of the country. Mr. Jefifers has the follow- 
ing brothers and sisters : Leander, William R., 
Sherman J.. Charley, Mrs. Emma R. Crumble, 
Mrs. Eliza Paterson, Mrs. Millie Miller, Luella. 
In Lincoln county Mr. Jeffers married 
Miss Sarah, daug'hter of Lawrence and 
Lucy ( Lewis ) Shrewsbury, natives of Vir- 
ginia and W'ashington, respectively. Mr. 
Shrewsbury crossed the plains in 1849 to Cali- 
fornia and then made his way northward to 
Lincoln county. Mrs. Jeffers has three broth- 
ers and one sister. Charles, Albert, Nathaniel 
and Hollie. The names of the children born to 
Mr. and Mrs. Jeffers and dates of birth are 
given below : Burt, born in Lincoln county on 
December 29, 1891 ; Arthur, born in Lin- 
coln county on March 26, 1893; Amanda 
B., born in Douglas county on March 8, 1895 ; 
Ella, born in Lincoln county on August 17, 
1897; Lula, born in Douglas county on Feb- 
ruary 10, 1898; Charley, boriT in Douglas 
county on No\-ember 24, 1902. 

JOHN JELINEK is one of the pioneers of 
Douglas county who has remained from the 
time he first settled here until now. He has 
given his attention largely to general farming 
and stock raising and has gained a marked suc- 
cess in his labors. His estate lies about four 
miles south from Lincoln and is first-class grain 
land, producing good crops each year. Mr. 
Jelinek has labored here with good display of 
wisdom and skill in developing the resources of 
the country, so that he has been blessed with 
abundant prosperity, having considerable prop- 
erty and all entirely free from encumbrance 
of every sort. 

John Jelinek was born in Bohemia, near 
Tabor, on May 15, 1858, being the son of John 
and Katrina (Svoboda) Jelinek, natives of 
Bohemia. They both died in Wisconsin. Our 
subject had no opportunity to gain an education 
in his country, as he left there with his parents 
and came to the Ignited States when five years 

of age. They settled in the wilds of Wisconsin 
where no school privileges were found and 
John was obliged to gain his education from 
studying at home, and with the careful perusal 
of what books he could get hold of, he has be- 
come a well informed man and is a close student 
of all surroundings and conditions. In 1876 
our subject left Wisconsin and came to Seattle 
via the L^nion Pacific Railway and steamer. 
Finding little employment on the sound, he 
went on foot to Pierce City, Idaho, a distance 
of over five hundred miles, where he worked in 
the placer mines. Later, he was located on the 
Clearwater, after which we find him employed 
at Texas Ferry on the Snake. From there, he 
went to the Yakima river and did timber work 
for the Northern Pacific. After this, he 
worked at various places along the Northern 
Pacific, and did bridgework until 1882, the 
year in which he selected a homestead and tim- 
ber culture, in Douglas county. After taking 
this claim, he worked a year more on the 
Northern Pacific, then came to his land and 
started in improving it. For fifteen years he 
has been school director of district No. i and 
has always taken an interest in the advancement 
and upbuilding of the county. Mr. Jelinek has 
four brothers and one sister, Albert, Michael, 
Antonio, Bohumil and Mrs. Mary Holbrook. 

At Lincoln, on June 18, 1893, Mr. Jelinek 
married Miss Jennie White, whose father, Da- 
vid White, was a native of Kansas. Mrs. 
Jelinek was born in New Harmony, on July 
2T,, 1874, and died near Elliot, on the sound, 
January 14, 1899. Her remains are interred in 
the Shrock cemetery. She has three brothers 
and two sisters.John, James, Eugene, Mrs. John 
Zimmerman ancl Mrs. Fred Nater. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Jelinek, three children have been 
born : Mary A., on February 25, 1894; Ralph, 
on October 2, 189s; and Roscoe, on April s. 

Mr. Jelinek is a member of the A. O. U. W., 
the Maccabees and the A. F. & A. M. He was 
raised in the Catholic faith and has always been 
a supporter of church institutions. 

PERCY G. MALTBIE is one of the young 
and prosperous business men of Douglas 
county. He has been engaged in various lines 
as will be noticed by the following and is now 
in company with D. O. Friel and his brother, 



A. M. Maltbie, in the hardware and furnishing 
business in Wilsoncreek. They carr_y a full 
line of shelf hardware and furniture, together 
with house furnishing goods, and have a thriv- 
ing trade. 

Percy G. [Maltbie was born in Allamakee 
county, Iowa, on August 12, 1868. being the 
son of James D. and Achsah (Wright) Malt- 
bie, natives of New York and Michigan, re- 
spectively. The father served in the Twenty- 
seventh Iowa Volunteer Infantry, with distinc- 
tion, then came west and died at Waterville, 
Washington. Our subject was educated in the 
public schools of Nebraska, finishing in the 
high school. In 1886, he moved with his father 
and family to Washington and settled near 
Waterville. He was engaged in farming for 
some time. In the spring of 1893 he was 
elected marshal of Waterville, which position 
he held for two years. After this term of 
office, Mr. Maltbie engaged in the hardware 
business with Mr. C. A. Carpenter, where he 
remained for a year. He then turned his atten- 
tion to prospecting near Republic, continuing 
the same for one year. After that he returned 
and in 1898 joined Company D, of the Inde- 
pendent Battalion of the Washington Volun- 
teer Infantry. He was elected captain of the 
company, which consisted of one hundred and 
five men, mostly from Douglas county, and 
they were ordered to Tacoma, where they were 
mustered into the service. As soon as enlisted 
they were sent to Vancouver, where they con- 
tinued until October 28, 1898, at which time 
they were mustered out, having been in the 
service for five months. If they had gone to the 
front, they would have been a part of the Sec- 
ond Washington Volunteer Infantry. Immedi- 
ately following his discharge from service, Mr. 
Maltbie returned to Waterville and opened a 
cigar store in company with his brother, A. N. 
■Maltbie. This was conducted until 1902. when 
he sold out his interests and mo\-ed to Wilson- 
creek and opened a hardware business. His en- 
tire establishment was burned down, but with 
pluck, he and his partners rebuilt, putting in a 
larger store, and are now doing good business. 

Mr. Maltbie has two brothers, Albert L., 
a merchant in Waterville, and Appleton, county 
clerk of Douglas county, and one sister, Mrs. 
Jennie Sanford, of Okanogan county. 

At Vancouver, Washington, on March 29, 
1906, Mr. Maltbie married Miss Elsie, daugh- 

ter of James P. and Sarah (Mitchell) Smith, 
nati\-es of Iowa. To this union was born one 
child, Fanny A., on June 6, 1901, who died at 
the place of her birth, Waterville, on February 
2. 1902. Airs. Maltbie was born in Dixon 
county. Nebraska, in 1881, and died at Van- 
couver. November 2, 1901. Mr. Maltbie wa.s 
thus called to mourn the loss of his entire fam- 
ily with a short time of each other and he knows 
something of the sorrows of this world. He 
was raised under the influence of the Christian 
church and is still a supporter of this organi- 
zation, but is not an active member of any 
denomination. At Spokane, on August 10, 
1904. Mr. Maltbie married Miss Elfa Harrison. 

ROBERT T. ROBERTS, who dwells 
about four miles west from Almira. was born 
in North Wales, on March i, 1849, his parents 
were John and Grace (Evens) Roberts, natives 
of North Wales. The schools of that place 
furnished the educational training of our sub- 
ject and there he remained until 1868, when he 
came to the United States, settling in Racine, 
Wisconsin. For a year he was engaged in 
framing, then shipped for a cook on the lake 
boats, where he served for a period. After that 
he settled in Beloit, Wisconsin, and there did 
farming for three years. Later, we find him 
at La Crosse, Wisconsin, and also at other cities 
in the Badger State. For three years he was 
at Fox Lake, farming. After this he went 
to Colorado and in about 1880 returned to Ra- 
cine, W^isconsin, where he engaged with the J. 
I. Case Threshing Machine Company until 
June, 1887. At that time Mr. Roberts came to 
Douglas county and settled where he now 
dwells, taking a pre-emption and then a home- 
stead. He owns three hundred and twenty 
acres of choice and fertile land which is very 
productive of the cereals. He also owns prop- 
erty in Spokane, besides cattle and horses. Mr. 
Roberts has one brother, David, and one sister, 
Mrs. Ann Thomas. The former dwells in New 
York and the latter in Montana. 

At Kingston, Wisconsin, on IMarch 8. 
1875, Mr. Roberts married Miss Ann E.. 
daughter of John E. and Elizabeth (Owens) 
Williams, natives of north Wales, now dwell- 
ing in Wisconsin. Mrs. Roberts was born in 
Green Lake countv, Wisconsin, on December 



22, 1849, and has the following broth- 
enrs and sisters, William E., Caldwalda, 
Edward, John E., David, Owen, Mrs. 
Jane Williams, Elizabeth, Mrs. Maggie Hig- 
gensen, Mrs. Mimie Stiles, and Mary. Mr. and 
Mrs. Roberts have three daughters, Mary J. 
Hughes, Bessie Roberts, Maggie Owens. 

In religious persuasions, Mr. and Mrs. 
Roberts are members of the Calvinistic Metho- 
dist church. Mrs. Roberts had two brothers in 
the late war, William and Caldwelda, who 
served four years in the Twenty-second and 
Twenty-third Volunteer Infantry. 

JOHN M. COOPER, M. D., Deceased. 
No work that purports to mention the pioneers 
and prominent citizens of Douglas county 
would be complete without reference to the 
well-known gentleman and professional man 
whose name initiates this article. Dr. Cooper 
is certainly worthy to be numbered among the 
leading citizens of Douglas county and his 
memory is dear to all. For many years he was 
county physician and during his residence here 
had a large practice, being one of the skillful 
and successful physicians of central Washing- 

John Cooper was born in Memphis. Mis- 
souri, in 1858, being the son of Joseph and 
Sarah (Worth) Cooper, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania, and of English and German ancestry, 
respectively. After tTie primary training of the 
common school course, he matriculated in a 
leading college and in due course of time re- 
ceived his degree, then entered the medical de- 
partment of the University of Iowa attending 
the same until his diploma was received. He 
was a thorough and hard-working student and 
immediately after graduation began the practice 
of medicine in Defiance, Missouri. After three 
years there, he went to Nebraska, settling in 
Holstein. Thence, in 1889, he came to Douglas 
county, taking up the practice of his profes- 
sion in Waterville. He continued steadily in 
the same until March 4, 1903, when death 
claimed the good man and many were left to 
mourn his demise. With proper ceremonies 
and in the presence of a vast concourse of 
friends his remains were laid to rest in the 
Waterville cemetery. Doctor Cooper had three 
brothers, William Z., Perry, George W., and 
one sister, Mrs. Joseph Ingalls. 

In Bedford, Iowa, in 1882. Dr. Cooper mar- 
ried Miss Nancy E., daughter of Thomas M. 
and Katherine (Hays) Simons, natives of Vir- 
ginia and Illinois, respectively, and pioneers in 
Iowa. Mrs. Cooper has the following brothers 
and sisters: Ralph H.. Thomas R., James N., 
John W., Burton L., Mrs. David C. Ellis, Mrs. 
Thomas Davidson and Mrs. Wilbur Freemeyer. 
To Doctor and Mrs. Cooper the following chil- 
dren have been born : Astley Raymond, in 
Iowa City, on January 24, 1883, now a drug- 
gist in Waterville; Joseph Thomas, born in 
Defiance, Missouri, on February 7, 1885, and 
now a student ; Leslie Zonas, born in Defiance, 
Missouri, on November 2, 1887. Dr. Cooper 
was a member of the A. F. & A. M., the Mod- 
ern Woodmen and the Eastern Star, and at his 
death these societies and individuals rendered 
lasting tribute to his memory as a man, brother, 
friend and physician. 

JOHN G. JONES was born in Carnarvon 
county, Wales, on May 14, 1868, being the son 
of John G. and Ellen (Williams) Jones, natives 
of Wales. His education was received in his 
native place and then went to work in the 
granite and coal mines of Wales, where he 
remained until 1889, and in which year he came 
to the United States, settling in Wardner, 
Idaho. For two years, he was occupied in the 
copper mines of that section, then went to Wal- 
lace and wrought for a year. In 1892 he came 
to Hartline and took up a homestead two miles 
north of town which he still owns. In 1894 
we find him at Tyler, Spokane county, engaged 
in irrigating land for Williams & Cham- 
bers. Fifteen months later he went to 
Rossland and there wrought in the Nickel- 
plate and Nevada mines. After one year 
in that capacity he went to Ainsworth 
and engaged in the Delia mines. He 
wrought in the Black Diamond and other 
mines, then came to Spokane and finally on to 
Ellensburg, whence he came to Douglas county, 
settling on his homestead. After two years 
there, Mr. Jones came to Hartline and opened a 
livery barn. He has one brother, Thomas, in 
Phoeni.x, British Columbia. 

At Ellensburg, on July 12, 1897, Mr. Jones 
married Miss Bertha, daughter of Israel and 
Ida Thayer, natives of Minnesota. Mrs. Jones 


was born in Minnesota in 1876, and died at 
Hartline, on March 9, 1899. She had three 
brothers, Burdette, John and Daniel. To this 
marriage, one child was born, Charles A., at 
Hartline, on March 9, 1899. Mr. Jones con- 
tracted a second marriage, the date of the same 
being July 20, 1901, on which occasion, Mrs. 
Dora Richardson, of Long View, Texas, be- 
came his wife. She was born in Silver, Ala- 
bama, on February i, 1863, the daughter of 
John M. and Julia (Killinger) Aden. Mrs. 
Jones has the following brothers and sisters : 
Lorenzo D., Albert M., Alexander, j\Irs. Jessie 
Stout, Mrs. Emma Hay and Mrs. Lizzie Scar- 

DENNIS E. LEARY is at the present time 
the popular and efficient host of the Hotel 
Coulee, situated at Coulee City. He is pos- 
sessed of the noted wit characteristic of his 
race and also shows marked originality, thus 
being a very entertaining host, while also, he 
m.anifests excellent care for the comfort of his 
guests. He is genial, well liked, a good busi- 
ness man and the recipient of a fine patronage. 
Dennis E. Leary was born in Huntington 
county, Canada, on March 12, 1858. His fa- 
ther, Dennis Leary, was a native of Ireland and 
a pioneer to Canada, where he married Miss 
Margaret Smith, a native of that country. The 
public schools of Huntington county contrib- 
uted to the education of our subject until he 
was seventeen, when he journeyed west to 
Nevada and there in Carson and Virginia City 
did general work and continued in night school 
for some time. After this he went to mining 
exclusively and for seventeen years worked in 
the various leading mines on the Pacific coast. 
He met with some reverses, but altogether did 
very well and had collected a very nice property 
when he came to Douglas county. ]\Ir. Leary 
at once embarked in the stock business here and 
in 1890 lost almost his entire herd, thereby 
losing the money he had made for years previ- 
ous. He was not discouraged, however, and 
continued in the cattle business and is occu- 
pied in the same at the present time, having 
made since 1890 a good success. In 1898, Mr. 
Leary opened a h.otel at Coulee City and since 
that time has made it one of the most popular 
and entertaining places to be found in the Big 
Bend country. Every one is glad to have the 

opportunity of spending a day or*wo with Mr. 
Leary and his unfeigned hospitality "and kind- 
ness win for him friends from every rank. 
In addition to the above property named, Mr. 
Leary has a farm which is devoted to the 
cereals, largely. The reason that he changed 
his occupation from mining to stock raising, 
w■^s that continued work in the lead mines had 
affected his health and threatened his death, if 
he did not get out in the open air more. Mr. 
Leary has the following brothers and sisters, 
Timothv, William, Edward, John, Eliza, Mary, 

At Park City, Utah, on May 30, 1891, 
Mr. Leary married Miss Ella, daughter of 
Thomas and Ellen (McGillicuddy) Connors, 
natives of Ireland. She has three brothers, 
James, John and Thomas. At the place of their 
marriage, on May 2, 1892, to Mr. and Mrs. 
Leary was born one child. Hazel Marie. Mr. 
Leary is a member of the A. O. U. W. and in 
religious persuasions, he is an adherent of the 
Catholic church. His brother, William, is a 
very, prominent politician in New York state. 

FRx\NK S. GARRED came to Douglas 
county from Mower county, JNIinnesota, in 
1891. and settled about five miles northwest 
from Coulee City. Since that time, he has been 
engaged here as a farmer and stock man. He 
is now the owner of a nice estate, which is 
farmed to small grains. He also handles Here- 
ford and Durham thoroughbred cattle and some 
of the leading breeds of horses. Mr. Garred, 
manifests a progressive spirit and energy, 
which has been dominated by wisdom that has 
placed him as one of the substantial men in 
central Washington. 

Frank S. Garred was born in Winona, 
Minnesota on July 21, 1863 and his parents, 
Anderson W. and Elizabeth (Dyer) Garred, 
who were natives of Kentucky came to Minne- 
sota as early emigrants. The schools of Wi- 
nona furnished the educational training of our 
subject and after he reached manhood's estate 
he began life in Mower county as a farmer, in 
which business he was occupied for a decade. 
In 1 89 1, as stated, he came west and since then 
has been identified with the interests of Doug- 
las county. Mr. Garred has the following 
brothers and sisters, George P., Joseph P., 
Charles W., \lrs. Rebecca Finch. 



In the town of Austin, Minnesota, March 
23, 1891, Mr. Garred married Miss Nehie S. 
Savage and their children, together with the 
dates of their birth, are named below. Max F., 
January 13, 1896; Ward, on April 23, 1899; 
Teddy P., on May 13, 1901. Mrs. Garred's 
parents, Thomas D. and Bessie (Guiney) Sav- 
age were, natives of the Emerald Isles, whence 
they emigrated to the United States. She was 
born in Iowa on Febraury 5, 1865 and has one 
brother and five sisters, Thomas, Mrs. Mary 
Smith, Mrs. Annie Smith, Mrs. Lillian Rolf, 
Mrs. Victoria Louis and Ollie. 

Mr. Garred is a member of the A. O. U. 
W., while in religious persuasions they are ad- 
herents of the Congregational church. 

nent citizen and stock man residing in Doug- 
las county, fourteen miles south and forty miles 
west of Lind, his postoffice. Born in Douglas 
county, Oregon, January 5, 1854. Mr. Hutchin- 
son is the son of Robert M. and Elizabeth 
(Hanna) Hutchinson, the former a native of 
Ohio and the latter of Indiana. The father 
crossed the plains to Douglas county, Oregon, 
in 1847, returned home by way of Cape Horn, 
came again in 1849, and again returned to 
Illinois, this time by the Panama route, and in 
1853, in charge of a large emigrant train, he 
brought his family, consisting then of a wife 
and two children, to Douglas county, where he 
took a donation claim of one section and sx 
quarter section as a homestead. In 1855 he 
volunteered in Kellogg's company and fought 
Indians in every war from that date vmtil 1877. 
He came to Walla Walla in 1876, and raised 
stock and farmed until in 1902, when he was 
found dead in the road near the town of Whit- 
ney, Baker county, Oregon. The family origin- 
ally comprised eight children, si.x of whom are 
now living, Mrs. Mary Hicks, deceased, Mrs. 
Sarah Dunlap, Izabelle, deceased, Mrs. Jane 
Jarman, Samuel, Mrs. Lizzie Hayes, and the 
subject of this sketch. 

Benjamin Hutchinson was educated first in 
the grammar schools of his native county, and 
later in Victoria, Vancouver Island; San Jose, 
California; and on December 23, 1870, he was 
graduated from St. ^Mary's college, San Fran- 
cisco. He at once went to Kansas where he 

assumed the management of his father's stock 
ranch, where he had under his charge eleven 
hundred head of cattle. He was thus engaged 
one and a half years, when the business was 
sold and he went to Whetstone agency, Dakota, 
and in 1875 to Las Vegas, New Mexico, where 
his father had a large land grant. Here he 
remained two years then returned to California, 
thence to Oregon, and from that state to Ne- 
vada, during all of which time he was engaged 
in the business of handling stock. Upon one 
of his hazardous journeys across the mountains 
between Yanix agency and Silver Lake he was 
lost in a storm and fog. On account of his be- 
ing compelled to remain exposed to the ele- 
ments his right foot was frozen to such an 
extent that the amputation of a half of the 
member was necessary, thus crippling him to a 
certain extent for life. Upon his return to his 
father's home at Walla Walla he engaged in 
teaming between the towns of Walla Walla, 
Colfax, Sprague, Colville and points in Idaho. 
He followed this occupation until the railroad 
tapped the country in 1879. After this event 
he freighted some between Walla \Valla and 
Pend d'Oreille, and other Idaho towns until 
1 88 1, when he settled on a farm near Walla 
Walla, and the following year entered the 
stock business near Paha. Later, in 1883, he 
removed to Cow creek, raised stock there until 
1886, when he removed to his present home on 
lower Crab creek. He now owns o\er a thou- 
sand horses, a large herd of thoroughbred cattle, 
and farms three hundred and twenty acres of 
land. He raises an average of three hundred 
and fifty tons of hay yearly. 

Politically, Mr. Hutchinson is a Democrat, 
and takes an active part in all the local affairs 
of his party. He has held the office of constable 
of his precinct, tliough against his will, he 
being compelled to qualify for the office on 
account of a wager. 

He is a member of the Episcopalian church. 

SIL.\S W. CURRIER is one of the pros- 
perous residents of Douglas county. He and 
his sons handle an estate of seven hundred and 
twenty acres, situated about five miles south- 
west from Farmer. Part of. the same he se- 
cured through homestead and pre-emption 
rights and the l)alance by purchase. Mr. Cur- 



rier was induced to came to this country owing 
to the ill health of some members of his family 
and he moved here in 1891. Since that time 
he has been actively engaged in building up and 
handling- his estate and raising fine stock. He 
introduced the Hereford cattle to this region 
and now has some registered animals second to 
none in the county. He also has some very fine 
registered Poland-China hogs and he gives 
especial attention to breeding cattle and hogs. 

Silas W. Currier was born in Lockport, 
New York, on November 21, 1833. His fa- 
ther was Philo C, a native of Vermont and 
from Scotch ancestry. The mother's maiden 
name was Almira Smart and she was born in 
Minnesota. The family early moved to Ohio 
where Silas was educated and remained for 
seventeen years. In 1850, he moved to Michi- 
gan, settling in Shiawasse county, where he 
engaged in farming for fortv years. Nothing 
but the ill health of some of the family led him 
from that old home place, but after he became 
located in Douglas county he was convinced 
that there was no section which surpassed it. 
The brothers and sisters of our subject are 
named as follows: Francis S., J. W., David 
R., Mrs. Felena J. Parks and Mrs. Carrie Tag- 

At Owosso. Michigan, on July 15, 1858, 
Mr. Currier married Miss Emily M., daughter 
of Jesse G. and Phoebe (Burlinganie) Han- 
ford, natives of Vermont. Mrs. Currier was 
born in Vermont, on December 31, 1833, and 
had two brothers, Sylvester and James G. To 
Mr. and Mrs. Currier, the following children 
have been born, Justie M.. deceased, Willard 
H., Guy W., and Jessie G., wife of G. W. 
Brownfield, residing in Waterville. On June 
13, 1903, Mr. Currier was called to mourn 
the departure of his beloved helpmeet, who 
crossed the river of death at that time. She 
was a good woman, well known and esteemed 
by all. 

In 1862. Mr. Currier enlisted in Company 
G, Third Michigan Cavalry, under Captain 
Ouackenbush and Colonel Menten and fought 
as a member of the army of the Mississippi, 
under General Grant. He took part in all the 
active services from the time of his enlistment 
until the end of the war, being mustered out 
at Baton Rouge, Louisiana, after devoting three 
years in active service. He was taken prisoner 
at Lagrange, Tennessee, in 1863, but was ex- 

changed in two weeks and sent back to his regi- 

Mr. Currier is a member of the Royal 
Templars and also of the Methodist church, of 
which latter he is steward. 

about five miles southeast from Farmer, where 
he has an estate of one-half section, besides a 
desert claim. He came here in 1889 and took 
a pre-emption where he now resides. Later, he 
returned to Ellensburg and then came back to 
this country in 1893. Since that time, he has 
added the balance of his estate by purchase and 
has continued his labors as a farmer and stock 
raiser. Mr. Olesen has about forty head of 
fine graded cattle, besides a number of well 
bred horses. He also is part owner of a regis- 
tered Shire stallion, which weighs over eighteen 
hundred pounds. Mr. Olesen has always mani- 
fested a progressive spirit and thrift which are 
evident in every part of his work on his pixm- 

Hans Peter Olesen was born in Jut- 
land, Denmark, on April 28, 1857. His par- 
ents were Ole Sorensen and Karen Olesen, na- 
tives of Denmark. The schools of that pro- 
gressive little country furnished the education 
for our subject and he continued to reside there 
until 1882, when he made his way to the United 
States and settled in Cummings county, Ne- 
braska, and engaged there in farming for seven 
years. Then he came to Ellensburg in this state 
and was occupied on an irrigating ditch for a 
time. After taking the land as stated above, he 
returned to Ellensburg and finally came back 
here to reside permanently. Mr. Olesen has 
one sister, Mrs. Hannah Michelson. 

On August 23, 1872, in Denmark, Mr. 
Olesen married Miss Anna Wagner, who was 
born in Denmark, on March 3, 1846. Her 
parents were also natives of that country and 
she had one brother, Sarren W., who died in 
Ellensburg, Washington, in 1891. Our sub- 
ject and his wife have become the parents of 
the following children : Christina, the wife of 
Fred Nelson, residing in this county; Minnie, 
wife of Albert Lee, in the Chelan country; 
Mary, wife of Robert Beyer, living at Water- 
ville'; Ole, residing in Seattle: Chris and 
Martha, both residing at home. The latter 



were born in Ellensburg, on August 14, 1892. 
Mr. and Mrs. Olesen are members of the Lu- 
theran church. 

HENRY B. GRIFFITH resides about five 
miles east from Chelan Falls and is occupied 
in general farming and stock raising, in which 
enterprises he has won a good success, owing 
to his industrious ways and careful manage- 
ment in all lines. He was born in Indiana 
county, Pennsylvania, on June 8, 1847, the son 
of Joseph and Lydia (Row) Griffith, natives 
of Pennsylvania and descended from Dutch 
stock. Our subject studied in the district 
schools until he was sixteen, and then, it being 

1863, enlisted in the Second Pennsylvania Bat- 
tallion of si.x months' men, under Captain Rob- 
ert L. Ritchie. He served as guard on the 
railroads and was discharged in February, 

1864, at Pittsburg. In August, 1864, Mr. 
Griffith enlisted in the Fifty-seventh Pennsyl- 
vania Volunteer Infantry, under Captain E. C. 
Strous, being in Company K. In December 
of that year his regiment was consolidated with 
the Eighty-fourth and he was put in Company 
E, under the same captain. Mr. Griffith re- 
marks that there was scarcely a day in all this 
service that he was not under fire. He was 
wounded, howe\'er, but once, and that was by 
a spent ball. He participated in the battles of 
Petersburg, Five Forks and was at the sur- 
render of Lee. He also took part in the grand 
review in Washington and the occupation of 
Richmond. Following the war, Mr. Griffith 
attended school until he fitted himself for teach- 
ing, which he followed for some time. In 
1867, he migrated to Kansas, settling in La- 
bette county and there was occupied in farming 
for seven years. In 1874, another move was 
made, this time to California, whence he jour- 
neyed shortly to Walla Walla, in this state. 
He tilled the soil in Whitman county until 
1888. when he came on to Douglas county. 
Here he took a homestead and timber culture 
claim where he now resides and since that time 
he has constantlv devoted his energies to farm- 
ing and stock raising, always laboring not only 
for the improvement of his own place, but for 
the general good as well. He also has one- 
half section of school land. Mr. Griffith has 
the following brothers and sisters, Josq:)h. Mrs. 
Elizabeth' McKes.son, Mrs. Catherine Griffith, 

Mrs. Tobitha Huston, Mrs. Missuri Vance, 
and Mrs. Lottie Torrance. 

At Walla Walla, on February 5, 1878, Mr. 
Griffith married Miss Francina, daughter of 
David and Sarah (Coleman) Morgan, who 
were born in Virginia and Ohio, respectively. 
Mrs. Griffith was bom in Iowa, on March 12, 
1854, and has the following named brothers 
and sisters, John R., Abram M., Harrison, Mrs. 
Sarah Alexander and Mrs. Adaline Wagner, 
also B. D., and Mrs. Eliza Frey, who 
are deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Griffith 
have become the parents of two children : 
Orin B., born in Pullman, Washington, on 
January 12, 1880; Kate Ethel, born in Pull- 
man, on April 19, 1885, and now the wife of 
Conrad Winn in this county. Mr. Griffith is 
a member of the I. O. O. F. and the G. A- R, 
while he and his wife are Rebekahs. 

It is of importance in this connection to 
note that Mr. Griffith, while living in Kansas, 
was detailed as one to assist in exhuming the 
corpses of the unfortunate victims of the atro- 
cious Bender family, and reburying them in 
proper shape. Thus he became especially ac- 
quainted with the deeds of that terrible family. 

about four miles east from Chelan Falls, in 
Douglas county, where he owns a farm of one 
half section. He is known as one of the most 
careful and judicious agriculturists in this sec- 
tion and Iselieves that what is worth doing at 
all, is worth doing w^ell, which he practices in 
all his labors. Mr. Farnham has a quarter 
section of land in small grain and raises cattle, 
horses and hogs. The hogs are of the Poland- 
China breed and are all registered, while his 
cattle and horses are all fine grades. 

Nathaniel H. Farnham was born in Cass 
county, Michigan, on August 2, i860, the son 
of Horace and Lorranie (Blackmar) Farnham, 
natives of Ohio and Michigan, respectively. 
Horace Farnham was one of the pioneers to 
California in 1850, and made money in the 
mines. He is now deceased. In the district 
schools of Wisconsin our subject was edu- 
cated and there grew to manhood's estate. 
In 1877 he moved to Oregon with his 
father and the balance of the family and made 
settlement in Washington county, where he was 



engaged in farming for four years. In 1882 
he removed to Umatilla county and there 
farmed for a decade. It was 1892, that he 
came into Douglas county and finally purchased 
a quarter section wliere he now lives, adding 
as much more by purchase later. He has good 
comfortable improvements on the place and is 
one of the men whose chief characteristics are 
industry, uprightness, reliability and thorough- 

i\Ir. Farnham has one brother, Charles D., 
and one half sister, Mrs. Mary Shepherd. 

In Waterville, Washington, on February 
14, 1899, occurred the marriage of Mr. Farn- 
ham and Miss Clarissa, daughter of Hiram 
and Nancy (Martin) McCollum, natives of 
Ohio and Canada, respectively. Mrs. Farnham 
has three sisters, Sophronia McCollum, La- 
vina B. McCollum and Mrs. Carolina Powers. 
Mrs. Farnham was born in Wabasha county, 
Minnesota, in 1864, taught school in Pierce 
county, Wisconsin, for four years and as a mis- 
sionary in Utah one and a half years, also 
taught school in Douglas county, VVashington, 
for one year, investing her money in land in 
Douglas county, which has doubled in value. 

Mr. Farnham is a member of the I. O. O. 
F., while he and his wife belong to the Re- 
bekahs. They are also both members of the 
Methodist church, being firm in the faith and 
liberal supporters of church institutions. 

WILLIAM STODDARD knows by ex- 
perience what it is to land in a new country 
without property or means and to make his way 
single handed against all kinds of odds, until 
fortune smiles on him. In the place of his 
former struggles he can now view a goodly 
competence, the result of the toil and wisdom 
displayed during the years of scanty allowances. 
Mr. Stoddard came to Douglas county in 1886 
having a family of wife and two children to 
support and his property was summed up in 
the list of two horses and one wagon. He lo- 
cated on a homestead about four miles north- 
east from Waterville and went to work and 
since that time he has continued to work with 
the result that now he has a valuable farm of 
seven hundred and twenty acres, fine residence, 
large barn, other improvements and stored in 
the dry are thirty-five hundred sacks of wheat 

ready for the market. Mr. Stoddard raises 
Jersey stock and fine Poland-China hogs and 
has some fine specimens on the farm. 

William Stoddard was born in Oswego 
county. New York, on December 25, 1856, the 
son of John and Mary (Shaey) Stoddard, na- 
tives of Ireland. The father was of English 
stock, but the mother descended from the strong 
Irish blood that has made itself felt and known 
around the globe. The father came to the 
United States in early days and the mother 
was twelve when her feet first pressed the soil 
in the land of the free. William Stoddard was 
born in Oswego, went to Canada when a child, 
remaining until fourteen then came to Niagara 
county, New York. When twenty-three he 
went west to Kansas, settling in ^Marshall coun- 
ty. He railroaded and farmed in that state 
until 1886, when he crossed the plains to Doug- 
las county and landed here as stated above. 
This has been his home since that time and he 
is now one of the leading men in the county 
and surely deserves great credit for the success 
he has carved out by his efforts. Mr. Stoddard 
has the following brothers and sisters, Peter, 
John, Hugh, Mrs. Elizabeth Henderson, Mrs. 
Maggie Kester, Mrs. Annie Welch, and Mrs. 
Mae Mahoney. 

In Marshall county, Kansas, on April 8, 
1883, Mr. Stoddard married Miss Mary J., 
daughter of Joseph and Maria (Sutton) 
Scriber, natives of Pennsylvania and Illinois, 
and of Dutch and English stock, respectively. 
Mrs. Stoddard was born in Galena, Illinois, 
on February 22, 1857, and has the following 
named brothers and sisters, George H.. 
Matthew, Daniel. A. Lincoln, Mrs. Esther 
Gillispie, and Mrs. Jennie Campbell. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Stoddard the following named chil- 
dren have been born ; Edward, in Marshall 
county, Kansas, on January 18, 1884; Jennie, 
in the same county, on November 6, 188= ; 
Annie, in Douglas county, on June 30, 1888. 
Mr. and Mrs. Stoddard were raised under the 
influence of the Episcopalian and Catholic 
churches and are upright and well liked people. 

JOHN W. STEPHENS is one of the 
oldest citizens in Douglas county and has so 
wrought here during the years of his long resi- 
dence that he is highly esteemefl by all who 
know him. He has done much for the im- 



provement of the county in both a pri\-ate and 
a public capacity and is counted by all a real 

John W. Stephens was born in Wood 
county, in what is now West Virginia, on Jan- 
uary 22. 1842, the son of George and Louisa 
(Lee) Stephens, natives of Virginia, and of 
English and Scotch extraction, respectively. 
The public schools of his native county con- 
tributed the educational training of our subject 
and when he was nineteen he enlisted in Com- 
pany F, Seventeenth Virginia Cavalry, under 
Captain J. H. Crawford. This was in 1862, 
and Mr. Stephens served throughout the entire 
war. He participated in the battles of Win- 
chester, Gettysburg, and many others, until he 
was captured in Lura Valley and sent to Point 
Lookout as a prisoner of war, remaining until 
the war closed. Li 1866 Mr. Stephens went to 
Missouri, whence he journeyed to Montana 
and there operated in the wood business for two 
years. From there he went to Virginia and in 
1871 came west to Humboldt county, Califor- 
nia, and there farmed for seven years. Li the 
spring of 1877 he made his way to Spokane 
Falls, and on Moran Prairie, eight miles south- 
east from that now flourishing city, he located 
and proved up on a homestead. In 1883 he 
operated in the shingle business at Clarkfork, 
Llaho, and the same year brought a sawmill to 
Douglas county, locating the same on Badger 
Mountain, some four miles south of where 
Waterville stands today. In 1889 he brought 
in a second mill, establishing it near the first 
one, and continued to operate the two until one 
was destroyed by fire. In 1893 Mr. Stephens 
leased his mill and moved to one of his farms, 
of which he owns several in Douglas county. 
In 1897 he went to Seattle and was there con- 
nected with the hotel business for four years. 
In 1903 he returned to Waterville, where he 
now resides. 

In 1885 Mr. Stephens was chosen by the 
people as county commissioner and served as 
chairman of the board in Douglas county. His 
ability and excellent service were rewarded by 
a re-election in 1887. His administration in 
this important office with his colleagues was 
accompanied by much good to the county, ow- 
ing to his keen foresight and wisdom, which 
were always accompanied by the integrity 
which characterize the man. 

Mr. Stephens has the following named 

brothers and sisters : Abednego, Jared, Betty 
Ann, Frances, Minerva Victory. He belongs 
to the A. F. and A. M., having been one of the 
organizers and charter members of the first 
lodge in Spokane and also in Waterville. Mr. 
Stephens is a man of reliability and excellent 
standing wherever he is known and numbers 
his friends from every quarter. 

CHARLES M. SPRAGUE, one of the 
leading and well known stock men of Douglas 
county, has his headquarters about seven miles 
south from Coulee City. He was born in 
Sagadahoc county, Maine, on January 16, 1858. 
His father, William Spragaie, was also a na- 
tive of Maine and descended from an old New 
England family of renown. The mother, Jane 
( Morrison) Sprague, was born in Maine. 
Charles M. studied in the common schools of 
the lumber state and his early life was spent 
on the farm. At the age of seventeen he shipped 
on a merchant steamer that was doing a coast 
trade and for two years he sailed before the 
mast. After that, he went into the butcher 
business at Bath and one year later, disposed 
of his interests and turned his attention to ship 
building. He learned the ship joiner's trade 
in the employ of William Rogers and for five 
years wrought there. Then he desired to see 
the west and so disposing of his interests in the 
east, journeyed toward the setting sun until 
he arrived in Washington. He at once selected 
his present place and took it by government 
right. Then he entered the employ of George 
Urquhart and two 3'ears later began raising 
stock for himself. He progressed very nicely 
until the winter of 1889-90 when the severe 
storms and wind swept his entire band of cattle 
and almost all his horses away. He purchased 
other stock and began once more the business 
of raising cattle and horses. He has now a 
fine band of well bred horses and cattle and 
is one of the prosperous stockmen of the entire 
country. In 1894, Mr. Sprague was elected 
commissioner on the Republican ticket and did 
excellent service for two years, being instru- 
mental in having the indebtedness on the county 
wiped out by bonds. Mr. Sprague has the fol- 
lowing brothers and sisters: George A., who 
came to this country with our subject and is 



now a joint owner with him in the stock busi- 
ness; Frani<hn P., a lawyer in Bath, Maine, 
who represented Sagadahoc county in the state 
legislature when twenty-two: William L., a 
mechanic at Bath ; Bradford, living on the old 
homestead in Maine; Mrs. 2\Iartha L. Percey, 
living in Portland, Maine ; Mrs. Alonzo Kit- 
ridge, living in Bath, Maine; and Mrs. Clara 
Bowker in Boston, Massachusetts. 

Mr. Sprague is a member of the A. O. 
U. W. and a genial and capable man. 

GEORGE ^Y. HENDRICKS, who is con- 
ducting a large real estate, loan, and insurance 
business in Waterville, is one of the best known 
men in the county of Douglas, and one of the 
men who have unhesitatingly moved forward 
the car of progress in central Washington, 
never abating in personal effort to enhance the 
interests of the country in every way possible. 
In fact it is said that Mr. Hendricks has been 
the means of bringing into Douglas county 
more settlers than any other person or corpora- 
tion and it is true that his name appears oftener 
on the records than that of any other person. 

George W. Hendricks was bom in Max- 
well, Parry county, Ohio, on May i, 1861, 
the son of John and Nancy (Hufford) 
Hendricks, natives of Pennsylvania and Ohio, 
respectively. The father served to repel Mor- 
gan in his raids into Ohio. Hon. George W. 
Hendricks, state senator for many years from 
Parry county, Ohio, is a paternal uncle of oun 
subject. John Hufford, brother of our sub- 
ject's mother, was a lieutenant in the Ohio 
volunteer forces. After a preparation in the 
common schools in Tama county, Iowa. 
George W. studied in the high schols in Toledo, 
Iowa, and finally finished his investigations in 
the state normal at Cedar Falls, Iowa. Follow- 
ing this, he taught in Iowa and later in Ten- 
nessee, filling the position of an educator for a 
number of years in Iowa. Tennessee and Louis- 
iana. Then he came to Ritzville, Washington, 
whence he walked over one hundred 
miles to Douglas, and soon was en- 
gaged in teaching. He opened in the 
real estate and loan business in Water- 
ville in the spring of 1889, and although it 
was hard starting, he soon became recognized 
as one of the leaders in this line and he has done 

a remarkably large business. In 1894 he 
bought the county bonds of twenty thousand 
dollars at six per cent, thus saving the county 
much in interest. In 1897, Mr. Hendricks 
combined the grain buying business with his 
former enterprises and continued successfully 
in it until 1902, when he was forced by the 
increase in his business to drop that portion. 
He bought land in the county until he had about 
eight thousand acres, operating in connection 
with Charles G. Reeder of Spokane. Later he 
sold to the \\'ashington Land Company of 
Iowa, taking a large share of stock in the com- 
pany. Afterward he sold his interest in the 
company and has since devoted himself entirely 
to his private business of real estate, insurance 
and loans. 

• Mr. Hendricks has two brothers and three 
sisters: Daniel B.. dwelling at Elgin, Oregon, 
where he has won great success in the lumber 
business: John P.. a heavy promoter and secre- 
tary of the Tri-BuUion Smelting and Develop- 
ment Company, of Chicago; Mrs. R. M. Tin- 
dall, of Toledo, Iowa ; Mrs. Etta Farris. and 
Mrs. Matilda McElhinney. Mr. Hendricks is 
a member of the I. O. O. F. and was raised 
under the influence of the Dunkard church. 

ALVA C. WHITEHALL has achieved 
success in Douglas county as a result of his 
own industry and the wise bestowment of his 
labors, having shown himself master of the re- 
sources granted by a generous nature to the 
dwellers in this favored section. He is re- 
siding in Waterville at the present time, where 
he has tasty residence and is engaged in farm- 
ing. He has a good farm seventeen miles east 
from Waterville, from which he derives an- 
nually a good revenue. 

Alva C . Whitehall was born in Henderson 
county, Illinois, on April 23, 1862. the son of 
James and Elizabeth (Clark) Whitehall, na- 
tives of Indiana. The father was a farmer and 
a minister of the gospel. Our subject was 
educated in Greene county, Iowa, and there 
remained until he arrived at manhood's estate. 
He settled to farming in the Hawkeye State 
and succeeded well until 1896, when he sold out 
and came to this county. After due search, 
he settled on a homestead, seventeen miles east 
from Waterville and there bestowed his labors 



until recently he removed to town to dwell. 
Mr. Whitehall has the following brothers and 
sister, Barclay W., Henry T., Nicholas C, 
Charles A., and Mrs. Carrie M. Badger. 

In Greene county, Iowa, on December 26, 
1883, Mr. Whitehall married Miss Arra B. 
Kuder and to them have been born the follow- 
ing children; Legran, on November 13, 1884; 
George, on January i, 1888; Minnie, on De- 
cember 17, 18S9; Bethal, on March 23, 1892; 
Leah, on October 4, 1895; Joseph, on Novem- 
ber 3, 1898; A. Curtis, on March 24, 1901. 
All were born in Greene county, Iowa, but the 
last two who own Douglas county as their na- 
tive place. Mrs. Whitehall's parents are George 
W. and Isabel (Brock) Kuder, natives of 
Pennsylvania and Indiana, respectively. The 
former died on June 9, 1903, and the latter 
passed away on June 17, 1903. Mrs. White- 
hall has two brothers and two sisters, Madison 
M., George F., Mrs. Jennie G. Whitehall, and 
Mrs. Malissa Harsh. Mr. and Mrs. White- 
hall are both members of the Church of God 
and are devout supporters of it and its institu- 
tions. Mr. Whitehall is well posted in the 
doctrines of this denomination and labors as- 
siduously for the spread of the faith. 

FRANK W. BROMILEY has one of the 
most valuable places in the vicinity of Southside 
and it is known as Point View Farm. He 
owns three quarter sections about one mile 
south from the postoffice, one quarter being 
gained by homestead right and the other half 
section by purchase from the railroad com- 
pany. Mr. Bromiley has one of the finest resi- 
dences in this part of the country, it being a 
large eiglit room house of modern construction 
and located on the edge of Beaver Creek can- 
yon. The farm is well supplied with all neces- 
sary buildings for stock and grain raising. Mr. 
Bromiley has constructed a fine system of water 
works, operated by a gas engine, which pumps 
the water to the hill where the house and barn 
stand. The farm is well improved and handled 
with skill, being made to produce abundance 
of small grain. In addition to this, Mr. Brom- 
iley handles fine shorthorn and Polled-Angus 
cattle, Clyde horses, and has a large poultry 
plant. A productive and Iieautiful farm now 
exists where a few years before the virgin soil 
lay unbroken. 

Frank W. was born in Philadelphia on 
January 13, 1864. His parents were both na- 
tives of Turton, near Bolton, Lancashire, Eng- 
land and qanie to the United States in 1859. 
The father, William B. Bromiley enlisted in the 
Civil war in Colonel Baker's California Regi- 
ment, Company D, under Captain Ritman. He 
participated in the battle of Ball's Bluff be- 
sides others, and after one year of service was 
discharged in Philadelphia. The mother's 
maiden name was Mary Welsh. Our 
subject was educated in the schools of 
Philadelphia, where he remained until grown 
to manhood. In 1885 he was the subject of 
a very severe attack of western fever, for the 
cure of which he turned his face toward the 
setting sun and journeyed to Wallula Junction, 
Washington, where he was employed by the 
O. R. & N. Railway. Later, he went to The 
Dalles, where he remained for a time. In 1888, 
our subject selected the railroad land, where 
his home now is and later took a homestead. 
Mr. Bromiley has two brothers and one sister : 
James W., whose farm adjoins Southside: 
Louis, and Mrs. Samuel Eagelson, who re- 
sides in Philadelphia. Our subject returned to 
Philadelphia to claim his bride. Miss A. Sylvia 
Campbell, and there their wedding . oc- 
curred on February 15, 1899. Mrs. Bromiley 
was born July 4, 1871; to James and Arabella 
(Clark) Campbell, natives of Londonderry, 
Ireland. She has two brothers and one sister, 
William, Archibald and Mrs. W. Wise. To 
our subject and his wife, three children have 
been born, Frank W., on December 5, 1899; 
Arabella S.. on November 6, 1901 ; and Robert 
C, on October 11, 1903. 

Mr. Bromiley is a Republican in politics, 
while in religious matters, he was reared a 
Methodist and his wife a United Presbvterian. 

ORVILLE H. KIMBALL has certainly 
passed a very active career as will be seen by 
the following. He was born ;in Chittenden 
county, Vermont, on February 3, 1842, the son 
of Charles and Caroline (Stevens) Kimball, 
natives of New Hampshire and Vermont, re- 
spectively. The father was a cloth dresser. 
The mother descended from an old English 
stock and the family can be traced back for 
over three centuries. Our subject was educated 



in the public schools of Chittenden county and 
remained there until 1869. He began railroad 
life in i860, by working on the construction of 
the Vermont and Canada, and Montreal & Vt. 
Junctions as paymaster, from which position he 
was promoted to that of passenger conductor. 
Later, he did construction work on the Ver- 
mont Central, after which he was on the Leb- 
anon Spring Railroad as paymaster. After 
1869, he came west to Portland, Oregon and 
worked on the California and Oregon road and 
remained with this company until the spring 
of 1872, during which time he served in vari- 
ous capacities as conductor, ticket and freight 
agent and so forth. Next we see him in the 
construction department of the Northern Pa- 
cific, on the Pacific division between Kalama 
and Tacoma. In the spring of 1873 ^^^ r^" 
turned to the Oregon and California, where he 
remained in the operating department between 
Portland and Roseburg until' the spring of 
1875, when he opened the Clarenden Hotel in 
Portland. He sold this in 1876 and returned 
to the Northern Paciiic as assistant superin- 
tendent of the construction and paymaster of 
the branch in the Wilkinson gold fields. In 
1877, he was agent at Kalama and two years 
later, was paymaster on the Pend Oreille 
branch. He next went to the O. R. & N. com- 
pany and worked as general superintendent of 
track in the construction until 1882. After 
this, he was general road master on the North- 
ern Pacific, until the spring of 1883, when he 
came to Douglas county and settled upon a 
pre-emption about three miles south of Water- 
ville. For twelve years, he remained there, 
dwelling on the farm, and also at various times 
was out on the railroad. In 1900, he moved to 
his present place about ten miles southwest from 
Waterville, which estate he has car\-ed out from 
the wilderness. He has about eight hundred 
acres of fine land and over one hundred head of 
graded stock, good orchard, comfortable res- 
idence, barns and so forth. Mr. Kimball is 
one of the pioneers who remained in Doug- 
las copnty and has achieved success equal to 
any of the most prosperous men who have lived 
here. During the latter part of his railroad 
career, Mr. Kimball was closely associated with 
A. M. Cannon, well known over the northwest 
and was a warm friend of that gentleman. Mr. 
Kimball has two brothers and two sisters, 
Charles, Andrew S., Mrs. Sarah F. Joslyn, and 

Mrs. Jane A. Jackson, all living at Westford, 

Mr. Kimball has displayed great executive 
ability in his life and has manifested a self 
reliance and spirit which combined with keen 
wisdom and conservatism, have brought him 
the abundant success which he enjoys to-day. 

ADAM OPPEL is a son of the fatherland, 
whence came so many of the most thrifty and 
substantial citizens of the United States. He 
was born in Bavaria on January 17, 1855, the 
son of George and Mary (Degen) Oppel, na- 
tives of Germany. The public schools of Ger- 
many contributed the educational training that 
our subject received and he was a faithful and 
an obedient son under the parental roof, until 
twenty-one years of age, at which time he en- 
listed in the regular army and served for three 
years. It was 1882, that he left the environ- 
ments of his home land and came to the United 
States, seeking for better fields of activity. For 
about four years, he resided in Minnesota and 
in 1887, came to Ellensburg, Washington, 
where he was engaged in a brewery for one 
year. It was in 1888, that he finally came to 
Douglas county and selected a homestead two 
miles north from Southside, where we find him 
at the present time. He has bought another 
quarter section and devotes the whole estate to 
the production of small grains of which he 
raises abundant crops. The place is supplied 
with an abundance of pure spring water, good 
residence, barns, outbuildings, orchard and so 
forth and is one of the comfortable and valu- 
able rural abodes of the county. Mr. Oppel 
has the following brothers and sisters, John, 
Mordz, Mary, Koony, Margaret and Katherine, 
all living in Germany. 

On January 15, 1889, Mr. Oppel married 
Miss Elsie Roberts. Her parents, Matthew 
and Suzie (Hilgen) Roberts, were natives of 
Luxumburg, Germany. Mrs. Oppel was born 
in Luxumburg on September 12, i860 and has 
five brothers, Matthew. Nicholas. ^lichael, 
Burnhardt. and Martin. On April 4, 1899 at 
the family home in Douglas county, Mrs. Oppel 
was called to pass to the realities of another 
world. She left the following named children : 
George, born on October 29, 1889: Michael S., 
born on October 19, 1897, and Adam S., born 


on March ii, 1899 and died in August, 1900. 
All natives of this county. 

Mr. Oppel is a good reliable man and loyal 
citizen and one of the industrious makers of 
the section. He is entitled to receive the ap- 
proval and esteem of all who know him. 

ISAIAH BROWN. This estimable gentle- 
man is a veteran, not only of life's battles, but 
also in the battles of his country and in both 
capacities has shown himself a man of sterling 
worth and industry, on account of which it is 
with pleasure that we grant him representation 
in this capacity Now he is spending the golden 
years of his days in well earned retirement 
from the more arduous duties of life, enjoying 
the competence that his sagacity and thrift have 

Isaiah Brown was born in Ohio, in Cuya- 
hoga county, on May 14. 1832, the son of 
Asaph and Hepsibeth (Perry) Brown. The 
father was a native of New York and fought 
in the war of 181 2. He participated in many 
engagements and was wounded at the battle 
of Black Rock, New York. His death occurred 
in Lorain county. Ohio, in 1845, having come 
thither as one of the early pioneers in an ox cart. 
It was preserved for many years by the family 
as a relic of importance. He was a cousin of 
Commodore Perry of Lake Erie fame. 

The youthful days of our subject were spent 
amid the frontier environments of Ohio and 
his education was gained from the old Webster 
speller and the English reader together with 
Ray's arithmetic. When fourteen years of age, 
he hired out as a farm hand at five dollars per 
month, continuing in that capacity for two 
years. After this he learned the carpenter's 
trade, which he followed for several years in 
Ohio. Then he went on the Wisconsin river 
and engaged in lumbering, which business oc- 
cupied him for twenty-nine years. In 1879, 
he moved to ]\Iiles City, Montana, and was en- 
gaged in the stock and grain business with dis- 
astrous results, loosing five thousand dollars. 
In 1880. he landed in Spokane and after look- 
ing over the country, he located his present 
place alxjut five miles northwest from Water- 
ville, which he took as a homestead, and ad- 
joining which, two of his children took quarter 
sections. Since that time thev have all been 

engaged in producing general crops and fruit. 
In 1864, Mr. Brown enlisted in the Forty- 
ninth Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry as private 
under Captain J. Dinsmoore and Colonel Fel- 
lows. His service was mostly in Arkansas and 
Louisiana and his discharge occurred in 1865, 
in St. Louis. He was selected as the best 
soldier to participate in the grand review at 
Washington, D. C. 

Mr. Brown has one brother and two sisters, 
Libeus, deceased, Nancy Taft and Cuziali 
Standon. On February 5, 1857, in Marietta, 
Wisconsin, Mr. Brown married Miss Mary F., 
daughter of Andrew and Margaret Byers, na- 
tives of Pennsylvania and Germany, respective- 
ly. Mrs. Brown was born in Pennsylvania, in 
1838. and has the following named brothers 
and sisters, Elizabeth Hartley, Adeline Ross 
and Jackson. To Mr. and Mrs. Brown five 
children were born; Eva E., wife of Horace 
Wilcox, living in Waterville; Elsie, wife of 
Harmon Wilcox, also living in Waterville; 
George B., Cora F., and Frank W., at home. 
Politically, Mr. Brown has always been a good 
strong Republican and has held various re- 
sponsible ofiices where he has lived. He was 
assessor in Crawford county, Wisconsin, and 
also commissioner and treasurer in this county, 
being appointed to the latter by the county com- 
missioners. He has been a member of the 
A. F. and A. M. since 1859 and also belongs 
to the G. A. R. Mr. Brown was raised in 
the Presbyterian church but at present belongs 
to no denomination. He is a good man and 
esteemed citizen in the community. 

LOUIS E. BISHOP is at the head of a 
lumber manufacturing plant situated about 
nine miles southwest from Waterville. He was 
born in Amherst, Massachusetts, on October 4, 
1850, the son of Henry and Catherine (Nut- 
ting) Bishop, natives of Massachusetts. The 
mother's father, John Nutting, was of Revolu- 
tionary fame and also a veteran of the '\Var of 
1812. She is a member of the Society of the 
Daughters of the Revolution. The pulilic 
schools of Amherst, Massachusetts, contributed 
the education of our subject and he remained 
in the vicinity of that town until the centennial 
year dawned, when he removed to Faribault, 
Minnesota, where he remained for thirteen 



years. He did carpentering- and some building 
there and was foreman of a sash and door fac- 
tory. In 1888, he came west to Waterville and 
for two years was engaged in contracting and 
building, then bought his present place and 
built a thoroughly well equipped mill, with the 
output capacity of ten thousand feet per day. 
He has a planer and all finishing machinery 
necessary for the manufacture of lumber for 
all kinds of building purposes. Mr. Bishop 
gained four hundred and eighty acres of land 
by government right and that portion of it 
which is suitable for farming is under cultiva- 
tion. He owns in addition to this, eight hun- 
dred acres on Badger mountain, where the mill 
is located. He is doing a good business at the 
present time and has considerable timber yet 
to cut. The farm estate lies twelve miles east 
of \\'ater\-ille and there, also, Mr. Bishop has 
a good large band of cattle and horses. 

Mr. Bishop has one brother, Lawriston H., 
and one sister, Mrs. Emily Thayer. On April 
I, 1900, at Waterville, Mr. Bishop married Mrs. 
Alta Powers, the daughter of John and Emma 
(Parker) Donaldson, natives of Canada and 
Indiana, respectively. Mrs. Bishop was born 
in Midland county, Michigan, on March 5, 
1867. Our subject and his wife are the parents 
of one daughter, Nellie F., born March 20, 
1901, and one son, Arthur H.. born May 10, 
1904. Mrs. Powders had two children by her 
former husband: William R., born in Michigan 
on May 9, 1886, and Minnie B., born in Taco- 
ma, Washington, on August 24, 1890. 

Mr. and Mrs. Bishop are adherents of the 
Methodist church and liberal supporters of all 
public enterprises, which are for the benefit of 

DAVID R. RICHARDS, who resides two 
miles west of Waterville, is one of the earliest 
settlers in Douglas county that has remained 
until the present time. He is well known all 
over the county and is esteemed by all as an^ 
upright man of ability. 

David R. Richards was born in Blossburg. 
Tioga county, Pennsylvania, on May 10, 1855. 
His father, William J. Richards, was a native 
of Wales and came to the United States in 
1843. Settlement was made in Pennsylvania 
and there he resided until his death, in 1898. 
He married Jane Rees, in Pennsylvania, and 

she is still living in Blossburg, of that state. 
Our subject was educated in his native state 
and remained there until twenty-three years of 
age, at which time he went to Bradford, Mc- 
Kean county, Pennsylvania and acted as clerk 
in a general store for four years. In 1882, he 
came west to Dakota, settled in Fargo, and did 
farming for two years. Then he moved to 
Spokane and one year later, in 1884 came to 
Douglas county, taking a pre-emption, now 
known as the Francis place, three miles south 
of Waterville. Later, he sold this property and 
purchased his present place, which consists of 
one-half section of very fertile land, all under 
cultivation. The estate is supplied with plenty 
of water, excellent orchards, large barns, good 
residence, and so forth. 

Mr. Richards has the following brothers 
and sisters: John E., a farmer; Alfred J., a 
merchant; Charles E., a merchant; Mrs. Mary 
Clemans; Mrs. Ella Davis; Katherine; Mrs. 
Eva Coleman; Mrs. Hannah Frazier; Alice, 
and Lydia. All of the above are living in 
Tioga county, except Mrs. Coleman and Mrs. 
Frazier. Mr. Richards is a member of the 
Maccabees, while in political matters he stands 
upon independent ground. He is a supporter 
of church and schools, although he is not a 
member of any denomination at present. 

CHARLES E. REEDER has cleared a 
large real estate holding in Douglas county and 
is numbered among its most prosperous men. 
He dwells about six miles north from South- 
side where he has an estate of about two sec- 
tions, all of which is fine fertile crop producing 
land. Mr. Reeder devotes his attention to 
general farming and stock raising- and is a 
leader in this line. The cereals are his main 
crop while in stock raising he gives most at- 
tention to raising fine horses. He has an ex- 
cellent Clyde stallion and a great many other 
fine horses. Mr. Reeder has devoted his at- 
tention most industriously to draft animals and 
the result is that he has large well formed ani- 
mals which command the highest price in the 
market. * 

Charles E. Reeder was born in Davis coun- 
ty, Iowa on May 28, 1861. His father, William 
D. Reeder, married Aliss Phoebe A. Spencer, 
a native of Indiana and they both now reside 



at Wenatchee. The father was born in Indiana 
and enHsted in the Third Iowa Cavalry, under 
Captain Kuykendal and for three years was a 
valiant and faithful soldier of the Union. 
Twice he received severe wounds and finally 
received his honorable discharge, having the 
consciousness that he had fought with a display 
of bravery for his country. 

Our subject was educated in Davis county, 
Iowa and in Nebraska and remained with his 
parents until he was twenty-one years of age. 
At that time, he came west to' Idaho and did 
railroad work for a year, then a year was spent 
in Oregon, whence he came in 1884 to Yakima 
county, this state and remained for four years, 
tilling the soil. It was 1888, that he came to 
Douglas county, settling- on a pre-emption of 
one hundred and sixty acres. Later, he took a 
quarter section as a homestead and then added 
by purchase as stated above. Mr. Reeder has 
the following brothers and sisters: George \V.. 
John C, Mrs. James H. Crammer, Mrs. J. B. 

At Weston, Oregon, on May 20, 1883, Mr. 
Reeder married Miss Mary L., daughter of 
Thomas U. and Emily G. Jones, (Crammer) 
natives of Kentucky and Virginia, respectively. 
Mrs. Reeder was born in Holt county, Mis- 
souri on October 21, 1858 and has the follow- 
ing brothers and sisters, James H., John W., 
Isaac W., Simeon H. and Mrs. Amanda Gil- 
lespie. The children born to Mr. and Mrs. 
Reeder, together with the dates of their re- 
spective births are mentioned below, Charles A., 
born in Dayton, Washington, June 14, 1884; 
William D., born in Yakima county, on August 
19, 1887: Victor H., born in this county on 
May 28, 1889; Phoebe E., born in this county 
on March 20, 1891 and Stella, born in this 
county on June 13, 1893. 

Mr. Reeder is a member of the A. O. U. W. 
and of the Yoeman lodge, while he and his 
wife belong to the Methodist church. In 
political matters our subject is entirely inde- 
pendent and is well posted upon the issues and 
questions of the day. 

MARTIN FEENEY is a native son of 
the Emerald Isle who has taken the stars and 
stripes as his banner and is one of the most 
worthy citizens in Douglas county. He resides 

about one and one-half miles northwest from 
Waterville, where he has an estate of one- 
quarter section, secured by his industry and 
thrift. Mr. Feeney has always shown the real 
spirit of independence begotten from stanch 
Irish blood and, as did his father, has espoused 
the cause of freedom with a zest that makes 
him thoroughly American. In business life, 
he has manifested a keen wisdom and practical 
judgment and is one of the most prosperous 
men of the section now. 

Martin Feeney was born in Galway, Ire- 
land on November 2, 18.^1, the son of Patrick 
and Margaret (Fahey) Feeney, both natives of 
Ireland. They came to the United States in 
the fifties, settling in Waltham, Massachusetts, 
where the father took up foundry work. At 
the opening of the Civil War, he enlisted in 
the Sixty-ninth Massachusetts Volunteer In- 
fantry under General Cochran. He fought 
through the leading battles of the struggle and 
was wounded twice in the battle of Antietam. 
He participated in the grand review at Wash- 
ington and received his final discharge at New 
York City in 1865. The mother died at 
\Valtham, Massachusetts, in 1893. During the 
first fifteen years of our subject's life, he re- 
ceived his educational training in Ireland and 
in Waltham, Massachusetts and then began 
the duties of life for himself. When but a 
small lad. he journeyed to South Dakota, set- 
tling in Bonhomme county, and engaged in 
farming and stock raising. Seven years were 
spent thus and the next three were spent in 
steamboating on the Missouri. After this, he 
did railroad contracting in Colorado for several 
years, also in Wyoming and later was occupied 
on various roads in Montana. It was 1893, 
that Mr. Feeney departed from Marshall Junc- 
tion, Spokane county, for Douglas county and 
bought his present estate. Mr. Feeney has the 
following brothers and sisters, Michael, Mary, 
Annie, Margaret, Sarah and Adelia. 

Mr. Feeney was married at Miles City, 
Montana, on November 22, 1885, to Miss Mary 
Mulroy, of Irish parentage, born in the county 
of Mayo, Ireland. She has one brother, 
Thomas and one sister, Ellen Rork. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Feeney the following children have 
lieen born, Maggie, at Bearmouth, Montana, 
on September 25. 1889: James, born in Spo- 
kane countv, in 1892, on February 24: Martin, 
born on December 25, 1895: Jo1nn, born on 



June 29, 1896; Thomas Dewey, born July 5, 
1898; Martia T., born May 18, 1900. The 
last four having been born in this county. 

Politically, Mr. Feeney is independent and 
is always found active in that realm and casts 
his vote for the man of principle and ability. 
He and his wife are n\embers of the Roman 
Catholic church. Mr. Feeney has traveled 
over the country a great deal and says that 
where he lives now is one of the best places he 
has found and is well contented with his home 

MADISON M. KUDER is to be enumer- 
ated among the agriculturists of Douglas coun- 
ty, whose labors have made it one of the most 
prosperous sections of the great state of Wash- 
ington. He resides about five miles northwest 
from Waterville and has since 1896, given his 
entire attention to the improvement and cul- 
tivation of his estate. 

Madison M. Kuder was born in Greene 
county, Iowa, on October 3, 1858 and his par- 
ents, Georg-e W. and Isabel (Brock) Kuder, 
were natives of Pennsylvania and Indiana, re- 
spectively. The father descended from Penn- 
sylvania Dutch. Our subject was educated in 
the public schools of Greene county. Iowa and 
remained with his parents until the age of 
twenty-four, when he began farming for him- 
self on an eighty acre tract of land in Iowa. 
He remained there until 1885, then moved to 
Dakota where he lived for two years, doing 
farming. Thence he journeyed back to Iowa 
and in 1896, provided himself with teams and 
came overland to Douglas county, consuming 
four months in the trip. He bought 
one hundred and si.xtv acres of land, 
where his home now is and later filed 
on a quarter section as homestead, near 
Moses coulee, which he relinquished in 
1904. Mr. Kuder raises grain on his farm 
largely and is also handling other crops some- 
what. He is a man of good principles and 
manifests thrift and wise judgment in his en- 
deavors here. He has one brother and three 
sisters, George F.. Mrs. A. C. Whitehall. Mrs. 
Barclay M. Whitehall, and Mrs. Daniel Harsh. 

It was in Fairview, Jones countv, Iowa, on 
Februarv 18. i88j., that Mr. Kuder married 
Miss Emma M. Worden. She was born in 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa, on February 5, 1861, be- 

ing the daughter of Porter and Hannah 'SI. 
(Lenard) Warden, natives of New York. Mr. 
and Mrs. Kuder have been blessed by the ad- 
vent of the following children : Cora B. Keens, 
born in Greene county, Iowa, on December 22, 
1884; Bessie L., born in Faulk county, Dakota, 
on June 25, 1887; Chester M., born in Greene 
county, Iowa, October 10, 1889; Mabel M., 
born in Greene county, Iowa, on May 8, 1892; 
Lulu M., born in Greene county, Iowa, on 
April 28, 1895; George H., born in Douglas 
county, Washington, on December 18, 1897; 
Gladys E., born in Douglas county, Washing- 
ton, August 10, 1900. 

In religious persuasion, Mr. and Mrs. 
Kuder are strong supporters of the Church of 
God, of which they are members. In political 
matters, our subject is independent and in the 
general walk of life, manifests a spirit of up- 
rightness, which has won for him many friends. 

FRANK W. ROUNDS was one of the 
first settlers in Douglas county and knows what 
the struggles of the pioneer are. He has been 
enabled by industry and good management to 
so handle the resources of the section, that he 
has become one of the wealthy men of the 
county. He has two hundred and forty acres 
of good land well improved and supplied with 
all necessary improvements, besides a good 
band of stock and other property. His res- 
idence is about five miles north from Water- 
ville and the estate is devoted to diversified 
crops. Frank W. Rounds was born in Linn 
county, Oregon on April 7, 1865, the son of 
Rodney R. and Rebecca (Thornton) Rounds, 
the former a native of New York and the latter 
of Missouri. They crossed the plains with 
ox teams in 185 1 and took a donation claim in 
Linn county, where our subject was born. He 
was educated largely in the common schools 
of Benton countv and later moved to Walla 
Walla county, Washington, where he was in 
the hotel business for seven years. Next we 
see him in Boise in the mines, whence he came 
to Douglas county about 1884 and took a part 
of his present estate as a homestead. The bal- 
ance has been added since by purchase. 

Mr. Rounds has the following brothers and 
sisters, Hezekiah, Charles T.. Louis J., Mrs. 
Robert Grav and I\Trs. C. G. Pence. At Ketch- 



um, Idaho, on April 26, 1881, Mr. Rounds 
married Mrs. Isadore S. Hillman, daughter of 
Charles and Lucy (Luvina) Whortos, natives 
of New Brunswick. Mrs. Rounds was born 
in the state of Maine, on August 24, 1857 and 
has one brother, William A., and one sister, 
Mary A. The following children have been 
born to Mr. and Mrs. Rounds : Pliny J., born in 
Ketchum, Idaho on December 4, 1883; Frank 
L., born on August 8, 1887; Charles W., born 
February 4, 1890; Robert M., born March 17, 
1892; John C, born July 30, 1893, and Archie 
R.. born on November 5, 1895. TRe last five 
mentioned were born in this county. 

]\Ir. Rounds is a member of the W. \A\ and 
in church afiiliations, he and his wife are ad- 
herents of the Christian denomination. He is 
considered one of the upright and substantial 
men of the community and the fine success that 
he has achieved in his labors here indicate his 
business ability as well as his industry and 

JAMES WHITEHALL is a farmer and 
wagon maker and one of the respected citizens 
of Waterville. Also Mr. Whitehall has been 
of Waterville. Also Mr. Whitehall has been an 
elder and minister in the Seventh Day Advent- 
ists church and is active in that capacity at the 
present time. He was born in Fountain county, 
Indiana on April 20. 1833, the son of Alexan- 
der L. and Elizabeth (Newborn) Whitehall, 
natives of North Carolina. In 1832, they were 
pioneers to Indiana and sixteen years later the 
mother died. Our subject attended school in 
a log cabin school house in Fountain county, 
Indiana and early began to learn the wagon 
making trade from his brother. At the age 
of eighteen, he left the shop and did farm 
work near his native place. In 1854, he moved 
to Mercer county, Illinois and there farmed for 
twenty-one years. In 1875, 'i^ moved thence 
to Greene county, Iowa, and there farmed for 
twenty years. In 1895, '""^ began pulling up 
stakes and moved farther west, this time set- 
tling in Douglas county where he took a home- 
stead of one hundred and si.xty acres which lies 
about twelve miles north from Waterville. The 
place is in a high state of cultivation and well 
improved. It has an elegant orchard with 
everv varietv of fruit for this climate and is a 

model estate. Mr. Whitehall also owns a fine 
residence in Waterville. 

He has the following brothers and sisters, 
Nicholas N., Alexander L., Thomas B., Sarah, 
and Fruza A. Nicholas N. is the patentee of 
the celebrated Whitehall plow attachment, 
which is extensively used to-day. 

At Newtown, Indiana, on November 20, 
1852, Mr. Whitehall married Miss Elizabeth, 
daughter of Daniel and Elizabeth (Hieschoner) 
Clark. The father was born in Virginia and 
followed farming all his life. The mother 
comes from German extraction. Mrs. White- 
hall was born in Fountain county, Indiana on 
March 6, 1832 and her brothers are named as 
follows: Solomen, James D., Jacob. To Mr. 
and Mrs. Whitehall have been born six chil- 
dren : Barclay W., in this county; Henry T., 
living near Scranton, Iowa; Alva C, Nicholas 
C, Charles A., all in this county; Carrie B., 
born in Illinois on October 30, 1872 and died 
October 7, 1901, having been the wife of Louis 
Badger. Mr. Whitehall has held the position 
of justice of the peace, besides other positions of 
trust and is a venerable man of industry and 
worth. He is affiliated with the I. O. O. F and 
the A. O. U. W., while he and his wife belong 
to the Seventh Day Adventists church. 

leading attorney of the Big Bend country and 
is located at Waterville, where he has been a 
moving spirit in various enterprises, always 
showing a public spirit and real progressive- 

Richard S. Steiner was born in Ohio, on 
August 7, 1855, the son of Gottlieb and Mary 
M. f Steiner) Steiner, natives of Switzerland 
and Germanv, respectively. They were mar- 
ried in Kenton, Ohio, in 1854 and now live in 
Waterville. T*l:e father migrated to the 
United States in 1837. The first fourteen 
years of our subject were spent in Ohio and 
then the family removed to Indiana, where he 
remained until 1883. After some time spent in 
study in the district schools, he went to the 
Valparaiso normal, after which he took a de- 
gree from the law department of the Michigan 
university, graduating in the class of 1883. 
Immediately after his graduation, he came to 



Colville and tauglit school for a time. The fol- 
lowing year, Mr. Steiner came on to where 
Waterville now stands and took a claim at the 
foot of Badger mountains. Soon after, he 
was elected county auditor, running on the 
Democratic ticket opposed to B. L. Martin. At 
the close of that term, he was re-elected, run- 
ning against Charles P. Peach. In 188B, he 
was appointed clerk of the district court and 
after the expiration of this term, he became 
interested in the First National Bank, being 
associated with Seattle and Waterville cap- 
italists. The bank was organized in 1891, Mr. 
Steiner being first president, and continued until 
1898, when voluntarily it suspended operations. 
When the Douglas county bank was organized, 
Mr. Steiner was installed as cashier, continu- 
ing until 1900 in this capacity. At that date, 
he took up the practice of law actively and since 
then has continued in the same, also doing con- 
siderable real estate business. Mr. Steiner owns 
various property, among which is a good busi- 
ness block in Waterville and other town prop- 
erty. His brothers and sisters are named as 
follows, Frank S., Otto, Gottlieb E., Elizabeth 
Lockwood, Helena Robbins, Celesta Porter, 
Sevilla McMillan, Anna Stanway, and Mattie. 

At Deedsville, Indiana, on April 9, 1883, 
Mr. Steiner married Miss Emma Lockwood, 
who was born in Indiana, in 1861. Her pa- 
rents are Daniel and Mary (Baine) Lockwood, 
natives of Delaware, and now deceased. Mrs. 
Steiner has three brothers, Frank, Chalmers, 
George, and two sisters, Ellen Anderson, and 
Julia Morris. Mr. and Mrs. Steiner have three 
children ; Frank, aged seventeen ; May, aged 
fourteen : Bessie, aged eight, but now deceased. 

Mr. Steiner is a member of the I. O. O. F. 
and the A. F. & A. M. Mrs. Steiner is a mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian church. Thev are 
leading people and stand exceptionally well in 
the community. 

At the convention of the Democratic party 
held at Bellingham Bay, on August 2, 1904, 
Mr. Steiner was nominated as judge of the 
Superior court for the counties of Douglas, 
Chelan, Okanogan, and Ferry. Notwithstand- 
ing the fact that the Republicans were largely 
in the lead and Mr. Steiner was and always 
has been a stanch Democrat, he was elected by 
a handsome majority. The Republican candi- 
dates usually received from fifteen hundred to 
two thousand votes in the majority. This un- 

mistakably evidences the esteem in which Judge 
Steiner is held among the people, and the stabil- 
ity, integrity, probity and high sense of honor 
which characterize him vouchsafe an adminis- 
tration of justice at all times without partiality. 

ELI C. FISHER is not only a pioneer of 
Douglas county, but is also a pioneer in fruit 
raising in the county. He commenced early in 
the industry and has been a careful student 
and active worker along those lines until the 
present time. The wise effort put forth during 
these years has not been without result as the 
present holdings of Mr. Fisher, which will 
be mentioned later, will abundantly testify, as 
will, also, the excellent results achieved by those 
in the county who have followed his sug- 
gestions. It was in 1886, that Mr. Fisher set- 
tled on his present place, three miles north from 
Riverview. He has added to the estate until 
it is now of the generous proportions of five 
hundred and sixty acres. He has done general 
farming as the years went by, but his main 
attention has been directed to the culture and 
production of first-class fruit. He has now 
over two thousand trees of the leading varieties 
of apples, peaches, pears, plums, quinces and 
apricots as well as five hundred vines of grapes 
and many nut trees, as Black and English va- 
rieties of walnuts, almonds, chestnuts, and so 
forth. Mr. Fisher has a fine large fruit dryer, 
a cider mill and also a winery and handles these 
products commercially. A steamboat landing 
is on the place which renders transportation 
eas)^ and he is well situated for comfort in life 
ancl for commercial advantage. The estate is 
irrigated by a current wheel which supplies all 
the water from the 'Columbia needed. Mr. 
Fisher has experimented well and skillfully and 
although he uses irrigation, he makes this state- 
ment, after long years of careful study and 
e.xperimentation : "Fruits raised without irri- 
gation are better flavored, will hang on the 
trees longer and will ship better." 

Speaking more particularly of the personal 
career of our subject we notice that he was born 
in Monroe county, Ohio, on June 24, 1846. 
His parents were Barak and Susan (Car- 
michael) Fisher, natives also of the Buckeye 
State. During the youthful days of his life 
he studied in the log cabin school house near 



his native place and when seventeen stepped 
forth into the world for himself. The follow- 
ing five years were spent in Illinois and later 
he dwelt in Arkansas, after which he journeyed 
west to Oregon. From that state he came to 
Douglas county and here he has remained since. 
Part of his land was taken under the old timber 
culture act and the remainder w^as purchased. 
Mr. Fisher has two brothers and one sister, 
John, who fought in Company D, Seventeenth 
Iowa; Bennett L., and Mrs. Mary A. Grains. 
In Spokane, this state, on February 15, 
1886. Mr. Fisher married Miss Charlotte S., 
daughter of Christian and Helen (Laman) 
Myer, natives of Norway. Mrs. Fisher was 
born in Bergen, Norway on March 22, 1862, 
and has one sister and one brother, Ferdinand, 
a veteran of the Rebellion ; Mrs. C. E. Helsen. 
To Mr. and Mrs. Fisher there have been born 
four children, Elisa H., on September 24, 1887 ; 
Francis L., on July 16, 1890; Eli J., on Feb- 
uary 16, 1895; Susan C, on November 17, 
1897. All were born on the farm in this coun- 
ty. Mr. Fisher and his wife favor the Chris- 
tian church but are not members. 

ALVARO L. CORBALEY resides about 
one mile south from Waterville and in addition 
to doing general farming, preaches the gospel. 
For sometime he has been one of the prominent 
evangelists of the Church of God. 

He was born in Marshall county, Indiana, 
on January i, 1862, the son of Richard and 
Jane ( Croco ) Corbaley. The mother was born 
in 1827, in Holmes county, Ohio, being of 
Dutch extraction, and is still living. The 
father was a native of Indiana, being the first 
white child born in Marion county. He held 
various county offices in Marshall county, was 
editor of the Plymouth Banner, and also en- 
gaged in the practice of law. For the last forty- 
eight years of his life he was a very prominent 
minister of the Church of God. His death 
occurred at Waterville, on July 16, 1903. Our 
subject received his orimary education in the 
district schools of Indiana and completed the 
same at Healdsburg Institute, of California. 
At the age of eighteen he went to the mineS in 
Butte county, California and spent two years 
in prospecting, without material success. After 
this, he was occupied in railroad service for a 

year and a half. It was in 1884, that he accom- 
panied his father to Douglas county and at that 
time he located on a quarter section of land 
where he now lives and which he has brought 
to a very high state of cultivation. Mr. Cor- 
baley also raises and handles stock. He has the 
following brothers and sisters, John A., Will- 
iam G., Frank R., Piatt M., and Marie C. 
Oppenheimer. William G. is a prominent 
financier of California, but has recently on ac- 
count of his health, retired from more active 
duties. He lives in Berkeley and began life as 
an engine wiper. He rose steadily through 
every department to be superintendent of the 
road, which position he held for many years. 
He was also a superintendent of the San Fran- 
cisco Harbor Improvement Company and also 
of the San Francisco Terra Gotta Company. 

At Waterville, on July 22, 1888, Mr. Cor- 
baley married Miss Annie M., daughter of 
George W. and Jane (Hand) Gard, natives of 
Ohio and Tennessee, respectively. Mrs. Cor- 
baley was born in Lake county, California, on 
June 6, 1 87 1 and has the following brothers, 
Isaac, ReeS, James A., and Arthur. She also 
has two sisters, Martha Kelsey and Estella 
Pierpoint. 'To Mr. and Mrs. Corbaley five chil- 
dren have been born, named as follows : Paul 
W., on September 7, 1890; George R., on Jan- 
uary 19, 1893; Glenn A., on September 16, 
1897; Annie R., on June 5, 1899; and John, 
on June 3, 1903 ; all born in this county. 

Mr. and Mrs. Corbaley are both members 
and active workers in the Church of God and 
have a large circle of friends throughout the 

ALBERT E. SWAN, who is now engaged 
in general farming and poultry raising, just 
north of Riverview, in Douglas county, has 
heretofore been engaged in the pottery busi- 
ness. He was born in Oil Springs, Ontario, 
Canada on September 5, 1863, the son of Will- 
iam E. and Teresa (Stacy) Swan, natives of 
England. The parents now live in South 
Dakota, where the father is engaged in pro- 
specting for oil. Our subject completed a high 
school course in Janesville, Wisconsin, then 
studied in the commercial college, for some 
time. After this, he moved to South Dakota, 
settling in Day county, where he contracted 
for boring wells. He was in that county for 


eighteen years. It was in 1901, that he moved 
to Douglas county and bought eighty acres, 
where he now hves and upon which he has put 
very valuable improvements. He has put the 
land under cultivation and made it very pro- 
ductive. In addition to this, Mr. Swan is rais- 
ing poultry and has some very fine Plymouth 
Rocks and other breeds. His market is Seattle. 

Mr. Swan is a man of considerable ability 
and in addition to his farming and poultry rais- 
ing for commercial benefits, he is conducting 
an experiment station to ascertain which are 
the best varieties of grasses and grains for this 
section of the country and also what kinds of 
poultry are adapted to the climate. He has 
become skilled in this line and is known as one 
of the leading men of the section. Mr. Swan 
has two brothers and three sisters, William W., 
Harry L., Mrs. Bessie Raynes, Mrs. Charlotte 
Hogg and Mrs. Nellie Bingham. ^ 

The marriage of our subject and Mrs. 
Susan J. Mills occurred at Andover, South 
Dakota, February 5, 1889. Mrs. Swan is the 
daughter of William and Sarah (Spring) Mills, 
natives of Canada and Michigan, respectively 
and now living in Wenatchee, where the 
father conducts a mercantile establishment. 
Mrs. Swan was born near Grant Park, Illinois 
on February 7, 1867, and has two brothers and 
two sisters, Arthur J., William H., Mrs. Carrie 
L. Stewart and Mrs. Lizzie Collins. 

In South Dakota on June 10, 1897, one 
child was born to Mr. and Mrs. Swan, Vera 
Terreasa. Mr. Swan is a member of the A. O. 
U. W and he and his wife are adherents of the 
Methodist church. 

GILBERT S. ASBURY. Waterville has 
shown to the world that a class of very pro- 
gressive and wide awake business men are 
pushing her to the front ; and not least among 
these is the gentleman mentioned above. Mr. 
Asbuiy is known throughout Douglas county 
as one of the most progressive and practical 
men that we have. He is an untiring worker 
and is always guided by upright principles and 

Gilbert S. Asbury was born in \'ernon 
county, Wisconsin, on July 29, 1867. His 
father. Thomas H. Asbury, was a farmer in 
that state, having come thither in the early days 

from his native state, Virginia. He enlisted in 
the Forty-third Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry, 
under General Banks, in 1863 and served for 
fourteen months, being honorably discharged 
at the close of the war in 1865. He married 
Miss Emma Roberts and this worthy and faith- 
ful couple are still living at the home place in 
Wisconsin. The public schools of Wisconsin 
supplied the educational training of our subject 
find he remained at home until fifteen then 
began work on an adjoining farm, where he 
continued until 1889, when he journeyed on 
to Iowa. For two years he was engaged in 
various employments there, after which he went 
to Nebraska, settling in Dickinson county. 
Eight years were spent there in farming. It 
was 1900 when he moved to Douglas county 
and bought one-half section of land, two miles 
northwest from Waterville, which he improved 
well and then sold. At the present time Mr. 
Asbury is associated with L. G. Wright in the 
construction of a fine flourmill in Waterville. 
The plant is to be equipped with the finest ma- 
chinery and processes known for the manufac- 
ture of first-class flour, in this enlightened age. 
It will have an output capacity of seventy-five 
barrels each twenty-four hours and will be 
operated entirely by electricity and the process 
used in this is known as the pansifter. The 
knowledge that Waterville is becoming the cen- 
ter for the manufacture of flour is very gratify- 
ing, since it is well known that the broad prairies 
of Douglas county produce some of the finest 
wheat in the world. It is commendable also 
that this enterprise is in the hands of a man 
of knowledge and real business ability and 
much is expected from our subject and it is 
certain that he will not disappoint the expecta- 
tibns of the people. 

Mr. Asbury has the following brothers and 
sisters, Edward, Irvin L., Reuben T., Mrs. J. 
E. Chamber. Mrs. Rilla A. Pittenger, Mrs. 
Delila E. Manning and Mrs. Lavina Clark. 

The wedding of Mr. Asbury and Miss Anna 
E. Wright occurred in Dickson county, Ne- 
braska, on February 15, 1889. Her parents 
were Lyman G. and Ella (Quimby) Wright, 
natives of Michigan and Wisconsin, respect- 
ively. Mrs. Asbury was born in Waukon, 
Iowa, on June 30, 1875 and has one sister, 
Ella Q., living in Waterville. Mr. and Mrs. 
Asbun,' are the parents of the following named 
children: Earl \\'.. born in Nel)raska, on De- 



cember 21, 1900 ; Agnes Fern, born near Water- 
ville, August 5, 1901 ; Ella Fay, born near 
Waterville, on December i, 1902. Mr. Asbury 
is a member of the A. F. & A. M. and was 
raised under the influence of tlie S