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REYISEn . EJ)ITIO,N. " ' , 






Tw« C«pie> Received 

FEB 2 1904 

VCopyritht Entry 

Copyright, 1870, 1S79, 18S9, 1904, 


\V. P. 6 


A (tENKral History for schools which should he at the same lime 
comprehi'iisivc in its scope and condensed within moderate liTnils, simpVc 
in style and thorough in treatment, interesting in its matter and attrac- 
tive in its external dress, I'resh, accurate, and well-arranged, has long 
seemed to the writer to be a desideratum in our educational literature. 
Directed to the subject by his studic's while in charge of the department 
of Modern History at Columbia College for several years past, he has 
aimed to produce such a work in the volume now presented to the public. 

In preparing a brief manual like this, the selection of what is really 
important from the great mass of material at the compiler's disposal is 
perhaps the most <lifTicult part of the task and the severest test of judg- 
ment. In this matter the author has tried to exercise the greatest care, 
leaving entirely out of view insignificant details which are learned only 
to he forgotten, l)ut not dropping any important link in the great chain — 
giving each period and nation its due share of notice, without allowing it 
to encroach on the limits of some other equally important. 

While events necessarily constitute the great staple of history, there 
are other matters — sketches of the institutions and domestic life of the 
people, their distinguished men, literature, etc. — that must be interwoven 
to make the fabric comi)lete, to give that clear idea of the condition of 
the nations at different i)eriods which is necessary to an appreciation of 
their improvement and growth. Accordingly we have not confined our- 
selves to a mere account of revolutions and wars, the rise and fall of 
states, but have endeavored also to show the iimer life and intellectual 
development of the people. 

Great pains have been taken to insure accuracy in the statement of 
facts, and to embody the latest views respecting ancient Oriental coun- 
tries, deduced from the investigations of the last quarter-century. We 
are not among those who would destroy the old landmarks, and pass over 


ns myths all those charming stories of antiquity which have been the 
delight of generations ; but we have tried to treat ancient as well as 
modern nations in the light of the most recent historical discoveries. 
Many dates of the early chronology are of course uncertain; where we 
have attempted to tix these, we have been guided by what has seemed to 
be the weight of authority. 

As regards arrangement, tlie author has pursued that plan which 
seems to him the only one that can give a connected and satisfactory 
view of general history. Instead of followhig one nation scjiarately from 
its rise to its fall, or for a certain fixed period, and then passing to an- 
other to construct a similarly disconnected skeleton, he has aimed at a 
synchronistic arrangement, presenting great events in their chronological 
order, each in connection with the nation that was the prominent actor 
in it, but at the same time grouping contemporaneous nations round this 
central figure, and giving their respective histories together, so far as 
they bear on the event in question. 

Designing this book for all classes of public or private schools of a 
grade sufficiently advanced to enter on the study of general history, the 
author has spared no labor to make the subjeot inviting by presenting it 
in a dear, simple, and attractive style. He has thrown in i)leasant stories, 
which relieve the narrative, while sometimes they give a more vivid view 
of men and manners than whole pages of description would do. lie has 
introduced maps freely, and pictorial illustrations which, it is believed, 
must commend themselves to the taste of all. In conclusion, he can only 
express the hope that his labors nuiy be found of use to the young, in 
facilitating their studies in this department, and inspiring them with a 
taste for historical reading. 

Tliis new edition embodies the results of a careful revision. The text 
is corrected to date, the narrative continued to the present time, and 
modern illustrations by leading artists lend a fresh attraction to the 
story. No pains have been spared by author or i>ublishcrs to render the 
volume in every way satisfactory to the educators of youth. 

In the figured pronunciation, a is to be sounded like a in bai : & like 
a in India ; ch like <' in hd ; i like / in bin : o almost like u m fiir ; dd 
like 00 in book : Hw like ow in cow ; it like the French ii ; ///) like g in 
go : i\^ likfr the nasal n in French. 


Introduction, .... 
I. The Morninfi; of the World, 
II. Founding of Early Kingdoms, 

III. The Great Asiatic Nations, 

IV. Ancient African Nations, . 
V. The Ilebrews and Phoenicians, . 

VI. Founding of the Grecian States 
VII. Trajan War, and Succeeding Period in Greece, 
VIII. Kingdoms of Israel and Judah, 
IX. Founding of Rome. — The Roman Kings, . 
X, The Persian Empire, 
XI. Period of Grecian Glory, 
XII. Decline of Greece, 

XIII. The Macedonian Empire, 

XIV. Republican Rome, to the First Punic War, 
XV. The Punic Wars, 

XVI. Golden Age of the Roman Republic, 

XVII. Establishment of the Empire, . 

XVIII. Caesars who succeeded Augustus, 

XIX. The Five Good Emperors. — Wane of the Empire, 

XX. Christianity made the Religion of the Empire. — Fall of 

Rome, . . . . . 

XXI. Commencement of Mediicval History, 

XXII. Mohammed. — Saracen Empire. — Carlovingian Dynasty in 

France, . . . . . 

XXIII. Charlemagne and his Successors, 

XXIV. Era of Alfred the Great and the Danish Kings, 
XXV. England under the Norman Kings, 

XXVI. The Feudal System.— Chivalry, 
XXVII. Accession of the Plantagenet Line, 

XXVIII. Period of the Crusades, . . . . 

XXIX. The Great Tartar Conquerors, . 


























XXX. England under the Three Edwards. — Contemporaneous 

History of France, . . . .227 

XXXI. The ItaHan States. — Rise of the House of Hapsburg. — 

Switzerland, . . . .233 

XXXII. Hundred Years' War (continued). — Wars of the Roses, 242 

XX.XIII. Rise of the Ottoman Empire, . . .255 

XXXIV. Period of Maritime Discoveries, . . 260 

XXXV. Beginnings of Modern History. — First Tudor Kings in 

England, . . . . .267 

XXXVI. The Reformation, . . . .273 

XXXVII. Wars of Charles V. and Francis I., . . 281 

XXXVIII. Branches of Orleans and Angouleme in France, . 286 

XXXIX. England under the Children of Henry VIII., . 291 

XL. Rise of the Dutch Republic, . . . 300 

XLI. Accession of the Bourbons in France. — Henry IV. and 

Louis XIII., . . . .306 

XLII The Thirty Years' War, . . . 310 

XLIII. Accession of the Stuarts in England, . . 316 

XLIV. Spanish Glory and its Decline, . . 323 

XLV. Abolition of Monarchy in England. — The Cromwells, . 328 
XLVL The Restoration.— Charles II.— James II., . 332 

XLVlI. Age of Louis XIV. of France, . . .340 

XLVIII. The Orange-Stuarts in England. — Queen Anne, . 346 

XLIX. Decline of Ottoman Power, . . .352 

L. Peter the Great of Russia and Charles XII. of Sweden, 357 
LI. Accession of the House of Hanover in England, . 368 

LII. Reign of Louis XV. of P'rance, . . . 376 

LIII. Prussia. — European Wars of the Eighteenth Century, 377 
LIV. Accession of George III. — American Revolution, . 389 

LV. Period of the French Revolution, . . 396 

LVI. The First French Empire, . . .411 

LVII. British East Indian Empire, . . . 422 

LVIII. The United States of America, . . . 427 

LIX. Spanish-American Countries. — Brazil, . . 432 

LX. England to the Accession of Victoria. — Greek Revolu- 
tion, ..... 436 
LXI. France to 1830. — Belgian and Polish Revolutions, 442 
LXII. Beginning of Victoria's Reign. — Revolutions of 1848, 446 
LXIII. The Crimean War, . . . .454 
LXIV. Recent History, . . . .458 



History is a narration of past events. The history 
I of the world begins with the Creation. It traces the ori- 
] gin, growth, and decline of the nations that have succes- 
i sively appeared on the stage of action, as well as the 
I causes that have led to their greatness and their decay ; 
j it treats also of their social life, arts, literature, and sys- 
I tems of religion. 

I Chronol'ogy is the science which arranges the events 

I of history in the order of their occurrence, and determines 
1 the date of each. Dates have to be reckoned from some 
fixed point of time, and different nations have adopted 
different eras. 

The Greeks, in giving their dates, used Olym'piads, or 
periods of four years intervening between successive cele- 
brations of the Olym'pic Games (see page 51). The first 
Olympiad commenced with the victory of Corcebus {ko- 
re'bus) in the foot-race (776 b. c). An event was set 
down as happening in the first, second, third, or fourth 
year of a certain Olympiad. 

The Romans adopted as their chronological era the 
date of the founding of their capital (753 b. c). The 
letters a. u. c, accompanying Roman dates, signify " in 


the year of the founding of the city " [anno urbis con- 

The birth of Christ was first used as a chronological 
era by an Italian abbot, Dennis the Little, in the sixth 
century ; in the seventh it was introduced into England 
and France, and it has since been adopted in all Christian 
countries. Time before Christ is denoted by the letters 
B. c; time after Christ, by A. D. {anno domini, in the 
year of our Lord). It is now, however, generally be- 
lieved that the Christian Era was by mistake fixed four 
years later than the birth of Christ. 

The Jews, not recognizing the Saviour, number their 
years from the Creation, and some Christian writers use 
the same era for dates before Christ. The letters A. m. 
{anno muyidl) mean " in the year of the world." 

Mohammedan nations reckon from the Hegira {Jie-jl'rd), 
or Flight, 622 a. d,, — the year in which the founder of 
their religion fled from Mecca. 

History may be distinguished as Ancient, Mediaeval, 
and Modern. Ancient History extends from the Creation, 
4004 B. c, to the overthrow of the Roman Empire in 
Italy by northern barbarians, 476 A, D. Media?val His- 
tory relates the events of the Middle or Dark Ages ; by 
which are meant the thousand years following the fall of 
Rome, and extending to a new era marked by the revival 
of learning and various great inventions and discoveries. 
With this new era Modern History begins. 

The principal sources of history are, the Scriptures, 
which furnish the only authentic records of primeval 
times; the works of uninspired writers; and inscriptions 
and pictures on rocks, tombs, and the walls of temples. 
Important information is also frequently obtained from 
coins, medals, broken weapons, architectural ruins, etc. 

Particularly valuable to later historians have been the 
Assy rio-Baby Ionian cuneiform inscriptions and the hiero- 


glyphic writing of ancient Egypt. The meaning of the 
Egyptian characters was long a mystery, but was at 
length ascertained by means of patient study of the Ro- 
setta Stone. This celebrated stone, discovered in 1799 by 
a French officer in Egypt, contains equivalent inscrip- 
tions in Egyptian and Greek characters; and a compari- 
son of these, the meaning of the Greek text being known, 
has furnished scholars with an invaluable key to inscrip- 
tions in which important historical facts were locked up. 

Of the five races which constitute the population of 
the globe, it is of the Caucasian that history has princi- 
pally to treat. The Ethiopian and the Malay race make 
little or no figure in the annals of the past; the American 
race appears on the stage only for a short period during the 
first explorations and settlements of the New World; of 
the Mongolians, the Chinese, Turks, Tartars, and Magyars 
or Hungarians, have from time to time mingled in the 
great drama, but for the most part have played no con- 
spicuous part. It is the Caucasian race that has shown 
the greatest intellectual force, that has made the most 
progress in civilization, literature, science, and art, that 
has swayed the great empires of the world. 

Taking a general view of the events we are to look at 
in detail, we first learn of European Man in an era of sav- 
ageness — a so-called Stone Age — as inhabiting caves, or 
Lacus'trine Dwellings, built for safety on piles over shal- 
low lakes, and as using weapons and implements largely 
of stone, and hardening in the sun or by means of a 
slow fire rude vessels of clay : Then we see great nations 
formed in the East : War in the ascendant : Despotism 
rampant : The Assyrian, Babylonian, Persian, Macedo- 
nian, and Roman empires, successiA^ely enjoying almost 
world-wide sway : Then luxury, effeminacy, and misrule 
doing their work : Ancient states and cities losing their 
prestige : Barbarian prowess cverthrowing corrupted 


civilization: New but ruder kingdoms formed: Ignorance 
and vice settling down on the nations: A thousand years 
of darkness, relieved here and there by bright but short- 
lived flashes: At length gleams of light appearing: Day 
dawning : A gradual but finally complete intellectual 
revolution: Learning revived: The restless mind of man 
achieving further triumphs: A NeAV World added to the 
Old : New nations springing into life : Inventions and 
discoveries whose name is legion: Social life regenerated: 
The thirst for conquest subordinated to the arts of peace: 
The voice of the people heard: Even conservative nations 
of the Mongolian race waking from their sleep and asking 
for light: Education recognized as the lever that is to 
move the world. 


Ancient History begins with the Creation. 

For the history of the Creation, Deluge, and Disper- 
sion, the reader is referred to the Scriptural narrative. 
The precise time of the appearance of man on the earth 
can not be determined. It is believed by scientists that 
the first traces of primitive man date from the time when 
the great glaciers of the Ice Period, that once covered 
the northern portions of both continents, began to disap- 
pear. Along with the hairy elephant, the woolly rhinoce- 
ros, and the musk-ox, he followed the ice-fields in their 
retreat to the far north. 

The Creation. — Within the last hundred years. Geol- 
ogy, the science which treats of the earth's structure, 
has brought to light new facts relating to the Creation. 
Among other things, it teaches us that the six days spoken 



of in the Bible were not days of twenty-four hours^ but 
ages, or else were preceded by an indefinite period of time 
reaching back to " the beginning." 

Our earth appears once to have been a ball of melted 
matter surrounded by a hot gaseous atmosphere. The 
outer part of this molten mass gradually cooled, and a 
crust was thus formed. The vapor in the air was next 
condensed into a great ocean, spreading over the whole 

Ideal Landscape of a Prehistoric Age. 

globe. Under the action of the fiery heat within, floods 
of melted rock from time to time forced their way through 
the solid barriers that confined them. Thus continents 
and islands were upheaved, and vast hollows formed, into 
which the waters of the primeval ocean receded. 

Our knowledge of the plants and animals of the geo- 
logical ages preceding man's creation, is derived from 


their fossil remains or traces left on rocks. Gigantic 
shrubs now unknown once flourished ; strange fish and 
huge reptiles swarmed in the waters; and immense ani- 
mals, much larger than any modern species, roamed over 
the earth. 

The Bible narrative of the Creation, the Fall of Man, 
and the Deluge, has been corroborated in a remarkable 
manner by tablets recently found among the ruins of 
Nineveh, copied from Chalde'an records dating back to 
2000 B. c. There are indeed minor points of difference, 
as might be expected ; the only wonder is that the sacred 
and profane accounts agree so closely. The Avesta, or 
ancient Persian Bible, hands down a similar history of the 
creation of the universe; while legends of the Deluge 
have been current among various nations — even among the 
scattered Indian tribes of America. 

Primitive Communities. — As to what precise site was 
first occupied by mankind, we can only speculate. The 
science of language, however, carries us back into prehis- 
toric times, and points us to three original divisions of the 
human race, two of them settled in south-western Asia, 
the other a nomadic host occupying the upland plains of 
the interior — and this just at the dim dawn of authentic 

The valley of the Euphrates and Tigris, including the 
Shi'nar of the Bible (see Map, p. 16), was at this remote 
day the home of the Semites (a name derived from Shein, 
their ancestor). North-east of the Semites, and separated 
from them by the broad table-land of Iran {e'rahn) and the 
Hindoo Koosh Mountains, lived the Aryans ; and north 
of these, over the steppes of Tartary and Russia, wandered 
a third branch of the human family, — the Turanians. 
The histor}'^ of Europe in these primeval times is a sealed 
book. It is probable that the first to break the solitude of 
its forests were Turanians ; they seem to have travelled 


into Finland on their dog-sleds in pursuit of the reindeer, 
to have made permanent settlements on the shores of the 
Baltic, and to have reared their dwellings on piles above 
the waters of the Swiss lakes. 

We have said that the science of language raises the 
veil that hides the past. By tracing one hundred and 
fifty of the principal tongues spoken in Europe and Asia 
to three distinct parent stems, it has established the facts 
just stated ; while many allusions in extant works of an- 
cient Oriental literature enable us to locate thus minutely 
the primitive Aryans and Semites. 

The Aryans possess the greatest interest for us, inas- 
much as they are our ancestors, — the Japhetic fathers of 
those nations of the Caucasian race that for centuries en- 
joyed the dominion of the then-known world, as well as 
those that are now foremost in physical and intellectual 

Here, again, the study of language comes to our aid, 
and reveals the arts, social life, and religion, of these an- 
cient Aryans, in whose poetical tongue, now known to us 
only by the words common to its early derivatives, we must 
recognize the remote parent of our own English. Before 
2000 B. c, they had attained a high degree of civilization. 
Not only were they stock-raisers and agriculturists, as 
their name Aryan [tiller of the earth) implies, but also 
expert workmen in various handicrafts, as weaving, metal- 
lurgy, and the manufacture of pottery. Nor were they 
strangers to architecture, navigation, mathematics, and 
astronomy. Marriage was regarded as a sacred contract, 
polygamy being rare. Children were the light of the 
household, as evinced by the meaning of the names — boy, 
bestower of happiness ; girl, she that causes rejoicing; 
brother, supporter/ sister, friendly. 

A patriarchal form of government prevailed; that is, 
the heads of families exercised control — subject, however, 


to a council of seven elders, whose chief was recognized as 
king. From his decisions there was an appeal to heaven 
in the ordeal of tire and water. The ancient Aryans wor- 
shipped a personal God. 


Migrations from Arya. — The original Arj^an family 
rapidly increased, until its original domicile could no lon- 
ger contain it. Its surplus population then wandered off 
in separate bodies, at diiTerent periods, to find new homes 
in distant climes. 

The Celtic clans, Pelasgic tribes, Slavonians and Teu- 
tons, took a westerly course, and finally settled in different 
parts of Europe, after dispossessing their Turanian prede- 
cessors. At a later date the greater part of those who 
were left behind crossed the Hindoo Koosh range, and 
spread over the table-land of Iran, corresponding with 
modern Persia, Afghanistan [ahf-gdhn-is-tahn'), and Bel- 
oochistan {hel-oo-chis-tahn). From these spnmg the 
Medes and Persians, as well as the Brahman Hindoos, 
whom a religious dispute led to separate from their breth- 
ren and migrate into the peninsula of India. 

Thus the posterity of Ja'pheth {ea'pant>io)t) became the 
founders of Celtic Britain and France ; Pelasgic Italy and 
Greece ; Slavonic Russia, Poland, and Bohemia ; Germany 
and Scandinavia ; as well as of the Persian and Hindoo 
monarchies. Similarities of language show that all these 
nations had a common origin. They constitute the Aryan, 
or Indo-Ettropean, branch of the Caucasian race, which 
has surpassed the other branches in mental activity, and 
has had most to do with shaping the world's history. 


The Semitic Nations in remote antiquity surpassed all 
others in culture and power. They comprised the He- 
brews, Phoenicians, and Carthaginians, who spoke the 
Hebraic branch of the Semitic mother-tongue ; the Sj'ri- 
ans and Assyrians ; and the Arabians and Ethiopians, 
whose language was the musical Arabic. The Chaldeans, 
or Babylonians, were partly Semitic, partly Turanian ; 
while the ancient Egyptians, judging from their language, 
had Aryan and Semitic blood mingled in their veins. 

The earliest pages of the world's history are covered 
with the records of these venerable Semitic monarchies — 
records that have been disinterred during the last quarter- 
century, after lying concealed in the royal tombs of Egypt 
and the neglected ruins of Assyria for two or three thou- 
sand years. Already the history of the Orient has been 
rewritten in the light of these discoveries. 

Three facts should be remembered in connection with 
the Semites : 1. That they were the pioneers in commerce 
and maritime enterprise ; 2. That to them the world is 
indebted for the wonderful invention of alphabetic writing; 
3. That they were the branch chosen for keeping alive a 
knowledge of the true God. 

The Turanians, unsettled, fierce, swift horsemen as 
their name implies, were less conservative than the Sem- 
ites, less cultured than the Aryans. It is true that they 
invented the cuneiform characters, specially adapted for 
chiselling on rocks, and supposed by some to be the oldest 
vehicles ever used for the expression of thought ; but the 
inscriptions thus recorded were fragmentary, their roving 
habits preventing them from developing a systematic liter- 
ature. We can, therefore, only conjecture their employ- 
ments to have been such as would naturally belong to a 
wandering, pastoral, or predatory people. 

Exactly where the Chinese and Japanese belong in this 
classification of races we do not know, for the peculiarities 



of their languages do not justify us in placing them among 
Aryans, Semites, or Turanians. 

2000 B. C.— Approximate date of the birth of Abraham (1996), 
Egyptian, Chaldean, Assyrian, Chinese, and other monarchies, established. 
Sidon and Tyre flourishing cities. Aryans, descended from Japheth, in 
the plain of Iran, and the ancient home beyond the Hindoo Koosh. 
Turanians wandering over the plains of Europe and Asia. 



The Chaldean Monarchy. — Chaldea, or Babylonia, one 
of the first monarchies, was founded before 2200 b. c. It 
lay north of the Persian Gulf, and was watered by the 
Euphra'tes and 
Ti'gris (see 
Map) ; hence it 
was known as 
the "Land of 
Shi'nar" {coun- 
try of the two 
rivers). Baby- 
lon was the seat 
of empire. 

Nimrod, in 
the Hebrew ac- 
count, figures 

as the founder of the kingdom. 
A bold, unscrupulous chief, he 
overthrew the original patri- 
archal form of government, and 
established despotism in its stead. 
Some suppose that he introduced 



the worship of the heavenly bodies, and that after his 
death he was adored by his subjects under the name of 
Bel, or Be'lus. 

The most that we know of Chaldea for several cen- 
turies is that it maintained an obstinate struggle for the 
ascendency with the growing power of Assyria, but was 
at last obliged to acknowledge the supremacy of its rival. 
Attempts made from time to time by different mouarchs 
to assert their independence were unsuccessful ; and as 
the result of one of these revolts, in 683 B. c. Babylon was 
sacked. The accession of Nab'onassar to the throne in 
747 B. c. is made memorable by the adoption of this year 
as a fixed time to date from. It is known as the Era of 

The Chaldeans were pioneers in the arts and sciences. 
They were well versed in arithmetic, astronomy, and par- 
ticularly architecture, using bricks for their buildings and 
the bitu'men of the country for mortar. They excelled in 
the manufactures of the loom, ex- 
hibited great skill in the engraving 
of precious stones and the fashion- 
ing of ornaments and domestic uten- 
sils, were acquainted with the use of 
letters, and stamped their legends on 
bricks. Commercial pursuits early 
engaged their attention ; and the 
" ships of Ur," one of their cities 
(see Map), traded with the neigh- 
boring countries. As early as the 
twentieth century before Christ, the 
cities of Babylonia became great 
literary centers, where were prepared texts on history and 
science that for generations ranked as authorities. 

The Assyrian Empire. — Little is known of Assyrian 
history till the time of Tiglathi-nin {tig'lath-e-nin'), sup- 

' ^ 1^ I 


Chaldean Brick. 


posed to be the Greek Ni'iius, wlio reigned 1270-1:250 b. c. 
He extended his sway over Babylon, and caused to be 
inscribed on his signet " Conqueror of Babylonia." 

The ambitious king Tig'lath-Pile'ser I. {pi-le'zer) also 
made extensive conquests, but his brilUant reign was fol- 
lowed by a long period of obscurity. The darkness was 
finally dispelled in the ninth centur3\* This seems to 
have been the age of the " lady Semir'amis," the reputed 
conqueror of the East and one of the greatest legendary 
cliaracters in history. Semiramis was probably a Babylo- 
nian princess, who wedded an Assyrian king and thus 
strengthened her husband's claim to her native land. The 
marvellous tales of her conquests and public works are 
regarded as fabulous bj' later historians. 

The Assyrian Empire attained the height of its glory 
in the century preceding its fall. Tiglath-Pileser II., who 
reigned until 727, took Damascus in Syria, and received 
the homage of many kings. Shahnane'ser IV. several 
times invaded Palestine, and at last laid siege to Sama'- 
ria. This city surrendered to Sargon, the next monarch, 
who also engaged in successful wars with Egypt and 

Sennacherib {se?i-naA''e-n'b), the son of Sargon (705- 
680 B.C.), was one of the greatest of the Ninevite kings. 
After many victorious expeditions, Sennacherib blasphe- 
mously threatened Jerusalem with a great army; when, in 
one night, " the angel of the Lord smote in the camp of 
the Assyrians an hundred fourscore and five thousand." 

Sardanapa'lus, grandson of Sennacherib, extended 
his empire beyond all former limits. His cliief pleasure 
was to encounter the lion, and fierce beasts were let loose 
in his park to fall before his arrows and spear. Art and 

* The ninth century b. c. embraces the years from 900 to 800. The 
beghnning of the ninth century would be the yeai-s 900, 899, etc. ; the 
close of the ninth century, 801, 802, etc. 


literature, however, were not neglected. A magnificent 
palace was built at his capital, Nineveh, a royal library 
was established, and under Sardanapalus Assyria reached 
the zenith of her greatness. 

Sar'acus, the son of this mighty king, was dissolute 
and effeminate. He is said to have dwelt in his palace, 
imitating the dress and employments of his wives and fe- 
male slaves. At last the Medes and Babylonians revolted, 
and besieged him in his capital. Finding that resistance 
was vain, Saracus built a funeral-pile, and burned himself 
up with his wives and treasures (625 u. c). Nineveh was 
destroyed, and the conquerors divided between them the 
proud Assyrian Empire. The Babylonians now obtained 
the supremacy of western Asia. 

Assyrian Arts. — Nineveh was never rebuilt. Vast 
mounds, which for centuries covered the ruins of its once 
splendid edifices, have recently been excavated; and the 
wonderful remains, sculptures, and pictured walls, there 
found, have contributed much to our knowledge of the 
ancient Assyrians. Judging from these, they were skilled 
in engraving, metallurgy, embroidery, and the manufact- 
ure of glass. Their palaces were ornamented with elab- 
orate sculptures, prominent among which were colossal 
bulls with wings and human heads. Beautiful bass-reliefs 
represent the every-day life of the people, and many 
written memorials of the nation remain on slabs and obe- 

Other interesting specimens of Assyrian art are vases, 
bronzes, seals, glass-ware, enamelled bricks, carved ivory, 
and engraved gems. The Assyrians were acquainted with 
the arch, the lever, and the magnif ying-lens ; indeed, tow- 
ard the close of their empire, according to Rawlinson, 
" in all the arts and appliances of life they were nearly 
on a par with ourselves." 

The Assyrians were idolaters. They were engaged in 


j %.^*'^i^,Lr^'^- 



Assyrian Warrior. 

almost perpetual war. Among their exercises was hunt- 
ing the lion and wild-bull. 

The Babylonian Monarchy (Map, p. 16), after the con- 
quest of Nineveh, maintained its ascendency as capital of 
the eastern world for 
nearly a century (625- 
538 B. c). The great- 
est of its princes was 
Nebuchadnezzar (601- 
561 B.C.), who triumphed 
over the Jews and Egyp- 
tians, and made Babylon 
"the lady of kingdoms." 
The capital, built on both 
sides of the Euphrates 
in the form of a square, 
was more than fifty miles 
in circuit. Its beautiful 

hanging gardens, and massive walls, 87 feet thick and 350 
feet high, were counted among the Seven Wonders of the 

These gardens, eight miles in circumference, Nebu- 
chadnezzar constructed to delight his queen, Avho, tired 
of the monotonoLi.s landscape about her, pined for her 
native Median hills. They consisted of a succession of 
terraces, overtopping the city walls, and planted with 
trees and flowering shrubs. The whole was irrigated 
from a large lake on the top, which was filled by engines 
with water from the Euphrates. Across the river was the 
temple of Bel, decorated with the plundered wealth of 
the East. — The site of the Hanging Gardens has been ex- 
posed by excavation ; it is covered with the ruins of aque- 
ducts, and with huge masses of black Armenian stone. 

From the Babylonians we have borrowed our division 
of time into years (at first of 360 days, a month being 


added every sixth year), weeks of seven days, hours, min- 
utes, and seconds ; also our foot, and perhaps our pound. 
Fall of Babylon. — The last of the Babylonian kings 
was defeated before the walls of his capital by the Medes 
and Persians. His son Belshazzar was besieged in the 
city, which, however, was well provisioned and for a time 
defied their efforts. At length the enemy turned the 
Euphrates from its course, and entered the city through 
the bed of the stream, while the Babylonians were en- 
gaged in revelry, profanely drinking from the golden ves- 
sels which had been taken from the House of God at 
Jerusalem. At this very time the prophet Daniel was 
interpreting to their aiFrighted prince certain mysterious 
characters which suddenly appeared, written by the fin- 
gers of a man's hand upon the wall of his palace, an- 
nouncing the overthrow of the kingdom. That same 
night the besiegers penetrated to the royal banquet-hall. 
Belshazzar was slain, and Babylonia became a province of 
the Persian Empire (538 b. c). The proud capital is now 
a heap of ruins; and, as the prophet Isaiah predicted, 
wild beasts make their dens in its desolate houses. 

Customs, etc. — The Babylo- 
nians excelled in the manufact- 
ure of cotton and woolen fab- 
rics. Their dress was a flounced 
robe, reaching to the feet; they 
wore long hair and turbans. 
Herod'otus tells of some strange 
BABTLOjaAN Seal. customs as prevailing among 

them. Once a year the mar- 
riageable maidens in each village were collected and sold 
at auction as wives, the most beautiful bringing the high- 
est prices. Then the ugly damsels were disposed of, with 
marriage-portions obtained from the sums paid for their 
fairer companions. 

INDIA. 23 

Physicians were unknown among them. When a man 
was taken ill, his friends laid him in the public square, to 
be examined by all who passed. When one came along 
who had had like symptoms himself, he prescribed such 
remedies as he had found beneficial in his own case. 

India, which occupied the peninsula south of the 
Himalay'a Mountains, appears to have been inhabited in 
remote antiquity. About 1400 B. c, the valley of the 
Indus was overrun by an invading host from the plateau 
of Iran, the worshippers of Brah'ma, who ultimately ex- 
tended their power and religion over the whole of Hindos- 
tan and Ceylon. 

With them originated the sacred books called Ve'das, 
consisting of hymns to various deities, written in that 
polished language, as its name imports, the Sanscrit. The 
most ancient of these, the Rig- Veda, is the oldest exist- 
ing Aryan work. It contains over a thousand hymns, com- 
posed in a simple but grand style, and addressed to thirty- 
three gods, prominent among whom are the sun and moon, 
fire, and the dawn. There is no allusion, however, to 
the corrupt rites associated at a later day with the re- 
ligion of Brahma. From this work as a beginning, the 
Hindoos developed a literature so vast that the longest 
life, it has been computed, would not suffice for one to 
read all that it contains. 

Two magnificent epics, of uncertain date, are the 
pride of Sanscrit literature. The subject of one is the 
Aryan conquest of lower Hindostan and Ceylon ; that of 
the other, a legendary war of which Delhi [del'le) was the 
scene. Old ballads and tales were woven together to form 
these epics, but not until they had been modified so as to 
conform to the tenets of the Brahman faith. 

A peculiar feature of Brahmanism was the institution 
of caste, according to which the people were divided into 
fom- classes, separated by impassable lines, and each hav- 



ing its own duties and privileges. One of its leading doc- 
trines was the transmigration of souls: that at death the 
spirits of the good passed into a higher order of beino-s, 
as a reward for their virtues; those of the wicked, into 
inferior animals, as a punishment for their crimes. 

About 500 B. c. the simpler religion of Buddha arose, 
and contended with Brahmanism for centuries for the 
supremacy of India. The latter finally prevailed ; and 
Buddhism, expelled for the most part from the peninsula, 
took refuge in the island of Ceylon, and diffused itself 
through regions to the east, as far as and including China. 
At the present day, Buddhism, with its grotesque idols 
and fanciful pago'das, its sacrifices of fruit, flowers, and 
incense, and its prayer-mills, is the religion of nearly one- 
third of the population of the world. 

Jndia was celebrated for its rich products, including 
diamonds, rubies, silk and cotton fabrics, which were 
eagerly sought after by early nations. Subterranean 



CHINA. 25 

temples with inscriptions and sculptures, pagodas cut out 
of solid stone, and rock-hewn grottoes, which must have 
employed thousands of workmen for centuries, — are the 
remains of Indian architecture. 

China, — The Chinese claim for their empire the great- 
est antiquity. Fo-hi, generally regarded as its founder, 
was succeeded by Chin-nong, who invented the plough. 
The people then rapidly advanced in civilization. To one 
of their princesses belongs the honor of having first un- 
ravelled the cocoons of the silk-worm and woven the 
thread into a fabric. 

Confucius {kon-fu' she-us), who flourished about 500 
B. c, is the most distinguished personage of Chinese his- 
tory. He became the great teacher of his countrjinen, 
and by his elevated moral precepts, disseminated orally 
during his life and in writings which have been received 
almost as divine revelations by the Chinese and are stiU 
taught in their schools, has perhaps exerted a greater in- 
fluence than any other purely human teacher. 

An interesting anecdote of the youth of Confucius 
has been handed down. Becoming tired of study, he re- 
solved to abandon it for some other pursuit. As he was 
retumina" from school one day with this determination, he 
noticed an old woman rubbing an iron bar on a whetstone ; 
and, when he asked her what she was doing, learned that 
she was trving to replace her knitting-needle, which she 
had lost, by rubbing down the bar. Filled with admira- 
tion of her perseverance, the young student exclaimed, 
" Shall an old woman have more resolution than I, within 
whose reach are the highest honors of the empire ? " He 
returned to his books w-ith fresh \'igor, and became, as we 
have seen, one of the greatest of sages. 

About 250 B. c. was built the Great Wall of China, 
designed to protect the country from the Tartars. It 
extends alonor the northern and north-western frontier for 


1,200 miles, is from fifteen to thirty feet in height, is wide 
enough for six horsemen to ride on abreast, and is sur- 
mounted by strong towers forty feet high. Tradition 
says that it used to be defended by a million soldiers. It 
was built by the Emperor Ching-Wang, who also expelled 
the Mongols and consolidated the empire. 

1800 B. C. — Age of Ycdic Hymns and earliest Persian metrical 
songs. Cuneiform writing. Descendants of Ishmael in Arabia. Celts 
moving westward. 


Egypt. — The fertile valley of the Nile was settled in 
prehistoric times. Historians record the name of Mis- 
raim, or Menes {me'neez) (in Egyptian, the "stable"), as 
the first monarch, or Pharaoh {fa'ro), of Egypt. 

Several contemporaneous kingdoms appear to have 
been formed, the most powerful of which were Memphis 
and Thebes. These were conquered by a horde of in- 
vaders called " Shepherds," whose dominion lasted about 
500 years. During their sway, Joseph and his kinsmen 
found a home in the land. A great national revolt headed 
by the Theban monarch finally broke out. The Shepherd 
Kings were expelled, and Thebes gained supreme do- 
minion over all Egypt, 1535 i?. c. 

A brilliant period followed. Magnificent works of art 
were erected, and important conquests made. Thoth'mes 
III. carried on wars in Ethiopia and Asia, and is thought 
to have laid even Nineveh and Babylon under tribute. 
The remains of superb structures in all parts of Egypt 
still bear witness to his greatness. 




Am'unoph III. was also noted for his conquests and 
for the grand temples which he erected. The site of one 
of these at Thebes is marked by the famous colossal statue 
called the Vocal Memnon, 
which was believed by the 
ancients to utter a mysteri- 
ous sound at sunrise. 

Ram'eses II., most cele- 
brated of the Pharaohs, lived 
in the thirteenth century. 
Aiming at universal empire, 
he carried his conquering 
arms into the heart of Af- 
rica, northward into Thrace, 
and as far east as India. 
The Ethiopians paid him 
tribute in ebony, gold, and 
elephants' tusks ; and his fleet 
scoured the Indian waters. 
The Nile and the Red Sea 
were connected with a canal; 
a long wall was built to pro- 
tect the eastern frontier ; 
and everywhere monuments 
perpetuated the deeds of 
Rameses the Great. 

Under the successors of 
Rameses, Egypt declined, 
and about 730 k. c. it was conquered by the Ethiopians. 
It subsequently re-established its independence, and under 
Pharaoh Necho {ne'ko), 600 b. c, once more became pow- 
erful. Although much occupied in war, this enterprising 
prince labored to promote the commercial interests of the 
nation. He maintained fleets on the Red Sea and the 
Mediterranean, and under his auspices the Cape of Good 




Hope was rounded, and Africa ciroumnavig'ated. The ex- 
pedition returned to Egypt in the third year, through the 
Pillars of Hercules, now the Strait of Gibraltar. Food 
becoming scarce during the voyage, the sailors drew up 
their ships on shore and raised a crop of grain. 

The last of the Pharaohs was overthrown b}^ Camby'- 
ses, King of Persia, 525 B. c, and Egypt was annexed as 
a dependency to that empire. 

Monuments of Egypt. — The valley of the Nile in 
Upper and Middle Egypt was in ancient times occupied 
by great cities, whose splendor is still attested by gigantic 

Pyramids and Sphinx. 

structures and massive ruins. Of these, the Pyramids, 
supposed to have been erected as tombs of the Egyptian 
kings, are the grandest monuments ever reared by man. 

EGYPT. 29 

They are found in groups, and the most famous are those 
of Ghizeh {ghe'zeh), near Cairo {ki'ro). Here, rising 450 
feet above the sand, stands the Great Pyramid, attributed 
to Cheops {ke'ops), who flourished perhaps 5,000 years 
ago. It is built of immense stone blocks, and its base 
covers about thirteen acres. We are told that 100,000 
persons were compelled to work upon this pyramid at a 
time, fresh laborers supplying their places at the end of 
three months. 

Near the Pyramids of Ghizeh is the Great Sphinx, or 
man-headed lion, a figure 188 feet long and GO feet high, 
cut out of a projecting rock. Between its huge fore-paws 
were found the remains of a temple, in which sacrifices 
were offered to the monster. 

The magnificent ruins of Thebes, the hundred-gated 
capital, are scattered along the Nile for miles, at and near 
the modern villages of Luxor and Karnak. The vast 
palaces and temples, the colossal statues, the avenues of 
sphinxes, the obelisks, burial-grottoes, and royal sepul- 
chres, seem almost to have been the work of more than 
ordinary mortals. 

Aets, etc. — Egypt was pre-eminently an agricultural 
country. The soil, enriched by the annual inundations of 
the Nile, yielded abundant harvests with 
but little labor. Fruit-trees were culti- 
vated, the vine flourished, and wine was 
manufactured. Rameses is said to have 
irrigated the land by means of canals, an 1 
throughout antiquity Egj'pt was the grau 
ary of the surrounding states. 

The Eg3-ptians excelled in massive ar- 
chitecture, in geometry, astronomy, chem- 
istry, and mechanics, in working the met- 
als, and other branches of manufacture. 
Their ointments preserved in vases for 


3,000 years still diffuse a fragrance that proves them to 
have been masters of the perfumer's art. They worked 
gold and silver mines, and carried on an extensive traffic 
with Phoenician and Arabian traders. They wore costly 
ornaments — armlets, necklaces, ear-rings, and amulets ; 
and the children amused themselves with dolls and vari- 
ous toys. 

The art of writing was known to the Egyptians at a 
very early date ; and on rolls made out of the paper- 
plant, papy'riis, we have remains of their literature. 
The historical papyri give exaggerated accounts of the 
achievements of their kings ; the religious manuscripts, 
constituting the " Books of the Dead," consist chiefly of 
prayers and instructions as to the life to come. 

Religion. — The Egyptians worshipped a multitude of 
gods. Osi'ris was the personification of all good. His 
wife I 'sis had so many titles that she was called " the 
goddess with ten thousand names." Certain beasts, rep- 
tiles, and even vegetables, were regarded as sacred. The 
bull A'pis, the cat, the crocodile, the ibis, and the beetle, 
were special objects of worship. When a cat died in a 
private house, the whole family shaved their eyebrows in 
token of their affliction. Division into castes was a part 
of the Egyptian religion. 

The Egyptians embalmed their dead, believing that in 
the course of ages the immortal spirit would re-animate 
the body ; and numerous mummies of men, animals, birds, 
and serpents, have been preserved to the present day. A 
debtor could pledge to his creditor the mummies of his 
ancestors, but was himself deprived of burial if he failed 
to redeem them. 

A peculiar custom was the trial of the dead. Judges 
were appointed, notice of the ceremony was given, and 
any who were so disposed could bring charges against the 
deceased. If it was proved that he had led an evil life, the 


body was denied burial. Even kings were subject to this 
solemn judgment, fear of which exercised a salutary in- 
fluence over all classes. 

Ethiopia, lying south of Egypt, between the Red Sea 
and the Great Desert, according to fable was peopled by 
savage tribes, — cave-dwellers, long-lived men, pygmies, — 
elephant, serpent, and tortoise eaters. But there were 
also civilized communities, famed for their progress in the 
arts. Their chief city was Mer'oe (see Map, p. 27), in 
what is now southern Nubia. It was governed by priest- 
kings, was distinguished for its commerce and wealth, and 
was in fact one of the great cities of its day. 

After the conquest of Egypt (525 b, c), Cambyses set 
out for the subjugation of Ethiopia; but his troops were 
reduced to starvation in the desert, and he was forced to 
abandon his design. 

1700 B. C. — Chaldea and Assyria rival monarchies. Phoenicia 
the chief commercial and colonizing power. Jacob's family in Goshen, 
Lower Egypt. Silk made in China. 



Palestine was occupied soon after the Flood by nations 
descended from Canaan, son of Ham. It was to this 
country that God called the patriarch Abraham, to be the 
founder of his chosen people, the Jews or Hebrews, 1921 
B. c. In accordance with the divine command, Abraham, 
accompanied by his nephew Lot, crossed the Euphrates, 
and pitched his tents in the land of Canaan, which God 
promised to his descendants. 




— r*Hjw 

"r Sarepta*v 

R I 

Vt^''_V"R I A 

-> BaJil-(jad 

ajpernauui '^ > 
Sea of v' 

Getmesaret ^/ 

Here Abraham and Lot lived as shepherds, until, in 
consequence of the increase of their ilocks, they were 
obliged to separate in search of pasturage. The former 
fixed his abode in He'bron ; Lot removed to the well- 
watered A^alley of the 
Jordan (see Map), 
where were Sod'om, 
Gomorrah, and the 
other " cities of the 
plain." The wicked- 
ness of the inhabitants 
))rovoked the Lord to 
rain down upon tliese 
cities fire and brim- 
stone; and the once 
beautiful vale was 
covered with tlic 
waters of the Dead 
Sea.* Lot was saved, 
and became the fa- 
ther of the Mo'abites 
and Am'monites. 

Ishmael, the son 
of Abi'aham by Ha'- 
gar his handmaid, was 
the ancestor of the 
w a n d e ri n g Ar'ab 
Isaac, his son by Sarah liis wif(^, Avas the heir of 
Isaac married Rebek'ah, a kinswoman. 


the covenant. 

* The Dead Sea, forty-five miles long and ten wide, is overshad- 
owed in parts by lofty cliifs, interspersed with frightful precipiees. It 
receives the Jordan, but has no outlet; and its waters are so salt that 
fish cannot live in it, nor plants grow on its shores. Sulphur abounds on 
its borders, and bitumen floats on its surface. The whole surrounding 
region is one scene of desolation. 


who became the mother of two sons, Esau, and Jacob or 
Israel. From the sons of Jacob sprung the twelve tribes 
of Israel ; and from Esau, the E'domites, who hewed beau- 
tiful tombs in the rocks, still to be seen in the ruins of 
Pe'tra. (See p. 34.) 

The Jews in Egypt. — Jacob loved .Joseph more than his 
other sons. Moved by envy, they sold their brother to a 
caravan of Ishmaelites, who carried him into Eg-ypt, where 
by his abilities and integrity he rose to the petition of 
chief minister. 

Joseph saved Egypt from a disastrous famine. When 
his brethren, suffering at home in the land of Canaan, 
came down thither to purchase food, little thinking that 
in the ruler who received them they beheld the brother 
they had wronged, he made himself kno^\^l to them, sup- 
plied their wants, and granted them the fertile district of 
Go'shen for their residence {1T06 B. c). 

There the Israelites multiplied and prospered ; but in 
the course of time they were cruelly oppressed by the 
Egyptians. At last Pharaoh, to prevent their further 
increase, ordered every male infant to be drowned in the 
Xile. One of these Hebrew children was rescued by the 
king's daughter, who named him Moses (hero or leader), 
and instructed him in all the learning of the land. Hav- 
ing slain an Egyptian for beating a Hebrew, Moses was 
compelled to fly into the deserts of Arabia, and for forty 
years he fed the flocks of Je'thro, priest of Midian. 

The Exodus. — At the end of this time, God directed 
him to deliver the Hebrew people from Pharaoh and lead 
them to the promised land of Canaan. Joined by Aaron 
his brother, Moses demanded the release of the Israelites, 
and on the refusal of the Egyptian king afflicted the 
country, by the divine command, with successive plagues. 
After the first-bom of the nation were smitten with death, 
Pharaoh allowed the children of Israel to depart ; but 

Eighty-five feet in height. It is called by the Arabs "the Treasure 
of Pharaoh ; the treasure is fabled to be concealed m the urn-shaped 
fin ial at the summit. 


afterward repenting, he pursued them, and was over- 
whelmed with his host in the Red Sea (1491 b, c). 

Forty years the ungrateful Jews, murmuring at the 
hardships they were called on to endure, were compelled 
to wander in the wilderness under the leadership of Moses. 
During this period the Ten Commandments were deliv- 
ered on Mt. Sinai, and the Tabernacle was erected. 

Moses, for rebellion against the Lord, was not per- 
mitted to enter " the promised land." After viewing it 
from the top of Mt. Nebo, he died at the age of 120 years, 
and " no man knoweth of his sepulchre to this day." 
Moses was the great law-giver of Israel, and the author of 
the first five books of the Bible, called the Pentateuch. 

Conquest of Canaan. — Moses was succeeded by Joshua, 
a man " full of thu spirit of wisdom." Under his direc- 
tion, the children of Abraham passed over the Jordan 
into the land of Canaan, their inheritance. The walls 
of Jer'icho fell down before them ; A'i was taken by 
stratagem; and the inhabitants of both towns were jiut 
to the sword. Within five years Joshua had reduced 
an extensive territory, wliich was divnded among the Is- 

After the death of Joshua (142G b. c), the children of 
Israel often forgot the Lord and worshipped idols. To 
punish their sin, God allowed their enemies to reduce 
them to ser\'itude ; and, when they repented, he raised 
them up deliverers called Judges. 

The Judges. — Among the most celebrated of these was 
the proi)hetess Deb'orah, who rescued the afflicted tribes 
from Ja'bin, king of Canaan. Gid'eon delivered his peo- 
ple from bondage to the Midianites, and Jeph'thah over- 
threw the Ammonites. Samson, the most remarkable 
avenger of his countrymen, slaughtered the PhiKstLnes 
{fl-lis'tins) with wonderful feats of strength, and at last 
killed himself and several thousand of their lords and 



people by pulling down the pillars of the house in which 
they were assembled. 

Samuel, the last of the Judges, released the Israelites 
from subjection to the Philistines. When they desired 
an earthly sovereign, after vainly warning them of the 
tyranny of kings, he by God's command anointed Saul, 
of the tribe of Benjamin, the first monarch of Israel. 

Kingdom of Israel (1095-975 b. c.).-When Saul as- 
cended the throne, the Israelites were mostly engaged in 
pastoral and agricultural pursuits, and their territory was 
exposed to the ravages of the surrounding nations. The 
new king defeated the Ammonites, and routed the Philis- 
tmes. In a subsequent war, with the Am'alekites, he dis- 
obeyed God, on which account his family was excluded 
from the throne; and David, the youthful son of Jesse, of 
the tribe of Judah, was secretly anointed by Samuel' as 
the successor to the crown. 

David was comely, valorous, and skilled in the use of 
the harp. On the renewal of hostilities by the Philistines, 
he slew their great champion, the giant Goliath of Gath 
with a stone from his shepherd's sling. For this feat 
David was honored as the hero of the day, and he thus 
incurred the envy of Saul. But Saul's son, Jonathan, be- 
tween whom and David a strong friendship had grown up 
interposed in his behalf; and, after manv narrow escapes 
from the resentment of the king, David ^vithdrew to a 
foreign land. 

Saul and three of his sons fell in battle with the Phi- 
listines, 1055 B. c. His only surviving son was acknowl- 
edged kmg by all the tribes but Judah. Civil war fol- 
lowed, and it was seven years before the authority of 
David was established over all Israel. 

David at once began to enlarge the boundaries of his 
kingdom. He took Jerusalem from the Jeb'usites, made 
It his capital, and removed thither the ark of the covenant 

Solomon's reign. 37 

The Philistines and Moabites were overthrown, Syria was 
conquered, and an empire founded which stretched along 
the Mediterranean from Phoenicia to Arabia, and was 
bounded on the east by the Euphrates. 

Though David was not superior to human frailties, 
he is distinguished as " the man after God's OAvn heart." 
His Psalms, written by the inspiration of the Most High, 
are full of sublime conceptions, and are recognized as 
masterpieces of lyric poetry. 

Solomon, his son (1015-975 b, c.) raised the Jewish 
kingdom to the pinnacle of its glory. Solomon's name is 
connected with the magnificent temple which he built at 
Jerusalem, with the aid of Phoenician workmen furnished 
by his friend Hiram, king of Tyre, In this splendid 
structure, which was solemnly dedicated to Jehovah, 
rested the ark, surmounted by two golden cherubim. 
Solomon also built many cities, of which Tadmor in the 
wilderness (afterward Palmy'ra) was the most celebrated. 
He founded a navy, and carried on an extensive commerce 
in company with King Hiram. His ships returned from 
distant seas, laden with gems, precious metals, and curious 
plants and animals. 

King Solomon died 975 b. c. He was among the 
greatest of the Hebrew writers. From his inspired pen 
came the Proverbs of the Bible, with all their wealth of 
wisdom, the Song of Songs, and the Book of Ecclesiastes. 
He is reputed, besides, to have written a thousand can- 
ticles, and dissertations on various subjects. 

Arts, Customs, etc. — The early Hebrews cultivated 
music and poetry, but in general paid little attention to 
the arts and sciences. Agriculture was their leading pur- 
suit, the vine and olive receiving special care. 

The houses were, for the most part, poor and low, 
built of sun-dried mud or unhewn stones, till the time of 
the kings, when more attention was paid to architecture. 



The Street-doors were adorned with inscriptions from the 
Law of Moses. The windows had no glass, but were lat- 
ticed. The roofs were flat, and the people often resorted 
to them for cool air, and even sle})t there in summer. 
Domestic utensils were few and simple. Grain was i^round 
by the women in hand-mills. Olive-oil was used in lamps 
for giving light. The towns, from the want of public 
buildings, must have presented a mean appearance, Tlie 

Ancient Cory of tub Samaiutan Pjsntateucii. 

Preserved in a synagogue at Mount Gerizim. It is in a silver ease 
protected by a red satin cover, embroidered with inscriptions in gold. 



aMcient books were in the form of rolls, made of parch- 
ment strips wound round wooden cylinders, the ends of 
which were ornamented with metal or ivory knobs. 

Phoenicia, a strip of land north of Palestine, between 
the Libanus Mountains and the Mediterranean, was the 
great commercial country of antiquity. The Phfxjnicians 
colonized the coasts and islands of the Mediterranean, 
passed the Pillars of Hercules, founded Ga'des (Cadiz) on 
the Atlantic shore, and extended their voyages to the 
British Isles. From Spain they obtained silver and lead; 
from Britain, tin ; and they are even supposed to have 
entered the Baltic in search of amber, which was more 
highly valued than gold. 

The Phoenicians excelled in ingenious arts. They 
claimed to have been the first to manufacture glass, and 
to have invented letters, which they introduced into Eu~ 
rope. The cloths of Sidon and Tyre were greatly es- 
teemed ; and Tyrian purple, a dye obtained from shell 
fish, was renowned from the earliest periods. 

Judges of Israel. 





3 years. 


10 years 



23 " 


8 " 



22 " 


40 " 



(; " 







7 " 




Ancient Greece was a peninsula in the south-eastern 
corner of Europe, corresponding with modem Greece and 
the adjacent parts of southern Turkey. In the north lay 









• — 1> 



__; 1 

* -^I 





Epi'rus, aiul Thes'saly celebrated for the beautiful vale of 
Tem'pe. (Find on the Map the various places mentioned.) 
The principal states of central Greece were Acarna'nia, 
^to'lia, Pho'cis, Bfxjo'tia, and Attica. The southern part 
was the Peloponne'sus (now the More 'a), connected with 
the main-land Vjy the Isthmus of Corinth, and containing, 
besides minor states, Arca'dia, Messe'nia, Ar'golis, and 
the rugged Laco'nia. 

Greece was intersected by mountain-chains and trav- 
ersed by numerous rivers. Its coasts were indented by 
bays, affording excellent harbors. The adjacent waters 
were dotted with fruitful islands, the largest being Eu- 
boe'a, the modern Negropont [neg-ro-pont'), opposite At- 
tica and Bo'otia. 

Primitive Inhabitants. — In very early times Greece 
was occupied by kindred tribes, bearing the general name 
of Pelas'f/i. From the affinities of their language to 
Sanscrit, Celtic, and the Slav'ic and Teutonic dialects, 
they are supposed originally to have emigrated from the 
table-land of Iran, already mentioned in connection with 
the Aryans. Large bodies of them settled in "J'he.s.saly 
and Epirus ; others kept on to the south and peopled the 
Peloponnesus, where as early as 1856 b. c. In'achus found- 
ed Argos and Sicyon {sish'e-Oii). Others again made 
their way to the islands of the ^gean and the opposite 
coast of Asia Minor. 

The Pelasgi seem to have been a rude but peaceable 
people, engaged for the most part in agricultural pur- 
suits. To them are generally ascribed the massive archi- 
tectural ruins called Cy elope 'an,* still visible in Greece. 

Immigrations. — Grecian l6gends tell us that from the 

* So called from the Cyclo'pc-s, a fabulous race of giants having a 
single eye in the centre of their foreheads. The ancients regarded them 
as the builders of structures that seemed too vast to have been reared 
by men. 


sixteenth to the fourteentli ceiiturj B. c. colonies arrived 
from Egypt, Phoenicia, and Phrygia (frij'e-d), bringing 
with them the civilization of those countries. Thus about 
1550 B. c, Ce 'crops came to Attica from Egypt, and 
founded Cecro'pia, afterward called Athens in honor of 
Athe'ne, or Minerva, its patron goddess. Cecrops is said 
to have introduced marriage and to have partially civilized 
the aborigines. 

About the same time, Cadmus, a Phoenician, colonized 
Boeotia, and laid the foundations of its capital Thebes. 
The fable runs that Cadmus sowed dragon's teeth, from 
which armed men sprung up and battled with each other 
till all but five fell. These were the ancestors of the The- 
bans. Cadmus is reported to have introduced weights 
and measures, and to have brought sixteen letters of the 
alphabet from Phoenicia into Greece. 

Pe'lops, a Phrygian adventurer, subsequently settled 
in southern Greece. His descendants became very pow- 
erful, and from him the peninsula derived its name of 
Peloponnesus, the island of Pelops. 

The Hellenes. — About the beginning of the fourteenth 
century b. c. (1384), a new race, the Helle'nes, appeared 
in Thessaly. They soon subjugated the Pelasgi, and ex- 
tended their power over the whole country, which was 
from them called Hellas. The name Greece originated 
with the Romans at a nmch later date. 

The Pelasgians and Hellenes were of similar origin ; 
but the latter people, more highly developed in some com- 
mon Asiatic home, possessed greater intellectual and phys- 
ical vigor. These races eventually blended together, and 
the union of their kindred dialects gave rise to the Greek 

The Hellenes traced their origin to Hellen, son of 
Deuca'lion and Pyr'rha, the survivors of their traditional 
Deluge. From the sons of Hellen sprung the four lead- 


ing branches of the Hellenic nation ; viz., the Do'rians, 
^Eo'lians, Achaeans, and lo'nians. 

The Heroic Age of Grecian history was a legendary 
period of about two centuries, immediately following the 
appearance of the Hellenes in Thessaly. Greece was 
then divided into numerous petty states; and many heroes 
flourished, whose feats of prowess, whether facts of his- 
tory or fictions of the imagination, caused them to be re- 
garded as offspring of the gods. 

Her'cules, the impersonation of physical strength, was 
famous for his " twelve labors." The'seus, the great 
Athenian law-giver, conquered the Am'azons, a mythical 
race of women-warriors, and vanquished the Min'otaur of 
Crete, a monster half man half bull, that dwelt in the 
Labyrinth and feasted on youths and maidens sent from 
Athens. Per'seus slew the Gorgon Medu'sa, whose fright- 
ful head turned all that looked at it into stone. Mi'nos 
was the Cretan legislator, and one of the judges in the 
lower world. Or'pheus, the Thracian musician, tamed wild 
beasts and moved rocks by his sweet strains. 

The Heroic Age is made memorable by the poets for 
a series of wars and expeditions. The greatest of these 
were the Trojan War (treated of in the following chap- 
ter) and the Argonautic Expedition. The latter was 
undertaken by Ja'son, a Thessalian prince, accompanied 
by many Grecian heroes, in quest of " the golden fleece." 
Most of these old stories ai'e said to have a hidden mean- 
ing; and this legend seems to symbolize the endeavors of 
the early princes to secure the advantages of commercial 
intercourse with foreign countries. 

Mythology, Arts, and Manners. — The Greeks were a 
highly imaginative people, and their mythology was less 
forbidding than the religious systems that had preceded 
it. They worshipped many gods, by which the elements, 
passions, virtues, mental attributes, etc., were typified — 


gods, accordinor to their belief, endowed witli human feel- 
ings, frail, erring, and some of them even criminal, like 
ordinary mortals. In honor of these deities statues were 
set up, and gorgeous temples reared in styles of architect- 
ure that are yet followed. Pompous processions moved 
around their shrines, on which the fairest products of the 
earth were laid, and animals Avithout blemish and adorned 
with garlands were sacrificed. 

The Romans in later days recognized the same great 
divinities as the Greeks, and it is by their Roman names 
that the Greek gods are generally spoken of. Jupiter, 
son of Saturn, was the " father of gods and men," and 
with his haughty queen Juno reigned over heaven and 
earth from the lofty summit of Mt. Olympus in Thessaly. 
Mars was the god of war; Apollo, of music and prophecy; 
Mercuiy, the god of eloquence, was the messenger of the 
celestials; Vulcan presided over fire and the useful arts. 
Ve'nus was the goddess of beauty, Diana of hunting, 
Ce'res of agriculture, Vesta of the fireside, and Minerva 
of the sciences and liberal arts. Neptune, with his tri- 
dent, ruled the sea ; and Pluto had dominion over the 
lower world. 

Bacchus was recognized as the god of wine, Cupid of 
love ; Hebe was the goddess of youth and cup-bearer at 
the celestial banquets. Besides these, there were a mul- 
titude of inferior deities; as, the nine Muses, the Graces, 
Fates, Nymphs, Si'rens, etc. 

To obtain advice and information about future events, 
the Greeks consulted oracles. The most famous were the 
oracle of Jupiter, at Dodo'na, in Epirus, — and that of 
Apollo, at Delphi, in Pho'cis. (See Map, p. 40.) The 
responses were given by mysterious voices, or by attend- 
ants in a state of frenzy, real or assumed ; they were 
expressed in obscure or ambiguous language, so as to ad- 
mit of different interpretations. 


The Greeks had an interesting tradition of the Deluge. 
Deuca'lion and Pyrrha were saved in a chest, and on land- 
ing picked up stones and threw them over their heads. 
The stones thrown by Deucalion were turned into men, 
those thrown by Pyrrha into women; and thus the earth 
was repeopled. 

We are indebted to Ho'mer, the oldest and greatest 
of Grecian poets, for what we know of the domestic life 
of the early Greeks. The main pursuits of the people 
were agriculture and the raising of flocks. Cattle not 
only formed the chief source of wealth, but even served 
as a medium of exchange ; a female slave, for instance, 
was valued at so many oxen. 

Considerable progress seems to have been early made 
in the useful arts, such as carpf^ntry, building, and the 
manufacture of cloth. Woman was treated with respect ; 
ladies of the highest rank spun, wove, and engaged in 
other domestic employments. The power was in the 
hands of kings and nobles. Captives taken in war were 
enslaved. Priests and temples were held in reverence. 
One of the leading virtues was hospitality ; the palace of 
the noble was always open to the stranger. 

Greece was favorably situated for navigation, and con- 
stant intercourse was maintained with the adjacent coasts 
of the Mediterranean, islands being so thickly interspersed 
that voyages of some length could be made without losing 
sight of land. At this early period light galleys propelled 
chiefly by oarsmen were used. A mast was raised, and 
sails were brought into play, only when the wind was 

1 500 B. C. — Egyptian colony of Cecrops in Attica. Phcenician 
colony of Cadmus in B«otia. Dan'aus settles with a colony in Argos. 
Alphabetic writing used in Greece. Egypt flouri.ahing after the expul- 
sion of the Shepherd Kings. Israelites still in Egypt. Moses feeding 
the flocks of .If.-thro, in Midian. Zoroaster founds the Persian religiotL 




Troy (irium), a powerful capital in the north-western 
part of Asia Minor (see Map, p. 40), was in the twelfth 
century u. c. the scene of important events, growing out 
of a wrong committed by Par'is, son of I'ri'am, a Trojan 
monarch. This prince (so the legend goes) visited the 
court of Menela'us, king of Sparta, or Lacedaemon {kis-e- 
de'mon), and in his absence carried olf his fair wife Helen 
to Troy. The outraged Menelaus summoned the Grecian 
chiefs to avenge the injury, and a large force assembled 
under his brother Agamemnon, king of Myceniv; {nil-se'ne). 
Led by such heroes as Di'omede, A'jax, the crafty Ulys- 
ses, king of Ith'aca, and the bi'ave Achilles {a-Jcil'leez) of 
Thessaly, the Grecian warriors embarked in nearly 1,200 
vessels for Troy. 

After a gallant resistance of ten years, during which 
the Trojan Hector " of the glancing helm " and " the 
lion-hearted Achilles •' fell, the city was taken by a strat- 
agem of Ulysses. A huge wooden horse filled with armed 
Greeks, represented as an offering to the goddess Mi- 
nerva, was received by the besieged within the walls. In 
the dead of night the hostile band came forth from tlieir 
hiding-place, admitted their comrades, surprised the Tro- 
jans who had been engaged in festivities, and fired the 
city (1183 B. c). Priam, with most of his warriors, was 
killed, and the survivors became the slaves of the con- 
querors, or sought safety in flight. 

The Trojan War forms the subject of the Iliad, the 
immortal epic of the Greek poet Homer, supposed to have 
flourished about 950 b. o. The adventures of Ulysses 
while returning to Ithaca, and the trials of his faithful 


wife Pe-nel'o-pe during' his absence, are described in the 
Od'yssey of the same port. The Iliad and Odyssey are 
thought to have been recited for generations before they 
were committed to writing. Such was their popularity 
that seven cities contended for the honor of having given 
birth to their author; yet some have maintained that they 
were the work of different hands, and that no such person 
as Homer ever lived. 

Nearly contemporaneous with Plomer, and often men- 
tioned in connection with him as one of the old hards of 
Greece, was the Boeotian poet Hesiod {fie'she-od). To 
him are ascribed the didactic pcjem " Works and Days," 
containing precepts on farming interspersed with fables 
and moral maxims, and the " Theog'ony," which gives an 
account of the origin of the world, and the birth of gods 
and heroes. 

Greece after the Trojan War. — Various commotions 
followed the return of the Greek chieftains from Troy. 
Some were obliged to have recourse to arms, to drive out 
enemies who had taken possession of their thrones. Tliese 
disturbances were succeeded by important migratory 
movements. New races expelled the previous settlers, 
man}- of whom, leaving their country, founded colonies on 
the islands and eastern shores of the -^gean. 

A great part of the Peloponnesus was conquered by 
the Dorians, led by the Heracli'dcc (descendants of Her- 
cules), who had been driven out by the family of Pelops. 
A body of lonians, dislodged from their seats in the Pelo- 
ponnesus by the return of the Heraclida?, crossed to Asia 
Minor. Here and on the adjacent islands they founded 
settlements, which grew into cities, and ultimately joined 
in an Ionian confederacy. Among these cities was Eph'- 
esus, renowned for its temple of Diana, one of the Seven 
Wonders c4 the ancient world. 

North of the lonians, vEolian emigrants established 



twelve towns ; while the Dorians themselves settled the 
southern coast and the adjacent island of Rhodes. Rhodes 
was celebrated for its Colos'sus, an immense image of 
Apollo, so placed as to bestride the entrance to the har- 


bor. The Colossus was over 100 feet hig^h, and its thumb 
was so large that a man could not clasp it with his arms. 
When, after lying on the ground for centuries, it was re- 
moved, the metal that composed it loaded 900 camels. 


The Greeks also peopled the shores of the Euxine 
(Black Sea). They founded Byzantium (tlie modern Con- 
stantinople) in the east, Massilia (Marseilles) in the far 
west, and the rich Cy-re'ne on the coast of Africa. Many 
Greek colonies were planted in Lower Italy and Sicily, 
which received the name of Magna Gnecia {rnay'nd, grt - 
she-d, Great Greece). The most important of these were 
the luxurious Taren'tum, — Cu'mae, celebrated for its ora- 
cle and Sib'yl, — and Syr'acuse, on the island of Sicily. 

Dorian Invasion of Attica. —The Dorians gradually ex- 
tended their conquests beyond the Isthmus of Corinth, 
and in the reign of Co'drus invaded Attica. Having 
learned from a friendly Delphian that the oracle had as- 
sured the invaders of success if they spared the life of 
the Athenian king, Codrus determined to die in behalf of 
his people. Leaving the city in the disguise of a wood- 
man, he fell in with two soldiers of the enemy, and offer- 
ing them gratuitous affronts was set upon and slain. 
When the Dorians found that the Attic chief had thus 
fallen, despairing of success they withdrew their forces. 
Thereupon the Athenian nobles did away with the office 
of king^ and substituted for it that of archoii {ar'kon). 
From this time the government was republican. 

Sparta. — Aft^r the subjugation of Laconia, the people 
were divided into three classes: the Dorian conquerors, 
who became known as Spartcms, and alone enjoyed politi- 
cal privileges; the Perioeci (per-e-e'si), free inhabitants of 
the rural districts, engaged in commeroe and the trades, 
mostly of Achfean descent; and the He 'lots, consisting of 
captives and rebels reduced to slavery. The Helots were 
employed in agricultural pursuits, and treated with great 
brutality. They could even be put to death when they 
became so numerous as to appear dangerous to the state. 

Internal dissensions arising, the Spartans gradually 
degenerated. At length, in the ninth century B. c, Ly- 


cuigus, one of their princes, after carefully studying the 
laws of foreign countries, framed for his own the consti- 
tution that bears his name. 

Constitution of Lycurgus. — Lycurgus cared nothing 
for intellectual education or the humanizing arts ; he 
aimed at making his nation invincible in war and filling 
them with love of country. The young of both sexes 
were required to undergo the severest physical training, 
that self-reliance, agility, and strength, might be thus in- 
sured. To accustom them to pain, boys were publicly 
whipped, sometimes so cruelly that death resulted. Rich 
and poor dined together on coarse repulsive food. An 
iron coinage was adopted, to the exclusion of the precious 
metals ; such monej'' being valueless abroad, foreign lux- 
uries were unknown. The hardy Spartan thus learned to 
despise effeminacy. His field of labor was the camp ; he 
was allowed no time for commerce, agriculture, or any 
other peaceful |)ursuit. 

Stealing was considered a disgrace and crime, only if 
detected. A story is told of a Spartan boy who, to avoid 
discovery, suffered his body to be torn open by a fox which 
he had stolen and concealed in his garments. 

Lycurgus retained the double monarchy which was 
peculiar to the Lacedaemonian state, its power. 
To him is ascribed the institution of the Senate, and the 
officers called Eph'ori, elected annually by the people to 
watch over the constitution and punish those who vio- 
lated it. 

Having persuaded the Spartans to swear that they 
would keep his laws while he was away, Lycurgus left 
his country with the intention of never returning. Nor did 
he do so. His constitution remained in force five centuries, 
and made Sparta the most powerful state in Greece. 

Conquest of Messema. — Under the workings of the 
laws of Lyciu'gus, Spartan territory was gradually en- 


larged. The conquest of the neighboring state of Messe'- 
nia was the result of two long and obstinate contests 
(743-668 B. c). After bearing the yoke for forty years, 
the Messenians revolted, and were at first successful. But 
the Spartans, roused by the odes of the Athenian poet 
Tyrtai'us, finally prevailed, and reduced their vanquished 
foes to the condition of Helots. Some of the Messenians, 
however, fled to Sicily, and gave their name to the city of 
Messa'iia (now Messina). This success secured to Sparta 
the supremacy of the Peloponnesus, and she soon began 
to interfere in the general afi'airs of Greece. 

Grecian Institutions. — Among the early institutions of 
Greece were the amphic'tyonies, or associations of tribes 
for the purpose of protecting the temples of the gods. 
The most important of these was the Amphictyonic 
Council. Its members were bound to refrain from de- 
stroying any city of the alliance in time of war, and to 
use all their powers in defence of the Delphic temple of 

The Greeks were also bound together by the Great 
Games (Olympic, Pyth'ian, Neme'an, and Isthmian), cele- 
brated at Olympia, Delphi, Nemea, and on the Corinthian 
Isthmus. They consisted of gymnastic sports, and horse 
and chariot races, as well as contests in poetry and music, 
and attracted competitors and spectators from far and 
wide. Their influence was doubtless beneficial, promoting 
intercourse among the states, strengthening in them a 
feeling of common nationality, and exciting in individuals 
a healthy spirit of emulation. 

The Olympic Games, in honor of Jupiter, were the 
most famous. Originally instituted by Hercules, as the 
ancients believed, they were revived, after having been 
discontinued for years, in the time of Lycurgus. A vic- 
tory at these games, though rewarded only with a crown 
of wild-olive, was regarded as the highest honor that a 


Greek could obtain, and broug-ht ^lory not only to himself 
but also to his family and state. Statues were erected, 
and odes writtiMi, to preserve the nieinory of the victors. 

lOOO B. C. — Solomon at the height of his glory. The Toniplc 
just I'oiuploti'il. lliriiiu king of Tyre. Habyloniii undor the Assyn:in.s. 
Egypt fiillcu from its grontness. Ethiopia growing in power. Dorians 
in the Peloponnesus. Trojan eolonists in Italy. 


(975-588 n. C.) 

Division of the Jewish Monarchy. — On the death of 
Solomon (975 ». o.), tlie .lewish people entreated his son 
Rehobo'am to remove the oppressive taxes imposed on 
them by the late kino;. But he only threatened to add to 
their burden. "My father," said he, " chastised you with 
whips, l)ut 1 will chastise you with scorpions." Ten of 
the tribes in conseijuence revolted, and chose for their king 
Jerobo'am, a former servant of Solomon. Thus was Solo- 
mon's idolatry punisiied, and the Kingdom of Israel rent 
from the house of David. Judah and lienjamin alone ad- 
hered to Rehoboam, who thus became the first monarch of 
" the kingdom of Judah." 

Israel. — To wean the people from their religion, which 
rec]uired them to go up to the Temple at Jerusalem, Jero- 
boani made two calves of gold as objects of worship. 
Though warned by a prophet of God, he persisted in his 
guilty course ; anil finally his family was exterminated, 
and a usurper obtained the crown. Omri, one of the suc- 
cessors of Jeroboam, built the city of Sama'ria, and made 
it his seat of government. 


Under A'lial), son of Omn", iJiroii^h tJi'; iriflu<;rK;f; of lii.s 
wicked wifVj .](■// it\)ii\, a l*ii(/;nician princcHS, the worshij) of 
Ba'al, the ^roat suii-^od of her nation, was introduced into 
Israel. I^JIi'jaii, the g^reatest propfifit that had appeared 
siricf; Moses, boldly rebuked the aboniinutions fjf tlie kiiifr, 
announced the punish- 
ment of the nation by 
drou<^lit and faniiri<;, and 
afterward rniraculfjusly 
triurnj^hed over the 
priests of liaai in the 
presence of the assem- 
bled people; yet Ahab 
and Jezebel continuftd 
in their iniquity. A few 
years later, in accord- 
ance with the doom pro- 
nounced by the projihet, 
the king fell in battle 
with the Syrians ; his 
post<^3rity was utterly de- 
stroyed by Jehu, one of 
his generals who had 
been appointed the 
Lord's avenger; the infamous Jezebel was hurled from the 
palace-window, and her body was devoured by dogs. 

CAPTivny OF THE Ten Tribes. — Jehu destroyed the 
idol and temple of Baal, but allowed the worship of the 
golden calves. His family cfjntinued to reign until 772 
v.. e., cont'-mpfjraneously with the prophets Eli'sha, Jo'nah, 
A'mos, and Hosea {ho-zn'a). These holy men vainly strove 
to check the growing corruption. Immorality and idolatry 
prevailed, the country became impoverished, and the As- 
syrians invaded Palestine. 

Iloshe'a, the last king of Jsrar;l, was besieged in Sama- 

.jKwr«ii Ifi(;if-I'KrKHT. 


ria by Sliahnanc'sor. The capital fell, and Iloshoa was 
sent in chains to Nineveh (721 u. c). The ten tribes were 
carried away into captivity beyontl, the Euphrates, and 
their lanil was occupied by foreign settlers. These united 
with the few Hebrews who remained, and fornied tlie Sa- 
maritan nation. But the flower of the Israelites eitlier 
became incorporated with tlie con(|uerors, or mii>Tated 
farther east, leavino- no traces behind. To this day thev 
are spoken of as " the lost tribes." 

Judah. — The rival kingdom of Judah niaintained its ex- 
istence for nearly four centuries, surviving Israel more 
than 130 years. Idolatry was the stumbling-block of sev- 
eral of its kings. Even Kehoboam fell into this sin short- 
ly after his accession; God punished him by allowing the 
king of Egypt to pillage Jerusalem 

The pious A'sa "took away the altars of the strange 
gods," and trusting in the Lord put to llight an invading 
horde of Ethiopians. Jehosh'apliat, his son, continued 
the work of reform. With the exception of connections 
which he formed with the idolatrous Ahab and two suc- 
ceeding kings of Israel, his administration was wise, and 
under it Judah enjoyed a prosperity unknown since the 
time of Solomon. 

It was not long, however, before the true God was 
again forsaken, and disasters in consequence overtook the 
nation. The wicked A'haz (743-726 n. o.) encouraged the 
grossest idolatry; and Judah, weakened by the incursions 
of her hostile neighbors, became tributary to the Assyrian 
king. But Hezeki'ah, the son of Ahaz, once more restored 
the true worship. He was enabled to throw off the As- 
syrian yoke; and the host of Sennach'erib, his boastful 
foe, was destroyed by the angel of the Lord. 

The people, however, relapsed into idolatry under Ma- 
nas's(>h, the tyrannical son of Hezekiah; and the most 
abominable rites were practised. Tlie few nho remained 


truo to their faith were subjected to cruel persecution, and 
the Jews have a tradition that the ^reat prophet Isaiah 
was sawn asunder by order of the king. Manassch was 
carried off in chains h)y the Assyrians ; but he repented in 
his dungeon, and God restored him to his throne. 

•Josiah, who became king 641 u. c, put down idolatry 
with a strong hand. During his reign, the original prophe- 
cies, written by the hand of Moses, were brought to light, 
foretelling to the faithless .Jews the destruction of th(;ir 
Temple and the desolation of their land. 

TiiK Cai'TIVITY. — These predictions were fulfilled in 
the reign of Josiah's son, Zedeki'ah. The Bal>ylonian 
king Nebuchadnezzar invaded Jude'a, stormed Jerusalem, 
burned the Temple, and removed the surviving .Jews to 
Babylon (588 b. c), thus putting an end to their monarchy. 

The captivity lasted till 53G u. c. After Babylon was 
taken by the Persians (p. 22), permission was given to 
the exiled people to return to their native land. Many 
availed themselves of the opportunity, and finally the cap- 
ital was rebuilt and the Temple restored. Moreover, the 
Jews remembered the lesson taught them by their calami- 
ties, and thenceforth adhered to the religion of their 

Hebrew Literature. — During the jteriod treated of 
above, various prophets wrote under tlu; inspiration of the 
Spirit of God; their works appear in the Old Testament. 
The four greater prophets are Isaiah, who foretold the 
fate of the .Jews and the birth of the Messiah in the sub- 
limest of lyric poetry; .Jeremiah, who denounced divine 
judgments on his people for their disobedience, arifl in Ins 
" Jjamentations " poured forth his sorrow for their down- 
fall; Daniel and P^zekiel, who, carried captives to Jiaby- 
lon, there delivered their prophetic visions. Almost all 
of Daniel's long life was passed at Babylon, where he was 
promoted to oflice and honor. He predicted the time of 



the Messiah's advent with such precision tliat a general 
expectation of his coming prevailed among the Jews at 
the time of our Saviour's appearance. 

Kings of Israel and Judah. 

Kings of Israel. 1 

Kings of 







Shi'shak, king of Egypt. 





Astartus, king of Tyre. 





Ben-ha'dad I., king of Sj-ria; Homer. 


980. ; 



Elijah; Ben-ha'dad II., king of Syria. 





The prophet Elisha. 





Haz'ael, king of Syria. 





Jehol'ada, high-priest. 





Dido, founder of Carthage ; Lycurgus 





Boc'choris, king of Egypt. 





The prophets Jonah and Amos. 





Romulus, founder of Rome. 





Re'zin, king of Syria. 

Jerobo'am II 




Sargon ; Sennacherib ; Isaiah. 





E'sar-had'don, king of Assyria. 





TuUus Hostil'ius, king of Rome. 

Men 'ahem, 



641 :" 







; Jehoi'akiin, 


The prophet Jeremiah. 





Samaria taken 




Jerusalem taken, 688 b. o. 


(753-509 B. C.) 

Early Settlement of Italy. — The peninsula we now 
know as Italy was inhabited in remote ages by several 
races, among which were the Etruscans, Oscans, Sa'bines, 
and Lat'ins. The Etruscans, or Tuscans, who appear to 
have been an entirely different race from the others, were 
the most polished. At first they constituted a powerful 
state in the north, but afterward occupied the region west 



of the Tiber, where they formed a confederacy of twelve 
cities. That they excelled in architecture is shown by the 
remains of massive ruins, dikes, and tunnels. They also 
carried on a large commerce, and their pirate-vessels were 
long the terror of the western Mediterranean. 

The Sabines were a moral, ag- 
ricultural people, distinguished 
for their love of freedom. The 
powerful and prosperous Latins 
dwelt in Latium {la'she-um), 
south of the Tiber. 

Founding of Rome. — Tradi- 
tion tells us that, 
on the destruc- 
tion of Troy (p. 
46), ^ne'as, a 
Trojan warrior, 
gathering to- 
gether a few sur- 
vivors of the un- 
fortunate city, 
sailed westward, 
succeeded in 
reaching Italy, 
built there a 
city, and mar- 
ried the daugh- 
ter of the Latin king. The son of ^■Eneas founded Alba 
Longa, which became in time an opulent city. 

Another legend relates that Rom'ulus and Re'mus, 
twins of the regal line of Alba Longa, having been ex- 
posed at their birth, were carried off and nourished by a 
she-wolf, till they were discovered by a herdsman, who 
brought them up with his own sons. In course of time, 
learning their royal origin, these princes restored to the 


tliiDUc their i;raiuU"atlirr, who had hcni ihiviMi out by a 
usurper. Shortly after, thoy bei>an to l)uil(l a city on tiio 
Ti'hor (753 15. c); but in a cjuanvl whicli tMisued Henius 
was killed, and the city was called i'roiu his brotluM- I\0MK. 

'Vo attract inhabitants to his city, Romulus j)n)elaini»d 
it an asyhnn for t"ui!,'itives; and numbers of outlaws from 
the surrounding- country lied there for protection. From 
the miserable huts of this robber band on Mt. Pal'atine, 
Home arose to be the mistress of the world. — In these 
and other stories connected with the early history of 
Konie, it is hard to tell what is truth and what mere fable. 

The Kings. — Rohiulus. — In order to procure wives for 
the outcasts who tilled his city, Romulus announced a 
great festival; and the neighliorino- people tlnonged to it 
with their famiUes. In the midst of the games, the armed 
Romans v,ir\\ carried oil" a wtiniaii as Iiis wife. W'lw was 
the conse(|uence; and Ti'tus Tatius [f</',^/i(-u.^), king of the 
Sabines, soon a[)peared before the infant city witii an army. 
At this juncture, 'rar[)eia (tar-pe'j/a), whose father com- 
mandi'd a citailel on the Cap'itoline Hill, coveting the gold- 
en bracelets of the Sabines, betrayed to them the fortress 
on condition that they would give her the brig'ht things 
they wore on their arms. But the Sabines, despising^ her 
treachery, purposely misinterpreted her words, and crushed 
her as they entered with their g-littering shields. 

The enemy were now on the point of taking the eity, 
when a stream of water burst from the temple of the god 
.la'nus,* and swept them from the walls. Thenceforth 
the temple of Janus was left open in time of war, that 
the deity mig-ht readily go forth and aid his people. 

On the renewal of the struggle, the Sabine women 

* .lamis, a two-facod p;od adopted liy the Romans from the aneicnt 
Etrurians, jirosided over the eommeneements of thiniis. The month of 
January, with whieli the reliiiious year l)epui, was sacred to Janus, and 
on its tirst day otVerinti;s of wine and fruit were nuide to him. 


who had boon carriod ofT, forgiving tho wrong they had 
suffered, acted as peaco-makers between the opposing 
forces, and persuaded them to enter into a league of 
amity. The Romans and Sabinos were now united, and 
Romulus and Tatius shared tho sovereignty. ()u the 
death of the; latter, the supreme power was vested in 
Romulus alone. He is said to have waged successful wars, 
and finally to have vanished mysteriously in a tempest. 

Nu'ma Pompii/ius, a just and wise Sabirio, succeeded 
Romulus. He established laws and founded the national 
religion. During his prosperous reign, the Romans were 
at peace, and the temple of Janus was kept closed. 

TuLLUS Hostil'ius was the third king of Rome. 
Shortly after his accession war broke out with Alba Lon- 
ga, and it was agreed to decide the quarrel by a combat 
between three brothers on each side, — the Roman Horatii 
(ho-ra's/ie-y) and tho Curiatii [ku-re-a' she-i) on tho part of 
the Albans. All fell but one of the Horatii; so Alba be- 
came subject to the Romans. 

As the victorious Horatins approached his homo, he 
was met by his weeping sister, who had been betrothed to 
one of the slain Curiatii. Enraged at her tears and re- 
proaches, he stabbed her to the heart, crying, " So perish 
tho Roman maiden who mourns for her country's onorriy." 
?\jr this murder Horatius was condemned to death by the 
judges; but he appealed to the Roman people, and they, 
in consideration of his services, spared his life. 

King Tullus afterward destroy<!d Alba, and removed 
its inhabitants to Rome. 

Angus Maktius, the next monarch, extended the 
Roman dominion to the sea, and founded tho port of <^)s- 
tia at the mouth of the Tiber. 

Tarquin the Eli^er, a stranger from an Etruscan 
town, succeeded Ancus. He is distinguished among the 
Roman kings for his grand public works. The Great 


Sewer and Circus were built by this monarch, who also 
laid the foundations of the Capitoline temple of Jupiter. 
— Tarquin was the victim of a conspiracy planned by the 
sons of Ancus. 

Servius Tullius, son-in-law of Tarquin, was chosen 
by the people in his stead, and proved to be one of their 
greatest sovereigns. He made important changes in the 
constitution, forming a new Assembly, and dividing the 
people for the purposes of suffrage into classes and cen- 
turies according to their property. He enlarged the lim- 
its of the city, and inclosed its seven hills within walls 
that lasted nearly eight centuries. 

In his old age, Servius incurred the hatred of the 
nobles, in consequence of his favoring the interests of the 
people, and contemplating the substitution of a repub- 
lican government for monarchy. A plot was laid to mur- 
der him, and make his son-in-law Tarquin king in his 
stead. It was carried out while the people were away in 
the fields, gathering their grain. 

As the body of Servius lay in the highway, Tullia, the 
wife of the new-made monarch, inhumanly drove over it, 
dyeing her chariot-wheels with her father's blood. The 
Romans long called the scene of this event " the wicked 

Tarquin the Proud, the last king of Rome, extended 
his sovereignty over all the Latin towns. But he repealed 
the just and beneficent laws of his predecessor, and ren- 
dered himself hateful by his tyranny. Finally a foul out- 
rage committed by his son led to a revolution headed by 
.Tu'nius Bru'tus. The family of Tarquin was banished for- 
ever, and the regal government abolished, 509 B. c. 

Roman Institutions and Religion. — According to the 
early constitution, the kingly power in Rome was limited 
by a Senate, and an Assembly of citizens. Kings were 
elected by the former, and confirmed by the people. The 



citizens were divided into '■'■tribes,^'' and these were made 
up of " houses.'''' The heads of these noble or patrician 
" houses," known as the patres or fathers, composed the 
senate or king's council. 

There were also dependants on the different " houses," 
called clients, who were protected by their patrons, but 
had no political rights. Below this class were the slaves. 

Another body, however, in time grew up — the Plebs, 

or Commonalty, com- 
posed of free settlers, 
or conquered commu- 
nities transported to 
Rome. These Plebe- 
ians {ple-be'yans) were 


freemen ; still they 

were politically subject, socially inferior to the Patricians. 

The Romans drew much of their mythology from the 

Greeks, and worshipped the same great gods (p. 44), with 


inferior ones of their own addition. From the Etruscans 
they adopted the practice of eniploying- soothsayers, to 
interpret the will of heaven by inspecting- the entrails of 
victims oft'ered in sacrifice. 

Special reverence was paid to the La res, or household 
gods, images of which were placed in the hall or ranged 
round the hearth of every dwelling. Vesta had virgin 
priestesses called J^estalu, vvho kept a fire perpetually burn- 
ing in her temple. But Mars, the god of war, was perhaps 
the favorite object of worship. The month of March, 
which began the Uoman year, \\;is named from hini, and 
on the first day of that month a festival was celebrated in 
his honor. 

The Romans, like the Greeks, consulted oracles. They 
also referred to certain mysterious volumes called the 
Sib'ylline Books, wliich were carefully guarded l)V olficers 
appointed for the purpose, and ccMisulted \vli(>ii tlie gods 
had manifested their wrath l)y })rodigies or public calanii- 

Thie Roman Kings. 

Ronuilns, 75S-"l(i. ( Orook cities foundod in southern Itnly: llhe'frinm. 

Nuina Ponipilius, 715-ri7'2. I Syb'nris, Croto'na, Tarentuin. 
Tiillus Uostilius, (ITi-GW. Miinassoli, kinis: otMudah. 

Ancus Martins, (UO-OIO. Cvftx'aros, kinff ot" Persia. 

Taniuiiiiiis Prisons, 6IC)-.")VS. Pharaoh Neelio; Nel)uehadnczzftr. 
Servius Tulliiis, 67S-584. Cyrus; Chwsus; lielsliazzar ; Daniel. 

Tarquinius Superbus, 684-509. Second Temple built by the Jews. 
Dates uncertain ; history fabulous. 



The Medes and Persians. — At a very early period, a 
people called Medes inhabited the country bordering the 
Caspian Sea on the south and south-west. Little is 


known of their history till they became tributary to the 
kings of Assyria, about 700 B. c. South of Media lived 
the Persians, an industrious people, partly nomadic, in 
part tillers of the soil. An Aryan monarchy was estab- 
lished in Persia by Achaemenes {a-kem'e-rieez)^ the founder 
of an illustrious line to whicli even the haughty Xerxes 
was proud to trace his pedigree. 

As the Medes grew in strength, they became impatient 
of Assyrian tyranny, and one of their kings, after making- 
Persia a dependency, raised the standard of revolt. He 
fell in an attack on Nineveh; but his son, the great Cyax'- 
ares, with the aid of the Babylonians, captured and de- 
stroyed that city, 625 b. c. (p. 10), and made the Medo- 
Persian Empire first among the Asiatic powers. 

Not long, however, did the Medes enjoy their suprem- 
acy. 'i'h(;y gradually fell into the effeminate habits of the 
conquered Assyrians, and in the reign of their next king 
Astyages {as-ti'a-jeez) they were obliged to yield the fore- 
most place to the more warlike Persians. 

Astyages, as is the story, inferred from a vision that 
his daughter's son would some day supersede him. To 
prevent this, he married her to the tributary prince of 
Persia, whom he regarded as inferior to a Mede of even 
middle rank, and when her son Cyrus was born ordered 
liim to be killed. But the infant was saved, and having 
afterward been discovered by his grandfather, was sent to 
his parents in Persia. There he learned to despise the 
luxury and indolence of the Medes, and formed the proj- 
ect of estah)lishing the independence of his country. At 
his instigation the Persians revolted, the Median king was 
overthrown, and Persia became predominant in the new 
empire, .008 i?. c, 

Cyrus. — I'he reign of Cyrus embraced a remarkable 
series of brilliant enterprises. I^yd'ia, on the eastern 
coast of the ^gean, was the first to feel his conquering 


arm. This country liad extended its sway over nearly all 
Asia Minor, and its king Croe'sus was distinguished far 
and wide for his prowess and wealth. Writers and phi- 
losophers of high repute visited his court ; among them, 
the fable-writer ^'sop, and So'lon, the wise man of 
Athens. Croesus, after displaying his treasures to the 
latter, asked him if he did not consider Lydia's king a 
happy man. Solon answered that life was full of vicissi- 
tudes, and that no man could be pronounced happy while 
he was yet living. 

Alarmed at the growing power of Persia and burning 
to avenge his dethroned relative Astyages, Croesus led a 
large army into the territory of Cyrus. It is said that he 
had previously consulted the oracle of Delphi, and re- 
ceived from Apollo the response that, if he made war on 
the Persians, he would destroy a great onplre. This 
proved to be his own. Cyrus finally besieged him in his 
capital Sardis, took the city, and annexed the proud 
Lydian Empire to the Persian (554 b. c). 

Herod'otus tells us that at the capture of Sardis the 
life of the fallen king was saved by his dumb son, who, 
seeing him in the act of being killed by a Persian, for the 
first time burst into speech and made known his father's 
rank. After this escape, Croesus was sentenced to be 
burned alive. As he was chained to the pile, the saying 
of the Greek sage occurred to him, and he ejaculated, 
" Solon ! Solon ! Solon ! " Cyrus demanded the meaning 
of the exclamation, and struck with the wisdom of Solon's 
remark liberated the captive, and treated him as a friend 
and confidant. 

The Grecian cities of Asia Minor next submitted to 
the sceptre of Persia. Conquests in the distant East 
followed, and finally the Babylonian Empire, as we have 
already seen (p. 23), yielded to the victorious Persian 
arms (538 b. c). The great Persian Empire under Cyrus 


thus stretched from the Indus to the ^gean Sea and the 
borders of Egypt. 

Cyrus the Great is said to have fallen in battle with a 
northern horde, 529 b. c. Their savage queen, filling a 
skin with human blood, contemptuously flung into it his 
severed head, and bade him there satisfy his thirst. 

Though ambitious of conquest, Cyrus appears not to 
have prized it for the spoils it yielded, but to have dis- 
pensed these with a princely hand among his followers, — 
who in their turn were ready to pour out life and fortune 
at his call. Croesus once told him that, by keeping his 
treasures to himself, he might have become the richest 
monarch in the world. " And what think you," asked 
Cyrus, " might those treasures have amounted to ? " Crcje- 
sus named the sum ; whereupon Cyrus informed his lords 
that he was in want of money, and at once a larger sum 
was brought him than Croesus had mentioned. " Look ! " 
said Cyrus ; " here are my treasures ; the chests I keep 
them in are the hearts of my subjects." 

Camby'ses, the son of Cyrus, added Egypt to his 
father's empire. The first important city reached in the 
invasion of this country was captured by stratagem. 
Taking advantage of the superstition of the Egyptians, 
Cambyses placed cats, dogs, and other of their sacred 
animals, in front of his troops ; and the garrison, fearful 
of injui'ing these objects of their veneration, allowed 
their assailants to enter the city without resistance. 

Numerous stories illustrate the tyranny of this mon- 
arch. Learning one day from his chief favorite that the 
Persians thought him too fond of wine, to convince them 
that it did not affect the steadiness of his hand or the 
strength of his understanding, he drank to greater excess 
than ever before. Then ordering the son of his inform- 
ant to be brought in, he drew his bow and taking careful 
aim pierced the heart of the unfortunate youth with an 

G6 THE pp:rsian empire. 

arrow. " Now," said lie, turning to the trembling father, 
" you can decide whether the Persians are right or wrong 
in supposing that wine deprives me of reason." 

On another occasion, when Croesus represented to 
Cambyses the evils of a tyrannical government, the lat- 
ter immediately condemned him to death. But the offi- 
cers in charge delayed enforcing the sentence, supposing 
that the king, when he recovered from his anger, would 
repent of his hasty command. He did so, and hastening 
to find whether Croesus was alive, embraced him with de- 
light, but the next moment ordered to execution the offi- 
cers who had ventured to trifle with his directions. 

Darius I, Hystaspes, (521-486 b. c), obtained the 
Persian crown in the following singular manner. On the 
death of Cambyses, an impostor mounted the throne. 
Thereupon seven nobles plotted together and slew him ; 
they further agreed to ride out at sunrise, and that he 
whose horse first neighed should reign. The horse of Da- 
rius decided the question in favor of his master, who be- 
came the greatest of Persia's rulers. He regulated the 
government, dividing his vast empire into twenty prov- 
inces. A large standing army supported his authority ; 
and royal roads, along which his messages were trans- 
mitted with wonderful speed, traversed the country. 

Darius extended his conquests into Europe. Thrace 
and Macedonia were added to his dominions, and the 
Persian Empire now reached from the deserts of India to 
the borders of Greece. 

Both Darius and his son Xerxes vainly attempted to 
subjugate the Greeks. Under the successors of Xerxes 
the Persians gradually became corrupted. Luxury and 
extravagance did their work, and at last the enfeebled 
empire fell an easy prey to a Macedonian prince (331 b. c). 

Architectural Works, Religion, etc. — The principal ar- 
chitectural works of the Persians were their palaces. The 



one at Persep'olis was gorgeous beyond description, the 
walls and ceilings of its apartments being resplendent 
with amber, ivory, and gold. 

The monarchs were honored by their subjects with the 
most servile reverence. To approach the king without 
jirostrating the body or with hands withdrawn from the 
long sleeves of the gown, was death. As an instance of 

their devotion to 
royalty, it is re- 
lated that once, 
wh3n the over- 
loaded vessel of 
Xerxes was in 
danger of wreck, 
his courtiers vied 
with each other in 
leaping into the 
sea, that they 
might lighten the 
galley and thus 
save their king. 

The religious 
system of the an- 
cient Persians, set 
forth in sacred 
writings called the Aves'ta, was founded or reformed by 
Zoroas'ter. It recognized one eternal Supreme Being, 
who produced by his creative word two great Principles, 
the one of light and purity, the other of darkness and 
evil. Between these a struggle was constantly main- 
tained in the souls of men. Those who obeyed the one 
were admitted at death into the abode of the blessed ; 
while those who submitted to the other were banished to 
a region of everlasting woe. 

This earlier faith was afterward corrupted by the 



Ma'gi, who introduced the fire-worship still prevailing 
among a few of the Persians (the Guebres) who are un- 
believers in the doctrines of Mohammed. 

600 B. C- — Nineveh in the hands of the Medes. Cyaxares king 
of Media, Nebuchadnezzar of Babylonia, Pharaoh Necho of Egypt, Je- 
hoiakim of Judah. Alcaeus (al-se'us) and Sappho (saf'fo) originating 
lyric poetry in Greece. Carthage exploring the Mediterranean. Tar- 
quinius Priscus building his great works in Rome. Solon, ^sop. 


Solon's Code. — The history of the states of ancient 
Greece has mainly to do with the kingdom of Sparta and 
republican Athens. The former we left the leading mili- 
tary power in Greece. The latter we followed to the 
death of her last monarch Codrus, and the establishment 
of magistrates called Archons, chosen from the aristocracy. 

Internal disturbances followed this change, and at 
length the people demanded from the nobles a written 
code. This led to the legislation of Dra'co (624 B. c), 
whose laws, so cruel that they were said to have been 
written with blood, punished even the slightest offences 
with death. 

A better code was framed by the great law-giver Solon, 
one of the Seven Wise Men of Greece, 594 b. c. To re- 
lieve his impoverished countrymen, Solon freed their mort- 
gaged lands, and annulled the law which made slavery the 
penalty of debt. The people were divided into four 
classes according to their income, all having the privilege 
of voting in the public assembly. Nine archons, respon- 
sible to the citizens for their conduct in office, were annu- 

70 rKRiOD C>P OltKcnAN CLoRV. 

ally elected; and the court of the Areop'ao-us was charo-ed 
with the duty of tryiu<>- capital oiVeuces ami ^-uardiuii,- 
the public morals. Still the Athenians were dissatisfied. 
Party dissensions were renewed; and in spite of Solon's 
efforts, Pisis'tratus, who traced his descent to Codrus, 
nianai;;tMl to establish himself as sole ruler, 560 H. c. 

The Tyrants. — Pisistratus the Tyrant * administered 
the g'overnment without either severity or injustice. He 
ornjuniMited Athens with noble buildings, founded the 
first public library in CJreece, and strove in various ways 
to ingratiate himself with the people. 

Hi})'jnas and Hippar'chus, sons of Pisistratus, imi- 
tated the libcM-al policy oi their father. They too encour- 
aged art anil literature, anil so nourishing was At liens 
during their joint reign that their j)erioil has been likened 
to the golden age. But llipparchus was assassinated, and 
after this Hippias became a suspicious despot. In a tew 
years (510 B. o.) he was forced to leave Athens. 

Tyrants also reigned in many of the other Grecian 
states, although in most of them a republiran form of 
government ultimately prevailed. 

Changes in the Constitution. — Shortly after Hippias 
was driven into exile, the constitution was changed so as 
to give the people additional privileges. Ostracism was 
introduced, by which they banished obnoxious persons 
without the formality of trial. An assembly being con- 
vened, they wrote on pieces of pottery {os'fniA-a) the 
name of the one whom they desired to expel. Six thou- 
sand votes against any individual obliged him to withdraw 
from the city within ten days, and remain in exile for at 
first ten, and afterward five, years. 

Under this democratic constitution, Athens ra]udly in- 
creased in warlike spirit and power. 

* This term is liorc used in its original significivtion of ftxpreme nilri; 
witliout iinv reforenee to an abuse of power. 

dHA':* (hVKKi^fAS WAItS. 71 

Graeco-Persian Wars. — Afjonttlj<: iK^f^inning of Uic filtli 
century jj. <:., Uk; Ionian cM\(:h of Asia Minor rclHilK'l 
against Darius, and AtJicn.s sent a (loot to aid tJictn. 'J'liin 
itit<;rf(;rf'jic(! aroused tlic n;s(;ntrnont of the P<-rHian rnon- 
arfii, who, lliai In; iiiifi;}it \)('. continually nrnindcd of tlio 
insult, required a servant eaeli day at dinner to exclaim 
three times, "Master, rememh(;r the Athenians!" 

In 492 a. c, iJarius dispatcfied an expedition against 
Greece, hut it ini^loriously failed. 15(;fore making a sec- 
ond attempt, he sent envoys to demand from the several 
states earth and water, the usual tokens of submission. 
Many of the cities yielded ; Fmt Athens and Sparta an- 
swered hy throwing the Persian heialds into pits and 
wells, and bidding them ll]<rf^ find earth and water. 
These rival states now laid asid<; their jealousies, and jjre- 
pared to meet the common foe. 

Ba'jtlk ok MAitA'iuoN. — On came the army of Darius, 
commanded by his ablest generals, with directions to con- 
quer Greece and bring back the Athenians in chains. Not 
dreann'ng of def<;at, they took with them great blocks of 
marble, to raise a monument in commemoration of their 
victory. After some success(;s in the ^gean Sea, tF^e 
Persians disembarked on the coast of Attica. Advancing 
to the plain fjf Marathon (see Map, p. 40), 120,000 strong, 
they found an army of ]0,00() Athenians drawn up to 
meet them (490 a. (•.). 

An urgent message had been sent to the Spartans for 
assistance. They at once prepared to aid their allies; but 
as their religious notions prevented them from starting 
till the moon was full, they arrived too late to take part 
in the engagement. The honor of the day, however, was 
shared by the city of Plataja (pla-te'd), which promptly 
sent all its fighting men to the support of the Athenians. 
The Greeks, under Miltiades, advanced to the charge at a 
quick pace ; the Persians, withstanding their attack for a 


short time only, wore soon in lieadlong flip;lit. Six thou- 
sand of their number were left dead on the field, and the 
survivors returned to Asia in such of their galleys as 
escaped destruction. 

Miltiades became for a time the idol of the Athenians. 
But on liis failing in a subsequent expedition, the ungrate- 
ful people cast him into prison, where he died of a wound. 

Ostracism of Aristides. — Aristi'des the Just, and 
Themis'tocles, an aspiring statesman to whose ambitious 
spirit the trophies of Miltiades would allow no repose, 
now became prominent at Athens. But political differ- 
ences sprung up between them, and through the intrigues 
of his rival Aristides was ostracized. While the people 
were voting, a stranger to Aristides, unable to write, 
handed him a potsherd, and asked him to jilace on it the 
name of Aristides. " What harm has he done you ? " said 
the honest patriot, complying with the request. " None," 
the man replied; "but I am tired of hearing him called 
the Just." 

Aristidfes left his country, praying that nothing miglit 
happen which would make the Athenians regret his ab- 
sence. His hopes, however, were not realized, for he was 
soon recalled to aid Themistocles in repelling a formidable 
Persian invasion. " Themistocles," he said when they 
first met, " let us still be rivals, but let our strife be which 
best may serve our country." 

Expedition of Xerxes. — Xerxes, the successor of Darius, 
had long been raising a great army from all parts of the 
Persian Empire. It is stated that his forces numbered 
o^■er two millions of soldiers, besides slaves and attend- 
ants, and that they drank rivers dry on their march. 

To reach Greece, the Persians had to cross the Helles- 
pont. The first bridge constructed for their passage was 
broken up by a violent storm ; which so enraged Xerxes that 
he beheaded the workmen who had been engaged in its 


erection, ordered the sea to be scourged with a monstrous 
whip, and had heavy chains thrown into it as symbols of 
its subjection to his control. Another bridge was soon 
built ; and over it for seven days and nights without ces- 
sation poured the living throng, glittering with the wealth 
of the East — the largest army ever raised by man. 

ThermopylJ3. — Athens, meanwhile, under the direction 
of Themistocles, had prepared for the approaching strug- 
gle by equipping a powerful fleet. Sparta and many of 
the other states, forgetting their internal differences, 
united with her for the common defence. 

At the Pass of Thermop'ylte, a narrow defile leading 
from Thessaly into lower Greece (see Map, p. 40), the 
Persian myriads were confronted by a handful of three 
hundred Spartans under their king Leon'idas, supported 
by about six thousand allies from the other states. Xerxes 
sfcornfully bade them give up their arms. " Come and 
take them," was the undaunted reply. The Persian king 
supposed that the little band would soon fall back, but 
finding that they stood their ground at last gave direc- 
tions for the attack. 

For several days the Persians, who were driven into 
the fight by the lash, were held in check; but at length a 
secret path leading to the rear of Leonidas was betrayed 
to the enemy. Surrounded now by hostile multitudes, 
Leonidas prepared to die in his country's behalf, for an 
oracle had declared, "Sparta or her king must perish." 
After making frightful havoc in the barbarian ranks, the 
heroic Spartans were at last overwhelmed beneath the 
darts and arrows of their assailants, 480 B. c. 

Salamis. — The Persians now advanced into Attica 
and burned the capital. But the Athenians had previous- 
ly retired in their vessels to Sal 'amis, for the priestess at 
Delphi had warned them that Athe'ne could not save her 
beloved city. " When all besides is lost," said the oracle, 
" a wooden wall shall still shelter the citizens ; " and it was 



generally believed that by a wooden wall were meant the 

The fleet was accordingly made ready, and in the great 
naval battle of Sal 'amis the genius of Thi'niistocles over- 
threw the Persian squadron. Xerxes, who, clad in royal 
robes and seated on a throne of gold, watched the engage- 
ment from a neighboring hill, hastily fled. He left 350,- 


000 men to continue the war, but these were completely 
routed the following year (479 b. c.) in the battle of Pla- 
tiie'a, by Aristides and the Spartan king Pausa'nias. 

The same day a victory was gained at My c 'ale in Asia 
Minor, over the Persian forces in Ionia. Only a miserable 
remnant of the invading host escaped into Asia, 


Athenian Supremacy. — Athens was quickly rebuilt and 
strongly fortified by its energetic inhabitants. Under the 
able leadership of Ci'mon, son of Miltiades, they achieved 
many brilliant successes over the Persians, and saw their 
city beautified with treasures wrested from the barba- 

But the age of Pericles (469-429 B. c), who rose to 
])ower on the ostracism of Cimon, was the proudest pe- 
riod of Athenian history. His aim was to make his na- 
tive city the seat of art and refinement, and procure for 
her the supremacy of Greece. Success crowned his ef- 
forts. Athens became a grand imperial city, extending 
protection to the less powerful states, and exacting from 
them in return obedience and tribute. Her fleet was mis- 
tress of the eastern Mediterranean ; wealth flowed into 
her treasury ; and most of the islands of the ^gean, with 
many colonies and conquered territories, acknowledged 
h(!r sway. 

Sparta, meantime, viewed with jealousy the ascendency 
of her rival ; while the arrogant conduct of Athens alien- 
ated the subject-allies. Boeotia rebelled, and the Athe- 
nian army, at first successful, suffered a disastrous defeat in 
the battle of Corone'a (447 b. c). Other revolts followed; 
and at last the whole Grecian world became involved in a 
struggle known in history as the Peloponne'sian War. 

Grecian Literature and Art. — The literature of no 
country, ancient or modern, has exerted so powerful and 
lasting an influence as that of Greece. The genius of her 
poets, orators, and philosophers, bore fruit that has ever 
since been the admiration of the world. 

After Homer composed his glorious epics, Greek lyric 
poetry took its rise. Alca3us (600 b. c.) invented a metre 
known by his name, and the graceful Sappho so excited 
the admiration of Greece that she was called " the tenth 
Muse." Solon, on hearing one of her poems read, de- 


clared that he would be unwilUng to die till he had 
learned it by heart. 

Pindar was distinguished for the grandeur of his odes ; 
yEschylus [es'ke-lus) was the creator of tragedy ; Tlia'les, 
of Mile'tus, one of the Seven Sages, founded the Ionic 
school of philosophy ; and Pythag'oras, that which bears 
his name. With such reverence did his disciples look up 
to Pythagoras, that when asked the reason of their belief 
or practice they were wont to answer, as the shortest way 
of silencing all objection, " He himself said so ; " whence 
the current Latin phrase // dixit. 

In the fifth century b. c. flourished Herodotus, " the 
father of history," to whom we are indebted for many 
delightful stories of the olden time, — and Socrates, the 
immortal philosopher. Plato, the illustrious disciple of 
Socrates, who taught in the grove of Academus, embodied 
the great ideas of his master in Dialogues so replete with 
sublime conceptions that Cicero said, " If Jupiter were to 
speak Greek, he would use the language of Plato." 

The age of Pericles was the golden period of Grecian 
art and literature. Soph'ocles, the tragic poet, called by 
the ancients the Attic Bee, then brought the drama to 
perfection ; and Eurip'ides, his contemporary, excelled in 
the representation of passion and the delineation of char- 
acter. On his cenotaph was inscribed, " All Greece is the 
monument of Euripides." The comic poet Aristoph'anes 
also began his dramatic career ; of him it was said, 
" Nature made but one, and broke the mould in which he 
was cast." 

Phid'ias, the sculptor, adorned Athens with the choicest 
works of genius. The rocky height of the Acrop'olis 
glittered with statues and temples, above which towered 
a bronze Minerva of colossal size, visible to the mariner on 
the distant ocean. The Par'thenon, Minerva's temple, 
was adorned with an ivory statue of the goddess, the 



work of Phidias ; but the masterpiece of this artist was 
the immense figure of Jupiter in the temple at Olympia, 
sixty feet high, made of ivory draped with gold. 

KuiNs OF THE Parthenon. 

Painting also flourished ; Pol-yg-no'tus and other art- 
ists embellished Athens with their pictures, and helped to 
make her the glory of Greece. The sculptured figures of 
the Acropolis were exquisitely painted, and Greek statues 
generally were made life-like with color. 

SOO B. C. — Republican Athens recognized as the head of Greece. 
Persian Empire widely extended under Darius. Ionian colonies of Asia 
Minor in rebellion against Persia. Rome, under consuls, the scene of 
struggles between plebeians and patricians. Confucius in China. 




The Peloponnesian War (431-104 b. c.) is the name 
given to a long- struggle for supremacy between the two 
great representatives of aristocracy and democracy, Athens 
and Sparta. The other states arrayed themselves on either 
side, partly according to their political sympathies and 
partly according to race — the Ionian Greeks for the most 
part aiding the Athenians, while the Dorians of the Pelo- 
ponnesus supported Sparta. 

A slight cause sufficed to provoke hostilities. Corcyra 
{kor-si'rd\ an island in the Ionian Sea (Map, p. 40), hav- 
ing appealed to Athens for aid to meet a threatened attack 
of Corinth, an Athenian fleet was sent against the Corin- 
thians. Corinth complained to the Peloponnesian Alliance 
at Sparta, other states brought charges against Athens, 
and finally war was declared. 

A Spartan army was soon overrunning Attica ; but 
Pericles gathered the people within the walls of Athens, 
and confined himself to naval operations on the Peloj)on- 
nesian coasts. He would not risk an engagement with 
the Spartans, replying to those who demanded to be led 
against the enemy, " Trees cut down may shoot again, 
but men are not to be replaced." 

The crowded condition of the city brought on a pesti- 
lence, which carried off the inhabitants by thousands, and 
among them Pericles himself. His death left Athens, at 
this critical period, in the hands of demagogues, who were 
ready to sacrifice the public interests to their own selfish 
purposes. After several triumphs, followed by reverses, 
the Athenians in 422 b. c. met with a decisive defeat, and 
the next year peace was made. 

Cabeee of Alcibiades. — Hostilities, however, were 


soon recommenced, principally through the influence of 
Alcibiades {al-se-bi' a-deez), the nephew of Pericles, an 
able statesman, but dissolute, vain, and ambitious, as he 
was sagacious and brave. It is told of him, in illustra- 
tion of his character, that the business of a public assem- 
bly was once stopped till the people caught and brought 
back to him a pet quail which he carried around in accord- 
ance with an Athenian custom, and on this occasion pur- 
posely allowed to escape in order to show his importance. 

This popular leader formed the bold project of con- 
quering Sicily, and persuaded his countrymen to fit out an 
armament for that purpose. The command was shared 
by him with two others. But the Athenians recalled Al- 
cibiades before their fleet reached Syracuse; and the ex- 
pedition, deprived of the genius that might have made it 
a success, proved a disastrous failure. Athens, instead of 
acquiring wealth and glory, lost her ships and army, the 
command of the ocean, and the allegiance of her subject- 

For a time the downfall of the state was stayed by the 
genius of Alcibiades, who, after having taken refuge in 
Sparta and at the court of a Persian satrap, was restored 
to the favor of his countrymen and to command ; but the 
fickle people again disgraced him, and he left Athens (407 
B. c), to return no more. Not long afterward, while he 
was living in Phrygia, a body of armed men sent by his 
enemies to take his life and afraid to attack him even with 
superior numbers in fair fight, set fire to his house, and 
dispatched him with their weapons as he rushed forth 
sword in hand. 

Fall of Athens. — Soon after Alcibiades went into 
exile, Athens lost its independence. Lysan'der, the com- 
mander of the Spartan fleet, captured the Athenian squad- 
ron at the battle of vE'gos Pot'amos {goafs river), in 
the Hellespont. Lysander next blockaded the city itself. 


and with the aid of a Peloponnesian army led by the 
Spartan kings, took it when reduced by famine, 404 b. c. 
Thus imperial Athens was humiliated ; her fortifications 
were destroyed; and Sparta her rival became the arrogant 
mistress of Greece. 

The history of the Peloponnesian War was written by 
the contemporary historian Thucydides (tliu-skV-e-deez), 
the Athenian, in a style universally commended for its 
conciseness and energy. 

Oppressive Rule of Sparta. — The Greeks, by destroy- 
ing the supremacy of Athens, simply exchanged masters. 
Instead, however, of the yoke of a polished state, they 
now wore that of harsh, rapacious Sparta. She had as- 
sumed the character of Liberator of Greece; but her tri- 
umph was followed by the establishment of oligarchies in 
the Grecian cities, and despots supported by her arms 
wielded unlimited power. 

At Athens the democratic constitution was abolished, 
and the government was placed in the hands of thirty 
aristocrats. These men, notorious in history as the Thirty 
Tyrants, ruled with injustice and cruelty. But their reign 
of terror was quickly ended by a band of Athenian ex- 
iles. The Thirty were defeated in battle, their leader was 
slain, and democracy re-established, 403 b. c. 

The unjust doom of the guileless Socrates darkens the 
next page of Athenian history. He was the most enlight- 
ened of heathen sages, inculcated the immortality of the 
soul, and looked above the absurd mythology of his native 
land for something higher and purer to believe. Charged 
with setting up new deities and corrupting the young, he 
was sentenced to drink the fatal hemlock. In vain his 
friends provided means of escape, and besought him to 
fly. He firmly refused to violate the laws, and calmly 
drained the cup of poison in the midst of his weeping 


Expedition of the Ten Thousand. — During the latter 
part of the Peloponnesian War the Spartans had been 
aided by Cyrus the Younger, the Persian viceroy in Asia 
Minor. Cyrus embraced the Spartan side, in order to se- 
cure the co-operation of the most warlike of the Greeks 
in a meditated attempt to force his way to the Persian 

On the death of his father in 405 B. c, the crown fell 
to his elder brother, Artaxerxes II., called Mnemon (ne'- 
nion) on account of his good memory. Cyrus tliere- 
upon made preparations to displace Artaxerxes, and col- 
lected a force of more than 10,000 Spartans and other 
Greeks, concealing from them at first the object of his ex- 

In 401 B. c, these, with 100,000 barbarian troops, 
marched from Sardis into the territories of the Great 
King. But at Cunax'a they encountered Artaxerxes with 
900,000 men ; and, although the Greeks were victorious, 
Cyrus was slain. 

The barbarian followers of Cyrus now quickly dis- 
persed, and the Greeks were left alone in the midst of 
enemies. Their generals were soon after entrapped and 
murdered by the Persians ; but they immediately chose 
new leaders, the most famous of whom was Xenophon the 
Athenian. The latter conducted them with remarkable 
prudence through incredible dangers and sufferings to the 
Grecian colonies on the Black Sea. 

Xenophon has given an account of this memorable 
Retreat of the Ten Thousand in his Anab'asis, one of the 
ornaments of Grecian literature. It has been said of 
Xenophon, " The Graces dictated his language, and the 
goddess of persuasion dwelt on his lips." 

War with Persia. — Incensed at the assistance given by 
Sparta to Cyrus, Artaxerxes now prepared to retaliate. 
But the splendid victories of her king A-ge-si-la'us in 


Asia Minor caused the Persian monarch to tremble on his 
throne. Unfortunately, in the midst of his brilliant career 
Agesilaus was obliged to return, for his country was in 
(lang-er from the neighboring states, bought up by the 
bribes of Artaxerxes. " 1 have been conquered by thirty 
thousand Persian archers," bitterly exclaimed Agesilaus, 
as he re-embarked, alluding to the dar'ic, a Persian coin 
which bore the image of an archer. 

In the struggle which followed, called the GorinthiaTi 
War, Sparta lost nuich of her naval power, but retained 
her predominance in Greece by the shameful Peace of 
Antal'cidas (387 B.C.), which left the cities of Asia Minor 
completely at the mercy of Persia. 

SelHsh Sparta profited by this treaty ; but Greece gen- 
erally, weakened by intestine strife, lay helpless at the 
feet of the Great King, who now assumed the character 
of arbiter in the Grecian quarrels. " Alas for Greece ! " 
said Agesilaus, Sparta's best citizen and greatest com- 
mander ; " she has killed enough of her sons to have con- 
quered all the barbarians ! " 

Theban Supremacy. — The domineering aggressions of 
Sparta continued after the Peace of Antalcidas. In 382 
B. o. the citadel of Thebes was seized by Lacedaemonian 
troops, and a tyrannous oligarchy established in that city. 
Three years later, a band of Theban exiles, headed by the 
patriot Pelop'idas, restored the independence of their 
country by a bloody revolution. 

Thebes now rapidly rose to greatness, through the tal- 
ents and virtues of Pelopidas and Epaminon'das his friend. 
The famous victory of the Thebans at Leuc'tra (371 b. c), 
in which 4,000 Laced;vmonians together with their king- 
were slain, secured for Thebes the sovereignty of Greece. 
While the issue of the battle was still doubtful, Epami- 
Viondas animated his soldiers to the final charge by ex- 
claiming, " Only one step forward ! " and the action was 


decided by the resistless onset of Pelopidas, who led the 
" Sacred Baud." 

On tfieir return to Thebes, the Fieroes were brought to 
trial for retaining their command beyond the prescribed 
time, but were acquitted. The enemies of Epaminondas 
tJien tried to dis;^racr; him by having him elected public 
scavenger ; but tlie magnanimous patriot was beyond the 
reach of their malice. " I accept the position," said he ; 
" if it will not reflect honor upon me, I will reflect honor 
on it." 

Invasions of the Peloponnesus. — Following up tlie ad- 
vantage gained at Leuctra, Kpaminondas next entered the 
Peloponnesus, and ravaging the country as he moved on 
threatened the Lacedaemonian capital. But the Spartans, 
aided by their wives and children, prepared for a desperate 
resistance ; and the city, though no walls protected it, was 
saved by the courage of the old Agesilaus. 

Epaminondas, however, recalled the Messe'nian exiles, 
built for them the stronghold Messe'ne, and restored the 
ancient independence of the long-enslaved state. History 
designates this event as the Return of the Messenians 
(369 B. c). 

Jealousy of the power of Thebes raised her up many 
enemies, and in 362 b. C. Epaminondas once more in^ 
vaded the Peloponnesus to re-establish her influence there. 
Sparta was again indebted for safety to the vigilant 
Agesilaus ; but at Mantine'a the Lacedaemonian troops 
recoiled before the furious charge of the Thebans. 

In the very moment of victory Epaminondas fell, 
pierced by a javelin. The weapon remained in his breast, 
nor would his friends remove it, knowing that he would 
die the instant it was withdrawn. The Theban chief bore 
the agony of his wound until assured that his, triumph was 
complete. " Then all is well," he said, and drawing out 
the fatal spear-head, breathed his last. In answer to the 


sorrowinc^ spectators who lamented that so great a man 
died childless, Epaininondas exclaimed, " I leave you two 
fair daughters — Leuctra and M-antinea." 

Epaminondas was a pure, unselfish patriot ; a retined, 
moral, and g-enerous citizen. Cicero calls him the great- 
est man Greece ever produced. 

The battle of jNIantinea, which all Greece watched in 
suspense, was indecisive in its results. Thebes, the head 
of Greece while Epaminondas lived, now sank to her 
former level. The glory of Hellas had departed. Ex- 
hausted by these struggles and torn by the Social and 
Sacred Wars that followed, she rapidly declined. Her 
ruin was due to the mutual jealousies of the several states. 
Disunited and demoralized, Greece at last lay prostrate 
and ready for the spoiler — and in Philip of Macedon the 
spoiler was soon to appear. 

Social Life of the Greeks. — A few particulars as to the 
domestic life of the Greeks at this period, may not be un- 

Their houses were for the most part as plain, as their 
temples and public oditlees were magniticent. The floors 
were of stone, and the walls w'ere white until the time of 
Alcibiades, who was the first that we read of as having 
them painted. The houses generally stood back from the 
street, and the religious sentiment of the residents often 
placed in front of them a laurel-tree or altar, sacred to 
Apollo, or marked some inscription on the door as a good 
omen. The interior consisted of apartments surrounding 
an open court, about which ran porticoes for exercise, 
while in the centre was an altar on which sacrifices were 
offered to the household gods. 

The W'Omen's chambers were entirely separate from 
those of the men ; and the slaves, of which the rich fami- 
lies had a great number while even the poorest citizen 
could boast of one, were domiciled in an upper story, 


reached by stairs on the outside of the house. The roofs 
were flat, and served as agreeable promenades in the cool 
of the day. Curtains were sometimes used instead of 
doors ; and, chimneys being unknown, smoke was carried 
off through openings in the ceilings. Roses and violets 
were cultivated ; and, to set off their beauty and sweet- 
ness, they were planted side by side with onions. 

The Greeks had three meals daily, answering to our 
breakfast, lunch, and dinner. The last, eaten about sun- 
set, was j)repared by the mistress of the house herself, or 
by female slaves under her direction. Fish, poultry, and 
meat, were followed by a lighter course or dessert. The 
Greeks were fond of pork, especially sausages ; and 
beans, lettuce, and cabbage, were their favorite vegeta- 
bles. They ate their soup with spoons ; but helped them- 
selves to the other dishes with their fingers, which they 
afterward wiped on a piece of bread instead of a napkin. 

The men reclined at their meals, a couch being pro- 
vided for every two ; the women and children sat. Guests 
invited to a banquet were met by slaves, who removed 
their sandals, washed their feet, and furnished them with 
water for their hands. Wine was brought in with the 
second course, and then conversation became general, 
riddles were proposed, and those who solved them were 
crowned with garlands. The guests also amused them- 
selves with dice or draughts, and at sumptuous banquets 
musicians and hired dancers contributed to the entertain- 

The dress of the Greeks consisted of a tunic, and an 
outer robe or shawl, called the pallium. The tunic was fast- 
ened round the waist with a girdle, and over each shoulder 
with a large buckle ; but the Athenian women, having on 
one occasion killed with these buckles a soldier who alone 
of his company returned alive from a military expe- 
dition, were afterward required to exchange the short 



sleeveless tunic thus fastened, for a long loose dress with 
flowing sleeves. 

The pallium was square, often bright-colored, and fast- 
ened over the right shoulder with a clasp. No hat or cap 

was ordinarily worn, and in 
case of rairt the pallium was 
pulled over the head as a 
protection ; it also served to 
cover the face with, in case 
of sudden or intense grief. 
Shoes or sandals were used 
by the better classes ; many 
of the lower orders (and 
sometimes even philosophers 
— Socrates, for instance) 
went barefooted. 

Writing was done either 
with ink (generally made 
from soot) on prepared skins, 
bark, or papy'rus ; or with 
a sharp-pointed instrument 
(in Latin stylus, whence our 
word style), on thin sheets 
of lead or layers of wax. A 
well-furnished house had a 
room set apart as a library ; 
and during the glorious days of Athens many private per- 
sons had large collections of books, to which in some cases 
the public were allowed free access. 

Geecian Mateon. 

400 B. C. — Sparta at the head of Greece. Socrates still alive; 
Plato ; Xenophon ; Thucydi'les ; Epaminondas. Artaxerxes Mnemon 
king of Persia. Retreat of the Ten Thousand. Egyjitian independence 
re-established. Dionysius tyrant of Syracuse. Romans besieging Veil ; 
pay given to the soldiers, and taxes levied to defray the increased ex- 



Macedonia (mas-e-do'ne-a) was a mountainous country, 
north of Thessaly. Its early history is uncertain ; but, 
thou<>'h the Macedonians themselves were not Ilelle'nes, it 
is probable that their kings belonged to the Hellen'ic race. 
Tradition relates that some colonists from Argos in search 
of a home, whom the oracle had advised to be guided in 
their movements by the direction of goats, were overtaken 
in their wanderings by a storm near the capital of an early 
prince of this region ; and that, observing a flock of goats 
rushing for shelter to the city, they followed, obtained 
possession of the capital, changed its name to JEgx (e'ge) 
(the city of goats), represented a goat upon their stand- 
ards, and laid the foundations of the Macedonian Empire. 

At the close of the sixth century b. c, Macedonia sub- 
mitted to the Persians ; but it regained its freedom after 
the repulse of Xerxes. A career of conquest followed ; 
and, while the Macedonian dominion was extended, the 
people became brave and habituated to war. During the 
brilliant reign of Archelaus [ar-ke-la'u'^), 413-399 b. c, 
literature and the arts were encouraged. Eminent poets 
visited the Macedonian court, and the royal palace was 
adorned by the painter Zeux'is. 

A story is told of a contest between this celebrated 
artist and Parrhasius (par-ra\^he-us) " the Elegant," a 
painter of equal renown. Zeuxis represented a cluster of 
grapes so naturally that the birds came and pecked at 
them. Elated with this evidence of his skill, he called on 
his rival to draw back the curtain which lie supposed con- 
cealed the work that was to dispute the prize with his 
own. But what he mistook for a curtain was simply the 
ittasterly painting of one, and Zeuxis frankly confessed 



himself defeated, since he had deceived only birds, while 
his competitor had imposed on an experienced artist. — The 
death of Zeuxis was caused by excessive laughter at the 
picture of an old woman which he himself had painted. 

After the assassination of Archela'us (399 B. c), the 
Macedonian state was shattered by a storm of revolutions 
and civil wars. These continued forty years, but were 
at last brought to an end by the accession of Philip II., 
359 B. c. 

Philip of Macedon was a monarch of great ability, elo- 
quent, commanding in mien, and full of resources, but 
withal sensual and unscrupulous. His talents had been 
developed at Thebes, where, as a hostage, he lived in the 
stirring times of Pelopidas and Epaminondas. He there 
became acquainted with the military system of these chiefs, 
studied the Greek character, and acquired that diplomacy 
which afterward gained for him many a bloodless victory. 
Philip improved on the Theban tactics by instituting the 
Macedonian Phalanx — a body finally composed of 16,000 
men, armed with short swords for cutting or thrusting, 
bucklers four feet in length, and pikes so long that those 
of the sixth rank, couched upon the shoulders of the men 
before them, extended in front of the line. 

Aggeessions upon Greece. — Philip boldly encoun- 
tered the dangers that at first beset his throne ; in less 
than two years he triumphed over all his enemies, and 
was free to enlarge his kingdom by aggressive wars. He 
availed himself of the quarrels of the Greeks to seize 
their colonial cities, conquered Thessaly, and took posses- 
sion of the rich gold-mines of Thrace. Through the folly 
of the Thebans he was invited to interfere in the so-called 
Sacred War, and as a victor he was rewarded with a seat 
in the Amphictyonic Council. Thus he gained a controlling 
influence in Greece that materially forwarded his great 
scheme of subjugating the entire peninsula. The indolent 


Athenians, meanwhile, the only people that might have 
checked Philip's career, were cajoled by the crafty king 
and remained inactive. 

There was one at Athens, however, that saw through 
Philip's wiles — the eloquent Demosthenes, who for years, 
despite that monarch's repeated attempts to corrupt so 
formidable an adversary, struggled nobly against him in 
defence of Grecian liberty. In this course he was opposed 
by Phocion {pho'she-0)i), who, though equally incorrup- 
tible and elected general five-and-forty times, was more 
amicably disposed toward Macedon. His concise style 
and common-sense views were quite the opposite of the 
fiery energy of Demosthenes, who, when Phocion arose to 
reply to his harangues, was wont to say, " Here comes the 
pruner of my periods." 

Ch^ronea. — Roused at last by the burning eloquence 
of Demosthenes, Athens and Thebes made a desperate 
stand at Chaeronea {ker-o-ne'a), in Boeotia (see Map, p. 
40), against the Macedonian monarch, who had passed 
Thermopyla3 and was occupying the cities of Greece. But 
the charge of his phalanx proved irresistible. The allies 
were totally defeated ; and while Demosthenes, brave as 
he had been in words, fled from the field, the Sacred Band 
of Epaminondas was cut down to a man, thus gloriously 
dying with the independence of Hellas, 338 B. c. Philip 
remained master of Greece. 

Hegemony of Macedon. — In the following year 
Philip held a congress of deputies from the Grecian states 
at Corinth. The hegem'ony of Macedon was recognized 
by all but Sparta, and her king was appointed commander 
of an expedition which he had long planned against Per- 

Philip now returned to Macedonia, and there when 
flushed with wine he is said to have become incensed at 
his son Alexander, and to have rushed upon him with 


drawn sword. But, overcome with drunkenness, he fell 
upon the floor, and Alexander, pointing at him, scornfully 
said, " See the man who would pass from Europe to Asia 
upset in crossing from one couch to another ! " 

Shortly after this, Philip, in the midst of his prepara- 
tions, was assassinated at the magnificent nuptials of his 
daughter, 336 b. c. 

Alexander the Great. — In the year 356 b. c, the wife 
of Philip of Macedon gave birth to a son. The same day 
on which the king received the news brought tidings of a 
victory over the Illyr'ians, and of another which he deemed 
no less important, gained by his horses in the chariot-races 
at the Olympic Games. Overwhelmed with his good for- 
tune, he exclaimed, " Great Jupiter! in return for so many 
blessings, send me only some slight reverse." The mother 
of the young prince traced her descent to Achilles. The 
son Alexander, known in history as the Great, by his un- 
paralleled deeds rivalled his heroic ancestor. 

In early life, Alexander gave proofs of his military 
genius. He excelled in all manly sports, and when very 
young leaped upon the back of the fiery steed Buceph'a- 
lus, which had hitherto proved unmanageable, and rode 
him with admirable skill. Bucephalus afterward carried 
his master through many campaigns, but never allowed 
any other to mount him. 

At Cheeronea it was Alexander that vanquished the 
Sacred Band of Thebes. After the battle, Philip, charmed 
with his valor, embraced him and said, " My son, seek an- 
other empire, for that which I shall leave you is not wor- 
thy of you." 

Accession of Alexander. — On the murder of his fa- 
ther, Alexander, then in his twentieth year, succeeded to 
the throne. He at once marched to Corinth, and the as- 
sembled states were again compelled to recognize the he- 
gemony of Macedon, while they made him commander-in- 


chief of the Grecian forces in the projected enterprise 
against the Persians. 

Thebes, however, misled by a false report of the young- 
prince's death, rebelled ; whereupon Alexander suddenly 
appeared before the city, carried it by storm, and razed it 
to the ground, sparing only the house of the poet Pindar. 
The Thebans that survived were sold into slavery; and all 
Greece, terror-stricken by this fearful example, abjectly 
submitted to the conqueror. 

Invasion of Persia. — Desiring to consult the oracle 
at Delphi as to his projected expedition into Asia, Alex- 
ander visited the temple of Apollo. But as it was an un- 
lucky day, the priestess refused to approach the shrine. 
The king grasped her arm and drew her forward. " Ah ! 
my son," said she, " you are irresistible." " Enough," ex- 
claimed Alexander, " I desire no other response." 

Having completed his preparations and made Antip'- 
ater governor in his absence, Alexander started for the 
East in 334 b. c. With an army small in numbers but 
invincible in spirit, he fearlessly marched into the Per- 
sian Empire, and won his first great battle at the river 
Grani'cus. This victory secured the conquest of Asia 
Minor and the liberation of the Greek cities from their 
oppressors. Advancing to Gordium, Alexander severed 
the famous Gordian knot, respecting which an oracle had 
said that he who untied it would be master of Asia. Fail- 
ing in his attempts to unravel it, he solved the problem 
with his sword, and in his subsequent career fulfilled the 

At length at Issus (see Map, p. 67) Alexander over- 
threw Dari'us III., the Persian king, 333 B. c. Among the 
trophies of victory were the treasures and family of Dari- 
us. Toward the royal captives Alexander displayed the 
greatest magnanimity, so winning upon the king's mother 
by his gracious and respectful treatment, that, on hearing 


of his death ten j^ears afterward, she veiled her head, 
refused food, and ended her life by starvation. 

The next blows were aimed at Persia through her de- 
pendencies on the Mediterranean. Tyre resisted bravely, 
and Ga'za imitated her example — but in vain. The sub- 
jugation of Egypt followed that of Palestine ; and the 
name of the conqueror was permanently connected with 
this part of his dominions by the founding of the city of 
Alexandria, which was made the capital of Egypt and 
soon became the greatest seat of commerce in the world. 

Darius had improved the interval to raise a million 
efficient fighting men for the defence of his empire. Alex- 
ander hastened to meet them with his little army, and at 
Arbe'la (Map, p. 67) gained a complete victory (331 B. c). 
The rich capitals of Persia now opened their gates to the 
Greeks, and the fugitive Darius was treacherously mur- 
dered by one of his satraps. Alexander wept on behold- 
ing his mutilated body, and buried him with royal honors. 
The traitor was afterward taken, and his fate shows the 
cruel punishments that were sometimes inflicted in those 
days. Two trees were bent toward each other, his limbs 
fastened to them respectively, and their recoil tore his 
body asunder. 

Alexander now had himself proclaimed King of Asia, 
and proceeded to reduce the remoter provinces of Persia. 
A mountain-fortress on a steep rock surrounded with snow, 
for a time delayed his progress, its defenders when sum- 
moned to yield tauntingly asking whether he had winged 
soldiers. But no such obstacle could stay his triumphant 
course. Three hundred picked men, driving iron spikes 
into the ice-bound face of the rock and drawing themselves 
up with ropes, made the ascent under cover of the night; 
and at dawn the barbarians surrendered. Among the cap- 
tives was the princess Roxa'na, " the Pearl of the East," 
who became the bride of Alexander. 


Conquests in India. — The insatiate conqueror next 
passed through what is now Afghanistan', crossed the In- 
dus, and established Greek colonies and towns in the sub- 
jugated territories. One of these, built on the spot where 
his favorite horse was buried, he named Buceph'ala. 

Po'rus, an Indian monarch of gigantic size and strength, 
mounted on his elephant, bravely disputed the march of 
the invaders. Being captured and brought before Alex- 
ander, he was asked what he desired. " To be treated as 
a king," he replied; and his request Avas granted. 

Death and Character of Alexander. — The mutiny 
of his troops alone prevented Alexander from pushing his 
arms into the remote East. He returned to Babylon, his 
intended capital, where he died suddenly, 333 B. c, from 
the effects of the unhealthy climate and his own excesses. 
He was buried in a golden coffin at Alexandria. 

Thus perished prematurely this extraordinary chieftain, 
in the vigor of manhood and in the midst of ambitious 
plans. During his short reign of a dozen years, he made 
Macedonia mistress of half the world. Yet though lord 
of this immense empire, he was a slave to his own pas- 
sions. He surrendered himself to dissipation, and in the 
heat of anger committed deeds that he remembered with 
bitter remorse. While intoxicated at a banquet, he even 
struck down his friend Cli'tus, who had saved his life in 

Occasionally, however, Alexander displayed unusual 
greatness of soul. It is told that a cup of water was once 
offered to him in the desert, but that though parched he 
poured it out in the sand lest his soldiers might feel their 
thirst more keenly by seeing their general alone refreshed. 
The Jews experienced his favor; and the high-priest ex- 
plained to him the prophecy of Daniel relating to himself, 
in which he is described as a goat (see the tradition at the 
commencement of this chapter) coming from the West 


and smiting the ram which had two horns — the king of 
Media and Persia. 

Successors of Alexander. — For twenty years after the 
death of Alexander, sanguinary wars desolated his empire. 
His vast dominions were divided among his generals. 
They soon quarrelled ; but finally the rest leagued to- 
gether against Antig'onus, who aspired to the supremacy 
of the whole. In the battle of Ipsus, 301 b. c, Antigonus 
was defeated and slain, and his kingdom fell to the victors. 

Lysimachus (li-sim'a-kus), already master of Thrace, 
appropriated as his share most of Asia Minor. Seleu'cus, 
whose Syrian Empire included all the countries between 
the Indus and the Euphrates, obtained additional territory 
west of the latter river. Egypt remained to Ptolemy 
{tol'e-my); and Macedon and Greece fell to Cassan'der, 
son of Antip'ater. 

During these struggles the East had profited by its in- 
tercourse with the Greeks. Magnificent cities had arisen, 
the Greek language was widely spoken, and throughout 
western Asia and north-eastern Africa great advances 
were made in knowledge. The famous Muse'um of Alex- 
andria, containing the greatest library of antiquity, was a 
monument of the enlightened munificence of the Ptole- 
mies. — Greece, on the other hand, was weakened and de- 
based by the influence of oriental luxury ; art and litera- 
ture deteriorated, and patriotism died. 

Still gleams of the ancient spirit at times flashed forth. 
The yEtolian and the Achaean League were formed in the 
third century B. c, to resist the oppression of the Mace- 
donian kings. Many cities joined the Achseans, and the 
league for a time wielded great power under the leader- 
ship of Ara'tus of Sicyon ; at last, however, weakened by 
dissensions, it was broken up on the conquest of Greece 
by the Romans (page 115). 

Literature and Art. — We have already mentioned De- 


mosthenes, the greatest orator the world has ever see-n. 
His twelve Philippics, directed against Philip of Macedon 
and full of forcible invective, are justly famous ; but the 
finest specimen of his eloquence is the speech Co7icerning 
the Crown — a golden crown, which it was proposed to be- 
stow on him as a reward for his public services. 

By this oration he vanquished his rival ^schines [es'ke- 
neez), a very able orator, but strongly opposed to war with 
Philip, ^schines was driven into exile, and opened a 
school of oratory at Rhodes. Here on one occasion he 
read to his pupils his own oration on the Crown, and was 
loudly applauded ; he then read that of Demosthenes, 
when his hearers rose to their feet and rent the air with 
acclamations. " Ah ! " said the generous ^schines, " what 
would you have said, had you heard the wild beast him- 
self roaring it out ? " 

The eloquence of Demosthenes was attained only after 
the most persevering labors. Weakness of voice he rem- 
edied by practising on the sea-shore amid the roar of 
ocean ; a defect of speech he removed by declaiming with 
pebbles under his tongue ; and, to escape being tempted 
from his studies into company, he shaved half of his head 
and sought retirement for months at a time in a subter- 
ranean apartment. 

Ar'istotle of Stagi'ra (384-322 b. c), the teacher of 
Alexander the Great, founded the school of philosophy 
called Peripatetic because he used to walk about (in Greek 
peripatein) while giving his instructions. This illustrious 
philosopher, whom Plato called the Intellect of his school, 
has exerted an influence on the minds of men that passes 
calculation. For twenty centuries his authority was para- 
mount. He was the founder of logic and natural history, 
and wrote besides on physics, metaphysics, ethics, and 

Ze'no, who flourislied 300 b. c, was the originator of 



the Sto'ic sect, so called from the Painted Porch (stoa) at 
Athens, in which his disciples assembled, Zeno taught 
the strictest morality. Virtue was the supreme gt)od, and 
was in itself happiness ; pain was no evil ; it was man's 
duty to subdue his passions and submit to the unalterable 
decrees of fate. 

The Epicure'ans, or followers of Epicu'rus, made 
pleasure the chief good ; while the Cynics (sin'iks), pro- 
fessing the most rigid virtue, severe in manners and mean 

Alexander the Great and Diogenes. 

in attire, snarled at everybody like dogs (kunes) — whence 
their name. The most celebrated Cynic was the eccentric 
Diogenes {di-oj'e-neez). He abode in a tub ; and once, 
when basking in the sun, he was visited by Alexander the 
Great. Alexander asked the philosopher if he wanted any- 
thing. " I want you to get out of my sunshine," was the re- 
sponse. Admiring his independence, the Macedonian ex- 
claimed, "If I were not Alexander, I would be Diogenes ! " 


In the third contviry H. <'., Euclid, the father of mathe- 
matical science, ilourished in Alexandria, and Archimedes 
{ar-Jce-me' deez), of Syracuse, made wonderful discoveries 
and inventions in mechanics. Euclid, asked by one of the 
Ptolemies if there was not some easy way of learnino- 
mathematics, replied, " There is no niyal road to geome- 
try." Archimedes, tilled with admiration of the power of 
the lever, whose properties he explained, cried, " Give me 
a place to stand on, and I will move the world." 

Grecian art attained a high degree of perfection in 
the fourth century, under the painter Apel'les and the 
sculptors Lysip'pus and Praxit'eles. The success of Apel- 
les was due to constant application ; " no day without a 
line," was his maxim. Lysippus was distinguished for his 
works in bronze ; and the statues of Venus by Praxiteles, 
combining feminine grace with intellectual dignity, have 
never been surpassed. Alexander the Great ordered that 
no one should paint him but Apelles, and none represent 
him in bronze except Lysippus. 

To this century, also, belongs the stately Mausole'um, 
erected at Halicarnassus by Queen Artemisia, to the 
memory of her deceased husband Mauso'lus. The entire 
edifice was adorned with magnificent sculptures. 

Fourth Century, B. C. — irfnvs.- — War between Persia ami 
Sparta (31t'J-304). Corinthian War (394-387). War between Sparta 
and Tiiebes (379-362). Social War (358 -355). Saered War (357-346). 
Philip's War.s in Thessaly (355-352). Philip's Wars with the Grecian 
States (343-337). Alexander's Career of Conquest (334-323). Wars 
among Alexander's successors (323-301). 

Alexander seems to have contemplated the organization of the world 
into one great empire under himself, with Babylon for its capital — the 
dominant races of the East and West to be bound together by intermar- 
riage, education, commercial intercourse, and the ti-ansplanting of com- 
munities from one country to another: — a grand scheme of one of the 
foremost men of the ancient world. 



(509-264 Jl. C.) 

Tyranny of the Patricians. — On tlic uholitioii ol' mon- 
archy in Uoni'-, 1!. ('. 509 (see pag-o GO), a republican con- 
stitution was adopted, 'I'lio g'overninont was intrusted to 
two Consuls, chosen annually; while the senate, enlarged 
by the addition of new iiienibers {coiiHCfipti), gradually 
acquired incn^ased inlluence in the state-. 

As long as they feared the restoration of Taiquin, the 
]iatricians willingly made concessions to the commons ; 
but, when that danger was removed, they ruled with op- 
pressive severity. The poor })lebeians, from time to time 
reduced to pc^nury by the plundering incursions of hostile 
tribes, were compelled tj) borrow from the richer citizens, 
who could use or sell them as slaves, or even put tlufin to 
death, if they failcul U) pay their debts. 

Secession of the Plebeians. — At last, driven to desper- 
ation by their sulTerings, the plebeians resolved to endure 
the cruelty of the patricians no longer. Accordingly, in 
the year 4!)4 B. c, they withdrew from Rome with the in- 
tention of founding another city on the Sacred Hill, in 
the vicinity. The nobles, however, seeing in this sepa- 
ration the ruii! of the state, speedily acceded to the de- 
mands of the people;. All those held for debt were liber- 
ated, and magistrates called TrU/tmes, whose persons 
should b(! inviolate, were appointed to protect the com- 
mons from their oj)pressors. 

Early Italian Wars. — While internal dissensions thus 
threaten(Ml the veiy existence of the Roman state, con- 
tinual wars were waged with the surrounding nations. 
Immediately after the expulsion of the kings, a conspiracy 
was formed at Rome to restore Tarquin to his throne, 

L cfC, 


It was detected in time to save the young- republic, and 
the consul Brutus was dismayed to find that his own two 
sons had participated in it. Painful as was the duty, he 
pronounced the sentence of death upon them, and with 
tearless eyes beheld them first scourged and then beheaded. 

Disappointed in this attempt, Tarquin applied for aid 
to the Etruscans (see Map, p. 57), and persuaded Porsen'- 
na, king of Clusium {kin' she-ion), to make common cause 
with him against Rome. Porsenna defeated the Roman 
army, and was about to cross the Tiber and occupy the 
city, when Horatius Codes {ho-ra' she-us ko'Meez) took his 
post on the bridge, and with two brave companions faced 
the Etruscans. While the three held the opposing host 
in check, their countrymen hewed down the bridge. As 
the last timbers fell, Horatius, who a moment before had 
bade his comrades leave him, sprung into the river, and 
made his way across, unhurt b}' the hostile darts that 
rained about him. 

Three hundred 3'oung Roman nobles now bound them- 
selves by an oath, for their country's sake, to attempt in 
succession the life of Porsenna ; and Caius Mutius {ka'jpis 
mii'she-iis) was the first to cross the Tiber and enter the 
enemy's camp in fulfilment of the compact. By mistake 
he stabbed the royal scribe, and was at once apprehended. 
Porsenna's menaces of torture he treated with contempt, 
quietly thrusting his right hand into a camp-fire, and 
watching it burn to a crisp without a groan. Struck 
with this exhibition of fortitude, Porsenna set his pris- 
oner free and soon after concluded a treaty with Rome. 
Thenceforth Mutius was known as Scaevola (sev'o-la), " the 

The Eatins were next induced to take up arms in be- 
half of Tarquin ; but with their defeat the hopes of the 
exiled family were finally overthrown. During this war a 
Dictator with absolute power was for the first time ap- 


pointed by the Romans — a precedent which was afterward 
followed when extreme danger threatened the state. 

Coriolanus. — A league was now made with the Latins ; 
but wars continued with the Volsci (vol'si) and ^qui 
(e'qui), two nations of Oscan origin that repeatedly rav- 
aged the territories of Rome and Latium {lci!s1ie-ti'm). 

On one occasion, the Volsci came sweeping all before 
them, almost to the very walls of Rome, led by Coriolanus, 
a distinguished patrician general, who, banished by the 
people from his native city, had taken refuge among them. 
In vain the senate supplicated for peace ; the vindictive 
Coriolanus would make no terms, until a train of noble 
ladies with his wife and mother at their head approached 
the Volscian camp. Against their tears and entreaties he 
could not remain proof, and exclaiming, " Mother, thou 
hast saved Rome, but lost thy son ! " he bade them fare- 
well and withdrew the hostile army. One account makes 
him to have been put to death by the disappointed Volsci; 
another, to have lived to old age in obscurity and exile. 

Cincinna'tus, a patrician renowned for his integrity, 
rescued the Roman army from the ^qui (458 B. c). The 
consul's forces having been surrounded in a narrow valley, 
Cincinnatus was made dictator. He received the message 
of the senate, informing him of his appointment, while at 
work on his farm; when, hastening to the city, he raised a 
new army, surrounded the enemy in turn, took them pris- 
oners, and compelled them to pass in disgrace beneath the 
yoke* — all this in twenty -four hours. Cincinnatus then 
entered Rome in triumph, was rewarded with a golden 
crown, and resigning the dictatorship returned to his 
humble farm. 

The Decemvirate. — After many years of violent con- 

* Tlie Komans compelled their captives to pass under what they called 
" the yoke ; " which consisted of two erect spears, supporting a third at 
such a heij^ht that he who went beneath was oljligod to stoop. 

102 THE ROMAN KKrri'.l.IC. 

toil! ions hoi \vo(Mi i\\o (wo orders, a hoard ot" tcMi iiia<>-is- 
tnitos, distino-uishod as /h'enn'vf'rtt, was instituted (451 
u. o.), to dio-est the laws into a written code. Thev were 
endowed with supnMiie powtM-, and for the time took the 
plaee of ail other ollieers. Their athninistration was satis- 
i'aelory; and at the elose of th(> lirst term, the vodc hc'mir 
not \c\ linished, a new S(>t of (h^cenivirs was eleete(h 

But tiie second (hH'onivirate, under th(> asctMideney of 
Appiiis Claudius (44!) «. v.), beeaiuc an odious tyranny. 
A jrross act of injustice led to its overthrow. When Ap- 
pius, to obtain possession of a fair Uonian maiden, ad- 
jud<>;od her as a slave to one ol' liis ereatures, her fatluM- 
\'ir«;inius, to save h(M- from dishonor, sheathed his knife 
in iier bosom, crying-, "This is the only way, my child, to 
k«M^p thee free !" Then rushing from the forum* lo the 
camp, he roused the soldiers to revolt. 

A lunudt meanwhile broke out in the eitv, and the 
decemvirs weiv obliged to lle(\ The i)lebeians next retired 
in a body to the Saennl Hill, and the dissolution of tlu> 
state w-as again inuninent. Ontlu^ alidii-ation of the de- 
cemvirs, however, tlu^ commons i-(^(urned, and th^' tribunate 
and consulship were restored. Appius Claudius ]nit an 
end to his own life; but the code of the decemvirs, known 
as "tlu> Laws of tlie Twelve Tables," remained in force 
for many generations. 

It was not long before i)lebeians and jiatricians were 
allowed by law to intermarry, and the ollice of "military 
tribune with consular power," which could be hekl by 
either commoner or noble, w\as substituted for the consul- 
ship. In 443 B. 0., Ce/)Sors were first elected ; their duty 
was to take the census, manage the finances, and guard 
the public morals from corrupting influences. The censor- 
ship was regarded as the highest dignity in the state. 

* The tonini was an >inoovorod place sot apart for the iidniinistration 
of justii'O and the niootins; of tlio popular assonibly. It contained the 
ron/ro, or stntje iVom wliicli orators addressed llie iieojile. 



Tfio vvarliko oiiorg-ios of the Romans continued to bo 
developed by contests with their predatory neighbors. 
Veil {ve'i/i), a splendid city of the Etruscans, withstood 
them for ten years, but finally had to yiohl to the strateg-y 
of Camillus (390 a. c). 'J'liis skillful general was after- 
ward charged with embezzling a portion of the plunder. 

Geoup of Ancient Oauls. 

and went into exile. At the gates of Rome, he called 
upon the gods to visit his country with such calamities as 
would necessitate his recall. 

The Gallic Invasion. — At this very time hordes of Gauls, 
a fierce (Jeltic race, under their chief f3rennus, were ravag- 
ing northern and central Italy. Soon after, they crossed 


the Tiber, poured down its valley throuo-h the countiy of 
the Sabines, defeated a Koinau army that had been sent 
against them, and took and burned the city. A brave 
garrison, however, for several months defended the capi- 
tol. The besiegers scaled the hill in a night attack. But 
a flock of geese, which the starving soldiers had spared be- 
cause they were sacred to Juno, gave the alarm to Marcus 
Manlius by their cackling, and the capitol was saved. 

The enemy finally agreed to raise the siege for a thou- 
sand pounds of gold, and then tried to extort more than 
the amount by using false weights at settlement. Bren- 
nus would listen to no remonstrance, but threateningly 
cast his sword also into the scale, exclaiming, " Woe to 
the vanquished ! " 

Before the payment was completed, Camillus, who had 
been recalled and again made dictator, appeared at the 
head of an army. " With iron," he cried, " not with gold, 
Rome buys her freedom ! " and straightway fell upon the 
Gauls, and put them to a disastrous rout. Some doubt 
this story, and make Brennus to have escaped with the 

Rome was quickly rebuilt. The neighboring states, 
however, availed themselves of her apparent helplessness 
to renew their attacks, while the commons, impoverished 
by their losses in the late invasion, were again made to 
feel the tyranny of the nobles. The genius of Cajnillus 
at this critical juncture saved the republic; and Manlius, 
who declared that no one should be enslaved for debt so 
long as he had a pound of brass, won tlie title of Father 
of the Commons by his generous deeds. 

The Licinian laws, passed 366 b. c, did much to relieve 
the existing distress. Lands out of the public domain 
were granted to the poor; and the consulship was restored, 
with the provision that one of the two chief magistrates 
should be a plebeian. 


Conq^uest of Italy. — Up to this time Rome had been 
but one of several states occupying the peninsula ; we 
now come to the period when she absorbed the rest. 

Accepting the offer of the Campanians to become her 
subject-allies if she would protect them against the Sam- 
nites, Rome began hostilities with the latter people, 
340 15. c. Samnium was a formidable rival, and the strug- 
gle for supremacy continued for half a century. The 
Sanmites defeated the Roman army at the Caudine Forks 
(;319 B. c), but their power was finally broken in the de- 
cisive battle of Senti'num (see Map, p. 57). In 290 b. c. 
the consul Curius Deniatus invaded their country, and 
completed their subjection. 

The Samnites had in vain attempted to buy Dentatus 
over to their cause. Their messengers, on arriving, found 
him seated on a rude bench eating out of a wooden bowl. 
He scornfully rejected their offered bribe, saying that a 
man content to live as he did, had no need of gold. 

Meanwhile the Latins and their allies were overthrown 
in the battle of Mt. Vesuvius (337 b. c). It was during 
this contest that the consul Manlius Torqua'tus ordered 
his son to be beheaded for engaging with the enemy, 
though successfully, in violation of his orders. 

The Gauls and Etruscans were afterward subdued ; nor 
were the Roman arms less fortunate in Magna Grtecia. 
A pretext was soon found for declaring war against the 
Greek city of Tarentum. Feeling themselves no match 
for Rome,* the Tarentines summoned Pyr'rhus, king of 
Epi'rus (see Map of Greece, p. 40), to their aid. 

War with Pyrrhus. — In 280 b. c, Pyrrhus appeared in 

* Several of the cities of Magna Graecia were noted for their luxury 

and effeniinacv. The Tarentines aiv said to have had more festivals than 


there were days in the year ; at Syb'aris, it was unlawful to keep a cock 
or to pursue any trade which was accompanied with noise, lest the slum- 
liers of the people might be disturbed. 


Italy. He brought with him elepliants trained for war, 
the unwonted sight of which threw the Roman cavahy 
into confusion and won for him two hard-fought battles. 
Victories, however, that cost him so many men, he foresaw 
would be fatal. As he surveyed the scene of carnage after 
his lirst triumph, and beheld the stalwart forms of the 
dead Romans, with their resolute features and not a single 
wound behind, his appreciation of their valor burst forth 
in the words, " Had 1 such soldiers, how easily could I 
become master of the world ! " 

In a third battle, the Romans under Curius Denlatiis 
attacked the elephants with liiT-hi'aiids, and badly dd'eat- 
ed the king, who spet'dily withdrew from Italy. 

Pyrrhus could not hel]) ailmiring the simple manners 
and blunt honesty of the Romans. On one occasion he 
sought to gain over Fabricius {/'a-brish'e-tis), who had 
been sent as a messenger from the senate, by offei'ing him 
more gold than Rome had ever seen. " Poverty with an 
honest name," replied Fabricius, " is more to be desired 
than wealth." 

When the physician of Pyrrhus afterward proposed to 
Fabricius, then consul, to poison his master, the indignant 
Roman sent liim back in irons, and Pyrrhus out of grati- 
tude set free his prisoners. " It were as easy to turn the 
sun from his course," he exclaimed, " as Fabricius from 
the path of honor." 

This same Fabricius is memorable for his extreme fru- 
gality, and when censor removed from oHice a senator be- 
cause he possessed ten pounds of silver plate. Another 
distinguished Roman of the day was Appius Claudius 
the Blind. To him Rome owes its first great aqueduct, 
as well as the famous Appian Way — the queen of Moman 
roads — leading from that city to Capua (see Map, p. 112), 
a distance of 125 miles. 

Shortly after Pyrrhus embarked, Tarentum submitted ; 


arifl in tlio year 205 n. c. Rome was the mistress of all 

800 B. C. — Rome absorV)inf^ the other Italian states ; rjlebcians 
enjoying eijual liglits with patricians. Carthage rising in importance, 
but disturbed by factions. Population of Athens : — free, about 125,000; 
slaves, about 400,000. Macedonia under Cassandcr. Seleucus at the 
head of the Syrian Empire. Ptolemy So'ter king of Egypt ; Alexandria, 
his capital, a great seat of learning. Jews under Ptolemy, and trans- 
l)lant,ed in great number.s to Egypt. The high-priest, Sirnon the Just, 
completes the canon of the Old Testament. 


(264 146 B. C.) 

Carthage is supposed to have been founded in the 
ninth century B. C. ; when Dido, flying' from her cruel 
brother Pyjnrjna'lion, led a party from Tyre in quest of new 
abodes. This little settlement was the germ of a great 
commercial nation. The Carthaginians, or Pccni * (pe'ni), 
gradually extended their authority over the neighboring 
tribes, and also over other Phoenician communities on the 
African coast. They soon got together a powerful navy, 
and by the end of the sixth century B. c. their empire 
comprised dependencies in Africa as far west as the Pil- 
lars of Hercules, part of Sicily, colonies in Spain, the 
Bal-e-ar'ic Isles, Corsica, Sardinia, and many smaller isl- 

The government of the Carthaginians was republican ; 
their religion, idolatrous, like that of their forefathers, the 
ancient Canaanites. They worshipped the sun, as the 

* Whence the adjective Punic; equivalent to Cartliar/inian. 


first principle of Nature, uiuler the name of Ba'al or Mo- 
loch (///o'A'/'), and offered human sacritiees. 

Sicilian Struggles. — In Sicily the l\vni were luou<;ht 
into collision with the Greek colonies, ami for more than 
two centuries contended with them for the possession of 
this rich island. Dionysius [di-o-/ti/i/i'e-Uii), the Tyrant of 
Syracuse (405-367 b. c), gained some brilliant victories 
over the Carthaginians, but was unable to expel them 
from Sicily. 

With a taste for literature which made him a patron 
of poets and philosophers, this prince was withal suspi- 
cious and vindictive. One of his prisons, called the Ear of 
Dionysius, was a whispering-gallery so constructed that 
by stationing himself at a particular point he could over- 
hear the unguarded words of those confined. 

The lesson he taught Dam'ocles is often referred to. 
This flatterer, having expressed his admiration of the lux- 
ury and pomp of royalty and accepted the invitation of 
the tyrant to try it for a time, was placed on a purple 
couch, surrounded with every thing that could please the 
senses, and served with an exquisite banquet. Damocles 
was at the summit of happiness; till, on casting his eyes 
upward to the fretted ceiling, he iliscovered a s^vord sus- 
pended over his head by a single hair. His pleasure was 
now at an end. " Such," said Dionysius, " is the happi- 
ness of kings, threatened by constantly impending dan- 

After the death of Dionysius, the struggle with the 
Cai'thaginians was continued, but witliout any decisive 

First Punic War. — A collision between the growing 
power of Rome, now extended over all Italy, and Carthag'e, 
the mistress of the Mediterranean, was inevitable. It had 
been foreseen by the sagacious Pyrrhus, who had found 
time during his Italian campaign to cross to Sicily and 

lUirill OV ROMAN NAVA", TOWKK. 109 

fif;spoil many of the i^inic towns. " What a fine battlo- 
lield," he exclaimed on re-embarking^, "are we leaving to 
the (Carthaginians and Komans ! " 

Hostilities were precipitated by the course of events. 
The Mamertines, a band of (Jampanian adventurers, hav- 
ing taken possession of Messana and massacred the male 
inhabitants, the Carthaginians and Syracusans laid aside 
their animosity to unite against them. The Mamertines 
appealed to the Romans for protection, claiming to be 
d'scended like them from Mars {Mumer.f)\ an assem- 
bly of the people voted to aid them, and an army was 
sent into Sicily. The Romans were generally successful, 
and Hi'ero, the Syracusan king, was soon glad to make 

Birth of Roman Naval Power. — The Carthaginians, 
however, were still masters of the sea; and the Romans, 
to protect their maritime towns, found it necessary to pre- 
pare a naval force without delay. Patterning after a 
I'unic vessel wrecked upon their coast, in a few weeks they 
had constnicted a litindred war-ships furnished with bridges 
for boarding, and had made efficient crews out of landsmen 
who perhaps had never before handled an oar — a feat un- 
j>aralleled in history. This squadron closed with the Car- 
thaginian fleet, and took or sunk nearly a hundred vessels 
(2G0 B. c). The consul Duil'lius, who commanded it, was 
fionored with the first naval triumph * at Rome. 

Regulus. — Another successful action on the sea en- 
couraged the Romans to invade the Carthaginian domin- 
ions in Africa with a powerful armament (256 B. c). The 
flourisfiing country, covered with villas and rich olive- 
groves, was overrun and pillaged, and one cjf the consuls 

* A triumph was the greatest military honor tliat could be conferred 
on a victorious commander. It consisted of a procession, in which ap- 
peared the conqueror clad in purple, accompanied by his army decked 
with laurel and bearint^ the spoils taken from the foe. (See p. 142.) 


returned to Rome with the spoils. His colleao-ue Reg-'ulus 
rciuuiued to conduct the war ; but after taking- some two 
hundred places, among them Tu'nis, he was defeated and 
made prisoner by a Spartan general wlK)m tlie eneniy had 
placed at the head of their troops. 

After several years of captivity Regulus was sent to 
Rome, to effect an exchange of piisoners and propose 
peace. lie was first required to swear that he would re- 
turn if unsuccessful; but on appearing before the Roman 
senate, instead of advocating peace, he represented the 
exhausted state of the enemy, and induced his country- 
men to decline the overtures of Carthage. Disregarding 
the tears of his family and the entreaties of his friends, he 
then went back to meet the fate which he knew was in 
store for him, and soon after, if we may believe the story, 
perished under exquisite tortures. 

The First Punic War continued until 2-il h. c, when, 
after being again vanquished at sea, the Carthaginians 
yielded to the severe terms of the Romans — agreeing to 
pay, in silver talents, about $3,500,000, and to give up 
Sicily. The western part of this island was annexed to 
the Roman republic as its first province, but Syracuse was 
allowed to retain its independence. A most flourishing 
period in the history of that city followed ; while at Rome 
the temple of Janus was closed for the first time since the 
days of King Numa. 

Ulyrian and Gallic Wars. — The commerce of the Adri- 
atic and the neighl)oring waters had long suffered from 
the depredations of Illyr'ian corsairs. These were de- 
stroyed by the Roman fleet, 229 B. c. 

A few years later, a formidable Gallic inroad was 
checked with great slaughter, and the territory of the in- 
vaders overrun in turn to the foot of the Alps (222 B. c). 
The tract thus conquered became the province of Cisal- 
pine Gaul ( Gaul on this side of the Alps), and was con- 


nected with the capital by the Flaminian Way, a road 
built by Flamin'ius the censor. 

Second Punic War. — During- this interval, Carthage was 
gathering fresh strength to resume her quarrel with Rome, 
The possessions she had lost were counterbalanced by new 
conquests in Spain. Here towns sprung up, commerce 
flourished, and silver from the rich mines of Carthage'na 
(then Carthago Nova, New Carthage) flowed into the 
home treasury. The Spanish princes sought alliance with 
the new-comers, and their undisciplined subjects were 
trained to war by experienced orticers. 

Such was the improved condition of Carthage when 
Hannibal became commander-in-chief of her armies (220 
B. c). This prince in his boyhood had been led to the 
altar of Baal by his father Hamil'car, and there sworn to 
cherish undying enmity to Rome. In accordance with his 
vow, Hannibal now fell upon Saguntum, a city which had 
for years been allied to Rome (Map, p, 112), and thus 
precipitated hostilities with the hated republic. 

At the head of a veteran army, he next set out for 
the invasion of Italy, crossed the Rhone in the face of 
a hostile tribe, and led his troops and elephants through 
the snows of the Alps down into the country of the friend- 
ly Gauls (218 B. c). After recruiting his exhausted sol- 
diers, he twice routed the Roman armies, and established 
his supremacy in northern Italy. The following year, the 
consul Flamin'ius was defeated and killed in an engage- 
ment fought with such fury that an earthquake which took 
place while it was going on was utterly unobserved. 

Rome was now saved by the prudence of Fa'bius, who 
was made dictator. Giving no opportunity for a decisive 
battle, but watching every movement of his enemies, cut- 
ting off their supplies and wearing them out by the neces- 
sity of constant vigilance, he won for himself the re- 
proachful title of Cunctator^ or Delayer, but gained for 

HI'ICONK rilNlO VVAU. I 1,5 

Ilis roiiiidyiiicii lln- liiiic iicc<|((l Idi li((,iiiM- oiil new ar- 


(\\NN.K. ( )m (lie cxitiial ion of (Imi Icnri of I<'n,biu8, 
tin- coiimiiiiHl Irll iiilo oilier liiiiid.s, :iii(l in XJl<> it. (i. oc- 
curnMl tlio jz^'iciii (li,sa„sl«'r of Cann.i' wlii<;li cohI (lie Koinaiis 
nearly HO, 000 men. 'riiounaiids of rin^s f^'iiLlioriul IVoiu tlit! 
hands of nolilcs wlio lay dead u])()ii tiut Hold were sent an 
tropliicH to CartliajU'e. 

Tlic road now lay open (o iioinc. "I yd, nic advarico 
in.sranlly with i\u' hor'sc,'" in-^cd (,h(^ coinniaiidcr of (ho 
(lavaliy, "and in fonr days Ihoii shall, hii|) in (Im capil.ol." 
Ilannilial I'ld'ii.scnl. "Alas!" said (Ik^ disa|i|)oiii( rd oWtc.i-r^ 
" Ihon know<'Sl how to ^'uin a victoiy, hut nol, how to use 

Al'tci- (h(^ halllo of ( 'ann.i', llaiinihal vvilhdicw his 
army (o vvcallhy ( !a|t'iia, which oitcncd its j^a,t<'S wilhixd- 
H'sistanoo. Soutlw^in Italy ^(winally d(i(!la,i'<id lor I Ik; vi<v 
tor-, and Ma<rcdon and Syra,(Mis(' also joined the ( 'artlwij^in- 
ians. Hut K'ouie si ill refused lo Iceal, and niaiulained IIk^ 
war not only in Italy hut also in Spain. lVla(!(!don was 
k<'|)t husy in (ilnuHre, and Mareelliis laid sie^^'e to Synu)UH(^ 

Sil'Ullo Oh' SyrAOUHIC. — l''or inonlhs (his I'anioiis eity, 
which had hallled both Athens and ( 'arlha^c, was suecutsH- 
lully d(d'end(ul by tlu! fj;'eniuH of An-hiiut/des. li(5 con- 
trived stuj)endous (Mi^ines wliicili diHcliar^'ed niaHHes of 
si one, and huf^o iron j^Ta,p))los that Htii/od th(! lionian ships 
wIkii (hiry approa,ehe(l the walls, raised them in the air, 
and dashiid tlicMU into the wafer. i b* is also said (o liav(* 
s(^t lire to the hostile (l(U'(, by mea,ns of mirrors, and so (er- ' 
rilied (h(' Ivoniaiis with his ma(;hines that at the si^'ht of 
a rope or stit^k on i\\^'. walls (h<iy lle(| in dismay. 

A( lenj^th the walehl'ulness of the Syra<'U.siins r<lax(!d 
<luriiif^ a. festival of Diana, and (he city lell inio the hands 
of Marcelhis (212 li. <•.). Durin;^' the saitk that followe.l, 
Arehimcrdes was enj^agHid in study, wIkui a Roman soldi<5r 


rushed upon him and bade him follow to JNIarcollus. 
" Wait," said the philosopher, " till I have finished this 
problem ; " whcreui)on the soldier, incensed at his delay, 
drew his sword and killed him. 

Close of the War. — Meantime their luxurious city 
quarters were enervating the soldiers of Hannibal, while 
Rome, straining every nerve for the struggle, was rapidly 
gaining ground. A Roman army finally threatened Capua, 
and Hannibal made reprisals by an attempt on Rome. 
His Numidian horse swept up to the very walls, and he 
himself is said to have thrown a javelin into the city. But 
while he thus gained no solid advantage, his army was 
gradually melting away, and his only hope lay in receiving 
reinforcements from Spain. 

Here his brother Has'drubal had defeated and killed 
two Roman generals. The arrival of Publius Cornelius 
Scipio {sip'e-o), however, quickly changed the aspect of 
affairs; and by the year 206 b. c, the Carthaginian power 
in Spain was destroyed. Before this Hasdrubal had left 
to join Hannibal with his army, and Rome was threatened 
from both north and south. 

But the junction was never effected ; for Hasdrubal's 
army was cut to pieces, and its leader slain. His disfig- 
ured head, flung into the camp, was brought to Hannibal, 
who cried on beholding it, "Ah! Carthage, I see thy doom." 

Somewhat later the Romans sent an army into Africa, 
and Hannibal (after an absence of nineteen years, fifteen 
of which were occupied by his campaigns in Italy) was 
recalled to defend his country from Scipio ; but without 
success. The battle of Zama (202 b. c.) annihilated the 
last hope of Carthage, and forced her to submit to a dis- 
graceful peace. Thus ended the Second Punic War. In 
honor of his great victories, Scipio was surnamed Africa'- 
nus ; and Hannibal, who is justly ranked among the great 
captains of antiquity, to escape falling into the power 


of Rome, finally took poison, which he always carried 
about his person. 

Macedonian and Syrian Wars. — Macedon's siding with 
Carthage in this struggle led to a war with Rome, in which 
the Macedonians were vanquished on the field of Cyn-os- 
ceph'a-lfe [Dogsheads — the name of a ridge of low hills in 
Thessaly), 197 b. c. The superiority of the Roman legion 
over the unwieldy Macedonian phalanx, by reason of its 
greater quickness of movement, was here clearly proved. 

Next followed a war with Anti'o-chus the Great of 
Syria, which resulted in his overthrow at Magnesia in 
Lydia (see Map, p. 40), 190 b, c. From the spoils of this 
war the Romans were enabled to bestow magnificent re- 
wards on their allies, the Rhodians and the king of Per'- 

Pergamus was a little kingdom of western Asia, which 
arose after the dismemberment of Alexander's empire. 
Its capital rivalled Alexandria in the encouragement of art 
and literature, and also with its famous library of 200,000 
volumes. In 133 b. c. Pergamus was bequeathed to the 
Roman people by its king At 'talus III., and it was made a 
province under the name of Asia. 

Conquest of Greece. — In 179 b, c. the throne of Mace- 
don fell to I'er'seus, who burned to revenge the humilia- 
tion of his country. Rome penetrated his designs, war 
was declared, and in the battle of Pyd'na (168 B. c.) the 
consul Paulus ^Emilius effected the destruction of the 
Macedonian army. Rome now became the arbitress of the 
civilized world. 

The Achasan League was subsequently overthrown in 
a brief war ; and the capture of Corinth by the consul 
Mummius (146 b. c.) completed the conquest of Greece. 
Macedonia and Greece became Roman provinces, the lat- 
ter under the name of Achaia [a-Jca'ya). 

Third Punic War. — The same year that saw the fall of 


Corinth witnessed also the demolition of Carthage. As 
this city began to recover something of its former pros- 
perity, the jealousy of the Romans revived. Moved by 
the constant denunciations of Cato the Censor, who never 
rose to speak or vote on any subject without adding the 
words, '' I also think tliat (^arthage should be destroyed," 
they required the Carthaginians to level their capital to 
the dust and abandon its very site. 

This was too much even for a conquered people ; they 
preferred a hopeless resistance. All classes labored inces- 
santly to strengthen the fortifications of the city ; pris- 
oners were set free, and their chains forged into weapons; 
statues, vases — even gold and silver, wore melted down 
for the same purpose; and the women braided their ilow- 
ing locks into bow-strings for their defenders. 

Despite these elTorts, Scipio, the Younger Africa'nus, 
took the city, and burned it to the ground. Its territories 
were converted into the province of Africa. As he looked 
upon the ruins of this once rich and powerful metropolis, 
Scipio burst into tears, and exclaimed, " This may here- 
after be the fate of Rome." 

Jewish History. — During the period of the Punic Wars, 
the Jews suiYered from the tyranny of the Syrian kings. 
In the year 170 b. c. Jerusalem was pillaged, and the sec- 
ond Temple plundered of its sacred treasures. The sanc- 
tuary was afterward profaned with sacrifices to Jupiter. 

Deliverers were found in the heroic IMattathi'as and 
his son Judas, who founded the Maccabe'an line. The 
Maccabee princes restored the independence of Jude'a and 
largely extended its boundaries. 

Roman Literature. — While Rome was gaining immor- 
talitv by her victories, we find her also advancing in the 
field of literature. During the last century of battles and 
conquests flourished the dramatic poet Liv'ius Androni'- 
cus (340 B. c); Na3vius {ne've-ns), who treated of the First 

WAii IN 8PAIN. 117 

Punic War in Verso, and to lii.s cost satirized the nobility 
in his comedies; Ennius, "the father of Latin song;" and 
the comic poets Plautus and Terence. 

After the fall of Corinth grammarians and philosophers 
flocked to Rome from Achaia, a taste for Greek culture 
prevailed, and the young patricians were carefully in- 
structed in the Greek language. 

200 B. C. — Roman arin.s wi(l(;ly victorious. Carthage in liiimilia- 
tion af'ti;r the battle of Zatna. Egy[)t, fifty years )>efore the chief mari- 
time state, now fallen from its greatness. Antiochus the Great at tiie 
head of the Syrian Empire of the Seleucidaj (ne-lu'iie-de). The Jews under 
Antiochus. Attains I. king of Pergamus. Kingdom of Parthia, formed 
250 B. c. by a revolted province of the Syrian Empire, rising to power. 


War in Spain. — The conquest of the Spanish peninsula 
was by no means completed with the expulsion of the Car- 
thaginians. Not only was a guerrilla warfare maintained 
by th(! freedom-loving natives under the Lusita'nian chief 
Viria'thus and other leaders, but Nuinantia, a town of the 
Celtibe'ri, successfully resisted the Roman arms till Scipio 
Africanus the Younger was sent into Spain. 

He invested Numantia, and the inhabitants, reduced 
to starvation by more than a year of siege, slew their 
wives and children, fired their city, and perished in the 
fhinies {\%\ v.. v.). 

Degeneracy of Manners. — As Rome extended her pow- 
er, the manners of the people became corrupted by inter- 
course with the conquered nations. Grecian luxury gradu- 
ally took the place of that stern virtue and honest poverty 

lis ()(»!, DKN AOlO OF 'I'lIK ROMAN WKl'lT.I.K^ 

wliicli liiul clcvMlcd the old Komaii cluiracloi-. Ivic^lioa 
llowcd into Italy, and with (liciii caiiic extravagaiuc and 
cnVniiiiacy. ( 'on! last the I'xpoii.sivo loasts of the Ivoniaiis 
ill this ai;(^ \vith tlu> l'ru<i,al meals of the early pati'icians; 
or Brutus, leailess al the execution of his children, with a 
senator who \vej)t at the d(>ath of a, favorite iisli! 

Cato, lirni in his attac^lnnont to the ancient morals and 
simplicity, in vain tried to stem the current. \ ic(> of (nery 
sort by decrees <>ainc^d a foothold in Komo. As a result 
of the many wars, slaves multiplied to an alarminf>- extent. 
Numl)(>rs of these were trained as <>-la(liators. ()thers cul- 
tivated the public lands; while the ])oor Roman freeman, 
since the Lieinian law was no lon{>er enforced, could scarcc^- 
ly make a livini;-. 

Reforms of the Gracchi. — Moved l)y the distress that 
prevailed amoni;- the lower classes, Tiberius Gracchus, 
tribune of (he commons, propostnl a law for the ecpiitable 
division of the public domain amon<)' the ])oor, and the 
employment of fretMnen instead of slaves in the (udtivation 
of the soil. His measures, after <>r(>at opposition, were 
passed (ll}l{ n. c). liut, on his following- these with other 
obnoxious propositions, he was assaulted and killed b\' (h{» 

The fate of his (dder brother Tiberius did not ]>r(>vent 
Caius Gracchus from pursuin<i,' a similar course in the in- 
terest of the people, when in 1;^3 n. o. he was chosen 
tribune. J^ut the nobles, ajijain resorting' to violence, put 
down his ft)llowers by force; and Caius, to escape them, 
bade an attendant plunge a dag'g'or into his breast (121 n. c). 

Tiberius and Caius were the sons of Cornelia, the 
daughter of Seipio Africanus, to whose memory a statue 
was raised by the Konuins, inscribed with the words, " The 
Mother of the Gracchi." 

Jugurthine War.— In the midst of the extreme political 
corruption which followed the death of Caius Gracchus, 


war broke out with Jugurtha. This prince had taken vio- 
lent possession of all Numidia, on the northern coast of 
Africa (see Map, p. 112), after causing the death of two 
kinsmen, to whom portions of the kingdom rightfully be- 
longed. For a time he secured impunity by buying up 
prominent men, whose readiness to accept his gold led 
him to exclaim of Rome, " Ah ! venal city, and destined 
quickly to perish if it can but find a purchaser ! " 

At length the war was vigorously conducted by the 
consul Metellus, and was brought to an end by Caius Ma'- 
rius. Jugurtha was carried to Rome in chains, and with a 
death by starvation paid the penalty of his crimes. 

Marius, a soldier of humble birth, had won the esteem 
of Scipio in the Numantine War. Asked on one occasion 
where the Romans would find so great a general when he 
was dead, Scipio placed his hand on the shoulder of Mari- 
us, and said, ''Perhaps here." 

Teutones and Cimbri. — While the Romans were prose- 
cuting the war in Numidia, the Teu'tones and Cimbri, 
from the forests of northern Europe, descended in hordes 
upon the provinces. Several armies were cut to pieces by 
these fierce barbarians, whose gigantic stature and savage 
valor struck terror even into the Romans. At last Italy 
itself was threatened with invasion, 105 B. c, and affright- 
ed Rome looked to the conqueror of Jugurtha as the only 
man who could save the state. 

Marius was accordingly made consul. In two battles 
he overthrew with great slaughter, first the Teutones, and 
then the Cimbri, who were drawn up in a body nearly 
three miles square. By these victories he acquired great 
influence, and in 100 b. c. he was elected consul for the 
sixth time. 

Civil War of Marius and Sylla. — Rome was now on the 
eve of a severe struggle with Mithrida'tes the Great, king 
of Pontus, next to Hannibal the most formidable adversary 


she ever encountered. This monarch made himself master 
of all Asia Minor, defeated the armies of the republic that 
were sent against him, and (b. c. 88) instigated, or at least 
allowed, the massacre in one day of 80,000 Roman resi- 
dents in the towns of Asia. 

At this juncture the conduct of the Mithridatic War 
was given by the senate to Sylla, the favorite of the aris- 
tocratic party, as Marius was of the people. Indignant 
at the elevation of his rival, Marius endeavored to wrest 
from him the command. Sylla, however, led his legions 
into the capital, defeated the Marian party in the streets, 
and drove the gray-haired "saviour of Italy" from the 

Discovered near Minturnae, Marius was thrown into a 
dungeon, and a Cimbrian slave sent to murder him. " Bar- 
est thou kill Caius Marius?" demanded the old Roman, 
confronting the assassin with determined mien; the Cim- 
brian quailed before the man who had destroyed his nation, 
dropped his weapon, and fled. 

Soon after this Marius obtained his freedom and es- 
caped to Africa ; whence, after Sylla's departure for the 
East, he hastened back to Rome on the invitation of the 
consul Cinna. Together they entered the city with a force 
made up of the very dregs of Italy ; for several days the 
houses were abandoned to pillage, and the streets were 
dyed with the noblest blood of the capital. 

Marius now seized on the consulship. In his youth 
seven eaglets once dropped into his lap — an omen, as it 
was believed, that he would be seven times chief magis- 
trate. The omen was thus verified. A few days after- 
ward, worn out by excessive drinking and fear of Sylla's 
return, he died (86 B. c). 

Sylla's Return. — Sylla's career in the East was a series 
of victories. Athens, which had revolted to Mithridates, 
was taken by storm ; Greece and Asia Minor were recov- 


ered ; and the king submitted to a humiliating peace. 
Sylla was thus left at liberty to return to Italy. 

He lost no time in wreaking a bloody revenge. The 
friends of Marius and all attached to the democratic party 
were mercilessly slaughtered. The names of those con- 
demned to death were entered on proscription-lists, and a 
reward was offered for their heads. The possession of 
property was a sufficient off^ence. " Alas ! " exclaimed one 
who read his name among the doomed, " my villa is my 
destruction." Even whole states of Italy which had sided 
with Marius were depopulated, and the lands parcelled out 
among Sylla's partisans. The atrocities of Sylla and Ma- 
rius cost the lives of 150,000 Roman citizens. 

As perpetual dictator, Sylla next made various changes 
in the government favorable to the senate; but after three 
years' enjoyment of the office, he retired to a life of sen- 
sual indulgence. He died of a loathsome malady, 78 B. c, 
his last act illustrating his bloodthirsty disposition. Learn- 
ing that one of his debtors delayed paying in the hope of 
being released from the obligation by his death, he had 
the man brought in and strangled before him. 

Pompey the Great. — The successor of Sylla as head of 
the aristocratic party was Cneius [ne'yus) Pompey. In 
return for his services in crushing out the adherents of 
Marius in Sicily and Africa, he had been saluted by Sylla 
with the title of Great; but the dictator's jealousy had at 
first refused him a triumph. " The nation is more ready 
to worship the rising than the setting sun," said Pompey; 
and by his persistence he obtained the honor. 

In 77 B. c. Pompey was sent by the senate into Spain, 
where Sertorius, a Marian leader of signal ability, had 
reared a powerful kingdom among the Lusitanians, and 
successfully defied the armies of Rome. The rude Span- 
iards believed that Sertorius was favored by the gods, for 
he persuaded them that a tame white fawn in his posses- 


sion had been given him by Diana, and that it revealed to 
him important secrets from heaven. 

Sertorius was at leng^th slain by conspirators, and then 
Pompev was not lono- in reconciuerino^ Spain. 

War of the Gladiators. — During. Pompey.',s absence, a 
number of gladiators, led by the Thracian Spar'tacus, es- 
caped from Capua, and joined by thousands of slaves and 
felons of the most dangerous class, filled Italy with the 
horrors of a servile war. After four Roman armies had 
been routed, Crassus, the richest patrician of his time, suc- 
ceeded in scattering the insurgent force. 

Five thousand escaped toward the Alps, but were 
dispersed by Pompey, who was returning from Spain. 
"Crassus has overcome the gladiators in a pitched bat- 
tle," ran his boastful dispatch to the senate, " but 1 have 
plucked up the war by the roots." 

Pompey's Eastern Conquests. — Pompey's next achieve- 
ment was the destruction of the Mediterranean pirates ; 
after which he obtained the connnand against Mithridates, 
who had renewed the war with Rome, 75 b. c. In two 
years the struggle was ended, and Mithridates, driven 
from his kingdom, put an end to his disappointments by 

Syria and Palestine were next reduced ; and on his re- 
turn to Rome the conqueror was honored with the most 
magnificent triumph the city had ever seen. 

Conspiracy of Catiline. — Meanwhile Rome had been 
saved by Cicero the consul from a formidable conspiracy. 
The leader of the plot was Catiline, one of Sylla's most 
depraved and dangerous creatures, who had imbrued his 
hands in the blood of his nearest kindred. Having gath- 
ered a band of youthful desperadoes burdened with debt, 
he proposed to fire the city, slaughter the leading men, 
seize the government, and plunder the treasury. 

The plan was defeated by the wary measures of Cicero, 


who exposed Catiline before the senate, and apprehended 
the principal conspirators. Catiline fled from the city, 
but was defeated and slain (G2 B. c); while Cicero was 
hailed as tJui Father of his Country. 

First Triumvirate. — When Pompey returned from the 
East, he found prominent in the state three distinguished 
men : Cato, great-grandson of the old censor, firmly at- 
tached to liberty and justice ; Cicero, who had attained 
distinction by his eloquence ; and Julius Caesar, whom 
Sylla had spared, though in him he beheld many Mariuses. 
Cgesar's ruling passion was ambition ; once, when passing 
a wretched village, he remarked, " I would rather be first 
here than second at Rome." 

Through Caesar was formed the famous league called 
the First Trium'virate {coalition of three men) between 
himself, Pompey, and Crassus. The object of the trium- 
virs was to maintain their own power. Accordingly Cice- 
ro, whose opposition they feared, was banished; and Cato, 
chief of the senatorial party, was sent on a distant expe- 
dition. Cnesar secured the government of the two Gauls 
(Cisalpine and Transalpine) for five years, and afterward 
a continuance of his command for an equal time. 

Conquests of Caesar in Gaul and Britain. — In nine years 
(58-50 B. c.) Citsar reduced to complete subjection the 
numerous Gallic tribes beyond the Alps (see Map, p. 124), 
and made the Germans also, across the Rhine, feel the 
weight of his conquering arm. 

He found the Gauls a tall and fair-complexioned race, 
with blue eyes, and long, reddish hair. The nobles wore 
collars and bracelets of gold. It was the custom of the 
warriors to cut off the heads of the enemies they had slain, 
and embalm them as memorials of their valor, to be handed 
down through succeeding generations. 

The Germans (war-meti) were barbarians of unusual 
size and strength, inured to cold and hunger, dependent 



on the chase and the produce of their flocks. They pre- 
ferred death to servitude, and to survive the fall of their 
leader was an indelible disgrace. Women fought beside 
their husbands, beneath the sacred standards ; and those 
who fell in battle were not only immortalized by the bards, 
but were believed to have a passport to eternal happiness. 

Priestesses in 


Aq'ucB Cal'idce. 



Tu' rones, 







white robes 
prophesied, and 
offered human 
victims to their 

In the years 
55 and 54 b. c, 
Caesar twice in- 
vaded Britain, 
which at this 
time appears to 
have been di- 
vided into pet- 
ty states. He 
tells us that the 
chief authority 
in both politi- 
cal and relig- 
ious affairs was 
exercised by 
priests called 
Druids, who ad- 
ministered justice, appointed the highest officers, and per- 
formed all public and private sacrifices. They regarded 
the oak as sacred, and held the mistletoe in special rev- 

The natives of Britain, though they resisted Caesar's 
invasion with great bravery, shared the fate of their Gallic 



British Scttuk-beaking Chariot. 

neighbors ; and the southern portion of the island was 
nominally subjected to Rome. 

Civil War of Caesar and Pompey. — While Cassar was 
winning glory by these victories in strange lands, Crassus 
was killed during a war with the Parthians, who had erect- 
ed a powerful em- 
pire between the 
Euphrates and 
the Indus. The 
Partliian king 
filled his head 
with melted gold. 
" Sate thyself," 
he exclaimed, 
" with the metal 
of which in life 
thou wast most greedy." Pompey and Qesar were thus 
left masters of the Roman world. 

But there was not room for both. When Pompey per- 
suaded the senate to deprive Caesar of his military com- 
mand, the latter at the head of his devoted legions crossed 
the Ru'bicon,* overran Italy, entered the capital, and as- 
sumed the office of dictator. Pompey, who had boasted 
that if he only stamped with his foot an army would start 
from the ground, fled without striking a blow. Not thus, 
however, did he give up the strife. With a large army 
collected in Thessaly, he met Caesar on the plain of Phar- 
salia (see Map, p. 40), but suffered a total defeat (48 b. c). 

From this disastrous field Pompey escaped to Egypt, 

* The Rubicon (see Map, p. 112) was a small river which formed the 
boundary of Caesar's province ; by crossing it with an army, he virtually 
declared war against the government. Well may he have paused, as we 
are told he did, upon the brink. The current expression, crossing the 
Hubicon, therefore, is applied to the taking of a decisive step which com- 
mits one to a certain course. 


only to be perfidiously murdered there as he was about to 
land. The ruling Ptolemy, although under obligations to 
him, was persuaded to commit this crime ; for, said his 
counsellors, " if we receive him, we shall make Caesar our 
enemy and Pompey our master." When, on the victor's 
arrival, the head of his former friend and son-in-law (Pom- 
pey had married Julia, Caesar's daughter) was shown to 
him, he wept bitter tears, and directed that an honorable 
burial be given to the remains. 

Having placed the beautiful Cleopa'tra on the throne 
of Egypt after a conflict in which Ptolemy was killed, 
Caesar marched against the son of Mithridates. The 
speedy overthrow of this prince he announced in the brief 
sentence, "I came, I saw, 1 conquered." 

The renmant of Pompey's adiierents, which had rallied 
in Nortiiern Africa, was next dispersed; and Cato, unwill- 
ing to survive the liberty of his country, stabbed himself 
at Utica. The generous C:vsar would have spared him. 
" I grudge thee thy death, O Cato ! " he said, " as thou 
hast grudged me the saving of thy life," 

Caesar now became perpetual dictator. He knew that 
a republican government was no longer practicable in 
the factious atmosphere of Rome. The consummate gen- 
eral was no less sagacious a statesman, and his civil ad- 
ministration was marked by many salutary reforms. The 
calendar was improved by the introduction of an additional 
day every fourth year (leap-year), and from him our month 
of July received its name. 

Murder of Caesar. — The dictator's ambition at length 
provoked a plot against his life among the friends of lib- 
erty, with Brutus and Cassius at its head. It was on the 
Ides (ISth) of March, 44 b, c, that the attack was made 
upon him in the senate-house. At first he resisted, and 
wounded one of his assailants ; but when he saw a dagger 
in the hand of his friend Brutus, he cried, " Thou too, O 


Brutus ! " and covering his face with liis mantle, fell at the 
foot of Pompey's statue, covered with wounds. 

On the eve of his assassination, the question was raised 
at a social gathering ' what kind of death was the best?' 
"That" Cajsar promptly answered, "which is least ex- 
pected." He had been repeatedly warned by the sooth- 
sayers " to beware of the Ides of March," and as he was 
going to the senate-house on the fatal day, he met one of 
them and smiled as he said, " The Ides of March are come." 
"Yes, CjEsar," the augur replied, " but not yet past." 

Thus perished the greatest man that Rome, some say 
the world, ever produced, remarkable at once for wit, 
learning, eloquence, statesmanship, and military genius. 

1 OO B. C. — Julius Cffisar ))om. Pompey and Cicero six years old. 
Marius the sixth time consul. Greece a Roman province. Mithridates 
the Great, head of a powerful kingdom in Asia Minor. The stem virtue 
and lofty purpose of the old Roman character giving way to profligacy 
and vice. Exactions and oppressions increasing in the provinces. 


Second Triumvirate. — When Brutus plucked his dagger 
from Ciesar's body, he turned to Cicerf) and cried, " Re- 
joice, O father of our country ! for Rome is free." But 
there was little cause for joy, unless it was to be found in 
the horrors of civil war. Mark Antony, the friend of the 
dictator, so inflamed the populace by his funeral oration 
over the corpse that Brutus and Cassius had to seek safety 
in flight. 

Antony seized the opportunity to advance his own 
power, and was rapidly following in Cfesar's foot.steps 


when the youthful Octa'vivis, grand-nephew and heir o2 
Julius Caesar, came forward to dispute with him the lead- 
ership of the people and the foremost place in the com- 
monwealth. He courted the favor of all parties, and even 
secured the support of Cicero, whose famous " Philippic 
orations " drove Antony from Rome. 

A reconciliation, however, was soon effected with Oc- 
tavius ; and they two, with Lep'idus, who had been an 
officer of Julius Czesar, met on an island in a small river of 
northern Italy (43 B. c.) and formed the Second Trium- 
virate. The provinces and legions were partitioned among 
the triumvirs, and each agreed to sacrifice such of his 
friends and even kindred as were obnoxious to the others. 

A reign of terror ensued ; no house was safe from pil- 
lage, no age or rank escaped. Senators and knights were 
butchered, and among the rest the patriot Cicero fell a 
victim to the implacable Antony. His head was exposed 
in the streets of Rome, and Antony's inhuman wife pierced 
with her golden bodkin the tongue that had pronounced 
the eloquent Philippics. 

PMlippi. — Secure at home, the triumvirs now moved 
against " the liberators," Brutus and Cassius, who had 
established themselves with a strong force in Thrace. 
Two engagements took place at Philippi (42 B. c). In 
the first, Octavius was defeated by Brutus ; but Antony 
routed the wing commanded by Cassius, who, believing 
the day was lost, committed suicide. Twenty days later 
Brutus himself was worsted, and found death by a friendly 
sword. Many patriots imitated his example; and his wife 
Porcia, the daughter of Cato, is said to have destroyed 
herself by holding burning coals in her mouth. 

Pompey's son, who had been sweeping the Mediter- 
ranean with a fleet, was now crushed ; Lepidus was re- 
moved from the Triumvirate, and in 36 b. c. the Roman 
world had but two masters. 


Civil War of Octavius and Antony. — A desperate game 
was now to be played, with Rome for the stake, Octavius 
enjoyed the i'avor of the people, whom he had won by his 
liberality and the prestige of his victories. Antony, on 
the other hand, in his eastern provinces, had become noto- 
rious for reckless dissipation. 

Bewitched by the charms of the fair but wicked Cleo- 
patra, to which even the great Caesar had yielded, he lost 
sight alike of his own honor and of the public interests, 
and plunged with her into all kinds of extravagance. She, 
striving to outdo him, on one occasion, at a banquet, dis- 
solved in vinegar a rare pearl of inestimable value, and 
swallowed it before her astonished guest. 

So reckless was the course of the infatuated Antony 
that hostilities could not long be deferred. Octavius took 
the field against him, and off Actium [ak'she-Km) his fleet 
encountered the combined squadrons of Antony and Cleo- 
patra. In the heat of the battle, the queen spread her 
purple sails in flight ; her fifty galleys followed ; and An- 
tony, madly giving up everything to his disgraceful pas- 
sion, started after her, and left the empii-e of the world to 
his rival (31 b. c). 

The fugitives escaped to Alexandria, whither they 
were pursued by the conqueror. After a futile attempt to 
defend the city, Antony was driven to desperation by the 
defection of his fleet and army, and put an end to his life. 
Cleopatra was made captive ; but, finding Octavius proof 
against her blandishments, and resolved not to be taken 
to Rome to grace his triumph, she applied an asp to her 
arm, and thus terminated her guilty career. 

Augustus Csesar. — Octavius now held undisputed sway. 
His dominion extended from the Atlantic Ocean and Eng- 
lish Channel to the Euphrates, and from the Rhine, Dan- 
ube, and Euxine on the north to the unexplored deserts 
of Africa on the south — having an average breadth of 


more than a thousand miles, and a length nearly three 
times as great, 

Octavius was absolute ; still he prudently disguised 
his assumption of supreme power under constitutional 
forms. The various offices of the state were continued, 
but he engrossed them all. lie was consul, tribune, cen- 
sor, pontifex maximus (superintendent of religious mat- 
ters), and impera'tor (commander-in-chief). From the 
senate he received the dignified surname of Augzisttis ; 
and it was decreed that the sixth month in the Roman 
calendar should thereafter be called August in his honor. 

Augustus, thus firmly established as emperor, though 
without the prestige of imperial forms, reigned with jus- 
tice, to the satisfaction of all political parties. He was 
accessible to the meanest of his subjects. A soldier, hav- 
ing once asked the emperor to plead his cause, was re- 
ferred to an advocate. " Ah ! " cried the suppliant, " it 
was not by proxy that I served you at Actium." This 
was a home argument to which the emperor was obliged 
to yield. — On another occasion, Augustus said to a trem- 
bling petitioner : " Friend, you appear as if you were ap- 
proaching an elephant rather than a man ; be bolder. " 

By such a course, and many acts of clemency, the em- 
peror won the love of the people. During his prosperous 
reign, the temple of Janus was closed three times. Com- 
merce flourished. Rome, with its two millions of souls, 
was embellished with magnificent buildings, of which the 
Pantheon still survives as a striking representative. Au- 
gustus could truly say, " I left that a city of marble which 
I found a city of brick." 

The public safety, no less at home than abroad, re- 
quired a standing army, of which the Pretorian Guard, in- 
stituted for the protection of the emperor's person, formed 
an important part. But notwithstanding the efficient ad- 
ministration of military matters in general, Augustus, 


toward the close of his reign, met with a mortifying re- 
verse in the overthrow of a powerful army under Varus, 
by Hermann, " the deliverer of Germany." So deeply did 
it affect him that he allowed his beard and hair to grow, 
and often cried out in anguish, " O Varus, give me back 
my legions ! " 

While absent from Rome on a journey, in the seventy- 
seventh year of his age, Augustus felt his end approach- 
ing. He called his friends to his bedside and said, " If I 
have played well my part in life, give me your applause." 
Then falling back into the arms of his wife, he expired 
(a. d. 14). Divine honors were paid to his memory. 

Birth of Christ. — It was during the reign of Augustus, 
while an unusual repose pervaded the whole Roman 
world, that Jesus, " the Prince of Peace," was born at 

Her'od the Great, at this time king of Jude'a, had ob- 
tained the crown through the influence of Antony, and 
had strengthened his power by marrying Mariam'ne, the 
last princess of the Maccabe'an line. But Herod was a 
monster of wickedness, and his own wife and two of his 
sons were successively put to death to satisfy his hatred 
and quiet his feai's — which led the emperor Augustus to 
remark, "I would rather be Herod's hog than his son." 
He died of a loathsome disease, soon after the murder of 
the Innocents, related in the New Testament. 

Golden Age of Roman Literature. — The emperor Au- 
gustus and his favorite minister Msece'nas were liberal 
patrons of learning. A lustrous galaxy of writers illumi- 
nated their age, and the adjective Augtcstan has since 
been applied to the most flourishing period of a nation's 

From many brilliant stars we may distinguish the fol- 
lowing as those of the first magnitude : Virgil, Rome's 
greatest poet, author of the ^Ene'id, a national epic, — the 


Hucol'u's, (Icpic'tiiiij shopliord-litV, — niid the (Toorgics, a 
(lulaotic j>ot'm on rural economy ; Ihiraco, tlu> masti'r of 
lyric poetry, with his o-vac-elul Otlos ; 'rihul'lus aiul Ovid, 
elogi'ac poets ; and l-i\ y, the graphic historian, to whom 
we owe many of llu' rliarniin<v leyonds which invest tlie 
early days of Rome with surpassing interest. 

In the preeeding period, Julius Cjvsar wrote his Com- 
mentaries, and 8allust his .lugurthine War and History of 
the Conspiracy of Catiline. Cicero's Orations and philo- 
sophical treatises have afforded a model of style to suc- 
ceeding ages ; " no greater master of composition and of 
the music of sjiecch has ever ai>peared among men.'' 

Social Life. — The humble domiciles of the early Ro- 
mans gave place in later times to splendid mansions — the 
floors inlaid with stone or marble in mosaic, the walls and 
ceilings elaborately gilded and ornamented, the roofs ter- 
raced and covered with arliticial gardens, the furniture 
glittering with tortoise-slu-ll and ivory. Four millions of 
dollars was the estimated value of one of these princely 
villas that was burned. 

The chief apartments were on the ground-floor, and 
access was had to them through the ti'triiini, or great en- 
trance-room, in which the nobles ranged the images of 
their ancestors, hung the family jmrtraits, and received 
their clients. The windows, at first mere openings with 
shutters, were in imperial times closed with glass obtained 
at great expense from the East. What little artiticial heat 
was needed was supplied by braziers. 

The Roman garments were made of wool, until tlie 
second century after Christ, when linen was introduced. 
Frequent bathing was necessary ; the luxurious jiatricians 
of the empire sometimes visited their baths half a dozen 
times a day, and always just before dinner. 

The dress consisted of tunics, or short uiuler-garments 
with sleeves — a toga, or loose robe, for the men, wrapped 


round the body in diHerent ways at difleront periods, but 
so as to cover the left arm and leave the right at liberty, 
— and a ntold, or kind of loose frock, for the women, fast- 
ened about the person with a double girdle, and having a 
long appendage trailing behind so as partially to cover 
the feet. 

When a lioman was running for office, he marked his 
toga with chalk, and thus made it white, in Latin Candida, 
whence our word candidate. Boys assumed the manly 
toga at about sixteen, before which they wore one with a 
broad purple hem. Mantles were used for out-door cover- 
ings, the ladies giving {(reference to the most brilliant 
colors. Hoods were worn on journeys ; at other times the 
head was generally bare. 

Three meals a day were taken, the chief of wdiich was 
the cm'na, eaten about three o'clock, and in later times 
served with great magnificence. The guests reclined 
around the table on couches spread with richly-embroid- 
ered coverings. The dinner consisted of various courses, 
beginning with light dishes as appetizers — such as dormice 
sprinkled with honey and poppy-seeds, fish, birds, olives, 
asparagus, etc. Next came the meats, and then the des- 
sert of fruits, pastry, and swx-etmeats. Wine, pure or 
mixed with honey and water, was drunk at feasts by the 
guests crowned with chaplets. 

The flesh of donkeys and young boars was in high 
repute. Pigs were slaughtered with red-hot spits that the 
blood might not be lost, and when cooked were sometimes 
stuffed with smaller animals flavored with asafoitida. 
Fowls were drowned in Falernian wine, to make them 
more luscious ; and peacocks were among the costly lux- 
uries. Peacocks' tongues w'cre specially prized by epicures. 

The principal amusements of the Romans were dra- 
matic entertainments, and the games of the circus, con- 
sisting of rhariot-races, wrestling and boxing matches. 




gladiatorial conflicts, etc. The gladiators were either con- 
demned criminals, captives, slaves, or ruffians who pursued 
this vocation for hire. They were matched in the arena 
against one another, or with lions, tigers, leopards, and 


elephants. The victor, if a slave or captive, obtained his 
freedom ; the vanquished was put to death, unless the 
people signified their wish to spare him by an upward 
movement of the thumb. Games would sometimes be 
exhibited by the emperors and wealthy Romans for wa^eks 
together, and thousands of beasts and gladiators would 
be killed, to the great delight of the first people of Rome, 
including even ladies of rank. 

^ Military affairs engrossed much attention. A coat of 
mail, helmet, greaves, and shield, formed the defensive 
armor of the soldier ; his weapons of offence were bow 
and sling, but particularly a sword and long heavy spear. 
Walls were attacked with engines that discharged darts 
and immense stones, and with the battering-ram, a long 
beam with an iron head, which was driven against the 
masonry by a body of men till a breach w^as made. In 
approaching walls to undermine or scale them, the assail- 
ants protected themselves by joining their shields together 
so as to form a testu'do (tortoise), while the besieged plied 
them with arrows and javelins, hurled down great rocKs 
on them, and tried to turn aside or grapple the ram. 

The Romans maintained a system of light-houses, 
erected in imitation of the celebrated Pha'ros of Alexan- 
dria, which was completed by Ptolemy, 280 b. c, and w^as 
numbered among the Seven Wonders of the Ancient 
World. Light-ships, with blazing cressets at the mast- 
beads, also patrolled dangerous coast waters. 

CHRISTIAN ERA. — Universal peace. Imperial Rome, un- 
der Augustus, mistress of the world. Population of the empire about 
120,000,000—60,000,000 slaves, 40,000,000 tributaries and freedmen, 
20,000,000 enjoying the full rights of citizens. Alexandria, Antioch, and 
Ephesus, the three commercial cities of the empire. Language and civili- 
zation of Rome establishing themselves in the provinces of south-western 
Europe. Goths on the shores of the Baltic. Huns still in north-eastera 



{A. D. 14-96.) 

Tiberius, the step-son and adopted heir of Augustus, 
after pretended hesitation accepted the empire, a. d. 
14. The legions on the Rhenish frontier, however, pro- 
claimed as emperor their commander, the young German'i- 
cus, nephew of Tibe'rius. But Germanicus, declaring that 
he would rather die than betray his trust, brought back 
the soldiers to their allegiance, and led them to victory, 
recovering the lost eagles of Varus and defeating the re- 
nowned Hermann himself. 

Tiberius, iilled with jealousy, soon removed his nephew 
to a different field, Avhere his death occurred shortly after, 
— as there was good reason to believe, from the effects of 

Naturally suspicious of those about him, Tiberius be- 
came in time a relentless tyrant. He was at last per- 
suaded by his vile minister Seja'nus to retire from the 
capital to the island of Ca'preae (Map, p. 112), which at 
once became the scene of the most detestable orgies. 
His boon companions he promoted to the chief offices of 
the state, and even made one sharer of his revels a high 
magistrate for having drunk five bottles of wine at a 

Seja'nus took advantage of his absence to conspire 
against his life with a view to usurping the empire, but 
was denounced to Tiberius and executed. The tyrant's 
thirst for blood was now insatiable ; men, women, and even 
children, were sacrificed to his rage. " Let the people hate 
me," he said, "so long as they obey me." Death put an 
end to his cruelties in the year 37, when he was smothered 
in bed bv his attendants. 


The emperor Tiberius extinguished the last sparks of 
popular liberty. Despotism was firmly established, and 
the debased and obsequious senate fawned at its mas- 
ter's feet. It was during- this reign that the crucifixion 
of our Saviour took place. On hearing of Christ's mira- 
cles and resurrection, the emperor wished to enroll his 
name among the nation's gods, but was overruled in this 
case by the senate. 

Caligula, the only surviving son of Germanicus, was 
the next Caesar. He was called Calig'ula because he wore 
caligct', or soldiers' buskins, when he lived in camp with 
his father. 

I'he new emperor was weak in both body and mind ; 
and though at first an amiable ruler, he soon gave way to 
shameful dissipation and capricious tyranny. His fond- 
ness for gladiatorial shows led him to disgrace the majesty 
of the Cfesars by entering the arena himself. The old and 
infirm were thrown to his wild beasts. Even at his meals 
he had persons racked before him that he might enjoy 
their groans ; and in his frenzy he exclaimed, " Would that 
the people of Rome had a single neck, that I might dis- 
patch them at a blow ! " Even when he kissed his wife, 
it was his custom to place his hand on her throat and say, 
" Fair as it is, how easily I could cut it ! " 

Caligula also rioted in scandalous extravagance, dis- 
solving jewels in his sauce, and dining beneath trees plant- 
ed on the decks of vessels which had silken sails and sterns 
of ivory inlaid with ■ precious stones. He was wont to 
wade barefoot through his heaps of gold, or with insane 
delight to roll himself upon them like a dog. His favorite 
horse, which was often invited from its marble stable to 
its master's board, to eat gilded oats and drink wine from 
costly beakers, he made consul ; while he declared himself 
a god, causing the head to be struck from stati;es of Jupi- 
ter and replaced with his own. 


Ill lilt' t'ourlli yc.Mi' ol' liis rci;^ii, ( iiis in,i(liii;iii \v;is ciil, 
down hy tlic oul r:i<;'f(l olliccrs of liis j^MiMid (a. d. II). 

Claudius, ilw Itiollicror (u'niiiiiiii'us, Wiis now prci- 
tilaiiiu'd tMii|)(M'or by (lu> soldiers. This nioiiMii'li, who IVoiii 
a rhild had hccii eoiisidoivd almost iiiihccih', was coiil rolled 
by iiii|)riiicij)l(>d woiiicn and faAorilt's. Si ill, he diliiicnllv 
adiiiiiiis(('r(>d jiislicc, and coiisl riiclcd, ainoiio" olhcr |>iil)lic 
works, I he (^laudian A((iUHluel, and (lu> I'ortus lu)iiia'iuis, 
an arlilieial harbor al iht^ inoiith oC llie Tiber. 

(^laiidiiis also invaded Britain ; and il was dui-in<;- his 
r«Mi;'ii thai (^arae'taeus, the intrepid UiiiL!," of the Silii'res of 
Soul h Wales, was eaptured and bron^'hl to IJonie. '■' /Mas ! " 
said I 111' |iiisoner, as Ik- iia/.e(| on the splendor ol' the eity, 
"how ean peo])le possessed of sueli inai^riilieenee at lioine 
envy Caraelacnis his hninble collate in Britain?" 

in this a|>'(> the po|)ular taste for the shows of llu> 
ain|>hit heat !•(> lnH'anie a passion, and ( Maiidius y-rat ilied the 
peo|)le with a <;'rand sea-lit;-lit, in which two lli>e(s, manned 
by 19, ()()() i>;la(liators, on<<-a<;'ed in actual conlliet. 

While such inhuman sports went hand in hand with 
the grossest prolli^'aey at Home, the holy ajiostlcs were 
spreailiiii>; the doctrines of their Muster throughout |1k> 
world. "(Christians'''' (lirst so ealkul in Autiocli) became 
niiinerons ainoni;' both Jews and (.Jcntilos. 

Nero. — A dish of poisi)ned mushrooms proved fatal to 
the weak (Maudius, A. I». 51 ; il was |)repare(l by order of 
his wil'i> A_i>;rip})i'iia, who had previously seeunMl (he suc- 
i-ession for Nero, Ium- son by a i'ormcM- husband. Tliis 
yoiinu; priiic(\ tlu^ grandson of (uM-manicus, for live years 
ruh-d with justice and clemency. lie is even said, when 
re(|uired to siyn tli(> death-warrant of a nialefaclor, to 
have ex])ressed n^o-ret that he had ever learned (o write. 

As Nero increased in y(>ars, however, he beg'an to show 
tli(> stiilT <>( which ]\r was made. His murder of Ai;-rippi- 
na, who lor his sake had become a murderess, couunenced 

lil'llON <»!'' NlOliO. 


ft (!!in'(^r of (iriiric. i.o \vlii<^li liislory oilers no |):i r';i,lli'l ; ;iri(l 
tli(^ only vvotidi!!' is, l,li;it, i(, vv;is ho Ioii;^ tolcr'Jilcil \>y Uk; 
|)(!0|)l(',. Tlicir foi-lxiiiniiicc! is (!X|)1juii(hI by Mic, lilx'ral 
l!ir<^(!SS(),s of food supplied (-o tli(!in ni, IIm; cxpciiHCi of (Ik; 
H(iil,c. As lon;j,' as (liey wcvc. fed, lliey vv<'i(^ vvillin;^' t,o 
close, tliciir (!y<%s to IIh; vi<5e,s of Ukht (!nip<!rors, and 
to ])a,rtic.ip!ite. tli(!i(Mn. 

In the (('nlli year of this reij^'ti, a. (Ujnlla.^^'ration d('Stroy(^d 
the ^ part ol' Ifonie. 1 1 was rnniorcid that th(^ (sni- 
peror hiinselC had lired IIm; <'i< y, urid (^njoycid a, \'\<:w of tli<> 
lla.nies from a, lofty tower, sini^in^' th(! Sa,c,k of 'I'i'oy. To 
sereiwi hinisf'ir, he (;lia,r;^-ed IIk; crime upon the ( /'hristiajis, 
and f)e<;ati a, pers(!cntion, thi' ditails of which art-, too 
shocIiin<>' for re<'ilal. Anion^' the niaityr.s were, the apos- 
tles I'cter and I'anl. 

Tyranny, cr'uelly, and extoi'tion, af, hMi^i'th provoked a, 
conspira,cy. Its d(!t<!(!tion led (,o IVesh rnnrders, which 
sparcMl not even such incMi as Lii'cari the po(;t, and Sen'eca 
tli(^ moralist. The lainily of An^ustiis was «!xtirpa te<l, 
a,nd lear of th(^ poisoiKU's and assassins of N(!ro fc^ll on all 
the ri(^li and noMe. At last tli(! world conid (iiidnre the; 
monslerno lon^^er. II is j^'eiK^raJs r<rvolt(!il ; th(! senale de- 
(ilanid him a, puhlic (HKimy; and the cowaidly dcispot, I'c^ar- 
in<;' to kill himsc^lf, vccA'Avcd -.i dea,tlid)low at tlu! hands of 
a slave (a. d. OM). 

N(3ro was the last of th(i .lulian line ; hut history rcc- 
ofrni/.es "^rwclv*! (y;rsars, the six Knc(;cssors of Nero making- 
u|) llie nntrihei'. I^'rom this time, military command or 
favor with the army seems to have heeti Ihe surest road to 
the imp(!rial throne. 

During Noro's roi^n, Jioadicc'a, a, gallant Britisli 
(jiK^en, roused }ic>r [)eop|e to insurrection. ]x)ndon was 
sack(;d and hurried, and rrrany Konrairs wer<^ ma,<!d ; 
hnt ai- last lJoadic(;a's forco was cut to pieces, and she 
took ]>oisorr to escape oaf)tivity. 



Galba, Otho, and Vitellius, the next three emperors, 
reigned during the years 68 and 69. Of the first two, who 
had revolted against Nero, the aged Galba was assassinated 
by the soldiers ; and Otho, after an unsuccessful battle 
with his rival Vitel'lius, fell upon his sword. Vitellius 
succeeded ; but the eastern legions soon rebelled. Vespa- 


sian {ves-pa'zhe-dn), commander of the Roman army in 
Judea, was proclaimed emperor, and Vitellius was killed 
by the people in the streets. 

Flavius Vespasian, who now ascended the throne, ruled 
with a firm but lenient hand, applied himself to the reform 
of abuses in both civil and military affairs, and intro- 
duced a happy period of prosperity and legal government, 
called from his family the Fla'vian Era. Among other 
splendid buildings, Vespasian began the great Colosse'um, 


where 87,000 spectators found room. At its dedication in 
the following reign, 5,000 wild beasts were killed in the 
arena, and the games in honor of the event lasted a hun- 
dred days. 

Success also attended the Roman arms. The Jews, 
who had been driven to rebellion by the oppression of 
their governor, were besieged in their capital by Ti'tus, 
the son of Vespasian. After the doomed nation had suf- 
fered miseries inconceivable, the city was taken by the 
Romans. In vain Titus tried to save the Temple from his 
soldiery ; the divine decree had gone forth, and " not one 
stone was left upon another." As the Roman general 
gazed upon the ruined battlements, he devoutly said, 
" God has been my helper, for what could the hands of 
men have availed against those formidable walls ? " 

Hundreds of thousands of Jews perished in this mem- 
orable siege ; the homeless survivors were." led away cap- 
tive into all nations," and their city was " trodden down 
of the Gentiles.',' 

In Britain, during the reigns of Vespasian and his 
sons, the Roman governor Agric'ola extended the limits of 
the empire and instructed the people in the arts of civili- 
zation. He also defeated the Caledonians {Highlanders)^ 
and built a line of forts between the Friths of Forth and 

Vespasian died a. d. 79, the first emperor after Augus- 
tus that met with a natural death. 

Titus, the successor of Vespasian, was one of the few 
emperors who seem to have had the true good of their 
people sincerely at heart. His highest pleasure was to 
bestow favors. " No man," he said, " ought to leave the 
prince's presence disappointed." Unable one night to re- 
call any kindness done during the day that had closed, 
he said with regret, " My fiiends, I have lost this day." 

Titus reigned but two years. During thfs time he 


Close by the Coliseum stands the massive Arch of Titus, built to com- 
memorate the capture of Jerusalem. On it are sculptured tne triumph of 
the Roman general, the Israelitish captives dragged to the capital, with 
the seven-branched golden candlestick and other treasures of the Temple. 






""If "-k 







condemned no citizen to death, and even declared that he 
would rather die himself than take the life of another. 

It was in the year of his accession (79 A. d.) that the 
Campaniun cities of Hercula'neum and Pompeii i^pom-pii' 
ye) were buried by an eruption of Mt. Vesuvius. The 
ruins were undisturbed for more; than sixteen centuries, 
when tfiey were accidentally discovered during the diggin<>- 
of a well. Excavations w<>re juade ; and from the houses, 
shops, and tein})l<'s, witli their domestic utensils, paintings, 
and sculptures, has been derived much interesting informa- 
tion respecting the every-day life of the ancient Romans. 

Domitian, the younger son of Vespasian, was the im- 
personation of savage cruelty and every vice. Murders 
and confiscations were revived, while the people were 
amused with the most extravagant entertainments. Even 
women were brought out to fight in the arena. 

This august emperor once called the senate together, 
to decide how a fish should be cooked for his dinner ! He 
taxed his ingenuity to devise new torments for those whom 
he condemned, and in the l)rief intervals between the exe- 
cutions of his victims found amusement in torturing flies. 

Members of his own household at last struck down the 
tyrant in his palace (a. d. 96). 

Literature. — After the death of Augustus, Roman lit- 
erature gradually declined. Still a few distinguished 
writers attained the high standard of the Golden Age — 
Persius and .Juvenal, the satirists ; Lucan, the author of 
the epic Pharsa'lia ; Tacitus, " the first who applied the 
science of philosophy to the study of facts ;" Quintirian, 
the rhetorician and critic, with his " Institutes of Ora- 
tory ; " and Pliny the naturalist. 

Among contemporaneous Greek writers were, Josephus 
the Jewish historian, who has been styled "the Grecian 
Ijivy ; " and Plutarch, tlie great biographer of antiquity. 
Somewhat later flourished the witty and versatile Lucian. 


In this age, also, the Gospels and Epistles of the New 
Testament were written. 

The T^^^elve Csesars. 

Julius Caesar, . lived b. c. 100-44. 

Galba, . 

reigned a. 

n. 68-fi9. 

Augustus, reigned b. c. 30-a. d. 14. 

Otho, . 


Tiberius, . . a. d. U-SY. 

Vitellius, . 

. 69. 

Caligula, . . . .37-41. 


. 69-79. 

Claudius, . . . 41-54. 



Nero, .... 54-68. 


. 81-96. 


EMPIRE.— {A. D. 96-306.) 

Nerva. — The bloody reign of Domitian was succeeded 
by a long period of tranquillity. The senate elected in his 
stead the aged Nerva, whose mild administration recalled 
the happy days of Titus. 

Finding himself unable to control the violence of the 
Pretorian Guard, Nerva adopted as his colleague and suc- 
cessor the commander of the legions on the Rhine, Tra'- 
jan, a Spaniard by birth, who had grown up in the camp. 
On tlie death of his associate (a. d. 98), Trajan was in- 
vested with the purple. When he presented the symbol 
of office to the prefect of the Pretorian Guard, he said, 
" Take this sword and use it, for me if I do well ; if other- 
wise, against me." 

Trajan. — The military talents of the new emperor soon 
disjilayed themselves. He pushed his arms beyond the 
Danube, and reduced Da'cia to a province ; in this cam- 
paign he is said to have torn up his own robes to supply 
bandages for his wounded soldiers. 



In the East, he engaged in hostilities with the Par- 
thians, and conquered Armenia, Mesopotamia, and'Assyr- 
ia. Part of Arabia was also reduced ; and seeing a ves- 
sel ready to start for India, the ambitious monarch ex- 
claimed, " AVere I yet young, I would not stop till I had 
reached the limit of the Macedonian conquests." 

As a ruler, Trajan was deserving of all praise. Through- 
out Italy and the provinces his architectural works arose, 
while at Rome the Forum of Trajan challenged admiration. 


and his famous marble column bore on its sculptured shaft 
the story of his Dacian triumph. He also rebuilt the Cir- 
cus, giving it a capacity sufficient for nearly 400,000 spec- 

The senate decreed him the title of Optitmis, the Best; 
and long after his death it was accustomed to welcome a 
new emperor with the wish that he might be more pros- 
perous than Augustus and better than Trajan. 


Hadrian, who succeeded (a. d. 117), wisely abandoned 
most of Trajan's conquests, and devoted himself to the 
improvement of his empire. Fifteen years he spent in 
travelling through the provinces, that he might inform 
himself of the condition of his subjects. 

In Britain the incursions of the Caledonians were 
checked by a strong rampart built across the island. 
Athens, still the seminary of the nations, was adorned 
with splendid fanes, and Rome with the massive Mau- 
sole'um or Mole of Hadrian, and the imposing temple of 
Rome and Venus. This was the golden age of Roman 
sculpture and architecture. 

The death of Hadrian took place A. D. 138, after he 
had chosen the virtuous Antoninus as his successor. 

The Antonines. — The era of the Antonines, who ruled 
with the sole view of promoting the welfare of their sub- 
jects, comprised the happiest period of the Roman Empire. 

The peaceful reign of the elder Antoninus (Pius) ter- 
minated A. D. 161, when his adopted son Marcus Aurelius, 
at the request of the senate, ascended the throne. His 
wisdom and learning have gained him the title of the Phi- 

Though inclined to peace, this prince was obliged to 
take the field to defend his people from the swarms of 
northern barbarians that were now crossing the frontiers. 
Wliile he was generally successful, he was unable to break 
their power, and thenceforth the Roman dominion was in 
constant danger of invasion. 

Com'modus, the weak and illiterate son of Marcus Au- 
relius, began his reign a. d. 180. Profligate companions 
easily led him astray ; and he degenerated into a brutal 
tyrant, plunging into the grossest sensuality, and squan- 
dering the lives and fortunes of his subjects. 

His great delight was to contend with gladiators and 
wild beasts ; he is said to have been a victor in seven hun- 


dred combats, and was styled the Roman Hercules. Ar- 
rayed as Hercules in a lion's skin, he once dressed up some 
beggars and cripples as monsters and made them attack 
him, supjilying them with sponges to use as missiles ; when 
suddenly he fell upon them and beat them to death with 
his club. For amusement he would assault passers in the 
street, or cut off the noses of persons he pretended to 

Connnodus was murdered by a favorite, who thus an- 
ticipated his design of putting her to death (a. d. 192). 

Period of Military Despotism (a. d. 193-284). — The 
death of Connnodus usliered in a long period of military 
tyraimy, during which the unmanageable Pretorians ap- 
pointed or dethroned emperors at will. They scrupled 
not to assassinate those rulers who incurred their displeas- 
ure, and even heaped ignominy upon the Roman name by 
selling the empire at public auction. Of the twenty-five 
iDonarchs who wore the purple during these dark years of 
seditions and murders, only the most important can be 
mentioned here. 

Septim'ius Seve'rus (a. d. 192-211) disbanded the old 
Pretorians, but established a more formidable guard of 
40,000 of his best soldiers. He ruled with an iron hand, 
and revived the glory of the Roman arms by his successes 
against the Parthians and in Britain. 

Caracal'la, the tyrannical son of this emperor, secured 
the sole dominion by causing his brother to be stabbed in 
their mother's arms. Papin'ian, a famous lawyer of the 
day, when ordered publicly to vindicate the fratricide, re- 
fused, saying that it was easier to connnit such a crime 
than to justify it, — and was condemned to death. Cara- 
calla conferred citizenship on all the free inhabitants of 
the Roman Empire, in order that they might be taxed to 
supply money for his insatiable troops. 

The reign of Elagab'alus, the boy-priest of the Syrian 


sun-god (a. d. 218-223), was one tissue of insane follies 
and infamous crimes. A favorite diversion of his was to 
smother his g'uests witli roses, or seat them at table on in- 
flated bag-s which would suddenly collapse and throw them 
into the midst of wild beasts. 

Alexander Severus, the cousin and successor of 
Elagabalus, was a learned and virtuous prince who labored 
faithfully in the cause of reform. His praiseworthy at- 
tempts to enforce discipline in the demoralized army cost 
him his life, and he fell (a. d. 235) by the swords of the 

During- the next thirty-tivc years the insolence of the 
troops reached its height, and the purple was repeatedly 
stained with imperial blood. The empire was on the one 
hand hard pressed by the Ijarbarians, and on the other 
threatened with dissolution by a crowd of petty sovereigns, 
who usurped su])reme power in the provinces. The most 
celebrated of them was Od-e-na'thus of Palmy i-a, who left 
his kingdom to his illustrious widow, the accomplished 

Against this " Queen of Palmyra and the East," whose 
dominions reached from the Euphrates to the Mediter- 
ranean, the emperor Aure'han directed his arms, besieg- 
ing her in her capital. Despairing of relief, Zenobia at- 
tempted to escape on a lleet dromedary, but was overtaken 
and brought to Rome to adorn the conqueror's triumph 
(a. d. 273). Her preceptor and secretary, the critic Lon- 
gi'nus, was executed ; but the queen, after being exhibited 
to the people in chains of gold, was allowed to end her 
days in Italy with her children. 

Palmyra, subsequently revolting, was taken by Aure- 
lian and given up to pillage. Its site is now marked by 
a forest of white marble columns, towering above a waste 
of half-buried blocks, nuitilated scvdptures, and crumbling 


Diocletian. — With the accession of this prince (a. d. 
284), fresh vigor was imparted to the declining Roman 
state. The power of the Pretorians was |)ut down, and 
that of the emperor re-established ; while the reforms in- 
stituted by Diocletian distinguish him, like Augustus, as 
" the founder of a new empire." 

Diocletian was the son of a Roman senator's slave, and 
owed his advancement to his superior merit. On becoming 
emperor, he associated with himself, under the title of Au- 
gustus, the rough soldier Maxim'ian ; and not long after- 
ward these two again divided the power, and shared the 
provinces with two Cwsars, Gale'rius and Constan'tius. 

After the joint reign of Diocletian and Maximian had 
for about nineteen years restored the glory of Rome, they 
of tlieir own accord gave up the purple, leaving the im- 
perial power to the two Caesars. Diocletian contentedly 
passed the evening of his life in rural occupations. To 
Maximian, who tried to induce him to re-assume the 
sceptre, the old monarch wrote, " Could you but see the 
cabbages I raise, you would no longer talk to me of em- 
pire ! " 

Persecutions of the Christians. — Despite his good quali- 
ties, Diock'tian barbarously persecuted the Christians. 
They had long suffered from the cruelty of the pagan em- 
perors. The name of Trajan was stained by the blood of 
numerous martyrs ; it was by his sentence that Igna'tius, 
Bishop of Antioch, had been torn to pieces in the am- 
phitheatre. Even in the golden age of the Antonines 
the persecution went on, Justin Martyr being beheaded, 
and Pol'ycarp, Bishop of Smyrna, condemned to the 

Diocletian's persecution exceeded all others in atrocity. 
Still the Christians stood firm in their faith, dying the 
most painful and ignominious deaths with songs of praise 
upon their lips. We are told that the executioners were 



Below ancient Rome there existed twenty-six great catacombs, answer- 
ing to the number of parishes, and constituting " the Church beneath the 
earth." It is estimated that these subterranean galleries are one hundred 
and fifty leagues in length, and contain six million Christian dead. The 
bodies were ranged in rows, one above the other, in the porous soil. 



exhausted, and their weapons dulled by the multitudes of 

It was during these great persecutions that the Cata- 
combs, spacious subterranean vaults beneath the city of 
Rome, served as a hiding-place for the Christians. Here 
they worshipped, and entombed their dead. 


from Nerva to Constanti 


Nerva, reigned a. d. 96-98. 

De'eius, . reigned a. 

D. 249-251 


98-11 V. 

Gallus, . 






Antoninus Pius, . 




Marcus Aurelius, . 


Gallie'nus, . 

. 260-268. 





Commodus, . 



. 270-275. 

Por'tinax, Did'ius, 


Tacitus, . 


Scptimius Severus, . 




Caracalla, . 

211-21 7. 

Pro'bus, . 


Geta (murdered 212), 

211 212. 


. 282-283. 

Macri'nus, . 


j Cari'nus, 




f Nume'rian, 


Alexander Severus, 


j Diocletian, 




I Maximian, 


The Gordians (I., II.) 


\ Constantius I., 


Pupie'nus, Balbi'nus, 


I Gale'rius, 


Gordian III., 


Constantine the Great, 


Philip, . 


Sole ruler, . 




Constantine the Great. — In the year 306 the emperor 
Constan'tius died in the arms of his son, saying, " None 
but the pious Con'stantine shall succeed me." But it was 


not until after a severe struggle with several rival aspirants 
that Constantine was established in the empire. 

During his campaign against one of these, according to 
tradition, he was miraculously converted to Christianity 
by the appearance of a luminous cross in the heavens, 
bearing the inscription, "By this conquer." Under his 
protection Christianity rapidly progressed ; and paganism, 
though it was tolerated, ceased to be the religion of tlio 

The reforms begun by Diocletian were carried out by 
Constantine. The seat of government was changed to 
Byzantium on the Bos'porus, which city was beautifully 
embi'llished and called after the emperor Constantinople. 
Here he erected the celebrated church of St. Soph'ia (dedi- • 
cated to Sojyh'ia, the Eternal Wisdom). He also created 
a brilliant court, and a titled nobility oj; dukes, counts, etc., 
now for the first time recognized. 

During the reign of Constantine, an Oecumenical, or 
General, Council of the Christian Church met at the city of 
Niciu'a (see Ma]o, p. 156). This council (a. r>. 325) con- 
demned the doctrine of A'rius, who denied Christ's equal- 
ity with God the Father, and adopted the articles of faith 
set forth in the Nicene Creed. 

Though instrumental in establishing Christianity, Con- 
stantine seems to have been guilty of acts directly opposed 
to its spirit. After his death (a. d. 337), the empire passed 
into the hands of his three sons. Civil stiife soon broke 
out ; two of the brothers were killed ; and the third died 
when on the eve of a war with his cousin Julian (a. d. 361). 

Julian the Apostate, the last of the family of Constan- 
tine, wl^o now became sole emperor, at once renounced the 
faith in which he had been reared, wrote against Christian- 
ity, subjected its professors to many disabilities, and re- 
stored the heathen worship of Greece and Rome. Anxious 
to falsify the prophecy of Scripture and thus deal Chris- 


tianity a death-blow, he made preparations on an exten- 
sive scale for rebuilding the Jewish temple. Workmen 
were collected in great numbers ; but no sooner did they 
commence operations than the earth gave vent to globes 
of flame, v/hich with fearful explosions dispersed the la- 
borers, and compelled them to give up the undertaking. 

In a war with Sa'por, king of the Persians, Julian re- 
ceived a fatal wound (a. d. 363). A tradition is current 
that when he perceived his injury was mortal, he collected 
a handful of his blood, and casting it toward heaven ex- 
claiuied, " Take thy fill, Galile'an ; thou hast conquered ! " 

Jovian, the successor of Julian, purchased the safety of 
the Roman army by a disgraceful treaty with Sapor. He 
re-established Christianity, but extended toleration to his 
pagan subjects. 

Sapor was a king of the New Persian, or Sassanid, 
Monarchy. This was founded a. d. 326, by a son of the 
Persian Sassan, who defeated and slow the last of the Par- 
thian kings. It flourished for a century after the death of 
Sapor (380-500). 

Valentinian and Valens. — These brothers next reigned, 
respectively in the West and East. The former, although 
a Christian, and in his calmer moments a judicious and im- 
partial ruler, yet possessed a passionate temper which fre- 
quently betrayed him into atrocious cruelties. " Burn him 
alive ! " " Strike off his head ! " were sentences which he 
often pronounced even for slight offences. His death was 
caused by the bursting of a blood-vessel in a violent fit of 
rage (a. d. 375). 

In the reign of Va'lens, a new enemy, the ferocious 
Huns, spread terror and desolation on the outskirts of the 
empire. They fell upon the Goths, a brave Teutonic race, 
who had exchanged their original seats on the Baltic for 
the plains north of the Black Sea and the lower Danube, 
and who had several times crossed swords with the later 


emperors. Driven from their domains by barbarians more 
savage than themselves, the Goths on promises of amity 
and submission were allowed by the Romans to cross the 
Danube and settle in Thrace. 

But ill-treatment soon roused the new-comers to re- 
bellion ; and during an engagement with them the emperor 
Valens was consumed in the flames of a cottage in which 
he had taken refuge. Hardly a third of the Roman army 
escaped, and the victorious Goths advanced in a career of 
plunder to the very walls of Constantinople. 

The Huns were Tartars, frightful to look upon — with 
bent figures, small, black eyes sunk in their large heads, 
flattened noses, and faces scarred to prevent the growth of 
the beard. They lived in the saddle, and appalled the 
bravest with their shrill yells. In the second century b. c. 
they had broken through the Great Wall of China, rav- 
aged that country, and made it tributary. Afterward they 
pushed their way to the West, entered Europe, and at 
length burst like a thunderbolt upon the Goths, as we have 

Theodo'sius the Great was the last who held the whole 
Roman world beneath his sway. By skillful management 
he reduced the Goths to submission, and even enlisted 
them in his armies ; many of them had before this been 
converted to Christianity, and a version of the Scriptures 
had been made into the Gothic tongue. 

During the reign of Theodosius- the pagan worship was 
suppressed, and several of the most distinguished " Chris- 
tian Fathers " flourished. Ambrose of Mil'au composed 
his Hymns ; Jerome' made a translation of the Bible into 
Latin — the basis of the present Vulgate ; Chrys'ostom 
(the Golden-mouthed) preached with unction at Antioch 
and composed his eloquent homilies ; and Au'gustine 
sowed the good seed in Africa. 

Before his death, Theodosius formally divided his do- 


minions betv/een his sons Arca'dius and Hono'rius, giving- 
to the former the sovereignty of the East and to the latter 
that of the West. Henceforth the histories of the Eastern 
or Byzan'tine, and the Western Empire, run in different 

Barbarian Inroads. — We have now reached the time 
when the Teutonic element, destined materially to modify 
the civilization and shape the history of modern Europe, 
first comes prominently into view. The German tribes, 
hitherto contented with their free forest-life, find out at 
last that there are sunnier fields in the south all ready for 
the sickle, and wealth untold with only nerveless arms to 
dispute with them for its possession. 

Several inundations of barbarians occurred in the reign 
of Honorius (a. d. 395-423). Italy was invaded by the 
Goths under Al'aric, and ravaged by a combined horde of 
Vandals, Burgundians, and Sue'vi — Teutons all. For a 
time the strong arm of Stilicho [stil'e-ko), the Roman gen- 
eral, held the invaders in check. Alaric was defeated. 
The Vandals and Burgundians, repelled from Italy, seized 
a vast tract between the Rhine and Pyrenees (afterward 
JBnrgundy) ; and the Vandals, crossing these mountains, 
overran Spain, and finally occupied the southern part of 
the peninsula, called from them Vandaluaia. Hence they 
crossed into northern Africa (a. d. 429), and there founded 
an empire which became the terror of the surrounding 

After the execution of Stilicho by his suspicious mas- 
ter, the Goths renewed their incursions and appeared be- 
fore Rome itself (a. d. 408). The senate sent ambassadors 
who sought to intimidate their leader by representing the 
number and desperate valor of the Romans. But Alaric 
haughtily replied, " The thicker the hay, the easier it is 
mowed," and demanded so enormous a ransom that the 
astonished ministers asked. " What then, O king ! do you 


intend to leave us ? " " Your lives," was the response, and 
there was no alternative but to meet the demand. 

But the folly of the court of Honorius brought Alaric 
a<^ain before Rome (a. d. 410). His soldiers entered the 
city at midnight, and for five days the sack continued. 
The death of Alaric soon after, postponed the overthrow of 
tlie Western Empire. 

A river was turned from its bed by a band of captives ; 
and the Goths, burying their king in the channel with all 
his gold and jewels, compelled these prisoners to restoi'e 
the stream to its natural course, and then murdered them 
that the secret spot might never be betrayed. — Shortly 
after the kingdom of the Visigotlis (Western Goths) was 
established in southern CJaul and Spain. 

In the reign of Valentinian 111. (a. d. 425-455), At'tila, 
the king of the Huns, who called himself the Sconrge of 
God, traversed the Roman Empire with lire and sword. 
At last he was defeated with great slaughter at Chalons 
[s/Kt/i-loN"') by the combined Romans and Visigoths. He 
now retreated, but afterward crossed the Al})s and laid 
waste northern Italy. Many of the inhabitants, to escape 
his ravages, fled for refuge to the neighboring islands of 
the Adriatic, and there founded the republic of Venice, 
"the eldest daughter of the Roman Empire" (a. d. 452). 

The capital of the Caesars was saved by the intercession 
of Leo the Great, Bishop of Rome, who, at the risk of his 
life, entered Attila's camp and ransomed his flock. The 
following year witnessed the sudden death of this barba- 
rian king, and with him perislied tlio empire of the Huns, 
who were swallowed u]) in other tribes and lost to history. 

Fall of the Western Empire. — After the murder of 
Valentinian HI., a. d. 455, nine emperors, in ra])id succes- 
sion, held the sceptre of the West. But their doiuinions 
were becoming more and more contracted ; distant ])rov- 
inces had already been abandoned, and at last Italy alone 


remained. Imperial Rome was again sacked, by G(;n'seric 
king of the Vandals, who carried away its remaining 
wealth, and even its enipress, to Africa. At last the tot- 
tering fabric, internally rotten, yielded to the storm. 

Romulus Augustus, contemptuously styled Augus'tu- 
lus, the last emperor of the West, was dethroned by ()d-o- 
a'cer, chief of the ller'uli, a German tribe (a. d. 476). Re- 
jecting the imperial diadem, Odoacer reigned as king of 

Eastern Empire. — In the Kastern Empire there were 
few events worthy of record. Theodosius 11., son of the 
feeble Arcadius, though well-disposed, would have made a 
})oor figure but for his wise and virtuous sister Pulcheria 
{pul-ke' re-a), who governed in his name. The; history of 
the East, like that of the West, about this time shows lit- 
tle else than a series of struggles with Goths, Thins, and 
Vandals, on the part of weak monarchs and an elfeminatc 

Roman Emperors after Constantine. 

Constantino II., . a 

). 33Y-340. 

Valcntinian I., . a. n. 364-375. 

Constans I., . 


Gratian, . . . 375-383. 

Constantius II., . 


Valentinian II., . . 375-392. 

Sole emperor, 


Max'imiis, usurper, . 383-388. 

•Iiiliiin the Apostate, . 


Theodosius the (Jreat, . 379-395. 

Jovian, . 


Sole emperor, . 392-395. 

Roman Emi)iic' divided, a. d. 395. 


Mkdi^val History begins with the fall of Rome, 
A. n. 476. The divisions of Europe at this time are shown 
in the Map on the next page. 


Eastern Empire. — After the partition of the Roman 
Empire, the chief interest connected with the eastern por- 
tion centres in Justin'ian, who stands out in bold relief 
from a succession of comparatively insignificant sovereigns. 
The son of an humble barbarian though the nephew of an 
emperor, he was educated at the capital, and became the 
associate and successor of his uncle Justin in 527. His 
administration was marked by lavish expenditures and ex- 
actions at home, but by a series of military successes 
abroad which for a time restored the prestige of the Ro- 
man arms. These were achieved mostly by the genius of 
Belisa'rius, who was intrusted with the command of the 
Byzantine armies. 

Conquests of Justinian. — The Vandal Empire in 
northern Africa, which had long been troublesome to both 
East and West, having first been destroyed, the next ob- 
ject of Justinian's ambition was the acquisition of the 
Gothic kingdom of Italy. This kingdom had been found- 
ed by Theod'oric the Ostrogoth {Eastern Goth), who led 
his nation across the Alps, overthrew Odoa'cer (493), and 
established himself on the throne. 

Theodoric had been sent in his youth as a hostage to 
Constantinople, where he had been educated in warlike 
exercises, but had scorned literary pursuits, so that when 
restored to the Goths he could not write his own name. 
As king of Italy he showed the same distaste for letters 
and for schools, declaring that the child who trembled at 
a rod would never dare to look upon a sword. Still he 
had learned how to rule with liberality and wisdom ; and 
during his reign of thirty-three years, Italy enjoyed pros- 
perity and peace, 

Justinian took advantage of the dissensions that arose 
on Theodoric's death to send Belisarius with an army to 
Italy. Rome was taken ; Vit'iges the Gothic king sur- 
rendered Ravenna, and was sent a prisoner to Constanti- 


nople. Belisarius was then recalled, and the conquest of 
Italy was completed by Narses in 554. 

Justinian was also engaged in wars with the Persians, 
and during the last years of his reign he was compelled to 
call upon Belisarius to deliver his capital from the Bulga- 
rians. In spite of all his services, Belisarius was finally 
accused of conspiracy, deprived of his fortune, and impris- 
oned. There is a story that in his old age he was led 
about the streets by a child, begging " a penny for Belisa- 
rius the general." 

Works of Peace. — The most useful work of Jus- 
tinian's reign was the revision of the Roman laws, and 
their arrangement in the code which bears his name. 
Europe is also indebted to him for its knowledge of the 
manufacture of silk, which was before confined to the 
Cliinese. Among this people the disclosure of the secret 
was punishable with death ; but two Persian monks, tempt- 
ed by the gifts of Justinian, eluded their vigilance by 
hiding some silk-worms' eggs in a hollow cane and bringing 
them to Constantinople. 

Justinian rebuilt the church of Saint Sophia, which had 
been burned, and enriched it with marbles, gold, silver, 
and precious stones. When he beheld it in all its grand- 
eur for the first time, we are told that he exclaimed, " Sol- 
omon, I have surpassed thee ! " This building is now a 
magnificent Turkish mosque. 

Loss of Territory. — Justinian was succeeded by his 
nephew Justin II. (565). During his reign, the Lombards 
{long-beards) overran Italy and easily wrested it from the 
empire. A limited district still remained to the Byzantine 
exarchs, whose capital was Ravenna, and who exercised 
civil, military, and even ecclesiastical power. In like 
manner, other provinces were lost. The Persians con- 
quered Syria, pillaged Jerusalem, and advanced to the 
very walls of Constantinople and Alexandria. At last, in 



the tenth century, hostile settlements were planted with- 
in the very sight of the Byzantine capital. 

Progress of the Church. — Meanwhile the Christian 
Church had been greatly extended, even in distant and 
barbarous regions. Zealous preachers went out with their 
lives in their hands to convert the heathen. Monasteries 
gave shelter to thousands of monks, whose solitary lives 
were spent in worship and works of charit}^, in the study 
of the Scriptures, agricultural labors, the copying of man- 
uscripts, and the mastering of ancient lore. But supersti- 
tion and heresy had from time to time crept in. Ambi- 
tious prelates arose ; and long-continued struggles be- 
tween the Patriarchs of Constantinople and the Bishops 
of Rome for ecclesiastical supremacy, no less than differ- 
ences of doctrine and usage, led to the final separation of 
the Eastern or Greek, and the Western or Roman, Church. 

Merovingian Dynasty in France. — We must now glance 
at western Europe. Among the Teutonic tribes that over- 
ran the Roman province of Gaul were the Franks {free- 
men), who, under Merov;«'us, one of their Long-haired 
kings, established a dynasty called from him the Merovin'- 

Clo'vis, the grandson of Merovaeus, became king at 
the age of fifteen (481), conquered many of the surround- 
ing tribes, overthrew the Visigoths in Gaul, and established 
a monarchy in that country, which was called France from 
his people. He was converted to Christianity through the 
efforts of his queen, the fair Clotilda, a Burgundian prin- 
cess. Pressed nigh to defeat in an engagement with the 
Alemanni, he fell on his knees and cried, " God of Clotilda, 
aid me in this hour, and I confess thy name ! " The tide 
of battle turned as by a miracle, and the king with 3,000 
of his warriors afterward received baptism at Rheims 

In comparison with later monarchs, Clovis enjoyed but 


slig-ht authority. When the spoil taken in Gaul was spread 
out for distribution, lie chose for himself a beautiful vase. 
A common soldier, noticing this, struck it with his battle- 
axe and said, " You shall have nothing here except what 
falls to you by lot ; " and the king durst not resent the 

Treachery and violence of every kind characterized 
Merovingian rule. To remove rivals from their path, the 
kings ruthlessly thinned out the royal line by assassina- 
tions ; but at last they became mere puppets in the hands 
of ambitious Mayors of the Palace, elected by the nobles, 

Britain. — About fifty years before the overthrow of the 
Western Empire, the last Roman general sent into Brit- 
ain, after repairing the wall across the nortli of the island, 
vvithdi'ew his legions to protect the provinces nt^arcr Italy. 
This was a signal for the I'icts and Scots (Caledonians) to 
renew their incursions ; and tlic Britons, in their need, 
are said to have solicited the aid of the Saxons, a German 
tribe near the Elbe (449). Joined by the Angles, and un- 
der the leaders Hengist and Horsa, the Saxons repulsed 
the northern invaders, and then resolved to seize on the 
more favored portions of the country. 

Two stories are told of the stratagem by which Hengist 
obtained land for his settlement. A Welsh historian says 
that after buying as much ground as he could inclose with 
an ox-hide, he cut the hide into strips, and so surrounded 
enough to build a castle on. The Saxons relate that he 
paid an extravagant price for a lapful of eaitli, which he 
scattered over a large space, and then, as it coukl not be 
separated from the rest, claimed the whole. 

The Britons contended bravely with the Saxons for 
their independence, but were at length overcome and 
driven into the mountains of Wales, where their descend- 
ants ha\(> preserved their language to the present time. 

Saxon Heptarchy. — The Saxons founded seven states, 


constituting what is known as the Saxon Heptarchy. 
After a series of wars with each other, they were united 
in 827 under Egbert, king of the West Saxons, who thus 
became sole monarch of England (A/if/le-land). 

The Saxons were converted to Christianity at the close 
of the sixth century. Pope Gregory the Great, when a 
young deacon, passing through the Roman market-place, 
observed some fair-haired youths exposed for sale as slaves. 
Struck by their beauty, he inquired to what country they 
belonged. Being informed that they were Angles, he ex- 
claimed, " Not Angles, but angels." In after-days he re- 
membered the fair captives, and sent Au'gustin at the 
head of an embassy to Ethelbert, king of Kent, with a 
view to the conversion of their people. (See p. 164.) 

When the entreaties of his Christian queen were united 
to the eloquence of Augustin, Ethelbert yielded, vpas 
baptized, and Christianity soon became the established 
faith of the Heptarchy. 

The Saxons wore long flowing hair, tunics fastened at 
the waist, cloth mantles, and shoes with wooden soles. 
Tlieir dwellings were rude ; even the king's palace was 
carpeted with rushes, while light was admitted through 
slits in the wall. Music and poetry were cultivated, and 
minstrels played and sang in the houses and castles. Free- 
men only were permitted to own a harp, and the loss of 
this instrument was attended with degradation from rank. 

Children were educated in hunting and war, to the neg- 
lect of reading and writing. Before Augustin came to 
England it is doubtful whether there was a book in the 
island ; King Alfred, two centuries later, gave five hun- 
dred acres of land for a single geographical work. Yet 
the Venerable Bede, " the founder of mediaeval history," 
was distinguished for his learning, 700 a. d. 

The Saxons were superstitions, believed in dreams and 
witchcraft, and wore charms to keep oflF diseases and evil 



spirits. Their mode of trial was called the ordeal. The 
accused person, after fasting and prayer, was made to 
take a red-hot iron ball in his hand, or walk blindfold over 
heated ploughshares ; if, in either case, he escaped being 
burned, he was declared innocent. 

Contemporaneous Sovereigns. 

Emperors of the East. 
Aroadius, A. d. 395-408. 
Theodosius II., 408-450. 
Marcian, 450-457. 
Leo I., 457-474. 
Zeno, 474-491. 

(Fall of Rome.) 

Anasta'tius I., 491-518. 
.Justin I., 518-527. 
Ju.stiuiau I., 527-565. 

Justin II., 565-574. 

Emperors of the West. 
Honorius, a. d. 395-423. 
Valentinian III., 425-455. 
Maximus, 455-457. 
Seven obscure emperors. 
Augustulus, 475^76. 

Kings op Italy. 
Tlieodoric, 493-526. 
Athal'aric, 526-534. 
Tlieod'atus; Vitiges ; Tot'ila. 
Duke Narses governs Italy. 
Alboin, the Lombard. 



Mohammed and his Religion — While Europe in the 
seventh centviry was sinking into the darkness of the Mid- 
dle Ages, Arabia gave birth to a nation destined to work 
great changes in the history of the world. This region, 
known to the Romans onl}' as the land of spices and 
perfumes, while it was the seat of a few scattered towns 
and castles, was inhabited mainly by roving tribes, the 
descendants of Ishmael, son of Abraham. The rearing of 
sheep, camels, and horses, their chief pursuit, they wan- 


dered from one green spot to another in search of water 
and pasturage. 

Among some of these nomadic tribes the rites and ten- 
ets of the Jewish faith prevailed, though in a form more or 
less corrupted ; others had become adherents of Christian- 
ity, first introduced into their country by the preaching of 
St. Paul ; on the north-eastern frontier, the fire-worship of 
the Persians had gained a foothold ; but by far the great- 
est number adored as gods the heavenly bodies, or graven 
images erected in their honor in temples and groves. 

In Mecca, the sacred city of the Ar'abs, was born in 
the year 569, Moham'med, who, uniting his countrymen 
on the basis of a common faith, was to lay the foundation 
of their greatness. In early life an humble merchant, as 
he approached middle age he became subject to fits of 
melancholy, during which, he stated, the angel Ga'briel 
appeared to him, gave him a new revelation, and com- 
manded him to proclaim it to the world. 

The Koran, — The principal points of this faith are 
found in the Ko'ran, which the pretended prophet gave to 
his countrymen in successive parts, and which they ac- 
cepted as their sacred book. 

The Koran taught that there was but one God, by 
whom divers prophets — Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, 
Jesus, and Mohammed, the last and greatest of all — had 
been sent to instruct the human race. To the assurance 
that every man had his appointed time to die, it added a 
promise of eternal happiness to those who perished in 
propagating the faith. Unbelievers were to suffer forever; 
but all " the faithful " would be cleansed from their sins, 
however great, by a longer or shorter period of punishment, 
and be finally admitted to a |)aradise of sensual pleasures. 
There they would dwell in marble palaces, attired in silken 
robes, surrounded by fruits, and flowers, and beautiful 
attendants. Mohammed enjoined his disciples to fast, to 


abstain from wine, to wash frequently, to pray five times 
a day, make pilgrimages to Mecca, and. spread his doc- 
trines with the sword. 

The Hegira. — In 609, Mohammed began to preach in 
Mecca, but outside of his own family he made few con- 
verts. A powerful faction, excited by jealousy, deter- 
mined on his death ; but Ali {ah'le), his faithful cousin, 
putting on the prophet's mantle and lying on his couch, 
deceived the assassins, while Mohammed escaped from the 
city and took shelter in a cave. By the time his pursuers 
arrived, according to the legend, a spider had spun its web 
across the entrance, and a dove had built her nest there ; 
whence, concluding that no one was within, they went 
their way. After three days the fugitive left the cave, 
and succeeded in reaching Medina i^me-de' nd). 

This flight took place in 622, and is known as the 
Hegira (he-Jl'rcl). Mohammedan chronology dates from 
this event, as the Christian does from the birth of Christ. 

IsLAMiSM ESTABLISHED. — In Medina Mohammed made 
many converts, and seven years after the Hegira he cap- 
tured Mecca and assumed the reins of government. Va- 
rious military enterprises against the neighboring tribes 
were successful, and the new faith was soon extended by 
force of arms throughout the peninsula. 

The Arabians were subsequently known as Sar'acens, 
and became distinguished in literature and science. The 
religion thus founded is called Mohammedanism, Islam * 
[iz'lam), or Islamism ; and its adherents are distinguished 
as Mohammedans, Moslems* (tnoz'lerns), or Mus'sulmans.* 

Mohammed was remarkable for his manly beauty and 
fervent eloquence. He was charitable to the poor, lived 
on the plainest food, and even shrunk not from menial 
employments ; with his own hands he swept his house, 
kindled his fire, milked his camels, and mended his stock- 

* From an Arabic word, meaning " submission to God," 



ings. He died at the age of sixty-three, and was buried 
at Medina. By some he is regarded as a self-deluding en- 
thusiast, by others as nothing more than a bold impostor. 

Conq[uests of the Caliphs. — The successors of Moham- 
med were called Ca'lipJts. The first was Abubekr [cih'- 
boo-bek'er), father-in-law of the prophet, under whom and 
his successor O'mar, Syria, Persia, and Egypt, were sub- 
dued. Idolatry and magianism were swept away by the 
creed of the conquerors, — triumphs miraculously an- 
nounced according to Moslem tradition, which informs us 
that on the night of Mohammed's birth the sacred fire of 
Zoroaster, kept burning by zealous Magi for more than 
a thousand years, was suddenly extinguished, and all the 
idols in the world fell down. 

The city of Alexandria endured a protracted siege, 
but was finally taken ; and its celebrated library, reputed 
to contain several hundred thousand manuscripts, was 
given to the flames, — Omar saying that if they agreed 
with the Koran they were useless, and if not they were 
positively hurtful. These books, many of them the works 
of classical authors that have thus been lost to modern 
times, were distributed among four thousand baths, which 
they served as fuel for six months. 

From Egypt the Saracens bore the triumphant banner 
of the prophet over northern Africa, and by the beginning 
of the eighth century they had reached the Atlantic. 
Here, opposite to the Canary Islands, their victorious emir, 
riding out among the waves, lamented that the ocean pre- 
vented him from planting the crescent in the unknown 
kingdoms of the West. 

Saracenic Invasion of Europe. — At this time Spain was 
in a flourishing condition under the Visigothic king Rod'- 
eric. One of Roderic's nobles whom he had wronged, 
thirsting for vengeance, invited the conquerors of Africa 
to invade his native land. They were but too glad of a 

170 SAKACKN KMl'lItK. 

pretext, uiid on the field of Xeros {ha-r&s') met lioderic, 
wlio u|)|)(^ar('d at the head of his hosts, crowned with 
pearls, reeliniii<^' in an ivory ear drawn hy white; nuiles. 
After a battle of seven days (711) he was overcome, and 
Ih'd from the field, to be drowned in the Guadalquivir 
(l/dw-dal-kioiv'/'r). In a few years Spain was overrun, 
and became the seat (W a Moorish dynasty which lasted 
eight centuries. 

IJut S])ain did not lon<^- salisfy the ambition of tlie 
Mohanniicdans. In 71H, an innumerable host under a 
great cliicr, Abderrahman {((hb-der-ra/i'rna/in), crossed 
the I'yr'ences, with their wives and ciiildren, to subdue 
the rest of lOurope. The various peoples that they first 
encountcicd, st-paralcd by dissensions, were; unable to 
withstand the; invaders, who j)enetrated as far as Poitiers 
{poi-t(crz') without receiving- any dcMiisivt; check. 

There they were met by Charles, a duke of the Franks 
(732). His stout German warriors, in an obstinate fight 
the issue of which for six days hung in tlie balance, (inally 
l)roved themselves more than a match for their dreaded 
foes. Abderrahman perished in the conflict, and the rem- 
nant of his host soon returned to S])ain. I^Vom the tre- 
mendous strokes of his innneiise battle-axe, Charles ob- 
tained th(; title of MiirtcV (tlu! Hammer). 

Bagdad. — Within a few years after this reverse, the 
empire of the; caliphs was divided. A new Alxlerrahman 
established flu; throne of the Western Cal'iphate at Cor'- 
dova ; while in the East, Bagdad, founded by Al-Mansour 
{(thl-nutktt-Hoor'), the Victorious, on the Tigris (in 762), 
became the Moliannnedan capital. Al-Mansour was an 
enlight(MHMl patron of learning, and encouraged the trans- 
lation of the best (ireek works into Arabic. A taste for 
literature took still deeper root in the reign of his famous 
grandson Haroun-al-Raschid {hah-roon' al rai^h'ld), one 
of the favorite heroes of Arabian romance. 


Tills caliph, dihtin^ui.shcd for piety and wisdom, was 
very liberal to the poor, especially to poets, being fond of 
Ar'ab poetry and himself a writer. 'J'hat he mig'ht find 
out the real condition of his subjects, he was in the habit 
of going round among them in disguise. lie was much 
beloved by his people ; they once covered the roads beffjre 
him with rich carpets, when he was making a pilgrimage 
to Mecca on foot, in fulfillment of a vow. 

Haroun carried on a series of succ<;ssful wars with the 
Eastern Emperor, and compelled him to pay an annual 

Within a century after Jlaroun's death, the Saracenic 
Empire was weakened by internal dissensions. Several 
governors of provinces rebelled, and established indepen- 
dent cal'iphates ; notwithstanding, Bagdad increased in 
wealth and magnificence. Among other wonders that it 
contained, an ambassador to the court of one of the later 
caliphs describes a tree of gold and silver, on the branches 
of which birds of the same precious metals fluttered and 

Bagdad was sacked by tlie Mongols in 1258. It was 
then the richest city in the world ; diamonds and jewelry 
of inestimafile value were taken by the conquerors. The 
wretched caliph was enclosed in a leather sack, and dragged 
through the streets till he expired. 

Carlovingian Dynasty in France. — Charles Martel, who 
repuls'-d thf; Siu;i''-iis, was tlie real sovfreign of IVance, 
though he ruled in the name of a weak .\I';rovingian king.' 
Pep'in, the son of Charles, wielding the same power but 
coveting also the title of king, appropriated the crown, 
and thus founded the Carlovingian line. The last of the 
Merovingians was shorn of his long hair in token of his 
deposition, and ended his days in a monastery. 

Pepin was called the Short, being only four and a half 
feet high ; but he possessed great strength, and once cut 


off a lion's head with a single blow of his sword, after 
having vainly dared his courtiers to encounter the savage 
beast. He was successful in wars with the Saxons ; and 
at the request of the pope, who was hard pushed by the 
Lom'bards, he invaded Italy, humbled their king, and laid 
the keys of their conquered cities on the tomb of St. 
Peter as a gift to the Holy See. Thus began the tem- 
poral power of the popes, who had before enjoyed only a 
spiritual authority. 

On Pepin's death the kingdom descended to his sons, 
Charlemagne {shar-le-mane') and Carloman. 

Principal Successors of Mohammed. 

Abi-bekr, tJ32-6;:!4 Khaled {kah'led) the Saracen general, " tlie 

Sword of God." 

Omar, (534-644 Saracens defeat Ileracli'iis, Enipcror of the 

East, 636 ; take Jerusalem, 637. 

Otiiman, 644-655 Saracens conquer part of Tartary ; Imild a 

fleet; take Cyprus and Rhodes. 

Ali, 655-661 Surnamed " the Lion of God." Cufa, on the 

Euphrates, made the capital. 

MoAwiYAH, 661-680 Dynasty of the Omniiyades {om-nw' j/a-decz) be- 
gins ; Damascus their capital. 

Abool-Abbas, 750-754. . . .The dynasty of the Abbassides {ab-bas sc-dccz) 

Al-Mansour', 754-775. . . .Bagdad made the capital, 762 ; Cordova, capi- 
tal of the Moors in Spain, 756. 

HAROuN-AL-RAsrmn {Aaron the Just) reigned, 786-809. The wicked 

Ire'ne Empress of the East. Charlemagne. 

Al-Mamoun', 813-833 Medicine, geometry, astronomy, and literature, 

flourish at Bagdad. 

600 A. D. — Roman civilization disappearing; brute force pre- 
dominates. The name Angle-land ]\i&i given to part of the eastern coast 
of England ; St. Augustin first Archbishop of Canterbury. Merovingian 
kings in France ; mayors of the palace growing in power. Kingdom of 
the Visigoths in Spain, and Lombards in Italy. Eastern Empire, under 
Maurice, extends almost to the Caspian. Mohammed, thirty-one years 





Empire of Charlemagne. — The kingdom which Pepin 
divided between his sons inibraced parts of what are now 
Germany and France. ( )ii the death of the younger, 
Charlemao-ne the survivor secured the whole, 771. 

Tlie new monarch was 
almost a giant in stature 
and strength, of com- 
manding presence, and 
proficient in all manly ex- 
ercises. His warlike tastes 
and the disposition he ap- 
pears to have entertained 
to make proselytes to 
Christianity by violence 
if persuasion failed, 
quickly involved him in 
contests with the sur- 
rounding nations. 

A war with the Saxons 
(see Map, p. 158), which 
lasted thirty years, re- 
sulted in their reduction 
and enforced conversion. 
A crusade against the 
Lombards, undertaken 
meanwhile through the 
entreaties of the pope, terminated with Charlemagne's as- 
sumption of the iron crown of Italy (774) ; and the inva- 
sion of Spain, resulting in the defeat of the Moors, led to 
the annexation of the country north of the E'bro. 



While his victorious army was recrossing- into France, 
the Basques suddenly fell on its rear division with great 
fury in the defiles of Roncesvalles {ron-se-vahl'ies). Ro'- 
land, the famous Pal'adin, who was in connnand, refusing 
to sound his horn for aid, fought with desperate bravery 
until overcome by superior numbers. Then blowing a 
bhist with his dying breath, he signalled Charlemagne, 
wlio hastened back only to find his most valiant warriors 
dead upon the field. The armies of the West also pushed 
their con(juests eastward as far as the Theiss ; and the 
subjugation of various German and Slavic tribes extended 
the boundaries of the conqueror in that direction. 

In 80(» Charlemagne visited Rome as the protector of 
Pope Leo III., and in return was crowned on Christmas- 
day by Leo with the golden diadem of the Cnesars. This 
event may be regarded as completing the foundation of 
the first Germanic Empire. 

Charlemagne's title to the imperial crown was recog- 
nized, though with reluctance, by the emperor of the East. 
Ilis renown spread into Asia. Ilaroun-al-Raschid, as a 
token of friendship, sent him a clock propelled by water- 
power, which was the wonder of the day. In the face 
were twelve doors which opened when the time arrived, 
letting brass balls fall on a bell to strike the hours. At 
twelve, knights on horseback came out and rode round the 

.Justly ranked with Alexander and Caesar, Charlemagne 
deserved the appellation of Great, not only by reason of 
his splendid conquests, but also for his promotion of civili- 
zation. He improved the laws and encouraged agricult- 
ure, established schools, and founded at Paris the first 
university in Europe. Himself a student, he employed 
some one to read aloud to him even at his meals. The 
English scholar Alcuin [alk'tcin), the most learned man of 
the age, flourislied at his court, and was at once his adviser 


and friend. While in his mode of life he was plain and 
frugal, he adorned his capital Aix-la-Chapelle {ayks-lah- 
sha/i-pd') witli costly architectural works. 

Division of the Empire. — Charlemagne left to Louis, 
the only son who survived him, his whole empire except 
Italy, which he bestowed upon his grandson Ber'nard (814). 
After the death of Louis and a period of intestine strife, 
the Western Empire was divided among his three sons 
(843). France fell to Charles the Bald, Germany to Louis, 
and Italy to Lothaire'. 

The Normans. — Weakened by these unnatural quai-- 
rels, France now became an easy prey to the Norsemen or 
DaTies, a nation of pirates from the distant coasts of Scan- 
dinavia (Denmark, Sweden, and Norway). Li search of 
plunder, they were wont to land in immense hordes on the 
shores of the British Isles and the adjacent parts of the 
continent, massacre the inhabitants, seize what plunder 
they could, and hurry back to their vessels by the light 
of burning churches and dwellings. 

Their chiefs, or vi'kings, fearlessly navigated the 
Northern Ocean, finding their way to the nearest land, 
when lost, by letting loose a hawk and following his 
flight, each ship being provided with a cage of these birds. 
The old warriors caused their friends to slay them, for 
to die a natural death was to be excluded from the joys 
of paradise. Woden,* the supreme deity, and Thor,* 
the god of war and thunder, were the principal objects of 

France had suffered from the depredations of these 
Norsemen before the death of Charlemagne, and once this 
great monarch said that he wept for the calamities which 
he perceived they would bring upon his realms. In the 
reign of his grandson Charles, they sailed up the Seine, 

* Weilne.sday {wodeiiHilay) was tledicated to Woden ; Thursday {Ihors- 
da<j\ to Tlior. 

"A VIK1N(! OLD." 
KiMid LoiiLit'ollow's "The Ski'lolmi in Ainidiir." 


|)illaf^(;d J'aris, and left the country only on tho payment 
of Hev(!n tlunjsand pounds of silver. 

Settlement of the Normans in France. — The Carlo- 
viiif^iuii kin^s jrvo.w more eHeniinate yniiv by year, 'llic 
Normans { Afor.'ieman) renewed their incursions; and final- 
ly Charles the Simple in (ill gave them th(! lunthern part 
of France, on condition that they would leave the rest at 
peace, and embrace Christianity. The territory thus ceded 
was called from them Normundy. 

TJKur valiant i-\\'wX Kollo was so tall that he f;<julii not 
(irid a liorsc; in Norway larg-e enou^^h for him U) /idt;, and 
goin<^ f)M his exjxiditioiis afoot he was called Uollo the 
Marcher. When told that for tin; valiia[)l(! j^rant he had 
n(;(;iv(;d Ik; must kiss llie kiii<i;''s feet, Ik; declared that he 
would n(!V(!r kiss the foot of man, and ordered on(; (if his 
soldi(;rs to do it in his stcsad. The latter, laisiuf/,- tlx; kind's 
loot to liis month, threw liitii nidely to the; <iYU\\\\i\ juiiid 
)Ih! Iau<^liter of his com])anioiis, and (Jharles was ofjlig-ed 
to submit to the insult. 

Uollo was made a peer of France and received the title 
of J)uk(i. Under his f>overnm(!nt the churches were re- 
built, the fi(dds were cultivat(!d, and rol)b(!ry was almost 

Commencement of the Capetian Dynasty. — Louis V., 
tli(! Siuf4'ii;ard, tlu; last of tin; ( 'arlovin/^ian king's, was 
poisoned by his f|ueen. As Ik; left no children, Hugh (Ja'- 
[Xit, Count of I'aris, was elect(id king by the barons (987). 
Ii(i thus became the founder of the (Japetian line, and his 
family ruled in France for more than eight centuries. 
Hugh was succeeded by his son Itobert the Fious, during 
whose reign Europe was desolated by a dreadful famine 
(1028-1030). Tr;iv(;llers were murdered on the highways 
and de von Hid f)y the starving peasants. 

Germany was riiled by the descendants of Charlemagne 
\x\\\\\ the death of Louis IV., when the nobhts elec;ted Con- 


rad, Duko oC Franconia, to fill the vacant throne (911). 
This luoiiarch and his successor Henry 1. were engag-ed 
chiefly in repellino- barbarian invasions. The envoys who 
wore sent to Ilemy, then Duke of Saxony, with tlie sacred 
arms and crown ol" the (Jernian sovereig-ns, found hiui 
hawking- in the Hart/. Mountains, with a falcon on his 
wrist ; whence he was called Henry the Fowler. 

Otho 1., the Great, succeeded his father Henry the 
Fowler in 936 ; and crossing the Al))s at the liead of a 
victorious army, was crowned Emperor of the W^est in 
9(52 by the pope. He was occupied chielly with subju<rat- 
ing and Christianizing the northern nations, and checking 
the inroads of the Hungarians, or Magyars (niod'jors). 

These barbarians, who shaved their hair, disfigured 
tluMr faces, and devoured raw llesh, had left their original 
ai)odes in tlie Ural Mountains, and ravaged Germany, 
Italy, and l^'raiUH*. Henry the Fowler and Otho succes- 
sively defeated them in two great battles, and compelled 
them to make permanent settl<Mnents, Shortly after this 
tiiey embraced Christianity, and inider Stephen the Pious 
(1000) advanced in the arts of ]ieace. 

The reign of Henry 1\^. (1050-1100) was a constant 
struggle with Pope Greg'orv Vli. (I lil'di^jjrand), who de- 
t(Minined to rid the church of all interference on the j)art 
of earthly potentates. In the course of the quarrel he ex- 
eonununicated * Henry, who was finally brought to terms, 
and obliged to stand fasting and barefoot in the snow for 

* Ercommunication was a solemn exclusion fi-oni church-monibershi]i, 
anil IVoiu all intercourse, social and religious, with Christians. When in- 
trnti'(l on a monarch, it was held to involve a forfeiture of the crown and 
of the allegiance of his subjects. Sometimes the pope would put a whole 
kingdom under an interdict^ in which case the churclies were closed and 
all the services of religion suspeiulcd. It was thus souglit to reduce a 
ruler to obedience, by exciting against him the detestation of his people. 
England was laid under an interdict in the reigns of Stephen, John, 
llcnrv VIII., and Kli/.abeth 


three days before hein^' admitted to the pof)e'8 presence 
to implore lii.s I'orgiveries.s. 

Gregory was the founder of the politieal power of the 
popes, wfiich was jealously guarded by liis suceessors. 
For many years the influence of th(i emperors do<;lined ; 
while that of the popes, supported by the religious feeling 
of the timfs, increased, and exalted them above the kings 
of Europe. 

Italy, after the death of Lothaire, suffered from the 
disputes of the Carlovingian princes and the ravages of 
the Saracens. F'or about three hundred years after the 
imperial crown was conferred on Otho the Great, it formed 
a part of the German Empire. 

During the eleventh century, the Normans established 
themselves in the south, reduced Sicily, and under Robert 
Guiscard (geese-kar'), founder of the kingdom of Naples, 
invaded the Byzantine Empire and defeated the emperor 
Alexius in battle. Robert possessed all the qualities of 
the soldier ; he surpassed the tallest of his army in stature, 
anfl could wield at the same time the sword in his right 
hand, the lance in his left. He started from Normandy 
with only five horsemen and thirty soldiers ; and this was 
the- germ of an army tliat put to flight the emperors of the 
East, and West. 

Founding of the Russian Monarchy. — Northeastern Eu- 
rope appears to have been early peopled Vjy Slavonians, 
who founded the towns of Nov'gorod and Kiev {ke-ev') as 
their capitals (see Map, p. 158). About the middle of the 
ninth century, a portion of these Slavonians, together with 
some Finnish tribes that were settled near them, became 
subject to Ru'rik, a Scandinavian chief. Under him the 
different elements united to form one nation — the Russian, 
in which the Slavonian language and customs predomi- 

Christianity was tolerated in Russia as early as the 


middle of the tenth century. The people, however, were 
still jiag-ans, and even Queen C)l<;-a, who went to Con- 
stantinople to receive baptism, was unable to effect the 
conversion of her subjects. The doctrines of the Greek 
Church were finally introduced at the close of this cen- 
tury by Vlad'iniir the Great, who also founded churches 
and schools. 

The Moors in Spain. — After the defeat of Roderic (p. 
167), the poor remains of the Visigoths found safety in 
the mountains of the North-west, and there established a 
Christian sovereignty. This for a time, assailed by its 
Moorish neighbors, maintained a precarious existence ; but 
it gradually grew in strength, and ultimately four Chris- 
tian kingdoms were formed in Spain — Castile, Le'on, Ar'- 
agon, and Navarre'. 

Under the successors of Abderrahman, the caliphate 
of Cordova became distinguisluMl for its power and mag- 
nificence ; in the beauty of its palaces and gardens, the 
capital even rivalled Bagdad. Cordova reached the 
height of its glory in the tenth century, when it con- 
tained a million inhabitants, a library of several hundred 
thousand volumes, six hundred mostjues, and nine hundred 
public baths. 

The Moors of Spain made marvellous progress in the 
arts and sciences. They invented a highly ornate style of 
architecture, still to be seen in the ruins of their castles ; 
and to them we owe the introduction into Europe of our 
present system of notation. In chemistry, astronomy, and 
medicine, they were acknowledged masters ; and at a time 
when there was a complete dearth of intellectual power 
among the other European nations, thousands of poets 
and historians adorned their literature. 

After a while the Moorish sovereignty was subdi- 
vided, and the proud caliphate of Cordova became extinct 
in 1031. 



Carlovingian Kings of France 

PKPtN the Short, 752-7(58 

OllAKLKMAONK, 7C>8-814 . 

Louis I., tlio Mild, 814-840 . 
Charles II., tlie IJald, 840-877 
Louis IL, 877-879 
Louis III., 879-882 
Cakloman, 882-884 . 
CiiAKLKS the Fat, 884-888 
KuDKS, (!ount of Paris, 888-898 . 
(JiiAULKS III., the Simple, 898-922 
UoHKKT (brother of Eudes), 922 
lluuoLF, of Burguiuly, 922-9;{() 
Loui.s IV., the Stranger, 930-954 . 
LOTHAIUE, 954-980 . 
Loui.s V., the Sluggard, 980-987 . 

Deside'riua Lombard king; defeat- 
ed by Charlemagne, 774. 
Egbert king of " England," 827. 
The empire divided, 843. 
Alfonso III. king of Leon. 
Alfred the Great, of England. 
Martin II. pope. 
Normans besiege Paris. 
Leo VI. emperor of the East. 
Rhcims the royal residence. 
Harold llar'fager in Norway. 
Henry the Fowler, ol" (Jermany. 
Otlio I., the (ireat, of (Jermany. 
Hugh the (ireat, Duke of France. 
Hugh Capet rules France. 



England under the Saxon Kings.— The liopes of peace 
which the people of England had entertained on the union 
of the seven Saxon kino-doms in 827 under Egbert, were 
soon dispelled by the appearance of the Danes upon their 
coast. King Egbert had served under Charlemagne, and 
the experience thus acquired enabled him to repulse these 
formidable invaders. After his death, they penetrated 
into the interior, captured the city of York,* and in 871 
fought five battles with his grandson Ethelred. In the 
last of these Ethelred received a mortal wound. He left 

* For places mentioned in the chapters on English history, see Map, 
p. 200. 

18'2 Ai.iui'.i) iiiK (jKivvr. 

his kino-(loin io his brother AlfriNl, thou t wiMit v-nno V(>!il'3 

Altred. — riu> (^lucation oi' this pniUT li;ul Ihmmi nci),"- 
loi'tod, iviul ho was (wolvt^ vi^ars oh\ hol'mv lu> know liie 
h^ltors. Ono day tho (]iu>on, al'tor oxhibiliiio- ;i haiulsonio- 
Iv illimiinatod Saxon piuMu to iior I'hiidron, olVonMJ it to 
tiu> owe who should lirst ho abU' to it^ad it. AIIVimI. tho 
youui;-ost, appliod hinisoll' dili^'ontlv, aud won t hi> |Mi/o. 
Kroni that time his studios wtM-o liis delight, and he Im>- 
caino ono of tho u\ost loaruod uion of (ho a<it\ 

No soouor had Alfrod asi-ondod tiio tlnono than h(> was 
c>bliood to tako (lio hohl against (ho Dauos. Aftor a pro- 
(rai'tod s(ruiiii-K\ ho was sur|uis(>d and wors(od by tlio oue- 
uiy, and soui^iit ooiu'(>ahuont in th(> hut of a hordsuian. 
Wvvc lio was Cor a tiuu^ ouiphnod as a sorvant, and was 
oftiMi ohidiMl by liis uiistiH>ss, who was i<iMioraut oi" his lauk. 
( )n his rostoialion \o powor, howmor, ht> foi^-ot iiof iil- 
naturo, and (llio story says) rowanhHl h(M- luisbaiul by 
liivino- hiiu an oduoation an»l nuikiui>- him Bisho[) of NN'iii- 

AbNUiwhiK^ tho Danes, lindino- that rosistanoo liad most- 
ly ooasod, iiiow oaioh>ss ; and Alfrod, in (h(> disouiso of a 
minst I'ol, «Mitorod tluMi' oauip and saui;- bol'on> (lulh'i-uni 
th(Mr ohiof. AftiM' havini;' thus asctMtainod tlioir striMiii'lh, 
ho assiMubIi>d an ainn and doloati^l thoiu with ^■I•(>at 
slaui>htor. Tho Danish kinji", with his |iiinoii)al oIliotM's, 
ombraootl Christianity ; and niany o\' his followers sottloil 
in Eni>;laud and gradually biH'auu> oi\ ili/.m!. 

\\\ jioaoo Alfrod dovott^l hiiusolf (o tho good of his 
poo{>lo. lio iuvitod foreign artisans and scholars lo Eng- 
land, enoouragiMl the tMlueation of his subjoi'ts, and found- 
ed (he University of Oxford. Laws were nuido for the 
protection of life and property, and (he vessels he o(]ui})piMl 
to niee( (he NorsiMuon \voih> {\\c boginniuii" of (h(> h]nglish 
na\ V. As (luMo W(M'i> no I'looks in (he land, he moasurod 

tiitK; \>Y i\i<- [)iiriiiri;r (,(■ «;iii(J|c,Hj oii vvliicli vvf;r*; |);i,i()t,'-,i| 
liii^H of (li(T<Tc,iit, riolocH ; ;i.ii(l (,o fHob'cl, flicsc IVoin t,li<; 
\viri<l, (lifry vvc.i<; enclosed in cascH ol (Inn lioiii vvIh:»k;<; 
llif. oii;jin of l;iri(,<rn.s. 

AUn.l 'lii-il in (J(;l, ;ui'l w;ih lionr<n:<l wit Ii I.Ik; |,il,|c, of 

Saxon Successors of Alfred. Tlio rnosf, proinincni, of Al- 
fffd'H KUccfiHHOfH vvcft; liis Wiirlikf! Kon, JvJwanJ tho JOIiJcr ; 
AUiclsf-an, his f^ranfJHon, who crnHlicfl Uio [)f>vvf;i- f)f tJic 
l>;in<H, Mii'l ni;i,(l<; l,li(; W<;I.hIi tiiNnlaiy ; ajid lvl;.';ij- tlir-. 
I '(raccfni, who never (ln;w the HwonJ a^ a ffje, l'o)r;i^ri 
or dorne.slie. At thi.s time lOn^lati'J was ho infe.sted with 
wolves ticit Kd^iiv ni;i<le the, yearly t;i.x of tin; VVel:->h con- 
sist of )><)() wolves' hejirls, instead of money and f;atth;. 
'I'Ik; niHult wa.s tliat in lour yearn tliese animals w(;re all 
kille.l oiL 

One of th(! most f)OW('rfNl Of;eIesiaHtieH of the fuuiod 
wuH St. Dunstari, Al»hrit of (ilastonljury, and afterwanJ 
Arcfihishop of ( ';inf crhnry. lie was (;dfi<^;ited hy Irish 
teac^Iicrs, and Hu}>serjii(;ntly lived for a while in retirement, 
spending his lime in devotion, Htiuly, and tfie manufacture 
ol hells and mii;;d ifistrurri(;fitH. I)iinstati hecamc; emi- 
nent hoth as a sr;liolar and a Htat(!srrian. He not only r(;n- 
d<red liis country im[»ortant [)oliticaI HorviceH, but also ro- 
form(;d the morals and restored tlie leurninj^of the clergy. 

In (J75, Ounstan crf>wne'l l'rinf;e ICdwanJ, known as the 
Martyr because Ik; was inurdered at the inHti/:i^atif>n of his 
stf;[)-mother, to make rormi for her own son I'.thelred. 
iJurin^ the in(.df)fiorjH rei^n of tiK; latter, tiK; kingdom 
was r(!|)eateflly hiid waste l>y the, l)afK-s, aiKl from his l>e- 
iti^ un|)re|);i,red to nK;e,t them in h;i,ttle I'ithelred wasf;alled 
the Unready. 

After severjil tiirKts purchasiri^^ [»eace frotri the invad- 
ers, Kthejnsd secretly ordenid a massacre of all the i>ane.s 
in the country (1002); and the sister of Sweyn (Hwa//,e)j 


king of Denmark, was cut off among the rest. Sweyn re- 
taliated by sweeping like a whirlwind through distracted 
England. He finally seated himself on the throne, Ethel- 
red retiring for a time to Normandy. In a few weeks, 
however, Sweyn died, and Ethelred resumed the sceptre. 

He reigned until lOlG, when his warlike son, Edmund 
Ironside, battled with Sweyn's able son Canute for the 
crown of his fathers. On the treacherous murder of Ed- 
mund the same year, the whole realm fell to Canute. 

Danish Kings. — Canute the Great endeavored to con- 
ciliate the English by his impartiality. His regard for the 
laws is shown by the following anecdote. Having in a 
moment of anger slain a soldier, he insisted on being tried 
and sentenced like any common offender. His judges de- 
cided that he should inflict his own penalty ; and, as mur- 
der was then punished by fine, he paid 3G0 talents. 

Canute's dominions included Denmark, Norway, and 
Sweden. Sweden he conquered with tlie aid of Earl God- 
win, who had risen from the position of an humble farmer. 
As the young rustic was driving his cattle one morning, he 
was met by a Danish captain, who, flying before the vic- 
torious Saxons, had lost his way and begged to be con- 
ducted to his vessels. Godwin acted as his guide, was well 
received in the Danish camp, and rose step by step until 
he became the most powerful noble in England. 

Amid the cares of his extensive kingdom, Canute found 
time for pious works, built churches, and went on a pil- 
grimage to Rome. After his death in 1036, his sons Harold 
Ilarefoot and Ilardicanute successively held the crown. 

Edward the Confessor, after these Danish princes, as- 
cended the throne, and was hailed with joy by the people 
as the restorer of the old Saxon line (1041). Having 
spent part of his life in Normandy, he introduced the lan- 
guage and customs of that country, and filled the court 
with his Norman favorites. This provoked a rebellion on 


the part of Earl Godwin, and in the end the odious for- 
eigners were outlawed. 

Edward was persuaded by the monks that he could 
work miracles, and people affected with scrofula were 
brought to him to be touched and cured. The ceremony 
was called touching for king's evil, and was continued 
under liis successors. — The principal foreign war in which 
Edward engaged was with Scotland. 

Scotland. — The kingdom of Scotland resulted from a 
union of the Picts and Scots under one sovereign in 843. 
In Edward the Confessor's time, the throne was occupied 
by Duncan. But this prince was murdered by Macbeth, 
who seized the crown. Malcolm, the rightful heir, with 
aid from England, defeated the usurper, and regained his 
father's throne. He was killed, while besieging an English 
castle, by a knight who came out to surrender the keys on 
the point of his spear. As the king approached to receive 
them, the faithless knight thrust the spear into his eye, 
and was thenceforth called Plerce-eye — whence the noble 
family of Percy obtained its name. 

Ireland. — Many of the Celtic tribes of this island had 
early embraced Christianity ; the conversion of the inhab- 
itants was completed by St. Patrick in the fifth century. 
After the Saxons conquered Britain, the Irish made peace 
with them, instructed them in religion, and founded schools 
among them. St. Bridget flourished in the sixth century ; 
at this time the chief monastery in Ireland contained over 
a thousand monks. 

The Danes, in their piratical expeditions, did not over- 
look this flourishing island ; but subdued the people, who 
were under different chiefs, and oppressed them with taxes. 
The master of every house was subjected to what was 
called the nose-tax, being required to pay an ounce of 
gold annually or have his nose cut off. 

The Danes were at length overthrown by Brian Boru', 


From !i miniature in an ancient Boncdictionul. A specimen of the 
art of illumination, illustrating in the embroidered scarlet mantle and un- 
der-dress of gold tissue the rich costume of the Anglo Saxon nuns. 



king' of Munstor, who fought with them twenty- five 
pitched batthis, TPiis Irish hero maintained a large army 
and a fleet of three hundred vessels. To test the order 
prevailing in his kingdom, he directed that a beauti- 
ful virgin should traverse it unprotected, carrying a ring 
(jf great value on a wand — which she did without mo- 

Jn the year 1000, IJrian was elected monarch of ail 
IrfilancI, and under his wise and vigorous administration 
the people enjoyed peace and plenty. Intercourse was 
also opened by ambassadors with the various courts of 
Europe. But Brian was kilhid in batthi with the Danes 
(1014) ; and after his death Ireland was again divided and 
devastated by wars. 

Kings of England, 827-1066. 

Saxon Kings. 



Kthclhald, . 


Etiieliwl, . 

Alfred the Groat, 

Edward the fJldor, 



Kdred, . 

Kdwy, . 

Ed;^ar the Peaceful, 

Edwaid the Martyr, 

94 6-9.') 5. 

Saxon Kinoh (continued). 
Etlieh'ed tlie Unready, 978-1016. 
Kvveyn (Dane), . I0i;i-1014. 
Edmund IroimiiJe, . 1016. 

Danish Kinoh. 
Canute the Great, . lOUJ-lO.'J.^. 
Harold Ilarefoot, . 1035-1040. 
Ilardicanute, . 1U40-1042. 

Saxon Line restorkd. 
Edward the Confessor, 1042-1066. 
Harold, . . . 1066. 

Norman Conquest. 

lOOO A. D. — Etlielred the Unready on the throne of England. 
Brian lioru elected monarch of all Ireland. Rol)ert II., son of Hugh 
Capet, king of France. Sancho the Great, king of Navarre. Portugal 
under the Moors. Boleslas I. (fjo-kn-la/is'), the Brave, on tlie throne of 
Poland. Vladimir (vlad'c-meer) the Great, ruler of Russia. Red Er'ic, 
sailing from Greenland, discovers the main-land of America, landing in 
Viidaiid (Rhode Island and Massachusetts). Mahmoud invades India. 



ENCL.ixn r.wv/A' /•///■; X()A\]/.i.y av.vgs. 
( 1066-1 154.) 

Norman Conquest. — Edward tlio Confessor died child- 
loss ill lOliC) ; and tlio day lie was l)in'ii>d, Karl (Jodwin's 
son 1 Iniolil, tlu> last of lli(> Saxon kin<>'s, was (irowiicd, 
Kdward had promised to leave the throne^ to his kinsman, 
the Duki^ of Normandy, and IJarold himselt' had sworn 
(though, as he claimed, under compulsion) to support the 
pretensions of the latter. 

The new king's reig-n was soon disturbed by an in- 
vasion headed by his brother Tostig and the king of Nor- 
way. When the hostile armit>s were drawn up ready tor 
battle, Harold olTei-ed his brother wealth and a part of his 
kingdom it' he wt)uld withdraw from the combat. " If I 
aecei)t these terms," Tostig answered, " what will you 
give my ally, the king of Norway?" " SrviMi feet of 
English soil, or, as he is very tall, perhaps a little more," 
was the re|)ly. This ended the conference, and in the 
battle which followed Harold was successful, and his 
brother with the Norwegian king was slain. 

The rejoicings of the victorious army were interrupted 
by titlings that William of Normandy had landed in Eng- 
land with a large force, to support his claim to the throne. 
Harold met the invaders, OtitobcM- 14, 1()(!(), his birtiiday, 
on the Held of Hastings. William had thn-e horses killed 
uiuler him and lost 15,000 of his troops ; but tlu> English 
army was cut to pieces and Harolil slain. 'I'his victory 
established the Norman power in England. 

William the Conqueror was crowned on Christmas-day, 
loot). The English people, however, were not entirely 
subdued ; they broke out into insuri'ections, and at last 
the king, determined to strike terror into their hearts, 


iwiirchcd norllivviinl, hiiriiod tlieir towns, and put tlioii- 
.sands to the, .svvoi-d. 

William I. (;ni-iclK'd liis Nonnan follovvfrs with tlio 
treasures and lands oi' tho .Saxons. lie repaid the pope 
i'or sanetionin<^ his conquest by extending tlie ])apal au- 
thority over the Enj^lish cliureh, and sent to Itomo the 
tribute ealled Peter's Pence — a penny a y(!ar for every 
liousehold. It was in his reign that the lJ(jincsday-Book 
was conipiled, containing an account of all the landed and 
f)ersonal property in the kingdom, and tho nurnher of men 
able to bear arms. 

William introduced tne Norman language and manners. 
J''rench was taught in the schools, spoken at court, and 
employed exclusively in the tribunals of law. He could 
not, however, compel its use by the low(!r classes. They 
(jbstinately adhered to their own vernacular ; and not till 
their prejudices against their conquerors had been soft- 
ened by the lapse of fifty years, were they willing to 
modify their own tongue and enlarge its vocabulary by 
drawing on th(; language of the Normans. From this 
time changes were rapidly made ; and the grafting of nu- 
merous elements from the versatile Norman French upon 
the homely but nervous Saxon stock, produced our pres- 
ent English (about 1350). 

Among tlie oppressive institutions of this monarch 
were the Forest Laws and the Curfew. William was 
especially fond of hunting; and not content with sixty- 
eight deer-friths, besides parks and chases, he made what 
was called the New Forest, by laying waste a tract of 
thirty square miles, demolishing churches, and destroy- 
ing hundreds of homes. The Curfew was a bell rung 
at eight o'clock, as a signal for extinguishing lights and 

]n William's time, England was covered with strong 
castles, and the Towe-r of London was commenced. The 


Normans called themselves after tlieir castles and fortified 
towns, and thus introduced surnames. 

William the Conqueror died in 1087, leaving- Norman- 


fly to his son Robert, England to William, and to IJanry, 
his younn-est son, £5,000. 

"William Rufus (red) iiastened to England on the death 
of his father, to take possession of the crown and royal 
treasures, lie was brave in war, but licentious, passion- 
ate, and tyrannical, lie enlarged the royal forests, and 
made hunting therein without permission a capital offence, 
ill 1100, wliile pursuing his favorite sport in the New For- 
est, William Kufus was killed by an arrow discharged by 
an unknown hand. 

Henry I. was crowned at Lonflon on the third day af- 
ter his brother's death, to which, as he made no effort to 
discover its author, he is supposed to have been a party. 
In 1101, rifjbert, his elder brother, to whom the crown 
riglitfully belonged, having returned from a Crusade in 
Palestine, landed with an army in England ; but, on the 
promise of 3,000 marks annually and the cession of all the 
castles tliat Henry held in Normandy, he consented to 
forego his claim. 

Henry afterward, however, on frivolous pretexts in- 
vaded Normandy, defeated Robert, took possession of his 
dominions, and sent him a prisoner to England. Robert 
having subsequently attempted to escape from confine- 
ment, the king ordered his eyes to be burned out ; and in 
blindness and misery the poor prisoner suffered for the re- 
mainder of his life, — a period of twenty-eight years. 

In consequence of Henry's successes in Normandy, the 
barons of that country were obliged to acknowledge him as 
their duke, and his son William as his successor. Hut 
Prince William, returning to England with three hundred 
nobles on the fastest vessel of the fleet, was lost. Wine 
having been freely distributed among the sailors by their 
royal pass(;nger, they became intoxicated, and ran the ves- 
sel on a rock. William was hurried into a boat, and would 
have escaped, had not his sister, vrho had been left behind, 


cried for jud, Iloariiig* her voice, ho ordered the boat to 
!)(> rowtMl back to the shi|\ when those on board h>a|nMl in, 
ami all \veri> drowned. The Uin^' was iu'M'i- ai'terwaid 
seen to smile. 

llciuT ilied in lloo, leaving his i\.ingili)ni lo his daugh- 
t.'r Matilda. 

Stephen, Karl of Blois {/>/itU(/i), however, a favorite 
iu>[)lu*w t)f tlu> deceased king, notwithstanding he had sol- 
eundy sworn to snpport Matilda, took advanlagt" of iier 
absence in iSlorniandy to seize the crown. Matilda was 
not afraid to assert her riglits by force of arms, and for 
eigiiteiMJ years Englantl was desolated bv ei\il war. 
Whole towns were depopulated ; in some ])arts a man 
might ride a day without meeting a lunnan being. Nu- 
merous castles were erected by lawless nobles, who set at 
deliaiUH' not only the authority of tluMr sovendgn, but 
every prliu-iple of justice and humanity. 

In this protracted struggle Stephen was for the most 
part sucei>ssful, though for a short time he was a prisoner, 
and Matilda (or Maud) was recognized as queen in part of 
the kingdom. 

At last, Prince Henry, Matilda's son, arrived liom Nor- 
mandy (1153) and was supported by a powcrlul party. A 
battle was prevented by negotiations, and it wa« iinally 
agreed that Steplien should wear the crown during the 
remainder of his life, but that Henry should be his suc- 

During these wars, Matilda was onci' so hard pressi>d 
that, to escape her enemies, she caused herself to be dressed 
in grave-cloth(^s and laid in a cotlin, which was carried out 
on miMi's shoulders to a place of safety. 

Literature and the Arts. — During tlu^ reign of Henry 
1., tieolTrey {Jcf'n) of Moinuouth published his Chronicles 
of tlu> Hritons, rather curious as a collection of old legends 
than valual)le as a historv. 'To this (leolVrev we owe the 


Stories of the sorf;erer Mcr'lin ; of Arthur, the famouB myth- 
ical king of the liritoiiH, who reigned in Wales at the time 
of the Anglo-Saxon wars ; and of his chivalrous knights, 
who went out from his court to protect the helpless, lib- 
<!rate the enchanted, and encounter blood-thirsty ogres and 
malicious dwarfs. Of an entirely different character, as 
regards veracity and accuracy, is the History of England 
}>y William of xMalmesbury (mahrns' ber-e), a contemporary 
of Geoffrey (1095-114.'}). 

Poetry, music, and architecture, were diligently cul- 
tivated. Abbeys and churches were erected on all sides, 
arifl adorned with paintings and statues. Monks were the 
principal arcliitccts and builders of these edifices. The 
monks also constructed organs, the chief if not the oidy 
instruments uhcA in worship, and spent much time in illu- 
iiiinating manuscrijjts, — an art that now attained great 

About this time, the manufacture of cloth first received 
attention in England. i'ap(;r made from rags became 
common, and parchment went out of use Agriculture 
was greatly improved by the Normans ; the land was 
drained, and the wastes produced by the Danish wars were 
restored to fertility. Numerous apple-orchards were plant- 
ed. Stone bridges were first built. 

Norman Kings of England. 
Kr.NfjS OF England. Contkmi'oraries. 

William I., the Conqueror, \ Philip I., of France; Henry IV., of Ger- 
lM<)ft-1087. / many; Gregory VII., pope. 

William II., Rufus, j Philip I., of France ; Alfonso VI., of Spain ; 

1087-1100. t H(;niy IV., of Germany. 

IIknuy I., IJeauclerc, j Piiilip I. and Louis VI., of France ; Henry 

1100-1 i;i5. / IV., Henry V., Lothaire H., of Germany. 

Stephkn, of Blois, (Maio), ) Louis VI. and VIL, of France; Lothaire 
1135-1154. I II., Conrad III., Fred^-ri.k I., of Germany. 


r///-: FK 1 7 >. / /. .s" } '5 TEM.—L III \\\l R ) ■. 

The Feudal System. — \\\> liavo alhuhHl (o (he iniIiuMici' 
wliirli tlu> luM'man cKmuimjI, l:ir<i'oly iiil'usod into iMiropt'im 
soi'ietv by tlio siu'cosslul iiu'ursit>iis dI" {\w iiDitluMii tiihos, 
t'XtM'toil on its sul>soi|UOM( roiulitii>n. Most appan'ut was 
this in t luM^stablisliniont o{ (ho I'Vndal System, which look 
root alono- wifli (lioso (ribos in r\orv ccnnilry tliat tlu>y 

On boconiin«>^ masters of Ivomo and its (li^ptMuUMioies, 
thi> barbarian loaders rowardoti the chiefs who I'ollowed 
tlicm with hirg'e tracts of the i'on([ucrcd territory, (n\ lon- 
ditionot' tlieir assistance in time ol' war. Tlu^se hiiihcsl 
ollicers apportioned ont the h\nds thus actjuired to their 
subordinates, and tht>s(< ai;aiu to tiicirs, (mi tin> same con- 
dition of military service. Thus arosi> in the couuuunity a 
succession of chisses, bound t(\ii'ether by the ct)unu(Mi obli- 
ii'atiou o{ homaiiv and servici^ tm thi^ one si(h> and protec- 
tion on the other — from thi> s\i~era'n\ or //«'//<' /o/v/, throuy-h 
a lini^ of tufstta/s, down to the very s<')'fs, who wt>re little 
better tiian i-attle, and were t ransfiMiiMl aloun' with i\\o 
soil they tilled. 

T.ands thus g-ranted wen^ calltMl in old Vvcuch /'(lu/cs, 
and honco /'('nditlf'sni derived its numt\ It attained its 
lieig'ht in continental Europe in tlu> tenth century, and 
was introduced into Great Britain at the time of the Nor- 
man Conquest. Kurope was in this way divided into hun- 
dreds of dukedoms, earldoms, otc, the lords of which 
formed a powerful aristocracy that limited, and in many 
cases overshadowed, the authority of the kino-s tluMuselves. 

Of such a systeu), j»;rave evils were llu> inevitabh^ con- 
sequence. The iireat lords had both civil and criminal 
jurisdictii>n over their feudes or llefs, and too often exer- 

AK'IS OK IDK SUhhl.y. A'/KH. 195 

(•'\H<-A it witliout regard to juHtico. Socuro in thoir frown- 
ing HtronghoKJH, they could set their Movereigri at defiance, 
and were in effect independent of hiw control. L'nder Hucfi 
circurnstanceH, there could he no centralization of power. 
A kingdom, iriHtea/l of being a unit under one hea/J, was 
rather a patchwork of separate principalities. Quarrels 
bf;tween the nobles were incessant, and the sword was 
recognized as the only arbiter. Anarchy prevailed ; might 
made right ; there was no encouragement to industry, and 
the f>';ople were familiarized witli bloods,he<^L 

Iterance and SuperBtition. -buHng thes^j centuries 
of violence, ignorance was the rule ; even kings, in many 
instances, were unable to read or write. What little learn- 
ing there was, belonged to priests and monks, and was 
locked up in f^atin, which was the language of scholars 
and the church. 

Books were so scarce that none hut the rich could buy 
them ; we read of a countess giving two hundred sheep, 
besides wheat, rye, and millet, for a single volume. Parch- 
ment was so dear that the minute style of writing was 
practised ; a sheet eight inches by six is still extant, which 
coritains the five books of Mo8^:;s, with other parts of the 
Old Testament. 

With ignorance, superstition went hand in hand, im- 
plicit faith was placed in stories of giants and magicians, 
dragoriH and enchanted palaces, drawn from the treasures 
of Arabic romance. A belief that the world would be de- 
stroyed in the year 1000 spread a panic throughout Chri.s- 
tian countries. The fields were left unfilled, pnV^ners 
were released, foes reconciled, a.'id men stood waiting t^j 
fiear the Judgment-trumjj. 

Arts of the Middle Ages. — Yet, denpite such unfa- 
vorable conditions, many -cientific dincoveries date from 
these Dark Ages, and arts both useful and ornamental 
were cultivated and carried to perfection — notably glass- 



King Robert the Pious, Son of llrou Capet, composing in Latin. 
(From a mauuscript of the fourtcoutb century.) 

painting, the embroidering of tapestry, the ceramic art, 
and scul{)turc. The Gothic style of architecture was born 
and matured ; and cathedrals, emblematic of the religious 
spirit of the time, arose in imposing symmetry. 

Until printing was perfected, the monks were copy- 
ists ; and every monaster)^ had its Scripto'rium, or writ- 
ing-room, whore scribes were engaged in multiplying 
manuscripts (see engraving). After leaving the copyist, 
the manuscript passed to the illuminator, who decorated 
it witli gorgeous designs in color, silver, and gold. 

Chivalry. — It was in this dark mcdian\al period that 
some Freftch nobles, filled with pity for the wretchedness 


around them, united to remedy existing evils. They 
pledged themselves to defend the weak and champion the 
oppressed ; the church blessed their undertaking ; and 
thus was bom an institution which is the leading feature 
of European civilization in the Middle Ages. 

It was called Chivalry, from the chevaliers who en- 
rolled themselves in its support, and who finally consti- 
tuted the order of Knighthood, to which admission was 
obtained by a formal ceremony. From France this insti- 
tution rapidly spread to England, Spain, Germany, and 
Italy, in all which countries the Teutonic race was now 

All persons of gentle blood, except those designed for 
the church, followed the profession of arms, and were suj> 
posed to pass through three grades. In early youth they 
lived as pages with nobles of high rank ; next as esquires 
they attached themselves to some individual knight, whom 
they were bound to obey, to attend in battle, and serve 
with their very lives in case of need ; and finally they were 
themselves promoted to the rank of knights. 

For this dignity the youth was prepared by a long 
course of training. He was taught by severe exercises to 
endure fatigue, thirst, and hunger, to mn great distances, 
to turn somersets in heavy armor, to wield his weapons 
with agility and skill, and to manage his fiery barb with 
grace and dexterity. 

At twenty-one he was made a knight, usually during 
some great festival. He fitted himself for the impressive 
ceremony by fasting and prayer, and was admonished of 
the duties of knighthood by the priest who consecrated 
his sword to religion. He next took the oath of chivalry, 
to be true to God and the ladies, to protect the weak, de- 
fend the church, and shed his last drop of blood in behalf 
of a companion in arms. HLs spurs and armor were then 
fastened on, and the officiating lord concluded the cere- 


mony by striking him on the neck, as he knelt, with the 
flat of his sword, saying, " In the name of God, I dub thee 
knight ; be faithful, bold, and fortunate." Knighthood 
was sometimes conferred with less ceremony on the field 
of battle, as a guerdon for valiant conduct. 

In the days of chivalry maidens also received training, 
but it was chiefly in household and religious duties. It 
was expected, besides, that they should acquire some 
knowledge of surgery, so as to treat the wounds which 
the knights received in their behalf. The singing of love- 
ditties and playing on the lute constituted the ornamental 
part of their education. 

Armor of the Knight. — The knight wore a helmet 
and armor of steel ; his weapons were shield, dagger, 
sword, lance, battle-axe, and mace. He was distinguished 
in battle by some device emblazoned on his shield or ar- 
mor. He took special pride in his horse, which was pro- 
tected by a breastplate and iron mask. When mounted, 
he was invulnerable ; but if he was unhorsed, the weight 
of his armor made him helpless, and its joints were seldom 
proof against the dagger of an enemy. 

The charge of a body of knights on foot-soldiers was 
generally irresistible ; it could be withstood only by the 
English bowmen, whose arrows, discharged with unerring 
aim, tried every joint till they found entrance at some 
weak spot. Wlien two bands of horsemen charged each 
other, the waving plumes and banners, the war-cries, the 
splintering lances, and the clash of armor, made the en- 
counter terrible. 

The Knightly Character. — Generosity, loyalty, 
truth, gallantry, valor, fidelity to a brother in arms, and a 
keen thirst for glory, may be stated as the essential at- 
tributes of the knightly character. 

Its leading feature, perhaps, wa;'. its respectful exalta- 
tion and love of woman. Every knight selected some 


lady to be the mistress of his heart, and maintained at the 
point of the lance her superior beauty and virtue. In the 
tender days of his pagehood he first learned the lesson of 
love and reverence, cherishing as of inestimable value the 
slightest favor from his lady's hand. The depth of this 
feeling is illustrated in a German romance, which rep- 
resents a devoted page as opening a wound in his bosom, 
to lay a gold thread which his mistress had given him as 
near as possible to his heart. 

His lady's presence was the greatest incentive to val- 
orous deeds that a knight could have. He wore her scarf, 
ribbon, or glove, on his helmet, and in her name would 
make the most extravagant vows and swear to perform 
impossible feats. And sometimes her caprice would exact 
from him achievements which taxed both strength and 
courage to the utmost. 

We read, for instance, that at a German court some 
knights and ladies were viewing two lions confined in an 
enclosure, when one of the ladies threw in her glove and 
commanded her lover to recover it. He leaped in, threw 
his mantle over the beasts as they rushed toward him, 
picked up the glove, and sprung out in safety ; but even 
his loyalty could not blind him to his lady's unreasonable 
caprice, and he immediately renounced one who could 
wantonly subject her true knight to such danger. 

The most whimsical vows were sometimes made, and 
once made had to be performed to the letter. Some 
knights of Edward IH. bound up one eye with a bandage, 
and vowed not to remove it until for their mistresses' sake 
they had performed " dreadful derring deeds " in France. 
We also read of an esquire of Spain, who fastened a piece 
of iron to his leg, and vowed to endure the pain till he had 
won renown by feats of chivalry. 

Other prominent elements of the knightly character 
were courtesy, self-denial, respect for the feelings of 


others, and a nice sense of honor. Nor was hospitality 
the least of its virtues. The castle of every lord was open 
to travellers, and especially to minstrels, who wandered 
about from place to place, sing-ing- the compositions of the 
troubadours, or poets of Provence {pro-iH))i^s') in southern 
France. The minstrels were always welcome at court and 
castle, the burden of their strains beino; <i-enerally the 
beauty of the ladies, the sports of chivalry, notable deeds 
of arms, or the memory of fallen knights. 

While chivalry greatly ameliorated the rude manners 
of the age, and while out of it grew that spirit of gentle- 
ness and deference to woman which characterizes the in- 
tercourse of modern society, it must be admitted that the 
duties of knighthood were too often forgotten by those 
who had assumed its vows. Errant knights were some- 
times, as an old writer remarks, arrant knaves. For such, 
particularly if guilty of cowardice, falsehood, or lilasphemy, 
degradation from rank was the punishment. Tlu>ir horses' 
tails were severed close to the body, and they were dragged 
to a scaiTold, where their spurs were cut off, and their 
swords and armor broken. Finally, they were arrayed in 
grave-clothes, and a funeral service was read over them, 
as dead to the honors of knighthood. 

Decline of Chivalry. — As learning revived, chivalry 
gradually declined, till finally it received its death-blow 
from the invention of gunpowder. The weakest vassal 
with a musket in his hand was a match for his steel-clad 
suzerain. The last flickerings of the ideal chivalry por- 
trayed in the old romances were extinguished by the ridi- 
cule put upon its extravagances by the Spanish humorist 
Cervan'tes, in his ininiit;il)le ''Don Quixote." 

Amusements of the Middle Ages. — In the intervals of 
war, hunting and hawking were favorite amusements. 
Even the clergy were excessively fond of field-sports. 
The monks of St, Denis excused their love of these diver- 


sicjiis to (Jharlerna^iic (;ii tlic ^loniul that the flesh of ^ame 
was ^ood for the sick and the skins were useful in binding 
tlieir hooks. Five hundred years later, we are told, the 
Archhishop of York huntfid from parish to parish with a 
paf;k of liounds and a train of two hundred persons. 

In hawking' traincid falcons were used, and the heron 
was the favorite bird of chase. On finding itself pursued, 
the h<;ron would rise by short gyrations until almost lost in 
the clouds ; while the falcons, unhooded and slipped by 
their keepers as soon as the game was sprung, soared to a 
still greater height and swooped down on the quarry with 
prodigious force. The heron's sole defence was its long, 
pointe<l Ijeak, on which it sought to impale the falcons in 
their descent. Ladies, as well as lords, found great delight 
in this amusement. 

TouKNAMENTS. — But tlic crowning diversions in the 
times of chivalry were the Tournaments, — encounters be- 
tween knights with blunted swords and headless lances, 
held on great occasions, such as marriages or coronations, 
with a gorgeousness of feudal pageantry that can hardly 
be imagined. The lists were surrounded with tents and 
galleries, decorated with cloth of gold. Wealth and art 
taxed their ingenuity for the splendid apparelling of ladies, 
knights, and even minstrels, who gathered from far and 
near to lend brilliancy to the scene. 

Amid the trumpets' clang, urging every man to do his 
devoir, the knights with lances poised met in the middle 
of the lists. He wlifj unhorsed his opponent was the vic- 
tor, and at the end of the fray the successful cavalier re- 
ceived the prize from the " queen of beauty and love," — 
an honor valued little less than victory in the field of battle. 

Fatal accidents frequently occurred ; many nobles and 
princes lost their lives in these dangerous exercises. In 
a tournament at Chalons so many were killed that it was 
called the little war of Chalons. 



Miracle Plays. — The drama of the Middle Ages found 
its development in religious and allegorical plays, called 
Miracles, Moralities, and Mysteries, which took the place 
of secular plays long proscribed by the church. The Mir- 
acles were based on Bible stories, the lives of the saints, or 
the ceremonies of the Christian faith. The Passion Play, 
representing various scenes in our Saviour's life, was one of 
the most popular of these performances. Among its char- 
acters were the three persons of the Trinity, angels and 
archangels, apostles and devils, together with Herod and 
his court. 

Social Life. — The nobles lived in strongholds, gener- 
ally erected on heights, surrounded by moats, or ditches, 
and almost impregnable when their massive walls were 
properly manned. Loop-holes for the convenience of the 
bowmen served instead of windows, and apertures in the 
roof or walls allowed the smoke to escape ; for glass win- 
dows and chimneys were not generally used till the four- 
teenth century. 

At dinner the huge oaken table, extending the whole 
length of the great hall, was covered with joints of meat, 
which were followed by courses of fowl and fish. The 
baron sat on the dais, or platform, at the head, while his 
guests and retainers were ranged below according to their 
rank. Before 1400, forks, cups, and saucers, were rarities, 
and platters were not over-abundant. One bowl or tank- 
ard would sometimes do service for a dozen, and it was 
always courtesy for a knight and lady to eat off the same 
plate. The dinner generally lasted three hours, the pauses 
being filled up by the minstrels and jesters. 

The comforts of modern times were unknown. The 
houses were poorly furnished. Straw pallets were the 
only beds, and even these were scarce ; logs answered for 
pillows. One of the finest castles in England contained 
seven beds, but no chairs. Straw took the place of car- 


pets, and King Philip Augustus, of France, thought he 
was doing a great thing when for the good of his soul he 
ordered that the old straw from his palace-floor should be 
given to a hospital for the poor. Tallow-candles were 
first made about 1275 ; before that the houses were lighted 
with splinters of wood, used as torches. 

The working classes had little encouragement. Agri- 
culture was at a low ebb, for there was no knowing when 
the crops would be swept off by some marauding party. 
Large factories there were none ; the barons, for their 
convenience, kept artisans of diff'erent kinds among their 
retainers. Tanners were the principal tradesmen, as much 
of the dress was made of leather. Robbery was so com- 
mon that it was unsafe to transport merchandise, and con- 
sequently there was but little commerce. 

Money was very valuable during the Middle Ages. 
The wages of laboring men in h^iigland varied from three 
to five pence a day ; the yearly pay of a farm-hand 
amounted to 18s. 4<?., with board. For one of the middle 
class, £5 a year was a good living. 

The administration of law was very loose. When 
crimes were punished at all, it was by fines. Every of- 
fence had its fixed price. In England, a king's life was 
valued at £1,300 ; a wound in the face, at 3.>>'. ; while lop- 
ping off an ear cost 30a"., to pay for the disgrace involved 
in the loss of that appendage. 

The manufacture of linen having mostly ceased, woollen 
was the common material for the dress of both sexes ; to 
its constant and uncleanly use the prevalence of leprosy 
has been attributed by some. The ladies fastened their 
dresses with miniature skewers instead of pins, wliich 
were the invention of a later age. 

Fantastic fashions were not unconnnon ; among these 
were long-toed shoes, invented by Fulk, Count of An'jou, 
to hide an excrescence on one of his feet. The toes were 


SO lon^ as to bo fastened to the knees with f^old chains, and 
were ornamented at the extremity with tlie representation 
of a bird or some other device. They soon came into ^'cn- 
eral favor, hut were found (juite unliandy if one fcill, as it 
was impossil)le to rise witiiout assistance. 

Amon<^ tlie inventions of these ages may be mentioned 
that of nmsical notes in the eleventh century. Clocks 
with vvei<^hts and w heels were used in certain monasteries, 
but they were great curiosities. 

1 1 OO A. D. — Henry I. siKi-ccds William Rufus on the English 
thi'oiic. Alexius Coninenus I. emperor of the East. First Crusade just 
eonii)let('(l. (Jodfrey of Bouillon (boo-yoii)'') king of Jerusalem. Scan- 
dinavian colonies flourishing in (Jreenland. Ab-e-lard', a famous French 
scholastic divine, twenty-one years old. Gleams of light beginning to re- 
lieve the niidniglit darkness. 



Henry II., the son of Queen Matilda and Geoffrey 
Plantag'enet of Anjou, succeeded Stephen in 1154. The 
name Plantagenet [jdante de gen^t, broom-plant) prob- 
ably came from the device of a sprig of broom worn by 
an early Count of Anjou. In addition to England, Henry 
inherited important provinces in France ; and, by marry- 
ing Eleanor of Poitou {pwdh-too') and Aquitaine, he ac- 
quired others, so that his authority was recognized in the 
west of France from the Channel to the Pyrenees. 

Immediately after his accession, Henry labored to reme- 
dy the evils which the late civil strife had brought upon 
the country. The castles of the factious nobles, long the 




in tlu' tiiiu' (> 

terror of the land, were destroyed. He next determined 
to limit the power of the church ; and to carry out liis de- 
signs, he made Thomas a Becket, his favorite chancellor, 
Archbishop of Canterbury. 


Wliile chancellor, Jiockct's poiiii) and retinue surpassed 
iUiytJiing' ever before seen in Enfj-land. When sent on an 
ornhassy to France, he so astonished tlie people with his 
inagnilicencc that they shouted, " IIow great must the 
liino; of England be, when this is only the chancellor ! " 
!5ut after Beckot was made archl)ishop, he at once aban- 
doiKul his luxurious habits, exchanged his ermine for sack- 
cloth, and stood forth as tlu; champion of the church. 

For eight years he was engag(id in a violent quarrel 
with IJenry, who at last, in a moment of anger, rashly ex- 
claimed, " (Jf all the cowards who eat my bread, is there 
not one who will rid me of this turl)uleiit priest?" Four 
knights thereupon set out for Canterbury, and following 
the archbishop into the cathedral struck him down before 
the altar. 

On hearing of Becket's murder, Henry, who had never 
iiitend(Hl it, was filled with sorrow, and for three days re- 
fused food. Becket was regarded as a martyr and canon- 
ized ; thousands made pilgrimages to his tomb. King 
Henry himself walk(;d barefoot into the city of Canter- 
bury, and kneeling in the; cathedral, confessed his sins, 
rec(uving five lashes from each bishop present and three 
from every monk. 

Waus of IIexry it. — In 1157, Henry compelled the 
W^dsh to acknowledge his supremacy. He next crossed 
swords with the king of France, whom he besieged in the 
city of Toulouse, his wif(! Eleanor laying claim to the 
duchy. Foiled by the valor of tlic; French knights, he 
linally retired, — not, how(;ver, until he had made some 
minor contjuests. Ireland was at this time divided into 
several kingdoms, and Henry availed himself of the dis- 
putes of the different chiefs to reduce a large part of the 

The ingratitude of his sons cast a blighting shadow 
on King Henry's life. Supported by their mother, three 


of the princos took up arms a<2;aiiist him. Louis of Franco 
with his barons K'lit tliom aid, and \\'illiam of Scothuul 
joined llic h'ag'uo. 

'The Scottish kinji^ was made captive, and, to obtain his 
liberty, was obliy-ed to kneel before Henry and swear 
fealty to him as lieov lord. Alter many reverses, the 
princes too for a tinu> submitted. But they were soon 
aii'aiu in ri>bellion ; and liually, in llS'.t, Heiuv died of a 
broken heart. 

Even whtui dvin<;-, he was hunteil from phu'(> to plact^ ; 
and when he learned that his idolized Jolni had turni'd 
a<>'ainst him, he invt)ked upon his sons tiu> veni;eance of 
Heaven. Scarcely were his eyes closed when his attend- 
ants hastily departed, carryint!; olf everythinjj;* that was 
valuable, and even strippin<>; the corpse. Kichard, his 
oldest survivino- son, succeeded. 

The tale of i'\iir lu)s'anumd bi^lon^s t(^ this rei^-n. She 
was a favorite of the kin<>-'s, for whom he had provided a 
secret residence in a beautiful bower. The queen, obtain- 
iui;- a clew to Rosanioiul's abod(\ suddenly appeared before 
her with a bowl of poison in one hand and a dag'o'cr in the 
other, and bade her choose between them. Rosamond, 
after vainly entreatini>' the queen to spare her life, took 
the poison, and foil dead in her beautiful bower. Accord- 
ing to other accounts she retired to a convent, and en- 
deavored by a holv lite to make aiU(Mids for her fonmu' 

Richard I., the Lion-hearted, — At the time of IvichanFs 
coronation, the .lews, who to purchase his favor had hast- 
ened to the capital from every county in England with 
valuabU> prt>seuts, were attacked by the populace of Lon- 
don and niurdered in the streets, while their ellects were 
seized and their houses buriu^l. Similar atrocities were 
committed elsewhere. l''i\(> iuindred men belongin<^ to 
this persecuted race, who had taken ri>rim'(> in the castle 


of York, l)(\sic^o(l by a tumultuous mob, rosolvod to de- 
stroy tluiiiisidves and their treasures. Tlie eastle was 
lir(Hl ; and as the ilanies rose around them, they put to 
death their wives and eliildreii, and then stabbed them- 

Hardly was lliehard (u-owned when his adventurous 
spirit and thirst for glory led him to engage in an expodi- 
lioii to I'alestino, to deliver Jerusalem from the hands of 
lh«! MoliaimruMlans. 'i'o raise the necessary funds, he sold 
the royal dtMuains and olli(!es of state, extorted exorbitant 
sums, and declared that he would even part with London 
its(df if ii(^ (!ould find a ])iir(;has(^r. 

In I*al(!slin<! iiiehard won a world-wide reputation for 
brav((ry. ( )n oiui (xreasion he niturncid froin batth; bris- 
lling with arrows, Viku a cusiiion stuck full (d" needles. 
Aral) iiiollK^rs would fright(^n lh(Mr childr(;ii into good be- 
ha,\ ior wiili the name of liic^hard ; and, if a horse suddenly 
star(ed from the way, his rider would (^\claim, "Dost thou 
think King Ki(;liard is in that bush V" 

Possess(Ml of une(|ualled sfn^nglh and skill in arms, 
fearless, (thivairic, and generous, liic^hard was yet a rapa- 
c^ious, passionate, and ov(!rbeariiig king. I lis leign was 
iiiinoiis to I^^ngland on ac(!Ount of his absc^ncM^ in thc^ 1 l<»ly 
Land, liis barons, thus left without a master, beciame 
turbuhait ; Robin Hood, "the most gentle of th(!eves," 
with his bold outlaws of Sherwood Forest, was the terror 
of th(! rich ; and John, turning traitor, (uideavored to ob- 
tain tlu! throne for himself. The king's timcdy return to 
l^]ngland alone def(!ated his broth(!r's plans. 

liichard was mortally wounded by an arrow in 1199, 
while besieging the fortress of a vassal, who had discov- 
ered a hidden treasure and refused to surrender the; whole 
to him. The archer who dischargcul the; fatal shaft was 
captunid, but generously released by the king. A less 

forgiving olliccir (lay«ul him alive after K'iehard's death, 


John Lackland, so called because his father had p^iven 
the royal dominions to his brothers, intending to make 
him Lord of Ireland, succeeded Richard, although the 
crown rightfully belonged to Arthur, son of his elder 
brother Geoffrey. John got possession of the young 
prince, and is believed to have stabbed him with his own 
hand. The report of this murder excited universal odium 
against the king. 

John's reign was full of misfortunes. Philip Augus- 
tus, of France, deprived him of his continental possessions; 
Pope Innocent III., after a protracted contention, obliged 
him to take an oath of fealty, and to declare that he held 
the crown as a vassal from the pope his master ; and his 
own barons constrained him to resign the prerogatives of 
his ancestors and sign the Magna Charta, the great 
" key-stone of English liberty." A paroxysm of fury fol- 
lowed this last act ; and John, throwing himself on the 
ground, gnawed sticks and straw in his rage. 

This famous charter benefited not only the nobles but 
also the people. It confirmed the liberties of the church, 
insured the prompt administration of Law, and in various 
ways protected the property and rights of the subject. 

King John was the most vicious and unprincipled sov- 
ereign that ever wore the English crown. His character 
was a compound of cowardice, tr(>achery, licentiousness, 
and cruelty. He once demanded an immense sum from 
a rich Jew, and ordered one of his teeth to be pulled 
every day till it was paid. The unfortunate man suf- 
fered the loss of seven double teeth before he consented 
to the extortion. — John tortured and starved his cap- 
tives in dungeons, and hanged his queen's favorites over 
her bed. 

Henry III. — The reign of Henry III., son of John 
(1216-1273), was distinguished for the confirmation of the 
Magna Charta, and the assembling of the first regular 


Parliament in which the counties, cities, and boroughs, 
were represented. 

Henry was a well-disposed man, but a feeble monarch. 
He was unable to control the factious barons, who rebelled 
under the Earl of Leicester (les'ter), and took Henry and 
his son Edward prisoners. But the prince escaped, de- 
feated Leicester, and restored his father to the throne. 

Henry III. was a patron of ait and literature, and was 
skilled in the "gay science of the troubadour." T)uring 
his long reign of fifty-six years, England advanced in 
wealth and prosperity. 

Contemporaneous Sovereigns. 
Kings of England. Contempokauies. 

II K I Y II 11 ""4-1 180 ^ Malcolm TV. and William the Lion, of Scotland; 
( Louis VIL and Philip Augustus, of France. 

Richard L, 1189-1199. ^ Philip Augustus, of France ; Frederick L, Henry 
I VI., and Philip, of Germany. 

T iK.r. 101/. ( Philip Augustus, of France; Philip and Otho 

John, 1199-121G. ■>, i fe ' „t 

( IV., of Germany ; Innocent III., pope. 

t Philip Augustus, Louis VIII., Louis IX., Philip 
Henuy III., 1216-1272. .| III., of France ; Otho IV., Frederick II., Con- 
( rad IV., of Germany. 



Origin of the Crusades. — Ever since the establishment 
of Christianity, Palestine, as the scene of our Saviour's 
earthly career, had been invested with a peculiarly sacred 
character ; and pilgrimages thither, at first undertaken 
from interest in tracing his hallowed footsteps, came to 
be regarded in later days as meritorious acts. 


While Jerusalem belonged to the Saracens, pilgrims 
were looked upon as a source of profit, and their coming- 
was encovxraged ; Haroun al Raschid even sent to Charle- 
magne the keys of the Holy Sepulchre. But tow^ard the 
close of the eleventh century Palestine was conquered by 
the Turks, a Tartar race from beyond the Caspian, who 
had embraced the Mohammedan faith and erected a pow- 
erful monarchy in Persia and the adjacent regions. 

From this time pilgrims, as well as the native Chris- 
tians, were subjected to savage indignities. Gold was ex- 
acted from all who would enter Jerusalem, and those who 
could not pay were driven with revilings from the gates, 
often to perish on the highway. Stories of these outrages 
and the insults offered to the Christian religion were 
spread far and wide through Europe. 

At length in the year 1093, Peter the Hermit, a French 
monk, visited the tomb of the Saviour on a pilgrimage. 
Excited by what he there saw and suiTered, he determined 
to remedy these evils ; and on his return he preached with 
fiery eloquence through Italy and France the deliverance 
of the Holy Land from the unbelievers. Crowds followed 
him along the road-sides ; shops were deserted ; bushiess 
was forgotten ; princes and peasants were alike thrilled by 
his denunciations, as by an electric spark ; men listened to 
his words as to the voice of Heaven ; all Christendom was 
stirred to its very depths. 

At the Council of Clermont in 1095, Pope Urban II. 
addressed an immense assemblage and urged them to en- 
list in the holy w^ar, promising to all who perished absolu- 
tion from their sins and the crown of martyrdom. "God 
wills it ! " burst from the multitude, and thousands on the 
spot offered themselves for the sacred service, each war- 
rior assuming a red cross * as a pledge of his enlistment. 

* In oltl French, crois — in Latin, c^-ux ; hence the term Okusade, ap- 
pHed to the Holy Wars. 


First Crusade (1096-1099).— Eiuly in tlm sprincr of 1096, 
au uiidiscipliiicd horde of about 300,000 men, women, and 
children, led by Pet<!r the Hermit and Walter the Mon- 
eyless, a valiant but poor kni<i;ht, set out for Palestine. 
MakinjT their way eastward in dillerent bands, without 
supplies, they laid waste the Christian countries through 
which they passed, and massacred the unfortunate Jews 
with whom they met. Great numbers were cut off on the 
way by the outraged nations, and those who reached Asia 
did not long stand before the arrows of the Moslems. 

Meanwhile a disciplined army was organizing. God- 
frey of Bouillon {boo-yon"'), the most distinguished knight 
of the age, Robert of Normandy, and Bo'hemond son of 
Guiscard, were the prominent leaders. This expedition 
numbered 600,000 fighting men, one-sixth of whom were 
steel-clad knights. 

We must now pause for a moment, to consider the 
condition of the Eastern Empire. Russian invaders, who 
had descended on Constantinople in thousands of canoes 
hollowed out of the trunks of trees, had been destroyed 
by the terrible Greek fire ;* the Bulgarians, south of the 
Danube, had been subjugated, and the Saracens driven 
from the eastern provinces. Somewhat later, however, 
a morc^ formidable enemy had appeared. Myriads of 
Turkish horsemen swept across the frontier, took prisoner 
one of the Byzantine monarchs, robbed the empire of 
province after province, and at last established tluunselves 
at the very gates of Constantinople. 

* A composition of bitumen, j)itch, and sulpliur, wliicli, ignited by its 
passage tliiough tlie air, could not be extinguislied by water. It was 
poured from caldrons, projected in fire-balls, or discliarged through long 
copper tuljes from the prows of vessels. An hour's fight would cover 
the sea with this blazing oil, and give it the appearance of a sheet of 
flame. It is described as approaching its victims in the form of fiery 
dragons, working its way between the joints of their armor, and causing 
their death with insufferable torture. 


Alexius Comne'nus I., who succeeded to the imperial 
dignity in 1081, trembled for the safety of his capital, and 
supplicated the European nations for protection. But 
when he saw the innumerable host of Crusaders, he feared 
them more than the Turks ; and instead of co-operating 
with them against the common foe, he sought in every 
way to embarrass their movements. The knights, how- 
ever, laughed at the effeminacy of the Greeks ; a French 
baron even presumed to ascend the throne and sit beside 
the emperor. 

At length Alexius rid himself of the Crusaders by fur- 
nishing them with vessels to cross to Asia. Their first 
efforts were directed against Nica^a (see Map, p. 158). 
This city having been besieged and taken, Antioch was 
next attacked ; after months, during which the Christians 
suffered terribly from sickness and want of food, it was 
captured by the aid of a traitor. The women of the be- 
sieging force displayed heroic endurance in the midst of 
the severest trials ; even the children manifested a military 
spirit, and fought frequent battles with the Saracen boys, 
armed with sticks and stones. In one of his engagements, 
the stalwart Godfrey is said to have cleft asunder a Turk 
from head to saddle, with a single blow of his sword. 

The army of the Cross captured Antioch, only to be in 
turn besieged there by a greatly superior force. When 
reduced to the last extremity, the soldiers, elevating as 
their standard a lance-head which had been discovered by 
a priest and purported to be the one that had pierced the 
Saviour's side, rushed through the gates and dispersed the 
Mohammedans. The sovereignty of Antioch was bestowed 
upon Bo'hemond. 

In May, 1099, with their vast force thinned out to 
31,500 fighting-men, the Crusaders left Antioch and 
marched in the direction of Jerusalem, then in possession 
of the caliph of Egypt, who had restored the authority of 




tlie Saracens in Palestine. When the holy city, long the 
oV)ject of their dreams, appeared in the distance, they 
burst into rapturous tears, thanksgivings, and shouts of 
exultation. An ill-concerted attack made soon after their 
arrival was repulsed by the Saracens, and it was forty 
days before the crescent was torn from the battlements. 

In the transports of victory the soldiers of the Cross 
forgot the principles of their faith ; 70,000 infidels were 

put to the sword, 
the unoffending 
Jews were burned 
in their syna- 
gogue, and the 
knights boasted 
that they rode up 
to their horses' 
knees in Saracen 
blood. Godfrey 
in vain tried to 
restrain his fol- 
lowers. After the 
slaughter was 
over, with bared 
heads and feet, 
amid the anthems 

/ BelliltTiemo^ 


of their priests, they ascended Mt. Calvary, " kissed the 
stone which had covered the Saviour of the world, and be- 
dewed his sepulchre with tears of joy." 

Kingdom of Jerusalem. — A king of Jerusalem was now 
to be elected, and the choice fell on Godfrey of Bouillon ; 
but, refusing to wear an earthly diadem where his Re- 
deemer had been crowned with thorns, he assumed the 
title of Defender of the Holy Sepulchre. He died after 
reigning a year, and the crown fell to Baldwin his brother. 

The monarchs of Jerusalem were engaged in constant 


wars with their Mohammedan neighbors. In these they 
were greatly aided by two relio-lous niiUtary orders — the 
lios'pitanors, distinguished by a white cross on tfieir bhick 
habits, whose unceasing warfare with the infidels will bring 
them again to our notice at a later date ; and the Tem- 
pliirs, or ]?ed-cross Knights, whose battle-cry became fa- 
mous throughout ChristtMulom. 

Second Crusade (1147-1149). — Owing to successes on 
tile part of the Saracens, and a fear that Jerusalem would 
again fall into their hands, after several minor movements 
in the same direction, a second great Crusade w;is under- 
taken by Conrad III. of Germany and I^ouis VI I. of France. 
Conrad was accompanied to the Holy T^and by 70,000 
knights, and a band of ladies clad in armor, whose chief, 
from her gilt spurs and buskins, was called the Golden- 
footed Dame. 

Moved by the eloquent St. Bernard's exhortations and 
a desire to atone for an act of cruelty committed in one of 
his wars, Louis assumed the cross with thousands of his 
subjects. lie also was attended by a band of ladies at- 
tired as knights, headed by Queen Eleanor. 

The advance of the invading host was embarrassed in 
every way by the treacherous Emperor of the East. Poi- 
soned food was sold them ; the Germans were betrayed 
by false guides into the hands of the Turks ; and the 
French force was almost annihilated. Nothing whatever 
was accomplished by this expedition. 

Third Crusade (1189-1192).— In 1187 Sal'adin, sultan 
of Egypt and Syria, captured Jerusalem and subverted the 
Latin kingdom ; hence the third Crusade. At its head 
were the most powerful monarchs of Europe — Richard I. 
of England, Frederick Barbarossa of Germany, and Philip 
Augustus of F^ ranee, the successor of Louis VII. 

Frederick lost the flower of his army in the deserts of 
Asia, and was drowned in attempting to cross a swollen 


stream. When the German knights returned without 
their emperor, the people would not believe the story of 
lii« deatli, and a legend gradually arose that Frederick was 
ash^ej) beneath his castle, but would one day awake " to 
make Germany united and free." 

Richard and Philip joined their arms before Acre, and 
at last planted their banners on its ramparts ; but after 
the surrender, Philip, jealous of Richard's military glory, 
returned to France. Still the English king advanced 
alone toward Jerusalem, and every evening when the army 
halted the cry arose from the camps, " Save the Holy 
Sepulchre ! " 

After many romantic adventures and incredible feats 
of valor with his huge battle-axe, Richard was obliged to 
abandon his enterprise. When within sight of Jerusa- 
lem, the city was pointed out to him from the top of a 
mountain ; but he raised his shield before his eyes, declar- 
ing that he who could not redeem it from the infidels was 
unworthy to behold it, even in the distance. 

Saladin, Richard's opponent, was a chief of high-toned, 
chivalric character. When Richard was dangerously ill of 
a fever, his life was saved by a present of luscious fruits 
and snow from the generous sultan. At the battle of 
Jaifa, observing that the king's horse was killed, Saladin 
sent in its place a beautiful Arabian. Richard, fearful of 
treachery, bade one of his knights mount, when the ani- 
Miiil gallo|K!d off with him to the Saracen camp. But Sal- 
adin, who had presented the horse in good faith, sent the 
knight back on a better-trained steed, which Richard ac- 
cepted and rode. 

On his return to Europe, Richard fell into the hands 
of the Duke of Austria, whom his arrogant conduct in the 
Holy Land had made his enemy, and was thrown into a 
dungeon. He was given up to the German emperor ; but 
being discovered by his favorite troubadour Blondel, was 


finally ransomed by his subjects, " Be on your guard," 
wrote Pliili]) Augustus to John, on hearing of his releasr; ; 
" the devil is broke loose." 

Richard arrived safely in Jjondon, and so magnidceiit 
was his reception that a German prince who was present 
said, "() king ! had our emp(;ror suspected this, you would 
not have been let off so lightly." 

Saladin died soon after Richard's departure ; his em- 
pire WJis divichid. 

Fourth Crusade (1302-1304).— The nobles and knights 
who und(!rtook the Fourth Crusade were diverted from 
their origiiuil purpose of relieving Palestine by Alexius, 
the rightful h(!ir to the Kastorn Kin])ire. He prevailed on 
them to aiil him in ovc^rthrowiiig a usurper ; Constantino- 
ple was taken, and Alexius placed on the throne. The 
people, however, soon rose against the new emperor and 
put him to death ; whereupon the Crusaders stormed Con- 
stantinople, plundered her palaces, destroyed her monu- 
ments of art, and founded on her ruins a Latin empire 
which lasted fifty-seven years (1204). The I^atins were 
finally expelled by the f ireek emperor Michael Paheol'ogus. 

The Children's Crusade was the most remarkable of 
the numerous expeditions prompted by the fanaticism of 
the age. In the year 1212, thousands of children, led by a 
peasant-boy, set out to recover the Holy Sepulchre. But 
many perished of starvation and fatigue, others were 
murdered, and large numbers were sold as slaves by rapa- 
cious traders to the Saracens in Africa. 

Fifth Crusade (1210-1220).— The Fifth Crusade, after 
a cauipjiign in Palestine, was directed against Egypt ; but 
resulted in the humiliation of the Christian leaders, who 
were glad to oVjtain permission from the sultan to return 
to Europe. 

In 1228, Frederick II. of Germany, grandson of Barba- 
rossa, led a small force to the Holy Land, and succeeded in 


obtaining the cession of Jerusalem. For fifteen years the 
Christian residents of Palestine enjoyed rest ; when the 
Carizmian Turks, a fierce Asiatic tribe, poured into Syria, 
massacred all who opposed them, and jjillaged Jerusalem. 
Christians and Mohammedans were obliged to unite against 
these barbarians, to maintain their very existence. 

Sixth and Seventh Crusades (1249-1354, 1269-1372).— 
These expeditions werr undertaken by I.ouis IX. of France, 
called /Saint Louis on account of his piety and virtues. 
To enlist his nobles in the enterprise, Louis had gold cross- 
es attached to the new suits which, according to custom, 
ho presented them at Christmas ; pride and fealty alike 
forbade them to shrink from the duty laid upon them by 
their sovereign's device. 

In the first expedition Louis invaded Egypt, but was 
defeated, taken prisoner, and forced to pay 400,000 pieces 
of gold as a ransom for himself and his followers. In the 
second he landed in northern Africa ; but, while encamped 
before Tunis, he was carried off by the plague. The Eng- 
lish Prince Edward (afterward Edward L), who had in- 
tended to co-operate with Louis, notwithstanding his death 
went on to Palestine. After some successes, he was 
stabbed by an assassin with a poisoned dagger, but was 
saved, a Spanish historian tells vis, by the devotion of his 
wife, Eleanor of Castile, who at the risk of her life sucked 
the venom from the wound. 

The successors of Saladin, finding themselves unable 
to cope with the European knights, bought Tartar youths 
and trained them in the service of the camp. These mili- 
tary slaves were called Mamehtkes. They formed the 
body-guard of the sultan, and like the old Pretorians of 
Rome became in time a formidable power in the state. 
About 1250 they seized the government, and in 1291 cap- 
tured Acre (see Map, p. 215, and p. 218), the last Chris- 
tian town in Palestine. Thus ended the Holy Wars. 


Effects of the Crusades. — The Crusades were produc- 
tive of both good and evil. Among their advantages, it 
may be observed that they had a refining eiiect on the 
ruder nations, by bringing them in contact with Constan- 
tinople and the rich cities of Italy, then the centres of 
Christian civilization and art. They tended to destroy 
prejudice and bigoti-y by directing attention to customs, 
laws, institutions, and religions, before but imperfectly 
understood. They awakened the imagination, and thus 
gave an impulse to the torpid mind of Europe. Tiicy dif- 
fused a knowledge of useful inventions, and arts in which 
the Orientals were then proficient. They promoted com- 
merce, and eventually revived an interest in manufactures. 
Finally, they established a chord of sympathy between 
the different European nations. 

On the other hand, they cost Europe two milliojis of 
efficient men and vast amounts of treasure ; they unset- 
tled sober industry, encouraged profligacy, and for a time 
rolled back the tide of order and civilization which had 
begun to set in after the inundations of the Norsemen. 

Whatever the effect, whether good or bad, on the gen- 
eral condition of the people, there is no doubt that the 
Crusades contributed to the overthrow of feudalism and 
the strengthening of the power of the church. To raise 
means for the equipment of their forces, the nobles in 
many cases were obliged to part with their fiefs. Num- 
bers fell in battle, and left their lands to the crown or to 
the church. Cities, in return for advances of money, ob- 
tained an increase of privileges ; and thus the power of 
knights and nobles as a class diminished, while that of the 
kings, the church, and the cities, proportionately in- 

A better knowledge of geography, which had before 
been imperfect, was one of the results of travel and ad- 
venture in the East. Such stories as were told in a geo- 


graphical work of the eleventh century, that the inhabit- 
ants of Russia had but one leg and one eye, were no long- 
er currently believed. In fact, a spur was given to ex- 
ploration, which subsequently led to the doubling of the 
Cape of Good Hope and the discovery of America. 

1200 A. D. — Second year of King John's reign; three thousand 
students in Oxford University ; language of Enghmd in the transition 
(Semi-Saxon) period. France flourisliing under Pliilip Augustus. Pope 
Iinioceut III. the ruling spirit of the age ; influence of the church pre- 
dominant. Italian cities, enriched by the Crusades and republican in 
government, making rapid strides. Manufacturing industry reviving. 
Schoolmen discussing metaphysics, and introducing the methods of Aris- 
totle. I'rovenyal poetry at its zenith. Modern Gothic architecture origi- 
nating, with its pointed arches and slender, highly-ornamented columns. 


Genghis Khan. — Central Asia in 1164 produced one of 
those great men who seem born to rule. Persia was at 
this time subject to the Turks ; China was divided into 
two distinct kingdoms ; while the extensive table-lands 
north and west of China were occupied by various tribes 
of Mongols, whose chief wealth consisted in their camels, 
cows, sheep, goats, and horses. 

A renowned Tartar chief who had united under his 
sway forty thousand families belonging to this great Mon- 
golian race, died leaving his sceptre to his son Tem'ujin, 
then only thirteen years old. Some of the tribes refused 
to submit to so youthful a monarch ; but Temujin, though 
young, showed that he was not to be trifled with, by re- 
ducing the rebels to obedience, and ordering seventy of 
their chiefs to be thrown into as many caldrons of boiling 



water. At length, having fleslied his sabre sufficiently to 
prove his abilities as a leader, Teniujin, in a general con- 
vention of the Mongol princes from far and near, was for- 
mally acknowledged sovereign, and proclaimed as Genghis 
Khan {jen'ghis kahn), or ITniversal Lord. 

The new ruler, thus finding himself at the head of 
many separate tribes, proceeded to organize his vast do- 
minions into a well-regulated empire, and to establish a 
powerful army, made up of various Mongol elements, but 
officered mainly by Tartar chiefs, A code of laws was 
enacted, roads were built, and fortifications constructed. 
Every thing having been thus arranged to his satisfaction, 
Genghis Khan was ready for a career of conquest. 

A demand from the Chinese emperor for the customary 
tribute from the Mongolian tribes soon brought on a war 
with China ; and it was not long before hordes of Mon- 
gols broke through the Great Wall, and were revelling in 
the spoils of the Celestial Empire. Notwithstanding the 
Chinese used in their defence the Greek fire, or some simi- 
lar substance, and bombs filled with gunpowder, which 
seems to have been known to them centuries before its 
invention in Europe, they were no match for the Tartar 
hosts. Peking was taken in 1215, and the whole of the 
Northern Kingdom was annexed by the conqueror. 

Genghis now turned his sword to the west, and with 
700,000 Mongols overran the Carizmian Empire, which ex- 
tended over Turkestan to the borders of the Caspian. 
Flourishing cities, seats of learning filled with the treas- 
ures of art, were sacked ; the country was devastated, and 
its people slaughtered or enslaved. Some who escaped 
found their way into Palestine, and there committed the 
outrages which provoked the last Crusades. 

Success attended this mighty conqueror in various oth- 
er expeditions, in the course of which he made the circuit 
of the Caspian, subjugated nearly all Persia, and ap- 



preached the boundaries of India. Everywhere the old 
story of pillage and butchery was repeated. In building' 
up his immense empire, three thousand miles in length, 
from the Sea of Japan to Europe, he is said to have de- 
stroyed fifty thousand cities and five million human lives. 

When these conquests had raised the renown of Gen- 
ghis to its height, a grand assemblage of chieftains from 

Ge.vgiiis receiving tuk Homage of tue Tblbutaky Chiefs. 

all parts of liis dominions gathered at an appointed time 
(1224), to do him homage. One of the presents offered 
on this occasion was a herd of 100,000 horses. The scene 
was one of great barbaric pomp, and the ceremonies ter- 
minated witli a splendid hunt and banquet. 

Genghis Klian died in 1227 ; and, as a fitting close to 


his bloody career, some historians tell us that a hundred 
beautiful virgins wore sacrificed on his grave. He left 
the greater part of his vast empire to his son Ok'tai. 

Oktai dispatched an army to conquer the remote West ; 
within six years it had reduced Russia and penetrated 
into Germany. A force under another leader traversed 
the wilds of Siberia as far as the Arctic Circle. 

Though not followers of Mohammed, Oktai and Gen- 
ghis tolerated the religion of the prophet. A foreigner 
once told Oktai that Genghis Khan had appeared to him 
in a dream, and ordered a general slaughter of Mohamme- 
dans throughout the country. Oktai asked the man if he 
knew the Mongol language, and on his answering in the 
negative, said, " My father spoke no other ; how then could 
you understand him ? " Having thus detected the false- 
hood, he punished it with death. 

Kublai Khan {Jcoo'hli kahn), a grandson of Genghis, 
effected the conquest of southern China in 1279, and 
reigned with ability from the Arctic Ocean to the Strait 
of Malacca, and from the Yellow Sea to the Euxine. Mar- 
co Polo, the famous Venetian traveller, visited him at 
Peking, his capital. 

After this, the power of the Mongols declined. Russia 
paid tribute till the middle of the fiifteenth century ; but 
within one hundred and fifty years after the death of 
Genghis the Mongol rulers were expelled from China, and 
their empire in Persia was dismembered. 

Tamerlane [Timoiir the lame), a petty Tartar chief, 
having been elected khan by the princes of his native 
province in 1369, aspired to unite under his sceptre all the 
countries that had belonged to his ancestor Genghis. Per- 
sia and Tartary were soon in his power. His punishments, 
like those of Genghis, were terrible. We are told that 
two thousand inhabitants of a Persian town which had re- 
volted were built up into a tower with mortar. 


x\fter subduing Georgia, Tamerlane extended his rav- 
ages into Russia, and plundered Moscow, while all Europe 
trembled. He next proposed the conquest of India. His 
emirs tried to dissuade him, exclaiming, " The rivers ! the 
mountains and deserts! and the soldiers clad in armor! 
and the elephants, destroyers of men ! " But his zeal for 
the Mohammedan faith urged him on, and in 1398 he 
crossed the Indus. 

Here again his arms were victorious. The Mongols 
were sated with the blood of thousands of idolaters, and 
enriched with slaves and gold. Even the elephants are 
fabled to have fallen down before the khan and cried for 
quarter. By some the roving tribes called Gypsies are 
believed to be the descendants of Hindoos driven by the 
Mongols from their native land. 

From India Tamerlane returned to crush a revolt in 
Georgia. He next overran Syria, and in Bagdad erected 
a pyramid of ninety thousand human heads as a warning 
against rebellion. A terrible battle with the Turks re- 
sulted in their utter defeat (1402), on which both the 
Ottoman and the Eastern Empire were glad to propitiate 
the oriental conqueror with tribute. 

On his way to re-establish the Mongol power in China 
in 1405, Tamerlane was overtaken by death. His vast em- 
pire fell to pieces through the dissensions of his successors. 

Contemporaneous Sovereigns. 

Genghis Kuan, j Jolin and Henry III., of England ; Philip Augustus, 
1203-1227. \ of France ; Frederick II., of Germany. 

Oktai, j Henry III., of England; (Saint) Louis IX., of 

1227-1241. / France ; (Saint) Ferdinand, of Castile and Leon. 

KuBLAi Khan, j Edward I., of England ; Philip III., of France ; Ru- 
1259-1294. ( dolph of Ilapsburg ; the Viscontis in Milan. 

Tameiu-ane, j Richard II., of England; Charles VI., of France; 

l;5t')9-1405. { (\)snio dc Medici {med' e-ch(i), of Florence. 







Edward I., Longshanks, son of Henry III., was re- 
turning from the last Crusade, when intelb'gence reached 
him of his father's death. Proceeding to London, he was 
crowned with his wife amid great rejoicings (1274). 

_^ ^^ Edward be- 

-^=^=s- --...i.=?===^^_^ gan his reign 

by adopting ju- 
dicious meas- 
ures for the 
repression of 
disorders and a 
rigid enforce- 
ment of the 
laws. His first 
military under- 
taking was the 
subjugation of 
Wales, which, 
as we have 
seen, had been 
reduced by 
Henry H., but 
whose chief 
Llewellyn de- 
clined to go to 
London to ren- 

Carnarvon Castle. 

der homage to the new king. Inspired by the wild poetry 
of their bards, the Welsh gallantly defended their liber- 
ties; but Llewellyn was eventually slain (1382), and King 

li-8 KNlJLANP UN1>KK K1>\VAK1> 1. 

Edward, in order to conciliate the people, promised tlieni 
a native-born sovereign who could speak no English. 
When their barons assembled, he presented lliem his own 
son Edward, born a few days before in the Welsh castle 
of Carnarvon, and the chieftains kissed thi> hands of the 
first Prince oi' Wales. 

The ambition of Edward next Icil liiiii to attempt the 
amiexation of Scotland. AU-xander 111. in 1'>!S() had \c\'{ 
that kingdom to his infant granddaughter, the Maid of 
Norway. It was proposeil by Eilward to uiarry this prin- 
cess to his son, and thus consolidate the whole island ir. 
one monarchy. The plan was favorably received, but un- 
fortunately frustrated by the decease of the Scottish child- 
queen. Thirteen nobles at once claimed the vacant throne, 
chief of whom were John IJaliol and Robert IJruce. The 
Scots asked Edward to deciile the (piostion of succession. 
He pronounced for Baliol, who was crowned King of Scot- 
land as his vassal. 

Incensed at the treatment which as a vassal he received 
from the English king, Baliol soon renounced his allegiance 
and formed an alliance with Philip 1A\, the Fair, of France; 
but he was overthrown by Edward at Dunbar', captured, 
and incarcerated in the Tower of Lonilou. 

Scotland, however, was still unsubdued; a temporary 
deliverer appeared in the person of Sir William Wallace, 
against whom a powerful English army was promptly dis- 
{latt'hed. Its commander, hmling him strongly posted on 
the Forth, sent two friars to propose a truce. "Go tell 
your masters," said Wallace, "■ we came not here to treat, 
but to set Scotland free." Enraged at this dcHance, the 
English advanced and began to cross the river on a narrow 
bridge. When half the force had made the passage, the 
Scots fell upon it, and gained a complete victory. 

For a time Wallace acted as " Guardian of the Realm;" 
but at last defeated and betrayed by a follower to Ed- 

VVAIi Wl'ill SC()'II,AM>. 229 

wan], he, vv;i,s c;ori(l<;nincd HH a traitor, add <\t:ijr^<(l at thf; 
tails of lifjrsos to the soaflold. Ili.s hcarl, f;rovviicfl in 
rnookcjy witli a wroath of laun;l, was srit f>ri f.ondon 
15 rid go. 

Itobort IJrucf;, grandson of tho rival of lialioj, next 
aroso as tho restorer of his country's liberties, and after 
gaining some advantages over tho English was crowned 
king (1300). Edward, now an old man, again set out to 
confjucr .Scotland, but was overtaken on the way by death, 
lie had made his son promise to continue the war against 
the Scots, carrying his bones at the head of the army, for 
he believed that even the prf;sence of those would be suf- 
ficient to insure victory. 

Edward I. possessed many nr/fj|e and generous quali- 
ties, yet he was at times unjust and cruel. During his 
reign the .J(!Wh wore bitterly persecuted, and in 1290 they 
were expelh;'! the kingdom on pain of death. He con- 
firmed the Magna (jharta, and so improved the laws and 
administered justice tliat h(; was called the English Jus- 

Contomjjorafieous with Ivlward was Pope liori'iface 
VIII., in whose time the political influence of the papal 
see sensibly declined. When Boniface prohibited the 
clergy from paying taxes, Edward showed his disregard of 
the poj)f!'s authority by increasing his exactions. 

I'hilip IV. of France also asserted his independence of 
Jiome, calling the first assembly of the States-general 
(1302) to siipport him in his resistance to Boniface, The 
reign of this prince was further noted for the supjjression 
of the Knights Templars. 

Edward II. failed to comply with the dying injunction 
of his ffif li<r, and led his army back into England. lie 
buried tho dead monarch at West'minst(!r with this in- 
scri[)tion on his tomb, "Edward I., the Ilammer of the 


Edward had spent his youth in tlie society of dissolute 
companions ; and now, surrounded by unworthy favorites, 
he gave himself up to dissipation. Bruce meantime, with 
a little band, bravely struggled in the cause of liis coun- 
try ; now foiling the blood-hounds that bayed on his 
track, now holding the mountain-pass single-handed against 
a host of foes. After many hair-breadth escapes, fortune 
rewarded his efforts, and nearly all Scotland was recov- 
ered from the English. 

Banxockburx. — These successes finally awakened Ed- 
ward from his indifference. He took the field at the head 
of a large army, and came up with Bruce on the burn, or 
brook, of Bannock. The evening before the battle, an 
English knight, perceiving Bruce riding in front of his 
army on a small Highland pony, bore down upon him with 
his lance. But the Scot parried the thrust, and, rising in 
his stirrups, cleft his adversary's skull to the chin with one 
stroke of his battle-axe. This feat was looked upon as 
a good omen by his followers. In the gray of the morn- 
ing they were led to the field by an abbot, barefoot and 
\vith a crucifix in his hand. The English, seeing them 
kneel as he prayed, shouted, " They beg for mercy ! " 
" Yes," said a knight, " but only from God." 

The Scotch force was protected in front by pits filled 
with sharp stakes and concealed by sods ; hence, when the 
English charged, their horses were entangled and the riders 
thrown. Bruce won the da^;-, and Edward lied from the 
kingdom pursued by the Scottish cavalry. 

The victor}'^ of Bannockburn virtually secured the in- 
dependence of Scotland. In 1328 a treaty was concluded 
with the young Edward III., who renounced all claim to 
the Scotch crown, and gave his sister in marriage to David, 
the son and successor of Robert Bruce. 

Edward II. was dethroned and imprisoned by his queen, 
Isabella, daughter of Philip the Fair, who had conspired 


against him with her favoiiic Mortimer, an exiled noble. 
The rullians of Mcjrtimer soon after dispatched the king 
with frightful l)arbarity (1327). 

Edward III. avenged his father's death by executing 
Mortimer and imprisoning the queen. By right of his 
mother, he laid claim to the French crown ; but the Sal'ic 
law, which obtained in France, confined the succession to 
the male line ; and after the death of Charles IV., Ed- 
ward's uncle, the French peers decided in favor of Philip 
VI., of Valois (val-'wah'), cousin of the deceased king. 

Wak with Fkance. — Edward appealed to arms, and 
began the Hundred Years' War. Landing in Normandy 
(1346), he encountered Philip in the battle of Cressy (Map, 
p. 202), in which the French were defeated with the loss 
of thirty thousand soldiers and twelve hundred knights — 
the flower of their chivalry. Among the latter was the 
blind king of Bohemia, who ordered four attendants to 
fasten their bridles to his and lead him into the hottest of 
the fight, where all were slain. 

Edward's eldest son, then only sixteen years old, called 
the Black Prince from the color of his armor, commanded 
a division of the English. He was at one time almost 
overwhelmed by the foe, but his father refused to send 
him aid, " in order that the boy might win his spurs ; " and 
young Edward proved himself worthy of the confidence. 
In this battle rude cannon were used. 

Edward now laid siege to Calais (kal'is). This city 
gallantly defied him for a year, when starvation compelled 
the garrison to surrender. The English king gave them 
their lives on condition that six of the principal townsmen, 
with ropes around their necks, should bring him the keys 
of the city and place their heads at his disposal. On the 
publication of this news in the market-place, the richest 
burgess arose and offered his life for the public weal. 
Others followed his example, and the six set out for the 


English camp. Their prayers lor mercy were unavailing, 
and Edward had sent for the executioner, w^hen his queen 
Philip'pa tell upon her knees and pleaded for their lives so 
eloquently that he could not refuse her. After feasting 
the prisoners, Philippa dismissed them to their homes, 
bearing costly tokens of her regard for their devotion. 

Many English settlers were introduced into Calais, and 
it soon became a place of great importance. 

Under John the Good, who ascended the throne of 
France on the death of his father Phili}) \l. in 1350, war 
with England again broke out. The French were at last 
signally defeated at Poitiers (135G), by a much inferior 
force under the Black Prince, and King John himself was 
captured. After the battle, the EInglish prince conducted 
his royal prisoner to his own tent, and waited on him at sup- 
per in person. John was subsequently conveyed to Eng- 
land, where he was treated with like magnanimity. 

By the Treaty of Bretigny {bra-teen-ye') in 1360, Ed- 
ward abandoned his pretensions to the French throne and 
surrendered Normandy, but retained Calais and the duchy 
of Aquitaine {ak-ice-tane'). 

King John died in England (1364), leaving the throne 
to his son Charles V., the Wise. The death of the Black 
Prince occurred in 1376, and that of his father the follow- 
ing year. 

Literature. — Oxford, toward the close of the thirteenth 
century, was the residence of two of the most distinguished 
men of their time — Roger Bacon, whose learning and skill 
in mechanics were so great that he was looked upon as a 
magician ; and Duns Sco'tus, " the subtle doctor," who 
lectured to 30,000 students. Bacon discovered the art of 
making gunpowder, and even foresaw the applications of 
which steam was capable. Duns shared with Thomas 
Aqui'nas, called "the angelic doctor," the honor of being 
the most distino-uished schoolman of the Middle Ages. 


The reign of Edward III. was marked by the dawn of 
English literature, the forms of the language, after pass- 
ing through the transition period, having then become es- 
tablished. Sir John Mandeville's Travels is regarded as 
the oldest book in English prose ; Wycliffe made the ear- 
liest translation of the Bible into the vernacular ; while 
the " moral Gower," and Geoffrey Chaucer, the author of 
" Canterbury Tales," were the first great names in English 

The French language was formed by a blending of the 
dialects spoken by the Frankish and Norse invaders with 
the corrupt Latin which they found current in the coun- 
try. Its forms became settled about the begirming of the 
thirteenth century, when French prose may be said to 
have originated. It was greatly improved in the succeed- 
ing century by Join'ville in his Life of St. Louis, and 
Frois'sart the lively historian. 

1 300 A. D. — William Wallace carrying on a border warfare in 
Scotland against Edward I. Philip IV., the Fair, king of France. Pope 
Boniface VIII. orders a jubilee at Rome. Ottoman Empire founded in 
Asia. Mohammedan dominion in Spain reduced to Granada {grah-nah'- 
fla). Universities of Lyons and Ler'ida (in Spain) founded — the first of 
many established in the fourteenth century. Cimabue (che-mah-boo'a), 
father of the modern school (,'f painting, dies at Florence. Giotto (jot'to), 
tlie first successful portrait-painter, surpasses Cimabue and excels also in 



Italy, after Otho's death ({>. 17G), was the scene of con- 
stant contentions between the German emperors and the 
popes, the partisans of the former being distinguished as 


Glub(>llinos (i/hih'el-linz), and those of the latter as Guelphs 
{(/ice(fs). As the imperial power declined in the twelt'th 
and thirteenth centuries, many of the Italian cities as- 
sumed the right of self-government and formed them- 
selves into republics. The Crusades developed their com- 
merce, and in wealth, art, and literature, they were soon 
far in advance of the rest of Europe. 

Jn 1167 the cities of northern Italy formed a confed- 
eration, called the Lombard League, for the purpose of 
opposing Frederick Barbarossa in his attempts to re-estab- 
lish the German sway. Frederick was defeated by the 
forces of the league, and afterward signed a treaty which 
recognized the political freedom of the cities. 

Venice, founded, as we have seen, in the fifth century, 
on a group of islands in the northern Adriatic, became in 
time the most important commercial city in Italy, and 
finally in the world. At first each of the islands was a 
separate republic ; property was common ; rich and poor 
lived upon terms of equality. At length in G97 a conven- 
tion was held, and a prince was elected with the title of 
Do(/e (from the Latin dux, a leader). At a later date the 
Venetians brought the remains of St. Mark from xVlexau- 
dria, made him their patron saint, and represented his 
lion in their coat of arms. 

We next hear of the city's being assailed by the Hun- 
garians, in the tenth century. A furious naval battle took 
place, the sea was covered with dead bodies, and the Ve- 
netians, fighting upon heaps of the shiin barbarians as 
upon dry land, won a victory that made their name fa- 
mous throughout the worlil. This success was followed 
by the conquest of an extensive tract along the eastern 
shore of the Adriatic. 

The Venetians rendered important assistance to the 
first Crusaders, and during tlie struggle with the emperor 
Barbarossa destroyed forty-eight of his vessels. Their 


naval .successes led tlierri to cele})r:it,e every year tlie sin- 
gular ceremony of wedding the Adriatic. The doge, sur- 
rounded by liis nohles and a fleet of gayly-equij»i>ed ves- 
sels, cast a ring into the waters, as a syni]>ol that the sea 
was subjected to liis control as a wife to her husband. 

In 1171, the Bank of Venice, the lirst institution of 
the kind in Kurope, was founded. 

During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the 
government of Venice was an opjjressive oligarchy ; the 
authority of the doge was limited by a council of ten, 
whose power was almost absolute. A state inquisition 
was established ; spies listened to every word, and politi- 
cal offenders were visited with the direst punishments. 

Venice lost many of her possessions in wars with the 
'I'urks ; finally, when the Cape of Good Hope was doubled 
by the I^^rtuguese in 1497 and a new passage thus opened 
to the Indies, her commerce received a death-blow. 

Gen'oa, the opulent rival of Venice, was the seat of a 
great commercial republic, whose colonies extended along 
the coasts of the Mediterranean and Black Seas. The 
tuo states were long engaged in wars, growing out of 
their commercial jealousies. 

Genoa was renowned for its marble palaces and the 
stores of artistic wealtli which they contained. For many 
years it was distracted by internal feuds ; and the Geno- 
ese, unable to govern themselves, at length fell under the 
power of France. In 1.52H, however, An'drea Do'ria re- 
stored the independence of his country, and gave the peo- 
ple a constitution which lasted for nearly three centuries, 

Miran, the richest and most populous city of Lombar- 
dy, almost impregnable with its walls and broad canals, 
revolted from the imperial rule in the twelfth century. 
Frederick Barbarossa was soon before the gates with an 
army. When famine at last compelled the Milanese to 
surrender, the emperor condemned their city to destruc- 


tion, and forced tho cloriyy and nobles to repair to his 
camp baret'ooteil, with swords at their throats, to sue for 

'i'lio Milanese, however, took ample revenge. Kaisinii; 
an army, tliey renounced their alloo-iance, seized the em- 
press, mounted her on an ass with her fine toward the 
animal's tail, conducted her to the g*ates, antl expelleil her 
from the town. On this Barbarossa razed tho w^alls to the 
ground ; hut Milan soon recovered, and under the N'iscon'- 
tis extended its power over nearly all Lombardy. 

Florence was early distinguished above the other cities 
of Tuscany by the industry of its inhabitants and their 
knowledge of the arts. IMoney-changers, jewellers, and 
goldsmiths, were nmuerous, and had conuncri'ial establish- 
ments in many of the Kuropean states. 

The government was at lirst in the hands of the nobles ; 
but about 1250 tlu> piople rose against them and estab- 
lished a democracy, in spite of civil conunotions, Florence 
increased in wealth, until it became the llnancial metropo- 
lis of Europe. The republic survived till the Hfteenth cen- 
tury, when the powerful family of Medici (ined'c-c/u) ob- 
tained control of the state. Cosmo de Medici, styled the 
" Friend of the People and Father of his Country," ruled 
with almost unlimited authority ; his w'calth was greatiM- 
than that of any king in Europe, and he lavished it upon 
the church and people. Under his nunnlicent patronage, 
sculpture, painting, and architecture llourislied, and tJreek 
professors "spread abroad the treasures of their orators, 
philosophers, and poets." 

Lorenzo the Magniticent, grandson of Cosmo, follow(>d 
in the path of his illustrious ancestor, and also beaut llicd 
FlortMice with many public edihces. 

Naples was subdued in the twelftli century by the Nor- 
mans, who united it with Sicily, forming the kingdom of 
the Two Sicilies. It afterward fell into the possession of 

TMK ('AI-AI. SIAIKS. 2.'>7 

(JliarloH of A/ijou, hrotfi(;r of LouIh IX. of [^>arif;o; biit 
such wore the iriHoloricf; and tyranny of \.\\(: Kronch that 
the. Sicilians rose against thorn on Kast<!r MonrJa}', VZH2. 
At tho first note of the vospor-holl, thoy f*;!! upon thoir 
oppressors, stiletto in liaiul, urn] hy the next day scarcely 
a i^Vcncihrrian rf;inained alive; on the island. 

This riijissaere is known in history as the .Sicilian V<;s- 
pers. The vacant crown was firjiiferred on l'<;dio III. of 

Papal States. — Allhou^h i\\<; tenijjoral power (;f the 
popes after the ihirtefjnlh f;enfiiry hritran to decline, they 
still exerciserl arjthority over the dorrn'nions of the church 
in Italy, etnhracino- the city of Jirjnie and the surrounding 
t(;rritory. In 1305 Pope Clement V, fixed his abode at 
Avignon {ah-vaen-yon"'), in France, anrl Korne ceased to 
[)(; the papal residence ior more than seventy years. 

During this period a great revolution took place in 
Korne. Kienzi {re-en'ze)^ a man of humble birth, moved 
by an earnest desire to revive the glory of his country, 
e-stablished a rejjublic, and jilaced himself at its head with 
the title of Trihune. lie was th(; author of many salu- 
tary reforms ; but at last, having disgusted the people by 
his arrogance, he fell in a popular tumult. 

In l.'i77 the seat of the papal [>owf!r was moved back 
to Home, liut contentions arose between dilTerent fac- 
tions respecting the rights of eh-ction, and at one time 
there w(!n; three rival po[)es. This division was called the 
Great Schism of the West. 

Italian Literature and Industry. — In the thirteenth 
cfMitiiry the Italian langu;ig(; assumefl its modern form. 
It was based on the ancient vernacular of the Roman peo- 
ple, modified by the primitive dialects, as well us by the 
iiiioms of the nations who successively invaded the coun- 
try. Dan'te the Florentine (1265-1321) may be called 
the father of Italian literature. His "iJivine Comedy" is 


the first work of modern genius that suffers not by a com- 
parison with the ancient masterpieces. Petrarch, the per- 
fecter of the sonnet, succeeded Dante, and still further 
improved the language. Boccaccio [ho-Jcaht'cho), the con- 
temporary and friend of Petrarch, was a great revivor of 
learning, and in his " Decameron " has left what is still 
regarded as a model of Italian prose. 

Architecture and manufacturing industry were revived 
at this time in Italy, no less tha;. learning and literature. 
Lucca and Genoa became renowned for their silks ; Milan 
and Florence, for their cloths. In Florence originated a 
beautiful gold coin, stamped with a lily, the device of the 
city, and called the Jiorm, which became a general standard 
of value. 

Germany. — After the death of the emperor Frederick 
II. in 1250, anarchy prevailed in Germany until the 
election of Count Rudolph of Hapsburg (JIawk''s-castle), 
in 1273. It was in this century that the Hanseatic 
League was formed by the German cities for mutual pro- 
tection against piracy, and the expansion of their com- 
merce. It embraced nearly one hundred towns, the four 
great depots of trade being London, Bru'ges, Novgorod in 
Russia, and Bergen, a seaport of Norway. The trade of 
Novgorod extended from Ireland to China. Its popula- 
tion, 400,000, was virtually independent ; and its great- 
ness passed into a proverb, so that it was asked, " Who 
can resist God and Novgorod the mighty ? " 

Rudolph put an end to the crime and oppression pre- 
vailing in Germany. In one year seventy castles, the re- 
treats of banditti, were demolished. The Duke of Austria, 
who refused to acknowledge his authority, was slain in 
battle, and since that time the house of Hapsburg has 
ruled in Austria. 

Rudolph's exaltation is said to have been predicted in 
early life. Wliile hunting one day, he was overtaken by 


a storm. Happening to meet a priest who was on his way 
to administer the sacrament to a sick person, he dis- 
mounted in the mud and placed his horse at the curate's 
disposal, walking- bareheaded by his side. The priest in 
return pronounced upon him a solemn benediction, and 
prophesied that he would wear the imperial crown. 

Rudolph had seven beautiful daughters whom he mar- 
ried to powerful princes, thus increasing the influence of 
his family. Only one son survived him, the Duke of Aus- 
tria, who was elected emperor in 1298 with the title of 
Albert I. 

Albert proved to be an avaricious and tyrannical sov- 
ereign. Feared and hated by his subjects, he was llnally 
murdered by his nephew, whose dominions he had appro- 

The most noted successors of Albert I. were Henry 
VH., who reduced northern Italy and endeavored to re- 
store peace to that distracted country ; and Charles IV., 
who established the University of Prague, the first in 
Germany, and issued (1356) an imperial code, called the 
Golden Bull, because fastened with a golden seal (in Latin, 
bulla), which defined the rights of the electors,* and re- 
mained in force four hundred and fifty years. 

The barbarous Wen'ceslas, son of Charles IV., richly 
merited the title of " the second Nero," which he one day 
found written after his name on the palace-wall. It was 
dangerous even to be the friend of this tyrant, for there 
was no telling at what moment a bloodhound or execu- 
tioner might be called in requisition to gratify his brutal 
caprice or drunken fury. He had his wife's confessor 
drowned for refusing to reveal her secrets, and even roast- 
ed his cook alive for having badly prepared a fowl. At last 
he put to death his executioner, whom he ordered to cut 

* The princes who were entitled to vote at the election of an emperor 
were styled Electors. At this time they were seven in number. 


off his head, but Avho preferred not to take the emperor at 
his word. 

Sigismund {siJ'is-hitOK/), brother of Weuceshis, as- 
cended the throne in 1410, During his reign the Schism 
of the West was terminated. 

Switzerland. — Tlie history of Switzerland was intimate- 
ly connected with that of Germany during the reign of 
Albert I. This country, the old Helve'tia of the Romans, 
had been hiid waste by northern barbarians, and in the 
sixth century had become subject to the Franks (see Map, 
p. 156). During the decline of the Carlovingian power, 
the northern part had been incorporated in the German 
Empire ; but the ancient forest cantons on T^ake Lucerne' 
had never been conquered, and were only under the pro- 
tection of the emperors. 

Rudolph of Hapsburg had a large domain in Switzer- 
land, and proved a lenient master ; but Albert, desirous of 
enlarging his family possessions, proposed to unite the 
free Swiss towns to his Austrian estates, and this occa- 
sioned a memorable struggle for liberty. 

Albert appointed as governor an unscrupulous tyrant, 
Gessler, whose acts of oppression aroused the slumbering 
spirit of the Swiss, and, according to the national legend, 
called forth the energies of the liberator William Tell. Re- 
fusing to bow before the ducal cap of Austria, which Gess- 
ler had elevated on a pole in the market-place of Altorf, 
Tell was seized and condemned by the governor to pierce 
with an arrow an apple placed on the head of his son. 
Overcoming his feelings, the unerring marksman struck 
the apple to the core ; but in the excitement of the mo- 
ment he let fall another arrow which was concealed in his 
garment. Gessler inquired for what it was intended. " To 
kill thee, tyrant," replied Tell, " had I harmed my son ! " 

At these words, the governor ordered Tell to be placed 
in irons, and, embarking with him on Lake Lucerne, 



started for a dungeon on the opposite shore. But sudden- 
ly a tempest arose, and the inexperienced soldiers, unbind- 
ing their prisoner, gave him the helm. Tell steered for 
the shore, leaped upon a rock, pushed the boat back again 
into the waves, and soon found an opportunity to pierce 
the heart of Gessler with an arrow. 

The Swiss now assembled an army, expelled the Aus- 
trian troops, and formed a league for the defence of their 
liberties. In 1315, Leopold, son of Albert, determined tc 
punish the confederated cantons ; but the flower of his 
army fell on the field of Morgar'ten (see Map, p. 301), be- 
neath the iron-headed clubs of the mountaineers. This is 

the first Instance 
in modern times 
of the superiori- 
ty of infantry to 
mounted men. 

WilHam Tell 
perished in a 
flood which de- 
stroyed his native 
village, while at- 
tempting to save 
the life of a child. 
His memory is 
still dear to the 
Swiss. On the 
rock to which he 
leaped from Gess- 
ler's boat stands 
Tell's Chapel, in which once a year religious service is per- 

In 1386, a small force of Swiss gained another great 
victory over the Austrians, at Sempach (see Map, p. 301). 
In this battle Arnold Wink'elried cried to his country- 

TeL1/:i (. iiAPEL. 


men, "Dear brothers, I will open a way for you; take 
care of my wife and children." Then, rushing on the bris- 
tlini^ spears of the Austrians, he g-athered as many as lie 
could within his grasp, and thus opened a path for his 
comrades into the ranks of the foe. 

The independence of Switzerland was not fully estab- 
lished till the end of the fifteenth century. 

Fourteenth Century : Inventions, etc. 

Tlio mariner's compass, ascribed to Gioja (jo'i/ah), of Amalfi {ah- 
maM'fc), Italy ; early known to the Chinese. Gunpowder, cannon, bombs, 
and mortars, used in war. Spectacles first made ; their usefulness al- 
luded to by Roger Bacon in the previous century. Chimneys ; glazed 
windows ; pins ; side-saddles. First mills established in Germany for the 
manufacture of linen paper. 

Modern science of anatomy originated in Italy ; first dissection of 
dead bodies at Hologna {bo-lone' i/ah) in 1315. Magic, astrology, and 
alchemy, in vogue; objects of alchemy, to lind the elixir of life, and the 
philosopher's stone with which to transmute the base metals into gold. 



Richard II., son of the Black Prince, though only in 
his eleventh year, was crowned king of England after the 
obsequies of his grandfather, Edward TIL (1377). The 
throne of France was at this time filled by Charles V., the 
Wise, a patron of learning and founder of the Royal Li- 
brary at Paris. He wrested from the English nearly all 
of their French acquisitions, and even sent a fleet to rav- 
age their coasts. But soon after the accession of Richard, 
Charles died, leaving his kingdom to a minor (Charles VL). 


France, as well as Eng^laud, now became a prey to the 
dissensions of ambitious nobles. 

In England, the uncles of Richard, the dukes of Lan- 
caster, York, and Gloucester [glos'ter) — fourth, fifth, and 
sixth sons of Edward III. — with other noblemen, were 
made regents during the prince's minority. To meet the 
expenses of the French wars, a tax of twelve pence was 
imposed on every one who had reached the age of fifteen. 
At this period the people of many countries were mani- 
festing a spirit of opposition to the exactions of their 
rulers, and the new measure roused the poorer classes al- 
most to madness ; it needed but a spark to spring the 
mine. When a young girl was shamefully insulted by a 
tax-collector, her father, Wat Tyler, dashed out the ruf- 
fian's brains with his hammer, and summoned his neighbors 
to arms. Wat's forces soon swelled to one hundred thou- 
sand men, who marched toward London, plundering the 
manors of the nobles, and murdering lawyers and justices. 

In compliance with the demands of the mob, Richard 
agreed that serfdom should be abolished, the rent of land 
reduced, and a general pardon granted. The following 
day, when attended by only sixty horsemen, he encoun- 
tered twenty thousand of the insurgents with Tyler at 
their head. Wat advanced to meet the king, playing 
with the hilt of his dagger ; but when he grasped Rich- 
ard's bridle, the mayor of London felled him to the ground. 

On this the rebels drew their bows ; but Richard, real- 
izing his danger, with greater presence of mind than 
could be expected in a youth of only sixteen years, boldlj' 
galloped up to the archers and exclaimed : " Tyler was a 
traitor ! Come with me, my lieges, I will be your leader." 
Disconcerted for the moment, the multitude obeyed, and 
were soon met by a large body of the king's troops, when 
falling on their knees they begged for mercy. But Rich- 
ard, safe from their violence, forgot his promises ; fifteen 


luiiidrod wore aftorwani oxecutod, many of whom wore 
left hani>-ino- in chains on g-ibbets as a terror to the disaf- 

Resolved at last to rule tor himself, Ivii'liard sei/.eil the 
reins of power from the luunls i>f his unelo (Jloueester in 
1389 ; and for a number of years he administered the 
government with remarkable wisdom and success. The 
turbulent Gloucester was tinally arrested, ai\d is said to 
have been smothered at Calais between two beds by oi-der 
of the king. I^ancaster's death not long afterward af- 
forded Kichard an opportunity of seizing on his innnenso 
landed property, to the exclusion of his son Henry, who 
had been banished from the realm. These and other im- 
politic acts of the king now awakeneil general iliscontent. 

When therefore Henry, the yoinig J)uke of Lancaster, 
returned to England in 1399, he was easily able to place 
lumself on the throne. Richard was imprisoned in Ponte- 
fract Castle (see Map, p. 30()), where his ilays were ontled, 
it is supposed, by violence or starvation (l-lOO). 

House of Lancaster. —Henry IV., who dethroned Rich- 
ard, was not the lawful so\ereign of Kugland ; the crown 
of right belonged to Edmund Mortimer, the youthful Earl 
of March, who descended from the Uuke of Clarence, 
third son of Edward HI. 

Henry's reign was one scene of confusion and trouble. 
The Welsh, under Owen Glen'dower, took up arms and 
threw off the English yoke. "^Phe powerful Percies also 
rebelled in concert with the Welsh. 

Henry Percy (Hotspur) and the Scottish Douglas, two 
of the most valiant knights in Christendom, met the king 
in the battle of Shrewsbury, and cut their way to the cen- 
tre of his forces. But Hotspur, after juM-forming prodi- 
gies of valor, fell by a random shaft, and the day was 
lost. On the other side, the Prince of Wales distinguished 
himself by feats of daring. Although severely wountled 


in the face, he refused to retire, saying, " Who will remain 
fighting, if the king's son flies at the first taste of steel V " 
This prince subsequently reduced the VV^elsh to submis- 

The Lollards, or followers of Wycliffe, who attacked 
the corruptions in religion, were persecuted in this 
reign ; and a " heretic " was burned for the first time in 

Henry IV, died in 1413, worn out by anxiety and dis- 
ease. During his illness, his son, believing him to be 
dead, carried off the crown. On awaking to conscious- 
ness, the king asked him what right he had to the crown 
when his father had none, " My liege," replied Prince 
Henry, " with the sword you won it, and with the sword I 
will keep it," 

As from this period the histories of England and 
France were for some years intimately connected, we 
shall for a time consider them together. 

Charles VI. was king of France while Richard II. and 
Henry IV, reigned in England, In Richard's time, he col- 
lected twelve hundred vessels for the invasion of that 
kingdom, and also caused to be built, in parts, a wooden 
city, defended by towers, to serve as a fortress for his 
army. A storm, however, wrecked his fleet, and the frag- 
ments of his wooden town were washed up on the Eng- 
lish coast. 

Charles was weak-minded ; and two sudden frights 
which he received, first from having his horse stopped by 
a ragged maniac who warned him of treason, and the fol- 
lowing year by being nearly burned to death at a mas- 
querade, brought on attacks of insanity. To amuse him, 
cards are said to have been invented. His reign was dis- 
tracted by the contentions of the dukes of Burgundy and 
r)rleans ; and France, weakened by their strife, lay at the 
mercy of her enemies. Henry IV. was too much occu- 

-1(> rm; IHNDKllD \ KAKs' W A U. 

piod nt homo to think of foroi<>Mi ooii(i|upsts; but Henry 
v., his w.'ulikc son, rt>viviHl th(> t'hiiui of his jinccstois to 
t lio l^'n-nch crown. 

Henry V. of 10iii;l;iii(l, lid'on' lie Mscrndrd I lie tliionc, 
was M Irivoloiis :ni(l vicious piiniM", wliosc IVcmIks of {\)\\\ 
wtM'o so noloiious dial he wns oonnnonly cjilicd " ^hl(lc;l|) 
Iliirrv." Il(> lVc(iucnlc(l low I;i\(M-iis, and disguised as a 
iiii;"iiwa vniaii woidd c\cn attack and roli passiMS in I h(> 
stn>(Ms. But no sooniM" liad lliMny biH-onic kin<;- tiiaii his 
I'liaractcr cliaii<if<>d ; he tliscanh'd liis nnpiinciplcd associ- 
ate's, suiroinidcd iiiniscli' with c\|iciicnccd niinislcrs, and 
os})Oi'ially favored tiiosi> who had opposed his i'\ il career. 

C\)NQliKsr OK I'lJANClo,. 'rht> disti;ict<>d condition of 
i''i-anc(> soon (Mi^ai^-ed t ii(> at tent ion of il(Mii-\. Iu>vi\ini;' 
th<> chiini of his <;r(>at-i;iaiidfat iier I'ldward Mi., he (h>- 
niaiKhMl till* crown of that country as h(Mr of IMiilip th(» 
1^'aii'. 'I'liis ciaiiu haviii;:,' l)e(>n indi<;'nant ly nd'iised, he re- 
(luired lii(< cession of Noiinaiidy, Main(>, and Anjou (s(m> 
Map, p. vO'v'), witii the liand of Catharine, dauohirr of 
(^harh>s VI., auil a dow rv of two million ciowns. 

Ni's^'otiat ions hetween th(> two kiii<;-donis l'ailt"d, and 
I lenry consetpiently invaded Krance in lll.">. At Ai^in 
court [(ih-zli(intj-h'0(^r') \\o achieved a glorious victory o\(>r 
an army foin- timers the size of liis own. I lis skilfid how- 
miMi discharo'iMl such a shower of arrows that the P'nMich 
troops h»>canie i-on fused, and many thousands were slaui^h- 
tered - aniono- tlu>n\ tlu> noblest of the n^alm. Kinii,- IliMi- 
ry wore a shininj;" lu>lmet surmounttMl by a j(>W(>lled ciown, 
and was sino-Knl out by a nvnnlxM- of l<'r<Mich knights who 
had sworn to cj'.pt ure or slay the kiny of I^jioland. Hut 
h(> was sax'cd h\ tlu> devotion of his S(|uires, who sai'ri- 
liced tluMr livi\s in (h'fendin<>; his. llenry knii;ht(>d tluMU 
as tlu>y lay bleedini"^ on thi> tield of battle, and promised 
that futnrt> <;-enerat ions should It^arn of their bravery. 

A lew years later, IbMiry conclmh'd a trt>aty by which 

IIKNICV VI. or IC.N«;i,ANI). 217 

Ik; i(;<;(;iv(;(J llic |)iiii(:<;HH (Jatliariiic in iii;i,n ia^rc^ vv;i.h iriadfj 
Hi^^fMit during- llic lilclirrK; of (JharlitH VJ., a/i(J was (J<!- 
(;lan;(j JiIh hu'icchho/'. liiil. In; (Ji«;rJ afxjiil, tw(j luontliH f^j- 
fon; (JharloH (14^2). 

Henry VI., Ui<; inCaiil, kou <A' II<;nry V. and (Jatharin<;, 
was now jMoclaitrn-d kin;^- of l<Jn;r|;i,nd and I^'rancc ; and 

Ili.H linclrt, t,li<; Ihlkf, <A' l>i:<l\'i)l<\j vvlio li;i(| \)i:i:i\ a|>))oinl,<d 
j>ro(,<;<;toi-, Lrjrjk t,lii; li«;ld l,o /naintain Iuh fiau.H*;. 'I'li<; tnj<-, 
licir to t}i<! l<'n;M<;li inonan;fiy vvaH IJk; l)au)jfii;i,* (JliarlcH 
VII., vvlio waH Hijjj[)Oii(;fl prin(;i{>ally in Uic Hoijl,li<;rn prov- 
in(;<;H. 'VUc ljiijr\\H\i gradually gained ^^njund, an<l at laHt 
laid Hi(;^(; to Or'l<;anH, the rnowt important city in tin; poH- 
HOKnion of (JliarloM. After a Havum Ijlockado tlio town waw 
on tlio <!V*! of capitulating, when a jjo<;r j)<;aHant-^irl ap- 
jjcarcd on tlir; Hta^c to rcHCUc l^'ranc;. 

TiiK Maio oI' OitiJCANH. — 1^'ar away arnon^' the hillH 
of Loirainc, in the eaHtern [jart of l^Vance, lived Joan of 
Are,, llie rlaij/^rhter of a eotta^^er, whoHO lloekH hImj tended. 
In h<jr hoijr.s rjf solitude whe Haw vJHiofiH, and Haid that 
voi<!OH called to her from the woods. Then; waH an old 
tradition tli;i,t a pr'\t\ from the foniHtH oi' Lorraine would 
one day Have l<'ranr;e ; and when she heard of tin; <JiKaH- 
terH that w(;re hefallin^ her «;oiintjy, Joan felt hernelf im- 
pelled to oiler h<;r He,rvic(!B to the Dauphin, aHHured that in 
her tin; traditif>n woiiid find itH fiilfilmi.nt. 

Havirifi; proved her power to the king''K natinfaction l>y 
Hin^lin</; him out, tlioij?.di 'linj^-uisefl, from a hundred kni^htH 
who were, f»reHent, Joan waH nent to th<; army. She aj>- 
[)eared in camf>, clad in a Huit of white arm'^r and mount- 

* Tli<; tit,l<; of haupldn, derived Croru tli<; n;i(n<: of tlic province of 
Diiijphiiiy (hc;<; Mfijj, p. 202), waH firHt borne hy CharlcH V. It Ih nf)at<;(J 
that tli<! laHt (Joiint of I)anj»hiny, overcome with f^rief at having caiiHed 
the death of hiH infant Hon hy letting hirn fall from a haieotiy, witJidrew 
to a MionaHtery, rrjhij^niiig hiH doininionn to J'hilij* VI. of Valoin on eon 
dition that the heir of France whould he called the lJaij|)liin (\'-'A'.)). 



ed on a war-horse ; her head was unhelmeted, and her 
long black hair fell down around her shoulders. The rough 
men-at-arras received her with enthusiasm, and at her bid- 
ding left off their profanity and evil habits. She marched 

Costumes of Feencii Ladiks in this CENTtTET. 

at their head, displaying a consecrated banner, and effect- 
ed an entrance into Orleans with a supply of provisions 
for the famishing citizens. 

From this moment success deserted the standard of 
the English ; their forts fell into the hands of Joan, and 
the siege was soon raised. From her heroism in relieving 
the beleaguered city, Joan was called the Maid of Orleans. 

Charles was subsequently crowned at Rheims, while 


the Maid stood by his side in complete armor. Having 
now performed her double mission, she knelt at his feet 
and prayed for her discharge. But Charles induced her 
to remain, — and for a sad fate. She was taken prisoner 
by the English, condemned for witchcraft, and burned at 
the stake. The ungrateful king offered no ransom, pro- 
posed no exchange, for the Maid who had saved his crown. 
His end was almost as terrible as hers ; he starved him- 
self to death from the dread of being poisoned by his son, 
afterward Louis XI. 

The English profited little by the execution of Joan. 
" We are lost," was the prediction of one of their own 
number who witnessed her death, " we have burned a 
saint." One by one their conquests were forced from 
them ; and when the Hundred Years' War ended in 1451, 
Calais alone remained in their possession. 

Wars of the Roses. — While this struggle was going 
on in France, the young Henry VI. grew up into a feeble, 
weak-minded man. When he reached the age of twenty- 
three, he married Margaret of A«jou, a beautiful and reso- 
lute, but vindictive woman, in whose hands he left the 
chief control of the state. 

The Duke of Gloucester, the king's uncle, who had 
opposed the marriage, soon felt the vengeance of the 
queen. His duchess had been already doomed to per- 
petual imprisonment for sorcery, on the charge that she 
had made a wax figure of the king, which she slowly 
melted with magical incantations before the fire that 
Henry's strength might in like manner waste away. The 
duke himself was arrested for treason, and was soon after 
found dead in prison. 

The administration of Margaret and her favorite, the 
powerful Duke of Suffolk, speedily became obnoxious. 
The latter, after being condemned to exile, was seized and 
murdered at sea ; but this did not satisfy the people. 


Headed by Jack Cade, a commoner who assumed the 
popuhir name of Mortimer, they broke out into insurrec- 
tion (1450). Cade forced his way into London, and com- 
menced pilLiging the houses. But the rebels were re- 
pulsed, and Cade was taken and executed. 

Richard, Duke of York, Henry's cousin, stood before 
the king- in the order of succession, as his mother was the 
heiress of the family of Mortimer, and he was therefore 
the representative of the third son of Edward IH. Spurred 
on by the anronts of the royal party and the growing im- 
becility of Henry, he determined to advance his claim. 
He accordingly entered into an alUance with the powerful 
Earl of Warwick (icdr'rik), "the King-maker," defeated 
the king's forces on the field of St. Alban's (1455), cap- 
tured Henry himself, and was declared protector. Thus 
began a thirty yeai's' struggle between the houses of York 
and Lancaster, which cost England eighty princes of the 
royal blood and one-half her nobility. These civil wars 
were known as the Wars of the Roses, because the par- 
tisans of York adopted a white rose as their badge, those 
of Lancaster a red one. 

Richard of York was killed in the battle of Wakefield 
Green. Queen Margaret had his head severeil from his 
body, encircled witli a mock diadem of paper, and })laced 
on the walls of York as a ghastly warning to its people. 
The duke's second son, a boy of seventeen, was murdered 
in cool blood, while crossing Wakefield Bridge. Edward, 
the duke's eldest son, hastened to avenge his fathei-'s 
death; he routed the Lancastrian army, pushed on to Lon- 
don, assumed the royal dignity, and was proclaimed as 
King Edward IV. (1461). 

House of York. — Edward IV. had scarcely seated him- 
self on the throne when he was called to take the field 
against the undaunted Margaret. At Tow'ton a decisive 
battle took place, perhajis the bloodiest ever fought in 


England, ending in the overthrow of the Lancastrians with 
the loss of half their army. In this desperate conflict, the 
Earl of Warwick, in order to revive the courag-e of his 
men, stabbed his horse before them, and kissing- the hilt of 
his sword swore to share the fate of the meanest soldier. 

In 14G4, Edward won another complete victory at 
Hexham. After this battle. Queen Margaret, accompanied 
by her son, fled toward Scotland. In the depth of Hex- 
ham Forest, they were stopped by a robber ; but the 
queen, fearlessly presenting the young prince, cried out, 
*' Here, my friend ! I trust to your loyalty the son of your 
king." So affected was the outlaw by her appeal that he 
conducted her to a place of safety, and there supplied her 
wants till an opportunity offered for her escape. 

In 1409, the Earl of \\'ar\vick, who had been wrong- 
fully dealt with by Edward, entered into a conspiracy 
with the Duke of Clarence, drove the king from England 
(1470), and restored the crown to Henry VI. But Ed- 
ward soon re-appeared at the head of an army, Warwick 
was slain, and the hopes of the Lancastrians were finally 
overthrown on the field of Tewkesbury (1471). 

Queen Margaret and her son fell into the hands of the 
victors. Edward demanded of the prince why he had in- 
vaded England. " To recover my father's crown and my 
own inheritance," was the reply. Upon this, it is affirmed 
that Edward struck the prisoner in the face with his 
gauntlet, — a signal for his brothers to thrust their swords 
into the prince's breast. Margaret was committed to the 
Tower ; and the murder of her husband soon after has 
been attributed to the dagger of Richard, Duke of 

The Duke of Clarence, brother of Edward IV., sus- 
pected of intriguing against him, was condemned to death, 
and a story was circulated that by his own choice he was 
drowned in a butt of malmsey wine. 



In the thirteenth year of Edward Fourth's reign, the 
first printed book (on the Game of Chess) was produced 
in England. It was from the press of William Caxton, 
who brought over the newly-invented art from the conti- 
nent. — Edward died in 1483, leaving two sons, — Edward, 
rrince of Wales, and Richard, Duke of York, — under the 
regency of their uncle, the Duke of CJloucester. 

Edward V. reigned nominally in England for a few 
weeks after his father's death. But the Duke of Glouces- 
ter aspired to the throne, and proceeded to remove every 

TuK 'I'owi'.u OK London. 

obstacle from his path. The relatives and friends of the 
prince were imprisoned or put to death without trial ; and 
at last young Edward, with his brother, was lodged in the 
Tower. Shortly after, in a popular assembly, some per- 
sons hired for the purpose shouted, " God save King 


Richard ! " and tlie following day the Duke of Gloucester, 
after ;i show of niiwillingnoss, assumed the coveted crown. 

Richard III., not satisfied with his usurpation, deter- 
mined to rid himself of his nephews, and dispatched assas- 
sins to the Tower, who smothered them with pillows as 
they lay asleep, and buried them at the foot of the stairs. 

The news of this crime filled the nation with horror, 
and a plot was set on foot to offer the crown to Henry 
Tu'dor, Earl of Richmond, the representative of the House 
of Lancaster, on condition of his marrying Elizabeth, sis- 
ter of Edward V., and rightful heir to the throne. To 
defeat this pnjject, Richard proposed to marry the prin- 
cess to his own son, — and, on the death of the latter, to 
wed her himself ; that he might make room for his niece, 
he is suspected of having poisoned his wife. 

But Richard, now an object of general detestation, was 
deserted even by his most faithful adherents. The Earl 
of Richmond, encouraged by these defections, left Brit- 
tany, landed in England, and, being joined by many pow- 
erful nobles, met the army of Richard on Bosworth Field 

At early dawn the conflict began. Richard fought like 
a lion. When he saw the day was going against him, he 
dashed into the thickest of the fray, killed the Lancastrian 
standard-bearer, and aimed a blow at Richmond himself. 
But, overpowered by numbers, he fell, and his blood tinged 
the water of a spring, from which some, even at the pres- 
ent day, refuse to drink. Lord Stanley picked up the 
crown, stained with gore, and placed it on Richmond's 
head, while the soldiers shouted " Long live King Henry ! " 

That night the body of the usurper, naked and disfig- 
ured, was thrown across a horse and brought to Leicester 
for burial. 

Close of the Valois Line in France. — Louis XL, the 
Nero of Franco, was a contemporary of Edward IV. As 


he had aided the Lancastrian party, Edward determined to 
punish liim, and accordingly invaded his dominions and 
formally demanded the French crown. The English forces, 
however, were withdrawn on the payment of a large sum 
and the promise of, 50,000 crowns a year. 

Louis XL was one of the most detestable and sangui- 
nary monarchs.that ever disgraced a throne. His maxim 
was, " He who knows not how to dissemble is not fit to 
reign." He put to death more than four thousand persons, 
taking a savage delight in their sulferings. Many of his 
nobles were loaded with chains and shut up in iron cages, 
the king coming often to insult them. At the execution 
of the Duke of Nemours {neh-?noor'), Louis ordered his 
t'liildren to be placed beneath the scalTold, that they might 
be sprinkled with their parent's blood. — This monstei-, who 
is said to have quafSed the blood of infants for the jaurpose 
of renewing his exhausted frame, in spite of all his odious 
crimes, was honored with the title of " Most Christian 

The reign of Louis XL was a protracted contest with 
feudalism. By his perfidious policy lie succeeded in ele- 
vating the royal authority above that of the princes and 
nobles, at one time his equals in power. The greatest of 
his rivals was Charles the Bold of Burgundy, who once 
seized the king and would have slain him had he not con- 
sented to a disgraceful treaty. On the death of Charles, 
Louis annexed part of his dominions to the French crown. 

Charles VHL, the Aifable, son of Louis, borne on by 
the extravagant hope of conquering Italy and expelling 
the Turks from Europe, crossed the Alps, and, after a 
l)rilliant career of victories, entered Naples in triumph 
(1495). But the Italians, aided by the emperor of Ger- 
many, subsequently expelled the French. 

Charles was the last of the direct line of Valois. He 
was succeeded in 1498 by his cousin, the Duke of Orleans. 


Plantagenet Kings of England. 

Henry 11., . acceded 1154. 
Richard 1., Coeur do Lion, 1189. 
Jolin, Lackland, . . 1199. 
Henry IIL, . . 1216. 
Edward L, Longshanks, 12Y2. 
Edward XL, of Carnarvon, 1.307. 
Edward in.,. . . 1327. 

Richard IL, . 


Henry IV. (Lancaster), . 


Henry V., . . . 


Henry VL, . 


Edward IV. (York), . 


Edward V., . 


Richard III. (Gloucester), 



Ottoman Empire. — Many of the Turkish hordes that 
had been driven from Carizme by Genghis Khan took ref- 
uge in Asia Minor. There a pastoral chief of four hun- 
dred tents became the father of 0th 'man, founder of an 
empire called from him the Ottoman., and ancestor of a 
line of sultans who overthrew the capital of the East and 
spread consternation by their victories in the very heart 
of Europe. 

In 1299, Othman {the hone-breaker) penetrated into the 
Byzantine provinces. Towns and castles were garrisoned 
with the troops of the conqueror, and finally Pru'sa, the 
capital of Bithynia, surrendered to his son Orchan. 

During the reign of Orchan, Constantinople being dis- 
tracted by civil war, the Turks and Bulgarians were re- 
spectively appealed to for aid by the opposing parties. 
Ton thousand Ottoman horsemen were transported across 
the Hellespont in the vessels of the Greek emperor ; many 
Thracian fortresses fell into their possession, which they 
subsequently refused to surrender to the Byzantine court, 
and thus the (Jttoman power was established in Europe 


Am'urath L, son of Orchan, reduced the whole of 
Thrace, and made the cit}'^ of Adrianople (see Map, ]>. 
156) the seat of his government and religion in the West. 
The warlike Slavonic tribes that dwelt between the 
Danube and the Adriatic were also subdued, and after- 
ward became the stanchest supporters of the Ottoman 
power. While Amurath was g'oing over the licld after 
the last decisive engagement with the Servians, he was 
mortally stabbed by a wounded chief. 

Amurath organized a military corps composed of Chris- 
tian captives educated in arms and the Mohaunnedan 
faith. These were called Janizaries {new soldiers) ; they 
became the best-disciplined troops in Europe — the terror 
of Christian nations. 

Baj azet I., son of Amurath, surnamed the Lightning 
on account of his rapid movements, secured himself upon 
the throne by strangling his younger brother. In 1396 
he defeated an army of 100,000 Hungarians, French, and 
Germans, led by Sigismund afterward emperor of Ger- 
many, who boasted that should the sky fall they could 
uphold it on their spears. In the pride of victory Baj- 
azet vowed that his horse should eat a bushel of oats 
from the altar of St. Peter at Rome. 

Meanwhile Constantinople, weakened by internal dis- 
cord, her European and Asiatic territories in the hands of 
the Turks, was regarded by Bajazet as his certain [)roy ; 
nor was it long before he appeared in front of the city 
with a besieging army. The emperor Manuel II. lied 
from his capital, and supplicated aiil in Paris and London. 
But Charles VI. and Henry IV. were unable to assist him ; 
and famine had almost opened the gates of Constantinople 
to Bajazet, when an unlooked-for deliverer appeared in 
Tamerlane, tlie Tartar conqueror, whose cruelties had al- 
ready made his name a terror to the Ottomans. 

The Janizaries of Bajazet met the Mongols on the 

IJAJAZKT I., JiiK i,i(;in'M.\(; 


plains of An<^o'ra in Asia Minor, where, after a bloody 
conflict, they were put to rout (1402). Tlie sultan him- 
self fought with the bravery of despair, but the Mongols 
threw a mantle over hitri and captured hiin alive;. Tamer- 
lane, who was playing chess with his son when tin; royal 
prisoner was brought to his tent, kept him standing at 
[\n'. door till the game was decided. Bajazet was then 

Bajazet in tub Tknt oi' Tameklank. 

courteously received, and treated at first with princely 
generosity ; but on his attempting' to escape, as the story 
goes, he was loaded with chains, and thrust into an iron 
cage, against the bars of which he finally dashed out his 


brains. The victory of Angora prolonged the existence 
of Constantinople for half a century. 

Mohammed II., the Great, ascended the Ottoman 
throne in 1451. He was a blood-thirsty and licentious sov- 
ereign, a man of unbridled passions, who scrupled not to 
take life upon the slightest provocation. Once, when sus- 
pected by his Janizaries of being infatuated with a beau- 
tiful Syrian, he cut oif her head and threw it among the 
soldiers, to convince them that he was not a slave to love. 

Mohammed coveted Constantinople for his capital, 
and, well aware of the effeminacy of its people, deter- 
mined to make it his own. But Constantine XIIL, the 
last of the Eastern emperors, though his resources were 
limited and his army was reduced to 7,000 men, resolved 
not to give up his birthright without a struggle. 

In the spring of 1453, Mohammed arrived at the gates 
of Constantinople with an army 258,000 strong, and di- 
rected his battering-rams and enormous cannon against 
the walls. One of his guns hurled balls of stone weigh- 
ing six hundred pounds. For fifty -three days the insig- 
nificant garrison withstood his attacks, but they were at 
last overwhelmed by swarms of Janizaries. The emperor, 
as he fought almost single-handed with the foe, vainly 
called on some Christian to cut off his head and hide it 
from the infidels. Struck down by an unknown hand, he 
was buried beneath heaps of the slain ; but his body was 
afterward recognized by the gold eagles embroidered on 
his buskins, and Mohammed exposed his head as a trophy 
of victory. The crescent henceforth waved from the 
towers of the fallen city, which became the Turkish capital. 

The subjection of Greece followed, and Mohammed 
even aspired to the conquest of Italy. The pope was pre- 
paring for flight, when his fears were dispelled by the death 
of the Ottoman sultan (1481). 

Se'lim I., grandson of Mohammed, defeated the Per- 


sians, and conquered Egypt, Tripoli, and extensive tracts 
in Asia. 

Poland. — While the great Ottoman Empire was thus 
erected on firm foundations in the South, the powerful 
kingdom of Poland arose in central Europe. The word 
Poland implies a plain, and the country so called, the an- 
cient Sarma'tia, was peopled by Slavonians. Toward the 
close of the tenth century, the Poles were converted to 
Christianity ; and, in the eleventh, Boleslas the Brave in- 
vaded Prussia and Russia, extended his conquests beyond 
the Oder, the Carpathian Mountains, and the Dniester (see 
Map, p. 387), encouraged commerce, and civilized his sub- 

Poland, however, first took an important position 
among the nations of Europe in the fourteenth century, 
when Cas'imir III., the Great, a prudent and enlightened 
prince, further extended her domains, strengthened them 
with fortresses, and founded the University of Cracow 
(hra'ho). On his death (1370), Poland became an elective 
monarchy, and the crown was united with that of Hungary 
in the person of Louis the Great, one of the most power- 
ful kings of the Middle Ages. 

Louis was succeeded by a Lithuanian prince, whose 
dominions, lymg on the Baltic coast north of the River 
Niemen, became absorbed in Poland. Through his efforts 
many of the Lithuanians, who worshipped fire, trees, and 
reptiles, were converted to Christianity. 

Occupying as it did a frontier position with reference 
to the western nations, Poland, in conjunction with Hun- 
gary, was at a later date obliged to meet formidable inva- 
sions of Turks, and with varied success. Its people were 
improved and its dominions increased by a wise adminis- 
tration of the government, until under Casimir IV. (1445- 
1492) we find its territories stretching from the shores of 
the Baltic to the mouth of the Danube. 


1 400 A. D.— Bajazct sultan of Turkey ; capital, Adrianoplo. 
Tamerlane, the Tartar, in the midst of his career of conquest. Russia 
tributary to the Mongols. Medieis in Florence; Viscontis in Milan. Den- 
mark, Norway, and Sweden, united under Margaret, " the Seniiramis of 
the North." Charles VI., of France, midway of his wretched reign. 
Henry IV., of England, invadinj^ Scotland. Thomas i\ Kcmpis, a re- 
nowned (iei'inan ascetic wi'iter, twenty years old ; afterward author of the 
" Imitation of Christ," translated into every civilized language. 



Spain. — Wc must now return to the history of Spain, 
wliich we h^l't on page 177. This country, including mod- 
ern Port'ugal, about the middle of the cUwcnth century 
comprised several Christian states, and a inunber of Jietty 
Moorish sovereignties weakened by internal strife. The 
('hristian princes, however, were prevented by similar dis- 
sensions from combining against their common foe, and in 
1238 the Moorish kingdom of Granada (grd-nah'dd) was 

In 1479 Ferdinand V,, the Catholic, became king of 
Aragon ; his wife Isabella had previously inherited the 
.sovereignty of Castile and Leon, Thus all the Christian 
principalities in Spain, except Navarre, were united under 
one sceptre. 

Ferdinand and Isalwlla rigidly administered justice, 
and restored peace to their dominions, which had long suf- 
fered from civil commotions. Filled with a desire to j)rop- 
agate the Christian religion and suppress heresy of all 
kinds, these sovereigns introduced the Inquisition, a court 
authorized to try persons accused of differing from the 
established faith. This institution became the terror, 


not only of .Icwh and Mohammedans, but even of tlie 
Spanish nobk's and clergy. On the slightest supicion 
they were seized, "tried" under circumstances of irri|)en- 
etrable secrecy, tortured to extort a confession of guilt, 
and in many cases put to death, while the crown was en- 
riched with their wealth. 

One of the cliief events of the reign of Ferdinand and 
Isabella was the conquest of Granada, the last stronghold 
of the Mohammedans in Spain. For eight months the 
city, crowded with starving people and distracted by rival 
factions, held out against an army of seventy thousand. 
Its luxuriant plain was the scene of frequent conflicts be- 
tween the Christian knights and Moorish cavaliers ; the 
feats of vahir there performed were long celebrated in the 
ballads of chivalry. 

Isabella herself, richly attired in complete armor, rode 
through the catnp encouraging h(!r soldiers ; whilf; the 
Moorish ladies toiled upon the ramparts and cheensd their 
defenders with their presence. But famine and insubor- 
dination at hmgth cornpelhid the Moslem king to capitu- 
late ; lie surrendered his capital on condition that the in- 
habitants should remain undisturbed in their religious faith 
and the possession of their property. Thus terminated in 
1492 the Saracen empire in Spain, after an existence (;f 
nearly eight centuries. 

The Moors were for a time allowed freedom of worship, 
but they were eventually compelled either to embrace 
Christianity or leave the country. Thousands departed 
from their native land, and those who remained lived in 
constant dread of the cruelties of the Inquisition. By such 
intol(;rance Spain lost multitudes of her most us(;ful and 
thrifty inhabitants. 

Portugal, the Lusita'nia of the Romans, which had 
been conquered by the Moors, was partly nicovered at the 
close of the eleventh century by the king of Leon and 


Castile. Its complete independence was secured under 
Count Alfonso (1139), who, after defeating the Moors in a 
j^reat battle near the Ta'gus, was saluted as king by his 
followers on the field which his valor had won. 

During the reign of John I., the Great, the Portuguese 
discovered Madeira and the Azores'. After the death of 
John, in 1433, Portugal became the most enterprising 
country in Europe. Arduous voyages were undertaken ; 
the whole of the western coast of Africa was explored ; 
and in 1497 Vasco da Gama {vah'sko dah gah'mah) dou- 
bled the Cape of Good Hope, sailed across the Indian 
Ocean, and in the following year hmded on the Malabar' 
coast. Here the Portuguese found fertile regions and 
partially civilized nations, and Vasco returned to Lisbon 
loaded with the rich products of the East. 

King Emanuel the Foi'tunate encouraged his subjects 
in this new career of commerce and discovery. The}' 
soon gained the control of the Eastern trade, and estab- 
lished a vast colonial empire — the wonder and envy of 
the world. 

Discovery of America. — While the Portuguese were 
thus searching for a route to India, Christopher Columbus, 
a Genoese navigator, became convinced that the earth was 
round, and that he could reach Asia by sailing across the 
unknown Atlantic. For several years he applied in vain 
to various European governments for men and ships ; at 
last, in 1492, Queen Isabella of Spain furnished him with 
three small vessels, and he set sail from Palos {paJt'loce). 
So sure was Columbus that he would reach Asia tliat he 
carried a letter from King Ferdinand to the Grand Khan 
of Tartary. 

After a long and anxious voyage he landed on one of 
the Baha'ma Islands, which he called San Salvador'. With- 
in a few months, Cuba and Hispanio'la (Hayti) were dis- 
covered. In Cuba the Spaniards first saw the potato used 


as an article of food, and the dried leaves of the tobacco- 
plant smoked. 

The simple natives regarded the Europeans as visitors 
from the sun, and willingly exchanged lumps of gold for 
glass beads and nails. It is told of one Indian that, hav- 
ing obtained a small bell for four ounces of gold, he fled 
to the woods with his prize, lest the Spaniard should re- 
pent of his bad bargain and demand back the bell. 

Columbus left a colony on Hispaniola, and returned to 
Spain in 1493 with numerous specimens of the products 
of the New World — gold, tropical plants, Vjirds of brilliant 
plumage, and several natives. He made three subsequent 
voyages, in one of which he reached the main-land of South 
America ; still the continent which Columbus had discov- 
ered was not named from him, but from a Florentine, 
Americus Vespucius (ves-pu'she-ns), who afterward took 
part in several exploring expeditions and was the first to 
publish a description of the newly-discovered lands. 

American Indians. — At the time of its discovery, 
America was occupied by men of a copper color, with 
long black hair, and of erect agile forms. Their progeni- 
tors are supposed to have crossed from Asia in early ages 
and to have spread over the continent. Columbus called 
these people Indians, for he supposed he had landed on 
the borders of India. They dwelt in rude wigwams made 
of bark or skins. Hunting and fishing, together with 
what little maize, or Indian corn, they raised, supplied 
them with the means of subsistence. 

The Indians were generally brave, cautious, and hos- 
pitable to strangers. They worshipped the Great Spirit, 
and believed that the souls of the good, after death, en- 
joyed everlasting pleasures in the happy hunting-grounds! 

The young Indian was trained in athletic exercises, 
and taught to endure hunger and fatigue. He learned to 
wield the war-club, and hurl the tomahawk. His senses 


were rondored wonderfully acute, so that he could read 
the slightest signs in (he forest or detect tlie cunningly- 
concealed trail of an enemy. The warrior took pride in 
controlling his feelings, and endured the tortures of the 
stake, often ihe prisoner's fate, without a groan. Eacli 
trihe was noininally uncU-r a eliief, who took ihe lead in 
battle and decided important matters around the council- 

Early Conquests and Settlements. — In the latter part 
of the tiftcenth ci'Mluiy, tht' Knglish hegan a series of 
voyages which resulted in the discovery of Newfoundland 
[nn'/und-UnHl) and the exploration of the Atlantic coast 
from Labrador to Florida. 

For Spain, however, was reserved the honor of pene- 
trating to the Pacific. Balbo'a, the commander of a feeble 
settlement on the Gulf of Da'rien, learned from a native 
chief of a great ocean lying in a southerly direction. 
Braving the perils of the wilderness and the attacks of 
hostile Indians, he succeeded in crossing the Isthmus, and 
took ]iossession of the Pacific in the name of the king liis 
master (lalo). 

Mexico, at the bi'ginning of the sixteenth century, 
was a rich empire under the dominion of Montezu'ma, 
emperor of the Aztecs, the most civilizetl of the North 
American aborigines. They had followed the Toltecs, a 
race that came from the North in the seventh century, 
occu[)ied Mexico for four hundred years, and then settled 
in Central America. 

The Aztecs cultivated the arts, were skilful agricultu- 
rists, cloth-weavers, and exquisite workers of the precious 
metals. Their cities were adorned with imposing edifices; 
and their capital, Mexico, founded in i;>'2r), glittered with 
magnificent palaces and temples. The people communi- 
cated with each other by means of hierogly})hical })aint- 



lliil tlic A/1,ecH were idolaters, and Hacriliccd captivoH 
taken in war to tlieir false godw. 

'I'lie SpaiiiardH of (*uba liaving learned of the Azt((e 
Kitn|)ire, an ex|)e(lit,Ion was Hct on foot for its Huhjiij^ation, 
inider llx; conunand of ('orte/,, a criiel, avarieiouH man, 


>- .*^ 




but energetic and zealouH for the exteiiKion oi' h'm religion. 
With about six hundred soldiers and only ten small ean- 
non, Cortez fearlessly marched to the Mexican capital, 
destroying the idols and erecting in their stead crosses 
and images of the Virgin. 

20(; t'ONCiUKS'l' OK M1';\1(X> AND I'lORU. 

Montc/.iuna. was seized and perished in eaiilivity. Gua- 
teuio/in (^(jnHih-te-nio'zlii)y the his( of I he A/tiH-. emperors, 
was haui^-ed hy order oi' Cortez, and lor three hundivd 
years tlie su[)reuiacy of Spain was aekno\vled<;vd in INU^xieo. 
— Tlie hi^'otod eoiuiucrors destroyed vast libraries of (he 
Aztee pieture-writ ing — an irrei)aiahlo loss to tlu^ worhi. 

Pkuu, among all the countries of the New \Vorld, 
when lOuropeans lirst visited its shores, was foreniosl in 
power and rielies. Its inhabitants were a peaceable in- 
dustrious rac^e, iar advaneiHl in the arts. Stories of (he 
vast wealth of I'ei-u eatne to the ears of I'i/ar'ro, an un- 
prini^ij)led Spanish advent uri'r. Tiiirsting for its treas- 
ures, with a small foree he invaded the empire, d(>feated 
its disciplined armies, and iinprisotu'd tlie Inca, or Peru- 
vian monareh. The unfortunate captive, to ell'ecrt his re- 
lease, agreed to lill the room in whitdi he was eonlined as 
high as he could reach with gold; but after collecting more 
than llfteen million dollars' worth of precious ornaments, 
he was strangled by the perfidious Spanianl. IVru thus 
became subjt>ct to S])ain (1533). 

Voyages and Discoveries. 

1 1 '.12. Oi.'tt>l)or I'ith, Columbus discovers Anioi'icii. 

1H»7. Ciib'ots, oouuiiissioucd l)y Ilonry VII., oC Kiiuliiinl, discoviT llu- 

main-land of Aiiicric;! (New louiidlaiid oi' liabnnloi''). 
14'.)8. C/olumbus discovers tlic main-land of" South AmcriiM. 
1490. First voya}:;o of the Florentine Amerigo Vcspueei. 

1500. Bnv/il discovered by the Portuguese Cabral {hah-brahl'). 

1501. Coast of North America exi)lored by the Portuguese Cortereal. 

1502. Coast of (-entral America explored l>y Columbus. 

1505. Ceylon visited by the Portuguese Almeida (dfil-iiid'c dnh). 

1509. Sumatra reached by Portuguese explorers. 

1511. Malacca conquered by the Portuguese Albu(|uer(iue [ahl-boo-kir' ka). 

1512. Florida discovered by the Spaniard Ponce de Leon. 

1513. September 29th, Paeilie Ocean discovered by Palboa. 
1517. Mexico discovered by Franeiaco Fcrnaiulcz de Coi-dova. 
1520. Magellan enters the Pacific by the Strait ol' Magellan. 




MoDEKJsr JIiSTOJtY canriot properly ho said to com- 
mence at any sing-lo year or with any one event. '^I'lie 
fifteenth century, however, may be regarded as having 
witnessed its birth. 'J'he darkness had for some time been 
lifting, glimmerings of light had been breaking upon the 
nations, and the gray dawn was now followefl by thf; 
brightness of day. 

Among the changes which mark the begintiiiig of a 
new era in the history of the world, are the fcjllowing : 
The rise of consolidated governments ; the formation of 
a middle class, the bone and sinew of society ; the re- 
vival of taste and learning ; improvements in philosopliy ; 
the spread of knowledge anrl of a spirit of fr(;e inquiry ; 
the growth of art and science ; maritime explorations and 
discoveries, following tlie extended use of the mariner's 
compass ; and especially sf!V(;ral great inventions, which 
show that the human mind had thrown off its lethargy. 

The Art of Printing. — Foremost among these wonder- 
ful inventions was tliat of printing. This art, rudely 
practised by the Chinese twelve hundred years before, was 
perfected in (U'rmnny about 1450. The idea originated 
with Co.ster, of Harlem in Holland, by accident. He one 
day picked up a branch, and after amusing himself by 
ca,rving some letters on it, wrapped it in a piece of paper 
and fell asleep. On waking, he foufid the paper moist- 
ened with rain and distinctly impres.sed with the letters 
which he had engraved. The practical application of this 
principle at once suggested itself, and Coster was not 
long in devising a process for taking impressions from 
wooden blocks. Not, however, till movable types were 


employed by Gutenbero: {(jfoo'fcn-hcn/), of Mentz, was the 
invention made available. 

The iirst book was printed by Gutenberii; and his ]>art- 
ner Faust, in 1455. It was the Bible, and so rapiiUy were 
copies of it produced that they were looked upon as the 
work of mag-io. Faust was apprehended as a wizard, aiul 
to save himself from the llames had to make known the 
secret of his art. 

Tiie facilities for printing- w^ere gTeatly increased by 
Faust's son-in-law SchOf fer, who invented punches by 
which sharpness and llnish were given to the tv[H\ Uc- 
fore the end of the centiny, 8.509 works had been puli- 

Anions^ the important discoveries that followed the in- 
vention of printing-, niay be mentioned that of the true 
theory of the solar system by the Prussian Coper'nicus. 
Setting aside the time-honored opinions of centuries, 
supported by the authority of Aristotle himself, Coper- 
nicus taught that the earth turns on its axis ironi west 
to east, and along- with the other planets revolves round 
the sun. 

Henry Vn. — It was at the commencement of this new- 
born etfulgence which illumined Europe, that Henry \'ll., 
after the victory of Bosworth, ascended the throne of 
England (1485). The following year he married Eliza- 
beth, in whom the rights of the House of York were 
vested, and thus the two Roses were united. Such, how- 
ever, was his aversion to the Yorkists, that he treated his 
wife with harshness and neglect. 

Henry had not long held the throne before a movement 
was made to drive him from it. The birth of a young 
prince in 1486, threatening to make tiie crown hereditary 
in his family, aroused his enemies to action. A lad 
named Lambert Sinmel was induced to personate the 
nephew of Edward IV., the young Earl of AVarwick, at 


tfiat time confmrjd in t\\<- Towf-r of r>orKlori. Tiamhort 
was proclairrxfl kinir in In^land ; but his adherents were 
defeated, he was taken prisoner, and made a scullion in 
the king's kitchen. 

After this failure, a rumor was circulated that the 
young' Duke of York, who was believed to have been 
murdered by Richard III. in tlie Tower, had escaped and 
was still alive. The person of this prince was counter- 
feited by a mysterious youth called Perkin Warbeck, who 
received the appellation of " the White Rose of Eng- 
land." rie was recognized in France as the rightful heir 
to the English throne, and so far imposed on .James IV. 
of Scotland that the latter gave him a near relative in 
marriage. Many of the people and some of the nobles, 
believing in the justice of Warbeck's claim, openly de- 
clared for him. P^ven Sir William Stanley, to whom 
King Henry owed both his life and crown, when accused 
of being a partisan of the pretender, admitted the charge, 
and in spite of his previous services was executed. 

Warbeck at length with a few companions, and in the 
hope of being joined by the people, invaded England ; but 
his heart failed him at sight of the royal standards, and he 
hastily decamped, leaving his followers to the mercy of 
the king. Most of them received pardon ; their cowardly 
leader afterward surrendered, and was committed to the 
Tower. Having made a public admission of his imposture, 
he woul'l no doubt have been spared but for a subsequent 
attempt to escape, for which he was brought to the seafToIrl 

These dilliculties over, Henry, no longer in dread of 
conspiracy, enjoyed a peaceful reign. The wife of War- 
beck was brought to court, and became an attendant of 
the queen. In compliment to her beauty, the name of 
" the White Rose," which had been given to her husband, 
was transferred to her. 

During the reign of Henry VII., the nobles being al- 


lowed to soil their lands, the feudal system received a 
death-blow. A law for the suppression of retainers was 
also put in force ; and, as an evidence of the kino-'s regard 
for the public coffers, it is related that, after being mag- 
nificently entertained by his devoted supporter the Earl of 
Oxford, who imprudently asst-mblcd his liveried vassals t(/ 
receive their sovereign, he fined his host £10,000 for break- 
ing the statute. 

Henry sought to increase the iiifhuMice of his family by 
foreign alliances. His eldest daughter Margaret was given 
in marriage to James IV. of Scotland ; and Arthur, Prince 
of Wales, received the hand of Catharine of Ariigon, 
daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella. Prince vVrthur, how- 
ever, shortly died of the plague, and his widow was then 
betrothed to his younger brotlier Henry. 

Avarice was the ruling passion' of Henry VH. He is 
said to have left £1,800,000. On his death-bed ho en- 
joined his son to make restitution to any who had suffered 
from his exactions. 

Henry VIIL succeeded his father in 1509. Immediate- 
ly after his accession he nuirried Catharine, and for a time 
he was at peace with all the world. In 1512, however, he 
was induced by the pope to join a league against the 
French, who had established themselves in northern Italy. 
Henry led an army into France, and gained a great victoi-y 
in the Battle of Spurs, so called because the French troops 
at sight of the English put spurs to their horses and fled. 
The French army was saved from total rout by the cele- 
brated Bay'ard, "the knight without fear and without re- 
proach." Peace with France soon followed, but troubles 
arose with a later king, Francis I., the history of which 
will be given in a subsequent chapter. 

Flodden Field. — James IV., of Scotland, though mar- 
ried to Henry's sister, took part with the French king 
against him. While his brother-in-law was engaged iu 

KKIGX OF HENKV \lll. 271 

France, he crossed the English border with a powerful 
army. On Flod'den Field a desperate battle took place 
(1513), in which James fell with ten thousand of his fol- 

In early life James TV. had headed a rebellion which 
was the cause of his father's death. To atone for his 
crime, he wore an iron chain to which a new link was 
added every year. Because this chain was not found at 
Flod'den, the Scottish peasants would not believe that 
their kin^^ had fallen. After his death Queen Margaret 
became regent for her infant son, James V., and peace 
was made with England. 

Cardinal Wolsey (icodl'ze) was one of the most dis- 
tinguished men of Henry's reign. Of obscure origin, he 
studied for the church, and becoming a favorite of the 
king was rapidly promoted, till at last he united in himself 
the dignities of Cardinal and Lord High Chancellor of tlie 
kingdom. His princely establishment contained five hun- 
dred persons. On public occasions he was attended by 
nobles and prelates ; before him was borne a cross on a 
pillar of silver, while a train of mules followed with crim- 
son-covered coffers on their backs. His ambition led him 
to aspire to the papal chair, but without success. 

Hexry's Marriages. — For several years Henry lived 
happily with Catharine. Five children were bom to them, 
of whom the princess Mary alone survived. At length 
the king became enamored of one of the queen's maids of 
honor, Anne Boleyn (fjodl'en), and to make room for her 
he determined to divorce Catharine, on the ground that 
she was not his legal wife, having been previously married 
to his brother. But in this he was opposed by the pope. 

Wolsey, who had at first approved of the king's plan, 
would not finally take the responsibility of favoring the 
divorce ; he was accordingly dismissed from court in dis- 
grace. Pursucfl I)y the malice of Anne, he v»';is at length 

272 111!'; 1 iitsr '11 KoK KiNciS. 

iirrcHlcd lor trcjisoii, .itid on liis way io liOiidon to asstMt 
Ills imi(ic('iic(> was lakdu sick and died. On his death-bed 
lie hiiiicntcd tlial he had not discliarg'ed his duty to his 
(!(k1 as faithfully as lie had S(M"ved his kino-. 

To solve the proMiMn of I he (livorc(>, llenry, thou<:;h 
h.^ had jraiiied th(> title of " I )efendei- of tlie I'^iilh" by 
writiiii;- ai^-ainst "ihe n(>\v l(>ai-iiiM<;- "" of Ludier, now re- 
iiouiuumI the authority of tho ijojX! and had himself de- 
clanMl head of tlu^ church. 'IMiose who ndusinl to ac- 
knowledi^-e liiiii as such were mercilessly dealt with. Sir 
Thomas Mor(>, a n»an eminent for ability and virtue, deny- 
iiii;- th<> kin{>^'s supnnnatiy, was condennied and (wecuted. 
( )n tlu> scallohl he kissed the headsman, sa,yini>', "To-day 
thou wilt render me the ^reatt^st service in the pow'iM- of 
any mortal." 

Thomas Cranmer, a. learned (lootor who had written in 
favor of lh(> divorce, was maihi Archbisho[) of (.-anterbury 
and piime minister after the deatli of Wolsey. Ho pro- 
nounced the kin<>-'s niarria<>^e with (Vtiiarinc^ invalid, and 
his union with Anne JJoleyn lawfvd. Anne became (h(> 
mother of the princess Elizabeth, but soon after lost the 
alVeclion of her husband, and was b(>lusad(Ml. The next 
morninj;- llenry married Lady .laiH» Seymour, who died 
tho year follow iny-, after <;ivini>- birth to Princ(> P^dward. 

Henry's fourth wife was Anne of (.'leves, who, disap- 
pointin<j^ him in her p(M-sonal apjiearancH", was soon repu- 
diat(>d. An Italian duchess whom llenrv next in\it(Ml to 
share his throu(\ replied that if she had two heads she 
miyht listen to him, but as she had only one she preftMi-ed 
to k(>ej) it on her shoulders. (Catharine iloward, the fifth 
(|U(MMi, was (>xe(Miled ; and in \h\',\ lleiuy marrii>d his 
sixth wife, ("athai'ine I'arr, "the discreetest and most 
meritorions of his queens," who owed it rather to h(>r own 
taot than the king-'s ref>ard that she outlived him. 

At first an accomplished and popular prince, IJcnry 

III'lNItY VIM., <)I'' |;N(JI-ANI). 27''> 

nil iiii;ii(ily l)(!C,aiii(5 nil odioiiH iynini, Iriiiiipliii^ on ilic lih- 
(ulicis of lli(! pcoph^, ^iviii^" I(mj.s(! rc.iii.H lo liin piiKsioiis, and 
[)ursuin^ to tlio (ixircniiiy tlioH(! who crossed liis scll- 
isli |)tir|)OH(!S or otlK^rwisc^ iiuMirn-d liis r(3S(;ntrnoiit. Ih; 
(iiijilly <»r(!W to l)(! cxccsHivcly corpuhiiit, uiid wli(^tli<!r liis 
f)loat(nl I'ranui or his un^'ov(!rn(^d t<!in|)('r Ix; <!onHid<T(!d was 
a most rcpiilsi v<' object. Il;i|)|iily his hist (jiiccn olitjiincd 
sonu! inlhKinc.c ovir him, and cxcirciscsd it lor ^ood until 
liis (loath, wliich occurnid in 1547. 

I)iiriii<^' (his rci^n, lookin/^'-^lasscs and (iarjx^ts <;airic 
into iis<!. Toward its (!h>s(i, carrots, tiiniij)S, and other 
ve^(!tal)h!S, Ix^^an to \)o, ouitivat(id. Bcilon; this so littli; 
attention was |)aid (o f^ardonin^ in Eng'land, that wh<wi 
Henry's lirst wile, Catharine of Araf^(ni, wanted a salad, 
she had to (jrder it from II(jlland. 

1800 A. D. — ll(Uiry VII. cncoiiriij^iiif; llu; iirlH of pcaco in Mrif;;- 
lani]. Loiii.s XII., of I<'riitic(;, piinliiii^ iii.s ariii.H in Italy. Kcrdiiiaiid ami 
iHaboIJa rciif^niiif^ in S|)ii,iii; XiiiiciicH (z(!-me'nc(!z),l»a]H'\WH coiiCc-HHor, and 
cardinal in l.'iOY, oik; ol' tin; rnaHter-inindH of the aj^e. I'ortiif;al, iind(!f 
Emanuel, engaged in a glorious career of inaritiiiK! diHcovcry ; liinbon, 
having eelipHed Venice, becomes the great seat of trade. Maximilian I., 
emperor of (icrmany, rccognizcH (H'.M,)) tU(! independence ol' tin; Swiss 
republic. Alexander Hoigia on the papal throne. Ivan III. (e-wa/tn'), the 
Great, autocrat of all the Ku.sHias. 

r/Z/'S R]:l-ORMA T I () N . 

The Reformation, the j)rincipal event of the sixteenth 
century, was a great religious movement, by which it was 
sought to correct ("rrors and corruptions in tlie tea(rliing 
and practic(;s of a large body of eccIesiasticH, many of 
whom — ajipoiiitees of tcmjioial sovc^reigns, and not of tlie 

'274 iiii: Ki:i(>KM A rioN. 

(.'luivi'h — h:ul biH'oim' uoil<li\ in their instiiuMs imd h:il)ils, 
forgotl'nl of higher interests, sunk in ignoriuu'e on thi> one 
baud, or, t>n the other, exehisively di-voted to tlie study 
of art and |)hiU>so]>hy. The |Hnver wliielj the popes had 
onee wielded over foreign prinees liad now greatly tlw in- 
died ; the times were ripe tor a religit)us, as wi'll as for 
a politieal and soeial, revohilion ; and people in various 
quarters ardently desired to eseape from eei'lesiasti^-al 
diMuinatiou. (^ermany found a leader in Martin laither, 
Franee in John Calvin, and Switzerland in I'lrie /wingle 

Previous Attempts at Reformation. — Dissatisfaction 
with tenets and usages whieh it wis ilaiiued were un- 
known to the primitive clmreh, and a dispositii>n to exer- 
eise freedom of thought in religious matters, had been 
inauifi'sted from time to tinu* in dilVeri'ut countries. 

As early as the twelfth century, the Alhigen'ses, who 
dwelt in the south of Frani-e, a district which the old Ro- 
man civilization had never entirely deserted, rejected 
many established doctrines, and boldly opposed the 
authorities at Home. Count Raynunul of Toidouse [foo- 
looz') took the part of his people ; while the troubadours, 
eeasing to celebrate their ladies' charms or the brave 
deeds of knights, poured out their satirical reflections on 
the priesthood in the musical tongne of Provence. 

The church condemned the opiTiions of the Albigenses 
at various councils ; then took more decided measures 
to suppress the sect. A war of extermination was pro- 
claimed against their creed by Pope Innocent 111., ami 
the Albigensian faith was ]>ut out in blood. 

John WyelilTe has already been referred to as having 
raised his voice against the errors prevalent in Kngland. 
His doctrines survived him, and paved the way i'ov radical 
changes in the faith of his count rynuMi as well as that of 



Jolin Hiiss uri'l Jcrorn*; of I'ragiu; preached the tencfH 
of Wyclifrc in IJohcmia early in the century after hiH 
deatli. lioth v^/i-rv. condemned to the Ktake ; hut t}ie fol- 
lowerH of Hush flew to arrnH to avenge his death. In a long 
war w'th tlie emperor Sigihmund, they were at first suc- 
cessful, but were 
eventually reduced 
to submission. 

Martin Luther, 
the celebrated Ger- 
man' reformer, was 
born in a village 
of Saxony, in 1483. 
I'he son of a poor 
miner, he was at 
times obliged to 
support himself, 
while at Hcliool, 
by singing from 
door to door. The 
sudden death of 
a friend, who was 
struck down at his 
side by lightning 
in 1.505, deter- 
mined Luther to 
consecrate liimself " 
to the church ; he 
entered a cloister, 

and became a monk. Three years later, be was called to 
be a professor in tlie University of Wittenberg, Saxony. 

'I'he abuse of indulf/encen in Germany, b»y a monk 
named John Tetzel, precipitated the action of Luther in 
arraying himself against the church at Rome. These in- 
dulgences were originally remissions, in whole or in part, 

i'oi'K Jt;;,n;H 11, 

WHO I.AtI) 'IMF, '>;l'.;.Kl'.-hTO.'<K 

St. Petee'b. 


of temporal penalties public or private, and were extend- 
ed by ecclesiastical authority to penitent sinners.* As 
such they had been offered by Pope Urban II. to as many 
as would join in the Crusades ; and subsequently the 
same privileges were granted to persons who should by 
gifts of money contribute to the success of the Holy 
Wars. From this time indulgences multiplied ; when 
the church was in need, they were freely offered to the 
people. The proceeds, at first used in alms-giving, the 
redemption of captives, and similar good works, were 
afterward not unfrequently devoted to other purposes. 
In this case, the object was the completion of St. Peter's 
Church at Rome, Pope Julius II. having begun on the 
Vatican Hill the erection of the new basilica (now the 
largest reception-room on the globe), and Leo X. seeking 
to defray the expenses of its completion by extending to 
northern Germany the indulgence published by his pred- 
ecessor in France and Poland. Tetzel, stopping at no 
misrepresentation in his eagerness to collect funds, grossly 
imposed on the credulity of the people. Luther exclaimed 
against these practices ; his arguments were printed, and 
spread throughout Christendom. Several learned men 
disputed them ; but Luther continued his denunciations, 
and was in consequence excommunicated in 1520. 

In the following year the Diet of Worms was held, 
and Luther, in the presence of this imperial court, daunt- 

* The theory of the indulgence was that after the remission of the 
eternal punishment by the church, there remains due to the violated jus- 
tice of God a certain amount of temporal pain, to he endured either in this 
life or after death in purgatory. This pain may be remitted by " the 
application of the superabundant merits of Christ out of the treasury of 
the church, the administration of which is the prerogative of the hi- 
erarchy." Severe laws were enacted by several of the popes, with a view 
to checking the abuse of indulgences and punishing the rapacity of un- 
scrupulous collectors. The conduct of Tetzel was subsequently con- 
demned by the council of Trent. 



lessly maintained his ground. The diet published an 
edict against him, signed by the emperor Charles V., 

According to Gibbon, "the most glorious 
structure that has ever been applied to the use 
of religion." In the engraving is shown a portion of the Piazza at the 
Great Benediction. The obelisk was brought from Egypt by the emperor 
Caligula, and set up in what was afterward called Nero's Circus, the scene 
of the first martyrdoms. The remains of many victims of the Neronian 
persecution were here interred ; thus upon the tomb of the first Roman 
confessors has been erected, in the course of centuries, through the exer- 
tions of many popes and architects, the sublime Church of St. Peter, 
which, to all Christian sects, must ever be " one of the sacred enclosures 
of the universe." 

278 Till'; IMII'OK'M A'I'loM. 

vvliic^li oondciniird liiin :\h ;i licrclict, iiiid piil, under llic l»;iii 
of tJu^ ('m|Mrc ;ill who should oiler him slieltcr or hii|»])oiI. 
Ilorieeroit h, liiither was incvocahly Kei)ar;it(Hl I'roin Rome, 
and his elVortH were devoted to (he organization of a new 
(•hiireh, indepeixh-nt of |>a]>al aiilhoiity, and bawod on 
what he considered "ihc imic liiitli of S(•l•iI^^lll•(^" In 
liiis work, he was ably Kiijt|(oited l»y his friend MelaiK;'- 
thoii, a man of jjjentleness and j)rndence, w lio heeame 
firmly altacdied to the new eauHti. 

NotwitliHtandiny all opposition, tlu; Iterormation 
ji;ained a strong foothold in noitlu^rn (xermany. In IHriO, 
seven powerful ])rinees, together with fifteen imperial 
cities, entered a protest against the decree of a diet held 
at Spires, which was antagonistic^ to the lu-w doctj-iiic^s. 
I^'rom this time tlie reformers were (tailed I'rotcstaiitH. 

The rrotcstant (Jerman princes were soon obliged to 
form an nUiaiicc for tlic dcrcncc of their religion and lib- 
erties. War with the emperor followe(l. Alter many 
reverses, tliey secured freedom of worship by the Treaty 
of Augsburg, in 1555. 

Luther died in 15l(>. For the last twenty years of 
his life he enjoyed domestic ha))i)iness with his wife, 
whom he married, as he said, "to please his father and 
tease the pope." Ilis was the decided (tharac^ler of an out- 
spoken, intrepid, energetic reformer — of violent, temper 
and impatient of contradic^tion, but neither malignant nor 
unforgiving. Various grand tunes and hymns attest his 
love of music and skill in composition, lie left lo his 
(uiuntrymen a i)recious legacy in his simple and f(»rcibh' 
translation of the liible, from the appearance of wlii(di 
(lermaii literal uri' may alm<»st- be said to <la,t,e its origin. 

Spread of the Reformation. While the events just 
related were taking place in (Jermany, the principles of 
the refornu'd faith were propagated in the neighboring 

/WIN';!.!-;. <Ai,viN. 27i) 

Iri Swil,/.<rl;itHl, Zwinf^l<; w;iH il,H ^rcal cxponciit, ; tli(; 
<;;ui(;OfiH w<!r(; flivi<l(;«J in opinion, and vticoufHi: wan lia'l to 
artriH. Tlu! ProteHtarilM wen; f<)uUi<l ; wliilc; Zwinj^le whh 
Htoopiti;^ to roriHoIo a dyin^ HoMicr on Uic fi<:l'l of f)atlJ<;, 
h<! racjt'ivail a fatal lan<;(;-tlirii,st. 'I'Iium tlio Itcforination 
was arn!Kt(!(J in S\vit/(;rlaii(l ; f^ut it idicrwiuil r(;c<;iv(;'l ;i 
I'roKli iui))iil.s<; from tli<: <;n'oit,s of .Joliii <Jalvin, vvIk) lia<l 
(nf;atiwliil(t Jjccoin*! its cliainpion at (jKtttcv.i. 

(Jalvin vvaH horn in l''raii';o ; Ijijt, liavin;:; ntnouiifcrl (Im; 
t';n';tH of tlio cstahlinJicd cliiircli, Ik; was cornp<;ll(;'i to fly 
from liiH nativ«; land. I<'ranr:i,s I., i\i<;u king', waH a vioKiiit 
i:n<'.\i]y of IVot'iMtantiHm, and did lii.s iitinoHt to r;xtir[jatc 
it from liis dominions; nof \vitliHt;i.ndin;/;, tix; do'itrincH of 
(Jalvin Kpn-ad in l<Vanco as woli hh in otficr <;()\iuin<-fi. 
'J'Ik; I<'r<;nf;li IVotoHtants, ohlig<;d to Hhun tin; li/^lit of day 
to escap': tlicir anc.m'utH, ward contomptuously Htylfjd ////,'- 
f/Wi-notH, (;ittif!r from a local word rn'taninj:^ ruf//d-wa/,/i:/',i; 
or bccaiJHO tfioy awKornhlcd for worHlii[j in ijndf;rf^round 
collars near //uf/o''ti gate in tlio city of Tours. 

In Spain and Italy, the Reformation made littU; i>rog- 
rcHH. In Kngland the authority of the f)Ope was i'(;nouriced 
hy n<!nry V'lH., as we hav<; Hee-n, hecauHc he refuH<;d to 
hanction th<; king's divorce from ^'atharine of Aragon. 
Henry, however, still rernairntd a firm he|i(;ver in the doc- 
trin<!S of Rome ; he, only HnhMtitut«'<l his own supremacy 
for that of tin; |)Op<;. The reformation of the Knglish 
church was really commenc(;d in the I'eign of Jh;nry's suc- 

Though the r<;formers were all violently o[»prjhed to 
the chun;h of Rom*;, th«;r«.' wen; irreconcilal^h; j)r>infH of 
difl'erenc*; in their several creeds which prevented tlwrn 
from uniting in one church, TiUtheranihm prevailed in 
(iermany, Denmark, Norway, and Sweden ; the (Jalvin- 
istic doctrines, in Switzerland, Franr;(;, and Kngland. 

The ]tefonnali<;n did not affect the Greek church, 


though the rrotestants triiMl to socuro for thoir doctriiics 
the approvaxl of the Patriarch of Constant inoplo. 

The Jesuits. — A\'hilo the Protestants were thus divided, 
an assoeiation foumled by Loyo'hi, a Spanisli soldier 
(1534), arose for the support and extension of the Catho- 
lic faith. This was the order of the Jesuits, or the 
Society of .lesus. Its members, thoui>h at lirst ridiculed 
as enthusiasts (for they projected the conversion of (he 
world), were finally recognized by the pope after taking a 
vow of unnMalitied obedience to him. 

The followers of Loyola devoted their fortunes and 
lives to the cause they had taken in hand. They stopped 
at nothing that would advance the interests of their or- 
der and religion ; no obstacle was too great to be over- 
come, no land too distant to be reacheil, no dangt>r too 
appalling to be encountered. In the I'ities of India, 
China, and Japan, their zealous preaching maile many 
converts; in Paraguay, they instructed two huntlred thou- 
sand natives in the industrial arts and the religion of their 
church; while in North America they established missions 
at various points, in wildernesses which they were the lirst 
to explore, from the Great Lakes to Mexico. 

The labors of Francis Xavier (zav'e-e)') are particularly 
noteworthy. He is said to have planted his faith in fifty 
dilVerent kingdoms, and to have numbered his converts by 
hundreds of thousands. 

Era of the Reformation. 

Universities and libraries in various European eities. Popular edu- 
eation advocated by Luther and Jlelanetlion. Fiourisliing period of Ger- 
man painters — Albert Dii'rer (celebrated also as an engraver) ; Kran'aeh; 
and Holbein {ho/' him), patroi\i/.ed by llem-y VIII. " Honest Hans Saehs," 
tlie cobbler-poet of Nuremberg, author of six thousand pieces. Rabelais 
(rtih-b(h-l<i'\ a celebrated French satirist. Kiches beginning to pour into 
Spain from the New World. 

<;iiAKrj;s v., ok okijman v, 281 


Germany, jit tli<; bc/^inning' of the sixteenth century, 
was goveiiK.'d by Maximilian I., an emperor of chivalric 
spirit and valiant deeds, called " the last of the knights." 
His means, however, were inadequate to the objects which 
he undf-rtook, and his wars w^ere generally unsuccessful. 
He was obliged to acknowledge the independence of the 
Swiss, and in 1510 to surrender the duchy of Milan to the 

Maximilian died in 1510 ; and at once Charles I. of 
Spain, Francis I. of France, and Henry Vlll. of England, 
entered the lists for the imperial crown. From his illus- 
trious grandparer)ts (Maximilian and Mary of Burgundy 
on the father's side, on the mother's Ferdinand and Isa- 
bella) Charles had already received a goodly heritage — 
Austria, the Netherlands, and Spain with its large de- 
pendencies. The electors made this young king emperor, 
and Charles f. of Spain became Charles V. of Germany, to 
the great rnojlKication of his rival Francis. 

Charles V. was now the mightiest monarch Europe had 
seen since Charlemagne. Nor was his power at all dimin- 
ished by his relinquishing, as he soon did, his Austrian 
dominions to Ferdinand, a brother devoted to his interests. 
The rapid growth of the House of Austria soon excited 
the fears of the weaker states; and as Charles also claimed 
Milan, which had been conquered by Francis, the latter, 
aided by the Swiss, took the field against him, to preserve 
his own possessions and maintain the balance of power — 
from this time recognized as an important object in Euro- 
pean politics. 

Before hostilities commenced, both strove to gain the 
support of King Henry of England. Francis solicited an 


interview, ami Henry swon^ that hr wouUl never cut his 
beard until he had visited " his g-ood brother." Francis 
made a sinnhir vow, which he kept, and long- beards con- 
sequently became fashionable in l^'rance. liut Henry for- 
g'ot his oath, and even received Charles V, in England 
before sailing for the continent. 

The scene of the meeting between the kings of Eng- 
land and France was called the Field of the Cloth of 
Gold, on account of the magnificent pavilions, adorned 
with embroidery, tapestry, and gold, which were erected 
for their acconnnodation. Two weeks were passed in ban- 
quets and tournaments. At the close of a day's sport, 
Henry suddenly seized Francis by the collar, exclaiming, 
'' Come, brother, I must have a fall with you." Francis, 
who was a skilful wrestler, accepted the challenge, and 
after a short struggle threw Henry witli great force. The 
English king regained his feet without any appearance of 
bad temper; but it is said that he never forgot the defeat. 

After visiting Francis, Henry had an interview with 
the politic Charles. The latter craftily flattered him with 
the hope of regaining the dominions of his ancestors in 
France, and won the influence of Cardinal Wolsey by 
presents and promises to aid him in attaining the papal 
dignity. Wolsey was at this time all-powerful ; .so a 
league was soon formed by the pope, the emperor, and 
the king of England, against Francis. 

Commencement or Hostilities. — In northern Italy 
the imperial troops were successful ; Milan was recovered 
(1531), and the French were driven beyond the Alps. 
Burning to remove this disgrace, Francis invaded Italy 
with a powerful army, retook Milan, and in 1525 laid 
siege to Pavia {j^ah-ve'ah). The Duke of Bour'bon, who 
had deserted to the emperor in consequence of injuries 
received from Francis, came to the relief of the garrison. 
Jn the battle which ensued, he gained a complete victory. 



The French kin^^' liad liis horse killed und' r him, but con- 
tinued fighting against a host of enemies. When sinking 
under his wounds, he was recognized, and surrendered his 
sword. The news of this defeat he announced to his 
mother in the brief sentence, " Madam, all is lost but 

Francis fell sick in his prison at Madrid, and was there 
visited by his devoted sister, Marguerite {rnar-greet') of 
Valois, and his imperial captor. To oltt^in his rflfase, he 

was obliged to submit to the most humiliating terms — to 
cede Burgundy to Charles, surrender the sovereignty of 
Flanders, and give up all claim to Naples and Milan. But 
having thus obtained his freedom, he was absolved from 


fullillinor his oiiii-ao-tMnonts by the pope, with whom, to- 
<2;vthor with the Italian cities, he formed a confederacy 
a<!,'ainst the emperor. Henry VIII., who had been sliy-hted 
by Charles after the capture of Francis and was jealous of 
the emperor's increasing power, also joined the leagvie. 

This war, in tlie course of which Rome was stormed by 
the imperial troops under the Duke of Bourbon, continued 
till 1529, when Francis became exhausted and discouraged, 
while th(> attention of Charles was directed to the progress 
of the Iveformation and the incursions of the Turks. The 
points at issue were adjusted by the luotlier of Francis 
and the aunt of Charles, in the Ladies' I'eace of Cambray. 
Francis abundontHl his pretensions in Italy, and Charles 
his attempts on Burgundy, for the time. 

After this the history of C/harles and Francis becomes 
somewhat connected with that of Sol'yman, the Turkish 
sultan, whose achievements we nuist stoj) l)rit>lly to con- 

SoLYMAN TiiK Ma(".nifioknt ascended the Ottoman 
throne on tlie death of his father, Seliin I. (lo'iO). In the 
lirst year of his reign, provoked by the murder of his am- 
bassador, he invaded Hungary and took the city of Bel- 
grade, lie next directed his victorious arms against the 
island of Rhodes, the seat of the Knights Hospitallers, 
bringing to bear on the fortifications of their capital the 
carnion Avhich had breached the walls of Constantinople. 
Superhuman bravery availed not the garrison ; overwhelm- 
ing numbers compelled them to capitulate. The survivors 
were allowed to retire to Malta, and there erected a new 
fortress and hospital. 

In 1536 Solyman again advanced into Hungary, took 
the capital Buda, and slew the Hungarian monarch. The 
crown was then conferred on Ferdinand, brother of Charles 
v., and the entire kingdom of Hungary ultimately became 
incorporated with Austria. 


Renkwai, ok Waii. — 'I'lic 'I'lirks sul)S(>(|U('ii<,lv n'ricwc^l 
tlicii- incursions, and Francis now entered into an alliance 
with Soiyman ; but the emperor, after ^iantin<^ toh^ratioii 
to the Protestant princes in order to scicure their co-oj)(!ra- 
tion, took the held ag-ainst tlie invaders and obliged them 
to retire. Hardly had he eflFccted this when he was once 
more involved in war with the French king, who had de- 
liberately broken his solemn engagements and sent an 
army into Italy. 

Worn out by the long struggle, both kings at last de- 
sired peace, and a ten years' truce was concluded (15)}8). 
But Francis still coveted Milan. Four years later he broke 
the truce, while his ally, the sultan Soiyman, invaded Hun- 
gary and sent a (leet to aid the French in redufiing Italy. 
All ( Jhristendoiii was indignant at this uiniatural alliance; 
llenry VIII. joined (Jharh^s in th(! invasion of I^Vance, and 
the iin])('rial troops were within two days' march of Paris, 
when Francis sued for ])eac(', and a treaty was concluded 

Death of the Kings. — Francis died three years after- 
ward, (.'harlcs, having been compc^lled to grant the Prot- 
estants religious liberty in 1555, abdicated and retired to 
a monastery. He left Spain and the Netherlands to his 
son Philip, while his brother Ferdinand was elected em- 
peror of G(!rmany. 

Charles devoted the last years of his life to study, me- 
chanical pursuits, and the cultivation of his garden, though 
he still kept hims(!lf informed in public affairs. Shortly 
before his death, h(^ took a strange fancy to celebrate his 
own funeral. A tf)m}) was erected in the chapel, he was 
placed in his colTin, and the service for the dead was 
chanted. This ceremony produced a deej) impression on 
his mind, a violent fev<!r seized him, and within a few days 
he expired (1558), 

Soiyman died in 15GG, at the siege of a city in Hun- 


p;ary. 'J'liis siege is memorable for the heroic death of the 
Hungarian commandant, who, when the fortress was no 
longer tenable, rushed with six hundred followers into the 
ranks of the Janizaries, and fell pierced with bullets and 
arrows. The victors forced their way into the citadel, and 
demanded of a page where his master's treasures were 
concealed. " My master," replied the young Hungarian, 
" possessed one hundred thousand ducats and a thousand 
golden cups, that are all destroyed ; but he leaves you 
treasures of powder which will instantly burst beneath 
your feet." At these words the magazines exploded, and 
five thousand Turks were buried in the ruins. 

During the reign of Solyman, the Ottoman Empire 
reached the height of its power and glory. 

Emperors of Germany. 

Rudolph of Ilapsburg, . 1273. 

Adolpluis of Nassau, . 1292. 

Albert I. of Austria, . 12'.i8. 

Henry V^II. of Luxcuibourg, 1308. 

j Louis V. of Bavaria, . 1314. 

I Fmlerick HI. of Austria, 1314. 

Charles IV. of Luxembourg, 1346. 

Wcuceshis of Bohemia, . 1378. 

Robert, Count Talatine, . 1400. 

c Sigismund of Hungary, 1410. 

} Josse of Moravia, . . 1410. 

Albert IL of Austria, . 1438. 

Frederiek IV. ol' Austria, . 1440. 

Maximilian 1., . . 1493. 

Charles V., . . . 1519. 

Ferdinand I., . . 1556. 





Louis XII., Duke of Or'leans, ascended the French 
throne in 1498, on the death of his cousin Charles VIII. 
(p. 253). Fifteen years of his reign were spent in at- 


tempts to re-establish the authority of Franco in Italy ; 
l)ut his armies were finally obliged to recross the Alps. 

Louis XII. possessed many virtues, which gained for 
him the title of Father of his ])eo])le. Upon his accession 
he forgave his enemies, saying, "The king of France re- 
venges not the injuries of the Duke of Orleans." He 
abolished many oppressive taxes and retrenched his per- 
sonal expenses, replying to the courtiers who ridiculed his 
economy that he would rather his subjects should laugh at 
his i)arsimf)iiy than weep at his exactions. 

Francis I., Count of Angoulcme {oti'-'-goo-leJim'), who 
iiad married the daughter of Louis XI L, succeeded the 
latter in L515. Louis said of him on his death-bed, " I 
have done everything for the best, but that big boy, d'An- 
gouleme, will spoil all." Brave iuid amlntious, Francis at 
once ttuMied his eyes toward Italy, where, as related in the 
last chapter, he met with alternate successes and defeats. 

Hut wars could not be carried on without money, nor 
could money be obtained without taxation. Accordingly, 
we find that in this reign the people were oppressed by 
heavy burdens, the liberties which the French had enjoyed 
under the benevolent Louis were infringed, and the mon- 
arch's will at length became law. A general dissoluteness 
of morals prevailed, and virtue was laughed at as a relic 
of barbarous ages. Perhaps it was to atone for his vices 
that this chivalrous monarch engaged in a violent persecu- 
tion of the Huguenots, in the course of which thousands 

Francis assumed the title of Protector of Letters. He 
founded the Imperial Library, yet with stiange inconsisten- 
cy forbade the printing of any books in France under pain 
of death. 

Henry II., son of Francis, began his reign in 1547. 
His tini(! was at first spent in shows and tournaments ; 
but, these losing their zest, he turned to the persecution 


f)(' (he llug'ueiiots. Even the coronation of his queen, 
('athiirino de Medici, was celebrated by the hurninn- ol' 
several reformers. 

It was not lon^ before Henry became engaj^ed in war 
with Charles V. His <>"eneral, the Dukc^ of (Juisc; [(/loeez), 
n^pnlsed the emperor at the head of 100,000 men ; but in 
1557, the French met with a disastrous defeat at the liaiids 
of Philip 11., son of Charles, in the battle of St. Quentin. 
The followin<>- year, however, the Duke of CJuise took the 
city of Calais, which had been in possession of the English 
for more than two centuries. 

Henry II. was mortally wounded at a tournament in 
1559, a splinter from his adversary's lance having pierced 
his brain. The crown fell to his son Francis II. 

Francis II., before the death of his father, had married 
Mary Stuart, the young queen of Scotland, daughter of 
James V., and niece of the Duke of Guise. His short 
reign of seventeen months was remarkable only for the 
persecution of the Huguenots, instigated by his mother 
and the powerful heads of the family of Guise, the guar- 
dians and controllers of the youthful sovereigns. 

Inllamed with resentment against the Guises, who 
tlireatened to extirpate the reformed religion as well as 
to absorb all power in the state, the Huguenots, under 
eminent leaders — the Prince of Cond6 {kon-da'), the king 
of Navarre, and Admiral Coligny {Ico-leen-ye') — conspired 
to wrest from them the government. The plot was dis- 
covered, and little mercy was shown to the conspirators. 
Nothing but the sudden decease of the king saved Conde 
hims(^lf from an ignominious ileath. 

Charles IX. succeeded his brother Francis in tlu^ (>I(>ventii 
year of his age. On account of his youth, his mothcM-, 
Catharine de Medici, assumed control of the goveriunent. 
The powiM- of the CJuises was overthrown, Condo was lib- 
erated, and the king of Navarre was made lieutenant-gen- 


eral of France. The Huguenots now obtained the privi- 
lege of meeting for worship, but not within the walls of 
cities and towns, or with arms upon their persons. 

The Duke of Guise was enraged at this concession. 
An opportunity of showing his contempt for the law oc- 
curred in 1562 near Vassy, where with two hundred men 
he wantonly attacked some Protestants who were peace- 
ably worshipping in a barn. Ninety were cut down, and 
none escaped without a wound. A fierce religious war at 
once broke out. The Huguenots rallied under Coligny and 
Conde, and wherever they were victorious churches were 
ravaged, monasteries burned, and their ornaments destroyed. 
The chiefs in vain interfered to save the monuments of 
art. In a church at Orleans, Cond6 seizcid an anjuebuse 
to shoot one who was striking down a statue. " Wait," 
cried the man, "till T have cast down this idol; 1 shall 
then be ready to die." — Slaughter was the rule of both 

During these wars the king of Navarre was killed, the 
Duke of Guise was assassinated, and Cond6 was shot down 
in cold blood. In 1570 peace was made with the Hugue- 
nots, who obtained freedom of worship and were thus 
thrown off their guard. Charles offered the hand of his 
sister to Henry of Bourbon, the young king of Navarre, 
and all the principal reformers went to l*aris to celefjrate 
the wedding. 

The festivities of the occasion were suddenly inter- 
rupted before dawn on the feast of St. Bartholomew, 
August 34, 1572, by the tolling of a bell, the appointed 
signal for the slaughter of all Huguenots within the walls. 
Henry, the young Duke of Guise, at once hastened to 
Coligny's residence with a band of assassins, who burst 
into the admiral's apartment, j)ierced his body with th(;ir 
swords, and flung the corpse from the window. Guise, 
who had waited in the street below, wiped the blood from 

'2\)0 MASSACliK (>K Sr. I'.AKTIIOI.OMI'AV'. 

the lircl(>s.s face (o assiin* liiiiiscH" (liai il was ( Ih> I'i^lil jxt- 
SOM, and tluMi spuiiuHl tlic (•.()rj)sc'! willi liis Tool.. 

Mcanwliilc aniicd ( 'iitliolics, (listiii!4uisli('<] l)y a wliitc 
(iross ot) tlicir liats, lillcd tlm stroots and sti-ucU down per- 
sons of (^vcry a<j^(i and (M)n(li(i()n that were snspccidd ol 
l)('in«j^ I luf^ucnots. Cries of "' h'/'/f <(// f /vY/ <////" ccIkxmI 
( lii(>u<^li the <'ilv, and the kin<;- hiniself was icpoited to 
liave llred upon the I'lifjjitives I'roni liis palace win(h>w. 
lleiM'vol Navarre and \hv yonn^ l'rine(>()r ('on(h' saved 
(heir- lives hy consenting- (o atteixl mass. Some ("atholic 
writers, it is proper to a(hl, aUent' that, this massat^re was 
provoked l)y th(^ ap|)reheiisi()ii of a simihir |>lo( on (lie part 
of the llui;iienot leaders. 

'i'he massu(U'(^ ol" St. liartlioh)inew was not eonlined to 
the (capital; i( extondoil to lh»> provinces, and more than 
lii't.y thousand Protestants are supposed to iiave perished. 
The whole of northern IOuro|>(> denounced the ciime, atid 
the l']n^'lish court put on mourning- for (Ik' dead. 

Charles 1\. died in ir»7l, (he vic^dni of a (crrihle re- 
nu)rs(\ After llu^ fa(al ni<>'ht of St. Bartholomew, h(> had 
heeii haunted by fii<rhtful dreams. " Sleepini;- or wakini^-," 
he said (o his physiciian, " the murdered llunueiu)ls seem 
over j)resent Ixd'ore my eyes." A mysterious disease at- 
tacked him, a bloody sw(>at covtM-ed his body, and he ex- 
pired, expressint!^ tiio deepest re<;-ret for his cruelties, 

Henry III., who sutu-eechMl his brother ( 'harles, dis- 
f^ustod (he h'rench people \\i(h his lollies. They saw 
him dressed in wouumTs clodu-s, and heard him on (he 
same day sin<>' iid'amous ballads and sacn^l psalms. T(. 
enjoy these plcuisures undisturbed and pres(>rve a balane(> 
between opposing factions, he granted rt liL!,ious rights to 
tlu> Huguenots, wiio were fast recovering- from the deadly 
blow aimed at them in the precHxling reii^n. 

Th(> Catholics soon look the alarm, and what was called 
"the Holy iicague" was organized "for the ex(irpa(ion 



of li(!n'.sy," \>y IIk; I)uU(! of (Jiiisc ;iii<l his ;i,(lli(!n!tiiH. Tlio 
kiiij;-, f(;a,riii<r IIk; j)()W(!r of (jiuisc, who also aspinid to tho 
crown, causi^l liirn to bo assassinated ; and, joinini,^ hi» 
forces with tlioso of Henry of Navarre, lie invested I'iU'iH, 
which was in the hands of tlw; IjCu^uc. 

])urinf^ this si(^^n; Wcauj III. fell by the ktiife of a 
fanatic, instigated t>y the; sister of the mumh-vcA (\nk(\. 
lie hreath(!d his last after natriing the hero of Navarre as 
his successor. 

Kings of France: Line of Valois. 

I'l.ilip VI., . . . 1328. 

John II., the (Jood, . . 1350. 

Charles v., tho Wirtc, . l^K-l. 

Charles VI., t.iic Maiiiiu;, . 1380. 

Charles VII., i\u: Vi<torioiiH, H2'2. 

Louis XL, , Ufil. 

Ciiarles VIII., the Ailiihlc, 148.'i. 

liOuirt Xil., 
Fianeis I., . 
Henry ii., 
Franei.s II., 
Charl.'H IX., . 
Henry III., 



1 55;>. 
1 5r,(). 




jii:nry vjii. (1547-1603.) 

Edward VI. — Henry VIII. of iMii^land l<;l't the; crown 
l)y his will, (irst to his only son Edward, then to his dauf^h- 
ter Mary, and lastly to l^^lizahcith. Edward was only nine 
years old at the time of his acccjssion ; and his uncle, after- 
ward created Duke of Somerset, was appoint(;d protector 
of the reahn. Somerset, as well as Cranmer, Archbishop 
of Canterbury, favored the reformed religion ; in it, ac- 
cordingly, the young king was carefully instructed. 

In 1548, after years of labor, Cranmer, with a commit- 
tee of divines, completod the compilation of a Book of 


Common Prayer, in English ; and in the following year 
Parliament abolished all other forms of worship and es- 
tablished this in their stead. With some alterations in 
this reign and under subsequent monarchs, it has contin- 
ued in use in the Church of England to the present time. 

The English reformers, however, would not concede 
the right of private judgment to others, but appointed a* 
commission " to examine and search after all heretics and 
contemners of the Book of Common Prayer." Two persons 
convicted of holding heretical doctrines were committed to 
the flames. — Meanwhile the influence of Somerset declined. 
He was compelled to resign the ])rotect()rship, and in 1.5,52 
was brought to the scaffold on a charge of high-treason. 

The powerful Duke of Northumberland next directed 
the government. This ambitious noble, as the king's life 
was evidently drawing to a close, proposed to exclude the 
princesses Mary and Elizabeth from the succession, and 
give the crown to the grandniece of Henry VIII., Lady 
Jane Grey, who had married his son, Lord Guilford Dud- 
ley. Edward assented, and on his death in 1553 Jane 
Grej' was proclaimed queen of England. 

Mary. — When Lady Jane Grey was informed of her 
elevation to the throne, she fell in a swoon, and on her 
recovery refused to accept the crown. At last she yielded 
to the entreaties of her parents and husband, and the 
coronation took place. But the people feared the ambi- 
tion of Northumberland, and regarded the princess Mary 
as the rightful heir. On her being proclaimed queen, 
numbers flocked to her standard. Lady Jane Grey, after 
a reign of only ten days, gladly resigned the crown, and 
Mary entered London in triumph amid general acclama- 
tions. Northumberland was shortly afterward condemned 
and executed. 

Mary was zealously devoted to the ancient faith, and 
resolved to restore the Roman Catholic worship. The 


statutes passed in the reign of Edward VT., establishing 
the Protestant church in England, were repealed. A 
treaty also was concluded, by which the queen was to 
marry Philip, the Catholic prince of Spain. 

This alliance occasioned general dissatisfaction. A 
formidable insurrection followed, which the father of Lady 
Jane Grey joined in the hope of recovering the crown for 
his daughter. But the rebellion was crushed, and the 
principal conspirators were executed. 

Lady Jane Grey, to whom her father's guilt was im- 
puted, was doomed to the scaffold. When the fatal day 
arrived, her husband, who was also condemned, requested 
to see her. Jane, fearing that their fortitude would be 
overcome by the interview, refused him. " Our separa- 
tion," said she, " will be but for a moment." From the 
window of her cell she saw him led to execution, and 
calmly viewed his bleeding corpse dragged back in a cart. 
Then, commending her soul to God, she cheerfully laid her 
head on the block. 

Thus fell the unfortunate Jane Grey, one of the purest 
characters of history. She was devoted to literature, and, 
though only seventeen at the time of her death, was versed 
in eight languages, and astonished with her talents the 
learned men of her age. 

In 1554 the marriage of Mary and Philip took place, 
and papal supremacy was re-established in England. The 
severe penalties against heretics were then revived. Lati- 
mer and Ridley, eminent Protestant bishops, were burned 
in the same fire at Oxford. The aged Latimer encour- 
aged his companion, saying, "Be of good cheer, my 
brother ; we shall this day light such a candle in England 
as, I trust in God, shall never be extinguished." Cranraer 
sought to save his life by recanting, but in vain ; he was 
not only identified with the reformed faith, but had dis- 
honored the mother of the queen. — It must be remem- 


bered that at tliis time porHecntioii was not tlie peculiai 
characteristic of any one government or (^liurcli, but was 
in full accord with the spirit of the age. On the continent 
its victims were numbered by thousands ; while in Eng- 
land, under the Protestant successor of Mary, it was no less 
violent than under Mary herself. Indeed, the Catholic 
queen sometimes ignored considerations of faith, and mag- 
Tianiinously bestowed important publico offices on Protest- 
ants who were peculiarly qualilied to fill them. 

Queen Mary died in 1558. The loss of Calais (p. 288) 
weighed heavily upon her ; if her body were o])ened after 
death, she said, the word ddais would be found written 
on her heart. She was of estimable private character ; 
her court was distinguished by the strictest morality. 

Elizabeth, " Queen Bess," succeeded her sister Mary in 
the twenty-sixth year of her age. At her coronation, she 
placed a wedding-ring on her finger, as a symbol of her 
marriage to the English realm. 

Elizabeth had been kept a close prisoner, and, although 
attached to the reformed doctrines and surrounded by spies, 
had contrived to save her life by her prudent conduct. 
On her accession the Protestant faith was restored, and 
the queen's ecclesiastical supremacy recognized. 

Elizabeth's right to the crown was disputed by her 
cousin Mary, queen of Scots and wife of the Dauphin. 
The Catholics upheld Mary, for they looked on Henry's 
divorce from his first wife as unlawful, and his marriage 
with the queen's mother, Anne Boleyn, as void. 

By adopting the royal title and arms of England, Fran- 
cis and Mary provoked the resentment of Elizabeth, who 
gladly availed herself of the disturbances then prevail- 
ing in Scotland to revenge the insult. Here the Ref- 
ormation had made rapid strides through the eloquence 
of John Knox ; and the Protestants, now in arms against 
the Catholic regent, were aided by Elizabeth with a fleet 


and army. Their success was thus insured, and Presby- 
terianism was established in Scotland. At this juncture, 
Francis having died (1560), the widowed Mary returned to 
her native land. 

The Scots received their youthful sovereign, then in 
her nineteenth year, beautiful, amiable, and accomplished, 
with demonstrations of delight. Still she was a Catholic, 
and as such soon awakened hostility on the part of her 
subjects. When she ordered mass to be celebrated in her 
chapel, the people cried for the death of "the idolater 
priest." Her gay amusements, moreover, offended the 
strict notions of the reformers. 

In 1565 the queen of Scots married her cousin Henry 
Stuart, Lord Darnley, a man of violent passions and disso- 
lute habits, who soon lost the affection of his wife. Do- 
mestic quarrels followed ; till at last, entering the queen's 
l)rivate apartments, he dispatched in her presence her 
secretary Ilizzio (rit'se-o), wiio had become the special 
object of his jealousy and hatred. In the following year 
Darnley was blown up in his residence with gunpow- 
der ; and as Mary shortly after gave her hand to the Earl 
of Bothwell, his reputed murderer, she was suspected of 
being concerned in the crime. Her disaffected subjects 
now took up arms, and imprisoned their queen in Loch- 
lev'en Castle. Mary, however, subsequently escaped, and 
after an unsuccessful battle sought an asylum in England, 
under the strong arm of her royal cousin. 

Elizabeth, meanwhile, had reigned with vigor and dis- 
cretion. She had been sought in marriage by various for- 
eign princes, but had rejected them all. The prudent 
statesman Cecil {ses'il), Lord Burleigh, was her prime 
minister, and continued to direct the affairs of govern- 
ment until his death in 1598. 

After her arrival in England, Mary Stuart was kept in 
confinement. Several plots for her release were discovered, 


the boldest of which in 1586 was a conspiracy to assas- 
sinate Elizabeth and proclaim the Scottish queen in her 
stead. This determined Elizabeth to brini^ her j)risoner 
to the block, and Mary, queen of Scots, was beheaded in 

In the following year Philip II. of Sp;un, l)urnin<r with 
hate against the English on various accounts, sent out an 
" Invincible Armada" (boastfully so called), for their sub- 
jugation. It consisted of one hundred and thirty-five ves- 
sels, carrying eight thousand seamen and nineteen thou- 
sand soldiers. Elizabeth prepared an army to meet the 
enemy, in case of their landing. She rode through the 
lines, exhorting the soldiers to be mindful of their duty, 
and promised to lead them herself into the field. " I 
know," she said, " that I have but the feeble arm of a 
woman ; still I have the heart of a king." 

But she was not called on to display her leadership. 
The Armada was attacked by the famous naval heroics 
Howard and Drake ; many of the unwieldy Spanish gal- 
leons were destroyed ; and the rest, attempting to escape 
by rounding Scotland, were for the most part driven ashore 
or badly damaged by a storm. This victory secured to 
England the dominion of the sea. 

During the remaining fourteen years of Elizabeth's 
reign, the Catholics were incessantly persecuted. Many 
were put to death ; others were ))ublicly whipped and 
thrown into jails. Severe penalties were also enacted 
against the Puritans, who demanded further changes and 
a purer worship. 

Elizabeth also attempted to establish Protestantism in 
Ireland, against the will of the inhabitants. A rebellion 
broke out, and her favorite the Earl of Essex was sent to 
suppress it. Essex, however, suddenly returned to Eng- 
land without the queen's order, and for disloyal conduct 
afterward was condemned to death. 


Elizabeth had given Essex a ring, telling him if he was 
ever in danger from her anger to send it to her and it 
would save him. This he did ; but the Countess of Not- 
tingham, to whom h(; intrusted it, withheld it from the 
queen. Elizahetli anxiously looked for the ring ; but 
finally, supposing that the pride of Essex kept him from 
sending it, signed the warrant for his execution. Two 
years afterward, on her death-bed, the countess revealed 
her treachery to the queen. ElizaVjeth burst into a violent 
passion and shook the dying woman, exclaiming, "God 
may forgive you, but I never can ! " From this moment 
she abandoned herself to melancholy, rejected food, and 
passed her time in sighs and tears. Her death took place 
in 1603. 

Elizabeth was one of England's greatest sovereigns, 
though, as a woman, she was vain, capricious, jealous, petu- 
lant, and insincere. She delighted in the flattery of her 
courtiers, and would coquettishly play with her rings that 
they might admire the beauty of her hands. Her lords 
she did not hesitate to reprove with her harsh, masculine 
voice, and once she boxed the ear of Essex for some affront 
that he had offered her. Even the grave deliberations of 
her council she occasionally interrupted, to swear at her 
ministers in a furious burst of rage. 

Beneath all this were an iron will, indomitable courage, 
and wonderful political tact. The best statesmen of the 
age were outwitted by the queen, who stopped not even 
at the grossest falsehood to accomplish her purposes. And 
she did accomplish them, raising England to the proudest 
rank among the nations. 

Despite her faults, Elizabeth gained that which .she 
most desired — her subjects' hearty love. Her very worst 
acts did not seem to impair her popularity. It is related 
that a Puritan whose hand she cut off waved the stump 
over his head, and cried " God save the queen ! " 



VoYA(5ES. — Duriiifi;' ^]Ii/,abctll's ici^ii a nuinhor of dis- 
tinguished navif^ators and explorers ilourished. Krancis 
.')rak(^ sailed round the fflobe, returnin": to England loaded 

Queen Elizabeth icNiaiiTiNO Drake. 

with plunder from the Spanish seas. The (jueen went 
down to his shi]) and Unijihted him on hoard ; the vessel 
she ordered to be pn^served fon;ver in eonnnemoration of 
his achievement. 


Sir Walter Ualcigli {vdw'U) Kent an expedition to tlie 
Western Continent, which Ijroiight back such an account 
of the charming region that Klizabeth named it, in honor 
of herself, Virginia. In 1585 a settlement was made ; but 
the colonists sul)sef|uently returned to England, bringing 
with them tobacco and the potato, the use of which they 
had learned from the Indians. 

Frob'isher, sailing in search of a north-west passage, ex- 
plored the coast of (Ireenland ; while Sir John Hawkins, 
seeking profit rathel- than renown, jirocured negro slaves on 
the African coast in exchange for articles of trifling value, 
and disposed of thcni in the Spanish-American colonies. 

Fashions. — Watches were first brought to England in 
Elizabeth's time. Coaches were also introduced; before 
tliis, the (juecn used, to ride behind her chamberlain. Jii 
1598, the first regular theatre, the Globe, in which Shake- 
speare performed, was built in London. Extravagance in 
dress was an evil of the age. Immense ruffs of stiffened 
cambric were worn round the neck ; and to such an ex- 
treme was the fashion carried that the queen appointed 
persons to stand at the gates of London and cut down 
those tliat were more than a yard wide. The gentlemen, 
with their velvet suits and jewelled points, often sported 
" a manor on their backs." Elizabeth herself appeared al- 
most every day in a different costume ; at the time of her 
death licr wardrobe contained three thousand outfits. 

Literature. — The Elizabethan age was illustrious f(;r 
the revival of English literature. Classical learning be- 
came popular, and versions were made of the standard 
poets and historians of antiquity. The queen herself, un- 
der the training of that faithful "schole-master" Roger 
Ascham (as'karn), was a good Greek and Latin scholar, 
and both translated and composed. English prose made 
great advances ; and poetry, which had been silent since 
the days of Chaucer, again found voice. 


The genius of Spenser threw into his " Faerie Queene " 
the very soul of harmony. Sir Philip Sidney, " the darling 
of the court and camp," poured out in his pastoral romance 
of " Arcadia " his tenderness and chivalry ; while in his 
" Defence of Poesie " he has left a model of a stately, clear, 
well-rounded style. Beaumont and Fletcher, who jointly 
composed their plays and lyrics ; Lord Francis Bacon, the 
father of Inductive Philosophy ; and Shakespeare, the 
greatest of dramatists, — flourished in the reigns of the Vir- 
gin Queen and her successor. 

English Sovereigns: House of Tudor. 

Henry VII., 1485. Gunpowder manufactured ; body-guards appointed. 

Henry VIII., 15(»9. Looking-glasses and carpets first used. 

Edward VI., 1547. Needles made; legal rate of interest, 10^. 

Mary, 1553. Chimneys rare ; copper money ; table-knives used. 

Elizabeth, 1558. Hardware, woollens, and stockings, manufactured. 



The Netherlands, or Low Countries, formerly comprised 
the present kingdoms of Holland and Belgium. In early 
ages they consisted in part of a vast swamp, through which 
the Rhine and other rivers flowed to tlie sea. The half- 
submerged islands were the home of a hardy race that 
lived on mounds raised above the reach of the tide. Many 
of these wretched abodes were swept away by a flood 
about a century before the Christian era ; and a band of 
German exiles afterward took possession of the main isl- 
and, calling it Bet-auw, or good meadow, whence their 
name Batavians (see Map, p. 124). 



All the early inhabitants of the Netherlands yielded to 
Ceesar. The Batavians, bravest of the German tribes, be- 
came his allies, and during four centuries their cavalry 
formed the most efficient part of the Roman legions. After 
this the Batavian people were merged in the Frisians, a kin- 
dred race, who occupied the northern portion of the Neth- 
erlands. For several centuries the Frisians resisted the en- 
croachments o f 
the Franks, until 
they were finally 
reduced to sub- 
mission by 
Charles Martel, 
and converted 
to Christianity. 

In the cen- 
turies following 
the era of Char- 
lemagne, the 
Neth erlands 
were divided 
into a number of 
small domains, 
governed by 
dukes and 
counts. Among 
these were Hol- 
land {hollo 10 
land), Friesland, 
virtually a republic, and Flanders. Flanders fell to the 
powerful House of Burgundy in 1383 ; and Philip the 
Good, a prince of that family, in the next century ex- 
tended his authority over the whole of the Netherlands, 

The provinces were now in a most flourishing condi- 
tion as regards agriculture, commerce, and manufactures. 

,'>02 IMSK ()!'' 'nil'; Durcni rkpuhlic. 

Pliilip t'nc()uni,i;e(l lilcr.iturc juul art. Eiuiiioiit authors 
floiirislied at his court, and oil-painting was revived by the 
V^aii Kyv,k (i/ce) brotliers. 

Charles the Bold, son oi" Thilip;, was the last of the 
dukes of Burgundy. After having been twice defeated 
by the Swiss, he was killed in a third battle with them 
(1477). llis rich possessions (see Map, p. 301) descended 
to llis daughter Mary, aftei'ward inari'ied to Maximilian 
of Austria. Her grandson, diaries V., emjieror of (Sler- 
many, inherited the Netherlands, and on his abdication 
gave them to his son, IMiilip II. of Spain (1555). 

The Low Countries, in t lu; middle of the sixteenth cen- 
tury, had reached the height of thcsir prosperity. They 
contained abont three hundred and fifty cities with six 
thousand towns and villages, protected from the ocean by 
dikes, and were so densely peopled that scarcely any land 
remained uncultivated. Here IMiilip s])eiit the lirst fourteen 
years of his reign. During this period the people were op- 
pressed by the lawless soldiers of Spaiii ; and, as many of 
them were Protestants, while Philip was strongly jittached 
to the Roman Catholic faith, they dreaded the introduc- 
tion of the liKjuisition into their free land. Philiixleclarcd 
that he woidd rather be no king at all than reign over here- 
tics, and signalized his return to Spain in 1559 by the ex- 
ecution of thirteen Spanish Protestants. 

The government of the Netherlands was then intrusted 
to the Duchess of Parma, Philip's half sister. She was 
assisted by a council, three members of which were de- 
voted to the Spanish interests. The others were patriot 
leaders, — Count Egmont, a descendant of the old Frisian 
kings. Count Horn, and AVilliam the Silent, Prince of 
Orange, the immortal founder of DutcJi liberties. 

The Protestants were now fiercely persecuted. Read- 
ing the Bible and praying in one's own lumse were crimes 
punishable with death. But the peo])le of the Nether- 

"tiik hkooaks." ?.03 

lands indig^nantly donouncod the tyranny of the govern- 
ment ; and in spite of tortures and executions the new 
faith gained ground. On one occasion, a fearless reformer 
even preached in a room which overlooked the market- 
place where som(i of his brethren were then burning. 

The popular l(;a<lers vainly protested against these 
cruelties, and at last a league was organized among the 
nobility for the purpose (;f resistance. The confederates 
assembled at Brussels, to lay their complaints before the 
regent. The duchess becoming agitated during the au- 
dience, a member of her suite exclaimed in a passion, " Is 
it possible, madam, that you are afraid of these hegfjarsf'' 
This was reported to the nobles at a banquet, when one of 
them, hanging a beggar's wallet round his neck, and filling 
a wooden bowl with wine, proposed the toast, "Long live 
the Beggars." The whole comjjany clamorously responded, 
and the name was at once adopted. 

In 1566 the long-oppressed people gathered in tumult- 
uous crowds to listen to the Protestant preachers. Ihey 
were joined by numerous outlaws ; and a fanatic mob, 
armed with hammers and pitchforks, swept through the 
Netherlands, ravaging the churches and destroying the 
images, amid cries of " Long live the Beggars ! " 

When Philip heard of this, he tore his beard in rage, 
and declared that it should cost them dear. The following 
year he sent an army to the N(!therlands, commanded by 
the Duke of Alva, a crafty, unscrupulous tyrant. " I have 
tamed men of iron in my day," said Alva, " and shall I 
not easily crush these men of butter ? " Thousands fled 
from the country, among them the Prince of Orange ; 
but Horn and Egmont were seized and executed. The 
regent resigned, and Alva was made governor-general. 
Blood now flowed like water. On his return to Spain six 
years afterward, Alva boasted that eighteen thousand per- 
sons had been put to death during his administration. 

304 UlSK OF THK DU'l'OlI liKri'llLIC. 

Moaiiwliilo tlu' rriiu'o of Oranyv, sii])p(>rlo(l by his 
brother, was actively eno-au^ed in (he lield. Town alter 
town declared for him. Kleets were e(iui})ped aloiiii; the 
coast, manncil by brave " Sea lieij^g'ars," who ca])! ured the 
Spanish vessels and seized important maritime towns. 
The strug'g'le for independence had commenced. 

In 1574 the Spanish laid siege to Leyden {li'den), 
which was bravely delendtnl for live months. The citizens 
resolved to die of starvation rather than admit the Span- 
iards. "So long as you hear a cat luew or a dog bark," 
they called to the beleaguering forces, "you may know 
that we hold out." But at last hunger got the better of 
their patriotism, and the famished crowds begged the bur- 
ii'onuister to jrive them food or surrender. " I have no 
food to give you," said he, " and I have sworn not to sur- 
render ; but take my sword, plunge it into my bi-east, and 
divide my flesh among you ! " Tiiese words inspired them 
with fresh courage to await the succor which they knew 
to be at hand ; and at last it came. Through the dikes 
whicOi had been broken down the sea poured, overwhelm- 
ing the terror-stricken Spaniards, and bearing a friendly 
lleet, laden with provisions, to the very walls of Leyden. 

Founding of the Dutch Republic. — In 157G the Prince 
of Orange succeeded in uniting all the provinces by a treaty 
called the Pacilication of Ghent. But the fortunes of war 
were now decidedly against them ; disalTection arose ; and 
William, anxious to secure the independence of at least a 
portion of the Netherlands, joined the northern provinces 
in a closer alliance by the Union of Utrecht. This was 
the foundation of the Dutch Republic. William of ( )range 
was chosen /Stddfholdcr of Holland and Zealanil. 

Philip had olTt^red a large reward and a patent of ntibil- 
ity to any one who would assassinate the Prince of ( )range. 
After several previous attempts, the foul deed was accom- 
plished in 1584. William the Silent fell, pierced by three 



bullfits. His dyiri^ words wen;, "Hod liavf; rriorny on mo 
and on tin's poor people ! '' 

Prince Maurice succeeded his father as stadtholder, and 
for many years continued the war against Spain. The 

Staiue of VViluam tiik Silknt, at the Hacjl'b. 


Dutch sought and obtained aid from Quoeu Klizalioth ; six 
tliousand English troops were sent into the Netherlands. 
In one of the battles in which they were engaged, the gal- 
lant Sir Philip Sidney, "the Flower of Chivalrie," received 
a mortal wound. In his agony he begged for a cu}) of 
water, but as he was raising it to his lips he noticed the 
imploring glance of a wounded soldier. "Give it lo him," 
said the hero, " his necessity is greater than mine." 

The seven United Provinces of the north made good 
their resistance to the Spanish government ; and in the 
beginning of the seventeenth century a truce was con- 
cluded securing their independence and religious freedom. 
The ten southern, or Belgian, provinces remained in the 
possession of Spain. 

The Sixteenth Century. 

The Reformation. Religious wars in Germany, Kranec, and the Neth- 
erlands. Turkish wars. Exploration and coloni/ation of India and South 
Ameriea by Europeans. Diseoveries of gold and silver in tlie New World. 
EstablishmeiU of a great Mogul Empire in India. Power of the kings in- 
ereasing, that of the nobles diminishing. Gregorian Calendar estalilished 
ill 1582, by Pope tJregory XIII.; ten days (Oetober 5-14 iiielusive) 
suppressed, and of the exaet hundred years thereafter sueh only made 
leap-years as should be divisible by 400. 




(1 589-1643.) 

Henry IV. — The reign of Henry IV., the Great, the 
first of the Bourbon kings, forms one of the most impor- 
tant epochs in French history. It will be remembered 


that he was besieging Paris with Henry HI. of France, 
when the latter fell by the dagger of a fanatic monk (1589). 
The news of the king's murder was received within the 
walls with unbounded joy ; the sister of the Duke of Guise 
kissed the lips of the messenger who brought the intelli- 

Henry of Navarre;, the new king, was a Protestant, and 
on this account was at once deserted by half of the royal 
army. He was therefore obliged to raise the siege of 
Paris ; but, having received money and men from Queen 
Elizabeth, he met the Duke of Mayenne', brother of the 
murdered Guise and head of the Catholic League, on the 
plains of Iv'ry (1590). Mayenne's army, consisting in part 
of Spanish troops, was superior in numbers ; but Henry, 
bidding his men follow the white plume on his casque, led 
the attack in person with characteristic bravery, and gained 
a brilliant victory. 

After the battle of Ivry, Henry again invested the 
capital ; but compassion for his people prevented him from 
reducing it by famine. He allowed provisions to be car- 
ried in and many of the starving inhabitants to depart. 
The city was thus enabled to hold out till the approach of 
a Spanish army compelled the king to retire. 

Not till 1593, when by the advice of his leading sup- 
porters Henry publicly abjured the reformed faith, was 
the civil strife terminated. Crowned king of France in 
the following year, he was then in a position to protect 
the Protestants ; and in 1598 he issued the famous Edict 
of Nantes, granting them liberty of worship and various 
privileges. Hostilities with Spain continued till this year. 

Henry, with the aid of his wise minister the Duke of 
Sully, now sought to repair the damages occasioned by 
thirty years of war. The expenses of the government 
were diminished, trade and agriculture were revived, 
schools and libraries opened. The culture of silk was ex- 


tended, and manufactories of linen and tapestry were es- 
tablislied. The king's aim was to make France happy and 
prosperous. " I will so manage affairs," he once said, 
" that the poorest peasant may eat meat every day, and 
have a fowl in his pot on Sundays." His memory is to 
this day cherished by the French people more affectionate- 
ly than that of any other of their sovereigns. 

As his realm advanced in wealth and power, Henry 
IV. matured a Grand Political Design, to unite all the 
European states in one vast Christian republic, drive the 
Turks beyond the Bosporus, and refer international dis- 
putes to a Congress of Nations instead of deciding them 
by war. Thus the overweening influence of the House of 
Austria would be destroyed, and the balance of power 
maintained in Europe. 

But Henry did not live to accomplish his purpose. In 
1610, Ravaillac (rah-va/tl-i/a/ik'), a religious bigot, thrust 
his arm into the royal carriage and stabbed the king to the 

Louis XIII., son of Henry IV. by Mary de Medici, was 
only nine yeai's old when his father was murdered, and for 
a time the government was conducted by his mother as 
regent. But she was controlled by Italian favorites, 
squandered the treasures w'hich* Henry's economy had 
amassed, and by her misrule excited general dissatisfac- 
tion. Nor was the States-general, called together in the 
hope that it could remedy existing evils, able to accom- 
plish anything. Finally in 1617 the king assumed the 
government himself, and imprisoned the queen-mother. 

Three years later the Huguenots, whose rights had 
been invaded, rose in arms, and after a gallant struggle 
obtained a confirmation of the Edict of Nantes. Louis 
now became reconciled to his mother, and her favored ad- 
viser. Cardinal Richelieu {reesh'e-loo). was admitted to the 


This great statesman, as prime minister of Louis XIII., 
for eighteen years shaped the history of France, if not of 
aU Europe. To trample Austria in the dust was the one 
great object of which he never lost sight. 

As the stipulations made with the Huguenots were 
now totally disregarded, they soon commenced warlike 
preparations for their own protection. Richelieu, who 
longed to destroy this pestilent sect root and branch, col- 
lected a large army, took the field in person, and promptly 
laid siege to their chief city Rochelle {ro-shel')^ on the 
Bay of Biscay (see Map, p. 20G). To intercept foreign 
succor, a great dike was built ; an English fleet, sent to 
aid the besieged, was thus prevented from reaching the 
city ; and after fourteen months of suffering, during a 
portion of which they lived on boiled leather and weeds 
washed up by the tide, the starving inhabitants surren- 
dered. On entering Rochelle in 1628, the victors found 
the garrison that had so stubbornly resisted them reduced 
to one hundred and fifty-four men. Other Huguenot 
towns submitted, their fortifications were demolished, and 
the independence of the French Protestants was lost. 
But they were still allowed freedom of worship ; the Edict 
of Nantes was again confirmed. Thus ended the civil and 
religious wars in France, during which a million of lives 
were destroyed, and nine cities with four hundred villages 
were reduced to ruins. 

The power of the French aristocracy was broken by Rich- 
elieu. Numerous conspiracies were crushed, and the most 
formidable of the nobles were condemned to exUe, impris- 
onment, or the scaflFold. The man or woman who offended 
Richelieu was in danger ; no Frenchman's life or property 
was safe. The tyrant cardinal governed the king and in- 
sulted the queen. Utterly unscrupulous in his choice of 
means, he was once justly rebuked by a French officer 
whom he required to join certain conspirators in order to 


betray them. " I am ready to give my life for my sover- 
eign," said the soldier, " but honor — never ! " 

The policy of Richelieu was to centralize all power in 
the monarch, and he brought the most gallant nation in 
Europe under the feet of Louis XIII, How he humbled 
Austria, will be shown in the following chapter. In the 
midst of his political duties, he found time for the cultiva- 
tion of literature ; and in 1G35 he founded the French 

1 600 A. D. — Queen Elizabeth near the close of her reign. Henry 
IV. king of France. Spain (with Portugal, Naples, and Sicily) under 
Philip III. Netherlands under the Archduke of Austria. Seven United 
Provinces under Maurice of Orange. The weak Rudolph II. emperor of 
Germany, and king of Bohemia and Hungary. Christian IV. king of 
Denmark. Venice and Genoa republics. Abbas the Great shah of Per- 
sia. Mogul dominion in India at the height of its power. 


(1 618-1648.) 

Germany. — While France and the Netherlands were 
suffering from religious wars, the Protestants of Germany 
under Ferdinand I. and his son Maximilian II. enjoyed 
toleration. Rudolph II., son of Maximihan, was a zealous 
Catholic, and during his reign the rights of the Austrian 
reformers were infringed. A confederacy for mutual pro- 
tection, called the Evangelical Union, was consequently 
formed by the Protestant princes of the empire. It was 
opposed by a Catholic League, which secured the aid of 

Matthias, brother of Rudolph, procured the crowns of 


Hungary and Bohemia for his kinsman Ferdinand, a bitter 
foe to the Reformation. The closing of two Protestant 
churches in Bohemia soon after provoked a general insur- 
rection ; and thus began in 1618 a furious civil war, which 
raged in Germany for thirty years. 

On the death of Matthias in 1619, the imperial dignity 
was conferred upon Ferdinand (II.) ; but the Bohemians 
refused obedience to the newly-chosen emperor, and called 
to their throne Frederick V., elector of the Palat'inate * 
and head of the Evangelical Union. This prince, however, 
was totally defeated by the imperialists, and deprived of 
both Bohemia and his hereditary possessions. 

Scarcely were Bohemia and the Palatinate subdued, 
when Ferdinand became involved in war with other Ger- 
man states assisted by Christian IV., king of Denmark. 
In this emergency, Wallenstein (wol'len-stlne), a Bohemian 
nobleman, offered his services to the emperor, promising 
to raise an army of fifty thousand men and maintain them 
by pillaging hostile provinces. 

This mysterious man is said never to have smiled, and 
even to have spoken only when compelled by necessity. 
He possessed enormous wealth, and lived in a style of 
more than royal magnificence. The very horses in his 
stable had mangers of polished steel, and behind each 
hung its picture painted by some distinguished artist. 
To gain the favor of Wallenstein was considered the high- 
road to fortune. On his taking the field in behalf of Fer- 
dinand, thousands of adventurers were attracted to his 
standard. Supported by the imperial general Tilly, he 
swept through the land and humbled the Protestant allies. 
Only at Stralsund [strahl'sdont)^ a strongly fortified city 

* The Palatinate was a division of Germany under a ruler styled the 
Elector Palatine. The name was derived from the appellation of a high 
judicial officer under the Merovinj^ian kings of France, known as Comes 
Palatiij master of the royal household or palace. 


on the Baltic coast, did he meet with any material check ; 
from this place, after having sworn to take it " even were 
it bound to Heaven with chains of adamant," he was 
obliged to retire with the loss of 12,000 men. The result 
of the war was on the whole so adverse to Christian IV. 
that in 1629 he was forced to sue for peace and withdraw 
to his own dominions. 

Ferdinand took advantage of his success to suppress 
the Protestant worship in the conquered countries ; while 
the Catholic princes, incensed at the ravages of the im- 
perial army and moved by jealousy, procured Wallen- 
stein's dismissal. The latter retired to his estates, but 
was soon recalled by the emperor to oppose a new cham- 
pion of the Protestants, Gastavus [gus-tah'vus) Adolphus 
of Sweden. 

The Scandinavian Kingdoms.— Glancing back at the 
history of Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, we find that 
they had been united under the sceptre of Margaret of 
Denmark, " the Semiramis of the North," by the Union of 
Calmar, in 1397. The era of Margaret was succeeded by a 
period of war and confusion. The Swedes revolted several 
times, but were finally subdued in 1520 by Christian 11., 
the Tyrant. So great was the cruelty of Christian that an 
insurrection again broke out under Gustavus Vasa {vah'sa), 
a Swedish noble who had escaped from the prisons of Den- 
mark. Concealing himself for a time among the moun- 
tains, where he labored with the miners, he one day made 
himself known to them, and persuaded them to rise in de- 
fence of their country's liberties. Gustavus was everywhere 
victorious, and in 1523 he was elected king of Sweden. 

A similar revolution took place in Denmark. The in- 
famous Christian was deposed, and his uncle Frederick I. 
became king of Denmark and Norway. Gustavus and the 
contemporary Danish monarchs established the Lutheran 
faith in the Scandinavian countries. 



The Lion of the North. — (iustavus Adolphus, grand- 
son of Gustavus Vasa, was induced to take part in the 
German war by his zeal for the Protestant cause and a de- 
sire to extend the power of Sweden. He was urged to 
the contest by Cardinal Richelieu, who could not tolerate 
the increasing influence of the House of Austria, and paid 

Gustavus an annual subsidy to maintain an army against 
the emperor. Before leaving Sweden, Gustavus bade fare- 
well to the States — perhaps, as he said, forever — and amid 
the tears of all commended to their loyal protection his 
little daughter Christina as the heiress of his crown. 

In 1630 Gustavus disembarked on the Baltic coast 


with not quite twenty thousand Swedes. Tlie imperialists 
looked with disdain on this new foe, and boasted that the 
" Kint!^ of Snow," as tlioy scornfully called him, would soon 
mrlt as he mov'ed to the south. But the result did not 
verify their prediction. His well -trained st)ldiers, in 
striking contrast to the rude troo})s of Tilly, assembled 
regularly for religious worship and never molested private 
property. Duelling Gustavus put down by repairing one 
day with an executioner to the spot where he learned an 
encounter was to take place. " Now, gentlemen," said 
he to the officers, " fight till one is killed ; " and then ad- 
dressing the executioner, " Off with the head of the sur- 

Though successful in a series of rapid movements cul- 
minating in a grand victory near Leipsic (lipe'sik), Gus- 
tavus could not prevent the capture and sack of Magde- 
burg (see Map, ]\ 415), which was given up by Tilly to 
his brutal soldiers. For four days they inllicted on the 
ill-fated inhabitants the most revolting barbarities that 
cruelty could devise, leaving of this once flourishing city 
only the cathedral and a few houses and fisherinen's huts. 

The year after his defeat at Leipsic, Tilly was killed 
in a battle with the Swedes, and the Snow-King was now 
master of the whole country from the Baltic to the Dan- 
ube. In this extremity, the emperor Ferdinand restored 
Wallenstein to the command of his forces. The hostile 
armies encountered each other at Lutzen {loot'zen), where 
the Sw edes gained the victory but lost their king. Gusta- 
vus fell from his horse, mortally wounded. On being asked 
his name by an imperialist, he replied, " I am the king 
of Sweden, and seal w4th my blood the Protestant religion 
and liberties of Germany !" A sword-thrust followed this 
avowal, and the Lion of the North, " the first connnander 
of his century," expired (1632). 

After the death of their king, the Swedes continued 


the war iu Germany with varied success. In 1634 Wallen- 
stein was assassinated by order of the jealous Ferdinand ; 
but it was not until the Peace of Westphalia, in 1G48, 
that the conflict was terminated. By this memorable 
treaty, the liberties of tlie German Protestants were con- 
firmed ; Sweden obtained five million crowns and an ex- 
tensive tract on the Baltic ; the eastern limits of France 
were extended ; Switzerland and Holland were recognized 
as independent states. 

Germany was materially affected by these thirty years 
of bloodshed and devastation. Her industry and com- 
merce were paralyzed ; her art and literature declined ; 
her weal til was transferred to England and Holland. 
Whole districts were depopulated. A decrepit old woman 
would be the sole inhabitant of a ruined handet. Even 
the beasts of the field and the birds of the air perished for 
want of sustenance. In some places guards had to bo 
])osted to protect the newly-buried dead from tlie starv- 
ing people. Cultivated lands were grown over, and the 
remains of once thriving villages are still found in forests 
that have since sj)rung up. To this day Germany has not 
recovered from the disastrous consequences of the Thirty 
Years' War. 

The Scandinavian Kingdoms. 

Tlio Union of Calinar (in force from 1397 to 15'24) united Sweden 
witli Denniarlt and Norway ; tlie nionarcliy elective, ea(;li of the tliree 
Icingdonis having its own parliament and laws. Christian I. acquired 
Sles'wiclc and Holstcin {ho/'slim) by inheritance, 1460. University of 
Up'sal, Sweden, founded, H'ZO ; of Copenhagen, 1470. Printing intro- 
duced at Stockholm, 1483 ; into Iceland, 1528. Bibie translated into 
Danish, 1545. Castle of Krcmcnburg built on the Sound, 1577, and tolls 
levied on vessels entering the Haltie. Tyeho Hi'ahe {fe'ko Itrah' eh), i\ great 
astronomer, conducts the most splendid observatory in Europe, 1577- 
1594. Reign of Christian IV. in Denmark, 1588-1048, long and pros- 
perous ; cities built, voyages of discovery fitted out, etc. 



JAMES I. AND CHARLES /.—( 1603- 1649.) 

James I. — James VI. of Sootlaml, sou of INIary Stuart 
aud Lord Daruley, next heir to Elizabetli, was proclaimed 
kiuo- of Euglaud on the death of that queen in 1603. 
With her dving breath Elizabeth declared that she wished 
no rascal's son to succeed her but a king's, and when asked 
whom she meant replied, " Our cousin of Scotland." By 
the accession of James, England and Scotland were united 
under one sovereign, but they continued to be governed 
by separate parliaments. 

The early part of the reign of James I. was disturbed 
by a conspiracy to elevate his cousin, Lady Arabella Stu- 
art, to the throne. The plot was detected, and Sir Walter 
Raleigh, accused of complicity in it, was committed to the 
Tower. During the thirteen years of his conlintMnent he 
wrote his " History of the AVorld," which attracted general 
admiration. The Prince of Wales said that no man but 
his father would keep such a bird in a cage. James finally 
allowed Kaleigh to undertake an expedition to Guiana in 
search of gold. This proved unsuccessful, and, on return- 
ing to England, the distinguished soldier, scholar, and 
statesman, was brought to the block. Feeling the edge 
of the axe, he smiled, and said it was a sharp medicine 
but a cure for all diseases. 

The year 1605 is memorable for the Gunpowder Plot, 
a scheme to blow up the king and Parliament, devised by 
an English Catholic who was maddened by persecution, 
and deaf to the papal prohibition of retaliatory violence. 
Before the session began, the suspicions of James were 
aroused by an anonymous letter, in which it was stated 

.lAMKK I. OK KN<;LANI>. 317 

tliat fli(> P;uli;irri('iit would receive a terrible; l^Iow, hut 
tluit those who surt'ered would not Hee who hurt them. 

Search bein^ made, (iuy Fawkes, one of tlie principal 
conspirators, was found in the vault under the House of 
Lords, with matches ready to iiirfit the powder. On beinj^ 
asked his motive, he replied, " To blow the Scotch beggars 
back to their native mountains." Fawkes and several of 
his accomplices were executed. 

One of the most successful measures of James J. was 
his attempt to civilize the rude inhabitants of Ireland, 
which island had been finally reduced to subinission during 
the previous reign. Scotch and English colonies were 
planted in the nortli, and the Irish were instructed in hus- 
bandry and the industiial arts. 

James I. was awkward and slovenly in liis habits, of 
inferior ability, full of high notions of the divine right of 
kings, attached to unworthy favorites, and so cowardly 
that he could not endure the sight of a sword, and wore 
his clothes heavily padded from fear of being stab?;ed. 
His subjects contemptuously alluded to him as Qaaen 
James, while they styled his predecessor King Elizabeth, 
His flatterers complimented his learning by calling him 
the British Solomon ; but Sully happily characterized him 
as " the wisest fool in Europe." Theology was his favor- 
ite study ; to him we are indebted for our present version 
of the Bible. His age was one of general political cor- 
ruption. Even the great philosopher Bacon sullied his 
ermine as lord high chancellor by accepting bribes, and 
Vk^as dismissed from his oflice in disgrace. 

Among the ornaments of James's' reign must be men- 
tioned his poet-laureate, " rare Ben Jonson," who from 
the humble position of a bricklayer rose to distinction as 
a dramatist ; l^ord Na'pj-er, the inventor of logarithms ; 
and Harvey, who made the important discovery of the cir- 
culation of the blood. 


Under James, the first permanent settlements were 
made in America. In 1G07, Jd/aestown was founded in 
Virginia ; and tliirteen years later, the Pilgrim Fathers 
landed on Plymouth rock and commenced the first New 
England town. Meanwhile the Dutch had established the 
colony of Now Amsterdam on Manhattan Island. 

Charles I., though he inherited his father's despotic 
theories of government, was a man of strict morality, and 
at his accession enjoyed the favor of the people. James 
had left the treasury empty ; and, as England had become 
involved in war with Spain and Austria, Charles asked 
Parliament to vote the supplies necessary for carrying it 
on. This was the opportunity of the Conmions ; they re- 
fused to comply with the demand until certain grievances 
were redressed. Charles thereupon angrily closed the 
session (1626), and to procure the money needed levied 
taxes * and exacted a loan on his own authority. Such 
unconstitutional proceedings awakened a spirit of opposi- 
tion among the people ; and in the midst of growing dis- 
satisfaction, the king, through the persuasions of the Duke 
of Buckingham, espousing the Huguenot cause, rashly 
engaged in a war with France. A first expedition to Ro- 
chelle having failed, Buckingham, who had long been 
odious to the nation, was preparing a second, when he fell 
by the knife of an assassin. 

Similar difficulties recurring with Parliament, the king 
again twice dissolved that body, and, to raise the means 
required for the support of government, persisted in re- 
sorting to illegal taxes, fines, and oppressive monopolies. 
To check the rising spirit of liberty, unheard-of severities 

* Among tliese were tonnage and poundarjc, or chities on exports and 
imports ; and ship-monei), an imposition on the several ports, cities, 
counties, etc., for furnishing and providing certain ships for the king's 
service. By the exaction of ship-money alone, the king obtained a yearly 
supply of £218,500. 



were practised in the Star-Chamber * and High Commission 
Courts. Prynno, a Puritan writer, was condemned to lose 

English Puritans FAEiwiiL to Lukope. 

his ears and pay £5,000 for inveighing against cards, 
dancing, and theatrical plays. Others were branded or 
imprisoned for life. 

The public discontent caused by these despotic pro- 
ceedings was heightened by the course of Laud, Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, under whose influence Charles en- 

* The Star-Chamber was an ancient English tribunal, said to have 
been so called from the gilded stars on the ceiling of the council-chamber 
of Westminster Palace, in which its sessions were held. Under the Stu- 
arts, the slightest contempt of the royal authority was punished by this 
court with forfeiture of property, whipping, maiming, or imprisonment. 


deavored to make innovations in religion, and suppress 
the Puritans. This sect, professing to follow the pure 
word of God in opposition to the traditions of men, desired 
a wider separation from the doctrines and usages of Rome 
than was found in the established church of England. 
The persecutions to which they were now subjected, led 
many to seek civil and religious liberty in America ; but 
such an escape was soon denied them, and their embarka 
tion, when anticipated, was forcibly prevented. 

After driving the English people to the verge of re- 
bellion, Charles endeavored to introduce the Anglican 
form of worship into Scotland, and thus became involved 
in fresh difficulties. When the reading of the liturgy was 
attempted in Edinburgh, the service was interrupted with 
groans and hisses. Stools were hurled at the head of the 
officiating minister, and the bishop, when escaping to his 
lodgings, was set upon by a crowd of incensed women, 
who rolled him in the mire. The whole nation was stirred, 
and a Covenant was entered into by men of all classes, to 
withstand to the death encroachments on their religious 
freedom. Charles tried to crush this opposition by force 
of arms ; but the victorious Covenanters marched into 
England, and forced him to negotiations. 

In 1640 the king found himself obliged to convoke 
what finally came to be called " the Long Parliament." 
This body, however, attended rather to righting the na- 
tional wrongs than to providing for the royal necessities. 
The Earl of StrafPord, the king's chief counsellor, and 
Archbishop Laud, were impeached for high-treason; Straf- 
ford was executed, and ultimately the archbishop also. 
New causes of irritation arose ; no concessions would be 
made on either side ; and at last Charles, driven to desper- 
ation, declared war against Parliament (1643). 

The partisans of royalty adopted the name of Cavaliers; 
the adherents of Parliament, eschewing the long ringlets 



of their adversaries as a sign of dissolute habits, cropped 
their hair so close to the head ^hat they were nicknamed 
Roundheads. The civil war lasted four years, and was 
generally disastrous to the royal cause. The hopes of 
Charles were finally overthrown in the battle of Naseby 
(1645), and he escaped to Scotland, only to be handed 
over to the English Parliament. 

Meanwhile among the victors had arisen a radical 
party, distinguished as Independents^ who advocated the 
absolute freedom of each congregation from all ecclesiasti- 
cal control, and aimed not only at the removal of the king, 
but also at the entire subversion of monarchical govern- 
ment. This extreme party prevailed in the army ; Oliver 
Cromwell was its leading spirit. 

Cromwell, one of the extraordinary characters of his- 
tory, was a country gentleman's son, born in Huntingdon 
in 1599. An interesting anecdote is told of his childhood 
— that at the age of five years, when the royal family was 
visiting at his uncle's house, he had a fight with the 
young prince (afterward Charles I.), and beat him with- 
out mercy. After Cromwell grew up, his mind took a 
religious turn, and he became a strict Puritan. It is stated 
that, to escape persecution, he took passage for America, 
but that the ship on which he had embarked was pro- 
hibited from sailing ; certain it is that he remained in 
England, " the evil genius of the House of Stuart." 

At the end of the civil war, Cromwell, supported by a 
powerful party of Independents, obtained possession of 
the king's person. After clearing the House of Commons 
of all members who were not in his interest, he brought 
Charles to trial on a charge of treason, for having declared 
war against Parliament. But one sentence could be ex- 
pected ; Charles Stuart was doomed to the block. On the 
30th of January, 1649, the unfortunate prince mounted 
the scaffold. " I go," said he, " from a corruptible to an 


incorruptible crown." No sooner was the sentence exe- 
cuted than the whole nation forgot their wrongs in horror 
at the bloody deed. 

The Quakers, a peaceful religious sect, originated 
about this time in England. In 1634 hackney-coaches 
were first introduced. Among the ladies of the court the 
strange fashion of beautifying their faces with cowr^-plas- 
ter, cut into the shape of stars, half-moons, crosses, and 
various fanciful devices, became prevalent. In the New 
World, during the reign of Charles I., settlements were 
made in Maryland, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. 

James I., 

Charles I., 

Contemporaneous Sovereigns. 

( Henry IV., Louis XIII., of France; Philip III., riiilip 
^ IV., of Spain ; Rudolph II., Matthias, Ferdinand II., 
' of Germany ; Maurice, stadtholder. 

(Louis XIIL, Louis XIV., of France; Philip IV., of 
i Spain ; Ferdinand II., Ferdinand III., of Germany ; 
' Christian IV., of Denmark. 


Portugal. — This country we left, at the beginning of 
the sixteenth century, in a flourishing condition under 
Emanuel the Fortunate (p. 262). His son, John III., 
planted colonies in Brazil, which had been discovered in 
1500 by Cabral. Sebastian, the successor of John, became 
distinguished for his expeditions against the Moors of 
northern Africa. In the last of these (1577-'78) the Port- 
uguese army was destroyed, and the king was never heard 
of afterward. In 1580, Philip II. of Spain sent the Duke 
of Alva into Portugal at the head of an army, and was 
recognized as the rightful sovereign. 



Age of Spanish Grandeur. — Philip II. of Spain, of whom 
we have ah-eady had occasion to speak in connection with 
Mary of England, the Invincible Armada, and the Avars in 
the Netherlands, by the abdication of his father Charles 
v., became monarch of the richest and most extensive em- 
pire in the world. This embraced not only Spain, the 
Netherlands, and a portion of Italy, but also the Spanish- 
American possessions and tracts in Africa. To these Phil- 
ip added the kingdom of Portugal, with its colonial do- 
minions in the East Indies ; it has been estimated that 
one-tenth of the population of the globe acknowledged his 

Gold and silver flowed into Philip's treasury from the 
American mines ; the commerce of the Indies enriched his 
subjects ; agriculture and manufactures flourished. Spain 
was adorned with magnificent edifices. Among them was 
the palace of the Escurial, the grandest monument of Phil- 

The Escurial. 


ip's reign, built in honor of St. Lawrence, to whom he as- 
cribed his victory of St. Quentin over the French (p. 286). 
St. Lawrence was martyred by being broiled on a gridiron, 
and the ground-plan of the Escurial was made to imitate 
the bars and handle of this utensil. It contained the mau- 
soleum of the Sj)anish kings. 

Notwithstanding the glory of his empire and the vast 
resources at his command, the policy of Philip IL brought 
ruin upon Spain. His long and expensive foreign wars, 
already recounted, exhausted the country. The great 
object of his life was the advancement of Catholicism. 
The auto-da-fe (act of faith) ^ as the burning of reformers 
was called, now became a common spectacle, and Protest- 
antism was virtually extirpated in Spain by the terrible 

The oppressive measures of Philip also drove the Mo- 
riscoes, or Christianized descendants of the Moors, to 
rebellion. They were forbidden to use the Arabic lan- 
guage or their national dress. Baths, enjoined by the 
religion of their forefathers, were denied them ; and their 
women were prohibited from wearing veils, an eastern 
custom which they still practised. After retaliating on 
their Christian persecutors with fiendish barbarities, the 
Moriscoes were at last overpowered by Don John of Aus- 
tria, Philip's half-brother, who had been sent to quell the 
insurrection. Thousands of them were driven from their 
flourishing towns, or massacred in the cities which they 
had defended ; their sunny land was rendered desolate. 
Thus Spain, by ravaging her most fertile districts and 
destroying a thrifty population, hastened her own decay. 

The reign of Philip is also memorable for wars with 
the Turks. In 1571, Don John, as admiral of the com- 
bined Spanish and Venetian squadrons, destroyed the 
Ottoman fleet and thirty thousand Mohammedans in the 
naval battle of Lepanto. 


Philip IT. was a sullen, gloom}', and vindictive despot, 
— not too good, if we may believe some historians, to 
poison his own son Don Carlos, for whom he had con- 
ceived a strong- dislike. The best point in his character 
was patient industry, his maxim being, " Time and 1 
against any two." He died at the Escurial in 1598. 

Successors of Philip II. — With I'liilip 11. died the 
greatness of his country ; his successors were weak, in- 
dolent, and unfortunate. 

Philip III. (1598-1621) struck a death-blow at the 
industries of his kingdom by banishing the remnant of 
the Moriscoes ; nearly a million of his most ingenious and 
useful citizens were by this suicidal policy driven across 
the Pyrenees or* shipped to Africa. Idle ecclesiastics, 
who increased to an enormous extent and absorbed about 
one-fifth of the landed property, ill supplied their place. 

Philip IV. (1G21-1GG5) and his ambitious minister 
Olivares [o-le-vah'res) ingloriously failed in their attempt 
to make the House of Austria absolute in Europe, and 
bring back the United Pi'ovinces under the Spanish yoke. 
They had the mortification to see their territories ravaged 
by the English, Dutch, and French, and Portugal torn 
from their grasp. 

The Portuguese colonies having been attacked by the 
Dutch, who conquered the Moluccas and founded Batavia 
in Java as the capital of their empire in the Indies, the 
eastern trade of Portugal was ruined. Her oppressed 
people finally revolted, and unanimously declared the 
Duke of Braganza their king, with the title of John IV. 
Philip vainly endeavored to re-establish his authority. 

Charles II., a sickly child, on the death of his father 
Philip IV. in 1665, succeeded to the tiirone. During his 
long reign, the disasters of Spain culminated. The con- 
dition of the people was wretched in the extreme ; com- 
merce, agriculture, and manufactures, almost ceased to 


exist. On his doath in 1700, the sovcreig'ns of Europe 
contended foi- his vacant throne in a long and sanguinary 

Literature of Southern Europe. — The sixteenth cen- 
tury was the golden age of Sj)anish and Portuguese litera- 
ture. Among the writers of Spain was Lope de Vega 
{lo'pa da va'gah), who covdd compose a drama in a single 
day, and was the author of 2,200 plays — so popular that 
people spoke of a Lope jewel, or a Xo/^e dress, when 
they meant one of superlative excellence. Ilerrera {er- 
ra'rah)^ the lyric poet and historian, was styled " the 
Divine " by his countrymen. But Cervantes has achieved 
a world-widb reputation ; his " Don Quixote " has been 
translated into every language, and admired wherever 
genial humor could provoke a laugh. — In the following 
century, the dramatist Calderon rivalled Lope de Vega 
himself in fertility of invention. 

Portugal gave birth to the poet Camoens, whose repu- 
tation depends on " The Lusiad," an epic designed to re- 
flect glory on the history of his native land. 

In Italy, during the sixteenth century, flourished Ari- 
osto, author of the " Orlando Furioso," a romantic poem 
on the adventures of the Paladins of Charlemagne's age ; 
Tasso, whose " Jerusalem Delivered " is the grand epic 
of the Italian language ; and Macchiavelli {niak-Jce-ah- 
vel'li), distinguished for his jaolitical work, " The Prince." 

One of the greatest of the Italians was Galile'o (1564r- 
1G42), the inventor of the pendulum and microscope, 
improver of the telescope, discoverer of the law of falling- 
bodies, and author of various treatises on mechanics and 
astronomy. This profound philosopher, when interrogated 
as to his belief in a Supreme Being, picked up a straw 
and replied, " If there Avere nothing else in Nature to 
convince me of the existence of a God, this alone would 
be sufficient," 


Great Painters. 

Leonardo da Vinci {veeu'che), father of modern painting (1452-1519). 

Ra'phael, the most illustrious of modern painters (1483-1520). 

CoRREGGio {cor-red'jo), noted for softness and tenderness ; for his " Peni- 
tent Magdalen," 18 inches square, $30,000 was paid; (1494-1534). 

Michael An'gelo, painter, sculptor, — one of the architects of St. Peter's 
Cathedral, Rome, the noblest of ecclesiastical structures (1474-1563). 

Titian (fisk'c-an), great colorist, head of the Venetian school (1477-1576). 

Paul Veronese, rich in imagination, great in color (1530-1588). 

GuiDO (ffwe'do), a graceful and delicate painter of Bologna (1575-1642). 

Ru'bens, the most celebrated of Flemish painters (1577-1640). 

Rem'brandt, great Dutch historical and portrait painter (1606-1669). 

Claude Lorraine', prince of landscape-painters (1600-1682). 

MuRiLLO, the most distinguished of Spanish painters (1618-1682). 



The Commonwealth. — No sooner had the head of Charles 
I. fallen, than a proclamation was issued declaring it trea- 
son to give any one the title of king without the authority 
of Parliament. A few days later the House of Lords and 
office of king were abolished by the Commons, and the 
executive power was vested in a council of state consisting 
of forty-one members. Thus a Commonwealth was erect- 
ed in England. So extreme were some of the republicans 
that, in reciting the Lord's Prayer, they would not say 
" thy kingdom," but " thy commonwealth come." 

A powerful army, in the interest of the Independents, 
overawed the English nation ; but when the intelligence 
of the king's death reached Scotland, a cry of indignation 
arose from the people. They had fought against him, 
they had sold him to his enemies, but Charles Stuart was 


their native sovereign, and they now atoned for their un- 
faithfulness to him by loyalty to his son. The Prince of 
Wales, then in Holland, was proclaimed king, with the 
title of Charles 11. , — but on condition of his subscribing 
to the Scottish Covenant. 

After an unsuccessful attempt to obtain the crown 
without conditions (an attempt which cost the Marquis of 
Montrose his life), Charles finally thought it best to com- 
ply with the demands of the Scotch, landed in the country 
in 1650, and was acknowledged by the people as their king. 

Meanwhile Charles had also been proclaimed in Ire- 
land ; Cromwell was therefore appointed lord-lieutenant 
of that island by Parliament, and sent against the royal- 
ists. With his army of " Ironsides " he quickly overcame 
the half -trained Irish. At Drogheda (drbh' he-da) orders 
were given for a general massacre. The garrison was put 
to the sword, and a thousand non-combatants, who had 
taken shelter in the church, were slaughtered by the 
Roundheads. Most of the towns, intimidated by this 
bloody policy, had opened their gates to the victors, when 
Cromwell was recalled for a campaign in Scotland. 

The Independents, fearing that Charles II., if once 
seated firmly on the Scottish throne, would assert his right 
to the crown of England, lost no time in taking the field. 
In two great battles at Dun-bar' and Worcester, the royal- 
ists were overthrown, and Scotland was fain to submit to 
the arms of the English Commonwealth. 

After the battle of Worcester, Charles met with a series 
of romantic adventures. Parliament offered a reward of 
£1,000 for his apprehension, and parties scoured the coun- 
try in all directions, anxious to secure so valuable a prize. 
The prince, in the disguise of a peasant, with cropped hair 
and coarse garments, sought shelter with an honest farmer. 
Here he was employed in cutting fagots, and one day he 
was forced to hide in a bushy oak, from the branches of 


which he could see the soldiers of the enemy looking for 
him below. At last he set out for the coast, mounted be- 
fore a loyal lady in the character of her servant, and had 
the good fortune to escape in a vessel to Normandy. 

The whole of Great Britain being thus reduced to sub- 
mission. Parliament pi'oposed the erection of a powerful 
Protestant republic, by incorporating Holland, now one of 
the foremost countries of Europe, with the Conunonwealth. 
This did not suit the Dutch ; and Parliament was piqued 
into passing the Navigation Act, which forbade the im- 
portation of the products or manufactures of any for- 
eign country into England, except in the ships of the pro- 
ducing country or in English vessels. Most of the carrv- 
ing-trade of Europe being then in the hands of the 
Dutch, this act hurt them sorely, and provoked a naval 
war with the States. Van Tromp, the Dutch conmiandor, 
gaining an important victory, fastened a broom to his 
mast-head, as a sign that he had swept the English from 
the seas ; but Blake, the British admiral, afterward pun- 
ished his bravado, and the war resulted in the establish- 
ment of England's supremacy on the ocean. 

Ci-omwell, meanwhile, was evidently aspiring to abso- 
lute sovereigntv. The Long Parliament, having excited 
his displeasure, was forcibly dissolved in lOoS. Cromwell 
went to the House at the head of three hundred soldiers, 
cleared tlie hall, locked the doors, and left with the keys 
in his pocket. The whole civil and military power of 
Great Britain was now in the hands of this renuukable 

In order to preserve the appearance of a republic, a 
new parliament was smnmoned. It was composed princi- 
pally of illiterate fanatics, and was contemptuously styled 
Barebone's Parliament from v no of its members, a leather- 
seller called Praise-God Barebone. This assembly soon 
resiii-ned its authority to Cromwell. The colonel of a party 


of soldiers, sent to clear the House of refractory members, 
asked them what they did there. " We are seeking the 
I^ord," was the reply. " Then," said he, " you may go 
elsewhere, for the Lord has not been here these many 
years." A new constitution was shortly afterward adopted 
by the officers of the army, and Cromwell was declared 
Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland. 

The Protectorate. — Cromwell now ruled as absolutely 
as any king in Europe. AVhile his subjects feared him, 
foreign nations acknowledged his vigorous administration 
and courted his alliance. England had never been more 
powerful. Her fleet was mistress of the seas. Spain was 
humbled, Jamaica surrendered to an English admiral, and 
the pirates of the Barbary coast were compelled to respect 
the British flag. Cromwell was also the champion of the 
European Protestants, and is said to have notified the 
pope that unless he showed favor to the people of God, 
the English guns would be heard at Rome. 

In 1657 the crown, with the title of king, was offered 
to Cromwell by a parliament of his own partisans ; but 
while he coveted, he feared to accept, the proffered honor. 
He was well aware that his military government and ar- 
bitrary measures were odious to the great body of the na- 
tion. His own family opposed his assuming the regal 
dignity ; and his daughter, when dying, upbraided him 
with his crimes. Conspiracies were formed against him ; 
and a tract appeared, entitled " Killing no Murder," which 
went to prove that his assassination would be justifiable. 
After Cromwell read it, he was never seen to smile. In 
constant dread of being murdered, he wore armor under 
his clotlies, carried loaded pistols, and would not sleep in 
the same room more than three nights in succession. His 
spirit was broken, a fever seized him, and in 1658, on his 
birthday, which he had always regarded as his " fortunate 
day," the usurper breathed his last. 


Richard Cromwell, bis son, was proclaimed protector. 
A mild and well-meaning man, but witbout resolution, be 
soon found bimself involved in difficulties witb both Par- 
liament and army. It was not long before be signed his 
abdication, and returned to bis quiet country life, for bis 
attachment to which bis father bad called him Lazy Dick. 
But Lazy Dick once uttered a sentiment which it would 
bave been well had his father acted on — that be would 
ratber submit to any suffering with a good name than be 
the greatest man on earth witbout it. 

A period of anarchy followed his resignation, until 
May, 1660, when Parliament recalled Charles II. to tbe 
throne of bis ancestors. 

Contemporaneous Sovereigns. 

Louis XIY., of Franco ; Fhilip lY., of Spain ; 
Ferdinand III. and Leopold I., of Germany; 
Frederick William, the Great, of Prussia ; Fred- 
erick III., of Denmark ; Christina and Charles 
X., of Sweden ; Innocent X. and Alexander 
VII., popes ; Alexis, of Russia ; Mohammed 
IT., of Turkey. 

Oliveu Cromwell, 

Richard Cromwell, 



Charles II. was welcomed by the English nation with 
great rejoicings. He entered London on bis birthday 
(1660) amid waving banners and pealing bells, and re- 
marked tbat it must bave been his own fault be bad stayed 
away so long, for everybody seemed delighted at bis re- 


turn. Unfettered by conditions he ascended the tnrone, 
as nearly absolute a ruler as any who had reigned in Eng- 
land since the Magna Charta was signed. 

King Charles began his reign in a way to which none 
could take exception. For his advisers he chose eminent 
men. The Earl of Clarendon, a discreet and upx-ight 
statesman, was placed at the head of the cabinet. The 
revolutionary army was disbanded, and all political of- 
fenders were pardoned except those concerned in the 
death of the late monarch. These regicides Charles deemed 
it his sacred duty to punish; ten of them were condemned 
to the scaffold ; and the body of Cromwell was dug from 
the grave, and publicly hanged on the anniversary of the 
death of Charles I. 

In 1661 the church of England was restored by Parlia- 
ment, and hundreds of dissenting clergymen, who had 
become settled in the parish churches during the revolu- 
tion, were obliged to give up their livings. It was next at- 
tempted to introduce Episcopacy into Scotland ; but the 
people received the ministers sent them with volleys of 
stones, and followed their old pastors to barns and moors, 
determined to maintain the national Covenant to the death. 

Against such worship in "conventicles" severe laws 
were enacted, and at last military force was employed for 
its suppression. Driven from their homes, hunted like 
wild beasts over mountain and heath, the intrepid Cov- 
enanters still met for praise and prayer with swords in 
their hands, and frays with the king's troopers were of con- 
stant occurrence. Though often defeated, condemned to 
the gibbet, and tortured with the iron boot and thumb- 
screw, they still insisted on their right to worship God ac- 
cording to the dictates of their own consciences. 

In 1662 Charles married the virtuous and amiable 
Catharine of Portugal ; but he soon neglected his wife, 
and even encourag-ed his dissolute friends to insult her 


before his face. He abandoned himself to profligacy, and 
made no attempt to conceal or excuse his shameless con- 
duct. Licentiousness ran riot at his court, and vice flaunt- 
ed without rebuke. 

In fact, throughout the kingdom, a marked reaction 
had taken place. In the days of Puritan and Independent 
ascendency, not only had intemperance, gambling, pro- 
fanity, and immorality of every kind, been visited with 
severe penalties, but even gayety, amusements, and frivo- 
lous fashions of dress, had been discountenanced. Laugh- 
ter was regarded as the sign of a worldly spirit ; long faces 
and long sermons, stiffness, formality, and precision, were 
the order of the day. But under Charles II. all this was 
changed ; the popular current set the other way, and car- 
ried with it all the old-time notions of propriety. 

In 1665, in compliance with the wishes of the people, 
war was declared against Holland. After some reverses, 
the Dutch fleet at last swept the English coast, spread 
its triumphant pennants in the Thames, destroyed the 
shipping, and threatened the capital itself with destruc- 
tion. But the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam in 
America fell into the hands of the English (1664) ; its 
name was changed to New York in honor of the Duke of 
York, the king's brother. The whole Atlantic coast from 
Maine to Georgia now belonged to England. 

The Plague of London. — During the war with Hoi 
land, London was desolated by a terrible plague (1665). 
The nobility, the royal family, and all who had the means, 
fled ; but the poorer classes perished by thousands. A 
red cross was painted on the doors of infected houses, 
with the words, " Lord have mercy on us ! " and all com- 
munication with the inmates was forbidden. At night 
the dead were collected in carts ; no coffins were provided, 
no mourners allowed to follow their deceased friends, but 
the corpses were thrown into pits. Whole rows of houses 


stood deserted, grass grew in the recently crowded streets, 
and the few who ventured out carefully avoided each 
other. To add to the teiTor of the scene, fanatics, be- 
lieving themselves inspired, traversed the city, denouncing 
divine wrath on the people. The pestilence extended 
over the greater part of the kingdom ; a hundred thousand 
persons died in the capital alone. 

Many of the Presbyterian clergy returned during the 
plague, to minister to the sick and dying. On the pretext 
that they had then disseminated seditious principles, Par- 
liament passed what was called the Five-Mile Act, which 
prohibited all ministers that did not conform to the estab- 
lished church from coming within five miles of any town 
or village, thus dooming them to hardships, if not actual 

The Great Fire. — The plague was followed (16G6) 
by a destructive conflagration, which rendered homeless 
and destitute two hundred thousand of the inhabitants of 
London. This fire, though a terrible affliction at the time, 
ultimately proved a blessing ; for the plague, together 
with the filth that kept it alive, was thoroughly burned 
out, and has not appeared in London since. The streets 
were widened, and well-ventilated brick houses took the 
place of the former close wooden tenements. 

To Sir Christopher Wren, the greatest of England's 
architects, was committed the rebuilding of the pul)]ic 
edifices. His grandest work is St. Paul's Cathedral, the 
most magnificent Protestant church in the world. Sir 
Chnstopher was buried within its walls. " If you ask for 
his monument, look around," is the inscription placed over 
his remains. 

The misfortunes that had befallen the nation excited 
the murmurs of the English ]ieople. Other causes of dis- 
content were soon added. Charles dismissed Clarendon 
in disgrace, and intrusted the government to five unprin- 


cipled men,* For a large annual pension, he assisted the 
king of France in attempting- to subjugate Protestant 
Holland. The Duke of York, the lieir presumptive, em- 
braced the Roman Catholic faith. The popular voice de- 
manded additional securities for the reformed religion ; 
and consequently Parliament in 1673 passed the Test Act, 
a law which, among other provisions, excluded from public 
offices all who refused to receive the sacrament accordhig 
to the rites of the church of Eng^land, In the following- 
year, as the Dutch defended themselves with vigor and 
the Commons would not grant supplies for carrying- on the 
war against them, peace with the States was concluded. 

Plots, — In 1678 Titus Gates, a disgraced clergyman, 
pretended to have discovered a Popish plot to burn Lon- 
don, and destroy the Protestant religion by a general 
slaughter of all who professed it. Amid the popular 
panic consequent upon this false allegation, many were 
unjustly suspected and executed, ( )ates afterward received 
seventeen hundred stripes, and, surviving this torture, 
was thrown into prison. 

There was no pretence, however, about the Rye House 
Plot (so called from one of the places where the conspira- 
tors met), which had in view sinmltaneous risings for the 
pwpose of preventing the succession of the Duke of 
York. The discovery of this plot brought two illustrious 
men. Lord Russell and Algernon Sydney, to the block, 

Whigs and Tokies, — The death of Charles II. took 
place in 1685, His great stumbling-block, like that of 
all the Stuarts, was too high a notion of the royal pre- 
rogative. Those who held such views now began to be 
called 7hries, while the other great political party, who 
supported the rights of the people, were distinguished as 

* These were popularly called the Cabal, as the initials of the names 
of the live ministers, Cliflbrd, Ashley, Buekinji;hani, Arlington, and Lau- 
derdale, formed this word. 


Whigs. Both names were originally applied as terms of 
reproach. Whir/ (whey) meant " sour milk," a favorite 
drink of the Scottish Covenanters ; I'ory was derived 
from the Irish Rapparees, a band of robbers, who in calling 
people to surrender cried " toree," give me. — Through the 
efforts of Shaftesbury, one of the most prominent Whig 
leaders, Parliament passed the celebrated Hahejm Corpus 
Act, which, insuring to a prisoner the right of being 
brought before a judge and having the grounds for his 
confinement examined into, has ever since been regarded 
as the jgreat bulwark of personal liberty. 

We find the strait-laced dresses of Cromwell's day 
now replaced with rich and flowing draperies, set off with 
feathers and ribbons. The ladies painted, the gentlemen 
covered their shoulders with long false curls. 

Literary Men. — In the reign of Charles II. flourished 
the immoi-tal Milton, the blind author of " Paradise Lost" 
and " Paradise Regained " — the former the great epic of 
the English language ; Dryden, poet-laureate, and trans- 
lator of Virgil's ^neid ; Samuel Butler, who wrote the 
witty " Hudibras ; " and John Bunyan, " the poor tinker 
of Bedford," who in a damp prison-cell composed the 
" Pilgrim's Progress" — a book that next to the Bible has 
perhaps been more read than any other English work, 

James II., Duke of York, on the death of his brother 
without heirs, ascended the throne. He had long been 
unpopular on account of his attachment to the Catholic 
church. Once he took occasion to caution Charles about 
the danger of walking out with nnly a few attendants. 
"Not a bit of danger," replied his orother, " for I am sure 
no one in England would kill me to make you king." 

Monmouth's Rebellion. — Scarcely had James as- 
sumed the crown of England, when the Duke of Mon- 
mouth, a natural son of Charles IL, invaded the kingdom. 
Though numbers supported the movement, Monmouth 



was defeated, captured, and condemned to death. Many ' 
suffered in consequence of this rebellion. A commission 
was appointed under the brutal Judge Jeffreys, to pass 
through the insurgent districts and punish all who had 
taken part in the insurrection. The sessions of this court, 
from the enormities which it committed, were long re- 
membered as the Bloody Assizes. 

It very soon became apparent that James had no in- 
tention of maintaining the established church or respect- 
ing the rights of the people. He not only attended mass 
himself, but by various arbitrary measures labored for the 
restoration of Roman Catholicism throughout the realm. 
General distrust was awakened by his high-handed pro- 

Revolution of 1688. — The national discontent at last 
reached such a height that it coultl be satisfied only with 
the deposition of the king. James's daughter Mary had 
espoused William of Orange, stadtholder of Holland and 
the leading Protestant sovereign of Europe. This prince 
many friends of Protestantism and liberty desired to place 
on the English throne, and messengers were secretly sent 
to solicit his presence and aid. 

William accordingly appeared on the coast with a 
strong armament, in November, 1688. His reception was 
cordial ; both political parties declared against the Stuart 
king. James hastened to send his wife and infant son out 
of tbe country, and soon followed them himself across the 
Channel to France. 

Parliament then declared the throne vacant, and de- 
creed that the Prince and Princess of Orange should reign 
jointly as king and queen of England ; * for William had 

* The infant son of James by his second wife, an Italian princess, who 
left the kingdom as just narrated, was thus virtually excluded from the 
succession. He was afterward known as the Pretender, or Chevalier St. 
George. Mary and Anne were the daughters of James by his first w^^e. 


already informed the convention tliat " he would not be 
tied to the apron-strings even of the best of wives," — Thus 
was acconiplishod the bloodless revolution of 1688. 

English Colonies in the New World. — In the reign of 
Charles 11. a rebellion took place in Virginia against the 
tyrannical governor Berkeley, during which Jamestown 
was burned to the ground. The region called Carolina, in 
honor of Charles IX. of France, was colonized ; and Wil- 
liam Penn, a Quaker, obtained an extensive tract west of 
the Delaware, which the king named Pennsylvania, " the 
forest-land of Penn." 

Penn sent out a number of emigrants to settle his 
domain, and sailed himself with more in 1682. The fol- 
lowing year he laid the foundations of the city of Phila- 
delphia. By honest and kind dealing he secured the good- 
will of the Indians, and the treaty they made with him 
was never broken. The Quaker settlements enjoyed en- 
tire exemption from the Indian wars by which the other 
colonies Avere from time to time ravaged. 

The New England colonies became involved in hostili- 
ties with the Indians, known as King Philip's War, and 
several of their towns were burned by the savages. On 
the accession of the Duke of York, the charters of the 
northern colonies having been revoked. Sir Edmund An- 
dros became the despotic governor of New England. 

Inventions, Improvements, etc. 

Streets of London dimly lighted by lanterns hung out by the citizens. 
Average wages in England, 4s. a week for fanners, fis. for mechanics. 
First coffee-house in England opened at Oxford, in 1651 ; first in London, 
1652. Tea sold in London in 1657. Air-pump invented by Guericke 
(ffher'ik-ki'h), of Magdeburg, in 1650; improved by the English philoso- 
pher Boyle, in 1658. Huygens {hi'ghens), a great Dutch philosopher, in- 
vented the pendulum-clock, 1657 ; discovered Saturn's ring with his im- 
proved telescope, 1659 ; invented the spiral spring for regulating the bal- 
ance of watches, 1675. 




Louis XIV. at his birth was called by the joyful people 
"the God-given." As Louis XIII. approached his end, 
the child, then but five years old, supposing him dead, ex- 
ultingly exclaimed, "1 am Louis XIV." "Not yet," 
whispered the dying parent. Soon after, however, the 
golden-haired boy was hailed as king (1643), and his moth- 
er, Anne of Austria, was made regent during his minority. 

The queen regent chose for her prime minister Cardinal 
Mazarin {maz-a-reen'), an Italian, who proved an able suc- 
cessor of Richelieu. During his administration France 
was involved in the Thirty Years' War ; and after the 
peace of Westphalia, hostilities continued with Spain. To 
pay the expenses of these foreign wars, as well as to sup- 
port the luxv;ry of the court, heavy taxes were levied. 
The Parliament of Paris protested ; nor was it long before 
the people, joined by many of the nobles, broke out into 

This revolt was derisively called the civil war of the 
Fronde., because the party opposed to the court persevered 
in their resistance, as street boys returned to fight with 
their slings {frondes) after having been scattered by the 
police. The name at once became popular. Ladies wore 
their lockets in slings, and embroidered their dresses with 
the same device. 

Mazarin was obliged to flee from France ; but the 
Frondeurs were afterward put down, and he re-entered 
Paris in triumph. In 1659 he negotiated the Treaty of 
the Pyrenees, which ended the war with Spain. One 
evening he announced the joyful news to the queen. 
" What ! " she exclaimed, " peace ? " " Better, madam," 
replied Mazarin, " I bring you not only peace, but the In- 


fanta." * Louis received the hand of the daughter of the 
Spanish king, with a dowry of half a million crowns. 

Cardinal Mazarin confirmed that absolute authority 
which Richelieu had gained for the crown. After the 
death of this great statesman, Louis XIV. resolved to 
govern without a prime minister. When asked who should 
be consulted on matters of public business, he replied, 
" Myself." His rule soon became despotic, and his famous 
declaration, " I am the state," was emphatically true. 

In the first few years of his reign, Louis indulged in 
unworthy pleasures. Despite the immorality of the king 
and his favorites, however, the splendor of his court and 
the talents of the learned men by whom it was adorned 
became renowned throughout Christendom. The other 
countries of Europe not only adopted the polished lan- 
guage and tast}' fashions of Paris, but perfected the edu- 
cation of their youth at the world's capital. Louis him- 
self was the most polite man in his kingdom ; he did not 
consider it beneath his dignity to raise his hat to the hum- 
blest peasant-woman. Yet his air was regal and his atti- 
tude commanding. iVn old officer who once waited on 
him to ask a favor was so confused in the royal presence 
that he could only stammer out, " I hope your majesty will 
not believe that I tremble thus before your enemies." 

The administration of Louis XIV. was supported by 
the greatest generals and the most accomplished ministers 
of the age. Colbert {kol-hare'), who raised himself from 
the humble position of a woollen-draper's apprentice to that 
of comptroller-general of finance, developed the commerce 
and manufactures of the kingdom. Remembering the 
Duke of Sully's maxim, " Pasturage and tillage are the 
nurses of the state," he also encouraged agriculture and 
the rearing of cattle. He improved the travel) ing facili- 
ties, and united the Atlantic with the Mediterranean by 

* The title of the royal princesses of Spain. 


the Canal of Languedoe. Many public works, including 
the Academy of Sciences, the Observatory, the Garden of 
the Tuileries {tweel-re'), and the sumptuous Palace of Ver- 
sailles, bear witness to the munificence and genius of 

In 1667, Louis XIV., ambitious of military glory, in- 
vaded the Spanish Netherlands, which he claimed in the 
name of his wife on the death of her father, Philip IV. 
This alarmed the nations, and led to the Triple Alliance 
on the part of England, Holland, and Sweden. The 
French king was checked in the midst of a glorious career; 
but he soon succeeded in bribing Charles II. to detach 
himself from the league and declare war aarainst the 
United Provinces. Sweden also having been gained over 
by his intrigues, an army of 120,000 men, led by the king 
in person supported by the ablest generals in Europe, — 
Turenne, Vauban (vo-bo?i^'), and the Great Cond6, ad- 
vanced upon Holland. 

The French were armed with bayonets, a weapon now 
used for the first time. In forty days their, victorious 
standards waved within a few miles of Amsterdam. Wil- 
liam III. of Orange, elected stadtholder, rejected the hu- 
miliating terms offered by Louis, declaring his determina- 
tion to die disputing the last ditch rather than witness the 
ruin of the republic. The dikes were cut ; the waters of 
the German Ocean were let in upon the fertile fields of 
Holland ; and her capital was saved. 

In the face of other coalitions against him, Louis 
achieved fresh triumphs, adding to France portions of the 
conquered territory. He conducted several brilliant cam- 
paigns with no less skill than he managed diplomatic af- 
fairs, and was hailed by the general voice as the Grand 

Nor were the French arms less successful on the ocean. 
Duquesne {dil-kehn') upheld the honor of his country's 



flag against Holland, defeating the Dutch admiral Dc 
Ruyter {<leh ri'ter) in a battle off Sicily. He also pun- 
ished the Algerine pirates, and obliged them to liberate 
many Christian captives. Duquesne was a Protestant ; 
when the king informed him that his religious views were 
a bar to his promotion, the hero pointedly remarked, 
*' Sire, when I fought your majesty's enemies, 1 did not 
inquire what religion they were of." 

Revocation of the Edict of Nantes. — In 1685 



Louis XIV. revoked the Edict of Nantes, at the iiistisi,-a- 
tion of his second wife Madame de Maintenon [niaii^t- 
)ionP')^ who exercised great iniluence over him in public 
as well as private affairs. The Hugvienot worship was 
prohibited on pain of death, the reformed churches were 
closed, and lawless soldiers were quartered on Protestant 
families to eat up their substance in default of their con- 
version. No less than five hundred thousand persons lied 
from their native land, carrying their wealth and manu- 
facturing skill into England, Holland, and Germany. The 
Protestants who remained suffered the most cruel ])riva- 
tions ; and persecution at last drove the Camisards, who 
dwelt in the beautiful valleys of C^vennes (sa-ven'), to re- 
bellion (1703). With "Liberty of Conscience" inscribed 
on their banners, they boldly resisted the French marshals 
in a long and frightful civil war. 

War of the Spanish Succession. — Charles II., the last 
of the Ilapsburg kings of Sjtain, died in 1700 (p. 324), 
after naming as his successor Philip of Anjou, a Bourbon 
prince, grandson of Louis XIV. In spite of the impover- 
ished condition of his kingdom, exhausted by continuous 
wars, Louis determined to support the claim of his relative. 
But England, Holland, and Germany, fearing the union of 
France and Spain, formed the Grand Alliance to place the 
Archduke Charles, second son of the emperor Leopold, on 
the Spanish throne. 

A destructive war of thirteen years followed. The al- 
lies, led by the English general, the Duke of Marlborough, 
and Prince Eugene of Sav'oy, achieved glorious victories 
on the fields of Blenheim (blen'im), Oudenarde {6w-den-ar'- 
deh), and Malplaquet [mahl-plah-ka') (see Map, p. 415). 
Prince Eugene, disliked by Louis from boyhood, and re- 
fused the command of a French regiment for which he had 
applied, had tendered his services to the Austrians, and 
found ample employment in their long and bloody Avars. 


Louis declared tliat he should never return to France, but 
Eugene spiritedly retorted, " I will enter it sword in 
hand." This threat he now fulfilled ; and the Grand 
Monarch, in his old a^e, overcome with sorrow at the 
death of his children and the wretchedness of his people, 
was threatened in his metropolis by the military genius 
whifli he might have made the strongest bulwark of his 
power. Diplomacy, at this juncture, accomplished for 
Louis what he could not hope to effect by arms ; and in 
1713, the succession of the House of Bourbon in Spain, in 
the person of Philip V., was acknowledged on condition 
of his renouncing all claim to the crown of France. 

Louis XIV. died in 1715, bequeathing to the French 
nation an immense debt — the fruit of his wars. It is re- 
corded that, during his reign of seventy-two years, one 
million liniiian lives were sacrificed to his ambition. 

Golden Age of French Literature. — The age of Louis 
XIV, is illustrious for the greatest of French writers — 
Corneille [kor-nah')^ whose " Cid" marks a new epoch in 
the history of the French drama ; Racine (ras-seen), the 
tragedian, ranked by Hallam next to Shakespeare among 
all the moderns ; Moliere (mo-le-air'), the irresistible writer 
of comedy ; Bossuet {hos-swa') and Massillon {inah-Hed- 
yon^'), unsurpassed in pulpit eloquence ; Boileau {hwah- 
lo'), " the French Horace ;" Fen'e-lon, Archbishop of 
Cambray, whose " Telemachus " yields in popularity to no 
other work that French literature has produced ; and La- 
fontaiiie', "the prince of fabulists." 

French Colonies. — In the early part of the seventeenth 
century the St. Lawrence River was explored by the 
French navigator Champlain, Quebec was founded, and 
Canada with Acadie (Nova Scotia) received the name of 
New France. The French Jesuit missionaries subsequent- 
ly passed through the Great Lakes, and made their way 
to the Mississippi. In 1682, La Salle sailed down this 


river to the Gulf of Mexico, and took possession of the 
country, wliich he called Louisiana in honor of Louis XIV. 
New Orleans and Natchez were founded in the beginning 
of the next century. By the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), 
France surrendered Hudson Bay Territory, Newfoundland, 
and Acadie, to England. 

During the seventeenth century settlements were also 
made in French Guiana and Madagascar ; and Pondicherry 
in Hindostan was purchased from the rajah, or native 

The Seventeenth Century. 

An age of great mental activity, displayed in the different departments 
of literature, philosophy, and science, particularly in England and France. 
Bacon (1661-1626) grounded all inquiries after knowledge on experiment, 
instead of the speculafion of the schoolmen, and substituted for the old 
method of Aristotle his improved method of induction. Descartes {da- 
kart'\ a leading French philosopher, introduced a system of pure ration- 
alism. The German astronomer Kepler (1571-1660), investigating the 
laws of the planetary motions, prepared the way for Newton. Blaise 
Pascal, a celebrated French mathematician and philosopher, flourished 
about the middle of the century. 



William and Mary. — The accession of William and 
Mary was not altogether peaceful. James II. had ad- 
herents in both Scotland and Ireland. In the former coun- 
try his banner was raised by Graham of Claverhouse {klav'- 
er-us), the merciless persecutor of the Covenanters, whose 
Highlanders were victorious, while he himself fell, and 
with him the hopes of his party, at Killiecrankie (1689). 


Meanwhile James, sailing from France, had landed in 
Ireland. He was received with enthusiasm by the Catho- 
lics, but the Protestants rose in arms for the protection of 
their liberties and religion. The 'prentice-boys of London- 
derry closed the gates of that city in the face of the Cath- 
olic army ; the inhabitants, pushed in a protracted siege 
to the very verge of starvation, were at length relieved by 
the appearance of an English fleet. 

In 1690, William, who had taken the field in person, 
defeated the French and Irish forces of James in the battle 
of the Boyne. While the engagement was still going on, 
James fled ingloriously from the field. " Change kings 
with us," said an Irish captain to an Englishman, " and 
we will fight you over again." But James thought it 
prudent to embark for France and leave the fighting to be 
done by his adherents. With the surrender of Limerick, 
however, the struggle terminated, and the whole kingdom 
submitted. The Treaty of Limerick guaranteed civil and 
religious liberty to the Irish Catholics ; but, as it was 
often violated, twelve thousand of them emigrated, to fol- 
low the fortunes of their exiled king. 

A final effort to restore James II. to the English throne 
was made in 1693 by Louis XIV. But the French fleet 
was destroyed in the battle of La Hogue. James from 
the shore witnessed this decisive overthrow of his last 
hope ; amid his disappointment, he could not help ad- 
miring the gallant conduct of his late subjects. " None 
but my brave English," he exclaimed, " could do this." 

The death of Mary in 1694 left William sole monarch 
of England. The close of the century witnessed a lull in 
hostilities most grateful to the people ; but in 1701 James 
II. died, and Louis XIV, acknowledged his son as " King 
of Great Britain and Ireland." On this William prepared 
for a renewal of war, when he was thrown from his horse 
and received an injury that resulted in his death, 1702. 


During the reign of William III. the Bank of England 
was incorporated, the coinage purified, and the liberty of 
the press established. Stamp duties were introduced. 
The first auction was held in England. Loans raised by 
the government laid the foundation of the national debt. 

At the head of the distinguished men of the day was 
Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), the greatest of modern 
philosophers, the discoverer of the binomial theorem and 
the law of gravitation, author of the " Principia " and of 
many scientific treatises. We may also mention John 
Locke, eminent for his "Essay on the Human Understand' 
ing ; " Bishop Burnet, the historian ; and Tillotson and 
South, celebrated divines, 

Anne. — As William and Mary died childless, the prin- 
cess Anne, daughter of James II., who had married George 
of Denmark, succeeded to the throne. The Whig party 
advocated war with France ; and the queen, finally resolv- 
ing to pursue the policy of William, joined Holland and 
the German Empire against Louis XIV. The events of 
this War of the Spanish Succession have been already 
related (p. 343). The balance of power was preserved in 
Europe, and glory was obtained for England by her im- 
mortal military chieftain, the Duke of Marlborough, who 
" never besieged a city which he did not take, nor fought 
a battle that he did not win." England still possesses a 
valuable trophy of this war, in Gibraltar, which art and 
nature have combined to make one of the strongest for- 
tresses in the world, if not absolutely impregnable. 

Queen Anne was an amiable woman, a model wife and 
mother ; but her abilities were moderate, and she allowed 
herself to be governed by favorites. Among these was the 
Duchess of Marlborough. It is said that the queen, hav- 
ing taken the liberty of ordering a bottle of Avine for her 
laundress every day on her own responsibility, was indig- 
nantly upbraided for an hour by the duchess, who even 



declared that she never wanted to see her royal mistress 
again. The queen calmly answered, " The seldomer, the 

At last Anne tired of this imperious favorite ; " the 
Great Duke," her husband, was dismissed from his high 
oflSces, and the Tory party came into power. Marlborough 


Maklborougu and Eugene in Council. 

retired to the continent. The following story is illustra- 
tive of his great self-command. On one occasion, at a 
council of war, Prince Eugene denounced him as a coward 
for refusing to make an attack on the enemy. Marlbor- 
ough calmly listened to the insult without resenting it. 
The next morning he awoke the prince, and in explana- 


tion of his conduct stated that there was a person present 
at their conference who would have betrayed their plans. 
" Now," said he, " I am ready for the attack." The 
prince, overcome with shame, apoloj^ized. 

The union of England and Scotland in " the United 
Kingdom of Great Britain " (1707) is the chief political 
event that marks this period. Both countries were hence- 
forth represented by one parliament. The latter part of 
Anne's reign was disturbed by the bitter dissensions of 
the Whigs and Tories. Her health was visibly affected 
by the wrangling of her ministers, and in 1714 her death 
took place. With Anne the direct line of the Stuarts 

During Anne's reign no one was executed for treason, 
but slight offences were punishable with death. Even 
after her time two lads were hanged for stealing two shil- 
lings, and a man met the same fate for appropriating a 
cane. — Fans, almost unknown in the time of Elizabeth, 
now became an indispensable part of a lady's costume, on 
all occasions. 

Golden Age of English Literature. — Queen Anne's 
reign is often distinguished as the Augustan Age of Eng- 
lish literature. The principal writers of this period were, 
Pope, whose " sonorous couplets brilliant with antithesis " 
will ever make his " Essay on Man," " Essay on Criti- 
cism," and translations of the Iliad and Odyssey to be 
read and admired ; Steele and Addison, the fathers of 
periodical literature, whose fame rests on the " Tatler " 
and the " Spectator ; " * Swift, the keen wit, and satirical 
author of " Gulliv<>r's Travels " and the " Tale of a Tub;" 
Gay, the poet ; Boliugbroke, an historical and philosophi- 

* Tlie Tatler was a periodical paper, called so by Steele in honor of 
the fair sex. The Spectator, a periodical planned by Addison, became 
the most popvdar work in England ; twenty thousand numbers were 
eometimcs sold in one day. 


cal writer ; and Daniel Defoe, who in " Robinson Crusoe " 
still opens a tioasure-house of amusement to the young. 

American Colonies. — After the accession of William 
III., the French and Indians commenced hostilities against 
the English in America. During the war, which was 
called King William's War, a force from Canada surprised 
and destroyed the town of Schenectady in New York. 
Several New England villages were also burned by the 

About this time (1692) a strange delusion spread 
through New England. People declared that they were 
pinched and bruised by invisible demons, charging friend- 
less old women, and in some cases even their own kindred, 
with bewitching them. The accused were readily con- 
victed by superstitious judges, or on their own confes- 
sions wrung from them by torture. Twenty unfortunates 
fell victims to the witch-mania before the eyes of the 
people were opened to its horrors. 

In Queen Anne's New England War, the frontier set- 
tlements were again attacked by the savages, and the 
town of Deerfield, Massachusetts, was burned by a party 
of French and Indians. 

Cotton was raised at Jamestown as an experiment, 
early in the seventeenth century. The Carolina colonists 
also produced it in small quantities about 1700 ; the im- 
portance of the crop, however, was hardly appreciated till 
the close of the eighteenth century. Rice began to be 
cultivated in South Carolina in 1694, and four years later 
sixty tons were exported to England. 

English Sovereigns: House of Stuart. 

James I., . . . 1603. 

Charles I., . . 1625. 

Commonwealth, 1649-1653. 

Protectorate, . 1653-1659. 

Charles II., . . . 1660. 

James II., . . 1685. 

William and Mary, . 1689. 

Anne, . . . 1702. 




Military Despotism. — Under Solyman the Magnificent, 
the military power of the Turks reached its height. His 
successors were generally weak, or engrossed in pleasure 
and debauchery. They had the power of life and death 
over their subjects, and exercised it with great cruelty. 
To secure himself upon the throne, it was the custom of 
each new sultan to have his brothers strangled. Execu- 
tions of tliis kind were performed by mutes, deprived of 
their tong'ues in order to insure their secrecy. 

The emperors seldom appeared at the head of their 
armies, which were led by grand viziers. The latter also 
administered the government ; while the Janizaries, once 
the support of the state, became insubordinate — elevated, 
dethroned, and murdered sultans at their pleasure — and 
were the real power in the empire. This body of troops, 
all but invincible when controlled by the warlike monarchs 
of the past, rapidly degenerated under such effeminate 
rulers. At last they were compelled to yield the palm to 
the superior courage and tactics of the soldiers of Christen- 

Turkish Wars. — During this period of military despot- 
ism, the Turks were still formidable to the otlier European 
nations. In the early part of the seventeenth century, a 
disastrous war with Persia occupied them so thoroughly as 
to prevent for a time their usual incursions in the West. 
Amurath IV., the Intrepid (1623-1640), partially restored 
the glory of the empire, suppressed a mutiny of the Jani- 
zaries, and marching against the Persians captured Bag- 
dad. During the reign of the next sultan, a sanguinary 
war began with Venice, which lasted twenty-four years. 


In 16G9, Candia, the capital of Crete, was taken after a 
siege which cost Mohammed IV. a hundred and twenty 
thousand men. The island was ceded to the Ottomans, 
and the maritime power of Venice in the Grecian Archi- 
pelago was destroyed. 

Mohammed IV. also invaded Poland in person ; but his 
army was defeated by John Sobieski, " the Buckler of 
Christ," at Khotin' — the most signal reverse that the infi- 
dels had yet suffered on a European battle-field. 

With not more than 15,000 men, Sobieski afterward 
held in check 200,000 Moslems, hurling back in their faces, 
when ammunition failed him, the balls that fell within 
his intrenchments. The superstitious enemy regarded him 
as more than mortal ; and, deeming it useless to fight 
against a " wizard king," offered him honorable terms. 
The Ottoman power, however, had received no .material 
check up to 1683. 

Siege of Vienna. — In this year, all Eui-ope was thrown 
into consternation by the news that an immense army of 
Turks and Tartars, under the command of the grand vizier 
of Mohammed IV., was marching upon Vienna. The op- 
pression of Austria had driven the freedom-loving Hun- 
garians to revolt, and one of their nobles had sought aid 
of the Porte.* Mohammed recognized him as " King of 
the Hungarians and Transylvanians," and instigated by 
Louis XIV., the deadly enemy of the House of Austria, 
dispatched this formidable host into the German Empire. 
They were soon before the walls of Vienna. 

Three thousand suppliants who came forth from the 
city were slaughtered by the ferocious Tartars ; their 
death-shrieks, borne back to the capital, determined the 
governor to hold out to the last with his slender garrison. 

* The government of the Turkish Empire is called the Ottoman or 
Sublime Porte, from the gate (port) of the sultan's palace, where justice 
was administered. 


Leopold, the emperor, had already fled ; and Austria, in 
this crisis, called upon Poland for aid. 

Sobieski, who had been elected king of that country in 
1674, with the title of John III., responded to the call. 
When almost at the mercy of the Moslem soldiery, the 
despairing Viennese beheld his signal-rockets. At the 
head of the chivalry of Poland, Sobieski fearlessly bore 
down upon the Turkish ranks. 

The vizier, believing that the Christians were rushing 
upon their death, coolly reclined in his tent of crimson silk, 
sipping coffee with his sons. But Sobieski's name, as it 
was repeated from line to line of the besieging army, struck 
terror into every heart. The khan of the Tartars cried in 
dismay, " It is the wizard king ! " A lunar eclipse which 
now occurred completed the panic of the Mussulmans. 
The vizier was forced to relinquish what an hour before 
seemed his certain prey, and fled, leaving rich spoil in the 
hands of the victor. 

Thus Europe was saved from the Mohammedan arms, 
and all Christendom resounded with the praises of John 
Sobieski. He entered Vienna through the breach made 
by the Turks, and was hailed by the joyful people as their 
deliverer, while the clergy applied to him the scriptural 
words, " There was a man sent from God, whose name was 
John." In announcing his victory to the pope, Sobieski 
improved on the sublime sentence of Caesar : " I came, I 
saw, God conquered." The emperor Leopold treated the 
hero, to whom he owed his crown, with shameful ingrati- 
tude ; and Austria subsequently repaid with fire and sword 
the services rendered her by Poland in 1683. 

Sobieski died in 1696, and " with him the glory of Po- 
land descended into the tomb." 

The Ottoman Power broken. — The spell of Turkish tri- 
umphs in Europe was now broken. The warlike sultan 
Mustapha II. {ni66s' tah-fah), it is true, conducted a brief 


campaign victoriously in Hungary, but he was badly de- 
feated by Prince Eugene in the battle of Zenta (1697). 

Leopold had sent a letter to Eugene, forbidding him to 
risk an engagement. But Eugene, guessing its import, 
thrust it into his pocket unopened, and at once fell upon 
the Turks. For this he was arrested at Vienna, but his 
popularity with the army compelled his speedy release. 

The defeat of Zenta crushed the spirit of the Ottomans. 
Mustapha sued for peace, and by the treaty of Carlowitz 
(1699) ceded Hungary and Transylvania to Austria, Morea 
(southern Greece) to Venice, and important provinces to 
the Poles. Thus the Ottoman Porte was humiliated, and 
the declining empire of Turkey ceased to be a terror to 
Europe. In 1717 Eugene gained another great victory at 
Belgrade, capturing the city. At the close of this war, 
the Turkish sultan presented Eugene with a cimeter and 
a turban. " The one," said he, " is the emblem of your 
valor, the other of your genius and wisdom." 

Persia. — In the beginning of the sixteenth century, 
Ishmael Shah overthrew the Turkomans and established 
his authority throughout Persia. Under the Suffee dynas- 
ty, thus commenced, Persia partially regained its former 
prestige. Shah Abbas the Great (1585-1627) became re- 
nowned for his conquests and wise government. 

During the reign of Abbas, the empire was greatly im- 
proved and beautified ; Ispahan [is-pd-hahn') was made 
the capital ; and Persia reached the pinnacle of its modern 
greatness. After his death the power of the nation rapid- 
ly declined. In the next century, the Suffee dynasty was 
supplanted by the Afghans (1722), who a few years later 
were themselves overthrown by Nadir (nah'dir), a general 
of the Suffee prince. Having established himself on the 
throne (1736), Nadir Shah raised Persia again to a high 
position of power and glory. 

India, in the seventeenth century, flourished under the 



Mohammedan descendants of Tamerlane. The Mogul Em- 
pire had attained to wealth and civilization in the latter 
half of the previous century, through the able management 
of Akbar, whose war-elephants are said to have numbered 
six thousand, and whose revenue amounted to ten million 
pounds sterling. 

The greatest of Akbar's line was Au'rungzebe (orna- 
ment of the throne). The reign of this monarch (1658- 
1707) was the most brilliant period of the Mogul power. 
Several impos- 
ing hospitals _^ - ^E- — 
and mosques are 
monuments of 
his munificence; 
one of the lat- 
ter, erected in 
memory of his 
daughter, still 
bears his name. 
His empire ex- 
tended ■ beyond 
Hindostan, and 
his wealth was 
incredible ; a 
golden globe 
was carried be- 
fore him, as symbolical of the title he assumed — " Con- 
queror of the World." Yet he signified that there was a 
small portion independent of his sway, by tearing off a 
corner from the sheets on which he wrote his letters. 

During the reign of Aurungzebe, the Mahratta nation, 
consisting of associated Hindoo tribes, arose in India. 
Both French and English had stations in the country. 

GMna. — The dynasty which in 1368 had succeeded the 
Mongol line of Genghis Khan in China, was overthrown 

Mosque of Aukungzebe. 


about the middle of the seventeenth century by the Man- 
tchoo Tartars. The dynasty then established has continued 
to the present time. 

Kang-hi, the second Mantchoo emperor, restored peace 
and prosperity to the country, granted religious toleration, 
and even allowed a Christian church to be built in his pal- 
ace by the Jesuits. The missionaries were afterward ex- 
pelled ; and the attempts of European governments to 
establish commercial relations with the Chinese were gen- 
erally unavailing. 

1700 A. D.— William III. king of England and stadtholder of the 
United Provinces, fireat advance of literature and science in England ; 
Newton at the height of his glory ; Pope, writing verses at the age of 
twelve, catches a glimpse of Dryden, then in the last year of his life. 
Fifty-seventh year of the reign of Louis XIV. of France. Forty-second 
year of Aurungzebe's reign in Hindostan. Philip V. (House of Anjou) 
named king of Spain. Genoa and Venice, republics. Charles XII. de- 
feats Peter the Great at Narva. Turkish power broken. English and 
French settlements on the eastern coast of America. Frenchmen explor- 
ing the lower Mississippi. 



Russia, after its reduction by Oktai (p. 225), remained 
tributary to the great Khan of the Golden Horde about 
two centuries. The Russian prince was required to admit 
the Tartar chief's superiority, when they met, by holding 
his stirrup for him to mount. 

The Russians were finally delivered from the Mongol 
dominion by Ivan the Great, who ascended the throne in 
1462. Besides other acquisitions, rich Novgorod was con- 


quered and annexed to his dominions ; three hundred 
chariot-loads of gold and silver articles were sent from 
this city to Moscow. 

Ivan the Terrible, crowned Czar in 1547, took Kazan 
[kah-zahn') and Astracan' from the Tartars ; Siberia; 
also, was conquered for him by the hetman (commander- 
in-chief) of the warlike Cossacks. In spite of the czar's 
tyranny, Russia grew in greatness ; foreigners were in- 
vited into the empire, commerce was encouraged, and the 
port of Archangel was founded on the White Sea. A 
printing-office was established at Moscow, and Ivan or- 
ganized a standing army known as the Strel'itz Guard. 

The son of Ivan was the last of the ancient line of 
Rurik. In 1613 the House of Romanof [ro-mah'nof) 
was elevated to the throne of Russia. 

Youth of Peter the Great. — The first Romanof princes, 
engaged in wars with Poland, Sweden, and the Turks, 
gradually enlarged the boundaries of the empire. Feodor 
II., who died in 1682, left the crown to his half-brother 
Peter, then only ten years old, purposely excluding his 
own brother Ivan, Avho was weak-minded and unfit to rule. 
But at the instigation of Ivan's sister Sophia, the Strel- 
itzes rose against this disposition of the crown, and a 
massacre took place in Moscow, which Peter and his 
mother escaped by taking refuge in a convent. 

The difficulty was finally settled by the coronation of 
Ivan and Peter as joint emperors, with Sophia as regent. 
Not satisfied with the authority which she thus enjoyed, 
Sophia endeavored to destroy the usefulness and pros- 
pects of the young Peter by keeping him in ignorance 
and debasing his tastes. But the youthful monarch 
proved superior to her wiles. Instead of indo- 
lent and profligate, he diligently applied himself to study, 
making many friends, among whom was his judicious ad- 
viser Le Fort. 

THE czar's reforms. 359 

At length Sophia, unable to prevent the growing 
power of her half-brother, planned his assassination. The 
plot was revealed to Petei", who, aided by his numerous 
adherents, prevailed over his intriguing sister and com- 
pelled her to retire to a convent. The imbecile Ivan now 
resigned his share of the sovereignty ; thus Peter I. be- 
came sole ruler of the Russian Empire (1689). 

Peter's Efforts at Reform. — The first efforts of the 
young czar were directed toward the improvement of his 
half-barbarous subjects. In the face of national preju- 
dices and the opposition of a powerful and superstitious 
clergy, he began his great work of reform. 

The army first demanded his attention. He resolved 
to disband the Strelitzes, and organize a body of troops 
equipped and disciplined like other European soldiers. 
Under the direction of Le Fort a small force was raised 
and uniformed ; and Peter taught the Russians a lesson 
of subordination by drilling in the ranks himself as a 
common soldier. Another distinguished member of the 
corps was Menzikoff, a vender of cakes, whose ready wit 
had recommended him to the czar and who afterward rose 
to distinction in the imperial service. This little com- 
pany was the germ of the future standing army of Russia. 

About the same time Peter employed foreign ship- 
wrights to build him vessels ; even in his boyhood he had 
conceived a love for navigation and delighted to paddle a 
little Dutch skiff in the river which flows through Moscow. 
He determined that his inland empire should possess sea- 
coast, and enjoy the advantages of intercourse with for- 
eign countries. The Swedes ruled on the Baltic, the 
Turks on the Black Sea ; and it was at the expense of 
these neighbors that Peter proposed to provide himself 
with seaports. Sailing down the Don in 1696, he defeated 
the Ottoman fleet, and captured Az'of, the key to the 


Meanwhile the czar sent an ambassador to China, who 
is said to have travelled more than eighteen months before 
reaching the frontier. In the course of three years the 
embassy returned, after having established friendly rela- 
tions between the two empires. 

Peter next sent a number of Russian youth into west- 
ern Europe, to be instructed in the arts and customs of 
civilized life. Former rulers had forbidden their subjects 
to leave the country, and the old Russian families held all 
foreigners in contempt. This arbitrary measure of the 
czar, together with the taxes he levied to enlarge his navy, 
occasioned discontent. His plan to unite the Volga and 
Don with canals was also denounced, as an impious at- 
tempt " to turn the streams one way which Providence had 
directed another." A powerful party opposed to Peter 
consequently grew up. A plot was formed for his assassi- 
nation ; but it was discovered and crushed with unsparing 

The Czar's Tour. — At last Peter determined to visit 
the principal countries of Europe himself, and become 
personally acquainted with their systems of government 
and the arts in which they excelled. Leaving his domin- 
ions in the hands of trustworthy deputies, he set out in 
the year 1697, disguised as an attendant in a splendid em- 
bassy, at the head of which were General Le Fort and 
Menzikoff. Hastening on in advance of his companions, 
he reached Holland, where he expected to learn the art of 
ship-building, refused the elegant palace which had been 
prepared for him in Amsterdam, and took up his abode in 
a hut among the dock-yards. 

For seven weeks Peter performed the labor of a com- 
mon shipwright ; made his bed, cooked his own food, and 
received wages from his master. On one occasion he 
bought a pair of shoes with the money paid him, and was 
wont to point to them with pride as having been earned 



by the sweat of his brow with hammer and anvil. , The 
Duke of Marlborough came to visit him, and saw the ab- 
solute czar of Muscovy, as Peter was called, put his shoul- 
der beneath a heavy beam at the ship-builder's order. 

From Holland 
Peter crossed into 
England, where 
he was hospita- 
bly entertained 
by the govern- 
ment. Here too 
he dwelt near the 
sea ; and, to ac- 
quire skill in nav- 
igation, he often 
sailed a small ves- 
sel with Menzikoff 
and others of his 
suite on board. 
So forgetful were 
they of all the 
dignity proper to 
their station, that 
it was their cus- 
tom, after the 
day's work was 
done, to amuse 
themselves witli 
smoking and 
drinking in a 
common tavern. 
Astonished at the number of lawyers in Westminster Hall, 
the czar remarked that he had but two in his whole em- 
pire, and thought of hanging one of these on his return. 
Peter engaged many officers and scientific men to ac- 

Petee in the Dock-yabd. 


company him back to Russia. On leaving England, he 
took from his pocket a roll of brown paper and handed it 
to King William III. as a parting gift ; it contained a 
ruby worth ten thousand pounds sterling. In a yacht 
presented to him by his royal host he sailed for the conti- 
nent, and there heard of a rebellion in Moscow which 
obliged him to return to Russia without delay. 

Further Reforms. — It seems that the Strelitzes had re- 
volted at the instigation of some disaftected Russians, who 
plotted the elevation of Sophia to the throne, but had 
been put down with great slaughter by one of Peter's 
generals. After his arrival in Moscow, the czar condemned 
to a frightful death many of the soldiers and conspirators. 
Some, we are told, were broken on the wheel, others 
buried alive, and others again were executed by Peter 
himself, who struck off their heads when in a state of in- 
toxication. Such was the character of this remarkable 
man ; with all his talents, ambition, and energy, he pos- 
sessed an ungovernable temper which often betrayed him 
into acts of atrocious cruelty. 

The Strelitzes were disbanded, and new disciplined reg- 
iments supplied their place. Next a blow was aimed at 
the fashions of the people, who wore long beards and Tar- 
tar skirts. On these appendages a tax was laid, which, 
as many preferred the ancient costume, proved quite profit- 
able to the government. Peter even went so far as to 
post barbers and tailors at the gates of the capital to cut 
the whiskers and skirts of those who entered. The calen- 
dar was changed ; and though the people complained that 
their sovereign was trying to alter the course of the sun, 
and the priests proved that the world was created in Sep- 
tember, the Russian year was made to commence on Jan- 
uary 1st. Arithmetic was introduced, and the old Tartar 
mode of counting by means of balls strung on wires was 
done away with. The Bible was translated into the Sla- 


vonic tongue ; schools, hospitals, inns, and post-offices, 
were established. The condition of woman was elevated. 
Everywhere the work of improvement went on, in spite 
of the obstinate resistance of the people for whose good 
the czar was laboring. 

As soon as these social reforms were effected, Peter 
desired to gain some territory on the Baltic, where he 
could build a new capital better adapted to commerce than 
Moscow. The country round the Gulf of Finland once be- 
longed to Russia, but was now held by Sweden. Toward 
this power, unfriendly feelings were entertained by both 
Frederick IV. of Denmark and Augustus the Strong of 
Saxony, the successor of Sobieski on the throne of Poland. 
With the hope of wresting the coveted coast from Sweden, 
Peter joined these potentates in a war against the youth- 
ful monarch of that country, 1700. 

The Scandinavian Kingdoms.— We must now take a 
retrospective view of the Scandinavian monarchies, which 
are about to engage on opposite sides in this conflict of 
the northern powers. After the death of Gustavus Adol- 
phus (p. 312), his daughter Christina reigned in Sweden. 
During her minority, the great Oxenstiern administered 
affairs and zealously supported the Protestant cause in the 
Thirty Years' War. But vvhen the queen assumed the 
government, she abandoned herself to unworthy pleasures, 
and Oxenstiern, one of the greatest statesmen in Europe, 
was ungratefully cast aside. 

At last Christina tired of the sceptre, and in 1654 she 
abdicated in favor of her cousin, Charles Gustavus, deter- 
mined to seek a life more suited to her tastes in foreign 
lands. Reaching a brook which separated the Swedish ter- 
ritory from Denmark, she exultingly jumped over it, ex- 
claiming, " Now am I free, and out of Sweden, whither I 
hope never to return." 

After this hostilities were carried on against the Poles 


and Danes, and in the reign of Charles XI. (1660-1697) 
Sweden reached a high degree of prosperity. 

The Alexander of the North. — On the death of Charles 
XI,, the crown descended to his son, Charles XII., then 
only fifteen years of age. The young prince had conceived 
a passionate admiration for Alexander the Great. When 
told that Alexander lived to be but thirty-two, he said, 
" That is long enough, when a man has conquered king- 

At first he took little interest in public affairs, devoting 
himself to physical exercises and the excitements of the 
chase. x'Vt the council of the nation, it was his custom to 
sit cross-legged on the table, listless and inattentive. But 
when he heard of the alliance of Denmark, Poland, and 
Russia against him, he suddenly shook off his lethargy 
and prepared to prosecute the war with unsparing vigor. 
Leaving Stockholm in 1700, he began a military career 
which has crowned him with the title of the Alexander of 
the North. 

War of the Northern Powers. — Sailing for the Danish 
capital, Charles displayed his impetuous daring in the first 
engagement by leaping into the sea and landing in ad- 
vance of his men on the enemy's soil. Copenhagen was 
bombarded, and in six weeks Frederick IV. gladly pur- 
chased peace. 

The Swedish king now marched to the relief of Narva, 
which sixty thousand Russians were besieging. At the 
head of only nine thousand soldiers he killed or captured 
almost the whole of this army, composed as yet in a great 
measure of half-barbarous men, who were kept at their 
duty by fear of the knout,* and were unable to run 
away on account of their long skirts. When the czar 

* A whip of cowhide thongs plaited with wire, formerly used for 
scourging criminals in Kussia. One hundred and twenty lashes were 
considered equivalent to a sentence of death. 


heard of this defeat, he coolly said, " The Swedes will 
have the advantage of us for a time, but in the end they 
will teach us to conquer them." 

Charles next marched against the Poles and Saxons ; 
in twelve months he had triumphed over all his foes, 
and was regarded as the first military leader in Europe. 
Bent upon dethroning Augustus if it cost him fifty years, 
he accomplished his object, but thus unwisely gave Peter 
time to recover from the reverse at Narva. 

This energetic monarch, meanwhile, was melting church- 
bells into cannon and diligently training his soldiers to 
war. Nor did he neglect the arts of peace. Sheep were 
imported, cloth was made from their wool, and various 
factories were erected. 

Peter finally gained possession of the land he desired 
on the Gulf of Finland, and in 1703 laid the foundations 
of the city of St. Petersburg. " Let him build his wooden 
houses," said Charles disdainfully, " we will soon come 
and burn them." Still with characteristic obstinacy the 
Swedish monarch lingered in Saxony, and dreamed of 
standing forth as " the Defender of the Evangelical Faith," 
overthrowing the papacy, and dictating the law to Europe. 
First, however, Russia must be his ; and in 1708, reject- 
ing with scorn the czar's offers of peace, Charles XII. 
told him they would treat at Moscow, and plunged with a 
magnificent army into the fastnesses of Russia. 

Overthrow and Death of Charles. — The Swedish king 
had been promised the support of the Cossacks of the 
U'kraine by their hetman. This was Mazeppa, who, when 
a youth in Poland, had been bound by a jealous noble on 
the back of a wild horse and carried thus into Russia, 
where he rose to be the Cossack chief. The Cossacks, 
however, adhered to the cause of Peter ; and the Russians 
retired before the Swedes, desolating the country. 

Expected supplies failed to arrive ; a terrible winter 


set in ; yet Charles pressed on, sharing the hardships of 
the meanest soldier. At length, with his army reduced to 
less than twenty thousand, he laid siege to the town of 
Pultow'a, in May, 1709. Here, after a desperate struggle, 
he was defeated by Peter. Where the fire was hottest, 
there fought the rival sovereigns. Charles, who had been 
wounded, was carried to the field on a litter ; and when 
the litter was dashed to pieces by a cannon-ball, the sol- 
diers raised him on their pikes. But his star of victory 
had set ; he was forced upon a horse and fled before the 
pursuing Russians, with a few hundred followers, to a 
Turkish town. As Peter had predicted, the Swedes had 
at last taught the Russians the art of war. 

Charles remained for several years in Turkey, hoping 
still to lead an army of Janizaries to Moscow. The Porte 
yielded to his intrigues, and two hundred thousand Turks 
were sent against the czar. When the latter was reduced 
to the brink of ruin on the banks of the Pruth, his army 
was saved and a treaty adjusted with the enemy through 
the address of the empress Catharine. Catharine had risen 
from the humblest station, to be the wife of Peter the 
Great. In this critical hour she bribed the grand vizier 
with her jewels and such valuables as she could gather in 
the camp, thus saving her husband's crown and possibly 
his life. By the Treaty of the Pruth (1711), Azof was re- 
stored to the Turks. 

The anger of Charles knew no bounds when he learned 
that Peter had escaped. He acted like a madman, and it 
was only with great difficulty, and in fact after using vio- 
lence, that the Turks were able to get rid of their unwel- 
come guest. At last, to their delight, he set out for his 
own dominions. 

Sweden, meantime, had been exhausted by the wars 
she was compelled to sustain. The impoverished people 
had besought their king to return from Turkey, but only 


received the answer that he would send " one of his boots 
to govern them." When at last he arrived, it was to find 
the Swedish monarchy a mere wreck of its former great- 

Still Charles XII. planned campaigns. While besieg- 
ing a Norwegian town in 1718, he was struck down by a 
ball. Whether it came from the enemy's batteries, or was 
aimed by his own officers weary of endless war, is not 
known. Sweden soon after secured peace ; but many of 
her provinces were ceded to Russia, and she declined into 
a second-rate power. 

End of Peter's Career. — The czar continued to prosecute 
his public works, develop his country's resources, and ele- 
vate his people, with that untiring energy which was 
throughout the characteristic of his wonderful career. His 
last war was with Persia ; it resulted in the acquisition of 
territories on the Caspian Sea. "Land is not what I 
want," he often said, " but water ; " and at the end of his 
reign he was " lord of the sunny Caspian and of the icy 
Baltic." In 1724 he solemnly placed the crown of Russia 
on the head of the czarina Catharine ; in the following 
year Peter the Great expired in her arms. 

Catharine had great influence with the emperor, and 
often exercised it for good, soothing him in his fits of rage, 
and endeavoring to keep him from cruel and arbitrary 
acts. He consulted her on the most important affairs; yet 
her education is said to have been so deficient that she 
could not write her own name. 

Sovereigns of Sweden and Russia. 

Russia. {Romanof Family.) 
Michael Feodorovitz, . 1613 
Alexis I., . . . 1645. 
Feodorll., . . . 1676. 
Ivan v., . . 1682-1689. 
Peter the Great, . 1682-1725. 

Gustavus Adolphus, . . 1611. 
Christina, . . . 1632. 
Charles X., . . . 1654. 
Charles XI., . . . 1660. 
Charles XII., . . 1697-1718. 

308 GifiOB&E r., OF ENGLAJTD. 





George I. — The Act of Succession passed by Parliament 
in 1701 settled the crown of England, in the event of 
Anne's death without children, on the princess Sophia, 
Electress of Hanover, and her heirs, if Protestants. Sophia 
was the grandchild of James I., his daughter Elizabeth 
and Frederick the Elector Palatine being her parents. 
She died, however, a few weeks before Queen Anne, and 
consequently in 1714 her son George, then fifty-four years 
of age, ascended the English throne. 

George I. committed the management of affairs to the 
Whigs. The Duke of Marlborough was restored to the 
command of the army, and Sir Robert Walpole became 
prime minister. The Tory party inclined to the cause of 
Prince James the Pretender, and in 1715 revolts of the 
Jacobites, his adherents, broke out in Scotland and Eng- 
land. The prince came over from France to Scotland ; 
but soon becoming disheartened he fled the country, and 
the insurrection was quickly put down. 

The age of George I. was one of mad speculations. 
The most fatal of these was the South Sea Scheme, a plan 
by which the South Sea Company contracted to pay the 
debts of the state in return for certain privileges, and 
monopolies of trade with the gold-producing countries in 
the southern seas. Thousands invested their all in South 
Sea stock, which rose to ten time^ its original value. Sud- 
denly the bubble burst, and multitudes found themselves 
beggars. The public credit was nearly ruined ; but Wal- 
pole, who had vainly opposed this infamous scheme, saved 
the country from bankruptcy. 


Numerous other fraudulent projects were contempo- 
rary with the South Sea Bubble. One company set forth 
in its prospectus that it would " carry on an undertaking, 
nobody to know what it is." In five hours the projector 
had duped London out of nearly two thousand pounds 
sterling, with which he escaped across the Channel. 

George I., a true son of Fatherland in all his tastes 
and affections, was unable to speak the English language; 
as a monarch he was disposed to be fair and moderate ; as 
a man, he was cold, selfish, and profligate — a bad father 
and a brutal husband. 

George II,— The news of the death of George I. (1727) 
was conveyed by Sir Robert Walpole in person to his son, 
who, instead of manifesting any filial sorrow, received the 
intelligence with a volley of oaths at being wakened from 
his afternoon slumbers. Succeeding to the crown with 
the title of George II., this prince laid aside the dislike he 
had long entertained for the shrewd minister of his father, 
and, notwithstanding a determined opposition, Walpole 
and his party continued in power. 

The new king, like his father, was partial to Hanover, 
and often visited Germany. His enemies on one occasion 
signified their displeasure at his prolonged absence from 
England, by posting on the palace-gate a placard inscribed 
as follows : " Lost or strayed from this house, a man who 
has left a wife and six children on the parish. Any person 
giving intelligence of his whereabouts will receive four 
shillings and sixpence : no one judges him deserving of a 
crown'''' [five shillings]. 

A violent political conflict between the opposite fac- 
tions, now distinguished as the parties of the Court and 
the Country, agitated the first fourteen years of this reign. 
In order to maintain his waning influence, Walpole stooped 
to unscrupulous corruption and bought votes with the 

public money. His peaceful policy was distasteful to 


many, who abused him as " the cur of England and the 
spaniel of France." 

The death of the queen-consort Caroline, a woman of 
rare literary and political ability, deprived Walpole in 
1737 of one of his best supporters. Two years later, on 
account of outrages committed on English commerce he 
was obliged by the popular voice to declare war against 
Spain. " They may ring their bells now," said the minis- 
ter, when the people thus expressed their rejoicings, '< but 
they will soon wring their hands." His prediction was 
shortly fultilled ; for, though the British fleet was at first 
victorious, the war on the whole was ill conducted. Eng- 
land, moreover, was drawn into a great continental strug- 
gle, the particulars of which will be related hereafter. 

In 1742 Walpole resigned. This, however, did not in- 
terfere with the prosperity of the country. Trade and 
manufactures received a wonderful impulse by the appli- 
cation of machinery to the arts. Before the death of the 
king in 1760, the fleet of England rode supreme on the 
sea, while her armies had extended her limits in the New 
World and laid the foundations of an empire in India. 
Hallam designates this reign as " the most prosperous 
period England had ever known." 

It was at this time of civil prosperity, but a time also 
of general indifference to religion, that Methodism took 
its rise. A great revival was excited throughout Britain, 
especially among the poorer classes, by the eloquent 
preaching of its founders, Wesley and Whitefield {tchW - 
field). In America, as well as in the mother-country, the 
new tenets were received Avith favor, and the Methodists 
rapidly grew to be a large and important body. 

In 1752 an act was passed, adopting the Gregorian 
Calendar. The error under the .lulian Calendar having 
become eleven days, the third of September was reckoned 
as the fourteenth. 

REBELLION OF 1745. 371 

King George II., described as a dull little man of low 
tastes, lived a life of self-indulgence to the very last. 
Gaming was the passion of his court ; he who could not 
play cards was ridiculed as ill-bred. " Talk not to me 
about books," said the old Duchess of Marlborough, " the 
only books I know are men and cards." Even the queen 
was compelled to study in secret, so furious did the king 
become at the sight of any kind of reading-matter. 

Scotch Rebellion of 1745. — The most prominent event 
of the reign of George II. was the invasion of Great 
Britain by Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, in 1745. 
Supplying himself with arms in France, this adventurous 
prince embarked for Scotland, where he quickly raised a 
small army of Highlanders. With these he gave battle 
to the English troops at Preston Pans. Before the en- 
gagement began, the prince waved his naked sword, cry- 
ing to his men, " My friends, I have thrown away the 
scabbard ! " In four minutes the English were put to 
flight ; and, had the Pretender availed himself of this vic- 
tory to advance directly upon London, he might perhaps 
have regained the crown of his grandfather (James II.). 

But not till the time for action was past did he cross 
the border and march toward the capital. Even then the 
prize seemed almost within his grasp, when the discontents 
of his Highland chieftains compelled him to retrace his 
steps. The English gave pursuit, and on Cullo'den Moor 
(see Map, p. 206) in 1746 a decisive battle took place. 
The bayonets of the king's men proved more than a match 
for the Highland claymores, and in less than thirty minutes 
the Stuart cause was ruined forever. 

After the battle of Culloden, in retaliation for this up- 
rising, the Highlands were desolated far and wide by the 
English commander, the Duke of Cumberland, long re- 
membered among the clans as " the bloody butcher." A 
reward of £30,000 was offered for the Pretender, and he 


was hotly pursued through Scotland. He was probably 
saved through the devotion of the heroic Flora McDonald. 
While the hunt was at its height, she succeeded in con- 
ducting the young prince, disguised as her female attend- 
ant, through the midst of enemies thirsting for his life, 
and after a variety of romantic adventures brought him 
to a point whence he was enabled to escape to France. 

Events in the New "World. — During the reign of George 
II., settlements were made in the delightful region west of 
the Savannah by Oglethorpe, who called his new colony 
Georgia in honor of the king. 

In King George's War (1744-'48), a force from Massa- 
chusetts, led by General Pepperell, reduced the strong 
fortress of Louisburg on Cape Breton {hrit'fn) Island. 
This important post the English government shortly after- 
ward restored to France. 

In 1749 the Ohio Company obtained a grant of five 
hundred thousand acres on the Ohio River, with the inten- 
tion of settling the region west of the Alleghanies. But 
the French also claimed this country, established them- 
selves in north-western Pennsylvania, and apprised the 
commissioner sent to remonstrate with them of their in- 
tention to destroy all English posts on the Ohio. The 
person selected for this important mission was George 
Washington, then twenty-one years of age, already distin- 
guished for his discretion and bravery. 

French and Indian War. — The report of their mes- 
senger roused the English colonists to action, and they 
commenced building a fort where Pittsburg now stands. 
Before it was finished, however, the French took it ; they 
completed the work, and called the fortress Duquesne. 
In 1755 General Braddock, who had been sent to aid the 
colonists with an army of regulars, marched against this 
post. Scorning advice, he fell into an ambuscade, and, had 
it not been for Washington and his Virginia Rangers, the 


whole British force must have been destroyed. Washing- 
ton seemed to bear a charmed life. Again and again was 
he fired at by hostile Indians without effect. He was 
saved for greater deeds. 

Another campaign, in the vicinity of Lake George 
(named after the British king), was no less disastrous to 
the English arms. Fort William Henry, on the lake, in- 
vested by a large army of French and Indians under Mont- 
calm, was defended by its commander till his ammunition 
gave out, and then surrendered on the promise of a safe 
escort for the garrison to an adjoining post. The French, 
however, Avere unable to restrain their savage allies, and 
many of the English were massacred after the capitulation. 
At the close of 1757, the French possessions in America 
exceeded those of England as twenty to one. 

In subsequent operations the British were more suc- 
cessful. Washington raised his country's flag on the ruins 
of Fort Duquesne, the name of which was changed to 
Pittsburg, in honor of the English statesman Pitt, the firm 
friend of the American people. The conquest of Canada 
was begun by the gallant Wolfe, who fell before Quebec 
at the moment of victory. Montcalm, the French com- 
mander, whose genius had contributed greatly to the ex- 
tension of the French dominions in the New World, re- 
ceived a mortal wound in the same battle. By the Treaty 
of Paris (1763), Canada was given up to the English, and 
the Mississippi was recognized as the general boundary of 
their possessions on the west. 

English Literature. —The lustre which the distinguished 
writers of Queen Anne's reign shed upon English litera- 
ture remains undimmed in this succeeding period. Samuel 
Johnson, the critic, moralist, and first great lexicographer 
of England, was recognized as the literary oracle of the 
age. Fiction became popular through the sentimental 
pen of Richardson, and the lively pictures of Fielding, 


even marred as they are by coarseness. Hume, Gibbon, 
and Robei'tson, a trio of historians of high repute in their 
own day, are still recognized as standards. 

Of poets there were many, though none rank with the 
great Shakespeare and Milton. Oliver Goldsmith, with 
his simple verse and pleasant humor, is a universal favorite ; 
Akenside's " Pleasures of the Imagination " displays a 
masterly command of language ; Gray's " Elegy in a 
Country Churcliyard" is the faultless work of a consum- 
mate artist ; Thomson's " Seasons " abounds in lifelike 
views of external nature ; while Collins, though he wrote 
little, touches the heart with his exc^uisite pathos. 

During this century were published Burke's " Essay on 
the Sublime and Beautiful," Karnes's " Elements of Crit- 
icism," Blair's " Lectures on Rhetoric," and Paley's " Evi- 
dences of Christianity." Before its close, the Christian 
poet Cowper became a favorite in every household by his 
simplicity, good sense, originality, and earnest moral tone. 
Concentrated passion, thrilling tenderness, and genial 
humor, are the characteristics of Scotland's peasant bard, 
the ploughman Burns. 

Hogarth and Reynolds, eminent English painters, and 
Handel, the composer of noble oratorios, also flourished in 
this age. 

French and Indian War: Chief Events. 

Braddock's defeat, July 9, 1*755. The French general Dieskau {dees' - 
Jcow) defeated at Lake George by colonial troops under Johnson, Septem- 
ber 8, 1755. New Brunswick conquered by the British, 1755. The 
French under Montcalm capture Fort Oswego in 1756 — Fort William 
Henry, on Lake George, in August, 1757. Louisburg, Cape Breton, and 
Prince Edward Island, taken by the British, 1758. French compelled to 
evacuate Fort Duquesne by Washington, 1758. Ticonderoga and Crown 
Point taken by the Enghsh, 1759. Quebec captured by the English, 
September, 1759. All Canada and Detroit surrendered to the English, 





Regency of the Duke of Orleans. — Louis XIV. of France, 
on his death-bed, summoned to liis side the heir to the 
crown, his great-grandson, a boy five years of age, and 
bade him study the interests of the people and live in 
peace with the surrounding nations. 

During the minority of this prince, Louis XV,, the 
government was conducted by his kinsman, Philip of Or- 
leans, as regent. An unprincipled man, he resorted to the 
most iniquitous measures to discharge the immense nation- 
al debt. The coinage was debased ; many claims were 
cancelled ; and creditors were thrown into prison and com- 
pelled to pay heavily for their release. Still the state ap- 
peared to be on the brink of ruin, when Law, a Scotch 
financier, proposed to relieve the public distress by issuing 
a paper currency, having as the basis of its credit certain 
monopolies of trade and the yield of imaginary mines in 
Louisiana — the name of the vast region owned by France 
in the New World on the Mississippi River. 

Law's plan, known as the Mississippi Scheme, was 
eagerly adopted by the regent ; and the deluded people, 
with feverish excitement, speculated in Mississippi shares. 
Crowds were attracted to Paris, and clerks could scarcely 
be found in sufficient numbers to transact the company's 
business. But a few months sufficed to prick the bubble. 
A crash came ; thousands were ruined, and the country re- 
ceived a shock from which it did not recover for years. 

Reign of Profligacy. — In 1733 the king was declared 
of age ; his preceptor and religious guide. Cardinal Fleury, 
became prime minister. Fleury favored peace, but could 
not prevent France from becoming entangled in difficulties 


with England, and in wars with x\ustria and Prussia, which 
will be treated in the following chapter. 

Louis XV, soon yielded to the temptations that sur- 
rounded him, and plunged into the most shameful profli- 
gacy. Since the days of the Roman emperors, no age had 
seen such open and disgusting licentiousness. A succes- 
sion of depraved favorites governed the king, and through 
him the nation ; the most notorious of these was the 
Marchioness de Pom'padour, who for twenty years directed 
the afi"airs of the kingdom. 

Louis sunk deeper and deeper in vice. The death of 
his son, and of his wife, produced but a short-lived repent- 
ance. Parisian society throughout, while it was showy 
and brilliant, was at the same time frivolous, impure, and 
iri'eligious. A general spirit of scepticism prevailed, and 
characterized the literature of the day, of which the French 
Encyclopgedia was a type, and Voltaire, an infidel though 
the greatest wit in Europe, the leading ornament. 

The king was carried off in the midst of his excesses 
(1774). He left France overburdened with debt and 
humbled by the arms of her enemies. 

Suppression of the Jesuits. — An important event of the 
reign of Louis XV. was the expulsion of the Jesuits from 
France (1764). In a controversy between them and the 
Jansenists, followers of the reformer Jansen, the king at 
first sided with the Jesuits. But the latter defied Pompa- 
dour, and she exerted herself to effect their downfall. 
Yielding at last to her influence and the popular clamor^ 
the king suppressed the order. 

About the same time the Jesuits were banished from 
Spain and Portugal. Pope Clement XIV. was prevailed 
upon by the Bourbon courts to suppress the order (1773), 
and was called in consequence the Protestant Pope. It 
was restored by Pope Pius VII. in the beginning of the 
next century. 


Leading Literary Men. 

Voltaire, author of the French epic, " The Henriade," histories, and 
tragedies. Diderot {dede-ro) and D'Alembert {dak-lon3-hare'), editors of 
the French Encyclopaedia, hostile to social order and religion. Montes- 
quieu {mon-tes-ku'), author of " The Spirit of Laws," one of the most re- 
markable books of the age. Rousseau {roo-so'\ a philosophic writer; 
chief work, " The Social Contract." Buffon, an eminent naturalist, 
author of several valuable volumes on subjects connected with natural 
history. Le Sage {leli sahzh). whose " Gil Bias " {zheel blahs) was one 
of the most popular fictions ever written. 



Early History of Prussia. — Prussia was so called 
from the Borus'si, an ancient Lithua'nian tribe that dwelt 
along the southern coast of the Baltic, between the Vis- 
tula and the Niemen (/le'mew). Three centuries before 
Christ the Phoenicians sailed hither in search of amber, 
and found the people as savage as the wolves that howled 
through their forests. 

A rude civilization gradually dawned on these northern 
wilds, but long after the Christian era the inhabitants 
were still pagans. Ad'albert, a zealous bishop, attempted 
their conversion in the tenth century, but was murdered 
by the priests, falling, according to the old legend, with 
his arms outstretched in the form of a crucifix. Subse^ 
quent missionaries proved more successful. 

In the course of time Prussia became a dependency of 
Poland, and in the early part of the seventeenth century it 
was united with the electorate of Brandenburg, a territory 
lying farther west. Brandenburg was in the hands of the 


Ho'lienzol'lern family, which traced back its origin to the 
time of Charlemagne ; and around this electorate, as a 
nucleus, the present kingdom of Prussia has grown up. 

The Great Elector. — During the Thirty Years' War, 
Prussia and Brandenburg suffered all the horrors of famine 
and pestilence. But the Great Elector, Frederick WUliain 
(1(!40-1688), restored prosperity to his desolate country, 
enlarged his dominions by conquest, and raised Branden- 
burg to an important position among the European states. 

Founding of the Kingdom. — The son of the Great 
Elector, in consideration of his promising to assist the em- 
peror Leopold I. in the War of the Spanish Succession, 
received from the latter the title of " King of Prussia." 
Early in 1?01, in Ko'nigsberg, then the capital, the elector 
assumed the crown. The coronation ceremonies were 
magnificent ; the streets were hung with gorgeous tapes- 
tries, and many of them richly carpeted, to receive the 
lords and ladies who gathered to greet the elector Fred- 
erick III. as Frederick I. the king. In memory of this 
event, the Order of the Black Eagle was established. 

Prussia faithfully kept her promise to the emperor, and 
her soldiers shared with Eugene and Marlborough the 
glory of their great victories. 

The reign of Frederick I, was noted for the founding 
of the Ber'lin Academy, under the philosopher Leibnitz 
{libe'nits), and the cultivation of the arts and sciences, 
encouraged chiefly by the queen. 

Frederick William I. — On the death of Frederick I. in 
1713, his son Frederick William ascended the throne. 
Many anecdotes are related of his unamiable disposition, 
even in childhood. When only five years old, he was 
taken to Hanover, to visit his uncle the elector, and while 
there severely beat his cousin (a boy much older than 
himself), afterward George II. of England. On another 
occasion, his governess having set him a task that he re- 


solved not to perform, he let himself out of a high castle- 
window, and hung by his hands to the sill till she consented 
to revoke the order. 

On receiving the crown, Frederick William strove by 
the strictest economy to repair the evils occasioned by his 
father's extravagance. Luxury was banished from the 
palace ; servants were dismissed ; and all but thirty of the 
thousand saddle-horses in the royal stables were sold. 
Idleness, even for a mo.nent, was nowhere tolerated. 
When the king walked out, woe to the loiterer, whether 
noble or commoner, that came within reach of his cane ! 
The old apple-women had to knit at their stalls ; and even 
well-dressed ladies, quietly promenading, were saluted 
with kicks and ordered ' home to their brats.' 

But in one respect Frederick William I. was himself 
extravagant. At an enormous expense he formed a guard 
of twenty-four hundred soldiers, composed of the tallest 
men he could purchase or kidnap throughout the world, 
ranging from six to eight feet in height. On one occa- 
sion, the German ambassador, a man of stalwart propor- 
tions, was seized by his recruiting officers, but released 
with humble apologies as soon as their mistake was dis- 
covered. — Another institution of this king was his " To- 
bacco Parliament," at which in the evening he met his 
ministers and generals, each furnished with a pipe, and 
discussed with them informally the affairs of state. 

In domestic life Frederick William was a tyrant ; he 
cudgelled his son, struck and kicked his daughter, and 
sometimes provided such poor fare that the children rose 
hungry from the table. If they complained, the king in 
his fury threw plates at their heads. After helping him- 
self and his guests, he would frequently spit into the dish, 
to prevent his family from eating. " His palace," says 
Macauhiy, " was hell, and he the most execrable of fiends." 
Driven to desperation by this cruel treatment, the crown- 


prince finally attempted to flee from the country, but was 
overtaken and brought back. The king's furious charges 
of cowardice and desertion were met with spirited replies, 
which so enraged the tyrant that he was with difficulty 
restrained from plunging his sword into his son's bosom. 

With all this brutality was mingled shrewdness in the 
management of public affairs ; and, when Frederick Wil- 
liam I. died in 1740, Prussia was in a most flourishing 
condition, with a full treasury and a formidable army of 
the best-disciplined soldiers in Europe. 

Frederick II., the Great, the prince just spoken of, 
succeeded, and lost no time in using his treasures and army 
to enlarge his dominions and elevate Prussia to the rank 
of a first-rate power. His energy and genius enabled 
him to withstand united Europe ; and through a wonder- 
ful succession of splendid victories and crushing disasters 
he merited the title which history has bestowed upon him 
— the Great. 

War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748).— In 1740 
(the very year of Frederick's succession) died the emperor 
Charles VI. of Germany, the last prince of the direct line 
of Hapsburg. He had endeavored to secure the succes- 
sion to his eldest daughter, Maria Theresa (te-re'sd), mar- 
ried to Francis of Lorraine' ; and the great European 
powers pledged themselves to maintain the Pragmatic 
Sanction, or solemn agreement which insured to her the 
crown. But, as the old Eugene said, " a hundred thou- 
sand men would have guaranteed it better than a hundred 
thousand treaties." 

Hardly was the emperor buried when numerous claim- 
ants arose for the dominions of his young and beautiful 
daughter. Frederick II,, of Prussia, suddenly invaded 
Silesia (si-le' she-d) ; Charles Albert, elector of Bavaria, 
asserted his right to the Austrian states, and France took 
up arms to support him in his efforts to obtain the impe- 



rial dignity. Silesia was quickly conquered by the ambi- 
tious Prussian. The Austrian dominions were overrun by 
French, Saxon, and Bavarian troops ; and Charles Albert 
was finally elected emperor of Germany, 

In her distress, Maria Theresa appealed to the Hun- 
garian diet. Moved by her tears and promises, the Hun- 

Makia Theresa and her Minister of State. 

garians drew their sabres and shouted, " Life and blood 
for our queen and kingdom ! " The whole country rose 
in arms. A force of wild horsemen swept into Bavaria, 
drove back the enemy, and on the very day when the im- 
perial crown was placed on the head of Charles Albert the 
Austrian army entered his capital, Munich [mu'nik). 


Meanwhile the empress had found an active ally in the 
king of PJngland, the second of the Georges. At Det'- 
ting-en, in Bavaria, he overthrew the French (1743). It 
is told of him that when his horse became frightened and 
turned from the fray, the little king threw himself to the 
ground, and led his men on foot, exclaiming, " Now I 
know I shall not run away." Never since has a British 
sovereign appeared at the head of his troops in battle. 

Two years later, Louis XV. and his dauphin braved 
the dangers of the field in the bloody fight at Fontcnoy', 
where Saxe, a gallant marshal of France, inflicted a severe 
loss on the allies. About this time the emperor died, and 
in his stead Maria Theresa's consort was raised to the im- 
perial throne, becoming Francis 1. of Germany. Three 
years after (1748), the War of the Austrian Succession 
was terminated by the Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle. Silesia 
remained in the hands of Prussia. 

Interval of Peace. — On the cessation of hostilities, 
Frederick the Great gave all his energies to the strength- 
ening of his kingdom, and prepared an efficient army to 
defend, if need be, his recent conquest. And need was ; 
for the high-spirited Maria Theresa, spoiled of Silesia, 
took advantage of this period of peace to form a powerful 
league against the robber — none the less a robber because 
he wore a diadem. 

Russia declared for the German empress. This coun- 
try, on the death of Peter the Great, had passed into the 
hands of his wife Catharine I., who reigned for two years 
with Men'zikoff as her minister. Peter II., her successor, 
the beloved prince of the Russians, who declared that he 
would " rule in the fear of God, and like Vespasian suffer 
no man to go sorrowful away," died at an early age. 
Next came the profligate Anna, famous for her palace of 
ice on the Ne'va ; and in 1741 Elizabeth, youngest daugh- 
ter of Peter the Great, ascended the throne of the czars. 

SEVEN years' war. ' 383 

This dissolute empress, incensed at the sarcasm of the 
witty Fredei'ick, joined the coalition against him ; and for 
the first time Russia interfered as a great power in the 
affairs of western Europe. 

France, Sweden, and Saxony, also joined the alliance ; 
while Frederick, penetrating the designs of his jealous 
neighbors, succeeded in concluding a treaty with the Brit- 
ish king. 

While Europe was arming, an earthquake shook her 
western shores. The shock was felt from Africa to Eng- 
land. Lisbon was destroyed, thii'ty thousand of her in- 
habitants being swallowed up or crushed beneath her 
crumbling walls. 

Seven Years' War (1756-1763). — Resolved to anticipate 
his enemies, and undismayed by their number, Frederick 
the Great in 1756 suddenly marched into Saxony, and 
struck the first blow in the Seven Years' War. His vic- 
tories of Rossbach (ross'bahk) over the French, Leu then 
(loi'ten) over the Austrians, and Zorn'dorf (see Map, p. 
387) over the Russians, astonished the world. Friend and 
foe alike adorned their walls with pictures of one who had 
come to be regarded as the greatest general of modern 

But the tide turned ; reverses followed. Prussia was 
well-nigh exhausted of men and resources. England de- 
serted her in her extremity ; and Frederick, left to battle 
with Europe single-handed, and with the dismemberment 
of his kingdom staring him in the face, is said in his des- 
peration for a time to have carried poison in his pocket, 
that he might not survive his fatherland. 

In this critical state of affairs, the Russian empress 
died. Her successor, Peter HI., whose admiration of 
Frederick amounted almost to worship, at once abandoned 
Austria, and sent an army to re-enforce the Prussian king. 
" Together," he was heard to say, " we will conquer the 


universe." Peter, however, was shortly after assassinated; 
and his wife and successor, Catharine II., who had shared 
in the crime, recalled the Russian troops and remained 
neutral during the rest of the struggle. 

Notwithstanding, victory returned to the Prussian 
standards. Germany, devastated and impoverished, clam- 
ored for peace ; and Maria Theresa was obliged to listen 
to the demands of her people and resign all hope of recov- 
ering Silesia. 

Prussia after the Seven Years' War. — Prussia, thus 
saved from the dangers which had threatened its very ex- 
istence, gradually recovered from the ravages of the Seven 
Years' War under the vigorous administration of " good 
old Fritz," who worked twenty hours out of the twenty- 
four for the good of his people. The strictest economy 
was practised even in the royal household. The king was 
notorious for his snuif-colored vest and shabby coat, and is 
said to have been buried in a shirt of his valet's, because 
his own wardrobe could not furnish one decent enough for 
the purpose. 

One secret of Frederick's military success was his rigid 
discipline. Disobedience he never forgave. It is related 
that one evening intending to move upon the enemy, who 
were near at hand, he ordered all lights to be extinguished 
throughout the camp by eight o'clock. Going out at that 
hour to see for himself whether the order was obeyed, he 
espied a solitary light, and entering the tent in which it 
glimmered found an officer just finishing a letter to his 
wife. " Mercy ! mercy, your majesty ! " cried the terrified 
captain, throwing himself on his knees. " Nay," replied 
the king, " since you are writing, write one line more. 
Tell your wife that by noon to-morrow you will be a dead 
man." The letter was sent, and at the appointed hour the 
disobedient officer was executed. 

This great king died in 1786. He was succeeded by 


iiis nephew, Frederick William II., who aban(ioned himself 
to profligacy and squandered the treasures of the kingdom. 

Austria under Joseph II. — Austria, meanwhile, was 
recovering its prosperity. When Francis I. died in 1765, 
his son Joseph II. was elected emperor ; but Maria Theresa 
admiuistei'ed the government till her death. Joseph was 
noted for his benevolence, and introduced various innova- 
tions which for the most part had in view the elevation of 
his people. He abolished serfdom, allowed freedom of 
worship, improved the condition of the Jews, encouraged 
industry and education, and established the liberty of the 
press. But these reforms met with violent opposition in 
certain quarters, and some of them were subsequently ab- 

Maria Theresa, deservedly ranked among Austria's 
most illustrious sovereigns, died in 1780 ; and in 1790 
Joseph followed her, leaving the imperial throne to his 
brother Leopold II. 

Russia under Catharine II., despite the impurity of 
her private character, grew and prospered. The da}"- 
which dawned under Peter the Great, in Catharine's mag- 
nificent reign attained its noontide splendor. Illustrious 
scholars and statesmen shone at her court, while Potem'kin 
and Suwarrow [soo-wxr'rd) led her armies to victory. 
Suwarrow's dispatch to the empress, announcing one of 
his triumphs over the Turks, became famous by its terse- 
ness — " Haughty Ismail {is-mah-eel') is at your feet." 

The aim of Catharine was to expel the Ottomans from 
Europe and found a new Byzantine Empire of her own. 
She died without realizing her hopes, but not till she had 
acquired vast territories at the expense of the Turks and 
established her supremacy on the Black Sea. 

In November, 1796, Catharine was struck with apo- 
plexy. Her son Paul was proclaimed in her stead. One 
of his first acts was to place the remains of his murdered 


father beside those of the guilty Catharine, and over both 
coffins the inscription, " Divided in Hfe, united in death." 

Partition of Poland. — On the death of the Saxon 
elector Augustus the Strong- (1733), of whom a native his- 
torian said " he brought peace to Poland, but it was the 
peace of the tomb," the Polish nation acknowledged 
Stan'islas Leszinski {les-tsin' sJce) as king. But a Russian 
army drove him from the country, and secured the suc- 
cession to Augustus II. of Saxony. After his weak reign, 
Poniatowski [j^o-ne-ah-tov' ske) , the last of Poland's kings, 
ascended the throne (1764). Despite his labors for his 
country's good, the terrible consequences of anarchy and 
dissension were visited upon unhappy Poland. Frederick 
the Great had long coveted a portion of her territoiy ; and 
in 1772 a treaty was concluded by which nearly one-third 
of Poland was divided between himself, Joseph of Austria, 
and Catharine II, The Polish diet was overawed and 
compelled to sanction the dismemberment. Maria Theresa 
for a time protested against this unholy partition. 

An attempt (1791) on the part of the Poles and their 
king to throw off the constitution imposed on them by the 
partitioning powers, and substitute a new one more con- 
sistent with the ancient forms, led to an invasion of the 
country by Russia in the following year. Then private 
quarrels were forgotten, and the nation rose as one man 
in defence of its liberties. Miracles of valor were per- 
formed by Prince Poniatowski, nephew of the king, and 
the gallant Kosciusko {kos-se-us' ko) ; but their efforts 
were unavailing, and another third of Poland was divided 
between Prussia and Russia. 

A last effort was made for the independence of Poland 
in 1794, by the heroic Kosciusko. After a number of 
bloody conflicts, in which every Pole showed himself a 
hero, Warsaw capitulated. Kosciusko, who in the last 
battle had fallen from his horse covered with wounds. 



uttering the prophetic words, " The end of Poland," lan- 
guished in a Russian prison till the death of Catharine. 

Russia and Prussia now proceeded to a third partition 
of what remained of Poland (1795), but Austria would not 
consent to the division unless she also received a share. 
Accordingly, Cracow {kra'ko) and the surrounding terri- 

tory were appropriated to her ; Warsaw and the country 
as far as the Niemen fell to Prussia ; and Russia, as be- 
fore, obtained the lion's share. Thus was dismembered 
the country of the brave Poles, after an existence of nearly 
a thousand years. No more infamous act is recorded in 
history. Its name was effaced from the list of states ; and 
its people, deprived of all but honor and the thirst for re- 


venge, took for their motto, " All freemen are brothers." 
and plunged into that conflict with despotism which, as 
we shall see, presently shook Europe to its foundation. 

When Kosciusko was released by the emperor Paul, 
the latter, to make amends for the injuries inflicted by his 
mother Catharine, loaded him with marks of favor, even 
presenting him his own sword. But the high-spirited Pole 
refused it, saying, " I have no need of a sword ; I have no 
country to defend." 

German and Russian Literature. — During the eigh- 
teenth century, German literature made great advances. 
Among the writers who left their impress on the age, were 
Les'sing, the dramatist and critic ; Klop 'stock, author of 
the grand German epic, " The Messiah ; " Wieland (we'' 
land), the graceful poet ; Her'der, who exercised an im- 
portant influence on literature and philosophy, and of 
whom Richter, himself a German writer of no mean repute, 
said, " Herder is no poet, but himself a poem ; " Kant, the 
profound metaphysician ; and GOthe [go'teh) and Schiller 
(shil'ler), the most illustrious names in German literature, 
ranking among the greatest poets of any age or country. 

Russian literature may be said to have been founded 
in the eighteenth century. Peter the Great efi^ected an 
intellectual revolution by abolishing the old Slav'ic lan- 
guage as the medium of official communication, and ele- 
vating the Russian as spoken by the people to the dignity 
of a written tongue. The first book in the Russian lan- 
guage was printed in 1699, and the first newspaper in 1704. 
Elizabeth and Catharine II. carried on the work which 
Peter had begun. Elizabeth founded the University of 
Moscow and the Academy at St. Petersburg ; and Catha- 
rine was alluded to by Voltaire in the words, "Light 
comes now from the North." Lomonosof [lom-o-no' sof) 
has been called " the father of Russian poetry." 

In Poland, also, literature and art flourished. 



Contemporary Sovereigns, etc. 

Frederick I., 

Frederick William I., 

Frederick II., 
THE Great, 
1740-1 78G. 

Frederick William II.. 


Anne, queen of England. Philip V., of Spain. 

War of the Spanish Succession (1701-'14). 

George I. and II., of England. Louis XV., of 

France. Frederick Augustus, of Poland. 

<j Peter the Great, of Russia ; Catharine I., 

j Peter II., Anna. War of the Polish Suc- 

(^ cession. 
War of the Austrian Succession. Seven Years' 
War. George III., of England. Elizabeth, 
Peter III., Catharine II., of Russia. Ali 
Bey {ahle ba), in Egypt. Pope Clement 
XIV. (Ganganelli), a reformer. War of the 
American Revolution. Washington ; Frank- 
lin ; Voltaire ; Dr. Johnson. 

f George III., of England. Pius VI., pope. 

■i French Revolution. Final dismemberment 

I of Poland. 



"William Pitt. — When George III. ascended the Eng- 
lish throne in 1760, William Pitt, the Great Commoner, 
one of the ablest statesmen that his country ever produced, 
was at the height of his power. He was adored by the 
people as the inflexible foe of every unconstitutional meas- 
ure, and spoke with such eloquence that he has been 
ranked among the first orators of all time. He made Eng- 
land the foremost country in the world. 

Pitt advocated the alliance with Frederick the Great, 
on the ground that " the French colonies in America were 
to be conquered through Germany." When the Family 


Compact was formed between the Bourbon courts of France 
and Spain, he urged immediate war with the latter, but 
was overruled and resigned. In France it was remarked 
that Pitt's fall was worth two victories. War with Spain, 
however, followed ; and, in the midst of brilliant successes 
on the part of England, the Treaty of Paris was signed 

Causes of the American Revolution. — On the ground 
that the recent French and Indian War had been carried 
on for the protection of the American colonies, the Eng- 
lish government resolved that the latter should share the 
expenses incurred. But the Americans remembered that 
much of their success was due to their own brave troops, 
and claimed that Parliament had no right to tax them un- 
less they were represented in that body. Notwithstand- 
ing, in 1765 the Stamp Act was passed, requiring stamps 
of different values to be affixed to all deeds, notes, news- 
papers, etc. Upon this the indignation of the colonies 
blazed forth, and resistance was determined upon ; but the 
obnoxious act was repealed in 1766. 

Yet harmony was not restored, for other taxes were 
imposed, and British regiments were sent from England 
to enforce the submission of the people. The king re- 
garded the Americans as " rebels," and Pitt their cham- 
pion, now Earl of Chatham, as " a trumpet of sedition." 
" Four regiments," wrote George, " will bring them to 
their senses ; they will only be lions while we are lambs." 
Vainly Chatham strove to avert the conflict ; his advice 
was rejected, and in 1775 the eight years' war of the 
American Revolution began. 

The Revolutionary War. — The American coast from 
Maine to Georgia was at this time occupied by thirteen 
colonies, containing a people used to the hardships of the 
wilderness, animated by an uncompromising love of free- 
dom, and determined on maintaining at all hazards their 



rights as British subjects. The English troops were 
gathered in Boston ; and an attempt on their part to de- 
stroy the stores which the colonists were known to have 
collected at Concord, led to the shedding of the first blood 
in the Revolution, at Lexington, April 19, 1775. 

In May more royal troops arrived from England. Gen- 
eral Howe commanded them, and learned at Bunker Hill 
(June 17, 1775), which the Americans seized in the night, 
and which they would have held in spite of the most gal- 
lant charges of the enemy had not their ammunition given 
out, that considerably more than four regiments would 


be needed to reduce a nation of freemen to submission. 
Two days before the battle of Bunker Hill, the chief com- 
mand of the American army had been conferred, by the 
Continental Congress assembled in Philadelphia, on George 
Washington, of Virginia, the hero of Braddock's campaign. 
On the 3d of July, 1775, he assumed command at Cam- 

An unsuccessful attack on Quebec by the Americans 
during the winter was followed by movements of Wash- 
ington in the spring which caused the British to evacuate 
Boston, and the defeat of an expedition led by General 
Clinton against Charleston (June, 1776). Up to this time 
the colonies had desired nothing more than a redress of 
grievances ; there had been little thought of separation 
from the mother-country. But now Congress, seeing its 
petitions treated with silent contempt, and the British 
government preparing more vigorously than ever and even 
hiring German soldiers for the war, gave up all hope of 
reconciliation. On the 4th of July, 1776, independence 
was declared, and the Thirteen Colonies became the Uni- 
ted States of America. 

After a short stay at Halifax, whither they had sailed 
from Boston, the British army, strongly re-enforced, de- 
scended on New York. Washington, hampered by the 
want of men, ammunition, and stores, could make no effi- 
cient defence, and after suffering a nearly fatal defeat on 
Long Island left New York to the enemy, withdrew his 
army to the north, succeeded in crossing the Hudson into 
New Jersey, traversed that state in hot haste, and found 
safety only by placing the Delaware between himself and 
the pursuing British. A well-planned surprise of a Hes- 
sian detachment at Trenton on December 26th, followed 
by a successful engagement at Princeton, served to en- 
courage the desponding Americans ; and during the winter 
Washington managed to recover a great part of New Jersey. 

buegoyne's surrender. 393 

About this time Lafayette, a young French marquis, 
ever the generous friend of freedom, appeared in America, 
and offered his sword to the infant republic. 

The plans of the British for the summer of 1777 were 
directed against the North. Burgoyne was to sweep, with 
a strong force of British and Indians from Canada, down 
Lake Champlain and the valley of the Hudson, till he 
effected a junction with Howe, garrisoning important posts 
on the way, in order to cut off Washington's communica- 
tion with the Eastern States. Howe, meantime, was to 
keep Washington busy. Burgoyne's expedition resulted 
in utter failure ; he was hemmed in, and after two severe 
battles obliged to surrender his entire force at Saratoga 
(October 17, 1777). 

Howe, after vainly manoeuvring for some time to bring 
Washington to an engagement for which he felt himself 
unprepared, threatened Philadelphia. Unwilling to lose 
that important city without a blow in its defence, Wash- 
ington gave battle to the enemy at Brandywine (Septem- 
ber 11, 1777), and was defeated. Philadelphia was taken, 
and Washington withdrew his men to spend a terrible 
winter, cold, sick, and disheartened, at Valley Forge. 

Before the declaration of independence, commissioners 
had been sent to France, the traditional enemy of Eng- 
land, to ask aid for the struggling colonies. Among these 
was Benjamin Franklin, a candle-maker in his youth, a 
great philosopher in his maturer years, who had astonished 
the savants of Europe with the grand discovery that 
lightning and electricity are identical. A thrill of joy ran 
through America when it was announced that France had 
consented to send assistance to the cause of freedom. 

We cannot give all the details of the next two years. 
Suffice it to say, that the British evacuated Philadel- 
phia, and fell back on New York — Washington deviat- 
ing from his Fabian policy to give them battle at Mon- 


mouth on the way, but without decisive results : That an 
attempt to recover Savannah by a combined force of 
Americans and French was repulsed with great loss : That 
Paul Jones encircled the American flag with a halo of 
glory by several wonderful naval victories : That the cap- 
ture of Charleston, South Carolina, by the British (May 
12, 1780) was followed, in spite of a brilliant partisan 
warfare, by the conquest of most of Carolina ; and. That 
the patriot cause came near being ruined in September, 
1780, by the treachery of Benedict Arnold and the be- 
trayal of the strong fortress of West Point into the hands 
of Clinton, since 1778 commander-in-chief. 

After this the war was transferred mainly to the South. 
Greene, placed by Congress in command of the southern 
department, had all that he could do to uphold his coun- 
try's flag against the British general Cornwallis, in the 
active campaign of 1781 in the Carolinas. After some 
hair-breadth escapes and two or three reverses, he found 
himself gaining ground. One after another the British 
jiosts fell into his hands, till at last only Charleston was 
left to them. Meanwhile Cornwallis, with about seven 
thousand men, after ravaging southern Virginia, had re- 
tired to Yorktown and there intrenched himself. 

On the last day of summer, 1781, a French fleet reached 
Chesapeake Bay, and Washington, seeing his opportunity, 
concerted with its commander a joint attack on Cornwallis. 
Keeping Clinton at New York in ignorance of his design, 
he moved en Yorktown as rapidly as possible, and with 
his French allies invested the fortifications of the enemy. 
A sally proved unsuccessful, resistance vain ; on the 19th 
of October, 1781, Cornwallis was obliged to capitulate. 

This surrender virtually closed the Revolutionary War. 
George III. and his minister Lord North had no mind thus 
to give up the revolted colonies ; but the English people 
had something to say on the subject, and they little rel- 


islied the heavy taxes which the war made necessary. Ac- 
cordingly, in 1783 the independence of the United States 
was acknowledged by Great Britain, 

Adoption of the Federal Constitution. — On the conclu 
sion of the war, the United States labored under great 
difficulties as regarded credit, efficient government, and 
the condition of the people ; but by means of industry, 
economy, and wise counsels, a better state of things was 
gradually brought about. In 1787, at an assembly of rep- 
resentatives from the several states, a Constitution was 
framed, and in 1789 a government was organized under it. 
According to this Constitution, the states were united in 
a federal republic ; the legislative power was vested in a 
Congress consisting of a Senate and House of Representa- 
tives ; the executive, in a President, elected for four years. 

The first president under the new Constitution was 
Washington, the beloved chief who with an unwavering 
trust in Providence had achieved a result so grand with 
resources so slender. Frederick the Great, of Prussia, but 
expressed the sentiment of the first military men of Eu- 
rope, when he sent Washington a sword inscribed " From 
the oldest general in the world to the greatest." 

The Thirteen Original States. 

Virginia, first settled by the English, at Jamestown, 160*7. 

New York, by the Dutch, at New Amsterdam, 1614. 

New Jersey, by the Dutch, at Bergen, 1618. 

Massachusetts, by the English, at Plymouth, 1620. 

New Hampshire, by the English, near Portsmouth, 1623. 

Maryland, by the English, at St. Mary's, 1634. 

Connecticut, by emigrants from Massachusetts, at Windsor, 1635. 

Rhode Island, by Roger Williams, at Providence, 1636. 

Delaware, by the Swedes and Finns, on Christiana Creek, 1638. 

Pennsylvania, by Swedes from Delaware, 1643 ; by William Penn, 1683, 

North Carolina, by emigrants from Virginia, on the Roanoke, 1653. 

South Carolina, by the English, near Charleston, 1670. 

Georgia, by the English under Oglethorpe, at Savannah, 1*733. 

396 LOUIS XVI., or fkange. 


Accession of Louis XVI. — On the death of Louis XV. 
(1774), his gentle grandson, not yet twenty years of age, 
became king of France. The young prince had taken 
to wife the daughter of Maria Theresa, Marie Antoinette, 
whom writers describe as of marvellous loveliness and 
grace. But the kingdom which Louis XVI. inherited was 
exhausted and burdened with an enormous national debt. 
A great crisis was evidently at hand. Louis XV. had per- 
ceived the gathering storm, and made the selfish prophecy, 
"The throne is old, but it will last my time." No wonder 
that the new monarch, when the servile courtiers rushed 
from the death-bed of his grandfather to hail him as their 
king, took the hand of his wife, and falling on his knees 
implored divine guidance and protection. 

The very first acts of Louis XVI., looking toward re- 
trenchment and the welfare of his people, proclaimed his 
good intentions. But in order to understand the difficul- 
ties in the way of the young reformer, we must consider 
more minutely the state of France at the time. 

Causes of the Revolution. — The great mass of the French 
people were impoverished. Two-thirds of the soil was held 
by the nobles and clergy, who were almost entirely exempt 
from taxation, and squandered their wealth in the gay 
salons of Paris. The arrogance of the upper classes was 
almost intolerable ; there was no justice for the poor, who 
were trodden down by the aristocracy without mercy. 
When the peasant's taxes were paid, scarcely enough was 
left to keep his family in coarse food and rags. Cases 
were even known of famished men eating grass like the 
beasts of the field, in default of proper sustenance, or fall- 
ing by the road-side from sheer exhaustion. 


The French watched the struggle for liberty in the 
New World with vital interest. Many who helped to es- 
tablish American freedom brought back with them the 
democratic sentiments they had imbibed ; and from these, 
exaggerated and perverted views of republicanism rapidly 
spread among the laboring classes. The ministers of the 
king, meanwhile, were trying to reform abuses and dimin- 
ish the national debt ; but in vain, for every plan of gen- 
eral taxation was obstinately opposed by the privileged 

The States-general. — At length a cry was raised for a 
meeting of the States-general, as the last resort. It was 
hoped that the combined wisdom of the three estates — the 
nobles, the clergy, and the commonalty, constituting the 
tiers-kat {te-ayrz' a-tah'), or third estate — would be able 
to find some satisfactory solution of the perplexing prob- 
lem. Louis XVI. complied with the demand of the nation, 
and this body, which had not met since 1614, was convened 
in May, 1789, at Versailles,* then the royal residence, 
eleven miles from Paris. 

Dissensions at once arose as to the manner of voting ; 
and after several weeks, the Commons, acting independ- 
ently of the two higher estates, declared themselves the 
National Assembly. When the king attempted to close 
their session, Mirabeau {me-rah-ho'), a prominent leader 
distinguished for impetuous eloquence, sent word to him, 
" We sit here by the authority of the people, and nothing 
shall drive us hence but the bayonet." The French Revo- 
lution, induced by the extravagance of Louis XIV. and 
the license and infidelity that characterized the reign of 
his successor, had at last begun. The irresolute king yield- 
ed to the Assembly, and at his request the higher orders 
joined the Commons in their deliberations. 

Early Excesses. — The wildest excitement, meanwhile, 
* For the places mentioned in this chapter, see Map, p. 416. 


prevailed among' the masses, driven to frenzy by revolu- 
tionary orators. All France vs^as soon tin-own into a fer- 
ment by democratic clubs, the most notorious being that 
of the Jacobins, so called from the Jacobin convent in 
Paris where its meetings were held. A national guard 
was formed, of which Lafayette, identified with the con- 
test for freedom in America, received the command, and 
the tricolored cockade was adopted as the revolutionary 
emblem. In July, 1789, the mad Parisian mob stormed 
the Bastile, the old prison associated in their minds with 
cruelties and horrors, and levelled its walls to the ground. 
When the king was informed of this, he exclaimed, " What, 
rebellion ! " " No, sire," was the reply, " rather say revo- 

Similar scenes of violence were enacted throughout 
the kingdom. The peasantry rose with pitchfork and fire- 
brand, burned the villas of the nobles, and tortured the 
unhappy occupants to death or drove them into the for- 
ests to perish. The privileged orders of the Assembly 
gave way before the storm, and on August 4, 1789, vol- 
untarily renounced their feudal rights, while equal taxa- 
tion was decreed. 

It was too late, how^ever, for this concession to allay 
the excitement in Paris. Food was scarce ; and on the 
5th of October a hideous rabble, composed of the vilest 
women and the scum of the city, clamoring for bread, took 
up its march for Versailles. A crowd of these abandoned 
wretches burst into the Assembly, and besieged the palace 
with ribald songs and oaths. Some forced their way in, 
and the queen narrowly escaped assassination ; Lafay- 
ette's interposition saved the royal party for a season. 
At last the cry was raised, " To Paris ! " and the king, with 
his family, was obliged to go to the capital under the es- 
cort of the mob, the heads of his murdered guardsmen 
borne before him on pikes. The Assembly was removed 


to Paris, and the royal family became prisoners in their 
own palace, the Tuileries [tweel-re'). 

Flight of the Nobles and King. — In his hour of need, 
Louis XVI. was deserted by the princes of the blood and 
the great body of the nobility. Thousands of the upper 
classes, seizing what they could, fled in disguise from 
France, hoping to secure foreign aid against the revolu- 
tionists. Finally, in desperation, the king himself secret- 
ly left the palace with his family one night, and made for 
the frontier, but was recognized, apprehended, and obliged 
to return. He afterward swore to support the constitu- 
tion which had been framed by the Assembly, and in Sep- 
tember, 1791, that body broke up. 

The Legislative Assembly. — In the Legislative Assem- 
bly, convened according to the provisions of the new con- 
stitution, the moderate Girondists, deriving their name 
from La Gironde {je-rond'), the department from which 
the principal members came, had the majority. Conspicu- 
ous in this party was the Minister of the Interior, Roland, 
whose wife, a highly-gifted enthusiast in the cause of lib- 
erty, had lamented in girlhood that she had not been born 
a Roman or a Spartan maid. The dream of the Girondists 
was a republic like those of antiquity, or that just estab- 
lished by the American patriots. 

Quite different from the Girondists were the Red Jac- 
obins of the Revolution, called Mountainists from the 
high seats which they occupied in the Assembly. Their 
chiefs were the blood-thirsty levellers, Marat {niah-rah'), 
Dan'ton, and Rob'espierre, who were all-powerful among 
the lower classes. 

By order of the new Assembly, an army was raised to 
defend the frontiers, for Austria, Prussia, and other Euro- 
pean states, were making hostile preparations. In April, 
1792, war was declared, and France plunged into a long and 
bloody conflict with the monarchical powers. 


The Austrians and Prussians, joined by many of the 
" emigrants," as the fugitive nobles were called, immediate- 
ly invaded France from the north-east. The advance of 
the allies, and the menacing proclamation of the Duke of 
Brunswick, their leader, against the Assembly and in fa- 
vor of Louis, goaded the French people to fury. The cry 
arose, " The country is in danger ! " The Jacobins insid- 
iously fed the flame ; and at length the fierce Conunune 
of Paris, the Sans-culottes {tatterdtmallons), composed of 
the very dregs of the populace, insisted on the deposition 
of the king as necessary to the public safety. On the 10th 
of August, the mob assaulted the Tuileries ; but Louis 
XVI., with his family, survived the slaughter of his faith- 
ful Swiss guards, and was imprisoned in the Temple, an 
old fortress of the Knights Templars. 

September Days. — The Commune, now more powerful 
than the Assembl}^, proceeded to further acts of violence. 
Lafayette, who made a last effort to save the king and the 
constitution, was obliged to fly for his life, but was arrested 
by the Austrian government and thrown into prison. 

The events of the 10th of August hastened the advance 
of the invading army ; but the rabble determined that, if 
they must fall, their enemies should first perish. The bar- 
riers of the city were closed for forty-eight hours ; bands 
of pikemen paraded the streets, broke into the houses, and 
seized on all who were suspected, however unjustly, of 
any leaning toward the hated "aristocrats." These un- 
fortunates were doomed to frightful deaths. On Septem- 
ber 2d the massacre began. Troops of butchers entered 
the prisons, and hacked to pieces the trembling occupants. 
Women forgot the gentler instincts of their sex, and 
" seats for ladies " were arranged where they could enjoy 
to the full the carnival of blood. The people of France 
had become demons. 

The National Convention. — The Legislative Assembly 



gave place to the National Convention, September 21, 
1792. This body was made up in part of conservative 
Girondists, who wished to check the horrors of the Revolu- 
tion, but chiefly of the extreme republicans of the Moun- 
tain, who were supported by the Commune. France was 
now proclaimed a republic. Her armies, meanwhile, had 
triumphed over the Prussians, and in November the Aus- 
trians were defeated in the battle of Jemmapes {zhe)n- 
mahp') by General Dumouriez {du-moo-re-a'). The con- 
quest of Belgium was speedily completed, and that country 
was incorporated in the French Republic. Intoxicated 
with these successes, the Convention decreed that it would 
aid all countries desirous of recovering their liberty. 

The party of the Mountain kept growing in power, and 
not satisfied with the blood of thousands of victims at last 
demanded that of the king. Louis XVI. was tried for 
treason and condemned to immediate execution. His kins- 
man, the infamous Philip of Orleans, who assumed the 
title Equality and courted the favor of the Commune, 
voted for his death. In January, 1793, he was conducted 
to the guillotine.* "Frenchmen," he said, "I die inno- 
cent, and pray that my blood may not fall upon France." 
His words were interrupted by the roll of drums. The 
executioners dragged him beneath the axe ; and when his 
head fell, the furious rabble dipped their pikes in his blood, 
and shouted through Paris, " Vive la r'epuhliqxie ! ''"' 

The murder of Louis XVI. filled the neighboring coun- 

* This fatal instrument was so called from Dr. Guillotin, a physician 
of Paris, who recommended its use as a less cruel method of execution 
than otliers in vogue at the time. It consisted of a heavy knife, descend- 
ing between two erect grooved posts, on a block which received the head 
of the sufferer. Some women of the day wore in their bonnets ornaments 
in the shape of guillotines ; and even children, carried away by the ter- 
rible example of their parents, made models of the instrument, and amused 
themselves by guillotining birds and small animals. 



tries with indignation, and nearly all Europe joined in a 
coalition ag-ainst the republic. Insurrections also broke 
out in France, the most formidable being the revolt of La 
Vendee {lah von^-da'), a district south of the Loire and 
bordering on the ocean, where the peasants had armed to 
protect their institutions and religion. Undismayed by 

Execution of Madame Rola>'d. 

the number of their enemies, the French republicans raised 
new levies, and enthusiastic volunteers marched to the scene 
of war singing the Marseilles Hymn. 

Fall of the Girondists. — At Paris, the work of death 
went on. The Girondists, horrified at the fate of the king- 
yet unable to prevent it, read in it their own doom. Mod- 


eration had now become treason, and they were swept 
away like straws before the hurricane. Among others of 
her party, Madame Roland was condemned. As she as- 
cended the scaffold, her eye fell on the great statue of 
Liberty standing near the guillotine, and she gave utter- 
ance to a sentiment which found an echo in many hearts, 
. " Ah, Liberty ! how many crimes are committed in thy 
name ! " 

Charlotte Corday. — A number of the Girondists escaped 
to Caen (A•(>;^''). From this place came forth an avenger, 
in the beautiful and enthusiastic Charlotte Corday'. After 
the overthrow of the Girondists, with whom she had warm- 
ly sympathized, she resolved to consecrate her life to her 
country and strike at the heart of the Mountain by assas- 
sinating its chief. Repairing to Paris, she gained access 
to Marat ; and while pretending to give the names of his 
enemies in Caen, she stabbed him to the heart. Death 
by the guillotine she had expected, and she met it with 
the utmost composure. When the brutal executioner 
buffeted the severed head, her cheek flushed at the in- 

Reign of Terror. — The knife of Charlotte Corday only 
ao-o-ravated the evil it was intended to cure. The surviv- 
ing Mountainists became more savage than ever, and Robes- 
pierre, a tiger in human form, revelled in slaughter. By 
him Marie Antoinette, " the queen of festivals in her youth, 
the queen of sorrows in her premature old age," was brought 
to the guillotine — her beauty gone, her hair whitened by 
grief, her royal robes and jewels exchanged for filthy tat- 
ters. Her son (Louis XVII.) afterward perished through 
the inhumanity of his jailers. 

Philip Equality also fell before the jealousy of Robes- 
pierre. Amid the hisses and curses of the people, he 
shrugged his shoulders and remarked, " They used to ap- 
plaud me." Anarchy and terror reigned throughout 


France ; and so awful was the suspense that some even 
sought relief by suicide. 

The horrors of the French Revolution culminated in 
the abolition of the Christian religion. The worship of 
Reason was substituted. An abandoned woman person 
ated the goddess, draped with white, the cap of liberty 
covering her flowing hair, and received the homage of all 
classes. Death was pronounced an eternal sleep. There 
was no sacrilege or blasphemy too great to be applauded 
by this once Christian nation. 

Amid the excesses which it authorized, the Convention 
found time to adopt a new system of weights and meas- 
ures, to change the names of the months,* and to estab- 
lish as a new era the institution of the republic, Septem- 
ber 22, 1792. 

Outrages in the Provinces. — Terror reigned as abso- 
lutely in many of the French cities as in the capital. At 
Nantes, the revolutionists emulated in atrocity the terror- 
ists of Paris, enclosing their victims in barges by hundreds 
and sinking them in the Loire {Iwahr). Desolation was 
spread through the adjacent territory of La Vendue. The 
Vendean royalists, at first successful under brave leaders, 
were in the end overpowered, fighting to the last with 
desperate valor. 

The city of Lyons, which resisted the army of the Con- 
vention, was reduced to ruins ; and when the guillotine 
proved too slow in its operation, the people were mowed 
down in masses with grape-shot. 

Toulon, to escape a similar fate, surrendered to the 
English. It was recovered, however, by the French re- 
publicans, through the superior genius of a young artil- 

* The French months " Snowy," " Showery," and " Windy," corre- 
sponded most nearly with January, February, and March. The names 
of the succeeding months have been translated Buddy, Flowery, and 
Meadowy ; Harvesty, Hot, and Fruity; Vintagy, Chilly, and Frosty. 


lery officer, Napoleon Bonaparte, a native of Corsica, who 
tliere first gave evidence of that military genius which 
was to dazzle the world. When a galling fire drove from 
one of his batteries those who served it, he placed over it 
a placard inscribed, " The battery of men without fear," 
and took his place at the deserted guns. In a moment he 
was surrounded by numbers eager to share with him the 
post of glory. 

Fall of Danton and Robespierre. — When the revolu- 
tionists had exhausted their rage on monarchists, aristo- 
crats, and Girondists, they turned their arms against each 
other. Danton and his adherents, who sought to stop the 
Rsign of Terror, perished on the scaffold. As he listened 
to his death-sentence, Danton said, " 1 drag Robespierre 
after me in my fall." His words were prophetic. The 
blood-stained despot, in whose hands was the life of every 
man in France, was at last denounced before the Conven- 
tion. Pale with rage, he tried to speak, but his words 
were drowned by yells of " Down with the tyrant ! " He 
foamed at the mouth, speech failed him, and as he sank 
exliausted, a voice cried, " Wretch ! the blood of Danton 
chokes thee ! " He was condemned, and, after a futile at- 
tempt to kill himself, was carried in a cart to the guillo- 
tine amid the execrations of the people. One who ap- 
preciated his character wrote as an epitaph, " Passenger, 
lament not for Robespierre ; for, were he living, thou 
wouldst be dead." 

With the execution of Robespierre, July 28, 1794, ter- 
minated the Reign of Terror. The Holy Mountain, as its 
admirers called their party, breathed its last — the Holy 
Guillotine rested from its labors. The victims of the 
French Revolution, as enumerated by a republican writer, 
amounted to more than a million persons, the majority of 
whom belonged to the middle and lower classes, in whose 
interest it was beauru 


A revulsion of feeling now took place, the moderate 
party recovered its influence, and many of the terrorist 
leaders perished by the same guillotine that had destroyed 
their victims. Five persons, forming what is known as 
" the Directory," were henceforth charged with the execu- 
tion of the laws. An offensive measure of the Convention 
occasioned a violent uprising in Paris ; but the cannon of 
Napoleon soon brought the populace to their senses — the 
Parisian mob had at last found its master. 

Progress of the French Arms. — Meanwhile the French 
generals, after some reverses, had driven back the allies, 
successfully invaded Spain, and conquered Holland. Dur- 
ing the war with the last-named country, the French cav- 
alry accomplished the strange feat of charging and cap- 
turing a Dutch fleet which was frozen up in the Zuyder 
Zee. In this campaign, the French derived valuable aid 
from balloons, from which the movements of the enemy 
were reported to the army. Holland became " the Bata- 
vian Republic," and allied itself wuth France. In 1795, 
Prussia and Spain made peace, and Gustavus IV. of Swe- 
den recognized the French Republic. 

Napoleon's Italian Campaign. — Austria continued the 
war ; and in 1796, while tw^o French armies were main- 
tained by tlie Directory in Germany, a third was sent into 
Italy to advance upon Austria from that quarter. Its 
command was given to Napoleon, whose history for the 
next twenty years is the history of Europe. 

The rule of this great general was " the strongest force 
on the weakest point." Unerring calculations and match= 
less rapidity insured his success. In eighteen pitched 
battles and over sixty minor engagements, he led his 
troops to victory. The terrible passage of the bridge of 
Lodi (lo'de), swept by the Austrian artillery, kindled, as 
he himself declared, the first spark of his ambition. 
Northern Italy was conquered, the Cisalpine Republic 


erected, and many works of art were sent to Paris, to- 
gether with large sums for the support of the government. 

The war was concluded in October, 1797. Pending the 
negotiations, Napoleon, incensed at the delay, in an inter- 
view with the Austrian agent took from the mantel a 
costly vase belonging to the latter, and with the words, 
" The truce is at an end ; before the close of autumn I 
will shatter your monarchy as easily as this porcelain," 
dashed it to pieces on the floor. The next day, the Treaty 
of Campo Formio was signed ; Austria recognized the 
Rhine and the Alps as the boundaries of France. 

Egyptian Expedition. — Napoleon returned to Paris an 
acknowledged hero, and was strongly urged to undertake 
the invasion of England. He deemed it safer to aim the 
stroke through British India, and as an initiatory step pre- 
vailed on the government to fit out an armament for opera- 
tions in Egypt and Syria. In 1798 he disembarked near 
Alexandria, took the city, almost annihilated the Mame- 
lukes * in the shadow of the Pyramids, and occupied the 
Egyptian capital. 

Not long afterward the English admiral Nelson fell 
in with Napoleon's ships, which were anchored off Alex- 
andria, and the battle of the Nile ensued, resulting in 
the destruction of the French fleet. When Nelson first 
sighted it, he exclaimed, " Before this time to-morrow I 
shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey." 
Honors and rewards were bestowed on him, and he was 
raised to the peerage with the title of Baron Nelson of the 

Despite this great reverse. Napoleon pushed on into 
Syria and took Jaffa, but vainly assaulted Acre, in which 
he said lay the fate of the East. On his return to Egypt, 
he again defeated the Turks ; and then learning that a 

* The old Mamelukes of Tartar descent had now been replaced with 
Circassians and Georj^ians, similarly trained in the art of war. 



new coalition had been formed against France, he set sail 
from the land of obelisks with a few followers. 

During his absence from Europe, Italy had been re- 
conquered by the combined powers ; but the Fi-ench re- 
mained masters of the Netherlands, and of Switzerland, 
which they had reduced and 
converted into " the Helvet'- 
ic Republic." On reaching 
Paris, he overthrew the un- 
stable government, established 
the Consulate, and as First 
Consul of the French Repub- 
lic wielded supreme power. 
Then resuming military opera- 
tions, he crossed the Alps, 
routed the Austrians at Ma- 
rengo, and by this single blow 
recovered Italy (June, 1800). 

It was at the battle of Ma- 
rengo that the consular guard 
of only eight hundred men 
proved itself " a column of 
granite," by withstanding un- 
broken for five hours the Aus- 
trian cavalry and artillery. 
Napoleon there learned what 
he might accomplish with a body of men entirely devoted 
to him, and the Old Guard, which he organized in con- 
sequence, earned immortality by grand deeds on many a 
bloody field. 

The victory of General Moreau at Hohenlinden fol- 
lowed, and the Austrians gladly made peace (1801). 
Treaties were also concluded with Spain, Turkey, and 
Russia, which had joined the coalition. Meantime, "the 
Armed Neutrality of the North " was planned by the 

Egyptian Obelisk. 


ever-active Napoleon, as a check to the power stili wield- 
ed by England through her gallant navy. Tlie northern 
alliance, however, was short-lived, Lord Nelson destroy- 
ing the Danish fleet at Copenhagen (1801). When sig- 
nalled by his superior to withdraw from the battle, he 
placed the glass to his blind eye, and, saying that he could 
not see the signal, ordered his colors to be nailed to the 

Europe at Peace. — In March, 1802, the Peace of Amiens 
was concluded, and England with the rest of Europe 
acknowledged the French Republic. A short respite 
was thus afforded to the nations, and Napoleon used it 
to improve and strengthen his country, carrying out a 
wise, liberal, and conciliatory policy. The " emigrants " 
were invited back ; a new order of nobility, the Legion 
of Honor, was formed ; and provision was made for a 
thorough system of public instruction. The College of 
France and various military schools were organized, and 
measures taken to insure their efficiency. Christianity 
had already been re-established in France, and the idol- 
ized Napoleon was made consul for life in August, 1802. 

During the Revolution, civil war had raged in the isl- 
and of St. Domingo, the most valuable of the French 
colonies in the West Indies, resulting in the abolition of 
slavery and the formation of a liberal constitution. Tous- 
saint L'Ouverture [too-san^' loo-ver-tilr'), a negro of su- 
perior ability, descended from an African king, had be- 
come governor-general ; and under his wise administration 
good order and prosperity had revived. To crush him and 
restore slavery. Napoleon sent an army to the island. 
After a treaty of peace had been concluded, Toussaint 
was treacherously arrested, and starved to death in a 
French dungeon. Through the resistance of the colo- 
nists, the ravages of the yellow fever, and the interference 
of the English, the island was ultimately lost to France. 


Establishment of the Empire. — Napoleon's ambition 
was not satisfied with the title of First Consul. In 1804 
he had himself declared Emperor by the Senate. The 
pope came to Paris to crown liim, and France willingly 
submitted to the yoke which it had shaken oS by such 
dreadful struggles. 

The same year that witnessed the establishment of the 
empire gave to France the Code Napoleon, a digest of 
laws which with little change still remains in force in that 
country — the most useful monument of Napoleon's genius. 
It was under discussion for four years, — merchants, as 
well as statesmen, lawyers, and jurists, being called on to 
contribute from their knowledge and experience to its 

The Eighteenth Century. 

The march of intellect proved by the growth of science. Astronomy 
received important aid from Sir William Herschel, a German by birtii 
hut resident of England, who made many discoveries (the planet Uranus 
in 1781); also from the French mathematical astronomer La Place (faA 
pljzhs), author of an " Exposition of the System of the Universe," and a 
" Treatise on Celestial Mechanics." Chemistry was advanced by the re- 
searches of the French philosopher Lavoisier (lah-vwnh-zc-a'), who re- 
formed the nomenclature of the science, and the Englishmen Priestley 
(discoverer of oxygen gas) and Sir Humphry Davy (1778-1829). What 
Lavoisier was to Chemistry, the Swede Linnasus was to Botany, and the 
(tcrman Werner to Geology and Mineralogy. Two Italians, Galvani {gald- 
vah'ne) and Volta, share the honor of discovering and investigating chemi- 
cal electricity. 

Great inventions : the cotton-spinning machine of Arkwright, 1768 ; 
the improved steam-engine of Watt, patented in 1769; and the cotton- 
gin of Whitney, a native of Massachusetts, for removing the seeds from 
cotton, which was before done by hand. Improved systems of stenog- 
raphy, or short-hand writing, introduced. 

Eminent musical composers: Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven (1770- 

The people beginning actively to assert tlieir rights. First mutterings 
of the revolutionary tempest that shook Europe to its centre in the fol- 
lowing century. 



Third Coalition against France. — The Peace of Amiens * 
was not lasting. Tho interference of Napoleon in Euro- 
pean affairs alarmed the continental powers ; and the an- 
nexation of new territories to his dominions, together with 
his vast military preparations, incensed England. Napo- 
leon declared his aversion to a fresh war. Still he said, 
"If England draws the sword, I will throw away the scab- 
bard." England was ready to accept the challenge, and 
hostilities were resumed between the rival nations in the 
spring of 1803. 

After the establishment of the empire, a third coali- 
tion was organized by Britain, Austria, Russia, and Swe- 
den, to wrest from the upstart " soldier of fortune," as 
they regarded him, the territories which his victorious arms 
had added to France. Prussia was induced to remain neu- 
tral by the promise of Hanover from the French emperor. 

Austerlitz and Trafalgar. — While the allies were lei- 
surely arranging their plans. Napoleon, who had been 
making overwhelming preparations for the invasion of 
England, suddenly set in motion his great army of over 
180,000 men. Its masses of artillery, cavalry, and infant- 
ry, swept into astonished Germany. Victory succeeded 
victory, Ulm surrendered with its fortress and magazines, 
and Napoleon triumphantly entered Vienna, from which the 
emperor Francis II. precipitately fled. Then, as he said, 
with " a clap of thunder " the French commander finished 
the campaign in the great "battle of the three emperors." 
Concentrating his forces on the field of Austerlitz, he near- 
ly annihilated the combined Russians and Austrians. 
From the neighboring heights the emperors of Germany 

* For this place and others, see Map, p. 415. 


and Russia beheld the overthrow of their magnificent 
armies. Alexander, the successor of Paul (p. 385) on the 
throne of the czars, witnessed with dismay the terrific duel 
between his imperial guard and that of Napoleon, and saw 
the flower of his soldiery give way before the resistless 
onset of the horse-grenadiers of the Old Guard (December 
2, 1805). After the battle, Francis humbly sought the 
victor's tent to sue for peace, acknowledging that further 
resistance was impossible. 

Thus in four months Napoleon crushed his enemies. 
Austria he trampled beneath his feet, bestowing her terri- 
tories on his friends ; and while his brave marshals be- 
came dukes and princes, the crown of Naples was given to 
his brother Joseph, and Louis, another brother, was made 
king of Holland. In this way were kingdoms dismem- 
bered, governments disposed of, monarchs created. The 
" Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation," which had 
stood for a thousand years, was shattered by these blows ; 
a large number of its states, uniting themselves in the 
Confederation of the Rhine, accepted the protection of 
"the man of destiny." Francis II. laid down his title, 
and became Francis I. of Austria ; while Napoleon was 
in fact the emperor of Germany. 

England, meanwhile, had triumphed on the sea. In 
October, 1805, Nelson destroyed the French and Spanish 
fleets off Cape Trafalgar', but paid for the victory with 
his life. His dying words were, " Thank God, I have done 
my duty." Britain lost in Nelson the greatest man that 
ever upheld her maritime supremacy. When flushed with 
success and burning to add England to their conquests, the 
French were made by him to realize the words of one of 
their own writers, " The trident of Neptune is the sceptre 
of the world," 

Jena and Auerstadt. — Now that Austria was humbled 
ard Russia crippled, Prussia, finding herself the dupe of 


Napoleon, recklessly threw down the gauntlet to his vic- 
torious legions. Before they had all left Germany, orders 
were issued for these veterans to bear their eagles back to 
the field. They fell like an avalanche on the astounded 
enemy, and a single day sealed the fate of Prussia by the 
double victory of Jen'a and Auerstadt {ow'er-stet), October 
14, 1806. The military power of the kingdom was broken, 
and on the 27th Napoleon, in the midst of his Old Guard, 
rode into the capital of Frederick the Great. In a few 
weeks he had accomplished what all Europe, during the 
Seven Years' War, attempted in vain, — the overthrow of 

Eylau and Friedland. — Frederick William III., the 
Prussian king, refused peace on the terms offered by Na- 
poleon, for he hoped that with the aid of Russia, which had 
again declared war against France, he might yet check the 
conqueror of Europe. But Napoleon marched into Poland, 
drove back the Russians, and took Warsaw, the ancient 
capital. Many of the Poles now flew to arms and swelled 
the French ranks. 

On the field of Eylau (i'low), in February, 1807, the 
Russians obstinately withstood Napoleon. This battle was 
indecisive ; but at Friedland, in the following June, the 
French arms were crowned with success. Alexander suf- 
fered losses so severe that he requested an armistice, dur- 
ing which he was rowed to a raft anchored in the river 
Niemen, to hold an interview with Napoleon. 

The Peace of Tilsit was soon after arranged, and the 
two emperors planned the partition of Europe between 
themselves. The unfortunate Frederick William was 
stripped of half his dominions, in spite of the prayers of 
his fascinating queen. Once, when Napoleon handed her a 
rose, she accepted the flower, saying, "with Magdeburg."* 

* This city, whose noble cathedral had been the only edifice of note 
left at its sack in the Thirty Years' War, had meanwhile been rebuilt. 



" Madam," answered the French emperor, " it is for me 
to give, you have only to accept." The new kingdom of 
Westphalia was ,_^^.___^_^p^^ 

created for Na- 
poleon's young- 
est brother Je- 
rome, principally 
out of Prussian 
territory ; and 
nearly all of Prus- 
sian Poland was 
erected into the 
duchy of War- 
saw, and confer- 
red upon the 
elector of Sax- 
ony. The grand 
conceptions of 
Napoleon charm- 
ed the czar, to 
whom was left 
the spoliation of 
Sweden. The 
ruin of England 
was determined 
on ; and even 
the Ottoman Empire was threatened with dismemberment. 
Peninsular War, — Napoleon w^as now without a rival. 
On his return to Paris, he directed his attention for a time 
to the internal improvement of his empire. But the pre- 
tended apostle of liberty now became himself the most des- 
potic of autocrats. He had declared England in a state 
of blockade, and closed the ports of Europe against her. 
Portugal presumed to disobey, and trade with Britain : 
when the emperor, declaring that the " House of Braganza 

Catiiedrai, of MA(ni?;Brr,(; 


had ceased to reign," sent his marshal Junot {zhU-no') at 
the head of an army to add another link to his chain of 
conquests. The royal family set sail for their colonies in 
Brazil, and Portugal fell without striking a blow. 

Napoleon now proceeded to seize the whole peninsula. 
Availing himself of disturbances in Spain, he dethroned 
the Bourbons, obliging the king Charles IV. and his son 
Ferdinand to renounce their right to the crown. This he 
gave to his brother Joseph, while Naples was transferred 
to his marshal Murat {r/iU-rah'). 

The Spanish, however, did not tamely submit to the 
new king. The spirit of the nation was roused ; the very 
catechism in which the youth were instructed taught that 
the killing of a Frenchman was a meritorious act. More 
of the invaders fell by the assassin's knife than the soldier's 

Yet Spain unaided must have been subdued. England 
embraced her cause, and in July, 1808, Sir Arthur Welles- 
ley landed in Portugal and soon cleared that country of 
the enemy. Joseph fled from Madrid, and Napoleon him- 
self was obliged to take the command to revive the glory 
of his eagles. Three splendid victories over the Spaniards 
placed him in possession of the capital, and in four weeks 
the crown was restored to his brother. The English also 
were obliged to withdraw from Spain, though not till 
they had repulsed the enemy at Corunna, where their in- 
trepid leader, Sir John Moore, died on the field of glory. 
The emperor, however, soon had to leave the Spanish war 
to his marshals ; for Austria, smarting under her losses 
and thinking that Napoleon's hands were full elsewhere, 
was preparing to fall on him with overwhelming force. 

Eckmiihl and Wagram. — But Austria had reckoned 
without her host. With even more than his accustomed 
celerity, Napoleon concentrated his troops, fell upon the 
enemy, worsted the Archduke at Eckmiihl, and in one 


month from the time the Austrians began hostilities his 
cannon were thundering before their capital. Near the 
village of Aspern in May, 1809, Napoleon suffered a re- 
verse, and Lannes (?a/^;^), one of his bravest marshals, 
fell. Of this hero he said, "I found him a dwarf and I 
lost him a giant." 

The French retrieved their fortune in the decisive bat- 
tle of Wagram {icah'gratn), where, within sight of the 
crowded roofs of Vienna, the Austrian army was routed. 
Francis was again at the mercy of Napoleon, and submit- 
ted to a disadvantageous jDeace. In the following spring 
the Archduchess Maria Louisa became the bride of the 
French emperor, who divorced his wife Josephine, to make 
room for a daughter of the Hapsburgs. A son was born 
the next year, to whom his father gave the title of " King 
of Rome." 

Meanwhile Napoleon added the States of the Church 
to his dominions, and sent the pope in captivity to France. 
In 1810, Bernadotte {hehr-nd-dot'), a favorite French 
marshal, was elected crown-prince of Sweden, Charles 
XIII. being then king of that country. 

Russian Campaign. — The sudden friendship between 
Alexander and Napoleon soota. gave way to a mutual dis- 
trust, which resulted in war. The French emperor, hoping 
to win new laurels on the plains of Russia, collected a mag- 
nificent army of 500,000 men ; and, after holding at Dres- 
den a court of kings and princes such as Europe had never 
before seen, he entered the territory of the czar in the 
summer of 1812. As in the case of Charles XII., it proved 
a fatal step. The Russians obstinately disputed Napo- 
leon's advance, made a stand at Borodino which cost him 
30,000 men, and driven thence sullenly fell back, followed 
by the invader, who, on reaching Moscow, expected to find 
rest and supplies for his jaded men. But the city was 
silent ; its inhabitants had fled, leaving an empty triumph 

nai'olkon's downfall. 419 

to the enemy. Soon after the French entered, Moscow 
was fired by incendiaries, and the greater part was re- 
duced to ruins. Alexander refused to treat, and just as 
the Russian winter commenced, Napoleon was obliged to 

Now was enacted the most appalling tragedy of mod- 
em times. Attacked by hordes of Cossacks, with starva- 
tion staring them in the face, and the intense cold freez- 
ing them even as they staggered along, the Grand Army 
of Napoleon dwindled to a disordered band of fugitives. 
But the Old Guard, through the horrors of this retreat, 
maintained its heroic character. Its impenetrable squares 
remained in Russia, food for the raven and the wolf ; and 
long might one trace the course of the retiring host by the 
skeletons that whitened on the soil. The last to leave 
Russia was Marshal Ney, " the bravest' of the brave," 
whose soul Napoleon said was " tempered with steel." 
On entering a Prussian village near the frontier, his face 
disfigured with powder, he was asked who he was, and re- 
plied, " I am the rear-guard of the Grand Army." 

Napoleon's Downfall. — The reverses of Napoleon were 
the signal for his enemies to rise against him. A sixth 
great coalition was formed to crush him, and tens of thou- 
sands were soon on the march to France. But Napoleon 
was not appalled. Another army of 350,000 men was 
drawn from his exhausted country, and these beardless con- 
scripts proved more than a match for the Russians and 
Prussians on the fields of Lutzen and Bautzen (bdici'sen). 
Austria soon after perfidiously changed sides ; and in 
October, 1813, the city of Leipsic witnessed the decisive 
struggle. In spite of prodigies of valor performed by his 
invincible guard. Napoleon was hopelessly defeated. 
Breaking through an army of Bavarians, he fell back on 
France, with only 60,000 effective men left out of his 
splendid army. He now prepared to defend his empire 


against the million of enemies that were rolling on to 
overwhelm it. 

The allies, pursuing, crossed the Rhine ; Wellesley, 
now Duke of ^A^ellington, having driven the French out 
of Spain, descended the Pyrenees, and the Campaign of 
France at last began. Never did the genius of Napoleon 
appear so bright as in this dark hour when, betrayed by 
his former friends, he engaged single-handed Avith Europe. 
But neither strategy nor bravery availed against the in- 
numerable hosts of invaders. Paris fell, and on the 31st 
of March, 1814, the victorious allies entered the capital 
amid the acclamations of the fickle people. Napoleon 
abdicated the crown, and Louis XVIII., brother of the 
king who was guillotined during the Revolution, ascended 
the throne of the Bourbons. The Congress of Vienna 
then assembled, and the princes of Europe celebrated 
their triumph with magnificent balls and feastings. The 
victors allowed Napoleon a pension and the little island 
of Elba in the Mediterranean, between Corsica and the 
Italian coast. Several hundi-ed of his old guardsmen be- 
came the companions of his exile. 

But the French people, particularly the disbanded sol- 
diers, grew discontented with Bourbon rule. Everywhere 
it was whispered that when the violet began to bud in the 
spring, a great change might be expected. The emperor, 
therefore, was mysteriously referred to as Corporal Violet. 

The Hundred Days. — In the latter part of February, 
1815, Napoleon, who had maintained a correspondence 
with his friends in France, left Elba with about a thousand 
men. On the 1st of March he landed on the French coast, 
and began a triumphant advance toward Paris. At Greno- 
ble he met a regiment ordered to apprehend him ; when, 
throwing back his cloak, he exclaimed, " My friends, if 
there is one among you who wishes to kill his emperor, he 
has it in his power." The effect was electric, and with 


shouts of " Vive Vempereur !'''' the soldiers joined his 
little army. Ney, who had embraced the cause of the 
Bourbons, and promised to bring Bonaparte to Louis in 
an iron cage, united his force with that of Napoleon. On 
the 20th, the king left the capital, and the emperor re- 
occupied it to the great delight of the people. 

Napoleon at once raised a new army, reorganized the 
Old Guard, and boldly threw himself into the conflict 
which he saw was inevitable. The Duke of Wellington, 
and Blucher [hloo'ker), an able Prussian marshal, were 
now his opponents. The final engagement, on which hung 
the fate of Europe, took place at Waterloo, a few miles 
from the capital of Belgium, June 18, 1815. Napoleon 
began the attack, exclaiming, as he caught sight of the 
enemy, " I have these English at last ! " The British sol- 
diers for eight hours unflinchingly stood their ground. 
Blucher with his Prussians joined them in a critical mo- 
ment, and the Old Guard, in its last charge to save Napo- 
leon's crown, was thrown into confusion. Never before 
had the French seen the enemy penetrate its ranks ; and 
now, when its invincible eagles were driven back, when 
the " column of granite " melted away amid volleys of 
flame, the despairing shriek arose, " The Guard recoils ! " 
and Napoleon's army fled from the field. But the veter- 
ans still gave battle, and, when called upon to lay down 
their arms, fought on, while their chief replied, "The 
guard dies, it never surrenders ! " Some of the officers 
are said to have killed themselves rather than survive, 
and the Old Guard of Napoleon, in its death-struggle, 
covered itself with immortal glory. 

Restoration of the Bourbons. — After the battle of Wa- 
terloo, Napoleon abdicated a second time ; and his rule^ 
which had lasted a hundred days, was over. It has been 
computed that Europe lost more than five millions of men 
through his insatiable ambition. The Bourbons were rein- 


stated, and by the Treaty of Paris (November, 1815) the 
old boundaries were re-established. In the reorganization 
of Europe, Norway was taken from Denmark and annexed 
to Sweden. 

Napoleon gave himself up to the captain of a British 
war-vessel, and was sent by the English government to St. 
Hele'na. Here he died in 1821, while the rocky island 
was shaken to its centre by a tremendous storm. 

1800 A. D.— Fortieth year of the reign of George III. of Eng- 
land ; William Pitt (the younger) prime minister ; Fox an eminent Whig 
leader; union of England and Ireland. Napoleon first consul of 
France; Talleyrand minister of foreign affairs; brilliant campaign of 
Napoleon in Italy; Marengo; Hohenlinden. European republics the 
outgrowth of the French Revolution : the Batavian Republic (Holland), 
Helvetic Republic (Switzerland), Cisalpine Republic (northern Italy), Li- 
gurian Republic (Genoa). Francis II. emperor of Germany. Paul 
emperor of Russia. Population of the United Stat-es, 5,300,000 ; John 
Adams, president. 


The East India Company was an association of London 
merchants, who, on the last day of 1600, obtained from 
Queen Elizabeth a charter granting them exclusive rights 
for trading in the Indies. They were permitted to estab- 
lish themselves in Hindostan by the Great Mogul, and also 
erected strongly-fortified factories on the principal East 
Indian islands. We have already seen that in the time 
of Aurungzebe both English and French were engaged in 
traffic with the natives (p. 356). 

During the first hundred years of its existence, the 
English company was simply commercial, exporting in its 


ships the I'iches of the East, — silk, calicoes, diamonds, 
drugs, etc. At home it was regarded with jealous}' ; and 
the Stuarts, looking upon it as " their Majesties' milch- 
cow," made it pay roundly for every privilege. It was 
not until the next century that the company obtained mil- 
itary and political power in Hindostan. An English phy- 
sician, on a visit to Delhi in 1715, had the good fortune to 
cure the Mogul emperor of a disease which had baffled the 
native doctors. In return, the grateful prince conferred 
upon the East India Company important privileges, and 
allowed it to purchase additional tracts in Bengal. Bom- 
bay, Madras, and Calcutta (see Map, p. 424), were the 
great centres of its power. 

Hostilities with the French. — After the War of the 
Austrian Succession began in Europe, hostilities broke out 
between the French and English in India. Madras fell ; 
and the enterprising governor of Pondicherry, the capital 
of the French possessions, perceiving the weakness of the 
Mogul monarchy, aspired to found a French empire on its 
ruins. The British beheld with dismay his intrigues and 
triumphs, and by 1750 saw their own power totally eclipsed. 

About this time there arose a champion for England in 
the person of Robert Clive. While employed in the com- 
pany's service at Madras, Clive had attempted suicide. But 
twice his pistol missed fire ; when throwing the weapon 
aside be abandoned his purpose, convinced that he was re- 
served for some great end. After the capture of Madras, 
Clive escaped and obtained a commission in the English 
army, in which he rapidly attained distinction. He gained 
several important victories ; and despite the efforts of the 
French governor, the English acquired a controlling in- 
fluence in south-eastern Hindostan. 

The Black Hole. — The rising fortunes of the English 
excited the jealousy of Surajah Dowlah (soo-rah'jd ddw'la).^ 
the Nabob of Bengal. In the summer of 1756 he invested 



Calcutta, which was compelled to surrender, the little gar- 
rison, one hundred and forty-six in number, being assured 
that not a hair of their heads should be touched. Notwith- 
standing, they were thrust into a dungeon only eighteen 
feet square, called the Black Hole. There, through a hot 
summer night, they endured the most horrible sufferings, 
trampling each other in their struggles for air. When the 
day broke, only twenty -three remained alive, most of whom 
did not long survive. 

British East Indian Empire founded. — A cry for ven- 
geance went forth. Clive set out for Bengal at the head 

of a small force ; 
Calcutta was 
taken, and on 
the field of Plas- 
sey (1757) the 
fate of India 
was decided. 
With only 3,000 
men, Clive 
routed the na- 
bob's army of 
nearly 70,000. 
Surajah was de- 
posed and af- 
terward slain, 
the East India 
Company placing on his throne a nabob who paid for the 
honor with millions. Thus the company of merchants 
taught the Indians that they could fight as well as trade 
in calico ; and while they amassed vast fortunes, they dis- 
posed at will of the rich provinces of Hindostan. Clive, 
who by his victory laid the foundation of the British East 
Indian Empire, was rewarded with a peerage and the title 
Baron of Plassey. 


War in Mysore. — When during the American Revolu- 
tion hostilities broke out between England and France, 
Hyder Ali, the prince of Mysore' in southern Hindostan, 
took up arms in behalf of the French against the hated 
English. AVith an efficient army of 100,000 men led by 
French officers, Hyder laid waste the country round Mad- 
ras, and in three weeks reduced the English in southern 
India to the verge of destruction. Warren Hastings, the 
governor-general, at once made vigorous preparations for 
resistance. An army was sent from Bengal, and Hyder 
was checked in the midst of his victorious career. 

After his death in 1782, his son Tippoo Sahib {sah'Jiib) 
made three attempts against the English, but was unsuc- 
cessful in each, and was finally killed in defending his 
capital Seringapatam' (1799). A great part of Mysore 
was absorbed by the British. 

Their next struggle was with the Mahrattas, whose 
power was finally overthrown. A war with the Burmese 
resulted in the extension of the eastern frontier. Difficul- 
ties then arose with the Afghans (1839) ; after the loss of 
one army, the English took the city of Cabul (kd-bool'), 
rescued their friends who had been detained as prisoners, 
and then evacuated Afghanistan. 

The province of Scinde ^(sitid) was annexed to the Brit- 
ish East Indian Empire in 1843. At the sight of the first 
English sail on the Indus, the nobles of that country had 
predicted its fate. " Alas ! Scinde is gone," they said, 
"the English have seen the river." The warlike Sikhs of 
the Punjaub [district of the Jive rivers) next took the field; 
but after a fierce struggle of several years' duration, they 
were reduced to submission, and at last nearly the whole 
of Hindostan came under British sway. 

Sepoy Mutiny. — There had long been a prophecy among 
the natives that in the year 1857-'58 the power of the East 
India Company would be overthrown. About this time 


there was introduced into the army a new greased car- 
tridge, from which the Sepoys, or Hindoo soldiers in the 
English service, were compelled to bite the end before 
placing it in their rifles. But to taste the fat of bullocks 
involved a loss of caste, and the report spread through In- 
dia that the ancient institutions and creed were in danger. 
Regiment after regiment mutinied ; Europeans at Meerut 
(see Map, p. 424) and Delhi were butchered, and Cawnpore 
on the Ganges was the scene of a frightful massacre by 
the rajah Nana {jiah'nah) Sahib. Indescribable barbari- 
ties were everywhere perpetrated by the Sepoys, the Brit- 
ish retaliating at times by blowing the mutineers from the 
mouths of their cannon. 

The English, however, were powerless to put down the 
revolt, and must have been exterminated had not aid 
speedily arrived. General Havelock brought re-enforce- 
ments from Persia, and cut his way through the insurgents 
to Lucknow, capital of Oude, where the little garrison had 
held out for three months against thousands of the enemy. 
There he was besieged, until Sir Colin Campbell, with five 
thousand Highlanders, came to his relief. The approach 
of their friends was announced to the suffering English by 
a Scotch woman, who, while confined to her bed, suddenly 
declared that she heard the f^niliar sounds of bagpijies 
in the distance. Her words, which were at first attributed 
to the delirium of fever, proved to be true, and " Jessie of 
Lucknow " became the heroine of the hour. 

The arrival of twenty-three European regiments in the 
country put a new aspect on affairs ; several brilliant cam- 
paigns followed, and the last great battle was fought with 
the rebels at Gwalior {gicah'le-or) in June, 1858. An act 
passed that same year deprived the East India Company 
of all its power, vesting its vast territories in the British 
queen, and transferring its employkiS to the service of the 


Indian Superstitions. — Till a comparatively recent pe- 
riod human victims were sacrificed to the Hindoo gods. 
Not only were infants thrown into the Ganges to be de- 
voured by the crocodiles and sacred sharks, but men and 
women eagerly laid down their lives at the bloody festivak 
of their religion. These enormities are now prevented in 
British India by the government, which otherwise allows 
the greatest toleration. Christianity has made some prog- 
ress ; and India, the land where tradition tells us St. Thom- 
as was martyred, now contains over one million native 

The institution of caste is rapidly losing ground. A 
system of public education has been organized, and there 
are universities at Calcutta, Madras, and Bombay. 

East India Company. 

Act for the government of British India passed 1113 ; the president 
of the Council of Bengal to be governor-general. Warren Hastings first 
British governor-general, 1774-85. A Board of Control establislied in 
England, to regulate the company's administration and keep it subject to 
the general government, 1784. Lord Cornwallis governor-general, 1786- 
'92. Earl of Mornington (Marquis Wellesley) governor-general, 1798- 
1805. Lord Canning governor-general, 1855-'62 ; Sepoy revolt, 1857- 
'59. Possessions of East India Company transferred to the crown, 1858. 



The First Presidents. — Under Washington, John Ad- 
ams, of Massachusetts,- who succeeded him in 1797, and 
Thomas Jefferson, of Virginia, author of the Declaration of 
Independence, who served two terms as president (1801- 
1809), the United States of America steadily advanced. 


The national finances were placed by Washington under 
the able management of Alexander Hamilton, of New 
York. The population received large accessions by immi- 
gration from Europe, and settlements rapidly spread out 
in the West. 

A war with the Indians in the Ohio Valley, at one time 
formidable to its sparsely-settled districts, was brought to 
a successful termination (1794) by " Mad Anthony Wayne," 
a distinguished general of the Revolution, who threatened 
the Red Men that, if they ever violated the treaty they 
then made, he would rise from the grave to punish them. 

In 1799 the good and great Washington died, and the 
following year Congress met for the first time in the city 
called by his name, which has ever since been the national 
capital. — Louisiana was purchased from the French in 1803. 

A short war with the dey of Tripoli, in the course of 
which his capital was bombarded (1804), taught the Bar- 
bary pirates the necessity of abstaining from depredations 
on American commerce. But affronts to the American 
flag hardly less offensive than those of the Tripolitans, 
wore constantly offered by the British. They insisted on 
what was called " the right of search." United States ves- 
sels were stopped on the high-seas, their crews inspected, 
and often American seamen were forcibly impressed into 
the British service on the pretext that they were English- 
men. As the British ministry refused to stop these out- 
rages, war was finally declared by the United States, Presi- 
dent Madison signing the bill in 1812. 

War of 1812. — The early operations of the war were 
carried on mainly in the North-west. An invasion of Cana- 
da by Americans under General Hull having proved a fail- 
ure. Proctor, the English commander, aided by Tecumseh, 
a famous Shawnee chief, promptly turned the tables on 
his opponent, captured Detroit, and with it obtained pos- 
session of all Michigan. Another attempt on Canada was 

WAR OF 1812. 


made in October, 1812, by a body of New York militia, 
but was repulsed by the British. 

General Harrison, who had won the confidence of the 
country by a signal defeat of the Indians at Tippecanoe in 
what is now western Indiana (1811), was at this critical 
time intrusted by the authorities at Washington with the 
chief command in the West. He aimed at the recovery of 
Detroit ; but he was able to accomplish little more than 
the defence of the Ohio frontier, until Commodore Perry 
in 1813 brilliantly captured the British fleet on Lake Erie. 
Following up this achievement, Harrison invaded Canada, 
and overtook Proctor and Tecumseh on the Thames. The 

Fall of Tecumseh at the Battle of the Thames. 


Shawnee chief fell before a gallant charge of brave Ken- 
tuckians, and a complete victory was gained, resulting in 
the long-desired vindication of American arms and the re- 
covery of Michigan. — In the meantime a number of glori- 
ous triumphs had been achieved at sea by the American 

The year 1814 was signalized by further victories on 
the part of the Americans : at Chippewa and Lundy's 
Lane, in Canada, over veterans who had fought under 
Wellington ; and at Plattsburg, on Lake Champlain, over 
a British land and naval force advancing from the north. 

Meanwhile a fleet with fresh troops arrived from Eng- 
land. The city of Washington was taken, and the capitol 
burned, but Baltimore was successfully defended by the 
Americans. The fleet then sailed for the south, and after 
re-enforcements had been received a formidable attack 
was made on New Orleans. General Jackson, who had 
been intrusted with the defence of the South-west, from 
behind his breast-works again and again drove back the 
British veterans. At last the English general Pakenham, 
brother-in-law of Wellington, was struck down by a grape- 
shot, and his army retreated to their ships with heavy 

This was the last battle of the War of 1812 ; before it 
was fought, a treaty of peace had been concluded at Ghent. 
After financial affairs had recovered from the deplorable 
condition in which they were left, the progress of the 
United States in all that contributes to national strength 
was rapid beyond parallel. 

Interval to the Mexican War. — Prior to the nineteenth 
century, several attempts had been made to use steam in 
navigation, but without any practical results. To Robert 
Fulton, a citizen of the United States, belongs the honor 
of having built the first successful steamboat (1807). It 
plied on the Hudson River, between Albany and New 


York. With this great invention began a new era in navi- 
gation. During Monroe's administration (1817-1835) the 
Atlantic was for the first time crossed by a steamship 
(1819), the Savannah, of New York. — Under the same 
president Florida was acquired by cession from Spain 

John Quincy Adams succeeded to the presidency in 
1825 ; Andrew Jackson, who had saved New Orleans, in 
1829 ; Martin Van Buren, in 1837 ; and Harrison, the 
hero of Tippecanoe and the Thames, in 1841. During all 
this time, if we except a period of commercial depression 
in 1837, the country enjoyed unbroken prosperity. The 
population rapidly increased, the resources of the West 
were developed by internal improvements, and new states 
were organized. 

A war with the Seminoles in Florida, lasting from 
1835 to 1839, cost many valuable lives. Since then most 
of these Indians, as well as other tribes, have been re- 
moved to reservations in the West appropriated to their 
exclusive use. 

The death of Harrison in 1841 raised the vice-president 
John Tyler to the presidential chair. He was succeeded in 
1845 by James K. Polk, whose administration was mem- 
orable for the Mexican War (see next chapter). At the 
commencement of this war, the Union contained twenty- 
nine states, and a population of about twenty millions. 

Distinguished Americans. 

John Marshall, of Viiginia (1755-1835), for thirty-four years Chief- 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States ; author of a " Life of 
George Washington." DeWitt Clinton, of New York (1769-1828), a 
statesman of comprehensive views, the projector of the Erie Canal, com- 
pleted in 1825, which connects the Great Lakes with the Hudson. Henry 
Clay, of Kentucky (1777-1852) — John C. Calhoun, of South Carolina 
(1782-1850)— Daniel Webster, of Massachusetts (1782-1852)— three 
great statesmen and orators, the giants of the United States Senate. 




Revolutions in South America. — During the reign of 
Ferdinand VII., who was restored to the throne of Spain 
in 1814, most of the Spanish- American colonies secured 
their independence. These colonies occupied Mexico, 
Central America, and nearly all of South America except 
Brazil, and were governed by Spanish viceroys. Brazil, 
forming not quite half of the South American peninsula, 
rich in minerals and tropical forests, and watered by the 
grandest river-system in the world, belonged to Portugal. 

As early as 1810, the South American colonies began 
to revolt against the oppressive government of Spain. 
Chili and Buenos Ayres (ho'nos a'riz) were the first to 
rise, and both were eventually successful. The name of 
the latter was changed to the United Provinces of La 
Plata ; and Uruguay and Paraguay, which were previous- 
ly included in the viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, became 
separate states. Discontent with the government subse- 
quently led to civil struggles in La Plata, which resulted 
in the formation of the present Argentine Republic. 

Meanwhile revolutions were agitating the northern col- 
onies also ; and Simon Bolivar, " the Liberator of South 
America," achieved the independence of New Granada, 
Venezuela, and Quito {ke'to). These three were united in 
one republic, Colombia, with Bolivar as president (1819). 
Colombia was afterward divided into New Granada (now 
the United States of Colombia), Venezuela, and Ecuador. 

The last of the South American states to take up arms 
was Peru, which, with the aid of Bolivar and his brave 
Colombians, succeeded in expelling the Spaniards. Upper 
Peru, consisting of the southern and south-eastern prov- 
inces, before a part of the viceroyalty of Buenos Ayres, 


was erected into a republic in 1825, and called in honor of 
its founder, Bolivia. 

Bolivar died in 1830, exiled from his native land by 
his ungrateful countrymen, " If my death," he said, 
'■' shall contribute to the cessation of factions, I can go 
tranquilly to my grave," Bolivar devoted his life and for- 
tune to the high purpose of freeing and uniting all Span- 
ish America, battling with poverty, hardships, and disap- 
pointments. From the conflict he retired covered with 
glory ; and he could truly boast that he had not kept for 
himself an acre out of the vast territory for which he had 
been the means of securing the inestimable blessings of 

Since their liberation, these South American countries 
have presented, generally, a history of assassinations and 
civil wars ; yet, though anarchy and disorder have mate- 
rially interfered with their ])rogress, they have for the 
most part advanced in commerce, wealth, and intelligence. 
Schools and colleges have sprung up, and the people are 
at last learning to appreciate the advantages of good 
order and peace. Particularly is this true of the Argen- 
tine Republic, where, though the Spanish Americans are 
the prevailing race, English and Germans make up a con- 
stantly increasing portion of the population. 

Central America also became independent of the moth- 
er-country, the five Spanish colonies forming themselves 
into a federal republic which lasted until 1839. Each 
state has since had a separate republican government. 

Mexico. — On the overthrow of Ferdinand VII. by Na- 
poleon, great excitement prevailed throughout Mexico, and 
in 1810 a rebellion broke out. For several years the 
patriots struggled almost against hope ; but in 1820, 
when news arrived that the Spanish people had obtained 
a liberal constitution from Ferdinand, the desire for free- 
dom revived among the Mexicans. Iturbide (e-toor'be-da), 


a colonel in the Mexican army, availing himself of the 
popular excitement, proclaimed the independence of his 
country (February, 1831), freed it from the Spanish yoke, 
and was crowned " Emperor of Mexico," July 21, 1822. 
His reign was short. Santa Anna, supported by other 
chiefs who favored a republic, proclaimed that form of 
government in December, and Iturbide was driven into 
exile. Returning in 1824, he was shot as a traitor. 

Owing to a succession of revolutionary disturbances 
and civil wars, liberty brought few blessings to the Mexi- 
cans. The oppressive policy they pursued toward Texas, 
which was largely settled by American colonists, led to a 
revolution in that province, and the establishment of its 
independence in 1836. The annexation of Texas to the 
United States (1845), and the occupation of certain dis- 
puted territory by American troops, brought on a war be- 
tween Mexico and the United States government in 184G. 
General Taylor, who was in command of a small force on 
the frontier, won the battles of Palo Alto [paJi'lo ahl'to) 
and Resaca de la Palma [ra-sah'kah da lah pahl'mah) ; 
then crossing the Rio Grande {re'o grahn'da), he stonned 
Monterey, and at Buena Vista {hwa'nah vees'tah) defeated 
the Mexican general Santa Anna at the head of an army 
three times the size of his own. 

The war thus gloriously begun was carried to a success 
ful termination by General Winfield Scott, who, after tak- 
ing Vera Cruz {va'rah kroos), advanced into the interior, 
and fought his way to the capital, entering it in tri- 
umph (September 14, 1847). The Mexican authorities now 
consented to peace. By the treaty of Guadalupe Hi- 
dalgo {(/wah-dah-loo'jKi he-dahV go) they recognized the 
Rio Grande as the southern boundary of Texas, and for 
the sum of fifteen million dollars relinquished to the 
United States New Mexico and California (February 2, 
1848). It was in this year that the discovery of gold in 


California was made, and an unparalleled influx of emi- 
grants to the Pacitie coast in consequence began. 

Spain under Isabella IL— In 1830, Ferdinand VII. of 
Spain abolished the Salic law, which had come into force 
with the Bourbon dynasty, thus securing the succession 
tor his daughter Isabella, born that year, to the exclusion 
of his brother Don Carlos. On his death in 1833, the 
child was proclaimed queen with the title of Isabella II.. 
her mother having been appointed regent during her mi- 
nority. Don Carlos at once forcibly asserted his claim to 
the throne ; but after a bloody civil war, which lasted 
seven years, the power of the Carlists was broken. 

The reign of Isabella was subsequently disturbed by a 
succession of revolutionary movements and changes of 

Portugal and Brazil — When Napoleon declared that 
the House of Braganza had forfeited the Portuguese 
throne (p. 414), the insane Maria I. was queen, her son 
John (VI.) acting as regent. Taking his family, this 
prince sought refuge in Brazil, where he made many salu- 
tary reforms, and finally raised the colony to the rank of a 
kingdom. On the death of his mother in 1816, he was 
declared king of Portugal, but for a time he remained in 
Rio Janeiro. Yielding at last to the demands of the Por- 
tuguese, John VI. returned to Lisbon, leaving his son 
Dom Pedro as regent of Brazil. 

Soon after (1823), a revolution took place ; Brazil was 
declared an empire independent of Portugal, and the 
crown was conferred upon Pedro. By the death of his 
father in 1826, Pedro became king of Portugal also ; but 
he transferred his claim to his young daughter, Dona 
Maria da Gloria, who, despite an attempt of her uncle 
Dom Miguel [me-ghel') to supplant her, was finally ac- 
knowledged queen in 1834. Insurrection succeeded in- 
surrection, until the death of Maria in 1853. 


Pedro I. of Brazil continued on the throne till 1831. 
In that year he abdicated in favor of his son, Dora Pedro 
II. Under him the empire made remarkable progress. 
A long war with Paraguay was successfully concluded in 
1870 by the overthrow of the dictator Lopez. Provision 
was made for the abolition of slavery in 1871 ; induce- 
ments were offered to emigrants, and means taken to de- 
velop the immense resources of the country. 

The Mexican War. 

1846 : Hostilities commence. Taylor wins the battle of Palo Alto, 
May 8th ; Resaca de la Palma, May 9th ; takes Monterey, September 24th. 
Americans conquer California. 1847: Taylor defeats the Mexicans at 
Buena Vista, February 23d. General Scott takes Vera Cruz, March 27th ; 
gains the battle of Cerro Gordo, April 18th; Contreras (kon-tra'rahs) 
and Churubusco {choo-roo-boos' ko)^ August 20th ; Molino del Rey {mo- 
le'no del ra), September 8th; Chapultepec {^Jiah-pool-ta-pek'), September 
13th ; enters the city of Mexico in triumph, September 14tli. Peace with 
Mexico proclaimed, July 4, 1848. 



George III. — At the close of the Revolutionary War, 
the long administration of the younger Pitt, " the consum- 
mate debater and unequalled master of sarcasm," began in 
England. His policy was strongly opposed to the French 
Revolution. Austerlitz proved his death-blov/. When news 
of Napoleon's victory reached him, Pitt pointed to a map 
of Europe and said, " Roll up that chart, it will not be 
wanted these ten years." The great statesman then fell 
into a stupor, from which he awakened only once, to mur- 
mur faintly, "Alas ! my country." 



In 1810 George III. became hopelessly insane, and the 
government passed into the hands of the Prince of Wales 
as regent. History presents no sadder picture than this 
demented king, blind and deaf, wandering through his pal- 
ace, " addressing imaginary parliaments and reviewing fan- 
cied troops." Death at length put an end to his sorrows 
in 1820, after the longest and most eventful reign recorded 
in English history. Pure, pious, honest in purpose though 
often mistaken in policy, George III. won the love of his 
subjects. The Prince of Wales succeeded as George IV. 

An important event of the reign of George III. was the 
abolition of the Irish Parliament, and the legislative union 
of Ireland and Great Britain. — Cap- 
tain Cook explored the eastern coast 
of Australia, and discovered New 
Caledonia and the Sandwich Islands. 

The principal literary men of this 
period, most of whom flourished 
also in the succeeding reign, were 
the poets Shelley, Byron, Southey, 
Coleridge, Wordsworth, Campbell, 
Moore, and Scott ; the last-named, 
more noted in prose than in poetry, 
as the author of the Waverley Nov- 
els, stands in the front rank of fic- 
tion-writers. This was also the age 
that gave birth to the Edinburgh 
and Westminster Reviews, the Lon- 
don Quarterly, and Blackwood's Magazine, among whose 
contributors were the most distinguished men of the time. 

Fashions, Improvements, etc. — In the early part of 
the reign of George III., the most extravagant head- 
dresses were worn by the devotees of fashion ; a lady could 
thus add three feet to her height. Barbers advertised to 
dress heads so that they would keep for three weeks. 

Head-dress worn in 17S2. 


Vaccination was practised at the close of the century 
by Doctor Edward Jenner. In spite of the denunciations 
of his professional brethren and the clergy, the discovery 
was soon acknowledged to be one of the greatest bless- 
ings to mankind. — The London Times, the leading news- 
paper of England, first appeared under that title in 1788; 
in 1814, the use of a steam-press greatly increased its 
printing facilities. 

George IV. — Immediately after the accession of George 
IV., the whole nation was thrown into excitement by the 
discovery of a plot, known as the Cato Street Conspiracy, 
to assassinate the king's ministers and overthrow the gov- 
ernment. The conspirators, betrayed by one of their own 
number, were seized in a hay-loft where they were assem- 
bled, and the leaders were executed. 

George IV. hated his wife, Caroline of Brunswick, whom 
he had wedded in 1795. The princess was slovenly in her 
habits, and very indiscreet in her language and actions ; on 
the other side, " the first gentleman in Europe," as George 
was called, ill kept the vows he had stanmiered out in 
drunkenness at the time of his marriage. Accordingly, a 
separation took place, and Caroline left England. But on 
her husband's accession, notwithstanding a pension of fifty 
thousand pounds was ofi"ered her if she would stay away, 
she returned amid the acclamations of the people, who 
loved her in spite of her follies. Her claim to be crowned 
queen-consort, however, was disregarded — a disappoint- 
ment which the unhappy princess did not long survive. 
She directed to be inscribed on her tomb, " Here lies Car- 
oline of Brunswick, the injured Queen of England." 

During the reign of George IV., great suffering among 
the farmers and working classes led to seTious discontent; 
in Ireland a large force was required to preveilt outbreaks 
of the people. Liberal sentiments began to prevail ; and 
disabilities were removed from the Catholics (1829), main- 


ly through the efforts of the eloquent O'Connell, the king 
yielding only when the country was threatened with civil 

George IV. was obstinate, extravagant, and profligate. 
It is said that the money he squandered in his youth would 
have supported a manufacturing town. For coats alone 
he spent ten thousand pounds a year. One day he would 
treat his friends in the most affectionate manner, and the 
next refuse to recognize them. He even dismissed Beau 
Brummel, the companion who brought tears to his eyes by 
finding fault with the cut of his clothes; and long after- 
ward, when Brummel offered the king his snuff-box, George 
coolly helped himself to a pinch and then moved on with- 
out noticing the old favorite. 

This reign is memorable for the founding of London 
University and King's College, the commencement of the 
tunnel under the Thames, and the establishment of settle- 
ments in Australia. 

William IV.— On the death of George IV. in 1830, his 
brother William became monarch of Great Britain and Ire- 
land. He was called " the Sailor King," for his life had 
been spent in the naval service. The greatest event of 
his reign was the passage of the Reform Bill, introduced 
by Lord John Russell, which extended the right of suffrage 
and made a new and fairer distribution of representatives 
in the House of Commons (1832). Under the provisions 
of this act, every industrious man in the kingdom could 
hope to attain the privilege of voting. Another impor- 
tant measure was the emancipation of negro slaves through- 
out the British colonies, twenty million pounds sterling 
being appropriated to reimburse the owners. 

In William's reign, the first railroad in the country, 
from Liverpool to Manchester, was opened. On his death 
in 1837 without male heirs, the crown fell to his niece Vic- 
toria, then only eighteen years of age. Hanover and 



Great Britain were now separated, for in the former the 
Salic law was in force. Victoria's uncle, Ernest Augustus, 
Duke of Cumberland, became king of Hanover. 

The Greek Revolution. — After the conquest of Moham- 
med II, (p. 258), Greece remained a part of the Turkish 


Empire for nearly four hundred years, suffering more oi 
less from the rapacity and oppression of its masterSo 
About the beginning of the nineteenth century the spirit 
of patriotism revived, and a secret association was formed 
for the purpose of re-establishing Grecian independence. 
Ypsilanti raised the standard of revolt in the northern 


provinces, but the " Sacred Battalion " which he command- 
ed was cut to pieces (1821). 

Notwithstanding this disaster, insurrections broke out 
in all parts of Greece, and the modern Hellenes performed 
deeds worthy of their heroic ancestors. The Turks en- 
deavored to suppress the movement with remorseless se- 
verity. The patriarch of Constantinople they hanged on 
Easter Sunday at the gate of his palace ; and his arch- 
bishops, together with thousands of Greeks, were massa- 
cred in the capital. Similar outrages were committed 
throughout the provinces. The Janizaries of Salonika 
[sah-lo-?ie' kah), though the battlements of that city were 
garnished with heads, threatened to revolt because they 
were not allowed to exterminate the Christians, 

Nor were the Greeks backward in retaliating. When 
Tripolitza, capital of the Morea, fell into their hands, sev- 
eral thousands of the Moslems were slain. Nothing re- 
mained of the city but a ruin, the very nails having been ex- 
tracted from the buildings. In 1832 the beautiful island of 
Scio was laid waste by the Ottomans. The following year, 
the Suliote patriot, Marco Bozzaris, surprised the Turks in 
a night attack, cut his way into the midst of their camp, 
and fell as his comrades raised the cry of victory. The 
insurgents, on the whole, had the advantage until 1825, 
when the sultan obtained aid from the pasha of Egypt. 

Meanwhile a general sympathy for the Greeks was 
awakened among the nations of Christendom ; unions 
called Philhellenic [friendly to Greece) were formed, to 
furnish them with money and supplies ; and at last the 
barbarity of the Egyptians, particularly as exhibited at the 
fall of Missolonghi on the western coast, led Russia, Eng- 
land, and France, to interfere in the struggle. In 1827 
their combined fleets stood into the Bay of Navarino [nah- 
vah-re'no), when a battle at once began which resulted in 
the destruction of the Turkish and Egyptian squadrons. 

44:2 LOUIS xvm., of France, 

But not until 1829, when a Russian armj' threatened the 
Ottoman capital, would the Porte recognize Greece as an 
independent kingdom. The second son of King Louis of 
Bavaria was selected to fill the throne (1832), with the 
title of Otho I. 

English Sovereigns: House of Hanover. 

George I., . . .1714 

George IL, . . . H'-^^. 
George III., . . . 1760. 

George IV., . 1820. 

William IV., . . 1830. 

Victoria, .... 1837. 



Louis XVIII. — With the restoration of Louis XVIIT. 
to the throne of the Bourbons, a reaction began. The 
ultra-royalists, distinguished as " White Jacobins," coming 
into power, inflicted a bloody revenge on the Bonapartists 
and republicans. Even the brave Xey was condemned to 
death for his desertion to Napoleon. He gave the word 
of command to the soldiers drawn up to shoot him ; point- 
ing to his heart, he cried, " Comrades, fire here ! " and 
fell dead pierced by ten balls. The king on his accession 
had granted the people a charter of liberties, and he now 
sought to restrain the violence of the monarchical party — 
his over-zealous supporters. 

The position of Louis XVIII. was thus a most difficult 
one to fill ; but his good judgment, moderation, and be- 
nevolence, carried him safely through the many troubles 
of his reign. On his death-bed (1824) he said to his 
brother Charles, who was about to succeed him: " I have 



tacked between parties like Henry IV., but unlike him 1 
die in my bed. Do as I have done, and your reign will 
end in peace." 

The Holy Alliance. — About the time of the restora- 
tion, the Holy Alliance was formed by the emperors of 
Russia and Austria and the King of Prussia, who pledged 

Execution of Marshal Net. 

themselves to a permanent union in the bonds of brotherly 
love, and a mutual support for the maintenance of peace, 
justice, and religion. Most of the European powers ac- 
ceded to this treaty, but they soon found that it was only 
a pretence for perpetuating despotism. 


It was at the instigation of the Holy Alliance that a 
French army of 100,000 men was sent into Spain, to put 
down the patriots who had wrested from the false and 
cruel Ferdinand VII. a liberal constitution. Similar revo- 
lutions in Italy, where Austrian influence was predomi- 
nant, were also suppressed by the Holy x\lliancc. 

Charles X. — During the French Revolution, this prince, 
the last of the Bourbons, went about Europe soliciting aid 
to re-establish monarchy in France. Catharine of Russia 
presented him a sword inscribed, " Given by God for the 
king ; " but the weapon was useless in the hands of Charles, 
who proved himself a better " performer with the knife 
and fork." He lacked the courage to land in La Vendee, 
though he was backed by a British force and 80,000 royal- 
ists awaited his arrival to fly to arms. 

When he became king, the most arbitrary measures 
were adopted ; and though the people were at first charmed 
with his majestic bearing and warm-hearted waj-s, they 
soon perceived that he was the enemy of their liberties. 
The deluded king hoped to divert the public mind from 
home matters by military triumphs abroad. Aid was sent 
to Greece, the city of Algiers was taken — but all to no 
purpose. The government grew more and more unpopu- 
lar ; until finally, when the liberty of the press was de- 
stroyed and the law of election changed, the people rose 
in their might (July, 1830), overpowered the royal troops, 
and Charles, after abdicating, went into exile. 

Some clamored for a republic ; but Lafayette, believ- 
ing that France was not yet prepared for a democratic 
government, advocated a constitutional monarchy. The 
crown was conferred on the Duke of Orleans, son of 
Philip Equality ; he swore to maintain the constitutional 
charter, and was hailed as Louis Philippe I., King of the 

Belgian Revolution, — After Napoleon's overthrow, the 


Belgian provinces were annexed to Holland by the Con- 
gress of Vienna, and Prince William of (3range -Nassau 
became sovereign of this new Kingdom of the Nether- 
lands. The Belgians, who were Roman Catholics, and 
also differed from the Dutch in language and manners- 
were averse to this union of the long-separated provinces ; 
and their discontent was aggravated by the tyrannical gov- 
ernment of the Hollanders. 

News of the successful revolution at Paris created the 
wildest excitement in Belgium ; and in August, 1830, 
roused to action by the music of the grand opera, the 
people of Brussels broke out in insurrection. Their ex- 
ample was quickly followed ; a provisional government 
was formed, and the independence of Belgium proclaimed. 
King William took up arms to suppress the rebels, but 
without success ; and at length a conference of the great 
powers, held at London, recognized Belgium as a separate 
state and forbade further hostilities. * 

The first king of Belgium was Leopold of Saxe-Coburg- 
Gotha. No sooner was he crowned than the Dutch recom- 
menced the war, but England and France interfered and 
put an end to the struggle. Since the separation, both 
countries have flourished. 

Insurrection in Poland.— The Congress of Vienna re- 
arranged the divisions of Poland (see Map, p. 387). The 
district of Cracow was erected into a free republic ; while 
the czar Alexander, to whom fell the greater part of the 
duchy of Warsaw, formed his new acquisitions into the 
Kingdom of Poland, and appointed his brother Constan- 
tine its military governor. The emperor himself was king 
of the new state, and solemnly guaranteed its independ- 

There was little friendship, however, between the peo- 
ple and their Russian rulers. During the reign of Nicholas, 
Alexander's successor, excited by the tyranny of Constan- 


tine and encouraged by the success of the French and Bel- 
gians, the Poles rose against their oppressors (1830). But 
valuable time was wasted in negotiations, and the aristoc- 
racy lost the support of the great body of peasants by 
denying them the privileges of liberty. Despite the un- 
exampled bravery of the Polish patriots, many of whom, 
for want of better weapons, were armed only with scythes, 
the Russians triumphed. Depopulated by war and disease, 
her soldiers torn from the arms of their families by im- 
pressment in the Russian armies, or doomed to the mines 
of Siberia, Poland has had cause long to remember her 
fruitless uprising. 

Every attempt has since been made to denationalize 
the Poles; and the Republic of Cracow, in defiance of all 
principles of justice, was forcibly annexed to Austria in 

Kings of France : House of Bourbon. 

Honry lY., of Navarre, 


Republic, . 1792-1795. 

Louis XIII.,.. . 


Directory, . 1795-1799. 

Louis XIV., . 


Consulate, . 1799-1804. 

Louis XY., . 


Empire, . 1804-1814. 

Louis XYL, 


Louis XYIII., . . 1814. 

Revolution, . 


Charles X., . . . 1824. 

Louis XVII. died 


Louis Philippe (House 

prison, . 


of Orleans), . . 1830. 


TIONS OF 1848. 

ftueen Victoria was crowned in Westminster Abbey in 
1838, and in 1840 she gave her hand to Prince Albert of 
Saxe-Cobura--Gotha. A rebellion in Canada was the first 


event that disturbed her reign ; but this was put down, 
and the causes of dissatisfaction were as far as possible re- 
moved. Difficulties then arose with China. In the face 
of a prohibition from the Chinese government, the English 
merchants continued to import opium into the empire, as 
the trade in the drug was extremely profitable. This illicit 
commerce led to a war between the Chinese authorities and 
the British, resulting in the success of the latter and the 
opening of five great ports. 

The condition of England, meanwhile, was far from 
quiet. The crops failed; and the distress occasioned there- 
by was aggravated by the Corn Laics, which laid a bur- 
densome duty on imported grain. Popular discontent was 
loudly expressed, trades-unions sprung up, and a league 
was formed in 1839 to obtain the repeal of the Corn Laws. 
This was violently opposed ; but in 1841, a conservative 
ministry came into power, at the head of which was Sir 
Robert Peel, an advocate of reform. Many duties were now 
removed and others reduced, yet the public distress con- 
tinued. In Wales the numerous tolls exacted drew so 
heavily on the earnings of the people that a body of riot- 
ers went through the country, destroying the toll-gates un- 
der cover of night. They were led by a man dressed in 
women's clothes, and were known as " Rebecca and her 
daughters." In Ireland, also, a bitter feeling was excited 
against the government by the speeches of O'Connell ; but 
here, as in Wales, the disturbances were effectually quelled. 

It was not until January, 1846, when, by reason of the 
scanty grain-harvest and the failure of the potato-crop in 
Ireland, famine stared the country in the face, that the 
duty on corn was removed — Sir Robert Peel introducing 
the bill for that purpose. Even this concession, however, 
did not satisfy the discontented masses. A Chartist 
demonstration, as it was called, took place in London in 
1848, for the purpose of procuring certain constitutional 


changes embodied in a bill of rights known as the People's 
Charter ; but the extraordinary precautions taken by the 
government were successful in preserving the peace. 

The beginning of Victoria's reign is remarkable for the 
establishment of the penny postage system. — In the spring 
of 1845, Sir John Franklin, the celebrated explorer, sailed 
with the Erebus and Terror in search of a north-west pas- 
sage. Though he never returned, it appears that by reach- 
ing from the Atlantic a point which had been attained by 
explorers from the Pacific, he virtually made the long- 
sought discovery. — In 1851 gold was found in Australia ; 
emigrants hurried to " the diggings," and Australia rapid- 
ly developed into a rich and flourishing country. 

Revolution in France. — Louis Philippe, whom we left 
upon tlie throne of France (p. 444), was surrounded by dif- 
ficulties. Legitimists, Bonapartists, and republicans, were 
his opponents, and the rivalries of his ministers kept France 
in a state of agitation. Several attempts were made to 
assassinate him ; and Louis Napoleon, son of Louis Bona- 
parte (the former king of Holland), made two efforts to 
excite a revolution against the government. " I shall be 
emperor before I die," he said ; " I will govern France, 
and then perish with a bullet in my brain." 

In 1840, a new administration was formed, Guizot 
{(/he-zo') being the ruling spirit in the cabinet. In that 
year the remains of the great Napoleon were brought to 
Paris and buried beneath the dome of the Invalides. Not 
long after, France was plunged in grief by the death of 
the Duke of Orleans, heir to the crown, who possessed the 
love and confidence of the whole nation. 

With the exception of a war in Algeria, which the 
French succeeded in permanently annexing after a long 
struggle with the young emir Abd-el-Kader (ahbd-el-kah' - 
der), the Guizot administration was peaceful, for " Peace 
at any price " was the motto of the king. But while friend- 


ly and pacific feeling characterized its foreign relations, 
the government at home became objectionable. The 
" citizen king " broke the pledge he had given to his 
countrymen, — to support constitutional liberty, and sud- 
denly his ears were greeted with the cry of reform. Po- 
litical banquets came in vogue, and the suppression of one 
of these in Paris on Washing-ton's birthday, 1848, brought 
on a revolution. The following morning, crowds of ill- 
looking creatures swarmed in the streets; barricades were 
hastily thrown up, the troops were overpowered, and at 
last Louis Philippe, hearing the infuriated people shout- 
ing " A republic ! " at the very gates of the Tuileries, 
knew that his reign was over. On the 24th of February 
he abdicated, and under an assumed name sought safety 
in England. 

It was in this trying hour that the widowed Duchess 
of Orleans, unterrified by the fury of the mob and the 
weapons pointed at her breast, brought her young son 
into the Assembly, and there eloquently urged his claim 
to the crown. But a voice from the tribune cried, " Too 
late ! " A provisional government was instituted. On 
the following day the poet Lamartine (lah-niar-teen'), one 
of its members, achieved the greatest triumph of his elo- 
quence by appeasing the maddened Commune and thus 
saving France from another reign of terror. 

Establishment of the Second Empire. — The new govern- 
ment did not meet the expectations of the lower orders. 
They still had to earn their bread by the sweat of their 
brow, whereas they seem to have looked for a golden age 
of exemption from all labor. In response to their demands 
for lighter work and better pay, national workshops were 
established, where employment was given to thousands, 
and many who did not labor were paid. But this system 
proved ruinous, and when the authorities were obliged to 
close the factories, the Communists once more filled the 


streets of Paris and cried, " Down with the government ! " 
After a desperate conflict of several days, they were sup- 
pressed by General Cavaignac {kali-ve n-yahk' ) . A repub- 
lic was then formed, an election for president was held, 
and Louis Napoleon received a large majority of votes — 
due, no doubt, to the associations connected with his name. 

The new president was regarded with distrust by most 
of the honest republican leaders, and it soon became evi- 
dent that at the expiration of his term the country would 
again be plunged in civil strife. But Louis Napoleon an- 
ticipated his enemies by his famous coup d'etat (December 
2, 1851). During the preceding night, Paris was filled 
with soldiers ; before dawn those "whom he had cause to 
fear were placed under arrest, and it was declared that 
the Assembly was dissolved. The president then secured 
his re-election for ten years ; and in November, 1852, the 
republic was quietly metamorphosed into an empire, its 
chief magistrate becoming " Napoleon IIL,* Emperor of 
the French." 

Eevolutions in the German States. — The year 1848 is 
an eventful one in the history of Germany. — After the Na- 
poleonic wars, thirty-nine of the German states united in 
forming a new confederation, but the general diet in which 
they were represented was controlled by Austria. At this 
time the people were enthusiastic for the establishment of 
German unity and freedom ; instead of which, the ruling 
princes tightened the reins of despotism and strove to 
check the progressive spirit of the age. 

But oppression only begat a more intense desire for 
liberty. After the French Revolution of 1830, outbreaks 
occurred in several of the states. During Louis Philijipe's 
reign, the death of Francis made his son Ferdinand em- 
peror of Austria (1835), and Frederick William IV. as- 

* The son of Napoleon I. (deceased in 1832) was recognized as Na- 
poleon II. 


cended the throne of Prussia (1840). The former Avas a 
man of weak character, and his empire was ruled by Prince 
Metteniich, the declared enemy of liberal principles. The 
Prussian, at his accession, made fair promises, and really 
did much for the people, but he would not grant them a 
constitution ; and consequently in Prussia, as in the other 
German states, opposition to the government began to as- 
sume a dangerous aspect. 

The downfall of the Orleans dynasty in France was the 
spark that fired the train. Everywhere the people rose 
in behalf of their rights, demanding " freedom of speech, 
liberty of the press, and a constitutional government." 
The princes of many of the smaller states, powerless to re- 
sist, yielded at once to the popular movement ; but iu 
Prussia and Austria, the people did not carry their point 
without a struggle. After a conflict in the streets of Ber- 
lin between the soldiers and citizens, in which several were 
killed, the king made the concessions required and declared 
himself " leader of the movement for German unity." 

The people of Vienna drove Metternich into exile, and 
obtained from the emperor the privileges they demanded. 
But they abused their suddenly-acquired liberty. License 
reigned in the capital, law and order were at an end, and 
Ferdinand was finally obliged to seek safety in flight. Re- 
bellions also occurred in other parts of the empire, and the 
Austrian monarchy was brought to the very brink of de- 

Hungarian Revolution. — The most formidable of these 
was the uprising of the Hungarians, or Magyars, long out- 
raged by the policy of the government. The eloquent 
Kossuth ijcosh-shoot') was the soul of the revolution, and 
Gorgey [gor'ghi), with the Poles Bem and Dembinski, led 
the armies of the patriots. Encouraged by Austria, the 
ban of Croatia took the field against the Hungarians ; and 
when Vienna, which had again revolted, this time in favor 


of the Magyar revolutionists, was besieged by Austrian 
troops, he repulsed Kossuth, who was marching to its re- 
lief. Then he joined the Austrians, and the allied forces 
took the capital by storm. 

Austrians and Croatians were afterward repeatedly de- 
feated by the Hungarians, and it was not until Russia in- 
terfered that this brave people was subdued. GOrgey sur- 
rendered his army in 1849. Kossuth escaped into Turkey, 
and was detained there as a prisoner till 1851, when he 
was released through the intervention of the United States 
and England. The last Hungarian fortress that surren- 
dered was Comorn, associated in history with the barbar- 
ities of the Austrian general Haynau (hi'ndic), whose 
frightful cruelty during this war secured for him the ap- 
pellation of IIunf/ary''s Ilaugman. 

Revolutions in Italy. — The Italian republicans were 
also encouraged by the overthrow of despotism in France. 
Pius IX., " the constitutional pope," who had been chosen 
in 1846, by his liberal policy began a movement which was 
soon beyond his control. The demands of the people in- 
creased with his indulgence, and at last his minister was 
murdered and he fled from the capital. Rome was de- 
clared a republic (February, 1849). Mazzini [ynaht-se'ne) 
was made the first of the triuDivirs who governed the city; 
and the hero Garibaldi bravely defended it, but could not 
save it from the French, who took it in July. The pope 
came back as an absolute ruler, and for seven years Rome 
was kept under martial law. 

In 1848 the Austrians were driven out of Venice and 
Milan, Charles Albert of Sardinia declared war against 
them, and neai-ly all northern Italy was for a time freed 
from their yoke. But the Austrian marshal Radetzky 
soon regained his ground, and the king of Sardinia con- 
sented to a tnice. In the spring of 1849 the latter re- 
sumed the war ; but in a four days' campaign the old Ra- 


detzky overthrew the hopes of the patriots, and Austria 
again became supreme. Charles Albert resigned the scep- 
tre to Victor Emmanuel, his son. This prince, undavmted 
by the disasters that had befallen his father, though 
obliged for the time to yield to them, pledged his sword 
to the same cause — the freedom and glory of Italy. 

Literary and Scientific Men. 

England. — The scientists Sir David Brewster, Faraday, and Tyndall, 
noted respectively for their researches in optics, electro-magnetism, and 
the phenomena of heat. Macaulay and Carlyle ; the former, author of a 
" History of England," abounding in the richest ornaments of rhetoric — 
the latter, of various historical works and essays, marked by original 
thought but an unnatural style. Sir William Hamilton, distinguished in 
metaphysics and philosophy, and John Stuart Mill, in logic and political 
economy. The poet-laureate Tennyson. The novelists Bulwer, Thack- 
eray, and Dickens. 

France. — The scientists Cuvier {kii-ve-a'), Arago, and Leverrier {leh- 
va-re-a) ; the first, a great zoologist, founder of the science of compara- 
tive anatomy, the last two, astronomers. Thiers (te-ap-'), who wrote the 
history of the Revolution, Consulate, and Empire. The popular song- 
writer Beranger {ba-rvit^-zha'). Victor Hugo, author of odes, ballads, 
dramas, and novels. 

Germany. — Of many scholars and writers later than those named 
on page 387, may be mentioned the historians Heeren (1760-18-12), and 
Niebuhr (1776-1831), who flourished in the early part of the century — 
Moramsen (1817-) — and Neander, an eminent church-historian (1789- 
1850). Karl Ritter, the great geographer. The poets Uhland and Heine 
{hi'neh). Baron Liebig, a great discoverer in the field of organic chem- 
istry. The illustrious naturalist Humboldt, author of various scientific 
treatises, and particularly of " Kosmos : a Physical Description of the 
Universe," written when he was more than seventy-four years old. Among 
inusical composers, Mendelssohn and Meyerbeer. 

Denmark produced during this period one of the most quaint, im- 
aginative, and charming of fiction-writers, in Hans Christian Andersen, 
born in 1805, died August, 1875. His "Wonder-Stories" have made his 
name a household word among the little folk, and have found deUghted 
readers even in children of a larger growth. 




THE CRIMEAN WAR (1854-1856). 

Russian Aggressions upon Turkey. — In the hope of ag- 
grandizing herself at the expense of the Ottoman Porte, 
Russia had long sought an occasion of war with Turkey. 
The czar Nicholas in 1853 suggested a division of the em- 
pire between himself and England, offering Egypt and the 
island of Candia to the latter — a proposal which the British 
government did not entertain. 

A pretext, however, was not long wanting for carrying 
out the cherished scheme. On the refusal by the Porte of 
the czar's demand to be recognized as Protector of the 

Greek Christians under 
Ottoman rule — compli- 
ance with which would 
have compromised the 
independence of Tur- 
key— 80,000 Russian 
troops crossed the 
Pruth, and occupied 
the principalities of 
Moldavia and Walla- 
chia (see Map, p. 415). 
War was consequently 
declared by the Porte, and the campaign of the Danube, 
under the conduct of Omar Pasha, was a glorious one for 
the Ottoman arms. 

The European powers at first stood aloof, although 
England had encouraged the Turkish government in re- 
sisting the arrogance of Russia ; but the unwarranted de- 
struction of an Ottoman fleet by the Russians off Sin'o-pe 
provoked the interference of England and France early in 
1854, to prevent the dismemberment of Turkey and pre- 



j c Simferopol 

Jj -P- OF THE 




serve the balance of power in Europe. After some pre- 
liminary movements, the allied army disembarked in Sep- 
tember a few miles below Eupatoria in the Crimea (see 
Map), defeated the Russian prince Menzikoff on the banks 
of the Alma, and pushing southward invested the strong 
fortress of Sebasto'pol. 

Battle of Balaklava. — The siege had not progressed 
many days before the Russians sallied from their works to 
attack the enemy at Balaklava {pal-Ci-klah' vah) . A large 
force of the assailants was gallantly charged and thrown 
into confusion by the British dragoons ; but through a 
mistake, the Light Brigade, only 600 strong, was ordered 
forward against the whole Russian army, which had formed 
anew with artillery in front and flank. 

The aide-de-camp Nolan, who had conveyed the instruc- 
tions of Lord Raglan, the commander-in-chief, to the lieu- 
tenant-general, saw the error, and, spurring in front of the 
charging horsemen, sought by gesture and voice to save 
them from destruction. While he was in the act of wav- 
ing his sword, a fragment from a Russian shell pierced his 
heart ; but the arm remained uplifted, the body sat erect 
in the saddle, and as his horse galloped back upon the ad- 
vancing column, an unearthly cry burst from the lifeless 
lips — as if a warning to his comrades of the terrible doom 
that awaited them. Yet on they plunged, through thick 
banks of smoke, swept by a tornado of canister and 
grape, up to the very mouths of the cannon, sabred the 
gunners, scattered the Russian infantry, — then turned, a 
mere handful, to fight their way back through a mass of 
lancers. Only 150 succeeded in reaching their friends. 

The Russians were checked at Balaklava. Ten days 
later (November 5th), 50,000 of them attacked the English 
position at Inkerman, where, after an obstinate battle of 
six hours Avith 8,000 British and a French division 6,000 
strong, they were finally repulsed. Soon after this, winter 


set in ; and cold, want, and disease, proved more fatal to 
the besiecrina: armv than the Russian sword. The tale of 
their sufferings brought clothing and supplies of all kinds 
to the camp ; while the sick and wounded were attended 
in the hospital by a corps of volunteer nurses, at the head 
of whom was an English lady, Florence Nightingale. 

Fall of Sebastopol. — In the beginning of the new year, 
Victor Emmanuel II. of Sardinia sent an army to support 
the allies. As the spring wore on, the siege was more 
vigorously prosecuted ; repeated sorties of the Russians 
were repulsed, their last effort to disperse the enemy being 
defeated by the French and Sardinians (Aygust 16, 1855). 
On the 8th of September, after three days' bombardment, 
the final assault was made. The strong works of the 
Malakhoff and the Redan were stormed ; and the Russians, 
after exploding their magazines, sinking their ships and 
frigates, and firing the town, evacuated Sebastopol. The 
allies took possession of the ruins, and completed the dis- 
mantling of the post by destroying the arsenals, docks, 
and warehouses. 

Russia was now anxious for peace. Negotiations were 
accordingly begun, which resulted in the conclusion of a 
treaty at Paris in the spring of 1856. The integrity of 
Turkey was guaranteed ; the Black Sea was opened to the 
mercantile vessels of all nations, but closed to ships of 
war. The Danubian principalities of Wallachia and Mol- 
davia (Roumania) remained only nominally subject to Tur- 
key, full liberty of worship and legislation being securec 
to them ; in 1858 they were granted the privilege of elect- 
ing a Hospodar, or governor, for life. On the election of 
Prince Milan in 1868, Servia also became virtually inde- 
pendent, though under the suzerainty of the Porte. 

Meanwhile Nicholas of Russia died (March 2, 1855). 
His son and successor, Alexander II., was crowned czar in 
the autumn of 1856. The condition of the Russian people 


has since been ameliorated by the encouragement of com- 
merce and internal industry, improvements in public edu- 
cation, and the abolition of serfdom. A revolt of the 
Poles, liowever, took place in 1863, which was put down 
with the usual severity, 85,000 of this unfortunate people 
being- transported to Siberia. The Russian government 
has since felt it expedient to emancipate the Polish peas- 
ants and adopt various other liberal measures. 

Checked in her career of aggrandizement in Europe, 
and abandoning her foothold in America by the sale of 
Alaska to the United States in 1867, Russia has since 
steadily pursued her plan of annexation in Asia. Her em- 
pire, which was extended on the east beyond the Amoor 
by the acquisition of a large tract from China in 1858, has 
also approached the frontiers of British India, absorbing 
portions of the khanates of Khiva (ke'vah), Bokhara, and 
Khokan, east of the Caspian Sea. The khan of Khiva at 
first successfully resisted the Russian arms ; but in 1873 
he consented to a peace which not only cost him a large 
indemnity and many square miles of territory, but also 
provided for the discontinuance of the slave-trade that had 
long flourished in his dominions. 

The Russian government is taking measures to consoli- 
date its vast empire, particularly by an improved system 
of public instruction and the introduction of the Russian 
tongue in all parts of its dominions. A railroad is in 
process of construction through Siberia to the Pacific. 

Sovereigns of Russia. 

Peter I., the Great, . 

. 1682. 

Catharine II , . 

. 1762. 

Catharine I., 


Paul, . 


Peter II., . 

. 1727. 

Alexander I., . 

.. 1801. 

Anna, . . . . 




Ivan VI., . 

. 1740. 

Alexander II . . 

. 1855. 

Elizabeth Petrovna, 


Alexander III., . 


Peter III., 

. 1762. 

Nicholas II., . 

. 1894. 



Civil War in the United States. — For his services in the 
Mexican War, General Taylor was rewarded with the pres- 
idency of the United States in 1849, but he enjoyed the 
honor for little more than a year. By his death his office 
fell to the vice-president, Millard Fillmore, of New York. 
During part of Fillmore's term, Edward Everett, of Massa- 
chusetts, one of the most distinguished orators of America, 
served as Secretary of State. 

Franklin Pierce, of New Hampshire, succeeded to the 
presidency in 1853, and James Buchanan, of Pennsylvania, 
in 1857. The administrations of both were disturbed by 
virulent discussions on the subject of slavery, which existed 
in the South, but to the extension of which, as new states 
were formed, many in the North were opposed. 

When, in 1860, Abraham Lincoln, of Illinois, a repub- 
lican, was chosen president, the Southern leaders, alleging 
that he was a sectional candidate, declared secession from 
the Union to be the only safeguard against the anticipated 
aggressions of the Federal government. Seven of the 
thirty-three states passed ordinances of secession, formed 
a new union under the title of " the Confederate States of 
America" (February, 1861), and elected Jefferson Davis, 
of Mississippi, their president. Four more states joined 
the Confederacy shortly afterward, and in November, 1861. 
two others were admitted. 

All efforts for a peaceable settlement of difficulties hav- 
ing failed, and the Federal government having attempted 
to send supplies to one of its posts in Charleston harbor, 
the Confederates, who had assembled a large force in the 
neighborhood, opened fire upon the fort, April 12, 1861. 
Thus began a destructive four-year civil war. 


The Federal government at first met with some severe 
reverses, commencing with the disastrous defeat of Bull 
Run (July 21, 1861) ; but calling fresh men from time to 
time into the field, building iron-clad gun-boats, mortar- 
boats, and monitors, to co-operate by water, and maintain- 
ing a strict blockade of the southern coast, it gradually 
gained ground, after severe struggles, in most of the states 
in which military operations were carried on. Particularly 
was this the case in the South-west, New Orleans being 
taken in April, 18G3, and the Mississippi being opened by 
the capture of Vicksburg and Port Hudson in July, 1863. 

All this time, however, Richmond, the Confederate 
capital, set the Union forces at defiance. Several attempts 
made to reach it resulted only in a heavy loss of men, and 
four times the Potomac was crossed by invading Confeder- 
ate armies from Virginia. Two of these incursions as- 
sumed a formidable aspect, but General Lee, the Confed- 
erate commander, was defeated in the first at Antie'tam, 
Maryland (September 17, 1862), and in the second at Get- 
tysburg, Pennsylvania (July 1-3, 1863), and each time 
obliged to fall back. 

At length (March 3, 1864) the Federal authorities ele- 
vated General Grant, who had distinguished himself in 
various actions, to the rank of Lieutenant-General. New 
forces were raised, and after a series of bloody battles the 
Union army succeeded in reaching the neighborhood of 
Richmond, and invested Petersburg, 22 miles south of that 
capital. The attack was vigorously pushed, and as brave 
ly withstood ; but at last important advantages gained by 
the besieging force, as well as a succession of victories 
won by the Union generals, Sherman in Georgia, and Sher- 
idan in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, showed General 
Lee that to protract his defence would be but a useless 
sacrifice of life. He surrendered April 9, 1865, and with 
this event the last hope of the Confederacy expired. 


The other Confederate armies were either surrendered or 

On January 1, 1863, slavery, the cause of the war, was 
abolished by President Lincoln, in accordance with author- 
ity vested in him by Congress. Mr. Lincoln was re-elected 
to the presidency in 1864 ; but five days after Lee's sur- 
render, to the horror of both Northern and Southern men, 
he was assassinated in the theatre at Washington by a vio- 
lent sympathizer with the South. His death made Andrew 
Johnson, of Tennessee, president till 1869. 

Napoleon III. took advantage of the civil war in the 
United States to interfere in the affairs of Mexico. Send- 
ing over an army to that country, ostensibly to obtain 
reparation for losses sustained by its French residents, he 
defeated the Liberals in several engagements, occupied the 
capital (1863), overthrew the government, established an 
empire, and offered the crown to Maximilian of Austria, 
who unwisely accepted it. The United States, refusing to 
acknowledge Maximilian as emperor, informed Napoleon 
that no European power would be permitted to establish 
a monarchy in North America ; and the French emperor 
thought it prudent to withdraw his army in 1867. Maxi- 
milian, unable to maintain himself against the Liberals, 
was taken and shot ; and the republic was re-established. 

In England much distress was occasioned in the manu- 
facturing districts, during the civil war in America, by the 
want of a supply of cotton. Many of the people sympa- 
thized with the South, and desired that the government 
should recognize and assist the Confederacy ; but the 
prime minister, Lord Palmerston, took a conservative 
course, and peace was maintained. Great dissatisfaction 
was felt in the United States because the Confederates 
were allowed to fit out cruisers in the nominally neutral 
ports of England. From one of these, the Alabama, 
American merchantmen suffered severely, till she was de- 


stroyed by the Kearsarge in June, 1864. After the war, 
a claim for damages was made on the British govern- 
ment. It was referred to arbitration, and an award of 
$15,500,000 was made to the United States. 

In recognition of his military services General Grant 
was elected president in 18G8, and in 1872 he was re 
chosen. The seceded states were gradually reconstructed, 
and in 1871 all were once more re])resented in Congress. 
In 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes became president. He was 
succeeded in 1881 by General James A. Garfield, of Ohio, 
who was greatly admired for his many sterling qualities. 

On July 2, 1881, the people were overwhelmed with 
grief and dismay to learn that their president had been 
shot by an assassin. He died on Sept. 19, and on the 
following morning Chester A. Arthur, the vice-president, 
took the oath of office. Grover Cleveland, the next presi- 
dent (1885), was governor of New York at the time of 
his election. In 1889 he gave place to Benjamin Har- 
rison, of Indiana, but in 1892 he was elected for a second 
term (1893-'97). 

Since the recovery from civil strife the progress of the 
republic has been rapid. Immense crops have rewarded 
the labor of the husbandman ; new railroads have opened 
up vast areas in the West and South ; manufactures have 
multiplied ; and immigration has been on a scale hitherto 
unprecedented. With the admission of Utah, in 1896, 
the number of states became forty-five. 

Cuban Insurrection. — In 1868, the people of Cuba, long 
impatient under the yoke of Spain, attempted to throw it off. 
The successive Spanish governments (monarchical, republi- 
can, and again monarchical) tried in vain for several years to 
reduce the island to submission ; not until rendered defence- 
less by hardships and reverses did the insurgents lay down 
their arms (1878). In 1880 a bill was passed, providing 
for the abolition of slavery. 


Dominion of Canada. — With the approval of the moth- 
er-country, the colonies of British America, the island of 
Newfoundland alone excepted, were in 1867 united in 
what is known as " the Dominion of Canada." Each of 
the seven provinces has its own legislature to regulate its 
local affairs, while the interests of the whole are under the 
control of a governor-general and a parliament in which 
all are represented. The formation of this union has been 
attended with the best results ; it has consolidated the 
strength of the colonies and led to important internal im- 

Austro-Sardinian War. — The spirit of nationality which 
was developing in Italy, together with the growing friend- 
ship between France and Sardinia, whose king Victor 
Emmanuel II. was the supporter of liberal institutions in 
the peninsula, brought on a war in 1859 between those 
two powers and Austria. Hoping to crush the Sardinians 
before they could receive aid from France, Austria dis- 
patched an army across the Ticino [te-che'no) ; but it was 
driven back, and routed near Magenta (see Map, p. 415) 
by the combined French and Sardinian forces. Garibaldi 
also, with his " Hunters of the Alps," several times de- 
feated the Austrians, who, after a second great reverse at 
Solferino, deemed it best to make peace. Their feeling in 
this respect was shared by the French emperor, who, 
marking the threatening aspect of Germany, reluctantly 
paused in his career of triumph. Lombardy was ceded to 
Sardinia in consideration of about forty-two million dollars. 
As a compensation for her services during the war, France 
afterward received Nice and Savoy from Sardinia. 

Founding of the Italian Kingdom. — The desire of the 
Italian patriots was a united Italy ; but the southern part 
of the country was still under the Bourbon king of Naples, 
Francis II. Its liberation was effected by Garibaldi, who 
invaded Sicily in 1860 with a small force of volunteers, 


took Palermo and Messina, and then recrossing to the 
main-land entered Naples on September 7th amid the en- 
thusiastic shouts of the people, Francis IT. having previ- 
ously withdrawn from the city. Garibaldi now resigned 
his power into the hands of the Sardinian king, and retired 
to his farm on the island of Caprera (hah-pra' raK) . 

Victor Emmanuel was proclaimed " King of Italy " in 
1861 by the first Italian Parliament, the Two Sicilies having 
been previously annexed to his kingdom in accordance 
with the vote of the people. All Italy, except Venetia in 
the north-east and a portion of the Papal States, was now 
united under his sceptre. Count Cavour, the Italian prime 
minister, whose statesmanship had been largely instru- 
mental in bringing about this great result, barely lived to 
witness the success of his efforts. 

War in Schleswig-Holstein. — A difficulty between Den- 
mark and her dependencies, the duchies of Schleswig and 
Holstein, which grew out of a question of succession, led 
to a European war in 1864. The German Confederate 
Diet found a pretext for interfering, and sent an armed 
force into Holstein to await the course of events. But 
Prussia and Austria, differing from the diet on questions 
which arose with reference to Schleswig, took the field 
against the Danes. The Austro-Prussian army gained 
many important advantages, and reduced Denmark to 
such extremities that she consented to relinquish Schles- 
wig and Holstein to Austria and Prussia (October 30, 

Seven Weeks' War. — Francis Joseph had succeeded his 
uncle Ferdinand I. on the throne of Austria in 1848, and 
William I. had become king of Prussia in 1861. Troubles 
soon arose between these two powers with respect to the 
duchies, and this petty dispute was made the occasion of a 
war, the real cause of which is to be found in their rivalry 
for the leadership of Germany. Count Otto von Bismarck, 


who had been prime minister of Prussia since 1862, de- 
clared that this question could be decided only " by blood 
and steel," and, having secured the support of Italy, hur- 
ried on by his policy a struggle that could not fail to be 

Seven weeks determined the point at issue. The cam- 
paign, planned by Baron von Moltke, one of the most 
brilliant military geniuses of the century, was successful 
beyond all expectation, the reverses of the Austrians and 
their allies culminating in the rout of Marshal Benedek at 
Sadowa in Bohemia (July 3, 1866). Prussia dictated a 
peace whereby Austria was obliged to consent that a new 
confederation should be formed under the leadership of 
her rival, from which she herself should be excluded. This 
was called the North German Confederation, and embraced 
the states north of the Main, together with Prussia, now 
enlarged by the addition of Schleswig-Holstein, the king- 
dom of Hanover, the electorate of Hesse-Cassel, the duchy 
of Nassau, and the free city of Frankfort. 

Another result of the Seven Weeks' War was the ces- 
sion of Venetia to Victor Emmanuel. Rome only was now 
wanting to complete the unification of Italy. Garibaldi's 
watchword, " Rome or death," touched a chord that vi- 
brated in many a heart ; and in 1870, in compliance with 
the popular demand, Victor Emmanuel ordered the occu- 
pation of the city by his troops. In December it was de- 
clared the national capital, and the following year the 
Italian Parliament virtually put an end to the temporal 
power of the pope by restricting his authority to his pal- 
ace, the Vatican, and certain limited appendages. The 
work of regeneration has since gone on in Italy ; internal 
improvements are rapidly progressing, and education is 
beginning to bear its wonted fruits. 

Austria, after the Seven Weeks' War, hastened to make 
the long-needed reforms. The empire was reconstructed 


under the ministry of the able statesman, Baron Beust 
(bo/'st), who pursued a peace policy while he skilfully 
completed his work of re-or^anization (1867-1871). A rec- 
onciliation was effected with Hungary, which was granted 
an independent government ; and in June, 1867, Francis 
Joseph was crowned at Buda as its constitutional king. 
Austria and Hungary are therefore distinct states, united 
under one sovereign in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. 
The Czechs (Slavic inhabitants of Bohemia) and the Poles 
have since striven, though as yet without success, for a 
Bohemian and a Polish autonomy similar to that of Hun- 

Revolution of 1868 in Spain. — The revolutionary dis- 
turbances of the reign of Isabella II. terminated in 1868 
in a military insurrection, which led to the deposition of 
the queen, and the establishment of a provisional govern- 
ment under General Serrano as president, and General 
Prim as minister of war. The two great political parties 
of the day were the Liberal Monarchists and the Repub- 
licans, the latter of whom rapidly increased in influence 
under Castelar and other leaders. For the time, however, 
a monarchical form of government was retained in Spain, 
and in 1870 the Cortes offered the crown to Leopold of 
Hohenzollern. From this, as we shall presently see, re- 
sulted the Franco-Prussian War. 

• Leopold refused the honor. It was finally accepted by 
Amade'us, second son of Victor Emmanuel, who entered 
Madrid in January, 1871, as king of Spain. But his throne 
was beset by difficulties and dangers. The Carlists (adher- 
ents of the grand-nephew of the first Don Carlos — see p. 
435) raised the banner of revolt ; an attempt was even 
made on his life ; so that Amadeus gave up all hope of 
establishing a firm government, and abdicated in February, 

The Cortes then declared Spain a republic, the honest 


Castelar became president, and a violent struggle was 
maintained with the Carlists during that and the following 
year. Suddenly, at the close of 1874, by a long-planned 
coup d'etat, Prince Alfonso, son of Queen Isabella, was 
proclaimed king ; the army and navy gave him their sup- 
port, and the republic was overthrown. Under the able 
ministry of Canovas del Castillo (1875-1881) the monarchy 
was established on a firm basis. 

Franco-Prussian War. — The wonderful success of Prus- 
sia in the Seven Weeks' War created the wildest excite- 
ment in France. The people felt jealous and angry. Ma- 
genta and Solferino were thrown into the shade by the 
triumph at Sadowa, and united Germany seemed to be a 
standing threat to the political influence of France. 
French honor must be upheld ; and Napoleon III., anx- 
ious to regain the popularity which his failure in Mexico 
had impaired, and emulous of the military exploits of his 
uncle, eagerly sought an opportunity to measure swords 
with King William. 

An excuse, if wanted, is easily found. When the Span- 
ish offered their vacant throne to Leopold of Hohenzollern, 
Napoleon entered an indignant protest, declaring that he 
would never permit the crown of Spain to pass to Leopold 
or any other Prussian prince ; and when Leopold, to end 
the difficulty, declined to accept the position, he insisted 
on an assurance from King William that no Hohenzollern 
should at any time occupy the Spanish throne, instructing 
his ambassador at the German court to push the demand 
with rudeness. This was publicly done at a watering- 
place which the king was then visiting ; but with no other 
result than a contemptuous refusal on the part of William. 
Accordingly France declared war on the 19th of July, 1870. 

But Prussia was not taken unawares. Three magnifi- 
cent armies, which had been prepared in anticipation of such 
an emergency, were at once set in motion ; and, though 




Napoleon III. crossed the frontier and gained a short- 
lived advantage by taking Saarbruck (see Map) on August 
2d, the crown-prince of Prussia entered the French terri- 
tory on the 4th, and, after 
defeating Marshal MacMa- 
hon's corps at Worth on the 
Gth, moved on to Nancy. 
The two other Prussian ar- 
mies also crossed into France, 
thwarted an attempt of Mar- 
shal Bazaine to effect a junc- 
tion with MacMahon, and 
shut him up in Metz. This 
city was forthwith invested 
by Prince Frederick Charles, 
while the crown-prince ad- 
vanced against MacMahon, 
who was at Chalons, forming 
a new army out of such of his scattered men as could be 
collected and the re-enforcements which had been sent for- 
ward to his support. 

From this place, however, MacMahon suddenly started 
in the direction of Metz, to co-operate with Bazaine ; but 
his purpose was anticipated. He was forced back upon 
the town of Sedan ; where, after a desperate battle, their 
position being exposed to a murderous fire from the ene- 
mies' guns on the neighboring eminences, the French army 
of 83,000 men, with more than 50 generals, capitulated. 
The emperor Napoleon, who was with MacMahon, surren- 
dered in person to the Prussian king. 

The news of this overwhelming humiliation threw Paris 
into a fever of revolution. The empire was declared at an 
end, a republic proclaimed, and a provisional government 
formed, of which General Trochu (tro-shil'), Jules Favre 
[zhill fahvr), and Gambetta, were the leading spirits. The 



enemy hastened on toward the capital, and reached it be- 
fore Trochu had fully completed his arrangemeuts for its 
defence. Paris was invested ; and while the siege pro- 
gressed, a series of brilliant successes attended the Prus- 
sian arms. Strasburg, after a destructive bombardment, 
was captured ; and on October 28th, Marshal Bazaine sur- 
rendered at Metz with his whole army of 173,000 men. 
Orleans was taken in December by Prince Frederick 
Charles, who afterward dispersed the Army of the Loire ; 
and at last, on Januaiy 28th, Paris itself fell. 

Before this, an event had taken place which filled the 
whole Fatherland with unspeakable joy. The southern 

states, — Bavaria, Wur- 

temberg, and Baden, — 
though not members of 
the North German Con- 
federation, had from the 
outset co-operated in the 
war no less efficiently 
than their sister states of 
the North ; and now, 
amid the general exulta- 
tion that followed the 
unexampled success of 
the German arms, an ir- 
repressible desire for Ger- 
man unity animated both 
North and South. In ac- 
cordance with this feel- 
ing, all the states bound 
themselves together in 
one ffreat German Em- 

\^IL1 1 \M 1 1 (il 1 M VN\ 

pire. The imperial crown was conferred upon King Wil- 
liam of Prussia, while he was still at Versailles, on the 
18th of January, 1871, and was made hereditary in his 


family. By the Treaty of Frankfort (May 10th) the em- 
pire acquired the greater part of Alsace and Lorraine 
(see Map, p. 467) — 5,600 square miles of territory — and 
France was required to pay Germany a sum equivalent to 
about one billion dollars. It has been estimated that the 
war cost her ten million dollars a day. 

Napoleon, released by William, joined the empress 
Eugenie {u-zha-ne') in England, where he resided until his 
death, January 9, 1873. 

The French Republic. — After the war with Prussia, 
Paris was again the scene of revolution and bloodshed. 
On the withdrawal of the German troops, Communism 
once more raised its head ; the authorities were obliged to 
retire ; and for a time the city, held in defiance of a gov- 
ernment force which was sent to re-establish law and or- 
der, trembled under a terrorism that rivalled that of 1793. 
Many citizens were put to death by a so-called Committee 
of Public Safety. When the capture of Paris was seen to 
be inevitable, the miscreants fired it in different quarters, 
and the Tuileries, Palais Royal, H6tel-de-Ville, with nu- 
merous other public buildings, were destroyed. These 
horrors were terminated by the entry of the besieging 
troops and the restoration of the government. 

The historian and statesman Thiers, who had been one 
of the ministers of Louis Philippe, was the first president 
of the French Republic. On his resignation, May 24, 1873, 
Marshal MacMahon, Duke of Magenta, was elected for a 
term of seven years. 

A prominent event of MacMahon's administration was 
the trial of Marshal Bazaine for treason in the surrender 
of Metz. He was condemned to death, but his sentence 
was commuted to twenty years' imprisonment in the island 
of Ste. Marguerite, off the south-eastern coast of France. 
From this place, through the assistance of his wife, he es- 
caped in 1874. 



Under Napoleon III. the industries of France were en- 
couraged and her resources developed. Since the pay- 
ment of the heavy indemnity demanded by Germany, the 
people have enjoyed unwonted prosperity. Difficulties 

with his ministry 
led to the resig- 
w$). nation of Pres. 

^]l>M- MacMahon, Janu- 

"^^ ary 30, 1879. On 

the same day the 
Assembly elect- 
ed as his succes- 
sor Jules Grevy, 
■who had been a 
prominent mem- 
ber of the Paris 
bar and no less 
distinguished po- 
litically as a friend 
of popular rights 
during the later 

Germany has 

since taken the foremost piace among the continental 
powers ; a splendid army of 1,980,000 men stands ready 
to defend its honor; and, until IHOO, Prince Bismarck, as 
iinj)erial chancellor, directed its counsels. 

China and Japan. — After the Opium War, treaties were 
concluded by the Chinese government with the United 
States and France (1844) ; but as the policy pursued tow- 
ard foreigners was yet far from satisfactory, not many 
years elapsed before China became involved in another 
war, with France and Great Britain. In December, 1857, 
Canton with its million inhabitants was taken, after a 
day's bombardmont, by the allied forces numbering less 

Marshal MacMahon, Ex-Pkesident ct Fjvakcth. 


than 6,000. The Chinese met with other reverses, and in 
April, 1858, treaties were arranged at Tientsin, not only 
with England and France, but also with Russia and the 
United States. Fresh difficulties, however, arose ; and it 
was not until the allies threatened the capital Peking with 
destruction, that the treaties of 1858 were ratified, and a 
satisfactory peace was concluded (1860). The empire has 
since steadily improved ; more friendly feelings are enter- 
tained toward the western powers ; and trade with the in- 
terior is greatly facilitated. 

The Chinese-Japanese War of 1894-'95 arose from 
conflicting interests in Korea, whose independence had been 
recognized by both parties in 1876. Japan's army drove the 
Chinese from Korea and advanced in the direction of Pe- 
king, taking town after town ; her navy, meanwhile, cap- 
tured or sunk all the Chinese vessels of war. The final terms 
of peace gave Japan a large indemnity and the island of 
Formosa, besides guaranteeing the independence of Korea. 

Japan, whose ports were open in the sixteenth century 
to European traders, and many of whose inhabitants, as 
we have already seen, were converted to Christianity by 
Jesuit missionaries, afterward found reason to expel all 
foreigners and quench the new faith in blood. For two 
centuries the Dutch alone enjoyed commercial relations 
with the island ; but in 1854, through the management of 
Commodore Perry, a treaty was concluded between the 
United States and Japan, by which two ports were opened 
to American vessels. The ice was now broken ; other na- 
tions hastened to make commercial treaties with the long- 
secluded empire, by which, in course of time, seven ports 
were thrown open ; and in 1860, a Japanese embassy, the 
first ever commissioned to a foreign country, was sent to 
the United States. 

This last step occasioned much dissatisfaction in Japan, 
the conservative party even calling for the expulsion of alj 


" barbarians." But when the supremacy of the Mikado 
was firmly established, a change of feeling was brought 
about, and the imperial government hastened to place it- 
self on a friendly footing with the Western nations. 

Since the reception of foreigners into the empire, Japan 
has moxle rapid advances in civilization ; the railroad and 
telegraph have been introduced, post-offices have been es- 
tablished, light-houses are scattered along the coast, and a 
department of education contributes largely to the progress 
of tlie people. 

Egypt, now a pashalic virtually independent of Turkey, 
improved very rapidly under the late Khedive, Ismail 
Pasha, who succeeded to the government in 1863. Dur- 
ing his administration, the Suez Canal, connecting the 
Red Sea with the Mediterranean,' was opened. The 
authority of Egypt was also extended over a vast region, 
including Abyssinia and the kingdom of Darfour, and 
reaching as far south as the equator. Education was en- 
couraged, and the introduction of modern improvements 
indicated progress, and for a time gave promise for the 
future. Grave financial difficulties, however, embarrassed 
the government ; and, in the summer of 1879, Ismail,, 
having been obliged to resign the throne, was succeeded 
by his son Mohammed Tewfik. 

EngUsh History, 1867-79.— After the Civil War in 
America, a Conservative ministry came into power in 
England, at the head of which w^as first the Earl of 
Derby and afterward Mr. Disraeli {diz-ra'el-e). A re- 
form bill was now brought forward and passed (1867), 
extending the privilege of suffrage to many who had not 
before enjoyed it ; but in 1868, finding his party in the 
minority, Disraeli resigned. 

Gladstone then became prime minister. His first meas- 
ure was to allay the discontent of the Irish people by " put- 
ting an end to the establishment of the church of Ireland." 
In 1870, a bill was passed which greatly advanced the 


cause of education ; and the following year all religious 
tests " for admission to offices or degrees in the universi- 
ties " were abolished. As a result of these innovations, a 
reaction in favor of the Conservatives began. In 1874, 
Gladstone, the Liberal premier, resigned ; and Disraeli, 
the Conservative leader, at the queen's request, formed a 
new cabinet. In 1880, the Liberals again came into power. 

Meanwhile England had engaged in two foreign wars. 
King Theodore of Abyssinia having seized and imprisoned 
the British consul with several other subjects of the queen, 
an expedition under Sir Robert Napier was sent against 
him. The strong fortress of Magdala, in which he sought 
refuge, was taken (1868), and Theodore in despair put an 
end to his own life. — The second war was with the king 
of Ashantee, on the Gold Coast in Africa. It terminated 
in the capture and destruction of Coomassie, the capital of 
King Koffee (February, 1874). An important result of 
this war was the abolition of the slave-trade in Ashantee. 

In" 1874, new districts in Western and Southern Africa, 
together with the Feejee Islands, were annexed to the 
British Empire, which now embraces about one-sixth of 
the habitable globe. In 1879, England carried on a san- 
guinary war with the Zulus in South Africa, which was 
virtually ended by the capture of their King Cetywayo, 
in August of that year. She also became engaged in 
hostilities with the Afghans, whose capital, Cabul (see 
Map, p. 424), was for a time occupied by her troops. 

Russo-Turkish War, 1877-78.— During 1875, '76, and 
'77, Turkey, whose integrity, we have seen, was guaranteed 
by the treaty that closed the Crimean War (p. 456), became 
involved in hostilities with several of her Christian de- 
pendencies — Herzegovina, Montenegro, Bosnia, Servia, and 
Bulgaria. The outrages committed by her soldiery upon 
the Christian inhabitants of these provinces at length pro- 
voked loud demands for reform from the European powers. 


But Turkey, after some evasion, denied the right of for- 
eign interference, relying, though as she afterward found 
without reason, on the support of England. Russia, how- 
ever, on the plea of aiding her Slavonic brethren of the 
Greek Church, announced her intention of drawing the 
sword alone, if need be, in their defence, and on the 24th 
of April, 1877, war was formally declared. 

The troops of the czar were at once in motion. While 
one army crossed the Danube, another operated in Asia 
and rapidly overran Armenia. Though vigorously resisted, 
the Russians succeeded in carrying by assault (November 
18th) the strong fortress of Kars, near the Black Sea, and 
thus crippling their antagonists in this quarter. 

Meanwhile, after movements of varied success, including 
one disastrous repulse, the European army of invasion had 
invested the important post of Plevna, held by the Turkish 
Pasha Osman. Here the decisive struggle took place. 
Osman made an heroic defence ; but the enemy closed in 
upon him, and forced hira to surrender (December 10th). 

The power of the Turks was now broken. The Rus- 
sians shortly after pushed their way to Adrianople, and 
were advancing on the capital, when an armistice was 
arranged. On March 3, 1878, a treaty was signed at San 
Stefano, which was subsequently modified by a congress 
of delegates representing the great powers, at Berlin, July 
13th. Russia obtained a war indemnity and southern 
Bessarabia, retaining besides three posts in Asia ; Rou- 
mania, Montenegro, and Servia, were made independent ; 
while Turkey relinquished Cyprus to England, now her 
declared ally. The provinces of Bosnia and Herzegovina 
were not definitely disposed of, but were placed tempora- 
rily under the administration of Austria-Hungary. Bul- 
garia, from the Danube to the Balkans, was made autono- 
mous, but tributary to Turkey, while Eastern Roumelia, 
the district adjoining it on the south, was to have a dis- 


tinct government under the direct authority of the Turk- 
ish Sultan ; in 1886, however, a revolution resulted in its 
being united to Bulgaria, so that the latter name at pres- 
ent includes both countries. The Berlin Congress also 
recomm.ended that the Porte cede certain territory to 
Greece; and when this was finally done (1881), it ad- 
vanced the northern boundary of Greece so as to make 
it include most of Thessaly and a strip of Epirus. 

The year 1881 is also noted for the death of the Brit- 
ish statesman, Benjamin Disraeli, Earl of Beaconsfield 
(April 19), who, in defence of England's Asiatic interests, 
had boldly prepared for war with Kussia, and finally dic- 
tated to that power the terms of the Treaty of Berlin. 

Crete. — The Greco-Turkish War. — The Christian in- 
habitants of Crete having revolted against Turkish rule 
(1896), the great powers of Europe intervened, and made 
the Sultan promise reform. Greece then tried to annex 
Crete, as most of the Cretans were of the Greek race and 
desired the union ; but the powers prevented this. In 
April, 1897, war broke out between Greece and Turkey, 
and Greece was soon defeated, losing a few military posi- 
tions on her northern frontier and paying an indemnity. 
Crete was left nominally a Turkish province, but the 
powers secured Christian government for it. 

Anglo-South-African Wars. — After her war with the 
Zulus, whose savage skill with the assegai and rifle she 
will ever associate with the massacre of her troops at 
Isandula (January 22, 1879), England became engaged in 
hostilities with the Basutos, an inoffensive pastoral and 
agricultural race. These people, who had rendered con- 
spicuous service to the English government in the Zulu 
war, and were known among the native tribes as "the 
Children of the Queen," w^ere suddenly and without rea- 
son summoned to surrender their arms. Some of the 
chiefs saw fit to resent the insult, and attacked the Brit- 


isli at different points. The rebellion had assumed a grave 
aspect when a new element of trouble was introduced by 
the revolt of the Boers, or Dutch settlers of the Transvaal, 
a district annexed to the British possessions in 1877. 

The Boers met with repeated successes, repulsing tlie 
British with great slaughter in several engagements dur- 
ing January and February, 1881. Pressure was brought 
to bear on the home government, and terms of peace were 
offered, which were accepted March 21, 1881. The Boers 
were guaranteed complete independence in making and 
administering their laws, but the Imperial Government 
reserved the right to adjust frontier questions. The Ba- 
sutos, weary of war, also accepted conditions of peace. 

Later, the development of rich gold mines in the Trans- 
vaal (known officially as the South African Eepublic? since 
1884) attracted thither thousands of foreigners, largely 
British. Friction between them and the I^oers led to an 
invasion in December, 1895, by a force of 700 men under 
Dr. Jameson, Administrator of Mashonaland. His act 
was disavowed by Great Britain, and the men, overpow- 
ered by the Boers, were surrendered to the British author- 
ities for trial. 

Anglo-Egyptian War. — Mohammed Tewfik began his 
rule with the determination to reform abuses in govern- 
ment. But Egypt was saddled with a heavy debt ; its 
finances, moreover, were virtually administered by Eng- 
lish and French comptrollers-general, in order to secure 
the payment of annual interest to the numerous holders 
of Egyptian securities in England and France. The suc- 
cess of these European administrators soon restored con- 
fidence in the future of the country, and attracted from 
abroad both capital and skilled labor. The native Egyp- 
tians, however, who had had no hand in creating the debt 
and had derived no benefit from the use of the borrowed 
funds, chafed to see the reins of government taken from 


their hands and the public offices filled by foreigners. A 
patriotic party, whose watchword was " Egypt for the 
Egyptians," grew up, and at its head was Arabi Bey, the 
minister of war. 

In May, 1882, England and France demanded the res- 
ignation of the Egyptian ministry, and the banishment of 
Arabi from the country. Anarchy ensued ; the army in- 
sisted on the retention of Arabi, who, as leader of the 
troops, soon made himself supreme in Egypt and began 
to fortify Alexandria. Disregarding the demand of the 
British Admiral Seymour, that work on the defences of 
that city should immediately cease, and refusing to sur- 
render the fortifications he had erected in response to 
a second demand, Arabi drew upon Alexandi'ia the fire 
of the English fleet (July 11, 1882). After a bombard- 
ment of a day and a half, the Egyptian forces fled, leav- 
ing the city at the mercy of lawless bands, who fired the 
public buildings and ruthlessly massacred hundreds of 

Troops and military stores were now hurried forward 
to the seat of war ; and on August 15th Sir Garnet 
Wolseley arrived at Alexandria, and took command of 
the British forces with the avowed purpose of restoring 
the authority of the Khedive. In five days the Suez 
Canal was in the hands of the English forces, and three 
days later they began their victorious march from Isma- 
ilia to Cairo. At Kassassin, the Egyptians were routed 
with great slaughter, and on September 1.3th, at 1.30 a. m., 
the advancing divisions of Sir Garnet Wolseley surprised 
them at the village of Tel-el-Kebir. Their works were 
gallantly stormed at the point of the bayonet, in the face 
of a murderous fire of musketry and artillery, the High- 
land Brigade especially covering itself with glory. In 
his dispatch announcing the result of this battle. Sir Gar- 
net Wolseley enthusiastically reported : "I do not be- 


lieve that at any previous period of our military history 
the British infantry has distinguished itself more than 
upon this occasion." 

On September 14th, the victors entered Cairo, to find 
the fugitive Arabi a prisoner in the hands of the police. 
Thus, in one month after Sir Garnet Wolseley landed, the 
war in Egypt was practically ended. Damietta surren- 
dered on September 23d, and on the 25th the Khedive 
and his ministers returned to the capital. 

Arabi Bey was tried by a court-martial, and sentenced 
to death, December 3, 1882 ; but the Khedive was con- 
strained to commute his sentence to banishment for life. 

Rebellion in the Soudan. — For several years the Sou- 
dan was the seat of a rebellion against the Egyptian 
government begun by El Mahdi, or the False Prophet, 
who aspired not only to the conquest of Egypt, but to 
the universal sovereignty of the Mohammedan world. 
At the head of 150,000 fanatical warriors, he became the 
hero of ten pitched battles and the destroyer of four well- 
equipped armies. A force of 10,000 men under Hicks- 
Pasha was cut to pieces at El Obeid * (November, 1883) ; 
Baker-Pasha narrowly escaped the same fate at Tokar, 
February 4, 1884 ; and Sinkat fell into the hands of the 
rebels, February 12th. 

The Egyptian authorities showed themselves as in- 
competent to deal with the insurrection in the Soudan as 
to maintain a stable government at home. Since the 
Anglo-Egyptian War, England has retained her hold on 
Egypt ; but the policy of the Gladstone government was 
opposed to the maintenance of Egyptian rule throughout 
the Soudan and the Equatorial Provinces, and General 
" Chinese " Gordon was ordered into the field to conduct 

* For places mentioned in connection with these recent wars, consult 
the maps of Asia and Africa in the latest edition of Appletons' " Higher 


the evacuation of this vast region, and at the same 
time to provide for the safety of the European popu- 
lation at Khartoum and elsewhere. Gordon's mission 
implied that the Soudan would be abandoned to its native 

On March 13, 1884, a desperate battle took place be- 
tween Osman Digna, a rebel chief, and General Graham, 
at Tamai Wells, near Suakin. The Arabs fought with 
reckless bravery, and sullenly retired before the victo- 
rious English. Osman's camp and thi-ee villages were 

French Wars in Africa and the Far East. — For some 
years past a favorite idea with French statesmen has been 
that France must regain in Asia and Africa the prestige 
which, in 1870, she lost on the Rhine. Hence, the occu- 
pation of Tunis ; two wars with the Malagasy, culminat- 
ing, one in the bombardment and capture of Tamatave, 
.June 13, 1883, by Admiral Pierre, and the other in the 
capture of Antananarivo, the capital of Madagascar, Sep- 
tember 30, 1895 ; an expedition to the Kongo for the pui-- 
pose of conquest and annexation ; and, most important of 
all, a scheme for the conquest of Tonquiu and Anam. 

War in Tonquin. — The pretext for beginning this last 
war was found in the alleged violation of a treaty, ex- 
torted from him in 1874, by the King of Anam, who, 
declining any longer to be a vassal of France, had recog- 
nized the suzerainty of China, and encouraged outrages 
on French subjects. Difficulties arose in 1882 between 
France and China in relation to this question of suze- 
rainty ; while the Tonquinese and Anamese, who had long 
resented the occupation of their ports by French garri- 
sons, began to vent their animosity in fierce attacks upon 
the hated foreigners. 

The Chinese government, claiming that Anam had 
been tributary to China for two centuries, protested 


against the claims of France, and encouraged its vassal 
to resist the evident intention of the French to annex the 
entire province of Tonquin. Active hostilities began in 
1883 between the Black Flags (the finest soldiers of the 
Anamese Icing) and the French troops in Tonquin, Hue, 
capital of Anam, was taken, August 25th ; and Sontay 
was captured and burned by the French forces, December 
16th ; but the efforts of the invaders to occupy Bac-Ninh, 
" the key to the Chinese Empire," which with Sontay they 
consider necessary to the security of their rule, proved 
unsuccessful until March 12, 1884, when this ]iost also 
fell into their hands. The capture of Hong-Hoa by the 
French, April 13th, was soon followed by a treaty between 
P^ ranee and Anani, restoring certain provinces to the lat- 
ter, but providing that a part of the citadel of Hue shall 
be occupied by a French garrison. The French Minister 
of War declared his intention of sending reenforcements 
to Tonquin to prosecute the campaign, the object of which 
was said to be the occupation of Canton ; but on June 9. 
1885, a treaty of peace between France and China was 

The Evacuation of the Soudan proved to be no easy 
task. General Lord Wolseley again assumed command 
in Egypt, September, 1884, and at once began meas- 
ures for the speedy relief of Khartoum, in which General 
Gordon was besieged by a force of rebels variously esti- 
mated at from 20,000 to 80,000, The well-executed 
movement of General Stewart across the desert, to a 
strong position on the Nile, near Metemneh (January 
19th), opened communication with General Gordon, and 
appeared to have insured the safety of Khartoum. But 
treachery opened a way for El Mahdi into the besieged 
city, which fell into the hands of the rebels January 27, 
1865. The heroic Gordon and his command were massa- 
cred by El Mahdi's troops. The British troops were with- 


drawn from the Soudan in the spring of 1885, and on 
August 12th Parliament j^assed a vote of thanks to the 
army and the navy for their services in the East. 

The death of El Mahdi in 1885, and the repulse of 
the Arabs who threatened the invasion of Upper Egypt, 
checked the rebellion in the Soudan ; but for a number 
of years the Soudan was under the rule of El Mahdi's 

Recovery of the Soudan. — After thorough preparation, 
the Anglo-Egyptian forces under Sir H. H. Kitchener 
began an advance southward into the Soudan, in 1896. 
A railroad was built and the country was thoroughly 
occupied as he advanced up the Nile. On September 23 
Dongola was occupied; on August 7, 1897, Abu Hamed 
was taken ; on April 8, 1898, the battle of Atbara was 
fought and won ; and finally, after a great battle in 
which 11,000 of the enemy were killed, their capital city 
Omdurman was captured, September 2, 1898, and the 
reconquest of the Soudan was soon complete. 

Annexation of Burmah by Britain. — Until 1879, the 
relations between England and Burmah had been friend- 
ly ; but in this year a rupture occurred in consequence of 
the insolence of the young king Thebaw. Instigated by 
French intrigue, Thebaw imposed a fine of nearly £20,000 
on the Bombay and Burmah Trading Company, charging 
it with irregularity in the removal of timber, and threat- 
ened to cancel the leases of the forests where teak was 
cut. On his refusal to submit the case to arbitration, and 
his rejection of an ultimatum demanding the reception of 
a British envoy, and announcing the intention of the In- 
dian government to take the matter in hand should pro- 
ceedings be instituted against the company, war was de- 
clared (November 10, 1885). 

The English forces under General Prendergast crossed 

the frontier, a flotilla of forty-five steamers pushed its 


way up the Irravvaddy, town after town was taken, and 
Tbebaw surrendered unconditionally, Novem ber 29th. On 
January -1, 1886, a proclamation was read at Rangoon, 
announcing the annexation of Burmah to the British Em- 
pire. A certain portion of Up})er liurmab was relin- 
quished to China, with which power it is to the interest 
of Britain to cultivate friendly relations. 

Deaths of European Rulers. — On January 9, 1878, oc- 
curred the death of Italy's beloved king, Victor Emmanuel. 
His son succeeded as Humbert I. Alexander II. of Russia 
was assassinated by Nihilists in 1881 ; Alexander III., his 
son, died in 1894 ; and the present emperor is Nicholas 
XL, son of Alexander III. King Alfonso of Spain died 
November 25, 1885, and the throne descended to his post- 
humous son, Alfonso XIII., under the regency of the 
Queen-mother, Christina. In France, after the resignation 
of President Grevy, December 2, 1887, the office was held 
by Marie Fran9ois Sadi-Caruot, an eminent and upright 
statesman, until his assassination, at Lyons, June 24, 1894. 
Casimir-Perier, his successor, resigned in January, 1895, 
whereupon Felix Faure was elected in his stead. The 
Emperor William I. of Germany died in March, 1888, and 
was succeeded by his son, Frederick III,, who died three 
months later, leaving the throne to his son, William II. 
In 1900 Humbert I. of Italy was assassinated, and was 
succeeded by his son, Victor Emmanuel III. On the 
death of Victoria, in 1901, her son, Edward VII., became 
King of Great Britain. 

Partition of Africa. — Almost all Africa has been par- 
celed out among certain European nations. In the west 
the French possessions are the most extensive, and in the 
east and south the British predominate, though Germany 
and Portugal also have large African possessions. The 
great Kongo State, under the King of the Belgians, is 
pledged to free trade. 


Brazilian Revolutions. — By an act passed May 13, 1888, 
slavery was abolished throughout the Empire of Brazil, 
slave-holders being allowed no compensation. On No- 
vember 15, 1889, a revolution took place at Rio, resulting 
in the deposition of the Emperor Dom Pedro II. A pro- 
visional government was subsequently proclaimed, under 
the leadership of Marshal Deodoro da Fouseca. 

A second revolution took place in 1891 ; da Fonseca 
resigned, and General Peixotto became president. Re- 
volts subsequently broke out in different parts of the re- 
public. Rio was bombarded by a rebel fleet in Septem- 
ber, 1893 ; but on the arrival at Rio, March 10, 1894, of a 
powerful fleet purchased by Peixotto in the United States, 
the revolution was virtually brought to an end. 

Other South American Troubles.— In 1879-'83 Chili 
carried on a war against Peru and Bolivia, and gained 
large accessions of territory, rich in deposits of nitrate. 
In 1891, a revolution in Chili resulted in the overthrow 
and suicide of the president, Balmaceda, who had assumed 
dictatorial powers. 

In the northern part of the continent, a long-standing 
boundary dispute between Venezuela and British Guiana 
was rendered more threatening, in 1895, by discoveries of 
gold in the contested territory and a collision between 
British settlers and Venezuelans. The United States, jeal- 
ous of European aggression in America, finally induced 
the parties to submit their claims to arbitration. 

The Spanish-American War. — In 1895 another rebellion 
broke out in Cuba, and for three years Spain tried in vain 
to suppress it. The people of the United States sym- 
pathized with the suffering Cubans, and their trade with 
the island was greatly injured. President Cleveland of the 
United States, and also his successor, William McKinley, 
(1897- ), tried to end the Cuban trouble by peaceful 
negotiations, but in vain. Finally, in February, 1898, 


the United States battleship Maine was blown up in 
Havana harbor, whicli was under 8i)anish control. The 
United States tlien declared Cuba free, and deniauded 
tliat S})ain withdraw from the island ; and war between 
Spain and the United States began in April. 

On May 1 Commodore Dewey's squadron destroyed 
the Spanish fleet in the Philip])ines, in Manila Kay; and 
m August the city of Manila was taken by Dewey's ships 
and an army tluxt had been transported across the Pacific 
from the United States. 

In Cuba, a Spanish scpuidron was blockaded in Santiago 
{saJ/n-fe-al/'f/o) harbor, aiul on July 3 was destroyed by 
the American fleet as it was trying to esca[)e. Parts of 
Cul)a and Puerto Rico were conquered aiul occupied by 
American troops. 

By the final treaty of peace, ratified in 1809, Spain 
released Cuba and ceded Puerto Kico and the Philippines 
to the United States, thus })ractically ending lier career 
as a colonial ])ower. 

The Boer War. — The friction between the English and 
the Boers in South Africa letl at hist to a bloody and 
disastrous war (lSi)!)-l!)()l). The Boers of the Trans- 
vaal and tlu' Oi-ange Free State united in invading Brit- 
ish territory, and at first gained several successes. But 
in a few mouths, greatly outnumbered, they were driven 
back and were obliged to yield possession of most of their 
country. Small bodies of them, however, actively con- 
tinued the struggle in several districts. 

The Chinese Disorders.— In 1900 the " Boxers," a Chi- 
nese j)atriotic society, began to kill native converts and 
drive out foreigners in north China. The foreign min- 
isters in Pekin were besieged by Boxers and Chinese 
troops. Finally the United States, Ja[)a]i, and the Euro- 
pean Powers united in an expedition which captured 
Tientsin ami Pekin, and sujipressed the Boxei'S. 


The Nineteenth Century. 

An age of liberal ideas, revolutionary movements, and improvements 
in the condition of the working-classes, both politically and socially : a 
period of remarkable propx-ess in education, discovery, and invention. 

Geographical explorations conducted in the Arctic regions, particu- 
larly by the English navigators Ross, Parry, Franklin, McClure (who suc- 
ceeded in making the North-west Passage) — and the Americans Kane, 
Hayes, Ilall, and Grcely. The interior of Southern Africa explored by 
the indefatigable English traveller Livingstone, in various expeditions 
between 1849 and 1873, and the American Stanley, 1874-'7'7, lS81-'90. 

Important inventions contributing to the comfort and elevation of the 
human race. Steam applied to multifarious uses. Steamboats plying on 
the waters. The locomotive brought into a practical form by Stephenson 
in 1814; railroads the great developers and instruments of progress; la 
1830, 206 miles of railway in the world— in 1806, not far from 450,000. 
The magnetic telegraph, the wonderful invention of the American Morse, 
patented in 1837, annihilating distance; Grst telegraph-line established 
between Baltimore and Washington in 1844 — in 1896, about 850,000 
miles of telegraph-line covering the world with a net-work. 

Printing-presses brought to remarkable perfection. The sewing-ma- 
chine, patented by Elias Howe, of Massachusetts, in 1846, a great boon 
to humanity. The process of vulcanizing India-rubber, which enables it 
to be employed in the manufacture of many useful articles, invented by 
Charles Goodyear, of Connecticut. The chemical action of light turned 
to account in the daguerreotype process, and subsequently in photog- 
raphy. Electrical energy utilized for a multitude of purposes. 

Science keeping pace with the useful arts. Patient scholars pursuing 
their researches in all departments with results that encourage them to 
fresh labors. Egyptian hieroglyphics deciphered. Ancient ruins disen- 
tombed, and made to testify of antiquity. The science of Comparative 
Philology, under the fostering care of profound German scholars, Grimm, 
Bopp, Schlegel, Pott, Miiller, etc., throwing light on the early history of 
the race. The blessings of education freely offered by systems of public- 
school instruction. Great Oriental nations laying aside their esclusiveness, 
and profiting by the enlightenment which they once sedulously avoided. 

Literature adorned by many great names, some of which have been 
already mentioned. American literature rich in all departments ; specially 
noteworthy, the lexicographers Webster, Worcester, and Whitney ; the 
historians Prescott, Bancroft, and Motley; the poets Bryant, Longfellow, 
and Whittier ; the fiction-writers Irving, Cooper, and Hawthorne. 



With the Ruling Sovereign oh Pi;esident of each in 1901. 





Julio A. Roca, 


Austro-HungarianMonar. , 

Francis Joseph I., 



Leopold II., . 


Bolivia, .... 

Jose Manuel Pando, . 



Campos Salles, 


(Jhili, .... 

Errazuriz, . 






Jose M. Marrotjuin, . 


Denmark, . 

Christian IX., 



Eloy Alfaro, 



Abbas II., . 


France, .... 

I^;mile Loubet, . 


German Empire, 

William II., . 


Prussia, . 

William II., . 



Albert, .... 


Bavaria, . 

Otto I., . 



William II., . 



Frederick, . 


Great Britain and Ireland, 

Edward VII., 



George I., . 


Italy, .... 

Victor Emmanuel III., . 



Mutsn llito. 


Korea, .... 

Yi Heui, 



Portirio Diaz, 


Netherlands (Holland), . 

Wilhelmina, . 


Paraguay, . 

Emilio Aceval, . 


Persia, .... 

Mnzaffar-ed-Din, . 


Peru, .... 

E. Lopez de Romaha, . 



Carlos I., 


Roumania, . 

Charles I. ( Hohenzollern), 


Russia, .... 

Nicholas II., 





Spain, .... 

Alfonso XIIL, . 


Sweden and Norway, . 

Oscar II., 


Switzerland, . 

Walther Hanser, 



Abdul Hamid II., . 


United States of America, 

William McKinley, . 


Uruguay, , 

Juan L. Cnestas, . 



Cipriano Castro, 


I ]^D EX. 

Abbas the Great, of Persia, page 355. 

Abd-el-Kader, 44S. 

AbdeiTahman, 170, 180. 

Abraham, 15, 31, 32. 

Abubekr, 169. 

Acha?an League, 95. 

Actium, battle of, 129. 

.(Egos Potamo.i, battle of, 79. 

^tolian League, 95. 

Agesilaus, 81-S3 

Agincourt, battle of, 216. 

Agricola, 141. 

Akbar, 356. 

Ala-.o, 155, 156. 

Alba Longa, 57, 59. 

Albert L. of Germany, 239. 

Albigenses, 274. 

Alcibiades, 79. 

Ale,\ander, the Great, 90-94 ; successors of, 
94. I., of Russia, 412, 413, 445; II., 456. 
Ale.xandria, founding of. 92; Museum of, 
94; library of, destroyed by the Sara- 
cens, 169; capture of, by Napoleon, 407. 
Alexius Comnenus, I., 214. 
Alfred the Great, 1S2. 
All, 167. 

Alfonso XII., of Spain, 466. 
Alva, Duke of, 303, 323. 
Amadous, of Spain, 465. 
America, discovery of, 262; colonial history 
of North, 318, 823, 341, 345, 351, 372, 
373 ; repubHcs of South, 43-2-434. 
American Revolution, 390-395. 
Amiens, Peace of, 409, 411. 
Amphictyonies, 51. 
Ancus Martius, 59. 
Anne, of England, 351. 
Antediluvians, 12, 13. 
Antiochus the Great, 115 
Antonines, the, 146. 
Antony, Mark, 127-130. 
Appius Claudius, the Deoemvir, 102; the 

Blind, 106. 
Arabians, origin of the, 32. 
Aratus of Sicyon, 95. 
Arbela, battle of, 93. 
Arcadius, 155. 
Archimedes, 97, 113, 114. 
Argonautic Expedition, 43. 

Aristides, 72, 74. 

Arta.xerxes II , Mnemon, 81. 

Aryans, Ancient, 13. 

Assyrian Empire, 17-19 

Astyages, 63, 64 

Athens, founding of, 42 ; history of, 69-75. 

Attila, 156. 

Augustus CsBsar, 130, 131. 

Augustus the Strong, of Saxony, 368, 365, 
1 Aurelian, 148. 

Aurungzebe, 356. 

Austerlitz, battle of, 411, 412. 

Austrian Succession, War of the, 380-382. 
j Austro-Sardinian War, 402. 
I Aztecs, the, 264. 

Babylon, founding of, 16. 

Babylonian Monarchy, 21-23. 

Bacon, Lord Francis, 300, 317. 

Bagdad, 170, 171. 

Bajazet, 256, 

Balaklava, battle of, 455. 

Bannockburn, battle of, 230. 
! Barebone's Parliament, 3:!0. 
j Bartholomew, massacre of Saint, 289. 
I Becket, Thomas k, 206, 207. 
I Belgium, Revolution of 1830 in, 445. 

Belisarius, 159, 160. 

Belshazzar, 22. 

Bismarck, Count Otto von, 463, 470. 

Black Hole of Calcutta, 423. 

Blenheim, battle of, 344. 

Bliicher, Marshal, 421. 

Bolivar, Simon, 432, 433. 

Bonaparte, Joseph, 412, 415 ; Louis, 412. 

Boniface VIII., Pope, 229. 

Bosworth Field, battle of, 253. 

Boyne, battle of the, 347. 

Bozzaris, Marco, 411. 

Brahmanism, 28. 

Brennus, 102, 103. 

Brian Boru, 185-187. 

Bruce, Robert. 228-230. 

Brutus, L. Junius, 60, 100; M.Junius, 126- 

Buddhism, 24. 

Cade, Jack, 250. 

Csesar, Julius, 123-127; writings of, 132. 



Calais, siege of, 231. 

Caligula, 13T, 138. 

Calvin, 279. 

Cambyses, 05. 

Camillus, 1(13. 

Canada, Dominion of, 462. 

Cannae, battle of, 113. 

Canute the Great, IS-J. 

Capetiau Dynasty, 171. 

Caracalla, 147. 

Carlists, the, 435, 465. 

Carloviiigian Dynasty, 171. 

Carthage, founding of, l(i8; fiill of. 116. 

Casimir, III. and IV., of Poland, 259. 

Cassander, 94. 

Cassius, 126-128. 

Catharine, of Aragon. 270-272 ; I., of Rus- 
sia, 86:;, 367, 3S2 ; II., 384, 385, 444. 

Catiline, conspiracy of, 132, 123. 

Cato, the Censor, 116, 118. 

Choeronea, battle of, 90. 

Chaldean Monarchy, 16, 17. 

Chalons, battle of, 156. 

Charlemagne, 173-175. 

Charles, I., of England, 318-322 ; II., 832- 
337; IV., of France, 281; V., 242 ; VI., 
242, 245-247 ; VII., 247-249 ; VIII., 254 ; 
IX., 288-300; X., 444; IV., of Ger- 
many, 289; v., 2S1-2S5; VI., 380; I., 
of Spain, 281; II., 326; IV., 415; X., of 
Sweden, 363; XL, 364; XII., 865-367. 

Charles Albert, of Bavaria, 880; of Sar- 
dinia, 451, 4112. 

Charles Edward, the Pretender, 371. 

Charli\s Martel, 170. 

Charles the Bold, 254, 302. 

Charles the Simple, 177. 

China, Ancient, 24-20; Modern, 357, 470. 

Chivalry, 196-199. 

Christ, birth of, 131 ; crucifixion of, 137. 

Christian II., of Do mark, 312; IV., 311. 

Chronology, eras of, 7, S. 

Chrysostom, Saint, 154. 

Cicero, 122, 123, 127, 128, 132. 

Ciucinnatus, 101. 

Clarendon, Earl of, 333, 335. 

Cl.audius, 138: 

Cleopatra, 126, 129, 130. 

Clive, Robert, 423, 424. 

Clovis, 161. 

Codrus, 49. 

Coligny, Admiral, 288, 289. 

Colossus of Rhodes, 48 

Columbus, Christopher, 262, 263. 

Commodus, 146. 

Conde, Prince of, 2SS, 290. 

Confucius, 25. 

Constantine the Great, 151. 

Constantius, 151. 

Copenhagen, battle of, 409. 

Corday, Charlotte, 403. 

Corinth, 78, 90, 115. 

Coriolanus, 101. 

Coronea, battle of, 75. 

Cranmer, Thomas, 272, 291, 293. 

Crassus, 123, 125. 

Cressy, battle of, 231. 

Crimean War, 454. 

Croesus, 01-06. 

Cromwell, Oliver, 321, 329,331; Richar* 

Crusades, the, 211-222. Insurrection, 461. 
CuUoden, battle of, 371. 
Cunaxa, battle of, 81. 
Curius Dentatus, 105, 106. 
Cyaxares, C3. 
Cyrus, the Great, 63-05; the Younger, 81. 

Danton, 399, 40.''). 

Darius I., 66, 71 ; III., 92, 93. 

David, 36, 37. 

Demosthenes, 90, 90. 

Diocletian, K9 ; persecution of the Chris 

t:ans under, 149-151. 
Dionysius of Syracuse, 108. 
Disraeli, 472, 473. 
Domitian, 142. 
Doria, Andrea, 235. 
Draco, 09. 

Drake, Sir Francis, 296, 298. 
Drogheda, massacre at, 329. 
Dutch Republic, rise of the, 300-306. 

Eastern Empire, 157-161 ; fall of the, 258. 

East India Company, 422-426. 

East In( Empire, British, founded 

Edmund Ironside, 184. 
Edward I., of England, 227-229; 11,290 

230 ; III., 230-232 ; IV., 250-252 : V 

252 ; VI., 291, 292. 
Edward the Confessor, 1S4. 185. 188. 
Edward the Elder, 183 


Edward the Martyr, 1S3. 

Egbert, loa. 

Egypt, ^Vncient, '26-30 ; Modern, 472. 

Eiagabalus, 147. 

Eleanor of Aquitaine, 2U5, 207, '216. 

Elizabeth, of England, 294-300 ; of Russia, 

Emanuel the Fortunate, 262. 
Epaminondaii, S2-S4. 
Ethelred the Unready, 183. 
Ethiopia, Ancient, 31. 
Etruscans, 56, 57. 
Eugene, Prince, 344. 355. 
Eylau, battle of, 413. 

Fabius, HI, 113. 

Fabricius, 105. 

Fawkes, Guy, 31T. 

Ferdinand I., of Austria, 450, 451. I., of 
Germany. 310; II., 310, 315. V., of 
Spain, 260; VII., 415, 4.32, 4.33, 435. 

Feudal System, 194, 195. 

Flodden Field, battle of, 271. 

Florence, 236. 

Francis I., of France, 281-285, 287 ; II., 
288. I., of Germany, 382 ; II., 411, 412. 

Francis Joseph, of Austri.i, 46.3. 

Franco-Prussian War, 466^69. 

Frederick, IV., of Denmark, 363. I., Bar- 
barossa, of Germany, 216, 234, 235 ; II., 
219. v., of the Palatinate, 811. I., of 
Prussia, 37S ; II., the Great, 880-385. 

Frederick Charles, Prince, 467, 468. 

Frederick William, the Great Elector, 378 ; 
I., of Prussia, .378-380; II., 385; IV., 

French Revolution, 396-405. 

Galba, 140. 

Garibaldi, 452, 462, 464. 

Gauls, Ancient, 103, 104. 110. 

Genghis Khan, 222-228. 

Genoa, 235. 

George I., of England, 368,869; 11,369- 

373; III., 3S9, 390, 394, 436, 487; IV., 

438, 439. 
Germanicua, 1.36. 
Ghibelhnes, 2-34. 
Gladstone, 472. 
Godfrey of Bouillon, 213-215. 
Goths, 153-156. 
Gracchi, reforms of the, 118. 

Granicus, battle of the, 92. 

Greece, Ancient, history of, 89-52, 69- S7 ; 

geography of, 41 ; mythology of, 43, 44 ; 

domestic life in, 45, 84-s7 ; literature and 

arts of, 75-77 ; 96-99 ; colonies of, 47-49 ; 

institutions of, 51, 52. 
Greek Revolution, 440-442. 
Gregory the Great. Pope, 163; VII., 178. 
Grey, L:idy Jane, 292, 294. 
Guelphs, 234. 

Guise, Duke of, 288, 289, 291. 
Gustavus, Adolphus, 3J2-314; Vasa, 312. 

Hadrian, 146. 

Hannibal, 111-115. 

Hanseatic League, 238. 

Hardicanute, 1S4. 

Harold, Harefoot, 184; II., 188. 

Haroun-al-Raschid, 170, 171, 174. 

Hebrews, history of the, 31-39. 

Hegira, the, 167. 

Henry, I., of England, 191,192; II., 205- 

209; III., 210, 211; IV., 244,245; V., 

246, 247 ; VI, 247-251; VII., 268-270; 

VIII., 270-273, 279. 281, 282, 2S4, 285. 

II., of France, 287, 288; III., 290, 291; 

IV., 306-308. I., of Germany, the 

Fowler, 178; IV., 178; VII., 239. 
Heraclidae, Return of the, 47. 
Herod the Great, 131, 132. 
Herodotus, 22, 64, 76. 
Hiero, King of Syracuse, 109. 
Hipparchus, 70. 
Hipplas, 70. 

Hohenlinden, battle of, 409. 
Holy Alliance, the. 443. 
Homer, 45-47. 
Honorius, 1.5.5. 
Hundred Tears' War, the, 231, 232, 246- 

Hungarian Revolution, 451, 452. 
Hungarians, 178. 
Huns, 153. 154, 156. 
Hyder Ali, 425. 

India, Ancient, 23 ; Modem, 856, 422-427. 
Indians. American, 268. 
Inkerman, battle of, 455. 
Innocent III., Pope, 210. 
Ireland. Kingdom of, 185-187. 
Isabella I., of Spain. 260 262 ; II., 435. 
Israel. Judges of. .39 : Kingdom of, .52-54 ; 
kings of, 56. 


Issus, battle of, 92. 

Italy, Ancient, 56-62 ; Roman Conquest of, 

105-107 ; Modern Kingdom ol', 464. 
Iturbide, 432. 

Ivan, the Great, 357 ; the Terrible, 358. 
Ivry, battle of, 307. 

James, I., of Englanil, 316-318; II., 337- 
330 ; IV., of Scotland, 270, 271 ; V., 271 ; 
VI., 316 ; the Pretender, 339, 368. 

Japan, 471. 

Jena, battle of, 413. 

Jerusalem, capture of, by David, 36 , King- 
dom of, 215, 216. 

Jesuits, 280, 376. 

Jews, history of the, 31—39. 

Joan of Arc, 247-249. 

John, Don, of Austria, 325. Of Kngland, 
208-210. Of France, 232. I., the Great, 
of Portugal, 262. III., 323 ; IV., 326; 
VI., 435. 

Joseph II., of Austria, 385. 

Joshua, 35. 

Jovian, 153. 

Judah, Kingdom of, 54, 55 ; kings of, 56. 

Jugurthine War, 118, 119. 

Julian the Apostate, 152, 153. 

Justinian, 159, 160. 

Knox, John, 294. 
Koffee, King, 473. 
Kosciusko, 386, 388. 
Kossuth. 451, 452. 
Kublai Khan, 225. 

Lafayette, 393, 398, 400, 444. 

Lamartine, 449. 

Leipsic, battle of, 419. 

Leo, the Great, 156 ; III., 174 ; X., 276. 

Leonidas, 73. 

Leopold, I., of Germany, 354, 378 ; II., 
385. I., of Belgium, 445. 

Leuctra, battle of, 82, 83. 

Leyden. siege of, 304. 

Licinian Laws, the, 104. 

Literature, Hindoo, 23 ; Chinese. 25 ; Egyp- 
tian, 30 ; Hebrew, 55 : Greek, 75-77, 96- 
98; Roman, 116, 117, 132, 143; Moor- 
ish, 180 ; English, 192, 193, 232, 233, 299, 
SOO, 317, 337, 348, 350, 873, 374, 437, 453; 
French, 233, 845, 376, 453 ; Italian, 237, 
238, 327 ; Portuguese, 327 ; Spanish. -327 ; 
German, 388, 453 ; Danish, 453 ; Russian, 
888: American. 484. 

Lodi, battle of, 406. 

Lombard League, 234. 

Lorenzo the Magnificent, 236. 

Louis VII., of France, 21(;; IX., 220; XL, 

258, 254 ; XII., 286, 287 ; XIII., 808-310 , 

XIV., 340-346; XV., 375, 376, 882; 

XVI., 396-401; XVII., 403; XVUl. 

420, 442, 443. 
Louis Napoleon, 448. 
Louis Phihppe, 444, 448, 449. 
Loyola, 280. 
Luther, Martin, 275. 
Lutzen, battle ol, 314 
Lycurgus, constitution of, 50. 
Lydian Empire, 63, 64. 
Lysander, 79. 
Lysimachus, 95. 

Maccabees, the, 116, 131. 

Macedonian Empire, ^8-95. 

MacMahon, Marshal, 167, 470. 

Magenta, battle of, 462. 

Magnesia, battle of, 115. 

Mamelukes, 220, 407. 

Mantinea, battle o^ 83. 

Marat, 399, 403. 

Marathon, battle of, 71. 

Marengo, battle of, 408. 

Margaret, of Anjou, 249-251. Of Denmark, 

Maria Theresa, 380-8S5. 
Marie Antoinette, 896, 408. 
Marius, 119, 120. 

Marlborough, Duke of, 344, 34S, 849, 368. 
Mary I., of England, 292-294 ; II., 346. 
Mary, Queen of Scots, 288, 294-296. 
Matilda (or Maud), Queen, 102. 
Maurice, of Holland, 305, 806. 
Maximilian, I., of Germany, 281 ; li., 310. 

Emperor of Mexico, 460. 
Mazarin, 840. 
Mazzini. 4.52. 
Medes, the, 62, 68. 
Medici, Cosmo de, 236 ; Catherine de. 288 ; 

Mary de. 808 
Menzikoff, 859, 360, 382, 455. 
Merovingian Dynasty, 161. 
Messenian Wars, 51. 
Metternich, 481. 
Mexico. Conquest of, 265, 260. 
Middle Ages, amusements of the. 200-203: 

social life in the, 203-205. 
MUan, 235, 236. 


Miltiades, 71, T2. 

Mirabeau, 397. 

Mississippi Scheme, llie, 3T5, 

Mithridates, wars of, 119, 120, 122. 

Mohammed, 166, 167; successors of, 169; 

II., 25S; IV., 853. 
Monmouth, Duke of, 336, 337. 
Moors in Spain, the, 180, 261. 
Moses, 33. 
Mycale, battle of, 74. 

Nadir Shah, 355. 

Kana Sahib, 426. 

Nantes, Edict of, 307, 344. 

Naples, 236. 

Napoleon, Bonaparte, 405-422, 448; II., 

450; III., 4fi0, 460, 466, 467, 469. 
Navarino, battle of, 441. 
Nebuchadnezzar, 21, 55. 
Nelson, Lord, 407, 409, 412. 
Nero, 138, 139. 
Nerva, 144. 

Ney, Marshal, 418, 421, 442. 
Nicholas, of Russia, 445, 454, 456. 
Nile, battle of the, 407. 
Nineveh, 17, 19. 
Norman Conquest, the, 183. 
Numa Pompilius, 59. 

Octavius, 128-130. 

Odoacer, 157. 

Omar Pasha, 454. 

Otho, Emperor of Rome, 140. The Great, 

of Germany, 178. I., of Greece, 442. 
Ottoman Empire, 255-2.59 ; decline of the, 

Oxenstiern, 363. 

Painters, the Great, 328. 

Palestine, 31. 

Papal States, 287. 

Patrick, Saint, 185. 

Pavia, battle of, 282. 

Pedro I., of Brazil, 485; II., 436. 

Pelasgi, the, 41. 

Pelopidas, 82, S3. 

Peloponnesian War, 78-80. 

Peninsular War, 414. 

Penn, William, 839. 

Pepin, 171. 

Pergamus, 115. 

Pericles, Age of, 75-78. 

Persian Empire, 62-69. 

Peru. Conquest of. 266. 

Peter, the Great, of Russia, 358-367 ; II. 
382; III., 383. 

Peter the Hermit, 212, 213. 

Pharaoh Necho, 27. 

Pharsalia, battle of, 12"). 

Philip, Augustus, of France, 210, 216-219; 
IV., the Fair, '.2>>, 229; VI., of Valois, 
231 ; of Anjou, 344. The Good, of Bur- 
gundy, 301, 302. II., of Spain, 293, 296, 
302-304, 321-327; III, 327; IV., 327; 
v., 345. 

Philip of Macedon, 89-91. 

Pbilippi, battle of, 128. 

Phoenicia, 39. 

Pisislratus, 70. 

Pitt, William, the elder, 3S9, 390 ; the 
younger, 436. 

Pius IX , Pope. 452. 

Plague of London, the, 334, 335. 

Plantagenet, house of, 205. 

Platsea, battle of, 74. 

Plevna, battle of, 474. 

Poictiers, battle of, 2 2. 

Poland, early history of, 259 ; i)artition of, 
386-388 ; recent history of, 445. 

Pompeii, destruction of, 143. 

Pompey the Great, 121-126. 

Poniatowsky, 386. 

Porsenna, 99. 

Porus. 93. 

Printing, invention of, 267, 268. 

Prui'sia, early history of, 377. 

Pruth, battle of t'le, 366. 

Pultowa, battle of, 366. 

Punic Wars, 107-116. 

Pydna, battle of, 115. 

Pyramids, battle of the, 407. 

Pyrrhus, war with, 105-107. 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, 299, 316. 

Rameses II., 27, 29. 

Reformation, the, 273-280. 

Regulus, 108-110. 

Reign of Terror, the, 403. 

Remus, 57. 58. 

Revolutions in Germany. 450, 451 ; in Italy; 

4.52 ; in Spain, 465. 
Richard I., of England, 208, 209. 217-219 ; 

II.. 243-244 ; III., 258. 
Richelieu, Cardinal, 308, 310, 813. 
Rienzi, 237. 

Robert of Normandy, 191, 213. 
Robespierre, 399, 403, 405. 



Robin Hood, 209. 

Kollo the Marcher, 177. 

Rome, founding of, 58; kings of, 5S-60; 
institutions and religion of, 60-62 ; Re- 
public of, 98-130 ; Empire of, 130-157 ; 
social life in, 132-135. 

Romulus, 57, 58. 

Roses, Wars of the, 249-251. 

Rudolph of Hapsburg, 238. 

Russian Monarchy, founded, 179. 

Sado\v.i, battle of, 464. 

Saladin, 216-219. 

Salamis, bnttle of, 71. 

Saracens, 16 f, 170. 

Sardan.apalus, 18. 

Saxon Heptarchy, 162-165. 

Scaevola, C. Mutius. 100. 

Schleswig-Holstein, war in, 463. 

Scipio Africanus, 114, 116. 

Scotland, early history of, 185. 

Seleucus, 95. 

Sennacherib, IS, M. 

Sepoy mutiny, 425, 426. 

Servius Tullius, 60. 

Seven Weeks' War, 463, 464. 

Seven Years' War, 3S3. 

Severus, Alexander, 148; Septimius, 147. 

Shakespeare, 300. 

Sigismund, 240, 256, 275. 

Sobieski, John, 353. 

Socrates, 76, 80. 

Solferino, battle of, 402. 

Solomon, 36. 

Solon, 64, 69, 70, 75. 

Solyman the Magnificent, 284, 286. 

South S-a Scheme, 368. 

Spanish Succession, War of the, 344. 

Sparta, 49-51, 80. 

Spartacus, 122. 

Stephen -^f England, 192. 

Sur.ajah Dowlah, 423, 424. 

8yll.a, 120, 121. 

Syracuse, founding of, 49 ; siege of, 1 13. 

Tamerlane, 225, 226. 

Tarquin, the Elder, 59 ; the Proud, 60, t;8 

Tell, William, 240. 

Ten Thousand, Expedition of the, 81. 

Tewkesbury, battle of, 251. 

Thebes (Egypt), 26. 29 ; (Greece), 42, S2-84. 

Themistocles, 72, 74. 

Theodore, King of Abyssinia, 473. 

T}ieodoric. 159. 

Theodosius, the Great, 154 ; II., 157 

Thermopylie, battle of, 73. 

Thiers, 453, 469. 

Thirty Years' War, 310-315. 

Tiberius. 136, 137. 

Tippoo Sahib, 425. 

Titus, 141, 148. 

Toussaint L'Ouverture, 409. 

Trafalgar, battle of, 412. 

Trajan, 144, 145. 

Triumvirate, First, 123; Second, 128. 

Trojan War, 46. 

Tullus Hostilius, 59. 

United States, the, history of, 395, 427-43i 
434; Civil War in, 458-461. 

Valens, 153. 

Valentinian, I.,158; III., 156. 

Veil, siege of, 102. 

Venice, early history of, 156, 234. 

Vespasian, 140. 

Vespucius, Americus, 263. 

Victor Emmanuel, 453, 456, 402-464. 

Victoria, 430, 446-448. 

Virgil, 132. 

Virginius, 101. 

Vitellius, 140. 

Voltaire, 376, 877, 388. 

Wagram, battle of, 416. 

Wallace, Sir William, 228, 229. 

Wallenstein, 311, 812, 314, 315. 

Walpole, Sir Robert, 368-370. 

Washington, George, 372, 373, 892-395 

Waterloo, battle of, 421. 

Wellington, Duke of, 415, 421, 426. 

Wenceslas, of Germany, 239. 

Westphalia, Treaty of, 315. 

William, the Conqueror, of England, 188- 
191 ; II., Rufus, 191 ; III., 338, 346-348 , 
IV., 439. I., of Germany, 468, 466-469 
I., King of Holland, 443. The Silent, o 
Orange, 302-305. 

Wolsey,, 271. 

Wycliflfe, 238, 245, 274. 

Xavier, Francis, 280. 
Xerxes, 63, 66, 68, 72-74, 88. 

Ypsilanti, 440. 

Zama, battle of, 114. 
Zenobia, 14; . 
I Zoroaster. §§. 


Essentials in Ancient 

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