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Full text of "Illustrations of the literary history of the eighteenth century. : Consisting of authentic memoirs and original letters of eminent persons; and intended as a sequel to the Literary anecdotes"

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Illustrations of the literary 
history of the eighteenth century 



John Nichols 




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ILLUSTRATIONS 



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LITERARY HISTORY 



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EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 



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f ONTENTS 

OF TBK 

SECOND VOLUME. 



Original Letters of Mr. Warburton (afterwardi B^. of 

Gloucester) to Dr. Stukeley, when both were young. . . l*-64 

The Bp. of Gloucester to Dr. Stukeley 55--60 

Mr. Warburttm to Mr. Peter Des Maizeaux 61»6€ 

to Mr. (afterwanis Dr.) Krch 67—145 

Dr. Heberden to Mr. Birch 146 

Dr. Robert Taylor to Mr. mrch 147 

Mr. Peter Des Maizeaux to Mr. Birch 149^150 

Mr. Warburton to Dr. Nathaniel Forster 151— IGO 

to Rev. Thomas Balguy.. 170 

Dr. N. Forster and Mr. Birch 171 

Mr. Warburton to Mr. Jortm 179—188 

Shakesperian Correspondence of Mr. Lewis Theobald^ 

Dr. Thirlby, and Mr. Warburton 189—647 

ifr. Theobald to Martin Foikes, Esq 618—690 

to Mr. Warburton 690—630 

L. H. to Mr. John Watts (Theobald*s Printer) 631—633 

Mr. Warburton to Mr. TheobakL 634—663 

Mr. Theobald to Mr. Birch 654 

I^. Akenaide to Mr. Birch 6541 

Memoirs of Dr. John Coakley Lettsom. 657 

James Neild^ Esq 689 

Mr. Lewis Theobald 707 

On the Origin and Progress of The Dimcimd 748 

Original Letters to Dr. Stukeley. 
From Peregrine Marquis of Undsey 769 

— Edward Lord Harley Und, 

— Daniel Earl of Winchilsea. 769—781, 782 

— ^ Algernon Earl of Har^rd. 781. 784 / 

Jaotes Earl of Derby 785 

Original 



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IV COKTENTS. 

Original Letters to Dr. Stukeley. 
From Mr. Edward Stanley 7gS 

— Thomas Earl of Pemimke. iHd. 

The Abp. of Canterbury (Dr. William Wake) 783. 785, 786 

— Edward Karl of Oxford 785 

Thomas Earl of Westmoreland 786—788 

— John second Duke of Montagu 786 

Dr. Stukeley to ^ Hans Sk>ane 788 

Sir Hans Sk»ne to Dr. Stukeley 789 

Dr. Stukeley to Sir Hans Sloane 789 

From Browne Willis, Esq 796 

Joseph Banks, ,Esq 796 

Mr. J. Wasse 797 

Sk John Clerk 797 

Mr. J. Harley. 79S 

Rev. William Derham 799 

— Rev. Dr. Stephen Hales. . . , 799 

Mr. Michael Mattaire 799 

Rev. Walter Harris 801 

' — Mr. John Horseley 801 

—— Rev. Edward Vernon 802 

^)r. David Hartley 804 

Rev. Dr. Richard Pococke (Bishop of Ossory) 806 

Orator Henley 808 

Mr. Warburton to Dr. Doddridge 811—837 

The Bbhop of Gloucester to Sir Eardley ITilmot 837 

Bp. Newton*s Confirmation of a Remark by Dr. Stukeley. • . • 837 

Character of Bp. Warburton by Dr. Cuming 839 

Mr. Edward Cave to Dr. Doddridge 841 

Rev. James Hervey to his Father 843 

to Dr. James Stonhouse 843 

Epitaph at Buxted, on Rev. Edward Clarke 844 

Additions and Corrections 845—859 



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ILLUSTRATIONS 

. OF THE 

LITERATURE 

OF TBS 

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY. 

ORIGINAL LETTERS or Mr. (afterwards Bp.) 
WARBURTON to Dr. STDKELEY. 



LETTER L 

For Dr. Stukeley, next door to the Duke Powis's 
house, in Ormond-street, London*. 

Sir, Neumrhe, August 4, ljt2. 

iS/lY neighbour Mr. Twells -f- telling me he 
bad promised yo\i some account of the Roman Sepul- 
chral Urns lately dug up here, and my ambition 
to oblige a gentleman for whose character I have 
the utmost esteem seconding my friend's entreaties ; 
I had but one objection to deter me from sending 
you what I know, or conjecture, of this discovery ; 
and that was, my slender acquaintance with this kind 
of learning : but, knowing how well able you are 
to improve upon the most imperfect hints, that 
remained no longer such. What then I could col- 
lect from a transitory view, and very uninforming 
relation, take as follows. The gentleman, in whose 
ground they were, discovered them in planting trees 
next the Foss-road side. There were four in num- 
ber, lying in a straight line, and at equal distances ; 

* This and aU .the subsequent Letters to Dr. Stukeley are 
carefally printed from the Originals^ communicated by the 
Rev. J. Fleming St. John> M. A. Prebendary of Worcester. 

t Who alterwaids ntarried Mr. Warburton's sister Elizabeth. 

\Qh. II. B but, 



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9 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE* 

but, through the knavery of the workmen, who 
imagined they had found a treasure, and so care- 
lessly and clandestinely dug them up, they were 
broke into a thousand pieces. I shall only take no- 
tice of what was contained in the most remarkable 
of them. Amidst the burnt bones and ashes, was 
found a rude mis-shapen lump of brass, about the 
bigness of a small walnut, half melted down, with a 
bit of bone, and some of the ashes sticking in the 
surface of it. At first view I conjectured it to be 
the Roman Fibula, as presuming the dead were ge- 
nerally burned in their ordinary habit, and am yet 
of that opinion. The other remarkable was a 
small brass figure, about an inch and half long, 
very much the shape of a Legionary Ensign, on 
which I presume were the Emperor's head, and 
other usual decorations, but quite defaced by the 
injury of time. I leave you to make your inferences 
from this, of the degree or profession of the owner*. 
This adventure may not be inconsiderable, as it 
tends to a more perfect recovery of that part of the 
Foss-road that adjoins to us. You know. Sir, the 
Bishop of Lincoln -jf^ by Mr. Foxcroft's information, 
has fixed two stations in Brideford and Collingham 
fields, on each side us, grounded on the discovery 
of some coins in those places. But we, niiethinks, 
seem to have more than an equal claim to that ho- 
nour with them, as it is less probable that Urns 
should be found in any other place, than that Coins 
should. Besides, the argument will receive no small 
force from this consideration, that the place where 
they were dug up is not above half a dozen yards 
from what we call the Foss, and on a very superior 
eminence on the South-west part of this pkce. If I 
can be further serviceable to you in any thing, I 
shall enjoy your commands, who am. Sir, 

Your very humble servant, W. Warburton. 

♦ See Stukeley*8 '' Itinerarium Curiosum/* vol I. p. 104. 
t Dr. Edmund Gibson, afterwards Bp. of London. 

LETTER 



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MR. WARBUmrON TO OR. 8TI7KELST. 3 

LETTER II. 

For William Stuk£let, Esq. 

Vie spectabilis, 88 Jan. 17S8-9. 

SALVUS 818 CQID tuft Podagra bene cbtata, nobis 
Fortonae nothis vix concessfi. In Diversorio Camr 
3er»09io jam dego*. Si malum tuum superbum feriaa 
agat, unum et alterum amiconim tnomm hie inve- 
nias. Officium epistolae et tabularii nostri prsesta^ 
rem, sed nunc Acbeconta non fert animus moveare, 
Intelligis. Verbum sat est Uxorem tuam optimaiD 
salnto. Tibi strict^ devinctus, Gul. Warburton. 

LETTER in. 

For William Stukeley, Esq. at Grantham. 
Dear Sir, JB. Brougkton^ Mar. 1728-9. 

I received the favour of yours of the 21st of the 
last month some few days ago ; and am glad to find^ 
by the agreeable society you invite me to on Friday 
se'nnighty that your gout has left you free to enjoy 
that philosophic gaiety and serenity of mind that 
makes you happier than Eastern Monarchs; or (who 
I believe you think had a greater share of it) than 
the wisest Sages of Antiquity ; for we can scarce 
meet with one of them, whose natural temper an 
attentive view of the follies of the greater world 
had not strained and violated : one lamented man- 
kind, another laughed at them, a third railed against 
them^ which was an evident proof that their study 
of human nature, how refined and delicate soever they 
had brought it to, had been too dearly purchased^ 
even at the expence of their ovra quiet, and integrity 
of temper. Alas! all their boasted study of huma- 
nity could never teach them to conquer their passions 
or disguise their superstition. One of them, you know^ 

♦ He had been recently presented^ by Sir Kobert Sutton, to 
ths Rectory of Brand (or Brent) Broughton. 

B 2 was 



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4 ILtUSTRATIOKS OF LFTEtlATURl:* 

was so high- mettled, that he was for planting men 
even on forbidden ground ; and the other so mealy- 
mouthed, that he would not allow the planting even 
of beans; which, 'in contempt of this latter, I am 
this moment a-doing in the farther end of my garden 
—as you, in defiance of the former, have undertaken 
the other part of cultivation in a sweet sequestered 
spot, which none but gods, or a man like them, is 
worthy to approach^ where I desire my humble 
respects may be tendered, along with those I ofter to 
yourself, when I profess how much I am, dear Sir, 
your most humble servant, and affectionate friend, 

W. Warburton. 

P. S. I understand that *^ the Friday of the Assize 
week** means Lincoln Assizes. I purpose to attend 
you there; if any thing prevents your coming, or if 
1 mistake the time, be so good to let me have a line. 
I return you Pemberton * with this, and with more 
thanks than he got guineas. 

LETTER IV. 

For William Stukeley, Esq. M. D. at Grantham* 

Dear Sir, Newarhe, March 12, 1728-9. 
I hope you received one of mine last week with 
my intentions of waiting on you at Ancaster at the 
day. Since that, 1 have been pressed by a solicita- 
tion I could no-ways withstand, to attend a trial be- 
tween Sir Robert Sutton and Mr. Plumptre about 
the boundaries of their estates : this will neces- 
sarily draw me to Nottingham on the very day I had 
Droposed to myself the pleasure of attending you. 
My best respects and esteem to the gentlemen you 

* Probably Dr. Henry Pemberton, M.D. F. R, S. and Profes- 
SOT of Physick at Gresham College, who published, by a large 
feubecription, " A View of Sir Isaac Newton's Piiilosophy * in a 
magnificent quarto, but which greatly disappointed the expecta- 
tions of his Patrons. 

meet 



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MR. WARBUHTON tO DR. STUKELEY. 5 

meet there, whom I live in expectation of meeting 
there in Summer. In the mean time I am daily in 
expectation of your kind visit to Broughton, and 
that you will contrive to stay a night or two with 
me, where we may converse together de quolibet 
entCj and laugh at the foUies and impertinence that 
surround us. 

Dear Sir, your most affectionate friend, and 
humble servant, W. Warburton. 

LETTER V. 

For William Stukeuey, Esq. at Grantham. 
Dear Sir, Newarhe^ June 9 y 17 29. 

I had a great temptation to have gone over to 
Hough last Thursday, where I expected you was, 
and was heartily vexed that a pacK of blockheads 
should have sto])ped my way. About two hours 
ago poor Doctor Hunter took a leap into the dark. 
I should heartily wish that this, or any other occa- 
sion, could bring you amongst us here*, where every 
one has so just an esteem for my dear Friend. 

Just this moment I was lamenting to my uncle 
Rastall of the small hopes I had of so much happi- 
ness ; and he went so seriously into it, as to mention 
the service he thought himself capable of doing 
you in such a case, which he thought not small. 

Dear Sir, you will be so good to pardon the free- 
dom of this officious Letter, and believe me to be, 
with much gratitude, 
Your most obliged humble servant, W. Warburton. 

* Dr. Stukeley was a native of Holbech in Lincolnshire ; and, 
having taken ihe degree of M. B. at Cambridge 1709, commenced 
practice as a Physician at Boston in his native county; but, 
in 1717, r«iiof«d to London, where he was in that year elected 
F. R. S. ; became one of the Re-founders of the Society of Anti- 
qnaries I7I8; and in 1719 took the degree of M. D. at Cam- 
bridge, and became a Fellow of tlie College 6f Physicians. In 
17^6 he removed to Grantham, where he continued ta reside till 
W9i whea he enter^ into holy orders. See p. 6. 

LETTER 



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6 ULLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE* 

LETTER VI. 

For William Stukeley, Esq. at Grantham. 
Dear Sir, B. Brtrnghtotiy June 13, 1729. 

I was perfectly charmed with the secret your 
obliging Letter of the 11 th instant communicated to 
me. I have great satisfaction in the prospect of die 
services you will do the Church * ; and of the 
honours you, I make no doubt, will in return re- 
ceive from it : but, above all, you will allow me to 
indulge myself in the pleasing prospect I now have 
of a Friend of the Order. 1 shall now begin to 
entertain more ambitious thoughts, when I can have 
such an assistant of my schemes ; and I can readily 
forgive all the strange malice I have hitherto met 
wim, to be at length rewarded with a friendship, 
whose ' last ereat bond is, as our friend Tully ex-* 
presses it, ab eorundem studiorum usu. As to the 
alteration this will make in yourself, 1 do not think 
you could more consult your happiness, or advance 

?mr interests of every kmd, than by this resolution, 
ou have a fine fortune, that of itself can provide 
you with the ornaments, as well as conveniences of 
life ; which, put to the addition you may reasonably 
expect in the Order, will furnish you with all the 
variety of satisfactions that a mind like yours can 
digest. Above all, I am pleased with your thinking 
g( London not above a month in a year. And for 
diose serene pleasures of contemplation which so 
much delight you, you will find them much height- 
ened in the freedom and disengagement of our pro^ 
fession. I long to see you ; so that, if you do not 
let me see you, or know next week of some short 
day in which I may expect you ; on Sunday se*n- 
night, in the afternoon, I will make you a visit. 
To fill up the paper, I send you the following criti- 

* Dr. Stukeley was ordained by Abp. Wake, July 20, 1729 ^ 
and, in the October following, was presented by Lord Chancellor 
King to the Rectory of ^11 Saints, Stamford ^ a preferment for 
which he vmfi in sane degree indebted to the friendship of Sir 
Han* Sk)ane, as will appear hereafter. 

cism 



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MR. WARBURTON TO DR. 8TUKELET. 7 

CMm on apassageof l^terculus*, Kb. I. cap. 4; which 
I must desire your jud^ent of. You are to know 
that there is only a single MS. of this Author pre- 
served, and infinitely faulty; so that the book is 
but a heap of errors, notwithstanding the attempts 
of many upon it This Author, speaking of the 
original of Cuma and Naples, says, " Cumas in tta- 
lid copuUdemnf (sc. Hippocles & Megastfienes.) 
*^ Pars horum civium magnopost intervallo Neapth- 
Urn condidit. Utriusque urbU eximid semper in 
Ramanos Jides. Sed alxis diKgenthr ritns patrii 
mansit custodia : Cumanos Osca mutctvit vtcinia. 
Vires autem veteres earum urbium hodieque mag- 
nitndo ostentat Mceniumr Now, I dare sav, the 
'Word aliis sticks at first sieht pretty much with you, 
for you observe this is all the way a conjoint a<Hx>unt 
of the two cities, but in this part of the sentence it 
is dropt, and very impertinently said others pre- 
served their Country ntes more diligently ; which, 
certainly, so fine a Writer could not be guilty of. I 
read, merefore, Sed nejpolis diUgentior rifus 
patrii mansit ; which makes it a pertinent observa- 
tion, and worthy the notice of an exact Histo- 
rian. And it is not difficult to conceive NeapoUs 
being corrupted to aliis by a stupid copyer. I would 
only know whether you can give me any light from 
some other Writer about this piece of Antiquity, 
that Naples continued the Grecian manners longer 
than Cuma« — 1 will offer another to your considera- 
tion: Our Author, cap. 10, speaking of the se- 
verity of a Censor upon his Brother, expresses 
himself thus : Aspera circa hoec tempora censura 
Fultrii Flacd et P. Alhini Juitj quippe RitvH cm- 
sorts frater^ et quidem CoksoRSy Cnceus Fulvius, 
Mfiatu motus est ab iis censoribusJ^ Now where 
is the wonder that a man's brother should be called 
his Consors too. It is true sometimes they are 
iiot so: but here Paterculus lays an emphasis on 
it as increasing the relation, et quidem Consors. 

» Of whoAe " History'* he was then meditating an edition. 

I read 



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8 ILLUSTRATIONS OJ UTBRATURC. 

I read therefore as the true, et quidem Consocer^ 
And this indeed might raise the wonder ; for there 
was not only the nearness of Brotherhood, but the 
bond was tied more close by marrying their children 
together ; for Consocei% you know, are they whose 
son and daughter are married together. 

I am, dear Sir, your most obliged and most affec-" 
tionate humble servant, W. Warburton. 

♦#* On this Letter Dr Stukeley lias written: ' 
^^ I can think of no other meaning in it, thaii 
that, although these two places, Cuma and Nei^ 
polis, had the same founders, and sat quietly 
under the Roman government, yet Naples did not 
ao readily change its Greek customs, language, and 
manners, as Cuma did. This seems intimated bv 
what immediately follows, Cumanos Osca tnutavtt 
vicinia : id est^ the neighbourhood of the Oscan, or 
old Latin language, hel])ed to alter that of Cuma; 
and perhaps tlieOscans subdued before the Romans; 
whence the Author adds that observation of their 
former strength, and tlie circuit of their old Walls. 
Naples was ever famous, not only for its sweet situ* 
ation and air, but for its gaiety ; for the frequency 
of men of learning, whence the . Romans went 
thither as to a Grecian Academy, for that freedom 
from noise, trade, and business, which Rome was 
full of. The iFery Country of Campania, where it 
stands, broke the force of Hannibars army by its 
softnesses and delights. In this, I suppose, it dif- 
fered considerably from the rough parsimonious way 
of the other parts of Italy the Romans were masters 
pf. There are endless quotations out of the old Au- 
thors, touching the charms of the place and the po- 
liteness of the people ; which being much earlier 
than that of Rome, might, perhaps, give occasioa 
to that reflection of the Author, that the Neapolitans 
retained their Country fashions longest. So that I 
hold your correction for good.—* I know of nothing 
better than what you ofler about Consors; unless you 
suppose they were colleagues in some other office, 
and many were the Colleg^ia, or companies at Rome. 



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MR. WA&BUETOK TO DE. 8TUKBLET. Q 



LETTER VII. 

For the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, Rector of 
All Saints^ Stamford. 

Dear Sir, Septembers, 1730. 

1 WAS much disappointed in not seeing you at 
Orantham, according to expectation. My brother 
Twells shewed me a Letter, wherein you charged 
the blaipe of it on me. But I roust appeal to your 
own ingenuity, whether it be rightly placed, after I 
have told you that, when I came into Grantham, I 
inquired of every one that I thought could give mtf 
intelligence concerning you, but could hear no news. 
At length Mr. Smith told me he thought he saw you 
ride by, and believed you was gone to the Bishop. 
From that intelUgence, if it was right, I conclude<| 
that {w you had not called at Grantham, nor left 
any word by any one for me, as you went through,) 
you would not return to Grantham that night; 
Nor did Mr. Smith give me the least encouragement 
to think you would be back that night ; but, on the 
ccmtrary, when I asked him of his own coming 
baeky who was then himself going to the Bishop, 
he returned me such a doubtful answer as could give 
me no encouragement to stay, though I told him 
my chief occasion of coming was to meet you. Af- 
ter this, you may easily imagine I had little encou- 
ragement to pass the night alone at Grantham. 

This is a fair state of the case; and I hope you will 
ccmsider over again before you confirm your condem- 
nation of me. It was 6 o'clock before I left Grant- 
bam. — This matter has been a real concern to me ; 
bot would be much greater, did I not think you 
was well assured how much I am, dear Sir, 

Your sincere friend imd obedient humble servant, 

W. Warburton. 

My humble service to good Mrs. Stukeley. 

LETTER 



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10 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 



LETTER VIII. 

To the very Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Stamford. 

Dear Sir, August 18,1731. 

I am first to thank you for my kind entertainment 
the last time I was with you ; and to hope that this 
will find you in that serenity of mind, which, to 
the pleasure of your Friends, so amiably lightens in 
your countenance, and which it should not be in 
the power of fools and scoundrels to rufile. I think 
it is great pity that your region will not afibrd friends 
and acquaintance, not so much for your sake, as 
for theirs who might have the beneiSt of such a 
converse. But you have one peculiar happiness 
that miikes amends for greater inconveniencies ; and 
that is, the agreeable companion you have at home, 
capable of enhancing all the pleasures, and sooth- 
ing all the cares, of human life. And from the ac« 
complishments of such a companion the man receives 
peculiar honour, as the younger Pliny says of his 
Friend, '* magn& gloria dignusest qui uxorem, quam 
▼irginem accepit, tarn peritam politamque reddide- 
rit." For you must know, my good Doctor, that I 
r^rd Woman in her natural state as one of those 
odd pictures that I have formerly seen at Oxford, 
which they use for a very pretty experiment in Op- 
tics. They produce you a bo^rd, on the plane of 
which is thrown together a great number of colours, 
as it appears^ with the utmost confiision and dis- 
order, the most visible work of chance. But, by 
applying to-it a cylindrical steel mirror, there imme- 
diately rises on its bosom a beautiful reflected form 
in all the justness and artifice of design. A woman 
is this coloured table ; in whose capricious and vari- 
able, fancy discordant and monstrous ideas are, by 
the force of the passions, whimsically daubed on at 
random^ which present no mark of the workman- 
ship 



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MA.. WARBURTON TO ML. BTUKELEY. 11 

ship of the great plastic Nature. But, if happily 
a prudent husband be applied, he does the business 
of the cylinder. The scattered lines are now re- 
duced in order, an elegance of design arises, and 
the reflected union of colours, and harmony of 
light and shadow, speak the workmanship divine. 

If, as you expect, Mr. Gak and you go to Lin- 
coln, on your giving me notice I will encteavour to 
meet you there. My humble service to Mrs. Stuke- 
iey, concludes me, dear Sir, your most humble aer* 
vant^ and affectionate friend^ W. Warbu&ton. 



LETTER IX. 

To the very Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Stamford. 

Dear Sir, NewarkCj August 30, 1731. 

I received the favour of yours from Ix>ndon9 
and accounted very much, as you may see by a 
letter left at your house at Stamford by Robert 
Taylor *, of meeting you at Lincoln^ which design 
I was confirmed in by the receipt of this ; but some 
little business has happened^ that unavoidably calls 
me another way at that time. But this loss to me 
wilK I hope, be soon repaired ; for the Visitation is 
drawing on, where we shall^ I suppose, have the 
pleasure of meeting, according to custom, at our old 
Friend's the Lecturer's. I was surprized to see your 
last dated from London. I hope some good occa- 
sion drew you thither, the journey appearing to be 
unpremeditated ; for I do not remember I heard you 
mention any thing of it when I was so lately with 
you at Stamford. 

I am, dear Sir, your very affectionate friend 
and humble servant, W. Warburton* 

My most humble service to Mrs. Stukeley. 

* Dr. Robert Taylor, of whom hereafter. 

LETTE It- 



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Ifi ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE.^ 



LETTER X. 

For the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Stamford. 

Dear Sir, From my Study j Oct. 30, 1731. 

I have told you enough of my waking thoughts to 
make you think them little better than dreams. I 
will now tell you my dreams, that perhaps you may 
think more like waking thoughts. Last night I 
dreamt you and I, assisted by that Dedalian Artist 
the Fancy, were mounted up mto the middle regions, 
and, with expanded wings, taking the tour of the 
Universe, and surveying in our course all that 
was great or curious in Art or Nature. In the midst 
of these ravishing contemplations, soaring with too 
negligent a flight, methought we blundered through 
the top windows into an old building, \i\^tCathedral^ 
that unluckily met us in our progress. I dreamt we' 
were no sooner in, but we lost all our etherial tem- 
per; and;, like the Devil, in Milton, travelling 
through the antient realms of Night and Chaos, who> 

meets 

A vast vacuity : all unawares 

Fluttering his pennons vain plamb down he drops ; 

«o, methought, fell we; and, when we got to the 
bottom, found ourselves ensconsed in two Prebendal 
Stalls ; when immediately the gout seized you, 
and I fell into an old fit of the spleen, wnich 
I yet feel hanging on me. 

As my best remedy, your company, is not at 
hand, I am forced to seek amusement amongst those 
who most resemble you, amongst the learned dead.. 
But, since my late travels, my head running much 
upon Voyages, I should be obliged to you to 
lend me Le Brun's Travels, if you can contrive 
any way of sending it to me. it shall be taken 
great care of. ^. 



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MR. WARBURTOH TO DR. STVKSLEY. 1$ 

My humble service to Mrs. Stukeley conclades me^ 
dear Sir, your insepamble friend imd sefFant (m 
you see, both sleeping and waking), 

W. Warburtok. 

LETTER XI. 

For the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Stamford. 

Dear Sir, November 10, 1 73 1 . 

I received your agreeable letter, 'and should be 
glad we could have any opportunity of seeing one 
another oftener. If you do not go to London, I do 
not know but that towards Christmas I may have an 
opportunity of coming to Stamford, in case you be 
in the country; but I was told by a gentleman who 
lately came from thence, that they talked there, as 
if you would spend a great part of the winter in 
town. The same person told me further, that he 
they call the Dean of Stamford shews to every body 
a letter wrote to him from you in the most malicioug 
and aggravating way in the world, wherein you 
earnestly desire him to concur with you in choosing 
Mr. Peck, who, you assured him, would do whatever 
you would have him. He represents this, which 
appears to me to have nothing unfair in it, as strangely 
to your discredit. I thought it proper to acquaint 
you with this Devil of a Dean, and how much he 
wants exorcising ; the Court holy water, which, it 
seems, in that letter you gave him, makes him but 
the more impudent. 

Mr. Theobald has entered into articles hr publish- 
ing Shakespeare with Tonson. It is to appear by 
next March; and he is to have for it eleven hundred 
guineas ^y and your humble servant for his pains 
one copy of the royal paper books. But, as he has 
given me full satisfaction for his late conduct, 
and appears to be willing to perform the part t)f a 

* Of tins, more b^ttfter. 

man 



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14 ILLUSTRATIONS OF UTERATURE. 

man of honotir, I absolve him from all bard thoughts, 
and am disposed to iierve him all I can. This 1 
thought proper, for good reasoi^, to let you know^ 
whom I had acquainted with my (groundless as I 
am glad to tind it) suspicions and complaints. 

Le Brun did not come last week by the waggon. 

I am, dear Sir, your most affectionate and most 
•bedient humble servant, W. Warburton. 



LETTER XII. 

For the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Stamford. 

Dearest Sir, B. B. May 9, 1732. 

YOUR very agreeable letter came very oppor- 
tunely; for it found me overwhelmed with grief for 
the variety of ill usage my most excellent Patron * 
has lately met with. And, I will assure you, it is no 
small aggravation of it, that I have no opportunity 
of testifying my gratitude to him by serving Him, 
though by the sacrifice of my fortune. I envy the 
felicity of antient times, when it was so frequently 
in the power of the meanest faithful dependant, by 
one brave stroke, to render good service to his Pa- 
tron, when bore hard upon by faction and injustice. 

I wish, as you say, I had known that circumstance 

of- 's good-nature and manners, and I should 

have treated him as he deserved ; but there is not, 
even in human nature, ill-nature enough to treat so 
rascally a scoundrel with sufficient contempt; for 
this wretched Attorney has received many and great 
obligations from that family. But I will withdraw 
myself for a moment from these uneasy reflections* 

I like your project much, which invites me to take 
Thompson's-j- shop; and, could I get Tyndal and 
Henley, Jackson and Waterland, Peckius and Wor- 
miu«, for my garreteers, I should not fear to make 

* Sir Robert Sutton $ aee p. 3. f A Provincial Bcokseller. 

my 



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MR. WABBURTON TO ]>R. 8TUKELBT. 15 

Biy fame, that is, my profit, more extensive than my 
renowned Predecessor's; who once told me, with tfa^ 
proud Pa^-nwsian sneer j that his jMercmries were 
read and admired in Ireland, Barbadoes, and New-r 
foundland. As for Peck's ^^ Desiders^'' I cannot hot 
'think young Roger Gale punished in the Dolicatioii 
for the sins of his Grandfather, who generally foe^ 
fixed to his fine editions of the ancient Gneek Aih 
thors some stupid Man of Quality, that could hardly 
read English ; so that, as he was always comply 
menting stupid Patrons, it is but according to the 
reason of things, that his Grandson should be com* 
plimented by as stupid a Client, whose invention, at 
Shakespeare says, ^' comes from his pate like birdlime 
from frize, it plucks out brains and alL** 

Your reasons for your determination of alwajrs 
writing in Latin are good, and wise, and solid. I per- 
ceive you had entertained a strange notion of the 
difficulty of a thing, which, in effect, with practice 
to one who knows the tongue, is easy enough. 

My humble service to good Mrs. Stukeley. I 
wish you both an agreeable journey to Buckden ; 
and that, if she iikes the old furbelloed mansion^ 
she may one day become mistress of it, wl^re she 
and I, in quality of your Lordship's Chaplain, will 
agree, according to the good old laudable custom, 
to rule and govern you, and dispose of all your Stalls 
and Standings ; and while you, whom we shall con.- 
fine within four wails, are adjusting the difficulties 
of ancient aeras, we will make the most of the time 
present; and while you are consulting for die cre- 
dit of the Fathers, we shall be scheming for a pro^^ 
vision for the Sons and Daughters. And the wisdom 
between a petticoat government, and government 
by a long gown, is but a trifling diflference : a woman 
that knows how to manage a hatch of goslings may 
be. capable of administering a Diocese. 

I am, dear Sir, your evar affectionate and faith- 
ful friend, W. Wabburton. 

P.S. 



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16 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

P. S. Miss, I suppose, keeps close to Montfeucoa 
yet In another year she will make a better Anti- 
quary than Peck ; for, I observe, she already knows 
the difference between Pan's Pipe and Apollo*s 
Harp: which is more, apparently, ^an he does; 
or bis ass*s ears would not be so perpetually starting 
out, to testify the ill judgment he gives, and the ill 
choice he makes ; but, if his hand nas but the same 
attractive quality witli bis Predecessor Midas*s, of 
drawing gold to him, he cares not what resemblance 
there is between their heads. — I feel my uneasy re- 
flections returning upon me ; and am forced to leave 
our Antiquary as he leaves old Cecil, half uncele- 
brated. — f^aUy canice dulcissime. W. W. 



LETTER XIII. 

GuL. Warburton, amplissimo doctissimoque viro, 

GULIELMO StUKELEIO SUO, S. 

Aug. 8, 1732. 
LITERAS tuas, 6 Bone ! facetas et perelegantes 
jamjam accepi. Carmen amabile, quod, ex morbo 
evadens, tarn lucid^ pangis, statim atque legi, subiit 
mentem docti divinus Lucreti furor, qui, cum perio- 
dicse febres inducias haberent, solitus est carmina, 
pharmaci loco, adhibere ; dum defaecata vis animi, 

. extra 

Processitlong^ flammantia mcenia mundi. 

Fuit reverk mihi, et laudis nostras gratulatio tua 
jucundissima, et doloris consolatio pergrata; nam, 
secundiim vetus dictum, laudes k laudato viro acci- 
pio. Hae sunt solatia, hae fomenta summorum dolo- 
rum. Firmissim& tua benevolentia stipatus, vel du- 
rissimas molestias, vel fastum turgidum et superbum 
Asini Ek^clesiastici dignitatibus onusti, aequo animo 
ferre possum. Q^^ tu dicis de itinere hike faciendo^ 
mirific^ me laetincat. Sine ulla mora^ precor^ oon- 

silio 



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ME« WA&BURTOM TO DR. STUKBLET. I7 

eilio fiM2tum adjabge. Velim qiioque flcire <|uo die 
venias, ut deobviain iiione tibi faciam^ skut vidstiafi 
solemus. 

Paulo ante. ilUistrbstmus PeckiuB, Sidus pLwmtmf 
ofxpuoYpa^oiVy inter itinera saa in domiun qo^tmb 
divertebat, coenabat, discubuit. Vidula ^us de 
more conferta erant et cniditatibna distenla ; similia 
bulgp isti infernali de qu& Poeta lepidua Swiftiw 
suavissioi^ canit: 

His budget with corruptioa eramm'J, 
The contributions of the damned. 

id est, Poetarum, Oratonnn, HistoricorufD, y'lrtjk 
Criticomm ceosoria, in seramniK atque miserns 
cioacarum degere aevum damnatorum; usquedum^ 
revol^entibus latis, bic Eqnes erraticus incantamen- 
torn runipat^ et illos innocentes, fced^ laceratos et 
ipoliatosiacentes, defendat, protegat, ac in lucem re- 
vooet. Si fides sit isti primee pn\loso{^iee, qufi li 
Nutrice in gynsecio nos omnes irobuti sumus^ quse 
docet bomunciones ex ilpiato oriri ; jurarem per 
omnes Decs Deasque clarissiamni hunc AntiqcuH 
rium, qui k Stanfordid petit or iginem, vice Apiati, 
singulari fortuna, siepulchretuoi istud inonasticum, 
herbis soporificis et ledialibus obsitum, pro portis 
oppidi situm, natalitium Idcum habuisse : nine amor 
cttculli, bine protervitas ingenii^ binb odium in 
bonas literas. 

Vale, vir optime, quo tnibi nemo est amicior, 
nee jucundior, nee cbarior. Ornatissimam uxorem 
tuam^ ei tenellulaoi Antiquariam meam, plurimiim 
saluto. Domus te tota nostra salutat. Gul. W. 

LETTER XIV. 

To die Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Stamford. 

Moj9T DBAR Sir, AbwmAer 13, 1732. 

I heard by accident you was at Grantham Vi* 
sitntion ; and, as I bav^ reason to suspect, in pur- 
VOL. II. € suancc 



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16 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITBRATURE« 

MRfice of my mentioning that place of meeting in 
fny last. But it gave me a moet sensible concern, 
that you was not so kind as to come forward to 
Brougbton; nH>re especially when I reflect, that it 
^9eems to be owing to the appearance of neglect on my 
side: which suspicion i could have removed, had! 
thought you would have been there, by a letter. 
B&t indeed, imagining, from my not having an 
answer to my last, that you was scarce ^ot from Mr. 
Gale's, I diet not provide against the mischance. 

The truth of the case is this : I have been very ill 
for three weeks; at that time I was under a course 
of physic, attended with an indispoBition that hin- 
dered me from getting upon horseback, which re* 
quires to you no exphuiation; nor was I able to ride 
with safety till just now. This, I say, makes me 
sorry you would not come on, if it was only to find 
whether I was in fault ; and, if so, to reprove me as I 
ought 1 think our friendship required thus much. 
I am sure your coming would, for more reasons than 
one, have been very useful to me. I gave you too 
an example the last time I did myself the pleasure 
of waiting on you ; when, though I found you not 
at the New Inn, though 1 then knew no more the 
mason of your absence than you now did of mine, 
yet I pushed forward without hesiti^ion. And in- 
deed if, in an intimate friendship like ours, we 
must be subject to the plague of punctilios and sus- 
picions, I shall be the most unhappy man breathing : 
for, to m^, such an alliapce is not like a vulgar ac^ 
quaintance ; and, while i IdMMir ulider the thought 
of any thing being taken amiss of me by a friend, I 
am capable of no ease. Therefore, though I have 
given you the sincerest state of the case, and the 
true reason why I could not come, yet, if you think 
it not sufficient, I will make what acknowledgment 
and submission you will please to enjoin me. 

On Thursday I set forwards to the other side of 
Lincolnshire, and shall return on the Tuesday fol- 
lowing. 



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MR. WAEBUrrCm TO 1M. CTVKUJMr. If^ 

lowing. If yoa will be so f;ood to i^ipoint aay 
place where 1 shall meet jron, to dnig jrou to 
broughton, I will attend you at ibe day and hour. 
If you refuse me this favour^ I shall suspect you do 
not foi^Ve nae. 

My most humble service to your good sponse 
and pretty Miss, concludes me, dear Sir, your most 
affectionate and most faithful servant and friend, 

W. WARBUMiON. 



LETTER XV. 

For due Rev. Dr. Stukelev, at Mr. Sisson's^ Strand. 

Dear Sir, Februan/ 4, 1 732-3. 

I was glad to hear of your health, and where you 
was, from the Letter you wrote to my Brother*. I 
want much to see you, and shall he glad when you 
get down. 1 am now very throng ahout my Moses 
f^ndicaiiiSf and want to talk to you de quolihet ente. 
I think / can prove my point in such a manner,, that 
Moses* Divine Legation shall never be called in ques- 
tion again by impartial men. But, you know, the 
subject is to be a secret, that it may have when it 
appears, at least the grace of novelty. 

Middleton's and Pearce's-f^ dispute, that makes so 
much noise, I have seen: Middleton writes very 
agreeably, but, in his vindication of his Letter, has 
run into a great absurdity. Pearce is a heavy writer. 

My dear Sir, I hope you meet with every thing 
at London to your mind, and that you will soon 
meet the fixiits of this vojrage. If you have an 
opportunity, pray ask Watts, by-the-by, when Theo- 
bauTs Shakespeare is like to come out 

* Mr.Twelb; aeep. 1. 

t Dr. Zackary Fearce (afterwards Bp. of Ro0he6t8r) took up 
the defence of Dr. Waterland ; whom Dr. Middleton^ in the dis* 
pure concerning llndal*8 *' Christianity as old as tj^e Creation," 
had ventured to treat with the utmost contempt and seyerity. 

c 2 r ray 



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to ILLU8TAATI0MS OF I.ITBRATUIIE. 

Piray, what says the world of Beiitley*s Milton ? . 
' I am, dearest Sir, yoar most afibctionate friend, 
and sinoere servant, W. W. 



LETTER XVL 

For the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Mr. Sisson's. 

Dearest Sir, February lo^ 1732-3. 
The receipt of your kind Letter of the 8th in- 
stant was an inexpressible pleasure to me on many 
accounts. I am charmed with the account you give 
me concerning your intentions of printing your fine 
work of Stonehenge* in good earnest. If you print 
it by subscription, I desire the honour to be in your 
List, and that you would send me a receipt, and I 
will send you the money. I have at present a full 
intention of taking a journey with you to Salisbury 
Plain in May : the project is perfectly right in seve- 
ral views, which have made me so oft repeat my in- 
stances to you to print. It is with the utmost con- 
cern I see you write that you gave a title ; 

purely on your own account, because I am afraid 
It should raise a terrible clamour against you. The 
news of his goin^ into orders creates a furious scan- 
dal here ; and I believed it false till the receipt of 
your Letter. I ask your pardon for being thus free; 
but my concern for your glory and interest in life 
is so cordial, that it would be infinite concern, that 
all those amiable excellent qualities that fit you for 
the first stations in it, should ever receive any acci- 
dental clog from only the too precipitated efilects of 
your good-nature and humanity. But, berhaps, it 
would go too hard with the scoundrels or the work}, 
and they could not support through life an uneasy 
conscious worthlessness, if the great and good cha- 
racters did not now and then give them a little relief 

* This daborate Work was not publbhed till 1740. 

in 



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MR. WARBUftTON TO DR. STUK£JLjEr. tl 

in exercising their malice, by too generous and un- 
guarded an action. X mean, such an one as has not 
what the world calls its full seasoning of prudenoe. 
Nobody has experienced this more home than I 
have done, by a thousand imprudences in my course 
of life; and what makes the reflection of it more 
tnortifjHing to me is, that I have no other claim to 
likeness of the good characters I mentioned above, 
than partaking with them in their foibles. — But to 
return. I am persuaded that, when you see me, you 
will convince me of the rash judgment I have passed 
of this act of your good-nature ; and that indeed 
there were proper reasons, such as I roust approve 
of, for your giving him a title; though, perhaps, 
there could b^ none for the acceptance of that tide 
at the place where it was offered : for I have no no- 
tion of a roan*s running to the tremendous Altars of 
Jesus, reeking from the hot pollutions of a brothel, 
and covered over with all the stains of lewdness and 
ionpiety. We may write, and preach, and idly 
waste a midnight lamp, in defence of our sacred 
di8bensat]on;but^ while such become our coadjutors, 
ana sit with us as watchmen on the rampart of 
Faith, we shall be an eternal derision to our ad- 
versaries, and the torrent of Infidelity will still 
roll on. 

As to what you say of Sir Isaac Newton's '* Scrips 
ture Prophecy,*" I am inclined to think your judgment 
of it perfectly right. Though he was a prodigy in 
his way, yet 1 never expected great things in this 
kind (which requires a perfect knowledge of antient 
Literature, History, and Mankind), from a man 
who spent all his days in looking through a tele- 
scope. I am glad, dear Sir, that you was^ a little 
money with honest (lyles*, and that you got so soon 
shut of this epidemic disorder. My turn is to come 
yet. If my hoarseness should happen at the Visita-^ 

* Fletcher Gyks, the wdl4aiown Booksdler io Holboum. 

tion^ 



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Mi ILLUSTRATIONS OF UTEftATURK. 

lion, where I am ordered to preachy I must get you ta 
mount the Roetruro in my favour. You did pe^ 
fbctly right in reading a discourse to the JRoyal Soci- 
ety, and on a very capable subject*, for I remenlbe? 
&e great Montaigne will not allow any Physician 
to be thoroughly skilled in any distemper but what 
he himself has laboured under. I suppose I i^iafl 
•ee it in the next Transactions. 

1 lament with you heartily forthe death of Iheetcel* 
lent EarlHf-. I knew it would be a great grief to yoUr 

Sir Gilbert:|: is indeed gone, 

From dreams of millions and three groats to pay^ 
with the merit of three groats, and a debt of mil* 
Sons. I think with the Poet, Providence enough 
shewed how contemptibly it esteems riches when it 
so burthened an overlaboured individual. 

Your mention of the First-fruits-office put me in 
mind to desire a favour of you, which is, to pay my 
tenths for Brand Broughton, Loveden hundred; 
they are 3/. 11^. 4d. I have got a good bill drawn 
for you for 41- 3^. lodf. ; the I'emaining I2s. 6d. I 
must desire the filrther favour of you to pay as the 
first subscription foi^ the second part of Burnet's 
History; receipts are delivered, I suppose, by Tom 
Burnet § in the Temple. I was a subscriber to the 
first volume. 

I am in sad pain for your health amidst all the 
terrible infection of the City, and wish I had you 
safe at Broughton* I thank you for your advice 
concerning application and health; it is perfectly 
right, ana 1 will follow it. There is, as you truly 
observe, no encouragement for oUr ware, or a learned 

« On the Gout ; see p. 95^ 

t ThomaB Herbert, Earl of Pembroke and Montgomery, 
died Jan. 29, 1739-S. 

t Sir Gilbert Heathcote, wbo dkd Jan. 96, 1739-3^ was repottd 
to be worth 700,0002. very honourably acquired. 

§ The Bbhop's third and youngest •OD> ftfterwanis one of the 
Justices of th6 Cbnunon Fleu, 

industry^ 



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MR* WARBURTOK TO ML. nVKELEY. Q 

industiy, b«t the Evince parHcuia aur^B, which 
blows 11) so sharp a climate, that many, in all ages, 
have been starved by it. I believe one may teke a 
voyage with a Dutch skipper a wbale-6ahing into 
Greenlartd with less danger and more profit, and 
jret come back improved enough for the convoca- 
tion of a Chaplain in Ordinary. 
Adieu, best of Friends! and confidently believe 
' me to be your most affectionate and most devoted 
•brother and servant, W. Warburton. 



LETTER XVII. 

For the Rev. Dr. Stukelxy, at Mr. Sisson's. 

Dearest Sir, February 19, 173«-S* 

Your kind letter of the IJth gave me extre«)e 
great pleasure, to find that you had proceeded sO 

extremely right in — — *s a0air. I knew yon 

would get great credit by refusing bim a testimonial ; 
and the fear of your having given him cfne made me 
in pain for the consequences. You rightly observe, 
the giving him a title was nothing ; for that is a 
matter that relates onljr to his support, not at all to 
his morals. I might, indeed, easily have imagined 
you would have set me right when I saw you, and 
so might have well spared my reflections on it ; but 
you will be so good as to pardon my wrong apprehen- 
sioi^s. But I will tell ytMi another thing: this tes- 
timonial, which, had it been of your signing, would 
have made much clamour, you will find tbe world 
will entirely overlook in the inconsiderableftess of 
the three subscribers to it. And this is the way of 
the world. You say, poor -*— has almost lost an 
eye: one would imagine the Bishop was in that 
condition when he laid his hand on him, atid so 
(like the fellow's wife who had but one eye) saw 
but half his fiiults. But Providence will torn every 

tbin^ 



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t4 ILLUflTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

thing to the best ; and, if the Gentleman reforms^ 1 
shall be exceeding glad. 

I am impatient to see Sir Isaac's book *. If you 
have it of your own in town, and have read it, I 
should be obliged to you if you would take this 
way of conveying into the country where it must 
come ; namely, by sending it by Newbal's waggon, 
directed for me at Newark; and, when I have read it 
over, I will take care to send it safe to Stamford. 

To be sure, it will not be news to you, to tell you 
that your Cousin Munn is dead ; perhaps you may not 
know the particulars of his will — ^to this effect : He 
bequeaths to his wife (in case she be molested in 
her jointure) lOOO/. ; otherwise 200L to be paid at 
his.mother*s decease; and 200/. to be paid Mr. How 
at the same time. — I see honest Edmund Weaver -f* 
now and then ; he has not done our Dials yet, for 
he exhausts all the science of old Ptolemy and Al- 
bumazar upon them. Providence protect you, and 
send )rou well down from a sickly, wicked town to 
the healthful and virtuous embraces of your excellent 
qpouse ; and believe me ever to be, dearest Sir, 

Your most faithful and most affectionate Friend, 

W. Warburton. 

LETTER XVII. 
For the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Stamford. 

Dearest Sir, March 4, 1 732-3. 

1 HOPE this will lind you safe at home from your 
last London journey, and free from the gout; 
though, if that be a vindictive enemy, you can ex- 
pect no quarter of it for the future, who have so 
unsparingly discovered all its secrets, its fort, and 
its foibles ; and given such exact directions for the 
safe attacking, and the entire mastering of its viru- 
lence^ for I have seen your fine Discourse on the 

♦ Sir Isaac Newton's " Observation on the Prophecies of Da- 
Die), and the Apocalypse of 8t. John. 1738.'* 
t At that time a well-known Alnumack-inaker. 

use 



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Bia. wARmmfov to dr. sroKSLEr. 35 

use of Oils, &c. * Dr. Taylor and I read it together 
with infinite pleasure* He is fall of its praises, and 
swears you write as good a style as Dr. Fretnd. It af- 
forded hifu the greater pleasure, 1 b^eve, on bis 
just before having been reading a ridiculous pam* 
pfalet of Hartley's*!*', which be sent from Bury, ad* 
dressed to the old women in that place, in favour of 
inoculatianX- There was no part pleased us more 
than that beautiful and ingenious conjecture, towards 
the conclusion of it, about the benefit the old Ro- 
mans received by anointing themselves with oil. It 
is certainly very ingenious. I am only in some 
doubt about the fact ; namely, that the old Romans, 
after the overflow of intemperance, were but littte 
subject to the Gcnit. This yoP will clear up to me 
when I see you ; for it seems to appear, from the 
Epistles of the younger Pliny, that the distemper 
was at least as common, and as violent, as with us. 
He speaks of it as an hereditary distemper, as caused 
by intemperance, as being so violent as to seize all 
the limbs at once with the most exquisite torments; 
speaks of men who billed tliemselves, when no 
longer able to endure the frequent returns of it. 
These are all marks of a very prevailing distemper; 
and his Uncle, in bis Natural History, book xxvi. 
c. 10. hints at as much ; though what he says in 
bis first book has a different cast, when examined, it 
will appear to confirm his Nephew's account. TbM, 
you know, are his words : *' Podagra morbus rarior 
> solebat esse, non mod6 patrumavorumque manorid, 
werUm etiam nosirdJ* 

* Dr. Stukeley> soon after his settling at Stamfbrd^ found con- 
siderable relief from the Gout by the Oleum ArthrUicum, inrented 
by Dr. Rogers^ a Physician in that town ; and in 1733 published 
an account of the success of the application of these Oil^ in innu- 
merable instances^ in a Letter to Sir Hans Sloane. He published 
also " A Treatise on the Cause and Cure of the Go«t, from a 
new Bationale;*' which, with an abstract thereof^ has passed 
through several editions. 

t Dr. David Hartley practised physic, first at Newark, after- 
wards at Bury, artd finally at Bath, where he died Aug. 5, 1757. 

X Against the objections of Dr. Warren, of Bury. 

In 



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n6 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURB. 

In the first place, unless the distemper was very 
common at the time of writing, the term rarhr, 
when applied to the preceding timeS; is very impro- 
^pen But the most remarkable part is, his extending 
the word rarior to the times so low as within the 
meoKiry of the oldest man then living ; fi>r that is 
the true sense of nostrd memarid. Now, to acconnt 
for this, it is to be observed, that though an age or 
two backwards they had introduced the Grecian lux- 
ury ; yet by that was only understood the extrava- 
gance of building, itimiture, equipage, and rarities : 
fnot of intemperance, that is, excess in eating and 
drinking. This is pJainiy seen by the times of the 
'first Ccesar: the Grecian luxury was then at its 
height; and though all rarities for the rt>om, the 
bed, arid the table, were sought for all the worid 
over, they were abstemious enough in the quantity, 
as appears finom the Letters of Tully ; and they were 
only the very abandoned profligates that transgressed 
in this particular. Under Augustus, we may per- 
ceive by Horace, intemperance and excess were 
coming in : but his manner of satirising the vice 
.shews that but few were infected with it. But in 
the times of Juvenal and the Plinys it poured ia 
like a torrent ; and then it was, I presume, the dis- 
ease spread proportionably : so that, if this be true, 
Pliny might well say it was rarior nostrd meniorid ; 
mod yet might it be very prevailing at the time he 
wrote ; and the turn of tne period, as I said before^ 
aeems to imply so much. — But you will clear up 
this matter to me. 

Dear Sir, 1 am in hopes to see you at the Visita- 
tion, to have your company home. I intend to be 
at Gmtham on Sunday night, because I know you 
come over-night, that I may have as much of your 
company as I can. 

My most humble service to good Mrs. Stukeley 
and Miss, concludes me, most dear Sir, 

Your most affectionate, W. Warburton. 

LETTER 



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mu wAUBmuroN to dr. itukelet. if 



LETTER XVIII. 

For the R^v. Dr. Stukeley, Rector of All Saintg, 
in Staoiford. 

DearSir, Jufy^g^ 17^4^ 

I intended long before now to have waited on ytm, 
bad not the account you gave me, when I hat saw 
you, of the manner you intended to dispose of 
yourself for six or eight weeks from that time, OMMie 
me (by agreanent with you) alter my design, till 
I heard from you, or saw you at Brougfatoo ; one 
Or both of which you promised I mi^t expect fmm 
you. From that day to this, you hare petseverwi in 
a long and obstinate silence ; so kmg, t^t perhaps 
b^ this time you may have forgot you promised 
either to write or come* I do not know how to re* 
concile this to the state of our friendflMp ; whichMon 
the one hand, as it is past all formSf punctilfoa, and 
ceremonies, so on the other will not dispense wvtk 
any thing that looks like forgetftilness. i had once 
resolved to see how long you would persevere in it ; 
but my fondness for you made me impatient tiH I 
had expostulated with you. From a man I love^ I can 
bear any thing ; and therefore think I may be al- 
lowed to say any thing my friendship dictates ; and 
I hc^ this will be the last time I shall have occasion 
to write on this subject. — About five weeks ago Mr. 
Smith came to pay me a visit on Sunday evening ; 
by whom 1 learned that good Mrs. Stukeley was 
then at Newark. I did not press him to stay Mon- 
day night, because I had a mind to go thither to pay 
my respects to her. Accordingly, the moment he 
left me, I went to Newark that evening, and found 
she had feft the town in the morning. And this ac- 
cident was the only inteltigence I had of your family 
till last week, that I went to pay a visit I had long 
owed to Mr. Richard Welby ; when^ being so near 

Mr. 



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t8 ILLUSTRATIONS OT UTBRATURX. 

Mr. Peck, I could not miss seeing him; and from 
him I learned of your healthi who was with you, it 
seems^ at the horse-race. 

He was brisk and alert as usual, and fruitful in 
new projects ; and ready and willing to pour out his 
blessmgs upon a necessitous world. He pants after 
immortality^; and, was there in the humane fabric 
neidier head nor tail, he perhaps would bid fair for 
it; hot, while a man has any brains to think, or 
any **** *♦ »»»»^ his labours will, I am afraid, 
have much ado to escape the fire and the jakes. His 
^nius seems to have iMsen some time on the decline; 
his ^^ Miscellanea Curiosa'* being evidently but the 
last droppings of his ^^ Annals,*" where he was 
drained so low as to record Roger Cecil's will, by 
which he gives to his loving wije 20 h/e and a bull, 
and to his daughter Mary two compleat feathei^ 
beds. But it is now manifestly on the droop, and 
yet will foil hkrmoniously, like the swan ; for he is 
at present busy upon a Collection of all our Antient 
English Ballads ; which, I understand, he intends to 
give with notes and emendations. With all this he 
thinks he is serving the world. May it always thus 
be served! its neglect of merit, its ingratitude, and 
universal corruption, deserving no other devotees. 

I am, dear Sir, with my humble service to Mrs. 
Stukeley, your most sincere friend and humble ser- 
vant, W. Warburton. 



LETTER XIX. 

For the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Newark. 

Dear Sir. Bnm^hton^tVedn^ay 

evenings Oct. 1, 1734. 
Business unfortunately has happened, which will 
hinder me from enjoying the pleasure I promised 
myself this evening in your company. Mr. War- 
burton 



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Dl^. TAttMl TO DR. STVKMLKT. 29 

burton is as oafortmiate in this particular as myself; 
for he has a relation from Oakham with him, whidi 
will not adroit of his coming over to Newark this 
evening. He desires his best respects to you ; and^ 
if he roast not see you at Brougnton this journey^ 
he promises himself that pleasure when you come 
to the Visitation. 1 beg you will be pleased to makb 
my excuses to Dr. Rogers * : and believe me, Sir, 
your obliged friend and servant, R. Tatlok. 

LETTER XX. 
For the Rev. Dr* Stukeley, at Mr. Sisson*s. 

My dear Friend, .f ^a''^^*/^^ 

' March 31, 1735. 

I want words to express to you the pleasure your 
kind Letter, which I received this afternoon, gave 
me, after a long impatience to hear of your health 
and content. You divert me much with your ac- 
count of MiHer*s Farces. Your reflection on that 
aiatter is admirably just ; and I cannot but compare 
myself to a starving chemis^ who despises wealti^ 
got ^e ordinary way, so intent is he on his imagi- 
nary elixir ; while he sees under his nose an honest 
retailer of muddy porter, who, with only the art of 
making the tap nm plentifully, grows sleek and 
wealthy, and vies with liis barrels in froth and turbu- 
lence. But we have all our weaknesses. 

I own, I would do something that may^ remain a 
proof of studies not misapplied — 

'' Nee me animi faUit quini sint obscursy sed acri 
Percussit thyrso laadis spes magna meum cor, 
Et simul incussit tuavem mt in pectus amorem 
Divorumf; quo nunc instinctus, mente vigenti 
Avia Pieridum peragro loca, nullius ante 
Triu solo. Juvat integros accedere fontes, 
Atque baurire ]:•" 

* Then a Physician of eminence at Stamford -, see p. 25. 
f Musarum in the Roman Poet. 
t Laerti. I 991. br, 3. 

But 



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30 n.tu«nuTioii8. OR UTaa*TU«. 

But of all the d«bbler« in the blind <xet}aot the 
Oeean of Immortality, comm«id me to C^^*^ 
rPfeckl, i»ho laancbes out Folio after Folio, ana 
Jbakes every year a good trading voyage, thpugh be 
takes in notting but ballast; y^this, as if it waa 
the gr*vel of Pactolus, is poured out upon the ne- 
ceet^owi world under the name of nches. Ihese 
he «ai9 his pop* ; which a spring warmth so period- 
icdly ferments, that I can scarce forbear comparing 
our illustrious friend to bouncing huffey small-beer, 
that will not be persuaded to stay in the bottle, and 
vet has not one dram of force or spirit when it is out. 
You must not expect much hews from Newarke. 
I know nothing out of the way of nature, but a 
child that was born there without a head. Arid 
vet my goodtownfolks have so generally, for this last 
lore, come into the world without brains, that this, 
hlppeued, and nobody was surprised at the matter- 
Mat Bradford has at length followed my Lord 
Howe * into the New Worid. Indeed, last summer 
he «ang most musically, like the departing swan, on 
4ihe banks of the Trent, in a dismal Elegy on the 
Duchess of Rutland's death : but I find his fate is to 
4ie in Barbadoes-waters. This Poem was addressed 
to his Grace : where, by an extraordinary flight of 
fency, be compares him to Alexander, crying for 
new worlds. I did not take the conceit. So I asked 
a friend, whom I imagined might be in the secret, 
what relation there was between the Duke's loss and 
Alexander's tears ! He told me, he was equally at a 
*tand, unless the Poet had a mind to insinuate that, 
as Alexander cried because he had no more worlds to 
conquer, so the Duke cried because he had no more 
wives to bury. So profound are oar Provincial Poets 1 
But, if you will allow me, after all this trash, to 
enquire after affairs of Learning, I would ask what 

* Enianuel Scrope, the second Lerd Yisctwnt Howe, and M. P^ 
for the connty of Nottingham, was appointed Governor of Bar- 
teloe* in May 173« j -and died there March 89, 1735. 



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MR. WAUBURTON TO DR. STUKBI^T. ji 

»ew work of ioaportanoe is come out, or on the an- 
vil ? What are the Bishops and Court Chaplains 
doings in their profession ? Sure, in this age of 
reason, we may expect some master-pieces against 
Popeiy from them. What are you upon ? and are 
we to have the pleasure of seeing any thing of yours 
from the press this spring? Mr. Whiston has sent 
me his Proposals for his josephus ; and I shall make 
it my busmess to promote his subscription all I 
can. Pra^ give my humble service to nim, when 
you see him ; and my duty to my good Lord Tyr- 
connel, if you see him again before you leave town. 
Dr. Taylor is your very humble servant; but, 
since his late shipwreck near the Gulph of Matri- 
mony^ hehas no great curiosity toexplore'^the secrets 
of the hoary deep,** as Milton calls them. But we 
have an adventurer amongst us who fears no colours^ 
as they say, your friend Jack Herring ; who, from 
an advantageous station, a butt of right Port, is 
a-going to souse, over head and ears, in wedlock. 
Graevius is already gone back to the Bookseller^ to 
buy a green bed ; on the sage conclusion, that it 
was better to sleep in him^ than over liim. What 
force and vigour Graevius, under this new form, 
may give our Hero, I do not know. But, if the 
Dutchman inspires but at his past rate, his yoting 
wife will have no more cause to dread his violence, 
than the good old Dame Antiquitv had, who has 
passed through his hands untouched, though he 
charged at her with seventeen Folios in front The 
truth is, he has found himself of late more disposed 
to fabricate new, than to revive old decayed intelU- 
gence. His old cares too begin to share the general 
fiite of the new ; only, with a due regard to prece- 
dency, they go first : for I am told that a new 
triumvirate, of Caesar, Adrian, and Constantine the 
Great, have clubbed to buy his mistress a diamond- 
ring ; and that Julia and Faustina have presented 
her with a laced smock. How true this is, I will 

not 



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3i ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITBEATURE. 

tK)t pretend to say. But this is certain : his iaiiiily 
grew very uneasy lest this hopeful youth should 

Krove to have too much brains for the Saracen^s 
ead ; but are now quite at rest on his undertaking 
a business that will probably serve him his life> and 
may be done without book. 

I long to see you ; and should have been glad, had 
my convenience suffered me, to enjoy that pleasure 
in London. I hope you will be down by the Visita-: 
tion. I heartily wisn you all success in your affair. 
I see, by the Stamford Mercury, our good friend Mr. 
Denshire has made the sorry rascals who abused him 
and his son give him full reparation, which it was a 
pleasure to me to see. ' I desire my humble service, 
and hearty respects to him ; and am, dearest Sir, 
your most afiectionate, and most faithful friend, 

W. Warburton. 



LETTER XXL 
To the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Stamford. 

Dear Sir, [So dated] 1735. 

I received the favour of yours, in which you ac- 
quainted me you could not meet me at Peck's, as you 
had thoughts to do. The reason was a very good 
one; and, as I had no other intention in that jour- 
ney than the meeting you, I went not. You had 
been too civil, and had too long courted one you 
should have despised. Mrs. Stukeley found him out 
to be what he is, long before you did ; but etlough " 
of one whom I desire you and I may never have oc- 
casion to mention again but to laugh at. I have re- 
ceived the Richardsons *, father and son, whom you 
was so kind as to send me, and shall take care of 
them, and return them safe to you. Such a heap of 
wretched senseless impertinence, and more senseless 

* Tbe two Painters^ Jonathan RichanUon> &Uier and son. 

vanity. 



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M^ WiyuwATOif TO MU iffvxxunr. 33 

Vftaky; 1 neV^ before savr togetlier; to be nttched 
hy nothing but '' Tom On^afs Cmditie$r 

I have k>Bg bad a quarrel with yon, for being sd 
niggardly of your Letters. You will just pay your 
debts to your friends ; but you will give tbem no 
credit, and balance your correspopdence as. exactly 
aiBtif you was writing from a counting-bouae. .Be as-> 
sured, I have never a greater pleam:(re, than in a good 
long Letter from you. But for one who writes with 
so much ease as you do, you have no excuse for 
being so thrifty. 1 

I want to know whether your Work be gone to 
the pre&s. The Pamphlet I told you o^ in ddence 
of the Established Church against the abolishing of 
a Test> is. almost printed off. So I fancy I have .got 
the start of you ; and so I had need ; for. the slowest 
runners ougnt to have some advantage. It is a tick- 
lish subject; and, 

** res antiquse laudis et artis 

Ingredtor ; sanctos a'usus racludera footes.'' 

The title is, '' The Alliance between the Church- 
and State ; or, the Equity and Necessi^ of an Esta- 
blished Beligion and a lest Law demonstrated^ from 
die Essence and. End of Civil Society, npoh the 
Fundamental Principles of the Law of Nature and 
Nations. In three rkrts. The First, treating of a 
Civil and Religious Society. /ITie Second, of an 
Established Church. And the Third, of a Test- 
Uw." 

Pray do you go cm with the Dialogue, " The 
Hexameron r I wish we could see one another soon. 
Our friend Edmund Weaver has been with me with 
an Almanack. The poor man a few weeks ago ran 
quit6 distracted, and was forced to be held or chain- 
ed in bed. It was generally attributed to the ill* 
humours of his wife; for not one friendly star 
twinkled on this last disastrous marriage. However^ 
it is with much pleasure I tell you, he seems to be 
got quite well, considering the premises, and his 

VOL. II. D great 



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54 • uxMntAiMHi 6f inteULnmBb 

grett imit of Whtt is so moeh'beW his tiobte oon*^ 
templatioM, a Kt^yelbw dirt. I gave him half m 
erown fbr his AliAafnaek^ amd t erown as a subscrip- 
tion for bis intended prefect of a Map for your 
Coim^* ; ajid so sent liitn home a happy man. I 
dannot Inflect on such msLtterft withont the truest 
sorrow. • This is one of the disorders of Civil Soch 
ety, and even of Humanity^ ^^ that it sees a man of 
truemifrit starve, while Pimps, Pathics, Gamesters^ 
%norant Priests, profligate' Courtiers, and beastly 
Country Squires, wallow in luxury and abundance* 

^ O impadence of Wealth, amidst thy store, 
Hovr dar'^t thou let an bonest man be poor ? 
• " O tempora, O mores !'* 

Vale, Vir jucundissime. Valedicit amantissimus 
amicorum tciototn. 

My humble service to Mrs. Stukeley. 

W. Warburton* 

LETTER XXII. 

For my worthy Friend the hev. Di^. Stukej-et* 
Mt DEAR Friend, Jan. ii, 1735-6* 

t rec^ved the &vour of yours of the 1st instant ; 
and am gJad that poor Edmund is got into so ^ood 
hands, that will sdace his poverty. The Ancients 
believed that those temerarious persons -who pried 
into the secrets of the Gods were punished for it by 
a stroke from Heaven. For aught I know, the stars 
may. bear him the sapfie ill-will, and some pialignant 
constellations, as Shakespear says, have 
SteepM bim in poverty up to the cbtu. 

I hope Noel's *f- persecution will make those 6x 
whose cause you are made uneasy think upon their 
obligations to serveyou. I am glad toiind the '* Hexr 
ameron'' is so forwacd, and so wdl approved, and 

♦ This project, I believe, was never perfected. 

t Wimam Noel, esq. tben Recorder of Stattfovd ; in 1741 
M. P. for that Boroughs Chief Justice of Chester 1760; aJodge 
of the Common Pleas 1757. He died Dec. 8, 1762. 

that 



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IOC moumnroit to m* mrnduMr. (S 

thut tfi^ ^^'Commmt oo Horace^ Ode^ is priating; 
1 9npp€>teb77iMijr wdrcb caneemiB^lBnys *^ tbat h« 
prii^it. 

- I presume yon are now tor London shordy* I 
tbaH gire orddtn for three of my Pamphlets (whett 
they are published) to be left at Sisson's; one for 
yourself, the other for my worthy friend Mr. Den- 
shire, and the third I desire yon to give, with my 
compltmrats, to Mn Blackwell^ the Anthor of die 
Enqimv concerning the Life and fflritings ofHo^ 
mer, if he be in London. I have menticmed him in 
the book ; and I pay this tribute to real merit in Li* 
terature. I am^ dear Sir^ your most affectiokiate 
friend and servant, W. Warburton. 



* *4>* In the above-mentioned copy of ** The Alli- 
ance^ of Church and State," were the following ad- 
ditions, which, probably, were interwoven by the 
Author in some subsequent "Edition : 

P. V. read *' univerwilly prevails against the Cler- 
gy ;** and at the ^ end add, '^ As for what he says, that 
there are few Histories which exactly agree upon 
matters of fact ; this indeed has been observcxf to 
ime by some others. And as this always seemed tp 
be made by way of objection,, and as 1 apprehend it 
indeed to oe none at all, it set me upon considering 
what it was that should give it the appearance of an 
objection, I am apt to fancy it was this. The term 
of Theory has, as it were, been appropriated to the 
explanation of the System of Nature, Now as such 
Theories are good only in proportion to their agree- 
ment with fact^ and as Nature so much withdraws 
from humane search, it is no wonder that it sbouM 
grow into an observation, that few Theories exactly 
agr^ with matter of fact, and that that observa- 
tion should be esteemed, as it really is', an objection 
to all such Theories or Systems of Nature. But, 

* Mr. William limys^ Bookseller in Londoa* 

D 3 when 



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8f tLLusnuTSOHs or mnuTotx* 

vvhea one comes to give aThebry, not of a Sjrsteiil 
of Nature, but a factitious Sjfstem of humane 
contrivance, as the method we pursue is di£ferenti 
so ought the judgment that is passed upon it. In 
these Theories, it is not a particular System, or ait 
explanation of fact, that is the subject ; and this 
with good reason : for, as Truth is the end of all 
things, in a System of Nature it can only be acr 
quired by pursuing feet ; for God is the Authoir of 
this System : but in a System of humane poUcie, the 
pursumg fact is no safe way to Truth, because Man 
IS the Author of that System. Abstract ideas then 
are here to be consulted in. order to come at Truths 
and fact is forsaken. The consequence is, that thtt 
goodness of such a Theory is not in its proportion to 
Its agreement with fact, but with right reason. In 
the former case, the Theory must be regulated by 
matter of fact; in the Latter, matter of fact by the 
Theory. Not that fact is of no use in these latter 
Theories. It certainly is of great use : for, as the Po« 
litical System explained must be founded on right 
reason, and the Laws of Nature and Nations, to ren- 
der it just ; so to render it real, and no visionary de- 
lusion, it must be shewn that such institutions have 
been practised, and have proved beneficial. This I 
take to be the use, and the only use, of consulting 
fact in these kind of Theorid!(7 Besides this, a man 
may have it in his view (as indeed I had) to recom- 
menc) some particular Sjrsteii),. or matter of fact, in 
the presentation of the abstract Theory ; and then, 
he will say, no occasion of shewing the agreement 
between his Theory and fact ; but still the Thepry 
4epends not at all on this matter of &ct.** 

On a separate paper : 
I' Thus have we proved the usefulness of ReK-- 
gion in ^neral to Society ; and, shewing by what in- 
fluence It is, &c. we are now enabled to proceed to the 
particular proof of the propositicm in question : for^ 

by 



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UK. WAMMVKtOn TO Wi. fTUUBLVT. ^7 

hf whttt 1»th been said, it appears, that the aenuce 
done by Reffgion to the State ta by incolcatiDg the 
Doctrine of Providence, the Rewatder of gdod men, 
and Ponbherof ill: sotfaat, though it were poaaible 
for any sort of Religion ta subsist, not founded on this 
Doctrine, which I think it is not, yet it is most evi- 
llenttbat^uch a Religion would be of no manner of 
aernce to Society. Whatsoever, therefore, is neces- 
aaiy for the support of thitf Doctrine, is necessary 
for the well-being of Society. That the Doctrine 
of a future state is necessary ibr the support of the 
general Doctrine of Providence, we shall now aee; 
Religion teaching, &c.— *^The Apostle Paul supposes 
that there can no more be a Rdigion without a Pro* 
vidence, than one without a God. Wbosoerer 
comes to God, must beKeve that he is, and that he 
is a Rewarder of those that ^ek him.** 

LETTER XXIII. 
To the Rev. Dr. Stvkeley, at Stamford. 

DEARsgrDoctok, Nticarkej Jmn. 19, 173^7. 

T received the pleasure of yours of the lisfth in- 
stant, with theentertainii^ Poem on tfaatencourager 
of the Orthodox Muse, Tobacco; to whose smoke 
neither the fire ' nor the water of Pamaasos can 
stand in competition, lliere is a strength of reason^ 
ing, and flight of fancy, in yoqr verses, that are not 
often to be met in Poats by professicm. The first 
manifests itself in the Poem to Dr. Taylor, and the 
latter in this to me. 

Tliat wfaidi you tell me was Mr. Gale^s advice to 
Professor Blac»:well, was extremelv prudent and 
friendly. But, I protest that, neither in bis Life 
of Homer, nor in the fine Letter he did me the ho* 
nour to write to me, can I find any thing that looks 
at all like a disbelief of our Holy Kdigion. On (be 
contrary, I am well persuaded, he is much a friend 
to it. He will shortly publish a Life of Horace. 

Dr. 



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39 IU»U8TRATIONS OF UTBlATUflB^ 

Dr. Taylor is as much yburs as li maA ii6t hil 
own can br. He is desperately in love with Miss 
S^ — ^ ; and though I do not find the old folks 
on either side approve his passion, yet he seems to 
have at all, and marry her. He was talking in this 
heroic strain to me the other day ; when I told him 
all the encouragement he was to expect from his 
hardy atchievement was the applause of an Opera 
Hero; that I would say, Bravo I bravo I and 1 was 
sure his wifct would call out, Encore / In a word, 
that edifice of Moral Stoicism, which I have been 
long labouring to erect on his treadierous bottom^ 
is, Uke a beautifnl kind of frost-work, melted down 
at once before the ignis faiuus of a pair of black 
eyes; and nothing, even, of the foundation left, 
iHit that, very natural principle, held in common by 
the antient and modem masters of Wisdom, thck 
all the virtues lie in the middle. In vain I tell him 
of his doom ; appetite is too warm for the icy pre* 
cepts of respect^ as Shakespear calls them. 1 have 
found what our friend Horace saiys to be true, Na^ 
turain expelhs runcdy tamen usque recurret. In 
English, '^ You mar strive whsit you will, to keep 
down Nature wHh tie fears of Conjugal Inifidelity^ 
she will at length be uppermost/' 

You are never to expect a reasonable conduct in the 
Stamford Antiquary [Peck] . The stale dregs of Li- 
terature have lon^ intoxicated our Reverend Brother, 
and given his Microcosm a wrong ply. Nature^ 
all-wise in ^er operations, formed him with the guts 
and brains of an Alderman ; and, by tlie richness 
of the low lands, and the poverty of that sterile 
promontorv his iVoht^ pointed out which was fit for 
culture. But, pen^rse letters misled him, and gave 
him the wretched ambition of furnishing the garret 
of his skull, which Nature, according to all the good 
rules of housekeeping, had design^ for a lumber^ 
room> and which yet, with all the aid of proud 

♦See p. 40* 

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lOU WMUWMPK TO M, gfVMKLWr. 



will heimta Iiimlmr-ro<MD^ while fhe^ipfti 
cioos aakMm below wasnotfuroishedftAttiepttiicipal 
apartment deserved. > 

. But he Jtn^les to no parpose ; Nature ia not id 
be overoome. xle will still have this in common^ 
with (hat great tvpe of Nidufe's unrfc^istieated off- 
spring, /Ae woodcock, to have his guta better than 
his brains. Nor need this ungracioul bird be 
ashamed of giving the pre-eminenoe where it it duet 
fer it is aoemxKng to the pore siippfe woridogi of 
Nature, whose excellencies all of tfaeoisdvca tentt 
downwards, to seek, aa it were,* a foundation and 
MOt of stability and duration ; and it is onl^ an ai^ 
tificial fierment that makes things flj off finam theifc 
centre of gravi^, and,, unnaturally, aspire ujpwardiu 
The truth of this we see in nrden. plants. It is the 
preposterouB heat of hot-bedi that forces >tbe mushn 
room and the mekmupwards; wlnlett^ fragrant tmr** 
nip, the mildpotatoe, and the brlak^tatted- radish, left 
to themselves to follow Natere,: like the beau, the 
dunce, and the coxcomb, her Joco^notive vegetal 
bles, all take a downward courses 1 never cosild 
enough admire. the sagacity' and good seme of out 
ancestors in the app^tatton tbey gave a fckd, ^ whicb 
was that of a Natural; intima^ii^ therel:^. that he 
was the genuine unscmhistibated pfoduetof Nature^ 
whose essence, or iratner ifuinisessence of iiumanky, 
lay in his guts. Of such a one tb^ tlsed to say^ 
he has no gutiin his brains: potbywa^ of op*^ 

erobrium, but commendation ; only intimating, that 
is bodily taste- waa better tha^ bia mental ; or, that 
his brains had not the high Attic retish of bis euts. 
On thia account they would call an wwatural m\ow 
a man of no hqu^ls. This was their sense of a iVa- 
tural; while, in the unnatural man, or one sophis* 
ticated by false science, they thought, wit, like a 
forced plant, was, with great pains and labour, 
raised up; into the airy unsubstantial region of the 
brain; which, not above once in aa^age, . makes a 

Philosopher; 



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40 • nXUSTEATIONtf^ OF LrrBRATUKS; 

FhiloMpber ; while it is the daily deitrucHoa of Al- 
dermen and Juftioea ; who, to make up this pitifid 
extract of Reason^ are worse used than the IKike of 
^wcaslle's * Cook used his Westphalia hams and 
gammons. 

Well was it observed, by an antient Sage, that it 
is toeducation^nen owe all the happiness and misery 
of life. And our Philosophy, as it is explained 
above, shews how this was brought about. My 
liady*s eldest hope is educated, or transplanted, la 
the nursery ; where Nature^ according to the true 
course of things, is drawn gently downwards, by 
battered crusts and caudles : while younger Master 
Jack is kept, or rather chained to tne oar, in a class 
at Westnunster; where an unmeaning blockhead, 
with ^ijasces of birch, strains all his nenres to force 
nnwilhng ttit preposterously upwards^ at the other 
end. But see the difference I — I was going on, 
but, happy, for you, my paper forbids me. -—Thus 
stands tne case with these two rebels of Nature, the 
Doctor and the Antiquary. The one neglects the 
Muses after he has possessed and ei\joy^ them i 
tbe other pursues them with frigid impotency. 
Gopd mother Nature then should use them like two 
proiigMlmn% as they are, and turn them out of doors/ 
the one to his kmhSf and the other to his harlots. 

I am, dear Sir^ widi my very humble service to 
good Mrs-^Stukeley, your most afiectionate friend 
and humblejB^rvanii W. Wa&burton« 

LETTER XXIV. 

To the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Stamford. 

Dbarbst Sir, B. Broughton, Mar. 29, 1 73 7. 
r received the &vour of yours of the 24th from 
London ; and hope this will find you well got home. 

• Thoini8Hoiles,I>qke of NewcasUtp^Prme Minister to ^^ 
GsQi^ the Second. 

I am 



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M|. WAmBUftTOK TD Nt. ffUUtLKT. 4t 

' I am |;kidDr. Taylor waaso locky to meet ^<ni ia 
town ; I \tMm it would be rety agreeable to bim. I 
ireceived a letter the other day from him, m which 
is the fblfowing pleasant account of old Witt 
Whiston: 

* *' Last night I called at Jack Wbiston*B, where I 
fonnd old Will talking very warmly to another 
wroDg^beaded fellow about the Comet, which, be 
says, has left die horizon, but without leaving hiai 
lentirely in the dark abbut it. Though he owns he 
could hot see it,' yet he is determined the worfd 
shklt see what he has to say about it; and his isoa 
John shall be the better for it:*^ but in this lasl: 
particular he may be dec^eived. 

He tells me too, Alderman Jack has got married. 

I think it was not worth your while to trouble 
yourself so much about a scoundrel, as to ask his 
uncle about that matter. ' 1 have quite done with 
him ; and, if ever you begin again with him, you 
will deserve then such usa^easyou have already un- 
deservedly receiyed from hira. Not but I will hold 
you 41 wager you will have the poor scoundrel come 
crouching at your feet in a little time, when he finds 
himself neglected by vou. The puppy only held 
stiff because I pressed fiim to be friends with you. 
I pressed him much ; and, not prevailing, the mo- 
ment I left him, I determined not to have any more 
to say to him ; because it appeared to me an indi- 
cation of such vileness as made him unfit for an^ 
man of honour's acquaintance. But enough of this 
fellow. And to come to another of the same stamp. 

I think I told you my Brother Twells hard got 
Bishop StiflT-rump into Chancery, for refusing to 
pay Mrs. Sharpe what he bargained to give her hus- 
band for his right in the Living he now holds. My 
Brother has made him at length crypeccavi; but 
not till it came to a hearing before the Master of the 
Bolls ; who said, he perceived there was a fine scene 
6f simoniacal villainy to open ; and he had a mind 

to 



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40 iLLuramATiiOM»^opr uri»Arf}Rf4: 

to g«t to the bottum of it** O9 ihifi, 7i%.4ib- 
mitted^ without more word$. I newr l(iiew ^j 
thing so impiKlent. Such bold $tToke^ are not t^ 
be l^med i^ny where put of Newnte^ wfatre^it hap 
been known that a hardened villain^ indeed^ .hi|t 
bought an Irish evidence^ and> after UfiDg hhn to 
•ave his neck, has refused to pay him bis, wages t 
and yet this by the infaripr rogiMes has beea eitec^i^ 
want of honour. 

What you are so kind to advise me against, 11^ 
Juring my health for a world like this, is perfoetly 
right, and I shall follow it. As a proof that I do^ 
I shall tell you my intention, which 1 want your ad* 
yice in. 1 am pressed for my Work ; and I have 
almost promised the Bookseller part of it, at least^ 
this next winter. Now I think (as the eoing 
through with the whole so soon would manifestly 
prejudice my health) to publish the Three First 
Books by themselves : they will make a moderate** 
sized octavo. You may see the subject, if yoii 
will give yourself the trouble to read the Contents 
in my " Appendix to the Alliance.*' ! 

The subject is an entire one ; " The Usefulness 
of Religion in general, and of the Doctrine of a fu« 
ture State in particular, proved from the reason of 
the thing, and the consent of all Mankind/' — It it 
entire, 1 say, with respect to itself; but to the whole 
it has the same relation to the defence of Moses, as 
the major and the minor of a syllogism has to the 
conclusion. Upon this I want your advice^ ana 
b^ you to tell me frankly what you think. 

If I remember right, you have an Eusebius " De 
Fr^eparatione Evangelica.*' If you have, I beg 
the favour of you to lend it me, and send it by New-r 
bal. I was a-reading the Bacchantes of £uripideS| 
whose subject is the acts of Bacchus and his/oltoweri 
in the Court of Pentheus King of Thebes, who is an 
unbeliever, opposes the rites of Bacchus^ and im« 
prisons his followers, who, after they were shut up 

closely, 



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closely, had the orison doors miracalousty set open* 
their chains knocKed off, and they condocted to the 
rest of the Bacchantes in safety. You will say this 
is an odd -ctrcuiMtatice^ and quadrates- exactly With 
yonr scbeoie. 

In tny opinion you are horribly used, if Cust hlMl 

interest enough to get this Prebend. ^ 

^ I hope I shall see you at Grantham at the Vistta-* 

tion. My humble service to good Mrs. Stukeley 

ccmcludes me, my dear friend, yours most afl^ 

tionately and sincerely, W. Warburtok. ' 

> 

LETTER XXV. 

To the Rer. Dr. Stukeley, at Grantham. 

.DjURjBsrSut, iWfly3fi737» 

I had long fully intended to wait on you to-day ;; 
iHit, my hone being lame, and this being Newarke 
fitir, I could not borrow one. Besides, I hear Mrs< 
Williamson is ill, so that I could have but little of 
your company. Add to this, that J hope to see you at 
Stamford on Monday next, in my way to Cam^ 
bridge and spend that night with you. My jour* 
ney is sooner by a month than I expected. Dr, 
Taylor does not go with me. 

If the. Archdeacon be there, pray give my irery 
humble service to him. 

I am, my dear friend, yours most afiectionately, 

W. Warburton ♦• 

♦ On the above Letter Dr. Stukeley has wrJtten : 
*' Dr. OUver, at Bath, pretends to answer Mr. Wachnrtan.-— i 
" The Pbtome Theology is but a li^te improvement mixed with 
Christiamty^ a philosophic refinement upon old Heathenisnt— * 
Domitian instituted Priests to Minenra in Albano.— Some of 
the Teiy feminine heads in Cecrops may mean Miriam; the other,* 



' 1 was three or four years drawing oflf from strong liquora 
gradually. Now I have quite dropped them; only now and 
then^ when I find it useful, I drink a glass or two of gemlf ne 
wine, or bririt akr, which operates only on the prima via, proves 
a cordial, in the proper sense, to raise one's spirits occasionally, 
vitbout inflaming the Uood, or giving an ill tiactare to it . W. & 

liSTTER 



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44 ILLUSTEATIONt OF LTRRATTRK. 

LETTER XXVI. 

To the Rev. Dr. Stukslst, at Stamford. 

Dear Sir, Cambridge^ May 28, 1737. 

I am returned from MildenhaU*, and am in hopes 
of being with you on Monday from Huntingdon. 
Yesterday Dr. Knight shot throufi^h the town oh the 
iipur, and just called at Dr. Middleton*s when I 
was there. He seems to think there is no way of 
overtaking Fame, that is oft shy, and flies the pur- 
suer, but on horseback. He is to-day searching 
her in the fogs, of Ely, and to-morrow in the smoke 
of London. He now hopes to win her in the cha^ 
racter of Gentleman-Usher to Erasmus ; and now 
i^in as Patron to Alderman Peck. 

In the Palace of Fame there is an house-of-offiop 
as well as a saloon ; and it seems indiffisrent to him 
at which be enters, so he gets but in. In this house- 
of-office Peck is the greatest Sir-Reverence, and no 
one is his match but the Scavenger. You^ guessed 
right when you saw him ride through Stamford ; ho 
was then indeed going to Cambridm. When I got 
there, he was gone, but had left nis savour behind 
him ; for he is like a Welsh race-horse-^ the more 
he stretches, the more he stinks. 

• I do not doubt but you expect Literary news h%m 
hence ; but I know of none. The most material, 
from Trinity Collie, is this : A young wench, a 
bed-maker there, yesterday went off the sti^, and 
made her exit with eclaty after havingcommunicated 
her affliction to eighteen young rhilosophers of 
the Porch. The same ni^ht the Vice-chancellor 
committed ten Ladies of the Lake to the House of 
Correction. 

I am, dearest Sir, yours most affectionately, 

W. Warburton. 

* The seat of Sir Tbopias Himner. 

LETTER 



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MIL inrjABITBXOll TO nu BiVKUMT. 4i 

LETTER XXVII. 

To tike Rer. Dr. Stukblet^ at Stamford. 

Mr DEAR Doctor, Newarhe^ July 27, 1737* 

Yea put me out of all patience in expecting jaa. • 
Ti^re is no getting you firum your elegant abode^ 
where you spend your time in the agreeable adioae^ 
ment of contemplating what Greece and Rome have 
produced of most excellent dies in Coins and Medals; 
and in making curious Drawings, that will be the 
instruction and ddight of future virtuosos. But, if 
these things have such charms, come to Newarke to 
us, where you may pick up numberless curiosities, 
both in lead and brass, all originals, and some 
finiques ; some with their legends stamped, as was 
the custom of old, by the public Magistrate, on so* 
lemn occasions, about this season of the year, and 
exceeding the Romans themselves in beauty, pre- 
senting only in the right hand an enigmatical R. or 
F. which would puzzle Father Harduin ; but most, 
indeed, without letters. 

Here is at present Jack Stow amongst us, whom 
I call my brazen Otho, because I thmk the Ruf- 
fian*s head is an unique. 

Here too is Jack Twentyman, my leaden TVrmi- 
nus^ nulli secundus, who presides over the London 
Waggon. 

And, to fill up my list of Jacks, here is Jack 
Herring likewise, whose ample volume is in large 
brass. I have held him till of late in the suspicious 
dass of the nummi contomiati, and indeed had 
doomed him for a counterfeit; but his genuine- 
ness, and his wife*s prominencie, both now stand 
confessed. 

I pass over our Consular Coins in silver, I mean 
our Court of Aldermen, because of the odious uni- 
formity 



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4C iLLUsnunoiit or uxuurruAK 

formi^ in their reverses : there being nothine to be 
seen, n^om one end of the series to the other, but the 
Attic Owl, or the Roman Goose. 

You shall have a sight of our friend Dr. Taylor's ^ 
young Faustina in ^old, that is, in red hair, which 
he is now cheapening for his Cabinet. She is at 
present a Goddess, and Diva Faustina, as usual, 
wrote round her margin: but, by a kind of anti-apo- 
dieosis, she is going to be made a mortal of; and 
you know she is not the first of her name that has 
proved inconstant to a Philosopher. 

My best respects to good Mrs. Stukeley con* 
eludes me, d^ Sir, your most aiTectionate friend, 

W. Warburton. 

. * Dr. Robot Taylor was a native of Newaiic ; where his (a- 
tber» JohnTaylor» esq. was many years an Aiclerman^ twice Mayor^ 
and died in 1739 at an advanced age« just as he was elected to 
serve that office for the third time. — ^The son was of Trinity 
Colkg^^ Cambridge, where he took the degree of M. B. 1739 ; 
Imd M. D. 1737. Soon after the death of Dr. Mordeod 
Hunton (not Hunter, as misprinted in p. 5.) Dr. Taylor suc- 
ceeded to his practice at Newark. He was a member of the 
Brazen Noze Society, founded in 1745 by Dr. Stukel^ at Stan^- 
fiMxi ; and was afterwards Physician Extraordinary to King Geoi^ 
II. The engagement on which his friend Warburton is so jocular 
appears to have been broken oflf; but the Doctor afterwards 
taoanied Anne, youngest daughter of John Heron, esq. This 
lady died in 1757» in her 68th year ; and her merits are re- 
conied on a tomb in Newark church, near the hatwUmm^ 
HKmument of her fiither, who died in 17^# aged 63. — ^Dr. Tay- 
lor was a second time married. — Dr. Warburton, in a Letter 
to Mr. Hurd, Nov. 9, ,1759, says, *' I could not but smile, when 
Taylor read me your Letter, to see how little he understood 
the Fini Dialogue, He set out yesterday for Xinooh), to marry 
a young lady 0^ that place, between 30 and 40, a Miss Main- 
wairing, of a reasonable fortune." — " Nov. 9, 1759, Dr. Taylor, 
Physician to the King, was married to Miss Mainwaring, a£ 
Lincobishire, \vith 10,000^. Gent. Mag. vol. XXIX. p. 550. 



LETTER 



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Mtf; itAxtmnon rm mu nmau^r. 4f 



LETTER XXVUL 



To the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Stamford. 

My dearest Friend^ Sept. 7, 1737., 

. I neYer tfaooght a Letter from you could have 
given me die concern I feel at the melancholy conr 
tents t^ 3roor8*. This loss has revived in me all that 
tenderness I so lately felt for a very deserving Sis* 
ter -— and the tears I am now shedding, which hav^ 
u little interrupted me, is an equal, tribute to the 
memory of two good women. 

You know I liave not the best opinion of the 
eex, which always made my esteem for a woman of 
worth, where she was found, proportionably greater 
than that the generality of men have. And it is 
Slow with the greatest coueem 1 say it, as I have 
frequently before done it with the greatest pleasure, 
tint Mrs. Stukeiey, for all those good qualities that 
make a woman of sense admired, was the first in 
n^y esteem. In a word, I am wrung with the sin- 
cerest grief you can imagine ; and if I thought, as 
is bat reasonable, that your Friends sharing your 
vrief widi you wouid alleviate yours, I could indfulge 
It to the fiill. You have more than a right to such 
-a poor assistance, to whose art I o^e the life of her 
^for whom only 1 desijre to livcf*. For her sake, 

' * Tliis admirable Letter was written on- the death of Dr« 
*8takeky's first wife, Frances, daughter of Robert Wilkinson^ of 
Allington^ near Grantham* gent, a lady of good family and for- 
tune; by whom the Doctor had three daoghters. One died 
'young; the other two wete married ; one, to Richard Fleming, 
'esq. an eminent Solicitor 3 the other to the Rev. Thomas Fair* 
child. Rector of Pit9^> fissex-^Dr. Stukeley married, secondly, 
Elizabeth Gale, sister to the cdebrated Antiquaries Roger and 
-BamoelGaie; b«t by her had no issue. 

- f This relates to his excellent mother; of whom he thus 

spMks in a Letter to Mr. Uoid, Maich 13, 1^73, on the death of 

* that 



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4S . iLtv9nAn<m9 or urwmjauwtf- 

and it is my greatest pleasure that I do so, I coati« 
nue here in this blind comer, when otlierwise I 
should have been longi ago making .toy fortune in 
the great world. But, as TuIIy says of Ulysses^ 
' ** I prefer my old woman to immortality.** 

Judge then of the obligations I have to you for 
preserving to me the only happiness of my life. 
But, alas! Fate urges on, and the time will cottne, 
when her natal Heaven will claim her, and then, if 
1 live to see it, I foresee all the misery that will at^ 
tend it. — But I am plunging myself insensibly into 
dismal reflections, when I should be giving youcon^ 
solation. But you know your duty so welf^ and 
h^ve a fortitude of mind so great, that I know I 
have nothing to do but to applaud your generous 
purpose, of holding the memory of so good a wo* 
man sacred, and manifesting your afl^tion by the 
care of those pretty little ones she has left behind; ^ 

When I came to that part of your Letter, where 

Iou talk of taking a journey somewhere for a week, 
was in good hopes you would have turned your 
eyes Northward. You would certainly have found 
at Broughton all the consolation that a faithful friend 
could have given you. And thouffh I take the li- 
berty of friendship sometimes to make rea/ hunkesf^ 
an excuse for denying myself the happiness of a party 
of pleasure with you, yet I would have you do me 
the justice to think that I should esteem the attendr- 
ing you on such an occasion my most indispensable 

that gentleroan*8 mother at the age of 88 : '' I do not kaow 
whether I ot^ht to condole with you, or congratukte you vnpom 
the release ofthat exoelleiit woman, fhH of years and virtues. I 
rejoice when I find a similanty of our fortunes, m the gently 
parts of humanity. — My mothtr, somewhat less indebted ta 
years, though not to the infirmitiaaof them, at length fell asleep 
and departed, in all the tranquillity and ease your mother di j. 
The last leave she took of all human concerns, as she winged fa^ 
way into the bosom of our comdMm Ckxl and Father, vvas ap 
anidoUs etiquiiy conoeming my wel£u£ ; which being assured of, 
she immediacy closed her eyes for ever.** ^ 

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Mtuin^AMmmtBPom to ml. mmaur. 



B«t I Had, iHP mhKt fcHoiri, of ow 

neetiiigtttthe Vintatioii, tb«t yoo hivecbo«M aiKH 
ther route. I shall oeirtaitily inert yon, if God give 
me health ; and should be glad if you would kt me 
shew you tlie way to Brougbtou fitnn tbauee; bdug, 
dearest Sir^ 

Your most affecttooate friend^ W, Warburton. 

LETTER XXVIIL 

To the Rev. Dr. Stukeusy, at Stamford. 

My dear Friend, June 19, 1738. 

I bes your acceptance of the inclosed. Our 
friend the Doctor * told me he had the pleasure of 
seeing you. He told me, you rejected the lines he 
shewed you as impostures. I do not wonder at it 
You know best wnether the thing be possible. But 
the family is so far above all suspiciou of fraud, or 
having any ends to serve by it, that notbii^ but 
an absolute impossibility could make me msbe- 
lieve it 

I hope you are easier in your domestics than you 
was; tnat you have got servants that are honest, 
careful, and with a few brains. I very much wish 
to see you, and hope you will do me diat pleasure at 
Brooghton some time next month. However, do me 
the favour to let me know, that I may be at home ; 
for this summer time I have some short excursion or 
other that I am every post making, but none half 
so interesting to me as the seeing you. I hope the 
y(ftingones are all well, and that Miss Fanny w grown 
woman enough now to lAake your cofiee ; a happi* 
aoM, sodae years ago, you used to flatter yourtelf 
with the hopes of living to see^ 

You see the burthen of my soiu^ is hope^ hope, 
hope ; and how much I am obligedto live upon it. 
Sttt, that this may never fool you or me too long, I 

^ Dr. Robert Taylor. 
▼OL. Uf E will 



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50 . iiaifiiimA7ioiv& of utseatujib. 

will (dl jma a ttoiy. S^i* Fimncii Baton was wialk- 
ing out one evtning near the Hiames, where he saw 
fome fishermen ready to cast in their nets : be asked 
tiiem what thqr would have for their draught ; they 
said^ ten shillings ; he bade them five ; so, not agree- 
ing, the fishermen threw in upon their own fortune^ 
aiKl took nothing. On this. Bacon seeing them 
look very blank, asked them why they were such 
blockheads as not to take his money ? They an- 
swered, they had been toiling all day, and had taken 
nothinff, and they were in hopes that their last cast 
would have made amends for all : on which he told 
them, they were unlucky does ; but that he would 
give them something to carry home with them ; and 
it was this maxim, which they should be sure never 
to forget, That hope is a good breakfast, but a very 
bad supper. So far my story. But I do not know 
how it is ; but I should make but a bad meal of it. 
either at breakfast or supper. I should like it well 
enough for a kind of second course, as cheese to di- 
gest a good substantial dinner. And so the happy 
use it ; while the unhappy, like the poor, are forced 
to make an eternal meal upon it. 

I am, dear friend, yours most afiectionately, 

W. Warburton. 



LETTER XXIX. 
To the Rev. Dr. Stukbley, at Stamford. 

Dear Doctor, October 6, 1738. 

I hope you received my last This is to desire the 
following favour of you. I was lately with Sir Ro- 
bert Sutton^ who is much excruciated with the gontw 
I advised him to Dr. Rogers's oils, which he had al- 
ways an inclination for; but, having like to have been 
kilted by some that Gamier the apothecaij applied 
to him two or three years ago^ he has abstained from 

them. 



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MR. WAMBUHIt^K TO ML STDKKLBT. $1 

tfaetn. I tokt him, I beKered those had not the 
best repelling quality^ and acquainted him fairly 
with tTOir emctSf as you have described them to me.- 
On this he is greatly disposed to use them ; but her 
wants to know whetlier it would not be proper first 
to use them in the intervals of a ftt, or after a fit, to 
strengthen the joint ; whether any gentle aperient h 
to be taken at the time of the application ; but, above 
all, yo\ir real opinion and direction oin the whole. 
As he knows of our intimacy, he desired I would 
inform myself of you, as from my^lf, and let him 
know. I should be much oblt£;ed to you, therefore, 
for a letter concerning the particulars, wrote in such 
a manner as I may send it to him. You need not 
decline taking notice that I tell you who the advice 
is for, for he did not desire that should be a secret. 

Shaw advised him against the oils^ and pretended 
they had had ill or fatal efifects. But he grounds 
more on your opinion. 

I am, dearest Sir, yours most affectionately, 

W. Warburton. 



LETTER XXX. 

To the Rev. Dr. Stukeley, at Samuel Gale's, Eiq. 
Bedford-row, Holborn. 

Deae Doctok, 26 June, 1739. 

I was extremely glad to hear from you, but am 
sorry the' noisy Bar sh.wld call you from your Her- 
mitage. , As unfit as I am for Heatven, I nad rather 
hear the last trumpet than a citation from the Court 
of Chs^icery. If ever you have seen Michael Ange- 
lo's Last Judgment, you have these in the figure of 
thel>evil, who is pulling and lugging at a poor sin*- 
ner, the true representation of a Chancery Lawyer 
who has catched hpid of your purse. 

E 2 When 



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5^ UXUSntATlONS OF UTBIATURE. 

When I got home from you in tm return from 
my Cambridge journey, I found my affidrs in strange 
disorder; my single fevourite cow^ which you used 
to reverence under the name of Iris^ was desperately 
ill in the hands of a doctor, A robbery was sworn 
to be committed in this Hundred, and I am to bear 
my share of the loss ; and letters from Oxford ac- 

?uainted me that Mr. William Romaine, of Christ 
Ihurch, had called out aloud upon the secular arm 
toi make an example of me*. Thus trebly distressed, 
I found my only cow in the hands of a quack, my 
money at the mercy of an attorney, and my reputa- 
tion worried by the vilest of all Theologasters. 

You are in the right: this is the scoundrel I wrote 
to from your house. But the poor Devil has done 
his own business. His talents shew him by nature 
designed for a blunderbuss in Church Controversy ; 
but his attack upon me being a proof-charge, and 
heavy loaded, he burst in the going off; and what 
will become of him let those who made use of him 
consider. 

I b^ you would be so kind to buy me one ticket 
in the Bridge Lottery. I suppose the blanks will 
sell as usual; and when you send me word of it, f 
shall send the money by NewbaPs waggon to you to 
Stamford. 

I am, my dear friend, yours most affectionately, 

W. Warburton. 

LETTER XXXL 

To the Rev. Dr. Stukelet, at Stamford. 

Most dear Sir, January 1, 1 739-40. 

I received the favour of yours with a great deal of 
pleasure; and, as deeply as I am immersed in Moses^ 

Jour company would be a very agreeable interruptito. 
bt what you tell of Mr. Allen frights me in good 

* Of this circusMtuice see more liereafter. 

earnest; 



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UR. WA&BURTt>N TO BR. STUKKLBT. 58 

earaett ; and next to the pkasare of seeing yon^ iim 
greatest pleasure you can do me is keeping uiat gen* 
tleman from me. I must therefore beg of you to 
let him knovr^ that I am so taken up wi^ my own 
studies^ that I have not an hour to spare to look 
upon any other man^s ; and that besides^ hts work> 
according to all the accounts I have heard of it, is 
quite out of my way, who am a declared enemy to 
all systems and hypotheses in Divinity but what 
arise immediately from the word of God. 

In short, between you and me, I have heard so 
much of this gentleman's turn, and from the best 
bands too, that to him we may say, Danda est hel- 
lehori multo pars maxima. It is only you then that 
can serve him; and you, but in your physical 
camcity. 

jBut I come to a more agreeable subject. I am 
greatly pleased you will let us have Stonehenge at 
kst* . 1 think you need not doubt the success of it^ 
if you confine yourself closely to the subject. But 
ou know bow dangerous new roads in Theology are^ 
ly the clamour of the bigots against me. I take it 
for granted (by the weatner I view from my study 
window) you have laid aside the thoughts of your 
Grantham journey. Otherwise, had the weather 

S^rmitted, I should have gone near to have met you* 
owever^ I hope you will be so kind, when you 
next go to your Living in that q^arter, you will 
remember there is such b, place as Brougbton. 

Some time a^o I sent Weaver (who told me h^ 
was to come and see vou this Christmas) im Vindi- 
cation of Mr. Pope for you ; but do not find by your 
letter you have received it. The Infidels and Liber- 
tines prided themselves in thinking Mr. Pope of 
their party. I thought it of use to Religion to shew 
so BoUe a Genius was not ; and I can have the plea^ 

* Dr. Stiikeley soon after published '^ Stoneheng^^ a Temple 
referred to the British Dmids;" of which a copious Abstract was 
Sben in *' The iJittory of the Works of the Uamed*' for May 1740. 

surt 



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54 .lUJUfinUTtONS Of IITBEATURE^ 

•ttce of teUbg you (and hitve Mr* Pope's own «iith<H 
ri^for it) tmtt he is not. . , 

The cDmplinients of the season in my heartiest 
wishes attend you and your family. 

Dear Sir, your most affectionate friend and hum- 
ble servant, W. Warbueton^ 



LETTER XXXII. 

To the Rev. Dr. Stukblbt. 

Dear Sir, Dec, 20, 1 744. 

I had the pleasure of yours of the 10th instant^ 
the night I got to Broughton after a ^ong absence 
from home. I take your complaint as a compliment, 
where you tell me your friendships were always 
made on good foundations ; for I will not do my- 
self so much injury as not to claim the right of being 
one of those good foundations on which you erected 
your friendship with me. I was never forgetful, 
nor shall be, of the regard you shew me : and if f 
have not been so hap^ to see you so often of late as 
I could have wished, i hope you will be so candid to 
impute it to the true cause, a great variety of very 
troublesome and ungrateful busmess, etaliena nego- 
tia eenhrm. 

I have taken the liberty (the very first opportu- 
nity that ofiered) of sending you my last pamphlet. 
I desire my best respects to Mrs. Stukeley and the 
young ladies; and am, dear Sir, your very afiectionate 
humble servant, W. Warburton. 

LETTER XXXIII. 

Saturday mamingy 10 March^ ^759' 
Dr. Warburton's compliments to Dr. Stukelipy. 
He will wait on him to-morrow morning, at the 
time appointed ; but some business has mippened, 

that 



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BP. wAKBtmtok it>' 6ki ^rxhoLutr. s$ 

that I must needs be at home hy two o'clock, so 

cannot have the pleasure of dnung with him. 

■ ■ i I i r 

%*'' 17^. WhenmyFnead WaitertoawwaMdeaBklMM!, 
there were two Euettaots of his Die^nei^ ff Bristol: lur. 
Tucker *, of Briatoli had done many thih^s \h regard to Trade, 
for which he Was caressed by the people c? BristoL Dr. Squire 
was the other, who got the Deanery.— Warfourton said, '' One 
of them made Trade his Religltti; the other, RattoM his 
Trade.** - ' W. StvkblkV 

LETTER XXXIV. 

For the Rev. Dr. Stukelbt. 

Mt dear Friend, Prior Park, 10 Oct. ijBt. 

I have your favour of the 8th instant. With le-f 
gard to the young gentleman you mention, I shall 
always honour your recommendation with my best 
attention. But, you know, before I can have any 
pretence to lay bands upon htm, he must have a tide 
to a cure in my diocese : and this must be riven add 
accepted hondjide; and the tiole between his befog 
ordained Deacon and Priest (before which last ordi« 
natron, you know, he can receive no benefice) will be 
sufficient to discharge this engagement : so that, it 
he can procure a title in my diocese between- ^is 
and the next public ordination, when I come to 
town, and, on examination, he will justify my ac- 
ceptance of him, I will give him Letters Dimissory 
to some friend who ordains at that season. 

I thank y6u for the curiosity you was so kind to 
inclose to me ; and am, dear Sir, your very affeetion* 
ate and laithftil humble servant, W. Gloucester. 

P. S. Lord Chancellor -f-, who has been on a visit 
with us for a fortnight or three weeks, has just left 
us. He spoke of you with great kindness, and be- 

* Dr.JoeiahTacker, afterwards Dean of Gloucester. 

f Sir Robert Henley, Lord Keeper in 1757> was created Lord 
Henley in 1760. He was appointed Lord Chancellor in 1761 1 
and created Earl of Northiugton in 1764. 

lieves 



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S6 luumuxTOirs of litsrature. . 

liares that the regimen yoa prescribed to biiafor his 
goat would have verr good effects, would the bust* 
'Hess of his station anord bim time to pursue it 

LETTER XXXV. 

For the Rev. Dr. Stukeley. 

My DEAR Friend^ Prior Park, 6 Aug. 1763.' 
I have the pleasure of ycmr very obliging letter of 
the third. 

As you are-so good to give me your c^pinion con-- 
ceming my hand, I will take the liberty to mention 
the case to you. After I had recovered of my broken 
arm, 1 found my hand in the condition of tbeir^s 
ivko have had the West Indian colic, or have 
been concerned in white-lead works ; fallen down- 
wards, without any strength in the wrist, of use 
in the Answers. Whether it was occasioned by dis-^ 
use, by the straitness of the bandage, or any injuiy 
to the nerve, I do not know. The usual oiethod of 
fomentations were applied to, with little or no effect. 
At length I had recourse to the pump. I have used 
it daily for three months, and have this very day 
left it off. The present condition of my hand is 
this : I have recovered the use of my wrist, though 
it be still weak: I have a stiffness in the joints of my 
fii^ersi and the tone of the joints of the knuckles is 
not yet restored, and I have a numbness in my thumb 
and fore-finger. I have for some time, after pump- 
ing, had my hand rubbed widi an oil extracted, by 
boilinj^, out of sheep's bones. This is the condition 
in which things stand at present; and if, on this re- 
presentation, you shall judge the oils you speak of 
may be of service to nie, 1 must beg the favour of 
fo\x to order a bottle to be sent to Mr. Andrew Mil-^ 
lar, bookseller in the Strand, who has orders to pay 
the bringer for it. 

I am glad you are again obliging the publick. 
^our account of the subjects promises me much 
jdtaflure and instruction. rp« 



la 



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Bp. Wa&bu&tok to dr. nVKUKT. SI 

The fFood yon tfcik of htf bcm dead, I think, 
about ten years. He was a great fool, and not lem 
a knavcf, to ny knowledge. He wrote a most ckK* 
cuk>u8 book of Architecture. But this book on 
Stanehenge*, which you mention, I never saw, nor 
heard of; indeed^ I had little curiosity to enquire 
after any thing on that subject since I was in pos- 
session of yoars> whose discovery of the original 
and use of that famous remain of early AutiqmUy, 
will, I predict, be esteemed by posterity as certain, 
and continue as uncontroverted, as Harrey's Di§co* 
v^ of the Circulation. 

You aee by this long letter the reason I have to be 
thankful that I, whose life is one warfiuie upon 
earth (I n^ean against Infidelity and Fanaticism), 
have escaped with my Sword Arm; which, howevw^ 
is not less devoted to the service of my Frienda than 
of my Religion. I am, dear Sir, with the warmest 
affection, your most faithful brother^ and obedient 
servant, W. GLOvcMnstLr- 

LETTER XXXVL 

To the Rev. Dr. Stukeley. 

My d^ar Sir, Prior Park^ 13 Jug. 1763. 
I have your obliging letter of the 1 Ith, and have 
many thanks to return for your obliging present of 
the oils, and more obliging prescription, both of 
which I shall use as soon as I return from Wey^ 
mouth, whither I am going for a few days. 

« The work mtitnled '' Choir gaurt, vulgariy called SUme^ 
Amgt, on Salisbury Plain, deBcribed, rtstand, and explained: 
in a Letter to the Right Hon. Edward Earl of Oxford, and Earl 
tfortimer. Oxibrd, 1747/' 8vo. — Wood wm of opinion that it 
was a temple of the Moon, erected by the Druids about 100 yeaiw 
before Christ, and similar to that at Stanton Dm in Someiset- 
shiie. When Loird Oxford was at Bath, 1740, Wood having hinted 
to lum his opinion of this last pile of stones, was ordered to take 
a <3erreCt plan of it, for his Book of Drawings of .the like British 
Antiquities. His Dissertations on the British works at Ba^ and 
^tantOQ Dm were incorporated into his description of Bath. 

Ibe- 



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58 YLLUStRATIOKl^ OF LltERAltntB. 

I believe the soperstition of our Bishops (if they 
have any) is more towards New Moons than 5W- 
hatks. Bj new moons^ I mean new Ministers of 
State, who, like those, receive their borrowed lustre, 
from our civil suns; and, like those, have of late been 
as^i^iangeable. I think they deserve a stroke of your 
animadversion.-^ A Presbyterian is only the caput 
vwrttmmn of an old Puritan Methodist, which is 
not less rancorous for being less fiery. 
. As to the AlUance you speak of between the 
Cloak and the Rochet, it is not like mine, between 
Church and State, which is an alliance of Truth 
and Utility! this is of utiUtpBlone; and which is 
IHrely to outwit <Aie other, I cannot tell. 

What you say is certainly true, that we, both of 
ns^ endeavour to serve Religion with equal sincerity 
and* 2ea1, and shall be remembered when whole 
tribes of Politicians are forgotten. 

My dear friend, your most aflFectionate brother, 
and obliged humble servuit, W. Gloucester. 

LETTER XXXVIL 
For the Rev. Dr. Stukelet. 

My dear Sir, Prior Parh^ 31 Aug. 1763. 

On my return from Weymouth last night, I found 
your very kind and friendly letter of the 26th. The 
state of my hand is this: The remaining indispo* 
sition now, is only a stiffness in my fingers, and 
Want of the usual free use, but yet in sudn a state^ 
that they perform almost all their functions to which 
one usually applies them. I shall now try your oils, 
which I hope will perfect the cure ; if they do nol^ 
as I propose to come to town in October, I shall then 
follow your advice, and electrify it. 

I am, with a very grateful sense of your solicitude 
for me, dear Sir, your most affectionate and faithful 
humble servant, W. Gloucester. 

LETTER 



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MR. WAEBI7RXDH TO DR. SiVEMLMY. $$ 

LETTER XXXVIIL 

For the Rev. Dr. Stukelrt. 

Dear Sir, OloucesttTy 9 Jmne^ 1764* 

I received a plain add modest letter from ^ ma 
of yoor old acquaintance, Mr* John Warburton, the 
Someraet- Herald. Yon well know the character of 
the father, whom I never saw but oUce, 40 years 
ago. Bad hid never any transactions with him fiirUier 
than my onoe demanding of him, h^ my agtent, 
some rent doe to me, as Kector of Frisby *, nx>m 
the Berry estate ; which be declined to pay, nnless I 
wonld see him in person. I refosed this coiulitkm t 
and so never got my rent. Your encouraging the 
tcm to write to me makes me conclude that ne is one 
of a fair character ; and if so, what I saw in the 
news this morning, that the place of Richmond- 
Herald is disposed of to another, will give me con- 
cern ; not that it was at all in my power to have 
served him in his pretensions, but because I interest 
myself in the success of every honest man. 

I am, dear Sir, your most afl^tionate friend and 
faithful servant, W. Gloucrstrr. 



*i>* In a Letter to his friend Hurd, March 4, 1 7<?5, 
Bp. Warburton says : " Poor Dr. Stukeley, in the- 
midst of a flprid age of 84s ^^^ ^^'^ Saturday steuck 
with an apoplectic fit, which deprived him of his 
senses. I suppose he is deadby this time.**-— Again, 

* This Letter is the oiJy notice I have yet seen of Bp. War* . 
burton's having had the Rectory of Frisby (or Firsby) in Lin* 
cdhoihire ; thoueh^ by ihe forty years, it was his first preferment. 
He probably held it in trust; as the Duke of Newcastle presented 
another Rector to it in 1730, and again in 1756. — Warburton 
had the Vicarage of Grieseley in 1726 from the Bp. of Lincoln ; 
idid Brent Broughton in 1798 from Sir Robert Sutton, who in 
that year prticntcd another Vicar to Grieseley. 

'' You 



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€0 . HLL^STEATIOKS OF LITERATUmS. 

^^ You say true, I have a tenderness in my temper 
which will make me miss poor Stukeley ; for, not 
to say that he was one of my oldest acquaintance, 
there was in him such a mixture of simplicity, drol- 
lery, absurdity, ingenuity, superstition, and anti- 
quarianism, that he often afforaed me that kind of 
well- seasoned repast, which the French call an jint- 
bigu, 1 suppose from a compound of things never 
meant to meet togetlier. I have often heard him 
laughed at by fools, who had neither his sense, his 
knowledge, nor his honesty; though it must be 
confessed, that in him they were all strangely traves- 
tied. Not a week before his death he walked from* 
Bloomsbury to Grosyenor-square, to pay me a visit ; 
was cheerful as usual, and as full of literary profects. 
But bis business was (as he heard Geckie * was not. 
likely to continue long) to desire I would give him the 
earliest notice of his death — for that he mtend^ to 
solicit for his Prebend of Canterbury by Lord 
Chancellor^ and Lord Cardigan ; " for,'' added he^, 
" one never dies the sooner, you know, for seeking 
preferment." 

* Dr. William Geckie outlived Dr. Stokdej mofe tban two 
fears. Besides the IVebend of C^nterbury^ he was Archdeacon 
of Gloucester, and Rector of Southfleet, Kent. The Aichdea* 
conry Bp. Warburton had the pleasure of giving to Dr. Hunt. 

t The Earl of Northington $ see p. 65. 

t l>r. Stukeley died March 3, 1765, in his 78th year j and, by 
liis own particular direction, was biuied in the church-yard of 
East Ham, Essex, without any monument; but in the Register 
of that parish he is thus recorded : '' The Rev. Dr. Stukeley, 
late Rector of St Georae, Queen-square, buried March 9, 1765.''^ 
.—On a neat etching of that Church (a private plate by Mr. Ty- 
son) is inscribed, *^ Ecclesie cujus in ccemiterio tumnl. jacet 
corpus Gul. Stukeley hunc typum M. T. d. d. delineator.**— An 
inscription, irUended for a cenotaph, either in the Church of St. 
Gcoigethe Martyr Queen - square, or in that of All Saints, 
at Stamford, where his first wife was buried, may be seen in the 
" Literary Anecdotes,*' vol. V. p. 705. — Some Original Lettew 
of Dr. Stweley will be given in a subsequent part oftfais volume^ 



ORIGINAL 



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[ «i 3 

ORIGINAL LETTERS ♦ from WARBURTON 
TO PETER DES MAIZEAUXf. 



LETTER L 

For Mr. F. Des Maizeaux, at Mr. Woodwi^itTij, 

Bookseller^ at the Half-moon, over against St 

DuDfiten's Church in Fleet Street, London. 

Good Sir, Newarhe^upon^Trent, 

' September 9, 173^. 

I REMEMBER With R very particular pleasure those 
two or three agreeable hours which I had the happi- 
ness of passing in your conversation. It was a sa-* 
tis&ction like that tlie curious feel in viewing the 

* From Birch MSS. in the British Museum, 4^88. 

i" This learned Writer, the son of a Protestant Clergyman, 
was bom at Auvei^e, in France, in 1666. He came over in 
his youth to England, and appears to have led the life of a man 
of letters, continually employed in composing or editing lito-ary 
works. In 1790 he was elected F. R. S. and from his niunerous 
letters in the British Museum, appears to have carried on a yery 
extensive Correspondence with the learned men of his time, es- 
pecially SL Evremont and Bayk. He died at London in June 
1745. Bayle he assisted with many articles and remarks for hit 
I^tionary^ and published his " Letters'* at Amsterdam, 1799^ 
3 vols. 12mo, with a variety of observations, which shew an 
'extensive knowledge of modem Literature. He also wrote the 
Life of Bayle, whidi was prefixed to the edition of his Dictionaiy 
published in 1730, and was reprinted at the Hague in 9 vols. 
1732, ISmo. By a letter in the b^^inning from Des Maizeaux 
to M. la Motte, it appears that the latter had induced him te 
undertake this life of his Friend. In 1738 he edited Bible's 
Bfiscellaneous Wcnrks in 4 vols. folio> and probably was lik^rise 
the Author of the '' Noureiks Lettres de Pierre Bayte/ Hagne^ 

173y, 



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62 ILLUSTRATIOKS OF LITSEATURB. 

scene of any past action ; for all the occurrences 
in the literary world did then immediately present 
themselves to me, in which I knew you had borne so 
long and so glorious a share. But the relations of 
Foreign Journals couM but foindy represent to me, 
though they all concurred in doing it, that abound* 
ing candour and humanity that so much captivated 
my esteem and veneration. But was it only to tell 
you this (though I have beefr ambitious that you 
should know it) that I give you this trouble, I 
should be very much without excuse. What occa- 
sions it is, my chancing upon a little kind of curi- 
osity, whichj if it proves so^ may not be unaccepta- 
ble to you. It is a gold coin, wliich the Parisians of 
the League, when they held out a^inst Henry IV. 
in 1592, strui;k to the old Cardmal of Bourbon, 
under the title of Charles X. The device is, the Arms 
of France, and the ^^^^y carolus x. d. g. fran- 
COR. RBX, 1593- TLlie reverse, the fleur de lis, 
en croizj with this inscription, christus regnat. 
vtNCiT, £T IMPBRAT. If this be any curiosity, I 
desire your acceptance of it, and will take care to 

1739> 9 toIb. 19mo. His intmiaqr and friendship for St. Evre- 
moDd led him to publish the life and works of that writer^ in 
1709, 3 Tols. 4to and 8to, often reprinted aad translated into 
English. He also published the lives of Bofleau in French, and 
<tf Uiillingworth and Hales of Eton in English, which he wrote 
fluently. For some time it is said he was engaged in an English 
Didionarj, historical and critical, in the manner of fiayle, but 
no part of it appears to have been publbhed, except the above- 
mentioned Life of Hales, in 1719, which was professedly a spe- 
cimen of the intended Dictionary^ In 17^0 he publbhed some \ 
pieces of Locke*s which had not been inserted in his worics ; and 
the same year *' Recueil de diverts pieces sur la philosophic, la 
rdigion naturelle, Thistoire, les mathematiques, &c. by Leib- 
nitz, Clarke, Newton, and others; Amst. 9 vols. ISmo. He 
appears likewise to have been the Editor of the " Scaligerana, 
liiuaaa, Penroniana, Pithoeana, et Colomesiana," Amst. 17II, 
8 vols« Be»des these, and his translation of Bayle*s Dictionary, 
be was a frequent contributor to the literary Journals of his 
time, particularly the ** BiUiotheque Raisonn^, and '' The Re- 
j^blic.of Letters/' Chalmen's Bieg. Diet vol. XI. p. 5 14. 

The^<^ 



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MR. WAIAURTON TO MA* DES KLUOAUX. ^ 

transmit it to you; being, Sir^ your most obedient 
humble servant^ W. WAR9URit>N. 

There is a small hole in it^ as if it had hong about 
the neck in a ribbon ; and I imagine it was so em- 
]>loyed by these poor wi^ches^ drunk with supersti- 
tion^ rage and enthusiasm. 

LETTER II. 
For Mr. Peter Dsa Maizeaux. 

Dear Sir, Newarhe, May 15, 1736. 

I deferred paying my acknowledgments for the 
obliging civilities I received from you when I ^ad the 
pleasure of your company in London^ till I could tell 
you that you might expect to receive the papers you 
was so good ^ to promise me you would insert in the 
Bibtiotheqtiejdngioise * . I have directed them for you 
at Mr J Woodward's. They come up in the Newarke 
waggon, carriage paid ; and I hope will be in town 
this day fortnight I have inclosed the small piece 
of French gold, which I request your acceptance of, 
as a trifling mark oJTmy sincere esteem and friendship. 
I have likewise inclosed 15^. wi(b which I beg you 
will buy me the 6 volumes of Bibliotheque that 
are already come out; and to send Ihem me down 
by the Newarke waggon. As nothing does me a 
greater honour than your friendship, so nothing will 
be a greater pleasure than your corresponifence^ 
Your universal knowledge in Literature makes you 
need no assistance in any of your learned under- 
takings 5 so that I have no other way of shewing ray 
friendship, but where at the same time I shew my 
sense^ and my justtee — ^I inetfn in your commenda-' 
tion. Ttiis is my usual subject to my friends here, 
to whom I boast . how much I am, dear Sir, your 
mMt afl^tion^te fr^end^ and humble servant, 

W» Warkurton. 

* Otj lathor Britannique; ste p. 64. 

LETTER 



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64 ILLUdTEATIOiVS 6F LITERATUES. 

LETTER III. 
For Mn Pbter Des Maizeaux. 

Dear Sir, NewarJce, May 22, 1736- 

Along with th\% you receive the Emendations on 
Paterculus, which I beg the favour of you to get in- 
serted in the Bibliatheque Britannique. I hope thev 
may be inserted all together in one part, fort think 
they will not make above 40 pages. I 1mv€ inscribed 
them to the Bish<^ of Chichester*, to whom I have 
great obligations. 

Inclosed you will find the bit of French gold, 
which I beg you will be so good as to accept as a 
small mark of my esteem and friendship for you. 
Dear Sir, if you will do me the favour to let me 
hear from you now and then> at your leisure^ the state 
of jrour li^lth, and what news is stirring in the 
literary world, believe me no greater pleasure or 
honour can be done to, dear Sir, your most affec- 
tionate and most obliged humble servant, 

W. Warburton. 

LETTER IV. 

For Mr. Peter Des Maizeaux. 

UearS^ir, AuipMti6,\n6. 

I received the BibUotheques Brttanniques by Mr. 
Giles, which you was so good as to procure for me. 
It is but an ill way,, I confess, of making nay apo- 
logy for the trouble I gave you, by putting you to 
more ; but I should ,to much obliged to you, for 
letting me know the price of Mont&ucon*s Cata- 

• Dr. Franck Hare^ under the abbreviation of F. E. C. by 
whom he had been recommeDded to jQueeni Carolme. They 
were inaerled accordjngly» in the seventh volume of that work» for 
July^ August, and September* 1736* and occupy the pages from 
iNo. ^256 to «94. 

logu^^ 



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Ufk. WAEBUatOlI. TO ME. DM UJLXZSAITX. $i 

logue of MSS. if it be yet poblisbed^ because I 
would buy it. 

Not having had the honour of he$tring from you 
otherwise than by Mr, Gyles^ and knowing how 
much you are afflicted with the rheumatism, I was 
much apprehensive for your health : there beine no 
one who more truly esteems and honours you, than. 

Dear Sir, your most obedient and most obliged 
humble servant, W. Warburton, 

LiSTTER V. 

For Mr. Peter Des Maizeaux. 

Dear Sir, Newarke, Sept. l6, 1738* 

I had the pleasure of hearing of your health by 
Mr. Gyles, in a letter I lately received from him. I 
find I am indebted to you for the (avour of the last 
Sitdiotheque BAtannimji€y which he tells me you was 
so good as to leave at nis shop for me. I hope he 
sent you one of my Sermons which I published this 
summer, and that it met with your approbation. 

Pray what news is there in the learned worid r 
Will you favour us with a Supplement to Bayle, of 
the English Learned ? That news would be a great 
pleasure to me. What think you of our new set of 
Fanatics, called the Methodists? I have seen White- 
field^s Journal; and he appears to me to be as mad aa 
ever George Fox the Quaker was. Hiese are very 
lit Missionaries, you will say, to propagate the 
Christian faith among Infidels. There is another of 
them, one Wesley, who came over from the same 
mission. He tola a friend of mine, that he had 
lived most deliciously the last summer in Georgia, 
sleeping under trees, and feeding on boiled maize, 
sauced vrith the ashes of oak leaves ; that he will re- 
turn thither, and then will cast ofifhis English dress, 
and wear a dried skin, like the savages, the better to 
vol.. II. F ingratiate 



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€6 ILLTTSTlffnONS 6V LtTERAtURE. 

fti^ttate himself with tiiem. It woalrf be wellfor 
Virtue and Religion, if this humour would lay hold 
generally of our overheated bigots^ and send them 
to cool themselves in the Indian Marshes. I fancy 
that Venn and Webster would make a very entertain- 
ing as well as properflgure in a couple of bear-skins, 
•nd marching in this terror of equipage like the Pa- 
gan priests of Hercules of old : 

Jamque Sacerdotes prtmusgue Poltlius ibant, 
Peilibus in mor^m cincti, A^LmmBsqneferelmni. 

Dear Sir, do me the favour to believe that nothing 
can be more agreeable than the hearing of you, but 
the hearing from you ; and that I am your very 
affectionate and obliged humble servant, 

W. Warburton. 



♦^fr* The Collection of Letters to Mr. De8 Maizeaux^ from 
which those of Mr. Warburton are extracted, principally written 
by persons of considerable literary eminence, fills nine large to* 
liunes; (see AyscougVs Catalogue, 4981—4289). — A Letter or 
two from Mr. Des Maizeaiu^ to Mr. Birch will be found in a fti- 
ture puge of thio volume. 



ORIGINAL 



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C ^7 ] 

ORIGINAL LETTERS from WARBURTON 
TO THE Rev. THOMAS BIRCH*. 



LETTER L 

\ To the Rev. Mr. Thomas BiftCH, in St. John'i 
Lane^ Clerkenwell^ LoDdon. 

Beau Sir, Newarke, Aug. 4, 173^. 

I RECEIH^D the very agreeable faTour of yours of 
the 15th past^ which I should have acknowledged 
fnuch sooner, had not a journey of ten days^ from 
which I am just now returned, prevented me. 

You may freely command me in any thing you 
may imagine me capable of serving^ you^ towards 
rile perfectingihe very useful work you are en- 
gaged in -f*. what I could supply you with in any 

. * Of these Letters (the Originals of which are preserved ia 
the British Museum^ Birch MSS. 4320.) several Extracts were 
given by the late Rev. H. P. Maty in his '* New Review," and 
thence transplanted into various parts of the ** Literary Anec- 
dotes." But the entire Lettevs of Bp. Warburton^ whose habit 
it was to speak bcddly of men and tmngs, and not to spare even 
his most intimate friends^ should not be withheld from the world. 
They disdoee many particulars in the Literaiy History of the 
Eighteenth Century at present unknown } and the perscms to 
whom^ aDudes are too ftor removed from the nresent scene oi 
action to be aflected ather l^ his censure or apphnise. 

t This ^ usflfol worky** the first of any consecpience in which 
Mr. Birch engi^^ was, *' The Generol Dictionary, Historical 
and Critfceal j*' wherein, a new translaticm of that of the cde- 
bmled Mr. Bayle wasiodiided; and which was iatenpened with 
fltfvend thousand fives never before published. It wis on the 
9Pch of April, 17M, that Mr. Biich, in conjunction with the 
Rev. Mr. John Feter Bernard, and Mr. John Lockman, agraed 
with the Booksellers to carry on this important undertajqi^ > 
and Mr. George Sale was employed to draw up the articles relating 
' r « to 



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66 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

article would rather relate to the character of the 
man as a Writer, and of his Writings, tlian to any 
particulars of his Life. 

As to Ben Jonson, I take it to be as you sav^ 
that his Life is very defectively and inconsistently 
told; but, not having any of his Historians by me, 
it is impossible for me to say any thing on that head 
much to your purpose. And 1 conceive that nei- 
ther in that article, nor any other, could I be of 
use to you, unless I had the article as you have 
drawn it up to peruse, or your particular queries on 
what sticks with you, to answer. And this the ra- 
ther, because not having had an opportunity to see 
the numbers of your Work as they came out, I can 
but imperfectly judge, from the extreme few arti- 
cles I can see, and which 1 highly approve, of 
the taste in which you carry them on ; whether 
you confine yourself in an Historical manner to the 
text after the way of Mr. Des Maizeaux in hisf 
Lives of Chillingworth and Uobbes: or whether, in 
the cast of Bayle, you give a loose to any moral, 
philosophic, or philologic reflection, that can be 
started out of the circumstances of the text. 

I beg you, dear Sir, to believe that I esteem your 
correspondence as a great honour ; and shall be al- 
ways proud of your commands, and of using every 
opportunity of shewing how much I am, dear Sir^ 
Your very affectionate and most obedient 
humble servant, W. Warburton. 

to Oriental History. The whole deaign was completed in ten tq. 
liimes, folio; the first of which appeared ia 1734, and the last in 
1741. It 18 universaUy aUowed, that this work contains a very 
extensiTe and useful body of biographical knowledge. We are 
ttot told what were the particular articles written by Mr. Birch ; 
but there is no doubt of his having executed a great part of the 
Dictionary : neither is it any disparagement to his co-a^iutors* 
to say, that he was superior to them in abilities and reputation, 
with tlie excepdon of Mr. Sale, who was, without contro- 
versy, pecciliarly qualified for the department he had undertakw. 
See p. 19. 

LETTER 



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M&.WARBimTON TO MR. 3IRCH. 69 

LETTER IL 
To the Bev. Mr. BiRCfi . 

DearSir, Newarhe-upon-TrerUy Aug. 17, 1 737. 

Mr. Gyles informs me that you left with him for 
me the fine edition of Greaves's Works * : for which 
favour I esteem myself highly obliged to you. But 
he told me at the same time that you had not re* 
ceived a letter which I did myself the honour to 
write to jou immediately on the receipt af yours. 
He has given me your address ; but whether it be the 
same I had before, I have forgot. 

I had the pleasure of hearing of your heahh when 
I was last at Cambridge from one whom I dare say 
we have an equal esteem for. I mean^ my excellent 
friend Dn Middleton, whom, on my return out of 
l^ffolk from Sir Thomas Hannier, I found just come 
home from London. 

Pray how goes on your Literary Society f-? What 
books are you printing ? and are any of poor Sale's^ 
or Professor Blackweirs in the number ? I was sin- 
cerely grieved at the death of the former gentleman, 
both for the sake of his family, and of learning. He 
would have proved the English Herbelot. 

I have expected some time to hear of Professor 
Blackwell. I think he is in Scotland ; but, jf he 
be in London, J should be obliged to you to let me 
know it. 

There is a book called ** The Moral Philosopher,** 
lately published. Is it looked into ? I should hope 
jaot, merely for the sake of the taste, the sense, and 

* See p. 71. 

t Of the institutkm and progress of this Society, see the 
*' Literary Anecdotes/' vol. 11. p. 90. 

t " Mr. Geoi^ Sale translated the Koran of Mahomet -, was 
one of the Authors of the Universal History, also of the Cieneral 
Dictionary, which indudes Bayle» in translating of whom he 
eaierted himsdf^ as being a Woric Agreeable to his own genius. 
He was reckoned to undenitand the Oriental Languages better 
than any man in England. He died» in Surrey-Street in the 
Strand, Nov. 15, 1736." Gent. Mag. vol. VI. p, 684. 

learning 



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70 ItLUSTltATIONS OF LITSRATURS*. 

learning of the present age; for nothing could 
give me a worse ioea of them than that book's being 
in any degree of esteem as a composition of a maa 
of Letters. I have some knowledge of the Author*, 
An afternoon's conversation, when I was last in 
town, gave me the top and bottom of him; and 
though I parted from him with the most contempti^ 
ble opinion both of his candour and his sense, he 
has had the art^ in this book, of writing even below 
himself. It is composed principally of scraps ill 
put together from ** Christianity as old as the Crea-^ 
tion,** larded with some of the most stupid ffincies, 
of his own that ever entered into the head of man^ 
Such as Moses's scheme for an universal Monarchy^ 
This, I take it, was a simple genuine blunder ftonci. 
Toland, who had said, with something more pre- 
tence, that Moses aimed at ^ perpetual Monarchy ; 
and, by a true Irish blunder, thu blockhead took 
perpetual to signify universal 

I hope nobody will be so indiscreet as to take no-» 
tice publicly of his book, though it be only in the 
fag end 6f an objection. It is that indiscreet con- 
duct in our Defenders of Religion, that conveys so 
m^y worthless books from hand to hand, 

I beg, Sir, you will be assured that I shall have no 
greater pleasure than hearing of you from time t(^ 
time at your leisure. It will be but charity to l^t me, 
who live gut of the world, know now and then the 
literary state of it ; and it will be a double satis&cr 
tion to hear of it from one so excellently qualified to 
report it. I hope to give one Volume of niy X)e-. 
fence of Moses tnis winter, but this between you 
and me. I have sent both to French and English 
booksellers for Melchior Zeidler's '^Tractatus de 

♦ Thomas Morgan, M. D. Author of " The Moral Philoso- 
pher ; in a Dialogue between Riilalethea a Christian Deist, and 
Theophanes a Christian Jew/' and several other Tracts, died mX 
his house in Broad-street, Jan. 14, 174^-3, *' with a true 
Christian resignation/* Q^t. Mag. vol, XIII. p. 51 . 

geminQ 



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liE. WAWWETOV TO IfR. BlltCq. 7I 

^mino vetenuQ dooendi modo exoterico et acrov- 
matico, Regiom. 1685,^4^; and canaot set it Ab 
it if a book I much want, if you ooqld .leod it m^ 
or buy it for me, it would be a great obligatioo. 

1 beg my humble service to your friend, that 
very worthy gentleman you did me the &vour to 
bring me to the knowledge of^ and 'who was so 
good last year to enquire of me by a friend, as b^ 
passed throv^ Newarke. I desire too you would 
assure Mr. Dickson of my best respects. I oft 
wish myself with you at the Coffee-bouse in the 
Temple on a Thursday night ; but^ whether there 
or here, I desire you to believe that I am, with great 
truth, dear Sir, your very faithful and afiectiovate 
humble servant^ W. WAaBuaxoN. 

LETTER HI. 

For the Rev. Thomas Birch. 

« 

Dear Sir, TReceived Oct. 54, 1737-] 

I have your favour or the 23d of August to ac,- 
kfiowle(%e. Since my last, I have read over Greavea's 
Tracts ♦. He is a very learned and very judicious 

* Mr. Birch was the Editor of ^* GreaTes*s Mkcellaneoab 
Works, 1737/' S vols. 8vo$ and was also the Author 6i thh 
Life of that learned Professor in the '' General Dictionarf ;" in 
which, after noticing Greaves's quitting England for Leghorn 
in 1657> with the intent of proceeding thence " to explore 
the venerable remains of Antiquity in the Eastern Countries,*' 
Birch observes, " Mr. Wood, who is grossly mistaken in placii^ 
par Author^s voyage to the East in 1633, informs us, that the 
ArchlMshop ' sent him to travel into the Eastern parts of the 
world to obtain Books of the Languages for himj' and W. 
Smitb observes, that Mr. Greaves furnished himself with- quad- 
rants and other instruments necessary for taking the Aki- 
tudes and distances of the Stars and the latitudes of Cities, fbr 
measuring the Pframids, and making observations of the 
Eclipses, at bis own expence, havinig in vain applied himself fbr 
the patronage and assistance of the Magistrates of the City of Lon- 
don, whose honour and advantage he designed to.consult in this 
voyage; but that he was very probably assisted by the Archbishop 



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7^ ILLtJSTRATIONS OF LITBaATURE. 

Writer ; and I thmk the world much inddited to 
you for this edition of them. But as I am above 
measure fond of all that relates to the Literary His- 
tory of such men, your excellent Life of him could 
not but afford me a great deal of entertainment. 
There are two circumstances in it that give me a 
worse opinion of the City of London, and a better 
of Archbishop Laud, than I was wont to entertain. 

I am glad that the Society for the Encouragement 
of Learning is in so hopeful a condition ; though 
methinks it is a little ommous to set their press a 
going with theerrantest Sophist that ever wrote, pre- 
pared by as arrant a Critic ♦. 

You are pleased to enquire about Shakespeare. I 
believe (to tell it as a secret) I shall, after 1 have got 
the whole of this Work out of my hands which I am 
now engaged in, give an Edition of it to the IVorld^. 

of Canterbuiy^ who gave him Letters of Recommendation to Sir 
Peter Wyche, Ambfu»ador from Bmg Charlea I. to the Porte , arid 
a fuU power to purchase at whatever price he thought proper 
any Maousoripts of value, especially in the Arabic language >*' 
aad afterwards subjoins a Letter from Greaves; in wlach, 
after acknowledging his obligations to the Archbishop^ for 
^vbose use be had obtained some valuable Greek and Aorabic 
WSS. he adds, '' It is true> many more very choice ones might 
be procured with enquiry, and watching after opportunities, if 
they would give the price. Some few of those, which they 
thought to M overvalued, I have purchased at excessive rates. 
You may wonder how I have been able to do it, since the City of 
London hath fidkd me in my expectations of their contributions 
towards mathematical instruments. I have been necessitated to 
sell roost of the Books I brought with me. But the love and 
care of my brothers straining their own occasions to supply mine 
have enabled me, in despite of the City, to go on with my designs.** 

* The Edition of '' Maximus Tyrius/* 1^ Dr. John Davis. See 
the ** Litenuy Anecdotes," voL IL pp. 96. 134. 

t The Life of Shakespeare^ in the *' General Dictionary,** 
augmented by Mr. Birch from materials furnished by Mr. War- 
burton, contains the whole of those Remarks, which are thus 
introduced : " Shakespeare's Dramatic Writings were first pub- 
lished together in folio in 1623, and, since republished by Mr, 
Rowe, Mr. P(^« and Mr. Lewis Theobald. But we may ex))ect 
a much more correct edition of them from the reverend and 
learned Mr. fVUliam fVarbwrt<m, Author of ' The Divine Le^r 
tioo of Moses demonstrated,* who, in las Edition^ besides a ge- 
neric 



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MR. WAKBURTON TO HR. BIRCH. 73 

Sir Thomas Hanmer has a true critical genius^ and 
has done great things in this Author; so you mav 
expect to see a very extraordinary edition of its kind. 
I intend to draw up and prefix to it a just and com* 
plete critique on Shakespeare and his Works. 

neral character of Shakespeare and his writiDgs prefixed^ wiU^ 
give the rules which he ohserved in correcting bis Author, and. 
a laige Glossary. We shall give the Reader a specimen of this 
intended edition in several curious remarks, which this excellent 
Critic has communicated to us, and which we sludl introduce t^ 
way of illustration on Mr. Pope's admirable character of our 
Poet; who, in his Pre&cetothe Edition, observes, that Shakespeare, 
notwithstanding his defects, is justly and universally elevated 
above all other Dramatic Writers. If ever any Author deserved 
the name of an original, it was he. Homer himself drew not 
)iis art so immediately from the fountains of Nature ; it proceeded 
through Egyptian strainers and channels, and came to him not 
without some tincture of the learning, or some cast of the mo- 
dels, of those before him. The Poetry of Shakespeare was inspi- 
ration indeed : he b not so much an imitator, as an instrument 
of Nature ; and it is not so just to say that he speaks from her, 
as that she speaks through him. His characters are so much 
Nature herself, that it is a sort €^ ii\jtiry to call them by &{> dis- 
tant a name as copies of her. Those of other Poets have a con- 
stant resemblance, which shews that they received them from 
one another, and were but multipliers of the same Image ; each 
mcture, like a mock-rainbow, is but a reflection of a reflection. 
£ut every single character in Shakespeare is as much an indivi- 
dual, as those in life itself: it was impossible to find any tvro 
alike ; and such as from their relation or affinity in any respect 
appear to be twins, will upon comparison be found remarkably 
distinct.** — ^This announcement of Mr. Wai-burton*s intended Edi- 
tion was thus followed up by another Friend, in ** The History of 
the Work5 of the Learned" for 1740 : ** No Author has had a 
greater honour reflected on him by his Editors than Shakespeare. 
Among these we may reckon a sublime genius, who is one of 
the principal ornaments of this age, and of the British Nation. 
The Reader need not be told, that \t is Mr. Pope, whom 1 intend by 
this character. But, as the Works of our Dramatic Poet have 
merit enough to engage the concern even of this celebrated per- 
son, so it is certain that they extremely needed it, on account 
of the almost inniunerable corruptions by which, through one 
jDoeans or other, they have been depraved. By his care and saga- 
city many of these have been removed or amended, and the 
guilty causes of them assigned. Shal^peare has been in a good 
iDeasure restored to his original purity, and bis admirers are no 
longer at ala» to account for that 8uq»rizing inconsistency with 

l^hich 



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^4 IJLLUSTRATI0N3 OF LITERATURi;. 

There is a book, published two or three ye^xs, i^i 
4to, called " An Inquiry into the Nature of the Hu- 
man SouK^ It is a master-piece in its kind. I am 
told it is wrote by one Baxter ♦. I wish you coul(l 

which he was wont, to be charged^ of being, in many iastanoes, 
one of the most judicious, and, with regard to others^ one of 
" " Iters in the world. However, after all 
[r. Pope, the ingenious Mr. Rowe, and 
d, have done to cleanse and r^tore him 
: still remain in him many faults to be 
1 graces which have never yet been dis- 
)f these were so multifiarious, that it 
ours of many (and those of the ablest) 
, and to explicate the other; therefore, 
men of consummate ability still think 
employed in so laudable a task. Ac- 
arburton has bestowed thereon some of 
I he could spare fVom the duties of his 
etermined to add his labours to those 
and the others above-named, in re- 
1 exemplifying the beauties of this in- 
id not fall under their consideration; so 
ortly furnished with a more complete 
s Writings than has hitherto been pub- 
are then repeated, from the " General 
of 34 octavo pages. — Mr. Warburton*s 
this subject vnll appear in pp. 96 — llOf, 
aphysician and Natural Philosopher, 
whom Mr. Warburton so warmly conunends, was bom in 168^ 
or 1687, at Old Aberdeen, in Scotland, of which city his ^ther 
was a merchant, and educated in King's College there. Hit 
principal employment was that of a private tutor to young gen- 
tlemen ; and among other of his pupils were Lprd Grey, Lord 
Blantyre, and Mr. Hay of Drummelzier. About 1724^ he mar- 
ried the daughter of Mr. Mebane, a clergyman in the shire of 
Bei'wick. A few years after he published, in 4to, " An Enquiry 
into the Nature of the Human Soul, wherein its Immateriality 
is evinced from the Principles of Reason and Philosophy ;'* with* 
out any date. In 1 74 1, he went abroad with Mr. Hay, and resided 
some years at Utrecht -, having there also Lord Blantyre under 
his cafe. He made excursions from thence into Flanders; 
France, and Germany -, his wife and family residing in the mean 
time chiefly at Berwick-upon-Tweed. He returned to Scotland 
in 1747» and resided till hU death at Whittingham, in the shire 
of £^t Lothian. He drew up, for the use of his pupils and his 
£on» " Matho, sive, Cosmotheoria puerilis, Dialogus. In quo prima 
elementademundiordine et ornatu proponuntur,** &c. of which 
oiily 30 copies were printed. This was afterwards greatly enlarged, 
wui' published in English, in two volumes, Svo. In 1750 he pub^ 

li&hed 



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MR. WARBUI^TON TQ m. MUCH^ 7S 

inform me who he is^ and where hq is; for he appears 
to me a very "extraordinary persofh I could wish, 
for the sake of the noble truths he teaches us^ it had- 
not the dead weight of the Sixth Section. 

The Booksellers of Geneva, who pubUshed the. 
Dictionary of Calmet, promised that, if Calmet 
made any Additioi^ to it, as he then threatened, 
they would print them separately ; in confidence of. 
wbicl), I bought that edition. Calmet has since beea- 
as good as his word. I want to know whether the; 
Booksellers have been as good as theirs ; and, if they 
have, how I may get the Additions : not bpt there, 
is too much trumpery already, but I am consulting; 
my Executor's adyautage^ not my own^ 

Ibbed '' An Appendix to hi^ Enquiiy into the Nature of the 
Human Sou]/' wherein be endeaTours to remove some difficul- 
ties which had been started against his notions of the *' vis 
inertise*' of matter, by Maclaurin, in his '' Account of Sir Isaac 
Newton*s Philosophic^ Discoveries.** To this piece Mr. Baxtev 
prefixed a Dedica^on to Mr. Wilkes, afterwards so well known 
in the political world. Mr. Baxter died this year, April the 93d, 
after ^iflering' fbr some months under a complioition of disor^ 
flers, of which the gout was the chief; and was buried in the 
£unily vault of Mr. Ht^y, at Whitfingham, Some judicious re- 
marks on bis Worics may be seen in Mr. A. Chalmers's EditioQ of 
the *' Biographical Dictionary/' vol. IV. p. 188. 

The following Lect^B w^re addressed to Mr. Vl^ilkes, with whom 
Mr. Baxter had commenced an aoquaintaace abroad, and witli' 
wboDLhe carried on afiriendly oorresppndence till hisown death : 

" Mt EIB4HB8T Mr. W|f.KBs, HlUittngJuwh Nov, . . 1749. 
'' I have employed my time, of late, in considering the dtfie- 
rence> or controversy, betweei) the English and Foreign PhikisQ^ 
phers, concerning the force of bodies moving in free spaces ; , 
which in its consequence spreads &r and wide through Natural, 
IPhilosophy, I have shewn demonstratively, that the experiments 
brought by the Forei^ Philosophers to establish their new theory, 
are applicable entirely to the English ccnnputation, which they. 
Ib^utifuhy illustrate^ find that these learned gentlemen have 
quite mistaken them. We talked much of this^ you may remem- 
ber, in the Capuchins* garden at Spa. I have fini^ed the prima^ 
cura of it, in the dialogue way ; and design to inscribe it to my 
dear John Wilkes -, whom, under a borrowed name> I have made 
one of the interlocutors. If you are against this whim, (which 
a pas^Batp love to you has made me conceive), I will drop it. 

Ill 



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76 IttUSTEATIONS OF LIT£RATtJRE. 

If the Author of *^ The Characteristicks'* comes 
in amongst the Lives in your Dictionary, it will 
oblige the publick, to explain the causes of that 
strange rancour and disgust that he appears (by a 
great many places of his Work) to bear to Mr. 
Locke and his *^ Essay." It the more surprized 
me, because Mr. Locke had been his tutor, and his 
grand&th^i^s particular friend ; and Le Clerc, who 
was well acquainted with both, seems, when he wrote 
the Life of Locke, not to have been apprehensive of 
any thing of this matter. Perhaps it is not every 
one that reads " The Characteristicks** that discovers 
this outrage to Mr. Locke. 

I see in a * Catalogue of French Books the Me- 
moirs of Talon, that was Advocate^jleneral of the 
Court of the Parliament of Paris, and afterwards 

In the mean time I shall publish an Appendix to the Enquiry, 
which you must give me leave to inscribe to you in the follow- 
ing manner : 

«' To John Wilkbs, of Aylesbury, in the County of 
Buckingham, Esquire. 
''Sir, The sulject of our conversation in the Capuchins* garden 
it Spa, in the summer of 1745, still lies by me in the dress it was 
first put in. 1 have not leisure, at present, to prepare it for the 
public view. In the interim, I send you the following sheets, as 
a token of my sincere respect It is a pleasure to think on the 
time we spent so agreeably together. 

*' I am. Sir, your most otoiient servant. And. Baxter.** 

" My dearest Mr. Wilkes, WhitHngham, Jan. 29, 1760. 
»* Your letter of December 12, 1749, alarmed me, by hearing 
you had had such a dangerous fell firom your horse. Moderate 
exercise is good : but dangerous exercise, such as riding a fiery 
horse, is not commendable: and if you would oblige Mrs. 
' Wilkes, if you would oblige all your friends, and all good men 
(who conceive great hopes fitmi you), you will be more cau- 
tious for the foture. We had a terrible instance in the news- 
papers lately, of a man who got his death by such a fell. 

" As to altering any thing in the address to you before the 
Appendix, I durst not do it without your participation ; unless 
you had suggested something which you would have chahged ; 
and by this time, I suppose, it b published. I wish you and 
Mn. Wilkes all poesible |)ro6perity, and am, &c. And. Baxter.'' 

Pre- 



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Uk. WAEBURTOK TO ME. BIRCH^ 77 

President h Martier. They are lately published^ 
and I do not find them mentioned in any of the 
Foreign Joumab that I have seen. IVay what cha- 
racter do they bear ? 

1 do not know whether you have had, or intend 
to have, an article in your Dictionary of Lord Cla- 
rendon. Though that foolish fellow Oldmixon be- 
trayed his ignorance, his malice, and his calumny, 
aboat the adulteration of that History ; and though 
I believe there were no additions to it; yet I am in- 
clined to think there were some omissions. One 
very momentous one, I am sure, I can shew with 
great clearness in another kind of way than he 
dreamt of. If it will be of any use to you in that 
Work, it shall be at your service. 

St. Austin's Works are, or were, lately printing at 
Venice. The Booksellers, I think, proposed that 
the Seventh Tome, which contained his " De Civi- 
tate Dei,** should be sold separately. I wonder 
whether it be out, and to be bought in town. 

I am, dear Sir, your very anectionate humble 
servant and friend, W. Warburton. 



LETTER IV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Thomas Birch. 

Dear Sir, Nov. 24, 1737- 

In compliance to your reauest, I shall throw to- 
gether a few scattered remarks, as they come into 
my head, without any manner of order, concerning 
Milton^s Character, and his Writings. 

Toland was a poor creature in all respects, and 
never manifested his malignity and folly more than 
in the Life of Milton. 

There is one egr^ious instance of it you will do 
well to avoid. He represents Milton*s moral cha- 
racter. 



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facter^ a» a member of sodeiy, to be exoelleti^ 
which was certainly the most corrupt of any man*8 
of that age. I do tiot say so on accotint of his either 
being a Presbyterian^ an Itidependent, a Republican^ 
for the Government of One (for many honest men 
were in every one of these ways), but because he was 
all these in their turn, as they came Uppermost, with- 
out (by any thing that appears to the contrary) a 
struggle or a blush« Imagine to yourself a thorough 
time-server, and you could not put him upon any 
taslc more completely conformable to that charac- 
ter than what Milton voluntarily underwent. For 
a Life-writer then to disguise this^ is, in my opi- 
nion, a horrid violation of truth. It is true, he was 
steady in one thing, namelv, in his aversion to the 
Court and Royal Family ; but I suspect it was be- 
cause he was not received amongst the Wits there 
favourably : he who was so far superior to them 
all. I take this to have been owing to- the stiffness 
of his style and manner, so contrary to that of the 
Court-Wits, who were enervating themselves on the 
model of France very fast ; for, you know, softness, 
easiness, and disengs^gedness, was the character of the 
Court Writers of that time. 

The virulency of his pen against his adversaries 
is certainly another blemish to that great man ; 
which) in " An Apology for the People of Eng- 
land," was abominable, as violating and degrading 
the character he sustained. 

^ His English pro^e style has in it something very 
singular and original. It has grandeur, and force, 
and fire ; but is cjuite unnatural, the idiom and turn 
of the period bemg Latin. It is best suited to his 
*^ English History ;" his air of antique giving a good 
grace to it. It is wrote with great simplicity, con- 
trary to his custom in his prose works, and is the 
better for it. But he sometimes rises to a surprising 
grandeur in the sentiment and expression, as at tli^ 
conclusion of the Second Book : *' Henceforth we 

arc 



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MR. WAKBURTON TO MR. BIRCIf. ^9 

are to steer,** &c. I never saw any thing equal to 
this, bat the conclusion of Sir Walter Raleigh's 
'' History of the World." 

He is the Author of three perfect pieces of Poetry. 
His ** Paradise Lost,** •* Samson Agonistes," and 
*^ Masque at Ludlow Castle.** The two dramatic pieces 
separately possess the united excellencies of this fa- 
mous Epic Poem ; lliere being in the last all the ma- 
jesty of sentiment that ennobles the Tragedy, and 
all the sweetness of description that charms in the 
Masque. Indeed the Tragedy (as in imitation of the 
Antients) has, as it were, a gloominess intermixed 
with the sublime (the subject not very different, the 
fell of two Heroes by a Woman), which shines more 
serenely in his *' Paradise Lost :*' as there rs in the 
** Masque^ (in which he only copied Shakespeare) a 
brighter vein of Poetry, intermrxed with a softness 
of description, than is to be found in the charming 
scenes of Eden. 

The " Paradise Regained** is a charming Poem; 
surely nothing inferior in the poetry and sentiment 
to the '^ Paradise Lost ;** but, considered as a just 
composition in the Epic way, infinitely inferior; and 
indeed no more an Epic Poem than his ^ Mansus/ 
* It is said that it appeared by a Manuscript in Tri- 
nity Coll^, Cambridge, now lost or mislaid, that 
he intended an Opera of the *^ Paradise Lost.** 
Voltaire, on the credit of this circumstance, amonorgt 
a heap of impertinences*, pretends boldly that lie 
took the hint firom a Comedy he saw at Florence, 
called ** Adamo;** and others imagine too he con- 
ceived the idea in Italy. Now I will give you good 
proof that all this is a vision. In one of his politi- 
cal pamphlets, wrote early by him, I forget which^^ 
he tells the world he had conceived a notion of an 
Epic poem on the story of Adam or Arthur. What 
then, you will say, must we do with the circum- 
stance of the Trinity College MS. ? I believe I can 

* fessay on Epic Poetry, p. 102, 

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So tttUStHATIONS OF UTEBATVUJL 

explain that matter. When the Parliament.got up« 
permosty they suppressed all playhouses ; on which 
Sir John Denham (I think) dnd others contrived to 
get Operas perfonned. This took with the people, 
and was much in their taste; and religious ones 
betns the favourites of that sanctified people, was, 
I believe, what inclined Milton, at that time (and 
neither before nor after) to make an Opera of it. 
This, I fancy, being the^case, I would have you con- 
sider whether the plan of the Tragedy which you talk 
of in the MS. was not indeed the plan of an Opera. 

Toland * makes Milton contract an intimacy with 
his Excellency Spanheim in the year l640, Span- 
heim being then but 1 1 ]^ears old ; and for proof re- 
fers to a letter wrote to him in 1654. If, therefore, 
Toland had any authority for a friendship contracted 
with a Spanheim at that time, it must have been Fre- 
derick Ezechiel, pastor of Geneva; and by the letter 
wrote to the son it appears he had some knowledge 
of the father. Hear now this wretch talks of Usher 
and Salmasius. Of the former -f-: *^ Now Usher's 
chief talent lyinp in much reading, and being a 
great Editor and admirer of old writings." &is 
chief talent was the truest judgment and most pro- 
found knowledge of Antiquity. Of the latter : — 
** this man had got a great name,** &c. p. 30, aa if 
he was not in rewity the greatest critic of his time, 
and as much superior to Milton in that way, as Mil- 
ton was to him in the subject they engagedf in. 

I once saw the first edition of the Masque at Ludlow 
Castle, without Milton's name to it, and found that 
it was dedicated by Lawes the great Musician who 
made the music for it : from whence I concluded 
that Lawes only employed Milton, and paid him for 
it, and took tne benefit of the Dedication. This 
shews his small acquaintance, or ill reception at 
Court. What is very odd is, the silence of his con- 
temporary Poets on his character. I mean before the 

« P^ 10 of hto life. t Ibid. p. 19. 

Restoration 



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Mir. WAHBUtTtM TO MR. mmcff. 81 

Risstoiraliofi. I obiervad Antbony it Wood knew of 
Milton's and Denbam*8 reciprocal services, which 
that silly creature the compound R* makes sitefa a 
bustle about as a discovery of his own. 

The « L'Allegro*' and " II Penseroso'' are cer^ 
tainly master-pieces ih their kind. You will see in 
Theobai(fs heap of disjointed stuff*, which he calls a 
Preface to Shakespeare, an observation upon those 
Poems, which I made to him, and which he did not 
understand, and so has made it a good deal obscure 
by contracting my note ; for you must understand, 
that almost all that Preface (except what relates to 
Shakespeare's Life, and the foolish Greek conjec- 
tures at the end) was made up of notes I sent htm 
on particular pa^sases^ and which he has there 
stitched tc^ether without head or tail. 

Of all his English Prose Tracts, those on Divorce 
are the best reasoned. In his controversy on the 
Times he is a horrid sophister ; but what was far 
naticism and cant in the rest of his party shiws 
itself in him in a prodigious spirit of poetical enthu- 
siasm ; and he frequently breaks out into strains as 
subKme, or if possible more so, than any in his 
higher Poetry. 

His " Apology for the Liberty of the Press** is in 
all respects a master-piece. 

The " Plan of Education, to Hartlib,** is a very 
noble one. 

You see how willing I am to serve you, while I 
can prevail with myself to write this loose disjointed 
stufi^ to you. I would have you consider it only ais 
hints^ that are entirely at your service to make what 
use you please of. 

I shall endeavour to give you what satisfaction I 

* Thk alludes to " Explanatory Notes and Remarks on Mil- 
ton's Paradise Lost ; by J. Richardson, Father and Son/* noticed 
hy Mr. Warburton in p. 32.— This publication, amonpt a variety 
of witticisms occasioned by an unlucky expression of the father, 
in apolo^zing for the performance, " that' he had looked into 
.the CJasdcs through his Son/' drew from the pencil of Hgg^h 
a satirical prints intituled^ *^ The G)mpound Richardson/' -.-^ ^**" 

voun.^^l// ^ o '^ / can, 



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can^ ui any thfng 3ml wotot to be tetisfied ui» on thfe 
•abject of Milton ; and am extremety glad you in- 
tend to write his Life. Almost all the Life-writers 
we have had, befons Toland and Des Maixeaux, are 
indeed strange insipid creatures ; and yet I bad ra- 
ther read the worst of them, than be obliged to go 
through with this of Milton's, or the other's Life of 
Boileau, where there is such a dull heavy sucoession 
of long quotations of uninteresting passages, that it 
makes their method quite nauseous. But the verbose, 
tasteless Frenchman seems to lay it down as a prin- 
ciple, that every Life must be a Book ; and, what is 
worse, it proves a Book without a Life ; for what 
do vTe know of Boileau itfter all his tedioi» stuffs 
You are the only one (and I speak it without a com- 
pliment) that, by the vigour of your style and senti* 
ments, and the real importance of your materials, 
have the art (which one would imagine no one could 
have missed) of adding agr^mens to the most agree- 
able subject in the world, which is. Literary History. 

The cause Shaftesbury's friends give for the ill 
treatment of his divine Master cannot be the true. 
Every body knows Locke's and the Chancellor s ha- 
bitudes in Holland. It is possible the papers m%ht 
incommode a timorous man, but in such cases it is 
certain he would have sent them thither to soiAe 
common friend. I am, dear Sir, your nK>st afiec- 
tionate humble servant, W. Warburton. 

P.S. You wtllgness, by the dirtiness of the psiper^ 
dns Letter has been wrote some time, which ia 
indeed true. But my business at my other livine ^ 
called me from home, and I am but just returned* 

LETTER V. 

To the Rev, Mr. Birch. 

Dbar Sir, M(n%k 8, 1737-8. 

I am vastly obliged to you for the favour of your 
(^o last The sending me Webster's wicked paper 

« Q. Frisby in lincoloshire^ or Grdsley« in Nottingfaaip^Mrel 
See before, p. 69. 

was 



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Mti. WAHittittoii to mt. ntux^. ts 

WM eAixbAmg kifid. The miserr of it is, mch sort 
of men Im^ve no amutieiit to lay hold of; and if yon 
expose their wickedness in the terms tt deserves, you 
are thought to oommunicate of their wiath and rni-^ 
eharitabfeoesa. Do you think it worth while to take 
any notice <rf him ?' Pray tell me. 

I was sorry to hearin yours no mention of the no^ 
Ue Edition you are preparing of Mtiton *; and the 
more^ that the Foreign Journals mention as if it was 
to come out with Tohtnd's Life. 

I hbpe to have tb6 pleasure of many an hour wi^ 
you t^is spring in town, where I have the thoughts 
of being about the beginning of next month ; but 
should be glad to hear from jrou first. 

I am, dear Sir, your most affectionate and obhged 
friend^ and humble servant, W. Warburton. 

LETTER VL 
To the Rev. Mr. Bikch. 

Dear Sir, March 23, 1 737-8. 

I received the very obliging favour of yours of the 
l8tb. The inclosed -f- very much surprized me; for 
I found, by several extravagant strokes in it, whose it 
wa^ ; and the Writer needed not (as he has since 
done) have acquainted me with my obligations. In a 
word, it is from a very intimate n*iend ; and that is 
the best excuse can be said for it. The worst is, 
those passages that give me. most offence prevented 
the Writer from giving me the least intimation of 

* This was, '* A complete Collection of the Historical, Politic- 
cal, and Miscellaneous Works of John Milton, correctly printed 
from the original Editions. To this is prefixed. An Hbtoricsil 
and Ckirical Acoount of the life and Writings of Mr. John Mil- 
Hm, by. Thomas Birch, M. A. and F. &. S. with an Appendix^ 
containing two Dissertations -, the first concerning the Author 
Cf'EiKtn Ba<nX*xi? : The Portfaicture of his Sacred Majesty in his 
Solitude and Sufferings } and concerning the Prayer of Pamela, 
subjoined to several Editions of that fiook ; the second, oon« 
ceming the Commission said to be given by King Cliarles I. in 
the Year 1641, to the Irish Papists, for taking up Arms against 
the Protestants hi Ireland." 

t A liCtter, proibably, printed in some Newspaper. 

G 2 his 



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84 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITBRATtJRF* 

his design. The writer is, as I say, ed old friend^ 
a Physician of great abilities *, and infinite worth 
and virtue; well acquainted with my most secret 
thoughts, an inveterate enemy to bigotry and perse- 
cution, and with all this surprizingly partial to his 
Friend; So that indignation, hate, and love all 
joined to produce the passionate apology you sent 
me. But the matter is not to be done by passion. 
And the best that can be said for it is, tnat it was 
the effect of the sincerest friendship that ever one 
man professed for another. I could not say less to 
you upon this occasion, but it is more than I would 
say to any one else: therefore I b^ you would 
make it a secret. You will receive more satisfaction^ 
I liope, from a short pamphlet now printing, which 
I wrote in vindication of. myself. 

What you have been told concerning Webster^s 
reprimand is true. You surprize me in what you 
say of Felton's-f- being the Author of the Letter; 
and though I have great assurance it was Webster's, 
yet I am half inclined to think Feltonhad some hand 
in this matter. I will tell you plainly why. Three 
quarters of a year ago I received a letter from Felton, 
which I now have by me, not directly to me, where, 
after many compliments, he desires to know my 
sentiments concerning the Jews' knowledge of a fu- 
ture state ; for that he would not willingly disagree 
with me; and, being then in a course of l^ermons at 
Oxford upon that Doctrine from the Creation to 
Christ, and having got through the time before the 
Lord, and arrived at that period, he desired I would 
communicate my sentiments to him on that point. 

In a word, the Letter in which this modest request 
was made was a strange heap of absurdities, which I 
knew not how to reply to. And communicating it^ 

* It does not appear who this PhysiciaD was. Perhaps Dr. 
Stukeley, or Dr. Robert Taylor. 

t Dr. Henry Felton, author of the " Dissertation on reading 
the Gassics/* was Rector of Whitwell in Derbyshire 5 and died 
March 1739-40, at. 61. 

to 



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l^R. \VARBURTOK TO MR. BIRCH. 85 

to a friend of gr^t worth. We told me his character ; 
and that tbe worthy Doctor had made himself so 
well known, both at Oxford, and at his Living at 
Derbyshire, that I might very well dispense with 
the honour of his acquaintance. On which account, 
I wrote a short but very civil answer to his Letter ; 
in which (as he particularly desired my opinion of 
his Sermons, which were sent with it for my peru- 
sal) I was very fiill in his commendations. How- 
ever, I heard he said, " be knew riot what to make of 
my Letter ;'' that is^ he could make nothing of it to' 
his purpose — 

Hinc ilia lackryma. 

* I am vastly pleased with your design in the Life 
of Milton ; particularly with the Appendices. 
Charles I, with all his faults, fell at last a sacrifice for 
the Church of England ; therefore I do not think 
a Minister of it can be employed in a worthier office 
than in his vindication. The first of these two af- 
fairs I have examined with great carefulness ; and I 
own I do not know what to think of it. We shaH 
have much talk about it when I see you. The 
other he was certainly clear in. But that is the 
circumstance by which I think I can certainly prove 
there has been one paragraph in Lord Clarendon*8 
MS History omitted in the printed one. I will 
tell you my reason at large, if I have not told it to 
you before, when I see you. I propose being in 
town by theh, or Easter week ; and am, dear Sir, 
Your very obliged and affectionate humble servant, 

W. Warburton, 

LETTER VIL 

To the Rev. Mr. Bir<:h. 

Dear Sir, Friday mornings April 14, 1738. 
I had the pleasure to hear you called upon me 
twice at Mr. Gyles*s. I should be glad to know 
whether he can have the pleasure of your company 

to-morrow 



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80 lUUSTRATIONf OF UTfiEATUEE. 

to-iiK»Tow evcDing, and where. If you will be to 
good to appoint me time and place, bj a letter to 
me, it will be a great pleasure to, dear Sir, • 
Yours most affectionatelj, W. Waeburton, 

LETTER VIIL 
To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, [April . . . 1738.]. 

I was surely unlucky not to meet with you tms 
third time. 1 will endeavour to be at home by sevens 
but, having after dinner some extraordinary unavoid* 
able business, if it should be half an hour or an hour 
later, I beg you will either stay at my lodgings, or 
l^ve w6rd wnere you choose I shall come to you. 
• Yesterday a youne gentleman, Mr. Fordyce, came 
^ m? from Mr. Professor Blackwell ; and informing 
me he. was acquainted with you, I told him I bad 
hopes of seeing you this evenmg, and that we should 
b^ glad of his company. I am in hopes you will find 
)iim at Mr. Gyles's about the same hour with your* 
^f, to keep you company if I should not chance to 
come at th^t hour. Dear Sir, yours most aflfeetion* 
«tely, W. Warburxx)n. 

LETTER IX. 
To the Rev. Mn Birch. 

Dear Sir, Newarhe, May 27, I738. 

I am greatly obliged to you for your kind Letter ; 
but I should have been bemrehand with you, had I 
not been prevented by one business or other. 

I do not know what you think in town of the 
Miscellany Papers*. But, I protest, the surprizing 
absurdity made me think that the people would 
imagine I gpt somebody to write booty, had not the 
equal virulency shown the Writer to be in earnest 

You surprize me much in what you tell me of 
the London Doctors 'bf my acquaintance. I can 

* Webster's '' Weekly Miscellany/' 

only 



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uk. WAunmTOM to ioi. mmau tj 

Mily asrare you, on the word of an booost antn^ tbejr 
expmsed themseltw in a direct oontmrjr maootr ta 
my feee; and fH^ended to seek ny acquaiManoe 
and friendship: but, as Donne says, 

'' Teach me to hear the Mennaid^s singini^y 
** And to keep off Eiivy*» stinging, 

*' And to find 

« What wind 
'' Serves to advanoe aa honest mind." 

'Now if this, learned and knowing in mankind 
as you are, you cannot do, why should I not be 
easy under the common lot of alt my betters ? 

You know the Eastern peopte denominate tbeir 
years from the remarkable transactions of it Una 
therefore I think should be called the^ffr o/'iS^miOfif « 
You will say it has infecled me^ when I teH yoo one 
of mine is now printing. In a word, I tbink it wUI 
be the best answer to M^ebster : it was preadied two 
years ago at the Bishop's Visitation fbr Coaftrma- 
tion : the title of it is, ^' Faith working fa^ Charity, 
&c/^ There is a long prefece to it,^ in which I five 
the occasion of the publication, and in wbii£ I 
work Venn * and Webster ^ in a manner (tfaoogii 
not equal to the highest provocation that ever waa 
given, yet) that they will have no reason to say 
that I sneak to them in an unorthodox manner. 

The truth is, I find gentlenesB does bnt niafc«t 
them insult the more. I have now tried ^notler 
way, and will^ not leave them. There is a seriona 
Postscript added, occasioned by t^ news of jonv Let- 
ter. I shall order two to you, ona for yonrself, and 
tlie otherforMr.Wray, with my most humble service*; 

I was desired by the Master of Peter {louse ;{:, 
who is about to publish Spenser, to e«quire whether 

« Racfaard Venn, oT Sidney Sinsex Col)^pi, CambrMfO; Abc- 
tor of St. Antho1ine» London, 1725; and'Authorof'' Tracts and 
Sermons on several Occasions, 1740." 

t Of whom see " literary Anecdotes/' vol. V. p. 160—175. 

J John Whalley,B.D. Fellow of Pembroke HaD J elected Mas- 
ter of Peter House 173«j Regius Professor of Dlvhiltf f74«. 
He died Dec. 1% 1748 j and was buried in the College Chapel. 

FentoD, 



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^ KLLUOTRATIOVS OF. UXB&ArUIJE. 

Fenton, who. pablUhed Waller, and he hears had 
an intention of pnblishing Spensa*, left any papers 
on that subject behind him, and how they are to be 
procured if he did. I take the hberty of applying 
to you, as the properest person to give me informa^ 
tion, whicli I pnall esteem a great favour. 

I told you, I think, I had several of old Lord 
Wharton*s papers. Amongst the rest is a MS. in 
his own hand^writing, a pretended translation of a 
AIS Amlogetical Epistle of Machiavel's to his 
friend J^nobio. It is a wonderful fine thing. 
There are the printer's marks on the MS. whioi 
makes me think it is printed. There is a P. S. of 
Lord Wharton's to it, by which it appears this pre- 
tended translation was designed to prefix to an English 
edition of his Works. As I know nothing of the 
English edition of Machiavel^ I beg you would 
make this matter out, and let me know. 

There are several Letters of Burnet, Bp. of Salis- 
bury : if you have not yet done his article, and make 
it in Salijfburj/j I will lend you his Letters : there 
are some singularities in the^\ *. They are wrote to 
Mrs. Wharton the Poetess, Lord Wharton's first 
wife, whom Burnet rapturously esteemed. 

I do not at aH forget the article of Shakespeare ; • 
but think of it more ot less every day. You shall, 
bear more soon from me on that head, 

I b^ my humble service to all friends, particu*- 
larly those at RawthmeU's coffee-house-f*. 1 hat So* 
ciety is the only thing, for which I regret my ab- 
sence from London. I am, dear Sir, your most afiTec^. 
tionate humble servant, W. Warburton, 

P. S. I am so much obliged to you for all your 
favours when I was last in town, that I choose the 
most conspicuoM part of niy Letter to return my 
dianks in. 

, * See hereafter, p. 98. 
t InHenrietti^ucet^Cotent-garte^ii of which see vol. I. p.34, . 

IJSTTUR 



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Hit. WAHBintTON TO int. iiKCH. 09 

LETTER X. 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Bbar Sir, May 29, 1738, 

I hope you received my last. You might perceive 

I was in a passion against Webster when 1 wrote ; 

but his last Letter against me has cured me of it; 

and I design to take no manner of notice of him ia 

the Preface of my Sermon. You will wonder at 

this odd kind of cure : but there is a certain point, 

at which when any thing arrives, it loses its nature ; 

so that what was before only simple calumny, appears 

now to be madness ; and I should have an ill oiBce 

to endeavour the cure of it. But the chief intent 

of this trouble is, to desire an answer to my last; and 

to assure you once again, which I never can do toa 

often, how much I am. 

Dear Sir, your most affectionate friend, and obe- 
dient servant, W* Warburton. 

LETTER XL 
To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 
Dear Sir, Newarke, June 17, 1738, 

As you told me in your last a sight of Burnet's 
Letters would not be disagreeable to you, I have 
sent them inclosed. There are twelve Letters and nine 
Poems. You will see a strange mixture of love and 
devotion, which perhaps will n^ake you believe the re- 
ports of him not quite groundless. Pray keep them 
safe. Inclosed too is a paper I just tore out of one 
of my books ; for it is in my way to write any obser- 
vation in the leaf of the book that is the subject of 
It. I had nut time to transcribe it. It contains two 
general remarks I made ; one on Newton's Theory 
of the Solar System, the other on his Theory of Co- 
lours *. As I imagine you are about his article, 

♦ A very learned and ingenious Gentleman, the Rev. Mr. War- 
burton, Author of The Divine Legation of Mo$ei demonHrated^ 
observes, in a remark cominUDicated to us, " that our Author's 
tivpothesi) af Light and Colours frees the Corpuscularian 

Philosophy 



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00 tuLvix^knom or liteiutui^«« 

if they be of any worth, you are welcome t^ 
them. 

I am, dear Sir, your most affectionate friend, and 
Very humble servant, W. Warburton. 



LETTER XII. 
To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Newarke, July^^ 173^* 

• I take the liberty of sending the inclosed, which 
I beg you would carry to Mr. Murray, of Lincoln's 
Inn. It is a case on which I want his opinion. I 
\ieg you would give him hoo guineas with it, which, 
on the favour of your answer, I will order to be 
thankfully repaid to you. I am, dear Sir, 

Your very affectionate humble servant, 

W. Warburton. 

LETTER Xm. 

To the Honourable W. Murrav, Esq. in 
Lincoln's Inn *. 

Sir, Newarhe-upon-Trenty July 3, I738. 

When I was in town in spring, I did myself the 

honour of taking your advice for a friend. I take 

the same liberty again. It is for the same person ; 

only, as that concerned his fortune^ this concerns his 

Philosophy from the embarrass of an argument which ArbCotle 
bitHigfat i^aimt that doctrine of sen$ikk qualities being the result 
{^thefirnires and dispositions 0/ the insensibie parts or atoms, to 
this purpose; that, if so, the variety of the figures and disposi- 
tions of the insensible parts being infinite, it would fbllow, that 
the species of coloure should be infinite likevme. But Sir Isaac's 
Uypothesuy whi(di makes Colours the innate property of the rays- 
of light, and that different kinds of rays originally and immu- 
tably assert a colour peculiar to themselves, entirely takes off 
the ft)roe of this argument;* Birch s Life of Newton, in the 
Bistorical Dictionary, voL VU. pp. 793, 794. 
« From the Originsa, in Birch MSS. 4397. 19. 

mistressV. 



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MiU WAEBUIITON TO Mft. BIIICH« $1 

mistress's. I have ordered tbe bearer to give yoa 
two guineas ; aod %m. Sir, your very obedient hiiow 
We servant, W. Warbuei^v. 

LETTER XIV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Jultf 13, 1738. 

I received the favour of yours of the Sth, with 
Mr. Murray's opinion incbsed, for which I retam 
yon. many thanks. Be so good, when you go nex^ 
through Lincoln's Inn, to call on Mr. Robert At'* 
kinaon, attorney, and he has orders to pay you two 
guineas for me, by the direction of Mr. Twells of 
Newarke. 

It is a great pleasure to me thygit such judges as you 
approve of my Sermon, and almost as great that my 
enemies are such as Webster. As I am fully re- 
solved for the future not only not to answer, but 
even not to read> any thing that wretch writes 
against me, his putting his name io what he does 
will be of use to me. I wish you could contrive 
that that should come to his ear. 

He was at Cambridge a Uttle while a^o, and was 
treated with so geneial a contempt ana neglect on 
many accounts, as well m his own College as every 
where else, that he had the madness to tell them 
publicly he was sorry they had a greater regard for 
me than for Christianity ; and when once asked whe- 
ther he really thought I meant to ridicule Chrisfs 
riding to Jerusalem in the mention of Baccbus*s 
servant on an ass; he said, " he would sooner have 
cut off his right hand than mentioned i^anthus as 
Uid." 

What you tell me of the Bishop of London very 
much snrjM-izes me, because he said the direct con* 
trary to myself to what your acquaintance told yoa 
he said to him. 

I hava 



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^ ILLUSTRATIONS dF LITfiRATURB. 

I bare not seen Webster's Circular Letter [to the 
BishopsJ. Pray, when you go to Mr. Gyles's shop, 
desire bimto send it me. 

You are not only at liberty to use Burnet's Let- 
ters, but the Originals are at your service, and 1 de- 
sire you to accept them. I have some other papers, 
as Mrs. Wharton's Letters to her husband, but they 
have little in them ; and the Depositions taken on 
the late Duke's Marriage with Mrs. Holmes, and 
Counsel's opinion on them, with some other papers: 
if they will be acceptable to you, they likewise are 
»t your service, and 1 shall desire your acceptance 
of them ; being, dear Sir, your most affectionate 
friend, and verv humble servant, W. Warburton. 



LETTER XV. 
To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, ^ug. 7, 1738. 

Not hearing from you since my last, I much 

doubted its coming safe. In it I desired you would 

call on Mr. Robert Atkinson, Attorney, of Lincoln's 

Inn, for the two guineas you was so good to lay 

down for me. I mentioned in it too some other 

might be acceptable to you. If 

few notes to be put into Shake- 

ome together. 

d either send that Whitehall 
hich is Webster's Letter to the 
the two places in which he so 
5 the Clergy, with the date of 

I had the pleasure of a letter from Mr. Fordyce, 
for which I beg you will make him my compliments. 
Had his address been in it, I should not have neg- 
lected to answer it. I am, dear Sir, your very affec- 
tionate friend, and humble servant, W. Warburtok. 

letter 



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MR. WARBURTON TO WBL BIRCH. j^ 

LETTER XVL 
To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Aug. 27, I738. 

I received the favour of your last, with the in- 
closed Newspapers, for which I return you my 
hearty thanks. 

I have sent you up, by the return of the Newarke 
viraggon, carriage paid, a packet in which are the 
papers I promised you; and 1 desire your acceptance 
of them. The principal of them are, the MS 
Epistle of Machiavel which I told you of before. — A 
Ms. of Waller on Divine Love, as he first wrote it. 
It affords one material emendation of the printed 
books, which read. Canto V. 

Who for himself no miracle would make. 
Dispensed with SBV£RAL for the people's sake; 

So Fenton reads it. But the MS. says rightly, 

Dispens'd with Nature. 

With several is nonsense. — Mrs. Wharton's Letters, 
— A Tragedy. — Some Papers of State about the 
Irish affairs. — Lord Wharton's Epitaph on his Bro* 
ther, which has something singular in it. — Informa- 
tions about the late Duke of Wharton's marriage 
with Miss Holmes. — Bundle of Poems. 

With these Ihave put, as I promised you, some 
observations on Shakespeare for your Life of him. 
As you intend to insert into -the Life Mr. Pope's 
Preface, I have thrown them into notes to several 
parts of that Preface, where he speaks either of the 
character of the Poet, or the condition of his 
Works ; illustrating Mr. Pope's observations by ex- 
amples. This is in two or three sheets of paper, 
and I fancy you will think that the emendations 
and observations I there make, do not a little con^ 
tribute to raise our idea of that wonderful Poet. I 
should be obliged to you, in introducing these notes 
into your Life, if you would take notice iiua proper* 
way, that I intend to give a complete new edition of 
* ' his 



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04 ILLVBTRAtlONS Of LITfiIlATURB« 

his Plays ; for I have a mind fhd publick should 
know it. . « 

I come now to your very agreeable and entertain- 
ing Letter. The rhaenomenon of the young Lady* 
under twenty is indeed a very extraordinary one. 
But jrou forget to mention one particular, that per* 
haps is of more importance to her than all her Greek 
and Latin, that is, whether she be handsome. 

What a happy thing it would be if we could send 
over on a mission some of our hot zealots, to cool 
themselves in an Indian savanna * ! 

The fanaticism of some of these Missionaries gave 
birth to a very serious thought, which you will find 
in the second edition of the Divine Legation, now 
printing ; therefore 1 shall not repeat it here. 

As to my second volume^ I go on with it festi" 
nanttr lenti. As the first volume contained a View 
of Pagan Religion and Philosophy, so the second 
will be of the Jewish^ and the third of the Christian. 

I was told I could buy the late Edition of ^/ Ste- 
phens's Latin Thesaurus*' pretty cheap in town, 
especially if it could be contrived to buy six toge- 
ther. If this be so, and you would buy me one, 
the money should be thankfully returned by, dear 
Sir, your very affectionate and sincere friend and 
humble servant, W. Warburton. 



LETTER XVIL 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Sept. 16, 1738. 

I received the favour of your obliging Letter of 
the 7 tfi instant. Your sentiments of the Methodists 



* MidsEUrabeth Carter, the ingMioutl^iMbtor of EpkteCo^ 
See Yaat Uitiii verMi '< In Birchaum/* Qmi. Mag. voK IX. p. 4. 

t Mr. Warbuiton colaq^ this aenliment in a letter he wioto 
a few days after to Mr. Des Maiseaux; s^ before, p. 66. 

are 



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MIR; WAmBURTOH TO ME. BUtCS. $5 

&re uDqoestionably ^ht; and of their onginal, 
ftom a discouDtenaDGed party. Fanatieiam ris^ 
Iroffl oppression ever. A coople of these Method- 
ists, of which Wesley was one, trarelling itito tlua 
neighbourhood on foot, took up their k>dging with m 
Cle^man of their acquaintance. The master d 
the house going into their chamber ia the momii^ 
to salute them, perceiTed their cfaambei^pot full oC 
blood; afid^ on asking the occasion, was toU it was 
tkelr method^ when the blood grew lebeilioiis, to 
draw it off, by breathing a vein, in this marnKf— ^ 
that they had been heat^ with travel, and thought it 
proper to cool themselves. If common report may be 
credited, the men from whom they sprung, as HickeS' 
and Collier^ bad a more natural way of evacuation. 

I was vastly pleased with so great a curiosity as 
the young Lady's * Latin Letter : it is indeed very 
pretty* 

Not long since I received a pamphlet from Mr. 
Baxter, of which only 30 copies have been printedl 
at Edinburgh, intituled '^Matho." It k u Latia 
Dialogue^ between him and his Pupil conoeming 
the true system of the Universe, and its close and 
immediate dependence on its Creator ; in which be 
endeavours to bring down the Newtonian principles 
to the capacity of a boy of 12. You will judge such 
a capacity to be a prodigy. However, he has ex- 
plained them in a wonderful familiar manner, and 
at the same time with vast clearness and precision. 
I hope be will make it more public ; it is of great 
'«6e to the young people of the Universities, most 
of whom, for want of applying to the mixt mathe* 
matics) never get any clear idea of the Newtonian 
4yslem all their life long. In a word, it is a very 
beautiftil thing, and worthy the Author. He tells me 
he has a Second Part of the ** Inquiry,*' which con- 
cerns the souFs immortality; but he does not give 
me hopes of its speedy publication. 



* Mils nhabeth Csrter } ese p. 94. 



J am 



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S9 tlXUSTRATIOKS OF LITUIATURE^ 

I am very glad dimt the papers on Shakespeare 

Jikase you* Inclosed you will receive a sheet more ) 
hvy as this is designed as a kind of 8|)ecimen, I 
thought it proper to give a taste of all the several 
kind of Notes. These are disposed in the same 
manner as the other ; as notes on particular passages 
in Mr. Pope*s Preface. You will see 1 struck out 
some after I reviewed the paper, merely because I 
would not swell it too much, and take up too much 
of your room. 

I am, dear Sir, your most afiectionate an<} obedi- 
ent humble servant, W. War burton. 

P. S. I desire you would alter and transpose the 
notes as you see proper ; and be so kind to correct 
all the mistakes and bad language, which must be 
numerous, they being wrote in a great hurry. 

I have seen Whitefield's Journal, and read it with 
great curiosity. The poor man is quite mad. I • 
oould not but take notice of some very ridiculous 
expressions he uses : as that " the more you do for 
God, the more you may ;" and that " he never ftnds 
himself so well as when he is on the full stretch ^ 
♦ ♦«*«* — that the officers suffer him to put 
in a word for God.'* 



LETTER XVIir. 

To the Rev. Mn Birch. 

Dear Sir, Sept. 30, 1738. 

As I desired you would mention my intent of 
giving an edition of Shakespeare's Plays j;, of which 
I have a vast number of emendations and explana- 
tions, I thought it would not be improper to take 
notice what there would be in the Edition ; besides^ 

t The MS. where torn. 

t The Observations on Shakespeare, which occupy 21 folio 
Mges, in Mr. Wai4>urton*s hand-writing, are preserved (among 
Pr. Birch*s Letter^) in the British Museum. 

it 



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kR. W4&BURT6N TO^ MR. BIRCH. gj' 

it would sheMr at the s^ihe time bow the oorrectioti 
of the Author was conducted. I have drawn 
tip something to that purpose on this sheet ; which 
if you will tBke the trouble of reformings correcting^ 
and abridgin£^) if it be too long^ as you will see oo^ 
casion, I shall be greatly obliged to you* . You see 
it is written^ not as in my name, but in yours. 

When you do me the favour to let me hear next 
from you^ I b^ you would let me know what cha* 
racter Mr. Fourmont's ^^ Reflexi<ms Critiques sur 
les Histoires des anciens Peuples** has, that was pub- 
lished at Paris^ two or three years ago, in two vo- 
lumes quarto. 

I am, dear Sir, your very afiectionate friend and 
obedient servant, W. Warburton. 

LETTER XIX 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Peb. ig, 1738-9* 

I received the iavour of your last very kind Letter^ 
in which you tell me the most agreeable piece of 
news I have heard this long time; and that is, that 
the men of Learning * have the sense to be desirous of 
Invoking the destiny of your friends in your loss. I 
Was glad to hear that any part of the afiair rested 
with Mr. Gyles. I have wrote to him, and men- 
tioned Thurloe's Papers as a piece of news I had 
heard of, and that Mr. Birch was likely to be em- 
ployed in the publication, and what a pleasure it 
would be to me if it was so. 

I am almost ashamed to enter upon what I am 
now going to say. You know I lentyou some shat- 
tered papers of Duke Wharton. The^ were given 
me, wTien I was last in town, by a relation of mine, 
Mr. Twells of Newarke, an Attorney, who was thfen 
in town with me. He had them from some Attor^ 

* The Society for the Encouragement of Learning. 
. VOL. Ji. H * ney, 



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• 



ffS lALUBtltAtlb^ 09 LllrfeRATURE. 

ney, I know twit whom. However, Aw Attorticy 
now pretrodi he only lent them to him, and says, the 
IVmtees 6f Lord Wharton's effects are to review all 
his papers, and that he shall want these. My Bro- 
ther Twells says, he gave them to him. However, 
he thought them such trifling things, that he had a 
mind t<^ oblige htm with them agaiit, and so spoke 
to me about them. I told him, I had given them 
away, and to whom* He aske^ me if the gentleman 
would let me have them again. I told him I be- 
lieved yes ; and, as he comes to town this spring, I 
would write to you about it. Now, if you have them, 
I should be obliged to you to let them have their 
trumpery again, if it be much pressed and desired ; 
that is, so much as you care to part with : but, if 
there be any thing amongst them you have a mind to 
keep, the remainder, 1 suppose, would satisfy them ; 
for, 1 dare say, these Attorneys remember no more 
than that there was in gross some Letters of Burnetts, 
some of Mrs. Wharton's, some Poems * ; and, it is 
likely, above all, the Depositions about the young 
Duke's marriage. I was never more vexed at a trifle 
in my life. But this it is to have to do with Attor- 
neys. It puts me so much out of humour, that I 
can say no more at present but that I am, dear Sir, 
Your most affectionate and most fkithful servant, 

W. Warburton. 

LETTER XX, 
For the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, March 9, 1 738-*. 

The inclosed scrap is for your private perusal. I 
imagined it might be useful to ypu to know how you 
stand with Mr. Gyles, who I think is an ^nest 

^ It m a fittle remarkjMe, that tbeie Letters and I^ms should, 
Wer sa intoval of nearly eighty years, have eoiae into my hnrtdn, 
through a very different channel. See the Memoirs of WUliam 
HutchinwD, esq. F. S. A. io the First Volume of this Work. 

man. 



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MU. WARBtJkTdlf to MR. BIRCH. 99 

*to. And to btidg two honest men together in the 
Ktertry way, may not only be of use to both of them 
in their transactions, but will certainly be of great 
benefit to the world. 

I am, dear Sir, with the most perfect esteem, 
YotirFeryaffectionatefnend,ate. W. Warburtok. 

LETTER XXL 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Cambridge, Jpril6^l739. 

The favour of your obliging Letter of March 31, 
was sent me from the cotmtry to this place, whither 
the hard necessity of consulting bookd only to be 
met with here has brought me. I wrote to you 
amidst the strange mixture of entertainment and 
sftudy, between tne College ftalls and Libraries. 
But my nights are so long, and my mornings so 
short, that I am like to return as wise as* I came ; 
which will be in a very few days. 

I am obliged to you as to what you say of the 
Ihike of Wharton's papers, if they be called for. 
However, in such case, I would have you take what 
ou like. — 1 am glad to see so fine a collection asThur- 
oe*s Papers are put into your hands. I mentioned 
those Papers in the Coffee-house here, as very curi- 
ous. Diavy of Sidney *, and Salter +, and some others, 
spoke of them as not so ; but tlie wisest reason I 
could get for their opinion was, that Lord Somers 
did not publish them himself, who was the Collector. 
Are not these good reasons ? 

Dr. Middleton gives his humble service to you. 

I could wish^my Four Letters in Defence of Mr. 
Pope were published together in a pamphlet. I 
fency they would make a sixpenny one. I would 
only reform and correct them, but learve them in the 
pcesent form of distinct Letters. Who has the pro- 

* No Graduate of that name occiu«. 

t Of whom see the " literary Anecdotes/' vol. III. p. 3«5. 

H 2 p^^y 



I 



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100 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE* 

perty of them ? If Robinson *, I would be obliged 
to you if you acquainted bim with my desire; and, 
if ever he expects any thing more from me, he must 
comply with it. You may see by the Third Letter 
that I intended to have given an explanation of the 
Reasoning of the Fojir Epistles ; but, on examining 
them, I found all intelligible enough, except the First 
and Introduction to the Second; and this explained, 
it was a key to the rest; and, as you know my mind 
fully in this matter, if you would be so good as to 
give a short preface, or advertisement, before them. 
It would be their best recommendation to the world. 
I very much desire it may be done ; and if it is to 
be done by Robinson, I beg you would give him to 
understand that I do so« 

I hope the Weaver will unravel all the perplexed 
nonsense of Chubb, who has fairly reasoned himself 
out of Christianity. The Poems of Miss Carter are 
excellent. But there is another reason that makes, 
me impatient to see this collection which I am en- 
quiring after, and that is page 126 of the 2d volume. 

Be so good to tell Mr. Gyles, when you see him, 
that I would not have Herwart, nor an imperfect 
edition of Spanheim's Julian. 

Peck's Advertisement has been an unexhaustible 
fund of mirth in this place ; and I do not doubt but 
our good friend Mr. Wray -f- had his share of it. He 
seems to have had a design of confirming what I said 
of the Poem of Liberty, that it was his own, where 
he says, that " he will give the reasons that induced 
him to pitch upon Milton for the author ;" which 
implies that, it being his own property, he had a 
rignt to |ive it to whom he pleased ; and he pitched 
upon Milton as the man most in his favour whilst he 
was writing blank verse. But his joining Herod 
tlie Great to it, which is undoubtedly his own, as- 

- * Jacob Robinson, Boolneller, in Fleet-street, publisher of tbe 
" Works of the Learned," in which the Four Letters first appeared. 
He was uncle to the late George Robinson, of Paternoster-row. 
t Daniel Wraj^ e^q. of whoio see ample paemoirs in voh L 

pertain^ 



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MR. WARBURTON TO MR. BIRCH. 101 

certains the property ; a poem^ as well as a man, 
being to be known by his company. On which I 
will venture to pronounce condemnation in due form 
of Law — that it shall return from whence it came. 
From a dunghill, he says, he received it; and to a 
dunghill it shall go, let him print upon as stiff i^-^ 
pefr as be pleases. In this case I am as clear and 
positive as the famous Etymologist, who said, *' he 
not only knew from whence words came, but whi- 
tlier they were going.** 

I am^ dear Sir^ yours most aflfectionately, 

W. Warburton. 

LETTER XXIL 
To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dbar Sir, April 23, 1739. 

I am much indebted to you for the favour of 
yours of the 14th instant. 1 had some account of 
Romaine's preaching his Sermon; but its publication 
was news to me; as perhaps it will to you, to know 
that I verily beiieve a^Letter (for which I refer you 
to Mr. Gyles, to whom 1 have sent a copy by this 
post) wrote to me last October from £psom, and 
signed PF. Romaine *, was written by tnis honest 
man. If it proves so, J shall print the Letter as a 
Supplement to thie Sermon, and that shall be all the 
notice I shall take of it. In order to know whether 
it be his Letter, the other side Is a Letter to him, 
which I desire you would tell Mr. Gyles 1 would 
have so contrived that we m^y have proof that be 
received it If he owns the writing the Letter, it 
may be printed from the coipy (a very literal one, 
even to mistakes apd abbreviations) I have sent Mr. 
Gyles ; and in such case I will send him the origi- 
nal, to be seen by any one who has the curiosity. I 
beg of your friendship to assist Mr. Gyles, and put 
him in a way to have the Letter acknowledged 
or proved. If it be denied, I shall forthwith send 

* 1^ the Hote in p. 103r 

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lOQ I1XUSTEATI0V8 OF LITSRATURE. > 

up the original, to be shewn to somebody who knows 
his hand ; for I dare say you will judge, by tlie style 
and the arguments, it was wrote by the Author 
of the Sermon. 

I am much obliged to you for the business of the 
Four Letters. I have by this post sent Mr. Robia^ 
son the corrections. I shall depend on your frieud- 
ship in' directing the publication, and would have 
my name still conceal^. I wrote to Mr. RobinsoQ, 
to act by your directions. 

As my esteem fo> you is well known at Cam- 
bridge, I have had two messages from old Mr. Ba- 
ker, of St. John's, to let me know he had a Life, or 
some Papers relating to a Life, of the famous Peter 
Baro, of Cambridge, which, if they would be ac- 
ceptable to you, he would send me. I am ashamed 
to tell you the times of these two messages. The 
first was this time twelvemonth (which I shamefully 
forgot to tell you of), the other was the time I was 
at Cambridge. If you have any use or inclination 
for them. Twill send to Mr. BaKer, and get them. 

I am glad to hear what you tell me of Thurloe's 
Papers. I imagined no less ; but I then shewed 
those gentlemen * the folly of the imagination from 
their own reasons they used of their belief. 

I am, dear Sir, your most affectionate, and most 
faithful friend and servant, W. Warburton. 

If this Letter proves to be this Romaine's, I think 
it will admit no doubt it was wrote with the diabo- 
lical design to entrap me; and, if so, I dare say 
Webster nad a handm it. I wish you could find 
whether there be any thing in my suspicions. One 
thing I must tell you, that, in my answer to the 
Letter, I told Bomaine, " that it was a necessary part 
of my scheme to prove that the antient Fathers and 
Patriarchs had a knowledge of a future state, and of 
redemption by the Messiah." I mention this, be- 
cause, I am tdd, in the Sermon it is said " that I have 

* See before, y. 99. 

greatly 



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greatly smued MRJiMt the Seyentli Artick of Reli- 
gion/* If it snouid happen ihstA R&mdine 19 in 
town, ai^ owns hi^ writinp; to ine> i woarki^ if tkem 
be time, h«?6 the Letter thrown ii^ ^^ The Hitl<H 
rical Works of the hs^rmd" for this Apftl, with 
the N. 3. at th^ end^, and what title yau think jito^ 
per^ which I shall be miioli obliged to yon for. 



LETTER XXIIL 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

DearSw, ^pril^, If 39* 

I received a Letter from Mr. RoDinson the post 
after that of yours, which tells he would make ^ 
shilling pamphlet of the Letters, which will make 
it needful to lengthen it out with a Preface. You 
know I took the liberty of asking such a thing of 
you. I know your multiplicity of business. If, 
upon that account, or any Qther, such a thing be 
inconvenient, be free; and use me as a friend; and 
I will assure you I should take even a refusal as %n 
instSance of friendship, because I know yqu wonki 
hesitate to refuse a man you was only upon terms of 
ceremony with. If you do not do it, Mr. Robin- 
son must. Lest you cpuld not do it, I mentioned 
it to him, that Mr. Pope ipust be treated wjth much 
distinction, without any hipt or hesitation of dislike 
of him : and I will tell you why I did it. He ima* 
gines himself not well used by Mr. Pope, on some^c- 
count or other that happened about ^ pir^tpd editioa 
of Mr. Pbpe's things^ in which he served Mr, Pope.— » 
t hope you received one from me by the l^st ppst, and, 
tiiat we shall ferret out the JPpsom Letteriwriipr. , 

* Mr. Romaine's Letter, wirtitbe Answer to it, accompanied 
by Mr. WarlMtrtoi|*9 V. 0. a]H>e9ifil in the 'MVo^s dt tha 
Learned" for August 1739 ; and ixiay be 8|iep Y^iH^** Ij^timn 
Anecdotes," vol, V. pp* 554—553. 



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104 fLLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE, 

It 18 the sport, to see the Ingencer 
Hoist with bis own petar — 
says Shakespeare. If it was he, never was there a 
more execrable scoundpel. Do you think I can out- 
live such a dead-doing fellow who calls down the 
secular arm upon me ? If I do, it will be, in mere 
spight, to rub another volume of, the Divine Lega-t 
tion in the noses of Bigots and Zealots. 

I am, dear Sir, your affectionate and faithful hum-r 
hte servant, W, Warburtqn, 

LETTER XXIV, 
To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, June 7, 1739- 

I have your kind Letter of the 12th to acknow-^ 
ledge. I have wrote to Cambridge for Baro's pa- 
pers, which I suppose I shall have by the first conr- 
yenience of carriage ; an4 then th^y shall b^ coa- 
veyed to you. 

I thank you for the intelligence you give me of 
ftomaine ; bnt he has most amazingly betrayed the 
Scoundrel in his remarks on my publication of his 
Letter. The owning himself a Rogue so plainly as 
to confess he was not in earnest m the Letter he 
wrote, is such a hardened confession of villainy 
i^s one seldom meets with out of Newgate. But his 
complaining of my want of decency in publishing 
his Letter without his leave is incomparable. We 
may expect to hear the same complaint in a little 
time from our Incendiaries, when their Letters are 

Eublished without their leave. And I do him an 
onour in the comparison ; for they are honester 
men than this Church Incendiary. They generously 
declare their enmity, i^re true to their companionSj^ 
and commonly better than their word. But this 
fellow wears the mask of friendship, hetratf$ hia 
Brethren, and is kindling a faggot for you, while he 
pretends to offer incense. 

If you could get bis Letter, and the N, B. and his 

ref I7 



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MR. WAEBUHTOK TO MR. BIRCH. 10$ ' 

reply to it, inserted in the Gentleman^s Magazine^ 
I should be much obliged to you. [See p. 109.] 

Mr. Coventry's Third Dialogue I nave seen. It 
is a sprightly, polite thing. But, I don't know how 
it is, that eternal imitation of Shaftesbury's manner 
of expression (which, though strong and forcible, is 
stiff and affected) disgusts one. J did not think 
that the best part of " The Life of Homer.*' As (br 
the rest, Mr. Coventry is a man of extreme good 
sense. One thing I wonder at is, his following the 
common notion, that the early Egyptians refined in 
their Theology about physical entities. This is all 
a Greek invention, afterwards adopted by the Egyp- 
tians under the Greek Monarchs, and by I|iter Fia- 
tonic Greeks fetched from th^n^e as the true staple 
ware of Egypt." You know I have touched upon 
this in my book ; but could prove it to demonstra- 
tion. Vossius and Burnet seem to have misled him: 
the first, though very learned, had not much acu- 
men ; and Burnet, though infinitely ]ngeniou3, had 
but little judgment, A far greater man than these 
is indeed of the same opinion; namely, Cudworth; 
but it favoured his darling notion of the Pagans 
worshiping only one God under various symbols ; 
so he indulged himself in it. It is an error of great 
importance. Much depends on it. So I don't 
know but I may have an opportunity of settling the 
point in my next Volume ; though I ^m not certain 
whether I shall have roon). 

I am vexed at Robinson. Mr. Pope sent m^ 
^ord to send him the sheets as they came from the 
pi^ss to correct, because of my absence. But be 
wfites me word, Robinson never sent them. This 
rnter nos; for I haye wrote to Robinson about it. 

What you say of Peck puts nje in mind of a good 
lively thing, «/erry Wdrd*^ of Trinity, sai4 on one 
Article of his Proposal, which ivas this : 

* There is no Jerry Ward in the list of Graduates. It was 
probably a College Nickname. — Probably JBdtoarcf-Jiimef Ward> or 
John Ward, berth of Trinity. 



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106 IIXUSTRATIOKS OF JUiT£EATUA]»« 

C. xvjf An Attempt of ^mething to/wards an 
Bpitaphjor Mm [MiltoqJ. 

I was reading the Proposals in public company ; 
and, when I came to this article, we were doubtful 
what be could mean : at lengthy Jerry Ward ex- 
plained it, and said, he meant a grave^stone. 

What you say of ^^ Straffi>rd's Letters*' is extremely 
curious, and I have great reason to think if true, I 
am glad to hear Thurloe's Papers are so valuabte ; 
and so much worth your time to digest. 1 find th« 
^orld in great expectation of them. 

J ^m, my dear friend, yours most affectionately, 

W. Warburton, 



LETTER XXV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, July 12, 1739* 

I hkve inclosed Mr. JQ^ker^s paper about Baro. 
Mr. Tunstall *, who sent it me, writes thus: ** I have 
sent you the inclosed from Mr. Baker. He has 
transcribed these, and many more, into his books; 
which other particulars if Mr. Birch shall desire^ 
no one is more communicative than Mr. Baker. I 
l^ad to him the paragraph of your letter, and h^ 
phewed an extreme readiness to oblige your friend^ 
^nd sent me the inclosed the next morning ; which 
I reserved to Mr. R's coming. He did not say any 
tiling afi^inst a public acknowledgement, so thk is 
left to Mr, Birctfs discretion," So Jar Mr.TunstalK 
The good old gentleman has indeed beep very 
obliging to me on all occasions. He is said to Imve 
vast materials in the Historical way, especially Me^ 
moirs of Cambrixlge Learned. If you think it worth 
your while, as he is so very eommunicative, yoa 
have now an opportunity of beginning a correspond- 
ence with him : I dare say it wilt be well received. 

* Of wbom see the '* litei^y Aoecdote^^ vol. 11. p. 166. 

. Th« 



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HR. WARBVETOK TO MR« B|RCii. lOJ 

The people of St. John's almost adore the man ; 
for, as there is much in him to esteem, much to 
pity, and nothing (but his virtue and learning) to 
envy ; he has all the iustice at present done him that 
few people of merit nave till they are dead. 

Yoy will find, in Bayle's Article oSTavernier, 
Hyde quoted as accusing him of a plagiary, for 
stealing from a Latin book of Travels, printed in 
Germ^uiy ten years before, of P. Gabriel ae Chinon. 
]3ut, had Hycle had any sense, as he had not, he 
might easily have seen, from Tavemier himself, 
that the accusation was unjust, This P. Gabriel de 
diinon was Taverniers particular friend* with whom 
he left his nephew at Touris, to learn the Turkish 
and Persian languages. (See the first Voluvie of his 
TraveK la Hay^, J 718, p. 536.) * This Gabriel (in 
another pUce I think he tells us) gave him Memoiis 
of Persia, which I suppose afterwards, and before 
Tavemier 8 publication, he hiipself published in 
Latin. Tl^is is the whole of tlje mystery, and 
Tavernier is fairly acquitted. If you have fead 
Herbert's account of the last days of Charles th^ 
First's JLife, you must remember be telte a story of 
a diamond sekl with the arms of England cut in it. 
This King Charles ordered to be given to the 
Prince. I supptose you don't know what became of 
this seal ; but would be surprized to find it after- 
wards in the Court pf Persia, Yet there Tavernier 
certainly carried it, and oflfered it to sale, as I cer- 
tainly collect from these words, p. 541 of Uie said 1st 
Volume, " Me iouvenant de ce qui ^XoxX am*^ a^ 
Cheralier de Reville,'' t)e tells us, be teld 1^ Prtme 
Minister what was engraved on the diamond ivma 
the arms of a Prince of i^rope; but, says fee, I 
would not be more particular, remembering the case 
of Seville. ReviUe^a case was this : he oame to seei^ 
employment under the Sophy, who aakcd him 
^^ where he had a^ved?" He said, ^^ In England, msder 
Charley the Firat;\^nd tbat he was a<^tatn in tfaf 

Guards,** 



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}08 illustrahons of literature. 

Guards.** '^Whydid you leave his service?'* "He was 
murdered by cruel Rebels." '* And how had you the 
impudence/' says the Sophy, " to survive him ?** And 
«o disgraced him. — Now Tavernier was afraid, if he 
had said the Arms of England had been upon the 
Seal, this would have occasioned the enquiry into 
the old story. You will ask how Tavernier got this 
Seal ? 1 suppose the Prince, in his necessity, sold 
it to Tavernier, who was at Paris when the English 
Court was there. What made me recollect Her- 
bert's account, on reading this, was the singularity 
of an imprese cut on a diamond, which Tavernier 
represents as a most extraordinary rarity. Charle3 
the First, you know, was a great Virtuoso, and de- 
lighted particularly in Sculpture and Painting. 

1 don't know what to make of Robinson's delay 
in printing the Letters. Pray see that he does not 
impose on you and me about Mr. Pope's inclination 
to put my name to it ; for, unless he desires it, I 
w<m't have my name there. 

I have inclosed an additional note for my article 
of Shakespeare ; and am, dear Sir, 

Yours most entirely, W. Wahburton. 



LETTER XXVL 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Sept. lo, 1733. 

I have the favour of yours of the 4th instant, and 
am extremely obliged to you for the inclosed " Mis- 
cellany." If you was not so good as to send me 
these things (which it is fit I should see) I question 
whether those whose business it is would be careful 
enough to do it. As I sent you the last papers on 
Shakespeare too late, I beg you would send them 
hack to me the first opportunity ; for as what I have 
pyen you for the Life is only a specimen, these last 

would 



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MR. WARBURTON TO MR. BIRCH. 109 

would appear with an ill grace ii> the Appendix. If 
this article of Shakespeare be printed, 1 desire to 
know whether the Number in which it is may be 
bought alone. 

. 1 am much obliged to you for the information you 
gave Mr. Silhouette. Mr. Pope sent me word {inter 
nosj that he would get the Letters translated into 
French. I wonder whether they be or not. Pray 
take no notice of this. 

Romaine's letter has not, I see/ been put into the 
Magazine [see p. 103] ; which, on second thoughts, 
1 am glad of; therefore desire you would give di- 
rections to them not to put it in at all. 

What Robinson means by sending me several co^ 
pies of Romaine's Letter in his ^^ History/* I know 
not. I do not want any. I desired him indeed to 
send me two or three copies of my defence of Mr^ 
Pope as soon as printed, because he was for deferring 
the publication till Michaelmas Term. He said, he 
believed it would be Mr. Pope's opinion to do so. I 
bad him follow his opinion whatever it was. 

I bate the knavery of Osborne, to give a false title 
to '^ Addison's Tract.** It is a vile practice among 
Booksellers. I do not expect much from this tract. 
I have seen the Letter written by Webster. White- 
field's honesly, as you say, is very conspicuous. 2 tell 
you what I think would be the best way of exposing 
these idle Fanatics — the printing passages out of 
George Fox's Journal, and Ignatius Loyola, and 
Whitefield's Journals in parallel columns. Their 
conformity in folly is amazing. One thing was ex- 
tremely singular m Loyola : he became, from the 
modestest fanatic that ever was, the most cold- 
headed knave, by that time his Society wac tho- 
roughly established. The same natural tempera- 
ture that set his brains on a heat worked off the 
ferment. The case was so uncommon, that his adver- 
saries thought all his fanaticism pretended. But in 
this they were certainly mistaken. The surprising 

part 



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llo iLLvsfRAtiovi or LifBnAttjiLt. 

part of all was, that his folly atid knareiy conctir*^ 
«o perfectly to promote his end. I think I have 
gone a good way towards explaining it, in the lattef 
end of the First Volume of the Divine Legation. 
If I be not mistaken in Whitefield, he bids fair fof 
licting the second part of Loyola, as he has done 
the first. I am, dear Sir, your most affectionate 
humble setvant, W. Wakburton. 

P. S* I have got all my letters and papers out 
of Sir iTiomas Hanmer's liands. I was dissatis- 
fied with his treatment of me, the particulars of 
which you shall know when I see you ; so I wrote 
for my letters and papers, and desired he would not 
do me the honour to use any part of the contents of 
any of them m his Edition, if he intended one, 
because it was a matter of the utmost importance 
to me. I am now, at every leisure hour, transcribing 
all my notes and emendations fair into books, to fit 
them for the press. 

LETTER XXVn. 
To the Rev* Mr. Birch. 

BkarSir, Oct. 25, 1739, 

I have the favour of yours of the l6th instant^ 
and shall be obliged to you for the sheets of tlie slv- 
t\c\e Shakespea7^e. I had got that Number in which 
it is, from a Country Bool^ller; but was obliged to 
return it back to him, because, when he sent for ano- 
ther of that Number to London, to make up his vo- 
lume, he could not get one. The sheete will be useful 
to "me, because I have no copy of the papers I sentyou* 
What you mention of Kimchi^ observation of 
the Fan's being either a copulative or a discretive^ 
has been mentioned on occasion of this Vow of Jeph-* 
thah's by many of the Rabbins and Christian Di- 
vmes ; and that of Exodus, xxi. 15, has been often 
brought to confirm it But let us see how this 
mends the matter — '^ Whatsoever cometh forth of 

the 



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MR. WAHBURTOK TO MR. BIRCH. Ill 

the doors, &c. shall surely be the Lord's, OR I will 
offer it up for a burnt-offering f i. e. if it was such 
animal as could by the Law be sacrificed. Now this 
Was a Devotion ; and by the Law it is ordered, that 
whatsoever thing was devoted by Vow of Men 
should not be redeemed, but put to death. Leviti- 
cus, xxvii. 29. So what now is got by this obser- 
vation of Rimchi's, either in justification of Jepb* 
fhah or the Law ? A man could not be offered up 
to God as a burnt-offering — but as a Devotion. 
Howfever, those who have made use of this criticism 
on the Vau are willing to persuade themselves that 
to he the hords^ in the former part of this Vow, is 
meant the being consecrated to God's service in a 
state of celibacy. But this is a very idle fancy, 
there being not the least shadow or footstep of any 
sfuch Consecration in the Jewish History. Besides, 
the passion of Jephthah on this occasion shews there 
was something more in this case than a consecration 
to celibacy. But hear Capellus, the most able and 
judicious Critic in the Hebrew tongue that ever was 
in the world : " Neque hinc propterea patet locus 
efibgioeorum qui, quia nolunt Jephthoe filiam fuisse 
mactatam, sed sacram duntaxat Vestalem factam, si 
diis placet, verba disjunctim accipiunt aut vero offe^ 
ram. Nam singularis ilia ratio sacrandi Dei perso- 
nam per votum perpetuse Continentiae sen CoelibetAs 
commentum est ab illis temer^ confictum, cujus 
nullum in totft Scripture comparet vestigium ; at de 
Vcrvetidis per Anathema Deo humanis personis, quas 
sie devolUB mori oportuit, plana, apertd, et explica- 
tissima Lex est.'* 

In a word, to vindicate the fundamental con- 
stitutions of the Law, and to judge of the action? 
and characters of its followers, will, I believe, require 
other helps than observations picked up from the 
Rabbins. I am in hopes I shall shew this in an 
interpretation of the command to sacrifice Isaac ; 
and m a vindication of the Law from enjoining hu- 
man sacrifices. As to Jephthah's case, I am not much 

solicitous 



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Il2 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE; 

dolicitoug about it : for, if the Law be vindic^te<ly 
what imputation does his action bear against Religion? 

I thank you for acquainting me wjth ^^ Bing's Ex- 
pedition/* I must get it. I am much pleased to hear 
that Voltaire has published old Law^s* Life. I beg 
of you that^ when the Edition in 8vo comes into 
£ngland^ you would immediately buy one for me^ 
and let me know^ that I may see it as soon as possible^ 

What you say of the " History of Charles theXIIth" 
is perfectly right* I remember, when that book 
first came out, a gentleman in town wrote me word 
of it, with this character, that it was a Romance^ 
qt rather half a Romance : all fighting, and no love^ 

I am giad to hear we shall at last come to some 
determination about the figure of the Earth. Mau-^ 
pertuis' book, I admire as extremely well wrote. 

Was there ever so abandoned a wretch as this 
tVehster? Do not you think I served him right? 
The Letter to him in the General EJvening Post of 
Sept. 22, was wrote by a Fellow of Jesus in Cam--' 
hndge, the principal Tutor there +, atid the most 
amiable man alive. The paper I tnink an extrem«» 
well-reasoned thing ; the other was wrote by a Lay-« 
man in a passion^ 

I desire you would obligef me with a speecly atiswei* 
to these two questions. Who is generally supposed 
to be the Bishop who gave Webster that intelligence^ 
that a great part of the Clergy were settled Infidels} 

Who has wrote the best and most exact History of 
the rise, progress, improvement, &c. of the antient 
Astronomy ? or who has given the best account of 
that matter? because I want much to see som0 

* Dr. John Law, of Lauriston, who will long be remembered 
iQ France as an able Projector and Financier^ died at Venice^ in 
March 17^9, in his 58th year. See an ample and satis&ctcnry 
account of him in Mr. A. Chalmerses Edition of the Biographical 
Dictionary, vol. XX. p. 86; collected from Wood*s History of the 
Parish of Cramond 5 the Private Life of Louis XV. translated by 
Justamond; Voltaire*s Si^le de Louis XV ^ the Historical l^ici^ 
tionary ; and NichoVs History of Leicestershire, vol. IH. p, 487^ 

t Who this was, 1 have not at present discovered. — Could it 
beDr. StyanThirlby? 

good 



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MR* WAJtSCRTOH TO Mil. BIRCH* 11^ 

sood one, where facts conoerniog this subject^ and 
akpened np and down antiquity, are laid together^ 
wfaidi savea one a great deal of trouble and March. 
This is what I want it for. 

I wonder I hear nothing of Robinson, and that 
he has sent me no copies of Mr. Pope's Vindication. 
Not long since, Mr. Pope wrote to me, to desire he 
might have a copy as soon as ever it was printed 
ofl^ because he had spoke to a French gentleijaan to 
translate it. I have been looking over (inter nos) 
the 4th Epistle of the Essay on Man ; for 1 have a 
great inclination to make an analysis of that, to com-'* 
plete the whole. I find this part of my defence of 
Mr. Pope as difficult, as a conflitation of Mr. Crou- 
saz's nonsense and a detection of the Translator's 
blunders are easy. I do not know whether I can do 
it to my mind, or whether I shall do it at all ; so' 
beg yon would keep it secret. 

Pray how is my specimen of Shakespeare re- 
ceived ? I fancy that project of the Glossary may 
give some credit to the judgment wherewith the 
Edition will be discharged. It certainly cuts off a' 
deal of pretence for imaginary corrupt reading, an'd^ 
will be a perpetual comment of itself. This is en-i 
tirely new ; for Shakespeare is extremely singular, no ' 
oneever admitting such a latitude In words. ' "^ 

; I am, dear Sir, your most affectionate humblcf' 
servant, W. Warburton. * 

P. S. Pray thank Mr. Gyles for sending me^' Fi-- 
losofia secreta de la Gentilidad.** He is the most 
curiou^ dunce I ever saw; and, had I had him when^ 
1 wrote my First Volume, I would have made some 
sport with him, where I speak of All^orizers of 
Fables. He finds all these reasonings in th6 antienf 
fables: ** deckito modos se puede de<!larar una fabula 
conviena a saber. Literal^ AUgaricOj Anagogito^ 
Tr<^oiogi^, y^FisicOy o Natural He finds no place, 

Sur see, for^the true interpretation of the fables, the^ 
istorical ; but, what is more extraordinary, makes* 
VOL. II. I the 



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Il4 IU.V6TRAV10N8 OF ttTERATURK. 

the Historical and literal or fabulous all one: '^Sen-^ 
tido Literal, que per otro nombre dizen Historico o 
Parabolico, es lo misinoque suena la letra de la fabofai 
o escritura." W. W. 



LETTER XXVIIL 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Newarhe^ Dec. 1^, 1739. 

I have been a great deal negligent in paying mj 
acknowledgments for your favour of the 6i\\ ptal ; 
but it wag because I spared you, knowing your nu- 
merous avocations. Otherwise I am always in the 
raind of writing to you ; if it was only to force an 
answer ; those I receive from you being the most 
agreeable Letters I receive^ abstracted from a more 
considerable circumstance by far — which is, that I 
consider them the mostjriendly. 

1 hope Mr. Robinson has given you, in my name^ 
one of the pamphlets of Crousaz. Amongst several 
other of those little presents, I ordered him to send 
ooe to Dr. Mead, as a man to whom ajl people that 
pretend to Letters ought to pay their tribute, on ac- 
count of his sreat eminence in them, and patronan 
of them. When you happen to see him, I only, 
beg you would maice my compliments to him,, and 
excuse the freedom I used in sending a pamphlet 
to him. 

I repent I did not complete the pamphlet with aa 
analysis of the last Epistle. The truth is, I iiimh 
gincd the publick would be tired both with De Crou- 
saz and me ; and perhaps I should be in the right 
to think so still. However, I have, as I told you 
before, thought upon it, and have at length done iL 

Pray be so good to let me know if you hear any 
more of Mr. Si1|houette*s mtention of translating 
them. PeAaps it may be. the same man Mr. Pope 
employsi 

Mr. 



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MIt. WAEBinttON TO MR« BllkiM. 11 $ 

Mr. Gyles has sent rae word^ that Webster has 
. published all his papers together, and thinks it pro- 
per to do the same by those Newspapers wrote in 
defence of me. I have returned answer, that it was 
a matter of utmost indifference to me; but that, if he 
thought it worth his while, I gave my consent ; so 
I have Jefk it to him to do what he sees proper. 

To think I will ever enter into a controversy with 
the weakest as well as wickedest of all mankind, is a 
thing impossible. This 1 shall do indeed in a short 
Prefiice to the Second Volume: I shall hang him up 
and his fellows, as they do vermin in a warren, and 
leave them to posterity to stink and blacken in the 
wind. And this I would do was the Pope himseIC 
their protector. Other business with them in the' 
way of argument I shall never have any. 

I mentioned the Second Volume. It is now in 
the press. I have received two sheets. Two more 
ate coming, and they cry out for more copy. Inter 
tms, I only write Jrom hand to mouth, as we ^ay 
here ; so that an £ast wind, a fit of the spleerl, 
want of books, and a thousand other accidents, will 
fre<juently make the press stand still*. This will be 
an inconvenience to Mr. Gyles : but 1 told him what 
he was to expect; and his hands are ^ full of great 
works, that 1 may be well spared among the First- 
rates of the Fleet, and cruize ab^ut at my leisure 
in a lee-«hore, safe from Webster, and the rest of 
the Guarda de Castas; and, when good weather 
and fair trafiick invite, put in or out of any little . 
creek or harbour — not but that I propose to finish 
this Volume sooner than you imagine, if it please 
God to grant me health and life. 

I heartily thank you for your directions about the 
History of Astronomy, and could have wished you 
had told me which was the most perfect. 

I wish all success to Gronovius^d editi'dn of Eli- 
an's *' Histoiiy of Animab,*" a book mucH^ wanted, the 

* He well describes the frequeot unpleasant situation of a Printer. 

I 2 editions 



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116 lUAJnSLATfOVS OS f^'^^J^If^JB^ 

edi^iong of thatt work (the be»t of iElj^n» l)emg 
very 8curv;jr ones. How much bettfef jWOjulcf it .l>e 
for the Society to print this*, than th^ spjuijistic atwtf 
of Maximus Tyrius ! It is a greater plea8ui:e to me 
to h^r, of the new edition of Hippocraties. J* A. Van- 
c|er Linden's is incorrect and defective ; 1 had occa- 
sion to look pretty much into it of late. Jn shewing 
the high antiquity of Egyptian learning from the 
joint testimony of Sacred and Prophane Writers, 
their art of Medicine is one of the topics I insist on ; 
ip whicby meeting Shuckford in my way, who in hiis 
^^ Connexion" would expUin.the Egyptian Medicine . 
quite away, I examine thj^^ questiqii tp;the bottom, 
confute his idle notions ^tep by^stey^ ai)d ^hew the 
rise and progress of antient Medicine; j^ jdisaertatioa. 
which, I fancy, will n9t be uns(ccepteble to Dr. Mead. 
I. believe this is now printed ofil 

Pray is Voltaire bai^Uhed from France ? and ftir 
what? For " Philosophic Letters?'* and what are . 
these Philosophic Letters? Different from those 
about the Engrligb Nation? If so, 1 have not seen. 
them. But it is time to release you. 
. I am, my dear friend, your most affectionate and 
sincere bumble servant^ W. Warburton. , 

LETTER XXIX. 
To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Newarke, Dec. 30, 1739. 

If you will please to deliver those papers of Duke 
Wharton to Mr. Ch. Sanderson, whose I suppose 
they were, and which you told me you had bundled 
up against they were called for, ana which I .under- , 
stood were given me, you will very much oblige 

Yours most affectionately, W. Warburton. 

P. S. The fellow has teamed my Brother Twells 
for them incessantly. _ 

« It was printed for Umt Sodk^ by ib.Bom^, in 1743. 
See the '' Literary Anecdotes/' yoL II. pp. 96. 161 > vol. V. p. 521. 

LETTER ' 



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A»r WAI&BOftTOK TO MR. BIRCH. 117 

LETTER XXX. 
To the Rev. Mr. Bircq. 

Djear Sp'j , , * jyewjarke, Jan. 16, I739-4O. 

I bearojv^ you for the favour of yours of 

the iytn jk§t.-rr\ylien* I send up the ^ Commentary 
on the last Epislle 0^ the Essay [on Man]** to Ro- 
binson^' I. shall order him to shew it to vou. 

I have at length got a sight of your Proposals tor 
'^ Thurl9e*s Papers.** It will be a noble work, and 
the pubFick will be extremely indebted to your car^ 
and judgment in selecting and digesting these papers. 
I hope the Chancellor*, if he has any regard to Let- 
ters, will shew it, in discharging what the publick 
owes to you ; of whom indeed be and aU other 
great Ministers are but Trustees for that purpose, I 
believe the flatteries to Chancellors never rose so 
high as to the three last -jf ; and yet for all that, the 
last, and perhaps the first, Maecenas was Parker. In 
a wcNt], I am extremely pleased with the contents 
of your Proposals; the heads under which you have 
digested matters. You say, the whole digested in 
exact order of time. I presume you do not mean 
that every paper upon every subject stiall be priuted 
promiscuously according to date ; but rather tnat the 
whole period included within your material^ Bhall 
be thrown into Annals, which I think the most 
exaqt digestion of method ; and that under each 
year each subjeict shall have its distinct place ; and 
all the papers relating to that subject be given in 
the veiy order of time, thfit is, according to their 
date. For instance, under the year 1654. 1* Alt 
tba^T^l^ites to home afiaifs. 2. Fprdgft N^|ocia- 
tioQAi Riid nU that relate to them* 3. S^QDedjti^ns 
of the Fleet. 4. Admini^trtttioil of the rt^nt^iM 
and Plantations.. 5* Letters of S^ie^ In^mfrs^ 
&c» ; and mhoa, as the opouril^Boes of the fefnt, <^ 

^ Philip Yoriie, Lord H9rdw|ok6»it(brward8 Sgrl. Smp. 118; 
t Parker Hai) qf MfnclesM^ h(xA l^ogr itfid U«fi iWWc* 

your 



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Il8 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURB. 

your Collection of Papers will bear. I am well sen- 
sible this will make the digestion much more operose^ 
because some papers, as letters, treat of many differ- 
ent matters, ana it will be difficult sometimes to 
know under what class they should be put. But 
this, dear Sir, and the use resulting from this me- 
thod, are the very reasons I would put you upon it; 
because, in my opinion, it will be so much more for 
the reputation of the Editor to di^st them into 
these Kind of Annals. And I woula not have those 
friends who have promised you what was fitting, in 
their interest with the Chancellor*, have any pre- 
tence for not serving you with warmth; but, on the 
contrary, have still greater reason than they imagined 
to persuade our Great Men, that their honour is con- 
cerned in rewarding a Man of Letters so useful to 
the Publick. I am sensible I talk without book, 
as having never seen those Collections ; but my 
zeal for your interest and reputation would not suf- 
fer me to be silent in a matter where I imagine it 
much concerned. I will not wrong your friend- 
ship so much, to think this needs any apology. Only 
I desire it may all pass as said inter nos ; and I as- 
sure you, that whatever method you pursue, will be 
fully satisfactory to me, as I shall certainly conclude 
it the result of your maturest judgment; and what 
is so^ I am sure, will be best. 

I am, dear Sir, your most affectionate friend and 
sincere humble servant, W. Warburton, 

LETTER XXXI. 

t . To the Rev. Mr, Birch* 

Dear Sir, Newarke, March Jl, 1740. 

I received, with great pleasure, the favour of 
yours of the 15th instant. 

I am much obliged to you for your concern for 
toy health. I hope I have conquered my indisposi- 

* Ix)rd Hardwicke soon after presented Mr. Birch, sueeesaively, 
to*tevefal preferaients 3 and wai, throu^ life, his steady ftiend. 

tion 



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ME. WAftBURTON TO MR. BIRCH. II9 

tion by an immeasurable quantity of th^ bark ; and 
that I shall be set quite right by a change of air, 
which I meditate in a London journey soon aftefr 
Easter. I am much indebted to you for your ac- 
counts of new books and projects; and lauened hear- 
tily at that you gave me of the renowned Mr. Peck ; 
for, not long before, Mr. Gyles and I speaking of 
Ae noble collection for a ** Life of Cromweir in 
the Papers of Thurloe, I said, " it would be difficult 
to find a Writer equal to the subject; and that 
therefore, as the Sea Captain lately wanted the De* 
vil to lend us Cromwell to humble Spain, so he 
should see if he could prevail with him to lend him 
Milton to write CromwelFs Life.*' One would irath 
ffine Peck had heard of our conversation, and had 
fallen to his old trade of conjuring ; for 1 know not 
how else he could get the Life he promises. 

I never heard of Dr, Tumbull *, nor his book^ be- 
fore your account of it. 

I have sent up my Commentary on Mr. Pope^s 
Fourth Epistle, which is now in Mr. RobinsonV 
hands, who has my orders to shew it to you. 

I was told, for I can see but few Newspapers, that 
▼our Society for the Encouragement of Learning 
had given their fund to the new Hospital for Bas- 
tards^. If this be true, and that this branch of Na- 
tural Philosophy is to be encouraged at the expence 
of all the other Arts and Sciences, I could wish your 
Royal Society would follow their example, and send 
a proper detachment of their Antient Nfembers, to 
stock that noble foundation with able Nurses ; the 
want of which in Parishes has, it seems, defeated the 
sufficient provision the Law has made for Foand^ 
lings, and affintled one of the most phuiuble argi^ 
foeate for this erection. 

I fancy we shall have something curious in Dr. 
Stttketey*8 " Stonebenge J." I bdieve the drawing 

* Dr. Geo.Tambnll. See "Literary Anecdotes/' ^t)l. VI. «10.^ 
f The Fouodttng Hospital, then in iU inO^t state. 
t Sm before^ p. 67. 

of 



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1^ ILLUSTRATIONS OF UTBRATURK. 

x^ every stone will be very exact There has bfM^ 
a loaff enmity between Peck and him — whether it 
•was. that these two Antiquaries^ as was said ofU^p- 
Jkins and Stemhold, envied one another's flights. 
Howtver^ I hear they are happily reconciled-^ 
■■ ' ■ ■ Paribus quas fulgere cernis in annis 
• Concorde* animas nuDC*— — 

And now I am got upon the subject of Antiquity, 
to shew you we are not quite barbarians in Lincoln- 
shire, I must tell you, (hat the other day was dis- 
•covered, at Lincoln, 15 feet under ground, a fine 
iloinan Hypocaust. 

I received a Letter, not long since, from Mr. Bax- 
ter^, of Dun*s Castle. I had not heard from him for 
a considerable time ; which was occasioned by a 
cold he got by an odd accident about a year ago, 
and which has had such a variety of terrible conse- 
quences, that he despairs ever of recovering his 
wonted health, and is afraid he shall never recover the 
use of some of his limbs. This gives me a very sen- 
sible concern, botli on his own account, and for that of 
Letters, of which he is so great an ornament. What 
tsargoes in every profession would it have been gain 
to the pnblick to have disabled in exchange for him ! 
but — Dis aliter visum. — He tells me, his Trans- 
lation of Mathb is finished, and that he has added 
te it| at my desire, a physical explication of thfe 
Planets and Comets, describing the Elliptical Orbits 
found the Sun : which, I told him, I had never seen 
well explained. 

I took a thing veiy kindly of Mr. James Betfeen-- 
iiam. If you are acquaintetl with him, ybu may 
let bim know as much. He was the Printer of Mi»« 
Romaine's S^mon; who (as Mr. Gyles tdd me), 
when he came to Mr. Bettenham with his answer 
to my publication of his Letter, to have it printed, 
Mr. B&tenlntm told' him, ^^ it was a knavish busb> 
nessy and he would have nothing to do withj it^ w 
something to that ^ect. This, as it is tbemark of 
* Viiga, £n. VL 826. f Of Mr. Andrew Baxter desi)..74. 

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ME. WABJBU&TOK TO MJU BIRCH. 131 

t an honest man, I take so well of him, that I shall 

certainly think myself obliged to serve him on any 
fair occasion when it is in my power. 

I lately recdved a letter from Dr. Doddridge^ of 
Northampton, in which he gave me a long account of 
Count Zinzendorf and his Church near Frankfort. 
He keeps a kind of correspondence with the County 
and transcribed one of Zinzendorf 's Letters to him, by 
which I fkid him and his Church to be as great Enthu- 
siasts as the Methodists, and of much the same species. 
I have been lately reading the Trials and last Be- 
haviour of the Regicides. They were mostly, you 
know. Enthusiasts ; but, what surprized me, of the 
same kind with the Methodists ; and bottomed all 
on their grand principle. Regeneration; for, when it 
vras objected to them that the Jesuit Traitors had 
the same extacies and overflowings of joy in the 
spirit, they replied, ** Yea, but not on our 
principle: theirs was Enthusiasm, ours the real 
rruits of the Spirit." I b^n to collect their flowers, 
the very counterpart of Whitefield's, and intended 
to have thrown them into a pamphlet in two co- 
lumns ; then drawn some general conclusions : as, 
that, the effect being the same, the cause must be so. 
The wicked actions of the Rtegicides will not suffer 
us to think their spirit was of God. The moral lives 
of the Methodists will not suffer us to think theirs of 
the Devil. What is left but to conclude both a na- 
tural Enthusiasm ? Though tibe Methodists ought 
not to be persecuted, yet that the Clergy are right in 

S\ing no encouragement to this spirit, appears from 
e dismal efl^s it produced amongst the Fanatics 
in Cburles the First's time, who began with the 
same meekness and humility with these. A pam- 
phlet, some^ing in this way, I thought, would well 
expoae the Methodists ; yet, when I considered the 
method some Churchmen have used in writing 
antost them^ I expected no g^»od from such a kind 
m pafnphleti and so laid the thcNights of it aside *• 

* Be resumed it^ many years after, in hte " Doctrine of Grace.**^ 

I amj 



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123 ILLUSTRATIONS OT LITERATURE. 

I am, dear Sir, your most affectionate friend and 
humble servant, W, Warburton. 

LETTER XXXIL 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Newarke^ July 19, 1 740. 

I am much obliged to you for the favour of yours. 
I will not tell you my sentiments of your Friend's 
Book, because he is your friend. And as to his 
name and quality *, I do not desire to know it, nor 
would L He has given us his book, and by that 
alone I must measure him, if ever I do take notice 
of him. It was an aggravation to Job's misfortune, 
that his Adversaries would not tvrite a book. If I 
should esteem it a misfortune to have such Adversa- 
ries as have hitherto appeared against me, I have at 
least had this pleasure, that they will write — no 
great pleasure mdeed if I were obli^d to answer. 
When a man like Webster shews neither common 
sense nor common honesty, he must expect no no- 
tice to his arguments. But this Writer, for one sin- 
gle instance of honesty, methinks, should not go 
without his reward. It is where he owns I only ex- 
tended the disbelief of a Future State to the Philoso- 
phers. However, this Writer's espousing the cause 
of Heathen Philosophy so warmly, will perhaps 
have this good effect, that the Bigots on the other 
side of the question (for there are Bigots on both) 
may be induced to think less favourably of it. For 
ray part, nothing can induce me to think more or 
less favourably of things or persons, but the appear- 
ance of Truth ; a rule, I hope, I shall never depart 
from, though this Writer has probably taken it for 
greiited, it was not at all in my view in writing *f The 
I)ivine Legation.'' I am ashamed and sorry this 

* By the next Letter it appears that thi* was John TERwd» 
esq. 5 of whom see the '* Literary Anecdotes,'* voL IL p. 164; 
VOL V. p. 672. 

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MR. WARBURTON TO MR. BIRCH. ISj 

subject has taken up so mnch of a Letter, as it is 
the least a^eeable, I dare say, both to you and myself. 
I am, dear Sir, with the greatest sincerity. 
Your very afiectionate humble servant, 

W. Warburxon. 

LETTER XXXIIL 

For tlie Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, NewarhCj LApril. . . I741.] 

I am extremely obliged to you tor your last enter- 
taining Letter, and the more so as you found time to 
remember an old friend in the midst of such constant 
and fatiguing business. 

It is a poor prevarication in the Author of " Future 
Rewards and Punishments, &c.*' to say he did not 
mean me, p. l64> 5* For who but the Author of 
^^ The Divine Legation'* ever asserted that none of 
the Greek Philosophers (except Socrates) believed 
a future state of rewards and punishments ; which 
is the point he is there upon. It wiU, I believe, 
appear to those who have read his book an odd kind 
of apology to say, if this be understood of me, he 
must have contradicted himself. One of the princi- 
ples of his book seems to be, that the Philosoj^iers 
could not contradict themselves; and this, methinks, 
ivas very well. But now the privilege is extended 
to their Defender. 

But, as the man is your Friend,, and has made 
hinAself my Enemy, without any manner of provo* 
cation unless it be by my ^^ Dedication to the Free- 
thinkers,*' of which number he is certainly a deter- 
mined one, I hold it best for the future we preserve 
a perfect silence by consent respecting him. 

Dr. Middleton you have in town, I imagine, by 
this tim^ ; and his book in every body's hands *. It 
is a pity it should come out in the shade, and eclipsed, 

* His "Life of Cicero;* 

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\m 1I.LU8TRATION8 OF LITERATURE* 

88 it were, by the mighty splendour' of the great 
JSmsebiuSf which I find has got the start of him, lb 
this ^ecotret dose more palatable than ihe^st '(^ P or 
is it as rough in taste, and potent in operation, as the 
other } It is well his adversary is a Physician + as 
well as a Philosopher, and so in both capacities 
must be accustomed to prefer the vtile to the dulce. 
I have just now read over Mr. Ward's " Lives of 
the Professors of Gresham College," and it is indeed 
what you say of it — but you had quite forestalled 
him in all his best articles ^. 



LETTER XXXIV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Newarke^ Aug. 19^ 1741. 

I will not stand enquiring whether I am writing 
to a debtor or a creditor, as I am confident I am 
writing to a friend. • However this account may 
stand between us, I am sure I owe you this, and 
moiiB, for the civilities I received from you when 
last in town* 

I suppose the good Bishop of Derry § is, by this, 
returned to Ireland. Pray, when you write to him, 
make my best compliments to him. 

I believe I forgot to tell you, when in town, that 
Dr. Zachary Grey is about giving a new editioii of 
Hudibras. He spoke to Mr. funstall, to A^vtei him 
to get what I had on that author for him; And, 
purely to oblige the latter, I had transcribed the mar-» 

^ Dr; Jobn Chapman, who in 1738 fatd published the first 
Tolume of " Eusebius/* a defence of Christian Piety against thi^ 
dliecUons of Thomas Mor^n*s " Moral Philosopher/' brought 
out the, second volume in January 1740»1> a few weeks only 
before the appearance of Dr. Mlddleton's " Life of Cicero/* 

t Dr. Thomas Moigan J seabefbre^ p. 70. 

X The inclosure of this Letter is torn off. 

§ Dr. Thomas Rundle. 

gins 



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MR. WARBURTQN TO M^. 3IE«JP« 135 

^ns of sny book for birp, excepting what relates 
to tl^ History of those tim^ which Grey, I «ap^ 
posed, was perfectly versed in. You koow thue tnao & 
but I could not deny a friend. 

I. am |>reparin^ to give a new edition of my " Vin- 
dication of Mr. I\)pe3'' corrected and enlarged. Yod 
^now how hastily and Cfkreksdy it was written; and 
I find by experience the trpth of that medical 
aphorism — that an. error in the tir^t. concoction can 
never be thoroughly amended. 

I had forgot to desire your acceptance of one of 
the second edition of my ^* Alliance." I beg you 
will desire Mr. Gyles to give you one in my name. 
You will see in the title-page I have made a fair 
ohalknge. But what would you think of a French- 
man sanguine enough to endeavour to reconcile 
those principles with the principles of the Gallican 
Church ? Yet this Mr. Silhouette had endeavoured 
to do, by. bringinp^ a great number of quotations from 
Da Marca and Bossuet^ their two best Writers on 
that suh^ect. 

My imt respects to good Dr. Pellet *. 

I am, dear Sir^ your most affectionate, humbloj 
Mfvant, W. Warburton. 

LETTER XXXV. 
For the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

. DbarSir, Newarke, Oct. 14, 1741. 

I have your favour of the 1 8th of August to ac- 
kiiowte(%e« 1 know your constant avoeations, and 
would not interrupt you with impertinent Letters. 

I am much pleasecl that you have the care of Lord 
Orrery's book. I believe it will be in all respects a 
noble one, and worthy of the noble Author, whose 
politeness, humanity, and good sense, I have enter- 

« Thomas Pelkl, M. D. President of the College 6f Physicians. 

tained 



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ItiS ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE* 

tained a very high idea of^ from the honour I had of 
his conversation at Mr« Pope*s. I beg, when you 
see him. you would present my most humble services 
to him *. 

Dr. Middleton has sent me his new edition of 
his ** Letter from Rome,** in the Postscript of which I 
am obliged to him. As for the question between us, 
I am only the more confirmed in my own opinion; 
tfiough I do not know that I shall answer his Post« 
script, unless I find the publick thinks there is more 
in It than I do ; for I would willingly sacrifice 
something to Friendship. However, whether I do 
or not answer the Postscript, we shall give the publick 
an example in this dispute, that Friends may difier 
in opinion without any abatement in their mutual 
esteem, or any interruption in the commerce of 
Friendship. 

You know I had accused Abb^ Pluche of plagia- 
rism. A Letter on that subject was sent me from 
him to a friend in London by an unknown hand. 
It will assist in the further unmasking of him ; 
which I shall certainly do, for he is, as one of his 
countrymen once said to me, un frank Cagot. 

Mr. Wray-|" has been in this country, and is re- 
turned to Cambridge. I told him I should write to 
you, and he desired his compliments. 

I see by the Newspapers Julius Bate:}: has wrote 
something against me ; but I forswear reading any 
thing of his §. I am, dear Sir, your very afiS>c- 
tionate humble servant W. Warburton. 

* The work on which Mr. Birch was then engaged waa, '' Staittt 
Letters of Roger Boyle, first Earl of Orrery,'* published in 174^.. 
—Mr. Warburton, when he wrote this Letter, seems to have sup- 
posed that they were those of the Lord Orrery with whom Popt 
^iras acquainted \ a strange misapprehension iii such a man. 

t Daniel Wray, esq. See before, p. J 00. 

} Of whom see the " Literary Anecdotes," vol. IIL p. 53. 

i U^hom, however, he condescended to notice in the Preface 
to the Second Volume of the Divine Legation. 

LETTEIl 



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MR. WARBU:RT0N to MR. BIRCH. ISJ 

LETTER XXXVI. 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Newarfce, Jug. l8, 1742. 

I received the fevour of your very agreeable Letter 
of the lOth. You are very excusable in your silence, 
for such an idle correspondence as mine has no pre- 
tence to be supported but in full leisure from busi- 
ness. You are always engaged in some useful work, 
for which the publick is much indebted to you. 

I iim particularly pleased that you are preparing 
a new edition of Cudivorth. I wish the project 
may be as beneficial to the bookseller, as it will 
be to the publick. The fete of the volume was 
odd enough, you know, at first, and more so in 
the progress: about 30 years ago it might have 
been bought for a crown. Besides the clamour 
of Bigots, that kind of learning was not in vogue 
when the book was first published. But the prin- 
cipal reason of its after-neglect was, the volumi- 
nous way of treating every head of his subject, and 
tbe rough, unpleasing, unpolished, unspirited style 
of his English. The book is in English words, it 
18 true; but it is as impossible a mere English reader 
should understand him, as if he had wrote in Latin. 
This defect a Foreigner could not see, and so conse- 
quently not be offended with ; on which account it 
waa highly admired by Le Clerc, when he first got 
acquainted with it. All his Translations from the 
Ckeek Writers are wonderfully exact, and a vast 
judgment and penetration in general in explaining 
their sense. His plastic Life of Nature is fairly and 
fully analysed by Bayle in his dispute on that 
point with Le Clerc, over whom his superiority 
m that dispute is clear and indisputable. I examined 
this controversy critically, aad extracted the whole 
force of Bayle*s argumentation against the plastic 

Life 



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130 ttLUsfRATlONS OF * LTTEItATijItE; 

^ilF be of 80 HtU^ life to any other purpo«e-^hi8kt 1 
may get them for my Edition^ as Mr. Pope did thoad 
of ,Oigilby's Hortier for his. 

I hear the University intend to operi a subMrip^ 
tion * ; but sttre they will not do that which has been 
adjudged belpw my character to do. 

My best respects to Mr. Knapton ; and tell' him/ 
I paixton him for his silence on the same adcbuW I 
pardon you. Adieu, dear Sir, and belieVe me, 
' Your very affectionate humble servant, 

W; Warhurton. 

LETTER XXXVIII. 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Newarhe^ March 26, 1743 . ' 

I take the liberty to inclose a letter to Mr. Wray, 
which I beg you will give him if in town. If not, 
I desire you to open it, and to do me the favour 
therein requested, of buying a few books at Os- 
borne's sale. 

I am, with great truth, dear Sir, your most affec- 
tionate humble servant, W. Warburton. 

LETTER XXXIX. 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch, at his house, in 
Norfolk-street -|", the Strand. 

Drar Sir, Bedford-row^ Oct. . . , IJAQ. 

I thank you for the favour of your fine Discourse :|:^ 
which) on coming to town, I found here left for me. 

I shall be glad to wait on you here, whenever yOut 
leisure will permit you, to deliver Mrs. Cockbuf n'i 

^ For Sir Thomas HamDer*8 Sfaskespeare. 

t See in trol. L p. 76, a Pbem by Mr. Wmj, on Mr. Birch% rej- 
moral to that house. 

t ''ASermononthePjDoofo£theWiidomftndGoodBta»ofaod, 
from the Frame and Constitution of Man, preached before the 
College of Physicians, in consequfnce of Lady SadUer s Will, 17i9.* 

papers 



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Eapers into your iiUTds. Hit tfuavobry, as well as 
er family, will be greatly indeb^^ you, for this 
generous and charitable purpose you have so much 
for thl^ir iriierest. I esteem it an obligation like- 
♦me on. Sir, yoor very faithful humble servant, 

W. Warburton. 



LETTER XL. 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir; Bedfard^roWj Feb. 13, 1749-50. 

Not having yet had the pleasure of seeing you, 
and bein^ on the fx>int of returning intx> the coun^ 
€ty, I tabe the liberty of troubling" you with the 
inclosed. It is what Mr. Allen intends for his sulv 
scription to Mrs. Cockburn's Book, for the benefit 
of her daughter. He would have but one copy of 
the Large raper. 

I am^ Sir^ your faithful and obedient humble 
servant^ W. Warburton^ 

LETTER XLL 

To the Riev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Bedfirdrvow, April 2«^ 1 75 1 • 
Mr. Rnapton just gmVe me a sight of Mrs. Cock- 
faiirn*s Works. In the Second \^lume, «t p. 33^5 
\. 7, there is a particularity that you may ima^e I 
should be well pleased to have omitted. If this leaf 
could be canceled, and re-printed without it, which 
is fitter for a newspaper, it would give me much plea- 
sure : thoDgh I am 8<»ry to give you the trouble ; 
being, dear Sir, your most affectionate and faithful 
servant, W. Warburton. 

.. , ; ^2 LETTER 



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138 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITJUUTURS. 

LETTER XLII. 

To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Bedford-row, April 1 7, 1753* 
Mr. Heathcote, ta whom, I toW you, I should 
offer the Assistant-preachership, receives it with 
much satisfaction ; which will save you the trouble 
you was so good to undertake for me : for which, 
and for many other civilities and acts of friendship, 
I am much your debtor ; and, I hope, not an un- 
grateful one. — I have too much value for your noble 
present of Tillotson's Life *, not to desire to com- 
pleat it, with the Additions. When you think of it, 
be so good to order your Bookseller to send the Ad- 
ditions to me by Hitch, in Leakeys parcel. 

1 am, dear Sir, with true esteem, your very, af- 
fectionate and faithful servant, W, Warburton. 

LETTER XLIIL 

To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Prior Park, Jan. 3, 1754* 

I have received your very valuable present of the 
^* Memoirs of Queen Elizabeth,"" and return you 
nay best thanks Tor the pleasure and instruction th^ 
afford me. They are full of curious anecdotes; 
and I set more value on one material historical 
anecdote, than on twenty new hypotheses in Philo- 
sophy, or a hundred good criticisms. 

I bear at last we are to have Bolingbroke's cru- 
dities. I know they cannot foil of beine well an* 
swered : but that will be a poor satisfaction for the 
mischiefs that an irreligious book does amongst the 
weak heads and bad hearts of the people. 

* " Yoar account oi your labouring through Birch [the life 
of TiUotson] made roe smile. I will assure you, he has here dorte 
hit best, and topt bis part. As to the Archbishop he was cer- 
tainly a virtuous, pious, humane, and moderate man; which 
last quality was a kind of rarity in those times.** 

LHier to Mr. Hurd, Dec. 15, 1759. 
Browne*8 



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ML. WARBiniTON TO DR. BIRCH. 1$S 

Browne*8 * Poem of the Soul is, I think, a very 
pretty performance^ and gives me the more pleasure, 
as it seems to be a mark of the Author's growing 
serious. It must have more than eommon merit to 
be read with pleasure after the Antir Lucretius ^^ 
which I think incomparably the best work of the 
kind since the age of Augustus ; and had it not been 
alloyed with some of the worst parts of Cartesian- 
ism, as well as enriched witli the best, it would have 
been . the greatest master-piece of reasoning and 
poetry the world ever saw. As it is, I infinitely 
prefer it to all the modem Latin Poems put together. 

lyf r. Charles Yorke has disappointed us all here 
in the midst of our expectations ; and I take np the 
Anti-Lucretius as the next best succedaneum to his 
company. I am, dear Sir, with the truest esteem, 
your most faithful and affectionate humble servant, 

W. Warburton. 

LETTER XLIV. 

To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dbar Sir, Prior Park, Dec. 17, 1755. 

I this moment received a letter from Dr. Attwell, 
of Gloucester, in which are these words (speaking of 
Mr. WoIIot, one of the Prebendaries, and of his own 
journey to Norwich, for which he is now setting out) : 
^ I believe I shall never see him alive again ai^r thia 
day. He came hither from Bath, with a cold, and 
a swoln face ; the Physician treated it as an erysy- 
pelas ; but it proves a carbuncle, and will probably 
put an end to nis life, before I shall reach Norwich .'• 

* *' De Animi Inmiortalitate/' by f saac Hawkins Browne> etq. 
1754. — Of this gi^tleman, it was said by Dr. Johnson, " that 
he was one of the first Wits of the country -, got into Parliaments 
and never opened his mouth." 

t This elegant Latin Poem, which refutes the system and doc- 
tme of Epicurus, was written by Melchior de Polignac, a eek* 
brated French Cardinal; but was not published till 1747* sii; 
years after the Authw's death. See some Translations in Gent. 
Mag. vol. XVtlt p. 218 ; vol. XXIII. pp. 386. 438. 4S6. 532. 

1 know 



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134 IIXUBTRAISOm OF LITBRATURE. 

I knov nothing 6f your views, nor your friends' 
views for you: but my friendship for you would no* 
suffer me to neglect acquaiuting you with the oii^ 
Qun98tance> as timely as I had it 

AU here desire to be kindly remembered to you. 
. I am, dear Sir, your very afiectionate and fiuthful 
l^umble servant/ . W. Warburton. 

. 'I . 

LETTER XLV. 

; , ' To the Rev. Dr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, London, Dec. 20, 1755* 

'. Your.letter of the lytb is such an instance of your 
friendship and zeal for me, that I could not pardon 
myself if I were to omit one post before I returned 
you my most sincere acknowledgments for it. The 
luformation contained in Dr. AtwelVs letter to yoix 
will tndeed be of no use to me, as I have never had 
the least intimation from mv friends of any further 
design in my favour ; and, after having received 
one very considerable obligation from them, I can- 
not think of asking a second. But mine to you for 
this new proof of your kindness is the same as if 
what you wish for me should take place. 

I desire you to make my most respectful com- 
pliments to Mr. Allen and the Ladies; and am^ 
dear Sir, your most obliged, and most afl^ctionate 
humble servant, Tho. BnicH. 

LETTER XLVL 

To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Prior Park, April 15, 1756. 

I was surprized at a scandalous paper in the 
Evening Advertizer, sent me by Mr. Millar. I 
shewed it to Dr. Brown, who is, ^t seems. Bower's 
friend, and told him I thought it incumbent on 
him to vindicate himself from being the author. 
It is made up, like a tailor's bill, of buckram and 

stay- 



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HfOH^^P^ that iff <¥> W> of bomhwt aqd sopjiistnr. 
^^it .t}}Q al)i^e of tba G4iglishCla:^,iageDei:al> i^r 
tl^.>i9b^ripti.9n, is beyoficl meMure impudent 
^J^i^iU^or of ^^ Tl^Lives of the ropes*'' is diesaribed 
f#one,of the he^% \ii:fitens of the asrp, an^ a kiad of 
public blessing. That work, and bis, ipQxie^-trans- 
^tioDs witbtpQ Jesuits^ rxv^e qoie regard bim as a 
scribbler apd an i in poster. But if any .man wiU 
fibewjme ope unknown fact discovered, or pne, new 
$u^itpent juvented against the usurpations of th^ 
jRonma Sge ; or but one g9od reason wpy be should^ 
choose to hty; out bis all ou.an annuity fpr life, of 
Jdiat Order pf Men who were seeking hia death, ap^ 
Jffho, YF^ know,, seldom . miss wh^ they aim .at a 
iqaii's tbro^f: — ifj^ I say, any n^mwilf ^hew mp 
:|;^ese thiog^ I wi)i readily confes&hin^ to b^ a Qe^ 
nius and a SainU and that hemay ip time becooie 
a Martyr. 

• As I am. well, a^ured, that nodding but a generpus 
jftbhorrjence of iniquity Induced you to concern your- 
self in this matter, 1 ^m not displeased that the in* 
science and prevarication of this jpaper are likely to 
get it canvassed tot^e bott(»p ; tor, if the man be 
guilty of a criminal correspondence, it is fit he 
should be thoroughly detected ; and if he appear to 
3^u to^ be innocent, I am confident you v^ll be 
amongst the first to prodaim it to the wotld/ 
' L am, dear Sir^ with much esteem, your very 
faHhfiil huQibk servant; . W. Waebu&'ton. 

; * \.^, . .LEttER.'XLyii. ., ^ ; 

^ ; \ To the Rev. Dr. Biiic*. • 

■ :I>BAR Sir; Prior Park, April is, 1758. ! 

fir^|L^.ij(ic}o8ed is from a very worthy Remonstrant 

Minister €^ the Church at Haerlem m Holland. I 

need not exfdain it to you. Some of their inveterate 

« Archibald Bower. ' 

enemies 



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13<J ILLUSTRArtONS OF LITERATURE. 

enemies of the Established Church have published 
a Translation of a book of that foul-mouthed felloMr, 
Otven, against them. What they want to know isj 
whether it be a Translation of a rieal Book oif 
(Owen's ? and, if so, what answer it had, at that 
time, from our Remonstrants. 

Ae T irn/^vr no onc who so well understands our 
istory, and no one is so communicative 
oblige your friends as yourself; I take 
to request this favour of jrou, that you 
s know what there is in this matter; and 
KX>ks enquired after may be found, that 
hem, and send them to my Correspond- 
is a public quarrel ; and both the Gods 
suppose, would here take the same side* 
XT Sir, with the truest esteem, your most 
and fiiithful humble servant, 

W. Warburton. 
P. S. Be so good, if you can convey word to Mr. 
Heathcote, to tell him I do not come to town thii 
Term. AH here are much yours. 

LETTER XLVIIL 
To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

T^ c. Orosvenor-^square^ Friday. 

^*^» ^'^' morning, Peb. i, 1760. 

Last night I had the pleasure of reading your very 
excellent Dedication, with Mr. Solicitor *. We ar^ 
agreed that it does both you and your Royal Patron 
great honour. We think too it will be very accept- 
able at that Court, as the curious Histoiv^ it precedes 
will be to the publick in general. This morning I 
received from you this very valuable present, for 
which I hold m)r8elf greatly mdebted to your friend- 
ship. I am, dear Sir, with the truest ajBfection^ 
your very faithful and obedient humble servant, 

W. Gloucester. 

t Mr. Charles Yorke. 

t *' The life of Henry Priace of Wales, eldest son of James 1.'* 

LETTER 



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BP. WAEBITMNm TO DR. BMCH. I|7 

LETTER XUX. 
To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Crrosvenor-s^are, Dec. 5, 1 760. 
Last night I had an opportunity to see Dr. Brown^ 
••nd told him all the Bp. of Durham * had said to 
me. He confessed it was true, that he was in a sort 
of negotiation for an exchange of Newcastle ; and 
that the reason of his keeping it a secret from me 
was a point of delicacy, least I should be supposed 
to have been one of his advisers. I said, he had car- 
ried his declared resignation of Horkesley too far to 
retract; and that he would dishonour himself by 
0uch. a proceeding. After having disputed this 
point, he excluded by assuring me he would do 
nothing finally but to the entire satisfaction of all 
the parties concerned. What he means by this I 
will not undertake to say. Thus far I went, for the 
sake of his honour, and your service ; and am, dear 
Sir, your very faithful and afiectionate humble ser- 

VaOt^ W. GiX)UC£ST£R. 

LETTER L. 

To the Lord Bishop of Carlisle -f'. 
My Loirn London, Norfolk- 

MY LORD, ^^^^^^^ ^^^ g^ j^g^ 

The importance of the subject of this Letter 
witii r^ard to myself, together with a just suspicion 
that your Lordship has not been thoroughly in- 
fonnea by Dr. Brown of the iact, and my Lord 
Royston's desire that 1 should state it at larse, will, 
I Mpe, be a sufficient apology for the troubte which 
I now give your Lordship. 

* Hon. Dr. Richard Trevor. 

t Dr. Ricbard Obbakkston, afterwasds Bp. of London. « 

In 



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In August last) a considerable time after the va- 
cancy of the .Vicarage of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
and the offer of it by your Lordship to Dr. Brown 
had been inserted in several of the public papers, 

I, to give that early 
resolution to accept 
the Rectory of Great 
it would not becoiB- 
ctober. He wrote .to 
icitor^Getteral. His 
upon the prospect of 
e known declarations 
IS to quit it for New*- 
secret, had been so 
disposal of that Rec- 
nge for some living 
ity *. But his Lord- 
surprized by another 
Sept. 1 7, acqdaipting 
d arisen, which had 
tie should be put in 
that, ** whenever he 
might certainly lend 
to that event, he would not fail to acquaint his Lord- 
ship with them." Accordingly, on the 4th of Octo- 
ber, he wrote again to Lord Royston, and to Mr. 
Solicitor-General, to inform tbem^ that be should 
accept the Vicarage of Newcastle, and consequently 
vacate Horkesley, in November. His Letter to his 
Lordship is hot at present at hand, but was to the 
same effect, and nearly in the same wo^rds, ^s that 
to the Solicitor-General; of which the following is 
an exact copy: « ' n . . 

"Sir, Och 4,17€0. 

^ I have now the pleasure to acquaint yo», .that 
the circumstance which occasioned my late hesita- 

* Dr. Birch effected an exchange of Horkesley, in Essex, with 
Dr. John Cock, for the Rectory of Depden iti the same County. 
See the '' Lit^ratry Anebdotes/' vol. V. p. S85. 

tion 



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tioQ concerniDfl: the Vican^ of Newcastle is now 
QD more; and that Iregard it as an evemt as certmn 
as any futurity can ^ that I shatl be insf H^itdd 
to that living as soon as the Bishop of Durham comes 
to London, which will probably 1^ about the mid- 
dle of November. I inform Lord Royston of thi3 by; 
the same post ; and am, with all true r^^d,^ Sir,, 
Your very obliged and obedient servant, J^Brown." 

My Lord Royston, npon the receipt of Dr. 
Brown's Letter to himself of that date, wrote to me 
from Wimpole, on the 9th of October, that the 
Doctor had at kst notified, that he should receive 
institotion into Newcastle about the middle of No- 
vember. His Lordship thei^oiie hoped that I' 
would immediately set to work upon th? p^Qtiation 
for an exchange pf Horkesley, about which I ha4 
before received several proposals^ and pne so advan- 
tageous, that I was; resolvai to accept it as sopn as it 
should be in my. power. > 

On Wednesday, November 12, Dr. Brown called 
upon me at my house, and in formed me, that ha 
bad loi^sed his presentation to th4 Vicarage of New-t 
castle wid;i the Bishdp of Durham ; that his instru*- 
ments for institution mto.it were preparinjr: tlmt he 
was going ^be next day, I.think^- to Horkesley, for hit 
Letters of Orders : tod that h> shoi^ld take institif<*« 
tion intp New^pstle on the Tuesday following. He 
expi^sed his ^atisfactipn in the advantage which I 
was to :rec^ive .from his quitting Hork^ky, and de^ 
sired me to recommend him to his successor thenfe 
for th^ dfsposfil oCs<knk goods *of his in the rectoiy- 
house^ ^ ^ • 

1 disoovered afterwards that he had not taken inV 
stitution on the Tuetklay following, whicb had like^ 
wise be^n appointed for that purp68e; buttbat^ as. 
the Living iwas tal^apse on that day sevenn^ht, he 
had deatT)^ some farther time of the Bishop of 
Durh4^.,. Thi# give me aad my friends a suspicion, 
I that 



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140; luuOTRAnoHs of literature. 

that, be vim% looking cHit for an exchange for New- 
Oirtle ; which was fully confirmed by a card which, 
h^ 8(?nt oo Tuesday last, in these very words : 

" Tuesday i December 2. 
^' Dr. Brown presents his compliments to Dr. 
Bitch ; and acquaints him, that a very unexpected 
overture has lately been made, which will prevent 
any final determination concerning the Vicarage of 
Newcastle for some little time. This, at present, is 
entirely a secret; but Dr. Brown was desirous c^ 
hinting this to Dr. Birch as far as he could with 
propriety : and therefore relies on Dr. Birch's ho-, 
nour, that it will not be made known to any but. 
t^iose whom it may most nearly concern/ 

My Lord Royston, who had on Sunday last been 
informed of the Doctor's hesitating to vacate Hor- 
kesley, went on Tuesday morning, before I had re- 
ceived the Doctor's card, to the Bishop of Durham ; 
and, not meeting with his Lordship at home, left a 
Letter for him, giving some account of Dr. Bro^^n's 
engagement to quit Horkesley, and inclosed in that 
Letter one of the Doctor's. The Bishop returned 
the visit the next morning, and mentioned to Lord 
Boyston his having granted further time to the Doc* 
tor; but declared himself entirely ignorant of the 
ekrcumstances of the facts mentioned by Lord Roy- 
iton, Dr. Brown not having given the Bishop the 
least hint of them. The Bishop, however, pro- 
mised to send for the Doctor, and talk to him on 
the subject 

Such being the real case, I shall leave it to your 
Lordship's judgment, whether Dr. Brown has not, 
by his repeated promises, precluded himself from all 
rij^t of continuing at Horkesley, to my ereat dis- 
i^fmointment and prejudice? and whether he ought 
to be allowed to attempt to falsify those promises, by 
going on to traflic for so important and valuable a 
core as that of Newcastle witn the best bidder ? 

I am. 



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BF. WARBUftTOK TO JDR. BnCH> 141 

I am, with the hi^;faest r^rd, luy Lord, ymxt 
Lordship^s most obedient and most humble seiranti 

Tho. BiRca. 

LETTER LL 
To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Grosvenor-sauarey Dec. 9, l^6o. 
Dr. Browa was here last night; and said, that yes- 
terday he was at the Bishop of Durham's '^ to appoint 
the time for institution : so you may look upon that 
business as well over. 1 heartily grve you joy of it ; 
and am your truly affectionate mend and iaithfiil 
servant, W. Gloucester. 

LETTER LIL 

To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Prior Parhj Aoi?. I7, IjffS. 

It gives me much pleasure that my little Book* is 
approved of by one whose judgment I so much value. 

You could not have told me any news more agree- 
able to me than of a new Book -f from you ; nor of 
any present more acceptable than such a testimony 
of your friendship. I love your Books, because they 
bear the image of your heart, your integrity, your 
candour, and equity. I esteem them, becauae-they 
have the strong stamp of your mind, your good 
judgment, and critical acumen. 

I shall, in a few days, be setting forward for 
town. In what disposition I shall find it, I do not 
know. As a Churchman, I pray for Peace ; as i 
Man, I rejoice in this cessation from human slaughr 
ter ; as a oriton, I shall submit my judgment to mv 
betters, and especially to that which is best of all, 

♦ The " Doctrine of Grace." 

t " Letters, Speeches, Charges, Advices, &c. of Francis Ba* 
con. Lord Viscount St. Atban, Loid Chancellor of England.*' 

the 



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14B rLLUBTRATIQNS OF LCrERATUftt. 

the Wisdom of ^Hu^iametit For as to the poliical 
adrantages accruing from it to Great Britain, or the 
disadvantages, if any, I know but as much, and no 
more (which is indeed nothing) than the Party Li- 
bellers on both sides; who have just taught me this 
as they came in my way in the common newspapers, 
that they are equfiUy the dtsgretce of Letters and 
human nature. 

I am, dear Sir, with the truest esteem, your most 
affectionate and faithful humble servant, ^ 

W. Gloucester, 

All the family desire their kindest remembrance 
to you. 

LETTER LIIL 
To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Grosvefuor-square, Dec. 13, 1762. 
This inclosed scrap of a Letter from Mr. Hurd 
will acquaint you with our request ; and, if it be 
in your power to comply with it, we know your 
friendship and benevolence too well to doubt of your 
inclination. Ever your most affectionate friend and 
faithful servant, W. Gloucester. 

[The Inchsure.'] 

^' I am now digesting my scattered hints and papers 
on the use of Travelling. , Your Lordship promised 
to inquire of Dr. Birch for Lord Essex's Letter to 
the Earl of Rutland on the subject. Horace Wal- 
pole mentions it, as being referred to in the Bacon 
Papers. If the book itself could be procured bjr 
his means, Millar would take care to send it. 

R. Hurd/* 



LETTER 



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V ' LETTERT lifV. : 

Revi Mr.fluRD taBev. Dr;.BiJiCH. . , .- . ^ 

Dear Sir, Thurcaston, JFW. 25, 17%. 

You will receive with this the smaH.bouk you dirf 
me the favour to send me a^ the request of, the Bp. 
of Gloucester, together with the coHations. of the 
IJ^SS^ in the Museum ; for both which, but espe^-' 
fcially the last, I am greatly indebted to you. The 
£arl of Essex^s Letter is slight upon the subject ; 
but it was a pleasure to iiee any thing from his hand. 
The MSS. you were so obliging to collate for me 
are very much superior t^.the pcia ted copy, 

^ew books are ao long in travelling to us ya the 
country, that I have hot yet seen your late Collec- 
tion of the Bacon Papers. I am the friore linpatient 
for this pleasure^ as I heai^, on all hands, that it ii 
extremely curious and useful. I heartily wish the 
long continuance of your health and life, that you 
may oblige us with still more of those valuaMe 
worts, with which you have already so much en-» 
riched the English History. 

Believe me to b^, with great respect, reverend-JSlr, 

Your mucfi obliged and iaiost obedient servant, 

B. HtTRD. ' 

LETTEB IV. 

* To the Bcv. Dr. BfRC». 

Dear Sir, Prior Park, March 12, 1 71^3. ' 
I have your favour of the 10th,-and am obliged 
to you for your kind enquiries after my health. 
The bad accident that befel me * was attended with 
all the most favourable symptoms ; and the broken , 
bone seems now to be reasonably well united, 
though I am afraid it will be some time yet before 
I get the free use of that arm. 

* A broken arm> from a fall in hia garden. 

My 



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144 ILLUSTRATIOHS OF LITERATUftS. 

My complimeDtsto the Stewards ; but, with my 
best dispositions to serve the Charity *, I certainly 
shall not be in London in May. To ask for a 
Pieacber in London, is like asking for a Centinel in a 
German Town. Every comer will supply them. 

I am much obliged to your friendship for tht 
trouble I give you. All here are much at your ser- 
vice. No one any where more than, dear Sir, 

Your very affectionate and faithful humble servant 

W. (jLOUCESTER. 

LETTER LVI. 
To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Prior Park, Jpril l8, 1763. 

1 have your favour of the l6th. As to the tickets-, 
I should be glad if you would give yourself the 
troubl^^ disposing of them as you see fit. 

Lo^^d Bute's abdication, just on the rising of the 
Sessicfn, is to us, who know nothing of the intri^es 
of the Court, a most mysterious thing. It is a 
phaenomenon that seems to predict great changes. 
May the King and Constitution never sufier ! , 

All here are much yours. No one any where 
more than, dear Sir, yonr very affectionate and 
faithful humble servant, W. Gloucester. 

P. S. I wish you would demand of Mr. Millar 
(for any of mine is at your service) the last Editicm 
of my '^ Discourse of Grace ;"* for it is less imperfec^, 
than the others. 

LETTER LVIL 

To the Rev. Dr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, Grosvetwr-square, Oct. 25, 1 763. 
I have taken the liberty you gave me, to inclose a 
memorandum of the things 1 would gladly be allowed 

* Bp. Warburton was in this year one of the Stewards for the 
Sons or the Clergy. 

the 



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BF. WARBURTOK TO DR. BIRCH. 14S 

the iavoHi^ of having tnm scripts of; which when 
obtained) you will be so good as to employ a proper 
transcriber, whom I shall be careful to satisfy for 
his lal^ur. 

You must know I am a great Antiquarji/; 
though I make no words of it; as half ashamed of 
my taste ; like a man who has taken an odd fancy 
to an ugly mistress. I am, with true esteem, dear 
Sir, your roost afiectionate friend and faithful hum* 
ble servant) W. GlouOsster* 

LETTER LVIIL 

To the Rev, Dr. Birch. 

Dbar Sir, Prior P^rk, June l6, 1765. 

Sir David Dalrymple is about publishing a neW 
edition of Williams's tract of *^ The Holy Table, 
name and thing." He has desired me to procure him 
a transcript of some papers relating to that matter 
at Oxford and Cambridge, which I have wrote for. 
I' we in bis Kst of these things from the '^ Catalogus 
LibrorQOi MSS. in Anglifi,"' fol. 1697, there is one 
article-*-Lib. MSS. Bibliothecee Sloanensis, p. 107, 
4132, a character of Bp. Williams. If yon will be 
so good to get this transcribed for me, I shall very 
thankfully pay the expence. 1 am, dear Sir, your 
very affectionate and faithful humble servant, 

W. Gloucester. 

LETTER UX. 
To the Rev. Dr. BiRcn. 

Dear Sir, Prior Park, Nov. 7, 1765. 

In a letter I received from Mr. Hurd, he told me 
he had the pleasure of dining with you the other day. 
He said, you had a purpose of quitting the Secretary- 
ship of the Royal Society: if it be on account of 
ill health, I shall be extremely concerned ; if it be 

VOI-. IK I- . ^o 



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146 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITBRATURS. 

to preserve you from that misfortune, and continue 
you in goofl, I shall much applaud your resolution * : 
for I interest myself in your welfare both on your 
own account and the publick's, being, with the great- 
est esteem, dear Sir, your affectionate and faithful 
friend and humble servant, W. Gloucester, 



DR. HEBERDEN TO MR. BIRCH, 
LETTER L 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch, Norfolk-street. 

Dear Sir, . [No date.] 

The Gentleman who brings this is Mr. Mason, 
the Author of " Musaeus, a Monody on the death of 
Mr. Pope." He is of the same College with me, 
and I have a great esteem for him, which makes me 
Veiy desirous of satisfying a curiosity that he has of 
seemg Dr. Mead's library and antiquities, &c. You 
will therefore oblige me in a particular manner by 
appointing any morning when it suits your conve- 
niency, to introduce him to a breakfasting at the 
Doctor's. If any thing should make this inconve- 
nient to you, pray be pleased to give him your letter 
dimissory to Mr. Bell or Dr. Slack, that he may 
not be disappointed of the pleasure whi^h such a 
morning will give him. I have made all the enqui- 
ries I have been able after Albumazar, without any 
success. My hu)iible service to Messrs. Yorkes and 
Wray. I am, dear Sir, your most obedient servant; 

W. Heberden. 

* Dr. Birck died Jan. 9, 1766, only two months after tbeda^e 
of this Letter. It is evident, from the whole tenor of their cor- 
respcmdence, that Bp. Warburton retained a sincere regard for 
him to the last -, and I regret the not being able to give some of 
Birch's answers to the Bbhop*s various enquiries af^ laen and 
'books, which must have contained many curious particuUuRS. 

LETTER 



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DR. HBBBftDEK AND DR. R. TAYLOR. I47 

LETTER II. 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Dear Sir, I^^nmey near Maidenhead, 

II o clock, July 13, ij 51. 
1 am forced, against my will, to stay here too long 
to have any hopes of dining with you in Cecil-street. 
It distresses me to the last d^ree, to think of having 
Mch friends at my house wi^out being able to en- 
joy their company. Let me beg of you, dear Sir, 
to do the honours of my table, and excuse me to 
my worthy friends. By that time you have dined, 
I hope to be with you. 1 dare say that every thing 
will betaken such care of, that you will have nothing 
to do but to eat and drink, and see that owe frieodt 
do so too. Ever yours, W. Hebbeden. 



Dr. ROBERT TAYLOR to Dr. BIRCH. 

Dear Sir, Albemarle-stireet, Oct. 27, IT 57. 
I bad the favour of your kind Letter, and am very 
much obliged to you for the trouble you have had 
on iny account. As my enquiry related solely to 
Dr. Flumptre, I should be still more obliged to you 
if you could learn what honours he received at 
Frankfort ? whether he had not a d^ree given him 
there ? and a medal, and what else ? But I beg you 
will not let this trifling afiair interfere with your 
more important enquiries; especially to I do not 
wait for this information, but proceed as fast as 
my businem will allow me in the other unfinished 
parts *. I am, with great truths dear Sir, your most 
tsdtbfiil and obliged sefrvant, R. Tatlor. 

* Q' Of wliat woiic was this >-^Dr. Robert Taylor delivered 
the Harveian Oration in 1755 ; and published it in 1756. See 
some brief notice of him befoi^e, p. 46. He was elected F.R.S, 
in J737 ; aad died May 15» Vjm. 

L 3 Mr. 



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148 ILLUSTRATIONS OW UTBRATORE*^ 



Mr. PETI?R DES MAIZEAUX to Mr. BIRCH. 



LETTER I. 

To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Sir, [No date.] 

I RKCBIVBD the fevour of yours, for which I re- 
you my hearty thanks, i flattered myself with 
the plcaanre of being with you this evening, but am 
obliged to be with an old friend of mine, who is just 
come to town. I hope you will be so good as to 
excwe me, and tB present my huo^ble service to 
your gentlemen. 

I 9m, Sir, your most obliged hun^ble servant, 

P. DfiS MiU2£AUX. 



LETTER II. 
To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Sm, Jan. «0, l735-tf- 

I told you, I believe, Mr. Anthony Collios had 
been twice in Holland ; and I just now found a 
memonmdum among my papers, which mentions it 
as follows, and you may My upon it. — 'Mr. Collins 
went into Holland in March 17ll« and became ac- 

2uainted with Mr. Le Clerc, and other learned men.. 
Fe returned to London in November following, to 
t^e care of his private aflfkirs ; with a promise to 
his friends in Holland, that ha would pajK them & 

second 



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M&« DU MAIZSAOX TO MK. WULCB. 14D 

second visit in a short time. Accordingly he went 
from London, Jan. 2, IJlSi^ parraant to his pro- 
mise^ as also with an intent to see Flanders, where 
he received great civilities from Priests, Jesuits, &c. 
From thence he wrote to one of his servants at Lon- 
don, to meet him at Calais, in order to atleUd him 
to Paris ; but, in the mean time, the death of a iiear 
relation, Mr. Trolope, happened, which oUiml 
him to return to London, where he arrived the llth 
of October, 17 13, iWll of grief for the loaa of so 

freat a friend, and the disappointment of not seeing 
ranee, Italy, Ice. 

This account, for which I have good aittthoritjr, 
jsfaews how incredulous is the story that be went 
into Holltod for fear, &c. 

I am very glad to find this <>pportonity to 1 
yo\M, how oluch I am. Sir, your moat humUe 
vant, P. D. »!•• 

* Then follows a Catalogue of Collins's Works, Inr Mr. Dies 
Maizeaax, in chrdnohsgical order; and the fbllowiiig epitaph finoin 
his moBument in Oxford chapel : 

•• H. S. E. 

AnTovtWi CoLtitrs, Antuger : 

E^rsgiift sfinai dodbuft omattts, 

pmstanti liigea]0> 

acri Judfeio, 

leaaci Memoria. 

A Pnero usque miriica rytutis iiidofe praeditas : 

Spectadssimum semper vius momdMiue exempbr, 

Verkailis amicuB & indagatorsedahiii 

quam Deque «i seataatiiB hofluaum peodere, 

4ieqiie Magfetrat^ gladio vindkandam aasB exiBtimaVit : 

In Libris (qoorum opulenta ai eo^) emlveDdis 

assiduus & iiidefessus : 

guaatiim ind^ frolaeMit, 

ex tcriptis ipaiMii editis judieet Ledor idcneiii. 

£iga Reges optknos, utnanque GeonhuiH 

Libertatis utpote CivUis «t Ecclesiastics 

Ttttoiw & FatrooaB> 

fide (ri qols alius) coilstans. 

GratatBsui 

eiga Coi^^^gcB AnGni^ 

erga Libaros CharitatiSi 

erga Serros* Lenitatis, 

&ga 



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150 ILU96T&AT10N8 OF . LITERATURE. 

LteTTER III. 
To the Rev. Mr. Birch. 

Sir, January 24 [no year]. 

I'be bearer of this note having some business in 
your neighbourhood, I desired him to call upon you, 
and to bring the Life of Arnoldus, and Mr. Bayle^s 
Letters. If you please to ffive him, at the same 
time, the first volume of Moreri, you will oblige 
me, and I will lend you mine in two or three 
days time. 

Two days ago I received a letter from Mr. Gav- 
nier, wherein he takes notice of a blunder in the 
article Ahgarus of the Universal Dictionaiy . 1 will 
shew you the letter when you do me the ravour to 
call here. . 

I am. Sir, your most obedient humble servant, 

P. Des Maizeaux. 

erga omnes Benevolentis, 

roemoriam reliquit. 

Calculorum valetudine diu conflictattis, 

demum fractus \ obiit xiii Dec. mdccxxix. 

AmiciHiim nuper Delkis; nunc, eheu ! Desidcrium. 

Natus est xxi Junii, mdclxxvi. 

Henrico Patre Armigero. 

In matrimonio habuit 

BiIartham> Francisci Child Equitis filiam ; 

atque, eft defunctlL, 

Elieabbtham, Gualtbri Wrotteslt, Baronetti. 

£x alterft quatuor Liberos suscepit ; 

quorum 

duos FIfios, Henricum infkntem, 

Antonium ver6 ad Tirilem statem jam prorectunu 

Buuunll virtute & humanitate adolescentem, 

extiikrat : 

Duas itidem Filias, Elizabbtham et Martham, 

Innuptas reliquit. 

Altera charissimo Viro, 

quocum cof\juncti86im^ vixerat, 

Monumentum hoc moerens posuit. 

ORIGIMAJb 



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C 151 ] 

ORIGINAL LETTERS^ of Bp. WARBURTON 
TO Dr. NATHANIEL PORSTERf. 



LETTER 1. 



To the Rev. Mr. Forster^ Fellow of Corpus 
Christi College^ in Oxford. 

Dear Sir, Bedford-row^ Feb. 7, 1 748-9. 

FROM the exceeding clearness and closeness of a 
pamphlet just now brought to me, intituled,^* A Dis- 
sertation on Josephus's account cf Jesus Christy fifc.** 
I think I cannot be deceived in the Author; and 
that it is to you that I am indebted for so valuable a 
present, and for so advantageous a mention of the 
Author of the " Divine Legation."* 

I have read it over with great pleasure, and will 
tell you my sentiments of it with a friendly freedom. 
I think it one of the most ingenious and chaste 
pieces of criticism that ever was written, I think 
that X^ifo^ 0X0^ ^y can admit of no sense but the 
common one, especially while 0si<ov n^o^^jroTy stand 
their ground. But how far the liberty of altering 
the text by conjecture only, when the sense doet 
not require it, without support of MSS. is to be in- 
dulged, where the question is concerning the ge-^ 
nuineness of a whole paragraph, I leave to your 
consideration. So far on our side ; then, on yours^ 
it must be owned, that your very fine emendation 

* From the Originals, obligingly communicated by the Her. 
lliomas Crompton, ofCranworth, Norfolk. 

f Of Dr. Nathapiel Forster, who was an excellent man, and 
an extraordinary good scholar, see an accurate and [larticQlar 
account in the '« literary Anecdotes/' vol. IX. p. 989. 

of 



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152 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITEflATURE. 

of rot arfhi not only greatly mends the sense, but the 
expression. It is now really elegant, which before^ 
I agree with Faber, was tristis ac putida elegantia; 
anrl, admitting this emendation, it must be conferaed 
it seems to require the following. Wherever the 
truth reallv lies, I am persuaded that every true 
scholar will as much admire your critique, as every 
candid man will be pleased with the modesty of your 
preface. However, no one has more reason to re- 
turn you his hearty thanks, for this service you have 
done to Literature and Religion, than. Sir, 

Your very faithful and amctionate humble servant^ 

W. Warburton. 

P. S. If I be mistaken in my conjectures of the 
Author, as they are without any authority, you will 
excuse me. 

LETTER n. 

To the Rev. Mr. Forster, 

Dear Sir, Prior Park, Oct. 8, 1749- 

I am extremely obliged to you for your kind Let- 
ter, which is as accurate and ingenious, as it is 
friendly* t saw in p. 6. eSs avrijttff^ili^y was wrong. 
It is plainly so. But I left it as I found it. You have 
corrected it right, rrnvSt . I have, I think, taken it 
for granted> that Julian must commend Plato for 
that maxim. And if you ground what you say to 
the contrary on Julian's thinking there was no such 
difficulty in the case, I apprehend these may be con- 
sistent. He might think Plato acted wisely in ob-' 
seryiiagthe maxim with regard to the people, though 
he^ Julian, as an enlightened Philosopher, found 
wme of these difficulties (in the search) which the 
peofde encountered. ^— But I will consult Julian, 
which I have not here. 

P. 22. Const antine for the Cruelties. -*- It it 
]^n by Julian's CifiSAM that he bore much ill-will 
to CJciistantine. — His denial to the Athenians goes 

^for 



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MR* WA&BURTOM TO MB. FOR8TXR. 1S3 

for Jittle. -^ He denied too that hie cousin ConttaQ- 
tius was the author of several hardships to himself^ 
which yet he detested him for. But, by these cruel- 
ties, 1 mean in general those to his own family^ as 
to his son and wife. 

P. f4. What you are so kind to take notice of 
concerning the Printer's carelessness is too true. 
But I have found it irremediable, as I never correct 
the sheets myself*. 

P. as. The doubtfulness of the word Km^foiifflui 
was the reason I said. Uncle and Cotisin. However^ 
I make no manner of question they were both vety 
liberal to the Clergy, in this kind. 

P. 35* I said obstinacy and perseverance^ to ex- 
plain the same thing by the two difierent words 
given it by Gentiles and Christians. But, I remem- 
ber, it stuck with myself when I used it. 

P. 37* If Julian believed the God of the Jews 
was a tutelary deity, he must be at least as blind as 
Plato's mob in that search. It is certain^ the earlier 
Gentiles, in the neighbourhood of Jud^^ and those 
who had transactions with them, thought so» As 
I have shewn in the Divine Legation, in the qoota- 
tion which you refer to in these sheets, p. 6. he only 
seems to question whether Moses was right in sup- 

r>sing him to be the God of the Universe. However, 
entirely agree with you, that one of his ends might 
be, to sacrifice and appease that unknown (vod, who- 
ever he was. And I should have taken notice of ik 
P. 44* Ammianus 92Lys— though he foresaw with 
an anxious mind the variety of accidents [to which 
his affiiirs were subject.] I thought I had tolerably 
well expressed this sense in my words; for Jbre^ 
seeing was only his being sensible of the turns of 
chance; — dLiid joreseeing with an anxious mind-^ 
was only being awMusJor the Juture.-^ Many 

* How much he Wius indebted to the accuracy of his learned 
Printer Mr.Bowyer, he has eUewherc frequently and gratefiUy 
scknoirledged. 

and 



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154 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LmHATUEB. 

and great events are indifferent to good and bad : 
and so are the variety of accidents. 

I do not wonder what Basnage says, about Cyrill, 
should strike you. But a man so excellently learned 
could not but know we have nothing of this Father 
but what is prior to the time in question. — He must 
therefore mean that the wonder lies in Cyrill's not 
mentioning it in his ajier writings, as the glory of 
the event reflected so much back upon himself by 
his predictions. — And he concludes he did not 
mention it, from the silence of antiquity. What 
there is in this insinuated reasoning I shall endea- 
vour to shew. 

P- 45. Operum, atchievetnents. Now I will tell 
you truly why i translated the word thus. Julian 
did not attempt to raise a fame by this specific at- 
chievement of building only, but this amongst 
others. Ammianus speaks of this amongst others* 
Had tlie like observation been made upon Justinian 
by Procopius, I should have translated it, edifices, 
because he aflfected to immortalize himself by that 
species of grandeur. 

Your observation of maturandum is just. It is 
not (as it should have been) expressed in the trans- 
lation, and forgot I do not know how. 

P. 5. SuvrsXffia. — I have only one objection to 
your observation as to the sense Julian was likely to 
give to the passage — j4n end shall be put to the 
desolation. He could not, I think, properly urge 
himself, as the person foretold, by what he would 
do, but by what he had done. Besides, he pretended 
to give a mark to the Jews, that the time of their re- 
storation was come : this mark must be something 
distinct from the restoration itself. Otherwise, when- 
ever the Jews, or any body for them, had such desire 
or intentions, that might be brought as a proof that 
the time was come: — which would be absurd. 

P. 57 • Your conjecture that Julian alludes to the 
prophecy by Antiochus, I like full as well, or better 

than 



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MR. WA&BVBTOK TO MA. FORSTBR. I55 

than my conjecture of Heroes polling it down ; 
and, if I can contrive to reprint this leaf, I will take 
notice of it 

P. 58. Kxi^ffiTo^ ff^* aurcD, wlio takes his style and 
title, Sfc. is finely observed, and shews indeed he 
was thinking here of a local God. 

P. 59. Your interpretation of ^a^g jcttya is won- 
derfully ingenious (and especially as the Persians, 
in their encampment, carried a vast light over the 
imperial t6nt). But I am afraid the chronology 
of the writing will not allow it. I think I have 
shewn that the discourse was composed during his 
expedition into Persia. But it is impossible to con- 
ceive it written at the time you mention, when he 
was so dreadfiilly harassed and distressed by the 
Persian. He had something else to do, without 
question, at that time. Besides, this happened late 
in the Expedition. He rejected all terms of Peace, 
and went triumphantly to the Invasion. His course 
was successful ; he passed the Euphrates ; took 
towns ; and himself ravaged all the flat country of 
Assyria with fire and sword, for fifteen days toge* 
ther. After this, the first rencounter between Hor- 
mesdes and Surena was happy. He passes the se* 
cond branch of the Euphrates ; cuts in pieces all 
that opposed his passage; takes, after a vigorous 
resistance, the second town in the Empire. Hi- 
therto his soldiers were in the highest spirits; but, a 
check they meet with soon after, by the carelessness 
of a party, being severely punished by Julian, the 
army grows out of humour. He harangues them 
into temper. He takes another town. He forces the 
passes of rivers, beats the Persians before him even 
to the gates of Ctesiphon. They lose six thousand 
men ; the Romans abdut seventy. He lays siege to it. 
Ambassadors Come to beg Peace. It is refused. He 
is betrayed by a false fugitive, and finds himself in- 
volved m distress all at once. He finds himself in 
the midst of an open country destroyed by the 

enemy. 



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15^ ILLUSTRATfDVS OF LTmUTDKB* 

enemy, and incessantly baraased by flying bodies of 
horse. Now is it possible to conceive this was a time 
for writing Pastoral Letters? or even tbat which 
preceded it, when he rolled on from conquest to 
conquest. We must needs conclude he dropped his 
pen when he came to action; and that what be 
wrote^ was wrote between his setting out of Antioch 
to his passing the Euphrates. Besides, had these 
papers been in his tent in his distress, it is certain 
we should never have seen them, when Jovian so 
sooti became master of what he left. It seems to 
admit of no question but, as soon as be had written 
them, he put them into the safe hands of Priests 
or Sophists, to be transmitted into Syria. If this 
be so^ there is no room to suppose the allusion you 
mention. — As for the rest, your general analysis of 
the reasoning is fine and just. 

You see the lil)erty I take. But I thought I 
could not do too much, to shew you how greatly I 
think myself obliged to you for your favour. And 
I thought it a higher mark of respect and acknow^ 
ledgment^ to explain the reasons in what I difler 
from you, than m only thanking you for what you 
bave set me right in. 

You do me pleasure in permitting me to send you 
some more of the sheets. Those six are all vet 

rented. I have a good deal more copy ready, which 
shall put into theJPrinter's hands when I get to 
town, which will be about the 32d instant 

^propos-'^hMn we see you in town thisNovember. 
I shall be all tbat month there, the dismal month of 
November, when the lower wretches hang'and drown 
themselves, and the higher give themsehres to the 
C. and the Devil. You may be assured it would 
be a real pleasure if I could wait on you there. 
I do not mean to the C. and the Devil, but in Bed- 
ftwtl^ow. 

I am, dear Sir^ your fietithful and affiectionate 
hamUe servant, W. Warburton. 

LETTER 



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MK. WAEBUmTON TO UJBU VOKITCE. 15( 

LETTER III. 
To the Rev. Mr. Forstek. 

Dear Sir, P?nor ParJc, Oct. 15, 174^^ 

I have your obliging favour of the 12th. Your 
reflection on the passage you quote from Julian h 
admirable. It must oe owned he had much of the 
character you give him ; and it appears from this 
passage that he was as much an Antiquary as the 
present Dean of Exeter * ; as from others, that he- 
was as much a Politician as his Brother, thoush not 
altogether with as high a respect for St. Paul -f-. 

P. 44. ^nd atthough.2 Your criticism on this 
passage is perfectly just. — It is as you say. 

Your observations on two other passages of Julian 
are extremely judicious. I have read over those 
fragments of his more than once, preserved by Cy- 
rill. And he appeared to me extremely inconstant 
in what he said of the Jews. But, I agree with you, 
what you quote here is no bad comment on ayiop 
taroX: and So^aj^, S^c. ra> xpsirlovi. 

I have often wished for a hand capable of collecting 
all the remaining fragments of Porphyry, Celsus, Hi- 
erodes, and Julian, and giving them to us with a just 
Critical and Theological Comment, as a defy to hifi- 
delity. It is certain we want something more than 
what their ancient Answerers have given us. This* 
would be a very noble work. I knew of none that has 
all the talents fit for it but yourself. What an open- 
ing this will give to all the treasures of sacred and pro- 
phaneantiquity! And what an opportunity would this 
be of establishmg agreat character! TheAuthorof the 
Dissertation on the passage of Josephus (which I think 
the best piece of criticism of this age) would shine 

* Dr. Charles l^telton^aftenvwrd^Ptasid^t of tiMS& 
Antiquaries, and Bishop of Exeter. 

f Alluding to the excellent Treatise on the Conversion of St. 
Paal, by George Ljttelton, Esq. afterwards theiint LordLyttelton. 

here. 



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158 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITBRATURJE. 

here. — ^Think of it. — You cannot do a more useful 
thing to Religion^ or your own character. Contro- 
versies of the times are things that presently vanish. 
This will be always of the same importance. 

P. 50.] I think the words of Nazianzen necessarily 
suppose that Julian spoke to them of a Prophecy 
which foretold, by some preceding marks, the res- 
toration; and that they were to judge by the appear- 
ance of those marks of the time. The words «ri- 

TCTV seem to imply this sense, that Julian explained 
or interpreted some prophecies to them from their 
sacred oooks and traditions in such a manner 
as to shew them, &c. And smBua^wv is such an 
expression as one would use of Whiston, who is 
both Prophet and Interpreter. 

I will allow that Julian, in continuing his journal, 
in imitation of Caesar, in the midst of perils, acted 
up to his character of a military fop. — Though I 
think 'Ojxi;fXt3 (though in general it signifies that 
obscurity in the heavens occasioned by watery va- 
pours either high or low) particularly signifies a 
cloud as well as other things ; yet I agree with you, 
that I should have translated it a mist; for then it is, 
and not in cloudy weather, that the sun appears like 
a globe of fire. 

I agree with you, had Julian intended by 0a>$ 
IJiiya to express the name of the sun, he would 
have put the article. But, though he meant the 
Sun, he expressed only what appeared to the false 
judgment of the beholder a great lights not the 
great light. 

I grant you I have made the application — $0 these 
stark blind — instead of and stark blind. And I 
did it to explain what I conceived to be Julian's 
meaning, who designedly, I supposed, obscured it 
by not making the application. — But your hint has 
made me reflect this will not be thought fair. So I 
think to alter it. 

But, 



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MR. WARBURTOK TO MR. FORSTER. 159 

But, seriously, wben ^mgfuaya and ^mgxaiBa^ov are 
the same, and opposed to th^y how can they mean 
any thing but the Sun ? 

Did ever a Platonist, or indeed any other antient 
Philosopher or Divine, apply xado^ov to any other 
than a celestial splendour r The Ancients indeed 
held the element of fire to be pure; but, when this 
quality is opposed to an earthly fire, it must be the 
quality of a heavenly one. You will say, he says oj 
ai'dpaMroi&XfTovrs^8xada^ai^, Sgci it is true; but here 
he had an eye, in my opinion, to tlie theourgic pu- 
rification of mind ; his simile and his application 
being, according to my interpretation, twisted toge^ 
ther. After all, to suppose him only to allude to 
what the Old Testament says of God's being a con^ 
sumingfir€j he uses a strange apparatus for nothing: 
but what more natural, if he referred to the Temple 
of Daphne and Jesus? And suppose his simile is 
taken from what you suppose, I should still think 
the application the same, and that the frighted sol- 
diers were to represent the admiring Christians. 

P. 155 of Julian. — It is no wonder that Julian 
should treat as a superstitious dream a God who is a 
consuming fire, when the Christians at this time so 
much triumphed in him under that title. Had it 
not been for such considerations as these, he would 
have found enough in Paganism to have j.ustifled 
the character ; and, as his enthusiasm was superin- 
duced, and inoculated by his Platonists, on his na- 
tive superstition, he had enough of that original 
gloom of mind to figure to himself a deity thus ar- 
rayed. I allow your reflection on eflfv 8f oi/tai, ^c* 
to be extremely just. And he was certainly as sen- 
sible of the corruptions of principle in he then 
state of Paganism, as he was of the corruptions in 
|»ractice. 

Basnage will have it (I suppose from these words 
of Socrates, KsXctxi raj(og xri^ttrdai rov SoXofunvo^ 
Naoi^* xai atrrog (ti IIi^<ra^ i^Xauvt) that when this 

thing 



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l60 tLLUmiATIOKS OF LmKATURE. 

thing hatxiened at Jemsaleni, Julian was in Persia* 
But I thmk m Ui^ctg %}Xa!iM (though Valesius 
translates it ad bellum contra Persas proficMcitttrJ 
does not signify he forthwith b^an his march, as 
if it had been cvi iJU^^-mf taroMtif rai — but that he 
began the war against them, which he might do be^ 
foie be left Antioch, that is, put every thing into 
hostile motion. Pray give me your opinion on ^ts 
head. 

Mr. Allen is much your servant and admirer, and 
desires his best compliments. He has been got 
home some time. Sure you miglit make an excur- 
sioD for two or three days at a time (now and then> 
to see and increase the number of your friends^ 
which is done in seeing you), at that season when 
people are in town. I set forward in a day or two. 
Let me know how you relish the noble project I 
prq)Qse to put you upon. — And believe me to be, 
dear Sir, with the truest esteem, your most affection- 
ate servant, W. Warburton. 

LETTER IV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Forster. 

Dkajbl Sir, Prior Park, Dec. 13, 1749* 

I am just got home ; and am to acknowledge the 
fiiveyr of yours, which I had in London. 

You will laiigfa when I tell you my work grows 
ipeo my hands, and yet goes on slower at the press: 
for my perpetual dissipation, while I was in town, 
prevented me from getting above four sheets from 
tb^ piess^ two of which I here inclose. I have 
mom thought that, as the first part of my scheme will 
wake a reosoRaUe volume of more than 300 pages, 
it may be as well to publish it separately, with some 
«*eh advertisement as this : 

That the two thmgs whieb seemed to be wanting 
ia thitf new controversy, to obviate the conclusions 

which 



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MK. WAKmUKION TO B». lOESTBR* 1^1 

which licentious nuki are apt to draw from Dr. Mid- 
dleton^s book, against Revelation, are to prove a mi- 
racle recorded in Ecclesiastical History : and to shew 
thjBLt these miracles stand on a different footing from 
those recorded in the Gospel. Thd first I have done^ 
in shewing the defeat of Julian to be miraculous ; 
and the other, in an examination iiito the nature of 
that evidence which will claim the assent of a rea- 
sonable man to a miraculous iact^ The first is now 
ofiered to the publick, the second will follow. — 
Pray what think you of this? — ^Who is Dr. Hodges •, 
who is about to publish something on the bcN^k of 
Job ? Dear Sir^ your most feithrul humble servant^ 

W. Wabburtok* 

LETTER V.f 
To the Rev. Mr. Forster« 
Dear Sir, Bedford-row, Feb. 28, 1748-9. 

t have the favour of your obliging Letter^ In 
mine to you, I expressed myself much short of the 
advantageous opinion I have of your fine piece of 
critique. I have seen nothing like it since I was capa- 
ble of making any observations of this kind, fiut^ 
as there never was a good writer but had his apes, 
so you have yours. One of the most grotesque of 
this sort is a man, I forget his name, who wrote 
about Astronomy to M. Folkes, and something on 
the Book of Job p I had the curiosity to look into 
them ; for I always think an Oxford Author a good 
one till I find the contrary ; just as I do a Town Au- 
thor a bad one, till then. 

Pray give me your thoughts on the following ques* 
tion : Ih you think one can logically infer, from the 
words of the predictions of the destruction of the 
Temple by Titus, that a^na/ destruction must needs 
be understood, pr such a one that opposes a re-edifi- 

♦ See hereafter, p. 166. 

t This, and the two following Letters^ should have preceded 
that of Oct. 8, 1749, in p. 158. 
t Rev. J. Garnet. Seep. 167. 
VOL. II. M cation ? 



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164 tLLUSTRATIONS OF LFmiATUKE. 

cation ? I ha?e tiuned this tbiag about ; and think 
(though the affirmative has been taken for granted 
both by the ancients and modems) thatt we must 
. take in the nature and genius of the two dispensa* 
(ions, to determine solidly on the question. Be so 
good to give me your opinion. By this way, and 
only by this, I think I can prove i\\e final destruc- 
tion to be predicted. And now I must let you into 
a kind of secret, which I have told to no one here 
(because, in this dissipated life here, I write but by 
fits), which is, that i am composing a Defence of 
the Miracle which opposed Julianas attempt to re- 
build the Temple. I think it a subject of great im- 
portance to the Christian cause ; and I think it has 
never been thoroughly examined. Pray give me 
your thoughts about the usefulness and expediency 
of a sober and well-weighed discourse on this sub^ 
jetd:, that will keep as clear of controversy as: possi- 
ble; for Dr. Middleton need not, unless he will, 
give the exclusion to this miracle upon his general 
scheme, as He has laid it down in general. 

A very miserable scrap of answering is just come 
out against him by Jackson : and a much more 
scholar-tike thing, called, A Letter to Dr. Middle- 
t^n, occasioned by his late Free Inquiry; and this 
is by John Wesley the Methodist. Perhaps you 
would expect more temper and less reasoning from 
this modem Apostle. What I said above, of my 
woject, is inter nos. What I say below, I would have 
itnown to every body — namely, that I am, dear Sir, 
Your very affectionate and faithful humble servant, 

W, Warburton. 

LETTER VI. 

To the Rev. Mr. Forster. 

Dear Sir, [Prior Parky Aug. . . , 1749.] 

I have many acknowledgments to make to you 

for your last favours in calling on me as you went by 

in your last expedition, which we all took extremely 

kind. I am left here alone, to amuse myself as I can ; 

r ind. 



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MR. WARBURTON TO KR. FORSTRR. I63 

and^ having nothing better to do at present, I am per- 
secuting tl^ Apostate, whom I attack at much disad- 
vantage. He had his legions to second him ; mine, I 
mean my books, are all at a great distance. Mr. Pope*s 
and Mr. Allen's are but a kind of civil militia, and un- 
used to this service : so that I am forced to have re- 
course to you, who are at the head of inqumerabte 
legions, though, like Caesar, you depend only on 
your select troops. To speak like a man of this 
world, 1 must beg the favour of you to look me out 
a passage in St. Jerom. I believe it may be in his 
Commentary on Daniel, perhaps in the 4th Chap- 
ter, where, speaking of the Jews of his time, he 
says, they had a tradition that 430 years after their 
dispersion they should be restored, sell their enemies 
for slaves, re-build Jerusalem, &c.; and that, Julian 
making his ofier, they embraced it on this account 
with great eagerness. 

Another passage I want is, the Greek of Chiysos- 
tome, where he says, some of the Jews turned Pa- 
gans on the defeat. I see the place in my papers 
is marked thus, Chrys. in Matt. p. 491. but what 
edition I remember not. 

Again, what Cassiodorus says of the matter in his 
Hist. Tripart. lib. vi. cap. 43 ; and a transcript of that 
senseless lie of Theophanes, that the mark of the 
Cross was found at the same time on the books and 
holy vestments at Antioch. 

Will you pardon me for giving you this trouble ? 
I shall take notice of the strange cavils of an excel- 
lent person (James Basnage) to this Miracle. Pray 
do you know any other, of name, who has caviled 
at it ? I would speak with all such. But your little 
low rascals, who make it their trade, I shall not turn 
aside upon. 

Have you seen Whiston's Memoirs ? or did you 
ever see any thing equal to the folly, the madness, 
and the ingratitude, of the composition, the doctrin.e, 
and the scandal ? — That poor Publican, Mrs, PU- 

M $ kington 



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104 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

kington *, will And favour in the eyes of the candid 
before this outrageous Pharisee. She abuses only 
those who would not reUeve her wants ; he only 
those who did, — and, from Dr. Rundle, who invited 
him to eat cheesecake, to Dr. Hare atid Dr. Cannon, 
without whose generous defence of it he would 
have had nothing to eat at all, he lays them on 
without mercy, and, in some instances, I can say, 
without truth — though I could foreive a great deal for 
his ingenuity, in telling us that Whitby called him a 
madman, and that Sir Isaac Newton, rather than have 
him in the Royal Society, would throw up the Pre- 
sidentship. To complete this, which, in my opi- 
nion, has completed the disgrace that Learning and 
Religion have fallen into in this blessed age, he has 
given us his Latin Dissertation on the Fall^ that 
drops down as ^h-^ 

LETTER VIL 

To the Rev. Mr. Forster. 

Dear Sir, [Sept. 28, 1749.] 

I should have made my acknowledgments for your 
last kind Letter before now, but that I waited till I 
could send the inclosed along with them. These six 
sheets t, which are all I have been yet able to get 
from the press, censure and criticise freely, like a 
friend. You have an absolute power over all^ but 
one observation § in p. 93. 

When I examined Basnage*s objections to this 
Miracle in the Sixth Book of his History of the 

* Mrs. Letitia Hlkington, wife of the Rer. Matthew Pilkiog- 
top. She published *^ Memoirs*' of her own Life in 1749. 

t The remainder^ and probably date, of thb Letter is torn oflf* 

% The m iheeU were sent on tiie same day to Mr. Hurd. 

\ Dp. Warburton, in his ** Julian," speaking of Ammianus 
Marcellinus*s recording the dcstructionoftheTempleof Jerusalem 
as a natural and not a miraculoui event, says, *' His reserve is so 
far from depriving us of the benefit of his testimony, that it is 
that which supports it. Bad weibund a P&gan spesJcing like a 

Christian 



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MIL WAEBVETOIl TO MR. fOESIXR. I65 

JewSy it perfectly amazed me* He was an excellent 
scholar, of great parts, and a real believer of Reve- 
lation. Yet there is such an unaccountable misre* 
presentation of what the Fathers say throughout, 
that, had it been a posthumous work, I should cer* 
tainly have thought it an interpolation. It^ill re- 
ward your curiosity to read it. Amidst a great deal 
of false facts positively affirmed, there are two ob- 
jections hinted, and barely hinted at, that are very 
strong. This is another mystery. However, I 
have drawn them out in their full force, that nothing 
might be disguised. 

I am, dear Sir, with the truest esteem, your very 
affectionate and faithful servant, W. Warburtov. 

LETTER VIII. 
For the Rev. Mr. N. Forster. 

Dear Sir, Dec. 34, 1749* 

I have the favour of yours. — I was sensible of the 
difficulty of ix rS UqS. I have weighed it much, if 
not well ; and, in my examination of Basnage, have 
endeavoured to shew that itsignifies the s^mis asc^i^ rdh 
^cf4cX/aiy r§ poS — as Uqhif is a generic word, which 
signifies as well the site of an holy buildings as the 
building itself. Basnage supposes Gregory meant 
the ftre came from the Jewish Temple re-built. So- 
zomene, I have shewn, supposes that the fire came 
from the foundations of the Jewish Temple; but misr 

Chrisltian Father oq this occasion, his evidence had soon beoome 
as suspected as that of the Jewish Historian where he speaks of 
Chbist; which one of the able$t and most candid of hit Critia hoM 
fairly condemned for an Impoiture, . . This Miracle, without qoes- 
tioD, embarrassed MarceUinus no less than the Woeksh of Mira- 
cles ^bstreseed the other Historian ; whose case iheejfcellent Writer 
just now meniUmed has well described. But, h^ posterity made 
equally free with both, I should have despair^ of disengaging my 
Author with the address and abilities he has served Joecphns.*' 

Warburton's World, Soo. vol. VUL f. 104. 

takes 



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l66 tLLUSTRATIONS OF LITXRAtUKE. 

takes in supposing (vregory meant that this destruc- 
tion happenra at a di^rent time iVom the fire which 
destroyed the workmen in the foundations. It is cer- 
tainly a perplexed passage. And I agree with you, 
if oi^e could make hghtning out of it (which is an in- 
genious thought) we should have what we want, a con- 
temporary evidence for the lightning. So is the other, 
in the conclusion, rl S^aSfta 8^c. I supposed moio^ 
iawiS meant upon their bodiesy in opposition to iv 
To7g itr^fi/z&i. It is certain neither Socrates, Sozo- 
mene, nor Tlieodoret mention any on their body. But 
might not this be the reason ? Those on their cloaths 
endured a long time, the heat of their bodies soon 
wore out the other; and it was natural to think that 
which lasted the longest would strike the general ob- 
servation most. 

As to the third passage, xcCi aTif(ira>, I was sur- 
prized to see it was rri fti^j^t, which undoubtedly re- 
quires your sense. I had not the book by me, so 
was forced to translate from transcripts of the Greek 
texts which I got from my friends; where, instead of 
iri ftijSf, it was ti Sc |xij, or ti jxijSt , I forget which. I 
shall look into Gregory when I go to town; and, if it 
be fri juttjSt) I shall re-print the leaf, for there is no 
doubt of your sense. 

I believe Dr. Hodges * was the man the Dean of 
Christ Church *f once mentioned to me on a certain 
occasion, and spoke of him as a man of grtot can- 
dour, to whom I was^ obliged. But I may be mis- 
taken in ^ head. But poor Job ! — how are his 
persecutions increased since his three Comforters 
left him ^ We next find him bound hand and foot 
in a strong Catena of Greek Fathers, and delivered 

* Wdtcr Hodges, of Oriel College, Oxford: M. A. 1717; 
Prebendary of Rochester 17. . ; Provost of Orid 1727,- B. and 
D.D. 17^8; and Vice-chancellor in 174^ and 1743. He died 
Jaa. 14, 1757, and was buried at Rochester. 

ijohn Conybeare, D. D. ; Dean of Christ Church 1799^ Bp. 
ribtol 175^5 died Feb. 13, 1755. 

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Mk. WAttl«0*r6H' to Hit. FOftWflR. 1<^ 

down in this condition to the Tormentors, Pineda, 
Caryl, Wesley, Garnet*, &c. But, you will say, I am 
to answer for the lasC Perhaps so. However, pray 
do not reckon me among Job's Hangmen. At worsts 
I only acted the part of his wife, and was for m&Ung 
short work with htm. But he seems to be reseryed 
for endless punishment ; and, with a fate not nnhke 
that of Prometheus, to be chained down to his dong- 
bilt, and to have his brains sacked out by Owls ^f-. 

You will act unfriendly by me, if you sufler any 
business to be interrupted by writing to me. The 
notice friends give one another of their health and 
their good*will is, and should be, always reserved 
for an idle hour. It is sufficient we are assured our 
friends think of us; and we should never suspect that 
they foi^t us because we do not bear from them. 

Have you seen the little TuHy of Ctlasgowl ? It is 
very elegant, possibly it may be correct. There is 
one foolish singularity in it, some notes to the " D^ 
Oratore,** and to no other. I do not know whether 
this was done in compliment to Psarce^, or to brealE 
a lance with him. The Milton in which the Bi- 
shop [| has so large a share is, you see, published*. 
I will not tell you what I think of it, not because 
my name is seen there (for what goes along \*ith it 
is too trifling and too little to make any alteration in 
the character of the edition, whether it be good o^ 
bad), but because it is of no moment what I thinks 

I heartily wish you all the good this Season brings 
with it to any one ; and am, dear Sir; your faithftu 
and affectionate humble servant, W. Warburton, ' 

* *' A Dissertation on the Book of Job, by J. Garnet 1749.*; 

t Hp. Warburton was in the frequent habit, when any thing 
reniariuible occnrred to his imaginatioD, to write the same thing 
lo various CorrespoDdeBta. TlusparBgraph,ft>riiisCaDoe, occora, 
nearly in the same wordB, in a Letter to Mr. Hurd* Dec. %3, 1749* 

t Published by Robert and Andrew Foulis. 

§ Dr. Zachary Pearce, Bp. of Rochester. Dr. Pearce pub- 
lished an ^tipn of '' Cicero de Oratore.*' 

II Dr. Newton's Edition of the •* Paradise Ldst," with Notes 
of vavious Authors. 

LJOTSR 



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l€S UXUStHATIOVf or UndUTVEB^ 

LETTER IX. 

To the Rev. Mr. Forster. 

Dear Sir, Bedfard^Rm, Feb. 5, 1749-50. 

My remove, and my constant dissipations, pre* 
vented, tiH now, my acknowledging the favour of 
your last. You have seen this stranee phaenomenon, 
Middleton*s book * against the Bishop of London. 
Inter nas, it appears to me to be liie weakest as well 
fus warmest bcK>k he ever wrote. 

It is not on this account that I think to re-print the 
first sheet of Julian, and leave out most of the in- 
troduction concerning Middleton's book; but be^ 
cause some considerable persons, whose judgment is 
unquestionable, and who ar^ enough prejudiced in 
favour of Middleton, yet think that it is better 
omitted, both on account of offence, and because it 
looks like an apprehension of Middleton's pen. You 
will give me your opinion. Though I have not got 
much more from the press, yet I am in hopes of 
having it out in March, and am now going on in 
good earnest, I wish I could tell you any news 
worth a reasonable man to hear, or a good man's re- 
joicing at. But what must we think of the times, 
when the only interesting a£&ir on the carpet is the 
scrutiny of Vapderput and Trentham*s poll ; who, 
if they had been born two wrestlers or boxers on a 
countiy green, would have had neither courage nor 
dexterity enough to prevent their being hissed out 
of the circle! and yet there is an assembly which 
waits one of them, and could find work for both. 

Dear Sir, believe me to be, with the most unalter-^ 
able esteem and regard, your veiy affectionate and 
faithful friend, ^ W. War9URT0N. 

• '' Free Inquiiy into th^ Miraculous Powers/* Ac. see p. 17«. 

LETTER 



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MR. WARBVRTON TO DR. VORnSR. l(^ 

LETTER X. 

To the Rev. Dr. Forster. 
Dear Sir, Ptior Park, April 3, 1750. 

The newspapers remind me to congratulate with 
you on the conclusion of your noble labours on the 
Hebrew Bible ♦. You must congratulate too with me 
on a much less occasion, the finishing what I have 
to say at present of Julian. I say at present; for, 
you will see, this volume promises another. For 
1 can promise like a young courtier, and perform like 
an old one. I hope it will be finished in a few days. 
I have ordereB one to be sent to you ; and as for the 
sheets you have, pray either burn them, or send them 
to me, which will be most convenient. 

You see how Middleton is paid off for meddling 
with the Bishop of London. Every week launches 
two or three thunderbolts at his head. This cannot 
astonish him more than the late Elarthquakes have 
done the City of London. They seem to suspect 
that a third shock of an Earthquake will be as fiital 
and as certain as the third fit of an Apoplexy. How- 
ever, if it does but contribute to put some stop to 
this torrent of vice and impiety, ready to overwhelm 
all things, it will be well. -^ Pray Ciod it may ! 

The greatest mischief these Earthquakes havedoue 
hitherto is widening the crack in old Will Whis- 
ton*8 noddle, who is now grown as mad as Oliver's 
Porter with his breeches full of Bibles. I always 
except the fall of the Pinnacles at Westminster. 
Where was the genius loci of the School, when this 
disaster happened ? Perhaps in the oflice of Diana 
when her Temple was on fire, midwifing to some 
Minerva of the brain, which is to inform an immor^ 
tal epigram at the next election of scholars. 

Dear Sir, believe me to be your most aflfectionate 
and faithful bumble servant, W. Warburton. 

* '' BibMHebnica, dne Punctis^ accoraate Nath. Forster, 
6.T.P. Oxon. 1750." 

To 



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17(1 ILLUWRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 



To the Rev. Mf/Thomas Balguy. 

Dear Sir, Prior Park, Jum 21 , 175^- 

You have heard of the death of the poor Bishop of 
Durham *. The Church could have spared some 
other Prelates much better; and, in its present con- 
dition, could but ill spare him ; for his morals and 
serious sense of Religion (to say nothing of his in- 
tellectual endowments) did honour to his station. 
His death is particularly unhappy for his Chaplain, 
Dr. Forster-(-. He is my friend, whom I much va- 
lue, as one of great worth, and whose ill luck I much 
lament. He has not only seen his hopes drop through, 
when he was every thing but in the very posses^ioq 
of them ; but has lost a Patron who deserves the 
nanje of Friend; which goes much harder in the se» 
paration than the other. W. Warburton. 

* Dr. Joseph Butler -, of whoro^ contrasting him with anothev 
eminent Prelate, he elsewhere thus speaks : " Dr. Seeker's chief 
merit (and aiurely it was a very great one) lay in explaining clearly 
and popularly, in his Sermons, the principles delivered by his 
friend Bp. Butler in his famous Book of The Analogy, and io 
shewing the important use of them to Religion.** 

fi'arburton*8 Works, 8vo,.voLI, p. 69. 
J " Poor Forster (whom I have just received a Letter from) 
is overwhelmed with desolation for the loss of his master [Bp. 
Butler]. I quoted his case to our ftiend Balguy for his coneok* 
. tion. But you say, I will have no master -, which, I confess^ is the 
best consolation of all. Reckon upon it, that Durham goes to 
tome Noble Ecclesiastic*. It is a morsel only for them. Our Gran' 
dees have at last found their way back into the Church. 1 oi^ wotl-^ 
der they have been so lon^ about it. But be assured that nothing 
but a new religious revolution, to sweep away the fiagments that 
Harry the Eighth left, after bainqueting his Courtiers, will drive 
them out again. The Church has been of old the cradle and 
the throne of the younger Nobility. And this Nursing Mother 
will> I hope> once more vie with old imperious Berecynthia: 
Lseta Deiim partu, centum complexa Nepotes^ 
Ornnes Ccelicolas, omnes supera alia tenentes.*' 

Letler to Mt, Hmd, July 6, 175S. * 

* This oo^fecture wm DMrly rigbt. The tnccettort Id tlit See of nurbam 
4iave been Trevw, Egerton, Thurltm, and Burrington. 

Dr. 



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DR. FORSTER TO MR. BIRCH. IJl 

Dr. N. FoRSTER to Mr. Birch *. 
Dear Sir, C. C. C. Feb. l, 1753. 

In an6wer to the favour of jours, I bfive to desire 
you to present my respects to Mr. Yorke ; and to ac- 
quaint bim that I shallwith great pleasure endeavour 
to execute the commissions with which he has ho- 
noured me, to the best of my power. 

There is, as far as I can yet learn, but one MS. 
of Pliny in Oxford, viz. in Baliol College Library. 

The Letter, which I apprehend Mr. Yorke would 
have transcribed, is one from the Hague, dated the 
3d of August 1615, to King James, containing the 
answer of the States to a proposition made by the 
King, and an account of the causes of the delay of 
the treaty, and of a project formed by Sir Henry 
himself for settling the affair of Juliers, &c. . But, 
as I would willingly leave no room for mistake in the 
affair, a line from you in answer to this question 
will oblige. Sir, your most obedient and humble 
servant, N. Forster. 

P. S. The chief thing that occasions my doubt 
is, that there is no appearance of a vindication of 
himself in that Letter. There is indeed another, re- 
lating to the surprize of Wesel, in which he vindi- 
cates himself firom some aspersions relating to it. 

To Dr. N. Forster. 

Reverend Sir, * Feb. 3, 1753. 

Mr. Yorke thinks himself highly obliged for your 
kindness to comply with his requests ; and would 
now beg that you would procure copies of both the 
Letters of Sir Henry Wotton mentioned by you : 
for, though that relating to the surprize of Wesel 
was that he meant, yet^ as that of the 3d of August 
1615, will probably ^ve light to the other, he 
is desirous of both. With his and my own com- 
pliments, I am, &c. T. Birch. 



« Birch MS8. 4307. 



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[ 172 ] 

EXTRACTS OF ORIGINAL LETTERS » 
FROM Mr. WARBURTON to Mr. JORTIN. 



You tell me you have had reasons to decline a 
City Living. I can conceive no good one, but that 

* Originally printed by Mr. Maty in his " New Review j" but, 
irom obvious reHsons, the name of Dr, Joriin wu then studiously 
concealed. Mr. Maty*8 sisler was the wife of Dr. Jortin*s son. 
Thb led to the communication; which Mr. Maty thus intro- 
duces ; " A Friend, who was pleased with my last Extracts from 
the Correspondence between fip. Warburton and Dr. Hirch, 
Imving^ been kind enough to communicate to me some more Ma-» 
nuscript Letters of the Bishop, with a desire that I should usp 
them at my discretion j I have great pleasure in conveying these 
to the publick ; as 1 am convinced they will do honour to that 
great man, whose philanthropy, greatness of mind, and true 
spirit of Christian toleration, will never appear in ft more striking 
light than they do in these private memorials; which, I am per- 
suaded, could he look down from those regions, where. 
His tears, his little triumphs o*er. 
His human passions move no more. 
Save charity that glows beyond the grave, 
he would not be offended at th^ publkation of them. When I 
say this, I do not mean to flatter him, or any of his* siu*viving 
friends, for some of whom I profess great respect. He certainly 
had his fiiults; but, besides that none of them appei^r in my 
publication (except his openness of speech, and his manly plea- 
santry about fools, for which I reverence him, may be deemed 
such), they are such as all the world has long been acquainted 
with. They are, indeed, so notoriotis, that, if it had been my 
intention to depreciate his character in an ^na, I should not have 
had recourse to private letters, but have compiled it out of his 
works, or the five hundred stories of him about town. As to the 
bddness of his judgments about literary characters, and particu- 
larly his saying that Sir Isaac Newton dki not understand Egyptian 
Antiquities, that Clarke wanted sagacity, and that Markland and 
Taylor were no great criticks -, what are th^ more than Voltaire's 
potlikingShakespeare, Scaliger'spreferiogtheAneid to the Iliad, 

and 



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ME. WARBCRTON TO MR. JORTnC. I73 

you are going to Court *. If 3rou be^ I will give 
you the same farewell that Buchdeer, an boniest dull 
German, gave to one of his friends who was making 
that journey: Fidem Diabolorum tiHcammendOyS^. 



Bleterie^s Life is indeed a very elegant one, and 
writ with mucn candour and impartiality. He is n^ 
deep man in the learning of those times, but bis 
good sense generally enables htm to seize the right. 
It is no wonder he should be imposed on by — — — ^ 
when the gross body of our Parsons are his dupes. 
ButasTrinculo, who wants to carry Caliban into Eng- 
land, observes that any thing there makes a Man, 
so any thing makes a Divine among our Parsons. 
Our real Scholars and Divines, XHaemagnanimi heroes, 
nati melioribus annis, have made our Learning vene- 
rated abroad. Our traders in letters have taken ad- 
vantage of that prejudice, and puff off all their mi- 
serable trash as master-pieces, even to that infamous 
rhapsody called The Universal History. And the 
deceit was easy. It was impossible for foreigners to 
suspect that our body of readers are tinkers, coblers, 
and carmen ; so that when they saw the impatience 
of this learned publick so great that they would not 
stay for a whole book, but devour it sheet by sheet 

and my (who am neither a Scaliger, nor a Warburton, nor vet» 
thank God, a Voltaire) fidling asleep over Don Quixote — which, 
1 pubUsh now to the world, I o^en do, that it mar not be a 
novelty in my manuscripts ! Faleant omnia 9uec quantum tfaUre 
p'osnmt. For what I know, the Bishop may be perfectly in the 
ri^t in all those assertions ; or, as the French say. there may be 
from more to less in it; or, if we may not say either of these 
without risking the reputation of our own critical acumen, it b 
only saying with Markland (who seexns to have been a very ami- 
able man, whatever kind of Critick he was) in a letter before me 
about Reiske^s atrocious ^Bilse quantities, ' We differ from him in 
innumerable things, as every man does from every man !* ** 

* A City Living was ofiered to him, in July or August ]74#« 
by Lord Chancellor Hardwicke -, but it was so small, as at that 
time not to be worth his acceptance. 

from 



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174 ILLUSTJLiTiaNS OF LnSRATURB. 

from the press, they conceived something very ex- 
quisite in iwiiat was so impatiently snatched at : for 
we are under the unavoidable necessity, in our gene- 
ral judgment of things, to estinsate of foreign ware 
according to the sale and demand of it; and if our 
worst books (as they do) sell best at home, they will 
be known and read abroad. I believe I could give 
you a long list of capital English books, that were 
never heard of on the Continent, farther than their 
titles to be found in some brave dull German Cata- 
logue. 



Have you read the octavo Book, addressed to the 
Convocation, for mending the Bible and the Litur^ 
gy * ? I am much edified by the Christian spirit in 
which their demands for reformation are made ; but 
a more wretched farrago of ignorance and trifling 
when they play the critick (which now-a-days is 
only another word for playing the fool) I never saw. 



Perhaps your comparison of Printers to Taylors 
is more pat than you intended : for why can't you 
get your cloaths from a rascally Taylor, but because 
he is working for half a dozen fops in the fashion ? 
And why can't you get your sheets from the Prin- 
ter, but because he is working upon Newspapers, 
Journals, and Magazines, the delight of the town, 
and the daily bread of town scribblers ? 

You mention John of Antioch, with two writers 
contemporary to the fact, Ambrose and Gregory Na- 
zianzen ; but I suppose he did not live till the fifth 
or sixth century. One thing I find recorded of him 
is, that, like many of our modern Bishops, he was 
not known or heard of till after his consecration. 
His modesty does him honour with me ; therefore I 

* *' Free and Candid Disquisitions, 1749." 

should 



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MR. WARBU&TON TO MR. JORTIK. I75 

should be glad to know what this respectable person 
says about this matter ; if he says any thing particu- 
lar : for, to tell you the truth, / did notjind him in 
my brief y as the Lawyers say ; but I suspect him to 
be a shag*rag. — Another thing I b^ of you is, to 
transcri^ for me (if you can catch him) Rufl[|nus's 
testimony. He is such a vagabond, I cannot lay 
hands on him ; I suppose him skulking in some BiS* 
UotAeca Patrum. As for that forlorn hope, Tbeo? 
doret, PhilostorgiuSy Nicephoras, ami TheophaoeS) 
I shall put them where they can do qo hurt ; jaa to 
good, little is to be expected from such poltroons, 
who are ready to run away to the enemy ** 

* In nearly the whole of these Letters to Mr. Jortin, as well as 
those to Dr. Forster, Julian is the leading article of enquiry. 
In truth, this was one of the most laboured of all his woriu ; 
and his anxiety respecting it ceased not even after its publication. 
In a Letter addiiessed to Dr. Balguy^ Jan. 17* 1751-2, he says^ 
*' They tell me there are some remarks published against my Ju- 
lian. I do not know the nature of tke«i» nor ever shall. That 
matter interests every Clergyman, that is tosay, every Christiaiiy 
in £n^nd, as much as myself. Besides, I give my sentiments 
to the publick, and there is an end. If any body will oppose them, 
he has my leave. If any body will defend them, he has my 
thanks. I propound them freely : I explain them as clearly, and 
enforce them as strongly^ as I can. I think I owe no more either 
to myself or truth. I am sure 1 owe no more to the publick. 
Besides, I know a little (as you will see by the new edition of the 
first and second volumes of The Divine Legation) how to correct 
«iyself y so have less needs of this assistance from others j which 
you will better understand, when you see that I have not received 
the least assistance from the united endeavours of that numerous 
band of answerers, who have spared no freedoms in telling me of 
my faults.** — Again, May 19, 1752 : " I think you judge rightly 
of the effects of. Lord Bolingbroke*s writings, as well as of their 
^haraeter. As to his Discourse on the Canon of Scripture, I 
think it below all criticism, though it had mine. He mentions 
-(and I believe, with good feiith) that foolish rabbinical tale of 
Esdras* restoring the whole lost canon by Inspiration : and argues 
^m it. However* the redoubtable pen of Sykes, though now 
^wom to thestump, is drawn upon him ; or, at least, threatened 
to be drawn. He threatened, too, to draw it upon poor Julian, 
but he left the execution to another. And who do you think that 
other proves ? Somebody or other, by for more curious than 
myself, would unearth this vermin : and he is foimd to be one 

Nicolls, 



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Ijff ILLUSTRATIONS Of LtTfiEATURB^ 

As to Meric Casaubou's story, I could have ^ish^ 
to have had not only the cooking, but the catchiqg 
of that game. 

At Oxford, Mr. Forster* says, they expect a de- 
luge of answerers against Middleton 'f-^ by the first 
fr^t; for our cold and barren heads run not like 
those of the Alps in summer, but in winter, except 
that which overtop us all, the hoary brow of Whis- 
ton, which, like Mount Jura, runs both in summer 
and in winter. 



■ — introduces his abuse on you, by saving, 
that you got a receipt for him of Sir Edward Hulse, 
that saved his life. Poor Mr. Pope received just 
such a favour from Southcote :}:, and he never was 
easy till he got him a rich Abbey in Flanders, which 
he did by the interest of Sir Robert Walpole and 
his brother Horace, with the Court of France ; on 
which account it was, he always spred those two in 

Nicolb *, which your UniTereity some time ago prosecuted for 
stealing their books, or rather should ha\-e prosecuted. Ha^ I 
not reason to blame them for tlieir ill-timed clemency ? Had they 
hanged him, as Justice called upon them to do, my book had beea 
safe. It is true, he has not fulfilled the old proverb, but rather 
contributed to a new one, ' Save a rogue from the g^lows, and 
— r*he will endeavour to save his fellow.' 1 had gibbeted up 
Julian, and he comes by night to cut him down.** 

* Dr. Nathaniel Forster ; see before, p. 168. 

t His «• Free Inauiry into the Miraculous Powers which are 
supposed to have subsisted in the Christian Church from the ear« 
Hest ages, through several successive centuries, 1749.** Innume- 
rable a[nswerers now appeared against him; two of whom* 
namely, Dodwell and Church, distinguished themselves with so 
much. zeal and ability, that they viere complimented by the Uni* 
versity of Oxford with the degree of D. D. 

t Mr. Pope's Friend was the Rev. Edward Southcote, a Cler- 
g>man of the Church of Rome, and the last male heir of Judge 
(m uthcote in jQueen Elisabeth's time. 

♦ Dr. Ph "nNico)!*. Author of «e viral Utm in the '<Bio|^aphia Britatt- 
ai«»," aaddit iiguithc] by the oameof The Peniteni Tkitf. 

bis 



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ME. WAttftOETOH to Htt^ JOEltK. 177 

lits Saitirety and higfalr com^mented the eldef. 
Let my um\ bb with a Hiiloaopber like tbisj rather 
than such a Christian as ' ■ > ■, 

1 took notice of an article in the Newspapers^ 
which said, it^jwas not true that vou had received a 
hivix^ from Lord Jjfksbuty. Who this Lord Ayles- 
buiy IS, I know not * ; but I was pleased with the no- 
velty of the paragnqph, as if it was a scandal that 
your friends were willing to remove you ; and in- 
deed, as Lords go now, there is no great honour to 
receive favours from them. 

Lauder has ofiered much amusement for the pub^ 
lick, and they are obliged to him-f-. What the 
publick wants, or subsists on, is news. Milton was 
their reigning favourite ; yet they took it well of a 
man they had never heard of before, to tell them the 
news of Milton*s being a thief and a plagiary ; had 

he been proved a , it had pleased them much 

better. When this was no longer news, they were 
equally deliehted with another, as much a stranger 
to them;);, mio entertained them with another piece 
of news, that Lauder was a plagiary and an impoetori 
bad he proved him a Jesuit in disguise, nothing 
had equaled the satisfaction. We bear this humour 
in the publick ; but, when particulars have imbibed 

* There was then no Lord Ayksbury.-^Thomas Bruce Brude« 
nelly yooogest son of Geoive third Eaii of Cardigan, succeeded to 
the title of Lord Bruce of Tottenham on the death of Charles Earl 
of Aylesbury in 1747 5 and was created Earl of Aylesbury in 177<l. 

t '^ 1 have just read the most siUy and knavish book I ever savir } 
c le Lauder, on Biilton*s Imitations. An obaenadon at the bottom 
of 44, and the top of 45, proves him either the (me or the other 
with a vengeance. If there are those things in Masenku, why did 
he not produce them ? They aH) of more weight to pre^^e his 
<terge than all he si^ besides. If they are not» he is a knave. 
I think he has produced about half a dozen particular thought^ 
that look Hke imitations — but the matter of IrMioUion is a thing 
very little understood. However, in one view, the book does not 
<&please me. It is likely enough to mortify all the silly adorers 
. of Milton, who deserve to be laughed at/* 

Letter to Mr. Bird, Dtc.^, 1749. 

t Dr. Doughs, affc^waids the v^ exemplary J^. oif Salisbuff, 
dkl not long reauiiii a strmger to the literary pnUick. 

VOL. II. K this 



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,178 UXUJSTRAXIQNS W XITERATUES. 

this piAtic spirit 9 notiiiog is so detestal^le as Aidi a 
character, and a man without a heart needs a public 
expiation more than a beast widiout amt. . I kaoW 
some of these monsters; and so doyou^ I dare say, 
more than you esteem them. It is a pity that tb^ 
ahould be sometimes men of wit. 



Prior Park, Feb. ?4, 1749-50- 
I had no sooner got hither, but my housemaid 
.wrote me a very disagreeable piece of nelirs. Some 
rogues have stripped the lead off my stables and 
coach-house in Bedford-row. This is a considerable 
damage; for I never expect the lead will come to 
light. Pray resolve me in this Case of Conscience. 
IVlay I with critical justice charge the theft upon my 
•mortal enemies, those great dealers in lead, the 
Gentlemen of the Dunciad ? If they have done me 
this injury, it is the greatest they ever did, or can 
dome*. 



Prior Park, Feb. 28, 1749-50. 
I hope your apprehensions of the Earthquake ^ji* 
abate. Folks seem to r^ard the third strolce of an 

* This pleasantry he transplanted^ nearly verbatim, in a Letter 
to Mr. Hurd, of the same date. 

t '• Pray did you feel either of these Earthquakes ? They have 
made Whistop ten times madder than ever. He went to an ale- 
house at Mile-end, to see one, who, it was said, had predicted the 
Earthquakes. The roan told him, it was true, and that he had it 
from an Angel. Whiston rejected this as apocryphal -, for he was 
well assured that, if the favour of this secret was to he communi- 
cated to any one, it would be to himself. He is so enraged at Mid-* 
dleton^ that he has just now quarreled downright with the Speaker 
[CH^low] for having spoke a good word for him many years ago 
in the^flbir of the Mastership of the Charter-house. The Speaker 
the other day sent for him to dinner -, he said, ' he would not 
oome.' The Lady sent ; ' he would not come.' She went to him, 
and clambered up into his garret, to ask him about the Earth- 
quake ! He told her, ' Mai&m, you are a virtuous woman 5 you 
need not fear : none but the wicked will be destroyed. You will 
escape. I would not give the same prooiiee to your husband/—' 
What vnll this poor Nation come to ! in the condition of troops 
between two fires ; the madness of Irrtligfon and the madness of 
Fanat]Cifim4*'-*JL€<<er to Mr. Hurd, Ftb..., 174a-50. 

£arthqiiake 



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MR. WAMSVKTOm TO UK. JORTIir. 1 79 

Earthquake to be as ocitain and as fatal as the tfaiM 
stroke of an Apoplexy. But Dean Oarke *^ who 
is now at Bath, and whom Lord Fitiwalter'f' c^hthe 
greatest Philowpker in the worlds still affirnii it 
to be an Airqmke ; in conBrmation of which, he 
has a hundred circumstanoes to produce: for he is not 
like your vulgar Philosophers, who only invent hy«- 
potheses^ and fit the phsenomena to them as well as 
they can, which sometimes is lamely enough. He 
can invent the phenomena too, and so saves a world 
of labour, which, by the common rule of fatse,^ 
serves him as Algebra does the Geometer. 



July 30, 1750. 
This morning I had a letter from Cambridge, ac- 
quainting me with Dr. Middleton's death :|:. '< He 

* Of Caius College, Cambridge, B. A. 170«; M. A. 1706-, 
D, D. Com. Reg. 1717. He was appointed a Prebendaiy of Can- 
terfoury in 1736 -, and Dean of Salisbury in 17^8. He published 
E^^t Sennons preached at fioyk's Lecture ; and a single Sermon 
in 17S2, " The Character of a ^^ood Magistrate." He died Feb. 
6, 1757) and was buried in Sahsbury Cathedral. 

f Benjamin Mildmay, Lord Filzwalter, was created May 14, 
1730, Viscoont Harwich, and Barl Fitzwalter. In 1735 he was 
twom of the Privy Council, and i^ypointed a Commissioner of 
Trade and Plantations; and in 1737 Treasurer of the King's 
Household. He marric^d Lady Frederica, a daughter of Mein- 
herdt, Duke of Schomberg, and widow of Robert Earl of Holder*, 
neas -, and dnng Feb. 99, 1756> without surviving issue, the Vis- 
county and Earldom became extinct, and the Bejrony of Fitzwal* 
ter fell into abeyance. 

t " I hear ifr. Middleton has been lately at London, (t sup- 
pose to consult TDhr. Heberden about his health), and is returned 
in an extreme bad condition. The saibblers against him wil( 
say they have killed him ; but, by what Mr. Yorke tells me, his 
bricklayer will dispute the honoar of his death with them. Seri<» 
ously I am much concerned for the poor man; and wish h^ 
may recover with all my heart." Letter to Mr, Hurd, Julu 
14, 1750. — *'Dr. Middleton had been well acquainted with , 
Or. Heberden at Cambridge, where he flourished in great repu- 
tation for several vears before he removed to London. He 
has now [1/94], wr some time past, declined all business; 

N « " bu^* 



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l80 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE^ 

declared,"" sa^ mv letter, ^^ a few days ago, that he 
'should-die with that composure of mind which be 
thouffbt must be the enjoyment of ever}' man who 
had been a sincere searcher after Truth ; expressed 
some concern that he felt his strength and spirits 
decline so fRst> that he could not complete some de- 
signs he had then in hand * : and that he ima- 
gined he had given the Miracles of the early ages 
such a blow as they would not easily recover.*' 

I do not see how the mere discovery of Truth af- 
fords such pleasure. If this Truth be, that the 
Providence of God governs the moral as well as na- 
tural world ; and that, in compassion to human dis- 
tresses, he has revealed his will to mankind, by 
which we are enabled to get the better of them, by 
a restoration to his favour, I can easily conceive the 
pleasure that, at any period of life, must accompany 
such a discovery. But, if the Truth discovered he 
that we have no farther share in God than as we 
partake of his natural government of the Universe ; 
or that all there is in his moral government is only 
the natural necessary effects of Virtue and Vice upon 
human agents here, and that all the pretended Re- 
velations of an hereafter were begot by fools, and 
hurried up by knaves ; if this, I say, be our boasted 
discovery, it must, I think, prove a very uncomfort- 
able contemplation, especially in our last hours. 
But every man has his taste. I only speak for my- 

but, through the Ttrhole course of it, was the most esteemed 
of anv Physician I ever knew, not only for his skill, bnt genero- 
sity, in the exercise of hit profession. — My own personal obfi- 
gations to him must be my excuse for the liberty I take in paying 
this small tribute of respect to his merit and character.'^ 

Bp, Hurd, in WarhuttotCs Works, Svo. vol, I. p. 55. 
* He was meditating a general answer to all the objections 
made against the'' Free Inquiry^*' when, being seized with illness, 
and imagining he might not be able to go through it, he singled 
out Church and Dodwell, as the two most considerable of his ad-* 
versaries, and employed himself in preparing a particular answer 
to them. This, however, he did not live to finish, but died, of a 
•low hectic fever and disorderin his liver^ on the S8th of July, 
4760^ in bit OJth year* 

aelC 



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MR. WAKBURTOK TO MR. JORTIN. l8l 

ielt AH that I hope and wish is, that the Scribblers 
will let his memory alone : for though (after the 
approbation of the good and wise) one cannot msh 
any thing better for one's self, or one's, friend, than 
to be heartily abused by them in this life, because it 
k as certain a sign of one's merit, as a dog's barking 
at the Moon is of her brightness; yet the veil 
that Death draws over us is so sacred, that the throw- 
ing dirt there has been esteemed at fill times, and by 
•II people, a profanation. If the Romans suffered 
their slaves to abuse their Heroes on the day of tri* 
iimph, they would have regarded the same ribaldries 
-with horror at their funerals. 

As to Dodwell; I believe Middkton, when he first 
eommended his book, overshot himself in his poli- 
tics. He had an early design of answering his fik)ok, 
and he had a mind to make it a little considerable by 
his commendations. But the publick, which is ea- 
sily duped, took him at his word, and so, by duping 
themselves, duped him, and reduced him to the ne- 
cessity of ciying down what he had cried up. — But 
now what Dunce is it to whom the puhlick will &;ive 
the honour of his death ? For the Uteratt vuTgtir 
deal as much in murders of this kind, as the tV/t/e- 
ro<e, in the trndgments which overtake murderers. 
I believe as tew men die of the rage or envy of 
Donees, as of the frowns of tjieir Mistresses : and 
there is as little mischief -done by literary as by ama- 
tory aquabbles.-r-J am well assured the farthest this 
unhappy man went with regard to Revelation was 
only to suspend his belief; and this not so much 
from the force of any particular olijections against it, 
as from his natural turn to academic scepticism* I 
have letters fix>m him, which convincemeof the truth 
of what I say. But this will be credited by all who 
see (as every body may by examioin^) tbi^ this is^ 
the key to bis writings on religious subjects, and the 
only one that can ckar up all the ambiguities and. 
seeminff inconsirtencies in his conduct* 

I do 



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I do not at all disapprove of your paKiDg widi 
your Library ♦ ; for I am fully persuaded Mr. rope*a 
prophecy will be fulfilled before Will Whiston's : 
and that his son Jack \yill see to the end of Laming 
before the Fattier gets to the beginning of his Mit* 
lennium. However, do not be over-hasty ; for jnour 
books will sell best when there is nobody that can 
understand them. That thriving Auctioneer will teU 
you there are always the moat buyers where there are 
the fewest readers. This is the best reason I ha^re 
vhy you should suspend your project. For the rert, 
if you would get up into the higher forms, yoit 
must now do at Lalmbeth^ what vou forsierly did at 
the Charter-house;):;, learn yQurtessonwithauihot^. 
I confess myself a dimce : I couid nevier learn thia 
necessary trick, neither in youth oor age ; and have 
thriven accordingly. But my friends have move 
oauae Xfy regret tbat than 1. 

Djsar Sir §, Oetcber . . . , 1750. 

Yon desired to have a moi>e particular account o# 
a certain Prophecy of one Ricei Evans, which) you* 
hiiye hcaird some <^ your friends speak, of in term» 
of astonishment ; a»I havieliiaBook, which is^aree, 
i am able to giv^ yout that satisfaction. . But it mayi 
not be amisa firrt to let your into the character of the 
Prophet. Rice Evana lived and flourished in the 
Igst century^ durinff the time of our civil confoaions. 
He was a warm Welshman^ aod not disposed to be> 
an idle spectator in so busy a icene. So he left his na* 
tive country for London ; and findings on his arrival: 

* This does not apqpear to hare taken place. 

t Alluding to hrs intimacy with Ah^. Henring^ with whom be, 
had been acquainted at College, and who was through life his 
Und and oonstaot friend. 

t J5fl^«w Jortin had received the earbr part «f las edueatton. 

§ First pointed in Jortm*s ** Remarks on Goclcsiaslieal Mk*" 
tory/' Yol. I. p. 379.— This yokime, though dated in 1751, was. 
published in December 1750 5—*' Julian'* in the April pieceding. 

there 



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Mft. W^RBUttOfl -m MR. jrCttTML |^ 

itene, thA Inspiration was all ntntriil|; onb 'w6y, 

be prejeeted to make a ibv/areion of it from- the 

Bound-^beads to the Cavaliers, and set np for a Pro* 

phet of the Royalists. He did and said nianf ex^ 

tnierdinary things to the Grandees of both parties % 

and it must be owned, he had a spke of what we 

seldom find wanting in the ingredients of a modern 

Prophet; I mean, Pretrarjcafion*. OF this he has him-) 

self given us a itotabie example, in the 4^page of hi^ 

Tract, called, An Ecchojrom Heaven, ^c. which, 

because it contains an uncommon fetcb of wit, h 

shall transcribe. *^ There are two confessions^" sayv 

he, ^^ subscribed by my \xmA in the City of London, 

which^ if not now, in after-ages will be considered. 

The one was made at the ^ittle, and subscribed 

widi the right hand, in the aforesaid vestry, before 

Sir Walter Earl ; and that is a confession made by' 

the inner man, or new man; The other confesskm 

ia a confession of the flesh, called the outward man,* 

or old man; and the confession I made before Ghreen' 

ftbe Recorder], and subscribed with the lefthand^^g 

me diflferen<$e in the writing, being compared, wilh 

make it appear. I know the Bench and the peo}Ue^ 

tiiought 1 recanted; but, alas! they were.cfeoeived;^^ 

* " My thoughts are the sanie \9ith Kir. Wai*hurtan*s, thkt' 
the Visioiis of Evahd are a <!urio9ity deserving to be \Ltk&mi, biiff 
not a fdundotioA to build any thingupoiL if tbdre-be ih' dwatf 
any forgery> which* die d^erence betwe^ the first and second 
editions once inclined me to suspect, they who can defect it, 
will oblige us' and many others by the discoVeiV. ^vans says,' 
p; 16 o| Edit; 165Q» — '< Be^ng ^rfectly aw^^-— a voice — ^^ 
said to me, €k> to thy book, idieveupon — I guddenly ataited 
1^ and to the table I wem, where my Bible lay open, immedi- 
ately festening my eyes upon, Ephes. v. 14. being these words^ 
Whereforerhe saith, AWake thou that sleejie^, -Mid arfee frorii the' 
dbd, fiad Christ shall gire thee %ht, &c. The tame thhigbe 
did at other timea. Evans^whowaa illiterate, little thought that . 
he was practising a kind of divination in great request amotlg the 
Pttgans; and the ancient Jews and Christians, who had recourse 
to their Swte^ Hamerica, FirgUimue, Evangelica, and Biblica. 
l%e same oawfles produce the same ei^ts ; and nothing is more 
like o&o Ealbuwst, Mystic, Cab^Uist, or jQuietist, than another.** 

J. JtysiTiv* 

, ■ Weir 



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)$4 uunrnunoKft or iirmATuu. 

Well, bat tbi» very mtn baa in tUe ^^ unAjB 
pages of this *' Eccbo, printed for the Author in; 
ISmo^ and sold at his house in Long Alley in Black 
Friers, 1653, Second Edition *, with additions,** a 
Propbecy which astonishes all who carefully coBft« 
dortt, it is in these words : 

^^ A Vision that I had presently after the King^s 
death. — ^I thoueht that I was in a great hall, like the 
Shire-ball in the Castle in Winchester, and there 
was none there but a Judge that sat upon the Benofa^ 
and myself; and as I tum^ to a window North-west* 
wwd, and looking into the palm of my band, there 
appeared to me a &oe, head, and shoulders, like the 
Lord Fair&x's, and presently it vanished again ; then- 
arose the Lord Cromwell, and he vanished likewise ; 
then arose a young foce, and he had a crown upon 
his head, and he vanished also ; and another young 
lace arose with a crown cm his head, and be va- 
nished also; and another youn^; face arose with a 
erown upon bis head, and he vanished also ; and ano- 
tiler young face arose with a crown upon his bead, 
and vanished in like manner : And as I turned the 
palm of my hand back a^n to me, and looked^ 
^ere did ajqiear no more m it Then I turned tp^ 
the Judge, and siud to him. There arose in my hand 
aeven, imd five of them had crowns; but, when I. 
tanmed my hand, the blood turned to its vans, and 
there appeared no more : so I awoke.-^The inta^ 
netation of this Vision is, that after the Lord 
Cromwell there shall be Kings again in England^ 
which thing is signified unto us by those that arose 
after him, who were all crowned, but the generations 
to come may look for a change of the blood, and of 
the name in the royal seat after five Kings reigne 
once passed, ti Kings x. 30,'' 

* It isobsenraUe, that in the first Edition, printed in the jear 
I6h% Evans reckons u^Jive, not four young iBOes in bis hand, 
fund hecondodes only thus : '< AH that I apprehend bf this vision' 
is, that after the LardCrooiwdt we shall have a kio|p again ilt^ 



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UtU WAMMMJKtOS TO ME. lOmTOr. iSS 

The words referred to in this taxt are tii^se: jitut 
the Lord said unto Jekm, becomMt them hast dam 
weU, ^c. thy Children of the fimrth Oeneratiem 
shall skonthe throne of' Israel. 

The Restoration of the Monarchy is here phunljr 
predicted ; together with the Crown's pacing from 
the House of Stuart into another family. But the 
Prc^>het at first sight appears to be doubtful about the 
number of reigns before that event. He reckons up 
in his hand only /bt^r successions to the Monarchy; 
yet, in his speech to the Judge^ he calls them JSve ; 
m his interpretation he says the change shall be afker 
the reign of ^^;e Kings; and yet re^rring, in con-* 
elusion, to a text in the Second Book of Kings^ we 
are brought back again to the numberymr. But it 
is this very circumstance which makes the prodi- 
gious part of this affitir. A good guesser (who, an 
ancient Writer says, is the best Prophet) might rea-> 
aonably conjecture the Monarchy, after the subverler 
of it, Cromwell, was taken ofi^ would be restored ; 
and, if it continued in the same family for four or 
JSve generations, that was as much as, in the cease- 
less revolutions of human affairs, could be expected. 
But we shall find there was something more in this 
matter. The Succession of the House of Stuart, 
during the course of these ^bur generations, waa 
disturbed, and that circumstance our Prophet has 
distinctly marked out liYie four crowned heads 
be saw in his hand denote Charles the Second, James 
the Seeotid, Queen Mary, and Queen Anne. They 
are afterwards caHed^e; add so they were; iw 
Ring William the Third shared the sovereignty with 
Queen Mary, and reigned alone after her. But, he 
being of another family, when the succession in the 
House of Stuart is reckoned up, he could not be 
numbered: so they must be there called^/i>ar. Wlien 
the Prophet r^kons the reigns^ ^^"S William 
•omesin, and then they are called J&e. Thekeyto 
Ibis explanation is the text he concludes with — Thy 
^hUdren ^ thf foubth generation shall sit on tht^ 

throne. 



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i:^ UMSMj^ims^ or LmaATtnuL 

ihrrme. A gitfut wd exttaordidary Genids, lately de- 
dsased^ stfuek witb this woaderfui ooiitoidetoe/hatb 
wrkten with his owli band, in the margin of the page^ 
ihe^ yfOTd%j A manif est Prophecy. You know who I 
iHean. But every one must jw^e for bimtelf, an* 
less (which I hadf rather) you would give us your 
sentiments upon it. 

' But, now my hand ii rn, as you have bad one of 
his VisjkmSy you shall have a Dre^m too, as he tella 
it in (Jhe I2th page of the &rst, and the 8th page 
of his second Edition. — ^' My heart was for London ; 
and, as one Mr. Oliver Thomas preached, Cant, iiv 
10. •' Arise up, my love, my fair-one, and eome 
tiway ;** my heart was allured with it, that I thoiight 
it was a hastening of me to London ; and at that time, 
in a Dream, methought I was on IsHngtcn^/dU by 
the fl^ater-hause, tmd London appeared before me 
as if it had been burnt with fire, and there remained 
libthing of it but a few stone walls: but I made no- 
thing of this Dream .*• — Whosoever reflects upon 
what we are told by Burnet, in the History of his 
own Times J vol. i. p. 331. of the condition in which 
the works were put uj> at the Water-house at Is- 
lington, when the Fire of London happened, cimnoC 
but think Evans" making this the scene of his dieaift 
a very unaccountable circumstance. His telling us 
that he made nothing of this Dream adds to the-one- 
ditof his relation. W. Warburton. 



Prior Park, July 5, 1/51- 
The Discourse on the Somnium Scipionis * is, hy 
your account, a master-piece ip its Way. I shall 

* This was a shilling pamphlet published in May 1751 . ' It was 
intituled, '^ The Theology and Philosophy in Cicero's Sbmnium 
5c^9umiff«xplained ; or, a brief Attempt to demonstrate that the 
Newtonian System is perfecUy agreeable to the Notions of the 
wisest Antients ; and that Mathematical Principles are the only 
sure ones.*' On this pamphlet of 55 pages^ wluch was the pro- 
duction of Mr. (afterwards Bp. Home), alongana curious critiqi e 
ik giiren hi the Monthly lUview, vot V. p. 86.— -And see ^nes*^ 
lifeaf Bp.Horo^ p.d8. , , . 

seek 



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seek after it *, but would sooner gd to a home of oAic^ 
after it than to a Maga^ne^f*. Wdl may those itn^ 
mortal treasures continue the deiight of the P^rsons^ 
when they hear the Author of ■ ■:{: ad mils 

them into his study ^. In short, you deserve^ m 

* ** There is one book, and that m» large oob, wkich 1 wnuld re- 
commend to your perusaL It is called, ' The Theology and Philo- 
sophy of Cicero 8 SamHium ScipionU examined.' It k indeed the 
fie plus uUra of HutchinsonianioD. In this catehpenny pamphlet 
Newton is proved an Atheist, and a Blockheud : and whdt would 
you more ?'• LeUer to Mr, Hurd, SejU. 39, 175 K 

t On this UBscemly sample of wittidsm, ate the Rer. Edward 
Jones's remarks in '* Liteiary AoiBCdotet/* ik>]. IX. p. 628. 

I This may be r^ ** Remarks on Ecclesiastical Hlstoi^.** 

^ '* The connexion between, these two very eminent Scholars is 
a melancholy instaiuie of the Quamls of Aatka/r^. For several 
years their intimate friendship was tushakciu 'fhey eonresponded 
in terms of the gseatest conlidence; and Rcipfocally asked and 
received from each other mfonooatioD in tkeir seqiective literary 
researches. " 1 have by me," says an eaiiinent Writer*, •* a large 
collection of the civil tlBngs which these learned friendfrlhave been 
pleased to say of one another $ and it would amuse you to* fee 
with what an energy and force of language they are delivered.** 
From 1747 to 1749 Mr. Jortin was occasionsdly im &^3tant 
to Mr. Warburton, then Preacher at LiocoJn*s Inn j and- at 
tjiat period the one was collecting materials fop " Julian,*' the 
oth^r for the " Remarks on Ecdesiastieal History ;** and to these 
subjects the Fragments here reprinted principally apply. — In a 
paragraph in the Notes on« " Julian" (as it stands in the Author*s 
last Edition p» 316) Mir. Warburton^ <* who had ju9t been treating 
a piece of Ecclesiastical History/* sb>-s, '* But this 1 leave, with 
Julian's Adventures^ to my learned Frienily Mr. Jortin ; who, I 
hope, will soon oblige the Publick with his curious Dissertafiens 
on Eccl^Aastical Antiquity ; composed, like his life, not in the 
spirit of controversy^ nor, what is worse, <rf party, but of truth 
and candour f.** 

Let us n6w turn to Jortin; wlio» in his *^ Remtirks on Eccle- 
siastical History,!* vol, 1. p. 377, speaking of the V\sion of Rice 
Evans, as '* containing some things noti unworthy of notice,*' 
says, '' Mr. Warburton has given me the fDlk>wing^ remarks on 
the man, and on his }aedictions -, and the 3ifliiop of Bangor X, 
and he, have been wilUng to appear as my friends, and my coad- 
jutors in this Work. 

" Ibit et hoc nostri per sescula fodus anunris, 
DoctorumquD inter nooiina nomen ero : 

Forsaa 

♦ Bp. Hord'0 Works, vol. Vlll. p. 359. f Ibid. p. 999. 

i Dr. Zacbary Pearce, whose ** DitseiUtioo on the Destructkm of Jemia'^ 
kn** Mr. Jortjn hmd printed in m former page of bis •* Remarks." 



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l88 ' iixusntATioifs of LrrsRATumB. 

Shakespeare says, to have your eyes picked out with 
a Ballad-maket's pen. Would you believe it, there 
is not in all this neighbourhood the Greek Ecclesias* 
tical Historians ! The Divines here are farther gone 
in Tradition dian the Papists themselves. W. W* 

Fpnan et extinctum son spemet Pfttria dulcit, 

Fonitan et dicet^ Tu qaoque noster eras. 
Talibus ii^S^is plaeabilk Umbra quiesoeC, 

Lembunt Manes talia dona meos. 
Interea Labor ipse levat fegtidia vite : 

iEtemo rectum sub Duoe pei^t iter ! 
Scriptores sancti, salyete, et cana Vetustas ; 

Salve» Musa, mmls blanda tenaxque comes : 
Ttt puero teneris penitus dilecta sub annis ; 

Tune etiam emerito cura future viro } 
Netamen sternum^ moesta atque irata, recede^ 

Sed rarp, sed vix saspe rogata, veni. 
Hflec> Fortuna, tuis non sunt obnoxia regtAt, 
Livor in hasc poterit juris habere nihil** 
This was written in November 1750; and six months after/ 
April %, f751> Mr. Jortin» in a note to Mr. Birch* says, ** Mr. 
WarburtOB is now in town ; and would be very giad to see you. 
Therefore this is to invite and summon you to meet meatfut hoiue, 
on Wednesday morning, to breakfast there, and to settle such 
points as may arise.** What could promise a more tasting duration 
than this mutual reciprocity of assbtance and acknowMgment ^ 
Yet, alas, it was soon to be dissolved. The fatal " l^xth Disser- 
tation** of Jortin, and the iSet;«iiM, byMr. Hurd> '* on the Deli-' 
cacy of Friendship,** converted the intimacy of years into absolute 
hatred and contempt. The idea is so melancholy, that 1 forbear 
to enlarge upon it; thou^ there may perhaps be an opportunity 
of resuroiqgit in another place. Meantime I eajpy Jortin*s pictura 
of himself, from the conclusion of his *^ Ijoam Pdetici :** 
" The ambitious Muse, with early-daring flighty 
Spum'd the dull nest, and ventur*d into light ; 
Yet even then, not fondly indiscreet. 
She burnt a vdlume, whereshe spar*d a dieet > 
Dwelt with the authors of the golden, age. 
And stf^some beauties fronf the Classic page ; 
In modem verse would willin^y have shone. 
And read Pope*s Poems, and deilrov*d her own | 
Sufler*d no peevish lines to see the liav ; 
Spleen oft compos'd what Candour thi«w away } 
Nor wroog*d herself, nor wrong*d another^s name i 
Too proud to fawn, too honest to defame; 
Remote and shelter'd, in the paths she chose, 
From foolish friends and formidable foes.** 

ORIGINAI* 



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[ 189 3 
ORIGINAL LETTERS* 

OF 

THEOBALD t, THIRLBY, akd WARBURTON. 



LETTER L 

To Mr. Matthew Concanek :{:, Fleet-street. 

Dear Sir, IVyatCs Court, Aug. 23, 1726. 
YOU gave me a disappointment in not return^ 
ing the other day, as I thought you proposed ; and to 
be revenged, I will punish you with my thoughts on 
that passage of our Friend Shakespeare, which, as 
you may remember, then stuck with us, and could 
not be made out by the help of our Glossaries. 

* The wb(^ of thb Correspondence^ except the three first Let- 
ters^ and the sixth, are printed from theOr^nak, communicated 
hf Edward Roberts, Esq. of Ealing^to whom they were many 
years ago {M-esented by Mr. Theobald's Son (at that time, hf the 
patroaage of Sir Edward Walpole, a Ckrk in the Anmii^ IVU- 
office in the Exchequer) , as a sma]l but grateibl return for mvonrs 
oonfi*rred 00 him by Mr. Roberts. 

t Of Mr. Lewis Theobald, I shall take an o|>portunity, in a iu* 
ture page, of giving some regular biographical notices. 

X Mr. CoQcanen was a native of Ireland, th^ descendant of a 
good family. He was bom in 1 701, and was bred to the I^aw, a 
study too dry fur his volatile disposition ; and in 1781 was the 
Author of *' Wexford Wells, a Comedy,'* acted and printed at 
Dublin in that year) and about the same time piiblbbed ** A 
Ifotch at Foot ball, a Poem, in three Cantos,*' dedicated to Mr. 
Bettesworth. In 17^ he published a volume of ** Poems on se- 
veral Occasions,'* dedicated to the Duchess of Grafton j and soon 
aHer came to London, literally to seek his fortune. He pub- 
lished, in I7S4, a volume of " Miscellaneous Poems ;" by hiin* 
self and others ; and, at the date of the above Letter, was 
intimately connected with ' The London Journal/ to which he 
communicated the ingenious critique of his friend llieobald, with 
(he following introduction : ' It is a debt which the World owes 
to those who have'deserved wdl of it, to preserve their reputations 



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190 ILLUSTRATIONS Of LitERATURE. 

C0RIOLANUS9 p. Idl. [Pope's 4to Edition.] 

I thtok he Ml be to Rome 

As 18 the ASPRSY to the Fi»h ; he Ml take it 
By Sov' reign ty of Nature. — '• 

It is very usual with Mr. Pope, you know, to take 

rssages implicitly from the preening Fklitioas; and 
suppose, without giving nimself the trouble of 

as long as the materials of which they are formed can be made to 
last. To this kind of reward I think no sort of men better en- 
titled than the Poets ; whether we consider them as seldom re- 
ceiving any other, or as they really are Benefectors in a very high 
degree to mankind. This is in a great measure confessed by the 
practice of other Countries towards the memory of such as have 
escelled among them> and by the consent of all Nations in their 
admiration and applause of Uie Antients. We are the only peo* 
pie in Europe who have had good Poets among them, and yet 
«ufibr their reputation to moulder, and their memory as it were 
to ru9t| for want of a little of that Critical care, which is as truly 
due to their merit as to that of the antient Greek and Ronuin 
Writers. — ^You perceive what I aim at. It is to observe to you, 
that some tolerable Comments upon the Works of otir celebrated 
Pbeu are not only expedient, but necessary. Every Writer Is 
obliged to make himself understood of the age in which be lives 4 
but> as he cannot answer for the changes of manners and lan- 
guage which may happen after his death, those who receive plea- 
sure and instruction from him are obliged, as weR in gratitude to 
him as in duty to posterity, to endeavour to perpetuate his me- 
mory, by preserving his meaning. This b what the French have 
fkme by their Marots, Rabbit's, and Ronsardi} nay evea Bni* 
leau^ who died within our memory, is thus armed against the as- 
saults of Time. The Italians, who are not thereto provoked by 
a changing Language like ours, have not a tolerate Writer in 
their tongue whose Works are not illustrated by soma vseAil 
Notes $ while we, whose manners are so variable, and whose 
Language so visibly alters every century, have not one Poet 
(though there are several whom we admire) who has met with 
the good fortune of a kind hand endeavouring to secuve him 
agaiiut mortality. Strange humour! Much pains have been 
t^en to preserve to us the Picture of Chaucer, while nobody 
has thought it proper to render that better picture of him, hia 
writings, intelligible to future ages. Butler has had a Monument 
erected to his memory in Westminster-Abbey ; how mmh more 
emphatically might it be said to be erected to hii memory if it 
were a Comment upon his excellent Hudiluras : which, for want 
of such illustration, grows every day less pleasing to his Readers ; 
who lose half his wit and pleasantry, wliile they are ignorant of 
the facts he alludes to. I own, it grofws daily mom diflieult t^ 
perform tliis duty to old Authors ) and therefore the Itahans say,. 

that 



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TVtOBALD AND OOfelCAltSW. ' 101 

guessing at what the Poet amdms* I%o«gh our 
search would bmre been very vain to find any such 
word as Asprey, yet I easily imagined, something 
n?ust be couched under the corruption, in its Ma- 
ture destructive to flsb, and that made a prey of 
them ; and I think, the suspicion has led me to the 
true discovery. 

jUmt a OHnmeDt ought to be m«Kle wben the Work dofs Qcut 
need it, for that it will be ioapossible to make one when it does. 
I have been thitiwn into these tboughta by a Letter from a 
Ciwtleman, who has first in our langiu^ gi^^en proo6 of anabi** 
Kty to do justice to an excellent Writer. Sorry 1 am that he b not 
aUoiwed to indulge the inclination, which is accompanied by so 
much knowledge afid genius to execute it. The Letter (which f 
send you with this) was occasioned by some diseourse 1 had with 
him upon a passage in Shakespeare, which, through the error of 
the text, neither he nor I could then discover the meaning of; 
but such is his zeal for that Author, and such is his penetration in 
matters of Learning, tlmt in a day or two he perfectly cleared it upu 
I cannot conclude without observing, that such a Critick as 
this might bring the name of a Commentator into the repute 
which it has lost by the dull and useless pedantry of some Pt%- 
tenders to It. Such a Gentleman, and none but such, ought to 
republish an old Writer, since it is in hitf fiower to make reprisals 
Upon his Author, and to receive as much gkiry iVom him as he 
gives to him." — Mr. Concanen very soon after became acquainted 
tvith Mr. Warburton^ who addressed to him the Letter printed 
in p. 6 ; and to whom tliat learned Writer presented the MS. of 
his fiunous little work on '' Prodigies and Mirricles,'* a circunfi- 
atanoe thus noticed by himself in a Letter to his Friend Dr. Hurd : 
^' I met many years ago with an ingenious irishman at a coflee- 
house, near Gniy*s-inn, where 1 lo^^. He studied the Law, 
tod was very poor. I had given him money for many a dinner! 
and at last I gave him those papers, which he scdd to the book-* 
sellers far more money than you would think, much more than 
they M^re worth. But 1 mtnt finish the history both of the Irish* 
man and the papers. Soon afler^ he got acquainted vrith Sir 
William Young, wrote for Sir Robert [Walpole], and was made 
Attorney-genera! of Jamak». He married there an opident wi« 
dow, and died very rich a few years ago here in England ) but 
6f so scoundrel a temper, that he avoided ever coming into my 
iight : so that the memory of all this intercourse between us has 
been buried in silence till this moment. And who shoukl this 
man be but one of the Heroes of the Dunciad, Concanen bv name !** 
In the "British Journal," Nov. «5, 1727, is a Letter by Con- 
canen on Swift and Pope's Miscellanies ; and in 1728 he wrote 
iht n^fiu^e to the " Collection of all the Verses, Essays, Letters, 

and 



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193 lixusntATiOKa of utSRATtraf) 

1 have no doubt but Shakespeave wrote: 

■ I think he Ml be to Roma, 

As is the 0»prey to the Fish ; he '11 take it 
By Sov'reigiity of Nature. 
The change, yon see, is very minute ; and the 
corruption arose in the old copies only from the mis- 
take of an A for an O. Now the Osprey is a species 
of the Eagle, of a strong make, that haunts the sea 
and lakes for its food, and altogether preys on Fish. 

and AdverUsemeiitBy oecaskMied by Blr. Pope*s and Swift's Misoel- 
huues.** — In \7W, after the fii-st appearance of the Dunciad» 
Mr. Concanen published " A Supplement to the Profund.*'-— 
" In this Supplement/' Dr. Warton observes, " are some nM»« 
shrewd remmcs, and more pertinent examples, than might be 
expected from such a Writer, and are enough to make us think 
he had some more able assistant. Concanen was at that time aa 
intimate friend of Warburton $ and> it has been suggested, was 
assisted by him in writing these remarks ; but of this there is no 

BBitive proof.*' —There occurs, however, on this account the 
k>wing passage in the DuAciad, 11. 999. 

*' True to the bottom, see Concanen creep, 
A ctAd, long-winded, native of the deep : 
If Perseverance gain the Diver's prize. 
Not everlasting Blackmore this denies : 
No Bcnse, no stir, no motion must thou make, 
Th' unconscious stream flaps o*er thee like a lake." 
Concanen dealt very tmfidrly by Pope,*' as Pc^'sCooimentator 
informs us, " in not only frequently imputing to him &xx>rae's 
venes (for which, says he, he might seem in some degree account" 
able, having corrected what that gentleman did), but those of the 
Duke of Buckingham and others. He was shuce,** adds Warburton, 
" a hired scribbfer in The Dsuly Courant, where he poured forth 
much Billingsgate against Lord Bolingbroke and others ; i^er 
which this man was surprizii^ly promoted to administer Justice 
and Law in Jamaica.**— Certain it b, that Concanen's wit and lite* 
rary abilities,however, recommended him to the fovour of theDuke 
of Newcastle, through whose interest lie obtained,, in July 1732, 
being then a Barrister at Law, the post of Attomey-gentral of 
the Island of Jamaica i which office he filled with the utmost 
iat^^pity and honour^ and to the perfect satisfiu^tion of the ia- 
babitants for near seventeen years $ when, having aoauind aa 
ampk fortune, he was desirous of passing the ckise of his life in 
his native country, with which intention he quitted Jamaica, and 
came to London, (»oposing to pass some little time there before 
he went to settle entirely in Ireland. But the difierence of di- 
mate between that Bifetropolis and the pteoe he had so long beei| 
accustomed to, had such an effect on his constitution, that he fell^ 

into 



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iHEOftALtl Amy COKt;AN£K. 193 

it IS called die d(Xiai«r^ *, or j4quiia Marina^ as also 
^is Ossrfraga^ and thence, as I presame^ con^ 
tracted i^rst perhaps into Osphrey^ and then, with 
regard to the ease of pronunciation, into Osprey; 
Minsbew, Skinner, and Cotgrave, all give us the 
name of this Bird ; as do our Latin Dictionaries in 
the words HaUaeetus and Ossifraga. Pliny has 
left us this description of its acute sight, and ea- 
gerness after its prey. ^ Haliaeetus clarissima oculo- 
rum acie, librans ex alto sese, viso in mari pisce, prae-^ 
ceps in mare ruitj et, discussis pectore aquis, rapit/ 
If it may be granted that we are come to the truth 
of the text by this change of one letter, it may not be 
disagreeable to go a little farther, to explain the pro- 
priety of the Poet's allusion. Why does he say that 
Coriolanus will be to Rome, as the Ospi^ey to the Fish i 

^ He Ml take it 

By Sov'reignty of Nature ? 
Does he mean, that Coriolanus in war is as supe-^ 
rior to all other Warriors, as the Eagle, the King of 
Birds^ is to all other Birds? Surely there must be 
aooiething more significant designed here. In 
short, I believe, Shakespeare intended to go deeper 
in his comparison. He has a peculiarity, you know^ 
in thinking; and wherever be is acquainted with 
Nature, is sure to allude to her most uncommon ef-^ 
fects and (^rations. I am very apt to imagine, 

into a consomptioa, of which he died, Jan 9^, 1749, a few weeks 
after his anii^ in London. Mr. Concauen*8 original Poenis^ 
though short, have considerable merit ^ but much cannot b« 
said of his, " Wexford Wells/' He has several Songs in " The 
Musical Miscellany, 17^9, 6 vols ;** and was concerned with Mr. 
Edward Roomeand other gentlemen in altering Broome's '< Jovial 
Crew" into a Ballad Opera, in which shape it is now fi-equently 
performed.-^He was occasionally a writer in " The London Jour- 
0al j'* was the Author of " The SjiccuUiste, 1730;" and in 1731 
published a Miscellany, called " The Flowerpiece," 

* £i^o< aids o ikuMoi if ^oukarlit) ^»«iTWjuiiio$. Schol. ArL^tOph. 
swi Aves, ver. 899. *0 i\ aXuutlog' Ka\ tuipl tu\ ^aXarlocv outlpidk, 

ual T«^ x*pat» x^^(^»* Aristot. de Animal, lib. 8. ch. 3. It is also 

jnentioned by Oppiaa in his Halleuticks, 1. 1 . ver. 425. Pliny, 

in his Natural History, Dydymus ad liomer. 11. p. ver. G74. &c. 

vOu II. * o therefore 



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194 ILLUSTRATIONS Of UTSBATU&E. 

therefore, that the Poet meant, Coriolanus wonld 
take Rome, by the very opinion and terror of his 
name ; as Fish are taken by the Osprey, through an 
instinctive fear they have of him. 

But, that I may not seem to impose an opinion 
merely chimerical, I will give you the authorities 
upon which I have adopted it. * The Fishermen,' 
says our old Naturalist, William Turner *, * are 
used to anoint their baits with Osprey's fat, thinking 
thereby to make them the more efficacious ; because, 
when that Bird is hovering in the air, all the Fish 
that are beneath him (the Nature of the Eagle, as 
it is believed, compelling them to it) turn up their 
bellies, and, as it were, give him his choice which 
he will take of them.' Gesner goes a little farther 
in support of this odd instinct, telling us, * that, 
while this Bird flutters in the air, and sometimes, as 
it were, seems suspended there, he drops a certain 
quantity of his fat, by the influence whereof the Fish 
are so aflfrighted and confounded, that they imme- 
diately turn themselves belly upwards ; upon which 
he sowses down perpendicularly, like a stone, and 
seijses them in his talons -j".* — To this, I believe, 
Shakespeare alludes in this expression of the 
Sovereignty of Nature. And so much by way of 
explication. 

I do not know whether I shall have occasion 
to retract any part of these conjectures ; but I shall 
be better determined as you either concur with^ or 
diflfer from, Sir, your affectionate friend, and very 
humble servant. Lew. Theobald.** 

* '^Piscatores nost rates escis fill lendispiscibusdestinatis, hali- 
Kcti adipem lilinunt aut immiscent, putantes hoc argumento es-> 
c«im cfficaciorem futurani ; quod halifleeto sese in afire librante, 
pidces quotquot subsunt (natur^ Aquilffi ad hoc cogente, ut cre- 
ditur) ; se resupinent, et ventres albicantes, ceu optionem elii- 
gendi ilU facientes, exhibeant." De Avibus, p. 196. 

t " Volitare per afirem, et in eo veluti pendere videri interdtini, 
thm demittere adipis aliquid in Aquam, undestatim pisces attoniti 
rertantur supiui: etiam mox rect& prsecipitem ferri instar lapi- 
dis, et uniim ex iUid altero pede adunco suo accipere." Ibid. 

LETTER 



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. WAItBUierONANp CQNCAKBN. Oj)^^ 

LETTER IL 

For Mr. M. Concankn * at Mr. Woodwards 
at the half moon in Fleetstreet. London. 

P&AR Sir, Newarke, Jan. 2, 172^-7. 

having had no more regard for those papers 
which I spoke of and promised to Mr. Theobald, 
than just what they deserved, I in vain sought for 
them thro' a number of loose papers that had the 
same kind of abortive birth. I used it to make one 
good part of my amusement in reading the EngHsh 
Poets, those of them I mean whose vem flows regu- 
larly and constantly, as well as clearly, to trace 
them to their sources; and observe what orej as 
well as what slime and gravel they brought down 
with them. Dryden 1 observe borrows for want of 
leasure, zod Pope for want of genius : Milton out 

♦ That Mr. Warburton was an associate witli Theobald and 
Concanen in the attack madie on Pope's fame aild talents^ is in- 
disputable ; having been introduced at tb« weekly meetings ; a 
favour which in this Letter he speaks of in very high terms of 
complacency aJld thankfulness. — Mr. Warburton^ however, was 
not at that time, as has been generally supposed, an Attorney ; 
but an assistant to a Relation in a School at Newaik> having ta- 
ken Deacon*s orders in 17^. 

"This Letter was found, about the year 1750, by Dr. Gawin 
iCnight, First Librarian to the British Museum, in fitting up a 
luittse which he kad taken in Crane-court, Fleet-street. The 
house had, for a long time be6>re„ been let in lodgings, and in all 
probability Concanea bad lodged there, llie original Letter 
has been many years in my possession, and is here most exactly 
copied with its several tittle peculiarities in grammar, spelling, 
and punctuation. April 30, 1766. M. A.** — ''The above b co- 
pied from an indorsement of Dr. Mark Akenside, as b the Let- 

ter, from a copy gtveii by him to esq. — I have 

manfully r^teined all the peculiarities above mentioned. — If it 
contained any thing that might alfect the moral character of 
the writer, tenderness for the dead would forbid its publication. 
But, that not being the case, and the learned Prelate being now 
beyond the reach of criticism, there is no reason why this Uteraiy 
curiosity should be longer with-held from the pubUck : 
'' Duncan is in his grave ^ 
" After li£e*8 itfol Sever he sleeps weU ; 
'* Treason has done his W(H>it : nor steel, nor poisop, 
'' Malice domestick, foreign levy, nothing 
** Can touch him further." 

O 2 of 



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19^ ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

of pride, and Addison out of modesty. And now I 
speak of this latter, that you and Mr. Theobald 
may see of what kind those Idle collections are, 
and likewise to give you my notion of what we may 
safely pronounce an imitation, for it is not I pre- 
sume the same train of ideas that follow in the same 
description of an Ancient and a modern, where na- 
ture when attended to, always supplys the same 
stores, which will autorize us to pronounce the lat- 
ter an imitation, for the most judicious of all poets, 
Terence, has observed of his own science Nihil est 
dictum^ quod non sit dictum prius : For these rea- 
sons I say I give myselfe the pleasure of setting down 
some imitations I observed in the Cato of Addison. 
Addison, A day, an hour of virtuous liberty, 

Is worth a whole eternity in bondage. Act 2. Sc. I . 

TkUly, Quod si immortalitas consequeretur praasentis 

periculi fugain, tamen eo magis ea fu- 

gienda esse videretur, quo diuturnior essei 

servitus. Philipp, Or. 10*. 

Addison, Bid him disband his legions 

Restore the commonwealth to liberty 
Submit his actions to the public censure, 
And stand the judgement of a Roman senate. 
Bid him do this and Cato is bis friend. 
TtUltf. Pacem vult ? arma deponat, roget, deprece- 
tur. Neminem eqiiiorem reperiet quam 
me. Philipp. 5» 

Addison. But what is life ? 

'Tis not to stalk about and draw fresh air 

From time to time 

'Tis to be free. When Liberty is gone. 
Life grows insipid and has lost its relish. Sc. 3. 
TuHy. Non enim in spiritu vita est: sed ea nulla est 
omnino servient!. ' Philipp. I0». 
Addison, Remember O my friends the laws the rights 
The gen'rous plan of power delivered down 
From age to age by your renowned forefathers^ 
O never let it perish in your hands. Acts. Sc. 5. 

Tullj/. Hanc [libertatem scilt] retinete, qnseso^ 

Quirites, quam vobis, tanquam hereditatem, 
majores nostri reliquerunt. Philipp. 4». 

Addison. 



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WARBUATON AND CONCANSN. I^^ 

Addison, The mistress of the world, the seat of empire. 
The nurse of Heros the delight of Gods. 
Tully. Roma domus virtutis, imperii dignitatis, do* 
micilium gloris, lux orbis terrarum. 

de oratore. 
* The first half of the 5 Sc. 3 Act. is nothing but 
a transcript from the 9 book of lucan between the 
300 and the 700 line. You see by this specimen 
the exactness of Mr. Addison's judgement who 
wanting sentiments worthy the Roman Cato sought 
for them in Tully and Lucan. When he wou'd 

S've his subject tnose terrible graces which Dion, 
allicar: complains he could find no where but in 
Homer, he takes the assistance of our Shakespear, 
who in his Julius Ccesar has painted the conspira- 
tors with a pomp and terrour that perfectly asto- 
nishes, hear our British Homer. 

Between the acting of a dreadful thing 
And the first motion, all the IntVim is 
Li/cc a phantasma or a hideous dreanij 
The Genius and the mortal Instruments 
Are then in council^ and the state of Man 
like to a little Kingdom, suffers then 
The nature of an insurrection. 
Mr. Addison has thus imitated it : 

O think what anxious moments pass between 
The birth of plots and their last fatal periods 
O 'ti3 a dreadful interval of time, 
Filled up with horror all, and big with death. 
I have two things to observe on this imitation. 
1. the decorum this exact Mr. of propriety has ob- 
served. In the Conspiracy of Shakespear's descrip- 
tion, the fortunes of Caesar and the roman Empire 
were concerned. And th^ magnificent circum- 
stances of 

" The genius and the mortal instruments 

'^ Are then in council. 

IS exactly proportioned to the dignity of the subject. 

' But this wou'd have been too great an apparatus to 

the desertion of Syphax and the rape of Sempronius, 

^nd therefore Mn Addison omits it. II. The other 

thins: 



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IQfi ILLUfiTRATfONSr Of LTTSftATURS. 

thing more worth our notice is, that Mr. A. was so 
greatly moved and affected tVith the pomp of Sh:* 
description, that instead of copying his author^s 
sentiments, he has before he was aware given us 
mly the marks of his own impressions on the read- 
ing him. For, 

" O 'tis a dreadful interval of time 
*^ Filled up with horror all, and big with death, 
are but the affections raised by such lively images, 
as these 

" all the IntMm is 

** Like a phantasma or a hideous dream. 

&, 

" The state of man — like to a little kingdom 
suffers then 

" The nature of an insurrection. 
Again when Mr. Addison would paint the softer 
passions he has recourse to Lee who certainly had a 
peculiar genius that way. thus his Juba 

" True she is fair. O how divinely fair I 
coldly imitates Lee in his Alex : 
" Then he wou'd talk: Good Gods how he wou'd talk ! 
I pronounce the more boldly of this, because Mr. 
A. in his 39 Spec, expresses his admiration of it. 
My paper fails me, or I should now offer to Mr. 
Theobald an objection ag*. Shakespear*s acquaint- 
ance with the ancients. As it appears to me of 
great weight, and as it is necessary he shou'd be 
prepared to obviate all that occur on that head. But 
some other opjx)rtuuity will presente itselfe. You 
may now, S% justly complain of my ill manners in 
deferring till now, what shou'd have been first of all 
acknowledged due to you, which is my thanks for 
all your favours when in town, particularly for in- 
troducing me to the knowledge of those worthy and 
ingenious Gentlemen * that made up our last night's 
conversation. I am. Sir, with all esteem your most 
obliged friendandhumbleservant, W.Warburton.'* 

* Among these, in the Notes on the Dunciad, are enumemted 
Theobald, Dennis, Moore, Concaner^, and Cooke, as joint Author* 
of a Letter signed W. A. June 8, 1729. 

LETTJER 



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TH£OBALD AKD COKCANSK. 1$^ 

LETTER III. 

To Mr. Matthew Concanen *, Fleet-street. 

Sir, March 13, 1 728-9. 

Tbe few passages of Shakespeare, upon which 
you, hv your last, require my thoughts, I have, for 
some time past, solved to myself; but shall be much 
better confirmed in my corrections if they have the 
^od luck to be supported by your approbation. 
But I entreat of you, by all the regards of friendship, 
that no partiality in opinion^ to my attempts upon 
this beloved Author, may over-sway you to be con- 
vinced, contrary to your own private judgment^ 
Your first question is upon tbe following passage 
of Coriolanus, p. 108. 

■ T^hou wast a Soldier 

Even to Calvtui* wish, not fierce and teiTible 
Only in strokes^ but with thy grim looksy and 
The thander-like percussion of thy sounds^ 
Thou mad^st thine enemies shake. 
Upon C. Marcius being shut into Corioli, where 
it was feared he would have fallen a sacrifice to num<- 
bers, T. Lartius sums up his character, as a War- 
rior that was terrible in his strokes, in the tone of 
his voice, and in the grimness of his countenance. 
But who was this Calvus ? I am afiraid Greek and 
Roman History will be at a loss to account for such 

* Communicated to '* Mist's Journal, March 16, IT^T-S,** 
with this introdaction : " As I casuaUy met with the follow- 
ing Letter, writ by tbe Author of ' Shakespeare Restored* to a 
private friend, I ought to ask pardon for publishing it without a 
particular leave obtsdned. But, as the contents are only a conti- 
nuation of those Criticisms which he has begun to give the Pub- 
lick upon Shakespeare^ the subject entitles the Town to them, and 
1 hope, I shall be the more easily excused this liberty." 

The Editor of the Journal subjoins, " If there Corrections strike 
my Readers as they have done me, they cannot but be pleased 
with a promise Mr. Theobald has made the Publick, in his Preface 
to the Second EdUion of *' Double Falshood,** that, though pri- 
vate property should so &r stand in hb way, as to prevent him 
from putting out an Edition of Shakespeare ; yet some way or 
Other, if he lives, the Publick shall receive from his hand that 
Poet's whole fVorks corrected with his best care and ability/* 

a man. 



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too ILT.USlllATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

a man^ and such a circumstance joined to signalize 
him. It is very surprizing that the late learned Edi- 
tor of Shakespeare should tell us, at the beginning 
of this Play, that the whole History is exactly foU 
lowed, and many of the principal speeches copied 
from the Life of Coriolanus in Plutarch ; and yet 
that he should have no suspicion of this passaf8;e 2 
for, I dare answer, Calvus was as new a person to 
him, as he is yet to me. The second Edition in for 
Uo (anno 1632) give us this Reading, 
Even to Calves wish, ■ . 
But I will be bold to say, that Shakespeare 
wrote, and therefore so it must for the future be 
restored : 



• Thou wast a soldier 



Even to Cato^s^msh, &c. 

The error probably arose from the similitude ii^ 
the manuscript of to to Iv; and so this unknown 
wight Calvus sprung up. But how shall we 
be sure, may it not be said, that it ought to be re- 
stored Cato ? I flatter myself, the authorities for 
this emendation will hardly be disputed. Plutarch, 
in his Life of Coriolanus, speaking of this Hero, 
«ays, '' He was a man (that Avhich Cato required ip 
a Warrior) not only dreadful to meet with in the 
field, by reason of his hand and stroke; but insup- 
portable to an enemy for the very tone and accent 
of his voice, and the sole terror of his aspect." Again 
in the Life of ]\ilarcus Cato the Censor, Plutarch, 
describing the warlike temper of that rough Roman, 
repeats the same sense in terms but little differing, 
" In engagements," says he, « he would use to strike 
lustily, with a fierce countenance stare upon his 
enemies, and with a harsh threatening voice accost 
them. Nor was he out in his opinion, whilst he 
taught that such rugged kind of behaviour some- 
tim^ does strike the enemy more than the sword it-: 
lelf." ~ Can we want plainer proof, when ^he three 

things 



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THEOBALD AND CONCANEN. 301 

^ings mentioned in our Poet are particularized in 
both these passages of Plutarch, and said to be the 
qualities which Cato thought requisite in a soldier ? 
It is true, Shakespeare is guilty of an anachronism, 
forCoriolanus died above 250 years before the Elder 
Cato was born. But I have already excused our 
Poet on this head, in the beginning of my Appen- 
dix to " Shakespeare Restored." — And now to you* 
second Doubt proposed, from the Tempest. 

Jf I have too austerely punish'dyou, 
Your compensation makes amends; for I 
Have given here a Third of my pwn Life, 
Or that for which I live. 

Prospero here gives his daughter in marriage to 
young Ferdinand. But, as you very reasonably ask, 
why is she only a third of his own Life ? He had 
no wife living, nor any other child, to rob her of a 
phare in his affection : so that we may reckon her 
at least half of himself. Nor could he intend that 
he loved himself twice as much as he did her ; for 
he immediately subjoins, that it was * she for whom 
he lived,* The Poet certainly meant, Prospero 
should say, he has made Ferdinand a full recom- 
pence : for he has given hioi^ in his daughter, his 
very life and heart-strings; 

A very minute alteration reconciles it to this sense^ 
^nd I have no doubt therefore but the Poet wrote, 

: '. : For I 

Have giv'n you her^ a Thrta4 of my own Life, 
Or that for wbich I live. 

The change will be still more mjnute, if we allow 
for the old way of spelling this word Thrid from its 
Saxon derivation ; and the error has arisen plainly 
from a bare transposition of the letters. A like mis- 
take I remember to have observed upon the very same 
ivord, in the old play called " Lingua," Act 4, Sc 6, 
For as a subtle spider, closely sitting. 
In centre of her web, that spreadetb, 
}f yoti but touch the smallest /^^Vc/. 

For 



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202 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

For it is very evident to the meanest under- 
standing that we must likewise restore it here. 
But touch the smallest thrid, or thread. 

. Nor is there any metaphor more common with 
Shakespeare, than the Thread of Life, the IVeh of 
Life, &c. To give but a very few instances in a 
point so well known : 

All's Well that Ends Well, p. 435 : 

The Web of our Life is of a mingled Yarn, good 
and ill together. 

Othello, p. 585 : 

I am glad thy father *s dead ; 

Thy match was mortal to him, and pure grief 
Shore his old Thread in twain. 

1 Hen. VI. p. 6: 

Had not Churchmen pray*d. 

His Thread of Life had not so soon decayM. 

a Hen. VL p. 174 : 

Argo, their Thread of Life is spun. 

Hen. V. p. 442 : 

And let not Bardolfe's vital Thread be cut 
With edge of penny Cord, &c. 

And so in a great number of passages more^ that 
I could produce were there any occasion. 

But I now hasten to obey you in your third 
instance, from Timon of Athens, p. 26 : 

Sen. Take the Bonds along with you. 
And have the Dates in. Come. 

A Senator here, who is a Creditor of Timon, sends 
his servant to make an importunate demand of the 
debt, bids him not to take a slight denial, but to carry 
the bonds, and bring in the money. But why, as you 
say, have the dates in ? Certainly, ever since Bonds 
were given, the date was put in when the bond was 
entered into ; and these bonds Timon had already 
given^ and the time of their payment was lapsed. 

In 



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THEOBALD XSD CONCAVfeN. 203 

In short, the passage has never been understood : 
and yet, I hope, 1 have found out its true meaning. 
Restore it : 

Sen. Take the bonds along with you. 

And have the Dates in Compt. 
t. e. take good notice of the dates, for t!» better* 
computation of the Interest due upon tbem. It 
must be obvious to every Reader of Shakespeare, how: 
general it is with him to write Compt and Accompt^ 
for Qmnt and Account. So in the very next speech 
of this Play, where Timon's steward is talking of hti 
Master's carelessness, p. 26 : 

.—.-^ — Takes no accoinpt 

How things go from him, &c. 

So in Macbeth, p. 532 1 

Your Servants cvei^ 

Have theirs, themselves, and what is theirs in Compt, 
To make their audit, &c. 

And so in Othello, p. 587 : 

■ — : Oh! ill -star*d wench, 

i^ale as thy smock ! When we shall meet at Coippt^ &c» 

Atid in an hundred other places. 

I come now, to your last question, upon a passage 
in Troilus and Cressida, wnich requires an explica*r 
tion, no correction, 

P. 114. The dreadful Sagittary 

Appals our Numbers. 

Mr. Pope, as you observe, thinks, by Sagittary ^ 
that our Poet means Teucer ; who, indeed, was fa-r 
mous for his bow. But, when Teucer is not once 
mentioned by name throughout the whole Play, 
would Shakespeare decypher him by so dark and 
precarious a description ? I dare be positive, he had 
no thought of that Archer here. This passage con** 
tains a piece of private history, which, perhaps, 
Mr. Pope never met with, unless he consulted the 
old Chronicle, containing the Three Destructions 
of Troy, printed by Caxton in 1471, and Wynken 
de Werde in 1503; from which Book, as 1 shall 
hereafter shew, our Poet obtained this circumstance. 

" Beyond^ 



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•04 fLLySTRATIONS OF UT£RATURE. 

*^ Beyonde the royalme of Amazonue eame an 
auncient kynge, wy«8e and disscreete, named Epy- 
strophus^ and brought a M. knyghtes, and a mer- 
, vayllouse beste that was called Sagittarye^ that be- 
hynde the myddes was an horse, and to fore, a man ; 
this beste was heery like an horse, and had his eyen 
rede as a cole, and shotte well with a bowe: this beste 
made the Grekes sore afrede^ and slew many of. 
them with his boweJ*^ 

I have thus, with all the brevity I could^ dis- 
patched your commands, and shall be alwayjs ready, 
Sir, in this, or any other way, to approve mysdf 
your obedient humble servant. Lew. Theo^au)/' 

LETTER IV. 

To the Rev, Mr. Warburton * junior, at Newark, 
in Nottinghamshire. 

Dear Sir, fVyan's-court, March l8, 1728-p, 
I but just now have received from Mr. Concanen 
the favour of your second paper of criticisms^ which 
you were so kind to leave for me : but it comes at- 
tended not only with the pleasure it brings in itself, 
but with that of an information that you have read 
over all Shakespeare. You may wonder, douhtless, 
when I promised to follow you so closely with my 
troublesome enquiries, thut no catalogue of loci 
desperati has yet reached you. It has happened, 
unluckily, that I have been fatigued with more Law 
business than the present crisis of my affairs made 
desirable: and I hope you will forgive an avoca- 
tion that has been so disagreeable to myself. I 
wish it may not prove now your misfortune to find 
me too diligent and importunate. 

I will, from this moment, begin to draw out a 
list of Doubts and Depravations ; which you will 

* The elder " Rev. WUliam Warburton'* was then a School- 
master at Newarke. He dipd in 1729. See the Literary Anec- 
dotes, vol V. p. 53^ 

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THEOBALD AKD WARBURTOK. 20$ 

give me leave to communicate de die in diem. And 
80^ as Hamlet says, 

We '11 e'en to *t like friendly faulconers, fly at any 
thing, &c. 

I cannot but prodigiously admire the happiness 
of your change of Sparrow, Jamesy into Spare me, 
James; and may the same felicity direct you to as- 
sist me in another obscure passage, lower in the 
same page (King John, p. m)'. 

Bast. Knight — Knight — good Mother : Basilisco like, 
Why I am dubM, I have it on my shoulder. 

Does he mean, think you, by Basilisco-likey like 
a little Ring; with allusion, perhaps, to his being 
owned King Richard^s natural son? or how else must 
we conceive it ? Basitiscus, I think, in the Greek, 
is equivalent to Regulus in the Latin, which not 
only signifies the Basilisk, but aUo a little King. 

Or may we suppose that Shakespeare wrote the 
passage thus : 

Knight — Knight — good Mother — Basilisco; — 

^slight*! 
Why J am dub'd, &c. 

But I submit the whole to your consideration. 
It sticks with me pretty much too, why (at p. 35 
of this Play) Constance, addressing herself to Aus- 
tria^ calls him, 

O Lymoges ! O Austria ! 

The Poet has been bold with History, to bring 
the Duke of Austria into France in right of Arthur's 
quarrel, because he knew that Austria was an enemy 
to Richard I. when he was taken prisoner in Ger- 
many. He has been as free in making Austria 
killed by the Bastard ; though, in fact, it was the 
Count of Limoges that the Bastard killed. (N. B. 
Limoges is a small town in the county of Limosin^ 
in France.) Now it is not very probable that the 



* i, e. Gods light, by way of oath. 



Duke 



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^K36 IIxyiKrRATtONS OF LtTtRATUKfi* 

Duke of Attfttria should assume the title of a Count 
from a small village in France ; and it is plain that 
Shakespeare means oneand the same man by Limoges 
and Austria, though they are as plainly two in His- 
tory — hceret o^fwa*. — But I will trouble you with 
my thoughts on one passage more^ before I dismiss 
Kmg John. Mr. Pope takes notice, in his Appen- 
dix, that I think the first Act ends wrong (he 
means the second) ; and that some Scene followed 
which is lost: because otherwise Constantia sits 
down on the stage, only to rise again, and go offv 
Mr. Pope agrees, it seems, to be lost, and that it were 
to be wished the Restorer could supply it. 

I believe, whether Mr. Pope will thank me, or nb, 
I can venture to do this. Upon looking a little nar- 
rowly into the constitution of the Play, I am satis- 
fied that the third Act is to begin with that Scene 
which has hitherto been accounted the 7th of the 
second Act ; and my reasons for it are these. The 
match being concluded^ in die Scene before that, 
betwixt the Dauphin and Blanch, a messenger is 
sent for Lady Constance to King Philip's tent, for 
her to come to St. Mary's church, to the solemnity. 
The Princes all go out, as to the marriage; and 
the Bastardy staying a little behind, to descant 
on interest and commodity, very properly ends 
the Act. The next Scene then, in the French 
King's tent, brings us Salisbury delivering his mes- 

* '^ It IS rightly observed, that Limoges and not Austria was the 
person kiU^ by the Bastard ; and I believe what sticks with 
yoa in thia passage, when you observe the Author's address ia this 
place, is very ai'tful. History, of which he was an exact ob- 
server, reclaimed against the change from Limoges to Austria^ 
and, on the other hand, it was necessary to introduce Austria 
in his place, to raise the character of the Bastard, who is plainly 
the Hero of the Play, by making him revenge the demth of his 
fother. What was to be done in this dilemma ? By the mdst 
artful address he has here insinuatedj that Austria bore thd 
title of Limoges, whereby he avoids a gross violation of History^ 
and served the greater end of raising hb hero's character.** 

IXote written m tbe margin by Mr, fFarlmrton,'] 



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THEOBALD AND WAEBURTO$<. 90? 

tage to Coii8tantia> who, refusii^ to go to the so-, 
lemqity, sits herself down on the floor. The whote 
train returning from the church to tlie French 
Ring's pavilion, Philip expresses such satia^tion 
on occasion of the happy solemnity of that day, 
that Constantia rises from the floor, and joins in 
the Scene, by entering her protest against their 
joy, and cursing the business of the day. Thus I 
coiiceive the Scenes are fairly continued, and there 
is no chasm in the action; but a proper interval 
made, both for Salisbury's coming to Lady Constance,, 
and for' the solemnization of the marriage. Besides, 
as Faulconbridge is evidently the Poet's favourite' 
character, it was very well judged to close the Act 
with his soliloquy. 

But I shall suspend my judgment on this pointj 
till I have the favour of your opinion. 

As to your observation on Richard the Second, 
Act IV. Scene l, 

dishonour my fair stars, &c. 

ive me leave to doubt till I hear further from you. 
imagine the Poet might mean, by stars^ the feir 
fortunes he was bom to, the influence of those stars- 
that governed his nativity: and, I believe, the 
phrase, poetically, may be dispensed with. You 
know it IS a common phrase with us to say, " I thank 
my stars.** Besides, our Poet in many places ap- 
pears evidently a Fatist Othello calls IJesdemona 
" ill-starr'd wench.** 

The Bastard in Lear says, ^ he should have been 
tbe same, if the maidenlike star in the firmament 
had shone on his nativity.'' And in King John, p. 
35^ you may observe, Shakespeare makes Constantia 
•peak exactty as he here does Au merle : 

Hast thou not spoke like thunder on my side. 
Been sworn my soldier, bidding me depend 
Upon thy stars, thy fortune^ and thy strength ? 

But I submit it to you. 

Ist Henry IV. Act II. Scene 9: 

FaUt I would I were a tceaver, 

I most 



! 



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S09 ILLUSTllATlONS Ot UtERATUIt^< 

I most heartily thank you for your ingenious titt^ 
on this passage ; and I am convinced that your ob^' 
servation is very just. 

There is another passage, in which Shakespeare 
alludes to the weavers being such songsters. 

Twelfth Night, p. 201 : 

But shall we make the Welkin dance indeed ? Shalt 
we rouze the night-owl in a catch that will draw three 
souls out of one weaver f 

This expression, perhaps, shews the fanatical ex- 
tacies of tnat set of people. Now, as you have so 
happily joined Puritanism and Singing together, t 
will, upon this occasion, propose another passage 
to your judgment, in which something is certainly 
corrupt, and I will subjoin the conjectures that ( 
have yet been able to make. 

Winter's Tale, p- 305 *. 

She hath made me four^nd-twenty * nose^ 

gays for the shearers ; three-man songmen all, and very 
good ones; but they are most of them means and 
basses; but one Puritan among then), and he sings 
psalms to hornpipes. 

Here Puritanism and Psalmody are again con- 
nected. But what can '^ three-man songpien** 
mean ^ ? We had imagined it might be. 
They Ve men, songtnen all. — 
Or, 

They *re main soQgmen all. — 

* '< It 18 possible^ this may allude to the .Kmg*s band of music^ 
which, upon the establishment, were, and are stUl twenty-four; 
and, speaking of them, we say, the twenty-four; or, one of 
the twenty-four. So in Prance, Les viAgt^quatre, means only 
a sneering pun. — 'The Puritan, p^haps, a partkuhnr per-* 
son among them. -— N. B. Generally one amongst them mora 
exce)s in Hornpipes and Countiy*dances than the rest, on ai> 
count of the Balls at Court." L. T. 

f *' A three-man songman means a singer of catches, which 
was then, and is now, in three parts; and a properer word 
could not be given to a catch-singer, by which you would de- 
note his bearing a third part, than a three'tnan smger. Hiis ex- 
plains the passage above/' INote in the margin by Mr. H^arlmrton.'] 

But 



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THEOBALD AKb WARBlHttON, iO§ 

Bat «s, since your note; the Wfeavers have riiti 
much in my head^ is it pobable to thinkihg, ats dti^ 
Shakesptere says, that he might have wrote, 

tbrum-men, songmen atl ; 
t. e. Weavers and Songsters. 

The thrum, you know, is the endof the Weavers* 
warp, as they call it. But then, his saying there 
is but one Puritan among them, I am stmiid, mach 
weakens the conjecture. I do but propose it, to 
awaken a more curious speculation. 

Neither leisure, nor my conscience. Sir, will 
allow me to trespass on you further this time ; but 
I will promise, upon encouragement, to be a trou- 
blesome Correspondent. 

You will hear, I doubt not, by our friend Concanen, 
that the Parnassian war is like to break out fiercely 
again. The Dundad* is pompously re-printed in 
quarto, atid the publication of it every day expected. 

Give me leave, with the truest respect, to sub- 
icribe mysfetf. Sir, your most obligeci and faithful 
humble servant. Lew. Theobald. 

LETTER V. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton, at Newark. 

Dear Sir, ff^t/an's Court, April 8, 1739. 
Tour last most obliging Epistle is come to hand^ 
together with the inclosed explanation of part pf Ed- 
gar^s madness. As you are so good to say I shall see 
the Book touching these Popish Impostures, I shall 
with great impatience expect it remitted; and will 
be very faithful to return it, so soon as I can extract 
what it will furnish necessary to my Work. 
As to the passage in Lear, Act IIL See. 1] : 
And quenchM the steeled fires. 
I had always suspected it of corruption, and had 
attempted to cure it in this manner : 
And quenchM the stelled fires, 
i. e. stellati, vel stellei ignes. I scarce need to ob- 

* See hereafter, p. 230. 

VOL. II. p serve 



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210 IIXUSTRATIONS OF UTERATXJIUC. 

aervc to you. Sir, that 1 ever labour to make the 
smallest deviations that I can possibly Jrqm the 
text ; never to alter at ally where I can by anjf 
means explain a passage into sense ; nor ever by 
any emendations to make the Author better when it 
is probable the text came from his own hands. And 
yet. perhaps, I may immediately propose to your 
jucilgment the correction of a passage, in which I 
may seem to have transgressed my own rule. How- 
ever, it pleases me, till I am better informed* 



Where Cleopatra is characterizing Mark Anthony, 
after his death^ to Dolabella^ she says^ among other 
line things : 

Anthony, Act V. Sc. 2, p. 100 : 

——————— For bit Bounty, 

Tbere was no Winter in*t. An Antony it was. 
That grew the more by reaping. 
Surely, there is no consonance of ideas betwixt a 
Winter and an Anthony ; nor, I am afraid, any com- 
mon sense in an Anthony growing by reaping. I 
ihrewdly suspect, our Author wrote : 

—---—--——— For his Bounty, 
There was no Winter in't An Autumnc 'twas. 
That grew, &c. 
I appealto you with somediffidence in it; though 
certainly this restores an uniformity of metaphor, 
and conveys some meaning in an Autumn still grow- 
ing by reaping: nor is the variation from the traces 
of the letters very great , especially if we consider 
the old way of spelling the two words Antonie and 
Automne. — If you shall judge that I have been too 
bold in this, I will make some amends in communi- 
cating another emendation, which, I think verily, 
I may stand by. 
Twelfth Night, Sc. IV. p. 185 : 

Sir And. O, bad I but follow'cl the Arts ! 

Sir Tob. Then badst tboii had an excellent head of hair. 
Sir And. Why, would that have mended my hair I 
Sir Tab. Past question ; for thou seeUt it does not cool 
my Nature. 

I cannot 



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nnOBALD AMD WARBUKTOK. All 

I cannot enough adnrire that happ3r indolence of 
Mr. Pope, which can acquit him in transmitting us 
this for sense and argument. The dialogue is of a 
very light strain here, betwixt two foolish knights ; 
but I would be very g!ad to know, methinks, why 
Sir Andrew's hair hanging iank, should, or should 
not, coo/ Sir Toby's nature. I dare say> I hardly, 
need subjoin my correction to your sagacity. 

Sir And. Oh, bad I but follow'cl tbe Arts ! 

Sir Tob. Then hadst thoti bad an excellent head of hair. 
Sir And* Why, would thut have mended my Mair ? 
Sir Tab. Past question ; for thou seest it will not curl 
by Nature 

It means no more, I think, than, if Sir Andrew 
had had art enough in him to tie up his hair, it 
had not hung so lank as it did by Nature; and. 
what inimediately follows, seems to me an unex- 
ceptionable confirmation of this. 
Sir And* But it becomes me well enough, doesU not ? 
Sir Tob. Excellent ; it hangs like Flax on a Distaff. 

I cannot help thrusting upon you another emen- 
dation, which^ as yet, seems to me as sure as the 
former, 

Love*s Labour Lost, Act 4, Sc. 4- p. 2ff4 : ' 

\Dum. O most divine Kate ! 

Bir, O most prophane coxcomb ! (aside. J 

Dum, By Heav'n, the wonder of a mortal eye ! 

Bir. By earth she is not ; Corporal, there you lie. 

(aside,) 
Domaine, one of the lovers in spight of his vow 
to the contrary (thinking himself alone), breaks out 
into short soliloquies of admiration on his mistress; 
and Biron, who stands behind as an eves-dropper, 
takes pleasure in contradicting his amorous raptures, 
fiut Dumaine was a young lord ; he had no sort of 
post in the army, that we hear of; what wit or allu- 
sion then can there be in Biron's calling him corpo* 
roil? I make no doubt at present to restore it. 

Bir. By earth, she is but corporal-, there you lie. 
p 3 Corporal^ 



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Sil% lUiUSnATlONS OF LITUUITUEX. 

C^ftfU^ak jx)u know, Shakespeare crerjr wk#re 
mfs lar cg^tporeal; and the^ Biroo oJily m ftit terms 
c^nin^icts Dumaine's hyfierboHcal praisea, whocalb 
I)ii m^trest. divine, and the wonder of a mortal e^*^ 
^at we have another Uunder afterwards, in relation 
to thk JXm^ine, which, I think, I can set right too. 
Kaoi. Dum. But what to me^ my Love? but what to 

K^^. 4wi^f ^W%rcl, fairhe^UW andhowctfityj 
Witib ^hreefpld Iqt^ I wi^h you ^U these three. 

What thfree, in the name of arithmetiek } She 
wishes hi^ four things, if she wishes him any 
thing. May we not with certainty correct it? 
A^ wifl?, a beard (fair Youth), and honesty. 

And he?: calling him J^air youth seems y^ry well 
authorized by wh^t she presently subjoins. 

Not so, my Lord ; a twelvemonth and a day, 
ril mark no words that smooth-faced wooers say* 

But whither am I going ? I nneant to excuse myv* 
s^lf in this present from not being^ able to reply to 
the contents of your last, but am growing eccentric 
The reason is, dear Sir, I have nowa Benmt upon the 
anvil*; the solicitation of which breass in a little 
upon my application, necessary for that part of my 
Work ; a few days w^ill finish that task, and I shall 
hope to return to regularity. That I may not wholly, 
in 4^e mea^ tin^ he useless to myself in your aaaist- 
ance, I will fill up the remaining space of my paper 
witii tome nmdoipy inquirenda nHlherdmeobaer^ati. 

1^. Anthony and Cleopatra, p» 34 ; 

Then put my tires and mantles on him, whilst 
' fwore4iis^ Sword Phiuppan. 

This I presume to be history, and not invention, 
of our Poet: hut where msgr I trace it? or who has 

«^ BW ''Double FUiehood!' was then perfermin^ at Ihwy 
Lane, wkrni it. vtm acted tv^drejiiighli^ witboamdorable vgif^ 
pbusei and was th^.last Play in whi9h Atr, Bo9tt^ apgeired* 

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TH£0BAU> Aim WAKBUItTOK. S13 

edfed Aiithony"^ sword^ PkiHfpan 9 I Wat thitaking 
it might poBsibljr be in Cicero*s Philippic Oratioris 
against Anthony! but how then did Shakespeai^ 
eome at it ? 

M. Much Ado about Nothing, p. 105^ and igo i 
And oiitt deformed it one of them 3 I know bim^ 

he wears a Lock. 
They say he wears a Key ih bis ear^ aed a LoA 
hanging by it. 
Ai to this Key and Lock^ I own» 1 have not th0 
least glimmering what it can allude to* 
r ^rd« Antliony and Cleopatra: , 

Wbicb, hke the Courser's hair,, liatb yet but life/ 
And not a serpent's poison« 
, Where is this old idle notion accounted for ? 
4th. Homeo and Juliet, p. 2j4 : 

Some say, the lark and loathed toad change eves. 
Where is this notion of the Naturalists explaiif^? 
5th. As You Like it, p. ^24 : 

Which, like the toad, ugly and venomous^ 
Wears yet a precious jewel in his bead. 
There is said to |ie, I think, a ^tone, called Bufb^ 
niteSj found in the heads of some toads, which is 
reckoned an antidote against their poiaon«' Bit X 
should be glad of a good account herein. 
6th. 2 Hemy Vl. p. l6i : 

Cade. ^^-^Whati^tfhyWaittcr? 

Clerk. Enmnuek 

likk. Tbey used to write it on the top of letters. 
In the Popish times, I think, they used to put 
the sign of the Crost on the top of their Letters : 
kst after that superstition was abolished^ with the 
Re^rmation succeeding, did the Precisians supply 
it with^ wriliag Evmnuel on the top of theira? Ut 
what eke is alfuded to here * ? 

* On this passage Mr. Warburton observes, *' i e. of letters 
iBCMher aMlfsutA IMm publfe aets. See Mabilloa^s DiiOoniaau** 
—The learned Commentator mt)icfe(tih««e sldded, '' sM in pfimlfl' 
aadiMendlfCdrrasponilefitte aAso:*' S«te tliie Lcttcti dP Ald^man 
Robert Heyrick and others (who were Stelidipiitrt^ff eoiKenipo-^ 
laries) in the '^SUtoi^ #» IteiMMMhM;' toU U^^«M: . 

But 



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S14 ILLUOTRAXIONS OF UT£RATURE. 

Bitt now it is time, once more, that I should think 
of releasing you. How can I possibly ever retaliate 
the vast trouble I am giving you ? . Nothing makes 
me so easy as that you are so good to take'some plea- 
sure in it. ' r have taken the liberty (with whjcb I 
desire you will indulge me) to enrich the letter W. 
in my List of Subscribers with your name for a sett 
of my R6yal^aper Books *. 

I had the. pleasure yesterday of drinking your 
health,' with hearty zeal, at your Friend Mr. Bur* 
roughs*s -jf^ the Master in Chancery, 

.To conclude, I wish ardently our distance were 
less: and, as Cleopatra says her Anthony should 
have every day several greetings, or she would unpeo« 
pie Egypt ; so I regret I cannot every day receive a 
packet from you, though the expence were a tax of 
weight upon my pocket. I remain, dear Sir, your 
piost obliged and aQectionate hymble servant, 

L£w. Theobald, 

LETTER Vr, 

' To Mr. Matthew Concanen, Fleet-street $. 

^* Demitte auriculas, ut inique mentis asellUa 

Cum gravius dorso Bubiit onus.** Hob. 1 Sat. ix. 90. 

Sir, Wjfaris Court y April \5, 1729. 

If we look a little into the conduct and custom of 
the world, it may not appear so extraordinary as 
some have thought it, that Mr. Pope, because he 
cannot be the Fountain ot Honour to mankind, should 
be fond of usurping the Fountain of Infamy, and 
please himself with dealing out a fund of dirty pro- 
motions from that inexliaustible spring. And as 

«^ In the List of Sub^cnbers we find '' Rev. Mr. William War* 
bttvton, one lai^ge, and one demy copy." 

t Samuel Burroughs, £8q. who was app<wit«i a Maiter aa 
Chancery Feb. 17> I79tf-7. 

X PniiMui^^I>«uiyiowaMa April 17, 1799. 

nothing 



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THEOBALD AND CONCANEN. 215 

nothing yields a more sincere delight than to see the 
workings of a beneficent mind ; I doubt not but 
every good man is rejoiced to observe this great 
Prince creating Dunces upon Dunces, of his own 
free-will and motion, with so much alacrity^ and all 
in a due subordination. It is certain, I ought to be 
very well satisfied with my share of honours in his 
kingdom of Dullness^ since the preamble to my pa- 
tent is, that he could notjind one mare Jit to wear 
them. I would not willingly act like the favourite^ 
whom Shakespeare somewhere describes^ wbo> being 
made proud by his Prince, advanced his pride against 
the Power that bred it. But I would rather^ like a 
grateful favourite, lay out my talents in asserting the 
legality of my Master s title to those dominions, in 
which be exercises so free a sway, and from whaooe 
be so unsparingly dispenses his promotions. 

And since I have mentioned Shakespeare (one 
of the tributaries by conquest made subservient to 
his Throne), I will attempt to convince unbelievers, 
by some few instances of his prowess, with what a 
strength of arm, and fineness of head, he has hum- 
bled that proud Adversary to his sceptre. Or (to 
step out of all metaphor at once) I will attempt to 
shew with what fidelity he has performed the dull 
office of an Editor, hardly without aiming to under- 
stand his Author himself, or having any ambition 
that bis Readers ever should. Or, where he does 
aim, to shew that he has such a happy fatality at 
mistaking, that we are to wish he would not explain 
the Author into nonsense. Give me leave to subjoin 
some examples, just as they occur to my observation. 

I. Much Ado about Nothing, Act III. Sc. 5 : 
■ Sometimes fashioning them like Pharoak's 

soldiers in the reeky painting, sometimes like the 
God Bars priests in the old church window, &c; 

Ml*- Pope is pleased to tell us, that rechie signifies 
valuable. But the Poet had no intention here of com- 
plimenting the richness^ or value^ of the painting. 

On 



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2^Cf ILLU8TRATI9NS OF IJTEE4TUEE. 

:pa thp other band, lie would s^eak despicably qf 
it, as of a common wall-painting; as he does in ano- 
ther Play of thp story of the Prodigal, and the Ger- 
paan-hqpting ip Water-work. We may be pretty 
sure, therefore, our Author wrote, the reechy paint- 
ing; i. e. smoke-dried, exposed to weauier, or 
recking and steaming with nastiness. 

There are t^yo other passages, where, I remem- 
ber, th|s lyord again otccurs in our Author. 

Coriobnus, AatH. Sc.4: 

— — The kitchen-maukin pins 

Her richest lockmm 'bout her reechy neck, lie. 

And Hamlet, Act III. Sc. 11 : 

And let him for a pair of reechy kisses, 
Or padling in your neck, &c. 

Now if reechy^ in either of these passages, signi- 
fies valuable^ \ shall be content to allow Mr. Pope's 
gloss upon the passage first cjuoted. 

11. Henry VHI. Act I. Sc. 1 : 

CXne sure that promises no Element 
]o such a budiness. 

Here we a^-e told that Element is Rudiment , or 
Beginning. But here again the common sense of 
the passage is explained away. Shakespeare means 
no more tnan that, he is one who promises no quali- 
fications, no talents for such a business ; or is not in 
a sphere for it. In these acceptations, I think our 
Poet generally uses the phrase. So, 

Merry Wive^ of Windsor, Act IV. Sc. 4 t 

And such dawbry as thi^ is beyond our Element. 

Twelfth Night, Act HI. Sc. 2 : 

What you would, is out of my welkin ; I might 
say Element^ but the woi;d is over-worn. 

And again. Act III. Sc. 9 : 

You are idle shallow things, lam not of your 
Element. 

In 



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TfI£OBALD AND CQNPAVEV. 217 

Ii^ every on^ of which qviotations Mr. pope's 
glo^s would be out of the way. It would not be 
amiss, perhaps, that this Commentator should re- 
meuiher, — k mc^n m(iy be ^qm^tim^s qut of his 

III. King Lear, Act I]! . Sc. 2 : 

Crack Nature's mould, all Getmams spill at once 
That make ingrateful m^n. 

All relations or kindred eler^ents that compose 
man ; as Mr. Pope expounds it. But, with submis- 
sion, the text must first be slightly amended, and 
we shall easily come at a better explication. Read, 

all Germius spill at pnce, &q, 

a. e. Gennina, Seeds of Matter. 

. So, again, in Macbeth, Act IV. Sc. 2 : 

— : tbopgh the treasure 

Qf Nature^s Germtns tumble all together, 
Ey'n till Destruction sickeo. 

For so it must here likewise be corrected. And, 
to put this eoiend^tion beyond all doubt, I will pro- 
duce one more pasfiiage^ where odf A^th^r not only 
uses the same thought again, but the word that as- 
certains my explication into the bargain. 

Winter's Tale, Act IV. Sc.J>: 
Let Nature crush the sides o* th* eairth together, 
And marr the seeds within. 

IV. King Lear, Act I. Sc^ 6 : 

■ Wherefore should I 

S.tand in the plague of custom, and permit 
The Nicety of nations to deprive me, ^c. 

I would very w^ng)y \ww, as Mr. Pop^e dejblsMre* 
against his having madie any innovations, fromwb^t 
authoritj :ed this, quaint word^ Nieefy : 

It is in n copies, tlxat ever I have seen ; 

and if h iher from Mr. Rowe's Edition, 

or Mr. 7 Lof this Play, he must give me. 

leave ^o ; it. The old ireading (which^ 

I presy; ^d not I^now what tq Qidke. 

of). 



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fil8 ILLUSTRATIONS OP LITERATURE. 

of), it is true, is corrupted — The Curiosity of na- 
tions — but out of it I will vienture to restore the 
Poet's genuine word : 

The Coutlesy of nations to deprive me, &c. 
Our accurate Editor might have observed, that 
his Author chuses the very term upon' the like occa- 
sion, in another of his Plays. 

As you like it, Act I. Sc. I : 

The Courtesy of nations alleles you my better, in 
that you are the first born. 
So, in another place^ he substitutes it for birth- 
right . 

Cymbeline, Act IV. Sc. 8 : 

■ aye hopeless 

To have the Courtesy your Cradle promisM. 
And, for the more vulgar use of the phrase, I do 
not doubt but Mr. Pope may have heard, that < er- 
tain lands and honours are held by Courtesy of 
England. 

V. Measure for Measure, Act III. Sc. 4 : 

■ ■ Say to thyself, 

From their abominable and beastly touches, 
1 drink, I eat away myself, and live. 
This a very excellent instance of our Editor's sa- 
gacity. I wish heartily he would have obliged us with 
his physical solution, how a man may eat away him- 
self and /it;e. Till he does this, I would crave leave 
to substitute l>y conjecture : 

Say to thyself. 

By their abominable and beastly touches, 
I drink, I eat, array myself, and live. 
i. e. I feed myself, and put clothes on my back, by 
exercising the vile trade of a bawd. 

VI. Love's Labour Lost, Act III. Sc. 3 : 
This Signior Junio^ giant dwarf, Dan Cupid. 

Some Readers, it is probable, would have been 
glad to know why the Poets call Cupid Signior Ju^ 
nio. Has it an allusion to any old tale, or to any 
character in any old play ? No such thing. Aa 

there 



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tllKOBAjLI> AND COVCAVEV. 919 

ihere is a contrast of terms in giant-dwarf^ so I have 
H great suspicion there should be in these other 
trords, if we. could retrieve the true reading. And 
why might it not have been, 

Tiiia Semor-Juniory giant-diirarf, Dan Cupid; 
t. e. this old young man? I am sure there is a 
description afterwards of him in this very Play, 
which will be no bad confirmation of this con^ 
jecture : 

This was the way to make bis godhead wax, 
* For he hath been five-thousand years a boy. 

VII. Ibid. Act IV. Sc.3: 

And why indeed Naso, but for smelling out the odori^ 
ferous flowers of fancy ? The jerks of invention 
imiiary is nothing: so doth the hound bis mas* 
ter, &c. 
Sagacity with a vengeance! What? Neither 
sound sense, true grammar, right inference^ point- 
ing, or meaning ? — Then, what is invention irni^ 
tarry? Invention and imitation are certainly two 
distinct things. In short, if Mr. Pope will not 
merrily call it trifling, I will venture to give h'ght to 
this very difficult passage. The speech is by a pe» 
dant^ who frequently throws in a word of Latin 
amongst his English ; and he is here flourishing 
upon the merit of Invention, beyond that of Imita- 
tion, or copying after another. 

Correct it thus, and all is plain and intelligible : 
And why indeed Naso, but for smelling out the odori- 
ferous flowers of fancy ? the jerks of invention ? — 
iniitariy is nothing; so doth the hound his mas- 
ter, &c. 
imitariy i. e. to imitate, copy, or foltow after. 

VIII. Titus Andronicus, Act Hi. Sc. 3 : 
Which of your hands hath not defended Romeji 
And rear'd aloft the bloody battle-axe, 
Writing destruction on the enemies caHle f 

Sagacity again ! Unless Mr. Pope means an im* 
provement of the art military, by teaching us that 
It was ever a custom to hew down castles with a bat- 
tle-axe. 



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»20 ILLUSTKATIONS OF UTVEATVtl. 

tlc««xe. Or how if he should hate a mind to tell 
us, that they wore castles formerly upon their heads 
Ibr defensive armour ? There is indeed a passage in 
Troilus and Cressida, where the word again occurs : 

■ ■ M .. . -^ — and, Diomed, 

Stand fast, and wear a casile on thy head. 

But, as I cannot, in either case, suppose that 4 
eastle could be worn on the head^ I will venture to 
read the passage thus : 

Writing destruction on the eneknies cask.' 
L €. an helmet, from the French word casque. A 
broken k in the manuscript might easily be mis- 
taken for //; and thus, a castle was built at once. 
But I think it would be son>ething easier to split an 
helmet with a battle-axe, than cut down a castle with 
it ; and that is one reason which induces me ta pro- 
pose this reading. I had designed to throw in ano- 
ther emendation upon the word castle; bat I hscve 
already transgressed the Kmits of a letter; and there 
are two or three topics still behind, that I have ait 
occasion to touch upon. 

Mr. Pope*s Dunciad havmg lately made it» ap- 
pearance in so pompous a shape *, with Ndfes Fari^ 
arum (I am sorry the Editor could not spare tw 
this short scrap m a single language) ; I am rety 
well content to pass over the slander of his wit ; }ml 
ought not, as 1 apprehend, to rest silent under thfif 
of bis malice, in which he would fix a pretended 
charge of ingratitude upon me^ — a vice; I hope, of all 
othersj^ the least ingmfted in my nature. This charge 

* " This day is published, in a beautiful Letter in 4to^ a eomplete 
and conraet Kdilton •£ the Duvciad^ : with the PBolegoiiiena» 
Dissertations and. Arrtineots of Martinus Scviblerue^ Testiaionia 
Scriptovum, NbUs Variomm, Index Autorum, Appendix of some 
curious Pieces, Virgii Restored, or a Specimen for a new Edition 
of that Poet,a'FaraUel €^Mr. DiTden and Mr. ]?ope, kc^^ wherein 
the Errors, of all the ionoev Editions ars conrcot«d, theOmissions 
sofl^iodw tha^Mamtareetified, and the Reasons for their Inaenion 
^qn ) the Uisloi-y gf Amihors related,, and the Anonymona de- 
tected i the obscure Passages illustrated; and the Imitations and 
Alhisions to ancient and raoderit Ptieta- coHeetodi wiH^a Letter to 
U&fr Vlthliiher, by W. C. Esq. Printed for Lawton Gilliver, against 
St. Dunstan^s Church in Fleet-street/* Lmdfm Evening Po$t, 
JprU 12, 1729. ig 



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79«OMU) AHD COHCAKXM. ttl 

IP, /^ tbftt during the space of two years, while Mr<. 
Pope was preparing his Edition of Shakespeare^ I^ 
who had then someeorrespoodenee with him, and was 
solictting favours by letters, did wholly conceal my 
design (upon that Author) till after his publication.** 
To one part of this accusation I have replied in a 
fioroier letter in this paper*. To- say I concealed my 
design, is a slight mistake: fonr I had no such car-- 
tain design, till I. saw how incorrect an Edition Mr. 
Pope had aivem the publicL Ta^ the other part, I 
t^iiak, I. (bre securely charge my memory with all 
the favours that ever 1 ventured to ask of Mr. Pope; 
and I challenge him to produce aiy letters againstt 
me, if he thinks there is any room for it. The first 
favour that I asked was, when I introduced a Play 
upon the stage, that he would assist me in a few 
tickets towurds my benefit. In about a month after 
this request, I received my packet back, with thi» 
civil excuse, 'Hhat he had been all the while from 
hon^, and had not my parcel till it was too late to 
do any thing with it." This, I confess, induced me, 
when I put out my F^oposals for .^cbylus, to soli- 
cit Mr. Pope for this second iavour, that he would 
please to recommend tkat my design, if it did not 
interfere with his own afl&ir of the Odyssey. To thia 
Mr. Pope replied by Letter, *^ tkat ke was glad I 
had ufmtrtaken tins fVork ; atid skotdd he as glad 
to promote my interest, notwithstanding his own 
stsbscription to the Odygsey : that his own awkward- 
nesi9, and indeed inability^ of soliciting in any 
kind, made him quite useless to his own interest ; 
hut^ that ke miglit not he intirely so to mine, he would 
ask those ofhu Friends for me, with whom he was 
famliar enough to ask afiy thing'' But, from that 
day to the puUioation of my " Shakespeare Restored,** 
(an interval of above two years) I never received one 
line from Mr. Pope^ nointimation of one Subscriber' 
h^ bis interest, not even an order that I should put^ 
hMQwiOL name: down in my list. Upon this naked 

*Tki:Dflilf Journal. 

fact 



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f US ILLUSTftATlOKS OF LTmiATtflK. 

&ct I submit the oenrare both of my obligatioiis ftnd 
ingmtitude. 

The Publick should not have been troubled with 
this state of the case, had not these insinuations 
been industriously propagated at this crisis, both to 
hurt my interest in my subscription for ray *^ Re- 
marks on Shakespetpe,** which will now shortly ap- 
pear in the world ; and in that Play which is designed 
for my benefit on Monday next in the Theatre at 
JDrary-lane *• It is my misfortune, I can boast but 
of a very scanty interest, and much less merit; and,* 
consequently, both are the more easily to be shocked. 
I had no method, but this^y of appealing to those 
many, whom I have not the honour of approach- 
ing, . for their favour ; aud of humbly hoping 
it the rather, because all my poor attempts in 
writing are calculated to entertain, and none at the 
expence of any maris character. lam, Sir, your 
obedient humble servant, Lew. Theobald* 

LETTER VII. 

Rev. Sty AN Thirlby to Mr. Theobald. 
Sir, Comb. Jesus College^ Maj/l, 1729. 

I received Proposals, and six receipts. I have re- 
ceived that gentleman*s subscription-money for whom 
!rou filled up a receipt here, which you said you would 
eave with Dr. Thomas Bentley ; but he not being in 
Cambridge, I gave him one of my six. His name is 
Peter Wyche, esq. Please to add him to the list, 
if he be not there already, and Mr. Richard Sterne, 
and Mr. William Pawson. At last I send you the 
list of such of my conjectures as I am at present not 
unwilling to own. I waited some time, m expecta- 
tion of my Quarto^y which I wanted to consult about 
some places; but the chief occasion of the delay has 
been sickness. If you know any of them to be 
wrong, either from the authority of editions which 
I have not seen, or from your much better acquaint- 
ance with Shakespear's style, or from the books from 

* See before, p 21 2. f Through the medium of a Newspfiper. 
i Mr. Pope*s Edition. which 



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THIRI3Y AVD THBOBAJLD, 323 

which he took his matter, or fropa any other way, 
or if you have better of youc own upon the same 
places, I desire you to suppress them *, If you doubt 
of any of them upon the force of any objections not 
mentioned to me when you was here, you will 
oblige me if you will please to take the trpuble to 
communicate to me those objections. You will 
wonder perhaps at the shortness of the list, espe- 
cially having, I suppose^ trar^scribed from the mar- 
gin of my book -|-, many things which 1 fancy you will 
think as certain as many, if not any, of those here 
inserted. It is in great measure owing to the weak- 
ness and languor attending long illness and confine-, 
ment to my room, which utterly indisposed, and. 
even disabled me to consider any thing carefully, 
or to turn over books; and therefore I was forced to 
pass over such as I thought would require either the. 
one or the other. Perhaps too I have overlooked 
many through weariness or inadvertency. If God 
grant me life and better health, possibly 1 may draw 
out a much greater number tim^ enough to make 
an Appendix to your book, and add to them many 
others which have occurred to me since I saw you, 
as I think I mentioned in my last. I think it ne- 
cessary^ especially considering the ill condition of 
my health, and the very great effect it has had upon 
all the faculties of my mind, to let them lie by me, 
at least till then, ut refrigerato inventienis amore 

* " Dr. Jortin tells us, Dr. Thirlby was once resolved to pub- 
lish. 8bakes|)eiir, and persuaded Jortin to read over that Poet, 
with a view to mark the passages where he had either imitated 
Greek and J^tin writers^ or at least follen into the same thoughts 
and expressions. " Many of these allusions, or coincidences/' 
continaes Jortin, " appeared ; but Thirlby dropped hi^ design, 
and I mine." — It is much to be lamented that such a design 
came to nothing when it had got into hands so able. It appears 
as if Dr. Jortin had a higher opinion of the learning of Shakes- 
pMur than has been entertained subsequently tp the year 1766, 
when Dr. Famer puUbbed his first Essay on the subject.*' 

Illustrations of Hogarth, 1816, p. 3. 

t Of Dr. Thiriby's copy of Shakespear, which he bequeathed, 
with all his other books and papers, to Sir Edward Walpole, ,see 
the '' Literary Anecdotes/' vol. IV. p. 368. 

wquinus 



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224 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LlTBAAtURE. 

cpquhis velut lector perpendamj if that be possible. 
But, however that may be, at present I can judge of 
nothing. I am. Sir, 

Your most humble servant, S. Thirlby. 

Mr. Pope's duodecimo EDrrioN, 1728, vol. i. 

P. 53. 1. 5. Each piUter out of five for one.} 
Perhaps the true reading may he Jive for ten^ or 
one for Jive. It was usual in those times for travel- 
lers to put out money, to receive a greater sum if 
they lived to return. I determine nothing concern- 
ing the reading, but the exposition is certain. See 
M onson's Itinerary (I think that is the title he gives 
his Travels), part I. p. 198, & seqq. You may bor- 
row it of Mr. Budgell. 

P. 73. 1. 25. In all our trtm^ In all her trim. 

P. 98. 1. 29. The one Fll stay, the other siayeth 
wiej I read, the one I'll slay, the other stayethme. 

P. 1 1 1 . 1. 8, 9, 1 0, 11 . Mine t^x—^rote me.] 

Leg. Mine — note^ 

So— shape; 

And thy fair virtue's force perforce doth (or do) 
move me. 

On thefrst^^love thee. 

P. 1 26. 1. 13. ITiey wilfully exile themselves from 
light.] I read exiled; and incline to think Obe- 
ron's speech should begin here. 

P. 126. I. 26. Goblin, lead them up and down,] 
for Goblin HI lead them up and down. 

P. 131. 1. 1 Dian's bud, or Cupids flower 
31, 22. J Hath such force and blessed power. 

I read, Dian's bud 6*er Cupid's flower 

Hath such force and blessed power. 

P. 131. 1. 29, 30. Titania, musickcall, and strike 
more dead than common sleep. Of all these fine 
the sense ^^ for >* de^d than common sleep, of 

all these five the sense* The five are, Demetrius^ 
Lysander, Hermia, Helena, and Bottom. 

P. 158. 1.31. Nay, in that you are astray, *twere 
best pound you.] Leg. Nay, in that you are a 
stray, &c. 

P. 238. 



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THIRLBY AMD THEOBALD. 285 

P. 28$. 1. 6. Opportunity, for unportuiiity. 

P- 310. 1. 6. Heme, for Hugh. 

P. 443. 16, 17, 18. jinf. What's her name ? 

Drom. Nell. Sir ; - but her name is three quarters; 
that 16, an ell and three quarters will not measure her 
from hip to hip.] — FoL but her name is three quar- 
ters, that's an ell and three quarters, will not, &c. 
Jbr but her name and three quarters, that's an ell 
und three quarters, will not, &c. 

P. 558. 1. 14. speeds, ^r speed's. 

P. 562. 1. 9. Leon. Peace, I will stop your 
mouth.'] I see no cause for Leonato to say this. I 
hncj Benedict says it, and kisses her. 

VOL. II. 

P. 8. I. 21. almost damm.] I think it should be 
damn ; and so it is in Rowers edition. I suppose he 
alludes to Matth. v. 22. "Whosoever shall say to his 
brother, Raca, shall be in danger of the council ; 
but whosoever shall say, Thou fool, shall be in dan- 
ger of hell fire." 

P. 59* I. 14, 15. This comes too near the praising 
of myself. Therefore no more of it: here other 
things,] for hear other things. 

P. 65. 1. 27. 32. Some mjen there are — cannot 
contain their urine for affection. Masterless passion 
kwftys it to the mood of what it likes or loaths,! for 
Cannot contain their urine ; for Affection, Master 
(or Mistress) of Passion, sways it to the mood of 
what it likes or loaths. — Folio and Quarto^ Masters 
of Passion. 

P. 129. 1.7. Nath!] L. HoL for the sjieech most 
certainly belongs to the Pedant. Nathaniel, I sup- 
pose, is reading the letter to himself. 

P.I30. I. 10. Nath.'] This is a mistake. Al- 
0iC0t «veiy word of the apeech fathers itself, and 
upon the Pedant. 

P. 139* 1- 27- word, for wood. 

P. 149- 1. 6, 7. You care not for me.— 

VOL. II. a Rosa. 



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226 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

Rosa. Great reason ; for past care is still past cure^] 
for past cure is still past care. 

P. 175. 1. 17 — 2. JSiron. And what — people sick.] 
I think this should be struck out, not as an interpo- 
lation, but as the author s first draught, afterwards 
rejected, and wrote over again^ which second writing 
we have below, p. 176. 1. 5, & seqq. 

P. 296. 1. 30, 31. And her with-holds he from me. 
Other more suitors, &c.] Jbr And her with-holds 
from me, and other more, &c. — Folio, And her 
with-holds from me. Other more, &c. 

P. 299. 1. 27. yes, Jbr ours. 

P. 317. 1. 31- P- 318. 1. 1. for Biano. In time. 

Luc. Mistrust it not. 

Biano. I trust. 

P. 392. 1. 9. help, for heaven. 

P- 399* I- 8. From lowest place, whence virtuous 
things proceed.] Leg. From lowest place when^ &c. 

P« 399- '• ^3) ^4. Leg. tomb of honourM bones 
indeed. What, &c. 

P. 411.1.4. fell, Lee. fall. 

P. 508. 1. 28. hear, for here. 

P, 642. 1.31. hw,j^her. 

VOL. III. 

P. 12. 1. 1 — 4. And permit the nicety — brother.] 
— Folio and Quarto, The curiosity. I read, The 
courtesy. — Vol. IL p. 184. 1. 25, 26. The courtesie 
of nations allows you my better in that. You are 
the first born. 

P. [138.] 1. 12. as shey for a she. 

P. 138. 1. 2, 3. That when— Ma^ lights, for and 
lights. 

P. 207. 1. 17. L. Granted. You, my Lord. 

P. 350. 1. 31. And bless'd and grac'd more than 
the King himself. — Folio, And blessM and grac'd, 
and did more than the King,] for And blessM and 
grac'd indeed more than the King. 

P. 352. 



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THIRLBY AND* THEOBALD. 227 

P. 352. 1. 5 to 8. We may meet 

At either end in peace ; which heav'n so liame ! . 

Or to the, &c. for 

We may meet. 
And either end in peace (which heav'n so frame) 
Or, &c. 
R 4^5. 1. 1—4, for 1. 4. 3- 2. 

VOL. IV. 

P. 148. 1. 16. And as the butcher takes away the 
calf, and binds the wretch, and beats it when it 
strttys^ for strives. If you doubt of the propriety 
of the word, see vol. II. p. 124. 127. vol. VI. p. 
580. 582. 

P. 27^. 1. 26. His soldiers lurking in the town 
about,] yor towns. See pp. 280, 28 1. 

P. 460. 1. 13, 14. He may, my Lord, h' as where- 
withal! in him ; Sparing would shew a worse sin 
than ill doctrine.] for He may, my Lord ; h' as 
wherewithall : in nim Sparing, &c. 

P. 547. 1. 3, 4. To you, my good Lord-mayor, 
and you good brethren, I am much beholden.] for 
^ And your good brethren, I am mucn be- 
holden. 

VOL. V. 

P. 73. 1. 25. It almost turns my dangerous nature 
twW,] for mild. 

P. 108. 1. 23, 24. Who sensibly outdares his 
senseless sword, and when it bows, stands up : thou 
art left, Martius.] ybr Who, sensible, outdoes hi$ 
senseless sword, and when it bows, stands up. Thou 
art left, Martius. 

P. 110.1. 19. Thee] Leg. You. 

P. 111. 1. 22, 23. In arms as sound, as when I 
woo'd in heart ; As merry, as when our nuptial day 
was done.] for In arms as sound as when I woo'd. 
In heart as merry, &c. 

P. 149.1. 15. accusation, for accusations. 

a 2 P. 197. 



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228 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

P. 197. 1. 14, 15. Guess but my entertemment 
with him ; if thon stand'st not i' th' state of hanging.] 
Jhr Guess by ray entertainment with him if thou, &c. 
P. 198. 1. 3. Jbr Than pity note how much. 
P. 949. 1. 30. heard — folio, heare, Jbr are. 
P. 357. 1. 34, 35, 36. I do know— awrf that lam 
he.'] for and that one am I. -i- Perhaps the %ure of 
one was used for the word, which being once mis* 
taken for I, the other change would naturally fol- 
low. Some perhaps may tnink this more IHcely to 
be the true reading : '^ Uoshaked of motion, and I 
am he.'* I doubt not but there may be as bad veives 
found in Shakespear : but I am not fond of increas- 
ing the number of them, and I prefer the former 
reading. I should be glad to know what you think 
of the matter. 

P. 338. 1. 13. a fear, ybr afear'd. I find in the 
margin of my book that you are for the old reading, 
and interpret it a coward. If you hare any exam- 
ples to support that exposition, be so kind as to send 
them me. In the mean time I cannot but think 
efear^d is the true reading. 

' P. 3(Jl. 1. 12, 13. When the best hint was gi¥€n 
him, he o^erlook'd, or did it from his teeth.]— Folio, 
not fook*t, for not ^ook*t. 

P-383. 1. 7. discattering. — Folio, discandering. 
Possibly Shakespear wrote discam^nff. Sed nihil 
statue. If you please, and it be worth while, con- 
sider a little of It ; for I have objections against it, 
and let me know your opinion of it ; and whether 
Shakespear ever uses th# word discatter. 
P. 390. 1. 5. 8. 23. eros, Jbr soldier. 
P- 398. 1. 23. do/ts,/or doits. 
. P. 409. 1. 3. Menas, Jbr Maecenas. 

P. 411. 1. 23, 24. Her life in Rome would be 
eternal in our triumph.] What if we should read, 
'^ Would be etemalling our triumph." 
P- 415* !• 19- Antony, ^/br Autumn. 
P. 519. 1. 3. sweird,^ welM. 

VOL. 



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THIRLBY AND THEQ94U>« 910 
VOL. VI. 

P. 44. 1. 17. tie^ for theii:. 
P- 6»w 1. 32, 33- And go to dust that is a little 
gilt, more land than giU o'erdusted."] for And gk)€ 
to dust that is a little gilt, more lana than gt>ld o'er- 
dusted. 

P. 97. 1. 1^, 20, inale-jr;ar/^f^ for vBA\e-harlot. 
. P. 103. !• 23, 24. Del. Z>/o and Cre. 
P. 142. 1. 7, 8. As you value your trusty Leonatus.] 
for As you value your trusty Leonatus. 

P. 200. 1. 13 — 18. Why — threat us? Play judge 
and executioner all himself? For we do fear no 
law.] for threat us. Play judge and executioner all 
himself, For we do fear the law ? — Finding in the 
maigin of my book^ Mr. Theobald is dubious, I 
have considered this over and over as attentively as 
my disordered head would give me leave, but can 
see no cause to change my mind. I should be glad 
to know your objections. See at the bottom. 

P. 216. 1. 10. Our Britain's hearts dye flying, not 
our men.] ybr Our Britain's harts. And what if 
we should read her for our, which is just now come 
into my head. I think I should rather have wrote 
her, and rather incline tor think that Shakespear did; 
but as it is very uncertain, and of no consequence^ 
I would not have it mentioned. 

P. 249- 1- 25- Pursued my humour, not pursuing 
hisj for him. 

P. 425. 1. 25 — 29. That monster custom, who all 
sense doth eat, Of habit's devil, is angel yet in this, 
&cj for Who all sense doth eat Of habits^evil, &c. 
Jr. 451- 1*3- other Christians.! — Folio, their even 
Christian. — Quarto, 1605, ana 1611, their eveh 
Christen — which is the true reading. — Spelman^ 
Glossar. p. 194 : Emne Christen. Frater in Christo 
Saxonicum, quod male intelligentes even Christian 
profeniut : atque ita editur in oratione Henrici V III. 
ad parliamentum an. regn. 37. sed recte in LLi Ed- 
ouardi Confes. ca. ^S.jratrem suum — quod Angli 

dicunt — 



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'^S^ ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

dicunt einne Ejiij^en— 1 believe that learned An- 
tiquary is inistaken in making ei>€n a corruption 
of emne; for even or epen, and emne, are Saxon 
words of the same signification. 

Concerning vol. VI. p. 200. 1. 13 — iS". I can put 
you out of doubt ; for the folio edition has /Ae, 
though the pointing indeed is as in Mr. Pope's 
edition. S. Thirlbv. 



LETTER VIII. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, ^ fPl/aris Court, May 20, 1729. 

Since the pleasure of your last (for not answering 
to which sooner I will attempt no apology, as you 
have given me so free an indulgence ;) I have received 
your pamphlet on the Priest's pretended Disposses- 
sions, which I have read over with much satisfac- 
tion. I will make some few extracts from it, and 
carefully return it by the carrier. I am much in debt 
for the many beautiful conjectures and hints your 
Epistles afford; and as you have befriended me 
with your aid in my doubts about The Tempest; this 
(without further interruption) shall give you the 
list of those passages in which I want light, and to 
which I have endeavoured to give some, upon the 
Midsummer Night's Dream. 

P. 80. I swear to thee by Cupid's strongest bow, 
with the g iJen head. 

As all the subsequent lines of this beautiful adju- 
ration are in rhyme, I have suspected this couplet 
should be so too; but, as I cannot tell what change to 
make, perhaps the Poet might not begin his chime 
till the next two verses. 

Jbid. Your eyes are Loadstars. 

Does he mean, there is the same attractive force 
in your eyes, as in the Loadstone ? Loadstar y I sup- 
pose, is a term of his own. 

P. 81. 



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THEOBALD AND WARfiURTON. 231 

P. 8 1. Emptying oar bosoms of their counsels swelPdy 
There my Lysander and myself shall meet. 
And thence from Athens turn away our eyes, 
To seek new friends, -and strange companions. 
As this whole Scene betwixt Hermia, Helena, 
and Lysander, is strictly in rhyme, I cannot but 
think these two couplets deviate through a corrup- 
tion : and I therefore have attempted to restore them 
to metre, thus : ' 

Emptying our bosoms of their counsels sweet ; 
There my Lysander and myself shall meet, 
And thence from y\theus turn away our eyes. 
To seek new friends, and stranger companies. 
For this manner of use of the word stranger^ 
I have frequent authorities from our Poet, which I 
need not at present trouble you with. 

P. 83. I could play Ercles rarely, or a part to tear 

a cat in. 
What does this odd expression allude to ? I con* 
fefts, I have hardly formed any idea from it. And 
yet it is not minted by our Shakespeare, I find: for 
in an old play called the ^ Isle of Gulls,' written by 
John Day, we have this speech, after a ranting 
bumbast line : 

* * * Fye upon^t, mere fustian : I had rather ^ 
hear two good baudy jeasts, than a whole play of 
such ieare-cat thund^ r-claps. 

Ibid & 84. 2. Robin Starveling, you must play This- 
by's Mother. 

2. You, Pyramus's father: myself, Tbis- 
by's Father. 
Here seems to me a double forgetfulness of our 
Poet. There are no Father and Mother of Thisbe, 
or Father of Pyramus, introduced, when the inter- 
lude comes to be represented. But there are Wall 
and Moonshine, of whom' there is not the least men- 
tion in this Scene, 

P. SS. The Ox hath therefore stretched his yoke in 
vain. 

This 



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^$2 ILLUSTRATlOlfS «F LITEftATURE. 

Tliis whole detcriptioii of the disorder in the Sea- 
sons^ I think you told me^ seemed a copy from 
Ovid, but I have forgot from what episode. 

Ibid. The nine-merCs-morrisi^ all filled with muj. 

I do not know what is meant by the nine-metis- 
morris^. 

Ibid. And on old Hyem's chin and icy crown 

An odorous chaplet of sweet summer-buds 
Is as in mockry set. 

The Editions agree in this reading ; and it stag- 
gered me to hesu* of a chaplet^ or garland, on tne 
chin ; I therefore conjectured it should be, 

And on old Hyem's chill and icy crown. 

But, Upon looking into Paschalius de Coronis, I 
find many instances of the antients having chaplets 
on their necks, as well as temples; so that^ if we 
may suppose Hyem is represented here as an old 
man, bending his chin towards his breast, then a 
chaplet round his neck may properly enough be said 
to be on his chin. So I am much in doubt about my 
first conjecture. 

P. 93. Then/or the third part of a minute hence 

Some to kill cankers, &c. 
The Fairies here are appointed their respective 
tasks : but are these tasks to continue only for the 
third part of a minute? I have little doubt but 
Shakespeare wrote: 

Then Ifore the third part of a minute, hence. 

t. e. As soon as your roundel and fairy-song are 
dispatched, then, iti a trice, before the third part of 
a minute, get you gone to do so and so. 

P. 95. Near tothislack-lote, this kilUcourtesie. 

This verse^ you will observe, as Ben Jonson says, 
is broke loose from its fellows, and wants to be tied 
up. And the other lines of Puck may easily be re- 
duced to seven syllables, this shoots out into ten. 

I fancy the Poet wrote thus : 
New to this kiU-cmrtesie. 

And 



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THBOBALD AND WARVUBTOIM. i^S 

And this being a tenn wm efr hat mteommoD^ 
Qiight not the pltyers explain it by this additional 
gloss — this Lack-lave ? 

P. 103. Enter Pease-blossom, Cobweb, Moth, Mtis^ 
tardseedy and four Fairies. 

I only quote this to shew you Mr. Pope's applica- 
tion to the old Books^ and art of multiplying eight 
out of four. In the two Quarto Editions (printed 
anno 1600), Titania calls in four Fairies by their 
names — Pease-blossom^ Cobweb, Moth, and Mus- 
tardseed ;— and then it is marked — Enter four Fai- 
ries. — But, before I dismiss these wights, I should 
be glad to know why in this Scene, and in another 

E. 118, Bottom should address himself to Pease- 
lossom. Cobweb, and Mustardseed, and not say 
one syllable either of, or to, poor Moth. 
P. 104. And forth my J/mwocA: comes. 
This word I can neither trace, nor account for. 
P. 105. And at our Stamp here. 

I am afraid, this is corrupt ; I own, 1 do^not nn^ 
derstand it. Perhaps, — Ai^d at our stump here — 
pointing to the stump of some tree^ over which the 
frighted rusticks fell. 

P. 1 10. Two of the first Zt/v, Coats in HerakJiy, 

Due but to one, and crowned but wilhi one 
crest. 

Our mo|dern Editors have an admirable trick of 
passing over unintelligible nonsense wad fiMfrwimg 
they comprehend it. — What id^ could Mr. rope 
have of—" Two of the tirst Life T— I believe, I may 
venture to give you an emendation of this passage, 
that you will readily acquiesce in. 

Two of the first, like Coats in Heraldry, 
Due but to One. 
Ot^, two, &c. of the first, second, &c. afe terms 
peculiar in Heraldry to distinguish the Quartering 
of Coats. So in Ben Jonson's Staple of News, 
Act 4> Sc. 4. 

He 



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234 IUJUSTRAT10V8 OF LITERATURE. 



He bears, 



111 a field Azure, a Sun proper, beamy, 
Twelve of the Second. 

And again. 

She bears (an't please you,) Argent, three leeks 

Vert, 
In canton Or, and tassell'd of the First, 

P. 111. Thou canst compel, no more than she entreat. 
Thy threats have no more strength, than her 
weak praise. 

Sure, the sense and opposition of terms, aimed at 
in both lines, require that we should read-— her 
weak prayers. 
. P. 113. You MinirmiSy of hind'ring knotgrass made. 

This is a little out of my reach. Is Minimus any 
ways a term of art ? I cannot think Shakespeare so 
rude in Grammar as to call a woman Minimus. 

P. 115. They wilfully exile themselves. 

I have a suspicion it should be exitd; — and 
please to consider whether Oberon's Speech should 
not more naturally begin at this couplet. 

P. 120. Dian's Bud, or Cupid*s Flow'r 

Hath such force and blessed power. 
Ober6n here is disenchanting his Queen, but this 
was not to be done with Cupid's Flower, which, in 
p. 90, he calls Love in Idleness, the juice of which 
was to cause a doating passion for the object first 
seen ; and he says in the same page, he must take 
the charm off with another herb, which we may ima- 
gine is Dian's Bud. Should we not read, think you : 
Dian's Bud o'*er Cupid's Flow'r 
Hath 

Ibid. Titania, musick eall, and strike more dead 

Than common sleep. Of all these^n^ the sense. 
This, I am afraid, is corrupt both in the text and 
the pointing. Would musick, that was to strike 
them into a deeper sleep than ordinary, contribute 
to Jiney or refine their senses ? May we not rather 
think this was our Poet's true reading ? 

Titania, 



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.THEOBALD AKD WARBURTON. 235 

Titania,- Masick call ; and strike more dead 
Than common sleep of all these Jive tbe sense. 

i. €. of Demetrius, Lysander, Hermia, Helena, 
and Bottom, who all lay asleep upon the stage. 

P. 121. Then, my Queen, in silence 5a(/. 

Why sad ? Fairies, as we imagine, are pleased to 
trip after the night's shade. For that reason, and 
for bettering the rhyme a little, 1 am willing to 
think it should be — in sWence Jade, i.e. vanish; in 
which sense our Poet perpetually employs this word. 

P. 121. I was with Hercules and Cadmus once. 
When in a wood of Crete. 

Does not the Poet forget the truth of fable a little 
here? Hippolita was just brought into the country 
of the Amazons by Theseus, and how could she 
have been in Crete with Hercules and Cadmus ? 

Ibid. They bay'd the Bear. 

Should it not be Boar ? The Erymathian Boar, 
you know, is famous among the Herculean Labours. 
. I imagined this letter, dear Sir, might have run 
through the Midsummer Night's Drfeam; but I have 
a full-page for you still behind, which I propose to 
trouble you with by the very next post; and I shall 
make out the remainder of my Letter in desiring your 
judgment on some occasional passages, that either 
stick with me, or that I have ventured to tamper 
with. Believe me, with a true zeal and respect, 
Sir, your most obliged humble servant, 

L. Theobald. 



LETTER IX. 
To the Rev, Mr^ Warburton. 

Dear Sir, fVy art's Court, May 2Tj 1729. 
According to the proposition in my last, I here 
proceed to trouble you with the remainder of my 
observations (hi Micbummer Night's Dream; and 
then will fill tip the measure of my letter with some 
f. [ random 



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S3^ ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

random enqoiries, on which I much want your inge- 
nious assistance and judgment. 

P. 122. Thes, Good-morrow, Friends; Saint Valen- 
tine is past. 

I wonder Mr. Pope did not substitute here some 
modem reading, to cure this signal anachronism : 
and yet, if 1 sliould think fit to take notice of it, I 
doubt not but he will say, " it might have slept but 
for this Great Restorer r — though I shall make no 
scruple to give it as my opinion, that our Poet was 
as well aware, as we are now, that Theseus might 
be a little earlier in time than St. Valentine. 

P. 124. It shall be callM Bottom's Dream, because 
it hath no Bottom. 

Bai Jonson, and Beaumont and Fletcher (as I 
shall have occasion to observe) have frequent girds 
at passages in our Author ; and I am in doubt whe- 
ther BeaunH>nt towards the conclusion of the Beg^ 
gar*8 Bush is not flurting at this place in our Poet : 

We have a course ; 

The Spirit of Bottom is grown bottomless. 

There is no such character as Bottom in the Beg^ 
gar*s Bush ; so that, unless some mystery in cant-la»- 
guage lie hid under the expression, I cannot imaging 
what it can allude to, if not a raillery on the passage 
before u$. But, perhaps, you may give me better ligM. 

Ibid. And I will sing it in the latter end of a play 
before the Duke : perad venture, to make it 
the more gracious, I shall sing it cU her deadi. 
At her death! — At whose? In all Bottom's 
speech there is not the least mention of any she-crea- 
ture, to whom this relative can be coupled. I make 
not the least scruple but Bottom, for the sake of a 
jest, and to render his voluntar^y as we may call it, 
the more gracious and extraordinary^ said, 

— 1 shall BiDg it irfter death. 

He, you know, as Pyramw, is killed upon the 
scene ; and so might prmaim to riae agam at the 

conclusion 



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THEOBALD AMD WAKBURTON. 337 

conclusion of the interlude, and give the Duke his 
Dream by way of song. If this conjecture be right, 
the source of the corruption is very obvious. "The 
f in after being sunk by the vulgar pronunciation, 
the- copyist might write it from the sound — dter ; 
which the wise £ditors not understanding, concluded 
two words were falsely got together,, so splitting 
them, and clapping in an k produced the present 
reading — at her. 

P. 125. You must say Paragon ; a Paramour it (God 
bless us !) a thing of naught. 

I suspect it should be, 

■ a thing of naught, 

i. e. a naughty thing, little better than downright 
bawdy. So Ophelia to Hamlet, when he talks a 
little grossly to her, says, 

YouVe naughty you're naughty my Lord. 

Ibid. For the short and the long is, our play tspr^* 
/erred. 

The Poet could not forget himself so much, as to 
make this blunder. It is plain, till p. li}8, Theseus 
had not made choice of any play, and then fixes an 
I^ramus. I have therefore suspected, that the 
change of a single letter is requisite here, to aet mat- 
ters right : 

Our Play is proffered. 

i. e. put into the catalogue of such out of which 
the Duke was to chuse ; unless we may allow that 
pr^erred here will signify, put up among the reat, 
for the Duke*s liking ; as we say, " prefer a petition," 
Le. lodge one in order to get an answer to it. 

And so we come to the end of the Fourth Act : 
but here. Sir, I would beg you to examine one 
point for me. It seems very probable to me that the 
fifth Act should begin at the fourth Scene of the 
fourth Act: or else that a change of the Scenery 
should be there marked, from the Wood to Athens. 

My 



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238 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

My reasons are these : Bottom wakes in the wood, 
and, finding he was left by his fellow comedians, 
seems to have no farther business therei — Quince, 
Flute, Snout, and Starveling, had been horribly 
frighted out of the wood; and they should hardly 
venture back thither in quest of their companion : — 
Besides, if they did venture to come back again, 
their first speech is very absurd and improper ; and 
rather seems to imply, they were at home in ex- 
pectation of his return. — And again, unless Bottom 
was come to Athens, how could he tell them any 
news of their interlude being proffered, or pre- 
ferred ; — I think my suspicions have some weight ; 
and I am more sure you will be able to clear them 
up to me. 

P. 126. And grows to something of great constancy. 
Does not constancy here mean consistency ? Or 
how otherwise may we explain this expression ? 
P. 127. There is a brief how many sports are rife. 
One of the old Quartos which I have, printed in 
1600, reads, " how many sports are ripeT and so I 
think we ought to correct, it ; t. e. here is the list 
of all the entertainments that are (ripe or) ready to 
be performed before your Grace. I do not see that 
W/e will in any kind answer this sense. 
P. 129. lE^niex Philomon. 

This is a character never heard of till this instant, 
and certainly we must correct it — Enter Philostrate; 
who, as you may observe, in the very preceding 
page, is sent out by Theseus to introduce the players, 
and then returns to tell him the prologue is ready. 

Ibid. Our true intent is all for your delight, 

We are not here that you should here repent you, 
The Actors are at hand. 

Considering that the whole glee of this prologue 
lies in the gross and ignorant Prolocutor making flat 
nonsense of it, by making tlie rests all at false places, 

I can 



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;} 



THEOBALD AND WARBURTQN. 239 

I can but wonder that Mr. Pope did not see the 
pointing should be thus regulated : 

Our true intent is: — All for your delight 
We are not here : — that you sViould here repent you, 
The actors are at hand. 

P. 1 30. This grizly beast, which Lion hight by name. 

All the rest of this speech is in alternate rhyme; 
but no rhyme remains to name: we must therefore 
either conclude that an intermediate line is lost here; 
or else I suspect an accidental, transposition in the 
words, which, set right, may restore it to a triplet 

This grizly Beast, which by name Lion hight, 

■ coming first by night 

■ ■ or rather did aflFright 

P. 130. That I, one Flute by name, present a Wall. 

Here is a small mistake here, that neither saga- 
city, nor collation with the old copies, could direct 
Mr. Pope to set right. It is plain,* from p. 83, 
that Flute played Thisbe. Indeed both the old 
Quartos, in l6oo, propagate this error ; but the first 
and second Editions in Folio read^ as it surely 
ought to be : 

That I, one Snout by name. — — 

P. 132. Here come two noble beasts in, a Man and 
a Lioji,, 

I do not think the jest here is either complete, or 
right. It is differently pointed in several of the old 
copies, which, I suspect, may lead us to the true 
reading: viz. 

Here come two noble beasts, in a Man and a Lion. 

But here the text is wrong ; immediately, upon 
Theseus saying this,, enter Lion and Moonshine* — 
I can therefore scarce doubt but our Author wrote : 

Here come two noble beasts, in a Moon and a Lion. 
the one having a crescent and lanthorn before him 
and representing the man in the Moon; the other 
in a Lion's hide. 

P. 135. 



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t40 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

P. 135. Dcm. And ^ui the rwans : videlicet. 

Surely, our Poet wrote : 

And thus she 9?UMinj, &c. 

All Thisbe's subsequent speech being a lamenta- 
tion for Pyramus ; and besides, it is said just above : 
Here she comes, and her Passion ends the play. 

Which, by the way, I think should be spoken by 
Philostrate, and not by Theseus ; for the former, 
as we find by p. 1 38, had seen the interlude rehearsed, 
and consequently knew how it ended. 

P. 135. These lily Zips^ this cherry nose^ &c« 

All Thisbe*8 lamentation runt in metre and ver* 
sification. 

The first and second rhyme. 

The third rhymes to the sixth. 

The fourth and fifth rhyme. 

The sixth rhymes to the third. 

But this versification is, in the single instance 
here quoted, transgressed. There must be therefore, 
I imagine, a small innovation, by some accident or 
other, upon the text. I would restore it thus : 
These lily Btows, 
This cherry nose, &c. 

Now black brows being a beauty, lily brows are 
as ridiculous as a cherry nose, green eyes, or cow- 
slip cheeks. 

Ibid. Lay them in gore, &c. 

Would it not be better : 

Lave them in gore, &c. 

Here, Sir, I conclude this part of my task, and 
have room left to trouble you but with very few 
queries farther at present. But I will continue my 
rule, that no paper shall be lost. 

Merry Wives, p. 212 : 

Shall. The Luce is the fresh fish ; the salt fish is 
an old Coat. 

lliis has been a most inveterate pssage to me, 
and so still continues. I propound it to )^u as a 

riddle, 



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THEOBALD AlfB WAEBUETON. S4l 

riddle^ and I wish most fervently you may have the 
lack to solve it ; to which end too, I will gladly com- 
municate such hints, if they may possibly give any 
light. Justice Shallow, in this Play, is supposed to 
be Sir Thomas Lucy^ who persecuted Shakespeare for 
deer-stealing; The Lucys, as we find by Dugdale*8 
Warwickshire, quartered 12 fishes called Luces in 
their arms; and of Luces, Gesner tells us, there is a 
marine and a fresh-water species. I was thinking 
that if in Heraldry the fresn-water Luce might sig- 
nify a younger branch, and the sea Luce a head or a 
fitmily, and Falstaff were to say this to Shallow, 
it might carry a good deal of concealed satire; 
but then, as Sir Hugh interposes his dialogue, and 
as there is no reply made to this supposed satire, I 
am obliged to disapprove my own conjecture. 

I can have room but for one more; and that shall 
be out of Haihlet, p. 228 : 

Haste me to know, that T with wings as swift 
As Meditation^ or the Thoughts of Love, &c. 

Here is either, I suspect, a most barbarous tauto- 
logy, or a great mistake in terms. Thought^ in* 
deed, 18 swift ; but Meditation is not so. That is, I 
take it, a deliberate action of the soul, by which 
we wei^h and ponder our first simple ideas, and sp 
form a judgment upon them. 

I imagine our Author wrote. 

As Mediation^ or the Thoughts of Love. 

So a tautology will be quite removed ; and a beau^ 
ty^ in my poor opinion, added to the thought 

1 wish the paper would further comply with my 
inclination: but it shall, in yielding me the scope 
to confess myself, dear Sir, 

Your most sincerely obliged humble servant, 

LfW. Theobald. 

VOL, U. R LKfTBR 



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S4S illubulations of umArvMM. 



LETTER X., 

To Mr. Warburton, at Newark. 

Dbar Sir, Thursday^ St9 May, 1729. 

I have received the pleasure of your last, and 
very zealously embrace the encouragement you 



!;ive me of corresponding ; which I shall always be 
bnd of continuing, so long as you indulge me ii 
and I am capable of desiring self-improvement. 



\ 



entirely come into your thoughts, that this episto^ 
lary intercourse should be kept up with all the n^- 
ligence of conversation ; a studira elegance of style 
would here be afTectation, and an impediment in its 
consequence. Therefore, to proceed in your own 
method, I shall first trouble you with my thoughts 
on your observations, and then subjoin my own 
fresh enquiries. 

As to your explanation of the Basilisco-likej there 
can be no dispute but it is very ingenious. I am 
only afraid, as you say on another of mine, lest it 
should be thought too refined. It carries an allu^ 
sion in a single ivord^ without the thought being 
any further prosecuted ; consequently must be very 
dark to the person spoken tOy as well as to the whole 
audience. 

The difiiculty of Limoges and Austria is suffici*^ 
ently cleared up to me. 

And I am no less indebted for your reconciling me 
to three-man Songmen^ as it now stands in our 
Author. It was my own thought once, that it 
meant one that could sing all the three parts in any 
musical composition ; but I was. staggered in ihia by 
Mr. Galliard's opinion, that the word could hardly 
bear that idea: yet I am convinced it may, in spite 
of his technical judgment. 

And now to come to some short remarks upon the 
new passages transmitted to me. * 

Tempest^ 



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tVEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 943 

Tempest, p. 6 : 

If you can command these elements to nleBce^ and 
work the Peace of the present, we wiH not hand, &c. 

You propose — of the Prease ; but Preasfy or 
Press, I am afraid, signifies only a Crowd, not a 
Tumult — ^I have all along read and understood the 
passage thus : 

' the peace o* the present, 

t. e. on the Present. That is, if you can coiomand 
silence, and appease these elements on the instant^ 
at a word^s speaking, what need we be at such la- 
bour in working a ship ? 
We split, we split, &c. 

These two lines, 1 conceive, were designed to be 
six>ken as by the ship's crew, who make a confused 
clamour within, on their apprehensions of sinking. 
Prosp, Master of a/w// poor Cell. 

These two, 1 confess, taken as adjectives, have 
such a contrariety in their sense, that the expression 
approaches very near to a blunder. But I have 
always understood the first of them to be adverbially 
coupled to the other with an hyphen ; 

• Master of a full-poor* Cell. 

As to the next. 

Like one who having into Truth, &c. 
here you propose to substitute — injured Truth — ai 
a cure for the sense. I will tell you how I have 
read and conceived it; and then submit it to you^ 
whether there needs any recourse to that change: 
-— Like one 

Who having into Truth, by telling 't oft, 

Made such a Sinner of his Memory, 

To credit his own Lie. 

t. e. says Prospero, 

My brother has behaved so like a common Liar 
that tells bis false stones so often over, till he de- 

* F^rpauperis, perexigus Cdluls. And the French, I re* 
member, express themselves in the very same manner, fort-d^ 
vudade, foriUeri^&c, 

a 2 ceives 



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t44 ILLUSTRATIONS Of LttMATUftE. 

ceires even hb own memory^ and credits kts own 
Lie into a Truth ; 

that is, believes his own Lie to be true ; as Antonio 

acted the outward face and deputation of power so 

long, till he began to imagine himself the real Duke. 

Our Hint of Woe 

which you would correct to-^Stint. But we ought, 
perhaps^ to remember, that, in many passages, our 
Author uses Hinty for Argtment^ Theme j CuCj &c.; 
and then, perhaps, a change may not be so neces^ 
sary. 

I very readily embrace vour — antient Moral for 
Morsel: it carries probability, and heightens the. 
Wit. — But now to. 

Each Putter-out of Jive for one, 

I have not been without a conjecture some- 
thing like yours here. You say, it seems to level 
at money advanced and contributed at 30 per cenL 
for promotion of discoveries in the West Indies, 
But then should not the text be, 

Each Putter-out of owr for Jive ? 

Morison, I remember, in his Travels, tells us, he 

Eut money into the hands of friends before both 
is expeditions, to receive so much more if he lived 
to return. And he speaks of this method as of a 
thing usually done by Travellers of that tinoe. 

But, if you will give me leave, I will subjoin my 
construction of what I really think our Author 
meant by this passage. 

Each Putter-out of five for one, &e. 
i. e. each Voyager, or Traveller. 

(So in Two Gentlemen of Verona, p. 150. 

Put forth their Sons to seek Preferment out) 

And his context seems to be this: — When we 

were boys, who would believe there were dewlapt 

Mountaineers, or men with their heads in their 

breasts^ which now every ^ve Travellers, that put 

out. 



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THVOBAtD AHD WAEBURTON* $45 

out, bring us vouchers of, for one that pretends to 
dispute the veracity ? — And it is not improbable, I 
think, that our Author here might be paying either 
an oblique compliment, or throwing out a sarcasm, 
on Sir Walter Raleigh, who in his Travels (which 
were printed along with Hackluyf s Voyages in the 
year l6oo) tells us of a nation, called lEwaipanons^ 
(bless us from the hard name !) whose head^ appear 
not above their shoulders : ^' which (as our Traveller 
very gravely subjoins) though it may he thought a 
merejahley yet for mine own part I am resolved it 
is true, because every Child in the Provinces of Ar- 
camaia and Canuri affirm the same'' 

This is my conjecture of the passage ; which is in 
the balance, till it meets your sanction, or refutation. 



Grind their joints 



With dry convulsions, 
I like very well the substitution of your epithet—^ 
tfiry convulsions. I must own, I cannot tell physi- 
cally, whether convulsions ever do arise from any 
dry cause ; if they do, there seems some consonance 
of idea preserved in dry and grind. Here the 
Doctors must come in to our aid. 

I shall be very impatient for your explanation of 
the Scene you mention in Lear, if you can afford 
me a Letter extra upon that subject* 

But now, dear Sir, it is time I should think of 
your dismission for the present ; which shall be, after 
subjoining my list of those places that are dark to 
me in the Tempest. 

P. 10. To trash for overtopping. 

Does trash, by any county dialect, signify &p, 
cutoff? 

P. 12. Wl^en I have decked the sea. 

Does he mean " shed tears into the sea from the 
deck of the ship,** or what else ? 

P. 18. 



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24^ ILLU8TRAT10fl6 OF LITKRATURE. 

P. 13. Now I arise : Sit still. 
I have conjectured — NoWy Ariel: — calling to 
his Spirit^ meaning he is ready for him, as his daugh* 
ter is going to sleep. 

P. 15. Prosp. What is the time o'tb' day ? 
Ari, Past the mid season. 
Prosp, At least two glasses: the time. 
As Prospero, by his asking what it was o'clock, 
seems evidently not to know ; methinks the division 
of these speeches ifs wrong. I would digest them : 
Prosp, What is the time o'th' day ? 

^ri, Past the mid season 

At lease two glasses. 
Prosp, The time twixt, &c. 

P. 19. Mir. Abhorred Slave! &c. 
Does not this speech seem more properly to belong 
to Prospero ? 

P. 22. And his brave Son. 

Sure this is a forgetfulness of our Poet, Nobody 
was lost in the wreck; that is manifest from several 
passages : and yet we have no such character in the 
jDramatis Personse as the Duke of Milan's Son. 

p. 32. Keep in Tunis, 

And let Sebastian wake. 

I have not the least glimmering of conception why 
this is said, or how it depends on the rest. 

Ibid. Bandied be they and melt, 
savours of the obscure. 

P. 35. Like a foul Bumbard. 

Does he mean a Cup so called, or a navigabk 
Vessel ? I remember again in Henry VIII. p. 94, 
And here you lie baiting of Bombards, when ye 
should do service. 
t e. as I presume, tipling. And, as Bombard is 
here used, I think there is a vehicle in the Univer- 
sity, which they call " a Gun of Ale." 

P. 37. I will not take too much for him. 

Does he mean, ^* I should think no price that 
was oflfered me too much?** 

P. SS. 



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THBOBAtD AND WARBURTON. 347 

P. 38. I afraid of bim? 

He is not charged with any such fear. 

P. 39. Young Scameis. 

I think we have found out this^ but shall be glad 
of your opinion. 

P. 42. No woman's face remember. ' ■ 

Has not Miranda forgot herself a little } In the 
first Act^ p. g. she remembers to have had four or 
five women attendants. 

P. 49. Praise in departing. 

What does this mean ? Suspend your commenda- 
tions, till you havemorecause from tne consequences. 

P. 53. Go bring tbe Rabble. 

Does he mean, the Rabble of menial Spirits under 
direction? for Ariel is not yet sent to bring Stephano, 
Trinculo, Caliban, &c. 

P. 54. A Corollary. 

Does this ever signify a Surplus ? 

P. 59. Now, Jerkin, you are like to lose your Hair. 

Does this allude to its being torn down from an 
hair-line, when Stephen steals it ? 

P. 63. TbouVt pincht for't now. 

I suspect the pointing wrong here; and wouM 
change it : 
ThouVt pincht for't now, Sebastian, flesh and blood. 

As in Lear, p. 445- 
The good-jers shall devour them, flesh and/ell, 
Ete they shall make us weep. 

Ibid. Where the Beesucks, there suck L 

Ariel, as a refined spiritual essence, had no occa* 
sion for food.— Perhaps, '' there lurk V The two 
subsequent verses seem to countenance this, 

P. 65. Of whose soft grace. 

I have imagined the context might better bear, erf 
whoee^otigA/ grace, t. e. *^ though you have not sought 
her aid, 1 have, and found it** 

P. .66. Playing at chess. 

May it not reasonably be asked^ where tbey got 

their chess-board? 

P. 68. 



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24fi ILLUSTEATlONft OF LITfiRATUltft. 

P. 68. at pickt leisure 

(which iball be shortly) ftingie Til — 

I think it should rather be thus : 

■ at pickt leisure 
- (which shall be shortly singled) PU — 
P. 69. Liquor that hath gilded them 

Of their understanding. 
Does he mean, that has made them ruddy, or 
gelded them of their understanding? 

And now, dear Sir, you see I have but bare 
room to subscribe myself your most obliged and 
affectionate friend. Lew. Theobald* 

LETTER XL 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, fFyan's Courts Oct. 25, 1729* 
I received yours of the 23d instant, and em- 
brace the favour with the sincerest pleasure ima- 
ginable. The cessation of my correspondence was 
mdeed occasioned by the hope of seeing you in 
town, from the letter which you mention ; and by 
the intervention of the summer months, which have 
obliged me to be too much a flyer: but I am now 
pitched on my own ground again, and shall settle. 
A new Edition of the Dunciad has for some weeks 
been threatened; but the sword is yet only kept over 
our heads. — I am o^ much sutyrized as you^ at the 
silence of some whom we take to be injured. For 
myself, you know, I have pur|x>sed to reply only in 
Shakespeare. — ^And let that name, like a charm, 
bring me back to business. As it would ask too 
deep a research into my papers, for the present 
DOst, to take up the affair methodioally as we left it; 
be pleased to let me begin with a voluntary, and 
propose a single doubt to you, with a conjecture 
upon it, the proof of which, I imagine, will take 
up the whole limits of this Epistle. 

Taming 



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THEOBALD ADD WARfiURTON. ' ^49 

Taming of the Shrew, p. 8 : 
My Lord, we must have a Sboulder of Mutton for 
a Property, and a little Vinegar to make our Devil roar. 

Our Poet, I think, seems to forget himself. Mut- 
ton, indeed, is used in the Interlude ; which, being 
over-roasted, Petruchio throws from the table. But 
then there is no Devil in the Drama. Or, if there 
were, or that Shakespeare designed a fling at the 
Old Plays, in which, as we shall see, Devils were 
so frequent, yet what can he allude to, by 

Vinegar to make a Devil roar ? 
I confess I am at a fault ; and, if I should run 
upon the wrong scent, 1 cannot help it. We'll start 
some game, if we miss that in chace. I would 
scarce venture to trust any body but Mr. Warbur- 
ton with the conjecture that I am going to make ; 
bteause it is a little peremptory, and only depends 
on the stress. of parallel passages for its authority. 
Granting our Poet only intended a Spear^ as I 
hinted, might he not have wrote, 

and a little wooden dagger to make our Devil roar? 

The difference of wooden dagger and vinegar, 
seeras at first glance a little startling. But then, if 
v^e may call pronunciation into our aid, {Fin, and 
Wooctn ; — e^ar, and dagger) the difference is not 
so considerable. And again, may not error have 
arisen from contraction in the written copies and the 
current hand of those times, and so vfn (wooden) 
been mistaken for vin, and d^gar (dagger) for egar? 
Ne sasvi^ magne Sacerdos^ may I not fairly say ? 
And yet take my parallel authorities ; and you may 
wish, perhaps, 1 had been right, though you should 
be forced to determine against me. — In the first 
place I am to remind you, that the Old Plays (espe* 
cially in the times of Popery, whilst spirits, and 
witchcraft, and exorcising, held their own) are ge- 
nerally furnished with the character of a Devil, and 
Buffoon, or arch fool (called Vice), who was equip- 
ped with a long coat, a cap and asses ears, and a 
lath-dagger ; and who used to skip on the DeviPs 

back, 



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S50 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITBHATURE. 

back, and lay on him with a vengeance, ddcaptan^ 
dum populum^ and set a certain quantity of barren 
spectators on the grin with his Arlequinades*. 

Proofs: I shall begin with a quotation or two from 
your own pamphlet of " Popish Impostures ;** (whick 
I have, as you ordered, dehvered to our Friend Con- 
canen.) 

I. It was a pretty part in the old Church Plays, 
when the nimhle Fice was to skip nimbly up like a 
jack-an apes into the DeviPs neck, an I ride the 
Devil a cockhorse, and belabour him with his Woodm 
Dagger till he made him roari whereat the people 
would lauc^h, to see the Devil so Vice-baunted. 

Her Devils, be sure, be some of those old Vice- 
haunted, cdsheer*d, wooden- beaten Devils, that were 
wont to frequent the stages, &c. who are so scared 
with the idea of a Fice and a dagger, as they durst 
never since look a paper- Vice in the face. 

Cap. 19, p. 114, 5. 
Again, 

This was well roared of a young Devil, for a 
Preeludium to the Play. Cap. 14, p. 72. 
But to fetch some testimonies from the Stage itself: 

II. Ben Jonson's Staple of News, p. 165, 8vol 
There was no Play without a Fool and a Devil itPt, 

He would carry away the Fice on his back, quick 
to Hell, &c. 

III. And afterwards, p. 187: 

But here is never a Friend to carry him away. 
Besides, he has never a Wooden Dagger J Vd not 

* Dr Warburton, in his own Edition, had not foi^tten these 
ideas. '' When the acting the mysteries of tlie Old and New Tes- 
tament was in vogue, at the representation of the mysteiy of the 
Passion, Judas and the Devil made a part. And the Devil, 
wherever he came, was always to sufifer some disgrace, to make 
the people laugh : as here, the buffoonery was to apply the gall 
and vinegar to make him roar. And tlie Passion being that, of 
all the mysteries, which was most frequently represented, vinegar 
became at length the standing implement to torment the Devil; 
and was used tor this purpose even after the mysteries ceased, 
and the moralities came in vogue; where the Devil continued to 
have a considerable part. The mention of it here, was to ridi- 
cule so absurd a circumstance in these oki iarces.*' 

give 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON* 351 

^ive a rush for a Vice that has not a wooden dagger, 
to snap at every body he meets. 

IV. Ben Jonson*8 Devil 's an Ass, p. 254, 8vo, 
Inif. What is he calls upon me, and would seem to 

lack a Vice ? 
Ere his words be half spoken, I am with him in 

a trice. 
Here, there, and every where, as the cat is with 

the mice : 
True, vetus Iniquitas. Lack'st thou cards, 

friends, or dice? 
I will teach thee cheat, child, to cog, lie, and 

swagger, 
And ever and anon to be drawing forth thy 

Dagger. 

V. And again, p. 2^6 : 

When ev*ry great man had his ^tic^ stand by him. 
In bis long coat, shaking his wooden dagger. 

And now to our own Author, who will, at least, 
I conceive, be explained in these testimonies. 

VI. King Henry V. p. 448 : 

Bardolph and Nimhad ten times more valour than 
- this roaring Devil i'th' old Play, every one may pare 
his nails with a xvooden dagger, 

VII. And Twelfth Night, p. 241 : 
I am gone. Sir; and anon, Sir, 

ril be with you again ; 
In a trice, like to the old Vice^ 

Your need to sustain. 
Who, with Dagger of Lath^ in his rage and his 
wrath. 

Cries, ah ha ! to the Devil^ 

Like a mad lad, pare thy nails. Dad, &c. 

And, next, give me leave to throw in a passage, 
that, 1 flatter myself, has never yet been understood 
by common Readers, nor will be but by the aid of 
these testimonies. 

VIII. 2 Henry IV. p. 328, where Palstaff is 
characterizing Justice Shallow : 

And 



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i5t ILLUStRATIOWS OF LITBRATUICE. 

And now is this Vice^s Dagger become « Squire, 
and talks as familiarly of John of Gaunt, tic. 
< i. e« Shallow was as impertinent a machine, aa the 
wooden dagger in the hand of a common Buffoon. 

IX. And so in Hamlet, p. 377 : 

A Vice of Kings. 

I have a great suspicion the Poet does not mean 

barely a vicious, execrable King ; but one as much 

the disgrace and mockefy of the kingly rank, as the 

Vice, or Buffoon, was of'^any character he supported. 

X. And may I venture to suspect that another 
passage (the reading of which has been justly sus- 
pected, and ii^niously attempted to be amended) 
may admit an explication and allowance of being ge- 
nuine, from the above quotations ? 

Richard III. p. S41 : 

Thus, like tbe formal Vice, Iniquity, 
I moralize two meanings in one word. 
It is not impossible but ytce may not be the qua- 
lity, but person here ; the Vice, or Buffoon, per- 
sonating iniquity; and then a formality of behaviour 
waQ essentially a necessary disguise. In Ben Jon- 
son's Devil *s an Ass, for example, Iniquity is the 
very Vice that wants employment on earth. And 
to this let me add, that, when the Stage increased in 
refinements, the Buffoon's droll characters were 
changed into personated qualities, such as Iniquity, 
Usury, Vanity, Prodigality, &c. of which, perhaps, 
this speech in Ben Jonson's Staple of News, p. 187, 
may be some con6rmation : 

That was the old way, gossip, when Iniquity 
came in like hocus-pocus, in a jugler^s jerkin, 
with false skirts, like the Knave of Clubs. But 
now thev areattirM like men and women o*the time, 
tbe Vices male and female. Prodigality like a 
young Heir, and bis mistress Money prankt up like 
a prime lady, &c. 
Sed tar^x^, as the grave Dons say. -^ I have laid 
myself open to you without reseirve, and willingly 

submit 



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THBOBALD AHD WARBUATON. S5| 

ittbtnit to your deteraiinatioD, whether I have not 
put in for the Asses Ears, and a slash of the 
Wooden Dagger into the bargain. But, dear Sir, 
in the Appendix of your next, give me your con* 
ception of this odd passage inXroilus, p: 351, for I 
want a voucher to my own judgment of it : 

Here's Ag^amemnoo, an booest fellow enough, 
and one that loves quails, but be balb not so mwk 
brain as ear-wax. 

Your most faithfully obliged humble servant, 

Lew. Th£obau>. 



LETTER XII. 
To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, ff^y art's Court, Nov. 6, 17^. 
I have received the pleasure of yours of the 3d in- 
stant, which I ardently expected two posts before. 
I entirely agree with you in keeping our method of 
going through with the Plays, in order to which 
rule I will begin to accommodate myself on Satur- 
day next) : not that I may the sooner get rid of a 
correspondence which I can never account trouble* 
some ; but that I may the sooner assist myself with 
your ingenious remarks. As to your complaint of 
my silence with regard to the observations you favour 
me with, I beg you to excuse me. It has been 
partly because 1 generally come into your remarks ; 
and, if in any I remain doubtful, I had determined, 
when we had quite run through, by way of post- 
script, to communicate my objections, and be more 
fully informed. Did I enter upon that part at this 
juncture, I am afraid it woula too much interrupt 
our progress. As to Tonsofis Greek Plutarchy I 
have yet seen no advertisement of it, nor do I believe 
it is published. I thank you for the friendly hint 

concerning 



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lb54 ILtUSTllATtOKS Of LrtERATORE. 

concerning my subscription. I shall be very proud 
of the encouragement of any friends, that think fit, 
when I am published. Fou may be sure I should 
be very slad,far many reasons, it were quite out of 
fni/ hands; and I have some too^ why I am not wiUn 
ins^ to precipitate. I have obtained the honour of 
HTs Royal Highne^s*8 name now lately : and my 
Lady Delawarr has befriended me with such a list of 
Quality as were well worth waiting for. I know 
you will not be displeased, if I should tell you in 
your ear, perhaps 1 may venture to join the Text to 
my Remarks. But of that more a little time hence. 

Now to a little business enpassant. I am mightily 
struck with the happiness of your guess about old 
FEAST Antients, and hope much it will stand of au- 
thority. — As to Agamemnon and his quailsy you 
imagine, you say, it may be a contraction of quar- 
rels, or a corruption from squalls. I own I have 
conceived a different notion of the Poet's phrase^ 
which I shall venture to submit to you. Thersites, 
you know, is all through the Play as scurrilous and 
scandalous in his observations upon the Greeks as 
one could wish. He abuses Menelaus for a stupid 
cuckold ; and with the same freedom^ I suspect, he 
means, by saying the brother is a great lover of 
quailsy that he is a notable whoremaster, or, as we 
nave it in another vulgar idiom, a mutton-monger. 

Apropos, in the Two Gentlemen of Verona (the 
Play upon which I am next to advance my queries), 
In that ridiculous scene betwixt Proteus and Speed, 
we meet with this expression : 

Ay, Sir ; I, a lost mutton, gave your Letter to 
her, a lac*d mutton. 

Cotgrave, who has given us, I think, the best an- 
tique French Dictionary, explains the laced mutton 
by, une garse, putain,Jille aejoye; so that mutton 
has been a metaphdr of old standing for that game. 
But what as to quails ? The facetious Rabelais, in 

the 



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THBOBALD A»D WARBURTON. <5| 

thenrologoetothe4th book, when speakingof Ca///e^ 
cmph4es mlgnonnement chantanSy '^ coifed quails 
singing wantonly ;" Motteux, I find, has translated 
this, '' coated quails and laced mutton waggishly sing* 
ing.*" Again, honest Cotgrave expounds cailkcoiff^e^ 
a woman. Here is a little authority for my suspi- 
cion of Shakespeare's meaning ; and I can throw ia 
one testimony from a contemporary Poet with him, 
by whom quail is metaphorically used for a girl of 
the game. Ford, in his Love's Sacrifice, brings in 
a debauch^ thus muttering against a superannuated 
mistress: ^^ By this light, I have toiled more with 
this carrion H£N, than with ten auAiLs, scarce grown 
into their first feathers.** 

S^ quid plura ? I mnst rest it here, as the men 
at ftir say ; and, if the cause want further proof, I 
must e'en submit to the nonsuit. But, to fill up 
the measure of my present epistle, as you ui^ me 
to the liberty of. objecting, 1 will call out an old 
point already canvassed, but in which we have on 
neither side as yet agreed. 

I troubled you, you may remember, with my 
queries and solutions of this passage in King John: 

Knight, knight, good mother, Basilisco like 
Why I am dubb'd. 

You gave me, it is true, a most ingenious expli- 
cation ; which, I think^ I informed you before, I 
thought most elegant, but plus recherche. You 
replied,! remember, "you stood by your explication/ 
And now give me leave to rejoin, that 1 suspect we 
have been both deceived in our notions. I begin 
once more to fancy, that by chance, as Dryden says^ 
•Sp>}x^, the mighty secret 's found. 

In the first place then the passage must be pointed 
jind distinguished, as the first folio edition in some 
measure leads the way: 

Knight, knight, good mother, Basilisco like. 
What ! I am dabb'd ; 

Whether 



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tSff ILLU9T1UTION8 OF UTIUUTUKB. 

Whether our late Editor had any conceit of one 
being dubbed Basilisco-like, or whether he had any 
understanding of thin passage^ I do not pretend to de* 
tenntne: but I think I may venture to say, he did not 
understand it, unless he knew the following piece of 
Stage-history; to the knowledge of which I presume 
that he will have the modesty to plead, Not guilty. 
The truth is, the Bastard^s words carry a concealed 
piece of satire on an old drama that made its ap 
pearance in those times, and was printed in 1599, 
called ^' Soliman and Perseda.*" In this piece there is 
the character of a bragging cowardly knight, called 
Basilisco. Now his character of assumed valour is 
so blown and seen through, that Piston, a Buffoon- 
servant in the Play^ jumps upon his back, and will 
not disengage him, till he makes Basilisco swear 
upon his dudgeon dagger, to the contents, and in 
the terms he dictates to him. 

As you scarce have this Old Play, it is necessary 
to give you a bit of quotation. 

Bos. O I swear, I swear, 
J^^ By the contenu of this blade, 
3as. By the contents of this blade, 
Pist. I the aforesaid Basilisco, 
Bas. I the aforesaid Basilisco, 

Knight, good fellow, knight, knight — 
Pist. Knave, good fellow, knave, knave. 

Now It seems clear to me that our Poet, sneering 
at this Play, makes the Bastard, when Lady Falcon- 
bridge calls him knavey throw off that reproach, by 
humourously laying claim to his new dignity of 
knighthood ; as Basilisco proudly insists on his title 
of knight in the passage above quoted. 

The Play is an extremely ridiculous one ; and I 
suppose exploded with a vengeance in the representa- 
tion^ which might make this circumstance so well 
known, as to become the object of a stage-sarcasm. 

And now. Sir, you have my information — et sub 
judice lis est. 

I agree 



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TSBOBAUI AMD WAEBI71limr» S97 

I agree with you, Cytnbeliiie is a most corrupt 
Play ; and I haw a great number of corrections 
upon it : you say, you have 30 stable ones in store. 
1 wish earnestly 1 could be favoured with them, if 
possible, by next post ; which would in no kind 
break in on my measures, if it does not intrude on 
your conveniency. You bring back to my mind 
the time of a love-correspondence ; and the expecta- 
tion of every fresh LiCtter from you is the joy of a 
mistress to me. But when I am growing wanton it 
is time 1 should break off abruptly, though not 
without confessing myself, as I ought, dear Sir, 
Your most affectionate and obliged humble servant. 

Lew. Theobald. 

P. S. Am r deceived, or may I hint, that I think 
the hand-writing is widened in your last ? 



LETTER XIIL 

To the Rev. Mr. Warbuhton. 

Dear Sir, Wyaris Court ^ Nov. 11, 1729. 

According to promise in my last, I am now pre- 
paring to return into ordei:, which will bring me 
to my inquirenda upon The Two Gentlemen of Ve- 
rona. As this Play neither furnishes a number of 
doubts, nor of corrections, if both together do not 
fill up my sheet, I will beg leaye to keep on with 
part of the Merry Wives. 

p. 1 42. The Degradation. 

Can Mr. Pope pretend^ notwithstanding what 
he says in his Preface, that this degradation is not 
a chasm in tJie context, however poor the matter ? 

Ibid. Kjiy, give me not tbe boots. 

Jf we may believe Cotgrave, this phrase is equi^ 
VBjient to— -don*t sell me a bargain. BaUlerfcnn em 
if^rnci to give oi^e the boots ; to sell him a bargain, 

iroi^ II. s P. 144. 



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itSS iLLusnuTiONs or literatuke. 

p. 144. Indeed a sheep doth often stray. 
Where is Mr. Pope's ear for au, hexameter^ or hb 
diligence in collating ? Both the old Folios read : 
Indeed a sheep doth xtery often stray. 
P. 148. The mean is drown'd with your unruly base. 

Luc. Indeed, I hid the base for Proteus. 
Can hid the base be either true in sense, or in 
language ? Base in the first line, it is plain^ is an 
antithesis to meariy both musical terms ; but as Juli- 

etta is sharp with her , she, I think, turns 

the base in the second line to another sense ; viz. 
that she, indeed, for Proteus' sake endures base, 
scurvy usage. I fancy, therefore, we should read : 
Indeed, I bide the base for Proteus. 

As in Love's Labour Lost, p. 226 : 

AnA bide the penance of each three years day. 

P. 1 50. Put forth their sons to seek preferment out. 

I have not forgot here to insert your ingenious 
hint concerning voyages at that time being in vogue 
for the discovery of the West Indies, &c. ^ut can 
you forgive me if this term, putforthy should for a 
while carry me out of my latitude ? It drives me 
with a full wind back upon this passage in the Tem- 
pest, p. 49 : 

Each putter-out of five for one. 

You have formerly favoured me with your con- 
jectures upon this place ; but, as I have since a little 
improved my discoveries, if you will excuse the di- 
gression, I will copy the note that I have designed 
there by way of explanation : 

[Each putter-out ofjivey Sgc. I freely confess I 
always understood tnis passage thus ; that everv 
Jive travellers (or putters-out) did bring authentick 
confirmation of these strange stories, for one that 
pretended to dispute the truth of them. But two 
learned and ingenious Friends (to whom already in 
my prolegomena I have made general acknowledg- 
ments) have since better instructed me : therefore I 
with pleasure retract my comment. Upon communis 
. , . eating 



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THEOBALD AND WARBtJRTON. 250 

eating my sense of the place to the Rev. Mn War- 
burton, he informed me, that " This was a fine 
piece of concealed satire on the Voyagers of that 
time, who had just discovered a new world ; and, as 
was very natural, grew most extravagant in display- 
ing the wonders of it. That, particularly, by 

Each putter-out of 6ve for one, 
is meant the Adventurers in the Discovery of the 
West Indies, who had for the money they advanced, 
and contributed, twenty per centT 

Dr. Thirlby does not a little assist this explana- 
tion by his concurrence, and a fine, though easy, 
alteration of the text : 

Each putter-out of one for five. 
The Doctor is so modest as to determine nothing 
concerning this reading, though to me it appears as 
clear as the explication is certain ; that it was usual 
in those times for travellers to put out money to re- 
ceive a greater sum if they lived to return ; and, for 
procf, he refers to Morison's Itinerary, part I, 
p. 198, etseq. I cannot make better amends for 
niy own former want of sagacity, or return xxiY 
friends better thanks for the light they have given 
me upon this passage, than by subjoining a testimo- 
ny from a poet contemporary with our Author, 
that will put their explanation past all dispute, as 
well as vouch for that conjectural transposition of the 
text, in which Dr. Thirlby is pleased to be so diffi- 
dent. • See Ben Jonson's Every Man out of his 
Humour, Act. II. Scene 3, in this speech of his 
most singular and vain-glorious Knt. Puntarvolo. 

** I do intend, this year of jubilee coming on, to 
travel : and, because I will not altogether go upon 
expence, I am determined to put forth some five 
thousand pound, to be paid me, five for one, upon 
the return of myself, my wife, and my dog, from the 
Turk's Court in Constantinople. If ail^ or either 
of us miscarry in the journey, 'tis gone ; i/ we be 
iuccessfnl, why, there will he five and twitUtf tbou- 
aand pound to entertain time withal^'' 

8 2 And 



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2G0 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITEItATOltB. 

And quote from the same Play, p. 217 ; and vidfe^ 
pp. 214,254. 

If he was to be paidjft;^ for one, it is obvious, he 
was a putterK)ut of one fov^ve, as 1 think we ought 
to read in our Shakespeare: unless, to save the trans- 
position we should dispense with the change onljr 
of a single Letter, some Readers shoutd prefer thi» 
conjecture : 

Each putter-out on five for one, &c. 

I cannot help observing that Ben Jonson, to 
heighten the ridicule of these prelecting voyagers, 
makes Puntarvolo's wife averse to accompanyii^ 
him: and so he is infbrced to put out his venture oa 
the return of himsetf, his doff, and his cat. It may 
not be amiss, perhaps, to add a short observation on 
the different conduct of both our Poets. Shake^ 
^eare, out of a particular drference to Sir fFalttr 
Aaleighy only sneers these adventurous voyagerf 
ohHqueltf^ and^ as it were^ en passant : The surly 
Ben, who would be tied up by no such scrupulous 
regards, dresses up the fashion in the most glaring 
colours of comic humour, or rather brings down hit 
satire to the level of farcical ridicule.} 

Sed nunc redeo tandhn in viam^ unde discessi. 

P. 151. Attends the Emperor in his royal court. 

Is not this a forgetfulness in our Poet ? Valen- 
tine is with the Duke of Milan at his court But 
then was not this Duke a substitute of the Emperor 
in the Milanese ? 

P. 159. For it is the unkindest tide that erer any man 
tied. 

I do not understand this. Is tide any wliere the 
appellation of a dog? Tj/ke, I know, in Yorkshire,, 
signifies a dog, or cur. And so in Lear, p. 414 > 
Or bob-tail tike, or trundle-tail. 

P. 161. TAur. And how quote you my f<^y ? 
Fal. I quote it in yourjerAm. 

Doe» 



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Does Valentioe simply mean here, in tfi^ ridicu- 
lous fashion of your clothes, or is a conundrum lost 
here, and are we to read ? 

I quote it in your jerking^ 
f. e. in your pert and foolish vein of flirting at me. 
But the matter is very trivial. 

P. J 65. nur. Maiiam, my Lord your Father would 

speak with yoa. 
How does Thurio know this r I suspect rather a 
^vant should come in and say it, and that it is not 
quoted in the old books. 

P. 168, To leave qniy Julia, shall 1 be, &c. 
This, in the first folio Edition, stands rightly 
pointed, thus : 

To leave ray Julia, shall I be forsworn ; 
To love fair Silvia, shall I be forsworn ; 
To wrong my friend, &c. 
P. 170. The more thou damm'st it up, &c. 
You inform me, I remember, that we ought to 
read, damp'st it up. But may not the text stand as 
ft does, upon the authority of this other line in this 
\ery play, p. 14^: 

The fire that *s closest kept, burns most of all. 

P. 176. What Letter is this same? kc. 

What ? Was Valentine to climb up to his mis- 
tress's tower, in order to carry her off, and does he 
earry a Letter to her from himself at the same time. 

P. 180, Speed. What news with your ww^/^/'^Ai)) ? 

Launce. With my mastership f Why it is at 

sea. 
Speed. Well, your old vice still, mistake 
the word. 
Mr. Pope is a pleasant gentleman to let t)iis pass 
bim without any suspicion. But how does Launce 
mistake the word ? Speeds asks him about his mas- 
tership, and he replies to it literatim. But then how 
iras his mastership at sea and on shore too ? But 
the addition of a letter and an apo^rophe will make 
him mistake the word, and set the jest right, thus : 
Launce. With my master's ship f why it is at sea. 

P. 186. 



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$63 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

P. 186. For practising to steal away a lady, • 

An Aa'r, and niece allied unto the duke. 

What, was this lady niece to the duke, and alh'ed 
to him too ? 1 will never believe Shakespeare would 
have expressed himself thus. I am confident wd 
ought to read, 

All heir*, and near allied uuto the duke. 

As in Romeo, p. 126: 

This gentleman, the Prince's near allie ; 
and several other passages th?it I need not trouble 
you with. 

P. 190. He loved her out of all nick. 

I am not acquainted with this expression ; but I 
suppose it means in other phrases familiar with our 
Author, out of all count, out of all cesse, i. e. infi- 
nitely, eternally. 

P. 194. I was sent to deliver him as a present, &c. 
. Does not the Poet forget himself here ? We find 
by the next page that he had lost the dog which 
was sent for a present, and meant in the lieu of it to 
give his own. 

P. 199. Her eyes as grey as grass. 

Annon potius^ glass? 

P. 206. Verona shall not hold thee. 

This threat is to Sir Thurio, who is a Milanese^ 
and the person threatening is now too in Milan. I 
am afraid Shakespeare here again ^ little forgets 
himself. 

You see. Sir, by the help of a digression from the 
Tempest, I have made shift to spend as much time 
in Verona as my paper will well give me leave. The 
Merry Wives will be more full of corruption and 
entertainment. By the way, I remember you hint 
in one of yours, that in that play a rank piece of in- 
delicacy is done away into as rank nonsense, through 
the ignorance of the Editors. I suppose, for infor* 

* Aa heiress, 

mation 



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nnEOBALD AND WAEBURTOK. ' S63 

mation sake, without breach of modesty, both I may 
demand and you communicate this secret. I rest 
in hopes of being happy by the post to-morrow ; 
and shall not fail on Saturday at farthest to renew 
my trouble to you, who am, dear Sir, 
Your most affectionate and obliged humble servant^ 

Lew. Theobald. 



LETTER XIV- 

Tathe Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Nov. 15, 1729. 

^y my last, which I hope has reached you, and 
which contains my inquiries on: The Two Gentlemen 
of Verona, you will find 1 am come into the order 

Jou desired: and will endeavour to pursue it, though, 
should make an excursion, now and then, by the 
bye. I beg you will spare encomiums on the care 
and correctness of my Epistles, and likewise excuses 
for the supposed carelessness of your own. As you 
are so complaisant to indulge me in this laborious 
correspondence, it will be for our mutual ease />eri- 
turce parcere chartce. Yours on Cymbelihe it 
come to hand ; and as Mr. Bishop (another kind 
labourer in the vineyard) was with me, you cannot 
imagine the pleasure we shared to find in how many 
places your emendations jump literally with ours. 
While our thoughts are warm upon this Play, I 
thought proper to let you know at once where I 
agree, and wnere for present reasons I dissent. And 
so, to work : 

P. 5. You do not meet a man but frowns, &c« 

The correction of hrmos we bad made with yo« ; 
in the subsequent lines I had gone still farther^ 
whether with absolute necessity, 1 submit to yo^ 
thus^ 

Hcaf ens : 



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$64 IJLtUSTKATIONt OF LirEEATUmX. 



Heavens: VA^ flr^ courtieri , 



Still seem as does the King's. 

Still is authorized by both the old folios, and wt^ 
(kparted from I cannot imagine; to say, their 
brows were courtiers, in conformity with the king's, 
I think, id not very hard ; and may seem grounded 
on Alexander's courtiers affecting to be wry-neck'd. 

P. 6. I do extend him, Sir. 

I am sorry to confess I had reconciled this to my- 
self; because you say it is so nonsensical that any 
Editor but Pope must blush at it. Thus I had 
solved it. Though you think, Sir, I speak so fairly 
of him, I assure you I extend him barely within the 
list and compass of his own praise and merit ; crush 
him together in my applauses rather than display 
him fully. 

P. 9. A 7/are age. 

1 thank you for this most ingenious emendation. 
I know 7/are signifies quick, nimble, dextrous; and I 
hope, as an epithet, it may be allowed in your sense 
of sudden, precipitated. I had guessed, meer, 
hoar ; but the ductus literarnm, to say nothing 
more, determines me on your side. 

P. 12. She 's a good sigTU 

Your conjecture is again ingenious. But I will tell 
you how 1 had satisfied myself in the point. You 
know, certain constellations, which are refulgent, 
are called signs ; and ensigns, and ornaments of no- 
bility, are likewise by our Poet, called signs. So 
\ifL Macbeth, p. 200 : 

But signs of nobleness, like steers, shall shine on all 
deservers. 
Subjudice lis est. 

P The diminutioi;! of space. 

Your observation is perfectly right on this pas- 
sage ; yet, I fancy, it may be understood as it is. I 
understend of here as the prepositions by or Jrom ; 
a^id then the diminution made by space, or from the 
distance, will be right. So, infra, p- 49 : * 

Consider, 



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Consider, — ^When you above perceive me I&e a crow. 
That it is place which lessens and sets off. 

P. 14. Are wonderfofly to extend him. 

You think it should be, aids ;— 1 do not yet see a 
reason for any change. I understand it thus : — ^that 
his banishment and the approbatioh of those that la^ 
ment his divorce, are circumstances that must won* 
derfully extend him in opinion. As Jachimo says 
in the speech immediately preceding, 
Wherein he must be weighed rather by her value, &c. 

P. 16. I could not believe she excellM many. 
You say del. not : I say it should be but, i. e. irf 
itmat believe. 

P. 17. You are a friend. 

This, as you say, I have long since observed 
should be afraid. 

P. 23. These, as you hint, 1 have already seen 
in print. 

P. 30. Of the divorce he 'd make. 
This we bad settled exactly as you accurately ob* 
serve. 

P. 32. May ope the raven^s eye. 

This, your former Letter to me takes notice, should 
be restored to the rejected reading, hear. I think 
it either should be bore, or bare, i. e. make bare. 
Though the raven be a night-bitd, it does not prey 
during that whole season, but slumbers towards 
morning, and is disturbed by the first approach of 
dawn. ' Now making bare the eye seems to me pe- 
culiarly proper ; as most birds, and many quadru- 
peds, have a membrane for nictation, called mspio^^ 
9aX/4iov, wherewith they can at pleasure cover their 
eyes, though their eyelids be open ; and with this 
membrane they often defend tneir eyes from too 
strong a light, and draw it over the pupil, when 
they do not shut down the eyelid at all. 

Jr. o*t. 



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tM ILLUSTRATIOIVS OT LTTE&ATinDB. 

P. 34. His goodness forespent on. 

Your emendation here^ I presume, is occasioned 
by the false print in Mr. Pope. The old Editions 
baveity 

And towards himself, his goodness forespent on us. 
We must, &c. 
t. e. towards him, on account of the obligations we 
have formerly received from him. 

P. 35. Fools are not mad folks. If youMl ht patient. 

Cure for are we had long ago determined : — as to 
patient, your alteration to prudent is certainly inge* 
nious, and logically requisite, if we might tie 
Shakespeare so strictly : but I conceive by, ^you *U 
be patient, Imogen means, if you will be easy, and 
dot torture me with your impertinent solicitations^ 

P. 37. Or look upon the Romans. 

Surely, you say, this should be not. I have long 
since cu^d it with a less change. 
Ere look upon the Romans. 

P. 39. The foul opinion you had of her poor honour. 

You very justly observe it should be, proved ho- 
nour ; but Mr. Pope's negligence obliged you here 
to exert yourself. The old folios read rightly, 
• pure honour. 

P. 40. Was as another nature dumb. 

This we had stumbled at, but your emendation is 
indeed ingenious, and restores us true sense. But 
by changing was into has, is there not a trans- 

fression m the tenses ? must not, outwent her, then 
e, outgone her ? The sense I always conceived to 
be, that the carver had done Dian so excellently, 
that it seemed another piece of Nature, only that it 
was dumb : nay, that he had outgone Nature as to 
the form and symmetiy, only that breath and motion 
were wanting. But the words, I fear, are corrupts 
As to your occasional passage from Anthony, I can- 
not readily accede to your correction. I cure it thus : 
Was beastly dutnb'd by him. 



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mBOBALB AKD WABBOmTOIf; ' tCj 

f . e. silenoed by his saperitr noise. This is not the 
only passage in wh'xA our Poet has coined a verb 
out of the adjective dumb. So in his Pericles» ^)eak- 
of a young lady's transcendant talents : 
Deep clerks she dumbs, &c.. 

' P. 42. Should from encounter guard. 

You advise ybr; I understood this thus: that 
Posthumus means, Jaehimo met v^^ith no opposi- 
tion but what he expected should oppose : and what 
she should guard from the attack^ or encounter^ of 
any man but her husband. 

P. 48. But have a fog in them. 

As you interpret this, it is certain but ought, to 
make sense, to be changed into that. I have conjec- 
tured it should be read thus : 

I see before me, man, nor here, nor here^ 
Nor what ensues, but have a fog in ken. 
That I cannot look through. 

L e. do not talk of considering, man ; I neither sefe 
present events^ nor consequences, but am in a mist 
of fortune, and resolved to go on upon the project I 
bave determined. His use of ken, in this sense^ I 
prove hy authorities. 

P. 50. They think they 're mine. 

The pointing, as you observe, I had cured ; and^ 
as for your change of wherein to within, it gives 
Buch sense and elegance too^ that I cannot but ap- 
prove it. 

P. 55. Now if you could wear a mind. 

A mine, certainly more significant. 

P. 65. Defering— commends— and her fac e i 
I had observed. 

P. 73. r Being scarce made up 

I mean to man, &c. 

This, I think, is a very hard place; pray, Sir, 
weigh it for me once more. I am not convinced 
that Bel. is speaking of Guid. I rather suspect it a 

description 



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9CB ILtVSTRATMmt OF LfTIEATOTlB. 

<feseriptioii of what Ciobm fnrrmriy was^ snd m an- 
swer to what Arv. says of Us being so fMi Ay, 
(says he) he was so fell ; and, being tbeo scatce at 
man's estate, he had no apprehension of roaring 
terrors, or of any thing that could check him with 
fears. — But then liow does the inference come to be 
built upon this ? For defect of judgment is oft the 
cause of fear. — I think L should have said the mere 
eontrary. Cloten was defective in judgment, and 
therefore did not fear. — I have guessed^ For th' effect 
of judgment is oft the cause of fear. 1 submit the 
passage to your consideration. 

P. 75. Marish, 1 thinks much improves the phrase. 

P. 76. What coast thy sluggish care. 

I am charmed with your emendation of Carrack; 
and wish heartily it may be true, as harbour seems 
to countenance it. But you will give me leave to 
distrust, be it but for better conviction. I am afraid 
the Poet's thought is from the custom at sea of let* 
ting down a plummet with tallow and pitch, to find 
mofe pertainly by the colour of the soil they pluck 
up, whether they are making such a particular coast; 
and then sluggish care stands in the place of this soil 
that is to be so fathomed for. Besides, you know, me- 
lancholy both forms cares, and is attended with them. 

P. 77. Winter-gown. 

A most excellent emendation. 

F. B\. tVary gods. 

Not to be disputed. 

P. 83. 'PloyM. 

An improvement of the thought. I wish I could re- 
member anotherinstanceofhiscuttingshortthiswoird. 

P. 92. Poor luck. 

Exceedingly wdl guessed. 

P. iOO. One land another, &c. 

This I had observed. 

P. 101. 'Faming the shrine seems necessary as to 
the sense. I doubt a little about the cutting off. 

P. 104. 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURT>0N; tCfi 

P. 104. Think that joo are upon a mock. 

Clear to demonstration. 

P. 105. Hasting our wrath. 

As clear. 

P. 85. Aad make them dreaded to the doer's shr^i. 

Dreaded I had a great white ago corrected ; bat 
retained the word thrift ; and thus explained the 
thought to myself. Some are cut off for the first 
ftult; others permitted to aggravate one crime with 
more, which not only make them dreaded by the 
world, but turn to the thrift, t. e. advantage of the 
doers. When the wicked 'are permitted to go on 
unpunished, they often reap temporal benefits from 
the effects of their crimes. I cannot be positive 
which of them is right : But I know that here I 
must conclude myself, dear Sir, 

Your ever obliged faithful servant. 

Lew. Theobald. 



LETTER XV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Sat. Nov. 15, 17«9* 

Ecce ! iterum Crispinvs. 
I do not know how I can possibly ever requite the 
vast trouble I give you, not to mention the charge 
of this correspondence. This comes, attended with 
another of six pages, in reply to yours on Cymbe- 
iine. As it is impossible either of us can take co- 
pies of our own Letters, I hope you do me the fa- 
vour to lay by mine ; because, when the evidence 
comes to be summed up, a collation of them with 
yours will be of vast service to me, upon several 
points that I shall not be able to keep in memory. 
— But now to the Merry Wives : 

P. 2111. Whtcb is daughter to Master Thomas Page. 
* Our 



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JtJO ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERAtURp. 

Our Poet, I think, is a little contradictory to him- 
telf in Mr. Page's Christian name ; infruy p- 232, 
his wife calls him George^ 

P. 215, I combat challenge of this Latin bilboe. 

Pistol calls Sir Hugh, Mountain-foreigner; but 
by Latin bilboe I presume he means Slender^ who 
in size, he would intimate, is as thin as a plate of that 
metal which is called lateuj a sort of tinsel, I think.. 

P. 217. Upon Alballowmas last, a fortnight afore Mi- 
chaelmas. 

Sure Simple is a little out in his reckoning. AU- 
hallowmas is almost five weeks ajier Michaelmas* 
But is it designed Simple should appear thus igno- 
rant, to keep up character ? The simplest creatures 
generally are very precise in the knowledge of festi- 
vals, and how the seasons run. I suspect it should 
be a fortnight afore Martlemas; i. e. from the 1st to 
tlie 11th November, eleven days inclusive. 

P. 219. Tlie women have so cry' J and shrieked at it, 
that it past. 

So again, in Troilus, p. 277, And Paris so chaft, 
and all the rest so laughed, that it past. — What 
does he mean by this expression ? that they hep— ed 
themselves ? 

P. 221. sub fioem. She discourses, she carves. 

What does he mean ? that Mrs. Ford shewed a 
liking to him, by helping him at table? 

P. 222. She is a region in Guiana. 

This is not in the first rude sketch of this Co- 
medy, which is in quarto, in 1^619. If the tradition 
be true of this Play being wrote at Queen Eliza- 
beth's command, perhaps it may ftirnish this con- 
jecture, that it was wrote towards the end of the 
year 1596, or the beginning of 1597. The mention 
of Guiana, then so lately discovered to the English, 
was a very happy compliment to Sir Walter Raleigh, 
who did not begin his expedition for South America 
till 1595> and returned from it in 1596^ with an. ad- 
vantageous 



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THEOBALD. MM) WAEBimTOM. MJl 

Ttotageoua account of the great wealth of Guiana. 
Such an address of the Poet was likely, I imagine, 
to have most impression on the people; when the 
intelligence of such a golden country was freshest in 
their minds, and gave them expectations of im* 
mense gain. 

Will you pardon a amall digression, by way of 
relief? Because, too, the note is designed to settle^ 
as near as I can, the time of bringing on another 
of his Plays. Besides, I mentioned, in a late let- 
ter to you, in a note upon the Tempest, something 
in relation to our Poet*s regard for Sir Walter Ra- 
leigh. The note I am going to subjoin is upon that 
topic likewise. 

Twelfth Night: 

P. 221. TauiK him with the licence of ink; if thoa 
thou* si him some 
Thrice, it shall not be amiss. 

There is no doubt, I think, but this passage is 
one of those in which our Author intended to shew 
his respect for Sir Walter, and a detestation of the 
virulence of his prosecutors. The words quoted 
seem to me directly levelled at the Attorney Gene- 
ral Coke, who, in the trial of Sir Walter, attacked 
him with all the following indecent expressions : 
** All that Hell was by thy instigation, thou Viper : 
for I thou thee, thou Tray tor." (Here, by the bye, 
are the Poet's three thous.) — " You are an odious 
man.** — " Is he base? I return it into thy throat, 
on hisbehalfe.''— " O damnable Atheist r—" Thou 
art a Monster; thou hast an English face, but a 
Spanish heart.** — " Thou hast a Spanish heart, and 
%self art a Spider of Hell."—" Go to, I will lay 
thee on thy back for the confident'st Traytor tliat 
ever came at a bar." — *^ I will prove you the. noto- 
riousest Traytor that ever came to bar.'' — Is not here 
all the licence of tongue, which the Poet satirically 
prescribes to St. Andrew's ink? And how mean an 
opinion Shakespeare had. of these petulant invec* 

tives. 



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S73 iLtusnunoirs <sm liteeatuu. 

tives, is pretty evident from his cloee of thw 8pee^« 
— " Let there be gaU enough in thy ink, though 
thou write it with a goo^e-pen, no matter/* — A 
keener lash at the Attorney for a fool than all the 
oontumelies he threw at the Prisoner. This trial of 
Sir Walter was on the 17th of November, 1603 ; so 
this Play, I think, could not be earlier than that 
. period (unless it may be objected these speeches might 
ne interpolations occasionally thrown in): how soon 
it might follow that great man's misfortune I am not 
able to determine. Sut I have some reason to be- 
lieve it was performed the very next year, from an- 
other passage in the very scene precedmg this. 

Oliv. There lies your way, due West. 
Fiol, Then, Westward-boe. 

I have a strong suspicion that Shakespeare is here 
alluding to the title of a successful Play, that started 
about that time, written by Webster and Deeper, 
called Westward-hoe. The first printed copy of 
this Play that I have seen does not bear date till 
1607 ; but the Play had made its appearance upon 
the stage at least three seasons earlier, as it is very 
obvious to conjecture. In the first Act, Birdlime, 
a bawd, says to a married woman whom she wapte4 
to seduce. 

You are too nice and peevish ; bow long will yon 
hold out, think you^ not so long as Ostend? 

And again, towards the end of the fourth Act, 
The Book of the Siege of Ostendt writ by one 
that dropt in the action, will never sell so well, &c. 

For, I presume the aflfeir of Ostend to be a recent 
circumstance, and in every body's mouth at the 
tinoe this Play was brought on, or the Poet luight 
as well have talked of the Siege of Troy. Now we 
¥ery well know, that in August I6O4, this strong 
town, after a remarkable siege of three years, 
snd in which above 120,000 men were killed <m 
both sides, was tak^n by Spioola. But to put this 

matter 



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matter still further out of dispute, £aat?VRacd4ioe> by 
Chapman, Jdnsdn, and Marston, was printed an 
1605. and in tbe .Prologue to that' we find mentum 
made of Declcer's Westward-hoe. This, I tfaiak^ as 
I abpve hinted, pins down the first appearance of 
Xwielfth Night to the year lff04. 

If you can pardon this digression, aqd acquit qpe. 
of pedantry and impertinence^ I shall, with.grcpt 
pJea^qre, return to order. 

P.. 222. Falstsff will learn the honour of the age, 

French thrift >■ 
Mr* Pope pjjetends to have collated the old quarto , 
edition of this Play ; and yet there it is, as it roost 
certainly ought to be restored — the humour of this 
age. JHonour for humour^ you know, t have re- 
marked, likewise has got into Cymbeline, p. 74. 

Shakespeare, I think, again alludes to the thrift of 
his own times in Much ado about NothvQg, p. 66 : . . 
Thejushion of the world is 10 avoid cost^ and you 
encounter it. 

' P. 223, I will possess him mth Jealousies, for , this re-, 
volt of mine is dangerous. 

This is sense; but I doubt whether the' Poet's ! 
meaning. The old quarto in 1619, and the first. 
folio in 1623, have it jallowes and ydjllowness 
(though our modems have changed this injto jea-- 
lousiesj ; for which reason I suspect we should read. 
For this revolt of mine [or mieni is dangerous* 

Ford (says Nym) I will incense to pc^soi;! Sir 
John ; I will work him up to yelhwne^s; for the 
change of complexion is a synaptom of being dan- 

fjrows. Whether this or the other reading be best, 
absolutely sttbolit to your jdisceroffieiit. 
\ repaember this change of jcpn^pleamn is remark^ 
on in Much Ado about Nothing, p. ;i26, where Be- 
nedict coiAetf to challenge Count Cla^o. 
Pedr. As I am an bonesnt .QU^p,; be looks. pale: art tbou 

siok, or angry ? ' 
Pedr. By this light, he changes more and more : I think 
he be angry iod^^d. 
VQU n. T P. 22s. 



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S74 itwtmumfUHB w ijiuutuev. 

P. SM. iZitfiW 191^ tome paper. 

I suppoee the Editors hme thooglit tlm a de» 
signed oorruption of the English, fw borrow me, 
&€. ; but, as Dr. Caius is a Frenehman, and gene-^ 
ndly speaks half French, half English, I am per- 
suaded the Poet meant it should be, baUlez moi some 
paper ; i. e. fetch, bring me. 

Ibid, sub fio. What the ^ood-jer\ 

I" want to know the original and meaning of this 
expression, which occurs so often ia our Author. 

P. 228. Tlipugh Love use Reason for his Presician. 

I do not clearly understand this. Should it not 
be Physician? Reason, you know, is said to be 
the Cure of Love. 

P. 229. Why Til exhibit a Bill in the Parliament, for 

the putting down of men. 
What ! the whole species, Mrs. Page, unius ob 
noxam? Do not be so unreasonable in your anger. 
But it is a false charge against you. I am ^lersuaded^ 
a short monosyllable is dropped out, which would 
qualify the matter ; read, for the putting down of 
ht men. Mrs. Ford, at the bottom of this very 
page, sinrs, ^^ I shall think the worse off fit men, as 
lone as I have an eye,* &c. 

And in the old quarto Mrs. Page, so soon as she 
has read the Letter, says. 

Well, I shall trust^^ men the worse, while I live, 
for bis sake. 

Ibid. These Knights will hack; and so thou shonld^st 

not alter the article of thy gentry. 
Dmms sum, non Oedipus. 
This is a riddle, which, without assktance, I 
believe I should never expound to Dooiesday. 

P. 23o; But they do no more adhere, afid keep j4iKC 

together. 
Amnon rectius-^'-^pace ; the 100th Ptalm being 
sb>w, and Green-Sleeves a rapid tune ? 
P. 232. I will not believe such a Cataian *, he. 

* Csthda. Waisviton, MS. 

This 



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This word, I sappofle, has a reipenoe to some- 
thiBg that would explain its meaniiig. 

P. 234. Will you go, an-heiresf 

I have guessed; but how right, I dare not say. 
Will you go, wyn-Heersf 

Ibid. And stand so firmly on bis wMe^tfrailiyj &c 

No, sure; Page stood tightly to the opinion of her 
honesty. Should it not be r^Xher fealty? 

But, as a Scene ends here, so shall vsy Letter. 
Yet, if I have not reason to think I plague you be- 
yond all reason, I will say with Cleopatra—- 

" Who's born that post, when I forget to send to 
Warburton, shall die a beggar.'* 

Dear Sir, your most obliged, and afiectionate 
humble servant. Lew. Theobald. 



LETTER XVL 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Nov. l8, l^9&. 

How just was the observation of Publius Syrus, 
DUcijmlus est prioris posterior dies ! Could I, with 
the same ease, convince the publick, as you, of this 
truth, how willingly w^uM they indulge in a lapse 
of time beyond the period promised I 

It was but last post, among my doubtf upta the 
Merry Wives, I troubled you with an enquiry about 
a Catalan. And being since obliged, upon another 
view, to consult the English History, I tbink^ by 
chance I have met with a solution. 

I will give it you first ; and so go on with the re* 
jnainder of that Play. 

P. 232. I will not believe such a Cataian, though tbe 

Triest 6* th* town eommended him for a 

true man. 

I onoe thought Catalan and Bexoman to be mere 

fictitious cant-words, that could not be accounted for ; 

T 9 hut 



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t7< ILLUSnUTIOWS OF LfflBKATUltE. 

Ittittiiiitfly.diBOOferieB have tince convinoed me to 
the contrary. . As to the expbnatioa of Caktwtf 
we are to know, that in the 17th year of Queen 
Elizabeth, anno. 1 575, Martin Frobisher (who was 
aftefwards knighted by the Admiral^ the Lord 
Charles Howard, for his services against tlie Spa* 
ni^h Armada) being llimished with nis complement 
of Adventurers, set out with two barques and a 
pinnace upon his Voyage for the Discovery of a Pas- 
sage to Calaia by the North-west Seas. When he 
had sailed 60 degrees North-west beyond Fries- 
land, he went on shore, but found the land peopled 
\vilh savages ; and one of his company brought from 
thence a piece of black stone, like a sea-coal, which 
heing assayed by the goldsmiths, was found, for its 
size and quantity, to be very rich in that ore. 

Upon this encouragement, Frobisher again, in 
1577, 8^t out on his second Voyage for Cdtaia, by 
the North-west seas ; and, entering the Streights, 
and landing 30 leagues beyond a neck of land, which 
he had called Q^ieen Elizabetlis Foreland, met with 
a gre^t store of this black stone, and freighted his 
ship and bark with it. Again, 157S, his pnyject 
.fffissD risen, in credit, that he sets out on a thifd 
,Vlsy,ag^i* with 15 sail of good ships, manned^ viq- 
tm^^y ^nd otheiwise well-^pointed. After mmy 
attempts, and sundry timep being put back by 
inlands of ice, in the Streights^ be recovered his 
port* anchored at the islands called by the j^ueen 
M^t^ in^Qgnitaj and freighted his ships with the 
lik^ black Btpne, or gold ore, out of the mines. — 
This is the last attempt of his for making this 
^^^^ that I find marked in History; and it 
seems obvious to presume^ thati either ifrom t^e 
difficulties in performing it, the ores falling short of 
the expectpd value, and the adventurers oftheir ex- 
pected gains, the project fell so low in repute, that 
. a CaUkioH hecaiQe a bye-word for one thut promised 
. more tbao ever he could mafee good, and therefore 
x^t to be believed. 

P 



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' P« ....... Tte world's iDUie oyttefi which I with swqi;<^ 

will open. ' } 

I would observe to you, that the old quarto her^ 
subjoins a line, that, in my opinion, ought not Xg 
be lost ; 

I will retort the sum in equipiage. 

This makei Pistol first bluster in his fustian fofcin* 
ner, and then^ very naturally, in the same strain, 
renew his suit upon promise of recompence. Be- 
sides, it admirably marks our PoeCs exactness in 
keeping up his character. Pistol, in Henry V^^ p. 
390, renews the same peculiar dialect ; 
To retort the solus in thy bowels. 

P. 235. Three reprieves for you and your coack-feU 
low Nim. 

Why, coacA-fellow ? Sir John only kept horses. 
I fancy it should be either ;yofte-fellow, as, p. 233f, 
they are called, a yoak of his discarded itien ; or, 
rather, cowcft-fellow, t. e. your chum. CbwcA, you 
know, is perpetually used by our Poet for bed. 

P. 244, 245. Pardon Guest-justice, &c. 

But first, Mr. Guest — 
The Host is neither here at boaie, norSfaalk^liis 
guest, as I find by any other passages. The fir^t, I 
think, should be restored from the old quarto : , 
Pardon, bdly Justice ; .va word, Moosieur Mocfiwaler.^ 
And the other. 

But first, Mr. Justice — 
P. 245. Thou shah woo her. Cr^d Gamey said I well? 
This is very obscure to me. Wc have guessed. 
Thou sh^lt woo her, trifd Game, &c. i. e. you ex- 
perienced Cock of the Game; or, red Game ; a bird 
of the partridge species : but neither of the conjec- 
tures give me any satisfaction. 

Ibid. Come at my heels, Jack Rugby. 
Had Mr. Pope either duly collated the first folio 
edition, or were he a master of his own assertion 
in ills Preface, p. 3. " that, had all tlie speeches been 

printed 



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aji iixusnATiovs or liteeaturk. 

nted without the veiy names of the yenons^ I 
!ve one might have applied them with certainty 
to every speaker/ he had discovered that these are 
the words of Dr. Caius. 

P. S4Sy 949. Give me thy band, Celestial, so. Boys 

of art, &c. 
This may be improved from the old quarto, with 
a small amendment in the pointing ; thus : 

Give me thy band. Terrestrial ; so ; — Give me 
thy haod. Celestial ; so. Boys, &c. 

P. 250. All my neighbours shall ay aim. 

This is an expression which, adhtic expiscare 
nemeo: and yet I am certain it is genuine: not 
only because it frequently recurs in our Poet, but 
likewise in Beaumont and Fletcher, and other his 
contemporary stage->writers. 

P. 25S. I think I shall drink in pipe-wine first with him. 

Why in pipe-wine? What *8 the conceit here ? 
I see, there 's an allusion to pipe and dance ; sei 
uUrii nan video. 

P. 255. Mrs. Ford. 'Tis not so, I hope. 

The old quarto has it thus : 
Mrs. Ferd. Speak louder :. *Tis not so, I hope. 

She archly wishes Mrs. Page to raise her voice, 
that Sir John may over-hear all that is said. 
So, infra^ p.S70: 

Mrs. Ford. No, certainly : — speak louder. 

P. 2$6. I '11 warrant we'll unkennel the fox. Let me 
stop this way first. 

The first folio edition adds. 

So now uncape. 

This, I suppose, is a term in fox-hunting; but I 
am wholly unacquainted with it. 

P. 257, 25S. Mrs. Page. Heard you that? 

Mrs^ Ford. You use me well, Mr, Ford, 

do you ? 
Ford. Ay, ay, I do so. 

Mrs. 



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Mrs. Page^^f— HeaT'o make yoa better ttaa yoor 
thoughts. 

The old quarto, and first fdio, serve to illustrate 
and rectify these speeches. 

Mrs. Page. Heard you that? 

Mrs.* Ford. — /, /, fcf^c — You use me well, Mr* Ford, 

do you ? 
JTord. Ay, ay, I do so. 
Mrs. Ford. — Heav'u make you good. 

P. 259. If o/^jE)or/tfitii(y and humblest suit, &c. 
Anne Page is advising Fenton to solicit her father's 
tx>n8ent. 

Dr. Thirlby imagines, that the Aathor, with 
more propriety, wrote, 

If tmporiumiy and humblest sqit. 

P. 26S. As the^ would have drovrnM a hUnd bitches 
puppies. 

Are poppies ever drowned to chuse, for coming 
from a hlmd bitch ? As I know, in horses, a tolt 
from a hlmd stallion much lessens its value. 

Or, should it not rather be. 

As they would have drowoM a bitches Uind puppies ? 

So in Two Gentlemen of Verona, p. 194 : 

One that I savM from drowoiog, when three or 
four of his Uind brothers and sisters went to it \ 

And Othello, p. 344. 

P. 275. If I cry out thus upon no triai^ uevpt trust me 
when I open again. 

What a dab at collating is our Editor ! 

The first folio has it rightly : 

If I cry out thus upon no trojfie^ &c 

This is the hunting-term, and answers to open. 

So in Hamlet, p. S38 : 

Or else this brain of mine hunts not the iraS of 
policy, &c. 

And 



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ii;G|p uAumuLTioNs Off imsRAixmE. 

And agtin^ p. B90 : . ' 

How cbearfuily on the false trail they CTy^ &c. 

p. 276. — — — ^ thy honour stands 

In him that was of late an heretick^ 
As firm ^faith. ** 

First folio, rectitis, ut puto, 
• As firm as faith. 

P. 277. Mrs. Ford. Marry, this is oqr derice, 

Thai FalstafFe at that oak shall meet with us. 
Page. Well, let it not be doubted, but he Ml 
come. 
And in this shape^ when you ha?e, &c. 

In what shdpe^ in the tiame of Mystery ? Heme 
the {keeper's shape is described in a foregoing 
speech ; but h here the least intimation given, what 
Mape Faktafie was to assume? Now, Sir, judge 
whether this passage does not absolutely require to 
be supplied from the old quarto, that Page may 
have some reason for saying what he does. 

Take Mr&. Page's speech from thence : 
Let us alone for that ' Hear my dcTice. 
Ofihave you heard, since Heme the Hunter dy'd, 
The women, to affright their little children, 
Say that he walks in shape, of a great stag* 
Now, for that FalstaflFe hath been so deceivM 
As that he dares not venture to the bouse, 
We *I1 send him word to meet us in the fields 
Disguised like Heme, with hitge Horns on his head. 

P. 278. "With some diffused song ; 
f. e. wild, uncouth, obsolete, I suppose. How to 
explain it fipom its derivative, I do not well know. 
But we again meet at in Henry V. p. 467. 

To swearing, and stern looks, diffused attire, &c. 
And again, in Lear, p. 368 : 

And can my speech diffuse; 
which Mr. Pope has, without any authority, changed 
to disuse; Richard HI. p. 2^8. 

P. 278* 



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4 THGOBiUiD 4HD WABSUatON^ S^ 

* 

P. 278. Mrs. Page. Uj Nan sh^il be the Qoeen of all 
the Fairies^ 
Finely attired in a robe of white. 

Mr. Page, That bilk will I go buy, and in tb^ 
time 
Shall Mr. Slender steal my Nan away, &c. 
Surely Mr. Page never designed Slender should 
steal his daughter, whilst he went to buy the silk for 
her : it was not yet night ; and Mrs. Anne was to 
be at the head of the Fsiiries, and from thence stolen. 
In short, I am persuaded, that Page, hearing ho|r 
his wife designed their daughter should be dressed, 
meaning to take advants^e thereof to bring about 
his own plot, would say, 

and in that tire 

Shall Mr. Slender, &c. 
«. €. attire, dress, habit. 

P. 279. Send qmckij/ to Sir John, to know his mind.. 
Here have all the Editors, in their sagacity, 
shrunk a Messenger into an adverb. We must re- 
store. Send Quickly to Sir John ; and accordingly, 
in p. 282, she commg to him, he says to her^ 

Now ! whence come you ? 
Quick. From the two parties, forsooth. 

P. 280. Simp. May I be so bold to say so, Sir? 
Host. Ay, Sir; Jike who more bold. 

Both the quarto, I619, and the first folio^ give 
the last line to Falstafie, who^ it is plain, is all 
along answering Simple* 

P. 284. There is divinity in odd nombers, either ih 
nativity, duince, or death. . 

I much suspect the word chance here; what great 
idea does it convey ? By Quickly's answer, I have 
been inclined to suspect^ it might be chains. 

P. 291. Now, good Sir John, how like you Windsor 
wives ? 
' Seeyou these husbands ? Do not these fair oalcs 
Become the forest better than the town ? 
I am glad to end with a passage which gives me 

just 



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S83 ILLUiTEATIOflS OT LlTllUTOftB. 

jurt occasion to cry out^ Edkares, stuUpm pecus J 
WhstI does Mrs. Page bid Sir John look upon the 
husbands, and then call them oaks that better be* 
come the forest than, the town ? Crede mihi, pUmi 
ccecutium. 

Take it from me thus : 

Now, good Sir John, how like you Windsor wives? 

See you these, husbands? Do not these fair yoais 

Become the forest, &c. 

After she has spoken to Sir John, she addresses 
herself to her own husband and Mr. Ford, and asks 
them how they like the yoaks of horns on Falstaflfe^s 
head, and whether they do not suit the forest better^ 
than the town. 

I missed the pleasure of a Letter from you yester- 
day ; but Wednesday will come to the comfort of, 
dear Sir, yonr most obhged and affectionate humble 
•ervant^ Lew. Theobald* 



LETTER XVIL 
To the Rev. Mr. Warburtok. 

Dear Sir, Thursday, Nim. 30> 1739. 

All compliments apart, I proceed to acquaint you 
that yours of the 17th instant is arrived; by the 
close of which 1 am left in die sweet expectation of 
havmg am^her to-morrow evening. Upon the most 
obli^og encouragement given me, you may depend 
nothing but the most pressing interposition of hated 
business shall break into my promised uninterrupted 
correspondence. 

Your ingenious exposition of bid the base, I am 
extremely pleased with, if that be the term for 
your countiy sport mentioned. I remember it very 
well as a school-play, which we called Prison-base ; 
and it is to this very sport, I suppose, our Author 
again alludes in Cymbeline, p. 87 : 

^. — -Uds 



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tffiKMUTD AMD WAMWUMTm. ' ^ 

Ladt mne like to nm 



The couatrjr bam, tbaa co cooiinit scich tUughten 
AQthoQ^, as you ubterve^ i$ very fruitful in error^ 
and k isa joy to me that you have hoarded up such a 
onop of emeudatioiis upon it. I am like an ava- 
ricious husbandman, tlutt want my harvest in^ per- 
hwB, before its season, rerbum sat sapienti 

1 chuse rather to rest in an anxious suspense, than 
venture upon too unreasonable a request. Unless 

Jour own convenience fully meet my desireir, please to 
e a master of your own order in detailing your cor- 
rectiond to me. Apropbs to Anthony ; I thank you 
for your designed confirmation of the passage I had 
restored. Plutarch takes notice of S^Uus Pom- 
poius's flirt ; but, I supjx>se, did not know how to 
transfuse the ambiguous joke in Carins. The Edi- 
ti3n you put me in hopes of seeing of Paterculus^ 
afioieiKled by you, I heartily rejoice m ; and if, when 
this afiair is off my hands^ I can repay the least part 
of mv debt, by a careful perusal of that Author to 
pick holes, I shall embrace the task with great satis- 
&ctioni. Your quotation I had ; I^was directed to it 
\>y Germanus on this hemistic of Virgil (^n. viii 
361) lautU mugire carinis; the Commentator there 
tells the story, and refers us to Hor. i^pist. 1. 1. 
Ep. vii^ 48, for this street being again mentioned : 
Atque foro nimiOm distare Carina^ 
Jam grandis nata queritur. 
In return of your favour^ there is another pas- 
»age, if you may chance not to have observed it 
(which Germanus, 1 presume, had forgot to alledge) 
where your story is again told ; — as it may serve in 
&e tail of a note to your passage of Paterculus, 1 will 
here subjoin it. &e " Additamentum Virorum II- 
lustrium ex JLibris antiquis manu descriptis," sub- 
joined to Aurelius Victor de Viris Illustr. cap. 84. 
Sextus Pompeius. — " Pace fact& epulatus in navi 
cum Antonio et Csesare, non iavenust^ ait. Hse sunt 
naeae carina : quiJi Romae in carinis domum ejus 
Antonius tenebat.'* Appian^ who likewise relates 

the 



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SS4 iixoBTRATiairs of. LnUUTDVC. 

the historical cirouikistBiice of these dire^ gKet Po- 
tentates supping on board the galley, makes not the 
least mention of Pompey's satirical speech 2 but Dion 
Cassius in his 48th book is very express to my pui»- 
pose. The Greek passage is not very short, so i 
v\rould not trouble you with it. But if either tliat, 
or quotations out of several other classics, where Co- 
rince et Pampeiana domus are to be met with toge- 
ther, will be of any service to you, I will transmit 
them with the utmost cheerfulness. 

I am mightily pleased you concur with me in ad- 
miring our Poet's thought concerning Orpheus*^ 
Lute. We are not to wonder much that it i$ not 
marked by Mr. Pope for its excellence, since he is 
so little an Aristarckus in this province, that, to use 
a conundrum of Ben Jonson's, he is rather a stark 
ass. I own I was so charmed with it, that in my 
Orestes (with repetition of an Act of which, I think, 
I once troubled you) I could not forbear employing 
it with some little alteration. 

That hero, being conveyed hy magic into Circe^s 
enchanted bower, and rapt with the pleasures of 
the place and the harmony with which he was en- 
tertained, thus expresses himself : 

This seems that verdant, never-fading soil. 
Where heroes triumph in their glories passed ; ■ 
And lovers burn with unabating fires. 
Ev*n thought, the parent of distress or joy. 
Is tunM to comfort, and drinks in delight. 
Musick ! — O sweet as Orpheus' harp new-strung 
With the fair tresses of the maid be lovM. 

I have no other way of apologizing for this plagi- 
arism, but in confessing it But how shall I excu^ 
myself for plaguing you with my own poor stuff, 
when the business of Shakespeare was depending? 

This is not Measure for Measure, which now 
calls upon us. 

P. 302. Like the testimonious pirate. 
I do not know what Mr. Pope means by this fine 
word in both his editions; or whether it is me^ 

chance- 



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chance-tBedkf • Both t)m oid, foliosy I am sure^ 
have ity-r^-sdnctinumious. 

P. 303. Lucto. A French craum more. 

I cannot but think some conceit is intended here, 
beyond what the words, simply taken, convey.— 
There is, I know, a mealy white scurf, growing ou 
the legs of horses, which is called the crown scab : 
and 1 think, if I remember right, there are certain 
venereal eruptions dignified by the title of a French 
croum. Does he allude, thmk you, to this? I 
know our Author somewhere else, though I cannot 
this moment recollect the place, jokes upon French 
crowns beitig bald; which, perhaps, may help t^ 
clear up this place. 

P. 394. Well, whzt h9£ he dofi£? 
Clown. A woman. 

Downright indecency; nor had I quoted it, but to 
shew our Pkiitor's care and sagacity, now while it 
18 in my mind, upon another cleanly passage in our 
Poet, Titus Andronicud, p. 1^1 : 

Demet. Villain, what bast tboa done ? 
"Aar. That wbicb tiiou canst not undoe. 
Chir. Thou hast undone our mother. 
Dem* A«d tkereiuyheXYvBh dog^ thou hastundone 

Therein — ^Wherein, in the name of reasoning? — 
Why, in undoing her. We do not get a.great deal 
of ground .by this replicatioq, that the poor empress 
is merely being undone ? 

There is an old quarto of this Play, printed in the 
year l|5lJ, which Mr. Pope pretends to have col- 
lated. In this we have a reading, which, I believe, 
you will determine with me must be restored for 
sense-sake, and which the Editor, I dare say, did 
not stifle out ©f pnre modesty : 

Chir. Thou hast undone our Mother. 

\Aaj\ Villain, I have done thy mother.] 
; Demet And M^m7{, ■belli;ib dog, thou bast undone. 
, . . • P. 305, 



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986 iLLUsntATicms ow htn%ArvnM. 

P. 305. Wbftt*8 to do here, Thomas Tapster? 

Does not the Poet here a little for^t himself? 
The Clown afterwards, upon examinatioD^ p. 318, 
says his name is Pompey Bum : and Pompey be is 
continually called by Lucio, p« 342, 343* 

P. 306. Whether it be the fault and glimpse of oew- 
nets. 

In one of yours, you are of opinion, it should be 
Umpse. Yow will give me leave to object, that I am 
afraid the word cannot be defended by any autho- 
rity ; and then to observe, that I believe die text, 
as it is, may be explained into sense. A glimpse, 
you know, is a short, obs^re, gtimmering light 
And Claudio seems to think that Uie Deputy's seve- 
rity against him is from the fault of newness; and 
the little insight he has in his duty, from being so 
Jresh in the (^ffke. Thus I understand the glimpse 
of newness. Glimpse, you know, is a word of our 
Author's^ both in the genuine and metaphorical ac- 
ceptation. Hamlet, p. 236, revisitfst thus the 
glimpses of the moon. And Troilus, p. 373 (nearer 
to the sense of the place now before us) : ' 

There is no man hath a rirtue, that he bath not a 
glimpse of 

P. 308. So long, that nineteen zodiacs have gone round. 

The Duke, in the scene immediately following, says. 

Which for these/mrteen years we have let sl^. 

I doubt not but y^ have observed this discordance 

of reckoning, and that both places must be i^tored 

dther to 19, or 14* We have let sitp, I think 

should rather be sleep ; so infra, p. 333 : 

The law hath not been dead, tho* it hath slepe. 
Ibid, fiow^thttwake, &c. 

So^ p. 306 : 

But this new Governor aamtes me all th* iorolled 
penalties. 

Ibid. Now puu the drowsy and neglected uct/reskfy 
on oie. 
. But, in short, is the alteration worth proposing } 



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ttEOBALD AKD WAtiBUfttOH. ^f 

P. 313. The jory passing on tte Prit^BePi life, 
May in the sitHfm twelve^ &c. 

So in the Merchant of Venice, p. 207 : 

In christentn|r, thou sbah haire two godfatberf. 
Had I been judge, tboa shonldst have bad ten 

more. 
To bring tbee to tbe gallows. 

Though the scene of one of these Plays is in Vien- 
na, and the other in Venice, it is evident the Poet 
keeps still at home, and has his mind full upon 
English jiiries. 

As 1 should be loth to accuse him of absurdities, 
I think I may let this hberty of his pass unobserved. 

P. 316. This will last out a night in Russia, 
When nigbts are longest there. 

I am not geographer enough to know what night 
ibey have in Russia : in some parts of it, I think, 
tiie «an does but just dip, and rises again to view. 

P. 322. Well, believe this. 

This, well, &c. is not the style in which inferiors 
iKidress the great: it is too familiar. The fault is 
only in the pointing, and Isabella will speak with 
much more solemnity and propriety.—" Well be- 
lieve this,** &c. i. e. be most assured, &c. 

P. 324. She speaks, and *t is such sense. 
That my sense bheds with it. 

I cannot imagine why, if the Editor at all looked 
into the old folio^ he has departed from the reading 
there, which to me seems perfectly the right — that 
niy sense bend^ with it; i. e. her arguments are so 
convincing, that she makes a convert of me, and 
obliges me to think as she does. 

P. 340. His unjust kindness, that in all reason should 
have quenched her love. 

Sagacity of Editors! — What was this kindness? 
Why,though Angek> wascontracted toher, yet,shehav- 
ing lost her dowry by a wreck, he falls offfrom his bar- . 
gain, leaves her in her tears, and dries not one of them . 

, with 



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tSS luxfsnATtom or literato&b* 

with his ooitifert. This, as the Editor would per- 
suade us, is kindness. 

But the first folio again happily bids us read ; 
his unjust wikindness^ &c. 

Thp remainder of this Play shall salute you by 
next post. V 

I am, dear Sir^ your most obliged and afl^tionate 
hfunble servant. Lew. Tueobalo. 

LETTER XVIIL 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Nov. 27, 1729. 

The sudden interposition of a theatrical affair has 
obliged me two posts to be in arrear to my purpose ; 
but I will endeavour to fill up the gap with doubled 
application. I have enjoyed the pleasure of two va- 
luable Epistles from you on Monday last, and one. 
yester evening, with your observations on Anthony; 
to which nothing more at present, for fear of swelling 
the correspondence, and retarding the point in view. 
Wherefore, to proceed with Measure for Measure. 

I will only bardv mention, first, that I do not 
know by what accident it has happened, in your re- 
ply to Merry Wives, you are totally silent on the 
obscure *' cried game*' in p. 245* 

One other word, if you please, by the bye. The 
interpretation of obscure places, as we go along, I 
would not burthen you with. What are really so to 
me, you know, are part of the subject matter of my 
queries. 

If you occasionally observe any imitations from 
the Classics, I shall take it as a favour that you will 
be so good to intimate them. 

Measure for Measure, p. 33 1 : 
Else let my brother die, 
If not a feodary but only he 
Owe and succeed by* weakness. 

♦ Flnt Folio^ thy. 

This 



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THtOBALD AND WARBURTON. 289 

This passage, which is a littk dark to me, I had 
by chance slipt over. I do not know what he means 
here by Foeaary ; the Ofiicer so called in Law, I 
think, has no relation to the sense here required. 

P. 341. CUnvn, 'Twas never merry world, &c. 

There is something in this speech a little too ob- 
scure for me : and something connective wanting be- ' 
twixt the two periods, to make clear sense ; or some- 
thing, at least, wanting in my faculty of compre- 
hension. 

P. '342. Free from all faults, as ^u//^ yr(m» seeming 

free'. 
Certainly here is a casual transposition of two 
words, which destroys the Duke's meaning. Should 
it not be, 

as from faults seeming free ! 

p. 344. And he is a motion generative^ that 's infal- 
lible. 

This may be sense ; and Lucio, perhaps, means, 
that though Angelo have the organs of generation, 
yet that he makes no more use of them than if he 
were an inanimate puppet. But I rather think this 
was our Authors reading: and he is a motion unge- 
nerativ€j &c. because Lucio again, at p. 346, calls 
him, this ungenitured agent, &c. 

P. 347. I am a brother 

Of gracious order, late come from the seCf 
In special business from his Holiness. 

His being lately come from sea is, I think, a very 
idle circumstance here. The third line seems to de- 
termine that the Poet wrote, 

late come from the See^ 

i. e. the see of Rome. 

P. 349. How may likeness made in crimes. 
Making practise on the times. 
To draw, &c. 

I am afraid both sense and syntax ai^ wanting, 

here. Then, what is likeness made in crimes ? Or, 

VOL. II. u on 



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ItgO ILLUSTRATIOKS OF LITEKATURE. 

on what can this infinitive, to drawj depend ? I 
liave 80 little notion what the drift of ibe passi^ 
^houM be, that I am at a loss how to set about the 
cure of it. 

P. 353. 4l>hors Sir, it is a mystery. 
Ciwn, Proof. 
Abhor. Every true man's apparel fiu your 

thief. 
Clonm, If it be too little for your thief, your 
true man, &c. 
This is a very notable passage, as it stands ; but I 
ratpect it i$ notably corrupted. What, does the 
Clown ask proof how the Hangman*s trade is a m]fB- 
tery, and so soon as ever Abhorson advances die thesis 
to prove it, the Clown takes the aifrument out of his 
mouth, and perverts the very tenor of it ? To allow 
the text right thus, 1 cannot see any great humour 
in it. I rather imagine that the roet intended a 
regular syllogism, and that therefore bodi the speeches 
iunI tiie woras are shuffled and misplaced. 

HiUB I have ventured to cm^ it : 
Abhor. 8ir, it ts a mystery. 
Clewn. JProof. 

Abhor. Erer^ true man'9 apparell fits your thief, Clewu. 
If It be too little for your true many your thiif 
thinks it b^ enough ; if it be too big for your 
true niafif your thiqf thinks it little enough, so 
every tni« man's apparel fits your thief. 

Ibid. If you have occasion to use me for your own 
turn, yOu shall find me yours. 

The old books have it, you shall find me ifare. 
It is plain, the apostrophe is the only corruption, 
and that we ousht to restore xtyare, u e. dexterous 
in the office of hanging you. 

P. 357. Oh, Death 's a great disguker, and you may- 
add to it; shave the head, and tie the 
beard, &c. 
But would tieing the beard have such an effect to 
diwaise the features of a man ? 
I am persuaded it shouM be. 

Shave the head, and tire the beard, &c 

P. %6e. 



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P. S66. Yet I'm tdvfeedtodoit, h^ says to wilfidl 

purpose. . 
I do not know how Mr. Pope un<)erstood tbit ; 
but surely it should be, 

■ ■ t' avaiffuli purpose. 

P. 372. lo this I Ml be mparHcd: be you jadge 

Of your own cause. 
Surely this Duke had odd notions of impartiality^ 
to commit the decision of a cause to the person ac- 
cused of being criminal. He talks much more ra- 
tionally in this affair, when he speakB in the charac^- 
ter of the Friar, p. 376 ; 

The Duke 's ufyust, 
Thus to retort your manifest appeal, 
And put your trial in the villain's moutb, 
Who here you come t' accuse. 
Sure, it should be, 

In this 1 will be partial. 

P. 376. Stand like the forfeits in a Sarber*s shop. 

As much in mock as mark. 
I have no notion what these forfeits are; but, 1 
atn sure, the allusion is most absurd in the Duke^s 
mouth ; it is a mere Poeta loquitur : as again Ham- 
let, when dying, talks of Death as of a Serjeant ar- 
resting him. 

P. 37f . Shew your sheep-biting face, and be hang'd 

an hour. 
Is this, an hour, do you think, genuine ? I much 
suspect it. 

P. 380. For Angelo, his act did not overtake bis bad 

intent. 
And must be buried but as an intent 
That perishM by the way : Thoughts are no 

subjects to which qualities are adjoin'd ? 

What does she mean by buried 9 forgot, buried 
in silence ? And how is subjects to be understood, 
80 Tvith the Philosophers ? 

And so ends the First Volume with me. 
I will proceed to fill up the remainder of my paper 
with tihe Comedy of Errors. 

y 2 There 



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Mg2 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

There are many things I set right in this Play by 
collation with the old folio, many of which I need 
not trouble you with. 

P. 7. A doubtful vf^rr^nt of immediate death. 

It plainly appears by the context that they were 
certain of immediate death: I rather think therefore 
the Poet wrote, 

A dreadful warrant, &c. 

Ibid. Of Corinth that, of Epidaurus this. 
I strongly suspect this a corruption from Epidam- 
ws: and I think the Abbess's speech, in p. 58, 
seems to warrant my suspicion : 

By men of Epidamnum he and I, and the twin 
Dromio, all were taken up, &c. 

P. 8. For ere the ships could meet by hvice five leagues. 

I cannot tell how to be satisfied with this passage. 
-3Egeon and his wife were lashed to two several 
masts, expecting wreck; and, floating with the 
stream, as soon as it was morning, they saw two 
vessels making amain to them, and yet tnese vessels 
were no less than ten leagues from each other. This 
seems a very wild story to me, that am but a fresh- 
water sailor. 

P. 9. Now trust me, were it not against our laws. 
Against my crown, my oath, my dignity. 
Which princes would, they may not disannul. 
The pointing is certainly wrong in the last line, 
and the order of the verses too, perhaps, is to be 
disputed.. Will the verb rfwanni*/ answer properly 
to all these substantives ? How might he be said to 
disannuU his crown, in shewing pity ? 

What if we should regulate the lines thus ? 
Now trust me, were it not against our laws, 
(Which princes, would they, may not disannul!,) 
Against my crown, &c. 

P. 10. Till that I '11 view the manners of the town. 
Within this hour it will be dinner time. 
Peruse the traders. 
Here is a like transposition, which, Mr. Pope might 
have observed, is set right by the first folio edition. 

Within 



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THEOBALD AKD WARBURTON. «93 



Within tills hour — 
Till that I Ml view - 
Peruse the traders- 



P. 16. Now, Sir, I will present you with a pas- 
sage, that will give you some employment in conjec- 
ture to rectify. After this couplet, 

■■ J — Yet the gold bides still 
That others touch, and often touching will. 

The first folio edition adds : 

JVear Where gold, and no man that hath a name, 
But By Falsehood and corruption doth it shame. 

P. 20. Keep then fair league and truce with thy true 
bed, 
I live distairCdj thou undishonourM. 

Surely, this cannot be our Poet's meaning; if 
they both of them were true to wedlock, why should 
she be stained^ and yet he undishonoured? It 
must either be, I live unstained; or else, with a dis- 
junction, diS'Stained. 

P We talk with goblins, owhy and elvish sprights, &c. 

They might fancy they talked with goblins, and 
sprights, but why with owls, in the name of Non- 
sense ? I make no doubt but we must read, with 
goblins, ouphes, and elvish sprights. 

So, in the Merry Wives, p. 289 : 

Strew good luck, oupheSf on every sacred room, 
And 
Like urchins, ouphes^ and fairies, green and white, &c. 

P, 24. I think thou art an ass. 
£. Dro. Marry, so it doth appear 

By the wrongs t suffer, and the blows I bear. 
I should kick, being kick'd. 

Certainly, this is cross-purpose reasoning. It ap- 
pears Dromio is an ass, by his making no resist- 
ance, because an ass, being kicked, kicks again. 
I would read. 

Marry, so it doth rCt appear. 

P. 27., 



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2S^ ILLUSTRATIOKS Of LITIEATUEB. 

P. 27. You have preTOilM ; I will depart in quiet, 

And» io despight of mxuth, meajti to be merry. 

In despight of what mirth t We do wt find that 
it was apy joke, or matter of mirth, to be shutout 
of doors by his wife. May we not restore it, 

And, in despight of wrath, mean to be merry. 

His passion is plain enough all through this scene; 
and again, at p. 45, he confesses how angry he was : 
And did not I in ilAG5 depart from ihence ? 

As this puts an end to a scene, so it must chst 
this Utter. On Saturday^ God willing, 1 will pur- 
sue the remainder of this Play, and attack Much 
Ado about Nothing. 

Believe me, dear Sir, with the greatest sincerity 
and gratitude, unalterably, your affectionate and 
pbliged friend and humble servant, Lew.Theoba+d. 



I.ETTER XJiX. 
To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Ujpa* Si^ ^ Nqv. sgt, 1729. 

1 fhisj^ ^IprQO^i^, shall trouble you with the 
i?eipain(4eir of my (juieries o^ the Comedy of Errors. 
p. 2S. And m^jT it be*, that you have quite forgot 
A husband's office ? Shall, Antipholis^ 
Ev*n in the spring of Love, thy l-ove-springsrot? 
Shall Love in buUdings grow so ruinate f 
I doubt not but you have observed that this scene, 
for 52 lines running, is strictly in alternate rhyme; 
saving that it is broke in the second and fourth 
verses of these two first couplets. Sure this must 
then be through the fault of the Editions. Besides, 
what conceit could our Editors have of Love in 
buildings growing ruinate? Sure, thw did not 
dream of L^ve mad^ under an old wall ! 1 have ven- 
tured to supply the passage two ways, and; shall be 
glad to know which of tb^m you approve for me. 



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THEOBAU) A»J> WARBURTON. ^95 

(It is certain^ I think^ a monosyllable has dropped 
from the tail of the second line.) 

And may it be, that you have quite foraot 

A husband's office ? Shall, AnUphoiis, tkus*, 

£v*n io tbe spring of Love, thy Love-springs rot i 
Shall Love, in building, grow so ruinous \ i 

* Or, hate? f ruinate? 

P. 3L & Ant. What 's her name? 

S. Dro. Nell, Sir ; but her name U three quar- 
ters, &c. 

This is a very odd and intricate passage, and has 
given me much trouble. I hope, it has given you a 
stop. I can at last make some sense of it ; 1 won't 
be certain I have hit upon the Poef s meaning ; but, 
if I have not, I believe, it will be past my discovery. 

S, Dro. Nel, Sir; — but her name t and three quar- 
ters (i. e. an ell and three quarters) wiU not 
measure her from hip to hip. 

Ibid. In her forehead; armM and reverted, malung 
war against her hair. 

Is there any equivocal joke here aimed at betwisrt 
Tiair and heir ? You know the stir about that time 
in France, to exclude Navarre from the* Crown; and 
that Queen Elizabeth sent forces in aid of his cause. 

P. 38. one that countermands 

Tbe passages of Allies — 

In one of yours, last season^ I remember you pro- 
posed we should read here coun/ermtne^ ;. but^ if you 
please to observe, rhyme seems designed here by 
tbe Poet ; and therefore I suspect it should be coifi- 
manis. What is meant, a little lower in this speech, 
of hounds running counter^ and drawing thejoot^ 
I am too raw a sportsman to guess at. 

P. 39. jtidr. As if Time were in debt, how fondly 
dost thou reason f 
S. Dro. Time it a very bankrout, and owes 
more than he's worth. 

: NeU, t. e. an eU. Mr. Pope will call this restdring lost pons. 



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2d6 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE, 

It is evident from the subsequent passages that 
rhyme was here intended by the Poet. Here is an 
assertion that Time owes more than he is worth, 
yet no explanation in what respect. I only quote 
this instance, to the praise of our Editor; for, in 
the first Jhlio edition, we have both the rhyme 
and the reason, 

and owes more than he 's worth to seasoru 

P. 40. What, have you got the picture of Old Adam 
new appafeil'd ? 

Antipholis is alone, and reasoning with himself, 
when Dromio enters to him, and asks this question. 
I suspect two short monosyllables are slipped out, 
or else I cannot tell what to make of this passage. 
I would restore — 

What, have you got rid of the picture of Old Adam 
new apparellM ? 

i. €. of the bailiff. Adam, you know, went n^ked ; 
which the vulgar call, in his buff. The bailiffs went 
array'd formerly in coats of buff: so that this addi- 
tional buff, I presume, he means by the new appa- 
re/ of Adam. 

P. 41. Nay, she is worse ; she 's the Devil's dam, &c. 

&c. &c. make me a light wench. 
The odd stuff contained in the place of these &c. 
Ac. I do not know what to make of. 

P. 44. I am an ass, indeed, you may prove it by my 
long ears. 

How, by his long ears? All the tenor of the fol- 
lowing speech wotild make us rather believe, it was 
by his patient bearing, or beating. 

, Ibid. Respect your end, or rather prophesie like the 
parrot. 

, First folio, 

Or rather the prophesie, &c. 

I do not at all understand either reading. 

P. 50. 



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THEOBALD AKU WARBURTON. 297 

P. 50. It Was the copy of our conference. 

By ctypy^ I suppose, we are to understand here 
the old word cofte (h copid), i. e. the fullness of our 
conference, all the subject of our talk. 

As in Hall's Chronicle, in Henry V. p. 8, b. " If 
you vanquish the Numidians, you shall have copie of 
beasts," i. e. plenty of them. 

P. 60, Thirty-three years have I been gone in trayel. 
It seems very evident to me that there is a mis- 
take in the reckoning, and that we ought to read, 
Twenty-Jive years have I, &c. 
My proofs of this are these. In p. 8, ^geon says. 

My youngest boy, and yet my eldest care, at 
EIGHTEEN years became inquisitive, &c. 

And again, at p. 57 : 

But SEVEN years since, in Syracusa-bay, thou 
know^st we parted. 

So that if the son left his father at 1 8 years old, and 
the father found him again in seven years after, we 
may safely infer, I think, it was but 25 years past 
since his mother was in travel of him. 

I should hint to you, there are other characteris- 
tics of tyfne to be observed in this Play; but I ques- 
tion whether they will either confirm, or impeach, 
this conjecture. See p. 27. 1. 6 : 

Your long experience, &c. 

P. 28. 1. 22, 23 : 

Ev'n in the spring of Love, &c. 

p. 53' 1. 8 : 

Long since thy husband, &o. 

P. 54. 1. 7 •• 

Ev'n for the service that long since, &c. 

P. 57. 1-36: 

I tell thee, Syracusah ; twenty years, &c. 



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90S ILLUSXIUTU)N8 OF LITIEAXVRE. 

And now to (a iavouriteoC nuDe) Much Ado about 
Nothing. 

y. 63. Enter Leonato, Itmogen^ Hero, &c. 
Innogen, being mentioned even from the first 

?uarto editions downwards in two entrances of this 
lay, it seems as if the Poet had in his first plan de* 
signed such a character, which, on a survey of it, 
he found would be superfluous to receive, the name 
ought therefore to be expunged; there being no 
mention of her in the Play, no one speech addiessed 
to lier, nor one syllable spoken by her. Neither ia 
there any one passage, from which we have any rea- 
son to determine Hero's mother to be there. And, 
besides, if Innogen were on the stage, as the printed 
copies suppose, the person, who comes as a guest 
to her house, must certainly have paid his compli- 
ments to her as well as to the daughter. 

P. Q4m tt is so indeed, be is no less than a stuft man : 
but for the stuffing well, we are all mortal. 

it idcm» past dispute with me, that the pointing 
of the latter part oS this seistence should be thM 
notified: 

But for the stuffing, Well, we are all mortal. 

Our Poet seems^ to use the word stu0mg here 
much as^Plautus does, Mostell. Act I. Sc. }: 
Mmvestim amoUores muikris amanf, sii vestis iartum. 

P. 70. If I do, hang me in a bottle like a cat, and 
shoot at me, and he that bits me, let him be 
clapt on the shoulder, and called Adam. 
Aimine at a cat in this position, I suppose, was a 
custom, like that Shrove-tide one, which I have 
heard of in some Counties, of hanging a cock in an 
earthen jug cross a street, and throwing at it; igid 
he that broke the pitcher, and fetched down the 
cock, was entitled to it. But why should the man 
that did this be called Adam? — Mr. Bisbc^ con- 
jectured for me, that it should be a Dab (or dabster). 
Sed miniis proba mihi videiwr hose comectura. 

I will 



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TiUOBAl^D ANO WAH9UETON. 299 

I wiU veatura to piH^KMe awth^F gu^iu» ta ¥4% that 
I think bids fairer at the Poet*s oaeuiing. We bad W 
do with the picture of Old Adam, you know^ m the 
last Play ; now^ 1 beliere, our affi^iv is vnth one oC 
QQore laodern extraction. — In an old Comedy, caUed 
Law Tricks, written by John Day^ and prmted in 
quarto, 1608, I find this speech : 

I have heard old Adam was aa honest man and a 
good gardener, tored lettuce well, aallada aad cab^ 
bage reasonably well, yet no tobacco. 
Again : 

Adam Bell, a substantial oqtlaw^ and a passing 

good ARCHER, &C. 

How much Archery was in vogue needs no men- 
tion ; and it may be presumed this Adam BeltvfBs 
such a proficient in the science, that his skill might 
bring his name into a proverb. But^ I think, I 
ought to endeavour at a nearer acquaintance wjth 
hinn ; and then the conjecture will have more autho^ 
rity. Perhaps, I may find some notice of him in 
Ascham^s Toxophiltis. 

There is some foi^etfulness in certain speeches, 
or intricacy in the scenery, of this Adam. I know 
not easily how to reconcile the contradictions : for 
example, p. 71 : 

Pedr. No child but Hero, she 's his only heir. 

Dost thou affect her, Clatidio? 
Claud, O my llord, &c. 

How comes Pedro to aak l^ia qucetieiiiy when the 
affair has been so amply talked of before* 

P. 69. Claud. That I love her, I feel. 

Pedr. That she is worthy, I koow. 
And again, what ave we to; determine of the fol- 
lowing passage } 

F. 7lk I know we shall have revelling to-ni^bt; 
I will assume thy part ia soHie diignise, 
Aad teU fair Hero, &c. 
Wliere it thia. spoken? Antonio immecBateiy 
comes in with Leonato, and tells hinl that a servant 

of 



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300- ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

of his had overheard the Prince and Claudio con- 
certing this business in an alley near Antonio*s or- 
chard ; see p. 72 : and afterwards, at p. 74, Bora- 
chio tells John the Bastard he had overheard them^ 
from behind an arras in Leonato*s house, la3nng the 
same scheme. And yet it is plain from Pedro's very 
first words in the fourth Scene, that Claudio had 

not yet been in Leonato*s house ; nor does 

the stage till after this conference betwixt the Prince 
and him ; nor are we to imagine that they held the 
same conference in two distinct places. 

P. 170. Shame, that they wanted cunning in excess, 
Hath broke their hearts. 

What ! did shame, that they were not the cun- 
ning*st men alive, prove the cause of their deaths ? 
I dare say our Author means that extremity of shame 
had killed them, because they were not wise enough 
not to have banished Alcibiades. 

I read, therefore. 

Shame, that they wanted cunning, in excess 
Hath, &c. 

P. 172. Taught thee to make vast Neptune weep 
for aye 
On thy low grave ; on faults forgiven. 

On wlxat faults forgiven ? or why was Neptune 
to weep for Timon's faults forgiven ? The Poet 
had no such stuff in his head. 

Alcibiades's whole speech, you will observe, is in 
breaks, betwixt his Reflexions on Timon, and his 
Addresses to the Athenians. I make no scruple to 
point, and explain it thus : 

Taught thee to make vast Neptune weep for aye 
On thy low grave. — On, faults forgiven. — 

i. e. bidding the Senators lead the way, and pro- 
mising to use them with mercy. 

I am, dear Sir, most affectionately, your obliged 
humble servant. Lew. Th£OBau>. 



LETTBR 



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THEOBALD AND WARBUETOM. 3QL 

LETTER XX. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

*Dear Sir, Wyaris Court y Dec. 4, 1729. 
I have received none from you since the three 
confessed in my last, viz. 29th of November. I 
hope, no miscarriage of the post. 
I now proceed where my last left off. 
P. 94. To listen to our purpose. 
What purpose ? The old quarto reads as I think 
we ought to restore it : 

To listen our propose. 
i. e. hearken to our conversation. 
So, above, in this very speech : 

Proposing with the Prince and Claudio ; 
i. e. conversing with. So in Othello, p. 326, wherein 
the toged CounsHers (for so I read that passage) can 
propose as masterly as he. 

And, besides. Hero repeats the very same thing, 
in other words, ih the next pi^ (95) : 

Close by the ground to hear our conference. 
P. 96. But she would spell him backward; iffair-facM, 
She 'd swear the gentleman should be her sis- 
ter; &c. 
Some of our Poefs modem Editors pretend he 
never imitates any passages in the Antients. 

Methinks, this is so very like a remarkable de- 
scription in Lucretius, iv. 1154, &c. that I cannot 
help suspecting Shakespeare had it in view : 

Nigra, /wJxi^ est : immunda & fcetida, cmo<rfAor 
Cassia, vai^saiiw' nervosa & lignea, ibpi^* 
Panrola, pumilio, x^iW ^, tota merum sal : 
Magna atque immanis, Morrofsn^i^ plenaque hono- 
ris; &c. 
The only difference is, that the Latin Poet's cha- 
racteristics turn upon praise; our Countryman's, 
upon the hinge of derogation. 

P. 99. 



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30S ILLUSTRATIONS OT LITERATUKE. 

P. 99. She shall be buried with her face upwards. 

What is there any ways particular in this ? are 
not all men and women buried so ? Sure the Poet 
means, in opposition to the general rule^ with her 
heels upwards, or ikce downwards. 

P. 104. Thou should rather asfc if it were possible any 
villainy should be so rich ? for when rich vilkins 
have need of poor ones, poor ones may make what 
price they will. 
If this be not mock-reasoning, I ought to submit 
to own myself very dull : for I cannot reconcile it to 
the sense that seems required. 
Should we not rather read ? 
If it were possible any villainy should be so CHBAt^ ? 
And ConradeS preceding question^ I think^ war- 
rants this answer : 

Is it possible that any villainy should be so 0£iiR ? 

p. 105. Conr. Masters, masters. 

2d Watch. You Ml be made to bring deformed 

forth, I warrant you. 
Co'Ar. Masters, never speak, we charge you, 
let us obey yoo to go with us. 
I am confident something is wrong in the placing 
of part of dieie speeclies. I allow^ tiie Poet meant 
nonsense; but not nonsense without htinTour^ as 
the Editors here thrust it upon him^ and poor Con- 
rade. I am persuaded you will approve my regula- 
tion of tiie place. 

Qmr. Masters, Masters -^--^^ 

id Wk. You '11 be made to briag, he. 

Cofir. Masters ■ ■ 

td Wa. Never speak : — We charge you, &c. 

p. 1 16. Your daughter here the PaiKCfiss (left for dead) 

Let her awhile, &c. 
But how comes Hero to start up a Princess here? 
We have no intimation of her father beipg t Prince; 
and this is the first and only time she is compli- 
mented with this dignity. The remotion of a single 
letter and the parenthesis will bring her to her 
own rank^ and uie place to its true meaning. 

^ Year 



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TREOBALB AND WAHBURTOK. $0$ 

Tour daughter here the Princes left for dead ; 
Let her, ac. 
f. e. Pedro Prince of Arragon ; and his bastard bro- 
ther^ who is likiewise call^ a Prince. 
So again, p. II5 : 

To burn the error that these Princes hold 
Against her maiden honour. 
And p. . . . there is some istrange misprision in the 
Princes. And p. Iii9, 1 thank yon, Princes, for, &c. 

P. 120. Write down, roaster Gentleman Conrade; 

Masters, do you serve God? Masters, it it 

proved already, &c. 

It is plain, l^ Mr. Pope's Hst, he has never seen 

the quarto, in 1600, of this Play; or, if he has, I 

will soon make it plain that he never has collated it. 

The Town-clerk here asks a question, and never 

"Stays for an answer to it. But the quarto supplies 

this defect ; and adds something very humourous, 

and in character : 

To. CI. Write down, master Gentleman Conmde. 

Masters, do jron serve God ? 
Sofi. Yea, Sir, we hope. 

To. CI. Wrjte down, that tbey hope they serve God : 
and write God first : for God defend but God should 
go before such villains. — Masters, it is proved, &c 

P. 122. If such a one will smile, and stroke his beard, 

And halloWy wag^ cry hem, when, &Ci 
Mr. Rowe is the first authority that I can find for 
this reading. But what is the intention of it ? If 
a man will halloo and w/ioop, andjidget and wrig' 
gle about^ to shew his pleasure, when he should 
groan? 

The oW quarto, and the first and second folio edi- 
tionft all read. 

And sorrow, «*^^^> cry, &c. 
But we do not get much by this reading neither ; 
jret, I think, by a slight alteration, it will lead Us to 
the true one : 

And sorrow 'Wage, cry hero, &c. 
i. €. combat with> strive against sorrow. 

So 



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3^04 ILLUSTRATIONS OF UTEBATURE. 

So Lear, p. 397 : • 

To wage^ against the enmity o' th' air, 
Necessity's strong pinch. 
And so, Othello, p, 335 : 

Neglecting an attempt of ease and gain. 
To wake and wage a danger profitless. 
P. 124. Canst thou so daffe me ? 
Is not Mr. Pope's explanation wrong here? daffe 
and doffe \ take to be synonymous; and that the 
old man means. 

Canst thou shake me off so ? 

P. 125. And speak of half a dozen daogVous words. 
Certainly ; and ^eak off half, &c. 
So Twelfth Night, p. 229 : % , 

A terrible oath with a swaggering accent sharply 

twang doff^ &c. 

P. 132, To have no man come over me ? Why, shall 

I always keep hehw stairs ? 
Should not this be, above stairs ? 
P. 136. Ant. That eye my daughter lent her. 
It is evident to demonstration that Leonato must 
speak this; for Hero, his' daughter, worked up 
Beatrice to be in love with Benedick. 

P. 1 37. Leon. This same is she, and I do give you her. 
Now it is as evident that this must be spoke by 
Antonio: for, in the preceding page, Leonato says 
to him, 

You know your oflSce, brother ; 

You must be father to your brother's daughter. 
And give her to young Claudio. 

' P. 137. Claud. Another Hero? 

Hero. Nothing certainer. 

One Hero dy*d, but I do live ; 
And surely as I live I am a maid. 
How is this made out ? One Hero died, and she 
lives ; but how is she another Hero. 

The old quarto solves the diflSculty, and makes 
the last line reasonable. 

One Hefo dy'd defil'd; but I do live. 
And surely, &c. 

P. 138. 



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THEOBALD AlTD WA&BURTOH/ 3O5 

F. 188. Beat. I wouIdHOTdenyyou, botby dLiggooil 

day I yield upon good perswaikm« 
Mock-reasoning again. I read^ 

I would YET deny you, but, &c. 

P. 138. Lton. Peace, I will stop your mouth. 
What, does Leonato mean. 

Nay, pray niece, donH keep up this obstinacy of 
professions, for I have proofs to stop your mouth ? 
I kave a great suspicion it should be^ 

Bene, Peace, I will stop your mouth. 
For else, with what propriety does Pedro imme- 
diately reply, but upon seeing such an evidence of 
fondness, 

How do*Bt thou. Benedick, the married man ? 
The like expression for it, I remember we have 
in Troilus, p. 318: 

Cress. - Stop my mouth. 

TraiL And shall, albeit sweet musick issues thence, &c. 
And so I end this Play, Sir^ I hope, con la bocca 
dolce. 

Now to the Merchant of Venice. — 

P. 156. (for when did Friendship take 

A breed of barren metal of his Friend ?) 

A breed of metal, as Mr. Pope rightly observes^ 
may signify money at usury ; but then will barren 
metal hre^d? I rather think the Poet wrote, 

A breed of bearing metal. 
t. e. producing an increase, by usury, or interest. 
Consonant to this, you know, the Latins explained 
interest thus: fosnuSy foetum accepti; and the 
Greeks called it rixag. iSoth which expressions take 
in our Poet's idea of a breed. See Nonius Marcel- 
lus in V. Fcenus & Mutuum; and Gronovius de 
Sestertio, 4to, p. 414- 

P. 158. And hedg'd me by hb WIT to yield myself. 

Sure the father shewed rather whim and extrava- 
gance> than any grain of wit, in this compelled dis- 
position of his daughter: for it guarded against no 
inconveniences, as the consent of trustees might 

VOL, II. X have 



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906 nauitnuTioiis qv jmitbratueb. 

bate done; only tied hardcHra toa twciraobedieiice. 
I would ready 

And hedgM roe by bit will. 
So p. 149 * 

•So it the win of a liTtng daughter cwrb'd by 
the WILL of a dead fii&er. 
And p. 149 (ialsely so marked) : 
You should refusie to perform your father^s will. 

And again : « 

unless I be obtatnM by the manner of my 

father'4 will. 

P. 160. Turn upon your right hand at the next turn* 
ing ; but at the next turning of all, on your 
left, &c. 

I think, I remember, somewhere in Terence, the 
arch-direction of a slave, who wants to puzzle his 
inquirer, perfectly like this — Sed non occurrit 
mtki locus. 

P. 162. As my father shall spedfie. 

Considering Lancelot is here upon bis game, and 
knocking all words out of joint, Mr. Bishop ima- 
gines this should be. 

As my father shall spicifie. 

Just as he a little after says, shall frmtifU uttto 
you — (fruit and spice). 

But is it of moment enough to mention? 

Ibid. Tm have the Grace tf God, Sir, and he hath 
enough. 

Now here, indeed, methinks, this is a little too se- 
rious for Launcelot: and he delivers the proverb 
more justly than the Poet intended. It would be 
very satirical both to his old and new master, with 
relation both to thetr religion and circumstances, if 
we might imagine a small transposition in the words. 

He bath the Grace of God, Sir, and^you have enough. 

For Launcelot to say the Jew, whoni he thought 
a Devil, had the grace of God; or that Bassanio had 
enough^ whom Ivs knew to be a borrower, is very 

drolL 



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TRBOBALD AMP WAUUBTQM. S07 

dinUI. And then there is much hmnoor too in the 
ironical reply of Bassanio : 

Thou speak'st it well. 
Ory as we read it, 

Thou spUt'st it well. 

P. 17^. That may be meant Of tbefbU nultitlNle 

that cfante by show, &c. 
Oh, the diligence of dieseEditws! Both the old 
quarto and first folio edition read^ 

Of the FOOL-mulUtode. 
P. 177. Bassaoio lord, Lore! 
Mr. Pope certainly coneeiTes— fiajranlo lord, t0 
stand for Lord Basmmo. — I take the liberty to 
alter the pointing : 

Bassanio, — Lord Love! if, &c. 

P. ..... As ever knapt ginger. 

I do not well know what this expression alludes 
to. Is it the breaking ginger in pieces to put into 
possets, as I presume was then the custom; and 
which seems to foe hinted at in Measure for Measure, 
p* 358, Ginger was not much in request; for the old 
women were all dead. But I had not troubled you 
with this trifling passage, but to be informed, ex- 
actly, what is meant by a race, or raze of ginger.— 
Its seeming derivation from radix, or radice, of the 
Italians, makes me think they meant as we do, a 
little root of ginger. 

And so in Winter's Tale, p. 305 : 
A race^ or two, of ginger; but that. I may beg. 

But how are we then to understand I Henry IV. 
p. 19S : 

I baFo a gammon of bacon, and two rgze^ of gin- 
ger to be delivered as far as Chariog-cross. 

What! would any body send two little roots of 

finger* from Canterbury to London by the carrier ? 
are, this is worse than qoals to Newcastle. 

P. 183. Thus ornament is but the gilded shore 

To a most dangerous sea; the beauteous scarf 
Veiling an Indian beauty; in a word, 

X 2 The 



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308 iLLvmiAifoiis cfw urmtLAXvmE. 



The smittii^ truth whieh caimifi^ Tiilas' 

put on 
T' entrap the wisest,. 

These very fine lines, I own, puz^ me. Th^ 
Poet is haranraing, ^ith some scope, of the decep- 
tion bf.cxtenor beauty, from the fiwus, and false 
hair, &c. But pray, a word or two on the text. 
Hiere 16 a glaring contrast betwixt gilded shore, 
and dangerous sea; but is there the same betwixt 
heauteous scarfs and Indian heauty? I suspect 
both the pointmg and the text wrong ; but after I 
have submitted my emendation, I shall, with the 
gneate^t pleature, retriict it» if (as it is very possible) 

50U shall explain it to me without any alteration, 
'hus I at present : 

Thus ornament is but the gilded shore 
To a mo$t dangerous tea : tbe beauteous M^rf 
Veiling aa In^n. — BeautyX in a word, 
Tbe seeming truth which cunning dames* put on 
T* entrap tbe wisest. 
I am, dear Sir, your most affectionate boundeu 
servant, Ljlw. Theobald. 



LETTER XXL 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, fVyarCs Court, Deo. 6, 1729. 
I have just received the unspeakable satisfaction 
of two of yours, and read them with a pleasure an- 
swering my best expectations. General thanks pre- 
mised, Iwill only interrupt the business in hand 
with two or three words arising from part of their 
contents; and so fall into order. I am strangely 
delighted with Stephano and Staffilato ; and wiu 
for that reason lay out with my best diligence to trace 

, * Or Titas, or tiimi. 

whence 



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THXOBALD AllD WARllURTON. 3^9 

whence our Author derived his Play, the feble of it 
I mean. I have already thrown in a note on the 
nice preservation of the three unities. As you have 
stepped back to the Tempest, I will beg leave to 
take one passage of the Meny Wives in my way, 
which I had forgot to trouble you with ; p. 535 : 
Go; a short knife and a thong ^ to your manor of Fickt-haich. 
I find this place often mentioned in Ben Jonson ; 
and sometimes joined with the Spittle. 1 suppose it 
was somewhere in the suburbs of this great town, or 
the Borough ; but what was done there, to whkh 
our Author alludes in the knife and thong, I am ut-^ 
terly a stranger to. — And now as to Adam BeU or 
Dell. I am afraid, I must yet gro\t better ac- 
quainted with him. I not only remembered that 
remarkable story you mention of the Swiss Cantons* 
enfranchisement, but had lately read it. Your me^ 
mory does not much deceive you in die name of the 
person to whom this revolution was owing. It was^ 
l^ell (or Tellium) ; and I wish he were full to our 
purpose ; but it happens a little unluckily, that bis 
Christian name was William; and so we are again 
at seek for Adam. Moreri gives us the story with 
all its particulars. Vide Tell (William) &c. — And 
next, as to my doubts on the additional couplet in 
the l6th page of the Comedy of Errors. I am sorry 
I expressed myself so unhappily as to leave it a ques- 
tion whether I was desiring your assistance for my 
own information, or putting you upon a fruitless 
task. Pray, dear Sir, excuse me in jrour opinion 
from all attempts of this sort, or of using any such 
trifling reserve with you. Believe me, I had toiled 
myself into the very abyss of dullness upon this 
passage, and met with no ground. Your discovery 
i#^ I think, happy and satisfactory. I only observe 
the third line halts for want of a syllable, and in the 
second methinks a disjunctive would be better than 
a copulative. Shall I understand it right in reading 

thus ? 

Yet 



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310 ILLUSTRATIONS Or LITEEATURS. 



Yet the gold bides still. 



That otben touch: — BUT often touching will 
Wear gold : and [so] no man that hath a namc^ 
Butfauehood, &c. 

And now to pursue my* inquiries on the Merchant 
of Venice : 

P. 186. But who comes here? Lorenzo and hislN-* 

FIDEL? 

P. 187. Nerisa, cheer yon stranger. — BidHERwell- 
conie* 

How comes it to pass, that there is no more notice 
taken of Jessica, and that Bassanio and Portia take 
no notice* of her at all ? Was she still in the habit 
of a boy, and appeared as Lorenzo*s page ? that there 
might be no occasion of taking notice of her, and 
hearinj? her story, which could not be so properly 
done if Bassanio had a letter to deliver of such conse- 
quence, and that required so much haste ; and much 
less, if Bassanio had read it. But then again, if she 
was in man*s cloaths, how comes Gratiano to say to 
Nerissa — bid her welcome, without intimating at least 
that she was a woman in man's apparel ? And again 
is it not a little odd, id p. l88 Jessica mixes herself 
in discourse about the Jew her father's desire of re- 
venge on Antonio, and still not one civil word is ad- 
dreued to her by Bassanio or Portia r 

P. 191. The Duke cannot deny the course of law ; 
For the commodity that strangers have 
With us in Venice, if it he deny^d, 
WHl much impeach the justice of the State, 
Since that, &c. 

I suspect, the pointing and text are slightly de- 
praved in this passage ; and may be thus set right : 

The Duke cannot deny the course of law. 
For the commodity that strangers have 
With us in Venice. If it be denyM 
*TwiU much impeach the justice of the State : 
Since that, &c. 

P. 192. 



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TftSOBAtD AND WAIBUETOK. 311 

P. 192. This comes too Bear the flniping of myself; 
Therefore no more of it : hkek other things, 
Lorenzo, &c. 
Here a^in 19 a small depravation ; thus, I think, 
tto berecufied: 

-■ H£AR Other things. 

And then it runs exactly like this passage in Ham- 
Jet, p. 262 : 

— —————Ay, in my heart of heart, 

As I do thee« — Something too much of this. — 
There is a Play, &c. 

Ibid* And use thou all th' endeavour of a man. 

In speed to Mantua. 
Thus all the old copies, and thus all the modern 
Editors implicitly after them ; though it is evident 
tQ any diligent reader, that we must restore. 

In speed to Padua : 
For it was there, and not at Mantua, that Bellario 
lived. So, p. 199 : 

A messenger, with Letters from the Doctor, 
New come from Padua. 
And again. 

Came you from Padua, from Bellario ? 
And p. 218: . 

Ic comes from Padua, from Bellaria 

P. 197. Cannot contain their urine for affection. 
Masierltss passion sways it to the mood 
Of what it likes or loaths. 
Both the old quartos and the old folio have it : 

Masters of passion. •_ 

which seems to countenance another reading, ^^Z^^ 
think any change is necessary. Besides, doth afiec* 
tion sway our passions ; or passion our affections ?— - 
If the former, I presume we should read : 

their urine. For atfection. 

Mistress of passion, sways it to the mood, &c. 
i. e. as I conceive it, sympathy, or antipathy, sways 
car passion to like, or disake. 

P. 200. Repair thy wii, good youth, or it will fail 
To 0AREL£SS ruln. 

Her« 



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3^0 ILhVVUKApm^S OF LITERA117RB. 

Here Mr. Pope's eyeg were deficient, for thf dd 
fa^ksi read much more pertinently : 
To CURELESS ruin. 
P. 202. A Daniel, come to judgment ! yea, a Daniel. 
There is no fault in sense here ; I think the point- 
ing is not exactly as the Poet designed it. I like it 
better, 

A Daniel ! Come to judgment : — ^yea, a Daniel ! 

For this reading not only extols the advocate, but 

expresses the Jew*8 impatience for a sentence. And 

when Gratiano comes to retort the Jew*s words with 

him, he cries, 

A second Daniel ! a Daniel, Jeiv ! — A Daniel, 
still say I, a second Daniel ! I thank thee, Jew, for 
teaching me that word. 

P. 204. Repent not you that you shall lose your 
friend. 
And he repents not that he pays your debt. 
Sure this generosity of Antonio is of a very extra- 
vagant cast. 

Do not be sorry for the loss of me, and I shall 
not be sorry to die for you. 
I think the old quarto exhibits the much better 
reading : 

Repent BUT you, &c. 
Id est, do you but only be sorry that you shall lose a 
friend by my death, and that is all the recompence 1 
desire for dying for you. 

P. 206. So please my lord the duke, and all the 
court. 
To quit the fine for, &c. 
Dr. Thirlby, by a change of the subsequent lines, 
gives Antonio a much more generous way of think- 
ing. I will submit his reading to you : 

To quit THEIR fine OF one half of his goods; 
I am content to let him have the other 
In use, to render it upon his death 
Unto the gentleman that stole bis daughter. 

P. 208. There *8 more than this depends upon the 
value. 

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THSOBALD AND WAEBURTON/ 3I3 

More than what ? More than the ring ckpends 
on the value of it ? Either I do not conceive the 
passage so clearly as I ought, or^ methinks, w% 
should read : 

There 's more depends on this than is the value. 

P. 217. I once did lend my body for his WEALTH, &c. 
I think it should be, 

for his WEAL, 

As in King John^ p- 57 • 

Than whereupon our weal, on you depending. 

Counts it your weal, &c. 

P. 219. Or go. to bed, now being two hours to-day. 

The old quarto, though the difference is minute, 
seems to give us the truer pointing : 
Or go to bed now, being, &c. 

And here, dear Sir, conclude my inquiries upon 
this fine Play. The next in order, I do not know 
whether we may not pronounce the very worst in 
the whole set. And it is no less corrupt throughout 
in the text, than it is vicious in the composition. 
But the badness of the coin sbalF not afiright me 
irom bringing it to the touchstone. Video, quod 
mihi egomet cantrivij exedendum esse; as Dr. Bentley 
says of Johannes Antiochensis*. When this part of 
my laboiir is over, the rest will be diversion : and I 

Eride myself much in. the crop that you tell me you 
ave in reserve. The small remainder of this sheet 
shall not enter upon Lovers Labour Lost, but with 
leave I will trouble you with two or three eccentric 
inquiries on Troilus. 

P. 290. The purpose is perspicuouft ev'n as substance* 
Whose grossness little characters sum up. 
And in the publication make no strain : 
But that Achilles, &c. 

This is very strange stufi'to me, however the wiae 
Editors have solved it to themselves. That little 
characters^ or particles, sum up the grossness of any 

* See Bentley's Epistola ad Joannem Millium, subjoined to his 
Historia Chroniea Joannis Halals. Oxford^ 1691^ 8vo. 

substance. 



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314 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

substance. I conceive; but how they make no strain 
in the publication, is a little harder than algebra to 
me. Yet, by the transposition of two stops, I think^ 
we may come at clear sense. 

The purpose is perspicuous ev'n as substance, 
Whose grossness little characters sum up : 
And, in the publication, make no strain, 
But that Achilles, &c. 

t. e. the aim and purpose of this duel is as visible 
as gross substance can be ; and make no doubt, 
when it comes to be proclaimed, but that Achilles, 
dull as he is, will discover the drift of it. 

P. 335* The secrets of neighbour Pandar, &c. 
I do not know what authority Mr. Pope has for 
this reading. The first folio reads, 
The secrets of Nature. 
What, if we should read. 

The secret'st things of Nature : 
I. c. the occult parts of Nature, or the mysteries of 
Nature, as the Poet elsewhere expresses it: AlPa 
Well that ends Well, p. 168. 

Hath not in Nature^s mystery more science 
Than I have in this ring. 
So there is some illusion to this, I think, in this 
speech of Hamlet, p. 232 : 

There are more things in heav'n and earth, Hora- 
tio, than are dreamt of in your philosophy. 
But I am very much of opinion, I shall obtain a 
very satisfoctory exposition from your sagacity. 
P. 345. Not NeoptoUmus so mirable. ^ 

Does not our good Poet forget himself here in the 
truth of story? He cannot by this Neoptolemus 
mean Pyrrhus the son of Achilles ; for he, from our 
own Poet's words, was not yet come to the Trojan 
wars ; consequently had no eclat in arms to make 
him so mirable. r. 326 : 

But it must grieve young Pyrrhus now at home, 
When Fame shall in his island sound her trump, &c^ 
And was there any other Neoptolemqs } 

P. S43. 



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THBOBALD AND WARBURTON. 31 5 

P. 343. So glib of toDgue 

They give a coasting welcome ere it comes. 

What i« intended he^e by coastitig? I know 
this is spoken of a vessel either saluting a coast^ or 
b^ng saluted from a shore ; hut this allusion seems 
too remote, and the metaphor too obscure^ as there is 
no single syllable of a ship in the context. I have 
substituted, if you like it, 

They give accostino welcome ere it comes. 
i. e. they are ready to caress every man, even before 
he makes the address. 

I am, dearest Sir, your affectionate and eternally 
obliged humble servant. Lew. Theobald. 



LETTER XXIL 

To the Rev. Mr. WarburtOn. 

Dear Sir, fVyaris Courts Dec. ii, 1729. 
I have received the pleasure of yours of the 8th 
instant; and rejoice much in the breach of your 
promise, or resolution, with regard to your fine expla- 
nation upon Othello ; as 1 do likewise in your res- 
cuing me from the doubts I had of that fine passage 
in the Merchant of Venice about ornament and ex* 
temal beauty. I shall now, without farther preface, 
proceed to trouble you with my inquiries and at- 
tempts upon Love's Labour Lost. — By the bye, I 
am a little stag^red even about the title not answer- 
ing, as I conceive, the catastrophe. The four gal- 
lants set out with protestations against giving way 
to Love ; they all happen to be caught in the snare; 
and their respective mistresses, upon preliminaries* 
settled, agree to make them happy in their suits at 
a year's end : so that to me, as yet. Lovers LahowT' 
seems to be Not Lost. 

P. 325. to study where I well may dine. 

When I to past expressly zmjhrbid. 

Upon 



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^16 ILUUSTRATIONB OF UTBEATURK. 

Upon weighing th^ context with all the strictness 
and accuracy that I am capable of, I cannot but 
think the Author's meaning is lost in a slight cor- 
ruption of the text ; and that we ou^t to restore 
him to sense^ and the deduction he aims at^ one of 
these two ways. 

When I to FEAST expressly am forbid ; 
or (you know he loves to play with similar words). 

When I to fast expressly am fore-bid; 
snhjudice lis est 

P, 226. Why should I joy in an abortive birth? 
At Christmas I no more desire a rose, 
Than wish a snow in May's new-fangled 

SHOWS, 

But like of each thing that in season grows. 
From p. 224, at this line, 

O these are barreiv tasks, &c. 
all the subsequent lines are strictly in rhjmie, either 
continued by couplets, alternate, or in triplets. But 
by the triplet that takes place here, you will observe 
birth is quite destitute of a rhyme to it. I have ven- 
tured to imagine the third line should be read thus : 

Than wish a snow in May's new-fangled EARTH; 
the ground being at that season new-clad with such 
a diversity of flowers. 

P. 224. When I was wont to think no harm all night 
By the way, does not this seem an imitation, or 
translation rather may I call it, of this Latin prover- 
bial saying, Qui bend dormit^ nihil malicogitat? 

P. 227. Long. To fright them hence with that dread 
penalty ; 
A dangerous Law against gentility. 
To the second verse, I think, the name of Biron 
ought certainly to be prefixed ; who makes the ob- 
servation, and then continues to read another article 
out of the paper. 

So, on the contrary, at this line a little lower, 
Bir. This article, my liege, yourself must break ; 
file namei of Biron ought to be expunged, as unne^ 

cessaiy; 



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THXOBALD AND WARBUftTON. ^17 

oessary ; he going on to address himself to the King, 
immediately after he has read out the article. But 
how are we to understand the word gentility here? 
Does it mean against gentleness, manners, and hu- 
manity ? It cannot mean against the rank of gen- 
try only ; for women of all ranks were by the law 
indifierently proscribed the Court. I once guessed^ 
it should be, — A dangerous law against garrulity ; 
all women having so much of that unhappy faculty. 
P. 228. I am the last that will last keep his oath. 
I think, I take our Author's meaning in this pas- 
sage* but is not his £iiglish a little perplexed ? 

P. 228. shall relate 

In high-born words the worth of many a 

Koight : 
From tawny Spain lost iu the world's debate^ 
1 correct the pointing of this passage thus : 

' ■ shall relate 

In high-born words the worth of many a Knight 
From tawny Spain, lost in the world^s debate. 

Ibid. DulL Which is the DuK£'s own person? 

Bir. This fellow ; what would'st ? 
Here^ and in several x>ther places^ Duke hasob- 
teined erroneously for King ; but then how politely 
has Mr. Pope*s negligence made Biron answer! 
Nobody but he needs be told, we should point it 
thus: 

This, fellow J what would'st ? 

Ibid. A high hope for a low heaybm. 

UimatdonaUe stupidity ! Because God is meu* 
tioned just before, these Editors concluded heavbk 
must be lugged in after him. I am persuaded you 
will read with me, 

A high hope for a low haviKg. 

Shakespeare uses this as a substantive not lesa 
than a hundred times. 

P. 234. Boy, I do lore that country-girl that I took 

in the park with the rational bind Costard. 

From Armado's self'^sufliciency, and contempt for 

Cosftard, 



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31 8 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITSRATUftE. 

Costerd^ should not this rather be. 

The IRRATIONAL bind, &c. ? 

Or, as hind signifies both a rustic and a stag, does 
he mean, think you, to consider Costard as a iner& 
animal, and so call him, with regard to his form as 
a man, the rational brute ? 

P. 235. Enter Costard, Dull, Jaquenetta, and maid. 

Marvellous accuracy indeed ! Jaquenetta is the 
maid, or country wench, as the Dramatis Personse 
styles her, and no other maid enters. It therefore 
•should be, if the additional words are at all neces- 
sary, Jaquenetta, a maid ; t. e. a servant maid. 

Ibid. She is allowed for the day-woman. 
. I do not know this term. 

Ibid. Maid, Fair weather after you. Come, Jaque- 
netta, come. 

Hence, I suppose, Mr. Pope derived his mistake 
of making the Maid and Jaquenetta two persons. 
But I will venture to solve this difficulty to him, 
by restoring as it ought to be : 

Jaq. Fair weather after you ! 
Dull. Come, Jaquenetta, come. 

For DuUj you observe, in his very first speech, 
tells us, he has the charge of this damsel, and is to 
keep her at the park. 

P. 236. The FIRST and sECONl) cause will not serve 

my turn. 
I remember you were so good to say, you had 
something remarkable for me in petto, concerning 
oar Author's so very frequently alluding to* duel- 
ling. Ben Jonson, I remember, mentions it as a 
thing then in vogue of quarreling by theory, from 
Caranza*s book De Duello *. I presume, our Au- 
thor either had the original, or some translation of 
this tratt; which furnished him both with ^erm^ 
and raillery upon the subject. 

P* 238. The young Dumain, a well-accomplisbt youth; 
Of all that Virtue love, for Virtue lov*d. 
Moat power to do most harm, ^c. 

* See**' ETeiy Man ia bis Humour/' Act I. Scene 5. 

There 



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. TH£OaiULP AND WARBURTON. 3I9 

Hiere is somethiag here very cramp^ and obscure 
to me ; and I cannot make out the context with any 
satisfaction. 

P. 239. Another of these students at that time 

Was there with him, as I have heard a Truth; 
Biron they call him. 
,1 read, 

as I have heard, a VQUTH — 

As, again3 thesame corruption has obtained at p. ^01 : 
A wife, a beard, fair health. 
But the passage I have communicated^ and you 
i^roved my emendation. 

P. 241. For here he doth demand to have repaid 

An hundred thousand crowns, and not DE- 
MANDS 
One payment of an hundred thousand crowns. 
To have his title live in Aquitain. 
Sure, by the degradation of the right word here, I 
am very dull, or Mr. Pope has made stark nonsense. 
Aquitain was pledged to Navarre^s father for security 
of SOO^OOO crowns, llie French King pretends to 
Iwve paid half the debt; but demands that back 
agam, instead of remembering to pay as much more^ 
in full discharge of the debt, and redeeming Aqui- 
tain from Navarre's mortgage. This to me is plainly 
oor Poet's meaning. 

P. 24S. Sigh a note and ting a note, sometimes through 

the throat : if you swallowM Love with sing- 

iog, love sometime through the nose, as if 

you snufFt up Love with smelling Love, &c 

The bad pointing strangely confuses the sense 

here. I rectify it thus : 

Sigh a note, and sing a note; sometimes through 
the throat, as if jou swallowed Lore with singing 
L*0VE ; sometime through the nose, as if you snuffed 
up Love with smelling Love ; &c. 

,P. 246. Arm. How bast thou purcha^sed this expe* 
rience ? 
Moth, By my pen of observatfen. 

We 



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320 IIXUStHAltOKS OP LITERATURE. 

We have conjectured here^ either^ pahi^ ken^ •r 

PENNY. 

P. 249 ; aod infra, p. 256 : 

My tweet ounce of man^t flesh, my in-cony Jew. 

What monster of a word is this ? Sure, Costard 
does not pretend to any skill in the French^ and 
mean inconnu. I suspect something more intri- 
cate, or obsolete. 

|Wd. What *s the price of this incle ? A penny. — 

No, ril give you a rentiuneration : Why ? it 

carries its remuneration : why ? it is a fairer 

name than a French crown. 

1 cannot be persuaded all is sound here according 

to the Poet's intention. 

I will venture at some few changes in the point- 
ing ; and, I think^ we shall come «tt bis sense. 

What 's the price of this incle ? A penny. — No, 
1*11 gire you a remuneration. — Why, it carries it.— 
Remuneration! — ^Why, it is a fairer word than a 
French crown. 
P. 250. A very beadle to an humorous sigh. 
Annon rectii^, amorous sigh? Though I re- 
member, in Romeo, Mercutio, calling for him^ cries. 
Lover, humours, madman. 

Ibrti HUMOROUS madman, t. e. governed by 

and odd humour of your Love^passiori. 

P. ••.«... And I to be a Corporal of hit field. 

And wear bis colours like a tumbler's hoop ? 

To be a Corporal of a Field. Is not this a very 
peculiar phrase ? And then is a tumbler's hoop ever 
garnished with ribbands, or adorned with any diver- 
sity of colours? I confess^ I neither remember, 
nor know. 

P. 253« Boyet, you can carve : 

Break up this capon. 
i. e. open the Letter. I suppose, as among the 
Frencn, pauUet is both a chicken and a love-letter. 
So in Westward-hoe, a letter is called a wild-fowl. 
Act IL Sc. 2: 

At 



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THBOBALD AND WAEBt/RTON. Sftl 

At the skirt of tbat sbeet in black work is wrought 

bis name : break not up tbe wild-fowl till anon, 

and feed upon him in private. 

But, dear Sir, as the remainder on this Play will 

come into Saturday's packet, I will now conclude 

myself, your most affectionate and entirely obliged 

humble servant, * Lew. Theobalix 



LETTER XXIIL 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, IVyaris Court ^ Dec. 13, I729. 
This pursues, and I hope will condude, my in- 
quiries on Love's Labour Lost 

P. 256. Then will she get the upsltot bv cleaving the pin. 

I easily see, obscenity is the drift here : but what 
does the phrase mean, or how hold up the allusion 
to archery ? 

P. 257. He is only an animal, only sensible in *the 

duller parts, &c. 
Hie latter parts of this period I can neither recon- 
cile to sense, nor grammar. 

P. 258. Tbe allusion holds in the Exchange. 

This puzzles me. 

P. 259. A good CLUSTER of conceit in a turf of dearth. 

The first folio edition reads better in my opinion 
— a good luster [or, lustre]; which sorts better 
with the metaphors that follow. 

P. 260. Or rather as Horace says in his: What! my 
soul ! verses ! 

Does this allude to the iVe^cio quidmeditans nu^a- 
rum J and, dulcissime rerUm, in Horace's Serm. I. ix? 
Or is Holophernes going to quote Horace, and stops 
short on seeing the verses in ^l^athaniers hand^ thus ? 

Or. rather as Horace says in his What ! my 

soul! verses? 
vou 11. y P. 260. 



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$22 IIXVSraATK>N» Of I-ITEEiiTU»l. 

P. MO. Let me supervise the cakgehet. 
I bdiere there is no such word. I read, canzo- 
NCT, from the Italian, canMnetto, a little song. 
Ibid. Ay, Sir, from one Monsieur Biron, one of the 

stt^ange Queen^s lords. 
When, in the name of exactness, did Biron com* 
menoe one of the Queen s train ? 
You will read witn me, I doubt not : 

From one Monsieur Biron TO one of the stranger- 
.Queen*s ladies. 
This is the very fact ; and is confirmed in words 
in the next page : 

And here he hath framed a letter to a sequent of 
the stranger Queen's. 
P. 261. Dull. Sir Holophemes, this Biron, &c. 
Sure this speech is quite out of character for DuU. 
It is evident to me, that after Nathaniel has consulted 
the subscription of the letter, he goes on to tell Sir 
Holophernes who Biron is, and then delivers the 
paper to send to the King : or, perhaps, at *^ Trip 
and go my sweet,'* &c. Sir Holophernes is to speak 
and deliver the letter ; else why does Sir Nathaniel 
say immediately, 

Sir, you have done this in the fear of God, &c. 

Ibid. Where if (being repast) it shall please you to 

gratify the table with a grace. 
But what ? was Sir Nathaniel to go to a gentle- 
man's house to dinner, and say grace cmlr after 
meat ? Our chaplains now-a-days crave a blessing, 
as well as return thanks. 

I have suspected a small transposition of letters 
here, and read, 1 do not |j:now how rightly. 
Where if, being A PRIEST, it shall, &c. 
p. 263. Why he comes in like a perjur'd. 
I read with the first folio, 

like a PERJURE. 

And so in our Poefs old sketch of King John, in 
two parts, called his ** Troublesome Reign" : 
Bttt now, black-sp(Hted prrjurr as he is. 

P...,. 



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P. ..- My irue lave^tfistmg pain. 
What, does he mean^ wanting his mistress ? Or, 
•bould it he, fesfring pain; 

P To see a king transformed to a GKAT. 

How to a gnat ? With what sense .......? 

I have suspected — to a auAT. There is, 1 think, 
such an old word ; though indeed, I know neither 
how to derive, nor explain it. But inOthellp^ p. 41. 

I \e rub'd this onat almost to sense, kc. 
The old quarto reads ciuat. 

And in AlFs Well that Ends WeH^ p. II3, tbe 
Clown talks of a auATCH-buttock. 

P. 267. Not you by me, but I betraj'd TO yon. 
Certainly, by. 

P. 269. Is ebony like her ? O wo&d divine ! 
As certainly, wood. 

Ibid. Black is the badgt of hell : 

The hue of dungeons, and the school of niebt 

The badge, and hue, is to me plain sense ; but 

for the school of night, I willin^y give it up to 

the s^igacious Editors. I make no scruple of reading, 

— — — and the stole of night 
t. e. the black mantle, as he in many other places 
expresses it 

Ibid. For native blood is counted paiotiof now. 
I sdppose, dismounting the verse, his sentiment 
is-^fbr painting is now counted native blood ; other- 
wise I can make nothing of the context. 

P. 270. Have at you then affections. Men at aras. 
I read: 

Have at you then. Affection^s men at arms, 
t. e. Love's soldiers. As, p. 37« : 

Saint Cupid then, and soldiers to the 6eld. 

P. 27 1 . Of beauty's tutors. 

Annon potiiis, beauteous tutors? 

Ibid. Wben the suspicious head of TH£FT is stopt 

I rather think, of thrift ; t. e. of the thriving, 
watchful miser> whose care of bis pelf will bardly let 
him venture to sleep. ./ 

yjj P. 271. 



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524 IliLUSmiATlONS OF LITBRATUltE. 

P. 27 1 . And when Love speaks, the voice of A\ the gods. 

Make heaven drowsy, &c. 
I am satisfied these are very fine lines, ^ but I do 
not full understand them. 

P. 273, 4. Nat. Laus Deo, bene intelligo. 

Hoi. BOME BOOM for BOON PRBSCiAN ; a 

little scratch, *t will serve. 
. I r^ well rerniember, without present reference^ 
your ingenious conjecture on this passage. 

I will tell you how I had read it, with very slight 
v^niation of the text : 

Nat. Laus Deo, bone intelligo. 
HoL Bone. — Bone for bene. Priscian a liule 
scratcht. 'T will serve. 
Alluding to, Diminuis Prisciani Caput. 
P. 274! ^he LAST of the five vowels, if you repeat 

them ; or the fifth if L 
But, if it be but for information sake, is not the 
iast and the^/A the same vowel ? 
' I suspect that we should read. 
The THIRD of the five vowels. 
And HolophernesV reply seems a confirmation of 
diis: 

I will repeat them, a, e, L 

Ibid. The sheep ; the other two concludes it OUT. 

Wonderfiil sagacity! — I read: 

1 concludes it O, U. 

Quasi, Oh ! you,^— t. e. you are the sheep either 
way ; no matter which of us repeats them. 

P; 275. And I will whip about your inlamy UNUM ciTA. 

This Latin is out of my depth. I have imagined, 

■ . .-! CIRCUM CIRCA. 

Ijbid. Do you not educate youth at the CHAROE-house 

on the top of the itoountain ? 

I do not at all know this term. Is a free-school, 

or one founded by public contribution, ever called 

so ? If not, I suspect it should be, church-house. 

' Ab our Poet says again in Twelfth Night, p. S)23 : 

Most viUainously ; like a .pedant that keeps a 

school r th* CHURCH. 

P. 376. 



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If. 216. To be reDdered by our assistants at tlie 

king's commaDd. 
I think it should be^ 

-r by our assistanc£. 

P. 277. Most Dull, honest Dull. 
I read, 

Most dully honest Dull. 

P. 278. Prin. Pox of that jest, and I besbrew all 
shrews ; 
But, Katherine, what was sent to you 
From fair Dumaine ? 
I can never believe the Poet meant to make his 
Princess swear in this vulgar manner. Besides, the 
second verse halts. Rosaline and Katherine, yon 
see, are rallying. I read the passage thus : 
Kath. Pox of that jest, &c. 
Prin. But what was sent to you from fair Du- 
maine ? 

P. 279. So pertaunt like would I o'ersway his state. 
Is there any such word as pertaunt? If not, I 
would read. 

So PEDANT like^ &c. 
So above, p. 250 : 

A domineering pedant o^er the boy, 

I'han whom uo mortal more magnificent. 
Ibid. As gravities revolt 
I read. 

As gravity's revolt. 

P. 280. With such a zealous laughter, so profound. 
That in this spleen ridiculous appears, 
To check their folly, passions, solemn t^rs» 
Certainly by this pointing the Editor never under- 
stood the meaning. 

It is clear to me that we should read : 

■ Passion's solemn tears : 
i. e. they cried as heartily with laughing, as if the 
deepest grief had been the motive. Something like 
this in Midsummer Nighf s Dream, p. 128 : 

Made mine eyes water; but more merry tears the 
passi6n of loud laughter never shed. 

P. 283. 



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SaC ILLVkHiAttifM &t LiMftAftmX. 

p. iS9. Rosa. The inasick plays; vduthtafe sodie 
motion to it : 
Our ears vouchsafe it 
It is plain to me these speeches are wrong-placed. 
The King certainly should' continue to speak the 
first line; and Rosaline's name be prefixed to tiie 
latter. 

I had designed to keep to the old quanti^ * ; but 
I am this moment alarmed with the death of our 
common acquaintance and ftvourite, poor Mr. 
Ropme *t* ; and I am sure you will excuse me^ if I 
hav^ concern enough to desire instant satisfaction 
of the truth. 1 am, dear Sir, as ever, 
Your most affectionate and obliged humble servant, 

Lew. Theobald. 

LETTER XXIV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, fVyatis Courts Dec. l6, 17S9. 
My last was broke off* with the unhappy notice of 
poor Mr. Roome's death. The account is confirmed; 
he died about a fortnight ago at Rohan, and his 
place is already supplied. As he had owed the Go- 
vernment nothing if he had lived, so Fate was 
pleased, it seems, to make him an early sacrifice to 
nis duty for them. He was dispatched over to ne- 
gotiate some secret commission, and there was seized 
with the fever that has deprived us of him. He 
was but a recent friend to me ; but had so many 
amiable Qualities to recommend him, that I shall 
cultivate ttie remembrance of him, I hope, with long 
respect But no more of him now. 

Love*s Labour Lost : 
P. 284. Fealf quoth the Dutcbmao. 
Is this the way of the Dutch pronouncing our 
word well? 

* The length of the letter. Edit. 
t Onf of the Conwnen CM. 

P. 286. 



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tHBOBALD AHD WAftBURtOK* 33} 

P. 286« Are angeU Tairmg clouds, or roses blown. 

Sure^ this is a strange anti-climax ; but what does 
he mean by ** angels vailing clouds ?*• This phrase^ 
I own, is very obscure to me. 

Ibid. Had be been Adam, be had tempted Eve. 

But is this allusion just? 

I have ventured to conjecture, for the present. 
Had he been Satan. 

P. 287. This is the FLOWER that smiles on every one 
To shew his teeth > 

A Flower shewing its teeth is a very odd image, 
I have made no doubt to read, 

This is the FLF.£RER smiles, &c. 
And will you pardon me, if I presume to provo 
this by another emendation ? 

In the character of Boyet, p. 2<J1, he is described 
as one 

That smiles his cheek in jeers ; . 
the received reading, years, is, I think, unpar- 
donably nonsensical ; and 

Holding a trencher jeasiing merrily : 

all which faculties are of a piece with one another. 

P. 289. ^725 crack or flaw. 

lios. Sans, sans, I pray you. 

What does this re-duplic$tion mean ? As we 
would say, in English, without any of your with-^ 
QutSy *pray you. 

p. 293. Here is like to be a good presence of wor- 
thies. 

I wonder how Shakespeare came to put Pompey 
in this list. The names of the Nine Worthies, ac- 
cofding to Gerard Legh, in his '* Accidence of Ar- 
moury,** are, Duke Joshua, Hector, David, Alex- 
ander, Judas Macchabaeus, Julius Caesar, King Ar- 
thur, Charlemagne, and Sir Guy Earl of Warwick. 

Ibid. A bare throw at novum. 

I do not know what sport the Poet here alludes to. 

P. 293. 



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3^8 ILLUfflTRATlCWa 4>f UTB9LATUS|I« 

P. 293. With Libbard's bead oo knee* 
Cotgrave expjains thi83 who tells U9> tote 
qume was a Lion or lAbhar^s head, represented on 
the knees, or elbows, of old-fa8hioi]ued garments. 

P. 204. Your lion that holds the poll-axe sitting on a 
close-stool, will be given to Ajax. 

The preceding part of this sentence, I think, is 
very fully explained in Gerard Leeh^s " Accidence of 
Armoury." Alexander, as one of the Nine Worthies, 
bears. Gules, a lion Or^ seiant in a chair, holding 
a battle-axe Ardent. But, upon Alexander's being 
foiled, how the joke turns upon giving these arms to 
AiAX, I am perfectly at a loss to guess. 

P. 295. Keep some state in thy exit^ and vanish. 

As this speech is by Holophernes, and as that im- 
mediately subsequent is by him too, I have a strong 
suspicion that this line, addressed to Moth, should 
be placed to Biron or Boyet. 

P. 298. I go woolward for penance. 

I presume, Armado means, he goes with wool 
towards his skin ; but is not the expression odd ? 

Ibid. An heavy heart bears not an hutiible tongue. 

Surely, this is not true in Nature; nothing so 
much abates our utterance, as the rebuke of sorrow. 
One of these two conjectures, 1 think, must be right: 

An heavy heart bears but an humble tongue ; 
or, 

A heavy hea^t bears not a nimbl£ tongue. 

P. 300. Biron. And what to me, my love, and what to me ? 

Here is something a little obscure, and savouring 
of inadvertency in the Poet. Biron here asks his 
particular doom, and has his answer from Rosaline : 
and yet again, in the subsequent page, the same 
question in efiect is proposed, and her determina- 
tion repeated. 

P, 303. When Dazies pied 

2. And Cuckow-buds 

1. And Lady-smocks ■■ 
As the rhymes of the four first verses in all the 

three 



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THBCmALD AND V^ARBUftTOK. 3^ 

three subsequent stanzas are alteniate, it seems to 
me that the second and third verses here ought to be 
trans|DKt>sed. — But now 1 have done vfilh this tedious 
bad Play ; and I ought to condud^, with your oU 
rehgious Editors^ Deo gratias. 

AS TOU LIKE IT. 

The next Play has certainly more entertainment, 
and fewer faults. There is something betwixt Or- 
lando and Rosalind^ as peculiar^ and almost as en* 
gaging, as between Benedick and Beatrice. 

But, not to trouble you with general descriptions. 

P. 314. Clo. One that old Frederick your father k>vei. 
Ros. My father's love is enough to honour him 
enough ; &c. 

Surely, this reply should be made by Cel. for her 
father's name, and not Rosalind's, was Frederick. 

P. 317. You mean to mock me after 

Should not this be. 
An *you mean to mock me after, you should not have, Jcc 

P. 3 IS. la but a QUiNTlNB, a mere lifeless block 
. Bailey, in his Dictionary, tells us quintine is a 
measure^ and quotes Shakespeare for it. 

But we are to read^ 

Is but a QUINTAIN. 

It was an old custom, or sport, to run at a dead 
mark on horseback, called a quinten, or quHtlaine, 
Stow has given us this description of it in his Sur- 
vey of London : ** In the year 1 253, the 38 Hen. III. 
the youthful Citizens, for an exercise of their acti- 
vity, set forth a game to run at the quinten; and who- 
soever did best should have a peacock, which they 
had prepared as a prize. He that hit not the broad 
end of the quinten was of all men laughed to scorn r 
and he that hit it full, if he rode not the faster, had 
a sound blow in his neck with a bag full of sand 
llanged on the other end *." 

P. 320. Cel But is all this for your father? 

Bos. No, some of it is for my fathers child. 

* Stow*8 Survey, 1«SS, p. 72, where is a wooden cut of tha 
Ouinten. 

The 



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3^ ILU/STRATIOIIB OF LITSftATUmE* 

The first folio edition readu, i think, more truly; 
For mj CHiLD^s father ; 
f • e. for her sweetheart whom she was thinking of, 
and whom she hoped to have a child by. 

Ibid. Bos. No faith, hate him not for my sake. 

Cel. Why should 1 NOT? Doth he not deserve 

well? 

Is this a reason, why she should hate him? 

For so the position and pointing seem to require. 

Either the negative should be expunged, or it would 

be clearer to read. 

Why should I HATE? &c. 

P. 322. Rosalind lacks then the Juve which 

teacheth THEE that thou and I are one. 
Is there any doubt but that we ought to read, 
Which teacheth me. 

Hie proof of this seems evident to me from this 
speech of Celia, at p. 31 2 : 

Herein I see thou lov'st me not. Sue. 

P. 324. Here feel we not the penalty of Adam.' * 

What was the penalty of Adam, hinted at by mir 
Poet ? The being sensible of the difference of the 
seasons. The Duke says, the cold, and eflfects of 
the winter, feelingly persuade him what he is. How 
does 1)Q not then feel the penalty ? I read. 
Here feel we but the penalty of Adam. 

P. 330. And I ren^ember the kissing of the BATLET. 

What this is I cannot find. 

p. 336. He whom a fool doth very wisely hit, 

Doth very foolishly, although he bmart. 
Seem senseless of the Bob. If not. 

The third verse is defective a whole foot; and, if 
I am not mistaken, full as defective in the reasoning. 
The arguments of Jaques*s speech below plainly 
shew this. I read, t 

NOT TO seem senseless of the Bob. If not 

P. 344. It is the right butter-woman's rank to market 
This is a word I am not acquainted with. 

P.94€. 



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3IlEOBAIJ> AND WARmiRTON, 3^1 

P. $46. Good my cofspl^xion^ Aosn tbou think, tfaougb 

I am caperisonM. 
Should not tbis ratlier be^ 

'odd's my complexion ! 
As afterwards, P* 358 : 

'odds my little life ! 

P. 348. I pray you MARR no more of my verses with 

reading them ill-favoured. 
Does not our Poet seem evidently to have had 
Martial in his thoughts, Sed mali dum recitas, S^c. 
P. 355. A nun of Winter's sisterhood. 
What can mean ff^inter's sisterhood? Is it the 
true text? or has IVinter crept in here, to keep 
company with ice in the next line ? I have imagined, 
A nun of WiNlFRBD's iisterhood. 
If I do not run away with a false legend, St^ fVi- 
nifred wxS^red in defence of her chastity. But I 
appeal. 

P. 364. I will weep for nothing, like Diana in the 
fountain, and I will do that when you ard 
disposed to be merry; I will laugh like a 
hyen, and that when you are inclined to 

SLBEP. 

Does not the designed contrast of the terms rather 
require weep. 

P. 367. Then sing him home, the rest shall bear this 
burtfien. 

This is an admirable instance of our Editors* sa- 
gacity, to say nothing worse. One sliould expect, 
when they were Poets, they would at least have 
taken care of the rhymes, and not foisted in what 
has nothing to answer it. Now where is the rhyme 
to, the rest shall bear thvs burthen? Or, to ask 
another question, where is the sense of it? Does 
the Poet mean, that he that killed the deer shall 
be sung home^ and the rest shall bear the deer on 
their backs ? This is lajring.a burthen on the Poet^ 
that 'we must help him to throw off. I believe 
the mystery of the whole is that a marginal note U 

wisely 



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i 



332 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITSftATUmB* 

Wisely thrust into the text. Being designed to besuri^ 
by a single voice, and the stanzas to close with a bur- 
then to be sung by the whole company, it certainly 
must be read in this or some such manner: 
What shall be have that kilN the deer? 
His leather skin, and horns to wear : 
Then sing him home : and take no scorn 
To wear the horn, the born, the born, 
It was a crest ere tbou wast born. 

The rest shall hear this burthen. 

P. S78. Yet the note was very untuneable. 

The reply to this makes me think we should read, 

UNTIMBABLE. 

And now, dear Sir, I have both finished this Plav 
and Volume. Our task in the next, I conceive, will 
grow more entertaining. 

Your acceptable Epistle of the 10th instant reached 
me last night. I have now only time or room for 
my thanks, and confessing myself, dear Sir, 

Your most affectionate and ever obliged friend 
and servant, Lew» Theobald. 



LETTER XXV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Dec. 18, 1729. 

Receiving no packet from you by last night's post 
(so that no occasion is given me for digression), I 
proceed directly to the Taming of the Shrew. 
P. 5. Go by S. Jeronimy. 

I do not tnink Sly was intended to swear here by 
any Saint whatever ; but that it has an allusion of 
great humour. I read thus : 

Gohf, Hieroiiiroo. 
t. e. thrusting the hostess aside, and calling her sa 
But now for explanation. You must know there 
was a cursed fustian old Play, called, Hieronymo (or 

The 



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TltEOBALD AKD WARBURTON. 353 

The Spanish Tragedy) which I find the batt of rail- 
levy to all the Poets of Shakespeare's time: and a 
passage that appeared very ridiculous in this Play, 
is^^ I suspfect, here humourously alluded to : 
Hier. Jostice, O ! Justice to Hieronimo. 
Lord. Back ; — see^st thou not the King is busy ? 
Ifier, Ob^ is be so ? 

iLtng. Who is he that interrupts our business ? 
Hier. Not I — Hieronimo, beware; oo by,oo by. 
So Sly here,^ not caring to be dunned by the 
hostess^ cries to her, don't be troublesome, don*t 
interrupt me. Go by. 

And this passage is again fleered at in an old Co- 
medy, that 1 have more than once quoted to you. 
Westward-hoe : 

" A woman, when there be roses in her cheeks, 
*^ cherries on her lips, civet in her breath, ivory in 
** her teeth, lillies in her hand, and liquorice in her 
" heart, why she 's likfe a Play ; if new, very good 
" company, very good company, but if stale, like 

" old lERONlMO, GO BY, GO BY. 

P. 6. Brach Merriman. 

Mr. Pope, no doubt, is right in telling us .th^t 
track is a hound : but pray, is notiracAhere intended 
as a Terb, that Merriman should be taken some par- 
ticular care of; as in the next line. 

And COUPLE Clowder ? 

And as ip the foregoing line. 

And TENDER well my hounds ? 
P. 9. Who for THESE se?en years hath esteemed him- 
self. 
I suspect, our Poet wrote : 

Who for TWICE sevenjrears. 
S<», p. 12: 

These FIFTEEN years you have been in a dream. 
And, p. 13 : 

Madam wife, they say that I ha?e dreamed, and 
slept above some fifteen years and more, 

P. 12« Man. Simon, anH please yoar honotir. 

^y. Sim ?— That *s as much as to say Simbon 
or Simon. 

In 



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334 iLLumiATiovs or, litcratuee. 

Is it not clear from the answer^ that we are to read 
Sim in the first line ? 

P. 15. To see fair PADifA — 

I am arrived^r fruitful Lombardy. 

But is Padua really in Lombardy ? If not, I sup- 
pose we must read : 

from fruitful Lombardy. 

Pisa, I think, Lucentio^s birth-place, is witiiin the 
territories of Lombardy. 

P. 24. Be she as foul as was Florentius* love. 

I confess, this is a piece of secret history that I 
am wholly unacquainted with. 

Ibid. As Socrates' Zantippe. 

Mr. Pope, in the next edition, perhaps, will 
vouchsafe to restore Xantippe. 

P. 25. An he begin once, he Ml rail in his ROPE-tricks. 

From the terms following in the context, throw a 
figurty and disfigure^ I had once conjectured we 
should read, in bis TROPE-tricks. But, I am afraid, 
the guess is not worth a farthing. I bc^in to suspect 
rope-tricks was the old phrase for tricks used by a 
crack-hemp fellow ; especially because in Romeo and 
Juliet, p. 252, where Mr. Pope reads : 

What saucy merchant was this, that was full of 
his ROGUERY; 

the old quarto and first folio read ropery. 

P. 25. And her withholds he from me. Other more. 
The' defect of syntax persuades me the pointing 
must be corrected here : 

And her withholds he from me^ ^and others more 
Suitors to her, £cc. 

P. ^8. Rage like an angry boar, chafed with sweat. 
Should not this be rather, 

r- CHAF'D with PURf UiT. 

Ibidl. ■ for bis own good and YOURS. 

I read, ours. P. 29, 

If it be to, Sir, that you are the man must steed 

P. SO. 



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TBSOBALP AND WARBU^TOKt ^35 

P, 30v Please ye, we may conteive this aftemooii. 

And quaff' carowscs to our mistress' bfaltb. 
I flatter myself, I shall please you with an emen- 
dation here. Tranio, you know, is but a supposed 
gentleman; and the Poet, I am persuaded, means 
that the serving-man^s qualities should break out up* 
on him ; and that his mind should run rather on 
good cheer than contrivances. I venture to restore it: 
Please ye, we may convive this afternoon, &c. 
This agrees with quaff carowseSy and with what 
he says at the conclusion of this speech : 
Bui eat and dnnk as friends. 
The word convive^ you may remember, is again 
used by our Poet in Troilus, p. 349 : 

First, all you peers of Greece, go to my tent, 
There in the full convive you. 

Ibid. but for these other goods. 

I read, gawds, t. e. trifling ornaments. 

The use of this word, you know, is most frequent 
with our Poet. 

P. 33. Baccare, you are mvirvtWoi^ forward. 

Quid sibi vult Baccare ? Is it the English word 
hack^ with a foreign tercpination ? N. B. forvMrdy 
in opposition. 

Ibid. Petr. O pardon me, Signior Gremio, I would 
fain be doing. 
Gre. I doubt it not, Sir, but you will mine 
your wooing neighbours. This is a 
gift very, &c. 
Stupid ! Who were Petruchio*s wooing neigh- 
bours? He courted Kate, and had no rivals ia his 
suit, that we hear of. In short, the dp^rel verse 
is dismounted into nonsense. Restore : 

' I would fain be dving. 

Gre. I doubt it not, Sir, but you will curse your 
wooing. [To Petruchio. 

Neighbour, this is a gift, &c. [ To Baptista. 
flo p. 3« : 

Gre. Good.«orrow, MBiaasoim Baptitta. 
Sap. Good-morrow, NEiGHSOua Gremio. 

P. S3. 



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33^ ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITBRATURE. 

P. S3. Tra. . then their worth is great. 

Bap. Lucentio is your name ? Of whence I 

pray ? 
Tra, Of Pisa, Sir, son to Vincentio* 
Here again, I doubt tiot but you will think the 
-oonjecture happy. 

Baptista, in nis last speech, says to Tranio t 

Methinks, you walk like a stranger, may I be so 

bold to ask the cause of your coming ? 

Tranio replies ; a(X}uaint8 him with the cause ; 

but does not give the least intimation who he is. 

And we have no reason to think Baptista such a cotb- 

jurtr^ that he could know a stranger's name only by 

lookir^g in his face. Distingue^ meo periculOy 



then their worth is great. 



Lucentio is my name. 
Bap. Of whence I pray ? 
Tra. Of Pisa, Sir, son, &c. 

P. 38. Petr. It is extempore, from my mother-wk. 
Kat. A witty mother, witiesff else her son. 
Petr. Am I not wise f 
Kat. Ye»; keep j/im a'arm. 

As Kate is so addicted to scurrility, I suspect, 

' wiielesse elfe her son. 

The two last lines I have quoted for another pur- 
pose ; you remember the ingenious emendation you 
sent me upon Much Ado about Nothing : 
Wit enotgh to keep himself warm. 
Ought not this passage to be taken into considera- 
tion ? 

P. 39. For I am he am born to tame you, Kate, 
And bring yon from a wild cat to a Kate, 
Conformable as other Household Kates. 
Does not the allusion and the opposition of terms 
here, rather induce us to write, 

— — ■ household cats. 

P. 41. And all things answerable to this FOKXION. 
Th^ Wnae requires proportion : will the other 
word imply this ? 

P.4K 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 337 

Ibid. My land amounts not to so much in all : 

That she shall have, besides, &c. 
Something seems wrong here : at least I am in 
the dark. 

P. 43. ' : — Wrangling pedant, this. 

The first folio reads, 

But wrangling pedant, this is. 

Still we have but an hemistic, as well as but half 
sense. Some few words seem to have slipped out. 
The context would very well bear, she is' a shrew, 
but, wrangling pedant, this is^ &c. 

P. 44. Pedascule, I '11 watch. 

Will Pedascule serve for Pedant ? 

P. 45. To change true roles for new inventions. 

TThis new, I conceive, is an innovation of our Edi- 
tor. The old folios have it, old inventions. This, 
I acknowledge, must be wrong, and opposite to the 
meaning. I restore. 

To change true rules for odd inventions. 

P. 54. Am I but three inches? why thy horn is a foot, 

and as long I am at least 
Sagacity ! — I read. 

Why, MY horn. 

Qrumio, . coming post before his master and mis- 
tress, is furnished with a horn. 

P. 56. You PLEASANT swain. 

Correct with the first folio : 
PEASANT-swain. 

P. 57. Flat-ear'd knave. 

First folio again : 

FlaP-ear'd knave. 

P. 62. Like to a Censer. 

This, I know, is a pan, or vessel, for burning ia- 
cense or perfume ; so I have no difficulty here : but 
I will take this opportunity, while it is in mind, 
to request your explication of another passage upon 
this word : 2 Henry IV. p. 366 : 

Why, thou thin man in a censor. 

VOL. II. z P. 67. 



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3S8 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

P. 67. That I 'm dog weary ; but at last I spied 
An ancient angel going, &c. 

I cannot imagine that Shakespeare meant any 
prophanation here, or any such compliment to the 
old man as to call him Angel. I read : 

That I 'm dog-weary ; but at last I spied 
An ancient engle coming. 
An engle, as I have many proofs^ signifies a gull, 
one fit to be made a tool of. 

P. 6t. ■ but formal in apparel ; 

In gait and countenance, surely like a father. 
I make bold to read surly : and I think this au- 
thority will bear me out in so doing, p. 69 : 

And bold your own in any case with such auste- 
, RiTY as 'longeth to a father. 

Ibid. But then up farther, and as for as Rome. 
Quod si, 

e'en as far as Rome. 

P. 69. Signor Baptista may remember me 
Near twenty years ago in Genoa. 
Tra. Where we were lodgers at the Pegasus. 
'T is well, &c. 

What, was Tranio fellow-lodger with Baptista 
twenty years ago ? No such thing surely. He must 
be younger than all that, or very unfit to represent 
and personate his young master, Lucentio. 
You, I am persuaded, will read with me : 

Near twenty years 

Where we were lodgers ^ 

Tra. 'T is well : and hold your own 

P. 71. Enter Peter. 

May we not reasonably ask, whenoe, or who are 
you ? This wight is not in the Dramatis Personae. 
Besides, what is his business? ^n idio tmniikm 
venerat ut exiret? 

P. 75. Bion. Nay, faith, I '11 see the church o' your 
back, and then come back to my mis- 
tress as soon as I can. 

What 



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TBBOBALD AND WARBURTON. gi9 

What mistress does Biondetlo mean ? I suspect, 
MASTER, i. €. Tranio, whom he was ordered to serve 
as Lucentio. Vide supra^ p. 21 : 

Your fellow Tranio here, to save roy life, &c. 

Walt j/ou on himy I charge you, &c. 

P. 81. Have at you for a beUerjest^ or two. 
Anncm rectiUs, bitter ? 

P. 85* Come, come, you froward and unable worms, 
My heart is great 

How dihgent are these Editors in collating! 

We must restore from the first folio : 

Come, come, you 

My mind hath been as big as one of yours. 
My heart as great. 

Ibid. Though you hit the white. 

Is this a conundrum, Luceiitio having married 
BiANCHA, which, in Italian, signifies white ? 

And so I end with this Play. — I cure many shuf- 
flings and transpositions of the scenery, which I need 
not trouble you with. 

The next Play I come to with great pleasure; 
there are so many things in it superlatively pleasant. 

To-morrow, dear Sir, I live in hopes of the po8t*s 
arrival, which is a most sincere enjoyment to, dear 
Sir, your most affectionate and obliged friend and 
humble servant, Lew. Theobald. 

LETTER XXVI. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, WyarCs Courts Dec. 20, 17 29. 
I last night received the pleasure of yours of the 
15th instant, in reply to part of my doubts on Love's 
Labour Lost ; and with two occasional emendations 
on Othello and Measure for Measure. As I have 
always thought both these passages to be genuine 
and free from oormption (as, I flatter myself, I shall 
likewise oonvinoe 3rou they are), I know you will 

z 2 give 



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340 ItLUSTRATICmS OF UTERATURE. 

g'lTe^e the liberty to tell you how I understand 
raem ; and no time so fit for a short digression on 
this score^ a^ while the passages are warm in both 
our memories. 

Othello, 3(51-2: 
Are we turnM Turks ? and to ourselves do that, 
Which Heaven hath forbid the Ottomites 1 

To do what ? You say ; why, to make ourselves 
drunk, which Mahomet has forbid his disciples to 
do. The conjecture, like all you advance, is truly 
ingenious and refined ; but, if I am not mistaken, 
struck out in the flame of an unbounded spirit* 
Please to weigh the circumstances with me. lago, 
having made the brawl which he had concerted 
take pace, rings out the alarm-bell, which rouses 
Othello from his bed ; and he, coming out, finds 
Cassio and Montano tilting so desperately, that 
neither his presence, nor all that lago can say, will 
make them desist from violence. But Othello, 
dear Sir, does not know one syllable of drink 
.being the motive of this fray. I am persuaded, 
ther^ore, the Moor means no more but this — ^What, 
are we turned Turks to ourselves r are we cutting 
our own throats ? and doing that [outrage] which 
Heaven (by this providentisd storm and scattering of 
their squadron) has restrained the Turks from doing 
against us ? 

As to the other passage. Measure for Measure, 
p. 324: 

like an angry ape, 

Plays such fantastic tricks before high Heav*n» 

As makes the Angels weep ; who, with our spleens. 

Would all themselves laugh mortaU 

Thus it seems to me to be pointed ; and thus to be 
understood. Men play such fentastic tricks as make 
the Angels weep in compassion of our extravagance : 
who, if they were endued with our spleens (and pe- 
rishable organs), would lau^h themselves out of im- 
mortality ; or, as we say m common life, would 

laugh 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 341 

laugh themselves dead. The Spleen of Laughter, 
the Passion of Laughter, you know^ are used in 
Love*s Labour Lost^ p. 280, and Midsummer Night's 
Dream, p. 128. 

Please to remember this passage likewise in Troilus^ 
p. 286: 

■ at this sport. 

His Valour DIES ; cryes — O ! enough, Patroclus. — 

, Or give me ribs of steel : I shall split all 
In PLEASURE of my spleen. 

So much, dear Sir, as to my different conceptions 
on the two quotations which I submit to you. 
Were I to particularize my pleasure on the beautiful 
hints and informations, which yours horn time to 
time give me, I must stand still in my purpose, so 
much would eulogium usurp the place of business. 
But, before I proceed, good manners oblige me to 
desire your answer to one question. I know, you 
are neither zealot, nor precisian : and that the task, 
we are upon, is innocent, if not in some degree mo- 
ral. But, upon this ensuing festival, will not m^ 
correspondence break in upon your office ? If it 
does, with the freedom of friendship, command me 
to suspend till further order. — I long for an excur- 
sion, that dear fund of pleasure, upon any one of the 
.... dies that you shall dictate, in the mean time^ 
directiy forwards. 

All 's Well that Ends Well : 
P. 91. Count. If the living be enemy to the grief, the 
excess makes it soon mortal. 
£er. Madam, I desire your holy wishes. 
Lqf. How understand we that ? 
There seems to me a slight transposition in the 
latter part, which might be cured thus : 
Lqf. How understand we that? ^ 
Ber. Madam, I desire your holy wishes. 
Lafew could scarce be at a loss about Bertram's 
asking blessing; but the Countess says something so 
cramp^ that I am obliged to ask his question^ " How 
are we to understand it ?" 

P. 91. 



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S42 ILLUSTRATION* OF LITERATURg. 

P. 9 1. ■ — ' ■ ■ he is so ABOVE me ; 

In bis bright radiance and collateral light 
) Must I be comforted, &c. 
I am not astronomical enough to know, how, ,if 
he was bo much above hqr, his light could be colla- 
teral to her. 

P. 93. Loss of Virginity is RATIONAL increase. 
Surely, should not this be national ? 

Ibid. Out with it; within /ff7z years it will make itself 
twoy which is a goodly increase, and the prin- 
cipal itself not much the worse. 

I am at a loss for our Poefs conceit here. 

Pf 94. ITel. That I wish well — 'tis pity 

Ilel, That wishing well had not a body in't. 

If Mr. Pope had thrown a diligent eye on the oW 
folio, he would have found, betwixt Helen's speak- 
ing thus, and answering herself, Parolles puts in 

WHAT 'S PITY ? 

P. 100. Was this fair face the cause^ quoth she^ 
Why the Grecians sacked Troy, 

♦ «*««« 

Was this King Priam's joy ? 
As the stanza that follows is in alternate rhyme, 
and as a rhyme is here wanting to Sike in the first 
ver^, it is evident the third line is wanting. 

The first folio gives us a part of it ; but how to 
supply, is the question : 

Fond done^ done, fond, was this King Priam's joy? 

P. 101. Fortune, she said, was no goddess, Love, 

no jgod, complain'd against the 

Queen of Virgins. 
These words, as I take it, were first foisted in by- 
Mr. Rowe : there are not the least footsteps of them 
in the first and second folio editions. 

The context persuades me it should rather l>e : 

DiAMA, Ko queen of virgins, &c. 
P. 1 03. ■ Now I see 

The myst^y of your LOVELINESS, and find 
Your salt tears head. 

I make 



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THEOBALD AlID WARBUETOK. 343 

I mlike no scruple but you will read with me^ 
LONELINESS ; of which the Countess had above re- 
ceived inteUigence from her Steward, p. 101 : 

Alone she was, and did communicate to herself. 

P. 106. Let higher Italy, 

(Those ^batedy that inherit but the fall 
Of the last Monarchy.) 
This is a little obscure to me, as I am not at all 
acquainted with the state of the Italian wars and 
emoroilments here hinted at. 

P. 107. You shall find in the regiment of the Spinii, 
one captain Spurio His cicatrice, with an 
emblem of war here, &c. 
A small transposition, sure, is here absolutely ne- 
cessary : 

One Captain Spurio with his cica- 

TRIC£| an emblem of war, &c. 

P. 108. I '11 SEE thee to stand up. 
, Annon rectiilSy 

Fee thee to stand up ? 

Ibid. I have seen a Med'cine. 
I read a Medecin, Fr. a Doctor, or Doctress; 
so a little lower: 

And write to her a love-line. — And — why, Doc- 
tor-she. 

P. 109. ' — Hath amazM me more 

Than I dare blame my weakness. 
This does not seem right to me ; should it not 
rather be, blaze my weakness, i. e. rqport, blazon, 
describe? 

P. no. Oft Expectation foils, and most oft there 
Where most it promises, and oft it hits 
Where Hope is coldest, and Despair most siTS. 
I think ratiber, fits, i. e. is most fitting, or reason- 
able. No rhyme to there remaining, 1 am afraid 
a line is lost. 

P. 1 tL A divulged shame 

Tradttc'd by odious ballads : my maiden's name 
^ SearM 



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344 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

"SearM otherwise, no worse of worst extended, 

^With Vilest torture let my life be ended. 

I have not opinion enough of any of our Ekiitors* 

sagacity, to believe they understood this, as it is 

pointed. I am sure I do not: I rather think, they 

passed it at random. 

One of these two regulations, I believe, will restore 
us some glimmering of sense. I submit them : 

a divulged shame ; 



Or, 



TraducM by odious ballads my maiden's name, 
SearM otherwise no worse of worst: extended 
With vilest torture, let my life be ended. 



a divulged shame; 



TraducM by odious ballads ; my maid'n^s name 
SearM, otherwise no worse of worst extended; 
With vilest torture let, &c. 

P. 112. ■ But will you make it eoen f 

King. Ay, by my sceptre, and my hopes of HELP. 
As the parties are in a rhyming vein, I have no 
doubt bat our Poet wrote, heaven. 

P. 114. They say miracles are past, and we have our 
philosophical persons to make modern and 
familiar things supernatural and causeless. 
This, as pointed, is directly, I think, opposite to 
our Poet's meaning. I would stop it thus : 

to make modern, and familiar, things 

supernatural and causeless. 
For this, I think, is the property of philosophy to 
make seeming-strange and prsBternatural phaeno- 
mena familiar, and reducible to cause and reason. 
P. 115. Why, your DOLPHiN is not lustier. 
As it is a Frenchman speaks, and as it is of the 
French King he is speaking of, I read : 
Why, your Dauphin is not lustier. 
Mr. Pope did not remember that in the old books 
Dauphin is ever spelt Dolphin. 

P. 116. Hel. Thanks, Sir; all the rest are mute. 

Lap. I bad rather be in this choice, than throw 
Ames-ace for my life. 

All 



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THEOBALD A)<D WARBURTON. 345 

All the rest are mute ? She had spoke to but one 
yet. I read^ with the first folio^ 

AH the rest is mute; 

ft. €. as in Hamlet^ 

The rest is silence.) 
^^ I thank you. Sir ; and that is all I have to ad- 
vance.'* The next speech, I suspect, should radier 
be placed to Parottes. 

P. 117. There 's one grape yet, I am sure my father 

drunk wine ; but if thou be'est not an ass, 

I am a youth of fourteen : I have known 

thee already. 

Sure, this is most incongruent stuff. Lafew is 

angry with the other Noblemen forgiving Helena the 

repulse ; and is he angry too, and thinks the fourth 

Nobleman an ass, because he is for embracing the 

match? The whole, certainly, cannot be the speech 

of one mouth. 

I believe, by a small liberty, I can giiess it into 
sense and humour. 

Laf. There 's one grape yet 
Par. I am sure, thy * father drunk wine. 
Laf. But if thou behest not an ass, I am a youth 
of fourteen : I have known, &c. 
If ParoUes was not a little pert and impertinent to 
Lafew, how could he smoke him ? or why should 
he quarrel with him in the very next scene ? 

P. 118. Honours best thrive, 

Wh6n rather firom our acts we them derive 
Than our fore-goers. 
Ergo ut miremnr TE, non tua, primikm aliquid da. 
Quod possim titulis incMere prater honores, 
Quos iLLis damns, et dedimus quibus omnia debes. 

Juven. Sat viii. 68. &c. 

Ibid. A lying trophy, and as oft is dumb. 

Where dust and damn'd oblivion is the tomb. 
Of honoured bones indeed, what should be said ? 

This is such pretty stuff, as is only worthy of 
its accurate Editors ! 

I dare prophesy, you have read with me : 

* Rrstfblip. 

is 



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346 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 



- is the tomb 



Ofbonour'd bones indeed. Whal, &c. 

Ibid. My honour 's at the stake, which to dbteat 
I must produce my pow'r. . 

The poor King of France is agaia made a man of 
Gotham. Hiey will not allow him a grain of com- 
mon reasoning. Sure it nrast be, 

• ■ which to DEFEND ; 

or something equivalent to that sense. 

P. 124. Far. I shall report it so. 

Hel, I pray you come, sirrah. 
Another botch in pointing ; but we will read : 
HeL I pray you. — Come, Sirrah. 
[To Par.] [To Clown.] 

P. 125. Like him that leap'd into the custard. 
It has been conjectured to me, that this should be^ 
cow's-T — D ; but I do not know for what reason. I 
fancy I can explain it with more probability. It 
was a foolery, perhaps, practised at entertainments, 
when the -rbof, or Zani/ was in vogue, for him to 
jump into a large deep custard, set for the purpose, to 
set on some quantity of barren spectators to - laugh^ 
as our Poet says. I do not advance this guess with- 
out a seieming authority. 

Ben Jonson's Devil's an Ass, Act L Sc. 1 : 
He ne*er will be admitted there, where Ftnnor comes. 
He may, perchance, in tail of a sherifTs dinner, 
Skip with a rhyme o' th' table, from new-nothing, 
And take his Almaine leap into a custard. 
Shall make my Lady Mayoress, and her sisters. 
Laugh all their hoods over their shoulders. 

P. 127. Where are my other men ? Monsieur, fkre- 

wcll. 
What other men ? We hear of no retinue ap- 
pointed to Helena. 

I should rather place this to Biron, and point it 
thus : 

Where are my other men. Monsieur ? [Tb i\ir.] 
— FatttweU. [To Us w^t^ ms /uuPmmg her aw0y.] 

As 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 347 

As the Second Act ends here, I will be no farther 
exorbitant at present ; but with the compliments ap- 
pertaining to the season, and all the happiness wished 
you, that you can wish to yourself^ I conclude, dear 
Sir, your most sincerely affectionate, and obliged 
humble servant. Lew, Theobald. 



LETTER XXVII. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Wy art's Court, Dec. 2$, 1729. 

I have received the favour of yours of the 20th'in- 
stant with great pleasure ; I may say, a double one : 
since I have not only the satisfaction from it of your 
most ingenious hints and explications, but of finding 
that I have the good luck so often to satisfy you in 
my conjectures too. I come entirely into your im- 
provement upon my stole of night, as your guess 
is both nearer to the traces of the letters, and more 
consonant to the other metaphors : but, I presume, 
instead of scroul, as you in both places write it, 
you intended scowl : for that is the word which sig- 
nifies louring, or looking sullen, 

Apropos, while I think of it, we will have a short 
word upon another passage, where school, through 
all the .editions, has, as I apprehend, beencorrupfly 
obtruded upon us, Macbeth, p. 205 : 

— — i— — ..^_«— _— ~— -^ Here, 
Here only on this bank and school of time. 

Bank and school! What a monstrous coi^^lement, 
as Don Armado says, is here of heterogeneous ideas! 
I venture to read, 

on this bank and buoal of time. 

i^ e. this shallow, this narrow ford of human life, 
opposed to the great abyss of eternity. 

So' in H^.vnL p. ef8: 

And souod^ed all the D£PTHd and suoALS of honour. 

A word 



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348 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

A word upon one other passage, and then to order : 
Love's Labour Lost, p. 27 1 : 

And when Love speaks, &c. 

You propose a transposition of two lines. I would 
submit to you whether, without this change, by the 
addition of a single letter only, the same sense and 
noble conclusion, which you so justly admire^ may 
not be come at. 

And when Love speaks the voice of all the gods, 
Mark heaven drowsy with the harmony ! 

Harmony making the heavens drowsu is the 
phrase which so much perplexes me* I do not re- 
member any idea similar to it. But, dear Sir, upon 
the arrival of yours, and consulting the passage, I 
went back to the lines preceding it, distinguished 
with commas by Mr. Pope, and started a discoveiy^ 
till then unobserved by me, that the Poet is shewing 
how all the senses are refined by Love. 

It adds a precious SEEING to the EYE ; 

A Lover's eyes will gaze an eagle blind ! 

A Lover's ear will hear the lowest sound. 

When the suspicious head of Theft is stopt. 

Love's FEEUNO is more soft and sensible, 

Than are the tender horns of cockled snails. 

Love's TONOUE proves dainty Bacchus gross in 
taste : 

For Valour, is not Love a Hercules ? &c. 
But what has the poor sense of smelling done, 
not to keep its place amon^ its brethren? And Hei^- 
cules*s vahur was not in cUmbing the trees, but in 
attacking the dragon gan2an/. Was Hercules allured 
by thefiagrancy of this fine fruit, as well as the 
golden hue 9 If so, is it impossible that our Poet 
might have wrote. 

For SAVOUR, is not Love, &c. ? 
i. e. for smelling out the sweets^ the delicacies (as 
in Horace, illius quas spirabat amores) (or, as in 
Vii^l, divinum vertke odorem spirav&ej 8jc. Scd 
&7rij(a}. You so happily retrieved a lost sense in 

Timon 



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THEOBALD ANt> WARBURTON. 349 

Ti$nan for me, that I promise myself the same suc- 
cess from your assistance here. 

And now I proceed with All *s Well that Ends 
Well. 

P. 128. But like a common and an outward man. 
That the great figure of a council frames 
From self-unable motion, therefore dare not 
Say what I think of it ? 
From the whole context, it is clear to me that we 
ought to read : 

From self-unable notion. 
I. e. from my own narrow, conception, comprehen- 
sion, &c. 

P. 131. Indeed, good lady, the fellow has a deal of 

that too much, which holds him much to 

have. 

I do not understand this reading, but guess soils, 

i. e. he has so many bad qualities, that having them 

is a great soil and disreputation to him. 

P. 137. ' Yond 's that same knave. 

That leads him to these places. 
What places ? They have not been talking of 
infamous houses, or any particular locality. I read-— 
PACES, I. e. that leads him to take such irregular 
steps, io debaucheries, to not loving his wife. 
P. 139. If you give him not John Drum's entertain- 
ment, your inclining cannot be remov'd. 
I read Tom Drum's entertainment. So,, p. 175 : 

Good Tom Drum, lend me a handkerchief. 
I should not, dear Sir, have troubled you with 
so minute and trivial an observation; but that, I 
flatter myself, you will not be displeased with my 
explanation of the passage before us, and the odd 
phrase of Tom Drunis Entertainment. 

The Second Lord says to Bertram to this effect : 
" My lord, as you have taken this fellow [Parol' 
** les\ into so near a confidence, if, upon his being 
'^ found a counterfeit, you do not cashier him 
'^ from your favour, then your attachment to him 
*^ is not to be removed." 

For 



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35^ ILLUSTRATIONS OF LlTBftATURE. 

Forconfirination of diis meaning, we must make a 
quotation from Holinshed^ of whose books Shake* 
speare was a most diligent i^eader. This Chronologer, 
in his description of Ireland, speaking of Patrick 
Scarsefield (Mayor of Dublin in the year 1551) and 
of his extravagant hospitality, subjoins, that no 
guest had ever a cold or forbidding look from any 
part of bis family; so that " his porter, or any other 
officer, durst not for both his ears give the simplest 
man that resorted to his house tom drum's enter- 
tainment, which is, to hale a man in by the head, 
and thrust him out hy both the shoulders'* 

I presume, it may be necessary to quote this. 

P. 144. I must put you into a butterwoman^s moutb, 

and buy myself another of BajazeVs mule. 
Why of Bajazet's mule, any more than any other 
mule ? I do not take the conceit. 
P. 148. Since Frenchmen are so braid. 
Quid sibi vult braid ? 

P. 159. I would / had not known him. 
I think this should be, 

I would U£ bad not known him. 
t. e. her son known Parolles. 

P. 163. But I am now, Sir, muddied io Fortune^s 
MOOD, and smell somewhat strong of her 
strong displeasure. 
Fortune's mood is without question good sense and 
proper, and yet I believe it ought to be : 

in Fortune's moat. 

Because the Clown in the very next scene says^ 

I will henceforth eat no fish of Fortune's but- 
tering. 
And again in the next page. 

That hath fallen into the unclean fish-pond of 
her displeasure, and, as he says, is muddied withal. 
Pray you, Sir, use the carp as you may, &c. 
P. 167. Which I^etter than the first, O dearheav'n, 
bless, 
Or, ere they meet, io me, O Nature, cease ! 

I have 



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THEOBALD AND WAKBURTON. $51 

I hare a strong ^ospicton these two lines should be 
spoken by the Countess. If Bertram made a bad 
husband the. second 4ime^ why should' it give the 
king such mortal pangs ? I'he mother, indeed^ 
might well not desire to live to see the day; 

P. 168. Noble she was, ami thought I stood ekgaq*d. 

If the Editors are not a little too wise for me here, 
I suspect from the context it should be, 

i I stood UNGAG*D, 

«. e. unengaged ; neither my heart, nor person, dis- 
posed of. 

P. 169. I will buy me a son in law in a fair, and toll 

for this. I Ml none of him. 
I do not clearly understand this ; and suspect the 
pointing. 

P. 170. Sir, for my thoughts, you have them ill to 
friend. 
Till your deeds gain them fairer : prove your 

honour 
Thaii in my thought it lies. 
Sure, the pointing here cannot be right: nor is 
the sense clear, or grammar justifiable. I read and 
point it thus : 

; — gain them : Fairer prove your honour, 

Than in my thought it lies ! 

And now, d^ar Sir,. having 'finished my queries on 
this Play, with leave 1 will fill up the remainder of 
my paper with two or three passages by way of ex- 
cursion : 

Ist Henry IV. p. 185 "• . 

FaL Why, Hal, 't is my vocation, Hal. T is no 
sin for a man to labour in his vocation. 
Enter Pdjns. 
Poins, Now shall we know if Gadshill have set a 

match. 

Thus the whole tribe 6f Editors, unoore. But, 

I think, here is as signal a blunder has escaped them, 

as any one through the whole set of Plays. Will 

any body persuade me, Shakespeare could be guilty 

of 



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353 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITER ATUIt£. 

of sudi an inconsisteDcy, as to make Poines at his first 
entrance want news of Gadshill ; and immediately 
afber to be able to give a full account of him ? 

I make not the least doubt, but as soon as ever 
Poines is seen, Falstafie turns the stream of his dis- 
course from the Prince^ and cries : 

Poines ! — Now shall we know if Gadshill, &c. 
Please but to examine how much this speech is in 
character for Falstaffe : and as confirmation, Poines 
seems in part to overhear him : and so soon as he has 
returned the Prince's salutations, cries by way of 
answer: 

What says, Monsieur Remorse ? What says Sir 
John Sack and Sugar ? 
P. 1236. Thou ait our Admiral, thou bear'st the lant- 
horn in the poop, but 'tis in the nose of 
' thee. 
In the first place, does not every vessel carry the 
lanthom in the poop ? And then, why this discre-- 
twe BUT ? I think verily, it should be : 

Thou bear'st the lanthorn NOT in the poop, but 
't is in the nose of thee. 

P. 266. Hots. O Harry, thou hast robbed me of my 

YOUTH. 

Why does Hotspur level his complaint there? He 
a little before wishes Prince Harry's name in arms 
were as great as his own ; that his own renown 
might be still the higher in overcoming him ; and 
here he says that the loss of life he better brooks 
than the loss of those high titles which the Prince 
wins of him bv his defeat. Why then this regret — 
at the loss of his youth ? 

1 have a strong suspicion that our Poet wrote : 

O Harry, thou bast robbM me of my wobth. 
t. e. thou hast cut off the fame of all my budding 
honours^ by this conquest of thine. 

2 Henry IV. p. 324 : 

There, is two more call'd than your number, 
you must hare but four here. Sir. 

How, 



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THXOBAXD AND WAftBURIt^K. 553 

How, TWO more ? Falstaffe was to have four : 
and there are but fivb called in all ; l^ouldy, Sha- 
dow, Wart, Peeble, and Bulcalfe. I am afraid, 
something either is lost ; or else, sure, the Poet 
could not be so palpably inadvertent, 

Henry V. p. 421 : 
The King is coroing, and I must speak with him. 

Please to see Mr. Pope's accurate note. I beg 
his pardon, if I wrong him. I say the words from 
THE BRIDGE ought to be Continued. Fluellen, who 
came from the bridge, means, that he wants to ac- 
quaint the King with the transactions there^ and 
with the Duke of Exeter's having repulsed the French 
from thence. On the presumption of being right 
in this, I will make bold to attack another wise cri- 
ticism of our Editor, lower in this Play, p. 451 : 

Kill the boys and the luggage ! &c. 
You see upon what reasoning Mr. Pope has made 
bold to displace a Chorus, which was put very ab- 
surdly here in his opinion. But I say, Mr. Pope 
has committed a much .greater absurdity in making 
this alteration. The Kmg ordered the prisoners to 
be killed just as he goes off; and it appears by the 
second speech of this scene, that they are killed; so 
that the interval of the act is necessary for that pur- 
pose. Besides,, if Mr. Pope had been pleased to ob- 
serve, Fluellin is speaking of the English campboys, 
that had been killed most barbarously by the French 
runaways (as both Hall and Holinshed record it)^ 
and that therefore the King had ordered every sol- 
dier to cut his prisoner's throat. 

But I am almost going out of limit, and wearing 
out your patience at once. 

JEielieve me, dearest Sir, with the most sincere 
seal and gratitude^ your ever affectionate friend and 
humble servant. Lew. Theobald. 



VOL. II. 2 A LETTER 



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334 IIO^raRATIONf OF LiTSJlATUai. 

LETTER XXVIII. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, fVyaris Court y Dec. 87, 1789. 

Having no prohibition from you on account of the 
season, I Iceep regularly on in my task; and am now 
come to Twelfth Night, or, What You Will. 

"Whether this title arose from the time of year 
at which this piece was performed, I cannot say. 
There is no circumstance that I can observe in tne 
Play to give occasion to this name ; nothing either 
to fix it down particularly to Twelfih Night^^r to 
leave it so loose and general a description as fFhat 
You IVilL 

P. 179. — ; Like the sweet South 

That breaths upon a bank of violets. 
The old copies read sound. I read, as I find 
Mr. Rowe does likewise, wind. I do not know 
that oUr Poet any where expresses an opinion of the 
sweetness of the South. He has several passages 
which seem evidences to the contrary : 
Tempest, p. 18: 
A SouTH-west blow on you, aod blister you all o'er! 

Coriolanus, p. 189 : 
All the coDtagioQ of the South light on you, &c. 

Troilus> p. 350 : 

Now the rotten diseases of the South, &c. 

P. 186. ■ And yet I wili not compare with am 

OLD MAN 

I do not know what Sir Andrew is at here. I had 
marked in my book a nobl£maN ; sed hasret aqua. 

P. 192. One draught above hbat makes him a fool. 
What does the Clown mean> by a draught above 
heat? . 

P. 194. Are as secret as maiden-head; toyourears, 
Diviniiy ; to any others, Prophcmation. 

The 



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. THBOBrALD AND . WAltBUflTCm. ' 355 

T)le context seems rather to persoMle, 

as SACRRD as Maid-hood. 

And this afterwards, p. 219, Olivia swears by. 
By Maid-hood, honour, &c. 

Ibid, Such a one I was this present. 

Is not this an odd expression ? 

P. 195. To the reverberate bills. 

I am afraid, our Poet may sometimes use the/ioi- 
she participle for the active; but shmild it not be — 
revetbei^ant 9 

P. 20K By my troth, the fool has an excellent breast. 
I have been advised, as the discourse runs on the 
FooVs siAgins, that this should be, breath : becatise 
it is said in the very next Hne, 

And so svireet a breath to sing ; 
and in the very next page, 

A mellifluous voice — a Contagious tofeATH. 
But I think the text is not to be disturbed. 
t have no doubt but it was the phrase for what we 
now call, good lungs, a good power of holding out 
in singing. 

So in Ben Jodson's Masque of Metamorphifed 
Gipsies, p. 407 1 

An excellent song^ and a sweet songster^ and would 

have done rarely in a cage with a di^h of water and 

hemp^seed ; fine breast of his own. 

And in a Spanish Vocabulary, printed in Queen 

Elizabeth's time, this phrase, Aquel tiene Unda 

boz, (k e. he has a fine voice) is Englished— ^he has 

a GOOD breast. 

Ibid. I sent thee sixpence for thy lbmon, hadst it? 
But the Clown neither belonged to the cellar, nor 
pantry. I read leman, t . e. to treat thy mistress. 
So, in 3 Henry IV. p. 363 : 

And drink unto the leman mine, &c. 

P. 205. Unstaid and skittish tn all MOTIONS else. 
jinnan potiiiSj notioks? 

■ P. 210. The lady of the strachy married the yeoman 
of the.wardrobe. 

2 a 2 Is 



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356 ILLUSTRATIONS OF UTSfUTURE. 

Is any certain piece of femity^history pointed at 
hete? If there be, I am at a loss for it. 

P Though our silence be drawn from us with 

CARES, yet peace. 
Quid sibi vult, nescio. 

P. 21 1. What employment have we here ? 
I should think, implement. 

P. 217. But wise men's folly faU'n, quite taints their 

wit. 
I read and point thus : 

But wise men, folly-fairn, quite taint their wit. . 

Sir And. 



Ibid. Sir Tob. Save you, gentleman. 
Vio. And you. Sir. 
Sir And. Dieu vous guarde, M. 

Vio. Et vous aussi, 

Sir And. I hope, Sir, 



Sir Tob. 

Sir Tob. 
Dele. 



[Sir Tob.l Will you encounter ? 
I suspect, these speeches should rather be regu- 
lated as above. Is there any probability that Sir An- 
drew should speak French, who did not in the first 
Act know the English of pourquoy 9 

p, 218. I did send, 

Aiter the last enchantment you did bear, 
A ring in chase of you. 
/Unless this be wrong pointed^ I do not understand 
it at all : 

— I did send, 

After the last enchantment, you did bear, 
A ring in chase of you. 

P. 221. Look, wheretheyoungestwrenof MINE comes. 
I t^ink, it should be nine. 

P. 222, 3. I can no other answer make but thanks. 
And thanks : and eoer^Ji good turns 
Are shuffled oflF, &c. 
The seccmd line, you observe, is too short \rf a 
whole foot ; and then, who ever heard of this goodly 
double adverb, ever-oft ? In the signification it 
must carry, is it not full as improper as alwe^S" 

sometimes ? 



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THEOBALD AK» #ARBUilTeM« jftj 

sometimes ? 1 conjecture the passnge ahoitld be thus 

restored ; 

And tliaDks, and ever thanks : and oft good tumf, &c. 

In Cymbeline, p. 15, we meet an expression not 
very unlike to this : 

Since when I have been debtor to jou for cour- 
tesiesy which I will be EVER to pay, and yet pay 

STILL. 

P. 224. I have sent after him ; he says he 'll come. 
Who did he say so to ? or froai whom could my 
Lady have any such intelligence ? Her servant, em- 
ployed upon this errand, was not yet returned; and, 
when he does come, he brings word, p. 225, that he 
could hardly entreat him bach. 1 am persuaded 
she was intended to be in suspense, and deliberating 
with herself: and would therefore read. 

Say, he will come ; how shall I feast him, 2cc. 
And before, at p, 187 : 

Say, I do speak with her, my Lord, what then f 
And so. Taming of the Shrew, p. 35 : 

Say that she rail, why then I Ml tel) her plain, &c. 

P. 236. I prethee foolish Greek depart from me. 
Why, foolish Greek ? I know, it was a common 
expression, as merry as a Greek : but Sebastian here 
is not in drollery, but veiy sober and reserved with 
the Clown. I suspect it should rather be, 

I prethee, foolish geck : 
i e. gull, buffoon. So, p. 253 ; 

And made the most notorious qeck, or^gull. 

P. 239. What is the opinion of Pythagoras concemiiig 

wild-fowl ? 

I do not know whether it is reasonable to call our 

Foefs fools and clowns to any account ? But should 

not the question have been — concerning the soul ? 

So a little lower: 

Ibid. And fear to kill a woodcock^ least itou disppsiess 

the HOUSE of tby gnmdaBk 
Anmmrmtwks^ soul? 

P. 2M. 



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J58. ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITJSRATUllfi, 

P. 246. Like to th* Egyptian thief, at point of death. 
Kill what I love ? 

I do not know whether I was ever acquainted with 
this story, but I am sure I cannot now recollect U. 

P. 248. But he *s the very devil incarnate. 

Our Editor spoils a low joke from a foolish Knight ; 
for the old folios read, iNCARDrKATE. 

P. 250. by whose gentle help I was preserv'd 

to serve this noble Duke. 
I make no question but this should be, 

' — ' I was prefer'd to serve, &c, 

For the first time she and the Captain appear on 
the St{)ge, ttiis is the argument of part of their dis^ 
course. Seep. l82: 

I '11 s^rve this di^ke, tbon shalt present me, &o. 

4nd now I have done with this trifling Play. 
The next will furnish a little more work, and a little 
n\ore deserves our employment, T/ie fVinters Tale. 

I must get the old 1 ale of Dorastus and Faunia, to 
exymin^ what absurdities of his story the Poet has 
derived from thence, and what others supplied from 
his own fund.' 

P. 260. Yet, good HEED, Leontes. 

The first folio reads much better: 
* Yet (good deed) Leontes; - 

?. c. in good faith, verily. 

P. 261. Th' imposition clearM hereditary ours. 

Tl^is, I presume, means — setting aside original 
sin, and the penalty denounced against the third and 
frarth generation, on the andestor^s transgressing. 

P. 263. Thou want*st a rough pasH. 

This word I neither know, nor can find. 

^bid. Communicat^st with dreams — how can this be 
With what 's unreal ? thou coactiYe art, 
And fellow*8t nothing. 
r I point this diferendy ; 

I , ho«*^ can this be t * 

With what 's unreal thou eoac^ve art, 4ko. 

Ibid. 



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TH£OBAU> AND WAEBURTQN* SS9 

Vni. Are yoa mov*d, ©y Lord ? 

The versification, if not the sense, requires^ 

Are you not mov'd, nay lord ? 
P. 266. But that bis Degligence, his folly, fear, 
Amoogit the infinite doiogs of die world. 
Sometime puts forth in your af&irs, my lord. 
Most accurate pointing this, and fipe nonsense the 
resuK of it I 

I doubt not but you have distinguished it thus : 
Sometime pu^ forth. In your affairs, my lord, 
P. 268. Why he that wears her like her medal. 
Annon, his? 

Ibid. I have lovM thee. 
. Leo. Make that thy question, and go rot. 
This is a strange instance of disrespect and inso- 
lence in Camillo to his King and master, to tell him 
ihat he has once lov'd him. But I will irenture to 
acquit our Poet of such an impropriety. I read, 

Lko. I ^re lov'd thee. — Make •t thy question, 
and go rot« 

i. e. the King, provoked that Camillo wjl| not come 
in to bis suspicions, cries : 

<< Look you, I have lov^d you ; but if yoa laake a 
question of my wife's disloyalty, [I bate you, and] 
go rot, &c. 
P. 27L Swear HIS thought over by each, &t. 
Sure, this should be either, 

Swear this thought orer, &c. 
Or rather. 

Swear this THOUGH ovet, &c. 

P. 277. I have three daughters ; the eldest is eleven; 
The second, and the third, nine ; and $mis five. 
The second folio Edition led betfa Mr. Reive and 
Mr. Pope, without thought, into this abrord read- 
ing. What I was it the law in Sicily, that three 
daughters should be coheirs with five sons ? 

But the first folio comes in to our assistance, if we 
xmly correct the pointing : 

The second, and the thirds nine, and some five ; 

t. e. 



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JSD ILLUOTRATIOHS OF UTfiRATUmE. 

L e. the second daughter nine yean oM^ and the 
third about some five years old. 

P. 278. Lord. I had rather you did lack, than I, my 
lord, 
Upon this ground ; and more it would conT 

tent me 
To have your honour true. 
This speech, I think, should be placed to Antigo- 
nus ; and we ought to read — her Honour. 

P. 283. And would by combat make her good so, were I 
A man. 

A small misprision in the pointing, and very ea-r 
sily to be rectified : 

And would by combat make her good, so were I 
A man, &c. 

P. 286. With Utdy Margery, your midwife there. 

Why midwife? Does the King mean to reflect 
pn Antigonus*s wife, as if she would be a party-bawd^ 
to conceal the adultery, and save the child ? 

P. 287. So sure as this beard 's grey. 

I suspect, we ought to read, 
8o sure as his beard *s grey. 
i. €. Antigonus*s ; for the King cannot mean his own. 
It is very plain, from the first Scene of this Act, the 
Prince was a very young boy: and, p. 263, the King 
says that looking upon the child, he was moved to 
throw oflT 23 years in thought, and fancy himself 
just such a stripling; so that, allowing the child to 
be eight years old, the father could be but 3 1 . How 
old Antigonus might be, can scarce be determined 
oeitbei- with oertainty. Indeed, p. 299, the Shep- 
herd says, Would I had been by to have helped the 
OLD man: but how he knew him to be old, I cannot 
4dih Again, Paulina, p. 349, calls herself an old tur- 
tle ; but that might be with regard to having lost 
her husband 16 years. 

This, dear Sir, was begun and intended for the 
post on Thursday last; but friends, like Philistines, 
came upon me, and mkrred my purpose. 

I have 



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TmOBALD AMI> WARBUHTON. 36I 

I have your agreeable one of the 2!8d in8tan% and 
am wrapped up with your curious explanation of 
the thin man in the censer. 

I have only time now to confess myself* dear Sir, 
your most affectionate and fiiithful humble servant, 

Lew. Theobald, 



LETTER XXIX. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, JVyarCs Courts Dec. 29, 1729. 
To proceed without stop upon the Winter's Tale, 
because it is followed by a Play wholly made up of 
charms. 

P. 288. Act in. Sc. 1. — I have more than one 
reason why I think this ought rather to be the last 
Scene of tne second Act. We find, at the latter end 
of p. 287, that Cleomihes and Dion are arrived from 
Delphos ; but at the middle of p. 289 they are not 

{^et arrived to Court, but want fresh horses for their 
ast stage : and yet the very next scene opens with 
the session convened for the Queen's trial, the de- 
termination of which was to await the answer of the 
oracle. This hurries the action on with somewhat too 
much precipitation ; and^ besides, the interval of an 
Act is absolutely necessary, for placing the benches^ 
and other formalities^ requisite to represent a Court 
of Judicature. 

P. 292. —— lastly hurried 

Here to this place^ i' th' open air, before 
I have got strength of limbs. And now — 
The first folio reads, I think, better: 

I ■ before 
I have got strength of limit. Now — 
t. e. strength enough for coming abroad^ 

P. 295. That thou betray'd'stPolixenes, 'twas nothing, 
That did but shew thee, of a fool, inconstant, 

And damnable ingrateful : 

I read: 



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$62 ILLUSTRATIOKS OF UTEkATCftlC. 

Iread: 

■ 'twas notbing, 

That did but sbew th^ of a SOUL inconstant. 
And- — ^ 

Ibid. But, O, thou tyrant ! 

Dost not repent these things, for they are heavier 
Than all thy woes can stir ? therefore betake thee 
To nothing but despair. 
Thus the first folio edition rectifies this absurd 
passi^: 

• But, O, thou tyrant ! 

Do not repent these things, for they are heavier 

Than all thy woes can stir : 

It is evident, Paulina is discouraj^ing him from 
repentance, on the supposition of his crimes being 
loo heinous to be forgiven. 

P. 298. Blossom, speed thee well, 

There lye, and there thy character : — 
I do not know what is here meant by character. 
Gold, and a mantle, and a metal, are left with the 
baby ; but no other notices of her birth^ or whos^ 
issue she was. 

P. 299. SAeph. Would I had been by lo have belp'd 
the OLD man. 
Clown. I WOULD you had been by the ship^* 
side, to have helpM her, tkere your char it i/ 
would have lacked footing. 
I am afraid, here are two false readings in two 
lines. How came the Shepherd, who did not see 
Antigonus, know him to be an old man ? 

His son, a little higher, acquaints us he was a kg- 
BLEMAN ; and therefore 1 suspect we should read, 

to have helpM the nob L£ Man. 

But what ? Does this ungracious Clown wish his 
father to have been by the shipside to have been 
drowned ? I suspect here we snould read, 
I WOULD NOT you had been, &c. 

P. 300. You 're a mad old man — 
I cannot but think, upon the Clown*8 opening the 

fardel. 



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• THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 363 

fardel, and discovering the wealth oF it, he should 
say to his father, 

You are a made man-^ 
So, MidsQmmer Night's Dream, p. 125: 

We bad all been made men. 
And so, Twelfth Night, p. 213 : 
Go CO, thou art made, if thou desirest to be so. 

P, 304. Being, as I am, littered under Mtrcury^ was 
likewise a Snapper-up of unconsidered trifles. 

As the Poet here seems to be precise in the astro- 
logical influeuces of a nativity, so, I dare say, he is^ 
equally exact to what the books say of one born un- 
der ljT9a Major ^ in Lear, p. 366 ; of which I can 
find nothing in Manilius, nor Scaliger upon him. 

Ibid. I cannot do it without compters. 

Do you think, dear Sir, it will be necessary, upon 
any one of the Plays, to subjoin an explanation of 
the old way of reckoning called counter-casting ; 
which I find is still used in some of the Colleges ? 

' P. 305. r ih' name of me 

I suspect, " r th' name of the — ** 
. The Clown, hearing Autolicus groan, begins to 
be afraid ; and apprehending a spirit, according to 
the old superstition, falls to invoking the Trinity. 

P. 307. Let me be unrolled, and my name put into 

the Book of Virtue. 
What does he mean by unrolled? His pame 
taken out of the Register of Iniquity ? 

Ibid. 1 should blush 

To see you so attired ; sworn I think 
To SHEW m jself a glass. 
I own I cannot understand this. I venture to read, 

SWOON, I think, 

To SEE myself i' th' glass. 
f . e. she should biush to see the Prince so obscured; 
«iid sunxmy -to «ee herself so pranked up. 

P. S09. : Come on, 

^ And bid us weflcome to the sbeqp-shearingr« 

I think 



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3^4 ILLUSTRATIONS OF UTERATURE. 

I think, verily, PoHxenes ought to speak this to 
Perdita. 

P. 312. I Ml swear for •em. 

Should not Perdita say, "111 swear for one?" 
meaning herself. 

P. SI 3. with such delicate burthens of 

and FAPiNGS. 

Why, in the name of nonsense, f apings? I 

read, and fa-dings ; certainly the burthens 

of some songs of those times. Of the latter term 
I can give some little account. It was, I presume, 
the burthen of some so prevailing a ditty, that a 
dance was composed to the tune. 

Of this dance Beaumont and Fletcher make men- 
tion in the Knight of the Burning Pestle, p. 23 14 
^ piece, like the Rehearsal, made to banter the 
Plays of those times) : 

George, I will have him dance fading ; fading 
is a fine jig, I ^11 assure jou, Gentlemen. Begin, 
brother, now a* capers, sweet-heart, row a turn 
o* tb* toe, and then tumble ! 

P. 3 1 6. Master, there are three carters, three shep- 

kcrd$f three neatAerife, and three swine- 

hcrds^ &c. 

Now, in the next page, these are called four-' 

threes of herdsmen. But could the carters be 

called herdsmen? At least they have not the final 

syllable, herdy to ^eir names; which, I believe, 

Shakespeare intended all the ^/bur three's should 

have. 

I have, therefore, guessed it should be. 

Master^ there are three goat-herds, three^ 4c. 
And so, I think, we take in the four species of 
cattle, usually tended by herdsmen. 

P. 320. Shep. O, nay heart ! 

As the King is, both in the preceding and rabte^ 
quent speeches, rating Perdita, I think verily this 
little distresBful cxclamati<« ought to be placed to 

hen 



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THBOBALD AKD WARBURTON. 365 

her. Besides, from what follows, it should seem 
that the old Shepherd was perfectly thunderstruck, 
or struck all of a heap, as the vulgar say, which 
Camillo perceiving, says to him. 

Why, how now, father ? speak ere thou dyest 

P. 322. And roost opportune to hek need. 
I read our ; for the Prince had equal occasion 
for the ship. 

P. 324. The which shall point you forth^at evVy SITTING 
What you must say — — 

But, perhaps, if the Ring had asked his questions 
standings these directions of Camillo might not have 
been of equal service. — ^Dr. Thirlby proposes^ sift- 
ing : I read, fitting ; t. e. such answers as are^/- 
ting and necessary to the questions, as started. 

P. 325. The medicine of our bouse. 

I read again^ medecin^ as in AlPs Well that Ends 
Well, p. 108. [See p. 343.] 

P. 329. ■ and they often give us soldiers the lie^ 
but we pay them for it with stamped coin^ 
If OT stabbing steel, therefore they donU giot 
us the lie. 

Is not this mock-reasoning ? I do not think the 
conundrum betwixt paying and not giving, is all 
the Poef s meaning here. He certainly intended to 
say, in the character of Autolicus (who has taken it 
in his head to assume the soldier), how dangerous it 
was to give soldiers the lie. 

So in Othello, p. 385 : 

Desd. Do you know, sirrah, where Lieutenant Cassio 

lies? 
Chum. I dare not say he lies any where. 
Desd, Why, man ? 
Qcwn. He *s a soldiei': and for me to say a soldier 

LIES, 'tis stabbing. 

What, therefore, if we should read in the passage 
before us, 

But we pay them for it in stamped coin, note- 
stabbing steel, &c. 

i. e. 



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^66 i^.LusTRATiONs OF ux£iu;ruii£* 

i, e. wound-impreaeiiig ; and theq stamped Ooin ha| 
^ regard both to the wound given, and to the stamp* 
ing with the foot in aiaking a puss. 

P. 331. I will but LOOK upon the hedge, and foUoir 

you. 
We have guessed leak£. 
So 1 Henry IV. p. 197 : 

Why, they will allow us ne*er a jourden, and thett 
we leake in the chimney. 
P. 332. Destroyed the sweetest companion ibat e*er man 
Bred his hopes out of, TRt/E. 
Pau, Too true, my Lord. 
I i-ead thus : 

•" ■ ■ hopes out of. 
Pau. True, too true, my Lord- 

P. 333. I think so. Kill'd ? 
She / I kiird ? / 1 did so, \ but thou | striks't me. 

Where are the Editor's ears ? As the emphasis 
in English hexameters^ or pentameters (which we 
shall call them), always falls upon every second syl- 
lable to the end of the verse, pray,, dear Sir, do 
but sound this line ; and how every foot halts and 
jars ! But we with great ease may restore it to nu- 
merousness. 

J — I think 80. KHIM ? 

Kill'd ?— She I kill'd ? — I did so; but thou strik'st me. 

P. 334. — ■ and on this sUge, 

(Where we offenders now appear) soul-vext. 
And begin. Why to me ? 
Sure, a verb is wanting here to corapleat the sense. 

And on this stage soul-vext, anid begin — 
I suspect there should be a slight alteration in the 
text; and another in the pointing of it. I have read^ 

— and on this st<^e 

(Where we offend her npw) appear soul-vext, 
And begin, Why to me — 

P. 346. My Lord, yoar sorrow was. too sore Jaid on. 
Which sixteen winters cannot blow away. 
So many summers dry scarce any joy 
Did ever, &c. 

The 



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Tlie fxmittiig in die first ibiio might have in- 
jrtructed Mr. Pope to have made cl^r sense of this 
passage: 

So many summers dry : scarce, any, &c. 

* And now, dear Sir, I have finished with this Play; 
and come to thank you for the pleasure of your ex- 
cursion on Anthony, and most happy emendation of 
Mab*s office in Romeo and Juliet. 

As I have a little paper left, you will give me 
leave to inform you in what a diirerent sense I have 
always took one passage in Anthony, which you 
have attempted to amend. Your emendation I need 
not repeat ; only give you my own comment : 

O Anthony ! — Nay, I will take ihce too, — ^What 
should I stay — 

After this short exclsCmation on Anthony, think- 
ing her death slow, and fearing least the aspick she 
applied to her breast should not be sufficient to. dis- 
patch her, she takes up another, and claps it to her 
arm. For confirmation, dear Sir, please to take 
Dolobella*s words at p. 109 : 

Here on her breast there is a vent of blood, and 
somethinor blow^, the LIKE is on her arm. 
But, dear Sir, as you have made one so fine emen- 
dation on Romeo, p. I31, please to turn the leaves, 
and observe this line: 

Sometimes she gallops o'er a lawyer's nose. 
But five lines higner he has mentioned her pro- 

fress over Lawyer's Jingers : and I am sure the 
^oet's fancy was not so barren to descend to such a 
needless iteration. I have guessed, 

o*er a Taylor's nose. 

The word suit^ you know, is as applicable to 
tloathsj as to a process-at Law, or petition at (hurt. 
But then the objection which I have started to my- 
self is whether the Taylor be considerable enough 
to be mixed with the other characters, as Lovers^ 
CcmrtierSy Lawyers^ Ladies, Parsons, and Soldiers. 
I commit it to your sagacity. 

I will 



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2fi8 ILLUSTRATIOHS OT LITBBATURE. 

. I will continue, for the fiiture, ta numbtr my 
Letters, as you advise ; a rule not a little necessary, 
as we cannot possibly have leisure for copying. 

I am, dearest Sir, your most affectionate and faith- 
ful friend and servant. Lew. Theobald. 



LETTER XXX. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Wyatis Court, Dec. 30, 1749- 
Your most kind diligence in my service prompts 
me with the greatest pleasure to double my corre- 
spondence this post; and to second my enquiries on 
the Winter's Tale, with as many as my paper will 
admit of on Lear. 

P. 353. ■ for qualities are so weighed. 

The old quarto, 1608, reads equalities. Either 
may do ; arKl I am at a loss which to prefer. 

P.. 354. some year elder than this ; who yet is 00 

dearer in my account, though this knave came some- 
what sawcily to the world before be was sent for; 
' yet was his mother fair, there was — 

Thus, certainly, the pointing of this passage ought 
to be regulated : 

some year elder than this ; who yet is no 

dearer in my account : though, &c. ' before he 
was sent for, yet was his modier fair ; &c* 

Ibid. and 'tis our intent. 

The old quarto reads, 

— and 'tis our FiltST intent 

Mr. Pope threw out the epithet with too curious 
a regard to the measure, I sujqpose ; and not consi- 
dering that kifigdam, in the proaouncing, might be 
resolved into one syllable. I rea(i^ 

In three our kingdo'm ; and 'tis our FAST intent ; 
t. e. our fixed^ constant, resolution* 

P. 357. 



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THBOBALD AND WARBURTON* 

P. S57. Make with you by due turns : only retain 
The name and all th* addition to a King : 
The sway, revenue, execution^ 
Beloved sons, be yours ; 

I think the Editors a little mistake our Poet's 
meanins; besides all the oldest copies have a read- 
ing in the third line^ which is quite sunk upon us: 
The sway, revenue, execution of the rest. 
I read the whole, and point it thus: 
Make with you by due turns, only retain 
The name ; but all th' addition to a King, 
The sway, revenue, execution, office. 
Beloved sons, &c. 

P. 359. Cor. Here*8 France and Bufgundy, my no^ 
ble Lord. 

Though several of the old copies most absurdly 
place this line to Cordelia, we must restore it, with 
the oldest quarto, to Gloucester, who, p. 354, was 
sent by the King to attend Prance and Burgundy. 

Ibid. Or all of it with our displeasure pierced. 
All the old copies concur in piec'd ; i. e. with my 
displeasure annext, to boot. 

So again, p. 412: 
I will PIECE out the comfort with what addition I can : 

et pluriis alibi. It seems a favourite term with our 
Poet; which makes me almost fear that, though your 
emendation on the 21st page of Anthony much 
ennobles the metaphor, yet it may give a stronger 
image than the Poet dreamt of. 

p. 360. ' Sure th* offence 

Must be of such unnatural degree, 

As MONSTEOUS IS ; or your forevoucht affection 

Could not fall into taint 5 

Thus the old copies : 

- — Sure HER offence 

Must be of such unnatural degree, 

That monsters it : or your forevoucht affection 

Fall into taint, —~ 
TOL. !!• 2 b I read. 



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^7tt ILLUSIttATIOWS W LltMAtUftft. 

• So many folds of favour ! Sure her offence 
Must be of such unnatural degree, 

That monsters it ; ERE your forevoucht affectioa 
FaH into taint : ' ■ ' ' 
> Monsters it; i. e. that makea a prodigy of it. 

So- Coriolanus^ p. 21 1 : 

— than idly sit 

To hear my nothings momster'd. 
P. 360. Since that respect and fortunes are bis love — 
I have formerly corrected, - 

Since that respects of fortune, &c. 
This reading, I find since, is justified by the fiwt 
old quarto. 

And see what France says a little higher : 
Love is not love when k is mingled with REG^ftDfi^ lie. 

P. S61. ■ I know what you are. 

And like a sister am most loth to call 

Your Cauks as tfaw are named. ■ 

The sense of the second line may be cleared also 
a little, both by this pointing, 

I know what you are ; 

And, like a sister, am, &c. 
And by this quotation from As you Like it, p. 311 : 
I speak but brotherly of him, hot should I ana- 
tomize him to thee as heis^ &a 

Ibid. And well are worth the waK« that you have 

wanted. 
The old quarto reads, worth. Either of thaoi 
is equally obscure to me. 

P. 362. Pray you let us sit together. 
The old quarto, sure, better. 

Pray you let us hie togethi»r ; 
t. e. as afterwards, p. 368 : 

• I Ml write strait to my sister to hold n^ course. 
P. 364. This policy and reverence of agbs ■■ ■ 
Read, AGE ; L €. of old age. 

P. 365. Jle cannot he such a monster. Edmund, aed^, 
him out* 

The 



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The old quarto has something ipore bere^ that 
was curtailed, I doubt not, by the wisdom of the 
Players : the doing of wjhfich, m wy opinioff, mfich 
weakens the hypocrisy, and dissembled candour, of 
the BastEird. 

Glou, He cannot be such a monster. 
£asL Nor is not, sure. 

Giou. To hi^ fatber, that so tenderly and entirely 
loves him : heaven and earth ! Edmutid, seek, &c. 

P. 366. under Ursa Major, so that it follows I am 

rough and L£ach£rous. 

I have suspected, you know, treacherous. But 
Hrhat your Nativit^^casters say upon the subject I 
do ciot know well now to trace* 

P. 368. Whose mind and mine I know in that apre one* 
•Remember what I have mi. ■■ ■ 

I will venture to restore a few lines here from the 
old quarto, that, 1 presume, the world will not be 
angry with me for. The thought of them is natu- 
ral and fine, and they have the very stamp of our 
Author impressed on them, to speak them genuine; 
and. also do not a little heighten the baseness of 
Gonerirs disposition : 

Whose mind and mine, I know, in 4hat are one. 
Not to be over-rul'd : Idle old man, 
' That still would manage those authorities 
That he hath giv*n away ! Now, by my life, 
Old fools are babes again; and must be us*d 
With checks, as flatteries when they are seen abuB*d( 
Remember, &e. < 

What a Collator must our Edtlor be, of whrt a 
wrong-headed judge ! 

I read, abuses, or f abuse us; and then all is right. 

Ibid. And can my speech disuse. 
All the old copies, defuse; t\ e, so spread, and 
4ifg»iised, as not to be known by it. 

The word recurs again, in the Merry Wives of 
Windsor, p. 278: 

With Some dfjffi^ed song. 

2B2 And 



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37* ILLUSTRATIONS OF LfTSkATUllK. 

And Henry V. p- 4()7 • 

Stern looks, d^fufd attire, &ۥ 
And Richard III. p. 398 : 

Vouchsafe, i/|J^*ii( infection of a man, hue 

P. 372. Nothing can be made out of nothing. 

Was this at all the philosophy of Shakespeare^s 
times, or had he not this thesis of Lucretius in his 
mind? book I. 15: 

NuLLAM REM ^ NIHILO oiONi divinitib uoquam. . 

Or this, V. 156: 

Nihil posse creaki be nihilo. 

But, dear Sir, if he did not borrow the thoi^fat 
immediately from our Roman Philosopher, I thmk, 
I can point out two other lines that must be said to 
be translated from him. Hamlet, p. 232 : 
There are more things io H£av*n and earth, Horado, 
Than are dreamt of in your philosophy. 
Quippe ita formido mortales continet omnes, 
Quod muUa in tcrrisjieri, cttlofue tuentur, 
Quorum operutn causas nuUd ratiane viderc 
Possufit. Lucr. lib. I. 152, ice 

Ibid. Foot. Dost thou know the difference, my boy^ 
betwixt a bitter fool and a sweet one ? 
Lear. No, lad; teach me. 
Fool. Nuncle, give me an egg, &c. 

^ The Fool, instead of teaching the Ring as he de- 
sired, goes on to other matter. But I can restore 
jHiu the Fool's definition from the old quarto, which 
u both humourous and satirical enough. 

Lear. No, lad ; teach me. 

Fool. That lord that counsePd thee to give away Hfy 
land. 
Come, place him here by me ; do thou for him 

stand ; 
The sweet and bitter Fool will presently appear; 
The one in motley here, the other found out 
there. 
Lear. Dost thou call me fool, boy ? 

. Hie King has reason here to charge his Jester widi 

calUng 



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THMBAI^ AVP WARBUETOK. 373 

cilKng him Fool; bu^ jnmy, witboQt these lineii is 
t^ere any shadow for such a charge ? 

P. 58 1 . He 's coming hither now i* th' night, haste. 

Both the old quarto and first folio cure the halt- 
ing of this line : 

now i* th* night, i* th* haste. 

P. 382. My worthy ARCH and patron. 

Is this word ever used substantively in this signi- 
fication ? Or should not we transpose^ 
My worthy and arch- patron? 

Ibid. I Ue make a sop o* th* moonshine of you — 
I do not at all conceive the meaning of this phrase. 
Considering Kent calls him glass-gazing, superfi-- 
nical rosue, and neat slave^ I have some suspicion 
it should be^ 

I 'II make a fop o* th' moonshine of you. 

P. 386. Like rats^ oft bite those cords in twain, Jcc. 
I question much whether the degraded lines here^ 
which are from the first folio^ do not deserve a tholight 
or two for an emendation. 
Remember Anthony, p. 107: 

Come, mortal wretch, 
With thy sharp teeth this knot intrinsic ate 
Of life at once untie. 

P. S90. Blanket my loins, put all my hair in knots. 
This is a modem sophistication of the text ; the 
old quarto reads else ; but the first folio, rightly, 
Elfe all my haires in knots. 

Romeo and Juliet, p. 132 : 

And cakes the ELFE-locks in foul sluttish haires. 
P. 395. Do you but mark how this becomes the house ? 
Should not this rather be, the use? t. e. the rule 
«nd custom of Nature. 
See Tempest^ p. 67 : 

Batch! how 0(/i//y will it sound, that I should 
ask my child forgiveness ? 
And Coriolanus, p. 270 : 

I kneel before thee, and ukproperly 
Shew duty as mistaken all the while 
Between the child and parent* ^ 

P. 395. 



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t74 icLir*mATi6*'s 'of lii^ay^k. 

P.S^iS. LtibkM BfLA(5K upo* m^^ — ^ '^ ' ' • 
I do not weir understand this expf^ion. I hstif^ 
sMpected, ' 

LookM 0LAM: upon me i i 

i. e. as above^ p. 391 : 

Gave me c(MJ> looks. 

And see Hamlet, p» 26fl r 

Eaeh opposite that ivlakks the (ace of joy^ 

Ibid. Thy tender-HEARTED nature. 

This is a modem reading. The old quarto reads, 
tender-H£st£D ; but thd first folio, rightljry ten4er- 
teEFttD; t. €. thy bosom is heaved with tender 
sentiments. 

Winter's Tale, p. 282 : 

. 'Tis sucb as you, 
That creep like shadows by him, and do sigh 
At each his needless heavinos. 

P. 409. False of heart, light qfear. 

1 do not clearly apprehend what he means by 
light of ear. Is it creaulous of slanders, or rep^rt^ 
to any one's disadvantage? 

Ibid. SwiTHOLD footed twice the OLD. 

It might puzzfe Mr. Pope, perhaps, if one were 
either to ask him who this Swithola is, or what is 
^he meaning of that choice phrase, footing the old. 

1 read, 

S. WiTHOLD footed thrice the wold. 

We hear of this Satnt WithoW in another of our 
Author's pieces,TheTroublesome Reign of Kii^John : 
Sweet, S. WiTHOLD, of thy lenity, &c. 

And for woldj Skinner expounds it to us, '* Locus 
sylv^ expers, montes vel coUes," &c. 

M tandim manum de tahuld. Another (marked 
No. 1.) attends you tliis post, dearest Sir, from 
your most aifectionate and faithful friend and ser- 
vant, JLew. Theobald. 

LETTBR 



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% TOAQ&AJUO AMD WA|»URTON. ^-JS 

LETTER XXXI- 
To the Rev. Mr. WARBURtoN, 

D&AR Sir, fFyarCs Courts Jan. 1 , 1 729-a|0. 

I have tte pleasure of yours (No. 2.) of the ^jtif 
of December; and now hasten to give yon the re- 
mainder of my observations and enquiries on Lear, 

p. 410. with this saine learned Tkeban, 

In the next pagettfae King calls him Athenign; 
hut, as his wits are unsettled, to reconcile this varia- 
tion perhaps were impertinent, if not ridiculous. 

P. 411. How, my Lord! I maybe censured. 

This chimerical admiration has not tha least 
countenance from the old books, and quite subverts 
the Bastard's reflection. We must restore, 
How, my Lord, I may be eetisored. 

P. 412. Here is better than the open air; take it 
thankfvdly. 
^ For Gloucester to desire Kent that he would take 
his iavours thankfully, is not without suspicion t6 
me; since they were principally conferred on the 
King his master, and reached his train only conse- 
quentially. 

P. 413. For he 's a yeoman that sees liis son a gentle* 

man before him. 
The first folio adds, necessarily. 

For he 's a mad yeomshi, &c. 

Ibid. Most learned Justice, r 

I read, to complete the verse, Justicer. \ 

Ibid. Now, ye she-foxes. 

You see Mr. Pope-s note here at bottom ; notwith- 
fitanding which, I will quote several speeches in the 
mad way from the first quarto, of which he \akin 
not the least notice. 

Immediately after these words follows : 
Edg. Look where he stands and glares. 
Wan t'st ibou eyes at trial. Madam i 
CMRie, <ftx the Woom^ B^^y, to me. 

Fool 



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375 ILLUSTRATIONS OP LITBRATURE« 

Fool. Her boat hatb a leak^ 

And she must not speak. 

Why she dares not come over to thee. 
Edg. The foul fiend haunts, &c. 

P. 413- after — I have no food for thee; — the 
quarto adds^ 
\KenL How do you, Sir ? Stand you .not so amazM : 

Will you lie down, and rest upon the cushions ? 
Ibid, after — sit you too — the quarto adds, 
£!dg. Let us deal justly ; sleepest, or wak'st, thou 

jolly shepherd ? Thy sheep be in the com; and 

for one blast of thy minikin mouth, thy sheep shall 

take no harm. Pur the cat is grey. 

Ibid after r-parraiga her firsts 'tis Goneril -^ the 
quarto adds, 

I here take my oath before this honourable as^ 

sembly, she kicked the poor King her father. 

(Whether these insertions are any advantage to 

the Scene, is not the question : but what dictatorial 

authority has our Editor to produce only some^ and 

,stifle others ?) 

Ibid, after — I took you for a joint-stool — the 
quarto adds two verses to the King's speech, in my 
mind truly fine and necessary : 

Itear. And here 's another, whose warpt^ looks. pro- 
claim me 

What STORE t her heart is made on. — Stop her there; 

Arms, arms, &c. 

Now, dear Sir, I will venture to restore to you a 
long and notable passage (exiled by this most indo- 
lent Editor), that I believe you will own breathes 
all the spirit of Shakespeare. 

What can Mr. Pope mean by pretending to put 
the old quarto in his list of collated editions, and 
yet make these unsufferable slips ? 

P. 414. 1. ult. after — Give thee quick condupt. -^ 

Kent. -^ Oppressed Nature sleeps : 

* For such a warped slip of wUdemess 

Ne^cr issued from his blood. MsAsms f om Measum. 

7 I thmk, 8T0MB. 

This 



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THVOBALD AWD WAEBUtTOlT; 377 

Tbis rest might yet have btlinM thy Hroken 

sisEWESj [I think senses.] 

Which, if convenience will not allow. 
Stand in bard cure. Comey help to bear thy 

master ; [To the field, I doubt not.] 

Tbou must not stay behind. 
Olau. Come, come away. [Exit. 

Edg. When we our betters see bearing our woes. 
We scarcely think our miseries our foes. 
Who alone suffers, suffers * most i' th* mind. 
Leaving free things and happy shows behind : 
But then the mind much suff Vance does o*erskip. 
When grief hath mates, and bearing fellowship. 
How light and portable my pain seems now, 
When that, which makes me bend, makes the 

Kine bow ! 
He childed, as I fathered. — Tom, away; 
Mark the high noises, and then thyself bewray, 
When false opinion^ whose wrong thought defiles 

thee, 
In thy Just proof repeals and reconciles thee. 
What will hap more to-night, safe *scape the 

King! 

Now, dear Sir, are not all these reflections vastiv 
fine, and vastly in character for Edgar, compared with 
those he makes at the banning of the Fourth Act. 

As you encouraged me in one plagiary, wifli 
which I acquainted you in a former, I will not dis- 
miss this passage without troubling you with another 
sentiment in my Orestes (the ground of which I 
borrowed from the two lines marked by italic); 
which I have been arrogant enough to fancy a litUe 
Shakespearesque. 

*Tis plain, the Gods are factious on the side 

Of Iphigenia, and her princely brother. 

Their sufferings have been great: and oft 'tis found, 

There is a secret merit in distress. 

That, at a season, reconciles the world. 

And draws opinion to befriend its cause. 

* In this re-duplioation I question not your concurrence. 



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778 iiMisnuTKWs mm unaATumE* 

P. 41^. after, 

Give me your arm — [Exetmi, 

the quarto adds a few short speeches ; which serve 
both to heighten the compassion on Gloucester^ and 
the abhorreilce against GoneriL 

Isi Serv. 1 'II never care what wickedness I do, 

If this man come to good. 
Zd Serv. If she live long. 

And in the end meet the old course of death. 
Women will ail turn monsters. 
1st Serv. Let 's follow the old Earl, and get the bedlam 
To lead him where be would : bis roguish 

madness 
Allows itself to any thing. 
2d Serv. Go thou ; I 'II fetch some flax, and whites 
of eggs, 
T apply t' his bleeding face. Now, Heaveoi 
help him I 
P. 420. Might I but live to see thee in my t<mch, 

IM say, I bad eyes again. 
So above, p. 403 . 

Such sheets of fire^ such bursts of horrid 

thunder. 
Such groans of roaring wind and rain, I never 
Remember to have heard. 
You will readily pardon rne, I have no doubt, if 
I mention that I remember no such fine boldnesses, 
no such noble translatlones sensuum (as the Critics 
term it) in our English Poetry. Among theGreelis 
I have observed many. There is a remarkable ^^oe 
in JEschylus. Sept. in Theb. v. 103. KTTIJON 
AE'AOPKA, HA'TArON 4x Ms V^. 

And how like to my second instance quoted ie this 
line in the Hero and Leander of the grammatical 
Musaeusr 

tiriyoiLBfoP re Aia^pov, bf^ xa\ ArXNON 'AYLOTQ. 
The SchoHast upon the passage of jS^schylus ex- 
pounds SsSo^iea by these terms, xarwoA, rSro SISopxa 
Toi^ rS NOOTT 'OI'eAAMOI'^g. 

I will not venture to assert peremptorily that ouf 
Author traded with this note; but his — " In my 
wiKD> EYE," in Hamlet, happens to be a literal 
translation of it. p. 421. 



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91tttMAI.I> AMB WAUfUfiTfOHf. $7^ 

F. 42 1 . Poor Tom '^ a-cold, 1 e«finot iMkii ce it fertber. 
The first folio re^ds, I think, better, daub. 
Ibid. "Five fiends have been in poor Tom at once. 
The Editor, to shew his exactness in what he here 
borrows from the old quarto, leaves out one of the five 
fiends, and creates another to supply the d^cirncy. 
I will give you the passage, as I correct it, for 
shortness : 

—^— at once: of LUST, asObidicut; Hobbididen, 

Prince of Dnmbness ; Mahu, of Stealing ; Modo, 

of Murther ; and Flibbertigibbet, of Mopping and 

Mowing ; who since possesses, &c. 

Mops and Mowes, you may remember, are coupled 

in the Tempest, and several other places. 

P. 422. Now,, wbere 's your master ? 

Here the Steward's entrance ought to be marked, 
and not at the opening of the scene with Goneril 
and Bastard. 

Ibid< My fool usurps my BODY. 

The old quarto, 

My FOOT usurps my head. 

P. 423. From her material sap. 
As, contemns its origin, are preceding terms; 
should it not be rather, maternal ? 

Ibid. In the subsequent passage* I restore two 
verses from the old quarto : 

Wisdom and goodness to the vile seem vile ; 

[Filths savour but themselves : what have you done ?] 

Tygers, not daughters, what have you performed i 

A father and a gracious aged man, 

[Whose reverence the head-lugg'd bear would lick;] 

Most barbVous, &c. 

Ibid. Again, from the old quarto, after — 

from thy sufTring. That not know'st, — 

Fools do these villains pity, who drepunisht 
Ere they have done their mischief^. — Where 's thy 
drum? 

, * SoHitt]|iag& little wrong here, I fear. 

France 



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i6o iiMfmiAnovfi of utseatum* 

France spreadU Us baniiers io our noitdess kuid | 
With plumed helm iby slayer begins threats. 
Whilst thou, a moral fool, sit'st still and cry*s^ 
Alack ! why does be so .^ 
Are not these every way worthy of odr master, 
and most aptly in character? 
P. 423. after — O vaio fool ! , 

jilb, TboucbangM and self-converted thing! for shame 
Be-monster not tby feature. Wer *t my fitness. 
To let these bands obey m v [ ] blood. 
They Ve apt enough to dislocate and tear 
Thy flesh and bones. — However thou art a fiend, 
A woman^s shape doth shield thee. 
Gon, Marry, your manhood now ! 

P. 425. GenL — I say she took *cm — 
AnnonpotiuSy — I, Sift; she 

Ibid. The old quarto, after, 

yon have seen 

Sunshine and rain at once. [Her sndUi and tears 
Were like a better way] those happy smilbts. 

Corrupt; or I cannot understand them. 

Ibid. Old quarto again, after, 
Cry*d, Sisters! Sisters! [Shame of Ladies ! Sisters! 
Kent! Father! Sisters!] What? i' th* storm? l' TH* 
night ? 

P. 42fi, Again, after, 

■ from her heavenly eyes, 

[And clamour- moisten^, then away she started 
To deal with grief alone. 
Kent.. It is the stars. 

The stars above us govern, &c.] 
Bit t, as I have nothing further upon this fineScene, 
it will be proper to dismiss you. There was not a 
necessity of troubling you with these several inser- 
tions ; but, as the oldquarto is very scarce, and von 
might not have possibly seen them, I thought thqr 
might be of some entertainment. 

A long and happy train of New-years heartily 
wished to you, conclude me, dearest Sir, your most 
affectionate and obliged friend and humble servant. 

Lew. Theobald. 

LETTKE 



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iHtOBALD AKI> WARBUHTOK. $81 

LETTER XXXII. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, WyatCs Courts Jan. 3, IJfg-SO. 

I have reoiived the pleasure of yours of the 3d of 
December (No. 3) ; and hasten now to finish with 
Lear, and this volume* 

P. 428. Transport her purposes by word ? 

Nothin)^ but negligeQce could occasion Mr. Pope'a 
leaving this verse imperfect. 

Bom the quarto and folio add, 

By word ? — Belike. 

P. 431. Ten masU attacht make not the altitude. 

I know not, either whence Mr. Pope derived this 
reading, or where he met with the degraded one, 
unless in Mr. Rowe's Edition. But who, besides 
himself^ would make an authority of a modern copy ? 

The old quarto and two first folios concur in a bold 
and elegant expression^ in my mind : 

Ten masts at each 

t. e. each put at the end of the other. 

P. 431. Think that the dearest gods. 

The old books again read, clearest, i. e. as I 
undentand it, open and righteous in their dealings : 
and see Timon, p. 14^: 

Roots, you clear heav'ns ! 

P. 432. That fellow handles his bow like a cow-KBRPER« 

I am afraid (by a note in my ^^ Shakespeare Re- 
stored,'' in which I have certainly blundered,) I be- 
trayed Mr. Pope into this mistaken reading. 

The old books give us the genuine reading — a 
^Row-KUCPER, i. e. a figure set up in fields andgar- 
dens^ armed with a bow, to keep the crows and other 
birds of prey from the com and fruit: ai scare-crow. 

And so in Romeo, p. 130 : 

Scaring the ladies like a cow- keeper,. 

we 



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we must restore crow-keeper : and see Beaumont 
and Fletcher's Bonduca, p. 2211. 

P. 434. Thou hast seen a farmer's dog bark at a beggar ? 
Clo. Ay, Sir. . i. . 

Lear. And the creature run from the cur? there thou 
might'st behold the great image of authp- 
vity : &c. , 

Thus is this charming pieee of satire to be point- 
ted, from the old books. But I have produced it 
likewise upon another account. This figure, and 
method of imaging^ from absent circumstances, looks 
very like an imitation of the AntiewU. Mintumus, 
in his moat accurate treatise De Poeta, speaking of 
these figures, 1 remember, subjoins this descrijition 
of them i—Quce out inuminem, ant quasi ima^nem 
habety aut collationem^ ^c. and gives his opinion^ 
that they cannot but entertain. 

Plautus has a good deal of this imagery. The 
foilowing passage, to roe, has a great resmblanoc te 
our Authors. Menoech. Act L Scene 9, v. 34: 
Men. Die mihi, nunquam tv vidisti tabulam pictam in 
Pariete, 
Ubi aquila catamitum raperet, aut ubi Venus Ado- 
neum ? 
Pen, Sjepe. Sed quid istse Pictgrae ad me attiqent? 

Men. AGE, ME ASPICE. 

P. 435. The main descry stands on the hourly tboUgb^ 

What does the Poet mean ?— Every hour we ex- 
pect to have a descry of the main body ? 

P. 437. Oh undisiinguish'd space of v9om9xCs WIt! 

So the old quarto; but the two first folios Head 
much better in my opinion, will. The Poet, I 
think, is rather exclaiming against the licentiousue* 
of their appetites, than the reaches of their ounning. 
But, sure, is not this undistinguished space mu^ 
to be suspected f I can form no «ati8fiict<My idea of 
sense from it. 

Does it mean, What a sofpe, more than w« datkdis- 
cover, do women giye diemBelves in purtuita of vice! 

P. 441. 



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TKtpOJO^ AND WARBUftTON. : 3% 

P; 141. ■ He *s fall of alteratioii^ 

And self-reproving bkikos bia 
The old quarto comes in to our a^aistance here t 
And self-reproving : BRING his . 

IWd. After " she and the duke her husband " the 
old quarto makes ^oneril say something to herself 
very much in character : 

I bad rather lose the baule, than that sister 

Should loosen him and me. 

P. 442. After '^ heavy causes make oppose,** 
^uitf'to adds, , 

Bast. Sir, you speak nobly. 

Jbid. After " on our proceeding^** q«arto adds : 
Basi, I shall a^end you presently at your tent. 

P. 445. ' — Thy great employment 

Will not bear question. 

The former branches of this speech are very ill 
pointed, but easily to be regulated ; so I will tnoi 
trouble yoit with them. 

I would only observe, that I think we must read t 

■ ^ Mv great employmeirt : 

i. e. I leading one of the conqueror's forces, and ha- 
ving employed thee in this business, will be thy suf- 
ficient wftiTanti and secure thee from being ques- 
tioned in it. 

P. 44tf. After ^^ where you shall hold your ses- 
aion,** the old quarto adds a few lines that seem al> 
solutely necessary here : for as the Bastard's speech 
is made to end, it is plain, he does not pretend to 
advise, but submits the whole process to Albany : 
How absurdly then does Albany reply, that he holds 
tbe Bastard but a subject of the war ? Add, 

— ' At this time we sweat and bleed ; 

The friend hath lost his friend ; and the best quarrels^ 
I* th* beat, are curst by those that fpel their sharpness. 
The. qQiBstl« of Cordelia and her father 
Requires a 6tter place. 

4hM« Take thoo my ju>ktier8, prisoners, patrimony. 
Dispose of them, of me, the walls are thine. 

The 



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$$4 lUAJfFnJLriOS9 OF UTERATVEB. 

The seoond rerse is wanting in the first qiuirto.'^-' 
But, the wulh of what ? Of her soldiers, her pi- 
sokiers, and her patrimony ? Resides, Regan is here 
in an open camp ; had she been in an house, and 
given the Bastard the keys of the fore and back gate, 
she might with some propriety have told him, the 
walls were his. 

But as the case is otherwise, I suspect, she would 
say: 

Dispose of them, of me, they all are thine. 

Ibid. Bast. Let the drum strike, and prove my title 

GOOD. 

The first folio, perhaps, more properly, 

R£G. Let the drum strike, and prove my title THINE. 

P. 447. If you will marry, make your loves to me. 
My lady is bespoke. 

This, I presume, is said to Regan ; and that Al- 
bany means, since his wife has contracted herself to 
the Bastard, Regan, if she will marry, must marry 
him, L e. Albany. 

P. 448. here is mine : 

Behold, it is the privilege of mine bonoura. 
My oath, and my profession. I protest, — 
What does Edgar mean here is the/>rtt;til^e o/* 
his honours? His doing justice to one he ofiends 
teems rather a duty than a privilege. I confess^ I 
do not clearly take the meanmg. 

P. 449. Alb. Save him, save him. 

Thus all the copies in general. But sure Albany, 
that knew the Bastard's treasons, cannot be solici- 
tous about him. It is certainly a corruption either 
from AMB. or LAD. to signify both the women, or 
ladies. 

Ibid. Thou worse than any thing. 
The first folio reads, name. As Winter's Tale^ 
p. S67 : 

My wife's a hobby-horse^ deserves a name , 
As rank as any flax. 

P. 450. 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 385 

P. 450. For I am almost ready to dissolve, 
Hearing of this. 

Here certainly the Players took the liberty to re- 
trench ; whether with the Author s consent, or no, 
I dare not determine. But in the first quarto, after 
ready to dissolve^ a description follows which is 
made by Edgar, that I will subjoin for your enter- 
tainment. I confess, it is pretty corrupt ; but, I 
hope, not quite past cure. 

I will give it you at present exactly as I find it. 

Edo. This would have seemM a period to such 

As love not sorrow, but another to amplify too 

much 
Would make much more, and top extremity. 
Whilst I was big in clamour, came there in a man, 
Who having seen me in my worst estate, 
ShunnM my abborrM society: but then, finding 
Who *t was that soendur'd, with his strong arms 
He fastened on my neck, and bellowM out 
As he *d burst heaven ; threw me on my father ; 
And told the piteous tale of Lear and him. 
That ever ear receiv'd, which in recounting 
His grief grew puissant, aud the strings of life 
Began to crack. Twice then the trumpets 

sounded. 
And there I left him tranced. 

Alb. But who was this? 

Edo. Kent, Sir, the banishM Kent, who in disguise, 
Follow'd his enemy king, and did him service 
Improper for a slave. 

P. 451. This judgment of the heav'ns, that makes us 
tremble, 
Touches us not with pity. O ! ifr this she f 
The time will not allow the compliment 
Which very manners urge. 

What ! did not Albany know his own wife, b^ 
cause she was stabbed? Again^ if the justice of 
her doom left no compassion for her, what compU- 
luents of grief was it likely manners should maloe 
him pay ? 

VOL. II. 2 c The 



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$86 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LIT£RATUaE. 

The first folio reads certainly right : 

O ! Is this HE ? 



iHz. Kent, who enters disguised as Caius. So the 
old quarto, after 

Touches us not with pity. 
Enter Kent. 
Edg, Here comes Kent, Sir. 
Alb, O Uis hCf the time will not allow 

The compliment that very manners urge. 

P. 452. The quarto adds, after 

Kent. Is this the promised end, 

Edg. Or image of that horror ? 

Jib. Fall, and cease. 
But what to make of it, I do not know. 

P. 453. He ^s a good fellow, I can tell you that, 

He *ll strike and quickly too : be *s dead and 
rotten. 
We have seen Lear mad, but never a stark fool 
till this moment ; to tell us that a dead and rotten 
man will strike quickly. I read, 

'T WAS a good fellow, I can tell you that, 
* He 'd strike, and quickly too : — He 's dead and 
rotten. 

And now, dear Sir, I have done with this Play 
and Volume, I wish we were as well over the his- 
torical sett. The two Henry the Fourths, Henry 
the Fifth, and Henry the Eighth, are full of enter- 
tainment and fine things. John, Richard II. and 
Richard III. are of the middling stamp: but the three 
parts of Henry VI. scarce come up to that character. 
Mr. Dryden, I think, has very well defined this part 
of our Author^s writings, in his Essay on Dramatic 
Poetry. ** If we consider (says he) the Historical 
Plays of Shakespeare, they are rather so many chro- 
nicles of Kings, or the business many times of thirty 
or forty years, cramped into a representation of two 
hours and a half; which is not to imitate or paint Na- 
ture, but rather to draw her in miniature, to take her 
in little ; to look upon her through the wrong end 

* Romeo, p. II7. 

of 



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THEOBALD ANI> WARBURToW. 387 

of a perspective, and receive her images not only 
much less, but infinitely more imperfect than the 
life." 

As I have still a little spare paper, I Will beg 
leave to throw in a few occasional inquiries, in which 
I shall be proud of your information. 

Julius Caesar, p. 292: 

The angry spot doth glow on Csesar^s brow. 
Ibid. p. 293 : 

Come on my right hand, for this ear is deaf. 
These particulars, I dare say, our Poet gleaned 
from history ; but where he picked them up I am not 
able to trace. 

Ibid. p. 302. Is not to-morrow, boy, the first of March? 
303. Sir, March is wasted fifteen days. 

Could Brutus, who was a sedate speculative man, 
be so out of his reckoning, as to have lost a whole 
fortnight in March, and know nothing of the mat- 
ter ? Then in the boy's account we are certainly to 
include the ensuipg day; for Caesar, you know, was 
killed on the 15th of March. 

Ibid. p. 333y334: 

Moreover, he hath left you all his walks. 
His private arbours, and new-planted orchards, 
On THIS side Tibur. 
But should it not be, 

On THAT side Tibur ? 
Anthony was now in the Forum ; but Caesar's 
gardens, you know, were on the otiier side.' Hor. 
Sat I. ix. 18: 
Trans Tiburim longd cubat is, prope Csesaris bortos. 

I am, dear Sir, your most affectionate and obliged 
humble servant. Lew. Theobald. 



* - * 2 C 2 LETTER 



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388 ILLUSTRATIONi OF LITBEATUES. 

LETTER XXXIIL 

To the Rev, Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Wyaris Court, Jan. 6, 1729-30. 
I have the pleasure of both yours (No. 4 and 5) 
bearing date the 3d of this instant January. 

KING JOHN. 

P. 8. Because be hath a half- face like my father. 

With HALF THAT face would be have all my land, 
A half-fac'd groat, five hundred pounds a year ? 

But why, with half that face? Surely, I think, 
it should be, with that HALF-face. But Mr. Pope 
will be angry with me for explaining an anachronism 
in our Poet. He alludes, m the last line, to the 
new coin appointed by Henry VH. anno 1504, viz. 
a groat, and half a groat, which bear but half-faces 
expressed. 

P. 10. Now blessed by the hour. 

Read, be. 

P. 14. Lewis. Beforie Angiers. 

Why does the Dauphin take upon him to antici- 

Eate his father in welcoming Austria, and his father 
ere in presence? I doubt not but this speech 
should be placed to King Philip. 

P. 18. It lies as sightly on the back of him, 
As great Alcides' shoes upon an ass. 
But let Hercules and his shoes have been realty as 
big as they were ever supposed to be, yet surely they 
(I mean, the shoes) would not have been an over- 
load for Hn ass. I read. 

As great Alcides* shews upon, &c. 
i. e. as uncouth as the lion's hide, worn by Hercules, 
would look on an ass. 

Ibid. King Lewis, determine. 
Here, again, Austria does not seem to know' 
which was king, father or son. It must be. 
King Philip, determine. 

P. 24. 



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THfiOBALD AITB WAEBUKTOV* 5^9 

P. 24. Stain'd in the dying slaughter. 
I presume our Editor^s nice ears were oflfended 
here with a jingle. The old copies read, 
Dy*d in the dying. 

P. 26. How like you this wild counsel, mighty States? 
A line immediately follows this in the first folio^ 
which by no means ought to be left out : 
Smacks it not something of the policy? 

P. 27. With awifter speed. 

This the Editor substitutes for spleen, which is 
the word in the old editions. But why not spleen ? 
So afterwards, p. 83 : 

And SPLEEN of speed to see your Majesty. 
And so Midsummer Night's Dream, p. 79 : 

Brief as the lightning in the coUied night. 

That in a spleen, &c. 

P. 28. And she in beauty, education, blood. 
First folio more connectively, as she. 

P. 32. Gain be my lord, for I will worship thee. 
I think I have already mentioned to you, and for 
what reasons, that the Second Act must end here. 

Ibid. I THINK, I may not trust thee, for thy word 
Is but the vain breath of a common man. 

A jingle purposely suppressed in the first line, for 
the old books read, 

I TKUST, I may not trmt thee. 
And after the second verse, this following is in- 
tirely omitted : 

Believe me, I do not believe thee, man. 

P Shall never see it but a holy-day. 

Another omission I In the old books, Constance 
ij^ the following speech begins thus : 

A wicked day, and not an holy-day I 

P. .,... Wear out the days in peace. 
It must certain^ be. 

Wear out the day in peace. 

P. 36. 



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390 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATUILE. 

P. 36. AusT. Methioks that Richard's pride, ke. 
I do not conceive this insertion so necessary as Mr* 
Pope would have us believe it. At least, I am sure 
Mr. Pope's reason for it will hardly hold water. In 
the first place, our Play, as it stood before, marked 
out Austria the supposed slayer of King Richard* — 
Supra, p. 14 : 

Arthur, that great forerunner of thy blood — 
By THIS brave Duke came early to his grave. 

And Arthur, speaking to Austria, says, 

God shall forgive you Coeur de Lion's death, &c. 

Secondly, that Austria wore the lion*s skin is 
likewise specified, p. 35". 

O Austria ! thou dost shame 

• That bloody spoil : — thou wear a Lion's hide ! 

And p. 22 : 

— < Sirrah, were I at home 

At your de.v. Sirrah, with your LiONRSS, 
I M set an ox-head to your Lion's hide. 

And in the speech that I am about to quote for ano- 
ther purpose. Thirdly, is it not plain that Falcon- 
brjd^ knew Austria had killed his father, from this 
whole speech of his, p. l8 : , 

One that will play the devil, Sir, with you, 
And he ntay catch your hide and you alone, &c. 

Or else his braving of Austria thus would be 
equally impertinent and uninannered. So that I 
think Mr. rope's criticism is somewhat shallow. 

P. 37. That 1 have leave with Rome. 
Another jingle stifled by this modern reading. 
The old copies read. 

That I have ROOM with Rome. 
As in Julius Csesar, p. 2y2 : 

Now is it Rome indeed, and room enough, &c. 

P. 43. Philip, make up. 

A forgetfulness, I suppose, of the first Editors, 
instead of Richard; for so he if constantly called, 
from his being first knighted by the King, p. 10* 

Indeed^ 



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THEOBALD ANI> WARBURTON. 301 

Indeed, he is often called Falconbridge from his fa- 
mily-name, though the King had given him the sir- 
name of Plantagenet. 

P. ,44. Sound ON INTO the drowsy race of night. 
I do not think, that sound on gives here that idea 
of solemnity and horror, which, it h plain, our Poet 
intended to convey by this fine description. I read, 

Sound ONE UNTO the drowsy rade of night. 
i. e. if it were the still part of the night, or one of 
the clock in the morning, when the sound of the 
bell strikes upon the ear with most terror. Shake- 
speare in several other passages, you know, expresses 
the horror of a midnight bell. 
So, Othello, p. 362: 

Silence that dreadful bell, it frights the isle. 
So, Macbeth, p. 2lff: 

• — — ■ What 's the business 

That such an hideous trumpet calls to parley 
The SLEEPERS of the house. 
And sometimes, for more solemnity, he is used 
to add the circumstance of the particular hour. 
So, Midsummer Night's Dream, p. 136 : 

The iron tongue of midnight hath toll'd twelve. 
And so, Hamlet, p. 308 : 

The bell then heating one. 
P. 46. So hot a speed, with such advice disposed, 
Such temperate order in so fare a cause. 
I think it should be, course. 
Ibid. After 

Death, oh amiable, lovely Death ! 
the first folio adds this line : 

Thou odoriferous stench, sound rottenness ! 
P. 47. And scorns a MODEST invocation. 
First folio, modbrn. I doubt not but you have 
observed how very cramply our Author uses this 
term. I confess, I do not comprehend his sense. . 
Ibid. Const. To England, if you will. 
1 cannot at all comprehend why Constance says 
this. There is no talk^ or mention^ of wafting her 
anywhitber. 

P. 57. 



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^92 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITEHATURB. 

P. 57. Like heralds, 'twixt two dreadful battles set^ 

I read, sent. 

P. 60. Deliver him to safety, and return. 

For I must use thee. 
Here ought to be marked, Ex. Hubert, with Petef\ 
P. 61. Standing on slippers, which bis nimble haste 

Had falsely thrust u^on contrary feet. 
I could easily account for this in a Greek Author; 
but do not know any thing of a modem fashion with 
us of having shoes, or slippers, particular for one 
foot, and not the other. 

P. 68. How easy dost thou take all England up. 
From forth this morsel of dead royalty ? 
The sense of the context requires that the point- 
ing in these two verses should be thus transposed : 
How easy dost thou take all England up ? 
From forth this morsel of dead royalty, — 
P. 72. Wherein we step after a stranger, march 

Upon her gentle bosom. 
But stranger, with Mr. Pope's leave, is an adjec- 
tive here : and therefore this comma must be ex- 
punged ; 

Wherein we step after a stranger march 
Upon, &c. 

And so, Richard II. p. 102 : 

But tread the stranger paths of banishment 
P. 75. This UNHEARD sawciucss and boyish troops. 
Please, dear Sir, to mind boyish here: and so 
likewise the Bastard, p. 71, speaking of the Dau- 
phin, says. 

Shall a beardless boy f a cockered silken wanton, &€« 
I am persuaded our Author wrote: 

This UNHAIR^D sawciness and boyish troops, &€. 
As in Macbeth, p. 254^ by a like bold metaphor : 
And many unrough youths that even now 
Protest ihexv first of manhood. 
I will only observe, that Mr. Pope has here stu- 
pidly exhibited, unruff'd youths. 
So, Love's Labour Lost, p. 301 : 

I'll mark no words thatSMOOTH-FAcM wooers say. 

So, 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTOK. 3^3 

So, Anthony, p. ff : 

If the SCARCE-BEARDED Ca&sar. 
Henry V. p. 407 : 

For who is he whose chin is but enrichM 

With one appearing hair. 
So, Tempest, p : 

— H Till new-born chins 

Be rough and razorable. 
So, Coriolanus, p. 211: 

When with his AMAZONIAN chin, &c. 
Sed nk quid nimis. 

P. 78. Unthread the rude eye of rebellion, 

And welcome home again discarded faith. 
I dare not assert positively that this is not our Au- 
thor's reading ; but, as a needle is not mentioned, 
is not the allusion a little forced and obscure r As 
likewise in no degree corresponding with welcome 
home in the next verse ? I have conjectured : 
Untread the rude way of rebellion. 
So, in the very next page, Salisbury says, 

Untread the steps of damned flight. 
So, Merchant of Venice, p. 168: 

Where is the horse that doth untrbad again 
His tedious measures with th* unbated fire 
That he did pace them first. 
I must not, however, dissemble a passage in Lear, 
that this instant crosses my mind ; p. 384 : 

Thus out of season threading dark-EY'o night. 

If you are * threading is the genuine 

reading here. 

P. :.... Henuy. How fares your Majesty ? 
K. John. Poison' d — ill fate. 

Certainly, Mr. Pope has here degraded the true 
reading, fare; considering our Authors constant 
practise of playing. 

But so much for King John. 

It has been observed already, that Ring John is 
not the Hero of this Play. The Bastard must be al- 
lowed the only character that makes any figure. 

* The Letter is here torn. 

There 



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394 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

There is, indeed, a fine sketch of motherly fond- 
ness and sorrow in Constance : and we are to la- 
ment the Poet would not finish his draught. Thiar 
Bastard of Richard I. is just mentioned by Holin- 
shed as the revenger of his father's death on Limo- 
ges : but whence our Poet gleaned the several cir- 
cumstances relating to his family, birth, and dispute 
with his brother about his parental estate, I caimot 
tell. I have not the Monkish Historians ; but I am 
persuaded these are points upon record, and not in- 
vented. 

I am infinitely obliged, dearest Sir, for your most 
kind and ingenious justification of me against Mr. 
Pope's charge of applauding fustian. You have, in- 
deed, exhausted the argument in my defence ; and 
left me at a loss whether to be most charmed at the 
clearness and elegance with which you have decided 
upon this question, or the dear regard that you are 
so good to shew for my reputation. But thanks, and 
ever thanks, &c. 

I have just room, dear Sir, to reply to one of your 
emendations, on a passage which 1 had long ago set 
right ; Jove's sacaret. 

Troilus, p. 287. I point and explain the Poet thus : 

True swords ; and, Jove's accord, 

Notfaiug so full of heart. 
i, e. Jove's accord and concurrence seconding them, 
nothing so full of heart as I. So, Henry V. p. 389: 

For, God be/ore f we Ml chide this Dauphin, &c. 
Again, p. 424 : 

For, God before^ tell him we will come on. 
So, Macbeth, p. 234: 

That, by the help of these, (with Him above 

To ratify the work). 
And 2 Henry IV. p. 361 : 

And (Heiv'n consigning to my good intents), &c. 
1 am, dearest Sir, your ever obliged and most 
affectionate faithful servant. Lew. Theobald. 

LETTER 



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TH£OBALD AND WARBURTON. 395 

LETTER XXXIV. 
To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 



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S9^ ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

This expression seems a resemblance of the La- 
tins in the like use of the term. 
Hor. de Art Poet. ver. 292 : * 

FoSf O Fompilitis sanguis. 
And Virgil, ^neid, vi. 836 : 

Projice tela inanu^ sanguis meus. 
P. 10*3. It boots thee not to BE compassionate. 
Is not this a very odd use of the term, for to com- 
passionate, lament, thyself? Should we not rather 
read. 

It boots thee not to become passionate ? 
P. 105. after, 

You would have bid me argue like a father — 
the old quarto adds these four verses, as Mr. Pope 
ought to have observed : 

O bad it been a stranger, not my child, 
. To smooth his fault I would have been more mild : 
A partial slander sought I to avoid, 
And in the sentence my own life destroyed ? 
Again, in the same page, after 

The precious jewel of thy h^me return — 
the old quarto adds a speech for Bolingbroke. In- 
deed, the allusions are but low, and the verses none 
of the best ; however, the Editor ought to have 
degraded them, as he hat done in many other pas- 
sages : 

BuL. Nay rather, ev'ry tedious stride I make. 

Will but remember me, what a deal of world 
I wander from the jewels that I love. 
Must I not serve a long apprentishood 
To foreign passages, and in the end 
Having xnyfreedomy boast of nothinj^ else 
But that I was ^journeyman to griet 
Again, p. \06. after 

no virtue like Necessity — 

the old quarto adds, 

Think not, the King did banish thee, my son. 
But thou the King. Woe doth the heavier sit. 
Where it perceives it is but faintly borne. 
Again, in the same page, after 

r— - delightful measure, or a dance — 

the 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTOK. S97 

the old quarto adds^ 

For gDarling sorrow hath less pow'r to bite 
The man that mocks at it and sets it light. 

All these additions, indeed, 1 have no doubt but 
were left out by the Editors for their own reasons ; 
but, as they are certainly of the Poet's hand, me- 
thinks they should have had the Editor's notice. 

P. 112. And yet ingaged in so small a verge. 
Both the old quarto and the first folio read, as it 
ought to be restored, encaged. 

P. 118. Redeem from broken pawn-^ 
Again, the old copies, rightly, broking. 

. P. 119. Like perspectives, which r^A//y gaz'd upon, 
Shew nothing but confusion ; ey'd awry. 
Distinguish form. 

I confess, I do not understand our Poet here ; nor 
know perfectly whether he means looking through a 
perspective glass, or looking at a piece of painting 
m perspective. 

P. 125. Enter Barklbt.* — I would only observe 
here, that this being a speaking character, as well 
as a person of quality, should have a place in the 
Dramatis Persons?. 

Ibid. To take advantage of the absent time. 

I would read King. I know it is a very common 
expression, You have watched your time for such a 
thing. But sure, it is a strange figure to call the 
time absent y on account of the King*s absence. 

P. 126. Com^st thou because th^ anointed King is 

HENCE, &c. 
P. J 28. And hardly kept YOUR countrymen togethen 
Read, with the old copies, our, 

P. 130. Thanks, gentle uncle: come, my Lords, away. 

To fight with GlendoweVy and his complices; 

Awhile to work, and after holyday. 

The first and third line, you observe, dear Sir, 

rhyme to each other ; nor do I think liiis casual. 

Aiid yet the intermediate verse has taken possession 

of 



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398 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

of all the old copies. Notwithstapding which, I have 
great suspicion of its being an interpolation. Bo- 
lingbroke is, as it were, yet but just arrived; he is 
now at Bristol ; weak in his numbers ; has had no 
meeting with a Parliament ; nor so far assured of 
the succession, as to think of going to suppress in- 
surrections before he is planted in the Throne. 
Besides, we find the opposition of Glendower begins 
the First Part of Henry the Fourth ; and Morti- 
mer's defeat by that hardy Welshman is the tidings 
of the first Scene of that Play. Hall however tells 
us, that Glendower, in the very first year of King 
Henry IV. began to be troublesome, and put up for 
the supremacy of Wales, apd imprisoned Mortimer. 

P. 132. O call back yesterday, bid Time return, 

And thou shait have twelve thousand fighting 

men. 

But the King, hearing this noble body of men was 

dispersed, fell into despair of his fortunes^ and 

changes colour upon it; and being asked the reason 

of his paleness, he replies, 

But now the blood of twenty thousand men 
Did triumph in my face, and they are fled. 

Well; here are 20,000 men sprung up out of 12,000 
in the compass of six lines. But in seven lines after 
the King comes to himself; and bethinking himself 
of his dignity, and the justice of his cause, he be- 
gins to despise this loss, and cries, 

Is not the King's name^br/y thousand names ? 

Here is a strange disagreement in numbers, 
which ought some way to Be reconciled. My opi- 
nion \^y forty thousand should be the reading in all 
the three passages. And my reason is this. Our 
Poet in his Historical Plays was a most faithful co- 
pier of Holinshed*s Chronicle ; and that Historian ex- 
pressly tells us^ that King Richard, being detained 
in Ireland by contrary winds, dispatched my Lord 
Salisbury to raise a force in Wales, who proved so 
successful in this commission, that in four days 

space 



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tfiilOBALD AND WARBURTON. 399 

space there were to the number oi forty thousand 
men assembled, ready to go with the King against 
his enemies, if he had been there himself in person. 
But a report of the insurrection spreading, Salisbury, 
with great difficulty, kept this body together fourteen 
days; but the King not coming within that term 
they unanimously dispersed themselves. 

P. 134. Where is the Earl of Wiltshire? where is 

Bagot ? 

What is become of Bushy ? where is Green ? 

Here are /bur of them: and within a very few 

lines the Kmg, hearing they had made their peace 

with Bolingbroke, calls them three Judas's. — But 

how was their peace made ? Why, with the loss 

of their heads. This being explained, Aumerle says. 

Is Bushy y Greeriy and th' Earl of Wiltshire dfad? 
So that Bagot ought to be left out of the ques- 
tion : and, indeed, he had made the best of his way 
for Chester, and from thence had escaped into Ire- 
land. I think, therefore, the Poet wrote, 

Where is the Earl of Wiltshire ? where 's HE GOT J — 

or, HE GONE ? 

P. 139. With no less terror than the elements 

Of Fire and Water, when their thund'ring 

SMOKE 

At meeting tears the cloudy cheeks of Heav'n. 
I doubt not, but we ought to read, with the old 
quarto, shock. 

See 1 Henry IV. pp. 179, 180 : 

Those opposed eyes, 

Which^ like the meteors of a troubled heav'n, 
All of one nature, of one substance bred. 
Did, lately meet in the intestine shock, &c. 

P. 140. Her pastor's grass. 
Certainly, pastures' grass. 

P. 144. (Let^s step into the shadow of these trees, 

My wretchedness suits with a row of pines.) 
[Enter a Gardener and two Servants, 

Bat 



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400 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERAIHLJRE. 

But Stay, here come the Qardeners ; 
They Ml talk of state, 

Mr. Pope tells us, that all his readings are con- 
stantly ex fide codicum; and yet, in this passage^ 
there is both a transposition and a transformation 
made, that 1 cannot find warranted by any copy 
whatsoever. The Editor has outdone Orpheus ; for, 
first, he has created a row of pines, and then made 
them dance after him. 

But I will give you the old simple reading, which 
Mr. Pope, I presume, thought too mean to be justified. 
[Enter a Gardener^ and two Servants. 
But stay, here come the Gardeners. 
Let 's step ioto the shadow of these trees : 
My wretchedness unto a row of pins*, 
They '11 talk of state ; [* Pinnes^ in old spelling.] 

There is, indeed, a good deal of oddness and ine- 
quality in the wager proposed by the Queen ; but 
let us look out for examples to ke^ it company. 

As You Like It, p. ^36 : 

What for a counter would I do, but good ? 
Second Part of Henry IV. p. 2^6 : 

For a silken point I Ml give my Barony. 
Richard the Third, p. 303 : * 

* My Dukedoni to a beggarly deniere. 
Lovers Labour Loat, p. 231 : 

I Ml lay my head to any good man^s hat. 
And again, p. 294 : 

My hat to an half -penny. 
Othello, p. 366: 

JAy fortunes against any lay worth naming; — 
and lui hundred of the like that I could produce. 

P. 146. Rue, sour A^i of grace. 

So this herb is frequently distinguished by our 
Poet ; I presume, because it was always one of the 
ingredients employed by the exorcists in their incan- 
tations to expel devils. 

P. 151, Oh, if you rear this house against his house* 
Sure, Mr. Pope veiy indiscreetiy d^rades here 

the 



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THSOBAU) AND WAllBURTOK. 401 

the true reading, this ; for the Poet is alluding to 
the text In the EvangeHst, that " a house divided 
against itself cannot stand/^ 

P. 1 64. And ROB oar watch^ and BEAT our passengers. 

The fashion seems a little altered in our days, if 
we were to take this on trust for the genuine read-* 
itig. But the good old quarto bids us read. 

And BEAT our watch^ and bob our passengers, 

P. 166. The REASON that my haste forbids me shew. 
Here again, the old quarto warrants us to restore, 
The TREASON that, &c. 

Ibid. Thy ooerflow of good converts to bad, 

And thine abundant goodness shall excuse 
This deadly blot, &c. 
I own, I carmot Unclerstand this. I read, 
— converts THE bad — 
t. e. so alters, and alleviates, the heinonsness of thy 
son's trespass, that I forgive it oa the score of thy 
superabundant goodness. 

P. 175. A deed of slaughter with thy fatal band. 
The old quarto reads, I think, more properly, 

A deed of slander — 
And so much for Richard the Second. 

Two more of your agreeable packets, dearest Sir, 
are this morning come to hand (No. 7 and 8), of the 
5th and 7th instant. I hoped to have made up for 
xn^ omission of last post by a double one this ; but 
a little interruption trom the Theatre has broke in 
upon my purpose. 

Oa Tuesday next (Deo wlente) my queries on the 
First Part of Henry the Fourth shall visit you. 

I am, vrith the sineerest sense of your favours, * 
dearest Sir, your most affectionate and obUged friend 
and humble servtat, Lew; Theobald. 



VOL, II. 2 D LETTER 



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iQ2 H4#U3TfliUriONS OF UTERAXiyilE. 

LETTER XXXV, 

To the Rev, Mr. Warbvrton, 

D£AR Sir, WyarCs Courts Jan. I3i 1729-3^^- 
I am to acknowledge the satisfaction of yours 
(No. 9), dated the 10th instant ; and so proceed to 
the First Part of Henry the Fourth. 

f . 179. No more xhe^ thirsty entrance of this Soil 

Shall dawb her lips 

Sure, this is a very hard and obscure eicpression, 
I presume the sense is, ** blood-thirsty invasion of 
this country shall no more stain it with its own chil- 
dl^n*s gore f ' but is this idea conveyed by thirsty 
entrance? [See 3 Hen. VI. p. 223.J 

P. 181. Ten thousand bold Scots, TWO-and-twenty 

KntghtB, &c. 
Thus all the copies : but, considering how faith- 
ful our Author was in following History, we have 
the warranty both of Hall and Holinshed to rea^ 
THR£E-aod-tw«nty Knigbu. 
But, dear Sir, there is one historical difficulty 
still in this sjieech, which I cannot get over with- 
out your accurate and sagacious assistance : 

' . — Of prisoners, Hotspur took 

MoKPAKE the Earl of Fife, and ELDEST SON 

To beaten Douglas, 

Now, my first question is, are two distinct per- 
sofisf here spoken of? or is Mordslke described both 
as Earl of Fife, and son to Douclas? But Mordake 
wft$ a Sliitrt, and etdtet aon 16 l>uke Robert G#^er- 
nor of tbe HeaJm ; which Rdsert was die second ton 
of the ScQtiab King Robert the Secoad, and by him 
appointed Duke of Albany, and Governor of the 
n^m. Hien, who is this elifut son to beaten 
Douglas? Hotspur took Archibald Earl of Dou- 
glas himself prisoner at Holmedon ; who afterwards 
appears in our Play, and assists Percy at Shrews- 
bury- 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 40{( 

bury. He is the Douglas himself; and is railed so 
a few lines backward : 

The Earl of Douglas is discomfited. 
(For Archibald, his father, and predecessor in the 
Earldom, was dead, some time before the affair at 
Holmedon.) Douglas, therefore, that is taken pri- 
soner, and is Earl himself, would hardly be described 
by our Poet as the eldest son of his dead father 
Douglas, who had been fortnerly beaten by the 
English. 

T almost suspect a line is lost; by which Mordake 
is described as eldest son of Duke Robert the Gover- 
nor of Scotland ; and that then we ought to read, 

Tbe beaten Douglas, &c. 
^for, in the list of prisoners taken, Douglas is named 
second both by Hall and Holinshed. 

and of prisoners among others were these, 

Mordake Earl of Fife, son to the Governor Archem- 
bald Earl of Douglas, which in the fight lost one of 
his eyes, Thomas Earl of Murrey, &c. 

Thus the quotation stands in honest Holinshed ; 
and^ upon second thought^ a comma being omitted 
after the word Governor, might not our roet take 
the bhmder of the press upon trust, and think Blarl 
.Pouglas was this Governor^ and that Mordake was 
his son ? -^ But then another difficulty arises ; that, 
though Douglas is said to be beaten, we have no ac- 
count likewise of his bemg one of the prisoners. 

I must not leave this question with you ipvithout 
reminding you of two other passages in our Play ; 
wdiicb^ \raether they will help to clear up, or em- 
barrass, oudrt to come in view : 



, P. 1#5« Tben once mora to tbe Scoiish pri9oners. 
Deliver them vritbout their ransom strait. 
And make the Douglas' son your only mean 

For powers in Scotland ; 

Here we have mention of Dimglas*s son; by 
which it would seem that the Poet means the Earl 
himself. \Tke Letter is here /om.] 

2 D 2 P. 284. 



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404 ILLUSTRATIONS OF UTE&ATUEE. 

P. 234. Thrice balb ibit HoUpur Mars id swathing 
cloatbsy 
This infant warrior, in his enterprizes 
Discomfited great Douglas, ta^en him ance^ 
Enlarged him, and made a friend of him. 
Here I have guessed, ta'en his son, i. e. Earl 
Archibald; for it is not true that Hotspur thrive de- 
feated tlie same Douglas. He killed one Earl Dou- 
glas, I think, in the 11th of Richard II.; he de- 
fended * in the 1st of Heniy IV; 

and be took this descendant *• 

P. 183. Let not us that are Squires of the Night's 

Body, be called Thieves of the Day's 

Beauty. 

Jl do not know how they can be said Thieves of 

the Day's Beauty. Should it not rather be, b6ott? 

Ibid. and is not mine Hostess of the tavern a 

most sweet wench ? 

'^-— and is not a BufF-jerkin a most sweet 

robe of durance ? 

what a plague have I to do with a Buff^ 

jerkin ? 

Whyy what a p — hwoe I to do with my Hostess of 
the tavern f 
. This manner of cross-questioning is not unlike 
several passages in Plautus; particularly this in 
Mostell. Act I. Scenes, ver. 1, &c. 
Jampridem ecastor frigid^ non lavi magis lubanter ; ' 
Nee quem me melius, mea Scapba, rear esse defcBcatan. 
Sc. Eventus rebus omnibus, velut horno messis magna 
Fuit. — Phil. . 2uid ea messis attinet ad fneam lavaHonem^t 
Sc. NihUopluSf quam lavatio tua ad messim? 

P. 186. FalstafF, Harvey, Rossit, and Cadsbill, shall 

rob those men that we have already way -laid 

-^— — — and when they have tbt booty, 

' if YOU and I donU rob THEM, &c. 

Here have we two persons natnecT, as characters 

in this Play, that never were once inserted among 

the Dramatis Personam in any of the impressions 

* The Lttter is here torn. 

what- 



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tnSObALD AW© WARBORTQN. 405 

whatsoever. But let us see who they were that com- 
ii)]tted this robbery ; and then, perhaps, we shall be 
able to account for this pair of additional thieves, a» 
they at present seem. 

In the Second Act, Scene 3 (p. 20l), we come to 
the highway. Falstaff^ wanting his horse, which 
bad b^ hired on purpose to plague him, calls out 
on Hal, Poins, Bardolf, and Peto; and says, 
he has a great mind to leave these rogues. Presently 
Gapshill joins them, with intelligence of travellers 
being at hand. Upon which the Prince says, 
You FOUR shall front them in the narrow lane ; 
Ned PoiNS and I will walk lower. 

Sothat the^Jmr to be concerned are, Falstaffy 
Bardolf, Peto, and GadshilL Accordingly, the 
robbery is committed ; and the Prince and Poins 
afterwards roK them four. When the matter comes 
to an examination (Scene 9) in the Boards Head Ta- 
vern, the Prince rallies Peto and Bardolf for their 
running away ; who confess the charge, and disco- 
ver how Falstaff hacked his sword with his dagger, 
and ordered them to make their noses bleed with 
spear-grass, and swear it to be the blood of true men. 
Upon the evidence now is it not plain that Bardolf 
and Peto were two of the^bur robbers ? And who 
then can doubt but Harvey and Rossil were the 
names of the Actors that performed those two parts ; 
and by mistake, in the old Play-house books, put 
instead of the names of the characters to be repre- 
sented by them ? — ^Nor is this, you know, dear Sir, 
the only instance of this sort that occurs in our Poet. 
Throughout a whole Scene of Much Ado about No- 
thing, you remember the names of Kempe and Caw- 
ley are put in the old books instead of the Town* 
cterh and Dogherry, which they represented ; as in 
another Scene of the same Play, we tind Jack Wil- 
son marked to enter instead of Balthazar. I wish, 
indeed, mistakes of this sort had happened through- 
out the Works of our Author; that we might have 

known 



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406. iLuvn9JiTWs$ OF LvntLMvmu. 

known what particular pacts w^re performed by 
Shakespeare himsdf, and the other emiaeat actor% 
his contemporaries. 

P. 193. As to o*erwalk a current roaring loud. 
On the unsteadlast footino of a spear. 

Should not this rather be fooeding ? I presuine^ 
the passage alludes (o the custom otjhording cl 
currents, of keeping themielves up with ^ats ar 
poles. 

Ibid. If HE fall in, good night 

I read, If ws fall in. 

P. 195. — '■ — which for diverse reasons 

Which I shall send you written, be assured 
Will easily be granted you, my Lord, &c. 

The pointing is here certainly wrong; It should 
be thus : 

written, be assurM, 

Will easily be granted. You, my Lord, &c. 

P. 197. An INNE. 

I read, Kochester, an inne* l^oins tells his com- 
piles, pp. 185, 186, Gadshill lies to-night at Ro- 
chester; and accordingly here, at p. ig8. Gads- 
hill is in his inn, mixes with the carriers, and is 
setting out for the concerted robbery. 

P. 199. Burgo- masters, and great o^E-EYEas* 
I have in my printed book conjectured si:ignoks« 
We have likewise guessed, moneyers, i. e. aUuding 
that in thieving they were coiners of money, as much 
4s those officers appointed at the Mint called Mo- 
neyers, I cannot help thinking the £ditor*s gu^as 
and explanation are both bad. 

P. 207. Ned, pr'ythee come out of that pat room, &c. 
I have no glimmering of what is intended by this 
odd epithet. 

P. 225. And our indentures tripartite are drawn; — 

I think it should be drawing : for Percy, that 

should know as well as Mortimer, above a page and 

a hair 



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THEOBALD AND WAABURTOH. ' 40? 

a balf lower^ p. 397^ asks the queslmn^ 
Are the indentures diiawn ? 
Upon which Glendower says, 

I Ml haste the WRiTEit. 
Nay, and Mortimer himself, at above four pages 
distance, p. 229, says. 

By thai time will our book, I think, be draWW. 

And Percy still after this, p. 230, says. 
If the indentures be DRAWN, 
I Ml away within these two hours. 

After which, Glendower says, 

By this our book is DRAWN. 

P. 227. IM rather hear a brazen candlestick TUN'd. 
I never made one at this sport ; and I therefore 
cbusc to read, with the old copies, tvrn'd. 

P. 229. I understand thy kisses, and thoo mine. 
And that's a FEEBLE disputation. 

But I am sure Mr. Pope did not understand them ; 
Bor, I am almost afraid by this J^eeble epithet, ever un- 
derstood the joy of a delicious kiss — sit verbo venial 

Considering how fondly enamoured Mortimer is of 
bis young wife, and how sorrowful she is on the ap- 
prciien«ion of his absence, I am confident you will 
read with me, fVom both the old copi^. 

And that 's a feelinq disputation. 
What can be more tender and expressive ! 

P. 230. And, as true as I love ; — 
This is not in the catalogue of the comfet^makera* 
oaths. Read again, with the old copies^ 
And, as true as I live ; — 

Ibid. I will not sing. 

Hotsp. 'Tis the next way to tu*n T^yhr, or Robin-* 

red-breaat temchef . 

I suppow the Taylors, as well as Weavers, were 

notorious tofr continual singing. I remember, our 

Poet before, in Twelfth Night, talks of Coziers, 

catches ; and Coziers were Batcktrs. 

There 



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408 ILtUSTRATlONS OF LIT£&ATUBJ:. 

There is a humourous observation to our purpose 
in Beaumont and Fletcher's Knight of the Burning 

Pestle, p. 8295 •• 

•Tis vile : Never trust a Taylor that does not 
SINO at his work, his mind is of nothing but filching. 

But what is meant here by a Robin-Red-breast 
teacher ? 

P. 237. ■ ■ and Dives that lived in purple; for 

there he is in his robes burning. 
Both the old books read, with much more enei^, 
*— for there he is in his robes burning, burning. 
Ibid. The tight of a hjiir was never lost. 
I suppose the Hostess rneans, the tytue. 
P. 238. Enter Prince Henry marchings and Falstaff 

meets him, playing on his truncheon like affe. 
But what truncheon had FalstaflF? Or, if he 
played on it, why should he say. 

Is the wind in that door? 
J read. 

Enter Prince Henr^ marchings and Peto, ptoy- 
ing on his truncheon like a fife. Falstaff meets them. 

Ibid. no more truth in thee than in a drawn fox. 

I own, I am not sportsman enough 

, * the bushes after a fox ; and 

then a fox ' so served, I presume, may be called a 
drawn fox ; but what has this to do with no more 
truth in thee than — — -— ? 

I have imagined, but how truly I dare not assert, 
a TRAINED fox, i. e« one tamed and trained up in a 
family Hke a dog; which still at times, notwith- 
standing discipline and education, will fly out and 
relapse into the tricks and manners of his species. 

Our Poet has a thought something like this in this 
very Play, p. 258 : 

For treason is but TRUSTED like the fox, 

Who ne'er so tame, so cherisht, and lockM up. 

Will have a wild trick of his ancestors. 

, 5o much at present for Hepry IV. 
* Tb9 L^^ 10 here torn. 

I win 



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THBOBALD AND WARBURTON. 409 

I will finish my present paper, dear Sir, with my 
manner of understanding a passage in Lear, upon 
which you faToured me with an emendation in your 
last. 

Lear, p. 43^ • 
But. who comes here ? 

The safer sense will ne^er accommodate his master 
thus. 
You propose, the sighted sense ; and think Ed- 
gar speaks it to his father, advising, that patience 
would stand him in more stead than sight could 
have done. 

I confess, I imagine the text right as it was, and 
to have this meaning. 

Please to look back to p. 426 : 
Alack ! 'tis he ; why he was met ev'n now 
As road as the vext sea, singing aloud, 
CrownM with rank fumiter, &c. 
Now it is in this wild and extravagant dress that 
the poor King here comes in ; which Edgar seeing, he 
cries out, that the King's wits must needs be turaed; 
if his senses were s^e^ if he were in his sober 
senses, he would never deck himself in, such a &n^ 
tastical sort, 

I am, dearest Sir, your ever affectionate and obliged 
friend and humble servant, Ij^» Theobald. 



LETTER XXXVI. 

To the Rev, Mr. Warbuhton. 

Dear Sir, Wyans Courts Jan. 15, 1729-30- 
1 last night received the pleasure of yours (No. ,10) 
of the 13th instant ; and, as you there desire my sense 
of two or three particular obscure passages, it may 
not be amiss first to dispatch with them, and then 
proceed on with Henry IV. 

I must make a short stop on one passage in Ring 
John, because I think diflerently on the place- 

P. 45. 



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410 ILLUSTRATIONS OF UTSEATURE. 

P. 45« So by a roaring tempesti &c. 

You take this for a flat^ absurd, and iU^timed si« 
mile. I confess, I never thought it a simile ; nor, 
on a nearer view, do I believe you will. The Frencfh 
King begins the scene abruptly, as Virgil "has d^ne 
his fourth Mneid:—:^4T Regina gram, &c.->-4ind the 
" So,*' here, is but a connective particle to what is 
supposed to have preceded the opening of the scene 
in discourse. 

Thus in Hamlet: 

So Rosencracrs and Guildenstern go to 't. 

And thus the French King here seems to mean — 
** So, as you tell me, [or, as our accounts are,3 this 
Arnuxdo of ships is scattered by stress of weather.** 

That the Poet msde use of the term cfArmado for 
the reason jrou hint, I readily agree. 

But now to your query upon Kjog John, p. 9 : 
■ my face to thin, 
That ill mine ear I durst not stick a EOSE, 
Least men should say. Look, where three far- 
things goes. 
I b^in, indeed, to be surprized myself, that I 
passed this over totally in silence. It is certainly 
obscure enough; and yet I think I have a cUm- 
mering idea of it ; enough, at least, to strike a fuller 
light from your intelligence. As before, in the Iiatf^" 
faced groat, so here, I fancy, our Poet is antici- 

Eating the date of another coin. We had, you 
now, of old, boCh a gold and sUvtr penny ; and 
consequently their fractions. The three-farthings 
of one of these, I conceive, might have a thin face 
in profile impressed ; and a handsome rose peering 
as from behind the ear, or depending from the cap 
towards that part. It runs in my head that I have 
seen some such piece of money. I hope we may 
be able to trace the certainty of it, and whea struck: 
probably, either during the contentions of the York 
and Lancaster families ; or upon the Roses being 
united in Henry VII. If this be so, it is very hu- 
mourous 



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mourous in our Poet to ndtjr tiM ihih fice^ eclqpsed^ 
as it were, by the fiill-blown Rosei. 

Twelfth Night, p. ^Sfi : 

These wise men, that give fools money, get tbem- 
selves a good report afier fourteen years pur^ase. 

I do not know whether I can construe this either 
ta your, or my own, satisfiiction. It h spokto hy 
the Clown, which partly induced me to take it on 
trust: for, m I once hinted, what his Fools, or 
CIoww, say, or that ecceutnq mortal Pistol, ia 
hardly to be ca^ed to th^ test. But thus I under* 
stand this passage: — Man that buys good report,' 
buys a thing only for life : for even a great man's me- 
mory would not outlive his body six months^as Ham-« 
let says, unless he builds Churches. Now to give such 
a purchase for such a chattel may be considered 
aa a top-price : but he that buys this of a fooFs 
hands, goes so much above the market that he gives 
after the rate of fourteen years purchase. 

P. 285y — As near as the eztret»ett ends 

Of parallels. 

Patroclus (says Ulysses) next is ordered to play 
oyer Nestor, addressing himself to ...•...* ; 
biit the representation is as distant in likeness from 
the object designed to be represented^ as East is 
wide from the West in distance of space. 

By the extreme ends of parallels, 1 understand hinit 
to mean, the beginnings and endings of those lines 
on the* Globe, which are supposed to take their rise 
at the point pf West, and so run on parallel, tennis 
nating full £ast. 

I begi dear Sir, these faint and imperfect expla* 
nations of jour three queries may not rob mm of 
that better account which I flatter myself JK)^ ar^ 
prepared to give ; and which I shall expect with the 
most impatient pleasure. 

And now to order : 

P. 241. No^r, Hal, to the news at Court for tbe rob- 
bery, lad : how is that answered ? 

* The Letter is here torn. 

I point 



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41 S lUiXJOTRATlOm OK LITEEATUftE. 

I pdiot tkts difieraotly : 

Now, Hal, to the news at Court : — For the rob- 
bery, lad, bow 18 that answered ? 
P. 245. Harry to Harry shall, and horse to horse. 
The old books concur in reading, 

Not horse to horse ; 

which^ I conceive, is the righter : t\ e. my horse 
shall bear me like a thunderbolt against the rrince*8 
bosom ; but, when we once meet, our single prowess 
shall dispute the difference, and we will depend 
neither on the strength, or address^ of our steeds. 
* * P. 252. Whose power was in the first proportion. 
* I imagine, a word is dropped out at the end of 
this line : I would read. 

Whose power was in the first proportion RATE. 
t. e. when we first cast up the proportion of our 
numbers, we included his power in the account. 
And the following line seems to warrant this con- 
jecture: 

Who with them was a rated sinew too. 
?. e. accounted a part of their strength^ rather than 
as Mr. Pope comment9 upon it. 

p. 257. And WILL, they take the offer of our grace j 

Both he, and they, &c. 
The Editor here, by mistaking the sign of the 
tense for a verb, breaks short the dependence of the 
sentence. I read, and point it thus : 

And, will they take the offer of our grace. 
Both he, and they, &c. 
u e. so they will submit to take the terms of grace 
offered. 

p. 260. Making you ever better than his praise. 
But how ?— This addition from the old books an- 
swers the question : 

By still dispraising praise, valued with you. 

Ibid. — Never did I hear 

Of any prince so wild A HBEKTY. 
The Editor sure must understand liberty here as 
libertine. 

But 



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THKOBALD AMD WARBURTON. 413 

But the old books^ und Kten-uU dddild, read, 
AT liBERTY, t. 6. uuxvatched, unconfined from doing 
mischief. So, Hamlet, p. 283 : 

How dangerous is it, that this man goes loose f 
And, 281 : 

His liberty is full of threats to all. 
And 271 : 

I like him not, nor stands him safe with us 
To let his madness range. 
[For so it must be restored.] And, 259 : 

Madness in great ojies must not unwatclCd go. 
P. 263. Turk Gregory never did such deeds in arms. 
Who can Falstaff mean by Turk Gregory ? or 
does he humourously raise a fictitious hero ? I think 
he means Po/?e Gregory, who made some stir in mi- 
litary atchievements. 

P. 266. Fare thee well ! great heart ! 

lU-weav'd Ambition ! how much art thou 

shrunk ? 
When that this body did contain a spirit, 
A kingdom for it was too small a bound ; 
But now two paces of the vilesit earth 
Is room enough ! 
Julius Cassar, p. 322 : 

O mighty Cesar ! Dost thou lie so low ? 
Are all thy conquest^ glories, triumphs, spoils. 
Shrunk to this little measure ? 
Does not our Poet, think you, in these two pat- 
sages seem to have had Juvenal in view ? 

' ' -■' ' • Mors sola faietur, 

Quantula sint hominum corpuscula. — — 
Unus Pellso juveni non sufficit orbis : 
JEstuat infcelix angusfo limite mundi, 
♦ ♦ ♦ * ♦ 

Sarcophago contentus erit. — Sat. x. 
P. 270. Myself and MY son Harry. 
The verse, 1 thiiik, is much mended by the old 
books: 

Myself, and you, son Harry, &c. 
And now to the Second Part of Henry IV. 
P. 274. And this worm-eaten hole of ragged stone. 

Consi- 



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414 ILLUSTRATIOTld Or LtT£llAtUR£. 

Conndering Northurtberlatid had retirtd and Tor- 
tified himself in an old castle, a place of strength in 
those times, I suspect we should read : 
And this worm-eaten hold. 

P. 279. The ragqeds't hour that time and sptght 
dare bring 
To frown upon. 
What consonance of metaphors betwixt ragged 
^ndfrowfiy I would read. 
The RUGGEDS*T hour. 
P. 285. As I was then advised hy my counsel learned in 

the laws of this land'SEiiViCE. 
With how much humour does Falstaff play on 
the law-phrase, and then archly call his robbing 
land-service? The same phrase, you remember, 
he again toys with in Anthony, p. 41 : 

You have been a great TUi£F by sea. 
Men. And you by land. 
Eno. There I deny my land-service. 

P, t86. And we that are ii^tbe va-ward of our youth, 

I roust confess are ztktgs too. 
But where is the wonder, that peepte should be 
wags in the prime or first line of youth, to fieep 
to our Poet*s allusion ? I cannot hdp suspecting 
the pMsage. Tboa^ Falstaff would not ailow him- 
self to be old, I believe, he would insinuate that he 
was in the last stage of youth, and yet a wag ne- 
vertheless. What if we should read, rear-guard ? 
Or what if the Poet coined a word, nearer to the 
traces of the text, wane-ward ? i. e. towards the 
wane, or decline of youth. 

Nor is this the only passage in which I have sus- 
pected a corruption in the word Va-ward. For ex- 
ample; 1 Henry VI. p. 10 : 

If Sir John FalsUffe bad not playM the covrard. 
He being in the va-ward (placM behind, 
With purpose to relieve Sind/oUaw them). 
How could ne be ia the vanguard^ and placed 
behind too ? I have suspected here that we must 
read, rere-ward. 

P. 293. 



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THEOBALD AND WAEBURlt>N. ' 415 

P. 393. Ht cQBies cQniiQiitny to Pie-coroer, saving 

jrour oianboodii to buy a saddle. 
I suppose, ribaldry i« couched under this term ; 
and that it means, a strumpet. 

Ibid. A hundred mark is a long one, for a poor lone 

woman to bear.. 
A long one, of what? a long mark? That is 
the only antecedent substantive it can agree with ; 
and common sense will not admit of its being cOupled 
to that. I need not to observe to ^ou, how (amiliar 
it is with our Poet to play the chimes upon words 
simitar in sound, and differing in signipcation. I 
doubt not but you will read with me : 

A hundred marks is a long U)Ne *, for a poor 
lane woman to bear ; 
i. e. one hundred marks is a good round sum for a 
poor widow to venture on trust. 

P. 500. PoiKS. Come, you virtuous ass, you bashful 

fdol, mnstyoa bebluthing? &c. 
It seems evident to me, by the page's reply; that 
thb speech should be placed to Bardolf. 

• F. SOI. VTeH, thus we play the fool with the time, and 

the spirits of the wise sit in the clouds and 
mock us« 
Do you think our Poet Plight owe the foundation 
of this thought to Lucretius, 1. II. v. 7 ? 

• Sed nil dulcias est, ben^ quam muoita tenere 
Ediu doctrinal sapientum templa sercna, 
Despicere unde queas. 

• P. 304. O miracle of men ! him did you le^ve. 
After this verse the first folio adds, as the Editor 

ought to have observed. 

Second to none, unseconded by you. 

P. 3QS. IfpsL lamthexsorsc, when one says swagger: 
fcel^ Masters^ how I shaken look you, I warrant you. 
DoU So you do, Hostess. 
' Most, Do I, yea, in v^ry truth do I, as if it were an 
aspen-Uaf. 

* Ai tbey formerly spelled loan. 

As 



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41 6 ILLUSTRATiays OF LlTKRATtJftft. 

As this fright of the Hostess is so much in Nature^ 

I cannot but be surprized to find it sneered at in 

Beaumont's Knight of the Burning Pestle (the Re- 

hearsaly as I before hinted, of that age) p. 230I : 

Wife. By the faith o* my body a' has put me into 

such a fright, that I tremble (as they say) as U were 

an aspen-leuf. Look o' my little finger, George, 

how it shakes. Nay, in truth, every member of mj/ 

body is the itvrsefor '/. 

I am, dearest Sir, your most truly faithful and 
affectionate humble servant^ Lew, Th£0Bald. . 



LETTER XXXVU. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Bear Sir, fVyarCs Courts Jan. 1 7, 1 729-30. 
I hare the pleasure of yours (No. ll) of the 14th 
instant. I am very glad you have so happily at once 
dispatched the dull Fifth Volume. I virish I could 
clear all the lumber of it with the same expedition. 
I will endeavour to make the labour as light as I 
can for both our sakes. 

Second Part of Henry IV. 

P. 309. Have we not Hiren here ? 

I am quite at a loss for what Pistol means here 
by Hiren. I have imagined he might call FalstaflTs 
Dol so, by a blunder instead of Helen. 

But in this very Play, afterwards (p. 368), we find 
him pronouncing that name right : 

Thy Dol and Helen of thy noble thoughts, &c. 

Again, as he is altogether upon the bluster in this 
Scene, may he be supposed to mean his sword by 
Hireuy as the swords, you know, of Heroes in Ro- 
mances bear strange names ? Whatever it meant, 
this speech either gave great pleasure, or was the 
object of strong ridicule ; for 1 find it repeated in 
two old Plays^ " The Queen, or Excellence of her 

Sex;'' 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 417 

Sex ;" and ^* Law Tricks :" but from the context of 
either passage I cannot trace the motive. 

Ibid. — shalL packhorses 

And hollovv-pamp^r'd jades of Asia, &c. 
Pistol, it is certain, does not deliver himself like 
a man of' this world; but we will derive one testi- 
mony from hence, that all his extravaganzas ^re 
not mere unmeaning wildnesses ; but thrown in, to 
convey strokes of satire, and expose the fqstian of 
some contemporary pieces. You must know, dear 
Sir, there is an old Play, in two parts, called *^ Tam- 
burlaine's Conquests ; or, the Scythian Shepherd :** 
in the Second Part of which. Act IV. hcene 4, 
Tamburlaine appears in his chariot, drawn by the 
Kings of Trebizond and Soria, with bits in their 
mouths ; he holding the reins in his left hand, and 
a whip in his right, scourgeth them : and thus be- 
gins the Scene : 

Holla! ye pamperM jades of Asia, 
What, can ye draw but twenty miles a day, 
And have so proud a chariot at your heell. 
And siich a coachman as great Tamburlaine ? 
P. 310. Sweet Knight, I kiss thy neif. 
Mr. Pope will have it that Pistol would kiss Dol. 
I insist, he is quarreling with her : upon which, 
Falstaff tells him he would be quiet ; and that then 
Pistol, shewing some little deference to his cap- 
tain, says, 

Sweet Knight, I kiss thy neif : — 
t . e. thy FIST : — 

i mean no displeasure to thee, &c. 
P. 3 17. Why then good-morrow to you all, my Lords : 

Have you read o'er, &c. 
As there are only Warwick and Surrey come in 
to the King, who was before alone, 1 am sure 
Shakespeare would have made him say, 

i- good morrow to you BOTH. 

I read the passage thus : 

Why then, good-morrow to you. — ^Well, my Lords, 
Have yoQ yet read, &c. 

VOL. IL 2 E P. 319. 



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41 8 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURB. 

P. 319. The COUNTRY. 

Why not GLOucESTER-shire ? tit infra, pp. 355. 
362. 

P. 320. Then was Jack FaletafF (now Sir John, boy) a 

Page. 
All the old books set right this passage : 

Then was Jack FalstafF (now Sir John) a boy, and 
Page to 

P. 3..^, There was a little quiver fellow, and *a 

would manage you his piece thus ; and 'a would 

about, and about, and come you in, and come you 

in; &c. 

So truly natural, and comic as this description is, 

and in character for our ridiculous, minute Justice 

Shallow, it became the object of Beaumont and 

Fletcher's sneer in the Knight of the Burning 

Pestle, p. 2328 : 

Ran, tan, tan, tan, ran, tan ! Oh, wench, an 
thou had* St but seen little Ned of Aldgate, drum Ned, 
bow. he made it roar again, and laid on like % 
tyrant, and then struck softly till the ward came up^ 
and then thundered again, and together we go : 
say sa, sUf bounce, quoth the guns! courage, my 
bearts, quoth the captains ! St. George, quoth the 
pike-men! and withall, here they lay, and there 
iliey lay I and yet for all this I am here, wench. 

P. 331. We see which way the stream of Time doth 
run, 
And are inforcM from our most quiet there^ 
&c. 
^ As thert is neither a substantive, nor has relation 
to one, methinks it is a strange idle expletive here. 
If the Bishop might be supposed to speak singly in 
his own person, 1 should guess, 

from our most quiet chair : — 

but^ I am afraid, he speaks for self and company. 

P. 332. That y6u should seal this Uwless bloody hook 

Of /org* d rebellion with' a seal divine ? 
In one of my ojd quartos (for I have two of this 
Play, printed m 1600); after these lines, there fol- 
lows 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURtOK. 419 

lows a verse which ought by all means to be re-^ 
stored: 

And consecrate Commotion's bitter EDiG£ i 
I should think ^^ bitter page," more consonant to 
book; but, perhaps, the sword of Rebellion, drawn 
by a Bishop, may in that sense be said to be conse- 
crated, as the King afterwards (p. 343)> talking of 
going to the Holy Wars, says. 

We '11 draw no swords but what are sanctified, 

P. 332. My Brother General, the Commonwealth. 

To this speech my same old quarto adds an inters 
mediate Terse, that I cannot tell what to make of: 
My Brother General, the commonwealth 
To brother borne an household cruelty ^ 
I make my quarrel ■ 

Ibid. Was forc'd, perforce compelled to banish him. 
It ought to be restored. 

Was, force perforce, compell'd, &c. 
As after, p. 344 : 

As, force perforce, the age will poar it in. 

P. 340. I speeded hither with the very eztremest 

INCH of possibility. 
Is inch right here ? I am at a loss to make sense 
of it. 

P. 344. As FLAWS congealed in the spring of day. 
What are flaws ? 

P. 348. That from this golden riool bath divorced 
So many English Kings. 

I remember in one of yours, kst season, you 
have taken this word to task, and would substitute 
regale. But rigdy perhaps, may be the Poet's 
own word ; you know how apt he is to coin from 
the Italian. Ferrarius, in his " Origines Italicae," ex- 
pounds the word ridda thus : *^ Chorea^ citm nexis 
manibus saUafido in orbem vertuntur. A ridda, 

AIDOLETTO, RIGOLETTO, RIGOLO." So that, a rigO- 

let J or rigoly I conceive may stand in English for 
a circle. 

2 E 2 P. 351. 



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'420 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATUItl* 

I * 

P. 351. Be happy, be will trouble you no more. 

After this verse, all my old copies add^ 
England shall double gild his treble guilL 

If Mr. rope saw this, and expunged it because of 
the low pun, he should have remembered the Poet 
is guilty of the like in Henry the Fifth, p. 394 : 
Have for the gilt of France (O guill indeed !) 

P. 356. and will back-bile. 

Dav, No worse than they are bitten, Sir. 

The old quarto, more rightly. 

No worse than they are back -bitten, Sir. 

Ibid. I Ml follow you, good Master Robert Shallow- 
Here ought to be marked, 

[Exeunt Shallow^ He. manet FdUtaff. 

For when Shallow, in the subsequent page, says, 
Sir John ! we are to understand that he calls to him 
from within. 

P. 361. My father is gone wail'd into his grave. 

So Mr. Pope. The old editions read wild. I own, 
I espouse Mr. Pope's as yet ; for I do not understand 
the other. However, 1 will mention to you what 
Dr. Thirlby wrote in his margin upon the passage. 
This ridiculous reading, waitay which I suppose is 
Pope's conjecture, is not only nonsense in itself, but 
is the cause that nonsense is in the following verses. 

P. 362. Master Page, sit: good Master Page, ait: 

PROFACE. 

This word I cannot find in any of my Dictiona- 
ries. But I meet with it in an old Comedy, called 
The Widow's Tears, Act IV. : 

Well, I have done ; 
And well done, Frailty. Propace ; how lik'st thou it- 
[Spoken to a girl that is eating victuals br&ughi her 
by the speaker. 
I cannot guess at the word, unless it be a contrac- 
tion from the Italian, Bon viprqfaccia: i.e. ^ Much 
good may it do you.'* 

P. 365. Bezontan, speak or die. 
So in the Second Part of Henry IV. p. 158 : 
Great men oft die by wild Bezonians. 

Heie 



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THEOBAliD AND WARBURTON. 421 

'" ■ ■ ■ . 

Here again our Author coins from the Italian. 
BisognOy you know, among other significations, 
means necessity; and bisognoso, a needy person; and 
thence, metaphorically, a base scoundrel. Thus I 
find a base bisogno in the ^^ Widow's Tears ;" and 
Ben Jonson speaks of the bisognosi in Volpone. 

And so, dear Sir, end my observations, on the Se- 
cond Part of Henry the Fourth. 

The next Play is much my darling ; so I will .re- 
serve it to a Letter by itself. I would be glad to 
know if I ever shewed you how I had conjecturally 
supplied the hemistich in the 7th page of the First 
Part pf Henry the Sixth ; where Mr. Pope has sub- 
stituted Francis Drake. 

As I have occasionally taken notice how free both 
Ben Jonson and Beaumont and Fletcher were in 
girding at our Author ; I will fill up my present 
paper with a few more passages, which I fancy you 
will think with me are directly leveled at him. 

1. — 1 Henry IV. p. 194 : 

By beav'n, luethinks it were an easy leap 
To pluck bright Honour, &c. 

In the Knight of the Burning Pestle, p. 2268, 
a grocer's wife brings her apprentice Ralph to play 
a part; and encouraging him to exert, says. 

Hold up thy head, Ralph ; shew the gentlemen 
what thou can' St do : speak a huffing part: I war» 
rant youy the gentlemen will accept of it. 
And then Ralph repeats this whole speech of 
Hotspur. 

2. — 1 Henry VI. p. 30 : 
Is this the Talbot so much fear'd abroad, 
That with his name the mothers still their babes ? 

Knight of the Burning Pestle, p. 2268 : 

He will fetch you up a couraging part for the 

Sirret, that we are all as feared, I warrant you, 
at we quake again. We '11 fear our children with 
him. If they be nevet so unruly, do but cry, Jtalph 

comes, 



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422 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

comes, Ralph comes to 'em, and they Ml be as quiet 
as lambs. 
3.— Hamlet, p. 232: 

Never to speak of this that you have seeo^ 

Svirear by my sword 

Knight of the Burning Pestle, p. 2310 : 

Ralph. but yet thou shalt swear 

Upon my Burning Pestle to perform 
Thy promise utter'd. 

Sar. ■■ I swear and kiss. 

^.—Julius Caesar, p. 356 ; 

Friends, I owe more tears 

To this dead man than you shall see me pay. 
Knight of the Burning Pestle, p. 2320, spoken 
by Lucy on seeing her sweetheart's coffin : 
Good friends, depart a little, while I take 
My leave of this dead man, that once I lov*d. 
5. — Julius Caesar, Act I. Scene 2 : 
Let me have men about me that are/o/. 
SleekJieaded men, and such as sleep a-nights ;- 
Yon Cassius has a lean and hungry look; 
He thinks too much : such men are dangorous. 
Bartle'mew Fair, p. 40, applied to the fat pig- 
wife, and her starvling servitor : 

Come, tliere 's no malice in these fat folks; I ne- 
ver fear thee, an I can *scape thy lean mooncalf her^. 
6.-3 Henry VL p. 232 : 
Rich. Letme be Duke of Clarence; George, of Glou*stcr; 

For Glo'ster's dukedom is too ominous. 
War. Tut ! that *s a foolish observation. 
Devil 's an Ass, p. 287 : 
Meercr. I think, we ha* found a place to fit you now. 

Sir: Gloucester- 
Fitz-dot. O no, I '11 not. 
Meercr. Why, Sir? 
Fitz. *Ti8 fatal. 

Meercr. That you say right in. Spencer, I think, the 
younger, had his last honour thence. But be was 
but, an Earl. 
fitz. I know not that Sir : but Thomas of Woodstock 
I 'm sure was Duke : and he was made away at Ca- 
lice, as Duke Humphrey was at Bury : and Richard 
the Third, you know what end be came to. 

Meercr. 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 423 

Meercr. By m' faith, you 're cunning ia the Chro- 
nicle, Sir. 
Fitx. No, I confess / ha '/ from the Play-books: 
And think they 're more authentick* 

I have still, as I have r^d, minuted down a great 
number of the like reflecting references ; but these 
will be enough at present for a specimen. Some few 
of your observations upon the Fifth Volume you 
will give me leave, for more certainty, to reply to : 
but these passages I will take as they rise in their 
order. 

I am, dearest Sir, your most affectionate and 
obliged friend and humble servant. Lew. Theobald. 

LETTER XXXVm. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Wyaris Courts Jan. 20, 1729-3O. 
In sequel of my last of the 1 7th instant, I now 
proceed with Henry V. 

P. 377. But that the scambling and unquiet time ' 

Did PUT it out of farther question. 
The first folio has a term of much more energy, 
pusH^ more consonant to the epithets in the preceding 
verse. 

P. 383. King Lewis's possession. 
Mr. Pope (for a mere delicacy of ear, as I pre- 
sume,) has very injudiciously, I think, degraded the 
word satisfactiorij which has the warrant both of the 
Historians, and the first folio. 

Besides, let us look back to the preceding page, 
and we find that King Lewis 

Could not keep quiet in his conscience 

Wearing the crown of France, till satisfied, &c. 
Ibid. Than openly imbrace their crooked titles. 
Some of the old books, — *^ amply to imbarr." I 
do not know which of these is the properer term in 
Heraldry ; which is what is required here. 

P. 384. 



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424 ILLtiSTRATlONS OF LITERATURE. 

P. 384. They know your grace bath cause, and means 
and might ; 
So hath your highness, never. 
I vary the pointing as follows ; without which 
change it seems to me stark nonsense : 

They know your grace hath cause ; and means 

and might 
So hath your highness : Never. 

P. 385. For government^ though high and low and lower, 
Put into partSy doth keep in one consent, 
Congruing ^ in a full and natural close, 
Like musick. 

The foundation and expression of this thought 
seem to be borrowed from Cicero de Republ. lib. 2: 
— " Sic ex summisj et mediis, et injiml^ inter- 
jectis ordinibusy ut sonis, moderatam ratione civita- 
tem^ consensu dissimilimorum condnere; et quae 
harmonia cl musicis dicitur in cantu, eam esse in ct- 
vitate concordiam.^ 

P. 388. " And shew my sail of greatness, 

When I do rouse me in my throne of France. 
I do not well understand what our Poet means by 
this metaphor. 

Ibid. But this lies all within the will of God. 

I will not say, Shakespeare dealt here with Ho- 
mer ; but the introduction and delivery oF the senti- 
ment has a great resemblance in both Poets : 

'Aax' rrvoi yxv raSra &iuy h ykvoffi mrcu. 

Odyss. a. v. 267. 

P. 390. Though Patience be a tir'd name, yet she 
will plod. 

A tired name plodding, sure, is a very singular 
phrase. I make no doubt but we ought to read with 
the old quarto, — a tir'd mare. 

Ibid. O welladay lady, if he be not HEWN now. 
We shall, &c. 

* Congreeing, first folio. The other has a &lse emphasis. 

I do 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 435 

I do not understand this. I think there is a small 
corruption both in the text and pointing. 
I would regulate it thus : 

O welladay lady, if he be not drawn ! 

Now we shall, &c. 
i. e. seeing Pistol with his sword out 
So, Tempest, p. 33 : 

Why are you drawn ? 
So, Romeo, p. 119 : 

What DRAWN, and talk of peace ! 
(For so the old quarto reads.) 

P Thy spirits are more tall. 

First folio rectit^y most. 

P 4. E'er he take ship for France : Then in South- 
ampton 
Linger your patience on, &c. 
I cannot persuade myself that our Poet would bid 
his audience linger their patience on in Southampton^ 
before he had told them the scene was shifted thither: 
and then that, in five lines afterwards, he would tell 
them they must transport themselves to that town. 
I read and point it thus : 
E'er he take ship for France, and in Southampton. 
Linger your patience on, &c. 
f . e. he informs his audience that this vile treason is 
to be transacted at Southampton, before he lets them 
know that he is shifting his scene thither. 

P. 398. By the name of Thomas Lord Scroop of 
Masham. 

Above, p. 394, we have this Nobleman by hit 
right name, Henry Lord Scroop of Masham: and so 
we must restore it here. 

P. 403. While that his mountain Sire, on mountain 

standing. 
I suspect, MOUNTING; i.e. his heroic, aspiring, 
high-mmded sire ; as above, p. 383 : 

While his most mighty father on a Ai7/, &c. 
Unless we are to imagine that the French King 
speaks disparingly of him as a Welch-man, and so 

calls 



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436 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LIT£RATUEX. 

calls him mountain sire. (So Fluellin^ p. 463, is 
called Mountain squire ; and so Sir Hugh, in Merr}'' 
Wives, p. 215, is called by Pistol, mountain-to^ 
reigner.) But all the rest of the French King*8 
speech is respectful, and countenances no such sneer. 
P. 405. The PINING maiden's groans. 
This, 1 take it, is, ex sud pot est ate. You, I 
think, conjectured, 'prived. But may not privy 
maiden's groans imply, the maiden's />rtt;fl/e groans^ 
vented to herself? I again conjectured, primy 
inaiden*s groans ; i. e. ripe, in the prime of their 
youth. 

So, Hamlet, p. 220. 

A violet in the youth of primy Nature. 
So, King Henry, afterwards, p. 413, speaking of 
the fatal consequences of a town stormed, says, 

" ■ mowing like grass 

Your fresh fair virgins, &c. 

P. 407. At DovER.pier 

Embark his royalty. 
I can in no kind account for this reading. Can it 
possibly be forgetfulness, when our Poet is so ex- 
press in the Chorus to his second Act, that the King 
was to embark at Southampton, as he really did ? 
P. 408. Like the brass cannon let the brow oerwhelm it. 
We certainly must point with the first folio : 

Like the brass cannon : Let the, &c. 
P. 415- It is evident, I think, that we must make 
these transpositions of the speeches in this French 
scene: 

j4l. La main, il est appell^, de hand. 
Kaih. De hand. Et le doyt? 
jil. Le doyt, me foy, &c. 

Kath. La main, de hand, &c, escolier. J*ay 

gaign6, &c. 
I do not trouble you with the insufferable corrup- 
tions in French, both as to numbers, genders, and 
terminations. 

P. 416. De fingre, de nayles, madame. 
The first folio, rect^, mayles. Katharine mistakes 
the word ; or why does Alice set her right? 

et 



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THEOBALD AND WAHBUETOK. 49? 



et le COUNT. 



I read, coun, a corrapt pronunciation of gown, 
by which Alice approaches the French word con, 
cunnus : Bsjbot does to f outre. 

P. 425. — — — As if his entrails were hairs. 

Here follows something in the first folio, which, 
I cannot tell for what reason, the Editor has omitted: 
Le cheval volant, the Pegasus, chez les narines de feu ! 

P. 426. And in jour strait strossers. 

Neither my dictionaries, nor my acquaintance 
with the Irish, have helped me to the meaning of 
this word; 1 presume it means, breeches, joinea to 
the hose, strait and close to the thighs. 

P. 4S0. A largess universal like the sun 

His lib'ral eye doth give to every one. 
Thawing cold fear ; that mean and gentle all 
Behold (as may. unworthiness define 
A little touch of Harry in the night. 
Surely, this is a most perplexed and nonsensical 
passage, what ? had the ey^ of Harry such an 
universal influence, that every rank beheld (as the 
insufficiency of the Poet could present him) a little 
touch of him in the night ? It certainly must be 
corrected, and pointed thus : 

Thawing cold fear. — Then, mean and gentle, all 
Behold (as may, &c. 

The Poet first tells the real influence that Harry's 
eye had in the camp ; and then, addressing himself 
to every degree of his audience, tells them, he will 
shew them (as well as his unworthy pen and powers 
can describe it) a little touch, or sketch, of this hero 
in the night. 

P. 431. With casted slough, and fresh celerity. 
The first folio gives a word much more proper, 
and adapted to the subject, leoeritv. 

P« 436. The time was well spent wherein such pre- 
paration was gairid. 

Itm 



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4t& IL|.USTilATiON8 OF LITERATURE. 

I am certain our Author desired an antithesis in 
GAINED and blessedly lost, which the Editor has 
taken away by degrading the latter. 

P. 439. Take from them now 

The sense of reck'ning, &c. 
This passage is differently read both by the old 
quarto and first folio : 

[quarto.] 

■ Steel my soldiers* hearts. 

Take from them now the sense of reckoning. 
That the opposed multitudes which stand before 

them, 
May not appal their courage. 

[folio.] 

hearts. 

Possess them not with fear : Take from them novr 
The sense of reck'ning OF th' opposed numbers : 
Pluck their hearts from them, 

I would read, 

'• with fear : Take from them now 

The sense of reck'ning ; lest th' opposed numbers 
Pluck their hearts from them. Not to day, &c. 

P. 439, 40. ~ More will I do; 

Tho' all that I can do is nothing worth. 
Since that my penitence comes after ally 
Imploring pardon. 
This must be certainly wrong : but, if we compare 
it with what the King says in Hamlet of the efficacy 
of repentance, I suspect we may catch his meaning 
by this slight change of one word : 
Save that my penitence, &c. 
i. 6. I have no means to blot out the injuries of my 
father, but by repenting for the cause. 

P. 442. And yet I do thee, &c. 
For thou art made. 
Bxe, Farewell, kind lord. 
The old quarto authorizes this transposition : 
Exe, Farewell, kind Lord, &c. 
And yet I do thee, &c. 
For thou art made, &c. 

P. 446. 



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THEOBALD AND WARHURTON. 449 

P. 446. Shall leave them little, tell the coastable. 
Both the old books read, as the sense requires, 

YIELD. 

P. 447. For I will fetch thy RYM out at thy t&roat 

Is there any such word as. rym ? I have ventured 
to suspect. 

Or I will fetch thy ransom out at thy throat. 

P I did never know so wofull a voice issue from 

so empty a heart. 

But why WOFULL? Pistol was all bounce and 
noise. Besides, where is the antithesis ? 

We must certainly read with the first folio : 
I did never know so full a voice. 

But then the arch boy immediately • . . * 

elf from the old song [or saying] — ^The empty v^- 
sel makes the greatest sound. 

P. 4 Augment, or alter, as your wisdoms best 

Shall see advantageable for our dignity, 

After the second line the old folio adds a verse 
here, which, I think, ought to be inserted : 

Any thing in, or out of, our demands, &c. 

P. 473. Neither the voice, nor the heart of HATRED 
about me. 

We must read with the first foHo Jlattery. 

And sol have done with thisPlay, and this Volume. 

I received, dearest Sir, yours (No. 12) this morn- 
ing on this very Play ; but, as the greatest part of 
mine was writ, I thought it would be best to go on 
with my own remarks in the order and method I 
had proposed. 

I am surprized by yours to hear that no more of 
mine have reached you since that of Richard II ; 
because I have sent two or three, I cannot say which, 
including all my queries on the two Parts of Henry 
IV. I snail take it as a favour for the future that 
you will please, as I do, to acknowledge the receipt 
of mine, and mention their numbers ; and then we 
cannot easily be at a loss. 

* The MS. is torn. 

My 



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4)0 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATUEE. 

My postman begs that, upon your supertcriptionf^ 
instead of London, you would say, Blomesimy, 
which will be some ease to them, it seems, in the 
sorting of their Letters. 

I am, dearest Sir, with the truest sincerity, your 
most affectionate and obliged friend, and faithful 
humble servant. Lew. Theobald. 

LETTER XXXIX. 

To t^e Rev. Mr. Warbubton. 

« 

Dear Sir, Wyan*s Court y Jan. 22, 1729-30. 

I have acknowledged the receipt of yours (No. 1 2) ; 
and by last nighfs post I received none. 

I now enter upon this dull Fifth Volume, and 
shall be well pleased when I have got through it. 

KING HENRY VI. PART I. 

Dramatis Personce.— -The diligence of our Editor 
has curtailed this list of no less than seven speaking 
characters; Sir John Falstaff*, Sir Thomas Gar- 
grave, Sir William Glansdale, Sir William Lucy, 
Governor of Paris, Master Gunner of Orleans, and 
Boy, his son. 

P. 5. Chrystal tresses. 

I had understood this in the sense of transparent, 
as all fiery phsnomena are. 

P. 7. Than Julius Csesar, or bright 

I think, I shewed you my conjecture on this hia- 
tus ; and therefore will not trouble you with it till I 
know certainly from you whether I did, or no. 

P. 8. These tidings would call forth her flowing tides. 

I read, their, the relative to tears. 

P. 1 1. Mars bis true moving. 

Kepler, I think, gave us the first notices of Mars's 
revolutions, in his Treatise De Motibus Stellce Mar- 
tis. He died about the year 1^20. How long be- 
fore his death he published his tract, I cannot tell ; 
but we may be sure not so early as the appearance of 

this 



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THEOBALD AKD WARBURTON. 431 

this Play. It would scarce have escaped our Au- 
thor*s knowledge. 

P. 1 1. Or piteous they would look like drowned mice. 
The first folio adds here. 

Reign. Lets 's raise the seige: why live we idly here? 
Talbot is, &c. 

P. 1 2. Two other lords, like lions wanting food. 
First folio, 

The other Lords, &c. 

P. 1 6. The Cardinal of Winchestec forbids ; 
—and p. 17 : 

I'll canvass thee in thy broad Cardinal's hat. 

I am afraid our Poet is a little inconsisteut with 

himself in this point. Either Winchester was not 

yet installed Cardinal, or why does Exeter so long 

afterwards as p. 74 say. 

What, is my Lord of Winchester install' d, 
And called unto a Cardinal's degree ? 

P. 21. Ready they were to shoot me to the heart. 
The first folio adds, as a marginal direction, 
Enter Boy with a linstock. 

Ibid. One of thy eyes and thy cheeks side. 
Read cheek's. 

P. f S. Now like their whelps. 
First folio. 

Now like to whelps* 

P. 25. Her ashes in an urn more gracious. 
First folio, precious. What was this rich coffer 
of Darius ? I recollect nothing of it. 

P. 26. Unready ? I am glad we 8cap*d so well. 
First folio, 

Unready ? I, and glad we scap'd so well 

P. 29. For smoke and dusty yapoors of the night. 
First folio, dusky. 

P. 33. In dumb sionificance proclaim your thoa^hu. 
First folio, sionificamtsl 

Jr. .•••• 



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432 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE, 

P I scorn thee and thy passion, peevish Boy. 

ITie old books read, fashion : which the epithet 
peevish, I presume, induced our Editor to change 
to PASSION. But I read, 

I scorn thee and thy faction, peevish boy. 
t. e. thee, and those that uphold thee. Somerset 
ha4 said in the foregoing page. 

Well, I Mi find friends to wear my bleeding 
roses, &c. 
And Plantagenet had said in tliis very page. 
Will I for ever and my faction wear, &c. 
Besides, \( faction be not the true reading, why * 
should Suffolk immediately reply. 

Turn not thy scorns this way, Plantagenet. 

P .* To scourge you for this apprehension. 

Sure the sense requires, reprehension. 

P. 39. Thou dost then wrong me, as that slaughter 

doth. 
First folio, slaughterer. And, I think, there is 
another slight corruption in this very speech : 
And fair be all thy hopes ! 
As Mortimer is wishing blessings and prosperity 
to Plantagenet, I suspect we ought to read. 
And fair befal thy hopes ! 
Which seems confirmed by the first lines of Plan- 
tagenet's next speech. 

And peace, no war, befal thy parting soul! 
P. 40. Or make my will th' advantage of my good, 
I confess, I do not understand this. 
We have guessed. 
Or make my ill, 
i. e. my misfortune, refnaal, at worst shall gain me 
friends. This reading too restores an antithesis. 
P. 41, Winch. This Rome shall remedy. 

War. Go thither. then. 
Mr. Pope's nice ear has a strong antipathy to any 
jingle^ but that of rhyme : for the old books read^ 
Roam thither then. 

• ^'Why? because Plantagenet had called Someriet, with 
Whom Svffdk sided, p«wii^ boy/V WAaBtiaxoN; 

P. 44. 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTQK. 433 

P. 44. As by his SMOOTHED brows. 
So reads the first folio with you. 
P. 48. That hardly we escapM the pride of France. . 
Should not this rather be, prize, t. e. becoming 
the spoil, being taken by. See Richard III. p. 361. 
P. 50. Enter Sir John FalstaflPe and a Captain. 
Mr. Pope's note upon this passage is, I thtnk^ an 
idle one. For this is the true historical Sir John 
Fastolfe, and not the comic character introduced' 
in the former Plays, who was at first called Oldcas- 
tie, till there was a reason for changing the name, 
froth some descendants of that family surviving. ' 
P. 55. Against the Duke of Somerset. 
The first folio very necessarily completes the verse. 

Against MY LORD the Duke of Somerset. 
Ibid. That whoso draws a sword, ^T is present death. 
Your remark upon this passage is very ingenious ; 
and yet give me leave, dear Sir, to refer it once more 
to your consideration. 1 confess, I think the text 
18 not to be disturbed ; and my reason is this ; We 
must be a little guided by the following lines : 
But I ^U unto his Majesty^ and crave 
I may have liberty to venge this wrong. 
Now, though it might be present death to draw a 
sword in tYiepresencCy the question is, what occasion 
was there for Vernon to ask the King leave that he 
might revenge his aflfront in another place ? Again, 
we have a Statute for punishing strokes given within 
the verge of the Royal Palace ; and the penahy is 
the loss of the right hand. Indeed, this Statute was 
not made till the thirty-third year of Henry VIII. — 
but, if it had been before this time, this Statute would 
have taken notice of, and repealed, the former pe- 
nalty. Again, let us consider what the King says, 
when both parties come to ask his leave, p. 60 : 

Remember where we are, 

In France, amongst a fickle wavMng nation : 
If they perceive dissention in our looks. 
And that within ourselves we disagree, 
VOL. n. 2 F How 



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434 ILLUSTIUnOVS of Lm&ATURB. 

How win their grudging stomacht be provoked 
To wilful disobedience, and rebel ? 

I make no doubt^ therefore, but that the King, 
oooaidering himself as it were in an £nemy*s country, 
and fetrfiil of ill consequences from any one of his 
own subjects bandying and quarreline with one ano- 
ther, had made it a capital offence by the martial 
law ibr any one of his followers to draw a weapon 
upon one another : and, this granted, there is some 
reason why Vernon, for his own revenge, without 
first obtaining a dispensation from his Sovereign^ 
could no more draw his sword in another place, 
tiian in the Presence, without licence first obtained. 

P. 63. That I thy enemy may dew thee withal. 
I think rather, due. 

P. 66. Swearing that you withhold his levied host. 
I read, horse. See Somerset's answer. 

He might have sent amd had the horse. 
And a little lower, 

I will dispatch the horsemen strait. 
And p. 64, 

Of horsemen that were levied for this siege. 
And again, 

Who in proud heart 

Doth stop my cornets. 
And p. 61, 

And, good my lord of Somerset, unite 

Your troops of horsemen with his bands of foot. 

P. 69. To-morrow I shall die with mickle age. . 
I rather think, milkt ; i. c. hoary. 
So, infra, p. 183 : 

That bowrunto the grave with MILKY age. 

Ibid. On that advantage bought with such a shame. 

To save a paltry life, &c. 
I cannot help thinking this a little too obscure 
to be genuine. I fancy we should either read. 

Out on that vantage, bought with such a shame I 
To save, &c. 

Or, 



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THBIOBALD AND ^AMM^WtOH. 4S$ 

Or, 

On that bad vantage bought, with such a shame, 
To save a paltry life, &c. 

P. 72. To be the pillage of a giglot wench. 

So left me proudly. 
The first folio adds, 

■ — ■ ■■■ wenob* 

So, rushing io the bowels of the Frenob, 
He left me proudly. 

P. 73. For God's sake let him have him; to keep tkem 
here, • 
TTiey would but stink. 
It is evident we must read, them, i.e. Talbot 
and his son. 

P. 81. Enjoy mine own, the country Maine an4 

Aujou. 
I say, it should be, counties, So Suffolk, in 
his answer : 

And those two counties I will undertake, &c. 
And so again, p. 97 : 

These counties were the keys of Normandy. 

And now to the Second Part of Henry VI : 

P. 95. Ere the thirteenth of May next ensuing. 
From the joint warrant of history, and of the old 
quarto and first folio, we must read thirtieth. 
P. 96. Or hath mine uncle Bedford, and myself. 
I wonder this blunder esi^ped you. Bedford was 
his brother. So, five lines higher we have it rights 
And did my BROTHER Bedford toil his wits, &c. 
We are to read therefore here, 

Or hath mine uncle Beaufort, and myself, &c. 
Cardinal Beaufort was his uncle. 
So Gloucester speaking to him in the next page, 
•ays. 

Ay, UNCLE, we will keep it if we can. 

P. 104. Then we may deliver our supplications in the 

quill, 
I suppose, this is a provincial phrate ; but I do 
not know the meaning of it. 

2 F 2 P- J08. 



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43^ ILLUSTEATIONi OP LITimATUEE. 

P. lOS. Madam, the King is old enough himttelf 

To give tAis censure. 
We must read, with the first folio. 
To grive HIS censure. 

P. 114. What, Cardinal ! Is your priesthood gfown s# 

peremptory ? 
Here follows a quotation from the first folio, 
which I shall take the privily to restore, because, 
I think, it shews our JPoet understood his Virgil 
Yery well by this happy application : 
Tantsne animis Coelestibus iras ? 
Churchmen so hot i 

P Glou. True, uncle. 

Are you advis'd ? — the East side the grove. 
Cardinal, I am with you. 
Why does Gloucester ask the Cardinal this ques- 
tion, if it was he that had made the appointment of 
the place? I question not, but the speakers are 
oonfused, an<i therefore I thus regulate them. 
Glou. True, uncle. 

Card. Are you advisM ? — the East side the grove. 
GLOy. Cardinal, I am with you. 
For this admirably well marks the virulence of the 
Cardinal, who had appointed tKe place, and was 
afraid Gloucester should mistake it. 

P. 121. The 6fth was Edward Langley. 

History and the old books bid us read. Edmukd. 

P. 123. Stand forth. Dame Elianor Cobham. 

I cannot imagine why our Poet made bold with 
History, in misplacing the time of this fact. This 
Duchess was convicted of, and banished for sorcery, 
in the ^JOth year of the King, and three years before 
his marriage. 

Ibid. Receive the sentence of the law for sin. 
The next line requires, sins. 

P. 124. And his staff with a sand-bag fastened to i&. 
What was the use of this ? 

P. 124. 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON* 437 

P. 124. Here 's a cup of Chari«£co. 

I do not know what liquor this might be. Oar 
IXctionaries take no notice of it. 1 find it mentioned^ 
Moongst several other wines, in an old tract, called 
" The Discovery of a London Monster, called the 
Black Dog of Newgate. Imprinted at London by 
G.EH, for Robert Wilson, 1612^ 

** Room for a customer, quoth L So in I wcflnt, 
where I found English, Scotish, Welch, Irish, 
Dutch, and French, in several rooms : some drink- 
ing the neat wine of Orleans, some the Gascony, 
some the Bourdeaux ; there wanted neither Sherry, 
Sack, nor Charnoco, Mali^o, nor Peeter Seemine, 
amber-colour*d Candy, nor liquorish Ipocras, brown 
belov'd Bastard, fet Aligant, or any quick-spirited 
liquor, that might draw their wits into a circle to 
see the devil by imagination/' 

I am, dearest Sir, your most affectionate and 
obliged friend and humble servant, 

L£w. Theobald. 



LETTER XL. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, ff^^an's Court, Jan. 24, 1729-30. 
1 last night received yours (No. 1 3) of the 2l8t 
instant ; and proceed now on the Second Part of 
Henry VL 

P. 126. So cares and joys fliowTfrf, as seasons fleet 
Quod si, go round ? The context seems rather to 
bespeak their circulation and vicissitude, than plenty 
and continuance. 

Ibid. Enter the Duchess, &c in her band. 

We must add here. 

Sir John Stanley , with a sheriff and oflBcer«. 
for it appears, p. 128, that Sir John is to escort her 

to 



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438 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURB. 

to the Isle of Man, and the Duke of Gloucester ask§ 
him if that is his commission. 

P. 135. And at the butcher takes away the calf, 

And binds the wretch, and beats it when it 

STRAYS. 

But it is something extraordinary^ methinks, for 
a calf to stray when it is bound to its good beha- 
viour. I chuse to read, *' when it strives.^ Every 
beast, when it finds itself any ways intangled, strug- 
gles, and makes an effort to get loose. 

Ibid. &. Mar. free lords, cold snow. 

I have no concqition why the Queen addresses 
them with diis epithet. 

P. 137. Might hap | ly have | proved | far worse than 
his. 

Where is Mr. Pope's ear, that is sometimes w de- 
licate in cadences ? A single Letter too cures all 
the harsh emphasis: 

Mieht happily have proved, &c. 

Happily, and haply, are used indifferently. 

P. 139. Do calm the fury of this mad-brain'd FLAW. 

This is one of those words which our Author uses 
very quaintly, and I know not how to expound to 
myself. 

P. 140. Suff. Away, be gone. Exeunt. 

Enter K. Henry, the Queen, Cardinal, Suffolk. 

Our most accurate Editors carry off Suffolk^ only 
to bring him on again the very next half-moment 
t adjust it thus : 

Exeunt Ruffians; manet Suffolk. 
Enter K. Henry, the Queen, Cardinal, Somerset, &c. 

P. 143. To sit, and watch* me, as Ascanius did. 

Whence did our Poet glean this circumstance of 
Ascanius telling his father's story to Dido ? Dido, 
indeed, held Cupid, the supposed Ascanius, in her 
lap, whilst iEneas related the series of Troy's down- 
fell, &c. at her request : Vii^gil marks it to us, ' 

Imdag^, etiprimft, die, inquit, origine nobis, &c. 

♦ Sec a conjecture on this passage in p. 440. 

P. 144. 



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THEOBALD AND WAEBURTON. AS^ 

P. 144L And to survey bis dead and eaethly image. 

I chiue^ SAKTHY, though I am afraid our Author 
uses both terms indiscriminately. But what shall 
wd say for the Editor's taste, who has not distin- 
guished by his commendatory commas that un- 
matched description, in the next page, of the symp- 
toms of Gloucester's violent death ? 

P. 147. What stronger breastplate than a heart un- 
tainted ? 
Thrice is be armM. 

Does not this approach a little to our Horace? 
Illi robur, et ses TRIPLEX 
Circa pectus. 

P. 148. Yet notwithstanding such a strange edict. 

The first folio reads, in my opinion with mu^h 
more propriety, strait, i. e. strict. 

p. 149. Poison be their drink^ ' 

Gall, worse than gall, the daintiest that 
they taste. 

As there is a substantive subjoined to every epi- 
thet in the verses that follow, sweetest shade, chief- 
est prospect, softest touch, &c. J think, we should 
read either dainties that, or daintiest meat they 
taste. 

p. 149. As smart as lizard's stings. 

In several other passages, I have observed our Poet 
speaks of the lizard, so inoflFensive with us, as of a 
noxious animal. I do not know whether in Italy 
these reptiles be venomous, or no ; or whether by 
Uzard the Poet means serpent ; as Virgil is said to 
do, ElcK ii. 9. 

Nunc viriiles etianti occultant spineta lacertos. 

Genus seiyentis, says Servias. Or perhaps these 
animals may be terribly obnoxious in some parts of 
the world, as in the island of Java for instance : — 
*^ In sylvis Javse, in paludibus et cceno, Lacertos 
quoddam genus, aut, ut aptiils dicam, crocodiU ter- 
restris species. NuUus, ex plurimis quos vidi, ultri 
quinque pedes excrever?it. Ferunt tamen Javani, 



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440 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

scevos et oiRJores in montibus versari. Animd per 
totum vertebrarum dorsi processum serratum est, 
cute rugosa et sqamosa, foed^ viridi, et maculosa ; ita 
ut solo aspectu suo insuetis horror em incutiatr 

Bontii Hist. Natur. 1. 5, c. iv, 

p. 143. tempted SuflFolk's tongue 

To sit and watch me as Ascanius did. 

Throwing my eye casually back to this page, I am 
tempted, dear Sir^ to propose an instantaneous con- 
jecture here. Should we ndt read. 

To sit and wiTCH me, &c. ? 
«. e. inchant, steal into my soul with stories of thee. 
And please to observe the Queen presently subjoins. 
Am I not witch'd, like her ? 

P. 152. So thou wilt let me live, wj\Afeel no pain. 

But did the Cardinal here labour under bodily 
pain that he wanted to be rid of, or the dreadful 
apprehensions in his mind of approaching death? 
I think the old quarto will restore us the best 
reading: 

So thou wilt let me live but one whole year. 
And this seems more correspondent to the remark 
which King Henry subjoins on the Cardinal. 

P. 157. Than Bargulus, the strong Illyrian pirate. 

And the old quarto has it. 

Than mighty Abradas, the great Macedonian pirate. 

But neither of these terrible wights am 1 in the 
least acquainted with. 

Ibid. Gelidus limor occupat artus. 

The first folio reads, pine gelidus, &c. But as I 
do not remember whence* this hemistich is drawo^ 
cannot guess at the ground of this corruption. 

P. 162. r. Staff. And what of /Afl/ ? 

Cade. Marry, this Edmund, &c. 

I read. 

Marry, this. — Edmund, &c. 
For there is no mention of him before, to demand 
the relative : and now this answers to that. 

• Ovid de TWstibus, 313. N. 

P. 174, 



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THEOBALD AND WAKfiURTON. 441 

P. 174. Like to a ship^ that, baring *tcapM a tempest, 
Is straitway claim^Di and boarded with a pirate. 
I suspect, calm'd. — I think, after the violent 
working of a tempest, the sea is generally totally 6e- 
ccdmed. Besides, with allusion to the King's aflbirs, 
the tempest of Cade's rebellion was just blown over, 
the State was in a calm by that insurrection quieted; 
immediately York, like an usurping pirate, comes 
to seize the vessel of Government. 

P. 180. To HAVE the traitor Somerset from hence. 
Both the old quarto and first folio give us a more 
emphatical term, heave. 

P. 181. Wouldst have roe kneel? First let me^ 
ask of THEE, 

If they can brook I bow a knee to man ! f 3 
Sirrah, call in my sons to be my bail. ' i 
I either think, that we must have this transpoii- 
tion ; or that we must read in the first line, 

Let roe ask of three, 

If they can brook, &c. 
i. e. his three sons, Edward, George, and Richard. 
For though, in the next page, only Edward and 
Richard are mentioned, sure George is left out by 
negligence. My proof for this I draw from the next 
Play, p, 207 • 

Was *t you that revell'd in our Parliament^ 
And made a preachment of your high descent? 
Where are your mess of sons to b€u:k you now^ 
The wanton Edward, and the lusty George ? 
And where 's that valiant crook-back prodigy, 
Dicky your boy, &c. 
The fourth son, who made up the mesSy you know^ 
was Rutland ; but he was too young either to bach or 
hail his father. 

P. )S2. Shall be their father's bailj and bane to those. 

Considering how our Author loves to play on 

words similar in their sound, and opposite in their 

signification, I make no doubt but we ought to read. 

Shall be their father's bail, and bale to those. 
«. e. detriment, destruction, &c. from which word 
the adjective, baleful^ is derived. So in Locrine 

(P- 3877 



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449 iLLUflrraATiom of liteaature. 

(p- 3^77 in Mr. Rowe's oetayo edition of Shake- 
speare) : 

Yea, with these eyes thou bast seen her, and 
therefore pull them but, for they will work thy bu.b. 

Mr. Rowe, it is true, has here absurdly suffered 
bail to pass upon him ; but my old quarto of this 
Hay, printed m 1595^ exhibits it ri^ht, bale. 

whilst I remember it, I will give you another 
emendation upon this very word, in despight of all 
the books to the contrary. 
CoriolarmSy p. 179 : 

Rome and her rats are at the point of battle ; 
The one side must have BALE. 
f. e. be worsted. 
P. 186. And the premised flames of the last day. 
What does he mean by, premised? forenieclared 
by the Scriptures ? 

And so to the Third Part of Henry VI. 
P. 194. Speak thou for me, and tell them what I did. 
The Editors ought to mark, that Richard here 
throws down Somerset's head. 

Ibid. The proudest he, that holds up Lancaster, 
Dares stir a wing, if Warwick shuke his bells. 
The old quarto reads — the proudest bird— which 
sorts better with the metaphors in the second verse. 
So, p. 2161 

The haught Northumberland, 

And of their feather many mdre proud birds. 

P. 195. West. But when the Duke is slain, they Ul 

quickly fly. 
The old quarto more justly places this line to Exe- 
ter ; for why else does the King address his reply 
to him ? 

P. 198. Let me for this time reign as King. 
The verse wants a foot ; and the sense too is im- 
perfect. The first folio reads. 

Let me for this MY umstime reign as Kitig. 
The very thing which is agreed to by Plantagenet's 
atiswer. 

P 301. 



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'TOBOBALD A-KB WAR8URT0N. 443 

P, 201. Will COST my crown. 
You say, coast, and that it is a term from hawkt 
i$^. I biAd understood cost as an abbreviation of 
accost J i.e. attack^ seize upon. 
Ibid. No qaarrel, but a SUOHT contention. 
The old quarto reads sweet, i. e. the argument 
of their contention was upon a grateful topic, the 
question of their fiither's immediate right to the crown. 
P. 202. Bat for a kingdom any oath may be broken ; 

I'd break a thousand oaths, to reien one year. 
Does not the Poet seem to have the Thebais of 
Seneca in view : 

■ Regno velim 

Patriam, penates, conjugem flammis dare ; 
Imperia pretio quoUhet comta$U bent. 

P. 203. ^ For they are soldiers, 

fVittf/y and courteous, UberalyfiiU qf spirit. 
What a most blessed harmonious line have the 
Editors here given us, and what a promising epithet, 
in York's behalf, from the Kentish men bemg so 
witty J I cannot be so partial, however, to my own 
county, as let this compliment to pass. 
I make no doubt to read, 

For they are ^soldiers, 

•Wealthy, and haurteousj Hiberal^ ^fuU of spirit. 
Now these five characteristics answer to Lord 
Si^'s description of them in the preceding Play, 
p. 169: 

Kent, in the Commentaries Cssar writ, 
Is termed the ^civiVst place in all this Isle, 
The people Hibtralj ^valiant, ^active, Wealthy. 
P. 205. Dii faciant laudis summa sit ista tuee ! 
Do you remember whence * our Poet has borrowed 
this pentameter ? I am sure, it shews he knew how 
to apply his Latin. 

P. 207. It is war's prize to take all vantages, &c. 
Does not this smack a little of our master Virgil's 
observation : 

Dolus, an virtus, quis in boste requiret ? 

* Grid's Epistle from Phillis to Demophoon. N. 

And 



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444 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

And now, dear Sir, to contend with you onoe 
more (but it shall be a sweet contention) m justifi- 
cation of SAFER senae. — ^You disallow it for two rea- 
sons ; because Edgar, when he says who comes here, 
did not immediately know it was Lear ; and because 
in propriety the comparative cannot be put for the 
positive. To the first I answer, that though Edgar 
might not instantly know it was Lear, yet, whoever 
it was, he knew a man in his sober senses could not 
equip himself so extravagantly. To the second, I 
appeal to you from our Poef s own practice in a simi- 
lar instance. 

Cymbeline, p. 51 • 

: Put thyself 

Into a baviour of less fear, e'er wildness 
Vanquish my stayder senses. 
(For so the first folio r^Bads), t. e. my stayed, sober 
senses. 

I am, dearest Sir, your most affectionate and 
obliged friend and humble servant. 

Lew. Theobald. 

LETTER XLL 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, fTpan's Court, Jan. 57, 1 729-30- 

You will likewise herewith receive mine (No. 12.) 

dated the 24th instant, which njy porter neglected 

to give to the post. I have the pleasure of your 

agreeable one (No. 13.) of the 21st instant, to which 

a short word in the tail of this. 

Now to go on with the Third Part of Henry VL 

P. 207. Where are your mess of sons, to BACK yoB 

now ? &c. 
I have no quarrel to the sense of this verse ; but I 
think the word should be, bail, as it refers to the 
Parliament scene at p. 181, where York says. 
Sirrah, call in my sons to be my bail. 

P. 20&. 



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THEOBALD AND WA&BURTOK. 445 

P. 208. And rob his temples of the diadem, 

Now in THIS life, against the holy oath ? 
From both the quarto and folio we must correct 
the last lin^ thus : 

Now in HIS life against YOUR holy oath ^ 

P. 216. Why, via ! to London will we march. 
The quarto completes this verse^ march amain. 

P. 217. And HARMLESS pity must be laid aside. 

The quarto and folio, rectii^, harmfull. Clif-* 
ford means, that the King's too great lenity and pity- 
were detrimental to his interest. 

P. 218. And happy always was it for that son. 

Whose father for his boarding went to hell. 

It is evident from the context, that the King 
should not make any such assertion, but that he 
makes a Question of it. Correct therefore, ti>ent to 
hell? Ttiough the proverb says, that happy is the 
son whose miserly father goes to the devil, yet does 
this happen in every instance ? 

P. 221. Then, execution^ re-unsheath thy sword. 
The old books warrant no such reading. They 
exhibit thus. 

Then, executioner^ unsheath thy sword. 
Richard calls Cliflford thus, on account of his 
liaving so barbarously killed young Rutland. 
P. 222. Forespent with toil, as runners with a race. 
' The old quarto, 

Sore spent with toil, as runners with the race. 
I only remark it to you as a various reading ; for 
either will do very well. 

P. 223. Ah! Warwick, why hast thou withdrawn thy* 

self? 

Thy brother's blood the thirsty earth bath 

arunk, &c. 

An historical difficulty arises to me from this pas-^ 

sage ; which I can neither clear to myself from the 

chronicles ; neither can I determine safely, whether 

there be not by some accident, a perplexity in our 

Poet. 



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440 ILUJSniATlONS OF LITERATUmE. 

Poet. In the first place^ what brother of Wanvidc's 
is it that is described to die in this manner*? It can- 
not be the Marquis of Montacute ; for his death we 
find not described till afterwards, p. 275. And pray^ 
dear. Sir, examine the descriptions: what a same- 
ness of manner, thought, and expression, there is in 
the picture of the two brothers dying ! Each speaks 
in the very pangs of expiration ; and one's hollow 
voice sounds like a dismal clangor from afar^ the 
other's like a cannon in a vault, I can hardly think 
the Poet was so pleased with his own description, 
that he would repeal it again in the same Play. I 
rather suspect, he was in doubt where he would 
place it. That it might have been first inserted in 
this scene; afterwards transplanted to the Fifth Act; 
and so by the unheedful blockheadry of the Actors 
and Editors foisted in to both places. But this is a 
suspicion of great difiidence : and in which, as I said, 
I know not what to determine. I must likewise 
observe to you, that the oldest quarto applies this 
first description not to the death of any brother of 
Warwick, but that of the Earl of Salisbury, War- 
wick's father. But this is a notorious deviation 
from the truth of histoiy. For, in the battle at 
Wakefield, in which Queen Margaret overcame and 
slew Richard Duke of York, this Lord Salisbury 
was taken prisoner, beheaded at Pomfret, and his 
head, together with that of the Duke, placed over 
York gates. However, I ought to give you the pas- 
sage literally from the old quarto : 
Itich. Ah, Warwick, why hast tbou withdrawn thyself? 
Thy noble father in the thickest Wrongs 
Cry'd still for Warwick, bis thrice-valiant son, 
Until with thousand swords he was beset, 

* As Mr. Theobald afterwards discovered, " The truth is, the 
elder brother here mentioned is no person in the drama, and his 
death is only an incidental piece of history. Consulting the Chro- 
nicles, upon this action at Ferrybridge, I find him to have been 
a natural son of Salisbury (in that respect a brother of Warwick) 
and esteemed a valiant young gentleman.** 

Theobald's Shakespeare. 
And 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 44? 

And many wounds made iu bis aged breast. 
And as he tottVing sate upon his steed, 
He waft bis band to me, and cried aloud, 
Richard, commend me to my valiant son : 
And stili he cry'd, Warwick, revenge my death ! 
And with those words he tumbled off his horse ; 
And so the noble Salisbury gave up the ghost. 
' P. 229. And whither fly the gnats, but to the sun ? 

This verse, in the old quarto, is preceded by ano- 
ther that is absolutely necessary to be restored : 
The common people swarm like summer flies ; 
And whither, &c. 
For what doth cherish WORDS. 
All the books, even Mr. Pope's quarto, read with 
you, WEEDS, so that this is only a typographical 
error. 

P. 236. Because in quarrel of the house of York, 

The worthy gentleman did lose his life. 
I am afraid our Poet puts false colours on the death 
of Sir John Grajfj to palliate KLing Edward*s mar- 
riage with the widow. Sir John Gray was slain at 
the last battle of St. AIban*s, by the power of King 
Edward, as Hall expressly says : so that he was in 
Queen Margaret's army, and really slain on the 
quarrel of Lancaster. 

Queen Elizabeth, in Richard, is reproached with 
this by Gloucester, p. 307 : 

In all which time you and your husband Gray 
Were factious /or the house of Lancaster : 

■ JVas not your husband 

In Margaret's battle at St. Alban*8 slain ? 
P. 24 1. Until the misshaped trunk, that bears this head. 

Be round-impaled with a glorious crown. 
Sure, there is something wrong here, in Richard*s 
talking of the trunk being impaled with the crown 
instead of his hecUl. Dr. Tnirlby would cure it thus, 
Until the head of this misshapen trunk. 
Sed d receptd lectione nimiitm distat. 
What if we should read. 

Until my misshaped trunk bear'st, that this bead 
Be round, &c. 

But 



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448 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

But is it, after all^ an ungrammatical licence in 
our Poet ? 
-P. 249. I *ll join my ELDEST daughter, and my joj, 
To him forthwith, in holy wedlock bands. 
I read, my younger daughter. Hall in J)th Ed- 
ward IV. p. 17. b. " Edward Prince of Wales wedded 
Anne second daughter to the Earl of Warwick,** &c. 
5o afterwards in King Richard III. p. 296 : 

For then, I Ml marry Warwick's youngest daughter. 
What though I kill'd her husband and her father ? 
t. e. Prince Edward, and King Henry VI. her fa- 
ther-in-law. The like mistake, therefore, seems to be 
made in the Play we are now upon, p. 253. 

The young Prince Eklward marries Warwick's 

daughter. 

Clar. Belike, theelder : Clarence will have the younger. 

Certainly, elder and younger must here change 

places ; for Clarence was in love with the elder, the 

Lady Isabel ; and in reality was married to her, be* 

lore Prince Edward took the Lady Anne to wife. 

Hall, 7th Edw, IV. 

P. 255. His soldiers lurking in the town about. 
I read, towns. So, in the subsequent page, 

But why commands the King 

That bis chief followers lodge in towns about him. 

P. 268. Tbat*snotmyfear; my MEED hath got me fame. 
In yours of the 14tb, dear Sir, you propose deed. 
I am for the text as it is ; and think that meed in 
our Shakespeare sometimes signiOes merit, as well 
as the reward of it. So above, at p. 212 : 
That we the sons of brave Plantagenet, 
Each one already blazing by our meeds. 
And so in Timon, p. 110 : 

■ No MEED but he repays 

3ev'nfoId above itself. 

P. 271. The King was slyly fingered from the DECK. 

I had long ago read pack with you ; and have 
amassed a number of parallel places, where our Au- 
thor employs the metaphor of cari/i;?^, znApUying 
at dice. 

P. 273. 



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THEOBALD AMD WAEBUETON* 449 

P. 273. Look Jiere^ I throw my in&my at tbee. i 
The old quarto has a marginal note^ vay neces- 
sary to be inserted ; viz. ^^ taking tlie red rose out of 
his hat, and throwing it at Warwick.*' 

P. 282. Where is that D£VIL's butcher Richard ? 
I read, ^^devil-butcher;" i. e. devilish, execrable. 

P. 283. Roscius now to act ? 

I am exceedingly pleased with the justness and 
accuracy of your note here. 

P. 284. And if the rest be true which I have heard, 

Thou canCtt. 
This is a very ridiculous blank, and, methinks, 
Sditors of small sagacity might have ventured to fill it 
up with certainty. The old quarto leads them part 
of the way. 

Thou carrCst into the world ; 
And I will make bold thus to complete the verse : 
With thy legs forward. 
This is so certain, that, unless we suppose Henry 
to reproach him with this his preposterous birth, 
how can Richard in the very next page say. 
Indeed, *tis true what Henry told me of: 
For I have often heard roy modier say, 
/ came into the world with my legs forward. 

P. 285. Let bell make crook'd my mind, to answer it. 
After this verse the old quarto adds, 

I had no father ; I am like no father : 

I have no brother, &c. 

Ibid. And triumph, Henry ! in the day of doom. 

The Editor, sure, thinks that Richard means 
King Henry should triumph at the last day^ in his 
resurrection. — But no such piety is intended.— 
I read. 

And triumph, Henry, in thy day of doom. 

He says, he will drag the King's body into another 
room, imd triumph in his destruction. 

P. 286. K. Edw. Thanks, noble Clarence; worthy 

brother, thanks. 
VOL. II. 2 G The 



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\ 



450 ILrUBTRAflcms dr UtEllATUtE. 

The old quarto plaees this much mofe properly^ 
in my opinion, to the Qdeen. 

There remains one passage, that I have overlooked, 
and then I have done with this Play : 

P I will not batidy with thee word for word, 

But BUCKLER with thee blows twice two for one. 

But to buckler is to defend, which certainly, 

is not Clifford's meatiing. And in that sense we 

have the word afterwards. Act III. Sc. 3, at p. 245 : 

that did ever fence the right. 

Now BUCKLER falshood with a pedigree. 
We must therefore read. 

But BUCKLE with thee blows. 
i. e. cope, struggle with thee, give thee four blows 
for one. So, 1 Henry VI. p. 14: 

In single combat thou shalt buckle with me. 
And, p. 65, 

■ All our general force 

Might with a sally of the very town 
Be BUCKLED with. 
And, p. 77, 

And Hell too strong for me to buckle with. 

I ought to acknowledge, dearest Sir, the great 
favour in your last, of the fine dissertation continued 
on the passage in Hamlet : but you must indulge me 
to make some few alterations here and there, other- 
wise it will come from me in the ill light of self- 
praise, rather than in defence of me. 

You have anticipated, by your fine accuracy, my 
mention of that ^regions chronological blunder in 
Coriolanus: but it is infinite satisfaction to me, every 
where to be confirmed by your concurrence. 

My conjecture on the hemistich of the First Part 
of Henry VI. shall begin mine of next post. 

I am, dearest Sir, your most afiectioiiate and ever 
obliged friend and humble servant. 

Lew. Th£obau>. 



LETTSa 



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tHlOBALDAWD WARBUjaTON. 451 

LETTER XLII. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, fFyaris Courts Jan. 29, 1 729-30. 
Pursuant to promise in my last, of the 2jth in- 
stant, I open this with my conjecture on the hemis- 
tich, as you desire. But I beg you will not be so 
partial as to give it any weight it has not in your 
real opinion; for I have no fondness for any thing in 
this work, any farther than as it bears the appear- 
ance of being right, or probable. 

1 Henry VI. p. 7 : 

A far more glorious star thy soul will make, 
Than Julius Csesar, or bright — — . 

I wonder Mr. Pope, when he advanced his con^ 
jecture, did not endeavour to reinforce the probabi- 
lity of it, from the accident of Drake rhyming to 
tlie line immediately preceding; a custom so familiar 
with our Poet at the close of his speeches. But to 
come to a little notice of the Eklitor's reasoning for 
the chasm left. As to anachronisms, I have aliisady 
spoken at large upon the licence of Shakespeare, and 
Dramatic Poets of all times and countries, commit* 
ting them. And I can scarce think any Critic wouM 
have struck out this particular absurdity in Jinnmr 
of our Author's judgment^ and yet left the mention 
of Machiavel standing in the Merry Wives of Wind- 
sor, and twice in these Histories of King Henry VI. 
the action of which several Plays lies in reigns earlier 
much than the birth of that Politician. Then, as 
you observe, the star of some deified person is neces- 
sary, to match with that of Julius Caesar. Besides, I 
have another strong exception to Sir Francis Drake 
being mentioned. I would observe, that the Poet 
always shewed an intention rather to pay a compli- 
ment to his Royal Mistress, than to any of her sub- 

2 G « jects ; 



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452 ILLUSTRATIOl^fi OV UtSKATUftB. 

jects: and even when he throws in that to tlie Earl of 
£s8ex, above remarked on in Henry V. he at the same 
time makes an honourable mention of the Queen» 
Buthowthis hemistich mighthave been oncesupplied 
is now the question. Some hard name, inmyopi* 
nion, filled up this chasm^ which, either from tne 
badness of the transcript, or their own ignorance, 
the first Editors could not make out ; and so chose 
to leave a blank for it. How then shall we hope to 
make it out at the distance of near a century and a 
half? ITie utmost we can pretend to is conjecture ; 
but that conjecture has the best chance to be ea« 
poused, which is backed with the best shew of rea- 
son, or probability. 

My suspicion is, that the first reading was this i 
A far more glorious star tby soul wiJl make 
Than Julias Ceesar, or bright Cassiopeia. 

But may it not be asked, how came our Poet so- 
parttcularly acquainted with that constellation r 

^*It happened that, in November 1572, the ISth 
year of Queen Elizabeth's reign, in theNorthem Con- 
stellation called Cassiopeia, at the back of her chair^ 
the people began to observe a phaenomenon in the 
skies, which resembled a star, because it was very clear, 
and had a fixed place among the stars. It was found 
by the astronomers to be above the moon ; was 
much briehter than the planet Jupiter; and seemed 
as big as Venus when she appears at biggest ; never 
changed its place, but contmued resplendent; and 
was carried about with the diurnal motion of the 
heavens, as other fixed stars are, for sixteen months 
together. I supposed therefore (subjoins our Chro- 
nologei') that the signification thereof is directed 
purposely and specially to some matter, not natural, 
but celestial, or rather super-celestial, so strange as 
from the beginning of the world never was the like*.** 

But as extraordinary appearances have in all 

♦ History of Queen Elizabeth, p. 1257, c. a.— and Mesemy^s 
Htttoiy of Charles XI. of Franoe. 



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XflftOBALD AND WAUBUHTON. ^ 45^ 

times been polittcalljr considered, the superrtitious 
or artful expounders of the times> I doubt not^ 
construed this meteor to portend tomiething very 
^gnal to the glory of Queen Elizabeth's reign. And 
as the duration of its appearance in brightness was 
sixteen months, or little less ; so exactly in the six- 
teenth year from thence (viz. 1588) was the Invin- 
cible Armada of the Spaniards (as they boastingly 
called it) destroyed by the English Fleet. Upon 
this, the comments on that phaenomenon might very 
well be again revived ; and the compliments, before 
presaged to attend the Queen*s reign, fixed by that 
inemorable and glorious vietory. As this Play was 
wrote soon after that period/ I think the Author 
might shew no bad address, in signify ing, that Cas- 
aiOPEiA, a star portending the renown of his mistress, 
was as bright and illustrious as that star, which 
jfBarked the deification of Julius Csesar. And to me 
it seems a much better national compliment, to sig- 
nalize a phsenomenon, whose presages and ejects 
were supposed so glorious ; than to make a star of 
Sir Francis Drake (who did not die till after this 
piece had made its appearance) only for some cBsco- 
veries in America. Will it be of any significance to 
hint too, in support of this conjecture, that Ckissio^ 
peia if described sitting in a chair by the astrono- 
mical nivthoI(^sts; as Queen Elizabeth is described 
by our Poet, in his Midsummer Night's Dream^' 
A feir vestal throned by the West ? 

And now, dear Sir, to go on to Richard III. a 
Play that, unless Shakespeare's, would be as exe- 
crable to me as the character of its Hero. My con- 
jectures upon it are very few ; so I have little to oflfer 
you but those omissions which the Editor has thought 
fit to make. I am sorrjr it was not of a better 
stamp^ and more worthy of observation, because I 
have so many old copies of this Play ; viz. both the 
folio editions, the following quartos, in 1597^ 159^9 
1602, Iffl^ 1«S9; and 1634. 

P. S9«- 



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454 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LTRltATOlHU 

P. S93. After 

Clarence clcwely be mewM up ' ' ■ 
All the old books add, 

About a prophecy which says that G 
Of Edward's heirs the murderer shall be. 

P. 2d5. While kites and buzzards play at liberty. 
All the old books pret. So in p. 30(f : 
That wrens make prey where eagles dare not perch. 
F. 305. Smile in men's feces, smooth, deceive, and 

cog. 
Annan poli&s, sooth. 

Sooth the devil that I warn thee from ; p. 312. 

P. 306. A»inst my children, brotiter, and myself. 
Had the Queen but one brother ? there are several 
passives which seem to spcfak for more : 

P. 305. Between the Duke of Gloucester and yow 

BROTHERS. 

p. 335. And the Queen's sons and brothees, haughty, 

proud, kc. 
And p. 37..» Where is thy husband now ?*-Wbere be 

thy BROTHERS ? 

P. 307. What ! threat you me, &c. 

TThb speech is augmented by the old copies : 
What ! threat you me with tilling of the King ? 
Tell him Mul spare noi : lookf what I have said 
I will avouch in presence of the King : 
/ dare adventure to be sent to th* Tow'r. 
Tistime, &c. 

P. 310. The SLAVE of Nature, and the son of Hell. 
Should it not be, shame ? I have no idea what 
he means by^ the slave of Nature. 

P. 318. ■ For curses never pass 

The lips of those that breathe them in the air. 
Obscure to me. 

P. 314. How now, my BANDY, stout. 
All my old books, hardt. 
P. 320. If you are hir'd for NEED. 
AU my old books, mbbd. 
So^ p. J23, the First Murderer si^s^ 

And when I have my meed, I must away. 

P. 3t5. 



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P. 325. Of you. Lord WoodviUe^ and Lord Scales, 
of you. 

I cannot think who LfOrd Rivera is^ mentioned 
just above: ^nd Anthony Woodville, the Queen's 
brother, was Lord Rivers, as also Lord Scales^ in 
right of his wife> an heiress. Of which marriage 
we heard before, p. 251. This line is wanting ixy ail 
the old quartos^ though it finds a place in the first 
folio. 

P. 340. Death makes ao conquest of his con<]^eror. 

Quarto, 1597, reads, this, aa I had coiqectfltaHy 
restored it in my printed booL 

Ibid. Short sttoamer lightly bas a forward spj^ing^ 

Will lightly signify coww>nUf^ ordinarilyi i» I 
think, the sense requires ? One of my quartos (but 
not till the year 1634) reads, likely. 

P. 348. A knot you are of damned bloodsuckers. 

After this the first folio gives VayghftH a lif^ 
without which he does not speak at ai) : 

You live, that shall cry woe for this Jb^eafter- 

P. 365. after 

Look for the news that the Cuildhall a0<)ri)s, ^ 
there follow these three lines in the first .folip^ which 
Mr. Pope has left out : 
Muh. Go, Lovel, with all apwd, to Doclor Sli^w; 
Co then to Friar P.eoto? ; bid tben| bot^ 
Meet me within this hour at Baypard's C^tl^. 
Now will I in^ kc, 
P. 364. Enter tbe Queen, Anne Duchess of Glouces- 
ter, the Duchess pf Yorlp. 
I think to this entrance ought to be ad<)ed. 

Enter the Queen, Anne Duchess of Gloucester^ 
leading Clarence* s young (UtughieTf &c. 

Who else can be meant, in the fiw* Mne, by the 
old Duchess of York's niece Planta^k? We see 
this young lady above, at p, S?7 ;. and i^in we 
hear of her at p. 372 : 

The wn of Clarence b^ve i dose pent up : 

His daughter meanly 6av* I matcfcfd in marriage. 

P. 364; 



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45<J ItLUSTRAltONS OF LITERATURB. 

P. S64. '— to greet the tender prince; 

I read, princes ; as seven lines lower. 

To gratulate the gentle princes there. 
P. 378. Jove*8 Mercury, and herald for a king. 
I think rather, we should read, 

Jove *8 Mercury *s an herald for a king. 
p. 374. If ANY antient sorrow be most reverent. 
All my old copies leave out, any. 

P, 375. After 

Preys on the issue of his mother's body ? 
all the old copies whatever add. 

And makes her pew-fellow with others moan I 
P. 3ftO. Canst thou devise to any child of mine. 
All the books, demise. 

P. 393. After 

This is All Souls* day, fellows, is it not ? 
Sher. It is, my Lord ; 
call the old copies add. 

Why then All Souls' day is my body's Domesday. 

Ibid. So, after 

„ whom most I tmsted, 

they all add, 

ThW, this All Souls* day to my fearful soul ' 
Is the determined, &c. 

P. 400. I died for HOPE, ere I could lend thee aid. 

I read, *' I died for holpe;'* t. e. for attempting to 
give theie help. 

P. 407. Tak^ it, enjoy it, and make use of it. 

All the hooks read, make much of it. 

And so much for Richard the Third, and this 
Fifth Volume. 

Yours, dear Sir, is come to hand (No. 15) dated 
the 2e<;h instant, in which I am obliged f6r your 
answer to my queries on Henry V. and Part the 
First of Henry VI. 

As I have a little room left here (and too little to 
begin another Plav) I will beg leave to reply to the 
emendation on Julius C^esar^^ iv. 3, you were so kind 
to subjoin : 

What 



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THBOttALD AND WAEBURTON. 457 

What VILLAIN toach'd his bodj, that did^tab^ 
And not for justice ? 
I agree with you, that Brutus had not a bad o{»- 
nion of any of his fellow-conspirators: and ye^ I 
have never suspected the text here to be faulty. 

I believe, dear Sir, Brutus was intended to say here^ 
which of us all is such a villain^ that, in stabbing 
Caesar, he had any other motive in his heart than 
that of doing it for justice sake ? The question, in 
my opinion, argues no suspicion that he thought 
there was such a villain amongst them ; but rather 
carries an affirmation that there was no such. I will 
give you two instances from our Poet, exactly pa- 
rallel in the manner of expression. In this very Play 
afterwards, p. 357 : 
JBruU Yet, countrymen ; oh, yet, hold up your heads* 
Cat. What bastard doth not? 
Or^ as I read^ dastard. 
Aiul so again Richard IIL p. 407 : 

What TRAITOR bears me, and says not, Amen ? 
I submit the interpretation and authorities to you ; 
and am, dearest Sir, your most affectionate and ever 
obliged humble servant^ Lew. Theobald. 



LETTER XLIIL 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, JVyavls Court, Jan. 31,1 729-30. 
I have this instant perused with pleasure yours 
(No. 16) of the 28th instant; and had just sketdied 
out my observations and enquiries on Henry the 
Eighth. Your accuracy, I find^ has anticipated me 
in several corrections, which I shall mention to you 
as I proceed with this Play; however^ I have no 
scanty crop to glean after you. 

I b^n with the Prologue : 
Be sad, as we would make you. Think Y£ 8£E 
The \ery persons of our noble story. 



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45B ILM7»RA1I91I6 OT' I4tIUUlWfi£. 

All the other eoupkts sim sirietly nfaymes^ Now 
story i in the second verse, heti^ a Word dnt has its 
«€ceat on the penuUimo^ requires^ that which we 
call the double rhyme. I tb^^ore make no doabt 
to read the first line thu« : 

Be sad as we would make ytnu Tkink before y t. 
There is another corruption of the same sort in 
the Epilogue, which I cannot ciire to my satisftc^ 
tion : 

For this Play at this time, b only m 
The merciful oonstructipa oi good woMav- 
It is evident, I tJnink, some double rhyme ia want* 
itig, that may chime ta women. 

P. 7. An untimely ague 
Staid me a prisoner 

I think this circumstance greatly shews the art of 
our Poet, that the spectators might be informed of 
this great solemnity; that it might be related to 
Buckingham, who, by this indisposition, ia sup- 
posed to be unacquainted with what had passed^ 

P. 8. Each following day 

Became the next day's master, till the last 
Made former wonders^ its. 
I think we must either transpose thus : 
Became the last day's woader, till the next — 
or, if we are to understand, by next day'Sy the day 
next immediately preceding, then it appears to me^ 
the sense should require us to read. 
Made former wond'rers, its. 
Ibid. Btuk. All was royal, &c« 
This we had cured exactly as you do. 

P. 9. Out of HIS SELF-imAWN w«b ; 

•%ould we not read. 

Out of HIMSELF DEAWIKG web ; — -- 

Ibid. Whence has he that ? 

If not firom hell, — 
This too I had pointed loi^ agq exactly with yoo. 
P. 10. By this so siCKBN*D their estates, that never 
They shall abound as formerly. 

Methinka 



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THEOBALD AW> WAABUHSCON. 45ft 

Methinks^ the antitheuB would be stanonger^ if w« 
might suppose the Poet wrote SLA£KJm*0» 
Ibid. Grievingly I tbink. 
I point this with a comma. 

P. 11. a Beggar's book 

Outworths a Noble's blood. 

I do not know whether oar Poet does not alhkle 
to a reply of Dr. Pace*s (once a Secretary to Henry 
the Eighth, and mentioned at page 37 of our H»f ;> 
in his book Dejructu Doctrime, uid which is Htc* 
wise transmitted in Camden's Remains^ p. 359: 

'' A Nobleman of this time^ in contempt of learnings 
said, that it was for Noblemen's sons enough t6 wind 
their horn, and carry their hawk (air, and to leave 
study and learning to the children of mean men.** 
To whom the aforesaid Richard Pace replied^ 
'^ Then you a»d other NoUemen must be xx>ntftn^ 
that your children may wind their horns and keep 
their hawks, while the children of mean men do 
manage matters of estate.'* 

P. 14. I am the shadow of poor Buckiogham ; 

Whose figure ev'n this instant cloud puts ON^ 
By dark'ning my clear son. ■ 
Should not this be, " puts out?** The figure of a 
shadow is blotted out by the interposition of a black 
cloud. * 

P. 15. A noise, with crying, 

The first folio reads, 

A noise within, crying, 

p. 16. — — ^— . but you frame 

Things, that are known alike ; which are not 

wholesome 
To those which would not know them, &c. 
This was a little obscure to us ; and therefcnre we 
guessed, 

■ b«t you frame 
Things that are known, IB ukb, which, kd 
Ibid. ■ in what kind, let's know 

In this exaction i 
We must read, with the first folio, '' is.'' 

P. 18. 



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4A) ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITBRATURE. 

• P. 18. — ^ — with a root, thus hack't 

I had here corrected the pointing with you. 

p, 20. under the commission's seal. 

This, as you very justly observe, is nonsense ; 
and I bad corrected it. You would read, commu- 
nion. I restore confession's seal. And my au- 
thority is Holinshed, p. 863. c. 2 : 

'' The Duke in talk told the Monk, that he had 
done very well to bind his Chaplain John De la 
Court, under the seal o^ confession, to keep secret 
such matter ; for, if the King should come to the 
knowledge thereof, it would to his destriiction."* 

Ibid. You charge not in your spleen a noble per8(m» 
And spoil your noble soul. 

Th& first folio reads, much more el^antly, 
■ your NOBLEii BOuL 

P. 21. Men into such strange mockeries. 
Doubtless, an excellent emendation. 
P. 23. Sands. He may, my Lord ; h' as wherewithal : — 
In him, 
Sparing would shew, &c. 
So I point this passage. 

p. 24. As, firsts good company, good wine, good 
welcome. 
Can make good people. 
My good Sir Harry Guilford seems to include all 
these in \i\%Jirst article ; and then gives us the drop 
a9 to what should follow. 

I suspect, therefore, that we should rather read. 
As first-good company, ■ 
i. e. the best company in the land ; and so we have 
all we want in those three particulars. 
p. 25. For my liule cu£. Let me alone. 
The first folio, cure. Lord Sands, I believe, hu- 
mourously alludes to the cure of souls. 

P. 35. ~ to be ftwhion'd 

Into what pitch he please. 
I had likewise suspected this passage. You pro- 
pose pinch. I only doubt whether Shakesp^re would 

not 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTOK* 401 

not have said, to he pinched into ^heitfashion, rather 
thmfashioned into what pinch. From the words^ 
work us, lump, Jushion, I take his allfegory to be a 
quantity of dough. I had therefore guessed, into 
what BATCH he please ; as housewives, you know, 
may mould their dough into what batch of bread 
they think fit, and size the loaves, ad libitum. 

P. 33. though 't be temporal, 

Yet if that QUARREt, Fortune, do divorce 
It from the bearer, 

Is quarrel to be taken here in the sense of shaft, 
arrow? Or does it mean, if Fortune once come to 
quarrel with our pomp, and so divorce it from us ? 

P. 40. and high notes 

Ta'en of your many virtues ; 

I read, 

and high note 's 

P. 47. The bosom of my conscience. 
Dr. Thirlby would have, bottom. I do not see a 
strong necessity for the change. 

Ibid, a little higher : 

■ on my honour, 

I speak, my good Lord Cardinal, to this point ; 
And thus far clear him. 
I do not think our Poet meant this should be ad- 
dressed to Wolsey. The King has already set him 
at large; and, upon his honour, that he excuses him 
from all suggestions and promptings in the divorce : 
so ;that now, I conceive, he turns himself to the 
Court, protesting that what he said to justify the 
Cardinal, is real truih. I therefore point it thus : 
■ on my honour 

I speak my good Lord Cardinal to this point ; 
And thu» far clear him. 
t. e. upon my honour, I speak to the good conduct 
of the Cardinal upon the point in question ; and 
jclear him from any attempt, or wish, to stir that 

business. 

P. 48. 



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49t ILLUSTRATIONS OF LmRATimE. 

P. 48, I then mofeHwUy 

My Lord of Canterbury, aBdgotytnar leave 
To make this present summont unsolicited. 
I am surprized that this strange piece of nonsense 
escaped your sagacity. Wha^ did the King maoe 
the Mishap^ nay^^ and so nume him as to get his leave, 
and yet no soliciting in the case ? 
I am sure you will read with roe : 

— — i present summons. Unsolicited 

I left no revVend person in this Court, &c. 
And so all is rational and easy. 

You say, dear Sir, it is very evident that the 
first Scene of Act III. should be the last Scene 
of Act 11. I own, I want a little farther conviction 
in this point ; and will proceed to my reasons why. 
llie Court, you know, is held at Black-friars ; and, 
without the interval of an Act supposed, there is 
very scanty time allowed for the Queen to get into 
her apartment in the Palace, let it be never so near 
(and Henry the Eighth's Court, if I remember, was, 
at this time, at Bridewell) ; much less, without such 
an interval, can the two Cardinals, who remain on 
the stage till the very end of the Second Act (as the 
books now place it), arrive from their Court to the 
Queefa in the compass of one single page. 

A second consideration too I have to ofier (secandj 
indeed, in its importance), and that is, the Second 
Act wilt be extended to the length of 27 pages^ and 
the Third reduced to 14* 

P. 50. They should be good men^ their affairs abb 

righteous ; 

I would read, as^ with the first folio, t. e. their 
affairs should be as righteous as their function. 
We are to curb such sorrows, not to 9cm *ein. 
There is not that consonancy in the two metv 
phors that I could wish. I read. 

We are to barb such sorrows, not to scm ^enu 
So we have weeding mp in opposition to sowing. 
And in this sense the word again recurs in An- 
thony and Cleopatra, p. 10: 

And 



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And our ill told us 
li as our EARING. 

P. 5S. Marry this is but young. 

Firet folio. 

Marry, this is yet but ytjung. 

I should not trouble you with this trifling varia- 
'tion ; but^mtl have a mind, once for all, to ob- 
serve to you upon the Jhlse nicety of Mr. Pope's ear. 
I think I may venture to say, he does not seem to 
know the licence of our Shakespeare's numbers ; or, 
indeed, the licence of all English versification, in 
common with that of other languages. I need not 
hint to you, that marn/y this, is plainly an ana- 
pessty and equal to a spond^Cf or foot of two sylla- 
bles; but I shall take the liberty to remind our 
Editor of the Pes procekusmaiicas in Homer, Vir- 
gil, &c. and shew him we have usages equivalent in 
our Poetry. 

Ibid. Hath left the cause TO TH^ King unhandled. 

The first folio, rectiUs^ o' th*. 

P. 57^ A widow to Prince Arthur. 

The first folio, rectiiis, and widow 

P. 58. Enter King^ reading of a Schedule, 
We must add, and Lovel; for, in the next page, 
we find the King whispering him. 

p. 60. and with this deed did crown 

The first folio reads, his, with you. 

Ibid. My endeavours 

Have ever come, &c. 
As thefe is a little variation from the first folio, I 
will give you the passage as I find it there, for your 
judgement : 

. ' My endeavours 

Have ever come too short of my desires, 
Yet, fil'd with my abilities : mine own ENDS 
Have been mine so, that evermore, &c. 

P^^l, — • I.— O negligence ! 
Fit for a fool to fall by. 

I point 



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464 ILLUSTRATIONS OF UTULATDRS. 

I point thus: 

^ O negligence, 

Fit for a fool to fall by ! 
p. 64. _— — I Me startU you 

Worse than the scaring bell. -«-» 
Now is it not wonderful that Mr. Pope (who is a 
Rooian Catholic, if any thing, in Religion) should 
know so little of the sacring bell^ as to substitute 
this tautological silly epithet instead of it, in oj^kk 
sition to the best copies ? 
Ibid. To Gregory de Cassalis. 
The first folio. Hall, and Holinshed, all call him, 
Cassado. 

P. 65. To forfni all your goods^ landSf tenements^ 
Castles, and whatsoever, and to be 
Out of the King's protection. 
I read, chattels. And my reason is this. Be- 
cause (as our Law-books inform us) the judgment in 
a Writ of Praemunire is, that the defendant shall be 
from thenceforth out of the King^s protection^ and 
his lands and tenementSy goods and chattels JoT' 
felted to the King, and that his body shall remain 
in prison at the King's pleasure. 

P. 68. hope to WIN it. 

You were not for wide of the mark, when you 
advised me to read, win in *t; for I had before cor- 
rected, from the first folio, win by *t. 

And now, dear Sir, as here is a proper place for 
rest, I will take the opportunity of releasing you for 
thepresent 

liie series of Hays to come will furnish such con- 
tinued delight, that, spite of the necessity for finish- 
ing, I shall r^ret my task being finished ; but have 
the pleasure to foresee that matter may offer to occa- 
sion the continuation of confessing myself^ dearest 
Sir, 

Your most afifectionate and ever obli^d humble 
servmn^ Lew. Theobald. 

LETTEE 



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LETTER XLIV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, WyarCs Court, Feb. 3, 1 7^9-30. 
Before I proceed to the remaining two Acts of 
Henry the Eighth, give me leave to trouble you 
with une petite dissertation, a few lines concerning 
a most ingenious conjecture you lately favoured me 
with on this passage of Henry the Fifth, p, 455 ' 

old Assyrian slingr.. 

I own, I was charmed with your gMess of Bale* 
arian; it struck me with so strong an appearance 
of its being right. But, though I could easily fill 
this sheet with a parade of collected learning, iu 
proof that the Balearick Islanders were not only 
most expert at the sting, but by many Authors have 
been called the inventors of it ; yet 1 have some 
doubts, with regard to the certainty of the latter 
assertion, hanging about me; which you, or nobody, 
will be able to clear me of: and I have likewise a 
few passages to submit to your consideration, which 
as yet seem to me strong in support of our Author s 
text as we found it. 

First, Though Salmasius (from Isidore, I suppose), 
and some others, have derived the name of these 
people from the obsolete verb balio (seu ^uATicOy ja- 
€doJ; I find Bochart* absolutely against this defini- 
tion; and he tells us, that their name descended 
from the Hebrew Baal-jaro, magister jaculandii 
seu projiciendi lapides. This, indeed, makes no- 
thing against your fine conjecture: only, please to 
take notice at present of the propinquity of the word 
to the "R^^hx^yf fountain. 

* Geograph. p. 633. 
VOL. II. « H Secondly, 



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4S6 lUiUCTRATIOIfS W LITBftATUftE. 

Secondly^ I would propose to your considermlion 
thil passage of Strabo *, speaking of those Islanders : 
ifjiMS X^^msi^rsu ^irs< >^yoyrou' xai tSt ifs-xifrav, 

r&g r^ng. So that the Balearians seem^ in Strabo^s 
' opinion, not to have been original in their art of 
stinging; but to have derived Uieir excellence from 
the instruction of the Phcenicians. This, however, 
loads but a small way towards the justification of 
Assyrian slings. Pliny "f- will conduct us a. good way 
more towards the East, in his chapter concerning, 
Qtiof quis invenerit in Vtt&. — Syrophcenicas, 6al- 
Ustam 8s fundam. And Syrophamic^y you know, 
went up as high as Damascus. 

Thirdly, To this I would add, that Xenophon J, 
speakine of slingers, will carry the science as far 
as Persia (a little farther than is requisite for our 
purpose). Moucoirtpov ykp ot Tf 'PoSioi t&v 'nEUfXQTS 
fO-^tySoyijy, xou rcSv ziT^ei^wv To^ordly. So that, 
though the Rhodians could sling the stone farthest^ 
the Persiaks were likewise slingers at that time. 
And so little commerce had that Oriental people 
then wi& the Mediterranean, or any part of Europe, 
that they can scarce be presumed to nave borrowed 
the invention from the Balearick Islands. 

Besides, fourthly. To take a little Scripture along 
with us* Slinging must have obtained greatly in 
those Eastern parts, if we but reflect that, so early as 
the date of Ens government over Israel, the chil- 
dren of Benjamin brought out of Gibeah no less than 
700 chosen men, that could sung stones at an hair's 
breadth. And, if you please to remember, in th^ 
story of Judith ^ (the scene of whose action is sup- 
posed to have fallen about the period of Antiochus 
the Great, or the book, at least (if only typical) to 
have been penned about that time, the very AssY- 

* lib. in. edit. Casaiiboni p. 167. 

t Nat. Hist. c. 57. J Anmbas. § Judith, ix. 7- 

RIANS 



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- THKOBAL0 AND WAEBURTOK. 46? 

RiANS are said to be a multitude in their power^ that 
tnut in shield and spear, and bow and siihg. 

From these loose bints 1 submit to your juds^ 
ment, dear Sir^ what I am to determine on this 
point: whether to conclude^ that Assyrian slings 
might be the term used by our Author^ or the cor- 
ruption of his unknowing Editors. 

And now I return to order. 

P. 74. So may he rest, his faults lie buried with him! 

This I take to be a sc^isticated reading of the 
Players. The first editions have it^ 
He gently en himi 

A wish that I think very ncairly alludes to that of 
the Latins: Sit tibi terra Uvis I 

The opposition of this wish we find frequently re- 
peated to Richard the Third by the ghosb that fright 
nim in his sleep: 

/ will lie heavy on thy sool to-morrow. 

Ibid. ■ one that by suggestion 

Tyd all the kingdom : — 
I own, I do notelearly understand this expression. 

P. 75. Men^s evil manners live in brass ; their virtues 
We write in water. 

Besides the phrase of writir^ m u>ater being pro- 
verbial both in Greek and Latin Authors (of which 
we have aiithorities in Erasmuses Adag. p. 391,) 
the whole clothing of this sentiment has so much 
the air of the antique, that I suspect it an imitation, 
though I cannot recollect from whence. 

P. 77. And of an earthly cold ? 

The first folio, earthy; but, as I before have 
hinted, I am aliaid our Author uses both terms 
without distinction. 

P. 79. I did. Sir Thomas, left him at Primero^ &c. 

Mr. Pope*s nice ear cannot dispense with a synize- 
sis in the word Thomas^ so has left out the copiUative^ 
AND left him at Primero. 

P. SO. Much weightier than this word. 
The first folio, work. 

2H2 P. S5. 



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468 ILLUSTRATlOilS OP UTERATUEE. 

P. 85. Enter KZfJ^Ek. 

The seene here is not before a prison^ but thi) 
cduncU^hamber. I would chuse^ therefore, with 
Mr. Pope's leave, to read, 

£fU€r DOba-KCEPER. 

Ibid. Pray Heav'n, he found not my disgrace. 
The first folio, I think better, sound. 

P. 86. 'Tis well there 's one above 'em YET. I thought, 

&c. 
My suspicion here is not of much inoportance; or 
I should chuse to read, 

•Tis well there 's one above *em» — Yet I thought, 
&c. 

P. 87. but we all are men 

In our own natures frail, zx\A capable 

Of FRAILTY, few are angels ; 

I cannot help thinking this very absurd expres- 
sion to define, that men are frail in their natures ; 
and not only so hut capable of frailty. If they were 
not, how could they he frail? Sure, something 
is amiss. I could, with a very slight variation, give 
both sense and sentiment to the passagre, without 
the present seeming absurdity ; but I will not ven- 
ture to vouch for the legitimacy of my conjecture: 

', but we all are men 

In our own natures frail, and CULPABLE ; 
Those frailty-FREE are angels: 

Ibid. Toward the King first, then his laws, in filling. 

An ear of much less harmony than Mr. Pope's 
cannot but determine safely that we ought to restore, 
from the first folio. 

Toward the King first, then, &c. 

P. 89. Cham. Then thus for you, my Lord: itsunds 
agreed, 
I take it, by all voices, &c. 
Though I am very little acquainted with the prac- 
tice and regulations of a Council-chamber; yet, sure, 
I think, this speech ought rather to belong to the 
Chancellor, than Lord Chamberlain. 

Bv 



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THBOBALD AMD WARBU&TON. 4^9 

By the way, at p. 86, where it is said. Enter 
Lord Chancellor^ I think we ought to add. Enter 
Sir Thomas More, Lord Chancellor ; since, at p. 
^7, we find that he succeeded Cardinal Wolsey m 
that high office; and accordingly his name ought to 
be entered in the Dramatis Persona?. 

P. 90. One that in all obedience makes the Church 

The chief aim of his honour, and to strengthen 
That holy duty of our dear respect. 
His royal self, &c. 
From a small variation in the text in the first fo- 
lio, it seems evident to me that this passage ought to 
be corrected and pointed in the following manner : 
One that in all obedience makes the Church 
The chief aim of bis honour; and, to strengthen 
That holy duty, OUT OF dear respect 
His royal self, &c. 

P. 94. And here you lie baiting of bombards. 
So Tempest, p. 35 ; 

Looks like a foul bumbaro that \yould shed bis 
liquor. 
And 1 Henry IV. p. 220 : 

that huge bombard of sack, &c. 

I know nothing that the word bombard sicnideB but 
a great murdering piece of ordnance ; though, 'm 
all these three passages, it should mean some hrgt 
vessel for the reception of liquor. Was there ever 
any suph e]cpres$ion as a bumbard of drinhy as at 
Oxford they have what they call a Gvsqfale? See 
Ben Jonson's Art of Poetry. 

P. 91. Would I had known no more : bat she must die; 
She must, the Saints must have ber i yet a 

virgin, 
A pio^ unspotted lilly, &c. 
The first part of this is a wish ; the other should 
be a sorrowful continuation of the Bishop's pro- 
phecy ; but sure, Cranmer was too wise and pious a 
man, too well acquainted with th6 state of mortality, 
^o make that a part of his lamentation, that this gopd 

Pripct^ss 



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47^ lIXUflTRATIOlfB or UTSIUTUIUL. 

Princess must one time or otho* die, and go to 
Heaven* 

The iPoet> I am confident, had no such weak 
meaning; and I make no doubt but you will be able 
to read with me, thus : 

'Would I had known no more ! But she must die. 
She roust, the Saints must have her yet a virgin : 
&c. 

This is a fine compliment to the memoiy of his 
Royal Mistress, to lament that she must die without 
leaving an Heir of her body behind her. 

Ibid. — — To you, my good Lord Mayor, 

And TOU good brethren, I am much beholden : — 
Who is it that the King is made to call here good 
brethren? A Crowned Head, I think, never ad- 
dresses the top of the Nobility bevond the style of 
Cousins and Counsellors. I woul j read, 

To you, my good Lord Mayor, 

And your good brethren, &c. 
t. e. the Aldermen. And we see, at p. 95, two Al- 
dermen (as representatives of their Body) precede the 
Mayor at the Christening. 

I have now done with this Play ; and, as I have 
so very little room to spare, I will not attempt to en- 
ter upon another here. 

We are now come to the Tragedies ; and if, by a 
feilure of memory from having no copies of my owu 
Letters to set me right, I should impertinently trou- 
ble you with communicating some observations twice 
over, ]^u will have the goodness to forgive it. 

I am, dearest Sir, your most afiSsctionate and 
obliged friend and bumble servant. 

Lew. Theobald. 



LETTER 



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LETTER XLV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Wyarts Courts Feb. 5, 1789-SO. 

I last night received the very great plei^re of 
three of your$ (Nos. 17, 18, 19), two of the 
3l8t of January, and the other of the 9d inttant 

This will reach you with another of mine. No. Iff, 
which I proposed to have dispatched away by last 
Tuesday's post ; but, contideriog that s<Hiie of my 
former numbers had not yet peached you, I ccm* 
eluded you did not want it in haste. 

I proceed now, dear Sir, with Tlmon ; I mean, 
such part as your accurate observation has left un- 
cleared to m^. 

Dram. Pers. The bint of part of this Play uken. 

I think, it mi^ht be acknowledged that the bint 
of other part of this Play is taken from two passages 
in Plutarch, in the Lives of Alcibiades and Mark 
Anthony. 

P. 101. It wears. Sir, as it goes. 

Thus we had long ago corrected with you. 

P. 102. And like the current flies 

Each boand it chases. 
How, chases? — ^The flood, indeed, beating up 
upon the shore, covers a part of it^ but cannot be 
said to drive the shore away. I read. 
Each bound it chafes. 
As soon as the wave breaks and foams, the water 
seems to the eye to retire. 
So, Lear, p. 430 : 

The murmMng surge 

That on th' unnumbered idle pebbles chafes. 
And so, Julius Caesar, p. 29O : 

The troubled Tiber chafing with bis shores, &c. 
Ibid. The senators of Athens ! Happy men. 
I read, Happy man ! t. e. Timdn, happy in being 
followed and caressed by thoseof that rank and dignity. 

. ' ?. lOS. 



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47i iixusntATroKfi or UTfiiiiiTURC. 

P. 103. In a wide sea of wax. 

1 have but a very imperfect idea of this expression. 
Does the Poet allude to the smooth surfiice of the 
Cereje tabuloe ad sctibendum? 

Ibid. . '*Tis cofjceiv'd, to scope 

This throne, this fortune. 

Either I am over-dull, or this is nonsense: if 
sense, at least not the Poet's. I would read it thus: 

•Tis conceiv'd to' th' scope : 
I. e. rem aeu tetigistu The Painter, having heard 
the Poet explain his invention, would say, ^^ your 
fancy reaches the very scope, and purpose, that you 
aim at." 

P. 105. Old Athen. Therefore he will be. 

What, in the name of nonsense? 

Both my old folios have it. 
Therefore he mil be Timon. 

I would read, 

Therefore he Ml be my son ! 

What, if he be honest? Honesty will be its own 
reward : It is no reason that therefore he should 
pretend to make himself my son. 

P. 106. That state of fortune. 
The first folio, 

That state OR fortune. 
P. 108. Poet. How now, philosopher ? 
Jlpe. Thou liest. , 
Poet. Art thou ofie ? 
Ape, Yes. 
We must certainly restore with the first folio^ 

Art thou NOT one ? 
P. 109. Tim. Ere we depart, &c. 
But, thoush Alcibiades was to depart^ Timon was 
not. I would therefore read, 
E'er we do part. 
P. 110. If our betters play at that game, we must 
sot dare 
To imitate. Fovlls that are rich^ are fair. 
Sure, this is counter-reasoning : or I quite mis^ 
understand it 

P. Ill* 



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THBOBAUD AMO WAJtBUKimi. 471 

P. 111. Luc. My Lord, you take ua EV£K* at the 

best. 
This, I think, should be the answer of the ladies 
to Timon. 

P Tbou wilt not bear me now, thou ahaU not 

then, I Mi lock 
Thy heaven from thee. 
Is not this, dear Sir, a fiae allusion to the. calls of 
grace being lost, by being neglected ? 

P. 118. If I would sell my horse, and buy ten more. 
Better than be; why^ give my horse to Timon : 
Ask nothing, give it him,, it foaU me strait 
An able horse. 
These Editors are sometimes so intolerably stupid, 
that I cannot help being vexed at them. 
I know, you will read with me, 
T£N able horse. 

Ibid. and the cap 

Plays in the right hand : — thus but tell. him. 
Stupid again ! It must be pointed thus : 

' and the cap 

Pbys in the right hand, thus : — but tell him. 
So, in Coriolanus, p. 235 : 

Go to them with thy bonnet in this hand. 
And, thus far having^ stretchM it, here be with 
them, jcc. 

P. 121. Fool, Look you, here comes my WW J^<fr'5 page. 
And P. 122. But they enter my master* s house merrily. 
In both these places we must read, mistresses. 

P. 124. O, my good Lord, the world is but a world. 

Were it all yburs, to give it in a breath. 
The first folio seems to me most pertinent, word. 
Ibid. I have retired me to a lanetj/ room. 
Why is wasteful cock degraded here ? I suppose, 
Mr. Pope did not know it means a solitary cock-loft. 

P. \2S. With certain half-caps, and cold moving nods, 

^y^^y froze me into silence. 
We niust read, cold-moving, i. e. chilling. 

* Dr. Thirlby proposes, kvbb. 

So, 



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474 iLurvnuTioM ot LirmATUtii. 

So, King Johiiy p. 19 : 

— — Drtws those hetafn-tnooing 
Pearls from bis poor eyes, &c. 

P. 128. To borrow so MANY talenu, 

I would read, nmr. P. 127 : 

Wbo baling great and instant occasion to use 
j^^ talents, &c. 
Aiidp. It9 : 

Reqaestiog your Lordship to supply his instant 
use with j|% talents. 
And Timon, when he aends hit semnta a*borrow- 
ing, says, p. 125 : 

Let the request be J^^ talents. 

Ibid, (a little higher). Why should it thrive, and comb 
to nutriment, 
When he is iunfd to poison. 
Mr. Pope here is so nice, to avoid a jingle 
First folio reads. 

And TURN to nutriment. 

P. 12^. That I should purchase the day before for a 
little PART, and undoe a great deal of honour. 

Notwithstanding the seeming contrast, I suspect, 
DIRT, t. €. that I should purchase a few dirty acres, 
and, &c. 

'P. 130. And yet, Oh see the monstrousness of man ! 
When he looks out in an ungrateful shape, 
Thus I think the pointing must be transposed : 
And yet, Oh see the monstrousness of man. 
When be looks out in an ungrateful shape ! 

P. 132. And Sir Philotas's too. 
But who is he? We have PhUo in the Dramatis 
Personse, but no Philotas. 

P. 133. You must consider that a PRODIGAL course 

Is like the sun^s. 
Afmon melidsy prodigal's course ? 
Ibid. For which I wait for money. 
It is erident beyond contradiction^ from Horten- 
sius^s answer, that we must read : 
For which you wait for money. 

P. 137. 



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TUB09ALB AflD WARWmTaH. 47.1 

P. 137. He did behave bk mnnr ere *tw«i tpeau 
I cannot at all undentand ttiis. 

Ibid. ■ And the fellow 

Leaden with irons, wiser than the judge. 
Would not the antithesis be stronger^ if we read 

FSLOK ? 

P. 139. Aad (NOT to swell our spirit). 
What ean this mean ? 
Methinks, it ^ould either be^ 

And NOTE| to swell yow' spirit ; 
Or, 

And, BUT to swell your spirit 
i. e. if it be only to encrease your anger^ to enrage^ 
vex you. 

P. 145. But only painted like bis vanished friends. 

First folio, rectus, varnished. 

P. 147. I know thee too, and more than as I know thea 

First folio, that. 

P. 148. To the FUB-FAaT and the (fiet. 

I cannot meet with this word any where. 

P. 154. Here^ I will mend t^ feast. 

Ttm, Firsts mend thy company, take away thyself, 
I read^ bcy. 

P. 158. Your greatest want is, you want much of MEAT. 

Most ^egious stupidity ! 

We must, without question, read^ 

' You want much of meet. 

{• e. of what you ought to be, as men. 

Ibid. Till the high fever seeth your blood to broth. 
The first folio, as I conceive, righter, froth. 

Ibid. The earth *s a thief, 

That feeds and breeds by a composure storn. 
First folio, composturb. So, Hamlet, p. 278 : 
And do not spread the compost on the weeds. 
To make them ranker. 
P. 162. While the day serves, before black-corner'd 
night ; 
Find what thou want'st, by free and ofTerM 
light 

I think 



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47^ lUUSTfUmOM OF LOCSaAltlRE. 

I thbuk there should only be 9l oomnw at night: 
and I would prefix the poet's name to this poor 
couplet ; for why should the painter rhyme ? 

P. 163. *Tis thou that rigg'st the bark, and plough*st 
the FOAM, 
Settlest admired reverence in a slave. 
As both the preceding and subsequent couplets 
rhyme, I suspect we should read here, wave. 

Ibid. Let it go, naked men may see 't the better : 
You that are honest, by being what you are. 
Make them best seen and known. 

I think verily, if there were any room to credit 
the experiment, our Editors ought to go naked for 
the improvement of their eye-sights. 

But, perhaps, they have as little faith as judgment 
in their own readings : we will therefore venture to 
help them out thus : 

Let it go naked ; men may see H the better : 
You that are honest, by being what you arf , 
Make men best seen and known. 

P. 167. As common BRUTE doth put it 
First folio, rectd, bruit. 

Ibid. With other incident THROWS. 
We should read rather, throes. 

P. 168. Our hope in him is dead; let us return, 

Atid strain what other means is left unto us 
In our DEAD peril. 
But is it not strange, that their peril should be 
deadj because one of their hopes was dead r 
We must certainly read with the first folio. 
In our DEAR peril : 
i. e. dread, deep. — So, Julius Csesar, p. 323 : 

Shall it not grieve thee dearrr than thy death. 
As You Like It, p. 320 : 

For my father hated his father dearly. 
Hamlet, p. 217: 

Would I had met my dearest foe in heav'n^ &c 
Et alibi passim. 

Ibid. 



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THaOB^LD AND WABBiniTCm* 477 

Ibid< I'hoii Ut painfully UitcoTer^d; are his fil«i 

As full aa THBIT report ? 
I thinky from the messenger'a answer, we ought 
to read. 

As full as THY report ? 

P. 170. When crouching mtLvrow in the bearer ^nmg 

Cries, of itself, no more. 
I confess, I do not in any degree understand this. 

Ibid. And by promisM mea^ns. 

Does he mean, by a supply of subsistence ? 
. Or should it not rather be, 

- And by promis'd mends. 

i. e. amends, reparation in conduct of their former 
ingratitude. 

P ' ' March on, ob noble lord, 

Into our city with thy banners spread, 
By decimation and a tythed death ; 
Thus it seems clear to me that the pointing of this 
passage ought to be transposed : 

^ March on, oh noble lord, 

Into our city with thy banners spread ; 
By decimation and a tythed death. 

And so much for Timon. 

The next, Coriolanus, is much my favourite: 
though I had rather it sometimes wanted of the 
sublime^ so it had more of the patfios in exchange. 
I intend by next post to enter on my remarks on this 
Play; and am, in the interim, dearest Sir, 

Youf most affectionate and obliged friend and 
humble servant. Lew. Theobald. 

LETTER XLVL 
To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, IVyaris-c&urt, Feb. 12, 17^9-30. 
I have received the pleasure of yours (No. 20) 
dated February 3, with a kind and judicious refuta- 
tion of Cassiopeia ; and, with a just deference to 

your 



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47S ILLU8TKik1201l6 OF LITSSATO&S. 

your oost conrincio^ reiBons, I shall with great 
cheerfulness banish it as a bad and nnsupported 
conjecture. I have likewise yours (No. 21) of the 
7th instant, which brings your emendations down to 
^econd Act of Hamlet : so that you have vastly got 
the start of me hi your pn^ress. 

I proceed now to Coriolanus. 

Caius Martius. — The succeeding Editions^ I 
think, will do well to write Marcius : for the fa- 
mily-name was Mcc^xfo^, and not MartiuSy h Marie. 

P. l^6. Your reason for forks, instead of pikes, 
in my opinion, is perfectly just. 

P. 177. 1 will venture 

To SCALE 't a little more. 
I do not at all understand the meaning of scale 
here. I read^ 

To STALE *t a little more, 
t. e. to make it a litle more stale by repetition. 
So, Anthony, p. 31 : 

Age cannot wither ber, nor custom stale 
Her infinite variety. 
And Ben Jonson's Cynthia's Revels, p. 274 : 

I 'il go tell all the argument of his Play aforehand, 
and so stale bis invention to the auditory, before 
it come forth. 

P. 178. To fob off our disgrace with a tale. 
Metri causd, disgraces. 
Ibid. Sir, I shall tell you with a kind of smiley 
But Menenius had no design of being ludicrous 
mth them. I correct the pointing thus, 

Sir, Isbftll tell jrou. — With a kind of smile, &c. 
And the context^ I am persuaded, you will find 
to warrant this change. 

Ibid. For me this fellow speaks. 
I chuse to read, with the first folio. 
Tore me, this fellow speaks. 

P. ISO. -What would you have, you cursi, ' 

That like not peace, nor war ? 

The 



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THEOAAl^D ^D WAiUUJRTCW. 479 

Tbetotfolio^Ncm. Yoa would sake nomtiiatives 
of peace and war. I had always recoDciled it to my ^ 
self thnsy that neither like war^ nor can be content 
with peace. War frights you ; and peace and plenty 
make you so insolent and exacting^ that you do not 
know what you would have yourselves, and thereby 
seem not to like tranquillity. 

p. 180. He that trust to you, 

Where he should find you lions, finds you hares : 
Where foxes, geese you are : no surer, no. 
I chuse to point it thus : 

' finds you hares; 

Where foxes, geese : You are no surer, no. 
p. IS I. UNaoop'p the city. 
So I had read with you, and so the first folio. 

p. 182. Tit. Lead you on; 

Follow Cominitts, we must follow you, i 
Right worthy YOUk priority. 
Cmi. Noble MAarius. 
The first folio mends one reading thus^ 
Kiffbt worthy YOU priority. 
s. e. you iMMng right worthy of precedence. 

But there are still more faults in this passage, 
which I make no question should be thus rectifi^ : 
.■■ ■' Lead you on ; 

Follow, Cominius; we must follow you; 
Right worthy you priority. 
Cbm. Noble Lartius ! 
Titus Lartius first desires the general Senators to 
lead the way ; then tells Cominius that he well de- 
serves to go first in rank; and therefore, I think, 
Cominius, to return that compliment, says. Noble 
lartius ! 

P. 18$. If W£ and Caius Marcius chance to meet, 
*Tis sworn betwixt us, we shall BVfiR strike 
Till one can do no. more. 
Thus I would read, 

If I and Caias Marcius chance to meet, 
'Tis sworn betwixt us, we shall BrrHER strike 
Till one can do no more. 

p. 190. 



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480 iLLUbTRATlONS Of ursftAitrkB. 

p. IM. Who 8SNSIBLT OOTDAftSS his fetitctess svrord. 
Dr. Thirlby retcte thtis : 

Who, SENSIBLE, 0UTD016 his seDseiess sword. 
P. 1 93. The sbepberd knows not thunder from a tabor, 
More than I know the sound of Marcins" 
tongue, &c. 
I will not venture to say our Poet borrowed this 
thought from Sophocles's Ajax, ver. 1 5, &c. 

XaX«ooT0/EA8 uiliuvo^ 0)^ Tv^Tm^^ 
Ibid. Oh ! let me dip you 

In arms as sound, as when I wooM in heart; 
As merry, as when, &c. , 
1 point it thus^ 

In arms as sound, as when I woo^d ; In heart 
As merry as, &c. 

P. 194. And FOUR shall quickly draw out my com- 
mand, &c. 

I am not well enough acquainted with the Roman 
Tactics, to know howybwr should execute this com- 
mission. 

P. 197. When drums and trumpets shall 

r th^ field prove flatterers, let courts and cities 
Be made all or false- faced soothing. 
When steel grows soft, as the parasit«*s silk. 
Let him be made an overture for th^ wars. 
What an hobbling and imperfect verse is the third 
here! 
The fourth too is defective ; but that I can cure thus : 

When steel grows soft as is the parasite^s silk. 
But what does him in the last verse relate to, the 
steely or parasite? Or what is the meaning of 
either of them bein^ made an overture for the wars ? 
The whole passage is obscure to me. 

p. 199. Five times, Marcius, 

I 've fought with thee, so often hast thou 
beat me. 
Well ; Marcius after this goes home; stands up 
for tiie Consulship ; is banished ; never meets any 

more 



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more witb Aufidius^ till he seeks him in ills own 
palace ; and then Aufidius says, p. 253 : 

Thou hast beat me out twelve several times, ^c. 
Either Aufidius, or our Poet, has a very treache- 
rous memory: and I am afraid History will hardly 
help to reconcile the contradiction. 

P. 202. I CAN say, your worships hare delivered the 
matter- well, when I find the as3^ &c. 

It seems plain as light to me that we mnst read, 
I can't say, your woiTsbips, &c. 

Ibid. What barm can your besom conspectuicies glean 
out of this character. 

I cannot for my heart conceive the sense of hesom 
here. I read, bisson conspectuities, L e. bleer-eyed, 
blind. So Hamlet, p. 251 : 

. ■ Threatening the flames 

With BissoN rheum. 

P, 203. Is worth all your predecessors, since Deuca? 
lion, though peradventure some of the best of 
them were Hereditary hangmen. 

Does not this look like an imitation of Juvenal^ 
Sat. viii. 273, &c. 

Et tamen ut longe repetas, long^que revolvas 
Nomen, ab infami gentem deducis asylo. 
Majorum primus quisquis fuit ille tuorum, 
Aut pastor fuit, aut illud quod dicere nolo. 

p. 204. Where^ is he wounded, God save your good 
worships? 

You, dear Sir, aUer the pointing of this paysage^ 
and imagine the people are to be apostrophized. ^ It 
is true, the pointing is to be corrected : but Mr. 
Pope*s inaccuracy has given rise to your latter suspi- 
cion : for where he marks, p. 20^, Exeunt Brutus 
et SiciniuSf the old books only say, Brutus and 5?- 
iHnius aside ; so that they do not go out, but only 
retire a little back to overhear what the ladies and 
jMenenius talk of. Now when Menenius hears Mar- 
ciita is returning from his conquest, he insultingly 
turob upon th« Tributes, and cries^ 

VOL. II. 2 I God 



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4S5I liiUrsniATIONS of LITtftATU&£. 

God save your good wonbipt !-^MarciaB'iscoinio|^ 
home ; he has more cause to be proud, ^c. 

P. 203. He receivM in the repulse of Tarquio seven 

hurts i* th* body. 
Men. One in th* neck, and tv?a i' th* thigh : there *s 

NINE that I know of. 
Seven^ one, and two. — Sure, we may venture to 
correct Meneniua in his luritbmetic, and write here, 

There *s tbn that I know of. 

P. 205. Enter Cominius the General, and Titus Lar- 

tins; &c. 
Certainly either our Poet, or his Actor-Editors, 
have committed a fault of forgetfolness in bringing 
Lartius into this scene. I am afraid the Poet him-^ 
self is guilty, by what Menenius afterwards says in 
this very page : 

You are three 

That Rome should dote on. 
f. €. Cominius, Coriolanus, and Lartius. But Lar*. 
tius should be at Corioli, p. 198 : 

You, Titus Lartius, 

Must to Corioli back ; send us to Rome 

The best, with whom we may articulate^ 

For their own good, and ours. 
And p. 210: 

Having determined of the Volscians, and 

To send for Titus Lartius. 
And by what is said at p. 293, and 3, where Mar-- 
cius bids him welcome home, it is plain that Lartius 
is but then first returned to Rome. 

P. 206. Menenius, ever, ever. 
I point it thus : 

Menenius ever, ever. 
if e. ever the same plain-spoken, blunt Menenius. 
As above, in Timon, p. I4I : 

This is the oldman still. 
And afterwards, in Julius Csesar, p. 351 : 
Old Cassius still. 
t. €. the same waspish, impatient CaMUs as ever : 
for the word old there^ I think, doea in no kind 

aUade 



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Iheobald and warbu&ton. 483 

ftlhide to his age; nor was Cassius^ though a think* 
ing man, any ways cold of temper, as you conjec- 
turally proposed here after the text : on the contrary, 
his impatience is from the beginning finely marked 
out by our Poet in contrast to Brutus's philosophic 
mildness. 

P. 206. But with them, change of honours. 

Should not this be rather, charge ? 

Ibid. ^ Your prattling nurse 

Into a rapture lets her baby cry. 
While she chats him. 
This passage, I remember, stuck with us, when 
I read this Play in company. What means a baby 
crying into a rapture ? That, I suppose, can never 
signify crying itself into fits. We struck out this 
conjecture, which I beg leave to submit to you : 

E'EN TO a RUPTURE lets her baby cry ; 
t. e. lets it cry, till its navel starts ; till it is ready to 
burst with the agony. 

P. 207. As our good wills. 

J read, 

As our good will is. 

Ibid. ■ So it must fall out 

To him, or our authorities. For an end. 
Dr. Thirlby reads. 

To him ; or our authority 's at an end. 

P. 210. The theme of our assembly. 
As the Tribune speaks this to the Senate, I think 
it should be rather, tour. 

P. 212. And is content 

To spend his time to end it. 

What does this mean ? that he is content to dare 
all the extremities of danger, and tempt death itself^ 
in spending his time valiantly ? 

P. 213. Sic To Coriolanus come all joy and honour ! 

Blind and blundering Eklitors, to put this wish 
into one of the Tribunes' mouths, when both the 
old folios place it to that of the Senate upon their 
breaking up ! 

212 P. 213. 



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484 ILCITSTEATtCmS OF LITBRAXURE. 

P. 213. Bru. Come, \Me 'U inforni them 

Of owr proceedings hire on th' market-place, 
I know they do attend U3. 
As this passage is pointed, the senate-house is 
confouiided with the market-place* 
We certainly must correct thus: 

- here. On th* market-place 

I know, &c. 

P. 214. OoNS ! if he do require our voices, we ought 

not to deny him. 
But why this oath here? ITie old folio reads 
j^imply thus : 

Once, if he do require our voices : 
t. e. in a word, once for all, I have said it once, and 
I will stand to it 

So, Much Ado About Nothing, p. 71 : 

'T is ONCE, thou lov'st. 
And so, Anthony, p. 44 : 

Men. Wilt thou be lord of all the world ! 
Pom. What say'st thou ? 
Men. Wilt thou be lord of the whole worlc^ ? 
That 's TWICE. 

Ibid. For once when he stood up about the corn. 

There is no doubt, I think, but we must correct 
with the first foho, we ; t. e. when we mutinied 
about com, viz. at the beginning of the Play. 

P. 215. I would they would forget me, like the virtues 
Which our divines lose by them. 

Does he mean, forget me as they do those virtuous 
precepts, which the Divines preach up to them, and 
lose by them, a« it were, by their neglecting the 
practice ? 

I am, dearest Sir, your most affectionate and 
obliged friend and humble servant, 

Lew. Theobald. 



LKTTSK 



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THBOBALD ANP WAKBUR/TOM* 48# 

LETTER XLVII. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Wyaris Court, Feb. 12, 1719-30. 

Mine (No. 18) accompanies this. 

I proceed with Coriotenus. 

P. 220. I Ml have five hundred voices of that sound. 

1st Cit. Ay, twice five hundred — 

The first foho, more rightly, 

I twice five hundred 

i. e. if you procure five hundred^ I will piece out 
your number with one thousand more. 

P. 224. Com. You *re like to do such business. 
The context persuades me this should be spoken 
by Cor. 

Ibid. The people are abusM, set on ; this paltering 

Becomes not Rome : 

Cominius, I think, would shew himself displeased 
at this rub that the Tribunes throw in Coriolanus*^ 
way, and as unwilling to stop and wrangle it out 
with them. I point the passage thus: 

The people are abus'd. Set on ; — this paltering 

Becomes not Rome : 

So again, in the next page, he repeats his desire 
of proceeding : 

Well — ON to the market-place. 

P. 231. To eject him hence 

Were but one danger, and to keep bim bere 

Our certain death; • 

fFere is the verb bdth to danger and death; 
.which wardsj as you conjecture, will not be. I 
had cotrected it, dear Sir, a long while since^ in 
this manner: 

— — To eject him hence, 

IVere but our danger ; and to keep him hart 

Our certdia death; therefore-— -« 

f • €. 



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494 iLLUflrniATioNS of litbratuhe. 

i. e. to banish him will be hazardous to us : to let 
him remain at home^ our certain destruction: there- 
fore he must die this very night. 

P. 232. The service of the foot, 

Beiug once gangreen^d, it is not then re- 
spected 

For what before it was 

Menenius, I am convinced, did not mean to make 
any such assertion ; but rather to declare on the ne- 
gative side of it. I read thus : 

Is *T not then respected 

For what before it was ? 

P. 234. The things THAT THWART your disposidons. 
The first folio, 

The THINGS OF your dispositions, &c 
I read. 

The THWARTINGS OF your dispositions, &c. 

Ibid. Before he should thus stoop to th* heart, — 
But will stoop to iK heart signify stoop his heart, 
bow his disposition ? I guess,— to th' herd, t. e. the 
rabble : for they are pressing him to go back, and 
mend his late rough behaviour. 

Ibid. Men, Repent what you have spoke. 

Cor. For them ? — I cannot do it for the Gods, 
Must I then do it to them ? 
Coriolanus is no where else in the least irreligious^ 
or speaks with a disrespect to the heavenly powers. 
I cannot think then that he would say here, he can- 
not repent even for the Gods: besides, the expres- 
sion is very exceptionable. I have suspected : 
Or. 'FoR£ them? — I can but do it *fore the Gods; 
Must I then, &c. 

P. 234. — ^ bastards, and syllables 

AixowANCE to your bosom's truth. 

Dr. Thirlby says, forti AtUANCE. But I think 
the other may do very well. Syllables not aUov^ed 
by your heart to be true. 

p. 236. Yet were there but this single plot, to toae 
This mould of Marcios^ •— *— 

The 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTDN. 4^7 

The pointing must be certainly corrected thns: 

— -— single plot to lose, 

P. 239. Throng our large temples 

So, dear Sir, I had read with you of old. 

P. ^41. I have been Consul, and can shewraOM Rome 

Her enemies marks upon me, — - — 
Certi, FOR Rome, &c. 
So p. 245 : 

To banish him that struck more 
Blows FOR Rome, &c. 
And, p. ^4i6 : 

Good man, the wounds that he does bear FOR Rome ! 

P. 244. My FIRST son, — 

This I had always understood in the sense of a 
commendation, as^:ptim€fili, without regard to her 
having, or not having, any other children. 

Thus primus, by some of the Commentators, is 
said to be used in the b^inning of the jS^neis. 

And so afterwards, at p. 973, Volumnia calls him 
her GREAT son. 

P. 251. And witneis of the malice and displeasure 

Which thou could*st bear me. 
First folio, rectitts, should' st. 

P. 252. ' — Know thou first 

I lov'd the maid 1 married. 
I would point it, 

Know thou, first 

I lovM the maid, &c. 
Though I loved my wife before I married her, yet 
was I not more rejoiced to see her first enter my 
house, than I now am ia seeing thee here. 

P. 256. We hear not of him, neither need we fear him. 
His remedies are tame : the present peace 
And quietness of the people, which before 
Were in wild hurry. 
I read. 

We hear not of him, neither need we fear him : 
His remedies are tame 1' th* present peace, 
And quietness of the people ; which before 
Were in wild hurry. 

P. 257. 



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461 iLLVsntATiom or litsiuturi. 

P.«7, Sclf-Joring- 

Sic. And afFeeting one sole throne, widMmt assist- 
ance. 
Men. Nay, I tbiDk not so. 

The text is slightly corrupted ; and the versifica- 
tion neglected. Read, 
Self-loving. 
' Sic: And affecting one sole throne, 

Without ASSISTANTS. 

Men. Nay^ I think not so. 

P. 258. He and Aufidius can no more be one. 

The first folio, atoke, i. e. agree, be reconciled. 

p. 259. As Hercules did shake down mellow fruit. 

I suspect almost that our Poet, according to his 
custom, is alluding to the known fable : if so^ might 
we not rather read, 

down TH* YELLOW fniit 

i.e. the golden fruit in the gardensof theHesperidesr. ' 

P. 263. And power, unto itself most commendable^ 
Hath not a tomb so evident as a chair 
TT extoll what it hath done. 

This, I own, is absolutely obscure to me. 

p. 265. Speed how it will. / shall ere long have 
knowledge 
Of my success. 
I think, YE. 

p. 267. Now you CHAMPION. 
First folio, better, I think, you comfaMion, i. e. 
iiwcy fcUow. 

P. 268. That we have been familiar, 

Ingrate forgetfulness -^ 
I had altered the pointing, dear Sir, of this non- 
sensical passage, with this variation in the text, 

that we have been familiar, 

Ingrate forgetfulness shall prison, rather 
Than pity Twte how much. 

There is a contrast betwixt jpmon and note, which 
is wanting in poison ; and the sense seems clearer^ 

and 



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THBOBALD AND WARBUITIOM* 41^ 

and more natural: that forgetfulness shall rather 
keep it a secret that we have been familiar^ than pity 
disclose how much we have been so. 

P. 272. Make our hearts flow with joy, hearts dance. 

In the first part of the verse we must read with 
the first folio, 

Make our er/es flow with joy, &c. 

P. 273. And yet to charge thy sulphur. 

I had designed, dear Sir, to have entertained you 
with this emendaton: but the anticipation is pleasing 
to me. 

P. 274. This fellow bad a Volscian to his mother; 
His wife is in Corioli ; and HIS child 
Like him by chance. 
I am persuaded we should read, 

■ and THIS child, &c. 

For Volumnia would hint, that Coriolanus by his 
stem behaviour had lost all family-regards, ana did 
not remember thj^t he had any child. 

P. 279. Let him feel your sword. 

Which we will second, when he lies along. 
After your way, his tale pronounc*d, shall bury 
His reasons with his body. 
Thus, I think, the pointing must be corrected: 
for at present the sense is perplexed, and buried. 

■ Let him feel your sword, 

Which we will second. When he lies along. 
After your way his tale pronounced shall bury 
His reasons with his body. 

P. 28 1. And bis FAidE folds in 

This orb o* th' earth. 
So the first folio reads with your correction. 

And so much for Coriolanus. 

I cannot, however, help troubling you with one 
additional remark upon a circumstance of our Au- 
thor's conduct in this Play ; because I cannot deter- 
mine with myself, whether it was done by chance, 
or on purpose. It is said, you know, dear Sir, and 
the fact is true, that he has followed Plutarch very 

close 



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49^ ILLUSTRATIONS Or LITERATURE. 

iAdse in this story ; but he has deviated from him in 
one point, hy which he has avoided a stranse ab- 
surdity in the calculation of time, of which our 
Greek Biographer seems not at all aware. Shake- 
speare tells us, that at sixteen years old Coriolanus 
began his soldiership, when Tarquin made head to 
regain his kingdom, and that in seventeen battles 
he distinguished himself with exemplary bravery 
and success. Plutarch also says, that our Hero set 
out in arms a youth; that his first expedition was 
when Tarquin made this push ; and that he signalized 
-himself in war for seventeen years successively. 
Now it hapJ3ens a little unluckily for Plutarch's ac- 
count, that this attempt of Tarquin was made anno 
U. C. 258 ; and Coriolanus was banished, nay, and 
killed within the period of 8 years after his first cam- 

Eign, anno U C. 266. There is something again 
s across us on the other side, that if Conolanus 
was so young when he first commenced soldier, and 
if the interval was so short betwixt that and his 
banishment, he was tdo young to have been admitted 
a candidate for the Consulship. The compliment of 
that office so early to any man was a prostitution of 
dignity, that, I think, was never made till the times 
of the Emperors, when servility had debased the 
venr spirits of the Romans. 

I have received, dear Sir, the satisfaction of yoars 
(No. 22) of the pth instant, in which you very 
finely vindicate your emendation of Bakariany upon 
the just observation of the poetical rule of character- 
izing nations for something /or which they are emi" 
nerd far above others. It is doubtless an argument 
that ought to have all its weight on the side of your 
conjecture, as it shall have in my consideration : and, 
I hope, it will go some way towards accounting for 
an emendation, that some readers might be apt to 
think too wide from the traces of the corrupted text 
I thought verily you had known Dr. Harsenet to have 
be^ tb^ Author of" The Declaration of Popish Im- 
postures," 



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THEOBAU> AKD WAKBURTON. 491 

postures^** or I could have assisted your discovery 
some time ago. Dr. Hutchinson, in his ^^ Historical 
Essay concerning' Witchcraft/ acquaints us not only 
that he was Archbishop of York, but had been 
Chaplain to Archbishop Bancroft. 

I ani, dearest Sir, your most affectionate and 
obliged friend and humble servant. 

Lew. Theobald. 



LETTER XLVm. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Wyaris Courts Feb. 14, 1 729-30. 
I have just received the pleasure of yours (No. 
2$) of the llth instant, and now proceed to Julius 
.Caesar. 

Dramatis Personce. — This, certainly, is the most 
imperfect list throughout the whole set of our Au- 
thor's Plays. The names of no less than twelve per- 
sons, speaking and spoken to, are omitted : Cicero, 
Popilius Lena, Publius an old Senator, Young Cato, 
Pindarus, Dardanus, Claudius, Volumnius, Varro, 
Clitus, Strato, and Ghost of Csesar. Again, Mu- 
rellus the Tribune must be corrected from Plutarch 
and Appian, Marullus. And, lastly, who told 
our Editors that Artemidorus was a soothsayer ? 
They were thinking, I suppose, of his namesake, 
whose critique on Dreams we still have : but did no^ 
think that he did not live till the time of Antoninus. 
Our Poefs Artemidorus, who had been Caesar^s 
host in Cnidos, did not pretend to know any thing 
of the conspiracy against Cssar by prescience or 
prognostication : but he was the Cnidian sophist^ 
who taught that science in Greek at Rome : by which 
means being intimate with Brutus and those about 
him^ he ^t so far into the secret as to be able to 
warn Caesar of his danger. 

We 



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49^ ILLUSTRATIONS Of LftBRATUItt. 

We must therefore read, 
Artemidorut. 
A Soothsayer. 

P. 286. Mur, What meanest thou by that ? mend me. 
Thou saucy fellow ? 

As the Cobler in the preceding speech replies to 
Flavius, not to Marullus, I think it is plain this 
must be placed to Flavius. 

p. 288. Shake off their sterril course. 

We must restore from the first folio, curse. 

P. 290. For once upon a raw, 

I think it very probable, as you observe, that our 
Poet might allude to the Cur timet Jlavum Tiberim 
of Horace. 

Ibid. The torreut roarM, and hb did budet it. 

It is evident we must restore with the first folio, 
WE, from what follows : 

With hearts of controversy. 

P. 294. 'Tis very like, be hath the falling sickness. 

I point it thus : 

'Tis very like : he hath the failing stckosss. 

Brutus knew that Caesar was subject to aD epiU 
epsy, and therefore accounts for the likelihood of 
his falling down, and swooning. 

Scene VI. — You think, this should be the division 
of the Second Act. I am not convinced of the ne- 
cessity, dear Sir, for the reason you give : because 
it is plain that Shakespeare makes free with the 
\ldity of time through all his Tragedies ; without 
•any intervals of Acts to make this breach probable. 
i will give you one very flagrant instance of our Au- 
thor's licence in this respect The scene opens in 
Hamlet about twelve o'clock at night. Horatio, 
having seen the Ghost, proposes that the apparition 
i^bould be imparted to Hamlet ; Marcellus consents, 
and says, 

/ this morning know where we shaUfind him moit 
conveniently. 

They 



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. tlto^OA^I^P ANP WAABUBTOI^. 4&3 

Wbi^ itmnediately go out; and without any interval 
or time possibly lapsed between, the King, Queen, 
Uanilet, and all die Court appear, talking sedately 
of state-affairs. The King, in his going out, within 
ten minutes at farthest, orders that all the healths 
be drinks that day shall be signalized with drums^ 
trumpets, and cannons. Hamlet does not stay 
three minutes after him, before Horatio, Bernardo, 
and Marcellus come to him, and Hamlet says to 
Marcellus, Good even, Sir, So that you see, what 
a strange method our Poet had of running over 
hours, as well as of changing climates. 
P. 299. Hold, my hand. 
Read, 

Hold my hand ; 
i. e. accipe dextram. 

?• 303. No, Sir, their are plucked about their 

ears. 
Now, who would not suspect Mr. Pope, out of 
modesty, had shut out a word of bawdry here? 
The folios read. 

No, Sir, their hats are, SCc. 
But the Editor happened to know that the Ro- 
. mans wore no hats ; and thence, no doubt, this hy- 
percritical hiatus. 

Surely, we should make mad work with this, or 
any other of our Author's Plays, did we attempt to 
try them so strictly by the touchstone of antiquity. 
P. 304. Here li^s the East, &c. 
Rymer, in his " Short View of Tragedy," p. 153, has 
left an invidious and paltry remark on this passage : 
*^ Here the Roman ISenators, the midnight before 
Caesar's death (met in the garden of Brutus, to set- 
tle the matter of their conspiracy) are gazing up to 
the stars, and have no more in their heads than to 
.wrangle about which is the East and West." — "This 
is directly,** as Bayes tells us, "to shew the world a 
pattern here, how men should talk of business. But 
it would be a wrong to the Poet, not to inform the 

Reader, 



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494 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LtlULATUU. 

Retder, that on the stage the spectators see Brutus 
and Cassius all this while at whisper together." I 
cannot help having the utmost contempt for this 
poor ill-juG^ged sneer. It shews the height of good 
manners and politeness in the conspirators, whilst 
Brutus and Cassius whisper, to start any occasional 
topic, and talk extempore, rather than seem to lis- 
ten to, or be desirous of overhearing, what Cassius 
draws Brutus aside for. And, if I am not mistaken, 
there is a piece of art shewn in this whisper, which 
our caviller either did not, or woald not, see into. 
The Audience are already apprized of the subject on 
which the Faction meet; and, therefore, this whisper 
is an artifice, to prevent the preliminaries of what 
they knew beforenand being formally repeated. 

P. 304. Weighing the youthful season of the year. 

I think, I remember, or at least have an idea of 
some expression very similar to this in Virgil or Lu- 
cretius< 

Ibid. No, not an oath : If NOT the face of men, &c. 

Give me leave to tell you, dear Sir, how I had 
read and understood this : 

' If THAT the face of men, Stc. 

I confess, if Brutus meant by this, gentlemen, you 
have very good faces (as you expound it), this 
would be but a very bad motive. Uut I look upon 
this to be the senses if that dejection which ap- 
pears in your countenances, that insuppressive sor- 
row which you cannot hide, joined to the sufiferance 
of your souls, &c. be weak motives, &c. And this, 
I think, makes a true climax : and the progression 
from Jace to soul seems to heighten the dignity of 
the pansion. 

P. S09. To keep with you at meals, comfort your bed. 

And talk to you ? 
I read, consort, t. e. be your companion a*bed« 
So, Comedy of Errors, p. 10 : 

And afterwards CONSORT you till bed-time. 
Et alibi passim. 

P. 315. 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 403 

P. 315. The heart of Brutus earns. 

Read^ yerns. 

P. 317. The Capitol. 

It must be^ 

Street, before the Capitol : 
For Cassius says to Artemidorus, 

What, urge you your petitions in the street ? 

Ibid. Flourish. Enter, &c. and the Sooth-sayers. . 

Read, soothsayer. That particular one^ who 
had predicted to Caesar the danger of the Ides of 
March, with which prediction as vain and idle, 
Caesar reproaches him at the very commencement of 
theaoene. 

P. 320. Casc. Stoop, Romans, stoop. 

Mr. Pope has arbitrarily taken this speech from 
Brutus, as out of character for him : but in this, 
I think, he has been more nice than wise. Brutus 
esteemed the death of Caesar a sacrifice to liberty ; 
and as such gloried in his heading the enterprize. 
Besides, our Author is strictly copying History. 

Plutarch, in the Life of Caesar, says, ^^ Brutus and 
his followers, being yet hot with the murder^ 
inarched in a body from the Senate-house to the Ca- 
pitol with their drawn swords, with an air of con- 
Jidence and assurance.^' 

And in the Life of Brutus, " Brutus and his party 
betook themselves to the Capitol, and in their way, 
shelving their hands all btoody, arid their naked 
swords, proclaimed liberty to the people'* 

P. 323. • Crimson'd in thy death, 

Lethe, all the old books : and I am very much 
inclined to suspect it a word from the Latin lethum: 
whether it be any part of hunters* language, I am 
utterly to seek. 

P. 326. Seeing those beds of sorrow. 

first folio, rectitts, beads. So, King John, p. ig : 
With those sad chrystal beads heav'n shall be bribM. 

And 1 Henry IV. p. 205 : 
That BEADS of sweat have stood upon thy brow, &c. 

P. 332. 



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49^ ILLUSTRATIONS OT LITERATURE* 

P. 332. That day he overcame the Nervii. 
^ This circumstance, with regard to Caesar's mantle^ 
seems to me an invention of the Poet ; and, perhaps^ 
not v^^ith the greatest propriety. The Nervii were 
conquered in the second year of his GauHsh expedi- 
tion, seventeen years before his assassination; and it is 
hardly to be thought that Caesar preserved any one 
robe of state so long. 

P. 336. Upon condition PuBLiUS shall not live, 
\yho is your sister's son, Mark Anthony. 

I cannot tell who our Author meiins here by Pulh 
iius. The three persons about whom the Triumvirs 
had such a squabble in their proscription, were Ci* 
cero, whose life Anthony insisted on ; Paulus^ who 
was condemned by his own brother Lepidus ; and 
Lucius Caesar, Anthony's uncle^ whose blood Octa- 
vius demanded. 

P. 337. A barren-spirited fellow, one that feeds 
On OBJECTS, ARTS, and imitations, 
Which out of use and stal'd. 
I do not conceive why he should be called a i|ar- 
row-spirited fellow, that can feed either on olyecU 
or arts; t. e. as I presume, form his ideas and judg- 
ments upon them : stale and obsolete imtatumj in- 
deed, reasonably fixes such a character. I have 
long suspected the text ; and, with great deference 
and diffidence, I will submit to you my emendation: 

On ABJECT CRTS, and imitations. 
i. e. on the scraps and fragments of things rejected 
and despised by others. 
The word he uses again in his Troilus, p. 358 ; 
The/ractions of her faith, ORTS of her love. 
The fragments f scraps^ &c. 

P. 340. Go to ; you are not Cassius. 
Cas. I am. 

Bru. I say, you are not. 
If this be not persuading a man out of his Chrisdan 
name, the devil is in it. What ! because Cassius is 
testy, the Editoips will not allow Brutus to think he 

is 



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is CastiiMu But tiiis i^Mwditjr is derived from fmlse 
pdnting* I tead^ 

Go to ; you are not, Cassius. 
Thus Brutus denies Cassius's assertion, tiiat he is 
^»a older^ or abler^ soldier than himself. 

P. 345. If at Ph3ippi we do face him there. 

These people at our back. ' 
The whole tenor of this i^ieech seems to warrant, 
that we ought to retui thus, 

!■ * ■ I face bim, there 

T^iese people at our back. 

P. a5h Never till Caesar's three and THIRTT wounds 

Be well aveng*cL 
I much wonder, this false reading escaped your 
accuracy* Plutarch, Appian, Suetonius, &c. all 
vouch for no more than 

three and twenty wounds. 

P. S56. ■ to Tharsus send his body» 

Thus all the copies ; but history bids us, Thasso^. 
And so much for Julius Caesar, and tiiis Vx>lume. 

I hare only room left to observe, how very wild 
and rash Mr. fofpe is in his critical notes. He says, 
p. S$0 : •' Perhaps, this Play was never printed in 
Sen Jonson's time, and so he had nothing to judge 
by, but as the Actor pleased to speak it.** But Ben 
Jonson did not die till the year 1^37 ; and Shake- 
speare's Works were twice printed in folio before 
tnat period, viz. in l6fl3, and 1632. 

I am, dearest Sir, your most aflfectioniite and 
obliged humble servant, Lew, Theobald. 

LETTER XLIX. 

To the Rev. Mr. Waeburtok. 

Dear Sir, ff^yan's Ccmrt, Feb. 19, 1729-30. 
Before I enter upon Jntony, give me leave tp 
trouble yon with a second dissertation on this passagp 
of Timon, p. 148 : 

/v'ou II. 2 E —• — feasoq 



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4ft8 v44VsnATyms or uteeatuib* 



' season the slftves 



For TUBS and baths; briog down the rose-cheeked 

youth 
To tb' FUBFAST and the diet* 

I agree with you that our search would be very 
vain for the word Jubfast ; and I was not a Uttle 
charmed with ^our conjecture of tub-fast; till, 
upon a nearer view, I am afraid it is liable to one 
objection. Would our Poet say, season them fot* 
tubs^ and, in the very next line bring them down to 
the /ti6-discipline ? Surely, this borders a little too 
much on tautology. You set me on conjecturing 
again, and I will submit it to you, 

— — — ^— — — — season the slaves 

For ttUns and baths ', bring down the rose-cheek*d 

youth 
To th' FUB, fast, and the diet 

What \njub though? you may reasonably ask. 
Our Dictionaries, it is true, acknowledge no such 
substantive: but I presume it to mean what Ben 
Jonson has in another place called thejricace : and 
then the sense will be, bring them down to being 
rubbed with unctions j to fastingy and to your «{ief* 
drinks. The best authority I have for this guess is 
from a passage in the Alchemist (Act IV. I^ene $) 
where Subtle would play the rogue with the supposed 
Spaniard : 

— — — — ^-~— — Please yen, 
Enthratha, the chambrathra^ worthy don ; 
Where, if it please the Fates, in your bathada • 
You shall be soak'd, and stroked, and tcjb'd, and 

rub*d. 
And scrubM, and fub'd, dear don, before you gou 

Or, may it be allowed that our Author wrote ? 
— — — bring dovm the rasC'Chegk^d youth^ 
TV fub, to th' fast and diet. 

But whetheryuft, ^ov z, plump-faced cKldy be not 
in the list of cant-words^ and of too modern a stamps 
I much suspect. 

ANTOKT 



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THBOBAL0 AKD WAEBU&lOK* 499 



ANTONY AND CIO^OPATRA. . 

P. 6. There *8 beggary in the love that can be counted. 
Pauperis est ntmierare pecus. — Ovid. 
Populus numerabilis, utpote parvus. — HoR. 

P. 1 1. What our contempts do often hurl from us^ 
We wish it ours again, &c« 

Virtutem incolnmtm odimus, 
Sublatam ex oculis quierimus invidi. — Ho&« 

P. 13. Which, like the courser's hair. 

I remember, I troubled you before with a ques- 
tion on this passage. I believe I have met with out 
Author's oracle for this absurd opinion. Holinshed^ 
in bis Description of 'England, vol. I. p. 2949 has 
this remark : ** I might finally tell you, how that 
in fenny rivers* sides, if vou cut a turf, and lay 
it with the grass downwards upon the earth, in such 
Bort as the water may touch it as it passeth by, vou 
shall have a brood of eels, it would seem a wonder : 
and yet' it is believed with no less assurance of some, 
than that an horsehair laid in a pail-full of the like 
water, will in short time stir, and become a living 
creature. But sith the certainty of these things is 
rather proved by few, than the certainty of theip 
known unto many, I let it pass at this time.*' 

P. 15. — — — — Which are, or cease, . 

As you shall give th^ advices, by the fire. 
I point thus, 

. ■ cease. 

As you shall give th' advices. By the £re, &c. 

P. 16. Ob, my oblivion is a very Antony, 

And I am jtU porqotten. 
Does not the sense require^ forgetting ? i.e. for- 
getfobess itself. 

P. 21. Good FRIENDS, quoth he. 
But vrh^X, friends was Antony addressing himself 
Jto ? He v?as only speaking to Alexas. We must 

3 K 9 read 



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SO^ luimcajiTwm cw unDaATim* 

read therefore, with the first folio^ 
Good FEiEND, quoth he. 

As a little lower. 

Ail the East, say THOU^ shall call her imstress* 

Your emeodation, dear Sir, of jmms into pace, 
in this speech is very fine : but, 1 much fear, it is 
bettering Shakespeare, 

At who$e FOOT, I think, has neither relation to 
Cleopatra, nor her (brone, bat to the picaent of a 
pearl which he had sent ; and means no more than 
that at the eeauel of that present, he would enlarge 
her power witn additional kingdoms. 

IbkL Arm-gaunt steed. 

I do not know how to understand thb compound 
^nthet 

P. 22. My saHad days ! &c. 

Your observation on the pointing here is certainly 
very accurate. Yet, I believe, Shakespeare meant 
to the Editions exhibit The old Translator of Plu- 
tarch led him into the blunder : in Mark Antonyms 
life, p.98l : ^For Caesar and Pompey knew her 
when she was but a young thing, and knew not 
then what the world meant : but now* she went to 
Antonius at the age when a womatCs beauttf is at 
the prime, and she also of best judgment.^ Where- 
as in £ict, if Cleopatra was jfS years M when she 
died, she must be 20 when Caesar went to E^pt: 
and if so, I doubt not but her blood was than hot 
enough. 

Ibid. My powers are crescent, and my auguring 
hope 
Says IT will come to AffidL 

Bot of what is this rel&ttTe rr |ov e nied ? It is 
evident to me, the Poef s allusion is to the moon ,- 
and therefore, as well as for ooucchnI's sake, 1 make 
AO doubt to read. 

My POWER '8 A CRESCEI^T ■ ■■ i > ■ ■ ,. i 



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i. e. an half-moon^ and in iSat increase : aiid this 
aorts weW with 

Coming to itf FULL, 

P. 23. «$5z// Cleopatra, and soften thy wan Up. 
' By the epithet to Cleopatra^ I suspect^ wakm. 

P. 26. Could not with GRATEFUL eyes. 
First folio, graceful. 

P. 27. Thou art a soldier, only speak no more. . 

I think we should read. 

Thou art a soldier only; — speak no more. 
f • e. do not ^ou pretend to interpose your counsel 
in this affair, that are only a soldier, and action 
your talent. 

P. 92. I see it in my motion, have it not in my tongue, 
I conjecture, notion. 

So, in Hamlet, p. £17 : 

In my mind's bye, Horatio. 

And again, p. 219 : 

Give it an understanding, but no TONotTE. 

P. 33. IN-HOOP'D at odds. 

This is a term I do not know what to make of, 
through my ignorance in quail-fighting. 

^ P. 34. That time !— Oh times ! 
I would read. 

That time of times I laugh'd, &c. 

p. 38. ■ Courtiers of beauteous freedom. 

Annbny courters? 

p. 39. but that they would 

. Have BUT one man, a man. 
Sure, I think, I pointed out before to Mr. Pope 
the true reading of mis passa^, from the old folios, 
would he but have embraced it. 

but that they would 



Have one maa but a man. 
For what did they kill Csesar for, but to prevent* 
his aspiring so much above his fellow-country- 
men. ' 

P. 39. 



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509 IIXUStRATIONS OF I^ITUUTUftB. 

P. S9. ^ Be pleased to Idl ns. 

For this is from the present tww yeu kdk. 
The offers we have sent you. 

What, was Pompey to tell them the offers that 
th^ had sent to him ? Lepidus, most assuredly, 
does not talk so absurdly. 

The first folio seems to lead to a better sense, 
and therefore I will venture to r^ulate the passage 
thus, 

—--—-———— Be pleased to tell us, 
(For this is from the present,) how you take 
The offers we have sent you. 

Ibid. ■< : Know then 

I came before, &c. 

^ This whole speech is most unsufierably pointed. 

I correct thus : 

1 i — Know then, 

I came before you here a man prepared 
To take this offer : but Mark Antony 
Put me to some impatienee.«^Tbough I lose 
The praise of it by telling, you must know, 
Whei^ Csesar and your brother, &c* 

P. 42. I Ser. They have made him drink almsnlrink. 
2 Ser. As they pinch one another by the dispositioi^ 

he cries out, no more : reconciles them to his ^n^ 

treaty, and himself to the drink. 
This is very cramp and dark to me. 

P. 44. These quicksands, LepiduS| 

Keep off them, for you sink. 

I imagine it should rather be. 

Keep off them *for£ you sink. 

, P. 45. Possess it, I Ul make answer. 
I am a stranger to this phrase, . 

Ibid. The HOLDING. 

I suppose, this means, the burthen. 

P. 47a Sosiys, one of my place in Syria. 
History and the old copies read,' Sossius. 

P. 4S. 



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«nOBAU> AND WA&BUMXW. {Oj 

P. 48. thtt, without the wMob' 

A soldier and his sword grants scarce distinction. 
I do not understand this. 

P. 49. Though you be certain curious. 
First folio^ therein. 

P. 50. Believe *t till I weep too. 
I read. 

Believe *t, till I wept too. 

P. 54. Then would thou hadst a pair of chaps no 

more, and throw between them, &c. 
I do not know at all what Enobarbus is at in this 
speech* 

p. 56. The OSTENTATION of Our love ; which left un- 

shewn. 
We have an unharmonious Alexandrine here, and 
without any necessity. I read. 

The OSTENT of our love ; which left unshewn. 
So, Merchant of Venice, p. 173: 

To courtship, and such fair OSTENTS of love, &c. 
And again, p. 164 : 

Like one well studied in a sad ostent 

To please his grandam. 
And Henry V. p. 4^1 : 

Giving full trophy, signal, and o^BMT, 

Quite from himself, to God. 

P. 57. » ■' ' And the high gods 

To do you justice make his ministers. 
I read, their. 

p. 64. ^ While I strook 

The lean and wrinkled Casrius ; and *twas I 
That the mad Brutus ended. 
But why, mad 9 As Cassias was so much older 
ij^%xi Brutus, and as the epithets lean and wrinkled 
are prefixed to Cassius, 1 have suspected our Poet 
wrote, 

That the lad Brutus ended. 
Or, sure, rather than mad, MitD might better 
suit the character of Brutus. 

P. tfs. 



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5«4 itumnunovf or unEATi»B» 

P. 65. JU It tlie noni-4««r oa tb# rayrtle-kaf 

To ms great sea. 
Jlnnbn, this, t. e. the Bea, th«t tkirted one part 
of Caesar's camp. 

P. 68. Mine honesty and I begin to square ; 

Though loyalty, well held, to fools does make 
Our faith mere folly ; yet he that can endure. 
If I see any thing t>f the Poet's meaning in this 
passage, both the text and pointipg are a little de- 
pravc»L 

I would propose to read^ 

" " ' to square.-^- 

Tho' loyalty, well held, to fools does make 
Our fedth mere folly ; yet he that can endare. 
i. e. (as I have conceivra it) though loyalty, stub- 
bornly preserved to a master in his oeclioed fortunes, 
seems roily in the eyes of fools, t . e. men who bavi^ 
not honour enough to think more wisely ; yet he^ 
who can be so obstinately loyal, will make as great 
a figure on record as tl;e Conqueror. 
P. 72. By the discatterino of this pelleted storm. 
The first folio reads, pi8CAi90S]tivG. J believe^ 
we ought to correct. 

By the discandyino .* — ?- 

i. €. the melting, dissolvings 

So, p. 85 : 

' ' ' to whom 1 gave 

Their wishes, do ducanbt, tneU their sweets, fcc. 
So, Tempest, p. 33 : 

Candy'd be they^ and melt e'er they molest, ^c. 
So, Timon, p. 152: 

Will the cold brook, CANDY'i> with ioei &c. 

So much for Antony, in present. 
Pray look back, dear Sir, on this paaaage of Thnanf 
and tell me if my coi\}ectiire be worth any thing : 

P. 152. Shame not these W£BPS 

By putting on the cunning of a carper. 
I have suspected, coining, t. e. feigning, dissem- 
bling thyself to be what Aou art not. 

I have 



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TneoBukLD A«rD wakburtdn. 50j» 

I have but just tooqi to coafess the kindness of 
yours (No. 24) of the 14th instant; and to confess 
myself inviolably, dearest Sir, 

Your most affectionate and obliged humble ser^ 
vanty Lew. Theobald. 

LETTER L. 
To the Rev, Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Wyans Court, Feb. 21,1 725-30. 
I proceed with Antony and Cleopatra, where I 
left off* in my last. 

p. 73. Let our best beads know. 

That to-morrow the last of battles 
We mean to fight. 
What Editors are here for versification 1 We, 
vmst adjust, ^om the assistance of the old copies^ . 
■ let our best heads 

Know thfit to-morrow the last of many battles,, 
&c. 

P; 76. 3d Sold. Under the earth 

It SINGS well, does it not } 
Theiblio, 1^93, rectiiiSy signbs well; t. e. sig-* 
niitts, portends. 

Ibid. 'Tis the God Hercules, who loved Antony, 
Now leaves him. 

We are told that Antony boasted of descent from. 
Hetcules ; bqt wt know nothing of that God*s affec- 
tion for him. 

I think we should read, 

•Tis the God Bacchus, who, &c. 

Plutarch, speaking of this music heard in the 
pight through the city, says^ *^ And this signified 
with such as pretended to understand prodigies, that 
Pacchus, the Grod whom he had always a particular 
inclination for, and whom he studied to imitate, hadi. 

now LEFT HIM.** 

1^. 78. Eros. The Gods make this a happy day to 
Antony. 
• Ant. 



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iQ6 IIXUSntATIONS OF LIT£KATVUE* 

AfU. Would THOU and those thy sciRS bad once 
prevailed, 
To make me (ight at land. 
But we know not the least syllable of Eros's at- 
tempting to prevail with Antony to that purpose. 
There seems great reason to suspect, that the soldier 
should meet Antony and Eros^ whom he met above 
at p. GO; and that the three 6rst speeches here given 
to Eros^ should belong to that Soldier. Please to 
observe, a Soldier twice speaks in this Scene, though 
none is marked to ebter. Besides, Eros had but 
just before quitted the stage with Antony, and could 
not well know the news of Enobarbus's desertion. 

P. 80. Cssar himself has work : and our oppression 
Exceeds what we expected. 

You say it should be, opposition. But that, dear 
Sir, will not stand in the verse. I believe the text 
is right; and expound it thus: We have been pusKd 
upouy and oppressed by the enemy beyond what we 
lookM for. 

P. 81. And let the Queen know of our guests, — 
I had once corrected with you, gests; but, on 
second consideration, though it is a word very fkmi- 
liar with Spenser^ we no where else find it in our 
Poet : he always chuses feats* 
I think we should read, 

' ' know of HBR guests — 
%. €.' Antony and his G>mmanders ; for, in iht 
next page, ne says, 

Had our great palace the capacity 
To camp THIS HOST, we all would sup TOGETHXR. 
• p. 85» ■ and this pine is barked. 

That €totrtcfpfd them all. 
I a little suspect the text here : where is that anti* 
thesis betwixt barking and wertappinM? Theo- 
dbrastus, I know, and others say, if the pine be 
Topped^ it perishes : but I do not remember whether 
harking he as destructive to it. If not, perbape, we 
should read^ 

and 



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THEOBALD AMD WARBURTOK. $07 

— — . and this pine is hacked, &€• 
t. e. cut at root^ or elsewhere, so as to kill it 
As in Henry the Eighth, p. l8 : 

And though we leave it with a root, thus HACR*T| 
The air will drink the sap. 

P. 85, 86, ■ Most monster-like be shewn 

For poorest diinintUiveSy for dolts : — 

You propose doits. But I fancy that dolts is 
right ; and by diminutives and dolts^ that Cleo- 
patra means, she shall be made a sight for the most 
contemptible part of the rabble* 
So in Troilus and Cressida, 

Ah, how the poor world is pesterM with such 
WATER-FLIES, DIMINUTIVES of Nature ! 

Besides, Cleopatra, twice afterwards, talks of 
being made a spectacle to the mob, never of bein{ 
ahewn for money. 

Shall they hoist me up. 

And shew me to the shouting varlotry 
Of censuring Rome ? (p. 99.) 

And p. 104: 

Mechanick slaves 

With greasy aprons, rules, and hammers, shall 
Uplift us to the view, 

P. 86. Patient Octavia plough thy visage up 
With her prepared naib. 

• 1 know that Octavia, in several other places, is 
»tyk$d, coldy stilly demure. But is it a symptom ci 
patience to prepare our nails to scratch an enemy ? 
Prepared nails, methinks, seem to require pas-' 
9IONED Octavia. 

Ibid. ■ teach me, 

Alcides, thou mine ancestor, thy rage: — 
Let me lodge Licas on the horns o' th* moon. 
And with those hands that graspt the heaviest club 

* Subdue MY worthiest self. 

I. have either very perversely endeavoured to un- 
derstand this passage, or else it is full of absurdities 

and 



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SpQr ILLUSTftATIONS OF LmEATUKE. 

and fault Suppose/ Henniles could make Anthony 
as mad as himself, could he make him lodge Licas\ 
too on the moon? Nay, could he make him subdue 
hjiniself too, with Hercules's hands ? Then, why 
diould Antony call himself here his worthier self? 
Till you better expound it to me, I will beg leave 
to submit the following emendation : 
————— teach me, 
Alcides, thou mine ancestor, thy rage; 
Let thee lodge Lichas on the boms o* th* moon. 
And with those hands, that grasp the beaTiest club^ 
Subdue THY worthiest self — 
%. e. thy rage ; that helped thee to lodge — and to 
nbdue, jcc 
p, gg, SEAL then, and all is done. 

SboI what? I do not see that this all^ory agrees 
ait all with marr^ ^"ce, entangle^ strength. 
P. 90. The guard — how ! -^ Ob dispatch roe. 
I read, 

The guard, hoa ! — Oh dispatch me. 
As p. 91 : 

What HOA ! the Emptor's guard. The guards 
what HOA ! 

P. 92. I lay upon thy lips. 

CUo. I dare not, dear, 

Dear my Lord, pardon; I dare not. 
Lest I be taken : — * 
Please to observe what a curious hdbbling verse 
ifae third is. Then what is it, she dares not dor Kiss 
Antony. But how should she r She was above 
kxd^ in her monument; and he below on the out- 
side of it. With a very slight addition, I think I 
oan cure the whole; and have a sort of warrant from 
Plutarch for it into the baigain: 

I lay upon thy lips. Come down 
— ' — ■ I dare not 

(Dear, dear my Lord, your pardon, that I dare not) 
Lest I be taken. 
•* Hutarch** says, ^ he was carried in his men's arms 
into the entry of the monument l^otwithstanding^ 

Cleopatra 



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Cleopatra uxnUd not open the gates^ tmt eame to the 
high windows^ and oaet out certain chains and ropes. 
&c." 

P. 95. £nttr Cesar^ Agrippa^ Dolabella, am^MENAS. 

I read, MjEcekas. And in the old fblio^ where 
ever this character speaks, it is marked, M£C, 

Ibid. DoL. Caesar, I sbalL 

I think, we should certainly mark here, Exit 
Ddlahella. It is reasonable to imagine, he should 
presently go upon Caesar^s commands; so the 
speeches placed to him in the subsequent page, must 
he transferred to Agrippay or he does not speak at 
all. Besides, that he should be gone, appears from 
p. 97, where Caesar asks for him, but recollects he 
nad sent him on business. 

P. 98. Which sbftcklea accidents, and bolts up CHAiioa. 
I observe in yours, you choose to read chancs. 
But are not accident and chance^ dear Sir, a little 
too much the same? Change and accident our 
Poet loves to oppose to each other. 
Second Part of Henry IV. p. 318 : 
How CHANCES mock 

And CHANGES fill the cup of altecatioo, &c. 
Titus Andronieiis, p. 120 : 

Tbo' CHANCE ik war bath waought tliis change of 
cheer. 
And Othello, p. 399 : 

Whose solid virtue 
The shot of accident nor dart of chanos 
Could neither grau nor pierce. 
. For so I read this last passage, though the edition 
exhibit, chance. 

Ibid. Ghaa. You le^ how easily she may be sarprift'd. 
Here Channian, who is so faithful as to die with 
her mistress, by the stupidity of our Editors, is. 
made to countenance «id give directions for her 
being made prisoner: though Charmian immedi- 
ately after says, 

OAf cUopatrOy iho%aritakin^ Qiteen^ 

But 



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^10 lUUSnUTIONS OF LITUtATUKS. 

Bat we must read, 

Gall. You see how easily, &c. 
Gallus, who climbs up to the hinder windows of 
the monument, speaks it to the guard that 'attend 
him. And p. 97, when Caesar dispatches Proculeius 
to Cleopatra, he says, . 

Gallus, Go you along. 

P. 100. ' — his voice was propertied 

As all the tuned spheres, and that to friends: 
But when he meant to quail, &,c. 
The contrast, sure, betwixt the music and the 
thunder of his voice, requires, 

When that to friends : — 

P. 102. Here, my good Lord. 

Cas, You shall advise me of all, Cleopatra. 
What a mean rascal do our modern Editors make 
of Caesar, who is afraid lest Cleopatra should not 
give him in her whole inventory! But the older 
copies will help to clear him from this sordid impu* 
tation. We must read, 

You shall advise me Of all 

For Cleopatra. 
And this seems confirmed by another speech of 
jhis in ihe next page : 

For, 
We intend so to dispose you, as 
Yourself shall give us counsel. 
P. 103. Qeop. Hie thee again. 

I Ve spoke already, and it is provided, 
Go, put.it to the haste. 
Cleopatra had just whispered some directions to 
Charmian; but Charmian does not go out; why 
then should Cleopatra bid her go again ? 

I have great suspicion the text should be sGgbtly 
altered, and the speech split in this manner : 
CUo. Hie thee amain. 

Char. I 've spoke already, and it is provided^ 
Cleo. G09 put it to the haste. 

P. 105. — _-— and to conquer 

Their most absurd intents. 

As 



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THKIBALD AKD WAABURTOK. 5II 

As plausible sense as this seems^ our Poet^ I be* 
lieve, wrote, 

Their most assured intents. 
t. e. the purposes that they are most determined to 
put in practice ; make themselves most sure of ac- 
complishing. 

So Lear, p. 414 : 

And all that offer to defend hun. 
Stand in assured loss. 

P. 106. I^m fire and air; my other element^ 

I give to baser life. 
Is this right? Take fire and air away, and what 
life would there be in her other elements. I ha?e 
imagined that we should read, 
I give to baser earth — 
i. e. as we say in the service for the dead. 

Dust to dust, and ashes to ashes : 
or, as in wills, 

I give my body to the earth whence it came, 

P. 108. Dissolve thick cloud and rain, that I may say, 
The gods themselves do weep. 

Sure Mr. Pope did not take cloud and ram here 
both for substantives; and yet his pointing would 
make one imagine he did. We must correct. 

Dissolve, thick cloud, and rain, that I may say, &c. 

P. 109. ' and their story is. 

No less in pity, tban his glory, which, &c. 

This seems a little intricately expressed ; but our 
Poet means, I presume, that the compassion, which 
attends them, makes as remarkable an eclat in story, 
as the glory of the Conqueror does. 

And so ends Antony. 

I have received, dear Sir, yours (No. «5) of the 
18th instant; and wait every post vnth a sweet im* 
patience for fresh ocousion of subscribing myself^ 
dearest Sir, 

Your most afiectionat^ and ever obliged friend 
and humble servant, Lew. Theobalp. 



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^13 UXUSX1UTKWS or ttrmuTuUL 

LETTER LL 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, JVyaris Court, Feb. 24, 1 739-30. 

I now proceed to Titus Andronicas, which, but 
for a few fine lines and descriptions, I could wish 
were not in the list of Shakespeare's acknowlecfged 
, Plays. There is something so barbarous and un- 
natural in the iable, and so much trash in the dic^ 
tion, even beneath the three parts of Henry VI. that 
I am very much inclined to believe, it was not one 
of our Author's own compositions ; but only intro- 
duce by him, and honoured with some of his mas- 
terly touches. The story, I suppose, to be merely 
fictitious. Andronicus is a name of pure Greek de- 
rivation : Tamora I can find no where else men- 
tioned : nor had Rome, in the time of her Emperors, 
any wars with the Goths that I know of; not till 
after the translation of the empire, I mean, to Byr 
zantium. But, to take it with all its absurdities. 

P. 115. Victorious in MY mourning weeds. 

So I had corrected with you. 

P. 116. Sufficetb not, that we are brought to Rome 
To beautify thy triumphs, and return 
Captive to thee, and to thy Robmo yoke ? 
Return captive ? Sure, they never were captives 
before to Rome. I read, 

__^__— _ thy triumphs and return. 
Captive to thee, &c. 
P. 117. Then, Madam, stand resolved, &c. 
Is not this a little absurd, that Demetrius should 
••ay, that they survived to tremble under Tftns^s 
tfaareatening looks ; and f&a'*g^e advises his mother 
to pluck up a resolution ? 

P. 124. Upon the Thracian tyrant iir ms tent. 
I read, in her tent, i. e. the tent where she and 
the other captive Trojan women were kept : for thi- 
ther 



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THEOBALD AND WA&BUETOK. 513 

ther she by a wile decoyed Poljnne»tor, as Mr* Pope 
might have learnt from £unpides*s Hecuba ; the 
only Author, that I can at present remember^ from 
whom Shakespeare could have gleaned this circum- 
stance. 

P; 121. What villain, boy. 
I read, 

What, villain^boy. 
i. €. villainous boy. 

P. 134. After, 

That brought her for this high good turn so fskr, 
we must add, from the first folio, 

Yes, and will nobly him remunerate. 
P. 128. Upon her wit doth EARLY^honour wait, 
llie first old quarto and folio read, earthly. 

P. 130. Youngling, learn thou to make some Better 

choice. 
The old quarto and folio^ meaner. 

P. 131. Would it offend you then 

Chi. Faith, not me. 
Dem. Nor me, so I were one. 
This is verbum sat sapienti with a vengeance. 
Soth tbeseyoung gallants make their answer to Aaron, 
i^ithout ever hearing him propound his question. 
But we must supply, from the old quarto^ 

Would it offend you then 

That both should speed ? 

P. 136. I come, Semiramis. 
Certainly, 

I, come, Semiramis. 

Ibid. This minion stood upon her chastity^ 
Upon her nuptial vow^ her loyalty^ 
And with that painted HOPE she braves your 
mightiness. 
I have a great suspicion of this word Jiope; it does 
not give me any idea of the Poet's meaning ; and 
yet 1 do not know what to substitute in its room. 

P A KILLING sweat overruns my trembling limbs. 

Both the old quarto and folio read^ chilling. 
VOL. n. 2 L P. 139. 



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^14 iiwauiams ov JbiTKMTyiK. 

p. 159. ■ The doad taam't u%TmiY ch^c^s. 

I rcad» SARTHf. 

P; 142. those sweet omamentSy 

Whose circling shadows kings have sought to 

sleep in ? 
And might not gain so great an happiness, 
As HALF thy love ! 
Half her love ! But might thq^ g^in any part of 
her love ? I am persuaded vire should xead, ^ 

As HAVE thy love ! 

, P. 146. — r What accursed hand 

Hath 7710^2^ thee bi^ndless in thy father^s siGHir. 
But though Lavinia appeared haqdless in her fa- 
ther's presence, she was hardly made so in his sight. 
I suspect, 

in thy father's SPIOHT. 

i. e. in despight to thy father, to torment him. 

P. 149. Liic. Then I '11 go fetch an axe. 

Mar. But I will use the axe. ExeumU. 

We ought to supply, Exeunt Luc. and Marc. 
for the stage is not cleared: Titus and Aaron remain. 
P. 150. For why, my bowels cannot hide H£R w«es. 
I think, HOLD THEIR. 

P. 151. To weep with them that weep doth ease some 

DEAL. 

I read, dole, i. e. grief. As in Hamlet, p. 313 : 
In equal scale weighing delight and dole. 

Ibid. Ah, now no more will I controul my griefs. 

Ibid. The closing up of our most wretched eyes. 

I rtad, THY, and your. Marcus had before per- 
suaded Titus to be temperate, and restrain the excess 
of his sorrows ; but now, tmys he, e*en indulge your 
sorrows^ till they put an end to your miserable life. 

P. U9. Tell him, it was a hand that warded him 

From tbousaod dangers. 
I read, Rome; notwithstanding all the copies: 
for Andronicus*s martial exploits were all over, be- 
fore Saturninus came to the Empire ; so that his va- 

Ipur 



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THSOBALD ANP WARBURTON. ^15 

lour was emplojred for his country, and not for the 
man. 

P. 150. And 4o not break into these TWO extremes. 

This reading, by which Mr. Pope gave you the 

trouble of a very probable emendation, first obtained, 

as far as I can find, from Mr. Rowe's edition in 

l/OPv A fine authority ! All the oldest copies read, 

into these DEEP extremes: 

and this reading is certainly affirmed by Titus's reply: 
Is not my sorrow deep> having no bottom ? 
Then be my passions bottomless with them. 

P. 153. To bid JEneas tell his tale twice o*er. 
Annon potiikSy po bid, &c. Something is want- 
ing in the syntax : but it is plain our Author has the 

Suangudin ariimus meminisse horrety luctuque refugity 
of Virgil, in mind. 

P. 154. And buz lamenting doings in the air. 

I had, in my " Shakespeare Restored,'* proposed to 
read, dron^ngs. Sed nimium ii ductu literamm 
abucedit. I can now come much nearer, and think 
it should be, do lings. There is, indeed, a sort of 
tautology in the epithet, and substantive; but that 
is no new thing with our Author. 

So, in Locrine, p. 3301 (of Mr. Rowe's edition) : 
And gnash your teeth with dolorous laments. 

P. 156. Unless some fit or frenzy do possess her. 
1 read, of. 

Ibid. And would not, but in fury. 
Dr. Thirlhy had marked here, frenzy; but, 
surely, there is no occasion for a change. Our Poet 
uses the word furt/ for madness^ with the s^me 
elegance as the Latins were wont, 

Ira FUROR brevis est. — Hor. 1 Ep. ii. 62. 

p. 158. As with the woeful PEER, 

And father^ of the chaste disbonourM dame. 
I read, fhere. 

So, in Chaucer's Troilus, b. 1. st. 2 : 
A woeful wight to have a dreary phere. 

2 L 2 And 



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5l6 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

And so Lidgate in his Story of Thebes, Part I. 
This Oedipus among his playing PHERRS. 

P. 158. And see their blood, OR die with this reproach. 
But if they endeavoured to throw off the reproach, 
though they fell in the attempt, they could not be 
properly said to die with that reproach. I read, 

And see their blood, ERE die with this reproach. 

Ibid. The angry Northern wind 

Will ilaw these sands like sibyVs leaves abroad^ 
And where ^s your lesson then f 
Venim eadem verso tenuis ciim cardine ventus 
Impulit, et teneras turbavii jznvizfrondes ; 
Nunquam deinde cavo votitantia prendere saxo, 
Nee revocare situs, aui jungere camiina curat. 

Virg. JEsU. iii. 448, 

P. 1 59. But yet so just, that he will not revenge, 

Revenge the heavens for old Andronicus. • 
I read, and point thus : 

But yet so just, that he will not revenge. 

Revenge, ye heavens, for old Andronicus I 

P. 160. Here *s no sound jest. 

I read, fond. i. e. idle, foolish. 

Ibid. Here lacks but your mother to say Amen. 

the ears of these delicate Editors ! 
Euphonias gratid, we must read : 

Here lacketh but your mother to say Amen. 

P. 164. Come, Marcus, come kinsmen, this is the way. 
Ears, again ! We must either stop it thus, 

Come, Marcus, come; — Kinsmen, &c. 
Or transpose thus : 

Come, Marcus ; Kinsmen, come ; &c. 
P. 169. Enter NuNTius ^milius. 

1 wonder whether Mr. Pope has discovered any 
Roman family that had the praenomen of Nuntius. 

Shakespeare, I dare say, meant no more than. 

Enter iEmilios with news, as a messenger. 
Which sort of character, you know, dear Sir, was 
distinguished by the Greek Dramatists only by the 
title of "AyyiTio^y and NoNcius by the Latins. By 

the 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON- 51 7 

th^ way, the Editor should have given his new- 
adopted citizen, Nuntlus, a place m the Dramatis 
Personae. 

P. 173. With twenty popish tricks. 

You propose, puppy. I had guessed, apish : and 
yet, OQ tny conscience, notwithstanding the absur- 
dity, I am inclined to believe our Author wrote 
Popish. As above, at p. 122, be says: 

Sith priest and HOLY WATER are so near. 

The catholick leven seems to be fermenting in htm. 

P. 177. See, here he comes; and I must play my 

theme. 
Old quarto, meliiis, ply. 

P. 185. The villain is alive in Titus's bouse. 
And as be is, &c. 

1 read, oamn'd as he is, &c.; as afterwards, p. ^87: 

See justice done on Aaron that damn'd Moor. 

And here I have done with this damrid Play. 
Dear Macbeth lies next ; but I will not enter upon 
him here. 

To conclude therefore with an excursion or two. 

2 Henry IV. p. 3 10: 

Have we not Hiren here. 
A certain parcel of Free-masons, that are very 
zealous to have me of the order, do pretend to ex- 
plain this. They say, Shakespeare was a Free-ma- 
son, and was paying honour here to an old brother 
of their Society. They will have hipi therefore to 
read. 

Have we not Hikam here? 
z\ €. the King of Tyre, so often mentioned in Scripr 
ture, a friend to David and Solomon, in furnishing 
them with McLsonSy &c. and consequently was one 
of the fraternity. ITiey therefore imagine that Pia- 
tol here calls Sir John, Hiram ; intimating that he 
was as friendly and bounteous as that Prince is sup- 
posed upon record. I do not know what I should 
say to this, if I had once taken their oath: but 

I cannot 



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5l8 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

1 cannot say the discovery much accords with irty 
ideas on the subject. 

I will venture to give you one of more certainty. 

Twelfth Night, p. 246 : 

Why should I not, had I the heart to do % 
Like to th* Egyptian thief, at point of death. 
Kill nrhat I love i a savage jealousy, 
That sometimes savoiirs nobly. 

We were both at a loss for thispiece of history: I 
think, I have now found it. This Egyptian Thief was 
Thyomis, who was a native of Memphis, and at the 
head of a band of robbers. Theagenes and Chariclia 
falling into their hands, Thyomis fell desperately in 
love with the lady^ and would have married her. 
Soon after^ a stronger body of robbers coming down 
iipoti Thyomis's party, he was in such fears for his 
mistress tindignum ratus aliquem aUum Chariclid 
potiri], tmt he had her shut into a cave with his 
treasure : It veas customary with those barbarians, 
when they despaired rf their own solely , first to 
make away with those wJiom they held dear, and 
desired for companions in the next life. Thyomis, 
therefore, benetted round with his enemies, [prce- 
cipud dim veluti retibus hostium copiis circumdatus 
essetl^ raging with love, jealousy^ and anger, [amo- 
re verb, zdotypid et irdfurens^ went to his cave, 
and, calling aloud in the Egyptian tongue, so soon 
as he heard himself answered towards the cave's 
imouth by a Grecian, making to her by the direc- 
tion of her voice, he caught her by the hair with his 
left hand, and with his right plunged his sword into 
her breast. Heliodor. ^thiopic. lib. J. cap. 3. 

I am, dearest Sir, your most afiectionate and 
obliged humble servatit^ Lew. Th£Obau>. 



L£TT£R 



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THBOBALD AND WAXBWmTmi. 519 

LETTER Ul. 

To the Rev. Mr. WARBUEtoH. 

Dear Sir, fF^s €JMtt, Ffh. aS> 1 739"^. 
I hop^ this will find j^m in a perfeet »tate iof! 
herith^ though I have not bad the pteaaure of Imnw 
ing from you since the iSthinatatit^ in which .jrwi. 
acknowledged the receipt of two of mine, Nei 18 
and 19 ; since which I nave sent 20^ 21, 28, and 2%. 

I now proceed to Macbeth. 

P. 192. So from that spring whence comfort seemM 
to come, 
Discomfort swelled. 
The sense of this is certainly very plain, but is 
water properly said to swell from a spring ? 1 have 
guessed, discomforts welled. To tre//, you know, 
18 to rise as water does from a spring. 

So Chaucer, Troilus, book iv. verse 709 : 

Her tearis, they ganin so up to "^VelL. 
So, in his Testament of Love, p. 480, of Uny^s 
edition : 

I can no more, but here outcast of all wellfare 
abide the day of my deth, or eb to se the stvht that 
might all my wellynge sorroires voide, and of the 
flode make an ebbe. 

P. 193. I must report they were 

As cannons overcharged with double cracks, 

So they re-doubled 

I have no idea of cannons being ovei^harged with 
cracks. I would read. 

As cannons overchargM ; with double cracks 
80 they redoubled ■ 

Ibid. Norway himself, with nambers terrible, 

Assisted by that most — 
Would not the sense have been every whit as full, 
if the Poet had said, Norway assisted, as to say 
Norway himadf assisted? I tibfenfbre think there m 

a further 



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a further energy to be restored^ which has been lost 

hy the false pointing : 

Norway^ himself with uumbers terrible. 
Assisted by ■ and so more terrible. 

P. 193. Point against point, rehellious arm 'gainst arm. 

Bttt let us look back here, und see who it is that 

brings this rebellious etrm; why, it is Bellona's 

brid^^mom ; and who is he but Macbeth. I can 

ntnj l>elie¥e our Author meant any thing like tfiis. 

* I read, 

' Point against point rebellious, arm 'gainst arm-** 

And so the loyal Macbeth fought hand to hand 
against the disloyal traytor. 

P. 194. He shall live a m2s\ forbid. 

Does this mean simply, Jbrbid to sleep ? 

As in Midsummer Night's Dream, p. 95 • 

When thou wak'st, let love/orbid 

Sleep bis seat on thy eye-lid. ^ 

Or, does Jbrbid here signify, as under a curse, an 
interdiction? So, afterwards in this Play, p. 246: 

By bis own interdiction stands accurst. 
And so an outlaw, amongst the Romans, was said 
to be aqtid ^ igni interdictus. 

P. 195. The WEYWARD sisters, — 
I am sure 1 shewed you my emendation of this 
to WEIRD, i. e. wizard: so will avoid repetitions. 

P. 196. Or have we eaten of the insane root. 
Which takes the reason prisoner ? 

Jnsana radic^y soil, quee insanos reddit ; ut, Pal- 
lida Mors. Hector Boethius, giving us an account 
of Sueno*s army being intoxicated by bread and ale 
put ujx)n them by their subtle enemy, says, that 
there is a plant which grows in great quanti^ in 
Scotland, called Solatrum amentiale: that it has a 
quality of layine to sleep ; or of driving into mad- 
ness, if a more than ordinary quantity of it be taken 
in medicine. Shakespeare doubtless alludes to this 

Plant. 



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THfiOBALD AKD WARVUllTON. 521 

Plant. Theophrastus and Dioscorides also notice iL 
Dioscorides mentions the root of it, drunk in wine, to 
have these effects (as Shakespeare here does) ; and 
they all agree expressly that an exorbitant dose of it 
makes the patient fancy he sees apparitions. 

P. 197. His wanders and bis praises do contend, 

Which would be thine, or bis. Silenced with 
that, — 
This I cannot say I understand ; or what the King 
was silenced with. 

P, 198. present FEARS 

Are less than horrible imaginings. 

I remember, you change this to F£ats. I will 
tell you, dear Sir, how I had conceived it; that the 
terrors at the instant of committing an execrable 
action, do not come up to those horrid apprehen- 
sions which fill up the interval betwixt the contriving 
and executing it. Unless thus explained, to be sure, 
fears and horrible imaginings are synonymous. » It 
is an observation of MachiaveFs, that things which 
seem to be, and are not, are more feared Jar off] 
than near at hand. And in his Mandragola he 
thus expresses himself: *^ E sono molte cose, chei 
discosto paiono terribili, insopportabili, strane; & 
quando tu ti appressi loro, le riescono humane, sop- 
portabili^ domestiche. Et per6 si dice, che sono 
maggiori li spaventi, che i mali.*' Act IIL Scene xi. 

P. 199. That swiftest wind of recompense is slow. 
Folio, rectiits, wing. 

P. 200. by doing evVy thing 

Safp toward your love and honour. 
1 do not apprehend what our Poet means by saje 
here* 

• P. 203. Your face, my tbane, is as a book, where men 
May read strange matters to beguile the time« 
Look like the time. 

I thinlct verily, the wife means here that Macbeth 
looks so full of thought and solemn reflectiou upon 

the 



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525 OiLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

the purposed act, that people may comment upon 
the reason of his gloom ; and therefore desires him, 
in order to blind tfie eye of observation, to wear a 
face of pleasure and entertainment. I restore thus: 
Your face, my thane, is as a book, where men 
May read strange matters. — To beguile tbe time, 
Look like the time ; &c. 
So again, p. 20 7, Macbeth says, 

Away, and mock the TIME mih/airesi SHOW. 
And MacdufT, at p. 245> 

the TIME you may so hoodwink. 

P. 211. Balm of hurt minds, great Nature* s second 

COURSE, 

Chief nouriiher in Life's feast. 

I am so little versed in the nature of regular en- 
tertainments, that 1 do not know whether the se- 
cond course is always replenished with the most 
nourishing dishes; but I rather think, ^arf follow- 
ing made our Editors serve up this second course. 

1 think it should be, 

great Nature^s second SOURCI?. — 

t. e. we seem dead in sleep ; and by its refreshments. 
Nature, as it were, wakes to a second life. 

iP. 216. To countenance this horror, — Ring the bell. 
Lady. — JVhat ^s the business. 

MacdufT had said, at the beginning of his speech. 
Ring out the alarum bell ; but, if the bell had been 
run^ out immediately, not a word of what be says 
could have been distinguished. Ring the hell^ I 
say, is a marginal direction in the Prompter's Book, 
for him to order the bell to be rung at the minute 
that Macduff ceases speaking. In proof of this, 
please to observe, dear Sir, that the hemistich end- 
ing MacduflTs speech, and that beginning the Lady's, 
make up a complete verse. Now, if Ring theleU 
had been a part of the text, can we imagine die 
Poet would have b^n Lady Macbeth's speech 
wfthabrdken line? 

P. 217. 



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tHEOBALD ASt> WARBURTON. 5^3 

P. 217. WiSi silver skin lac'd with bis golden blood. 

For lac'd you, Sir, proposed to read, LAftu'p; 
but I am afraid, che c'est un peu plus recherche. 
By LAC*D, I am apt to imagine our Poet meant to 
deftcribe the blood running out, and difflising itself 
into little winding streams, which looked like the 
ivorh (flaccy upon the skin. 

So Cymbeline, p. 31 : 

white and azure, LAQ'd 

With blue of heav'n^s own linct. 

And Romeo and Juliet, p. 273 : 
Look, love, what envious streaks 
Do LACE the sevVing clouds in yonder East. 

Goary blood is most absurd. I know the vu%ar 
say, all of a gore-blood. But Shakespeare, \ tfiiro 
say, wrote, golden. 

So above, p. 212: 

If be BLEED, 

I Ml GILO the faces of the grooms withal 
Besides, our Poet aimed at a contrast in the tfsrms. 

SoTroilus, p. 276: 

I bad as lieve Heleh^s goldeh tongue bad com- 
mended Troilus for a copper nose. 

And ftg]Bin, p« 289 : 

I Ml hide my SILVER beard iu a GOLD beaver. 
Et alibi passim. 

P. 217. In the great hand of God I stand, and thence. 
I do not take our Poet's image here, or what lie 
ntieans by thence^ 

P. 219. Beauteous and swift, the minims of their 

race, — 
I am pretty certain all the copies err in this read- 
ing. I restore, 

— — the minions of THE race : 
!• e. excellent racers; not the best of their breed. 
Shakespeare is fond of this way of expressing him« 
self* do above, p* I92 : 

Like Valour's minion carved out bis passage. 

King 



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534 ILMJSTILATIONS OF LIT£RATI^&£. 

King Joho^ p. 26 : 

Fortune shall cull forth 

Out of one side her ha^py minion. 

First Part of Henry IV. p. i8l : 

Who is sweet Fortune's minion, and her pride. 
And again, p. 183 : 

Gentlemen of the shade, minions of the moon, &c. 

P. 221. Let ev'ry man be master of his time 
Till sev'n at night, to make society 
The sweeter welcome : we will keep ourseif 
Till supper time alone ; — 
I point it thus : 

Till sev'n at night. To make society 
The sweeter welcome, we will, &c. 
and think we do not come at the Poef s sense with- 
out this change. 

P. 224. Acquaint you with the perfect spy o* th* time^ 

The moment on *t, — 
Quidsibi vvjit^ Spy? Will it signify the very 
nicXr, crisis^ critical rninute of time} 

Ibid. for't must be done to-night, 

And something from the palace; and with him, — 
It is pity the Editors should grudge us Shake- 
speare's reason^ why this murder should be done at 
some distance from the palace, when the oldest co- 
pies furnish us with one. Restore, 

Palace ; always thought, 

That 1 REQUIRE a clearness : and with him, &c* 

You and 1 know how minutely our Poet uses to 
follow History in his circumstances; Now hear 
Holinshed (from whom he has copied this whole 
tale), in his History of Scotland, p, 172: " He willed 
therefore thq same Banquho with his son named 
Fleance to come to a supper that he had prepared 
for them, which was indeed, as he bad devised, pre- 
sent death at the hands of certain murderers, whom 
he hired to execute that deed, appointing them to 
meet with the same Banquho and his son without 
the palace^ as they returned to their lodgings^ and 

there 



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THEOBALD AKD WARBURTON. 525 

there to slea them, so that he would not have his 
house slandered, but that in time to come he might 
CLEAR HIMSELFE, if any thing were laid to his charge 
upon any suspicion that might arise'* 

P. 227. You do not give the cheer; the feast is cold 
That is not often vouched while *t is making. 

Sold, say the old books : which, in niy opinion, 
ought not to have been degraded. The Queen would 
say, that guests in no manner pay for their cheer*, 
&c. 

P. 229. Oh, these flaws and starts 

(impostors to true fear,) — 
I do not understand the tendency of this word 
here. I have guessed, importers to — i. e. that 
convey, bring in, lead to, &c. 
As below, p, 255 • 

those linen cheeks of thine 

Are COUNSELLORS to fear. 

P. 231. Why so, — BE GONE— ^ 

I am a man again. \ 

The old books read. 

Why so — BEING GONE, ' ■■ 

I am a man again. 
For Macbeth speaks this upon the ghost vanishing. 
P. 232. We 're yetiut yeun^g inpeed. 
I read, in deed; i. e. but little inured yet to 
blood and cruelty. 
So above, p. 2:i6 : 

Things bad begun make themselves strong in ill. ; 
So again, p. 258 : 
Direness, familiar to my slaughterous thoughts, 
Cannot once start me. 
3 Henry VI. p. 208 : 

Made impudent with use of evil deeds. 
Antony and Cleopatra, p. £0 : 

Not m DEED, madam, foe I can do nothia|^ 
But what indeed is honest to be done. 



* The meaiiiog is,— -That which is not gwen cheetfuUg, 
he called a giftj it if somsthiDg that must be pud for. 

JoKXtCW. 

As 



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53ff rtLusnuTiONs of uterature. 

As TtoUus, dear Sir, should, in the prdei; fill 
up a part of my next, I should be glad to know, if 

Chave yet any ways supplied the chasm of your 
k in that Play ; or whether you can supply that 
volume, or procure any other edition of ShaVespeare, 
in your neighbourhood; otherwise, I believe, it 
will be best tor me to pass on to the next Play, and 
not trouble you with qutcerenda upon it. 

I aip, dearest Sir, your most affectionate and 
obliged friend and humble servant^ Lew. Theobald. 



LETTER LIIL 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Wyatis Court, March 2y 1729-30. 
I think, I can have the satisfaction, before I pro- 
ceed on the remainder of Macbeth, to greet you 
with another discovery, as certain as that of the 
Egyptian thief killing his mistress. And it pleases 
me the more, because it clears up a passage, upon 
which we have only advanced dark and wild con- 
j^tores, and not been able to satisfy ourselves. 

S Henry IV. p. 3 10: 

Pie men like dogs ! — Give crowns like pins ! 
Have we not hiren here ? 
Pistol and Dol have been quarreling for aboFC a 
pa^ before: her broad abuses throw him into the 
height of one of his fustian passions. Falstaff had 
ordered him to <]uit the room ; and Barddf per- 
suades him to go, lest matters should rise to a 
brawl; upon which, in his drunkenness find 
vein of blustering honour, he falls into fresh rants ; 
defies the consequences of the riot ; and, clapping 
his band on his sword, cries, Let come what wili, 
have we not Hiren here? Shall I fear, that have 
.thi$ trusty and invincible sword by my side? — For, 
as the famous King Arthur s sword was called Caii- 

burne 



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THEOBALD AMp WARBURTaN, $37 

bume atii Kon; as Edward the Confessor^s (which 
to this day is carried before our Kings at their coro- 
nation) was called Curtarm; as Charlemagne's, Joy- 
euse; Orlando's, Durindana; Rinaldo's, Fusberfa; 
Rogero's, BaKsarda; so Amadis du Gaul's was called 
HmEN. — Now as this Romance was first written in 
Spanish, we may perhaps gather the reason of this 
name from that language. La Crusca explains hi- 
riendo (the gerund from hirir) en frappanl, hat' 
tendoy percotendo. From hence it seems probable 
that hiren may be derived ; and so signify a stcash- 
ingj cuttings sword. And admitting this to be the 
eclaircissement of the passage, what wonderful hu- 
mour is tliere in the good Hostess so innocently mis- 
taking Pistol's drift, fancying that he meant to fight 
for a strumpet in the house, and therefore telling hira, 
Qn my word. Captain, there 's none such here? 
tf^hat the goodjet ; do you think I would deny her 9 

And now on to Macreth. 

P. i34. The SONS of Duncan, 

From wAof7i this tyrant holds the dueofbirth^ 
Live in the English Court, and are receiv'd - 
Of the most pious Edward, &c. 

Thus I correct, in spite of these unobserving 
Editors: 

The SON of Duncan, &c. 

Lives in the English Court, and is, &c. 

And the pro6fs of the emendation are obvious. 
In the first place, Macbeth could not be said to hold 
tUe due of birth from both Duncan's sods, Th# 
auQcessioq tp the crown was the right of Malcolm : 
and Donalbaine could have no claim to it, as lon^ as 
his elder brother, or any of his issue, were in bemg. 
In thi^ next place, the sons of Duncan did not both 
shelter in the English Court. Upon the diseotery 
of their fadier's murder, the brothers thus confer tp'- 
gether : 
Malc* What will yott do? Left 's oot consort with theoi : 

To 



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5i9 ILLOSlttATlONS OF LTrtRAtUItE. 

To rfiew an uiifelt sorrow, it an office 
Which the folse nan does easy. I 'U to EvGLkHD. 
Don. To Ireland, I ; oar teparated fortune 
Shall keep us both the safer. 
A determination, it is plain, they ioiniediatetjr 
put into act, or Macbeth had very bad intelligence, 
p. £21 : 

We hear our bloody cousins are bestowed 
In England and in Ireland, 
Nor were they, together, even at the time when 
Malcolm disputed his right with Macbeth, as appears 
afterwards, from p. 254 : 

Who knows, if Donalbaine be with his brother ? 
Lcn. For certain, Sir, he is NOT. 
Besides, Hector Boethius and Holinshed (the lat- 
ter of whom our Author precisely follows) both in- 
form us, that Donalbaine remained in Ireland till 
the death of Malcolm and his Queen; and then, in> 
deed, he came over, invaded Scotland, and wrested 
the crown from one of his nephews. 

P. 237, 238. Appantion of an aimed head rises^ 
Apparition of a bloody child rises.] 
Apparition of a child crowned, with a tree in his hand, 
rises.] 
I cannot see a reason, from any circumstances in 
the story, for this particular apparatus, and furni- 
ture of these ghosts, why one should be only an 
armed head, another a bloody child, and the third 
equipped with a tree. 

P. 238. Had I three ears, I M hear thee. 
Does this mean that, had he never so many ears, 
his whole faculty of hearing should be employed r 
I remember, oiir Poet has expressed himself much 
more oddly in Hamlet, p. 269 : 

We shall obey, were she ten times our mother. * 
Which I do not very well understand. It is the 
very reverse of that easy and intelligible way of ex*- 
pressing, which we meet with in Richard the Se- 
cond, p. 164: 

Were he twenty times 
My ion, I would appeach him. 

P. 238. 



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THEOBALD AKD WAkBtfRTOK. 589 

P. 238. And mmrs upon his baby-brow the round 

And TOP of sovereignty. 
But is the Crown propa*ly tiie top of sovereignty^ 
or only the emblem and distinguishing mark of that 
high rank ? I would read, 

And TYPE of sovereignty. 
So 8 Henry VI. p. 209 : 

Thy fadier bears the type of King of Naples. 
Richard the Third, p.>s8o : 

Tbe high imperial type of tbb earth^s glory. 
Ibid. Rebellious head rise never. 
So I have corrected this passage^ with you, in my 
** Shakespeare Restored'* 

P. 239. Eight Kings appear and pass over in order, 

and Banquo last, with a glass in bis hand. 
The Editors have blundered even in this stage- 
direction. I correct thus : 

£ight KtTigs appear and pass over in order (and 
Banquo J ^ the last with a glass in his hand,"] 
For it is not Banquo that brings the glass, as is 
evident from the following speech : 

And yet the EIGHTH appears, WHO bears a glass 
Which shews me many more. 

P. 241. to leave his wife, to leave his babes. 

His mansion, and his titles. 

What is the meaning here of leaving his titles; 
that by flying he ran the hazard of being attainted, 
and so forfeiting his family honours ? 

Ibid. "Rwi float upon a wild and violent sea 

Each way, and MOVE. 
It would be something of a wonder had they 
floated and not waved. Sure this is a reading too 
flat for our Author. I read. 

Each way and wave. 
•« e. they not only float backward and forward, but 
are the sport of each distinct and particular wave ; 
ifrhich exaggerates the thought 

P. 244. I 'm young, but something 

Tou may deserve of him through me. 
VOL. n. 3 M I had 



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530 I^LU9TEATIO^S OT UTBEATURt. 

I had corrected this with you ; and brought an* 
other passage, in which^ vice versd^ the error had 
been committed upon the other word. 
The old quarto of Lear (printed 1608) : 

.. an eye deservino 

Thine honour from thy suffering, 
where the sense evidently demands discerning. 
p. 246. — — — This avarice 

Sticks deeper ; grcws with more pernicious 

root 
Than Summer-sEEMiNG Lust ; — 
I had corrected with you, dear Sir, long ago^ 
Summer-teemins ; and brought this passage in proof 
from 2 Henry VI. p. 130 : 

Now 'tis the Spring, and weeds are shaUcrW'-rdoUd^ 
Suffer 'em now, and they Ml o'ergrow the garden. 
But I have a little exception to stkhs deeper. I 
should think strikes deeper; a tree^ or plant, is 
said by the gardeners to strike, when it shoots its 
fibres out deep into the earthy and begins to feel its 
root. 

P. 247. I am yet unknown to women. 
The first folio, certainly better, woman. 

P. 250. He has no children. 

In this beautiful, short reflection, you think that 
Macduff is weighing the unequal reparation that he 
can have from Macbeth, in that the Tyrant has no 
children for him to destroy in revenge. I rather 
imagine, that Macduff is dwelling on the object of 
his distress, and reflecting that Macbeth, having no 
children, cannot feel the pangs of his sorrow^ or he 
could not have been so cruel. 

So Constantia, in King John, p. 48 : 

He talks to me, that never bad a son. 
And so Queen Margaret, in 3 Henry VI. p. 88I: 
Yon have no children, butchers ; if you bad, 
The thought of them would have stirrM up re- 
morse. 

P. 254. And many UNauPF*0 youths. 

. I restore. 



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IHBOBALD AMD WARBURT0N* 531 

I restore, unrough^ as I hinted to you upon 
King John, p» 75 : 

This U.N hair' J) sauciness. 
P. 255. I have livM long enough, my WAY of life 
Is fair II into the sear, 
t. e. I suppose, the progress of my life. 

This expression is very like one of Menander^s, in 
his Fragments, p. 250, edit. Clerici : 

p. 258. And all our yesterdays have W^ieA fools 

The way to STUDY Death. 
But, sure, it would sort better with the character 
of wise men to study how to die^ from the expe- 
rience of past times. The old copies read, dustt 
Death. I doubt not but it should be. 
The way to DUSKY Death. 
P. 259. I 'gin to be weary of the Sun. 
■ ■ ■ tsedet cceli convexa tueri. ViRG. ^n. iv. 451. 
P. 263. In the unshrinking station where he/ought, 

But like a ynan he dy*d. 
Nam fere, quem quisque vivus pugnando locum ceperat^ 
eum amissd animd corpore tegebat. Sallust. de Catilin&. 

P. 264. By the grace of heav'n 

We will perform in measure, time, and place. 
All the old copies, grace. I cannot imagine why 
Mr. Pope should have degraded a reading, which 
not only dismounts the rhyme intended, but dispos- 
sesses a mode of expression familiar with our Poet. 
So, All's Well that Ends Well, p. Ill : 
The greatest grace lending grace. 
(As the 6rst folio reads). 
So, 3 Henry VI. p. 222 : 

, And, spight of spighij needs must I rest awhile. 
Antony and Cleopatra, p. 6 : 

Now for the Iwe of love and his soft hours. 
Et alibi plurids. 

So much, dear Sir, for Macbeth. I have too little 
space left to begin on the succeeding Play; and there- 
fore will release you at once, by confessing myself, 
dearest Sir, your most affectionate and obliged friend 
and humble servant, L£w% Theobald. 

2 M 2 LETTKR 



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533 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITBRATUAE. 

LETTER LIV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, WyarCs Court, Mar. 3, 1 729-30. 

This will reach you, accompanied with another 
of mine of the same date (No. 25) in which I per- 
fected my enquiries on Macbeth. I now proceed 
on Troilus and Cressida (such part of \t, I mean^ 
as is comprized in your- imperfect book ; till I hear 
you are furnished with a better copy). 

Prologue. And corresponsive znA fulfilling bolts. 

I TtdAy Juil;fillingj i. e. bolts large enough to 
Jill up their whole staples. 

Ibid. Beginning in the middle : starting thence. 

To what may be digested in a play. 
The old folio reads, 

starting thence away, 

2ind makes a rhyme, which, I think, was designed 
by the Poet towards the close. 

To avoid the dragging Alexandrine in the first line 
of the couplet, we may read : 

'Ginning i' th' middle ; starting thence away, &c. 

Dramatis Persons. Four speaking characters are 
left out of this list ; viz. A Bastard Son of Priam ; 
Cassandra, a Prophetess, daughter of Priam ; Alex- 
ander, Cressida^s man ; Boy to Troilus. 

P. 269. I Ml unarm again. 

Why should I war without the walls of Troy, 
That find such cruel batiU here within f 
What a consonance is there betwixt this thought, 
and the Fourteenth Ode of Anacreon. 
MArm f 1^« /SonV^ 

P. 271. Beply not in bow many fathoms deep 
They lia inte£NCB'd. 

From 



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THSOBAtP AMP WARQVETON.- 53$ 

' From seteral quotetiotis in my " Shahespeare Re^ 
^twed^ I enckfivoured to prove that we ought to read 
with the %nt folip, inpkench'p^ 
P. 27 1. The cignet's down is barih, and spirit of sensk 
Hard aa tfae palm of ploughman. 
In a former of yourfi, you objected to Sfirit cf 
laTise a9 unintelltgibJe. I believe^ our Poet means 
by it^ that most exquisite sensation which -can be 
communicated by tne touch : and I am very ant to 
think the text sincere, because the Poet, speaking 
afterwards of the powers of the eye, uses the same 
expression, p. JSJ : 

Nor dotb the eye itself 

(That moat pure spirit of sense) behold itself 
Not going from itself, &c 

P. 272. And he *s as teacby to be woo*d to WOB, 

As she is stubborn, chaste, against all sute. 

I read, 

■■ >' ■ ■ wooM to WOOE, 

As she is stubborn-chaste against all suit 

P. 273. Before the sun rose, he was harnest lioht. 

I restored formerly, HARN£ss-DiGiiT, i. e. armed, 
dressed in bis armour* 

Ibid. A man, into whom Nature hath so crowded hu^ 
mours, that his valour is crushed into folly, his folly 
SAUCED with discretion. 

Considering (he words, crowded^ and crushed^ for 
the better agreement of the metaphors throughout, 
I have guessed farced. 

P. •.,.... Good-morrow, Alexander. 

I think the Editor's note here more absurd than 
the poor innocent words he would cashier. > Panda- 
rus, being of a busy, fiddling, insinuating^ charac- 
ter, it is natural for him, as soon as he has given his 
cousin the good morrow, to pay his civilities too to 
his attendant ; who, I am persuaded, is the Alex- 
ander here intended. Paris had no patent from 
any one for ingrossing the name to himself. But, 
perhaps, our Editor, l^cause we have had an Alex- 
ander 



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534 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITEItATUltE. 

ander the Great^ Pope Alexander, and Alexander 
Pope, cannot consent to have so eminent a nam^ 

f>rostituted to a common valet. It falls put very un- 
uckily, however, for his remark, that though Paris 
is, for the generality, in Homer called Alexander, 
yet in this rlay of our Author, by any one of the 
characters introduced, he is called nothing but Paris. 
P. 277. That •s true, make no question of that : two 
and fifty hairs, quoth be, and one white ; that white 
hair is the * father, and all the rest are his son*. 
I read here, and in the preceding speech, one 
and fifcy. — How else can the number make out 
Priam and his 'sons ? 

Ibid. Hark, they are coining from the field ; shall we 
stand up here, and see them as they pass towards 
Ilium ? 
This conduct of the Poet, in making Pandarus 
decypher the warriors as they pass, seems an imita- 
tion of Homer's Helen on the walls. This incident, 
you know, dear Sir, was borrowed by Euripides, in 
(lis Phoenissae ; and again copied by Statins in the 
Ninth Book of his Thebais, where he makes Phor- 
bas shew to Antigone the heads of the Theban army. 

P. 278. Cress. Will he give you the nod ? 
Pand. You shall see. 
Cress. If he do, the rich shall have more. 
I doubt not but a jest is designed in the odd con- 
clusion Cressida here makes : but, I confess, I am 
in the dark as to the allusion. 

P. 28 1 . Things won are done, the souths Joy lies in doing. 
First folio, 

joy's soul lies in the doing. 

P. 282. With due observance of thy goodly seat. 
I would read, godlike. 
So, p. 287 : 

Which is that God in oflSce, guiding men ? 

Which is the high and mighty Agamemnoli ? 

♦ Folio, 1623, reads, mt. 

P,28S* 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 535 

P. 883. Trojy yet upon His basis, had been down. 
I read, her. So, p. 285 : 

And His this fever that keeps Troy on foot, 

Not her own sinews. 

P. 28i. Quite from their fixture. 

We must read, fixure ; aJixuSy fiscura. 

Ibid. Right and wrong, 

Between whose endless jar Justice resides) 
Would lose their names, and so would Justice too. 
Est modus in rebus; suot certi denique fines, 
Quos ultrH citr^ue nequit consistere rectum. 

Hoe. 1 Sat i. 106. 
P. 286. They call this bed-work, mapp^ry, closet^war. 
I think rather, 

•— — bed-work mapp'ry, closet-war* 
As Cymbeline, p. 49 : 

A cell of ign' ranee ; travelling a-bed, &c. 

P. 289. His youth is flood ; 

I '11 pawn this truth, &c. 
First folio, rectiiiSy 

His youth in flood, 

I Ml pawn, &c. 
L e. though he be in the prime, and flood of hit 
youth, &c. 

Ibid. — — Let me touch your hand : 
To our pavilion shall I lead you first : 
Achilles shall have word, &c. 
I think the right pointing is this : 

— shall I lead you ? First, 

Achilles shall have word, &c. 

P. 290. who miscarrying, 

What heart from hence receives tlie con- 
quering part ! 
To steel a strong opinion to themselves ; 
I r^ulate thus : 

What heart from hence receives the conq'ring part. 
To steel a strong opinion to themselves ! 

P. 291. and make him fall 

His crest, that prouder than blue Iris bends. 
I do not take the Poet's image here ; why, hends ? 
That does not seem the antithesis to fall. Nor 

is 



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53$ ILLU$T&ATI0M8 OF UTERATUES. 

18 Iris ever represented with plumes to answer to 
crest. 

P. 292. Speak then, yon unsaltbd leven, speak. 

This is a reading of no age, nor authority ; but 
coined to supply the degraded whinid'st, which the 
Editors knew not what to make of. Might it not be. 

Speak then, you unwinnow'd leaven, &c. 
f. e. you leaven made of the foulest^^ most unpui^ged 
grain^ never boulted. Supra^ p. «70 : 
Ay, the boultino ; but you must tarry the leavVing. 

P. 295. There *s Ulysses, and old Nestor (whose wit 
was mouldy ere their grandsires bad nails on their 
toes.) 
This is one of these Editors' wise riddles. 
But we must read, 

E*er YOUR grandsires, 
speaking to Achilles^ Ajax^ and Patroclus. 
As ahdve, p. !28d : 

Tell him of Nestor, one that was a man, 
When Hector's grandsire suck'd. 

P. 296. After so many hours> lives, speeches spent 
Armbny years. 

That after sev'n years siege^ yet Troy wails 
stand; p. 281. 

Ibid. Weigh you the worth and honour of a king 

(So grreat is our dread father) in a scale, &c. 
What wonderful news Troilus is here made to tell 
his elder brethren, that their father is a king ! 
But we must restore^ with the old folio^ 
■ and honour of a king 

So great as our dread father^ in a scale, &c. 

P. 297. To make the service greater than the oops* 

Folio, rectiksy God. 

P. 299. Virgins and bin/s^ mid-age and wrinkled old. 

Soft infancy. 
As all the re^are substantives, I think^ this should 
rather be, eld, u e. elders, old folks. 
As, Merry Wives, p. 277 : 

The superstitious idle-beaded fiLD. 

P. 293. 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTOV. $37 

P. 399. Now, YOUTH Troilas, do not the high strains. 

harmony of versification ! But we must restore 
with the old copies. 

Now, YOUTHFUL Troilus. 

P. 300. Paris and Troilus, you have both said wcU: 
And on the cause. 

1 read. 

But on the cause : 
t. e. they have spoken well in general ; but glossed 
but very superficially on the particular point in 
question. 

P. 301. After 

I was advertisM, their great gen'ral slept, 
the old folios add. 

While emulation in the army crept. 

P. 304. And war and lechery confound all ! 

Here we must add, Exit Thersites. 

Ibid. He sent our messengers. 
I read. 

We sent our messengers. 
Supra, p. 289 : 

Achilles shall have word of this intent ; 

So shall each lord of Greece from tent to tent. 
Or, 

He SHENT our messengers. 
t. e. rated, contemned. As in Antony, p. 2^: 

You did pocket up my letters, and with taunts 

Did GIBE my missive out of audience. 
P. 308. I will knead him, &c. 
This I had long ago placed to Ulysses. 

P. 309. What musick is this ? 

Serv. I do partly know, Sir: it is musick in parts. 
The first folio reads, 

I do BUT partly know, &c. 

P. 312. Fond. What says my sweet queen ? 

My cousin will fall out with you. 
Dr. Thirlby gives us this remark : Pandarus must 
be supposed to have forgot himself, if he speaks this 

• 1 thint the latter branch of the 

sentence 



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538 1LLU8TRAT10K8 OF LITEllATURB. 

sentence should be spoken by Paris. But Shake- 
speare has himself hinted^ that Pandarus and Paris 
are cousins. 

P. 312. I '11 lay my life, with my disposer Cressida. 

I cannot conceive, upon what account Paris it 
made to call Cressida his disposer; or what the term 
can mean here. 

Ibid. My niece is horribly in love with a thing you 
have, sweet queen. 

Is Pandarus throwing a wanton slur upon his 
niece; and hinting that she sadly wanted such a man 
bedfellow as Helen had in Paris? 

And now, dear Sir, I am come to the place where 
the hiatus in your book begins : unless I hear that 
the imperfection is supplied to you, my next must 
proceed at p. 337. 

I am, dearest Sir, your most affectionate and 
obi iged friend and hu mble servant^ Lew. Theobald. 

LETTER LV. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Wyatis Courts Mar. 6, 1729-30. 

I have received the pleasure of yours (No. 17) of 
the 2d instant. Before this shall reach you, you will 
have received an explanation of Hiren (in my No. 
2ff) that, I think, will admit it no longer to remain 
a mystery. I have likewise ventured to proceed to 
those parts of Troilus that precede the chasm in 
your book : and will now resume them from that 
page where your book begins again to be perfect. 

I will only take notice of one intermediate passage 
as an imitation. 

P. 319. To be wise and hoe. 

Exceeds man's might, and dwells with gods 
above. 
Aniare et sapere vix Deo conceditur. — Sed malim, 
DEIS soil, ethnicis : ut obiter annotare licet. 

P. 331. 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTOK. 539. 

P. 338. Troi. No remedy. When shall we see again ? 
Hear me, my love ; be thou but true of heart. 

In the first place, the Editors have left out a verse 
which we must supply from the old folios; in the 
next place it is evident from the second verse here, 
and the close of Troilus's subsequent speech, that, 
when shall we see again ? is none of his question. 

I restore thu9 ; 
Troil. No remedy. 
Cress. A woeful Cressid* mongst the merry Greeks! 

When shall we see again ? 
TroU, Hear me, my love : be thou, &c. 

This is perfectly in character for Cressida; so 
Imogen, when her husband is on the point of going 
into his banishment : Cymbeline, p. 9 : 

O the gods 1 

When shall we see again ? 

Ibid. Hear while I speak it, love. 
Read, with the first folio, 
Hear, why I speak it, love. 

Ibid. A kind of GODLY jealousy. 

Our Poet, by this epithet, seems to have had in 
view 2 Corinthians, xi. 2 : " For I am jealous over 
you with a godly jealousy .** 

P. 340. To SHAME the seal of my petition towards thee 

By praising her. 
I am far from clear in the meaning of this phrase. 

P. 341. Here art thou in appointment fresh and fair. 
Anticipating time. With starting courage, 
I chuse to read. 

Anticipating time with starting courage. 

P. 343. AcH. *Ti8 done like Hector, BUT securely done, 

A little proudly, and great deal misprizing 

The knight opposed. 

I cannot imagine why it should be inferred, when 

Hector is iodifierent whether the combat was to be 

only a breathing, or carried to extremity, that this 

concession 



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540 ILLUSTRATIONS OF UTERATUR£. 

concession is securely made* in him. Besides^ Aga- 
memnon and iEneas were discoursing on this point, 
and it seems necessary for Agamemnon to make the 
reply ; and then it is very suitable to Achilles, in the 
displeasure he had of Ajax being allotted to the 
combat, to give an invidious turn to it. I would 
regulate it thus : 

AcHiL. 'Tis done like Hector. 

Agam. But securely done. 

' AcHiL. A little proudly, &c. 

Or, thus, 

Agam. *Ti8 done like Hector : not securely done. 
AcHiL. A little proudly. 

f. e. when Agamemnon has gallantly confessed, it 
IS done like Hector, and without any regard to the 
hazard : it is natural for Achilles to reply ; " What 
though it is not securely done ? yet it is proudly 
done, and with contempt to his opponent."* 

P. 345. Not Neoptolemus so mirable, &c. 

We agreed, I remember, that Shakespeare must 
have forgot the truth of the story, in this mention 
of Neoptolemus. But looking into an old Treatise, 
(printed by Wjmkyn de Worde, anno 1503, called the 
Recyles and Sieges of Troy) I find there that among 
the list of the warriors, that came with Agamemnon 
before Troy, Neoptolemus is mentioned ; without 
any notice of his being the son of Achilles, or of 
his not coming to the war till after his Other's death. 
(And the spurious Dares Phrygius has committed 
the very same fault.) And to this old Treatise it is, 
(and not to Lollius, or Chaucer, as the Editors ima- 
gine,) that our Author owes his subject ; for hence 
only he could derive the name of Hector's horse, 
Gafathe; Troilus's horse being taken by Diomede; 
and several other circumstances that I could parti- 
cularize. 

P. $49. The gcnVal state, I fear,, 

Can scarce intreat you TO be odd with him. 

Does 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 541 

Does Ajax mean that Achilles has so little regard 
#or the common canse^ that he will hardly be pre- 
vitled upon to fight with Hector ? or must we read^ 

— ^— — Not be odd with him. 
t. e. the general posture of our afiairs is so bad^ tfiat 
they can scarce persuade yoa not to engi^ against 
Hector. Sed minus placet. 

, P. 850. How now, thou core of envy ? 
Tbou crusty batch of Nature. 

I read, botch. So, above, p. it02 : 
Were not that a BOTCHY cfn-e f 

Ibid. Well said, adveisity. 

If the text be right here, as I am afraid it is, this 
is a very singular use of the word. The meaning 
should be, well said, cross-purposes : but that ad^ 
versity ever before signified this, I hardly can ima- 
gine. 

P. 351. Take, and take again such pr^j/^roM* 

discoveries.? 
What discoveries ? Does Thersites allude to the 
invention of unnatural lewdness ? 

P. 353. UJt/ss, Sbe will sing to any man at first sight 

TAers. And any man may sing to her, if he 

can take her c^; she 's noted. 

Should not this be, may sikg her, i. e. make 

music of her, play upon her, &c. so cliff and noted 

teem to require. 

P. 356. And gives memorial dainty kisses to it : 
As I kiss thee. 
Dio. Nay, do not snatch it from me. 
Cress. He that takes that, must take my heart withal. 

I cannot think all is sound here. Can Diomedt 
say, naiff dorit snatch it from me, when it appears 
that Cressida had it some time before ? 

Cress. It is no matter, now I have H again. 
I conjecture thus : 

And gives memorial dainty kisses to it 
Dig. As I kiss thee. 

[Diomede kissing her, qfers to snatch it. 

Cress. 



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54S ILtUSTEATIONS OF LtTERATUEC. 

Cress. Nay, do oot snatch it frooi me : 

He that takes that, must take my heart witbtL 
P. 357. That doth invert that test of eyes and ean« 

I think, TH* ATTEST. 

Ibid. If there be rule in unittf itself. 
This, indeed, I do not understand. 

P. 360. ■ It were as lawful 

For us to count we give what*s gainM by thefts. 
And rob in the behalf of charity. 
I do not clearly apprehend how this inference 
tallies with the beginning of Andromache's argu- 
ment. The text varies in the old folio, and makes 
It still more perplexed : 

_ — \ — It is as lawful : 

For we would count g^ive much to as violent thefts, 
And rob, &c. 

Ibid. Let go thy sinews. 
First folio, melii^. 

Let GROW thy sinews. 
Ibid. When many times the captive Grecians fall. 
I think rather, caitiff. ' 

P. 363. Hence, brothel^ lacquy ? 

The Editors here make Troilus call Pandanis 
brothel; which is absurd. But we must read. 

Hence, brothel-lacquy ! 
f. e. thou base attendant on a brothel. 

Ibid. O' th* other side the policy of those crafty 
SWEARING rascals. 

But why swearing ? What did Nestor and Ulys- 
ses swear 9 I make no doubt it should be, sneee- 
ING rascals ;. i. e. thev had collogued with Ajax, and 
trimmed him up with praises, in order to have stir- 
red Achilles's emulation ; but their policy in this 
was disappointed. 

P. 367. Achil, Now do I see thee : have at thee. Hec- 
tor. 
Hect. Pause, if thou wilt. 
Achil. I do disdain thy courtesy, proud Trojan. 

I cannot 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 543 

I cannot understand what our Poet means here : 
Achilles is upon the point of attacking Hector ; 
Hector bids him take breath ; Achilles will not ac- 
cept of the courtesy ; yet pretends to be restive, and 
leaves Hector with a threat that he will be up with 
him anon. 

P. 568. One bear will not bite another. 
— — Savis inter se convenit ursis. — ^JuvEN. 

P. 369. Thedragonwingofnighto'erspreadstheearth; 
And, stickler-like, the armies separate. 

But, with the Ekiitors' permissions, we must read, 
SEPARATES. Night is the stickler ^ that puts an end 
to the engagement, and separates the armies. I am 
apt to think Mr. Pope did not know the word, or 
the office of the person intended by it. The French 
call these gentry moyenneursy arbitres, personnes 
interposSes. They were called sticklers at first, I 
presume^ at our bear-gardens ; but they are now so 
genteel as to call them seconds. 

And now, dear Sir, I have ran through those 

rirts of Troilus which are contained in your book: 
will beg leave to fill up the little space left with 
three or four queries, drawn from those pages that 
are wanting with you, in the answering of which 
you will have no necessity of referring to the text 

p. 319. True swains in love shall in the world to come 
Approve their truths by Troilus ; when their 

rhymes, 
Full of protest, of oath, and big compare 
Want similies ; truth tir'd with iteratipn. 
As true as steel, as planets to the moon, 
As sun to-day, &c. 

The old copies read, 

As PLANTAGE to the moon. 

1 am at a loss to know which is the right reading. 
3. hare not Astronomy enough to know, how far the 
planets may be said to be true to the moon : on the 
other hand, I have a notion, from Almanacks, &c. 

that 



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S44 TLLUSTRATIONS OF LlT£RATUItE. 

that there is a direction for plantings and setting 
particular herbs^ at a certain period of the moon. 

P. 321. Calch. NoWy princes, for the serrice I have 
doDe you, 
Th^ advantage of the time prompts me aloud 
To call for recompence. Appear it to your 

mind. 
That, thro^ the sight I bear in things to come, 
I have abandonM Troy, left my possessions, 
Incurred a traitor's name ; erpos'd myself 
From certain and possessed conveniences. 
To doubtful fortunes, &c. 
Calchas is here pressing for some reward from the 
Grecian Princes, for his having come over to them : 
but does it in any kind add to his merit with them, 
to say, gentlemen, by my prescience I found my 
country must be subdued and ruined, and therefore 
I have leflt house and home in time, to coiifte and 
serve you ? — Is not this odd ? 

Ibid. but this Antenor, 

I know, is such a wrest in their affairs, 
That their negotiations all must slack 
Wanting his manage. 

Should it not be, such a rest ; i. e. a stay, a prop ? 

P. 333. Ha, ha ! alas, poor wretch : a poor chipochu, 
hast not slept to night ? 

Pandarus says this to his niece, after she had made 
wanton the night with Troilus, as our Author ex- 
presses it in Othello. But I can find no such term 
as chipochia. I suspect, it should be, a poor capoo 
CHIA ; t. e. poor fool ; capocchio, h. capocchione, sig- 
nify, balordo : lourdaut, t£te sans cervelle; or^ as 
the Spaniards say, cabeca sin seso. 

I have now done with the Seventh Volume : and 
Cymbeline, I think, we have on both sides fully 
canvassed : so that my next must be upon Romeo. 

I am, dearest Sir, your most aflectionate and 
obliged friend and humble servant, 

Lxw. Trbobaud. 

ULTTXa 



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t'HtOBALD AND WARBURTON. 545 



LETTER LVf. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburto^. 

Dear Sir, H^yan's Court, Mar. 7, 17-29-30. 

I now proceed to Konieo^ the plot of which, ouf 
modern Editors tell us^ is taken from a Novel of Ban- 
dello. It is true, he wrote a Novel on this subject: 
but the distresses of Romeo and Juliet are no ficti-» 
tioiis tale. Girolamo da Corte, in his " History of 
Verona," gives us their story with all its particulars. 
It happened about the beginning of the fourteenth 
century : and the Historian calls our young lover 
Romeo IVJontecchi, and his mistress Julietta Capello. 
Our Shakespeare (according to custom) varies very 
little, either in his names, characters, or other cir- 
cumstances, from truth and matter of fact. 

To shew how recent the memory of this tracrieal 
story is still among the Veronese (as far as a Tra- 
veller may be depended on) it may not be unentec- 
taining to you^ if I transcribe a passage from Captain 
BrevaVs "Travels into Italy.** '* As I was surveying 
the churches (says he) and other religious places 
about Verona^ my Guide (or as the Italians call him^ 
my Giceranejy made me take notice of an old build- 
ing, which had been formerly a Nunnery, but was 
converted into an House for Orphans about an hun- 
dred years since. The substance of what I could 
gather from him concerning it was this : that, at the 
time when the alteration was making, in the pulling 
down of a wall, the workmen happened to break 
down an old tomb, in which there were found two 
coffins, which, by the inscription yet legible uppn 
the stone, appeared to contain the bodies of a young 
couple, that had come by their death in a very tra- 
gical manner about three centuries before. The 
gentleman, it seems, was the most accomplished ca- 
valier in all respects; as, on th^ other hand^ the 

VOL. II. ^ N lady 



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546 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LirUUTURE. 

iady was the most celebrated of her sex, both for 
virtue and beauty, in Verona. But, as their marriage 
was kept private, upon the account of an inveterate 
enmity between their houses (which were the noblest, 
as well as most powerful^ in that great city), a kins- 
man of the bride's attacked the bridegroom one day 
in the open street, sword in hand, and had the mis« 
fortune to be left dead by him upon the snot. This 
immediately alarnled all the lady's friends and rela* 
tions; and they pursued the unhappy offender, who 
bad withdrawn nimself from justice into a neigh- 
bouring state (for the laws against duels were ex* 
ceedingly severe) with all the warmth and rigour 
imagioable, iasomuch that they obtained of the Po* 
destii a sentence of perpetual banishment against 
him, under pain of losing his bead if he ever ap* 
peaned more within the walls of Verona. The se- 
paration, which was the unavoidable consequence of 
this sad accident, was a thunderclap to each of our 
young lovers : and the lady (whose marriage, as I 
nave said before, was a secret) being persecuted by 
her parents, who had then a mind to bestow her 
upon a very rich Nobleman that was desperately in 
love with her, found no other way to extricate her- 
self out of this difficulty, but by taking a dose of 
poison, which put an end to her life ; and she was 
buried privately, according to the custom of thoee 
times, m a great stone-chest, which lay close to the 
wall of that Monastery, so that the body might be 
come at with ease. A few days after this had beea 
done, her husband (whom these sad tidings had 
reached in his banishment) posted away to Verona 
in disguise, came to see her by -inght, broke off the 
lid, and the next morning was found dead, run 
through with his own poinard, close by liis beloved 
wife, and with his arms embracing her corpse. We 
may easily suppose how great a noise this tragedy 
made, not only in Verona, but all throughout Italy : 
and the lady's parents were so touched with remorse 

and 



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THCeBAtI> AND WARBUETOV- 54? 

md com])a88ion upon it, that they ordered both the 
bodies to be deposited in one tomb; where the 
workmen having discovered them, as 1 have said, 
three hundred years after, all the city flocked to see 
what was left of two such extraordinary persons. — 
This account, that I had from my Cicerone, imme- 
diately called to my mind the celebrated story of 
Romeo and Juliet, which is the subject of one of tl^ 
finest pieces of Shakespeare, fitc.** 

I designed this, dear Sir, for your entertainment ; 
of which if it fails, I am to beg pardon for so long 
an abuse of your patience. I am willing to believe 
Captain Breval did not invent this narrative from 
the story of the Play ; because he has left untouched 
the whole affair of the Confessor, the sleeping po- 
tion given instead of the poison, the statues erected 
in memory of Romeo and Juliet, and several other 
particulars, that are in our Poet, and borrowed by him 
from the Novel of Bandello. Now to the Play itself: 

P. 121, A troubled mind drewmefrovi company. 

Your conjecture of cakofy is most ingenious, and 
absolutely necessary, were we to retain the reading 
of these modem Editors. But the old quartos and 
the two first folios all concur in reading, 

BRAVE ME TQ WAI^C ABftOAt). 

P. 124. *— — : — only poor, 

Tbat when she dies, with beauty dies her siore. 
I do not clearly understand this. I think Romeo's 
next speech rather requires, 

■ ' witb ber di^s Wauty's store. 

P. 127. . '■ let there be weighed 

Your ladtfs ^z^cf agaiost ^ome other 'H^id. 
I read^ 

Your lady-^Uwe agaiost, &c. 

P. 130. But no more deep will J enoaoe mine eye, 

Than your consent giveft strength to make it 

All the old books read, endart, which the meta- 
phor in the next verse seems to demand. 

2 N2 P. 131. 



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548 ILLUlSTRATIOKS OF UTERATUHE. 

P. 1 3 1 . Tut, dun's the moQse, the constable's 6wn word. 
This is a perfect riddle to me. 
P. 132. Of HEALtas five fathom deep. 
Dr. Thirlby conjectures, DfiLV£8, i. e. pits, ditched, 
trenches. But, with submission. I think the text 
right ; and alludes to drinking deep to their mis^ 
tresses' healths. I find the like expression in West- 
ward-hoe, Act V. Scene 1 : 

Troth, Sir, my master and SirGoslin are guzsilingi 
they are dabbling together fathom deep: tb& 
knight has drunk so much health to the gentleman 
yonder on bis knees, that be has almost lost the use 
of bis legs. 

p. 140. ^ for thou art 

As glorious to this night, being o'er my bead. 
I think> the simile rather requires^ to this sight^ 
fVe. to my eyes* 

P.- 142. -^— — ^ — -^ at loters* perjuries 

They say Jove laughs. 
Jupiter ex alto perjuria ridet amantum. 
Ovid. De Art. Amand. 1. 635. et Tibull. lib. iii. cleg. T,. 

They had likewise, you know, a Greek proverb 
to the same effect. Hesychius, in 'A^^oSierio^ o^op, 
takes notice of a circumstance that I can neither re- 
collect, nor trace: that Hesiod first feigned ih^tJovc 
and lo swore to each other; tsrpcSro^ Sf *Ho-i#8o^ 
iw'Kous't res «r«pl roy A/a, Kcti tijv *\m ^. 

P. 145. In plants, herbs, STONES, and their true qua^ 

lilies. 

For nought so vile, that on the earth doth live. 

But do stones live on the earth, or live at all ? 

As the whole speech seems to relate to vegetation^ I 

suspect, either stems^ or flowers^ 

P. 153. Jtomeo. Ay, nurse, what of that? Both with an R. 
Nurse. Ah mocker ! that 's the dog^s name. 
B. is for the no, &c. 
This odd stujff of the Nurse*», for my hearty I do 
liot know ivhat to make of/ 

P, L59. 



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THEOBALD AND VfARWKTOK. 549 

P. 159. Alla stucatho carries it away. 
I think, we must restore, ah ! la stoccata, &c. 
i e. the name of a pass in fencing. 

P. 164. Say thou but ay ; 

And that bare vowel ay shall poison more. 
I question whether the Grammjarians will take this 
new vowel on trust from Mr. Pope, without aua^ 
pecting it rather for a diphthong. 
I read, with the old books : 

— — — Say thou but, /; 

And that bare vowjel, /shall, &c. 

P. 165. Ravenous dove, featherM raven, 

Wolvish-rav'ning lamb. 
These two noble hemistichs, I dare answer, are 
not genuine. Th^ first, ravenoiis^ I take to be blun- 
dered out of raven apd rpv'ning, which follow : and, 
throwing it put, I will venture tp restore one fine 
verse : 

Dove-feather'd raven, wolvish-^rav'ning lamb ! 

P. 182. After 

Like death, when he shuts up the day of life, 

we must restore the two following lines from the old 

copies. 

Each part, deprived of supple government. 
Shall stiff, and stark, and cold, appear like death. 

Ibid. After 

Shall Romeo bear (hee hence to Mantua, 
we must likewise restore this very necessary line. 

And this shall free thee from this present shame. 

P. 186. After 

To whose foul mouth no healthsome air breathes in, 
all the old copies add. 

And there die strangled e'er my Romeo comes? 

P. 189. Oh, peace for shame 

All the old copies read, 

Peace ho for shame, confusions : care lives not 
In these confusions. 
It is certain they are a little corrupt, but I think 
I (Can set them right : 

Peac0, 



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550 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

Peace, ho ! for shame. Confusioo^s cure lives not 
In these confusions. 

But there are about a dozen lines more in this 
speech, that our Editor has thought fit to leave out ; 
which, though not fine ones, yet contain very good 
doctrine, and are vastly in character for the Friar. 
After 

now heav'n hatb all. 

And all the better is it for tbe maid. 

Your part in her you could not keep from death ; 

But heav-Q keeps his part in eternal life. 

The most you sought was her promotion ; 

For 'twas your heaven she should be advanced*. 

And weep you now, seeing she is advanced 

Above the clouds, as high as heav'n itself? 

Oh ! in this love you love your child so ill, 

That you tun mad, seeing that she is well. 

She 's not well married, that lives married long ; 

But she 's best married, thai dies fnarried young ♦. 

P. 195. Enter Romeo, and Peter with a light 
Here all the Editors, I think, blunder. I make 
no doubt but it should be^ Balthazar. Vide su- 
pra, p. 191: 

, How now, Balthazar ? 

Dost thou not bring me lelters from the Friar r 
And then Balthazar opens to Komeo the tidings 
of his lady's death. And yet, at p. 20S, Peter is 
made to say : 

I brought my master ^ews of Juliet's death. 

And then in post he came from Mantua 

To this same place, to this same monument, &c. 

which makes it plain that Pe/er must be changed 
to Balthazar. The source of this blunder seems 
easy to be accounted for. Peter's character ending 
at the Fourth Act, it is very probable the same per- 
son might play Balthazar ; and so be quoted on in 
the Prompter's book, as Peter. 

* Perhaps, " dies unmarried young.*' 

p. 197- 



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THEOBALD AND WAftBURTON. 551 

P. 197, After 

I '11 bury thee in this triumphant grave, 

the Editor has left out a few lines, that, io my opi- 
nion, by no means ought to be lost : 

A grave ! — O no, a lanthorn, slaughter^ youth : 
For here lies Juliet ; and her beauty makes 
This vault a feasting presence full of light. 
Death, lie thou there, by a dead man interred ! 
How oft, when men are at the point of death. 
Have they been merry ! which their keepers call 
A lio htning before death :«— O, how may I 
Call this a lightning ? 

And so much for Romeo. 

You will herewith, dearest Sir, of the same date, 
receive No. 27, from 

Yourjnost affectionate and obliged friend and ser- 
vant, Lew. Theobald. 



LETTER LVII. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, WyarCs Court ^ Mar. 10, 1 729-30. 
Though the present (which I venture to trouble 
you with) is not immediately to the affairs of Shake- 
speare, yet it has a reference, as you will find, by 
the scheme I am upon. As it is necessary I should 
now inform the publick, that 1 mean to attempt to 
give them an Edition of that Poet's text, together with 
my corrections, I have concluded to give this notice, 
not only by advertisements, but by an occasional 
pamphlet, which, in order to retaliate some of our 
Editor's kindnesses to me, I mean to call, An Essay 
upon Mr. Papers Judgment , extracted from Ms own 
fForhs; and humbly addressed to him. In this, as 
I have determined not to confine myself to his 
Shakespeare, but to some Criticisms that he has 

made. 



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552^ ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITKttATURE. 

made, and some that be might have made, upon Ho* 
mer; I take the hberty to send you the following ex- 
tract for your judgment ; and will second it with some 
others of the same, if I have the pleasure of your en- 
couragement to do it. I only premise, that my diffi- 
dence of my own stren^h, and my conviction of 
yours, makes me very desirous to be safe before I ven- 
ture to launch out too far. — Vestigia nulla retrorsi^m. 
****** Now, when you have made so very un- 
happy a figure in Criticisms started upon us by you ex 
mero motu; it may be unreasonable, perhaps, to hint 
at a passage, upon the correction of which you might 
have built some little reputation of learning and sa* 
gacity. But I have promised to go through my in- 
stances ; and so you must be content to stand the 
test of them, 

" You have, dear Sir, out of your extraordinary 
tenderness to my fame, dignified me with the title 
of a word-catcher. Permit me then to acquaint you, 
and so you may at your best leisure acquaint the 
world, that I have been so fond as to exercise this 
ofliice in some other languages besides English, 
Nay, I have been so impudent as to suspect that 
Eustatbius sometimes wants restoring^ where he has 
never before, that I know, been suspected to be 
faulty. And upon this score, I most heartily con- 
gratulate with you, that you have not done yourself 
the discredit of attempting to see an error in him ; 
and I as heartily congratulate myself, that the dis- 
credit of curing him has been reserved for me by 
i^ou, and others the less learned Editors, or Trans- 
ators, of Homer. 

" AstheEpisodeof 'iliersites has been pretty much 
bandied about during o\xr gpodvatvred controversy, 
'and you may have had some reason to look back to 
this part, and the Commentaries upon it, I will 
chusetogive you an instance at present, wherein, 
by niy art of toord'Cqtching, I will endeavour to 

prove. 



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THEOBALD AND WARBURTON. 533 

prove, that the Editors of Eustathius have abused 
nim by obtruding a eonmient, which the good 
Bishop had not the least intention of making, with 
regard to Thersites. Thus then our Commentator, 
as the present copies^xbibit him, * KoyjxcoSalvp^yyo^, 
KATA'PPinTEr Toy 0f/xriri3V which' the learned 
Gisbert Cuper -f- having occasion to quote, has thus 
translated : " Comic6 scribens d£J1cit Thersitem.** 
This 1 ranstator certainly understood his Author to 
mean^ that Homer, writing in the comic strain, 
THROWS down Thersites. But, dear Sir, do not 
you and I know this to be false in fact? Neither 
Homer meant to throw dotrni Thersites : nor even 
does he make Ulysses, who had a stroke at him, 
knock him down. That Hero, indeed, struck him 
across the shoulders with Agamemnon's sceptre so 
smartly, that Thersites cowred, and writhed him- 
self with pain ; and had a bump on his back 
raised with the blow. But, if Thersites was not 
knocked down, what shall we do in this case? It 
is confessed on all hands, that xarop/iiTTfiv is to be 
translated dejicere^ jrrojicere^ prosternere: and 
Cuper's version therefore is not to be found fault 
witn. As I said at first, the fault is in the printed 
copies of Eustathius; and I will make bold, only by 
the change of a single letter, to restore to you his 
genuine words and meaning. It is evident to me, 
that Elustathius wrote and meant thus: KcuppSrov 
/x^v yflkp, KATA'FPA'nTEI rlv ©sjeriVijv which I 
would thus translate: Comcedum auUm agenSy 
rPoeta] Thersitem [operi suo] asmit. [vel^ i n^eri/.] 
I. e. The Poet, assuming the comic character, in- 
terweaves the Episode of Thersites. And what 
think you now, Mr. Pope? Did your Eustathius 
need restoring, or are you obstinate for retaining the 
old reading? If you do not care to be a convert 
^innply on the evidence of good sense, it is an old 
trick with us word-catchers to try whether we can- 

* Romae, p. 208. Bas. p. 196. f In Hoqaeii Apothcos. p. 79. 

not 



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554 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

not reinforce what is advanced by some authority. 
Now my emendation seems to be not a little con- 
Ormtd by another passage of Eustathius, about forty 
p?ges higher, concerning this very Thei-sites*: slra 
AIASKETA'ZflN tov Xoyov crp^ to ysXowSfj xal 
xiofJLixairtpov^ Sro) AIArPA'4>EI ra xari tov &ip(ri'^ 
n^r i. e. the Poet, then adapting bis matter to ridicule 
and the comic, thus paints out what relates to Theli- 
tes. For is not this in other words as much as to say, 
that the Episode of Thersites isintenvoven to diversify 
the grandeur of his subject by a comic incident? But, 
if this confirmation does not sufficiently strike you, it 
shall still farther be strengthened by our Authors 
words, immediately preceding the passage before us 
in question . A nd we word-catchers. Sir, are a strange 
species of animals, that love to go thorough -stitch 
with every thing we once take in hand ; and where 
we start an error in one Author, and find another 
Author blundering upon that Author, we cannot 
rest till we set both right with the same labour. 
I must beg your pardon for the necessity of troublhig 
you with too many crooked Letters; but some Read- 
ers, perhaps, may not be disgusted with a Greek 
quotation or two. 

I have hinted, that the learned Cuper bad quoted 
this passage from Eustathius ; I will now shew you 
manifestly that Eustathius is not more grievously 
injured by his Editors in the passage that I have al- 
r^y corrected, than he is by the misinterpretation 
of Cuper in one part of the following quotation -f- : 
T^yixo) h\, TO tTifJiVoripov' 6^5tf-j yaq ra^ rw mpay^ 
ILOLTcov mipiirsreioLg. xoijxixoi 82^, to <Xar7oy* OuSIp yap 
i^pwixlv fsap avToig' aXXk X^P^^ yi>Myro§ *ETTE- 
AEI'AS ^ KwiMo^ia $-o;^a^ffrai, raSra Si crarra zfo^ 
Tip moiy^rij Bvprirou' xcofjiwiwv /Ltiv yoLp, xarap^rrii 
TOV ©cpor/Tijy. But now for Cuper's version ^ : Tr»- 

* Romae, p. 216. Basil, p. 163. 'PA HTEIN, fAnxesmrdu, 
KATAZKET.VZEIN. Hesych. 
i RomiB, p. ^58. Basil, p. 196. 
X In Homeri Apotheoe. p. 79. 

gici 



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THEOBALD AND WARBUKTON. 555 

gici id quod magnificuni est imitantur: extollunt 
en\m rerum casus: Comici vero detenus imitantur ; 
nihil namque apud ipsos heroTcum. Sed Comcedia 
risAs gratia sectatur prospera : Ea omnia apud Po- 
etam inveniuntur: comici enlm scribens, dejicit 
Thersitem. You will give me leave to render this 
into English, for the sake of some readers ; and then 
we shall be all upon an equal foot as to the reason- 
ing of the passage: " The Tragic Writers imitate 
that which is grand and magnificent; and heighten 
all the events and turns of their fable : the Comic 
Writers imitate that which is more Ipw and mean ; 
they have nothing of the heroic in them. But Co- 
medy, for the sake of exciting laughter, pursues 
PROSPEROUS in Episodes. All these imitations are 
found in our Poet; for, writing in the Comic cha- 
racter, he THROWS DOWN Thersites." 

** Now does not this contain a rare deduction of 
reasoning, and worthy to be put into syllogism ? 
Prosperous incidents are the subject of Comedy. 
Homer sometimes writes Comedy; for, when he 
does so (for example), he throws down Thersites. 
But is the throwing down any person properly to 
be called a prosperous event ? It is true, a man 
being tripped up, or falling awkwardly, may raise a 
horse-laugli. But do you imagine Eustathius meant 
this to be the end of Comedy ? 1 flatter myself, 
you almost by this time begin to smell the certainty 
of my emendation, from the odd figure this parade 
of mock- reasoning has made. But, if you are not yet 
thoroughly convinced, I will proceed to shew you 
the absurdity of Cupers version; and then, by 
translating the passage as it ought to be, make my 
own correction clear beyond all dispute or hesitation. 

EdrfKitag ^o^^srai, you must observe, Cuper 
renders sectatur prospera. But the learned man 
had forgot himself. The Grammarians, indeed, in- 
form us, that tfjTiXloL [ab s3 & TfXgTv,] does signify 
^celicitasy prosperitcis : but guriXeia [ab s5& tsXo^] is 

always 



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55<5 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LITERATURE. 

always understood to m^zn^frvgalitas^ mediocritaSy 
tenuitasy vllitas.fufilitasy &c. Or, if we will render 
it by adjectives, Qjwd in se hahet mediocre^ tenue^ 
leyCy &c. You remember, I doubt not, what Ho- 
race says of Comedy, ex medio res arcessere; that 
it fetches its subjects from low life ; from what is 
mean and ordinary. This will in some measure 
help to explain £ustathius*8 definition : as it con- 
vinces me I shall hit his sense /in rendering it, '* Co* 
moedia ver6, risiis gratia, tenuiora [vel, quae in se 
PARUM DIGNITATIS habent,] sectatur. Ea omnia 
apud Poetam [nostrum] inveniuntur. Comoedum 
en^m agens, Thersitem [operi suo] assuit.** 

" Now, by the assistance of my Correction and 
Translation, we will see how the whole passage 
stands as to the reasoning part ; and so I shall leave 
it to your judgment. 

" The Tragic Writers,*' says Eustathius, " imitate 
that which is grand and magnificent, and heighten 
all the events atid turns of their fable. The Comic 
Writers imitate that which is more low and trivial: 
they have nothing of the Heroic in them. But Co- 
medy, for the sake of exciting laughter, takes in light 
and ORDINARY incidents. All these imitations are 
found in our Poet ; for he, assuming the Comic cha- 
racter, interweaves the Episode of fhersites.*' 

" I cannot help thinking this is clear sense and 
connective reasoning : and if I deceive myself in this 
opinion, I shall be sick for the future of my pro- 
vince of a word-catcher. I will only add, that 
though I do not believe Spondanus made the cor- 
rection that I have here proposed upon Eustathius 
(for if he had, he would certainly have given it us 
in his Commentary) ; yet he says something like 
the observation of this learned Bishop touching the 
Episode of Thersites. Solet Poeta res turbulentas 
jocosd aliqud tetnperare in Comotdiarum modum: 
qualis est has& inserta narratio Thersitce, illiuM 
RiDicuLi inter Grcecos hominis'' 

And 



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tH£OBALt> A^D WARBURTON. 5S7 

And now, dearest Sir, I may be heartily afraid 
that I have over-fatigued you. I could have given 
it to you much more concisely ; but I chose rather 
to transcribe it from my papers at that full length to 
which I have been forcecl to draw it for the sake of 
the ignorant vulgar^ if you shall determine for me 
that it will stand the test of the public censure, I 
should be glad to know if in your set of Pope's duo- 
decimo edition, you have the ninth volume, which 
contains the contested Plays of our Shakespeare : if 
you have^ I will venture to promise you some enter- 
tainment from the emendatiotis that I have made 
upon Locrine and Pericles, by way of excursion, if 
you will indulge me in thirj liberty. 

I am drawing so near the end of my task, that, 
like a boy with a dear sweet morsel, I am afraid of 
eating it quite up; and am for extending my pleasure 
in spite of gluttony. 

But I ought in mercy to spare you now, by con- 
fessing myself at once, dearest Sir, 

Your most affectionate and obliged humble ser- 
vant. Lew. Tueobald. 

LETTER LVIIL 
To the Rev. Mr. WaRburton. 
Dear Sir, H^yaris Caurt, Mar. 14, 1 729-30. 
I now proceed on to Hamlet : 
Dramatis Per^on^.— This story was not invented 
by our Author; though from whence be took it I know 
not J I shall beg leaye to substitute this short remark : 
— The story jwith most of its material circumstances, 
is extracted from Saxo Grammaticus's Danica His- 
toria. — The Historian calls our Poet's hero, Amle- 
thus; hi8father,Uorwendillus; his uncle, Fengo; and 
his mother, Gerutha. The old King in single combat 
slew Collerus, King of Norway. Fengo makes away 
with his brother Horwendillus, and marries his wi- 
dow 



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$58 ILLUSTRATIONS OF LlTlRATU&€. 

dow Gerutha. Amlethus, to avoid Suspicions of po- 
licy, assumes a form of utter madness. A fine wo- 
man is planted upon him, to try if he would yield 
to the impressions of love. Fengo contrives that 
Amlethus, in order to sound him, should be clo- 
seted by his mother* A man is concealed in the 
rushes to overhear their discourse: whom Amlethus 
discovers and kills : When the Queen is frighted at 
this behaviour of his, he tasks her about her crimi- 
nal course of life, and incestuous conversation with 
her former husband^s murderer : confesses his mad«- 
ness is but a cloak to preserve himself, and secure 
his revenge for his father ; to which he enjoins the 
Queen^s silence. Fengo sends Amlethus to Britain ; 
two of the King's servants attend him, with letters 
to the British King, enjoining the death of Amle- 
thus. Amlethus^ in the night-time coming at their 
commission, over-reads it, forms a new one, and 
turns the destruction, designed on himself, dn tbe 
bearers of the letters. Amlethus, returning home, 
by a wile surprizes and kills his uncle. 

This, dear Sir, is the grpund-work of our Poct*s 
plot : and how happily he has adapted his incidents 
to the story, I need not observe to y6u. 

P. 210. SbarkM up a list of LANDLESS resolutes, 
For food and diet, to some enterprize 
That bath a stomach in *t. 
The two old quartos, in 1605 and l6ll, read 
LAWLESS ; not but landless^ I think, may do full as 
well. But is not Jbod and diet a mere tautology ? 
I have made a conjecture to avoid this, which I 
gladly submit to your judgment : 

SbarkM up a list of landless resolutes, 
For food ; and dieted to s6me enterprize 
That hath a stomach in V. 
t. e. trained up, or, in the simple signification^ fied, 
maintained.^ 

P. 214. Take tliy fair hour, Laertes, time be thine. 
And tby best graces ; spend it alt thy will. 
I would point thus : 

• . time 



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TllfiOBAl4> AKD WAllBUftTOl^. 559 



• time be thine ; 



And thy best graces spend it at thy will. 
P. 215. You are the most immediate to our throne^ 
And WITH no tess nobility of love, 
Than that which dearest father bears his son^ 
Do I impart toward you. 
But what does the King inn part ? We want the 
substantive to this verb. I read, 

And WITH 'T no less nobility of love, &c. 
I. e. I not only declare you my successor^ but with 
this impart to you the same cordial love, that the 
fondest father can impart to a son. 

P. 216. Frailty, thy name is woman ! 

Very like that short satiric reflection of Virgil : 

■ ■ Varium et mutabile semper 

Fcemina. 

P. 220. ■ Do not SLEEP, 

But let me hear from you. 
1 think rather, slip, i. e. omit. 
P. 221. And now no soil, nor CAUTEL. 
I do not know what our Author means by this 
word here : or, if derived from Cautela, how it can 
accord with the sense to be required here. 
P. 227. And for the day cofifin'd to fast in fires. 
I had, as you may perceive by Mr. Pope's Appen- 
dix, conjectured roast, and backed it with gome 
shew of authorities : sedfacti pienitet. Indeed, for 
9l spirit to be said to fast in fires, I cannot help 
thinking is nonsense. What, if we should read, 
And for the day confined fast in fires ? 
P. ^8. Duller should'st thou be than the fat weed, 
That ROTS itself in ease on Lethe's wharf, 
Wouldst thou not stir in this. 
Here a weed is supposed to rot by ease, but in 
Antony by motion, p. l8 : 

Lackying the varying flood 

To ROT itself by motion. 
But, what is it that makes weeds flourish, but 
eaae^ i. e. still weather? Antony, p. lo: 
O then we bring forth weeds^ 
When our qmck winds lye still. 

And 



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660 liXUSTRATIONS OF LlnRATURfi. 

And 3 Henry VI. p. 329 • 

For %vbat doth cherish weeds, but gentle air 7 

And Henry V. p. 45^, almost Burgundy's whole 
speech. 

We must certainly restore, from the old quartos, 
That ROOTS itself in ease, &c. 

P. 230. The table of my memorj-. 

iEschylus twice uses this form of expression. 
Eumen. ver. 275 : 

AEATOrPA'*n^ fi «rarr i^rftwra ^^PENf. 

And Prometheus, ver. 788 : 
*Hr hy^ « MNITMOIIN AE/ATOII ^PENITN. 

P. 235. Ungatter'd, and down-GYVED to his ancle. 
t. c. literally, fetter'^d down to his ancle. Annon 
potiuSy down-GYRED, i. e. rolled down, in folds. 

P. 239. Gives him threescore thousand crowns in annual 
fee. 

Thus 1 restored. Mr. Pope says, that this altera- 
tion was made from the Edition of 163 7 ; but he 
may find it, if he pleases^ in those old quartos 
which he pretends to have collated, in 1605 and 
161 1. Then how arch he is upon me, in this la- 
conic sneer^— ii?AicA in his ear is a verse I — I own it 
is ; and I will venture to prove to the Editor, that 
two syllables may by pronunciation be resolved and 
melted into one, as easily as two notes are slurred 
in musick. A redundance of a syllable, that may 
be so sunk, has never been a breach of harmony in 
any language that I know of. We must pronounce, 
Gi's ^m three | score thou | &c. 

The Editor might have remembered his Homer, 
Iliad i. ver. 5 : 

Or Iliad, v. 6: 

Tahaxrcfayuv, aCtavrs. 
Or^ Virgil, Georg. i. v. 48^^: 

Fluviorum rex Eridanus, <:amposque per omnes. 
And again, Geoi^. ii. v. 295 : 

Parietibasque pretnunt^artis, etquatuor addunt. 

And 



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rOEOBALD AVD WARBURTON. 5^1 

Andagain> .Sin. ii. v. 442: 

Hserent parietibus scalse. ' 

Or, to descend to one English instance, because 
it is a pretty singular one, how would our Edi- 
tor reconcile himself to this verse of Ben Jonson*s 
Volpone, Act III. Sc. l : 

But parasites, or subparasites. And yet 

The scansion must be thus : 
But para | sitea, or | sub-pa | rasites. | And yet | 
Where the two first syllables of the same word in one 
position make a trochee^ and in the other a spondee? 

Ibid. Since brevity *s the soitl of wit. 

And tediousness the limbs and outwardflounshes. 
I do not know whether limbs is desimied the an- 
tithesis to sold; but as by outward fiyurishes our 
Poet seems to allude to the first draughts of paint- 
ers, I suspect we should read, 

And tediousness the lines, &c. 
P. 240. And pity, IT is true. 
The Editor says, 1 make this ma/erta/ correction: 

And pity *Tis, 'tis true. 
How do I make it, when it is the genuine read-^ 
ing of both the old quartos : and is not Polonius in- 
dustriously affecting to jingle? 
• Let Mr. Pope look back to the preceding line : 

That be is mad, 'tis true ; 'tis true, 'tis pity, &c. 

Ibid. To the celestial^ and my soul^s idol, the roost 
BEAUTIFIED Ophelia. 

This is, indeed, a vile epithet in the sense that 
Hamlet would use it : and can only signify, as that 
other passage expresses it, beautied with plasfring 
art. — ^As celestial and soul's idol are the introduc- 
tory epithets, what if, to keep up the climax, we 
should throw out a -single letter, and suppose our 
Poet might have wrote, 

The most beatified Ophelia: 

t. e. most blessed, hallowed, adored; which Polo- 
nios might very well call a vile phrase too. 

VOL. II. ' 2 P. 246. 



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SSS ILLUSTRATIONS Of. LITEIiATVRS. 

P. 246. Ham. How chances it tlwy tratil ? Tfceir 
residence both in reputation and profit was better, 
both ways. 

Itos, I think, their INHIBITION comes by the means of 
the late innovation. 

What inhibition ? If Rosencraus meant to answer 
Hamlet's question closely, methinks^ it should be 

ITINERATION. 

Ibid. An airy of children, little yases. 

This term I am absolutely unacquainted with. 
P. 247. Ah, that they do, my lord, Hercules and bis 

LOAD too. 
But what is Hercules's load? Annan potOs, 

CLUB ? 

P. 257. My bonour'd lord, /know right well yott did. 

Old quarto, melius, you know, &c. 

*P. 26S. -r Or else shall he safier not thinking on, 

with the hobby-horse? whose epitaph is, For aA^ 
/arohf the hobby-horse is forgot. 

This epitaph again occurs in Lore's Labour Lost, 
p. 346. I beliere it has some satirical flirt on the 
times, if happily we can trace it. I will lend all 
the light I can, and doubt not of your assistance.-^ 
In the first place, did not IVasstltng and Majf* 
games begin to be obnoxious, immediately upon 
our Scotch Monarch's accession ? — And, in die D€xt 
place, was not riding on hobby-horses one part of 
^ diversion of these May-games ? I will give you 
my reason for this suspicion, and why I imagine the 
Precisians might be offended at it In B^umont 
and Fletchers "Women Pleased,'' (where by the 
way, we have the character of Solo, the farmer^s 
aon, mentioned by my Lord in the Taming of the 
Shrew, p. 8 :) we have one Bomby^ a cobkr, who 
is an enemy to wakes and maypoles. 

I will quote to you some part of his Scene, be- 
cause it goes much to the text of hobby-horses, and 
may lead to explanation : 

Bomb^ Surely I Ml dance no more; 'tis most rjdiculoiu: 
I find my wife's instructions now mere verities^ 

Mv 



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^MfiOBALO AND WARBURTOVT* 5^ . 

My loamed wife's; Ae often hath pronouDc'd to me 
My safety : ^ Bomby, defy these sports, tboa art 

. damn'd else.' 
This BEAST of Babylon I will ne'er back more: 
His pace is sure propbane^ and bis lewd wee-bees 
The sons* of Hymyn and Gymyn, in the wilderness. 

Fetrvi. Fye, neighbour Bomby, in youV fits again ? 
Your zeal sweats; this is not careful, neighbour, 
The HOBBY-HORSE IS a seemly hobby-horse. — 

Bomb. I do defy thee, and thy foot-cloth too ; 
And tell thee to thy face, this prophane RIDINO 
(I feel it in my conscience, and I dare speak it), 
This unedified ambling hath brought a scourge 

upon us, 
This hobby-horse Sincerity we liv'd in, 
War and the sword of Slaughter : I renounce it, 
And put the beast off thus, the beast polluted. 
And now no more shall hop on high Bomby, 
Follow the painted pipes of high pleasures. 
And with the wicked dance the devil's measures. 
Away, thou pamper'd jade of vanity, 
Stand at the livery of lewd delights now, 
And eat the provender of prick-ear'd folly ! 
My dance shall be to the pipe of persecution. 

Farm. Will you dance no more, neighbour? 

Bomb. Surely, no. 

Carry the beast to his crib : I have renounced him, 
And all his works. 

Soio. Shall th' hobby-horse be forgot then ? 

The hopeful hobby-horse, shall he lie founder'd? 

Farm. He will dance again, for certain. 

Bomb. I cry out on *t. 

'Twas the forerunning sin brought in those tilt-staves, 
They brandish 'gainst the Church, the Devil ealh 
maypoles. 

Sdfo. Take up your HORSE again, and girth him to you. 
And girth him handsomely, good neighbour Bomby. 

Bomb. I spit at bim. 

Soto. Spit in the horse' -face, cobler ? 
Tbou out-of-tune, psalm-singing slave ! 
Spit in his visnomy i 

Bovdf. I spit again, and thus I rise against bim, 

* Ceriky SONGS, 

2 2 Against 



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564 ILLrSTRAT10N8 OF LITBBAltJftQ; 

Against ibis beast, that signified destructioDi 
Foreshew'd i' th' fall of monarchies. 
Soto, Take up the hobby-horse ! 

Come, 'tis a thing thou bast lov*d with all thy 

heart, Bomby ; 
And wouidst do still but for the round-breech'd 

brothers. 

I will only add that in Ben Jonson's Bartholomew 
Fair, when Rabby-Busy, the Puritan, comes into 
the feir, and is asked by the Toyman to buy rattles, 
drums, babies, &c. he in his zeal cries out : 

Peace, with thy apocryphal wares, thou prophaoe 
Publican ! thy bells, thy dragons, and thy Tobie^s 
dogs. Thy hobby-horse is an idol, a \exyidol, 
a fierce and rank idol : and thou the Nebuchadnez- 
zar, the proud Nebuchadnezzar of the fair, that 
set St it up for children to fall down to and worship. 

I am, dearest Sir, your most affectionate friend 
and obliged humble servant, Lew. Theobald^ 



LETTER LIX, 

To the Rev. Mr. Warburton. 

Dear Sir, Wyaris Court, Mar. 17, 1729-3^. 
I have now received the great pleasure of two of 
yours (Nos. 28 and 29), dated the 12th and 15tli 
instant. The very kind regard you have for my 
character, which you are so partial to rate much be- 
yond my desert, is a proof of such friendship as I 
shall ever highly esteem, because it must be the oflP- 
spring of a truly generous mind. For which reaspn, 
your most necessary caution against inconsistency^ 
with regard to my opinion of Shakespeare^s know- 
ledge in languages, shall not fail to have all its 
weight with me. And therefore the passages that 
I occasionally quote from the Classics shall not be 
brought a« proofs that he imitated those originals, 

but 



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tttlOBAL0 AND WARBURTOK.' '565 

4>ut to shew how happily he has expressed himself 
t>pon the same topics. Thus far, I think, I shall 
be safe ; and should 1 venture to hint that the rfr- 
semblance in thought and expression (which we 
should allow to be imitation in one whose learning 
was also questioned) may sometimes take its rise 
•from strength of memory, and those impressions 
which he owed to the school. And if we may allow 
a possibility of this, considering that, when he quit* 
ted the school, he gave into his father's profession 
and way of living, and had, it is likely, but a slen- 
der Library of Classical Learning ; and considering, 
what a number of Translations, Romances, and Le- 
gends, started in his time, and a little before, most 
of which, it is very evident, he read ; I think it 
may easily be reconciled, why he rather schemed 
his plots and characters from these more latter infor- 
mations, and went back to those fountains, for 
which he might entertain a sincere veneration, but 
to which he could not have so ready a recourse. 

This is only the XdL^t fermentation of that opinion, 
which I will take due care shall not o^er4eaven the 
mass. It is no small satisfaction to me, that you 
approve my design with regard to my Antagonist's 
judgment; and, particularly, that you allow my cor- 
rection of Eustathius to pass muster. And how 
easily am I drawn to indulge my own vanity, and 
postpone the remainder of Hamlet for a post, when 
friendship, I hope, rather than complaisance, is so 
kind to tell me, you are impatient for a little more 
trouble of the same sort ! 

Ecce, iterbm Crispinus! I submit to your judg- 
ment another fragment. I shall only premise, by 
way of connexion, that I had been replying to my 
Adversary's charge, my fixing dreadful anachronisms 
upon our Poet ; which, but for me, might have lain 
hid: and on the other hand, shewing that our Editor 
had fixed others upon him, to which our Poet may 
well plead, " Not guilty.** 

*^But 



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$€$ ILLITSTEATIONS OF UTKIATUU. 

^ Bui who shall dare make any words about tbii 
freedom of yours towards Shakespeare, if it can be 
proved^ in your fits of criticism, that you make no 
xnore ceremony with good Homer himself? I can- 
not perfectly determine with myself (such a general 
prepossession 1 have of your talents) y whether yon 
ure most unhappy in advancing criticisms of yovr 
own, or in adopting the mistaken one of others ; or, 
in making none at all, where a small share of credit 
miffht have been purchased by attempting it. But, 
noUiing, as I said before, so well as an instance: 
and therefore I will examine these three points 
in their order. 

^* And, first to try a criticism of yonr own ad* 
vancing. In the Eighth Book of the Odyssey^ 
where relating the episode of the Loves o( Mars 
and Venus ; and that, upon their being taken in the 
net by Vulcan: 

the God of Arms 

Must pay the penalty for lawless chartas; 

you are so kind, gravely to inform us, that 
^ Homer in this, as in many other places, seems to 
allude to the Laws of Athens, where Death was Uie 
punishment of Adultery.**-! — But how is this sig- 
nificant observation made out? — Why, who can 
possibly object any thing to the contrary? — Does 
not Pausanias relate, that Dhaco, the Athenian 
Law-giver, granted impunity to any person that took 
revenge upon an Adulterer } and was it not aiaa 
tke institution of Solon, that, if any one t(x>k am 
Adulterer in the fact, he might use him as he 
pleased ? — These things are very true ; and, to see 
what a good memory and sound judgment in con- 
junction can achieve ! Though Homer*s date ia not 
determined down to a single year, yet it is pretty 
generally agreed that he lived above 300 years w/«rr 
either Draco or Solon ; and that, it seems, h^ made 
him seem to aUude to the very Laws that these two 
Legislators propounded above 3O0 years (ifier. If 
fhis inference be not something like an anachronism, 

or 



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THBOBALD AND WAHBURTON. S^7 

or prolepWf I will look once more into my Lexicons 
for the true meaning of the words. 

'Mt appears lo me, that somebody, besides Mart 
and Venus, bias been caught in a net by this Epi- 
sode ; and it is well if no second instance come in, to 
conGrm you what treacherous tackle this net^worh 
IB, if not cautiously handled. 

"II. But let us see whether you have any better 
luck, where you only embrace a criticism ; and im-r 
plicitly make it your own, by not mentioning who 
iSrst advanced it I could not wish a more signlil 
instance of your fatality in this respect, than froiti 
an hypercritical note, inserted in the first Book 
of your Odyssey, upon this passage of Statius: 
Qualis ubi, audito Venantuna murmure, Tigris 
Horruit in maculas. • 

" The generality of Readers had understood the 
Poet's meaning to be, that, when a tigress heard the 
noise of the hunters, she immediately whets up her 
rage, and calls forth her spots, as Cowley has tx* 
jpressed it: till Bernartius came and told us, that 
maeuloi here does not signify the spots of the bemst^ 
but the meshes of the hunting-met. And, not con« 
tent to commit a single blunder, the unlucky Cxx* 
tick quotes another passage, from Claudian, in 
which we have another simile of a tigress, and there 
too macular is to be interpreted the meshes of the 
net; 

— ■ totamque virentibus iram 

Dispergic macuus. 

^^ A much more learned man than Bernartius, I 
mean Caspar Barthius, has given a different expli* 
cation to these virentes maculas: and because I am 
pretty sure he has hit it, 1 think it not amiss to 
transcribe his own words : " Ut efieratam cognos^ 
cere possis ex ipsis maculis, velut horrentibus aut 
flagrantibus iracundi^. Viridem pariter noster alibi 
pardum appellat Dispergit autem iram maculis^ 
cum crines varii colorb subriguntun" 

" Now 



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5^ ILLUSTRATIONS OF UT£RATUEE» 

"Now ithappens very unfortunately for Bemartiur, 
whose opinion you attempt to pass upon us for 
your own, that neither in Statius, nor (Jiaudian, is 
oUr tigress supposed to be driven upon the toils. 
In the first Author she only hears her hunters, calls 
up her anger, and prepares for the encounter. In 
the latter, her whelps are stolen from her ; and she 
pursues the robber's horse at full speed to recover 
them from him. — Well: "But it is impossible, 
you say, to imagine that the hair of any creature can 
change into spots; and if any creature could change 
it by anger, would not the spots remain, when the 
passion was over ?" 

" Now, who can forbear admiring the force of Rea- 
son, when it comes so finely off without straining 
her? I agree with you, indeed, that no creature 
can change into spots, as you mean it. But, if you 
will give me leave to tell you a secret, I may chance 
to clear up the present seeming difficulty of both 
these passages ; and, perhaps, call up some spots 
that will not remain when your anger is over. I 
would not advise you to venture at stroking back the 
hair of a tigress ; but, if you will make the experi- 
ment with less danger upon a mottled cat, you shall 
find that wherever this creature's fur is spotted, 
the skin and grain of her flesh is underneath party- 
ooloured, and tinged with the diflferent complexion. 
The same effect, upon trial, would be produced in 
the tiger, and so downwards to a poor scalded pig, 
that has in its life-time been interspersed with spots. 

**Now as you agree, that it agrees with the nature 
of the tiger to rOughen and erect his hair when he 
is angry ; where is the impropriety to say, when he 
SO erects and sets it on end to that degree, as to dis- 
cover the different hue and marks of his hide under- 
neath, that his fury makes him fiorrere maculas^ 
or call forth and distinguish his spots to view? 
This is clearly implied by Barthius's above-cited ex- 
plication: Dispergit autem iram maculis, cum crines 

varii 



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THEOBALD ANO WARBURTON. 569 

varii cohris subriguntur." This seems the genuine 
sense of both our Poets, without the least allusion 
to the meshes of an hunting-net. But, since you 
have been so unawares caught in a net by the bare 
mention of an hypercritickj I Would advise you to 
avoid being seduced into the like snares for the fu- 
ture ; and rather shew your judgment in these moot 
points, if I may be allowed the expression, by pru- 
dently keeping it to yourself. — Tanttim/' 

There is one point in these two last criticisms, 
dear Sir, that I b^ you most frankly to give me 
your opinion upon. These Notes, or Collections 
upon the Odyssey, are owned by Mr. Broome as 
his : and would it be perfectly right, and candid, to 
wound him through the Editor's sides? On the 
other hand, Mr. Broome says, that, if his perform- 
ance has merit, either in these, or in his part of the 
Translation, it is but just to attribute it to the judg- 
ment and care of Mr. Pope, bt/ whose pen every 
sheet was corrected. So that they are equally prin- 
cipals in error: for the latter, sure, should have 
expunged every thing that he was aware was erro- 
neous. Again, though my " Shakespeare Restored' 
was some time published before the Odyssey, Mr. 
Broome, you know, has exorbitantly complimented 
Mr. Pope upon his Edition of Shakespeare; in which, 
though he has thrown no slur at me, yet it carries a 
tacit insult of opinion. However, I would by all 
means avoid any thing that might be censured as in- 
vidious, or possibly come within the compass of any 
thing like ill-nature. 

I am not so fond of being in the right, as to de- 
sire to shew it by purchasing such an imputation. 
I think I shall have stock enough of matter to make 
the Editor blush for demerits purely his own, and 
in which his Assistants are not concerned. 

A short word with regard to your Paterculus. If 
the following passage has not come under your sus- 
picion, I can sendnyou the transcript of a correction 

of 



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$70 ILLUSTRATK>M8 OY UTERATUftE. 

of it by Jer^iahMarkbnd, iobii ^^EpistoIaCritiea,** 
addressed to Bishop Hare> lib. ii. c. 36, ^^ Attctores^ 
que Cartninum Varronem, ac Lucretium» neque ullo 
IQ suscepti operis sui carmine mioorem CatuUuQi.*' 
By next post 1 hope to trouble you with the coo- 
tiiMiation of my queries on Hamlet ; and am, dear- 
tst Sir, your most affectiooate and obliged friend and 
humble servant^ Lew. Theobaij>. 



LETTER LX. 

To the Rev. Mr. Warborton. 

Dear Sir, Wyaris Court y Mar. 21 y 1 725-30. 
I proceed to trouble you now (as far as my paper 
will give me leave) with the remainder of Hamlet: 
P. 264. We shall know by this fellow. 
The old quartos very rightly place opposite to this, 
in the inner margin. 
Enter Prologue,^ 

P. 265. Now wliat my love is, proof hath nade you 
know, 
And as my love is fix'd, my fear is so. 
From the tenor of the context I had read, aiz^p. 
So I now find the tirst folio reads : the quarto, in 
1605, ciz'd; and that in I611, cizst. 

But the old quartos have a couplet immediately 
following these verses (which, why the Editor has 
suppressed, he best knows), that prove mine to be 
the right reading : 

Where love is great, the littlest doubts are fear ; 
Where little fears grow great, great love grows there. 

P. 267. With Hecate's bane, thrice blasted, ■ 
No such weed, or simple, that I ever heard of. 
I restore, from the authority of all the old copies. 

With Hecate's BAN thrice blasted, 

i. e. her spell, her curse. 

p. 267,. 



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TBIMAUI AMD WAUITRTON. 5?^ 

P* 2fi7» ■ his name '• Gcmz9go; the tCory it 

estiuit^ and writ io choice Italian* 
I have not been able yet to trace the Author from 
whom Shakespeare gleaned this story. 

P. 268. with two Provincial Roses on my ray'd 

shoes, get me a fellowship in a CITY of Players, Sir? 

' I had conjectured rais*d shoes ; t. e. shoes, like 
the Cothurni worn by the old Tragedians. If ray*4 
be the true reading, I presume it must be under- 
stood, spangled, or striped, with some shining or- 
nament; calcei bracteatiy glittering with rays of 
gold. But why citt/ of Players ? Because of the 
vrord fellowship, the Editor immediately thought of 
Ciiy Companies, 1 dare say the degraded word, 
which is authorized by the first and second folios, is. 
the true reading; in a cry bf Players; t. c. a share^ 
by the vote of a Company of Players. 
So, in T