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Full text of "Illustrations of the natural orders of plants with groups and descriptions. Reduced from the original folio ed"

L 1 B RA R.Y 

OF THL 

U N 1 V LRS ITY 

or ILLINOIS 



sao. 



NATURAL 



JAN 1 3 1941 




r,.FSTFCHFRT4a 
(AirR[DH«rN[RI 

NF.W YORH 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



NATURAL ORDERS OF PLANTS. 



VOL. II. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://www.archive.org/details/illustrationsofn02twin 



ILLUSTRATIONS 



NATURAL ORDERS OF PLANTS 



GROUPS AND DESCRIPTIONS 



ELIZABETH TWINING. 



REDUCED FROM THE ORIGINAL FOLIO EDITION, 



VOL. IL 



LONDON: 
SAMPSON LOW, SON, AND MARSTON, 

CROWN BUILDINGS, 188 FLEET STREET. 
1868. 

(The Rigid of Tran-slalion is reitrvid by thf Autho):) 



LONDON : 

MRANGKWAYS AND WaLDEN, PrINTBKS, 

Castle St. Leicester Sq. 



580 
T92i 
v,2 

CONTENTS OF PLATES. 

VOLUME II. 



FAnE 

81. LoBELlACE^ LohiiMa Dortmanna. Lobelia sj^lendens. Siphocampylos 6ico/or. 

Lobelia littoralis. CWniowia pulchella. 

82. Gesnerace^ ... Gesnera zehrina. iEschynanthus grarulijlorua. Streptocarpus 

Rexii. Cyrtandra atuininea. Gesnera allophylla. Gesnera grandiflora. 

83. VACClNiACEiE ... \accm\mn Mijrtillm. N acc'minm Vitis Idoea. Oxycoccws macro- 

carpus. Tbibaiulia varlegata. Gaylussacia serrata. Vaccinium amoinmn. 

84. Ericace^ Erica cinerea. Erica tetralix. Erica ventricosa. Arbutus Unedo. 

Rbododendron/er?-Mgrmeum. Rbododendron arboreum. Kalmia latifolia. 
Rhododendron alhiflorum. 

85. Belvisiace^e ... Napoleona imperialis. 

86. Myrsinace^ ... Myrsine refMsa. Suttonia (Zimncato. Ardisia crewJttoto. Jacquinia 

aurantiaca. Embelia rohusta. 

87. SAPOTACEiE Achras Sapota. Isonandra gutta. Mimusops KauJci. Chrysa- 

pbyllum Cainito. 

88. Ebenace^ BiosTpyros EmbrT/opteris. Diosipyros Lotus. B.oyena pubescens. 

Diospyros melanoxylon. 

89. OLSACEiE Ole-d europcea. Syi'mga vulgaris. Lignstrum vulgare. Fraxinus 

pendula. 

90. Jasminace^ Jasminum officinale. Jasminum fmticans. Nyctantbes arbor 

tristis. Jasminum hirsutum. Jasminum ligustrifolium. Jasminum gracile. 

91. Strychnace^ ... Strychnos Tieute. Fagrasa littoralis. Spigelia marylandica. 

Strychnos ligustrina. 

92. Apocynace^ ... A])ocynum hijpericifolium. Yinca major. Cynauchum nigrum. 

Nerium Oleander. Allamanda cathartica. Stapelia marginata. Asclepias 
syriaca. Glossonema Boryanum. 

93. Rhizophorace^ . . Rhizophora Mangle. Kandelia Eheedii. Carallia zeylanica. 

Carallia lucida. 

94. Gentianace^ ... Gentiana acaulis. Erythrea centaurium. Cblora jjerfoliata. 

Villarsia nymphoides. Cbironia decussata. Lisiantbus Russellianus. 
Leianthes nigrescens. Gentiana lutea. Cbironia bacci/era. 

95. BiGNONiACEiE ... Bi gnonia jwiicans. Eccremocarpus scaier. Cata\]pa syringi/olia. 

Jacaranda mimosifoliu. 

b 



6653 



CONTENTS OF Pl^VTES. 

PAOK 

96. PoLEMONIACEiE... Polemoiiium aerulcum. Gilia tricolor. Phlox Drummnndii. 

Cobsea scandens. 

97. CoNVOLVULACE.E . Convolvulus sejniim. Convolvulus americana. Convolvulus 

Soldanella. l\)omQ& purpurea. Convolvulus /ncoZo?*. Ipom ea guaTnocZt^. 
Cuscuta epithymum. 

98. BoRAGlNACE^ ... Borago officinalis. Ceriiitlie major. Tournefortia cymosa. 

Myosotis palustris. Symphytum. Ehretia. 

99. Hydrophyllace^ Hydrophyllum virginicum. Hydrolea spinosa. Eutoca viscida. 

Nemophila phaceloides. 

100. SoLANACE^ Solanum Dulcamara. Nicotiana tahacum. Solanum Lycoper- 

sicum. 3na.n\x\\oa parasitica. Capsicum haccatum, Brugmansia san- 
guinea. Petunia. Hyoscyamus. Datura Stramonium. 

101. ScROPHULARiACEiE Scrophularia aquatica. Digitalis pmpurea. Linaria vulgaris. 

Veronica chamcedi-ys. Mimulus moschatus. Chelone harhata. Torenia 
asiatica. Antirrhinum majus. Calceolaria. 

102. Lamiacej. Lamium maculatum. Salvia patens. Galeobdolon luteum. 

Scutellaria cordifolia. Betonica grancliflora. Salvia. Lavandula. 

103. OROBAN'CHACEiE . Orobanche to/wo?'. 'L&ihvesi squamaria. lEiginetia. pedunculata. 

104. Verbenace^ ... \Qrhexia, officinalis. Y erhena chamadrifolia. Clerodendrum/aWax. 

Lantana aculeata. Myoporum panv/oZaiw. Callicarpa. 

105. AcANTHACE^ ... Ac axithus sjyinosus. J ustici a car?jea. Thunbergia aZata. Stro- 

bilanthes. 

106. Utriculariace^. Utricularia vulgaris. Utricularia Humholdtiana. Utricularia 

reticulata. Pinguicula vulgaris. 

107. Prijiulace^ ... Primula veris. Dodecatheon Meadia. Cyclamen europceum. 

Anagallis arvensis. Anagallis Monelli. Aretia. 

108. Plumbagixace^ . Plumbago capensis. Plumbago rosea. Statice purpurata. 

Armeria vulgaris. 

109. PLAXTAGiNACEiE . Plantago major. Plantago coronopus. Plantago squarrosa. 

Littorella lacustris. Bougueria nubicola. 

110. Nyctaginace^. . . Mirabilis Jalapa. Mirabilis longiflora. Abronia mellifera. 

Pisonia ohtnsata. 

111. Amarantace^ . . . Amarantus Blitum. Amarantus caudatus. Celosia cristata. 

Gomphrena officinalis. 

112. Chenopodiace^. . Chenopodium bonus Henricus. Beta maritima. Spinacia 

oleracea. Basella rubra. Blitum virgatum. Salsola Kali. Salicomia 
herbacea. 

113. Phytolaccace^. . Phytolacca rfecmi^Zra. 'Rivma. tinctoria. 

114. Begoniace^ begonia, semperjlor ens. Begonia, diversifolia. Begonia sanguiyiea. 

Begonia manicata. Diplocinium Evansianum. 

115. PoLYGOXACE^ ... Polygonum Persicaria. Polygonum orientale. Rheum spici- 

forme. Coccoloba uvifera. 

116. Lai'race.e Laurus nobilis. Cinnamomum javanicum. Persea gratissima. 

Dehaasia media. 

117. MYRISTICACE.E ... Myristica mosc^aZa. Virola seiZ/era. 

118. Proteace^ Vrotea pulchella. Grevillea longifolia. Telopea ^speciosissima. 

Leucospermum hypophyllum. Hakea acicularis. Hakea undulata. 
Banksia m^dia. Banksia speciosa. 



CONTENTS (1F PLATES. 

PAGB 

119. THYMELArK.i-; ... Daphne mesereum. Daphne laureola. Dais laurifolia. Diroa 

pnlustrh. Pimelia spectahilis. Lagetta Untcaria. 

120. Saxtalace.e Santahun a/ijwt. Th.esmm. linophyllum. Leptomeria Billai'dicri. 

Leptomeria acida. 

121. El^agnace.e ... 'EAsna.gwns angustlfoUa. 'E[?sagrms argentea. Hippopha; r/^om- 

noides. Myrica, gale. Myrica. javanica. Myrica cerifera. Comptouia. 

122. Aristolochiace^ Aristolochia Clcmatitis. Arislolochia Stpho. Aristolocliia gigas. 

Asarum europivum. Bragantia. 

123. EDPHORBIACE.E . . . Euphorbia PepZw-s. Euphorbia s^jZt'WfZens. ^aixoY>\\aintegerrima. 

V o'msettja pulcherrima. YiWT^horhia pentagona. Hura crepitans. 

124. ARTOCARPACEiE... Artocarpus z'wcjsa. Ficus can'ca. ^lovus nigra. Dorstenia hisjnda. 
125.. Urticace^ JjrticapiluUfera. Cannabis saliva. Humulus Z»2:)i<7i<.s. Urtica dloica. 

126. PiPERACE^ Piper ?%;-MTO. F'vper Betle. Piper ribesioides. Piperomia arica- 

rinata. Artanthe elongata. Chavica Roxhurghii. 

127. Amentace^ Quercus pedunculata. Corylus Avellana. Fagus sglvatica. 

Castanea vesca. Salix viminalis. Salix lierbacea. Betula pendula. 

128. CoNiFERACE^ ... Pinus m«nft'ma. Juniperus co?mrtM?ii.s. Taxus baccate. Larix 

Cedrus. Wellingtonia. Araucaria. Qrypiomma japonica. 

129. Ctcadace^ Cy cas revoluta. Cycas circinalis. Zamia. 

130. Hydrocharidace^ Hydrocharis ^lorsus-ranje. Stratiotes aloides. Vallisneria 

spiralis. Boottia cordata. Anacliaris alsinastrum. 

131. ALiSMACEiE AXisma plantago. Sagittaria sagittifolia. Butomus umhellatus. 

Limnocharis Humholdtii. Damasonium imlicuin. Alisma ranunculoides. 
Limnocharis Pliimierii. 

132. Orchidace;e Orchis mascwZa. Ophvys apif era. OnQiAmni Papilio. Sobralia 

macrantha. Phalfenopsis a7?ia&j7e. T)Qndr6hi\xm fimhriatum. Huntle3'a 
violacea. YaniWa planifoUum. Yipipactis grandiJlo7-a. 

133. Zingiberace^ ... Zingiber q^awaZe. Hedychmm speciosum. Alpinia cardamomum. 

Mantisia saltatoria. 

1 34. MusACE^ Musa paradisiaca. Strelitzia regina;. 

135. H^MODORACE^... Hsemodorum ^Zara/oZmm. Auigozanthus com?iea. Barbacenia 

Veitchii. Barbacenia Alexandnrm. Hsemodoruni spicatum. 

136. Amaryllidace-E . Amaryllis belladonna. Galanthus nivalis. Alstromeria auran- 

tiaca. HaBmanthus coccineus. Sternbergia lutea. Phycella ignea. 
Narcissus mo.schatus. 

137. Iridace^ Iris pseud-aconts. Ins germanica. Tigridia^?o?"o?j«a. Sparaxis 

tncolor. Gladiohis 2)sittacinus. Crocus vernus. 

138. Bromeliace.e ... Broinelia Anatias. ^chmea discolor. Tillandsia acaulis. 

Bromelia Pinguin. BromeliayasfMasa. Piteairnia ringens. 

139. DioscoRACE^E ... Dioscorea tripTiylla. Testitudinaria elephantipes. Tanius coin- 

munis. Dioscorea adenocarpa. 

140. Smilace^ ^mWax maculata. Huscus aculeahis. Convallaria ?Krt;'rtZ/s. Paris 

quadrifolia. Trillium sessile. Polygonatum multijlorum. 

141. LiLiACE^ Lilium speciosum. Polianthes tuberosa. Hemerocallis ^ara. 

Fritillaria Meleagris. Tulipa sijlvestris. Scilla nutans. 

142. CoLCHiCACE^ ... Colchicum au<MmnaZ(?. Melanthium j'u«ceu?w. Kreysigia Ciin- 

ninghami. Veratrum nigrum. 



CONl'ENTS OF PLATES. 

PAGE 

143. CoMMELiNACE.K... Coinm elina cte^esfis. Tr adesc&nt\& zebrina. Dichorisandra //??/m- 

flora, Cyanotis axillaris. Tradescantia virginica. Aueilema. 

144. JuNCACE/E J«ncus conglomeratus. Jiincus tri'jhimis. Luciola sylvatica. 

Nartliecium ossifrayum. 

145. Palmace.'E Cl.aniiBrops humilis. I'liccuix dactylifcra. Calamus 2)alustris- 

Sagus Uumpldi. Cocos nucifera. Phytelephas macrocarpa. Elais. 

146. PANUANACEiE ... Paiidaiius s7;//Tf//.s-. YreyQiniiixa, imhricata. 

147. TypHACEiE Ty\Ai3. lalifoUa. Sparganium s/nip^ex. 

148. ARACE.E Krum. inaculatum. WichSixdiia, cethiopica. Amorphallus tMZ6«/(?r. 

Lemna f/ihba. Arum tortuosum. Pistia stratiotes. Acorus calamus. 
Q-dWsi palustris. 

149. CtPEBACEiE Cyperus /wscMS. Carex arenaria. Carex stricta. Eriophorum 

pohjstaddon. Scirpus tuberosus. Scirpus maritimus. Isolepis acicu- 
lans. Carex rivularis. 

150. GraminacE/K ... Tinticum aistivum. Hor deiim disticJwn. Zea. Mays. Saccharum 

officinarum. Pauicum itallcum. Phalaris canuriemis. Plileum pratense. 
Briza media. Coix lacryma. Agrostis alba. 

151. Naiadace^ Naias marina. Zannichellia palustris. Triglochiii palustre. 

Fotavaogeton perfoliatum. Zostera marina. Ou\h-anda fenestralis. 

152. EquiSETACEyE ... Equisctum sylvaticum. Equisetum liyemale. Equisetum 7?uv4- 

atile. Equisetum variegatum. 

153. Lycopodiace.e . . . l^y co\>oAiu\n immdatum. 'Lyco^odxvim. acrostachyum. Pilularia 

globulifera. Isoetes setacea. Marsilea, polycar2Ja. Mavsilea quadrifolia. 
Phylloglossum Drummondii. 

154. Filicace^ Ophioglossum vidgahun. Aspleii ium mormwOT. Scolopendrium 

vulgare. Adiantum reniforme. Fadeynia jyrolifera. Acrostichuiu aleicorne. 
Platyloma ternifolia. DoryoTpteris sagitlifolia. Anemin collina. DanseaeZato. 

155. Bryace^ Bryum ligulatum. Sphagnum latifoUum. Dicranum glaucum. 

Polytriclium commune. Orthotrichum crispum. Hypnum Menziesii. 
Leucodon tomentosus. Hymenostoma encalyptoides. Andrjea nivalis. 

156. Marchantiace^ . Marchantia 2wlymo7pha. Marchantia hcmisjohoirica. Marchautia 

assamica. Rebouilia graminosa. Lunularia vulgaris. Ai^enra proceros. 
Targionia hyp>ophylla. Anthoceros kevis. Duritea helicophylla. Riccia 
eudichotoma. Jungerrnannia bidentata. Jungermannia sinuosa. 

157. Charace^ Qhara vidgaris. WiiQWaflexilis. WxieWa translucens. 

158. LlCHENACE^ ... Ceirax'ia islandica. Sticta pidmonacea. JiocceWa tinct07^ia. Parmelia 

parietina. Cenomyce pyxidata. Cenomyce rangiferina. Cenorayce 
uncialis. ^iereoca\x\on piaschale. Variolaria lactea. ^axnaWua fraxinea. 
Usnea barbuta. 

159. FuNGACE^ Agav'icws campestris. Amamia muscaria. Agar'icws luteus. Boletus 

subtomentosus. Boletus sanguineus. Polyporus squamosus. Scleroderma 
citrinum. Peziza coccinea. Cyatbus striatus. ]Mucor mucedo. Botrytis 
curta. F,Tineuinjuglandis. 

160. FucACE/E F acns vesiculosus. F ncns nodosus. Himanthalia /orea. Delesseria 

sanguinea. Iridtea edulis. Sargassum bacciferum. F nrcQWaxia fastigiata. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY Oh ILLiNOlS 



5i 




£Tdd 



The^Lohehoylnbe/. 



Day & Son hn r. 



81 



LOBELIACE^. 

THE LOBELIA TRIBE. 



Shrubs, and herbaceous plants, having an acrid milky jnice. The leaves 
are alternate, without stipules. The flowers grow at the ends of the branches, 
or from the base of the leaf-stalk. The calyx is above the ovary, five-lobed 
or entire ; the corolla is formed of one petal inserted into the calyx, irregularly 
five-lobed or deeply cleft, and sometimes split down nearly to the base, allowing 
the pistil and stamens to protrude. The stamens are five, inserted into the calyx 
alternately with the lobes of the corolla ; the anthers cohere in a tube around the 
pistil. The ovary is below the calyx, with from one to three cells, containing 
numerous ovules, the style is single, surmounted by a stigma having a cup-like 
fringe. The fruit is a capsule, with one or more cells, containing many seeds, 
attached either to the central axis, or to the lining of the seed-vessel, gaping at the 
summit ; the seeds contain fleshy albumen. 

These plants have most affinity with Campannlace^ ; the anthers being united 
in a tube form a connecting link with the Composite tribe. 

A milky juice of excessive acridity exists throughout the Tribe ; in some 
species it contains caoutchouc. 

Lobelia was named by Pohl, in honour of Lobel, a Fleming, who was appointed 
botanist to James I., and died in London, IGIG. This is one of the first instances 
of a plant receiving the name of a living person, and one who was not associated 
with its discovery. The genus contains several brilliant species, which are highly 
ornamental to the flower-garden, althoiagh nearly all contain a considerable portion 
of deleterious juice, some species so much as to be poisonous, others are of value 
medicinally in their native countries. Lobelia Bortmanna (1) is the most deli- 
cately graceful of the British species, occurring only in a few situations, but there 
abundantly, as in the shallow borders of Windermere, and the lake of Glencoe, 
Scotland. The leaves proceed chiefly from the root, and are divided internally by 
a longitudinal partition into two cells. L, urens, of Devonshi-re, grows on heaths 



1. LiOheVia. DorliiiaiDia, Water Luhclia. 

Britain. 

2. Lobelia spleiidi'iis, Splendid Lobelia. 

Mexico. 
2a Pistil. 2b Stamens. 
2c Section of Otary. 
■i. Siphocarapylos bicvlur, Two-coloured Sipho- 
campylos. Georgia. 



3a Stamens and Pistil. 

3b Pistil. 3c Stamens. 

3d Stamen. 3e Section of Ovary. 

•i. Lobelia litloralis, Shore Lobelia. 

New Zealand. 

5. C'.intouia pi//(7ie//rt, Pretty Clintonia. 

Colombia. 



ami commons in the ncif^libourhood of Axminster ; the whole plant is millcy and 
extremely acrid, the juice Mistering the skin; the flowers are of a bluisli purple 
colour. This species belongs also to France and Spain. L. cardinalis was the 
first foreign specimen introduced to our gardens from North America : it was soon 
found to be sufliciently hardy to bear the English climate, and was generally culti- 
vated, but has since been surpassed in beauty by L. splendens (2), one of the 
numerous beautiful plants discovered by Humboldt in Mexico. The lowly little 
species, L. Iltforalis (4), is a humble contrast to those of America, not only in form 
of growth, but the flowers are destitute of their bright colouring. L. injiata is 
used as a medicine in North America, though dangerous if taken in too large 
quantities. L. exceha is probably one of the finest species of the tribe, rising to 
the height of twelve or fifteen feet in its native country of Nepal, the lower leaves 
are a foot in length. L. rosea, of the same region, bears numerous beautiful rose- 
coloured flowers. L. dehiUs was discovered by the younger Linnaeus at the Cape 
of (rood Hope. L. camporum inhabits fields in Brazil. L. nana foi'ms part of 
the vegetation in the highest region of flowering plants on the Andes, at an eleva- 
tion of 12,000 feet. L. chinensis is a creeping plant in the neighbourhood of 
Canton. L. ramosa adorns the plains bordering the Swan River with its bright 
blue flowers ; thus every division of the globe contributes some species to the 
genus. The flower of Siphocampylos has a curved tube. S. hicolor (3) is an 
elegant plant, flowering freely. S. caoutchouc yields a small supply of glutinous 
substance from the milky juice. Clintonia (5) very nearly resembles Lobelia. 
The corolla of Isotoma is parted into nearly equal segments. I. longijiora is of so 
poisonous a nature as to cause the death of horses that feed on it in St. Domingo 
and Spain. Tupa Feuillcei of Chile is supposed to be the most injurious of the 
Tribe ; the odour of the flowers alone producing sickness. The only wholesome 
plant is probably Centropogon surinamensis, the succulent fruit of which is said to 
be eatable. 

The plants of this Tribe abound in the West Indies, in Brazil, at the Cape of 
Good Hope, along the range of the Himalaya, and in the Sandwich Isles ; they 
also exist in considerable numbers iu Chile and in New Holland. Two species of 
Lobelia extend to Britain. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

Ur^iVERSIFf OF ll'i^tniq 




IT. del. 



The- Gesnera, Tribe'. 



Da^ & S.'rv liirul^d. 



B2 



GESNERACEiE. 



THE GESNERA TEIBE. 



Shrubs and herbaceous plants, of a somewliat flesliy nature, and soft wood; 
sometimes having a climbing or creeping habit: some have tuberous roots. 
The leaves are generally rough or downy, without stipules, generally opposite, 
or in circles on the stalks. The flowers are usually in branching clusters, 
or panicles, rarely solitary. The calyx is partly adherent to the ovary, five-parted 
at the top. The coroUa is composed of one petal, tubular, more or less irregular, 
five-lobed. The stamens are two or four, one pair longer than the other ; the 
rudiment of a fifth is sometimes present between the short pair : the anthers often 
cohere, are two-celled, and have an enlarged connective between the two lobes. 
The ovary is half above the calyx, one-celled, with two fleshy two-lobed projections 
from the edge ; the disk is a fleshy ring studded with glands ; the style is con- 
tinuous with the ovary, the stigma capitate or concave. The fruit is a dry capsule 
in Gesnera, or succulent in Cyrtandra ; one-celled, with numerous minute seeds 
fixed to the projecting plates : their outer covering is thin, with fine veins, some- 
times clothed -uith long hairs, or bordered -sArith a wide wing : they contain fleshy 
albumen, or none. 

These plants have some affinity with Campanulacese, and in outward appearance 
they partly resemble Bignoniaceae. 

Slightly aromatic and mucilaginous properties exist in a few of the fruits. 

Gesnera, which gives the name to this Tribe, was named after the famous 
Conrad Gesner, of Zurich, learned in all branches of natural history, philosophy, 
and Hterature, called the Swiss Pliny : he died in 1565, after ha\ang restored the 
science of natural history to a higher position than it had held since the time of 
Aristotle and Theophrastus. He founded the Botanic Garden and the Museum in 
his native city. 

The various species of Gesnera adorn the fields and woods of Brazil and other 
hot countries of South America. The calyx and fruit yield a dye used by the 



1. Gesnera zebrina. South America. 

2. ^schj'nanlhus (jrandijloriis. Khorea. 

3. StreptocaffT)us iZezf/'. Cape of Good Hope. 
-Li. Cyrtandra staminea, Flower. 

4b Calyx. 4c Pistil. 

4d Fruit. 4e Section. 

4f Seed. 4g Hair magnijied. 



5a. Tuber of Gesnera allophylla. 
5b Pistil with Glands. 
!}C Stamens. 5d Seed magnified. 

Ca. Flower o/ Gesnera grandifloru, 
(in Ovary with Calyx. 
6c Section of Fruit. 



GESNERACE^i;. 

natives for cotton and straw-work, and several other purposes. The succulent 
fruit is sweet and considered eatable. G. zebrina (1) is one of the most beautiful 
species in foliage and flowers. iEschynanthus g randiflorus (2) is an example of 
that section of the Tribe the seeds of which have no albumen, and the manner of 
growth being of a parasitical nature. It throws out rootlets at the joints, and is of 
an aspect very similar to that of an air-plant in the Orchis tribe. Streptocarpus 
(3) is remarkable for the long twisted capsule, differing from the rest of these 
plants in that respect. The numerous seeds ripen well in this climate, and it is 
also of easy culture by dividing the roots ; its delicately coloured flowers are 
extremely ornamental and elegant. Cyrtandra (4) is an example of the flowers 
having only two stamens, and of the fruit being a berry; several species are 
natives of the Sandwich Isles, and of Java. Chirita is one of the numerous and 
beautiful genera of this tribe which abound in damp warm valleys of the Hima- 
layas ; there also Didymocarpus and Calosacme flourish in considerable profusion, 
reaching to 8000 feet of elevation. (Jloxinia is one of the most known of the South 
American genera, and has afforded several valuable plants for the embellishment 
of European conservatories ; the flowers being of various shades of pale purple 
or pink. Sarmienta yields a useful emollient in Chili. Columnea scandens is a 
climbing plant of South America, the flowers of which secrete a large quantity 
of honey ; it has therefore been named by the French colonists Liane a sirop. 
Klugia is a native of Mexico. Achimenes is a genus first introduced from 
Jamaica, and named Cyrilla pidchella, now laiown as A. coccinea. A. longijlora 
was discovered in ravines in Guatemala, and sent to England in 1840 ; the 
remarkable character of the formation of the flower is the extreme flatness of the 
corolla at the top of its long curved tube. It also affords an example of the 
change of colour which a flower undergoes during its expansion from the bud; 
in the early state, whilst the lobes of the corolla are small and still folded over 
each other at the top of the tube, they are of a pale yellowish hue, the tube a dull 
purple ; when fully grow^n and expanded, they acquire a bright purple, and the 
tube becomes of a yellowish green colour. Alloplectus sjmrsijlorus is one of the 
most brilliant flowers of the evergreen woods of Rio Janeiro ; the calyx and bracts 
are crimson, the corolla golden and extremely beautiful. 

This Tribe is dispersed in each portion of the world, but in very different 
numbers. Gesnera and its immediate allies belong entirely to the Tropical and 
hot regions of America. Other genera are natives of Asia ; Streptocarpus of the 
Cape of Good Hope ; Fieldia of Australia ; Ramondia and Haberlea are found 
in Europe. 



IjmEHSlVf Of iXMMr.r,. 



83 




Icu Jh 3a 



■ y V 



4c 4-1' 



EldeL 



The/ Craruberry Tnhe/ 



DaySc Sorv,Linutad/ 



83 



VACCINIACE^. 



THE CRANBEERY TRIBE. 



Small trees and shrubs, much branched, often angular irreguLarly, frequently 
evergreen, sometimes rooting on other trees. The leaves are alternate, lui- 
divided, without stipules, often having resinous glands on the notches at the 
edges, and on the under surface. The flowers are solitary or on branches. The 
calyx is above the ovary, entire, or with four to six lobes. The corolla is of 
one petal, lobed like the calyx. The stamens are distinct, twice as many as the 
lobes of the corolla, inserted into a disk ; the anthers have two cells, bursting by 
pores at the top, and sometimes two horns. The fruit is a fleshy berry crowned by 
the remaining portion of the calyx, succulent, having four to ten cells, with one or 
many seeds in each. The seeds are minute, and contain fleshy albumen. 

This Tribe has most affinity with Ericaceae. 

Astringent properties prevail in the bark and leaves ; subacid in the fruit. 

Vacciuium is a genus of which Britain possesses a few species, North America 
several. V. MyrtiUus (1) is frequently seen in favourable localities, in rocky 
woody places, in the southern counties of England, but is much more abundant in 
the north. In Cumberland, it adorns the wooded banks of glens and waterfalls, as 
well as the more open heaths and commons. In the Highlands of Scotland it is so 
plentiful as to afford a supply of food to the moor-game, and also much employment 
to the poor people, who collect the fruit to sell in the market towns for preserving 
with sugar for winter use. In the form of jelly it is usually one of the various in- 
gredients of a traveller's repast at a village inn. "When the berries are ripe, it is a 
remarkably pretty plant ; but in Switzerland it becomes a much more striking 
embellishment to the scene, particularly when in autumn the leaves change to red. 
On the highest part of the Simplon Pass the groi;nd is covered with it in a dwarf 
state, but the tinted foliage adds a very pleasing effect amidst the wide dreary 
tracts. V. Vitis Ida'a (2) the Cowberry, is a smaller plant, usually not more than 
four or five inches high ; this is also an Alpine species, and is found in considerable 



1. Vacoiniuiii ^^yr^i^hlK, Bhick Whorllc-berry. 


4. Tliiljaudiii luiriei/nlii, l^iiiirijntrd Tliihinidhi. 


Britain. 


Himalayas. 


1a Staiiitii 1b Seed. 


4a SUimen mid Pistil. 


2. Vaccininm Tltis Idtea, Bed TVIiiirlle herry, or 


4b PistU. 4c Stamen. 


Coirherry. Britain. 


4d Section of Ovary. 


•>. Oxycoccus macrocurjjiis, Lanje C rnuherry , 


5. Gaylussacia sermta. Mountains of Siliiet. 


America. 


6a. Yaccinium amenmim, Stamen. 


.J A Stamen. 


6b Section of Fruit. 6c Section of Seed. 



VACCINIACE-E. 

al)umlance in the north of England, and in all mountainous districts of Europe. 
In Sweden and Norway, a preserve of the fruit is a constant accompaniment to 
roast meat. V, uliginosum, the Bilberry, is another British species, with large 
black fruit, the juice more acid, less wholesome, and said to possess narcotic qualities. 
Y./ormosum, of China, is esteemed sacred; the flow'ers come forth at the beginning 
of the year, and are then used as religious offerings by the Chinese in their temi)les. 
V. padifolinm is an evergreen shrub of ^Madeira : V. meridionale of Jamaica, 
Oxycoccus derives its name from the Greek of acid berri/ ; the slender revolute 
petals distinguish it from Vaccinium. 0. macrocarpus (3) is the well-laiown 
American Cranberry, an early importation from North America ; although it can 
be cultivated in peat districts in this country, the fruit is neither so abundant nor 
good. 0. palustris, the British Cranberry, is plentiful in watery bogs of Cumber- 
laud and elsew'here ; the fruit is agreeable when cooked, and much eaten in the 
northern counties. The silversmiths of Sweden employ it for an acid to destroy 
the external particles of copper alloy in silver plate. 

Thibaudia has a more highly developed corolla than is usual in this tribe, and 
has less of an Alpine character, although the different species inhabit lofty moun- 
tains. Some flourish on the Andes of Peru and Quito, and some on the mountains 
of New Granada ; others grow on the Himalayas and Neilgherries of India. T. 
variegata (4) is a native of the mountain-forests of Silhet, the flowers appearing in 
the cool season, the seed ripening in July. T. macrophijlla bears abundant fruit, 
which is made into wane. The flowers of T. Quereme yield an arom.Ttic tincture 
to the Peruvians, who esteem it as a remedy for toothache. Gaylussacia serrata (5) 
is another of the small evergreen shrubs which adorn the mountains of Silhet, 
flowering in Februarj^ Gaylussacia is found also in Java. 

This Tribe abounds in the Temperate regions of the world, particularly in 
swampy or subal]nne countries ; some species inhabit the mountains of Central 
Asia, others belong to the Andes of South America, where a few are parasitical : 
some are natives of North America, and some belong to the moors, marshes, and 
mountains of Europe. 



LIBRARY 
OF THE 



84 




la Za 2h 



ET.id 






Dc^ &, Sarv.Lvruted/ 



84 



E Pt I C A C E ^. 



THE HEATH TRIBE. 



Trees, slirubs, and underslirubs ; the leaves are evergreen, entire, whorled 
or opposite, without stipules. The inflorescence is variable, the flower-stalks 
generally have small bracts at their base. The calyx is four or five cleft, 
nearly equal, placed below the ovary, and persistent. The corolla is of one petal, 
four or five cleft, like the calyx, occasionally separable into four or five petals, 
regular or irregular. The stamens are equal in number to the divisions of the 
corolla, or twice as many ; the anthers are two-celled, separate either at the apex or 
base by a disk, or secreting scales ; the fruit is a capsule, many-celled, and many- 
seeded, opening in various ways, rarely a berry, as in Arbutus ; the seeds are 
minute. 

This extensive tribe may be divided into two sections. The true Heaths are 
amongst the most delicately beautiful of plants, but have scarcely any valuable pro- 
perties ; only a few of the succulent berries of some genera are eatable. Rhodo- 
dendron and its allies are noble ornaments of the countries where they grow na- 
turally, and contribute highly to the embellishment of those to which they have 
been transplanted ; in this section dangerous narcotic qualities prevail. 

Erica was known only in its humble European s])ecies till towards the close of 
the last century, when vast numbers were discovered at the Cajjc of Good Hope by 
Francis Masson. The neatness of the foliage, and the graceful elegance of the 
flowers, which are of considerable duration, render them worthy of the skill which 
lias made their cultivation so successful in England. Erica cinerea (1) is extremely 
abundant in many parts of Britain, combining with Calluna vulgaris, Ling or 
Heather, to adorn the barren commons and moors with brilliant purple flowers, 
affording food and shelter to birds, and thatch for the cabins of the peasants in the 
northern districts. E. tetralix (2) is a less common species, of much beauty, 
although the flowers are comfined to a small terminal cluster. 



1. Erica cinerea, Five-leaved Heath. Britain. 

1a Slumen. 

2. Erica tetralix, Cross-leaved Heath, Britain. 

2a Stamen. 2b Pistil. 
.'3. Erica ventricosa, Porcelain Heath. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
1. Aibutus Unedu, Strairberry Tree. 

S. Europe and Ireland. 



5. Rhododendron ferriiifineum, Bitsly -leaved 
Rhododendron. Switzerland. 

5a Stamen. Su J'istil. 

C. Rhododendron arhoreum, Tree Rhododen- 
dron. Himalayas. 

7. Kalmia latifoliu, Broad-haved Kalmia. 

Nortli America. 

8. Capsule of II. alhifloniiH. 



EKICACE.E. 

Arbutus Uncdo (4) seems to liavc attractt-il notice at an early period, having 
Itoen known to and descriliod by Dioscorides. It is one of the finest shrubs of 
southern Europe, and is also found in luxuriant growth on the limestone rocks 
al)out Killaruey, in Ireland, whither it was probabl}' conveyed from Spain. Al- 
though not a native of England, it flourishes remarkably well in the south parts of 
Hampshire aud elsewhere, bearing both flowers and fruit during the autnum ; the 
bark and leaves are astringent. In Corsica, a wine is prepared from the berries, 
but it is said to have narcotic ])roperties. 

Rhododendron ferruginemn (5) is a striking ornament of Alpine regions, ad- 
vancing to the extreme limits of woody vegetation ; the bright red flowers of the 
Rose des Aljies frequently delight the mountain traveller when he meets with it on 
bis solitary path, or it is brought to him as a humble offering by the peasants of 
the country. The wood furnishes the shepherds of the lofty summer pastures with 
their only fuel. R. hirsatum is another Alpine species. R. arhoreum (G) is a 
splendid tree of forty feet in height, growing on the southern districts of the Hima- 
layas, between oOOU and 8000 feet of elevation ; it sometimes occurs in a broad 
belt on the slope of the mountain, and in March and April, when each branch is 
terminated with a cluster of the crimson flowers, it has a very magnificent aspect ; 
the wood is much used by the natives, and a kind of jelly is made from the flowers. 
R. dauriciivi is an early flowering shrub of English gardens, introduced about 
seventy years ago from Eastern Asia, where it spreads over the IMongolian Deserts, 
and abounds around the Lake Baikal, and in the fir- woods on the shores of the 
rivers. R.pci/(<<c«<m is supposed to have yielded the honey which Xenophon de- 
scribes to have been so injurious to the Greeks in the celebrated retreat of the Ten 
Thousand, causing them to fall down after eating it, as if poisoned. R. lapponicxmi 
belongs to the Northern regions, and extends to the plains of the Arctic zone. 

Kalmia lattfolia (7) inhalits rocks and sterile ground in North America ; the 
flowers exude a deleterious kind of honey, and the leaves are poisonous to animals, 
but the Indians make use of the hard wood for various purposes ; from the roots 
also they make dishes and other small articles. The different sj)ecies of Azalea 
fx'om Asia and North America afford hardy and prnamental shrubs for gardens. 
On the mountains of the trojiics, Befaria takes the place of Rliododendron, and 
covers the rocky slopes to the height of 10,000 feet. Humboldt discovered B. 
ledifolia on the Silla de Caraccas at 6000 feet ; some species belong to the lower 
hills. The bright red berries of GvLaltarin procxmibens contain an aromatic oil used 
medicinally in North America. G. hisjnda, the Wax-cluster of Tasmania, has 
white berries of. an agreeable flavour. Andromeda is a genus belonging to Aljjiue 
regions and bogs ; A. h^2)no ides extends over wide plains in Lapland. Ledum and 
others inhabit similar locaUties in North America. 

This Tribe is dispersed in the greatest abundance in South Africa and North 
America ; in Euro])e it is common, but limited to a few species ; in South America 
it is found both within and beyond the Tropics ; it abounds less in Northern Asia 
and India, and is almost unknown in Australia. When found in Tropical regions, 
it exists only on mountains. Erica covers vast tracts at the Cape of Good Hope, 
to which by far the greater number of species esj^ecially belong. Befaria is peculiar 
to the mountains of South America. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY Of ILLINOIS 



ffi 




ETdet.- 



The/Wapoleonoy Trihey. 



Bay ^ SoTvJ.irruted' 



85 



BELYISIACE^. 

THE NAPOLEONA TRIBE. 



A FEW shi'ubs of pmall size, ha\nng a soft white wood. The leaves ai-e 
evergreen, alternate, leathery, with thick channelled stalks, entirely destitute 
of stipules. The flowers grow from the stem and branches, at the base of the 
leaf-stalk, siirroimded at their base by a few round imbricated scales. The calyx 
is a thick leathery cup, divided into five ovate segments at the top, not folded 
over each other in the bud. The corolla is composed of three parts or rings ; the 
outer circle is of one petal, five-lobed, and having in each di\asion seven strong 
ribs, which in the bud are folded closely together, tlie thin membranous portion' 
of the petal lying wrinkled between them. As the flower expands, the ribs still 
give it a plaited appearance. The next ring is a row of slender curled fine-pointed 
threads. The third is of a cui^-shape, the top notched and rolled inwards. The 
stamens are twenty, and form a circle within the cup, surrounding the short solid 
style ; the filaments are wide at their base and narrow at the top ; the anthers are 
oblong, two-celled, attached to the top of the filaments. The ovary lies embedded 
in the mass formed by the base of the corolla, stamens, and <lisk ; it has five cells, 
in each of which two ovules are suspended from the top of the central axis. The 
upper part of the style is five-angled, and is terminated by a flat stigma, also 
having five angles, at the points of which are small glands or pores. The fruit 
is a soft spherical berry, surmounted by the calyx, with a tough rind and 
mucilaginous pulp. The seeds are large, kidney-shaped, and contain no albumen. 

This Tribe has most afiinitj' with Ehizophoracefe, chiefly through Kandeha. 

The rind of the fruit contains tannin. 

The principal genus of this Tribe was named Napoleona, by Palisot de 
Beau vols, who discovered it in Oware, to the south of Benin, in Africa, 1807, 
when the great conqueror of France was in the ephemeral zenith of his glory. 
Desvaux subsequently named it Belvisia, in honour of its discoverer, and the 
tribe was thence called Belvisiacese. Napoleona imperialis (1) is a shrub of 
stately growth, about eight feet in height ; the large glossy leaves render it very 
ornamental even in the winter, but it is at present rarely to be seen in con- 
servatories. The flower and fruit are of remarkable structure ; in the latter may 
be traced a resemblance to that of Careya and Barringtonia, and still more to the 



1. Napoleona imperialis. 

Oware and Senegambia. 
1a Calyx. 1b Section of Flower. 



Ic Stamen magnijicd. Id Cup and Stigma. 
1e Criss Section of Ovary. 
If Section of Ovary. 1g Seed. 

A A 



BELVISIACE^. 

Pomegranate amongst Myrtacese. A singular formatiou in the wood is found to 
be nearly similar to that of young plants of Rhizophora, both containing slender 
bristle-like tubes, which are perceptible on breaking it crosswise. The strong ribs 
and plaiting of the corolla is also very similar to that of the calyx of Bruguiera 
gymnorhiza in the IMangrove tribe. But although several points of resemblance 
to other plants are discernible, yet the two remarkable genera of which this tribe 
is composed are clearly distinguished from every Icnown order. Very little has 
been ascertained respecting their properties or uses, but the pulpy fruit of 
Napoleona is said to be eatable, and the Africans i)repare a kind of ink from the 
rind, which is full of tannin. In the unexplored regions of Africa, it is probable 
that other species may be discovered. N. hnperlalis has been found in Senegambia 
by the French traveller and naturalist, lleudelot. 

Asteranthus, the other genus of this tribe, is an evergreen shrub, the leaves 
two or three inches in length, smooth and sharp-pointed. The calyx has usually 
the lobes ending in a glandular hair. The flower is from two or three inches in 
diameter, the edge of the petal notched and hairy, strongly ribbed and veined. 
The conical style is terminated by a six-rayed stigma. The flowers are solitary, 
without bracts, and are seated in the axils of the leaves, like those of Napoleona. 

This limited Tribe belongs entirely to Tropical Africa. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

ijr\!iVERSI"nf Of ILLINOIS 



Sf 




Ja^ Ih i^ 



y 31 ^^ s- 



I.TM' 



The- Myrsute Tribe 






Day Si Sony. IimiM- 



8G 



MYRSINACEiE 



TPIE MYFvSINE TRIBE. 



Trees and shrubs ; the leaves are undivided, entire at the edges, or serrated, 
leathery, smooth, AAithout stipules; some are undershruLs, with opposite or ter- 
nate leaves. The flowers are small, and grow in umbels, or panicles, or from the 
base of the leaf-stalks; seldom from the ends of the branches. The calyx is 
four or five-lobed, persistent. The corolla is of one petal, attached to the base 
of the ovary, divided at the top into four or five equal segments, often marked 
\\-ith sunken dots or glandular lines. Sometimes the stamens and pistils are in 
separate flowers ; the stamens are four or five, opposite to the segments of the 
corolla, and inserted into its base; the filaments are distinct, rarely connected, 
sometimes wanting ; occasionally five imperfect petal-like filaments are alternate 
with the others ; the anthers are attached to the filaments by their base, and open 
by two longitudinal cells. The ovary is free, or partially adherent to the calyx, 
with a single cell, containing many ovules. The style is single, often very short, 
the stigma undi^dded or lobed. The fruit is fleshy, containing one or many seeds. 
The seeds are angular or roundish, with a hoUow scar and a single covering ; they 
contain abundant horny albumen. 

This Tribe is allied to Sapotacese, chiefly through Jacquinia ; and to the IMan- 
grove tribe by iEgiceras. 

Shghtly pungent fruit and astringent bark are the only known properties of 
these plants. 

Myrsine is a genus of evergreen shrubs dispersed over a wide range of latitude 
in Africa, although the whole tribe is very limited in its geographical boundaries. 
M. africana grows at the Cape of Good Hope, in Abyssinia, and in the Azores, at 
the northern limit of these plants. M. retusa (1 ) is a shrub about two feet high, 
with small flowers, scarcely visible amongst the leaves, but beautifully marked with 



1. JMyrsine retusa, Small-leaved Myrsine. 

Azores. 
1a Flower. 1b Stamen. Ic Pistil. 

2. Suttonia divaricala, Strarigliiuj Sutionia. 

Lord Auckland's Isle. 
2a Flower. 2b Variety of Pistil. 
2 c Section of Fruit. 



'3. Ardisia ere nulata, Crenulate-leaved Ardisia. 

West Indies . 

3a Flower. 3b Section of Fruit. 
3c Seed. 
■4. Jacquinia auraiiliaca, Orange-Jlowered Jac- 
quinia. Sandwich Isles. 

5. Embelia rohusta. Ceylon. 

6a. Seed r/Mtesa aryentea. 



MYRSINACE^. 

red (lots, as seen in the microscope. The berries of M. hifaria are said to have 
medicinal properties ; the plant is sometimes called Box by European travellers on 
the Himalaya, where it grows with an aspect similar to that of our English garden 
plant so called.' IM. scmiscrrata and SI. acuminata ascend as high as ^Nlussooree, 
above all other species of the tribe in thai mountain region, excepting Majsa 
argentea (6) and jNI. indica. Suttonia divaricata (2) is remarkable as being the 
only shrub growing on plains on a level with the sea between 35° and 52° of S. 
lat. It is frequent in the woods which border the soiirces of rivers in the Bay of 
Islands in New Zealand ; in Lord Auckland's Isle, in 50°, it becomes more woody 
and straggling, but is of pleasing aspect when the berries are ripe. This is one of 
the species of this tribe scattered over a considerable space of latitude, where the 
temperature is favourable, especially in islands. Ardisia is an ornamental evergreen 
genus, belonging both to the East and West, in hot latitudes. A. solanacea 
embellishes the moist valleys of Coromandel with its fine red and white flowers, 
with large erect anthers, and profuse abundance of bright red berries, which have 
the property of staining paper brown. A. imnctata and A. hntiginosa are natives 
of China. A. exceha, the tallest species, grows in Madeira, and is a tree thirty 
feet high, the leaves shaped like those of the Laurel. A. crenulata (3) attains 
about ten feet in its native country, but is not usually so large in English 
conservatories. The red berries remaining throughout the winter, render it a 
very desirable species for cultivation. A. acuminata is a native of Guiana. 
Jacquinia was named after Nicolas von Jacquin, a celebrated Dutch botanist, 
who resided and studied many years at Vienna, where he published several 
excellent works on plants, with coloured plates, chiefly from specimens in the 
botanic gardens of Schoenbrunn and Vienna, founded by the wise Maria Theresa. 
J. aurantiaca (-i) is remarkable for its colour. J. armillaris is a finer species, 
with white flowers, the branches of which are woven into garlands in America. 
Embelia rohusta (5), emhilla in Ceylon, is one of the largest trees of the tribe, 
affording useful timber and valuable shade. The berries are said to be unwhole- 
some. Theophrasta records the name of one who, 350 b.c, studied and wrote 
on the natural history of plants, in Lesbos and Athens. T. Jussicei combines the 
modem botanist and the ancient sage ; it is a prickly evergreen shrub growing 
in St. Domingo, there named le petit Coco. The seeds are pounded and made 
into a land of bread, much eaten by the natives. Clavija of South America has 
a pleasant fruit, and a root useful in medicine. The fruit of Reptonia huxifolia, 
the Goorgoora of Cabool, is sold in the bazaars, but not relished by Europeans ; 
it is about the size of a cherry, and very succulent, ^giceras is a singular genus, 
differing in the seed-vessel being a follicle, and the seeds destitute of albumen. 
It has the peculiar power of sending roots out of its seeds in moist air before 
reaching earth. Resinoiis glands have been discovered in the wood, flowers 
and fruit of several species. 

This Tribe inhabits chiefly in the Indian Ocean. No species have been 
discovered in Asia further north than in latitude 40°, in Japan. In Africa, none 
are known to extend beyond the Tropic of Cancer, on the north. Myrsine 
floridana is the only species of North America, in latitude 30° north. None 
belong to Europe. 



LIBRARY 
OF THE • 
imEmm Of ILLlJVui: 



m 



^-^ 




2h Zc 4w ^'b 



ETicl 



The SappoddlaTnhe' 



J)av .iSonZinatu 



87 



SAPOTACE J3. 

THE SAPPODILLA TPJBE. 



Trees and shrubs, nearly all tropical, of soft wood, often abounding in a milky 
glutinous juice. The leaves are alternate, or occasionally crowded into circles 
on the branches, without stipules, entire at the edges, leathery. The flowers 
proceed from the base of the leaf-stalks. The calyx is regular, divided into four 
or eight lobes, persistent. The corolla is composed of one petal attached to the 
base of the ovary, regular, deciduous ; its divisions usually equal in number to 
those of the calyx, rarely more, imbricated in the bud, sometimes fleshy. The 
stamens arise from the corolla, are of definite number, distinct ; those which bear 
fertile anthers of the same number as the divisions of the corolla and opj)osite them ; 
the imperfect stamens alternate with them. The ovary is above the base of the 
calyx, with several cells containing one ovule each ; the style is single, the stigma 
undi\-ided, or sometimes lobed. The fruit is fleshy, with several one-seeded cells ; 
the seeds are nuts, often with a bony shining case, having a long slender scar on 
the inner face; they sometimes contain albumen. 

The Tribe is closely allied to Ebenaceae ; chiefly distinguished by soft wood, 
milky juice, and complete flowers. 

Astringent bark and oily fruit are the principal properties. 

Sapota is derived from the Mexican name Zapotl. Achras, a Greek name for a 
wild pear, is a genus of several large trees bearing eatable fruit. A. Sapota (1) 
grows to the height of twenty feet before branching, abounding in white tenacious 
juice ; the fruit varies in size and shape, brown when ripe, the pulpy flesh yeUow ; 
like the Medlar, it is sweet in decay ; two seeds only ripen, and are of pleasant 
scent and taste. It is much eaten by natives, and is also the favourite food of 
turkeys and other birds. Cumana and Margaretta Isle are the best stations for it. 
The Humming-bird forms its nest upon the leafy branches. The bark is used as a 
remedy for fever in Peru, A. mammosa, the Marmalade-tree of America, is a 
larger species ; and the leaves being a foot long, and three inches wide, render it a 
valuable shade near dwellings. The cream-coloured flowers are succeeded by a 



Achras Sapota, Sappodilla Plum. 

South America. 
1a Corolla, opened. 
1b Pistil. Ic Seed. 

Isonandra yalla, Guttu percha Tree. 

Singapore and Borneo. 
2a Flower. 'in Stamen. 2c Fruit. 



3. Mimusops Kauki, Indian Mimusops. 

Manilla and China. 

4. Chrysophyllum Caiuito, Star-Apple. 

West Indies. 
4a Flower. in Ovary. 

4c Section of Fruit. 



SWOT ACE JE. 

large fruit having the luscious flavour of quince marmalade. But the most univer- 
sally important tree of this tribe is Isonandra gutta (2) ; it is a remarkable instance 
of a valuable article lying dormant for a long period after its discovery, as if there 
were an appointed time for all things to cume forth for the service of man. Two 
centuries ago, Tradescant, the first collector of botanical specimens in England, de- 
scribed a substance in his museum exactly resembhng Gutta Percha ; but at that 
time many things were classed as curiosities without a thought of utility ; besides, 
the machinery by which it is now rendered available was not then invented, nor did 
many of the uses to which it is now applied exist. It was therefore removed with 
the rest of the Tradescant treasures to Oxford, and remained unperceived by the 
eyes of wisdom and science. The enormous increase of the imports of Gutta Percha 
from Singapore, after its renewed discovery, is probably unequalled ; from 2301bs. 
in 184:4:, to l,700,0001bs. in 1S48. The extensive forests of the trees in Singapore, 
Borneo, and the countless islands of those seas, yield the principal supply of this 
wonderful material, which, abounding in the lafex vessels, exudes from all parts of 
the stem and branches, on making incisions. The young leaf-buds are generally 
covered with the white glutinous fluid. It rivals and in many points resembles 
Caoutchouc, differing chiefly in not being elastic, and in becoming extremely 
pliable at a temperature of 145^ Fahrenheit. ]\Iimusops Kauki (3) affords gum 
from the bark, and bears a sweetish fruit, eaten by the natives of India. From the 
aromatic flowers of M. Elengi a fragrant water is distilled. Chrysophyllum 
derives its name from the golden down which clothes the under surface of the 
leaves. C. Cainito (4) is a tall tree with slender, supple branches. The leaves, 
as well as fruit, are full of a milky juice, which is sweet and agreeable in the fruit 
when ripe. C. microphijUum is a beautiful species, with small leaves shining like 
gold and silver on the lower surface. Bassia yields from its fruit a thick white 
oily substance, like butter ; one species is the Butter-tree described by Mungo Park 
as 60 useful to the inhabitants of the interior of Africa. B. longifolia is the 
Ulupie of India, affording a valuable supply of oil for lamps. B. latifolia abounds 
still more in oil ; a large supply has lately been imported to England with the 
intention of improving the manufacture of soap ; the flowers are used in maldng 
arrack in India. The flowers of Bumelia grow in thick clusters on the stem ; the 
wood is hard, and the astringent bark used in fevers. Lucuma and Imbricaria 
bear sweet subacid fruit. 

This Tribe inhabits chiefly the Tropics of Asia, Africa, and America ; a few 
species belong to the south of North America, and to the Cape -of Good Hope. 



LIBRARY 
OF THE 
'■ "'"^RSITY Oh I 




"^^i 



i 



ih 



2a, 21 ^'^ 



(;-''■ 



•J del. 



(Meo 



The' Eh orv^' Tribe 



Dav &/Sorv.LvnEbed' 



88 



EBENACE^. 



THE EBONY TRIBE. 



Trees and shrubs, vdih heavy, solid wood, and without milky juice. The 
leaves are alternate, without stipules, entire at the edges and leathery. The 
flowers grow at the base of the leaf-stalks ; they are seldom complete, the stamens 
being imperfect in some, the pistil and ovary in others. The calyx has from 
three to seven divisions. The corolla is of one petal, attached to the base of 
the ovary, regularly divided into three to seven parts, deciduous, somewhat 
leathery, usually downy on the exterior, and smooth within. The stamens arise 
from the corolla, or from the base of the ovary, are of equal number with the 
segments of the corolla, and alternate with them, or are twice or four times as 
many ; sometimes fixed in pairs at the base of the lobes of the corolla. The fila- 
ments are sometimes simple, sometimes double, both the divisions bearing anthers 
attached by their base, lanceolate, two-celled, gaping lengthwise, sometimes bearded. 
The ovary is without a disk, many -celled, each cell having one or two ovules, 
pendulous from the top. The style is divided, seldom simple ; the stigmas divided 
or simple. The fruit is fleshy, round or oval ; the seeds have a membranous cover- 
ing, a few only ripen ; they contain albumen. 

This Tribe is allied to Sapotacese, but differs in the dense wood and watery 
juice. In some points of structure it has affinity with Oleaceaj. 

Hard wood and eatable fruits are the principal characteristics of the trees. 

Diospyros, from the Greek, the fruit of heaven, or pear of Jove, is a genus 
known to the ancients, and of considerable value in modern times in the species 
Ebony, D. Ehenum, which has been adopted as the name of the tribe. It is abun- 
dant in Madagascar, the Mauritius, and Ceylon, from whence large supphes are 
imported into Europe ; the centre of the trunk, or heart-wood, is the most valuable 
portion, from its close texture, deep black colour, and capability of fine polish. 
D. Ehenaster yields likewise an excellent wood for ornamental purposes, occasion- 



1. Diospyros Embryopteris, 


T'iscid -fruited 


2b Petal and Stamens. 


Date-plum. 


Bengal. 


2c Olands and imperfect Pistil. 


1a Flower. 1b Calyv. 




3. V<.oyena, pvhescens, Downy Royena. 


Ic Section of Fruit. 




Cape of Good Hope 
3a Calyx and Fruit. 


2. Diospyros Lotus, European 


Date-plum. 


•JB Calyx, Stamens, and PiUil. 




Italy. 


4a. Diospyros mclanoxylon. Seed. 


2a Calyx and Pixlil. 




East Indies. 



EBENACE^. 

ally marked with white and brown lines. D. cmhri/oj)tcris (1) is also named 
glutinosa, from the very glutinous nature of the fruit, used in Bengal to protect 
the outside of boats from decay ; it is a globular berry, with a yellow pulj), of 
astringent quality, but eaten by the natives in the valleys of the Circar mountains, 
where it grows ; the wood is hard, and employed for various purposes. The fruit 
of several species is considered eatable when mature, although it is generally bitter 
before ripening ; that of D. Kaki is preserved as a sweatmeat in China, and . is 
som^^imes sent to England. D. Lotus (2) bears a sweet and slightly astringent 
fruit, which was formerly supposed to be that eaten by the ancient inhabitants of 
the north of Africa, the Lotophagi, but that is since determined to be Zizyphns 
Lotus. D. virginianum, the American Date-plum, has a white brittle wood, with 
a dark brown bark, used medicinally in North America, the fruit is about the size, 
and has the same firm texture, as the Date. D, discolor is the Mabolo fruit of the 
Philippine Isles. D. melanoxylon of Coromandel yields a wood eqiial in quality to 
Ebony ; and the fruit is esteemed by the natives, as is also that of D. racemosa, 
tomentosa, and others. D. Roijlei is abundant in the Ghauts of Central India. 
D. oLovata belongs to the West Indies. Diospyros belongs to the lowest zone of 
the Peak of Teneriffe, from the shore to the height of 2000 feet. It exists also in 
several species in Hong Kong. Royena was named by Linnaeus in remembrance 
of xVdrian von Royen, who, as well as his son David, was a professor of botany at 
Leyden. It is a genus nearly confined to the Cape of Good Hope. R. puhescens 
(3) is a shrub about three feet high, with a grey bark ; the frmt, when ripe, is 
about an inch in diameter, the enlarged calyx remains reflexed from it. The rind 
of the fruit is leathery, the pulp of a fleshy nature. Maba huxifolia is a low 
shrub }aelding well-flavoured eatable berries, relished by the natives of Tongatabou, 
one of the coral isles of Polynesia, in 20'' of south latitude. The wood is dark- 
coloured and hard, available for durable purposes, as far as the size admits. 

This Tribe chiefly belongs to the Tropics of India ; a very few species extend 
northwards as far as Europe, in Italy and Switzerland. 



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O L E A C E yE. 

THE OLIVE TRIBE. 



Trees and slinibs, with branches usually forked, and ending abruptly by a 
conspicuous leaf-bud. The leaves are opposite, simple, sometimes pinnated, as in 
the Ash. The flowers grow in racemes or panicles; the flower-stalks placed 
opposite each other mth a single bract at the base. The flowers are either perfect, 
or have stamens and pistils on different flowers. The calyx is divided, persistent, 
below the ovary ; the corolla is of one petal, four cleft at the top, occasionally of 
four petals connected in pairs by the intervention of the filaments of the stamens ; 
sometimes the corolla is wanting. The stamens are generally two, in Tessarandra 
they are four, alternate, Avith the divisions of the corolla, or with the petals ; the 
anthers are two-celled, opening longitudinally. The ovary is simple, AAathout any 
disk, two-celled, the cells two-seeded : the style is simple, or wanting ; the stigma 
bifid or undivided. The fruit is either a drupe, as in Olea ; a berry, as in Ligus- 
trum ; a capsule, as in Syringa ; or a winged samara, as in Fraxinus ; often with 
only one perfect cell : the seeds have fleshy abundant albumen. 

This tribe has, in many respects, affinity with the Jasmine tribe. 

The chief character is the oil contained in the fleshy portion of the fruit instead 
of in the seed. Olea europita (I), the most valuable plant of this tribe, has been 
highly esteemed in all ages and countries ; in the earliest times, " the land of oil- 
olive" was an expression of the most desirable abundance-; to flourish like a green 
olive-tree was descriptive of the greatest vigour and prosperity ; it has also been 
considered as a token and emblem of peace since the memorable day when the dove 
came back into the Ark — " and, lo I in her mouth was an olive-leaf." The use of 
oil was early known to the inhabitants of the earth, and its value was so great that 
it became a symbol of the highest gifts and qualities. The olive-tree attains a 
great age ; some at Terni are said to have existed in the time of Pliny. Although 
Asia is its native country, it is now perfectly naturalized in different parts of the 
south of Europe, thriving best on calcareous steeps near the coast of the Mediter- 
ranean ; on the Apennines, between Genoa and Spezia, the eftect of the grey 
foliage, mingled with the bright green of the chesnut and the dark glossy leaves 



1. Olea Europmn, Olive-tree. South Europe. 

1a Cahj.v and Pistil. 1b Flower. 

Ic Stone of Fruit. 

2. Syringa vulijaris. Common Lilac. Persia. 

2a Calyx and Pistil. 

2b Flower, opened. 2c Caiisulc. 



3. Li'^M'^iii'mn vitli/are, Common Privet. Britain. 

.3a Flower, ni(i(/iiijied, 

•is Section of Fruit, 
i. Fva.^mus pendiiln, JJroopiny Ash. England. 

4a Flower, matjnijifd, 

4b Seed. 

B B 



OLEACE^. 

of the fig, 18 extremely pictureBqne. The unripe fruit, when prepared in salt and 
water, is thought an agreeable condiment by Italians and Spaniards ; oil is ob- 
tained by pressure fri)m ripe fruit ; the bark is bitter and astringent. O.fragrans 
is a low shrub with yellow flowers, which are odoriferous as well as the leaves, and 
much valued in Cliina. 0. e.rceha is the largest tree that grows at 5000 feet on 
the Peak of Teneriffe. Syringa, the Lilac (2), now acclimatized in England, is 
become one of the most common and generally admired of shrubs, producing 
highly fragrant flowers in great abundance in I\Iay. In the time of Henry VIII., 
six lilacs were mentioned in the gardens of Nonsuch, as " trees which bear no 
fruit, but only a pleasant smell." In the marshy districts of Berri, in France, the 
peasants employ the flowers as a remedy against the intermittent fever which pre- 
vails there. Ligustrum vulr/are (3) grows wild in the Isle of Wight and otlier 
parts of England, and is one of those few hardy shrubs which can endure the 
smoky atmosphere of cities, although its delicate flowers come forth only in a purer 
air. An ever-green variety forms remarkably good hedges. ^Yhen of sufficient 
size, the wood is useful; the berries yield a green dye for wool. h. lucid tan 
produces a kind of vegetable wax in China. 

Fraxiuus excelsior, the common Ash, is one of the most graceful as well as 
useful of British trees : in form and foliage easily distinguished among other forest 
trees. In the Isle of Wight it grows remarkably well, and is particularly beau- 
tiful when the leaves acquire their peculiar pale golden hues in autumn. F. 
pendula (4) was first discovered at Gamblingay, in Cambridgeshire. F. rotundifolia 
and other species yield from the bark the INIanna known and used medicinally, the 
sweetness of which is a distinct principle called INIannite, differing considerably 
from Sugar. \^arious species belong to North America ; the yellow Ash grows 
about the branches of the Mississippi, where the large stems are burnt out into 
canoes by the French fur-traders, and serve to convey their stores to New Orleans. 
The outer bark is eight inches thick ; the inner bark of a yellow colour. 

The plants of this Tribe are chiefly natives of Temperate climates, approaching 
towards the Tropics, but scarcely found beyond Go" of north latitude. PVaxinus 
abounds in North America and Europe ; Phyllirea and Syringa belong to Asia 
and Europe ; one species is a native of Nepal ; a few species have been discovered 
in Australia. 



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JASMINACE^. 

THE JASMINE TRIBE. 



Shrubs, often with a twining stem. The leaves are opposite or alternate, mostly- 
compound, in threes, or pinnated with an odd leaflet, sometimes they are simple; the 
leaf-stalks are usually jointed. The flowers grow on ojipcsite stalks, or in small 
spreading clusters ; the calyx has from five to eight divisions or teeth, and is per- 
sistent. The corolla is of one petal, attached to the hase of the ovary, tubular 
below, salver-shaped at top, and parted into from five to eight segments, which 
rest upon each other, and are twisted or valvate in the bud. The stamens are two, 
arising from the corolla, enclosed within its tube. The ovary is destitute of a 
disk, is two-celled, two-lobed, with from one to four ovules in each cell; the style 
is single, the stigma two-lobed ; the fruit is either a berry or a capsule. The 
seeds have no albumen, or very little, their outer covering sometimes membranous. 

This Tribe has affinity with the Olive tribe ; the fruit indicates a connexion 
Avith Verbenaceaj. 

A fragrant oil is contained in the flowers. 

Jasminum, the type of this Tribe, derives its name from the Arabic, Yasmijn. 
Jasminum officinale (1) is the most common species cultivated in Europe, and a 
general favourite, from its delicious fragrance. Its original country is said to be 
Georgia and Circassia ; it is also a native of the East Indies, grows plentifully in 
Malabar, and there produces its two.-seeded fruit, which is not the case in this 
country. Gerard records that it was in general use for covering arbours before the 
close of the sixteenth, century. A highly-scented essential oil is extracted from the 
flowers of this species, and also from those of J. grandijiorwm and J. adoratis- 
simum. J. Samhac is one of the most odoriferous, miich esteemed by the Arabs 
and other Eastern nations ; the first locality of its introduction to England is said 
to be the gardens of Hampton Court, where it grew towards the end of the 
seventeenth century, but was subsequently lost. A few shrubs flourished also in the 
garden of the Grand Duke of Tuscany, at Pisa, from whence fresh specimens were 
brought to this country early in the eighteenth century ; two varieties of this 



1. 


Jasminum o^c/««/f, Common Jusminc Asia. 


•Sa Flower opened. 




1a Jasminum HgimtrifoUum. 


3b Fruit. 




Flou-er, opened. 


3 c Seed. 




1b. Section of Ovary. 


3d Seel ion. 


2. 


Jasminum _/>-h/(>««s, Yellow Jasmine. 


■i. Jasminum hirsiitnm, Hairy Jasmine. 




South Europe. 


East Indies 


3. 


Nyctantlios arbor irisli.';, Nii/htjlowering 


5. Jasminum yracile, Slender Jasmine. 




Nyctanthe.i. Isast Indies. 


Norfolk Isle. 



.TASMTNACK.E. 

species have double flowers, one corolla within the other, the innermost of all 
occasionally bearing stamens. J. frutkans (2) is one of the first species planted 
in England ; its yellow flowers are not fragrant, but it is of a hardy nature, grows 
well in sheltered gardens, and bears a black berry. J. gracile (o) is one of the 
beautiful plants which flourish abundantly in the moist climate of Norfolk *Isle, in 
31° of south latitude. J. panivulatum and J. undulatinn are climbing species of 
China, with white flowers. J. azon'cum of ]Madeira has yellow flowers. Nyctau- 
thes (3) from the Greek for night-Jiower, is an evergreen shrub, expanding its 
flowers only during the darkness of night, whence also the specific name of arhor 
tristis ; it is not often to be seen in English gardens, but is very commonly 
cultivated throughout India, and grows wild on the lower range of the Himalaya, 
in several regions, as well as on the banks of the Irawaddy. In the morning, the 
fragile blossoms lie scattered on the grouiid, and are collected by the native women, 
and strung into wreaths, as necklaces, or garlands for the hair. The tubes of the 
corolla when dried yield an orange dye. 

The plants of this Tribe are chiefly natives of the Tropics of India, aboiinding 
in all parts. One species of Jasminum has been found in South America, and 
three species of Bolivaria. A few belong to Africa and the neighbouring islands. 
New Holland possesses several ; two extend into the southern regions of Europe. 



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STBYCHNACE^. 

THE STRYCHNOS TRIBE. 



Trees, slirubs, and herbaceous plants. The leaves are opposite, entire at the edges, 
usually having stipules which adhere to the leaf-stalks, or are combined into sheaths. 
The flowers are on branching stalks, or solitary. The calyx is below the ovary, 
four or five-parted ; the corolla is regular or irregular, four or five or ten-parted. 
The stamens arise from the corolla, all placed on the same line. The ovary is above 
the calyx, two-celled, the style continuous with it : the stigma simple. The fruit 
is either a capsule with two cells, or a drupe with one or two-seeded stones, or a 
berry with the seeds immersed in pulp. The seeds are sometimes winged, they 
contain fleshy or cartilaginous albumen. 

These plants have affinity with Apocynaceae, but are distinguished by not 
having milky juice, nor a glandular stigma. 

Strong venomous properties exist in the seeds. 

The genus Strychnos includes several highly poisonous ^jpecies, fatal to man 
and animals; S. Tieute (1) is remarkable for the virulent poison obtained from 
the bark of the root ; it grows abundantly in Java, where it is called by the 
natives Tjetteh. The seed of S. vmx vomica, the Kooclila, or Poison -niit of 
the East Indies, is one of the strongest known poisons ; it has been found 
to contain two distinct principles, both acrid narcotics, and energetic in action. 
It is a small tree, bearing fruit with a bi'ittle shell, full of a gelatinous pulj), 
in which the seeds are embedded. The pulp is eaten by birds without injury, 
but the seeds contain the poisonous juices ; in small quantity they are used 
medicinally to cure the fever of the country, and the bites of venomous snakes, 
and are also employed in the distillation of sjiirits ; their texture is so hard, they 
can only be broken by a rasp or file. S. toxJfcra is the principal ingredient of 
the celebrated ^Yourali poison of Guiana. Amongst the various febrifuges of 
'Brazil is S. j^seudoquina, said to equal the famous Peruvian bark ; the whole 
plant, except the fruit, which is eatable, is intensely bitter and astringent. S. pota- 
torum, the clearing-nut of India, is a larger tree, and is of great value to the 
natives, who use the ripe seeds to purify the pond or river water, which they drink 
in preference to that of wells. They rub the inside of an Tinglazed earthen vessel 



1. Strychnos Tietite, Poisonous Strychnus. Java. 

1a Root. 

1b Section of Fruit. Ic Seed. 

2. Fagraia litloralis, Indian Fuyrtea. E. Indies. 

3. '^i^igeUiDnanlandica, Pink-root. N. America. 



4a. Strychnos iKjustrinaJloa-er. 
■4b Flower, ojiened. 
ic Calyx and Pistil. 
•Id Section of Ovary. 
4e Ci-oss section of Ovary. 



STIJYCIINACE.E. 

^nth the seeds, wliich soon causes the impure particles of the water to separate aud 
fall to the bottom, thus rendering it pure and wholesome. The pulpy fruit is 
eatable, though not thought agreeable by Europeans. Tlie fruit of S. spinosa is 
eaten by pigs in Madagascar ; that of 8. hrachiata afibrds food to deer in Peru. 
Fagra?a littoralis {'!) bears a small white flower, much resembling that of Strych- 
uos ; it is occasionally found growing in a parasitic manner upon other trees. 
F. zci/lanica has been introduced into English conservatories, but is rarely seen. 
All the species are found in the isles of the Indian Archipelago, as well as in India. 
Spigelia was named by Linnajus in honour of Adrian Spigelius, a Fleming, after- 
wards professor at Padua, in the beginning of the 17th century. S. marilandica (3) 
is considered highly valuable for its medicinal properties, both in the root and 
leaves, in North America ; it is sufficiently hardy to bear our climate in the open 
air, yet is not much loiown in gardens. S. anthclmia is one of the medicinal plants 
of the West Indies. S. glahrata is one of the poisonous plants of Brazil. The 
medicine called Pajjeeta, or St. Ignatius Beans, in India, is procured from the 
seeds of Ignatia amara. The leaves of Potalia resinifera yield a mucilaginous 
infusion, used as a lotion for the eyes in Brazil. P. amara forms a connecting link 
with the Gentians, possessing their bitter properties ; it is at the same time acrid, 
like the Dog-bane tribe. Logania is a genus belonging to New Holland, the 
flowers small and white. 

This Tribe inhabits chiefly the Tropics, a few species only are natives of New 
Holland, and North and South America. 



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APOCYNACE^. 

THE DOG"S-BANE TRIBE. 



Trees, shrubs, and a few herbaceous plants, usually with milky juice, often of a 
climbing habit. The leaves are opposite, sometimes alternate, or in circles on the 
stem, entire at the edges, without stipules, but having hairs or glands upon or 
between the leaf-stalks. The flowers generally grow from between the leaf-stalks. 
The calyx is five-parted ; the corolla of one petal attached to the base of the ovary, 
often having scales at the throat, five-lobed, twisted or folded over in the bud. 
The stamens are five, placed on the corolla, alternate with its segments ; the fila- 
ments of Apoc}'num are distinct ; of Asclepias and others, combined ; the grains 
of pollen are distinct in general, but in double masses in Asclepias ; the ovaries are 
two, with two styles, and one stigma, contracted in the middle in Apocynum, five- 
cornered with glands at the angles in Asclepias. The fruit is a follicle, capsule, 
drupe, or berry, double or single ; the seeds are numerous, usually hairy at the 
scar, \\dtli, thin, fleshy, or cartilaginous albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Gentianacece, but the form of the stigma is an 
obvious distinction, as well as the milky juice. 

An acrid juice, sometimes containing caoiitchouc, often poisonous, exists in 
these plants. 

A great variety is found in this tribe ; some species are remarkable for brilliant 
flowers ; others, for the succulent leafless stalks ; some are slender herbs, others 
have a large twisted stem coiled on the ground before rising upwards. In the 
time of Pliny, Apocynum was supposed to be poisonous to dogs, whence its name. 
A. hypericifolium (1) contains, like other species, an acrid juice ; the glutinous 
stigma attracts flies, and the irritable stamens close on them. The stalks of 
A. cannahinum yield a strong fibre, used by the North American Indians as 
hemp, making from it nets, fishing-lines, and garments. A. venetum belongs to 
the Isles of the Adriatic, Vinca (2) flourishes well in shrubberies under the shade 
and dripping of trees ; if not really indigenous, it has become naturalized in many 
parts of England ; the juice of the plant contains gallic acid, but is not milky. 

1. Apocynum hypericifolium, Hi/per i aim-leaved i 4. Ncrium Oleander, Common Oleander. 

Dofj's bane. North America, Soutli Kiirope and India, 

1a Stamens, Pistil, and GUinds. i -lA Stamen. -iB I'istil. 

1b Stamen. Ic Pistil. 5, Allamanda culhurtiea. Guiana. 

2. Y'lnca major, Greater Periwinkle. England. 5a Tube of Corolla, opened. 



2a Pistil. 2b Section of Ovary. 

2c Section of Seed. 
Cynaachum nigrum, Black Cynanchum. 

South Europe. 
;1a Seed-vessel. 3b Seed. 



5b Pistil. 5c Stamen. 

6. Stapelia marginata. Cape of Good Hope. 
7a. Asclepias Syriaca. Flower. 

7b Stamen. 7c Seed-vessel. 

8a. G\osiionem& Boryanum. Stamens a nd Pisl if. 



ArOCYNACE-E. 

-Cynanchum nigrum (8) has a singular aspect when tlie seed-vessels are formed, 
though the flowers are insignificant. Some of the most ornamental plants of this 
tribe have poisonous properties. Nei'ium (4), so beautiful in its native countries of 
the East, adorning the borders of streams, is considered very injurious ; the 
natives of India have a superstitious dread of its baneful effects. In Spain, where 
it grows abundantly, the wood is seldom used, on account of its unwholesome 
juice ; which is, however, not milky, as in most of the deleterious species. The 
simjtle leaves have a tough skin : after being soaked in water, the strong midrib 
may be easily drawn out by the stalk, and the pulp extracted ; thus a leaf is clearly 
proved to be a bag. Among the more strongly poisonous plants is Tanghinia 
veiicm'fera in INIadagascar, where formerly criminals were commanded to eat of the 
fruit, and if they stirvived, were considered innocent ; a rare occurrence, for one 
kernel M'ould suffice to poison twenty persons. Gonolobus macropliijUus is used by 
the Indians of North America to poison their arrows. Echites affords brilliant 
flowers in our conservatories, and poison for the arrows of the Mandingoes in Africa. 
Ilasseltia and others are also excessively acrid. Plumiera is a gcniis of fine 
flowers, but corrosive juices. Allamanda (5) was discovered in Guiana by Aublet, 
who saw and figured its large rough seed-vessel, which is now produced in this 
climate. Asclepias is the type of the division with stamens fixed round the style 
in a column ; it belongs almost exclusively to North America, A. curassavica 
alone growing in South America. A. sjjriaca (7) is one of the sweet-scented and 
useftil plants of Virginia; the French Canadians eat the young shoots, pre- 
pare sugar from the flowers, and collect the silky down of the seeds to stuff 
beds. The fleshy roots of A. nivea are used medicinally. Stapelia, named from 
Stapel, a Dutch commentator on Theophrastus 200 years ago, is a curious genus ; 
the succulent stalks assume divers strange forms, and the flowers have a peculiar 
aspect, sometimes from their star-shape, tough substance, and hairy clothing 
appearing to be a link, outwardly at least, with some of the lower tribes of 
animals. INIany of them have an extremely disagreeable odour : like other 
succulent plants, they exist in a dry soil ; a few are said to afford food to the 
Hottentots. Hoya carnosa is a climbing plant from Asia, now seen in almost 
all conservatories with its honey-bearing waxen flowers and fleshy leaves. H. cam- 
2)anulata has elegant clusters of pale buff flowers. Sarcostemma is a singular leafless 
climber. Caoutchouc exists in the milky juice of several species : in Collophora and 
Camarareria of South America ; in Vatea of Madagascar ; a vast supply for trade 
is obtained from Cynanchum in Penang, and Urceola in Sumatra. Alyxia has an 
aromatic bark ; many others afford medicine. Besides all these, there are several species 
yielding pleasant eatable fruit ; that of Carissa is made into an excellent jelly. 
Carpodium is esteemed by the natives of Sierra Leone. Willughbeia bears a yellow 
berry in the axils of the old leaves ; the fruit of Cerbera is agreeable. According 
to ancient tradition in Ceylon, Tabernaiuiontana dichotoma is the " forbidden fruit " 
of Paradise, and is now of nauseous flavour. T. utilla supplies a copious sweet 
milk. Gymnema lactlfera is the cow-plant of the Cingalese. Aspidosperma 
excclsum has a remarkable fluted stem, serviceable for various purposes to the 
Indians of Guiana. A. macrocarpa has a seed-vessel six inches long. Vallesia 
grows in the Galapagos Isles. 

The Tropics is the chief station of these plants ; most abundant in Asia. 
Asclepias belongs to North America. Vast numbers of Stapelia grow in barren 
tracts of South Africa ; one species alone is a native of Sicily. Cynanchum has a 
wide range betwe-^n 5[)° of N. latitude and 32° of S. latitude. Apocynum extends 
northwards into Europe, Vinca into England. 



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RHIZOPHORACEyE 

THE MANGROVE TRIBE. 



Trees and shrubs, the leaves of which are simple, opposite, sometimes dotted 
beneath, entire at the edges, or toothed, with convolute deciduous stipules between 
the leaf-stalks. The flowers grow at the ends of the branches, or at tlie base of the 
leaf-stalks ; the cal^'x is surrounded at its base by a cup-shapod bract ; the lobes 
are valvate in the bud, and are from four to twelve in number ; occasionally all 
cohere at their points and edges. The petals arise from the calyx, are equal in 
number to its lobes, and altei'nate with them. The stamens grow from the calyx 
with the petals, and are either twice or thrice their number, or numerous ; the fila- 
ments are distinct, the anthers erect. Tlie ovary is two, three, or four-celled, each 
cell containing two or more ovules suspended from the top of the central angle. 
The fruit is closed, crovrned by the calyx, one-celled and one-seeded. The seed is 
pendulous, contains no albumen. The radicle is very long, piercing the fruit when 
mature, and descending to the ground. 

This singular Tribe has affinity in structure with some allies of the Myrtle 
Tribe, with Belvisiacese in its wood, and with several others, but it is clearly dis- 
tinguished from all by the seed, growing in the fruit, with the single exception of 
^giceras in Myrsinacefe. 

The bark is generally astringent. 

Rhizophora derives its name from the Greek, in allusion to the roots which it 
bears profusely from the stem above ground. The Dutch named it wilde Rtinboom 
in their East Indian colonies ; the French call it Palettivier ; the Spaniards, Mangle. 
Throughout the Tropics, on the banks of large rivers, and along the coasts of the 
ocean, are vast tracts of Rhizophora Mangle (1) bordering the land witli a dense 
mass of spreading trees down to low-water mark, intercepting the rays of the sun, 
and causing an extremely unhealthy climate. The natives are able to pass by 
climbing dexterously through the interlacing roots and branches, witliout treading 
on the dangerous quagmire below. No one ventures to remain long in the malaria 
of such regions. The trees have a peculiarly remarkable appearance, standing on 



1. Rhizophora Mangle. Mangrove. 

Tropical Shores. 

1a. Rhizophora macrorhiza. Anther magnified. 

3. Kandelia Rheedii. 

Malabar and the Gangcy. 
2a Flower open. 2b Stamen. 



2c Pistil. 2d Seed gcnninuling. 

2e Section ofOvarg. 2f Cross Section. 

3a. Carallia zcylanica. Petal. Ceylon. 

4a. Carallia Incida. Berry. 

4e Section of Fruit. Ic Seed. 
C C 



EIIIZorHOKACE.E. 

tlie verge of land and water, apparently propped u]) by the nnmerons roots which 
proceed from the stem and descend in an arched form to the ground or water. A 
very singular effect is also added by the long seed-vessels germinating on the 
branches. To the first Europeans who penetrated amongst the islands of the 
Caribbean Sea the spectacle must have been astonishing. The course of rivers is 
often interrupted by the encroaching swamps, and travellers are occasionally obliged 
to cut a ])assage for their boat ; on the west shores of Borneo the landing at the 
mouth of some rivers is nearly impracticable from the accumulation of mud amongst 
the roots. When the radicle of the seed is developed and has pierced the capsule, 
the young plant is ready to take root immediately on reaching the mud, having the 
rare i>roperty of resisting salt water, and thus its growth is secured amidst circum- 
stances imfavourable to any other class of flowering plants. By the time the tree 
has attained two or three feet in height, it begins to send forth branches, and tlien 
fresh roots from the stem ; at about twelve feet it ceases to grow upwards, but 
spreads in branches. The roots at first are fragile, but become firm and of a grey 
colour. If their points receive any injury, they do not advance in length, though 
fresh branches sprout above, thus forming an entangled thicket, in which birds and 
insects innumerable find an abode : on the sea-coast, oysters also attach themselves 
to the branches which are submerged. The flowers have sometimes a slightly 
agreeable scent ; the anthers soon fall off, the style is prolonged into tlie fruit, said 
to be eatable, and the juice capable of fermentation into wine. Kandelia (2) is 
derived from the native name in Malabar, where the trees abound, as well as on 
the shores of the Ganges : the specific name is in remembrance of Van Rheede, an 
early Dutch traveller in India. The wood serves for fuel, the bark is dried with 
ginger and used as long pepper. The petals are still more finely fringed than those 
of Iihizoi)hora ; this species has been lately discovered growing also in an estuary 
at Little Hong Kong. Carallia, the Carallie of the Telingas, is a genus of small 
evergreen trees extending beyond the usual tropical limits of this tribe, northwards 
in India. C. lucida (4) grows on the lower range of the Circar mountains, as well 
as in Kemaon and Silhet. C. sinensis has been found in a ravine of Mount 
Victoria in Hong Kong. The petals of this genus are not fringed as others, 
merely wrinkled or notched at the edges, and the fruit is a small round berry, the 
seeds of wliich do not germinate in the seed-vessel. The astringent bark of 
Bruguiera gi/vi)iorhiza of Java and the IMoluccas is used for dyeing black. The 
wootl of several species is described to be hard and durable. A Bruguiera, whose 
ten-lobed calyx resembles strips of red leather, is one of the remarkable ])lants 
which attract the attention of a colonist or settler on the muddy shores of the 
Brisbane river, Australia. Less than twenty years ago, the site of the now pros- 
perous port of Adelaide was a Mangr ive swam]'. 

This shigular Tribe inhabits the shores of the Tropics ; Carallia penetrates into 
the north of India. 



LiERARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 



S4 




'"%;l^> 



la. 



11 Ic 



Zx 2h 



ETM 



y 



The/ GentuwjT-rihe/ 



94 



GENTIANACE^, 



THE GENTIAN TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants, and a very few slirubs; generally smooth, occasionally of 
a twining habit. The leaves are opposite, rarely alternate ; usually without leaf- 
stalks, sometimes having stalks wadened at the base into a kind of sheath ; entire 
at the edges, generally three-ribbed, without stiioules. The flowers are at the ends 
of the branches, or at the base of the leaf-stallvs, regular, very seldom irregular. 
The calyx is below the ovary, divided at the toj"), persistent. The corolla is of one 
petal attached to the base of the ovary, tubular below, divided above into from 
four to eight segments, equal to those of the calyx ; the top of the tube, or the 
segments sometimes finely fringed ; the corolla is sometimes prolonged into a spui 
at the base ; in the bud state plaited or folded. The stamens are inserted on the 
corolla, alternate with its segments ; some are occasionally imperfect. The ovary 
is composed of two carpels, one or two celled, many-seeded. The style is single, 
stigmas two ; the seed-vessel is a capsule or a berry containing many seeds on the 
margins of the valves. The seeds are small, and contain soft fleshy albumen. 

This Tribe has close affinity Avith Apocynacejfi, but is without milky juice, 
and the seed-vessel usually a capsule, not a foUicle. 

Intensely bitter juice exists in these plants. 

Pliny relates that Gentius, Idng of Illyria, was the first to discover and 
appreciate the tonic properties of the genus, which was consequently named after 
him Gentiana. G. lutea, of the Alps, is one of the most powerfully bitter species ; 
in some parts it covers Avide tracts, but remains untouched by cattle ; the root 
is large, affording an abundant supply of the bitter juice for medicinal purposes ; 
formerly it was used instead of hops for beer. The root of G. purpurea is often 
two feet in length, and is sometimes substituted for that of G. lutea. G. acaulis (1) 



1. 


Gentiana acaulis. Dwarf Gentian. Europe. 


4. 


Villarsia nymphoides, Fringed Buckbean. 




1a Flower opened. 




Bordei-s of the Thames. 




1b Stamen. Ic; Pistil. 


5. 


Chironia decussata. Cape of Good Hope. 


2. 


Erythrea centaurium, Common Centaury. 

England. 


C. 
7. 


Lisianthus Eussellianus. Mexico. 
Leianthes niyrescens. Guatemala 




2a Flower opened. 2b Ovary and Fisiil. 


8a 


. Gentiana lutea. Capsule. 






Oa 


. Chironia. bacci/era. Section of Ovary. 


•J. 


Chlora perfoliata, Perfoliate Yellow-wort. 




Ob Section of Fruit. 




Chalk, England. 




9o Seed. 9d Section. 



GENTIANACE/E. 

is a lowly species, but its single flower is large ami very beantifiil. All these 
plants flourish hcst in their native situations, but if in a suitable soil and 
undisturbed, the stalkless Gentian forms a pleasing ornament of the garden in 
spring, when flowers are rare, G. amarclla and G. campestris grow on open 
heaths and fields; the top of the tube of the corolla is curiously bearded, but 
the colour is a dull purple, ninch less attractive than the usual intense blue. A 
traveller in Switzerland will often admire with surprise the noble specimens of 
tall blue Gentian growing on the Alpine pastures, or on the verge of glaciers. A 
lofty elevation is favourable to them generally. G. imhricata ascends to SGOO feet 
on the Alps ; G. nivalis flourishes nearly on the limit of perpetud snow, unfolding its 
brilliant blue flowers amidst the wildest rocks and mountain torrents. One 
species is found on the Andes at 13,800 feet; another in Ceylon, between 6000 
and 8000 feet above the sea. Cool and pure air is essential to this genus ; it is 
therefore rare in hot countries, except on mountains ; near the equator it is not 
found below 7800 feet on the Andes. G. viscosa, with yellow flowers, belongs to 
the Canaries, several others to Siberia. G. prostrata has an extensive range on the 
surface of the globe, inhabiting the Alps .of Carinthia to the height of 9000 feet, the 
Altai Mountains in N. lat. 02^^, the summits of the Rocky Mountains in North 
America at an elevation of 16,000 feet, growing on plains on the sea-level in 
Behring's Straits, on the eastern slopes of the Andes in S. lat, 35'-\ and at the 
Straits of INIagellan. G. aplvjUa, bearing its erect yellow flowers with few or no 
leaves, adorns hollow trees in the woods w'hich clothe the hills in the island of Mar- 
tinique. G. concirma produces its delicate flowers, striped with red and white, in 
Lord Auckland's Isles in the far south. Erythrea (2) is a good example of our 
British Flora, exhibiting in a small type a very perfect representation of a peculiar 
characteristic; the twisting of the anthers after having discharged the pollen is as 
clearly slioAvn in this delicate little flower as in the closely-allied genus Chironia (5). 
Chlora (3) is one of the remai'kably neat plants that grow on the cliffs of Dover, 
and in a few other chalk districts ; the elegant golden flowers expand during sun- 
shine in July. The whole plant is bitter, and yields a yellow dye. Villarsia 
iii/mphoides (4) extends its long roots in the margins of the river Thames at 
Hampton and higher up ; the stems are several feet in length, and are kept floating 
by means of the large heart-shaped leaves. A link A\ith the w-ater-lilies is ob- 
servable in the leaves being rolled inwards when young ; it is a native also of the 
Lake of Cashmere. Exacum is another British genus belonging likewise to India. 
The most valuable plant we possess in this tribe is the Bogbean Menyanthes 
tri/oUata ; the triple leaf is not to be mistaken for any other, and the exquisitely 
fringed flowers are exceedingly beautiful. The intensely bitter properties render it 
an extremely valuable remedy, Lisianthus was first imported from Jamaica 
towards the close of the last century, L, RiissdUanns (6) is of later introduction 
from ^Mexico. The root of Frasera affords a pure bitter tonic in North America, 
used like that of Gentiana, Agathotes chiraj/(a is equally useful in the Himalayas, 
Voyra is an exception to the general character of these plants, having no leaves, 
only small brown scales, and a parasitical root. 

This Tribe extends over almost every part of the world, from plains to the 
verge of perpetual snow ; most abundant on the Alps and the Antics ; less fre- 
quent in extreme north and south latitudes; rare in New Zealand, Tasmania, 
Greenland, Iceland, and the Arctic and Antarctic islands; unknown within the 
Polar regions. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

l.'i.'!VERSITY Of ILLINOIS 



':> 




ISclel 



The/ Trumpet- Flower Irib& 



.%• .«"- ^'■'■. /./.v/^. 



9S 



BIGNONIACE J^;. 

THE TRUMPET-FLOWER TRIBE. 



Trees, shrubs, and a few herbaceous plants ; often twining or climbing. The 
leaves are opposite, very rarely alternate, compound or sometimes simple, without 
stipules, often with tendrils. The flowers are at the ends of the branches, in loose 
panicles. The calyx is entire or di\dded, sometimes a kind of sheath. The corolla 
is of one petal, attached to the base of the ovary, usually irregular ; four or five- 
lobed. The stamens are five, of unequal length, one or three imperfect ; the anthers 
are two-celled. The ovary is placed in a disk, two-celled, or partially four-celled, 
containing many seeds. The style is single, the stigma is formed of two plates. 
The capsule is two-valved, two-celled, often long and compressed, sometimes im- 
perfectly four-celled. The two plates bearing the seeds meet in the axis and unite 
in Bignonia ; in Eccremocarpus they adhere exclusively to the edges of the carpels. 
The seeds are transverse, compressed, winged, without albumen. 

This Tribe is related to several others of similar appearance in inflorescence, 
but the winged seeds fixed to a plate distinguish it from all. 

Bitter and mucilaginous properties exist in the bark. 

Bignonia, the type of this Order, was named by Toumefort after his patron, 
the Abbe Bignon, librarian to Louis the Fourteenth. All the species are remark- 
able for beautiful flowers ; some are large trees in the forests of Brazil, and yield 
excellent timber for ships ; the Ipeuma furnishes the hardest wood in Brazil ; 
another species, called the Pao darco, is found by the natives to be peculiarly 
well adapted for making bows. B. capreolata and others show very distinctly 
the curiously lobed form of the wood, sometimes having eight or sixteen 
divisions. B. radicans (1) is one of the most known in this country, in favourable 
situations remaining uninjured through the winter in the open air. It flourishes 
still more vigorously in Germany, and may be frequently seen there covering the 
walls of courts or gardens. B. echinata has a prickly capsule ; the branches are 



1. Bignonia radicans, Trumpet-Flower. 

North America. 
1a Ovary and Pistil. 1b Winged Seed. 

2. Eccremocarpus scaher, Rough Eccremo- 

carpus. Chile. 

2a Section of Ovary. 
2b Cross Section. 2c Seed. 



3. Catalpa syringifolia, Common Catalpa. 

North America. 
3a Calyx and Pistil, 
3b Stamens and Pistil. 

4. Jacarauda »i)»!os(/b/iV/, Mimosa-leaved Jaca- 

rtmda. Brazil. 

4a Calyx and Pistil. 
4b Flower opened. 



BIGNONIACE^,. 

used merlicinally. The leaves of B. rlu'ca yiclil when boiled a red starchy substance 
called chlca, with which the South American Indian.s stain their bodies; it is also 
eni]iloyed to give an orange-red hue to cotton. The tough and sup})le young 
branches of B. chcrere are woven into a kind of wicker-w'ork. The bark of B. 
Icucoxylon is considered a valuable antidote to the poisonous Manchineel tree, 
Ilippomane MancincUa among EuphorbiaceaJ. B. multijuga of the Silhet moun- 
tains, in India, bears a slender flat pod fourteen inches long, containing numerous 
winged membranaceous delicate seeds. B. xijlocarpa has a tuberculated seed-vessel 
three feet long, as large as a walking-stick ; a very remarkable appearance have 
these pods hanging in abundance from the trees on the INIalabar Ghauts. 

Eccremocarpus, named from its pendent seed, is a very elegant genus ; E. 
scaher (2) is now become a frequent inhabitant of our gardens, climbing eve;- 
trellis-work or walls in a southern position, and is of extremely elegant growth. 
Catalpa, the Indian name in North America, is one of the most beautiful of the 
flowering trees introduced to Europe. The leaves oi C si/ringifoUa (8) come forth 
late in the season, but are large and of a bright green ; when the numerous spikes 
of delicately coloured flowers a]>pcar towards the end of Jul}', the graceful beauty of 
its aspect can scarcely be surpassed. The long seed-vessels are rarely produced in 
this country ; in America, a decoction made from them is said to be a remedy for 
coughs. Although of so tender an appearance, these trees are able to endure the 
smoky atmosphere of large cities ; one of the first seen here was planted by Lord 
Bacon in the gardens of Gray's Inn, London, and as well as one in Lincoln's Inn, 
blossoms freely in summer. C. longissima of the West Indies is a taller species, 
with oblong wavy leaves. Jacaranda (4) retains its Brazilian appellation ; all the 
species have extremely graceful foliage, resembling that of ferns in general character ; 
in our conservatories, they grow freely in foliage, but seldom bear flowers. Tecoma 
is a Mexican genus, growing also in Brazil and at the Cape of Good Hope ; like 
others of this tribe, it has brilliant flowers, and contributes to the embellishment of 
the world. Some of the species have useful properties ; T. impetigino&a contains a 
large portion of tannin, and its bitter mucilaginous bark is employed for medical 
baths and other purposes. The leaA^es have also valuable healing qualities. In- 
carvillea is indigenous to China and Japan, and also has been discovered on the 
Himalayas. Amphicome arguta grows in Kunawur ; the seed-vessel is a slender 
pod, of nearly similar appearance to some of the cruciferous plants. Trigono- 
carpus belongs to the Burmese coast, Schrebera to the south of India, Wightia to 
Nepal. Fieldia is a native of New Holland. 

The plants of this Tribe adorn the Tropical countries of both hemispheres ; some 
extend to the north as far as Pennsylvania in North Ainerica ; others southwards 
to the southern parts of Chile in South America. None belong to Europe. 



LibKARY 

OF THE 

UMiVERSITY OF lUINOIS 




'M 



The. To].enioTUJjcnvT-nhe^ 



Deny .hSonlinvtal 



06 



POLEMONIACEiE, 



THE POLEMONIUM TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants, some of wliicli are climbing. The leaves arc opposite, occa- 
sionally alternate, compomid, or simple. The flowers are generalfy in panicles, 
seldom solitary ; the calyx is usually below the ovar\% five-parted at the top, some- 
times irregular, persistent. The corolla is regular, or nearly so, five-lobed. The 
stamens are five, inserted into the middle of the tube of the corolla, alternately with 
its -segments ; the pollen ' of the anthers is mostly blue. The ovary is above the 
calyx, three-celled, with few or many ovules ; the style is simple, the stigma trifid. 
The capsule has three cells and three valves, which separate from the three- 
cornered central axis. The seeds are angular or oval, containing horny albumen ; 
sometimes winged ; often enveloped in a viscid substance full of entangled spiral 
threads. 

This Tribe is connected with Convolvulaceffi by Coba3a : it has also affinity 
with Gentianacea;, but is distinguished by the three-celled ovary. 

These plants are mucilaginous and bitter. 

Polemonium was known to the ancients, and is said by Pliny to have derived 
its name from the circumstance of two kings disputing who had the honour of dis- 
covering its value. Whatever may have been the supposed efficacy formerly, it is 
now classed among the useless plants, although Polemonium cceruleum (1) is one 
of the prettiest of our native flowers. It grows chiefly in the noi'th of England and 
south of Scotland ; at Malham and Gordale, in Yorkshire, it is abundant, often as 
much as two feet high ; in cottage gardens it is a common ornament, generally 
known by the name of Greek Valerian, or Jacob's Ladder; it has been found also 
on the Himalayas. P. reptans is a creeping species of North America ; P. mexi- 
canum belongs to Mexico, P. gracile reaches the northern limit of the tribe in 
Siberia, and it is also laiown in Japan. Gilia is a genus named after a Spanish 
botanist, introduced of late years from California and Chile. The leaves of all the 
species are extremely slender, and the flowers very delicate. G. tricolor (2) was 
first brought to England twenty years ago, and is now an established favourite in the 



1. Polemonium cccnileum, Greek Valerian. 

England. 
Ia Slamen. In Capsule. 

Ic Seet'uiH of Capsule. Id Seed. 

2. Gilia triculur, Three-coloured Gilki. 

California. 



3. Phlox Drummondii, Drinnm<nul's Phlox. 

Texas. 

4. Cobsea scandens, Climbiiifi Cohica. Mexico. 

4 A Stamen. 

5a. I'istil f)/"Colloniiu (jracilh. 
5b. Section ofOvanj. 



I'OLEMONIACE^. 

garden. Phlox being derived from the Greek signifying yfa??ic, was probably at first 
applied to a different plant ; the sjiecies now so called are natives of North America ; 
they are of hardy nature and produce their bright flowers of various shades of 
pur])le late in autumn, when red or yellow flowers are more prevalent ; they are 
consequently a pleasing addition to the flower border, and help to maintain the due 
harmony of colour. P. jmiticuhita and its white variety are old inhabitants of our 
gardens, well known formerly as Lychnidea. At the base of the slender curved 
tube is a store of honey, which bees extract, biting a hole in the tube. Several 
other S2)ecies have been imported lately from North America, and though of more 
lowly growth, bear panicles of beautiful bright flowers of various shades of red and 
purple. This genus extends to Japan. Coba^a was named by Cavanilles in honour 
of Barnadez Cobo, a Spanish naturalist and author in the middle of the seventeenth 
century. It is an exception to the usual character of the tribe, being of a climbing 
habit, and possessing extraordinary power of growth in length of branches ; in the 
shelter of a conservatory, it has been observed to attain 200 feet in the course of 
the summer. The number of pores in a square inch of the under surface of the 
leaf is 20,000 ; the capacity for development in plants seems in some degree to be 
connected with the number of pores. ^listletoe has only 200 pores in the square 
inch, and never attains to any great length. Rhubarb has 40,000, and expands 
its leaf and stalk to an immense size. Cyanathus belongs entirely to lofty parts of 
the Himalaya. Collomia gracilis (5), an extremely viscid plant, is a native of 
North America, now frequent in English gardens. Lcptosiphon, so named from 
the exceedingly slender tube of the corolla, is a late importation from California, in 
which country several other genera of this tribe exist. 

These herbaceous plants are most abundant in the Temperate latitudes of North 
and South America, more particularly in the North-west regions. A few only are 
natives of Europe and Asia. In the Tropics they are unknown. 



UERARY 
OF THE 

ITMnTRr^lTY OF ILLINOIS 



91 




^/^. 



5a. 5h So 5d/ 6e> Jy 



I.Tdel 



y 



The/ Bincb-weed/ Irihe/ 



Day &>SoTbJ.ir>ate3j 



C0NV0LVULACE7E. 

THE BIND-WEED TRIBE. 



Shrubs and herbaceous plants, usually twining, and containing milky juice ; the 
stalk and leaves are smooth, or simply downy ; a few only are erect shrubs, and a 
few are leafless climbing parasites. The leaves are undivided, or lobed, seldom 
pinuatifid, and are without stipules. The flowers grow at the ends of the branches, 
or from the base of the leaf-stalks, or in dense clusters ; the flower-stalks have 
usually two bracts, which enlarge after flowering. The calyx has five divisions, 
often unequal, persistent. The corolla is of one petal, attached to the base of the 
ovary, regular, and deciduous ; the limb is five-lobed and plaited. The stamens 
are five, inserted into the base of the corolla, alternate vnth its segments. The 
ovary has from two to four cells, seldom only one, few-seeded. The style is single, 
usually jiarted at the top, sometimes with as many divisions as those of the ovary, 
and arising from their base. The stigmas are obtuse or acute. Around the base 
of the ovary is an annular disk. The capsule has from one to four cells, and is dry 
or succulent. The seeds have a small (piantity of mucilaginous or fleshy albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Boraginaceaj and Polemoniace."e. 

An acrid milky juice exists in these plants. 

Convolvulus is a genus of very beautiful, though ephemeral flowers ; it contains 
also the useful Batatas of the East and West Indies, and the medicinal gum-resin 
Scammony of Arabia. C. sepium {!) is a graceful ornament of our hedges ; the 
flowers, as usual in this tribe, wither after a few hours, but in cloudy weather 
remain open till towards evening, though they generally close before rain. The 
calyx being protected and shaded from any outward influence by the two large 
bracts is exceedingly pure and transparent in texture, affording in the microscope 
an excellent view of the circulation of juices in the cells. The root is said to possess 
properties equal to Scammony. C. americana (2) is a corresponding species in the 
hedges of America, and scarcely differs except in the bright pink colour of the 



1. Convolvulus sepium, Great Hedije Bindweed. 

England. 

2. ConyolwlxiS Americana, American Bindweed. 

Ameiica. 

3. Convolvulus Soldanella, Sea-shore Bindweed. 

Coast, England. 
•4. Ipomca purpurea, Major Convolvulus. 

America. 
5. Convolvulus tricolor, Minor Convolvulus. 

Soutli Europe. 



5a Ovary and Pistil. 5b Stamen. 

5c Capsule. 5d Top of Capaule. 

5e Cell with two Seeds. 5f Section. 

0. Ipomea quamorlit, Fine-leaved Tpomea. 

East Indies. 
7. Cuscuta epithijmum, Lesser Dodder. 

8a. Cuscuta verrucosa. Ovary and Calyx. 

8b Fruit. 8c Section of Ovary. 
'Ja. Cuscuta Europcea. Flower opened. 
D D 



CONVOLVULACE^. 

flower. C. SoIdaneUa (3) is one of the creeping-rooted plants wliich bind the 
sand of our coast in Essex and elsewhere, and is one of the three British j^lants 
existing in the Galapagos Isles. The leaves are small and tough, as is common in 
such situations ; hut the flowers are fragile, expand in the morning, and are of 
short duration. These species, and a few others, have lately been named Cal^'stegia, 
on account of the bracts. Ipomea purpurea (4) is one of the general summer 
favourites in gardens, exhibiting daily an interesting variety of colours ; the deep 
blue predominating whilst the plant is in full \'igour, gradually fading with its 
strength and the decline of temperature, the last flowers being generally pink. This 
suggests two ideas — whether the development of blue depend on the power of the 
plant to acquire carbon, or on the state of light in the atmosphere. C. tricolor (5) 
has been long admired as a flower of pleasing lively aspect. C. arvensis, of our 
waysides, is found also in ^Madeira. Ipomea quamodit (G) is one of the few 
examples of a finely-divided leaf in this order ; it was introduced into our con- 
servatories early in the seventeenth century, from the East Indies ; the West Indies 
also includes it in its flora. A traveller and botanist, now in St. Domingo, mentions 
it as adorning a grave Anth its brilliant scarlet flowers. It has likewise been found 
entwining round Euphorbia nereifoUa in South China. I. tuherosa, the arbour 
vine of Jamaica, extends its stems to a very considerable length. I. pes-caprce 
stretches runners 200 feet along the sandy beach of Panama. The root of I. 
jiandurafa, is used as Jalap in the United States ; but I. Jalapa, from Xalapa, in 
Slexico, affords the chief supply of that medicinal resinous drug. I. Turpethum, 
of the East Indies, IMalay Isles, New Holland, and the Isles of the Pacific, aflforda 
a valuable medicine. The leaves of I. maritima are used for fomentation in Brazil, 
and several other Ti'opical species possess valuable properties. Pharbitis cceridea 
yields medicine from its seeds ; P. cathartica from the root. Piptostegia is a 
medicinal genus of Brazil. The Mexican poison Guaco is said to be a kind of 
Convohiilus. 

Cuscuta forms the type of the parasitical leafless section of this order ; it re- 
sembles mistletoe in the manner of attaching itself to other plants, the suckers 
penetrating as far as the first wood, and never farther ; it, however, differs in its 
early growth, commencing by rooting in the earth, and only afterwards becoming 
detached, and deriving its sole nourishment from the plant to which it clings by 
means of the small suckers on its stalk. C. ejntht/mum (7) is frequent on heaths, 
entwining its thread-like stems around furze and other plants, twisting in close 
coils, then branching off and bearing clusters of delicate and beautifully shaped 
flowei's. C. europjea is less common, and is chiefly found on thistles, nettles, and 
flax. C. epilinum, of Germany, has of late years been observed on flax in this 
country, and was i)robably introduced w'ith that seed. In Bohemia, C. monngijna 
is often clinging over willows and poplars. A gigantic species in Affghanistan 
covers ^^•illows thirty feet high. C. racemosa is used medicinally in Brazil ; the 
fresh juice for hoarseness, the dried powder for heahng wounds. 

This Tribe is abundant in the Tropics, found in all Temperate regions, rare in 
cold climates, and unlaiown in the coldest. Cuscuta is less frecpient in Tropical 
countries, where its place is filled by Cassytha among the Laurel tribe. 



OF rni 

MVERSITY Of , 




'TM' 



The/Borage/Tribey. 



Day & Son,Lirmted> 



il8 



13 ORAGIN ACE J]:. 

THE BORAGE TRIBE. 



Trees, shrubs, and lierbaceous plants, with round stems. The leaves are alternate, 
simple, often covered with rough hairs growing out of a hard base ; without 
stipules. The flowers grow on one-sided spikes, or racemes, or panicles, some- 
times solitary from the base of the leaf-stalk. The calyx has four or five divisions, 
and is persistent. Tlie corolla is of one petal attached to the base of the ovary, 
tubular, the upper part divided into as many segments as the calyx. The stamens 
are inserted on the corolla, are equal in number with the segments, and alternate 
with them. The ovary is four-parted, and four-seeded ; or two-parted, and four- 
celled. The style is simple, arising from the base of the lobes of the ovary in 
Borago and others, terminal in Heliotropium and Tournefortia ; the stigma is 
simple or bifid. The seeds distinct, four or two, separable from their covering, 
destitute of albumen. Those of Tournefortia are connected in a berry, and con- 
tain a small portion of albumen. 

This Tribe is closely allied to the Nettle tribe, but has a regular corolla, a 
round not a square stem, and rough leaves without resinous dots. 

These plants contain mucilaginous cooling properties. 

Borago was known to Pliny as a cheering addition to wine ; the flowers of 
B. officinalis (1) were long after his time used as an ingredient in a cooling, 
refreshing beverage. It has a tapering mucilaginous root, and large succulent 
stalks, which, as well as the leaves, are thickly beset with sharp bristles. Like all 
the plants of this tribe, the flower-stalk is incurved until the buds open, and the 
petals of this genus and many others are pink in the bud, and only acquire their 
bright azure hue when fully expanded. This is one of the curious facts respecting 
the colouring of flowers requiring the combined study of chemist and botanist. 
B. orientalis is a native of Turkey ; B. crassifolia of Persia. Cerinthe (2) is 
common in France, and there called Melinet ; in England, Honey -wort, from the 
store it offers to bees. In Italy and Sicily it grows plentifully. Myosotis (4) is 



1. 


Borago officinalis, Common Borage. 


4. Myosotis palitstris, Forget-me-not. 




lA Calyx. iB Petal. England. 


Streams, England. 




Ic Stamen. iD Anther. 


5a. Pistil of Symphytum. 


2. 


Cerintho major, Great Honey-wort. 


5b Calyx with tiro Kiits. 




South of France. 


5c Section of Seed. 


3. 


Tournefortia cymosa, Broad-leaved Tourne- 


Oa. J'rHi^ o/Ehrctia. 




fortia. Jamaica. 


Cb Section of Fruit. 




3a Flower. 


6c Seed. Cd Section. 



B0RAGINACEJ5. 

one of the fairest ornaments of our rivulets, and has been named Forget-me-not 
here and in Ciermany, and considered an emblem of friendshi]). The ])ink buds 
change to a ])ure enamelled blue when open. Other siiecies grow in woods, fields, 
and other dry situations. M. versicolor has yellow flowers mingled with the blue. 
1\I. azorica, brought by Mr. H. C. Watson from the Azores, is larger and of a 
deejier blue than any of our British species. Several other genera of this tribe 
belong to our flura. Anchusa oJ/kiuaUs, the Alkanet of old authors, M-as formerly 
sujiposed to possess cordial jiropcrties ; it is chiefly to be seen near the sea in 
Northumberland. C}'noglossum, the Hound's-tongue of waste ground and road- 
sides, has a pungent, nauseous scent, and is esteemed narcotic. Amongst the 
flowers which come forth in ]May is Pulmonaria ; the leaves, once supposed to be 
efficacious for coughs, are speckled with white. The fleshy mucilaginous roots of 
Symphytum officinale had also formerly a reputation for coughs ; it grows 
generally in watery ])laces, as in a hedge ditch ; once plentiful near the Thames 
in the meadows of Twickenham. S. tuherosa, with its large white roots, belongs 
more to the south of Scotland than to England ; it is found likewise in the woods 
and mountains of Germany. Echium vulgare, the Viper's-Bugloss, is clothed in 
all parts with jnickly bristles arising from callous points ; notwithstanding its 
roughness, it is a fine plant when the long spike of red buds, and the blue flowers, 
have attained the height of one or two feet. On some of the old walls in the north 
of France it grows much taller, and is very beautifid. E. ruhrum yields a red 
substance, useful to dyers. Litliospermum is distinguished by the grey polished 
seeds, as hard as stones ; it is sometimes called Grey ]\Iillet, from the ap2:)earance 
of the seeds. The bristles of this genus are minute and hard ; the flowers blue or 
buff. L. arvense, growing principally in corn-fields, has white flowers. The red 
coating of the roots serves as a red dye, but that of L. tinctoria is more used. 
Onosmodium is one of the few species of N. America ; Trichodesma, of Northern 
India, where it is used to cure the bite of snakes. Tournefortia, named by 
Linnjeus after the great French botanist, belongs to the section of this tribe with 
the seeds united in a berry, preserving the two chief characters of rough leaves and 
incurved flower-stalks. T. argentea bears a pretty cluster of white berries. 
T. cymosa (3) has an extremely graceful aspect when the slender cymes of pale 
flowers hang from amidst the large leaves. Some species of Ehretia (G) bear 
eatable berries. The favourite flower of this section is the fragrant Heliotrope. 
Heliotropium europcnmi has been cultivated three hundred years. H. j^eruviamnn 
was broiight from Peru about a century ago ; it has larger clusters of flowers, and 
is more highly scented. H. europaum is one of these jilants found on the jilains of 
India. H. malaharicum is peculiar to that country. Anchusa, Myosotis, and 
some other European genera, exist also in the Himalayas. 

This Tribe inhabits chiefly the Temperate countries of the Northern Hemisphere, 
is very abundant in South Europe and Central Asia, diminishing northwards. 
Heliotro})ium. Tournefortia, and others, are principally Trojiical trees or shrubs ; 
a few only extending to South Europe, or in America as far as 45° north. 



Library 

OF THE 
IVERSITY Of Ui^'im 



QQ 




■i\'^'/ 



i 



2b 



lo 1^ 



\ll 



- — ■^Ih'-- 



2 h 




The' Water - lea/ TrCbey. 



Day & Sorv.Lurwteii 



99 



HYDROPHYLLACE.E 



THE WATER-LEAF TRIBE. 



Small trees, bushes, and herbaceous plants, often hairy. The leaves are some- 
times lobed, alternate, or the lower ones opposite. The flowers ai-e on curling 
spikes, occasionally solitary and stalked, growing at the base of the leaf-stalks. 
The calyx is below the ovary, pei'sistent, deeply five-cleft, sometimes having re- 
flexed appendages between the lobes. The corolla is of one petal, placed below the 
ovary, regular in form, five -cleft at the top, partly campanulate. The stamens are 
five, alternate with the segments of the corolla, bent inwards in the bud ; the 
anthers are two-celled, gaping longitudinally. The ovary is simple, two-celled, 
with two long styles and two stigmas. The fruit is a two-valved capsule, one or 
two-seeded ; the seeds are netted on the exterior, and contain abundant cartila- 
ginous albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Boraginacese, but is distinguished by the terminal 
style, and the scales at the base of the corolla. 

Slightly bitter properties exist in an unimportant degree in a few of these 
plants. 

Hydrophyllum is named from the Greek for loater and leaf, on account of the 
small portion of water contained in the folded leaf during the early growth of the 
plant. Hydrophyllum virginicum (1) inhabits marshes in North America, known 
and eaten as Shawanese salad in spring when the leaves ai'e tender : introduced 
into the Chelsea Botanic Garden 1739. H. canadense is a nearly similar species, 
one of the many cures for the bite of snakes, and the noxious exhalations from 
Rhus Toxicodendron, H. capitatum grows in shady swamps and rocky groves 
bordering the rivulets of the Ujiper Missouri ; a bushy plant two feet high, of a 
succulent nature, bearing white pellucid flowers. Hydrolea spinosa (2) abounds 
in the moist marshy places on the banks of rivers in the Island of Cayenne. The 
whole plant is downy ; the bitter properties of the leaves render them useful as a 
healing remedy for woimds in the West Indies : it may be occasionally seen in 
our conservatories, but of slender size, not attaining the vigour of growth of its 
native country, where it forms bushes three feet in height. H. zeylanica extends 



. Hydrophyllum Virginicum, Virgin ian Water- 


2. 


Hydrolea spinosa, Thorny Hydrolea. 


leaf. North America. 




2a Calyx and Ovary. South America. 


1a Flower, opened. 




2b Stamen. 2c Section of Ovary . 


1b Ovary and Pistil. 


3. 


Eutoca viscida, Clammy Eutoca. California. 


Ic Section of Ovary. 


I. 


Nomophila phaceloides, Blue Nemopkila. 


Id Cross section. 1e Section of Seed. 




North America. 



HYDROrHYLLACEi^:. 

over the plains of India from north to south. Entoca is one of the numerous 
annual herbs with ]u*etty hlue flowers, discovered lately in North America, adding 
considerable embellishment to our gardens during the summer months. E. viscida 
('.)) is clothed ^Yith hairs, having minute viscid glands ; the capsule contains many 
small seeds. E. glandulosa is a very beautiful species, with flowers of a deep blue, 
growing on the bituminous slate rocks of the hills bounding the Colorado river in 
the Upper ^Missouri country. Nemophila phaccloidcs (4) is also from the abundant 
store furnished by North America, and well suited to our climate ; though of a 
very delicate texture, it remains in flower in the open border until late in autumn. 
Several other species have been lately imported. Whitlavia was discovered in 
California by Dr. Coulter, and named after a zealous patron of the Botanic Garden 
at Belfast. W. grandijiora nearly resembles Eutoca in general grow'th, but the 
flowers are more bell-shaped. \V. mmor differs chiefly in its less size. EUisia 
ni/ctalea grows amidst the Marmot burrows of the prairies of the Upper Missouri. 
Romanzovia is one of the few examples of this tribe forming part of the scanty 
vegetation of Arctic America. Codon is a native of the Cape. Nama belongs to 
both the East and West Indies. 

This Tribe is scattered over the northern and extreme southern provinces of 
North America, rare in other countries. 



OF THE 
Ur^lVERSlTY OF ILLINOIS 



100 



SOLANACE.E 

THE POTATO TRIBE. 



Trees, shrubs, and herbaceoiis plants. The leaves are alternate, undivided, or 
lobed ; some near the flowers are placed close together. The flowers are various, 
sometimes growing from the base of the leaf-stalk. The calyx is below the ovary, 
five-parted, seldom four, persistent. The corolla is of one petal, attached below the 
base of the ovary ; the top five-cleft, seldom four, regular. The stamens are 
inserted upon the corolla, as many as its segments, and alternate with them ; the 
anthers burst by pores, or lengthwise. The ovary is usually two-celled ; the style 
single, stigma simple. The seed-vessel is a capsule with two, four, five, or many 
cells ; or a berry ; the seeds are many, and contain fleshy albumen. 

This Tribe is chiefly distinguished from Scrophulariacete by the flowers being 
regular, with as many stamens as lobes. 

Narcotic and even poisonoiis properties exist in these plants, as well as whole- 
some food in some portions. 

Solanum includes herbaceous weeds, some of which are noxious, spiny shrubs, 
and a very few trees; the nutritious potato, the narcotic tobacco, and several 
medicinal species of value. S. dulcamara (1) is common throughout Europe ; 
it is sometimes called Bittersweet, the roots haviffg first a bitter, then a sweet 
flavour. S. nigrum the other British species, with white flowers and black berries, 
is narcotic ; this is one of the three English plants found in the Galapagos Isles. 
The fruit of S. Lijcopersicum (3) is more esteemed for food on the Continent than 
here, and is much cultivated in the south of Italy. S. melongena, the egg-plant, 
is grown both in the East and West Indies for the sake of the fruit, in shape and 
whiteness like an egg. In the north of Africa it is plentiful, and is eaten at 
Tangier by iNIoors and Europeans. S. ethiopicum supplies Chinese ^Mandarins 
with a delicate fruit the size of cherries. But the most important beyond compare 
is S, tuberosum, the Potato, first brought to Spain from the Andes, near Quito, 
early in the sixteenth century ; it was thence taken to Italy and Vienna. Sir 



1. Solanum dulcamara, Nightshade. England. 

1a Calyx and Pistil. 1b Stamens. 
Ic Stamen. Id Section of Seed. 

2. Xicotiana tabacum, Tobacco. N. America. 

2a Floiier, opened. 



•3. Solanum Lycopersicum, Tomato. 



S. America. 



4. SwdinvWoa parasitica, Parasitic Jiianitllna, 

Peru. 

5. Capsicum baccatnm. East and West Indies. 

G. Brugmansia sanguinea. Red Bnnjmansia. 

Peru. 
7a. Ovary o/" Petunia 

8a. Cfl/jsw/e o/Hyoscyamus. 

9a. Fruit fi/" Datura Stramonium. 



SOLANACE.E. 

"Walter Raleigh foimd it in Virginia, and introduced it to England and Ireland 
in l.'lsC). Towards the end of the eighteenth century it became spread all over 
Euro])e, cxc€j>t the hot parts of Spain, and was accepted as a wholesome and 
valuable addition to the common food of man. Potatoes are not true roots, but 
tubers formed on underground branches, and contain leaf-buds arranged spirally 
around, capable of jiroducing new plants. On the plains of Brazil grows S. widu- 
latuni, eight feet high, with thorny branches, large purple flowers, and fruit nine 
inches in diameter. S. lariniatum yields the eatable Kangaroo ajiple in Tasmania. 
Nicotiana (2) is better known by its name of Tobacco ; derived from the IMcxican 
place of its growth ; for nearly three hundred years it has been the favourite narcotic 
in almost every country in the world, rivalled chiefly by the Betel of the East. It 
was first used by Sir Walter Ealeigh, who thus provided the English ^\•ith two 
popular plants oiit of this tribe. Immense quantities are cultivated in America, 
China, Japtan, and other Eastern countries, as well as in Europe, wherever the 
tcmi)erature is sufficiently hot. The leaves being the part used, great care is taken 
to encourage their growth, rather than that of the flowers. N. rustica, with green 
flowers, is also grown in Germany. Among the powerful narcotic medicines 
afforded by this tribe, Hyoscyamus ntger Henbane is the most ancient in fame ; it 
grows on heaps of rubbish in various countries, usually in the neighbourhood of 
dwellings. The corolla is delicately veined ; the capsule (8) opens with a lid, and 
contains numerous seeds. Datura stramonium, the Thorn Apple (IJ) of South 
America, is now indigenous here ; the whole plant is poisonous, but some parts 
yield medicine. Atropa Belladonna affords a powerful medicine for the eyes ; 
the black berries are poisonous. The Hottentots obtain a virulent poison for their 
arrows from Acocanthera venenata. JuanuUoa (I), named after two scientific 
botanists of Madrid, is an exception to the usual character of these plants, being 
parasitic in its growth. The seeds of Capsicum haccatum (5) when pounded are 
known as Cayenne Pepper. The pods are used in the West Indies as a pxingent 
seasoning for food. Those of C. annuiim are generally pickled in a green state. 
Brugmansia sanguinea (G) is one of the ornamental shrubs of Peru ; the flowers of 
all the species are graceful in form ; those of B. arhorea are large and exceedingly 
fragrant. Physalis alkekenc/i^ with, its scarlet berry inclosed in the inflated mem- 
branous calyx, is thought pretty in our gardens ; in Swdtzerland the fruit is 
commonly eaten. Verbascum is a genus of considerable beauty, native in Britain 
and throughout Europe ; the leaves and stem are in some species so abundantly 
clothed with downy cotton that it is used for the wicks of lamps. Petunia, 
Nierembergia and Salpiglossis ai'e all South American, now contributing countless 
varieties of gay flowers, hardy enough to flourish in European gardens. 

This Tribe is found in nearly all countries except those within the Arctic and 
Antarctic Circles, most abundant in the Tropics, and chiefly in species of Solanum. 



UERARY 
OF THE 

?'"?VFRSITY Of- ILUr^ui :i 




la, 



M. 



/-// 



i/lMyUl9'U7X€^- 



llie.- Fw-yvort' Tnhe. 



101 



SCPtOPHULARIACEiE. 

THE FIG-WOKT TRIBE. 



Shrubs and herbaceous plants. The leaves are opposite, alternate, or whorled. 
The flowers are on branching stalks, or grow from the base of the leaf-stalk ; 
seldom in spikes. The flower-stalks are opposite or alternate, simple and one- 
flowered, or many-flowered on dichotomons branches. The ealyx is below the 
ovary, persistent, four or five-lobed ; the sepals more or less divided, sometimes 
quite distinct, often unequal, the side ones smaller. The corolla is of one petal, 
five-parted, or the two upper petals united at their points, making it four-parted ; 
the tube is long or short ; the upper part of the corolla flat, as in Veronica, or 
erect, nearly equally divided, or two -lipped, sometimes spurred at the base, folded 
over in the bud, the upper lobe innermost. The stamens are in a single row 
opposite the sepals, the upper one wanting or imperfect, the two lower often 
deficient ; the anthers are two-celled, opening length^^-ise. The ovary is two-celled, 
the style simple or rarely bifid. The fruit is a capsule, seldom a berry, two-celled, 
sometimes opening by pores or lids. The seeds are smaU, numerous, and contain 
albumen. 

This Tribe has most affinity with Solanacese, but the corolla diff"ers in not being 
plaited. Buchnera being leafless, and Striga parasitic, they form a link with 
Orobanchacese. 

Acrid and bitter properties prevail in the leaves and roots of several species. 

Scrophularia, Fig-wort, is dispersed over Europe, and extends to the Canaries, 
north of Africa, and the Levant. S. aquatica (1) is frequent in ditches, and is 
remarkable for the acute angles of the stem, and the small dark flowers. It has 
an unpleasant scent, and scarcely any animals will eat it. It is said, however, 
that the roots are wholesome, and that they afibrded food to the starving garrison 
at the siege of Iiochelle. S. divaricata, of the Altai mountains, has extremely 



1. Scrophularia aquatica, Water Fiij-wnrt. 

England. 

1a Flower opened. 

1b Calyx and Ovary. Ic Stamen. 

Id Section of Ovary. 

1e Stalk, magnified. 

If Capsule and Calyx. 

2. Digitalis purpurea, Purple Foxylove. 

England. 
liA Stamens. 



3. Linaria vulgaris, Common 2'oad-Jlax. 

England. 

4. Veronica cliamwdrys, Germander Speedwell, 

England. 

5. Mimulus moschalus. Musk-plant. Colombia. 
(1. Chelone barbata. Mexico. 
7. Torenia asiativa. East Indies. 
8a. Antirrhinum majus. Capsule. 

8b. Capsule of A. orontium. 
'Ja. Flower of Calceolaria. 

E E 



SCROPHULARIACEyE. 

larj^c leaves. Digitalis was so named by Fuchs, from the flower being shaped like 
a thimblo. D. purpurea (2) is one of the most ornamental of our native )>lants, 
and is admitted to gardens and shrubberies : although a strong poison, it affords a 
valuable medicine in the dried leaves. Several species are natives of Europe ; 
D. amhigua and others with yellow blossoms arc amongst the beautiful flowers 
that adorn the Alps of Switzerland and Tyrol, delighting the traveller and 
botanist. Linaria is abundant on hedge-banks in rhany districts ; its flowers 
yield a yellow dye and a bitter medicine, but in sandy pastures it becomes a 
.troublesome weed. Li. cj/mhalaria grows chiefly on walls, and can endure the 
smoke of cities ; it has a pungent flavour like cress, and is supposed to have medi- 
cinal value in India. 1j. pilosa of the Pyrenees has round leaves, densely hairy. 
L. sapiphiriiia is an exceedingly elegant Portuguese species. Antirrhinum is of 
nearly similar appearance, but the flower has no spur, is merely swollen at the 
■ ase. A. majus, seen on some of our old walls, affords many pleasing varieties 
or gardens. The seed-vessel (8) opening by three pores, has a strong resemblance 
to the head of a monkey. Veronica chamrrdri/s (4), an example of the flat- 
flowered section of the ti-ibe, is a general favourite, opening its delicate blue flower 
in spring on banks and in meadows. Before the true Tea was imported, it Avas 
used for a common beverage, and is still esteemed good in Sweden. All the 
European species are small herbs, but V. speciosa of New Zealand is a large 
plant bearing fine spikes of blue flowers ; an arborescent Idnd has been dis- 
covered in Lord Auckland's Isles. V. heccabunga and other British species 
belong also to mountain rivulets in North America. Mimulus moschatns (5) 
is very fragile, but much cultivated for its agreeable scent. Torenia (7) is 
considered medicinal in Malabar. Euphrasia, Eyebright, is one of the plants 
constantly to be found on our chalk downs, occasionally used for its medicinal 
qualities. i\relampyrum is a favourite vAih cows, and is said to cause good butter. 
Rhinanthus, the Yellow-Battle, usually forms part of the crop in a hay-meadow. 
Like others of this tribe, the flowers resemble the nose of an animal. Such like- 
nesses have been imagined for several of these flowers. Chelone (G) was so named 
from the Greek for a tortoise, which the back of the flower was thought to resemble 
in shape, though not in colour. Buddlea globosa is a shrub with honey-scented 
orange-coloured flowers : B. madagascariensis bears slender spikes of flowers. B. 
Neemda is an elegant Indian species ; all have long narrow leaves, silvery beneath. 
Teeiiia and Manulea come from the Cape. Browallia, Schizanthus, and others, 
have been introduced from Chile and Peru by exploring travellers. Paulownia is 
a tree bearing noble spikes of purple flowers on brown stalks ; rarely flowering in 
this country, forming an obvious link with Bignoniaceaj. Maurandya and Lopho- 
spermum are climbing plants flowering abundantly. Among useful medicinal 
jJants in this tribe is Gratiola officinalis in the meadow pastures of Switzerland, 
G. pteruviana in Peru, Bramia serrata in Brazil, and Vandelia dij'itsa in Guiana. 
Scoparia dulci's is a remedy for ague in Jamaica. Picrorhiza and Herpestes are 
intensely bitter herbs of India. Sibthorpia is a graceful little trailing plant in 
Cornwall, recording the name of the collector of the classical Flora Gra;ca. Limo- 
sella aqvatica, the humble Mud-wort of ponds, also finds its place in this tribe of 
varied aspect. The corolla of Calceolaria (9) is extremely enlarged at the base, 
forming a kind of slipper. 

This Tribe is extensively dispersed over the world, from the Tropics to the 
coldest regions : in Central Europe it forms about one-twenty sixth of flowering 
plaints ; one species is foimd in Melville Isle, and several contribute to the scanty 
vegetation of Tierra del Fuesro. 



LiBRARY 

OF THE 

Ili^iVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 




Sc fid/ 7tv 7 J 



STdeL 



Tke^JJeaA/- Tietde/ Inhe' 



Day Jo Son^,Ziir>!X' ■ 



102 



LAMIACEiE 



THE DEAD-NETTLE TRIBE. 



Under-siirubs and herbaceous ]>lants : the stems arc four-cornered, with opposite 
branches. The leaves are opposite, divided or undivided, without stipules, covered 
with receptacles of aromatic oil. The flowers are nearly sessile, opposite, sometimes 
in circles around the stem, sometimes solitary. The calyx is tubular, below the 
ovary, persistent, the odd tooth next the stem, five to ten-toothed, usually two- 
lipped. The corolla is of one petal, attached below the ovary, two-lipped, the 
upper lip whole or bifid, overlapping the lower in the bud. The stamens are four, 
two long, two short, placed upon the corolla alternately with the lobes of the lower 
lip, the tw'o upper sometimes wanting ; the anthers are two-celled, or one-celled at 
the point. The ovary is four-lobed, seated on a fleshy disk ; the single style pro- 
ceeds from the base of the ovary, the stigma is acutely bifid. The fruit is one or 
four small nuts, enclosed within the calyx, but uncovered. The seeds arcerect, with 
little or no albiimen. 

\ This Tribe has close affinity with Verbenacese, but is distinguished from that 
and all other allied tribes by its four-lobed ovary. 

A fragrant aromatic oil exists abiindantly in the leaves of these plants. None 
are unwholesome. 

Lamium is a genus of very little beauty, and few or no aromatic properties, yet 
as it exhibits very distinctly the chief characters of this Order, it has been selected 
to give its name to the whole tribe. L. maculatum (1) is the prettiest of our 
native species ; L. album, the white Dead-nettle, the most common. The only 
species thought worthy of a place in gardens is L. orvala of Italy, but even that is 
now rarely seen. Salvia ranks amongst the best of the tribe ; it contains many 
herbs and imder-shrubs, and is widely dispersed. S. verbenaca of our fields be- 
longs to each great division of the globe. The leaves are usually covered with a 
fine network of veins, and pores full of aromatic oil. S. officinalis of South Europe 



1. Lfimium mdcuhdnm. Spotted Dead Nettle . 


4. Scutellaria cordifolia, 


Ileurt-leaved Scutel ■ 


England. 


I aria. 


Mexico. 


1a Flower opened. In Ciilijr. 
Ic Calyx and Ovary. 


5. Betonica, i/rti/idijlora. 


Siberia. 


9. S;ilvia;;a/('«.s, SpreadiiKj-jiuirered Salvia. 

South America. 
2a Ovary and Dis/c. 


<i.\. Flower of Sa\\ia. 

Cb Ovary and Pistil. 

6c Section of Ovary. 


Hi. .SV^</. 


3. Galcobdolon /'//<i/«(, Yellon- U'easle Suonl. 


7a. F/t»«vr (^Lavandula. 




England. 


7b Calyx and Piatil. 





LAMTACE/E. 

was formerly much used for its beneficial properties, and still retains n place in hoi'b 
gardens, for conkint^ purjioscs. S. Sclarca is made into wine in some countries. S. 
patena (2) is now become a hardy inhabitant of our gardens, and is one of the most 
boantiful species. S, K2)fcn(Irn!t is another fine specimen from Mexico, producing its 
bright red flowers late in the autumn. S. glutinosa is a tall plant, with pale yellow 
flowers, very abundant on mountains in Switzerland. Q. pnhda, witli white flowers, 
is Portuguese. Galeobdolon (3) inhabits shmly places in Kent and a few other coun- 
ties, but is not common ; it grows also in moist woods on the Continent. Scutellaria 
cordifoha (4) is a brilliant example of a lowly genus ; G. minor is a remarkaldy 
neat little plant, growing in marshy places in Wales and elsewhere ; the calyx has 
a peculiar projection at the back, and closes when the flower falls. Betonica 
grandijlora (5) has the same character of a wide interval between the pairs of 
leaves, as our B. officinalis, which was once considered useful as a medicine, and in 
dyeing wool yellow. So numerous are the aromatic species in this tribe, it is im- 
possible to describe them all. Many are of extensive value, and were amongst the 
earliest medicinal herbs used in our island ; some w^ere brought from the south by 
monks and missionaries. Rosemary grows by the sea on the south and w^est of 
France ; by distillation, it yields a fragrant oil, and a substance resembling camphor 
is obtained from the leaves : the pecuharly fine flavour of Narbonne honey is sup- 
posed to be caused by the bees feeding on the flowers. The \Yelsh still consider it 
emblematical of repentance, and scatter it on graves. Melissa, Balm, affords honey 
to bees, and a pleasant tea, in former times much employed in fevers. One of the 
most fragrant of our native aromatic plants is Thymus Serpyllum, creeping over 
heaths and commons, becoming quite dwarf, like many others on chalk downs. T. 
vulgaris is the garden Thyme. T. capitellatus, the bracts covered with glands, is 
common in Portugal. Mentha piperita yields the medicinal Pepper-mint ; M. 
viridis, the culinary Spear-mint, used also medicinally, both in the form of oil and 
water. M. Pidegium is the useful herb Fenn>/-roi/aI. But the most esteemed, 
probably, of European species, is Lavender, Lavandula vera, frequent in many parts 
of the Continent, particularly on the Lavendelberg, at Kreuznach, near the Rhine, 
and between the lakes of Neuchatel and Slorat, in Switzerland. The fragrant 
volatile oil contained in the flowers (7) is a chief ingredient in Eau de Cologne and 
perfumery of all kinds. L. Sjiica yields an oil used in porcelain-painting. L. 
tStcpchas, French Lavender, is a native of the Stechades, on the south coast of 
France. Basil, Savory, ]\Larjoram, and several others, are valuable as domestic 
herbs. Horehound and Ground-Ivy are also of common use in country districts 
as remedies for coughs. A species of Ocymum affords eatable tubers in Madagascar, 
but this is a rare instance in the tribe. In Brazil many species have valuable 
medicinal quahties, and are used by the natives. iMartius describes the famous 
Matico as a Phlomis. The celebrated Patchouli of the East, used to stuff beds, 
is said to belong to this aromatic tribe. 

Chiefly abundant in Temperate regions, between 40° and oO° of North latitude ; 
growing in hot, dry situations, as well as in woods, hedges, and meadows ; a few 
only in marshes. In the isles of the Mediterranean, they form about one-twentieth 
of the Flora. In the northern provinces of India, two hundred species have been 
discovered. To the north of Europe they diminish gradually, are rare in Lapland, 
and not found in ^Melville Isle. 



LiERARY 
CF THE 



103 




^'^'^^^^ 




% 



... .. '^', 



'3 - 1 



Ih 



Zb 



3h 3b 3c, -'"^ 



II.dA> 



The/ BrooTny-rape/Inbe/ 



D<^ &> Son/.Zimubed' 



103 



OROBANCHACEiE 

THE BROOM-RAPE TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants, growing parasitically on tlie roots of other plants. The 
stems are witlioi;t leaves, covered with brown scales. The calyx is below the 
ovary, di\'ided, persistent. The corolla is of one petal, attached below the ovary, 
irregidar in form, folded over in the bud. The stamens are four, two of them 
larger than the others ; the anthers are generally two-celled, occasionally one-celled, 
the cells are distinct, often hooked at the top, bearded at the base. The ovary is 
above the calyx, one-celled, placed on a fleshy disk. The style is single, the 
stigma two-lobed. The seed-vessel is a capsule, enclosed within the withered 
corolla, one-celled, two-valved, each valve having one or two plates along the 
middle, bearing seeds. The seeds are of indefinite number, minute, and contain 
fleshy albiimen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Fig-worts, in the two long and two short 
Btamens, but it is known by the one-celled capsule, and parasitic habit of growth. 

Astringent and acrid properties exist in these plants. 

Orobanche is said to have been named from the Greek, in allusion to its hal)it 
of attaching itself to, and strangling the Orobus and other plants of the Vetch 
or leguminous kind. Some parasites do not molest the tree or herb on which 
they grow, but the Orobanche is often very injurious, and by fixing on the roots, 
draws away the valuable nourishment from the plant. The Genevese botanist, 
Vaucher, observed that the seeds of 0. racemosa will lie many years in the 
ground unless they chance to come in contact with Hemp, when they immediately 
begin to germinate. He found, moreover, that they can only grow on young 
plants, being unable to attack and penetrate stronger roots. O. minor (1) is a 
small species, but very hurtful when abundant in a clover field, as it often is in 
Norfolk and Essex. Unless the earth be carefully removed from about the plants, 
it would not be suspected to have any connexion with the clover, as it is only 
at the points of the roots that they grow together ; where it has once taken 
possession of a field the crop becomes too scanty to be of any value. 0. major 



1. Orobanche minor, Lesser Broom-rape. 

England. 
1a Seed-vessel, open. 
1b Section of Seed-vessel. 

2, Lathrea sqiinmarin, Tooth-icort. England. 

■2a Seed-vessel. 



2b Seed-vessel, opened. 
3. JEginetia pediinctilata, Stalked JEginetia. 



3a Flower, opened. 
3o Pistil. 



East Indies. 
3b Stamens. 
3d Ovary. 



OROBANCHACEi'E. 

is a stouter darker jtlant, chiefly attached to Broom or Furze. O. cJntior is of 
brighter hue, and parasitic on clover ; these throe sjiecies grow on a gravel soil ; 
O. rubra on basaltic rocks in Scotland and Ireland, at Staffa, and the Giant's 
Cause\Yay : this is probably not parasitic, for few other ]>lants vegetate on the 
thin layer of earth which covers the rocks. O. foetida of a red brown hue in 
the wholo plant is a native of IVrtugal. A Russian species, 0. ammopliila, 
bears blue flowers on its brown stem. Some of these plants are said to have 
astringent properties ; 0. epitliijmum yields a bitter tonic, used in some countries 
medicinally ; the flowers are slightly fragrant. Orobanche is more plentiful on 
the Continent than in Britain, twenty-four species being found in the Flora of 
Germany. Another nearly similar genus, of dull pale aspect, is the Lathrea (2) ; 
growing chiefly in the shade of woods ; it is devoid of bright colour in the 
flowers, and the leaves are of a pale brown. The manner of growth in some degree 
resembles that of ferns, the fibrous roots proceeding from an underground 
portion of the stem, which remains horizontal before rising upwards. This is 
one of our British plants which finds a suitable temperature in the upper regions 
of the Himalayas, ^ginetia pedunculata (3) is a more brilliant example of this 
tribe than any British species ; the form and colour of the flower remind forcibly 
of the Gesnera tribe, and seem to indicate an aflinity which does in fact exist 
between the two tribes, although they differ in some important points of structure, 
^giueria peduncidata grows on the roots of tall grasses in Bengal, frequently 
also on various lands of Bamboo, springing up, blossoming, and producing seed 
during the rainy season. Whilst in flower it is singularly beautiful : the whole 
plant is of a soft fragile texture, shghtly scented like mushrooms. The root is 
fleshy and grey ; the hollow sheath-like calyx contains in its base a clear liquid ; 
the capsule is the size of a hazel-nut, and is fiUed with numerous minute dark- 
brown seeds. i£i. indica grows in the valleys of the Himalaya, and is used 
medicinally by the natives. Epiphegus virginiana is kno\^^l as a medicine in 
North America. Phelipea, or Cistanche lutea, is employed as a black dye for 
the ropes made from the fibres of the Doom Palm of Thebes : it is a native also 
of Portugal, bearing several large yellow flowers on its brown scaly stem. P. 
lanuginosa of the Altai Mountains is blue. 

This Tribe is common in Europe, pai'ticularly in the southern countries ; it 
is found also in Africa, at tlie Cape of Good Hope, and in Barbary ; it exists, 
though rarely, in Central and Northern India, and in North America. 



OFFME 
UIi'lVERSITY Of ILL!f]OIS 




r W — ^^^^ 



if 



-J V: 

6a. SI 



rk& Vervcazv Tribe- 



\ 



7a.,. 



DlW Sr Soiy.Zin.i'- 



104 



YERBENACEiE. 

THE VERVAIN TRIBE. 



Trees, sliniLs, and a few herbaceous plants. The leaves are generally opposite, 
simple, or compound, without stipules, thickh' occupied by transparent pores in 
Myoporum. The flowers are on opposite branches, or on alternate spikes, or from 
the base of the leaf-stalks, and solitary. The calyx is tubular, five-parted, per- 
sistent, placed below the ovary. The corolla is of one petal, tubular, attached 
below the ovary, generally irregular at the top, sometimes nearly equal, or tw'o- 
li])j)ed, deciduous. The stamens are usually four, two shorter, seldom etpial. The 
ovary is two or four-celled, the style single, arising from the top of the ovary, the 
stigma bifid or whole. The fruit is a drupe, a nut, or a berry. The seeds contain 
a small portion of fleshy albumen, or none. 

This Tribe is chiefly distinguished from Lamiaceaj by the concrete ovary, and 
terminal style, and the general absence of aromatic pores in the leaves. 

Slightl)' bitter and aromatic properties exist in a few only of these plants. 

Verbena or Vervain is said to be derived from an old Celtic name, V. offici- 
nalis (1) was held in high repute in ancient times for various solemn rites and 
sacrifices by Greeks and Druids, as well as for medical purposes, but is now, with 
many other European herbs, discarded for others from hotter countries generally. 
It is a common plant by the wayside, but attracts A^ery little notice. This is the 
only English species, but Ave find scA'eral more in America. V. triphylla is re- 
markable for the extreme fragrance of the leaves, the surface of which is covered 
A\ith small glands of oil, the delicious scent remaining long after the leaves are 
dried. The flowers are minute, pale purple, and of no beauty, but the i)lant is 
much cultivated on account of the leaA^es ; in DeA'onshire it flourishes in the open 
air, and groAVs to the height of five or six feet. V. chamcvdrifolia (2) is now 
become one of the most ornamental floAvers of the garden, producing abundantly 



1. Verbena officinalis. Common Vervain. 

EDglantl. 

2. Verbena chamcEdrifolia, Gennandir-lcavcd 

Verbena. Buenos Ajres. 

2a Scctian of Flower. 
2b Ovary and Pistil. 
2c Calyx and Bract. 2d Stamens. 

'■). Clcrodcnilrum. f.illax, Scarlet Clerodendrum. 

East Indies. 



4. Lantana aculcata, Prickly Lantanu. 

West Indies. 

5. ]\Iyoporuni parvifoliiim, Small-leaved Myo- 

porum. New Holland. 

5a Seed-vessel. 

Ga. Fruit o/Callicai-pa. Gb Svcd-vcssel. 

7a. Fruit of Gmelina arboreu. 
7b Section of Fruit. 



VEUBENACE-'i:. 

its bright red Muasoius until autumn frosts. Several other varieties have been 
l)rodueed by cultivation from South American species ; the white 'flowers of one 
are very fragrant in the evening. Clerodendron is a genus belonging to the East. 
C fall ax (o) is a beautiful shrub for the conservatory, the leaves sometimes nine or 
ten inches in length, and the scarlet flowers continuing to come forth for many 
weeks. C fragrans is very sweet-scented, and the flowers often become double. 
C. ih'llcxnm is a shrub on the mountains of Penang. Lantana belongs chiefly to 
the West Indies, but is a frequent iiilial)itant of our greenhouses ; the flowers are 
usually orange or yellow, some variable in hue. L. aculcata (4) is jiriekly on the 
lower part of the stem. L. macrophijUa yields a beverage taken as tea in Brazil- ; 
1j. pseudo-tlica is also thus used : the leaves of other species in Chili contribute to 
aromatic baths. Stachytarpheta is considered in Jamaica as a good substitute for 
tea. Callicarpa (6) is said to possess aromatic properties in the bark ; that of C. 
laiiata is sometimes a substitute for Betel to the Cingalese, and the Malays believe 
it to have medicinal iiualities. 

The most important sjiecies in this Tribe is undoubtedly the Tckha of Malabar, 
the well-lcnown Teak-tree, Tectona grandis. It forms a large and valuable portion 
of the extensive forests on the mountains of Coromandel, Ceylon, and Java, attains 
a great size, and yields the most durable timber yet discovered for ships ; it contains 
abundant particles of silex, which renders the texture of the wood extremely hard. 
The flowers are very small, the leaves are deciduous, large, and covered with small 
rough conical points ; the natives obtain from them a useful red dye. Cmelina, 
named after the author of the Flora Sibirica, is a fine evergreen genus of the East 
Indies ; G . arhnrea (7) the gumhar of the Hindoos is a large tree with spreading 
droojnng branches, the timber is very hard, though light in weight, and rivals the 
Teak in durability, being equally secure from the ravages of the Teredo. Another 
remarkable tree belonging to this Tribe is Aviccnnia tomcntosa, named from the 
famous I'ersian sage born in the tenth century, now known as the ^Yhite INIangrove 
of South America ; the first specimen of Tropical vegetation that greeted Hum- 
boldt when he landed on the coast of Cumana. These singular trees flourish best 
in salt swamps, and are found on the margins of all the Indian estuaries ; like 
Rhizfiphora, stretching out long creeping roots over the mud. The seeds have 
also the remarkable vitality which causes them to germinate before the fruit falls ; 
the tender leaves and roots of the young i)lant may be often seen piercing the fruit 
whilst still on the tree. In shape and size the fruit nearly resembles the almond. 
The bark is emjiloyed for tanning, and a resinous substance which exudes was 
formerly eaten by the natives of New Zealand. The drupaceous fruit of Premna 
csculcnta and others are eatable; but some are very acrid, as that of Vitex trifoUa, 
the Wild Pepper of India. 

This Tribe is common in the Tro])ics, and in the Temperate regions of South 
America ; rare in Euro})e, Northern Asia, and North America. In the Tropics 
it is developied in large trees and shrubs, in cooler climates the species are her- 
baceous. Myoporum belongs chiefly to Australia. 



UBRm 
OF Thb" 
UlflVERSin Of ILL 



103 




4* ^ 4b 



U Id/ ?* ^^ ^^ li 



IT del 



The/AcanthiLS Tribe/ 



Ila^ & 5inv. LtmxUd/ 



106 



ACANTHACEiE 

THE ACANTHUS TRIBE. 



Shrubs and lierbaceoiis plants, sometimes having simiile liairs, very rarely in a 
stellate form. The leaves are opposite, rarely in fours, or imeqnal pairs, without 
stipules, simple, entire at the edges, or serrated, sometimes sinuated, or lohed, a)id 
spiny. The flowers are terminal, or from the base of the leaf-stalks, in spikes, or 
branching panicles, sometimes solitarj' ; opposite or alternate on the branches. At 
their base are three bracts ; the central one usually large and leafy, and spiny if 
the leaves are so, enclosing the calyx, or forming a substitute for it. The calyx is 
four or five-lobed, equal or unequal, the two side sepals very small in Acanthus, 
generally much imbricated and divided, sometimes entire, pei'sistent, occasionally 
wanting, as in Thunbergia. The corolla is of one ]ietal, attaclied below the ovary, 
two-lipped, the lower lip overlapping the upper in the bud ; occasionally one- 
Hpped, as in Acanthus, sometimes nearly equal, deciduous. The stamens are 
usually two, both having anthers, sometimes four, the two longer only being fertile ; 
the anthers are two or one -celled, opening lengthwise. The ovary is seated on a 
disk, two-celled, composed of two carpels, with one style, and a two-lobed stigma. 
The capsule is two-celled, the cells two or many-seeded, bursting elastically, with 
two valves which bear seeds on their edges. The seeds are roundish, suspended 
by hard, cup-shaped, or hooked projections from the plates of the valves ; they 
contain no albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Bignoniacese, and Scrophulariacese, but is distin- 
guished from the former by wingless seeds, and from both by the large leafy bracts, 
and the hooked processes attaching the seeds. 

Mucilaginous and slightly bitter properties exist in these plants. 

Acanthus was named from the Greek for a spine, the leaves being usually spiny 
at all the points. Pliny describes an Acanthus on the lawn of his garden, and 
such a position is most favourable for it, the leaves spreading around in a very 
noble manner, when free space is allowed for growth ; if in a border crowded 
amongst other plants its peculiar character is concealed. The foliage of Acanthus 



1. Acanthus spinosus, Prickly -leaved Acanthus. 

Italy. 
]a Flower, 1b Outer Sepal x. 

Ic Inner Sepals. Id Stamen. 
1e Section of Seed-vessel. 

2. Justioia carnea, Pink-Jlowered Juslicia. 

Eio Janeiro. 



2a Cahjv and Bracts. titi Stamen. 

3. Thunbergia alata, Wini)ed- talked TInin. 
berfia East Indies. 

4a F/oft'cr o/Strol)ilanthes. 

4b Flower, opened. 

4c Ovary. 4d Section of Ovary. 



ACANTHACE/E. 

lias the lionour of having afforded one of the most elegant and permanent types of 
ornament to architecture. In the transparent atmosphere of Greece, the simple yet 
striking effects of light and shade on vegetable forms, I'endered them the best and 
most natural objects to be adopted as studies by the skilful artist. A. mollis has 
extremely large, gracefully waved leaves, which may be clearly traced in classical 
art. A. spiiiosus (1) is a beautiful species, perfectly hardy in our climate; the 
spike of flowers rises to three feet in height, and being of a firm texture, remains 
long an embellishment to the garden. The petal is one-lipped, the large upper 
sepal of the unequal calyx forming a kind of hood to the stamens and pistil. The 
capsule shows the chief distinguishing mark of this Order, the hooks which support 
or bear the seeds. A. niger of Portugal has dark spineless leaves. A. spinosis- 
simus of South Europe has deeply pinnatifid leaves with strong white spines, 
A. repens and A. volubilis are East Indian, of different habit of growth, the one 
creeping, the other climbing. The mucilaginous roots of some species have been 
used in medicine. Justicia abounds in the Tropics, the name records that of an 
eminent Scotch horticulturist. J. carnea (2) of modern introduction to European 
conservatories, is one of the finest species. J. pectoralis in the West Indies yields 
a mucilaginous syrup, and the leaves are used by the natives for healing purposes. 
J. hijlora of Egypt is also an emollient plant. J. paniculata is considered a valu- 
able tonic in India. Thunbergia, an example of the section without calyx, and of 
a climbing nature, was so called in honour of a learned professor of botany in 
Upsal, who travelled in Africa and Asia. The peculiar colour of the flower of 
T. alata (3) is a pleasing variety in English greenhouses. T. coccinea of Nepal has 
a bright scarlet flower ; T. fragrans of India is white and sweet-scented, confirm- 
ing the theory that fragrance is most frequently combined with white flowers. 
Ruellia of South America and the West Indies contains several purple and blue 
species well known here. The deep blue dye called Room in Assam is obtained 
from a Ruellia. Barleria is an East Indian genus, named after a French Dom- 
inican, who travelled and studied botany in the seventeenth century, and published 
drawings of plants rare in his time. Porphyrocoma, Beloperone, and others are 
later importations, chiefly from S. America. Aphelandra fulgens is a brilliant 
species of Mexico. Gendarussa vulgaris is considered a remedy for rheumatism 
in the East Indies. PhayloiDsis long i folia is a native of Sierra Leone. Mendozia 
of Brazil is an exception in this Tribe, the fruit being a drupe, containing one 
seed. 

This Tribe is chiefly Tropical, abounding especially in the Tropics of Africa 
and America. A few species only inhabit the United States of America. Acan- 
thus extends northwards into Greece. 



OF THE 
L'l^lVERSITY OF llUMOiS 







2i Zcy 



IT .iei 



Ute/dludder-wort' Tribe/ 



Day & Scm/.LTjruJteS, 



106 



UTRICULARIACEiE. 

THE BLADDER-WORT TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants inhabiting marshes or water. The leaves grow from the top 
of the root, are either whole or compoimd, resembling little roots, and bearing 
small bladders of air or water. The flower-stalk is generally single, seldom 
branching, and is either naked or clothed with minute scales like stipules, sometimes 
bearing little vesicles in whorls. The flowers are single or in spikes, or in many- 
flowered branches, with a single bract, seldom without. The calyx is below the 
ovary, divided, persistent, partly two-lipped, the upper lip generally three -notched, 
the lower two-notched. The corolla is of one petal, placed below the ovary, irregular 
and two-lipped ; the lower lip produced into a spur, which is sometimes double. 
The stamens are two, included within the corolla, and inserted into its base ; the 
anthers are one-celled, sometimes contracted in the middle. The ovary is composed 
of two carpels, united at the edges, one-celled. The style is single, very short, the 
stigma bilabiate. The capsule is one-celled, many-seeded, with a large central 
plate to which the seeds are attached. The seeds are minute, without albumen. 

These herbaceous plants have most affinity with Scrophulariace^, chiefly dis- 
tinguished by having a one-celled capsule : they are connected with Primulacese 
through Hottonia. 

A peculiar property of thickening milk exists in the leaves of Pinguicula. 

Utricularia is named from %itricula, a little bottle, alluding to the vesicles of 
several sjjecies. The plants grow abundantly in the rivulets, lakes, and mai-shy 
pools of hot countries ; three species are natives of Britain, in diffei'ent localities ; 
few are known beyond their respective stations, being difficult of cultivation. The 
flowers are extremely fugacious and delicate, and can scarcely be preserved in a 
herbal ; the brilliant colour of the petals changing to black when pressed and dried; 
those of the British species are yellow ; those of the Tropics and other hot regions 
are generally blue. The structure of the small bladders is very curious ; during 



1. Utricularia vuhjaris, Greater Bladder-wort. 


2d Stamens. 2e Pollen, magnified. 


England. 
1a Pistil. 1b Capsule. 
Ic Vesicle, magnified. 


.'3. Utricularia reticulata. 

Rice-grounds, East Indies. 


2. Utricularia Humholdliana. 


■i. Pinguicula vulgaris, Common Butler-wort. 


Savannahs, Guiana. 


England. 


2a Calyx and Ovary. 
2b Calyx and Capsule. 


4a Calyx, Pistil, and Stamens. 
4b Stamen. -lo Pistil. 


2c Section of Capsule, maguified. 


4:D Section of Capsule. 



UTR10ULARIACE.E. 

the early growth of the plant they are wholly submerged, and contain only water, 
but when tlie flowers begin to be developed a change takes place, they rise to the 
surface, and are found to be filled with air only, small valves closing the orifice. 
"When the seeds are ripening they again sink below. The aquatic species are 
amply provided with vesicles, and are kept floating by their aid ; some which belong 
to the Tropics are fixed by fibrous roots in the marshes, requiring no other support, 
and have no vesicles. U. vul(jarls (1) is oiir finest species, and may be seen in 
ditclies and deep pools on the south coast; from the finely-divided leaves, as well 
as form of the flower, it is sometimes called Hooded Milfoil. U. Humboldt iana 
(2) grows in the elevated marshy savannahs of the Roraime mountains in Guiana, 
the stem rising to the height of three or four feet, bearing several singularly formed 
and very elegant purple flowers. This is a remarkable instance of the manner in 
■which an European genus is developed into a more noble type in Tropical regions. 
It was discovered adorning its native savannahs by Sir Robert Schomburgk, who 
dedicated it to his learned friend Alexander von Humboldt, but it is one of those 
fragile ornaments of the creation not destined for transportation or dispersion. U. 
reticulata (3) is a native of inundated rice-grounds in the East Indies, twining 
amongst the rice-stalks, with its round smooth stems destitute of leaves. The pale 
netted flower is a curious variety from other species. U. montana adorns with its 
delicate white flowers the sunny meadows around the mountains of the island of 
Martinique. During the late voyage of IMr. Spruce in the Amazon, he found a re- 
markable species, U. qiunqueradiata ; the flower-stalks, about two inches long, 
have an involucre of five rays, spreading horizontally, which floats and supports 
the plant with its large yellow flower, like a floating lamp. The rays are composed 
of transparent cells, convex on the surface, forming a kind of chain of vesicles. 
U. unijiora growing on the white sand of the shore is the simplest species yet 
known ; the stem, the size of a sewing -needle, is fixed in the sand by a small cone 
of roots ; it bears no leaves, only a small tubular bract below the simple white 
flower. U. nelumhnfoHa is a curious species described by travellers in South 
America ; it makes its habitation in the pools of water accumulated from rain or 
dew in the hollows of the leaves of a plant of the Pine-apple tribe, probably a 
Tillandsia, or some allied genus. The roots derive nourishment from the water 
entirely, for it is no parasite, and has no connexion with the plant which thus in so 
singular a way affords it shelter. The roots creep from one leaf to another, and the 
Utricularia spreads and flourishes. Pinguicula inhabits the marshes and bogs of 
Britain and many other countries. P. vulgaris (4) abounds also in Sweden and 
Norway, where the leaves are used by the peasants to thicken the milk of reindeer, 
which is effected without the separation of curd or whey, and is esteemed as a 
delicacy, the luxuries of food being in those northern countries of a simple nature. 
The leaves appear to have a certain degree of irritability, bending backwards when 
the jilant is taken out of the ground. P. lusitanica is an example of a Portuguese 
plant migrated to Britain ; it grows in Dorsetshire and in the south of Ireland, and 
has also been found in Scotland. This genus is represented in Fuegia by P. an- 
tarctica, the chief distinguishing character being a spur much shorter than that of 
P. lusitanica. Genlisea belongs exclusively to Brazil. 

This Tribe inhabits marshes, streams, and still waters in all parts of the world ; 
most abundant in the Tropics. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY Of ILLINOIS 




la, lb -^^ Id, 



3 a/ 3 b 3c, 3d/ 



41 6a/ eb 



Il.iei 



P 



The/Frwvrose'Tnhe/ 



])cB/ i. Scn.ZiTnited. 



107 



PRIMULACEJi 



THE PRIMROSE TRIBE. 



Annual or perennial plants, generally of herbaceous nature, and sometimes nearly 
shrubby. The leaves usxially proceed from the top of the root, or else are oppo- 
site, or alternate, or in whorls on the stem ; they have no stipules. The flowers are 
either on a simple stem arising from the root, or in an umbel at the top of the stem, 
or variously arranged in the axils of the leaves on the stem. The calyx is five-cleft 
at the top, half or entirely below the ovary, regular and persistent. The corolla is of 
one petal, attached to the base of the ovary, regular in form, the top divided into 
five segments, seldom four ; Glaux is w^ithout petals. The stamens are inserted 
upon the corolla, and are equal in number to its segments, and placed opposite to 
them. In Samolus and Lysimachia imperfect stamens are alternate with them. 
The ovary is one-celled, the style is single, the stigma capitate ; the seed-vessel is 
a capsule opening by valves, with a central distinct plate ; that of Anagallis is a 
pyxis, opening with a lid at the top. The seeds are numerous, with fleshy al- 
bumen. 

This Tribe of herbaceous plants has much affinity with Myrsinaceaj, which is 
chiefly distinguished by the shrubby nature of the species and the fleshy fruit. 

Some of these flowers have soporific properties ; the roots are sometimes bitter 
and acrid. 

The name of Primula denotes its being amongst the first plants to flower in the 
spring. P. vulgaris is one of the earliest tokens of depai'ting winter, adorning our 
woods and hedge-banks some weeks before other plants have opened their buds. 
By garden cultivation it has produced double varieties of all colours. P. veris (1) 
is the sweet-scented favourite cowslip, plentiful in the meadows and copses of some 
districts of Kngland, as well as of most European countries. The flowers make an 
excellent wine, much esteemed by farmers' wives. P. auricula, a native of the 
Alpine regions of Europe, has been developed into countless beautiful varieties ; the 
flowers exhibit various shades of purple and brown, the peculiar powdery covering 



1. 


Primula veris. Common Cowslip. England. 


3a Calyx. 3b 


Stamens and PisHl. 




1a Flower. 1b Flower, opened. 


3c Stamen. 3d 


Pistil. 




Ic Stamtii. Id Pistil. 


■1. Anagallis arvensis, 


Scarlet Pimpernel. 


2. 


Dodecatheon Meadia, American Cowslip. 

Virginia. 


4a Seed-ve.'sel. 


Englsmd 
4b Section. 


3. 


Cyclamen europcpum, Common Cyclamen. 

Europe. 


5. Anagallis Monclli. 
IJA. Ocnry o/Arctia. 


Italy 
'iB Seed. 



I'J;1ML'LACE/E. 

renders it a singular plant, and it was formerly an object of much attention, now in 
some degree superseded by the immense number of new plants imported from all 
lands. In some of our large manufacturing towns in the north it still affords in- 
teresting occupation to the workmen to raise new varieties of Auriculas. P. farinosa, 
of Yorkshire, is one of our most delicate native flowers ; in Switzerland it is also 
frequent. Five species only belong to Britain, but the (jrerman and Swiss Floras 
contain twenty-one ; P. longijiora, P. vii/osa, P. iaterjrifolia, and others, inhabiting 
the pastures and rocks of the higher Alps. Dodocatheon (2) is one of the first 
importations from Virginia ; its specific name of Meadia records a celebrated phy- 
sician and naturalist, whose monument may be seen in the nave of Westminster 
Abbey. Cyclamen is another of this tribe, whicb sends forth its welcome flowers 
in the early months of the year. C. europrrum (3) is become rare in this country, 
though it is common in the woods of Austria and Lombardy ; the flattened bulbs 
lie on the surface of the ground, and are eaten by pigs. After the flowers are 
withered, the stalks curl round, and remain amongst the leaves till the seeds ripen. 
Anagallis appears to have been laiown to Pliny and Dioscorides. A. arvensis (4) 
is frequent in corn-fields and open places, one of the few red flowers indigenous in 
this country, and, like the Poppy and all bright red flowers, is found in situations 
exposed to the sun. By peasants it is called Shepherd's-clock, as it closes its flowers 
after noon-day ; this power, however, seems to be lost if tlie jilant be gathered and 
placed in water. A. teuella is a very delicate little trailing plant on bogs, in Wales 
and elsewhere. A. AloneUi (o) flourishes well in our conservatories. Hottonia is 
the elegant Feather-foil of our streams and ditches, the slender stalks rising above 
the water, bearing whorls of pink flowers. Lysimachia grows in watery places or 
moist woods ; all the British species have yellow flowers. L. thjjrsijiora is chiefly 
found in Scotland. One of the most widely dispersed genera of this tribe is Sa- 
molus, belonging to every quarter of the world. S. Valerandi. in the ditches of our 
south coast, may be examined with interest, the form of both flower and capsule 
being remarkably neat ; a small bract is on the middle of each flower-stalk. S. 
ebracteatus grows on the shores of Cuba. 8. Jforibundus on the coast of Peru ; S. 
littoralis on the coast of New Holland. Trientalis eiiropcea is rarely to be seen in 
the north of England, but it abounds in the woods of Norway ; the stem is about 
four inches high, crowned by a few leaves and brilliant white flowers ; the black 
seeds are covered with a white netted skin. Soldanella and Aretia are among the 
beautiful little Alpine plants which ascend to the limits of perpetual snow. In 
Lapland and Siberia we trace this tribe in the forms of Diapensia and Androsace. 
Douglasia blossoms amidst snow on the Rocky Mountains of North America. 

This Tribe is most common in the northern and colder regions of the globe ; 
rare within the Tropics, where it only exists on the sea-shore or on lofty mountains. 



OF THE 
UKMVERSITY OF ILLl^'OiS 



108 




ElieL 



70y 



The' LeaJj'woTb Irvbe/. 



/ / 



Bay i, Sovj. bjnUed^ 



108 



PLUMBAGINACEiE 



THE LEAD-WORT TRIBE. 



Undershrubs and lierbaceons plants. The leaves are alternate, or in clusters, 
■undivided, somewhat sheathing at the base, sometimes marked with transparent 
dots. The flowers are either in loose panicles or combined into close clusters. 
The calyx is tubular, plaited, persistent, sometimes coloured. The corolla is of 
one petal, with a slender tube of five petals with a long narrow claw. The 
stamens are of definite number, in Plumbago fixed to the base of the ovary ; in 
Statice and its immediate allies, placed on the petals. The ovary is one-celled, 
one-seeded ; the styles usually five, with the same number of stigmas. The 
fruit is a nearly-closed utricle. The seeds contain a small quantity of mealy 
albumen. 

This Tribe has some affinity with Plantaginacere, but is distinguished by the 
plaited calyx. 

Tonic and astringent, acrid and caustic properties exist in these plants. 

Plumbago derives its name from a substance found in the root of the European 
species, in colour resembling black lead; it is used as a remedy for toothache in 
France, but stains the teeth grey, this peculiar caustic colouring matter is called 
Plumbagine. P. europcea is the only species belonging to Europe, but several 
exotic species are cultivated in our conservatories for ornament, though not for 
use. P. capensi's (1) is a graceful plant, and produces its delicate flowers 
throughout the summer. P. rosea (2) w^as brought from the East Indies by the 
celebrated Dutch traveller and botanist Rumphius, in the last century ; he called 
it hlister-root, from the use made of it by the natives. P. scandens climbs over 
hedges in St. Domingo and Rio Janeiro ; it has a white flower, and is considered 
to possess medicinal properties in South America. P. zeylanica is found in 
Ceylon and in Australia. Statice is a genus known to, and described by Pliny ; 
it is dispersed throughout Europe and from Siberia to the Mediterranean, is found 
also in Egypt, in the Canaries, and at the Cape of Good Hope. S. purpurata (3) 
ha\dng been introduced from South Africa in 1800, has been occasionally seen 
in our gardens from that time. S. speciosa and others are natives of Russia, 



1. Plumbago capensis, Blue Plumbago. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
1a Slamenx and Pittil. 1b Ovary. 



2, Plumbago rosea, Red Phimhago. 



East Indies. 



3. Statice purpiiraia, Purple Statice. 

South Africa. 

i. Armeriavulgaris, Common Thrift, England. 
4a Calyx. 4b Section of Flower. 
4c Ovary and Pistil. 



PUMnAiilNACK.E. 

all o( ft durable nature and pleasing aspect. S. imhricata, a ahrub of Teneriffe, 
is a beautiful sj>ecies, with email purple flowers. S. Caroliniana is a very 
powerful astringent, used medicinally in America. Several are woody shrubs ; 
in Cabul a large portion of fuel wood is obtained from Statice. S. Limonium 
is the Sea Lavender, frequent on the muddy shoves of the mouths of our smaller 
rivers. The flowers of this genus and Armeria have five separate petals, the 
stamens attached to their base. Armeria vulgaris (4) grows plentifully on most 
parts of the English coast, jiarticularly abundant on the shores of the Isle of 
Wight and other southern positions, extending along the clififs to the Land's 
End westward. It forms a good bordering for gardens, and is preferred for that 
purpose in some situations where the soil is favourable. Armeria differs chiefly 
frum Statice in the flowers being collected in close roimd heads, having an 
involucre at the base, forming a kind of sheath at the top of the stalk. Cera- 
tostigma is a native of China. . Vogelia belongs to the Cape ; it records the name 
of a zealous but imfortunate explorer of African plants, who fell a victim to the 
climate, ^gialitis grows amongst the mangroves of Northern Australia, and 
ia the Delta of the Ganges. 

This small Tribe is found thinly scattered from Greenland to Cape Horn, 
inhabiting salt marshes and sea -coasts, in Temperate regions ; abundant on the 
shores of the ^Mediterranean, and in the southern provinces of the Russian empire ; 
rare in the Tropics and in China. Plumbago belongs to Europe, India, America, 
the Cape of Good Hope, and Australia. 



LI 

OF THE 
IjN'A'ERSin OF ILLINOIS 




la- 2h ^^ Id, 



(■a 61 ^.^6 c ed. e 



£Tdu 



The/ Juh -wort' Tribe/ 



Dcuy &/ ScPV.Zumie,! 



109 



PLANTAGINACE^ 



THE RIB-WORT TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants, a few of which are shrubby, usually stemless. The leaves 
grow in tufts on the ground, and are opposite or alternate in the species having a 
stem, flat and ribbed, or tapering and fleshy. The flowers grow in spikes, or 
solitary, as in Littorella ; the calyx is four-2:)arted, persistent. The corolla is of 
one petal, membranous, fixed below the ovary, four-parted at the top, persistent. 
The stamens are four, inserted into the corolla alternate with its segments. The 
filaments are thread-like, soft, bent inwards in the bud ; the anthers are two-celled. 
The ovary is composed of a single carpel, without a disk, two-celled, sometimes 
four-celled by the angles of the central plate ; the style is single, slender ; the 
stigma hairy, simple, rarely partly bifid. The capsule is membranous, opening 
transversely, bearing the seeds on a loose central column. The seeds are many, 
two, or single, and contain fleshy albumen. 

These plants have some affinity with Plumbaginacese. 

The herbage is slightly astringent, the seeds mucilaginous. 

Plantago is a genus of plants of peculiar aspect, in some points forming a kind 
of link with the grasses ; the long leaves, with strong linear ribs, giving a name to 
the Tribe, and the slender spike of inflorescence, both bear some resemblance to 
several of the grasses. P. major ( 1 ) is one of our most I'requent species, growing 
by the wayside almost everywhere throughout the country ; it is equally common 
in all parts of Europe, and has been observed in Japan. The numerous small 
seeds are the favourite food of birds, and the leaves have still a reputation among 
peasants for healing slight wounds. A variety called Rose-plantain is thought 
sufficiently pretty to be admitted into the flower-garden. P. coronopus (2) is often 
too abundant on lawns, spreading over it to the exclusion of the fine tufted grasses ; 
the name of Star of the Earth expresses its form, as the leafs and stalks lie close 



1. 


Plantago major. Greater Plantain. 


4. Littorella laeustris. Plantain Shore-weed. 




England. 


England. 




1a Flower. 1b Seed-vesiel. 


5. Bougueria nuhicola. Bolivia. 




Ic Seed. 


5a Flower, maynijied. 




Id Seed maynijied. 


5b Section of Seed. 5c Stamen. 


2. 


Plantago coronopus, Star of the Earth. 


5d Seed-vessel. 5e Bract. 




England. 


Ca. FlowerofP.lanceolata. 
Cb Ovary and Pistil. 


3. 


Plantago squarroxa, Leafy-spiked Plantain. 


6c Section of Ovary. 




Egypt. 


6d Seed. Ce Seed-vessel. 



a a 



PLANTAGINACE^. 

pressed on the ground. In former times, when vegetable food was not so choice 
and varied as at present, the leaves were eaten as salad, but they have an un- 
pleasant flavour. This is one of our native plants which an English traveller will 
recognise at Funchal in ^Madeira. P. radicata of Portugal is of similar character, 
but much larger. P. lanceohita, the Rib-grass of pastures, is not esteemed here, 
but is said to afford good fodder for cattle on the Swiss Alps. P. marifima is of 
varied growth, according to the locality ; it may be found with thick fleshy leaves 
on rocks bordering the Solway Frith and other salt situations, thus conforming to 
the general rule that fleshy-leaved plants thrive chiefly near the sea ; for when 
growing in situations removed from the influence of saline air or soil, as by the 
side of small rivers in the Craven district of Yorkshire, the leaves are flat, and 
scarcely more fleshy than those of other species. P. squarrosa (3) is an example 
of the few species which have leaves on the stem, not all proceeding from the root ; 
a lar<^e supply of potash is yielded from the ashes. P. cynops is shrubby, grows 
in the south of Europe, and is supposed to be referred to by Pliny. In INIadeira 
is found P. arhorcscens. P. remotiflora, P. amphxicaulis, and P. penicillata, 
form part of the vegetation of the mountains of Scinde and Beloochistan at an 
elevation of 5000 feet. The remote Auckland Isles are the abode of a species 
mnch resembling the British P. media, which has been named P. Aucklandica. 
The largest known species is P. maxima, the flower-stalks measuring thirty inches 
in height. Littorella (4) is a delicate little plant, growing in watery sandy places ; 
like some Plantains, the flowers have extremely long stamens, curved inwards in 
the bud, then erect, afterwards becoming flaccid and drooping. The pistil and 
stamens are in separate flowers. It is the only species known, and is found on the 
margins of ponds or lakes. Bougueria (5) was named by Decaisne after its dis- 
coverer, who accompanied Condamine on a journey in Peru. It is a genus inter- 
mediate between Plantago and Littorella, having the habit of growth of the former, 
and a capsule nearly resembling that of the latter. Bouger found it growing in 
the fissures of the porphyritic rocks of the mountains that rise above the city of 
Potosi, at an elevation of l-i.oOO feet. The root is thick and large in proportion 
to the plant ; the linear leaves are somewhat fleshy, and when young are covered 
with white hairs. Perfect and imperfect flowers exist on the same spike ; the cap- 
sule contains one se^d, and remains closed. Although Plantago is a lowly genus, 
it has been observed in almost every country, in Morocco and at the Cape of Good 
Hope, in India, Japan, Kamtchatka, Patagonia, and the Andes. The mucilaginous 
seeds are of some utility. Those of P. arenaria are said to be employed in the 
dressing of muslin. 

This Tribe is scattered over the whole world, in various localities; most abun- 
dant in cool or Temperate climates. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

iJKMVERSiTY OF ILLINOIS 







I.T.dib. 



The/Marvel/ ofFerwTnhe/. 



Bav &/S<m/.Lvmte^ 



110 



NYCTAGINACE^ 



THE MARVEL OF PERU TRIBE. 



Chiefly herbaceous plants, both annual and perennial, a few shrubs and trees. 
The leaves are usually opposite, sometimes alternate, almost always unequal, without 
stifiules. The flowers grow on terminal stalks, or from the base of the leaf-stalks, 
in clusters or solitary, sometimes imperfect, having an involucre of one or several 
parts, either minute or large, often brightly coloured. The calyx is tubular, coloured, 
the limb whole or toothed, plaited in the bud, becoming hardened at the base, 
forming a covering to the seed, the limb falling off. The stamens are of definite 
number, attached to the'base of the ovary, sometimes on one side. The anthers 
are two-celled. The ovary is above the calyx, with a single erect ovule ; the style 
single, the stigma simple. The fruit is thin, enclosed within the persistent base of 
the calyx; the seed is destitute of the usual covering, the base of the calyx cohering 
to it ; it contains farinaceous albumen. 

This Tribe has close affinity with Amarantacese and Chenopodiace^, but is 
distinguished from both by the base of the calyx becoming a tough covering to the 
seed. 

The roots of several species possess medicinal properties. 

Mirabilis is the usual Latin appellation of the genus which is the type of this 
Tribe, but French botanists still prefer the name Nyctago, given it by Van Royen, 
and adopted as the designation of the plants generally, in allusion to their night- 
blowing. Clusius named it Admirabilis. Mirabihs Jalapa (1) is the most frequent 
example of the genus in our gardens, having been introduced before the close of the 
IGth century ; the large tuberous roots were formerly supposed to yield the true 
medicinal Jalap, but that opinion has been long since found to be erroneous. The 
flowers by cultivation acquire varied colours, which renders it a pleasing ornament 
to the border. M. longijiora (2) was not brought to England till 175'J, and is a 
less hardy species, not flourishing in all soils, but it is a very desirable annual 



Mirabilis Jalapa, Marvel of Peru. 

"West Indies. 
1a Section of Flower. 

Mirabilis longijiora. Fray rant Marvel of 
Peru. Mexico. 

2a Hair, maf/nijied. 
2b Involucre and Seed. 
2c Seed. 2d Section. 



Abronia mellifera, Honey-scented Ahroniu. 

California. 
•■]a Stamens and Pistil. 
3b Fruit. 3c Seed. 

Pisonia ohtusata, Obtuse-leaved Pisonia. 

South America. 
4a Flower, magnified. 
4b Stamens and Pistil. 
4c Cluster of Fruit. 



NYCTAGINACK^. 

plant, from the extreme fragrance of its delicate flowers, which expand about sunset 
and wither before sunrise, so frasjile is their texture. The long tube is clothed with 
glutinous hairs by which small insects are detained ; the roots are powerfully- 
medicinal. INI. dichotojna of the West Indies opens its flowers in the afternoon, 
and is called by the French Jleur de quatre heures. M. suavolens is a medicinal 
plant much employed in Jlexico as a cure for rheumatism ; the scent resembles that 
of Anise. Although many sjiecies of Mirabilis are admired for their beautiful and 
fragrant flowers, others are of very insignificant aspect and rank amongst mere 
weeds. The seeds of some contain so large a portion of farinaceous albumen, as to 
afford a suj>])ly of food to the Japanese : they have also the art of extracting a 
colouring pigment from them. Abronia is a genus of no known use, yet with 
delicate pretty flowers. A melli/era (3) is found in the northern parts of California, 
in 46° of north latitude, and 12° of west longitude ; it was first discovered by 
David Douglass, near the Great Falls of Columbia, and is abundant on the dry, 
sandy deserts of the interior of the country, never seen on the sea-shore, where grow 
A. imibellata and A. arenaria. The stem and flower-stalks are slightly glutinous, 
like those of several species of IMirabilis ; the flowers have the scent of honey in the 
evening, which is the usual time of perfection for these plants. The involucre of 
A. timhellata is of a bright pink colour, which gives a singular effect to the flowers. 
Pisonia is a genus of evergreen shrubs named after Piso of Amsterdam, who wrote 
on the Natural History of Brazil, 1648. P. obtusata (4) offers a striking contrast 
to the herbaceous plants of this Tribe, being perennial in its nature, of stiff foliage 
and minute inflorescence of no beauty of colour. The seed is covered with a soft 
pulpy substance that is considered eatable in its native country. The roots contain 
medicinal properties. P. aculcata belongs to the East and West Indies, is very 
common in Jamaica and St. Domingo. The spines are awl-shaped, with a recurved 
sharp point, they grow at the base of the leaf-stalk, perpendicular to the branch, 
and cause much inconvenience to travellers, sometimes nearly preventing their 
passage through woods, by arresting their garments. The fruit, covered with 
small glutinous points, clings fast to everytliing that comes near to it, and frequently 
encumbers birds on their flight by sticking to their wings. P. inermis is a native 
of the Island of Carthagena. Boerhaavia was so called in honour of the famous 
botanist of Leyden, who died 1758, the first friend and patron of Linnaeus. B. 
hirsufa and B. prot-umbens have both medicinal properties. The root of B. de- 
cumbens is called hogmeat in Jamaica, and is used as an emetic in Guiana like 
Ipecacuanha. B. diffusa and B. repanda grow almost everywhere in India. B. 
viscosa is a climbing plant of Peru ; B. scandens of Jamaica. Bugainvillea, 
recording the name of a celebrated traveller, is also of a climbing habit, with large 
rose-coloured bracts in the conical clusters of flowers. 

This Tribe exists chiefly in the Tropics, scarcely extending far beyond them, 
except Abronia in North America, and Boerhaavia in the Southern Hemisphere. 



«' 



umm 

OF THE 

^■i^'lVERSITY OF l^!!^'nl<; 




STiab 



The'Ainarcmth'Tnhe/ 



day Sc S'TTj lanUed' 



Ill 



AMARANTACE J5. 

THE AMAEANTH TRIBE. 



Shrubs and herbs ; the leaves are simple, opposite or alternate, without stipules. 
The flowers grow in heads or spikes, not always containing both stamens and 
pistil. The sepals are three or five, placed below the ovary, usually membranous, 
and coloured, sometimes herbaceous ; distinct or united at the base, all equal, or an 
outer one dissimilar, often surrounded by dry„ coloured bracts. The stamens are 
fixed at the base of the ovary, either five and opposite the sepals, or twice or thrice 
the number ; either distinct or united ; the anther one or two-celled. The ovary 
is single, free, containing one or a few ovules hanging from a central thread. The 
fruit is a membranous bag or a berry ; the seeds are pendulous, and contain 
farinaceous albumen. 

These plants have close affinity with ChenopodiaceiB. 

Wholesome mucilaginous properties exist in the leaves. 

Amarantus is a name derived from the Greek, expressing its permanent nature 
and colour, many of the flowers retaining their bright colouring long after being 
gathered. The genus is dispersed in different proportions in each quarter of the 
world. A. Blitinn (1) is the only British species, small in size, and of no beauty 
of colour : a striking example of the lowly form of a genus on the limits of its 
station, which in a more genial and favourable climate is developed into superior size 
and brilliancy of colour. It is to be seen chiefly in boggy ground, near Cambridge 
and elsewhere. The seed is solitary, black, and shining. In this country it is con- 
sidered a mere weed, but in some parts of France it is cooked and eaten by the poor 
peasants ; for, like others of this Tribe, it contains a mild mucilaginous juice. A. 
caudatus (2) is an old favourite in the garden, having been introduced from the 
East Indies before the close of the sixteenth century. This and other species pro- 
duce a large supply of seeds, which share in the durable nature of the flower, and 
preserve the power of germination many years. A. /rumentaceus is cultivated for 



1. Amarantus Blitum, Wild Amaranth. 


3. Celosia crislata, Crested Coek's-comb. Asia 


England. 
1a Flower with Stamens. ■ 


4. Gomphrena officinalis, Officinal Gomphrena 

Brazil 


1b Flower with Pistil. 


4a Flower and Brads. 


Ic Seed-vessel. 


■In Cali/x. 4c Pistil. 


2. Amarantus caudatus, Love lies Bleedimj. 


4:D Flower open. -lE Seed. 


East Indies. 


5a. Flower of C. longifolia. 


2a Flower. 2b Stamens. 2c Seed. 


5b Stamens. 5c Section of Seed. 



AMAl^^NTACE.E. 

the sake of the seeds, like coru, iu the IMysore country; A. Anardhana on the" 
Himalayas for the same object. The species known as Prince s-/eather is stiff and 
erect, but some are of more graceful form and very ornamental. Others are service- 
able as food, and afford a wholesome supply ; A. oleraceiis, to the natives of Guinea, 
China, and similar hot countries. A. viridis is among the eatable herbs of the 
East Indies. Some are used medicinally ; A. dehilis is one of the medicinal species 
of Madagascar. Celosia cristafa (3) is a remarkable plant of annual growth, at- 
taining a wonderful development by cultivation and care ; in Japan it is frequently 
to be seen, with the expanded flower-stalk covered with its countless minute flowers, 
as much as a foot in length and breadth. It is considered to have medicinal pro- 
perties in India, where it is indigenous, as well as in China. C. margaritacea is 
found at moderate elevations on the Suen range of mountains. Gomphrena 
officinalis (4) is of high repute in its native country, supposed to be a remedy for 
all diseases, and the bite of snakes ; G. macrocephala possesses similar properties, 
and the roots are tonic. G. glohosa has been long known in our conservatories as 
the Globe Amaranth ; the bright purple flowers remaining unwithered during many 
months. Achyranthes is a genus with dry membranous flowers of no particular 
beauty of form or colour, excepting A.porrigeus, which has rounds heads of crimson 
flowers. A. ^?o/j?/^//era of Madagascar is employed as a medicine. A. aspera and 
A. fruticosa are among the various medicinal plants iised by the natives of 
India. Achyranthes inhabits also Norfolk Island, and extends into Europe as far 
as Sicily. Many of this tribe grow on the plains of India ; some are traced along 
the base of the Himalaya, ascending to moderate elevations. Chamissoa, Alternan- 
thera, Pupalia, and others, belong equally to America. Digera is common in 
India, and grows likewise in Arabia and Egypt. Deeringia is a native of India 
and Australia ; Desmochetia spreads northwards in India, and is found also in 
Java and the Isle of Bourbon. AUmannia is scattered over the isles of the Indian 
Archipelago, and in Singapore. Cladostachys and Centrostachys are natives of 
Nepal. Polyscalis is peculiar to the mountains of India, flourishing at a higher 
elevation than any other plant of this tribe ; P. sequax and P. capitata having been 
Been between 7000 and 8000 feet. Oplotheca floridana is a stiff, erect plant, 
bearing spikes of small white flowers, a native of Florida. 

This Tribe is most abimdant in the Tropics, especially of America, gradually 
diminishing in Temperate regions, unknown in the coldest countries ; five species only 
belong to Europe. It is found in various localities, on plains and mountains, dry 
barren situations, salt marshes, or woods. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSiry Of iUJNOlS 




d) -^ ^ * 

4^ 4b 'H-o 4i 4-t 



IT id 



n.e' Goos&--foo-^-Trub£^ 



Day Si. 



II: 



CHEN0P0DIACEJ3 



THE GOOSE-FOOT TRIBE. 



Under-shrubs and herbaceous plants, some of which are chmhing ; sometimes 
having jointed stalks. The leaves are alternate, occasionally opposite. The 
flowers are small, sometimes the stamens and pistil are in separate flowers. The 
calyx is deeply divided, sometimes rather tul)ular at the base ; in Basella the sepals 
form two rows ; the stamens are inserted into the base of the calyx, opposite its 
segments and equal to them in number, or fewer. The ovary is single, above 
the calyx, or sometimes adhering to the tube of the calyx. The styles are two or 
four, rarely single, the stigmas undivided. The fruit is membranous, sometimes 
a tind of berry is formed by the succulent calyx ; the seed contains either a flat 
spiral embryo in albumen, or a conically spiral one without albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Amarantaceae and Phytolaccacese, but is 
distinguished by the number and position of the stamens. 

Many of these plants contain soda, others sugar, in the root. 

Chenopodiura, from the Greek for goose-foot, is a genus very frequent iu 
Europe, usually on waste ground, or on heaps of rubbish, where C. bonus Henricus 
(1) is to be found. This species was formerly cultivated in gardens, and eaten 
as a vegetable ; the mucilaginous leaves are still, in coimtry places, thought good 
for healing slight wounds. C. olidum also affords wholesome food. C. maritimum 
may be preserved as a pickle ; when burned it produces soda, like several other 
plants of this tribe. C. quinoa of Peru is one of the common eatable herbs of that 
country ; its seeds contain wholesome farinaceous matter. The shape of the leaf 
varies in different species, but they are all more or less of a triangular form ; and 
that of C. bonus Henricus sufficiently justifies the choice of the generic name, 
resembling as it so nearly does the webbed foot of a goose. Beta (2), from the 



1. Chenopodium bonus Henricus, Goosefoot, or 

Mercury. England. 

1a Ovary and Styles. 1b Seed. 

Ic Flower of C. album. 
Id Section. Ie Section of Seed. 

2. Bet& maritima, Sea Beet. Shores, England. 

2a Flower. 

•3. Spm&ci& oleracea, Spinage. South Europe. 
3a Stamen Jlower. 



4. Basella rubra. East Indies. 

-Ia Sepal and Stamen. 

4b Stamen. 4c Ovary and Styles. 

4d Section of Ovary. 4e Fruit. 

5. Blitum virgatum, Strawberry Bide. 

South Em-ope. 
Oa. Flower q/'Salsola Kali. 
6b Spiral embryo. 

7a. Spike o/Salicornia herbacra. 
Ill Flower, mnynified. 



rHKNOPOniACK^. 

old Celtic word for red, has long yielded a good supply of nutritious food in its 
root, enlarged by cultivation, l)ut is of late years become of greater importance 
to man for the sugar obtained from two species. B. vulgaris of the south of 
Europe is the common Beet-radish, eaten both raw and cooked, used as a pickle, 
and as a substitute for coffee, now affording excellent sugar from the root : a tine 
varnish may also be made from it. B. cicla is extensively grown in Germany, 
France, and Switzerland, the large leaves are used for soups. B. maritima (2) 
is a native of many parts of our south coast ; its succulent nature renders it 
eatable as a herb, but the root is small, black without, pale within. Although the 
power of manufacturing sugar in so northern a country as France is considered 
of great value, yet the most important use of Beta is in the enormous root of 
]\Iangel-wurzel, as winter food for cattle. Spinacia (3) has the stamens and pistil 
in separate flowers ; it has been a constant herb in English gardens for nearly 
three centuries ; being very hardy, it is sown in the early spring, and affords a 
plentiful supply of its leaves, which have a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Basella (4) 
is the name of the plant in Malabar; it is much cultivated in the East Indies and 
China, and is also amongst the various vegetables which the French esteem and 
use more abundantly than the English. B. tuherosa of Quito has a large fleshy 
root. Blitum (o) is said to derive its name from the Celtic for insipid ; the 
calyx enlarges and becomes succulent, enclosing the seeds, the whole cluster 
having at last the asjiect of a strawl)erry. Salsola Kali is one of the valuable 
plants yielding in its ashes a large supply of soda ; it grows on the sea-shore 
of temperate countries, and is easily recognised by its prickly -pointed leaves and 
three spiny bracts of the flowers (G). S. soda abounds on the coasts of Spain, and 
forms barilla. S. saliva yields the best soda, now very extensively used in the 
manufacture of glass and soap, and for a variety of other purposes. The name 
Sahcornia denotes its saline nature and homed calyx, which enlarges as the seed 
ripens, forming a covering to the seed-vessel. S. herhacea (7) is common on the 
river shores of our east coast, where it is known as marsh Samphire, and made 
into a pickle. The silvery grey Atriplex is found throughout Europe, in salt 
marshes, on mud shores, on heaps of rubbish, and other rough places. One species 
of this apparently mean and despicable genus affords wholesome food ; A. hortensis 
is cultivated extensively in gardens around Paris. Acnida cannahina is the 
Virginian hemp of N. America. Thelygonum cj/nocramhe abounds in slender 
saline crystals ; it has medicinal properties, and is also occasionally eaten. 

This Tribe inhabits waste places in all parts of the world, most abundant in 
Temperate regions, frequent in salt marshes. Basella belongs to the Tropics. 



OFTHt 
UNlVERSiTV Of ilMNUiS 







DaySc^SonluMUd^ 



113 



PHYTOLACCACEiE. 

TflE PHYTOLACCA TRIBE. 



Undershrubs and herbaceous plants ; the leaves are alternate, entire, without 
stipules, often having transparent dots. The flowers are in racemes, perfect, 
regular, or partly irregular, arranged in various ways. The calyx is composed of 
four or five sepals ; sometimes having the appearance of true petals, which are 
wanting. The stamens are fixed below the ovary, equal in number and alternate 
with the sepals, or of indefinite number. The anthers are two-celled, opening 
lengthwise. The ovary is of one carpel, or several, distinct, or partially combined ; 
the styles and stigmas are equal in number to the carpels. The fruit* is dry or a 
berry, closed. The seed is solitary, and contains mealy albumen. 

This Tribe is connected with Chenopodiacese and Polygonacese. 

Acrid properties exist in various intensity in these plants. 

Phytolacca signifies a plant yielding a red lac colour, which the berries of 
P. decandra (1) do abundantly. It was the first species known in this country, 
having been introduced from Virginia early in the seventeenth century : the English 
name of Poke is derived from the Virginian Pocan. No use is made of it here, 
but it is very ornamental, both in flower and fruit; graceful in form, and brillit.nt 
in hue. The juice of the berries has strong medicinal properties, and a spirit 
distilled from them is poisonous to anim.ils ; nevertheless, poultry feed eagerly on 
the fruit, without injury. In the United States, the young shoots, which sprout 
forth in great profusion in a rich soil, are eaten, and considered excellent; the 
acrid properties being expelled by boiling. The root is large and branching, and 
when dried and pounded, is very similar in its effects to Ipecacuanha. If per- 
manence could be given to the purple colouring matter, it might be valuable for 
staining paper or other materials. Since the introduction of the plant to the 
countries bordering the Bosphorus, it has been employed to give a bright Colour to 
sherbet. It is said, also, that in Portugal the berries are extensively used to 
colour port wine; but they are not so wholesome for that purpose as those of the 
elder, which were some years ago forbidden by the government as an unlawful 
adulteration, and the bushes were all cut down. P. acinosa is one of the medicinal 



1. Phytolacca decanc/ra, Virginian Poke. 

North America. 

1a Flower. 1b Flower. 
Ic Ovary and Pistil. 



Id Section of Ovary. Ie Seed. 
If Section of Seed. 

2. Rivina tincioria, Dyer's Rivina. 

Brazil. 

H H 



THYTOLACCACE^:. 

plants of the Himalayas. P. drastica of Chile has a root shaped like a turnip, 
which is said to contain very powerful properties. 

Eivina was named after a Saxon, who was for many years professor of botany 
and medicine at Leii)zi2:, and published several valuable botanical works ; some of 
his ingenious and original remarks on the distinguishing characters of the corolla 
of plants, have been incorporated l)y other authors in their writings. Rivina being 
a genus continually producing flowers and fruit, is a perennial honour to his 
memory and talents, as Linnaeus remarked. R. tinctoria (2) is one of the numerous 
plants yielding colour in Brazil. It is of very elegant growth, and a pleasing 
ornament to the conservatory. The fruit contains one rough seed ; the colouring 
substance of the pulp is a bright red. R. octandra abounds in Jamaica, and 
furnislies hoop-bands for sugar-casks, from its long, tough, and flexible stalks. 
The berries, which contain an oily seed, are the chief food of the American Thrush ; 
but, as they are heavy of digestion, it is said that the bird, with true instinct, 
immediately seasons its repast with a few pods of the Capsicum haccafnm, the 
Bird-pepper bush. The species are generally npright, but R. octandra is of a 
climbing nature, and twenty feet high. The seeds of the Rivina have only a small 
portion of albumen. Giesekia, with its separate ovaries, forms a link ^^'ith Cheno- 
podiacese. From the experiments of French chemists, it has been shown that the 
ashes of Phytolacca decandra contain a very large proportion of potash ; the cul- 
tivation of it, therefore, iu France, might probably be advantageous as a source of 
alkali. 

Some species of this Tribe are natives of North and South America, in the 
Tropical regions, and beyond them : others belong to India and Africa. Phyto- 
lacca decandra has become naturalized in some Southern countries of Europe. 



OF THE 

IJKMVFRSiTV Of ILUMOiS 




The/BeaoTVLOjIrihe/ 



Day &>Son/.LanUei 



IH 



BEGONIACEiE. 

THE BEGONIA TEIBE. 



Succulent undershrubs, or herbaceous plants, having an acid juice. The leaves 
are alternate, toothed at the edges, rarely entire, usually unequal at the base. The 
stipules are large and membranous. The flowers are pink or white ; the stamens 
and pistils are in separate flowers on the same plant. The calyx is adherent to 
the ovary, coloured like a corolla ; in the stamen flower the sepals are four, two 
smaller, and within the other two; in the pistil flower the sepals are five, two of 
them smaller. The stamens are of indefinite number, either distinct, as in 
B. semperjiorens (1), or combined into a solid column. The anthers united into 
a head, two-cefled, continuous with the filament ; the connective between the two 
cells of the anther remarkably large, the cells minute, bursting longitudinally. 
The ovary is adherent, winged, three-celled, the stigmas are three, two-lobed, 
placed on the ovary, and somewhat spiral. The fruit is a membranous winged 
capsule, three-celled, containing numerous small seeds, bursting by slits at the base 
of the wings. The seeds are netted, and have no albumen. 

These plants have much resemblance to Polygonaceae, in the cal\ x and seed- 
vessel. 

Astringent and slightly bitter properties exist in the roots. 

Begonia was named after a French botanist of the 17th century; there are 
many species, all of a more or less succulent nature. The leaves are generally 
of glossy texture, and bright in colour, some very red, others coveretl in parts with 
red fringes, usually having one side much larger tlian the other. The flowers are 
curious in form, produced in great abimdance thoughout the summer, and very 
ornamental in conservatories. B. semperjiorens (1) is a very graceful species, 
the delicate white flowers have the stamens with distinct filaments, and come forth 
plentifully in spring. B. diversifolia (2) is one of the brightest species of ^lexico. 
B. samjuinea (3) is much admired for its singular foliage, of a tougher substance 
than usual, showing very remaricably the unequal sides of the base of the leaves, as 
weU as the difference of colour between the upper and under surface. It grows to a 



1. Begonia semperjiorens, White-Jlowered Be- 

gonia. Brazil. 

1a Pistils and Ovary. 
1b Pistil. lo Stamen. 
Id Capsule^ showiiiy Seeds. 

2. Begonia diversijolia. Various -leaved Be- 

gonia. Mexico. 



3. Begonia sangtunea, Red-leaved Begonia. 

Brazil. 



4. Begonia manicuta, Fringed Begonia. 



Brazil. 



5a. Stamen o/'Diplocinium Eiansianum. 
5b Cross-section oj the Ovarg. 
5c Seed. 



BEGONIACE.-E. 

greater height than some others, and is very beautiful. B. manicata (i) is an 
example of the fringed species, the flowers are small, but the leaves attain a large 
size. B. orgi/rostigma, of Brazil, is a singular species, the leaves being spotted 
with white ; the green colouring matter not flowing in certain cells causes little 
rings of pure white to apjiear on the upper surface, a small green point remaining 
in the midst, the under surface of the leaf is red. B. discolor, of China, has mottled 
leaves, which make a pleasing variety. Although in Europe the Begonias are only 
esteemed for their beauty, yet in their native countries several of them are valued 
by the inhabitants for medicinal qualities, or as food. The leaves of B. barbata, 
called tcngoor, are eaten by the people who dwell in some of the valleys of the 
Himalaya. B. luberosa and B. malabarica are also thought eatable in some parts 
of India. The root of B. grandiflora and of B. tomentosa are bitter and astringent ; 
in ^Mexico several species are considered to have medicinal j^roperties ; others are em- 
ployed in Peru. These plants require the heat and moisture of a tropical climate 
for their development, but some extend as far as 30° of north latitude, finding a 
suitable atmosphere on the mountains of Northern India, at an elevation in some 
districts as high as 7000 feet, where during the rainy season the moisture is 
extreme. B. echinafa, B. picta, and B. cordata, all belong to the Himalaya. 
Eupetalum and Diploclinium are the only other genera of this tribe ; the latter 
consists merely of those Begonias which have a double plate for the seeds in the 
ovary. The cultivation by seed is easily effected in this country. Some species 
have been discovered of a climbing habit, reaching to the height of twenty-five 
feet ; this appears to form a link with Cucurbitaceas. 

These plants are very common in the East and West Indies, and in South 
America. None are known in Africa, but some are found in Madagascar and the 
Isles of France and Bourbon. 




2 b ^■o ZA 2e ^"^ ^^ -^^ 



IT ad. 




Day &, SoTvZvnitedj 



Jju^Tickr'wheat/Trihe/ 



lis 



POLYGONACE^. 

THE BUCK-WHEAT TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants and a few shrubs. The leaves are alternate, with scarious 
stipules cohering round the stem, occasionally wanting. The flowers are in 
racemes, occasionally solitary ; the stamens and pistil are sometimes in different 
flowers. The corolla is wanting, the calyx often coloured and assuming the ap- 
pearance of petals, from three to six -parted. The stamens are usually of definite 
number, and placed on the bottom of the calyx ; the filaments are free and straight, 
the anthers opening lengthwise. The ovary is of one cell, formed by the adhesion 
of three carpels ; the styles or stigmas of the same number as the carpels. The 
fruit is a nut, either naked, or partly covered by the enlarged calyx, or wholly 
enclosed in it, as in Coccoloba. The seed is single, and contains farinaceous 
albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity vnih Chenopodiacese ; Eriogonum forms a link with 
Nyctaginacese, having no stipules. 

Agreeable acid qualities exist in the leaves and stalks, nauseous medicinal pro- 
perties in the roots ; some of the plants are also powerfully astringent. 

Polygonum, so called from the many joints of the stem, is a genus widely 
scattered over all Temperate countries, attaining higher development of size and 
colour in hotter climates. P. Persicaria (1) is common in ditches and watery 
places, growing to two feet in height ; having a fibrous root, occasionally sending 
out rootlets from the joints. P. amphihmm is the finest British species ; raising 
its numerous erect spikes of pink flowers above the water, the stem spreads to a 
considerable extent, roots proceeding from all the joints. It is almost impossible 
to extirpate it ; even from alluvial land, drained for many years, it will continue to 
spring up. It is said that waterfowl eat the seeds. P. hydropiper is very gene- 
rally to be seen in ditches ; the whole plant is covered, more or less, with glandular 
pores, containing an intensely acrid juice, from whence it was named Water- 



1. Polygonum Persicaria, Spotted Persicaria. 


2e Section of Seed. 


England. 
1a Flower. 1b Seed. 
Ic Section of Seed. 

2. Polygonum orientale, Eastern Persicaria. 

East Indies. 
2a Flower opened. 


3. lihcum spicifomc, Spiked Rhubarb. 

Himalayas. 
3a Flower. 3i) Section of Ovary. 

A. Coccoloba uvifera, Sea-side Grape. 

West Indies. 


2b Cluster of Flowers. 


4a Flower. 4b Pistil. 


2c Stamen. 2d Ovary. 


4c Seed-vessel. 4d Seed. 



r()LV(ii)NACE.i;. 

pepper. The long slender spike of ymall greenish flowers distinguishes it from 
other species. P. aviculare, Knot-grass, is one of the most frequent of weeds, 
growing almost everywhere, in waste and cultivated ground, the prostrate stems 
spreading their numerous branches in every direction. The angular black seeds 
furnish an abundant supply of food to small birds, P. Convolvulus is a climbing 
species, usually to be found in osier grounds. P. orientale (2) is the Persicaria of 
our gardens, having been brought from the East in the beginning of the eighteenth 
century ; it is often as much as ten feet in height, far surpassing the British species 
in size and beauty. Several species in Brazil, as well as in India, are valuable to 
the natives for their medicinal properties. Fagopyrum escnhntnm has been made 
a distinct genus from Polygoniim, and is the most important of the Tribe, yielding 
a large proportion of wholesome nourishment in its farinaceous seeds. Originally 
a native of the East, it has become naturalized here, and often appears in corn- 
fields. As food for jiheasants, it is cultivated in some parts of the country ; but 
in Belgium it is much grown, and the fl(;ur obtained from the seeds is made into 
cakes ; it is a remarkably beautiful crop, the l)right red stalks bearing their 
graceful spikes of pink and wliite flowers. In North America it is still more 
generally used for cakes : English crumpets are no longer made of Buck-wheat, as 
formerly. 

Rheum is said to have derived its name from Rha, the ancient name of the 
Volga, on the banks of which the famous root was discovered in abundance. 
R. 2^cilinatiim is the species from whence the chief supply is obtained on the moun- 
tains in Tartary ; in China, also, the plant is much cultivated ; the roots are 
generally taken up twice in the year, stripped of their bark, and dried in the air. 
R. spidforme (3) grows on the northern slopes of the Himalayas ; the roots are of 
compact texture and light colour, and possess the usual properties. Coccoloba 
uvifera (4) grows in the estuaries of salt water or on sandy shores in South 
America and the Isles of the Caribbean Sea : saline particles are essential to its 
perfect development, for whenever it is found in an inland situation it produces 
only leaves, no flowers. The French colonists call it Raisin du bord de la mer ; 
the enlarged calyx entirely encloses the seed, and forms a pulpy fruit, in appearance 
like grapes, of an agreeable sub-acid flavour. The trees are tall and branching, 
the wood is hard and heavy, but of little use ; when boiled, it imparts a I'ed tint 
to water. C. excoriata is found by the side of torrents in St. Domingo ; this 
species, and also C ohhisl folia, exhibit close affinity to Polygonum, the pink calyx 
not wholly enclosing the black seed, nor becoming so pulpy as in C. uvifera. 
Several other species are natives of the West Indies. Rumex contains some 
trouljlesome weeds, as docks, and some eatable herbs miich used in Continental 
cookery. R. scutatus is the French Sorrel, of pleasant acidity ; R. acetosa, an 
English species, the common Sorrel ; the astringent roots yield a red dye. Oxyria 
reniformis has strong acid qualities in the leaves ; it grows chiefly in northern 
situations in various parts of Scotland, and extends far north into the Arctic 
regions. Calligona Pallasia is a leafless shrub on the Stepj)es of Siberia, affording 
food to the Calmuck peasants in the fruit and roots. Among the eatable fruits of 
Eastern Australia described by Mr. Backhouse, is jMuhlenbeckia adpressa. Sir 
Robert Schomburgk found the stem and branches of Triplaris americana full of 
hollow cells, which serve as habitations for ants. 

This Tribe is scattered over the world in nearly every part : Polygonum and 
Rumex abounding in Temperate regions ; Coccoloba in South America and the 
"West Indies ; Oxyria existing in the dreary regions of the North Pole. 



LIEHARY 

OFM 

UNIVERSITY Oh iLLil^UU 




The- Laurel Tribe' 



Day & Son. ..Limited 



I 



lu; 



LAURACE^. 



THE LAUREL TRIBE. 



Tkees, some of which are of large size. The leaves are alternate, seldom opposite, 
entire at the edges, or rarely lobed, without stipules. The flowers are small, and 
grow in panicles or umbels, or small clusters. The calyx is four to six-cleft, petals 
are wanting ; sometimes the stamens and pistil are not perfect in the same flowers. 
The stamens are of definite number, placed on the calyx, usually twice as many as 
its segments, and opposite to them. The three innermost stamens are imperfect ; 
the six outer have perfect anthers, which are two to four-celled, the cells bursting 
by a long persistent valve, opening upwards. The inner filaments usually have 
glands at their base. The ovary is above the calyx, one-celled, with a simple style, 
and stigma, either obtuse or two or three-lobed. The fruit is either a berry or a 
drupe, naked or covered, its stalk often becoming enlarged (4). The seed has no 
albumen. 

This Tribe is chiefly distinguished from Thymelacese and others by the reflexed 
valves of the anthers. 

Aromatic properties, oil and camphor, exist abundantly in these trees. 

Laurus, derived from the Celtic laur, gi'een, is a genus with evergreen leaves, 
existing in the East and West Indies, and more abundantly in North x\merica. It 
yields valuable timber in its largest trees, aromatic oil, spice, camphor, and a deli- 
cious fruit. L. nobilis (1), the only European species, was selected in ancient times 
as an appropriate plant for garlands to adorn heroes and sages : it was consecrated to 
the service of priests, and used by them in their sacrifices. The leaves contain 
aromatic oil, and a small portion of prussic acid, which gives them medicinal power ; 
the fruit when boiled yields also oil. In the southern parts of Hampshire, the Bay 
grows luxuriantly, and bears a plentiful crop of fruit ; but in Italy it attains greater 
height, becoming a tree. L. indica, the Royal Bay, is a native of ^ladeira and the 
Canaries, and affords an useful wood for furniture. L. chloroxylon, the Cog-wood 
tree of Jamaica, is sixty feet high ; the wood is hard and tough, well adapted for 
the construction of sugar-mills. One of the most valuable spices is Cinnamon, the 



1. Laurus nobili/t. Sweet Bay. Italy. 


.1. 


Persea ^ratissima. Avocado Pear. 


1a Pistil Flower. 1b Stamen Flower. 




West TndieiS. 


Ic Stamen. Id Section of Seed. 




3a Slomen. 3b Section of Fruit. 


2. Cinnamomum javaniciim, Japanese Cinna- 
mon. .Tava. 


4a 


Dehaasia jwerfirt. Java. 


2a Pistil. 




Fruit on enlarged Stalk. 



LAT'llACEA-:. 

inner bark of several trees of this tribe : Cinnamomum ja2'an('c»m (2) abounds in Java 
and the neighbouring isles. In Ceylon, the trees that produce it are so common, 
that the wood is used for fuel and various purposes. Twice in the year the young 
branches are cut, the outer baric is scraped off, the thin inner layer carefully 
loosened. On being exposed to the sun, it curls up into the form we receive it in. 
The trees have a stunted appearance, not being allowed to grow above nine feet : 
the delicious scent is not perceptible until the branches are cut, as it is contained in 
the internal portion of the bark. Cassia bark has nearly similar properties, but is 
not so fragrant. The Chinese Cassia comes from Cinnamomum Cassia. The 
Clove-cassia of Brazil is the bark of Dicypellium car^oj^hi/Uahan, one of the noblest 
trees of this tribe, as described by Martius. Persea gratissima (3) is the only 
eatable fruit ; in the West Indies, it is called Avocado, or Alligator Pear ; the pulp 
is of a sweet, agreeable flavour, but Europeans think it so rich as to require the 
addition of some kind of spice, or wine. 13y the negroes it is considered their chief 
delicacy, and it is eaten by every animal or bird ; the large seed is enveloped in a 
thin membranous coat. Camphor, a concrete state of oil, is a frequent secretion of 
this tribe ; a large supply is obtained from all parts of Camphora officinarum, which 
grows plentifully in the Island of Formosa, and being taken in junks to Canton is 
dispersed thence to various countries. Sassafras officinarum, a large tree of North 
America, yields an aromatic oil from its berries, and the tonic bark is used medi- 
cinally. Benzoin oduriferuni has similar properties. Some of the fruits bear a 
resemblance to the true Nutmeg, but are of inferior quality. The Clove-nutmegs 
of Madagascar are produced by Agathophyllum aromaticum ; the Brazilian Nut- 
megs by Cryptocarya moschata. The fruit of Acrodiclidium, or Camara-nutmeg, 
is highly esteemed in Guiana for its medicinal properties. Among the fever and 
ague remedies of Guiana, Nectandra Rodicei, the Bibiri, is considered the best ; the 
wood, celebrated for its hardness, is knowTi as the Greenheart of Demerara. Oreo- 
daphne is remarkable for a hard yellow wood, with a very disagreeable odour. 
There occurs frequently one exception in a tribe, which seems to make a link with 
other plants of very different manner of growth and appearance : Cassytha is an 
example of such a variation froni the chief type. It is a slender cord-like leafless 
plant, resembling most nearly Dodder, and, like that parasitic, bearing small flowers 
and round white fruit. The structure of the fl(jwer, more especially of the stamens 
with reci\rved anther-valves, is precisely that of Laurels ; but the fruit differs in 
being enclosed in the calyx, and becoming a berry. Although not fully conform- 
able to any known Order, it appears to be most rightly placed here. 

This extensive Tribe inhabits cool situations in the Tropics ; a few species are 
found in Madeira, Teneriffe, and Madagascar ; a very few advance northwards into 
North America ; scarcely any exist in Africa ; one only in Southern Europe. 
Cassytha belongs to the Tropics. 



OF m 

Ui^lVERSITY 01- !LL;::0!^ 




2cu ^ b Zc- 



i.r.M 



ihey Nutmeg Tribe/. 



J)t2V^: .\<n,li/tMid 



117 



MYEISTICACE.^. 

THE NUTMEG TEIBE. 



Tropical trees, often containing a red juice, the leaves are alternate, w'ithout 
stipules, not dottetl, entire at the edges, stalked and leathery. The flowers are 
small, and grow from the base of the leaf-stalk, or on terminal branches, or 
panicles. A short folded bract is at the base of the flower ; the calyx is leathery, 
usually downy, three or four notched. The stamens and pistil are in separate 
flowers, the filaments of the stamens are either distinct or united in a cylinder ; 
the anthers are from three to twelve, two-celled, turned outwards, bursting length- 
wise, either united or distinct. The carpels are solitary or many, with a single 
ovule. The style is very short, the stigma lobed. The fruit is a berry, containing 
a nut enveloped in an arillus. The seed contains slightly fleshy albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Lauracete and Proteacese, but is distinguished by 
the structure of the anthers and fruit. 

Aromatic properties exist generally in the fruit. 

Myristica is said to be derived from the Greek for myrrh, in allusion to the 
aromatic flavour of the fruit. Nutmeg trees, INIyristica moschata (1), were first 
cultivated by the Dutch in the island of Banda, but they soon became dispersed 
throughout the Eastern and Western Tropics, wherever colonies were established by 
French or English settlers. In the ^Moluccas and in Sumatra extensive plantations 
were formed ; in the West Indies Trinidad was found to be verv favourable for 
their growth, and in the last tropical territory acquired by English intrepidity and 
influence, now being subdued by skilful cultivation, in the Sarawak district of the 
vast island of Borneo, the Nutmeg is considered one of the most valuable objects of 
attention, and will probably be one of the chief branches of that opening commerce 
destined to contribute largely to the civilization of the countiy. The peculiarity 
of the fruit, which would otherwise be a simple drupe, is the aril or tough leathery 
covering of the nut, within the fleshy coat of the exterior. This aril, when taken 
out and dried, is known as mace, a spice of considerable importance for culinary 
purposes, especially in all hot countries where food requires to be highly seasoned. 
The nut, or Nutmeg, containing an essential oil of fragrant aromatic odour, and 
medicinal properties, has a thin black coat, \\Tinkled by the impression of the aril, 



1. Myristica moschata. Common Nutmeg. 


2. Virola sebifera, Oily Virola. 




Tropics of Asia. 




Guiana. 


]a Flower. 1b Stamens. 


2a Cluster of Flowers. 




Ic Section of Ovary. 


2 b Si nine n Flower. 




Id Nutmeg. 1e Section. 


2c Pistil Flower. 





MYKISTICACE^. 

also an inner skin which adheres closely to the kernel : it is usually employed in a 
powdered state, both as a condiment and as a medicine. When the fruit is ripe it 
splits o]ien, showing the red aril within. M.fahta is a native of Surinam, with 
long drooping branches, bearing an oblong fruit, from the kernel of which ia 
extracted a yellow fatty substance used for candles and other purposes of domestic 
economy ; the fragrance of this species is very slight. The bark of this and other 
species yields an acrid red juice. M. sphcerocarpa of IMartaban has a small round 
fruit of a bright red colour, with a pale nut within, which, as well as its aril, are 
aromatic ; the fleshy portion of the fruit is acid and astringent. M. ami/gdalina 
of the same country is nearly similar. Virola sehifera (2), a tree of South 
America, abounds on the borders of forests and hills ia Cayenne and Guiana, it 
attains to 60 feet in height with a top composed of thick twisting branches; the 
leaves when young are clothed on the under surface with a rusty down. The 
kernel yields a yellow oily material for making soap and candles, and various uses; 
the red juice which exudes from the bark wherever incisions are made, is said to 
be a preservative for the teeth. Pyrrhosa tingens of Amboyna has a mace full of 
red mucilaginous juice, which, when mixed with lime, is used as a pigment. The 
red juice collected from the trunk of Myristica spuria is called Dooghan in the 
Philippines, and used as a substitute for Dragon's Blood, Hyalostemma differs 
from the true type of this Order in having no aril to the fruit; its numerous carpels 
make it a kind of link with the Custard-apple Tribe. 

This Tribe inhabits exclusively the Tropics of Asia and America, and is most 
abundant in India. 



OF THE 




la I'D Ic ■^'^ 3 b 



IT del 



Th&- Frotea/ Tribe/ 



J)ay <fe Sorv. Lvnvtecly 



118 



PROTE ACE JH] 



THE PROTEA TRIBE. 



Small trees and shrubs, the branches usually in umbels. The leaves are rigid, 
dry, divided or undivided, opposite or alternate, -without stipules, sometimes 
having pores equally on both sides. The calyx is four-lobed, or four-cleft ; petals 
are wanting. The stamens are four, sometimes part imperfect, opposite the seg- 
ments of the calyx, and placed upon them. The ovary consists of a simple carpel 
above the calyx ; the style is single, usually very long ; the stigma simple. The 
fruit is gaping when ripe, or closed, and contains one or more seeds which have no 
albumen. 

This Tribe has some affinity with ThymelacefB, but is distinguished by the 
stamens of the lobes of the calyx, and the gaping fruit. 

Very few useful pro]ierties exist in these plants ; the seeds of some are eatable. 

Protea displays considerable varieties in its species, and other genera being of 
extremely differing aspect, the name is well applied to the whole Tribe. P. pul- 
chella (1) is one of the fairest examples in regard to the flower and general aspect, 
but the character of the Tribe is dull, stiff foliage, and the heads of small flowers 
afford very little beauty of bright colouring. Like many of the Australian trees 
and shrubs, a pale dusky hue pervades the leaves, sometimes not only on the 
under, but also on the upper surface. P. grandiJJora rises to the size of a tree 
eight feet high, and is called Wagenboom by the Dutch colonists at the Cape, as 
they use the wood for the wheels of their strong rude carts. The bark is valued 
for medicinal properties. P. melUfera yields a kind of honey in some abundance, 
which is thought to be a remedy for coughs. The bark of P. speciosa is used in 
tanning leather. Nearly all the genera have been named after learned botanists, 
Banksia, Lambertia, Persoonia, Dryandra, Hakea, and others, all recording the 
memory of celebrated men. Grevillea, so called from a nobleman who was a great 
promoter of natural science, is very abundant in New South Wales. G. longifolia 



\. Protea piilrhella, Wave-leaved Protea. 

Cape of Good Hope. 
1a Flower ivilh Pistil. 
1b Stamen. 
Ic Three Stamens. 

2. Grevillea longifolia, Lony-leaved Grevillea. 

2a Flower of G. linearis. Australia. 

3. Telopea speciosissima, Waratah. 

;{a Pistil. New South Wales. 



3e Cali/x and Stamens. 
8c Anther. 

4. Leucospermum hypophyllum, Trifid-leaved 

Leucospermum. Cape of Good Hope. 

5. Banksia media. New Holland. 
0. B. speciosa. Fruit. 

7a. Hakea acicularis. 

7n Fruit. 7o Seed. 

8a. Hakea undulata. Seed-vessel. 



PROTl'.ACE.E. 

(2), is an elegant species when in flower, the extremely long styles bent backwards, 
giving a singular effect to the flower-spike. Telopea speciosisshna (3), is of a 
brilliant colour and considered ornamental in the conservatory, although seldom 
seen in its full vigour ; it is best known by its native name of Waratah. Leuco- 
spermnm is named from the whiteness of the seeds ; the shrul)s are usually downy 
or hairy, and the heads of flowers stand erect at the ends of the branches. The 
leaves of L. hi/pophi/Uum (1) have, like those of other species, a few strong notches 
at the end of the leaves. This is peculiarly a Cape genus, and some of the species 
were amongst the first importations we obtained from that settlement in 1774. 
Banksia was named by Linnaeus in honour of his friend Sir Joseph Banks, who, 
although younger, had already attained to great eminf>nce as a naturalist. It is 
an Australian genus of noble aspect, and has the peculiar character of bearing the 
produce of four years on the tree at the s^ame time : the dry hard seed-vessels of 
the two previous years, the cone of expanded flowers of the present season, and the 
buds of the future year. B. media (5) is a fine shrub in our conservatories, but 
all these shrubs can only flourish in a spacious airy building, a moist atmosphere 
is very uncongenial to their nature. B. speciosa (d) bears a large cone-shaped 
fruit, which seems to form a kind of link with the Fir Tribe, as also does the rigid 
foliage : the two-valved capsule gapes when ripe. B. grandis is said to attain a 
great size on the barren hills on the banks of the Swan l\iver; some trees have 
been found fifty feet high, and more than two and a half in diameter. Dryandra 
is a very similar genus, the leaves are all more or less clothed with fine white 
down on the under surface, and the bracts of the flowers extremely silky. D. plti- 
mosa has a remarkably delicate pinnated leaf, the small triangular leaflets tipped 
with a fine point. Hakea is a shrub with very stiff foliage, the seed-vessel Ci) is a 
follicle of a woody nature, containing two winged seeds. H. nndulata bears a large 
seed-vessel, and has wavy prickly-tootlied leaves. Amongst these shrubs very few 
afford food of any kind ; the seeds of Brabejum sfellafum, the African almond of 
the Cape, when roasted are eaten like chesnuts, and their outer covering is used as 
coffee. The nut-like fruit of Guevina is sold in the markets of Chile. The flowers 
of Persoonia macrostach)/a and Petrophila brevifolia yield a bright colour when 
boiled, which might doubtless be available for dyeing. Lomatia, Stenocarpus, 
Nivenia, and several others, are natives of the Cape of Good Hope. 

This Tribe is most a1)undant at the Cape, and in Australia. A few species 
only belong to South America, and the Isles of the Malay Archipelago. In the 
Northern Hemisphere Protea abyssinica and P. Paulina are almost the only 
examples. 



OF THE 
S?^!VERSITY Of ILUNOIS 




tldd 






Va.Y <i- ^cn- Lxmaed, 



119 



THYMELACE iE 

THE DAPHNE TRIBE. 



Shrubs with tenacious bark, and a few herbaceous plants. The leaves are alter- 
nate or opposite, without stipules, and entire at the edges. The flowers are in 
heads or spilvcs, at the ends of the branches, or at the base of the leaf-stalks, 
occasionally solitary, often enclosed in an involucre. The calyx is below the ovary, 
tubular, coloured, the top usually four-cleft, generally imbricated in the bud. The 
corolla is either wanting, or consists of scale-like petals in the mouth of the calyx. 
The stamens are of definite number, usually eight, or four, opposite the segments of 
the calyx ; the anthers are two-celled, bursting lengthwise in the middle. The 
ovary is composed of a single carpel, the style is simple, the stigma undivided. 
The fruit is hard, dry, and nutlike, or a drupe ; the seed is single, and has thin or 
fleshy albumen, or none. 

This Tribe has affinity with Proteaceae and Elfcagnacese, and is chiefly dis- 
tinguished by the position of the anthers. 

Extremely caustic juices exist in the bark of these shrubs. 

A Spanish species of Daphne, D. thijmelea, was chosen to give a name to this 
Tribe. D. mezereum (1) is a native of English woods, and has long been an 
admired shrub in gardens, from the precocity of the fragrant flowers, coming forth 
on the branches in the first dawn of spring, while the leaf-buds are only beginning 
to unfold at the top. The delicate beauty of this and other spring flowers is duly 
appreciated in the early season of the year, whilst the specimens of the floral world 
are yet scarce. It grows in all parts of Europe, from north to south. The roots 
are large and branching, and are supposed to be a remedy for toothache ; the acrid 
bark and berries are used for blisters in France. D. laureola (2) will flourish 
under the shade and dripping of trees, and is therefore valuable in a shrubbery : 
the roots have similar properties to those of D. mezereum, but are black when ripe 
instead of red ; they are poisonous to all animals except birds, who eat them greedily 
as soon as they are ripe. The bark of the stem and branches is extremely tough, 
as is that of nearly all this Tribe. From the inner bark of D. Bholua a very soft 



1 . Daphne mezereum, Muzereon. 

Woods, England. 
1a Flower, opened. 
1b Stamen. 



3. Dais laiirij'olid, Limrel-lea.ved Dais. 

tiA Pistil. Cape of Good Hope. 

4. Dirca, palustris, Leutherwood. N.America. 



5. Pimelea spectabilis, Showy Pimelea. 
Ic Section of Ovary. \u Seed. bk Flower. Swan River. 

2. Daphne laureola, Spunje Laurel. England. Ua. Lagetta lintearia, Lace-hark. Jamaica. 



THYMELACK.E. 

kind of paper is made in Nepal. The most remarkable example of inner bark is 
that of Lagetta liutearia, the vegetable lace-tree (G) ; it consists of many layers of 
interlaced silky fibres, forming a thin netted substance, which may be stripped 
from the wood and extended to a considerable size, sometimes three or four feet in 
length. Charles II. received as a present, from the Governor of Jamaica, a cravat, 
frill, and ruffles, made of this lace-bark. D. odora is a white-flowered species of 
Japan ; D. acuminata grows in Persia and Beloochistan above four thousand feet 
elevation ; it is excessively unwholesome for cattle. D. j^ontica is one of the plants 
which imf)arts injurious qualities to the honey of the country, and is supposed to 
have been partly the cause of the fatal sickness which befell the army of the Ten 
Thousand in the celebrated retreat imder Xenophon. Dais laurifolia (3) is more 
known on the Continent than in this countiy ; D. cotimfoUa of the Cape of Good 
Hope is the species generally seen in shrubberies. Dirca j^alustris (4-) is a native 
of bogs and watery places in various parts of North America, in shady wet woods 
from New York to Virginia. The branches are excessively tough ; the bark is 
made into ropes, baskets, and other useful articles ; the young plants are liable to 
bi devoured by snails ; it is therefore seldom planted here. The fruit has narcotic 
properties. Pimelea is a genus belonging to the Southern Hemisphere, and 
abounding in New Holland. Some are evergreen shrubs ; all are hardy in our 
climate, and very ornamental plants ; P. spcctahilis (o) is the most beautiful 
species. Passerina. tinctoria is one of those plants which yield a yellow dye for 
wool. The seeds of Inocarpus edulis are eatable when roasted, and have a pleasant 
flavour. The bark of Gnidia daphnoides affords strong material for ropes to the 
natives of JNIadagascar. 

This Tribe is abundant at the Cape of Good Hope, common in the cold regions 
of India and South America. Lagetta belongs exclusively to the Tropics. Very 
few species arc natives of Europe. Drapetes grows in the Antarctic Islands. 



OF THE 
UNIVERSITY Of ILLINOIS 




^^W%^k^ 



11 Ic U 






LIU, 



ITze- Sandal'-'woocUTTihe/ 



Day &, Sorv.Lvnutei' 



120 



SANTALACEiE 



THE SANDAL-AVOOD TRIBE. 



Trees, sliniLs, and herbaceous plants; the leaves are alternate or opposite, 
tmrlivided, sometimes minute and resembling stipules. The flowers are in spikes, 
seldom in umbels, solitary, small. The calj'x is above the ovary, four or five 
cleft, half-coloured. The stamens are four or five, opposite the segments of the 
calyx, and inserted into their bases ; a kind of plume is attached to the filament. 
The ovary is one-celled, -with from one to four ovules fixed to a central plate, 
usually near the top ; the style is single, the stigma often lobed. Tlie fruit is one- 
seeded, hard and dry, or drupaceous ; the seed contains fleshy albumen. 

This Tribe has some affinity with Thymelacese and Ela3agnaceai, but is dis- 
tinguished by the inferior ovary and the copious albumen of the seed. 

Acid and astringent properties prevail in some of these plants. 

Santalum, which gives its name to this small Tribe, is derived from the 
Persian. S. album (1) is the famous sandal-wood of Malabar; it is an evergreen 
shrub, seldom more than ten feet in height, but the wood is extremely fragrant, 
and is much esteemed in India, where it is said to be impervious to insects. The 
small musical instruments, boxes, and other articles made of sandal-wood, are now 
generally known in this country, being favourite examples of the ingenuity of the 
native workmen of India. The Brahmins consider it one of their sacred trees, 
and employ the dust of the wood in compounding the pigment with which they 
paint the mysterious mark on the forehead of their god Vishnoo. The oil used in 
religious ceremonies and at funerals is extracted from the wood or its shavings. 
When the trees become old, the central part of the wood acquires a yellowish tinge, 
and then also it attains the highest degree of fragrance. Not only in Malabar, but 
in all the islands of the Indian Ocean, the sandal-wood is frequent, and it is 
exported from the coast to Bengal and China, though seldom brought to Europe. 
The native doctors value its soothing, cooling qualities. S. myrtifolium, a less 
useful species, grows chiefly on the Circar mountains. The species most common 
in the Sandwich Islands are S. Freycinetianum and S. paniculatum. Thesium is 



1. Santalum album, Sandal -ivood. JIalabar. 


2a Bud. 




1a Flower. 1b Opened. 


2 b Flower. 




tc Stamen Scale and Plume. 


2c Flower opened. 




Id Stamen and Plume, 


2d Section of Ovary. 




Ie Ovary and Pistil. If Fruit. 


2e Section of Fruit. 




2. Thesium Unophyllum, Flax-leaved Thesium. 


:i. Leptomeria Billardieri. 


Tasmania. 


Chalk soil, England. 


■iA. Fruit of Leptomeria ncidn. 





SANTALACE.E. 

a genus of no beauty of colour or development, yet it is remarkabh' neat in form 
and structure of flower ; all the species are astringent in the juice. The calyx of 
T. linophijUum (2) is white within, and spreading until the seed ripens, when it 
closes over it. At the base of the stamens is a small tuft of hairs, not so large and 
perfect as is the plume of Santalum, but one of the characteristics of this Order. 
It grows chiefly on open chalky places, on the hills on the borders of Cambridge- 
shire and Hertfordshire, also in Dorsetshire. T. alpinum and T. ehracteatum are 
natives of Germany; T. iimheUatum belongs to North America; and T. aviplexi- 
caule, to the Cape of Good Hope. T. Ilimahnse, nearly resembling our British 
species, was discovered by Dr. Royle on the arid rocky soil near Choupal, to the 
north of Choor. Leptomeria Billardieri (3) is very common in Tasmania, and 
has a singular aspect from its almost leafless branches, the minute scale-leaves 
being so pressed to the branches as to be scarcely discernible. The fruit is acid 
and astringent, and although very small, frequently serves to allay the thirst of 
travellers in the wilds of Australia, where water is scarce. The Quandang nut, 
Fusanus acuminatus, of New Holland, has a pleasant flavour and is much eaten by 
natives and colonists. Myoschylus ohlongus yields medicine in Chile. An infusion 
of the leaves of Osyris nepalensis is used by the natives of the hills in India as a 
sort of tea. 0. alba is frequent in the south of Europe, and the slender flexible 
branches are very serviceable as packing materials. Pyrularia puhera of Carolina 
contains oil in the kernels of the fruit. 

This tribe exists, in Europe and North America, as small herbs ; in the East 
Indies, Australia, and the South Sea Islands, as shrubs and small trees. 



Of THE 

ui\!iv£Ki>nY Of liums 



121 



EL^AGNACE/E. 

THE OLEASTER TRIBE. 



Small trees and shrubs, usually covered with resinous glands or dots and minute 
scales. The leaves are alternate or opposite, simple, and sometimes notched at the 
edges, with or without stipules. The flowers grow from the base of the leaf-stalks, 
or in catkins or panicles. The stamens and pistils are often in separate flowers, 
united in Elteagnus. The stamen flowei-s of the catkins are placed each within a 
scale ; the stamens are from two to eight ; the anthers two to four-celled, oi^ening 
lengthwise. The calyx of the pistil flowers and the perfect flowers is fi-ee, tubular, 
with a fleshy disk which often closes it ; persistent ; the upper part two to five- 
toothed. The ovary is free, simple, one-ceUed, sometimes surrounded by scales, 
surmounted by one or two stigmas, simple oval-shaped, or dilated, glandular. The 
fruit is a drupe, covered with waxy secretions, or crustaceous, and enclosed within 
the succulent calyx or scales. The seed is solitary, and contains very little 
albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with the Nettle Tribe. Myrica forms a link with 
Amentacea^. 

Aromatic, tonic, and astringent properties prevail in these shrubs. 

Elaeagnus is a genus with slender pale brown branches and silvery leaves. 
Although selected as the type of the Order, it has not the character of separate 
stamens and pistil, the flowers being complete in that respect, but without a regular 
coroUa of petals ; the single calyx forms the flower, and is more brightly coloured 
within ; four stamens are fixed on it. The whole of the tree, except the older 
branches, is covered with scales and glands of a silvery hue ; the minute scales, 
when viewed under the microscope, display a beautiful star-like form, reminding of 
another branch of creation — the scales of fishes. As the leaves become older they 
acquire a duller browner hue. E. angustifoUa (1) is the European species, and 



1. 


Elseagnus anyustifolia. Narrow-leaved Ole- 


3a Slartutt Flower. 3b Pistil and Ovary 




aster. South Europe. 


Gc Section of Fruit. 




1a Scale, magnijied. 


4. Myrica gale, Sweet Gale. Britain 


'2. 


Elfeagnus argentea. Silvery Oleaster. 

North Americj'. 


4a Pistil Flower. 4b Section. 
4c Seed-vessel. 




2a Flower, open. 2b Pistil. 


5. Myrica jaranfca. Java 




'Zc Anther. 2d Frntt. 2e Seed. 


Ga. Pistil Flower and Scul>! o/M. ceri/cra. 


3. 


Ilippophaes rhamnoides. Sea Buck-thorn. 


Cb Flower without Scale. 




CHti's, Britain. 


7a. Catkin o/Coniptouia. 



K K 



has been for more than two centuries admitted into shrubheries, where the delicate 
fohage contrasts well with the glossy leaves of evergreen shrubs. The flowers, as 
well as those of other species, are agreeably fragrant, and contain a honey considered 
good in fever. It was kno\A-n to Pliny, who called it the Wild Olive. In the low, 
humid soil about Constantinople the trees grow abundantly ; the fruit is sold in the 
markets, a large supply being brought from Scutari and otlier ]ilaccs on the Asiatic 
shore ; it is of a dry, mealy, saccharine substance, sweet, and jileasmt to the taste. 
E. argenfea (2) was introduced from North America; the solitary nodding flowers 
come forth late in the summer ; in its native woods the contrast of its silvery leaves 
with the rich and brilliant hues of autumn foliage in that country is still more 
striking than in our plantations. The fruit of E. oricntalis is eaten in Persia, that 
of E. arhorcn in Nepal. Hippophaes (3) grows on sandy cliffs on the east coast of 
England, above the sea ; the upper surface of the leaves is covered with minute 
dots, without scales; the lower is clothed with silvery scales. In Sweden the berries 
are eaten by the peasants, as also in the south of France, where the trees grow 
plentifully ; they are, however, extremely acid, and must be prepared with sugar 
to render them jialatable. It is said to be a good sauce for fish, and the fishermen 
on the Gulf of Bothnia collect and ])reserve large quantities of the fruit. The whole 
plant yields a yellow dye. jNIyrica is a genus preferring moist situations; M. gale 
(4) is a native of swampy bo^rs and marshes in Wales and other mountainous parts 
of Britain. An essential oil exists in small pores of resinous substance, which gives 
a pleasing fragrance to the leaves and berries. A bitter principle is also contained 
in the leaves, used by some of the poor in northern countries as a substitute for 
hops. The catkins, when boiled, yield a waxy substance, from which candles might 
be made ; it is also serviceable in tanning skins ; both in Sweden and in Wales it 
is employed to dye wool yellow. In the Hebrides and other Scotch isles medicinal 
use is made of the leaves : and in the marshes of Cambridgeshire the branches are 
nfiade into brooms. The flowering branches grow from terminal buds of the former 
year, which wither at the end when the fruit is completed ; new branches come 
from the side buds — thus a thick, short bush is formed, seldom more than four 
feet high. M. cerifera supplies wax in North America, and is called candle^berry 
bu«h. M.javanica (6) is a representative of the genus in hot regions. Comptonia 
a$plenifolia (7) is tonic and astringent, used as a medicine in the United States. 

This Tribe is dispersed throughout all the northern hemis]ihere, the tropics of 
South America. India, and the Cape of Good Hope. It is less frequent south of 
the e{juator, and very few species are natives of Europe. 



Of THE 




ITM 



'rh&ArisU'lcdua Inhc 



Ba^ ScSonilxmled 



] 22 



ARISTOLOCHIACE^ 

THE ARISTOLOCHIA TRIBE. 



Herbac'EOT's plants and shrubs, some of which are dimbing. The wood is 
without concentric zones and inseparable wedges. The leaves are alternate, simple, 
stalked, often having a scaly or leafy stipule. The flowers are solitary from 
the base of the leaf-stalk, usually brown or some dull colour. The calyx is adherent, 
tubular, regular, or unequal. The stamens are six to twelve, placed upon the 
calyx, distinct, or adhering to the style and stigmas. The ovary is inferior, six- 
celled, rarely three or four-celled, the style is single, the stigmas radiating, as 
numerous as the cells of the ovary. The fruit is dry or succulent, three, four, or 
six-celled, many-seeded. The seeds are thin, angular, or round, containing fleshy 
albumen. 

This Tribe has very slight affinity with any other. 

Tonic stimulating properties exist in the roots and leaves of these plants. 

Aristolochia and its allies may be said to form a kind of link between the two 
great classes of the vegetable world, the dicotyledonous and the monocotyledonous 
plants, having the chief points of structure of the former, and agreeing with the 
latter in the ternary arrangement of the parts of the flower and the incomplete 
foraiation of the wood. The flowers of this genus exhibit a remarkable diversity 
of shape and colour, and strange deviations from the regular typical form of a 
simple corolla ; the contrast between the little yellow English species and the large 
and extraordinary developments of hotter regions, is amongst the most curious to 
be found in the whole range of the floral world. A. Clematitis (1) is so rarely 
discovered in a wild state in England that it can scarcely be reckoned an original 
native, but rather a naturalized foreigner, become indigenous only in a few locahties 
where it was foitnerly cultivated. The site of the garden of the old nunnery of 
Godstow, near Oxford, is one of the few situations where it is to be seen. The 



1. Aristolochia Clemalilis, Common Birthwort. 

England. 
1a S/rtinn of Fhnrer. 
In Ovnry and Stamens. 
Ic Stamens and Pistil. 
Id Anther. 1e Section of Ovari/. 

2. Aristolochia Sipho, Broad-leaved Ari.sln- 

Inchia. rhiladf Iphia. 

•T. Aristolochia /;(jffl.^, Git/antic Aristnlnchia. 

South Ameiica. 



■4. Asarum europtrum, Common Asarahacca. 

England. 
4a Stamens and Pistil. 

5a. Capsule o/ Aristolochia. 
58 Section of Seed-vessel. 
5c Section of Seed. 

fJA. irWorf o/'Braganti a. 

6b Flower. fie Seed. 



ARISTULUCH I ACE^ii. 

roots are considered to have powerful medicinal properties, like those of the exotic 
species. A. Sipho (2) is one of the tallest species, and well adapted for covering 
arbours, making a pleasant shade with its large and numerous leaves. The flower 
shows a reLjnlar ternary divisioji, and is among the simple forms. A. gi(jas (3) 
affords a striking object to an European traveller in the forests of Guiana, climbing 
over shrubs, with its fine leaves and remarkable flowers; the latter may be 
frequently seen on the heads of little native children, worn as a cap in sport. 
Some of the Brazilian species rank amongst the most powerful in the properties of 
the roots, which have generally a strong disagreeable scent, and a bitter aromatic 
flavour. A. vingcns, A. galcata, and others, are of much value in the medicines 
they yield. A. fnigrantissima, the Star-reed of Peru, is one of the medicinal 
plants of that country. A. trilobata and A. odoratissima afford medicine to the 
natives of Jamaica. The dried fibrous root of A. serpentaria is used in North 
America to cure the bite of snakes, and is imported into Europe, where it still 
retains a place as an available medicine. A. anguicida is supposed to Ijc tlie 
celebrated Guaco mentioned by Humboldt. Several kinds grow in Egypt, and 
are there employed by the famous jugglers to stupefy snakes. India has also a 
portion of these singular plants, and Hindoo doctors prepare infusions of the leaves 
and various remedies from the roots. A. saccata, on the mountains of Silhet, 
grows to the height of twenty feet, and has leaves more than a foot in length, and 
four inches wide ; the numerous flowers are suspended in a vertical position on a 
kind of panicle. A. cjjmhi/era and A. labiosa have both curiously expanded lips 
to their flowers. A. ciliata, of Patagonia, has the small flower fringed with long 
glandular hairs : but to enumerate the countless variety of form assumed by this 
eccentric genus would be impossible. Asarum europoium (4) is only occasionally 
found in hilly woods in the northern counties ; near Kirkby Lonsdale it is most 
plentiful, and is of peculiar appearance with its two leaves and solitary flower. 
The creeping roots have medical properties. Although India possesses so many 
powerful medical plants, yet this little European species is sold, in the bazaars 
under the name of asaroon. Bragantia (G) shows the peculiar formation of the 
wood of this tribe. B. fomentosa is an extremely bitter plant of Java : some 
species are natives of India and the Malay Isles. 

This Tribe is very abundant in the Tropics of South America, frequent in the 
north of Africa, rare in North America, Europe, dnd Siberia, existing only in a few 
species in India. Asarum belongs equally to North America, Japan, and Europe. 



OF IHb 







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123 



EUPHORBIACE^ 



THE SPURGE TRIBE. 



Trees, shrubs, and herbaceous phmts, with round or irreguhirly angled stems, 
often abo\;nding in an acrid milky juice. The leaves are alternate, rarely opposite, 
simple, seldom compound, sometimes having stipides, often wanting in the succulent 
species. The flowers grow on terminal stalks or from the base of the leaf-stalks, 
variously arranged, sometimes surrounded by an involucre resembling a calyx. 
The calyx is below the ovary and has various scales and glands, the petals when 
developed alternate with its lobes. The stamens and pistil are in separate flowers, 
the filaments free or united, the anthers two-celled gaping longitudinally. The 
ovary is formed of three carpels connected by a central axis, either stalked or not. 
The styles are equal in number to the carpels ; the stigmas are single and distinct, 
or lobed ; the fruit consists of three dry capsules, splitting and separating from the 
axis with elasticity. The cells are one or two -seeded : the seeds contain fleshy oily 
albumen. 

The separation of stamens and pistil, and want of petals, connect this Tribe 
with Artocarpaceaj and Urticacese. Those which have petals and united stamens 
and carpels form a link with the Mallow Tribe. 

A poisonous milky secretion, and stinging hairs, belong generally to these 
plants. 

Euphorbia records the name of a renowned physician of King Juba in Earbary, 
supposed to have been the first to discover the medicinal properties of the genus. It 
displays a marvellous variety of form in its species. Some are small herbs, as E. 
Peplus (1), one of the commonest weeds in cultivated ground, of no value except 
that the acrid milk cures warts. Others are shrubs, E. canariensis, twenty feet in 
height. Some are of a succulent nature, and when leafless and spiny assume the 
aspect of Cactus. E. meloforviis has a melon-shaped stem, from which the flowers 



1. 


Euphorbia Pepbis, Cummon SjJiinja. 


4. 


Poinsettia pulcherrima. 


Mexico. 




England. 




4a Flower. 4b Flower. 


4c Stamen. 




1a Capsule. In Seed. 


5a. 


E. pentagona. 


East Indies. 


2. 


Euphorbia splendens. Brilliant Euphorbia. 
Isle of France. 


Ca 


Flower o/ Euphorbia. 

Ob Stamens. Oc Flowers. 

(id Section of Ovary. 




;J. 


Jatropha iitteijerrima. Cuba. 


7 a. 


Seed ofE, Lathyris, Caper Spurije, 




'•l\ Stamens. -Jb Pistil. 


8a. 


Huia crepitans. Seed-vessel. 





ELTHORBIACE.!;. 

proceed on the top, alter the luauiier of Cactus ; and the great Medusa-head 
• Euphorbia of Africa has a strong resemblance to that Tribe also. But an obvious 
distinction exists in the spines, Avhich in these plants are either single or in pairs, 
never clustered as in Cactus. E. sjjlendens {2) is an example of a coloured invo- 
lucre having the ap))earance of petals, and is one of the most brilliant of the genus. 
Some of the East Indian species have bright yellow involucres. Although a 
virulent poison pervades the tribe, yet a considerable quantity of wholesome food is 
obtained from it by skilful preparation with heat. The principal plant yielding the 
supjily is ^Nlanihot uti/issiiud, from the long roots of which, weighing thirty pounds, 
the natives of S. America make Cassava for their own use, and Tapioca for expor- 
tation. Cassava-bread is the chief nourishment of the Indians of Brazil and Ciuiana, 
but is not thought wholesome by the Europeans. Euphorbia hahamlfera is boiled 
into a jelly by the inhabitants of the Canaries, who consider it a delicacy. The 
oil of the seeds is the most important medicinal product, and is of a very powerful 
nature : that ofCroton Tiglium, an East Indian tree, and of Ricinus commw?iis, the 
Castor-oil plant of Africa, are of extensive value. The latter is known here only 
as herbaceous, in its native country it is arborescent ; the spiny capsules full of oily 
seeds are a very ancient medicine. Euphorbia officinarimi, and others, afford the 
medicinal gum resin Euphorbium. The juice of E. linearis is a remedy for weak 
eyes in Brazil. Fifteen species of Spurge are natives of Britain, thirty-three grow 
on the Continent. It appears to be one of those plants which, if found at all, is 
abundant. The steep hills in the interior of South Africa are thickly clothed \\ith 
low bushes, over which countless tall Euphorbias rise. Several are seen in the 
sandy lands of Nubia. The juice of E. jjliosplwrica sheds a light during hot 
nights. Jatropha (o) is a genus of some beauty in the ^yest Indies and South 
Ameiica. Poinsettia (4) in its native country bears a cluster of red bracts twenty 
inches across, clearly showing a transition state between leaves and petals ; these 
constitute the ornament of the plant, for the flowers are small, and, though curious 
in structure, not beautiful. The Sand-box tree of the West Indies, Hura crepitans 
(8), is chiefly known here in its curious seed-vessel, which bursts with a loud noise 
when ripe. The fruits of Anda, Emblica, and a few more, are eatable in their re- 
spective countries. The juice of Crozophora, Ditassa, and others, yields useful dyes 
in Brazik Siphonia elastica affords, from its milky juice, the bottle India-rubber, 
retaining the pale colour within, but blackened by smoke without. Hippomane 
Mancinella contains in its pure white liquid one of the most fatal of poisons. The 
Tallow-tree of China, Stillingia sehifera, yields an oily substance around the seeds 
which serves for candles. Elajococca oil is used for lamps and for painting. Cas- 
carilla bark is obtained chiefly from Eleuthera in the Bahamas. Among the useful 
plants of this tribe is Buxus sempervirens, the Box-tree, the wood of which is ex- 
cellent for engraving ; it grows remarkably well on Box Hill, in Surrey, and when 
the trees were cut in 1815, the value was 10,000/. On the Pyrenees considerable 
tracts are covered with this beautiful evergreen shrub. The bitter leaves are un- 
wholesome to camels if eaten by them in Persia, where the trees abound. 

This extensive tribe, containing as many as 2500 species, exists most abundantly 
in the Tropics of America, diminishing from the Equator : very few are known in 
X. America, as far as Canada. In North and South Africa are many succulent 
species. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UMIVERSITV 01- ILLINOIS 







3. 31 3 J 



Ildd. 



/. 



x/ , 



Vay &> Scn/.Lvmtnl 



124 



ARTOCARPACE^. 



THE BREAD-FRUIT TRIBE. 



Trees and shrubs ■witli a milky juice, sometimes of a climbing nature. The 
leaves are alternate, simple or lobed, of various texture, with large stipules rolled 
up and enclosing the young leaves, leaving a scar when they fall off. The flowers 
are inconspicuous ; the stamens and pistils are in sejiarate flowers. The stamen 
flowers have sometimes a very small calyx of two to four scales, or it is tubular ; 
the stamens are inserted into the base of the calyx opposite its lobes, and of the 
same number : the anthers are two-celled, and open lengthwise or into two plates. 
The fertile flowers are variously arranged, over a fleshy receptacle, concave, globose, 
or spiked ; the calyx is tubular, or in two rows of sepals. The fruit is surrounded 
by a fleshy involucre, or composed of thick fleshy calyxes, enclosing numerous nuts, 
or collected into a fleshy mass by the consolidated succulent calyx ; the seed is 
solitary, and contains fleshy all)umen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Urticace^ and Euphorbiaceaj. 

Wholesome fruit, and a milky juice containing caoutchoiic, are characters of 
these trees. 

Artocarpus mcisa (1) is one of the most valuable trees of the South Sea Isles, 
whence it was introduced to the West Indies and to South America. The wood 
serves to build houses and boats ; the leaves, often as much as two feet in length, 
are used for various purposes ; the juice yields a glutinous cement for covering 
water-vessels ; and the fruit, containing a large proportion of starch, affords an 
abundant supply of nourishment to the natives. It is not eaten in a raw state, 
but is usually cooked in Palm-oil, or roasted ; the taste is insipid, but is thought 
to resemble that of wheat bread. A. integrifolia, the Jaca, is of inferior value as 
food, but the fruit often weighs twenty pounds. Ficus is a genus of very ancient 
fame, and of pecuhar interest, having been chosen as an object to teach divine 
wisdom to the Jews. The milky juice of the stem and branches is in some species 
extremely acrid ; that of F. toxicaria is a strong poison. In others it is harmless, 
and in the cow-trees affords a pleasant beverage. The milk of plants generally 



1. Artocarpus incisa, Bread-fruH Tree. 

South Sea Isles. 
1a Stamen Flower. 
1b Pistil and Ovary. 
Ic Section of Seed. 

2. Ficus carica, Common Fifj. South Europe. 

2a Section of Fruit. 



2b Flower. 2c Seed. 

3. Morus nifjrn. Mulberry. Italy. 

3a Stamen Flower. '-in Pistil Flower. 

3o Section of Fruit. 
3d Seed. 3e OiHiry. 

4. Dorstenia hispida. Hairi/ Dorsteuia. 

Brazil. 



.\^.T()^ATlPACF,.^^. 

contains caoutchouc, — that of F. f last tea furnirihes Inilinn rubber to tlie whole 
peninsula of India. Other species supply the Isles of the Indian Ocean. In 8. 
America, F. radnla, F. cUlptlca, and a few more, yield it. It is one of the 
•wonderful chemical properties of fruit to be able to convert injurious acrid juices 
into delicious saccharine substance ; in the Fig (2) this power is displayed in a 
striking degree. The juice of the branches is highly ]ningent, but when the pro- 
cess of ripening is complete in the fruit, an extraordinary quantity of sugar is 
secreted, exuding in a clear candid drop at the top, commonly called the tear of the 
fig. The arrangement of the countless minute fiowers within the fleshy receptacle is 
a singular exception to the normal type of flower and fruit. F. indlca is the cele- 
brated J>anyan tree of India, possessing an extreme capacity of growth ; for though 
it is usually found in a barren sandy soil, yet, in the course of a few years, one 
st'm will constitute a grove from its numerous rooting branches, affording a sacred 
shade to the religious natives of India, and a habitation for countless parasitical 
plants. F. microcarpa, of Java, is of very rapid growth, and forms a dense and 
grateful shelter. The leaves of F. religiosa, the Peepul of India, terminate in a 
1 mg slender point, and being of a tough substance, are used by the Chinese to 
piint upon. ]\lorus (3) is more valuable for its leaves than for its fruit, although 
tlie latter is pleasant and wholesome. The leaves are the chief food of silk-worms, 
f tr which the trees are cultivated abundantly in Italy ; those which still exist in 
gardens near London were planted in the time of James I., who wished to establish 
tlie silk manufactiire in this country. M. alha, a nearly similar species, is the 
most conmion in ^pain. Dorstenia (4) is a singular genus, bearing numerous 
small flowers on a concave receptacle, not closed, like that of the Fig. The pun- 
gent roots of D. contraijerva are imported from South America, and used as 
medicine and for dyeing. The famous Cow-tree of South America, yielding a 
copioiis milky juice, is a species of Brosimum : travellers relate that the negroes 
may be seen going forth early in the morning to obtain a supply of the milk. 
The nuts of B. alicastrum, like all the seeds of this Tribe, are wholesome, and are 
of good flavour when roasted. Broussonetia papurifcra has a succulent hispid 
fruit ; a kind of paper is made of the bark. The celebrated Upas, whose poisonous 
exhalations have been much exaggerated, is Antiaria toxicaria. Cecropia peltata 
is remarkable for the stem being hollow between the joints. The fruit of Maclura 
is lvno\\'n as the Osage Orange; it yields a yellow juice, with which American 
Indians stain their faces before going to war, Phytocrene, the Water-vine of 
Martaban, has a soft porous wood, and exudes a pure tasteless fluid, drunk by the 
natives. In the west of India grows Lepuranda saccidora, of whose branches 
sacks are curiously formed ; a suitable portion is cut off and soaked till the fibrous 
bark can be pulled down off it, when the wood is sawn away, leaving only a jiiece 
to close the end of the sack. 

This extensive Tribe exists chiefly in the Tropics. A few species only advance 
into Temperate regions : none are natives of Euro])e. 



LIBRARY 
OF FHE 

'"■''■'!^S^S'!TV OF 111"''':!'^ 




Tk& Nettie/ Trih^' 



Day & Sort/ Luruied 



125 



U RTIC ACE^. 

THE NETTLE TRIBE. 



Trees, shnibs, and herbaceoTis plants, some of whicli have rough stenis. They 
contain no milky jince. The leaves are alternate, simple, or lohed, usually covered 
with asperities, or stinging hairs ; stipules usually membranous and deciduous. 
The flowers are herbaceous, inconspicuous, the stamens and pistil are usually in 
separate flowers, which are in catkins, or close heads, or scattered. The calyx is 
membranous, lobed, or in single scales, persistent. The stamens are of definite 
number, distinct, inserted into the base of the calyx and opposite its lobes ; the 
anthers, often curved inwards ia the bud, turning backwards with elasticity when 
the flower expands. The ovary is above the calyx, the stigma single and frinf;:ed. 
The fruit is a simple closed nut, surrounded b}' the membranous or fleshy calyx, 
containing one seed, which has either fleshy albumen or none. 

This Tribe has close affinity with Artocarpacese, but is distinguished by having 
no milky juice. 

An excessively caustic alkaline juice, and narcotic properties, exist in many of 
these plants. 

Urtica, the type of this Order, is a genus remarkable for its stinging properties ; 
and several species are covered with small projecting vesicles full of a strong alkaline 
juice, surmounted by a tubular prickle, spiral on its surface, with a sharp point, by 
which it is enabled readily to penetrate the skin and infuse the irritating juice. 
Urtica piluUfera (1) is not very frequent in England, but is occasionally found on 
heaps of rubbish. U. dioica is the common Nettle on all neglected ground. U. 
urens is most frequent as a garden weed : all these species, and several others, have 
strong stings. But the most powerful in its causticity is perhaps the U. haccifera, 
of the Antilles ; the entire plant is clothed with large stinging hairs of considerable 
force. U. caracasava is a native of Caracas, where it grows to the height of eight 
feet, the shrubby stem marked with the great scars of fallen leaf-stalks. The leaves 
are heart-shaped, twenty -two inches long, and only slightly stinging. This genus 
is found on the Sikkim Himalaya, up to nearly ten thousand feet, mingled with 



1. Urtica piluU/era, Roman Xettle. England. 


•3. Humulus hipuhm, Common Hop. England. 


]a Stamen Flower. 1b Stamens. 


3a Stamen flou-i-r. 


Ic Seed-vessel. Id Carpel. 
1e Hair, magnified. 

2. Cannabis sativa, Hemp. India. 
tiA Stamen Jlowcr. 2b Floiicr, opened. 


3b Pistil flower. 3c Bract. 
3d Grain of Liipiiliiie, magnified. 

4a. Urtica </iV;icrt. Section of Seid-vii^sel. 


2c Sepal. 2d Stamen. 


4b Hair, magnified. 



UUTiCACK.E. 

Ficus : U. hetcrophjilla is of gigantic size, on borders of maize-fields. Urtica 
abounds also in the Lucon Isles. U. urciifissima is said to cause bad effects, which 
endure for a year, to the inhabitants of Timor ; the leaves of the U. crcnulata and 
other Indian species are scarcely less poisonous. Some, however, possess useful 
properties ; the tubers of U. tuberosa are eaten by natives in India, and the tough 
fibrous stalks of U. tenacissima and of U. cannahina are made into strong cordage 
in Sumatra. U. dioica is wholesome wdien young, and the stalks may be made 
into cloth or ])aper ; this is one of the most widely dispersed species, growing all 
over Europe, in Siberia, Japan, Barbary, and elsewhere. Cannabis sativa (2) was 
known to the Arabians in the most remote period, and the manufacture of Hemp is 
as ancient as that of Flax. It retpiires a rich soil and warm climate, in some parts 
of Italy attaining the height of eighteen feet : in this country it is seldom above six 
feet. Throughout Germany and all Continental countries it is cultivated to a great 
extent, and affords a valuable crop. The plants are pulled lap when fully ripe, and 
left to wither and bleach on the ground ; after which the stalks are beaten to separate 
the fibres. From these every variety of cordage and rojje, and strong cloth, are 
made. An useful oil is extracted from the seeds, employed in painting here, and in 
cookery in Russia. In hot countries a peculiar and fragrant resin is developed on 
the Hemp plants, which has powerful narcotic properties, and, being collected in 
small masses, is used as a stimulant by Indians, Hottentots, Egyptians, Arabians, 
and Brazilians. Hamulus lupulus, Hop (3), was first brought to England from 
Flanders as a cultivated plant, in the time of Henry VIII., though it is occasionally 
found wild in Great Britain. In the third year of growth the plants bear fruit, 
being trained to poles about sixteen feet high ; in Bavaria they attain a greater 
height, and produce abundant crops with more constancy than here. The fertile 
capsules are the valuable portion, each scale having one seed at its base ; they are 
covered with minute resinous drops, bitter and narcotic, peculiarly adapted for 
making good beer. The scent of the dried clusters of flowers is highly soporific, 
which renders them available to procure sleep in sickness, when narcotic medicine 
is unsuitable. The fibres of the stalks are woven into cloth in Sweden, and the 
leaves are used to dye yellow. Parietaria, the pellitory of old walls and ruins, 
belongs to this Tribe, and is the only British example, besides Urtica and Humulus. 
Parietaria clings to forsaken ancient buildings ; Urtica hovers about the present 
dwellings of man, ever to be seen in cultivated ground, and l)y the wayside rough 
places. 

The plants of this Tribe are widely dispersed over all parts of the world : in the 
hottest regions of the Tropics, in the coldest northern countries, on dry walls, and 
in the damp primaeval forests. Cannabis inhabits the cooler parts of Asia. 



OF fHt 
IVIiKl^ilV Uh ILL! 




Q# 






■ 7^'.' 



120 



PIPERACE J^., 



THE PEPPER TRIBE. 



Shrubs and herbaceous plants, with jointed stems, sometimes of a climbing habit. 
The leaves are opposite, or in whorls, or alternate from one of the pair remaining 
undeveloped ; sometimes having one or two stipules at their base. The flowers 
are usually without stalks, in spikes at the ends of the branches, or from the base 
of the leaf-stalk, or opposite to it, usually without sepals or corolla, having a bract 
only. The stamens are two, or more, placed on one side, or around the ovary. 
The anthers are one or two-celled, the connecting portion being often fleshy. The 
ovary is free, simple, one-celled, containing one ovule. The stigma is short, simple, 
rather oblique. The fruit is fleshy, one-celled, one-seeded, remaining closed. The 
embryo lies at the top of the seed, outside the albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Urticace^e, and some parts of the structure connect 
it with Aracese amongst IMonocotyledonous plants. 

Pungent aromatic properties exist in the resin and ethereal oil of these ])lants. 

Piper is appai'ently derived from Pipul. the name of long pepper in Bengal. 
P. nigrum (1) is the species most known and used in this country, and is imported 
largely from the East, where it is cultivated extensively. The fruit is the valuable 
part, with the outer skin left, being called black Pepper : when rubbed off it 
becomes white Pepper. Its pungent quahty does not exist in the essential oil, 
as is usual in other spices, neither does it rise by boiling in water. The plants 
generally contain a white crystallizable substance, piperine, which, as well as the oil 
and the resin, are extremely beneficial in intermittent fever, said to equal Quinine. 
Both as a medicine and a condiment Pepper is of much value. In the East Indies 
and in Cochin-China it grows wild, but it is planted in fields in Java and Sumatra, 
poles being fixed for the young trees to climb over. After the ripe berries are 
gathered in September, the plants are cut down ; in about three years they again 
bear a crop of fruit. P. Betle (2) is an important species in Southern Asia, its 



]. Piper nigrum. Common Pepper. 

East Indies. 
1a Flowers. 1b Fruit. 
Ic Section of Fruit. 

■J. Piper Belle, Betel. East Indies. 

•J. Piper ribcsioides. South America. 

4. Pepcromia aricarinata. South America. 



■Ia Spike, miKjuified. 
4b Flower, magnified. 
4c Section of Ovary. 
4d Section of Fruit. 
5. Artanthe elongata, Matico. Peru. 

6a. Chavica Roxburghii, Long Pepper. 
Flower spike. 



PIPERACE^. 

leaves i-erviug to wrap round slices of the Areca-palra nut, which forms the 
constant stimulant of the languid natives of hot regions in Asia, and is still more 
indispensable thoughout the East, than even Tobacco in the western countries of 
the world. P. tn'oicum is an extremely pungent species : several others are known 
in conservatories, but are not cultivated for use. Long pepper is the spike of pistil 
flowers of Chavica Roxburrjliii, in an unripe state, dried; the root and stem are 
sliced and prepared for medicinal uses. C. viajuscula of Java has an useful bark. 
Pei)eromia is a genus lately separated from the true Pepper, but without any 
material distinction. P. jyellucida is eaten as a salad when in a young state, 
in the West Indies. P. aricarinata (i) is usually to be seen in collections of these 
plants in the conservatories of our botanic gardens. Artanthe elongata (o) is of 
high repute in Peru, known as Matico, and possessing powerful astringent 
properties. A. crocata yields a yellow dye in Java. Among the narcotic plants 
of this Tribe Macropiper methi/sticum is much celebrated in Ava, the valuable 
qualities existing in the large rugged root. The fruit of Cubeba officinalis and 
other species is known as Cubebs in the bazaars of India. Acrocarpidium hispi- 
diihim is a bitter medicinal plant of the West Indies. Coccobryon capense belongs 
to South Africa, and is of considerable use. Various other species are employed 
in their respective countries for various purposes, but none are to be compared vAth. 
Pepper for extensive dispersion and value. 

This Tribe is limited to the hottest regions of the world ; it abounds in tropical 
America and the islands of the Indian Archipelago, in low damp valleys, and on 
the shores of rivers. It is rare in equinoctial Africa, but more frequent at the 
Cape of Good Hope, 



LIBRARY 
OF THE 



'i f !• -n-!^ 




^ I ^c -^^ 5a 






J)av & Son TimiteA. 



AMENTACEiE 



THE OAK TRIBE. 



Trees and shrubs, the leaves are alternate, simple or lobed, the veins sometimes 
proceed straight from the midrib to the margin, the notched edges sometimes have 
glands ; the stipules are either deciduous or persistent. The flowers are in catkins, 
and have stamens and pistil separate. The stamens vary from five to twenty, and 
are inserted into the base of the calyx, or scales, generally distinct, sometimes united. 
The anthers are two -celled. The ovary is sometimes crowned by the rudiments of 
the calyx, within an involucre. The fruit is a bony or leathery one-celled nut, more 
or less enclosed in its involucre, as in Quercus and Corylus, or it is combined with 
the scales into a kind of cone, as in Betula, or it has many silky seeds, as in Sahx. 
The seeds have no albumen. 

This Tribe is slightly connected with Coniferacese. 

Tonic astringent properties exist in the bark, and a balsamic oil in some species. 
Quercus is an important genus : Q. pediinculata (1) was formerly very abundant 
in England ; the acorns served to feed large herds of pigs. The timber is hard 
and more enduring than stone in some buildings ; it is also very well adapted for 
ships. The bark contains tannin, which renders it valuable in the preparation of 
leather ; the galls formed on the leaves by an insect, yield a black juice, used in 
making ink and in dyeing. Q. Ilex is the evergreen oak, frequent in the south of 
Europe, forming part of the varied and beautiful woods on the IMediterranean coast 
of Italy. Q. suher, the cork-oak, grows luxuriantly in Portugal, afl"ording a good 
supply of the useful inner bark. The oaks of Java have chiefly smooth -edged 
leaves. Q. augustata is found on the mountains, at 5000 feet elevation, flowering 
in spring, whilst the fruit of the preceding year ripens. Quercus ascends on the 
south side of the Himalayas, above 11,000 feet, but in the interior of Sikkim neither 



1. Quercus prdiincutata, Common, Oak. 

V>ritain. 
]a Stamen flower. 
1b Stamen and Scale. 
Ic Pistil flower. Id Section of Ovary ^ 

2. Corylus AvelUma, Hazel-nut. Britain. 

2a Stamen flower. 2b Pistil flower. 

3. Fogus sylvatica. Common Beech. Britain. 

3a Stamen flower. 3b Section ofOvanj. 



3c Section of Fruit. 

4. Castanea vesca, Common Chestnut. 

England. 

5. Sahx viminalis. Common Osier, Britain, 

5a Stamen flower. 

r)B Capsule. 5c Seed. 

G. Salix herbacea, Least Willow. Hebrides. 

7. Betula pendula, Droopinrj Birch. Scotland. 
7a Calyx scale. 7b Winyed Seed. 



AMENTACE/E. 

oak nor chestniit are seen above 0000 feet. The N. American oaks are numerous, 
and supply exci'llent timber. Q. coccincus, with its richly-tinted foliage, contributes 
largely to the brilliancy of the autumnal scene. On high land or near the influence 
of the sea oaks become stunted, and crooked branches grow within a few feet of the 
ground ; in the woods near Cromer they are of this form, and produce no straight 
trunk for timber. But the most remarkable instance of deformity is in the Wlstman's 
Wood, on Dartmoor, where the oaks are scarcely 1 2 feet high, the branches twisted 
and knotted, and covered with moss and lichen. It is said there is a record of this 
wood in the time of the Norman conquest. Corylus (2) received its specific name 
from Avellino, a valley in the south of Italy, where it grew in such abundance as 
to furnish a profitable trade in the fruit. It is very common in English copses, and 
is valuable for the nuts and also for the wood, which is serviceable for hoops, fishing- 
rods, and countless small articles. Fagus sijlvatica (3) is of ancient fame, the nuts, 
called mast, being supposed to have formed part of the food of man in the earliest 
period. It is one of the noblest of British trees, attaining great vigour and beauty 
of form : the thin and supple bark is used for light boxes and baskets. Beech-woods 
cease above Calmar, in Sweden, at 57° north latitude ; beyond that limit only single 
trees are seen. A touTi of Thessaly gave its name to Castanea (4) ; in that country, 
as well as on the Apennines, chestnuts prepared in different ways afford a welcome 
and wholesome food to the peasants. The chestnut-trees on Mount Etna are of 
great antiquity and immense size ; when old, the stems acquire vast bulk at the 
base, and the bark becomes twisted, giving the appearance of carved columns, as 
may be observed in Greenwich Park. Castanea extends northwards to the south of 
Sweden. Salix includes many species, some affording valuable timber, others 
useful materials for baskets of all kinds. The tough pliant branches of S. viminalis 
(5) are available for a variety of purposes. S. herhacea ((>), the smallest of shrubs, 
is one of the rare plants of the Hebrides ; by the side of Alpine streams it spreads 
to a considerable extent, the roots penetrating the fissures of rocks. S. repens is of 
great value in the sands of Holland and Westphalia, binding the loose soil. S. 
planifoUa flourishes in the cold climate of Labrador; S. serrulata and others in 
Lapland ; S. lauata in Norway. A very few belong to hot countries ; S. Hum- 
hoJtiana to Peru ; S. tetrasperma to the East Indies. S. hahijlonica is the cele- 
brated weeping willow. Betula pendula (7) is the most graceful of the genus, pre- 
ferring mountain localities from Laf)land to Asia. B. alba, the common birch, is 
the highest of trees on the Himalaya, growing at ] 4,000 feet on the northern slope. 
In the north of Europe it is of various use, the young shoots make a kind of tea 
for the Finlanders ; the Laplanders form tents with the supple branches ; in Sweden 
and Norway the bark covers huts, and is ground to mix with oatmeal for cakes. 
Populus, the poplar, is dispersed in Europe and North America ; the Abele and 
Aspen grow in moist places in England, the long leaf-stalks being compressed 
lateral!}' tremble in the lightest breeze. 

This extensive Tribe inhabits forests in all Temperate countries ; it is rare in 
South America and the north of Africa ; not known at the Cape. Fagus extends 
to the Antarctic regions ; Betula appears on the highest mountains of Asia and 
America. 



OF THE 

ffr'IVFRS!TY OF IL! 










Pay .1 Srn .'■""i-f'''/ 



128 



CONIFERACEiE. 



THE FIR TRIBE. 



Large trees and shnibs, Avith brandling stems, full of resin. The woody tissue is 
marked with circular scars. The leaves are evergreen, linear, rigid, entire at their 
margins, veinless, rarely lobcd, and with forked veins, usually in bundles wrapped 
at their base in a membranous sheath. The flowers are without calyx or corolla, 
but surrounded by bracts : some consist only of a §^ngle stamen, or a few united, 
usually collected on a common stalk into a kind of catkin. The anthers are two, 
or many-lobed, bursting longitudinally, often surmounted by a crest. The pistil 
flowers are in cones ; the ovary rises from the base of a membranous bract, bearing 
two or more ovules. The fruit is composed of the enlarged and hardened cone of 
scale-shaped ovaries and bracts ; or it is solitary, as in Taxus, and has the seed 
partly enclosed in a succulent cup. The seed has a hard, crustaceous covering, 
the embryo is in the midst of fleshy oily albumen, and has two or many 
cotyledons. 

This Tribe has close affinity with Cycadacese, 

Various kinds of resin are secreted by these trees. 

Pinus, the chief genus of this cone-bearing Order, is of extensive value ; the 
word is of Celtic origin, and hence have been derived all the European names. 
P. si/lvestris, the Scotch Pine, or Fir, as it is generally called, is the only British 
example ; its timber, known as Deal, is the most useful and durable of all the 
woods of Temperate climates, and it yields pitch and oil of turpentine for important 
uses. P. maritima (1) has its leaves in pairs, and cones solitary. P. Pinaster 
bears cones in clusters. P. Pinea is the Stone Pine which adorns the Mediter- 
ranean coast of Italy, sometimes growing out of the rocky slopes, and with its 
crown of dark foliage forming a very picturesque object. The Greeks still use the 
wood for ships. P. palustris of N. American swamps, has leaves a foot long ; 
P. canariensis has similar foliage, and mingles strangely with the rest of the 
vegetation of the Peak of Teneriffe, between 4000 and 6000 feet. P. apvlcensls, 
of Mexico, is distinguished by extremely twisted branches. P. occidentalis belongs 
especially to St. Domingo and Cuba. The cones of the different species vary in 
size, those of P. excelsa, of the Himalaya, are fourteen inches long and slender ; 
those of P. pungens of N. America have sharp bent prickles on each scale. Abies, 
the true Fir, belongs chiefly to N. America ; A. alba, the white S^jruce, extending 
to within ten miles of the Arctic Sea. The Larch, of Germany and Switzerland, 



Pinus maritima. Sea-coast Pint. 

South coast, Europe. 

1a Stamen. 1b Section of Seed. 

Ic Many Cotyledons of Seed. 

lo Scale and Seeds. 1e Seed. 

If Section of Seed. 
Juniperus communis, Juniper. Ijritnin. 

2a Stamen flowers. 

2b Scale and Anthers. 'J,c Pistil flower. 



3. Taxus baccata. Yew. Britain. 

oA Stamen flower. 

3b Pistilflower. ."Jc Seed. 

4. Larix Ctdrns, Cedar. Mount Lebanon. 

5. Cupressus sempervirens. Cypress. Levant. 

6. CoHe o/Wellingtonia. Cix Section ofCone. 
7a. Seed of Araiicnr'ia. 7b Section <f Seed. 
8a. Cone of Cryi)tomerm japonicu. 

China. 



CONIFERACE.E. 

Larix comnuniis, is one ut'tlie must frequent ami beautiful trees on the lower range 
of the Alps, reaching to »>U00 feet elevation ; the leaves are deciduous, the wood 
valuable for building, becoming a fine red bro\vn exposed, unpainted, to the Alpine 
climate : the bark contains tannin. The Cedar of Lebanon (4) once existed in 
extensive forests on the sides of Libanus, the only native locality ; but from the 
time of Solomon, when vast numbers of the trees were hewn down to build the 
Temple, it has become very scarce there. No other tree of this tribe has a more 
majestic aspect, especially when coimtless cones stand erect on the horizontal 
branches. Juniperus (2) is a native of open places and hills in the northern parts 
of Europe ; on the Alps, also, it grows abundantly ; the young shoots and the 
berries are used in the preparation of ardent spirits. J. Bermudiana, a tree forty 
feet high, affords the cedar-wood for buildings in the ^Yest Indies, and the cases 
for our Cumberland lead ])encils. J. Virginiana is the red Cedar, a highly 
fragrant and durable wood for cabinet work. J. recurva, with long drooping 
branches, appears occasionally on the Himalaya. Taxus (3) is found chiefly in 
mountainous woods in Euroffe, N. America, and Japan ; in Germany it still 
abounds, but it is much less frequent in Britain than formerly. Until the time of 
Henry VIII., the wood was in constant demand for bows. Yew-trees live to a 
great age, and acquire large trunks ; two of the most remarkable are those near 
the forest of Brotonne, in France, said to be verging towards loOO years. In 
Temjierate countries they flourish on plains, on the Andes they find a suitable 
temperature at 8000 feet. Cupressus (5), common in the Levant and in South 
Europe, is frequently planted around palaces, and in cemeteries. It endures to 
great longevity in a favourable soil and climate ; a Cypress at Somma in Lombardy 
is said to have sprung from the earth before the Christian era, and is still regarded 
■with veneration ; when Buonaparte planned the famous Strada Sempione, the 
ancient Cypress was carefully avoided. The famous gates of Constantine's cathe- 
dral, at Constantinople, made of the wood, existed upwards of 1100 years. Schu- 
bertia disticha, known as the deciduous Cypress, belongs to IMexico, and is there 
much esteemed ; the finest examples in this country are in the gardens of Syon 
House, Isleworth. Araucaria imhricata Avas introduced by Sir Joseph Banks, a 
tree of stately, symmetrical growth, the branches clothed with perennial rigid 
leaves, at first pointing upwards ; gradually ^\■ith age becoming bent downwards. 
A. excclsa, of Norfolk Isle, is lofty and grand. The seeds of A. Bidwillii (7), of 
Australia, being nearly free of turpentine, are eaten by the natives. Amongst the 
noblest of trees ranks the Dammara Pine of New Zealand, often growing with a 
straight stem of 100 feet. The graceful Deodara of the Himalaya, is now accli- 
matized in our gardens, althovigh its native place is from 7000 to 12,000 feet on 
the mountains of Asia. Cryptomeria Ja^>on/ca (8), lately imf)orted from the exten- 
sive plain of Shanghae, is of extreme elegance of growth. The last discovered 
tree of this tribe, now added to English plantations from California, is the sur- 
passing ^Yellingtonia giyantea. About 100 trees exist in a forest on the slopes 
of the Sacra Nivada, near the head waters of San Antonio, in 38° N. lat., 
5000 feet above the sea. The stems rise to 245 feet in height, unbranched, until 
towards the summit; the branches droop and bear cones (6) at their points; the 
Indians shake out the seeds, roast, and eat them, whole or bruised. Pinus and 
Araucaria ajipear to have groAMi abundantly in this island during a former epoch 
of its existence, fossil remains being found at Whitby and at Lyme Regis. 

This Tribe inhabits various countries from the Tropics of Asia to the Arctic 
regions. The chief portion exists in Temperate climates, in Europe, Siljcria, China, 
N. America. Pinus belongs to the Northern Hemisphere, Araucaria to the Southern, 



or THE 
OmVERSITV Of IIIJMOIS 



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"rh£,Cycaji Trihe.- ^ 



Day & So. 



120 



C Y C A D A C E ^ 

THE CYCAS TRIBE. 



Small trees or shrubs. The stems are either simple, or cylindrial, or round, or 
dichotomously branched ; marked on the surface with the scars of broad leaf-stalks. 
The interior of the stem consists of a mass of pith traversed by woody fibres 
usually irregularly disposed, sometimes in numerous concentric circles. The woody 
tissue contains glands and spiral vessels. The leaves are pinnated, firm, and 
woody, perennial, generally rolled inwards when young. The flowers have stamens 
and pistil separate, and are without calyx or corolla. The stamen flowers are on 
terminal cones, composed of scales coverfd on their lower sides with one-celled 
anthers, which split longitudinally. The pistil flowers are simple naked ovules, 
placed beneath scales on the margin of contracted leaves. The seeds are hard or 
spongy coated nuts, with one or more embryos suspended by a thread in the cavity 
of fleshy or mealy albumen. 

This Tribe has close affinity with Coniferacese, the young leaves rolled inwards 
connect it with Ferns, and in general aspect it resembles Palms. 

The stems and seeds of these plants contain wholesome starchy substance, as 
well as nauseous mucilaginous juice. 

Cycas is the selected type of this remarkable though small tribe ; the same 
name was bestowed by the ancients on a dwarf Palm which grew in Ethiopia. 
The genus forms an obvious link with Palms and Firs, the columnar stem and single 
cro"mi of flowers connect it with the former, the cone of fructification with the latter; 
in the internal structure also a similarity exists, the woody vessels of the stem being 
marked with circular disks like those of Firs, and rarely found elsewhere. The 
stem has no true bark, but is invested with a dense covering of the old bases of 
leaf-stalks. Cycas revoluta (1) was first brought to England in 1758 : the ship 
being attacked by an enemy, the head of the plant was thot off; the stem after- 
wards sent out a fresh shoot, and thus the curious novelty grew and multiplied in 
its strange country. The stem contains a cellular starchy substance which in 
Japan is made into a kind of sago, so nourishing that the Japanese soldiers are 
able to live on a very small portion of it as their daily food. The celebrated 
traveller, Thunberg, found it to be of excellent quality. C. circinalis (2), a native 
of the Moluccas, has sometimes a stem ?>0 feet high; the chief distinction of the 



1. Cycas revolula, Narroic-leaved Cycas. Fertile Frond. 

1a Stamen Scale. China. [ '2b Fruit. 2c Section of Ovule. 

1b Under surface, with Anthers. j 2d Embryo. 

2a. Cycas circinalis. East Indies. ' 3a. Leaves of Zamis^. Cape of Good Hope. 

M M 



CYCADACE.E. 

species is that the leaves are more curled. Sago is prepared from the pith and 
stem ; the fruit is also eaten, and a mealy substance is obtained by grinding the 
kernels. Blume, who explored Japan and examined its vegetation, describes a clear 
transparent gum exuding from those plants, resembling Tragacanth, valuable in 
healing ulcers. Zamia (3) is a genus of very similar aspect to Cycas, bearing a 
croAATi of rigid pinnated leaves, the flowers collected in a cone. It is one of the 
most prevalent and striking forms of vegetable life in South - Eastern Africa, 
covering wide tracts on the Caffir frontier. Z. Jiorrida, with its stiff grey foliage, 
beset with prickles at the points of the leaves, is of peculiarly unpleasing appearance. 
Zamia belongs also to the West Indies, affording food to the natives ; the stem 
of Z. pumila and other species contain a supply of wholesome starchy meal. 
Encephelartos is another genus growing at the Cape of Good Hope, known as 
Caffir-bread, the interior of the stem being eaten by the Caffirs. In Mexico this 
tribe is represented by Dion edule, the large seeds of which furnish arrowroot to 
the natives. The cones of flowers are scarcely distinguishable from those of 
Araucaria in the Fir tribe, clearly indicating the affinity of the two Orders. 
Although none of these plants exist at present amongst the native Flora of this 
island, yet abundant fossil remains prove that in a former period of the world they 
formed a considerable portion of the vegetation. 

This Tribe inhabits the Tropics, and the Temperate parts of Asia and America. 
It is found also in ^Madagascar, and at the Cape of Good Hope, but it does not 
exist in equinoctial Africa. 



Lib,:,.Ry 

OF THE 
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130 



HYD ROCH ARID ACE iE 



THE FKOG-BIT TRIBE. 



Floating water-plants, the leaves have parallel veins, and are sometimes spiny. 
The flowers are enclosed in a spathe. The stamens and pistil sometimes in different 
flowers ; the calyx is composed of three sepals ; the petals are three, occasionally 
wanting. The stamens are of definite or indefinite nnmber ; in Hydrocharis some 
are beaked. The ovary is adherent, composed of several carpels, one, six, eight, or 
nine-celled ; the stigmas are from three to six. The fruit is dry or succulent, not 
gaping, Avith one or more cells. The seeds are numerous, and contain no albumen. 

In many points of structure this Tribe has affinity with AUsmaceae ; the 
spathe forms a connecting link with Araceaj. 

Some of these plants are wholesome as food. 

Hydrocharis was named from the Greek, on account of its being considered one 
of the prettiest of European water-plants. It spreads far with long runners, from 
the points of which proceed roots, penetrating the mud, and young buds, enclosed 
in two scales, afterwards becoming separate plants. In the watery places of the 
Isle of Ely, the Frog-bit (1) was formerly very abundant, but is now less frequent. 
The leaves are mucilaginoi;s, and slightly astringent : they have large stomas or 
pores on their surface. Some few characters prevail generally in aquatic plants : 
here a resemblance may be traced in the form of the leaves to those of small water- 
lilies : in this instance it affords a proof of the countless links which are found 
amongst plants, even where the principal structure may be different. From 
similarity of aspect, the Frog-bit was by old writers called lesser loater-Uhj ; and 
modern botanists perceive the analogy, although the one plant belongs to the great 
division of monocotyledons, the water-hlies to the dicotyledons. Stratiotes (2) 
derived its name of icater- soldier, from its stiff sword-shaped leaves, and upright 
manner of growth. Dioscorides describes it under the Greek name, which well 
explains the close ranges of its leaves, like an army. The name of Water-aloe is 
also appropriate. The flowering stem rises to the surface when in blossom, and 



Hydrocbaris Moraiis-rduce, Froy-bil. 

Ponds, Britain. 
1a Stomas, maynijied. 1b Stamens. 

Stratiotes aloides, Water-Soldier, or Water- 
Aloe. Ponds, Britain. 
2a Stamens. 
Vallisneria spiralis, Spiral-stalked T'allis- 
neria, lihone. 



3a Stamen Flowers. 

3b Section of Ovary. 

3c Stamen Flower magnified. 
■i. Tiooitia. cordata, Heart-leaved Bootia. Ava. 

•4a Pistils. 

4b Stamens. 

4c Stamens, magnified. 
5a. Anacharis alsinaslrum. Flower maynifud. 



llYDKoiHAHlDACK.i:. \ 

until tlie seed ripens, when it again becomes immersed, and sends out fresh runners, 
prepared to bear new ])hints the following summer. As is usual with water-jilants, 
when once located in a favourable situation, it increases rapidly. Since the 
extensive draining of the fens in the east of England, Stratiotes is becoming more 
rare in those districts. Vallisneria spiralis (3) was named in memory of a 
Professor at Padua, j)hysician to Charles VI. It is one of the most remarkable 
plants of this tribe, being singularly adapted to the situations where it grows. It 
is chiefly found in the Rhone, whose waters rise with considerable raj)iditj' from 
sudden floods. The stalks of the justil flowers are long and spiral, and are thus 
enabled to rise and fall according to the level of the river. The stamen flowers are 
on short stalks, but detach themselves when fully grown, and float on the surface 
of the water, scattering the pollen : when the seeds are ripened, the spiral stalk 
again contracts, and carries down the capsule to bury its seeds in the mud. This 
process is similar to that which occurs in the spiral stalk of Cyclamen under 
difieront circumstances. Although the southern course of the Rhone is the 
principal habitation of Vallisneria, it grows also in the Languedoc Canal, and in 
the north of Italy. Some rivers of North America, of India, and of Australia, 
likewise shelter this curious plant, V. alternifolia grows near Madras and 
Calcutta, and in Silhet ; V. minor has been discovered in the neighbourhood of 
Allahaliad. Boottia (4) Avas first found by Dr. Wallich, on the banks of the 
Irawaddi, flowering profusely ; the leaves and stalks are of a mucilaginous nature, 
and aftord food to the Burmese, for which it is collected and sold in the markets of 
Ava. The leaves and fruit of Enhalus are also eatable, and its fibres are said to 
be capable of being woven. Hydrilla verticiUata is used in India to cover sugar 
during the process of refining ; but the useful properties of these plants are few. 
Anacharis (5) has been of late years introduced from North America, and has 
rapidly covered canals and small rivers in Cambridgeshire, to the great impediment 
of boats. 

This Tribe inhabits fresh water in Europe, Asia, and North America. Two 
species of Vallisneria have been discovered in Australia. 



LIBRARY 
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A L I S M A C E iE 



THE WATER-PLANTAIX TRIBE. 



Aquatic or swamp plants, usually having perennial roots. The leaves are narrow 
or broad, of very cellular substance, always with parallel veins, often containing a 
milky juice. The flowers grow in umbels, racemes, or panicles, or are solitary, 
either purple, yellow, or white. The stamens and pistil are sometimes in different 
flowers. The calyx has three sepals, the petals are three; the stamens are of 
definite or indefinite number, the anthers turned inwards. The ovaries are superior, 
several, one-celled, free and distinct, or united into a single mass ; the styles and 
stigmas of the same number as the ovaries. The fruit is dry, one, two, or many- 
seeded, either distinct and beaked, or united ; the seeds are very minute, solitary, 
or numerous, and attached to the whole surface of the fruit : they contain no 
albumen. 

This tribe has affinity with Hydrocharidaceae. 

Acrid bitter leaves and eatable fleshy roots belong to these plants. 

Alisma, derived from the Celtic for water, is dispersed in Europe and America. 
A. plantago (1), although of a stiff manner of growth, is one of the most elegant 
of our aquatic plants, and the flowers are of a peculiar delicate texture and colour. 
The root is fibrous, from whence all the leaves proceed on erect long stalks ; when 
growing in deep water, or in a flowing stream, the leaves are usually perfectly 
linear, a tendency which is observed in other water-plants. The roots are thought 
eatable by the Kalmucks, after the acrid juice is dispelled by drying. A. ranuncu- 
loides grows chiefly in swamps and turfy bogs : A. natans in the lakes of 
Cumberland and Xorth Wales. A. repens is a native of South America, adorning 
the sandy shores of the river ]Manzanares. Sagittaria, named from the Latin, 
alluding to the form of the leaf, is a genus of considerable beauty, and is interesting 
as having given the type of one of the floral ornaments of architecture ; its arrow- 
shaped leaf may be clearly traced amongst the sculptures of the choir of the noble 



1. Alisma plantago, Water Plantain. 

Streams, England. 
1a Seed-vessel. 

2. Sagittaria sayitti/oliu, Common Arrow-head. 

Streams, England. 
2a Stamen. 

•3. Butomus iimheUntus, Flowerimj Rush. 

Streams, England. 
.3a Pistils. :^.B Carpel. 



■3c Section of Carpel. 

3d Stamen, 
i. Limnocharis Humboltii, Humholt's Limno- 
charis. Streams, Brazil. 

5. Damasonium indicum. East Indies. 

6a. Carpel of A. raminculvidcs. 

6b Section of Seed. 
7a. Seed-vessel of L. Plumierii. 

7b Section of Seed. 



Al.lS.MACE.'i:. 

crtthcdrai of Elieinis. S. sra/ilti/ulia (2) is very frefjuent in streams, usually 
associated witli Alisma, au<l like several other aquatics, widely spread in the world, 
beinfij equally suited to the temperature of Europe, Sil)eria, China, Japan, and 
Virginia. In the warmer climate of China it becomes of more value than with us, 
the roots attaining such dimensions as to afford an useful sujtply of food. S. 
sinensia is a species with wider leaves, and the flowers are ])ure white, without a 
purple spot. S. echinocarpa of Brazil is remarkable for its prickly seeds ; some 
Brazilian species are very astringent, and the juice is used for making ink. 
Butomus umbellatiis (3) was by Gerarde (one of the first who described our native 
plants) declared to be " of all others the fairest and most pleasant to behold ;'" the 
umbel of rose-coloured flowers, when in full bloom, about IMidsummer, in small 
rivers, is well deserving of admiration. The leaves are very rough at the edges, 
usually twisted at the top. Although the plant generally is acrid and bitter, like 
Alisma, yet the root and seeds are sometimes roasted and eaten by the poor 
peasants of Sweden, as well as the natives of Northern Asia. In former times they 
were used medicinally for their emollient cooling properties. Actinocarpus differs 
from Alisma principally in the stellate form of the capsules. A. Damasonium is a 
native of our streams and ditches ; A. minor of New South Wales. Damasonium 
indiciim (o) is found growing along the edges of streams in the valleys of the 
Himalaya, and in many other parts of India, mingled with various aquatic plants, 
which belong both to Southern India and Europe, the more uniform temperature of 
water favouring this combination in a degree beyond the effect of any local atmo- 
sphere in dry situations. Limnocharis (4), from the Greek, denoting its marsh 
habitation, is a beautiful plant, and flourishes perfectl}' in our conservatories; the 
leaves have a remarkable pore at the point by whicli the superfluous moisture is 
carried off. The texture of both leaves and petals is extremely delicate and 
transparent. 

These plants chiefly grow in the streams and marshes of the northern countries 
of the world, but several species inhabit the Tropics ; Limnocharis is peculiar to 
those regions. Sagittaria is very w"idely dispersed. 



OF THE 
^'>??TY Of ILUr^OIS 







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^' I,;/ it .i^«/. Lmutt-' 



132 



ORCHIDACEiE. 

THE ORCHIS TRIBE. 



Shrubs and herbaceous plants, all perennial ; terrestrial, or aerial fixed on trees 
and stones. The roots are fibrous or fleshy, like tubers full of starch. The stem is 
either long and annual, or woody and perennial, forming jointed branches. The leaves 
are flat or round, sometimes growing one over the other like Iris ; generally sheath- 
ing, membranous, coriaceous or hard, never lobed, occasionally bordered by carti- 
laginous teeth, veins parallel. The flowers are irregular in form, solitary, clustered, 
spiked, or panicled ; a single bract at their base. The corolla is adherent, herbaceous 
or coloured, membranous or fleshy, the sepals are three, petals three, one developed 
into a lip of very differing form, horned, or furnished with various appendages, 
occasionally moving spontaneously as in Bolbophyllum. The stamens and style 
are consolidated into a column ; of the three stamens the central one only is perfect, 
except in Cypripedium, w'here the two side anthers are perfect, the central one 
imperfect. The anthers are erect at the top of the column, or turned flat upon it, 
the pollen powdery or waxy. The ovary is formed of six carpels, three of which 
bear stigmas, and three have double plates bearing numerous minute seeds. The 
style is rarely distinct except in Cypripedium. The capsule, seldom fleshy, usually 
separating into six dry, woody, rigid valves ; seeds, with a loose netted skin, rarely 
a hard crustaceous covering, and sometimes expanded into a circular wing. They 
contain no albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Zingiberaceaj and Iridaceje. 

The starchy roots of some, and the aromatic capsules of Vanilla are the chief 
useful parts. 

Orchis, the old Greek name, denotes a remarkable genus which has been taken 
as the type of an extensive natural Order of exceedingly interesting plants, of late 
years chiefly discovered and brought forth out of uninhabited forests to display their 
varied forms of marvellous beauty to the gaze of man. Several exhibit a tendency 
to the shape and colours of insects, as is clearly perceptible in many English species : 



1. 


Orchis masciila, Early Purple Orchis. 


4. 


Sobralia macranthu. 




Guatemala 




"Woods, England. 


5. 


Phalacnopsis amahile. 




Manilla 




1a Column irilh Pistil aitd Anthers.. 


C. 


DenAroVwixn Jhnhri a hint. 




East Indies. 


2. 


Ophrjs aprfera, Bee Orchis. England. 


7. 


Hnntleya violacea. 




Guiana 




2a Seed-vessel. 2b Seed, mwjnified. 


8. 


Vanilla planifoUuvi. 








2c Section of Seed-vessel. 




8a Seed magnified 200. 






3. 


Oncidium Papilio. Trinidad. 


Oa 


. Epipactis rjrandiflorn. 


Flo 


vcr. 



OUCHIDACEJ:. 

Ophrys apifera (2), 0. araiu/era and others. But it is in the heat and moisture 
of Tropical woods tliat tlie most curious examples are to be found, especially those 
Avhich are capable of gro\Yth without earth,- deriving nourishment solely from the 
air. Orchis mascvia (1) is frequent in groves and shaded meadows ; the roots 
contain a supply of wholesome starchy substance, made into a nourishing food called 
salcp, after an Arabic name. O.foliosa of Madeira resembles our 0. latifoUa, but 
is much taller, the leafy spike being a foot long. O. canariensis, in the valley of 
Orotava in Teneriffo, is the most southern example of the genus. One of the most 
rare of British Orchids is Cypripedium ca/ceolus, the Ladies' Slipper, now only 
occasionally found in its fonner localities of Arncliffe, and Ingleborough in York- 
shire. This genus is remarkable as having on the column two ])erfect side anthers, 
instead of one terminal as in other genera. The lip is expanded into a hollow 
pouch, and all the peculiarities of the genus are shov^Ti as clearly as in C. insigne of 
Nepal, or in the North American species. Epipactis grandijlora is a beautiful 
English species, the cream-coloured flowers (9) growing on a tall spike. In the 
priman'al forests of Brazil Oncidium abounds, the flowers generally produced on 
very long stalks, usually of a pale yellow, marked with brown. 0. papilio (3) has 
a striking resemblance to a butterfly resting on the slender stalk. Sobralia is a 
stately genus, rising with a reed-like stem bearing stiff plaited leaves, and noble 
fragrant flowers : the lip is folded around the column. S. macrantha (4) is the 
finest species. S. Uliastrum adorns hut dry rocks in Bahia with its white and 
yellow flowers. Phalainopsis (5), with its ftxir flowers having the aspect of a moth, 
is an extremely elegant plant. Of East Indian Orchids Dendrobium is one of the 
finest ; D. Jimhriatum (<3) of a pure tint ; other species marked with dark brown ; 
D. ccerulescens. at 4000 feet on the mountains of Khosea, bears forty flowers on its 
stem. Among the countless plants which struggle for space on the small islands 
of the Berbice and Essequibo, Huntleya violacea (7) was discovered by Sir Robert 
Schomburgk, covering gigantic trees in the humid air from the spray of cataracts, 
where the sun scarcely penetrates. Cattleya supcrha of Guiana is unsurpassed for 
beauty, fragrance, and duration ; Schomburgkia crispa is also a graceful species of 
that coimtry ; S. marginata belongs to Surinam. Galeandra grows six feet high, 
in large clusters, on the ]\Iauritia palm. Of the East Indian plants of this tribe 
Cymbidium, Coelogyne, brides, Camarotis, and Phaius are amongst the most 
remarkable in variety of form and hue, and manner of growth. Cynoches of 
^Mexico and Demerara has a long bent column with a dark laiob at the end. 
Epidendrum viteUinnm unfolds its spikes of brilliant scarlet flowers in a temperate 
climate at OOOO feet elevation on the mountains of Mexico. On the margins of 
pools at the base of the Table Mountain of the Cape, Disa grandiflora opens its 
crimson flowers, when the hot mists succeed to the frosts and drought. The long 
seed-vessels of Vanilla (8) are used to flavour chocolate. 

This Tribe is dispersed almost in all countries, except in the coldest regions, 
or the dry parts of Africa. In the hot damp regions of the East and West Indies 
and South America the species with aerial roots abound. Many belong to Central 
America and the Cape of Good Hope, as well as to Australia and Europe. 




Thj& (ruiqer Irih e 



Jjay & Soru,Lmuted' 



];« 



ZIN'GIBERACE^ 



THE GINGER TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants witli creeping jointed root-stalks; the stem is formed of the 
united bases of the leaves, usually single, and sometimes branching. The leaves 
are simple, sheathing at the base, with a single mid-rib, and numerous fine veins 
diverging to the edge. The flowers arise from amongst membranous bracts, 
usually in pairs. The calyx is above the ovary, tubular, three -lobed, short ; the 
corolla is tubular, irregular, six-parted, in two rows, one petal usually larger than 
the rest, often three-lobed. The stamens are three, the central one only perfect. 
The filament is often extended beyond the anther, sometimes petal-hke ; the anther 
is one or two-celled, opening longitudinally, its lobes often enclosing the upper part 
of the style, sometimes spurred. The ovary is one to three-celled, the style slender, 
or expanded. The stigma dilated, hollow, or hooded. The fruit is usually a cap- 
Biile, three-celled, many-seeded, or imperfect and one-celled, occasionally a berry. 
The seeds are round or angular, with or without an aril; they contain mealy 
albumen. 

In some points of structure this Tribe resembles MusaceJB, and it has also 
affinity with Orchidacea^. 

The roots of Zingiber are aromatic and pungent, others contain a large portion 
of wholesome starchy substance. 

Zingiber is derived from the Indian name of the plant, and so likewise are all 
the European appellations. The root of Zingiber officinale, ginger (1), is known 
and esteemed in all countries as a medicine and condiment. In the West Indies 
the plants are cultivated in trenches, and there frequently eaten in a fresh' state as 
salad. If the roots are required for preserving in sugar, they are taken up at 
about two months growth, but to be dried as a spice they remain in the ground 
until the stems are \\-ithered, when they are taken out and scraped and carefully 
dried in the sun, for what is commonly called white ginger. The kind, called 
black ginger, is boiled, which disperses the oil contained in the roots, and causes 
them to acquire a dark colour. A large quantity of both sorts, as well as the 



1. Tiin^hex officinale, Ginger, East Indies. 


2a Ovary and Pistil. 


La Calyx and outer Petals. 


3. Alpinia Cardamomnm, Cardamoms. 


lu Ovary and Pistil. 


East Indii.'s. 


2. lledjchium speciosum, Sjjhiulid ITcdychium. 


;3a Seed-vessel. 3i! Section. 


East Indies. 


4.A. Mantisia saltntoria. Flower. E. Indies. 




N N 



ZINGIBEHACEyE. 

preserved Idml, is prepared in the East and West Indies and sent thence to 

parts of the world. Several other species are natives of the East Indies, Z. mio;/a 

beloni::s to Jajtan. "^I'he beautiful Lcenns lledycliium is exclusively native of the 

East Indies, China, and the Malay islands ; it api)oars to extend westwards as far 

as 1^0° N. lat. in Western Hindustan; being found at intermediate stations along 

the shores of the Irawaddy, in Assam, in the mountain valleys of Sikkim and 

Nepal. In IMalabar also some species exist, and on the hills in the interior. 

II. spcciosum (2) is like other species, liable to great diversity of colour and even 

growth, but it is one of the most fragrant and graceful of the genus, noble in 

general aspect, and extremely elegant in the form and arrangement of the flowers. 

The plant is as much as five feet in height in our conservatories, and probably 

attains to greater magnitude in its native situations. The scent is delicious, and 

as the flowers expand gradually, it remains many days extremely ornamental, yet 

it is much less frequent in conservatories than it deserves to be. On the Himalaya 

it has been found at G()00 feet elevation. H. coronarimn, generally known as the 

garland-flower in India, has white flowers, producing them abundantly throughout 

the summer in the gardens of Bengal, where the flowers are used as ornaments for 

the head. H. spicatum is one of the most common species in Nepal. Alpinia 

cardumomum (3) was valued in ancient times by Hindoos, Persians, and Arabians, 

for its aromatic seeds ; they still form an important article of commerce, 15,000 lbs. 

weight being annually sold in London. It grows plentifully on the mountains of 

I\Ialabar, and the gathering and packing the seeds occupies native women and 

children from October till December. Several other species yield equally valuable 

seeds, in Ceylon and other parts of India. The genus Curcuma is known by the 

horns on the anther ; the root of C. longa is Turmeric, a chief ingredient in Curry 

powder, and a constant article of food in the East. Koempferia galanga is the 

medicinal Galangale, of pleasant aromatic flavour. K. Candida is the finest species 

in regard to its flower, but the root is not valuable. Of that class of this Tribe 

which has wholesome though tasteless roots, IMaranta is the principal, yielding 

arrow-root in great abundance. Canna, the Indian Shot, has also roots full of 

starch. The strangely-formed flowers of Mantisia (4) resemble an insect in shape, 

and seem to connect this Tribe with the Orchids. 

This Tribe belongs almost exclusively to the Tropics, most abundant in the 
East Indies ; rare in Africa and America, 



LIBRARY 
OF THE 




E T.dd 



Tke/BarwiwuTryb e/ 



I) ay &.Soyt.l vnvtedi 



MUSACE.E. 

as \Mieat. Throntjljout the Tropics the Banana or Plantain is the ]irinci])al sonrce 
of food, wholesome and pleasant in flavour ; it ripens in conservatories in England, 
but does not acquire its full development and nourishing properties ; when grown 
in hot regions it has so much saccharine matter that it dries like figs, and may be 
kept for many years. Boiled or roasted, it is eaten like bread, when ripe it may be 
preserved as a sweetmeat ; a kind of wine is sometimes jtrepared from it, and the 
young shoots are eaten as a vegetable. M. textilis is the Manilla hemj), from which 
an excellent fibre is obtained not only for ropes, but of a quality fine enough for the 
most delicate of Indian muslins. Strelitzia (2) was named by Sir Joseph Banks in 
honour of Queen Charlotte of Mecklenburgh Strelitz. It is a genus of singular form 
and remarkable beauty ; the leaves grow direct from the root, forming a kind of 
stem by their sheathing bases, in the midst of which springs the flower-stalk, 
terminating in a spathe, from whence rises the brilliant crest of flame-coloured 
flowers. The three inner petals are deep blue, enclosing the stamens and pistil. 8. 
angusta is eighteen feet high, with white flowers. Heliconia is a nearly similar 
genus, belonging to the West Indies ; H. psittacoruni is a beautiful object in the 
clearings amongst the mountains of Jamaica, the graceful flexile stem bearing 
clusters of flowers at the joints towards the summit, the orange petals marked by a 
black spot have a singular efi"ect. H. Biliai is a larger species flourishing in moist 
shaded valleys ; the small succulent berries, containing three rugged seeds, are eat- 
able. Urania speciosa, a noble, Palm-like tree of Madagascar, has wholesome seeds, 
enveloped in a blue pulpy aril, full of an essential oil. The fruit is used in dyeing. 
This Tribe inhabits chiefly the Cape of Good Hope, and the islands on its 
Bouth-eastern coast, and is dispersed over the Tropics, principally on plains. It is 
scarcely found elsewhere, except in Japan. 



Of mt 

I'KIVEKiillY Uh ILLI^cOIS 




4 a, 



rw/y 



ZIcieL' 



The/BlooirTootTrihey 



4-1 



Day &Son.. ujru/id 



H.^iMODORACE-F,. 

moimtain of Roraimi-, anti on Ttapu, wliicli rises like a gigantic obelisk 4000 feet 
al)()ve the savannahs of Guiana, in 6^ north latitude, where the temperature ranges 
between (U>'-' and i<i>^. The stem is from ten to twelve feet high, the forks of the 
branches clothed with the membranous withered bases of leaves. The scent of the 
flowers is extremely fragrant, similar to that of Hippeastrum, allied to Amaryllis. 
But the most extraordinary plant of this tribe is undoubtedly Vellozia, discovered 
and described by the celebrated Bavarian traveller, Von Martius, in Brazil. The 
trunk consists of a central cylindrical column, not increasing in diameter, only 
growing upwards like other monocotyledonous plants. The exterior of the stem is 
composed of rpiantities of slender fibrous roots, cohering and forming a kind of 
wood of the same nature as that of the ferns, and partly resembling that of some 
Palms. At the top the branches grow in forks, from the ends of which proceed 
tufts of leaves and flowers, after the manner of Yucca. As they grow always in 
numeroiis groups, the effect is very singular. A few other genera are worthy of 
notice ; Dilatris is always extremely downy over the whole flowering stem : D. 
cori/mbosa and D. riscosa belong to the Cape. D. Heritiera yields a red dye to 
the natives of North America. Lachnanthes tinctoria affords also a red dyeing 
matter. An infusion of Aletris fnrinosa is one of the most intense bitters known, 
and is used occasionally as a tonic medicine. 

This Tribe exists chieflj' in Brazil and the Mascaren Isles, in Guiana, and in 
the Temperate parts of Australia ; a few species are found in North America, 
and at the Cape. 



« 



LIBKAKY 

OF THE 

UMIVERSIIV 0)- ILLINOIS 







2- a, 2h Zc 21 Ze 



,Um 



CSO'/' 



Thje.'A7noryUxs Tnhe/. 



Bay &Sfln.,Zwuted 



AMAKYLLIDACE.E. 

Alth«)U,i;h of very iliffeient and lowly asj)ect, the eini])le Snowdro]) (2) is one of the 
luof^t admired and cherished of flowers. Alstriimeria (3), named after a Swetlish 
baron, has a remarkable character in the leaves being placed on the stem with the 
under surface uppermost, which causes them to twist, in order to bring the porous 
side to the light and air. The roots of A. pallida and others contain starch, from 
w'hich a kind of arrow-root is prepared in Chile. A. Sahilla yields a considerable 
supply of food in the West Indies, llajmanthus (4) produces its singular involucre, 
enclosing nimierous ilowers, before the leaves. Several si)ecies belong to the Cape, 
and it is said that the Hottentots use the poisonous juice of the bulbs of II. toxlcarius 
to poison their arrows. The fruit of Haimanthus, when ripe, is the size of a small 
cherry. Sternbergia Intca (o) abounds in the south of Europe and in Palestine : 
some travellers suppose it to be the " Lily of the field," which Divine wnsdom 
declared to surpass in dazzling splendour the array of the most glorious of kings. 
Phycella iynca ((>) is one of the brilliant productions of Chile. The genus Nar- 
cissus is of interest as being one of the few which extend into Europe ; many 
species are found in the southern countries. N. pseudo-narcissus, the Daffodil, is 
occasionally seen wild in Kngland : N. moscJiatus (7) is one of the various species 
of Spain. The peculiar character of the flowers is the elegant cup or crown 
within the petals ; in some it is shallow^, in others tubular, beautifully curled at the 
rim. Nearly all come forth in the spring, and for their bright golden hues, or pure 
white, as well as delicious fragrance, are highly esteemed. The most celebrated 
plant of this Tribe is the Aloe, Agave Americana. In its native country it forms 
impenetrable hedges with its solid leaves, bordered with strong spines ; a single 
l)lant will spread its leaves to a circumference of eighteen feet. But the chief value 
is derived from the sap, which exudes when the young bud is cut off; and when 
fermented, becomes the favourite pidque of the oNIexicans : they also prepare jiaper 
from the fibres. Littaja gemimjiora has a stem like an Aloe, thirty-five feet high, 
with grass-like leaves at the base. Another lofty plant is Doryanthes excelsa ; 
the straight stem clothed with small leaves, surrounded by a head of crimson 
flowers. Crinum and Pancratium are natives of India, with elegant white flowers, 
llippeastrum, the Knir/hfs-star of Brazil, appears there in countless numbers. 
Fourcroya attains an extreme height of flower-stem, with rapid growth. 

This Tribe exists in greatest abundance and variety at the Cape. Some 
6})ecies are plentiful in South America, particularly in Brazil ; others abound in 
the East and West Indies : a few have been discovered in Australia. 



OF mE 
ywivERsnv u^ iiuMOiS 




Za, zl 



FTU 






IKIDACEiE. 

root; their sweet scent was formerly valued in the manufacture of hair-powder. 
Tigridia ^)rtroH('a (o) is an extremely lirilliant but ei)hemural flower, eutluring only 
for a day ; the chief peculiarity of its structure is the long tube formed by the 
united filaments of the stamens at the top ; the three anthers surround the triple 
stigma. Although a native of the hot climate of MexicO', the Tiger-flower flourishes 
well in the open air here, if placed in a sheltered and sunny situation. T. cunchi- 
jlora belongs also to Mexico ; the petals are of a deep yellow colour. Sparaxis 
tricolor (+) is one of the numerous beautiful bulbous-rooted plants of the Cape of 
(lood Hope; the Greek name alludes to the torn spatlies of the flower. 

Amongst the most striking of these flowers may be classed Gladiolus, so named 
from the Latin, on account of the sword-shaped leaves, though this is common to 
other plants of the Tribe. G. comvivms and G. scgctum adorn the fields of South 
Europe. G. hyzantinwni is a native of Turkey ; the rest all belong to the Cape, 
and are more or less ornamental. G. psittacina (/)) is a brilliant example of the 
Flora of Natal, of noble form, and harmonious in colouring. But the most useful 
plant must be considered the lowly Crocus ((>), which is not only the chief em- 
bellishment of gardens in the earliest spring, but is valuable for the su])ply of 
Saffron obtained from the large stigmas of C. sativus. When the Saffron Crocus 
was first introduced in the reign of Edward III., it was extensively grown around 
Saffron Waldcn, in Essex, but its use, and consequently its cultivation, are much 
diminished. The colouring ingredient of Saffron has the peculiar quality of total 
dispersion by the sun. The starchy tubers of some of the Cape plants are said to 
afford food to the Hottentots ; and the roasted seeds of Iris pseudo-acorus may be 
a substitute for coffee. Ixia, Morsea, Sisyrinchium, and other genera, have been 
contributed to European gardens from the Cape, whose dry sands are the grand 
store of the most delicate and brilliant flowered bulbous plants in the great class of 
monocotyledons. 

This Tribe is most abundant in South Africa, and in the central regions of 
North America and of Europe. A few species only are natives of the Tropics ; 
few also are found in South America. Crocus belongs entirely to Europe and 
Asia ; the African and Australian species are not known in America. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSIlv Of ILLINOIS 




LTd,L 



Th&Pmey- o:pplc'Iribt/- 



f'liy k j>jrv, J. nmUJy 



r.l{OMELIACE/E. 

to mere bracts, and thus the whole is consolidated into the juicy pulpy fruit. The 
crown is the upper tuft of leaves, a continuation of the plant after the flower-buds 
cease. In Singapore the fibres of the leaves are manufactured into fine muslin. 
B. pingum in its wild state bears a small acid fruit (-t), used medicinally in the 
West Indies ; this species grows parasitically on trees in Brazil, spreading over a 
space of twelve feet, and covered with mosses and other small plants. /Echmea 
discolor (2) is one of the most beautiful plants of this Tribe, introduced lately from 
Brazil ; it forms a brilliant addition to the conservatory, the coral-like branches 
remaining long in flower. The most striking genus, when seen in its native 
countries, is Tillandsia ; some species grow parasitically on trees in Peru and 
Brazil, almost concealing them with thin masses of pale grey foliage and spikes of 
bright flowers. T. usneoi'des clothes the trees in many parts of Tropical America 
with its long silvery branches and leaves, in the same manner as the Lichen Usnea 
hangs like a grey beard on the Firs of the Alps. Another kind ascends into the 
temperate climate of the mountains of Mexico. T. acaulis (3) is well adapted for 
cultivation amongst our exotics, being of more lowly form ; the leaves are hollowed 
at the base, and retain rain and dew in siiflficient quantity to be valuable to 
travellers in the season of drought. From the spike of Puya lamiginosa flows a 
transparent gum ; P. chilensis yields a juice found useful in healing wounds in 
Chile. From the root of Bilbergia tinctoria a yellow dye is obtained in Brazil. 
Several species which can exist without earth are used to adorn balustrades and 
balconies in South America, scenting the air with their delicious fragrance. 

All the plants of this Tribe are natives of America, whence they have extended 
eastward ; and many have become indigenous on the west of Africa, and in the 
East Indies. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

iJI^lVERSITV OF ILU?!0?S 



13i' 




-i^ ^t^. 



jf •3<7 3d 



E.Td^i 



The' Yam/ Tribes 



Dcu' & Sim.Xv^7A- 



1 ;v.t 



DIOSCORACE^. 

THE YAM TRIBE. 



TwixixG shrubs, having large tubers above or below the ground. The leaves are 
alternate, or occasionally opposite, with netted veins. The flowers are small, 
spiked, with from one to three bracts. The stamens and pistil are in separate 
flowers. The calyx and corolla are united, herbaceous, adherent. The stamens 
are six, inserted into the base of the sepals and petals. The anthers are turned 
inwards and burst lengthwise. The ovary is three-celled, with one or two seeds 
in each cell. The style is deeply three -cleft. The fruit is a capsule or a berry, 
leafy or compressed, or succulent. The seeds of the capsule are flattened, winged 
or wingless, those of the berry round ; they contain cartilaginous albumen, in a 
cavity of which lies the embryo. 

This Tribe has affinity with SmilaceK. 

An acrid principle exists generally in these plants. 

Dioscorea records the name of the celebrated Greek physician and botanist, 
Dioscorides. It is an important genus, yielding an abundant supply of nutriment 
in its farinaceous tubers : D. sativa is the common Yam, cultivated as the chief 
food of Negroes in Africa and the West Indies. The acrid juice is entirely ex- 
pelled by heat, and the mealy tubers are excellent, either roasted or boiled. The 
flour is also made into cakes and bread. D. acideafa is a variety cultivated in all 
the islands of the torrid zone, as well as in New Zealand. The buds of the tubers 
are planted like those of the potato, and require very little care afterwards, pro- 
ducing plentiful crops. D. triph>/lla (1) is of a noxious nature, and the tubers 
contain too much acrid principle to be made available for food. D. versicolor is 
one of the many species common in India, in the valleys, and ascending as high as 
5000 feet on the Himalayas. D. alata. the most frequently cultivated in northern 
India, displays in its stem very distinctly the peculiar arrangement of wedges of 
the wood placed against the bark, which, when dried, easily separate, like those of 
Aristolochia and iMenispermum. The varieties of Dioscorea in the East have 
attracted the attention of all botanical travellers. Rumphius describes some with 



1. Dioscorea triphijlla, Three-lnared Yam. '^. Tamns commiiiiia. Black Bri/oiii/. 



Malabar. 
1a Pistil Flower, marinifivd. 
1b Seed, mngnijied. 

2. Testitudinaria elcphanlipes, Eh-phnnVs-foot. 
Cape of Good Hope. 
2a Pi!<tn Fhoi-iT. 



Hedgeis, England. 
•Sa Shnnfii Flnirer. 3b Pistil Floircr. 

."^c Pistil. nn Sfcliaii of Ovary. 

4a. Dioscorea advimcaipn. 

Section of Stamen Flower. 
4b Seed. via<jiiijied. 4c Seed-vessil. open. 



PTOSCORACE.4^. 

spreading branched tubers, otliers twisted like a snake. The size and weight 
vary extremely ; some not more than a pound in weight, others as much as a 
foot broad. D. atro-jnirpiirca is extensively grown in iNIalacca and the isles of the 
Indian ArcliijuOago. D. hnJhIfira is the Yi.m of Otaheite; at the base of the leaf- 
stalks are small bulbs, containing the germ of new plants. Testitudinaria (2) was 
so named because of the root having the a])])carance of the shell of the tortoise. 
This singular root-stock grows to an immense size in favourable localities, and 
contains a farinaceous substance used by the Hottentots as food in time of scarcity, 
whence it is commonly called Hottentot's bread. It grows readily in a conser- 
vatory, and has a remarkable appearance, the extremely slender stems rising out 
of the rugged mass, and climbing to a considerable height over some support. 
Tamus communis (3) is of some interest, as being the only European example of 
this Tribe of plants. It is frequently seen in this country climbing with twining 
stems without tendrils, over hedges and bushes in woods and groves, adorning 
them in spring with its delicate pale-green flowers, and w-ith its bright red berries 
in autumn. On the roots are large dark excrescences, of such acrid properties that 
thjy have been used as blisters ; the roots themselves contain a white starchy sub- 
stance of a wholesome nature ; the young shoots are mild, and are eaten by the 
Moors with oil and salt. Rayania was named after the learned naturalist Ray ; 
the genus belongs chiefly to the West Indies, a graceful twining plant, like the rest, 
with drooping clusters of M-inged capsules, bearing one seed each. Oncus esculentus 
of Cochin -China has eatable tubers. 

The numerous species of this Tribe are found exclusively in the Tropics, 
excepting Tamus, which is a native of the Temperate parts of Asia, and of Europe. 



LIBRARY 

Of THE 

iJ^nVERSIlv OJ- ILl!?!Q!^ 




7* To Id, 7 



ETid 



Tk&Sarsa^anRwTnhey 



V 



140 



S MILAGES 



THE SARSAPARILLA TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants, and nndershrnbs partly climbing, sometimes having flesliy 
tubers. The leaves have netted veins. The stamens and pistils are sometimes in 
separate flowers. The calyx and petals are similar, free, six-parted ; the stamens 
are six, inserted near the base of the corolla, seldom placed below the ovary. The 
ovary is three-celled, the cells one or many-seeded, the style usually trifid, bearing 
three stigmas. The fruit is a roundish berry, containing seeds, with fleshy 
cartilaginous albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Liliacese, but is distinguished by the netted veins 
of the leaves, and the fruit being a rounded berry. 

Astringent piyjperties exist in the roots of some of these plants. 

Smilax has often a tough prickly stem, whence the Greek name was derived. 
S. Sarsaparllla of North America has long, slender, white roots, covered with a 
wrinkled brown bark. They are of a mucilaginous nature, and slightly Intter 
taste, and are considered valuable as a medicine in America and in England. 
S. maculata (1) is one of the various species which belong to the Himalayas, and 
is found in Nepal, Kemaon, and on Mussoree. On the Silhet mountains grow 
S. oxi/jihi/Ua, S. lancecefolia, and S. Roxhurghiana, all employed by the natives 
medicinallv. S. prolifera is a native of Bengal, and S. ovalifolia extends across 
the Peninsula, towards Bombay. Although the different species of Smilax exist 
in the greatest abundance in the tropical parts of Asia, Africa, and America, yet 
some are dispersed in cooler regions ; S. aspera grows in Syria, S. mauritanica in 
the north of Africa, S. catalonica and S. nigra in Spain. All have more or less 
tuberous roots, possessing useful medicinal properties ; those of S. China are 
probably the largest, twisted and full of knots ; they afford food and medicine to 
the Chinese. S, glycijphylla is imported largely from Australia, where it is 
called sweet Tea, and is thought to be extremely wholesome. None of the species 



1. 


Smilax maculata, Spoiled Sarsaparilla. 


5. Trillium xcssilc, SlaUdess-learcd Trillium. 




Himalaya. 


North Ameiiua. 


2. 


Ruscus aciilealtis, Biitclicfs liroom. 


(>. Polygonatum vuiltifi<iriim, Solnmon'x Seal. 




Ii]n gland. 


England. 




2a Leaf and Flower magnified. 


7a. S. (/lyryphylla. Slam'ii Flower. 


■■\. 


Convallaria mnjalis, Lily of the Valley. 


7ii Pistil Flower. 7c Section of Ovary. 




Woods, England. 


7d Seed. 7e Section. 


4. 


Paris (jiiadrifiilid, Ihrh Paris. 


Ha. S. bra.iiliensis. Flower , 




Woods, England. 


SB Section of Ovary. 



SMILACEii:. 

have iinicli beauty of flower, hut S. aspera and S. exctlsa present a striking 
a])j)earance when they droop from the sunimits of tall trees, with their slender 
branches covered with red berries in autumn. The English name was given to 
Kuscus acuhatus (2) because butchers used the branches for cleansing their 
blocks ; the Italians still make brooms of it. The root is perennial, but the shrub 
withers the second year after flowering; it is of a very rigid nature, the leaves tipped 
with a sharp spine. The small flower appears to grow on the leaf, but is really on 
a short stalk which lies beneath the outer coat of the leaf; the fruit is a red berry 
of sweetish flavour, and contains one or two seeds. Convallaria majalis (3), the 
Lily of the Valley, may be considered one of the most choice jdants of our British 
Flora, graceful and simple in form and colour, and very agreeably fragrant ; it is 
now found only in a few localities in this country, for many of the once suitable 
woods are cleared, and become open fields. In the wooded parts of the Craven 
district of Yorkshire, the Lily of the Valley still flourishes luxuriantly, and is 
particularly abundant in the woods of the Vale of Arncliffe. This is one of the 
plants which is not to be improved by the skill of the cultivator, but is perfect in 
its natural condition. A durable green colour may be prepared fi'om tlie leaves 
with lime. Paris qundrlfoUa (4), a remarkable })lant, easily distinguished from 
all others, is rare in this country, scarcely found except in woods in Yorkshire, and 
a few other northern localities. The roots are said to have emetic properties, and 
narcotic juices prevail in the plant, although in slight degree. P. polijjihijlla is a 
native of Nepal. Convallaria and Paris occur together in the same localities in 
India, as in England. Trillium sessile (5), named from the triple division of its 
parts, was brought to England nearly a centurj^ ago, but is rarely to be seen in our 
gardens, being of slow growth and difficult to cultivate ; yet its sihgularity renders 
it worthy of attention. ,The juice, when combined %vith alum, yields a blue dye. 
Polygonatum received its English name from an imagined resemblance in the 
twisted roots to the celebrated Seal of Solomon. P. multijiorum (H) is an exceed- 
ingly elegant species, adorning shady plantations and copses in May and June ; 
this and another English species, P. verticlUatum, are found also on the Himalaya. 
Several others are natives of Germany and North America. P. oppositifolium 
belongs to Xepal. Streptopus, with its twisted flower-stalks, has one species in 
Hungary, others in North America. Smilacina hi folia is found in Northern 
Europe, the rest in North America. There also is found Medeola virginica, which, 
like others of this Tribe, has an emetic root. Ophiogon is the Snake's-head of 
Japan and China. Asparagus, and Dractena the Dragon-tree, both belong to this 
Order. 

This Tribe is dispersed in small numbers in most parts of the world : in the 
•woods of the Temperate regions of Europe, Asia, and North America. Smilax is 
found chiefly in the Tropics of Asia and America. 



LIBRARY 
OF THE 

IJ^IfVERSITV OF UmiS 



141 




Day &■ Son, LawtcA/ 



TTie/LQyTnhe/ 



LILIACE-i:. 

si)ecies is F. imperiu/is ot" Persia, the Crowu-iniperial, which dis])hiys its red and 
yellow coronet of pendent flowers in early spring. Nearly three centuries ago, the 
first Persian tulips were brought to England from Constantinople ; hut not until 
the close of the seventeenth century had the cultivation attained its height in 
Holland and England, or a single bulb its extravagant price of 500/. T. ges- 
iieriana is the original of the countless varieties. T. s'/lvestrix (o) is interesting 
as the solitary liritish example, on the northern limits of the genus. T. suaveolens, 
the Van Tht>l, comes fortli with the first sj)ring in the south of Europe. A rival 
in value and estimation is Ilyacinthus orienfa/is ; at Haarlem 2000 varieties were 
known during its extreme popularity : in fragrance and beauty the Hyacinth has 
surpassing claims for admiration. Scilla nutans (G) is frequent in woods and under 
hedges, in many parts of England and on the Continent; S. hifolia grows in 
similar situations. S. autumnalis on dry commons in autumn; S. sibirica is the 
most northern species. Agapanthus is well known as the blue African Lily. 
Ornithogalum, the Star of Bethlehem, has several species in England ; it is found 
also in California. Egypt, and at the Cape. The only iiseful species is 0. squilla, 
the medicinal Squill, the bulb of which is verv large, and the stem, bearing a fine 
sjfike of white flowers, is often two feet high. In ancient times a classical fame was 
attached to Asphodelus, abounding in Greece, where it now affords food to sheep. 
One of the latest discoveries in this tribe is Ch.rysobactron. with brilliant yellow 
flowers in Lord Auckland's Isle. Yucca has a grand appearance, when the tall 
spike of graceful pale fl<nvers rises out of the tuft of rigid leaves. Aloe, a genus 
almost confined to the Cape, affords a valuable medicine in the dried juice of the 
leaves of the shrubby species, the fibres are niaile into cordage and coarse cloth. 
But the most valuable material for cal)les and strong ropes is obtained from the 
leaves of Phormium tenax of Xew Zealand, now becoming of very extensive 
importance. Another remarkable plant belongs to Australia, Xanthorrhea, the 
grass-plant ; on the summit of a tall palm-like stem covered with the remains of 
sheathing leaf-stalks is a tuft of long wiry leaves, from the centre of which springs 
the tall close spike of flowers like a bulrush. The inner part of the leaf-bud is 
eaten by the natives, who esteem the balsamic flavour caused by the gum-resin : 
this singular plant forms a link with Rushes, thus connecting otie of the most 
hi^^hly developed with one of the humblest tribes. From the earliest times a 
wholesome Ci)ndiment to food has been derived from Allium, yielding Garlic, 
Unitins, Leeks. Chives, all possessing strongly-scented hot properties, of great value 
to man in all climates 

This extensive Tribe is widely dispersed ; most abundant in Temperate regions, 
frequent in Australia and at the Cape of Good Hope, rare iu the East Indies. 
The Tropical spucies are chiefly arborescent. 



LIbHARY 

OF THE 

UNIVEKSnv OF ILLINOIS 



24^ 




K Tdtl- 



The/G)lchu2ijroTnhey 



l)iw ■ '(■■ So ri^. I. tirull ■• i 



142 



COLCHICACE^ 



THE COLCHICUM TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants, having bulbous, tuberous, or fibrous roots ; some are stemless, 
some have branching or simple stems. The flowers are usually purple, white, or 
green. The calyx and corolla are similar, free, petal-like, in six divisions, or by 
partial adhesion tubular. The stamens are six, the anthers turned outwards. The 
ovary is three-celled, the style three-parted, the stigmas undivided ; the capsule 
generally separable into three parts. The seeds are numerous, with a membranous 
covering, and contain dense albumen. 

This Tribe has close affinity with Liliaceas, but is known by the anthers 
turning outwards, and the three-parted capsule. 

Highly poisonous properties exist in these plants. 

Colchicum is said by Dioscorides to have derived its name from Colchis, where 
it grew abundantly. It is one of those plants which produce flowers before leaves, 
a process only to be effected by perennial trees, or bulbous or tuberous -rooted 
plants, and most frequently by the latter. The new plant springs from the side of 
the root, the upper portion of the spathe or sheath rises out of the ground, and from 
it emerge three or more flowers in the month of September. After the slender-tubed 
flowers droop and wither, the seed-vessels lie dormant underground until the 
following spring, when they grow upwards and the seeds are enabled to ripen, 
which cannot be accomplished in the earth. A few simple leaves come forth at the 
same period, and then a pause occurs till the autumnal flowering. As a medicine, 
Colchicum was known in the time of Hippocrates, and it is still used as a valuable 
remedy in rheumatism and other illness. C. autuinnale (1) is frequent in the moist 
meadows of various parts of England. C. variegatnm is the species common in 
Greece, and in our gardens. Melanthitim is a genus belonging to the Cape of 
Good Hope; M. junceum (2) has rush -like leaves proceeding from the bulbous 
root ; on the claw of the petal are two glands, full of honey ; this was one of the 



1. Colchicum autumnale, Meadow Snffrrm. 


3. 


Kreysigia Cunninghami, Cunningham's 


England. 
1a Ovary and Pistil. 
1b Section of Ovary. 

2. ]\Ielanthium junceum. Rush-leaved MeJan- 




Kreysigia. New Hollartd. 
3a Stamen and Pistil. 
3b Ovary and Pistil. 


thiiim. Cape of Good Hope. 


■4. 


Vcratrum nigrum, Dnrk-Jlowercd J'eratrum. 


'2a Stamen and Petal. 2b Seed-vessel. 




Siberia. 


2c Seed-vessel ofM. unijlnrvm. 




-iA Stantens and Ovaries. 



COLCHIOACEiE. 

first species broiicflit to Ensland. ]M. cucomoiihs is a dwarf species : the flowers 
are seated in the miilst of wide leaves ; each petal is folded at the base \\\U) a tube, 
from which the large anther protrudes. \'eratruin, said to be named from the 
black root, contains an alkaline principle called Veratriue, similar to that which 
exists in Colchicum. V. nir/nim (4) grows to the height of four or five feet, 
bearing a branching panicle of flowers, the large leaves clustering around the base 
of the stem, fdrming a handsome object in the garden. It has less powerful 
qualities than V. nlitm, which is used medicinally, although, in large quantities, 
poisonous. The virulence of the poisonous juice of these plants appears to differ 
in various seasons, for it is said that in the poor districts of Europe the peasants 
eat the roots of Colchicum, when boiled, in autumn. A few years ago, a poor 
woman in Covent Garden market mistook some Colchicum roots for onions, and 
eating them, Avas poisoned. Kreysigia Cunninghamia (3), named _ after two 
enter] irising travellers in Australia, is one of the numerous beautiful plants added 
to our stores from that country ; the honey-glands are like those of Parnassia. 
Bulbocodium, so called from the rough, woolly covering of the bulb, produces its 
purple flowers, much resembling Colchicum, in the spring season, in Spain. 
Uvularia is a genus of North America and China, astringent in its properties. 
The bruised leaves of U. grandijiora are a remedy in the United States for the 
bite of the rattlesnake. The root of Helonias dioica is used medicinally in North 
America. Yl. frigida of iMexico is poisonous to horses who feed on it. Asagroea 
officinalis yields the Sabadilla seeds, which in some countries are known as a 
medicine. The most remarkable and beautiful flower of this tribe is Gloriosa 
superha of the East Indies. The six petals are of a bright orange hue, curled at 
their edges, and bend backwards, whilst the stamens and pistil hang downwards. 
The leaves are wide, and terminate in a long point, rolled inwards at the end like a 
tendril. G. sivxplex, a species of Senegal, has a blue flower, and the leaves are 
merely sharp-pointed. 

This Tribe is common at the Cape of Good Hope, in Asia, North America, and 
Europe ; it exists in the Tropics of India and Australia, but is most abundant in 
northern countries. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSnv OF |LL!?'!Q[S 




EldA 



The Spider-wort/ Inbc. 



Day ,i ScTV Lvrated/ 



U:i 



COlMMELINACEyE 



THE SPIDER- WORT TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants, the leaves of which are flat aud usually sheathing at the base; 
the flower is composed of three sepals and three petals, which sometimes cohere at 
their base. The stamens are six or fewer, attached to the base of the ovary, some 
with irregular or imperfect anthers, the filaments beset with fine-jointed hairs. 
The anthers are two-celled, turning inwards. The ovary is three-celled, the style 
single, the stigma simple. The capsule is two or three-celled, containing two or 
more seeds in each cell, fixed by their side on the inner angle. The embryo lies in 
a cavity of the fleshy albumen, covered with a lid. 

These plants are a link between the Lily tribe and Sedges and Rushes. 

The roots contain a large proportion of starch. 

Commelina was so named by the French botanist Plumier, in honour of two 
Dutch merchants and botanists, who promoted the study and culture of plnnts. 
The first species was brought from Carolina in 1732, others have been introduced 
since from different parts of America, as well as from Asia. It has been chosen as 
the type of this Order, which is interesting from being a marked transition in the 
scale of development in plants ; uniting many characters of the sedges with the 
more perfect petals and structure of Alismaceas, and also of the Lily tribe. The 
petals roll up and become flaccid and moist in withering, like those of the Iris. 
Three of the stamens are usually irregular, furnished with crossing glands of 
pecuhar form. Commelina ccelestis (1) is one of the most beautiful species, the 
ephemeral petals are of a pure blue, and the whole plant is remarkable for neatness 
and elegance of form. The fleshy roots contain a large proportion of starch and 
mucilage, which renders them fit for food. Those of C. tuberosa, C. angustifolia, 



1. Commelina ccelestis. Sky-blue Commelina. 

America 
1a Stamen. J=a Slameru 

5a. Stamen oJ"£. vin/inica. 



i. Cyanotis axillaris, Axll-Jlowered Cyanotis. 

East Indies. 



2. Tradescantia zebrina, Zebra-leaved Spider- 
wort. Mexico. 
2a Stamen. 

•T. Dichorisandra tkyrsijlora, Tkyrsoid-Jlowered 
Dichorisandra. 

Brazil. 



5b Pi: til. 5c Calyx and Ovary, 
5d Section of Capsule. 
5e Hair, maynijied. 
6a. CV/Jsu/e "/Aneilema. 

Ob Seed. Oc Section. 

Hd Embryo and Cover. 



CU-M.MKLINACE-i:. 

and C striufa are likewise cooked and eaten in the countries wliore they are native. 
The Chinese use C. mcdica medicinally : C. Ruiniihil is employed as a medicinei n 
the East Indies. Tradescantia records the name of two of the earliest travellers 
and patrous of botany, John Tradescant and his son ; the former was gardener to 
Charles I., and after his travels he made the first museum of natural history in this 
country, which is still retained and preserved as the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford. 
Tradescantia virginica, which Tradescant brought to England, 1G29, is still a 
favourite plant in the border, and perfectly hardy. The jointed hairs of the 
stamens (o) are a beautiful object for the microscope. T. zebriua (2) is a lowly 
plant, creeping over banks, spreading far by means of its rooting jointed stem : the 
petals, though small, have the peculiar glistening appearance of some Lilies in the 
sunshine. Dichorisandra is derived from the Greek word expressing the separation 
of two anthers from the rest. D. thjrsiflora (3) has a noble aspect when in flower, 
the large yellow anthers showing well in the deep blue corolla. D. discolor is 
smaller, and of less brilliant ai)pearance. Cyanotis axillaris (4) is a very 
delicate plant, and exhibits the character of hairy stamens in a high degree ; they 
bear on their filament white glands below the anthers, the pollen of which, and of 
other species of the tribe, is blue. A decoction of the plant is taken medicinally in 
the East Indies. Aneilema is a nearly similar genus, but has no involucre to the 
cluster of flowers ; its capsule (6) contains seeds with a lid over the embryo. The 
species are scattered in China, Sierra Leone, and Australia. Cartonema spicatum 
belongs to the East Indies ; ]Murdannia scajjijlora is amongst the medicinal plants 
of the Hindoos ; the leaves of Flagellaria indica are also said to have astringent 
properties. 

This Tribe is found chiefly in the East and West Indies, Africa, and Australia. 
A few species exist in North America, but none have yet been discovered in Northern 
Asia or in Europe. 



LIBKARY 

Of THE 

liKiVEKSITV OF Wimi$ 




-^* 2h Ic Ji 1 



3a, 3h 3c 31 Jc ■*"■ 



i;TdeL 



Th^ l^iishlnbe.- 



Day &> Son/. L vratcd/ 



iU 



JUNCACEtE 



THE RUSH TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants with fibrous or clustered roots. The leaves are hollow or flat, 
and channelled with parallel veins. The flowers are more or less collected in 
heads ; they are seldom brightly coloured, usually dull brown or green. The 
calyx and corolla are nearly similar, glumaceous or cartilaginous, six-parted, below 
the ovary. The stamens are six, inserted into the base of the segments ; if only 
three, they are placed opposite the calyx. The anthei's are two-celled, turned 
inwards, opening lengthwise or by pores at the point. The ovary is one or three - 
celled, the style is single, the stigmas three, sometimes only one. The fruit is a 
capsule, with three valves or none, one or many-seeded. The seeds have a thin 
skin, a very small embryo, and contain firm, fleshy, or cartilaginous albumen. 

This Tribe is closely connected with CyperaceiB, it has also affinity with the 
Lily Tribe through Narthecium. 

Very slight properties exist in these plants. 

Juncus is a genus of very ancient utility to man, in the primaival times afford- 
ing the simplest materials for covering floors, making ropes, and other homely 
articles. The pith of the slender stems burns readily, and in many remote parts 
rushes still furnish the only candles of the peasant's dwelling. Until the time of 
Edward IV. they were strewn on the floors of churches and all large buildings ; in 
Westmoreland an old custom is retained of adorning the church with various 
emblems formed of rushes on an annual festival. J. conglomeratus (1) is the 
common species growing everywhere in watery places. J. acufus and J.maritinius 
assist in preventing the encroachments of the sea on the coasts of Britain and of 
North America, and the embankments of Holland ; these, and all the large kinds 
which have simple channelled stems without leaves, are made into mats and 
various things in country places. J. triglumis (2) is amongst the species which 
have leaves ; it is found chiefly on the summits of Scotch and Welsh mountains. 



1. Jnncn-i coii(/l(iinernliis, Common Rush. 

Wet places, Britain. 
lA Flower. 1b Pistil. 

Ic Capsule. Id Section. 

1e Long Section, maijnijicd. 

'i. .ImiciiH tri(/liimis, Tliree-Jlowered Rnsh. 

Streams, Scotland. 



.■]. Liifiola sylvaticd. Great Wood-rush. 

England. 
:3a Floner. :3b Capsule. 

:3c Section of Capsule. 
■]d Capsule. ;3e Seed. 

4. Narthecium ossifrayum. Bog Asphodel. 

Moors, Hritaiii. 
4a Stamen. 



jrNCAOK.i.. 

and similar s-ituatious on the Continent. J. Ixillints is one of the rare plants of tlK' 
Hebrides ; J. hnfouius, of our marshes, grows likewise on the banks of the Ganges. 
The genus has a wide range, J. arcficus belonging to the most northern regions, 
.T. au/urcficus existing in I^ord Auckland's Isle in the extreme southern latitude. 
On the high mountains of hot regions some species find a locality as favourable as 
the low marshes of temperate or cold climates ; the European J. f/faucvs is also a 
native of the Himalayas. Luciola was derived from the Italians, to whose vivid 
imagination the dewy heads of flowers seen sparkling in the moonlight gave an 
idea of their hicciole or glow-worms. It is distinguished from Juncus by its flat 
hairy leaves, and the capsule containing only three seeds. L. si/lvatica {?>) is very 
freipient in woods and on open ground, in iVIay and June ; though of so simple a 
character, it is extremely graceful in growth. L. campesfris is a much smaller 
sp:'cies, coming forth in grassy pastures in early spring. Several kinds abound in 
Switzerland. Xarthecium has a more highlv -developed flower than other genera 
of this tribe, and forms a link with some of the lowliest examples of the lily tribe. 
N. ossi'fiagnm (4) is the brightest ornament of the wild moors in the Scotch 
Hi<2:hlands, growing on the dark peat earth amidst small species of carex, grasses, 
and mosses. The stiff sword-sha])ed leaves, and the spike of delicate flowers, are 
sure to attract the notice of a traveller of botanical inclination. The corolla re- 
mains, and becomes thickened as the capsule enlarges. The seeds are numerous, 
enveloped in a long membranous skin. Calectasia is one of those plants of which 
the anthers open by pores at the end ; the flowers are dry, of a star shape, and 
brilliant violet colour. In Australia grows also Xerotes, in the structure of the 
fl iwers showing affinity to Palms. On the sand-hills near the coast of Tasmania, 
Astelia aljtiiia affords a link with sedges, the inner part of the base of the wide 
leaves yields some wholesome food. At the Cape of Good Hope Vv\on\\m jialmita 
rises with a thick black spongy stem, surmounted with a crown of leaves. One 
species of Juncus is cultivated in Japan, entirely for making mats for floors. 

This Tribe inhabits chiefly the colder countries of the world, extends as far 
North as Melville Isle, where it forms about -^-^ of the flowering plants ; in the 
Temperate regions about -^-^ ; in the Tropics ^J^jj. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UN'!VEWi>ii> Of- ILLINOIS 




il-^®Ql 



Thcy Fabro Tribe . 



Day £> Snn,, Lj/nUcd 



145 



P A L M A C E iE 

THE PALM TRIBE. 



Trees wath a simple stem, occasionally branching shrubs, rough with the bases of 
the leaf-stalks or their scars. Calamus has a long slender stem, sometimes armed 
with spines. The leaves are in clusters, terminal, usually very large, pinnate, 
plaited, fan-shaped, with parallel simple veins ; sometimes wedge-shaped. The 
flowers are on a terminal scaly spadix, enclosed in a single or many-valved spathe, 
which is often woody. The flowers are small, having scaly bracts ; the stamens 
and pistil are usually separate. The sepals are three, fleshy or leathery, persistent ; 
the petals are three, the stamens inserted into the base of the corolla, usually six, 
seldom three. The ovary is free, usually composed of three carpels completely or 
partially united; the styles three. The fruit is a drupe, nut, or berry, often having 
a fibrous rind. The seed fills the cavity in which it grows, and contains cartila- 
ginous albumen, in which is the embryo, its place indicated by a small swelling on 
the back of the seed (2a). 

This Tribe has slight affinity with Pandanacese. , 

Oil, wax, farina, sugar, and salt exist in these trees. 

Palms have received the highest admiration in all ages : inspired writers have 
taken a Palm as an emblem of prosj)erity, and a symbol of victory. Botanists 
have bestowed on them the noblest titles, and they are unrivalled in the vegetable 
world, in simple grandeur of form, and for their varied and extensive utility to 
man, especially in the countries where they flourish. The first mention of them in 
Scripture, is when Moses, having led the Israelites throiigh the Red Sea, they en- 
camped under the shade of seventy Palm-trees. From the earliest times Palms 
have, without cultivation, furnished everything necessary to the existence of the 
natives : excellent materials for dwellings, cordage of all kinds, clothing, food, and 
many other valuable substances. The strong fibres which bind the base of the 
leaf-stalk to the stem are available in various ways ; few European ships leave the 
Brazilian coast without a store of Palm fibres. Some, which are tough, bristle-like, 
are made into strong brooms, now almost superseding those made of Birch twigs. 



1. Chamieroits humilis, Dnarf I'alm. j 4. Sagus Eumphii, Sago Palm. E.Indies. 

South Europe. ' 4a Flower, opened. 

l.v Stamen Flower. 1b Stamens. j 5. Cocus nucij'era. Cocoa-nut Palm. I. Isles. 

Ic Fertile Flouer. I'D Ovaries. | 0. I'll) tek-phas w«c;oa/rp«. Jvor,j.n„t Pulm. 

1e Fruit. If Section. Peru. 

2. Vhrtnix dactyli/era, Date Palm. Levant. ! 7. Fruit of VAais. 

2a Seed. 2b Sprouting. \ 7a Setd. I'B Fruit without the bulb. 

3. Ca.\i\.mn-^ palu.'<tri:<. B/iltini I'li/m. E. Iniliis. 'Sx Section of Palm fruit. 



PALMACEyK. 

The fibrous exterior of the Cocoa-nut Palm is woven into tlio elastic Coir rope, one 
of the best uiiiterials for cordage and mats. Chamairops (1) is the only Palm 
advancing into Europe, growing on the south coast, in N. lat. 44'^. In Morocco 
it covers the hills like brushwood ; in England it requires the shelter of a conser- 
vatory, where it bears countless flowers, but not fruit. C. Palmetto extends to the 
most northern limit of the race in N. America, to oG° N. lat. Phccnix dachjliftra 
(2) is a wonderful example of fertility, affording the chief sui)i)ly of food to the 
people of Northern Africa and Arabia. A single spathe contains 12,000 stamen 
flowers, and the cluster of fertile flowers produces a prodigious quantity of fruit. 
The sap of the stem is obtained by cutting off the crown, as in other Palms, and is 
highly esteemed as a beverage. The spathe of Alfonsia has been reckoned to con- 
tain 200,000 flowers ; and each cluster of a Palm of the Orinoco bears 8000 fruit. 
Calamus, the IJattan, is of pecuhar growth, partly resembling the Bamboo; tlie 
leaves secreting silex also connects this Tribe with Grasses. Instead of a columnar 
stem, it has a long, round, jointed stem, in some instances 500 feet in length, 
stretching like cables over trees, rendering the jungles almost impenetrable. The 
leaves are pinnated, of most graceful form, the leaf-stalk often prolonged to one or 
two feet, as in C. imlmtris, (3). This genus ascends to GOOO feet on the outer 
range of the Himalaya. Plectocomia likewise climbs over tall trees. A large 
supply of Sago is obtained from the pith of Sagus Rmnphii (4), the fruit of which 
is sometimes brought to this country, although useless. S. kcvls and S. genuuia 
grow in dense forests in the Moluccas, yielding an abundant pith for Sago. One 
of the most valuable and beautiful of Palms is Cocos nucifera (5), fringing the 
coasts of the isles of the Chinese Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific. In Ceylon, 
groves of C(jcoa-nut Palms border the shore for thirty miles ; they live a century, 
bearing each month as many as fourteen nuts, and yielding as much oil as au 
Olive-tree. The fibres make excellent cordage, and serve countless useful purposes 
to the natives and Europeans. The fruit of Phytelephas (6) is of a fine white 
texture, and is worked like ivory. Since the formation of railroads, the necessary 
use of grease for wheels has been extreme ; but the stores of vegetation are un- 
limited, and the power of commerce, in transporting abundance wherever needed, 
is unbounded. On the coast of Guinea are groves of Elais Guinecnsis (7), yielding 
plentifully an oily substance of a bright yellow colour, admirably adapted for 
carriage-wheels, and also for soap and candle manufacture. Besides this value, a 
still higher interest belongs to it, as the British ships frequenting the coast to bring 
it away have been a means of greatly diminishing the traffic in slaves, who were 
collected and kept in huts on the shore. Corypha, the noble Fan Palm, belongs 
to the East Indian Islands; the gigantic leaves are six feet long and fifteen wide, 
divided into lUO segments at the edges, of much value in thatching, and for 
umbrella-like hats. The stems of some are marked with a black spiral line, 
indicating the position of former leaves. The fruit of Areca Catechu is the Betel, 
indispensable to nearly all Asiatics. Hyphaine Thehaica, the celebrated Doom 
Palm of Egypt, has a branching, forked stem. Ceroxylon andicola is found on 
the Andes, at 'JOOO feet, in the region of Quito ; a resinous wax exuding from its 
stem of lyO feet, is used for candles by the miners. Mauritia, Iriartea, and other 
Palms, abound on the lower elevations of the Andes. In a former jteriod of the 
world. Palms appear to have existed abundantly at the mouth of the Thames. 

This extensive Tribe is dispersed most abundantly in the Tropics of Asia and 
America, on the liumid banks of rivers, on the shores of the ocean, on lofty moun- 
tains, and on plains. The limits of its range are at 30° N. lat. in N. America 
and at 38° S. lat. in New Zealand. 



LIbKARY 

Of THE 

U{\:!V£Kii!Tv Of- ILL!?:0{^ 



I-lf 




ETM. 



'■"n,' Screw- pi fi&TrUr 



l>tzy Jf- ■'•,->! I.jnUed/ 



TANDANACEii:. 

of the species. Tlie young leaf-buds are by some Asiatics eaten and esteemed, like 
those of Palms ; and the fruit, although not of a pleasant flavour, forms part of 
tlieir food in times of scarcity ; the seeds are also considered eatable. The flowers 
of P. odorddssimtts are highly fragrant, yielding one of the richest of Eastern per- 
fumes : for the sake of this scent the trees are much cultivated in Java. The 
women of the islands of the South Pacific Ocean strew the pollen of the anthers over 
their hair. P. candelabrum, the chandelier-tree of Guinea and St. Thomas's, has 
forked branches, with sj)iral traces of former leaves, presenting a very remarkable 
appiarance. P. vti/is, of the Isle of Bourbon, is of less size ; the smallest sjiecies is 
the dwarf Screw-pine of the Mauritius, P. humilis. The sharp si)ines of the edges 
of the leaves, and along the under side of the mid-rib, render it suitable to protect 
fields, for which purpose it is very frequently planted in India. Although Screw- 
pines flourish most on the shores or flat districts of islands, they will thrive likewise 
on mountains ; some have been found at 40(10 feet elevation on the Himalaya. 
Freycinetia Baiiei-ii is the Grass-tree of Norfolk Isle, one of the most striking ex- 
amples of its luxuriant vegetation ; scrambling prostrate on the ground, or climbing 
round the trunks of trees. The branches are crowned with the drooping crests of 
long, slender, graceful leaves, from the centre of which come forth clusters of flowers, 
producing fruit four inches long, filled with a red pulp within the drupes which 
form the exterior. The fruit of T. vmhricata (2) is nearly similar. Some species 
of Freycinetia are of considerable size ; all belong to the isles of the Indian Archi- 
pelago. The leaves of Cyclanthus, Carludovica, and Nipa, are fan-shaped or 
pinnate, and the flowers have a calyx. The juice of Nipa is obtained by bruising 
the. spadix of the flow'ers, and when fermented is considered a pleasant kind of Palm- 
wine in Java. The seeds of Freycinetia and Pandanus contain crystals, conspicuous 
without the aid of a microscope. A fossilized fruit of Pandanus has been found in 
the Oolite of Cliarinouth in Devonshire. 

This Tribe inhabits the islands of the Indian Ocean, and most of the Tropical 
isles of the Eastern hemisphere. Cyclanthus belongs exclusively to South America. 



LIBRARY 
OF THE 



147 




a 



I Td 



The'BTAlnLslvTrvbe/ 



2cb 2h 



2i 



Do^ &, SoTb.Lanuted 



Ii7 



TYPHACEtE, 

THE BULRUSH TRIBE. 



Herbaceous plants growing in marshes or ditches. The stems are without joints. 
The leaves are rigid, sword-shaped, with parallel veins. The flowers are closely 
set on a spadix without a spathe. The stamens and pistils are in separate flowers ; 
the corolla consists of three scales, or moi'e, or a bundle of hairs. The stamens 
are three or six; the anthers wedge-shaped, attached by their base to long 
filaments, united together in some instances. The ovary is simple, above the 
scales, one-celled ; the style is short, the stigmas simple and linear. The fruit is 
dry, not opening when ripe, one-celled, one-seeded, angular by pressure. The seed 
contains mealy albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Cyperacese and wath Aracete, but is distinguished 
by the triple parts of the corolla, and the wedge-shaped anthers. 

Very slight properties exist in these plants. 

Typha, which gives its name to this Tribe, was named from the Greek for 
marsh, where the species generally grow. T. latifolia (1) is one of the finest of 
our aquatic plants, of very picturesque appearance when the dark-brown spike of 
inflorescence rises amongst the tall leaves. Its old name of mace-reed seems to 
indicate that it was supposed to be like that token of power and dignity, and for 
that reason, probably, it was very frequently adopted by the ancient Italian 
painters as a sceptre in the hand of Christ, when the soldiers in mockery saluted him 
as king. It grows in watery places in all Temperate countries, so was doubtless 
at all times a well-known popular plant. The pollen of the anthers is of a very 
inflammable nature, readily burning with a bright light. In poor countries, the 
downy seeds are sometimes used to stuff pillows, the stalks and leaves are made 
into mats, and are also useful for thatching. The young roots, which contain 
starch, are said to be eaten by peasants in Germany ; in some countries of Asia, 
the natives consider them to have medicinal properties. In general value, 
however, these plants are not of any important use to man, nor is their foliage 
good fodder for cattle. T. latifolia covers lagoons in Jamaica, often mingled with 
another English aquatic Potamogeton natans. Two smaller species are rarely 
found in England ; and a third, T. minima, with slender, bristle-like leaves, grows 



1. Typha ;((^yb/j«. Great Bulrush, or Cat's-tail. 


2. Sparganium simplex 


Upright Bur-reed. 


Marshes and streams, Englaud. 


2a Pistil Floret. 


Streams, England. 


U Pistil Floral. 


2b Slnmeii Floret. 2c 


Pistil Floret mi(i/iii/ied. 


1 B Magnified. 


2u Stfunrn iixuiii'ijied. 





TYl'HACEiE. 

in the wet sands of Alsace. The British T. avrjnsti'folia is also a native of the 
southern, as well as the northern parts of India, in Siberia, in the Caucasus, and in 
Australia ; affording an example of the capacity aquatic plants possess of adapting 
themselves to various countries and climates. One species of Typha nearly 
rescmhling it is very frequent in pools in St, Domingo. T. clephantina is common 
in India, and much employed by the natives in making mats and other useful 
articles. 8parganium is a name said to be derived from the Greek for band, 
alluding to the ribbon-like leaves; it is very common in streams and ditches 
throughout Europe, usually intermixed with Sagittaria and Lythrum. It is 
dispersed, likewise, throughout North America, has been found in Australia, and 
one species ( S. cariuatum ) was discovered by Dr. Falconer in Cashmere. S. 
simplex (2) is frequently found in watery places on a gravel soil ; the erect stem is 
entirely simple, except that the lowest head of flowers is placed on a short stalk. 
8. ramosuin. a larger species, has strong creeping roots, which soon fill up a pond 
if not cleared away. S. nutans formerly floated abundantly in the fens of 
Cambridgeshire and Lincolnshire, but is now chiefly to be seen in Scotch lakes. 

This small Tribe inhabits the marshes, streams, and ditches in the northern 
countries of the world ; it is rare in the Tropics, two species only are loiown in 
Equinoctial America, one in the West Indies, one in Australia. 



LibKAKY 

Of !Hfc 



U8 




5h ^C' 4.0. 



ETM 






Day & Saw. Lmuted 



1+S 



A R A C E ^. 

THE ARUM TRIBE. 



Shrubs and herbaceous plants without a stem, some of which have a fleshy root, 
others are climbing, and have aerial roots, and some are aquatic, floating on water. 
The leaves are sheathing at the base. The flowers are placed on a spadix and en- 
closed in a spathe, or are simple and in a spathe, sometimes proceeding from the 
margin of the frond. The calyx and corolla are wanting, or consist merely of a few 
scales. The stamens and pistil are usually in different flowers, united in Calla, of 
definite or indefinite niimber, the filaments often united. The ovary is free, usually 
one-celled, with a short style and simple stigma. The fruit is a succulent berry 
with pulpy seeds which usually contain albumen. 

This Tribe has affinity with Typhaceaj ; Lemna connects it with less developed 
Orders of plants. 

Acrid juices exist in these plants, but the roots contain wholesome starch. 

Arum is supposed to be derived from the ancient Egyptian name ; it is a re- 
markable genus, taken as the type of this Order, widely dispersed in the hot regions 
of the world, and extending in the form of one species to Britain. In some coun- 
tries it finds a suitable temperature on mountains, requiring only a short season for 
its development. On the Himalaya several species abound of immense size, with 
green or purple spathes, ending in the slender tail eighteen inches long. Arum 
maculatum (1) is common on hedgebanks throughout England, where it is amongst 
the first to unfold its glossy leaves in spring. The roots or corns contain a slightly 
acrid juice, which is immediately dissipated by drying or preparing by fire, and the 
remaining starch is wholesome as food. In the Isle of Portland, where the plants 
are abundant, and food sometimes scarce, tlie inhabitants collect the roots and pre- 
pare a powder from thcnii, known and sold as Portland Sago. A. tortuosum (7) is 



J . Arum iivuuhtlum, Cuckoo-jnnt. 


i. 


hemsi i/ibbu, Common Buck-weed. 


Hedges, England. 




Fresh water, Britain. 


1a Spadix. 
1b Fruit open. 


b. 


■4a Flower maynijied. -in Stamen. 
Pistia slratiules. Tropics. 
5a Flower. 


Ic Setd. 




5b Section of Ovary. 5c Seed. 


'i. Fhichaidia. iclhiopica. While Arum. 


0. 


Acorus calnmu.-.. Tlianies, England. 


Cape of Good Hope. 


7. 


Spadic of A. tortuosum. India. 


;{. Aniorpliallus bulbi/i-r, Biilb-bearin<f Amar- 


Ha 


Flower of Calla paluslris 


phiiUiis. East Indies. 


SB Stclioii (>/ Fruit. 



ARACE^. 

one of the Indian species, growing in clamp places: the leaves are four feet wide, 
composed of nineteen leaflets ; the spadix is u}>wards of a foot in length, wavy, and 
extending beyond the spathe : the roots are eatable. A. Bracunmihis, the Dragon 
Arum, has spotted leaves, and strong-scented spathe ; like others, it possesses 
medicinal projiorties, and was probably used formerly, as A. mani/atnm is said to 
have been in the time of Theophrastus. Kichardia (2) is the fairest specimen of 
tliis Tribe, producing its ivory-like spathes in full beauty in our conservatories, and 
affording an interesting example of the more perfect development of the Tril)e in 
the Tropics. Comparing this graceful polished plant of Ethiopia with the dwarf 
hairy rough Calla pahtstris of the marshes of Northern Europe, the contrast is 
striking. Our British Arum forms' an intermediate link in the chain. Amor- 
jihallus (?>) is a genus of Bengal, where several species ai'e known to the natives as 
aff )rding eatable roots. Caladiuni differs from Arum in bearing stamens at the top 
of the spadix, glands in the middle, and germens at the base. C. odorum has 
berries the §ize of a cherry. Colocasia was cultivated for food by the ancient 
E ,'yptians. C. Mmalensis forms the chief support of the hill-people in some districts 
of the Himalaya. The roots of C. macrorhiza and C. esculentum afford the 
favourite yams of the South-sea islanders. Various species yield medicine, or juices 
used for blisters in their native countries. Scindaspus ojficinalis is one of the 
medicinal ])lauts of the Hindoos. Dracontium, Aristema, and Monstera, are among 
the useful medicines of Brazil. The most pow^erful plant of the Tribe is Dieffeu- 
bachia seguina of the West Indies and South America. It grow's to the height of 
five or six feet, and is called Dumb Cane, from its effect on the tongue of those who 
incautiously bite the leaves. Pythonium is found as far north as Nagkanda, on the 
Himalaya, at an elevation of nine thousand feet. Pothos, so called from its name in 
Ceylon, is a parasitic genus, growing and climbing on old trees by means of aerial 
roots, both in the East and West Indies. P. j^'^^'f^^f^i'^i has leaves three feet long, 
on a stalk of equal or greater length. P. pedatiis and P. quinquenervU exist on the 
Andes at eight thousand feet above the sea. Acorus (G) was known to the 
ancients, and is a native of Asia as well as of Europe. Lemna (4) is the most 
simple of all flowering plants, the stem and leaf being combined into a small frond ; 
the flowers have neither calyx nor petals, and are encased in a membranous bag 
lying in the frond. Pistia (o) is more complete, having the two flowers in a spathe ; 
it floats on fresh water like Lemna : the roots have little hooded vesicles at their 
points. On the Nile at Sennaar, in pools during the rainy season in India, and in 
water-tanks in Jamaica, this singular plant is to be seen. 

Tliis Tribe abounds in the Tropics, but is rare in Temperate regions, where 
the species are usually herbaceous ; in Tropical countries many are trees, others 
climbing parasites, with aerial roots. Lemna belongs to Europe and cool parts of 
Asia. 



LIBRARY 
OF THE 

I'MlVflfVlTy Of: jn|f|()|5 




la' 2h Ic 2 a, 



El Uei 



c^-tic^^i/y 



Day & Son. LufiUed/ 



The. Sed^eyTribe-' 



141) 



CYPEPtACE^ 

THE SEDGE TRIBE. 



Herbaceous, grass-like plants, the steins of which are hollow, and seldom have 
partitions at the joints ; frequently tubular, sometimes tuberous at the base. The 
leaves are narrow, and usually enclose the stem with a sheath which is never slit. 
The flowers consist of imbricated solitary bracts, without calyx or corolla. The 
stamens and pistil are often in separate flowers ; the stamens are from one to 
twelve ; the anthers fixed by their base, entire and two-celled. The ovary is one- 
seeded, often surrounded by bristly hairs at the base ; the style is single, bifid, or 
trifid ; the stigmas are undivided, occasionally bifid. The fruit is a hard nut, 
with a single seed, containing fleshy or mealy albumen. 

This Tribe has close affinity with grasses. 

A wholesome mucilage is contained in the tubers of some of these plants. 

Cyperus is a genus inhabiting marshy, watery places, of few useful properties, 
though in former times of scarcity the roots of C. longus, the largest English 
species, and those of C. esculentns in France, were boiled and eaten by peasants. 
The latter is still Imown as Souchet comestible, and the roots form one of the 
ingredients of orgeat. C. fuscus (1) is a rare species in this country, more fre- 
quent on the Continent. C. longus, the Galingale, is seldom seen here now, only 
occasionally in Wales ; the root is creeping, and has an aromatic flavour ; the stem 
is two or three feet high, bearing a spreading panicle of shining spikes. C. bulhosus, 
of Malabar, has small tubers, which the natives cook and eat. C. Iria is known 
as a medicine in India ; the roots of C. rotundtis are also employed by Hindoo 
doctors. Indian ladies use the powdered roots of C. pertenuis to perfume their hair. 
The properties of these plants are of slight value, yet they appear among the most 
ancient remedies mentioned by Hippocrates and Theophrastus. The numerous 
species of Carex, like those of Cyperus, are usually found growing in wet places and 



1. 


Cyperus fusciis, Brown Cyperus. England. 


5. 


Scirpus tuhei-osus. China. 




1a Outer Glumes. 1b Inner. 




5a Glume. 5b Flower. 




Ic Stamens and Pistil. 


0. 


Scirpus maritimus, Saltmarsh Cluhrush. 


2. 


Carex arenaria, Sand Sedtje. 




England. 




2a Glumes. Shores, Britain. 


7. 


Isolepis acicularis, Least Spilte-rvsh. 


■^. 


Carex striata, Straight Sedge. 




Bogs, England. 




Marslies, Britain. 


8a 


Carex rivularis. 


4, 


Eriophoruni pobjstachiou, Broad -leaved 


9a 


. Scirpus lacustris. 




Cotton-grass. Bogs, Britain. 




Flower with Bristles. 




4a Seed and Down. 




Ob Seed. 



CYPERACEiE. 

bogs ; a few inhabit shady moist woods, mingUni; their gracefully drooping spikes 
amongst the grasses and other plants. The larger species are more useful in other 
countries than here ; the Laplanders prepare some to stuflf garments for warmth, 
and in Italy they serve various purposes. The long penetrating roots of C. 
arenaria (2) bind the loose sand of the shores of the Sohvay Frith, and on the 
dykes of Holland this and other species are carefully cultivated for the salve of 
fixing the light soil, and giving strength to the embankments. C. stricta (3) is 
more upright than other nearly similar species ; C. riparia has the widest leaves, 
still used for chairs in Italy, as once here. Eriophorum is peculiar to moors and 
bogs in northern countries ; E,. polj/stackion (4) has a remarkable appearance when 
the white silky tufts are seen waving over the moors of the Sootch Highlands, or 
the bogs of North Wales ; in those barren and poor districts the down is some- 
times collected for stuffing pillows. The leaves of E. cannahinum, of the Himalayas, 
are made into ropes by the natives. Scirpus derived its name from the Celts, who 
doubtless availed themselves of its valuable qualities in their domestic life. 
S. lacustris, the bulrush, was thought good formerly for thatching cottages, 
stuffing pack-saddles, and forming the seats of chairs. S. coespitosus is still the 
chief food of cattle in the Highlands during the spring months. S. maritimus (6) 
is eaten readily by cattle in the marshes of Europe and Siberia. The Chinese 
esteem the tubers of S. tuherosus (5), and cultivate it in tanks in their gardens. 
Isolepis (7) is chiefly distinguished from Eleocharis by having no bristles under the 
ovary, and the style not being jointed at the base. It grows always in turfy bogs. 
The most celebrated plant of this tribe is Papyrus anfiquorum of Egypt; out of a 
long horizontal root rises the triangular stem, from the inner layer of which the 
ancient Egyptians made their paper. The spreading umbel of flowers adorned 
their temples, and the stalks and leaves ware formed into ropes and boats in the 
time of Pliny, as is still done in Abyssinia. IMariscus and Kyllingia both belong 
to the East Indies and Brazil ; Fuirena to Australia and South America. 

This Tribe inhabits marshes, ditches, streams, woods, dry sands, and lofty 
mountains in all parts of the world where vegetation exists. In Lapland it is as 
abundant as grasses, in the Tropics more rare. Scirpus belongs to Europe, South 
America, and Australia. 



LIBRARY 
Of !HE 




'■9iiH9 J 



f * f-,VQ3i/' 



% 



Ja i^ 2c 3c 



Ua, 



6a oh 7a, 7h Ic 3<^ 9h Qc 10a. 101 



ETMJ 



The^ Grass Trihe^. 



Bay &, Scny. LxnuL 



150 



GRAMINACEyE 



THE GRASS TRIBE. 



Herdaceous plants, the stems of wMcli are sometimes large, and endure for many- 
years. The root is a rhizome, either bulbous or fibrous. The stems are cylin- 
drical, usually hollow, and closed at the joints, containing a considerable portion of 
silex, sometimes solid. The leaves are narrow, undivided, alternate, with a split 
sheath and a membranous edge at the junction with the stem. The flowers are 
green, in small spikes, arranged on branching stalks, panicles, or spikes; the 
stamens and pistil are sometimes separate, the corolla is composed of imbricated 
bracts, the two outer glumes enclosing the inner glumes and the stamens ; at the 
base of the ovary are two smaller scales. The stamens are generally three, 
occasionally six. The ovary is simple, with two or three styles, the stigmas 
feathery or hairy. The seed contains farinaceous albumen. 

This Tribe has close affinity with Sedges, but is distinguished by the round 
and hollow stems, and the numerous bracts of the flower. 

An abundant wholesome starch is contained in the seeds of many of these 
plants, an aromatic secretion exists in the leaves of others, and silex in the stems. 

Since the Creating Word went forth, " Let the earth bring forth grass," this 
tribe has been the most important throughout the whole range of vegetation. Nearly 
all the species are small in size, but having spreading roots extend over vast tracts 
of land in all temperate regions, affording large supplies of food to man and cattle. 
In the Tropics the species j re of loftier growth, and for the most part stand singly. 
The tall, rapid growing Bamboo forms a kind of link with Calamus amongst 
Palms. Of all cultivated plants corn ranks highest, in the quality of the nutriment 
of its seeds, farinaceous matter and gluten being combined. It is not the most 
prolific, Wheat bearing generally 100-fold on one stalk; Rice 120-fold, and Maize 
as much as 800 -fold in hot damp chmates, though in the soil and temperature of 
California not more than 70-fold. The several species of Triticum (1) known as 
wheat, yield the best flour for bread, most esteemed in all ages, in all civihsed 
countries. T. compositvm is the ancient wheat of Egypt, and of excellent quality. 
The gluten is the chief ingredient causing the fermentation of bread, and has also 
the most nourishing property ; this is more fully developed in the south of Eurcipe 



1. Triticum testiviim, Wheal. The East. 
1a Cluster of Flowers. 1b Glumes. Ic Seid. 

2. Ilordeuin dlstichon, Barley. Tartaiy. 
;J. Zea Mays, Maize, or Indian Corn. 

.'Ja Seed. America. 

4. Saocharum officiiuimm, Suyar-Cnne. 

East Indies. 
0. Pimicum italicum, Italian Millet. Italy, 

(i. I'halnris mnariensi't. 

Oa iV( (/ iiith Glumes. (in Seed irith Seal, s. 



7. Phleum pmtense, CaCs-tail Grass. Englaiul. 

7a Floret. 7n Inner Glume. 

7c Ovary and Pistils. 

8. Brr/.n media, Quakiny Grass. South Europe. 



Oa. Seed of Rice. 
!3b Inner Side. 



flo Section maynifi d. 



10a. Floner o/'Agrostis alba. 

10b Floirer uithont Glumes. 

1 1a. Seed «/'Coix Iticriiiiia, 



r.RAMINACEJ^. 

than in the north, therefore the Macaroni and other preparations of wheat flour in 
Naples are superior to any manufactured in this country. Starch is obtained 
from wheat by steeping it in water and beating it in bags. The straw is of various 
uses; that gruwn on chalk soil is best for plaiting. The finest plait is made of 
straw pulled whilst green, and bleached during summer in the dry beds of rivers in 
Tuscany. Hordeum is a genus containing several species ; H. jrratense and 
H. wiH;vHHm of Britain of no value as food; H. disthhon (2) and others are the 
useful barley, a hardier plant than wheat, growing further north and ripening its 
grain under a less glowing sun. Avena. Oats, is hardy, and suited to a damp cold 
climate, it furnishes the oatmeal for the daily fnre of all northern people, and the 
best food for horses. Secale, Rye, thrives further north than any other corn ; in 
the north of Germany the black Rye-bread baked twenty -four hours is considered 
very nourishing ; a coarser kind feeds horses. Zea (o) tlie abundant source of 
nutriment to the populous tribes of Indians both in North and South America, is 
the most luxuriant crop in appearanee ; the wide leaves, the drooping panicle of 
stamen flowers on the summit of the stalk, the clusters of shining grain enveloped 
in the sheath below, render it an exceedingly beautiful plant. The general range 
of its culture is between 40^ N. and S. on level plains, but on the elevated table- 
lands of Mexico it flourishes at 8G80 feet, and on the Andes at 12,800 feet. It was 
introduced to tlie East Indies, China and Japan, but is not so general as rice. In 
N. America Indian corn is prepared in various ways for food. Z. curagua is the 
Valparaiso Cross-corn, the seed when roasted splitting into a cross. Saccharum 
(4), now the inost essential luxury of man, one of the first objects of culture and 
commerce, was rare and only used medicinally in the time of Pliny. Growing 
wild in the East and West Indies, China, Africa, S. America, and the Isles of the 
Pacific, it was first cultivated in the East ; now sugar plantations exist in all 
favourable localities within a zone reaching to about 40° on either side the Equator. 
It is remarkable that one of the greatest comforts of man should have been for two 
centuries the cause of the greatest misery ; Avhen it shall be cultivated only by free 
hands the enjoyment of it may be unalloyed. The jointed stem is as much as 12 
feet high, yielding a ])lentiful supply of sweet juice when cut and crushed. An 
immense portion of food is afforded by Oryza, Rice ; the chief requisite for its 
growth is irrigation, and tliat in a warm temperature; this can be readily found in 
most parts of India, the south of China, and Japan. The extensive rice-fields in 
Carolina sprung from a small quantity given by the Treasurer of the East India 
Company to a Carolina trader ; transplantation had a good effect, and Carolina 
Rice is reputed the best. Panicum italicum (5), a kind of millet, yields eatable 
seeds. The Indian ^Millet, Sorghum viiJgare, is grown in Arabia and tliroughout 
Southern Europe, much used in soups ; in the West Indies it is the daily food of 
Negroes. Phalaris (G) is cultivated in the Isle of Thanet, for singing-birds. 
Phleum (7) is one of the common grasses in pastures. Arundo, the largest British 
grass or reed, grows in deep ditches near the Thames. Many European grasses 
are found on loftv mountains in hot countries ; Dactylis at 14,000 feet on the 
Andes ; Poa and Festuca on the Himalaya. The most beautiful of all grasses are 
Gynerium arganteum and G. saccharoides, bearing silvery panicles above long 
leaves. The tall stems are used in St. Domingo and in Cumana, for arrows and 
other purposes. The glumes of Coix (11) harden and enclose the seed, which 
hangs on slender stalks, and is called Job's tear. 

This tribe exists almost everywhere, from the Equator to Spitzbergen, and to 
Lord Auckland's Isle. On mountains it ascends nearly to the limit of perpetual 
snow. 



LibKARY 

OF THE 

y!\;iVFHi:nY OF ILU^cOlS 



ZT/iai 




Daiy &> Som, Li/niudy 



The,' Water-weed/Trihe' 



151 



NAIADACE/E 



THE WATER-WEED TRIBE. 



Water-plants inliabiting both fresh and salt water. The leaves are very cellular, 
with parallel veins, and usually membranous stipules between the leaf-stalks, some- 
times sheathing at the base. The flowers are inconspicuous, often arranged in 
terminal spikes, or within herbaceous spathes : the stamens and pistil are sometimes 
separate ; the corolla is composed of sepals and petals nearly alike, or of scales often 
falling away ; the stamens are of definite number, attached to the base of the 
ovary, which is single or many, above the calyx ; the stigma simple. The fruit is 
dry, very rarely opening by regular valves, or drupaceous, one-celled, and one- 
seeded. The seed contains no albumen. 

This Tribe has only slight afBnity with Juucaceaj. 

Scarcely any useful properties exist in these plants. 

Naias, meaning a water-nymph, is selected as the head of a small tribe com- 
posed of various aquatic plants of scarcely any beauty of form or colour, and very 
few useful qualities to man. Naias marina (1) was found and described by Petro 
Michelio, a botanist of Florence, in 172'.*; it grows plentifully in the canal between 
Pisa and Leghorn, and is of a thin pellucid substance, like most of these aquatics. 
Zannichellia (2) was so named in memory of a Venetian of the last century. It 
abounds in marshes in some parts of England, and in many countries of Europe. 
The single stamen of the flower stands upon a separate stalk by the side of the four 
or five pistils ; the seeds are toothed along the outer edge, and contain each a 
single seed. Zannichellia and Naias are both translucent cellular plants, without 
either an outer skin or pores, for which reason they rapidly perish when taken out 
of the water. Caullinia is of a similar nature, and exhibits in its transparent stem 
the circulation of the sap between the joints. Triglochin is derived from the Greek, 
alluding to the three angles of the capsule. T. palustre (3) is common in marshes, 
and is readily distinguished from other plants Avhen in fruit, by the singular form 



1. Xiiias miir'uKi. Wnter-ueed. South Europe. 


4. 


Potamogeton per/oliation, Perfoliate Pond 


1a Ovary. Ib Section. 




weed. Ponds, England. 


2. Zannichellia /j.j/hs/;/s. Homed Pond-weed. 
Ponds, England. 
2a Flower. 2b Orary. 




■1a Flower, via<inijied. 
4b Petal and Stamen. 
4c Ovaries. 4d Seed. 


•"!. Triglochin imhialre, Marsh .Irrow-i/rasx. 

Marslies, England. 
;U Flower. 


5. 


Zostera marina, Sea Wrnckgrass. 

Shores, England. 
5a Section of Sheath. 5b Ovary. 


Sb Petal and Stinnrn. 




5c Seed. 5d Anther and Pollen. 


tic Svci'mn of Ovary. 


0. 


Ouviianda fenestralis. Madagascar. 



NATADACE^:. 

of the seed-vessel. In the IIija:hlands of Scotland it is abundant, and is said to 
afford agreeable food to cattle ; probably on account of a salt flavour which prevails 
in this as well as in the other British species, T. marithna. Tliis latter plant is 
limited to marshy places on the coast, chiefly to the south of our island ; the 
capsules have six angles, and do not acquire the arrow-head shape in ripening. 
T. hulbosnm represents the genus at the Cape of Good Hope. Potamogetum (-t), 
from the Greek for near a river, betokens the locality of nearly all the sjiecies. 
Some are of the pellncid nature frequent in aquatic plants, brittle when dry, in the 
air, entirely without hairs or dou7i on the surface. They afford shelter to various 
small creatures inhabiting water, and food to many. P. perfoUatum (4) is common 
in streams and ditches in most of our counties. P. natans, with wide oval leaves, 
of a tough leathery substance, is a favourite food of the swan : the root is eaten by 
poor peasants in Siberia. P. crlspum is eagerly devoured by ducks. In the • 
Swiss lakes, Potamogeton abounds, P. sen-alum and others forming dense masses 
in the limpid waters, Zostera (o) was named from the Greek for riband. It is 
remarkable that, in the early history of botany, plants were most frequently 
named from some characteristic in their general appearance ; in after times, more 
generally in memory of some naturalist ; in the present day they usually receive 
the name of the discoverer. Zostera approaches towards the true sea-weeds in 
form, and mingles with them on the shore when uprooted; but it is still in the 
class of flowering plants, and has a single stamen and two pistils placed alternately 
on a long membranous sheath, filled with air. The pollen of the anthers is in 
long fine threads. On the eastern shores, the Sea-wrack is useful in preventing 
the encroachments of the sea on the sand ; as thatch, it is said to be exceedingly 
durable, becoming bleached by exposure to the air. Horses will eat it, but 
cows refuse it. Italian flasks are usually wrapped in it, and in poor districts on 
the coast it is used for stuffing cushions and packing. Amphibohs zostera/olia 
is brought by the ocean waves to the shores of New Holland, and another species 
is seen in the ^Yest Indies. OuViranda. fcnestralis (6) is a singular exception to the 
general composition of a leaf, being destitute of pulpy matter, the netted veins 
forming the whole substance. It was discovered growing in the water in the 
Bay of Diego Soavez, in Madagascar, and sent thence to the Jardin des Plantes in 
Paris ; the roots are wholesome. 

This Tribe inhabits marshes and watery places from the North Sea to the 
Mediterranean. It is found also in the Indian Ocean, on the coasts of Arabia, at 
the Cape of Good Hope, in Tropical America, and in Australia. 



LIBRARY 
Of THE 




o 



lhe/Sorse/~ ta£lyTrih&( 



Haey &3on, XvnwUd' 



lo2 



EQUISETACE.E 

THE HORSE-TAIL TRIBE. 



Leafless branched lierbaceous plants, with a hollow, striped, jointed stem. 
containing silex ; the joints separable, and siirrounded by a membranous sheath. 
The stem is composed chiefly of cellular tissue, but is strengthened externally with 
a layer of hard woody tubes. Pores are numerous on the stem, and small spiral 
vessels are abundant. The fructification is very simple, without corolla, consists 
only of spores on the edge of a round disk. The spores are wrapped round by four 
spiral elastic filaments, called elaters, terminating in dilated flat appendages. 

These plants have affinity with Marchantiacese. 

The stems contain silex, and are slightly astringent. 

Equisetum, the sole representative of this small but remarkable Order, on the 
limits of flowerless plants, derived its name from the Greek for Horse-hair, but it 
is now generally called Horse-tail. The plants of this genus are very unlike all 
others in their whole construction, and in appearance ; yet they have some points 
of resemblance to other Tribes. Their stems, containing a large portion of silex, 
connect them with Grasses, and the arrangement of the spores or round scales forms 
a link with Marchantiacese. Although of small size, and apparently not adapted 
to be of use to man or animals, the abundant quantity of flinty particles contained 
in the outer part of the hollow stems renders them available for polishing wood and 
other materials. Thus, as in higher branches of creation, the humble and lowly 
contribute their allotted share of benefit to the more fully developed. Equisetum 
sylvaticum (1) is a rare British species, found chiefly by the side of rills in Wales. 
The slender branches are compound, and drooping gracefully from the joints of the 
stem, produce a very elegant effect. Above each joint is a finely notched sheath 
surrounding the stem, and small membranous sheaths enclose each branch. 
Various are the links perceptible between the different plants which botanists have 
endeavoured to divide into Tribes, according to their structure. The general 
aspect of this delicate Equisetum, bearing a solitary cone of scales above a crown 
of leaves, is like a miniature resemblance of a Cycas. E. hjemale (2) is generally 



1. Equisetum .si//ra/(e»ni, W< od Horse-tnil. 

England. 
1a Lis/,; u-itk Spores. 

iB -> 

, / Sjjores, wrapped ruuild hy elaUrs, 

C mm/iii/ied. 

Id J 

•2. Equisetum hi^enuilc, Diitrh Bush. England. 



:3. Eqmsetrim /tiiviatlle, Great Water Horse-tail. 

3a Sheath, niaijiiified. England. 

;Jb Stem, viayiiijied. 

Oc Section, maijuijied. 

Hu Pores of Stem, magnified. 
4. Equisetum varieijatuni, Varieijaled Hmse- 
fiiil. England. 



EQUISETACE.K. 

]vno>\ai as the Dutch Ixush, it grows plentifully on the dykes of Holland, and 
contains so much silex as to be of great use in polishing. To the Dutch it is 
invaluable for the constant cleaning required in their damp atmosphere. Sir 
Humphry Davy was the first chemist who detected the particles of flinty earth, 
arranged in lines, in the furrowed stem of this plant. Several other species are 
commun in Holland, and may be seen in the month of April sending up their 
hollow stems, bearing cones, out of the sand, together with the early catkins of the 
creeping ^Villow. E. Jiiiviatih (3) is the largest British species, the stem, with 
its whorls of fine branches, rising to the height of three or four feet in favourable 
watery situations ; the branches are rough, yviih silex on the outside ; above each 
ring is a notched sheath. The fertile stems are very short, destitute of branches, 
and appear in spring before the others. E. varicgatum (4) is the smallest English 
species, the slender stems are all without branches, clothed only with membranous 
sheaths at the joints. It is to be found chiefly in sandy ground in Scotland and 
Ireland ; the fibres of the root are woolly, as are those of many grasses which grow 
in similar sandy situations. It has been ascertained, by the use of the microscope, 
that the particles of silex are frequently arranged in groups, forming chains and 
curves like the jewels of a necklace ; others are placed in simple straight lines, some 
of the particles not exceeding the 500th of an inch in diameter, yet having a 
regular axis of double refraction. It appears that these crystalline ])ortions are 
essential parts of the plant, and assist in the functions of vegetable life. In the 
lower stem, starch is contained in considerable quantity, and in the autumn it may 
be observed in active motion, passing up one side and dowTi the other, in E. 
Jiuviatile and similar large sjiecies. The fossil Lepidodendron forms a remarkable 
link between flowering and flowerless plants. Calamites is a giant relic of this 
Tribe in a former vegetation ; smaller species of Equisetum succeeded it, nearly 
resembling the present plants. 

This Tribe, composed of one genus, comprising many species, is dispersed in 
most parts of the world, in the Tropics, and in Temperate countries ; chiefly in 
rivers, ditches, and watery places. 



LIbKAKY 

OF fHE 

UNIVEKiilTY Oh ILUflOl^ 




Th/i/ Chcb -moss Tnh&': 



C i/ la. 



Day &.Soni,Lui 



loy 



LYCOPODIACE^ 



THE LYCOPODIUM TRIBE. 



Small herbaceous plants, with creeping stems, and leaves laid over each other, or 
floating in shallow water with leaves on stalks ; sometinQes stemless plants, with 
erect awl-shaped leaves, occasionally rolled np in the bud state. The seeds or 
spores are contained in cases, one or three-celled, at the base of the leaves, either 
bursting by distinct valves or whole, and filled with minute powdery matter. The 
sporules are marked at the top with three small radiating ridges, irregularly rough. 
The powder is often highly inflammable. The fructification of Marsilea and others 
is of two kinds, — enclosed in involucres either clustered and stalked, or simple 
oval bodies which germinate, springing either from the root or from the leaf- 
stalks. 

The annular vessels in the stem of Lycopodium connect this Tribe with the 
Ferns. In general aspect, some species bear close resemblance to Mosses. 

A few of these plants possess medical properties ; others are useful in dyeing. 

Lycopodium, the type of this Order, is said to be derived from the Greek for 
wolf s-foot, because of the form of the roots. L. imindatum (1) is found only in 
marshy or boggy places, or on commons where the turf has been pared off", as in 
several parts of Esher Common, Surrey. It is one of the smallest examples of the 
gemis in England. It has a singular appearance, uplifting its spikes of fructifica- 
tion from the black peat earth. L. clavatum is the common club-moss ot the north 
of Britain, very abundant on Highland moors, trailing for a considerable distance 
over the ground, bearing twin spikes of fructification. The stems are extremely 



1. 


Lycopodium inundntiim, Marsh Cliih-moss. 


i. 


Isoetes set acca,Qnill-tvort. Lakes, Scotland. 




Wet commons, England. 




■4a Capsule. -iB Section. 4c Spore. 




1a Spore-case and leaf. 


5. 


Marsilea pob/carpa, Mang-sceded Marsilea. 


2. 


1b Spore-case, opening. 

Lycopodium acrostachi/iim, Parasitic Cluh- 
moss. Singapore. 
2a Spore-caxe and leaf. 
2b StnlA; magnified. 


(i. 


Ditches, Demerara. 
5a Section of capsule. 

IMarsilea quadrifolia. Four-leaved Marsilea. 

Europe. 
Ga Section of fruit. Ob Pollen ca-ie. 
(5c Spore-case. 


.3. 


rilularia glohulifera. Creeping Pill-wort. 




(JD Stalk-hearing Spores. 




"Wet commons, England. 


7. 


Pliylloglossum Drumnumdii, entire plant. 




.3a Bud. 3b Section »f capsule. 




natural size. 




3c Section, magnified. 




7a Spike of fructification, ninguificd. 



LYCOrODlACK.E. 

rouc:li, closely beset with small leaves, and are often tronLlesome to cattle Ity 
entangling their feet. The sulphur-coloured capsules contain copious minute 
seeds, which explode readily, and are much used in Germany for fireworks, or 
artificial lightning in theatres. From their extreme lightness they are useful in 
various delicate experiments. L. acrostacJu/nm (2) is found on trees, banks, and 
similar situations in the country around Singapore, where the long drooping 
branches descend in a graceful manner, branching in forks, terminating in slender 
spikes of fructification ; the scale-like leaves arranged in four rows. The fibrous 
roots are clothed with grey down. L. helveticum is abundant in Switzerland and 
Tyrol, and now generally employed in our conservatories as a verdant ornament 
throughout the year. L. plilcgmaria is East Indian, parasitic on trees, from 
whence it frequently hangs with tufted branches a foot in length. L. squamatum 
is remarkable for its hygrometrical properties : when uprooted and dry, rolling up 
into a ball ; if placed in water, expanding again into a spreading flat shape. 
]\lartiu8 found it in the provinces of Bahia and Pernambuco, in South America ; 
and it may be often seen in botanical museums, affording a striking proof of the 
extraordinary nature of vegetable tissue- thus for years preserving its capacity for 
imbibing moisture and parting from it. In New Zealand L. voluhlle climbs over 
bushes in the Bay of Islands, with its tough rigid stalk, and spikes on forked 
branches. L. arhuscula was found by Vancouver at Owhyhee. ]\Iany species 
belong to the East Indies : — L. nummular i/olivm has round leaves and drooping 
spikes ; L. diaphanum grows in all parts of Tristan d' Acunha ; L. serratum in 
Japan. L. crassum, resembling the British L. Selago, is a native of the Andes, 
near Antisana, so widely is this genus dispersed over the world. Pilularia (3) 
usually inhabits moist grassy parts of heaths, overflowed during winter ; the slender 
awl-shaped' leaves are curled up at first like those of ferns ; the spore-cases are 
placed at the base of the leaves. The capsules of Isoetes (4) are lodged in the 
enlarged base of the leaf, and contain angular spores on slender receptacles ; it is 
rarely found in Britain, except at the bottom of some of the Scotch lakes. Marsilea 
differs from other plants of this tribe, in having flat leaves ; but shows trace of im- 
perfect development in some of the stalks, bearing no leaf on their summit. The 
capsules of M. i^olijcarpa (o) are downy at first, but become smooth afterwards. 
Those of M. quadrifolia (G) are in pairs, and stalked. The leaves of M. vestita of 
Columbia are clothed with hairs. Phylloglossum (7) is one of the minutest of 
plants, combining the growth of Isoetes with the fructification of Lycopodium. 
Salvinia and Azolla, both natives of Australia, have rough globose capsules, 
containing inner spore-cases, filled with small yellow spores. Lycopodium is of 
use in dyeing wool in Scotland and other countries. 

This Tribe is most abundant in hot damp localities, particularly in small 
Tropical islands ; but some species are dispersed in all parts of the world, in ditches 
and inundated places. Lycopodium covers vast tracts in Lapland. 



UNIVEKliin OF ILLINOIS 



>■>. 




-^■^ Sh ■''' 6d. ^"~7oX^ 10 h 



'-.IdA' 



Ihe'Ter-rv Irihe^ 



lo4 



PILICACE^. 

THE FERN TRIBE. 



Trees -witli a tall stem, and of plants witli creeping stems, on or below the surfiice 
of the ground. The stem grows at the point only, and contains a loose cellular 
substance, coated by a fibrous rind, composed of the bases of former leaf-stalks. 
The wood is full of dotted ducts and tubes. The fronds or leaves are coiled up 
when young, simple or pinnate. The reproductive organs consist of small spores 
in cases, arising from the veins on the under surface of the leaves, or on their 
margin ; either on a stalk which encircles it like a ring, or destitute of stalk and 
ring (10a), springing from the surface of the leaf, or from beneath the outer mem- 
brane, which then forms a covering to the spore-cases ; sometimes on the margin of 
contracted leaves. The spores fill the cases irregularly, and are scattered, when 
ripe, by the bursting of the elastic ring. 

This Tribe has affinity with Cycadaceae. 

Astringent mucilaginous properties exist in the fronds. The pith of some tree- 
ferns makes Sago ; the roots or undergound stem of some are eatable. 

In this remarkable Tribe, all trace of a flower, with its varied and beautiful 
development of corolla, disappears ; leaves are reduced to the most simple structure, 
and minute seeds are produced on them, without passing through any previous 
process of change, as in flowering plants. Although the larger number of Ferns 
are herbaceous, and of small size, yet some are trees with upright stems thirty feet 
high, rivalling Palms in general aspect, but retaining all the peculiar characteristics 
of their Order. The stem is marked with large scars, the remains of leaf-stalks. 
In the centre of the crown the young fronds are seen coiled round, as the stalk 
elongates assuming the form of a crosier. Alsophila, Cyathea, and others, are tree- 
ferns of the isles of the Pacific, and of New Zealand. Roots frequently spring 
from the stem and enlarge its base. No leaf-buds are developed at the base of the 
leaf-stalks, consequently no ferns are branched ; the forked stem of some arborescent 
species is caused by the accidental growth of two leaf-buds at the summit. The 
stem is composed of a mass of tissue in the centre, surrounded by fibrous vessels of 
a dark colour, easily perceived, even in the stem of our common Brake. Alsophila 
gigantea is widely distributed on mountains in India, but not ascending above 



1. Ophioglossum viilijaltim,Adder's-tonguefern, 

Meadows, England. 
1a Spore-cases. 1b Spores, 

2. Asplenium marinum, Sea Spleen-u-ort. 

Coast rocks, England. 
2a Spore-cases. 2b Spore-case. 

3. Scolopendrium vulyare, HarCs-tongue fern. 

England. 

4. Adiantum rertt/oTTne. Kidney-leaved Mniden- 

hair. Madeira. 

5. Fadeynia proZi/cTa, Proliferous Fudenia. 

Java. 



6c. Aci'ostichum alcicorne, Elk'shorn Acrosti- 
chum. New Seuth Wales. 

Ga Spore-cases. Gb Spore-case with hairs. 
Cc Side view. 6d Spore-case, bursliny. 

7. Platyloma ternifolia, Triple-leaved Plaly- 

loma. California. 

8. Doryopteris sayiltifolia, Arrow-leaved Dory- 

opteris. Brazil. 

9. Anemia collina. Brazil. 

10a Section (f Spore-cases q/* Dansea e'ata. 
IOe Spores. 



Fli.ICACK.K. 

4(X)0 teet. A. asptra is a native of Jamaica, witli a stem of twenty-five feet. 
Ophioglossuni beloni^s to that division of Ferns in wliicli the spore-cases have no 
rint?, but are simjily two-valved on the margin of the contracted leaf. The stalk is 
hollow, with a few bundles of woody fibres in the circumference, indicating a 
similarity of structure to Equisetum. The leaves have netted veins, and are not 
coiled up when young. 0. vulgatum (1) is one of the earliest of our Ferns, 
appearing in meadows before the grass is much grown. 0. pendulum is parasitic 
on trees in the ^lauritius with a frond throe feet long, and a drooping spike of 
fructification nearly a foot in length. Botrychium luiiaria, an English Fern, is an 
example of a branching spike formed by the transformation of a frond. Several 
larger species belong to N. America ; B. cicutarlam to St. Domingo. Asplenium 
marinum (2) shows the linear masses of spores springing from beneath the outer 
membrane, which bursts along the edge by the elastic force of the spore-cases. This 
Fern grows on rocks and in caves without any apparent source of nourishment 
except the saline moisture of the air. A. Trlchomancs adorns stone w'alls in the 
northern countries with its slender, wiry-stalked fronds. The genus is dispersed in 
the East and West Indies, and America ; A. imbricatum is found at 1G,000 feet 
on the Andes. Scolopendrium (3) unrolls its numerous long fronds generally in 
moist, shady places. Adiantum rem' forme (4:) is a simple frond; A. Capillus 
Veneris, the gracoful Maiden-hair of the West of England, is finely divided, as 
are several West Indian species. Some Ferns h^ve the power of producing buds 
at the ends of the fronds, which send forth roots, and become a separate p)lant. 
Fadeynia (5) is an example. One of the finest of Australian Ferns is Acrostichum 
alcicorne (6), commencing its growth, like many others, b}-^ a flat, reniform leaf; 
out of the centre rise erect fertile fronds, bearing masses of spores at their ends. 
A. tripartitum creeps over the stems of trees at Esraeraldas, on the Andes, at 5000 
feet. Anemia (9) is a very elegant species ef Brazil. One of the most common 
British Ferns is Polypodium vulgare ; the horizontal stem spreading on the ground, 
or on trees, covered with brown scales, sending up bright green fronds, bearing 
golden spots of spore-cases on their under side. The roots contain carbonate of 
potash. P. gracile is an extremely beautiful species of the Andes at 1G,000 feet. 
Cr}T)togramma crispa is almost limited to the mountains of Westmoreland and 
Cumberland, in this country ; it is represented by a nearly similar species on the 
Himalaya, on the Andes at the elevation of Quito, and at Xootka Sound in 
tt<)° X. Lat. Pteris aquilina of Europe is found at 4400 feet on the Himalaya. 
The noblest English Fern is Osmunda regalis, flourishing by the side of mountain 
streams. Hymenophyllum and its nearest allies are minute in size, trailing 
over wet rocks, damp ground, and trees, with a slender stem devoid of scales, 
sending out fronds of the most simple substance, the spores contained in a cup 
attached to a prolongation of the vein of the leaf. II. Tunhridgeiise is a very 
delicate species. Several are natives of the East and West Indies. The under 
surface of the fronds of Cheilanthes farinosa, of Nepal, is covered with a white 
meal ; that of Gymnogramma sulphureum is a pale yellow. Davallia canariensis 
has been named the Hare's-foot Fern, from the resemblance of the hairy stem lying 
on the earth. This genus is found in many hot countries, and one small species 
grows in the crater of Owhyhee. In a former state of the globe. Ferns were a 
large part of the vegetation, as may be distinctly traced in coal-mines. 

Tree-ferns belong exclusively to the Tropics and the isles in neighbouring 
latitudes. Herbaceous Ferns are dispersed in all countries in diverse proportions. 
Less than 200 are natives of Temperate climates ; about 2600 grow in Tropical 
regions ; they abound most in hot, moist islands. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVEKSIIY OF ILUftOIS 





3cu 9cu dh 



ETdjtJb 






Ikiv &■ Son. Ltj> 



B R Y AC E M. 

THE MOSS TRIBE. 



This Order contains small herbaceous plants, of cellular tissue only, terrestrial or 
aquatic, having fibrous roots, creeping or erect, covered with minute imbricated 
leaves, entire or serrated at the edges. The reproductive organs are of two kinds, 
cylindrical bodies at the base of leaves containing small round particles and coiled 
Tip threads which move in water, and capsules or spore-cases on a stalk covered by 
a membranous calyptra, closed by an operculum or lid, beneath which are one or 
two rows of stiff cellular teeth called the peristome. A series of elastic cells is called 
the ring (lU). In the centre of the spore-case is the column surrounded by spores. 
The spores germinate on the surface of the ground or on the trunk of trees, they 
produce first filaments thickly interlaced, like those of Conferva, from the joints of 
which leaf-buds spring. 

These plants have close affinity with the Liverwort tribe by Jungermannia, but 
are distinguished by having an operculum to the spore-case. 

Slightly astringent properties exist in Polytrichum and others. 

IMosses are amongst the lowliest classes of vegetation, and afford very little 
direct use to man or animals ; yet they perform an important part in the great plan 
of creation, and though of minute size assist in countless niimbers in the first work 
of covering barren rocks or volcanic soil with verdure, thus preparing the land for 
more valuable herbage. A great similarity prevails throughout the tribe, but 
endless variety is found in different species, both in the arrangement of the parts 
and in the manner of growth. Some form dense tufts not rising to the height of 
an inch, others grow more separately and imitate the aspect of more highly de- 
veloped plants. The spore-case or urn is not always symmetrical on its stalk, in some 
species it is larger on one side than the other ; the length of the stalk varies extremely, 
in some instances scarcely elevating the spore-case above the leaves, in others attaining 
several inches in height; it proceeds either from the ends of the branch, or from the 
side. Brj'um (1), an ancient Greek name for moss, has been selected to give its 
name to this Tribe, being one of the most perfect in its various parts. The peri- 
stome of the spore-case is double, the outer terminating in sixteen teeth with a double 



1. Br^uvn liriiilalnm. Moist banks, England. 

1a LeaJ mrKjiiififd. 

2. Sphagnum hitlfolium. Bogs, Britain. 

2a Leaf. 2b Spore-case. 

n. Dicrannm ^/flHci/m. Heaths, England, 

4. Polytrichum commune. Heaths, Britain. 

•iA Peristome. 4b Teeth. ic Leaf. 
4d Section o/ Spore-case. Je Column. 

5. Orthotrichum crispum. Trees, England. 

Da J^eil. 5e Spore-cnxe. f)C Lea/. 



G. Hyitnum Menziesii. Dusky Bay, N. Zealand. 

7. Leucodon tomentosiis. South America. 

7a Spore-case and Peristome. 

8. Hymenostoma eticalyptoides. East Indies. 

Ha Spore case. 

9. Andripa nivalis. Mountains, Britain. 

(•a Sport-case and lid. 

10. Spore-case and rintf of Bryum. 

1 1 . Operruliim. 



BKYACE.^. 

row of cells, the inner or plaited membrane with single-celled teeth. The calyptra, 
or veil, is a smooth hood. The leaves are arranged in several rows and have a 
membranous notched edge. This genus grows very abundantly in various 
localities ; in primaeval forests and on plains in the Tropics, on arid Polar steppes, 
in low marshes and on lofty mountains, on sandy ground and on old walls, in 
Temperate climates. SphaiJ^num (2) is an examjile of a moss the spore-case of which 
has no peristome ; tlie small nutre-shaped veil soon falls off, the flat oj)erculum is 
detached when the sjiores are ripe. Several of the species are to be found in jieat- 
bogs and form a large portion of the composition of peat ; their spongy nature 
absorbs much moisture, both from the air and soil. On the borders of marshes on 
the Sikkim Himalaya at GOOO feet, as well on level plains in Europe, Sphagnum 
will be observed. In Lapland it is food for reindeer, and it has been said that in 
the Arctic regions a kind of bread is prepared from it. On dry, sandy heaths and 
moors, in shady ravines, on mountains near the limits of perpetual snow, Dicranum 
(3) grows in thick masses, particular species in sucli situations as are adapted to 
them. The peristome has a single row of double-celled teeth, D. ftdvum belongs 
to Nova Scotia, D. Jiexnosum to the Cape, D. vaginatum to the Andes, in valleys 
between 3000 and 4000 feet. D. fragile, nearly resembling our D. scoparium, is 
found in Nepal. Polytrichum (4), the largest and finest of British mosses, is very 
common on heaths, hedge-banks, and elsewhere. The stems producing only tufts of 
small leaves, in which are simple cylindrical cases of spores, are light and clastic, 
and in Norway are used to stuff beds and cushions ; it is in the most northern 
countries that mosses are employed in the service of man. P. commune has some 
pecuharities of structure, the top of the column is expanded into a circular plate, 
through the pores of which the minute powdery spores are scattered. The calyptra 
is at first smooth, but becomes clothed with an outer coat of fine hairs, surrounding 
the thin membranous hood. The different species exist in all parts of the globe, 
P. sexangulare spreading its green stems over the higher Alps, gracile and others 
abounding in marshes, V . juniperinum inhabiting dense forests. P. giganteum, an 
enlarged resemblance of P. commune, grows on the Palm Ceroxylon andicola at 
1900 feet on the Andes. Other species belong to North America and New Zea- 
land. Orthotrichum (o) belongs almost exclusively to trees, seldom on rocks or 
stones, — even the species are confined to particular kinds of trees. 0. Ljellii, the 
finest species, is only found on trees in the New Forest in this country. Hypnum is 
a very extensive genus, adorning the ground throughout the year with brilliant 
verdure, the prostrate or erect branches clothed with fine leaves. H. crista-castrensis 
is the most rare as well as beautiful of our species. H. Menziesii (G) is a very fine 
specimen from New Zealand. Leucodon (7) produces stalks with spore-cases from 
small tufts of leaves, not at the end of leaf-branches. The leaves of Hymenostoma 
(.'5) contain pores, as have been discovered also in other mosses. The outer coat of 
the spore-case is sometimes thick and fleshy at the base enlarged in S]jlachuum into 
an apophysis. Andraja differs from all other mosses, approaching to Jungermannia 
in the splitting of the valves. It has, however, the true operculum of this tribe, 
and the valves remain united at the top. A. nivalis (!)) is found on high mountains 
attaining the verge of eternal snow. 

The plants of this Tribe are dispersed in every jiart of the world wherev^er any 
vegetation can exist : most abundant in Temperate climates. They cause the first 
verdure on extinct volcanoes, or barren rocks, both in Southern and Northern 
latitudes, extending to the Isles of New South Shetland, and forming more than a 
<piarter of the scanty Flora of Melville Isle. 



LIBRARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF IlilWOiS 




J2l 22e^ i^ ' 



12a, 



IT.dei 



Th&Lo'erwort Tn}?&. 



Day &, Sony, Lmvu- -. 



156 



M A R C H A N T I A C E yE , 

THE LIVERWORT TRIBE. 



Creeping herbaceous plants, of cellular tissue, with leaves and axis combined in a 
leafy expansion or frond, having pores on the upper surface, emitting rootlets from 
the lower surface ; sometimes having separate leaves surrounding a central axis. 
The fructification is of two kinds, spoi'e-cases elevated on a stalk, or cups springing 
out of the inner layer of the frond containing small bodies capable of producing 
new plants. In the disk of the stalked spore-case are oval bodies enclosing fila- 
ments rolled up in the cells. The radiated disk has spore-cases on its under 
surface full of spores and spiral elaters, which by their elastic force scatter the 
spores. The spore-cases open by irregular fissures, or separate teeth or valves, 
and are either with or without a central column. The spores are globose, mixed 
with spiral elaters. Riccia and others have no elaters. 

This Tribe is connected with Mosses by Jungermannia, but is distinguished by 
having no operculum to the spore-case. Eiccia forms a link with Lichens. A 
few of these jjlants have a slight fragrance and subacrid taste. 

IMarchantia, chosen for the type of this Order, was named after one of the first 
members of the Academic des Sciences, in Paris, in. 16(36. It is a genus of soft 
creeping plants, with green fronds, usually growing on wet rocks or ground, or on 
the margins of wells. The frond has no mid-rib, but is intersected with fine lines 
forming lozenges, in each of which is a pore or stomate like those of flowering 
plants. Isl. poljjmorpha (1) is frequent on stones in damp shady courts, but grows 
most luxuriantly on wet rocks in Scotland. The stalked spore-cases appear to 
require the full light of the sun for their development ; in the shade the small cups 
imbedded in the frond are more plentiful. These contain cells of spores which 
become detached and produce new plants. The fronds also have the power of 



J. 


Marchautia polymorpha. 


8. 


Pellia eptphylla. England. 




Wet places, Britain. 


0. 


Ajithoceros l<evis. France. 




1a Cup. 1b Spore-cases. 


10 


Duriaea helicophylla. Algeria. 


2. 


M. hemisphcerica. Britain. 


11 


Eiccia nudhhotoma. France 




2a Spore-case. liB Elater. 


12 


Jungermannia bidentata. England. 


8. 


Marchantia assamica. Shores, Assam. 




] 2a Spore-case and leaves. 




•3a Spore-ra-ies. 3b Spores and Elaters. 




12b Spore case. l2c Slieathof Spore cas-:. 


4. 


Keboiiilia graminosa. East Indies. 




12d Globule. 12e Sporccase. 


5. 


Lunularia vulgaris. France. 


13 


Jungermannia siuiiosa. 


6. 


Aveura proceros. France. 




Dusky Bay, N. Zealand. 


7. 


Targionia hypoplijtla. England. 




I.'Ia Leaves and Stipules. 



MAUCiJANllACK/E. 

increasing by adding new portions, which afterwards separate and grow into fresh 
plants. M. hernispluirica (2) grows in similar situations, preferring moist rocks 
or ground, clinging by the fine rootlets, and absorbing moisture by the numerous 
pores of the fronds. M. assamica (3) is an example of the tribe from the shores 
of the Burram])ootur and Koondil, where it was found and described by the late 
diligent botanist, ^ViUiam (Griffith. The genus named Rebouilia differs but little 
from ]Marchantia, chiotly distinguished by the disk of the spore-cases not being 
deeply lobcd. 11. graminpsa (4) grows on shady banks at Otipore in Bengal, 
mingled with other plants of like nature. Lunularia (5) has a spore-case opening 
into four or eight valves at the top of a hairy stalk. In the park of Chantilly this 
little liverwort may be seen in perfection on the stones in the small rivulets whicli 
traverse the grounds. Another genus, combining a four-valved spore-case with a 
flat frond, is Aneura ((l). Targionia (7) records the name of a Florentine who 
introduced botanical lectures in the course of instruction prepared for medical 
students. The spore-cases are stalkless, solitary, placed at the end of the frond on 
a slight rib. Pellia epipTiijUa (8) has a four-valved spore-case on a stalk pro- 
ceeding from the mid-rib. Anthoceros (9) is known by the horn-like shape of the 
slender spore-case, which splits into two parts from the central column, leaving the 
spores and elaters to escape. A. punctatus and other s])ecies are natives of England. 
An exceedingly elegant little plant has lately been discovered in Algeria, and de- 
scribed by M. Montague in the Flora of that country. Durisea helicopliijlla (10), 
with its narrow frond, of a bright green colour, twisted in a spiral manner, presents 
a very remarkable appearance : its ei'ect growth also contrasts with the prostrate, 
creeping nature usual in this tribe. The fructification consists of spores on minute 
bract-shaped bodies attached to the central column. Riccia (11) was so called in 
memory of a Florentine botanist, in whose time the structure of these little plants 
was not so accurately known as at present. The spore-case rests on the frond 
enclosed in a two-valved sheath. Ruppius selected the various species of Junger- 
mannia to record a German botanist born in 1572, who spent a long life in ex- 
ploring the vegetation of his ow'n country and of Switzerland. In form and 
manner of growth they are closely allied to Mosses. J. Mdentata (12) may be 
found in moist places bearing fructification in the autumn. AU the British species 
have alternate distinct leaves, two in New^ Zealand have leaves opposite and united. 
Some have stipules on the under side between each pair of leaves, either entire or 
toothed. The so-called anther is a round pellucid membrane full of a fluid Avith 
granules, which escape at an irregular opening. The spore-cases are on slender 
stalks, and burst at the top when ripe into four valves, the spores being expelled 
by the elastic spiral filaments. J. gifjantea of New Zealand is the largest known 
species. 

This Tribe is scattered in all countries, very abundant in the Tropics, as well 
as in Europe, wherever there are shade and moisture. Several European species 
belong also to N. America, Brazil, and the Cape. Two species have been found in 
Melville Isle. 



LibHARY 

OF THE 

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hara/Tnhe' _ 



Da^' &. Son/, J 



157 



CHARACE.E 



THE CHARA TRIBE. 



Aquatic plants, of a brittle nature, always submersed, grownng in stagnant or salt 
water, witli a stem composed of parallel tubes "which are either transparent or 
encrusted, ha\'ing regular whorls of symmetrical or tubular branches. The 
reproductive organs are round, succulent, red globules, placed below the whorls of 
branches, and oval bodies above the leaf or branch ; the outer covering of the upper 
capsule is transparent, and terminates in five teeth at the top ; the inner portion 
is hard and dry, composed of five narrow valves, filled with granules of starch. 
The small red globule is formed of several scales, which separate and cause it to 
open when ripe ; the interior is filled with a mass of elastic, transversely -waved 
filaments. 

This Tribe has affinity with Naiadace?e, and in. some points of structure with 
Sea-weeds. 

The stems of Chara secrete lime. 

These plants, of apparently insignificant rank in the vegetable kingdom, and of 
no known use, possess nevertheless considerable interest, both in their past and 
present history. It is a tribe of comparatively recent date, no vestige of it being 
discovered in the earhest series of rocks. Ferns and Palms were created before 
Chara was called into existence; in the lower fresh-water fonnation are first found 
the fossil relics of Gyrogonites, a giant representative of these aquatics, in a period 
when vegetation began to acquire some of the forms which exist at the present 
time in living plants. The true species of Chara are remarkable for the large 
portion of carbonate or phosphate of lime which they contain, acquiring for them 
the name of stone-worts ; in some instances so abundant is the lime, that the 
whole form of the plant remains perfect after the organic membranes have been 
removed. In fens they add yearly earthy deposits which tend to the elevation of 
the soil. The odour arising from them in low marshy ground is very unpleasant, 



1. Chara viih/aris. Common Chara. 


1h Filaments of ijloiiulc. 


Ponds, England. 


ll Phytozoon of filamcnl. .Ill highly 


1a Branch, iiith fructification. 


magnified. 


1b Upper capsule. Ic Globule. 


2. Nitella/erJ/w, Smooth Nitella. 


Id Capsule, sprouting. 


Ponds and rivulets, Enpland. 


1e Motion ofjluid within each joint. 


3. Nitella translucens. Great trnn-parent Xilella. 


If Stem. 1g Section. 


Pools, England. 



CHAKACEiE. 

and is said to be one of the causes of the unhcalthiness of the Campagna of Rome. 
Chara vulr/aris (1) is very common in muddy, stagnant ditches throughout 
Enghand, and other countries of Europe ; the root is fixed in the mud, the plant 
growing up to the surface, but never rising above it ; the scent is very nauseous. 
Nitolhi is chiefly distinguished as a genus by the want of any secretion of lime, and 
the stem being composed of a simple tube, not spirally striated. N. Jiexilis (2) is 
quite smooth, without any small prickles ; found in several parts of the country in 
ditches and ponds : the slender branches are either undivided, forked, or three-cleft. 
M. translucens (3) is our largest species, found only rarely in pools in Scotland ; 
the root is creeping, of many-branching slender fibres, with small knots. N, 
gracilis is the slender species occasionally seen in bogs. Australia affords several 
cxam])les of this tribe, and in this instance the same law prevails as in other and 
higher branches of creation ; those species which are the most prevalent in the rest 
of the world are the least represented, or scarcely seen in Australia. Of Nitella 
twelve species have been discovered; N. microphi/lla is of very delicate growth 
and texture, with transparent stems. N. gleostachi/s of the Swan River has the 
spikes surrounded by a glossy, pellucid jelly, giving it a beautiful iridescent 
ajipcarance. N. suhtilissima is nearly the smallest species of the tribe. N. 
antarctica closely resembles N. nidijica, an inhabitant of salt water in the north 
of Europe, and peculiarly found in the shallow borders of the Baltic. Many 
curious observations have been made at different times on the circulation of the 
fluid in the stems of these plants. Corti, of Lucca, first observed it in 1774. 
Tre%aranus continued the examination in 1817, but it was not generally kno^vn to 
be perceptible to any observer with a good microscope, until Amici made more 
extended researches at Modena. Since then, English and French botanists have 
confirmed the fact as an undoubted addition to our knowledge of the physiology of 
plants. Another interesting observation on this tribe is, that on the phytozoa 
contained in the cells of the filaments in the globule are two vibratile cilia, which 
possess spontaneous movement, and thus appear to connect this lowly tribe of 
plants with the lowest amongst animals. 

This Tribe is found in stagnant water, either fresh or salt, sometimes in rivers, 
always submerged ; most abundant in Temperate countries, but growing in almost 
every jiart of Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and Australia. 



LIbKARY 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 




( I. 



Tli&ZidienTnb &■ 



Jlay j" ScrvLlf.- 



l.",s 



LICHENACEiE 



THE LICHEN TRIBE. 



Perenxial flowerless plants, of cellular tissue, forming a sliallus, often spreading 
over the surface of the earth, or on rocl^s or trees, usually in dry places ; of a leafy 
or lobed form, or hard and crustaceous, or of a mealy substance. The shallus is 
composed of two layers, the outer one simply cellular, the inner one cellular and 
filamentous. In the crustaceous species the outer layer alone contains colouring 
matter. The reproductive organs are of two lands, either spores lying in small 
shields which burst the outer layers and expand on the surface, or separated green cells 
of the inner layer called gonidia (12), which remain beneath the outer layer or 
break out in clusters or in cups. The plants are developed in humidity, then be- 
come a dry powdery crust out of which grow the living vegetating cells filled with 
reproductive matter. 

This Tribe has close af&nity with the sea-weed and the fungus tribes, having in 
many instances the growth of a sea-weed, and the fructification of a fungus. 

These plants are mucilaginous and contain medicinal and nutritive properties. 
Lichens are the first agents of nature in the work of forming vegetable earth. The 
most simple, powdery, almost invisible species are developed on volcanic ground and 
rocks, in decomposing the surface of which they add to the soil, and other lichens 
are thus enabled to find support for their slender rootlets. To these succeed 
mosses, and afterwards larger plants. Thus through successive years the work 
proceeds, till barren rocks rising out of the ocean, coral reefs, and pumice plains 
around volcanoes, became converted into fertile land. The old name of time-stains 
is admirably expressive, they are the gradual produce of time, clothing aged trees, 
ancient edifices and ruins, and giving tlie peculiar hoary aspect to some rocks. 
The pale hue of the granite on the coast of Cornwall at the Land's End is entirely 



1. 


Cetraria Islandica. 


Britain. 


5. Cenomyce pyxidata. 


Britain. 


3. 


I A Shield. 
Sticta piilmonacea. Trees, 

2a Section of Shield. 
Roccella tincloria. 


England. 


0. Cenomyce ranyiferina. 

7. Cenomyce nnciulis. 

8. Stereocanlon pnschale. Moors, 


Britain. 

Britain. 

Scotland. 




Sea-coast rocks, 


England. 


>*A Fntcliji cation. 






Ma Shields. 3b Section. 




9. Varilario laclea. Stone walls, 


England. 




3c Spores. 




9a. Shields. 




4. 


Parmelia parietina. 

Walls and trees 
4a Shield. 4b Spore-celts. 
4c Spores. 


England. 


10. Pianialina/r«j-i"/u'rt. Trees, 

11. IJHnea, barhata. Firs, 

12. Shield with Gonidiii. 


England. 

Eiiglnnd. 



LICHENACE^. 

owing to the lichens which cover the surface. One of the most vahiable of this 
lowly tribe as yieldinj^ nourishment to man is Cetraria islandira (1). It is found 
on Ben Lomond, the Pentland Hills, and other parts of Scotland, but grows more 
abundantly in the northern countries of Europe. On the old lava of the west coast 
of Iceland it finds a vevy suitable locality, and attains there a luxuriant growth, 
which has given the name to the species. By steeping in cold water it loses the 
bitter principle and affords ;in important ingredient in the sim])le fare of the poor 
Icelanders, who eat it boiled in milk, and make also a kind of meal from it for 
cakes. Large quantities are collected and exported under the name of Iceland 
moss to England and Germany, where it is considered a good remedy for con- 
sumption. It has also been employed in brewing and in making ship biscuits. In 
time of scarcity in Saxony the meal has been mixed with wheat flour for bread. 
Sticta (2) was so named from the Greek on account of the numerous small pits on the 
imder surface. It is the finest of British lichens, growing always on trunks of 
trees ; the properties are nearly similar to those of Cetraria. Roccella tinctoria (3) 
is the celebrated Portuguese orchall, yielding a fine purple dye, supposed to be the 
same Icnown to the ancients in the time of Dioscorides, and collected on the rocky 
islands of the Greek Archipelago. R. fruciformis abounds on the shores of 
Sumatra and other East Indian isles. In autumn the branches of trees and stone 
walls in almost every part of our country, except in large cities, may be seen pro- 
fusely covered with Parmelia parietimi (4) ; the golden shallus and shields contain 
a peculiar colouring matter called Parietin, when mixed with alum it affords a 
good yellow dye. Cenomyce p.y.ri'cZa/a (5) is the most elegant of all our lichens, is 
very frequently found on dry heaths and sandy banks, sometimes popularly called 
fairjj cups. When the fructification is ripe, and of a bright red, it has a remark- 
ably pleasing effect. Several other species belong to this genus, of varied form and 
appearance. C. rangift^rina (G) forms the chief food of the reindeer during the 
long winter in Lapland, the instinct of the animal directing him to the spots where 
it lies deeply covered with snow. C. nucialis (7) is to be seen on Scotch moors, 
conspicuous amongst green mosses from its silvery hue. Stereacaulon (8) is the 
fast branching lichen that clothes the lava of extinct craters, and occupies the 
interstices of barren rocks. Of the crustaceous kinds, Variolaria (i)) is common on 
rocks or ground. Raraalina (10) is an example of those which have the shield of 
fructification formed out of the substance of the shallus. In the same section is 
Usnea (U), well known to travellers amongst the Alps of Switzerland, hanging 
in long drooping bunches from the branches of firs, commonly called old man's 
heard. Lecanora tartarea yields Cudbear, used in dyeing wool a pale red, it grows 
abundantly in Scotland, and is also imported from Norway. Several species of 
Cyrophora are known to Canadian hunters as tripe de roche, affording them sub- 
sistence in wild districts when nothing better is to be obtained. The wandering 
tribes of Asiatic deserts eat likewise some of the mealy lichens. The north side of 
trees or rocks is usually most favourable to these plants. The scorching rays of 
the sun parch them ; they are never found on decaying matter, sometimes on ever- 
green leaves in the Tropics, Those which grow on the top of firs have been found to 
contain a large proportion of oxide of iron. Lichens have not been discovered in a 
fossil state. 

This Tribe is scattered over the whole world, many species grow equally in 
various countries. The finest examples are found near the Equator, the smaller 
crustaceous species in the Polar regions, or on lofty mountains, scarcely discernible 
from the roclis to which they are attached. 



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Dc^ &, Scr>/,Lvm'- 



lo'J 



F U N G A C E /E. 



THE FUNGUS TRIBE. 



Plants composed of cellules, or filaments, or both, increasing in size inwardly, the 
outside not changing ; growing chieHy on decayed animal or vegetable substances ; 
of short duration. The fructification consists of spores attached externally and 
often in definite numbers to the cellular tissue, or placed on projections like stalks, 
or enclosed in membranous bags : other bodies appear to be similar to anthers. 
The most simple form of Fungus is composed of small jointed filaments, with 
cellules placed end to end, such as mould and mildew ; spores are contained in each 
cell, or are collected in terminal joints. The spores germinate readily, and the 
young plants grow with excessive rapidity and force of development. 

This Tribe has affinity with Lichens and Sea-weeds ; but differs from the 
former in not containing germs full of green matter, — from the latter in possessing 
no spontaneous motion in the reproductive particles, — and from both in deriving 
nourishment from the substance on which they grow. 

These plants contain abundant nitrogen, absorb oxygen, and exhale carbonic 
acid. Some are wholesome, others poisonous. 

This lowly Tribe, approaching the verge of vegetable life, of extremely simple 
structure and fugitive existence, possesses nevertheless considerable interest, not only 
from the varied forms of the plants it comprises, but from the important part they 
perform in the transformation of vegetable matter. Many grow on dead or de- 
caying animal or vegetable substances, which they speedily help to disintegrate, 
thus causing a rapid conversion to earth or mould, reducing what was become 
injurious to the living to a fresh source of support and sustenance for the future. 
In low damp situations, as the islands in the Bay of Rio Janeiro, plants of all 



1. 


Agaricus campestris, Field Mushroom. 


5. Boletus sanguineus. 


England. 




Fields, England. 


C. Polyporus squumosus. 






1a Sporex, mni/nij'ied. 


Stems of trees, 


England. 


2. 


Amanita muscaria, Poisonous Amanita. 


7. Scleroderma citrinum, 






Woods, England. 


Roots of trees, 


England. 


n. 


Agaricus liiteus, Yellow Agaric. 


8. I'eziza coccinca. 


England. 




Grass, England. 


8a Spore cases and Jihimtnts. 




4. 


Boletus subtomeatosus, Downy Boletus, 


9. Cyathus striatus. 


England. 




Woods, England. 


10a Mucor mucedo, Mould. 






4a. Section of cap. 4b Cell, ivith spores. 


1 1a Botrytis CHWrt. Leaves. 






4c Spores. 4d Sporex. 


12a Krineum jnghmdis. 





rUNGACE.€. 

Idiifls sjiring fortli, grow ami decay, with wonderful rfl])idity : wlicn a large tree 
is felled, the stem s}>eedily hecomes a fine earth, the process heing hastened by the 
growth of countless fungi, which are developed as soon as decay commences. In 
the simplest form of this Tribe, the species of mould (10) and mildew are com- 
posed of cells placed end to end ; some of the joints separate and reproduce fresh 
plants ; in others, the spores accumulate in the cells, and are dispersed when they 
break. In the more jierfect plants of this class, the masses of cellular tissue assume 
a determinate figure, the whole central portion being occupied by plates or cells, 
with spores attached. The most valuable of these j^laiits as food is Agaricus 
campcstris (1), the Mushroom; the gills are plates containing countless spores. 
Although this tribe is generally of a dull colour, yet some species are as bright as 
those of more highly developed plants. Amanita mnscaria (2) adorns woods in 
autumn ^^•ith its brilliant crimson cap. Kgavicw?, xerampeliims is the most splendid 
species, of various tints of red and yellow, grows commonly in Italy, and was 
esteemed a delicacy by the ancient Eomans. The cap of Boletus (4) is porous on 
the lower part, the cells being sejiarable from the cap and each other, each fringed 
internally with spores. B. sanguineus (5) is not uncommon in woods. Polyponis 
has no central stem, and the tubes are attached to the cap and to each other, 
P. squaniosus (6) is one of our largest examples, growing on the stems of trees. P. 
tuberastcr is an article of food in Italy. P. annosus is used in Sweden as a cure 
for the bite of snakes. P. fomentarms is still made into tinder in poor countries. 
Scleroderma (7) is to be found about the roots of trees, the interior filled with 
spores collected into globules mixed with filaments, which escape by an opening at 
the top. The Pufif-ball, Lycoperdon, a nearly similar genus, abounds in grassy 
places, in a variety of species. Bovista gigantea is the giant of the Tribe, some- 
times more than two feet in diameter ; the outer skin cracks, the inner one bursts 
at the top, and the small stalked spores are dispersed. The growth is wonderfully 
rapid ; one was observed, during a damp night, to grow from a mere point to the 
size of a large gourd, at the rate of 66,000,000 of cells in a minute. Peziza (8) 
is found chiefly on decayed wood, its spores contained in the hollow of its leathery 
cup. Amongst withered leaves on the ground may he seen the beautiful little 
Cyathus (!J) ; within the cup are a few white capsules, fixed by a thread to the 
sides and base, full of minute spores. Nidularia criicibulmn is a very neat species 
on old wood. Besides the eatable Mushrooms, others afford a delicious ingredient 
of cookery to refined palates ; several more are valuable as nourishment to peasants 
in remote uncultivated districts. The most delicate are ^lorchella, the IMorel ; and 
Tuber ciharium, the Truffle, gro^Anng under the surface of the earth, black on the 
rough exterior, white within. Mylifta ausfralis serves as food to natives and 
kangaroos. Botrytis (11) is a magnified example of the minute kinds which are 
found on withering leaves. Erineum (12) is scarcely more than a monstrous 
growth of the cells of the walnut leaf. Many singular experiments have been 
made on the rapid changes of colour in these plants, apparently not due to chemical 
action. Rhizoraorpha has some luminous properties, which cause it to shed light 
in coal-mines and rocky caves in Saxony. Dutrochet found the greatest degree of 
vegetable heat to exist in a Boletus. Plants generally purify the air by absorbing 
carbonic acid : these render it less wholesome by absorbing oxj^gen and exhaling 
carbonic acid, but they make vast compensation by decomposing decaying vege- 
table matter. 

This Tribe, comprising infinite numbers, is dispersed over the whole world in 
indefinite geographical limits. Agaricus and Polyjiorus are most numerous in 
species. 



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UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS 




Uie^ ucOy-weed/Iribe. 



ICO 



F U C A C E .E, 



THE SEA-WEED TRIBE. 



Plants composed of cellular tissue, inhabiting chiefly salt water, sometimes in 
fresh water, or hot springs ; some grow in mud, others are attached to rocks. 
The frond is either composed of a single cell uninterruptedly branched, or of several 
cells of various forms, placed one above the other or interwoven, jointed or con- 
tinuous, thread-shaped or of various figures, not uncommonly divided into a sort 
of stem and leaf. The fronds grow by division of the cells, and become branched 
by increasing at the sides. The plants are propagated by spores contained in 
bladdery vesicles scattered throughout the whole frond, or placed at the ends of 
the branches. Some are reproduced in two separate forms, rounded capsules, and 
minute ternate granules. The spores of some are furnished with fine hairs, which 
have power of motion for a few hours before the spore begins to vegetate. 

This Tribe has affinity with Characese. 

These plants absorb carbonic acid and respire oxygen by day, and absorb 
oxygen and exhale carbonic acid by night. Some contain Iodine. 

In each class of creation the lowest tribes are developed in water. Sea-weeds 
on the verge of vegetable life can exist only in water, or moisture. To the greater 
portion water is essential during the whole period of their existence. They have 
no vascular tissue, therefore no circulation of fluids ; they absorb water only by 
the parts in immediate contact with it ; the most expanded fronds have no power of 
conveying moisture to the rest of the plant, neither can the roots obtain nourish- 
ment by their points as those of higher tribes. They serve merely to attach the 
plant to the rock, and prevent it from being floated away by waves ; it matters 
not whether it be granite or marble, if it be only solid and favourably placed. 
Fucus, which has given its name to the whole Tribe, is a veiy extensive genus, 
abounding on the coasts of the British Isles. F. vesiculosus (1) is of considerable 
value in making kelp. The receptacles lined with spores are at the ends of the 
branches ; the air-vessels are in pairs throughout the frond. The Western Isles 



]. 


Fucus vesiculosus. Coast, Britain. 




4c Spores on Frond. 


•Id Spores. 




1a Section of Beccptacle. 


5. 


IridiPa edulis. 


Shores, Scotland. 




1b Spores. Ic Spores and Filaments. 




5a Spore.i. 




2. 


Fucus nodosus. Coasts, Britain. 


6. 


Sargassum haccifemm. 


Atlantic Ocean. 


3. 


Himanthalia lorea. South coast, England. 




6a Receptacles and air-vessels. 




3a Section af Receplaelc. 


7. 


YnvceWavisi fast iijiata. 


Shores, Britain. 


4. 


Delesseria samjuinea. 




7a Section of Receptacle. 






South coast, England. 


H. 


Ulva crispa. Damp 


gravel, P^nglnml. 




4a Receptacle. 4ii Seilion. 


•J. 


Botnydium t]ra»ulaliim. 


Gravel, Englaiul. 



FUCACE.E. 

of i^cotland derive much benefit from this species ; not only is it used for kelp, hnt 
it serves also as Avinter food for cattle ; when dried it is used as fuel, and the ashes 
are laid over cheeses to dry them. F. nodosus (2) is like other species, very tough 
and leathery, growing to a large size in deep water. Some have receptacles of 
great length, forming nearly the whole plant, the spores immersed in them irre- 
gularly, as Himanthalia lorea (3). In the same section of this tribe is one of the 
most remarkable examples of extended growth, the genus Sargassum. S. hacci- 
ferum (G) docs not grow on the British coast, but is often washed ashore on the 
Orkney Isles from the Atlantic. In S. America it is thought a remedy for goitre. 
A large mass of this species, as well as of S. vuhjare, exists in the Atlantic between 
11)° and 34° of N. lat. west of the Azores, the samu floating meadow which im- 
peded the ships of Columbus on his voyage of discovery. Another lesser mass is 
observed between Bermuda and the Bahamas. The largest British sea-weeds 
belong to the genus Laminaria ; the frond is flat and extremely tough, has no 
mid-rib ; the fructification forming dense spots embedded in the thickened surface 
of the frond. The stem of L. hulbosa is much waved at the margin, and bears a 
frond deeply cleft. L. di<jitata has a stem of G feet, with a frond often more than 
15 feet in length, divided into numerous segments. When dry it is covered with 
salt, w^hich has a sweetish taste and has given the specific name. The stem of 
L. potatoruvi of Xew Holland is of a size to serve as water-vessels. L. huccinalis is 
the great Trumpet-weed of the Cape. Seytosiphon filum grows to 40 feet in the 
bays of the Orkney Isles. Alaria esculenta has a frond of upwards of 20 feet, the 
surface covered with pores, from whence issue tufts of filaments. But the giant of 
the tribe and of all vegetation is Macrocystis ^yr //era, 1500 feet long, floating in 
southern latitudes. Delesseria is the most beautiful of British sea-weeds ; D. san- 
guinea (4) retains its brilliant hue when dried, adhering to paper. The fructifica- 
tion is of two kinds, round capsules containing a globular mass of seeds, or ternate 
granules, scattered in the frond or in small leaf-like processes on a mid-rib from 
which the rest of the leaf has fallen away. Amongst the eatable kinds known as 
Dulse in Scotland is Iridsea cdulis (5) of a very succulent nature, yielding a fine 
red dye if prepared with alum. Rhodomeuia palmata is mucilaginous, and affords 
wholesome food to sheep in Norway ; it is eaten in Edinburgh by the poor. The 
Icelanders also make it part of their humble fare, either raw or boiled in milk. 
Furcellaria (7) is a genus of dark coloured species abundant on all European 
coasts ; the cylindrical receptacles fall off when ripe, leaving the branches to grow 
again. A terrestrial example of this Tribe is Ulva crispa (8), to be found in 
winter on damp ground in shaded places. The granules are arranged in regular 
lines forming squares, for even in this lowly plant beauty and order are perceptible. 
Still lower in the rank of plants is Bftrydium (9), composed of minute vesicles 
filled with a fluid which escapes at the top, and the plant becomes cup-shaped. 
Yet more simple and lowly is the Protococcus nivalis, the red snow of the Polar 
regions and of the Alps ; consisting of minute globules of red fluid, bursting when 
ripe. The gelatinous nature of many sea -weeds renders them useful to the Chinese 
and other Eastern nations, as food, glue, or varnish. Some are employed as 
dyes. 

This Tribe exists in salt or fresh water all over the globe, forming extensive 
forests in the depths of the ocean, and floating on its surface in prodigious masses, 
comprising the largest examples of vegetation, and the most minute. Some species 
are found in boiling springs, others on perpetual snow. Durvillaea extends to 61*^ 
8. lat. ; Scyothalia as far as 63°. * 



CONCLUSION 



A DESIRE to illustrate and describe in simple language the chief Natufal Orders of 
Plants which embellish our world is now fulfilled : the attempt is accomplished, 
though in a very humble and imperfect manner. But so vast and varied is the 
mass of vegetation covering the land, filling the deep oceans and the shallow waters, 
that to select a few examples merely as guides to a more extended research in this 
wild field of study, is a perplexing task. Still the labour has been replete with 
interest and delight ; the more we examine the glorious works of an Almighty 
Creator, the more we perceive their excellent beauty and endless variety. In our 
endeavours to comprehend something of His works, we cannot fail to observe not 
only the infinite power of the Creator, but the finite capacity of man. In striving 
to arrange Plants into tribes and groups, by which to obtain clearer views of their 
structure and properties, we find how countless are the links by which Xature 
connects all things together. Large classes may be formed of certain assimilating 
Plants for our guidance in botanical studies, but almost imperceptible chains com- 
bine them into one grand whole ; there is not a plant in the entire range of vege- 
table life that has not affinity with others in structure and organization. Even the 
two great classes of Animals and Plants are so incomjiarably blended, that the most 
learned naturahsts of this nineteenth century have scarcely yet accurately defined 
their respective limits. The lowest plant in the scale is a simple cell, with a few 
fine hairs, ha\nng a peculiar power of motion for a short space of time before it 
actually becomes a living, vegetating plant ; thus for a time most closely connected 
with the Infusoria, the lowest form of animal life. In this, as in all other studies, 
the truth becomes clearly evident, that this world is intended as a place of learning, 
a time of searching after wisdom ; and in this search we must ever be occupied for 
our own indi\adual benefit, and, if possilile, also for the aid and guidance of others. 
In taking a comprehensive survey of the natural tribes of Plants, as for the sake of 
distinction we call them, we may acquire more just and extended notions of their 
dispersion and varied utility. Very essential is this enlarged idea of all natural 
objects, especially in instructing the young. We esteem highly the advantage de- 
rived from the use of improved microscopes, which afford a more accurate insight 
into minute and complicated organizations. Valuable, also, is it to take a com- 
prehensive view of the wide-spread vegetation of the world, not to confine our 
thoughts to one portion in our own country. A child soon learns to know the 
common Plants about his home ; he sees Nettles, and is told they are usele.-s weeds, 
and sting painfully. It would be well to teach, at the same time, that there are, 
in hotter countries, some plants very like then), which are of great use to the 

u u 



162 CONCLUSION. 

natives ; and that if we had not liemp and other phxnts with strong fibrous stalks 
from distant lands, we might make very good string and paper from the despised 
Stinging Nettles. 

Concerning the structure of Plants, these Illustrations can only indicate the 
principal points ; on pursuing the study, very remarkable arrangements will be 
evident, and the cause of several common appearances ascertained. The reason 
why leaves, which in spring are frequently withered at the points by frost, continue 
to enlarge afterwards, is because they grow always from the base, so are not 
impeded by partial clieck at the point or edges. The cause of roots being able to 
penetrate into very small crevices, is, that their power of growth is at their point. 
The vital force of vegetable matter in its earliest growth is immense in proportion 
to the size of the cells and the tender nature of simple cellular substance, not 
strengthened by fibrous tissue of any kind. A soft, succulent Fungus can make its 
way through the hard earth of a well-trodden road in dry weather. One of the 
most wonderful properties in the structure of Plants, is the power of absorbing 
moisture after long drought, and apparently a complete withering of their substance. 
This is exemplified in a very striking degree in Anastatica Hierochuntia, the Rose 
of Jericho, belonging to the Leguminous Tribe. It grows in the arid deserts of 
Palestine and Arabia ; after flowering rolls up vdth the seed-vessels into a dry 
ball. The wind soon uproots it, for it has very slight hold in the sandy earth, and 
drives it along till it is finally deposited in some pool of water. There the dry 
tissue begins to expand with the moisture, the branches uni'oll, and the seeds, 
falling into the water, are prepared to germinate on the borders. The cells of 
vegetable tissue have, moreover, a strong power of contraction, which may be 
proved readily by one of the most common of weeds, found in every garden. On 
breaking the stalk of the Spurge, or Milkwort, the milky juice is expelled from each 
end, by the cells containing it immediately contracting. 

The geographical distribution of Plants is a subject of extreme interest, and the 
observations to be made thereon add much to the pleasure of all travel. Mountain 
Plants more especially require suitable localities, and are in many cases obviously 
adapted to their exposed position, often clothed with fine down or hair, and having 
short, firm stalks, well calculated to resist wind. One of the most elegant specimens 
of our mountain Flora is Primula farinosa, to be seen on the hills of Yorkshire, 
growing also on the Alps, and, across the Atlantic, in North America. It will be 
found, likewise, in the most southern land of South America, near the Straits of 
Magellan, but nowhere on the intermediate hot plains ; it traverses the vast 
continent from north to south, along the elevated chain of the Andes, where it 
meets with a favourable climate. Another curious fact connected wdth the geogra- 
phical dispersion of Plants, is that some species belonging to Temperate countrief 
gradually diminish in size approaching towards colder countries or more elevated 
situations. The tall Ash-tree of Britain becomes a mere shrub in the chilling at- 
mosphere of Arctic regions. The Birch, growing to the height of forty feet in our 
moist woods, is not more than twenty feet high in the Pass of Killicrankie, in the 
Scotch Highlands, below 57° of north latitude. In Iceland, in fi2° of north 
latitude, it d^\nndles to a low bush of three or four feet. But if we turn our ob- 
servations toward the Tropics, the change will be different ; we shall find Nature 
developing her objects on a larger scale. What we have noticed in our native 
examples will appear like miniature specimens. All we Imow of the genus Cuscuta 
Dodder, here, is a little plant just springing out of the ground, but soon entangling 
its delicate slender threads, bearing small clusters of pale flowers over the Heath and 
Furze of the common : in the hot, damp jungles of India, this genus is expanded 



CON'CLUSKJN. 163 

into a species of vigorous growth and considerable size, climbing over forest trees 
\\-ith stems as large as small rope. The peculiar properties of some plants are more 
perfectly developed in some situations than in others ; the aromatic qualities of 
Alpine plants particularly, require the pure air and uninterrupted rays of the sun. 
Certain plants we are accustomed to consider as merely ornamental, employing them 
only to adorn our gardens and houses with their gay flowers : Begonia is one of 
these, abundant in every conservatory, and not thought of as yielding any useful 
service ; yet a traveller on the Himalaya mountains may find growing there a 
yellow-flowered Begonia, with succulent juicy stalks, which the natives cut up into 
pieces, and make therewith a pleasant acid sauce for their curries. 

Besides the innumerable observations and topics of interest connected with the 
higher tribes of flowering Plants, the more humble and less developed are not 
without value as objects of study and inquiry. Even the lowly Fungus Tribe, to 
some known only as containing eatable Mushrooms or poisonous Puff-balls, is found 
on examination to be abounding in curious forms, and sometimes to possess also 
brilliancy of colour. The simplest species when magnified are seen to be of graceful 
form, exhibiting tracings of shape and pattern, equalling in beauty and elegance the 
most reno\med designs of ancient art, and capable of affording valuable hints to 
modern artists. The common Fungus, known as mould on paste and other similar 
substances, is composed of fine filaments, bearing perfectly round heads full of 
minute spores, each complete in itself, though onl}- one four-thousandth part of an 
inch in diameter. The Yeast Fungus which, in growing from granules of starch, 
evolves gas, and causes beer to ferment and dough to swell, is composed of globules 
the three-thousandth of an inch in diameter. So marvellous is the plan and struc- 
ture of even the smallest object of vegetable creation. 

Of the extensive Tribe of Sea-weeds it is impossible, within the narrow limits 
of a single page, to give more than a very slight idea, either by figures or words. 
The waters have their plentiful store of wonderful works as well as the land, and 
display very interesting objects to our notice. Many Sea-weeds possess considerable 
beauty when beheld in their native element ; one of the most singular, and unknown 
on the British coast is Claudea elegans ; the fronds bend gracefully, and are formed 
of an open network, in some spaces of which the clusters of spores are placed. The 
circular frond of Martensia has a border at the edge, having the appearance of lace. 
There are zones of particular Alg£e, clearly defined : the Mediterranean has its own 
species of Sea-weeds, whilst different specimens are found in the Red Sea. Some 
produce their dehcate branched fronds on rocks near the coast ; others extend their 
unmeasured length in the deep waters of the Ocean. 

Respecting the causes of colour in Plants, many points have }^et to be studied 
and elucidated. ^Ye know not how or why some flowers change their hue during 
the short period of their existence ; neither why others, as Coboea scandcns, should 
bear green flowers, which only become purple after they are fully expanded. Nor 
can we explain why one flower, as a Rose, has its full red hue even whilst the petals 
are closely enfolded in the calyx concealed from light. This is contrary to a theory 
concerning the red colour of flowers, which supposes that a strong and pure sun- 
light is necessary for the development of red. Therefore, in our temperate atmo- 
sphere of light and heat we have only two native red flowers, the Poppy and the 
Shepherd's Clock ; whilst in the Tropics, flowers of the most brilliant crimson and 
scarlet tints abound. "VYe can only observe the facts ; chemists and botanists have 
yet many things to explain by their united researches. \Ye cannot fully declare the 
reason why the power of acquiring blue colour should decline with the vigour of 
the j)lant ; but we may remark that it is so. The first flowers on a plant of Ipomasa 



164 CONCLUSION, 

piij\purea, commonly known as Convolvulus viajor, are nearly all of a fine blue or 
purple, but towards the close of its existence in autumn, pink and white flowers 
])revail ; if a blue flower is found, it will be of a very pale tint. 80 also with the 
Fort^et-mo-uot; it must have favourable circumstances for vigorous growth, to 
enable it to acquire the celestial hue for which it is so much admired. Place a plant 
of it in a vessel of water or earth under a glass, it will flourish for some time ; but 
gradually as the flower-buds iinfold, they will lose the property of becoming blue, 
and remain either pink, as all t!iose flowers are in the bud, or become white. This 
is very remarkable, and so likewise is the fact, that blue-flowered Plants are the 
most apt to produce white varieties. 

Not only does the contemplation of the various laws which regulate the 
organization of Plants fill our minds with wonder, but we must adore also the 
Wisdom which provides for the future as well as the present state of vegetation ; 
marvellous is the ample provision mad efrom the beginning of creation until now 
for the security of its continuance. " The fruit-tree yielding fruit after his kind, 
whose seed is in itself," was the work of the third day of creation ; the word went 
forth, and is still obeyed. Notwithstanding the many casualties that are ever liable 
to befall plants and their seeds by animals or insects seeking them as food, yet no 
one is lost from the face of the earth. The fruit of the chesnut contains fourteen 
seeds, one or two only of which suffice to ripen. 

Great truths are oftentimes revealed to us by very humble means. The actual 
living Plants of this present time tell of an omnipotent Creator ; they lead also to 
the knowledge of the relics of a former vegetation, the work of the same eternal 
i\Iaker, in ages beyond all other records. There are sealed herbals in the depths of 
our rocks and coal-mines which show us preserved examples of Ferns and various 
delicate foliage, kept safe amidst the overwhelming wreck of the world. After the 
lapse of countless ages again brought to light, they tell of the past, and make 
known the character of the Plants that adorned the earth in a former state of its 
existence. Sometimes a close similarity is perceptible between past and present 
species : in the Museum of Carlsruhe, in Germany, may be noticed a specimen of 
fossilized Isoetes, so nearly resembling that which now grows on the edges of pools 
in the neighbouring Black Forest, as to leave no doubt of its identity as a genus. 
In some countries parts of fossil Plants have been discovered, differing wddely from 
those of the present time. The strata of the Isle of Sheppey, at the mouth of the 
Thames, contains the remains of fruits of Palms and other Tropical trees, which 
no longer grow in our Temperate regions. Thus Time, the destroyer, is also the 
preserver — soft fruits and fragile leaves, whose nature is to perish in a summer 
season, in the course of unnumbered years have been converted into rock, and thus 
destined to enlarge our knowledge of the past, and to prove the existence of 
vegetation in remote periods beyond the scope of our chronology. Whether we 
consider the giant trees of the Tropics, whose age is imknown, or the ephemeral 
Fungus, whose existence is but for a few hours on the surface of the earth, or 
penetrate into the hidden recesses of rocks and caverns, and behold the things that 
belong to the past, we are led to the one Source — to Him in whose sight a 
thousand years are but as yesterday, when it is past. The beautiful and innu- 
merable proofs of Divine Wisdom displayed in the vegetable creation may well 
excite our unbounded admiration and reverence, and beholding the wondrous 
preparation of so many excellent things for the service of man, so much s[)read 
forth for our delight and enjoyment, with fulness of heart we may join in the 
ancient canticle, " 0, all ye green things upon the earth, bless ye the Lord : praise 
Him, and magnify Him for ever." 



CONCLUSION. 165 

Having thus brought the work of many years to an end, it remains only to 
express a humble hope that what has contributed to my knowledge and happiness, 
and boon a chief refreshment in my pilgrimage, may be permitted to help others 
forward in the same path, leading amongst things and thoughts that bring un- 
mingled delight and pure enjoyment. Nearly all the drawings have been made 
from nature, whenever living specimens could be procured, collected in various 
places. To the Royal G ardens at Kew, and the Botanic Gardens of London, as 
well as several private gardens, I have been largely indebted for examples ot 
foreign plants. The native specimens have been culled in fields and woods in 
all parts of our country. From the unpublished dramngs of Sir Robert Schom- 
burgk I have been kindly allowed to copy the Alexandra, Barbacenia, and other 
rare South American flowers not yet to be seen in English gardens. From Dr. 
Lindley's " Vegetable Kingdom," Dr. Royle's " Illustrations of the Botany of the 
Himalaya," and several other published works on Plants, descriptive as well as 
illustrative, I derived much valuable assistance, endeavouring to extract and glean 
such materials as suited my purpose, rendering all into simple words that may be 
comprehensible to the unlearned, and, if possible, lead to greater pleasure from the 
possession of such beautiful gardens as are the undisputed pride of our island. 
Moreover, I trust in all humility, yet earnestly, that this mite, cast into the 
treasury, may be prospered in its results, and lead the ever active mind of the 
young to search diligently, each for himself, and to inquire with sincerity of pur- 
pose, and the true intention of the patriarch of Uz, " ^Yhere shall wisdom be found, 
and where is the place of understanding ? " 

E. T. 



London, 1868. 



INDEX 



Abelia, 72 
Abelmoschus, 23 
Abroma, 25 
Abrouia, 110 
Abntilon, 23 
Acacia, 49 
Acanthus, 105 
Acer, 30 
Achania, 23 
Achiraenes, 82 
Achras, 87 
Achyranthes, 111 
Acnida, 112 
Acoeanlhera, 100 
Acorus, 148 
Acrocarpidium, 126 
Acrodiclidium, 116 
Acrostiehum, 154 
ActiEa, 1 

Actinocarpus, 131 
Adansonia, 26 
Adenandra, 44 
Adiantum, 154 
Adlumia, 7 
Adoxa, 71 
J^chmea, 138 
^giceras, 86 
yEgialitis, 108 
yEginetia, 103 
^gle, 41 
brides, 132 
^schynantbus, 82 
iEsculus, 20 
Agapanthus, 141 
Agaricus, 159 
Agathea, 76 
Agathophyllnm, 110 
Agathotes, 94 
Agave, 136 
Agrimonia, 51 
Agrostemma, 69 
Agrostis, 150 
Aizoon, 63 
Alangium, 59 
Alalia, 160 
Aldrovanda, 18 
Aletris, 135 
Alexandra, 49 
Alfonsia, 145 
Alisma, 131 
Allium, 141 



AUmannia, 111 
Alloplectus, 82 
Aloe, 141 
Alpinia, 133 
Alsodea, 15 
Alsophila, 154 
Alstromeria, 136 
Altemanthei'a, 111 
Althea, 23 
Alyssum, 11 
Alyxia, 92 
Amanita, 159 
Amarantus, 111 
Amaryllis, 130 
Ameletia, 54 
Ammannia, 54 
Amoi-phallus, 148 
Ampelopsis, 37 
Amphibolis, 151 
Amphicome, 95 
Amygdalus, 53 
Anacardium, 48 
Anacharis, 130 
Anacyclus, 76 
Anagallis, 107 
Anastatica, 11 
Anchusa, 98 
Anda, 123 
Andrfca, 155 
Andromeda, 84 
Androsace, 107 
Androsfemnm, 33 
Aneilema, 143 
Anemia, 154 
Anemone, I 
Anethum, 70 
Aneura, 156 
Anigozanthus, 135 
Anneslea, 42 
Anona, 4 
Anthemis, 76 
Anthoceros, 156 
Antiaria, 124 
AntiiThinum, 101 
Aphelandra, 105 
Aphlora, 13 
Apium, 70 
Apocynum, 92 
Apodytes, 43 
Aquilegium, 1 
Aralia, 71 



Araniodendron, 3 
Araucaria, 128 
Arbutus, 84 
Arctium, 76 
Ardisia, SO 
Areca, 145 
Arenaria. 69 
Aresia, 107 
Argemone, 9 
Ariseema, 148 
Aristolochia, 122 
Aristotelia, 27 
Armeria, 108 
Artabotrys, 4 
Artanthe", 126 
Artemisia, 76 
Artocai-pus, 124 
Arum, 148 
Arundo, 150 
Asagrsea, 142 
Asarum, 122 
Asclepias, 92 
Ascyrum, 33 
Asparagus, 140 
Asperula, 74 
Aspidospermum, 92 
Asplenium, 154 
Astelia, 144 
Asteranthus, 85 
Astragalus, 49 
Astrantia, 70 
Astrapsea, 25 
Astrephia, 75 
Astronia, 56 
Atriplex, 112 
Atropa, 100 
Avena, 150 
Averrhoa, 19 
Avicennia, 104 
Azolla, 153 

Banisteria, 31 
Banksia, 118 
Barbacenia, 135 
Barleria, 105 
Bartonia, 60 
Basella, 112 
Bassia, 87 
Befaria, ^7 
Begonia, 114 
Beleperone, 105 



Bellis, 76 
Benthamia, 72 
Benzoin, 116 
Berberis, 6 
Berchfemia, 47 
Berry a, 27 
Berth olletia, 58 
Beta, 112 
Betonica, 102 
Betula, 127 
Bignonia, 95 
Bilbergia, 138 
Billai-diera, 20 
Bixa, 13 
Blakea, 56 
Elitum, 112 
Bocagea, 4 
Bolax, 70 

Bolbophyllum, 132 
Boletus, "l 50 
Bolivnria, 90 
Bombax, 26 
Boerhaa\'ia, 110 
Boottia, 130 
Borago, 98 
Borronia, 44 
Botrychium, 154 
Botrydium, 160 
Botrytis, 159 
Bougueria, 109 
Bovista, 159 
Brabejum, 118 
Brachycai-pea, 11 
Bragantia, 122 
Bramia, 101 
Bx'assica, 11 
Brayera, 51 
Briza, 150 
Bromelia, 138 
Brosimum, 124 
Broussonetia, 124 
Browallia, 101 
Brucea, 45 
Brugmansia, 100 
Bruguiera, 93 
Brunonia, 79 
Brunswigia, 136 
Bryonia, 61 
Bryophyllum, 67 
Brysophila, 67 
Bi-yum, 155 



168 



INDEX. 



Bultroma, Sn 
Buclinera, 101 
Bncidn, 5!) 
Bu.Wla-a. 101 
Bugninvillea, 110 
Bnnielia, 87 
Bunchosia, 31 
linjilpunim, 70 
Bursaria, '-20 
Buxvis, 12:5 
BybUs, 18 
Byrsoninia, M 
Byttneria, 25 

Cactus, 05 
Caladium, 148 
Calamus, 145 
CalandriTiia, 114 
Calceolaria, 101 
Calectasia, 144 
Calla, 148 
Callicarpa, 104 
Callipronia, 115 
Calluna, 84 
Calopliyllum, 04 
Calosacme, 83 
Calystegia, 97 
Camarotis, 132 
Camelina, 11 
Camellia. 42 
Camcrana. 92 
Campanula, SO 
Caniphora, IIU 
Canarina, 80 
Candollea, 2 
Cauna, 133 
Cannabis, 125 
Capparis, 12 
Caprifolium. 72 
Capsicum, 100 
Caraipa, 42 
Carallia, 93 
Carapa, 40 
Cardamine, 11 
Cardiospermum. 28 
Careva, 57 
Carex, 149 
Carissa, 92 
Carlina, 70 
Carludovica, 146 
Carpodinus, 92 
Carthamus, 70 
Cartonema, 143 
Carnm, 70 
Carya, 50 
Caryophyllus, 57 
Casearia, 40 
Cassia, 49 
Cassytha, 110 
Castanea, 127 
Catalpa, 95 
C'atananche, 70 
Cattleya, 132 
Caulopbyllum, 6 
Caylusea, 17 
Coanotbus, 47 
Cecropia, 124 
Cedrcla, 39 



Colosia, 111 
Conomyco, 158 
Ccntauroa, 70 
Centrantbus, 75 
Centropogon, 81 
Centiostacbys, 111 
Cepbalaria, 77 
Cepbadis, 74 
Ceradia, 70 
Cerastium, 09 
Ccrasus, 53 
Ceratonia, 49 
Ceratostigma, 108 
Cerbera, 92 
Cereus, 05 
Cerintbe, 98 
Ceroxylon, 145 
Cotiaria, 158 
ClianiKrops, 145 
Cbamissoa, 111 
Cbara, 157 
Cbavica. 126 
Cbeilantbes, 154 
Cbeiianthera, 20 
Cbeiiantbus, 11 
Cbeirostemon, 20 
Cbelidonium, 9 
Cbelone, 101 
Chenopodium, 112 
Cbickrassia, 39 
Cbirita, 82 
Cliironia, 94 
Cblora, 94 
Chloroxylon, 39 
Chondodendron, 5 
Chrysobactron, 141 
Cbrysobalanus, 53 
Cbrysopbyllum, 87 
Cbrysosplenium, 68 
Cliuncoa, 59 
Chymocarpus, 24 
Cichorium, 70 
Cicuta, 70 
Cincbona, 74 
Cinnamomum, 116 
Circa-a, 02 
Cissampelos, 5 
Cissus, 37 
Cistancbe, 103 
Cistus, 22 
Citriobatus, 20 
Citrus, 41 
Cladnstachvs, 111 
Clarlda, 02 
Claviga, 80 
Claytonia, 04 
Clematis, 1 
Cleome, 12 
Clerodendron, 104 
Clintonia, 81 
(,'lusia, 34 
Cobica, !)(i 
Coccobryon, 120 
Coccocypselon, 74 
Coccoloba, 115 
Ox-culus, 5 
Cocblearia, 11 
(Jocos, 145 



Codon, 99 
Codonopsis, 80 
Cu^logyne, 132 
Cofliva, 74 
Coix, 150 
Cokhicum, 142 
Colicodeudron, 12 
Collomia, 90 
CoUopbora, 92 
Colocasia, 140 
Columnea, 82 
Combretum, 59 
Comesperma, 10 
Commelina, 143 
Comptouia, 121 
Conium, 70 
Conocarpus, 59 
Conolioria, 70 
Convallaria, 140 
Convolvulus, 97 
Cookia, 41 
Coprosma, 74 
Corcborus, 27 
Coriaudrum, 70 
Cornus, 72 
Correa, 44 
Corydalis, 7 
Corylus, 127 
Corynostylis, 15 
Corypba, 145 
Cosciniura, 5 
Cosmea, 70 
Cotoneaster, 51 
Couratari, 58 
Coui'opita, 58 
Crambe, 11 
Crassula, 07 
Crataegus, 52 
Cratajva, 12 
Cratoxylon, 33 
Cremanium, 50 
Crinum, 130 
Critbraiim, 70 
Crocus, 137 
Crotolaria, 49 
Croton, 123 
Crozophnra, 123 
Cryptandra, 47 
Cryptocarya, 110 
Cryptogramma, 154 
Cryptoraeria, 128 
Cubeba, 120 
Cucumis, 01 
Cueurbita, 01 
Cupbea, 54 
Cupressus, 128 
Curatella, 2 
Curcuma, 133 
Cusparia, 44 
Cycas. 129 
Cyanantbus, 90 
Cyanotis, 143 
Cyatbus, 159 
Cyclamen, 107 
Cyclantlius, 140 
Cydonia, 52 
Cymbidiurn, 132 
Cynancbum, 92 



Cynara, 76 
Cynocbes, 132 
Cynoglossum, 98 
Cyperus, 149 
Cvpbia, 80 
Cyrilla, 82 
Cysticapnos, 7 
Cystandra, 82 

Dactylicapnos, 7 
Dactylis, 150 
Dais, 119 
Damasonium, 131 
Dampiera, 79 
Dauiva, 154 
Dapbne, 119 
Datura, 100 
Diiiu'us, 70 
Davallia, 154 
Deeringia, 111 
]3elesseria, 160 
Deli ma, 2 
Delpliinium, 1 
Di^ndrobium, 132 
Desmncbrt'tia, 111 
Diantbus, 09 
Diapensia, 107 
Di centra, 7 
Dichorisandra, 143 
Diclytra, 7 
Dicranura, 150 
Dietainnus, 44 
Dicypellium, 110 
Didymocarpus, 82 
Diiffenbacbia, 148 
Dielytra, 7 
Digera, 111 
Digitalis, 101 
Dilatris. 135 
Dillenia, 2 
Dion, 129 
Dionea, 18 
Dioscorea, 139 
Diospyros, 88 
Dipbylleia, 
Dijiloclinium, 114 
Diplopteris, 31 
Dipsacus, 77 
Diptorocarpus, 35 
Dipteiix, 49 
Dirca, 119 
Disa, 132 
Discaria, 47 
Disemma, 14 
Ditassn, 123 
Dobinea, 30 
Dodecatheon, 107 
Dodonea, 28 
Dombeya, 25 
Dorstenia, 124 
Doryantbes, 130 
Doryopteris, 154 
Douglasia, 107 
Draba, 11 
Draca>na, 140 
Dracontinm, 148 
Diapetes, 119 
Drosera, 18 



I'SVV.X. 



169 



Drosophyllum, 18 
Dryandra, 118 
Dryas, 51 
Drymis, ;} 
Dryobalanops, 35 
Duriipa, 156 
Durio, 'Hi 
Dervill.Ta, ICO 
Duvaua, -48 
Dysoxylon, 40 

Eccremocai-pus, 95 
Echinocactus, 65 
Echinops, 76 
Echium, 98 
Eljeagr.us, 121 
EliBOcarpus, 27 
Elfcocharis, 149 
Elreococca, 123 
Elais, 145 
Elichrjsum, 76 
EUisia', 29 
Elodea, 33 
Eleuthera, 123 
Embelia, 86 
Emblica, 123 
Encephelartos, 129 
EnE;elhardtia, 50 
Epidendrum, 132 
Epilobiuni, 62 
Epimedium, 6 
Epiphegus, 103 
Epiphyllum, 65 
Equisetnm, 152 
Erica, 84 
Erineum, 159 
Eriobotrya, 52 
Eriogonnm, 115 
Eriopbomm, 149 
Eriolsena, 25 
Erodium, 38 
Erpetion, 15 
Eryngium, 70 
Ensinum, 11 
Erythra'a, 94 
Erythrochiton, 44 
Esenbeckia, 44 
Eucalyptus, 57 
Eugenia, 57 
Eupetalum, 114 
Euphorbia, 123 
Euphrasia, 101 
Eurya, 42 
Euryale, H 
Euthales, 79 
Eutoca, 99 
Evosmia, 74 
Exacum, 94 

Fadeynia, 154 
Fagopynim, 115 
Eagrsea, 91 
FaiiHs, 127 
Farsetia, 11 
Fedia, 75 
Feronia, 44 
Ferula, 70 
Festuca, 150 



Feuillwa, CI 
Ficus. 124 
Fieldia, 82 
Flacourtia, 13 
Flagellaria, 143 
Flindersia, 39 
Forslera, 78 
Fourcroya, 136 
Fraxinus, 89 
Freyciuetia, 146 
Fritillaria, 143 
Fuchsia, 62 
Fucus, 160 
Fuirena, 149 
Fumaria, 7 
Furcellaria, 160 
Fusanus, 120 

Galanthus, 130 

Galbanum, 70 

Galeandra, 132 

Galeobdolon, 102 

Galipea, 44 

Galium, 74 

Garcinia, 34 

Gaylussaeia, 83 

Gendarussa, 105 

Geripa, 74 

Genlisea, 106 

Gentians, 94 

Geranium, 38 

Gesnera, 82 

Gieseckia, 113 

Gilia, 96 

Gillenia, 51 

Glaucium, 9 
Gladiolus, 137 
Gloriosa, 142 
Gloxinia, 82 
Glycosmis, 41 
Glycyrrhiza, 49 
Gmelina, 104 
Gnaphalium, 76 
Gnidia, 119 
Gomphrena, 111 
Goodenia, 79 
Gordonia, 41 
Gossypium, 23 
Grevillea, 118 
Grewia, 27 
Grislea, 54 
Gualteria, 84 
Guarea, 40 
Guatteria, 4 
Guevina, 118 
Guizotia, 76 
Gymneuia, 92 
Gymnngramnia, 154 
Gynerium, 150 
Gyrophora, 158 
GysophiJa, 69 

Haberlea, 82 
Hakea, 118 
Haplopbyllum, 44 
Hartighsca, 40 
Hasseltia. 92 
Hcemanthus, 136 



Hromodoruni, 135 
Hedera, 71 
Hedychium, 133 
Ileimia, 54 
Heisteria, 43 
Ile'ianiphora, 10 
HeliantheniuiTi, 22 
Heliconia, 134 
Helicteres, 26 
Heliotropium, 98 
Ht'lleiiorus, 1 
Heliuintbia, 76 
Helonias, 142 
HemtTOcallis, 141 
Hepatiea, 1 
Heracleum, 70 
Hermannia, 25 
Herpestes, 101 
Hesperis, 11 
Heteropteris, 31 
Heuchera, 68 
Hibbertia, 2 
Hibiscus, 23 

Himanthalia, 160 

Hippeastrum, 136 

Hippocratoa, 32 

Hippomane, 123 

Hippophre, 121 

Hiptage, 31 

Hirea, 31 

HollboUia, 5 

Hopea, 35 

Hordeum, 150 

Hortia, 44 

Hottonia, 107 

Hoya, 97 

Hudsouia, 22 

Huraulus, 125 

Huntleya, 132 

Hyalostemma, 117 

Hyduocai-pus, 13 

Hydrocharis, 130 

Hydrolea, 99 

Hydrophyllum, 99 

Hydrilla, 130 

Hymenantbera, 15 

Hymenea, 49 
Hymenophyllum,154 
Hymenopogon, 74 
Hymenostoma, 155 
Hyoscyamus, 100 
Hypericum, 33 
Hyphffine, 145 
Hypnum, 155 

Licira, 43 
Iberis, 11 
Iguatia, 91 
Illicium, 3 
lonidium, 15 
Imbricaria, 87 
Incarvillea, 95 
Inocarpus, 119 
Ipomea, 97 
Iriartea, 146 
Iridu'a, 160 
Iris, 137 
Isatis. 11 



Isnardia, 62 
Isoetes, 153 
Isolepis, 149 
Isonandra, 87 
Isotoma, 81 
Ixin, 137 
Ixora, 74 

Jacaranda, 95 
Jacquinia, 86 
Jasione, 80 
Jasminum, 90 
Jatropba, 123 
Jobnia, 32 
Juanulloa, 100 
Juglans, 50 
J uncus, 144 
Jungermannia, 156 
Juniperus, 128 
Jussiffia, 62 
Justicia, 105 

Ka;mpferia, 133 
Kalanchoe, 67 
Kalmia, 84 
Kandelia, 93 
Khaya, 39 
Kielmeyera, 42 
Klaprothia, 60 
Klugia, 82 
Knautia, 77 
Kohautia, 74 
Kreysigia, 142 
Kydia, 25 
Kyllingia, 149 

Lacnanthes, 135 
Lsetia, 13 
Lagerstroemia, 54 
Lagetta, 119 
Laguncularia, 59 
Laminaria, 160 
Lamium, 102 
Lansium, 40 
Lantana, 104 
Lardizabala, 5 
Lasiandra, 56 
Lasiopetalum, 25 
Lathrasa, 103 
Laurus, 116 
Lavandula, 102 
Lawsonia, 64 
Lecanora, 158 
Lechea. 22 
Lechenaultia, 79 
Lecythis, 58 
Ledum, 84 
Leea, 37 
Leiantlies, 94 
Lerana, 148 
Leontice, 6 
Lepidium, 11 
Leptomeria, 120 
Leptosipbon, 96 
Leptospermum, 5T 
Lepurnnda, 124 
Leucodou, 155 
Lcucoliviin, 70 



170 



INDEX-. 



Leucospermum, 118 
Levenhookia, 78 
Lewisia, fi'J 
L-'yoi'stoi-ia, 72 
Lichteiistciiiia, 70 
Lij,Mistrmn, 8!) 
Lilimn, Hi 
Liiuiianthes, vJi 
Limnocharis, 131 
Linicinia, 41 
Limos.'Un, 101 
Liiiarin, 101 
Linuiii. -11 
Liriodemlron, 3 
Lisiantlius, 94 
Lithospermum, 98 
Littiva, I3f! 
Littorella, 109 
Loasa, CO 
Lobelia, 81 
Loinatia, 118 
Lonicera, 72 
Lopczia, (i'2 
L')j)ljospermum, 101 
Lnranthus, 73 
LiU'iola, 144 
Luouma, s7 
Liinaria, 11 
Lunularia, 156 
Lychnis, (i'J 
Lycopodium, 153 
Lysiraacliia, 107 
Lythrum, 54 

Maba, 88 
Madura, 124 
Macropiper, 126 
Macrocystis, 160 
Madia, 76 
:Ma-allana, 24 

.AI;i,'llMli;i, :i 
Maloj.e, 23 
Malpi;,'liia, 31 
Malva, 23 
Maraillaria, 05 
Mammea, 34 
Mangit'era, 48 
Manihot, 123 
Manti^ia, 133 
:\Iamiloa. 101 
Maranta, 133 
Marchantia, 156 
Marcgraavia, 36 
Mariscu>;, 14!) 
Marsiioa, 153 
Maihiola, 11 
Maiirandya, 101 
Mauritia, 145 
MeL'onopsis, 9 
Medeola, 140 
Medicago, 49 
Medinilla, 50 
Mf'lali'uca, 57 
ISL'hinipyruin, 101 
Jlelaiiorrli a, 4^^ 
Mehntliiiirn, 142 
Melf.stoma, 56 
Melhania, 25 



Melia, 40 
Melicocoa, 28 ' 
.Mflissa, 102 
Meini'cylDii, 50 
Meii'l(»/ia, 105 
Mciii-^p. rimira, 5 
M.Mitlia, 102 
Mentzelia, 00 
Meiiyuntlies, 94 
Meseiubryanthe- 

muiii, 03 
Mespilus 53 
Mesua, 34 
Metrosideros, 57 
Jlichauxia, 80 
Michelia, 3 
Miconia, 56 
Microsperma, 60 
Mik mia, 76 
Milnea, 40 
Mimosa, 49 
Mimulus, 101 
Miimisops, S7 
Mirabilis, 110 
Misodendron, 73 
JModecca, 14 
MoUugo, 6'A 
Momordica, 61 
^lonniua, 16 
Monsttn-a, 148 
Jlontia, 64 
Movffia, 137 
Moivhella, 159 
Moricandia, 11 
Morina, 77 
Morinda, 74 
Moronobea, 34 
Moms, ] 24 
Mucor, 159 
Mulilenbeckia, 115 
^luiidia, 10 
Mural tia, 16 
JNIurdannia, 143 
Musa, 134 
Mussajada, 74 
Mylitta, 159 
Myoporum, 104 
Myoschilus, 120 
:\Ivosotis, 98 
Myrica, 121 
IMyricaria, 55 
Myristica, 117 
Myrrliinium, 56 
Myrsine, 86 
Myrtus, 50 

Naias, 151 
Nama, 99 
Nandina, 121 
Napoleona, 85 
Narcissus, 136 
Nardostaciiys, 75 
Narthecium, 144 
Nasturtium, II 
Nectandra, 116 
Neguudo, 30 
Nelumbium, 8 
Nemopliila, 99 



Nephelium, 28 
Neriuni, 92 
Nerteria, 74 
Nicoiiana, 100 
Niduiaria, 159 
Nierembergia, 100 
Nigella, 1 
Nima, 45 
Nipa, 140 
Nitella, 157 
Nivenia, 118 
Norautea, 36 
N up liar, H 
Nuytsia, 73 
Nyetanthes, 90 
Nymphrea, 8 
Nyssa, 59 

Ochradenus, 17 
Ocyrauin, 102 
aiaautlie, 70 
ffiaothora, 02 
Olax, 43 
Oldenlandia, 74 
Olea, .S9 
Oncidium, 132 
Oucoba, 13 
Odcus, 139 
Onopordum, 76 
Onosmodium, 98 
Ophrys, 132 
Ophiocaryon, 28 
Ophioglossum, 154 
Ophiogon, 140 
Oplotheca, HI 
Opopanax, 70 
Opuiitia, 05 
Orchis, 132 
Oreodaphne, 110 
Ornithogalura, 141 
Orobancbe, 103 
Orthotricliuui, 155 
Oryza, 150 
Osbeckia, 50 
Osmuuda, 154 
Osyris, 120 
Ouvir.inda, 151 
Oxalis, 19 
Oxleya, 39 
Oxycoccus, 83 
Oxyria, 115 

Paliurus, 47 
Panax, 71 
Pancratium, 136 
Pandauns, 146 
Panicum, 150 
Papaver, 9 
Pappea, 28 
Papyrus, 149 
Parietaria, 125 
Paiinarium, 53 
Paris, 140 
Parmcdia, 158 
Parnassia, 33 
Paropsia, 14 
Passerina, 119 
Passiflora, 14 



Pastinaca, 70 
Patrinia, 75 
Paullinia, 28 
Paulownia, lOl 
Pavia, 29 
Pavonia, 23 
Pelargonium, 38 
Pellia, 150 
Pemphis, 54 
Penladesma, 34 
Pentaloba, 15 
Penlaptera, 59 
Peperomia, 126 
Peplis, 54 
Pereskia, 65 
Persea, 116 
Persica, 56 
Persoonia, 118 
Petrocallis, 11 
Petrophila, 118 
Petunia, 100 
Peziza, 159 
Phoenix, 145 
Phaius, 132 
Phalaris, 150 
Phalnenopsis, 132 
Pharbitis, 97 
Phavlopsis, 105 
Plieiipea, 103 
Phellaudriura, 70 
Philippodendron, 25 
Phleum, 150 
Phlomis, 102 
Phormium, 141 
Pholinia, 52 
Phycella, 130 
Phylica, 47 
Phylloglossum, 1 53 
Phyllirea, 89 
Physalis, 100 
Physocalymma, 54 
Physostemon, 12 
Phytelephas, 145 
Phyteuraa, 80 
Phytocrene, 124 
Phytolacca, 113 
Picraena, 45 
Picrorhiza, 101 
Pilocereus, 65 
Pilularia, 153 
Pimelea, 119 
Pimpinella, 70 
Pinckneya, 74 
Pinguicula, 106 
Pinus, 128 
Piper, 126 
Piptostegia, 97 
Pisonia, 110 
Pistacia, 48 
Pistia, 148 
Pisum, 49 . 
Pitcairnia, 138 
Pittosporum, 20 
Pitumba, 40 
Plant ago, 109 
Platyloma, 154 
Platystemon, 9 
Plectocoraia, 145 



IN DFX. 



171 



Pleroma, 50 
I'lumbago, 108 
riurniera, 9'i 
Poa, loo 
I'oinseltia, 123 
Pol an i si a, 12 
Polenioniuni, 00 
Poliantlies, Ul 
Polvalthia, 4 
Polygala, 10 
Polygoiiatum, 140 
Polygonum, 115 
Polyosma, Of! 
Polypodium, 154 
Polyporus, 150 
Polyscalis, 111 
Polyfrichum, 155 
Pomailerris, 47 
Popiilus, 127 
Porphyrocoma, 105 
Portulacca, 64 
Potalia, 91 
Potamogeton, 151 
Potedum, 01 
Potbos, 148 
Prangos, 70 
Premna, 104 
Primula, 107 
Prionum, 144 
Protea, 118 
Protococcus, 100 
Psidium, 57 
Pteris, 154 
Pterisantbes, 37 
Pterocarya, 50 
Pulmonaria, 08 
Punica, 57 
Pupalia, 111 
Puya, 138 
Pyrrbosa, 117 
Pyrularia, 120 
P.vrus, 52 
Pytbonium, 148 

Quercus, 127 
Quillaia, 51 

Piadiola, 21 
Rayania, 139 
Eamalina, 158 
Kamondia, 82 
Ranunculus, 1 
Rapbanus, 11 
Reboulia, 150 
Eeptonia, 80 
Reseda, 17 
Rbamnus, 47 
Rbeum, 115 
Rbinantbus, 101 
Rhipsalis, 05 
Rliizoniorpba, 159 
Rbizopbora, 03 
Rbodiola, 07 
Rbododendron, 84 
Rhodomenia, 100 
Rhus, 49 
Ribes, 66 
Riccia, 150 



Ricbardia, US 
llicinus, 123 
Itiviiia, 113 
Robiiiia, 49 
Roccella, 158 
Roellia, 80 
Romanzovia, 99 
Rondeletia, 74 
Rosa, 51 
Rotala, 54 
Koyena, 88 
Rubia, 74 
Rubus, 51 
Ruellia, 105 
Rumex, 115 
Ruscus, 140 
Ruta, 44 
Ruyscbia, 30 
Ryssopteris, 31 

Saccharum. 150 
Sageretia, 47 
Sagittaria, 131 
Sagus, 145 
Salacia, 32 
Salicornia, 112 
Salix, 127 
Salomonia, 16 
Salpiglossis, 100 
Salsola, 112 
Salvia, 102 
Salvinia, 153 
Samadei'a, 45 
Sambucus, 72 
Samolus, 107 
Samyda, 40 
Sauguinaria, 9 
Sanguisorba, 51 
Santalum, 120 
Santolina, 76 
Sapindus, 28 
Saponaria, 09 
Sai'cocapnos, 7 
Sarcocaulon, 38 
Sarcocepbalus, 74 
Sarcostemma, 92 
Sai'gassnm, 100 
Sarracenia, 10 
Sassafras, 116 
Saxifraga, 68 
Scabiosa, 77 
Scffivola, 79 
Scandix, 70 
Scbebera, 95 
Sc-binus, 48 
Schizantbus, 101 
Scbomburgkia, 132 
Scbubertia, 128 
Scilla, 141 
Scindaspus, 148 
Scirpus, 149 
Scleroderma, 159 
Scolopendrium, 154 
Scoparia, 101 
Scorzonera,^76 
Scropbularia, 101 
Scutellaria, 102 
Scyotbalia, 100 



Scytosipbon, 100 
Secale, 150 
Securidaca, 16 
Sedum, 67 
Selliera, 79 
Semeearpus, 48 
Serapervivum, 67 
Serjania, 28 
Sesuvium, 03 
Sborea, 35 
Sibtborpia, 101 
Sicyos, 61 
Sida, 23 
Sieversia, 51 
Sileue, 69 
Simaba, 45 
Simaruba, 45 
Sipbocampylos, 81 
Sipbonia, 123 
Sisyrincbium, 137 
Smeatbmannia, 14 
Smilacina, 140 
Smilax, 140 
Sobralia, 132 
Sodada, 12 
Solanum, 100 
Souerila, 56 
Sonueraiia, 57 
Sorgbura, 150 
Soularaea, 16 
Soymida, 39 
Sparaxis, 137 
Sparmaunia, 27 
Sparganium, 147 
Spartium, 49 
Spergula, 69 
Spbragnum, 155 
Spigelia, 91 
Spirea, 51 
Spkcbnum, 155 
Spondias, 48 
Stacbytarpheta, 104 
Stapelia, 92 
Statice, 108 
Stauntonia, 5 
Stellaria, 69 
Stenocarpus, 118 
Stenodon, 66 
Sterculia, 26 
Stereocaulon, 158 
Sternbei'gia, 136 
Striata, 158 
Sligraapbyllum, 31 
Stillingia, 123 
Stratiotes, 130 
Strelitzia, 134 
Streptocarpus, 82 
Streptopus, 140 
Striga, 101 
Strobilanthes, 105 
Strycbnos, 91 
Stuartia, 42 
Stylidiura, 78 
Subularia, 11 
Sumatrana, 15 
Suttonia, 86 
Swietenia, 39 
Syrapboria, 72 



Sympbytum, 98 
Syriuga, 89 

Tabernremontana, 92 
Tacsonia, 14 
Talauma, 3 
Tamarix, 55 
Tamus, 139 
Tangbinia, 92 
Taraxacum, 7(5 
Targionia, I5(i 
Tasmannia, 3 
Taxus, 128 
Tecoma, 95 
Tectona, 104 
Te(3dia, 101 
Tellairia, 01 
Telopea, ] 18 
TeriuinaHa, 59 
Ternstromia, 42 
Tessarandra, 89 
Testitudinaria, 139 
Telracera, 2 
Tetragonolobus, 49 
Tetragonia, 63 
Tblaspi, 11 
Tbea, 42 
Tbeobroma, 35 
Theopbrosta, 86 
Tbelygonura, 112 
Tbesium, 120 
Tbibaudia, 83 
Tbunbergia, 105 
Tbvnius, 102 
Tiarella, 68 
Ticorea, 44 
Tigridia, 137 
Tilia, 27 
Tillandsia, 138 
Tococo, 56 
Tontelea, 32 
Torenia, 101 
Tormentilla, 51 
Tournefortia, 98 
Tradeseantia, 143 
Tricbilia, 40 
Tricbodesma, 98 
Tricosantbes, 01 
Trientalis, 107 
Triiblium, 49 
Triglocbin, 151 
Trigonocarpus, 95 
Trigonia, 16 
Trillmiu, 140 
Tripbasia, 41 
Triplaris, 1 1 5 
Triplostegia, 75 
Tristemnia, 56 
Triticum, 150 
Trollius, 1 
Tropa^olum, 24 
Tubor, 159 
Tulipa, 141 
Tupa, HI 
Turrea, 40 
Tussilago, 76 
Typba, 147 



172 



INDEX. 



Ulva, ICO 
Urania, 134 
Urceola, !»2 
Urena, "JM 
Urtica, 1'25 
Urvillea, 2H 
Usnea, IW 
Utrieuliiria, 100 
Uvaria, 4 
Uvularia, 142 

Vaccinium, 83 
Vahea, !)2 
Viileriana, 75 
Viillesia, !)2 
Vallisneria, 130 
Vandelia, 101 



Vangueria, 74 
Vanilla, 132 
Variolaria, 158 
Valeria, 35 
Velleia, 70 
Vellozia, 135 
Veratniiii, 142 
Verliasiuin, 100 
Vorbemi, 104 
Veronica, 101 
Verticillaria, 34 
Viljurnum, 72 
A'ictoria, 8 
Villarsia, 'J4 
Vinca, !)2 
A'iola, 15 
Virol a, 117 



^isciim, 73 
Visniia, 33 
Vitex, 104 
Vitis, 37 
Vogelia, 108 

Walilcnbergia, 80 
NNnlilieria, 25 
ANVlliiigtonia, 128 
Whitlavia. i»"J 
Wiegt-la, 72 
AVightia, 05 
Willu^'liljeia, 02 
Wistaria, 40 

Xanthochymus, 34 
Xanthopbylluni, 10 



Xanthorrhea, 141 
Xerotes, 144 
Xinionia, 43 
Xylopia, 4 

Yucca, 141 

Zaniia, 120 
/^annichfllia, 151 
Zanonia, 01 
Zea, 150 
Zingiber, 133 
Zinnia, 70 
Zizyphus, 47 
Zoslcra, 151 



THE END. 



LONDON 

STRANQEWAYS and WaLDKN, PRlNTERf 

Castle St. Leicester Sq.