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Full text of "An illustrated history of Southern California : embracing the counties of San Diego, San Bernardino, Los Angeles and Orange, and the peninsula of Lower California, from the earliest period of occupancy to the present time; together with glimpses of their prospects; also, full-page portraits of some of their eminent men, and biographical mention of many of their pioneers and of prominent citizens of to-day"

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3 1833 01783 1535 


Southern California. 

Embracing the ConntiES of San EiEgo, San BErnardino, Lds 
Angeles and Drange, and the Feninsnla nf LawEr Cali- 
fornia, from the EarliEst PErind nf Dccnpancy to the 
PrESEnt TimEj tngath.Br with Ghmpses of their 
PrnspEcts] also, Fnll-PagE Portraits nf sdilb 
of their Eminent Msn, and Biographical 
Mentinn nf Many nf their PinnEErs 
and nf Prominent Citizens 
nf tn-day, 



s fiailow-Sinclair ^rijifing Co., £ ( 



General History — 

The Territory 9 

Early Explorations 10 

The Name " San Diego" 11 

Establishment of the Mission-- 11 

Kemoval of San Diego Mission, etc.. . .". 15 

Organization of the Pueblo 22 

The War with Mexico 24 

Progress of San Diego 28 

Points Throughout the County— 

Around the Bay; the Harbor 34 

National City 34 

Chula Vista 30 

Otay 38 

The Potrero 40 

Tia Juana 40 

Coronado Beach 40 

Old Town 41 

Koseville 41 

Pacific Beach 42 

Mission Valley 42 

El Cajon Valley 43 

El Cajon Heights 45 

Lakeside 4(i 

Santa Maria 415 

Valle de las Viejas 46 

• San Vicente 4(i 

Julian 47 

Banner 48 

The Cayamaca District 49 

Ballena 49 

San Jacinto Valley 49 

Town of San Jacinto 50 

Valle Vista 51 

Santa Ysabel 53 

Mesa Grande 52 

Temecula 53 

Bear Valley 53 

Pala 54 

Pall Brook 54 

Warner's Ranch 55 

Oak Grove 50 

The Palomar 56 

Poway 57 

Winchester 58 

Pinicate 59 

Perris 59 

Murrietta 59 

Elsinore 61 

Wildomar 63 

Encinilas and Vicinity 63 


Agua Hedionda 64 

EscoDdido 64 

Oceanside 65 

San Diego— Port and City 67 

Comparative Weather 69 

Vital Statistics 70 

The Wharves 71 

Municipal Characteristics and Institutions 72 

Court-House 74 

Public Library 74 

Chamber of Commerce 75 

Churches .... 70 

Bench and Bar 80 

Municipal Officers 81 

County Officers 81 

Schools. .». 82 

College of Letters 388 

The County Schools 84 

The Press 85 

Fraternal Organizations 86 

Fire Department 87 

Banks 88 

Traffic 88 

The Charitable Institutions 90 

Penal I nstitutions 90 

Military 91 

Customs and Exports 92 

Resources 95 

Agricultural Developments 97 

The Gold Mines 99 

The Wealth of San Diego 100 

Back Country Wealth 101 

Progress Since the Boom 101 

La Ba.ia California 391 

Discovery and Early Explorations 391 

The Jesuits 392 

Catholic Orders and Mexican Rule 395 

The War of 1840 397 

Wi 11 iam Walker 397 

Annals, 1854 to 1889 398 

Topography, Climate, the Mines, etc 400 


General Outline 409 

Pastoral 410 

iDdian Depredations 412 

A Fight with Indians 414 

Ruffians 416 

Mormons 416 

Miscellaneous " 417 

Lawlessness 420 

County Officers 423 

Indian Tribes 423 

San Bernardino Valley 424 

Climate 425 

Railroads 426 

Lumber Industry 429 

Mines 430 

School System 433 

Bench and Bar 435 

Physicians 436 

Water Supply 437 

Streams 437 

Cienegas and Wells 438 

San Bernardino Valley 438 

Ditches and Dams 439 

Bear Valley Water System 440 

Gage Canal System 447 

County Summary 450 

San Bernardino, The City 452 

Business 452 

Churches 438 

Societies 459 

Pioneer Society 460 

Newspapers 462 

Academy and Business College 494 

Riverside 462 

Initial 462 

Developmental 463 

First Churches 465 

Fraternal Organizations 466 

Riverside Water Company 466 

Railroads and Horse-car Lines 466 

Young Mens' Christian Association Building... 467 

Riverside Banking Company 467 

Municipal, etc 467 

Industries 469 

Other Points in the County: — 

Colton 470 

South Riverside 471 

Ktiwanda 471 

Ontario 472 

Lugonia 475 

Redlands 475 

Arrowhead Hot Springs 479 

Alessandro 479 

Banning 479 

Barstow 480 

Beaumont 480 

Calico 480 

Chino Ranch 481 

Town of Chino 482 

Cucamonga Vineyard 483 

North Ontario 4S3 

Daggett - 484 

Oro Grande 484 

The Rincon 484 

South Cucamonga 485 

Temescal 485 

Ulmer 485 

Victor 485 

The Needles 485 

Hesperia 485 

Harlem Springs 485 

Providence 485 

Nantan 486 

Ivanpah 486 

El Casco 486 

San Timoteo Canon 486 

Death Valley 486 


Aborigines 725 

Early Spanish Explorations, etc 726 

San Fernando Mission 728 

Los Angeles in Mexican Times 729 

War with Mexico 733 

Annals, 1849-'89 739 

Spanish Land Grants 752 

Pioneers 753 

The Colored People 760 

Physical Features of the County 761 

Topography 761 

Agriculture 763 

Mineral 768 

Earthquakes 769 

Los Angeles City 770 

Water Supply 773 

Schools 773 

Churches 776 

Fraternal Organizations 782 

Bench and Bar 784 

Los Angeles Bar Association 786 

Crimes 786 

Medical 793 

The Press 798 

Bah kb 805 

Other Towns 808 

Boom op 1886-'87 818 


General Remarks 825 

Water 825 

Railroads 826 

Resources 826 

Schools 827 

Wealth 827 

Santa Ana 828 

Anaheim 832 

Orange 834 

Tustin 835 

Westminster 836 

Garden Grove 837 


Arnold, J. H 839 

Boyd, James 617 

Brown, E. G 569 

Bear V alley Reservoir and Dam, San Bernardino Co. . 441 

Conn, W. A 601 

Crafton Retreat, San Bernardino County 713 

Drew, H. L 456 

Dver, Miss E. C 681 

Dyer, O. T., Residence of 705 

Gibson, J. A 649 

Gunn, Douglas 121 

Haight, A. D., Residence of 521 

Harris, W. A 561 

Holt, L. M 633 

Hough, A. M 781 

Humphreys, C. W 857 

Hinckley, Frank, Residence of 529 

Keating, G. .1 265 

McCarty, D. 553 

■Morrison, F. P., Residence of 695 

North, J. W 489 

Orrae, H. S 797 

Otis, G. E 537 

Riverside, View of Magnolia Avenue 464 

Ross, R. E 809 

San Diego, Bird's-eye View of. 67 

San Luis Rey, Mission of 23 

Scott, Chalmers 185 

Seymour, E. C 505 

Shu-art, K. D 497 

Spurgeon, W. H 873 

Titus" L. H 766 

Twogood, A. J 585 

Waters, Byron 593 

Waters, J. W., Br., 665 

Biographical Sketches. 

Aberdein, Jolin 527 

Adams, P. T 875 

Aguirre, P.J 343 

Aitken, J. It 371 

Alder, S 712 

Alkire, A. S 008 

Allen, B. P 711 

Allison, Robert 270 

Allison, W. F 493 

Allurn, Le Roy W 348 

Altamirano, J. A 358 

Al varado, Tomas 24:'. 

Anderson, R. J 562 

Andreson, John 490 

Andrews, C. N 545 

Armor, Samuel 572 

Arms, M. D 262 

Armstrong, A. T 860 

Arnold, G. C 368 

Arnold, J. H 839 

Arnold, T.J 381 

Asher, J. M 259 

Atherton, A. W. & Co 108 

Atwood, Danford 559 

Avas, John 849 

Backus, Orrin 574 

Bailey, L.N 897 

Bailey, Robert 199 

Bailey, W.J 233 

Bailhache, W. H 314 

Baird, S. J 258 

Baker, Nathan 883 

Baldridge, B. L 558 

Baldridge, W. H 368 

Ball, E. A 550 

Ball, W. H 654 

Banta, D. D 667 

Barnes, G. W 339 

Barrows, H. D 821 

Beach, Joseph 871 

Beal, Israel 552 

Beam, J. S 563 

Bear, M. H 860 

Beardsley, A 312 

Beardsley, C. A 312 

Beckett, Alfred S62 

Beckett, John 862 

Bedford, L.N 492 

Bemis, A. W 600 

Bennett, L. B 338 

Bergland, Andrew 278 

Bernstein, Julius 138 

Isaac 651 

t, James 651 

Bessant, John 651 

Bessonet, G. P 851 

Bettens, Philip A 232 

Billingsley, Ray 889 

Bird, J. E 190 

Birdsall, Mrs. M.J 288 

Blackmer, E. T 271 

Blochman, A 228 

Bogart, S. C 544 

Bollen, R. W 297 

Bond, T. E 276 

Boscher, E. H 282 

Bottoms, John 559 

Bowler. G. W 150 

Boyd, James 617 

Boyd, John 592 

Boyd, J. B 346 

Boyd, J. P 890 

Bradt, G. G 294 

Brewster, H. 1 373 

Brinton, T. J 358 

Broad here, G. R 830 

Brodie, G. II 283 

Brooke, H. C 434 

Brown, E. G 569 

Brown, P. E 553 

Brown, John 5?6 

Bruschi, M 271 

Brush, David 864 

Buchanan. D. N 302 

Buck, J. S 143 

Bundy, E. Z 120 

Burgess, R. F 842 

Burnes, T. A 261 

Burt, B. D 718 

Burton, Henry S 405 

Bush, T. H 319 

Bushyhead, E. W 273 

Butler, L. G 161 

Butler, R. D 372 

Button, M. E 594 

Cadwallader, S 320 

Cairnes, A. B 107 

Caldwell, E 709 

Campbell, J. L 533 

Canterbury, M 545 

Capps, T. J 303 

Carpenter. F. H 302 

Carlyle, G. H 869 

Carroll, Tim 859 

Carson, L. J 895 

Cassidy, Andrew 323 

Cave, B. W 544 

Chaffee, A. J 865 

Chaffe, Dorr B 864 

Chaffee, J. D 866 

Chapman, D. P 687 

Charlesworth, G. J 693 

Chase, Henry 210 

Chick, Martinez 123 

Christenson, J. P 170 

Christian, Mrs. Mary F 317 

Christy, J. C 535 

Clark, A. G 174 

Clark, D. H 144 

Clark, J. M 205 

Clark, P, A 136 

Clark, R. G 211 

Clarke Bros 474 

Cleghorn, M 606 

Clum, J. P 500 

Colby, A. E 309 

Cole, J. A 7i j 

Collins, J. V 353 

Combs, A. P 5'>7 

Compton, G. I) 244 

Congdou, J. R 888 

Congreve, John ego 

Conklin, N. II 195 

Conn, W. A .'.'oot 

Cook, B. II 207 

Cook, G. A .897 

Cook, Simeon 720 

Cook, T. T 620 

Cooley, C. C 537 

Cooley, E. M (547 

Cooley, George 541 

Cooley, G. M 496 

Cooley, John 560 

Coon, D. E 291 

Cope, George 331 

Copeland, G. D 387 

Copeland, J. L 180 

Coronel, A. F. 759 

Correll, D. A . .079 

Couts, Cave J., Sr 378 

Couts, Cave J., Jr ..277 

Cover, P. D 597 

Coyne, Joseph 326 

Craddick, S. M '. 871 

Crafts, G. H 552 

Crafts, H. G 723 

Craig, William 550 

Crain, L. W 362 

Craudall, L. D '507 

Crane, J. A 878 

Cravath, A. K 230 

Crawford, J. B . .... .522 

Crawford, J. H 310 

Creider, A. L 180 

Cresmer, J. 11 ' .167 

Crombie, It. S 628 

Cundiff, T. It 652 

Cunningham, F. H 292 

Cunningham, G. D 643 

Curtis, W. J 582 

Cutter, J. E 723 

Dalglish, J. C 119 

Daney, Eugene 249 

Dannals, G. M 209 

Davis, E. J 632 

Davis, H. L 129 

Davis, M. E 715 

Day, B. W 141 

Deakin, J. E 251 

De Barra, Alex 131 

Deck, Lewis 600 

Deleval Charles 198 

Den, It. S 794 

De Vine, F. B 663 

Dewey John 129 

De Witt, It. L 607 

Dickey, D. K 


Gardiner, J. S 


Heller, Edward 



Helphingstine, J. A 

Henderson, E. K 



Garner, J. H 


. . .522 

Dodge, J. M 

Dodson, N. II 



Garretsou, S. W. 


Henderson, J. J 


Doig, J.R 

Dole, G. H 

... .334 

Garrison, C. G 


Hendrick, E. W 



Gassaway, VV. M 


Henry, Alex 


Dorn, E. L 

. ..224 

Gates, F. A 

.... 861 

Hewitt, Harvey 


Donis, W. A 


Gay, J. II 


Hewitt, 11. T 

. .8115 

Dougherty, Edward 


Gehring, Win 





Gerlach, G. W 


Higgins, W. M 



German, M 


High Bros 


Drake, J. M 


Gibson, J. A 


Hill, J. H 

.... 383 


Gilbert, I. V 


Himebaugh, H. II 


Gilbert, J. D.,8r 

Gill, N. G 



... .520 

Drew, II. L 


Hinkle, W. S 


Drinkwater, T. P 


Oilman, R. 11 


Hisom, G. L 



Gird, Richard 

Glover, J. B 

Goddard, E. F 




Hoag, I. N 

Hoagland, Lucas 



Dyar, L. S 

Dyer, E. C 




Goddard, S. M 


Holaday, G. M 


Dyer, 0. T 


Goepper, L 


Holcomb, W. F 



Holcomb, Wm. 11 

Holland, J. C 

Goldthwait, S. T 



Goodbody, T. A 


Holmes, E. W 


Goodcell, Henry, Jr 

Goodwin, A 

Greeley, G. G 

Greeley, J. P 





Holmes, Joseph 

Holmes, Thomas 


Edwards, E. E 



Edwards, Alex 


Hook Bros. & Oak 


. ... 131 

Gregg, F. W 


Home, D. H 


Emery, II. L 

Gregory, K 


Horton, A. E 


Gregory, F. A 

Graves, J. P 


Ilosking, John 

Hough, A. M 




Estiulillo, Jose A 

Evans, S. C . 




Grovesteen, J. II 


Howe, A. J 


Grow, W. F 


Hubbell, Charles 


Fairbanks, II 

Faivre, Joseph 

FalkeDStein, John 

Fenn, CM 

Fern ill, E. J 

Ken-ell, J. B 

Ferris, W. C 








Gunn, Douglas 


Ilubbell, O. 8 


Guthridge, W. W 

Guthrie, H. II 

Guthrie, W. J 




Hughes, J. W 

Hughes, Moses 

Hulbert, R. G 




Humphreys, C. W 



Hunsacker, Wm. J 

Hutchings, T. B 


Haight, A. D 



Feudge, John 


Haight, E. G 


Filanc, Peter J 


Halesworth, W. W 


Jacob, Joseph 



Hall, H 


Jacobs, Lewis 


Findley Bros 

Fireba'ugh, William A 

'.'.'.'.'. i860 

Hall, John 

Hall, Priestley 



Jarecki, Henry 


Fisk, C.H 

Halladay, M.D 


Jarvis, Joseph 


Hamilton, J. K 

Hammack. D. M 

Hancock, Joseph 




Jeffery, R. N 

Johnson, B. 

Johnson, CM 



Fleming, James 



Flint, Joseph A 


Hardman, J. C 


Johnston, H. M 


Harris, B. B 

Harris, John 



Johnston, John 

Jones, D. F 


Flouruoy, R. S 



Harris, R. T 

Harris, W. A 



Junes, F. A 

Jones, J. P 


Ford, G. W 



Foss, E. A 

. . . 332 

Harrison, John 


Jones, M. S 




Jones, Victor 


Fowler, W 


Hart, Edwin 


Jordan, Geo 


Fox, C. J 


Hartzell, T. B 


Jordan, J. C 


Fox, E. W 


Harvey, W. N 


Jones, G. W 

. ...243 


Jorres, Wm 

Judson, E. G 

Julian, A. H 


Haslam, Wm 

Havermale, S. G 




Franzden, Eugene 



Freeman, G. E 


Hayes, J. 


Julian, J M 


Frey, E. S 


Hayes, S. J 


Justice, E. P 


Frisbie, J. C 


Hayt, C. P 





Kamraan, C. F 


Hazelett, Isaac W 


Kastle, John 


Gage, Matthew 


Head, H. W 


Keating, G. J 


Garcelon, G. W 


Heald, F. H 


Keir, Alex., Jr 



Gardiner, Alex 


Heeranduer, J 


Keith, J. E 


Keller, H. A 723 

Keller, H. C 558 

Kellogg, B. F. E 858 

Kellom, J. H 872 

Kelly, J. H 655 

Kerby, W. B 284 

Kerr, James 104 

Kimball Bros 330 

Kingsbury, C. A 549 

Kirkpatrick, R. C 182 

Kitton, J. C 123 

Klinefelter, P. K 646 

Klinefelter, S. K G75 

Koop, J. H 151 

Kramer, August 161 

Kuchel, Henry and Charles 859 

Kurtz, D. B 355 

Kutchin, H. M 142 

Lacey, D. S 191 

Ladd, T. W 556 

Lamson, Win 867 

Langrehr, H. C 192 

Langworthy, S. It. 606 

Larson, Thomas 332 

La Rue, Seneca 671 

Lawrence, C. E 297 

Layman, J. W 844 

Le C'yr, Josf ph 156 

Lenz, J. M 374 

Lester, Edward 018 

Lettner, Lewis 137 

Levet, J. B 230 

Lindenberger, F. T 179 

Littlefield.S 851 

Long, R. H 314 

Loop, T. M 235 

Lord, Geo 571 

Loucks. J. H 120 

Louis, E 206 

Love, J. A 250 

Luce, M. A 215 

Lyman, Sylvester 869 

Lynch, L. L 149 

Lyons, Isaac 855 

Lyons, W.J 376 

Lytle, Andrew 500 

Macdonald, M 506 

Mack, J. A 511 

Mack, J. E 534 

Maclagan, Henry 335 

Macy, H. F 518 

Magee, S. R 513 

Maggard, Jacob 858 

Mannasse. J. S 279 

Mansur. C. F 880 

Marshall, J. H 225 

Marshall, L.W 144 

Martin, J. M 202 

Mason, H. S 300 

Mason, L.S 114 

Matthews, W. G 251 

Maxson, C. W 263 

McCanna, J. H 331 

McClain, J.W 181 

McCollough, John 897 

McCormick, J- H 226 

McCormick, J. P 386 

McCoy, Jas 147 

McCoy, Josiah 869 

McCracken, F. F 168 

McCrary, Abner 560 

McCrary, Ales 642 

McDermott, Owen 168 

McDonald, F. M 197 

McDonald, F. J 338 

McDonald, Wm !".'.".! S08 

McDonald, R. E 491 

McDonald, R. H 130 

McDougall & Burgess 138 

McDowell, S. A 199 

McFadden, W. M 853 

McFarlane, T. L 504 

McGarvie, R. W 250 

Mcintosh, F.J 189 

McKee, HA 875 

McLeod, D. AV 613 

McMillan, A. C 366 

Mc Vicar, Donald 109 

Meacham, Mrs. E. W. C 713 

Mead, A. N 157 

Mendelson, L 154 

Merrill, C. C 113 

Metz, Israel 328 

Miller, C. C ....639 

Milliken, B. H 624 

Mills, Ander 861 

Mills, R. C, Jr 128 

Miner, A. B 676 

Mitchell, John 268 

Moesser, J. H 884 

Monroe, C. F 309 

Moore, H. P 624 

Mora, Francis 777 

More, Ira 775 

Morey, David 556 

Morgan, J. T 361 

Morris, J. M 513 

Morrison, F. P 697 

Morse, Bradford 683 

Morse, E. AV 272 

Morse, Philip 194 

Muncy, R. E 365 

Munn, A. G 172 

Murphy, James 198 

Murray. Eli H 103 

Myers, J. H 281 

Nance, J. W 355 

Nason, A. G 382 

Neil], Henrv 892 

Nelson, F. T 608 

Newburg, Oscar 428 

Newport, W 208 

Newton, J. C 768 

Nichols, F. P 155 

Nichols, T. D 694 

Nicolson, John 137 

Nielsen, J. B 254 

Noland. W. W 674 

North, J. G 489 

North, J. W 487 

Noyes, W. T 002 

Nugent, Edmond 307 

Oakes, G. P 211 

Olson, Daniel 137 

O'Pry, J. T 687 

Orme. H. S 797 

Orr, G. P 363 

Ortesra, Amelio 362 

Otis, G. E 537 

Ottmann, P. R 150 

Overbaugh. A 107 

Overraier, N 375 

Overshiner, G. J 345 

Owen, C. E 653 

Packard, C. F 602 

Packard, C. W ! .... 632 

Paine, OR 603 

Paine, J. O. W 231 

Palmer, I. L 349 

Palmer, J. D 196 

Palmer, T. II .501 

Pankey, H. S 803 

Pipe, A 373 

Papineau, Ottlev 661 

Paris, A. B 491 

Parker, D. G 662 

Parker, J. C _ _ 1 1 9 

Parker, Leonard 844 

Parker, Robert 854 

Pauly, Aaron 3,59 

Payne, A. E 623 

Payne, E. S 382 

Peabody, Henry A 831 

Pearson, E. C ..257 

Penrose, I. C 364 

Perigo, Wm 341 

Perkins. C. J 502 

Perris, F. T 690 

Perry, W. F 328 

Petchner. Frank 616 

Petty, J. N 250 

Phelan, A. E 581 

Piddington. A 638 

Pierce, E. H ;;30 

Pierson, J. H 506 

Pierson, R. J 611 

Pine, S. C 614 

Plath, A. T 184 

Polhemus, J 716 

Porter, R. K 159 

Potts, J. W 758 

Preble, S.W 875 

Prescott, G.W 686 

Price, M. F 670 

Prince, S. O 176 

Prout, W. J 245 

Publicover, James 658 

Puis, H. A 652 

Puterbaugh, George 205 

Quinton, J. H 169 

Rabel, Henrv 524 

Raffi, G 274 

Rainey, T. II 146 

Ralphs, J. (J 607 

Reece, O. M 260 

Reeves, Truman 499 

Reinhardt,.!. G 152 

Reiser, Theodore 855 

Rice, James II 173 

Rice, H. W 512 

Richards, AV. T 870 

Richardson, F. W 717 

Rieger, J C 308 

Rifenburg, AV.G 133 

Roberds, R T 553 

Robinson, H. AV 520 

Robinson, Richard 865 

Robinson, J. C 806 

Robinson, WE 366 

Rockfellow, E. F 262 

Rodes, Joseph 171 

Roe, J.H 595 

Rogers, S. S 2:!:} 

Rogers, W. A 541 

Rogers, William 231 

Rose, Thomas 186 


Rosenthal, Emil 693 

Ross, Jacob 877 

Ross, Jacob 848 

Ross, Josiah 883 

Ross, R. E 809 

Itudisill, H.J 515 

Russell, James 159 

Russell, W. P 719 

Russell, W. R 6(i0 

Ryan, J. F 373 

Ryerson, George 

San Diego College of Letters. . . .388 

Sanford, O. N 310 

Sauerbrev, C. J 306 

Sauller, A. II 119 

Saunders, A 135 

Saunders, H 621 

Sawyer, AV. B 673 

Sayward, J. AV 617 

Schell, D 604 

Schelling, Jacob Ill 

Seherman, Antone 309 

Schiller, H. M 247 

Schell, Daniel 004 

Scholl, C. I) 872 

Schorn, Louis 843 

Schuyler, John 267 

Schuyler, J. D 241 

Scott, Chalmers.. .• 185 

Scott, H. H 695 

Scranton, J. R 385 

Scrimgeour, G 113 

Sedgwick, T. S 154 

Sells, M. L 801 

Selwyn, G. A 387 

Seymour.E. C 505 

Sharp, J. E 845 

Shaug, H. L 182 

Shay, W. A 516 

Sheldon, Dr 385 

Sherman. C. C 098 

Shields, J. E 702 

Shirley, John 880 

Shoemaker, M 009 

Shugart, K. D 497 

Shultz, J. F 141 

Simms, J. A 092 

Simpson, F. M 254 

Sinclair, H. H 597 

Skinner, G. M 640 

Slade, S 334 

Slaughter, F. M 625 

Sleppy, Nelson 677 

Smith, A. B 151 

Smith, Carey R 845 

Smith, J. H 457 

Smythe, F. C 843 

Snow, J. M 227 

Snyder. J. H 316 

Soto, J. M 247 

Soule,W. L. G 590 

Sparkes, G. AV 717 

Spencer, J. M 109 

Spencer, John 386 

Spencer, M. AV 206 

Spencer, Thomas 856 

Spileman, E. B 350 

Sponabie, G. AV 852 

Sprecher, G. A 674 

Sprigg, J.C 354 

Spurgeon, AVm. H 873 

Squire, Stephen 619 

Stannard, J. B 252 

Statler, S 264 

Steadman, R. B 372 

Stephens, Henrv 868 

Stetson, R. H 538 

Stevison, V. V 356 

Stewart, Clarence 641 

Stewart, James 539 

Stewart, Julia J 896 

Stewart, Jas. II 118 

Stewart, J. H 539 

Stewart, Richard 543 

Stewart, AV. AV 264 

Stice, A. J 162 

Steilberg, AVm 3«0 

Stiles, Amos 621 

Stokes, Adolph 118 

Stone, J. B 855 

Stones, AVm 558 

Storer, John H 123 

Stroud, II. E 269 

Studabecker, AV 701 

Sturges, D. B 494 

Sulcer, A. A 689 

Suman, Peter 704 

Summons, J. B 565 

Supple, J.F 109 

Suttonfield, G. AV 591 

Suverkrup, John 694 

Sylvester, C. AV 610 

Taylor, A. S 513 

Tays, J. B 628 

Tedford, AV. B 889 

Teel, J. B 222 

Thayer, G. R 696 

Thomas, Chas. H 369 

Thomas, Charles 357 

Thomas, Chas., Jr 370 

Thomas, C. L 590 

Thomason, P. M 332 

Thompson, F. C 334 

Thompson, J. C 877 

Thompson J. W 116 

Thorn, J. C 563 

Thorn, Joseph 562 

Tibbals, Barnabas 063 

Tibbets, L. C 629 

Titchenal, AV. H 880 

Titus, Harry L 354 

Titus, L. H 760 

Tombes, J. B 853 

Tolles, AV. R 580 

Towner, J- W 842 

Townsend, B. F 862 

Treanor, C. A 342 

Trimmer, Martin 125 

Tripp, 0.,C 357 

Trowbridge & Mavnard 622 

Trownsell, J 367 

Turner, John 870 

Twogood, A. J 585 

Tyson, S. M 295 

Utt, Lysander 841 

Vail, I. N 116 

Van Norman, E. V 187 

VanSlyke, AV. H 289 

Vernon, James 197 

Vertrees, E 140 

Vestal, AV. L 252 

AVainwright, C. C 528 

AVaite, E. B 718 

AVaite, E. J 666 

AVaite, L. C 699 

Wall, S. M 504 

Wall, W. B 876 

Walling, Percy H 863 

Wardrobe, R. L 156 

Warner, John 807 

AVarner, M. M 359 

AVarren, A. A.; 542 

AVasson John 682 

Waters, Byron 593 

Waters, J. W 665 

Waters, R. J 549 

Watrous, B. F 551 

Webster, AV. B, Sr 300 

Webster, W. B , Jr 362 

AVells, H. L 301 

Wescott, Edmund 204 

AVescott, J. W 358 

Westbrook, H. A 602 

West, J. M 564 

AVest, W. E 646 

Wetherbee, G. M 348 

Wetmore, G. H .157 

Whaley, Thomas 217 

AVheeler, M. G 172 

Whims, N. C 234 

Whitaker, I. W 568 

White, A. S 5»8 

AVhillock, Alma 492 

Whitmore, S 163 

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AA r hitney, J. J 530 

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AVilson, T.J 587 

Winder, W. A 287 

Winter, F. X lil 

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AVood, A. A 644 

AVood, T. J 707 

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Wozencraft, Henry 495 

Yates, Lafayette 363 

York, C. E 298 

Young, N. A 335 

Yount, Henry 874 




fOUTHERNMOST of the California conn- 
ties is that of San Diego, lying between 
the 34th degree of north latitude and the 
line of the Mexican border. Eastward lies the 
Territory of Arizona, and on the west it is 
bounded by the beneficent Pacific Ocean and a 
6 mall portion of Los Angeles County. Diagon- 
ally from northwest to southeast, it is traversed 
by the mountain ranges of San Bernardino, 
San Jacinto, and Chocolate. That section 
which is northwest of the San Jacinto range is 
known as the Colorado desert, being hot, arid, 
sterile. The rest of the country is of diversi- 
fied topography; there are low mountain ranges, 
softly rolling land, and beautiful smiling valleys, 
where fruits and flowers reply like a benediction 
upon the head of labor, and whose climate is 
ethereal balm. 

San Diego County is larger than either of 
the States of Vermont, New Hampshire, Massa- 
chusetts, Rhode Island, Delaware, Connecticut, 
New Jersey, or Maryland; and it is nearly as 
extensive as the combined territory of Massa- 
chusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island. 

Draining this wide territory of more than 
9,580,000 acres, run to the western ocean, as 
determined by the general southwesterly slope 

toward the Pacific, the rivers Tia J nana, Sweet- 
water, San Diego, San Bernardino, San Luis 
Rey and Santa Margarita. 

Comprised within these limits are great di- 
versities of climate; from the heights where 
winter's cold is piercing, to the equable, ever- 
springlike air of the bay and oceanside regions, 
and the sheltered warmth of the valleys. The 
pine from its mountain perch looks greeting to 
the palm of the seaboard. The hardy apple of 
the cooler uplands finds its way to where it lies 
against the tropical cheek of its not distant 
neighbor, the orange of the vales. 

The mountains have long stood jealous guard 
over a wealth of mineral treasure, that they 
now begin to yield up to him who comes with 
the 'Open, Sesame!" of Science. From the 
bowels of the earth have long poured thermal 
waters, that heal or soothe man's maladies. The 
sea gives stores, and the earth, and the sun, 
and the breezes nurture. And men, if their 
hearts be open, realize that here indeed are 
signs that God made man in his own image, 
and that he cares for and watches over him, and 
holds him " as in the hollow of his hand." To 
recite, briefly, unworthily, and incompletely, 
how man came into his own and won this rich 
heritage, is the province of the present writer. 



Of all the territory comprised in the limits 
of the present great State of California, the 
part now known as San Diego County is that 
first seen ly the eaily Spanish explorers. First 
among these came Francisco de Ulloa, who in 
1539 tailed up the California gulf to the mouth 
of the Colorado river. 

In 1538 General Francisco Vasquez de Cor- 
onado was appointed Governor of Nneva Galicia. 
He was of a progressive bent, and for some 
time he left his province in charge ot a lieu- 
tenant, or acting-governor, while he devoted 
himself to exploration. Tired by the apocry- 
phal tales of Fray Marcos de Niza, he raised a 
small army that in 1540 set out northward for 
the conquest of Cibola and its seven marvelous 
cities. His expedition was successful insomuch 
as that he reached the great cities of the In- 
dians, however disappointing may have been 
the conditions he found there. The history of 
the enterprise is of interest in the present vol- 
ume only because in connection with it was 
sent out, in May, 1540, Hernando de Alarcon, 
with two vessels, to co-operate with the army. 
Alarcon ascended the Colorado, apparently 
about to the mouth of the Gila, and found, it 
is claimed, several harbors not discovered by 
Ulloa. He found that the natives were igno- 
rant of most of the names quoted by Niza as 
characteristic of that region, this prompting the 
suspicion that the good friar had drawn largely 
on his imagination for his account. The peo- 
ple told Alarcon also many marvelous tales of 
things to be seen inland. The river was by 
these explorers christened the Buen Guia (Good 

Two years later, June, 1542, Juan Rodriguez 
Cabrillo, a Portuguese in the service of Spain, 
and a navigator of some repute, sailed from 
Natividad with two vessels of Alvarado's former 
fleet, and acting under vice-regal instructions 
took his frail craft northward along the Pacific 
coast. On September 28, 1542, he discovered 
" a landlocked and very good harbor," which he 
named San Miguel, and which has since come 

to be called San Diego. He recorded the lati- 
tude as 34° 20' north, an error of 1° 37' 2", 
due, no doubt, to the imperfection of his in- 
struments. Cabrillo paid the first tribute to 
the excellence of San Diego's harbor, by record- 
ing that on the day after his arrival he sent a 
boat " farther into the port, which was large," 
and while it was anchored, "a very great gale 
blew from the southwest; but, the port being 
good, they felt nothing." Cabrillo remained at 
the good port six days. It seems that the In- 
dians hereabouts, though shy, were savage and 
bloodthirsty, as they attacked and slightly 
wounded several of the Spaniards out fishing. 
After a time, they ventured to approach the 
strangers, and by signs told of men in the in- 
terior who wore beards, rode horses, and carried 
fire-arms. This was probably in reference to the 
party by sea of Ulloa, or that of Alarcon, or 
the land expedition of Coronado. Cabrillo spent 
a month in explorations of the coast and islands, 
up to Point Concepcion, making observations as 
to the latitude of various points, and taking 
notes of the characteristics of the country and 
its inhabitants. In November, he returned to 
the Santa Barbara channel islands, and here he 
died, from the effects of a broken arm, aggra- 
vated by exposure incurred on the voyage. 

Up to the year 1597 there are accounts of voy- 
ages to Upper California, claimed to have been 
made by Lorenzo Maldonado and Juan de Fuca; 
but these narratives bear internal evidence of 
being, at least in detail, pure fabrications. 

In 1594, Viceroy Velasco contracted with 
Sebastian Vizcaino to re-explore and occupy 
for the Spanish crown the Islas Californias 
(Californian Isles); and in 1597, Vizcaino ac- 
cordingly sailed from Acapulco. He failed in 
his attempt to colonize the peninsula. Never- 
theless, he was assigned as commander of an- 
other expedition which sailed from Acapulco 
May 5, 1602. Such explorations as they made 
along the peninsula coast brought them to San 
Miguel, which he re-named San Diego, on No- 
vember 10; they left again on November 20, 
several men having died and several bein^ 


disabled from the ravages of scurvy. They 
proceeded on northward and beyond Cape Men- 
docino, the two vessels locating a Cape Blanco, 
in latitude 42° one, and 43° the other. They 
reached Acapulco again on March 21 of the 
following year, having lost on the voyage forty- 
eight men by death. 


It is perhaps proper and reasonable to ex- 
plain, in this connection, the origin of the name 
San Diego. Many have supposed that from the 
name of the first mission came that of the bay, 
the port, the city, the county. This belief is 
erroneous; for, whereas the mission was not 
founded or named until 1769, the bay was thus 
called, as has been said already, 167 years earlier, 
namely, in 1602, for the following reason: Viz- 
caino, when he arrived, proceeding to survey 
the bay, either began or finished that enterprise 
on November 12, the day assigned in the cal- 
endar of the Roman Catholic Church to the 
saint called in Spanish San Diego de Alcala, in 
honor of whom the bay was re-named aceord- 
ingl}'. The English meaning of this is simply 
" St. James." The Spanish for James is either 
Iago, Jago. or Diego, the prefix Santo or San 
signifying Saint or Holy. The contraction San- 
tiago is now given, indifferently with Diego, as 
a baptismal name, although the two are by no 
means interchangeable. A boy or man called 
Santiago is named for one particular St. James, 
and he who responds to Diego is called for an- 
other light of the old church — namely, San 
Diego de Alcala, the patron saint of the city 
and section in question. 

In 1605, Governor Juan de Ofiate brought a 
party of soldiers down the Colorado, from the 
Gravel canon, as far as the head of the gulf, 
having come from Chihuahua up the Rio 
Grande, into the New Mexico, and across the 
Northern Arizona, of the present day. Like his 
predecessors, he saw only the desert side of San 
Diego, and the natives along the river, whose 
accounts seemed to support the theory that the 
gulf was connected by a strait with the Pacific. 


In 1700 there reached San Diego territory 
one of most notable characters in the religious 
history of America: this was Eusebius Kiihn, 
whose German family name is usually mis- 
written by the Spanish authorities as Kino, 
Quino, Caino, etc., Kino being the most common 
form. His career reads like some wonderful 
romance. He had come northward in indirect 
consequence of his devoted labors in behalf of 
the Indians of the Pimeria, and he was asked by 
the Colorado Yurnas to visit their country. Ac- 
cordingly he crossed the Gila, and followed its 
north bank down to the junction, to the chief 
rancheria of the Tumas, which he called San 
Dionisio, and where he preached to " crowds of 
gentiles, many of whom, of especially large 
stature, came from across the Colorado by 
swimming." Kino spoke of the lands there- 
abouts as Alta (that is Upper) California, and 
that was probably the first application of that 
distinctive term, as in contrast with La Baja 
(Lower) California. It ha6 already been seen 
(section on Lower California) how prominent a 
part Father Kino bore in the establishment of 
the missions in the peninsula, where alone cen- 
tered the Christianizing of "the Californias," up 
to 1767-'68, the date of expulsion of the Jesuits 
from La Baja and the other Spanish possessions. 

On November 30, 1767, Don Gaspar de Por- 
told, the Governor of La Baja California under 
the new regime, landed near San Jose del Cabo, 
and immediately set about enforcing the decree 
of expulsion of the Jesuits, and taking invoice, 
so to speak, of the mission and garrison property. 
These possessions he found to comprise some 
$7,000 in. cash, and goods tj the value of some- 
thing like $60,000 besides, probably the mis- 
sion cattle, vestments, plate, etc. 

About the middle of the year 1768, Don Jose 
de Galvez, the Visitador-general, arrived in La 
Baja, and at once set about the institution of 
many and radical reforms of the existing sys- 
tem of administration. He also took action in 
the matter of extending the dominion of the 
Spanish crown to the northward, an undertaking 


which he deemed of the utmost importance. 
The result of careful investigation was to de- 
cide that the most practicable plan was the 
sending of two expeditions by land, and two by 
water, to start separately, join forces at San 
Miguel (San Diego), and thence proceed to 
Monterey. Six months or more were given to 
careful preparations, and the gathering of re- 
cruits and collecting of supplies. Besides tem- 
poral conquest, and the prevention of Russian 
encroachments from the north, the enterprise 
was to comprehend a spiritual aspect, the con- 
version of the heathen; and Father Junipero 
Serra, the president of the mission forces, was 
invited to confer upon the theme with Galvez. It 
hardly needs to say that the padres, disap- 
pointed and displeased with the situation on the 
peninsular, and full of hope in a project whose 
execution they had long desired but hardly 
dared to hope for, the padres entered with en- 
thusiasm into the plans of Galvez. 

On January 9, 1769, sailed the San Carlos 
under Vicente Vila, carrying sixty-two persons, 
among them Lieutenant Fages, later Governor 
of California. She was followed on February 
15 by the San Antonio, Juan Perez com- 
mander, who carried, besides her crew, Padres 
Gomez and Bizcayno. On March 24, set out 
from San Fernando Velicata the first land ex- 
pedition, commanded by Rivera, and with it 
came Father Crespi. There was a command of 
twenty-five men from the presidio of Loreto, 
and forty two natives, in this party. Finally, on 
May 15, Governor Portola set forth, accom- 
panied by Father Serra, and escorted by ten or 
eleven soldiers, and another band of Californian 

The executive ability of Father Serra had se- 
cured six friars for work in the northern field; 
one of these, Father Campa, was left in charge 
of San Fernando Velicata, the only mission 
which the Franciscans founded on the penin- 
sula. This was established mainly for a species 
of way-station, to facilitate communication with 
San Diego. It was ceremoniously founded only 
the day previous to the starting of Portola and 

Serra, and it became in time quite prosperous 
From the old missions were taken supplies, with 
which to equip the new ones, of church para- 
phernalia, food, seeds, grain, livestock, tools, etc., 
to be repaid when the new establishments should 
attain to prosperity. A third ^wywe&ote, the 
San Jose newly built, was despatched later, but 
she soon put back, disabled, was sent after with 
supplies the next year, and never heard from 

For upwards of a century and a half, since 
Vizcaino's day, in 1603, no white man had set 
foot on the coast of Alta California, when in 
April, 1769, the San Antonio anchored in the 
bay, after a prosperous voyage of twenty-four 
days from Cape San Lucas. She had gone as 
far north as one of the Santa Barbara channel 
islands, returning to the one objective point of 
San Diego. Nothing was seen of the rest of 
the expedition, but the captain's orders were to 
stay for twenty days, without taking the risk 
of landing, unless strengthened by the crew 
of the other vessel. The second ship not ap- 
pearing the others became i m patient and alarmed , 
and preparations were already making to sail at 
the expiration of the appointed limit, when 
on the eighteenth day the San Carlos appeared, 
with her complement of sixty-two souls. She 
had been less fortunate than her convoy, and had 
most of her people disabled from scurvy. She, 
too, had voyaged too far northward, and she had 
been out 110 days, when she anchored on 
April 29. 

The sick were taken ashore, and for two weeks 
the nursing of the scourge-stricken and the burial 
of the dead gave the able more than enough to 
do, without dreaming of pushing Monterey- 
wards, or exploring their surroundings. Of 
some ninety sailors, soldiers, and artisans, far 
less than one-third the number survived. It 
would appear that, if any of the friars or offi- 
cers were attacked, they recovered. To their 
aid arrived on May 14 Rivera y Moncado with 
his division, fii'ty-one days out from Velicata, 
121 leagues distant. Several of the Indians in 
the company had died en route, and many had 



deserted, but on the whole, the journey had 
been uneventful, save the suffering and privation, 
as it seems that the provisions of the party, 
through waste or otherwise, ran short. 

This reinforcement facilitated preparation for 
permanent settlement. The location chosen was 
a spot called by the natives Cosoy, the site of the 
present old town, some four miles north of San 
Diego proper. Here were built rude huts and 
a corral for the live stock, and a fortified camp; 
then all able hands engaged in nursing the sick 
and unloading the cargo. 

In the last days of June and the first of July, 
Portola's division arrived, in somewhat strag- 
gling order. All but twelve of the neophytes 
had deserted. Their trip had been compara- 
tively easy, the chief suffering being that of 
Padre Junipero, from his lame foot, whose 
pangs, however, were borne with the gentleness 
and fortitude characteristic of his nature. 

The four contingents thus reunited, on the 
next day, Sunday, offered to their patron San 
Jose a thanksgiving mass, celebrated with all 
the solemnities within their compass. Of the 
219 souls who had started on this expedition, 
only 126 remained, but seventy-eight of these 
being of Spanish blood. 

Promptly enough, measures were taken for 
the carrying out of the original project. On 
July 9, Perez sailed southward in the San An- 
tonio, to obtain supplies for the colony, and 
crews to replace those who had died from the 
two vessels. Five days after his departure, Por- 
tola set out for Monterey. He left at San Diego 
some forty souls. The concerns of the sick im- 
mediately after arrival, the occupations of set 
tlement, and the preparations for departure of 
Portola and Perez, had militated against the 
prompt formal establishment of a mission. But 
now Padre Serra at once proceeded to atone for 
this delay. On Sunday, July 16, he formally 
and officially raised and blessed the cross, dedi- 
cating this, the first of the long chain of Cali- 
fornia missions, to San Diego de Alcala, for 
whom, long before, the bay had been named 
by Vizcayno. More huts were now built at the 

little settlement, and one of them was dedicated 
as a church. Thus did a lonely little band of 
earnest men, few and weak, but devoted, on the 
strange, forbidding shores of that circling bay, 
then far remote from contact of civilization, lay 
the foundations of the future great common- 
wealth, great, rich, advanced, liberal, and pro- 
gressive, of the State of the California of to-day. 

Those pioneers found the conditions of their 
life and their surroundings far from easy or de- 
lightful. The natives were abusive and thievish; 
indeed, they presently became so bold that, on 
August 15, their attempt to rob the sick of their 
bedding led to a conflict with them in defense 
of the property. In this affray, Padre Viz- 
cayno, a blacksmith, a soldier, and a California 
Indian were wounded, and a Spanish boy was 
killed. The Indians received therein a salutary 
lesson, and their behavior was somewhat im- 
proved. It is chronicled, however, that no- 
where else in the northwest did the natives so 
long prove refractory to conversion. For more 
than a year, not a single neophyte was entered. 
Meanwhile, death so ravaged the mission as to 
leave, by the beginning of the new year, only 
some twenty persons at San Diego. Portola re- 
turned on January 24, 1770, to find no advance 
in mission work save the construction of a pal- 
isade and a few hnts of tnle. He was discour- 
aged and despondent from the result of his 
northward journey, and he counseled abandon- 
ment of the mission. The friars were greatly 
dismayed by this proposition, and Serra and 
Crespi determined to remain, at all hazards, 
trusting to Providence for maintenance. Cap- 
tain Vila supported the padres. On February 
11, Rivera was sent with Padre Vizcaino and a 
detachment to reach Velicata and obtain sup- 
plies, if possible. He arrived there duly and 
at once set about collecting supplies, in con- 
junction with Father Palou, the acting president. 

Meanwhile the situation at San Diego was 
gloomy. Abandonment of the ground seemed 
certain, and good Father Junipero's heart bled 
at the prospect. Full of devout faith, he in- 
stituted a novena, a nine-days course of prayer, 


for the intercession of the expedition's patron, 
St. Joseph, to close on the special day of the 6aint, 
March 19. And lo! at the very last moment, 
as his hope died out on that day, as the sun 
sank below the horizon, far away at sea, a sail 
appeared. The visible sign of support was 
given. The San Antonio had returned, convey- 
ing supplies in abundance, and bringing in- 
structions from Galvez and the viceroy to 
persevere in the undertaking. 

Portola's fainting faith revived, and his energy 
was restored. He at once made ready to return 
to the north. Vila with seventeen Europeans 
and ten Lower Californians, remained at San 
Diego, whither returned in July Eivera with 
his ample supplies, his live-stock and his soldiers. 
Matters at San Diego now moved on for a time 
in quiet, but up to the end of 1770 there is no 
record of a single conversion. 

The chronicle for 1771 is little important: — 
a few baptisms, the disablement by scurvy 
and retirement of Padres Gomez and Parron, 
two instances of desertion by two groups of 
soldiers, brought back to the mission and sub- 
mission by intervention of the padres; and 
the departure, in August of the party 'who, a 
month later, founded San Gabriel Mission — 
such were the events. On Auguut 6, 1771, 
Padres Cambou and Somera left San Diego 
with ten soldiers, four muleteers, and a supply- 
train, with four soldiers who were to be sent 
back. They followed the old route northward, 
with the aim to establish a new mission. The 
spot they chose, near the river now known as 
San Gabriel, but then called San Miguel, was fer- 
tile well watered, and at that time well wooded. 
The natives, at first hostile, succumbed to the 
supernatural beauty of a painting of the Virgin. 
Offering their personal ornaments in tribute be- 
fore her, they signified their desire for peace, and 
their willingness to pay her tribute of possessions 
and labor. Cheerfully aiding in the work, by bring- 
ing timbers, and helpingintheconstructionof the 
stockade and the wooden houses roofed with 
tule, they also brought continually offerings of 
acorns and of pine nuts. Numerous as were 

their hordes, they all continued fiiendly, until 
exasperated by the abuses of the rough soldiery, 
when they attacked the aggressors, who killed 
one of their chieftains. The Indians fled, and 
it was by very slow degrees indeed that they 
were induced to resume friendly relations and 
to frequent again the mission. 

At this time trouble was already fermenting 
at San Diego between Fajes, the military com- 
mander, and the friars. This disagreement grew 
into open rupture The friars accused Fajes of 
unduly abusing his authority and hampering 
their labors, while he claimed that the fathers 
wished to extend their spiritual dominion over 
temporal matters. Be this as it may, in Octo- 
ber, 1772, Serra sailed for Mexico to compass 
the removal of the obnoxious commandant, to 
secure certain desirable changes in the system 
of mission management, and to take the meas- 
ure of the new viceroy, Bucareli. 

In the spring of this year, a conference held 
in Mexico between the principals of the two 
orders, had resulted in the ceding to the Domin- 
icans of all the peninsular missions, the Fran- 
ciscans to control those of Alta, or Upper 
California. When the Franciscan friars were 
assigned, Palou, the retiring president, had him- 
self included among those destined for the latter 
service, and in July he started for the north 
from Velicata, with supplies for San Diego. At 
once he set about preparing a report which had 
been ordered sent to Mexico, on the condition 
of the Monterey (i. e. Alta California) Missions. 
This system comprised at the end of 1773, fifth 
year of Spanish occupation, five missions and a 
presidio; namely, San Diego de Alcala, in lat- 
itude 32° 43' ; San Gabriel Archangel, 34° 10' ; 
San Luis Obispo de Tolosa, 35° 38'; San An- 
tonio de Padua, 36° 30' ; San Carlos Borromeo; 
and the presidio San Carlos de Monterey. At 
the close of the period stated, the baptisms 
chronicled here were eighty-three, a figure far 
below that of the younger northern missions. 
There were hereabouts, within a radius of ten 
leagues, eleven rancherias, or Indian towns, 
whose people lived on grass, seeds, fish and rab- 


hits. At this mission only had there heen un- 
provoked attacks made by the natives. Slight 
progress had been made here in agriculture. A 
small vegetable garden had been moderately 
productive. Grain was sown in the river bot- 
tom, and the crop all destroyed by a freshet. 
The next year, planting was done so far away 
from the water that drouth destroyed ail but a 
few bushels, kept for seed. Next, the river 
dried tip, and even in the rainy season pools 
must be dug for the watering of cattle and 
other uses. Pasturage was line, and the flocks 
had flourished. San Diego and San Gabriel had 
jointly 63 horses, 79 mules, 102 swine and 161 
goats and sheep. It may not be amiss here to 
describe briefly conditions, material and other- 
wise, existing at San Diego, in common with 
the other missions. At each one, save San Luis, 
there was near by a rancheria, its little huts be- 
ing made of tule, grass, boughs, or some such 
rude material. The mission architecture at 
that time was wooden stockades or palisading, 
for which adobe walls were substituted later. 
A line of high, strong posts, set close together 
in the ground, enclosed a rectangular space, in 
which stood the church and dwellings, in most 
instances also with stockade walls. The quarters 
of the soldier were distinct from the mission 
buildings, within a separate palisade, and the 
soldiers who married native women had each a 
separate house. At first the roofs were of mud, 
supported by vigas — horizontal beams; but this 
proving permeable to the winter rains, tule roofs 
were substituted. The timber used was pine 
and cypress. At San Diego, adobes — sun-dried 
bricks — were used in the construction of the 
friars' houses, besides wood and tules — rushes. 
There had been laid the foundations of a church 
ninety feet long, stone had been collected, and 
4,000 adobes made; but the work had been sus- 
pended because of the non-arrival of the sup- 

The subjective conditions were still somewhat 
primitive. The rancherias were at war with 
one another, and the inland ones being barred 
out from the sea with its fish resources, they 

were very often in a state of famine. At San 
Carlos, converts could not be kept at the mis- 
sion for this reason. At San Diego "a canoe 
and net are needed, that the christianized na- 
tives may be taught improved methods of 
fishing." At San Gabriel, there was much in- 
ternecine warfare, and distress for food was 
frequent. Also, the soldiers' lawless conduct 
gave much trouble, yet the natives were rapidly 
yielding allegiance, and they were very numer- 
ous. At San Luis also the population was very 
large and kindly disposed also; yet it was diffi- 
cult to attract them to mission life, they be- 
ing better off for food than the Spaniards, 
thanks to their resources of seeds, fish, rabbits, 
and deer. At San Antonio, too, food was 
abundant, and the natives bestowed on the 
padres stores of seeds, pine-nuts, acorns, rab- 
bits, and squirrels. They were willing, how- 
ever, to domesticate themselves at the missions, 
as soon as the fathers should be ready for them. 
Many of the savages attended regularly the teach- 
ing of the doctri?ia, and sometimes they would 
come even from distant rancherias, attracted 
by the music, and by trifling gifts. Generally 
they would work when the padres could reward 
them with food; but this was not always so 
easy a matter. Such, briefly stated, was the con- 
dition of the missions at the close of the first 
epoch of California history. Their futura 
maintenance seemed now established, the King 
of Spain having issued lately an edict direct- 
ing that they should be continued, instructing 
the viceroy to aid and sustain "by all possi- 
ble means" the establishments old and new of 
the province of California, and indicating a cer- 
tain sum — $33,000 per annum — to be devoted 
to that purpose. 




The history of San Diego at this period might 
almost be reduced to a chronicle recording almost 
continual dissensions between various members 
of the existing political organization, or else 


between the military and the clergy. Never- 
theless, there was zeal and co-operation enough 
to make no little material progress in divers 
directions. One of the most important features 
was the removal of the mission from its original 
site, which was not considered a desirable one 
since the drying up of the river. The first sug- 
gestion to this purpose was made in 1773 by 
Fages, who desired the rancheria containing the 
neophytes and many of the gentiles to be located 
at a distance from the stockade, in order that 
the Indians might not have the advantage af- 
forded by the shelter of the huts, should they 
become hostile. Padre Serra opposed the move, 
but Padre Jaume, the minister, favored it, for 
the considerations of agriculture. The matter 
was referred by the viceroy to Rivera y Mon- 
cada, the commandant, and the change was 
effected in August, 1774. The new site was a 
point called by the natives Vipaguay, about two 
leagues up the valley northeastward from Cosoy. 
By the end of the year, the buildings here in- 
cluded a church 57 x 18 feet, built of wood and 
roofed with tules; and a dwelling, storehouse, 
and smithy of adobes. The mission buildings 
here were better than those at Cosoy, which 
were given up to the use of the presidio, all 
except two rooms, of which one was reserved 
for the use of visiting friars, and the other for 
the reception and temporary storage of mission 
supplies brought up by ship. On September 
26 of this year Ortega reached San Diego with 
the troops and families recruited by Rivera; 
and not a little trouble they gave him by their 
refractory conduct, chiefly in connection with 
the food question. Father Palou sent back from 
San Diego mules to bring up from Velicata sup- 
plies and part of the church property left there; 
but, as has been seen, the contumacy of Barri 
prevented their removal for about a year, or un- 
til some time in 1775. Serra's second annual 
report for 1774, was mostly statistical, and 
showed the year to have been fairly prosperous, 
with no disaster. Agricultural matters had 
thriven, and the seed sown had produced forty- 
fold, yielding more than a thousand fanegas (a 

fanega is about three bushels), of which "ster- 
ile" San Diego had produced but thirty! This 
mission also came last in the matter of new 
neophytes, showing a list of ninety-seven only, 
while some of the others had more than '200. 

Father Junipero when he arrived in Mexico 
had found the new viceroy, Bucareli, well dis- 
posed toward the California colonies, and many 
of the points of the president's memorial were 
acted upon. Fajes was removed from the gov- 
ernorship, and in his stead was appointed Cap- 
tain Rivera y Moncada, instead of Ortega, who 
would have been chosen by Father Serra. Or- 
tega was given brevet rank as lieutenant, and 
put in command at San Diego, now to be a 
regular presidio. 

Father Junipero, President Serra, arrived at 
San Diego March 13, 1774, on the return voy- 
age from Mexico. On August 4, Fajes, the 
deposed governor, sailed from the same port. 

San Diego did not become a regular presidio 
until the new reglamento went into effect in 

1774, although the stockade was in one sense, 
practically, a presidio, having two bronze can- 
non there mounted, one pointing toward the 
harbor, and the other toward the rancheria. 

The records show little of note in the history 
of San Diego for some months. The letters of 
Ortega to Rivera complained of a lack of arms 
and servants at the presidio; supplies were 
brought by land and by water, and hostile In- 
dians gave some little trouble on the lrontier. 
At the mission, removed, it will be remembered, 
some six miles up the valley, affairs were bright 
and promising. A well had been dug, new land 
was prepared for planting, and new buildings 
were erected. Moreover, on October 3, sixty 
converts had received the rite of baptism. But 
a heavy blow was impending. So satisfactory, 
however, were the apparent conditions that, in 

1775, Father Lasuen, with a force gathered 
from the other missions was at a point between 
San Diego and San Gabriel, for the purpose of 
establishing the new mission of San Juan Cap- 
istrano. The natives there were well disposed, 
the buildings were under way, and all ap- 



peared in favorable condition, when there ar- 
rived, on November 7, tidings of a disaster at 
San Diego, that called the whole company back 
to that presidio, abandoning the work in hand, 
and burying the bells designed for the mission, 
to guard against their possible destruction. 

At the Mission San Diego, on the night of No- 
vember 4, the inhabitants of Spanish blood, eleven 
in number, had had a rude awakening a little 
after midnight. The buildings were ablaze, and 
they were surrounded by a multitude of fiercely 
yelling savages. At the iirst alarm, the two 
ministers, Padres Luis Jauine and Vicente Fus- 
ter, accompanied by two lads, "the son and the 
nephew of Ortega, rushed forth from the build- 
ing. Padre Jaume turned toward the Indians 
with the accustomed salutation, "Amad a Dios, 
hijos" (Love God, my children), and then he was 
seen no more by his companions, who ran to 
join the soldiers at the barracks, which they 
succeeded in reaching. Jose Manuel Arroyo, 
the blacksmith from the presidio, had come to 
make a visit to his confrere of the mission, and 
the two were sleeping in the smithy. Arroyo, 
who was ill, was the first to awake, and seizing 
a sword, he too rushed out of doors, but im- 
mediately staggered back into the shop, crying 
to the other, "Comrade! they have killed me!" 
and fell dead instantly. Romero, being awakened 
by that dread cry, sprang from his bed, canght 
up a musket, and, shielding himself as be^t he 
could, he killed one of the assailants at the first 
shot, and then, favored by the resulting con- 
fusion, escaped to join the soldiers. The car- 
penter, Jose Urselino, had already made his way 
thither; but not without having received two 
arrow-wounds, which a few days later proved 
fatal. The mission guard consisted of three 
soldiers — Alejo Antonio Gonzalez, Juan Alva- 
rez and Joaquin Armento, under Corporal Juan 
Estevau Rocha. There was a fourth man in 
the guard, but he was ill at the presidio. There 
was no sentinel posted, and the soldiers were 
aroused by the sounds of the attack. Being re- 
enforced by the surviving friar, Padre Fuster, 
and by the blacksmith and the wounded car- 

penter, the guard defended themselves for a 
time, but were soon driven from the barracks, 
which were of wood, by the progress of the 
flames. They accordingly fell back to a room 
of the friars' dwelling, where Padre Fuster 
sought in vain for his priestly companion. This 
shelter was also soon rendered untenable by the 
fire. Thence they ran to a small enclosure of 
adobe, where they made a last despairing stand. 
The opening through which poured a dreadful 
shower of arrows, they barricaded as best they 
could with two boxes and a copper kettle. By 
this time, all of the little party were wounded, 
two of the soldiers and the carpenter being dis- 
abled. The wounded exerted themselves to the 
utmost to ward off the fatal missiles. There 
was a sack containing fifty pounds of gunpow- 
der, and the burning brands showered upon 
them, with the sticks and stones, menaced a 
dreadful calamity from this source, and Father 
Fuster covered it with his cloak and threw 
himself upon it, that his body might be inter- 
posed between it and a spark of fire. All the 
while he continued to pray unceasingly, as men 
can pray only in such an extremity of peril; 
and fasts, masses, and novenas were offered, in 
promise for preservation. It was these prayers, 
the fathers declared, rather than their human 
exertions for defense, that saved them. They 
asserted that after the utterance of these vows 
no one was touched by an arrow. The black- 
smith and one of the men kept reloading the 
muskets, while Corporal Rocha discharged them 
with effective accuracy into the horde of sav- 
ages, and the astute old soldier, with wily tac- 
tics, at the same time kept shouting so many 
orders that the Indians doubtless thought their 
prey had found reinforcements, and they slunk 
away when the slow-coming dawn at last ren- 
dered them clearer targets for sharpshooting. 
The white survivors, more dead than alive, 
crept out of their shelter, and with the neo- 
phytes and the Lower Californians sought for 
Father Jaume. All too soon they found him 
in the dry bed of the creek, stripped and muti- 
lated, beaten with stones and clubs and pierced 


by eighteen arrows. Besides Father Jauine 
and the smith Arroyo, the carpenter, Urselino, 
died from his wounds a few days later. The 
mission defenders felt much alarm for the presi- 
dio, as they were told the Indians had sent a 
party to attack there also; but the garrison, 
consisting at the time of fifteen men, was found 
unharmed and ignorant of the hostilities. Had 
the presidio been attacked it would have been 
utterly destroyed, in all probability, as Ortega's 
absence left a garrison of only a corporal and 
ten soldiers, of whom two were in the stocks 
and fuiir on the sick list. The few men avail- 
able hastened to the mission, and returned with 
the lacerated body of Padre Jaume and the 
charred remains of the smith. The few cattle 
left were driven down to the presidio, and a 
few neophytes who came creeping out from 
their retreat were left to fight the fire and save 
what little might be saved. 

Two days later the dead were buried and 
funeral rites performed in their behalf. On 
the morning of the 8th the San Juan party re- 
turned. On the 9th the wounded carpenter 
died, and on the 10th he was buried. The in- 
vestigations which were at once instituted 
showed that the uprising had been instigated 
by two brothers, apostate neophytes, who had 
absconded from the mission, probably because a 
charge of theft was pending against them, and they 
had visited all Indians for many leagues around, 
inciting them to revolt and kill the Spaniards, 
on the ground that these would convert all the 
rancherias, in support of which they cited the 
recent baptism of sixty persons. Some of the 
rancherias refused to join the plot, hut mostly 
they entered into it, and some 800 to 1,000 as- 
sailants had been mustered. These were di- 
vided into two bodies, for simultaneous attacks 
on mission and presidio. The mission build- 
ings had been fired prematurely; and this had 
caused the retreat of the other party, through 
tear of detection before beginning their assault. 
The silence of the neophytes had been secured, 
either by threats and force, or else, as the Span- 
iards inclined to believe, by complicity. 

The lesson taught by this calamity did not 
fail to bear good fruit for the mission. The old 
huts of tule were destroyed, and the families 
and stores were removed to the friars' dwelling, 
which was roofed with earth. Letters asking 
for aid were sent to Rivera at Monterey, and 
to Anza, who was approaching from the region 
of the Colorado, and they both arrived early in 
the following year. Father Serra did not fail to 
argue from the disaster the need of increased mis- 
sion guards, although he wrote also to the guard- 
ian that the missionaries were not frightened or 
disheartened. On January 11, 1776, Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel Juan Bautista de Anza, who had 
been sent at Government expense with a large 
train of colonists for California, arrived at San 
Diego, having deflected his course northward 
in order to come hither, on hearing of the in- 
surrection of the Indians, whom Rivera, meet- 
ing him at San Gabriel, had requested him to 
punish. Ortega and his little command had 
been, natually enough, in constant fear of 
further warfare on the part of the Indians; but 
such danger as had existed in that direction was 
dissipated by the arrival of re-enforcements. 
Indeed, so readily were the insurgents subdued, 
and so effectively were they punished, that very 
soon Anza was chaffing to carry out his com- 
mission, particularly as supplies for his immi- 
grants ran short at San Gabriel. Accordingly, 
after some preliminary disputations, he left for 
Monterey on February 12. 

In May, 1776, Rivera visited San Diego, but 
rather with a view to punishing the Indians, 
than to rebuilding the destroyed mission. On 
July 11 arrived Father Junipero, the president, 
who, backed by the judgment of the viceroy, set 
to work to Jconciliate the natives, and restore 
the mission buildings. Fired by the enthusiasm 
of the padre, Captain Choquet of the San An- 
tonio, proffered the work of sailors and his own 
labors; and Rivera, with some reluctance, fur- 
nished six men. Work was vigorously prose- 
cuted for two weeks, and the mission would 
have been finished in a fortnight but for a false 
alarm of attack from the Indians, which caused 


the force to be withdrawn, at the instance of 
Rivera. The arrival of troops for the protection 
of tiie missions on September 29 facilitated 
the resumption of the work, and before the end 
of October the corps were installed in their 
new quarters, so that Father Junipero, with a 
mind at ease, could journey northward to found 
the mission of San Juan Capistrano, on the site 
whence the workers had been called the preced- 
ing year by the attack on San Diego. The sit- 
uation chosen was near a small bay, sheltered 
from all but south winds, with good anchorage, 
which for a long time served as a port for the 
mission cargoes. The native name for this 
place was Sajirit. The bells that had been 
buried were dug up and chimed, and on No- 
vember 1 was formally founded another mission 
nnder the jurisdiction of the San Diego station, 
and one which became very prosperous. 

In 1777 there were divers troubles with the 
Indians, consequent upon misbehavior of the 
soldiers, and these led to the first public execu- 
tion in California — that of four native chiefs, 
whom Ortega, in April of that year, somewhat 
arbitrarily, not to say illegally, sentenced to be 
shot at San Diego for conspiring against the 

An event, notable from the ecclesiastical 
standpoint, was the issuing by Father Juan 
Domingo de Arricivita, commissary and prefect 
of the American colleges, of the "faculty to 
confirm " to President Junipero Serra. Up to 
this time the Californians had been unable to 
enjoy the rite of confirmation, as no bishop had 
visited the country, nor was one ever seen here 
until the province had such a prelate of its own, 
in 1841. 

In 1779 two Indian alcaldes and as many 
regidores were chosen from among the neo- 
phytes at San Diego, as well as at San Carlos. 
In 1780 was completed at San Diego a new 
adobe church, ninety feet long by seventeen 
wide and high, strengthened and roofed with 
pine timbers. 

In the beginning of 1781 went into effect the 
new regulation or ordinance for the government 

of California, its chief aim being to bring the 
establishments here, as nearly as might be, 
under the system governing the other interior 

Late in 1781 Lieutenant Jose de Zuniga took 
command at San Diego. He remained in charge 
until October, 1793, and was very popular, 
trusted by the magnates, churchly and secular, 
and efficient in controlling the Indians. He 
was succeeded by Lieutenant Antonio Grajera, 
whose official record during his term of six 
years was good, while his private life and in- 
temperance caused great scandal. He was fol- 
lowed by Lieutenant Jose Font, who was the 
incumbent till his departure in 1803 with a 
volunteer company. 

The white population at this time was about 
250, some 160 living at the presidio, the rest at 
the pueblo and missions San Diego, San Gabriel 
and San Juan Capistrano. For several years a 
fort had been projected at Point Guijarros, but 
it had not been built in 1797. San Diego had 
little contact with, or knowledge of, the outside 
world. Wars and rumors of wars were talked 
of, but with a sense of remoteness and uncer- 
tainty that must have been at once a comfort 
and an annoyance. Jn the winter of 1793, San 
Diego was visited by the English navigator 
Vancouver, whose ships were the first foreign 
vessels that ever entered that harbor. He was 
received with courtesy by Grajera and Zuniga, 
but Arrillaga's severe enforcement of the vice- 
roy's exclusive policy caused him to be denied 
many privileges which he desired, in conse- 
quence of which he afterward wrote very bit- 
terly of his treatment at San Diego. 

In the winter of 1793 Vancouver anchored 
near by, but was shown scant courtesy, because 
of Arrillaga's enforcement of the viceroy's ex- 
clusive policy. Five years later arrived four 
sailors from Boston, who had been left on the 
coast below. Until they could be shipped to 
San Bias, they were put to earn their bread in 
the sweat of their brow at the presidio. These 
were the pioneers of their race at San Diego. 
The fifth of the establishments of the southern 


district was founded on June 13, 1798, at a 
spot called by the Indians Tacayme. There 
were present President Lasuen, Padres Santiago 
and Peyri, Captain Grajera, the soldiers of the 
guard, a few neophytes from San Juan, and a 
vast concourse of gentiles. In addition to the 
usual solemnities, this occasion was marked by 
the baptism of fifty-four children. Such was 
the beginning of San Luis Rey de Francia 
(Saint Louis, King of France), so called in dis- 
tinction from the northern mission of San Luis 
Obispo. This church here, still existing, is 
6aid to have been the handsomest of all the 
mission churches. Also the mission became 
one of the most prosperous. Before the close 
of 1800 there had been 371 baptisms. At that 
date the mission owned 617 horses, mules and 
cattle, and 1,600 sheep, and the agricultural 
products for the year were 2,000 bushels of 
wheat, 120 of barley, and six of maize. 

At the end of this decade San Diego had 
passed from a minor rank to that of the most 
populous of the California missions. The list 
of neophytes had swelled from 856 to 1,523, 
with 1,320 baptisms and 628 deaths. Only 
Santa Clara had surpassed this in baptisms for 
that period. The greatest number enrolled was 
551, in 1797. The mission cattle had increased 
from 1,730 to 6,960, and small stock from 2,100 
to 6,000. The average yearly yield of grain 
was now 1,600 bushels. 

It is an interesting fact, as significant of the 
beginning of intercourse with Americans, that 
in August, 1800, the American ship Betsy, Cap- 
tain Charles Winship, touched at San Diego 
and took on wood and water. This was fol- 
lowed in June, 1801, by the American ship En- 
terprise, Ezequiel Hubbell, master, carrying ten 
guns and twenty-one men. Orders were re- 
ceived from Mexico directing that Anglo-Amer- 
icans should be treated "with great circumspec- 
tion and prudence." This and the following 
year were very uneventful to the Californian 

The utter disregard of American and English 
traders for Spanish commercial and custom- 

house regulations led to several breezy encoun- 
ters with the authorities. On February 26. 
1803, the Alexander, Captain John Brown, de- 
manded permission to remain for a time in the 
harbor, to recruit his men from the scurvy. He 
was granted eight days, and very briskly he im- 
proved his opportunities for contraband trade 
for otter-skins, until the night of March 3, 
when Commandant Rodriguez had seized and 
stored in the government warehouse 491 skins, 
taken from the vessel. Brown was then ordered 
to leave, and he did so. The Lelia Byrd anchored 
in San Diego harbor on March 17, having come 
up along the southern Pacific coatt, trading and 
buying otter-skins. She was owned by William 
Shaler, her master, and Richard J. Cleveland 
second in command, and their errand was to ob- 
tain on easy terms the otter-skins confiscated 
from Brown. Disappointed in this aim, the 
Americans, who had been civilly treated by 
Rodriguez, made a nocturnal visit ashore, to try 
to buy skins against his directions, and the mate 
and one boat's crew were captured. Cleveland, 
the next morning, rescued his men at the pis- 
tol's point, and the vessel ran for the open sea, 
past the fort's battery, keeping the most dan- 
gerous positions filled by the guard that Rodri- 
guez had placed on the vessel. In advocating 
and exalting the course taken by the command- 
ers in these transactions, not a few American 
writers have let their race feeling triumph over 
their judgment, seeming to forget that our 
compatriots were violating lawful regulations, 
and thus exposing themselves to all the severity 
of treatment accorded smugglers the world 

In 1803, San Diego, with all the other mis- 
sions, suffered a great loss in the death, on June 
26, of Padre Lasueu, whom the records show 
to have been a man of pure life, of kind and 
courteous habits, of lovely personal character 
and piety, yet gifted with great firmness of 
will; in short, an ideal Father, far in advance 
of his times. 

In 1804 a royal order effected the political 
division of this region into two distinct pro- 


vinces, whose names were officially fixed as An- 
tigua (Old) and Nueva (New) California, Arrill- 
aga to continue until further notice as governor 
of the latter-named section. In January, 1804, 
San Diego was visited by another American 
ship, the O'Cain, under Captain Joseph O'Cain, 
who had been mate on the Enterprise when she 
touched in 1801. Having no passport, the 
O'Cain was refused provisions. The scrupulous 
administration of Manuel Rodriguez from 1803 
to 1810; the rivalry and quarrels of Lieuten- 
ants Euiz and de la Guerra, and the death of 
the veteran Lieutenant Grijalva, are matters to 
be studied in detail in works of greater space 
than the present volume. On May 25, 1803, 
the old church was somewhat damaged by an 
earthquake; in 1804 the remains of Fathers 
Figuer and Mariner, and the martyred Luis 
Jaume, were removed to a grave between the 
altars of the new church. It is probable that 
this decade witnessed the completion of an ex- 
tensive system of dam and aqueduct, con- 
structed under direction of the Fathers, the 
remnants of which, particularly the dam, were 
visible up to a few jears since. The gain in 
neophyte population during this period was but 
five per cent., as against seventy-five per cent, 
in the preceding decade, while the death rate 
largely increased. Still San Diego remained 
the largest of the missions, and was fairly pros- 
perous, though nearly one-half its cattle was 
lost. The average yearly grain crop was now 
2,300 bushels. Between 1801 and 1808 the 
olives from the mission orchards were made 
into oil at San Diego. 

In 1812 Mexico was in the throes of her war 
of independence from Spanish rule. The com- 
mandant of San Diego wrote to Arrillaga that 
he had, on learning the news, strengthened the 
defences of the port, but that the people re- 
mained loyal, in spite of incendiary documents 
sent among them. California was affected mainly 
by the consequent cutting off of supplies. In 
1818 occurred "the invasion of the insurgents," 
or pirates, from Buenos Ayres, under lead of the 
nrivateer Bouchard. At the first note of warn- 

ing instructions were issued to the command- 
ants to send to the interior all articles of value, 
those of San Diego being destined to Pala, 
where, at the presidio, stores of provisions were 
ordered gathered. At the news of Bouchard's 
approach to San Juan Capistrano, Commandant 
Ruiz at once sent from San Diego an officer 
with thirty men; and he, sub-Lieutenant Santi- 
ago Arguello, assisted the friars to finish re- 
moving valuables and property from the mis- 
sion, and remained to help defend it. For this 
good service he was later repaid by the friars 
with bitter reproaches and accusations of neglect 
of duty. 

In 1817, the traveler, Captain James Smith 
Wilcox, brought down to San Diego the portion 
of cloth allotted to that settlement by the powers 
at Monterey, and he was also allowed to take a 
cargo of grain from San Diego to Loreto. Thus 
trade was gradually increasing. 

The records of San Diego down to 1830 pre- 
sent little of interest, treating mostly of the 
various officials, their genealogy and peculiari- 
ties. The port was at this time formally opened 
to foreign trade, and vessels frequently entered. 
Improvements material were of slow increase; 
in 1830 there were but thirteen dwelling houses 
in the settlement, now known as Old Town. A 
wharf was ordered built in 1828. Governor 
Echandia made this presidio, for personal rea- 
sons, his residence, though it was not the official 
capital. Agricultural matters were now about 
at their zenith. In 1829 was raised the first 
American flag at San Diego, not from political 
motives, but as the signal of a few homesick 
sailors, left there to cure hides, who wanted 

In 1829 also occurred the romantic elope- 
ment of Henry D. Fitch with Josefa Carrillo, 
one year after the advent of the Pattie party, of 
some notoriety. 

During this period there is a notable paucity 
of detail in the records, naturally more notable 
after secularization in 1834, after which there 
were no more regular mission statistics. 

In 1821 there were only Ave houses on the 


present site of Old Town, at the foot of Presidio 
Hill, namely: the old "Fitch House;" a small 
hense on the land known as " Rose's Garden," 
which befonged to one Francisco Ruiz, a retired 
captain; a building on the corner of Washing- 
ton and Juan streets, which belonged to Dofia 
Maria Reyes Ybanes, who was the maternal 
head of the Estudillo family, this building being 
occupied a long time after by Don Jose Maria 
Estudillo's horses; a two-story house on Juan 
street, nearly opposite that last mentioned, be- 
longing to Rafaela Serrano; and a small house 
on the Plaza, owned by Juan Maria Marron the 
elder. Up to the year 1825 the whole civilized 
population, with very few exceptions, lived 
within the presidio enclosure, or under the pro- 
tection of its guns. But about this time there 
began a display of somewhat more confidence 
in building beyond those limits. In 1824 the 
"Pico House" was built on Juan street, and at 
some time between then and 1830 Juan Rodri- 
guez built a house next to the site where stood 
.the Franklin House in later times; also the 
house of Jose Antonio Estudillo, which the 
Estudillo family have continued to occupy down 
to present days; the house of Don Juan Ban- 
dini; a portion of the building afterwards 
known as the Seeley House; the house of Dona 
Tomasa Alvarado; the "French Bakery," and 
the house of Rosario Aguilar. 

In 1830 the population of the district, ex- 
clusive of Indians, was 550; for the next de- 
cade no statistics exist in this respect, save the 
note that in 1840 the resident foreigners, that 
is to say, not Mexicans nor Spanish, were ten, of 
whom three had families. The Spanish and 
Mexican population by this time had much 
diminished, owing to Indian depredations and 
the scattering of the military forces. The ex- 
neophyte population would appear to have been 
some 2,250. 

San Diego mission, together with five others, 
was secularized in 1834, Joaquin Ortega be- 
coming its major domo in April. By November 
the Indian pueblo of San Pascual was in ex- 
istence, having thirty-four families. At San 

Luis Rey, Pio Pico was appointed major domo 
early in the summer. The inventory at San 
Juan Capistrano showed that the assets were 
$44,036 more than the liabilities. At San 
Gabriel there is no record of a major domo. 

In September, 1834, anchored at San Diego 
the brig Natalia, bearing many colonists of the 
Hijar- Padre's expedition. This was a colonizing 
organization, fostered by Gomez Farias, then 
vice-president of Mexico, whose purpose was 
to build up in the province of California a 
stronghold for the liberal party. But President 
Santa Ana, seeing in this movement a menace 
to his own most conservative designs, despatched 
a courier to the local officials of California, in- 
structing them to withhold from the new-comers 
those powers demanded for them by the vouch- 
ers of Gomez Farias. Thus the colonists found 
themselves in a strange and thinly populated 
country, themselves discreditably repudiated and 
left without resources, owing to the confiscation 
of their effects by some of the over-zealous of 
the local officials. They would seem, however, 
to have been made very welcome during their 
short staj' at San Diego. There were many 
progressive and practical-minded men among 
these people, who immediately set about main- 
taining themselves and their families by inde- 
pendent effort, and to them are due many im- 
proved methods and features in the community. 
Their descendants are among the most re- 
spected families of present times in Southern 


Civil government, as distinct from military 
rule, began when the pueblo of San Diego was 
organized on January 1, 1835, installing the 
officers elected by the people on December 21, 
1834. The following is a list of the officers of 
this the first ayuntainiento, or town council: 
Alcalde, Juan Maria Osuna; First Regidor, 
Juan Bautista Alvarado; second regidor, Juan 
Maria Marron; sindic, Henry D. Fitch. At 
this the first municipal election in San Diego, 
the whole number of votes cast was thirteen. 


Don Pio Pico, afterwards Governor of Califor- 
nia, under Mexican rule, was the opposing can- 
didate for alcalde. 

It was not till ten years later that the town 
lands were surveyed and mapped by Captain 
Fitch, and the Mexican government then 
granted to the municipality a tract that com- 
prised 47,000 acres. When California became 
subject to the United States government (July 
7, 1846), the pueblo organization was continued 
and the city's title to the pueblo lands was 
guaranteed by the treaty of 1848 with Mexico, 
and the United States Board of Land Commis- 
sioners confirmed it in 1853. 

In 1836 San Diego was visited by the ship 
Alert, on board of which came Richard Henry 
Dana, then a youthful collegian, whose " Two 
Years Before the Mast," not only graphic and 
picturesque, but also accurate within its lim- 
itations, is very deservedly still a standard au- 
thority on the conditions in California in those 
days. This epoch witnessed many local ebulli- 
tions in the caldron of local politics in Califor- 
nia due partly to sectional, aiid partly to 
personal, jealousies, and San Diego was very 
far from being the point of least agitation, but 
finally fell into line under Carrillo, and shared 
in the uproar of his incumbency. 

By 1839 the presidial establishment was ut- 
terly disorganized, one man constituting the 
military force in that year at San Diego; and 
eight that at San Luis. These, however, in 
September left the i-ervice, to save themselves 
from starving. The presidio buildings, aban- 
doned during the decade, were in ruins before 
1840, much of their material probably having 
been employed in the little town, of thirty or 
forty houses. In January, 1840, the remains 
at the fort were sold for $40; a part of the 
guns appear to have been removed at this time. 
There are no statistics for this decade as to pop- 
ulation, but it diminished greatly, and probably 
numbered not over 150 in 1840. In this year 
there were ten foreigners (i. e. not native nor 
Mexican), three of whom had families. As to 
the native population there are no statistics 

after secularization, but it would seem to have 
dropped from 5,200 in 1830 to 2,250 in 1840. 
A number of private citizens at this time occu- 
pied ranchos, most of which were at some time 
abandoned because of raids by Indians. The 
townspeople were still pasturing their 6tock and 
raising crops, as before, on lands considered as 
community property, mostly in the Soledad 
valley. There was no right in the land claimed, 
but by usage the tiller of a certain piece in one 
year was regarded as having the first choice of 
it the following season. The town lots were as- 
signed at first by the Commandant; and it is 
said that the first written title from the alcalde 
was issued in 1838. 

There were still some 800 neophytes nomi- 
nally under control of the priests at Mission 
San Diego, though but fifty were at the mission 
proper. The population at Mission San Luis 
Key had gained somewhat during the earlier 
lustrum of this decade or prior to secularization 
in 1834. In 1840 there were some 1,000 ex- 
neophytes at the mission and local pueblos and 

An ex-neophyte pueblo, Las Flores, was 
formed here in 1833, with a small population. 
After secularization the Indians were able to 
retain partial control of the rich mission ranchos, 
Santa Margarita, Pala, Santa Ysabel, Temecula 
and San Jacinto, but only till the end of the decade. 

In 1841, the first Bishop of California, Fra 
Francisco Garcia Diego, arrived at San Diego, 
which had been appointed as his residence, 
though he presently removed to Santa Barbara. 

In 1846 Colonel J. J. Warner obtained from 
the Mexican government a valuable grant of 
land adjoining the San Luis Rey Mission, and 
skirting the old through wagon road to Yuma 
from San Diego. The tract contained six 
square leagues, or 36,000 acres. 

In December, 1846, the Pauma Indians mas- 
sacred, for some cause which has not been sat- 
isfactorily explained, some eleven or twelve 
Californians, in consequence of which a cam- 
paign was instituted against the Indians the 
next month. 



When war broke out in 1846 between the 
United States and Mexico, many of those Mex- 
icans who were natives of California espoused 
with the utmost enthusiasm and ardor the cause 
of their countrymen. On the other hand, there 
was a very respectable contingent who sided 
with the Americans, and rendered them every 
possible assistance. Among these were not a 
few of San Diego's best-known and most prom- 
inent native families, including such people as 
the Bandinis and Arguellos. Many of their 
compatriots made cause of reproach and accusa- 
tion of disloyalty in this partizanship with the 
Americans. But the reasons these citizens had for 
accepting the situation, and urging others to do, 
were certainly logical enough. Their arguments 
rested on the long neglect that Mexico had dis- 
played toward California, and the consequent 
obscurity and misfortune of that province; on 
the separation from Mexico, which was inevit- 
able and a question of time only; on the impos- 
sibility of resisting the American forces; and the 
necessity of self-preservation; and on the pros- 
perity which California was sure to enjoy in the 
future, under a government so strong, so liberal, 
and so fraternal as as that the United States. 

On July 29, 1846, John C. Fremont reached 
San Diego with his battalion in the Cyane, took 
possession, and raised the American flag with- 
out known opposition; and after a week spent 
in procuring horses, which were very scarce, he 
marched northward with the rest of the battal- 
ion, some 120 strong, on August 8. Accord- 
ing to some, he left a garrison of forty men at 
San Diego, while others aver that not until the 
middle of September had the place a guard, 
which was then composed of a dozen men under 
Ezekiel Merritt. 

When Stockton, who had been operating 
from Los Angeles, sailed again for the north 
from San Pedro, early in September, 1846, lie 
lelt a garrison under Lieutenant A. H. Gilles- 
pie, as commandant of the southern depart- 
ment, instructing him to maintain martial law, 
and enforce the observation of Stockton's 

proclamation of August 17. This proclamation 
merely announced that the country now be- 
longed to the United States, and that as soon as 
practicable it would be governed in the same 
manner as the other territories of that nation. 
Meanwhile the government would be by mili- 
tary law, the people, however, being invited to 
choose their local civ'l officers if the then in- 
cumbents declined to continue in service. Pro- 
per provision was therein made, moreover, for 
the protection of life and property, and for the 
punishment of evil-doers. With Gillespie was 
left a garrison of fifty men at Los Angeles. It 
appears that no garrison was left at San Diego, 
but a few men were sent down thither later on, 
and various citizens accepted office under the 
new regime. Pedro C. Carrillo was among 
these, he accepting Stockton's appointment as 
Collector of Customs. Miguel de Pedrorena 
accepted, as a temporary* arrangement, the office 
of justice of the peace. 

When Gillespie was left by Commodore 
Stockton as military commandant of the south- 
ern department, with headquarters at Los An- 
geles, he was under instructions to maintain 
military rule with as much leniency and as little 
friction as possible, being authorized to grant at 
discretion exemption from burdensome restric- 
tions in the cases of orderly and well-disposed 
citizens. This was not a man qualified by 
nature and training to treat with the elements 
at hand. The Los Angeles people were quiet 
enough, with no disposition to revolt against 
the new administration. But there was in the 
town, on the other hand, an element of the 
population, both foreign and native Mexican, of 
lawless snd turbulent instincts and antecedents. 
The new commandant not only had not the force 
needful for the controling and subduing of this 
class, but he was ako lacking in the tact and 
perception necessary to distinguish between 
these people and the native Mexican families of 
the better class, who were of a vastly different 
order. Because the Mexicans, all unarmed and 
unprepared as they were for a military contest, 
had had the prudence to yield a quiet submis- 


sion to disciplined and superior forces, the new 
local rulers, principal and subordinates, deemed 
them of an inferior race and cowardly, and 
were iucliued to treat them with as much arbi- 
trariness as they would have shown in dealing 
with barbarians or children. From the first 
Gillespie directed the enforcing of regulations 
and measures needlessly and foolishly oppress- 
ive, interfering in the most petty and individual 
matters, displaying absurd suspicions, and by 
his objectionable personal bearing and manners 
offending the people of a race notable for its 
suavity of manner, its forms of courtesy, and 
its strict observance of all the conventionalities. 
Thus it was that within a brief period he had 
angered and estranged many good citizens, con- 
tent enough with the change of government, 
who under tactful and judicious treatment would 
have become fully Americanized in due time. 
The people became excited and made demonstra- 
tions which Gillespie was only too ready to give 
an exaggerated importance, and punish accord- 
ingly. Then certain Mexicans with ambitions 
of leadership made this their opportunity, and 
other parties of outlaw antecedents joined their 
efforts to the general uprising. At last the 
garrison, weakened by the absence of the de- 
tachment sent to San Diego, was attacked by a 
small force, on September 23, and although the 
assailants were repulsed, they very soon in- 
creased their forces, which were duly divided 
into bands, under regular leadership. Captain 
Jose Maria Flores was chosen to act as general 
commander, Jose Antonio Pico was second in 
command, with rank of major-general, and 
Captain Andres Pico, as chief of squadron, held 
the third place. The new organization went 
into camp, and in its turn issued a proclamation 
reciting the wrongs that had been suffered, and 
avowing intention to avenge them. A messen- 
ger was promptly despatched to carry the news 
of the situation to Monterey and San Francisco, 
but before the result of his journey could be 
known, Gillespie had submitted to abandon the 
field, and embarked with his people on the Van- 


The account of this revolt is here pertinent, 
as leading up to the subsequent movements at 
San Diego, whither, it will be remembered, Gil- 
lespie had sent, at the request of Henry D. 
Fitch, a dozen men under Ezequiel Merritt. 
Immediately after the retreat of Gillespie from 
Los Angeles, Francisco Rico marched toward 
San Diego with fifty men. On his approach, 
Bid well left San Luis Pey and joined forces 
with Merritt. Then they all, together with a 
few Mexican citizens, very hastily embarked on 
the Stonington, a whaler that was at anchor in 
the harbor. They took with them some cannon 
which had been dug up at the old fort, and 
there the valiant invaders remained for some 
twenty days, under the dreadful menace of a few 
Californian horsemen, who now and then ap- 
peared on the hills in hostile demonstration, 
Pico having been recalled while on the way 
thither. Bidwell, in a boat with four men, 
went up to San Pedro for supplies, the trip 
being long and perilous. The word he carried 
caused reinforcements to be sent to San Diego, 
which was accordingly then reoccupied by the 
Americans. The California Mexicans opposed 
to them pursued here, as elsewhere, the tactics 
of their almost unweaponed and ammunition- 
less condition, namely, driving off livestock, 
cutting off supplies, and otherwise harassing 
the foe, besides reporting to the center of oper- 
ations their movements and stimulating the 
patriotism of the other sons of the country. 

On October 8 took place the action at the 
Dominguez Paucho, the details of which are 
not entirely germane to the present work. 

Stockton left Monterey on October 19, and 
on the 23d he arrived at San Pedro, and early in 
November he went down to Sati Diego with 
the Congress, finding the town in a state of 
siege, and the inhabitants, women and children, 
in lamentable straits. He remained about 
a month, recruiting, gathering horses, and 
strengthening the defenses. The men had all 
left the town, and the non-combatants were 
thrown upon the Americans for food and pro- 
tection. No beef could be had, nor horses for 


the transportation of the guns and ammuition, 
and the Calitbrnians were masters of the sur- 
rounding section. A portion of Stockton's re- 
port ran as follows: "On the afternoon of our 
arrival, the enemy, irritated I suppose by the 
loss of his animals, came down in considerable 
force, and made an attack; they were, however, 
soon driven back with the loss of two men and 
horses killed and four wounded. These skir- 
mishes or running fights are of almost daily 
occurrence; since we have been here (up to No- 
vember 23) we have lost as yet but one man 
killed and one wounded." While thus engaged, 
an Indian was sent to ascertain the camping place 
of the main body of the insurgents; and he 
brought back the news that a force of some 
fifty strong was encamped at San Bernardo, 
about thirty miles from San Diego. On Decem- 
ber 3, a messenger brought news of the ap- 
proach of a body of soldiery under General 
Kearny, who desired Stockton to open com- 
munications with him, and inform him of the 
conditions in California. Captain Gillespie ac- 
cordingly left San Diego that evening with a 
force he had in readiness, and taking with him 
a deserter from the Calitbrnians, who was to 
guide General Kearny to the camp of the in- 

On November 22, Captain Andres Pico had 
been sent southward to cut off the retreat of a 
party of Americans reported to have started 
toward Santa Ysabel from San Diego; but the 
Americans had returned before his arrival. He 
still remained in the south, making his head- 
quarters at San Luis Rey and Santa Margarita, 
and co-operated with Captain Cota, in keeping 
supplies from reachiug the enemy, while await- 
ing the approach of stores with the main force 
to resist Stockton's expected advance. His force 
numbered not more, but probably less, than 
eighty. Nothing is known in detail of his 
movements until December 5, when he was en- 
camped at the Indian pueblo of San Pascual, 
with the purpose to cut off the retreat of Gil- 
lespie, who they knew had left San Diego two 
days previous. Pico had no idea of meeting 

any Americans except those with Gillespie, 
whom he supposed to have gone out to procure 
cattle and horses. Before night on the 5th, the 
Indians brought in reports that a large force 
was approaching not far away; but little heed 
was taken of these tidings, which did not seem to 
tally with the facts known to Pico. After a 
night in which several alarms were experienced, 
at early dawn was announced the near approach 
of the Americans, and the Californians were 
barely mounted when the enemy was riding 
down the hill, charging at full speed upon them. 
Kearny's command broke camp at Santa 
Maria at two o'clock on the morning of the 6th, 
and inarched nine miles before daybreak. Kear- 
ny's men numbered 160, and their order of 
march was as follows: First rode an advanced 
guard of twelve dragoons, mounted on the best 
horses, and commanded by Captain Johnston; 
close behind followed General Kearny with 
Lieutenants Emory and Warner of the engi- 
neers, with four or five of their men; then 
Captain Moore and Lieutenant Hammond with 
about fifty dragoons, mostly mounted on mules; 
these were succeeded by Captains Gillespie and 
Gibson with twenty volunteers of the Califor- 
nia battalion; next followed Lieutenant David- 
son in charge of the two howitzers, drawn by 
mules, and with him a few dragoons to manage 
the guns; last of all came fifty to sixty men 
under Major Swords, protecting the baggage, 
and in turn protecte 1 by the field-piece brought 
by Gillespie. They were all badly demoralized 
by the fatigues of a long journey, and the long 
night's cold and rain. As they came in sight 
of the enemy's camp at the Indian village, in 
the cold gray light of early morning, they 
awakened, however, to something like animation, 
when the General ordered a charge, and Captain 
Johnston with his men dashed down the hill at 
a gallop. The Californians stood firm, and 
discharged the very few firearms in their pos- 
session, and then received the charging dragoons 
upon their lances. Captain Johnston fell life- 
less, with a musket-ball in his head, and a dra- 
goon fell also, badly wrfcnded. Then there was 


a hand to hand fight, a scene of great confusion, 
from whicli the Americans presently fell back 
just far enough to meet Kearny's main force; 
at sight of which Pico's men in their turn fled, 
pursued by the gallant Captain Moore, with all 
that were at hand of his own force and Gilles- 
pie's, many of the men being kept back by the 
condition of their animals. It is difficult to 
say what were Don Andres Pico's motives and 
tactics; but, after running about a half mile, 
he suddenly wheeled his column and rushed 
back to meet the pursuers. Skillful horsemen 
were his men, and very expert lancers; and, 
whatever the result, it is much to say for the 
valor of the Americans that they stood their 
ground against such fearful and unfamiliar 
warfare. For not over ten minutes the combat 
raged most fiercely; then, as the howitzers were 
brought up, the Californians made off again. 
After them plunged, mad with fright, the mules 
drawing one of the cannon, so that Pico's men 
captured the gun, and killed the gunner. So 
ended the battle of San Pascual, which it has 
seemed well to record thus somewhat at length, 
since it was the most famous, the most impor- 
tant, and the most deadly that has occurred in 
the history of California. 

The following is the account of the engage- 
ment, as related by Major W. H. Emory: 
"When within a mile of the enemy, whose 
force was unknown," he says, "his fires shone 
brightly. The General (Kearny) and his party 
were in advance, preceded only by the advance 
guard of twelve men under Captain Johnston. 
He ordered a trot, then a charge, and 6oon we 
found ourselves engaged in a hand-to-hand 
conflict with a largely superior force. As day 
dawned the smoke cleared away, and we com- 
menced collecting our dead and wounded. We 
found eighteen of our officers and men were 
killed on the field, and thirteen wounded, one 
of whom (Sergeant Cox) died three days later. 
Among the killed were Captains Moore and 
Johnston, and Lieutenant Hammond, of the 
First - Dragoons. The General, Captain Gibson, 
Lieutenant Warner and Mr. Robideau were 

badly wounded. A large body of horsemen 
were seen in our rear, and fears were entertained 
lest Major Swords and the baggage should fall 
into their hands. The General directed me to 
take a party of men and go back for Major 
Swords and his party. We met at the foot of 
the first hill. Returning, I scoured the village 
to look for the dead and wounded. The first 
object that met my eye was the manly figure of 
Captain Johnston. He was perfectly lifeless, a 
ball having passed through the center of his 
head. Captain Johnston and one dragoon were 
the only persons either killed or wounded on 
our side by fire-arms. (The others had been 
lanced and cut.) When night closed in, the 
bodies of the dead were buried under a willow 
to the east of our camp, with no other accom- 
paniment than the howling of myriads of 
wolves. Thus were put to rest together and 
forever a band of brave and heroic men. The 
long march of 2,000 miles had brought our 
little band to know each other well. Com- 
munity of hardships, danger and privations had 
produced relations of mutual regard, which 
caused their loss to sink deeply into our memo- 

The relative mortality of officers here was 
notably great. Johnston fell, as has been seen, 
the first victim, shot in the first charge. Moore 
fell early in the second charge, after a desperate 
resistance, with a lance thrust through his 
body. It is said that it was in trying to save 
Moore that Hammond received the wound 
which caused his death in a few hours. Gil- 
lespie, for all his skillful swordsmanship and his 
brave fighting, was unhorsed and left for dead, 
with three lance wounds in his body. Lieuten- 
ant Warner received three wounds also; Lieu- 
tenant Gibson was slightly wounded, and 
Robideau, the guide, more seriously. General 
Kearny had two wounds. As to the losses of 
the native forces, there is no little conflict of 
testimony. Pico, when the surgeon of the 
Americans offered to attend his wounded, an- 
swered that he had none. There was one made 
prisoner by the Americans, who declared that 


one of his countrymen had been killed, and 
twelve wounded, one of them fatally. The 
Americans camped on the held, burying the 
dead and caring for the wounded. 

Kearny's army was still considerably harassed 
by the Californians on the way to San Diego, 
where they were hospitably received late on De- 
cember 12, and where they remained until De- 
cember 29, when the American force, in all 600 
strong, marched under command of Kearny for 
Los Angeles. 

California's share in the war with Mexico 
ended in January, 1847. 

annals, 1846-1889. 

When international matters settled into tran- 
quillity, there were still items of excitement for 
the drowsy little pueblo. In the early part of 
1847 the Indian campaign was on; then the 
town was garrisoned by the Americans, who 
supplied new social elements. January 29. 
1847, the famous "Mormon Battalion" arrived 
at San Diego, leaving again February 1. By 
August 2 the re-enlisted corps returned here, 
where they seem to have ingratiated themselves 
with the community, probably by their labors 
as mechanics. 


Shortly after the close of the war with Mexico, 
Major (afterward General) W. H. Emory, who 
had reached San Diego December 12, 1846, re- 
corded his impressions as follows; "The town 
consists of a few adobe houses, two or three of 
which only have plank floors. It is situated at 
the foot of a high hill, on a sand flat two miles 
wide, reaching from the head of San Diego Bay 
to False Bay. A high promontory, of nearly 
the same width, runs into the sea four or five 
miles, and is connected by the flat with the 
main land. The road to the hide houses leads 
on the east side of this promontory, and abreast 
of them the frigate Congress and the sloop 
Portsmouth are at anchor." Again Major Em- 
ory says: "San Diego is, all things considered, 
perhaps one of the best harbors on the coast 

from Callao to Puget Sound, with a single ex- 
ception, that of San Francisco. In the opinion 
of some intelligent navy officers it is preferable 
even to this. The harbor of San Francisco has 
more water, but that of San Diego has a more 
uniform climate, better anchorage, and perfect 
security from winds in any direction." 

Even at that early day this gentleman saw, 
and he was the first person to speak of, the im- 
portance of this harbor as a terminus of a trans- 
continental railway from the Mississippi, by 
way of the Gila river. 

In 1849 San Diego, with the rest of Califor- 
nia, thrilled to the excitement of the gold dis- 
coveries, and not a few of the leading citizens 
of to-day were attracted to California at that 

On March 18, 1850, Alcalde Sutherland 
granted to William Heath Davis, Jose A. 
Aguirre, Andrew B. Grey, Miguel de Pedro- 
rena, Thomas D. Johns and William C. Ferrell, 
"for a new port," the tract known as New San 
Diego, which comprised 160 acres, and for 
which the grantees paid $2,304. It was stipu- 
lated that a new wharf should be built there 
within eighteen months, and William Heath 
Davis, by August, 1851, had completed a fine, 
substantial one, 1,300 feet long. It was used 
by the Government for several years. An at- 
tempt was made at once to colonize the new 
site. The first building put up there was 
erected by William Heath Davis, for a private 
residence. It was still standing in December, 
1887, being known as the San Diego Hotel. 
Several others of the first houses built are still 
standing. About the same time the barracks 
were built for a depot of military supplies, the 
troops being quartered at the old mission. 

Under the Mexican administration, California 
had been politically divided into districts, each 
of which was under the local jurisdiction of a 
prefect, a sub-prefect, and a judge of first in- 
stance. Under the State constitution, adopted 
after California became a possession of the United 
States, provision was made for the continuance 
of these existing conditions "until the entering 


into office of the new officers to l>e appointed 
under this constitution." On February 18, 
1850, an act was passed dividing the State into 
twenty-eight counties, of which San Diego was 
the first created. 

On March 2, 1850, was passed an act pro- 
viding for the holding of the first county elec- 
tions, and making it the duty of each prefect 
in the State to designate immediately a suitable 
number of election precincts in each county of 
his district, and to give notice of the same, and 
of the election to be held. Accordingly Don 
Jose Antonio Estudillo, the then prefect of San 
Diego, divided the new county into election pre- 
cincts, and, there being no newspaper printed 
there at the time, posted notices that an election 
would be held on April 1, 1850. A copy of the 
poll-lists and original returns of the two pre- 
cincts of San Diego bear the names of many 
men of note, including that of General Samuel 
P. Heintzelman, whose services during the civil 
war were conspicuous. The following is a list 
of the county officials then chosen: District 
Attorney, William C. Ferrell; County Judge, 
John Hays; County Clerk. Richard Ru-t; 
County Attorney, Thomas W. Sutherland; Coun- 
ty Surveyor, Henry Clayton; Sheriff, Agostin 
Harazthy; Recorder, Henry C. Matsell; As- 
sessor, Jose Antonio Estudillo; Coroner, John 
Brown; Treasurer, Juan Bandini. The first 
county assessment roll shows the value of tax- 
able property in 1850 as follows: Ranch lands, 
$255,281; ten stores with capital of $65,395; 
six vineyards, whose value was not stated; 
eighty-eight houses, worth $104,302; 6,789 
head of cattle, worth $92,280; total, $517,258. 
The assessment roll for the city of San Diego 
for 1850 gave values as follows: Old Town, 
$264,210; New Town, $80,050; Middle Town, 
$30,000; total value, $375,160. The aggregate 
population of San Diego County in 1850 was 
798, as given in the seventh United States 
census. The population of the city in that year 
was estimated at 650. 

The year 1851 was remarkable in San Diego 
as inaugurating journalism there, since on May 

29, 1851, J. Judson Ames established the 
Herald, at first a very small sheet, which how- 
ever grew yearly. Lieutenant Derby's connec- 
tion with this sheet, and the humor of his 
administration, are widely known, and the con- 
tributions he then supplied to the Herald were 
afterwards collected and published in the form 
of a book called "Phcenixiana," — from his pen 
name, "Phojnix," — which is to this day very 

In 1851 that favorite pioneer, Colonel J. J. 
Warner, who had removed his family some years 
previously to his valuable estate, ever since 
known as " Warner's ranch," was warned that 
an attack upon his place was impending from 
the Calmilla tribe of Indians, several hundred 
of whom lived in villages near by. While he 
discredited the reports, he took the precaution 
to send his family under safe escort to San 
Diego. Early on the second morning after 
their departure he was awakened by the cries of 
the Indians, who had surrounded the house. 
As was customary at the Mexican ranchos, there 
stood here several horses, saddled and ready for 
instant mounting, and loaded weapons were also 
at hand in profusion. Colonel Warner hastened 
to the rear house-door to look for the horses, 
and was greeted by a shower of arrows from 
some 200 Indians there assembled; all of his 
horses were gone save one, and that was just 
being untethered by an Indian. A moment 
later, and a shot from the splendid marksman 
effectually put a stop to the marauder's move- 
ments, and two of his comrades who renewed 
the attempt to take away the horse fell like- 
wise. These three fatal shots threw the Indians 
into a panic. During their temporary retreat 
to the shelter of some outbuildings, Colonel 
Warner decided to try to escape. His Mexican 
servant was already killed, but there was in the 
house a mulatto boy, the servant of an army 
officer at San Diego. This boy, who was a help- 
less cripple from rheumatism, had been sent to 
the rancho to benefit by the water of the neigh- 
boring hot springs, whose curative .properties 
were already noted. Resolved to save the lad 


entrusted to his care, Colonel Warner placed 
the boy upon the single horse, hung thereon his 
pistols and two rifles, and mounted in front of 
the hoy. He was away before the Indians could 
interfere with him, and so dashed on till he 
reached a village of friendly Indians, where his 
herdsmen were quartered. Thence he sent the 
hoy on with an escort, of the loyal Indians, and 
when the herdsmen had gathered in the stock, 
the master took a number of his own people 
and rode back to the rancho, where the Cal- 
millas were improving the opportunity by ap- 
propriating the stock of merchandise, worth 
some §0,000. 

At this time, most of the large ranchos car- 
ried a very considerable stock of general mer- 
chandise, for purposes of trade with its employes 
and dependents, with neighbors and travelers; 
and these effects at "Warner's" the Cahuillas 
were plundering. To Colonel Warner's small 
escort they opposed a show of great hostility, 
and the men fled without capitulation. Being 
left single-handed Colonel Warner was under 
the necessity of abandoning the field, and he 
accordingly rode away to San Diego. A con- 
siderable military escort under Major, afterward 
General, Heintzelman, attended the family on 
their return to the rancho, which was their 
home for thirteen years, until 1857. 

As far back as 1854, a transcontinental rail- 
road was projected to terminate at San Diego, 
and in the years following, one or two other lines 
were proposed; but, owing to the uneasy con- 
ditions politically throughout the United States, 
and the feeling of prospective insecurity, little 
was done beyond the organization of a company, 
and the survey of the route between the port 
and the confluence of the Gila and Colorado 
rivers, in the first instance. A notable spirit 
of enterprise was then developed, however, and 
the project would probably have been success- 
fully prosecuted, but for the breaking out of the 
civil war, and its premonitory indications. 

In a freshet in 1825 — there had been one be- 
fore, in 1811 — San Diego river, which had dis- 
charged into False bay, had changed its channel. 

and broke through into the harbor. There were 
other floods in the winter of 1839-'40, and in 
1855. During this year, Lieutenant Derby 
completed the dam which was to turn the river 
back into False bay, this being his mission to 
San Diego. Two years after, it was swept away 
by another great freshet, and this was followed 
by another flood in 1862. After the destruction 
of the Derby dam the citizens constantly en- 
deavored to prevail upon the Government to 
renew the good work; but no appropriation 
could be obtained from Congress until nearly 
twenty years after. It now discharges once 
more into False bay. 

The first overland mail was carried on horse- 
back, from San Diego to San Antonio, Texas. 
It left San Diego August 9, 1857, and was 
thirty-four days en route. 

From 1859 to 1867 San Diego history had 
almost no salient points, or occurrences of es- 
pecial interest. The winter of 1861-'62 was 
marked by unusually heavy rains, the fall being 
nearly thirty inches, as against an average fall 
of nine inches. 

Even the civil war passed with little effect 
upon this point beyond the transportation of the 
troops to the East by steamer, and the filling of 
their places by volunteer forces. 

On April 6, 1867, Alonzo Erastus Horton 
arrived at San Diego. He had attended, a short 
time previously, a private literary gathering in 
San Francisco, where San Diego, its climate and 
harbor, was a topic of discussion. Mr. Horton 
was greatly impressed by the accounts of this 
section, and decided to visit it. The city, such 
as it was, at that time was situated at Old Town, 
a Government barracks, officers' quarters, the 
remains of the William Heath Davis wharf, 
and a very few other constructions, being the 
only signs of human habitation at " New Town." 
Nevertheless, Mr. Horton's practical judgment 
and keen foresight led him to believe that this 
point was the site of an important city of the 
future; that powerful advantages were to be 
derived from locating the city directly on the 
bay shore; and that it would be an excellent 


speculation to purchase the pueblo lands, then 
considered worthless, that skirted the edge of 
the bay east of "New Town." First, he began 
to agitate an election of city trustees, and the 
candidates were nominated and elected without 
opposition. Then he caused to be surveyed 880 
acres which he desired to purchase. His will- 
ingness to buy was made known to the pueblo 
authorities, and they advertised the property as 
to be offered for sale at public auction. The 
day of the sale found but one bidder, Mr. Hor- 
ton, who accordingly bid in the whole tract at 
$26 an acre. This tract is now the main por- 
tion of the city of San Diego. Mr. Hortcn had 
his new possession platted under the classifi- 
cation of "Horton's Addition" and went to San 
Francisco to put it on sale. It can not be said 
that his success was at first notable. Old im- 
pressions were strong. That mad wag, Lieiu 
tenant Derby, had laughed a really good thing 
into disrepute, as is often done by people who 
laugh, particularly if on piper, with any degree 
of cleverness. The term "Sandy Ague," and 
many sly allusions to the spot as the favorite 
habitat of the lively flea, the luxurious horned 
toad, and the business-like rattlesnake, still 
rankled, deeply and darkly. Moreover, people 
of guilty consciences had uncomfortable feelings 
as to the supposed loftiness of the temperature! 
But "Father" Horton was full of faith and sin- 
gleness of purpose, and he never allowed him- 
self to be discouraged. He held to his property 
steadfastly, and worked for it earnestly. During 
the infancy of the new city, he was ready to 
give land to every one who would add to its 
value by putting improvements upon it, but 
was more than once disappointed by faithless 
promises. To one man he gave a fine block of 
land, on which to build a hotel, but the hotel 
was never erected. To another, who now occu- 
pies a high position in the federal service, he 
gave another block which he bought back from 
the recipient, two jears after, for $4,000. He 
gave one block for the site of a flouring mill, 
and to the county he deeded the block whereon 
stands the court-house. In all he gave away 

fourteen whole blocks, and detached lots with- 
out number, including that on which stands 
the Methodist church, on the corner of Fourth 
and D streets, now valued at $60,000, and to 
each of the other religious denominations as 
well he gave lots for church edifices. By val- 
uation according to present prices, the real estate 
Mr. Horton has given away is worth at least 
$1,000,000. Beside this, he expended at various 
times over $700,000 of his own capital in im- 
provements and development of the city. He 
built the Horton House, for many years the 
largest and finest hotel in San Diego, extending 
along all one side of the plaza. He it was who 
built the first wharf — since the Davis wharf had 
fallen into decay — which he afterward sold to 
the Pacific Mail Steamship Company, they in 
turn selling to the Pacific Coast Steamship 
Company, the present owners. Indeed, for 
three years, this gentleman carried the whole 
town, it may be said, upon his own shoulders, 
paying the salaries of the officials, and the run- 
ning expenses of the corporation. Always ready 
was he to help the needy and deserving, and 
when all other employment failed he would 
always contrive to find work for married men, by 
which they could support their families. For 
a long time, this energy, this earnestness and 
singleness of purpose, this devotion, were but 
scantily rewarded. Mr. Horton's returns for 
the year 1867 were but $3,000; in two years 
they had increased to $85,000. It now began 
to appear as if the projected Memphis & El 
Paso Railway would shortly become a fait 
accompli, and railroad meetings were the order 
of the day. 

Among other notable events of the year 1869 
was the visit of the venerable statesman and 
patriot, William H. Seward. He reached San 
Diego on September 18 of that year, and was 
received with fitting honors. Two well-known 
citizens, Don Miguel de Pedrorena and Fran- 
cisco P. Foster, accepted an invitation to join 
Mr. Seward's party and accompany him to Mex- 
ico. In Mr. Seward's company came various 
distinguished men, among them General W. S. 



Rosecrans, Colonel Thomas S. Sedgwick, Gen- 
eral M. C. Hunter, of Louisiana, and Congress- 
man Hoots, of Arkansas. 

It was during this period, too, that the 
hrothers Frank and Warren Kimball bought 
the 27,000-acre Rancho de la Nacion, and laid 
out upon it, some four miles from San Diego, 
the town of National City, which, after sharing 
lor some years the prosperities and the reverses 
of the parent city, was ultimately to prove a 
most potent factor in the institution of a con- 
dition of affairs which should serve to establish 
both on a stable and permanent basis of ad- 

Many new-comers arrived on every steamer 
from the north, not a few of those who were at- 
tracted by the bright, hopeful prospects of that 
period being among the "old residents" of the 
present. The town grew rapidly until it was a 
little city of 1,200 or 1,500. But that flatter- 
ing hope proved delusive, there was another 
total collapse, and the town having no internal 
resources nor tributary elements, became utterly 

In 1870 the population of San Diego County 
was 4,951, of which one-half was in the city. 
The total value of all kinds of property in the 
county was $1,722,837, two-thirds of which was 
in the city. There were 1,790 houses in the 
county, of which 915, or more than one-half, 
were in the city. The statistics of production 
of that period showed the whole number of 
fruit trees in the county, of all kinds what- 
soever, to be 223; the total number of grape- 
vines, 1,487; the number of acres planted to 
grain, including wheat, barley and corn, 3,126. 

The Chamber of Commerce of San Diego 
was organized in March, 1870. 

In 1871 the Texas Pacific Railroad was or- 
ganized, it was voted a handsome subsidy, ten 
miles of the line were graded, hopefulness and 
enthusiasm flourished, and so many strangers 
poured in that the population reached about 
4,000. Many handsome edifices were built, in- 
cluding the present court-house, and the county 
seat was removed from Old Town to New Town, 

most of the American settlers and not a few of 
the Mexican residents of Old Town accompany- 
ing it. 

Again, in 1872, San Diego was visited by 
some of the most eminent Americans of the 
age. On August 18 of that year the United 
States steamer Hassler arrived from the coast 
of South America, conveying Professor Louis 
Agassiz and wife, Dr. Thomas Hill, ex-president 
of Harvard College, and various other people 
notable in the scientific world, who belonged to 
the Hassler expedition. Six days later, Colonel 
Thomas A. Scott, escorting a large party of 
celebrated men, arrived, on a visit connected 
with the project of the Texas & Pacific Rail- 
way. Among the "railroad men" were: Gen- 
eral G. M. Dodge, W. T. Walters, of Baltimore, 
John McManus, of Reading, and Hon. John S. 
Harris. Then there were: Senator John Sher- 
man, of Ohio; Governor J. W. Throckmorton, 
of Texas; Colonel John W. Forney, of Phila- 
delphia; Colonel George Williamson, of Louisi- 
ana; W. H. Rinehart, the sculptor; Governor 
R. C. McCormick, of Arizona, and ex-Senator 
Cole. On the night of the 26th there was held 
an enthusiastic railroad meeting, at which most 
of these eminent men were present; and San 
Diego still prides herself upon the eulogies then 
pronounced upon her elements and her future 
by some of the most notable among these gen- 
tlemen, the justice and accuracy of whose pre- 
vision has been more than sustained by the 
history of the years succeeding. 

The lands in 1853 confirmed to the pueblo 
comprised eleven square leagues, or 32,000 
acres. There were persons who later claimed 
that the quantity of land of the city should be 
reduced to four square leagues, and on their ap- 
peals the matter was brought before the Depart- 
ment of the Interior. These disputes were finally 
settled January 31, 1872, by the decision of the 
Secretary of the Interior, who sustained the city's 
title to the full amount of eleven square leagues. 

On February 23, 1872, the State Legislature 
finally passed an act, introduced in the Senate 
by Mr. McCoy, whereby all prior conveyances 


of lands by the municipal powers of San Diego 
were legalized, ratified and confirmed. 

In 1873 there passed Congress a bill which 
created San Diego a "port of entry." Prior to 
thai time this had been a " port of delivery "only. 

It was precisely this period which witnessed 
the development of many of Mr. Horton's prac- 
tical improvements, including Horton's Hall, 
Horton's Bank, the Horton House, the wharf, 
and many other buildings. It is to be remarked 
that most of these erections hold their own with 
the edifices recently constructed, so it is readily 
to be seen that they must have been very large 
for the city as it was at that time, and some of 
them were even extravagant. For instance, the 
building now occupied by the Hamiltons was 
built for a city market, and it would have been 
adequate for the pnrpose for a city ten times 
as large as San Diego then was. It was during 
this time of prosperity that the first telegraph 
line was built. 

But the financial crash of 1873 came, and the 
Texas Pacific failed to come to San Diego, be- 
cause of the impossibility of borrowing capital. 
The population of San Diego declined to about 
2,500, and that of National City to a few scores. 
Dozens of houses stood vacant, dozens (to make 
a moderate computation) of men were out of 
employment, and ere many months the streets 
of both towns were almost deserted. 

By the season of 1875-'76, the " winter vis- 
irot " had appeared at San Diego, attracted by 
climatic charms. His clan arrived in such 
numbers as to stimulate to a considerable ex- 
tent business in the line of hotels and boarding 
houses. His stay, however, was usually brief, 
and his interest superficial. He saw no sub- 
stantial or enduring attractions in the section. 
San Diego appeared to have no resources, no 
back country; and the apparent scarcity of 
water seemed to preclude future development. 
Moreover, the existing conditions were very 
primitive and inconvenient, and the lack of easy 
postal facilities and ready and comfortable trans- 
portation were grave drawbacks. 

In 1876 it was attempted to have the bonds 

of the Texas Pacific guaranteed by Congress, 
but the measure was defeated by pressure from 
the eastern and northwestern sections. How- 
ever, the movement did not stir San Diego from 
the lethargy into which she had fallen. 

In 1879 there was a slight, brief agitation 
caused by the rumor of a prospective railway, 
which proved Unfounded. 

In 1881 one of the founders of National 
City, who had worked untiringly for the section, 
proposed to endeavor to induce the Atchison, 
Topeka & Santa Fe Railway to build to San 
Diego; and. although his suggestion elicited 
but skepticism and ridicule from his fellow-cit- 
izens, he loyally and determinedly persisted, 
went East at his own expense, talked, urged, 
argued, refused to accept rebuff or discourage- 
ment, and — at last succeeded. Capital conde- 
scended to listen to one inducement — the offer 
of 17,000 acres of the best land on the bay, 
from the splendid National Ranch. Two direc- 
tors of the road came out to investigate; they 
saw, and found it good. Several thousands of 
acres more were offered by other parties. The 
California Southern was organized, and in 1882 
it was finished toColton,San Bernardino County, 
from National City, which terminus grew to a 
population of about 1,000, while San Diego had 
gained some 15,000 inhabitants. 

The hopeful expectations from this road were 
doomed to disappointment. It had no direct 
eastern connection, and there was much opposi- 
tion from other sections, so that travel over it was 
practically nil. As a climax, the winter of 1882 
-'83 was a very dry one, and the crops failed 
on all the unirrigated lowlands. By the autumn, 
National City had lost half its population, and 
San Diego lost more than its recent increase. 
Finally, early in 1884, most of the railroad 
in Temecula Canon and Santa Margarita was 
washed out by a flood, having been built too 
low by Eastern engineers who did not under- 
stand the requirements of the Pacific coast cli- 
mate. It took something like nine months to 
replace the road and restore traffic, and even 
then very dull times still continued. 


Early in 1885 work was begun on the exten- 
sion of the California Southern to Barstow, and 
it was then understood that San Diego was to 
be the Pacific terminus of the Santa Fe system. 

Almost coincident with this movement was 
the beginning of work on an extensive water 
system and the consequent development of agri- 
cultural wealth. 

The growth of San Diego had now begun in 
earnest. From a probable 5,000 inhabitants in 
1885, it increased to at least 30,000 by the close 
of 1887. 

The history of San Diego for 1888 and 1889 
is hereinafter set forth. 



San Diego bay is a land-locked sheet of water, 
twelve miles long and from one to two miles 
wide, with abundance of deep water for thou- 
sands of vessels, and miles of good wharfage 
front, quite safe and sheltered. It is formed by: 
on the west, the long, high promontory called 
Point Loma, which extends out from the main 
land about eight miles, like a gigantic finger 
pointing southward; on the north, the land 
rises in gradual slopes, sweeping from west to 
east like a crescent, and from the east curving 
southward, to where begins "the sandspit " that 
encloses the bay on the south as it runs, a nar- 
row ribbon of sand, that leaves between its 
point, widened into Coronado beach, a narrow 
but excellent channel, whose bar has twenty- 
three feet of water at low tide, the water being 
so smooth that the largest ships can enter, even 
in the roughest weather and sail all the way up 
the channel to a wharf or an anchorage, with- 
out a harbor-pilot or a steam-tug. During the 
great storm of February, 1878, when the wind 
reached the highest point ever registered by the 
signal service at San Diego, the Hassler, a large 
steamer of the United States coast survey, lay 
directly upon the bar during the whole storm, 
taking soundings and surveying the harbor. 
During the same storm, the coast-line steamer 

Orizaba dared not put in at any stopping-place 
between San Diego and San Francisco; and 
even at the latter-named port she had to lie off 
outside three days before venturing to cross the 
bar. The report of the United States coast sur- 
vey furnishes abundant and incontestable proof 
of the superiority of San Diego's harbor. 

Surrounding the bay for miles and miles 
stretch gentle slopes and pine mesa land, suit- 
able for farms, for detached villa homes, or for 
town sites, and the bay coast and adjoining 
ocean coast are both already thickly dotted with 
links in the chain of growing cities. Next to 
San Diego, southeasterly, toward the boundary 
line of the Mexican republic, and at present 
next in importance also, lies 


This is one of the most enterprising towns 
On the coast, and it is destined to attain great 
commercial importance in the near future. Its 
position is at the extreme northwestern corner 
of the Rancho de la Nacion, which comprises a 
part of the San Diego Land and Town Com- 
pany's great tract. This is the terminus of the 
great Santa Fe Railway, which corporation has 
located its principal machine and car shops, 
yard, etc., here, besides a pier or wharf, extend- 
ing into the bay 2,300 feet. The terminal 
grounds at National are the largest in the 
United States, comprising 225 acres, on which 
thirty tracks have already been laid. The com- 
pany owns six miles of bay water front, its 
round-house accommodates forty eight locomo- 
tive.-, and it has erected here the other build- 
ings suitable and necessary to a transcontinental 
line terminus. 

The city lies some four miles distant from 
San Diego, with which it is connected by the 
California Southern, which has its machine and 
car-shops, yard, wharf, etc., here, and by the 
National City & Otay Railroad, of which George 
J. Lockie is superintendent; this is a stand- 
ard-gauge steam motor line. This city owes 
its birth to the foresight and enterprise of the 
Kimball Brothers. Some twelve years since 


these gentlemen noted the " superior quality " 
of the lands of the old "Rancho de la Nacion," 
or Nation's Farm of the Spanish regime; the 
freedom of the track from gullies, gravel, etc.; 
also the Sue water front, with deep water, and 
the great reaches of tine lands sloping gently 
upward into fertile mesa or table lands. Fore- 
seeing the prosperous future for which this 
section was so eminently fitted by its natural 
characteristics, they purchased the rancho, 
which comprised some 27,000 acres, and on the 
tract laid out National City, building a wharf 
and a number of edifices, and making many 
sales of land. Indeed, so great was the imme- 
diate prosperity of the new city that a foolish 
jealousy sprung up lest this should prove a 
formidable rival of San Diego. It is pleasant 
to note that this unworthy sentiment, whose in- 
dulgence for some years injured both places, 
has been slain by the prosperity, and still more, 
by the vicissitudes, which they have passed 
through together. 

It has already been seen how the Kimball 
Brothers gave 17,000 acres of their best land to 
bring the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railway 
to San Diego, and what a wise investment the 
offer proved to be. During the building of the 
California Southern, National City grew until 
her population numbered 1,000 people. But 
the speedily ensuing stagnation caused it to 
lose at least one-half this, and it almost seemed 
that a majority of the buildings were vacant. 
But, with the extension in 1885 of the Cali- 
fornia Southern to Barstow, National City felt 
the impulse of improved times, and entered 
upon a new, and this time an assured, epoch of 
prosperity. The present population is some- 
thing over 1,500, refined for the most part, and 
among the most progressive ami enterprising of 
California's citizens. The city has a postofhce, 
with daily mail service, express and telegraph 
offices, telephone service, a grange hall, a horti- 
cultural hall, and Episcopalian and Congrega- 
tional church edifices, the latter having a fine 
pipe organ. There are also other flourishing 
congregations. There is a two-story public 

school building of fine proportions, well planned 
for graded classes. There is a fine hotel of 
fifty rooms, each of which has hot and cold 
water laid on, the house surrounded by porches 
commanding a grand view, and by a tine large 
yard rilled with tropical flowers. Besides the 
usual conveniences of bath-room, bar and 
billiard room, etc., this hotel has connected 
with it a livery stable, and a bureau for sup- 
plying guns, fishing tackle, etc. 

Among the industries of National City are 
the following: An olive-oil factory where are 
practiced the processes of crushing, drying and 
pickling this rich and nutritious berry. In 
1888 this mill turned out 210 cases of oil, or 
420 dozens of bottles. It will be an important 
factor in commerce and prosperity, as nursery- 
men report 30,000 to 40,000 olive trees to have 
been planted in the county during 1889; be- 
sides this the increasing product of the trees 
already in bearing will result in establishing an 
industry of large proportions. This mill has 
no near competitor, and there are in the State 
but two others of considerable magnitnde, 
namely, at Santa Barbara and Los Gatos. Then 
there is the West Coast Parlor Match Company, 
with a capital stock of $15,000, of which $10,- 
000 has been paid in. This is the only match 
factory on the coast producing parlor matches. 
There is a reduction works, which has kept a 
five-stamp mill running most of the time during 
1889, reducing ores shipped thither from vari- 
ous points. There is the Commercial Company, 
conducting the largest business of its kind south 
of San Francisco. Throughout the dull season 
this firm has been kept busy shipping to various 
points on the coast, as well as into the interior 
and Arizona, its manufactures, consisting of 
agricultural implements, wagons, buggies, water 
pipe and wire goods. During 1889 there has 
been established a feed and barley crushing 
mill. There has also been established a tree- 
wash manufactory, producing preparations to 
aid fruit-growers in the extermination of fruit 
pests. There is the Pawnee Medicine Company, 
which is constantly filling large orders and doing 


an extensive business. The Bank of National 
City, which is now in the third year of its ex- 
istence, had recently added a savings bank 
department for school children and other de- 
positors. There is a large lumber yard, a plan- 
ing mill of the latest and most improved system, 
several drug stores, and several stores for the 
sale of dry goods, groceries or general merchan- 
dise. Another enterprise of the year 1889 is 
the organization of a fire department, consisting 
of two hose companies with 2,100 feet of three- 
inch hose, and a hook and ladder company, all 
well manned with efficient officers and men. 
Hydrants are so distributed that alPportions of 
National City can readily be reached'for water 
supplies in case of fire. 

There are in National district four commodi- 
ous school-houses, including that recently built 
at Chula Vista. These accommodate the 300 
children recorded for the year's attendance, who 
are under the charge of a popular and scholarly 
principal and seven experienced assistant teach- 
ers. National City has the only free kinder- 
garten in the county. It was founded in 1888 
by Mrs. Frank A. Kimball, who largely sup- 
ports it, financially and otherwise. It has a 
principal and three assistant teachers, and sixty 
children have been under their charge during 
the past year. A Town Improvement Society 
has been organized for the purpose of fostering 
home adornment, and encouraging the beautify- 
ing of the city by planting trees along the 
streets. There is something really remarkable 
in the class of residences to be seen in this 
little city and its environs. No matter how 
small and modest the home, the owner of eacli 
seems to have been fired with a spirit of einula 
tion which prompts him to aim at equaling, in 
beauty and attractiveness, the more imposing 
dwellings of his wealthy neighbors. The care- 
fully tended orchards, the scrupulously kept 
gardens, the trees, fruit-bearing and ornamental, 
the cheerful flower-beds, the innumerable bits 
of beautifying effort, often modest, but always 
tasty, convey an impression of thrift and pros- 
perity about all the homes of this section. 

Partly within the city's limits is the beauti- 
ful Paradise valley, which adds to the other 
conveniences and luxuries a Sanitarium and In- 
valid's Home. Many important enterprises are 
being developed by the San Diego Land and 
Town Company, which is a corporation com- 
posed almost entirely of directors and stock- 
holders of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe 
Railway. Among their other improvements is 
the National City & Otay Railroad, the motor 
line already mentioned, which runs one branch 
to the Sweetwater dam and the little town of 
La Presa, and another to Chula Vista, Otay 
City, Oneonta, and Tia Juana, on the Mexican 
border, making a standard-gauge line thirty 
miles long. Another splendid achievement is 
the Sweetwater dam across the Sweetwater river. 
This is the greatest structure of the kind in the 
United States, and there are in the world but 
four or five of greater height. This was begun 
by the company already mentioned, November 
17, 1886, and it was completed April 7, 1888. 
It is built in a rocky canon at the outlet of a 
fine natural reservoir, of a heavy granite rock, 
containing some mineral which makes its weight 
about twenty per cent, greater than New Hamp- 
shire granite, the rock being laid in Portland 
cement. The dimensions are: length at base, 
76 feet; length at top, 396 feet; thickness at 
base, 46 feet: thickness at top, 12 feet; height 
from bed-rock, 90 feet; height from river bed, 
80 feet. The reservoir covers 700 acres, and it 
will hold 6,000,000,000 gallons of water. The 
water is conveyed from the dam through 
wronght-iron pipes to the surrounding lands, 
and it supplies, at low rates, National City for 
household and irrigation purposes. Not less 
than sixty-five miles of wrought-iron pipe has 
been laid already. Adjoining National City 
lies a tract of 5,000 acres of beautiful mesa 
land, with a rising 6lope toward Otay and Tia 
Juana on the east, which is known as 


This name (being the Spanish for "Lovely 
View") could hardly be more aptly applied 


than to this tract, commanding a view of the 
bay, the sea, the distant Coronado islands, the 
city of San Diego and its surrounding satellite 
towns, National City as well, and behind all, as 
a splendid background to the wide scope of 
ocean, beach, valley and plateau land, the great 
majestic mountains. It is now some three 
years since Colonel W. G. Dickinson outlined 
his scheme for the subdivision of what is now 
known as Chula Vista, a scheme which contem- 
plated a subnrban town of fruit farms, ranging 
in area from two and a half to ten acres each, 
whose owners, as a condition of purchase, would 
be required to build houses upon their tracts to 
cost not less than a certain sum, eventually 
fixed at $2,000. In due time this scheme was 
worked out and the lands placed upon the 

This tract is six miles from San Diego. 
Although it was put upon the market too late 
to participate in the boom, Chula Vista has 
progressed remarkably. Many miles of avenues 
have been graded and set to trees, and water 
has been put upon the entire tract. 

A. Barber's place, on Third avenue, is a five- 
acre tract, whose improvement was begun less 
than two years ago. It is set to a variety of 
fruits, both citrus and deciduous. Its product- 
iveness is attested by the fact that the trees 
have this year yielded all the fruit Mr. Barber's 
family could use. Numerous illustrations were 
seen on these grounds of the ambition of the 
young trees to bear fruit. A lemon tree, less 
than two years in the ground, has over 100 
lemons on it. Mr. Barber decorated the lapels 
of each of the visitors' coats with a handsome 

At Mrs. E. L. Williams' place, on Second 
avenue, another example of rapid progress is 
seen. This is a five-acre place, upon which are 
over 400 trees, chiefly orange and lemon, in the 
proportion of about two of the former to one of 
the latter. The trees show a remarkable growth, 
especially the lemon trees, which have distanced 
the orange by nearly one-half. The land at Chula 
Vista is evidently especially good for lemons. 

Two years hence some of these avenues will 
be nothing short of lovely. Their grades are 
good and they extend from National a distance 
of some eight miles. 

More than fifty fine residences have been 
built at Chula Vista, and twenty others are 
under contract. 

Some of these improved places are worthy of 
note, as illustrating the quality of the soil when 
supplied with water and cultivated with in- 

Colonel Dickinson's place, a little farther 
north, occupies one of the most commanding 
sites about the bay of San Diego, and is one of 
the best improved. The house is a fine piece 
of architecture, its interior arrangement and 
finish being conspicuously convenient and at- 
tractive. There is a blue-grass lawn in front 
that is so thickly matted that one cannot part 
the blades with the hand so as to expose the 
ground without the greatest effort, and which 
feels as soft and velvety under the feet as a 
Brussels carpet. At another part of the grounds 
a circle of fountains play into a reservoir, in 
which sport a number of beautiful gold fishes. 

There is also a sixteen-acre Eureka lemon 
orchard, set out in July, 1889, by Professor W. 
A. Henry, of the Madison, Wisconsin, Uni- 

Mr. J. M. Johnson is making somewhat of a 
nursery of his place and is not afraid lo experi- 
ment. He shows some orange buds a month 
old, set in sprigs sprung from seeds planted last 
March. He believes he can hasten production 
by budding in this way. One of his curiosities 
is a three-toot growth of orange from a seed 
planted last March. Mr. Johnson's local pride 
will not permit him to admit the possibility of 
such a growth anywhere else than at Chula 

On National avenue, is the place of J. L. 
Griffin. This is a pioneer place, and antedates 
Chula Vista. It is a seven-year-old improve- 
ment, and is noteworthy for this, that it effect- 
ually disproves the assertion so often heard that 
citrus fruits can't be grown near salt water. 


Mr. Griffin's place is less than a mile from the 
bay, yet one can see there as fine oranges and 
lemons as ever were grown, the trees fairly 
groaning under their burden of fruit, and both 
trees and fruit bright and clean from every 
species of scale or smut. And the windward 
sides of the trees are just as full of fruit and 
just as clean as the leeward. Mr. Griffin has a 
lemon tree from which he has picked from Jan- 
uary to January 1,302 lemons by actual count. 
This tree is now very full of fruit. He has 200 
apricot trees, from which he sold this year eight 
and one-half tons at $70 per ton. This was an 
"off year" for apricots. Mr. Griffin's place 
contains ten acres and he has repeatedly been 
offered $10,000 for it, and one would-be pur- 
chaser not long ago was willing to raise this 
offer $2,000. 

It is to be noted, too, that in achieving these 
results, Mr. Griffin had to rely upon a wind- 
mill for his water supply, whereas now an 
abundant supply can be had from the company's 

Chula Vista is fast realizing the ambition of 
its projectors, in spite of dull times. Two years 
hence it will be a beautiful and thrifty place, 
and not many years will be required to make it 
one of the prettiest and most productive places 
in Southern California. There is no idleness 
in this prophecy. The groundwork of it has 
already been realized, and all the conditions of 
soil and water and climate are there to carry it 
to a perfect fulfillment. One cannot look upon 
Chula Vista's progress without feeling a revival 
of faith in the destiny of the bay region. 
From a point on the northern verge of Chula 
Vista a view is had of almost the entire Sweet- 
water valley below the dam. From this point 
the advantages of irrigation are apparent in 
the numerous gardens and orchards that are be- 
ing made all along the course of the stream. 
It is from this source that strawberries find 
their way to the San Diego market during every 
month of the year. 

Six miles below Chula Vista lies the Otay 
valley, with its nucleus, 


Otay proper embraces the mesa and valley of 
the Otay, deriving its name from this level 
mesa tract, six miles in width and twelve miles 
long, which signifies in the Indian dialect, 
" Wide, level knoll." This section of mesa 
and valley land is situated twelve miles south 
of the capital town of San Diego County, the 
principal port of the great southwest and the 
future gateway to the commerce of the world. 

The valley of the Otay slopes gently to the 
bay. It is skirted by the river and abrupt rise 
of the level mesa on the south and is four 
miles from the Mexican border. The valley 
embraces a large tract of fruit and garden lands 
that are easily watered by means of shallow 
wells or by irrigation systems, which naturally 
abound in the mountain range on the east, where 
the waters of the Otay, Cottonwood and Tia 
Juana rivers take their rise, affording an abun- 
dance of water that can be easily developed and 
which, doubtless, will soon be utilized and 
brought on to the vast area of mesa and valley 
lands of the Otay and Tia Juana. 

Windmills are now used to a great extent for 
supplying water in the valley, and quantities of 
grapes, guavas, oranges and figs are now mar- 
keted, and the vegetable gardens are yielding 
great profits by their ceaseless production the 
whole year round. Potatoes are dug here for 
the San Diego market, which find a ready sale 
at from two to three cents a pound. Here 
during the past season 90,000 gallons of wine 
were made, and up the valley adjoining the 
6,000 acres belonging, to the Land & Town 
Company, now used for a sheep pasture, 150 
tons of wool were clipped and shipped from 

This season 3,000 tons of hay have been ex- 
ported from here by rail, besides great quanti- 
ties of grain, milk and eggs. The valley and 
the mesa are being occupied very fast. 

The town site of Otay is beautifully located, 
ensconced between the mountains and the sea, 
connected with San Diego by the National City 
& Otay Railroad, joining the beautiful Chula 


Vista tract on the north, now supplied with 
water from the San Diego Land & Town Com- 
pany's pipe-line, which crosses through their 
5,000-aere tract from the Sweetwater dam. 
Three miles to the west of the town beats the 
ocean. The location is just far enough from the 
water to have the wind shorn of its sharpness, 
making it the most even, all-the-year-round cli- 
mate on the face of the globe; invalids afflicted 
with various diseases soon find a speedy recov- 
ery, and the old renew their youth. The town 
is progressing and fast settling up with a happy 
and industrious population. Over forty houses, 
many of them fine villa homes, having been 
built during the past year. The watch factory, 
filling the great necessity of giving employ- 
ment in the most favored clime, is a colossal 
enterprise. The building is of brick, three 
stories in height, 38x100 feet; the works will 
employ from 300 to 400 workmen, capable of 
turning out 250 watches per day. A syndicate 
of capitalists has been formed, comprising the 
leading men of wealth. Among the number 
are F. A. Kimball, E. W. Morse and other bank- 
ers, who have now taken stock in the factory, 
and the business of watchmaking, now and 
well under way, will be pushed speedily for- 

In no part of the State is there richer garden 
land than in the Otay and Tia Juana valleys, 
and nothing grows or is raised in California 
which does not thrive and grow to perfection 
here. On the fertile mesa anJ valleys are raised 
with profit the finest hay, wheat and barley, and 
all the cereals produced throughout the country; 
the orange and corn thrive side by side. It is 
the natural home of the orange, the lemon, the 
fig, olive, guava, walnut and vines of all varie- 
ties. The apple does well here, and the small 
fruits, such as strawberries, blackberries, etc., 
grow to perfection. Parties engaged in diversi- 
fied farming find the soil adapted to all its 
branches, yielding asteady and perpetual income. 
A branch of the motor line runs from Otay to 
Oneonta, where there is a good hotel, and whence 
btnges convey the traveler who desires to tread 

the soil of Mexico in this direction to the bound- 
ary line and the division monument. 

Somewhat north of east of the Otay mesa, 
than which it is further from the coast, and 
eighteen or twenty miles from San Diego, lies 
the Janal Rancho, containing some 6,000 acres, 
whose elevation is 400 to 800 feet. Some six 
miles yet further eastward, at an elevation of 
some 550 feet, is the Jamul Rancho of some 
5,000 acres. This is bounded on the eastward 
by a tall, rocky range, from 3,000 to 4,000 feet 
high, which, like other ridges, harbors many 
mountain parks and valleys. The Janal is sep- 
arated from Mexico by the blue range of the San 
Ysidro; the soil of this and the Janal is either 
a fine red granite or a brown adobe of extraor- 
dinary richness, which, together with the situa- 
tion, is uncommonly favorable for vine and fruit 
growing. The orange, in particular, reaches 
perfection in the Jamul valley, one of whose in- 
habitants has taken, for his oranges, at district, 
county and State exhibitions, premiums attest- 
ing the superiority of his wares over every other 
orange-producing section in California. 

North of these valleys and east of the National 
Ranch, there is a series of plains and valleys, 
nearly all Government land, which are occupied 
by bee-keepers and stock-raisers. These are 
called the Jamacha plains, Lee's valley, Lyon's 
valley, Lawson's valley, Corte Madera, Cotton- 
wood valley, Pine valley, Guatay valley, Laguna 
and Mataqueqnat. There is a very fine fruit 
orchard and farm, with an apiary, the prop- 
erty of Mr. B. S. Sheckler, in the Cotton- 
wood valley, which is one of the most pictur- 
esque spots in the county. This section com- 
prises a very extensive area of fine country, 
most of which will be brought under cultiva- 
tion ere long, producing grain and the decidu- 
ous fruits, which are raised to some extent 
already. Dairy farming also will become a very 
profitable enterprise in these mountain valleys. 
The rainfall in this section is abundant and 
never-failing. The thickly-wooded mountains 
abound in game, and they are a favorite resort 
of hunters and camping parties. 



This is the center of a large area of country 
near the boundary line, of which the principal 
industries are fanning, bee-keeping and ttock- 
raisiug, including much attention to hogs. A 
good deal of grain and hay is raised, and some 
of the bacon cured hereabouts is sent to market. 
The honey product is considerable. There is 
good land for raising fruit, especially apples, 
but very little attention has been given as yet 
to this matter. A large portion of the land of 
this section is Government land, and it is there- 
lore likely to be settled quite speedily. Land 
is sold for $10 to $25 per acre. The population 
of this section is about 400; it has a postoffice 
with tri-weekly service, a school-house and four 


Four miles beyond Otay, five miles from the 
coast, and sixteen from San Diego, is the Tia 
Juana valley, in which is situated the village of 
Tia Juana, on the boundary line partly in the 
United States and partly in Mexico, a custom- 
house being maintained on the Mexician side, 
where also, three miles farther down, are the 
celebrated hot sulphur springs. Strong indica- 
tions warrant belief in the existence of similar 
springs on the American side. Both these val- 
leys abound in rich farms and orchards. Lands 
range from $50 to $100 per acre within their 

The voting precinct embracing the Otay and 
Tia Juana valleys is called Monument. Each 
of these settlements has its own church, school- 
house and other features of progress. 

To return to National City: No part of San 
Diego County produces more richly: all the 
citrus fruits, all varieties of grapes, notably the 
raisin grape, many deciduous fruits and all of 
the berries reach about as near a 6tate of perfec- 
tion as fruits may, and the products of the sec- 
tion have repeatedly taken first premiums at 
county, district, and State fairs. Some six miles 
beyond National, at the lower end of the bay, 
is South San Diego; rounding the curve a nar- 
row strip runs northward for several miles, coin- | 

pletely shutting out the sea beyond the harbor. 
Opposite the city of San Diego, this unique 
peninsula broadens into a tract of land, which, 
if it had been square, would measure a mile 
and a half on each side. This is 


Which is one mile across the bay, from San 
Diego. Connected with this by a very nar- 
row isthmus is another island-like tract, the 
estuary between them being called Spanish 
Bight. The history of Coronado Beach has 
been phenomenal. In 1886 there was not the 
semblance cf a human habitation on the penin- 
sula, and although streets and avenues had been 
mapped out earlier, not a house was built until 
after January 1, 1887. Now there are hundreds 
of houses for dwelling and, business purposes, 
three hotels, fine drives, nurseries, landscape 
gardens, foundries, lumber and planing mills, 
fruit-packing establishments, works for bitum- 
inous and asphalt paving, and boat and ship- 
building establishments. It is estimated that 
the sales made on this peninsula have amounted 
to between fifteen and twenty millions of dollars, 
and have well repaid the original outlay of 
something like a million and a half of dollars, 
expended in preparing the place for occupation. 
A large steam ferry connects Coronado Beach 
with San Diego, plying half-hourly. The soil 
here is a very rich loam, with a large admix- 
ture of disintegrated granite, underlaid by a 
stratum of decomposed shells. It is pronounced 
equal in fertility to the finest sea-island cotton 
soil on the Atlantic coast, and specially adapted 
to the development of rare tropical trees, shrubs 
and fruits, whose propagation in the United 
States has always failed hitherto. The water, 
which is piped to South San Diego, Coronado 
Heights and Coronado Beach, comes from a 
series of living springs in the Otay valley, and 
it is considered a most important feature among 
the general attractions. Besides being very 
soft, pure and pleasant to the taste, chemical 
analysis shows it to be highly medicinal, being 
peculiarly adapted for, and beneficial in, all 


kidney diseases. It is held to be quite equal to 
the famous water from the celebrated Waukesha 
Spring of Wisconsin. The supply is over 
5,000,000 gallons per daj-, and this can be 
doubled if necessary. A table which compares 
the mean temperature at Coronado with that at 
the health resorts of Naples, Mentone, Rome, 
Nice and Florence, shows that the wititer tem- 
perature of Coronado is 7.9° higher than at 
these most favored foreign resorts, and that the 
summer temperature is 10° lower, thus making 
an average of 8° in favor of Coronado as an all- 
the-year-round resort. The enormous Hotel 
del Coronado is almost indescribable, particu- 
larly within restricted limits. To say that it is 
the largest and finest hotel in the world; that 
it cost $1,000,000; that it has its own steam 
motor road to convey guests and visitors from 
the ferry landing; that twenty acres of hand- 
somely decorated grounds surround it; that its 
interior court is a quadrangle of 250 x 150 feet, 
full of statuary, fountains, and choice exotic 
plants; that the length of its surrounding ve- 
randah is considerably over one and a half miles; 
that its apartments are, in many cases, of al- 
most incredible dimensions; that the finishings 
and fittings are all of the most convenient, com- 
fortable and luxurious; that the house has its 
own system of water- works, of sewage and elec- 
tric bell and light plant, and its own large 
bathing and boating establishments, and its 
band of musicians; that its culinary department 
is complete and perfectly appointed, and the 
service exquisite as to quantity, quality, variety 
and style, — when all these things are said, they 
have only begun to shadow forth the fairy-land- 
like charmof the marvelous Hotel del Coronado. 
Following the cnrve of the coast around north- 
ward from San Diego, to the quarter where Point 
Loma joins the mainland, and the territory wi- 
dens and slopes more gently away from the bay 
toward the city, there lies, five miles back from the 
shore, the historic 


It has already been seen how important a part 
in the history of San Diego has been played by 

this portion thereof, officially designated in the 
postoffice department as " North San Diego," 
and the incidents of its founding and earlier ex- 
istence have been related. Up to 1868 this was 
the town, the county seat and business center, 
and many old citizens there be who still cling 
to it as a place of residence, whether for its su- 
perior charms of climate and quiet, or for the 
sake of old associations. Prior to 1868 the 
shipping did not come farther up the bay than 
La Plaza, where the custom-house was, as also 
the landing and the coaling station of the Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company. 

This point is now a suburb and the First Ward 
of the city proper, from which it lies some three 
miles northwest, a beautiful mesa called Middle 
Town lying between. This mesa commands a 
magnificent view, and will no doubt be a fa- 
vorite dwelling-site, becoming, like Old Town, 
continuous with San Diego, when the comple- 
tion of the electric street railway, now far ad- 
vanced, shall facilitate communication. Then 
also will there be a revival of activity from the 
temporary decaj into which Old Town fell, with 
the building of " New" San Diego on the bay 
shore, and the transfer of the court-house and 
public buildings thither. The population is 
now about 1,000, and there is a postoffice, hotel, 
store, a fine large public school-house, a Roman 
Catholic church, which was dedicated Septem- 
ber 29, 1851, and, not least of interest to the 
romantic, a small chapel which is credibly said 
to be the scene of Ramona's marriage to 
Alessandro, in Mrs. Jackson's popular novel. 
Through the lower part of Old Town runs the 
California Southern Railway, after skirting the 
Middletown shore of the bay; and there it 
crosses the former bed of the river, now once 
more diverted into False bay. 

At the foot of the promontory, Point Loma, 
nestle a good many houses dotted along the 
shore, one aggregation of them being termed 


soon to be reached by the steam motor connect- 
ing San Diego and Old Town. Roseville boasts 



the only factory for making wire gauze in Cali- 

On the fine land beyond Old Town there has 
been laid out a fine tract of villa sites, lying 
about midway between Old Town and the sub- 
urb called 


which is in the hands of a company who declare 
that their beautiful new colony shall rival Cor- 
onado itself. To that purpose they have already 
a stupendous hotel, a fine college, electric lights, 
street railroads, bathing houses and many other 
improvements which are under way, supported 
by good taste and capital. On the western 
slope and the northern side of Point Loma is 
Ocean Beach, a new and pleasant watering 


This valley is situated three miles from the 
business center of San Diego. It is traversed 
by the San Diego river, and it may be reached 
either by way of Old Town, which lies at the 
mouth of the valley, or by the road up the mesa 
and new grade, which enters some two miles 
farther up. The valley is about six miles long, 
and one-half mile to one mile wide. The ruins 
of the ancient mission church, with its attend- 
ant old olive orchard, are near the eastern ter- 
minus. This valley was well chosen by the 
Franciscan Fathers, for it contains some of the 
most productive land in the present San Diego 
County. On the higher benches grow fruits, 
vegetables and cereals, while the lower, more 
sandy portions are well adapted for the cultiva- 
tion of alfalfa and other grasses. Good water, 
which may be found even during the dry season, 
at three to ten feet depth, abundantly under- 
lies the whole surface. The larger portion of 
the valley, comprising the western end, belongs 
to the old Pueblo grant, and thus within the 
corporate limits of San Diego city. This valley 
land sells for $75 to $150 per acre. 


Along the coast of San Diego County, as of 
most of the seaboard counties of Southern Cali- 

fornia, there slopes away from the shore a long 
line of plateau land, more or less rolling, and also 
more or less diversified by valleys, ravines, creeks 
or rivers, and low hill-ranges. This platean, or 
mesa, as it is generally called from the Spanish 
term for it, meaning a table, often looks sterile, 
when it is really good land, which only needs 
cultivation to yield prolificacy. Its climate, 
too, is fine, and the prospect of scenery usually 

In no other way can the modern history of 
San Diego County be so thoroughly understood, 
as by passing in review the relative phases of 
development of "the back country," whose 
sudden and rapid settling-up has been phenom- 
enal, taking into consideration the fact that only 
during the last few years may this section be 
said to have had a history. Before that it was 
all blank pages, and literally as well as figura- 
tively untilled ground. 

In going from San Diego to the interior, a 
belt of the above mentioned mesa land, some 
twelve miles wide, is traversed. Then it falls 
off suddenly some 250 feet, into the broad, rich 
valley called El Cajon, which is a part of the 
old El Cajon Rancbo, the pioneer of the back 
country to be opened to settlement, this having 
occurred in 1869, when some few settlers went 
up thither from San Diego. About the same 
time the Julian mines were discovered, many 
miners came in, and a little town was started. 
Then some settlers took up certain of the little 
fruitful valleys round about, and many took up 
Government land adjacent to the large ranches, 
or climbed up among the foothills, or even 
higher. Some of these were impelled thither 
by considerations of health and climate; some 
by the restlessness which is a residuum in the 
character of the ex-miner; some were seeking 
enrichment in the goldeu stores laid up in the 
bee hive. But, whoever, and whysoever, they 
appeared so steadily and so constantly that the 
back country more than kept pace with the city 
in growth, so that from a few hundreds in 1868, 
the American outside population in 1884 had 
swelled to some 12,000, almost five times that 


of the city. A steady increase of growth con- 
tinues, and the incoming elements are of the 
classes most desirable for the tin.i building up 
of the country. 


The largest and most beautiful valley in San 
Diego County is the El Cajon, and, if not the 
best, it is certainly equal to any. The total 
area is about 20,000 acres, which is all or near- 
ly all valley lands of the very best quality. It 
is situated about fifteen miles east of San Diego. 
The Cuyamaca Railroad, lately constructed, 
passes through the entire valley from west to 
east, four stations being established within its 

El Cajon has become famous for its fine 
raisins, and might have been equally famous 
for its fine oranges, had not the orange industry 
been abandoned by some of the earliest horti- 
culturists for the raisin grape, all because the 
young trees were injured the second winter 
after being planted, by the unprecedented cold 
wave that swept over the State in the winter of 
1881-'82, and which proved so destructive to the 
orange groves of Riverside and other localities, 
now celebrated for their citrus fruits — trees sev- 
eral inches in diameter being frozen to the 
ground in some places. Not a few of the men 
who planted quite extensively in the spring of 
1879 were congratulating themselves on the 
prospects of success, when the cold wave put a 
stop to their enthusiasm. Had they continued 
in their efforts to grow the orange, as did 
the horticulturists of Riverside, equal success 
would have been achieved. Instead, however, 
the young trees were dug up and thrown away. 
A few escaped this wholesale destruction, which 
grew up neglected and are now, ten years after, 
well loaded witli choice golden fruit. Tiie lack 
of railroad transportation, doubtless, had some- 
thing to do with the abandonment of orange 
culture, as, at that time, the California Southern 
was not completed to San Diego. It was 
argued that the growing of fruits which could 
not be placed on the Eastern market would not 

pay. It was different with raisins. They 
would keep and bear long transportation and 
were profitable. El Cajon raisins were soon 
discovered to be unsurpassed and acquired a 
reputation which they have well maintained 
against all competition. The growing of or- 
anges in the valley did not, however, stop. 

The valley contains a large area of splendid 
orange land along the slopes of the hills encir- 
cling it — a strip, in brief, twenty miles in length 
by an average width of a half mile — land that 
lies above the frost line and below the flume, 
hence admirably adapted for irrigation, and 
orange culture, and which can be purchased at 
prices ranging from $50 to $150 per acre. 

El Cajon Rancho was opened to settlement in 
1869, and some few settlers from San Diego 
located there and took up bee-keeping and farm- 
ing, the latter mostly in the line of wheat- 
raising, which has continued the chief industry 
of El Cajon until very recently. 

The Cajon Rancho has a total area of 57,000 
acres. The valley is in the hands of two land 
companies, controlling some 15,000 acres of 
valley land, and about as much more mesa and 
hill land, especially adapted to vine-growing. 
The soil here, ranging from bright red to choco- 
late color, is a red marl, containing calcareous 
matter, and it is composed of a succession of 
deposits of sea water. It has been shown that 
soil taken from the bottoms of wells here pro- 
duces richer vegetable growth than the top soil, 
proving that roots which strike down for water 
have more than sufficient nourishment. The 
water 6upply is abundant, whether from wells 
five to twenty-live feet deep, which can be suc- 
cessfully sunk in any part of the valley, from 
the river, or from the aqueduct of the San 
Diego Flume Company. This is a magnificent 
enterprise that consumed nearly three years' 
time in its construction and $1,500,000, and 
has brought pure mountain water in abundance. 
This great flume, which is planned to carry 
5,000 inches of water when completed, forms a 
semi-circle at the upper edge of the orange land 
mentioned, on the east side of the valley, just 


■where it should he to irrigate the groves and 
vineyards. A sufficient quantity is now running 
down its forty miles of length to irrigate the 
20,000 acres contained in the valley, on the 
hasis of one inch to twenty acres. It was com- 
pleted only a year ago, and little has heen done 
as yet to utilize the water for irrigation, but 
enough to demonstrate its great future value. 
The subject of forming an irrigation district is 
now heiDg agitated. 

Eesides the orange, the lemon and the grape, 
there are successfully growing in El Cajon val- 
ley tbe iollowing kinds of citrus and deciduous 
fruits, viz.: the lime, citron, guava, apple, apri- 
cot, pear, peach, prune, plum, persimmon, 
pomegranate, quince, fig, olive, English walnut, 
almond, pecan, mulberry; and in small fruits, 
the strawberry, blackberry, raspberry — a list 
that might indeed be extended, but surely long 
enough and good enough is it to satisfy any 
one; a list, too, indicating the wonderful adapt- 
ability of soil and climate to grow the fruits of 
all latitudes in one locijlity. 

But the principal feature of El Cajon valley 
is the raisin industry. There are over 3,000 
acres planted to the Muscat or raisin grape. A 
number of the vineyards are young and some 
are not even in bearing, yet the yield last sea- 
son, packed and marketed, was nearly sixty car- 
loads. The raisins were shipped to the Eastern 
cities mostly, and brought the highest prices. 
Those of the Boston ranch — a ranch containing 
500 acres of vineyard — were shipped to Boston, 
of course, and the parties who handled them 
wrote the general manager that they opened up 
fine and uniform, and were equal to those of the 
oldest packers of Fresno. The parties who did 
the principal packing in the valley have testi- 
mony as to the quality of raisins shipped by 
them respectively, to the principal Eastern 
cities, of like purport. In fact, they were pro- 
nounced equal to the best Spanish goods. El 
Cajon raisins are certainly all right. 

Another profitable crop is the hay crop. 
Many hundreds of acres are annually sown to 
wheat, barley and oats for that purpose, and the 

yield is sometimes prodigious. One gentleman 
cut last year four tons of oat hay, Texas Red 
variety, from a single acre, and the year pre- 
vious four and one-half tons per acre of wheat 
hay. The land was fertilized but not irrigated. 
The average for the valley is about one and a 
half tons. The entire crop secured last year 
was over 3,000 tons. The hills at this time are 
covered with a luxuriant growth of wild oats, 
valuable for pasturage as well as beautiful to 
the eye. In May and June many tons of fine 
hay will be made from it. 

To show the rapid rate at which improvements 
are progressing, it is worth while to mention 
some of the newer establishments of the valley, 
ignoring the older, and locally better known 
places, such as those of Major Levi Chase, the 
late George A. Cowles, Mrs. Hill, J. M. Asher 
and others, and regarding only S. M. Marshall, 
one of the proprietors of the big 800-acre vine- 
yard, who planted last season 3,000 orange and 
lemon trees, some of which have made between 
live and six feet growth. Besides at his ranch, 
he has also at his home in another part of the 
valley, a lovely place. To show the extent of 
his planting it may be stated that he took a 
large fruit catalogue and ordered from it every 
variety of fruit and ornamental trees and shrubs, 
that he might prove what is best adapted to the 
locality, as well as most beautiful. Mr. Marshall 
commenced his improvements only last Feb- 
ruary, and has expended a great deal of money 
upon them. It is really incredible that so much 
can be done in so short a time. He has built 
an elegant residence that cost at least $10,000, 
besides a large barn and other valuable build- 
ings. The house stands upon high, sloping 
ground from which a fine view of valley and 
mountain is obtained. A beautiful lawn con- 
taining choice shrubbery is kept fresh and green 
by water from the flume, located on the heignts 
just above, when needed. Mr. Marshall knows 
the value of water, and will use it extensively 
for irrigation. His orange grove embraces all 
the varieties, and is not only the making of one 
of the finest but largest in the State, as it is his 


intention to enlarge it from year to year. In 
addition to orchard planting lie is engaged in 
the nursery business on quite an extensive scale. 
He already has 50,000 young orange and lemon 
trees and some 20,000 olive trees, besides other 
kinds. Mr. Marshall is an enthusiastic horticul- 
turist and is having fine success. Upon a knoll 
commanding a magnificent view stands the ele- 
gant residence, which cost $10,000, of Mr. J. T. 
Gordon, surrounded with a lawn dotted with 
roses and choice shrubbery. Upon the upper 
slope of the land lies the orange groves — over 
1,200 trees of budded varieties, and nearly 1,000 
sweet seedlings, over 2,000 trees now in the 
second year, which have made marvelous growth 
and are quite full of beautiful fruit. 

Au orchard of 3,100 trees of deciduous fruits 
of every variety grown in the valley is located 
upon the lower land, Many kinds are already 
in bearing. This splendid orchard embraces 
500 Bartlett pears, 500 soft-shelled English 
walnuts, 500 olives, 400 prunes and 500 peaches. 
Mr. Gordon has also 1,000 guavas in bearing and 
125 acres of vineyard, mostly in bearing. 

A substantial stone reservoir, capacity 130,000 
gallons, stands high upon the hills, close by the 
flume, from which it is supplied with water. 
Pipes conduct the same to all parts of the 
grounds, and to the house where eighty perma- 
nent sprays are used to irrigate the lawn and 
trees around it. The whole place is so well 
cared for that it looks to be four instead of two 
years old. 

There are many other places worthy of special 
description, but the space allotted will not per- 
mit of more than a brief mention. Mr. W. II. 
Ferry, who owns more than 1,000 acres of rich 
valley land near Lakeside, on the north side of 
the San Diego river, has planted within the last 
two years very largely of fruit and ornamental 
trees, among which are 1,200 fig-trees now be- 
ginning to bear. He has a fine place. Mr. 
Barrett also has a valuable ranch containing a 
large bearing vineyard and an orchard of many 
kinds of choice fruits. He will use steam ap- 
paratus for pumping water for irrigation, having 

recently purchased an engine for that purpose 
while on a visit East. Mr. William Peel's 
large ranch in the central part of the valley 
shows good management as well as fine artistic 
taste in landscape gardening. It is one of the 
newest but most promising places. The ranches 
of Judge Richards and Dr. Gray, lying imme- 
diately opposite each other, in the upper part 
of the valley, attract much attention. That of 
Judge Richards contains over 200 acres, all in 
a high state of cultivation. Dr. Gray's resi- 
dence and grounds are very handsome and the 
place, is in every way a lovely one. In the 
lower or western end of the valley are also some 
fine places. The Fanita ranch of 10,000 acres, 
owned by H. P. McCoon, is mostly devoted to 
cattle raising, but a good many acres near the 
extensive buildings on the place are planted to 
fruit and ornamental trees and vines. It is aprof- 
i table stock ranch. Dr. S. Worcester, Mr. Mason 
and others in that part of the valley have excellent 
fruit ranches; the orange trees of the latter are 
as fine as any and of choice varieties. A monu- 
ment of the past stands in this end of the valley 
— the old Mission dam — built more than a hun- 
dred years ago. Its masonry is still of the most 
substantial character and a large part of it has 
withstood the floods of the years gone by, stand- 
ing to this day as built by the Mission Fathers. 


Where the business of the valley is mostly done, 
contains one general store, and one combined 
drug and grocery store, postoffice, blacksmith 
and wagon shops, one church edifice (Presbyte- 
rian), Rev. H. I. Stern, pastor; a free reading 
room, under the auspices of the King's Daugh- 
ters, two good hotels, a barber shop, livery 
stable, a meat market, a shoe shop and a number 
of private residences. 


The railroad station, three-quarters of a mile 
distant from El Cajon, was commenced on the 
completion of the Cuyamaca Railroad, only last 


It contains about one dozen 1 


hotel building, now under construction, the 
laixre packing-house of the El Cajou Vineyard 
Company, and a lumber yard. A neat depot 
building was erected a few months ago and a 
telegraph office established. 

At the extreme east end of the valley is the 
present terminus of the railroad. It has a splen- 
did $50,000 hotel, which is well managed, and 
which has its own gas plant and several quite 
metropolitan features, with a lovely little pool, 
called Linda Lake, close by, two general stores, 
postoffice, blacksmith shop, lumber yard and 
livery stable. There are but few residences at 
Lakeside, but the situation is most beautiful 
and when times become better is sure to attract 
attention and improve rapidly. The other 
stations on the road, Hawley and Cowles, are at 
present flag stations merely. El Cajon valley 
has a bright future. As already stated, this has 
long been the largest wheat-producing valley in 
the county, owing to the exceptionally tine 
crops yielded in good years and its accessibility 
to market and export. Even in dry years, it 
is now thought, the occasional failure of the 
wheat crop could have been averted by thorough 
plowing and cultivation, in place of the super- 
ficial treatment then given. Experience has 
proved, however, that more profitable than 
wheat here is fruit and raisin growing. 

This region is shut in, girdled in, as it were, 
by high, rugged hills, which do not indicate 
that there is much of interest beyond them. 
Yet in all directions among the hills there are 
valleys and mesas, or soft slopes that lead up to 
other hills yet higher. For instance, six miles 
beyond El Cajon, and 1,200 feet higher, or 
1,600 feet above the sea, a winding mountain 
road reaches the old Spanish grant of 


This valley, some thirty miles northeast of 
San Diego, has a population of over 500. The 
postoffice of the section is " Nuero." This val- 
ley contains some 15,000 acres of fine plain and 

slope with hills smooth and rolling and hills 
high, sharp, and rocky. The inhabitants are 
widely scattered over this superior farming 
country. In 1886^ a tract of several thousand 
acres of this grant was purchased by capitalists, 
who laid off the site of Ramona, now a thriving 
colony, with extensive improvements, including 
an edifice for a branch of the University of 
Southern California, a hotel, etc. 

Vineyards and orchards are now being exten- 
sively planted in this valley. As yet, sheep 
and stock raising are still strong interests. The 
grain crop never fails. In the driest year the 
county has ever known, $22,000 worth of 
wheat was harvested from 1,500 acres in this 
valley. Sugar-cane is planted for feed for stock, 
and is found to be the most profitable that can 
be grown for cows and other stock. The water 
supply is abundant for all purposes. Land here 
sells for $10 to $75 per acre. 


This valley, whose postoffice is "Viejas," ad- 
joins El Cajon on the northeast, and is con- 
sidered one of the county's best grain-growing 
sections. It is about thirty-five miles east of 
San Diego. The population is about 300. Bee- 
keeping is a prominent interest. Horses, cattle, 
and hogs are among the productions. The soil 
and climate are well adapted to vine and fruit 
growing, but comparatively little has been done 
in that direction, its development being of very 
recent beginning. Lands bring $10 to $50 per 


This rancho lies southeast of Santa Maria, 
between that valley and las Viejas. It con- 
tains some 4,000 acres of fine plow land, is a 
fine tract, and susceptible of profitable develop- 
ment. The character of the country here is 
different from the lower levels, bearing more 
timber, although the great groves of live oaks 
that once abounded on these hills and slopes 
have disappeared for the most part. There are 
also numerous springs in the larger ravines, and 
indications of a copious rainfall. And, indeed, 


this valley is in the second rain belt, where the 
winter rains are always amply sufficient fur full 
crops. The population is titty or sixty. The 
chief interests are beekeeping and stock-raising. 
Lands sell for $5 to $25 per acre. 

This, the largest settlement in the mountain 
region of San Diego County, was named from 
an early settler, M. S. Julian, near whose 160- 
acre claim of Government land gold quartz 
mines were discovered in February, 1870, caus- 
ing a rush to the district. Other discoveries 
succeeded; a number of mines were opened up 
and quartz mills erected; a town site was laid 
out, and, with the ingress of a large population, 
it was soon well built over. For several years, 
much gold was taken out, and the community 
prospered. New and very rich mines were 
presently discovered in the San Felipe canon, 
some three miles east of Julian, and there was 
organized another mining district called Banner, 
most of whose business has ever been trans- 
acted at Julian. About the same time, about 
eight miles southeast of Julian, was discovered 
a third mine, called the Stonewall, which in 
its turn gave its name to another mining dis- 
trict. This mine, after yielding large returns 
for a time, lay unworked for several years, and 
about 1884 or 1885 it was again operated by a 
company, who in turn sold it to Governor R. 
W. Waterman, an experienced mining man who, 
after working it in .a thorough manner and very 
successfully, has just sold it for a large figure. 
But a cloud arose and soon overshadowed the 
fond hopes of the miner with only a prospect 
and no capital. The Cuyamaca grant claimed 
the land on which the mines were located, and 
commenced suit for possession of the same. 
This so disheartened the miners that when the 
Arizona excitement broke out they left their 
claims and a lawsuit for new fields, and in a very 
short time only a few remained. Some of those 
abandoned the mines and turned their attention 
to stock-raising, with only the faithful few left 
to fight the owners of the great Cuyamaca grant. 

For five long years the faithful few stuck to the 
mines and fought the grant, and they were suc- 
cessful in the end. The mines produced the 
coin to secure for their claimants a title. Since 
that time this district has added to the wealth 
of the nation $5,000,000 in gold, and to-day 
her development is only in its infancy. Men of 
business methods, with brains and capital, are 
coming in, and the dawn of a new and pros- 
perous era is here. 

There are sixty-four mining locations in this 
district, according to the Recorder's books, and 
many of them are being prospected. A dozen 
good mines are now working in the camp. 
There are four quartz mills and a fifth now build- 
ing. There are to-day 300 men working the 
mines of this district. Several good sales have 
been made lately, and more are under way; 
$6,000,000 of St. Louis capital is headed this 
way and the syndicate has already got a good 
hold on some of the best mines in the district. 
The sum of $200,000 has been expanded in 
mining improvements this year in this district, 
and next year will see a much larger develop- 
ment than ever before. 

But these are not the only mineral resources 
of this section. A few miles east of Julian, and 
on the line of the proposed railroad, is a deposit 
of lime and cement, covering 100 acres of 
ground. Here in time will be established an 
immense plant for the manufacture of these 
staple articles. 

There are also at hand ledges of marble fifty 
feet in width, and large quarries will be put in 
operation as soon as transportation by rail can 
be had. 

Moreover, iron and copper ore of a good qual- 
ity are known to exist, but in what quantity is 
yet to be determined. These things and many 
more are awaiting capital for development, 
which will find its way up here as soon as the 
Cuyamaca Railroad is completed, which will 
carry them to a market. 

Although most of the inhabitants had desert- 
ed for the feverish excitement of mining the 
original pursuit of farming, a few still kept to 


their farm-holdings and derived a good revenue 
from the sale of supplies to the miners. And 
when the mining interests declined, these ear 
lier wise ones received heavy reinforcements, 
stimulated by the example of their success, and 
by attachment to their mountain homes. It was 
tbe old story of early California experience over 
again; they who came for gold remained for 
grain, and found it the richer bonanza. 

Great quantities of Government land were 
tiled upon, and again immigration set toward 
Julian, this time with staying purpose, as 
evinced by the large and steadily increasing num- 
ber of farms and orchards in that section, whose 
interests of fruit and grain growing, stock-rais- 
ing and bee-keeping far surpass those of the 
three or four mines still working. Julian is 
distant from San Diego forty-three and one- 
third miles in direct line, and sixty miles by the 
route; it may be reached in two ways, of which 
I he longer, via El Cajon and Lakeside, is the 
easier and more practicable. There is a steady 
ascent from El Cajon, bringing the traveler to 
an altitude of a little over 4,000 feet. The 
country round about is partly plateau, with 
long, rolling sweeps of hills, dropping down 
by easy grades; partly mountain country so ab- 
rupt as to fall nearly 1,000 feet in three miles. 
On some of the mountain tops there is con. 
siderable level land, where are raised many hogs 
and cattle. The three peaks of the Cuyamaca 
Mountain, the highest ot which readies 6,750 
feet altitude, is a prominent landmark as far as 
San Diego, and very striking, especially when 
covered with snow in winter. The Julian coun- 
try has many characteristics of the climate of 
the Eastern States, with a much greater rain- 
fall and winter snows, often quite heavy. The 
water supply is abundant. The San Felipe is a 
large stream, and constant, from which some of 
the quartz mills took their power in past years. 
At the southern end of the Cuyamacas rises the 
San Diego river, joined here by four large trib- 
utaries. A large laguna, lake or pond, has al- 
ways existed in front of the Stonewall mine, at 
5,350 feet altitude. Through the draining of 

its outlet by the San Diego Flume Company, 
this has become a lake nearly three miles long, 
and one mile wide, on an average. Moreover, 
the whole section abounds in living springs and 
small streams. The mountains still contain 
considerable qaantities of oak and pine timber, 
but the furnaces of the quartz mills have made 
great inroads on the former forests. 

Grapes and deciduous fruits are here grown in 
large quantities and of superlative flavor. The 
apple and pear orchard of Chester Gunn is the 
it in the county. 

is on the desert side of the divide, and 1,500 
feet lower than J ulian, although only four miles 
away. It is a mining camp, and but few have 
turned their attention to fruits, but enough has 
been done by John liyan to give an idea of the 
possibilities of the great San Felipe valley, 
which is only a mile away. This valley con- 
tains 10,000 acres, with water enough to irrigate 
it all. No one can estimate the wealth it will 
be made to produce as soon as a railroad shall 
be built here. 

Julian, Banner and Spencer have good school - 
houses. The population of Julian and its out- 
lying dependencies is 2,500 to 3,000. These 
settlements have telephone communication with 
one another and with San Diego, with which 
city they will soon have railroad communica- 
tion. Julian has a postoth"ce and tri-weekly 
mail service, a public hall,. and the necessary 
complement of stores and shops. There is still 
good Government laud in the mountains, al- 
though it is being taken up with great rapidity. 
Other than Government land can be had for $10 
to $50 per acre, according to situation, quan- 
tity, etc. 

In this section there are such varieties of al- 
titude as to affect very noticeably the wooding 
of the region, which pretty well covers the 20,- 
000 acres of tillable land hereabouts. There is 
an oak much like the Eastern red oak, which 
grows a t a height of 3,500 feet, and a new, a 
mountain variety of the live oak, which resem- 


bles the Eastern white oak. An occasional pine 
is here seen, and presently the " bull "-pines be- 
come abundant, to give way to tall specimens 
of the silver fir, the cedar, and regular pines 
often six feet in diameter. 

There are within a radius of fifteen miles, 
taking Julian as the center, 16,000 head of 
horses and cattle, and about 10,000 head of 
sheep, which make their own living winter and 
summer. The stock are of a good grade, many 
of the cattle being milk stock. 

The survey of the Cuyamaca Railroad runs 
through the heart of this district, Santa Ysabel, 
Warner's ranch and San Felipe, and when it is 
completed San Diego city need not send out of 
the county for her produce. In all the sub- 
districts named above, except the last, no irri- 
gating is required or practiced, although plenty 
of water is at hand. Every kind of fruit and 
other products are grown except citrus fruits. 

But a few miles to the eastward the country 
slopes suddenly to the Colorado desert, 5,000 
feet below, a waste of sand, sterile, level, vast, 
fiery and awful; a region so entirely different 
from the rest of its political division, that its 
classification therewith is purely formal, and 
this is not taken into account at all in treating 
of San Diego County proper. 


The Cuyamaca district comprises a series of 
plateaus, rising gradually from the eastern 
sides of Santa Maria and Escondido valleys, and 
extending back into the mountains some twenty 
miles, and attaining an altitude of from 2,500 
to 4,400 feet, culminating at Julian and Mesa 
Grande, the latter name meaning " big plateau." 

The surrounding peaks of Palomar, Volcan 
and the Cuyamaca mountains rise some 2,000 
feet higher, and are densely covered with ever- 
green forests of pine, cedar, iir and oak, aggre- 
gating 50,000 acres of timber. Several of these 
plateaus are nearly surrounded by neighboring 
hills and are therefore called valleys. They 
contain shady groves of California live-oak, and 
lazy streams move peacefully along their path 

to the sea. The ocean is from thirty to forty 
miles away, and scores of miles of its silvery 


,'eral of its islands 


from many points on this slope. Some points 
in Mexico are also visible, and, with a good glass, 
the light-house on Point Loma. 

With this general view of the climate and 
scenery of the "backbone of the back country," 
let us take a cursory glance at each of the sub- 
districts which form the Cuyamaca. 

Located about thirty-five miles northeast of 
San Diego, Ballena is a flourishing agricultural 
settlement, on some of the best farming lands 
in the county. The principal interests are 
grain-growing (hay also being raised in abund- 
ance), cattle-raising and bee-keeping. 

The orange is found to do moderately well in 
some of the most sheltered canons, while the 
tig is one of the standard productions. The 
raisin grape does exceedingly well, and the out- 
put, though small as yet, is increasing each 
year. No disease has ever appeared among the 
vines. It has been but a few years that the 
farmers have paid any attention to fruit-grow- 
ing, but the excellence of their apples, pears, 
peaches and plums has caused such a demand 
for their fruits that they now have over 6,000 
fruit-trees and 20,000 grape-vines growing. 

The immediate Ballena valley contains, with 
its slopes, some 2,000 acres, and it is the center 
of a settlement over 6,000 acres. This tract 
lies 2,500 feet above the sea. There is always 
sufficient rainfall for the crops, which have 
never failed since the first settlement. Land 
prices are quoted at $15 to $50 per acre. The 
population is some 400. There is a postofHce 
with tri-weekly mail service, a public school- 
house with two departments, a hotel, a church 
and a blacksmith shop. There is room in this 
valley for the settlement of fifty more families. 


Mountain region also, but in quite another 
section than that of Julian, being in the ex- 



treme northern part of the county, and also in 
its highest portion, is San Jacinto. The alti- 
tude of the valley averages 1,400 feet above the 
sea-level. This region resembles the mountain- 
ous parts of Los Angeles and San Bernardino 
counties, rather than the general corresponding 
portion of San Diego. 

It is some fifty miles from the sea coast, and 
is consequently free from the dense fogs which 
are so frequently blown inland. It is protected 
by the high mountain wall on the east, and 
northeast from the desert winds and sand 

The extensive valley has a length, east and 
west, of thirty miles, and a width of fifteen 
miles. The main valley contains something 
like 100,000 acres, while with its tributary val- 
leys there are perhaps 300,000 acres of highly 
fertile and easily tillable prairie land. 

Until quite recently the sole occupants of this 
vast territory were the Spanish and Mexican 
shepherds, herders and the native Indians. Vast 
tracts of land were granted by the Mexican 
government to those who had served them in a 
military capacity. 

San Jacinto Viejo, for example, a tract of 
some 36,000 acres, was granted to Senor Estu- 
dillo. In making his selection Senor Estudillo 
ran his lines in such a manner as to include the 
choicest land, with abundant water privileges. 
Many miles of the San Jacinto River are in- 
cluded in the grant, as is the beautiful Diamond 
valley. Angles were run out here and there to 
include flowing springs. 

This grant has been subdivided again and 
again, and is now held by many owners. It in- 
cludes the towns of San Jacinto, South San 
Jacinto, Valle Vista and Hemet, all of which 
have made a good start toward prosperous 
growth. It includes the Fairview, Hemet, 
Hemet-Estudillo, San Jacinto Land Asso- 
ciation, Byrne and other tracts. Most of 
these have been subdivided into farm lots of 
ten, twenty and forty acres each. Many of these 
are sold to individuals who have improved them 
or intend to do so. 

There is a large tract of this land in which 
artesian flow of water is obtained at a depth of 
from 50 to 2000 feet. 

A branch of the Santa Fe penetrates this re- 
gion, and has the reputation of being one of the 
best paying pieces of road in the entire system. 

At its terminus is 


situated in the artesian belt, surrounded by 
natural groves of Cottonwood timber. The rap- 
idly growing little town and its immediate en- 
virons has a population of some 1,500, being 
the second in size and importance in the coun- 
ty, after National City. This is the old tract 
of San Jacinto Viejo, of -which a number of 
capitalists purchased 18,000 acres of land here, 
and proceeded to lay out San Jacinto. The 
town was incorporated April 9, 1888, compris- 
ing sections 25, 26, 27, 34, 35 and 36, except 
one-fourth of the two last named, which are in- 
side the city limits, being called South San Jan- 

The town has a bank of $100,000 capital, a 
$5,000 school-house, three good churches, with 
another now building, three large storage ware- 
houses, some twenty-five good two- story brick 
buildings, with many of one-story. Here is 
published the San Jacinto Register. Among 
the professional men are three physicians and 
two dentists. There are three large general 
merchandise establishments, two grocery stores, 
two drug stores, two each in the hardware and 
the furniture line, two blacksmith shops, two 
livery stables, two meat markets, two carriage 
shops, four shoe stores or shops, three real 
estate offices, one millinery store, one billiard 
room, one harness shop and one bakery. 

In South San Jacinto there are some 250 
inhabitants. Here stands the old adobe build- 
ing that first served San Jacinto as a hotel and 
store, close by a large brick block of recent 
construction, containing the present good mod- 
ern hotel — a notable contrast between the old 
and the new. There are here six religions con- 
gregations and three Sunday-schools, a G. A. R. 


post, and a court, of the Independent Order of 

The future of San Jacinto is assured through 
its situation as the shipping point for a large 
agricultural tract, having tributary some 200,- 
000 acres of choice land adapted to grain cult- 
ure and diversified fruit crops. The mountains 
near by abound in timber for lumber and fuel 
purposes, large forests of pine, hemlock, sugar- 
pine and tamarack existing in the San Jacinto 
and the Toemitch Mountains to the eastward, 
where two saw-mills are kept busy sawing out 
lumber the year round. These mountains also 
contain a fine deposit of marble, and although 
it has been used hitherto only for burning into 
lime, of which it produces the finest quality, it 
is admirably adapted for building purposes. 
. While it is probable that a large proportion 
of these immense plains will continue to be cul- 
tivated as grain fields, yet many thousand acres 
will in the near future be turned into the more 
profitable fruit farms. 

Already many orchards of deciduous fruits, 
nuts, olives and vines are planted and are doing 
well without irrigation, but they require, for 
perfect development of the best fruit, some 

Surface water is plentiful at a depth of seven 
to thirty feet, and besides the eighty-three arte- 
sian wells irrigating several thousand acres, one 
alone yielding 1,500,000 gallons per diem, ex- 
tensive irrigation enterprises are on foot, engi- 
neered by two water companies. One proposes 
to build at the mouth of a Hemet valley gorge, 
at an elevation of 4,375 feet above the sea, a 
granite dam seventy feet through at its founda- 
tion. This structure, which is to cost $130,- 
000 to $140,000, will create a lake three miles 
long, covering 600 acres, with an average depth 
of sixty-five feet, and containing the enormous 
volume of 6,000,000,000 of gallons of water, 
which will thence be conducted in twenty-two- 
inch iron pipes to the tracts in question. Then 
there is the San Jacinto Land, Flume and Irri- 
gation Company, a stock company with $50,000 
capital, which has been recently organized and is 

constructing works for the purpose of supplying 
water to thousands of acres of this mesa land. 

Their base of operations is the "cienega " or 
swamp, which begins at a point on the river 
some four miles above San Jacinto. Here has 
been located 5,000 miner's inches of water here- 
tofore unappropriated. From time immemorial 
the old Spanish settlers, during the seasons of 
drouth, when the river for miles both above 
and below was dry, at this "cienega" water al- 
ways came to the surface, and there was no 
time but thousands of head of stock could be 
watered there. The wet place or "cienega " in 
the river is about one-fourth mile in length and 
extends entirely across the river, a distance of 
some 800 feet wide. During the season of low- 
est water, workmen were engaged. Mr. Griffin 
engaged workmen to go into the river here and 
with a pile driver drive a number of wells with 
a view to ascertaining the cause of the water's 
rise at this point, and also to find the character 
of the bottom, if any. Some thirty wells were 
driven down through the sand and gravel and a 
fine solid clay bottom found at an average depth 
of fourteen feet; immediately below this point 
the clay drops off suddenly, and the water sinks 
and is seen no more. To this cienega, with its 
"upside-down river," a subterranean stream 800 
feet wide, pouring over the hard pan of clay, 
and so tilling the superincumbent stratum of 
sand and gravel that water always lies on the 
surface, — to this vast source of supply is to be 
run a tunnel 1,584 feet long, whose end will 
rest on the clay bottom, tifteen feet below the 
surface, completely draining the great basin, 
and diverting its flood into the flumes of the 
company, for which to reach the mesa will be 
required over 500,000 feet of lumber. There 
is already completed one mile of ditching, and 
the work is to be pushed with great vigor. 
There are also in this vicinity numerous min- 
eral springs, at one of which a bathing-house 
has been erected. 


Is situated five miles southeast of San Jacinto. 
It is the town of the Fairview tract, formerly 


known as Florida. It contains a fine three- 
story brick hotel, costing $10,000 and con- 
structed, so far as bricks, lime and lumber go, 
entirely of the products of its own vicinity. 

Valle Vista also contains a brick block in 
which is located the postoffice and a general store. 
Some twenty-five tasteful cottages are grouped 
around these. The streets are beautifully laid 
out, graded and ornamented with trees and 
shrubbery. The grounds about the hotel are 
especially beautiful with fiowers and semi- 
tropical plants. At this writing, December 28, 
roses are in bloom there. 

The Fairview Land and Water Company 
originally owned about 3,000 acres of laud, 
upon which water was piped from San Jacinto 
Kiver, twenty-five miles of pipe being laid at a 
cost of $60,000, making this tract at the present 
time the best watered land in the valley. 

The land is subdivided into twenty and forty- 
acre tracts. About one-half of these have been 
6old. Many orange orchards have been set out, 
and it has been demonstrated beyond a doubt 
that oranges will do well here. 

Among surroundings for which nature has 
done so much lie the lands of the Hemet Land 
Company. These comprise about 10.000 acres, 
nearly level, with merely enough slope to favor 
irrigation, a mesa or table-land, with an eleva- 
tion of from 1,600 to 1,000 feet above the 6ea. 
The soil is all that could be desired, as the 
abundant native grasses indicate. There is ab- 
solutely nothing grown in California which will 
not flourish here. Alfalfa grows throughout 
the winter, and with water seven crops a year 
can be raised. 


Northeastward again, and still upward, among 
hills and valleys, forty-five miles from San Die- 
go, and 3,000 feet above the sea, lies the valley 
of Santa Ysabel, the center of the rancho of 
that name, which contains nearly 18,000 acres, 
of which this central valley, with its slopes and 
branches, comprises some 4,000 acres. A living 
stream of considerable volume, the Santa Ysabel 
creek, flows through the rancho the year round. 

There are small streams in nearly every gulch, 
and springs on every hand, with every indica- 
tion of a heavy rainfall. The very best feed 
years here are in the coast " bad " years. The 
main valley and all the surrounding hills are 
superlative stock range, and among the line of 
timber on the rolling hills is rich range of 
grass and wild oats. This rancho was lately 
sold to Erackett & Co., Sonoma County farmers, 
who have stocked it with fine young cattle, and 
are carrying on an extensive dairy business, 
their cheese and "gilt-edged" butter finding a 
ready market. 

The Santa Ysabel ranch lias three large 
dairies on it, and milk 500 cows. This year 
they have sold sixty tons of the best butter to 
be found in the country. Here is the home of 
Shiloh, the now celebrated sire, with an endless 
progeny at his heels. He may be seen any day 
within two miles of Julian, at the ranch of his 
owner, James Madison. 

Yet, although such might seem to be the 
only industries, there are large portions of the 
rancho, not needed for the dairy-farming enter- 
prise, which are peculiarly adapted to fruit- 
growing. This region is very beautiful as 
landscape. On the banks of the stream already 
cited an Indian village has existed for more 
than a century. Its inhabitants have a Roman 
Catholic chapel, and a school maintained by the 
United States government. 


A long grade winds steadily upward to the 
section known as Mesa Grande, an extensive 
range of mountain country, most of whose top 
is level land, whence the name. This tract 
comprises some 6,000 acres of splendid plow 
land, on which are a number, steadily in- 
creasing, of fine farms and orchards. This is 
3,500 to 4,500 feet above the sea. The climate 
and the appearance of the country here are very 
much more akin to those of the eastern United 
States than those even of Ballena, and entirely 
dissimilar to the land thirty miles to the west- 
ward. Here again are plenty of springs and 


running brooks, and a scarcity of rain is un- 
known. In fact, the land sometimes has to be 
drained of the superabundant moisture, the 
rainfall sometimes going above sixty-six inches, 
the highest in the county. In 1877, the famous 
"dry year" in this State, the rainfall here, at an 
elevation of 3,500 feet, was twenty-four and a 
half inches. Until very recently almost the 
only interests were cattle and hog-raising and 
bee-keeping; a good deal of choice butter, bacon 
and lard are made on the mesa, finding ready 
sale at Julian and in the surrounding country. 
Of late this has been found to be a remarkably 
fine fruit-growing section, the grape being suc- 
cessfully grown, and the deciduous fruits ar- 
riving very near horticultural perfection. The 
cherries are of particularly choice quality. In 
this section there is a very rich gold quartz 
mine, the Shenandoah, from which large re- 
turns have been extracted. Owing to certain 
legal complications, this mine has of late been 
lying idle, but work will no doubt be resumed 
on it shortly. 

Spencer valley contains about 1,000 acres of 
first-class fruit land. There are now about 
1,000 apple and other fruit trees in bearing, 
and 3,000 more in orchard. All kinds of de- 
ciduous fruits and berries do well here. The 
almond and olive also do well. The valley is 
already covered with marks of enterprise and 
prosperity. A large nursery, postoffice, good 
school, and homes for many are to be found 


The Temecula country, so called from an In- 
dian word meaning "the valley of joy," is sit 
uated about the center of the northern half of 
San Diego County. The Menifee mountains 
bound it on the north, the Bladen hills on the 
east, the Palomar range on the south, and the 
Santa Rosa coast range on the west. This ter- 
ritory contains more than 100 square miles of 
valley and undulating plains. The general ele- 
vation is about 1,000 feet. The drainage is by 
the way of the Temecula canon, through the 
Santa Margarita rancho, to the sea. The view 

from any elevated situation hereabouts is grand, 
the vast sweep of vision comprising the snow- 
capped San Jacinto mountains, the timbered 
belt of the Palomar, and the evergreen range of 
the Santa Rosa hills, the only evergreen range 
on the line of the California Southern Railway. 
The Temecula rancho is divided into three sev- 
eral tracts, known as the Little Temecula, the 
Pujol, and the Murrietta portion. 

Included in this district are the celebrated 
Temecula Hot Sulphur Springs, whose tempera- 
ture ranges from 120° to 160°. A fine bathing es- 
tablishment has been erected at these springs, and 
further extensive improvements are projected. 

The settlement or business center called 
Temecula is a railroad station on the California 
Southern, seventy-live miles north of San Diego. 
The population is about 600. There are two 
hotels, postoffice with daily mail, a public school- 
house, two stores, blacksmith and wagon shop, 
and telegraph office. A large and important 
section surrounds Temecula as a central point. 
The Temecula Rancho is bounded westerly by 
the high slopes of the Santa Rosa; it extends 
from where the Santa Margarita river enters the 
canon skirted by the railroad, some ten miles 
along the line of that road. It contains about 
10,000 acres of arable land, mostly red mesa or 
granite alluvium, at from 1,100 to 1,500 feet 
above the sea, twenty-five miles distant. Ad- 
joining this is the Little Temecula, a small grant 
of some 2,000 acres of plow land, with the same 
general features. Water is to be had four to 
twelve feet below the surface, and it is claimed 
that farming lands require little or no irrigation, 
the average annual rainfall being over eighteen 
inches. Large tracts have been subdivided by 
organized companies, a town site is laid out, and 
extensive improvements are in hand. The soil 
is adapted to a diversified agriculture; fruit and 
vine growing will be largely undertaken in the 
future. The present principal products are cat- 
tle sheep, wool, grain and hay. 


This is a very productive section, about forty 
miles north of San Diego. Its postoffice is 


"Valley Center." The population is about 1,000. 
The district is ten miles long, eight wide, with 
more than 15,000 acres under cultivation. This 
comprises farming land as fine as any on the 
Pacific coast, and crops have never failed here. 
There is much mesa and sloping land, and the 
average elevation is 1,500 feet. The rainfall here 
is more than three times as heavy as on the 
seacoast. Most kinds of fruits thrive here. 
The productions are hogs, fine stock, bacon, 
grain and honey. The central settlement con- 
tains a brick church, a school-house, store, San 
Diego Central Railway, blacksmith shop, etc. 

Southeast of Bear valley is situated the Gue- 
jito Eancho, a fine tract some thirty-five miles 
from the sea, and about 2,200 feet above it, and 
comprising rolling mesa and valley land, whose 
soil is red granite. This tract comprises some 
13,000 acres, recently sold to San Diego capi- 
talists. Lands in the Bear valley section sell for 
$15 to $50 the acre, the variations depending 
upon the usual causes. 

This is the location of one of the old auxil- 
iary missions. It is situated in the upper San 
Luis valley, some seventeen miles from the 
coast, and about fifty miles north of San Diego. 
There is still a large Indian settlement here, 
and the Indians still keep many of the oldtime 
feasts, with many picturesque and curious ob- 
servances. The old mission church still stands, 
and in it are still held the services of the 
Roman Catholic faith. Moreover, good crops 
are still yielded by the olive trees planted eighty 
years ago by the Franciscan fathers. The pop- 
ulation is about 600. There is a mail route, 
having tri-weekly mail service, to Teme'cula, 
where connection is made with the California 
Southern Railway. This is the center of a veiy 
rich section whose rainfall is abundant, and the 
water supply unfailing. There is here a very large 
area of some of the finest vine and fruit lands in 
Southern California. The Agua Tibia (tepid 
water) orchard, so named from a tine and cele- 
brated warm sulphur spring on the estate near 

the farm house, is the most extensive in the 
county. Its former owner was Major Lee H. 
Utt, who sold it to a company of Eastern capi- 
talists, who have purchased much land here- 
abouts for colony purposes. All the finest 
varieties of the grape grow here, as well as nuts, 
and fruits citrus and deciduous. Frost has never 
been known here, and the climate and soil are 
especially adapted to the production of the 
choicest grade of orange. Alfalfa is very suc- 
cessfullj grown, and there is a great deal of 
fine stock raised. Bee-keeping is also a strong 
industry, Pala boasting extensive apiaries. The 
lands here bring $10 to $75 per acre, subject to 
the usual qualifications. 


The settlement known as the Fall Brook 
country is on mesa land south of the river San 
Luis Rey, and beyond the line of the rancho 
Santa Margarita. It is some twelve miles from 
the sea, on the western slope of the Coast 
Range mountains. The average of level is 800 feet 
above the sea, and some 400 feet above the line of 
the California Southern Railway, from 
is out of sight, being so much higher, and a mile 
or two distant. This section comprises some- 
thing like 100 square miles, extending from 
eight to ten miles east and west, and from ten 
to twelve miles north and south, this limit em- 
bracing about 75,000 acres of the very best qual- 
ity of land, entirely adapted to the growth of 
grain, fruit, and vegetables. Topographically, 
the district consists of a succession of hills, 
valleys, and gently undulating plateaus, free 
from rock or stone, and susceptible of the high- 
est cultivation. The soil is of granite formation, 
a dark loam in the valleys, red or chocolate on 
the slopes and hills. Water is to be had in 
abundance from surface wells 4 to 100 feet 
deep. Its quality is soft and tine. Soon after 
passing Fall Brook, the line of the California 
Southern plunges into the famous Temecula 
canon, with its highly picturesque scenery and 
its remarkably skillful feats of railroad engi- 
neering. This canon, from the extreme near 


Fall Brook to the Temecula end is fourteen 
miles long. The most important settlement in 
this community is the nucleus also called Fall 
Brook, a thriving center of some 600 population. 
It has a postoffice with daily mail, a Methodist 
and a Baptist church, costing respectively 
$3,000 and $5,000, a good public school-house 
with two departments, two large hotels, of 
which the Frances Willard cost some $20,000; 
a newspaper, a steam grist-mill, a lumberyard, 
livery-stable, five stores, a millinery and a jew- 
eler's shop, a watch-mender, blacksmith and 
wagon shop, and a barber shop. A cannery is 
to be built very shortly. During the past season, 
5,159 acres were planted to grain; 627 acres, 
largely planted during the past year, are set to 
fruits. There are over 8,000 orange and lemon 
trees, and about 9,000 olive trees; many hun- 
dreds of acres are to be set to olives during the 
coming seaeon. The largest bearing olive or- 
chard at Fall Brook yielded its owners at the 
rate of $500 per acre last year, the trees therein 
being nine years old. There are in this section 
nearly 65,000 grape vines, most of which are 
too young to bear a full crop, many being still 
too young to bear at all, although there has 
been some raisin packing done for two seasons 
past. The most promising industries seem to 
be lemon and olive culture. Land can be 
bought here at from $10 to $100 per acre, much 
of that sold at the latter price being in a con- 
dition of substantial improvement, and con- 
venient to town and railroad facilities. 

This tract takes its name from Colonel J. J. 
Warner, the picturesque and well-known pio- 
neer of Los Angeles, who owned it under the 
Mexican rule, and back to about 1836. This 
was the scene of a savage attack by Indians, 
wherein nine men were killed, November 21, 
1851. It embraces the two Mexican grants of 
San Jose del Valle, and Valle de San Jose, com- 
prising in all some 26,600 acres. It has been 
for some years in the possession of ex-Governor 
John G. Downey, and is now in litigation. This 

rancho is well watered, having springs in the 
mountains, small springs flowing through the 
valley, and numerous lagunas, or ponds, large 
and small, which attract game in large quanti- 
ties. The altitude of the valley is about 3,000 
feet, and snow falls occasionally in winter. 
Good farming land is abundant, but there is 
little tilling of the soil, the rancho being almost 
exclusively devoted to cattle and sheep-raising. 
The annual wool-clip of Warner's ranch is larger 
than that of any other single section of the 

The voting precinct of this extensive valley 
is called Agua Caliente, the township having a 
population of about 100, and being named from 
the celebrated hot sulphur springs on the 
rancho, about sixty miles distant from San 
Diego. The remarkable curative properties of 
these springs were current in the most remote 
traditions of the Indians, and the white men 
have resorted to them ever since the settlement 
of the country. The springs rise along the 
edge of a little stream of pure cold water, whose 
source is in the Agua Caliente mountains. The 
temperature varies at different points, but the 
hottest of the springs ranges from 120° to 124° 
F., being hotter in the earlier part of the day, 
and cooling somewhat in the afternoon. The 
water is used for both drinking and bathing, 
being very soft and particularly effective and 
luxurious for the latter purpose. Physicians 
and analysts who have investigated the proper- 
ties of these springs, and their effect in special 
cases, regard them as of extreme potency and 
value. The water possesses powerful alterative 
qualities, and they are very beneficial in chronic 
rheumatic diseases, in certain forms of kidney 
diseases, and in some cases of dyspepsia. These 
hot springs are in the possession of a commun- 
ity of Mission Indians, whose village has stood 
upon that site from time immemorial. They 
have built along the stream side small bathing 
houses, rude but cleanly kept, to whose tubs 
the hot spring water is led by small wooden 
flumes. They have also small adobe houses to 
let to parties desiring to protract their stay. 


Agua Caliente is a favorite spot of resort for 
summer campers, on account of the springs, 
and the picturesque surrounding mountain 
scenery. For a number of years the Govern- 
ment has maintained here a Government school, 
under the constant charge of Miss Flora Walsh, 
whose success with her pupils has been re- 

At the eastern outlet of the valley is the pass 
known as "Warner's Pass," through the moun- 
tains to the Colorado desert. It has been men- 
tioned, in several reports of surveys for trans- 
continental railways, as a feasible pass for the 
entrance into California of an overland rail- 
road; and it will probably be used ere long for 
that purpose. 


Continuing westward from Warner's Ranch 
fifteen miles is encountered Oak Grove, a sta 
tion between Temecula and Julian. This is a 
voting precint with about fifty in population. 
This is a fine farming and stock-raising country, 
and, like a great part of the Palomar country, 
it is Government land, occupied under the 
homestead and pre-emption laws. 

This is another voting precinct, six miles 
west of Oak Grove, also having a population of 
perhaps fifty. There are good farming locations 
also in this section, which, like the preceding, 
with proper facilities for transportation may 
become of considerable importance. The present 
industry is the raising of cattle, sheep and 


This, the "pigeon nest" or "dove cote," is 
thus named from the immense flocks of wild 
pigeons formerly found in the range. They are 
still to be seen on and near its summit, but 
they are rapidly diminishing in numbers. The 
whole range is also sometimes called, like the 
postoffice and voting precinct, " Smith's Moun- 
tain," from a rancher of that name who was 
murdered some years ago in his cabin on the 
mountain. This mountain's long, high back 

runs away to Temecula, and forms the eastern 
wall of the upper San Luis valley. It is one of 
the most conspicuous ranges in the county, 
rising to an altitude of 5,800 feet above the sea 
level, and extending from Warner's ranch to 
the Temecula valley, its trend being northwest 
and southeast. At its southeastern end the San 
Luis Rey river flows from its sources on War- 
ner's ranch, and the Santa Ysabel flows through 
a narrow gorge between its base and that of the 
northern end of the Mesa Grande, the river 
being swelled as it runs toward the s-ea by the 
many creeks and small streams that flow into 
it from the western slope of the mountain. Its 
top and sides bear a great deal of timber, con- 
sisting of pine and oak, silver fir and cedar. 
On its summit there is a great deal of level 
farming land, and large openings of rich meadow 
land among its beautiful groves; while numer- 
ous small, fertile valleys, all well watered, are 
found on its sides, but chiefly on the western 
slope, descending to the San Luis Rey river. 
It is well watered, abounding in living springs 
and small streams of pure, cold water. While 
the summit is subject to heavy snow-falls in 
winter, there is a belt lying along the western 
slope where frost is almost unknown, and which 
is peculiarly well adapted to the growth of the 
olive, the vine and the citrus fruits, and more- 
over most of the deciduous fruits and the vege- 
tables. This belt includes the Agua Tibia, 
whose oranges are excelled by no others; the 
Cuca, a Mexican grant about 2,500 feet above 
the sea level, containing only some 600 or 800 
acres of arable land, which is, however, of very 
superior quality; and in this belt lies also Pau- 
ma, which is about 1,500 feet above the level of 
the sea, from which it is some twenty-four miles 
distant. This is an old Mexican grant. It is 
now the property of the Roman Catholic bishop 
of southern California, from whom Mrs. Helen 
Hunt Jackson, acting in her capacity of Indian 
Commissioner, tried to purchase it for the bene- 
fit of a remnant of the tribes of the Mission In- 
dians. An Indian village stands on the banks 
of that tributary of the San Luis Rey river 


called the Paunia creek, whose waters the In- 
dians use for irrigating purposes. The land is 
admirably adapted for fruit and vine growing. 
The Pauma creek is a large stream, and a con- 
stant one. This is one of the finest and best- 
watered ranchos in the valley. 

Twenty-two miles northeast from San Diego 
and twelve miles from the Pacific Ocean, shel- 
tered from the sea winds and banked round 
against the inflow of the frosty air currents de- 
scending seaward from the high interior alti- 
tudes, lies Poway valley. In the old mission 
records it is alluded to as " Paguay," and known 
as a resort of the herds of the padres. This 
title also appears in documents of the depart- 
mental government at Monterey. Being an In- 
dian name, it obviously existed only as a sound 
prior to the Spanish occupation, when it must 
have been given its first written expression. 
The early pages of the present county records 
afford curious illustration of how assessors and 
other county officials, ignoring the Spanish or- 
thography, had recourse to various spellings to 
indicate the recognized pronunciation, among 
which the present form of "Poway" has finally 
been adopted by general usage. 

Signifying the " meeting of the valleys," the 
name, like most of aboriginal derivations, is 
peculiarly appropriate. A cluster of valleys, as 
a rule a little exceeding one-half mile in width, 
opens upon a central expanse of about a mile 
square. These valleys are concealed one from 
another by the direction of those intruding 
headlands which alone prevent their union in 
one extended plain. 

The neighborhood embraces about 60,000 
acres of line tillable land, having an average 
elevation of 500 feet, above which the immedi- 
ate surrounding elevations mostly rise 300 feet 
higher. Added to this may be estimated at 
least an equal extent of land adapted to pas- 

Only a fortunate combination of circum- 
stances prevented Poway being caught in tha 

strangling loop of a Mexican grant, which, like 
a lariat, was thrown about and held in relent- 
less bondage nearly every considerable tract of 
tillable land in San Diego County. Remaining 
a part of the Government domain, the valley 
was occupied as a stock range by Philip Cross- 
waithe in 1858, and by his successors confined 
to this use for the following ten years, when 
other settlers began to gather in and dispute the 
supremacy of hoof and horn. The turbulence 
which followed is a part of the traditional his- 
tory of the county, but it subsided with the 
drifting out of the contentious element and the 
succession of families of intelligent, home and 
order-loving people. The predomination of this 
latter class in the present population of about 
400 persons seldom fails to impress the careful 
observer, and has exerted a marked influence in 
the general social, moral and educational de- 
velopment so much resembling that of the best 
Eastern communities. It is a valley without a 
saloon, but with a Good Templars' organization 
of over fifty members, which has maintained its 
weekly meetings without omission, except from 
stress of weather, during its entire existence of 
over eleven years, and built itself a commodious 
lodge hall at a cost of some $800, which, with 
the complete finishing, will soon be increased 
to $1,000. Three church societies, Methodist 
Episcopal, Congregational and Baptist, with 
resident pastors, sustain regular services and 
secure an attendance of over one-third the peo- 
ple residingwithin the area of convenient access. 
The Methodist Episcopal Church, costing $2,- 
500, is noticeable as one of the most tasteful 
structures in the county's settlements. An ex- 
cellent school, whose numbers will soon require 
graded departments, is well maintained. 

In material advancement Poway is not merely 
a land of promise. A large area of muscat vine- 
yards contribute their quota of raisins to the 
output of California, of a quality commanding 
the highest market rates in San Francisco and 
winning the first premiums in the recent coun- 
ty fair at Escondido. Her peach orchards 
have acquired a reputation for the superiority 


of their products, which affords their owners 
a ready password and profitable exit to and 
from the fruit stores and households of San 
Diego. Over 2,000 olive trees are in orchard 
and a large extent of miscellaneous fruits dis- 
tributed over the entire known range, except 
cherries, currants and gooseberries, whose suc- 
cessful culture is confined to interior regions of 
higher altitude. The wine interest has no com- 
mercial representation here. The nursery busi- 
ness for some years established at this point 
is of importance and rapidly growing. The 
demand for the home-grown stock of the Poway 
valley nurseries has kept fully abreast of the 
ability of its proprietors to increase. Recent 
arrangements for its ample further extension 
will greatly augment its future stock. It is 
intended to make this nursery the main source 
of supply for the coming planting of the large 
surrounding country so readily accessible by the 
roads radiating from this natural trade center. 

Nearly the entire area of Poway is excel- 
lently suited to the production of oranges and 
lemons, and some favored nooks, as notably 
the Havermale place, are so nearly frostless as 
to allow the cultivation of the more tender 
lime. Its soil closely resembles that of Red- 
lands in San Bernardino County, while its min- 
imum temperature in periods of greatest cold, 
is shown to be two degrees higher than that of 
Riverside at the same dates. The absence of 
irrigating and railroad facilities chiefly accounts 
for the limited planting of citrus fruits now ap- 


but it has been of sufficient extent and 

duration to prove the flattering possibilities of 
the future. Present prospects warrant confi- 
dence that these possibilities will soon receive 
a stimulus which will result in their assuming 
the tangible form of accomplished facts. Situ- 
ated upon the announced routes of both Pamo 
and the San Luis Rey water companies in their 
approach to the extensive table lands of the ex- 
Mission and to San Diego, Poway may be con- 
gratulated upon its prospect of an early and 
abundant water supply under the most favor- 
able conditions. 

With its average annual rainfall of nearly 
fifteen inches and copious wells of excellent 
water at easy depth, it is less dependent upon 
such facilities than many other localities, yet 
its residents are not indifferent to the advant- 
ages of a liberal resource of this character at 
ready command, and important plans are already 
matured awaiting its possession. 

Surveys of both the California Central and 
Southern Pacific railroads extend through this 
place, and it is on the projected route of the 
Poway, Elsinore & San Diego Railroad. Early 
transportation facilities, however, are more 
promisingly foreshadowed in the survey now 
being made via Poway to Escondido in the in- 
terest of the Pacific Beach Railroad and in the 
application of Governor Murray for terminal 
facilities in San Diego for a proposed line whose 
preferred route is indicated by his previous at- 
tempt to purchase the Pacific Beach Railroad. 
Should this result in the not improbable con- 
nection with the Utah coal fields, the ability to 
procure cheap fuel may be looked upon as likely 
to lead to theestablishmentof smelting works at 
this point for the reduction of the deposit of fine 
iron ore known to exist on the edgeof the valley. 

In common with many other localities 
Poway developed a town site during the ex- 
citement of the now much disparaged boom. 
But, unlike many other such attempts, this one, 
known as Piermont, answers a natural demand 
and has demonstrated its natural right to an 
existence and a name, by its concentration and 
control of the business facilities of the com- 
munity in whose geographical center it is 
located. Telephone and postofiice with mail by 
daily stage lines between San Diego and Escon- 
dido afford ready communication with the out- 
side world. A general and drug store, large and 
well equipped hotel, the Terrace, of admirable 
location, public hall, livery stable and blacksmith 
shop, furnish customary conveniences 


On September 27, 1886, the ground was 
surveyed for a town site at the only station 


on the Santa Fe line between Perris and 
San Jacinto, from which towns it its almost 
equidistant. This is Winchester, lying in 
Pleasant valley, and it was first known under 
the name of Rock House, from an old building 
near by. The present town contains some 200 
inhabitants, industrious, intelligent, and godly 
citizens. As the name of the valley would in- 
dicate, this is a desirable locality for a town. 
Winchester is a shipping point for wheat and 
barley; 200,000 sacks of grain were shipped 
thence during 1889. There is a nice church 
building, and the fund is voted for building a 
school-house. A fine brick business block has 
just been finished, and the town boasts two 
warehouses. There is also a hotel, a store, a 
blacksmith shop, a tin shop, a feed stable, and 
a wagon shop. Two physicians are among the 
residents. Good water is found in abundance 
twelve to sixteen feet below the surface. 

This little town, on the line of the California 
Southern, is ten miles west of Winchester. It is 
a railway station, with postoffice, daily mail, two 
stores, blacksmith and wagon shop, and a pho- 
tograph gallery, to a population of some 400. 
There is a good public school, and a fine, re- 
cently-erected school-house, which cost $1,800. 
Farther west on the California Southern is 

A promising new town, sixteen miles south- 
east of Riverside, and about the same distance 
from San Jacinto, almost west, which was 
first settled in 1882, and soon began to pros- 
per. In 1883 the California Southern Railroad 
was completed past this point, and in 1888 the 
San Jacinto Branch Railway. The altitude is 
1,300 feet. Perris valley is some twenty miles 
long, by five to seven miles wide; this is an al- 
most level valley, with abundant water to be 
had by boring five to forty feet. It is highly 
arable, and yields heavily wheat and barley. 
The lower end of the valley is called Menifee; 
and Spring and Pleasant and several other large 

valleys extend south and southeastward. To the 
westward are several good gold mines, includ- 
ing the Good Hope, the Virginia, and several 
other deposits of mineral wealth, $175,000 
having been taken from the Good Hope by a 
former owner. Perris proper contains only some 
250 inhabitants, but the district i6 thickly set- 
tled with an agricultural population; some of 
these farmers plow furrows a mile and a quarter 
long, on the tracts they obtained from the Gov- 
ernment less than seven years since, and there 
is a notable general disposition to beautify 
their homes by planting about them pretty 
gardens; and this may safely be called a refined 
and intelligent community. The town has a 
fine, large, brick school- house, two good church 
buildings, two hotels, a very large general sup- 
ply store, a good grocery and provision store, a 
hardware store, and a good physician, a drug- 
store, two milling establishments, two black- 
smith shops, two livery and feed stables, a meat 
market, and a saloon. The owners of the large 
steam barley rolling-mill are considered the 
heaviest buyers and shippers of grain in San 
Diego County. There are also a brickyard and 
lumber and stockyard, and two large warehouses. 
Running jet farther southward on the branch 

line toward Oceanside, after 


Canon Sid- 

ing some miles, is found the remarkable little 
town of 


The Murrietta portion of the Temecula Ran- 
cho contains about 15,000 acres, some 14,000 
of which were purchased from J. Murrietta by 
a corporation known as the Temecula Land & 
Water Company. Of this tract, about 5,000 
acres consists of valley land, about 6,000 acres 
of mesa or plateau land, and abont 4,000 acres 
of mountain or high land. The company pro- 
ceeded to subdivide their tract, and placed it on 
the market during the autumn of 1884. This 
section is twenty miles from the coast, seventy- 
five miles from San Diego and ninety miles 
from Los Angeles. The California Southern 
Railway had been completed since 1881, but 
its trains passed through the valley without 


stopping, until the town site of Murrietta was 
laid out. Lands were sold readily, and the fu- 
ture of the town was soon firmly established. 
The town site was named after its former owner, 
J. Murrietta, who had resided upon the land 
since 1875. Its elevation is 1,090 feet. Its 
good water, cheap fuel, fine soil, and healthful 
climate make it a model colony. 

The present water supply in the Murrietta 
valley is obtained from surface wells, five to 
twenty feet deep. The water is absolutely free 
from impurities, and is sufficient in quantity 
for all present practical purposes. If at any 
future time a greater supply should be required 
a great abundance of pure mountain water can 
be obtained from the Santa Rosa mountains, 
just west, bordering the valley, whence it can 
be brought at a nominal cost through a system 
of reservoirs in the foothills, and piped down 
to every garden, grove, lawn and fountain in 
the valley, and that with a power sufficient to 
raise it to the housetops. Hot water also can 
be piped from the celebrated Temecula Hot 
Springs, three and a half miles distant, to every 
house in the lower valley. Artesian water can 
be obtained, if desired, at a depth of 200 to 
300 feet; one artesian well in the town site, 
sunk to the depth of 152 feet, furnishes a lim- 
ited supply of pure, good water; but as the 
water has never been needed, no others have 
been put down. The rainfall for the past five 
years in the Murrietta valley has been twenty- 
two inches every season, and the colonists have 
relied upon this water supply. The climate 
here is perhaps different from that of all other 
parts of Southern California. It has four well- 
defined seasons, — spring, summer, autumn and 
winter. The average temperature in summer is 
82°, and the average winter temperature 33°. 
During the summer months, the atmosphere is 
tempered by the sea-breeze, to such an extent 
that but little discomfort is felt during the 
most extreme hot weather; while during the 
winter, the few cold days and nights with slight 
frost and ice gives rest to plant life and energy 
to the human constitution. No flagging spirit 

is caused here by climatic forces, but on the 
contrary, energy and activity are inspired by 
every change of season. The soil is adapted to 
fruit and vine culture and diversified agricult- 
ure, a large quantity of cereals and general 
produce being shipped from the Murietta sta- 
tion. The output tor 1889 amounted to over 
100 car-loads of grain (wheat and barley), 200 
car-loads of wheat, barley and alfalfa hay; and 
several car-loads of hogs, poultry, eggs, honey, 
various sorts of vegetables, wool and hides. 
The fruit yield from the young orchards coming 
into bearing was more than was needed for 
home consumption, and it will be an item of 
export for the future. 

Apples, pears, quinces, peaches, nectarines, 
apricots, prunes, plums and cherries are grown, 
all of excellent quality. All deciduous trees 
set out at two to three years old bear the second 
year thereafter. Those set out in 1885 have all 
borne a profitable crop in 1889. Orange trees 
on the mesa are thriving, as also English wal- 
nuts in orchards lately planted. 

The population of the town and neighbor- 
hood is about 800, and it is rapidly increasing. 
The society is excellent, being intelligent and 
cultured. Among the material evidences of 
prosperity are: a first-class hotel, with a good 
table and excellent service; railroad station, 
express and telegraph offices; a good school- 
house, a good church building, a drug store, 
jewelry store and barber shop, saddle and har- 
ness shop, blacksmith shop and several stores 
which supply the greater portion of the Teme- 
cula country with general merchandise, this 
being the business center. There are also 
many tine residences, and there is published a 
weekly newspaper, the Valley Union. This 
locality, like most others of Southern California, 
has suffered from the reaction following the 
'• boom times," which, in 1887, sent the prices 
of land in the valley up to balloon figures. The 
feeling of the more substantial portion of the 
community was always adverse to this extrava- 
gant speculation, and attempted to keep the 
prices down to a practical basis, and land values 



at present are actually lower than at any time 
during the history of the colony, lands suitable 
for raising fruits, vines or alfalfa being pur- 
chasable at from $7 to $50 per acre, and good 
orange land at proportionate figures. The present 
residents of the valley are now mostly out of 
debt, and even "forehanded," being self-sup- 
porting, prosperous and happy. 


This colony lies on the line of the California 
Southern Railway, eighty-seven and a half miles 
from San Diego, twenty miles south of River- 
side, thirty-seven miles south of San Bernardino, 
and ninety miles east of Los Angeles. It is on 
the old Laguna rancho, so named from the lake 
or lagoon around which lie the 10,000 acres of 
the tract, being the largest lake in the county, 
and live by two miles in area. 

This ranch was bought, subdivided and placed 
upon the market in 1884, by Graham, Collier 
& Heald, .long before the "boom" days of 
lSSV-^S^nd became an established progressive 
community. The early settlers were calm, con- 
servative-minded men, and established them- 
selves here upon testimonials of the soil itself, 
the rich, moist land near the lake, and the 
warm, sandy soil of the higher mesa, being 
adapted to every variety of fruits and vegeta 
bles; and to-day the fruit-producing qualities of 
the soil and climate are no longer an experi- 
ment, and each year adds to the acreage thus 
planted. The citizens of the colony have lately 
organized an irrigation district, under the 
Wright act, which adds greater inducement and 
stimulus to the fruit prodncer. 

Aside from the store of wealth in the tillable 
soil, the bills and mountains around add to their 
service of shelter and protection to the valley, 
an abundant store of mineral wealth in mines 
of coal, clay, asbestos, lime, rock, etc., furnish- 
ing labor to large forces of men, and establish- 
ing a permanent basis of trade between mechanic, 
merchant and farmer, while the fame-deserving 
hot mineral springs and the salubrious climate 
attract many of those transient tourists and in- 

valids upon whom many other places have been 
wholly dependent, and contribute their quota to 
the general prosperity of the town and colony. 
To-day Elsinore has established herself as the 
leading town and colony of northern San Diego 
County, and by far the most important railway 
station between the city of San Diego and River- 
side. The shipments are often as much as two 
cars a day of hay, coal, tire-clay and manufac- 
tured sewer-pipe and pottery-ware, fire-bricks, 
building blocks, etc, and always tar exceed the 
receipts or incoming freight. 

The town of Elsinore is situated one and one- 
half miles from the railroad station, in an alcove 
on the shore of the lake by the same name, 
which precludes a view of the town from the 
station, but elegant and comfortable hacks are 
provided by the hotels, and are in waiting at 
each train. 

The town has just passed its first anniversary 
as an incorporated city of the sixth class, having 
in the time made many municipal improve- 
ments in the streets and parks, tending to the 
comfort and welfare of its citizens. 

The town supports two banks, three hotels 
and two elegant and well- arranged bath houses, 
two drug stores, one hardware, two grocery, 
two dry-goods and one large general store, be- 
sides a plumber, two milliners, meat shops, 
blacksmith shops and other industries demanded 
by the community. The city has a well regu- 
lated water system, supplying pure mountain 

There are in the town of Elsinore two schools 
and one large school building, five church or- 
ganizations, and two elegant brick church build- 
ings, and others in contemplation. As before 
stated, Elsinore colony and city are growing 
communities, some of the most substantial im- 
provements above named having been made 
within the last year, and that speaks volumes 
for any community in southern California. 
There are within the radius of the Elsinore 
colony three other schools and two churches, 
and four other towns or trade centers, the most 
important of which are Wildoinar and Terra 


Cotta City, these each having a postoffice and 
trading facilities. At the latter place are 
located extensive sewer-pipe works, three miles 
to the northwest of Elsinore City. This valley 
is easily reached by rail from San Diego, San 
Bernardino or Los Angeles, being on the direct 
line of railroad between the two former cities, 
with a daily train service. 

The Chaney coal mine near Elsinore is be- 
ginning to attract much attention. It is owned 
by Madison Chaney, the original discoverer, 
D. M. Graham, of South Pasadena, and William 
Collier, of San Diego. 

Before the discovery of this coal, not a single 
joint of salt-glazed, vitrified sewer-pipe was man- 
ufactured on this coast. To-day large factories 
are in operation, deriving their clay also from 
this locality. The works at Elsinore are operated 
by coal from this mine, and their steam power 
is by far the cheapest in Southern California. 
This coal is also used in the kilns for burning 
the ware, with the addition of some stronger 
coal at the last to fix the glazing. Millions of 
tons of fire-clay are found with the coal, and 
will prove an important element. It is now 
used in the manufacture of sewer-pipe at Elsi- 
nore and Los Angeles, being the material from 
which is made the fire-brick lining the kilns at 
both places. It is also used for making fire- 
proof paint and boiler covering, by the J. D. 
II off Asbestos Company of San Diego. The coal 
vein is from four and a-half to seven feet thick, 
and the mine can furnish 150 tons daily, with 
development of more if required. While not 
of the best quality, this is good coal, and it is 
expected the grade will improve with develop- 
ment. It is used in the Good Hope mine, and 
in the railway shops at San Bernardino. 

Another important and valuable mineral re- 
source of this district is the asbestos industry, 
which is being developed by the John D. II off 
Asbestos Company of San Diego. No better 
illustration of its value to the county could be 
supplied than the work that is now being done 
by the company at Governor Waterman's mines 
at Julian. In the first place the raw material 

was taken from its natural location, near Elsi- 
nore, was brought to the works of the company 
at Pacific Beach, and having been converted 
into the manufactured article, is now being ap- 
plied to its various uses at the mines mentioned, 
in each instance giving employment to many 
men, and keeping the money within the county. 
The huge boilers and steam pipes is being 
made for that purpose, every building is being 
painted with the asbestos paint and, indeed, 
wherever an opportunity offers itself to utilize 
the products of the company, no matter in what 
form it may be, advantage is taken of it. The 
principal uses to which the asbestos is put are in 
the manufacture of house and roof paints, boiler 
and steam-pipe covering, fire-proof roofing and 
asbestos stone lining cement. In all the com- 
pany has ten asbestos locations, namely: The 
King, Elsinore, Jumbo, Kate M., and Joseph 
mines at or near Elsinore, and the Murray mines 
and extensions, comprising five locations, on the 
Colorado desert. The construction of the branch 
line from the Elsinore mines to that of the Cal- 
ifornia Southern Railroad, will, of course, 
greatly facilitate the operations of the company 
in transhipping the raw material to their 
factory. The only long-fibre asbestos mine son 
the continent west of the Rocky mountains, is 
located in the Elsinore district. Its value, of 
course, cannot be accurately determined, but 
many tempting offers have been made for it. 
It is owned by this company. Some very tine 
specimens of this long-fibre asbestos are on ex- 
hibition in the offices of the company on Fifth 
street, where a very interesting cabinet of San 
Diego County mineral specimens is also to be 
seen. The albestos at the Elsinore locations is 
very plentiful, and is now being taken out in 
open cuts, but it is the intention of the com- 
pany, this spring, to sink experimental shafts 
on the desert locations for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the extent of the deposits. 

Besides the elements already named, there 
are here no less than 183 mineral springs, 
ranging from almost boiling heat to icy cold- 
ness, and varying as much in their elements as 


in their temperature. Their medicinal proper- 
ties are already becoming famous, and for the 
invalids who seek to profit by their virtues the 
managers of the colony lands have caused the 
construction of a large, comfortable bathing- 
house and other conveniences. Elsinore has 
shown something of her agricultural potential- 
ities by her exhibits at county displays of prod- 
ucts, and by the section's yield during the year 
of 1889, which produced 2,000 centals of wheat, 
3,000 centals of barley, 60 tons of dried and 
12,000 pounds of canned fruits. The water 
supply is abundant; besides that available for 
irrigation from wells and from the San Jacinto 
river, a great increase may be had by means of 
tunnels through the high hills across the lake. 

In 1885, the same parties who had laid out 
Elsinore, founded, five miles further southeast- 
ward, on the line of the California Southern 
Railway, the village of Wildoinar. This is a 
beautiful and thriving village, well-watered, 
and on soil admirably adapted for citrus fruit- 
growing.. It has a good school, and good 
churches, the Presbyterian and the Society of 
Friends owning church buildings. There is a 
mail twice daily, a blacksmith and wagonmaker, 
and three stores carrying general merchandise. 
The people are industrious and sober. 


The section of San Diego County known as 
Encinitas contains about 25,000 acres of land 
and lies twenty-eight miles north of San Diego, 
bounded on the south by the San Dieguito 
river, on the north by the Agua Hedionda 
Ranch, on the east by a rocky range of hills 
that form the western boundaries of the San 
Marcos and Escondido valleys, and on the west 
by the majestic Pacific, from off whose bosom 
the never ceasing mild, yet invigorating breezes 

The name Encinitas (little oaks) is derived 
from the Los Encinitas Rancho, now the property 
of the Kimball Brothers, but during the Span- 

ish regime the home of one of those famous 
and hospitable Spanish pioneers, who have al- 
most passed away into the dim past. The writer 
has been told that in early days the ranch house 
grounds made one of the loveliest spots in the 
county, with its orange and banana groves, and 
that many love tales and reminiscences of the 
place still linger in the minds of the old Span- 
ish sefioras. 

But that romantic age did not long withstand 
the money-making era that has displaced nearly 
all those old seats of Spanish occupation. 

In 1881 the building of the California South- 
ern Railroad aroused attention to this hitherto 
neglected section, and attracted home-seekers, 
and before 1884 all the available government 
land was taken up by an enterprising class of 
people, who amid many difficulties soon began 
changing the brush jungle into cultivated fields 
and orchards. 

In 1883 a small town site was laid out on the 
banks of the ocean, the Cottonwood creek 
running through it, which contains an abundant 
water supply, and the nucleus of our present 
town was started, the first on the line of the 
railroad. A postoffice was soon established, and 
this was followed by an express and telegraph 
office along with other accessories of civilization, 
until now the town contains about eighty build- 
ings and a population of 150 people, two hotels, 
three general stores, drug store, livery stables, 
blacksmith shop, weekly newspaper, etc., but 
no saloons. 

Contrary to most southern California settle- 
ments, the surrounding country is ahead of the 
town, and quite a number of auxiliary settle- 
ments have sprung up around Encinitas, having 
postoffices and stores of their own. Merle, Mer- 
rigan and Olivenhain may be classed among 
these, Encinitas being their railroad shipping 

The settlement of Merle is about two years 
old, and has made a splendid growth and de- 
velopment within that time, a number of gen- 
tlemen of wealth and culture having located 
there and are building nice homes. 


It will not be amiss to say that the Merle 
Horticultural Society of this district is the 
proud possessor of the Los Angeles District 
Fair bine ribbon for the "best table beets," and 
that nearly all of the first and second prizes for 
the best "corn display" at the late Escondido 
Fair were proudly borne away by this section. 

Olivenhain was settled about five years ago 
by a German colony, but internal dissensions 
and wrangles kept development back for a time. 
Now some thirty families have prosperous and 
happy homes in the fertile valley of the San 
Elijo, where they farm for profit. 

The soil is principally a heavy, sandy loam, 
very fertile, easily cultivated, bountiful in its 
returns, and when properly cultivated, very re 
tentive of moisture. Fully two-thirds of the 
area of this district is perfectly frostless, and is 
adapted to the cultivation of the lemon, olive 
or fig. 

The climate is as near perfection as it is pos- 
sible to find, averaging sixty-five degrees the 
year round. Records kept for the past nine 
years show the lowest temperature in the town 
to be thirty- nine degrees, and the highest 
ninety-eight degrees, and that for only an hour 
or two during an east or desert wind. In the 
valleys and wet lowlands the temperature falls 
lower and rises higher. 

The principal crops raised have been beans, 
corn, wheat, barley, sorghum and hay. Thirty 
bushels of wheat to the acre is the average 
yield, and thirty-two bushels the best. Fortv 
bushels of barley to the acre is the common 
yield, with clean, bright grains that will yield 
120 pounds to the sack. Corn is the staple 
among the cereals, and ninety bushels to the 
acre is no uncommon yield, while 103 bushels 
is the best record this year. Sorghum has been 
tested somewhat, and has proved a success, the 
syrup being of fine flavor and finding a ready 
sale at remunerative prices; the yield is about 
100 gallons to the acre, at an average price of 
75 cents per gallon, or $75 per acre. 

Vegetables all do well, but market gardening 
has nut been tried to any great extent. Decidu- 

ous fruits do well, particularly tigs and apples. 
The citrus fruits have not yet been well tested, 
but there is a considerable area of the district 
well adapted to the orange. Grapes flourish, as 
do also berries, particularly the strawberry. 

All of the crops, trees and vines mentioned, 
except berries, have been grown without irriga- 
tion, but our people are keenly alive to the 
necessity of having an ample supply of water, 
and are anxiously awaiting the completion of 
the Pamo or San Luis Key reservoirs. 


This rancho, slightly north of east of Escon- 
dido, is the property of Robert Kelly, who, de- 
voting it to stock-raising, has it entirely under 
fence. This tract contains good vineyard land, 
and may soon be brought into cultivation. 


This, " the Hidden valley," was formerly 
known as the Wolfskill Ranch, or Rincon del 
Diablo — " the Devil's Corner." It is a part of 
the San Marcos region, and comprises 13,000 
acres, well adapted to the culture .of grain, 
alfalfa, citrus and deciduous fruits and grapes. 
The soil is deep and rich, and mostly of the de- 
composed granite variety, so desirable for 
orchard land. 

In 1885 Escondido was purchased by a syn- 
dicate of San Diego capitalists, who at once 
instituted an admirable class of enterprises. 
They laid off a town site, villa tracts, and 
small holdings for orchards, farms and vine- 
yards. They built a $25,000 hotel, and a 
$10,000 school-house; the University of South- 
ern California erected a $50,000 college; there 
are fine brick churches, one of which cost $7,- 
500; a large brick bank block, with a public 
hall containing a good stage; a number of bus- 
iness houses, carrying large stocks; water- works 
and street railway. No saloons exist in this 
model colony town, owing to a cTause in the 
deed of conveyance which forbids the sale of 
liquors on the grounds purchased. A great 
flume is in process of construction. There is 


telephone connection with San Diego and other 

The Central Railroad, to connect with the 
California Southern at Oeeanside, running from 
San Diego via El Cajon, Poway and Escondido, 
was begun over two years since. The popula- 
tion is 800 to 1,000 and constantly increasing. 
In the near vicinity are many points of histor- 
ical interest. The enterprise displayed in its 
founding, its location, its salubrious climate, 
and its resources, make Escondido a point with 
an assured future. 

During the past season Escondido exported 
eighty tons of raisins, graded as A .No. 1 in the 
New York markets. They netted to their pro- 
ducers from $65 to $108 per acre on unirrigated 
land. Among other shipments from Escon- 
dido the past season were 720,000 pounds of 
honey; 650,000 pounds of wheat; 11,000 sacks 
of oats; 8,722 sacks of barley; 625 sacks of 
corn, and 515 cords of wood. 


Only some four years old, Oeeanside has 
made most remarkable growth. It lies on the 
coast, at the mouth of the San Luis Key river, 
forty miles northwest of San Diego, and some 
four miles from the old Mission of San Luis 
Rey. Here is the junction of the Santa Ana 
branch of the California Southern Railway, and 
here the terminus of the San Diego Central, 
via El Cajon, Poway and Escondido, and it is 
on the surveyed line of the extension of the 
Southern Pacific. Behind it stretches the great 
and rich San Luis Rey valley, whose fertile 
fruit and farming country promise a large 
future interior trade, already so far toward real- 
ization that various San Diego merchants have 
found it profitable to establish there branch 
business houses. 

Oeeanside is the natural southern port and 
outlet for San Bernardino, Riverside, San Jacin- 
to, and the rest of the immediate country to 
the northwaid. It is also the natural outlet 
for the tine valley traversed by the Escondido 
branch of the railway, which embraces Buena, 

San Marcos, and Escondido. It is the western 
outlet for the San Luis Rey valley, containing 
20,000 acres of the richest land in California; 
a section rapidly filling up with thrifty people, 
who contribute largely to commerce. More- 
over, to Oeeanside is tributary all the country 
southward, as far as Encinitas. 

The Oeeanside postoffice is the distributing 
office for Escondido and all the country tribu- 
tary to that point, and hence it has become quite 
an important item in the postoffice service. Mr. 
Weitzel, the postmaster, had to report for the 
year ending September 30, 1889, a money-order 
business of $13,000, besides a good business in 
stamps, box rents, etc. 

The original town site was on section 22, being 
a sheep range occupied in 1862 by A. J. Myers, 
to whom a patent was issued in 1883. The site 
now embraces three additional sections — 23, 26 
and 27. 

A city charter was adopted in July, 1888. 
The inhabitants are between 600 and 700, and 
they are for the most part of a high order of 
worth, and moreover very enterprising and ag- 
gressive in a business sense. Large neighboring 
tracts are being opened up and piped to water 
by the San Luis Rey Water Company, which 
is one of the most notable institutions of the 
city. This organization is opening up a vast 
field of back country territory, making to bloom 
land hitherto regarded as almost worthless, and 
greatly increasing the value of land already un- 
der cultivation, by piping water to hundreds of 
thousands of acres. Besides this, the company 
purposes to furnish power for manufacturing 
purposes, utilizing for electric currents the 
power of their immense sluice-ways, through 
which the water falls for hundreds of feet; 
and thence they will convey the power to 
factories, grist-mills, canning-houses, etc. Hy- 
draulic engineers say that this company will 
have 65,000 horse-power available. And whereas 
by the cost of fuel it now costs about $100 
for every horse-power used of mechanical pow- 
er, the new enterprise will be enabled to furnish 
power at one-fourth that rate. This little sea- 


side city already has various robust and flour- 
ishing manufactories, and industries which 
would be creditable to any long established set- 

The Russ Lumber and Mill Company has 
done business here since Oceanside started. It 
has furnished lumber for nearly every house in 
the city. 

It carries a full line of all kinds of lumber, 
including sash, blinds, mouldings, etc. Since 
the boom, trade has been mainly with the sur- 
rounding towns and ranches tributary to Ocean- 
side. The country trade increases every year. 

The Oceanside Mill Company is an institu- 
tion of which the city may well be proud. It 
manufactures sash, blinds, doors, boxes, etc.; 
carries a fnll line of wood working machinery, 
and does all kinds of wood- work for house fur- 
nishing. It does a large business in bee ma- 
terial, including hives, boxes, etc. At one time 
this jear the mill ran for two months on this 
branch of the business alone. Here tanks are 
manufactured for all the surrounding country, 
from Oceanside to Smith Mountain. In con- 
nection with the planing-mill, there is a grist- 
mill department, where feed of all kinds is 
ground; also corn-meal and graham flour. 
Feed and corn-meal are shipped to San Diego 
and other places by the car-load. Custom work 
is done for people in Fallbrook, Escondido, En- 
cinitas and other points. 

In the grist-mill business there is a competi- 
tor in the Carter & Martin Milling Company. 
This firm has lately put in operation a new 
steam engine. They roll barley and crack corn 
to order. They also manufacture corn-meal and 
graham flour. They have an extensive trade 
from all the surrounding country, and ship by 
the ton to many points on the railroad. They 
are also contractors and bnilders, and manufac- 
ture mouldings, brackets, etc. 

The Oceanside Fish Company are keeping 
their city prominently before the people of Los 
Angeles and San Bernardino. They began a 
few months ago, in a small way, to experiment 
at catching and selling Ash. In both depart- 

ments they have been successful. They catch 
anywhere from 500 to 2,500 pounds at a haul. 
One firm in Los Angeles offers to take all they 
can catch at 5 cents per pound. It is impossi- 
ble for them to supply half of the orders they 
receive from Los Angeles and San Bernardino. 

To help supply the demand for Oceanside 
fish, a Chinese company has been organized. 
They have bnilt their own boat and manufac- 
tured their own nets, and propose, from the 
wealth of the ocean,' to contribute to the wealth 
of Oceanside. There are millions of dollars in 
the fishing business on the Pacific coast, be- 
cause it is possible to fish twelve months in the 
year here, and only seven on the Atlantic coast. 

The Bank of Oceanside has contributed its 
full share to the prosperity of the city. The 
bank building itself would do credit to a city of 
50,000 inhabitants. The cashier, E. S. Payne, 
is a gentleman of large experience, and people 
in the city or country who do business with 
him, invariably return. D. Ii. Home, presi- 
dent, and the directors are among the most pro- 
gressive and reliable men of the community. 
The business done by the banking institutions 
of a city is always an index of its prosperity or 
adversity. As the Bank of Oceanside has taken 
in and paid out over its counters the past year 
over $1,000,000, it is very fair evidence that 
Oceenside is not dead. This institution makes 
collections from any part of the Union, and 
transfers money to all parts of the United 
States and foreign countries. 

The two nurseries of the city draw people 
from all the surrounding towns for trees, plants 
and shrubs. They have never been able to 
supply more than half the demand there is for 
nursery stock. 

There are three stores for groceries and gen- 
eral merchandise. They all report business 
good and growing better. The summer visitors, 
the hotel and railroad business and the in- 
creasing number of thrifty ranchers in the 
country about Oceanside all contribute to make 
the store business a success. 

The dry-goods store reports that business 


has been good all through the year, but very 
much increased in volume towards its close. 
The same firm established in June, 1889, what 
is known as the Oceanside Warehouse, an in- 
stitution which is a great benefit to all this sec- 
tion. They handled this season 80,000 sacks of 
grain. They have sold 3,000 sacks of White 
Australian seed wheat to the farmers in this 
vicinity. They state that the Oceanside wharf 
will undoubtedly be finished by August 1, and 
when this is done they propose to ship their 
grain direct from here to San Francisco, thus 
saving $2 per ton on freight. The material 
necessary to complete the wharf is here, and the 
stockholders propose to cany the work forward 
as rapidly as possible. 

Among the other business enterprises of this 
most enterprising little city may be mentioned 
two excellent hotels and one or two restaurants. 
One of the hotel buildings cost nearly $70,000. 
There are two drug-stores, two livery stables, a 
millinery house, two boot and 6hoe shops, two 
blacksmiths, a hardware store, a harness shop, a 
furniture and undertaking establishment, a bak- 
ery, a barber shop and various other enterprises, 
including three real-estate agents, who report 
three times as many purchasers for acre prop- 
erty as there were a year since. Oceanside has 
three skillful medical practitioners, three good 
lawyers, and a flourishing newspaper. The 
schools are well organized and ably administered. 

The churches in Oceanside are well repre- 
sented. There are six organized religious bodies : 
Christian, Congregational, Baptist, Episcopal, 
Holiness and Methodist. The Episcopal and 
Methodist have no church building as yet, but 
they are planning to build in the near future. 
The attendance upon religious services during 
the past year has been better than in any other 
year during the history of the city. 


The city of San Diego is situated in a position 
at once beautiful and commanding, on the north- 
eastern shore of the bay of the same name, in 

latitude 32° 42' 37" north, longitude 117° 9' 
west. It is 480 miles southeast of San Fran- 
cisco. The remarkably advantageous position it 
occupies insures almost constant regularity of 
movement of the winds, and delightful equa- 
bility of temperature. The city is situated 
upon a plateau formed by the foot hills, gently 
sloping southwestward toward the bay and shore. 
Northeastward and southeastward lie the slopes 
and peaks of the Coast liange and the Lower 
California chain of mountains; to the south- 
ward stretches the open Pacific ocean, mild and 
kindly, it being divided from the inlet waters 
of the bay by a long, narrow strip of land 
called the "sandspit" or the "peninsula," 
which broadens considerably at its western ter- 
mination, forming a natural breakwater, whose 
protection makes this bay perhaps the most per- 
fect and safe harbor on the whole western coast. 
It is farther protected by the western extension, 
also peninsular, of the mainland, which forms 
the western boundary of the entrance to the 
bay and breaks the force of the prevailing wind, 
from the Pacific. Very naturally, great consid- 
eration and importance attach to the bay as a 
harbor, since there are but two truly landlocked 
harbors on the whole coast line of California, a 
reach of over 700 miles. The harbor of San 
Francisco, while larger, is less safe for shipping 
and less easy of access than that of San Diego, 
so named by Sebastian Vizcaino in 1602. The 
following is a portion of a report on the bay of 
San Diego, made by Prof. George Davidson, of 
the United States Coast' Survey: "Next to 
that of San Francisco, no harbor on the Pacific 
coast of the United States approximates in ex- 
cellence the bay of San Diego. The bottom is 
uniformly good; no rocks have been discovered 
in the bay or approaches: the position of the 
bay with relation to the coast, and of the bar in 
relation to Point Loma, is such that there is 
much less swell on this bar than on any other 
bar on the Pacific coast. There is less rain, fog, 
and thick haze, and more clear weather, in this 
vicinity than at all points to the northward, and 
the entrance is less difficult to make and enter 


on that account. Large vessels can go about 
seven miles (geographical) up the bay, with an 
average width of channel of 800 yards betweeen 
the four fathom lines at low water. This indi- 
cates sufficient capacity to accommodate a large 

Again, in 1878, Commodore C. P. Patterson, 
Superintendent United States Coast Survey, at 
Washington, transmitted to the chairman of a 
Congresssonal committee the result of the last 
survey of San Diego harbor in that year. He 

« The depth over the bar (at low water) is 
twenty-two feet. The bar remains in a remark- 
ably permanent state. The distance across the 
bar, from a depth of twenty-seven feet to the 
same depth inside, is 285 yards, so that the re- 
moval of about 60,000 yards of material would 
give a channel of 300 feet wide and 28^ feet 
deep over the bar at mean low water. I have 
crossed this bar at all hours, both day and 
night, with steamers of from 1,000 to 3,000 
tons burden, during all seasons, without any 
detention whatever. As will be seen from the 
dimensions given, ample accommodations can 
be had in this harbor for a very large commerce. 
There is no safer harbor on the Pacific coast for 
entering or leaving, or for lying off wharves. 
It is the only landlocked harbor south of San 
Francisco and north of San Quentin, Lower 
California, a stretch of 600 miles of coast, and, 
from a national point of view, its importance is 
so great that its preservation demands national 
protection, and justifies national expenditure. 
Fortunately, these expenditures need not be 
great, if the stable regimen of the harbor be 

The climate of San Diego is indeed so mild, 
so benevolent, and so equable, as to thoroughly 
justify the pride of the inhabitants in that re- 
gard. It is interesting work to scan a recapit- 
ulation of the climate register, as seen in the 
United States Signal Station. This statement 
covers a decade, or 3,653 days, from 1876 to 
1885, inclusive. During these ten years there 
were 3,533 days on which the mercury did not 

rise above 80°. Of the remaining 120 days 
when the mercury did rise higher, 8 fell in the 
year 1876; 12 in 1877; 10 in 1878; 19 in 1879; 
9 in 1880; 7 in 1881; 4 in 1882; 23 in 1883; 
13 in 1884; 15 in 1885. Of the total number 
of 3,653 days there were only 41 days in which 
the mercury rose higher than 85°; on 22 days 
on which it rose above 90°, on 4 days on which 
it rose above 95°, and only 1 day on which it 
rose to over 100°. The highest temperature 
recorded during the whole period of ten years 
was 101°, on September 23, 1883. During 
these ten years there were never more than two 
days in any one month on which the mercury 
rose as high as 85°, except June. 1877, during 
which there were 4 days; September, 1878, 
when there were 5 days; June, 1879, which had 
3 such days; September, 1879, having 4 such; 
October, 1879, when 6 such days befell; and 
September, 1883, which had -I- days up to the 
85° limit. 

It may be remarked, en passant, that the 
year 1879 was an uncommonly hot season 
throughout southern California, owing to mete- 
orological conditions whose stress was aggravated 
by the heat sent out from extensive forest and 
mountain fires. On not one day during the ten 
years did any unusual warmth continue for 
more than a few hours, the highest minimum 
for any day being oidy 70°, on five of the 3,653 
days. During all this period there was no 
night when sleep under a blanket would pro- 
duce discomfort, but rather the contrary. 
During the same ten years, or 3,653 days, there 
were 3,560 days on which the mercury did not 
fall below 40°. Of the remaining ninety-three 
days there were only six on which the tempera- 
ture fell below 35°, and only two on which it 
registered as low as 32°. There was no day of 
lower temperature than 32°. On no day did 
the mercury remain below 40° for more than 
one or two hours, and this was reached in the 
period between midnight and daylight, which is 
always the coldest part of the twenty-four hours. 
The lowest maximum of any day was 52°, which 
was reached on 4 of the 3,653 days in this period. 


This absence of extremes of heat and cold, 
and of excess of either moisture or dryness; 
this even, moderate warmth; the regular daily 
motion of wind, and almost constant atmos- 
pheric humidity of the desirable mean, can but 
make the climate not only delightful, but health- 
ful in the extreme. 

To return to the period already observed, to 
determine the movements of the air, which have 
so much to do with the salubrity of a section: 
During the ten years under review there was 
not recorded one day as a "calm " day; while 
there were days of calmness at the taking of 
some of the observations, there were none which 
had not some movement of aerial strata or cur- 
rents, preventing stagnation, and renovating and 
purifying the air breathed. Every day four ob- 
servations were taken — at the hours of 7 a. m., 
12: 20 p. m., 2 p. m. and 9 p. m. These aggre- 
gate 14,612 observations, in the ten years. Of 
these, 1,730 showed north wind, 3,252 northwest, 
3,280 west, 1,614 southwest, 1,044 south, 458 
southeast, 846 east, 1,510 northeast, 878 calm. 
Now, the westerly winds, blowing from off the 
ocean, are the prevailing winds, and, notwith- 
standing their source, they are called the "dry" 
winds, because they do not bring rain; the 
damp or rain winds blow from the east, south- 
east, and south. 

The Signal Service tables classify winds hav- 
ing a velocity of 1 to 2 miles per hour as light; 
of 3 to 5 as gentle; of 6 to 14 as fresh; of 15 
to 29 as brisk; of 30 to 40 as high; of 41 to 60 
as a gale; of 61 to 80 as a storm; of 81 to 150 
as a hurricane. Keeping in view this table, the 
mildness of the San Diego breezes may be 
judged from the following two facts: During 
the 14,612 observations taken ranging through 
ten years, as already stated, only 878 occurring 
at a windless moment, the daily average 
velocity for the whole period was only 139 
miles, or less than six miles per hour. The 
highest daily velocity was 423 miles, or less 
than 18 miles per hour. The least daily veloc- 
ity was 17 miles, or only three-fourths of a mile 
per hour. 

The mean per cent, of relative humidity for 
each month in the year at San Diego for fifteen 
years is as follows: January, 71.2; February, 
74.3; March, 73.5; April, 72.4; May, 73; 
June, 73; July, 70.4; August, 71.7; Septem- 
ber, 67.4; October, 71.5; November, 66.4; 
December, 67.2. The average number of clear, 
fair and cloudy days during the year, for fifteen 
years at San Diego, is: Clear, 184; fair, 136; 
cloudy, 45. The average number of days on 
which rain fell was thirty-four. The average 
depth of rainfall is between nine and ten inches. 
There are few " rainy days " so depressing 
to the invalid, and so inconvenient to the per- 
son of business; for a large proportion of the 
rain comes down in the night-time; then, 
too, the character of the soil and the natural 
slope of the land are such that the surface of 
the ground dries in a few hours after even the 
heaviest rain. This comparatively small rain- 
fall, which adds no little comfort and charm to 
life in San Diego, must not be understood to 
indicate the rainfall for the section at large. 
For, going back from the coast, the rainfall is 
found to increase in volume, so that at a distance 
of forty miles from the coast the occurrence of 
a dry year is as rare as it is anywhere else in 
California. Even within twenty miles of the 
city the rainfall averages over fifty per cent more 
than in town. 


The following table shows the temperature of 
the past two years by months: 

Month. Max. 

January 74.0 

February 76.0 

March 82.2 

April 930 

M«y 70.0 

June 76.2 

July 77.2 

August 82.0 

September 82.0 

October 82.0 

November 75.2 

December 73.0 


























January. . . 
February. . 
March ... . 















The average mean temperature for the differ- 
ent months of the year has remained practically 
the same for a decade or more. 

The rainfall for December, 1889. was some- 
thing abnormal and unprecedented. Two storms 
during the month gave each over two and 
one-half inches of rainfall. The total rainfall 
during the month was 7.65 inches, and there 
were eighteen days on which rain fell. The 
highest temperature reached was 68.7 degrees 
on the 5th, the lowest 41.8 degrees on the 30th, 
the average mean temperature being 57.5. 
There were eight clear days, seven fair days, 
and sixteen cloudy days. 

To speak of the rainfall during the month of 
December it is proper to say that the rainfall 
during the twenty-four hours ending at 5 o'clock 
on the morning of the 15th, amounted to 2.31 
inches, which has been exceeded only three 
imes in the history of the signal office here. 
The heaviest rains during any twenty-four 
hours of previous years is given below: 




1882 2.94 







The deaths occurring in this city, including 
all transients, however remote, are recorded, 
and are as follows for the year 1889: 

I.— Zymotic or Epidemic: 

Cholera Infantum 5 

Dysentery 7 

Erysipelas 1 

II. — Constitutional Diseases: 

Hydrocephalus.. 2 i Tubercular Meningitis. 

Diarrhoea 1 

Scarletina 1 

Fevers— Typhoid 7 

Cerebro-Spinal 1 

Phthisis Pulmonalis 


Marasmus 2 

Cancer 8 

Bronchitis 5 

Enteritis 2 

Gastritis 1 

Peritonitis (non-puerperal) 2 
Blight's Disease and Ne- 
phritis 3 

Heart Diseases 11 

Convulsions 6 

III. — Local Diseases: 

Pneumonia 11 

Other diseases of the re- 
spiratory organs ». 6 

Gastro-Enteritis 1 

Diseases of the Liver. ... 3 

Other diseases of stomach 
and bowels 8 

Otherdiseases of brain and 
nervous system 9 

IV. — Developmental Diseases: 

Puerperal Diseases 2 I Old age 

V. — External Causes: 

Suicide 3 i All other causes uotclassi- 

I fied 

The deaths during the year were apportion* 
among the several months as follows: 

























Total deaths for the 


During this year of 1889 the city was entirely 
free from all contagious diseases, except a few 
cases of typhoid fever and one or two cases of 
measles and whooping-cough. 

Having thus reviewed the natural character- 
istics, the improvements due to men's enter- 
prise, liberality', wealth and desire for improve- 
ment, may next be touched upon. First in 
order should come those material enterprises of 
more than local influence or results — railways, 
steamship companies, light-houses and other 
similar institutions, whose existence affects 
wider circles than those of San Diego city and 
county. Then should follow in proper sequence 
the enumeration of such features as affect the 
wider district, viz.: exports, imports, travel, 
traffic, commerce at large. Next in order ap- 
pear the local or municipal institutions which 
are of common use to all the citizens; and last, 
such enterprises as banks, street railway sys- 


terns, hotels, etc., winch, while they are the 
property of individuals or private corporations, 
yet constitute a notable and important element 
in the comfort, convenience and general pros- 
perity of the community. As far as possible 
this plan will be followed in the description of 
San Diego under its present aspect and in the 
outlining of its future prospect and outlook; 
and any deviation therefrom will be due to the 
ramifications of the subject, and the subjects 
may be treated in inverse order. 


San Diego is provided with ample wharves. 
The wharf of the Spreckels Brothers Company 
is 3,500 feet long. Its width gradually be- 
comes greater as it runs out from the shore, 
commencing with fifty feet and terminating 
with seventy-five feet at the twenty-six-foot 
water line. It will accommodate eight of the 
largest vessels afloat. It was built at a cost of 
over $90,000. The coal bunkers on the wharf 
have a capacity of 15 ; 000 gross tons. They 
are 650 feet long, 30 feet wide, and 30 feet in 
depth. The machinery is of the most modern 
and best improved type, and in point of efficiency 
second to none in America. The warehouse is 
150 by 100 feet, but this will soon be increased 
to double its present size. The wharf is situated 
at the foot of G street. A track is being built 
to connect with the Santa Fe, so that cars can 
be loaded directly from ships. 

The Santa Fe wharf, situated at the junction 
of H and Atlantic streets, has two spurs, one 
2,500 feet long, the other 800 feet in length. 
In breadth this wharf varies from twenty-five 
feet to seventy-rive feet, and can accommodate 
eight deep-sea vessels and six coasters. The 
estimated cost of this wharf is $80,000. The 

track of the California Southern extends u 


this wharf, and vessels are unloaded directly into 
the cars. 

The Pacific Coast Steamship Company's 
wharf is at the foot of Fifth street. It was 
one of the first wharves built in San Diego, 

but has been entirely rebuilt, at a cost of some- 
thing over $30,000. It is 2,000 feet long and 
has accommodation for four deep-sea vessels 
and four coasters. There is also a railway track 
on this wharf, which greatly facilitates the 
transhipment of freight from vessels to cars. 

The Pacific Dock Company's wharf (generally 
known as Jorres' wharf) was this year rebuilt, at 
a cost of $35,000. It is 2,216 feet long, has a 
twenty-four-foot driveway and an eight-foot 
walk. It can accommodate four deep-sea ves- 
sels and has room for eight coasters at its 
twenty foot water line. The wharf is situated 
at the foot of F street. 

The Rubs Lumber and Mill Company's wharf 
is situated at the foot of I street, and is 600 
feet long; that of the San Diego Lumber Com- 
pany, foot of Sixth street, 1,200 feet lonjr, with 
a "T" fifty feet by seventy- five feet. The two 
wharves are intended for coasters only, and 
were built at an aggregate cost of $36,000. 

The Carlson & Higgins (Commercial) wharf 
is situated at the foot of H street, is 940 feet 
long, 35 feet wide, with a 580-foot T. It will 
furnish accommodations for six deep-water ves- 
sels and six coasters. The estimated cost is 

The San Diego Wharf and Storage Company's 
wharf, at the foot of Twenty-eighth street, is 
1,400 feet long, from 76 to 140 feet wide, and 
cost $20,000. 

In addition to these there are two excellent 
wharves at Coronado and two at Roseville. The 
San Diego & Eastern Terminal Railway Com- 
pany and Crippin & Jennings have wharves 
now in course of construction at Roseville. The 
projected wharf of the San Diego Land and 
Town Company, at the foot of Twenty-sixth 
street, will be one of the most complete in the 
city. It is to be 950 feet long, 660 feet wide, 
and will extend the entire block to Twenty- 
seventh street. It is to have three slips at the 
end and will furnish dockage room for nine 
deep-sea vessels, besides accommodation for a 
large number of coasters. There will be a track 
for the California Southern, and also one for the 


National City & Otay road, built thereon. The 
estimated cost is put at $60,000. The railroad 
company also has a fine wharf at National City. 

The depth for all these wharves enumerated 
above for deep-sea vessels are at the twenty-six- 
foot water line, mean low tide. 

There is a projected wharf also at the foot of 
Ninth street, for which a franchise was granted 
to William A. Bailey. It will be 2,795 feet 
long and seventy-five feet wide. 


Most of the streets of San Diego are upon an 
inclined plane. The slope is not great enough 
to fatigue a walker, but yet it is sufficient to 
lend a pleasing variety and perspective to the 
vision, and to throw the city in elevation to the 
eye of him who sees it from the ocean or the 
bay. The nomenclature of the streets is pleas- 
ing, practical and convenient. From the water 
front back to the outskirts they are called 
numerically, First street, Second, etc.; starting 
from a given point the southward streets are 
named alphabetically, A, B, C, etc. Their con- 
tinuations to the northward of the point stated 
have arboreal names, as Ash, Beech, Cedar, etc., 
each one of which begins with the letter as- 
signed to its complementary portion. Thus the 
geography of the streets is readily learned, and 
intelligent movement through them is greatly 
facilitated. While a great deal has been done 
in the matter of putting down suitable pave- 
ments, there is, naturally, much to be yet com- 
pleted in this respect. The lack of adequate 
pavements is, however, partially compensated 
by the quick-drying porosity of the soil, already 
cited. No doubt the year 1890 will witness a 
great advance in the direction of proper gutter- 
ing and paving. 

The sewer system which was adopted some 
two years since is that known as the Waring 
system, in use in Memphis and various other 
large eastern cities. For the purpose of its con- 
struction, the city contracted a bonded indebted- 
ness of $400,000, the bonds bearing interest at 
five per cent., payable annually. They may 

run till 1907, or they may be redeemed sooner, 
at the option of the city. The bonds were 
negotiated without difficulty, during the most 
enthusiastic period of San Diego's late phenom- 
enal prosperity, and great anticipations existed 
as to the successful and satisfactory operation 
of the system. It appears, however, that it has 
not proved altogether satisfactory. But the 
engineer, Colonel George E. Waring, Jr., who 
contracted for its construction, avers that the 
defects are incidental, not constitutional, so to 
speak, and due to causes which may readily be 
removed, when, he declares, the present sewer 
system will be found complete, good, effective, 
and satisfactory to the citizens. 

San Diego's water supply for domestic pur- 
poses comes from wells sunk in the gravel bed 
of the San Diego river. The watershed of the 
valley where these wells are sunk is nearly 300 
square miles. The wells are at from 2,000 to 
4,000 feet above sea level. For six months of 
the year the water runs on the surface, while 
during the remainder of the year the gravel 
bed of the river, which has a slight fall, and is 
between seven and eight miles long, is fully 
charged with pure mountain water, which gives 
a constant supply to the wells. These are thir- 
teen in number, sunk in a line across the lower 
end of the valley. They average an inside di- 
ameter of twenty-eight feet, and are fourteen 
or fifteen feet below the water level of the 
summer months. The wells are all connected 
with the pumps by pipes of cast iron. There 
are four covered reservoirs with a total capacity 
4,206,000 gallons, and a standpipe thirty-six 
inches in diameter, 136 feet high, its top being 
401 feet above tide. It is supplied from the 
large pumps at the main station, and has press- 
ure enough to reach the highest parts of the 
city. The pump mains run to the standpipe 
and the Old Town reservoir. They can be 
used independently, if so desired. The com- 
pany has over 296,680 feet, or about sixty 
miles, of pipe lines, at an approximate cost of 
$800,000. Connected with this system are 
185 fire hydrants, for which the city pays $100 


per year each. Everything that can be done in 
the way of plant, apparatus, protection, etc., is 
done to preserve the purity and sweetness of 
the water. The reservoirs are covered, and 
they have cemented walls, with proper facilities 
for draining and cleansing. According to the 
engineer's record, some 30,000,000 of gallons 
were pumped by this company during each 
month of the year 1888. It can to-day supply 
6,600,000 gallons every twenty-four hours. If 
the above were not sufficient — and the supply 
even now would meet the wants of 100,000 
souls population — there are other water re- 
sources. The Sweetwater reservoir, which sup- 
plies National City, covers an area of 700 acres 
of land, and contains about 6,000,000,000 gal- 
lons of water, a portion of which could very 
readily be diverted to San Diego. The San Diego 
Flume Company has a large reservoir in the 
Cnyamaca mountains, about fifty miles from 
San Diego, with a capacity of 4,000,000,000. 
This water is conducted to a point near the city 
by means of a large flume, and thence into the 
city through a thirty-inch iron pipe. The 
Flume Company furnish water for irrigating 
purposes along their line. Their source of 
supply could easily furnish water enough to 
irrigate 100,000 acres. 

There are, moreover, the San Luis Key and 
the Pamo Water Companies, neither of whose 
systems is yet completed. But when they be- 
gin to operate, they will double the present 
water supply of the city. 

The lighting system of San Diego is under 
the auspices of the San Diego Gas and Elec- 
tric Light Company, successor to the San 
Diego Gas Company, and the Coronado Electric 
Light Company, whose respective plants it has 
absorbed. The coal gas works are what is 
called a ten-inch plant, being thoroughly 
equipped with all the machinery, etc., necessary 
for efficiency and safety. The gas-holder has 
a capacity of about 50.000 cubic feet. The 
estimated capacity of the coal-gas plant is 
about 250,000 feet daily. The water-gas plant 
has a capacity of 150,000 feet daily, making a 

total of 400,000 feet every twenty-four hours. 
The company has in use twelve miles of street 
mains, and some 600 meter connections. The 
electric light works has a ground area of 100 
feet by 85 feet. The power is one 250-horse- 
power Corliss engine, and one Buckeye high- 
speed engine, all the necessary Brush-light 
machines, dynamos, etc. There is a system of 
about twenty-live miles of poles and wires. 
The city street lighting is excellently performed 
by means of ten towers, each one having six 
2,000-candle-power lamps. There is, moreover, 
the Electric Light Company, with a capital of 
$3,000, over four miles of wire and all needful 
equipments, which is doing a steadily increas- 
ing business. 

The Point Loma lighthouse, which marks 
the entrance to San Diego harbor and which is, 
with one single exception, at a higher altitude 
from sea level than any other in the world, will 
soon go into disuse and be superseded by two 
others, one to be placed near the base of the 
promontory, the other at Ballast Point. This 
change will make the entrance to the bay as 
absolutely safe by night as it is by day. Dur- 
ing the last 6ix months of 1889, several con- 
tracts have been let for the work in question, 
which covers the lighthouses themselves as well 
as the dwellings for the use of the keepers. 
The first contract calls for the construction at 
Point Loma of two dwellings, of Ave rooms 
each, for the light keepers. The buildings are 
to be of wood with brick foundations and are 
to be finished in brass and bronze, after the 
style of Government lighthouse finishing. 
Each building will be supplied with a large 
water tank, twelve feet in diameter by ten in 
height. The total cost of the two buildings 
will not exceed $7,500. 

The second contract embraces in its condi- 
tions the construction at Ballast Point of two 
buildings similar to those at Point Loma, with 
the addition to one of a light tower, to be fitted 
with the regulation stationary light. The total 
cost of these buildings, to be constructed by a 
San Dieo-o firm, will be $8,500. Besides these 


there is to be placed at the outer entrance to 
the harbor, built by a Jersey City firm, an iron 
light-house, with a light of the revolving pat- 
tern, like that in use at San Pedro. Its total 
cost is estimated at $13,000, and it is to be 
completed by April 1, 1890. 


The San Diego court-house, which is now 
being rebuilt, will have a total length, including 
the wings, of 106£ feet. The main building, 
which includes the jail, has a width of 110 feet, 
while the wings are 57£ feet wide. It will be 
126 feet from base to dome. The cost of the 
new building, not counting the value of the 
material used from the old building, will reach 
about $150,000. There will be three court- 
rooms, each measuring 63| feet long and 33£ 
i'eet wid3, and these will, when completed, be 
among the finest, if not the finest, in the State. 
The style of the architecture is Italian renais- 
sance, and the building when completed will be 
by far the handsomest in the city. At present 
work is temporarily stopped, owing to litigation 
between the Board of Supervisors and the con- 
tractor, but this delay is brought about by the 
powers that be, in order that the specifications 
in the contract may be strictly enforced and 
perfect workmanship and material put into the 
new building. 


The Free Reading- Room Association was or- 
ganized March 1, 1872, the first officers being: 
Charles S Hamilton, President; George W. 
Marston, Vice-President; R. C. Grierson, Secre- 
tary; E. W. Morse, Treasurer. 

The San Diego Public Library was first 
opened July 15, 1882. Bryant Howard was 
the first President; E. W. Ilendrick, Secretary; 
G. N. Hitchcock, Treasurer, and G. W. Marston 
and Dr. R. M. Powers, Trustees. The Con- 
solidated Bank, then the Commercial Bank, do- 
nated free use for six months of the room then 
used; Judge Alfred Cowles presented the library 
with forty volumes of standard works, and other 

public-spirited ladies and gentlemen tendered 
gifts of books and money. 

The institution has been under the successive 
management of four different librarians, the 
present incumbent being Miss Lu Younkin, to 
whose energy is due in no small measure its 
present condition of usefulness. During the 
year 1889 this institution has been installed in 
new and commodious quarters in the Consoli- 
dated Bank building. The quarters are com- 
fortably furnished. a,nd well lighted and heated. 
There are reading-rooms for ladies and gentle- 
men, and in this department alone the record 
shows the use of 4,717 books during the latter 
seven months of the year, since these rooms 
have been opened. One of the features of im- 
provement under this arrangement is the pres- 
ence of attendants to issue the books, instead of 
the old system by which the patrons were 
allowed access to the shelves for that purpose, 
which was most conducive to the loss of books, 
now stopped almost entirely. The following 
table shows the extent of the "use of the library 
during the past two years. The notable de- 
crease in May, 1889, was due to the temporary 
closing of the library during the process of re- 





















November .... 





.. .3,128 








Fiction is the branch most sought by the 
patrons of the library, with historical and 
biographical works holding a good second. 
The present number of volumes is 7,000, or 
1,500 more than last year, and this library sup- 
plies more reading matter in proportion to its 
size than any other in the State. 



was organized on the 20th day of January, 
1870, by David Feleenlield, E. W. Morse, 
Aaron Pauly, A. E. Horton, G. W. B. McDon- 
ald, J. W. Gale, D. Choate and Joseph Nash, 
who assembled at the rooms of the first named 
gentleman upon his invitation, on the day above 
named "to take some practical steps to unite 
the business men of this city for the better pro- 
motion of the public interest; to aid in the de- 
velopment of our back country and make 
known its resources; to give reliable infor- 
mation of the commercial advantages of our 
harbor, and of our natural position as an over- 
land railroad terminus on the Pacific coast." 
Aaron Pauly was elected President, G. W. B. 
McDonald, Vice-President, and David Felsen- 
held, Secretary. The membership in a few 
weeks embraced nearly every business man and 
capitalist in the city, and the organization, 
from the very beginning has been faithful to the 
purposes set forth by its founders. " It has taken 
a leading part in the railroad negotiations of 
the past twenty years; it largely promoted the 
construction of the first important highway to 
Arizona, the Fort Yuma wagon road, which for 
several years, until the building of the South- 
ern Pacific Railroad, was the only avenue for 
freight and passenger traffic between California 
and southern Arizona; it has published nu- 
merous reports and pamphlets of information, 
which have rendered most valuable service in 
advertising throughout the world the singular 
salubrity and rare equability of our climate, the 
various and prolific resources of our soil; the 
peculiar advantages of our location as a trans- 
continental railway terminus, and of our harbor 
as the natural seaport of southern California, 
and of the certainty of our development as a 
great commercial and 'manufacturing city; it 
has maintained correspondence with the repre- 
sentatives of our State in Congress, and with 
the departments of the Government upon all 
matters relating to harbor and other public im- 
provements, commercial development, mail facil- 
ities, public land surveys, etc., in this section; 

and it has constantly promoted the develop- 
ment of our back country by the encourage- 
ment of exhibitions in the cities of California 
and the Eastern States as well as at home, and 
more recently by aiding the establishment of 
horticultural societies throughout the county, 
in correspondence with the chamber, and by 
the maintenance of a permanent exhibit at its 
rooms in this city of the varied productions of 
our soil. It has from the first relied upon the 
voluntary contributions of the citizens of San 
Diego for the means to carry on its work, and 
it confidently appeals to their public spirit to 
enable it to continue and increase its usefulness." 

The presidents of the Chamber of Commerce 
have been Aaron Pauly, 1870; G. W. B. Mc- 
Donald (deceased), 1871-72; J. S. Gordon, 
1873-'74; W. W. Stewart, 1875-'76; James M. 
Pierce (deceased), 1877-78; Charles S. Hamilton, 
1879; George W. Hazzard, 1880-'81; S. Levi, 
1882; A. Wentscher, 1883; George W. Mars- 
ton, 1884; D. Cave, 1885; J. II. Simpson, 
1886; G. G. Bradt, 1887; J. A. McKae, 1888; 
Douglas Guun, 1889; John C. Fisher, 1889; 
John Kastle, 1890. 

The Annex has pledged its support to home 
products and industries when they are equal in 
quality and price to the imported articles; also 
to encourage the starting of manufactories, the 
building of a market-house, procuring cheaper 
water, improving public parks and effective ad- 
vertising are branches of its work. 

The Annex has obtained from the city a grant 
of ten acres, out of a large park reservation, to 
beautify for a public park. A water company 
has also given free water for their park, and a 
San Francisco gentleman has promised a $7,000 
bronze statue. 

The Annex offered a prize of a handsome, 
hand-painted, silk banner to that horticultural 
society or district maintaining the best exhibit 
at the Chamber of Commerce for a stated time. 
The efforts of the chamber, thus seconded by 
the Annex, resulted in the formation of new 
horticultural districts, and created a healthy 
rivalry among all the districts to win the banner. 



On Sunday, November 8, 1868, the Rev. 
Sidney Wilbur, who had very lately arrived in 
San Diego, celebrated the service of the Epis- 
copal Church in the barracks, where the services 
were held for some time after. It appears that 
he organized a parish early in 1869, but the 
precise date is not obtainable. The church 
building was erected in 1871. 

The Methodist Episcopal Church was organ- 
ized in January, 1869. For some time its serv- 
ices were held in a hall over Julian's store on 
Filth street, and later they were held in Dun- 
ham's Hall. The first pastor of this congregation 
was Rev. D. A. Dryden, who reached San 
Diego in October, 1869. Immediately he set 
about the enterprise of erecting a church edi- 
fice, and his parishioners co-operated with him 
so zealously' that within four months from the 
inception of the work the church was built 
and paid for. The pastor made with his own 
hands the pulpit and its chair. The church 
was dedicated, on Sunday, February 13, 1870. 

On June 5, 1869, the first Baptist Church in 
San Diego was organized. W. S. Gregg and 
Jacob Allen were chosen to serve as deacons, 
and E. W. S. Cole as clerk. The Baptists had 
the honor of building the first church ediiice 
in the new city. It was begun in August, 1869, 
and bv October 3 of that year it was opened 
for worship, Rev. Morse preaching the first 
Protestant sermon ever heard under a church 
roof in San Diego County. The building was 
not dedicated until a later period. Rev. O. F. 
Weston was its first pastor. 

The First Presbyterian Church was organized 
with thirteen members on June 7, 1869. Charles 
Russell Clarke, David Lamb and Samuel Merrill 
were elected elders. The church building was 
erected in 1871, being dedicated on Sunday, 
June 8 of that year. Rev. J. S. McDonald was 
the first pastor. 

The Roman Catholic Church at "New Town" 
occasionally enjoyed the celebration of services 
in Rosario Hall on F street, but it was not until 
1875 that their tine church edifice was com- 

pleted, since which time services have been reg- 
ularly held there. It stands on the mesa in the 
western part of the city. Rev. Father Ubach 
is the incumbent. 

First German Methodist Episcopal Church 
is located at the corner of II and Thir- 
teenth streets, the Rev. L. E. Schneider, pastor. 
The society was organized in February, 1887, 
with a membership of two, under the leadership 
of Rev. L. C. Pfeffenberger, holding its meet- 
ings Sunday afternoons in Keener Chapel. This 
was the home of the society for one year; at 
the end of that period the present edifice was 
erected, and on April 4, 1888, the first services 
were held therein. 

The membership had now increased to fifty. 
During the fall of 1889 the present pastor took 
charge, immediately succeeding the Rev. Mr. 

At the present time the membership is 
seventy-five, with an average attendance at the 
various church services of 100, and a Sunday- 
school attendance of seventy-five. 

The church property, valued at $12,000, is 
owned by the society, and is free from debt. 

The Coronado Methodist Episcopal Church, 
located at Coronado Beach, was organized in 
1888, with a membership of twenty. The 
present membership is forty. 

The average attendance is 150 at the various 
services. Rev. A. In wood is pastor. 

The Scandinavian Methodist Episcopal Church 
was organized in 1880. Owing to depression 
in business of late, many of the members of 
this church have left the city, and the society 
is thus somewhat crippled. The Rev. A. Peter- 
son is the present pastor. Membership twenty- 
five, with an attendance of forty at the Sunday 

The Central Methodist Episcopal Church is 
located at Harrison avenue and Twenty-sixth 
street, Rev. D. H. Gillan, pastor. The church 
was established January 12, 1887, with a mem- 
bership of twelve, under the direction of Rev. 
J. I. Foote. At present the membership is 150, 
with an average attendance of 300. 


The society owns property valued at $10,000. 

The African Methodist Episcopal Church was 
established in 1888 with a membership of nine, 
which has since increased to tweuty-three. The 
present attendance numbers eighty-five. Rev. 
W. E. De Claybrook is the pastor. 

The Middletown Methodist Episcopal Church 
society was organised in 1887, and at present 
worships in a hall, corner of Ash and Front 
streets^ San Diego. Services are on Sunday, 
conducted by Rev. W. Pittenger, of National 
City, Present membership, twenty. 

The National City Methodist Episcopal 
Church, located in National City, was organ 
ized in 1882. and in 1887 moved into its 
present edifice. Membership, forty. Rev. W. 
Pittenger, pastor. 

Keener Chapel Methodist Episcopal Church, 
South> was organized under the Rev-. J. W. Allen 
in October, 1882, and held its first service in 
Hubbell's Hall. Afterward a hall on Fifth 
6treet, known as the old Masonic Hall, was rented 
and used by the then small congregation until 
the completion of the presort house of worship, 
in May, 1884, and dedicated as Keener Chapel. 

This church is located on very valuable prop- 
erty, corner of D and Seventh streets, the gift 
of Bishop Keener, of New Orleans, for whom 
the edifice is named. 

The church membership is seventy-five, with 
an attendance at its services of 100. 

Property valued at $30,000 is controlled by 
the society. 

Rev. James Hesley is the pastor. 

The New Jerusalem Church was organized 
in 1883, at a private residence, with a member- 
ship of thirteen. Prior to this organization 
regular meetings had been held for three years 
by the promoters of the society. 

From 1883 to 1890 services were held regu- 
larly Sundays, and, to suit the convenience of 
the members, from house to house. 

In January, 1890, the Rev. Mr. Savory was 
called as the first pastor of the church, and the 
meetings of the society were then held for the 
first time in public at Keener Chapel. 

Mr. Savory is still the pastor, and church 
services are conducted every Sunday. The 
church membership is fourteen, with an attend- 
ance of about twenty-five. 

The Unitarian Church is located at the corner 
of Tenth and F. Rev. P>. F. McDaniel, pastor. 
The church was organized March 4, 1877. The 
Rev. David Cronyer was the first pastor of the 
church and officiated from the date of the or- 
ganization up to January, 1887, when the 
present pastor succeeded him. The society 
after its organization held services in Horton 
Ha'.l, up to the year 1883, when they moved to 
quarters on Tenth and F. In 1888 the present 
edifice was built, at a cost of $14,000, a fine build- 
ing with a seating capacity of 600. There are 
150 families in the society and an average at- 
tendance at the Sunday services of about 250. 

The Church of the Immaculate Conception 
is located in the Old Town of San Diego. The 
organization of this church dates back to the 
year 1774-. At that time meetings were held 
in the chapel attached to Fort Stockton, and 
they continued to be held there until the year 
1840. Shortly after this date the buildings of 
the fort went to decay and the chureh held its 
meetings in the house of Jose Maria Estudillo, 
at the corner of the plaza, a building still in ex- 
istence. This house was used as a chapel up to 
the year 1858, when a wealthy Spaniard named 
Jose Antonio Aguirre, purchased it and donated 
it to the Roman Catholic congregation to be 
used as a parish church, and it has been so 
used up to the present day. This church is 
under the direction and management of St. 
Joseph's Roman Catholic Church, and under 
the ministration of Rev. Father Ubach. The 
present membership is some 200. 

St. Peter's Mission Hall is located at Coro- 
nado Beach. This mission was organized July, 
1887, with twenty members, under the direction 
of Rev. H. B. Restarick and is a mission of St. 
Paul's Protestant Fpiscopal Church of San 
Diego. Services were first held in the Hotel 
Josephine, afterward in a store room on 
Orange street, neatly fitted up as a chapel, 


where they are at present conducted. The or- 
ganization receives some aid from the diocese. 
At present there are fifty-two communicants in 
the church. The Rev. Mr. Brown succeeded 
Mr. Restarick after the organization of the 

St. Mark's Episcopal Church, located at 
South San Diego with Rev. W. F. Chase in 
charge, is a mission of St. Paul's in San Diego, 
and was organized in March, 1889, under the 
direction of Rev. H. B. Restarick. Average 
attendence fifty. 

St. James' Mission, located at Logan avenue 
and Twenty-fourth street, with Rev. S. H. 
llderton in charge, is a mission of St. Paul's and 
was organized in July, 1888, by the Rev. H. B. 
Restarick. The attendance on the different 
services is about forty, there being thirty com- 
municants. The work of the mission is divided 
up among the assistants of St. Paul's church. 

St. Matthew's Church, located at National 
City, with Rev. J. R. Cowie rector, was organ- 
ized in July, 1886, by Rev. H. B. Restarick of 
San Diego, with ten communicants; they Dum- 
ber at present forty-one. The property owned 
by the church is valued at $7,200. 

The Jewish synagogue is a building at the 
corner of Beech and Second streets, and is in 
charge of Max Moses, Rabbi. The society was 
organized in 1885, with a membership of forty, 
M. Schiller being President and Dr. Frit 
er Rabbi. At this time the society worshiped 
in the building of the Unitarians at Tenth and 
F streets. In October, 1889, they moved into 
their present quarters. The congregation now 
numbers eighty and M. Schiller is still the pre- 
siding officer; in January, 1890, the present 
rabbi was settled in charge of the synagogue. 
Services are held Friday evenings at eight and 
Saturday mornings at eleven. The Sunday- 
school connected with the synagogue numbers 
fifty scholars. 

The First Congregational Church is located 
at the corner of JS'inth and F streets, and is at 
present without a pastor. The society was or- 
ganized in August, 1886, in the rooms of the 

Young Men's Christian Association, under the 
direction of Rev. J. H. liarwood, D. D., and 
the membership in October of the same year 
numbered seventy-six. In February, 1887, the 
society moved into their present Tabernacle, 
remaining under the charge of Rev. Dr. Har- 
wood until February, 1888, when Rev. J. B. 
Silcox succeeded to the |iastorate. The present 
membership is 200. The church conducts and 
supports a small mission school, with a mem- 
bership of thirty at Middletown. 

The Second Congregational Church, located at 
Twenty-sixth street and Kearny avenue, with 
Rev. F. B. Perkins as pastor, was organized 
February 9, 1888, by Rev. A. B. White, with sev- 
enteen constituent members; the present pastor 
succeeded Mr. White the following year. Pres- 
ent membership forty-two. 

Congregational Chinese Mission School. This 
school is situated at No. 639 Thirteenth street, 
under the auspices of the First Congregational 
Church; it was organized in 1886, by Rev. W. 
C. Pond. The mission owns a lot and com- 
modious school-house on the site above noted. 
For three years Mrs. M. A. McKeuzie was in 
charge of the school. Miss M. E. Elliott suc- 
ceeded her and now directs the institution. 
Classes for study in English are held on differ- 
ent evenings during the week and religious 
services Sunday evenings. Thirty members 
are in attendance. 

Seventh Day Adventist. Elder W. M. Hea- 
ley is in charge of this church, which is located 
at Eighteenth and G streets. The society was 
organized January 21, 1888, with a membership 
of ten and at once moved into their present 
building. The property is valued at $5,000 and 
the society has it under its own management and 
control. The present membership £ is seventy. 

The First United Presbyterian Church is 
situated at Nineteenth and G streets, Rev. R. 
G. Wallace being its pastor. The society or- 
ganized in 1888, with a membership of twenty, 
and worshiped in the court-house on I) street 
for a short time. The building now used for 
worship was erected in 1889, but it is still in 


an unfinished condition, owing to the very 
large decrease in membership caused by the 
exodus from the city of a number of families of 
the church, the great depression in business 
and the consequent lack of employment being 
directly responsible for this. 

The average attendance at the Sunday services 
is about forty. 

The Presbyterian Chinese Mission, organized 
in 1888, and located on Eighth street, between 
D and E, is connected with the First Presby- 
terian Church, and supported by it, and at 
present in charge of Mrs. McKenzie. 

There is an attendance at the present time of 
about twenty pupils. 

The Presbyterian School for Chinese Chil- 
dren, organized in 1888, is located on Third 
street, between K and L, connected with the 
First Presbyterian Church, and supported by it, 
and now in charge of Miss Johnson. 

There are about fifteen pupils in the school 
in regular attendance at present. 

In both of these Chinese institutions sessions 
are held during the day. In the Mission is 
conducted on Sunday evenings a gospel service, 
with a large number in attendance. 

The National City Presbyterian Church was 
organized March 18, 1886, at National City. 
Pastor, Rev. Mr. Long. The church member- 
ship numbers forty, and there is an attendance 
of about 100. 

The Pacific Beach Presbyterian Church is 
located at Pacific Beach, Rev. R. Dodd, pastor. 

The church 

was orgamzec 

1888, and its 

membership at the present time numbers thirty. 

The congregations on Sunday number about 

El Cajon Presbyterian Church was organized 
in 1883, by Rev. Dr. Dodge, and is located in 
the valley of the Cajon — the only Protestant 
church in the valley. The society owns its fine 
edifice, which is free from debt. There is a 
membership of fifty, and an attendance of 100. 
There is no pastor here at present. 

The Coronado Presbyterian Church was or- 
ganized March 18, 1888, at Coronado Beach, 

under the direction of Rev. H. L. Hoyt. At 
present there is no pastor. 

Present membership, forty-five, with an at- 
tendance of sixty. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church was 
organized in 1887, Rev. L. Clay, pastor. Present 
attendance, fifty; membership, twenty. 

The National City Baptist Mission is located 
at National City, with Rev. J. F. Childs in 
charge. It was organized in 1889, with a mem- 
bership of thirty. The present attendance does 
not exceed this number. 

The Grand Avenue Baptist Church is located 
on Grand avenue, between Twenty-ninth and 
Thirtieth streets, and is a mission of the First 
Baptist Church. 

It was organized in February, 1889, with a 
membership of thirty. Clifford Hubbell, super- 

The congregation Worshiped at first in a 
store-room on Olive avenue, and on the comple- 
tion of its own house of worship, in August, 
1889, moved into its present quarters. 

The present attendance is eighty. The super- 
intendent is W. R. Guy. 

The Coronado Baptist Mission, located at 
Coronado Beach, has Rev. J. F. Childs for pas- 
tor. It was opened September, 1888, with a 
membership of twenty, being a mission of the 
First Baptist Church of San Diego. The con- 
gregation at present worship in a school-house. 
Present attendance, thirty-five. 

The Old Town Baptist Mission is located in 
the Old Town of San Diego, and under the 
direction of Mrs. L. Crego. The mission was 
organized in 1888 with a membership of twenty- 
five, under the auspices of the First Baptist 
Church of San Diego, and in charge of H. S. 

The congregation worship in a chapel of their 
own, erected in 1888, and number about thirty - 
five. It is a fact of some importance that this 
is the only Protestant religious organization in 
the town, and the only one that was ever in ex- 
istence there. 

The Chollas Valley Baptist Mission, located 


in Chollas valley, was organized November, 

1887, as a mission of the First Baptist Church 
of San Diego, with a membership of twenty. 

The present house ot worship is a school- 
house, near the cemetery. Attendance at the 
Sunday services numbers thirty. C. B. Allen 
is the superintendent. 

The Second Baptist (Colored), organized in 

1888, has Rev. W. E. Sykes as pastor. 

The present membership is tifty-five, with an 
attendance of about seventy-five. 

The Central Christian Church is located on 
Thirteenth street, near F. The elder in charge 
is A. B. Markle. It was organized October, 
1886, with a membership of thirty-five, under 
the eldership of G. R. Hand. The present edi- 
fice was erected in 1888; previous to that time 
meetings were held in the Louis Opera House. 
The present membership is 180, with an attend- 
ance of seventy-five to 150. The society con- 
trols property worth $5,000. 

The Lutheran Chinch was organized in 1888, 
with a membership of thirty-two. Services are 
held in the old Methodist Church on Third 
street, under the direction of Rev. E. R. Wag- 

The society is a flourishing one, with a mem- 
bership of 125, and an attendance of about 100. 

The Sunday-school connected with the church 
is an unusually large one, there being 166 
scholars enrolled. 

The Theosophical Society has three branches 
in the city, known as Point Loma Lodge, Gna- 
tama Branch and Upasana Branch. 

The Point Loma Lodge is the pioneer branch 
and was established in 1887. Meetings are 
held at No. 643 Sixth street every Sunday af- 
ternoon and led by Thomas Docking, M. D., 
the president of the branch. The membership 
of this branch is five, and there is an attendance 
of twelve at the Sunday meetings. 

The Cuatama Branch is an offshoot of the 
Point Loma Lodge and composed mainly of its 
disaffected members. It was organized in 1889, 
with G. H. Stebbins as president. Meetings 
are held at Ash and Second streets every Sun- 

day, being open to the public only on alternate 
Sundays. This branch has twelve members. 

The Upasana Branch is the largest in the 
city, having a charter membership of nineteen. 
It was organized in 1890, with the aid of Bar- 
tram Keightly, private secretary to Madam 
Blavatsky. The meetings of this branch are 
held in the Winona House, and are always open 
to the public. Sidney Thomas is the president. 


The organization of the bench of San Diego 
County took place September 2, 1850, when the 
First Judicial Court convened, the Hon. O. S. 
Witherby, Judge, presiding; Richard Rust, 

This court was in session, as also were the 
Court of Sessions and Probate Court, which 
convened October 14, 1850, until January 6, 
1880, when the Superior Court was established ; 
this court up to the present date has absorbed 
the work of the earlier courts and is able to ac- 
complish all the work. 

In the early history of the courts Los An- 
geles and San Diego counties comprised the 
First Judicial District; San Bernardino County 
then being a part of Los Angeles County. The 
first judge also was appointed by the Legisla- 
ture and not elected by the people as is the 
present custom. Judge Witherby, the first 
presiding judge, has related some very interest- 
ing experiences of his early years on the bench; 
at that time, the only means of traveling long 
distances in this section was in the saddle. The 
judge was obliged to travel three times a year to 
Los Angeles to hold court, and the round trip 
occupied about seven days, — a very lonely jour- 
ney, the country being but sparsely settled, not 
more than half a dozen houses being seen during 
an entire day. 

During this period there were about 150 
voters in San Diego County; any man of the 
proper age was permitted to vote without re- 
gard to nationality. Judge Benjamin Hayes 
was the first judge elected by the people and he 


ini mediately succeeded Judge Witherby, Jan- 
uary 20, 1853. 

There seem to have been few acts of lawless- 
ness of especial interest to note during the 
early history of this court; but two criminal 
executions, sanctioned by the court, have oc- 
curred in the hi-tory of this county and district 
up to the present day. One was for murder; 
the other (in 1850) for stealing. In the latter 
case the criminal was tried under Judge John 
Hayes in 1850, in the Court of Sessions. The 
charge was that said criminal (an American) 
broke into a store and stole some property. 

The law at that time providing that a man 
convicted of stealing should be hung, the court 
had no alternative in the matter and was obliged 
to pronounce the sentence of death. 

Below are named the judges of all courts in 
this district, from the organization of the bench 
to the present day: 


O. S. Witherby September 7, 1850 

Benjamin Hayes January 20, 1853 

Bablo de la Guerra January 11, 1864 

Murray Morrison July 13, 1868 

Horace C. Rolfe April 8, 1872 

W. T. McNealey January 12, 1874 

superior court — January 6, 1880. 


W. T. McNealey, holding over. 

John D. Works October 4, 1886 

Edwin Barker August 29, 1887 

John R. Aitkin December 19, 1888 

George Buterbaugh April 3, 1889 

W. L. Bierce April 3, 1889 

THE court of sessions and probate COURT. 


John Hayes October 14, 1850 

C. S. Couts, presiding March 29, 1854 

D. H. liogers March 29, 1854 

John Curry March 29, 1854 

D. B. Kurtz, presiding .... November 19, 1854 


H. C. Ladd November 19, 1854 

C. G. Saunders November 19, 1854 

W. H. Noyes, presiding October 1, 1860 

A. B. Smith October 1, 1860 

D. H. Hollister, presiding June 10, 1861 

W. H. Noyes June 10, 1861 

P. W. Huddlestou June 10, 1861 

J ulio O'Suna March 7, 1864 

Thomas H. Bush November 4, 1867 

Moses A. Luce January 3, 1876, 

to December 31, 1880, when the Superior Court 
was established; during the present year (1889), 
the new law giving to San Diego three Judges 
and three Superior Courts, has gone into effect. 


City Officers — 

Mayor Douglas Gunn 

City Attorney James B. Goodwin 

City Clerk William M. Gassaway 

City Auditor and Assessor G. W. Jorres 

Treasurer and Tax Collector J. M. Dodge 

City Engineer T. M. Shaw- 
Police Judge M.S. Kawson 

Health Officer Dr. D. Goehenaner 

Chief of Boliee James Coyne 

Sewer Inspector I. T. Goldthwait 

Street Superintendent Amos Bettingill 

Blumbing Inspector J. H. Bonder 

City Justice T. J. Hays 

The Board of Aldermen comprises nine 
members, elected at large, and a "Board of 
Delegates," consisting of two elected from 
each of the nine wards. 

The Board of Bublic Works is composed of 
four members. 

The police commissioners are four in num- 
ber, besides the Mayor, president ex officio. 
There are three fire commissioners, and seven 
members of the City Board of Health. 

The amount paid out monthly to maintain 
the city government is, in round figures, 


Count y Officers-- 

W. W. Bowers Senator Fortieth District 

Nestor A. Young. .Assemblyman " " 

"W. D. Hamilton County Clerk 

S. A. McDowell Sheriff 

Ely Haight Recorder and Auditor 

S. Statler . Treasurer 

H. W. Weineke Tax Collector 

J. M. Asher Assessor 

H. C. Sangrehr Surveyor 

O. J. Wellsworth, | n . . , 

T , „ , ' V Constables 

Jose (Jota, j 

W A Sloan, j Justices of the Peace 

T. J. Hays, \ 


Department No. 1 — 

John It. Aitken Judge 

J. W. Girvin Clerk 

F. K. Gallagher Reporter 

Department No. 2 — 

George Puterbaugh Judge 

S. C. Foltz Clerk 

F. Meakin Reporter 

Department No. 3 — 

W. L. Pierce Judge 

J. McNulty Clerk 

W. W. Whitson Reporter 

J. S. Callen Court Commissioner 


J. S. Buck First District 

J. H. Woolman Second District 

Chester Gunn Third District 

J. M. Woods Fourth Dist., and Chairman 

A. J. Stice Fifth District 

E. H. Miller, Deputy County Clerk and ex 
officio Clerk of Board. 


The present fine educational system in Cali- 
fornia grew from small beginnings. The chil- 
dren of Spanish blood came of ignorant parents, 
mostly low-caste soldiers, who themselves could 
neither read nor write. Officers taught their 
own children, and sometimes women would 

gather their own and the little ones of their 
neighbors into a 6ort of dame's school, which 
not infrequently inclnded an ambitious soldier. 
In 1793 a royal order commanded that a school 
be established in each pueblo, apparently for 
the instruction of the Indians. Governor Borica 
began to stir in the matter, and sought out 
available teachers. At San Jose a retired ser- 
geant, Manuel Vargas, had opened the first 
school in the public granary. Willi character- 
istic enterprise, the citizens of San Diego con- 
tributed $250 per year to induce him to 
transfer his enterprise thither, and by Septem- 
ber, 1796, he was established there, having 
twenty-two pupils. The doctrina cristiana was 
ordered to be taught first, then reading and 
writing. The paper for copies was supplied by 
the officials, and when it had served that purpose 
it was collected for wrapping cartridges. Borica 
was an ardent patron of these early educational 

Don Pio Pico remembers having been a pu- 
pil in a class taught in 1813 by one Jose An- 
tonio Carrillo, and having covered many sheets 
of paper with the name " Senor Don Felix 
Maria Callejas." Also there was a school in 
1818. In 1829 there was a school, with eighteen 
pupils, taught for a time by Padre Menendez, 
who received from $15 to $20 per month from 
the municipal funds. During this decade, edu- 
cational matters were greatly fostered by Gov- 
ernor Sola, who contributed largely to their 
support from his private purse. 

In 1868 a public school was taught in the 
barracks. Shortly thereafter, the trustees of the 
school district acquired the land which is now 
occupied by the present school buildings. The 
people residing in the eastern part of the town 
organized a separate district, and built a school- 

The first private school was the academy of 
Professor Oliver, established in 1869. In 1873 
this gentleman sold the school building to Miss 
S. M. Gunn, who removed it to another site, 
improved it to such an extent that it was sub- 
stantially a new building, and in it established 


the San Diego Academy. Later, in 1873, Rev. 
D. F. McFarlaad opened a private seminary, 
which suspended in 1875; and still later, in 
1873, Mrs. O. W. Gates established the Point 
Loma Seminary. 

San Diego i.s now behind none in educational 
facilities. The new charter assures to the city 
a judicious and well managed school system, 
aud a progressive board of education insures 
its carrying out. Some idea of the recent growth 
of the schools may be gained from the follow- 
ing figures: On September 18, 1888, there 
were 1,639 pupils and 37 teachers. On March 
8, 1889, there were 1,847 pupils. During the 
month of December, 1889, there were enrolled 
2,215 pupils, and a constant corps of 61 ex- 
perienced teachers. Handsome new school- 
houses have replaced the poor and inadequate 
buildings of a year ago, and others are projected. 
During the past year have been erected the 
Sherman Heights building, which cost $25,000, 
and the B street building, costing $26,750. 
They each contain four basement rooms, eight 
session-rooms, a large assembly-room, a princi- 
pal's office, closets, store-rooms, and laboratories. 
The halls are very large and airy, the ventilation 
perfect, and the architectural effects very pleas- 
ing. Another building is to be erected shortly, 
of the same size as these, which will favorably 
bear comparison with other school edifices 
wherever. There are also two other large build- 
ings, the Kuss aud the Middletown school, of 
eight to ten session-rooms each; and there is 
the Coronado school with five rooms, the East 
with five, the Sherman with four, the North 
with two, and five suburban schools of one 
room each. The enrollment for December in 
all the schools was 2,215. The number of 
teachers employed is sixty-one, including a 
special teacher of music, and a special teacher 
of drawing. The High School, which is in the 
Kuss building, has ninety-two pupils. The 
course covers sufficient ground to enable grad- 
uates to enter the State University without ex- 
amination. The curriculum includes Latin, 
French, and German. Such pupils as complete 

only the common-school course are thoroughly 
grounded in the common-school branches of an 
English education, with an elementary knowl- 
edge of the modern sciences; and those in the 
eighth grade receive such a thorough drill in 
elementary book-keeping as fits them to take 
charge of the books of any common small 

Rev. B. F. McDaniels, a member of the board 
of education, is an enthusiastic and energetic 
worker. He introduced into the schools this year 
a system of savings banks, which is a complete suc- 
cess. The children have deposited $1,376.14 in 
the savings bank in the four months since it 
was introduced into the schools. Besides saving 
so much money from useless and sometimes 
harmful expenditure, the children are acquiring 
habits of thoughtful economy and thrift, an 
appreciation of the value and the proper use of 
money, and some practical knowledge of the 
manner of transacting business in banks. 

It is proposed also to give the pupils of the 
public schools of San Diego the benefit of 
manual training in connection with industrial 

The total number of pupils enrolled is 3,282; 
the average daily attendance is 1,973. 

In addition to the public schools, there are vari- 
ous private institutions of learning, as follows: 

The Southwest Institute, established by Mrs. 
M. E. Pierce in 1886. This is a boarding and 
day school for girls and boys. Since 1889 it 
has been under the charge of Miss May and 
Miss Kinney. Some ninety pupils are in at- 

The Academy of Our Lady of Peace was 
established in 1882 by the Sisters of St. Joseph. 
It is under the management of the main con- 
vent at South St. Louis. This is a boarding 
and day school. There are some 225 pupils in 
attendance, under the immediate supervision of 
Mother Valeria, the Sister Superior. 

Miss Phillips' School for Boys and Girls is 
an institution established in 1890, for the pri- 
mary and intermediate grades, admitting day 
pupils only. 


The San Diego Business College was organ- 
ized April 1, 1888, under the direction of Pro- 
fessor Phillips, as the business department of 
the University of Southern California, but it is 
now operated independently. At present there 
are twenty-five pupils in attendance. 

The Indian Training School is located at Old 
Town. It is under the direction and manage- 
ment of Father Ubach, of the Roman Catholic 
Church of St. Joseph, at San Diego. 

This school was established in 1866. It has 
at present in attendance some seventy-five pu- 
pils, mostly Indians. 

There are in charge as teachers four Sisters 
of the Roman Catholic faith, and also a farmer 
and a mechanic, who give special instructions 
in their respective branches. 

The Conservatory of Music was established 
in September, 1887, as a branch of the Uni- 
versity of Southern California. It is commonly 
known as the musical department of the College 
of Fine Arts, which is in course of construction 
ou University Heights, San Diego, its comple- 
tion being retarded by the great financial de- 
pression existing at present. This institution 
is now conducted independently of the Uni- 
versity. Professor J. H. Hill is at its head at 
present, having under his charge ninety pupils 
pursuing the course of the different depart- 
ments. A number of prominent citizens, in- 
cluding Mrs. W. J. Hunsaker, Altamirano, M. 
Johnson and Mrs. H. L. Story, have offered 
valuable medals to the pupils most diligent and 
most successful in their studies, the awards to 
be made at the annual public concert (held iu 
June) of the institution. 


The number of school districts in San Diego 
County, including the city, is 110. There are 
181 teachers, who hold the following grades of 
certificates: Grammar school course or high 
school, six; grammar grade, 103; primary 
grade, seventy-two. The amount paid during 
the last school year, ending June 30, 1889, to 
these teachers, was $109,190.73, an average of 

$69.75, or to female teachers $68.40, per month. 
The expenditures for the year were as follows: 

Teachers' salaries $109,190.73 

Contingent expenses 38,536.5;; 

School Libraries 2,317.58 

Apparatus 1,857.34 

School sites, buildings and furniture 95,894.58 

Total $247,790.76 

The total amount received from various 
sources was: 

State School Fund $ 75,563.28 

County Sch-ool Taxes 72,786.32 

City and District Taxes 170,573.85 

Total $318,923.45 

The total amount invested in school lots, 
houses, furniture, libraries, apparatus, etc., is 
$310,543, divided as follows: 

School lots, houses and furniture $293,148 

Libraries 11,021 

School apparatus 6,374 

Total $310,543 

To the above must be added the value of 
school-houses and furniture, added, or now 
under contract k since the close of the last school 
year, which increases the above total by $50,000, 
making the present valuation $360,543. 

The average number of months that school 
was in session during the year in the various 
districts was eight and two-tenths; the total 
number of children enrolled was 6,987; the 
average number belonging to school, 4,586; and 
the average daily attendance 4,279, or ninety- 
three per cent., a very large percentage of at- 

The total number of census children (chil- 
dren from five to seventeen years <5f age) in the 
110 districts is 8,319, divided as follows: 
whites, 8,197; negroes, eighty-seven; Indians 
under white guardianship, thirty; native-born 
Mongolians, five. Of the 6,986 enrolled chil- 
dren before mentioned, ninety-four were in the 
high school grade; rive in the grammar school 
course; 875 in the grammar grade, and 6,012 
in the primary grade. 

The City Board of Education is composed of 


a president, the City Superintendent of Schools, 
and two members from each of the nine wards 
of the city. 

The County Board of Education comprises 
the County Superintendent of Schools and four 
other members Irom various school districts. 
This board meets on the Thursday preceding 
the first Monday in January, April, July and 

There are 110 school districts in the county. 
The number of teachers employed, including 
San Diego city, is about 200. 

The County Superintendent of Schools is 
R. D. Butler, and the City Superintendent of 
San Diego is Eugene de Burn. 

San Diego's first newspaper, the Herald, was 
established by J. Judson Ames, on May 29, 
1851. It devoted much 6pace to transconti- 
nental railway news, and the meetings held to 
raise subsidies to bring a Southern railroad to 
San Diego, as elsewhere stated in the annals of 
this decade. State division was also canvassed 
at this early day, and became somewhat of a 
hobby with the Herald. This was a Demo- 
cratic organ, ardently espousing the interests of 
Governor Bigler. During the absence of Ames 
on political business in San Francisco, the Her- 
ald was edited by Lieutenant J. H. Derby, of 
the United States Topographical Engineers, 
who promptly changed its politics, nailing the 
Whig standard to the mast-head, and support- 
ing the ticket with great zeal and enthusiasm. 
The wit of Derby, or, as he was known in print, 
"Phoenix," was something phenomenal; and 
the columns of that remote provincial journal, 
while under his administration, sparkled with a 
brilliancy not common in metropolitan issues. 
In 1859 the Herald suspended. For nine years 
(1859 to 1868) San Diego had no newspaper. 

On October 10, 1868, the San Diego Union 
was founded by Gatewood & Briseno. It was 
issued as a weekly until March 20, 1871, and 
thereafter as a weekly and daily. In 1869 
Taggart & Bushyhead were the publishers; j n 

1870 and 1871 they were Dodge & Bushyhead; 
from July, 1871, to June, 1873, Bushyhead & 
Gunn; thereafter Douglas Gunn was the pub- 
lisher until the plant was sold in 1886 to the 
Union Company. For sixteen years (1870 to 
1886) Hon. Douglas Gunn, now (1889) Mayor 
of San Diego, was the Union's editor, and his 
ability brought it up to a high degree of excel- 
lence and prominence. It is now issued as a 
daily and weekly. 

In May, 1870, W. H. Gould established the 
Bulletin, which was published as a weekly until 
May, 1871, and then, until June, 1872, as a 
daily and weekly. 

The World was established June, 1872, by 
W. J. Gatewood, and continued about two years 
ae a daily and weekly. 

From 1875 until 1877 the News was pub- 
lished by J. M. Julian & Co. 

Mrs. C. P. Taggart established the Sun, and 
sold it after a time to the Sun Publishing Com- 
pany, which comprised a number of the leading 
citizens of San Diego. In 1886 it was pur- 
chased by Warren Wilson, who with great suc- 
cess continued it until he sold it in February, 
1889, to the present Sun Publishing Company, 
in which Walter G. Smith and W. E. Simpson 
are the principal stockholders, who issue it as a 
daily and weekly. 

In May, 1885, D. P. St. Clair started the 
San Diego Californian, which encountered 
many vicissitudes during its career of some two 

J. M. Julian, Ed. J. Bacon and Julian Regan 
established, in 1885, the Democratic San I)ie- 
gan, W'hich was sold in February, 1889, to Sul- 
livan & Waite, the present publishers, who issue 
it daily and weekly. 

A few years since, Clara S. Foltz, in conjunc- 
tion with Messrs. Cothran and Benjamin, estab- 
lished the Bee, which, after one or two changes, 
became absorbed by the Union Company. 

The Bennett Brothers, in 1887, established 
the JVews, which they issued as a daily for six 
months, and then removed it to Ensenada, 
Lower California. During the "boom" period 


a number of other publications sprang into 
ephemeral existence, only to expire again very 
shortly. The Coronado Argus, the Sunday 
Telegram, the Sunday News, and the Pacific 
Beach, are among these ill-fated children of the 

Besides the journals already mentioned as 
surviving, San Diego city has at the present 
time (December, 1889) the following: County 
Reporter, weekly; JVeuigkeiten, weekly; Ar- 
gosy, weekly; Enterprise, weekly; Sued-Cali- 
fornia Deutsche-Zeitung, weekly; Informant, 
weekly; Great Southwest, monthly; Young 
Men's Journal, monthly; West American Sci- 
entist, monthly; and Golden Era Magazine, 
the oldest illustrated magazine on the Pacific 
coast, established thirty-seven years ago. 

In the interior the following are the points 
which support local newspapers, the names of 
which, together with those of their editors, are 
appended: San Jacinto, The Register, Arthur 
G. Munii; Escondido, The Times, James 
Trownsell; Oceanside, The Herald, J. M. Mar- 
tin; Del Mar, The Coast Vidette, Sam. F. Da- 
vis; Julian, The Sentinel, J. A. Jasper; Otay, 
The Press, A. J. Jenkins; Perris, The Valley 
Union, H. McPhee, National City. 


The Masonic order is the oldest in date of 
the fraternal organizations of San Diego. The 
senior lodge, San Diego Lodge, No. 35, was 
granted its charter May 6, 1853. The first offi- 
cers were: James W. Robinson, Master; Philip 
Crosthwaite, S. W., and William EL Moon, J. 
W. This lodge met in Old Town until 1877, 
when it removed to its present lodge rooms. 

San Diego Lodge, No. 153, of the Independ- 
ent Order of Odd Fellows, was organized 
March 23, 1869. Its first officers were: John 
R. Porter, N. G.; Alex. M. Young, V. G.; F. 
Marlette, R. S., and S. Culverwell, T. 

Monument Lodge of Good Templars wa6 in- 
stituted April 2, 1869. A list of its first offi- 
cers is not obtainable. 

The following is a list of the secret orders or 

fraternal societies at present existing in San 
Diego : 

A. O. F. Court of San Diego, No. 7,592, or- 
ganized January 1, 1870. Has ninety-five mem- 
bers. A. O. F., Court of San Diego, No. 1,799, 
organized 1889. Has fifty-four members. 

A. O. U. W., Point Loma Lodge, No. 248, 
organized June, 1887, membership, 100; San 
Diego Lodge, No. 160, organized January 30, 

1880, membership, 85; Loyal Knights, Cuya- 
maca Legion, No. 20, organized June, 1889, 
membership, thirty; A. & A. S. R., Constans 
Lodge of Perfection, No. 15, organized May 
13, 1887, membership, 22; Caledonian Society, 
organized 1889, membership, eighty-four; F. 
& A. M., San Diego Chapter, No. 61, R. A. M.; 
San Diego Commandery, No, 25, K. T. ; South- 
ern Star Chapter & Order of the Eastern Star, 
No. 96, organized 1889, membership, eighty; 
G. A. R., Heintzelman Post, No. 33, organized 

1881, membership, 325; I. O. O. F., Coronado 
Lodge, No. 328, organized December 1, 1886, 
membership, 105; Canton Lodge, San Diego, No. 
22, membership, thirty-two; Centennial En- 
campment, No. 58, membership, 110; General 
Relief Committee; Silver Gate Rebecca Degree 
Lodge, No. 141, organized 1889, membership, 
fifty; Knights of the Golden Eagle, San Diego 
Castle, No. 2, organized August 22, 1887, and 
reorganized February 6, 1889, membership, 
fifty -two; Knights of Pythias, Red Star Lodge, 
No. 153, organized September 28, 1887; San 
Diego Lodge, No. 28, organized 1872, member- 
ship, 125; Native Sons of the Golden West, San 
Diego Parlor, No. 108, organized June, 1887, 
membership, eighty-four; O. C. F., San Diego 
Council, No. 92, organized 1881, membership, 
forty; Concordia Turnverein, formed February 
1, 1890, by an amalgamation of the San Diego 
and the Phoenix Turnvereins, membership, 100; 
Sous of Veterans, U. S. Camp, No. 21, organized 
September, 1889, membership, twenty-eight; 
Royal Arcanum, San Diego Council, No. 1,214, 
organized December 5, 1889, membership, 
thirty-three; I. O. B. B., Lasker Lodge, No. 370, 
organized 1886, membership, thirty. 


None of the organizations heretofore enu- 
merated own the buildings wherein they hold 
their various meetings. The edifice known as 
"Odd Fellows' Hall," and also as "Masonic Hall," 
is owned by a stock company composed of repre- 
sentatives from these two societies, associated 
with another party; thus, while the building is 
devoted to the purposes of these fraternities, it 
is not controlled by either one exclusively. It 
is a three-story edifice, substantial and with 
good appointments. 

There are, moreover, the following organ- 
izations: Sons of Temperance, Golden Gate 
Division, No. 50, organized November, 1889, 
membership, twenty-one; San Diego Typo- 
graphical Union, No. 221, membership, sixty; 
United Endowment Associates, organized Octo- 
ber, 1889, membership, thirty-two. 

Furthermore, there are various societies of a 
miscellaneous character, with interests scientific, 
philanthropic, social, and athletic, including: 
San Diego Society of Natural History, organ- 
ized November 2, 1874, membership, thirty-six; 
Society for the Improvement and Beautifying 
of San Diego; San Diego County Medical So- 
ciety, organized December, 1886, membership, 
forty-two; President, Dr. T. L. Magee; Vice- 
Fresident, Dr. F. 11. Burnham; Secretary and 
Treasurer, Dr. Edwin Carson; the Cuyamaca 
Club, membership, ninety one; the Mizpah 
Club, organized July, 1888, membership, sixty; 
Excelsior Rowing & Swimming Club, organized 
June, 1888, membership, seventy; Silver Gate 
Athletic Club, organized September, 1889, 
membership, 100; Seventh Ward Lyceum, or- 
ganized September, 1889, membership, 100; 
Women's Industrial Exchange, organized in 
1887, for the aid and the general benefit of 
women; the Young Men's Christian Associ- 
ation, organized April 27, 1882, reorganized 
September 29, 1884: Women's Christian Tem- 
perance Union, organized 1881 for the county, 
whose membership is forty; for city, organized 
1883, incorporated 1890, having a membership 
of forty-seven; Young Women's Christian Tem- 
perance Union, organized in 1890, as an aux- 

iliary of the San Diego Union; Women's 
"Central" Christian Temperance Union, organ- 
ized April, 1887, membership, thirty. 

The City Guard Band was organized on 
January 7, 1885, and their first public engage- 
ment was during the great local exhibit of 
agricultural products at Armory Hall in the 
same year, shortly after the completion of the 
California Southern Railway. At that time the 
leader was C. A. Burgess, who was succeeded 
in the following year by C. M. Walker. In the 
month of August, 1887, the late R. J. Pennell 
and J. M. Dodge conceived the idea of sending 
the band East for the purpose of advertising 
the city and county. Within three weeks no 
less a sum than $8,000 had been subscribed, 
and the band, numbering twenty-one pieces, 
started out. Thej were absent forty-two days, 
and journeyed to Boston and back, and spent 
eight days at the G. A. R. Encampment at St. 
Louis, where they were given the place of honor 
at the head of the procession, in which nearly 
fifty bands, from all parts of the Union, partici- 
pated. Before returning they visited every im- 
portant city in the States, and did much good 
work. They carried with them a banner bear- 
ing the legend, "San Diego, California," besides 
considerable literature of value for general dis- 
tribution. The band is in a better condition 
now than ever before. It has magnificent quar- 
ters, a library valued at over $4,000, and owes 


San Diego can boast of one of the most 
efficient brigades on the coast. It was organ- 
ized by the Board of Fire Commissioners created 
by the charter. This board is composed of J. P. 
Burt, president; J. K. Hamilton and E. F. Rock- 
fellow, the last named being the long term mem- 
ber. Henry Bradt is the secretary. The board 
elected A. B. Cairnes as chief on the 5th of 
June last, since which date, under his efficient 
supervision, the department has been made what 
it is. The total strength of the department is 
forty-two, in addition to which there is still a 
volunteer company doing duty in the Land and 


Town Company's addition. The force consists 
of one chief, two engineers, five foremen, six- 
drivers and twenty-eight firemen. There are 
two steam tire engines, two hose carriages, one 
hose wagon and two hook and ladder wagons. 
There are eleven horses, all in the best condi- 
tion, and a credit to those who have them in 
their care. There is a good electric alarm sys- 
tem, by which the various companies are noti- 
fied simultaneously in case of fire. 

Since the reorganization of the department in 
June last, there have been eight fires, resulting 
in a loss to property of $3,200, the loss in every 
instance being fully covered by insurance. 

The Consolidated National is the successor of 
the .Bank of San Diego (the first in the county, 
established in 1870) and the Commercial Bank. 
The union of the two banks in the present 
establishment took place in 1879, the president 
then being 0. S. Witherby, and the manager 
Bryant Howard. Its stockholders represent over 
$7,000,000 worth of property. Its present presi- 
dent is Bryant Howard, and the vice-president 
and acting cashier, J. H. Barbour. 

The doors of the California National were 
opened for business January 9, 1888. On De- 
cember 31, 1889, this bank had a paid up capi- 
tal of $250,000; undivided profits of $60,000 
cash; sight exchauge of $350,000, and a line of 
deposits of almost $900,000. The officers are: 
William Collier, president; D. D. Dare, vice- 
president; J. W. Collins, cashier. 

In the same building and under the same 
management is the California Mortgage, Loan 
and Trust Company, with a paid up capital of 

The Savings Bank of San Diego County oc- 
cupies the same rooms as the Consolidated 
National Bank, and was the first savings bank 
established in the county. It has been very 
successful, having paid its depositors larger 
dividends than any other savings bank in the 
State. As the State law holds the stockholders 

liable for deposits in proportion to the demands 
of their capital stock, without limit, and as the 
stockholders <>f this bank are nearly the same as 
those of the Consolidated National Bank, this 
is among the strongest and safest institutions 
in California. 

The first National Bank opened in 1884, with 
a capital of $50,000. Its paid up capital is 
now over $300,000 in gold coin, being the 
greatest of any bank in the county. It has paid 
liberal dividends, and has a surplus of $700,000. 
Its present officers are: J. Gruendike, presi- 
dent; R. A. Thomas, vice-president; Jerry 
Toles, cashier. 


The traffic to and from San Diego is carried 
by the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe system, 
the San Diego, Cuyamaca & Eastern road, the 
Pacific Coast Steamship Company, the Spreckels 
line of clipper ships, the pioneer line from New 
York, and the Mexican, International, Pacific 
and Gulf of California steamship lines. All 
these companies report a good business, with 
prospects of a very prosperous year for 1890. 
Other railroad and steamship lines are ex- 
pected to reach San Diego in the near future, 
which will be an important feature in her 

The year just closed has been a successful 
one to the California Southern (of the Santa Fe 
system). The following record of freight ship- 
ments shows a fair increase for the year: 



January 8,253,990 $53,0(59.50 

February 5,770,778 24,816.09 

March 3,473,207 22,4:14.14 

April 5,336,404 18,270.48 

May 4,641.080 19,852.53 

June 6,388,213 26,203.03 

July 9,849,970 36,365.24 

August 8,032,209 31,944.70 

September 8,698,779 29,045.88 

October 8,607,313 25,515.58 

November 7,745,160 24,858.06 

December 4,482,397 22,377.88 

Total 81,296,414 



January. . 







. . 9,355,000 $18,763. 

. . 7,342,950 14,346. 

.. 9,023,750 17,449, 

. . 9,695,370 59,490 

.11,689,150 20,359. 

.. 9,041,360 16,285. 

.. 9,952,660 14,919. 

August 10,560,770 17,178. 

September 7,326,960 16,701. 

October 16,172,270 35,730 

November 8,449,930 21,585. 

December 4,566,250 50,794. 

Total 1 13,694,930 $223,402.48 

The two tables show a very good percentage 
in favor of San Diego. During the year 81,000,- 
000 pounds of freight were received, and 113,- 
000,000 pounds were shipped. There were 
82,000,000 pounds more shipped than received. 
The bulk of the shipment out has been coal, 
lumber and general merchandise to Los Angeles 
and surrounding towns, while the shipments in 
are largely from the East, so that the revenue 
derived by the railway is larger from the long 
haul than from the short haul out. 

Owing to discriminating rates against San 
Diego by the Santa Fe" many thousand bushels 
of wheat and barley from San Jacinto and other 
rich sections of the county naturally tributary 
to San Diego have been shipped to San Fran- 
cisco via Lo6 Angeles. The matter of discrim- 
inating rates has been investigated by the 
Chamber of Commerce, and the Santa Fe people 
have pledged themselves to give San Diego an 
equal show with Los Angeles. This means that 
San Diego will get the business, for lower rates 
prevail from San Diego by ocean than from Los 
Angeles, whicli* must also include a rail ship- 
ment of nearly thirty miles before reaching the 

The passenger business of the year is repre- 
sented by the ticket sales which have amounted 
to $200,000 during the year. The number of 
pieces of baggage received during the year was 
16,130. The number of pieces forwarded was 
15,849, showing nearly 1000 more pieces re- 
ceived than forwarded. 

During the past year but two steamer lines 
entered the port. The year has seen one other 
begun, and the plans laid for still others. 

From the Pacific Coast Steamship Company 
plying between San Francisco and San Diego 
and intermediate ports, the following report is 
received regarding its use of the harbor: 


° § b 

fc B Q 

o m h 
=° 2 S- 
r, s b 

g « " 
<" fc m 

£ H « 

g a S 

w S « 

| g g 







46 2 

1 ~ ~ 












| 8454 | 4621 | 6012 

During part of the year steamers of the line 
arrived every three days, and part of the time 
every four days. The steamers have been 
changed several times, and at present the two 
vessels on the line are the Corona and Mexico. 
The latter has, however, made her last trip, and 
the Santa Rosa, a much larger and speedier 
boat, takes her place on the next trip. 

During the year 1888 the number of tons of 
freight received was 50,145; shipped 2,792; 
passengers arrived 10,849; passengers departed 
17,058. The same year three boats were run- 
ning part of the time, and there was a heavy 
tourist travel. 

The Pioneer Line. — Henry L. Davis, repre- 
senting several New York shipping firms, has 
gone to the great metropolis of America to start 
ihe first ship of the Pioneer Line to San Diego. 
The object in establishing this line is to do a 
general freighting business between New York 
and Southern California, San Diego being the 
landing point for the vessels on the line. Mr. 
Davis has built a large warehouse here, and 
states that New York merchants are beginning 
to take a special interest in Sail Diego, as it will 


be the nearest western harbor to the western 
outlet of the Nicaragua canal. 

The Spreckels Line. — J. D. Spreckels has als-o 
put on a line of ships from New York to San Di- 
ego and controls more ships thai) any other man 
whose wares cross the Pacific. The freight rate 
for goods shipped by vessel from New York to 
San Diego is only about one-half that of goods 
shipped by rail, and hence these new lines will 
be largely patronized. Mr. Spreckels is one of 
America's shrewdest shippers, and now has ten 
or fifteen ships en route from the various parts 
of the world to San Diego. 

The Mexican International Line. — The full 
name of the above company is the Mexico, In- 
ternational, Pacific and Gulf of California 
Steamship Line. Two steamers are owned by 
this company — the Manuel Dublan and Carlos 
Pacheco. The former, which is much the larger 
of the two, makes three trips a week to Ensen- 
ada with passengers and freight, and two trips 
a month to San Quentin. The Carlos Pacheco 
alone was used until about three months ago, 
when the business increased so rapidly that the 
Manuel Dublan was put on in her stead. 

Importation and Exportation Line. — The 
Southern California Importation and Exporta- 
tion Company was recently formed here by W. 
De Silva and Ohlmeyer Brothers & Company. 
These people have seen the advantages of run- 
ning a line of steamers from this port to Mexi- 
can and Gulf of California ports, and propose to 
occupy the field. Their San Diego office is in 
the Louis block, and as soon as the steamer 
which they have purchased in London, aud 
which is now coming around the Horn, arrives, 
she will be put into service. The steamer is 
about the size of the Corona. If her operation 
proves a success, and there is no reason to be- 
lieve she will not, other steamers will be put on 
the line with her. 

The Opposition Line. — Within the past two 
months another San Francisco line has begun 
running a steamer into this port, making the 
trip about every ten days. The steamer Santa 
Maria is the only one of the line thus far put 

on, but it is the intention to increase the service 
should the business warrant. 


The San Diego Benevolent Institution, to re- 
lieve the deserving poor, was organized some 
years since. Its income is from voluntary con- 
tributions and from an allowance of $100 
monthly from the county funds. 

The San Diego County Hospital and Poor 
Farm, established July 1, 1872, had received up 
to July, 1889, 1,237 patients. Its capacity is 
some sixty patients. 

The Catholic Ladies' Aid Society, organized 
April, 1888, is a well equipped and organized 
body for the succor of the poor of all creeds and 

The Brewster Sanitarium is not yet running, 
though the property for its establishment, val- 
ued at $25,000, in Paradise Valley, has been 
deeded for the purpose by Mrs. Elizabeth A. 

The Free Dispensary, founded by Dr. G. H. 
Schmitt, early in 1888, treated, during the year 
1889, cases to the number of 1,910. In con- 
nection with it, is established a system of med- 
ical insurance against illness and accident. 

The Hospital of the Good Samaritan, under 
the management of a number of the leading 
ladies of San Diego, receives as patients gratis 
those unable to pay for attendance, as well as 
paying patients. This hospital was incorporated 
November, 1877. 


The County Jail, situated in the basement of 
the court-house was built in 1872, and has ac- 
commodation for ninety male.and ten female 
prisoners. It is under the immediate charge of 
the sheriff and his deputy. 

The City Prison is situated at the corner of 
India and F streets and is in charge of the 
chief of police. There are accommodations for 
fifty prisoners. 


The San Diego Street Car Company closed 
the books of 1889 with ten miles of street car 


lines in operation, and eleven miles of motor 
lines. They have thirty-three cars, 150 horses, 
and give employment to sixty men. During 
the year they carried 1,587,807 passengers, a 
notable increase over the preceding twelve 

The San Diego Cable Road Company was in- 
corporated in August, 1889, with a capital re- 
source of $500,000, represented by some of the 
wealthiest citizens of San Diego. In June, 
1890, they have built four miles of track, on 
which twelve cars are in operation, with an in- 
creased number available at need. 


During the earlier years of existence, San 
Diego had no larger regular military force than 
others of the establishments, and it only became 
a regular presidio under a new reglamento in 

.During the decade 1791-1800 there was 
maintained in California a military force of 280 
men of the presidial companies, a governor and 
a surgeon; and, after 1796, ninety Catalan vol- 
unteers and artillerymen. Of officers, twelve 
were commissioned, thirty-five non-commis- 
sioned; there were 260 privates, sixty pension- 
ers and four or five mechanics. The term of 
enlistment was for ten years, or eighteen years' 
service for retirement as invalids on half-pay. 
Recruits were so scarce that often pensioners 
were long retained in the service. The annual 
salaries ranged from $96, paid an invalid soldier, 
to $840, paid the Captain of Catalan volunteers, 
and $4,000 to the Governor, who was Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel. Military discipline appears to have 
been very slack, and various un-soldierly duties 
were imposed upon the men. No flags were 
possessed here until 1795, when one for each 
garrison was sent from Mexico. In 1797 arms 
and ammunition were distributed among the 
settlers, whom it was attempted to organize as 
militia, in view of apprehended foreign attack. 
Down to 1819, the San Diego force was 100 
men, including two officers, sixty-nine soldiers of 
the presidial company, twenty-three invalids. 

four artilerymen and two mechanics. Of these 
sometifty-tive were in San Diego presidio. When 
Portilla came with his Mazatlan company, tifty- 
five of them remained at San Diego; it must be 
remembered that this presidio still held military 
jurisdiction over San Gabriel. No soldier or 
officers received any pay during that decade. 

By the decade 1831-1840, the garrison of 
San Diego was scarcely more than farcical, the 
forces had long been unpaid, and from 1837 the 
presidio was abandoned. 

On his visit to San Diego in January, 1842, 
Duflot de Mofras found a few soldiers and one 
officer at the pueblo, and a few cannon half- 
buried among the ruins and in the sand at the 
old presidio. These, together with the poten- 
tial balls to be found at the old fort, the prefect 
instructed Jose A. Estudillo to bring away, in 
October of that year; this removal was rendered 
unnecessary when, in the next month, Captain 
Phelps of the Alert, in connection with the 
Jones affair, spiked the guns and threw into the 
bay the rest of the small furniture. This prac- 
tically ended the old presidio existence, the last 
trace of which is found in a report made that 
month by the Alferez, Salazar, that he had a 
total force of fourteen men, with neither guns 
nor ammunition. 

The year 1846 witnessed the establishment of 
a military post at San Diego, the troops being 
quartered at the old mission until 1856. The 
post was commanded during various periods by 
Heintzelmau, Magruder, Burton, Winder and 
Fauntleroy. Captain Winder, who resigned 
from the army a few years since, and who is 
now a well-known citizen of San Diego, arrived 
at the post in 1854, with two companies of the 
Third Artillery. His company was assigned to 
escort the first survey for the Pacific Railroad 
under Lieutenant Parke of the Topographical 
Engineers; this expedition set out March 26, 
1855. It was under directions to explore the 
outlet of the Mojave river, and did discover the 
point of its disappearance at Soda Lake. 

While Colonel Magruder was in command at 
the Mission, in 1854, a military execution took 


place there, under sentence of a court martial, 
for the murder on the desert of Colonel Craig. 
A large concourse of spectators gathered at the 
post to witness their execution. 

The barracks at New Town were built in 1851, 
but the building was not occupied by troops 
until the arrival of the volunteers in 1862, it 
having been originally designed for a military 
storehouse and depot. Major McKinstry was 
in charge of the depot as Chief Quartermaster, 
and large trains were despatched thence with 
supplies for the troops at Yuma and other 
western points. 

The Government maintained a military post 
at Sau Diego until 1867, although on the out- 
break of the civil war, the regular troops were 
transported by steamer to the East, to partici- 
pate in operations there, while their place at 
San Diego was supplied by volunteer forces. 
Prior to this time the water supply for the bar- 
racks had been conveyed down thither from the 
Mission valley, but Captain A- S. Grant, who 
arrived with the volunteers, made the notable 
discovery that good water could be had by sink- 
ing a well, and the first one at the post was 
sunk by him, in what is now known as Sher- 
man's addition. 

Although the military post was finally re- 
duced in 1866, a few troops have been there 
quartered much of the time since then, a de- 
tachment occupying the barracks at present. 

It is not unlikely that the Government will 
deem it wise to re-establish a military post at 
San Diego in the future, as it affords one of 
the most favorably situated points on the coast 
for the purposes of a military depot. 

The rest of San Diego's military defenses is 
represented by the First Brigade National 
Guard of California, Ninth Infantry Regiment, 
Rawlins Cadwallader commanding; and by 
Company B, San Diego Guards organized in 
April, 1881. Douglas Gunn is the present 

An excellent idea of the commerce of San 
Diego may be had from the appended state- 
ments of statistics relative to 


The fiscal year at the custom house ends on 
the 30th of each June. The records as kept there 
relate to the h'scal year only. The following 
shows the collections at the custom house for the 
years ending June 30, during the past decade: 

1880 $ 23,583 

1881 24,382 

1882 ^53.089 

1883 91,139 

1881 12,601 

1885 5,789 

1886 10,717 

1887 29,845 

188M 311,935 

1889 ». 156,176 

The value of the exports from the port dur- 
ing the past three years has been, — 

Ending June 30, 1887 $ 165,909 

" 30,1888 371,360 

" 30,1889 376,799 

To December 31, 1889 164,817 

The number of vessels entering from foreign 
ports during the same year has been, 

Ending June 30, 1887 116 

" 30,1888 284 

'■ 30,1889 225 

To December 31, 1889 89 


During the tame period there have cleared 

from the port for foreign ports vessels as follows: 

Ending June 30, 1887 109 

" 30,1888 233 

« 30,1889 181 

To December 31, 1889 67 

San Diego district stands third on the list as 
an economic district, as in only two other dis- 
tricts is the cost of collection less in proportion 
to the amount collected, than it is here. 

During the present year an experiment has 
been tried which in itself was successful in 
more ways than one. Three vessels which ar- 
rived here coal laden secured cargoes out for 
Seattle and went there for cargoes of wheat. 


The Highland Light cleared with 208 tons of 
brick and 140 tons of hay; the Southern Chief 
took away 330 tons of brick, 305 tons of hay, 
and twelve tons of lime; the Richard III, 
loaded with 110 tons of common brick, 167 
tons of pressed brick, 277 tons of hay, and 112 
tons of barley, the three shipments being as 
foil .ws: by the Highland Light, 348 tons; by 
the Southern Chief, 647 tons; by the Richard 
III, 666 tons; making a total of 1,661 tons 
sent out. These are the first shipments sent 
north, and the success of the same may lead to 
a large business in that direction in the future. 

The trade with Mexico shows a large increase 
over that of last year, although it is not easy to 
secure all the data necessary for a complete com* 
parison. During the year the Manuel Dnblan 
or the Pacheco has been running regularly, and 
part of the time both. The time during which 
both steamers were running was in February 
and Maich, when the excitement which followed 
the discovery of gold in Alamo caused so great 
an influx of miners and freight, During those 
months the trade both by sea and via Tia Juana 
was considerably heavier, and it has been only 
since that time that, any record has been kept 
which could be secured at the Tia Juana line. 
It is undeniably true, however, that the amount 
of business done heretofore by the line has 
been more than doubled during 1889. 

The following tabulated statement of the 
business done at th« frontier custom-house of 
Mexico shows the extent of this increased traffic 
during the months named. The report for the 
last two months could not be obtained, but the 
amount of business is about the same as that of 
the months preceding. The following is the table: 

Months. No. pack- Value - . Duties col- Total 

ageB. lected. pounds. 

March 7,850 $31,553.00 $11,193.88 375,327 

April 1,293 11,93200 2,372.74 301,669 

May 16,799 46,074.00 3 029. 1 5 225,925 

June 5,993 26,902.00 2,677.62 34'. ,079 

July 9,218 28.965.50 3,490.98 324,470 

August 1,997 19,986.25 2,684.27 372,324 

September.. 4,04* 18,583.50 3,279.65 383,292 

October .... 1,993 3,518.00 3,279.85 404,523 

49,191 $192,514.25 $31,987.14 2,734,589 

Much of this business was transacted from 
here to the line via the National City & Otay 
road, from whence freighters took it to the 
mines, though some of it was freighted on both 
sides of the line. The principal articles which 
enter into the trade with the lower country are: 
Quicksilver, steel in bars, coal, all kinds of 
tools for miners, etc., lumber, machinery for 
mining purposes, hay, grain, giant powder, fuse, 
caps, cotton goods, clothing, cotton, linen and 
wool, brandies, almonds, sugar, sausages, coffee, 
onions, potatoes, beer, chocolate, wines, dried 
fruits, crackers, fruits, flour, lard, butter, honey, 
pastes, dried fish, pepper, cheese, salt, sardines, 
wheat, beans, vinegar, glass articles, steel and 
iron articles, copper sheets, shot, curtains, band 
instruments, watches, hand machines and hand 
mills, carts, wagons, carriages of all kinds, black 
powder, articles manufactured of wood, all 
kinds of furniture, articles manufactured of 
board and paper, saddles, harness and leather 
articles, shoes and leather boots, coal oil, oils of 
all kinds and drugs, brooms, axle grease, soaps, 
chewing tobacco and tobaccos of all kinds, can- 
dles, etc., etc., etc. 

Trade via the steamer line has also greatly 
increased. During the year 1888 the value of 
exports to Mexico was $128,824.86. The in- 
crease is readily seen in the following report 
for the last four months, or since September 1, 
1889. During these four months the number 
of packages handled was 37,119; pounds of 
freight, 1,661,537; feet of lumber, 173,046; 
value of merchandise, $74,620.22. By the 
above it will be seen that the entire business of 
1888 was not twice what it has been during the 
past four months. 

The return business from Lower California is 
not so heavy, consisting principally of gold ore 
and hides, besides bullion. 

At present there is a good trade between the 
western ports of Mexico and San Francisco. 
All of this trade rightly belongs to San Diego, 
and in time she must receive it. This line, 
which it is announced will export and import 
fruits, hides, woods and merchandise in the 


United States and Mexico, will probably be the 
means of first diverting the large business 
which now passes this port on its way north. 

A comparison of the reports of freights re- 
ceived by steamer during the years 1888 and 
1889 will show that the freight received during 
the earlier year was nearly double that received 
during the latter. 

At first glance that would appear to be a bad 
showing, but it is not, for the simple reason 
that in 1889 the back country raised what in 
1888 the steamship company brought from San 
FYancisco. In 1888 a visitor to the wharf just 
after the arrival of a steamer would have seen 
tons of crushed barley and grain brought in 
from the north. During the present year, how- 
ever, hardly a sack lias been brought here for 
home consumption. Barley and grain ship- 
ments for the north by steamer are frequent, 
one of the latest shipments being 220 tons, via 
the Alexander Duncan, from National City. 
In addition the outgoing shipments for the past 
year are nearly double that of 1888. Next 
year the shipment out will be much greater, 
and by 1895, at the present rate of increase, the 
company will need extra steamers to bear away 
the freight which San Diego will produce for 
her northern neighbors. 

Although one importation during the tw-o pre- 
ceding years had overstocked the lumber yards, 
the year 1889 witnessed the importation of 
21,540,97-4 feet, mostly pine and redwood, from 
the north; three cargoes, -ggregating 1,176,440 
feet, of prima- vera logs from Mexico, this indus- 
try being begun during this year. This lumber 
is reshipped to the East, for the manufacture 
of fine furniture; also a total of 128,739 rail- 
road ties. 

Among other imports were 400 tons of pig 
iron, 102 tons tin plates, 75 tons gold ore, 180 
tons of general merchandise and a vast quantity 
of oil brought in the schooners constantly ply- 
ing between this port and Ventura. 

The following is a comparison of the shipping 
business of the port of San Diego with that of 
the ports of San Francisco and San Pedro, the 

figures being taken from the San Francisco 
Shipping Report and Commercial Mews: — 

On the 22d day of July, 1887, the tonnage on 
the way to San Pedro from foreign and eastern 
ports was 21,271 tons; on the same day in 1888, 
it had increased to 47,403 tons, aud on July 22, 
1889, it had fallen off to 4,356 tons, a loss of 
90 per cent, in one year. 

On July 22, 1887, there were 13,946 tons on 
the way to San Diego; one year later it was 
38,001 tons, and on July 22, 1889, it had de 
creased to 20,466 tons. This' is a falling off of 
60 per cent., as against San Pedro's 90 per cent., 
or 25 per cent, in favor of San Diego. 

On July 22, 1887, the total tonnage on the 
way to the port of San Francisco was 264,569 
tons; one year later it had increased ic 324,296 
tons, and on July 22, 1889, it had fallen off to 
241,632 tons. This is a falling off of 40 per 
cent. To summarize, then, San Francisco has 
during the past year decreased 40 per cent., San 
Diego 65 per cent, and San Pedro 90 per cent, 
in tonnage from eastern and foreign points. In 
this showing, San Francisco not having been 
subject to " boom " influences, the falling off 
was due less to reaction than at other ports. 

Compared in many other ways, San Diego 
shows better proportionately than San Fran- 
cisco. For instance, in 1878 (taking the same 
date, July 22, right through) San Pedro had 
21,271 tons on the way, San Diego 13,946, a 
difference in favor of San Pedro of 7,000 tons; 
in 1888 San Diego had 58,001; San Pedro 
47,403, or a difference for the year in favor of 
San Diego of 11,000 tons. Thus, in 1888, San 
Diego not only equaled the 7,000 tons, but 
gained 11,000 tons beside, — a total gain of 
18,000 tons in one year ever San Pedro. 

San Francisco has 23,000 less on the way to- 
day than in 1887; San Pedro 17,000 tons less 
than in 1887, while San Diego has 7,000 tons 
more than she had in 1887. Thus, it will be 
seen, San Francisco tonnage is lower than it 
has been in four years, San Pedro the lowest in 
three years, while San Diego shows an increase 
of 50 per cent. These figures are all official. 



Iii the future of San Diego County the orange 
tree, and more particularly the lemon tree, will 
undoubtedly play a part of great importance. 

This county is the home of the grape. It is 
also the land of the lemon, and it is next door 
neighbor to the abiding place of the orange. 

There is no better index to the healthy and 
steady growth which San Diego now enjoys than 
the reports which the farmers, fruit growers and 
ranchmen daily bring to the city. Scarcely a 
day now passes that does not bring with it a 
number of boxes of oranges for the San Diego 
market. The San Diego County oranges have 
already found a place in the San Francisco 
market, and large' orders have been received for 
this year's crop. Shipments East will begin 
soon, and this year the shipment will be much 
larger than on previous years. Shipments of 
lemons are also beginning to be made, and future 
years will see a great output in this line. 

Some partial index of the belief of the people 
on the subject of this being a fruit country may 
be found in the report published elsewhere of 
the number of fruit trees found by the assessor. 
In 1887 there were 91,000. During the next 
year the people more than doubled this number, 
making 191,000, and in the past year they 
doubled up once more to 380,000. Every indi- 
cation points to the belief that this year the 
doubling process will be continued. 

The acreage of oranges and lemons is hard to 
arrive at with any degree of certainty. Reports 
have been received from some of the horticult- 
ural districts, but not from all, and some of the 
sections in which the citrus fruits are grown are 
not reported at all. This incompleted report 
shows that in San Jacinto and vicinity there are 
85 acres; Perris, 20 acres; Elsinore, 20 acres; 
Wildomar, 20 acres; Murrietta and Temecula, 45 
acres; Fallbrook, 40 acres; San Luis Rey, 50 acres; 
Fala, 45 acres; Escondido, 80 acres; Foway, 40 
acres; Encinitas, 1G acres, and National, 65 acres, 
making a total reported of 526 acres, which is 
probably less than half the acreage, as the Cajon 
country and other ranches are not named. 

During the present year considerable atten- 
tion has been turned to the culture of the lemon. 
Lemon culture is forging ahead of the orange 
or the grape as a money-making investment. 
There are a good many reasons why the lemon 
may be considered better than the orange. I; 
is a heavier bearer, and in maturity the branches 
are continually weighted to the ground. It is 
a ccnstant bearer, the fruit ripening at every 
season of the year, and there is not a week 
throughout the year in which ripened lemons 
may not be picked for the market. Besides this, 
when the lemon is subjected to a process known 
as the Sicily sweat, it is a more valuable pro- 
duction and sells for more money in any market 
than does the orange. 

A Government fruit inspector, recently in 
the county, stated that he knows of no section 
of the country where the trees bear so heavily 
and make such an extensive growth in the same 
year. Mr. Wells, one of the most experienced 
fruit-growers of the Sweetwater valley, states 
that he can almost insure to anyone who desires 
to go into the lemon-raising industry an income 
of §500 per year per acre after the first five 

There are, perhaps, 100,000 acres of choice 
lemon land within easy access of San Diego, 
and there is no reason that the attention of this 
section should not be turned in that direction. 
San Diego can have a monopoly on the lemon 
business, as there is not another section in the 
State where they can be raised so successfully 
as in the bay region. 

With a view to the proper development of 
this great industry, a compauy has been formed 
for the promotion of lemon culture, which hae 
secured possession of 300 acres of fine land jus 
back of National City, and will plant the whole 
of it to lemon trees. Another company has. 
also been formed by other prominent San Diego 
capitalists, who have secured another tract of 
land below National City, and propose going 
into the business also on an extensive scale. 
The returns from this enterprise may not show 
large by next year, but three, four and five 


years hence the lemon companies will be heard 

These two companies will plant upwards of 
20,000 trees this year, if they can get them. 
That is a pointer for another profitable invest- 
ment. The orange and lemon nurserymen will 
make money during the next few years. The 
supply does not equal the demand and the 
prices are therefore kept up. Trees are shipped 
here from Florida and other parts of the South, 
and still the demand continues. The present 
indications are extremely strong that this year 
will witness the planting of many thousand 
trees of all kinds, and grain land and hay land 
must give way to the inarch of fruit. 

There is not a fruit, from the apple and the 
plum, to the banana and the orange,, that does 
not in some portion of the county of San Diego 
reach a high state of excellence. There are 
many portions of the county where better ap- 
ples are grown than can be found in any of the 
older sections of the East. The trees are usually 
sturdy and come into bearing in one-half the 
time they do in the Eastern States. The fruit 
is large, juicy and finely flavored. While this 
is strictly true of the higher sections, or what 
might be termed the apple district, the fruit 
has been successfully raised in many other sec- 
tions of the country. 

As to the peach there is no more delicious 
fruit to be found in the United States than may 
be picked from many orchards of this county. 
The plum grows very thriftily and the fruit is 
large and luscious, and not subject to disease. 
Quinces do very well and grow to a great size. 
The leading varieties of cherries are grown and 
reach great perfection. The trees in the higher 
altitude are great bearers and limbs bending to 
the ground is not an uncommon sight in the 
Santa Ysabel country. 

The climate seems peculiarly suited for the 
apricot, the fruit attaining a delicacy of flavor 
not to be found in any other section of the 
State nor in any other State. Nectarines grow 
wherever the apricot thrives and in San Diego 

attain a like peculiar flavor of their own. 
Prunes also thrive, while the industry of tig- 
raising is one in which San Diego County bids 
fair to soon bear off the banner of the whole 
Western hemisphere. 

An industry which promises excellent returns 
is the growing of the English walnut. The 
tree flourishes wherever it has been tried, grows 
rapidly and bears very heavily. Small fruits, 
such as the raspberry, blackberry and straw- 
berry, do excellently. Strawberry plants bear 
all the year round in San Diego and the fruit 
is displayed for sale every day. It is a prolific 
bearer, and there is an immense future in its 

In olive culture the county is coming into the 
front rank. The trees grow readily from cut- 
tings, and so rapid is their growth that they pay 
the expense of cultivation the third year. The 
imported oils of Italy cannot be compared with 
the San Diego County product, and it will take 
but a few years for the facts to be made known 
to the world. 

San Diego County is the home of the grape. 
The dryness of the atmosphere, the freedom 
from fogs and the regularity of the temperature, 
have formed a climate that is perfectly suited to 
viticulture. Good wine is made, while the San 
Diego County raisins may be said to lead the 
world in quality. 

As stated above, San Diego is the home of 
the grape, and more particularly may this be 
said of the raisin grape. According to the re- 
port of the county assessor, within the limits 
of the county there are 4,107 acres of raisin 
grapes planted. This figure is, by most of those 
engaged in the industry, considered too small 
for the whole county. The assessment, it is 
true, was made last summer, and ground is con- 
stantly being broken all over the county and 
planted into vineyards. 

In El Cajon valley the raisin has gained its 
strongest foot-hold, as is shown from the follow- 
ing table, giving the name of the ranch owners 
and the 


The Vineyard Company 800 

The Boston Company 800 

Major Levi Chase 200 

A. L. Holt 200 

The Cowles ranch 187 

Small ranches of 5 and 10 acres WOO 

Total 3,087 

Other valleys, particularly in the immediate 
vicinity of El Cajon, are almost entirely given 
up to the raisin grape, while in other portions 
of the county the average is large and constantly 

The yield of the year is variously estimated, 
none putting it lower than 90,000 boxes, which 
is undoubtedly too low. It is true that a num- 
ber of vineyards are young and not yet in bear- 
ing, but an estimate based on the shipment of 
the vineyard company with 800 acres in grapes, 
the shipment of the year would amount to 120,- 
000 boxes and over. 

None of the raisin growers have received 
completed returns from their shipments, and 
therefore no estimate of the receipts of the in- 
dustry can be given. Not too much, however, 
can be said of the quality of the raisins of San 
Diego County, in support of the first propo- 
sition, that San Diego County is the natural 
home of the raisin grape. California raisins 
have for some years been conceded to be far 
superior to the Mediterranean countries, and it 
is rapidly driving the importer out of the high- 
er grade of Eastern markets. With the fact 
established, it remains to be demonstrated that 
the San Diego raisin is the best of the best. It 
is this for several reasons. One is, that the 
climate of San Diego County is such that the 
raisin can be sun-dried, while in the north the 
rains compel the use of the drying house. An- 
other reason is that the season being a little 
longer, the grape bunches fill to the end with 
completely matured fruit, so that the dried rais- 
in bunches are large, and the raisins all of the 
first grade. There remains still another reason, 
and that is, that the El Cajon raisin, though 
large, more nearly approaches seedlessness than 
does the raisin of the upper country. The 

| cause of this has not been assigned, but it is 
probably the difference in the distribution of 
the moisture in the earth. 

The raisin industry is fully established here, 
though possibly it is not as great as in other 
places. Its profitableness has been demon- 
strated, and capital is backing it as fast as it can. 
Next year will see a large increase in the acre- 
age of the raisin grape. 

The following table showing the number of 
boxes raised in the years named will give an 

idea how rapidly the raisin industry 

developed : 

1888— Boxes shipped 



1889— " " 90,000 

1890— estimated 108,000 


The substantial increase in the extent of land 
under cultivation in the county over last year, 
is an encouraging sign of the times, and fur- 
nishes good evidence of the progress of this 
section. The actual increase for 1889 over 1888 
is 55,063 acres, while the number of fruit trees 
growing have increased by nearly 200,000. In 
the immediate region of the bay there are over 
400 acres of land planted to oranges, while fully 
eighty acres are covered with lemon trees. Of 
the 5,000 acres planted to grape vines there are 
609 acres of vines bearing grapes for table use, 
278 acres of wine grapes and 4,107 acres of 
raisin grapes. The following table will show 
the increase in the number of acres sown over 
kind. 1888. 1889. 

Wheat 0,093 14,026 

Oats 520 1,550 

Barley 6,496 30,447 

Corn 481 2,084 

Hay 10,090 9,523 

Grapevines 3,781 4,994 

Number offruit trees growing. ...191,526 380,176 

From the above it will be seen that while in 
1888 there were but 27,461 acres of land under 
cultivation, in 1889 there were no less than 
62,524 acres receiving the attention of the hus- 
bandman. The increase in 1890 will be much 


Predominant as are, undoubtedly, the agri- 
cultural interests, there is another sonrce of 
great future wealth in San Diego County which 
must be duly considered; that is, the mineral 
element. The industrial minerals having been 
duly regarded in connection with their respect- 
ive sections of production, it remains to review 
the question of the yield of precious metals. 

As has been previously stated, the back coun- 
try has been receiving the greater portion of the 
increase in population during the past year. 
The valleys in the mountains are becoming 
populous centers. Small towns in the inland 
are growing to importance, and ricli ranches, 
fruit farms and cattle ranges are being de- 
veloped. The country surrounding San Diego 
is adapted to fruit-growing, and is gradually 
being devoted to that use. 

The increased acreage given to grain shows 
that the land is occupied, and is being made 
ready for fruit production. The data regard- 
ing the occupation and cultivation of the .back 
soil is not large, the only exact information 
being found in the annual report of the county 
assessor, from which many interesting facts are 

One of the greater industries of the county 
heretofore has been the production of honey. 
This, however, is gradually giving way to other 
industries. Bees live and make their honey 
from the wild flowers, largely from the white 
sage. As the ground is given up more and 
more to grain and fruit cultivation, the bee in- 
dustry has been supplanted, the other uses tor 
the land beiug found more profitable. The 
number of bee-hives in the county was. in 1887, 
17,779; in 1888, 15,340; in 1889, 14,947; 
showing a decrease as explained above. A 
similar decrease is shown in nothing else assess- 
able by the county official. 

Number of cattle 22,272 

Number of cows 2,866 

Number of calves 3,657 

Number of colts 1,286 

Number of goats 775 

Number of hogs 



Number thoroughbred horses. 27 35 

Number of graded horses 2,844 2.892 3 

Number of American horses.. 908 1,224 1 

Number of Spanish horses. .. . 2.283 2,030 3 

Number of mules 296 540 

Number of oxen 34 21 

Number of sheep and lambs.. 37,582 41 

Centals of wheat 1,190 9 

Centals of barley 4,142 11 

Centals of corn 120 

Tons of hay 603 3 

The increase in all of the above is gratify 
to the statistician. The increase in stock, 
well as that of grain on hand, shows a grow 
interest in the occupation and cultivation of 

The increase in the above classes of taxable 
property is not, however, as much a matter of 
pride to the lover of San Diego County as the 
increase in the number of acres under cultiva- 
tion in 1889 over the record of former years. 
In 1887 there was a great excitement about 
wheat-growing. Everything else took a minor 
place, and nearly every foot of ground which 
could be planted was put into that grain. Since 
then other grains have been receiving the 
greater attention, and in turu all have had to 
give way before the advance of the fruit tree 
and grape-vine The following shows the acre- 
age in cultivation: 

1887. 1888. 1889. 

Acres sown to wheat 16,614 6,093 14,026 

Acres sown to oats 565 520 1,550 

Acres sown to barley 2,800 6,496 30,447 

Acres sown to corn 53 L 481 2,084 

Acres sown to hay 5,010 10,090 9,523 

Acres of table grapes 201 609 

Acres of wine grapes .... 627 678 

Acres of raisin grapes 2,953 4,107 

Number of fruit trees growing. 91, 148 191,526 3^0,176 

By the above it will be seen that all else must 
and does give way to the advance of the fruit 
tree and grape-vine. In 1888 the number of 
fruit trees increased by upwards of 100,000, 
and in 1889 upwards of 180,000. A propor- 
tional increase during the coming decade would 
pretty nearly cover the county. During the 
past year the acreage put in grapes has in- 
creased by 1,000 acres, and the increase which 


will be shown by the next assessor's report will 
be greater still. As yet only two irrigation 
systems are completed and in use; three others 
projected and in process of construction will 
double up the acreage of land under cultivation 
in a rapid manner. The year 1890 will show a 
much greater increase than 1889. Already all 
the fruit trees, especially lemons, held by the 
nurseries have been engaged, and the cry of the 
fruit ranchers is, "Where will we get more trees?" 
By the close of 1890 there will be 700,000 fruit 
trees growing in San Diego County, and this 
year will see 200,000 acres of wheat growing in 
the county. 


The pioneer finder of gold in San Diego 
County was a woman named Eliza Wood, who 
found the precious metal in the gravel beds of 
Coleman creek. By February, 1870, several 
gold ledges had been located. On February 
22, 1870, the Washington mine was discovered 
by Messrs. Bicker and Wells; the ore was seen 
to be rich in gold, and a quantity of it was for- 
warded to San Diego and San Francisco to be 
put on exhibition. Its richness caused great 
excitement, and a heavy and rapid emigration to 
the locality of its discovery, so that the mount- 
ains thereabouts weie swarming with pros- 
pectors. A mining district was organized, 
having for mining director M. S. Julian, near 
whose 160-acre claim the discoveries were 
made, and the district was called after him 
Julian, which name it still bears. Chester 
Gunn in a recent paper read before the County 
Horticultural Society, gives a good idea of the 
richness of the Julian mines: "Hundreds of 
tons averaged $75 to $100 per ton. . I have 
myself washed out the drillings while blasting 
and found from $1 to $6 in small horn full of 
drillings, probably half a pound of rock ; while 
as much as $6 or $7 was often washed out of 
one pound of ore." 

But the region was too rich for its possessors 
to be allowed to continue its rapid development 
peaceably and unmolested. 

"The owners of the Cuyamaca grant under- 

took to float their grant so as to cover the entire 
territory south of the Ysabel grant. In other 
words, they wanted to gobble up all the mines 
and small farms, of which latter there were a 
good many. A long and expensive litigation 
was begun, which lasted for several years, and 
many people got disgusted and left. Broperty 
could not be sold on account of the title being 
in dispute. But the end came at last, and the 
miners gained the suit. The line of the grant 
was moved south to conform to the old map, 
and the people of Julian went to work once 
more to open up their mines. But years were 
required to recover from the effects of the ex- 
pensive litigation. 

" Among the mines at present being worked, 
and which especially deserve mention, are the 
Stonewall, owned by Governor Waterman; the 
Ready Relief, owned by D. D. Dare and J. O. 
Bailey; the Owens, owned by W. B. King and 
others; the Helvetia, owned by Dr. Carl Mur- 
ray; the Gardiner, owned by Robert Gardiner; the 
Eagle, owned by Crane and Malloch; the Wash- 
ington, owned by S. A. McDowell and T. J. 
Daley; the Gold King, owned by J. E. Hamil- 
ton and others, and the Cincinnati Belle, which 
W. L. Fredericks sold recently for $27,500. 
Many others might be mentioned." 

Governor Waterman's Mine. — Tremble about 
title and gold excitement elsewhere attracted 
the attention of miners, and until recently the 
rich deposits in the Julian district were practi- 
cally forgotten. The gold is in the mountains, 
a rich reward to whoever had the enterprise to 
spend time and money in getting it out. Prin- 
cipal among those who realized what could be 
made by mining in the Julian district was Gov- 
ernor Waterman. He purchased a large tract 
of land and began the development of the 
Stonewall, now one of the most valuable mining 
properties on the Pacific coast. So valuable is 
the property that Governor Waterman is re- 
ported to have refused $2,000,000 for it. The 
ore taken from the Stonewall during the past 
year is valued at $1,000,000. For the past 
four months Governor Waterman has been de- 


voting his capital to the erection of the largest 
mill on the Pacific coast, so that after January 
there will be thirty stamps running night and 
day. The cost of these improvements was 
$150,000, and the pay roll at the Stonewall 
mine is now from $12,000 to $15,000 per 
month. Governor Waterman has more pride 
in this mine than in any of his other great en- 
terprises. From 100 to 200 men are constantly 
employed, and the mills are kept running night 
and day. Two or three other ledges, equal to 
the Stonewall in richness and extent have recently 
been discovered on Governor Waterman's ranch, 
and these will no doubt be developed in the 
near future. 

From 300 to 500 men are now employed in 
the mines about Julian, and from the rapid 
manner in which ledges are being developed 
twice that number will soon be employed within 
the next few months. From $5,000,000 to $8,- 
000,000 in gold has been taken out of the Julian 
district since gold was discovered. If the pres- 
ent rapid development continues as much more 
will be taken out within the next two years. 

Late newspaper reports announce the sale of 
Governor Waterman's mine to an English syn- 
dicate for the sum of $3,000,000. The princi- 
pal mines now in operation are: the Stonewall, 
the Ready Relief, the Osvens, Helvetia, Eagle, 
Gardiner, Washington, Cincinnati Belle, and 
the Gold King. 

In the Mesa Grande district there is a very 
rich gold mine from which a large yield has 
been taken — the Shenandoah. This mine has 
been shut down for some time because of legal 
complications, but it promises to be run again 
in the near future. 

Many others of less note are being profitably 
worked, although on a small scale, and it is 
highly probable that there will be future great 
developments in this direction. At the begin- 
ning of 1888, San Diego people did not dream 
of such rich discoveries near them as those of 
the Santa Clara gold fields, which are a part of 
the same region, partaking no little of the for- 
mation of the San Diego County minerals. 

Says a gentleman who well understands mining 
interests, with which he has been identified for 
twenty years past: " 1 believe that within live 
years the annual outpnt of gold and silver in 
this county will equal $10,000,000. The vast 
range of country east of the Coast Range shows 
indications of rich gold deposits that as yet have 
not been prospected." 

At least 5,000 men are engaged in running 
or in locating mines within the territory trib- 
utary to this city. ' No country in America has 
brighter mining prospects. Julian will send 
the world in 1890, $2,000,000 or $3,000,000 
through the gateway of San Diego, and Alamo 
and other Lower California camps will send as 
many millions more unless some unforeseen 
drawback occurs. 

To sum up in brief, then, San Diego's great 
resources are three: harbor, climate, products, — 
a harbor whose conformation and conditions pe- 
culiarly fit it for its future destiny as a com- 
mercial centre and an entrepot between East and 
West, a climate whose mild and healing balm 
will continue to attract in the future as it has 
done in the past, not only the invalid and the 
Sybarite, but the soldier whose valor is proven, 
but who yet wishes to preserve and garner 
strength for future possibilities of combat; the 
busy worker who would build up material and 
force for farther renewed and perhaps more po- 
tent effort, and the lover of his race, who would 
study the phases of humanity as developed under 
the most favorable and cherishing of conditions. 
The products of a soil unsurpassed in richness 
and versatility of yield, fertilized by the gener- 
ous waters of its own native mountains, warmed 
and nursed by a constant and inspiring sun, and 
won to its best and noblest effort by the devo- 
tion and the care of the people who are at once 
its masters and its slaves, its children and its 
owners, but always full of faith in its unequalled 
powers, ever loyal, confiding and confident of its 


More rapid than the growth of population has 
been the growtli in wealth, as shown by the rec- 


ords of the city assessor. In 1884 the total 
assessment was $2,021,685, the total tax $16,- 
173.40. In 1889 the total assessment was 
$16,544,300, and the the total tax was $197,- 

The increase in the assessment in the city from 
1884 to 1888 of about 1000 per cent, means a 
vast increase in wealth. With this increase in 
wealth and population there has also been an 
increase in the cost of maintaining the city 
government, and where in 1884 the trustees 
thought $16,000 sufficient to carry on the city 
government, at present $200,000 is required. 

Ill 1884 there were inside the city limits but 
ten persons and corporations conducted assessed 
at over $20,000. 

In 1889 the number assessed at more than 
$20,000 is legion. 


The county assessment shows the same great 
increase as follows. 

To known owners (exclusive of railroads) $5,548,478 

Unknown owners 108,604 

Personal property collected upon by the as- 
sessor 143,234 

Total $5,80U,316 


To known owners (exclusive of railroads) $25,532,363 

Unknown owners 3,515,157 

California Southern Railroad 578,989 

California Central Railroad 339,187 

Southern Pacific Railroad 1,595,125 

Total $31,560,820 

The old assessment rolls show that within 
nineteen years the county has grown in wealth 
so that now one man, Richard O'JVeil, is as- 
sessed for more than the whole county was 
valued at in 1861, the assessment then being 
made as now, exclusive of government lands. 

Outside the city in 1884 the number assessed 
at over $25,000 was small indeed, while in 1889 
they are as numerous as in the city. 

The biennial report of the State Board of 

Equalization for the year 1888 gave these figures 
for San Diego County: real estate and improve- 
ments, $34,284,439; personal property, money 
and credits, $4,190,979; railroads, $3,074,190; 
total valuation, $41,522,608. 

Notwithstanding the prevalent cry of uni- 
versal hard times, the last year has witnessed the 
achievement of very remarkable improvements 
and progress in San Diego, including the fol- 

The investment of several hundred thousand 
dollars by the most conservative set of commer- 
cial men in the business world, in the largest 
coal bunkers on the coast; the building of the 
most complete ice factory in Southern Califor- 
nia; the settlement of the Otay "Watch Factory 
on a solid business foundation, backed by busi- 
ness men representing millions of dollars; the 
building of a magnificent cable road system, in- 
volving the outlay of hundreds of thousands of 
dollars; the transference of the coal shipping 
trade from San Pedro to San Diego; the invest- 
ment of hundreds of thousands of dollars in 
water development enterprises actually under 
way; expenditure of money by thousands in en- 
larging facilities and cheapening the price of 
gas, the shipments of cargoes of hay, grain, 
brick and building iron to ports heretofore ex- 
clusively controled by San Francisco; the founda- 
tion of irrigation districts, transferring thousands 
of acres of grain fields into orchards, about a 
million dollars invested on buildings in the city; 
the increase of thousands of acres under culti- 


Since May, 1887, which month saw the final 
subsidence of the boom, San Diego has built, 
obtained or discovered: 

1. A flume, bringing water to this city and 
the farming country back of it from the coast 
range of mountains. 

2. The " Short Line " between here and Los 

3. The completed Coronado Hotel, the 
Brewster, and the Louis, Bon Ton, Chadbuurne, 


Whaley and Dalton, Methodist, Allyn, Nes- 
mith-Greely and Faivre blocks, two large 
school buildings, and imposing churches and 

4. The Cuyamaca railroad line. 

5. The paving of Fifth and D Streets. 

6. A large Government appropriation for 
light-houses and quarantine. 

7. A harbor commission with power to build 
a sea-wall and inaugurate a system of slips and 

8. The planting of 600,000 fruit trees in the 
back country and the opening up of a vast area 
of agricultural land. 

9. The development of rich mining property 
at the Alamo and Julian. 

10. The discovery and utilization of mineral 
water, equal in health-giving properties to the 
Wisconsin Waukesha. 

11. The discovery of coal at Elsinore and 
Lower California and its development at the 
former place. 

12. The discovery of kaolin clay, and the 
successful production of porcelain. 

13. Suburban watch and nail factories and 
a college of letters. 

14. Discovery of extensive codfishing banks. 

15. Discovery of an immense deposit of 
Portland cement. 

16. Investment of Spreckels Brothers in 

Coronado Beach, and their construction of a 
$125,000 coal wharf. 

17. Building of a cable railroad system. 

18. Pledging of $250,000 to bring in the 
Union Pacific Railroad, now building towards 
Southern California. 

These are the capital points in the history of 
the period immediately following the downfall 
of land speculation. 

The population of the county is now 75,000; 
valuation of real estate, $28,480,798; 
I nation of personal property, $3,774,- 
valuation of railroads, $3,047,- 
190; number of miles of railroad, 340; number 
of miles of telegraph, 630; number of miles of 
telephone, 60; number of miles of water flumes, 
35; number of cattle in the county, 25,198.; 
number of horses in the county, 9,539; number 
of sheep in the county, 41,779; number of hogs 
in the county, 2,487; number of stands of bees, 

The acreage and yield for the past year shows: 


Oranges 308 10,250 boxes. 

Raisins 8,034 167,000 boxes. 

Wine ) ,,., | 78,500 gallons. 

Brandy f <! '"' * \ 1,768 gallons. 

Deciduous fruits 38,017 740,000 pounds. 

Barley 17,384 147,000 centals. 

Oats 160 1,500 centals. 

Corn 400 12,058 centals. 

Other crops 15,000 



fLI H. MURRAY, of San Diego, the subject 
of this sketch, has all the warrant of heredi- 
tary antecedents for the stability and in- 
tegrity that in his career he has manifested. His 
father was born in Washington County, Ken- 
tucky, whence he removed to Hardinsburg. In 
the course of his business he brought goods 
across the Alleghanies and shipped them down 
the Ohio in flat-boats. He became satisfied that 
a certain point was a natural location for a city, 
and so founded there the present town of Clover- 
port, now of some 2,000 inhabitants. 

The elder Murray, merchant and large tabacco 
dealer, was a man of high intelligence, a repre- 
sentative Kentuckian. In conjunction with Hon. 
"William F. Bullock, he founded the common- 
school system of Kentucky. He also gave the 
ground and built a church for the Presbyterians 
— his own faith — in Cloverport. 

Mr. Murray was married to Mrs. Anna Maria 
(Allen) Crittenden, a daughter of* John Allen, a 
leading land lawyer, and Colonel of the famous 
Rifle Regiment of Kentucky. He was killed 
in the River Raisin, in the war of 1812. The 
lady's first husband was a brother of John J. 
Crittenden, one of whose* sons by her (Thomas 
F.), after being graduated in law under his 
paternal uncle, Thomas F. Crittenden, settled in 
Lexington, Missouri, where he became a suc- 
cessful lawyer, a member of Congress, and 
Anally Governor. An older son, William Logan 
Crittenden, having been graduated in General 

Grant's West Point class, serving in the Mexi- 
can war with distinction, resigned, and in later 
years embarked in the revolutionary movement 
of La Pez, tempted by the thought of freedom 
for Cuba, and being a man of great impulse, 
dash and daring, uneasy in the " piping times 
of peace." He was a Colonel in the ill-fated 
band, was captured and shot. When ordered to 
kneel before his executioners, he answered, "A 
Kentuckian kneels to none but his God," and 
in spite of all commands and threats was shot 
standing firm and fearless. The noble, sweet 
and saintly mother of this brave son was early 
left a widow, with an insolvent estate and five 
children. Next to the anxiety for her children 
was that for her servants, and to avoid the sale 
of the latter she secured from the estate the 
management of a factory called a "rope walk," 
where was made a coarse cloth for the baling of 
cotton, which she conducted with such diligence 
that in three years she had earned enough to 
redeem her servants from the fate that was im- 
pending over them, and forty years later these 
same servants, with streaming eyes, carried her 
body to the grave. Mrs. Crittenden, by a second 
marriage, gave birth, in 1843, to Eli Huston 
Murray, named after a kinsman, Eli Huston, of 
Mississippi, from whose Natchez office Sargent 
S. Prentice started upon his brilliant career. 
His elder brother, Judge John Allen Murray, 
lives at the old Cloverport home. The third, 
Logan Crittenden Murray, is now president of 


the United States National Bank of New York, 
and several terms president of the National 
Bankers' Association of the United States. The 
fourth, named like his father, David Rodman, 
was elected State Senator before he was of the 
age requisite to take the seat; he is now an 
active lawyer of Cloverport. 

General Murray was educated largely by 
private tutors, and iii part at Professor Hogan's 
High School, Cloverport, from which he entered 
the army at the age of eighteen years. General 
Anderson, of Fort Sumter fame, then com- 
manded the department of Kentucky. Mr. 
Murray was one of the first soldiers commanded 
by Sherman in the early part of the war. After 
several months' service on the front Hues of the 
Union forces, he enlisted under General James 
S. Jackson, later killed at Perry villu, who raised 
that splendid regiment, the Third Kentucky 
Cavalry. Murray recruited many men for this 
regiment, and on its organization he was com- 
missioned Junior Major. His first fight was a 
hand-to-hand encounter of four companies of 
this regiment against Forrest, with two regi- 
ments, at Sacramento, Kentucky. This was 
also the first fight of Forrest. In this engage- 
ment one-third of Murray's command was on 
the list as killed, wounded or captured. For- 
rest was wont to say after the war that this was 
"the biggest little fight" in which he had 
shared. In this fight the horse which Murray 
in boyhood had reared from a colt was shot 
under him, and he escaped only by seizing a 
horse from which a Confederate officer had just 
been killed. He served through Tennessee with 
Buell, to Shiloh, Corinth, across to Alabama, 
and through what was known as the Bragg 
campaign in Kentucky. He received promo- 
tion to the Colonelcy of Jackson's regiment, 
having been promoted on the field of Perry- 
ville, upon which his old Colonel, General Jack- 
son, was killed. Murray served with the regi- 
ment continuously in the campaigns of the 
West, re-enlisting it and making it a veteran 
regiment. He served with McCook's and Min- 
nie's brigades, and later commanded Kilpatrick's 

first brigade, from Chattanooga, and his division 
after he was wounded at Resaca, Georgia, con- 
tinuing to serve under Kilpatrick and to com- 
mand his division in the noted raid around the 
Confederate army at Atlanta, also commanding 
half of Kilpatrick's cavalry in Sherman's march 
to the sea. He received complimentary men- 
tion in various reports, and special mention by 
General Rosecrans at Stone River, his promo- 
tion having more especial reference to his 
service in the inarch to the sea. He was 6ent 
back with a view to his taking a cavalry com- 
mand under General Thomas, in a contemplated 
movement of Thomas on Richmond. His last 
military service was when he succeeded General 
Hugh Ewing, at the close of the war, in the 
western district of Kentucky, where he received 
the surrender of many Confederates in the grand 
finale. Being mustered out of service, he studied 
law with his half brother, Governor Crittenden, 
of Missouri, after graduating from the Uni- 
versity of Louisville. At the time of his gradu- 
ation, a student who had failed presented at 
Murray's breast a pistol, which at the moment 
of discharge was struck down by a fellow- 
student, wounding Murray in the leg. Settling 
for practice at Owensboro, Kentucky, he was 
later appointed United States Marshal for that 
State. He then removed to Louisville, and was 
reappointed by Grant. He successfully tided 
over the trying and delicate times of the Civil 
Rights bill, and of the "Moonshiners," and 
fought openly and actively the Ku-Klux organi- 
zation in that State. Helping to found the 
Louisville Daily Commercial, he became its 
editor and manager, establishing it firmly as 
about the only Republican journal south of 
Mason and Dixon's line, which succeeded amid 
adverse surroundings. t While thus engaged he 
accepted President Hayes' offer of the Governor- 
ship of Utah, to which post he was success- 
ively reappointed by Garfield and Arthur. He 
promptly tendered his resignation on Cleve- 
land's succession to office, but was retained for 
over a year by that Democratic President, 
serving, all told, some seven years in Utah. 



Having thoroughly studied the situation on ar- 
riving in the Territory, he devoted himself to 
the establishment there of a sound government. 
To his efforts is due the banishment of polyga- 
mistic members from the halls of Congress. 
The infamous Mormon leader, Cannon, had 
boasted that he wore at his girdle the scalps of 
the preceding Governors unfriendly to them, 
and that he would have that of Governor Mur- 
ray. But not so. This incumbent sought to 
surround himself with able prosecuting attor- 
neys and upright judges; he battled against 
vexatious Congressional delays; against misin- 
terpretations and misrepresentations, venal and 
ignorant, from metropolitan journals; against 
determined savage opposition from the wealth 
and power of Mormon leaders and their 
slavishly obedient constituents; but at last he 
succeeded in procuring the passage of laws, 
pure and strong, whose faithful execution sent 
the corrupt Mormon leaders either into perma- 
nent exile or the penitentiary. Time has proved 
the justice of Governor Murray's opinion as 
then announced; that no man can be a faithful 
Mormon and a loyal citizen of the United 
States; and that the exercise of political power 
by Mormon leaders is un-American, and in no 
sense or manner to be tolerated. Thus the 
establishment of a good government in Utah is 
mainly due to his long service, his wisdom and 

On leaving this office, Governor Murray, be- 
coming interested in a railroad enterprise, re- 
moved to San Diego, California, where he is 
now engaged in these and other active enter- 
prises. He is a Lower California land owner, 
having purchased a large tract of land ten 
miles south of the Mexican boundary. 

General Murray was a bachelor, a husband 
and a father in the Centennial year, having 
married in 1876 Miss Evelyn Neale, daughter 
of E. P. Neale, a Louisville merchant. Their 
children are: a daughter, Evelyn, and a son, 
Neale, both born in Kentucky. Mr. Murray 
positively refused to be put forward again as 
Governor of Utah on thee lection of President 


Harrison. He was frequently mentioned in 
connection with cabinet appointments, although 
declining to enter the lists of any public official 
position. The newspapers to-daj are quoting 
Governor Murray as a possible Gubernatorial 
nominee for California. In view of his past 
record, certainly it is a strong factor in his 
honor that no man received more solid support 
from Republicans and Democrats alike than 
he, during his service in Utah, and from the 
press and people of the United States. 

ILLIAM HASLAM, of Pleasant Valley, 
was born December 17, 1828, in Manches- 
ter, England. His lather, Peter Haslam, 
was born in England, and his mother, wee Judy 
Curry, was born in Ireland. They had a family of 
six boys and two girls. Mr. Haslam was the 
fourth child. In 1836, when he was eight years 
of age, his parents came to the United States, and 
settled in the northern part of New York. He 
attended the public school there, and at the age 
of twelve he began to do farm work, spent one 
summer on a boat and continued on a farm 
until eighteen years of age. He then went* 
to learn the wagon-maker's trade, which trade 
he followed for six years and then went back to 
farming, and for a time engaged in brick-mak- 
ing. In 1852 he removed to Illinois, where he 
remained three years, when he moved to Iowa 
and bought one-fourth section of Government 
bind. After a time he sold that and went to 
Missouri and bought a farm. He remained 
there until 1884, when he sold out and came to 
California for the benefit of his step-daughter's 
health, and purchased 280 acres of railroad land 
and took up 160 acres of Government land in 
Pleasant Valley. Here he built his residence 
and other buildings, and has improved the prop- 
erty, and has 160 acres fenced. He is carrying 
on a grain and stock farm, raising horses, mules 
and cattle. 

He was married in 1850 to Miss Lucinda 
Stewart, a native of Canada. One of her par- 


ents was Scotch and the o f her American. They 
had twelve children. She died in Missouri, in 
1868, leaving him with a large family of small 
children. She was a god wife and a kind 
mother. The following are the names of the 
surviving members of this family: W. J., the 
oldest, now married and living near his father 
(see next paragraph); Thomas, settled in Mis- 
souri; A. J., settled near his father; D. A., 
C. D. and W. S. all have homes of their own 
in Winchester; Lucinda is married to Mr. Mc- 
Ewen, and lives at San Jacinto; Amanda is 
married to M. B. Thomas, and also resides in 
Winchester; so that nearly all the children are 
living near their father. Mr. Haslam was mar- 
ried in June, 1868, to Mrs. Elizabeth McBride. 
Mr. Haslam is a member of the Congregational 
Church at Winchester, and Mrs. Haslam is a 
Methodist. While in Iowa he was elected road 
overseer and township assessor, and also super- 
visor; he also held the same office a part of the 
time in Missouri, and at the present time is 
school director in Winchester. Mr, Haslam is 
one of the pioneers of Pleasant Valley and is a 
good and reliable citizen. 

W. J. Haslam, one of the wide-awake, indus- 
'trious farmers of Pleasant Valley, was raised 
and educated in Missouri, and for eighteen years 
he was engaged in that State in farming and 
stock-raising. In 1885 he came to Pleasant 
Valley and took from the Government a 160- 
acre ranch. He has built a brick house and a 
good barn, has planted trees of different kinds, 
all doing well, and is doing diversified farming, 
raising grain, hay, horses, mules and cattle. 
He has twenty head of horses and mules, and 
thirty head of young cattle. He has a fine two- 
year-old Norman-Percheron colt, and an enor- 
mous young jack of great value for breeding 
purposes. Mr. Haslam is working hard and 
doing well, and his place has the appearauce of 
enterprise and thrift. He has also a prosperous 
apiary of sixty stands of bees. 

He was married January 1, 1876, to Annice 
Fast, from Illinois. They have eight children, 
viz. : William Byron, James Russell, Winslow 

Grey, John Jay, Myrtle Viola, Mable Clare, 
Maud Eva and Roy Chester. The first five 
were born in Missouri and the others in Pleas- 
ant valley. Mr. Haslam is a temperance man 
and politically has favored the Greenback side 
of the cpiestion. 

— ^4t@3D»^ — 

ILLIAM H. EADON, the Coroner of 
San Diego County, was born at Sheffield 
England, February 11,1840. His father 
was a hardware merchant in Quebec, Canada, for 
many years, and by trade a saw-manufacturer; he 
was the oldest son of Moses Eadon, a large manu- 
facturer of saws and files, Sheffield, England, the 
business being still carried on by a younger son, 
Robert. William H., with his parents, emigrated 
to Quebec, Canada, in the year 1842. He was 
educated mostly in private schools, and finished 
with a year's course at the Quebec High School. 
At the age of fifteen years he was apprenticed 
to a pharmacist (G. G. Ardouin), and during 
his apprenticeship attended one course of lec- 
tures on botany, two on materia medica, and 
two on chemistry, at the Laval University, 
Quebec. In May, 1859, he graduated at the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons of Upper 
and Lower Canada at Montreal, as a graduate 
of pharmacy, and immediately started for Cali- 
fornia. On his arrival in San Francisco, he 
registered with the Board of Pharmacy. For 
twenty-five years afterward he was connected 
with three of the leading wholesale drug estab- 
lishments of that city. He fir6t began with 
Charles Morrill, remaining about two years, and 
with Crane & Brigham, seventeen years (Charles 
Morrill, and Crane & Brigham, both retired 
from business), and with Redington & Co. about 
six years, the latter being the largest drug 
house on the Pacific coast. In 1887 Mr. Eadon 
was attracted to San Diego by the boom, but 
taking it at its height was nnfortunate in his 
investments. Soon after his arrival in San 
Diego he was appointed health inspector by 
Dr. D. B. Northrup. Dr. Northrup soon after 


resigned, and Dr. D. Grochenauer was ap- 
pointed and retained Mr. Eadon. Mr. Eadon 
resigned in October, 1888, after receiving the 
nomination for Coroner by the Republican con- 
vention, to which office he was chosen in the 
November election, assuming his duties in Jan- 
uary, 1889, and this position he has held with 
honor and credit. 

Mr. Eadon was married at Quebec (now the 
Dominion of Canada), to Miss Honer Sharpe, a 
native of Quebec, Canada. They have had five 
children, only three of whom survive. One son, 
"William EL, Jr., is foreman of the upholstering 
department of F. S. Chadbourne & Co., the 
largest furniture establishment on this coast. 
Edward H. is salesman for Chadbourne & Co., 
San Diego, and Lilly B. helps her mother house- 
keeping. Ed. and Lilly reside at home. 

Mr. Eadon is a member of Oakland Lodge, 
No. 188, F. & A. M., of Oakland, and he takes 
particular pride in stating that he is a straight 

§B. CAIRNES, the present Engineer of the 
Fire Department of San Diego, was born 
9 in the County of Tyrone, northern part 
of Ireland. His parents were natives of Scot- 
land. In 1844 his parents emigrate] to New York 
city, where they settled, and his father worked 
at his trade of carpenter. The subject of this 
sketch there received a public school education 
at the old Greenwich Street school, and learned 
the trade of machinist and engineer. In 1861 
he became an active member of the Washington 
Engine Company, No. 20, volunteer service, 
with which he served until the creation of the 
Metropolitan system in 1866 and the disband- 
ing of the volunteer department. In 1869 he 
started Westward, visiting Omaha, Kansas City, 
Indian Territory and Nevada, traveling and 
prospecting. In 1879, Mr. Cairnes first visited 
California, going to Bodie, Mono County, pros- 
pecting in quartz-mining. He then went to 
Tombstone, Arizona, locating claims and specu- 

lating in mines. In 1884 he went to Lower 
California, during the first gold excitement at 
San latruda Mission, but in 1887 he came to 
San Diego and started contracting in street 
work, grading, etc. He was appointed chief 
engineer of the fire department in June, 1889, 
and having had some thirty years' experience 
in fire matters the position is likely to be con- 

tOVERBAUGH, who lives in a beautiful 
residence in San Diego at the corner of 
9 Sixth and Beech streets, overlooking the 
city, bay and the Pacific ocean, was born in 
Charlestown, New York, November, 1821; his 
parents were natives of the same State. His 
father was a fanner and owned 320 acres in the 
Mohawk valley, where his only living brother 
still resides, on the old homestead. The subject 
of this sketch remained at home until he was 
twenty-nine years of age, receiving a common- 
school education, and engaged in the tilling of 
the soil. In 1850, he started out for himself 
into the great unknown West, going by rail to 
Buffalo, then by steamer fc> Milwaukee, and 
stage to Janesville, Wisconsin, then the second 
town in the State. He did a loaning and dis- 
count business until January, 1884, when he 
went to La Crosse in the western part of the 
State and there experienced the first excitement 
in a real-estate boom. He bought 120 acres 
adjoining the town, which he subdivided and 
sold in town lots. La Crosse at that time was a 
town of 500 inhabitants, but in 1857 numbered 
5,000. The town lots sold well, but in 1857 
there was a panic, owing to a free banking law 
which allowed every bank to issue paper re- 
gardless of responsibility, so that redemption 
was impossible and bankruptcy seemed to settle 
upon the town. Business became much de- 
pressed, until the opening of the war, when 
trade revived, increasing as the war continued. 
In 1869, Mr. Overbaugh came to San Jose, 
California, and again bought acre property, 


which he sold in town lots. In 1873 he came 
to San Diego and hought a lot on the corner of 
Ash and Second streets, and immediately built 
a residence, to which he moved his family in 
1874. This was during the Tom Scott boom ( 
which scon subsided, and business was very 
quiet until the completion of the California 
Southern Railroad in 1882, when the town took 
a fresh start and activity began, reaching the 
culminating point in 1886. Having experienced 
two land booms, Mr. Overhaugh was a cautious 
and careful investor, foreseeing the result from 
the beginning, though he is now a large holder 
of city property. 

Mr Overbaugh was married at La Crosse, 
Wisconsin, October 3, 1857, to Miss Emily F. 
Parker, a native of Ohio. They have two chih 
dren, who are both living and at home. 

Mr. Overbaugh has never sought political 
distinction, but the honor was forced upon him 
while at La Crosse, where he served as an al- 
derman for three years, but at San Diego he 
has studiously avoided public life. 

tW. ATHERCON & CO., San Diego. Per- 
haps the mission of business educators has 
9 never been more clearly understood than 
by the proprietors of the San Diego Commercial 
College, and certainly the success attending their 
efforts to acomplish this mission has been great. 
These gentlemen aim to foster and train in- 
dividually, to cultivate executive habits of mind, 
to give absolute knowledge of useful facts, and 
thus to prepare pupils to master emergencies. 

The college is but four years old. It has been 
patronized however, by those whose patronage 
means excellence in the work. It has over 
forty ex-students placed in responsible positions 
and doing well. Its pride though, is its Alumni 
association of over sixty members, banded to- 
gether for mutual help. A finer body of young 
people is not to be found. Mes.-rs. A. W. Ath- 
erton and O. P. Koerting, the proprietors, pur- 
sue a policy of liberal advertising. They regard 

as a favor any inquiries about the college, and 
are especially grateful for letters asking infor- 
mation. They have already quite an attendance 
from outside of the city, and wish to increase 
it. The course embraces English, arithmetic, 
penmanship, short-hand, type- writing and book- 
keeping. Such modern methods of instruction 
and of discipline are used as make this school 
life a revelation to the student. The effects 
produced on character by the work are very 


§T. GOLDTHWAIT, who came to San 
Diego in 1880, under engagement with 
* the California Southern Railroad, to 
superintend the building of machine shops and 
heavy bridges, was born at Biddeford, Maine, 
October 12, 1840; his parents were also natives 
of Maine. The father of the subject of this sketch 
was a sea captain, and he also has one brother who 
follows the sea as captain. One brother, Everett 
Goldthwait, is now mayor of Elkhart, Indiana. 
At the age of twenty-two years, the subject of 
this sketch went to Boston, Massachusetts, and 
learned the trade of mason and builder with 
Nathaniel Adams, a prominent Freemason and 
Odd Fellow, for whom he worked fifteen years. 
He then started independently and under con- 
tract work built the Boston & Lowell Railroad 
station at Boston, also the Beehe block on Win- 
throp square. In 1880, he came to San Diego 
and was employed three years by the California 
Southern Railroad Company. He then began 
building and constructed the Youngs, Louis & 
Schnieder blocks, besides doing much jobbing 
for Babcock, Reed & Pauly. In 1886, he went 
into the real-estate business in acre and city 
property with very flattering success. He now 
owns an improved ranch of ten acres at Santa 
Ana, planted in apricots, oranges, pears and 
grapes, two small ranches at Elsinore, thirty 
acres at Linda Vista, and city property at 
National City and San Diego. In 1887, Mr. 
Goldti.w-ait was appointed superintendent of the 


construction of sewers, the Colonel Wnring sys- 
tem, and in 1889 was re-appointed under the 
new charter. He is a member of the Fremont 
Subordinate Lodge of Odd Fellows, and the 
Massasoit Encampment of Boston, and is a 
charter member of the Silver Gate Masonic 
Lodge of San Diego. 

Mr. Goldthwait whs married in Boston, June 
12, 1871, to Miss Margaret W. Webster of 
Unity, Maine, a lineal descendent of Daniel 


fOKALD MoVlCAR.— One of the promis- 
ing and pioneer ranchers is Donald Mc- 
Vicar, he having purchased the first ranch 
in the place. He was born in the Province of 
Ontario, Canada, May 2, 1855. His father, John 
McVicar, and his mother. Mary (Ray) McVicar, 
were both natives of Scotland. Mr. McVicar was 
the youngest of a family of nine children. He 
was educated in the public schools of Canada and 
began business there as a lumberman, cutting 
and shipping square timber, He followed this 
business for twelve years, and in 1885 came to 
California and settled in Wildomar, buying the 
first tract before the first town site was sur- 
veyed — fifty acres — on which he has erected a 
very handsome dwelling, and improved the 
property by planting a large number of trees 
and vines. He has preserved on his grounds 
several natural forest trees, which add greatly 
to the appearance of the property. He has laid 
out his grounds tastfully and has a good assort^ 
ment of trees and shrubs for ornamental pur- 
poses. Donald is yet a single man, and what 
such elaborate improvements are for, will have 
to be surmised. His house was built in 1887. 
He is doing general farming, but is fast going 
into the culture of fruit, having many young 
peach and apricot trees now in bearing. Mr. 
McVicar has been forward in all that has been 
done for the improvement of the town and is 
treasurer and a trustee of the United Presby- 
terian Church of Wildomar. When a town is 

settled by such young men its future is safe. 
There is to be another, and we trust a happy 
and successful chapter in this man's life. 

fM. SBENCER, of San Diego, was born at 
Pittstown, New York, in May, 1820, and 
3 in early life his father moved to Niagara 
County, where he carried on the occupation of 
miller. The son was educated in the common 
schools, and paid particular attention to farming. 
In 1849 he came to California by the Isthmus of 
Panama, in the old ship Niantic. Since then 
his experience has been very varied, being en- 
gaged in mining, farming, in a general mer- 
chandise store and running a hotel; but, judging 
from his pleasant residence at 1,429 Second 
street, we must conclude that his efforts have 
been generously prospered. He has been East 
several times, remaining at one time from 1865 
to 1873, when he came direct to San Diego. 
He speculated a little during the boom of 1886, 
but in the main is living a quiet, retired life. 

Mr. Spencer was married in Lockport, New 
York, in 1848, to Miss Marian Miles. They 
have three children, one son and two daughters. 
The daughters are both married, one living in 
Denver, Colorado, and the other in Brooklyn, 
New York. The son is unmarried and lives at 
home, and at present is engineer in the office of 
the city surveyor. 

fOSEPHF. SUPPLE,oneof theleading ship 
builders of San Diego, was born at Lyons- 
New York, February 26, 1854. His mother 
was a native of New York, and the father, who 
was a shoemaker, was of Irish descent. At the 
early age of eleven years Joseph went to Buf- 
falo, New York, and was apprenticed to a ship- 


R. J. 1. Cooper, for whom he worked 
four years, and at the age of seventeen years 
he started his own yard in boat-building at 
Buffalo. He built mainly pleasure steamboats, 



from 50 to 150 feet deck measurement; also 
many small boats and yachts. Owing to tail- 
ing health he came to San Diego in 1887 and 
opened a ship-yard at the loot of D street, and 
built the steamer Roseville, which was the first 
steamer ever built in this city, a boat 67 feet 
long, 18 feet beam, 6 feet hold, registering 37 
tons, and now running between San Diego and 
Koseville on the bay. He also built the sloop 
yacht Climate, 28 feet long, 10 feet beam, cabin 
yacht; also rebuilt the steam tug Rover, and 
has constructed many small boats. Mr. Supple 
conceived the idea of and built the schooner 
garbage scow, which has proved a great suc- 
cess, in economically disposing of the city 
garbage by taking it far out to sea, and by 
utilizing the wind, instead of steam, the old 
method, thus saving the city about $300 per 

Mr. Supple came to San Diego for his health, 
but is now a well, strong man and cannot speak 
too enthusiastically of the climate of this place. 

— #^:--4:t»^ — 

the Portia of the .Pacific, was bora in Henry 
County, Indiana, and is a lineal descendant 
of Daniel Boone, that eminent pioneer, who was 
ever in the advance, progressive in his ideas yet 
at all times seeking privacy rather than promi- 
nence; such are the characteristics inherited by 
the subject of this sketch, who though very 
prominent in public life is never so happy and 
contented as when in the privacy of her home, 
surrounded by those she loves most dearly. Her 
remote ancestors lived in Scotland, some four 
generations back; the family was established in 
Kentucky, where it produced several great law- 
yers and preachers. It divided there early in 
the present century, one branch going north and 
the other south. Mrs. Foltz's father, Elias V. 
Shortridge, was born in Indiana. He prepared 
himself for the bar in company with Oliver P. 
Morton, but, without entering upon his profes- 
sion, turned to the pulpit and became a clergy- 

man of the " Campbellite " or " Christian " de- 
nomination, in which President Garfield was 
prominent. The branch that went south adorned 
the history of Alabama with distinguished names. 
They were a family of strong mentality and 
great learning. Mrs. Foltz moved to Mount 
Pleasant, Iowa, with her parents and was edu- 
cated in Howe's Seminary of that city. She 
was regarded by her teachers as possessing an ex- 
traordinary mind, havingat theearlyageof twelve 
years finished the first two books of Latin, and 
stood at head of her classes in philosophy, his- 
tory and rhetoric. After leaving school she 
taught two terms, near Keithsburg, Mercer 
County, Illinois, the last one closing oo the day 
she was fifteen years of age. Within a few 
weeks thereafter and without parental advice or 
authority she was married to Z. D. Foltz, and 
moved to the Pacific coast in 1872. She began 
reading law in the office of the Hon. C. C. 
Stephens in San Jose, California, in 1876, and on 
the fourth day of September, 1878, she was ad- 
mitted to the bar. She was the author of the 
bill which amended the law of California so that 
women could be admitted to practice, and was 
the first admitted under its provisions. After- 
ward, having been denied admission to Hastings' 
College of the Law, she sued out a writ of man- 
damus, argued her own case and won it. The 
directors appealed from the judgment. Mrs. 
Foltz was prevented attending the law college, 
but by the aid of a coal-oil lamp, amid the cries 
of her populous nursery, she prepared herself for 
admission to the Supreme Court and was ad- 
mitted, December 6, 1879. A few weeks fol- 
lowing the Supreme Court affirmed the college 
case, and ever since that time women have been 
free to enter and graduate upon equal terms 
with men. (See Clara Foltz vs. J. P. Hoge et 
ah, 54 Cal. p. 28.) 

From the day of her admission to the bar 
Mrs. Foltz had all the business she could at- 
tend to. Patient and kind, she served all who 
applied for her services, charging for them only 
when the party applying was able to pay. 

Mrs. Foltz practiced law for many years in 


San Francisco, and among a thousand lawyers 
she was the one woman who with keen sight and 
natural ability broke down the barriers of con- 
servatism which had been raised against her sex 
and won the highest respect and consideration, 
as well as attaining high honors in the profes- 
sion as a public speaker. Mrs. Foltz is pos- 
sessed with great oratorical ability, and takes 
up the hard and knotty problems of political 
economy with keen insight and great ability, 
carrying force and conviction with her utter- 
ance, as has justly been written of her: 

" Thy voice has argued in debate, 
In scathing satire sharply fell, 
In forum and in hall of State, 
Held listening thousands with its spell; 
Then dropped its tones to softest keep, 
And, crooning, sang a babe to sleep. 
Then hail ! thee priestess of the law, 
Our fair-browed Portia of the West! 
Write on thy shield : ' I came, I saw, 
I conquered !' Thou hast earn -d the crest, 
Nay more; it seemed the gods to thee, 
Had given the Sakhard's mystery. 
And thou hast proved that woman can — 
Who has the nerve, and strength and will — 
Work in the wider field of man, 
And be a woman still," 

In 1880 she was clerk of the judiciary com- 
mittee of the Assembly, the first woman to hold 
that important position, and during the same 
season prepared a brief on the constitutionality 
of a bill she had introduced: " To enable women 
to vote at elections fur school officers and in all 
matters pertaining to public schools," which is 
considered as the ablest presentation of the suf- 
fragists yet offered in support of the proposition 
that in States where not prohibited by the con- 
stitution the Legislature may grant suffrage to 
women. The bill was defeated, however, though 
not for want of constitutional authority. 

fAOOB SCHELLItfG, of Elsinore, was born 
in Schofihansen, Switzerland, February 25, 
1844. His ancestors and parents were Swiss 
people. The latter came to America and settled in 
Germantown, Pennsylvania. They had six chil- 

dren, three of whom are now living. When the 
great war of the rebellion broke out our young 
hero of thirty-six hard-fought battles was but a 
boy of seventeen, scarcely large enough to be re- 
ceived, but with his brother Henry was mus- 
tered in and did his duty as a soldier in every 
place where duty called. He belonged to First 
Battalion, Yates Sharp-shooters, but re-enlisted 
as a veteran in Company F, Sixty-fourth Regi- 
ment Illinois Veteran Volunteers, First Brig- 
ade, First Division, Seventeenth Army Corps. 
At the second battle of Corinth his regiment 
suffered heavily. At the battle of Atlanta they 
lost twenty-three commanding officers and their 
Colonel received two wounds, and at the Kene 
saw mountains they lost sixty men. At this 
place a ball grazed his throat. He was with 
Sherman on his march to the sea, and marched 
100 miles with one shoe. They were six weekf 
at Savannah, and while*there lived principally 
on rice, which they hulled themselves with the 
muzzle of their guns. They heard the news of 
Lee's surrender and of Johnston's surrender, and 
the soldiers were filled with great happiness. 
They took part in the grand review at Washing 
ton, an army of tried victorious veterans ready 
to lay down their arms and betake themselves 
to the peaceful avocations of life. He and hn 
brother came out alive and well. His brother 
still lives and is now in Denver. His father 
died in Kankakee County, Illinois, at forty 
years of age, killed accidentally by a bale c 
hay falling on his head. His younger brother 
now lives in Kankakee, Illinois. He was five 
years in the United States regular army and 
came out a Sergeant. While in Illinois Mr. 
Schelling did not make property, so he came 
in 1875 to Los Angeles, California, and tor 
nine years worked for prominent men there, and 
then came to Elsinore, where he homesteaded 
120 acres of Government land, on which he has 
built a house and made other improvements. 
His property is in full view of Lake Elsinore 
and the Santa Rosa mountains, and is a nice 
sight. He has made a large tunnel in the 
mountain on his land, from which flows a nice 


spring of water; besides this he has two wells 
on the place. Mr. Schelling is a horseman and 
owds a fine Mambrino horse, Monte, a pure-bred 
animal of fine size and proportions and in color 
coal black. His sire's record is 2:27, and the 
whole progeny are noted for speed. Mr. Schel- 
ling is a member of the G. A. R., T. B. Stevens 
Post, No. 103, Elsinore. His record as a sol- 
dier entitles him to great respect. 

iff and member of the Board of Educa- 
tion, was born in Washington County, 
Iowa, November 19, 1886, being the youngest of 
five children, all of whom are living. In 1874 
he was sent by his parents to Colorado to make 
his residence among relatives, and there received 
his education, and for tknt purpose attended the 
State School of Mines in Colorado, the State Ag- 
ricultural College, and the University at Denver. 
In the year 1880 he returned to Iowa, took a 
course at the Short-hand Institute in connection 
with the State University at Iowa City, and be- 
came a master of that art, and on again turning 
his face to the west he arrived at Denver and 
began the study of law in connection with his 
duties as short-hand reporter, but later moved 
to California, arriving at San Francisco in 1885, 
and was there employed as a short-hand writer 
in a responsible position. He came south in 
1886, under the excitement of the land boom in 
San Diego, and being cautions in his specu- 
lations he made for himself a pleasant home at 
Coronado. On his arrival at San Diego he im- 
mediately entered the office of Judge Luce in 
the capacity of clerk, but the same year was 
appointed clerk of the Superior Conrt, which 
position he held for two and one-half years. 
January 1, 1889, he received the appointment 
of deputy sheriff, and at the time of the city 
election for officers under the new city charter. 
In May, 1889, he was elected a member of the 
board of education from the third ward. 

Mr. Holcomb inherits the literary traits of 

his father, O. M. Holcomb, of Ohio, who has 
given a life-time to editorial work, and the sub- 
ject of our present sketch devoted much of his 
leisure time to literary work. 

Mr. Holcomb was married at San Francisco, 
March, 1885, to Mrs. Mary Jane Buchanan, a 
native of Wisconsin and a lineal descendant of 
William Roberts, a celebrated Welsh musician. 
They have one daughter. 

Mr. Holcomb is a member of the Knights of 
Pythias and is a charter member of the tribe of 
Improved Order of Red Men at San Diego. 

fUSTAVUS WITFIELD, the pioneer drug- 
gist of San Diego, was born near Cologne, 
Prussia, January 27, 1825; was carefully 
educated and studied chemistry at the Univer- 
sity of Bonn. He emigrated to America in 1848, 
first visiting Paris and Havre, and landing at 
New York in April of that year. He then went to 
New Orleans, where he was employed in a drug 
store for one year. In 1849, he started for Cal- 
ifornia, induced by the gold excitement of that 
year, going by the Isthmus of Panama, and ar- 
riving at Monterey, by a sailing vessel from 
Panama in March, 1850. With great enthusi 
asm started tor the mines, visiting Mariposa 
County, Calaveras County, Tuolumne County, 
and going as far north as the Fraser river, al- 
ways led on by enthusiastic reports, but never 
realizing the great bonanzas which were ever 
reported to be awaiting the enterprising miners. 
After ten years of prospecting, he returned to 
San Francisco, to resume the profession which 
he had learned in his youth. He entered a 
large wholesale drug house, remaining until 
1862, when he went to Panama and opened a 
large commission house in drugs and chemicals, 
for several English houses, trading very exten- 
sively in indigo. In 1866, he made a business 
trip to London, and in 1867 severed his con- 
nection at Panama and returned to San Fran- 
cisco. He then journeyed south, stopping at 
Los Angeles two months and then going to Old 



Town, where he located and started in business. 
In 1869, he came to New Town, and as the 
present city was established he bought a lot on 
Fifth street between E and F. He then built 
and established the first drug store in San 
Diego. In 1878, he removed his entire stock 
of drugs to Tucson, Arizona, moving by three 
wagons across the desert. He stopped there six 
years, doing a good business. In 1884, he sold 
out his entire business and returned to Germany 
to see his family and friends. After an ab- 
sence of six months he returned to San Diego, 
but has never resumed active business except in 
the care of his several interests. 

Dr. Wittield is a member of the San Diego Lodge 
of Masons, No. 35; also lodge of Perfection, 
Scottish rite thirty-second degree at Tucson, 
and of the society of San Diego pioneers. 

fEORGE SCRIMGEOUR, of San Diego, a 
pioneer of 1859, was born in^Scone, Scot- 
land, December, 1832, being the second son 
in a family of eight children, four sons and four 
daughters, all of whom are still living in 1889, 
the eldest being a daughter of sixty-six years of 
age, and the youngest a son of forty-five years 
of age. In 1848 his parents emigrated to Strat- 

ford, Ontario, Canada. His father bei 


penter and contractor, George learned the trade 
working with his father until June, 1859, when 
he became restless under the California excite- 
ment, and emigrated to that State by way of the 
Isthmus of Panama, arriving in San Francisco 
July 10, 1859. He followed his trade until 
May, 1860, then going to Westminster, British 
Columbia, and up the Fraser river, prospecting 
during the summer and returning in the fall. 
In the spring of 1861, in company with friends, 
he went to the Cariboo mines, meeting many 
hardships but no success. On returning he went 
into partnership with Mr. Graham, in building 
and contract work, building a large hospital and 
other prominent buildings. He was a partner 
in the first saw-mill on Buzzard's inlet, now the 

terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railroad. In 
1866 he returned to San Francisco, and worked 
at his trade until 1869. He then came to San 
Diego, and in partnership with Mr. Graham 
again began building and contracting, but busi- 
ness being rather dull he went to San Francisco 
in 1872, and there engaged first as foreman and 
then as contractor, remaining until December, 
1886, when he returned to San Diego. He 
bought two lots on the corner of A and Colum- 
bia streets, each 50x100 feet, adjoining; they 
are now fully improved with store, butcher shop 
and residence. In the summer of 1889, Mr. 
Scrimgeour returned to Ontario, to visit his 
family and friends after an absence of thirty 
years. His parents are deceased, but his broth- 
ers and sisters are still living. His brothers 
have a large sash, blind and furniture manufact- 
ory at Stratford, and his youngest brother ha6 
been mayor of the city. 

Mr. Scrimgeour, being a bachelor, resides with 
his old and tried friend Mr. Graham, at the cor- 
ner of Sixth and Ash streets, and though fifty- 
seven years of age he is in full enjoyment of all 
the pleasures of life. 

— fr* t > & 

fC. MERRILL, superintendent and stock- 
holder of the Southern California Coal and 
° Clay Co., manufacturers of sewer pipe, 
water pipe, fire brick, fire-proof building ma- 
terial. John Dolbeer is president of the com- 
pany; William Mugan, secretary, and George 
Gray, vice-president. The works are at Terra 
Cotta, three and one-half miles southwest of 
Elsinore. This plant cost $50,000, and was 
put in operation in January, 1888. They now 
run three kilns; capacity of each kiln, .$600 
When- rnuning a f , full capacity they run ten 
kilns per month. They ship to Los Angeles, 
San Diego, and all the towns of southern Cali- 
fornia. The coal which they have discovered 
will be opened within 300 yards of the factory. 
The product of their factory is termed Vitrified 
Salt-Glazed Pipe. Mr. Merrill was born in 


Akron, Ohio, in 1849. His father, C. J. Mer- 
rill, made the first sewer pipe in Ohio, and is 
now the oldest manufacturer living in the 
United States. He is also the inventor of the 
machinery used in its manufacture. His father 
was a native of Ohio, and his mother, Fanny L. 
(Follett) Merrill, also. The subject of this 
sketch was raised in this business, and is well 
informed on all matters in connection with it. 
He was the superintendent of the pipe works at 
Los Angeles, the clay for which is got at Elsi- 
nore. Mr. F. F. Merrill, a brother of Mr. C. C. 
Merrill, is now superintendent of the California 
Pipe Works at Los Angeles. Mr. Merrill was 
married in 1870 to Miss Emma J. Le Sure. 
She was born in Alton, Illinois. They have 
four children, two boys and two girls, viz.: Ed- 
ward L., C. O, Jr., Florence L., all born in Al- 
ton, Illinois, and Emma Blanche, born in Mount 
Pulaski, Illinois. Mr. Merrill, when twenty- 
one years of age, made application to become a 
Master Mason, and was accepted. He was 
secretary of his lodge while he resided in that 
part of the country. He is a very active busi- 
ness man, of fine ability. 

--T&mwHg — 

Wa S. MASON is the owner of a very excellent 
fly? seventy-acre ranch on the south side of 
1^° Lake Elsinore, about six miles from the 
city of Elsinore. It is a choice location, pictur- 
esque in the extreme, backed by the Santa Rosa 
mountains, the land falling in a gentle slope to 
the lake. The whole lake and adjoining country, 
together with the city of Elsinore and the distant 
mountains, form a most attractive landscape, 
which is so full of beauty that one will always 
delight to behold. This property is supplied 
with a pure stream of clear cold water, running 
from a tunnel made 150 feet in the mountains 
by Mr. Mason. It comes into the land just 
where wanted and is of immense value. Mr. 
Mason has improved the place with a neat small 
house, and shrubs and trees, and is about to 
plant ten acres of oranges, for which the land is 

well adapted. He has fifty acres under improve- 
ment, of which twenty-five acres are in trees, 
sixteen in figs and the remainder in plums. He 
has made a study of tree, fruit and raisin culture, 
having spent the most of his life in that busi, 
ness. He was in the lumber business in Ala- 
bama, Florida, and in the northern counties of 
California He also raised considerable grain 
in Plumas County, and engaged in mining. At 
one time he superintended the planting of the 
largest raisin vineyard in the world, — 800 acres 
in El Cajon, San Diego County, California. In 
a very short time he will have a place to feel 
proud of. In addition to the care of his own 
property Mr. Mason has charge of Mr. Balfour's 
grove of oranges, figs and almonds, fifty acres in 
all, all doing very nicely under his care, on lands 
adjoining his own. Since he has been in this 
valley he has dealt some in lands on his own 
account, and has been quite successful Mr. 
Mason was born in Indiana, May 30, 1847. 
His father, Edson Mason, was a native of 
Syracuse, New York, and his mother, Mary 
A. Nelson, was a native of Pennsylvania. 
L. S., the fourth of a family of six children, 
was raised in Michigan, where he was edu- 
cated in the public schools. He has been in 
California fifteen years, and at Elsinore five 
years. He is still a single man and of strict 
business habits. 

lHARLES J. FOX, C. E., San Diego. No 
man has been more closely identified with 
Diego County during the past eighteen 
years, and no name is better known to the early 
settlers and later residents, than that of Charles J. 
Fox. Mr. Fox was born in Boston, Massachusetts, 
October 12, 1834. He comes of a noted family 
and can trace his lineage back to 1640, when 
his ancestors settled in Massachusetts. Five 
generations back on his mother's side, Wheelock, 
the head of the family, was the founder and first 
president of Dartmouth College, where his por- 
trait hangs in the art gallery, and Mr. Fox's 


father, grandfather and great-grandfather were 
graduates of that famous institution of learning. 

His paternal grandfather was a soldier of the 
Revolutionary war, and Mr. Fox has in his 
possession a book written and published by him, 
entitled, "Fox's Revolutionary Adventures." 
He was taken prisoner by the British troops 
and confined for some months in the old Jersey 
prison ship, in Wallabout Bay, in Long Island 

Charles spent his boyhood days in Boston, 
and at the age. of seventeen graduated from a 
scientific school, where mathematics and engi- 
neering were specialties. He had a natural 
taste for these pursuits, and the first work he 
did after graduation was as a member of a rail- 
road survey party in Pennsylvania in 1851. In 
the spring of 1853 he went West, and until 
1869 was engaged on different railroads through- 
out the western States and Territories. 

In the spring of 1860 he crossed the plains 
to where the city of Denver now stands, and 
was one of the first settlers of that place, there 
being at that time but few houses, and they 
mere shanties. Most of the summer was spent 
in California gulch, now the site of Leadville, 
in mining, prospecting and surveying. During 
a recent trip to the East he stopped at Lead- 
ville and saw the remains of a log house which 
he helped, to build in the summer of 1860. 
During 1864 and 1865 he was in the United 
States Engineer service, having charge of the 
reconstruction of the Memphis & Charleston 
Railroad from Memphis to Corinth. 

He continued to be engaged in railroad busi- 
ness in the South until his health failed, and in 
the spring of 1869 he came to California. After 
prospecting different parts of the State for six 
months, he finally selected San Diego as his 
future residence, being attracted by the beauties 
of the climate and what he foresaw of its future 
commercial importance. 

Having invested all his available funds in 
San Diego real estate, he opened an office for 
surveying and engineering, and has ever since 
devoted his best abilities to aid in building up 

the city and county. In pursuance of this ob- 
ject he took an active part in the organization 
of the San Diego and Fort Yuma turnpike 
road, 200 miles in length, which was the first 
good road across the county to Arizona, and 
opened up a good deal of trade and travel. In 
1875 he established a large apiary at Fallbrook, 
and the following year organized the Bee Keep- 
ers' Association, of which he was president, and 
established agencies for the sale of honey in 
various Eastern cities. 

He was one of the incorporators of the San 
Diego Society of Natural History, and for ten 
years its treasurer; also one of the stockholders 
of the Masonic Building Association, and a 
director for several years; also one of the char- 
ter members of the San Diego Lodge, Knights 
of Pythias, serving a term as Chancellor Com- 
mander. He was in charge of surveys for the 
Memphis & El Paso Railroad, the San Diego & 
Los Angeles Railroad, and the Texas & Pacific, 
being the first engineer to call attention to and 
survey through the famous Temecula canon, 
now occupied by the California Southern. 

Having for several years explpred the county, 
including the Colorado desert, he obtained an 
extensive and minute knowledge of the country, 
and was generally called on by new-comers for 
information, which he always cheerfully gave. 
He was active in protecting the rights of the 
settlers from the greed of land monopolists, and 
was several times elected county surveyor and 
city engineer, and filled these situations to the 
satisfaction of all. In connection with his part- 
ner, Mr. II. I. Willey, afterwards State Sur- 
veyor-General, he prepared and published the 
official and only map of San Diego County. 

By appointment of the Judge of the Superior 
Court, he served as commissioner in the parti- 
tion of most of the Spanish grants, including 
the ex-Mission grant of 52,000 acres, surround- 
ing the city of San Diego. 

He is now owner of considerable real estate 
in the city, and a good deal of county land, in- 
cluding a tract at Linda Vista, where he was 
the first to make improvements on Government: 


land; and he also owns a large interest in the 
Junipero Land and "Water Company, of which 
he is the president. 

He has always been active and liberal in sup- 
port of every important public measure, espe- 
cially during San Diego's dark days, and has 
the respect of all the old settlers. 

Mr. Fox married, in 1880, Mrs. A. A. Cosper, 
of San Diego. They have no children. 

SAAC NEWTON VAIL came to Lucerne 
in September, 1888. He purchased a ranch, 
is planting a nursery and raising orange 
trees, French prunes, apricots and grapes, and 
nearly every variety of tree and shrub. His 
native place is eastern Ohio, and he dates his 
birth from January 31, 1840. He was educated 
in West Town Friend's College, in eastern 
Pennsylvania, and is a graduate of that institu- 
tion. After graduating he taught for three 
years as assistant principal, and then four years 
as principal. After this he wa9 principal of 
the Eastern Ohio Normal School for three 
years and was county teachers' examiner. 

Mr. Vail is a leading geologist. He began 
this study when a boy and has made it a 
specialty and a life study. He has written and 
published several works on this and kindred 
subjects, his most important work being " The 
Story of the Rocks." He is the author of the 
"Annular Theory," which is that the earth has 
a ring system similar to that which Saturn now 
has. This theory has its foundation in the 
claim that annular formation is a necessary re- 
sult of the evolution of worlds from their prim- 
itive state; hence the earth at one time had an 
annular system as one step in its formation, 
which accounts satisfactorily for all the geolog- 
ical formations of the earth. It gives the true 
cause of the glacial epochs and furnishes a 
philosophical and satisfactory cause of all or- 
ganic evolution, and gives a philosophic cause 
for the Noachian deluge. 

Mr. Vail has been engaged a part of his time 

in horticultural pursuits at Barnesville, Ohio, 
and shipped to and sold his berries in Chicago. 
His principal business in 1890 is the improve- 
ment of his ranch and looking after the sale of 
his books. He was married to Miss Rachel D. 
Wilson in 1864, and was blessed with two chil- 
dren: Alice J. and Lillie C, both born near 
Barnesville, Ohio, and now residing in Califor- 
nia. Mrs. Vail died in 1877, and his second 
marriage occurred in 1880, to Mary M. Cope, 
who was a native 'of Fayette County, Pennsyl- 
vania. Mr. Vail's grandfather, Benjamin Vail, 
and great-grandfather, Abraham Vail, were na- 
tives of New Jersey. 

?W. THOMPSON, one of San Diego's re- 
spected citizens who was directly instrn- 
* mental, through his telephone system of 
connecting the business interests of all San Diego 
County, was born in Pontiac, Oakland County, 
Michigan, in April, 1842. He was one of a fam- 
ily of three children, all of whom are living, he 
being the only son. His two sisters, now wid- 
owed, reside in San Diego. His father was a 
newspaper man, being editor and publisher of 
the Pontiac Gazette; he was also quite a poli- 
tician, and was a delegate at the Baltimore 
Whig Convention, which nominated General 
Scott for President in 1852. In 1853 the 
family removed to Council Bluffs, Iowa, where 
his father died in 1854, the family removing 
soon after to Omaha, Nebraska, the subject of 
this sketch being an eye witness to the erection 
of the first house at Omaha, July 4, 1854. A 
legislative hall was soon built, and he was then 
appointed page to the first Nebraska Legisla- 
ture. He was in the vicinity of Omaha until 
1861, getting an education, which he had to 
work for as opportunity afforded. During the 
years 1859-'60, he was employed at the trading 
store of the Omaha Indian Reservation. In 
1861 he began the study of telegraphy at 
Omaha, in the office of Colonel Clowry, then 
superintendent, but now vice-president of the 


Western Union system. On completion of the 
first overland telegraph, in the fall of 1861, on 
the line of the old stage route, Mr. Thompson 
came across the plains locating telegraph sta- 
tions, which took about two years, and on his 
arrival in California he opened the first tele- 
graph office at Petaluma, Sonoma County, in 
1863, and then located offices through Oregon 
and Nevada. In the winter of 1866 he went to 
Yreka, Siskiyou County, California, as superin- 
tendent, remaining until 1874. 

Mr. Thompson was married in 1873, at Yreka, 
to Miss Hortense Eubanks. In 1874 he came 
with his wife to San Diego as manager of the 
Western Union, holding the position until 1886. 
He was also manager of the Military Telegraph 
running to Arizona and New Mexico, which 
has since been abandoned. In 1878 he was ap- 
pointed agent for the Wells-Fargo Express Com- 
pany, holding the appointment until February, 
1887. In 1881 Mr. Thompson started the San 
Diego Telephone Company, and began laying 
wires the same year. He is still president. 
They have suspended over 600 miles of wire, 
and cover Oceanside, Canipo, El Cajon, Stone- 
wall, and all the western part of the county. 
They have about 350 subscribers, which is said 
to be the largest number of subscribers to the 
average population of any office in the country. 
In January, 1889, he organized the Diamond 
Carriage Company, doing a livery and hack 
business, and controlling the hack system of 
the city, they have forty horses, nineteen hacks, 
and an outfit valued at $35,000, situated on 
First street, between C and D. He is also 
president of the Excelsior Paving Company, 
macadam system, having a plant near Sweet- 
water dam, and supplying the broken rock for 
all the concrete work of the city. He owns a 
large amount of improved property, and occu- 
pies a handsome residence at 1,457 Fourth street. 
They have five children, all of whom are living 
at home. 

Mr. Thompson is Fast Master of San Diego 
Lodge, No. 35, and Past High Priest and Sec- 
retary of San Diego Chapter, No. 61, R. A. M., 

and Past Chancellor of Knights of Pythias. 
Mr. Thompson is a man of great enterprise and 
keen foresight, very progressive, and is ever 
ready to advance systematic development. 

— <§&mwH# — 

fGr. HAYERMALE, a man of great versa- 
tility, successful in both church and State, 
3 who now occupies the most beautiful resi- 
dence in San Diego, corner of Seventh and Ash 
streets, was born October 15, 1824, in the obscure 
village of Sharpsburg, Maryland, now become the 
renowned battle- field of Antietam. His parents 
were natives of the same State. He was second 
in a family of eight children, seven of whom are 
still living, one brother having been killed in 
that terrible railroad accident on the Wabash 
railroad, near Chatsworth, Illinois, where lives 
were sacrificed to such a terrible degree. His 
father was a weaver by trade in youth, but in 
later years was devoted to the interests of farm- 
ing. In 1833 he moved to Montgomery Coun- 
ty, Ohio, where he purchased a small farm. 
Here the subject of this sketch received his pre- 
liminary education, which was finished at the 
Pock River Seminary, at Mount Morris, Illinois, 
where he also studied for the ministry. He was 
educated in the Methodist faith, and began 
the active work of the ministry in 1852 in 
Northern Illinois, and for twenty-one years 
labored in that particular field, and, being a man 
of genial temperament and loving disposition, 
was beloved by all and was very successful in 
his ministry. In 1873 he was appointed Pre- 
siding Elder of a district in Washington Ter- 
ritory and Oregon, whither he had been trans- 
ferred from Illinois, and moved his family to 
Spokaie Falls, from which parish he traveled 
over his district, which covered an area of some 
40,000 square miles, and embraced a pastorate 
of twenty- five parishes. In 1879, at the age of 
fifty-five years, feeling that the hardships and 
exposures of travel were too great, he resigned 
his charge, after an active pastorate of twenty- 


seven years, the last six being on the frontier, 
and exceedingly burdensome. 

In 1875 he took up, by pre emption, the 
second Government claim of 160 acres at Spo- 
kane Falls, there then being but two houses at 
the place. This land was subdivided and be- 
came the center of what is now a city of 22,- 
000 inhabitants, enterprising and progressive. 
Here, after retiring from the ministry, he built 
a flouring mill, which was the first full roller 
mill in the Territory, which he operated with 
great success for five years, selling out in 1887, 
that he might seek a more temperate climate in 
southern California, coming direct to San Diego 
to enjoy the accumulations of his business pros- 
perity in a balmy atmosphere and amidst con- 
tinuous sunshine. He soon invested in im- 
proved property, and is now the owner of the 
Richelieu and Bon Ton blocks on D and Fifth 
streets, and completed the purchase in October, 
1889, of the most beautiful residence in South- 
ern California. Mr. Havermale has taken no 
active part in politics while in San Diego, but 
at Spokane Falls was president of the first city 
council, and continued a member thereof for 
many years. 

Mr. Havermale was married November 1, 
1849, at Elizabeth, Jo Daviess County, Illinois, 
to Miss Elizabeth Goldthorp, a native of Illi- 
nois. They have three children, two of whom 
are residents of San Diego, California, and one 
resides at Spokane Falls, State of Washington. 

Mr. Havermale belongs to a family of marked 
longevity. His parents died at the ages of 
eighty-nine and ninety years, and were buried 
in the same grave. 

fAMES H. STEWART, one of the enterpris- 
ing and capable fruit ranchers of Elsinore. 
He has forty acres of very choiceland on the 
west side of the lake but not bordering it, so it is 
out of the way of ever being overflowed. It is a 
little over two miles from Elsinore and has a line 
view of the lake and surrounding country. He 

has ten acres of raisin grapes and five acres of 
fruit trees of nearly all kinds. He also owns town 
lots and a house and lot in Elsinore. Mr. 
Stewart was born in Pittsburg, Pennslyvania, 
April 14, 1852. His father, William, was also 
a native of the same State and was in the grocery 
and provision business 'in Allegheny City for 
twenty-seven years. Mr. Stewart's grandfather, 
Joseph Stewart, was a Scotchman. His mother, 
Mary Jane (Andrews) Stewart, was a native of 
Pennsylvania. Mr. Stewart is the eldest of a 
family of five children, the others being William, 
John, Mary Jane and Emma.. He was raised 
and educated in the first ward of Allegheny 
City and learned the grocery business in his 
father's store. He learned the moulder's trade 
and worked nine years for Fuller, Warn & Co., 
of Troy, New York. He then removed to 
Minneapolis, Minnesota, and for four years was 
engaged in transferring goods; he had contracts 
with the largest houses there. In 1888 became 
to Elsinore and built their present house. No- 
vember 10, 1880, he was married to Miss Martha 
E. Coon, of Troy, New York. Her father, Mr. 
Andrew Coon, was in the linen collar and shirt 
manufacturing business in Troy for many years. 
She was but eight months old when she was left 
an orphan, and she was brought up by her 
mother's father, Ransom D. Warner, a pioneer 
of Minneapolis. Their union is blessed with 
four children: William Ransom and Edwin 
Warner were born in Troy, New York; Walter 
James in Minneapolis and Ransom Darius in 
Elsinore. Mrs. Stewart is a member of the 
Methodist Church, at which they both attend 
services. Mr. Stewart is a member of the A. 
O. IT. W., and Mrs. Stewart is member of the 
Baptist Church. 



tDOLPH STOKES, a native of California, 
a rancher of San Diego County, was born 
at Old Town in 1843. His father, Edward 
Stokes, was born at Plymouth, England, and was 
a seafaring man, being captain of a vessel which 


sailed between Boston, Sandwich Islands, San 
Francisco and other ports. He first came to Cali- 
fornia in 1838, and soon settled at Old Town. 
The mother of the subject of this sketch was a na- 
tive of California, of the well-known Ortega fam- 
ily. Adolfo was the eldest of three children. His 
father was a large land owner, owning one-half 
interest in the Santa Maria ranch and one-half 
interest in the Santa Ysabel ranch, each ranch 
being four leagues in extent, or 17,752 acres. 
He was a large breeder of cattle and horses, and 
on the Santa Ysabel ranch had a wine press and 
vineyard which has since gone into decay, its 
history being only legendary. The family early 
removed to Los Angeles and there Adolfo re- 
ceived his early education, finishing at Benicia 
College in Solano County. He then learned 
the carpenter's trade in Los Angeles, which he 
followed until 1865, when he went to the Santa 
Maria ranch, which has since been his home. 
He owns 500 acres of land and carries on gen- 
eral farming, in growing wheat and barley, and 
has a 6mall orchard and vineyard. He is also 
a breeder of fine horses, of the Black Hawk and 
Norman stock. 

Mr. Stokes was married at Los Angeles in 
1868, to Miss Delores Olvera, of a well-known 
and distinguished family. Her father, Don 
Agustin Olvera, was a lawyer and judge at Los 
Angeles, and was one of the presidential elec- 
tors at the election of Buchanan. Point Concep- 
cion was named after an aunt, Concepcion Llwn. 
Mr. and Mrs. Stokes have had eleven chil- 
dren, seven of whom survive and live at home. 
Three daughters are now being educated at St. 
Mary's College, and one son at the Commercial 
College at San Diego. Mr. Stokes' family re- 
moved to San Diego in 1887, where they now 

— -—S-**^— 

^ALGLISH & SATJLTER'S grocery and 
provision store is a lively business place 
in Elsinore. They have the only exclu- 
sively grocery and provision store in the place. 

They formed their partnership and opened with a 
complete new stock in February, 1888. The 
building is of brick, seventy-five feet deep, in 
the center of the business portion of the town, 
and is full of a well-kept stock of goods. They 
are both young men of good business habits 
and are deserving of the large trade which 
they have. They are also agents for Wells, 
Fargo & Co. Mr. Dalglish was born in Ot- 
tawa, Canada, October 25, 1859, came to the 
United States in 1887, and has declared his 
intention to become a citizen of this land of 
his adoption. He is of Scotch descent. He is 
a member of the Business Men's Association of 
Elsinore and is one of the committee on immi- 
gration statistics and publications, and also of 
the committee on money loans and openings for 
capital. Mr. Saulter was born in Peterboro, 
Canada, in 1865, and is of English descent. 
He is married to Miss Maggie Dalglish, a sister 
of his partner, and also a native of Canada. 
They are both young business men who have a 
bright future before them. 

fC. PARKER, the oldest photographer in 
San Diego, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio. 
13 He was the fourth child in a family of ten 
children, six of whom are still living. His father 
was a contractor and builder, mainly in brick and 
stone. In 1836 they removed to Peoria, Illinois, 
where his father carried on his trade. The subject 
of this sketch was educated at Peoria, receiving 
only a common-school education. He began 
his profession in 1857, on both landscape and 
portrait work, working with Henry Cole, of 
Peoria. In 1862 he went to Pekin, Illinois, 
and there started his own gallery, doing a very 
satisfactory business for ten years. In 1872 he 
came to California, first stopping for a short 
period at Santa Rosa, San Francisco and Stock- 
ton, where he had charge of Spooner's gallery. 
In 1873 he came to San Diego and opened a 
gallery with a partner, under the firm name of 
Parker & Parker, which continued about two 


years. He then bought out his partner and has 
been alone ever since. The first gallery was 
located near the corner of Sixth and F streets, 
but in 1884 he removed to his present spacious 
quarters at 740 Fifth street. He does a general 
photographic business, taking landscapes as 
large as 20x24, and portraits from life-size 
down. He does a wholesale business in land- 
scape work, and has printed 100,000 pictures 
during the past year, making a specialty of 
scenes and Indians on the line of the Atlantic 
& Pacific Railroad. He employs three artists 
and has a very steady, satisfactory trade. 

Mr. Parker was married at Peoria, Illinois, 
in June, 1860, to Miss Mary L. Brown, a native 
of Ohio. They have two children. The son, 
Wallace B., is marrried and living in this city, 
and the daughter, Lucile E., is still at home. 


fH. LOUCKS, manager and owner of the 
" San Diego Bath House," was born at 
a Sharon, New York, March 18, 1838. He 
was the second in a family of nine children, and 
at the early age of fonr years his parents emi- 
grated to Michigan, where his father took up a 
Government claim of 160 acres, in a wild, unset- 
tled country. In 1853 they moved to Illinois, 
and, as times were hard and the family quite large, 
the subject of this sketch, at the age of fourteen 
years, began taking care of himself, working on 
farms until 1862, when he listened to his coun- 
try's call and enlisted in Company D, Captain 
Cooper, of the Second Illinois Light Artillery. 
They fought under both Grant and Sherman, 
and were in the battles of Fort Donelson, 
Pittsburg Landing, and the long siege and 
heavy fighting at Moscow. They were under 
Sherman in his thirty-two days' march from 
Memphis to Meridian, Mississippi, and were at 
Decatur, Alabama, during the three days' fight 
against Hood, winning by an accident, as until 
re-enforced they held their position by strategy. 
Mr. Loucks was in the Quartermaster's depart- 
ment at Decatur and rendered valuable service 

in preserving papers of great value to the de- 
partment. He was in no other large battles but 
many skirmishes through Alabama, Tennessee 
and Kentucky. At Memphis he was taken sick 
with small-pox and was mustered out from the 
hospital, May 30, 1865. He then engaged in 
farming and other occupations until the spring 
of 1875, when he came to Santa Cruz, Califor- 
nia. In 1881 he came to San Diego and was 
variously employed until 1886, when he built 
his handsome bath-house and residence adjoining 
on the water front, Atlantic street, between C 
and D. The building is seventy-five feet front 
by sixty-four feet deep, and is neatly and con- 
veniently fitted up with tubs for either hot or 
cold water. In the rear he has a swimming 
tank 30 x 60 feet, with dressing rooms adjoin- 
ing. The water for baths is always pumped at 
high tide and from 400 feet out in the channel, 
thus procuring clear, pure water. 

Mr. Loucks was married in Clark County, 
Missouri, January, 1862, to Miss Eliza E. Lucas. 
Having no children they devote all their time 
to the neat maintenance of their establishment. 

fZ. BUNDY, one of the industrious and 
enterprising business men of Elsinore, 
° claims as his native place, Springville, 
Iowa, and dates his birth August 18, 1862. 
His father, Joseph W. Bundy, and his mother, 
Martha (Gregg) Bundy, were natives of Ohio. 
Their family consisted of eight children, but 
two of which survive: Mr. E. Z. Bundy and 
his brother, O. J. Bnndy, both residents of El- 
sinore. Bundy spent his boyhood, until he was 
sixteen years of age, in Iowa. In 1882 he en- 
gaged in the blacksmith business and has fol- 
lowed it ever since. He came to Elsinore in 

1885 and found one blacksmith here before him. 
He bought him out and built a good shop in 

1886 that would be good enough for any town 
in the State, and here for the past five years he 
has done the work for the people for ten miles 
in every direction from Elsinore. Realizing for 


the first time in March, 1889, that it was not 
good for a man to be alone he submitted his 
case to Miss Hattie L. Stilson of San Jose, who 
had been the school-teacher in Elsinore for the 
two previous years and who is a native of Cali- 
fornia, born in Half Moon Bay. This union of 
two has resulted in a third, Essie Blanch, a beau- 
tiful daughter, born December 9, 1889. Mr. 
Bundj is a member of the Elsinore Business 
Men's Association and of the committee on 
mines and mining, and is now a member of the 
city council. He owns one of the hot mineral 
spring bath houses, for which Elsinore is so 
justly celebrated, and is steadily with brawny, 
bare arms and sturdy blows, gaining for himself 
and those he loves, a good living and a compe- 
tency for later years. All honor to the men 
who thus beLefit themselves and the country in 
which they reside. 

^OUGLAS GUNN, the present Mayorof San 
Diego, came to this city in the fall of 1869, 
and assumed editorial charge of the San Di- 
ego Union, which paper he soon after purchased 
and continued its publication until August, 1886, 
when he sold it to the corporation now owning 
it. He gave the Union more than a local rep- 
utation, and when he surrendered it to other 
hands it was one of the most valuable news- 
paper properties in the State. From the first 
he has been one of the foremost citizens of San 
Diego, having been prominently connected with 
every movement for the advancement of his 
city, and of southern California. He has al- 
ways been recognized as a leader among the pub- 
lic-spirited men of his section. After long years 
of hard work in journalism his labor was re- 
warded by the realization of a handsome for- 
tune. Always a liberal contributor to every 
worthy oliject, he was by no means disposed to 
retire with his wealth, but has been noted for 
leading the way in aid to all public enterprises. 
His private acts of generosity have been con- 
stant and unstinted. 

In 1888 Mr. Gunn was elected one of the 
Board of Freeholders to frame a new charter 
for the city, and was chosen president of the 
board. After the adoption of the charter he 
was elected Mayor by a very large majority, 
being supported by his fellow-citizens without 
distinction of party. As chief executive officer 
of the city he has shown marked executive abil- 
ity; he possesses great decision of character, 
and has clear-cut views of municipal adminis- 

He has been one of the most active members 
of the Chamber of Commerce since its organ- 
ization in 1870, and was president of that or- 
ganization in 1889. 

Mr. Gunn is the author of several works on 
San Diego and the southern country, his latest 
and best known book " San Diego, Illustrated,'' 
having been published since his retirement from 
the Union. He is one of the ablest statisticians 
in the State, and possesses the rare faculty of 
making statistical matter interesting to the 
general reader. His contributions to news- 
papers and periodicals in this direction have 
been numerous, and have been drawn upon by 
nearly writer upon Southern California, his 
facts being regarded as authority. 

Politically Mr. Gunn has always been an 
earnest Republican, but he is a sturdy advocate 
of the personal independence of the citizen, and 
has uniformly refused to submit to party tram- 
mels when imposed by machine politicians. 
He was never a candidate for public office until 
elected to his present position. 

Mr. Gunn came to California a child in 1851, 
and has ever since resided in the State; his 
earlier years were passed in Sonora, Tuolumne 
County, where he served his apprenticeship at 
the printers' trade; from 1861 to 1869 he re- 
sided in San Francisco, and was a member of 
the editorial staff of the Times of that city; 
upon the consolidation of that paper with the 
Alta, in the latter year, he removed to San 
Diego with the purpose of fixing here his per- 
manent home. His faith in the future of this 
city and southern California has been of the 


very finest kind from the day of his arrival; 
and he has the satisfaction of seeing a large de- 
gree of the realization of his early predictions — 
a consummation to which his own untiring 
labor and ceaseless energy have in no small 
measnre contributed 

«F. GODDARD, a business man of San 
Diego, was born at Palmyra, New York, 
November 16, 1835. His mother, Mrs. 
Maria (Fillmore) Goddard, was a cousin of 
Millard Fillmore. Her father was in the war 
of 1812, and her grandfather was in the 
Revolutionary war. The Goddards trace their 
genealogy back to the Saxon conquest. The 
original name was Goder, which signified 
Priest King, and one of the family was a 
priest who administered the sacrament to 
Napoleon when on his death-lied. The sub- 
ject of this sketch was the third in a family 
of nine children, five of whom still survive; one 
brother, Luther M., is now judge of the fifth 
judicial district of Colorado, and his brother 
Clarence is a physician at Leavenworth, Kansas. 
At the age of eighteen years the subject of this 
sketch sailed on the lakes before the mast, and 
in 1855 went to sea on a whaling vessel from 
New Bedford, sailing on the Atlantic and Indian 
oceans. He sailed as foremast hand, but was 
steadily promoted until he became the head of 
the watch. After five years of sea service he 
returned to his home at Leavenworth, Kansas, 
where his parents were then living. In 1860 
he was quite extensively connected with the 
border warfare, and in 1862 he ran a freight 
line from Leavenworth to Denver across the 
plains, carrying a load of corn. Denver wa6 
then blockaded by Indians, and at that time Col- 
onel Chivington made his celebrated raid at 
Sandy Creek. Mr. Goddard and two brothers 
with one team ran. the blockade, reaching Jules- 
burg and then back to Leavenworth. In 1866 
he got up a large mule train from Atchison to 
Salt Lake, carrying a general supply of grocer- 

ies. They were attacked on Lodge Pole Creek, 
near Pine Bluff, by Indians, and for five days 
were blockaded with a steady skirmish. They 
lost eighty-six mules and a number of horses, 
only retaining one wounded mule. During the 
tight several Indians were sent to the happy 
hunting-grounds. Goddard, in the first attack, 
killed the leader, a renegade white man, and they 
were only relieved by a company of troops from 
Fort John Buford, and thus enabled to drive off 
the Indians and get the freight train to Denver, 
where the goods were stored. In the fall of 
1867, he took a contract to supply the commis- 
sary department on the building of the Kansas 
Pacific Railroad to Sheridan, and employed 
Buffalo Bill in killing buffaloes at $250 per 
month. After 1870 he was for three or four 
years connected with the police department at 
Leavenworth on the detective service. February, 
1879, he went to Leadville at the opening of 
the great boom and located the first claim on 
the snow crust at Breese Hill. In the following 
summer he headed a prospecting party to the 
head w 7 aters of the Platte river and Arkansas 
river. In 1880, backed by ex-Governor Thomas 
Carney, of Kansas, he took an armed party into 
the Gunnison country and located claims on the 
Ute reservation, some of which have proved very 
valuable. In the fall of 1882 he emigrated to 
Seattle, running a hotel during the boom, and 
then to San Francisco in 1883, when he opened 
a freight transfer line across the bay from Frisco 
to Oakland and San Leandro. In 1885 he came 
to San Diego, arriving December 30, and en- 
gaged first in the real-estate business, and in the 
summer of 1886 bought out the Pacific livery 
and boarding stables, corner of Third and F 
streets, which is one of the largest stables in 
the city, and is doing a good business with a fine 
stock of horses and carriages, both light and 

Mr. Goddard was married at Kansas City, in 
1870, to Miss Annie Agnes Courtwright. They 
have no children. Under the new charter in 
1889, he was appointed by Mayor Gunn to act 
as a member of the police commissioners for a 


term of three years, and being a man of integ- 
rity and morality is satisfactorily discharging 
his duties. 

jARTINEZ CHICK.— Among the gun 
sportsmen of Southern California, the 
subject of this sketch stands out with 
great prominence. He is a native of California 
and was born in San Joaquin valley, August 
22, 1858. His early life was passed on the farm 
of hie father, leaving home at the age of twenty 
years and coming to San Diego. Hunting has 
been his principal amusement, until he has be- 
come very skillful with the gun. In April, 18S7, 
he shot a match with Doc. Carver, who is famed 
for skillful shooting, and Mr. Chick won the 
match, killing ninety-one live birds out of 100, 
while Mr. Carver killed but ninety. At the 
State Sportsmen's Association meeting at San 
Jose, Mr. Chick made the best average on blue 
rock and live birds, and won the prize. In 
blue rock shooting, he broke forty-nine out of 
fifty in singles and forty-four out of fifty in 
double rise. In sweepstake tournament in 1888, 
at Riverside, he made over seventy-five shots at 
blue rocks without making a miss. 

Mr. Chick was married in San Diego in 
March, 1879, to Miss Cornelia Higgins, a na- 
tive of California. 


fOHN C. KITTON, of San Diego, was born 
in St. Clair, Michigan, February 26, 1847, 
of English-American descent. His father 
was a capitalist and a general business manager, 
having large interests in stores, mills and ma- 
chine shops. John C. learned the trade of 
machinist in St. Clair, and for six years was 
superintendent and manager of his father's foun- 
dry and machine shops. In 1874 he went to 
Denver, Colorado, and then to Salt Lake and 
San Francisco. In 1876 he acted as general 
traveling agent for D. M. Osborn, of Auburn, 

New York, in the sale of agricultural imple- 
ments, traveling through the Northwest with 
headquarters at Portland, Oregon, and remain- 
ing with them until 1882, when he returned to 
San Francisco and was superintendent of the 
Arctic Ice Company, and while there remodeled 
and improved the plant and secured patents in 
his own name. Since 1885 he has been manu- 
facturing his improved ice machine at San 
Francisco, in connection with W. T. Garratt. 
In 1887 he came to San Diego and started an 
ice manufacturing establishment by the ammo- 
nia process, but owing to complications the 
business has been closed about one year. The 
plant is now owned by W. T. Garratt & Co., of 
San Francisco, with Mr. Kitton as manager. 
The plant is being carefully inspected and re- 
newed in view of continuing the business. They 
will also have in connection suitable warerooms 
for storage and sale of all castings made by the 
above house. W. T. Garratt is an early pioneer 
to California, having come out in 1850, and is 
largely interested in lands, railroads, steamboats, 
manufactories and in all the general develop- 
ments of the State. 

Mr. Kitton was married at Portland, Oregon, 
December, 1878, to Miss Mary Isabel Day, a 
native of Tennessee. 



fOHN H.STORER,ofElsinore,isanativeof 
Yarmouth, Maine, born March 30, 1842. 
His parents were also natives of that State. 
His maternal grandfather was a pioneer of Port- 
land, Maine, and president of the Casco Bank 
of Portland, and also Mayor of that city. Mr. 
Storer was educated and lived in his native 
place until manhood, when he became a sailor 
and sailed for ten years, visiting nearly every 
foreign port. When the war of the Rebellion 
broke out he was abroad, but as soon as he 
reached New York he enlisted in Company C, 
Twenty-second New York Cavalry, and served 
his country until the close of the war. He then 
went to Cleveland, Ohio, and engaged in the 


mixed-paint business — "Averill's." After this 
he removed to Boston and carried on a paint 
factory there, and was engaged in the mixed- 
paint business from the close of the war until 
August 3, 1886, when he came to California. 
He stopped at Los Angeles a year, and then 
came to Elsinore. May 9, 1877, he was united 
in marriage to Miss Helen Thew, of Cleveland, 
Ohio. She was the daughter of Mr. T. T. 
Thew and Mrs. Helen Thew. Mrs. Storer was 
born in Marion, Ohio, at which place she was 
educated, and with her mother learned the mil- 
linery and dressmaking business. In Decem- 
ber, 1887, Mrs. Storer opened her millinery, 
dress and fancy goods store in Elsinore, and is 
still engaged in the business, keeping a nice 
stock of line goods, and dealing with the better 
class of trade, not only of Elsinore, but of the 
surrounding country for miles in every direc- 
tion. Her trade has grown from the first, and 
she enjoys a very successful business. She is a 
member of the Presbyterian Church, a member 
of the United Order of the Golden Cross, and 
belongs to the Ladies' Annex of Elsinore. Mr. 
Storer is a member of the I. (). O. F., and 
Knights of Pythias. They have invested in 
real estate in Elsinore, and are interested in the 
prosperity of the city. 

""•' :==3 " ; f :i, T" l ir :,<: • '°"~ 

GERMAN, the leading jeweler of San 
Diego, who occupies spacious sale- 
ko rooms at 845 Fifth street, was born in 
Baltimore, Maryland, December 24, 1855, of 
Scotch-French and German parentage. His ma- 
ternal ancestors are the famous Mullenburgs of 
Philadelphia and Astors of New York : his father 
was a commission merchant, dealing mainly in 
grain. In 1860 they moved to Freeport, Illinois, 
carrying on the same business. The subject of 
this sketch there attended the common schools, 
and later learned the trade of watchmaker and 
jeweler. From 1875 to 1880 he traveled through 
the Territories, prospecting and mining, settling 
at El Paso in 1880, and opened a first-class jew- 

elry store, which he continued for two years, and 
then returned to the Territories and lost heavily 
in mining speculations. 

In June, 1885, he was married at Las Vegas, 
to Miss Grace N. Bruce, a native of Cumber- 
land, Maryland, and a lineal descendant of Rob- 
ert Bruce. Her maternal grandfather, Colonel 
Daniel. C. Cresap, was of Revolutionary fame, 
and her father, Henry Bruce, a prominent law- 
yer of Maryland. Her father and his brother- 
in-law, William Price, were appointed by the 
Legislature to draft the code of Maryland, 
which was adopted. Her cousin, Francis S. 
Key, was the author of the celebrated poem, 
"The Star-Spangled Banner." 

Mr. German arrived in San Diego in the fall 
of 1885, immediately opened a small jewelry 
store, enlarging as circumstances demanded, 
and during the three years of the boom his 
business averaged §100,000 each year. He 
does both a wholesale and retail business, and 
sells to dealers as reasonably as they can buy in 
Eastern markets. He carries a large stock of 
jewelry and diamonds, has a manufacturing 
establishment and employs sixteen men in the 
business. He also has an art department, carry- 
ing bronze pictures and a fine class of artistic 
wares, also plated and silver ware, — in fact, 
everything pertaining to the wrought gold 
and silver department, with skilled workmen to 
attend to manufacturing and repairing. 

— ^€i:©»^ — 

fOSEPH A. FLINT, a prominent business 
man of San Diego, was born at quarantine, in 
the harbor of New York, August 20, 1840, of 
English parents, who were emigrating to the free 
land of America. His father was a shoemaker 
and manufacturer and settled at Pittsburg, Penn- 
sylvania, where he acted as foreman in a large 
manufacturing establishment and where they 
remained until 1852. They then started for 


Golden State " of California, taki 

steamer at New York and coming by the Nic 
ragua route. Their trip was without special 



terest until they boarded tlie steamship North 
America on the Pacific at San Juan. This was 
an opposition boat, and the captain, as he after- 
ward confessed, beached her on the coast eighty 
miles south of Acapnlco, for which he received 
$5,000 from the opposition line. The passen- 
gers, 1,000 in number, landed without loss of 
life, but the steamer was a wreck. They then 
traveled to Acapnlco on footandon mules, afour- 
days journey through a wild rugged country in- 
fested by robbers and desperadoes. At Acapnlco 
they took steamer and arrived at San Francis- 
co, April 10, 1852. Joseph, then twelve years 
old, went with his parents to Sacramento, and 
thence to Bear river, and settled at Hough and 
Ready, Nevada County, where they worked 
eight years at mining, and though Joseph was 
young he was very successful. In 1860 he 
went to Iowa Hill, Placer County, and worked 
under ground for three years, going in as a com- 
mon hand, but was soon advanced and later had 
charge of a claim. In December, 1864, he went 
toSmartsville, Yuba County* and there remained 
twenty years at hydraulic mining, entering as 
agent, and the last four years was superintendent 
of the Excelsior Water and Mining Company. 
They did much heavy blasting, and the heaviest 
blast ever tried in the State he set off by elec- 
tricity, using about 50,000 pounds of powder 
under a heavy bank of earth. On a forty-five 
days run the company took out $105,000 in 

From 1876 to 1879 he was a member of the 
board of supervisors for Yuba County. In June, 
1884, he came to San Diego as secretary, treas- 
urer and manager of the San Diego Water Com- 
pany, which position he still holds. This com- 
pany was organized in 1873, with a capital of 
$90,000; H. M. Covert, president. They piped 
San Diego City, drawing the supply from the 
bed of the San Diego river. In 1876 Jacob 
Gruendike was elected president. In 1887 the 
San Diego Water Company and the San Diego 
and Coronado Water Company merged with a 
capital of $1,000,000, with E. S. Babcock, Jr., 
as president. In 1889 the majority of stock 

was sold to an English syndicate and the com- 
pany is now known as the San Diego Water 
Company, Mr. Babcock still acting as president. 
The directors are: E. S. Babcock, Jr., Captain 
B. Scott, manager of the International Company; 
G. H. Puterbaugh, judge of the superior court; 
W. W. Whitney, director of the First National 
Bank; J. H. Barbour, cashier Consolidated Na- 
tional Bank; Joseph A. Flint, secretary and 

Mr. Flint was married at Smartsville, Yuba 
County, California, December 16, 1869, to Miss 
Sarah A. Taylor, a native of New Hampshire. 
They have three children, of whom only two 
daughters survive, Alice May, born in 1870, and 
Gertrude Durose, born in 1873. Both are at 
home and attending school in San Diego. Under 
the new charter Mr. Flint was elected a mem- 
ber of the board of education in 1889. On 
February 19, 1890, he Was appointed receiver 
of the street car company of this city. His 
residence is at 126 Grand avenue, Reed and 
Hubbell's Addition. 

^ • — -* ^ V ^S- *• ■ 

^ARTIN TRIMMER, farmer and stock- 
raiser on the Japatul ranch, was born in 
Vemvied on the Rhine, kingdom of 
Prussia, August 28, 1826, and emigrated with 
his father's parents and his aunt Philipina Wei- 
land, to the United States in April, 1838, em- 
barking on the ship New Scotland at Havre de 
Grace, France, and landing at Baltimore about 
the hist of May. His father had emigrated to 
this country five years previously and settled on 
a farm in Tazewell County, Illinois, two and 
a half miles from Washington and ten miles 
from Peoria, and was joined by this party July 
15, 1838. At the age of twenty-one years Mr. 
Trimmer left home and worked in a harness 
shop in St. Louis until the last day of January, 
1849, when he enlisted in the First Regiment 
of Mounted Rifles as bugler, and was assigned 
at Jefferson barracks near that city to Company 
F, commanded by Captain and Brevet Lieuten- 


ant- Colonel Andrew J. Porter. As the Asiatic 
cholera was raging fearfully among the troops, 
they were transferred in March to Fort Leaven- 
worth, and were stationed at Camp Sumner 
there until May 1, 1849. The troops began 
their long journey across the plains to Oregon 
Territory and reached their destination, Oregon 
City, in October. The next spring they went 
to Vancouver, belonging to the Hudson Bay 
Company and built the barracks there named 
Fort Vancouver. 

The next year the troops were ordered back 
to the States. Leaving Vancouver May 10, 
1851, on the United States transport propeller 
Massachusetts, they arrived May 15 at Benicia, 
where six companies were transferred to the 
dragoons and infantry under the command of 
Major Phil Kearny. After crossing the isthmus 
they were transported on the mail steamer Fal- 
con to Cuba, arriving there July 1. This island 
they left on the 3d, on the mail steamer Chero- 
kee for New Orleans, and after spending a week 
at the barracks there they finally returned to 
Jefferson barracks near St. Louis. 

The following October the regiment was again 
reorganized and they went by way of New Or- 
leans to Indianola, Texas, and thence to Fort 
Merrill on the Nueces river, where Lieutenant 
Stocktoii was relieved, with a detail of twelve 
men. In 1852 they built Fort Ewell, on the 
Nueces river, and Fort Judge on the Lyon river. 
From this post two companies were out in ac- 
tive service against the hostile Apaches, who 
had made depredations in Texas from the Mex 
ican side. Of this scouting party Mr. Trimmer 
was the bugler. In September, while they were 
in camp at Redman's ranch on the Rio Grande, 
they were informed by the Mexicans that about 
100 Indians had crossed from Mexico to the 
Texas side to steal horses. The company under 
the command of the celebrated Captain Gordon 
Granger (afterward General in the last war), 
started at once in pursuit, and on the third day, 
early in the morning, they overtook the ma- 
rauders at their crossing place about twenty 
miles above Redman's ranch, where they had all 

their plunder already done up in raw hides to 
take across the river. They had already got 
twenty-five horses across. The Indians imme- 
diately plunged into the Rio Grande and 
were all dispatched to the " happy hunting 
grounds:" not one was left to tell the tale. Two 
brothers from the company, named John and 
William Wright, swam the river and recovered 
the horses. 

Mr. Trimmer was discharged from military 
service in San Antonio, Texas, February 1, 
1854, and was employed by Major Belger at the 
Alamo for three months, when, in company 
with Dr. Edwards (formerly surgeon in the 
army) and Colonel Charles Pyron, of Texa3 
Ranger fame, he left for California, May 1. 
Taking the southern route they arrived at Tuc- 
son in June, and at Fort Yuma in July, where 
Mr. Trimmer worked a few months for Captain 
Rowley and George F. Hooper. In September 
he left Yuma with the intention of going to 
Oregon ; but on arriving at Carisa he met Will- 
iam Bettiger, who persuaded him to go on the 
Lieutenant Derby survey, under Charles H. 
Poole, deputy, to divide the great American 
desert into townships. In this work he was en- 
gaged in 1855; and the next two years he was 
on the Dr." Madison survey, under Robert W. 
Troom, deputy, sectionizing the great desert. 
Mr. Trimmer therefore has traveled over that 
vast area from one end to the other. 

From 1857 to 1863 he was engaged in differ- 
ent occupations, and then was maliciously taken 
as a political prisoner to Fort Alcatraz, where 
he was confined about ten days, under Captain 
William A. Winder, being released December 
15, 1863. Returning then to San Diego, with 
Captain Morton, on the brig Boston, he arrived 
about December 28. For three or four years 
he was with E. W. Morse in his store in Old 
Town ; and in 1868 he kept the American Hotel 
in Old San Diego, in company with Benjamin 
F. Jones, until 1870. He then rented the 
Gabino Aguilar place near Guetay, called San 
Gertrudes, and followed farming there until 
November, 1873. Then he purchased the pos- 


6essory right of Mrs. Perfecta Ames to the 
Japatul ranch, where lie still resides engaged in 
farming and stock-raising. 

Air. Trimmer was married in July, 1864, in 
San Diego, to Miss Martha Murillo, grand- 
daughter of Thomas Warner, from Lower Cali- 
fornia. Their four sons and four daughters are 
all living. 

«W. HENDRICK, attorney at law, San 
Diego, was born at Bowling Green, Pike 
9 County, Missouri, March 6, 1847. His 
father was formerly a merchant, but in later life 
took to farming, and purchased about 400 acres 
in Pike County. The subject of this sketch re- 
mained at home until fourteen years of age, at- 
tending the common schools. He then started for 
the west, first driving a horse team to Denver, 
then an ox-team to Oregon, and later on to Cali- 
fornia, where he passed one year at the Napa Col- 
lege Institute. Returning in 1864 to the east, he 
attended Brown's University at Providence, 
Rhode Island, and after seven years of study grad- 
uated in 1871; he then went to Europe and spent 
fourteen months in travel and study, visiting 
the principal cities and countries. On his re- 
turn he again came to California, and entered 
the law office of Daingerfield & Olney, promi- 
nent attorneys of San Francisco, and after 
eighteen months of study he was admitted to 
the bar by the Supreme Court at Sacramento in 
April, 1874. He then visited San Diego, and 
having great faith in the future of the town de- 
cided to establish here his permanent residence, 
and immediately opened an office and began the 
practice of general law. In 1880 he was elect- 
ed to the Legislature, and was recognized as one 
of the most able speakers in the House. In 
1884 he was elected District Attorney of San 

He was one of the original stockholders and 
promoters of the San Diego Iron and Nail 
Manufactory, and is now president of the Loma 
Manufacturing Company at Roseville. He was 

one of the founders of the public library, which 
was established in 1881, and is still one of the 
trustees. He is, in fact, au active, enterprising 
promotor of San Diego's interests. 

1LLIAM X. GARDNER, San Diego.— 
Among the earliest pioneers to this coast 
was the subject of this sketch, who was 
born in Oneida County, New York, November 29, 
1814. The first sixteen years of his life was passed 
upon the farm. He was then apprenticed to a large 
carriage manufactory at Skaneateles, New York, 
where after live years of continued service he 
learned the trade, which he followed until 1844. 
Then beingdesirousof travel he started westward, 
visiting what were then the territories of Wis- 
consin, Minnesota, Iowa, and settling at Chicago, 
where he remained until the 17th of July, 1848. 
He then took the steamer America for Buffalo, 
visiting Niagara, where he witnessed the stretch- 
ing of the first cable of the suspension bridge, 
then by rail, lake steamers and canal boats, he 
reached New York city. In October, 1848, he 
took the steamship California, which was built at 
Novelty Iron Works on East river, New York 
city, and without even testing the steamer by 
a trial trip they embarked from the works direct 
to the Pacific coast, Mr. Gardner being the only 
passenger for Sau Francisco. This was in the 
early days of steamboating, and though the 
machinery was very imperfect and the making 
of ports was frequently necessary to take in 
coal, the trip was made with but one accident, 
in the straits of Magellan, arriving in San 
Francisco February, 1849, which was then a 
small adobe town; but owing to the gold ex- 
citement of that year and the rapid immigration) 
it soon became a thickly settled city. For the 
next seventeen years the subject of this sketch 
lived in and about San Francisco, working at 
carpentering, mining and ranching, and always 
subject to the vicissitudes of those unsettled 
days. In 1861, soon after the commencement 
of the civil war, he entered the service of the 


United States as a volunteer in Company B, 
Fifth California Infantry, and was discharged 
the 12th of December, 1864, at Franklin, Texas, 
and at once returned to California and entered 
the service of the Central Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, where he continued until 1867. Then, 
after leaving their employment, he journeyed 
south by stage, visiting at Santa Barbara, Los 
Angeles and settling at San Diego. He first 
worked at his trade in and about Old Town, and 
as the city extended became interested in its 
several enterprises. Purchasing forty acres of 
land adjoining Horton's addition to San Diego, 
he surveyed and laid off into town lots Gard- 
ner's addition to San Diego. He was one of 
the original incorporators of what is now the 
South Division Water Company; they began the 
piping of the town and made their own pipe 
from sheet iron. Their water supply came 
from a well 170 feet deep and twelve feet in 
diameter. Mr. Gardner has been engaged in 
several enterprises, and among others that of 
sulphur mining at the head of the gulf in 
Lower California, but is now living on a ten- 
acre tract at South San Diego, which he is set- 
ting to fruit. 

Mr. Gardner, though seventy-six years of 
age, is erect and vigorous and apparently in the 
full enjoyment of life and most excellent health. 

fH. DODSON, an early pioneer of Califor- 
nia, and an attorney at San Diego, was 
* born on the frontier of Iowa, Van Buren 
County, December 31, 1839. His parents were 
natives of Pennsylvania, but emigrated to Iowa 
in 1836, and procured large tracts of land border- 
ing on the Des Moines river. His father died in 
1840, but the family lived upon the homestead 
until 1857, when the property was sold. The sub- 
ject of this sketch, with his mother, sister and 
brother, emigrated to California, coining across 
the plains with ox teams through Salt Lake 
City, and arrived safely in the Sacramento val- 
ley. They bought a ranch of 320 acres, thirty 

miles south of Sacramento, where they lived 
about ten years and cultivated a fine fruit or- 
chard. Mr. Dodson's early education was re- 
ceived in Iowa; he then finished at Taylor & 
Bell's private institute at Sacramento. He en- 
tered the law office of Presley Dunlap in Sac- 
ramento and passed before the Supreme Bench 
in December, 1868. He then began practice, 
but on account of ill health he came to San 
Diego in 1869, where he has lived continuously, 
with the exception of eight years spent at 
Poway, where he owned a ranch and kept a 
wayside inn. He went to Poway on account of 
his health, as he needed the more bracing air of 
the interior. He returned to San Diego in 
1887, and is now devoting himself to a general 

Mr. Dodson has been twice married, and has 
one son, a boy of seventeen years. Mr. Dodson 
is a member of the society of San Diego Pio- 

tOBERT C. MILLS, JR. is the Elsinore 
hardware merchant. Having a stock of 
shelf hardware, farm implements, carriages 
and wagons, fully abreast of the needs of the 
town, he enjoys the patronage of the county for 
six miles in every direction. He came from Man- 
itoba to Elsinorein 1885; he had been in the for- 
mer place, in the real-estate business, for two 
years, lie was born, raised and educated in the 
Ottawa valley, Canada, and dates his birth Octo- 
ber 20, 1854. His father, R.C. Mills, Sr., was also 
born in Canada, and his mother, nee Miss Anna 
McVicar, was born in Scotland. The subject 
of this sketch was the second of a family of 
eight surviving children. He was in the lum- 
ber business seven years before leaving his 
native place. When he began his hardware 
business the firm was Mills Brothers, but after- 
ward he bought his brother out, and is now 
running the business alone. In 1876 he was 
married in Toronto, Canada, to Miss Eliza Bau- 
nerman, a native of Scotland, and they have 


four children, three born in Canada, and the 
youngest born in Elsinore. They are Robert, 
eleven years of age; Alma, eight years of age; 
Thomas Murry, five years of age, and Tracy 
Junor, one and one-half years of age. Mrs. 
Mills is a Presbyterian, which church Mr. Mills 
attends. He is a member of the Knights of 
Pythias, is a painstaking obliging business man, 
and a lover of home. He is well pleastd with 
Elsinore, and is identified with its interests, and 
has made the United States the country of his 

jSS\ENRY L. DAVIS, lumberman, San Diego, 
HID was ' JOni * n f> r0 °k'y n > New York, in 1860, 
=f&5 and was educated in New York city. At 
the age of twenty-three years he entered the 
shipping house of his father, Jonas Smith & 
Co., New York, as cashier, and in two years 
became a junior partner, of which he still re- 
mains. The business of the firm, which was 
established in 1840, is that of trading with 
foreign countries, confined principally to the 
East Indies, West Indies, and South America. 
In 1887 they became interested in San Diego, 
through the medium of Mr. E. S. Babcock, Jr., 
who induced Mr. Davis to send the first sailing 
ship from New York via Cape Horn to the 
port of San Diego. This vessel, the James A. 
Borland, with a cargo of 1,200 tons, consisting 
of coal, iron pipe, plaster, etc., arrived after a 
passage of 158 days from New York. This in- 
augurated the opening of a new and economical 
means of transportation from the East. Sev- 
eral ships followed, including one steamer at 
intervals, which is now being continued. In 
August, 1888, Mr. Davis arrived in San Diego 
to look after the interests of his firm. He at 
once purchased several cargoes of lumber at 
Pnget Sound, and dispatched his ships to bring 
it to San Diego, whereupon he established the 
Independent Lumber Company, and reduced 
the price of pine lumber, ranging from $2.00 
to $7.00 per thousand feet from the rates that 

were being exacted by the combination com- 
panies. This created strong opposition, but had 
the effect of forcing the combination companies 
to reduce prices materially, and which have 
never been advanced. These operations required 
facilities that would reduce the cost of trans- 
portation, and handling of lumber at the min- 
imum of expense. Land was purchased on the 
water front, a bulkhead and dock built, in ad- 
dition to the employment of the firm's ships, 
which thus provided means by which lumber 
could be sold slightly over actual cost and 

In November, 1889, Mr. Davis erected a 
large warehouse upon his property, which com- 
plete facilities for shipping and receiving by 
rail and water. This was built for the purpose 
of warehousing goods shipped by sailing vessels 
from New York, as occasion might require, and 
for the storage of grain awaiting shipment by 
sea from San Diego, as return cargoes to the 
United Kingdom. Mr. Davis is also one of the 
owners of the Cedros Island Mining Company, 
located off the coast of Lower California, where 
the company have fifty men now employed and 
several vessels engaged in transporting gold ore 
to San Diego for reduction. The operations of 
this company, of which little is known to the 
outside world, are becoming so extensive as to 
require the erection of smelting works for the 
treatment of ore, and the purchase of a 
for transportation, at a very early date. 

fOHN DEWEY is one of Elsinore's straight- 
forward business men and pioneers. He 
was born in New York State, August 19, 
1845. His father, Levi Dewey, and his mother 
Jenette (Johnson) Dewey, and grandfather, 
George Johnson, all had their nativity in the 
State of New York. Mr. Dewey's maternal 
grandfather was a distiller of New York, and 
lived to be ninety-one years of age. He left a 
large estate; he bequeathed to each of his great- 
grandchildren $1,000, and to his grandchildren 


$2,000 each, and the balance of his large prop- 
erty was divided among his sons and daughters. 
Mr. Dewey was the youngest of six children. 
It was his misfortune to lose his mother by 
death when he was only two years of age. For 
a time he was cared for by his grandmother, 
but when his father remarried he made his 
home with him. He attended school in his 
native State and helped his father on the farm, 
and after he became of age he farmed on his 
own account for six years. 

In 1867 he was married to Miss Celia Stark- 
ey, a daughter of George Starkey of New York. 
By this union he had one daughter, Berdella, 
born in Delaware, who is now the wife of Mr. 
Carl Merryfield, and resides in Los Angeles. 
Mrs. Dewey died in 1873, six years after their 
marriage, and Mr. Dewey was bereft of the wife 
of his choice, and the little daughter, Berdella, 
was left without a most affectionate mother. 
This change in his hopes and prospects was 
hard to bear. He broke up house-keeping and 
went to Leadville during the great mining ex- 
citement, and for two years devoted himself to 
making money. Hard work and exposure im- 
paired his health to such an extent that he had 
to desist. During his stay at Leadville he was 
enabled to send money to take good care of his 
daughter. He at last decided to come to Cali- 
fornia, and he settled at Pasadena. Rest and 
the change of climate restored his health con- 
siderably, and he obtained a situation at $50 per 
month and board, which position he held for 
four years. While in Pasadena he bought and 
dealt in property, and was very successful in his 
venture. About this time Mr. Heald discovered 
Elsinore, and started the town by the beautiful 
lake, and excitement ran high. Mr. Dewey, 
with others, came to the new town site of Elsi- 
nore, and invested in 200 acres of land, all of 
which, except six acres, he sold at a great ad- 
vance over co6t. He then turned his attention 
to town lots and house building, and built seven 
good dwelling houses, for which he received 
rents at the rate of $90 per month. This con- 
tinued for about a year and a half. He has the 

credit of building the first house that was paint- 
ed in the town, thus taking the lead in the con- 
struction of the many tasty and attractive places 
that now adorn the place. He came when there 
was but one small house, aud in the space ot 
five short years (one of them without the help 
of the railroad) he has seen hundreds of pleasant 
homes constructed, dotting the valley in every 
direction. Mr. Dewey's political views are Re- 
publican, and his religious opinions favor the 
Universalists' creed. He has been conservative 
1 ti his business transactions, buying only what 
he could pay for, and while he has not made as 
much money as some he has kept his business 
well in hand, and is able to smile at adversity. 
His neighbors speak well of him, and call him 
a one-hundred-cents-on-the-dollar man. 

til. McDONALD, as the name indicates, 
is of Scotch descent, and of Presbyterian 
® parentage. His father, James McDon- 
ald, of Pictou, Nova Scotia, was born in 1802, 
was raised there and still lives there, at the age 
of eighty-eight, hale and hearty. 

Mr. McDonald's mother, nee Miss Catherine 
Gourley, was born in the same place. There 
were thirteen children in the family, of which 
the subject of this sketch was the youngest but 
one. He was educated at the Pictou Academy, 
in his native town, and went to learn the car- 
penters' trade at the age of eighteen, and has 
made it the business of his life since. He came 
to Southern California in 1881, and, with the 
exception of a few months spent in San Diego 
and Real del Castro, Baja California, lived in 
Los Angeles until 1885, about which time, his 
health failing him, he reluctantly left the city 
of his choice; going inland about 100 miles to 
San Jacinto, he found, after a few months' rest, 
together with enjoying the benefits of the hot 
springs at this place, that he became strong 
and hearty again. Business now calling him to 
Idaho aud Montana, he remained north about 
eighteen months, and then returned to San Ja- 


cinto, bought property, built a neat house, and 
made other improvements. He is a conscien- 
tious man and an active, responsible house- 
builder and contractor. 

— #5^e^# — 

fHOMAS E. ELLIS, the pioneer doctor 
and druggist of Elsinore, was born in 
Wayne County, Indiana, March 20, 1839. 
His father, Thomas Ellis, was a native of Vir- 
ginia, and his mother, Lydia (Thornburrough) 
Ellis, was from Tennessee. The whole family 
on both sides were American from the settle 
ment of the country, but were of Scotch extrac- 
tion. He was educated in the public schools of 
Indiana, and at the Bloomingdale Academy, 
and graduated at the Indiana State Medical 
College, and for twenty years practiced his pro- 
fession in Plainfield, Hendricks County, In- 
diana. -For two years lie held a Government 
position in Arizona with the Indians, and after 
this, in 1885, he came to Elsinore at its com- 
mencement, and was the first doctor and drug- 
gist in the place. He lived in a tent the first 
year, as it was nearly impossible to get lumber, 
and there were no houses to rent. There were 
no drugs in the place, so he kept his own sup- 
ply, which formed the nucleus of his present 
pioneer drug store of Elsinore. He has pur- 
chased property and built a good home, owns 
a herd of cattle, and is one of the stock holders 
of the Exchange Bank of Elsinore. He still 
continues the practice of his profession, and 
keeps such a stock of drugs and goods as are 
usually kept in such towns. 

He was married in 1865, to Miss Emma C. 
Talbert, of Union County, Indiana, by whom he 
has two children, both living: Mary C. married 
Mr. Arthur Jones, and they reside at Riverside. 
Lineaus resides with his father in Elsinore. 
Mrs. Ellis died in 1880, and in 1883 he was 
again united in wedlock, to Miss Lizzie Tomlin- 
son, a native of Plainfield, Indiana, and they 
have two children — a boy and a girl — also both 
born in Elsinore: Lydia Rosa and Thomas Earl. 

Dr. Ellis is a man who makes it a point in life 
to respect his promises and strictly keep them. 
He loves his profession, and can be depended 
on in every instance to use his best judgment 
and experience, and is a successful practitioner. 
He is a member of the order of the Knights of 
Pythias, and of the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows, and holds the office of District Deputy. 
He was born and raised in the Society of 

«,, • 1 .'•S-l ,t . |-S>. | f Ml ,» 

§LEX DeBARRA, A.M., M. D., one of the 
eminent representatives of the medical 
profession in Elsinore, is a Fellow of So- 
ciety of Science, Letters and Art, of London, 
England, a society that stands at the head of all 
such societies in the world. The Doctor was 
born in the north of Norway, of Russian par- 
ents. While in his infancy his parents removed 
to Moscow, where he was reared and educated 
in the schools and colleges of that country. 
During the latter years of the reign of Nicholas 
and while the Crimean war was being vigor- 
ously carried on, the 6tndents in the colleges 
were in great excitement over it and the affairs 
then engrossing the minds of the people. The 
college society to which he belonged took an 
exciting part in the discussion, and for that, he 
with many other young men like himself, was 
exiled to Siberia for a term of six years. When 
in an inhospitable region they were thrown 
wholly upon their own resources to get a liv- 
ing. He resolved to try for liberty, and fol- 
lowed the river Lena northward through the 
ice and snow of that inclement climate, sub- 
sisting on what he could find that he knew 
was not poison until he fell in with some 
Esquimeaux who were kind to him, and for six 
months he remained with them and followed 
until at last the}' reached a trading point where 
he took a ship for South America. While suf- 
fering with the exposure in Siberia he contract- 
ed diseases from which he has never recovered, 
and in order to find relief he has traveled a 


good deal of his time in search of a climate in 
which to prolong life. After several years 
travel he went to Savannah, Georgia; then he 
tried the Bermudas, where he remained a year 
or so; he then went to C^tal Springs, New 
York, where he established a hospital and prac- 
ticed his profession for fifteen years. While 
there he was a frequent contributor to most of 
the scientific papers. While in New York he 
was often called upon as an expert in court and 
before State and Senate committees to give tes- 
timony on scientific matters, and in such cases 
always gave his testimony without regard to 
consequences, or who was pleased or displeased. 
In the great Guiteau trial the Doctor differed 
from the other physicians who treated the 
lamented President Garfield, and believes that 
the facts were with him in both cases. Garfield 
could have been saved had the doctors not been 
mistaken in the location and track of the bullet. 
The Doctor has been obliged to battle constantly 
with his throat trouble and has finally brought 
his family to the sunny clime of southern Cali- 
fornia, but as yet has not tried the climate long 
enough to know how much benefit he will re- 
ceive. In Elsinore he has found a congenial 
clime, and water loaded with mineral substances 
valuable for medicinal purposes to a remarkable 
degree. He also sees in this vicinity large 
quantities of mineral wealth in an unimproved 
and undeveloped condition, and it only remains 
for capital to develop to make those interested 
in it very satisfactory returns. 

Tbe Doctor was married to Miss Mary Flem- 
miug, of Havana, New York, and their union has 
been blessed with two children, a boy and a girl, 
viz.: Horace Phelps, now seven years old, and 
Mary Alma, five years old. The Doctor's con- 
nection with a college secret society caused his 
exile, and he has since avoided all secret socie- 
ties and in his lectures has advised all men to 
refrain from societies that would tend to keep 
them from their families at night. Politically 
he has been a Republican, but is in favor of 
free trade. He lived twenty-one years in the 
United States before asking for naturalization 

papers, and is of the opinion that is as soon as 
a foreigner should vote. He is a believer in 
God and morality, and is educating his children 
in the way of truth and religion. Through his 
scientific attainments and long practice of his 
profession he has shown himself eminently 
fitted to treat the suffering and perform surgi- 
cal operations that require the highest order of 
talent and skill. He is now largely interested 
in the development and prosperity of southern 

fH. HEALD, one of the first business men 
and one of the original buyers of the 
9 town site of Elsinore, and one who has 
had most to do with the substantial growth of 
that place, was born in Cedar County, Iowa, 
July 10, 1854. His father, Wilson Heald, and 
his grandfather, John Heald, were natives of 
Ohio. His great-grandfather, William Heald, 
was a native of Virginia and a soldier in the 
Revolution. Mr. Heald's mother, Sarah (Macy) 
Heald, was a native of Ohio, and her lather, 
Samuel Macy, was a descendant of Thomas 
Macy, one of the English Quakers who came to 
America to escape persecution in the mother 
country. There were six children in Mr. Heald's 
family, of whom the subject of this sketch was 
the oldest. He was educated in West Branch, 
Iowa, and finished his business education in 
Burlington. In September, 1874, he was married 
to Miss Annie M. Hoover, daughter of J. Y. 
Hoover, a Quaker minister. By this union he had 
one daughter, Edna, who now resides with him. 
After a happy union of one year Mrs. Heald 
died, on January 3, 1876. After this bereave- 
ment he lived with his uncle, William P. Wolf, 
who was a member of Congress from Iowa, 
with whom he read law, and also did some 
farm work. He remained here nearly two 
years, and in 1877 came to Pasadena, Califor- 
nia. While in Pasadena he did not engage in 
much business; he was in the mountains and 
through the country with his gun, principally 


for recreation and to relieve his mind. In 1882 
he bought property there. One day while out 
on one of his excursions on San Antonio moun- 
tain he saw in the distance the glistening lake, 
now Elsinore Lake, and in November, 1881, he 
came to the property which he a Iter ward, in 
connection with Mr. Graham and Mr. Collum, 
purchased. The first pnrchase covered about 
14,000 acres, and he afterward purchased about 
5,000 more. The cost of the original grant was 
$24,000. Mr. Graham and Mr. Heald made 
the purchase in San Francisco, and in Septem- 
ber of the same year the property was subdi- 
vided and sales followed rapidly. The wash-out 
on the railroad that year retarded the growth and 
facilities of the place greatly, and lumber was 
brought by wagon from Riverside, Col ton, and 
the San Jacinto mountains. The town-site was 
located where it was because of the valuable 
mineral springs. The next year Mr. Heald 
bought out his partners, they taking about 
2,000 acres and he keeping about 12,000, for 
which he paid them §20,000. 

When the postoffice was established and the 
name of the office and town was fixed, Elsinore 
was given the preference and Mrs. Graham was 
given the decision. She has the credit of nam- 
ing the place. Mr. Heald has erected a mag- 
nificent residence on one of the hills in the town 
overlooking the beautiful lake, which first at- 
tracted him to the town. He started the first 
newspaper, the Elsinore News, and afterward 
sold it, but is again its owner. He also has the 
honor of starting the Exchange Bank of Elsin- 
ore and was its first president. Mr. Heald has 
also been instrumental in the building of a large 
hotel, the Lake View, a house good enough for 
any town, no matter bow large. Mr. Heald has 
also built for Elsinore one of the finest, if not 
the iinest, bath houses in southern California. 
Mr. McChaney discovered the coal mine and 
Mr. Heald has helped to develop that. Mr. 
Heald and his partner gave the Methodist So- 
ciety seven lots, and he has since given the 
other societies two lots each for building pur- 
poses, and both of the brick churches built 

had from him 15,000 brick as a donation. He 
is a member of the A. O. U. W. and grand 
master of Elsinore district. He was married 
again, in 1881, to his second wife, by whom 
he has two boys: David W. and F. H., Jr. 
He is a member of the Society of Friends 
(Quakers), as were also his parents before him. 
Mr. Heald is a man full of enterprise. His 
father was one of the "old John Brown's" men 
at Springdale, Iowa, and that is probably the 
reason Mr. Heald takes such a deep interest in 
politics. He is a member of the Republican 
State Central Committee, also of the County 
Committee, and was a member of the v California 
delegation who helped to nominate Harrison. 

— -~fr i .. f3 

of San Diego's reliable citizens and 
business men, a fruit-grower, a ma- 
chinist and the inventor of the Wave Rower Ma- 
chine, was born in Auburn, New York, January 
3, 1836. H is father, Peter H. Rifenbnrg, was born 
in the city of Hudson, on the Hudson river, in 
1792. He was a clergyman of the Christian 
denomination, and served his country as a 
soldier in the war of 1812. Mr. Rifenburg's 
grandfather was born at the Castle of Rifen- 
bnrg, Germany, and came to America before 
the Revolution. He was in General Washing- 
ton's army, and was born in 1743, and died in 
1843, only lacking a few months of being 100 
years of age. Mr. Rifenburg's mother, Perlina 
(Herbert) Rifenbnrg, was born at Brattleboro, 
Vermont, in 1802, and was the daughter of 
Henry Herbert, a farmer formerly of Germany. 
She was married to Mr. Rifenbnrg in 1828, and 
had a family of eleven children, the subject of 
this sketch being the sixth child. He finished 
his education in the academy at Auburn, New 
York. After leaving school he learned the ma- 
chinist's trade. In 1852 he went to Illinois 
with his father and family, and bought a farm 
in Yorktown, Bureau County, at $1.25 per acre, 
of the Government. He remained there two 


years, and then went to Missouri, and then to 
Kansas, and was in the fruit-tree business eight 
years. From there lie went to Colorado, and 
engaged in freighting from the Missouri river 
to the mountains. After this he engaged in 
mining in 1869, and continued it until 1881. 
He then came to California and landed in San 
Diego. He bought Ocean View, a farm of 
sixty acres, three and one-half miles east of the 
city, on which he built a house which cost 
$6,000. He planted ten acres to oranges and 
lemons, ten acres to deciduous fruit, and twenty- 
seven acres to raisin grapes. The balance was 
used for grain crops. He sold this property in 
1887 and settled in the city of San Diego, 
where he started the Standard Iron Works in 
1886, in company with others. Subsequently 
he sold his interest and bought a ranch in 
Jainul valley, twenty-two miles east of San 
Diego, and is planting fifty acres to oranges 
and lemons. There are 240 acres in the ranch, 
which is called Mount Wakeshaw. Orange 
trees planted only three years are loaded with 
fruit. He is now engaged in perfecting his 
truly wonderful invention — the Wave Power 
Machine. It is a machine of great power and 
great simplicity, and capable of very cheap con- 
struction, and is adapted to all power where 
there are waves. In its present construction it 
will not propel a ship. As the machine has to 
be anchored in the water, it is so constructed 
that equal force is obtained from both the up- 
ward and downward motion of the wave, and 
the continuous motion of the shaft is obtained 
by a wheel within a wheel. Besides, it is de- 
signed that the float act as an engine and create 
a great power with a walking beam. That the 
machine is capable of great utility there can be 
little doubt. Mr. Rifenburg is entitled to great 
credit as well as great emolument for this in- 
vention. Mr. Rifenburg is a Master Maeon, 
and held the office of Sheriff for five years in 
Colorado. He was married in Kansas, Decem- 
ber 7, 1859, to Miss Emma L. Suits, born in 
Indiana, February 14, 1841, a daughter of Mr. 
John Suits, of La Fayette, Indiana. He was a 

pioneer and Indian agent there when the coun- 
try was new. He died in 1879, at the age of 
sixty-six. Mr. and Mrs. Rifenburg have had 
one child, Ella, born in 1864. Her death oc- 
curred when she was not quite one year old. 


GREGORY.— In February, 1849, the 
bark Nautilus left the pier on North 
* river, New York, bound for San Fran- 
cisco, with a company of ninety-three on board, 
in charge of a board of directors, with three 
years' supply of provisions and paraphernalia 
suitable to the mining interests of California. 
This company was sent out by a syndicate, who 
paid all expenses, with one proviso, that the 
profits of the expedition should be divided, and 
among this number was the subject of this 
sketch, Mr. E. Gregory, who was born in Mil- 
ford, Connecticut, June 21, 1821. His parents 
were natives of New England. They were 222 
days en voyage, and before landing the company 
was entirely broken up and abandoned, and 
after the arrival at San Francisco, October 22, 
1849, smaller companies were formed through 
friendship and social ties. Mr. Gregory and 
his friend, Mr. Wellington, first went to Carson 
creek, Calaveras County, where the mines were 
very rich. The claims were only sixteen feet 
square, but the gold nuggets were often picked 
out of the dirt in rapid succession, one nugget 
weighing twelve pounds. Later he went to 
San Andreas, the county seat, where he followed 
his trade of harness, trunk and saddle making, 
also ran a general merchandise store and barber 
shop, remaining until 1869, when in seeking a 
more genial climate he came to San Diego and 
here continued the barber business. From 1876 
to 1879 he took charge of the county hospital, 
and then rented at Ninth and K streets, and in 
1884 was appointed superintendent of the 
county hospital in Mission valley, serving a two 
years' term. 

Mr. Gregory was married at San Andreas, 
October, 1862, to Miss Sarah Petty. They are 


now passing a genial and happy old age in 
their pleasant cottage at 618 Logan avenue, a 
happy close to lives who have passed through 
the hardships of the miner's camp and the pio- 
neer's experience. 

§ SAUNDERS, of San Jacinto, was born 
in Dedham, Maine, December 22, 1830. 
° His grandfather, William Saunders, was 
a Scotchman. His father, "William Saunders 
and his mother, Ruth (Patterson) Saunders, 
were both natives of Maine. They had eight 
children, Mr. A. Saunders being the youngest. 
He was educated in his native State, and when 
eighteen years of age he engaged in the lumber 
business at Ellsworth, where he remained for 
four years. In 1852 he came to California by 
way of Cape Horn, and arrived in San Fran- 
cisco in the spring of 1853. He went to the 
mines in Tuolumne, Calaveras and Sierra coun- 
ties, and sought for glittering gold for four 
years, until 1856, but it eluded his grasp. Then 
he went into the lumber business in San Mateo 
County until 1858. There was an attraction 
there more precious than gold, and it did not 
elude him, for he was married to Miss F. J. 
Philips, daughter of Richard Philips, a Maine 
farmer. She was born in 1838. They have three 
children, viz.: Ethelbert E., born in Alameda 
County in 1859; Fanny Maud, born in Men- 
docino County in 1875, and Ina Blanche, born 
in Mendocino County in 1878. His son is 
married and lives in San Francisco, where he is 
engaged in railroading, and the girls are at 
home with their parents. After spending two 
years in Alameda County, he removed to San 
Mateo County, and was there in business until 
1868. He then removed to Mendocino County, 
where he continued his- lumber business until 
1879, when he sold out and removed to River- 
side, and bought land and engaged in orange 
and raisin culture, and built. In 1880 he went 
up into the San Jacinto mountains, and bought 
the mill in the Strawberry valley. It was a 

small water mill, but he put steam into it and 
ran it for six years. While running this mill 
his family spent the summers in the mountains, 
and the winters at their home in Riverside. 
He purchased property in San Jacinto when the 
town was starting, and built a very nice home, 
where he now resides. It is on First street and 
Jordan avenue. In connection with a partner 
he has a 13,000-aere ranch in Lower California, 
where they are running a dairy. Neither Mr. 
nor Mrs. Saunders belong to any society except 
that she is a member of the W. C. T. U., but 
nevertheless they are as highly respectable peo- 
ple as any in the city of San Jacinto. 

WOODS, who at present is Chairman 
of the Board of Supervisors of San Diego, 
was born at Wheeling, West Virginia, in 
May, 1831. His grandfather was a farmer, and 
one of the first settlers in Wheeling; his father 
was a merchant and speculator in that city; his 
mother was a native of Pennsylvania. He was 
in a family of eight children, seven of whom are 
still living. At the age of thirteen years he 
moved to Missouri, and soon after accepted em- 
ployment on a Mississippi river steamboat as 
freight clerk, which he followed for four years. 
In 1852 he started for California, in a company 
of about 100, with thirty wagons and about 800 
head of cattle. They were about six months 
en route, driving from Hannibal, Missouri, 
through Salt Lake City to Stockton, California, 
crossing the mountains by Central Pass, coming 
by the Volcano route. They lost very few cat- 
tle, but were engaged in many skirmishes with 
the Indians, who tried to steal their cattle. At 
Stockton the cattle were turned loose, and Mr. 
Woods and brother went to the mines of the 
Tuolumne river until the wet season came on, 
when they went to the dry diggings in Mari- 
posa County, and they followed placer mining 
until 1865, making considerable money. He 
then bought a ranch in the Buckeye valley, 
Amador County, and followed ranching until 


1869, when a syndicate, who owned a fioatiug 
Mexican grant, settled upon his land. He then 
came to San Diego and began farming and stock- 
raising in the Jamul valley, and later the sheep 
business in Poway valley, buying 160 acres and 
grazing in the mountains. In 1883 he went to 
the Pa mo valley and bought 1,000 acres of land, 
which he still owns, and which is to be the 
reservoir site of the Pamo Water Company; it 
is now being surveyed, and the building of the 
dam will commence in the spring of 1890. The 
reservoir syndicate is formed, and they have every 
prospect for securing the contract of supplying 
the city of San Diego. In 1884, Mr. Woods 
was first elected as supervisor under the law 
districting the county, drawing the short term 
of two years. In 1886 he was elected for four 
years, and was appointed charman of the board. 

Mr. Woods has been twice married, first in 
Amador County, his wife dying in 1873, leav- 
ing three children. He was again married, at 
Poway, in 1880, to Miss Rosa Babb, a native of 
Oregon. They have three children, allot' whom 
are living and at home. 

fA. CLARK. — On the south side of Dia- 
mond valley, nine miles south of San 
9 Jacinto, with the foot hills for a back- 
ground, and the beautiful valley of the San 
Jacinto and San Bernandino range of mountains 
in front, stands the nice new residence of Mr. 
P. A. Clark. October 23, 1883, broken in 
purse and in health, he came to the present site 
of his now comfortable home and took up a 
Government claim of 160 acres of choice land. 
He built himself a place to live in and has rap- 
idly improved in both health and purse. He 
has made many improvements on his ranch back 
of the property, and above it he has two fine 
springs of pure water and has one of them piped 
to his residence. He has twenty acres of land 
planted to every description of fruit trees, many 
of them bearing. The altitude of the place is 
2,000 feet, and here are growing orange trees 

loaded with fruit. He is also raising as fine 
apples as can be raised in any State of the Union. 
He is also raising grain and some stock, but is 
doing most in the nursery business, and has a 
good supply of young trees on hand. He was 
born in Knox County, Illinois, February 9, 
1845. His father, J. W. Clark, was a native of 
New York. His grandfather, John W. Clark, 
was also born in New York, but the family were 
originally from New England. His mother was 
Miriam Dangherty, born in Orange County, 
Indiana. Mr. Clark was the oldest of a family 
of seven children, and came to California with 
his father and family when fifteen years of age. 
They came across the plains in 1860, and settled 
in Yolo County, where they remained four years, 
when they removed to Oakland. They remained 
here one year and then went to St. Helena, 
Napa valley, when, Mr. Clark being of age, lie 
went to the silver mines. He found silver, and 
becoming eager to get rich, he spent all he had 
gained prospecting. After four years of this kind 
of work he removed to Anaheim and engaged in 
the book and stationery business. He settled 
there in 1871 and continued there until 1877, 
when he was again taken with the mining fever 
and for four years more dug and prospected 
back of Anaheim. Then he lost his health and 
became disgusted with the mining business. 
He was then for awhile with the Baker foundry 
in Los Angeles. Then with a partner he tried 
the real-estate business, which he soon gave up 
and went to Pasadena, where he was with his 
brother, B. O. Clark, then in the nursery busi- 
ness. He had, when younger, learned telegraphy, 
and at this time went into the railroad station 
at Anaheim and learned the routine of a station 
agent, so that he has had quite a diversity of 
business experiences. In 1886 he was married 
to Mrs. Dora Summers, widow of Joseph Sum- 
mers, of Illinois. They have one child living, 
Mabel, born November 30, 1889, and his wife 
has one daughter, Myrtle, born in February, 
1883. They also have one adopted daughter, 
Gertrude, born in England in 1881. Mr. Clark 
was elected Justice of the Peace, and was As- 


sistant Postmaster there; he was also Notary 
Public and District Recorder, and Postmaster 
while at Silverado, Los Angeles County. At 
present he is Justice of the Peace, one of the 
school trustees and clerk of the board. He is a 
member of the Pentalpha Lodge, F. & A. M., 
Los Angeles. Mr. Clark is a pioneer and a 
leading citizen of his county, and is demonstrat- 
ing the capabilitea of this tine soil to raise choice 
fruits in this unequaled climate. 

fANIEL OLSON, the proprietor of the San 
Diego Steam Laundry, was born in Sweden, 
in September, 1849. He was educated in 
the common schools and under the Lutheran 
Protestant religion; his father was a farmer. 
The subject of this sketch was mail carrier in 
Sweden for about two years, at the age of from 
fifteen to seventeen. He emigrated to the 
United States in 1868, landing in New York. 
He then went to Chicago, where he worked five 
years in the dry-goods business, and then started 
a laundry, which he continued for fifteen years, 
with good success. He came to San Diego in 
January, 1887, and bought one end of a block 
on B street, between State and Columbia. He 
built a laundry building on the corner of State 
and B streets, 47 x 75 feet, two stories in height, 
and in the rear he built stables, and houses for 
his help. His laundry plant is valued at $8,000, 
and has facilities to do all kinds of plain and 
fancy laundry work. He employs from twenty 
to twenty -five hands and runs four wagons; it 
is the leading laundry in the city. 

Mr. Olson was married in Chicago, in 1875, 
to Miss Hattie Hultgren. They have two chil- 
dren, both of whom are living. 

fOHN N1COLSON is a native of Scotland, 
born March 15, 1836. He got his edu- 
cation there and learned the trade of mason, 
and in 1867 he came to California and settled 

in San Francisco, where he worked for the rail- 
road as a mason. In 1868 he came to San 
Bernardino and spent two years in the mines, 
both making and losing. When he tired of 
mining he went to San Diego during the first 
boom there, where he remained a year, and then 
came to Riverside and took up a Government 
claim, which afterward proved to be the Jurupa 
Mexican land grant, and he with thirty others 
who had settled there were obliged to give it 
up, but were permitted to remove their improve- 
ments. It was a serious loss to him and the 
others. In 1880 he came to Diamond valley, 
where he was the first settler. It is located nine 
miles south and a little west of San Jacinto and 
five miles from Winchester. Here he has 320 
acres of choice land. Being a mason he knew 
how to build and has made a very neat adobe 
house. It stands in a nook of the foot hills, 
overlooking his own lands in the beautiful val- 
ley before him, surrounded with very picturesque 
foot hills. Here his fine herds of cattle pasture. 
He is making stock-raising his principal busi- 
ness but raises grain and hay also. Scotland 
has furnished many a noble specimen of the 
American yeoman to the United States, and Mr. 
Nicolson is one of those generous, open-hearted 
Scotch- Americans. 

§EWIS LETTNER was born in Nashville, 
Tennessee, October 22, 1833. His father, 
John Lettner, was born in Germany, came 
to America when a boy, and married Palina 
Dindle, a native of Tennessee. They had five 
children, the subject of this sketch being the 
oldest son and second child. Like many others 
his early education was limited, and he has him- 
self obtained most of his information from 
books. When he was three mouths old his 
family emigrated to Illinois, where they re- 
mained twelve years. At that time the subject 
of this sketch began to earn his own support, 
and three years later drove an ox team across 
the plains to California. There were eighty in 


the party when it started, hut in order to ob- 
tain feed they divided, and at the end of the 
journey there were only ten in his party. He 
soon engaged in mining on the middle fork of 
the American river, He commenced mining 
September 17, 1850, and mined for ten years, 
nearly all the time. He had good success, 
taking out from $10 to $15 per day, and the 
best find he ever made was a nugget that sold 
for $315. Like many others he spent most of 
his gold in speculating and prospecting. After 
this lie bought land and turned his attention to 
farming, in which he engaged in San Joaquin 
for twenty-five years. In September, 1884, he 
came to Los Angeles and btcame acquainted 
with Mr. G. D. Compton, and with him came 
to see the San Jacinto town site and bought 
twenty acres of land, on which lie built a good 
house and planted a raisin grape vineyard of six 
acres from cuttings. They are now bearing 
nicely and have sold well. He has an artesian 
well on his place which affords an abundance of 
the best water, but does not irrigate his grapes, 
as they do well without. He is also raising 
grain and hay. He was married in 1862 to 
Miss Carrie Laws of North Carolina, born in 
1843. Her parents were southern people. They 
have three sons living, viz.: William, born in 
Walnut Grove, Sacramento County, in 1868; 
Lewis F., born in Contra Costa County, in 1869, 
and Leonard Buit, born in Contra Costa County, 
in 1878. Mr. Lettner was for many years a 
member of the Independent Order of Chosen 
Friends. Mrs. Lettner is a member of the 
Christian Church. They are worthy citizens of 
San Jacinto and enjoy the confidence and respect 
of the county. 

of McDougall & Burgess, dealers in 
agricultural implements, occupy spa- 
cious warerooms, 100 x 100 feet, at the corner 
of Seventh and I streets. William B. McDou- 
gall was born at Milburn, Illinois, in 1853, and 

came to San Diego in 1874. He was employed 
by Klauber & Levi in their hardware depart- 
ment for seven years. J. G. Burgess was born 
at Oswego, New York, November 13, 1865, 
and later, moving to Syracuse, engaged in the 
hardware business about three years. He then 
came to San Diego in 1887, and spent one year 
in the store of his brother at El Cajon. In 
October, 1888, the above partnership was formed 
and they bought out the implements, stock and 
good will of Messrs. Klauber & Levi, continu- 
ing in the same quarters. They carry the largest 
stock of agricultural implements in the city and 
are the sole agents of San Diego County, for 
the following well-known line of goods: Oliver 
chilled plows, John Deere's steel plow and 
farm implements, Buckeye mowers, Thomas 
hay-rakes, Centennial farming mills, Freeman 
feed cutters, Sehuttler and Studebaker wagons 
and carriages, and are dealers in all lines of 
large farm machinery, and are the only jobbers 
in this line in the city. 

McDougall & Burgess are young men of 
energy and knowledge, and are largely endowed 
with business qualities. 

fULIUS BERNSTEIN, one of the leading 
business men of Elsinore, was born in Prus- 
sia, Germany, in 1851. He received a good 
business education there, and afterward served 
an apprenticeship of three years to learn the 
mercantile business. Mr. Bernstein's parents 
were both German. He came to the United 
States in 1873, and was naturalized in 1878, 
that being as soon as he could become a citizen 
of the country of his adoption. He entered 
upon his apprenticeship when he was fifteen 
years of age, after which he clerked for one year, 
and then he came to the United States. He 
accepted a clerkship in a San Francisco house, 
where he remained three years, when he returned 
to Europe on a visit. Then he returned to New 
York and for a time clerked both in New York 
and Boston. He then removed to Sail Francisco 


and was in that part of the State for five years, 
when he again returned to Europe on a visit to 
his parents. After a stay of live months he 
came to the State of Georgia and clerked for five 
years. In 1885 he came to Elsinore and bought 
out the parties who had the first store, and has 
continued in the business ever since. He has 
a double store and is dealing in general mer- 
chandise. During the four years he has been 
in business here, his trade has grown con- 
stantly, and he has a large stock and is doing 
the only general merchandise business of the 
town, and his trade reaches out twenty miles in 
all directions. He has four men constantly 
employed in the business. He was married in 
1885 to Miss Michelson, a native of Prussia, 
and they have three children, all born in Elsi- 
nore: David, Clara and Freddie. He has made 
some investments in town lots and acre property, 
and is an accomplished business man. He is a 
member of the I. O. O. F., A. O. U. W., and 
the B'nai B'rith. 

THOMPSON FRAME, of Elsinore, was 
born in eastern Ohio, June 20, 1841. 
^ His father, Aaron Frame, was a native of 
Harrison County, Ohio, born June 18, 1815. 
His grandfather, William Frame, was a native 
of Ohio also, and his great-grandfather, Benja- 
min Frame, came fiom Pennsylvania to Ohio 
in an early day. They were pioneers of that 
State and were a family of Quakers. Mr. Frame's 
mother, nee Talitha Thompson, born in 1818, 
was the daughter of John C. and Rebecca (Car- 
ver) Thompson. Her grandfather was Henry 
Carver, a Hessian soldier who came wi.h the 
army to America in the time of the Revolution. 
After the war he settled in North Carolina, 
joined the Quakers, and married Talitha Mitch- 
ell. There were eight children in Mr. Frame's 
family that lived to maturity. He was the second 
child and was educated in Mount Pleasant, Jef- 
ferson County, Ohio, in a school of the Friends. 
He learned from his father the carpenter's trade, 

and has ne/er been sorry he acquired it. He 
afterward engaged with a brother in the car- 
riage business. In 1864 he was married to 
Miss Emily Bundy, born in 1844. They had 
one daughter, Mary T., born in 1867. Mrs. 
Frame died of consumption in 1873, and his 
daughter died March 26, 1889, at Pasadena, 
California, of the same disease, and he was thus 
bereft of a dear wife and a lovely daughter. 
After the death of his wife in 1873, he was of- 
fered the position of governor of the Friends 
school, Westtown, Pennsylvania. He a2cepted 
the position and had care of from eighty to 140 
boys. He held the position for eleven and 
one-half years, and in 1886 he came with his 
daughter to Elsinore and bought some property 
and became a real-estate dealer on his own ac- 
count. When the Bank of Elsinore was started 
in 1887, he became interested in it, and is now 
its vice-president and attends to its business. 
He was elected one of the first trustees of the 
city, which office he afterward resigned be- 
cause he could not give it the attention it re- 
quired. He has been a member of the school 
board for the last two years, and is well quali- 
fied for that position. He is a careful, correct 
business man and highly reliable, and takes a 
deep interest in the growth and prosperity of 


fOSEPH J. HENDERSON.— A leading 
member of the bar of San Diego and a 
life-long Republican is Joseph J. Hender- 
son. He was born in Pike County, Missouri, 
July 19, 1843. His grandfather, James Hen- 
derson, was a native of Pennsylvania. He was 
a Presbyterian of Scotch-Irish descent, his fore- 
fathers having fled to Ireland to escape persecu- 
tion in Scotland. Mr. Henderson's father, Rev. 
J. H. D. Henderson, was born in Kentucky and 
was a Presbyterian minister in Missouri, Penn- 
sylvania and Oregon. He was one of those men 
of whom it was said " he was born an abolition- 
ist," and had an intuitive sense of the irreat 


wrong of human slavery. "When a boy in Ken- 
tucky he was often reprimanded for exulting 
over the escape of slaves. His dislike in later 
years for the institution on account of its bane- 
ful effects on society caused him to remove with 
his family from the South to Oregon, where he 
became a prominent Republican, being elected 
to the United States Congress from there. In 
Missouri he knew a smart young slave who bad 
learned how to read, write and cypher, and 
preach to his brethren. He was arrested while 
preaching in Jefferson City, put in prison, and 
the authorities told his master that he would 
have to get rid of him as '• he knew too much " 
and would be likely to teach their " niggers " 
things they should not know. It was decided 
'to 6end him south and he was there put upon 
the market for sale. Buyers in want of slaves 
examined him and asked what he could do; he 
replied among other things: ■' I can leach your 
children to read and write; and if you should 
die I can preach your funeral sermon." Well, 
they did not want such a " nigger " as that. 
One slave-holder said to him: " I had a fellow 
like you, and I took him to the block and 
chopped the first finger off from his right hand 
and that stopped his writing." " But," said the 
slave, " I can write with either hand." The 
price asked for him was $800. He was finally 
brought back to St. Louis, where a gentleman 
told him if he would serve him faithfully he 
would buy him. He did so, and at the end 
of the first months' service gave him $40 and 
said: " If you serve me as well every month I 
will give you the same, and at the end of twenty 
months you will be a free man." After three 
months this master died and in the settlement 
of the estate he was again to be sold. He wrote 
to Mr. Henderson, in Pennsylvania, his misfor- 
tune, and money was soon raised to buy him 
and he was set at liberty. He went to work 
and afterward bought his wife. Another cir- 
cumstance occurred, while Mr. Henderson was 
in the South, of which he spoke to his family. 
One of the members of his church was selling 
at auction some of his slaves, and among them 

was a woman put upon the block with her baby 
in her arms. The owner said to the auctioneer, 
" Sell the baby first." His wife, who stood near, 
interceded with him and urged him to sell the 
mother and child together, and with a good deal 
of reluctance he finally consented and they were 
sold together. Mr. Henderson said, " I lost all 
faith in the religion of the man who could be 
60 heartless." Mr. J. J. Henderson's mother, 
Mary E. (Fisher), Henderson, was also a native 
of Kentucky, a daughter of Joseph Fisher. They 
were of German descent. She was bcrn in 1820 
and was married to Mr. Henderson in 1839. 
The subject of this sketch was the second of a 
family of six children. He finished his law 
studies at the Albany Law School in 1870, and 
the same year began practice in Portland, Ore- 
gon. In the year 1873 he was appointed, by 
President Grant, United States Consul to Amoy, 
China. He remained in the consular service for 
five and one-half years, when he resigned to en- 
gage in the practice of law at Shanghae, China. 
He was there about three years and after traveling 
in Europe awhile finally came to California and 
settled in Sonoma County, in 1880. where he 
bought and managed a vineyard. He came to 
San Diego in 1886, where he invested in prop- 
erty and engaged in the practice of hie profes- 
sion. He was married in 1871 to Miss Emma 
A. Woodruff of Albany, New York, daughter 
of Cyrus L. Woodruff. Mr. Henderson is a 
Thirty-second Degree Mason. 

fDGAR VERTREES was born in Brown 
County, Illinois, February 26, 1856. His 
father, Joseph Vertrees, was a native of 
Kentucky, as was his father, also born in Ken- 
tucky. His mother, Lucinda (Chenwith) Ver- 
trees, was born in 1834, and had a family of 
eleven children, but six of whom are now living. 
Mr. Vertrees was the tenth child, and was edu- 
cated in Brown County, Illinois. When twenty 
years of age he became a farmer, and has con- 
tinued in that business all his life. He moved 


to Kansas, and from there to Vernon County, 
Missouri. Afcer some years spent in both of 
these States alluded to, he removed to Califor- 
nia, March 20, 1885, and purchased forty acres 
of land about one mile north from the business 
portion of San Jacinto, on which he built a 
house and barn, and made a very commodious 
home. His principal crop is alfalfa hay, of 
which he gets six crops each year, and an aver- 
age per crop of one and one-fourth tons per 
acre. This is the average, one year with an- 
other, and it sells at from $8 to §12 per ton. 
He has planted all kinds of fruit for family use, 
and the trees are bearing nicely. He was mar- 
ried January 21, 1880, to Miss Nancy C. Rate- 
kin, daughter of Dr. Elisha S. Ratekin. She was 
born in Terre Haute, Henderson County, Illi- 
nois, January 13, 1860. They have two boys, 
— Leonard W., born in Vernon County, Mis- 
souri, August 2, 1883, and Clarence E., born 
May G, 1885, in San Jacinto. Two of Mrs. 
Vertrees' uncles and Mr. Vertrees' brother 
served in the Union army during the war, from 
Illinois. Mr. and Mrs. Vertrees are members 
of the Methodist Church, are worthy members 
of society, and are highly spoken of by their 

- — #5M*a^# — - 

P\\ r . DAY, of Scotch-English descent, was 
born at Kingston, Ontario, Canada, July, 
° 1833. He was educated at the Queen's 
University at Kingston in the classics, and then 
decided to take medicine. ■ His profession took 
the medical and surgical course at the same 
university and was graduated in the spring of 

Dr. Day was first married at Kingston, in 
1859. His wife lived but a few years, leaving 
one son and one daughter. The Doctor prac- 
ticed medicine and surgery at Kingston until 
1871, when he was again married to Miss Eliza- 
beth Powers, of Kingston, Ontario. They went 
to Chicago, where the Doctor opened an office 
and followed his profeesion until 1878, when he 

was obJged to return to Kingston, and remained 
three years, hid second wife dying meantime and 
leaving two sons. In 1881, the Doctor again 
came to the United States and settled at Coun- 
cil Grove, Kansas, resuming his profession in 
medicine. In 1886, he was married the third 
time, at Davenport, Iowa, to Mrs. Addie N. 
Rainbow, and in 1887 they came to San Diego, 
where he immediately opened an office and has 
met with very nattering success. The Doctor 
is a regular physician ;.nd apparently well 
up in his profession, a man well preserved in 
physicpie and of pleasing manners and address. 
His children are all with him except his daugh- 
ter, who is married and lives in Kansas. In 
May, 1888, he took up Government land of 165 
acres and eighty acres of timber land at Alpine, 
San Diego County, which he is now improving. 
The timber land he well set to Eucalyptus trees, 
and the ranch to walnuts, prunes, olives and a 
variety of fruits and vines. The climate of Al- 
pine he considers very salubrious, and especially 
adapted to pulmonary trouble, being at an ele- 
vation of about 800 feet, with plenty of rain- 
fall, yet with a dry, wholesome atmosphere and 
no frosts. Irrigation is unnecessary, as the 
water is quite near the surface. Springs are 
easily developed, and, overflowing, give an abun- 
dance of pure spring water. 

Dr. Day is a member of the Masonic Lodge, 
No. 35, and of the Ancient Order of United 
"Workmen, of which organization he is the med- 
ical examiner, and he is also surgeon lor the 
Santa Ee Railroad Company. 

§F. SHULTZ was born in Muscatine County, 
Iowa, July 8, 1851. His father, Joshua 
-^ a Shultz, was a native of Franklin County, 
Pennsylvania, and his grandfather was a Hessian 
from Hesse Darmstadt. He was a soldier in King 
George's army, but was taken prisoner and en- 
listed in the cause of independence in the Revo- 
lution. Mr. Shultz's mother, nee Catherine 
Fulton, was born in Washington County, Mary- 


laud. Her ancestors were originally from Glas- 
gow, Scotland. They had a family of nine chil- 
dren, of which the subject of this sketch was 
the fifth. While a boy he was sent to school in 
his native place, and when seventeen yeais of 
age he went to learn the tool maker's trade, and 
with it blacksmithing and the machinist's trade, 
and after working some time in Iowa, went to 
Minneapolis, where for five years he was in the 
employ of the Applebee Harvester and Binder 
Company, and afterward traveled and sold ma- 
chines for them. October 1, 1885, he came to 
California, and was two months in Los Angeles, 
when he learned of the new town of San Jacinto, 
which was then being started. He came to 
San Jacinto and bought, and built a very pleas- 
ant home on five acres of land, a short distance 
north of the new brick school-house, on Central 
avenue, in the city of San Jacinto. Here he 
has planted trees and made improvements, which 
indicates thrift and comfort. He has sunk an 
artesian well, which affords a fine flow of splen- 
did water, and from it a nice little brook of 
clear water runs across his grounds to his barn 
and poultry houses. He began the blacksmith 
business on coming to the town, and has con- 
tinued it ever since. He is running a good 
shop, and in connection with it is doing cariiage 
and wagon manufacturing, and his business ex- 
tends out over twenty miles in some directions. 
On May 23, 1875, he was married to Miss 
Joanna Bachman, a native of Eldora, Iowa, 
born January 16, 1857, and daughter of James 
and Emma Bachman. Their union has been 
blessed with four children, viz.: James J., born 
in Eldora, Iowa, April 21, 1876; Alice I., born 
April 17, 1878; Zelma A., burn May 17, 1880, 
in Eldora; Jessie M., born in Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, January 28, 1883. Mr. Shultz is a 
member of St. John's Chapter, Minneapolis, 
No. 9, and is a member of the F. A. M., Min- 
neapolis Lodge, No. 19, Minneapolis, Minnesota, 
and a member of Eldora Lodge, No. 77, I. O. 
O. F., and now holds the office of one of the 
trustees of the city of San Jacinto. It is need- 
less to add that he is a man of intelligence and 

worth, and alive to the interests of the town of 
which he is a pioneer. 


g^OWARD M. KUTCHIN, a journalist, ed- 
IHf} * tor an< ^ P u °li saer ' now a resident of San 

=hM Diego, was a native of Norristovvn, Penn- 
sylvania, born November 4, 1842. His father, 
-Rev. Thomas T. Kutchin, born in Pennsylvania, 
was a Baptist clergyman in Philadelphia. His 
grandfather, Thomas J. Kutchin, was born in 
Philadelphia, and for the greater part of his life 
was a professor in one of the academies in 

Philadelphia. The family is of Scotch descent. 
Mr. Kutchin's mother, Amanda (Thomas) Kutch- 
in, was a daughter of Mr. Ephraim Thomas. 
Their ancestors came from Wales in 1676, two 
years after Penn's arrival. There were nine 
children in the family, of whom the subject of 
this sketch was the third child, and the oldest of 
six boys. He received his education iu the 
public schools, and in 1860, when eighteen 
years of age, he adopted journalism as a pro- 
fession, and was connected w 7 ith various news- 
papers in Wisconsin, Illinois, and Missouri. In 
1866 he was married to Miss Elsie M. Irving, 
born in Racine, Wisconsin, July 1, 1844, 
daughter of John and Mary Irving, who were 
of Scotch descent. They have two children — 
a daughter and son: Grace E. and Harold I. 
Shortly after his marriage in Missouri he re- 
turned to Wisconsin in 1867, and bought the 
Fort Atkinson Herald, and was its publisher 
until the fall of 1870, when he leased the estab- 
lishment and came to San Diego with a purpose 
to remain. He then became connected with the 
San Diego Unio?i, and assisted in publishing 
the first Daily Union. His tenant in Wiscon- 
sin being unable to carry out his lease, he re- 
turned, took possession and sold out, and pur- 
chased the Fond du Lac (Wisconsin) Daily 
Commonwealth. He owned and edited that 
paper up to 1884. In 1877 he was appointed 
director of Wisconsin State prison. In 1879 
President Hayes appointed him Collector of In- 


ternal Revenue l'or the third district of Wiscon- 
son, in which capacity he continued until Pres- 
ident Cleveland was elected, when he went out 
as an "offensive partisan." 

During his residence in Wisconsin he took 
an active part in politics. He was chairman of 
the Republican Count}' Committee, and was 
chairman of the Republican Congressional Dis- 
trict Committee for many years. At the State 
Republican Convention of 1886 he was elected 
secretary of the State Central Committee, and 
did the work of the campaign in that capacity. 
At the close of this, being greatly prostrated by 
the arduous labors he had performed, he was 
advised by his physicians to travel, and he re- 
turned to San Diego in 1887. He returned to 
Wisconsin in the spring and came back again a 
few months later, to make his permanent home 
here. In the fall of 1888 he took charge of the 
Daily Union as manager. In the course of a 
few months he became editor as well, and con- 
tinued it until June, 1889, when he retired 
from the paper. He is a member of the Ma- 
sonic fraternity, is a Knight Templar, and has 
held various positions in the order. In the 
Knights of Pythias he was Grand Chancellor of 
Wisconsin for a number of years, and Supreme 
Representative of the State to the Supreme 
Lodge of the world for four years. In June, 
1889, he was recommended by Congressman 
Vandeou and the Republican State delegation 
for the appointment of Postmaster of San Diego: 
he was subsequently appointed, and now oc- 
cupies that position. He has invested largely 
in property in San Diego, and is interested in 
all that pertains to the welfare of the city of his 
choice and home* 


fS. BUCK. — Among the early pioneers of 
California we note the name of Joshua S. 
° Buck, who arrived at San Francisco in 
1856, at the age of twenty-one years, filled with 
the enthusiasm and ambitions of youth, and 
also possessed of a scientific knowledge which 

few acquire at so early an age, as upon his ar- 
rival at San Francisco he was one of three ma- 
rine engineers who held first-class certificates 
from the Government. He was born at Campo 
Bello, JS'ew Brunswick, March 12, 1835, his 
parents being natives of Maine. He was third 
in a family of ten children, of whom nine are 
still living. In 1842 his parents removed to 
Eastport, Maine, and his father being a mechan- 
ical engineer, he was early employed as agent 
of the steamship company which ran steamers 
from Boston to Eastport and New Brunswick. 
After a common-school education, the subject 
of this sketch early adopted the profession of 
his father, and under his skillful teaching was 
rapidly pushed forward in his trade, and was 
often substituted as engineer on steamships of 
the Eastport line. 

In 1856 he left home for California, arriving 
in New York in October, and being a seafaring 
man, which entitles him to a vote in any port, 
he there oast his first Presidential vote for 
John C. Fremont, October 12, 1856, and in the 
afternoon of the same day he boarded a steamer 
as passenger, bound for California by the Isth- 
mus of Panama, arriving at San Francisco in 
November, 1856. The following five years were 
employed in placer mining, mainly in Tuolumne 
County. Returning to San Francisco in 1861, 
he was employed by the Holiday Line of Steam- 
ers in repairing the steamship John L. Stephens. 
He then made an engagement with the Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company as assistant engineer 
on the line between Panama and San Francisco. 
At the end of one year he became chief engineer 
of the line, and remained in their employ 
eighteen years. He was chief engineer of the 
old steamship Constitution for four years, a ves- 
sel very familiar to the early Californians. In 
1868 Mr. Buck's wife was taken very sick, and 
he secured one year's leave of absence and 
brought her to San Diego. He bought lots and 
built the fifth house in San Diego, at the corner 
of Front and F streets, also improved and sold 
other property. At the closa of the year he 
his house and returned to San Francisco, 


but has been a property-holder in San Diego 
since that year. In 1870 he passed one year in 
the Japan service, making four trips to China 
as c! ief engineer of the steamship Japan. In 
1871 he again came to San Diego, on account 
of the health of his wife: after one year he re- 
turned to San Francisco, and continued in the 
employ of the company until 1880, when he 
came to San Diego and took up permanent resi- 
dence. The first five years he passed much of 
his time at Julian, but in 1885 he returned to 
San Diego and started in the pottery business 
at the corner of Fifth and K streets, as agent 
for the Elsinore Pottery Company, for the sale 
of their goods, and he continues business at the 
6ame stand and shipping pottery and stoneware 
all over the world, but his specialties now are 
the Penn pottery of New Brighton, Pennsyl- 
vania, and the Mica Pooling Company's goods, 
of New York. 

January 1, 1867, Mr. Buck was married at 
San Francisco, to Miss Emma Hooper, a native 
of St. Johns, New Brunswick. They have two 
children: Annie K. and Walter, born at San 
Francisco. His wife is still living, and enjoys 
comfortable health, at their new and comfort- 
able residence on the corner of F and Twenty- 
first streets. Mr. Buck was elected a member 
of the Board of Supervisors in November, 1888, 
and took his office January 1, 1889. 

tlONEL W. MARSHALL, a descendant of 
English-American parentage, was born at 
Marietta, Iowa, January 10, 1857. His 
early life was passed in Iowa, where he received 
a common-school education. His father being 
a cabinet-maker, the inclination of the son 
naturally turned in the same direction and 
under the careful guidance of the father, with 
whom he worked twelve years, he now stands 
at the head of his profession. In 188G, he 
came to San Diego and entered the art business, 
also building and selling wood mantels of 
various designs. In 1887, he went out of the 

art business and assumed the management of 
the San Diego Mantel Factory at 916 Second 
street, where he is carrying on a large and suc- 
cessful business, employing five men and yet 
unable to keep up with the orders. The man- 
tels are constructed from all kinds of hard and 
soft woods, and combined with neat designs in 
wood carving create a thing of beauty and a 
joy forever. This is the first and only mantel 
manufactory in San Diego. 

Mr. Marshall was married at Dan Diego, 
December 12, 1887, to Miss Lizzie Monkes, a 
native of California. They have one child. 


ANIEL H. CLARK came into the valley 
from the northern part of the State four 
years before there was any town platted in 
San Jacinto. He came very near being a son of 
the Golden West, as his father moved to Cali- 
fornia with his family when the subject of this 
sketch was but one year old. His father, H. 
W. Clark, and his mother, nee Miss M. J. Mil- 
ler, were both natives of Arkansas. Daniel H. 
Clark was the eldest of their family of nine 
children, and was born in Johnson County, Ar- 
kansas, October 13, 1855. When he was a boy 
the family resided in Fresno County, and there 
he received his education. When seventeen 
years of age he began to do for himself, and 
went into the business of raising hogs. When 
nineteen years of age he was married to Miss 
Eliza Winkleman, who was born in California 
in 1859. The marriage occurred in 1874. The 
fruit of the union is seven children, viz.: Fred- 
erick J., Ida H., Henry Franklin, Walter An- 
derson, Clandy Noel, Clara and Eliza. The 
three first were born in Los Angeles, and the 
rest in San Jacinto. After his marriage he 
lived a short time in Fresno County, when he 
removed to Arizona and then to Los Angeles. 
There he bought a place near Westminster, and 
in 1879 they removed San Jacinto. There were 
then about ten families in the whole valley for 
miles in every direction. Mr. Hewitt had his 


adobe house and store; Mr. Jordan and wife, 
Mr. "Webster and family, the two Mr. Estudillo's, 
Mr. Logsdors and family, Mr. Collins, Mr. Car- 
roll, Mr. Larson, Mr. Giar, and Mr. Proko A. 
Kitnbo. Mr. Clark took a Government claim 
of 160 acres, which he lived on and improved, 
and afterward sold. He then bought twenty 
acres and built on it his present home, and 
planted trees and made other improvements. 
He is now a partner with Mr. Hewitt in the 
livery business. They have a large stock of good 
carriages and horses; and in addition to their 
livery business they are putting in large quan- 
tities of barley and wheat. More than 1,200 
acres is now being sowed by them. 

When Garfield was elected President Mr. 
Clark was appointed Postmaster at what was 
then called the Rock House (now Wichita). 
He held the office three years and resigned it 
in favor of Mrs. Rice. Mrs. Clark is a Meth- 
odist, and Mr. Clark is a hard working honor- 
able citizen. 

near San Jacinto. The man who came to 
California in 1849 is proud to say, " 1 am 
a '49er;" the man who was born in California 
with greater pride can say, " I am a native Cal- 
ifornia]];" but Mr. Estudillo can say, " I am a 
Californian of the Californians." His grand- 
father came from Spain about the time of the 
founding of the mission, and his father, of the 
same name, was born in Monterey, California, 
and married in 1825, Victoria Dominguez, who 
was born in Los Angeles in 1801. Therefore 
Mr. Estudillo's children enjoy the distinction 
of being able to say, ,l We are natives of 
California; so are both our parents, and so are 
both our grandparents." 

The subject of this sketch was born in San 
Diego, August 22, 1840. His father, when at 
San Diego, received a large grant of land at 
Janal; he was a merchant and stock-raiser, who 
also owned a magnificent grant from the Mex- 

ican government, of the San Jacinto ranch, of 
386 acres of rich land at the base of the San 
Jacinto range of mountains. On a part of this 
tract the city of San Jacinto is now built, ami 
two miles west stands the old adobe ranch house 
which was built in 1854 and occupies a little 
bend in the foot hills of the San Jacinto range. 
At that point there are also hot and cold springs 
of good water. The family also formerly had 
another adobe ranch house, which was built 
long before, so long previously that the memory 
of its origin is lost. The ruins are still visible, 
standing on the only rise of ground oil the 
whole ranch, nearly five miles north of the city 
of San Jacinto. It was named Casloma, and was 
situated on this high ground so that the Cap- 
tain could look out from it and see his herds of 
cattle for miles around, and also be enabled to 
discover the approach of the Indians and defend 
the place. On this large ranch for many years 
they raised large herds of horses and cattle. 
The horses had a small sprinkle of Arabian blood, 
which made them tough and good travelers; all 
their stock they sold mostly in San Francisco, 
and drove from 1,000 to 2,000 head a year, the 
driving occupying the months of March, April 
and May. The cattle were of the graded stock. 
Mr. Estudillo has retained 710 acres of the 
ranch, and has built a good brick house upon it 
two miles east of the city, near the old adobe. 
This residence occupies a sightly position, and 
from it a very fine view of the country is ob- 
tained. Mr. Estudillo is still engaged in the 
business of stock-raising, is a fine horseman and 
rides like a prince. On the ranch is a fine 
orchard of nearly all kinds of fruit and nut 
trees, bearing, and the proprietor contemplates 
setting out more orange trees. Mr. Estudillo 
is a very pleasant gentleman, and is very highly 
spoken of by all who know him. 

In 1868 he married Miss Adelade Robidoux, 
whowasanativeof Jurupa ranch at the point now 
called Riverside. Her father was from France, 
and had a store, a mill and a ranch. They have 
seven children, all whom were born at Riverside, 
namely: Miguel, born September 20, 1869, now 


attending college; Estella, bom May 29, 1873; 
Guadulupa, born October 26, 1875; Hattie, 
October 23, 1877; Louis, October 18, 1879; 
Adelade, October 11, 1881; Frankie, August 
3, 1884. The family are members of the 
Catholic Church. 

fHOMAS H. RAINEY, M. D., the pioneer 
physician and dentist of San Jacinto, was 
born near Belfast, Ireland, May 4, 1842. 
His father, Robert Rainey, was born in Ireland, 
and his mother, nee Margaret Dunbar, was born 
in Glasgow, Scotland. The Doctor received his 
preliminary education in Dublin, Ireland, and 
notwithstanding a strong desire, which he had 
when quite young, to become a physician, he did 
not see his way clear to continue the study of 
medicine to the exclusion of other pursuits. 
Like many others, he is a self-made man and 
worked his own way, acting in the capacity of 
teacher in several of the national schools of the 
country. His father being engaged in the man- 
ufacture of linen, for which that section of Ire- 
land is so justly celebrated, the Doctor had while 
quite young acquired considerable knowledge 
of the manufacture of fine texture from both 
wool and flax. In 1866 he came to the United 
States and accepted a position in the Ypsilanti 
Woolen Mill. After spending some time there 
he removed to Morenci, Michigan, and there 
took charge of a department or section of the 
looms engaged in the manufacture of fine cassi- 
meres. From there he went to South Bend, 
Indiana, and accepted the position of foreman 
of weaving and designing in a large woolen mill, 
engaged in the finest woolen manufacture of the 
United States. While there he exhibited his 
cloth at the Industrial Exhibition in Chicago 
and received first premium for two years in suc- 
cession on fancy cassimeres and flannels. From 
there he accepted a similar position at Baraboo, 
Wisconsin. After a year there he went to 
Mishawaka, Indiana, where he ran a mill by con- 
tract, and while there, in competition with the 

mills he had been with formerly, he took the 
premium again on his manufactures. Soon after 
this he was engaged to go to Springfield, Illi- 
nois, and take charge of the fine-goods depart- 
ment of a large manufactory, where, with the 
latest improvements in machinery, they manu- 
factured as tine cloths and cassimeres as could 
be produced. All through these busy years he 
had not forgotten his chosen profession and in 
the evenings kept up his reading and study. 
Here he studied under Dr. W. Hook Davis, a 
prominent practitioner. He then went to the 
Cincinnati Eclectic Medical College, at which 
college he was graduated. He then located in 
Michigan, near Detroit, and engaged in the 
practice of his profession. From there he re- 
moved to Washington Territory, where he prac- 
ticed far three years. In June, 1885, hearing 
of the great emigration to California and its ad- 
vantages, he came to San Jacinto. The town 
was just starting and there was bat one physi- 
cian in the place, who has since died. The Doc- 
tor had added dentistry to his studies, and in 
connection with the profession of medicine and 
surgery, practices dentistry. He enjoys a wide 
practice and the relations between himself and 
his patrons is very satisfactory. The Doctor 
has taken Horace Greeley's advice, " Go West, 
young man, and grow up with the country." 
He is growing up with San Jacinto. In addi- 
tion to a twenty-acre prune grove that he has 
had planted, a part of it now commencing to 
bear, he owns 160 acres of land and has a very 
commodious and well equipped office. In 1866 
he was married in Detroit, Michigan, to Miss 
Lettie Campbell. As the fruit of this marriage 
he has a daughter and a son, of whom he is 
justly proud. His daughter, Maud L., was born 
in Morenci, Michigan, October 21, 1868, and 
his son, Claud L , was born in Baraboo, Wis- 
consin, July 3, 1871. His daughter finished 
her education at the Michigan State Normal 
School, and the son is now at school in Michigan. 
The Doctor is a member of the I. 0. O. F., 
and also of the F. A. M. He is a talented and 
pleasing gentleman who takes a lively interest 


in bis town and in the profession of his choice. 
His ancestors were Scotch-Irish Presbyterians, 
and the historian will not forget that such stock 
in the United States has reached the upper 
round of the ladder in nearly every industry, 
business and profession. 

A. DORRIS is a native of Sumner 
County, Tennessee, born December 
* 25, 1836. His father, Josiah Dorris, 
was born in Robinson County, Tennessee, May 
8, 1808. He was a farmer, and his death oc- 
curred in 1881. Mrs. Dorris' mother, nee 
Martha Bridgwaters, was also a native of Robin- 
son County, Tennessee, and was married to Mr. 
Dorris in 1828. Their family consisted of 
twelve children, ten of whom are still living. 
Mr. Dorris remained at home until twenty 
years of age, enjoying the advantages of the 
public schools of his town. He removed to 
Williamson County, Illinois, in 1858, where 
he engaged to work on a farm. He remained 
here one year, until April 5, 1859, when he came 
to California for his health, and has not been 
sick a day since. In crossing the plains there 
were 100 in the company, and they were six 
months and ten days in going from Williamson 
County, Illinois, to Sonoma County, California. 
The journey was attended with much danger, as 
the Indians were very troublesome and aggres- 
sive, and they had many narrow escapes. At 
Goose Creek, ten days before they reached there, 
the Indians had killed and scalped a party of 
eight. On arrival there they found where the 
unfortunate victims had been buried by the 
United States soldiers. Their wagons had been 
piled and burned, and ten mules lay dead on the 
plains. He tirst settled at Petaluina, Sonoma 
County, where he carried on the dairy business, 
and followed this business in several counties 
in the State until he finally went to Monterey 
County, took up a Government tract of land 
and bought other adjoining land to the amount 
505 acres. He then engaged in farming and 

stock-raising, and still owns this ranch. From 
there, in 1884, he came to San Diego, and en- 
gaged in the hotel business, and bought the lots 
on the corner of Third and F streets, where he 
built the new Carlton Hotel, and with the able 
assistance of Mrs. Dorris he is now keeping this 
nice, centrally located house. Mrs. Dorris is a 
most accomplished and agreeable landlady. She 
was the widow of Mr. Charles Morgan, of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, and was united in marriage to Mr. 
Dorris in 1868. She is the mother of nine 
children, — four by her first husband and five 
since her union with Mr. Dorris. Three of the 
last named are still living, and were all born in 
Monterey County. Their names are: Nellie, 
Charles and Jennie. Mr. Dorris enlisted De- 
cember 14, 1864, in Company E, Second Regi- 
ment California Volunteers. Their service was 
mostly in Arizona, among the Apache Indians, 
and he participated in many skirmishes with 
them. He was mustered out in May, 1866. He 
is an Odd Fellow and a member of the G. A. R., 
belonging to Heintzelman Post, No. 33, of San 

§ON. JAMES McCOY.— The pioneer resi- 
dents of San Diego were a marked body 
of men. Many of them are living here 
to-day, and the positions they oocnpy among 
their fellows denote that they possess quali- 
fications that would make them leaders in 
any community. They were generally self-made 
men, who, by reason of theirnative force of char- 
acter, succeeded in surmounting obstacles before 
which less heroic material would have been over- 
whelmed. These were the men who, when San 
Diego's future greatness was in embryo, sprang 
to the front, and with their push and determi- 
nation started the young city on its progress to- 
ward commercial supremacy. One of the fore- 
most among this class is the subject of this 

James McCoy was born in County Antrim, 
Ireland, August 12, 1821. He lived with his 


parents and worked on a farm for the first twenty 
years of his life. Then he began to yearn for 
that land of liberty beyond the sea, and in the 
summer of 1842 he took passage in the ship 
Alexander, for the United States, landing at 
Baltimore on the ninth of July. Here he found 
employment in a market garden, and afterward 
in a distillery. In these occupations he re- 
mained seven years. In 1849 lie enlisted in the 
regular army, in Captain Magruder's Battery, 
which was under orders for the Pacific Coast. 
They sailed from Baltimore, January 27, 1850, 
and landed in San Francisco on the tenth of 
August. They remained in that city about ten 
days, and then sailed down the coast for San 
Diego, which was to be their station. There 
was at that time considerable trouble with the 
Indians, and McCoy was sent, as a non com- 
missioned officer, with twelve men to San Luis 
Rey mission, about forty miles from San Diego. 
He remained at this post for two years and a 
half, and during that time his small force was 
often called upon to aid the settlers from Indian 
attacks. After leaving San Luis Rey he was 
sent with fourteen men to Jacumba, a station for 
keeping express horses and for mail carriers on 
the road to Yuma. He remained there for about 
eleven months, until, his term of enlistment 
having expired, he was honorably discharged 
from the service. While at Jacumba he was 
often threatened by the Indians, and for better 
security he built a small fort. Here he was at 
one time attacked by a band of five hundred 
Indians, but his party were all picked men and 
trained to Indian fighting, and they succeeded 
in beating off their assailants. He then went 
with a surveying party on the Colorado Desert 
to lay out townships. He was engaged in this 
busiuess for two months and a half, and then 
was employed in the Government service diiv- 
ing teams between San Diego and Fort Yuma. 
He continued at this work for a little over two 
years, and then entered the employ of the San 
Antonio and San Diego Mail Line. He had 
charge of the mail between San Diego and 
Yuma, and afterward between Yuma and Tuc- 

son. This was quite a hazardous service, and 
he had many narrow escapes from the Indians, 
besides suffering untold hardships in crossing 
the desert through which his route lay. In his 
trips from Yuma to Tucson he made some very 
rapid time. He once rode the distance of three 
hundred miles in three days and eleven hours, 
and changed mules only twice. The man who 
rode with him, S. A. Ames, now lives at River- 
side. In the latter part of 1859, while carrying 
the mail, he was elected Assessor of San Diego 
County, and in 1861 he was elected Sheriff. He 
was re-elected five times, and remained in the 
office until he was elected to the State Senate, 
in 1871, when he resigned. In 1859, while As- 
sessor, he became interested in raising sheep, 
and continued in that business until 1668. Mr. 
McCoy prides himself that he has raised the 
best flock of sheep in San Diego County. In 
1867 he bought the San Bernardo, a four-league 
ranch, for $4,000, and still owns a part of it. 
It is situated about thirty miles from San Diego. 
Mr. McCoy served one term of four years in the 
Senate, his term expiring in 1875. While in 
the Senate he used his best efforts to arrange 
for offering subsidies to induce the building of 
a railroad to San Diego. It was mainly through 
his efforts that the right of way was granted to 
the Texas Pacific. He also succeeded in having 
a bill passed authorizing the city to issue bonds 
to buy the San Diego and Gila Company — an 
old organization formed in early days. This 
company had succeeded in having two leagues 
of land granted them by the Legislature for the 
purpose of building their road. The bonds of 
the city were issued for the purpose of buying 
up the rights of this old company, as well as for 
purchasing the right of way for the Texas Pa- 

Mr. McCoy was one of the organizers and di- 
rectors of the Commercial Bank of San Diego, 
and is now a director of the Consolidated Bank. 
He was also one of the organizers and a director 
in the San Diego Savings Bank. He was one 
of the organizers of the Commercial Bank of 
Los Angeles, since reorganized and now known 


as the First National Bank, in which he is a 

stockholder. He has been a city trustee tor 
fourteen years. There has been no public move- 
ment looking to the advancement of San Diego 
that has not had Mr. McCoy's active countenance 
and assistance. He owns considerable city prop 
erty, and 1,920 acres of the San Bernardo Ranch, 
adjoining Escondido. He resides in Old San 
Diego, where he has a fine residence, erected 
eighteen years ago. Mr. McCoy was married in 
Old San Diego/ May 17, 1868, to Miss Wini- 
fred Kearney. They have no children. 

tEONARD L. LYNCH, was born at Har- 
rington, Washington County, Maine, Sep- 
tember 27, 1828; his parents were natives 
of New England. The family consisted of four 
children, only two of whom survive. The edu- 
cational facilities of the time and place being 
limited the subject of this sketch was only per- 
mitted those of the common school. At the 
early age of thirteen years he went on board ship 
as a common seaman, coasting between New 
York and other eastern ports. He followed this 
business several years; also spent one season on 
the fishing banks at Labrador. About 1845 he 
sailed from Boston to the Mediterranean Sea, on 
the bark Elvira, Captain (lorham, of Cape Cod, 
in command. He took over an assorted cargo 
to Malta, and then sailed to Palermo, Sicily, and 
brought back a cargo of fruit. In 1846 and 
1847, he went out as first mate of the Clarissa, 
a square-rigged brig from Rockland, Maine, to 
Wilmington, North Carolina, then took a cargo 
of naval stores to New Orleans, during the Mex- 
ican war. He was there taken sick and left the 
vessel. On recovering he sailed as mate on the 
brig Lawrence for Havann, then to Sisal, Laguna 
and Tabasco, taking a cargo of logwood and 
mahogany back to Havana, where the vessel was 
sold for a slaver and was sent to the coast of 
Africa. Mr. Lynch returned to New York in 
the spring of 1848, and made a voyage to Jack- 
sonville, Florida, and the West Indies, and in 

the fall sailed on the Gen. Lincoln, and was 
wrecked on the Duck Ledges near Rockland, 
Maine. The vessel went to pieces, they all got 
on the ledge from head of main topgallant mast 
but two, who were frozen before they could be 
taken off. They were exposed sixteen hours, 
midst terrible suffering. Mr. Lynch there lost 
all his charts, maps and instruments, of which 
he had a very valuable assortment, and was per- 
fectly capable of taking all reckonings and ob- 
servations, having sailed as master out of New- 
bnryport, Massachusetts. After several voyages 
to the West Indies, September 5, 1849, he sailed 
before the mast for California, many of the 
crew being mates and captains. It enabled 
them to reach California during the year of the 
great gold excitement. They were on the ship 
Albatross, of Boston, and made but one stop, at 
Valparaiso for water. They carried an assorted 
cargo and forty passengers, and were 180 days 
on the voyage, arriving at San Francisco Feb- 
ruary, 1850. In the summer of that year he 
ran a steamboat on the Sacramento river, and in 
the fall went to Rhodes' diggings near Folsotn, 
Sacramento County, and there opened a grocery 
store and did some mining at Negro Bar, now 
Folsom. He remained until 1853, when he 
returned to Sacramento and built the Union 
Hotel, paying $300 per 1,000 feet for green 
lumber. He continued in this hotel until the 
fall of 1858, when he sold out and went East, 
going and returning by the Isthmus of Fanama. 
He was absent sixteen months, visiting his 
family and friends in Maine. He returned in 
the fall of 1859, arriving in the spring of 1860. 
He went to Sacramento and again opened a 
hotel called the Philadelphia House, in which 
he continued about twelve years, selling out in 
1873. In 1875 he came to San Diego, and took 
up a ranch of 160 acres at Foway, and begau 
honey-bee culture, which he still carries on with 
good success, also cultivating his ranch. He 
has a tine orchard of six acres, set out with a 
variety of fruits, and nfteen acres of raisin 


all bearing, and has several horses and 

a large number of fowls 


Mr. Lynch has never married. By integrity, 
economy and strict attention to business, he lias 
lived a life filled with incident and marked with 
success, and though at the age of sixty-one years 
is still active, alert, and conditioned to enjoy 
many years of usefulness. 

fEORGE W. BOWLER.— Among the 
members of the San Diego Pioneers' 
Asssociation we find the name of George 
W. Bowler, who at the early age of four years 
began his pioneer course. In leaving Kansas 
City, Missouri, the home of his nativity, being 
with his parents, he traveled by wagon to the 
less civilized country of Montana, and at the 
age of eight jears they again started on their 
pioneer course by wagon for San Diego, Cali- 
fornia, which at that time, January, 1868, was 
a wild, unsettled country. He was born in 
Kansas City, Missouri, August 24, 1860. His 
father was then in the employment of the Gov- 
ernment as engineer of the roads across Kansas, 
New Mexico and that vicinity. The subject of 
this sketch was third in a family of six children, 
only four of whom survive; he received only a 
common-school education and then learned the 
trade of printing, and, feeling that the "pen 
was mightier than the sword," — though having 
received but a common school education him- 
self, — he would aid in enlightening others 
through the medium of the press; and as com- 
positor he was connected with the San Diego 
News from 1875 until 1880. He then went to 
Colorado, and for eighteen months was secretary 
of the Lady Franklin Mining Company at Silver 
Cliff. He was then employed by the Colorado 
Coal and Iron Company as agent and weigh- 
master for five years, traveling through the 
State. Returning to San Diego in 1887, he 
entered into the real-estate business, in which 
he is still employed. His father died in 1871, 
but his mother is still living, and is a member 
of his family. 

Mr. Bowler was married at "Williamsburg, 

Fremont County, Colorado, August 24, 1882, 
to Miss Mary Woodside, a native of Alton, Illi- 
nois. They have two children, both of whom 
are still living: Gertrude and William. 


fR. OTTMANN is one of the most active, 
obliging and competent business men of 
a San Jacinto. He was born in Lower 
Silesia, Prussia, November 26, 1851, and came 
with his parents to the United States in 1860, 
and settled in- New York. They afterward re- 
moved to Hoboken, where the family resided 
for twenty-two years. When thirteen years of 
age the subject of this sketch went to work for 
a wholesale house in New York city, and re- 
mained with them for thirteen years. He then 
accepted a position with a New York import- 
ing house and traveled for them both in the 
AVestern States and also through France and 
Germany, having crossed the Atlantic Ocean 
nineteen times, transacting the business of his 
house in a highly satisfactory manner. June 17, 
1882, he went to San Francisco to accept a posi- 
tion as manager of the cloak department of a 
large wholesale house. After a term of two years 
with them he went to Los Angeles, and accepted 
a position in the City of Paris. While with 
them he had charge of their cloak department; 
then he was floor-walker, and the last year, of 
a term of three years, he traveled for them, 
which enabled him to see all California, Arizona 
and New Mexico. On June 10, 1887, he en- 
tered into an engagement with Mr. Hewitt, of 
San Jacinto, to take charge of his books and 
act as business manager, in which position he 
has ever since been engaged. 

Mr. Ottmann was married February 25, 1889, 
to Miss Mattie J. Cook, a native of Yardley, 
Pennsylvania. They have settled in San Ja- 
cinto, where they have bought and built a very 
pleasant new house, and as the young trees 
flowers and shrubs grow it will become an or- 
nament to the town. Mr. Ottmann has invest- 
ed in other houses and property, and is making 


other improvements, which will aid in the de- 
velopment and growth of the town in which he 
has chosen to make his home. Ilis business 
experience since his boyhood, and the activity 
of his mind enables him to dispatch business 
with rapidity; nor does he seem to have to con- 
fine himself to one thing at a time, but, with 
ont any seeming inconvenience, can look after 
several things at once, or do business with two 
or three at a time. He is a member of the 
German Turner society. During the war bis 
father was employed in the service of the United 
States Government making gun carriages. He 
was accidently killed while engaged in roofing a 
building in Chicago just after the great fire. 
His mother and the rest of the family reside in 
Hoboken, New Jersey. 

— —I- s. ■ ; •£■— — 

fOHN H. KOOP, a native of Germany, and 
a son of a German farmer. We recognize 
the unfailing success of the laboring man, 
if, with persevering industry, are connected the 
elements of integrity and economy, all of which 
are so eminently combined in the subject of 
this sketch, who was born February 25, 1842, 
and was the eldest in a family of five children, 
only two of whom survive, his brother being a 
resident of New Jersey. Mr. Koop came to the 
United States in 1860, by a sailing vessel from 
Bremen to New York, wheie he was employed 
as clerk in a grocery store for eight years. 
February, 25, 1868, he sailed for California, by 
the Nicaragua route, arriving at San Francisco 
March 28, 1868; after a brief engagement he 
went to San Diego, where he accepted any line 
of honorable labor, working in a brewery for 
two years, and in markets about five years. 
He then received work inside of the court-house 
about two j>ears, and then ran the county hos- 
pital one year. He next received the contract 
to board the city prisoners, holding the contract 
five years, or until January, 1887. He then 
received the contract to clear the right of way 
fur the San Diego Flume Company, which took 

about six months. He spent the year 1888 in 
Fresno County, returning in 1889, and is now 
employed as circumstances permit. He owns 
two houses and one improved lot at the corner 
of B and Columbia streets, where he now re- 
sides, renting one of the houses. This property 
is the visible increase of his years of industry 
and economy. 

Mr. Koop was married in San Diego, in Jan- 
uary, 1877, to Miss Mary Sickinger, a native of 
Germany, but educated in Wisconsin. They 
have four children, all of whom are living. 

born in Hopkinsville, Christian County, 
Kentucky, June 10, 1841. His parents 
were of Dutch and English extraction, and were 
also natives of Kentucky. His father, F. C. 
Smith, was a sea captain, who came to Califor- 
nia as early as 1843, and in September, 1849, 
he returned with his family for permanent resi- 
dence. Five children were born to the parents 
and all are living, two of whom still remain 
with their mother in Sacramento. The father 
died while on his way to Oregon, in 1879. 

The subject of this sketch early manifested 
an attraction for the sea, and at the age of fif- 
teen years was placed before the mast. The 
boy's dauntless energy and ambition enabled 
hiin, almost before he reached manhood, to step 
from the forecastle to the quarter-deck. For 
nearly a score of years his active life was passed 
at sea as master, on the bar of the Columbia 
river as pilot, and as trader in the northern 
territories. His pursuits were as various as his 
talents, and, possessing the inventive genius in 
an eminent degree, Captain Smith began to in- 
vent during his boyhood; and in whatever field 
of employment circumstances placed him he 
was sure to attempt some improvement in 
method or mechanism. 

In 1879 he abandoned the sea and trade, 
and zealously devoted all his energies to the 
business of invention. Many of his patented 



devices have proved of iininen8e practical value, 
viz.: California Grain Lifter, an attachment to 
mowers; Reversible Friction Clutch; Wagon 
Harrow; Clod Crusher and Seeder, combined; 
Safety Apron, for railroads; Universal Wrench; 
Carpet Sewing Machine, over-cast stitch; Hand 
Rock Drill; Reversible Plow, for hillsides; 
Electro-Liquor-Anger; Lock Nut-bolt, switch 
threaded — nuts pass right and left; and Hy- 
draulic Ram. These illustrate the versatility of 
his inventive genius. He is also the proprietor 
and publisher of Smith's Farm Directory for 
California, Oregon, Nevada and Washington, 
Idaho and Arizona territories, a detailed collec- 
tion of valuable facts. 

His favorite pursuit (invention) was tempo- 
rarily interrupted by his accepting the post of 
United States Consul at San Bias, Mexico, to 
which he was appointed by President Arthur; 
after holding this post of honor for more than 
a year he resigned. He returned immediately 
to the field of invention, for which his talent 
rendered him so capable. His latest invention 
is his reciprocating propeller for vessels. It is 
an invention of his own, strictly in accord- 
ance with the laws of nature, which after many 
experiments he perfected in July, 1880 — a won- 
derful invention combining strength, practica- 
bility and simplicity, thus requiring less ma- 
chinery and carrying capacity, and an increased 
rate of speed. He also has a new set of nautical 
instruments, which can be set in the Captain's 
room, consisting of five discs and which are 
self-registering upon a thin sheet of lead under- 
neath; disc No. 1 registers the course of the 
6hip; No. 2 is the registering ship's log; No. 
3, number of miles per hour the wind is trav- 
eling from any point; No. 4 registers all changes 
in tides, and No. 5 the chronometer, which also 
electrically rings the ship's bell. He has a 
ship's compass which is self-registering and is 
not affected by coming in contact with any 
metal. A model ship is about being constructed 
which will embrace the above system and appli- 
ances and will make a floating wonder. 

He is the most conspicuous inventor in Cali- 

fornia and is believed to be among the first, if not 
actually the first, inventor who obtained a patent 
in this State. His first patent, though not his 
first invention — the Hinge Butter Mould, com- 
monly in use in California dairies to this day — 
was obtained while he was yet a lad. 

Necessity has been literally the " mother of in- 
vention" in Captain Smith's experience; wheth- 
er ashore or at sea, the occurrence of an accident, 
the presence of a difficulty, or the want of a bet- 
ter way of doing things was sure to be suggest- 
ive of an improvement. The facility with which 
he invents and his fertile resources have im- 
pelled him from boyhood to look out for the 
better way to accomplish work, and his success 
has been as great as it has been remarkable. 

Captain Smith was married in Sacramento 
city, California, in 1869, to Miss Sadie E. Mor- 
ton, eldest daughter of Colonel Robert H. Mor- 
ton, of Kentucky, by whom he has four children, 
only one of whom, a daughter, is now living, 
and with the family resides in San Diego, 

fG. REINHARDT— One of San Jacinto's 
leading bnsiness men and a pioneer in the 
® hardware business is J. G. Reinhardt, who 
was born in Wurtemberg, Germany, October 18, 
1846, and came with his parents to the United 
States and settled at Springfield, Illinois. His 
parents, George Frederick and Lena Reinhardt, 
were both natives of Germany. They were the 
parents of sixteen children. After Mr. Rein- 
hardt had received his education he learned the 
tinner's trade and worked as a journeyman until 
1867, when he removed to Kansas and was 
there in business until 1885. He came to San 
Jacinto and opened his tin and plumbing shop. 
Seeing the need and an opening for a hardware 
store, he added hardware and increased the 
stock as fast as the demands of the trade re- 
quired, and has now the leading hardware busi- 
ness of the town. He has now connected with 
him in the business Mr. E. D. Bradley, Mr. 


Koch and G. F. Reinhardt. his son, all of them 
gentlemen of business ability and means The 
tirm is a strong business firm and their trade 
extends a good many miles out of San Jacinto 
in every direction. 

Mr. Reinhardt was married to Miss Catie 
Trusheim, a native of Germany, born in 1845. 
The fruit of this union is seven children, the 
first six born in Kansas and the last born in 
San Jacinto, viz.: Frederick, John W., Annie 
E., Albert M., Charles E., Willie and Harry. 
Mr. and Mrs. Reinhardt are members of the 
Methodist Church. Mr. Reinhardt is a mem- 
ber of the A. O. U. W. He is one of the 
organizers of the city water-works and one of 
its directors. He is a trustee of the Methodist 
Church, and during the construction of their 
brick church he was steward of the church and 
assistant superintendent of the Sunday-school. 
He has built a very comfortable and commodi- 
ous home on an acre of ground just a little 
southwest of the business part of the town and 
has surrounded it with trees, shrubs and flowers, 
making a very desirable residence for himself 
and family. 

§EW1S DURETT was born in Keeseville, 
Essex County, New York, February 3, 
1834. His father, Anthony Durett, was 
born in Canada, and when a small boy came to 
reside in the State of New York. His grand- 
father. Anthony Durett, was a native of France. 
His mother, Margaret (Myres) Durett, was born 
in the State of New York, of Scotch parents. 
When only nine years of age, Mr. Lewis Durett 
was deprived of his mother by death, and he 
was obliged to come up without many of the 
early advantages that some boys enjoy. His 
father died in 1863. Early in iife he was put 
to work at whatever he could, and learned the 
business of gilding in a tool factory. In 1859 
he removed to Port Huron, Michigan, and was 
there for ten years. September 13, 1862, he 
enlisted in the Union ranks, in Company F, 

Twenty-seventh Michigan Infantry, and was 
soon sent to the front. In Kentucky he was 
engaged in several small battles before reaching 
Vicksburg, which was captured while he was 
there, on July 4, 1863. They then went to 
Knoxville, Tennessee, and were in all the bat- 
tles there until 1864. At the battle of Knox- 
ville he received a gun-shot wound which caused 
him to remain in the hospital three months. 
After returning to his command he was detailed 
on provost duty, and was there until July, 1864, 
when he was sent to the quartermaster's depart- 
ment and served there until July 26, 1S65, when 
he was honorably discharged. When he came 
home he sailed on the lakes four years, — one 
year before the mast, and afterward as mate and 
sailing master. During this time he was en- 
gaged in the grain, iron ore and lumber trades. 
In 1869 he removed to Nebraska and engaged 
with his brother in the plastering business, and 
while there he took a Government homestead 
and purchased eighty acres besides, making 240 
acres of land in York County, Nebraska. Since 
then he has been engaged in buying and selling 
stock. In 1884 he came to San Jacinto, bought 
a lot and built a store, which he still owns. He 
also bought twenty acres of laud where he now 
resides, and has built a comfortable home. He 
also has town lots in different places. April 10, 
1852, he was married to Miss Angelina Bolio, 
born May 10, 1836, in Canada. They had three 
children: Harriet, born February 19, 1853; 
Henry, born November 19, 1855, and William, 
born May 6, 1858. Mrs. Durett died March 
22, 1866, and in 1871 he was again married, to 
Miss Sarah A. Gilbert, a native of Troy, Wal- 
worth County, Wisconsin, daughter of William 
H. Gilbert. She was born June 27, 1852. She 
is a member of the Christian Church, of the 
Ladies' Aid Society, and of the W. C. T. U. 
While in Nebraska she was also a member of 
the Ladies' Auxiliary Relief Corps. When the 
first G. A. R. started in Nebraska, Mr. Durett 
joined Anderson Post, No. 32, and is now a 
member of J. A. Addison Post, No. 121, San 
Jacinto. His principal business is the breeding 


and raising of blooded horses, both trotters and 
all works. He owns a tine Clyde stock horse; 
he is also the owner of Pope Leo, a Blackhawk 
and Hamilton horse that has a record of 2:22, 
and is from very fast stock. He has also 
several very valuable brood mares and some 
very promising growing colts. One of the very 
desirable things about a horse is docility and 
gentleness of temper, and Mr. Durett's horses 
are remarkably gentle and well trained. He is 
justly proud of his horses. 

— £hm»^ — 

§ MENDELSON was born at Zagorow, 
Province of Warsaw, Russian Poland, 
° November, 1840. He was a descendant 
of the old Castilian Hebrews, and his grand- 
mother still spoke the Spanish language. While 
at home he attended the public schools, learn- 
ing Polish, Russian and German. He then 
spent two years studying in Germany, and there 
learned English, which he considers the most 
difficult of all languages. His father was a 
merchant, and the son's inclinations were turned 
in the same direction. In 1857 he went to Lon- 
don, England, and there entered the general 
merchandise store of Moses & Son, where were 
employed 2,000 clerks, remaining until 1860, 
when he came to the United States, spending 
one year near New York. He then went to 
St. Louis in 1861, and President Lincoln then 
calling for 60,000 ninety-day men to meet the 
Southern insurgents, though foreign to the 
country, Mr. Mendelson at once took up arms 
for the land of his adoption, and enlisted May 
8, 1861, in Company M of the Fourth Missouri 
Regiment, United States Reserve, Colonel B. 
Gratz Brown, under General Siegel, and was at 
the taking of Camp Jackson, near St. Louis. 
He was discharged in the city of St. Louis, 
August, 1861, and then went to Kentucky, re- 
maining until the capture of Memphis, when 
he immediately went to that city and entered 
into the business of general merchandise. 

In 1863 he sold his interest and embarked 

for California by the Isthmus of Panama, ar- 
riving in San Francisco in October of the same 
year. After a short business career, he accepted 
a position as clerk, remaining until 1866, when 
he went to Anaheim, Los Angeles Count} 7 , and 
there started a lumber business, which he con- 
tinued about four years. Then going to Real 
del Castillo, Lower California, he opened a 
general merchandise store, selling out in 1886, 
when he was elected by the people to the posi- 
tion of Sindico, and as such immediately took 
the position of Representante del Ministerio 
(Prosecuting Attorney), holding the position 
until July 1, 1888. In 1887 he received also 
a position from the International Company, and 
in July, 1888, became general agent of the said 
company, and now holds a position under con- 
tract as steamship freight agent for the same 
company, both in San Diego and Ensenada, 
and to make out all consular and custom-house 
papers, and to pass steamers through the custom- 

In 1885 he was married to Miss Carmen 
Lamadrid, of Spanish descent, though a native 
of California. The family of Lamadrid still 
resides in Lower California, where they have a 
large stock ranch at Las Cruces. Mr. and Mrs. 
Mendelson have two children, both living. 

fHOMAS S. SEDGWICK, a member of 
the American society of civil engineers, 
to whose professional labor San Diego is 
much indebted for her prominence as a railroad 
terminus on the Pacific coast, was born in Zanes- 
ville, Ohio, and is a descendant from a profes- 
sional family, his father, grandfather and a great- 
grandfather, as well as several others of their 
family, having been noted clergymen and teach- 

Colonel Sedgwick began his professional ex- 
perience in 1852, and was engaged on several 
railroads previous to the war of the Rebellion. 
He enlisted in the One Hundred and Thirteenth 
Ohio Infantry, and was made Adjutant, end 


afterward appointed Captain and detailed as 
topographical engineer to the staff of the Army 
of the Cumberland, where he served until 
July, 1864, participating in the campaign from 
Murfreesboro to Winchester, and was on duty 
at the battle of Mission Ridge, and laid out and 
superintended the construction of defensive 
works at Chattanooga and Bridgeport, Tennes- 
see, whence he was appointed Lieutenant-Colo- 
nel of the One Hundred and Fourteenth Col- 
ored Infantry, and participated (in command of 
his regiment) in the capture of Richmond, Vir 
ginia, April, 1865. He went with the Twen- 
ty fifty Corps, General Godfrey Weitzel com- 
manding, to Texas, in 1865, and served there 
until May, 1867, commanding a part of the 
Texas frontier for nearly one year. 

In 1867 Colonel Sedgwick was connected 
with the survey of the Kansas Pacific Rail- 
road from near Fort Riley, Kansas, over the 
Santa Fe trjdl, now known as the great Santa 
Fe route, through Kansas, Colorado, New 
Mexico and Northern Arizona and South- 
ern California to San Bernardino and Los 
Angeles, California, where he met General 
W. S. Rosecrans, his former army commander, 
with whose staff he had served in the Army 
of the Cumberland. He had studied the ques- 
tion of transcontinental railroads, and convinced 
Colonel Sedgwick of the advantages of San Deigo 
as the best available Pacl'c terminus. After 
returning to the East, Colonel Sedgwick, iu 
an able paper advocated the route via the Gila 
river, and direct to San Diego, so strongly as 
to displease the managers of the Kansas Pacific 
plans, who were seeking Government aid to 
construct their road to San Francisco. They 
failed, and afterward two of their most promi- 
nent men acknowledged that had they adopted 
Colonel Sedgwick's plans, they would probably 
have succeeded, and been able to reach San 
Deigo within a few years. They afterward 
combined with the Texas Pacific Company. 
In 1868 Colonel Sedgwick became interested 
with General Rosecrans in the road from San 
Diego to Yuma; and in the absence of General 

Rosecrans, as Minister to Mexico, he combined 
with the Memphis & El Paso Railroad of Texas, 
which was under the leadership of General Fre- 
mont, who was seeking Government aid and 
right of way across New Mexico and Arizona. 
As a result of this combination the Memphis & 
El Paso Company sent Colonel Sedgwick out to 
California, in 1869, to make a survey and loca- 
tion of the road from San Diego to Fort Yuma, 
by the direct route, which was done, demon- 
strating the practicability and feasibility of the 
route. During the time occupied by this sur- 
vey work, Colonel Sedgwick wrote many vigor- 
ous articles for the San Diego Union, descrip- 
tive of the route and the many advantages of 
San Diego as preeminently the best Pacific 
terminus for a southern transcontinental rail- 
road. It attracted the attention of Eastern cap- 
italists, who were instrumental in finally estab- 
lishing a railroad terminus on the Bay of San 

Colonel Sedgwick ' retains the maps of his 
surveys, and believes that the direct route to 
Fort Yuma will yet be constructed, and although 
at the age when most men are willing to lay 
aside their life-work, he looks as if he could take 
an active part in its accomplishment. 

hotel- keeper of San Diego, is a native of 
New Hampshire, and was educated at Kim- 
ball Union Academy, New Hampshire, and 
Amherst College, Massachusetts. He engaged 
in teaching for a while, and then held the posi- 
tion of County and City Superintendent of 
Schools, also instructor in the State Normal 
Institute. For the past twenty years he has 
been engaged more or less in the hotel business. 
He served in the war of the Rebellion in the 
Seventh Michigan Cavalry, it being one of the 
regiments known as the Michigan Brigade, 
Army of the Potomac, commanded by General 
Custer. Major Nichols is a son of Dr. Joseph 
Nichols, who was a physician of some repute in 


New Hampshire, and who was both a pupil of 
and a graduate in the school of Reuben Dimond 
Musseg, M. D., LL. D. 

Major Nichols married Miss Amelia Grant, 
daughter of Rev. Jacob Grant, a graduate of 
Madison University, New York. He came to 
San Diego in 1885, where he has resided ever 

fOSEPH LeCYR was born in Aroostook 
County, Maine, August 8, 1847. His 
father, Vilas Le Cyr, was a native of the 
same place. His grandfather, David Le Cyr, 
came from France and settled in Maine. His 
mother, Mary (Lisotte) Cyr, was also a'nativeof 
Aroostook. His grandmother had twenty-two 
children and was the mother of five pair of 
twins, and sixteen of them have been married 
and had families. She lived to be eighty-seven 
years of age, and retained her eyesight unim- 
paired. She was a very smart woman to the 
close of her life. Mr. Le Cyr's parents had six- 
children, of whom he was the second. When a 
child he was seut to a French school in Maine, 
and later he went to Houlton Academy. When 
sixteen years of age he offered his services lo his 
country in its great struggle for national life. 
He enlisted in Company C, Sixteenth Volunteer 
Infantry, Maine, and served to the close of the 
war. He was in the victorious army of the Po- 
tomac and participated in several of the hardest, 
fought battles of the war, and was present when 
General Lee surrendered. At the close of the 
war he was discharged. He then took a course 
at the Bryant & Stratton Business College, Mis- 
souri. He then took a clerkship in a commission 
house in St. Joseph, Missouri. After this he 
went to Montana, where he engaged in mining. 
In 1867 he came to White Pine, Eureka County, 
Nevada, and settled there. He was a pioneer 
there, and kept a livery stable and hauled ore 
for six years. He then came to Inyo County, 
California, where he continued his livery busi- 
ness and teaming for fifteen years. He then 

removed to Daggett, and while there was en- 
gaged in teaming and blacksmithing, also held 
the office of deputy sheriff. Then he sold out 
and came to San Jacinto in 1886, where he pur- 
chased 200 acres of land in and about the valley of 
San Jacinto, on a tract of which he built a good 
house and several barns, and planted a variety 
of fruit trees, including orange trees, and is 
farming on a large scale. He is sowing this 
year 1,200 acres of wheat, barley and oats. He 
has also four acres of vineyard, and everything 
about the property has the appearance of busi- 
ness and thrift. The trees are making a fine 
growth. He is also raising some good blooded 
horses of the Norfolk stock and English Shire, 
and mules. He was married in 1877 to Miss 
Emma Holland, born in Missouri May 2, 1861. 
She was the daughter of Mr. David Holland, of 
Manchester, England. They have two sons: — 
Joseph R., born in Daggett, California, January 
21, 1885, and Ferdinand, born May 9, 1887, in 
San Jacinto. Mr. Le Cyr is a member of the 
G. A. R., J. A. Addis.m Post, No.' 121, San 
Jacinto, and is an euergetic business man of good 

tEUBEN L. WARDROBE, of San Jacinto, 
was born in Canada, October 15, 1826, a 
citizen of the United States by birth, inas- 
much as his parents were natives and citizens 
at the time. His father, Daniel D. Wardrobe, 
was born in Massachusetts, and was in the war 
with Mexico under General Scott. His mother, 
whose maiden name was Ortha Moore, was a 
native of New Hampshire. In their family 
were five sons and one daughter. The subject 
ot this sketch, the fourth in this family, learned 
the trade of milling as he grew up and went to 
Massachusetts, where he was for a time en- 
gaged in the manu'acture of shoes, and after- 
ward in farming. In 1849 he sailed from 
Boston for California, on the ship Capital, and 
after landing at San Francisco he went to Cal- 

averas County, where he 

was engaged 

in mining 


for some time; he then removed to San Joaquin 
County and engaged in farming until the win- 
ter of 1884, when he came to San Jacinto; but 
one year lie spent in Napa County. The town 
of Lodi is upon a portion of his land and 
the Union Pacific Railroad runs through it. 
When Mr. Wardrobe came to San Jacinto there 
were only two small stores in the placei He 
bought 405 acres of land and improved and 
built on it, and has since built a very comfort- 
able home* where he now lives, on Center ave- 
nue, one of the nicest and best streets in the 
city. He has a farm of ninety acres on the 
mesa. He is sowing 100 acres of wheat this 
year. He was married in 1855 to Miss Eliza 
beth Glenn, who was born in Missouri, and they 
have had live children, all but one of whom are 
living, and all born in San Joaquin County, viz.! 
Adelbert, Albert, William and Ivin. He lost 
his partner by death, and in 1875 was married 
to Miss Mary Dixson, who was born in Rich- 
land County, Ohio. Her father, Robert Dixson, 
was a native of Pennsylvania, and her mother 
of Ohio. The first fruit of this union was two 
children, viz.: Myrtle N. and Wilson S., both 
born in San Joaquin County. Mrs. Wardrobe 
is one of the first members of the Methodist 
Church in San Jacinto, and Mr. Wardrobe is of 
the Missionary Baptist persuasion; They are 
nice, generous people, and have the good will of 
all who know them. 

§ NEWTON MEAD owns and occupies a 
model ranch about three miles west of the 
* city of San Jacintoj which with its nicely 
painted building and white fences presents to 
the approaching visitor a beautiful picture. He 
is engaged in raising horses, cattle and poultry, 
and large quantities of grain. Mr. Mead was 
born in Greenwich, Connecticut, March 13, 
1858. His ancestors settled in Greenwich about 
forty years after the Puritans landed at Plym- 
outh Rock. His father, Solomon Mead, was 
born there, and is still living, at the age 

of eighty-eight, and spends his winters in his 
son's California home where he greatly enjoys 
the balmy air. Mr. Mead's mother, Elizabeth 
(Dayton) Mead, was of Scotch descent. Mr. 
Mead had two brothers and four sisters, all born 
in Greenwich, and all graduates of Eastern 

fH. WETMORE,jR.,anativeofGalesburg, 
Illinois, was born September 16, 1867. 
* His father, G. H. Wetmore, was born in 
Ohio in 1832. Me came to California in 1849, 
but returned to the East in 1852. He went to 
Texas, where he became a horse-dealer and re- 
mained two years, when he returned to Gales- 
burg, Illinois, where he engaged in the real 
estate business, and operated in Iowa, eastern 
Nebraska and Dakota. In 1869 he moved his 
family to Yankton, where he continued his real 
estate business until 1874, when he removed to 
Iowa, where he purchased a farm four and one- 
half miles north of Adair. He lived here for 
twelve years, when he moved into Adair, and in 
1880 started the Bank of Adair, which business 
he has continued ever since. In 1877 he came 
to California and has made eleven trips across 
the country. He is now in Adair. He has 
made investments in San Diego and county and 
has property in Iowa and Dakota. Mr. Wet- 
more's grandfather, Horace Wetmore, was born 
in Connecticut. His mother, Mary (Ellis) Wet- 
more, was born in Indiana in 1833. She was 
a daughter of Laban Ellis, a mill owner and 
farmer in Knox County, Illinois, and was mar- 
ried to Mr. Wetmore in 1855. They have had 
four children, four of whom are still living. 
Mr. G. H. Wetmore, Jr., was the youngest of 
the family, and attended school at Swartmore 
and at Drake University, Iowa. After leaving 
school he remained with his father until he was 
eighteen years of age, when he came West. In 
1887 he came to San Diego and in 1889 was 
married to Miss Parkison, daughter of Mr. M. 
E. Parkison, now in the wind-mill business in 


San Diego. She was born in Ohio, in 1869. 
She is a member of the Central Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Mr. Wetniore is engaged 
in the drug business on National avenue, cor- 
ner of Twenty-eighth street. He has a good 
location and is doing a very satisfactory busi- 
ness. Mr. Wetmore is a young man and has a 
long future before him, and with his business 
tact it will no doubt be a prosperous one. Not 
many of the older of San Diego's business men 
who consider themselves the princes and kings 
of business in San Diego when at his age had 
half so good a start in business as he has. 

§C. FEISBIE, San Diego.— One bom of 
New England parents and endowed with 
° the thrift and perseverance of New En- 
land people, is Mr. J. C. Frisbie, who was born 
at Vernon, Oneida County, New York, Feb- 
ruary 1, 1830. There were but two children, J. C. 
being the younger and the only one surviving. 
His father was a farmer, and in 1844 left Ver- 
non and moved to Illinois, settling near Chicago. 
The subject of this sketch began his education 
at Vernon, and completed an academic course 
which was finished at Chicago. After com- 
pleting his education, he began mercantile busi- 
ness in Chicago, and after a few years became a 
member of the firm of Hibbard, Spencer & Co., 
in a general line of hardware, and remained 
with them until 1876, when, on account of del- 
icate health of himself and wife, he closed up 
his business and started for California. He 
was married in Chicago, in February, 1852, to 
Miss Maria L. Earl, a native of New York. 

After traveling quite extensively through 
Colorado and much of California, he decided 
that the vicinity of San Diego, all things con- 
sidered, was the most desirable place to settle; 
so he immediately purchased a tract of land on 
the east side of the Sweetwater river, four 
miles from the bay at National City, and nine 
miles from San Diego, a ranch of 246 acres, 
which owing to situation and exposure he 

named Sunnyside. He commenced immediately 
to improve the land, which was then, with the 
exception of a few acres, absolutely unbroken 
soil, and to the superficial observer might have 
been deemed unpromising as far as cultivation 
was concerned. The beauty of location, how- 
ever, commanding one of the finest views to be 
wished for, attracted him, as also the pure and 
mild air, freedom from cold winds, and an 
abundant and easily obtained supply of pure 
sweet water. Work was begun, and the entire 
tract was enclosed with fence, aud divided into 
fields for the better protection of crops and 
fruit. Fruit trees were planted and other im- 
provements made. Oranges, lemons and grapes 
were the principal fruits planted, and with these 
he has been particularly successful. The raisins 
made from his vineyard are equal to any made 
in this or any other country. After the Sweet- 
water dam was built the place and orchard were 
piped and connection made therewith, from 
which the water supply is most abundant. 

Though citrus culture was not so well under- 
stood then as now, yet he believed that southern 
California, and a portion of San Diego County 
in particular, was adapted to it. The abundance 
of choice fruit now being produced by his or- 
chard, and others in his vicinity, fully proves 
the correctness of his judgment, and Sunny 
side can be referred to as a typical San Diego 
bay region place. The residence, which is sit- 
uated on an elevation nearly in the center of 
the tract, is surrounded by ornamental trees 
and shrubbery in great variety. Of the many 
beautiful and valuable locations in San Diego 
County, none give more satisfactory evidence of 
what can be accomplished in the development 
of the resources of its soil and climate than 
Sunnyside; and Mr. Frisbie may justly feel 
proud of his success, coming as he did from a 
mercantile life with no previous experience of 
farming or fruit growing. 

He lived on his ranch until 1881, when he 
moved to town, remodeled his house at the cor- 
ner of Tenth and F streets, where he and his 
wife now reside. He has always taken an active 


interest in the agricultural and horticultural re- 
sources of this county and is always ready to 
assist in its development. 

seventy-one years old, came to California 
in 1849, and forty years of his very busy 
life have been spent on this coast. The Captain 
is of English descent. His grandfather, Tyler 
Porter, was born in the State of Maine, and 
was a farmer and a soldier in the Revolution. 
His son, Rufus Porter, was horn in Maine, and 
lived until he was ninety-three years of age. 
He was a soldier in the war of 18 L2 and received 
a pension from the Government. He was mar- 
ried to Miss Eunice Twombley, a daughter of 
William Twombley, a native of M line, who had 
nine children, the subject of this sketch being 
the third, and but four of which still survive. 

The subject of this sketch attended school 
until he was thirteen years of age, when he went 
to Connecticut and learned the clock-maker's 
trade. He was in the Jerome clock factory four 
years, when he went through the Southern 
States peddling clocks, and stopped in Texas for 
a year, where he taught school and was deputy 
sheriff. He was in Austin, Texas, when it was 
started. From there he went to Louisiana, 
where he taught school for live years. He then 
traveled through the Western States and went 
back to Boston, where he was baggage-master 
for a while and afterward a conductor on the 
railroad, but being injured by an accident he 
was laid up for three months at Worcester, 
Massachusetts. In 1849 he went all the way 
from Boston across the plains to Sacramento, 
California, where he engaged in mining. He 
was clerk in the San Francisco postoffice for 
seven years. He then went to Lower Califor- 
nia, where he was engaged in the merchandise 
trade and mining. He received authority from 
the Mexican Government to take the salt, of 
which there was a large field there at that time, 
and ship it to San Francisco. He then went on 

horseback across the country, thirty days' jour- 
ney, and stopped at San Pedro, where he was 
store and hotel keeper. From there he went to 
San Diego and settled on Government land at 
Spring Valley and engaged in farming and 
stock-raising, and supplied the market of San 
Diego with butter, eggs, chesse and milk. He 
was married December 24, 1852, to Mrs. Sophia 
Moody, daughter of Edward Welch, a native of 
Maine. Mrs. Moody had a daughter, Marietta 
Moody, born April 5, 1848, who married Cap- 
tain I. A. Gregory, of Marblehead, Massachu- 
setts, and now resides with her family at North 
Chollas. Mr. and Mrs. Porter have one daugh- 
ter, Rufina A. She is the wife of Mr. Chas. S. 
Crosby, and was born in San Francisco, Novem- 
ber 23, 1854. 

The Captain has been Spanish court inter- 
preter for many years; he has also been a school 
trustee and overseer of highways, and has been 
a stanch Republican since the organization of 
the party. He has long been a correspondent 
for one of the leading San Francisco papers. 
He is in good health and a lively old gentleman. 
His wife also enjoys good health; They came 
to their present ranch in July, 1886, and have 
a very pleasant home, and devote considerable 
attention to raising fine fowls, of which they 
have different varieties. 

— #?-«5D^^- 

fAMES RUSSELL, was born in the city of 
New York, July 7, 1853, and in the year 
1858 he crossed the ocean, together with 
his parents, to make his home in the Golden 
West, arriving in San Francisco in the fall of 
the same year. From there he moved to Stock- 
ton, where he received his education, principally 
in the common schools. His father being in 
the wholesale and retail hat business, he was 
employed first as clerk, and afterward, during 
the sickness of his father, together with an old- 
er brother, took control of the business, and 
assisted his father, on his recovery, to run the 
business. During this time his mother also be- 


came an invalid, and he took care of her until 
she came south to San Diego for her health. 
Mr. Rnesell and his father moved from Stock- 
ton to San Francieco, where he continued as 
clerk in the hat store of his father. During 
his life in Stockton he was known as a great 
fireman, never missing a fire for several years, 
being a member of the volunteer hose com- 
pany, Eureka No. 2, and a very earnest and 
daring worker, always taking great interest in 
all tournaments given by the tire department. 
In San Francisco he continued to clerk for his 
father until 1870, when he was called to San 
Diego to take charge of a grocery business, for- 
merly owned by his older brother, and also to 
look after his invalid mother, arriving here 
April 1, 1870, at which time quite an excite- 
ment was prevailing over the building of the 
" Tom " Scott railroad or Texas Pacific. The 
city was then in its infancy, most of the general, 
and all of the legal, business being doue at Old 
San Diego, three miles north of Horton's ad- 
dition. He then took charge of the grocery 
business, until times became so quiet that he 
gave it up, and turned his attention to the care 
of his invalid mother. In 1874 Mr. Russell 
went into the city marshal's office under Cap- 
tain A. P. Knowles, then city marshal of San 
Diego, and there commenced his official and 
political career. He served as deputy during 
the marshal's term, and wasalso appointed Con- 
stable by the supervisors of San Diego County. 
At the expiration of said term he was elected 
Constable, and appointed city executive officer, 
also served as deputy sheriff and deputy 
United States Marshal. He is an ardent and 
ttraight Republican, and a great worker in 
politics, and is one of the most successful, if not 
the most, of officers in Southern California, 
never missing his man, no matter where he is 
located, a terror to evil doers generally, and is 
acknowledged as one of the best civil and crim- 
inal officers in San Diego County. During his 
experience in the different official capacities that 
he has filled, he established what is known as 
Russell's Detective and Patrol service, which 

has been of a great deal of benefit to the citi- 
zens and business men. He has taken charge 
of nearly all of the criminal cases that have 
transpired in the county dnring his service as 
an officer, and more particularly the murder 
cases, making a reputation as a detective. I I 

Dnring the boom times, he, like others, made 
quite a little money speculating. Dnring this 
period he was always known as a very charitable 
person, giving whenever called upon, always 
taking "an interest' in all public undertakings, 
and always, whether at home or abroad, was a 
great upholder of San Diego and its future; he 
is well known to all officials throughout his 
State, and has a large correspondence from 
officials all over the United States. 

Mr. Russell was married December 22, 1880, 
to Miss Ida May Bosserman. a young lady of 
San Diego County, who has been of great assist- 
ance to him in his detective business, being 
very observing and shrewd, taking charge of his 
business matters many times when he was ab- 
sent, working up cases and running down crimi- 
nals. They have one girl, Charlotte May Rue- 
sell, more familiarly known as " Lottie," a 
bright girl of seven years, known to almost 
every one in the city. 

Mr. Russell was nominated by the Republican 
party of the county of San Diego for Sheriff in 
the fall of 1888, and made one of the most 
gallant fights for his party, spending a great 
deal of money; and made stump speeches thirty- 
two times in different sections of his county, 
for the whole ticket from Harrison and Morton 
down to the last officer on the ticket, — some- 
thing which had not occurred for fifteen years 
previous, and brought against him the enemies 
he had made in his fourteen years' official ex- 
perience, — the "mugwump" element and the 
jealous office-seekers who did not wish him to 
succeed. The fight was a bitter one, all con 
centrated to beat him, which was consummated 
by fraud. The whole of the Republican ticket 
was elected except hiin, who was beaten by a 
small majority. Becoming satisfied that he was 
beaten by fraud, he contested the election of his 


adversary, which has shown that there were 
several hundred illegal votes cast. After sev- 
eral weeks of continuous trial in court, and sever- 
al months of hard work on the case, it was 
finally brought to its last issue in the Supreme 
Court of the State of California. He has made 
many friends, both in and out of his party, and 
is known as a straight Republican without 
question. He has been prominently mentioned 
as the next United States Marshal for the 
Southern District of California; and if the party 
wishes to remember one of its ablest workers 
it will certainly give him the appointment. In 
the meantime he is managing his detective and 
patrol service, and also acting as deputy United 
States marshal; and any one needing his assist- 
ance will find him a thorough gentleman and a 
No. 1 officer. 

— ~*e «: ,, t . a ~~ — 

§G. BUTLER.— Two and one-half miles 
west of San Jacinto on that beautiful 
9 tract of mesa land, is situated the very 
nicely managed fruit ranch and nursery of L # 
G. Butler. It has the same grand scenery as 
other places near it, and it has a very artistic 
new dwelling-house and a very neat new barn. 
The property has a fine growth of young trees 
and shrubs on it, and as soon as the improve- 
ment in trees and hedges take shape it will be 
the equal of any place to be found in any coun- 
ty. Fifty acres are already planted to vines, 
orchard and nursery. The trees are just old 
enough to begin bearing the coming season. 
He has 2,000 Bartlett pear trees, 1,600 French 
prunes, 500 apricot, plum, peach and apple 
trees and 300 olive trees. The walk in front 
of the property, extending its whole length, has 
a double row of olive trees. He is sowing 300 
acres of wheat, oats and barley this year. Mr. 
Butler was born in Wisconsin, February 28, 
1851. His parents were George and Eliza 
(Schoolcraft) Butler. They had four children 
the subject of this sketch being the third child. 
He was raised on a farm and attended the pub- 

lic schools in Illinois until he was eighteen 
years of age. He then spent two years in Iowa 
and then removed to Nebraska, where he owned 
a farm, and he engaged in farming until Octo- 
ber, 1873, when he sold it and came to Califor- 
nia. He settled at Orange, where he engaged in 
the fruit and nursery business. He sold this 
business and removed to the coast where he en- 
gaged in the stock business, raising cattle and 
horses. In 1885 he sold out and came to Sar. 
Jacinto and purchased his present place. In 
1872 he was married to Miss Martha E. Selby, 
daughter of George Selby, a native of Ohio, 
born in 1856. They have one boy, Chester G., 
born March 14, 1881, in Orange, California. 
Mr. Butler does nearly all the work on his 
place himself. He is very industrious and a 
good farmer. He is well informed on the fruit 
tree business, and his trees fchow it, and are fine, 
without a drop of irrigation. Some people who 
say choice fruit cannot be raised in Southern 
California should see this and many other sim- 
ilar ranches. Such men as Mr. Butler, the 
practical men who show what can be done, are 
of great value in any community, and there is 
room for many more. 

-*■ '■ — ^^HP^r*^ 4 ; ■*■• 

tUGUST KRAMER, a native of Prussia, 
was born at Casline, Province of Pomer 
ania, August 30, 1830, being the young- 
est in a family of four children. He remained 
at home until he was eighteen years of age, 
securing a common-school education and learn- 
ing the trade of tailor, which he continued in 
his own country until 1856, when his attention 
was turned toward America, and he took pas- 
sage at Bremen by a sailing vessel for Balti- 
more, and after a pleasant voyage of six weeks 
he arrived at Baltimore in July, 1856. He 
then went to Cincinnati, remaining five months, 
and then to St. Paul, Minnesota, where he 
opened a tailor shop and remained three years, 
then selling out and coming to California in 


He joined a company of about sixteen wagons 
and came across the plains by Council Bluff-, 
Omaha, up the north side of the Platte river, 
by Landers' Cut-off, north of Salt Lake, to the 
Dalles in Oregon, then to Portland and Van- 
couver's Island, and arrived in San Francisco in 
1861, where he remained eight years in the 
tailor shop of a Mr. Tobin. In 1869 he came 
to San Francisco, bringing about $2,000 worth 
of clothing, and renting one of the three stores, 
then built in town on Fifth street, between Gr 
and H, and at once started a tailor shop; later 
he moved to Higgins' block and opened a store, 
remaining about three years; he then bought a 
lot on the Plaza and there put up a two-story 
building for store room and living conveniences. 
In 1872 he rented a store and moved to Los 
Angeles, remaining about one and one-half 
years, and then moved to S.ilem, Oregon, and 
remained two and a half years. He then went 
to Bodie, but finding the weather too cold he 
returned to San Diego, in 1876, and opened a 
tailor shop and a store of gents' furnishing 
goods in his own building on the Plaza, which 
he continued until May, 1888. He speculated 
a little during the boom of 1888, but his success 
was mainly due to strict attention to business, 
and is now enjoying the fruits of his labor. 

Mr. Kramer was married in San Francisco, 
in March, 1864, to Miss Kempe Jacobini, a 
lady of Swiss descent. His wife died in 1867, 
leaving no children. 

§J. STICE, of San Diego County, was born 
in Scotland County, Missouri, on the 
• 10th day of February, 1849. His father 
was a native of Kentucky, and his mother a 
native of Missouri. There were twelve chil- 
dren, six of whom are now living. The subject 
of this sketch was the eleventh child in order of 
birth. He came to California with his father, 
mother and family, in 1857. There were about 
100 wagons, and his brother Bluford, having 
crossed before, was captain of the company. 

Mr. Stice and family came direct to Napa val- 
ley, arriving in October, and bought the "Old 
Mill" farm of 300 acres, where he remained 
until 1860, when he sold out and went to Solano 
County, where he bought a farm of 160 acres. 
He followed farming until 1868, when he sold 
out and went to San Jacinto, where he began 
stock-farming, first buying one-twentieth of the 
Sau Jacinto ranch, which consisted of 35,000 
acres, and was owned by the Estudillo heirs. 
He bought 1,776 acres at $2.33 per acre, then 
stocked it; but, dry seasons following one an- 
other, he made little progress in cattle-raising. 
In 1874 he drove his stock to San Jacinto and 
sold them. He then bought a farm of 130 
acres and farmed for twp years, when he sold 
the farm and moved to the Sacramento river, 
on what was called Andrus Island, an island 
about five by ten miles, but lying below the 
river and surrounded by dykes. Beets and 
other vegetables were the main products of the 
island. He was there about six months, when 
a freshet came, the dyke broke, and house and 
everything was carried away, only a little furni- 
ture being recovered. He then returned to 
Napa County, and exchanged the San Jacinto 
ranch for a small farm in Napa valley. 

Mr. A. J. Stice had been with his father all 
these years, but in 1876 he left the home circle 
and came to San Jacinto, where he rented and 
farmed General Bowden's ranch for about three 
years. He then went to Los Angeles and rented 
the Agricultural Park, running it about six 
months, when he moved to Calico, San Bernar- 
dino County, where he ran a saloon. He also 
sold water in the town of Calico, [hauling it 
about two and one-half miles, and selling it for 
at first 5 cents, then 3 cents per gallon, there 
being no water at Calico at that time. He re- 
mained at Calico until 1882, when he sold out 
and came to the city of San Bernardino, and 
under the firm name of Stice & Phelps, bought 
and managed a livery stable and business, re- 
maining one year, when he sold out and re- 
turned to San Jacinto, and built the first livery 
stable at that place, which he ran for two years, 


then selling. Buying a planing mill at San 
Jacinto, he managed it for about eighteen 
months, selling in February, 1889, and retiring 
from active business. While at San Bernardino 
he made seven trips to the Bear valley, dri/ing 
a team of fourteen mules, hauling cement for 
the Bear valley dam. 

He was married at San Jacinto in July, 1886, 
to Miss Adalidie Thomas, who was born in Los 
Angeles, of American and Spanish parents. 
The union has been blessed with one child, who 
is still living. 

Mi*. Stice was elected Constable in San Diego 
County in 1872, for two years, but resigned 
when he moved from the county. In Novem- 
ber, 1886, he was elected Supervisor of the 
Fifth District for a term of four years. He is 
a director of the Agricultural District, No. 22, 
appointed by the Governor, and in company 
with the eight other members originated and 
successfully carried through the first agricult- 
ural fair ever held in the county. It was held 
at Escondido, commencing October 1, 1889, and 
continuing five days. It was founded on a State 
subscription of $4,000, $2,000 of which could 
be applied in 1889, and the remaining $2,000 
in 1890, the subscription to be applied in 
securing ground and erecting suitable build- 
ings. The fair was successfully carried through, 
with a small surplus in the hands of the 

— #^€@:©%^- 

fAMUEL WH1TMORE, rancher, San Diego 
County, is a native of the State of New 
York, and was born July 23, 1836. His 
father, Oliver B. Whitman, was born in New 
Jersey, and was of Holland Dutch parentage. 
He was married to Miss Mary Aldrich, daughter 
of Charles Aldrich, of Vermont, and also of 
Holland Dutch parentage. She was born in 
Vermont in 1808, and had four children, of 
whom the subject of this sketch was the second. 
He was raised in New York, where he worked 
on the farm in summer and went to school in 

the winter until he was eighteen years of age, 
when he learned the harness-maker's trade, at 
which he worked for two and a half years, but 
quit on account of failing health. In 1856 he 
removed to Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois, 
where^he engaged in farming, and attended school 
two winters. In 1860, with a company of 
twenty-one, he came across the plains to Cali- 
fornia. He lauded in the north part of the 
State and engaged in school teaching, mining 
and farming. In 1869 he came to San Diego, 
overland, through the center of the State, with 
a team, and settled at the head of the bay. 
Here he traded part of his team for a Govern- 
ment claim, on which he staid two years, and 
in 1873 bought two acres of land in Chollas 
Valley. He assisted in planting the trees on the 
ranch called the '• Nest," and has improved the 
ranch on which he now resides. It is planted 
to all kinds of fruit and has ripe fruit of some 
kind every day of the year. He was married in 
1883 to Miss Ella Philips, who was born July 
30, 1851. Her father, Wesley Philips, was 
born in New Jersey, September 28, 1803, and 
raised in Pennsylvania. Mrs. Whitmore's grand- 
father was a local Methodist minister, and the 
whole family were Methodists from the com- 
mencement of Methodism. Her mother was 
Margaret R. Connell, daughter of Zachariah 
Connell, the founder of Connellsville, Pennsyl- 
vania, and was born August 18, 1808. Her 
father provided supplies for the soldiers of the 
Revolution. He was born in 1737 and died 
August 26, 1813. Mrs. Whitmore's family 
moved to Illinois, and four of her brothers were 
in the Union army. Her brother, Robinson 
Philips, died of camp sickness, June 5, 1861, 
before he was sent to the front; Joseph Henry 
Philips was a musician in the Second Iowa 
regiment and was killed at the battle of Fort 
Donelson. Fielding D. Philips was a member 
of Company F, One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Illinois. He was wounded and taken prisoner 
in the expedition at Red River, was paroled, 
returned home and died from his wounds. John 
H. Philips served all through the war in Com- 



pany D, Twenty-second Illinois, and was slightly 
wounded. He died October 25, 1876. Joseph 
Henry Philip's body was found on the batile 
field by his comrades and buried beside an oak, 
on a smooth place of which they cut his name. 
Years afterward when the tree was cut a chip 
came off on the reverse side of which were found 
his initials. The new wood had grown into the 
carved letters aud thus his remains were identi- 
fied. Mrs. Whitmore now has the piece of tree 
and it was shown the writer. It is almost need- 
less to say that Mr. and Mrs. Whitmore were 
both trusty and efficient members of the First 
Methodist Episcopal Church of San Diego, and 
workers in the Sunday-school. She is its or- 
ganist and he its librarian. He is the superin- 
tendent of the Mount Hope Cemetery, which 
office he has held three years. Mrs. Whitmore 
is president of the W. C. T. U. of San Diego 

— ^«!©1^ — 

fAMES KERR.— At the front, among the 
most prominent business men of San 
Jacinto, and those who have been most 
active in the promotion of its growth, stands the 
name of James Kerr. He was born in Millers 
burg, Holmes County, Ohio, October 13, 1849. 
His father, James Kerr, was born in Virginia, 
February 7, 1800. His grandfather, James 
Kerr, was also born in Virginia and was a sol- 
dier in the Revolution and in the war of 1812. 
His mother, Alice (Elliot) Kerr, was born in 
Holmes County, Ohio, January 20, 1812, and 
was married to James Kerr in 1830. The fruit 
of this union was nine children, seven of whom 
are still living. Mr. Kerr was the youngest but 
one. In 1852 his father moved to the Platte 
Purchase, Missouri, and there, when a lad, at- 
tended school. In April, 1867, when he was 
eighteen years of age, he was married to Mis6 
Clarissa Cockerel. She was born in Kentucky, 
October 20, 1851. Her father, Mr. James 
Cockerel, was a tobacco planter of that country. 
Their union liar been blessed with four children, I 

two boys and two girls; the two first born in 
Missouri: William A., February 24, 1867; 
Georgia A., May 10, 1868; and the others born 
in Osage County, Kansas: Charles, May 24, 
1871, and Alice Lucinda, April 15, 1872. In 
1864, when fifteen years of age, Mr. Kerr at- 
tached himself to the Sixteenth Illinois Regi- 
ment as Captain's boy, and afterward did secret 
service for the army; and when President Lin- 
coln made his last call for volunteers he enlisted, 
but the day before they were to be mustered in 
General Lee surrendered and he was thus de- 
barred from being a member of the Grand 
Array of the Republic, which he very much re- 
grets, as he considers it a high honor. He has 
been a farmer most of the time in Kansas. In 
1876 he came to California and settled at Comp- 
ton, Los Angeles County, and was appointed 
deputy-sheriff in 1877, and served in that 
capacity for two years, and during the same 
time carried on a stock ranch. In 1878 he 
bought land and eugaged in the real-estate 
business. In 1882 he sold out and moved into 
Los Angeles. While there he aided in form- 
ing the San Jacinto Land Association, of which 
he became a member and stockholder. They 
purchased 17,500 acres of the San Jacinto 
Viego ranch of the Estudillos and others. Mr. 
Compton and Mr. Kerr became the agents for 
the sale of this land, and in 1885 he moved 
with his family to San Jacinto and bought 160 
acres for a home ranch and built a brick resi- 
dence, and his sons are raising stock and grain 
on the ranch. Through Mr. Kerr's agency the 
whole of the Land Association's property was 
sold at remunerative prices and the whole trans- 
action proved a success. He assisted in organ- 
izing the Los Angeles National Bank and was 
one of its stockholders. He helped to organize 
the San Jacinto Land & Water Company, which 
was also a success. The system is artesian sup- 
ply. The next enterprise which he helped 
organize was the Fairview Land & Water Com- 
pany, in connection with Mr. Compton, Mr. 
Howes and others. It comprises 2,900 acres of 
land, is furnished with twenty-one miles of iron 


pipe, through which water is conveyed from the 
San Jacinto river. On the tract is also the town 
of Florida, where the water is under 238 feet 
pressure. Mr. Kerr continues his interest in this 
enterprise. He has also been interested in the 
organization of the city of San Jacinto and was 
elected one of its first board of trustees, receiv- 
ing 155 votes out of 157 cast, and was elected 
president of the city board of trustees. He is 
also one of the commissioners to locate the site 
for the Insane Asylum. He has helped to or- 
ganize the State Bank of San Jacinto, of which 
he is vice-president and stockholder. He 
has helped organize the San Jacinto Lime and 
Lumber Company, and is its vice-president. 
They are manufacturing lime from one twin 
draw kiln. It was put in operation one year 
ago last September and has run day and night 
ever since, averaging 100 barrels of lime each 
day, for which they find a ready sale. He also 
took a lively interest in getting the railroad to 
San Jacinto and assisted in raising the subsidy 
of $55,000 and the right of way for the road. 
He rightly enjoys the good-will and confidence 
of his fellow townsmen, and there is to all ap- 
pearances a vast amount of practical business 
left in him yet. 


Jacinto's most honorable citizens, was burn 
in Jefferson County, Indiana, February 19, 
1828. His father, Elijah Edwards, was a native 
of Kentucky, but removed to Indiana and raised 
his family there. His ancestors were originally 
from North Carolina. His mother, Charlotte 
(Davidson) Edwards, was a native of Pennsyl- 
vania. Her father, James Davidson, was from 
Scotland, educated in Edinburg. Mr. Edwards' 
parents had six children, but three of whom 
survive, Mr. Edwards being the oldest. He 
was educated at Greensburg, Indiana. When 
eighteen years of age the Mexican war broke 
out and he enlisted, in 1846, in Company G, 
Mounted Rifles, and later enlisted in Fifth Indi- 

ana, Company K. His company was in all 
the battles from the siege of Vera Crnz to the 
taking of the city of Mexico. After the war 
with Mexico he became a fence contractor and 
carpenter on the railroad for fourteen years. 
When the old flag was tired on at Fort Sumter 
his patriotic blood was up, and he enlisted at 
President Lincoln's first^ call for 75,000 three- 
months men, in Company B, Seventh Indiana 
Infantry. At the end of three months' service 
he re-enlisted, in the Fifty-second Indiana Rail- 
road Regiment, and served three years and six 
months. Five days after leaving Camp Morton, 
Indianapolis, they invested Fort Donelson, and 
this regiment had the honor of taking the first 
three lines of works. He was at the taking of 
Corinth; from there under General McPherson, 
they were sent to repair the Memphis & Charles- 
ton Railroad. They worked on it two months 
and put it in running order. Then they took 
and held Fort Pillow for a year. They then 
went with General Sherman back to Yicksburg 
to destroy the railroad. They knocked the 
flanges from the wheels of the locomotives with 
sledges, put powder in their fire boxes and ex- 
ploded them. Then the ties were heated in the 
middle and bent around the telegraph poles. 
From there they went to Memphis. Then they 
fought the battle of Tupelo with Forrest. They 
were then sent to Missouri to run Price out of 
that State. They marched 700 miles until they 
returned to St. Louis. They w T ent on transports 
to Nashville and fought there. They then went 
to Mobile, where they got the news of Lee's 
surrender. In front of Corinth Mr. Edwards 
was promoted as First Lieutenant and com- 
manded his company for two years. He was 
detailed to command Company F at the battle 
of Tupelo. When mustered out of the service 
he went back to railroading again. In 1871 he 
went to Kansas and was on the Santa Fe system 
for three years. He bought and built in Kan- 
sas, but the grasshoppers came up like a cloud, 
settled down on the country and ate up every- 
thing. He left the State in 1874 and came to 
Pasadena. He bought twelve acres of land at 


Pasadena for $60 per acre, lived on it for eleven 
years and sold it for $1,000 per acre. It after- 
terward advanced to $3,000 per acre. He came 
to San Jacinto in 1885, where be purchased 
thirty acres at $45 per acre and sold it, for $200 
per acre. He also invested in Florida lands. 
He has a very attractive home in San Jacinto. 
The house is of brick %nd is a little model of 
beauty. The grounds consist of seven acres, on 
which there is a good artesian well of excellent 
water, a good barn and other improvements. 
One of the great attractions of the place are the 
large trees of natural growth that have been 
saved in their primeval state on the property. 
In 1839 Mr. Edwards was married to Miss Eliza- 
beth Weingarth, "who was born in Bavaria in 
1841, and came to the United States in 1852. 
He was made a Mason in 1868, and is a mem- 
ber of the G. A. K., J. A. Addison Post, No. 121, 
San Jacinto. J>i politics he has always been a 

fHE HIGH BROTHERS.— Messrs. Will- 
iam E. Higli and John E. High were 
sons of John High, a native of Chester 
County, near Phenixville, Pennsylvania, who 
was born in 1795 and was a land-owner and 
farmer. Their grandfather, Jacob High, was a 
resident of Chester County, and removed to 
Cumberland County, where he remained until 
his death. Their forefathers came from Ger- 
many to America before the Revolution; their 
name was Hoch, German for high. Their 
mother, Christina Ehst, was born in Berks 
County, Pennsylvania, in 1800, a daughter of 
Samuel Ehst, who was a fanner and lived until 
his death in that county. Their parents were 
married in 1820, and had a family of eleven 
children. William E. was the fifth, and John 
E. the seventh. They came to California to- 
gether, and so have remained since, being iden- 
tical in all their business relations, so that when 
one is mentioned it is almost equivalent to 
speaking of both. Their parents, in their re- 

ligious views, were Mennonites,a sort of Quaker- 
like branch of the church; and although they 
do not belong to any church here, they are be- 
lievers in Chri6t and in the Scriptures. The 
ranch on which they live consists of ten acres 
in Chollas valley, not far from the end of the H 
street railway of Sun Diego. This ranch is de- 
voted to almost every kiud of fruit, while their 
market is at their very door. They have many 
bearing orange trees of several varieties, in- 
cluding Washington and Australian Navels, 
also lemons, limes, olives, guavas, loquats, 
peaches, pears, apples, apricots, strawberries, 
raspberries, blackberries, etc. From 100 feet 
6quare of blackberry bushes they raised in one 
year 2,500 baskets, which sold for $410. The 
next year they sold from the same ground $385 

William E. High was born in Berks County, 
Pennsylvania, on the 1st day of January, 1830. 
He remained on his father's farm until he was 
twenty years old, attending the district schools 
as opportunity afforded. Then he went to 
Chester County and lived with an uncle for 
two years. At the end of that time he returned 
to the old farm. In June following, which was 
1852, his father died, the place was sold, and 
he hired out to work on a farm in the same 
county. He remained there for three years, 
and during that time taught the district school 
for one season. Afterward he went to Bucks 
County, and during 1856-'57 ran a saw-mill. 
The latter part of 1857, however, saw him back 
again in Berks County, ,/here he stayed until 
the following spring. These subsequent changes 
in business had tended to unsettle him some- 
what, and he decided to seek a new country. 
He had heard much of California and the for- 
tunes that had been acquired in that distant 
land. Thither he determined to journey. After 
two weeks spent in New York city, he set sail 
on the Star of the West for Cuba, and from 
there took passage on the New Granada for 
Aspinwall. Crossing the Isthmus, he took the 
John L. Stephens at Panama, and after an un- 
eventful voyage he arrived at San Francisco the 


15th of May, 1858. The same day lie left fur 
Sacramento, and from there went through Placer 
and El Dorado counties. At Diamond Spring, 
in the latter county, he worked in a saw-mill 
for six months. Then he went to Nevada 
County, where he engaged in mining, following 
that business with varying degrees of success 
for nearly ten years. During this time he was 
located at Moore's Flat, Washington, and at 
North San Juan. 

Early in 1868 he visited San Francisco, and 
while there made up his mind to come to the 
southern part of the State. He accordingly 
went back to Nevada County, settled up his 
business, and in the following spring started 
for San Diego, arriving here on the 2d of March. 
Being well pleased with the outlook, he decided 
to remain. He located 160 acres of land eighteen 
miles southeast of the city, but sold it in six 
months' time, and settled on another piece of 
175 acres adjoining the National Ranch grant, 
ten miles from San Diego. He cultivated a 
small portion of this in -fruit, and remained on 
it four years, during which time he acquired a 
title, after some difficulty experienced, some 
parties claiming it as a Mexican grant. About 
the 1st of January, 1874, he moved to Chollas 
valley, two and one-half miles from San Diego, 
where he purchased five acres of land, and there 
he and his brother engaged in raising fruit of 
different varieties. They experimented with 
various kinds until they found what was most 
suitable to the soil and climate, and these varie- 
ties they adhered to. The result was that they 
soon acquired the reputation of raising the finest 
fruit to be found in this section, and the prod- 
uct of their orchard commanded the highest 

Mr. High still remains on this famous place, 
and, with his brother, still cultivates it. In 
April, 1876, he went East to attend the Cen- 
tennial, and while absent was married to Susan 
Bechtel. He returned in October with his 
bride. Two and one-half years later she died. 
For the last eight years Mr. High has been a 
member of the Cemetery Commission of San 

Diego; he was the first president of the San 
Diego County Horticultural Society, and is now 
its vice-president. He was one of the directors 
and vice-president for two years of the Consoli- 
dated National Bank, and was a stockholder in 
the old San Diego Bank before the consolida- 
tion. He is interested in the San Diego & 
Cuyamaca Railroad, now in the course of con- 
struction. Four years ago he bought 2,000 
acres of land in the Cnyamaca grant, and he 
and his brother now own 3,000 acres there, 
which is used for grazing purposes, and they 
have over 200 head of cattle on it. Mr. High 
and his brother are equally interested in all 
their enterprises, and together they own con- 
siderable city and outside property. The 6ite 
of Otay was sold by his brother to the present 
owners. Together they contributed 160 acres 
of tine land as a bonus to the California South- 
ern to induce them to build their road here. 
Mr. High has contributed liberally to all public 
movements, and although of a retiring disposi- 
tion he is in reality one of San Diego's most 
progressive and substantial citizens. It is to 
the earnest and well-timed efforts of men like 
William E. High that the present prosperous 
condition of this thriving city is largely due. 


fOHN H. CRESMER, proprietor of wagon 
and carriage shop, San Jacinto, was born in 
Hartford County, Maryland, November 15, 
1860. His father, John G. Cresmer, with his 
mother, came to the United States from Ger- 
many in 1853. They had a family of eleven 
children, two of whom are dead. The subject 
of this sketch was the eighth child, and was 
educated in Baltimore, Maryland, in both Ger- 
man and English. He made a business of 
canning fruit for some time, both in Maryland 
and afterward in De Witt County, Illinois. He 
also canned large quantities of sweet corn. In 
1886 he came to San Jacinto, where he worked 
in the planing-mill, making doors and windows, 
and during the rapid building of the place made 


all the doors and windows in town and 
vicinity. He now lias a carriage and wagon 
shop, where he manufactures and repairs. He 
was married in 1882 to Miss Lena Gerhardt, 
also a native of Maryland, born in Baltimore, 
at which place her father was a manufacturer 
of and dealer in shoes. They have four chil- 
dren, viz.: Walter H., L. Ernestine, Nellie V. 
and Elizabeth Ruth. His father died Septem- 
ber, 1876, aged sixty, and his mother resides 
with a son in Maryland. Mr. Cresmer is a 
good, industrious citizen, one of the kind who 
helps to make the country grow. 

— &&&** 

fRANCIS F. McORACKEN'S grandfather, 
John McCracken, was a Scotchman, who 
came to America in 1802. His son, Felix 
McCracken, was born in Bourbon County, Ken- 
tucky, in 1809. He was a land-owner, farmer 
and 6tock-raiser. F. F. McCracken's mater- 
nal grandfather, Mr. John Smalley, was a native 
of Belgium, and came to America and settled 
in Kentucky, where he was an extensive planter. 
His daughter, Cyrene Smalley, was born in 
Kentucky in 1818, and was married to Mr. 
Felix McCracken in 1835. They had a family 
of seven, but two of whom survive — Mr. F. F. 
McCracken and his brother, William Felix 
McCracken, who resides in Oblong, Illinois, 
where he has a farm and is County Commis- 
sioner. Mr. F. F. McCracken attended the 
district schools and graduated in the Hartsville 
University, Bartholomew County, Indiana. In 
September, 1861, he enlisted in Company H, 
Thirty-seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry. At 
the battle of Stone River he was wounded, and 
afterward discharged for the consequent disabil- 
ity. After leaving the army he engaged in 
school-teaching for two hundred and four 
months. Since then he has been a contractor 
and builder. 

He was married in 1865 to Miss Ellen E. 
Chrisman, daughter of Elias B. Chrisman, born 
at Westport, Indiana, in 1848. Their union 

has been blessed with four children, all born in 
Avena, Illinois: Elias H., born July 13, 1866; 
Alma D., born November 27, 1867; Mary A., 
born July 18, 1871, and Willie E., born March 
3, 1874. The latter son is now a member of 
the San Diego Rifles. The oldest son learned 
four trades: printing, cabinet-making, carpenter 
and barber, and is now working in one of the 
most popular shops in San Diego. He has 
been an Odd Fellow for the past twenty-three 
years, and is a scarlet-degree member. He has 
purchased property and made a good home in 
San Diego, and also owns property on Coron- 
ado Beach. He has the contract and is just 
completing the large new Armory Hall for the 
San Diego Rifles. Mr. McCracken was born in 
Indiana, July 29, 1843, and has still, apparent- 
ly, a long life before him, and the county in 
which he lives ma3 T depend on finding him on 
the side of right, in favor of our public schools. 
and a stout fighter against bond institutions and 
monopoly, for which he has suffered so much. 

— &*&&*-& — 

fWEN M. McDERMOTT, the pioneer 
blacksmith of San Jacinto, was born in 
County Monaghan, Ireland, November 9< 
1844. His father, Michael McDermott, and 
his mother, Ann (Halpin) McDermott, were 
both natives of Ireland. When eighteen years 
of age young McDermott left his green island 
home and came to the United States. He settled 
in New York city, at which place and in New 
Jersey he learned his trade, which he has fol- 
lowed nearly all his life, with the exception of 
a few years spent in Nevada and Arizona, pros- 
pecting and digging for gold and dealing in 
mining stock. He opened his first shop on his 
own account in Eureka, Nevada, and it was 
there he became acquainted with and married 
Miss Mary McAvoy, a native of Chicago. They 
have five children, viz. : Eugene, Mary and 
William, born in Eureka, August 10, 1879, 
February 14, 1881, and October 8, 1882; Par- 
nell, born in Arizona, March 17, 1884, and John 


E., born May 25, 1886. The family are mem- 
bers of the Catholic Church. 

Mr. McDermott opened his blacksmith shop 
in San Jacinto May 14, 1885. It is located on 
Hewitt street, just opposite the old adobe build- 
ing. Mr. McDermott's knowledge of the busi- 
ness brings him more work than he can do, and 
his business extends out for fifteen miles around. 
He owns twenty lots in the city, has two arte- 
sian wells and has built a honse. He became a 
naturalized citizen of the United States about 
twelve years ago, and has forever left his native 

fOHN H. QUINTON is a native of Buffalo, 
New York, and was born June 26, 1847. 
His father, John Quinton, was born in 
Scotland in 1810, and came to New York in 
1829. He was a pattern-maker by trade, but 
sailed on the lakes as a sea captain for eighteen 
years. He resided in Canada for some time, 
and owned one of the farms on which the city 
of Kingston now stands. Mr. J. H. Quinton's 
mother, Bridget (Calahan) Quinton, was born 
in 1810, and was married to Mr. John Quinton 
in 1839 and had a family of five children, three 
daughters and two sons. His brother George 
enlisted in the Twenty-first New York Volun- 
teers, was wounded in the second battle of Bull 
Run by a ball which passed through the left 
arm, and ai'ter a few months in the hospital was 
again reported for duty. When the second 
engagement at Fredricksburg was fought, an 
artillery engagement, the company was guard- 
ing the battery, when a stray shell passed, a, 
small piece striking him in the neck, killing 
him instantly, the only one killed in the com- 
pany at that time, and the only engagement 
they were in, as they were soon afterward mus- 
tered out. His loss so grieved his father that 
it hastened his death. The remainder of the 
family are still living. ■ Mr. Quinton was the 
fourth child and received his education in Buf- 

falo, New York. In 1863 he went to Canada 
and drove a private mail for Hon. T. C. Street, 
a member of the Canada Parliament. He re- 
mained there two years, when he went to the 
oil regions at Petroleum Center, where he stayed 
some time and was very successful. He then 
returned to Buffalo, where he engaged in black- 
smithing, which business he continued until 
1869. He also learned the engineering busi- 
ness and went South; from there he went to 
Maysville, Kentucky, where he became a black- 
smith for the Maysville & Lexington Railroad 
Company. He then went to Vicksburg, Miss- 
issippi, and was an engineer on a wrecking-boat 
engaged in raising machinery and boilers out 
of boars sunk during the war. From there he 
went to Memphis to escape the yellow fever, 
and ran on a tri-weekly packet between Mem- 
phis and Osceola. He opened a blacksmith shop 
in Osceola, Arkansas, where he worked for two 
years, when he came to the mouth of the Red 
River, where he was detained two weeks on ac- 
count of low water. The fare was $30 deck 
passage from the mouth of the river to Shreve- 
port, Louisiana; the boat was delayed at Alex- 
andria, 210 miles away, on account of low 
water, and there was no way to get through but 
to go on foot, and thirty- two passengers went 
through in this way, Mr. Quinton being one, 
who made the trip in eight days. The Texas 
Pacific Railroad was then running to Longview. 
Mr. Quinton came to Mineola, Texas, and 
built the first hotel in the place, where he re- 
mained until the road was finished to Dallas, in 
1872. He rode into Dallas on the first train 
and engaged in building, all the inside work of 
the court-house being done by him. When 
building got dull he then engaged in black- 
smithing at that place until 1887, when, on 
account of ill health, he came to San Diego and 
opened a grocery store on National avenue, be- 
tween Twenty-ninth and Thirtieth streets. Mr. 
Quinton was a lieutenant in the Lamar Rifles 
in Texas under Governor Hubbard. He was 
married, August 15, 1875, to Miss Eugenia 
Johnson, daughter of James Johnson, a planter 


of Mississippi. She was born in Yazoo City, 
Mississippi, in 1858. 

?P. CHR1STENSON, contractor and build- 
er, at San Diego, was born at Aalborg, 
° Denmark, June 5, 1827, being the young- 
est of nine children, only four of whom survive. 
He was privileged with a common-school educa- 
tion and also studied architecture at the Archi- 
tectural Institute. He then learned the trade 
of brick-mason, which he followed in contracting 
and building for a number of years. In 1866 
he left Denmark, going to Hamburg, and then 
taking a steamer for New York. He then went 
to Chicago, and there found employment in the 
office of Mr. Waskjer, an architect of that city. 
After six months he went to Omaha, and then 
to New Orleans, arriving in November, 1866, 
and remaining until July, 1867, when lie went 
to St. Louis and worked at his trade as mason 
until the fall of 1869. He then came to Cali- 
fornia by the Central Pacific route and arrived 
at San Francisco in September. Remaining 
there till December, he took a steamer for San 
Diego, where he arrived December 18, 1869, 
and has from that time till lately done consid- 
erable contracting in the building line, and has 
built for himself two fine buildings, one of 
which lie occupies as a residence. 

He was married in San Diego, May 6, 1874, 
to Mrs. Hannah Marshall, a native of Burling- 
ton, Iowa, and of their five children only one 
daughter survives. 

Jacinto and a native of California, was born 
in Old Town, San Diego County, Califor- 
nia, July 23, 1844. His father, Jose Antonio 
Estudillo, was born in Monterey, California. 
His grandfather came from Spain. His mother, 
Victoria (Dominguez) Estudillo, was born in 
Los Angele6 in 1801, and was married to Mr. 

Estudillo in 1825. Their union was blessed 
with twelve children, live boys and seven girls. 
The subject of this sketch was the youngest of 
the family. He spent a good deal of his young 
life on their ranch 100 miles from any schools, 
and is eminently a self-made man. Their ranch 
consisted of 38,000 acres, covering an area of 
about 8 x 10 miles of the upper part of the San 
Jacinto Plains, at the foot of the San Jacinto 
range of mountains. The property was granted 
to his father by the Mexican governmtnt for 
his services as manager and administrator of 
the San Luis Rey, which estate he had the con- 
trol of for about ten years. Mr. Estudillo's 
ranch was devoted to stock-raising and had on 
it from 6,000 to 7,000 head of cattle and 1,500 
head of horses, partly mixed with Arabian blood. 
The family kept the ranch until 1883, when it 
was subdivided and the San Jacinto Land Com- 
pany bought about half of it. Mr. Hewitt and 
Mr. Estudillo were the first to use the San 
Jacinto river for irrigation. 

Mr. Estudillo has done his full share in 
aiding the growth of the town. He donated 
twenty-seven acres to the railroad for depot 
grounds. He built the city livery stable, the 
first in the city, and the large brick ware- 
house, 50x120 feet, with an asphaltum floor 
and a corrugated roof, his tasteful brick resi- 
dence witli its neat colored verandahs, which is 
an ornament to the town and a credit tj the 
refined taste of its owner. He has sold 3,000 
acres of his share of the ranch; the balance, 
1,100 acres, he still owns. He is now engaged 
in shipping grain to Los Angeles. April 14, 
1890, he was elected Mayor of San Jacinto. 

In 1866 he was married to Miss Carmen 
.Robidonx, by whom 'he had two children, viz.: 
Christopher, born in 1869; and Frank, born in 
1871. He lost his wife, and was again married 
in 1873, to Miss Felicitus Machado, who was 
born in San Diego in 1856. Her father, Jesus 
Machado, was also a native of San Diego, of 
Spanish ancestry. They have as the fruit of 
this union one boy, Jose Antonio, born July 12, 
1875. Mr. Estudillo has held the office of Jus- 


tice of the Peace for several years and was a 
member of the board of supervisors for four 
years, and is now a city trustee. Mr. and 
Mrs. Estudillo are both members of the Cath- 
olic Church, and are held in high esteem by 
the people of the community in which they 
have lived for so many years. 

;R. JOSEPH RODES, of San Diego, is a 
native of Philadelphia, born October 15, 
1863. His father, Mr. James Rodes, also 
a native of Philadelphia, was born in 1827, and 
has been in the furniture business nearly all his 
life. The Doctor'6 grandfather, Joseph Rodes, 
was of German descent, but born in Philadel- 
phia. Margaret (Stewart) Rodes, the Doctor'6 
mother, was born in Philadelphia in 1830. 
She was a woman of rare natural talents; the 
daughter of James and Sarah (Potter) Stewart, 
the latter from the line of Potters, of which 
Bishop Potter of New York is also a descendant. 

His father and mother were married in I860, 
and had three children: Aline, born September 
7, 1861; Maree, born January 22, 1866; and 
Joseph. The latter spent his boyhood days in 
Philadelphia, where he attended the public 
schools. In 1882 he began to study medicine 
with Dr. A. R. Thomas, dean and professor of 
anatomy in the Hahnemann College of Phila- 
delphia, and continued with him five years. In 
1884 he entered the above college, and gradu 
ated with high honors in 1887. lie then en- 
gaged in the practice of his profession in 
Philadelphia, and shortly became assistant sur- 
geon to Dr. William B. Van Lennep. During 
the following two years he served as chief of the 
dispensary staff, associate physician to the nerv- 
ous, eye, and venereal out-patient departments 
of the Hahnemann Hospital; assistant demon- 
strator of anatomy, and assistant to the clinics, 
in the Hahnemann College; also pathologist to 
the Children's Homoeopathic Hospital. 

Late in 1889 he came to San Diego for rest 
and to see the country, and has now decided to 

remain here, to engage in the practice of his 
profession. He has established himself in rooms 
3, 4, 5 and 6 of the Bon Ton Building (Sixth 
and D streets), where he has most exceedingly 
well equipped offices. He is a man of culture 
and ability, the author of numerous medical 
essays and a member of the Episcopal Church. 
He will doubtless be quite an accession to the 
already able medical profession of San Diego. 


fRANK X. WINTER, baker at San Diego, 
was born at Schvvarzach, Buhl County, 
Germany, October 30, 1860. He received 
a common-school education. His father and 
grandfather being bakers, he followed in their 
footsteps, and learned the trade in his father's 
establishment, and spent one year in a bakery 
at Baden Baden. August 14, 1877, he left for 
America, taking the steamer Switzerland at 
Antwerp and arriving at Philadelphia, Pennsyl- 
vania, August 27, and worked at his trade, re- 
maining until September 28, 1880. He then 
went to California by way of Chicago and 
Omaha, arriving at Los Angeles, October 12, 
but left at once for San Diego, going by rail to 
Santa Ana, and the old Seeley stage line, arriving 
October 14. He at once entered the bakery of 
his brother Joseph, corner of Fourth and II 
streets, where he remained five years. In Octo- 
ber, 1885, he started the first steam laundry, 
adjoining his brother, under the firm name of 
Burtch & Winter, for a year. He then worked 
in the Bay City Bakery, for Charles Wold, 
about four months, when he rented his bakery 
and bought a horse and wagon with plant and 
route, which business he has continued success- 
fully until the present time. By thrift and 
economy, he has purchased a lot at Coronado 
and at Ocean Beach, and in February, 1889, 
bought the bakery and lot which he has before 
rented on Second street, between C and D 
streets. In the summer of 1888, he went 
East to Philadelphia, and passed two pleasant 
months with his family and friends. 


Mr. Winter was married, June 17, 1884, to 
Miss Mary Bernaner, a native of Dodtnan, 
State of Baden, Germany, who came to San 
Diego in 1883. They have four children, only 
two of whom are now living: Randolph Albert 
and Mary M.. 

He is a member of the San Diego Lodge, 
Knights of Pythias, No. 28. He has been a 
member of the City Guard for six years, and a 
member of the Harmony and Phcenix Bands. 

tRTHUR G. MUNN is a "native son of 
the Golden West," and owner and pub- 
lisher of the San Jacinto Register. He 
was born in Kelseyville, Lake County, Cali- 
fornia, September 10, 1864. His father, O. A. 
Munn, was a native of Cleveland, Ohio, and 
has been a resident of California since 1849. 
He is by profession a lawyer, and resides in 
San Jacinto. Mr. Munn's mother, Sarah E. 
(Thompson) Munn, was bom in Kentucky. 
They had five children, Mr. Munn being the 
fourth child. He completed his education at 
Fresno, September 10, 1885. He then formed 
a partnership with Mr. J. P. Kerr in the pur- 
chase of the San Jacinto Register. They pub- 
lished the paper fur two years, when he bought 
out Mr. Kerr, and is now sole proprietor. He 
iB a member of the Independent Order of For- 
esters. Was married May 6, 1889, to Mrs. S. 
E. Grannis, daughter of S. O. Dagget, born in 

Mr. Munn is publishing a good paper, fully 
awake to all the interests of San Jacinto and 

G. WHEELER, San Diego.— Efficient 
engineers are nece.-sary to the devel- 
* opment of every new country, and 
among that list we must class the name of Mr. 
M. G. Wheeler, who was born of New England 
parentage in the town of Medina, Orleans Coun- 

ty, New York, February 28, 1845, being the 
youngest in a family of ten children, only six 
of whom survive. His parents soon moved to 
Janesville, Rock County, Wisconsin, where, 
after three months his father died, leaving the 
mother with nine children, the youngest, M. G., 
one of twins, being five months old and the 
eldest but nineteen years. He lived in Wis- 
consin and Minnesota until he was twelve years 
of age, when, with his mother, he came to Cal- 
ifornia, having two brothers then located at 
Marysville, Ynba County. He followed farm- 
ing at that place for about four years, and then 
feeling the need of an education he went to Oak- 
land and entered the preparatory department of 
the State University, remaining five years. He 
then entered the college in the class of 1869. 
During his education he had to earn his own 
way and worked at odd jobs, such as collecting, 
etc., and during vacations worked at farming. 
He left college in January, 1867, and entered 
the office of F. W. Boardman, city and county 
surveyor, remaining one and a half years. He 
was then offered a position by Kimball Brothers 
to survey and subdivide the tract called Rancho 
de la Nacion, of which National City is a part. 
On his arrival in San Diego in 1868, the only 
buildings were the barracks. The town site was 
covered with brush, and rabbits and quail lived 
in the streets. He lived on a ranch until De- 
cember, 1868, when he completed the survey. 
James Pascoe then offered him the position of 
deputy and a partnership interest in surveying 
the county of San Diego, and they established 
their office at Old Town. The first work was 
the shore line and the tide line of the bay, a 
party wishing to purchase. The business was 
then improving and people were rapidly coming 
into the town, business in surveying was very 
active in the laying off of the Pneblo lands in 
the vicinity of New Town, now San Diego, and 
the laying off of the park; then followed the 
survey of Roseville. He was employed by the 
Government in surveys about the country, and 
made many in Lower California on ranches, 
roads and mines, and one time building a road 


from Rafael across to the port of San Felipe, on 
the Gulf of California. He has held the office 
of county surveyor for eight years and city en- 
gineer for three terms, and has always held com- 
mission as United States deputy surveyor. He 
has also done much railroad work in the north- 
ern part of the State, and also work at G nay mas, 
on the Sonora branch of the Santa Fe line. In 
October, 1880, he took the first location party 
into the field for the Southern California Rail- 
road, setting the initial stakes at National City, 
and continued in the employ of the company 
until the road was completed to Colton. In 
1884-'85 he was in the employ of the same com- 
pany locating a road through Cajon Pass from 
Barstow to San Diego. He returned to the 
latter place in the fall of 1885 and opened an 
office, and by invitation of the Coronado Beach 
Company entered competitively with plans and 
proposals for the subdivision of the Coronado 
tract, securing the prize and performing the 
work. He then engineered their water-works 
at Old Town a'id also' their railroad work. 

In the spring of 1886 he was appointed city 
engineer, holding the office one year, when he 
resigned and became a resident engineer in 
charge of sewerage of the city of San Diego, 
which took one and a half years to complete the 
work. In January, 1889, he took the position* 
of locating engineer of the San Diego, Cnya- 
maca & Eastern Railroad, carrying a survey 
across the mountains in an easterly direction 
to Salton on the Desert. He has also filled the 
following positions of prominence; chief engi- 
neer of Mission Valley Water Company for two 
years, chief engineer of Board of State Harbor | 
Commissioners of San Diego Bay, superintend* 
ing engineer of Pacific Coast Land Bureau, and 
largely connected with many lines of develop- 
ment in survey of water and railroads. 

Mr. Wheeler was married at San Diego, in 
January, 1872, to Miss Etta Murdock, a native 
of California. They have two children: Miner- 
va A. and Herbert C, both living. 

Ten years ago Mr. Wheeler made a sur- 
vey to carry water from the Colorado river 

to the Colorado Desert, which he found 
practicable and thinks the desert conld be 
irrigated witli comparatively little cost. He 
had occasion to retrace the boundary line be- 
tween Upper and Lower California from the 
Colorado river west across the desert to the base 
of the mountains. A considerable part of the 
line follows a mesa elevated forty feet above the 
general level of the desert, and there found 
abundant evidence of former human habitation 
by broken pottery. The formation of the coun- 
try is snch as to show that evidently the Colo- 
rado river turned at one time at a point called 
Pilot Knob, a little south of Yuma, running 
nearly due west and emptying into the great 
Colorado basin. Broken pottery shows that the 
Indians inhabited that country and lived on the 
banks of the Colorado river as it then existed. 
When Mr. Wheeler arrived at San Diego, on 
the steamer Orizaba, he was brought on shore 
on a man's back, and from that wild, unsettled 
country he has seen San Diego grow to a pros- 
perous mercantile city. 

fAMES H. RICE, residing near Winchester, 
was born in Missouri, May 14, 1838. His 
father, Benjamin Rice, was a native of 
Virginia, who came to Kentucky in an early 
day and afterward moved to Missouri, and again 
removed to Kansas. The family resided near 
Fort Scott, and were in, and suffered from, the 
troubles in Kansas while a territory. He was 
taken prisoner by Buchanan's troops, but was 
soon released, as it was found he had done noth- 
ing offensive. They were farmers in Kansas 
until 1870, when they removed to Washington 
Territory, and were there three years. In 1873 
they came to, and lived in, different parts of 
Southern California. In June, 1885, they came 
to Winchester, where they bought lands, built 
and opened the Winchester hotel. They now 
rent the hotel and live on the ranch. 

Mr. Rice married Miss Elizabeth I. Stanfield 
in 1859. Her father, David Stanfield, was a 


native of Knoxviile, Tennessee, and removed in 
early days to Knoxviile, Iowa, where he was 
County Recorder for two terms. They have 
one daughter, Mary A., born in 1860 and mar- 
ried to Mr. Lewis Sours. Mr. and Mrs. Rice 
have adopted two boys, who are now thirteen 
and fourteen years of age — George L. and Fred 
L. They are members of the Methodist Church, 
of which Mr. Rice is a trustee. They are both 
members of its board of stewards. Mrs. Rice 
was one of the four who bought and owned half 
of the Winchester town site, and was also the 
prime mover in the organization of the Meth- 
odist Church, having solicited the subscriptions 
that built it. She was also the first Postmis- 
tress of Winchester. Mr. Rice was a soldier in 
the Union army, in Company C, Kansas Vol- 
unteer Infantry. 



fLFRED G. CLARK, a prominent citizen 
of San Diego, is a native of Trenton, 
Butler County, Ohio, born November 10, 
1818. His father, Jonathan Clark, born in New 
Jersey, September 5, 1776, was a blacksmith. 
Mr. Clark's grandfather, David Clark, was born 
in New Jersey, and was a descendant of the 
Clarks who came to America from England be- 
fore the Revolution. His great uncle and his 
father's u.icle were signers of the Declaration of 
Independence. Mr. Clark's mother, Mrs. Cath- 
erine (Jonas) Clark, was born in Maryland, in 
1780. Her ancestors were German. She was 
married to Mr. Clark in 1800, and had a family 
of fourteen children, two of whom are still liv- 
ing. Mr. Clark was the eleventh. When he 
was but six years of age his father removed to 
Crawfordsville, Montgomery County, Indiana, 
and it was there, in a most primitive school- 
house, that he received his education. The win- 
dows of the school-house were closed with 
greased cotton cloth, and the floor and seats 
were made of puncheon. That section was then 
a heavily timbered country. lie attended school 
winters. He afterward attended a seminary 

taught by an Episcopal minister. He then at- 
tended the Wabash College at Crawfordsville. 
Mr. Clark has always been a student of men and 
books, and is still engaged in study. In 1835 
he became clerk in a general merchandise store 
in Crawfordsville, and then removed to Michi- 
gan City, where he continued to clerk. His 
life previous to this had been spent on a farm. 
In October, 1838, he went to Jackson County, 
Iowa, by way of Chicago. There was no rail- 
road then and he rode on the first through stage 
from Chicago to Galena, Illinois, and from 
there to Belleview, crossed over into Iowa, and 
located on a Government tract of land, 160 acres. 
He remained on this land five years, when he 
proved up on it, sold it, and went to Andrew, 
the county seat of Jackson County, where he 
engaged in the general merchandise business. 
He continued in this business for five years, 
when he sold out, bought a California outfit, 
and went with oxen to the Missouri river, where 
he wintered. The following May he was one of 
a company of thirty-two who crossed the plains. 
In the Black Hills the company separated for 
lack of feed for teams, but three of them stayed 
together till they reached Dallas, Oregon. He 
sold his teams and went in a yawl boat to Cas- 
cades, and from there took the only steamer that 
Jiad ever run on the Columbia river. It was 
run by a little four-horse-power engine. He 
then came around to San Francisco on the 
steamer Panama, and arrived September 29, 
1850. Here he left his family and went to the 
mines at Woods Creek, seventy-five miles from 
Stockton. Then he returned to San Francisco 
and went to Cortemardera and assisted in build- 
ing two steam saw-mills. He received $1 per 
hour wages, and remained here eighteen months. 
He had never learned the carpenter's trade, but 
was naturally au architect, and had learned the 
use of tools. He again returned to San Fran- 
cisco and purchased an interest in Port Orford 
i of Captain Tichnor, commander of the Sea Gull 
j 6teamer, and took passage with him for Fort 
Orford January 24, 1852. They went into Hum- 
| boldt to discharge freight and passengers, and 


on their way out of Humboldt bay the steamer 
struck, and was so disabled that 6he became a 
total wreck. He never reached Port Orford, but ] 
went to Eureka, California, where he built the I 
first family residence, and engaged in the lum- 
ber business for two years, when lie sold out 
and again went to the mines. He was in the 
northern mines of California during the year 
1855. In 1856 he sold out and went to San 
Francisco. He purchased land in Napa valley 
and engaged in farming and stock-raising. He 
also had a hardware store in Napa City. In 
1856 he came from Humboldt with the inten- 
tion of purchasing the land where San Diego 
now 6tands, which was offered for sale at. ten 
cents per acre. In 1881 he sold out and went 
to Texas on a land speculation. He was there 
four years. In 1886 he arrived in San Diego, 
where he engaged in real-estate speculation, 
both for himself and others, which he 6till con- 
tinues. He also owns mining interests in this 

He was married in Iowa, March 13, 1842, to 
Miss Cyrena Philips, daughter of William 
Phili])6, a native of Ohio, but of German de 
scent. She was born January 18, 1826, and 
has been with him in all his wanderings to com- 
fort and help him, enduring all the hardships 
of settling a new country. Cheerfully they 
have just passed the forty-eighth milestone of 
a very happy life. They are the parents of five 
children: Agnes E., born in Andrew, Iowa, 
August 29, 1844, married to Samuel G. Clark 
and resided in St. Helena, where she died in 
1880, leaving four sons: William G., born in 
Andrew, Iowa, in 1847, and died in 1860; 
Tomenend Delos, born at 6ame place, February 
20, 1849; Alfred Jonathan, born in Eureka, 
Humboldt County, California, March 18, 1853, 
and died April 24, 1874, in Napa valley; and 
Susie Cyrena, born in same place July 8, 1855. 
She married R. H. Willey, an attorney, and is 
now living at Monterey. Mr. Clark helped to 
establish Methodism on the coast. The first 
Sunday after arriving in San Francisco, he went 
out to see what he could see, and, hearing talk- 

ing, he drew near. A man, who proved to be 
William Taylor, the street preacher, since one 
of the bishops of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in Africa, was preaching from the porch 
of an adobe bouse. Mr. Clark has always lent 
a helping 1 and to organize, not only the Meth- 
odist Church, but other churches, assisting them 
in every way in his power. In the early days 
when no vacant houses could be obtained, he 
has solicited saloons to cover their bars and set 
aside their gambling tables for ministers to 
preach on the Sabbath, using the billiard tables 
for a desk. After securing a place for preach- 
ing he usually took his stand beside the minis- 
ter. He has traveled all over California, and 
has frequently talked with saloon- keepers, and 
never one has yet turned the cold shoulder to 
him. They have always acknowledged the busi- 
ness to be bad, and expressed their intention to 
leave it as soon as they could. Ever since he 
became of mature age he has been a worker in 
the Sunday-school. He is now a teacher of the 
first bible class in the First Methodist Episcopal 
Church of San Diego, besides being a member 
of the official board and class-leader of the 
church. He has been a most faithful temper- 
ance worker, and has helped to organize the 
first temperance societies on the coast. He has 
helped to organize the State League, the State 
Alliance, the Good Templars, and was among 
those who helped to institute the Good Templars' 
Home for orphans in Vallejo, and was a trustee 
of that home for fourteen years. He has been 
in every office of the Good Templars except the 
Grand Templar. He has been twice elected to 
the Right- Worthy Grand Lodge of the world. 
He represented the State at Minneapolis, Min- 
nesota, and represented more territory than any 
other delegate, including California, Nevada, 
Sandwich Islands, Japan and China. He helped 
to organize the Republican party on this 
coast, and was a strong supporter of John C. 
Fremont for President in 1856. He was a 
member of the Home Guards, ready to go on 
duty any moment, and was regularly mustered 
in and out. He helped to organize the first 


temperance political party in the State, and was 
a candidate for Governor of the State on the 
first ticket of the Prohibition party. He was 
also a candidate for Congress from the third 
district. He is now seventy one years of age, 
is very strong and bright in body and mind, 
and has not relaxed in any of the good works in 
which he has been engaged. 

§0. PRINCE was horn in Westbrook, 
Cumberland County, Maine, within one 
<* and one-half miles of the city of Port- 
land, August 21, 1844. His father. Thomas P. 
Prince, was born in Yarmouth, Maine, and was 
of English descent. Mr. Prince's mother, Ab- 
bie S. (Oakes) Prince, was also born in Maine. 
The father's ancestry on the maternal side 
traces back to Miles Standish, the Puritan. 
They were married in 1840. Mr. Prince was 
the second of seven children. He attended the 
public shools of Maine and afterward of Cali- 
fornia. His father went to California in 1852, 
and the mother and children followed in 1856. 
The subject of this sketch was then twelve years 
of age. He learned early how to work, and 
when eighteen years of age he lost his father 
and was thrown upon his own resources. He 
has been engaged in mining in Arizona, where 
he owned an interest in the McCracken mine. 
He was in Arizona twelve years and was engaged 
in the general merchandise business at Signal, 
Arizona. He sold out, and in 1888 he came to 
Florida, San Diego County, California, and took 
stock in the Fair View Company, and also owned 
other lands, which he is farming. He is the 
manager of the company's hotel in Florida. 
He was married in 1884 to Mrs. Eda Kimble, 
born May 28, 1856, in San Joaquin County, 
California. Her father, Mr. G. D. Compton, is 
a leading member of the Fair View Company, 
who owns the Florida tract and town site. She 
had one child by Mr. Kimble, G. E. Kimble, 
born August 14, 1875, and Mr. and Mrs. Prince 
have one child, Claud R., born July 24, 1889. 

While in Arizona, Mr. Prince held the office of 
Justice of the Peace, and also the office of Dep- 
uty County Assessor. He is a man of good 
habits and a worthy citizen. 

fOSEPH C. JORDAN was born in Kitran- 
ning, Pennsylvania. December 6, 1831. 
His father, Joseph M. Jordan, was a Penn- 
sylvanian of French and Scotch ancestry. His 
mother, Eliza Irwin, was born in Virginia, and 
belonged to one of those famous families that 
have been there since before the Revolution. 
Mr. Jordan was the fifth child of a family of 
nine. He received his early education in Pitts- 
burg. When a lad he entered a store as cash 
boy. His father was a merchant, and he served 
an apprenticeship to the dry-goods business. 
He was for some time with J. Hanson Love & 
Co., in their Bee Hive store on Market street, 
in Pittsburg, which was rightly named, for it 
was a very busy place. After that he was in 
the employ of the Sharon Iron Company. When 
President Lincoln made his first call for 75,000 
men to put down the rebellion, he answered that 
call by enlisting April 21, 1861, in Company A, 
Eighth Pennsylvania Reserve Corps. From 
this company he was transferred to Lattery C, 
Fifth United States Artillery, and served gal- 
lantly until December, 1863, when he was mus- 
tered out of the service on account of an injury 
received in his breast by the recoil of the piece, 
which caused valvular disease of the heart, from 
which his physicians thought he could not re- 
cover, but he did regain his health. While in 
the service he participated in the battle of 
Dranesville and the skirmishing which preceded 
it, on the upper Potomac. It was his battery 
that opened the seven days fight in front of 
Richmond, at Mechanicsville. They retreated 
to Harris' landing, where they got a night's 
rest. In the morning they were attacked and 
gave battle in return. Hooker, with a squad 
ron of cavalry, and Mr. Jordan's battery, 
drove them, and finally captured them at the 


head of Heron Creek. Back of their former 
battle-field of Malvern Hill, on the extreme 
right of the battle-field, they found many of the 
Confederate dead still unburied, and it was a 
most sickening sight. They joined Pope at 
Fredericksburg, and at the Rappahannock Bridge 
they met Longstreet. They burned the bridge 
and he was forced to retreat. Then came the 
second battle of Bull Hun, which was almost 
lost, when the Pennsylvania Reserve Corps at- 
tacked Stonewall Jackson and turned the for- 
tunes of the day. The actions at Antietam]and 
Soutli Mountain were the two last battles in 
which he took part. When he recovered from 
his injury he became book-keeper for Peirce & 
McMasters, who had a contract to build a por- 
tion of the Pittsburg & Erie Railroad. In 
April, 1861, he married Mrs. Emma Patterson, 
widow of Mr. Charles Patterson. Mr. and Mrs. 
Patterson were married in 1851, and one year 
after their marriage he came to California, where 
he died in 1852. Her maiden name was Emma 
M. McCleery, and she was born July 17, 1832, 
in Sharon, Mercer County, Pennsylvania. Her 
father was a native of Glasgow, and her mother 
of Westchester, Pennsylvania. Her father came 
to America in 1820, and was a Baptist minister, 
but when he came to the United States, he 
joined the Christian denomination and was a 
minister of that society also. Mrs. Jordan 
was educated in the Christian College at Huron, 
Portage County, Ohio. Much of Mrs. Jordan's 
life, from the loss of her first husband for the 
nine years previous to her marriage to Mr. 
Jordan, had been spent in the care of the sick 
and the poor. When the civil war broke out, 
Mrs. Jordan enlisted. She became an efficient 
worker in the Sanitary Commission, in connec- 
tion with Mrs. Rouse, of Cleveland. They so- 
licited money and goods for the sick and wounded 
soldiers of both sides of the great struggle, and 
the supplies were sent to the prisons and hos- 
pitals. It was truly a philanthropic and Chris- 
tian work. She had one child by Mr. Patterson, 
Cate H., born July 21, 1852, in Sharon, Penn- 
sylvania. She is married to C. W. Frost, who 

is in the real-estate and money-lending business 
at Santa Rosa, and has seven children, viz.: 
Jennie E., Walter C, Arthur, Catie, James, 
Henry and Maud. Mr. and Mrs. Jordan re- 
moved to Iowa, where they engaged in the hotel 
business, but, Mr. Jordan's health being broken, 
they removed to Montana, and in 1873 came to 
California and settled in Los Angeles one year; 
then in Santa Rosa for four years, and in 1878 
came to San Jacinto, where they purchased an 
undivided interest in the company lands. When 
they first came to San Jacinto they occasionally 
entertained people, but since the erection of the 
Pal ma House, Mrs. Jordan has had charge of 
it. She is not only a pioneer hotel-keeper, but 
a model hostess, and has the true conception of 
what a hotel should be. She has the happy 
faculty of making her guests comfortable and 
feel at home. She is a member of the Christian 
Church. Mr. Jordan has been in the stock- 
raising business since coming to San Jacinto. 
He first took to cattle-raising, but more recently 
to horse-raising. He is an accomplished horse- 
man and an enthusiast at the business. He 
has some fine blooded colts, of the Nutwood, 
Ethan Allen, McClellan and Crockett stock. He 
is thoroughly posted in the handling and treat- 
ment of horses. Mr. Jordan is a Master Mason 
and a member of the I. O. O. F. and G. A. R., 
Common Post, No. 52, San Bernardino. He 
and Mrs. Jordan have hosts of friends. 

tANCOCK M. JOHNSTON was born in 
Brazoria County, Texas, December 28> 
1847. His father, General Albert Sidney 
Johnston, was born in the Kentucky village of 
Washington, Mason County, February 2, 1803. 
His grandfather was Dr. John Johnston, and 
his great-grandfather, Archibald Johnston, was 
a native of Salisbury, Connecticut. The fam- 
ily was of Scotch ancesiry, who had settled in 

Mr. Johnston's father, the General, served in 
the army of the United States and in the army 


of the Confederate State?. He took the oath of 
allegiance to the Republic of Texas, served 
during her struggle for independence, and her 
Indian wars as Commander-in-chief of her 
armies and Secretary of War of the Republic; 
served under Zachary Taylor in Mexico, in com- 
mand of a Texas regiment of volunteers, and 
fought at the battle of Monterey with credit to 
himself. He was a soldier of marked ability 
and true to his convictions. On April 6th, at 
the battle of Shiloh, he was shot in the leg 
whilst gallantly leading his men in a charge. 
An artery was severed and before medical aid 
could be obtained, he bled to death. 

Hancock Johnston's mother, Eliza (Griffin) 
Johnston, was a Virginian, the daughter of 
John Caswell and Mary Hancock Griffin, 
of Virginia. They were descendants of promi- 
nent Virginia families of Welsh and English 

From the time Mr. Johnston was sixteen 
years of age, for about five years, he gave his 
attention to mining and was for three years 
foreman of the New Almaden quicksilver 
mines. After this he went to Los Angeles and 
engaged in the sheep-raising business with his 
nncle, Dr. John S. Griffin, in 1869, in which 
business he continued for five years. 

In 1873 they platted their sheep ranch as Ea6t 
Los Angeles, and built the street railway. It 
now contains 10,000 inhabitants and all the im- 
provements of a modern city. He then turned 
his attention to the oil region and surveyed all 
that oil country in Ventura County, and in con- 
nection with Rowland and Lacy commenced the 
development of the Puente region. During 
the same time he ran the Los Angeles Herald 
Publishing Company, of which he was presi- 
dent. He was one of the organizers of the 
First National Bank of Los Angeles, and was 
one of its directors. 

In 1870 he began to import and breed stock 
Merino sheep, Durham cattle, Berkshire and 
Poland-China hogs, and Norman running and 
trotting horses. He still continues in this busi- 
ness, and in 1881 he paid $5,300 for one black 

Angus bull, three cows and a calf, imported from 
Aberdeen, Scotland, and he has now about 250 
of them. He owns a tenth interest in the Hemet 
Land Company. They have a very choice and 
extensive land interest adjoining South San 
Jacinto, with water piped over the whole tract. 

He has a mountain ranch of 9,000 acres of 
timber and grass land, called the Hemet Val- 
ley Stock Farm. He moves his stock on it in 
April and the grass is green on it the whole 
season. He raises on it wheat, barley and oats. 
It is fenced into five pastures, and a portion of 
it is planted in cherries, apples and pears. The 
altitude is from 3,600 to 6,000 feet. 

He has 600 acres at his home ranch a few 
miles south of San Jacinto. It is divided into 
lots and fenced with tine timber. A consider- 
able portion is seeded to alfalfa. It is stocked 
with thorough-bred standard trotters and Shet- 
land ponies. The portion of the ranch not 
used for pasture is utilized in the production of 
wheat, barley and hay. His brick residence is 
on an eminence at the extreme south of the 
property against the foot-hills, which form its 
background. The house has wide verandahs, sup- 
ported by rustic columns; trunks of trees with 
the bark and limbs on them give the idea of 
simplicity. Sixty acres of the grounds in the 
vicinity of the house have quite recently been 
planted to fruit and ornamental trees, shrubs, 
vines and flowers. There is a neat lawn in 
front of the house and in a few years the place 
will present a perfectly delightful appearance. 
Mr. Johnston calls his home Big Springs. He 
came here in 1887. He spends nine months of 
the year on this ranch and the other three on 
his mountain ranch, eighteen miles distant. 

In 1870 he was married to Miss Mary Eaton, 
daughter of Judge B. S. Eaton, of Los Angeles, 
born in Maryland in 1850. They have four 
children, viz.: Mary, Albert Sidney, John Grif- 
fin and Hancock McClnrg. Mr. and Mrs. 
Johnston have an intelligent family, large flocks 
and herds, many acres of rich lands supplied 
with an abundance of pure water, a refined 
home in the most balmy climate, surrounded 


by grand scenery, and the question may very 
reasonably be asked, "What lackest thou?" 
Everything seems happy here, even to the three 
large Newfoundland dogs that skip and wag a 
welcome round the feet of the visitor as if to 
show the cordiality of the proprietor of the 

#^€B-^# — 

ST. LINDENBERGER, orchardist, near 
Winchester, was born in Olive Green, 
a Ohio, November 16, 1853. His father, 
Solomon Lindenberger, was born in Delaware 
County, Ohio, and was a pioneer of northwest- 
ern Ohio. His grandfather, John Lindenber- 
ger, was a native of Providence, Rhode Island. 
John Lindenberger's grandfather came to Amer- 
ica from Germany before the Revolution. Mr. 
Solomon Lindenberger was a soldier in the 
Union army, Company C, Thirty-eighth Ohio 
Volunteer Infantry. When his time of service 
expired he re-enlisted in the Sixty-eighth Indi- 
ana, and served to the close of the war. Mr. 
Lindenberger's mother, Sarah B. (Stephens) 
Lindenberger, was born in Knox County, Ohio, 
in 1838. They had four sons. The subject of 
this sketch was educated in the public schools 
of Williams County, Ohio, and when eighteen 
years of age entered a printing office at Bryan, 
Ohio, as an apprentice. Shortly after his ap- 
prenticeship he went to Toledo and entered the 
office of the Sunday Journal, and worked two 
years at the printer's case. After this he was 
engaged as a reporter on one of the dailies, and 
acted in nearly every department of a newspaper 
work for ten years. From there he went to De- 
troit, Michigan, and opened an independent rail- 
road ticket office agency, making a specialty of 
excursion business. In 1887 he caught the Cali- 
fornia fever and brought out a large excursion, 
and with it his own family, to visit and see the 
country. He spent the winter with his family 
in Riverside, and in looking over the country 
he was attracted to the Menifee valley, and pur- 
chased eighty acres of land, section 36, range 5 

south, and 3 west of the San Bernardino merid- 
ian. It lies in an L, and at the foot of the 
hills, on the east side of the valley, and slopes 
gently toward the west. On this spot Mr. 
Lindenberger is making one of the most pleas- 
ing and attractive fruit farms and homes in 
southern California. Seventeen acres are planted 
to olives, six to raisin grapes, and a large num- 
ber of deciduous fruit and ornamental trees. 
Mr. Lindenberger returned to Detroit, Michi- 
gan, in April of 1888, and the following winter 
his brother, H. H. Lindenberger, who is his 
business partner, came out with one of their 
excursion parties, and purchased the adjoining 
eighty acres in the same section, and had an 
equal number of trees and vines planted of the 
same character; so they now have a solid grove 
of thirty-four acres of olives. Later, Linden- 
berger Brothers purchased 160 acres more, and 
they now own the east half of section 36, which 
they intend in time to cover with an olive 
grove, and to that end they have erected a 
green-house for the purpose of rooting olive 
trees for these grounds. They will make the 
growing of olives their leading specialty. Mr. 
F. T. Lindenberger returned to California in 
October, 1889, with the intention of making 
his home here and building up their property. 
They have already expended between $8,000 
and $10,000 in improvements, besides the house 
and barns, and have a nice system of water 
pumped on the place. The water comes to 
within fourteen or fifteen feet of the surface 
under all their grounds. They have raised 
their trees without irrigation. The olive trees, 
when planted twenty months ago, were only 
fifteen inches high; they have now grown to 
five feet. They have three acres planted to 
orange trees. The grounds are artistically laid 
out, and the trees planted with perfect regular- 
ity. The buildings are 300 feet from the main 
road, and have broad avenues planted with orna- 
mental trees, shrubs, flowers, lawns and hedges. 
They intend to erect fine residences on the 
property soon. H. II. Lindenberger attends to 
their eastern business, while F. T. is on the 



ranch. They are also raising some line speci- 
mens of Pekin ducks and Plymouth Rock 
poultry; have constructed an incubating house 
and are now running two large incubators. Mr. 
Lindenberger was married to Miss Edna C. 
Gregory, born in Toledo, Ohio, November 28, 
1854, and daughter of P. G. Gregory, of Huron, 
Ohio. They were of Scotch ancestry, but quite 
remote. They have live children: Agnes, born 
in Toledo in 1877; Alice, in Toledo, 1880; 
Mary, in Detroit, 1883; Edwin F., in Detroit, 
in 1887, and Oliver S., in California in Febru- 
ary, 1890. Mr. and Mrs. Lindenberger are 
people of taste and intelligence, and are pleasant 
people to meet. Mr. Lindenberger is evidently 
a man of successful business ability. " The 
Garden of the World " is being occupied with 
such citizens as these. 

fL. CO PEL AND, one of San Diego's 
representative citizens, who with firm 
* persistence and but a common-school 
education has advanced steadily in his profes- 
sion, was born in Goshen, Elkhart County, 
Indiana, August 14, 1860, his father being a 
native of New York, and his mother of Ohio. 
In 1869, they came to Sacramento, California, 
by the Central Pacific Railroad, where he learned 
the trade of printer. In 1873 they came to San 
Diego and his father purchased a farm in Sweet- 
water valley, where he remained at home for five 
years. He then went to Arizona and prospected 
in mining for two years, when he returned to 
San Diego in 1880, and entered the law office of 
Judge Lucy and began the study of his profes- 
sion. He attended the Iowa Law School at 
Keokuk, Iowa, and by persistent study he ac- 
complished the three-years course in nineteen 
months and graduated at the end of that time. 
He then returned to San Diego and entered the 
office of W. J. Hunsacker, who at that time, 
1883, was District Attorney; he remained two 
years. In 1886, Mr. Copeland was honored 
with the nomination of district attorney and 

was elected for two years, and was re-elected in 
1888; and this position he now fills. 

In December, 1887, Mr. Copeland was mar- 
ried to Miss Helen Minor, a native of Indiana, 
but at that time residing in San Diego. They 
have no children. Mr. Copeland has been very 
active in politics, and is a member of the Knights 
of Pythias lodge. 

§MOS L. CREIDER is a native of Lancas- 
ter County, Pennsylvania, born January 
22, 1844. His father, Jacob Creider, was 
a member of the Dunkard Church. His grand- 
father, also a Jacob Creider, was from Germany 
and a pioneer in this country in the time of 
Benjamin Franklin. Their home was within a 
few miles of President James Buchanan, and 
has become a very rich, improved country, in 
everything that pertains to agriculture, and is 
noted for its tine residences. Mr. Creider's 
mother, Anna (Longnecker) Creider, was from 
Buffalo, New York. There were ten children 
in the family, only live of whom are living. 
His brothers are in West Virginia, and his 
sister is married to Mr. F. Janvenant, who is in 
the banking business in Nebraska. Mr. Creider 
was raised on a farm, and gathered his educa- 
tion in brief terms of winter schools, having to 
work the greater part of the year. In 1864 the 
family moved to Miami County, Indiana, and 
only two weeks after their arrival there his 
father sickened and died in his forty-fifth year. 
His request to his son Amos was that he should 
take care of the family. This duty devolved 
upon him at twenty years of age. In 1865 he 
was married to Miss Olive A. Beckner, born in 
1848, and daughter of Dr. J. F. Beckner, of 
Peru. Indiana. They have nine children, viz : 
Annie B., Rosa, John, Jennie K., Olive, Amos, 
Oney, Gracie and Florence. In 1866 he moved 
into Newton County and bought a raw prairie 
farm of 120 acres, and improved it to a high 
state of cultivation. Owing to exposure and 
over-work he became sick with the rheumatism 


and fever and was advised to go south. In 
1871 he sold his farm and removed to Hunting- 
ton, West Virginia, the terminus of the Chesa- 
peake & Ohio Railroad. During the twelve 
years he was there he had the pleasure of seeing 
the town grow from nothing to a city of 10,000. 
He was elected the first Republican Mayor of 
the city. Being afflicted with throat trouble, 
he was advised to try the climate of southern 
California, and on May 4, 1887, he came to San 
Jacinto and bought twenty acres of land just 
north of the present city limits. He has built 
the main part of the residence and a new barn. 
At a cost of $500 he has dug a seven-inch 
artesian well, 210 feet deep, on the highest part 
of his ground, and has water under pressure all 
over his grounds. When allowed to flow it 
makes a river of excellent water. He is fast 
improving the property by planting trees, shrubs 
and vines, and it will soon be a very fine fruit- 
bearing ranch. The soil is particularly rich. 
Mr. Creider, from twenty-four tomato plants, 
from May until November, gathered and sold 
$50 worth of splendid tomatoes. He has a 
ranch of 320 acres on Menifee plains, on which 
he intends to make improvements. His throat 
difficulty is very much relieved, and he has all 
the prospects of a long and prosperous life be- 
fore him. Mr. and Mrs. Creider are enjoying 
the comforts of their pleasant home with their 
interesting family, and have the confidence and 
esteem of all who know them. 

— ?^€§i»-£# — 

Diego, was born at Versailles, Ripley 
County, Indiana, January 16, 1826. At 
the age of six years he moved with his parents 
to Boone County, Kentucky, the subject being 
the sixth in a family of eleven children, only 
three of whom survive, one brother living in 
Kansas City and one still in Kentucky. J. W. 
McClain lived in Boone County but two years 
and then moved to Lawrenceburg, Indiana, re- 
maining until 1838, when he again moved to 

the Bayou, southern part of Indiana, where his 
parents both died, leaving him at the age of 
fifteen years. In 1841 he returned to Lawrence- 
burg, and for six years worked on a farm and 
traded on the Mississippi river in all kinds of 
farm produce and groceries. In May, 1847, he 
enlisted at Lawrenceburg, in Company C, Fourth 
Regiment, Indiana Volunteers, Colonel Gorman 
in command, Captain Baldridge in command of 
the company, for the Mexican war. They were 
ordered to Camp Meir on the Rio Grande, and 
drilled there five weeks, and were then ordered 
to Brazos Island at the mouth of the Rio Grande, 
and then forwarded to Vera Cruz and started on 
the march to the city of Mexico; but at the 
city of Pnebla, in October, the regiment was 
stationed and remained in Puebla until the end 
of the war. In January, 1848, Mr. McClain was 
discharged from the sick list. Returning, he 
stopped at Henderson, Kentucky, where he was 
very ill for several weeks. In July, 1848, he 
returned to Lawrenceburg and farmed and 
traded until 1852, when he started for Califor- 
nia with a party of fifteen. They bought mule 
teams and came across by the old emigrant 
route by St. Joe, Laramie, north of Salt Lake 
by Sublette's Cut-off, and arrived at Hangtown, 
now Placerville, El Dorado County, July 15, 
1852. They were two and a half months on the 
road, having a very pleas int trip. They fol- 
lowed mining in Greenwood valley, the same 
county, until 1853. He then spent one year on 
Mosquito creek, northern part of Yuba County, 
and in 1854 he went into Sierra County, 
where he followed surface mining until 1859. 
He then moved to Butte County and worked at 
surface mining until 1867, but the result of all 
his mining was only a living, as he went in with 
$150 and came out with a like amount. In 
June, 1867, he moved to Solano County, and 
started a blacksmith shop, hiring a workman 
and continuing until October 1, 1869, when he 
sold out and went to San Francisco, and then to 
San Diego, landing on Horton's wharf, October 
16,1869. It being the time of the great El 
Paso boom, lodging and board were very ex- 


pensive and he immediately bought a lot in 
Sherman's addition and in one week put up a 
house 14 x 16 feet, and moved in. lie then 
worked for wages until 1887, clerking a little 
but working mainly with the county and city 
surveyors. In 1887 he was obliged to give up 
active business on account of severe bronchial 

Mr. McClain was married in Plumas County, 
California, October 16, 1856, to Miss Lydia 
Staples, a native of New Hampshire. His wife 
died in 1883, leaving no children. He has been 
a member of the order of Odd Fellows since 
1862, and is now a member of the San Diego 

JH C. KIRKPATRICK, one of the prominent 
fplj pioneers of Menifee, is a native of Jack- 
^\ Q son County, Tennessee, born August 24, 
1823. His grandfather, Robert Kirkpatrick, 
emigrated from South Carolina with pack horses 
before there was any other mode of conveyance 
and settled at Aston Station, Kentucky. There 
he raised his family and then in 1805 removed 
to Tennessee. Mr. Kirkpatrick's father, William 
Kirkpatrick, was born in Kentucky in 1772. 
He was married to Miss Keziah Chisoin, daugh- 
ter of John Chisom, of Tompkinsville, Kentucky, 
born in 1782, by whom he had five sons and 
seven daughters. The subject of this sketch 
was the seventh of this family. He was educated 
in Jackson County, Tennessee, and when twenty 
years of age learned the tanning trade and fol- 
lowed the business for several years. In 1847 
he opened a general merchandise store in Gains- 
boro, Tennessee, and continued there in business 
until 1860, and then removed to west Tennessee 
and carried on a dry-goods store at Union City. 
In 1874 he came to California and settled at 
Garden Grove, Los Angeles County (now Orange 
County), bought land and farmed there for seven 
years. January 7, 1881. he came to Menifee 
and took up 160 acres of land. When he had 
been on the laud a year his sons, William T. and 

Cladus M., came on and each of them took up 
160 acres of land, making a section that they 
have together in one body. It is an excellently 
tine section of land. They are farming it mostly 
to grain, but they are also raising cattle, horses 
and mules. This year (1889) they intend to 
sow 250 acres of wheat and about 700 acres of 

He was married to Miss Bettie Thomp- 
son, daughter of William Thompson, a Tennes- 
seean and a farmer. She was born February, 
1834. They had nine children: William T., 
married Miss Callie Patton and has a family of 
seven children; Mr. Kirkpatrick's daughter, N. 
K., married Mr. J. B. Teel and lives in Menifee. 
The other sons are in Menifee on the land ad- 
joining their father's. Mr. Kirkpatrick and 
two of his sons are members of the Christian 
Church. The family is one of high respect- 
ability and honor and take an interest in all that 
pertains to the advancement of the county in 
which they have elected to make their home. 

jj^ENRY L. SHAUG, a native of Mason 
\M) County, Virginia, was born December 8, 
*M 1832. His paternal grandfather was a 
physician and came to America from Germany 
in 1742, settling in Pennsylvania. In 1793 
he moved to the town of New Lancaster, Ohio, 
and spent the rest of his life there. He died at 
the advanced age of eighty-nine. He had three 
sons, one of whom never married; another mar- 
ried and had but one child, a daughter. The 
family name would have been lost had it not 
been that Mr. Shaug's father came to the rescue 
and had a family of fourteen children. Mr. 
Shaug's father and his father's brothers were all 
physicians. His parents were Methodists. His 
mother, Mrs. Sherwood Shaug, a native of 
Cornwall Township, Connecticut, was born in 
1801. His father, William Henry Shaug, was 
born in 1792, in the town of Lebanon, Penn- 
sylvania, and was married to Miss Hannah Sher- 
wood, daughter of Mr. John Sherwood, a land- 


owner and farmer, of English descent. His 
father was commissioned a surgeon in the war 
of 1812. He resigned that position and was 
commissioned by President Monroe an ensign 
in the regular army, and served all through that 
war. In the year 1808 he went down the Ohio 
and up the Mississippi river in a keel- boat and 
landed at the then little village of St. Louis, 
Missouri, which had only a few houses. He 
died in 1859, at the age of sixty-seven. 

Mr. H. L. Shang was the tenth child and 
spent his boyhood days on the farm, going three 
months in a year to a little country school. 
When he was fourteen years of age his father 
moved to Farmington, Iowa. He served an 
apprenticeship of two years in a drug store in 
Keokuk, Iowa, and then went to Hannibal, 
Missouri. In 1852 he crossed the plains with 
an ox team in company with seventeen pioneers. 
The company was organized by Captain Hoke. 
They landed in Calaveras County in August, 
1852. In 1854 that county was divided, and 
that portion which he was in became Amador 
County. He was a miner there until 1860, 
when he went by the way of New York to Iowa 
and there engaged in the art of photography, 
which he followed until 1873, when he returned 
to California and settled in Los Angeles. He 
afterward removed to San Fernando valley and 
engaged in merchandising for seven years. In 
1880 he went to Pomona, where he engaged in 
horticulture and agriculture, remaining there 
until the fall of 1885, when he removed to San 
Diego County, Thermal Heights, two and one- 
half miles east of Del Mar, where he located on 
160 acres of Government land, 100 of which he 
has cleared, and built for a permanent home a 
house which cost $2,600. He has planted 400 
deciduous trees, of nearly every variety, which 
are just commencing to bear; he has 200 olive 
trees and about 2,000 grape-vines, consisting of 
raisin grapes and four kinds of the choicest 
table grapes. He is growing a very choice new 
variety of pop corn (Queen's Golden), a great 
yielder and considered the best in the United 
States. It has yielded as high as forty bushels 

to the acre. He planted three sacks of seed 
potatoes, from which he gathered thirty-seven 
sacks. It was planted on high laDd, was not 
irrigated, and received but one cultivation. He 
raised 2,100 pounds of green peas on one-fourth 
of an acre of land, 500 pounds of Lima beans; 
has still 200 pounds of dry beans, and there is 
still the second crop to be gathered! This is 
a new variety, called the King of the Garden. 
He planted one-half an acre in melons, and 
after the birds had destroyed about one-half 
of them, he sold five large wagon loads of fine 
melons. He has grown on this place nearly the 
entire list of garden vegetables, and has had 
great success with the Burbank seedling potato, 
producing a large yield of extra quality. His 
wife is devoting much attention to fbwers, and 
they have many rare varieties, including twenty- 
six varieties of the Cereus family. He has pur- 
chased five acres of land in Chula Yista, and is 
going to devote it exclusively to flowers. Mrs. 
Shaug is thoroughly informed on this business 
and will take charge of it. They get water from 
the Sweetwater dam for $3.50 per acre per an- 
num, and the president of the water company, 
Colonel Dickinson, is taking a lively interest 
in the project, as it will show what can be done 
in producing the choicest flowers. 

Mr. Shaug married, April 3, 1861, Mies Har- 
riet L. Gill, daughter of Marcus Gill, a farmer 
who came to California in 1849. Their union 
is blessed with four children: Ella M., born in 
Farmington, Iowa, in 1862; Charles J., in 
Salem, Iowa, in 1872; Hugh G., in Ottumwa, 
Iowa; Marcus Luther, in San Fernando, Los 
Angeles County, California, in 1875. Mr. Shaug 
and his family are bright, industrious, upright 
and reliable business people. 

ILLIAM WINTER, of the firm pf Win- 
ter & Schuetze, proprietors of a meat 
I*^&r| market at San Diego. — America's op- 
portunities are ample, and as evidence the for- 
eigner may find a home and prosperity within 


her borders, we have the experience of "William 
Winter, a native of Germany, who was born at 
Schwarzach-amt-Biihl, Grand Duchy of Baden, 
1856, being the sixth child in a family of 
of eight children, all of whom are still liv- 
ing. In 1870, at the age of fourteen years, 
William Winter left home for America by 
steamer from Bremen to New York, then by the 
Central Pacific route to California, arriving at 
San Francisco in July, 1870. He there found 
employment as messenger boy with the furni- 
ture house of J. A. Schafer & Co., remaining 
until October, 1871, when he started by steamer 
Orizaba, for San Diego, where his brother Jo- 
seph was then living. After a few m )nths as 
messenger boy with Mr. llirschey he entered the 
employ of his brother, in his bakery business, 
and remained with him about six years. In 
1877 he associated himself with his brother-in- 
law, Jacob Kuhner, and under the firm name of 
Knhner & Winter they opened a butcher mar- 
ket at the corner of Fifth and G streets. After 
one year Mr. Winter bought out Mr. Kuhner 
and continued business alone until 1885, when 
it became so large he took in Mr. W. F. Schuetze 
to attend to the outside matters, and continued 
under the firm name of Winter & Schuetze, 
re naining at the old stand until 1886, when 
they moved to their present stand at 946 Fifth 
street, between E and D streets. They own 
their own slaughter honse, buy cattle direct 
from the ranches and do a wholesale and re- 
tail business. 

Mr. Winter is a past member of the San 
Diego Fire Company, No. 1, and was treasurer 
of the corapiny for two yeiri, an 1 for seven 
years was an active member; he then resigned, 
as business was too active to allow time to out- 
side matters. He is also a member, for many 
years; of the I. O. O. F. 

Mr. Winter was married to Miss Ida E. 
Glauch, a native of Dresden, Germany, then 
residing" in San Francisco, in June 1886. They 
have but one child, William Winter, who is 
three years of age. Mr. Winter owns a nice 
house and lot at 335 Eighth street, where he 

now resides, and possesses those qualities of 
thrift and persistence which are sure of result- 
ing successfully. 

§T. PLATH, a rancher and pioneer of the 
rich valley of Menifee, was born in Mel- 
9 dorph, Germany, December 22, 1844- 
His father, I. J. Plath,wasa native of Hamburg, 
Germany, born in 1813, and followed the busi- 
ness of milling. Mr. Plath's grandfather was 
also a native of Hamburg and a wholesale 
furniture dealer. Mr. Plath's father married 
Miss Eliza Wilckens, who was born in Hamburg 
in 1816. Her father, Mr. John Wilckens, was 
a ship chandler. They had a family of eight 
children, of which the subject of this sketch 
was the third. They came to America in 1854 
and settled in Davenport, Iowa, where Mr. 
Plath had a store and did an insurance and col- 
lection business. The subject of this sketch 
attended school, first in Germany and afterward 
in Davenport, Iowa. When he was sixteen 
years of age he learned the harness- makers' 
trade, and at the age of twenty he opened a shop 
of his own in Pescadero, San Mateo County, 
California. He came to California in 1864, cross- 
ing the plains to Salt Lake City with a man who 
was bringingsixteenhead of horses. At Salt Lake 
City this man became so overbearing that Mr. 
Plath and another man left him and came on to 
until they fell in with another train. He first 
settled in Santa Clara County, but removed foot 
Pescadero, where he was in business three and 
one-half years, when he removed to San Joaquin 
County and took up a preemption claim, on 
which he remained two years, when he proved 
it up and went back to his harness business in 
Pescadero. In 1877 he came to Los Angeles 
County where he remained during the summer, 
buying and selling stock and driving and break- 
ing horses. He purchased twenty acres of land 
near Monrovia, and after farming it for three 
years sold it, and in 1885 came to Menifee 
valley and took up a homdsteai of 160 acres of 



land, on which he built a house and barn, and 
kept " bachelor's hall " until 1888, when his 
mother came to live with him. In 1887 he 
began to improve his grounds, by planting 
hedges and shrubs. Some of his eucalyptus 
trees have grown thirty feet in two years. He 
planted 500 fruit trees one year later, and they 
have made astonishing growth without irriga- 
tion. Walnuts planted two years ago have 
grown four feet in two years. Mr. Plath is a 
horseman, understands the Rockwell system of 
educating horses, and has a barn-full of fine 
horses in training. He is also doing something 
in the way of raising Essex hogs, and keeps 
a number on hand. Mr. Plath is a good farmer, 
a man of ability, a credit to the country, and one 
who is making telling improvements that will 
aid in showing the capabilities of the country. 

the best known citizens of San Diego is 
Colonel Chalmers Scott. He is a native 
of Louisiana, having been born in New Orleans, 
May 9, 1845. He came with his parents to 
San Francisco, where his father, Rev. William 

A. Scott, D. D.. LL. D., was for many years 
pastor of the St. John's Presbyterian Church. 
Chalmers attended the public schools until 
1861, when he went to Europe with his parents. 
He attended college at Montaban, France, up to 
June, 1862, and then was a student in the Uni- 
versity College, London, until May, 1863. His 
family then returned to the United States, and 
he accompanied them. P'rom June, 1863, to 
May, 1864, he attended the law department of 
the University of New York, graduating at the 
head, though the youngest of his class, at the 
age of nineteen, and having the degree of LL. 

B. conferred upon him. He then entered the 
law office of Blatchford, Seward & Griswold, 
where he remained until November, 1864, when 
he returned to San Francisco; and for a year 
read law in the office of ttaight & Pierson. 
He would have continued his le^al studies, but 

an injury to one of his eyes, received when at 
school, so affected the sight that he found close 
application to his books was using up his eye 
completely. A sea voyage was recommended, 
and just at this time he met the late Thomas 
M. Cash, who was at that time the representa- 
tive of the New York Herald on this coast. 
By him Mr. Scott was appointed special corre- 
spondent of the Herald, to make a trip to China 
and back, on the steamship Colorado, being the 
opening trip of the China line by the Pacific 
Mail Steamship Company, leaving San Fran- 
cisco on New Year's day, 1867. 

He made the trip, was gone nearly three 
months, and on his return rushed through a 
2,000-word dispatch to the Herald before any 
other newspaper man could get a word of the 
news. A few days afterward Mr. Bennett ap- 
pointed him by telegraph resident correspond- 
ent of the Herald in China. This, however, 
he was obliged to decline. His eye still troubled 
him, and he went into the Sierras with an en- 
gineering party of the Central Pacific Railway, 
remaining from June, 1867, to April, 1868. 
Becoming snow-blind, he returned to San Fran- 
cisco. The Spring Valley Water Company was 
then building their great San Andreas dam, 
and he joined the construction force under 
Colonel Elliott, United States Engineer Corps, 
as paymaster. 

At the end of a year he resigned and again 
began his study of law, entering the office of 
General W. H. L. Barnes. In January, 1870, 
his attention was attracted to San Diego, and, 
looking upon it as a coming city, he came here 
and formed a law partnership with Colonel G. 
A. Jones. He was admitted to the bar in 
July, 1870, and in March of the following year 
he was appointed County Clerk, to fill the un- 
expired term of Captain George A. Pendleton, 
deceased. September, 1872, he joined the Texa6 
Pacific survey as transitman, under C. J. Fox, 
and made a survey from San Diego to San 
Gorgonio Pass. 

In March, 1873, the party being called in. he 
resumed his law practice. In November, 1874 


having married Maria Anton ia Couts, eldest 
daughter of the late Colonel C. J. Couts, he 
moved upon the homestead on Raneho Cuajome 
as legal adviser of the estate. In December, 
1875, he accepted the position of Deputy State 
Treasurer under Don Jose Guadalupe Estudillo, 
but the climate of S.acramento not agreeing 
with his family, he returned to the Cuajome. 
For a short time in 1880-'81, he was in the 
employ of the California Southern at San Diego, 
but in May, 1881, he was appointed assistant 
engineer on the Central Pacific .Railroad, in 
charge of the survey from Yuma to Port Isabel, 
at the mouth of the Colorado. From Yuma he 
was transferred to Corinne, Utah, to survey a 
line by way of South Pass, of the Rocky Moun- 
tains, to Yankton, Dakota. The following year 
he went to Tucson, and in conjunction with 
Hon. S. R. De Long, Chief Engineer of the 
Tncson & Gulf of California Railroad Company, 
made a reconnoissance to Port Lobos, and after- 
ward reconnoitered branch lines from Picacho 
to the Gunsight mine in Meyers 1 district, and 
back by way of Gila Bend, Arizona. He was 
afterward in charge of a survey for the exten- 
sion of the Vaca Valley & Clear Lake Rail- 

In August, 1883, he was sent to Guatemala 
as chief engineer of the Central American 
Pacific Railway and Transportation Company, 
to build an extension of the Guatemala Central 
Railroad from Escuintala to the city of Guate- 
mala, a distance of thirty-eight miles. The 
previous management had wasted over two 
years of their time, and had graded only five 
miles of road and laid three miles of track, 
leaving thirty-three miles to be surveyed, 
located, graded and ironed in twelve months, 
in ordei to save the concession. In thirteen 
miles of that distance the grade is continuous 
at the rate of 240 feet to the mile, and nine 
bridges from 180 to 220 feet in length, and 
from eighty to 150 feet high, and at Lake Ama- 
titlan there was one solid fill 750 feet long aDd 
eighty feet deep in the lake, which had to be 
filled from one end, requiring over 500,000 

cubic yards of dirt. It was in this work that 
the discipline of the Central Pacific Railroad 
proved its value, for with Colonel Scott as 
chief engineer and J. B. Harris as superin- 
tendent of construction, the locomotive blew 
i ts whistle in Guatemala City on July 19, 1884, 
the birthday of President Barrios, two months 
ahead of contract time. 

That work completed, Colonel Scott returned 
to San Francisco, and after spending a year on 
other railroad work, resigned and followed civil 
engineering in Oakland and San Francisco, re- 
turning to San Diego in November, 1886, where 
he entered into the real-estate business in April, 
1887. In October, 1889, he resumed the prac- 
tice of law, forming a partnership with Judge 
George Fuller. Colonel Scott is a fine Spanish 
scholar, and is considered the best authority on 
Spanish names in this locality. He is also an 
authority on Mexican laws and titles, and all 
classes of cases arising in disputed surveys. 
Colonel Scott was a member of the line of the 
National Guard of California for eleven years, 
from 18G5 to 1876. In the latter year he was 


nted chief engineer, with the rank of 

Colonel, on the staff of Governor Irwin, serving 
in that capacity for four years. 

As previously noted, Colonel Scott married a 
Miss Couts, who was an acknowledged belle. 
She was considered one of the most beautiful 
young women in Southern California, and to- 
day there are few matrons in the State who can 
equal her in queenly grace and attractiveness. 
They have had nine children, four sons and five 
daughters, seven of whom are living. Colonel 
Scott is a notable man personally. He is six 
feet and three and one-half inches high, and 
weighs 200 pounds. 

— #^€(i»^— 

fHOMAS ROSE, residing near Perris, is 
of English descent. His father, Thomas 
Rose, and his mother, Elizabeth (Bottrill) 
Rose, were born in Warwickshire, England. 
They had five children, Mr. Rose being the 


third. The father died in England, and the 
mother came to the United States in 1851. 
Thomas Rose was born February 15, 1852, and 
was educated in Philadelphia. At ten years of 
age he started in the battle of life in the res- 
taurant business, and lie has been engaged in 
the same up to the year 1889. Having accumu- 
lated a few thousand dollars, he retired to the 
peaceful pursuits of horticulture in the beauti- 
ful Perris valley. In 1884 he married Miss 
Rowena Ferguson, daughter of Mr. Charles 
Ferguson, an old pioneer of San Bernardino. 
She was born in Monterey County, California. 
They have one son, born January 16, 1890. 
Mr. Rose is an Episcopalian, and is highly 

;R. E. V. VAN NORMAN is one of the 
most noted of San Diego's physicians and 
surgeons. He was born July 18, 1838* 
at Nelson, Canada West. His father, William 
Van Norman, was born in 1805 at Nekon, 
Ilolton County, Canada, and was a land-owner 
and farmer. His grandfather, Isaac Van Nor- 
man, was a native of New York, and with three 
of his brothers participated in the war of 1812 
as United States soldiers. His mother, Gills 
(Black) Van Norman, was a daughter of Dr. 
Black, of New Brunswick, who was drowned in 
attempting to cross the St. Johns river to see a 
patient. Her brother, Dr. Daniel Black, also 
sacrificed his life in the practice of his profes- 
sion in his attendance upon cholera patients 
during the year of that great scourge. He con- 
tracted the disease and died. His father and 
mother were blessed with ten children, of whom 
he was the fourth, and by the death of his 
father he was early cast upon his own resources. 
He had, while quite young, become imbued 
with the desire to become a doctor, and with 
that end in view prosecuted his studies. Up to 
his twenty-eighth year his time was spent in 
study and teaching varied with other kinds of 
work. From much reading and observation he 

became a convert to the homeopathic system, and 
ultimately in 1869 graduated at the Cleveland 
Homeopathic Hospital College. Previous to and 
during his practice ophthalmic and aural sur- 
gery were subjects of study that closely engaged 
his attention. Prof. T. P. Wilson, president of 
the college from which he graduated, being sur- 
geon in charge of the Ophthalmic and Aural 
Institute and professor of that branch in the 
college, a proposition of partnership was made 
by Dr. Wilson and accepted, and Dr. Van Nor- 
man also received the appointment of surgeon 
to the institute, which he held until he left the 
city of Cleveland, in 1872. He left this city 
ou account of the health of his family and 
moved to Springfield as an inland town, as well 
as on account of its reputation as a healthy 
location. At this time his school of medicine 
had not been brought to the front, but by faith- 
ful, industrious and never tiring energy and 
with peculiar adaptation- to the profession, ho- 
meopathy has in spite of all opposition forced 
its way to the front rank of medical practice. 
Dr. Van Norman as a medical practitioner has 
always held independent views as to the treat- 
ment of disease, holding steadily to the neces- 
sity of an adaptability to the peculiar work of 
the profession and regarding common sense as 
the first and last requirement to success. The 
Doctor is a member of the American Institute 
of Homeopathy and a member of the State 
Medical Society of Ohio, and an active member 
of the American Public Health Association, 
and is also a member of the Medical Society of 
San Diego County. Pie is a thirty-second de- 
gree Scottish rite Mason, receiving the last of 
these degrees in 1867. He has also been a 
worthy member of the Odd Fellows Association 
since 1863. Dr. Van Norman was united in 
marriage to Miss Martha N. Hazlett, daughter 
of James and Elizabeth Hazlett, in 1867. 
She was born in 1841, at Anderson, Madison 
County, Indiana. Her people were formerly 
from Virginia. Her parents now reside in 
Riverside, California, and her father has at- 
tained the advanced age of eighty-one years. 


Dr. and Mrs. Van Norman have two children, 
a girl and a boy: Gertrude G., born May 24, 
1871, at Ashtabula, Ohio: and William Ver- 
non, born December 7, 1875, at Springfield, 
Clark County, Ohio. The Doctor with his fam- 
ily removed to San Diego, July 18, 1888, and 
has purchased property and located here. Their 
home is corner of Fifth and Maple streets and 
is connected by telephone with his office at 927 
Sixth street. Dr. Van Norman became a 
Methodist when eighteen years of age and is a 
member and one of the trustees of the First 
Methodist Episcopal Church. Mrs. Van Nor- 
man was a Presbyterian, but since her marriage 
she has joined the Methodist Church. 

fAPTAIN S. S. DUNNELLS was born at 
Edgecomb, Maine, April, 15, 1824, and in 
1826 moved with his parents to Belfast 
on the Penobscot bay. His father was a sea- 
faring man, as was his grandfather; the same 
influence worked upon the son, and in 1833, at 
the age of seventeen years, he went on board a 
merchant vessel, which traded on the Atlantic 
along the coast of North and South America 
and the West Indies. In 1841, accompanied 
by seven sailors, he went up the Mississippi and 
Illinois rivers to Peoria, Illinois, and then by 
wagon across the plains to Chicago, and the 
following eight years sailed upon Lakes Michi- 
gan, Huron and Erie, as master of a vessel. In 
1849 he returned to Belfast, Maine, and in Jan- 
uary, 1850, he sailed for San Francisco, Cali- 
fornia, making but one stop, at Valparaiso, and 
completing the trip in 160 days, arriving in 
July, 1850. 

He then went prospecting in placer mines 
on the Mokelumne river and kter in Onion val- 
ley and at the headwaters of the Feather river. 
He soon, however, bought a mule team and car- 
ried supplies from Marysville to the mines. He 
then bought and built two lighters, purchased 


flour at Sacramento, and shipped it 
Feather river to Marysville, the motor pov 


being wind and poles. He made several very 
profiable trips, but sold out and went to min- 
ing on Butte river, then to Piety Hills and 
Bald mountains in Shasta County, where he 
conducted general merchandise stores, selling 
goods to the miners. In 1857 he iigain visited 
the scenes of his childhood at Belfast, Maine, 
returning by way of the Isthmus. 

Mr. Dunnells was married in 1857 to Miss 
Elizabeth II. Moore, a native of Maine. In 
1858 he returned to California, where he re- 
sumed his business at Piety Hills. Being joined 
by his wife in 1859, they remained about four 
years, and then sold out and went to Cotton- 
wood, Shasta County, where they bought a 
store and remained until 1886. They again 
sold out and visited Red Bluff's, Sacramento, 
San Jose and San Francisco. As he journeyed, 
seeking a settlement, the stories of his youth 
came before him, and the sea yarns of his old 
uncle, a seafaring man, who had often visited 
this coast, and on his return to his New En- 
gland home would sit in the chimney corner 
and tell of the beautiful bay and glorious cli- 
mate of San Diego, and from this his attention 
was turned to that place; and, being so satisfied 
that San Diego would be to hi in a haven of re6t, 
he went to A. E. Horton, who then had an 
office at San Francisco, and purchased a house 
and lot at the corner of Fifth and State streets. 
San Diego city, that he might come to this land 
of warmth and sunshine, feeling that a house 
was opened for him and to shelter his family. 
He then started the first hotel, known as the 
" Old San Diego Hotel." After running the 
hotel one year he leased it and in 1870 started 
in steamboat operations, carrying freight and 
passengers north as far as Santa Barbara and 
about 300 miles south. In 1873 he sold out 
and started in the fishing business, drying and 
shipping to San Francisco, and also in piloting 
vessels out and in the bay; but at that time 
shipping was extremely light. He continued 
until 1873, when he sold out and has since de- 
voted himself exclusively to piloting. 

Captain Dunnells has two children, one daugh- 


ter and a son, both living in San Diego, the 
son being also a pilot and connected with his 
father in duties upon the sea. 

fj. McINTOSH was born at Adams Cen- 
tre, Jefferson County, New York, Febru- 
c ary 20, 1829. The father was a native 
of Massachusetts, but of Scotch descent, and 
his mother was a native of Rhode Island. 
They have seven children, F. J. being the sixth 
in order of birth. His parents moved to Wilna, 
Jefferson County, in 1832, where his mother 
died. In 1845 he returned to Adams Centre, 
and was apprenticed for two years to learn the 
trade of shoemaker, and remained until 1848, 
working at his trade. He then spent one year 
traveling through Canada, working from time 
to time when in need of funds, and in 1850 he 
returned to Burr's Mills, Jefferson County, 
New York, working at his trade. 

He was married July 18, 1850, to Miss 
Louisa Wheeler, a native of New York State. 
He then started a hotel, which he continued 
for fourteen months, and though with no ex- 
perience he met with great success and cleared 
about $1,500. In 1853 he sold his hotel in- 
terests and engaged as foreman in a manufac- 
turing shoe store, remaining until 1856, when 
he went to Syracuse, New York, and started a 
harness business under the firm name of Mc- 
intosh & Dow. In 1857, owing to depressions 
in business, he sold out and went to Rodman, 
Jefferson County, working at his trade. In 
1858 he opened a grocery and boot and shoe 
store, and in 1860 took in a partner by the 
name of Strong, the firm name being Mcintosh 
& Strong, and in 1862 sold out to Strong. In 
July, 1862, he enlisted in Company B, Tenth 
New York Heavy Artillery, Colonel Piper in 
command. They were ordered to Fort Rich- 
mond, Staten Island, where they remained nine 
months drilling in light artillery and infantry. 
Then they were ordered to Washington, District 
of Columbia, and were stationed at Fort Carroll, 

and after a few months were ordered to Fort 
Lyons, Virginia; but after a short time were 
sent to the front and entered their first field en- 
gagement in infantry at Cold Harhor, under 
command of General Burnside. They then went 
out by way of the Whitehouse Landing, in 
General Grant's movement toward Petersburg. 
They moved by water, and were the first com- 
pany to land at City Point, arriving about dark. 
On the following morning they were drawn up 
in line of battle, and, making a charge, took 
about thirty prisoners and nine pieces of field 
artillery. They then went forward to Peters- 
burg Heights, and captured main battery No. 
5. Here was the undermining of Fort Cotton, 
a rebel fort, the blowing up of which caused a 
terrible loss of life. The regiment was then 
ordered to the Shenandoah valley, Virginia, to 
reinforce General Sheridan. The mornincr be- 
fore the battle of Cedar Creek, the rebels sur- 
prised the Union troops while in their tents, 
and a general retreat followed. Sheridan, at 
the time returning from Winchester to the 
front, met his retreating troops, rallied his men, 
drove back the rebels, and gained a victory 
which ended the war in the Shenandoah valley. 
They were then ordered back to the James 
river, near Richmond, and were present at the 
blowing up of the rebel gunboats on the James 
river. The 2d day of April, 1865, 400 men, 
selected from the Sixth and Tenth New York 
regiments, and led by Major Campbell, of the 
Tenth New York, charged on the rebel works, 
driving them back to their main line, but, find- 
ing themselves nearly surrounded, retreated 
with the loss of eighty men killed. They then 
made a general charge along the line, drove 
the enemy about two miles toward Richmond, 
and came up with General Sheridan, who had 
just taken Petersburg. The regiment was then 
ordered to Petersburg, where they remained in 
charge of the conquered city until July, 1865, 
when they were discharged from the United 
States service and were sent back to Madison 
Barracks, Sackett's Harbor, and were then dis- 
charged from the State service. The subject of 


this sketch was not wounded during the 

Mr. Mcintosh then returned to Rodman, 
Jefferson County, and bought an interest in his 
old store, continuing under the firm name of 
Mcintosh & Egan. He then bought Egan out, 
and continued alone about one year, when he 
sold out, but remained as manager. In 1867 
he went to Long Island, Canada, buying and 
shipping hides to the American 6ide. He con- 
tinued about one year, and then went to New 
York. July 5, 1868, he sailed for Aspinwall 
on the first trip of the Dakota, but owing to an 
accident they had a long and tedious passage. 
They crossed the Isthmus of Panama by rail, 
and at that place took the steamer Nevada for 
San Francisco, arriving September 2, 1868. 
He spent the winter mainly at San Jose, work- 
ing at his trade, and on March 2, 1869, started 
for San Diego. He immediately started a shoe 
shop at Old Town, making a specialty of fancy 
top boots for the Mexican trade, doing a pros- 
perous business for eighteen months, with a 
large force of employes whom he brought from 
San Francisco. He was the pioneer shoemaker 
of San Diego city. He then opened a shoe 
shop near H and Fifth streets, which business 
lie continued in about four years, when he gave 
up manufacturing. Increasing his stock, he 
kept a first-class shoe store on Fifth street. In 
1876 he sold out his store, and has since de- 
voted himself to building and trading in real 

- — ^-m-^ — 

f EVE RETT BIRD is a native of Tarry- 
town, New York, horn April 30, 1861. 
° His father, James Bird, and his grand- 
father, Edmund Bird, were both natives of 
Tarrytown. Their ancestors came from England 
and settled in Massachusetts. His mother, 
Elizabeth (Olmsted) Bird, was a native of New 
York city. Her father, Silas Olmsted, was born 
in Norwalk, Connecticut, in 1773, and while 
quite a young man engaged in the ship build- 

ing business in Maine, and afterward removed 
to New York city, where he became one of the 
most prominent men of his day and town. Mr. 
Bird's parents were married in 1859, and their 
union was blessed with this one son. He was 
educated at Tarrytown and finished his business 
education at Eastman's Business College, New 
York; then spent one year in a lawyer's office 
and afterward was associated with his father. 
They were architects, contractors, and dealers in 
building material and coal. They did an exten- 
sive business grading streets and macadamizing 
them with blue stone. Mr. Bird removed to 
New Mexico and became one of the owners of 
the North Homestake Mine in White Oaks, 
New Mexico. It is now running successfully, 
and he still retains his interest; he also owns an 
interest in the Good Hope Consolidated Gold 
Mine, Pinacate, California, which is located four 
miles southwest of Perris, and has the reputa- 
tion of being one of the richest mines in south 
California. They bought it in 1889, and paid 
$50,000 spot cash. Mr. Bird is secretary of 
both mines, of which he is joint owner with his 
father-in-law, Mr. James M. Sigafus, and has 
charge of the operations of the mines. At the 
Good Hope mine they have commenced opera- 
tions to more fully develop the mine to an 
extent that will show its worth, and will put on 
a valuable stamp-mill and make a thoroughly 
equipped mine. Mr. Bird is now engaged in 
constructing, and has nearly completed, a beau- 
tiful model residence for himself and family on 
an eminence near the Good Hope mine. They 
intend to beautify the grounds. The house, 
outside, is a very picture, and inside is nicely 
arranged with a view to health and comfort, and 
is supplied with all modern conveniences. It 
is being built at the moderate cost of $6,000. 
Mr. Bird, the only child of his parents, married 
the only living child of her parents, Miss E. 
Marion Sigafus, born in Colorado April 5, 1867. 
Her father, James M. Sigafus, is one of thoso 
who started poor, but was born with both busi- 
ness talent and good luck. When the country 
was engaged in its great struggle to continue its 


national existence, he enlisted as a private sol- 
dier on the side of the Union, and at the close 
of the war ranked as a captain. A part of the 
time while in the service he acted as quartermas- 
ter. At the close of the war he returned to the 
peaceful avocations of a farmer. He crossed the 
plains to Colorado, where he continued the busi- 
ness of fanning and stock-raising on quite a 
large scale. When Leadville attracted attention 
he grub-staked the man who discovered the 
famous R. E. Lee mine, and owned it until 
1879. Shortly after that he removed to Tar- 
rytown, New York, and built a $150,000 
residence, Mr. Bird's father furnishing the ar- 
chitectural design and being the architect of the 
structure. It is a great credit to both owner 
and builder. Mr. Sigafus spend his winters in 
southern California. Mr. and Mrs. Bird have 
two children, both girls, — Elsie Mabel, born in 
Tarrytown, March 29, 1885, and Edna Muriel, 
born at Coronado Beach, August 11, 1889. Mr. 
Bird is a Master Mason. His lodge, which is 
in New York, is Solomon's Lodge, No. 196, and 
is the same lodge in which his grandfather and 
his father were Masons before him. Both Mr. 
and Mrs. Bird are the kind of modest, unassum- 
ing people that one can't help but admire. 

[AVID SHERMAN LACEY is one of the 
few men in San Diego who can trace his 
ancestors back in a direct line on both his 
father's and mother's sides, to the early part of 
the seventeenth century. His ancestors on his 
father's side were Normans, having moved from 
Norland or Northland to England, and his 
mother's remote ancestors were Saxons, having 
moved to England from Saxony. Mr. Lacey is 
able to claim a distant relationship to Queen 
Victoria, but does not consider his blood any 
better for that. Roger Sherman, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Independence, and 
a noted statesman and United States Senator, 
was also one of Mr. Lacey's relatives. Mr. 
Rowland B. Lacey, Mr. D. S. Lacey's father, 

was born at Easton, Connecticut, April 6, 1818. 
He is a gentleman of marked ability and worth, 
and a very leading spirit in his county, holding 
many places of great importance and public 
trust. He is a leader in the many important 
improvements in the city of Bridgeport, where 
he resides. He was extensively engaged in the 
manufacture of saddlery and harness at Bridge- 
port for many years, with depots at New York, 
Philadelphia and Charleston, South Carolina. 
He was the only son of Jesse Lacey and Edna 
(Munson) Lacey. Jesse Lacey was the son of 
Zachariah and Betsey (Rowland) Lacey. Zacha- 
riah was the son of Edmund and Hannah (Sum- 
mers) Lacey, and Edmund was the son of John 
Lacey, and John Lacey was the son of Edward 
and Sarah Lacey, born about the middle of the 
seventeenth century. Mr. D. S. Lacey's mother 
was Jane Eleanor Sherman, daugliter of Isaac 
Sherman, Esq., and Maria (Burroughs) Sherman. 
Isaac was the son of David 3rd and Rebecca 
(French) Sherman. David 3rd was the son of 
David 2nd and Mary (Sterling) Sherman. Da- 
vid 2nd was the son of Lieutenant David and 
Sarah (Thompson) Sherman, and Lieutenant 
David Sherman was the son of Matthew and 
Hannah (Buckley) Sherman. Matthew was the 
son of Mr. Samuel 1st and Sarah (Mitchell) 
Sherman. Samuel was the son of Edmund and 
Judith (Angier) Sherman. Edmund was the 
son of Henry 2nd and Susan (Hills) Sherman, 
and was born in Dedham, England, July 12, 
1618. He came to America at the age of four- 
teen. Henry 2nd was the son of Henry 1st and 
Agnes Sherman. She died in 1580. Henry 
Sherman, of Dedham, England, city of Essex, 
removed thither probably from the county of 
Suffolk, as he bore the Suffolk Sherman coat of 
arras. He died in 1589. Mr. D. S. Lacey 
attended school at Bridgeport, New Haven, 
Poughkeepsie and New York. He also took a 
a course at Yale Medical College, and graduated 
at Eastman's Business College. He took a full 
course at the College of Pharmacy, New York 
city, and was a licensed pharmacist. In 1885 
he went to New Mexico, where he spent one 


year. In 1886 he came to San Diego and en- 
gaged in the wholesale commission business, in 
which business he has continued until the 
present time, under the firm name of Lacey, 
Cot'er & Co. Mr. Lacey is a charter member 
of the Board of Trade, also a charter director 
and its treasurer. He served five years as 
hospital steward of the Twenty-second Regi- 
ment National Guards, State of "New York. 
He was married to Mrs. Sarah E. Parker De- 
cember 28, 1880, by whom he had one child, 
Rowland Sherman Lacey, born February 16, 
1883. Mrs. Lacey died March 1, 1883. Mr. 
Lacey was again married October 1, 1889, to 
Charlotte Noble, daughter of Rev. W. B. Noble, 
D. D., pastor of the First Presbyterian Church 
of San Diego. Mr. and Mrs. Lacey are both 
members of this church. We have thus care- 
fully traced the history and lineage of one of 
San Diego's young business men. It has been 
said that hlood will tell, and we may therefore 
look for most useful and successful. 

The genealogy found in this history was 
taken from a history of Bridgeport and Strat- 
ford, comprising the period from 1639 to 1886, 
by Rev. Samuel Orcutt. 


fOSEPH WINTER, baker at San Diego, 
was born in Schwarzach, Buhl County, 
Germany, February 9, 1851. His parents) 
natives of Germany, were the parents of six 
children, all of whom are living. After a com- 
mon-school education, at the age of sixteen, 
years, the subject of this sketch left for the 
United States, going to the Pacific coast to in- 
vestigate that land, world famed as one of the 
gold nuggets and rich placer mines. In 1867 
he took the steamer at Havre for New York, 
and then a steamer for Aspinwall, on the 
Isthmus of Panama, and at the latter place 
took the steamer for San Francisco, where, after 
a delightful passage, he arrived in September, 
1867. He went to Oroville, Butte County, and 
entered a bakery to learn the making of cakes 

and bread. He remained two and a half years, 
then went to San Francisco, working two and a 
half years in Oakes' bakery, leaving in April, 
1873, for San Diego. He bought out an old 
bakery on the present site, No. 560 Fourth 

street, and at once opened a small shop 


as the San Diego cracker bakery; but the town 
was small and the business went slow for some 
years; yet by careful, prudent management, his 
bu.-iness increased with the growth of the town, 
and in 1886 it was necessary to increase the 
power and capacity of the machinery, and he 
then changed from light, small machinery to 
heavy, large machinery, putting in a plant which 
cost him $20,000. His entire plant is now val- 
ued at $30,000. He is an artist in all lines of 
cookery and fancy frostings and he supplies the 
market with small cakes and crackers. 

In June, 1874, Mr. Winter was married to 
Miss Caroline Hofmann. They have five chil- 
dren, all of whom are livjng and at home. 

tENRY C. LANGREHR is a native of 
Goodyear's Bar, California, and was born 
March 7, 1856. His father, Diedrich 
Langrehr, a native of Holstein, Germany, was 
born February 1, 1830, and came to America 
in 1848. He arrived in Philadelphia and came 
to San Francisco in the fall of 1848, while the 
place was little better than a barren desert, 
where he engaged in the mercantile business 
for a while. He then became a miner near 
Sacramento and Feather river, and returned to 
San Francisco, where lie started a restaurant on 
the southwest corner of Montgomery and Sutter 
streets, near where the Russ house now stands, 
and owned a private residence east of the pres- 
ent Dashaway hall, on Post street. He became 
interested in mines of great value, and was 
lawed out of his complete property. He then 
became a boarding-house keeper until 1884, 
when he died and was buried with great honor 
by the pioneers of San Francisco. Mr. H. C. 
Langrehr's mother, Matilda M.W. M. (Schmidt) 



Langrehr, was born in the city of Hamburg, 
May 9, 1840. Her father was a carriage-maker 
in that city. They had a family of six children, 
but two of whom survive — Mr. Henry 0. Lan- 
grehr, who now resides in San Diego, and the 
subject of this sketch. His young life was 
spent part of the time in the city of Hamburg, 
Germany, and in the cities of Edinburg, Lon- 
don and Paris. He was also in New York, 
Boston and Chicago, and finished his education 
in San Francisco. 

In 1870 he learned the metallic life-boat 
building business, which he soon mastered, and 
became a geometrical iron cutter. He look the 
money he earned in this way and invested it in 
night schools. He attended Commercial College 
and then went to a branch institute of the Chi- 
cago, Illinois, Civil Engineering and Surveying 
School, where he improved himself in higher 
mathematics and in civil engineering generally. 
He then invented many useful articles and the 
celebrated Miniug, Marine and Irrigating Pump 
which has received so much consideration in the 
United States. He also invented a signal horn 
for marine purposes, and a bicarbureted hydro- 
gen car motor. He has received several medals 
as rewards, and holds several certificates of merit 
for his inventions. 

He helped to organize the Native Sons of the 
Golden West, in 1876, in the city of San Fran- 
cisco. The main cause for starting the society 
was to improve the morals and manners of the 
native sons of California. The society started 
with eighteen members, of which he was one, 
and now numbers 20,000. He is an Odd Fel- 
low and a Mason. He had the honor of being 
the first Native Son of the Golden West who 
took the thirty-second degree in Masonry. In 
1884 he was nominated on the taxpayer's ticket 
for County Surveyor of city and county of San 
Francisco in opposition to bossism. 

In 1884 he removed to San Diego, at which 
place and Los Angeles he practiced his profes- 
sion. He becane interested in the Working- 
men's party of San Diego, and being a mechanic 
himself, he became a Knight of Labor, and was 

judge and assistant master workman of the as- 
semblj'. In 1887 he was nominated by the 
Workingmen's party of San Diego as a member 
of the Board of Education, but was defeated by 
the small majority of less than forty votes. The 
same year he was appointed chief engineer by 
the Coronado B^ach corporation, and located 
and surveyed the immense concrete foundations 
which has in its foundations every line of geom- 
etry, which he did in accordance with the plans 
of the architect of the celebrated the Hotel del 
Coronado. He was appointed by the same 
company to go to San Francisco to get infor- 
mation in regard to the dry docks and marine 
railways. The plans he reported were adopted 
and the railway is constructed in accordance 
with his recommendations ou the north penin- 
sula of Coronado. He was next engaged in 
surveying the sewer system ot Coronado Beach, 
under the instruction of Henry Schusler, civil 
engineer of the celebrated Spring Valley Com- 
pany, of San Francisco. He then located the 
wharves and railroad of the Coronado Beach 
Company. After this he resigned his position 
with the company and became one of the as- 
sistant engineers of Colonel Waring, civil engi- 
neer, of Boston, and ran the lines of fourteen 
miles for the Waring system of sewers for the 
city of San Diego. He then laid out the Otay 
dam water system; assisted in the construction 
of the Coronado Belt Railroad line; became an 
assistant of the city corps of engineers, and 
while in that position he was elected on the 
Republican ticket for surveyor of the county of 
San Diego, by an overwhelming majority of 
2,000. He has recently been appointed by the 
grand jury as an expert to examine the public 
buildings, bridges, roads, etc., in process of 
construction, and report upon their strength 
and durability. 

In June, 1889, he invented a device, as life- 
saving guards, for cable cars, and was engineer 
for the great bridge across the San Gabriel 
river in Los Angeles, and his plans were adopt- 
ed; cost of the bridge, $5,000. In July, same 


he was a 


ited engineer for the Carriso 


Land and "Water Company, and to explore the 
great Colorado desert of San Diego County, 
with reference to the irrigation. September 4, 
same year, he was appointed by the San Diego 
County Supervisors to wait upon the Senatorial 
Commiteeof the United States, at the rooms of 
the San Diego Chamber of Commerce, to assist 
in giving them valuable information on desert 
lands and water supplies. November 29, same 
year, he was appointed by Governor Waterman 
as Notary Public for the city of San Diego. 

January 31, 1890, he was admitted to the 
Junior Bar 'Association, and wa* elected chair- 
man of a committee and as legal adviser. April 
5, same year, he invented and suggested the 
6ystem known as the Relief Line Iron Mile- 
Posts across the desert of Colorado in San 
Diego County, life saving, to aid travelers, and 
also established the pioneer patent office of the 
city of San Diego. In May, 1890, he was ap- 
pointed as United States Deputy Mineral and 
Land Surveyor by the United States Surveyor 
General, W. H. Pratt, of California. Not many 
young men can present a better record for his 
age than this brilliant young man. 

November 10, 1881, Mr.. Langrehr was mar- 
ried to Miss Frances K. Simon, who had been 
his schoolmate, and was born in San Francisco, 
November 10, 1858, the daughter of Benjamin 
Simon, a pioneer who came to California in 
1849, and was in the grocery trade until 1875, 
when he retired from business. Mr. and Mrs. 
Langrehr have a daughter, born in San Fran- 
cisco, October 1, 1882. 


fHILIP MORSE was born in Fayette, 
Maine, May 23, 1845. His boyhood days 
were passed in the village, where he at- 
tended the district school. Later on he was a 
pupil in the Lewistou Falls Academy, where he 
prepared to enter Bowdoin College in the class 
of 1865. Failing health, however, compelled 
him to give up all thought of entering college, 
and he decided to come to California. Arriving 

in San Francisco in September of that year, he 
secured a position as salesman in the lumber 
yard of Glidden & Colman, pier 20, Stewart 
street, where he reinaiued until March, 1869, 
when he accepted a position with McDonald & 
Co., to come to San Diego to take charge of 
their lumber business here. He arrived March 
9, and has been identified with the interests of 
the city ever since. In October, 1875, he suc- 
ceeded Jose G. Estudillo as assistant cashier of 
the Commercial Bank, which position he held 
for three years and a half, when he went to 
Arizona, where he built a mill and manufact- 
ured lumber for the mines. Here he remained 
ed for four years, being associated in business 
with Mr. Jacob Gruendike. Upon his return 
to San Diego in 1883, he went into business 
with his father-in-law, G. W. B. McDonald, 
under the firm name of McDonald & Morse. 
The firm continued in existence for one year, 
and then, in conjunction with several San Fran- 
cisco capitalists, Mr. Morse organized the San 
Diego Lumber Company, of which he was elect- 
ed general manager. The capital stock of the 
company was fixed at $75,000. He is also a 
stockholder in, and was one of the organizers, 
and first superintendent of the West Coast Red- 
wood Company of San Francisco. He is presi- 
dent of the West San Diego Manufacturing 
Company, which is engaged in the manufacture 
of doors, sash, blinds, etc. 

He has served two terms as member of the 
city Board of Education, and is now a director 
of the Chamber of Commerce and of the Board 
of Trade of San Diego city. 

In giving this brief sketch of Philip Morse, 
really but one side of his character has been ex- 
posed to view. "We have seen how he has risen, 
through the exercise of exceptionally good busi- 
ness qualites, from a clerkship to a position of 
affluence and recognized prominence in the com- 
munity. "We have seen him successful in his 
business ventures, and honored and trnsted by 
his fellow-citizens. But there is another phase 
of his character, which is seldom found com- 
bined with business men of financial ability. 


In the exercise of a wise economy nature but 
rarely endows the same mind with more than 
one of what may be called her cardinal gifts. 
Occasionally, however, when in a lavish mood, 
she departs from this general rule. The char- 
acter of Philip Morse is an instance of this. 
Added to his ability as a business man, he has 
a fine literary taste, and a talent for poetry, 
which has. borne fruit in the production of some 
stanzas which will live in the annals of Ameri- 
can verse. As a writer of descriptive prose, 
also, he has been quite successful. His sense 
of observation is keen and he writes of what he 
sees in a bright, pleasant style that is both 
agreeable and instructive to the reader. 

Mr. Morse was married May 23, 1870, to 
Miss Sarah McDonald, daughter of one of San 
Diego's most prominent citizens, and one of the 
first supervisors. They have three children, of 
which only a son is living. Mrs. Morse died in 
April, 1889. 

The residence of Mr. Morse, which is situ- 
ated at the corner of Twelfth and E streets, is 
one of the finest in the city. The finish of the 
interior is especially attractive, being done in 
the choicest of curly redwood. 

®H. CONKLIN, an attorney at law in 
San Diego, is one of the leading mem- 
9 bers of the San Diego bar. Although 
still a comparatively young man, his life has 
been a very busy one. In turn a soldier, jour- 
nalist and lawyer, he has achieved prominence in 
every profession with which his fortunes have 
been identified. He was born in Wyoming 
County, Pennsylvania, June, 1839. His father, 
Lawrence C Conklin, born in New York city 
in 1800, was a carpenter and bridge builder. 
His mother, Sybil (Redfield) Conklin, was born 
in New York in 1802, the daughter of Russell 
Redfield and Betsy (Bixby) Redfield. Their 
ancestors were Connecticut people. His boy- 
hood was passed with his parents in the town of 
Tunkhannock, on the Susquehanna, where he 

acquired such an education as was to be had at 
the public schools. In 1859 he began the study 
of law in the office of Judge Peckham, judge of 
the Court of Common Pleas. He was still im- 
mersed in his studies at the time of the break- 
ing out of the war. Those who are not yet 
arrived at middle age have but little idea of the 
scenes that followed the firing upon Sumter, — 
the ebullitions of patriotic fervor, the mustering 
to arms, the hurried march to the field. Through 
out the loyal States the response to President Lin- 
coln's proclamation for troops was instantane- 
ous: there was no hesitating then. Young Conk- 
lin heard the summons, and, throwing aside his 
law books, began raising a company of volun- 
teers. Within less than a week from the time 
of the issuing of the proclamation his company 
was full, and he made a tender of it to the Gov- 
ernor. But the quota of the State was filled 
and the offer was declined. The Government 
and many of the people then believed with 
Senator Seward that the whole "affair" would 
be over in ninety days. Suffering under his 
dissappointment, } 7 oung Conklin went to Cin- 
cinnati to visit some friends. He could not, 
however, resist the impulse to give his services 
to his country, and within a week after his 
proffer had been rejected by the Governor of 
Pennsylvania he enlisted, in Cincinnati, in Com- 
pany D, Second Kentucky Volunteers. He 
had been walking along the streets, when the 
beating of a drum again aroused the fires of 
patriotism within his breast; he went up stairs 
where a war meeting was being held, and en- 
listed as a private, not knowing at the time 
what the regiment was or where it was going; 
he only knew that the country needed his serv- 
ices, and right freely he proffered them. He 
was sent with his regiment to the Kauawha, in 
Western Virginia, and remained there until the 

B p 

•ine of 1862. Hi 


ment was then or- 

dered to Kentucky, and then into Tennessee. He 
participated in the terrible battle of Shiloh, and 
was at the siege of Corinth. He then went 
back to Kentucky, and was in the State at the 
time of Brad's raid. At Louisville he was 


discharged fur promotion, having been commis- 
sioned Second Lieutenant in the Eighty-third 
Ohio Regiment. When he reached Cincinnati 
he found that his regiment had been ordered 
into the field. This was in November, 1862. 
He then returned to his home in Pennsylvania, 
where he remained until the following spring, 
reading the neglected law books. But he could 
not be content in such a peaceful avocation, and, 
having a strong taste for the navy, he applied 
for and was appointed master's mate. He was 
immediately ordered to report on board the 
Kenwood, attached to the Mississippi squadron. 
He took part in the siege of Vicksburg, and saw 
much active service while on the Kenwood, 
which was one of the fastest steamers on the 
river, and was generally used as a dispatch boat. 
In the spring of 1865 he was ordered to the 
Chillicothe, an iron-clad. As soon as lie was 
mustered out of service at the close of the war, 
he again returned to Pennsylvania and once 
more renewed his law studies. He had two 
brothers in the Union army, both of whom are 
now living, one residing in northern California, 
and the other in Missouri. 

As soon as he had been admitted to the bar 
he started west and located at Warrensburg, 
Missouri, where he began the practice of his 
profession. He remained at "Warrensburg un- 
til the fall of 1874. During this time he was 
engaged in publishing the Johnson Democrat, 
a weekly newspaper. In October, 1874, he 
started for San Diego. Upon his arrival here 
he assumed editorial control of the San Diego 
World, a daily, in connection with Mr. Julian, 
at present one of the proprietors of the San 
Diegan. In 1877 he was elected District At- 
torney of the county, and held the office two 
years. Since then he has been engaged iu the 
practice of law. Mr. Conklin has the largest 
general law practice of all attorneys in San 
Diego. He is the legal adviser of most of the 
large corporations here; is vice-president of 
the Pacific Wire Cloth Company, and is one of 
the principal stockholders of the Mission Val- 
ley Water Company and other large corpo- 

rations. He is a Past Post Commander of 
Heintzelman Post, G. A. K., and is Past Com- 
mander of San Diego Commandery, Knight 
Templars. He was instrumental in bringing 
the railroad here, and has been interested in all 
public improvements. He has a handsome resi- 
dence lately completed in Florence Heights on 
the corner of Fifth and Ivy streets. 

Mr. Conklin was married in 1867 to Miss 
Myra I. Reese, born in Hanover, Indiana, Oc- 
tober 20, 1847. At the time of their marrage 
she was a resident of Warrensburg, Missouri. 
Their union has been blessed with eight chil- 
dren, three of whom survive, viz.: Ralph L. 
Conklin, born in Warrensburg, Missouri, May 
31, 1869; Sybil Conklin, born July 10, 1878, 
and Claud R. Conklin, born December 14, 
1883. Both of the latter are natives of San 

g - i " fg 

fOHN D. PALMER was born in Washing- 
ton County, Ohio, June 5, 1843. His 
father, Oscar F. Palmer, was a native of 
Ohio and was born April 27, 1823. His mother, 
Anna M. Chamberlain, was born in Washington 
County, Ohio, May 22, 1824. (For ancestry of 
these families see I. L. Palmer's biography on 
another page.) They were married August 24, 
1842, and had four children, of whom J. D. 
was the eldest. His mother having died June 
27, 1852, his father went to California in 
1853, and he went to live with an uncle and 
aunt. Here he went to school part of the time 
and helped on the farm in the busy season. At 
twelve years of age he went to work for farmers 
in the summer and to school three months in 
the winter until lie was fifteen years of age, when 
he learned the carpenters' trade. He then be- 
came a brakeman on the railroad and afterward 
fireman. On April 22, 1861, he enlisted for 
three months in Company C, Third Ohio Infan- 
try, at the end of which time he again enlisted 
for three years and was mustered out July, 1864. 
He enlisted for the third time, in Company C, 


One Hundred and Eighty-second Ohio, in Au- 
gust, 1864. His regiment, the Third Ohio, the 
Fiftieth and Eighty-first Indiana, the Eightieth 
Illinois, and two companies of First Tennessee 
Cavalry were sent on a raid under command of 
Colonel A. D. Straight. They were ordered to 
intercept and destroy communications between 
the rebels and their supplies. They were sur- 
rounded, and after a fight of five days and nights 
were captured. The men were, after fifteen days, 
paroled, and the officers put in Libby Prison. 
After being in that terrible prison for some time 
Colonel A. D. Straight made a tunnnel from 
one street to another, which opened into a cellar, 
through which he and about 600 men escaped, 
but about half of them were re-captured. He 
wis mustered out July 14, 1864, but again en- 
listing he was sent back and took part in the 
battle of Nashville, under General George H. 
Thomas. He remained in the army until the 
close of the war and was mustered out in July, 
1865. He then married Miss Lydia S. Swift, 
of Washington County, Ohio, daughter of 
Charles and Amy Swift, who was born May 2, 
1844. Their union has been blessed with eight 
children: Ida L., horn in Washington County, 
Ohio, June 20, 1866, who married Mr. J. F. 
McCann, of Athens County, Ohio, and has had 
four children: Leota Blanche, born in San Diego, 
August 11, 1884; John Harold, born April 9, 
1886, and died April 20, 1887; Forest Glenn, 
born in San Diego, April 19, 1888, and Howard, 
born April 15, 1890; Oscar Fitz Allen, born Feb- 
ruary 18, 1868, in Washington County, Ohio; 
William Henry, born January 19, 1870, in 
Morgan County, Ohio; Maggie L. and Mattie 
L., born March 10, 1872; Andrew S., born 
February 22, 1878, in Morgan County, Ohio; 
Edgar Winfred, born January 30, 1880, in 
Morgan County, and Bessie Claire, born Feb- 
ruary 11, 1883, in Morgan County, Ohio. Mr. 
and Mrs. Morgan and their daughters are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church; she is 
also a member of the women's relief corps of the 
G. A. R. Mr. Palmer is an Odd Fellow and a 
member of the G. A. Ii. He was engaged for 

fourteen years in the saw-milling business in 
Ohio, but his property was swept away by a 
freshet, when he came to California in 1884. 
He landed in San Diego with only $16 in his 
pocket, but immediately engaged in contracting, 
building and moving houses. He has been 
offered as high as $20,000 at one time tor his 
real estate in San Diego, and he has an outfit 
for moving buildings valued at $10,000. The 
history of such a stout-hearted, Self-reliant man 
should inspire with courage every poor man 
who has met with misfortunes to take courage 
and by honest industry rise again. 



M. McDONALD, born at Puchmond,Vir- 
inia, February 8, 1854, came to San 
Diego, California, May 8, 1868. His 
occupation was formerly stock-raising, and is 
now deputy constable of San Diego Township, 
under Jose Cota. He is a member of Coionado 
Lodge, No. 328, I. O. O. F. 

fAMES VERNON is a native of Middlesex 
County, England, and was born July 17, 
1843. His father, John Vernon, was a 
tailor in the city of London and married Miss 
Ellen Kelly, who died three years after James, 
the subject of this sketch, was born. They had 
eight children, seven boys and one daughter. 
One son, Charles, is a woolen-tweed manufact- 
urer, and Thomas is a tailor in Los Angeles. 
Mr. Vernon attended school until twelve years 
of age, when he ran away and went to sea on 
board the Leonidas. He apprenticed himself 
for three years, at the end of which time he had 
become an expert sailor. When his term ex- 
pired he sailed about for two years, mostly be- 
tween England and the United States. He made 
one trip to the Baltic, went several times to 
South America and was also in Yokahama. On 
his return to England he fell out of the main 
top mast, struck on the main sheet and fell on 


the deck, during a gale. He broke one thigh, 
one arm and four ribs and was seven months 
recovering. Four others fell at the same time, 
all of whom were severely injured and two 
killed outright. This caused him to retire from 
the sea, and at the age of seventeen he took up 
his father's business, which he has continued 
ever since. He was a journeyman tailor in 
London for ten years, and in 1864 he came to 
the United States. He has been in the merchant 
tailoring business with Hughes & Muller, Phil- 
adelphia, for five years, with Huff Brothers, 
School street, Boston, for one year, and was with 
Chase of Providence. He then spent two years 
in London, and was one year in Morgan's house 
in the Isle of Wight, the greatest yachting out- 
fitting house in the world. He then went to 
Chicago and was one year with George Matthews, 
the largest merchant tailoring establishment in 
Chicago. He then went to San Francisco with 
Bullock & Jones, where he remained three years, 
when he came to San Diego in September, 1885. 
The population of San Diego at that time was 
estimated at 7,000, but in 1889 it had increased 
to 30,000. He purchased property in San 
Diego, where he has a large merchant tailoring 
business, with many of the best citizens for his 
customers. Since coming to America Mr. Ver- 
non has made eight trips across the Atlantic fur 
the purpose of selecting English suitings. There 
is no country that excels the west of England in 
the manufacture of broadcloth. The French may 
be said to excel in silk mixed textures but not 
in broadcloth. In 1869 Mr. Vernon was mar- 
ried to Miss Eleanor Jane Page, daughter of 
John Page, of Cambridge, England. She was 
born in 1846. Mr. Vernon is a member of the 
order of Odd Fellows and is a very agreeable 
business man. 

fHARLES DELEVAL was born at Pays 
de Calais, France, March 29, 1832; his 
parents were also natives of France. In 
1851 he came to America, sailing from Havre 

to New York, and across the Isthmus of Pana- 
ma to San Francisco, where he arrived in 1852. 
He went to placer mining in Fresno and Mari-' 
posa counties, prospecting for about six years. 
He then came to Los Angeles and started a 
grocery store, which he successfully carried on 
for eight years, also running a flour-mill at San 
Jose, continuing the two lines of business until 
1870, when he sold out and came to San Diego 
and started a commission and wholesale grocery 
store, under tire firm name of Deleval & Water- 
man, which they continued until 1874. They 
sold out to Stewart & Capron, and started the 
liquor business on the corner of F and Fifth 
streets, putting up their own building. But 
this business proved disastrous, and in 1880 
they went into liquidation, and Mr. Deleval re- 
turned to Los Angeles, where he resumed the 
grocery business for five years and then sold 
out and speculated, during the boom of 1886, 
in real estate. In 1889, from pure love of the 
climate of San Diego, he returned to that city 
and entered the wholesale and retail liquor 
business, under the firm name of Charles Dele- 
val & Co., buying out and succeeding the San 
Bernardino Wine Company, aud they now carry 
a stock of about $5,000 in wines and liquors. 

Mr. Deleval was married at Los Angeles, 
March 12, 1861, to Miss Marie Hennequin. 
They have five daughters. 

fAMES MURPHY, a retired rancher re- 
siding in San Diego, is a native of County 
Kilkenny, Ireland. He was born July 21, 
1843. His father, John Murphy, was a farmer 
in Ireland, and his mother, whose maiden name 
was Bridget Kennedy, was also a native of Ire- 
land. They were married in 1827, and had 
twelve children, all of whom reached the age of 
eighteen, and eight of whom still survive. 
His mother and sister are still living at the old 
home in Ireland. He obtained his education at 
the national school in the town of Castle Cor- 
ner, County Kilkenny. When through with 



school, he sailed in the steamship Kangaroo 
from Qneenstown to New York, where he 
landed June 1, 1864, and worked for nearly 
two years in a bonded warehouse. In Febru- 
ary, 1866, he left New York for California, and 
landed at San Francisco. He went to Petaluma 
and engaged in dairying and agriculture, where 
he remained until 1869, when he left there and 
moved to San Diego, where he worked for five 
or six months at whatever he could get to do. 
He tried farming in 1872, but the drouth was 
so great that the crop was a failure. He then 
engaged in sheep-raising, and followed it for 
ten years. During that time he located 160 
acres of Government land, lying six miles south 
of El Cajon, on the Sweetwater river, and 
afterward bought 700 acres adjoining his home- 
stead, where he remained a little over live years. 
There were few neighbors at that time, while 
now there aie many fine places that were then 
considered of little or no value on this ranch. 
He built a house and barn, planted a variety of 
deciduons fruit trees and a few orange and lemon 
trees. The fruit trees were intended principally 
for family use. He carried on dairying and 
agriculture, and part of the time sheep-raising, 
and realized two or three thousand dollars per 
annum from his ranch. His cattle were good 
grade dairy cattle. He carried on farming quite 
extensively, raising in a single year as high as 
250 acres of wheat, barley and corn. He planted 
one sack of corn and harvested seventy-eight 
sacks, the soil receiving no culture after plant- 
ing. In August, 1887, he sold his real estate 
at the ranch for $40,000, the property with the 
buildings costing him $3,000, when he came to 
San Diego and built a nice house on some lots 
he had purchased of Mr. Horton in 1869, ex- 
pending about $4,000 in improving these lots. 

He was married in February, 1878, to Miss 
Emma A. Webb, a native of California, who 
was born October 12, 1860, in Point Arena, 
Mendocino County. Her father, G. W. Webb, 
was a native of Georgia. Mr. and Mrs. Mur- 
phy have a family of six children: Alice, born 
October 24, 1879, on the Jamaica ranch, San 

Diego County; John, born May, 1881; Ida, 
February 26, 1883; Jane, December 25, 1884; 
Mary Agnes, August 5, 1887, and James, born 
in San Diego, May 29, 1889. Mr. Murphy is 
a member of the Catholic Church, and also a 
member of the San Diego Society of Pioneers. 
While on his ranch in 1885, he gave an acre of 
ground on which a nice $1,000 school-house 
was built. He was a trustee of the school from 
then until he came away. At present he is re- 
tired from business. He is another fine illus- 
tration of what industry and close application 
will do for a man. 


§A. McDOWELL, Sheriff of San Diego 
County, was born in Orange County, 
° New York, October 11, 1839, and came to 
this coast in 1864. He spent the succeeding ten 
years in different sections of the State, principally 
in the Sierra valley and Siskiyou County. In 
1874 he settled in San Diego, where he has since 
resided. In 1879 he was elected Supervisor, 
which office he held several successive terms. 
In 1884 he was elected Auditor and Recorder, 
and retained the office, until 1886, when he was 
elected Sheriff. In 1888 he was re-elected to 
the office,, which he has always filled with faith- 
fulness and ability. 

— #?•«»•£# 

tOBERT BAILEY was born in New York 
city on the 9th day of September, 1828. 
He attended the public schools of that city 
until he was sixteen years of age and then, being 
of a restless disposition and wishing to see the 
world, he struck out for the Middle Western 
States, but met with no particular experience 
until 1849, when in the gold excitement of Cal- 
ifornia he decided to visit that great El Dorado 
of the far West, and to that end joined a large 
party in Missouri, and with ox teams set out on 
that long journey across the plains, seeing no 
Indians and meeting with no particular adven- 


ture. They crossed the Kocky Mountains by 
the South Pas6 and around by Fort Hall, came 
into the Sacramento valley by the Lawson 
route and arrived at Lawson'a ranch after six 
months of wearisome traveling. They then went 
to Bidwell's bar on the middle fork of the 
Feather river, when they began their mining 
experience. They worked with " rockers " with 
very good results, but soon moved to the Cor- 
racco bar, where they made about $50 per day. 
Food was scarce; damp, hard, worm-eaten flour, 
costing $2 per pound; but money was plenty 
and easily made and little value was put upon 
it; an ounce of gold was given for a day's labor. 
In 1850 he went to San Francisco for a time, 
as a clerk, then in September went to Shasta 
County and began mining on the Sacramento 
river, but with poor results: so went into the em- 
ploy of Bull, Baker & Co., of Shasta, wholesale 
and retail grocers, remaining until 1854, when he 
went up the south fork of the Salmon river, 
meeting with very fair success until the freshets 
came and mining closed for the winter; then 
went to Red Bluffs in the employ of J. D. Dall 
& Co., general merchandise and liquors, re- 
maining until 1858, when a company of eighty 
men was organized under General Kibby to go 
and suppress the Pit River Indians, Mr. Bailey 
being First Lieutenant. They killed many of 
the Indians and captured about 1,500, who 
were taken to San Francisco and from there 
sent by steamer to the Mendocino reservation 
in Mendocino County. He then worked in the 
office of General Kibby for about six months, 
when a company of eighteen was formed to go 
and search for the celebrated Gun Sight lead 
out near Death valley in Inyo County. Death 
valley is 150 feet below the level of the sea and 
very barren, there being no fresh water and 
consequently no vegetation. Valley about thirty 
miles across and sixty miles long; emigrants 
suffering great hardships in crossing and often 
death for want of water. The company failing 
to find the lead disbanded and returned to San 
Francisco; then in 1861 he went to the Tahiti 
Islands in the South Seas, then by Valparaiso 

up the South American coast to Panama, and 
then taking steamer back to San Francisco. 
Then prospected in Idaho during the summer 
of 1862, meeting with fair success; after work- 
ing claim out went into Oregon and located 
some good claims at Cottonwood gulch, where 
he and a partner built a cabin and worked 
through the winter with good success. In the 
spring of 1868 left partner and went to Idaho, 
prospecting in California gulch near Placerville 
and was interested in the Thorn Creek ditch at 
Idaho City, which was a very rich claim, and 
remained about two years. In 1865 he went to 
Montana, remaining about two years and losing 
a great deal of money in running bed rock tun- 
nel at Orifina gulch. In 1867 he joined a com- 
pany of seventy-five men under the leadership 
of Jeff Stanford, to prospect in the Big Horn 
mountains in Wyoming. Camping on the Big 
Horn river they collected and dried game to the 
amount of fifty pounds to the man, then crossed 
the river on rafts; then, dissatisfaction arising 
in the company, some wishing to go to Salt 
Lake, the company divided and Mr. Bailey was 
elected captain of the band to visit the Big 
Horn mountains. They crossed the mountains 
but found little gold, and came out on the Tongue 
river. The Sioux Indians were very trouble- 
some, and they killed two of their party while 
out hunting; their bodies were afterward found 
scalped and filled with arrows. Prospecting be- 
ing unsuccessful the company disbanded, and 
being near Fort Phil Kearny, Mr. Bailey se- 
cured the position of mail carrier to Fort Lar- 
amie, down near the Platte river, distant about 
130 miles. The country being infested with 
Indians, much riding was done at night and 
the round trip took him eight days, and he wa-; 
thus employed for nine months. 

In 1867 he went with the Eighteenth Regi- 
ment under Colonel Carrington, to Fort Mc- 
Pherson, and was then appointed chief of scouts 
and came to Fort Saunders on Laramie plains 
with General Gibbon. He there received the 
appointment and built the company post during 
the winter of 1867; leaving in the spring of 


1868 for Camp Douglas at Salt Lake, and again 
began prospecting at Bingham canon, but met 
with poor success. Then joined a company of 
six for White Pine mountains, but luck being 
down, 6old some valuables and started for San 
Diego, arriving in July, 1869; then went pros- 
pecting in the Julian mountains, but, finding 
no placer mines, returned to San Diego and 
took a position as barkeeper with Mr. Elliott at 
foot of F street; after five months was ap- 
pointed Deputy Sheriff, which continued about 
eight months. Was employed as first bar- 
keeper at the Horton House, then opened a 
saloon on Fifth street, continuing in business 
until September, 1888, when he retired until 
July, 1889, and then opened his present stand 
on E, between Fourth and Fifth streets. 

A man of varied experiences, and one who 
has suffered many hardships, but still, at the 
age of sixty-one years, remains in the prime of 


fC. HOLLAND, one of the early pioneers 
to California who after twenty-seven years 
3 of hard and continuous labor has settled 
down in peace and contentment, in his comfort- 
able cottage at the corner of Tenth and F 
streets. He was born at Hyde, Cheshire County, 
England, October 25, 1834. He was the young- 
est son in a family of thirteen children, and 
after getting an education and learning the trade 
of bricklayer, at the age of twenty one years, 
he left home, family and country, to seek name 
and fortune in the vast country of the United 
States, whose arms are extended to the indus- 
trious of every nationality, provided they seek 
her shores with honesty of purpose, and become 
loyal to the flag which floats over them. Mr. 
Holland crossed in a sailing vessel, landing in 
New York. He then spent two years in Can- 
ada and five years in Indiana, working at his 
trade and at contract work. In 1862, he re- 
turned to New York en route to California, by 
the Nicaragua route, on the steamer America 

on the Atlantic, and the Boiling Moses on the 
Pacific, and arriving at San Francisco, July 12, 
1862. He was then sick about one year, from 
fever contracted at Nicaragua. After recover- 
ing he spent three months at Virginia City, and 
then sailed for the Sandwich Islands, where he 
passed five years working at his trade, contract- 
ing in both brick, stone and street building. 
He then returned to San Francisco and came 
direct to San Diego, arriving November 5, 1869. 
He immediately built himself a residence, cor- 
ner of Tenth and F streets, and moved in before 
Christmas of the same year. The first contract 
work in San Diego was the old Express Build- 
ing corner of Sixth and G- streets for A. E. 
Horton ; he also built the court-house and several 
smaller buildings. In 1873 he returned to San 
Francisco, working in and about the city for 
eight years. From 1880 to 1885, he worked at 
San Diego, San Bernardino and Los Angeles, 
returning to San Diego in June, 1885; then 
operated a little during the real-estate boom, 
but is now living quietly and happily in his 
comfortable home. 

Mr. Holland was married at Ingersoll, Can- 
ada, June 17, 1856, to Miss Susan B. James, of 
English and Canadian descent. Having no 
children of their own they adopted a little girl, 
who is now with them. Mr. Holland is a mem- 
ber of the Society of San Diego Pioneers. 

■ — &~m-^ — - 

fACOB M. JULIAN, of San Diego, is a pio- 
neer of California, having lived in San 
Francisco when there were but five or six 
small houses in the now great city of 300,000 
inhabitants. Such has been the growth in 
forty years in one city in California. Mr. 
Julian is a Southerner; with the sterling quali- 
ties of a good man he combines those of a 
generous, courteous gentleman. He was born 
October 6, 1816, in Moulton, Lawrence County, 
Alabama. His father, George E. Julian, was a 
native of South Carolina. His grandfather, 
Samuel Julian, was born in South Carolina and 


was a descendant of the Huguenots who were 
driven from France on account of their religious 
views, and, seeking religious liberty in America, 
settled in the southern portion of the United 
States. Mr. Julian's grandmother, Anna (Hous- 
ton) Julian, was a daughter of Mr. H. Houston, 
and niece of the celebrated Sam. Houston. 
Her husband, Solomon Reese, was a native of 
North Carolina, of Scotch- Irish extraction. Mr. 
Julian's father was born in 1792 and his mother 
in 1796. They were married in 1815, in Cairo, 
Tennessee, and their union was blessed with 
eight children, seven sons and one danghter, 
the subject of this sketch being the eldest. In 
1828 he commenced to learn the printer's trade 
under the management of General Henry S. 
Foote, and followed that business until February 
16, 1889, sixty-one years, being a long servitude 
to the business. He published the St. Charles 
(Missouri) Clarion, the second paper printed in 
that place, for three years, and then went to St. 
Louis in 1844, where he was connected with two 
papers, the Herald, a religious paper, and the 
American, a Whig paper. It was sold out in 
1846 and he ceased to be connected with it. In 
1849 he came to California. His yoyage was 
made in the Alexander von Humboldt from 
Panama. In 1850 Fitch, Ewer, Russell and 
Mr. Julian established the first paper published 
in Sacramento, called the Transcript. Owing to 
the death of his wife and child, whom he had 
left in Missouri, lie returned to that State in 
June, 1850. In 1852 he was the editor of the 
old Lexington Express and published it until 
the war broke out, when he went to St. Louis to 
get away from the Union soldiers. They 6old 
a part of his office and destroyed what they did 
not sell. Mr. Julian lost about $30,000 by the 
transaction. He lost the old files of the paper, 
which he valued most highly. Mr. Julian was 
a man of peace and took arms on neither side. In 
1866 he returned to Lexington and established 
with others the Caucasian, which was a pop- 
ular paper for some years. He sold his interest 
and removed to Warrensburg, Johnson County, 
Missouri, in 1870, and published the Johnson 

Democrat. Owing to the ill health of his wife 
he sold it and came to San Diego in 1874. The 
removal was very beneficial to Mrs. Julian, as 
when she came to San Diego it was thought 
she could not live a year; but her health im . 
proved and she lived for nine years. Mr. Ju- 
lian engaged in the printing business in San 
Diego and was editor and publisher of the World 
for a year and a half. It was then merged into 
the News and Mr. Julian continued its publi- 
cation for four -years, when it was sold to the 
Sun Publishing Company and the paper ceased. 
In 1885 he started the San Diegan in support 
of Mr. Cleveland and the Democracy, and con- 
tinued its publication until February 16, 1889, 
when he sold it to N. H. Conklin and it is now 
run by Sullivan & Wait. 

Mr. Julian was married in 1837 to Miss 
Frances L. Wray, daughter of John Wray, and 
they were blessed with five children, three of 
whom still survive, viz.: William O, born in St. 
Charles, Missouri, in 1839; Ophelia F., born 
in 1845, in St. Charles, and Missouri M., born 
in St. Louis, in December, 1845. Their mother 
died March 6, 1849, and Mr. Julian was again 
married to Mrs. Violetta (Martin) Mundy, 
daughter of Lewis and Catherine Martin, of St. 
Louis, born in 1816. Mr. Julian is a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church South and 
belongs to the San Diego Pioneers, also the 
pioneers of San Francisco. 

— &mam& — 

Oceanside, was born in Dover, New Hamp- 
shire, February 26, 1828. His father, 
Samuel Home, was born in the same town, in 
1802. His grandfather, who lived until ninety- 
two years of age, was a native of Scotland. The 
family were Protestants. His mother, Lydia 
(Blake) Home, was born in Dover, New Hamp- 
shire, in 1805. She was the daughter of Major 
William Blake, who was of English descent. 
She was married to Mr. Samuel Home in 1821, 
at Dover, New Hampshire, and had a family of 


twelve children, nine of whom reached the age 
of maturity. The subject of this sketch was 
the third child; he attended school in his native 
town until fifteen years of age, when he went to 
Haverhill, Massachusetts, where he learned the 
tanner and currier's trade. After a two years' 
apprenticeship he embarked in business for 
himself at Salem, and afterward at Woburn, 
Charlestown and Boston, and continued in it 
until he was twenty-six years of age. He was 
married at Woburn, Massachusetts, April 22, 
1849, to Miss Maria L. Hovey, a native of 
Cambridge, Massachusetts, born June 26, 1826. 
Mr. Hovey was a relation to the originator of 
the Hovey seedling strawberry. In November, 
1854, Mr. Home started alone for Kansas, ar- 
riving at Kansas City on November 30. At 
Lawrence he was selected by other settlers as 
chairman of a committee to select a town site. 
The result was they went thirty miles to the 
site of the present city of Topeka and spent 
the night there on the banks of the river, and 
selected that site. Colonel Home built the 
first cabin and wintered in it with others. 
When the farm claims were divided, Colonel 
Home secured the second choice of location. 
The man who had first choice sold his claim 
for $15. It has since become of great value. 
The Colonel pre-empted and retained his selec- 
tion, built and lived on it for many years, and 
has seen the " wilderness blossom like a rose," 
and seen the desert transformed into a large 
and rich city, full of life and business. He 
voted at the meeting that gave the town its 
name, "Topeka," the Indian name for wild 
potatoes, that grew along the river. He was 
chosen marshal of the Free State Squatters, 
and captain of the Topeka Guards. In the 
fall of 1855 he was captain of another military 
company, which was orgauized to go to the re- 
lief of Lawrence, which had been surrounded 
by the border ruffians, with 100 men under his 
command. On their arrival at Lawrence Cap- 
tain Home united his forces with those of Dr. 
Robinson and Colonel James II. Lane. Breast- 
works were hastily erected, the town fortified 

and strict military order preserved, but fortun- 
ately ended with the death of only one man. 
While in Lawrence at this time, Colonel Home 
was promoted to the rank of Major in Colonel 
Hunt's regiment of Free State Forces. May 
13, 1861, Major Home was elected Colonel of 
the Fourth Regiment, South Division, Kansas 
Militia, and received his commission from Gov- 
ernor Charles Robinson, first governor of Kan- 
sas. On the 28th of that month Colonel Horno 
has credit for suggesting the plan which carried 
the election that secured the State Capital at 
Topeka, and during his residence there he was 
a great factor in the growth and in fixing the 
status of the now large city. 

In August, 1862, he enlisted as a private in 
Company E, Eleventh Kansas Volunteer In- 
fantry, and was made First Sergeant Major at 
the organization of the regiment. While with 
the command he participated in the battle of 
Fort Wayne, Kane Hill, Prairie Grove, the tak- 
ing of Van Buren, and minor engagements. In 
February, 1863, he was commissioned by Presi- 
dent Lincoln Captain of the Fourth Regiment, 
Indiana Brigade, and served in it until it was 
mustered out of the service in the fall of tho 
same year. In the fall of 1864 he was chosen 
Captain of Company A, Second Regiment, com- 
manded by Colonel George W. Veale, for his ■ 
faithful and courageous conduct. While en- 
gaged in this service he received several mani- 
festations of approval from the commander of 
the forces, and the post of honor was assigned 
to him of guarding the main crossing between 
Kansas City and Westport, where it was ex- 
pected the Rebels would attempt to cross the 
Blue. During this time he was a candidate 
against Colonel Veale for State Senator, and 
was elected. During the latter part of his two 
years' term he was President of the Senate. lie 
was a member of the Topeka Council and 
President of the Board of Aldermen in 1871. 
Being acting Mayor of the city at the time of 
the great Chicago tire, he promptly responded 
to the call for aid by forwarding with all possi- 
ble dispatcli Topeka's generous contribution of 


$ 5,4C0. He organized the Topeka Manufactur- 
ing Company on March 1G, 1883. 

Colonel Home was identified with Topeka's 
interest from 1854 to 1885— thirty- one years. 
At that time he had seen his most sanguine 
hopes realized. The town had grown from 
nothing to a city of 30,000 inhabitants, and 
history awards to him and his compatriots the 
honor of having been the founders of the great 
State " Free Kansas," nor has this worthy and 
successful life ended here. In 1885 he re- 
moved to Oceanside, California, where he found 
only a few houses, but with his usual business 
zeal commenced his share of the building up 
of this new town. Here in full view of the 
ocean and surrounding country he has built a 
large and commodious residence and has beau- 
tiful grounds about his place. He was the first 
president of the new Bank of Oceanside; also 
president of the board of trustees, and it will 
not be the Colonel's fault if Oceanside does not 
become one of the most attractive and prosper- 
ous cities in Southern California. He has re- 
cently been serving San Diego County as fore- 
man of the grand jury, and in that position 
unearthing official corruption and fraud which 
had been secretly practiced to an alarming ex- 
tent. For this disinterested and manly service 
the taxpayers of the county owe him a debt of 
gratitude, and whether he receives it or not, he 
will have the approval of bis conscience for 
duty well done. 

Mr. and Mrs. Home have had a family of ten 
children, of which but two survive: Georgie W., 
bora in Woburn, Massachusetts, in 1852, and 
wife of Mr. McGraw, of Michigan (they have 
two children); Mary, born in Topeka, Kansas, 
June 1, 1862, now married to Mr. E. M. Cluett, 
formerly of Wisconsin. Colonel Home and 
his wife are Congregationalists, and he is a 
man very liberal in religious sentiments. Mrs. 
Home has shared her husband's fortunes and 
has passed with him through the dangers and 
privations of the border times. He is a mem- 
ber of the A. F. & A. M. In bis youth in 
politics he was a Whig and was a great admirer 

of Daniel Webster,with whom he was acquainted. 
Since the organization of the Republican party 
he has been a Republican, and although now in 
the sixty-first year of his age, he seems strong 
and capable of many more years of life and use- 

fDMUND WESCOTT, San Diego.— 
Among the sturdy sons of Maine who 
were early pioneers to the coast of Cali- 
fornia, we find the subject of this sketch, who 
was born at Gorham, Cumberland County, 
Maine, December 20, 1835. His ancestors 
were residents of Maine for generations, and an 
early grandtather called " Post " Wescott, was 
a messenger under General Washington during 
the Revolutionary war, carrying messages to 
and from the State department. The father of 
the subject of this sketch was a farmer who was 
born and died in the town of Gorham, and his 
mother is still living, at the age of eighty-three 
years. There were six children, all sons, of 
whom Edmund was the second. He learned 
the trade of bridge and wharf building in the 
city of Boston. In January, 1855, he started 
for California by the steamer "Northern Light," 
over the Nicaragua route, and after a passage 
of about thirty days he arrived in San Fran- 
cisco, February, 1855. He then followed min- 
ing for eleven years, mainly in California, but 
also in Nevada and British Columbia. He 
owned his mines, which were placer, quartz and 
hydraulic, and made and lost large amounts of 
money, as leads happened to prove rich or poor. 
In 1866 he gave up mining and returned to San 
Francisco and there followed his trade, building 
wharfs and heavy bridges. In 1869 he came to 
San Diego and built the Jorris wharf, and also 
repaired the Horton wharf; then work in that 
line failing he entered into the trucking busi- 
ness, under the firm name of Hobbs & AVescott, 
and has continued in that business ever since. 
He has changed partners several times, but has 
always been in the lead in the truck business. 


His company consolidated with Simpson Broth- 
ers May 15, 1S89, and formed the Pioneer 
Truck Company, with a capital stock of $75,000, 
Mr. Wescott being president. The Julian and 
Stonewall stage line which runs from Lakeside 
is under their management. 

Mr. Wescott was married at San Diego, De- 
cember 25, 1869, to Miss Susie Gillam, a native 
of Arkansas. They have five children living, 
one son and four daughters, and all reside at 
the corner of G and Twelfth streets. Mr. Wes- 
cott is a Royal Arch Mason, and a member of 
Centennial Encampment, No. 58, I. O. O. F., 
also a member of the Society of San Diego 


fM. CLARK was born in Antwerp, Jeffer=- 
son County, New York, January 4, 1823, 
a his parents' being nati/es of New Eng- 
land. In 1836 they moved near Cleveland, 
Ohio, thence to Caldwell County, Missouri, and 
in 1837 to Hancock Count}', Illinois, where his 
father followed the trade of blacksmith, and he 
attended the public achools and learned the 
trade of carpenter. In 1846 he went to Galena, 
Wissonsin, and worked in the lead mines, but 
soon went to St. Louis, Missouri, where he 
learned the trade of ship-joiner; and this trade, 
in connection with that of carpenter, he followed 
until 1849. In that year he decided to come 
to California, and accordingly joined a train at 
lort Independence, and, crossing the mountains 
at South Pass, they entered Hangtown, after 
an extremely pleasant journey. Instead of min- 
ing he went to Sutter's Fort, now Sacramento, 
and engaged extensively in live stock, that being 
headquarters for stock trading at that time. In 
1851 he went to Oregon and made large pur- 
chases of grain, shipping it to San Francisco, 
but still continuing his interests at Sacramento. 
In 1855 he married Miss Magdalena Rich, of 
German parentage but a native of Wisconsin, 
and they then moved to Oroville, Butte County, 
there entering a wholesale and retail mercantile 

business, carrying on several retail stores, and 
continuing about fourteen years with great suc- 
cess in the business, but losing heavily in min- 
ing speculations. In 1869 he came to San 
Diego city and was traveling agent and clerk 
for the firm of Smith & Craique, who conducted 
a wholesale and retail liquor business, until 
1877; he then opened business for himself until 
1880, when he sold out and went to Tombstone 
and opened a saloon, and also owned and worked 
the Winfield silver mine, which was very rich 
at times, assaying $376 to the ton. In 1884 
he sold out and returned to San Diego, again 
resuming his liquor business, under the firm 
name of Scranton & Clark; later the firm was 
changed to Craique & Clark. In 1886 he re- 
tired from the business, and, during that 
" boom " year, which San Diego can never for- 
get, entered extensively into the sale of real es- 
tate, and still follows that business in the care 
of his property. 

Mr. Clark has had three children, two of 
whom are living: Frank M., who married Miss 
Annie Lovell, and lone Feno, now the wife of 
Juan Allison, all residents of San Diego city. 

• • T 1 r^s- * • *" 

Diego, is a native of Peoria, Illinois, born 
August 6, 1842. His father, Jacob Puter- 
baugh, was a native of Maryland and Pennsyl- 
vania. Having been born on the line between 
the States, he is entitled to both States as his 
native State. The name Puterbaugh is either 
German or French, as you wish to have it, or 
perhaps neither. His mother was Hannah (Hit- 
tie) Puterbaugh. They had a family of eight 
children, of whom the Judge was the youngest. 
He attended the common schools at his home, 
and was sent to Antioch College, Yellow Springs, 
Ohio. He remained there until Horace Mann, 
president of the college, died. He then went to 
Jacksonville (Illinois) College. In April, 1861, 
in answer to President Lincoln's first call for 
volunteers to put down the rebellion, he enlisted 


in Company F, Eighth Illinois Volunteers, Gov- 
ernor Oglesby's regiment, for three months, as 
First Corporal. At the end of his term he was 
sick with the typhoid fever, and when recovered 
he again enlisted, in Company E, Forty-seventh 
Illinois Infantry, and was elected First Lieuten- 
ant, which commission he held until September, 
1862, when he was promoted to Captain. He 
was in what was known as the Eagle Brigade, 
composed of the Forty-seventh Illinois, Eleventh 
Missouri, Eighth Wisconsin and the Fifth Min- 
nesota. They remained together during the 
war, commanded by Major-General Joseph A. 
Mower, and were in all the battles of the Army 
of the Tennessee, thirty-three different engage- 
ments in all. At the battle of Corinth, in 1862, 
his regiment lost 130 men, its Colonel and 
several officers, in less than half an hour. On 
May 22 this regiment and division made the 
charge on Vicksburg, and suffered very severely. 
He remained in the service until October, 1864, 
and then commenced the study of law with 
Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll and Judge S. D. 
Futerbaugh. The latter gentleman was the 
Judge's brother, and was the author of "Puter- 
baugh's Common Law Practice and Pleadings,'' 
and "Puterbaugh's Practice in Chancery." 
Judge Futerbaugh was admitted to practice 
law in January, 1866, and remained with the 
firm of Ingersoll & Puterbaugh until the fol- 
lowing July, when he started business for him- 
self. Soon after he was elected City Attorney, 
and held the office two years, and District At- 
torney for four years. In 1873 he went into 
partnership svith Colonel 11. G. Ingersoll and 
his brother, Judge S. L). Puterbaugh, and upon 
the dissolution of this firm in 1874, he re- 
mained in partnership with Colonel Ingersoll 
until he went to Washington City. Judge 
Puterbaugh continued in business in Peoria 
until 1880, when he removed to Colorado on 
account of a throat trouble contracted by ex- 
posure in the service. He remained there until 
1884. His health not improving materially, he 
traveled east and northwest from June until 
November, 1884, when he came to California. 

He traveled in California several months, and 
permanently located in San Diego in July, 1885. 
He has bought property and built a beautiful 
home on Florence Hights. 

He was married to Carrie Troyer James, Sep- 
tember 13, 1866, by whom he had one daughter, 
Carrie Maud, born December 20, 1867. He 
lost his wife in March, 1870. She was the 
adopted daughter of Dr. M. Troyer, of Peoria, 
Illinois. October 1, 1874, he was again married, 
this time to Miss Catherine Hall Wagoner, 
daughter of Joseph and Emeline Wagoner, in 
Dayton, Ohio. She was born July 14, 1844. 
They have by this marriage one son, Johnson 
Wagoner Puterbaugh, born in Peoria, Illinois, 
September 26, 1875. Judge and Mrs. Puter- 
baugh are members of St. Paul's Parish, and he 
is its junior warden. He also belongs to the 
G. A. P., and is a member of Heintzelman 
Post, No. 33, of San Diego. He was adjutant 
of the first post established in Peoria, Illinois. 
It disbanded and was afterward reorganized as 
Colonel Bryner Post, No. 67. He was its com- 
mander two years. He was also junior vice 
commander of department of Illinois, which 
position he was holding when he went to Colo- 
rado. While there he organized and was com- 
mander of Joseph A. Mower Post, No. 31. 
AVhile in Breckenridge, Colorado, he was Mayor 
of the city one term. He was inspector on the 
staff of Chaplain Renshaw when he was com- 
mander in-chief of the G. A. R. He is a mem- 
ber of the Missouri Commandery of the Military 
Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. 
The Judge is an able lawyer, a good judge, and 
is held in high esteem by the legal profession of 
the county and his fellow-citizens in general. 

f MANUEL LOUIS, a native of Strasburg 
Prussia, was born May 17, 1868, and 
crossed the ocean at the age of one and a 
half years, landing at New York. He imme- 
diately started for California by the way of the 
Isthmus of Panama, and after a quiet journey 


arrived safely at San Francisco. His family 
soon journeyed down the coast to Los Angeles, 
but, his father deciding that San Diego was to 
be the future metropolis of southern California, 
they removed to that city, then a small settle- 
ment, in July, 1870, where they have continued 
to reside ever since, and have seen this city 
grow up to one of magnificent proportions. 
During the succeeding years Mr. Louis attended 
the public schools, and graduated June 30, 
1885. He then worked some time for the San 
Diego Daily Sun, as city editor and business 
manager, and on January 1, 1886, he took a 
position with the Russ Lumber and Mill Com- 
pany, of San Diego, as assistant book-keeper 
and in charge of collections, which position he 
now occupies. 

Mr. Louis takes great interest in aquatic 
sports, being at present vice-president of the 
Excelsior Rowing and Swimming Club; is a 
member of the Society of San Diego Pioneers, 
and an ardent brother of San Diego Lodge, No. 
35, F. & A. M., which order he entered on his 
twenty-first birthday, and already has been ap- 
pointed an officer of the above lodge, and takes 
great pride in its welfare. Mr. Louis has been 
lately elected the first honorary member of the 
Junior Bar Association of San Diego, an organ- 
ization composed of young law students, and 
feels highly complimented for this honor. 

He is a keen young business man, and has 
accumulated considerable property during his 
residence in San Diego, which bids fair to be 
very valuable ere long. H^e takes a great deal 
of interest in anything that appertains to San 
Diego, city or county, and will always be found 
to be a progressive citizen. 

fEORGE COPE was born in Jerseyville, 
Illinois, June 14, 1861. His father, Na- 
than Cope, was born in Charleston, 
South Carolina, in 1829, and his grandfather, 
John Cope, was a native of Germany, who set- 
tled in South Carolina. Mr.- Cope's father mar- 

ried Miss Elinda Day in 1848. She was a 
native of Buffalo, New York, born in 1831, and 
was a daughter of Mr. Ira Day, who was an 
Illinois land-owner and tanner. They had eight 
children, three boys and five girls. The subject 
of this sketch was the youngest but one of this 
family. He was sent to the country schools of 
Jersey County, Illinois, and remaiued at home 
with his father until twenty- three years of age. 
He was united in marriage to Miss Nelly San- 
derhaus, who was born in Greene County, Illi- 
nois, in 1863. They have one interesting little 
daughter, Laura, born in Jerseyville, Illinois, 
May 22, 1885. Their ranch consists of 160 
acres, situated four miles north of Perris. Ten 
acres of the ranch is devoted to the house and 
ranch buildings and shrubbery and fruit. The 
house and barns have the stamp of affluence 
and comfort second to none in the valley. Mr. 
Cope is a good farmer. He is sowing this year 
100 acres of White Russian wheat and 200 
acres to barley. Mr. Cope and wife stand high 
in their county as enterprising citizens. 

PUFORD H. COOK, one of the pioneer 
farmers and solid and reliable men of 
Menifee, was born in Cass County, Mis- 
souri, November 15, 1845. His father, David 
Cook, was born in Kentucky. His mother was 
Orpha (Potts) Cook. His father died when he 
was only six years, and his mother in 1853, in 
California, when he was eight years of age. He 
came to California and settled in Sonoma Coun- 
ty. He went to school there until 1863 and 
then removed to Esmeralda County, Nevada, and 
engaged in mining at $4 per day; then he went 
back to Sonoma County and was in that vicinity 
as a working man for five years, and then went 
to Napa Valley, and then to Los Angeles in 
1875. He bought a tract of land near Wilming- 
ton. After this he farmed near Santa Ana, and 
November 1, 1882, he came to Menifee and 
hoinesteaded 160 acres of land; he also timber- 
cultured another 160 acres of land, and after- 


ward sold it and rebought, and now bas 240 
acres. "When be began at Menifee be brongbt 
a load of lumber and materials for a bouse witb 
a four-borse team. He left a man to put up 
tbe bouse and went back to Wilmington and 
got bis wife and two children and their house- 
hold effects, and moved in witb bis wagon and 
four horses. Wben they arrived tbe bouse was 
partly finished. Tbey took possession, and 
bere, in what was then a desert, be bas made a 
nice borne that blossoms like a rose. Tbey have 
bad the trials and hardships of pioneer life, but 
amid it all they have come through, and in the 
shoit space of seven years they find themselves 
in possession of peace and plenty. Mrs. Cook 
is a native of tbe "Golden West," having been 
born in Mendocino County, California, in 1861. 
Her maiden name was Ella Powers, being the 
daughter of Mr. John Powers. She was mar- 
ried to Mr. Cook February 7, 1876, and is the 
mother of five children, viz.: Etta, born in Los 
Angeles County, July 30, 1878; Robert Roy, 
born at Wilmington, Los Angeles County, Oc- 
tober 9, 1882; Pearl M., born at Menifee, April 
24, 1884; Jessie A., born at Menifee, June 21, 
1886, and Charles William, born at Menifee, 
January 15, 1889. Mrs. Cook is one of the 
first ten members of the first church organized 
in Menifee — the Methodist Church South. Both 
she and her husband have been contributors 
and workers in the building of their place of 
worship — the first one constructed for the service 
of God in this new country. Mr. Cook is this 
year (1889) sowing 150 acres of wheat and 150 
acres of barley. Mr. and Mrs. Cook are people 
of influence in their community and are very 
highly spoken of by their neighbors. 

"■*' := ^ '^P T ^ ^ '• "•"" 

WILLIAM NEWPORT, rancher near 
Menifee. The city of Chester, Eng- 
land, is one of the oldest cities of Eng- 
It still has its old walls that U6ed to 
surround it to prevent invasion preserved. There 
is only one other city in England that has these 

ancient walls preserved. In this city was born 
and educated Mr. William Newport, tbe sub- 
ject of this sketch. He was born June 5, 1856. 
His father, William Newport, was born in Eng- 
land in 1818, and his grandfather, Thomas 
Newport, was born in England in 1788. Mr. 
Newport's mother, Mary Newns, was also born in 
England in 1820, and married Mr. William 
Newport in 1854. They bad but one child, tbe 
subject of this sketch. Mr. Newport's ances- 
tors were all English farmers and he may be 
said to be a born farmer, as be loves the busi- 
ness and brings his great energy of character 
into the business of his choice. In 1876 he 
came to the United States for the purpose of 
buying a 2,000-acre farm and farming in this 
favored land. It was not luck but his wise 
judgment that sent him to the most favored 
and delightful portion of the United States — 
California. He landed at New York in 1876, 
and from there came to San Francisco County, 
and from there to Los Angeles, where he lived 
and farmed for nine years. He then came to 
Menifee and purchased 2,000 acres of land, near- 
ly every foot of it plow land, and he is now farm- 
ing on a large scale. When be moved to 
Menifee, although a young man, he resembled 
one of the patriarchs, as their were twelve 
wagons in his train, loaded with implements, 
provisions, lumber and his cook-house on wheels, 
a building one story high, 9x 18 feet. He had 
with him his men servants and his cattle and 
asses and horses. He found the valley very dry, 
with only a few poojj people ; but poor as they 
were they pitied the young man who, as they 
thought, was to make a failure of tanning. 
When they unloaded their caravan he built a 
good ranch house and two large barns; he has 
planted ten acres to fruit and has laid out 
ample grounds and has planted and bas many 
ornamental trees growing. He runs four gang 
plows and uses thirty-two work horses. They 
plow and sow twenty-eight acres of land in a 
day. He has his Chinese cook. This year he 
proposes to sow 3,000 acres of grain — 1,600 
acres of the best Australian white wheat and 


the balance in best brewing barley. He lias 
200 acres in alfalfa and intends to suw 100 more 
acres of it this year. He is going more fully 
into diversified farming. His lands are pecu- 
liarly well adapted to the production of blooded 
horses. He now has a line drove of young 
horses and mules. He owns a fine thorough- 
bred horse from Hardwood the dam, by Rich- 
mond the sire. The animal shows fine breeding 
and will undoubtedly he very fast. Mr. New- 
port is also turning his attention to the breed- 
ing of Berkshire hogs and he has as the head of 
this a thoroughbred Berkshire that is as fine as 
any in the United States. Mr. Newport will 
not be satisfied with anything short of the best. 
He sows the best varieties of wheat and barley 
and makes it perfectly clean, and is able to make 
his own price on what he sells. His barns at 
one time this year contained 20,000 sacks of 
grain. He has selected the site and adopted 
the plans for a palatial residence which is to go 
up in the near future. What a single man will 
do with such a house can only be conjectured. 
His present house in which he baches is capi- 
tal, has a fine instrument in it and is full of 
costly pictures. He not only uses his brains, 
but muscle in his farming. He and his hands 
are up at half past four in the morning taking 
care of the stock, and the breakfast is eaten so 
that they go on the ranch as soon as it is clear. 
Some of his help have been with him from three 
to five years. He is a very genial gentleman 
and makes many warm friends. While others 
are complaining of hard times, this man of push 
and vim has barns full of grain and money in 
the bank. It is safe to say that he is a valuable 
factor in showing what his section of the coun- 
try will do when judiciously tickled with the plow- 

fEORGE M. DANNALS, of San Diego, 
was born in Rochester, New York, No- 
vember 2, 1844. His father, R. M. Dan- 
nals, was a native of New York. His mother, 
Susan (Bell) Dannals, daughter of Dr. Bell, 

was also of New York. Mr. Dannals is a de- 
scendent of the Holland Dutch who located in 
the Mohawk Valley. His father was a con- 
tractor and builder. Mr. Dannals left his home 
in 1867, and to fit himself for a business life, 
took a course in a commercial college. After 
leaving college some good genius put it into his 
head to learn a trade. He consequently learned 
the carpenter's trade. 

When twenty years of age he offered his serv- 
ices to his country as a soldier, and was enrolled 
July 26, 1864. At that time the great war 
had assumed gigantic proportions, and as thou- 
sands upon thousands of our brave men had died 
in prison, and had been slain on many a bloody 
battle-field, 1864, of all the years in the history 
of the United States since the days of Valley 
Forge, was the time that tried the patriotism 
and courage of its citizens, and to enlist in such 
a war at such a time was a most grand and 
heroic deed. He enlisted in Company E, Fifty- 
fourth New York Infantry, which was com- 
posed mostly of young men. They were sent 
to Elmira, New York, to guard prisons, and 
to aid in preventing bounty jumping, and to 
aid in forwarding troops to the front. He was 
in the United States service 110 days, and after 
being mustered out in November, 1864, he was 
soon engaged as chief clerk in a railroad freight 
office. March, 1867, he went to Nevada Coun- 
ty, California, where he engaged in the mercan- 
tile business, dealing in mining supplies. They 
bought gold dust, and did a lucrative business. 
From there he went to San Francisco, and then 
came to San Diego and went to the Julian 
mines in 1870. He was there until 1876. 
They had a long and severe struggle to set aside 
the Mexican land grant, which menaced their 
mines and threatened to take them from them. 
He came out of this successfully, but very much 
injured financially, as it took a large amount of 
money to bring it to a close. In 1871 and '72 
he was elected a member of the California 
Legislature. While at the mines, Mr. Dannals 
was agent for Wells, Fargo & Co., and Post- 
master, and had all kinds of experiences. Soon 


after this the mines were closed, and Mr. Dan- 
nals became book-keeper and cashier for the 
firm of Klauber & Levi. He had full charge of 
the finances of the company, including the bank- 
ing. He was with them nearly eleven years, 
and during the boom, was paying teller of the 
First National Bank of San Diego, and had 
plenty to do in the then great rush of business. 
He was afterward cashier of the bank of San 
Diego, which was afterward consolidated with 
the First National Bank. He is now Expert of 
San Diego County, employed by the ccunty to 
examine all the county offices. 

He was married in 1872 to Miss Lucy L. 
Wilcox, daughter of Leroy Wilcox, born in 
Ohio, April 24, 1858. Her father was one of 
the discoverers of the Nevada mines, and made 
a fortune at that time. They are from Kala- 
mazoo, Michigan. They have one child living: 
Marion, born in San Diego, May 10, 1874. 

Mr. Dannals served four years on the Board 
of Education in San Diego. Both he and his 
wife are members of the Presbyterian Church, 
of which he has been the treasurer and a trus- 
tee for several years. Mr. Dannals is a veteran 
Odd Fellow, having served through all its 
offices. He has been Noble Grand, Represen- 
tative to the Grand Lodge and District Deputy, 
and in all the same positions in the Encampment. 
He also belongs to the Masonic order, and has 
served in all its offices, the last two years as 
Master of the lodge. He is a Knight of Pyth- 
ias, and was its Commander and also District 
Deputy, and in the Masonic Chapter is High 
Priest, and is a member of the coinmandery of 
Knight Templars, and Junior Warden of the 
lodge of perfection. His wife and himself are 
the present worthy matron and patron of the 
Order of the Eastern Star, of which they were 
the organizers in San Diego. He is Past Post 
Commander of Heintzelman Post, No. 33, G. 
A. R., and has taken an interest in all that per- 
tains to the growth and welfare of the city and 
county. He is also a veteran of the National 
Guards, having served some seven years in the 
State of New York and in California, as an 

officer since October 1, 1881; and is at present 
Major and Commissary on the First Brigade 

§ENRY CHASE, one of the reliable pioneer 
fanners of Perris valley, was born in 
Attica, Wyoming County, New York, 
August 29, 1851. His parents removed to 
Dale when he was four years of age. His 
father, Isaac Chase, was a native of Connecticut, 
and removed to New York when a boy. He 
was married to Miss Sally Benham, who was 
born in Attica, Wyoming County, New York, 
in 1814. They raised a family of eight chil 
dren, of which the subject of this sketch was 
the youngest but one. His father's death oc- 
curred in August, 1885, and his mother died 
in December, 1865. Mr. Chase was educated 
in the public schools at Dale, New York, and 
when a boy, worked on the canal, for which he 
has no reason to be ashamed, as he has had 
many an illustrious predecessor who did the 
same thing. Most of his life has been spent, 
however, in farming. In 1875 he came to 
California and settled in Westminster, Los 
Angeles County (now Orange County), where 
he bought twenty acres of land, and in two 
years sold it, and then farmed for four years on 
the Centinella Ranch. December 15, 1884, he 
came to Perris Valley and took up 160 acres of 
Government land, built his house and barns, 
and is making himself a comfortable home that 
some time in the near future will be worth a 
small fortune. 

After several years of dreary •' baching " he 
became desperate, and October 1, 1887, he mar- 
ried Miss Nina G. Green, and he now wonders 
why he remained single so long. Mrs. Chase 
i6 a native of Massachusetts, born June 10, 
1866. They have one nice girl — Ruby F., born 
in their present home June 10, 1889. Mr. 
Chase is sowing twenty acres of wheat, and the 
balance to barley. Both he and his wife are 


nice people, and are highly spoken of by their 

— £H£@®Sh^s — 

fEORGE. P. (JAKES was born in Roxburys 
Massachusetts, February 14, 1846. His 
father, Nathan Oakes, was a native of 
Maine; his mother, Sarah (Noyes) Oakes, was 
born in Salein, Massachusetts. Mr. Oakes was 
the eldestof a family of seven children. He 
was educated in the public schools and at North 
Yarmouth Academy, and at the age of sixteen 
he entered the Union ranks in Company E> 
Seventeenth Maine Volunteer Infantry. Mr 
Oakes' regiment went to the front at the time 
General McClellan was superseded, and shared 
the struggles of the great battles of the army 
of the Potomac until General Lee surrendered. 
He was twice shot, — once in the fore-arm (at 
Mine Run) and once in the head (at Chancel- 
lorsville); and his ankle suffers weakness from 
contusion. He was taken prisoner at Chancel- 
lorsville and paroled and sent to Belle Isle; 
from there in a short time he was exchanged 




regiment at the front. The 

weakness of his ankle caused him to be after- 
ward transferred to the Veteran Reserve Corps, 
Company K, Fourteenth Regiment, and he did 
reserve service at Langley, Virginia, sixteen mile, 
from "Washington. When mustered out of the 
service Mr. Oakes followed the sea in a sailing 
vessel. He made several trips to Europe, and 
August 12, 1868, landed at San Francisco from 
the brig Mary A. Reed, Captain Charles John- 
son, 187 days from Brooklyn, New York, being 
twenty-five days going through the straits of 
Magellan. He spent a brief period in the follow- 
ing counties: Sonoma, Marin, Ventura, Los An- 
geles and San Bernardino. During the most of 
the time in these counties he was in the dairy 
business. In August, 1886, he came to Penis, 
San Diego County, and bought of the railroad 
company 160 acres of land, on which he built a 
house and barn and planted trees, and will soon 
have a very desirable place. He was married 

in 1878 to Miss Julia L. Moore, born in 1859, 
in St. Louis, Missouri, daughter of Levi N. 
Moore, of Orange County, New York. They 
had seven children, viz.: Levi M.; George P., 
born May 3, 1881; Charles H. W., born July 
5,1882; Sarah F., born October 31, 1883; Ben- 
jamin S., born February 2, 1885; Forest N., 
born September 5, 1887, and Leonard F., born 
April 1, 1889. The oldest child, Levi M., died 
when three years of age, of croup. Mr. Oakes 
has been an Odd Fellow and is a member of the 
G. A. R., Conman Post, No. 57. He is farm- 
ing his land principally to grain, and usually 
sows 140 acres. He is an honest and reliable 
man and a good citizen. 

tG. CLARK, one of the old residents of 
San Diego County, was born in Green- 
9 ville, Mercer County, Pennsylvania, May 
13, 1832. He lived upon a farm and attended 
the district schools until he was eighteen years 
of age. He then apprenticed himself to learn 
the trade of iron-molder, working two years in 
a foundry in Mercer County. He then went to 
Springfield, Ohio, and worked in Leffell's foun- 
dry until he completed his apprenticeship. 
During this time he had also mastered the mys- 
tery of the steam engine, and was not only able 
to run one but also understood its construction. 
This was to serve a good purpose in the future. 
From Springfield he went to Cincinnati and 
St. Louis, where he worked at his trade until 
1854, and remained through the winter. 

In the spring they started again toward the 
Pacific slope with the first train. After leaving 
Salt Lake the train was attacked by Indians 
several times, but they had a strong company 
and their assailants were repulsed. They ar- 
rived at Sacramento June 5, 1855. Then Mr. 
Clark went to Amador County. It was now 
that the knowledge of the steam engine he had 
acquired while working at his trade in Ohio 
came into play. A man was wanted to run the 
engine in the Oneida Quartz Mill. He applied 



for the position and obtained it. Afterward he 
was foreman, during 1855 and 1856, of the 
Tibbitts foundry at Sutter Creek. Subsequently 
he engaged in mining on the Mokelumne river, 
with varied success. He was for a time general 
superintendent of a large foundry at Silver 
City, Idaho, receiving, with one exception, the 
highest salary paid to superintendents in the 

When the Fraser river excitement broke out 
in 1858, Mr. Clark caught the fever and made 
the pilgrimage to British Columbia, returning, 
with thousands of others, poor in pocket but 
with an addition to his store of experience. 
For a short time after this he was foreman of 
Worcester's foundry at Angel's Camp, Calaveras 
County. Then in 1859 he went East and vis- 
ited his old home in Pennsylvania, returning to 
California the following year. J. S. Harbison 
had previous to this time imported several col- 
onies of bees from the East, and Mr. Clark and 
his brother bought some of him and established 
several apiaries in lone valley, Amador County. 
In this venture the brothers were very success- 
ful. One year afterward he, in connection with 
his brother James, went to Nevada and bought 
a farm called " Little Meadows," now known as 
Clark's station, on the Truckee river. He pros- 
pered in farming on the Truckee and remained 
there for seven years, but finally, on account of 
malaria, he was obliged to sell out and seek a 
change of climate. He decided to come to San 
Diego and arrived here in 1868. A few months 
after this he went back to Sacramento, and in 
company with his old bee friend, J. S. Harbison, 
engaged in silk culture. Their experiment, 
however, was not a success, owing to a disease 
breaking out among the silk-worms, and they 
gave up the business. Then, in conjunction 
with Mr. Harbison, he started for San Diego, 
bringing with them 110 hives of honey bees, 
arriving here November 28, 1869. From that 
time up to last spring Mr. Clark continued to 
be largely interested in bee culture, and did 
much to create the reputation which San Diego 
honey enjoys in the market of the world. 

In 1876 Mr. Clark began the culture of fruit 
and forest trees and the making of raisins, in 
the Cajon valley. He owned at first 230 acres, 
all under cultivation. Eighty acres were in 
trees and vines, and the balance in grain. He 
was the first man in San Diego to practically 
demonstrate the productiveness of the soil of 
El Cajon for raisin culture. Cured and made 
the first raisins in this county in 1878. He in- 
troduced a system of sub-irrigation in his vine- 
yard, running a continuous concrete cement 
pipe, with outlets at convenient distances, under 
ten acres. His was the only vineyard in the 
valley that was irrigated, and although it was 
not neccessary the experiment was one that 
proved not unprofitable, as double the crops 
could be raised by irrigation. Mr. Clark has 
always shipped the largest portion of lift raisins 
to the Eastern markets. For the last two years 
the house of William T. Coleman & Co. has 
handled his crop. His raisins are pronounced 
by the best judges to be equal to any imported. 
When he first came to San Diego Mr. Clark 
was laughed at for bringing bees here, but be- 
fore long he demonstrated the natural advantage 
of the county for bee culture. He was met 
with the same kind of encouragement when he 
first began growing grapes in the Cajon. Peo- 
ple claimed that the soil was not suited for the 
purpose. Mr. Clark sold out all his interests 
in the Cajoii in December, 1886, and came to 
San Diego. On the 13th of April following, 
in company with his family, he started for an 
Eastern trip, and traveled all through the East- 
ern and Middle States, but found no place in 
which he could be content to live outside of San 
Diego County. He owns considerable real- 
estate in the city, and has built a beautiful 
residence on the corner of A and Thirteenth 
streets. In the first year of his residence in 
San Diego County Mr. Clark labored very hard 
and surmounted obstacles under which men 
of less determination would have succumbed. 
When, however, his orchards and his vineyards 
were well under way, and he began to see some 
of his most cherished ideas realized, he felt am- 


ply repaid for all his trials and temporary dis- 
appointments. Ever since his first crop of 
raisins they have paid him on an average of 
$100 per acre net. Mr. Clark aho planted the 
first Australian blue gum forest in the county. 
He is constantly in the receipt of letters from 
all parts of the country asking information in 
reference to vine and bee culture. 

Mr. Clark was married in 1871 to Mrs. Anna 
L. Corbitt. They have one child living: Edgar 
Franklin Clark, fourteen years of age; and 
have bad a daughter, Florence Ida, who is now 

f| S. HUBBELL has already accomplished 
Jl in his brief business career far more tban 
$* many men, who deem themselves favored 
by fortune, have done in the space of a long and 
laborious life-time. Mr. Hubbell was born in 
Keokuk, Iowa, May 29, 1859, but removed with 
his parents to San Diego when he was twelve 
years of age. On his arrival here he attended 
the public schools, graduating at the High 
School. He made preparations to enter college, 
but his health failing he relinquished that ob- 
ject and entered the employ of the Bank of San 
Diego, the first bank established in this city, in 
the latter part of 1876. He first was book- 
keeper, then teller, and then was appointed as- 
sistant cashier. He remained with this institu- 
tion three years, and at the age of twenty-one 
was one of the incorporators and a stockholder 
of the Consolidated Bank of San Diego, and 
also an incorporator and stockholder in the 
Consolidated National Bank. He continued 
with this bank until 1885, when he resigned 
and became a stockholder and accepted the posi- 
tion of assistant cashier in the First National 
Bank. In 1886 he was elected a director and 
soon afterward cashier, which position he re- 
signed January 1, 1889. 

Mr. Hubbell was a half-owner of Reed & 
HubbelPs Addition. This was the first addi- 

tion of any size cut up from acre property into 
lots and put on the market with any success. 
It is situated on the bay between San Diego 
and National City, and originally consisted of 
210 acres, and wa6 first offered in August, 1886. 
They sold eighty acres in a body and cut the 
balance up into lots. 

Among other land corporations with which 
Hr. Hubbell is connected are the Escondido 
Land and Town Company, the San Marcos 
Land Company, the El Cajon Valley Company, 
the Morena Land Company, the Juuipero 
Land and Water Company, and the Pacific 
Beach Company, in each of which he is an in- 
corporator, stockholder and a director. He is a 
stockholder of the College Hill Land Associa- 
tion. He is a stockholder of the Coronado 
Beach Company. He was one of the incorpora- 
tors of the San Diego National Bank, and the 
Bank of Escondido, and a stockholder in the 
Bank of Elsinore and the Exchange Bank of 
Elsinore. He was one of the incorporators and 
is a director in the Coronado Ferry Company, 
an incorporator of the San Diego Street Railroad 
Company, and an incorporator and stockholder 
in the San Diego and Coronado Water Com- 
pany, the San Diego & Cuyamaca Railroad Com- 
pany, the San Diego Old Town & Pacific Beach 
Railroad Company, and the West Coast Lumber 
Company. He was one of four in incorporat- 
ing the San Diego Gas and Electric Light Com- 
pany. He was also one of the incorporators of 
the Marine Railway & Dry Dock Company, 
and an incorporator of the Cuyamaca Club, the 
leading gentlemen's club of San Diego. Last 
January he was elected a director of the Cali- 
fornia Southern Railroad Company. He was 
one of the organizers of the San Diego City 
Guards, a crack militia company, in which he 
has served for six years. 

He is now (December, 1889,) engaged in 
opening the Helvetia mine, which is situated in 
the Julian mining district between Julian and 
Stonewall, a mine very productive in the past. 
He has just been appointed by Governor Wat- 
erman as a member of the Board of Bank 


Commissioners for the State, appointment to 
take effect January 1, 1889. 

He was married in San Diego, in 1881. to 
Miss Kate L. Groesbeck, a daughter of General 
John Groesbeck, formerly of New York, who 
cvas at the time of his death the oldest member 
of the order of Odd Fellows in the United 
States. He has two children, both boys. It 
is not difficult to analyze the causes of Mr. 
Hubbell's success. Primarily, he has bad the 
opportunity; secondly, he has improved it. 
Combining in a wonderful degree keen finan- 
cial foresight with promptness of decision, 
failure is to him an unknown quantity. Per- 
sonally, he is one of the most genial of men; 
affable in his manners, courteous to all, his 
popularity is not to be wondered at. If O. S. 
Hubbell has attained an extraordinary measure 
of success, the means by which he secured it 
were such that he has raised up friends rather 
than enemies along his pathway in life. 


fHARLES HUBBELL is one of the sub- 
stantial and public-spirited citizens of San 
Diego. Although he retired from active 
business some years ago, he takes a deep interest 
in everything that pertains to the advancement 
of the city. Mr. Hubbell is a native of the 
Empire State, having been born in Ballston in 
November, 1817. 

He is a descendant in the eighth generation 
of Lieutenant Richard Hubbell, one of the 
founders of Bridgeport, Connecticut, who settled 
there in 1645. 

He lived until he was seventeen in Ballston 
and Oswego and then went to Rochester, where 
he became assistant teller in the Bank of Mon- 
roe. He remained in Rochester two years and 
then went to Pontiac, Michigan, to accept a po- 
sition as cashier of a bank there. He built and 
put in operation the first saw-mill in Clinton 
County, Michigan, and aided in cutting out the 
first road from Pontiac to Ionia, fifty years ago. 
He was one of the original incorporators of Sag- 

inaw Ci.ty. He assisted in the first development 
of the 6alt springs of northern Michigan and was 
identified with many other projects of import- 
ance in that State. In 1839 he returned to 
Rochester to act as teller of the Commercial 
Bank. In 1846 he removed to Cincinnati, to 
become teller of the Ohio Life and Trust Com- 
pany. After one year in this position he went 
into the banking house of Ellis & Sturges as 

In 1853 he had a severe attack of hemorrhage 
of the lungs and spent a year and a half travel- 
ing about for the purpose of recovering his 
health. Then he settled at Keokuk, Iowa, 
where he remained fifteen years. There his 
natural taste for horticultural pursuits, a taste 
which he had never before had the opportunity 
to gratify, induced him to engage in fruit rais- 
ing. He resided on a farm during the summer 
months and in the winter he lived in the city 
of Keokuk. During his stay there he filled 
several city and county offices. 

In 1870, as his health was still far from 
rugged, on the advice of Professor Cleaver, who 
is now Surgeon-General of the Santa Fe Rail- 
road Company, he started for California, coming 
direct to San Diego, and was one of the first 
Eastern visitors to record his name on the reg- 
ister of the famous Horton House. Upon his 
arrival he was so pleased with the climate that 
he decided to make it his future home. He 
purchased 100 acres of laud on the National 
Ranch, and planted a vineyard and fruit orchard. 
In 1874 he accepted the position of cashier of 
the Bank of San Diego and remained in that in- 
stitution until it was merged with the present 
Consolidated National Bank. He was a mem- 
ber of the committee of forty, appointed by 
the citizens to induce the building of a railroad 
to San Diego. He was corresponding secretary 
of the committee, and labored zealously to bring 
about that much desired object — railroad com- 
munication with the outside world. 

Mr. Hubbell was one of the original stock- 
holders in the California Southern. He never 
sought public office here, but at the earnest so- 


licitation of his friends he ran for and was elected 
school trustee in 1872, and afterward in 1886, 
at the latter time being chosen president of the 
board, which position he resigned in 18S8. He 
retired from active business in 1880, and has 
since been attending ro his private affairs. Be- 
fore coming to San Diego his health was so bad 
that he was not expected to live, but now, at 
the age seventy-two, he enjoys perfect health, is 
active, and looks much younger than he really 
is. He has been prominently identified with 
the horticultural interests, and has been secretary 
of the County Horticultural Society. 

" In religion," Mr. Hubbell says, " I am a 
Baptist, having belonged to a church of that in- 
dependent and democratic organization nearly 
fifty years. 1 accept implicitly the doctrines 
taught by the Lord Jesus Christ, in their spirit- 
uality, and particularly as to purity, truth, love, 
universal benevolence, and the golden rule of 
sixteen ounces to the pound." The ancestral 
motto of his family has always been, Esse 
qvam videri — be what you seem to be. Mr. 
Hubbell was married in 1843, in Rochester, 
New York, to Miss Anna M. Sage, who died 
very suddenly in 1881. During the thirty- 
seven years of her married life she was never 
known to speak an unkind word to either her 
husband or children. He has had seven chil- 
dren, of whom five are living, four sons and one 

— ~ . .g . mt . g .~. — 

fUDGE M. A. LUCE, one of the best-known 
and most prominent men in every move- 
ment to advance the best interests of San 
Diego, comes of good New England stock, and 
is of a right possessed of those attributes which 
are strongly characteristic of the better type of 
American character — energy, ability and prob- 
ity. His father is a native of Maine, is a 
preacher in the Baptist Church, and now, at the 
age of seventy-eight years, is living in Poway 
valley, a hale and hearty old man. His mother 
was born in New Hampshire. 

The subject of this brief sketch first saw the 
light in Quincy, Illinois, in the year 1842. He 
lived with his parents in Central Illinois until 
he was fourteen years of age, when heleft home 
to prepare for college at Hillsdale, Michigan. 
Here he spent a part of each year in advancing 
his own education, and the residue of the time 
in educating others, that is, in teaching school. 
Thus passed nearly four years of his boyhood. 
Then came that eventful April day in 1861 
when the call "to arms" resounded through the 
land. The response that came forth from the 
loyal North was something unparalleled in the 
history of mankind. The ink was scarcely dry 
with which the President's proclamation for 
volunteers was written when the tramp of bat- 
talions was heard througout the land. From no 
section of the North was the patriotic response 
more immediate and hearty than from the great 
States of the West. Foremost among them was 
the commonwealth of Michigan. Young Luce, 
brimming over with loyalty, dropped his school 
books, and enlisted in the Fourth Michigan 
Volunteer Infantry. During the war he took 
part in the following engagements: Bull Run, 
New Bridge, Hanover Court House, Mechanics- 
ville, Gaines' Mill, Savage Station, Turkey Bend, 
White Oak Swamp, Malvern Hill, Second Bull 
Run, U. S. Ford, Chancellorsville, Kelly's Ford, 
Ashby Gap, Brandy Station, Middleburg, Get- 
tysburg, Williamsport, Wapping Heights, Cul- 
peper, Bristol Station, Rappahannock Station, 
Mine Run, Wilderness, Laurel Hill, Spottsyl- 
vania, North Anna, Tolopotomy Creek, Jericho 
Mills, Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor and Pe- 
tersburg. Was wounded slightly at Spottsyl- 
vania, while with the forlorn hope in the assault 
of May 12. 

After the war Mr. Luce, now a bronzed 
young veteran, after a paying a brief visit to his 
parents, returned to Hillsdale and resumed his 
collegiate studies, which had been so rudely in- 
terrupted four years before. He graduated in 
1866, and, having decided to devote himself to 
the legal profession, attended the Law Univer- 
sity at Albany, where he graduated a year later. 


"With his diploma in his pocket he returned to 
his native State, and began practice in Bush- 
nell, of which lie was the first Cit}' Attorney. 
He was afterward attorney of the First National 
Bank of Buslmell and local attorney of the Chi- 
cago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad Company, 
and in 1872 was the candidate of his party for 
the State Senate. In 1873 the first of Southern 
California's booms began to be heard of. In 
these days it would be called a very small boom, 
a kind of a " Northern Citrus Belt" affair; but 
then it made quite a stir, not only on the Pa- 
cific coast but was felt all over the East. That 
was the time when Colonel Tom Scott was build- 
ing his Texas Pacific (on paper) across the con- 
tinent, to have its terminus on the shores of 
Sau Diego bay. One result of this agitation 
was to direct attention to the harbor, which had 
lain neglected and unthought of since the day 
the great empire of California became a part of 
the Republic. Tidings of the promising future 
of this Pacific coast city came to Luce in his 
Illinois home, and, as at that time his health 
was apparently failing, he decided to emigrate. 
He arrived in San Diego in May, 1873, and im- 
mediately opened a law office and engaged in 
the practice of his profession. In the fall of 
1875 he was elected Judge of the County Court, 
and held the office until the new constitution 
went into effect and terminated the jurisdiction 
of that court in 1880. Judge Luce took an act- 
ive part in the movement to bring the Atchi- 
son, Topeka & Santa Fe road to San Diego, and 
was a member of, and acted as counsel for, the 
citizens' committee. In the fall of 1880 the 
California Southern Railroad Company was or- 
ganized and he was elected vice-president. He 
was also appointed attorney of the road and has 
continued so up to the present time. He is 
still a member of the board of directors. Judge 
Luce's law practice has been very large, he 
having acted as attorney for a majority of the 
heaviest local corporations, while the Pacific 
Steamship Company and other important organ- 
izations have intrusted their legal business to 
his care, and he is now the senior partner ef the 

law firm of Luce, McDonald & Torrence. Ever 
since the day of his arrival in San Diego Judge 
Luce has had an abiding faith in the future of 
the city. Firm in his convictions on that point 
he has from the first, as opportunity offered, in- 
vested in real estate, and he is now one of the 
heaviest holders of real property. Unlike some 
other men of like business instincts, the aggre- 
gation of property has not served to lessen his 
interest in the growth of the city, but he is to- 
day as keenly ali-ve to everthing that tends to 
develop and enlarge its importance as he was 
ten years ago. He has been identified with 
every public improvement, and is willing at all 
times to give freely of his means toward the 
material advancement of San Diego. He has 
been interested in the mining development of 
the county, and is a principal shareholder in the 
Shenandoah mine at Mesa Grande, in this county. 
He is of the opinion that the future wealth and 
importance of San Diego will be largely due to 
the development of its mines. In the past profi- 
table operations have been retarded by the crude 
machinery employed in working the ore and in- 
sufficient means of transportation. With the 
completion of a railroad to the mining center, 
and the introduction of new and approved ma- 
chinery, all this will be changed, however. 

Judge Luce is one of the executors of the 
trust of the late James M. Pierce, donating 
$150,000 to the establishment of the Boys' and 
Girls' Aid Society. He has been president of 
the Unitarian Church Society ever since its or- 
ganization. In December, 1870, he was mar- 
ried, at Bushnell, to Miss Adelaide Mantaniaof 
Avon, Illinois, who was at the time assistant 
principal of the public schools at Bushnell, Illi- 
nois. Uniting personal attractions and all the 
female accomplishments to a richly stored mind, 
Mrs. Luce has proven a worthy helpmate to her 
husband in the battle of life. Six children have 
blessed their union, of which four, two boys and 
two girls, are living; two have died and are 
buried in the cemetery here. 

Judge Luce is six feet in height, slight figure, 
and a face that has more the look of a student 


than a professional man, or one immersed in 
business. He has a strong taste for literature, 
and possesses a well-appointed library. Now 
that he is getting rid of some of his profes- 
sional cares he will probably find rest from the 
demands of business in the society of his books. 

>HOMAS W HA LEY.— There is something 
at once interesting and fascinating about 
the life, character and history of the Cali- 
fornia pioneers. They were, as a class, excep- 
tional men, strong in most of the qualities that 
go to make up the typical American character. 
They were energetic, courageous and far-seeing. 
The careers of many were full of incidents, and 
their life histories read like fiction. Thomas 
Whaley is a good representative of this noble 
class of men. He was born in the city of New 
York, October 5, 1823, a descendant of Revolu- 
tionary stock. His paternal ancestors emigrated 
from Ireland to New England in the early part 
of the eighteenth century. His grandfather, 
Alexander Whaley, of Bushwick Cross Roads, 
Long Island, New York, fought under the 
special command of General Washington, re- 


at his hand a reward for brave and dar- 

ing conduct, an account of which is given in 
the history of Brooklyn. His maternal an- 
cestors were of the old English family of Pye, 
four brothers of which landed in New York 
about the year 1792, bringing with them his 
mother, then an infant. His childhood and 
youth were spent in the metropolis. He had 
the advantage of the best of schools, complet- 
ing his course at the age of eighteen, at 
Washington Institute, New York City, which 
was named and dedicated by Lafayette, in honor 
of his friend, George Washington, on the occa- 
sion of his last visit to this country. In 1842, 
before the establishment of steamship lines, he 
went with his tutor, Einile Mallet, to Europe, 
and for two years traveled over Engand and the 
continent for instruction and pleasure. Upon 
his return he was variously engaged in mer- 

cantile pursuits, and at the time of the breaking 
out of the California gold fever, he was in the 
shipping office of George Sutton, owner of a 
line of packets running to Charleston, South 

The old ship Sutton, Wardle master, was at 
this time being fitted out to sail to the coast of 
California on a trading voyage. The prepara- 
tions were interrupted, however, by the news of 
the discovery of gold, and it was decided, in- 
stead of sending the Sutton on a trading voy- 
age, to fit her up as a passenger packet to carry 
emigrants to the New El Dorado. Young 
Whaley, brimful of pluck and enthusiasm, de- 
cided to join the fortune seekers, and took 
passage on the Sutton. The ship had quick 
dispatch, and on the first day of January, 1849, 
the Sutton sailed from New York harbor. 
Snow was on the ground and Staten Island 
and the Jersey shore were wrapped in a mantle 
of white. Quite a crowd assembled at the 
wharf to see the first vessel from New York- 
set sail for the gold fields of California. The 
greetings exchanged by friends were cordial and 
mutual and many were the requests for "chunks 
of gold, some as big as your head." 

Among the passengers were A. C. Taylor, W. 
R. Wadsworth, George D. Puffer, Chas. S. 
Palmer, Chas. H. Strybing, A. Kuhner (the en- 
graver of the great seal of California), Moseley, 
father and son, and Dr. Johnson and his neph- 
ew, Tom Grant. In all there were fifty-four 
passengers. They had rather a rough time of 
it after they got into the Gulf Stream, and all 
the way down to the line they experienced more 
or less heavy weather, so that it was found 
necessary to put into Rio Janeiro for repairs. 
Here they remained for three weeks, and dur- 
ing that time Whaley stayed on shore, having 
quarters at the old Hotel Ferrou. There were 
at least 1,700 Americans in port from different 
ships, all hound for California, and many pleas- 
ant acquaintances were formed. Repairs being 
completed, Captain Wardle hoisted the "blue 
peter," and the Sutton was once more under 
way. They were a month doubling Cape Horn, 


Laving lost their reckoning and being unable 
to get an observation during that time. A sad. 
accident occurred after rounding the cape. A 
number were, against the orders of the captain, 
in the stern boat, fishing for "gonies." Owing 
to the weight, the boat broke away and a dozen 
or more were precipitated into the water. All 
were rescued except one shoemaker, who disap- 
peared, battling with the gonies, who had 
picked into his brain, thus rendering effort use- 
less. The sea was rough, the waves running 
high, and the man sank before help could reach 

They stopped a week at Valparaiso for recrea- 
tion and to obtain fresh provisions. On the 
22d of July, nearly seven months after leaving 
New York, they neared the California shore, 
and passing within the Golden Gate came to 
anchor amidst the fleet of vessels that had been 
more fortunate. Mr. Whaley remained on board 
the ship until the erection of a tent on the cor- 
ner of Jackson and Montgomery streets, near 
where the old Pioneer Hall stands. Their goods 
were landed at the foot of Washington street, 
which then extended about 100 feet below the 
corner of Montgomery. Whaley, with his 
friend Puffer, leased a portion of the store be- 
longing to George S. Wardle & Co., erected a 
short time after his arrival in the city, and en- 
gaged in the mercantile business. In the fall 
of 1849 he leased a piece of land from Colonel 
Stevenson, agent of Henry Gerke, on Mont- 
gomery street, opposite to George S. Wardle & 
Co.'s, for which he paid $450 per month; he 
sub-let a portion of this for $400 per month 
and erected a two-story building containing ten 
rooms up stairs and two stores below, and leased 
one of the latter and occupied the other for his 
business. When Montgomery street was graded 
this building was fifteen feet below the grade 
established. This proved disastrous, as alT of 
Whaley's tenants left him. and his business was 
destroyed. He then bought property on Rincon 
Point and erected a dwelling house about op- 
posite to where the United States Marine Hos- 
pital now stands. He engaged in business as a 

broker for awhile and afterward became a coffee 

In the summer of 1851 Lewis A. Frankliu 
and George H. Davis chartered a vessel, and 
with a cargo of goods started down the coast on 
a trading voyage. Whaley, who had an interest 
in the venture, remained in San Francisco as 
their agent. Franklin and Davis stopped at 
various ports, finally at San Diego, and liked 
the prospects so well that they decided to locate. 
They wrote to Whaley and he came down, ar- 
riving here in the month of October, 1851. He 
then formed a partnership with Franklin, and 
together they opened a store on the plaza in 
Old San Diego, which they christiened Tienda 
California — California store. The following 
April their partnership was dissolved, and in 
connection with Jack Ilinton, Whaley succeeded 
to the business of R. E. Raymond, in the Tienda 
General — general store — also at Old San Diego. 
They remained in partnership for one year, and 
during that time cleared $18,600 over and 
above expenses, a very large sum for such a 
business. 1n April, 1853, Hinton retired, and 
E. W. Morse entered the firm. Whaley returned 
to New York about this time on a mission at 
once pleasant and romantic. 

On the 14th of August, 1853, he was mar- 
ried to Anna E. Lannay, of New York, a de- 
scendant of the De Lannay and Godfrois fam- 
ilies, of pure French extraction. He then 
returned to San Diego, bringing his bride with 
him. They took up their residence in Old San 
Diego, which was then a thriving town, though 
primitive in its appearance and containing a 
mixed population of Spaniards, Mexicans, In- 
dians and whites. The change from the bust- 
ling metropolis to this quaint old town was 
novel and delightful, and the time spent with 
the hospitable people was particularly enjoy- 

In 1856 Morse retired from the business and 
Whaley continued alone, at the same time en- 
gaging in brick-making in Mission valley, near 
Old San Diego. He also erected a large brick 
building in 1856, the first built on the coast 


suoth of San Francisco. In 1858 he was en- 
gaged in the mercantile business with Walter 
Ringgold, a son of Major George H. Ringgold, 
paymaster United States army, but in less than 
a year this store on the Plaza, Old Town, was 
destroyed by an incendiary tire. 

At the breaking out of the Indian war in 
1852, Whaley joined the Fitzgerald volunteers. 
There was a general rising of the Indians be- 
tween Los Angeles and San Diego. Martial 
law was proclaimed in San Diego, and until 
their suppression by the capture and execution 
of their leader, Antonio Garra, the times were 
quite lively. 

About January, 1859, Whaley went to San 
Francisco, and in March was appointed com- 
missary storekeeper, under Captain M. D. L. 
Simpson, United States army, in which employ, 
under successive commissaries, he remained for 
several years. He then engaged in the ship- 
ping and commission business for nearly two 
years. After that, under Colonel G. H. Weeks, 
Quartermaster, in charge of the clothing depart- 
ment, he was appointed storekeeper, and there 
remained till Colonel Weeks was relieved by 
Captain Sawyer, military storekeeper. 

About this time the Russian Possessions, 
purchased at the instance of William H. Sew- 
ard, were to be turned over to the United States. 
Troops were to be sent up to Alaska under the 
command of General Jefferson C. Davis, with 
Colonel George H. Weeks, Quartermaster and 
acting Commissary of Subsistence, who pro- 
cured an order for Whaley to take charge of the 
three Government transports, with stores, on 
their arrival at Sitka, as Quartermaster's agent. 
He proceeded on one of these transports and ar- 
rived at his destination September 26, 1867. 
The steamer John L. Stephens, Captain Dall, 
with General Davis and command, arrived Oc- 
tober 10, and a few days thereafter the United 
States steamer Ossipe, having on board the com- 
missioners. Within an hour after their arrival 
the territory was turned over to the United 
States by Russia. Whaley, in company with 
others, assisted in raising the American flag on 

the island of Japonski, opposite Sitka, simul- 
taneously with the lowering of the Russian en- 
sign, and the hoisting of the stars and stripes 
over the Governor's house at Sitka. Whaley 
remained in Alaska as commissary storekeeper 
and clerk until March, 1868. He was elected 
with Samuel Storer, W. S. Dodge, Lugerville, 
and one other Council men of the town of Sitka, 
and helped to frame such civil laws for the gov- 
ernment of the people as were permitted by 
General Davis, the military governor of the 
territory. Whaley returned to San Francisco 
and then with his family went to New York. 
With the proceeds of a partial distribution of 
his father's estate invested in a stock of goods, 
he returned to San Diego and again engaged in 
business at Old Town. This was shortly after 
Father Horton had started his new town of 
San Diego, known as Horton's addition. Every- 
thing then was booming in the Old Town. 
There were twelve stores, some of them carry- 
ing large stocks, particularly J. S. Mannasse & 
Co., fifteen saloons, four hotels, two express 
offices, the post offic, besides being the county 
seat. To secure a good location, in the spring 
of 1869, Whaley bought out his old partner 
Morse, who was doing a good business on the 
Plaza, and, in company with Philip Crosthwaite, 
continued business then till February, 1870, 
when it became evident that new San Diego 
was to be the point where the city of the future 
would be established, and the firm resolved to 
move their stock there; but the connection from 
beginning to end was a disastrous one to Whaley. 
In 1873 he again went to New York, and re- 
mained there nearly Ave years, variously en- 
gaged. During this time he settled up the 
estate of his father, which, owing to the panic 
of '73, realized but the tithe of what he had ex- 
pected. In 1879 Whaley returned to California. 
After passing a few months in San Francisco, 
he reached home, San Diego, in the latter part 
of 1879, poorer than ever he had been before. 
In the fall of 1880 there were prospects of a 
railroad, and a boom for San Diego. Whaley 
made a proposition to E. W. Morse to go into 


the real-estate business, which was accepted, 
and shortly afterward they admitted Charles P. 
Noell, the firm being Morse, Noell & Whaley, 
till February, 1886, when Mr. Noell sold his 
interest to R. H. Dalton, the firm being Morse, 
Whaley & Dalton, till February, 1887, when 
Mr. Morse retired, leaving the firm Whaley & 
Dalton. Mr. Whaley bought considerable prop- 
erty in and around Old Town and at La Plaza, 
the greater part of which lie still retains. He 
has also acquired an interest in other property, 
known as firm property in different parts of the 
city, some of which, the Fifth street property, is 
being improved from the sale of outside prop- 
erty belonging to the firm. He retired from 
active business last February to pass the few 
years remaining in peace and happiness with 
his wife, surrounded by loving children and 
grandchildren, dispensing the surplusage of his 
wealth for the relief of suffering humanity. 

With the exception of being City Trustee in 
1885, City Clerk in 1881 and 1882, Notary 
Public lor the county of San Diego for six 
years, and Councilman for Sitka, Alaska, Wha- 
ley has never held any public office. 


SILLIAM JORRES —Prominent among 
the older residents of San Diego is 
William Jorres. Mr. Jorres is a native 
of Hanover, Germany, where he was born on 
the 24th of August, 1824. After attending 
school he learned the carpenter's trade and fol- 
lowed it in the city of Hamburg until 1846, 
when he started for Monte Video. There he 
worked at his trade for about six months, when 
he went to Buenos Ayres, where he remained 
three years. While he was at Monte Video the 
port was blockaded by the combined French and 
English fleets for several months. In the latter 
end of 1849 he left Buenos Ayres on a ship 
bound round the Horn for San Francisco, where 
he arrived May 4, 1850. The first week after 
his arrival he went to the mines at Spanish Dry 
Diggings, on the Middle Fork of the American 

river. Then he went to Bear creek, and pros- 
pected that section pretty thoroughly for a year. 
After the second lire in 1851 he went down to 
San Francisco, worked at the carpenter's trade 
for awhile, and then started in for himself as a 
contractor, a business he followed with excellent 
success until 1869, when he came to San Diego. 
During his residence in San Francisco, Mr. 
Jorres in his business as a contractor superin- 
tended the erection of a large number of fine 
buildings. He "put up four brick houses on 
Washington street, between Kearny and Mont- 
gomery, in 1852-'53; he built the large brick 
building on the southwest corner of California 
and Front in 1855, which is still standing; also 
the orthodox Jewish synagogue on Mason street, 
between Post and Geary. Most of hi? build- 
ings, which were scattered about in different 
parts of the city, were substantial structures 
and are still standing. 

After his arrival in San Diego, Mr. Jorres 
formed a partnership with S. S. Culverwell and 
built the Culverwell & Jorres wharf, situated at 
the foot of F street. This was the first wharf 
started in New San Diego. It was not com- 
pleted so soon as the Horton wharf, as it was 
twenty feet wider and required more time to 
build it. It was made wide enough for carriages 
to be driven out to meet passengers from the 
steamers, who were landed at the end of the 
wharf. The cost of the wharf was $28,700. 
For the first year they ran it themselves, and 
then leased it, and Mr. Jorres again went into 
business as a contractor. This was in 1871, 
and the first contract he took was for the build- 
ing of the present court-house on D street. In 
1873, after he had completed the court-house, 
he took the contract for putting up the build- 
ing for the Commeroial Bank of San Diego, 
now occupied by the Consolidated National 
Bank, on the corner of Fifth and G streets. 
He next put up the Central Market on Fifth 
street, between F and G. It was 200 x 60 feet, 
and was fitted up with stalls, etc., for a market. 
After being used for this purpose a year, it was 
leased by Charles S. Hamilton & Co., and has 



since been occupied by tbeui as a general mer- 
cbandise store. He continued his business as a 
contractor here until 1877, when he went to 
Los Angeles, where he built the First National 
Bank, on Spring street. In the year 1872 Mr. 
Jorres bought out the interest of Culverwell in 
the wharf at the foot of F street, and engaged 
in ballasting vessels and other business in con- 
nection with the wharf. He has recently begun 
the extension of the wharf, and it will, when 
completed, be one of the best wharves on the 
water front. Mr. Jorres was for seven years 
County Treasurer, retiring from office ui 1885. 
He was elected on the Democratic ticket. During 
his residence in San Diego he has always been 
alive to the interests of the city, and has done 
his full share towards its material advancement. 
He was an earnest advocate of the railroad, and 
did all in his power to have it brought here. 
Mr. Jorres owns considerable city property, and 
lias a very comfortable residence on the corner 
of Union and B streets, which he built in 1869, 
previous to the arrival of his family from San 

Mr. Jorres was married in 1854, in Hanover, 
to Miss Sophie Kliengibel. He had gone to 
the old country from San Francisco to visit his 
parents, and while there met and was married 
to Miss Kliengibel. They came to San Fran- 
cisco, arriving here in August, 1854. They 
have six children living, one son and five daugh- 
ters; they have lost three sons. Their son, 
George W., was for two years postmaster, but 
resigned to accept the position of assistant 
cashier in the San Diego National Bank. 

„, • ■ .^g-. ,{, 1-5', r - „ 

fB. FERRELL, a rancher near Menifee, was 
born in Norwalk, Huron County, Ohio 
9 (just ten miles from where the illustrious 
President, James A. Garfield, was born), Jan- 
uary 31, 1829. Mr. Garfield when a boy 
of sixteen, worked with Mr. Ferrell, then about 
eighteen years of age, and Mr. Ferrell alludes to 
the fact of his acquaintance with Mr. Garfield 

with pleasure and just pride. Mr. Horatio N. 
Ferrell, the father of the subject of this sketch, 
was a native of Pennsylvania, and was of Ger- 
man descent. His mother, Pamelia (Gordon) 
Ferrell, was a native of New York, and her 
parents were Scotch. Mr. J. B. Ferrell was the 
oldest of five children. At nineteen years of 
age Mr. Ferrell removed to New Bedford, 
Bureau County, Illinois, and for twenty years 
he was a sawyer in the pineries of Wisconsin. 
He helped build the mills and then ran them. 
Then he removed to Lewis, Cass County, Iowa, 
where his father's death occurred in 1856. Mr. 
Ferrell remained in Iowa in 1873 when he came 
to California on account of his wife's poor 
health. They stopped at San Benardino and 
went into the mountains where he engaged for 
sawing for three years. He then opened a gro- 
cery store in San Bernardino with his son Edgar as 
partner! He continued in this business for three 
years and in 1881 became interested in mines 
worth $350,000, but was beat out of the most it 
by adverse titles. He was there from 1881 to 
1887. When he left San Bernardino he sold 
his San Bernardino property to Governor Wa- 
terman. In 1887 he came to Menifee and 
bought a homestead claim of 215 acres, and 
now has 413 acres. In June, 1887, he built 
his house with his own hands and hauled the 
lumber from San Bernardino by wagon. The 
house contains six rooms and the barn is thirty- 
two feet square with a shed on both sides. One 
of his wells is fourteen feet deep and the other 
twenty-four feet. The farm has a nice home- 
like appearance from the highway. Mr. Fer- 
rell is turning his attention to breeding Jersey 
and Ilolstein cattle and blooded horses. He is 
an enthusiastic horseman. His Kentucky Clay 
horse that he is now breeding to is a very fine 
animal. His sire is a half brother to Lady 
Thorn, and American Girl and Lucy are his 
fall cousins. He raised one colt, Valentine, 
that trotted in 2:20 and sold for $4,000. Sev- 
eral of his colts have traveled in 2:30 and he 
now owns a three-year-old colt that is very 
choice and promising. Mr. Ferrell was mar 


ried in Illinois, in 1855, to Miss Sarah E. Her- 
rick, born August 9, 1839, in Ithaca, New 
York. She was the daughter of Mr. Milton 
Herrick of New York. Both her father and 
brother died of consumption, bnt since coining 
to California her health is much improved. 
They have had a family of nine children, six of 
whom are still living: E. J., born July 9, 1856, 
in Lewis, Cass County, Iowa; lie is married 
and is in business in San Bernardino. Sarah 
L., born in Lewis, Cass County, Iowa, Aug. 7, 
1858, was- married and had three boys; she 
died in San Bernardino in 1886. Byron, born 
in Lewis. Cass County, Iowa, February 8, 1863, 
is married to Miss Lula Kahley, born in Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, May, 10, 1872; Ella M., bom in 
Lewis, Cass County, Iowa, July 31, 1865; 
Grace, born in Lewis, Iowa, April 27. 1871; 
Eoy W., born in San Bernardino, California, 
December 24, 1875, and Jamie E., born in San 
Bernardino, April 12, 1880. Mr. Ferrell was 
made a Mason in Lewis Lodge, No. 137. He 
is a very hard-working and reliable man. 

fB. TEEL, one of the straight-forward good 
farmers of Menifee, was born in Dent, 
a Texas, September 14, 1855. His father, 
E. A. Teel, was born in Jackson County, Ten- 
nessee, in 1829. His grandfather, Peter Teel, 
was born in Illinois. Mr. E. A. Teel was mar- 
ried in 1852 to Miss M. A. McNeal. They had 
eleven children, ten of whom are still living, 
Mr. Teel being the third child. When a boy 
he attended the common schools of his native 
State and finished his education in Wilson Col- 
lege, Los Angeles County. In 1870 he came 
to California across the plains with his father 
and family. They were eleven months on the 
journey. They stopped at Balsa, and from there 
removed to Orange, where his father bought and 
settled there for two years. They then removed 
to Garden Grove, and bought there. Mr. Teel 
was married in 1877 to Miss Nancy Keziah 
Kirkpatrick, daughter of R. C. Kirkpatrick, a 

merchant and native of Tennessee. She was 
born in Gainsborough, Jackson County, Ten- 
nessee, in 1857. They have had five children, 
viz.: Lela A., born November 8, 1878, in Los 
Angeles County; Benjamin F., born March 2, 
1881, in Wilmington; Alma P., born July 9, 
1883, in Menifee; John Harvey, born March 
23, 1885, in Menifee, and Robert Clay, born 
January 8, 1888, in Menifee. After their mar- 
riage they lived a year at Garden Grove, then 
removed to WilmiDgton, where they remained 
two years, and on November 1, 1882, they re- 
moved to Menifee and took up a Government 
homestead of 160 acres, and bought eighty 
acres of railroad land. The soil is red sandy 
loam. This property under Mr. Teel's manage- 
ment i6 fast becoming a very choice place. He 
has built a nice house and barn and planted 
trees and shrubs. This year (1889) he is sow- 
ing 220 acres on his own land and eighty acres 
on other lands. He runs a six-horse plow and 
sows about seven acres per day. The place has 
the appearance of comfort. Mr. and Mrs. Teel 
are members of the Methodist Church South 
and are also Good Templars. They have been 
very helpful in the construction of their ehurch 
edifice. Such people are a real blessing to the 
country in which they settle. 

fDWARD ALAN SON FOSS was born at 
Reading, Massachusetts, July 8, 1839. 
His father was Daniel Foss, who was born at 
Stratham, New Hampshire. His mother's maiden 
name was Angelina Wakefield, and she was de- 
scended from a line of Revolutionary heroes, her 
grandfather having been with sturdy old Ethan 
Allen at Ticonderoga. The subject of this 
sketch was educated in the excellent public 
schools of his native State, passing the high- 
school grade. Early in 1861, he enlisted in the 
Twenty-second Regiment of Massachusetts Vol- 
unteers, the regiment raised by Henry Wilson, 
afterward Vice President of the United States. 
This regiment went to the front under the com- 


mand of Colonel Jesse A. Grove, who was 
killed at the battle of Gaines' Mills, July 26, 
1862. In this battle, also, Mr. Foss received a 
severe wound, and fell into the hands of the 
enemy, and was confined in Libby prison; but, 
fortunately, au early exchange transferred hiin 
in about three weeks to the hospital on David's 
Island, in New York harbor. After his dis- 
charge from the hospital, being disabled for 
further service in the army, Mr. Foss went to 
Lynn, Massachusetts, where he lived about two 
years, when he returned to hiB native town of 
Reading, and learned the trade of organ-pipe 
maker, in the shops of Samuel Pierce, where he 
continued until 1875, when he emigrated to Cali- 
fornia with his wife and two sons, having been 
married some years before to Miss Carrie E. Ath- 
earn, a native of West Tisbury, Martha's Vine- 
yard, Massachusetts. Her father was Charles 
Grandison Athearn, of West Tisbury, and her 
mother's maiden name was Ann Thaxter. Miss 
Athearn was a granddaughter of Rev. Joseph 
Thaxter, who was born in Hingham. Massa- 
chusetts, May 4, 1744; took his first degree at 
Harvard University in July, 1768; was at the 
battle of April 19, 1775; and in January, 1776, 
he joined the army as Chaplain of Prescott's 
Regiment. He was at Cambridge, White Plains 
and North River, and in New Jersey until 
March, 1777. When the corner-stone of Bun- 
ker Hill monument was laid by Lafayette, June 
17, 1825, he was present by request and ' 
officiated as Chaplain. He died July 18, 1827. 
He was a man of learning, benevolence and 
piety. Mr. and Mrs. Foss have five sons and 
one daughter: Charles Edward, Allan Percy, 
Harry Stanley, Helen Pearl, Joseph Thaxter 
and Robert Bruce. 

Mr. Fos6 was one of the first to discover the 
beauties of the Alpine district, and thus had the 
first choice of land, of which he owns 240 acres 
(forty acres, he says, for each of his children). 
This land, like that of all the Alpine region, is 
well adapted to fruit-growing, and Mr. Foss 
last season shipped from one of his trees seventy- 
two pears which weighed sixty-eight pounds. 

But he always grows on his fine place wheat, 
barley, hay, etc., besides giving some atten- 
tion to stock and poultry. Content with his 
lot, satisfied with his surroundings, and happy 
in the friendship and esteem of his neighbors, 
he expects to pass the remainder of his days in 
the home which he has established by his 

born in Thomaston, Maine, October 11, 
1817. His father was Captain John Em- 
ery, of Thomaston. His grandfather, George 
Emery, was one of the first settlers of that State. 
Captain W-. S. Emery was married July 7, 
1839, to Miss Lucy S. Spalding, daughter of 
Captain Josiah Spalding of Thomaston. Their 
children were fourteen, eight of whom are liv- 
ing: four died in infancy, two in manhood. 
Josiah S. Emery died of consumption at Pine 
Valley, San Diego County, October 3, 1872, 
aged twenty-seven. Henry W. Emery died at 
Glen Cliff, San Diego County, August 7, 1888, 
aged forty-five years. Captain Emery followed 
the sea from his boyhood. He became ship- 
master at twenty-three years of age. He sailed 
from New Orleans in the fall of 1849, and ar- 
rived in San Francisco in May, 1850. He sold 
his bark, the Louisiana, in San Francisco and 
went into business at Sacramento. Captain 
Emery came around Cape Horn: Mrs. Emery 
came to California in 1851, by the Isthmus of 
Panama. There was no railroad across the 
Isthmus at that early day, and she came up the 
Chagres river to Gorgona on a small steamer. 
From that place to Cruces they came on light- 
ers polled up the river by natives almost nude. 
From Cruces to the city of Panama they 
crossed the mountains on mules, — some differ- 
ence, that way of traveling, from speeding 
across the continent in palace cars! Mr. Emery 
reached San Francisco July 7, 1851, after a 
voyage of twenty days from Panama. San 


Francisco was then almost swept out of exist- 
ence by three great tires of that year. 

The Emery family resided several years in 
Sacramento, passing through floods and fires, 
and the many hardships and privations of Cali- 
fornia pioneers. When the war of the Rebel- 
lion broke out the four eldest sons joined the 
California Volunteers. William E. Emery, the 
oldest son, now living in Santa Cruz County, 
was Adjutant of the Seventh Regiment under 
Colonel Charles Lewis, who was one of the 
earliest settlers of San Diego, and died there in 
1870 or '71. He was a veteran of the Mexican 
war. Henry JST. Emery belonged to Company 
F, First Battalion Nevada Cavalry; was a mem 
her of Ileintzelman Post, No. 33, San Diego, 
California. Herbert L. Emery, his twin brother, 
belonged to Company C, Fourth Infantry, Cali- 
fornia Volunteers. He belongs to Ileintzelman 
Post, No. 33, San Diego. Josiah S. Emery 
belonged to Company C, Fourth Infantry, Cali- 
fornia Volunteers. Although they were never 
at the front or saw a battle, they suffered many 
hardships and privations on the frontiers of this 
State, Nevada and Arizona. 

Captain Emery came to San Diego in 1866. 
lie and his sons kept stations on the Colorado 
Desert for several years, under the firm of Em- 
ery Brothers. In 1868 they secured land in 
the mountains of San Diego County and engaged 
in thecattlebusiness, in which they still continue. 
Mrs. Emery, with the younger members of the 
family, came to San Diego in February, 1870. 
In May of that year Captain Emery moved his 
family to the mountains. They made the 
journey from San Diego over the old stage road 
to Yuma by way of Tia Juaua, Tocarte and 
Campo, more than eighty miles, to reach their 
mountain home, only forty-four miles from San 
Diego. There were no roads from San Diego 
to the mountains in those early days, but trails, 
and in many places it was a hard, rough ride 
for a horseman. The life of the Emery family 
in those lonely mountains was not exempt from 

g an g 

and vicissitudes. In December, 1870, a 
of Mexican horse-thieves came into the 

valley one dark stormy night and stole every 
horse they owned, fourteen in number. By the 
dawn of day the desperadoes were over the line 
into Lower California. Captain Emery took 
James Flinn as interpreter, and they went into 
San Rafael. He succeeded in getting seven of 
the horses: the other 6even he never got, 
although the Mexican authorities had caught 
the thieves and shot them, keeping possession 
of the horses, however, — a sample of Mexican 
justice and equity in those days! Many other 
trials and afflictions were experienced by the 
family; but as the county has been settled and 
civilized better days have dawned. In 1887 
the Emery brothers bought a place at Alpine, 
San Diego County, where the family now re- 
side. Mr. Herbert Emery is still making hi6 
home at Pine valley ranch. Charles F. Emery, 
a younger brother, lives at the ranch with his 
family and is foreman there. Edward C. Em- 
ery resides in San Diego with his family. Mrs. 
L. E. Wheeler, widow of Samuel H. Wheeler, 
late of San Francisco, is one of the daughters; 
Mrs. Mary E. Rich, of Westminster, Orange 
County, wife of John E. Rich, a merchant, is 
another daughter. Edward C. Emery resides 
at 636 Eighteenth street, San Diego. Misses 
Annie S. and Lillian G. Emery, daughters, are 
at home with their parents. 

Henry U. Emery was elected Supervisor of 
the Third District of San Diego County, in 
1884, and served with honesty and ability, till 
death removed him from earthly labors. He 
was highly esteemed by a large circle of friends, 
and his death, in the prime of manhood, was 
universally regretted. To his bereaved family 
his place can never be filled. 

fL. DORN, rancher, etc., Escondido, was 
born in 1859, at West Union, Iowa; in 
a 1870-'71 he was in Chicago selling 
papers and blacking boot6; he next was night 
messenger for the Western Union during the 
Chicago fire. He attended common schools in 


Chicago and high schools at Englewood. Then, 
in 1877, he went to Michigan and was employed 
in saw-mills, steam-boating, sailing, farming 
and teaching school for six years, earning money 
for a collegiate course. In the fall of 1883 he 
entered the State University of Michigan, and 
completed a four years' course in civil engi- 
neering, then, in the fall of 1886, for the sake of 
his health, he came to California, settling at 
Escondido, and commenced ranching and en- 
gineering. He was one of the organizers of 
the first Agricultural Society, and secretary; 
was next year Secretary of the Central Agricul- 
tural Society, also ot the State District Society 
in 1889; he was also assistant engineer of the 
Pamo Water Company. In 1887 Mr. Dorn 
bought the Whitney & Bell ranch and vineyard, 
one of the best in San Diego County. 

In 1887 he married Miss Kate Orr, a class- 
mate in the Michigan University. Three young 
ladies of the celebrated La Porte High School, 
went to that University and were room-mates, — ■ 
Kate Orr, Anna Taber and Ella Webb. Three 
gentlemen — E. L. Dorn, W. W. Horine and 
Stanley Warner — were also school-mates there at 
the same time, and waited upon the young 
ladies in their freshman year; 1888 found the 
six married and comfortably settled in Escon 

fOHN HOLTON MARSHALL, capitalist, 
San Diego, was born June 19, 1845, in 
Brunswick, Maine, the seat of Bowdoin 
(College, and at the age of fourteen years went 
to sea, his father, J. H. Marshall, being an old 
sea captain. Of the seven children in the fam- 
ily all three of the sons followed the sea. 

In the early part of 1862 Mr. Marshall en- 
tered fhe navy, and was honorably discharged 
in September, 1865. He relates in an amusing 
manner how rigid the examination was before 
the Medical Board for the United States navy. 
It required presence of mind to protect the ap- 
plicant from officials who rejected or accepted 

whom they pleased. The Captain was naturally 
near-sighted, and he felt very uncomfortable 
when a companion was instantly rejected on 
examination. The officer glared at Marshall, 
and asked him what was the matter with his 
ears. Marshall simply drew a breath of relief, 
for he intuitively knew his hearing was more 
acute and actually superior on account of the 
defect in his eyes. The officer stepped up and 
whispered to him, but he heard every breath he 
made, and finally, after looking several times 
intently at his ears, the doctor inquired, in a 
pleasant, satisfied voice, " Well, how are your 
eyes? do you see all right? There is no blink- 
ing in them; they are blue in color; that is 
generally the best color; 1 guess you are all 
right." Marshall, in a measure, was in a state 
of suspense, for it would have nearly " killed " 
him to have been rejected. He looked the offi- 
cer straight in the eye and said: "My eyes have 
never bothered me; I can 6ee with them I 
guess." He passed and received his commission 
as ensign in the United States navy. 

Captain Marshall was first placed on the war 
ship Savannah, and during his service in the 
navy served on several ships, his last being 
the gun-boat Huntsville, commanded by Lieu- 
tenant-Commander Devens, of Massachusetts- 
He was engaged in the second naval battle of 
Fort Fisher. During his service he was in 
the South Atlantic and East Gulf Blockading 
Squadron, the latter part cruising in West India 
waters and along the Spanish Main. 

After the war closed he followed the sea as 
chief officer in merchant service. In 1868 he 
went to the gold diggings on the west coast of 
New Zealand. At the gold mines he had many 
" ups and downs," finally making his head- 
quarters at Melbourne. In the early part of 
1870 he returned to his home in Maine; then, 
in October, 1870, he returned to California, 
where he took command of a ship and made a 
voyage to South America, and numerous voyages 
to neighboring Pacific ports. Then quitting 
the sea, in 1875, he located at Seattle, on Puget 
Sound, Washington, where he was very success- 


fill in his real-estate investments. When he 
first landed there it was a small, quiet seaport, 
surrounded by a new country but partially set- 
tled. He bought land at a nominal price, and 
relates how he offered a blacksmith a block of 
land to fix his wagon; the value of the land was 
about $50; this land was afterward sold fur 
$20,000. In 1883 he anticipated a reaction 
and sold his real estate as rapidly as possible, so 
that he was well protected from the financial 
depression and decline of real estate caused by 
the Villard failure in 1883. He next visited 
Europe with his family, and early in 1885 he 
returned to superintend his affairs at Seattle. 
Business there was apparently lifeless, and the 
population was decreasing visibly. After plac- 
ing his remaining property there in security, he 
sailed for San Diego in June, 1885, and pur- 
chased considerable real estate here, for he de- 
termined to make Southern California his home. 
His investments have realized even more than 
his sanguine expectations had anticipated. He 
erected a handsome brick block on the corner 
of Fourth and O streets, which is considered one 
of the finest buildings in San Diego. He wa6 
once elected delegate to the city council, and is 
a very popular man. 

In June, 1874, Captain Marshall married 
Mrs. E. M. Hinds, a native of California. 


[R. W. 13. WOODWARD.— Among the 
men of San Diego who stand high in 
their profession we find the name of Dr. 
Walter B. Woodward, who is a native of Cleve- 
land, Ohio, and dates his birth March 5, 1846. 
His father, Henry Thomas Woodward, of Dun- 
barrow House, Kells, County of Meath, Ireland, 
was a landholder there, and in 1836 came to 
America, landing in New York. He was of 
English descent. His grandfather was an offi- 
cer in Cromwell's army in Ireland, and the 
English Government granted him land for his 
service as a soldier, and he made a settlement 
there. The Doctor's mother was his father's 

first cousin, Miss Hessy Woodward. They were 
married in Cleveland, Ohio, in 1836, and they 
had five children, the subject of this sketch be- 
ing the youngest. When he was two months 
old his parents removed to Beloit, Wisconsin, 
and resided there until 1864, when they re- 
turned to Ireland. The Doctor was there and 
at the Illinois College, at Jacksonville, for ten 

The great civil war burst upon the country 
and he entered in Company C, One Hundred 
and Forty-fifth Illinois Volunteers and remained 
in the service until the close. The Doctor was 
only sixteen years of age when he enlisted, and 
when mustered out of the service he followed 
his relatives to Ireland, and there entered the 
medical school of Trinity College, Dublin, and 
afterward graduated at the King and Queen's 
College of Physicians, Ireland. 

In 1872 he was married to Miss Charlotte 
Roper, daughter of Charles Roper, of Fairfield 
House, County of Dublin, and they came di- 
rectly to America and settled in Peoria, Illinois. 
A short time after this he went to Philadelphia 
and attended the Pennsylvania College of Den- 
tal Surgery, and after graduating practiced his 
profession at his home in Peoria for ten years. 
In May 1888, he removed to San Diego, bought 
property and built a very attractive house, where 
he and his family now reside. The Doctor is 
a man of modest and retiring habits, is a mem- 
ber of the Masonic order, and he and his wife 
are members of St. Paul's Episcopal Church. 

fH. McCORMICK was born in De Kalb 
County, Illinois, December 11, 1845. 
a His father, Charles Wesley McCormick, 
was a native of Indiana. His mother, Clarissa 
(Maxfield) McCormick, was the daugRter of 
James Henry Maxfield, who was a Sergeant in 
the war of 1812. Owing to the death of his 
mother when he was quite young, Mr. McCor- 
mick was raised by his grandmother. His 
grandmother, Sophia Maxfield, was born in 


Connecticut, June 8, 1800, and died September 
20, 1888, at the age of eighty-eight. When 
but nineteen, and small for his age, he enlisted 
in the army. February 18, 1865, he stood in a 
row witli other volunteers and had a two-inch 
block under hi« feet to raise him up to the 
proper height. The mustering officer looked at 
him, up and down, saw the block, smiled and 
said, "You will do." He was mustered in 
Company F, One Hundred and Forty-seventh 
Illinois Volunteers, and became the company's 
drummer. He still has the drum that he car- 
ried through the service. It was given him by 
his company at Camp Fry, Chicago, and cost 
$25 at the time. While in the service in 
Georgia he had a severe attack of typhoid fever, 
and was sick four months. While at the worst 
stage of the disease, his attendant fell asleep; 
he got out of bed and fell out of the window, 
down about ten feet, and was so injured that it 
gave him curvature of the spine, from which he 
has never fully recovered. He taught school in 
El Dorado County, California, and Nevada, for 
several years. In 1876 he was admitted to the 
mint at Carson City, where he worked in the 
rolling department at $4.50 per day, until 1880, 
when he was promoted and received $6 per day. 
He was there for nine years, but when Mr. 
Cleveland was elected President, he was dis- 
placed. He then came to Murrietta, December 
25, 1885, where he farmed for two years, when 
he opened a meat market, which he still con- 
tinues. He is a member of the G. A. R. at 
Carson City, Nevada. He was a charter mem- 
ber there, and was its adjutant-general for two 
years. He united with the I. O. O. F. in Ne- 
vada in 1870. 

He was married June 8, 1870, to Miss Eliza 
S. Bollen, at Sheridan, Douglas County. They 
have had nine children, six of whom are still 
living: Cassius Clay, born in Sheridan, Douglas 
County, October 13, 1871; Hovey Haywood, 
Woodford's, California, January 3, 1875; Ezra 
Marden, Carson City, Nevada, November 19, 
1882; Josiah Harold, Carson City, June 8, 
1884; Arthur Earl, Murrietta, April 4, 1887, | 

and one other, born at Murrietta, January 19, 
1889. On account of his honesty as a man and 
his services to his country as a soldier, he is 
entitled to the consideration of every American 
and lover of this country. 

fOHN MILTON SNOW, one of the most 
enterprising ranch owners of the Alpine 
district, was born at Atkinson, Maine, Au- 
gust 1, 1830. His father, Tileston Snow, was 
a native of New Brunswick. His grandfather, 
Benjamin Snow, was an officer of the American 
army during the war of the Revolution, having 
left Dartmouth College to join the command of 
General Sullivan, and was a native of New 
Hampshire. The family traces its ancestry back 
to John Snow, who, accompanied by his brother, 
Nicholas Snow, landed at Plymouth from the 
ship Anne, in the year 1623, but three years 
after the landing of the Pilgrim Fathers. 
Nicholas remained near Plymouth, while John 
went to New Hampshire, and here the ancestors 
of the subject of this sketch resided until the 
removal of his grandparents temporarily to New 
Brunswick, and subsequently, after the birth of 
Tileston, went back to New Hampshire and 
thence to Maine. 

The early years of Mr. Snow's life were 
spent on a farm, but he received a fair educa- 
tion, taking an academic course to finish. He 
was for awhile a school-teacher, he and his son 
being the third and fourth generations in direct 
line who followed this vocation. He also studied 
surveying, and on his removal to Minnesota in 
1851, he found his knowledge of this science 
very useful. During his residence of twenty- 
eight years in Sherburne County, Minnesota, he 
was twice elected County Surveyor, besides at 
other time6 filling the positions of County Com- 
missioner, Coroner and Clerk of the District 

While residing in Minnesota, in 1863, Mr. 
Snow was married to Miss Delia Heath, whose 
ancestors were also from New Hampshire. Her 


great-grandfather, Josiah Heath, was a veteran 
of the Revolutionary war, having also served in 
the French and Indian wars. He was a blood 
relative of General William Heath, of Revolu- 
tionary fame. The first-born of this union, Ed- 
win T. Snow, died in 1888, at the age of twenty- 
four years. There are four living children, viz.: 
Albert F., Lottie E., Harry M. and Fred P. 
Mr. Snow came to California in 1880, settling 
at Orange, and moved to his present residence, 
near Alpine, in 1884. He is a progressive 
farmer, and his is one of the finest ranches in 
the district. He owns 16U acres near Alpine, 
and 329 in Sweetwater valley. His fruit trees, 
of which he has a tine variety, are thrifty and 
strong, and bear large crops of excellent fruit, 
while his grain, potatoes, etc., give ample re- 

Diego, a native of Indiana, is the young- 
est of six children of his father, William 
Hulbert. He was brought up in the country, 
and being naturally industrious he made the 
best of his few opportunities for self-education, 
especially in his medical studies. Many inci- 
dents are related illustrating his advancement 
in the modern sciences. When the civil war 
broke out, he, only thirteen years of age, enlist- 
ed in Company C, in the Twelfth Missouri Cav- 
alry. His superior intelligence attracted the 
attention of General Hatch, who thereupon 
placed him upon his staff as an aide, in which 
station he was faithful as a carrier of dispatches. 
At the battle of Campbell ville he was wounded 
by a shot and his horse was blown to pieces. In 
making a gallant fight at the battle of Franklin 
he was again wounded, this time receiving a 
shot in the breast. General Hatch retreated in 
the greatest haste to Nashville, with 5,000 men, 
while the Confederate forces numbered but 50,- 
000. The following spring the Twelfth Missouri 
Cavalry were sent out to the plains to fight the 

After the close of the war Dr. Hulbert com- 
menced a literary education at Kirkwood, Mis- 
souri, a branch of the Normal School, and 
graduated in 1869, with high honors. He then 
completed the course of 6tudy at the Missouri 
Medical College at St. Louis, received his 
diploma in 1872, and also from the Keokuk 
Medical College in 1875, and from the Rush 
Medical College at Chicago in 1877. Thus he 
became thorough in his profession. After prac- 
ticing thirteen years at Brescott, Iowa, he be- 
came surgeon for the Chicago, Burlington & 
Quincy Railroad for nine years, and in August, 
1887, came to San Diego, since which time he 
has manifested his faith in this county by in- 
vesting in real estate here and also at Los An- 
geles and other parts of Southern California. 
At San Diego he is representing the eighth 
ward in the city council; is a member of Beth- 
any Commandery, No. 29, Knights Templar. 

May 23, 1876, he was married to Miss Fannie 
Jackson, of Carthage, Illinois. They have two 
daughters, Florence and Alice, fifteen and twelve 
years of age respectively. 


tBRAHAM BLOCHMAN was born at Ing- 
enheim, in the province of Elsass, France, 
October 4, 1834, his parents being both 
natives of that country. His father being de- 
ceased, his mother and family left France in 1850, 
taking a sailing vessel at Harve for New Orleans, 
where they arrived after a voyage of fifty days. 
In the family there were twelve children, but 
only two son6 and two daughters survive, of 
whom Abraham is the youngest. After spend- 
ing a few days in New Orleans they journeyed 
to Memphis, Tennessee, where he left his mother 
and went to Helena, Philips County, Arkansas, 
in the early part of 1851. He had received a 
good common-school education in France and 
had been the only one out of fifteen applicants 
accepted at the Mechanical School of Strasbourg. 
At Helena he taught French, being well founded 
in languages, and in return studied English, and 


was also assistant in a general merchandise store. 
In October, 1851, he returned to New Orleans 
and there took steamer for Havana to intercept 
steamer from New York to Chagres, en route 
for California. Transportation across the Isth- 
mus being very expensive, they went up the 
Chagres river in small boats to Gorgona and 
then walked to Panama, spending two nights and 
two days on the way, through heavy rains, foot- 
sore and weary, with insufficient food, and at 
night securing the most meager accommoda- 
tions. Arriving at Panama he missed the first 
steamer owing to a delay in the arrival of his 
luggage. Being sick the doctor advised him 
to take the old schooner Tryphena, as there was 
danger of death if he remained. The schooner 
was unseaworthy and the captain a drunkard; 
after twenty-eight days the water in the casks 
gave out and the food became worm-eaten. A 
vigilance committee was formed to withhold 
liquors and to deal out supplies, and for six 
days the passengers lived on one glass of water 
and one glass of flour per day. After about 
two months they ran into St. Martin's bay, with 
a view of taking chances by land, but sighting 
a schooner, they were advised to run to Ceros 
island, where they could get a supply of water. 
While at the island they sighted and signalled 
a passing steamer, which took off the married 
men with their wives and children; the bache- 
lors remained, and after a few more days of 
great hardships they reached the harbor of San 
Diego and there took the steamer Sea Bird for 
San Francisco. He then went to Sacramento 
to visit a brother, and then, in May, 1852, went 
to the mines of the Yuba river, but, not succeed- 
ing at placer mining, after about three months 
he returned to Sacramento. During the follow- 
ing six years he entered several schemes at Ce- 
darville in store-keeping and mining, but all 
proved unprofitable. In the fall of 1858 he 
went to Sau Luis Obispo, where he opened a 
general merchandise store under the firm name 
of A. Biochiuan & Co., and continuing with 
good success until 1864, when he went to San 
Francisco and joined the firm of Uhlfelder, 

Kahn & Co., wholesale dry goods, continuing 
until 1867, when he sold out his interest and 
withdrew from the firm. He then started a 
general merchandise store in Santa Cruz, Oak- 
land, San Luis Obispo and Guadaloupe, also be- 
ing a director of the Pioneer Woolen Mill of 
San Francisco, president of the Oakland Jute 
Factory and vice-president of the French Savings 
Bank, also interested in cattle and sheep ranches. 
Being very enterprising he continued these sev- 
eral branches with great success. 

On January 25, 1865, he married Miss M. 
Sarassin, a native of France, and in 1871 he sold 
out his home in San Francisco and, with his 
wife and three children, went to Europe, spend- 
ing a year traveling through France, Italy and 
Switzerland. They returned to America in the 
fall of 1872, then came disastrous years. He 
lost heavily through a defaulting manager at 
Anaheim, wool speculations in Frisco and lime 
business in Santa Cruz, and in 1877 lost 3,000 
head of cattle, owing to a dry year. In 1880 
he came to San Diego city dead broke, but with 
good friends to back him. Still ill-luck followed, 
and after three years business in the firm of Block- 
man & Smith, through a disagreement with 
Smith, business was settled by a receiver and 
great loss followed. 

In December, 1884, he started his present 
business at 618, 620 and 622 Fifth street, under 
firm name of M. Blochman & Son, doing a gen- 
eral merchandise business, carrying a large 
stock and meeting with good success. At 
present he is vice-president of the San Diego 
Building and Loan Association, with a paid up 
capital of $150,000. He is district deputy of 
the order of Chosen Friends, a member of the 
Masonic Lodge, a member of the Board of Trade 
and Chamber of Commerce, and in sympathy 
with all domestic progress. 

Mr. and Mrs. Blochman have had eight chil- 
dren, six now living, one son and five daughters. 
The 6on is in the business. The children are 
all well educated, two of the girls having been 
educated in Paris. Mr. Blochman considers 
an education the best kind of an inheritance, 


and is himself a great linguist, being fluent in 
four languages. His son is likewise ready in 
these and several other languages. 

fOHN B. LEVET, of San Diego, was born 
August 27, 1824, in France, and came to 
America with his parents in 1836, being 
the younger of two sons. His brother Joseph, 
a farmer, lost his life in Iowa, by accidental 
drowning, leaving a family. Their father, John 
C. Levet, who also was a farmer, located in 
Crogantown, Lewis County, New York, where 
the subject of this sketch grew up. In 1844 
the family removed to Watertown, Jefferson 
County, Wisconsin, where young John learned 
the trade of carpenter and builder, and followed 
this vocation until he came to California in 
1850. He first located in San Francisco, where 
he followed his trade as contractor and builder 
forabouttwentyyears,andthe evidences of hi6 en- 
terprise and mechanical skill are numerous in the 
many fine residences and business blocks in the 
breezy metropolis. He completely executed his 
contracts, putting up buildings from foundation 
to the delivery of the keys to the proprietors, 
employing a large force of mechanics and doing 
presumably a profitable business. 

In November, 1869, he came to San Diego, 
when it was only a trading post of two or three 
small houses, and Mr. Dunnel kept a " stopping 
place" near the beach; that building is still 
standing. Mr. Levet came here mainly for 
recreation, as he had wore himself down by over- 
work. He lived awhile at National City, where 
he erected several dwellings. In the fall of that 
year he brought his family from San Francisco 
and took up a permanent residence in San Diego, 
and there he successfully pursued his calling up 
to a very recent date. His reputation as a thrifty, 
energetic business man is too well known to re- 
quire particulars. 

Mr. Levet was married in February, 1856, in 
Watertown, Wisconsin, to Miss Mary E., daughter 
of Solomon Owens, a Methodist Episcopal clergy- 

man of Dodge County, that State, now deceased. 
Mr. and Mrs. Levet have one son, B. F. Levet, 
who is an expert civil engineer and draughts- 
man, and as such has figured conspicuously in 
the construction of the California Southern Rail- 
way, being in their service for seven years; and 
made drawings and estimates, etc., for the Cuy- 
amaca Railway. His office is No. 25, in the 
Pierce and Morris block. His children are: 
Datus, born March 14, 1864; Ella and Loleta, 
both accomplished and attractive ladies. The 
latter is known throughout California as a high- 
ly disciplined vocalist, and she is also a tine 

Mr. Levet has invested his capital in San 
Diego real estate and therefore owns many 
good pieces of property, comprising valuable 
dwellings. He is counted among the judicious 
and solid citizens, with sound opinions on local 
matters and public policy. He is a member of 
the Pioneer Society and of the order of Odd 
Fellows. Residence, corner of Date and First 

tUGUSTQS K. CRAVATH, a prominent 
business man of Escondido, was born in 
Knox County, Ohio, April 23, 1852. At 
an early age his parents removed to Will Coun- 
ty, Illinois, where they remained until the fall 
of 1858, when they moved to Worth County, 
Iowa, and there Augustus worked on a farm 
during the summer and attended public school 
during the winter. In the fall of 1870 he be- 
gan attendance at the Baptist Seminary at Osage. 
In the spring of 1872 he came to San Diego 
County, where he has remained ever since, en- 
gaged in farming. Eighteen out of the thirty- 
eight years of his life have been spent in this 
State. In the spring ot 1886 he sold his farm 
and located in Escondido, as the manager of the 
Escondido Land and Town Company, in which 
capacity he remained over two and one-half 
years. At present he is resident manager of 
the Pacific Investment Company, and also 


President of the City Council and of the Escon- 
dido Mining and Water companies. He is 
also director of the Bank of Escondido. He 
arrived in this State with only $2.50, and he is 
now a capitalist, worth, perhaps, $30,000. 

He was married in December, 1877, to Miss 
Kate Sikes, daughter of Zenas Sikes, a pioneer 
of San Diego, and they have three sons and 
three daughters. 

- ,, ■ ^ ^-|,.t.,|-^. e ==± ■> 

^* • J ■^ J " L -f * r-~-»- 

torney at law, was born in Charlestown, 
Maine, January 16, 1838, the youngest of 
seven children in the family of his father, Ab- 
ner Paine. He entered the army in 1861, at 
Bangor, Maine, while he was a student at Dart- 
month College, joining the Sixth regiment. 
He afterward enlisted in the Fourteenth regi- 
ment, under the command of Colonel Nicker- 
son, as Second Lieutenant, and was honorably 
discharged after a service of about two years, 
having been promoted to First Lieutenant. In 
January, 1865, lie raised a company of volnn- 
teers and was assigned to his old regiment, the 
Fourteenth Maine. He reinainad in active 
service until the close of the war, and was dis- 
charged in August, 1865. Part of his military 
life was spent in Georgia, where he was made 
provost judge in one of the districts of the 
State, with general powers. It was one of the 
first organizations of the courts after the close 
of the war, made by the commander of the de- 
partment, General C. A. Steadman. After the 
war Mr. Paine returned to Maine to practice 
law, which he had studied previously. He 
moved to Ottawa, Kansas, in 1867, and re- 
mained there over twelve years, being one of 
the leading attorneys, seVving two terms as Dis- 
trict Attorney, and was also City Attorney, and 
retired with a good record and high honors. In 
1879 Mr. Paine moved to San Diego, continuing 
the practice of his profession. He invested in 
real estate, and owns considerable land at Linda 
Vista, Poway, and other places in San Diego 

County, and since 1880 has been Notary Pub- 
lic. He has made a specialty of the public land 
business, entering Government claims, protests, 
etc. He is well known to the public, and is a 
quiet, conscientious citizen, and is interested in 
everything that tends to advance or improve 
this county. He believes that this region will 
attract a larger population in the future than 
any other portion of the country. He has much 
to say as to the resources of San Diego County. 
He was married in Ottawa, Kansas, in 1868, 
to Miss Jennie McKinley, a native of Mary- 
land, who died in San Diego in 1883, leaving 
two daughters, Alice and Aimee. In 1886 Mr. 
Paine married Miss Anna B. Crotts, a native of 
Pennsylvania, and by this marriage has two 
children, Albert W. and Olive Prue. 

— &mmr*^- 

1LLIAM ROGERS, a citizen of Escon- 
dido, was born in Wiltshire, England, 
in 1820, and came with his parents to 
New York when but two years of age. When 
about twenty-two years old he engaged in the 
boot and shoe trade in New York city, and 
afterward in the same business in UlsterCounty, 
New York. In 1851 he came by way of the 
Isthmus of Panama to California, and engaged 
in mining at Mokelumne Hill, on the Calaveras 
and Stanislaus rivers, and met with fair success. 
In 1853 he purchased an interest in the bark 
Oregon, loaded it with hides and old iron, and 
retnrned to New York around Cape Horn. 
While in the roadstead at Rio Janeiro, the bark 
narrowly escaped being robbed. Two boat- 
loads of Portuguese ruffians came out in the 
night and attacked the bark, but an alarm was 
given by a dog, which aroused the sleeping 
watcher, when the pirates were fired upon by 
the guard boats, but they succeeded in escaping. 
The shipment of the freight and the purchase of 
the bark proved to be quite profitable, several 
thousand dollars being realized. Mr. Rogers 
again engaged in the boot and shoe trade in his 
former home in Ulster County, New York. In 


1870 he removed to Kansas and engaged in the 
stock business and in farming. In 1884 he 
sold out there and came to San Diego, remained 
there two years and then removed to Escondido, 
and he built the first house in the place. He 
has now lived to see the town grow to contain 
at least 1,000 inhabitants. 

In 1848 be married Mis6 Eliza S. Dnsenbury, 
a daughter of John L. Dusenbury, of New 
York city. They had four sons and three daugh- 
ters, but two daughters have died. 

fOLONEL JOHN KASTLE, a prominent 
citizen of San Diego, was born in Stras- 
bourg, France, and with his father emi- 
grated at America when he was quite a small 
boy, settling in Lexington, Kentucky, where he 
was raised, and in time became a prosperous 
shoe merchant. In 1867, having become some- 
thing of an invalid, he sold out his business and 
visited the World's Fair, at Paris, spending six 
months on the continent of Europe. On his 
return he travelled several years in the west and 
south, spending the winter of 1870-'71 in San 
Francisco; returning to Lexington he drifted 
into politics, but having been an ardent Union 
man, he finally gave up the unequal contest. 
In 1881 he moved to Kansas City, and in 1884 
married Miss Ida E. Hatch, a daughter of a 
prominent man of that place. While a citizen 
of that State he became prominently identified 
with its interests, and was influential in its 
progress, and was generally considered a man 
of excellent business judgment. He is an ac- 
tive member of the A. O. U. W., and is a pio- 
neer in that order. In 1887, after the death of 
his wife, Mr. Kastle came to California, making 
San Diago his home; he is at present a member 
of Point Loma Lodge, A. O. U. W., of San 
Diego, and has been its representative to the 
Grand Lodge for three successive terms; he was 
elected president of the Savings and Loan Asso- 
ciation for a second term, and is also an active 
and influential member of the Chamber of Com- 

merce, having been elected president for the 
current term. His views are broad and com- 
prehensive, and he is taking a deep interest in 
trying to obtain another transcontinental railroad 
for San Diego. He is one of the committee of 
the Chamber of Commerce appointed to arouse 
public attention to this important subject, and 
with others has succeeded in obtaining nearly 
a half million dollar subscription for that pur- 

He was also one of the earliest friends and 
promoters of the pioneer cable road of San 
Diego. He has offered many valuable sugges- 
tions from time to time in articles published in 
the columns of the local press, and many im- 
provements have been proposed by him in vari- 
ous contributions, among which were the im- 
provement of the public park, the necessity of 
a new opera house, the need of street improve- 
ments, a better system of street sprinkling, a 
market house, the vital importance of local in- 
dustries to produce a steady, robust, healthy 
progress, and the importance of offering greater 
inducements to emigrants settling in this part 
of the country. When the commercial congress 
of the Pacific States was held in San Francisco 
in August, 1889, he was a delegate from San 
Diego to that honorable body. He is a pecul- 
iarly modest man, and is content to see his 
efforts bear fruit without attempting to assume 
any special credit to himself. He owns con- 
siderable real estate in the business center of 
San Diego, and is also actively interested in 
every plan or project which will improve the 

He is a Republican in politics and firmly be- 
lieves that protecting and dignifying American 
labor is essential to the success, prosperity and 
advancement of the nation. 

fHILIP A. BETTENS, nurseryman of Es- 
condidu, was born near Vevay, Switzer- 
land County, Indiana, July 81, 1838, of 
Swiss parentage; when about thirteen years of 


age lie commenced traveling on the Ohio and 
Mississippi rivers during the winter months and 
worked on his grandfather's farm during the 
warmer portions of the year, until 1859, when 
he moved to Florence, and continued farming 
until April 1, 1887, when he came to San Diego 
County. After a few weeks' residence in Coro- 
nado he moved to San Pasqual valley; was there 
nineteen months, and then moved to Escondido, 
September 1, 1888, where he was first in charge 
of the Escondido Land and Town Company's 
vineyard for several months; he is now in the 
nursery business for the Sweetwater Nursery 

In 1859 he married Miss Clara A. Dufour, 
of Switzerland County, Indiana, and of Swiss 
parentage. She died in November, 1880. By 
that marriage there are four sons and two 
daughters. The oldest son, Philip A., is a 
graduate of West Point, and holds the rank of 
Lieutenant, being stationed at Fort Robinson, 
Nebraska; the second son, A. G., is in the em- 
ploy of the Coronado Beach Company, occupy- 
ing a responsible position in their office. The 
remaining children are with him at his home 
in Escondido. 

■ &G3&+* 

fYLVESTER S. ROGERS, druggist of Es- 
condido, was born in Ulster County, New 
York, in December, 1859, and when twelve 
years of age he went with his parents to Cen- 
tralia, Kansas, where he lived eight years. Then 
he went to Leonardville, Riley County, that 
State, and engaged in the hardware business 
four years, and then in March, 1856, he came 
to California, locating in Escondido valley, and 
worked at Bernardo for P. A. Graham 6ix 
months, and then in Escondido for the same 
man. In March, 1887, he bought the drug 
store in the town of Escondido, which he has 
since been conducting. 

He married Miss Sarah Boosey, daughter of 
P. Boosey, of Riley County, Kansas, and they 

have one son and one daughter. His father, 
William Rogers, is a native of England, and 
has lived in California for the past seven years. 
He is now living in Escondido, hale and hearty. 
His son, Earl Leroy, was the first child born in 

ALTER J. BAILEY, principal of public 
schools, Escondido, California, was born 
in the village of Corinth, Penobscot 
County, Maine, July 24, 1862. At the age of 
five years he began his struggle for knowledge 
in the district school. His father was a farmer, 
but, being very desirous that his son should 
receive a good common-school education, spared 
no pains to keep Walter in school instead of 
allowing him to remain at home when extra 
assistance was needed on the farm, and during 
the long vacations between the terms of the district 
schools, Walter as he grew older was sent to 
private schools. His mother had been a school- 
teacher before her marriage, and in her Walter 
always found an able and a willing assistant, 
which, together with a natural quickness of per- 
ception, enabled him to stand among the first 
in all his classes. At the age of fifteen his 
father placed him under the care of David 
Fletcher, in the East Corinth Academy, where 
he remained a student a greater part of the 
next four years. He also attended the Ken- 
duskeag High School for a short time. During 
the fall and winter of 1881 he taught his first 
term of school in the town of Carmel, receiving 
$20 per month and his board. He met with 
such a degree of success in this school that he 
determined to make teaching his profession, and 
with that end in view entered the Eastern State 
Normal School at Castine, Maine, in the fall of 
1882. His father wished him to be a farmer 
and refused to furnish the money for a profes- 
sional course. 

Walter was thus thrown largely upon his 
own resources, but he never thought fur a 


moment of turning from his purpose; and 
by teaching and hard labor dnring vaca- 
tions he managed, with what assistance his 
mother could furnish, to complete his entire 
course, graduating June 7, 1884. Having 
obtained a situation at Bowery Beach, near 
Portland, Maine, he began teaching at that 
place, but a severe attack of erysipelas pre- 
vented his finishing the term and confined him 
in bed for several months, thereby exhausting i 
his purse and seriously interfering with his 
studies. He taught several terms of school in 
his home district, and by his efforts as teacher, 
and afterward as "school agent" (trustee) made 
the school the best in the town. The winter of 
1885 was spent in teaching the grammar school 
at West Brooksville, Maine, with his usual siiCr 
cess. From Brooksville he went to Waterville, 
Maine, where he spent some months pursuing 
his studies under the instruction of J. H. Han- 
son, LL. D., in the Coburn Classical Institute. 
The summer of 1886 found him transformed 
into a book agent and canvassing in the State 
of New York, with his headquarters at Fulton, 
Oswego County. In September he returned as 
principal of the High School at Kenduskeag, 
Maine. Having been converted to the Christian 
religion nearly a year before, he was now bap- 
tized and became a member of the First Bap- 
tist Church at Kenduskeag and took an active 
part in organizing a Young Men's Christian 
Association at that place. 

Having been a sufferer trom attacks of asthma 
from childhood he resolved to seek relief in the 
sunny land of Southern California, and attracted 
by the boom at San Diego we find him on' his 
way to that city, where he arrived April 17, 
1887. Finding no demand for any but manual 
labor he began work on the Flotel del Coronado 
and assisted in laying the foundation for that 
magnificent structure. He then worked as car- 
penter on the same until the last of July, when 
he went to Buena, California, to take charge of 
a general merchandise store. During the next 
six months the railroad betweeu Oceanside and 
Escondido was surveyed and built through 

Buena, and Mr. Bailey's store, being in the 
midst of the contractors' camps, was the center 
of many exciting scenes. 

On the 28th of September, 1887, he was 
married to Miss Annie L. Haselton, daughter 
of Captain John A. Haselton, who in company 
with Mr. Bailey's sister had just arrived from 
their home in Maine. In August, 1888, Mr. 
Bailey was elected to the principalship of the 
public schools in the "Sun-kissed Vale," which 
position he still retains, and the present excel- 
lent condition of the schools is largely due to 
his well-directed efforts. 

fEWTON C. WHIMS was born near 
Hookstown, Beaver County, Pennsylvania, 
March 29, 1844. He was the son of Caleb 
Whims, a prominent farmer of that county. 
The first few years (if his life were uneventful, 
attending district school in the winter and 
working on the farm in the summer, until the 
breaking out of the war. At the age of eighteen 
he enlisted in Company H, One Hundred and 
Fortieth Regiment of Pennsylvania Volunteers. 
This regiment was attached to Hancock's old 
division (First) of the famous Second Corps, and 
taak part in all the battles of the Army of the 
Potomac from Chancellorsville to Appomattox. 
The last year of the war he was in command of 
his company, with the rank of Second Lieuten- 
ant. In June, 1865, he settled on a farm in 
Pottawattamie County, Kansas. He taught 
school and studied law during the winter sea- 
sons until 1872, when he was admitted to the 
bar. From that time until 1886 he was prin- 
cipally engaged in educational work. In the 
spring of that year he removed. to San Diego, 
and the same year lie located in Escondido, in 
the " sun-kissed vale," and engaged in the mer- 
cantile business. In October, 1887, he received 
the appointment of Postmaster at Escondido, 
but, being an uncompromising Republican, he 
was removed to make room for a Democrat. 
In Maich, 1889, on the return of the Republi- 


cans to power, he was again appointed to the 
position of Postmaster, which place he now 

He was married to Miss 6. K. Vance, Octo- 
ber 11, 1865, and has four children, one son and 
three daughters. Mr. Whims is a radical tem- 
perance man, a member of the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church, and a good citizen. 


fM. LOOP, San Diego. — Some men walk 
through life with what has been termed 
a a " charmed existence," and pass through 
terrible dangers and great perils unharmed. 
The- lives of these men are replete with thrill- 
ing experience and hair-breadth escapes. The 
Mexican outlaw or Italian brigand could not 
excel their cruel murders nor their daring reck- 
less contempt of law. They robbed the mail 
and treasure boxes, and shot and killed every 
one who offered the slightest resistance. They 
committed the most atrocious crimeu without 
flinching. The people in their intense indigna- 
tion applied to the Government for protection, 
for it was unsafe to travel while the country was 
infested by such dangerous criminals. The 
United States mail coaches were loaded with 
gold and valuable treasures. These marauders 
generally knew where to make a big haul, and 
their attacks were sure of success. A man must 
have had intrepid courage to oppose them. 

Among those who enlisted in the hazardous 
service of the Express Company as treasury 
agents was Theodore Murray Loop, who was 
born at Bath, Steuben County, New York, June 
10, 1832. His father, Murray Loop, married 
Miss Mary Ann Arnot, a native of Scotland, in 
Elmira, New York. Mr. Loop hecaine a prom- 
inent merchant. Theodore was the second child, 
having no brothers, but two sisters: Harriette 
Tuttle aud Emily Elizabeth. The family moved 
to Oakland County, Michigan, where Mrs. Loop 
died, and Mr. Loop returned with his children 
to Bath, New York, where he left them and 
came West in 1837, and in 1840 brought his 

children from Bath to his new home, settling at 
Belvidere, Boone County, Illinois. Theodore 
left home in the winter of 1849, in St. Louis, to 
come to California the next year. 

After wintering in Jackson, Amador County, 
he followed mining the first three years. In 
1853 he went into the service of the Adams Ex- 
press Company as treasury-carrier, and re- 
mained with them until they failed. He was 
next in the employ of the Langton's Express 
Company until 1858. During these years his 
dauntless courage was frequently called into 
activity, and in 1854 he marvelously escaped 
being shot to pieces by a Walker's band of high- 
waymen, who attacked the stage running be- 
tween Downieville.Marysvilleand Comptonville. 
They stopped the coach at the Oregon House, 
and a fierce battle took place, both parties firing 
incessantly with revolvers and double-barreled 
shot guns. William Dobson and Theodore 
Loop fought with a wild desperation and killed 
three of the robbers; the others took fright and 
retreated to the mouutains, where they were 
pursued and killed. During the fight a lady 
passenger was shot through the head, and a 
man on the coach had his leg badly shattered. 
The messengers had over $125,000 worth of 
treasure in the coach this trip. The news of 
the attack spread through the country, and the 
valor and courage of Mr. Loop was a subject of 
surprise and astonishment to all. In 1858 Mr. 
Loop resigned and went up north in the em- 
ploy of the California Stage Company, which 
carred the mail and treasure from Yreka and 
the mountains. In 1859-'60 he was on the 
route from Weaverville to Humboldt Bay, dur- 
ing the great B,edwood Indian war, which was 
in progress at the Redwood mountains in Hum- 
boldt County. He traveled over the road for 
months when the Indians were so fierce that no 
white man dared to show himself. He made 
the trip at night-time to avoid attacks from 
them. The settlers were terror-stricken and 
utterly dismayed. The redskins murdered, pil- 
laged and destroyed entire settlements bordering 
on the different routes between Weaverville and 


Humboldt. Finally the inhabitants were com- 
pelled to make a hasty flight from their homes, 
and hurriedly escaped to Uniontown. They 
swarmed down on the ranches below Bremer's 
place and murdered every white person and 
destroyed everything in their path. 

One night about two o'clock, Mr. Loop 
stopped at Bremer for his usual cup of hot 
cofl'ee, and sat back and listened to the outrages 
committed by the Indians. He was unsus- 
picious of any danger, but concluded to be 
alert. After he had gone into the dense red- 
woods, he could not see or hear anything, and 
trusted entirely to his faithful, intelligent mule, 
which was sure-footed and familiar with the 
road. The heavy fog and deep-green foliage 
made it impossible for him to discern any ob- 
ject during the night. The Indians suddenly 
came upon him with fearful yells, the woods 
resounding with their wild screams and sharp 
musketry. Mr. Loop pulled out his revolver 
and tired as fast as he could, the inule whirled 
suddenly and started off at a rapid pace, while 
Mr. Loop hastened his speed as much as possi- 
ble with the spur. The animal pitched off the 
mountain into a deep gully; Mr. Loop was 
thrown against a tree, knocking him senseless, 
and he remained in this condition until day- 
light, when he found the mule still motionless 
by his side. He aroused him and managed to 
continue his journey. 

General Kibber, in command of the State 
troops, followed the Indians and killed several 
hundred of them during this war. Several 
times the United States troops guarded Mr. 
Loop in his journey, but the dangers increased, 
so that it was unsafe to trust to such protection, 
and he resigned and went north to Puget Sound. 
From 1860 to 1862 he was in the express busi- 
ness in British Columbia. In 1862 he was 
caught in the snow between Fort Douglas and 
Lillonite, and had to carry $25,000 worth of 
treasure on his back. At the head of Lillonite 
river, between Lillonite lake and Harrison lake, 
he procured four Indians and a canoe and went 
down the river. At that time there was not a 

single white man in the whole country. It was 
an exciting trip, for the river was full of water- 
falls, some of which were over twenty feet in 
height. When they reached Fort Douglas, the 
entire population came out and stood on the 
shore in great astonishment, and welcomed him 
with lusty cheers, as he was the first and only 
white man that had ever dared navigate the 
dangerous stream. In the spring of 1862 he 
visited Cariboo mines, but left them on account 
of the severe winter affecting his 1 ealth. In 
1863 he went into the employ of Wells, Fargo 
& Co., in expressing and remained with them 
for eight years, and carried treasure from the 
Idaho Basin to the Columbia river and to Port- 
land. For a year he was in the Owyhee country, 
from Silver City to Winnemucca, traveling for 
Wells, Fargo & Co., on the celebrated pioneer 
and frontiersman, Hill Beachey's, stage line. 

The Indian war was very bad about that 
time, and on his first trip they killed over sixty 
Chinamen. At Guinina (Spanish for "chicken") 
ranch, four suspicious-looking men got aboard 
the coach. When the stage reached Gibraltar 
Point, a very steep portion of the road across 
the Blue Mountains, near the summit, the pas- 
sengers alighted from the stage and walked up 
the grade. Loop stayed behind to guard the 
treasure. One of the four men, evidently the 
leader of the band, carelessly approached Loop, 
and in a pleasant, joking way, said, "That is a 
pretty nice gun you have; let me see it for a 
moment." Loop turned quickly and brought 
the gun, full cocked, up to his shoulder, and 
covered the stranger, saying, "The only way 
you can look at this gun is down the barrel, 
and at a reasonable distance." The fellow, not 
abashed, coolly looked at Loop, and replied in a 
quiet, entreating voice, " I am not joking; let 
me look at your gun." Loop remained motion- 
less, and in a stern, determined voice, repeated 
his language. The passengers intuitively un- 
derstood their position, and recognizing the cool 
bravery and heroic protection in their behalf, 
gave one rousing cheer. The mysterious quar- 
tette dropped off at the Mountain House and at 



the Twelve-Mile station out of Walla Walla, 
.although they had paid their fare clear through. 
Another time, when crossing Idaho Basin, four 
men stood waiting on the road. The coach had 
on board 3,200 pounds of treasure, 1,000 pounds 
of gold and 2,200 of silver. In coming over 
the summit and looking over the point, Mr. 
Loop saw a packed mule and three horses tied 
at a tree. A single man stood close by, watch- 
ing the animals. The spot was some distance 
from the road, and was sheltered by a dense 
growth of timber. The keen eyes of Mr. Loop 
discovered them in time, and turning sharply 
to the driver, he said, "Gallop the horses as 
fast as you can right down this mountain, or I 
will blow your brains out." The driver made 
an effort to keep the horses on the road, but, 
glancing at Loop, saw a peculiar hard look in 
his eyes, and dashed the horses down the moun- 
tain, far away from the road, as commanded. 
The highwaymen followed, but the stage kept 
ahead of them, and arrived at Placerville that 
night. Mr. Loop subsequently found out that 
the leader of the band was the notorious Ned 
Bledsoe, who was a murderous villain. 

In looking over the way-bills of the stage 
that trip, he saw that five passengers were regis- 
tered. None of them turned up, and the driver 
was nervous and irritable, and would not wait 
for them. This arroused the suspicions of 
Loop, and he watched the driver continually, 
apprehensive of some danger. When the stage 
came into Placerville, the driver disappeared, 
and was never heard of after that, which proves 
that he was acting in harmony with the rob 
bers. One of the gang was the Sheriff of Boise 
County, who was afterward hung by the Vigi- 
lance Committee. 

Mr. Loop settled in San Diego in the winter 
of 1880-'81, and has a pleasant, comfortable 
home. In December, 1880, he took the con- 
tract to build a portion of the California South- 
ern Railroad, and afterward became interested 
in Del Mar, laid out the town, and bought con- 
siderable real estate and several ranches adja- 
cent. He is a heavy operator in land. He is 

well known to all the settlers as a man of con 
siderable force of character. He has two sons 
and two daughters. His oldest child is a young 
man, twenty years of age. 

tANFORD WORTHING:, the only son of 
Henry R. and Amanda Worthing, was bou. 
September 14, 1839, in the town of Shap. 
leigh, Maine, and shortly after returned with 
his parents to their new home in Waterborough. 
At the age of eleven he was sent to Boston, 
where he remained at school about a year. Be- 
ing a very apt scholar, being able to read when 
he was three years old, he was well advanced 
when he returned home, where he attended the 
district school, assisting his father on the farm 
during vacations until he was seventeen years 
old, when his father set him up in a merchan- 
dising business at Kennebunk Depot. He re- 
mained there but five months, when the store 
was exchanged for one at Ross' Corner, where the 
firm of H. R. Worthing & Son did a large bus- 
iness for two years. This was long enough for 
the 6on, whose restless nature began to chafe 
under the monotony of life in a country store, 
and he concluded to go to college. In pursu- 
ance of this resolve he attended school at Par- 
sonstield Seminary and Lebanon Academy, and 
then went to Bates College at Lewiston, Maine. 
While pursuing his studies at Lebanon he made 
the acquaintance of Celia Augusta Fiske, whom 
he married December 25, 1862, and left school 
to enter the army; but, at the earnest entreaty 
of friends, changed his mind and engaged in 
teaching school. He had inherited a taste for 
music and had improved opportunities for 
making himself proficient as a vocalist. His 
wife, the daughter of a professor of music, was 
a fine pianist, and they accepted situations as 
teachers in Cheshire Academy, Ohio, arriving 
there in February, 1863. 

During the following summer Morgan made 
his famous raid through Indiana and Ohio, and 
Mr. Worthing, being a member of the First Ohio 


National Guards, went into the field with his 
command. After two weeks of rough campaign- 
ing, he assisted in capturing 3,000 of Morgsn's 
men at the battle of Coal Hill, within two miles 
of Cheshire, where in a vain effort to cross the 
river into Virginia, they had been overtaken. 
Morgan had ransacked the town and Mrs. Worth- 
ing had been compelled to cook and serve a fine 
dinner to Morgan and his staff. The school had 
been broken up for that reason and he resolved 
to take his wife back home and join the army. 
On his arrival he applied to the Governor of 
Maine for a commission to recruit a company 
for the war, but soon after he received the com- 
mission President Lincoln called for "300,000 
more," and, recruiting be ng slow, he immedi- 
ately voluuteered as a private in the First Maine 
Heavy Artillery. Before being sent to his regi- 
ment he was found to be a good scribe, and was 
detailed as a clerk in the Adjutant General's 
office at Camp Berry, Portland. Here he re- 
mained some three months, until the news of 
the Fort Pillow massacre of colored troops 
reached his ears, when he asked for and received 
permission to proceed to Washington to be ex- 
amined for a commission in the colored troops. 
While there he was subjected to a delay of three 
weeks on account of prior applications, and 
then, unwilling to wait longer, forced himself 
before the board, received a hurried examina- 
tion, and was appointed a Second Lieutenant, 
having refused the offer of influential recom- 
mendations which would have certainly given 
him a Captaincy. He was then ordered to re- 
port for duty to General Burbridge, at Lexing- 
ton, Kentucky, when he was assigned to duty 
in the Twelfth United States Heavy Artillery 
(colored), with which regiment he was on duty 
about four months of guerrilla warfare in the 
State. Having been recommended for promo- 
tion over seniors by his regimental and depart- 
ment commanders three separate times, and 
been refused because it was against the rules of 
the regular army, into which his regiment had 
been mustered, he was detached and placed on 
staff duty. Here he was promoted successively 

to Post Provost Marshal, Post Adjutant, Acting 
Commissary of Subsistence, Brigade Provost 
Marshal, Superintendent of the Freedmen's Bu- 
reau, Judge of the Freedmen's Court, and Com- 
mandant of the Southern District of Kentucky, 
with a Lieutenant-Colonel's command. Here 
he served with marked satisfaction for seven 
months, reporting direct to General Clinton B. 
Fisk, commanding Department of Kentucky, 
Tennessee and Alabama, Bureau of Refugees, 
Freedmen and Abandoned Lands, until honor- 
ably mustered out at the end of almost three 
years of service. Previous to his discharge he 
had passed an examination, "with special men- 
tion," before a board convened to examine offi- 
cers for transfer into the regular army, and was 
placed on the roll for future call. At the close 
of his service in the army he went to Missouri 
with his family, and in the city of Macon, with 
Thomas Proctor, engaged in publishing a weekly 
Republican newspaper, called the Macon Argus. 
While successfully managing the paper he was 
elected City Clerk, which position he filled 
creditably. Mr. Proctor died suddenly, and Mr. 
Worthing decided to go south and start an agri- 
cultural newspaper. While in New England 
visiting he changed his mind, and went into the 
job printing business in Boston. Through his 
ability and taste in doing fine work he obtained 
the specimen work of the Boston Type Foundry 
at a very remunerative price. From boyhood 
he had given evidence of decided ingenuity, and 
while in the printing business it took form, and 
he invented successively an improved composing 
stick, a gauge-pin for job presses, and improved 
mitering and rule cutting machine, a printing 
press, a supplementary horse-car seat, steamle68 
stove-ware, and a mechanical steam apparatus 
for rendering oil and grease from refuse meat, 
bones and dead animals, without stench. Having 
made some money, and broken down his health 
by too close application to business and neglect 
of natural laws, he was compelled to sell out 
his business and change climate; consequently 
on the 1st day of July, 1872, he started with 
his family for Colorado. His intention wa6 to 


engage in sheep-raising, hut on arriving at 
Colorado Springs and making some inquiry, he 
found that during the previous winter the 
'•sheep men" had experienced heavy losses on 
aecoui.t of severe weather, and when i-oupled 
with the fact that the purchasing price had 
nearly doubled, this discouraged him and he 
substituted the cattle business, locating a ranch 
about half a mile from the town. Here occurred 
a circumstance which showed a trait in his 
character that has always been prominent, and 
the only thing that has ever made him enemies, 
and that is, never submitting to a wrong, no 
matter how small, without seeking redress of 
some sort. As a citizen of the United States 
he had as much right to appropriate the public 
domain as any man, but he found that a few of 
the older settlers had clubbed together and were 
claiming every foot of available land in the 
vicinity, and driving off with threats and vio- 
lence everyone who attempted to interfere with 
them, and by perjuring themselves in turn for 
each other, obtaining patents from the Govern- 
ment without complying with the law. This 
completely shut out bona fide settlers from ob^ 
taining farms or valuable Government lands, 
which Mr. Worthing did not propose to submit 
to; consequently he selected an unoccupied quar- 
ter section, and proceeded to build him a house. 
The enraged claimant) who was living on other 
Government land some two miles away, as soon 
as he made the discovery, interviewed the 
"club," who, upon reconnoitering the premises 
and finding the occupant working, with a 
double-barreled shot-gun in close proximity, 
concluded that part of their duty to each other 
had better be abandoned. It was supposed by 
many who were cognizant of the facts that he 
would be killed, but on discovering that it only 
needed pluck to get what they had a right to, 
many others followed his example, and soon 
outnumbered the old settlers and changed the 
programme entirely. 

The Legislature passed a law in 1873 pro- 
hibiting the herding of more than twenty head 
of cattle within two miles of any town, which 

compelled him to change his base, and he traded 
his cattle for real estate in Colorado Springs. 
He then purchased a saw mill and removed to 
the southern part of the State, on the supposed 
line of a projected railroad, where he engaged 
in manufacturing lumber and in merchandising 
until the railroad changed their line and gave 
him the goby, when he "pulled up stakes" 
and moved to Lake County. Here he located 
in a mining district, and, becoming interested 
in some mining ventures about the time of the 
first discoveries of rich mineral at Leadville, 
moved there, purchased another mill, and with 
two steam mills, funning night and day, sup- 
plied the lumber with which Leadville was got- 
ten well under way. He had now retrieved his 
losses caused by the shrinkage of values on real 
estate during the panic, and, having accepted a 
large offer for his business in Leadville, con- 
cluded to devote his entire time to mining pur- 
suits. The summer of 1878 was a very sickly 
season in Leadville, and the fear of losing his 
children with diphtheria caused him to remove 
to Canon City, where he remained until the 
summer of 1879, when he took his family to 
Silver Cliff, where he had by this time become 
extensively engaged in mining. In connection 
with a partner, who performed the labor while 
he furnished the expenses, the discovery of one 
of the largest mines in Colorado was made near 
Silver Cliff. The mine was so valuable that 
some disreputable parties trumped up a con- 
flicting claim and commenced a lawsuit for its 
possession. Pluck again came to his rescue, 
and after spending $18,000 and risking his life 
in a personal encounter with pistols, in which 
he got a bullet througn his sleeve, he came out 
of the contest as one-half owner of a mine 
which has since been, capitalized in New York 
at $10,000,000. He is also half owner of three 
other valuable mines near JRuby, Gunnison 
County, Colorado, which are considered to have 
millions in them. Mr. Worthing is now resting 
at the old home at Ross' Corner, where he has 
located his family and will remain until spring, 
returning to Colorado to prosecute his mining 


enterprises. The details of this sketch of a 
busy life will show tliat, notwithstanding the 
oft- repeated prophecy of his people that he 
would never accumulate anything, on account 
of his roving disposition, the "rolling stone" 
does sometimes " gather moss." 

The foregoing sketch of Mr. Worthing's life 
was published in 1880, in a history of York 
County, Maine. 

The summer of 1880 found him in Colorado, 
developing his mines in Gunnison County. In 
1881, having taken hold of a number of enter- 
prises, he was secretary and general manager of 
the Fiske Consolidated Gold Mining Company, 
Central City, Colorado; president and general 
manager Augusta Mining Company, Gunnison 
County; vice-president and consulting engineer 
Boston Gold and Silver Mining Company, Colo- 
rado, and president and general manager El 
Gachi Mining Company, Sonoraj Mexico, with 
headquarters in Denver, Colorado. In the fall 
of 1881, on account of his children, he decided 
to make a home in Massachusetts, and pur- 
chased and fitted up an elegant home in South 
Lincoln, sixteen miles from Boston. The mining 
boom of 1880, having passed its zenith, was 
rapidly 'subsiding, and mining stocks became 
demoralized to such an extent he decided to quit 
the business by selling out and withdrawing. 
In 1883 he had completely retired from busi- 
ness and settled down at the home he had pre- 
pared for and given to his wife in Lincoln, 
expecting to spend his days there in quiet. 

The name Thing — sometimes spelled Thyng, 
to try to mitigate the peculiar insignificance and 
belittling effect of such a name — had always 
been a source of annoyance. The name in 
Maine, where the standing, wealth and respect- 
ability of the several numerous families had 
been well known for more than 200 years, 
passed without special notice; but everywhere 
else it. seemed to strike every one hearing it for 
the first time, as intensely ridiculous. l J riuters 
could not conceive it possible to have such a 
name, and would invariably make something 
else of it. Children at school would make puns 

and rhymes with it, until His own children's 
complaints resolved him to make a change; 
consequently in 1884 he made an application to 
the courts of Massachusetts to change the 
names of his entire family to Worthing, being 
a combination of his middle and last name, and 
also his first name to the simpler one of Ran- 
ford, but retaining the original initial. 

Having a predilection for farming, he was now 
in a position to gratify that propensity and also 
his tastes for abstruse and occult science. De- 
siring always to communicate toothers his con- 
clusions as the result of experiment on the 
farm, and deductions in science, he became a 
valued correspondent of the leading agricultural 
papers of the State, taking a leading position 
among the Patrons of Husbandry, and occupy- 
ing the position of Master of the Lincoln Grange 
and chairman of the Committee on Education 
of the State Grange, until he left the State. 
He has always taken a lively interest in all 
public utilities, drifting naturally into politics, 
and, being a man of strong prejudices, always 
takes partisan grounds and a leading position. 
He would in all probability have been a mem- 
ber of the next Legislature of Massachusetts 
had he remained in that State; but he found 
that the cold of that climate was fast ruining 
his eyes, owing to a peculiar sensitiveness of 
the secretory glands, and he felt compelled to 
seek a warmer climate at once; so in December, 
1886, he started south to seek for a location 
and td test the different climates in the South. 
He spent two months of the winter in traveling 
from Florida to sonthern California, landing iu 
San Diego the 1st of February. 1887. This 
seemed at once to be the ne plus ultra of loca- 
tions, and he at once decided to make it his 
future home. Ran ford Worthing is a profound 
thinker, a logical reasoner, and a fearless pro- 
mulgator, of his deductions. He has written 
for publication some of the best scientific con- 
clusions on metaphysical subjects that have ever 
been published. His theories on the scientific 
basis of so-called spiritualism, mind, faith, and 
Christian-science cures, and kindred subjects, 


from a scientific standpoint, are considered in- 
controvertible, and he will give you food for 
thought on almost any subject you can present 
for discussion. In fact he is a versatile genius. 
He came to the front very rapidly in San Diego, 
having been elected president of nearly every 
organization to which he has belonged, and at 
the last city election was proposed for the nomi- 
nation for Mayor in the Republican convention, 
but declined in favor of another. He is chair- 
man of the executive committee of the California 
State Liberal Union, which indicates his reli- 
gious belief. He is of a domestic turn of mind, 
has an elegant home, where with his wife and 
five children he can always be found when not 
necessarily away. 


fAMES DIX SCHUYLER was born in 
Ithaca, New York, in 1849, the youngest 
of a family of nine. The name of the 
family from which he descends is interwoven 
with the earliest history of Colonial New York, 
and is connected by ties of kinship and associa- 
tions with the Van Rensselaers, the Bleeckers, 
the Ten Broecks, the Livingstons, the Hamil- 
tons, the Churches, and other historic Knicker- 
bocker families. His father. Philip C. Schuyler, 
was of ardent anti-slavery principles, an inti- 
mate friend of Gerrit Smith and of Ossawato- 
mie Brown. He removed to Kansas in 1854, 
and was a prominent figure in the early strug- 
gles of that State to throw off the yoke of 
slavery. His family followed in 1859, and the 
education of his youngest son, James, was 
much interrupted by the stirring incidents of 
life along the border during the troublous times 
of the following five years. In 1864 the sub- 
ject of this sketch returned to his native State, 
and received his education at a small Quaker 
university on the shores of Cayuga Lake. Re- 
turning home to Kansas in 1868, he was soon 
imbued with the western fever, and joined an 
engineering party engaged in locating the line 
of the Kansas Pacific Railway on the great 

plains of eastern Colorado and western Kansas. 
It was in this work, within a few weeks after 
joining the party, that one of the most thrilling 
events of his life occurred. One bright morn- 
ing in June, the party, numbering fifteen, were 
attacked by a band of 100 hostile Indians that 
were at that time devastating the country, and 
after a running fight, in which four Indians 
were killed, they all escaped without injury ex- 
cept Mr. Schuyler, who was wounded in the 
leg. In recognition of his courage he was pro- 
moted to the chief place in the party on his 
return to it from his home, after six weeks' 
absence, and remained in the employ of the 
company until the completion of the road to 
Denver in 1870. He was subsequently engaged 
in the location and construction of the Denver 
& Boulder Valley Railroad and the Denver & 
Rio Grande Railway, beginning with the latter 
from its original inception, and making the first 
surveys for a considerable portion of the line, 
including some of the most difficult mountain 
passes now traversed by the locomotives. 

He removed to California in 1873, engaging 
on the North Pacifie Coast Railway, and the 
Stockton & lone Railroad. During a period of 
three years' stagnation in engineering work, he 
mounted the editorial tripod on the Stockton 
Independent, leaving it to accept a position in 
the State Engineer department, as Chief Assist- 
ant State Engineer, in charge of the irrigation 
branch of the work, under William Ham. Hall, 
State Engineer. His reports on the develop- 
ment of irrigation in California, in connection 
with those of his superior, have added no little 
to the literature on that most interesting sub- 
ject. In 1882 he accepted a position as Chief 
Engineer and General Superintendent of the 
Sinaloa & Durango Railroad in Mexico, and 
constructed the road from the Port of Altata to 
Cnliacan, the capital of the State of Sinaloa. 
Returning to San Francisco after twenty months 
in the tropics, to escape the yellow (evef vvuich 
had broken out with severity on the west coast 
of Mexico, he engaged in contracting, his first 
work being the construction of one section of 



the San Francisco sea wall. The section built 
under his supervision is still recognized as the 
most substantial and well-built portion of that 
mammoth construction. The work which has 
gained him recognition in the profession of 
engineering, and a national reputation as an 
engineer, was the designing and construction of 
the Sweetwater dam, completed in April, 1888, 
the highest masonry dam in the United States. 
He has since been called in consultation upon 
numerous similar engineering works, and his 
services are sought in all the Pacific slope, and 
as far away as the Sandwich Islands. He was 
appointed City Engineer of San Diego, January 
1, 1889, serving until May of the same year, 
when he was appointed one of three Commis- 
sioners of Public Works of San Diego, which 
position he still occupies. 

He was married in July. 1889, to Mary In- 
galls Tnliper, of Saratoga, New York. In poli- 
tics Mr. Schuyler is an ardent Republican. 

M. GASSAWAY, City Clerk of San 
Diego, was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, 
* July 7, 1856. His grandfather, George 
Creain, was united in marriage to Amelia 
Walker, and resided in Cincinnati for more than 
sixty years, both having died there in 1872. 
David Gassaway, the father of the subject of 
this sketch, was of Scotch descent, and his 
mother, Anna L. Creain, of Pennsylvania Dutch 
descent. W. M. Gassaway received his educa- 
tion at Chickering Academy, and at the early 
age of seventeen became connected with one of 
the largest wholesale dry goods establishments 
in Cincinnati, where he remained nine years. 
During the years 1883-'84 he traveled exten- 
sively in Europe, viewing all of its principal 
places, and upon his return visited the various 
States of his native land, finally locating in San 
Diego. He was manager of the Pacific Beach 
Company from its incorporation until he was 
elected City Clerk of San Diego, on May 6, 
1889. Much of the great success and prosper- 

ity of this enterprise is attributed to the ex- 
ecutive ability and keen sagacity of its first 

Mr. Gassaway was married November 14, 
1889, to Miss Josephine Gordon, one of the 
most accomplished and popular young ladies of 
National City, California. He is a young man 
of exceptionally good habits, is a rapid and 
earnest worker in whatever he undertakes, and 
is thoroughly respected for his genteel and gen- 
tlemanly bearing and excellent qualities of mind 
and heart. He possesses the faculty of making 
friends with all whom he meets, is an accurate 
judge of human nature, and it is safe to say 
that he is one of the coming men of southern 

ANIEL M. HAM MACK was born in 
Mercer County, Illinois, about 1850. His 
ancestors, from Kentucky and Virginia, 
were of Scotch-Irish and Huguenot stock, aud 
had been in America nearly 200 years. He 
was raised on a farm and educated at Monmouth 
College, Illinois, graduating with honors. He 
studied law and was admitted to the bar at the 
age of twenty-one. Soon after he went to Bur- 
lington, Iowa, and was for two or three years in 
newspaper work on the Burlington Hawkeye. 
He afterwards went into the practice of law, 
and has continued in it ever since. In Iowa 
he was for four years State's Attorney, and was 
four 3'ears a member of the Democratic State 
Committee, and was always in demand as a 
speaker over that State in political campaigns. 
He was for some years solicitor for an insurance 
company, having charge of its legal business in 
that State, and which position he left when he 
came to San Diego in 1887. As a member of 
a leading law firm in San Diego, he has paid 
exclusive attention to his profession since com- 
ing here, and stands well as a counselor and ad- 
vocate. In practice he is fair, obliging and 
popular with brother attorneys. He is faithful 
to clients and true and generous to his friend- 


ships. Although a hard working, studious 
1 iwyer, he is also a large general reader, and 
posted in literature, and often enlivens the dull 
practice with poetry and sentiment. He has 
one of the best selected private libraries in the 
city, and book-lovers always find a welcome at 
his home. 

He was married in Illinois to Mis"s Belle S., 
daughter of Hon. J. H. Stewart, of Monmouth, 
who has been for many years on the State bench 
in that State. His wife is a woman of educa- 
tion and sense, and their home is a happy one. 
They have two surviving children, a daughter 
of thirteen and a son of six years. Although 
" new-comers," they are enthusiastic Californians 
and thoroughly identified with the interests of 
the city and State. In politics Mr. Hammack 
is a Democrat and an advocate of State division. 
In religion he is a Presbyterian, and an officer 
of that church here. 

fOMAS ALVARADO, one of the best 
known residents of southern California, 
was born in Los Angeles, on Main street, 
December 21, 1841. His father, Ysidro Alva- 
rado, a native also of California, married Miss 
Micaela Avila, who also was born in California. 
His grandfather, Jabier Alvarado, came to Los 
Angeles in 1810 from Santa Barbara, was ap- 
pointed a Sergeant by the Governor-General in 
Los Angeles, erected a handsome residence and 
made his permanent home there. His grand- 
mother was a woman of superior education. In 
her great benevolence she organized the first 
school in Los Angeles, taught there herself 
without remuneration, assisting in many ways 
to make it popular. She also had a thorough 
knowledge of medicine, and acted as physician 
in many cases and had a great store of remedies 
at hand. She was a woman of many noble 
qualities, which were recognized and appreciated 
by many friends. Ysidro Alvarado inherited 
many of his characters from his noble mother. 
He was a peaceful man, very unlike his cousin, 

Governor Juan Bautista Alvarado, which name 
recalls the revolution of November, 1836, that 
finally culminated in a precipitation of Califor- 
nia into the United States. For an account of 
this most important history of California, see 
the preceding pages of this volume. Mr. Alva- 
rado has devoted his years to stock-raising on 
his ranch, the Montserralte, where large herds 
of sleek, well-fed cattle roam at will. 

Montserralte has had a long, romantic his- 
tory. In early days the hacienda was the resort 
of the senoras, senoritas and grandees. An oc- 
casion of festivity in those days meant not less 
than a week of continuous revelry. The night 
is dedicated to music and the dance, banquets, 
and portions of the day to siestas, the demure 
and fascinating ladies occupying the magnifi- 
cently furnished apartments, while the gay 
eabaleros found repose in the grateful shade of 
the broad palm trees. 

Don Alvarado is a well-known man through- 
out California, on account of his excellent qual- 
ities. He is interested in several important 
enterprises, including stock-raising on a large 

June 4, 1864, he married Mrs. Maria Ygnacia 
Moreua de Soto, a native of California; has had 
six daughters and one son, of whom five are at 
present living. His home is at Old San 

fW. JORRES, City Auditor and Ass 
is a native of California. He was born 
° in San Francisco and received his educa- 
tion at St. Augustine's College at Benicia, Cali- 
fornia. In 1872 he removed to San Diego, 
where for four years he was employed in the 
Commercial Bank. In December, 1876, he 
went to Los Angeles and became connected 
with the Commercial Bank, now the First Na- 
tional Bank, of that city. In 1878 he accepted 
the position of Deputy County Treasurer of 
San Diego County, which position he held until 
he returned to Los Angeles, taking a position 


again with the First National Bank. Owing to 
the death of his brother, business required his 
attention in San Diego again. In 1885 he was 
appointed Postmaster of San Diego, under Presi- 
dent Cleveland's administration. In May, 1889, 
he was appointed City Auditor and Assessor 
under the new charter adopted by the city of 
San Diego in that year. 

He was married in 1887 to Miss Luna Dewey, 
daughter of Richard D. Dewey, of Cleveland, 
Ohio. They have two children, a sou and a 


fD. COMPTON was born in Pittsylvania 
County, Virginia, August 22, 1820. His 
• father, John A. Coinpton, was a native of 
Virginia, of English descent; his mother, Susan 
(Chumley) Compton, also. There came to this 
family twelve children, born poor and in a slave 
State. His father was an overseer on a tobacco 
plantation and received the meagre return of 
one-twentieth of the crop produced by each 
negro he worked. G. D. Compton's education 
was but meagre, consisting of but six months' 
schooling when he was six years old. At the 
acre of sixteen he could spell only words of three 
letters. Afterward a lady at the place where 
he worked gave him some help and the rest of 
hi6 education he picked up himself as best he 
could. He worked in the field with the col- 
ored men until he was sixteen years of age 
without any remuneration worth mentioning; 
then he left home to seek for something better. 
He traveled until he got hungry, when he 
stopped and asked for work at the residence of 
Major Clayborn, who had no work to give him 
and advised him to go home, but he declined to 
do so. Major Clayborn then lent him $5 and 
told him to go to Elder Stone, who would ad- 
vise him what to do. He stayed all night with 
Mr. Stone, who finally persuaded him to go 
back home and returned with him. It was fin- 
ally agreed that he would take charge of Mr. 
Stone's son's place in his absence, which he did 

for three months, and for which he received 
$100. He then had charge of Mr. Stone's place 
for three years and cleared $3,000. with which 
he helped his mother and the children. Soon 
after he went to Hamilton County, Illinois, and 
took up a Government claim. Here he became 
acquainted with Miss Lucy Compton, whom he 
married. He afterward ascertained that she 
was his second cousin. After he had paid the 
justice $2.50 for marrying them he had but $1 
left. They lived with a cousin while he cut the 
logs and built his home. He farmed and im- 
proved the place for four years, when he sold 
out and moved to Adams County, Illinois. He 
remained there until 1847, then removed to 
Marion County, Iowa. Here times were hard 
with hiin: he worked three months for $8 per 
month with a Government surveying company. 
After this he bought a section of Government 
land at $1.25 per acre, and in 1849 came to 
California and made a little money. In 1852 
he returned by way of the Isthmus and re- 
mained the most of the year, when he sold out 
and started across the plains with his family 
and others. In Carson valley his wife was 
taken ill with cholera and died, and he buried 
her there. He was left with two little children, 
only one of whom now lives — Jordana, by whom 
he has two great-grandchildren. After this 
he again crossed the plains with cattle. In the 
fall of 1852, after going back to California, he 
settled on Mokelumne river. 

In 1853 he married his second wife, Miss 
Emily Flood. She was but thirteen years of 
age, while he was thirty-two. They have seven 
children, viz.: Mary, Elizabeth, Eda, Charles 
G., William Sherman, John Lincoln and An- 
gelina Emma. In 1867 he sold his farm and 
removed to Watsonville on account of his wife's 
health, remaining there one year, during which 
time she greatly improved in health, and in the 
fall of 1868 they came to Los Angeles County, 
where he laid out and started the town of Comp- 
ton. Five other families of his acquaintance 
came and helped to make the town. Here he 
first started in the real-estate business, in which 


he ha9 been so successful since. The Land 
Company made him their agent and gave him a 
commission, and thus he became a heavy real- 
estate dealer. In 1881 he sold out at Compton 
and moved to Los Angeles, where he became 
interested with Mr. Widney in starting the first 
university. He is one of the trustees of the 
Endowment Fund and of the Ontario University 
Fund. He also helped to build Downey and 
did much in Pomona in its settlement. 

In 1883, in connection with Mr. Pomeroy, he 
bought 18,000 acres of land in San Jacinto 
valley. They laid out San Jacinto and sold it 
to the Land Company, and Mr. Compton and 
Mr. James Kerr, as partners, sold the whole prop- 
erty to settlers. Mr. Compton, with three or 
four others, then bought 4,500 acres of land five 
miles south of San Jacinto and laid out the nice 
town of Florida. They have piped water in 
iron pipes all over the town and have built a 
brick hotel, a store and about thirty nice, neat 
new houses. He is now president and superin- 
tendent of the Florida Company and is superin- 
tendent and one of the directors of the San 
Jacinto Company and has charge of the settle- 
ment of its business. While engaged in those 
enterprises in 1887 he took charge of the Rialto 
tract of 30,000 acres of land, laid it out into 
streets and twenty-acre lots and made a cut 
ditch that cost $50,000. He sold $340,000 
worth of that property and then he declined to 
continue the business longer. His has been a 
very busy business life, and he has had much of 
frontier experience. He was at Carthage when 
Joseph and Hiram Smith were killed. 

Mr. Compton joined the Methodist Church 
in 1840, to which church his whole family also 
belong. He has done much for the cause in 
building churches and otherwise. He is one of 
the men who voted for President Harrison's 
grandfather, and was for a long time connected 
with the grand old Republican party, but is 
now a Prohibitionist. He has been for sixteen 
years a school trustee. He is a modest, unas- 
suming man who says of himself: " I never 
was much, but have held my own pretty well." 

He is a fine sample of what a poor boy may be- 
come in this country. 

J. PROUT was born in the city of 
New York, November 25, 1844. He 
r"4prj a received a good common-school educa- 
tion in the public schools, and when old enough 
learned the ship and steamboat joiner's trade, 
with the well-known firm of John E. Hoffmire, 
and then remained with the firm two years as 
foreman. April 9, 1868, he left New York for 
Montana, and for nearly six years he worked in 
the gold mines of Montana and Idaho. He re- 
turned home to New York in 1873, in conse- 
quence of a severe accident which befel him 
while in the mines. Two years later he crossed 
the continent to California and Oregon. In 
1885 he was appointed master mechanic by 
Colonel Peter French, collector of the ports of 
Alaska, and held the position until October, 
1886, when he sent in his resignation and re- 
turned to New York; but, not being able to 
stand the climate, he returned to the Pacific 
coast in 1887 and settled in San Diego. He 
now enjoys the pleasure of a beautiful home, 
which he has built for himself on Golden Hill. 
His grandfather, Roger Prout, established the 
first printing ink manufactory in the United 
States, in the year 1806, and the business was 
continued by his sons until 1860. He (Roger 
Prout) was also president of the Fourteenth 
Ward Democratic Club in New York city, that 
first named Andrew Jackson for the Presidency, 
and raised the first hickory pole in Center 
Market of New York city. 

-*" :=s => '^p'r-efS*- &==«—"•■- 

C. FERRIS was born in West Flam- 
boro, near Hamilton City, Wentworth 
k County, Canada, May 24, 1855. In 
1861 the family moved to Owen Sound, Grey 
County, Canada, and in 1871 came to California. 
They located in Emigrant Gap, where the sub- 


ject of this sketch remained one year, when he 
went to Sacramento, where he learned the car- 
penter's trade. The next year he was joined by 
his parents, and the family remained in Sacra- 
mento ten years. From there they removed to 
San Francisco and Oakland. From the latter 
place Mr. Ferris went to Woodland, in Yolo 
County, where he engaged in the real estate and 
insurance business, and remained for two years, 
when, the business not being satisfactory, he 
closed it up and traveled down the coast, stopping 
a short time at several different places, until he 
reached San Bernardino. Here he remained 
one year, then went to San Diego and worked 
at his trade a little over two years. He took 
up a Government claim of 160 acres in San 
Clemente valley, on which he has recently 
proved up. He is now engaged in improving 
his place, and will soon have forty acres of 
orchard and vinejard. He will have a choice 
variety of citrus and deciduous fruits, but makes 
a specialty of figs. His supply of water will 
be obtained from a neighboring caflon, across 
which he is putting a dam. The reservoir thus 
made will contain 1,500,000 gallons of water. 

IH N. JEFFERY was born in North Lisbon, 
fj|f: Waukesha County, Wisconsin, in 1847: 
^t^ The early part of his life was spent on a 
farm, "joing to school through the winter months, 
spending all the available odd moments in the 
study of music, of which he was passionately 
fond. At the age of twenty he went into the 
mercantile business at Menominee Falls, and 
remained in business at that point about ten 
years, teaching music through the winter months. 
In 1877 he emigrated to Onaga, Kansas, and 
was there engaged with Thomas Brothers in the 
hardware and lumber business for two years, 
after which he engaged in the furniture and 
music business about two years; then traveled 
through northern Kansas and southern Nebras- 
ka, holding musical conventions. In the spring 
of 1883 he came to San Diego, California, and 

for about two years was engaged in the mercan- 
tile business, since which time he has been en- 
gaged in the real estate business, under the 
firm name of Arnold, Jeffery & Mouser, at No. 
917 Fifth street, San Diego, California. The 
firm has done a large business, and are now 
handling Oneonta property, and Escondido and 
Ramona Seminary lands. 


fW. HUGHES, of the firm of Conklin & 
Hughes, attorneys, was born at Strasburg, 
9 Virginia, and the early vears of his life 
were spent in his native' State. He was edu- 
cated at Richmond College, Virginia, and the 
University of Virginia, and was admitted to 
the bar in 1879. He came to California in 
July, 1887, and has ever since been associated 
with Judge N. H. Conklin, in the practice of 
law at San Diego. 

,OSES HUGHES was born at Strange- 
way, Manchester, England, in Novem- 
ber, 1853. When quite young he went 
to Wales, where he lived until 1869, when he 
came to San Francisco and engaged in the foun- 
dry trade at the Columbia Foundry in that city. 
He remained there four years. He then spent 
a year and a half in Virginia City, Nevada; 
returned to San Francisco, thence went to Mex- 
ico under engagement to Redo & Co., Mazatlan, 
for their foundry. After completing his engage- 
ment, he went to Rosario to superintend the 
erection and management of a foundry at that 
place. Mr. Hughes remained in Mexico seven 
years, two years of the time running the foun- 
dry at Progresso Mine. Truinfo, Lower Califor 
nia, the work being almost entirely confined to 
the manufacture of mining machinery. In 1885 
he came to San Diego and entered into partner- 
ship with Mr. Riffenburg in the Standard Iron 
Works. Mr. Hughes is an excellent business 
man, and is thoroughly versed in the casting of 


all kinds of brass and iron. He was married 
to Miss Lavercia Marlette, of Julian, San Die- 
go County, in 1888. 

il'LLIAM GEHRING, the subject of this 
sketch, was born August 9, 1853, in 
Desseldorf, Germany, where he received 
his education and spent the early years of his 
life. After learning his trade, that of machinist, 
he was tive years at Essen with Krupp, thg cele- 
brated gun-maker. In 1880 he left his native 
country for the new world, remaining about 
live year6 in Chicago, where he worked at his 
trade, and in 1886 arrived in San Diego. Here 
he sought and obtained employment with the 
Standard Iron Works, Messrs. Riffenburg & 
Hughes being the proprietors. In 1887 Mr. 
Gehring purchased the interest of Mr. Riffen- 
burg in the business, and the new firm, then 
composed of Messrs. Hughes, Gehring and 
Wallace, soon built up a large trade. They 
now have one of the largest and most complete 
establishments of its kind in southern Califor- 
nia. Mr. Gehring was married in 1877 to Miss 
Lena Peters, of Dusseldorf, Germany, by whom 
he has three children. 

§ARRY M. SCHILLER.— One of the most 
popular young men of San Diego is the 
above-named gentleman. He was born in 
San Diego, October 7, 1861. His education 
was commenced in his native city, but in 1873 
he went to San Francisco to attend the High 
School, from which he graduated in 1879. He 
afterward entered the employ of the California 
Southern Railroad Company: was topographer 
with the first corps of surveyors who went into 
the field for that company, and remained in 
their einpjoy nearly three years. He then ac- 
cepted a situation with Blockman & Smith, as 
head book-keeper, for two and a half years, and 
held the same position with Hamilton & Co., 

for the same length of time, which he resigned 
to accept a position with the International 
Company, of Mexico, as their Custom-House 
clerk and purchasing agent, a position of trust 
and responsibility, for which his thorough knowl- 
edge of the Spanish and German languages made 
him well qualified to till, and which he held 
until the English syndicate took charge of the 
affairs of that company. Mr. Schiller has served 
as Deputy County Assessor, Deputy City Clerk, 
and is now Deputy County Clerk under M. D. 
Hamilton. He was a charter member of the 
San Diego City Guard, Company B, joining the 
independent company in 1881. He held the 
office of Sergeant for the whole time until he 
was elected First Lieutenant, in January, 1888, 
which office he held until his election to the 
Captaincy, on February 14, 1890. He is the 
sitting Past Chancellor of San Diego Lodge, 
No. 28, Knights of Pythias, and also President 
of San Diego Parlor, No. 108, Native Sons of 
the Golden West. 

He was married in San Francisco, February 
11, 1890, to Miss Bertha Gans, a well-known 
and popular young lady of that city. 

fOSE MARNIEL SOTO, president of the 
San Nicholas Gold and Mining Company, 
was born at Lamballaque, Peru, December 
13, 1832. His father was in good circumstances 
and gave him liberal advantages, so that he re- 
ceived a thorough education in the best schools. 
After leaving school at Lamballaque he went to 
Lima, in that country, and devoted himself to 
study, finishing the course in one year. Being 
naturally of an active temperament, he came to 
California during the first gold mining excite- 
ment in 1849, forming a company of 105 wealthy 
young Peruvians. The leading spirits of this 
party were Cane varo, Fl near, Largo & Co., who 
really commanded the expedition, and assumed 
executive control of their affairs. On arriving 
at San Francisco, then called Yerba Buena, 
the authorities refused to give them permission 



to land, as tbe natural presumption was that 
they were a band of men from a hostile country. 
After several conferences the young Peruvians 
consented to sail over on the vessel called Lady 
Adams to San Rafael, Marin County, and there 
they landed without any further annoyances. 
After a tender and affectionate farewell they 
there disbanded, each one to seek bis fortunes 
in a strange land. Don Soto returned to San 
Francisco, quietly surveyed the chances of en- 
gaging in business there, opened a commission 
house, and did an extensive business, making 
a great deal of money buying and selling pro- 
visions to Mexicans and Chilians. In 1850 he 
went to the mines of Stanislaus County, where 
he made considerable money in the bakery bus- 
iness among the miners. He paid $200 a barrel 
for flour and on each barrel realized a profit of 
$100. Returning again to San Francisco he 
engaged in the dairy business, where he sold 
milk at $3.50 a gallon. He purchased Laguna 
Onda, now known as Lake Merced, and bought 
property on Market street and sold it again, for 
which he cut and sold wood at an extraordin- 
arily remunerative price. He next engaged in 
the raising of cattle. 

In 1853 he returned to Monterey to buy cat- 
tle. It was at this place that he formed an ac- 
quaintance with and married Miss Maria Perrez. 
In 1854 he obtained a piece of land and en- 
gaged in farming. In 1855 he opened a mer- 
cantile establishment in Santa Rita, Monterey 
County, investing in and hauling lumber, with 
profitable results. In this he became well- 
known and a leading financier. In 1856 he 
commenced to farm more extensively on his 
ranch, and he was the first man on Salinas 
Plains that cut hay in that county and imported 
into Monterey. From 1859 to 1861 lie was a 
wholesale butcher in Watsonville, Santa Cruz 
County, and in this business he also prospered; 
but in 1862 a disastrous flood visited the county, 
destroying a great deal of his property. He 
then engaged in raising cattle, sheep, horses, 
etc., for the local markets until 1864, when a 
withering drought visited California, and he 

lost all of his live stock. This terrible misfor- 
tune compelled him to restrict his attention to 
farming, and in 1865 he was busy with the 
plow, and he proudly says that he was the first 
man that ever engaged in agriculture in Sa- 
linas valley. After following agricultural pur- 
suits until 1873 he visited Los Angeles, and 
bought the San Francisco Rancho, and his 
business character was soon recognized as the 
leading spirit of Southern California. 

Returning again to Monterey, he became one 
of th« prime movers of the project to build a 
narrow-gauge railroad through the Salinas val- 
ley, becoming one of the incorporators, and 
remained with them until the road was com- 
pleted. In 1874 he again engaged in the cattle 
business, with H. M. New hall, and they made 
large shipments to local markets and to northern 
points. In 1876-77 Don Soto lost over $300,- 
000 worth of cattle, sheep, etc. His ranches 
comprised over 9,000 acres of land, and the en- 
tire grain crop was ruined by the rust in 1877- 
'78. These sudden calamities stunned him so 
completely that he rested awhile until he recov- 
ered his pristine energy. In 1879 he started 
again for Los Angeles to retrieve himself, and 
became interested in colonizing land and placed 
a large number of families on the Santa Mar- 
guerite ranch, which he afterward deeded back 
to Juan Foster, of Los Angeles. He next went 
to Arizona and in 1881 started the first min- 
ing exchange in the territory^ in Tucson. When 
he sold out his ranch property in California he 
retired from business until 1889, when his na- 
ture was again aroused by exciting discoveries, 
and he visited Lower California in order to 
develop its mineral resources. Taking the lead 
of a gold mining company for the working of 
the mine in Real del Castillo, he became presi- 
dent of the company, and he now has great 

Don Soto is well known in California. Al- 
though not a native of North America, he 
cast his first vote for Fremont, in 1856, for 
President of the United States, and was a leader 
in the establishment of the Republican party 


in California; and all of his sons and sons-in- 
law are all uncompromising Republicans. He 
lias recently been induced to apply for a United 
States Consulship at Mazatlan, Mexico. 

He has three sons and three daughters. His 
son, R. M. J. Soto, is a member of the firm of 
Herman & Soto; and S. J., a lawyer, has been 
District Attorney of his county — Monterey. 

fUGENE DANEY was born in Bordeaux, 
France, October 11, 1862, of French par- 
entage. He came to California in 1865, 
when three years old, with his mother and 
sister, his father, Michael Daney, having come 
to the coast in 1851, and being the discoverer 
of the celebrated " Daney Mine," at Silver 
City, Nevada. Mr. Daney was educated in the 
public schools of San Francisco, entered the 
Hastings College of the Law University of Cali. 
fornia in 1882, and graduated therefrom on 
the 25th day of May, 1885, receiving the degree 
of LL. B. After having been for three years a 
student of law under the late John Norton 
Pomeroy, LL. D., author of Pomeroy's Equity 
Jurisprudence, Pomeroy's Remedies and Rem- 
edial Rights, etc., he was admitted to practice 
law in the Supreme Court of California, June 
1, 1885, and immediately entered into the prac- 
tice of law at San Francisco. After two and a 
half years practice, there he was attracted by the 
boom to Southern California, and removed to 
San Diego, November 7, 1887. and resumed the 
practice of law there. On the 6th of February. 
1888, he was appointed Assistant District At- 
torney of San Diego County, and has served 
continuously since in that position. During 
that time he has successfully prosecuted a large 
number of criminal cases, and has earned for 
himself an enviable reputation as an able and 
successful criminal lawyer. He also holds the 
office of Notary Public, having been appointed 
by Governor Waterman to that office for the 
term of four years, from July, 1889.. He also 
has been prominently identified with politics in 

San Diego County, being President of the 
Young Men's Republican League during the 
Harrison and Morton campaign, — the largest 
club in San Diego County, — its membership 
numbering over 400 of the most prominent 
young Republicans of the county, and also hold- 
ing the position of treasurer of the Republican 
County Committee of San Diego County. Mr. 
Daney was married November 3, 1887, to Miss 
Elizabeth Florenc