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Full text of "The imperial administrative system in the ninth century, with a revised text of Kletorologion of Philotheos"

THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS 
I 

The 

Imperial Administrative System 
in the Ninth Century 

t 

With a Revised Text of 

The Kletorologion of Philotheos 



J. B. Bury 

Fellow of the Academy 




London 

Published for the British Academy 

By Henry Frowde, Oxford University Press 

Amen Corner, E.G. 

Price Ten Shillings and Sixpence net 



THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

SUPPLEMENTAL PAPERS 
I 

The 

Imperial Administrative System 
in the Ninth Century 

With a Revised Text of 

The Kletorologion of Philotheos 

By 

J. B. Bury 

Fellow of the Academy 



London 

Published for the British Academy 

By Henry Frowde, Oxford University Press 

Amen Corner, E.G. 

1911 



SUMMARY OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

BIBLIOGRAPHY .......... 3 

A. PRELIMINARY .......... 7 

(1) Sources for institutional history. 

(2) The text of Philotheos. 

(3) The contents and sources of the Kletorologion. The Taktikon 

Uspenski. 

(4) Scope of the following investigation. General comparison of 

the Constaiitinian with the later Byzantine system. 

B. DIGNITIES (at Sta /?/oa/3etW di'at) ...... 20 

C. OFFICES (at Sia \6yov dtat) ....... 36 

I. crrpar^yot. 

II. So/ACOTlKOl. 

III. Kptrai. 
IV. 
V. 
VI. 
VII. dtat 



D. DIGNITIES AND OFFICES OF THE EUNUCHS . . . . .120 
I. d^tat Sta ^paj8etW. 
II. d^tat Sta \6yov. 

TEXT OF THE KLKTOROLOGION OF PHILOTHEOS . 131 



Ml 

226210 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



SOURCES. 



[Not. Dig.] 
[C. Th.] 

[C. I.] 



[C. I.] 



[Cass. Var.] 
[Lydus.] 
[Pet. Patr.j 



[(Maurice) Strut.] 



[Takt. Usp.] 



[Ibn Khurd. 

[Kudama] 
[Bas.J 



Saec. V. 

Notitia Dignitatum, ed/Seeck, 1876. 
Codex Theodosianus, ed Mommsen, 1905. 
Novettae Theodosii II, &c., ed. Meyer, 1905. 
Codex lustinianus (see below). 

Saec. VI. 

Codex lustinianus, ed. Kruger, 1884. 
lustiniani Novettae, ed. Zacharia von Lingenthal, 1881. 
lustini II, Tiberii II, Mauricii Novettae, in Zacharia 
v. Lingenthal, Ins Graeco-Romanum , Pars III, 1857. 
Cassiodorus Senator, Variae, ed. Mommsen, 1894. 
loannes Lydus, De Magistratibus , ed. Wiinsch, 1903. 
Petrus Patricius, Catastasis, fragments in Const. Porph. 
De Cerimoniis i, cc. 84-95 ; cp. also ib. pp. 497-8 (see 

below). 
Pseudo-Maurice, Strategikon, ed. Scheffer, 1664. 

Saec. VII. 

Descriptions of ceremonies in reign of Heraclius, in Const. 

Porph. De Cerimoniis ii, cc. 27-30 (see below). 
f Diva iussio lustiniani Augusti [II] ... in confirmationem 

sextae synodi Constantinopolitanae ' [A. D. 687], Mansi, 

Concilia, xi. 737- 

Saec. VIII. 

Leo III and Constantine, Ecloga, ed. Monferratus, 1889. 
Some descriptions of ceremonies, in Const. Porph. De 
Cerimoniis, esp. i. 43 and 44. 

Saec. IX. 



TOKTIKOV cv firiro^w ycvofievov eVi Mi^a/yX . . . KOI Qeoftwpas . . . 

ed. Th. Uspenski, in Izviestiia russkago arkheologicheskago 

instituta v Konstantinopolie, iii. 109, sqq. 1898. 
Ibn Khurdadhbah, ffitdb al-Masdlik wa 'l-Mamdlik, ed. De 

Goeje, in Bibl. Geogr. Arab, vi, 1889 (pp. 76-85). 
Kudama ibn Ja far, ibid. (pp. 196-9). 
Basilicorum libri Ix, vols. i-vi, ed. Heimbach, 1833-70 ; 

vol. vii, ed. Ferrini and Mercati, 1897. 

Ml 2 



4 BIBLIOGRAPHY 

[Epan.] Epanagoge legis Basilii et Leonis et Alexandri, ed. Zacharia 

v. L., 1852. 
[Prochiron] 6 npoxdpo? vopos (of Basil 1), ed. Zacharia v. L., 1837. 

Leonis VI Novellae, in Zacharia v. L.,Ius Graeco-Romanum , 

iii (see above). 

[Leo, Tact.] Leo VI, Tactica, in Migne, P. G. y vol. 107. 

[Phil.] Philotheos, Kletorologion. 

Ceremonies. Many of the ceremonies described in Const. 

Porph. De Cer., date from the ninth century. 
Description of Triumph of Theophilus, Const. Porph. nepl 

T>V @a<Ti\iKa>v rageidtatv, 503 sqq. (see below). 
Description of Triumph of Basil I, ibid. 498 sqq. 
Leo VI. T6 tTrapxiKov pifiXiov (le livre du Pre'fet), ed. 
Nicole, 1893. 

Saec, X. 

[Cer.] Constantine Porphyrogennetos, De Cerimoniis, ed. Bekker 

[vol. i], Bonn, 1829. 

\nep\ ra.] nepl TO>V &a<n\m&v raeitW, ibid. , 444-508. 

[De adm. imp.'] , De administrando imperio, ed. Bekker [vol. iii], 

Bonn, 1840. 
[Them.] , De Thematibus, ibid. 

Romani I et Constantini VII Novellae ; in Zacharia v. L., 

lus Graeco-Romanum, iii (see above). 
[Anon. Vari] Incerti scriptoris Byzantini saec. X liber de re militari, ed. 

Vari, 1901. 

Nicephorus Phocas, STpaTjjytKi) eK^cri? Kal <rvvTais, ed. 
Kulakovski, in Zapiski of St. Petersburg Academy, viii e 
se'r. viii. 9, 1908. 

To this list must be added the Acta Conciliorum (esp. of the 6th, 7th, and 8th 
General Councils), which are cited from Mansi's collection ; and the seals which 
begin in the sixth century and become more numerous and important afterwards. 1 

SEALS. 

[Sig.] Schlumberger, S/gillographie de F Empire byzantin, 1884. 

[Mel.] Schlumberger, Melanges d' archeologie byzantine, premiere 

se'rie, 1895. 

[Panchenko] Panchenko, Katalog molybdobullov [in the collection of the 

Russian Arch. Institute at Cple.], in the Izviestiia of the 
Institute, viii. 199 sqq. (1903), ix. 342 sqq. (1904), xiii. 
78 sqq. (1908). 

[Konstantopulos] Konstantopulos, BvfavnaKa /uoXv/3&d/3ouXXa [in the National 
Numismatic Museum of Athens], in the Journal inter- 
national d'archeologie numismatique, vols. ix and x, 
1906, 1907. 

The chronicles and other literary sources need not be enumerated here. The 
historians and chroniclers are cited from the Bonn texts (Cont. Th. =Theophanes 

1 The collections of Egyptian Papyri (Pap. Brit. Mus., B. G. U., Oxyrhynchus > 
<fec.) are occasionally useful for illustration. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 5 

Continuatus ; Gen. = Genesius), except Procopius, ed. Haury, Theophylactus 
Simocatta, ed. De Boor, Nicephorus Patriarcha, ed. De Boor, (Theoph. ) 
Theophanes, ed. De Boor, or where otherwise specified. Evagrius is cited from 
the ed. of Parmentier and Bidez ; the fragments of Menander, &c., from Miiller, 
F. H. G. iv. 

MODERN WORKS, 

Godofredus, Codex Theodosianus (Commentary), 1736-46. 
Booking, Notitia Dignitatum (Commentary), 1839-53. 
Karlowa, Romische Rechtsgeschichte, vol. i, 1885 
Schiller, Geschichte der romischen Kaiser 'zeit, vol. ii, Chap. I, 

1887. 

[Mommsen] Mommsen, Ostgotische Studien, in Neues Archiv, xiv, 1888. 

Mommsen, Ephemeris Epigraphica, v. 1884. 
Aussaresses, L'armee byzantine a la fin du vi e siecle, 1909. 
Gelzer^M.), Studien zur byzantinischen Verwaltung Aegyp- 

tens, 1909. 
Bury, Magistri scriniorum, dvTiypafprjs and pefapevdapioi, in 

Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 1910. 
Diehl, L' administration byzantine dans texarchat de Ravenne, 

1888. 
Hartmann, Untersuchungen zur Geschichte der byzantinischen 

Verwaltung in Italien, 1889. 
Diehl, L'Afrique byzantine, 1896. 



[Ducange] Ducange, Glossarium ad scriptores mediae et infimae 

Graecitatis, 2 vols., 1688. (Compare also his commen- 
taries on works which he edited in the Paris Corpus.) 
[Reiske] Reiske, Commentarii ad Const. Porph. de Cerimoniis = Const. 

Porph., vol. ii, ed. Bonn. 
[Rambaud] Rambaud, L' empire grec au diademe siecle, 1870. 

Zacharia von Lingenthal, Geschichte des griechisch-rdmischen 

Rechts, ed. 3, 1892. 
[Bieliaev] Bieliaev, Byzantina : ocherki, materialy i zamietki po vizan- 

tiiskim drevnostiam, i, 1891 ; ii, 1893. 

(Uspenski, Tabel] Uspenski, Vizantiiskaia tabel o rangakh, in Izv. russk. arkh. 
Instituta v Kplie, iii, 1898. 

Uspenski, Konstantinopot 'skii Eparkh, rbid., iv, 2, 1899. 

Uspenski, Voennoe ustroistvo vizantiiskoi imperil, ibid., vi, i, 
1900. 

Panchenko, Bao-iXiKos IltoTiKos, ibid, vii, 1902. 

Uspenski, Partii tsirka i dimy v Kplie, in Vizantiiski 
Vremennik, i, 1894. 

Kulakovski, Drung i drungarii, ibid., ix, 1902. 

Kulakovski, Vizantiiskii lager kontsa, Xvieka, ibid., x, 1903. 

Mitard, Note sur la fonction d' < npoa-nirov TO>V dfudrav, in 
Byzantinische Zeitschrift, xii, 592-4, 1903. 

Bury, The Ceremonial Book of Constantine Porphyrogennetos, 
in English Historical Review, xxii, April and July, 1907. 

Vogt, Basile I er , 1908. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

(On the organization, &c., of the Themes.) 
Diehl, L'origine du regime des Thtmes dans V Empire byzantin, 

1896. 
[Gelzer] Gelzer, Die Genesis der byzantinischen Themenverfassung , in 

Abhandlungen der kon. sachsischen Gesellschaft der Wissen- 

schaften, Phil.-Hist. CL, xviii, 1899. 
Brooks, Arabic Lists of the Byzantine Themes, in Journal of 

Hellenic Studies, xxi, 1901. 
Kulakovski, K voprosy ob imeni i istorii themy c Opsikii ' , in 

Vizantiisld Vremennik, xi, 1904. 

(On titles of honour.) 

Hirschfeld, Die Rangtitel der romischen Kaiserzeit, in 

Sitzungsberichte der Berliner Akademie, 1901, 579 sqq. 
Koch, Die byzantinischen Beamtentitel von 400 bis 700, 1903, 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE 
SYSTEM IN THE NINTH CENTURY 

A. PRELIMINARY. 

(1) Sources for institutional history. 

FOR the history of the administrative institutions of the Roman 
Empire in the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries A.D., we have material 
which is relatively ample. We have the lawbooks of Theodosius and 
Justinian, arid the Notitia Dignitatum, of which the latest portions 
date from about A.D. 425. We have further the letters of Cassio- 
dorus, written in his official capacity as quaestor in the palace of 
Ravenna, and, although he is concerned with the Imperial institutions 
as they were modified to suit the conditions of the Ostrogothic 
kingdom, the offices and functions were so little altered that the 
information supplied by Cassiodorus is, as Mommsen perceived, of 
the highest value not only for the administration of Ravenna but also 
of Constantinople. In addition to these authoritative documents, we 
have the mutilated treatise Trept apy&v of John the Lydian, which, 
rambling though it is, furnishes precious material, the author having 
been himself an official in the reigns of Anastasius, Justin I, and 
Justinian. These sources supplemented by inscriptions and the 
incidental notices to be found in literature render it possible to 
obtain a sufficiently clear and fairly complete general view of the civil 
and military administration as it was organized by Diocletian and 
Constantine, and as it was modified in details down to the reign of 
Justinian. ^3ut after the death of Justinian we enter upon a period 
of about three hundred years which is absolutely destitute of docu- 
ments bearing directly upon the administrative service^ We have no 
source in the form of a code ; for the only lawbook that survives, the 
Ecloga of Leo III, does not deal with public law, and casts no light 
on the civil and military administration. We have nothing in the 
form of a Notitia of offices, no official correspondence like that of 
Cassiodorus, no treatise like that of John the Lydian. Moreover, in 
the seventh and eighth centuries there is very little literature, and 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

inscriptions on stone are few and far between. 1 Our only compen- 
sation is a very small one ; we now begin to get inscribed lead seals 
of officials, which become numerous in the eighth and ninth cen- 
turies. At lasfy^ibout the middle of the ninth century, a new series 
of sources relating to the official service of the Empire beginsN The 
first of these is a notitia or TCLKTIKOV, as it was called, of thfe chief j 
dignitaries and officials in order of rank, dating from the early years 
of the reign of Michael III. It is a bare list, but about half a ( 
century later comes the Kletorologion of Philotheos, which is by far 
the most important source for the organization of the Imperial civil 
service in the early Middle Ages. And then about half a century \ 
later still we have the Ceremonial book compiled by Constantine VII. 
This collection contains a great many older documents, some dating 
from the ninth century, and two or three even from the eighth. We 
have also other writings of Constantine VII, especially the Trept T&V 
pa<TL\LK(i)v rafet8to>z> and some chapters of the De administrando 
imperio. 

Now^hese documents of the ninth and tenth centuries show us an 
administrative system quite different from that which prevailed in the 
days of Justinian y It is probably due, at least in part, to the nature 
of the documents that this later system has never been thoroughly 
examined. For the documents, though of official origin, are/not 
directly concerned with administration ; they are concerned with 
ceremonial and court precedence, and while they reveal a picture of 
the world of officialdom, they tell little of the serious duties of the 
officials N They have not therefore invited systematic investigation, 
like the Codex Theodosianus or the Notitia Dignitatum. One 
department indeed of the administration has, during the last twenty 
years, received particular attention, namely, the general administration 
of the provinces, the system of Themes. We have now a valuable 
study of the subject by the late Professor H. Gelzer, who has also 
partially examined the military organization. It must be added that 
the judicial machinery has been partly explored by Zacharia von 
Lingenthal. But the general civil administration and the great 
ministerial bureaux at Constantinople have not been studied at all. 
This neglect has been a serious drawback for students of the history 

1 For the administration of Egypt the papyri supply considerable material, 
even for the period from Justinian to the Saracen conquest. Particular atten- 
tion may be called to the documents dating from the early Saracen period in 
Papyri in the British Museum, ed. Kenyon, vol. iv (accessible to me, before 
publication, through the editor's kindness). But the Egyptian material helps 
little for the general administrative changes with which we are here concerned. 






THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 9 

of the Eastern Roman Empire. We can observe its effects in most of 
the works that are published on the subject. We can see that the 
writers do not attach clear and definite ideas to the official titles 
which are mentioned in their pages ; they often confound distinct 
offices, and they confound offices with orders of rank. Schlum- 
berger^s magnificent work on Byzantine Seals may be cited in 
illustration; it is marred by many confusions between different 
officials and different departments. 

It is therefore a task of urgent importance to reconstruct, so far as 
we can, the official organization of the later Empire at the earliest 
period for which we have sufficient evidence. It is true that at no 
period of Byzantine history have we documents that can be remotely 
compared with the Codes of Theodosius and Justinian or with the 
Notitia Dignitatum ; but we must make the best of what we have. 

Now the most important document we possess, the only one that 
gives us anything like a full notitia of the bureaux and officials, is 
the Kletorologion of Philotheos, which was compiled in the reign of \ 
Leo VI, in the year A. D. 899. It is therefore the proper starting- 
point for an investigation of the subject. We may say that for the 
institutional history of the ninth and tenth centuries it holds the 
same position, in relative importance, which the Notitia Dignitatum 
occupies for the fourth and fifth. 

Once the actual organization existing in the time of Leo VI has 
been worked out, a further problem presents itself, namely, to trace 
the steps by which it developed out of the organization existing in 
the time of Justinian. The evidence of our literary sources shows us 
that in all main essentials the later system existed in the eighth \ 
century. The transformations were effected between the end of the 
sixth century and the middle of the eighth, in the darkest period of 
Imperial history, for which we have little more than meagre second- 
hand chronicles and a few incidental notices in ecclesiastical 
documents. 

In practice, however, it is impossible to separate the two investiga- 
tions, namely, that of the institutions actually existing in the ninth 
century, and that of their history. %The principal object of the 
present study is to determine the details of the ninth-century 
organization, but, as Philotheos, our main guide, only gives the 
names of the officials and does not indicate their functions, we are 
obliged to trace the offices, so far as we can, into the past, in order 
to discover what they werey \ln the case of many of the sub- 
ordinate officials we have no data, and must leave their functions 
undetermined/ 



10 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

(2) Text of Philotheos. 

As the foundation of these investigations, a critical text of 
Philotheos is indispensable. The Kletorologion has come down to 
us as part of the second book (cc. 52-54) of the De Cerimoniis of/ 
Constantine Porphyrogennetos. But it was an independent treatise ; 
it formed no part of Constantine's treatise, but was appended to it, 
along with other documents, probably by the Emperor's literary 
executors, shortly after his death, as I have shown in a study which 
I published on the Ceremonial Book in 1907. 1 

The treatise known as De Cerimoniis was first published by Leich 
and Reiske at Leipzig, in 1751-4, in two volumes. It was re-edited 
by Bekker for the Bonn edition of the Byzantine historians in 1829. 
Bekker consulted but did not make a complete collection of the MS. 

The sole MS. in which this work of Constantine has come down to 
us is preserved in the Stadtbibliothek of Leipzig (Rep. i, 17). It is 
a fine large quarto parchment ; the titles and lists of contents are in 
red ink, and the initials at the beginnings of chapters are coloured. It 
seems to have been written about the end of the eleventh century. 
It contains 265 folia, but ff. 1-212 are occupied by another treatise 
of Constantine, which in the Bonn edition curiously appears as an 
appendix to Book I of the De Cerimoniis. I have shown that it is 
an entirely distinct treatise. 2 It concerns military expeditions con- 
ducted by the Emperor in person, and I have designated it as irepl 
T&V fia<ri\iK.G>v rafeiSiW. 

Until recently our only source for the text of the work of Philotheos 
was the Leipzig MS. But some years ago Theodor Uspenski, the 
Director of the Russian Archaeological Institute at Constantinople, 
found a portion of the text in a Greek codex in the Patriarchal library 
at Jerusalem. This MS. is numbered 39 in the Catalogue of 
Papadopoulos-Kerameus. 3 It was written in the twelfth or thirteenth 
century. The portion of the treatise which it contains (f. 181-3, 
192-4) is unfortunately small, corresponding to less than eleven 
pages of the Bonn edition. The fragment begins with TO'JUIO? 
ft' p. 726, 4 and ends at Kara rd^iv Tipaa-QuHrav = p. 736. Uspenski 
collated the fragment with the Bonn text and published his col- 
lation in Vol. Ill of the Izviestiia of the Russian Archaeological 

1 English Historical Review, April, 1907. 

2 English Historical Review, July, 1907, p. 439. 
8 'lepoa-oXvpiTiKr) 'Bi^XiodrjKT], p. 115. 

* I refer throughout to the pages of Bekker's ed. which are entered in 
margin of my text, and in most cases add the line for the convenience of those 
who care to refer to that ed. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 11 

Institute at Constantinople (pp. 98 sqq. Sofia, 1898). The 
occurrence of this fragment in the Jerusalem MS. illustrates the 
fact that the Kletorologion circulated quite independently of the 
De CerimoniiSy with which it has been accidentally connected. 
Uspenski observes (p. 101) that ( it is impossible to doubt that as 
a practical manual the treatise of Philotheos must have been diffused 
in separate copies \ 

But for the main bulk of the text we depend exclusively on the 
Leipzig MS. With a view to the text which I now publish, I had 
photographs made (by kind permission of the Oberbibliothekar) of 
the 27 folia which contain the treatise (cc. 52, 53). l A comparison 
shows that the Bonn text is by no means trustworthy or accurate. The 
MS. itself is also a very careless copy of the original. It is full of 
errors, which were left undetected by Reiske and Bekker. Bekker 
did not study the subject at all, and Reiske, although he published 
a learned commentary, never made a methodical examination of the 
official organization, and therefore was not in a position to criticize 
and control the text, or to detect inconsistencies and mistakes. 

The paucity of paragraphs and the absence of any tabular arrange- 
ment render the Bonn edition extremely inconvenient for practical 
use. I have endeavoured to remedy this defect. In introducing 
tabular arrangement I am only reverting to the form which the author 
undoubtedly adopted himself. For tabular arrangement is partly 
preserved in the Lipsiensis, and there can be hardly any doubt that 
Philotheos wrote his lists of offices in the form of a irtva or tabula. 

(3) Contents and sources of the Kletorologion. The Taktikon 

Uspenski. 

The superscription of the Kletorologion states that it was compiled 
in September of Indiction 3 = A.M. 6408 ( = September 1, 899- 
August 31, 900), i. e. September, A. D. 899. The author describes 
himself as ( Imperial protospatharios and atriklines '. ^The duty of 
the atriklinai was to conduct the ceremonial of the Imperial banquets 
in the palace, to receive the guests and arrange them in order of pre- 
cedence. In the MS. we find the form apTLK\ivrjs as well as aTpiK\(vrjs, 
but the latter is the true form of the word, which is evidently derived 



1 The eKdfo-is of Epiphanios, which Philotheos appended to his treatise, and 
which appears as c. 54, does not concern my purpose, and I have omitted it. 
I may note here that (except in a few cases like aeKpfrov, TOTroTrjprjrrjs) I have 
not normalized the orthographical variations of the MS. but have retained the 
double forms Ka/ztVia : Ka/zqo-ta, aXXat'/xara : -j^/uaTa, trrpaTBjMt : -tapes, a.TpiK\ivr)$ '. 
apTiK\ivr)s (but not apro/cX.), &c. 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



from a triclinio (cp. ao-rj/cpTJns). 1 KX-^-ropiov was a technical word for 
an Imperial banquet, 2 and the verb KXrjToptva was used both in the 
general sense of inviting, 3 and also in the special sense of receiving 
the guests and announcing their names in order of precedence/ a 
duty which devolved on the atriklines. To fulfil this duty, a list of 
the ministers, officials, and dignitaries, who had a right to be enter- 
tained in the palace, arranged in order of precedence, was indispen- 
sable to the atriklines, and such a list was called a KXrjropoXoyiov. 
These lists were revised from time to time ; for not only might new 
offices be instituted and old ones abolished, but changes might be 
made in the order of precedence. 

That such changes were made is clear from the comparison of 
Philotheos with an earlier document which was published by Uspenski 
from the same MS., in which he found a portion of Philotheos. 5 
This is a Ta/criKoV, or table of ranks, which was compiled under 
Michael III and Theodora. The title is : 

TaKTtKoz; tv eTuro/xa) y(v6yAvov em Mt^a^A rov tyiXoyjzivTov becnrorov 
Kal 0o8copay rrjs opOobo^OTdrrjs /cat aytay avrov /xr/rpo's. 

Uspenski has not touched upon the limits of the date of this 
document, but it can be fixed within fourteen years. The fall of 
Theodora occurred at the beginning of A.D. 856, 6 so that the Taktikon 
must have been compiled before that year and after A.D. 842, the 
year of the accession of Michael. Internal evidence bears out the 
date of the superscription. The Strategos of Cherson (o-rparrjyos T&V 
KXifjidrcDv) is mentioned; the first Strategos of Cherson 7 was appointed 
by Theophilus (c. A.D. 834). The Charsian province appears as a 
kleisura not a strategis 8 ; this agrees with the Arabic lists which 
describe the themes as they existed in the period A.D. 838-845. 9 In 



1 It occurs in Gen. 31 n TOV rr\v 7ri<TTacriav ZXOVTOS T&V els Tpcnreav KeKX^/zei/cov cv 
d.TpiK\ivr)v tftrjfufawri* The Latin version renders rightly a triclinio, and Sophocles 
gives the same explanation. The word does not appear in Ducange. 

2 Suidas explains K\r}TG>ptov as fj /Sao-iXt/o? rpa7rea. Cp. Pseudo-Symeon 703., 
Leo VI crowned Anna, 8ia TO pr) 8vvaa-6ai Troielv TO. e'/c TVTTOV K\rjTopia p,rj 



3 Theoph. 375 ]9 (Justinian II) rrpbs apio-ToSenrvov K\i]Topfvcov. 

4 We meet it in this sense in Philotheos. 

5 loc. cit. 109 sqq. A notable example of changes in precedence is furnished 
by the different positions of the Domestic of the Excubiti and the Prefect of the 
City in the two lists. 

6 See the evidence in Hirsch, Byzantitoische Studien, 60-1. 

7 Cont. Th. 123. 

8 P. 123, where we must read the singular 6 K\ei(rovpupxris Xapo-tavov. 

9 Of Ibn Khurdadhbah, Ibn al-Fakih, and Kudama, depending on a work of 
Al-Garmi,, who had been a captive among the Romans and was redeemed in 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 13 

A.D. 873 the Charsian theme was under a Strategos. 1 Kolonea, 
a theme in A.D. 863, is omitted, as in the Arabic lists. 2 The earliest 
mention hitherto known of the Strategos of Chaldia was in the Arabic 
lists ; he appears in the Taktikon. 3 

The Taktikon is an epitomized catalogue of officials and dignitaries, 
for the purpose of showing their order of precedence. It is therefore 
not arranged like the Notitia Dignitatum (of the fifth century) in 
which the subordinate officials are placed under their chiefs. It is 
arranged in classes, according to ranks (patricians, &c.). It is not 
a kletorologion (or it would have been so named), but it must have 
served court ceremonials ; perhaps it was a handbook of the master 
of ceremonies (6 rrjs Karaorao-ea)?). Ta/crtxa /3i[3\ia are mentioned by 
the biographer of Theophilus (Cont. Th. 142), and evidently mean 
books which deal with court ceremonial, rafts meant, among other 
things, a ' ceremony % 4 and we might render TOLKTIK.OV as ' ceremonial 
list'. 

A. new list of this kind was naturally compiled with the help of 
older lists which it was intended to supersede. Philotheos tells us, as 
we shall see, that he made use of older kletorologia. Now in the 
Taktikon we can detect certain inconsistencies which must have 
arisen in the process of bringing an older Taktikon up to date. 

(1) The governor of Chaldia appears both as Strategos (113) and as 
archon (123). I infer that Chaldia had been an archontate till 
recently, when it had been made a strategis. The new dignity is 
duly inserted, but the compiler omitted to strike out the old title. 

(2) The same thing has happened in the case of Crete. We did riot 
know before the position of Crete in the administrative organization, 
before the Saracen conquest. The Taktikon shows that it was 

A.D. 845. For these lists see Brooks, /. H. S., xxi. 67 sqq. (1901) and Gelzer, 
81 sqq. 

1 See Gen. 122. But in A. D. 863 it was still a kleisurarchy, Cont. Th. 181. 

2 Cappadocia, which is still a kleisurarchy in the Arahic lists, is omitted 
altogether in the text. But this is prohably a scrihe's mistake. The text has 
(p. 123) : 



o 



01 



l K\fi(Tovpdpxai XapcriavoO 



In the second and third cases 01 K\. must clearly be errors for 6 K\eia-ovpdpxr]s . 
But the first ot K\. cannot be right. ' The kleisurarchs ' would not be followed 
by a list of particular kleisurarchs. I have no doubt that we should read 6 



3 An ap^coi/ XaXSt'ay is also mentioned (123). 

4 Cp. e. g. Cer. 5 10 , 61 61 17 ram/ciy fiedodos 517i 2 Phil. (790 4 ) eV ro08e row 



14 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

governed by an archon (123). But a strategos of Crete also appears 
(115), and it seems curious that this change should have been made 
in the period immediately after the loss of the island. 1 Perhaps we 
may suppose that some small islands of the Aegean were included in 
the circumscription of Crete^ so that the Cretan commander was not 
quite without a province. It is possible that the appointment of 
a strategos of Crete might have been made in connexion with the 
expedition of Theoktistos in A.D. 843 (George Mon. ed. Bonn, 814), 
in anticipation of the reduction of the island. In that case the date 
of the Taktikon would be 842-3. 2 (3) The same explanation must 
also apply to the duplication of 6 Trarpiiaos /cat o-a/ceA. \apios (111 
and 115). 

The treatise of Philotheos is divided into four Sections, ro/uot. 
The beginning of the first is not clearly marked, for ro'/xos a has been 
omitted in the MS. The editors have inserted it before the list of 
afia>/mara, 6ia /3pa/3etW (p. 708 B), without any indication that it is 
an insertion of their own. What led them to do this was, I have 
little doubt, the occurrence in the margin of the words KttyaXaiov a. 
They took it for a heading corresponding to the subsequent ro/xoy fi' 9 
T. y', r. 6"', and silently substituted TO'JUOJ for K(j>d\aiov. But it is 
clear that K(j>a\aiov a refers to the first of the eighteen classes of 
dignities, each of which is marked by a numeral in the margin. It is 
not quite certain where ro/utos a originally stood. The most probable 
place seems to be at the end of the Preface, before the heading apxn 
rfjs v7ro0eVeo>? \6yov, and I have placed it here conjecturally, but it is 
possible that it may have stood before the paragraph beginning EtVl 
be Tra<rai opov. 

Section I is introductory to the kletorologion (tv etcraycoyrj? rafei) 
and consists of a TrXwOis or laterculus of the ranks and official dignities 
of the Empire. It falls into five parts : (1) orders of rank ; (2) great 

1 If the seal found at Gortyn, with the legend 2[r]e$ai/ou o-rpar' (published by 
Xanthudides, Byz. Ztitschrift , 18, 177, 1909), belonged to a strategos of Crete 
it must be referred to this period. 

2 I may call attention here to the fact that aji archon of Dalmatia appears inTakt. 
Usp. (124) and a strategos is not mentioned. This bears on the date of a ninth- 
century seal of Bryennios, strategos of Dalmatia : Epvev(iu)) /3(aertAi/<&>) aTra6(apia>) 
KOI [o"T]p{a)T(?77<j5) AaX/xarta(?), Sig. 205. (There is another example in which Br. is 
protospatharios.) Schlumberger ascribes it to Theoktistos Bryennios and dates 
it ' vers 840 '. But there seems to be no authority for this. All we know of 
Theoktistos Bryennios is that he was orpaT^yo? of Peloponnesus in the reign of 
Michael 111 (De adm. imp. 221). It is a mere guess that he is the Bryennios 
of the seal. In any case the Taktikon shows that the seal is later than 
A.D. 842. 






THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 15 

official posts ; (3) minor offices in the staffs and bureaux of the great 
officials ; (4) orders of rank of eunuchs ; (5) great offices confined 
to eunuchs. 

Section II and Section III contain lists of the officials in the order 
in which they are introduced by the atriklines, according as they 
belong to different orders of rank. Section II deals with the highest 
ranks ; Section III with the lower, beginning with the protospathars. 
These Sections ought to form one ; the division is not logical or 
convenient. To the end of III are appended explanations as to the 
treatment of ecclesiastics from Rome, Antioch, and Jerusalem, and 
of Saracen, Bulgarian, and German guests. 

Section IV, which is the longer half of the treatise, contains 
directions for the conduct of the court banquets throughout the year : 
what guests are to be invited, how they are to be introduced, where 
they are to sit, what they are to wear, &c. It is arranged in the 
order of the calendar, beginning with Christmas. There follow two 
memoranda (which are marked off in the MS. as cap. 53 of De 
CerimoniiSy Bk. 2), (1) on the pious largesses (ewe/Stat) given by 
the Emperor to the officials on certain occasions, and (2) on the fees 
received by the atriklinai. These memoranda might appropriately 
have formed a separate Section, but mediaeval compilers were so 
clumsy and careless in the arrangement of their books that it would be 
imprudent to guess the omission of a ro'juo? e'. 

Having concluded with a recommendation that his e Order of 
Rank 9 (TCIKTIKOV) should be adopted as canonical, Philotheos adds an 
appendix on ecclesiastical precedence and reproduces a list of episcopal 
sees by Epiphanies of Cyprus (= De Cer. ii. c. 54). I have omitted 
this list, as it has no interest for the purpose of this study. 

The author had before him older lists of dignities and descriptions 
of ceremonies, to which he refers in his preface as ap^aia avy-ypd^ara, 
al r&v apyaiutv K0eVei9 or avyypafyai. Some of these were doubtless 
Taktika or tables of rank, of which a specimen is extant in the 
TaKTLKov of the reign of Michael III, described above; and others 
were K\rjTopo\6yia which dealt especially with the arrangements at 
the Imperial table. The title states that the work is compiled from 
old kletorologia, and according to the first words of the preface this 
was the task imposed on the writer by his friends, men of his own 
calling. But afterwards he says that he did not use lists which were 
out of date, so that apya'^v is hardly an appropriate description of 
his sources. For he writes : e Since I have purposely passed over the 
expositions of the ancients, not all of them but those which time has 
rendered obsolete, I will subjoin in the form of a table, line by line, 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

the expositions which are both recognized and practised in the time of 
our sovrans Leo and Alexander/ 

Now we find in the paragraph on the functions of the eunuchs (725) 
a distinct proof that this was transcribed from an ecthesis published 
in the name of an emperor, whom we cannot hesitate to identify 
with Leo VI. 

Tavra 8e navra <uAdrTeo-0ai, rrjpetcrflai re KOL irpaTTtaOaL aTrapaa-aX 
/cat (kajueWiz; /3e'/3ata Ka0a>s r\ ew6/3r)s KOI v0os /3ao-tAeia r/jucoi; 
a)? Kai ef ap\aiu>v rG>v \p6vu>v napa ru>v irpb fifji&v ei>o-e/3a>s (Bao-L\cva-dvTu>v 



Here Leo is speaking, not Philotheos. The ecthesis of Leo can 
hardly have been concerned exclusively with the dignities of the 
eunuchs, and I think we may conjecture with great probability that 
one of the lists of offices contained in Section I was transcribed 
from the Emperor's official book. In this Section the high officials 
are enumerated three times : (1) a full list, in order of precedence ; 
(2) a full classified list; (3) a list of the staffs, &c. (this is not 
complete, because only two strategoi are named as samples, and a few 
high officials who have no subordinates are omitted). Now of these 
three lists (1) and (3) are completely in agreement. But (2) exhibits one 
important difference. (1) enumerates 60 officials, while (2) enumerates 
61. The additional dignitary is the eraipeiapx*7?- This raises a 
presumption that (2) was derived from a different document, and the 
words which conclude the first list KOL avrai TO. vvv Ti/xijtfeurai afuu 
em AeWros 5ea-7roTov are in accordance with the hypothesis that the 
transcriber at this point passed to a different source. The use of 
different sources here may be supported by the fact that, while (2) 
divides the officials into seven classes, this division is also mentioned 
at the beginning of the Section, where only six classes (ef j^epr?) are 
given (the stratarchai being omitted). 

It might be thought that we have further evidence that the source 
of Philotheos for his first list dated from the early years of Leo VI. 
It does not mention the theme of Longobardia. Now this province 
was not, as is generally supposed (for instance by Gelzer, 133), 
organized as a theme by Basil I. The strategoi who command in 
South Italy during and immediately after the conquest are not yet 
strategoi of Longobardia. The first who bears that title is Symbatikios 
in 891, but even then Longobardia has not yet been established as 
a distinct theme ; for this commander is e strategos of Macedonia, 
Thrace, Cephallenia, and Longobardia 5 , 1 and his successor George 

1 Trinchera, Syllabus graecarum membranarum, No. 3. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 17 

(A.D. 892) is ( Strategos of Cephallenia and Longobardia'. 1 Hence 
Gay has rightly concluded that it is not till after this year that 
Longobardia became a separate theme. 2 But, on the other hand, there 
is no evidence that the separation was made before A. D. 900. Hence 
no inference can be drawn from the omission of Longobardia as to 
the date of the list. 

The fact that the list includes the themes of Strymon and of 
Samos cannot be held to date it; for though the creation of these 
themes is often ascribed to Leo, this is by no means certain. The 
case of Thessalonica is a warning. Gelzer attributes the theme of 
Thessalonica to the Neuordnung of Leo VI (op. cit. 130) ; but this 
theme appears in the Taktikon of Michael III. 3 The themes of 
Strymon and Samos do not appear in that document, 4 but they may 
have been formed before the accession of Leo VI. The evidence, 
however, already adduced seems sufficient to date the source of the 
first list of Philotheos to the reign of Leo. 

The lists of precedence in Sections II and III (cod. Lips.) agree 
with list 1 of Sect. I in omitting the hetaeriarch, but there are some 
variations in order, (a) In Section III the Drungarios of the Fleet 
follows, instead of preceding, the Logothete of the Course, and 

(b) the Logothete of the Flocks precedes, instead of following, the 
Protospathar of the Basilikoi (the latter does not occur in Section II) ; 

(c) in Section II the Comes Stabuli precedes 6 c/c Trpoo-wirov r&v 
0ejudYaw, but Section III agrees here with the lists of Section I. The 
variations are common to both MSS. 

Another point of difference to be noticed between Section I and 
Sections II, III, is the treatment of the Magistri. In Section II we 
have at 5e AOITTCU Traorcu rrjs Scvrepa? virdp^ovcn, Taea>9 olov 6 /utayiorpo?, 6 
/mayio-rpoj, and in Section III (ad init.) simply 6 /idyicrrpos. In both 
cases we might expect ot /uaytorpoi. 

We may turn to the evidence of the Jerusalem MS. collated by 
Uspenski. (1) In this MS. in the lists of precedence, both in Section 
II and in Section III, we find the Hetaeriarch (jue'yas eraipi^px 7 ?*) 
immediately after the Drungarios of the Watch. The fact that he occurs 
in both lists shows that the omission in the Leipzig MS. is not acci- 
dental. (2) The Strategos of Longobardia appears after the Strategos 
of Sicily in Section II. He is not mentioned in any of the lists in 
the Leipzig MS. On the other hand, the Strategos of Nikopolis is 
omitted in the Jerusalem MS. ; but this may be a mere scribe's error 

1 Chron. Vulturnense (Muratori, R. I. S. i. 2, 413). 

3 L' Italic mtridionale, 171-4. 

3 Uspenski, 115. Phil. 713, 728. 

M2 



18 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

(there are several other omissions in H which are clearly accidental). 

(3) Instead of avOviraros Trarpuao? the Jerusalem MS. has throughout 
simply av6vTTo.TO$. (It also has in most cases o-nadapLoi instead of 
(nraOapoKavb&dToi, but probably this is merely a mistake of the scribe.) 

(4) In Section II where the Leipzig MS. has 6 ndyicrrpos 6 /uaytorpo? 
the Jerusalem MS. has 6 /layiorpoj; but this may be due to para- 
blepsia. (5) The precedence of the protospatharioi of the Chryso- 
triklinos is said in L to have been established 7ra\at (Section III, 
p. 732), but in H it is attributed to Leo VI. 

The probable inference seems to be that the Jerusalem fragment 
belonged to a slovenly copy of a later recension of Philotheos than that 
which is represented by the Leipzig text, which was copied from the 
original. The editor, whether Philotheos himself or another, brought 
the treatise up to date by inserting the Strategos of Langobardia, 
and repaired the error of omitting the Hetaeriarch. The discrepancies 
between Section II and Section III seem to be due to the circumstance 
that Philotheos was using old lists of different dates and he did not 
succeed in eliminating all the inconsistencies. 1 

(4) Scope of the following investigation. General comparison of the 
Constantinian with the later Byzantine System. 

The following pages are not a complete commentary on Philotheos. 
The investigation is confined to the determination of the functions of 
the officials, and to the origin of the offices and of the orders of rank. 
I have not entered upon the subject of the fees (crwriQtiai) paid for 
dignities and offices, and the Imperial bounties (evo-e/3uu, a7roKo/x/3ia, 
5<3pa) to which the dignitaries were entitled. The latter and main 
part of the book of Philotheos Section IV is important for my 
purpose, as it throws light on many difficulties which arise out 
of the earlier part; but a commentary on it belongs not to this 
inquiry, but to a treatise on the court ceremonies. 

From Philotheos we derive no information as to the civil govern- 
ment of the provinces, except so far as finance is concerned. The 
provincial judges are not mentioned. We hear nothing of ot 
avBvTraTOL KOL 7rapx ot T&V 0e/uara)z> or ot Trpatrope? TMV 0ejuara>z/ who 
appear in theTakt. Usp. (118, 119). A large question of considerable 



1 In Phil. 788 n we meet the KarcTrdva of Paphlagonia. In the time of Philo- 
theos, and since the early years of Michael III, the governor of Paphl. had been 
a crrpaTyyos (Phil. 7l3 9 , Takt. Usp. 113). Under Theophilus he had been a 
Katepano (De adm. imp. 178 7 ), and perhaps Theophilus raised the dignity of 
the theme. It looks as if Philotheos were here using a document dating from 
more than sixty years back. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 19 

difficulty, touching the position and the districts of these officials, and 
their relations to the Strategoi, is involved, and I have not been able 
to discuss it in the present investigation. 

A few remarks may be made here as to the general character of 
the organization of the ninth century as contrasted with the older 
system which it superseded. 

If we compare the scheme of administration which was founded by 
Diocletian, and completed by his successors, and which remained 
intact, except in details, till the beginning of the seventh century, 
with the later Byzantine system, we find that while there is no break 
in continuity, and the changes seem to have been gradual, the result 
of these changes is the substitution of a new principle. 

The older system has been described as a divine hierarchy. Gibbon 
designates its principle as c a severe subordination in rank and office'. 1 
There was a comparatively small number of great ministers and 
commanders-in-chief who were directly responsible to the Emperor 
alone. All the other administrators were ranged under these in 
a system of graded subordination. In the Notitia Dignitatum of thel 
East we can count twenty-two high offices, 2 to some of which all 
the rest were in subordinate relations. 

In the ninth century it is quite different. There is no hierarchy 
of this kind, so far as office is concerned. 3 The number of in- 
dependent officials responsible only to the Emperor is enormously i 
larger. Instead of twenty-two it is about sixty. And these numbers 
do not fully express the magnitude of the change. For in the fifth 
and sixth centuries the territory ruled from Constantinople was far 
more extensive than in the ninth. It included Syria and Egypt and 
extended to the Danube. Long before the ninth century, Syria and 
Egypt and a great portion of the Balkan peninsula were lost. 

This change was brought about in two ways. (1) The whole 
provincial administration was reorganized. The provincial territory 
was divided into a number of military districts, or Themes, and the 
governor of each theme, who was primarily a military commander, \ 
had also a certain civil jurisdiction. He was independent, subject 
only to the Emperor. He was not under the orders of any Master 
of Soldiers or Praetorian Prefect. In fact the Masters of Soldiers ' 
and the Praetorian Prefects disappeared. (2) The great central 

1 Decline and Fall, c. xvii, p. 169, in Bury, new ed. vol. ii (1009). 

2 In the reckoning I omit the castrensis, and include the Proconsul Asiae, who 
was not under the vicarius Asianae or the Praef. Praet. Orientis. 

* The hierarchy of rank remains and has been developed into a more elaborate 
scale. 

M 22 




20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

ministries of the Master of Offices, the Count of the Sacred Largesses, 
and the Count of the Private Estate, each of which consisted of many 
different departments, and had an extensive range of functions, were 
broken up into a large number of offices with restricted competence. 
These changes were not brought about at a stroke, by a single 
deliberative act of administrative reform. They came about by a 
gradual series of modifications, but they all tended in the same 
direction, to substitute the principle of co-ordination for that of 
subordination, and to multiply supreme offices instead of placing 
immense powers in the hands of a few. We cannot point to any 
single emperor as the Diocletian of the new system. It is probable 
that Leo the Isaurian did much to normalize it, but it was in the 
seventh century under the Heraclian dynasty that the older system 
had broken down and been irrevocably abandoned, and the chief 
principles of the newer had been introduced. Even in the sixth 
century we can discern some foreshadowings of the change. 

B. DIGNITIES (at 8ia /3pa/3euoz> cifuu). 

In the sixth century, apart from the exceptional titles of Caesar, 
nobilissimus, and curopalates, there were a number of dignities, un- 
attached to office, which could be conferred by the Emperor. The 
highest of these was the Patriciate (introduced by Constantine), 
which was confined by a law of Zeno to men who had been consuls 
or prefects, but was opened by Justinian (Nov. 80) to all men of 
illustrious rank. There were also the titular offices of the consulship, 
the prefecture, and the stratelasia (magisterium militum). The 
acting administrative officials were distinguished as in actu positi or 
jjLirpaKTOL l from the titular officials (anpa^roi), who were of two kinds, 
(1) illustres vacantes, and (2) illustres honorarii. 2 The vacantes not 
only bore the title but wore the cingulum, the insigne of office ; the 
honorarii had the title but not the cingulum. But in all cases the 
dignity was conferred by codicilli. In the case of most offices, 
the titular dignity was probably conferred only on those who had 
once held the office, but the consulship, the prefecture, and the 
stratelasia were regularly conferred on others than officials. The 

1 In later texts we generally find the forms efjnrparos and anparos, e. g. 
Cer. 239 4 *av arparr^yos c^irparos Kav TC arrpaTOS. Cp. rrepl ra. 502 19 cv rdis 
/u7rparois TrpoeXcvcrcaiv. In Cer. 798 we find a curious third term /zeeroTrparoy. 
From this passage it would appear that tfwrparo? was specially used of the 
Strategos, and fjiea-onparos TrarpiKios was applied to Patricians who held official 
posts in the capital (6 c fiird\iTiK&s ocpcpiKtuAtoy). 

2 C. I. 12. 8. 2. Cp. Mommsen, Eph. Epig. v. 129. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 31 

comitiva, which was in principle an order of the same kind, had been 
appropriated with its three grades to particular offices, to which it 
belonged as a matter of course. 

In the course of the seventh and eighth centuries, the number of 
these orders, or titular offices, was largely increased, and they were 
conferred by investiture with insignia. There were several schools of 
officers in the palace, who had various duties connected with the 
Imperial service : silentiarii, vestitores, mandatores, candidati, \ 
stratores, spatharii. All these titles came to be used as ranks of 
honour, and were conferred upon all the more important civil and 
military officials according to their degree. The chief of the school 
of spatharioi was entitled the protospatharios, and this term was 1 
adopted to designate a higher rank than spatharios the rank next 
to Patrician itself. Between the spatharioi and protospatharioi was 
interpolated a new class of spatharokandidatoi. To the hypatoi J 
(consuls) was added a new and higher class of disypatoi (bis consules}. 

The protospatharioi were probably not instituted as an order before 
the end of the seventh century. In the seventh century, the Patricians\ 
and Hypatoi were the two most eminent ranks, and the aTiotitdLpyjuv 
(ex Praefectis) and or/oar?] Aareu were still very high dignitaries. 
In the course of the next two centuries these orders were re- 
arranged and multiplied. The Patricians were divided into two 
ranks : the ordinary Patricians (7repi/3Ae7rroi), who retained as their 
insigne (fipafitlov) the ivory tablets, and those to whom the dignity of 
Proconsul was added (avQvtiaToi /cat Trarpuaoi) who had purple tablets. 
More important and interesting is the creation of a new and higher 
rank, that of /xayto-rpot. This innovation was obviously connected 
with the abolition of the office of magister officiorum. At first it was 
intended that there should be only one magister (as there was only 
one curopalates) ; very soon we find more than one, but throughout 
the ninth century the dignity was sparingly conferred. 

In this place it will be convenient to add a note on the use of the 
terms airpaTos, Atro'?, and Trayctuo's which occur in Philotheos. chrpa-ros 
(vacans), to which reference has already been made, is used of persons 
who bear the titles of offices of which they do not actually perform 
the duties (e.g. o-rparr/yoi, aariKpiJTai, &c., see Phil. 710^, ?37 3 , 6 , 7 ). 
XITOS is applied to persons who have orders (dignities 8ta Jpa/3eiW), but 
are not ministers or officials ; Phil. 729 15 ot Atroi avdvnaTot., ib. 22 
Aireoz; -narpi^i^v (where there is question of an office being conferred 
on such), 730 15 . iraya^s 1 seems to be a less technical term, and to 



1 The nearest equivalent of Trayavos is ' ordinary '. Cp. Cer. 548 23 fj/jLtpav TT. 
ordinary day (not a s ecial feast), 234 2 KvpiaKi}v ir. ordinary Sunday^ 367 irrno- 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



be used in two senses, either as equivalent to Atro's, or to designate 
persons who were officials but had no rank bia /3pa/3etW (these would 
naturally be functionaries in a very subordinate position). In the first 
meaning we find it in Phil. 730 6 ci 6e /cat irayavol rvyoitv x<opis 
iraTpiKiot, and 736 15 VTTCLTOL irayavol rrjs orvyK\rjrov (opp. to VTT. 
who had posts in the o-e'/cpera) ; in the second, Phil 739 X et 8e irayavol 
, Iv juoVots rois <)</></>( KIOIS TiiJid(r6<t>(rav. 



Philotheos enumerates, in ascending scale, eighteen grades of dignity 
conferred by insignia, and as the lowest (iTpo^dd^Los) grade includes 
two titles which are on a parity, we have nineteen titles altogether. 
They are as follows : 

List of Orders. 

1 *(a) a-TpanjXaTrjs ) 



*(b) a 



. 

Insigne 



*3 

4 
5 

6 

*7 
8 
9 



*10 
11 

12 Trarpt/ctos 

13 (TrorptKioj KCU) d 



14 jutayiarpo? 



15 



16 



17 



18 Kat<rap 



: diploma 

gold staff 

fiblatorion 

red wand 

gold chain (of special 

kind) 

jewelled gold whip 
diploma 

gold-handled sword 
gold chain (of special 

kind) 
diploma 

jewelled gold collar 
ivory inscribed tablets 
purple inscribed tablets 

white gold-embroidered 
tunic, mantle, and belt 

ivory tablets (like Patri- 
cian) 

red tunic, mantle, and 
belt 

purple tunic, mantle, and 

belt 
crown without cross 



ordinary horse race, Phil. 769 16 TT. Trpoe\tv<ris ordinary ceremony (opp. to 
Trpoe'A., see above). The use of irayavos for ' without office ' originated 



the verb nayavovv, to deprive of office, which we find in Leo Diac. 37 2a 
, 96 U . 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 23 

Five (six) of these dignities (marked by asterisks) are designated 
by Philotheos as senatorial (707 n ds crvyK\riTLKoi>s, 712 14 TTJ 
, the rest as TrpoeAewijucuot 1 or /3a<rtAiKat (707 12 e 
, 712 17 ey rots /3a(riAiKot? Kardrarrorrai KtoSifiz;). Apparently 
there were two cursus dignitatum, one a senatorial (dire e-7rapx&>i>, onA., ^ 
/3eor., VTT., 5wvir.)j the other of a military character (/uai>5., Kaz>5., orpar., 
(nrad.y (T7ra0apoKaz;8., 7rp&>ro<r7r.) ; while the higher orders from Patri- 
cian upwards might be conferred on members of either class. 
Compare Cer. 242 23 where the case is contemplated of the elevation 
to patrician rank of a person who OVK e<m o-vyKArjriKoy dAA' ZO-TIV OTTO 
o-naQiov? But this question demands a special investigation, for 
which the seals furnish a good deal of material. It is noteworthy 
that in the seventh century we often find the titles of spathar and 
hypatos combined. 

df fat TrpoeAeixn/icuoi means dignities which gave a right to take part 
in the TrpoeAevo-ets or Imperial processions (cf. Reiske 160). The 
holders of these titles formed in a general sense the Imperial retinue. 
Holders of the synkletic titles took part in some ceremonies, but not 
generally in the irpotXwa-eLs (Tro/mai, irpoKtvcra). All the f3a,(ri\LKot 
resident in the capital formed in a wide sense the -n-poeAevo-ts or cortege 
of the Emperor; so that a-naQapioi efcortKot (i.e. not resident in the 
capital) are designated in Takt. Usp. 123 as efo> rijs TrpoeAeweco?. 

All those who held dftat TrpoeA., from the magistri down to the 
candidati, were grouped together for some ceremonial purposes as 
ap)(ovTs TOV Aavo-iaKov (a building in the Palace), a category which 
also included eunuchs who were praepositi or protospathars. See 
Phil. 787 3 _ 7 . 

(1) aTTo 7rapx a)Z; an ^ o-rpar^Aarai. 

We know that the honorary eTrapxorr/s existed before the sixth 
century from a law of Justinian, Nov. 90 (ed. Zach. i. 500), which 
refers to it as ancient, ivfjiev yap wj TO apyjculov r\v nvbs (VapxorTyros 
r\v ovopapiav tuaXovv, Kco5tKtAAcoz; c/c rrjs /Saa-iAei'a? CTT' avrfj 
KT\. Menander (fr. 46, p. 255) mentions that Tiberius II 
honoured the physician Zacharias TTJ Aeyo/xeVr/ 0776 t-napxu>v d^ta. The 
historian Evagrius was an OTTO (irdp^v (p. 4, 1. 1 ; p. 241, 1. 6). The 
importance of the rank in this earlier period is illustrated by Cer. 306 
(an old ceremony, not later than seventh century, since the praetorian 

1 So I correct for the Trpoo-eAeutn/uaZoi of the MS. The same correction should 
be made, I think, in Miklosich and Mtiller, Acta et Diplomata, vi. 23. It seems 
probable that Philotheos intended to include the arparf/Xarai among the 
Senator ials. 

2 Cp. 243 21 . 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

prefect appears ; cp. 343 12 ), and by early seals. Most of those pub- 
lished in Sig. 508-11 are of the sixth and seventh centuries; some of 
them are of men who had actually filled the office of Praet. Praef. or 
Praef. Urbis. 1 The dignity had been degraded to be the lowest in the 
scale, perhaps in the eighth century, at all events by the reign of 
Michael III (see Cer. 633 10 ). 

The association of the orpanjAao-ta with the a7ro7rapxorrjs is illus- 
trated by the same Novel of Justinian (p. 501), /cat yap 6"rj /cat 
orparTjAao-tas praefectorias tlvai ol ^e'repot Ae'yowi v6fj.oi, and the 
orparrjAacna could be conferred without a post, ot 5e \/uAot rrjs 
orparTj A aortas KtoSuaAAot p.6vrjv Trape^ovcrLV a^iav Tvyj]<s (sc. /SofAetmKTJs 1 ) 
OVK c\vOpovvTs. The few seals of o-rparrjAarat belong to the sixth 
or seventh century, Siff. 366-7. Schlumberger, ib. 337, refers the 
seal of Tatas orparrjA^rov) Kal Kavb(ibaTov) a-vvbpovyyapiov to seventh 
or eighth century. I suspect it belongs to the eighth century, and 
illustrates the degradation of the dignity below that of Kavbtiaros. 
Theopemptos, described as Trpwroo-rpar^Aarry? (seventh century, 
Siff. 367), may have been the senior or doyen of the class of 
orparTjAdrat (cp. Trpcoro-TrarpiKios). These (rrpar. must not be confused 
with the local o-rpar. whom we find in Egypt in the sixth century 
(M. Gelzer, Studien zur byz. Verw., 30) . 

The d-Trd eirapxa>J> (cp. Cer. 99, 247) and the <rrpar?]Acmu are 
associated in Cer. 202, 235, 237. 

It is to be noted that in the case of these dignitaries, the order is 
conferred (as in early times) by a codicil (xapr???), which, however, is 
now regarded as a fipafitlov. So too in the case of the hypatoi and 
patricians. 

(2) (TlXfVTldpLOl. 

The silentiaries originally belonged to the class of the cubicularii ; 
they were in the officium of the Praepositus and under the jurisdiction 
of the Mag. Off. Cp. C. I. 12, 16, 4. They were clarissimi, ib. 5. 
The ceremony of their investiture by the Emperor with the insigne of 

1 The seal of Eugenics anoftrapx^v KCI\ Spnvyyapiov is interesting. Schlumberger, 
Sig. 336, refers it to Eugenics mentioned by Theophanes A. M. 6053 (A.D. 560). 
Here the title is evidently honorary. It is not unlikely that the seal of Theodore 
aTTocTrapx^v Kal (dpx<>v 'iraAi'as (Sig. 211) belonged to Theodore Kalliopas, who 
was exarch in the seventh century (Lib. Pont. 126, 133), and is described in 
a papyrus (Marini, Pap. Dipl. 132) as gloriosus praefecturius. I believe that 
praefecturius is used as the equivalent of airofndpxuv (Diehl, Etudes sur Fadm. 
byz. dans tex. de Ravenne, 166, n. 2, suggests praefectus). L. Hartmann, note 
to Gregory I, Epp. ix. 115, vol. ii. p. 120 (Eutychuminlustrem praefecturium) 
is undecided. Note that arro tndpxvv is often treated as declinable : plur. 
afnofTrap\ovres or written ar6 er 






THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 25 

their office, the golden band, is described by Peter Patr. (Cer. 389) ; 
four silentiaries were appropriated to the service of the Empress (ib.). 
Their chief duty, from which they derived their name, was to act as 
marshals at Imperial audiences ; silentium nuntiare was the technical 
phrase for calling a meeting of the consistorium (Justinian, Nov. 80, 
p. 463 ; cp. Mommsen, 482). 1 (For 6 dSjur^o-toyaAios see below under 
C. VII. 6.) 

The origin of the silentiarii as a senatorial rank is explained by 
a constitution of Theodosius II (C. Th. 6, 23, 4): cum optatam 
quietem acceperint (after their retirement from service) et inter sena- 
tores coeperint numerari, honors curiae sine aliquafunctione laetentur, 
&c. They were freed from senatorial burdens ; but this privilege was 
to be confined to thirty. The institution of a special senatorial class 
of ex-silentiaries naturally led to the creation of honorary silentiaries. 

There are several seals in which the silentiariate appears as an 
order. Panchenko viii. 240 (eighth or ninth century) <riA. KOL paviXiKo? 
votdpios, Sig. 603 Michael, Chartularios of the Vestiarion is v-naros 
and (ri.\VTidpios, ib. 604 2e/>yio> o-tAez^rta/oto) /cat /3ao-iAiK<5 /SeortVonp, cp. 
the earlier seal 602 (3) (reAenriapio> KOL 



(3) @ 

The vestitores, or officers of the wardrobe, were, like the silentiaries, 
cubiculariiy and the origin of the /3eor?jro/3s as a senatorial order was 
doubtless similar. Their creation by a petitorium, signed by the 
Emperor, is mentioned in Peter Patr., Cer. 390. For their duties 
cp. Cer. 305, 342, 129, Theoph. 226 20 . For seals of officers who had 
the rank of ^eorrjrwp see Sig. 180 (5), 194 (3). Cp. ib. 602 (3,4), 
603 (6), 604 (15). 2 Compare Bieliaev, i. 172 sq. 



(4) fj-avbdropts, (5) 
See below under the office of the Trpcoroo-Tratfa/no? T&V 

(6) (TTpdropes. 
See below under the office of the Protostrator. 

(7) VTTCLTOl. 

After the abolition of the consulate by Justinian and the deaths 1 
of those who had been consuls before that date, the consular order of 
the Senate was composed entirely of honorary vitaroi (who consulatus t 

1 In illustration of their duties cp. Peter (Cer. 426), Cer. 233, 247, 306. 

* Schlumberger ha& confounded in the same category vtstetoreitf vestarckai, &c. 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

insignibus decorantur, Justinian, Nov. 80, p. 464). 1 The honorary 
consulate can be amply illustrated from seals (iniaros and airb VTICLT&V)) 
of sixth, seventh, and eighth centuries, of which a selection is pub- 
lished in Sig. 476 sqq. A seal of Sisinnios dirb vTrdruv, who was 
Count of Opsikion in the eighth century, and prominent at the time 
of the revolt of Artavasdos, may specially be mentioned (Mel. 250). 
The title may also be illustrated from the addresses of letters of 
Theodore of Studion (cp. I, 44; II, 148, 218, 149, 173, also p. 1678, 
ed. Migne). It is to be remembered that the virarot were a senatorial 
order; compare the formula in the ceremonies Eorai/rcu ot VTTCLTOI 
KOL ol AOITTO! crvyK\r)TiKoi), Cer. 192 9 , 209 19 , 232 15 , &c. 
i (consulares) means the same thing : ot o-vyKArjrt/cot VTTCLTIKOL 
303 fl ;cp. 2883,289,!, 2 



(8) (TTTaOdpLOL. 

See below under the office of the npvToa-TraGdpios TU>I> /3ao-tAtKz/. 

(9) cnraOapOKavbLbaTOL. 

The earliest mention of a o-nadapoKavbibdros seems to occur in 
Sebaeos (ed. Patkanian, 114) in reference to A.D. 645 ; the next in the 
First Letter of Gregory II to the Emperor Leo III 8 to, avyovcrraXiov 
TOV cnraOapoKavbiSdrov, Mansi, xii. 959, and the officer who pulled 
down the Image ( in the Chalkoprateia ' is described as a spatharo- 
candidatus, ib. 970. This letter indeed is almost certainly a fabrica- 
tion of much later date than the age of Leo III, 2 but the insignificant 
detail of the rank of these officers may rest on older and genuine 
evidence. In any case, the institution of the order of spatharo- 
candidates seems to belong to the first half of the seventh century. 
Panchenko has published a seal (13, 85), Kcozxrra/myw [v-n-Jara) KCH 
0-7ra0apoKar8tSar(i> which he attributes to the seventh or eighth century. 
A text in Chron. Pasch. 696, sub A.D. 605 'Itodvvrjs /cat Tftrras 
(TTraOdpioL KOI KavbibaToi suggests that (nraOdpLoi, who were also candi- 
dati, may have been set apart as a special class of (maSdpioi and were 
afterwards elevated into a new and separate order. It is remarkable 
that spatharocandidates are not mentioned in the Taktikon Uspenski. 



1 In Procop. H. A. c. 2 (p. 14 Haury) es re viraTOiv dt'<u/xa fjneis the honorary 
consulship is meant, as Photios to whom the words refer was never an acting 
consul. The honorary consulate was conferred by Anastasius on Chlodwig-, 
Greg. Tur. ii. 38 ab Anast. imp. codecillos de consolato accepit . .. ab ea die tamquam 
consul . . . est vocitatus (where tamquam consul = ex con&ule, the official expression 
for the honorary consulate). Proconsul in the Lex Salica (125 ed. Behrend) is 
due to misunderstanding. 

- Cp. Bury, in Gibbon, vol. v, Appendix 14. 




THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 27 

In the reign of Theophilus, Petronas was a spatharocandidate before 
he was raised to the rank of protospatharios (Cont. Th. 123). Among 
the seals published by Schlumberger may be mentioned those of 
Martin, Logothete of the Course (Sig. 529) [/3ao-i]AtKo> cma.6apoK.av- 
6i6ara> /cat Aoyofle'rrj rov ofe'cos 6po'/xoi>, of Kosmas protonotary of Thessa- 
lonica (ib. 103), 1 and of Clement, commerciarius of Hellas (ib. 167). 
These and the seal of Thomas ({mart* (Bacr. O-TT. KCU -rovp/ixapx??, 
Panchenko, xiii. 106) are not later than ninth century. Spatharo- 
candidates will also be found in the correspondence of Photios. 

The spatharocandidates were not, like the spathars, under the 
Protospatharios T&V ftacn.\LKQv ; they did not form a taxis in any 
officium ; and in this they resembled the order of the protospatharioi. 



(10) 

The senatorial order of biavTraToi seems to have been a late institu- \ 
tion, perhaps of the eighth century, and we seldom hear of it. 
Theodore of Studion addresses a letter (i. 12, ed. Migne, p. 949) 
cojuta Sto-VTrara), and in the reign of Leo V we meet @o>^aj Trarpucio? 
OTTO biavTraTtov yvo^fvos (Scr. Incert. 358 12 ), who may be the same 
person. The disupatoi seem to have been a very small class; seals 
are rare. Of the five published by Schlumberger, only one (Sig. 215) 
is as early as the ninth century : eoScoro) 8io-i;7rar(<i>) 7rarp(iKt()) 



(11) 

The protospatharios was originally the chief of the taxis of Imperial ] 
spatharioi. Narses, the eunuch and cubicularius, held this post under 
Justinian (Theoph. 243 31 ). The order of protospatharioi was pro- 
bably differentiated from the spatharioi under the Heraclian dynasty. 
In A.D. 717-8 we meet Sergios 6 TrptoTOcmaOdpLos KCU crrparr/yos StKeAtay. 
Numerous seals of protospatharioi of the eighth and ninth centuries 
will be found in Schlumberger, Sig. 



(12) 

The order of patricians founded by Constantine survived till the 
latest period of the Empire. In the fourth and fifth centuries it was 
a very high dignity, sparingly bestowed. Theodosius II made an 
enactment disqualifying eunuchs (Theoph. 96 21 ), but in the sixth 
century this was a dead letter. Justinian (as we saw above) opened 
the patriciate to all illustres, and in his time the number of patricians 
increased considerably. The same law of Justinian (Nov. 80) enacts 

1 I question whether the seal of Constantine Kontomytes (ib. 109) is as early. 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

that consuls should have precedence among patricians. In the reign 
of Justinian II (A.D. 711) we find Barisbakurios, the Count of the 
Opsikian Theme, designated as TrpcoroTrarpuaos' (Theoph. 380 29 ), which 
appears to mean that he was the senior or doyen of the ifpa raft? 
T&V kvri^v irarpiKLODv (Cer. 37 4 ). A seal of this patrician is pub- 
lished by Schlumberger (Siff. 249) : Bapacr/3a[K]ou/n'(i> -rrarpiKUi) KCU 
Ko/x[tr]c TOV OtotyvhdKTov (3a(Ti\LKov O\I/LKLOV. For the patricians as an 
order in the Senate cp. John of Epiphania, F. H. G. iv. 274 (ol TT. rfjs 



(13) a 

This order seems to have been of comparatively late institution. 
Schlumberger (Siff. 438) has published some seals of avdviraroL (who 
are not patricians) mostly later than the ninth century. One (No. 6), 
with KctpOTorrfoov avQwarov, is of the sixth or seventh century, and 
probably belonged to a provincial governor with the proconsular title. 
We may suspect that No. 5 (Aavi.ba avOvTrara)) is also earlier than the 
Isaurian epoch. The first occasion on which we hear of a -rrarputos 
KCU avdvTTaTos is when the Emperor Theophilus raised Alexius Musele 
to be patrician and anthypatos (Cont. Th. 108). There seems good 
reason to think that at this time there was no order of avdviraToiy and 
that the title conferred on Alexius (who was presently elevated to the 
rank of magister) was singular. 1 For in the Taktikon Uspenski, which 
was drawn up soon after the death of Theophilus,, we find no mention 
of naTp. KO.L avO. distinguished from simple worpwcioi (as we find in the 
work of Philotheos), but we find 6 TrarptKio? KCU avOvnciTos enumerated 
as a singular office or dignity (p. Ill, between the Domestic of the 
Schools and the Strategos of the Armeniacs). It is legitimate to 
infer that under Theophilus, and in the first part of the reign of 
Michael III, there was only one bvOviraTos, and we may guess that 
the office was created for Alexius Musele. In that case the descrip- 
tion of the ceremony for the creation of avQv-naroi in Cer. i. 49 may 
date from the reign of Theophilus. 

In the reign of Michael III, Antigonos, Domestic of the Schools, 
is described as avOviraros Kal TTCLTPLKLOS (Cont. Th. 236). We may 
conjecture that it was in the latter part of the reign of Michael III 
that the rank of avdv-xaTos was extended, so as to constitute a class 
higher than patricians, to which only patricians could be raised. L 
the time of Leo VI it seems to have been conferred on not a few, as 
he contemplates the possibility of almost any of the chief administra- 

1 It is perhaps significant that according to Stephen Asolik^ ii. 6, p. 171 transl. 
Dulaurier, Theophilus conferred the proconsular patriciate on Ashod, an Iberian 
prince. Cp. Marquart^ Osteuropdische und ostasiatische Streifzttge , 421. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 29 

tive officials being invested with this order. The avOvTraroi are 
usually designated as av&imaToi KOL -narpUioi (regularly in Philotheos 
and constantly in the Ceremonies) ; cp. a.vQvna.ro'narpiK.iov^^ in Trepl 
TO 485 17 . 

(14) fJidyLO-TpOL. 

In A.D. 718-19 Nicetas Xylinites was the juayicrrpo? of the deposed 
Emperor Artemios (Theoph. 400 25 ^ayurrpou avrov) l ; in A.D. 741 
the patrician Theophanes was juayicrrpoy ZK 7rpoo-a>7roi> of Artavasdos 
(ib. 415 3 ). Under Constantine V and his successors (A.D. 767-89) 
a certain Peter is /uufyior/oo? (ib. 442 26 , 456 16 , 464 23 ), and in A.D. 792 
Michael Lachanodrakon (ib. 468J. 

In Cer. i. 43 a document is preserved dating from A.D. 768, and 
describing the ceremony of investing the sons of Constantine V with 
the rank of Caesar. 2 There we find 6 /xayiorrpos playing a part in the 
ceremony (21 9 9 , 220 4 ), but he is also designated as 6 -np&Tos p. (224 5 , 13 ), 
while at certain stages of the solemnity ot /utaytorpoi appear as a velum 
(218 n , 221 16 ). At this time, then, /xaytorpoi? was a dignity which 
could be conferred on more than one person, bat among the /u^ytorpoi 
there was one, 6 ju. or 6 Trpwro? /a., who had certain high functions in 
the court. Evidently this office is to be identified with that held by 
Xylinites in A.D. 718 and Theophanes in A.D. 741. 

The //aytorpos of the eighth century is the magister officiorum shorn 
of most of his old functions. This is not only clear from the name 
(the magistri militum and the magistri scriniorum were not termed 
pdyia-Tpoi in Greek), but can be proved by several facts. (1) The part 
which the /udyto-rpo? plays in the eighth-century ceremony, just 
referred to, is appropriate to the position occupied by the mag. off. 
as master of ceremonies. (2) In ceremonies which are of older date 
(Cer. i. 68 and 70) 3 the pciyto-rpos acts as master of ceremonies; and 
these seem to supply a link between the eighth and seventh centuries. 
(3) In the ceremony for the creation of a juayiorpos (i. 46) he is described 
as KetyaXr] rov creKptrov (233 13 ), which seems to mean that he was the 
highest in rank at an imperial audience ((reV/oerop = KOVO-HTT&PIOV, see 
below under the a-expert/cot). This ceremony (231-3) dates from a 
time when there was only one //ayiorpos, for no other jutdyiorpot are 
mentioned, whereas in the second ceremony described in the same 
chapter (234-6) the judytorpoi appear. 4 (4) Stylianos, the father-in- 

1 See further below under the \oyoderrjs rov Spopov, p. 91, where the evidence 
for the mag. off. in the seventh century is given. 

2 This was shown by Diehl. Cp. Bury, Ceremonial Book, 431. 
9 See Bury, ib. 43,3. 

4 Contrast 232 J9 with 235 7 ; in the second case the juay. must be already a 
patrician. 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

law and minister of Leo VI, was a /otayicrrpos, and he (quite excep- 
tionally) bore the full title of JJL. r&v ofyfyiduv, by which he is 
designated in Leo's Novels. 

In the ninth century the chief evidence for the judyiorpot is as 
follows : 

Theoktistos was p. under Nicephorus I and Michael I : Theodore 
Stud. Ep. i. 24, ed. Migne, Theoph. 492 6 , 500. 

Under Michael II we hear of ras rG>v /xaytorpcoy ri/xas : Cont. 
Th. 72 3 . 

In the same reign Christophoros was made p. : Gen. 35 2 . 

Theodore of Studion addressed a letter of consolation to Stephen, 
magister, apparently in A.D. 821, in which he is described (ad fin.) as 
T?}? vvyK\riTov TrpwrofiaOpov (Ep. ii. 76, ed. Migne). 

Under Theophilus, Alexios Musele was raised to the rank of /x. 
before he became Caesar : Cont. Th. 108 3 . 

During the absence of Theophilus on a military expedition in 
A. D. 831, special responsibility devolved upon 6 /udyiorpo? for the 
security of the city : Trcpi raf. 504 4 . 

Manuel was jx. in and after A. D. 842 : Cont. Th. 148 13 . 

In the Taktikon Uspenski /xaytorpoi do not appear. 

Under Theophilus or Michael III, Arsaber (brother-in-law of the 
Empress Theodora) became /u., and it was perhaps in MichaePs reign 
that Theodora's nephews-in-law, Stephen and Bardas, became /ut. : 
Cont. Th. 175. 

Under Michael III his uncle Petronas was made JJL. : Gen. 97 8 ; 
and Basil received rj rG>v /x. TIJUTJ, ib. 1H 19 . 

In the same reign (Leo) Theodatakes was made a jx. : Nicetas, Vit. 
Ignatii apud Mansi, xvi. 237. 

In Cer. 631 12 , however, in a document of the same reign, we read 
avaptratv r&v bvo /xay torpor. 

In several ceremonies, which probably date from the reign of 
Michael III, the /xaytorrpot appear as an order like the patricians, and 
in Cer. i. 26 of the same period we meet the text et fj.i> KtAevet 
6 /3a<nA.ei/j TroiTJa-at /xayiVrpovj KT\. (p. 143). 

Under Basil I Manuel 6 /m. is mentioned, Cont. Th. 307 20 . 

In the Acts of the Fourth Council of Constantinople (A. D. 869-70) 
we meet Theodore mir/cu/aou KCU /^ayiWpov (Mansi, xvi. 309), and in 
the same Acts we hear of ot /x. /ecu narpUioi TTCLVTCS (ib. 409). 

In the same reign we hear of rot? Suo-t rrjs TroAireuzs juayurrpoty, 
Cont. Th. 347 6 (ol Xa^nporaroi jm. 347 20 ) . 

During Basil's campaign against Tephrike o p. shared the responsi- 
bility for the government at Constantinople : Tre/nraf. 503 9 , and here 



I 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 31 

it is said that, in the case of such imperial absences, it was the custom 
of old (TO TraAcuoV) for the emperor Trapeai; rrjv tavrov apyji's 7riKpdreiai> 
/cat ra> /x. Kal TO) 7rdpx<f> (of the city) r?)i> TTJS TroAtretas Kal TOV KOLVOV [TTJI/] 



At the beginning of the reign of Leo VI Stephen (nephew-in-law 
of Theodora) was a /mdyio-rpo? (Cont. Th. 354 18 ), and Stylianos was 
created /u. and Logothete of the Course : ib. 354 9 . 

In the same reign, while Stylianos was in power, Katakalon, who 
became Domestic of the Schools, was a /x. : Cont. Th. 359 23 ; and at 
the same period the /m. Leo Theodatakes was still alive : ib. 361 n . 

In the Vita Euthymii (3 6 ) Stylianos is designated as Trpcoro/xdyiorpos'. 

A number of the Novellae of Leo VI (1, 18, &c.) are addressed 
r<S -TrepK^areordra) (or VTrep^ueordrcj)) juayiorpw T&V 0euoz> 



A seal of Stylianos has been preserved (Sig. 533) : 
juay(iVrpa>) av(0vndTu>) / 7rarp(tKtw) /3(ao"iAtKu>) (7rpa)To)o-7r(a0apuo) Kat 
\oy(o0Tr)) TOV 6po'ju(ov). Clearly he was not yet Basileopator^ so the 
date of the seal can be fixed to A. D. 886-8. 

From this evidence we may infer that at some time in the eighth 
century the title ndyia-Tpos was first conferred on eminent patricians 
for life, but involving certain duties. Not more than two bore this 
title at the same time. One of these was the leading member of 
the Senate ; he was designated as protomagistros, or 6 jutdyiorpos ; ; 
he was the K$aAr) TOV o-eKperoi> ; and he shared with the Praepositus 
and the Prefect the cares of government during imperial absences. 
Although he descends from the mag. off., his position is higher, as 
well as less onerous, and corresponds rather to that of a curopalates. 
The 7rpa>ro/*ayi0Tpo? is also mentioned in Philotheos, 781 n . 

The second judytarpos shares in the ceremonial duties of the first 
(Cont. Th. 347 6 , cited above). This is illustrated by the document 
cited above from Cer. 631, and by the description of the creation of 
patricians, Cer. i. c. 48, which probably dates also from the reign of 
Michael III. There (143) 6 Trpwroj /m. stands on the right of the 
new patrician, and afterwards another p. stands on his left (cp. below, 
144 7 6 c/c btgL&v jut. KCLI 6 e apiorepwy). There is nothing to show that 
before the reign of Michael III there were as many as three bearing 
the title at the same time. We may conclude that in the eighth and 
the first half of the ninth century there were not more than two 
magistri ol bvo TIJS TroAtretas fx., and that the practice of creating more 
than two was introduced under Michael III. In the minority of Con- 
stantine we find three Stephen, John Eladas, and Leo Phocas (Cont. 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

Th. 380, 385, 388, 390). In the later period of Constantine's reign we 
meet four John Kurkuas, Kosmas, Romanes Saronites, and Romanes 
Muscle (ib. 443). It seems to follow from Cer. 24 that in that period the 
number of /x. was less than twelve. The text is rrj raet T&V re ^ayicrrp^v 
KCU avOvnarav ?Jyow rwr <f)opovvT<v rovs Scodexa xp V(ro v<t>avTov$ Xcopov?. 
This shows that there were not enough magistri to wear the twelve 
loroi, and that some of the anthypatoi were chosen to make up the 
number (the other anthypatoi appeared with the patricians as a 
second velum). 

There is another piece of evidence which may tell in favour of the 
conclusion that there was a period in which the magistri were two in 
number. The repetition 6 /^ayio-rpoj, 6 jucfcytorpos in the text of 
Philotheos, 727 2 , would be explained if we may assume that it was 
taken from an older kletorologion compiled at a time when there 
were two magistri. 

Two seals published by Schlumberger call for notice. One, of 
Isaac, 7TaTp]LKLov /cat /xayiorpoi/, he ascribes to sixth seventh century 
(>S^. 563) ; the other of John, iraTpiKiw KCU fxayiVJrpw, to eighth- 
ninth century. It seems probable that both seals date from the period 
when /x. still designated an office and not an order of rank, and that 
Isaac was simply magister officiorum. John, if his seal is as late as 
Schlumberger thinks not earlier I suppose than the middle of the 
eighth century belongs to the period when there were only two 
magistri, and when the dignity had not yet been made an order of 
rank like the patriciate. 

To sum up. Before the end of the reign of Leo III the office of 
magister officiorum had been transformed; his special functions had 
been transferred to the Logothete of the Course, and other ministers ; 
and he was elevated to the position of head of the Senate and the 
ministerial world, representative of the emperor in his absence, &c. 
The dignity was conferred bia j3pa/3eiou, for life. He was called simply 
6 juayioT/jo? (as the (JL. TU>V 6tiu>v ofyfy. is usually termed by Theophanes) . 
Perhaps at the same time, or perhaps soon afterwards, a second 
//ayiorpos was instituted, and the first was distinguished from him as 
6 Trpcoro/zayio-rpos. This innovation was introduced before A. D. 768. 
I conjecture that the institution of the second /x. is to be connected 
with the imperial absences from the city. On such occasions the 
presence of the ^. in Constantinople was necessary, but the emperor 
may have found it inconvenient not to have a ju. in his moving court. 
(Observe that in the irepl raf. the emperor is accompanied by 
485 ]6 .) This second p. would be on such occasions /x. *K 
the expression which Theophanes uses of the JA. of 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 33 

Artavasdos (415 3 ). In the reign, probably, of Michael III, the 
dignity of p. began to be conferred on more than two ; and thus the 
nayicrrpoi came to form a small order of rank. Within that grade 
the two ndyicrTpoi (TTJJ TroAireiaj) continued to function ; and in the 
case of Stylianos Leo VI revived the original title f/ayiorpos T&V 
dQtyiKitov. In the middle of the tenth century, if we can trust 
Liutprand (Antapodosis, vi. 10) 1 I am not quite confident that we 
can there were as many as twenty-four magistri. 



(15) foXTTTJ TTCir/HKia. 

We have no material for determining the date of the origin of this 
title. The earliest fcoorrj TrarptKia, 2 of whom we hear on good 
authority, is Theoktiste, the mother of the Empress Theodora (Cont. 
Th. OOj). Antonina, according to the author of the Ilarpta (ed. Preger, 
p. 254), was (/oar?) of Theodora (sixth century) ; but there does not 
seem to be any contemporary confirmation of this statement. The 
(JooTTj TrarpLKia was the only lady who was irarpiKia in her own right, and 
the title might be translated, e mistress of the robes/ The elaborate 
ceremony for conferring the dignity is described in Cer. i. 50 : it 
probably dates from the ninth century, and possibly from the joint 
reigns of Michael II and Theophilus, when, we may suppose, 
Theoktiste was invested. 



(16) 

In the early part of the fifth century curapalati was the title of 
officials of spectabilis rank, who were subordinate to the Castrensis, 
and whose duties seem to have concerned the material condition of 
the imperial palace. See Not. Dig., Or. 17. 5 ; C. Th. xi. 18. 1 
(probably A. D. 412, see ed. Mommsen). At the court of Theodoric 
we find a curapalati of spectabilis rank, but apparently not in the 
officium of a castrensis (there seems to have been no castrensis at 
Ravenna) : Cass., Var. 7. 5. There is some reason for supposing 
that in the course of the fifth century at Constantinople a new cur a- \ 
palati was instituted, independent of the castrensis, and at least 
equal in importance to him. For in the reign of Justin I the grand- 
daughter of a certain Nomos (or Oninos), a patrician, married the 
king of the Lazi, and Nomos is described as OTTO KovpoitaXar&v. 3 It 

1 Four magistri are mentioned under Constantino VII in Cont. Th. 443. 
Some of them were strategoi. 

2 (a>(TTT) must mean cingulo donata (Combefis, and Reiske, ii. 166), not ornatrix 
as Ducange thought. One seal of a COXTTJ/ (Maria Melissene), of the Commenian 
epoch, is published by Schlumberger, Sig. 607 ; she is simply ., not . n. 

3 Chron. Pasch. 613, Theoph. 168 21 ; cp. John Mai. 413. 

M3 



34, PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

is not at all probable that an ordinary curapalati would have been 
created a patrician unless he had risen to some higher office, and in 
that case he would have been designated by that higher office. I infer 
that in the time of Anastasius, at latest, there existed a high official, 
entitled Curapalati, to be distinguished from the earlier subordinate 
curapalati (who was one of several). If this conclusion is right we 
can the more easily understand the action of Justinian, who, towards 
the end of his reign, exalted the dignity and gave it a new significance 
by conferring the title upon his nephew Justin. 1 The title was taken 
to mean that Justin was marked out to be the successor to the throne, 
and the dignity evidently did not involve any of the functions con- 
noted by the name. Through jealousy, perhaps, Justinian did not 
care to create his nephew a Caesar, but /coupoTraXar^s was interpreted 
as equivalent. This is expressly said by Corippus (in laud. Just. i. 
134 sqq.) : 

par extans curis, solo diademate dispar, 
ordine pro rerum vocitatus curapalati, 
dispositu nam Caesar eras. 



After this, and till the tenth century, the title curapalati, 
was only bestowed on a relative of the emperor : and the patriarch 
Nicephorus (7 3 ) describes the post as rt\v /uera /3curiA.e'a np^r^v apxnv 
(i. e. of course, when there was no Caesar). From the nature of the 
case it was, like Caesar, only occasionally conferred. The following 
is a list of the KovpoTraXareu till A.D. 900 : 

Emperor. Kuropalates. 

Justinian I Justin (nephew) : Corippus, loc. cit., 

Evagrius, 5, 1. 

Maurice Peter (brother) : Chron. Pasch. 694 6 . 

Phocas Domentziolos (nephew) : Theoph. 292 25 . 

Heraclius Theodore (brother) : Niceph. 7 3 . 

Leo III Artavasdos (son-in-law): Theoph.395 12 . 2 

Nicephorus I Michael (son-in-law) : Theoph. 492 9 . 

Michael III Bardas (uncle) : Cont. Th. 176 3 . 

Leo VI conferred the title on the Iberian king Adranases (De adm. 
imp. 199); it had been more than once in earlier times bestowed 
on Iberian princes. In the tenth century Nicephorus II created 
his brother Leo a KoupoirdAarr/s ; in the eleventh the title was no 

1 May the idea of this dignity have been derived from Persia ? Cp. Theoph. Sim. 
3. 18. 12. 

8 A seal of Artavasdos is extant, Sig. 249 'Apravdadrj 7raTp[tKto>] ovp[o7raXdr/] 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 35 

longer confined to relatives of the Emperor (cp. the seals in Schlum- 
berger, Sig. 490 sqq.). 

A ceremony for the creation of a kuropalates is described in Cer. i. 
45, p. 229 sqq. When this description was first written down there 
were two emperors, one of whom was still a boy (6 fxiKpo's). It may 
be conjectured that it refers to the creation of Michael by Nicephorus I 
and Stauracius. At the end of the chapter there is a notice to the 
effect that a kuropalates can be created ev rw t6uo by the Basileus, 
without a public ceremony. I conjecture that Bardas was thus 
invested, and that this additional notice dates from the reign of 
Michael III. 

(17) z/co/^eXrJo-t/xos. 

In the third century nobilissimus was the standing epithet of the 
title Caesar which the emperors conferred on natural or adopted 
sons (Mommsen, Staatsrecht, ii. 3 1141 and note). In the fourth 
century we find Jovian creating his child-son Valerian a z>o>/3eA.io-i/zos, 
but not Caesar ; the epithet becomes an independent title (Philo- 
storgius 8. 8). In the fifth century Constantine, the e tyrant* of 
Britain and Gaul in the reign of Honorius, creates his eldest son, 
Constans, Caesar, and his second, Julian, z>co/3eAiWijuo? (Olympiodorus, 
fr. 12). Honorius created his child-nephew, Valentinian, nobilissimus 
(ib. 34), and afterwards V. was invested as Caesar at Thessalonica 
before he was crowned Augustus at Ravenna (ib. 46). Nobilissimus 
is thus a title lower than Caesar, but confined to the emperor's 
family. Justinian ] introduced the new title of kuropalates to do duty 
for nobilissimus or Caesar, but in the eighth century Constantine V 
revived the dignity of z>o>/3eArj<ri/xos. In A.D. 768 he created his 
second and third sons Caesars, and his fourth z>o/3eA.iVtfxoy (Theoph. 
444) : afterwards also his fifth son (ib. 450 2 ) : and the sixth received 
the same dignity from Leo IV (ib.). 

A description of the ceremony performed on the first of these 
occasions is described in Cer. i. 44 (the mention of two Caesars 
proves this, as Diehl has shown). As to the insignia there is a 
discrepancy between Cer. and Theoph. The latter says that the voj3. 
was invested with a \\aiva xpvvr] and 6 o-rtyavos. In Cer. 229 we 
read that his \\CLIJLVS is not purple like that of the Caesar but KOKKLVOS, 
and orTtyavov ov Treptr^erat. Philotheos says that the insignia are 
\iTvv ef a\ovpyibos ^pwrofleros KCLL x\afjivs /cat ((avrj. It is clear, then, 
that Theoph. has made two mistakes ; he has confounded the x^afoa 

1 He seems himself to have borne the title under his uncle ; cp. Marcellinu 
sub A. D. 527. Women sometimes received the dignity, e. g. Galla Placida, 
C. I. L. 15, 7153. 

M3 2 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



or x^a/^? with the tunic which was \pw66 'ero?, and he erroneously 
supposed that the ra>/3eATJ0-ijtxos was crowned like the Caesar. 

(18) Kcuo-ap. 

For the Caesar title, as a promise of succession under the Princi-* 
pate, see Mommsen, Staatsrecht, ii. 3 1140. After Justinian's reign 
we find it conferred on Tiberius by Justin II ; on Germanus and 
Maurice by Tiberius II ; on Constantine junior by Heraclius ; on 
David and Marinus by Heraclius ; on Christophorus and Nicephorus 
by Constantine V ; on Alexios Musele by Theophilus ; on Bardas by 
Michael III. The only case I know (later than the third century) of 
the elevation to this rank of one who was not a near relative (by birth, 
adoption, or marriage) of the emperor is that of Patricius, son of 
Aspar, who was created Caesar by Leo I. 

From Theodosius I it was the invariable practice of the emperor, 
if he had a son, to create him a colleague (Basileus and Augustus). 
Hence the title Caesar was rarely conferred. Justin II and 
Tiberius II conferred it to mark out their successors, but after 
Maurice it was only conferred on persons who might, in certain 
events, succeed. Heraclius and Constantine V bestowed it on 
younger sons ; Theophilus on a son-in-law ; Michael III, who was 
childless, on an uncle. 

The ceremony which accompanied the elevation of the sons of 
Constantine V is described in Cer. i. 43. 

C. OFFICES (at Sia \6yov dftai). 

The administrative officials are grouped by Philotheos in seven 
classes : I. (rrparrjyoi, II. SO/U^OTIKOI, III. K/otrat, IV. o-eK/oeriKot, 
V. S?7/uoKpareu, VI. or parapyai, VII. various (duu ei'Si/ccu) ; and it will 
be convenient to take them in his order. 

The use of the term o0<i/aaA.iot, which frequently occurs in his 
pages, has not, so far as I know, been precisely explained. But he 
supplies the material for determining its denotation. In early times 
officiates seems to have been applied only to the members of the 
officium of a minister, but not to the minister himself. The Master 
of Offices, or the Count of the Sacred Largesses, would not have been 
called an officiates. In the time of Philotheos, it was applied to the 
ministers as well as to their subordinates. 1 And it was applied to all 
the functionaries holding office or command, with the exception of 
the orpaTvjyot. This can be proved from the following passages. 

1 Speaking of the posts in the staffs and bureaux of the high officials,, Philotheos 
(716 8 ) says that these dignities KCU avra ofyfyima 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 37 

(1) The author expressly states that the Domestic! (notwithstanding 
their military character) were counted as d^i/adAtot (715 12 ). (2) In 
742 18 , 742 2 , 3 the orpar. and 6$</>. are distinguished : 6 orrpar., 2 o$<. 
Cp. also 767^. (3) Equally clearly they are contrasted in 766 17 and 
767 1 _ 3 . (4) So too in 7lO lo . 1 In784 15 and 767 9 o-expertKot d^txtaAtot 
are mentioned, meaning all those comprised in class IV. 

While offxfriKiov in later documents is more often used in our sense of 
office, than in its earlier meaning of the whole staff of subordinate 
officials, the term rais is employed for the staffs of the Strategoi, 
Domestics, Kritai, &c., and o-eKperoi; for the officials of class IV. 2 For 
this distinction cp. Cer. 6 8 , 9 iracrcus rats rcefe^i /cat Trcurt -rots cre/cperois. 3 
On (TeKperov see below in section IV on a-expert/cot, p. 83. 



The high officials themselves are thus divided into seven classes, but 
their subordinates are grouped in three classes (716 9 ) : A. ray/xariKot, 
B. 0e/xartKot, C. crvyK.XriTiK.oL Obviously A comprises the subordinate 
o<$t'/aa of the Domestics (class II), and B those of the orparr/yot 
(class I) ; it follows that the subordinate officials of classes III-VII 
were all designated as o-vyKXrjTiKoi. 

The use of o-vyKArjrtKoi, which constantly occurs in Philotheos and 
the Ceremonies of Constantine, is confusing, and demands some 
observations. We must first of all distinguish the Synkletos in the 
narrow sense of the Council of high officials who assisted the Emperor 
in business of state from the whole body of o-vyKArjrtKot, or persons of 
senatorial rank, who had the right of being received at court, and were 
expected to take part in the ceremonies and processions. 4 But there 
are other variations in its meaning. It seems sometimes to be 

1 In 784 n , however, trrpar^-yoi are loosely included under orfxp. 

8 But afKperov was doubtless also commonly used of the bureaux of subordinate 
officials belonging to the other classes. 

3 A. Vogt, in his Basils I er , p. 75, gives npoeXeva-is as the term for suite or 
bureau. Its ordinary meaning is ceremonial procession (cp. irpoepxeaOai), and 
it is used for the suite of a strategos (comitatus, cp. the TrpoeXeuo-t/zatoi of xptrai in 
Const. Porph. Nov. 9, p. 268j), but not for a bureau. The passage in Phil. 716 7 
is difficult : eiSq dia>pdra>j> did<f)opa, Kara avaXoyiav KOI rdt-iv KCU TTJS eKaarrov npoeXev- 
(rws (the text seems doubtful : I think we must read KOI T^S rd^ftoy). The mean- 
ing seems to be that these subordinate offices differ according to the kind of staff 
to which each belongs. rdis is used generally (including the creicpcTa), 
especially of the military staffs. See above, p. 23. 

* It seems probable that in such passages as Cer. 87 3 01 TrarpiKiot ical 
(Kflfff KOI T) \onrf) (TvyK\r)Tos, or 150 16 ol TrarpiKioi *at 17 (rvyKXrjros, the senate in its 
narrower sense is meant ; the contexts suggest that only officials of very high 
rank are contemplated. For the two senses of (TvyxXrjTos cp. Ellissen, Der 
Scnat im ostrorniachen Rcichc, 27 #77. (1881). 



38 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



opposed to paviXiKoi, 1 yet in its application to the officials of classes 
II I- VII (see above), it embraces many officials who were distinctly 
ficMriXiKOL. The fact is that persons holding auu bia /3pa/3eiW 
/3ao-iAi/cai might be crvyKX^TLKoi, if they held offices under classes 
III-VII, and we are thus able to explain the passage in Cer. 61 22 
bia-VTTaTovs, (nraOapiovs o~vyK\T]TLKovs, KOL vTrarou?, where I remove the 
comma which appears in the Bonn edition after cnraOapiovs ; only those 
spathars, who are also o-vy/cAT/nKoi by virtue of an O^IKLOV, are 
designated. The eunuch officials are not described as Synkletic, but 
some of them certainly were. 2 

It appears that in its widest sense o-vyKX?/ruot included (1) high 
dignitaries, magistri and patricians, 3 whether they held office or 
not; (2) all the high officials who obtained their office 8ta Ao'you 
(except perhaps some of the eunuchs), and including Strategoi 4 and 
Domestics ; (3) the officials subordinate to the ministers of classes 
III-VII ; (4) the Synkletic dignitaries 8ta /3pa/3eiW, namely disypatoi, 
hypatoi, &c. ; and possibly (5) an obscure class who had no such 
dignities (but see below VII (6) under 6 em rfjs Karaorrao-ews). The 
term was also used in a restricted sense to designate the fourth (or 
fifth) of these categories. 

In this connexion must be noticed a phrase which often occurs in 
the latter part of Philotheos, ol VTTO Kap.Trdyi.ov (those who wear the 
kampagion, some kind of footgear, 5 cp. Ducange s. v.). Compare : 

(1) 742 18 ri]V VTTO Ka^TrdyLV (TvyK\r)TOv Ttaa-av, olov drrTj/cpijras KT\. 
(various members of the Sekretic officia) olov CLTTO re a-naOapoKavbLbaTtov 
KOI Karwrepo), warcou, Sio"V7rarwi>, and some of the tagmatic officials. 

(2) 752j TOVS VTTO K. (TvyK\r]TLKOVs a7iavTas, olov acrrjKpriTas /crA. 
(various officials under classes III-VII, and also some of the tagmatic 
officials). 

(3) 757 19 <t'Aovs TOVS VTTO K. airavTas, ap\pVTas r^y crvyKXr\rov, CLTTO re 

, avOvnartov, TrarpiKicoi', o</><iKiaAiW,/3a(TiAiK<3i' TT/owroo-Tra^a/otcor, 
KT\. (including some tagmatic officials). 

(4) 759 9 <f>i\ovs K T&V o-vyKXyTiK&v, TOVS VTTO K. TtdvTas, 

, TrpatTroo-trovs, TrarptKtov?, d^^tKtaAtofs, fiaor. 
, rov Trpforoao-TJKp^rty KrA. (including tagmatics). 

(5) 769 19 OTTO TTJS rafecos T&V /xayto-rpw^ 7rarpi/aW Kal AOITTWV vvv 



1 Cp. Cer. SlGj ; 3^-^. 

2 The Praepositus, e.g. was a member of the Senate. Cp. Mansi, xvi. 392 
(A. D. 869) 6 p.ya\07rpf7re(TTaTos Trpauroviros cos ex npooraTrov TTJS If pas avyK\r)Tov t 
Ib. 329 Gregory, a Spatharocubicularius, is described as OTTO ra>v TTJS o-vy/<Ar/Tou. 

3 Also praepositi, cp. Phil. 741 17 . 

4 Cp. ib. the arpar. belong to the /Sao-iXtKi? <TvyK\r)Tos. 

6 For the KU/J,TT. as ceremonial footgear cp. John Mai. 322 a (A. D. 330). 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 39 



r(j> So/xeartKO) T>V cr)(oXG>v Kal /3ao-i/\i/c<3z> avQptoit<*>v OTTO rrjs rdfecos T&V 
a-iradapOKavbibcLTCtiV /uc'xpt TTJS Tafea>s T&V aTparwpcoz/ TOVS pv vird 
Kapnayw TravTas /xera T&V oueuoz; dAAa^rj/xdraw rovs 6e 7Tpa>roo-7ra0apiovs 
/xera cnreKwv TOVS 6* /Sao-tAiKovs jxera TO>I> o-Kapajxayytooi> KOI p-ovov. 

(6) 774 I5 . 

(7) 777 22 OTTO rwy o-KpcrtKa>ZJ rail' VTTO Ka/xTrdyw; 7rdrTa)r. 

(8) 779 10 raiv /may., di;^., irarp., o^^tKtaAtcov, TrptoToa-ir. Kal \onr&v 

(TVyKXf]TLK&V T&V VTTO KCLfJUldyiV OVTWV. 

(9) 780 2 ot fxcf jotay., TrpatTT., Trarp. 0((/>i/adA.ioi Kal ol VTTO 
TrdVres ol 5e AOITTOI /3acnAiKo. 

(10) 781 4 aTro r^s rdfecos TWI; /otay., TrpoiTT., d^^., Trarp., 

TrArji; roSv evvovx w ^ KC " dwo r^y rd^ecoj rrjs VTTO Kapnayiv o-vyKArjrou, 



Of these passages, 3, 4, and 5 make it clear that the kampagion was 
worn by the highest officials. 1 and 2 refer only to subordinates, 
and in 10 the high dignitaries are contrasted with ^ VTTO Ka/uTrdyu; 
o-vyKXrjTos. There is no real contradiction in this ; in 8 and 9 the 
magistri, &c., are specially singled out of the kampagion category, 
and the rest are grouped together as ot viro Ka/xTrdyiv. What digni- 
taries and officials did not belong to ot VTTO Ka/uTrdytv ? First of all, 
probably the eunuchs, except patricians and praepositi (cp. 4 and 9). 
Secondly, the Strategoi and their staffs, who are never mentioned in 
these passages. Thirdly, protospatharioi, &c., who were not Synkletic 
by virtue of office. Fourthly, some lower subordinates (cp. 7), such 
as o>o/uts (Phil. 752 12 ). It is remarkable that tagmatic officers, sub- 
ordinates of the Domestics, are enumerated among ot UTTO K. o-vyKArj- 
TIKOI (cp. 1-4). Is this loose language ? 

I. orparr/yot. 
(1) to (26). Strategoi. 

This class includes, along with twenty-five Strategoi of themes 
(including the Count of Opsikion), the official known as 6 CK vpoo-toirov 
T&V dtfjiaTwv (al. o"xoAo)^). 

The origin of the themes, and their history up to the ninth century, 
has been so fully treated by Gelzer l that I need only call attention 
to a few general points before considering the staff of the strategos. 

The precedence of the Eastern over the Western themes is funda- 
mental. This order of rank is not explained by the precedence of the 

1 Gelzer's conclusions, for the ninth century, have indeed to be supplemented 
by the Arabic evidence produced by Brooks (see Bibliography) and by the 
Taktikon Uspenski. 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

Prefecture of the East over the Prefecture of Illyricum, as many of 
the provinces in the latter had a higher rank than the provinces of 
the former. It is due to the fact that the Illyric provinces were 
almost a lost position in the seventh century, and that the strength 
of the Empire lay entirely in Asia Minor with Thrace at the time 
when the theme system was developed and normalized under Leo III. I 
The naval circumscriptions, which were equally important when that 
emperor came to the throne, and which may truly be said to have 
saved the Empire under the Heraclian dynasty, were included by him 
among the Western themes, because recent experience had shown that 
they might prove a dangerous element of opposition, and his own 
power was based on the Asiatic armies. 1 On the other hand, when 
at a later time Macedonia became a theme, it was included in the 
Eastern class (while Thessalonica and Strymon remained in the 
Western). The Strategoi of the Eastern themes all received a fixed 
salary from the treasury, whereas those of the Western raised their 
pay in their own provinces ; but the naval themes were for this pur- 
pose included in the Eastern class. 2 The number of twenty-five 
strategiai corresponds of course only to the situation at the moment 
when this particular list was drawn up, in the early years of Leo VI. 
Before the end of his reign there was a new strategia of Mesopotamia, 
and the Kleisurarchies of Sebasteia, Lykandos, Seleukeia, and 
Leontopolis had been raised to the rank of themes. 3 

The Strategos of the Anatolic theme 4 holds the highest rank among 
the strategoi, and his is the highest office of those not confined to 
eunuchs, with the exception of those of Basileopator and Rector and 
the ecclesiastical post of Synkellos. At a court reception, only the 
magistri, and these three dignitaries, the Praepositus (if a patrician), 
and eunuchs of patrician rank, preceded the Strategos of the Anatolics, 
provided he was a patrician. But so long as he was a patrician, 
although not an anthypatos, he sat among the anthypatoi. If he was 

1 Cp. Gelzer, 34-5. 

2 The salaries of the Eastern Strategoi were graded as follows : class 1, 
Anatolic, Armeniac, Thrakesian, 40 litrai (about 1752) ; class 2, Opsikian, 
Bukellarian, Macedonian, 30 1. (about 1314) ; class 3, Cappadocian, Charsian, 
Paphlagonian, Thracian, Kolonean, 20 1. (about 876), and to this class must 
be added the Chaldian strat. , who received only 10 1. , in consideration of the 
income he derived from custom-dues, and the Mesopotamian, who derived all his 
pay from customs. The naval themes formed a class 4, Kibyrrhaeot, Samian, 
and Aegean, 10 1. (about 438) ; and, class 5, the Kleisurarchs (Lykandos, 
&c.) received 5 1. (about 219). See the salaries as paid under Leo VI in 
Cer. 696-7. 

3 Cer. 11. 50. 

4 It is called TO a dtpa in Gen. 5 n . 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 41 

only a protospatharios, he was first in that order, unless the Praepo- 
situs happened to be also a protospatharios. At one time the 
Sakellarios seems to have been superior in rank to the Strategos 
Anat. ; this question will be considered below in connexion with the 
Sakellarios. But the exalted position of the Strut. Anat. in the 
imperial service corresponds to what, as I pointed out long ago, was 
the origin of the post ; he took the place of the magister militum per 
Orientem. Next to him in rank, among the officials, was the 
Domesticus Scholarum, who in the later Empire corresponds most 
nearly to the old magister militum in praesenti (though he does not 
descend from him) ; and after the Domesticus comes the Strategos 
of the Armeniac theme, who represents the magister militum per 
Armenian!, instituted by Justinian. 

The officium of a Strategos is as follows : t 

(1) Turmarchae, (2) merarches, (3) comes rijj /co'pnjs, (4) chartularius, 
(5) domesticus, (6) drungarii bandorum, (7) comites bandorum, (8) cen- 
tarchus spathariorum, (9) comes rijs ereupeias, (10) protocancellarius, 
(11) protomandator (and in the case of the maritime themes, (12) pro- 
tocarabi, (13) centarchi). 

(1, 2) The turmarchs commanded the rovp\j.ai, or divisions of the ', 
military 0e/xa or corps, and governed the turms or districts of the 
geographical theme. The military unit was the fidvbov, of which \ 
the commander was entitled (7) comes. According to Leo, Tact. iv. ] 
42, the fidvba were grouped in higher units, called /xotpcu or bpovyyoi, 
and these regiments were commanded by ^oipapxan or bpovyydpioi. , 
The turm or brigade consisted of three such /uotpcu, ib. 9. The turm \ 
was also called /ue/aoj, and the roup^cipx 7 ? 9 a J tJt P^/ 3 X 1 7 y * 1 There were 
three turmarchs under the Strategos. 2 This account differs from that 
of Ibn Khurdadhbah, who wrote his description of the administrative 
organization of the Roman Empire, c. A.D. 840-5 (ed. De Goeje, 
see Bibliography). According to him, there were two turmarchs 
under the command of the Strategos of one of the larger themes. 
Under the turmarch were five drungarioi, and under the drungarios 
five comites. 3 The discrepancy arises from the fact that the number 
of turms and turmarchs differed in the different themes. We have 
tenth-century documents (A. D. 935 and 949) showing that there were 
three turms in the Thracesian theme. 4 Ibn Khurdadhbah generalized 

1 Ib. 8, 9. 2 Ib. 44. 

3 Gelzer has tabulated the subdivision, pp. 116, 118. 

4 Cer. 663 3 and 666 17 . The text of the former passage requires correction, 
it stands 6 Tovpp.ap\i]$ TO>I> QtoSomaKoo*', ot Tovpfiap^ni TU>V fiKTOpa)i/, ol Tovpp.dp\at 
rqy nnpciMov, Read 6 Tovppdpxqs for the plural in both cases (cp. 6G3 20 6 r. TVV 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

from one theme. We can prove this by the fact that he represents 
the numbers of troops in the (larger) themes as uniform 10,000 men. 1 
Now we know from another Arabic writer, Kudama (who copied Ibn 
Khurdadhbah, but added new facts), that the number of the troops in 
the various themes both larger and smaller varied considerably. 

Leo VI speaks of /uepdpxqs as an (older) equivalent of Tovppdpxns 
(Tact. iv. 8, 9). In Philotheos they are distinguished, and other 
texts prove that juepapx<u is not a gloss on Tovp/utapx<u. In the official 
description of the troops sent to Italy in A. D. 935 by Romanus I, 
6 fjicpLdpxys 2 of the theme of Charpezikion, and 6 fj.pidpxn$ of the 
Thracesian, are mentioned as well as the turmarchs. 3 Moreover, we 
find 6 nepdpxrjs in the treatise Trepl rafetdiW. 4 These passages 
entitle us to correct the text of Philotheos, and read //epapx*?? for 



These divisions of the army roupjutcu, ^otpctt, ftdvba correspond to the * 
sixth-century divisions, /utep?;, /uotpcu, rdy/xara. Turmarchs replace 
merarchs, the drungarioi correspond to the moerarchs (see below), 
and the KO/H^TCS (see below) to the apxovres (also called Kojuu/res). See 
(Maurice) Strat. passim, and Aussaresses, L'armee byzantine, 19 sqq. 
Who then is the later merarch ? I suggest that in most themes there 
were two geographical turms in the ninth century and two turmarchs, 
while the army consisted (as in the sixth century) of three brigades, 
and that the third brigade was under a commander who bore the old 
title jj.pdpxns and had no geographical district. 

(6, 7) We must also correct bpovyydpios T&V fidvbuv to bpovyydpioi 
T. ft. 5 The drungarios, as we have seen, was the commander of 
a /utoipa, and there were probably three jxotpat in each turm. With 
dpovyydpios, T&V ftdvbw has a collective sense the (ten) banda which 
compose his /moipa ; with Ko/u^res (6/xoia>s = r&v ftdvbw) it is distribu- 
tive, each comes commands a ftdvbov. For the drungarioi compare 
Cer. 666 19 (ol 5p. /cat KO'/LWJTCS), 667 10 , 662 15 , 21 . They are also called 

1 From the Armeniac, if Gelzer is right in his probable correction of Kudama 
(p. 98). 

8 The MS. of Cer. varies between i^piapxns and the right form nfpapxw (663 18 ). 
Compare the seal published by Schlumberger (Sig. 201) o-<f>payls /zepeapx(ou) 
Kva>o-o-(ou) Kvvo-TavTivov. This belongs to the later period after the reconquest 
of Crete by Nicephorus II. In Genesios we meet the merarch of the Charsian 
theme in A. D. 863 (97 2 ). 

3 Cor. 662 19 , 663 4 , and 663 18 (OTTO roG fidvSov rov /ncpap^ou, which is obscure). 
In the theme of Charpezikion we find great and minor turmarchs distinguished, 

f?R9 fiR7 fifiQ 

uu ^18^ 205 *""** ""^ej 8* 

4 Cer. 482 19 . 

5 This was not apprehended by Kulakovski, Dntng i drungarii. To this article 
I may refer for the history of the terms drungos and drungarios. 






THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 43 



482 19 , 663 6 . In Takt. Uspenski, 129, 6 
must be corrected ol bpovyydpioi r. 6. 

(3) On the duties of the comes rrjs Koprrjs (count of the tent) 1 the) 
chief source is the treatise irepl T&V fiao-iXiK&v rafeiStW. When the 
emperor leads a military expedition, the comites TTJS KO'PTTJS of the , 
various themes attend the emperor to pitch the imperial tent, along 
with the cortinarii who are under their command, and accompany 
the Drungarios of the Watch in his nightly circuit round the camp. 
They supply posthorses to the Drungarios of the Watch for imperial 
business, Cer. 489-90. They might also be sent on special missions. 
For instance, the strategos of the Anatolic theme sent his comes TTJS 
KopTys to examine Theodore of Studion in prison at Smyrna (A. D. 819, 
Theod. Stud., Epist. ii. 38, p. 1233, ed. Migne). In Leo, Tact. iv. 30, 
the comes rfjs KO'/OTTJS is described as a member of the general's staff 
(TrpoeAeixris). These officials might be spatharioi, see Philotheos, 735 7 , 
where the text must be corrected 6 a-naOdpLos Kal KO'/ATJS rfjs KO'/OTTJS r&v 
'AvaroXiK&v. The Theophylactus, count of the tent in the theme of 
Chaldia, whose name is preserved on a seal in Schlumberger's col- 
lection (Sig. 289, 331), was a candidatus. 2 The emperor sometimes 
had a comes rfjs KopTrjs of his own ; e.g. Michael the Amorian filled 
the post for Nicephorus I (Genes. 10 ]3 , Cont. Th. 9, 12). 3 The seal 
of a K. rrjs Koprrjs (ninth-tenth century) is published by Schlumberger, 
Mel. 245. j 

(5) The 6"o/ue'<mKos is mentioned as a member of the general's staff 
in Leo, Tact. iv. 30. Compare Cer. 482 20 , 662 20 , and 663 5 (6 So/ueWtKos 
TOV OffjLaros) ; Takt. Usp. 128. These officers have the rank of strator 
in Phil. 737 r See also Alexius Comnenus, Nov. 30, p. 374, ed. Zach. 

(8) The KeWapxs r &>J> o-iraflapuoz; must be distinguished from the 
mentioned in Leo, Tact. iv. 11, who commanded each 300 



was the tent, especially of the emperor, but also of the strategos. 
See Ducange, *. v. Cp. Cont. Th. 236 2 ; George Moil. (Bonn) 830 18 = Pseudo- 
Simeon, 678 21 . 

2 The legend is tfeorocce fiorjdei T> (ro> SouXco + 0fo<iAaicra> /3(ao-iXiKO>) Kav8(idaT(o) 
KOI Kr>p.(r)Ti) TTJS Koprfas) Xa\5(i'ay). The seal belongs to the ninth century. 
Clialdia seems to have become a separate government towards the end of the 
eighth century (Gelzer, 95-6), and it was raised to the rank of a strategia before 
the middle of the ninth century. Gelzer thought that it was a KXcurovpa till the 
reign of Leo VI. But the Taktikon Uspenski mentions 6 TrarpLKtos KOI crrparriyos 
XaXSt'as (p. 113) and also 6 8oi> XaXSi'as (p. 119). We may infer that it had been 
at first a Ducatus and had been recently made a o-Tparrjyia ; 6 doi>| X. was taken 
over from an older list. 

3 In Alexius Comnenus, Nov. 30, p. 374 (foot of page) 
ru>v 6ffjL<iTa>i> } we should, I conjecture, read KO^T^V TIJS 






44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

men, and were subject to the comes. 1 This distinction seems to 
correspond to the distinction in Phil. 738 ]8 , 2 o between the K^vrap\oL 
T&V (TTpoLTr]yG>v T&V OcpaTLK&v and the KeWap^os r&v (Sdvbwv. Are we 
to identify the /ceVrapx ? T&V & 17 . with the TrpwroKeVrapxos who is 
recorded on seals (Schlumberger, Sig. 166 SqoTjinja) 7rpa>ra>K(ez>)rdp(x<>) 
< EA(A)d6(os) 357 2rpariy(a)) dKej>rapK(fc>) ) ? But there were more than 
one TrpcDTOKtvTapxos in a theme. Six are mentioned in the staff of the 
general of the Thrakesians (Cer. 663 10 ). 2 It seems possible that 
Kcvrapxos in the text of Phil, is an error for K.tvrapyoi. The spatharioi 
whom the centarch commanded were probably a guard attached to 
the immediate service of the general. 3 

(9) The KO'/XTJS TTJS ercupetas is, I conjecture, referred to in Cer. ii. 
44, p. 659 J5 Iva d-Troo-raXct 777$ craipetas /xera KeAewecoy Trpbs rbv 
Kar7rai>a>, where perhaps TOV Ko^ra has fallen out after aTrooraAer. 

(4) The x. a P Tov ^P LOS f the theme was in the officium of the 
strategos, but his duties connected him with the department of the 
Logothete T&V arpartcortKO)^, so that he also belonged to his officium 
and was responsible to him. This is explained in Leo, Tact. iv. 31, 
where the function of the chartularius is described as irpos TT)V rov 
(rrpcLTov (MS. (TTpaTrjyov) KaTaypa^v re KOL avai]Trj<nv (he kept the 
military rolls), and it is said that while he and the protonotary and 
the praetor were in some respects (> THTIV) subject to the strategos, 
they were also directly responsible to the central government : TOVS 
\6yovs T&V IbiK&v avr&v StoiKT7<reo>y 7rpds TT\V fiaviXtiav 
wore 8t' avT&v pavBavtiv TCLS re T&V TTO^LTLK&V Kal r<Si; 
Trpay/xdrooz; /caraordo-ets Kat 8totKTJ(rets ao-^aAeorepoz; ^yov/xe^a. 

From the relation of the chartularius to the Logothete r. 
and from the functions of the \apTov\apioi r&v brfuwv referred to in 
the edict of Cer. ii. 56, 4 we can see that he had financial duties, and 
that the pay of the officers and soldiers came into his department. 
He might have the rank of a spatharios (Phil. 735 16 ) or a strator 
(736 20 ). Nicephorus, chartularius of Sicily (eighth-ninth century), 

1 It is to be noted that Ibn Khurdadhbah speaks of Kontarhm who command 
each forty men and are identified by De Goeje with kentarchs (hekatontarchs), 
but by Gelzer (115) are explained as (pente)kontarchs, on the basis of a passage 
in the Acta S. Demetrii, 181 C. Leo does not mention pentekontarchs. 

2 xrptoroKcWapYoi occurs in a doubtful passage in Basil II, Nov. 29 (p. 311), 
and in the list of the strategic officials (A. D. 1079) in Miklosich and Miiller, 
Acta et Diplomata, vi. 21. 

3 At the beginning of the eighth century the strategos had also stratores, for 
in A. D. 718 (Theoph. 388 2 .,) we meet a So/xe'oriKos TU>V crrparopwi/ of the strat. of 
the Anatolic theme. 

4 Cp.'Rambaud, 204. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 45 

whose seal is preserved (Panchenko, 9. 384) , was a spatharios. 
Drosos, chartularius of Thrace (eighth or ninth century) (Schlum- 
berger, Sig. 122), was a candidatus. Orestes, chartularius of the 
theme of the Aegean Sea (tenth century), had the higher rank of a 
spatharocandidatus (Sig. 194). 1 

(10) The TTpd>To Kay K \\ap LOS was the chief of what would in earlier 
times have been called a schola of cancellarii. There was such a 
schola under the mag. off. of the West in the fifth century (Not. 
Dig. Occ. ix. 5). There was probably a cancellarius in all bureaux 
of the first and second class ; we find a cancellarius of the Prefect of 
the City in the time of Julian (C.I.L. 6. 1780), and one attached to 
the bureau of the Dux Pentapoleos in the reign of Anastasius I. \ 
His duty was to keep the public from entering the secretum of the 
minister, 2 and to carry communications between him and the general 
officium. He was outside the officium (see Cass. Var. xi. 6), and 
this may explain why he is not mentioned in the Not. Dig. When 
John Lydus wrote, the Praet. Praef. of the East had two cancellarii, 
but this may have been exceptional and temporary ; the Praet. Pref. 
selected his cancellarii from the schola Augustalium ; the post was 
not filled by ordinary advancement within the officium. 3 Cancellarii 
and a protocancellarius are found in most of the officia (except in the 
domesticates) enumerated by Philotheos, but they occupy a low 
position in the matricula. There are no seals of protocancellarii. 
The protocancellarius of the theme is mentioned in Cer. 659 17 . 

(11) Mandatores, with a Tr/xoro/za^arcop at their head, occur not 
only in the officia of the Strategoi, but also in those of the Domestics, 
of some of the Logothetes, and others. They were properly adjutants, . 
or bearers of commands (pavbarofyopoi) . The mandatores of the ' 
Strategos are defined in Leo, Tact. iv. 16, as ot TO, fj.avba.Ta CLTTO T&V 
ap-%6vT(Dv TTpos TOVS (TTpaTitoTas ofea>s biaKOfj.iovTS (cp. ib. 49) . 4 The 
protomandator of a theme was an official of some importance. For 

a seal of a protomandator of Dalmatia see Schlumberger, Sig. 206. 
Carbeas was protom. of the Strat. Anatol. under Michael III (Cont. 
Th. 166 2 ). 



1 The seal of a viraros KO.\ x- of Cephallenia (eighth-ninth century), and another 
of a /3atr. <nradapoiuiv1lt&dTos ical x- of the Cibyrrhaeot Theme, are published by 
Schlumberger, Mel. 205, 208. The chartularies of the themes are mentioned in 
Alex. Comn. , Nov. 30, p. 374. 

2 See Agathias, i. 19, p. 55. On the cancellarii see esp. Kriiger, Kritik des 
Justinianischen Codex, 163 sqq. (1867). 

3 See Mommsen, 478 sqq. 

4 See (Maurice) Strat. iii. 5, vii. 16. Cp. Aussaresses, op. at. 23. 






46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



(27) Ot K 

The functions of the e/c TTpoa-^irov have been discussed by Reiske, 1 
Rambaud, 2 Schlumberger, 3 and most recently by Mitard. 4 I need 
not consider Reiske's view, which is palpably wrong. Rambaud 
rightly saw that these functionaries were representatives of the 
emperor, and that the temporary government of a province or district 
was delegated to them ; they were temporary strategoi, distinguished 
from the Strategoi proper. This has been more clearly and fully set 
out by Mitard. That e/c irpocr^Trov means CK TrporrwTrou TOV /Sao-iAe'cos is 
proved by the passage in De adm. imp. 228 sqq., which Rambaud 
and Mitard consider/ and is illustrated by Leo VI' s idea that the 
strategos himself is an K irpoauwov of the emperor, who is the 
supreme strategos (Tact. 4. 7, cited by Mitard). We might further 
cite a late seal (Sig. 577) Havay(i^Trf) av&(vnaTu>} mirp(iKuo) K<H CK 
Trpoo- (OOTTOU) r(ou) (f)L\(o\pL(TTov) 0anr(oTov). 

These writers have not called attention to the difficulty which lies 
in the alternation of the plural with the singular in Philotheos, to 
whose notices we have to add the evidence of Takt. Usp. 
Singular : (1) Takt. Usp. 120 6 e* irpoo-unrov T&V 0e/z(ra>i> (a proto- 
spatharios) . 

(2) Phil. 714 5 77 TOV e* TT. T&V 0. 

(3) ib. 729 6 6 avG. irarp. KCLL *K TT. T&V 0. 

Plural : (4) Phil. 715 7 ot ex -npovto-nov rS>v Qe^ar^v (cod. vyo\G>v). 

(5) ib, 732} ot TTpwrocnraOdpioL CK TrpodcoTrou r<Sy Oefjidrtov 

Kara TO tbiov tKacrTov 6fj.a. 

We must interpret the singular as equivalent to a plural ; as these 
officials were appointed for temporary needs, it is clear that there 
might sometimes be one, sometimes more than one, sometimes none. 
It is, however, quite possible, seeing the constant confusions of sing. 
with plur. both in the Taktikon and in Philotheos, that the plural 
should be read in 1, 2, and 3. From the nature of the case, an e/c 
had no permanent O(X/HKIOI>, he would use the existing 
of the Strategos in the theme to which he was sent ; and 



1 837 ' puto eum fuisse qui legiones integras repraesentaret, eorum loco et 
nomine ad imperatorem peroraret ', &c. He is followed by Schlumberger. 

2 197-8. 3 Sig. 576. 

4 See Bibliography. Uspenski, Tabel, 135 quotes from Kekaumenos, Strattyi- 
kon, 40 (ed. Jernstedt) ey^fipto-^^Tt K&V Kirpo(ra>inKr)v iy rrjv apxovriap r/ TO fia 

TTJS TToXireias T)IJ.)V, where eWpoorcoTriKi) (apx*]) is probably the office of a locui 
tenens for a strategos. But Uspenski throws no light on the subject. 

5 TOU yap TrpwTofnriidapiov Eiicrra$i'ou at 
CK Troa-uTvov a7roaTaXcvroy. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 47 
therefore these officers are passed over by Philotheos in his list of the 



Philotheos 'mentions (788 10 ) the fees paid by the CK irp. to the 
atriklinai, and here he uses the phrase e/c Trpoa-^irov orpar^yoO, which 
illustrates the construction of the genitive T&V 0e//aro>z>, in the title 
e/c irp. rwv 0., as dependent not on e/c irp. but on orparTjywz; or a word 
of the kind. 

Schlumberger has published a seal (Sig. 245) of eleventh or twelfth 
century of an e/c TTPOO-WTTOV in the Theme of the Optimati : MixarjX 
TTpoo-wnov TCW oTTre^cmozj). 1 An earlier seal of the eighth or ninth 
century (ib. 577, No. 6) records a irpwToo-iraOapios /cat e/c Trpoo-wTrou. 
The e/c Trpoo-wTTov TOV bpopov (Sig. 123) must be kept apart from the 
T>V QffjLCLTMv. An earlier seal of Theodotos, e/c Trpoo-wTrov Meflow?]?, will 
be found in Mel. 204. 

II. o'ojxe'oTi/coi. 

The Domestici fall into two groups, the four Domestici of the 
Tagmata, 2 and the rest. Before treating them separately, some 
general words of explanation seem required concerning the Tagmata, 
as to which vague and incorrect opinions have been held. 3 

The Byzantine army consisted of two great divisions, the Q^ara. / 
and the rayjuara, and troops were designated as thematic or tagmatic 
according to the division to which they belonged. 4 The themata 
were the troops of the provinces, and the tagmata were the troops j 
stationed in or about the capital. The themata were commanded by 
strategoi, the tagmata by domestici, and there were differences in the 
organization. 

The tagmata are frequently mentioned by Theophanes in the his- 
tory of the eighth century, e. g. v\o\apiol re Kat T&V \ourwv Tay/mara>z> 
(437 2 , A.D. 764), 5 and he opposes them to the themes (ra eco Q^ara 
442 28 , cp. ra eo-a> ray/xara 449 27 ). In the ninth century there were 
four Tagmata proper, namely (1) the Scholarii, (2) the Excubitores or I 

1 Cp. also 577, No. 4. 

2 ot /neyaXoi 8o/ie<mKoi ra>v r. in Cer. 287 j 299 14 seem to mean these four, 
cp. 291 17 . 

3 The subject has been treated by Uspenski, Voennoe ustroistvo (see Bibliography). 
Ileiske (837) enumerates the four tagmata incorrectly, and it is clear that 
CJelzer (17 sqq.) did not realize what they were. 

* Cp. e. g. Nov. Nicephori Phocae xv'iii, p. 290 ray/xaTiKoi KOI Bf^iannoL 
6 Also 461 20 , 468 7 , 471 14 , &c. It may be noted that ray/zara is used of the 
Scholarians by Agathias, 5, 15 (310,, 13 ). Cp. Menander, fr. 11 T>V Kara rt]v 
nv\rjv Tay/iartov commanded l>y the Mag. Off. In the sixth century ray^a was 
used for fidvdov, see above, p. 42. 



48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

Excubiti, (3) the Arithmos, (4) the Hikanatoi. The evidence l for the 
four Tagmata is abundant in documents of the ninth and tenth 
centuries. For the eighth century there is no explicit evidence as to 
their number, but, as the Hikanatoi seem to have been instituted by 
Nicephorus I (see below),, we may assume that there were three. 2 
They consisted of cavalry. 3 But tagmata was also used in a looser 
sense to include two other bodies, the Numeri and the Imperial fleet. 4 
The Numeri were infantry 5 and did not leave Constantinople, and 
this applies also to the troops who were under the command of the 
Count of the Walls. 6 

The term 0-xoA.d/not, though strictly used of the troops of one tagma, 
the 2xW? was also used for the rank and file of all four Tagmata. 7 

It appears from a document of the tenth century that detachments 
of the four Tagmata were stationed in Thrace, in Macedonia, and in 
the ' Peratic ' region on the Asiatic side of the Bosphorus. 8 



1 Phil. 758 4 \oura>v dpxovrcw rotv 8' rayndruv, 763 5 ot 8' 8o//f O-TIKOI TWV 8' 

Cer. 598 ]8 (ii. 16) ot rav 8' T. apxovres, KOI 6 fj.cv dopeariKos ra>v axokwv KOI 6 J;KovfSiTos 
KOI 6 iKavdros fla-fpxovrai . . . xtpertouo-ii> TUV dpovyydpiov rrjs fiiy\as. Cp. 605 18 _ 21 . 
Ilept ra. 484 ;s TCI rdyfjiara ... at o-^oXai . . . ra fieov$<ra ... 6 dpidpos ... 6 i*cactrof 
(leg. 01 iKavdroi). Cer. 666 3 , 7 , &c. Cont. Th. 181 16 (A.D 863) /zero rwv jSao-iXiKw/^ 
Tfao-dp&v Tciyfj.dT(av. The earliest enumeration is in Kudama (depending on 
Al Garmi and relating to A.D. 838-45), De Goeje, 196 #7. (Gelzer, 17 sq<)-)- 
Some of the names are mutilated. (1) Scholarii ; (2) Excubiti so Gelzer, 
and Uspenski, op. cit. 169 ; (3) ' 'wkws, under the command of a trungar ' 
(drungarios) : Gelzer thinks the Hikanatoi are meant, but (a) the title drungarios 
points to the Arithmos, and (6) the Arithmos is third in precedence ; Uspenski 
also believes that the Arithmos is meant ; (4) fidaratiyin = (poififpciroi ; De Goeje 
indiscreetly suggested a-Kovrdpioi : it is very unlikely that the Hikanatoi are 
designated under the name (potdtpdroi, but emendation is out of place. See 
below, p. 64. 

2 We cannot press Theoph. 461 20 TO>I> o-^oXapt'coj/ T * a i (Ko-KovftiTopwv KCU TO>V 
XotTrcoi/ ra-y/uarwi', esp. as ' the remaining tagmata ' may include the Numeri and 
Teichistai. The Arithmos (Vigla) is included 491 n , where however the Hikanatoi 
are not mentioned (A.D. 811). 

3 Kudama says they were each 4,000 strong ; but Ibn Khurdadhbah (81) seems 
to suggest that they were 6,000. 

* CT. 604 7 01 TWV ray^dr^v ap^ovres' TO>V tr^oXwi', rou dpidp-ov, rwv vovpepov ev 
pia rdf-ei' ol 8e TWV f^aKovfBiTOiVy ol iKavdroi KOI ol TQV /3a(riXiKoO n\oip.ov ev frepa 



5 Kudama, ib. 6 Cp. Cer. 524 22 -525 2 . 

7 The text (which can be dated A.D. 949) in Cer. ii. 45, 666 3 _ 13 proves this 
quite clearly. The ap^ovres rwv 8' T. are opposed to the o-^oXapiot T&V 8' T., and 
the apxovrcs and o-^oXaptoi of the Excubiti and Hikanatoi are mentioned. So 
too Cer. 619 9 ot apx. r&v T. p.fra T>V (rxo\api(ov. This ought to have been 
recognized by Uspenski (cp. loc. cit. 171). 

8 Cer. 666. This passage will be discussed below in connexion with the 
topoteretes of the Schools. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 49 

As to the title Domesticus. In the fourth, fifth, and sixth cen- 
turies it constantly occurs in the sense of princeps officii, as the \ 
designation (primicerius is used in the same way 1 ) of the chief sub- / 
altern of a general, minister, or governor of a province. 2 In the fifth 
and sixth centuries the domestici of the magistri militum were im- 
portant persons. It will be shown below (p. 50) that the elevation 
of the title to designate the commanders of the guard troops was 
probably due to the withdrawal of the Schools from the control of i 
the Master of Offices. 



(1) 6 

At the beginning of the fifth century there were seven scholae of. 
palace guards at Constantinople. 3 Some of these scholae were com- * 
posed of foreigners (gentiles),* and during that century up to the 
reign of Zeno the foreign element seems to have been chiefly Ar-\ 
menian. 5 Zeno introduced Isaurians. 6 The total number of the 
scholarian troops was 3,500, 7 and we may infer that each schola was 
500 strong. As palace guards they were under the orders of the ! 
magister officiorum. Justinian at the beginning of his reign increased 
the number to 5,500, adding four new ' supernumerary* scholae. 8 \ 
The number might seem to have been afterwards reduced to the 
original seven by Justinian himself. For Theophanes records that in 
A. D. 562 that emperor transferred to Thrace (Heraclea and the ad- 
jacent cities) the scholarians who were settled in Nicomedia, Prusa, 
and other Bithynian towns. The text (p. 237) gives T&V eirra a-^oXa- 
roi;? Kaflcfo/AeWus 1 KrA., where cryoXapiav should be corrected to 
wz;. Again in the irpl rafeiStW of Constantine Porph. an account 
of a ceremony in the reign of Justinian is preserved, and at eTrra <r\o- 
Aai are mentioned (497 21 ). But it seems more probable that the 
original seven scholae were distinguished from the four new super- ( 
numerary regiments. Further there is indirect evidence that the 
number of scholae was afterwards increased to fifteen, for in the 

1 Cp. Cass. Var. 10, 11 primiceriatus qui et domesticates nominatur. 

2 See Mommsen 508, and Eph. Epigr. v. 139-41, where the material will be 
found. Marcian was a dom. of Aspar, Theoph. 104 21 . 

3 Not. Dig. Or. xi. 4-10. 

4 Ib. Scola gentilium seniorum, and sc. gent, iuniorum. Amm. Marc. 14. 7, 9 ; 
20. 2, 5 ; 27. 10, 12, &c. 

6 Proc. H. A. 24. 16. 6 (Ib. 17 and) Agath. 5. 15, p. 310. 

7 Proc. ib. 15. 

8 Ib. 39 (tiTTfpa'pifytot). C. I. 4. 65. 35 (A. D. 530) in undecim deuotissimis 
scholis. 

M 4 



50 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

tenth century there were fifteen counts, and the count was the com- 
mander of the schola 1 (see below). 

The Domestic of the Schools is first mentioned in the eighth cen- 
tury (Theoph. 442, A. D. 767). The abolition of the Magister Officio- ) 
rum led to the distribution of the various duties which he performed 
to a number of independent functionaries, and the Domestic of the 
Schools was his successor in the command of the scholarian guards. ; 
As we have no formal evidence as to the date or mode of the change, 
it must be left an open question whether the Magister was relieved 
of this command before his final disappearance from the scene. But 
we may ask whether the Domestic was a new creation, whose title 
was invented at the time when the Magister was superseded, or was 
he an already existing subordinate who was raised to the supreme 
command. 2 Now there is an important text in the Chron. Pasch. 
(724) which throws light, I believe, on this question. The chronicle 
tells that when Heraclius went to the East in A.D. 624 he was 
accompanied by Anianus, the Domesticus of the Magister (8ojueoriKou 
rov ^ayiorpov). 3 The Magister, standing alone, means the Magister 
Officiorum. The obvious inference is that the Scholarians went with 
the emperor, and were under the command of the Domesticus of the 
Magister, while the Magister remained at Constantinople. The Do- 
mesticus of the Magister is mentioned in the fourth century (Ammia- 
nus Marc. 30. 2, 11), and is perhaps the same official who is called the 
adiutor in the Not. Dig. (Or. xi. 41). The text connecting the Do- 
mesticus with the scholarian guards seems to supply the explanation 
of the origin of the Domestic of the Schools. The supersession of 
the Magister meant, so far as the Schools were concerned, the trans- 
ference of the command to his Domestic, who retained the title. To 
this change we may probably attribute the exaltation of the title 



When we meet So/xe'ortKo? without any qualification, it means the 



1 For a place in the Palace called 7rpa>Trj o-^oX^ see schol. on Cer. 8 n . 

2 We must eliminate a passage of Theophanes, which, as the text stands, 
might seem to point to a KO/ZTJ? over the scholae. He records a mutiny of 
the scholae in A. D. 562 (p. 237) : eVai/eVrijo-av at tr^oXai T< KO/UJ/TI avrS>v KOI 
Trr)\6ov avra>. We should expect rols fco/u?<rt and at/rots. It is not a case for 
emendation ; the chronographer misunderstood his source. \"i \ 

3 The Parisinus has pcyurrov. 

* It may be noted that in late times domesticus was used as an ecclesiastical 
title. Referring to a precentor at Thessalonica, Philotheos, in an Encomium on 
Gregory Palamas, says 8ofj,e<rrtKov f) avvrjQeia TOVTOV faviv (Migne, P. G. 151, 
638). I notice this passage only because Uspenski strangely cites it as if it were 
important, B. Z. 3. 186. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 51 

8. rS>v a-yoX&v (as in Theoph. 456J0). 1 The Domestic! Schol. in the 
eighth century mentioned by Theophanes had the Patrician rank. 
From the Taktikon Uspenski (111) we learn that in the reign of 
Michael III they came in order of precedence above all military com- 
manders except the strategos of the Anatolics, and they hold the same 
place in the list of Philotheos. The Domesticate was held in the 
ninth century by such men as Manuel and Bardas^ and for military 
expeditions the Domestic was sometimes appointed Commander-j 
in-Chief of the whole army. 2 But it was not till the tenth century^ 
that it became the habit to appoint him to this supreme command. 
The biographer of Basil I says that he sent the Domestic of the 
Schools against Chrysocheir crvvriQus (Const. Th. 272 3 ). This <rvz;qda>9 
seems to be an inference of the writer from the practice of his own 
time. 3 In the second half of the tenth century the do/uflEort/coj T&V 
vyoX&v has become the So/xeWiKos ayaroAr/j, and has his counterpart 
in a new creation^ the 8o^ecm/coj wea>? 4 ; but this lies outside our 
present scope. The ceremony of creating the Domestic of the Schools 
was the same as that for other domestics (Cer. ii. 3). 

There are but few extant seals of these Domestici. Four^ none of 
which seems to be earlier than the tenth century, will be found in Sig. 
360. In two of these the Domestic holds also the post of 
T&V aytXGtv. 



(1) The first official in the bureaux of all the Domestics is the 
TOTrorrjprjTTJj, which represents the Latin vicarius. We find the name^ 
used officially in this sense in the sixth century in laws of Justinian 6 : 
Nov. 152, 19 (p. 284) TOTrorrjprjTriv r&v ez/6oforara>z/ litdpyutv T) a-rpa- 

yiSos apx*7 ? j 16, 4 eKTrejotTretr fv rats Tro'Aeo-t rrj? eirapxCas rjs &PX et 
TOVS KaXov^tvovs TOTTorTjprjras. Nov. 166 (p. 375), topoteretai of praet. 
praef., com. larg., com. r. priv. Chron. Pasch. (A. D. 532), p. 876 

1 Artavasdos, the Domestic of the tyrant Artavasdos (Theoph. 419 15 ), must have 
been Dom. Schol. Cp. Takt. Usp. 111. 

2 The appointment did not depend on the post, but on the man. Thus 
Petronas, to whom the command of all the forces (both rayp-ara and &/uara) 
was entrusted in A. D. 863, was strategos of the Thrakesian theme at the time. 
In Cont. Th. 167 it is suggested that Bardas should have led an expedition, 
as being Dom. Schol., but that he deputed his brother Petronas to take his 
place. I imagine that the statement is coloured by the later practice. 

3 Kestas Styppiotes is another instance of a Dom. Schol. appointed Commander- 
in-Chief under Basil : George Mon. 847, Cont. Th. 286. 

4 Cont. Th. 415, 479 15 ; Leo Diac. 7 U , 49 6 , 18 12 . Cp. Cer. 610 16 , 613 15 . 

8 See also Nov. 16. 4, p. 99 ; Nov. 21. 10, p. 144 of sending Terror, to 
provincial cities. Cp. also B. G. U. ii. no. 669 /iey<iXo7rpf7reoraTo> cat 7rept/3XeVra> 
$Xavt'a> MapKeXXa) Kay*(f\\apUp) /cat TOTTOT^J/T;;). 

M4 2 



52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

6 TOTTOV TTOttoi; TOV fJiayiCTTpOV = ibid. TOV TOTTOTTIpOVVTa TOV pay ICTT pOV . It 

is often used of ecclesiastical deputies. 

The TOTroTTjpTyrat of the Domestics must not be confused with the 
provincial T07ror?7/>T]rai, whom we find in charge of districts and forts. 
The topoteresia or geographical bandon was a subdivision of the 
turma : see Const. Porph., Them. i. 16 ; De adm. imp. 50. Some 
seals of such officers have been preserved (Sig. 370 2 1). Schlum- 
berger cites one seal which might be that of a topoteretes of one 
of the Domesticates (633) [ + EOA]l2Pa [TOn]OTHPlT[H Til] 
KATAK[AA12NI]. He ascribes it to the ninth century. 

The official document on the Cretan expedition of A.D. 949 (in 
Cer. ii. 45) contains an important passage (666) bearing on the tag- 
mata and the topoteretai, the significance of which has not been 
appreciated. It must be given in full : 

(1) aTTO TOO Oe'jjiaTos 0paKT]s, 6 TOTTOTrjprjr^s KCU am) r&v 6' rayfxdVfoi; 

y avbpts pA0', o^oAaptot r&v b f rayjuarcoi; avbpes Tvb f ' 6[jiov ap- 
/cat cr;(oAaptot r&v 8' ray/otarcoz;, avbpes ve?y f [139+354 = 493], 

(2) CLTTO TOU O^jj-aros MaKeSoj'tas, 6 TOTionjpTjTT/y Kat 0776 r&v b' ray|u,ara>z> 

, avbpts ity . (T^pXapioi T&V ft TaypartoV avbpes v^y'' OJJLOV 
Kal cr%o\dpioi r&v 8' ray/xarcoz; avbpS co^' [83 + 293 = 376^ + 
493 = 869]. 

(3, 4) aiTO TUl' TTepaTtKW^ 0JJKXTCi)^. 

(3) 6 ((rKOv{3iT(i)p /ara TOV TOTrorrjprjTOV avrov Kat Traz/ros TOV ray/ixa- 
TOS avTQVy ap\6vT(*)v KOI <ryj)Xap'ut>v O/JLOV avbp&v \js' [700]. 

(4) 6 tKazJaros fj,Ta TOV TO-noTrjprjTov ai)Tov Kat TTCLVTOS TOV ray/^aroy 
avTov, apxovTW Kat o-xoAaptcoz;, OJJLOV avbp&v vv<?' [456], 

Here we have the four roTrorTjpTjrat of the four tagmata. Those of 
the Excubiti and Hikanatoi are expressly designated. The order 
suggests that (1) is the topoteretes of the Schools ; (2) would then be 
the topoteretes of the Arithmos. The passage proves ] that detach- 
ments of all the tagmata had their quarters in Thrace and Macedonia, 
and detachments at least of the Excubiti and Hikanatoi had quarters 
in Bithynia. (Under Justinian II, Scholarians stationed in Bithynia 
were transferred to Thrace, Theoph. 236 17 .) So too in the Cretan ex- 
pedition of A.D. 902, we find Thracian and Macedonian Scholarians 
(Cer. 652 4 ), and in the Italian expedition of A.D. 935 (ib. 660, 9 ). 
We may reasonably conjecture that it was a special function of the 
topoteretai to command the provincial detachments of the tagmata. 

In military expeditions (Anon. Vari, 6 19 ) we find the topoteretes 
and the chartularius of the Schools each in charge of half the tagma. 
For the TOTT. T&V <rxoA<Si> see further Cer. 599 2 , 256 7 . The topoteretai 
1 The inferences of Uspenski (loc. cit. 186-7) are very perverse. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 52 

are spathars in Takt. Usp. 127 ; in Phil. (734) they may be spatharo- 
candidati. For their participation in ceremonies see Cer. 524 19 . 

(2) The Ko'/^res- T&V <rxo/\<3y belong to the not large number of 
officers who have retained the title which they bore in the fifth century. 
In the fourth century the commander of the schola was a tribunus 
(Amm. Marc. 20. 2, 5 ; C. Th. 7. 4, 23 scholarum tribunes, A.D. 
396)^ but before A.D. 441 he has become a (vir spectabilis) comes 
scholarum, Nov. Theod. ii. 21 = C. /. 1. 31. 3). KO^TSS o-^oX^v are 
mentioned in the reigns of Leo I (document in Cer. 416 16 ) and of 
Anastasius I (Theoph. 138 10 ),and in the sixth century we meet rbv KO'/XJ?- 
ra TT)S KTT]s TI e/36o'/xT7? o^oA??? in a fragment of Peter Patr. (Cer. 391 12 , 
392j). A seal (eighth or ninth century, according to Schlumberger) 
of the count of the fifth schola is preserved (Sig. 359 Ko'/^frrj] T&V 

(T^oAwi; O")(0\7JS TTejUlTJTTJs). 

The text of Philotheos gives bvo Ko'/xrjres. This is plainly an error, 
but can easily be corrected to /3', which corresponded to the following 
y and 6' and meant that the Ko/a^re? were the second item in the 
officium. We have seen already that there were seven scholae in the 
fifth century and that Justinian raised the number to eleven. How 
many were there in later times ? For the end of the tenth century 
we have evidence in Anon. Vari, where we find thirty counts, /co'/xrjres- 
ava OKTCO . . . Ko/i7;rs ava eTrra (6 22 , 28 ). From the same context we 
learn that there were thirty banda, so that each count was 
captain of a bandon, 1 but we are not told by this writer the size 
of a bandon. Was the schola a bandon, considered tactically ? 
In that case there would have been thirty scholae. But if so, 
the schola cannot have retained its old number of 500 men (cp. 
above, p. 49), for 15,000 is much too high for the total number of 
the scholarii. If we assume the bandon to have been 200 the total 
would be 6,000, a figure which might be defended by a statement of 
Ibn Khurdadhbah that ' the emperor's camp, in his residence or in 
the field, consists of four divisions of cavalry commanded by a patri- 
cian, under whom are 6,000 soldiers and 6,000 servants ' (81, cp. 
Gelzer, 125). 2 But this statement does not agree with the statement 
of Kudama, which comes from the same source as Ibn Khurdadhbah's 
information. According to Kudama the total number of the scholarians 
was 4,000 (157). It may, however, be shown that the data of Anon. 
Vari (even assuming that no change had been made in the organiza- 
tion of the scholae in the intervening century and a half) cannot be 
combined with the data of the Arabic writers. For the anonymous 



1 Cp. Kulakovski, Vizantii^ki Lager, 71. 

2 This is observed by Vogt, Basile I er , 348. 






54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

military writer cannot possibly have contemplated as present in the 
camp which he describes a force of scholarians numbering anything 
like 4,000. In c. viii (p. 17) he says that the minimum number of 
cavalry with which an emperor can march in person is 8,200, which 
includes a thousand guards (i. e. the Hetairoi and Athanatoi). Ordi- 
narily he would have more ; let us say, with Kulakovski, 1 10,000 or 
even 12,000. If we consider that not only the other three tagmata, 
but also cavalry of the themes have to be included in this total, it is 
clear that the scholarii alone cannot have numbered anything like 
4,000, much less 6,000. The bandon therefore must have been much 
smaller than 200 men. As a matter of fact, we learn what the bandon 
of cavalry in the latter half of the tenth century was from the Sr/oa-nj- 
yurj eK0eo-is of Nicephorus II (see Bibliography) : r&v Kafia\apiK&v Sia- 
raecoy ol apxnyol exeraxrai/ fidvba. TO. 8e fidvba avr&v etmi ava avbpas 
TtevTTiKovTa (p. 12). Thirty such banda give a total of 1,500, which is 
a reasonable proportion. 

We might attempt to reconcile this result with the number of 
Kudama by supposing that only a part of the tagma of Scholarii is 
contemplated by Anon. Vari. 2 But the figures of the Arabic writer 
seem to be very doubtful in view of the numbers given for the Excu- 
biti and the Hikanatoi. Kudama gives 4,000 for each of these corps ; 
but in the document of A. D. 949 cited above (Cer. 666) we find that the 
whole tagma of the Excubiti, including officers, numbered 700, and 
the whole tagma of the Hikanatoi, including officers, 456. There are 
two alternatives : either the tagmata suffered an immense reduction in 
numbers between the middle of the ninth and the middle of the tenth 
century, or the figures of Kudama are utterly erroneous. I have 
little doubt that the latter inference is the correct one. 

The data point to a complete reorganization of the Scholae since the 
sixth century. Under Justinian, there were the seven old Scholae, s 
and four ' supernumerary * scholae, each 500 strong, so that the 
whole number was 5,500. In the tenth century there are thirty banda, 
each fifty strong : in all 1,500. Whether the bandon was a schola, so 
that there were thirty scholae, or whether each schola had several 
banda, is a difficult question. For the first alternative it may be 
argued (1) that the seal of a count of the fifth schola, belonging to the 
eighth or ninth century (see above), points to the continued connexion 
of the count with the schola ; to which it may be replied that the 
thirty counts of the banda may have been instituted subsequently to 
the date of the seal; (2) that a passage in the Trept ra. of Con- 

1 LOG. cit. 70. 

9 But the writer speaks as if the whole ray pa were present 6 17 _2 . 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 55 

stantine VII points to the comites being still assigned each a schola 
(494 16 ), tva KOL ol Ko'jurjre? Kara /xiar (rxo\r]v rrjv avryv aKoXovOiav \(D(nv. 
The Ko'jurjrey r<3v (r^o\(^v are of spathar rank in Philotheos (735 8 ), of 
lower rank in Takt. Usp. 127. 

(3) The functions of the chartularius (spathar,, Phil. 735 17 , lower, 
Takt. Usp. 127 leg. 6 x a P TOV ^P l - ^y 129) must have corresponded, 
mutatis mutandis, to those of the chartularius of the theme (see above, 
p. 44). He, the topoteretes, and the comites are distinguished as 
fxeyaAot ap^ovTes from the lower members of the officium, Cer. 524 19 . 
His rank next, and near to, the roTrorrjprjrTfc, is also illustrated by the 
position his tent occupied in a camp, Anon. Vari, 6 21 . 

(4) The domestici (stratores, Phil. 736 21 , candidati, Takt. Usp. 128) 
were officers under the comites. Cer. 599 4 ol irpcoroi *at btvrfpoi 
ap-^ovTfs T>V o-^oAwz; rjyovv /co^res Kat So/zeartKOt. Anon. Vari, 6 23 

KCLKWV KO/X7/T69 (TVV TOtS UTT* CLVTOVS bojJL(TTLKOLS. If the COniCS COI11- 

manded a bandon of fifty, it may be conjectured the domesticus 
commanded a subdivision of ten, so that there would be five domestici 
under each comes, and 150 domestici in all. 

(5) The Trpoe^juto? or irpo^os (so Takt. Usp. 129) was of lower 
than spathar rank. We meet him in the reign of Constantine V 
described as an avrjp fi^rjp?;? : in the Vita S. Stephani iunioris (Migne, 
P. G. 100, 1169, 1172) he removes Stephen from the prison of the 
Praetorium). The position of his tent in the camp (on an expedition 
led by the emperor) is noted in Anon. Vari, 5 6 . 1 From a comparison 
with the officium of the Domesticus Excubitorum we might surmise 
that he performed the same kind of duties as the protomandator of 
that officium, and this is confirmed by Cer. 599 n , 18 , where these two 
officers play corresponding parts in the ceremony there described. 

In early times proximus was the title of the chief in certain bureaux 
(scrinia), e. g. in the sacra scrinia (memoriae, &c., C. Th. 6. 26. 10), 
in the scrinium ammissionum (Peter Patr., in Cer. 394 6 Trpwfi/xos 
T&V ab^va-iovwv). We must suppose that the proximus of the Schools 
was chief of a scrinium (not mentioned in Not. Dig.), which performed 
for the Scholae the same functions that the scriniarii of the magister 
militum performed for them (Not. Dig. Or. v. 72, 73, &c.). 

(6) The irpoTiKTopts can hardly be dissociated from the protectores 
of the earlier empire. These guards, who were instituted in the third 
century, and the Domestici, have been fully studied by Mommsen, 
Eph. Epig. 5. 121 sqq. They were closely associated and were under 
the two comites domesticorum (equitum and peditum). In the latter 
half of the sixth century Menander, the historian, was a protector. 

6 df rrpu>ifjt.os /cat 6 Ko/zrj? TU>V fiovKivoiv (TVV rots /u,ayK\aj3trais efaraxraj/ KT\. 



56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

In a Novel of Justinian (158, A. D. 548) mention is made of domestici 
and protectores, deputed on service in Pontus. 1 In A. D. 559 the pro- 
tectores are mentioned with the Schools as guarding the walls against 
the Huns and Slavs (Theoph. 233 18 ). By the eighth century these 
guards and their counts have disappeared. The irporUTopts under 
the Domesticus of the Schools point to the conclusion that they were 
merged in the Scholarian guards. 

(7, 8, 9) The evr^xo^opoi (? evrv^ocbopoL) were so called because 
they carried tmvyia (vulgo irrvyjia), images of Fortune or Victory 
(see Reiske, 668 sqq., and Bieliaev, ii. 70-71, note). Cp. Cer. 576 16 
eoTTjo-ai; ra 'Pcojuai/ca a-Kfjirrpa /cat Trrv^ia /cat Aonra yjpvva o-Kr/Trrpa. This 
passage does not support Reiske in holding that they were vexilla. 
Rather they were O-KT/TTT/XZ, staves, with images at the top. See Cer. 
lljg ra re 'Pa)/zaiKa (TKijurpa ra Aeyo/xez>a (3rj\a, ojxoia)? Kal ra evrv^La Kal 
ra *Tpa crKrJKTpa, -TT/O^S TOVTOLS ra <TKvri T&V irpoTiKTOpwv Kal aivaTOpwv, 
KOL ra (TKevri T&V bpaKovapioov ; \d(3ovpa re Kal Ka/xTrTjSrjKro/na, /txera Kal 
T&V fiavbav. The (TKTJTrrpa called vela may have been the o-K^Trrpa of 
the o-KTiirrpo4>6poi. a-Kvr] is used as a general word for all such insignia 
or emblems. 2 We are not told what the o-Kewj of the protectores 
were. It is probable that the d^KUfxariKot also had o-Kev^. Each of 
the four tagmata had four (the Hik. alone, three) classes of this kind, 
and they may be placed here side by side. 



Scholae. Excubiti. 

bpaKovdpioi 

(TKVO(f)6pOL 



tnvarop^s 
Arithmos. Hikanatoi. 






We may conjecture that the KajUTr^Kro/na (Cer. 11 and 575), what- 
ever they were, 4 may have been the emblems of the a^tco/xartKot. These 
groups are arranged in strict order of precedence. 

1 Cp. C. Th. 7. 4. 27, and Not. Dig. Or. xv. 8 et deputati eorum. 

3 Cp. Cer. 640 16 -641 3 . 

8 The text of Philotheos transposes, but in another place (738 2 _ 4 ) he shows the 
true order. 

4 In connexion with this, it is relevant, I think, to note the part played by 
campiductores at the elevations of Leo I and Anastasius (Cer. 411, 423). 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 57 



The agiapaTiKOL seem to be referred to in Cer. 250, where they are 
mentioned with the (rutvofyopoi of the Excubiti ; but in 251 23 , 230 22 , 
236 8 , 239 17 the word can hardly have this narrow sense ; it means 
dignitaries, as generally elsewhere. 

(10) Of the fjLavbaTops it need only be said that they were a part of 
the officium of all military chiefs. The place of protomandator seems 
to have been taken by the proximos. 



(2) 6 So/Xe'oTlKO? T&V f^KO 

The Excubitores (e/cou/3 tropes' or KOV@LTOI) were a body of palace 
guards, as the name denotes, organized probably by Leo I. 1 They 
were under the command of a comes, a post which was held by 
Justin I at the time of his elevation (Cer. 426, John Mai. 410). 
We can trace this title down to A. D. 680. 2 In the eighth century we 
first meet the So/ueWtKos T&V KcrKov(3LTa>v instead of the KO/XT/S (Theoph. 
438 n , A.D. 765). This was more than a simple change of title. 
There must have been a general reorganization of the guards (perhaps 
by Leo III), and the style of the commander of the Excubiti was 
assimilated to the title of the commander of the Scholae, the origin of 
which was discussed above. The high importance of the post in the 
sixth and seventh centuries is shown by the fact that it was held by 
Tiberius, afterwards emperor, by Philippicus, the brother-in-law of 
Maurice, and by such an important person as Priscus (under Maurice 
and Phocas) ; and by the fact that a subordinate of the Count had 
patrician rank in A. D. 680 (see below under roTrorTjpTjrrjs). In the 
eighth century we meet Domestic! Excubitorum who have only 
spathar rank (Theoph. 438 n , 454 ]8 ). This degradation in rank shows 
that the old comes was not renamed but abolished, and that the Ex- 
cubitors were placed under an officer of inferior rank and title. The 
policy of Leo III, to whom we may most probably ascribe the change, 
was to make the guards more dependent on himself by decreasing the 
dignity of their chiefs. But the inferior position of the commanders 
of such important troops did not endure. Their very position raised 
the title of Domesticus to high honour. In the case of the Schools 
we meet a Domestic who is a patrician in the reign of Constantine V 
(Theoph. 442. 25). In the case of the Excubiti the rise seems to have 
been slower. Michael the Amorian was created Patrician and Dom. 

1 They first definitely appear in the reign of Leo I, John Mai. 371 23 , but we 
meet an Excubitor at an earlier period, in a letter of St. Nilus (Migne, P. G. 79, 
Epp. ii. 322) ; then A.D. 490, Chron. Pasch. 606, cp. 608. 

2 Theoph. 272 21 (reign of Maurice), 294 12 (reign of Phocas) ; Chron. Pasch. 703, 
sub a. 612 ; Mansi, xi. 209 (A.D. 680). 



58 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



Exc. by Leo V (Gen. 12 16 ). In the Takt. Usp. the 

efa-Kou/Siroji; is a patrician, inferior in precedence to all the 

and to the Prefect of the City l ; in the time of Philotheos he imme- 

diately precedes the Prefect, and both of them are superior to the 

strategoi of the western themes. He is often called, for brevity, 6 

cfKov/3iroy, according to a common Byzantine fashion (cp. 6 yeinKo's, 

6 LKavaros), cp. e. g. -Trept ra. 460 13 , Cont. Th. 142 1Q . 

The Excubitors are often called as a body TO e^Kovpirov 2 or TO. 
e^Kov/3tra. 3 They were divided into eighteen or more bands. 4 In 
A. D. 949, according to the official text quoted above, p. 52, the total 
number of the body, including officers, was 700. Possibly there were 
100 officers, and 600 guardsmen. But the organization seems to have 
been different from that of the Schools. The o-Kpifiovts (see below) 
correspond to the Ko'ju^re? T&V a"^o\wv y but no officers are mentioned 
corresponding to the So/zeVnKoi. 

Schlumberger has published a seal, which he does not date, of a 
Domesticus of the Excubitors (Sig. 346) : 7rarpiK(io>) /3(ao-tAtKo>) 
a(JTra6(apia>) Kal 8o^eo-r(i/ca>) T((DV) fi(a(Ti\t,Ka)v) efKov/3(ira>z>). 

(1) In the list of this officium the MS. has falsely the plurals 
TOTroTrjprjTai, yapTovXapioi, TTpa^TOfjLavbdropes for the corresponding 
singulars. 5 The topoteretes of the Excubitors first appears in the 
Acts of the Sixth Ecum. Council (A. D. 680 : see Mansi, xi. 209), and 
curiously has the rank of Patrician : ' Avaa-Taaiov TOV vbooTa.Tov OTTO 

TTCLTplKlOV KOL TOTTOTrjprjTOV TOV /CO/^TJTOS TOV (3a(Tl\LKOV 



(2) x a P T0 ^ptos. 



(3) In the sixth century we find o-Kpifi&vts as a company of imperial 
guards. The word first occurs, so far as I know, at the beginning of the 
fifth century in the address of a letter of St. Nilus, OvdXtvTL o-K/n/3am 
(ii. 204). Agathias (3. 14, p. 171) mentions (A. D. 554) Metrianus, a 
scribon, explaining that he was one of T&V a/x$t TO. /ScunOuia bopv^opw. 
Eustratios ( Vita Eutychii, P. G. 86 A, 2353) describes the persons 
who were sent to bring Eutychius back to Constantinople (A.D. 574-8) 

1 In the Acts of the Fourth Council of Constantinople (A. D. 869), Leo dom. exc. 
is mentioned before the Prefect, but after the Logothete of the course ; his rank 
is not given (Mansi, xvi. 310). 

2 Theoph. 491 U , Mansi, xi. 209 TOV jBao-iXiKov egKovpirov. 

3 Theoph. 279 ]8 TO 6Aco-/cov/3tra. This plural also meant the quarters of the 
Excubitors in the palace, as in Cont. Th. 383 3 , &c. 

* Sabas, Vita loannicii, in AA. 88. Nov. 4 (1894) ad init. loannikios, at the 
age of 19, in A. D. 773 els rfjv TG>I/ e^oTCoujSiropcoj/ OTpanav Kal ev /3af5<u oKTOKaiSeKtira) 
Kar' K\oyr)v aicpifir) eVrarrercu. 

5 But elsewhere the text has the singular correctly : 734 7 TonoTrjpjjTrjs, 735i 9 , 
7o9 13 ^aprouXaptos, 737i 9 Trpwro/xai'Sarwp (738i however ot Trpwro/xuySaVopes 1 , read 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 59 

as TOVS yevvaioTCLTovs o-Kpifiuvas. Comentiolus, the well-known general 
of Maurice, had been a o-Kpifiow, and Theophylactus Simocatta explains 
it to mean one of the emperor's o-cojuaro^uAaKes (see 1.4, 7 ; also 
7. 3, 8). Bonosus whom Phocas made comes orientis (Theoph. 296 22 ) 
had been a scribon (Theoph. Sim. 8, 9, 10), as also Theodore, who 
was Patriarch of Alexandria at beginning of seventh century (List of 
Patriarchs at end of Nicephorus, Chron. 129). Schlumberger (Sig. 
361) has published a seal Sre^dvov o-Kpipovos which he ascribes to the 
sixth or seventh century, and Panchenko another of the same period 
('ladvvov a-., xiii. 148). These data point to the existence of a taxis 
of scribones, perhaps connected with the Excubitors, and supplying 
officers to that body. Even in later times we find vKpi(3a>vs taking 
part in ceremonies separately from the rest of the Excubiton. Thus 
Cer. 81 20 Ka^8t8arot 8e /cat (TKpi(3ovs /cat /ucu>8aTopes /3a<rtAtKot, 99 6 ol 8e 
/caz/5t5drot /cat ^avbdropes, axravrws /cat ot 0-/cpi'/3a>i/e?, 99 26 <TKpC(3a)V$ /cat 
fjiavbdropes /Sao-rafoz/re? ra fttpyia CLVT&V. These crKpifiwves can hardly 
be the regular officers of the divisions of the Excubiton (cp. 99 13 ), but 
they may have been under the control of the Dom. Exc. The candi- 
dati and mandatores associated with them were under the proto- 
spatharios r&v /3ao-iAt/c<3i>, and were at the emperor's disposal for 
special service. The scribones seem to have been employed in the 
same way. Scribones were regularly attached to the regiments of the 
themes, as deputati to remove and look after the wounded in battle. 1 
They had the rank of stratores, Phil. 736 20 . The ceremony of 
creating a scribon was performed in the hall of the Excubiti (Cer. 
130-1), and is described along with that of a KG/XT;? rS>v a-\o\^v (132). 
In the ceremony described in Cer. ii. 16 (599 16 ) they play a similar 
part to that of the /co/iTjres. 

(4) The TrptoTopavbdraip corresponded to the proximus of the Schools 
(see above). His rank was low (Phil. 737 19 ). Both he and the scri- 
bones are omitted in Takt. Usp. 

(5) The SpaKovdpioi, seem to correspond on one hand with the 
domestic! of the Schools (see Cer. 599 15 , where they are associated 
with the scribones, as the domestici are associated with the comites), 
but in rank they were lower, being inferior to the Tjyxm/cropes (Phil. 
737 19 ), to whom they also seem to correspond, as bearers of insignia 



(6, 7, 8) The <r/ceuo$o'pot in the Excubiton corresponded to the 
eutychophoroi in the Schools (Phil. 737 23 ), the viyvofyopoi. to the 



1 Leo, Tact. 4. 15 SeTroraTot (sic leg. pro Seo-TroraVoi). Cp. ib. 4. 6. 

2 Cp. Ducange, s. v. 



60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

skeptrophoroi (Phil. 73^), the cm-aT-opf? (i. e. signatores) to the axio- 
matikoi (Phil. 738 3 ). See above, p. 56. 

(9) navbdropts. There were also Aeyara'piot in the Excubiton, though 
not mentioned here ; but see Phil. 738 10 ot (jiavbdTopes (see above) KOL 
Aeyaraptoi r&v ^KO 



(3) 6 bpovyyapios TOV apid/jiov. 

The third tagma had two designations,, 6 dptfyio's * (also ot ap 
and 7} (3iy\a 3 (77 (Baa-iXiKr] /3tyAa) 4 . The earliest bpovyyapLos rrjs 
mentioned in our sources seems to be Alexius (of spathar rank) in A.D. 
791 (Theoph. 466 4 ). The designation /3tyA.a is more frequent than 
apiOfjios in the sources, and appears on two seals of drungarioi pub- 
lished by Schlumberger. 5 The fiiyXa (vigiliae) and its commandant 
had special duties, which differentiated it from the other tagmata and 
are indicated by the name. On Imperial expeditions they had sentinel 
duty to perform, and the drungarios was responsible for the safety of 
the camp and received and conveyed ttue orders of the emperor (see the 
section Trepi KepKe'reoz; in Trepi raf., 481 sqq.). 6 The exceptional posi- 
tion of the drungarios is also reflected in the ceremony in the Hippo- 
drome in Cer. 598-9, cp. 605 20 . 7 He had also duties connected with 
prisoners of war, see Cer. 614 18 , Cont. Th. 303. 8 

From (1) their duties, from (2) the double name of the tagma, and 
(3) the title of the commander, it may be inferred that the fityXa 
existed before the tagmata were reorganized on a symmetrical plan. 
If it had only been instituted when the Scholae and Excubitors were 
reorganized, the commander would almost certainly have been entitled 
Domesticus. Now there is some evidence which suggests that the 
apiBfjios descends from a body which existed in the sixth century. In 
the barbarian invasion of A. D. 559, the scholae, the protectores, KGU ot 
t, and all the senate, were set to defend the Theodosian Wall 



1 c. g. Phil. 715 10 , 718 6 ; Cer. 611 12 , &c. 2 Takt. Usp. 115, 119. 

3 Phil. 713 23 , 728 m &c. 4 Theoph. 491 ; see next note. 

6 Sig. 340-1 (1) Aerto) /3a0-iXiKo> Trpwroo-Tradapia) /ecu Spoy-yapia) rr)s fiiy\Tjs, (2) 
Aeoi/ri /3acriAt/c(a>) <T7ra6api(<t>) KOI fipouyyapt(co) -n/fs 1 ] $eo0u(\aKTov) (3a(ri\iKr)s @[iy\rj]s. 
Both may be of the ninth century. Schlumberger suggests that Aetios may be 
the same as the patrician who was strategos of the East and in charge of Amorion 
when it was destroyed by Mamun (A. D. 838,, not, as Schl. says, A. D. 846). 

6 The drungarios was one of the ministers who had the duty and privilege 
of attending the emperor in his private yacht, De adm. imp. 234. 

7 Cp. also Cer. 546 5 01 rot) ap. where the other tagmata are not associated. 

8 Leo, 6 Ka^ovfievos KaraKaXos-, wbo was rfjs /3. dpovyydpios under Basil I 
(Niketas, Vit. Ign. , Mansi xvi. 288), seems to be the same as Katakalon who was 
dom. schol. under Leo VI. Others who held the post in tbe ninth century are 
Petronas, Coiistantine Maniakes and Joannes (George MOD. 793, 822, 835, 
842). 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 61 



(Theoph. 233 18 ). The apiO^oi are clearly residential troops like the* 
scholarians. If we observe that the dpifyxo? appears in the plural, T&V 
apid^&v, in Takt. Usp. (loc. cit.}, there is evidently a case for the 
connexion of the later with the earlier body. The dptfyxot mentioned 
in A. D. 540 by Theophanes, who records that Bulgarian captives 
KCLTeTayrjaav, in Armenia tv rot? vovptpLOLs dptfyxoty (219 16 ), are numeti 
in the wide sense of the word, but there is some corruption in the 
phrase, and De Boor may be right in his conjecture kv rot? vov/ue/ootj 
(d/nfyxots being a gloss). Numeri meant generally the regiments, &c., of 
the army (cp. in numeris militant, frequent in the Not. Dig.). 1 d/nfyxoy 
is a translation of numerus, but was used (as numerus also) in a more 
restricted sense of certain troops stationed in the capital. It is tempt- 
'ing to connect their origin with a regiment instituted by Arcadius. 
John Malalas, who has devoted only half a dozen lines to that em- 
peror's reign, singles out for mention the institution of the Arcadiaci 
(349 5 ) eTrotrjo-e KCU Ibiov apiOpov oi>s ?KctA.rc9 'ApKabiaKovs. These are, 
doubtless, to be identified with the Comites Arcadiaci, a vexillatio 
palatina, under the general command of the mag. mil. per Thracias 
(Not. Dig. Or. viii. 25). There were two other associated vexilla- 
tiones palatinae, the Comites Honoriaci and the Equites Theodosiaci 
iuniores (ib.), established evidently about the same time. My con- 
jecture is that these troops, as distinguished from the vex. pal. under 
the two magg. mil. in praesenti, had special garrison duties in the 
capital and came to be designated as ot apid/xoi. I put it forward 
merely as a guess, founded on the probability that the special mention 
of the Arcadiaci by Malalas points to their having an exceptional 
position, as well as the title comites. 

The title of bpovyydpios occurs on a seal which Schlumberger (Siff. 
336) attributes to the sixth century : Ev[ye]z>ia> aTroTrap\(*)v KCU bpovy- 
yapiov (sic). He plausibly identifies Eugenios with Evy. 6 OTTO titapyvv 
mentioned by Theophanes, A.D. 560 (235J. Now the Emperor 
Heraclius, in his letter of A. D. 628, of which the text is given in the 
contemporary Chron. Pasch. (p. 731) relates that he sent to conduct 
Siroes 'HAiW TOV fvbo^oraTov <jrpaTr]X6.TT]v rbv firiKXrjv BapcroKa KOL 
eo'Sorov roi; /u,yaAo7rpe7reo"rarou bpovyyapiov. It seems possible that 
Theodotus was commander of the dpifyiot, and if so it would be natural 
to suppose that Eugenios held the same post. But we have no material 
for a conclusion. We do not know at what date bpovyyos, which 
originally had a tactical meaning (=globus) 2 , came to be used for 

1 This is so familiar that it requires no illustration. Cp. C. I. 12. 35. 14. 

2 In the sixth century [(Maurice), Strat.] it had a general meaning, and could 
be applied either to the polpa or the /-lepos (=3 polpat) or to other groups. Cp. 
Kulakovski, Druny i drungarn, 6. 



62 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

a definite subdivision of the army, or whether in A. D. 628 all the 
officers commanding subdivisions (/xot/cxu) of a particular size would 
have been known as drungarioi. 

(1) Here, as in all the domesticates (except the Schools), the MS. has 
the false reading roTrorrjprjrai for TOTrorrjprjnjs (cp. Phil. 746 18 , 734 9 ). 
See Cer. 82 16 . 

(2) The x a P TOV ^<*P L s> tne chief of the office, was below spathar 
rank, Phil. 737 7 , Takt. Usp. 129. A seal of Nikolaos /3ao-iAiKo? 
(nraOapoKavbioaTos KOL yapTvXdpios TOV apiB^ov (ninth or tenth century) 
has been published by Panchenko (viii. 246) : the rank suggests a 
date later than Philotheos. 

(3) The aitoXovOos (Phil. 737 19 ) corresponds to the proximus of 
the Schools, and to the protomandator of the Excubiton. He is 
mentioned in Ceremonies in Cer. 523 U , 442 6 . He is omitted in 
Phil. 746 18 , where we should expect to find him no doubt 
accidentally. In later times anoXovOos was the title of the chief of 
the Varangian guard. 

(4, 5) The Ko/xryre? correspond in position in the officium to the 
KOjuqre? of the Schools and the scribones of the Excubiton (Cer. 494 20 ). 
In Cer. 599 they and the KeVapxo? accompany the topoteretes ; in 
Phil. 753^, 772 2 , they are also bracketed with the KtvrapxoL. In 
Takt. Usp. 129 6 KOJUTJS TOV apiB^ov is an error for ot Ko'/xTjrej. In Cer. 
230 22 (ol dfto>juariKol KOL Ko'/ATjrej TOV apiB^ov) afia)/u,ariKoi means (not 
the af. of the Schools, but) the officials of the apiOpos superior in 
rank to the Ko'/utrjre?. These officers, like the Ko/zryres of the Theme, 
evidently commanded the banda of the Arithmos, and the divisions 
of the bandon were commanded, as in the Theme, by K.tvTap\oi. It 
is strange that in the list of precedence in Phil. 737 16 the /ceWa/>xot 
should have the rank of stratores, and the Akoluthos, who was 
superior to the KO'/XT/TCS in the officium, should have a lower 
rank (737 19 ). 

(6, 7, 8, 9) The fiavbo^opoi, Aa/3ovpiVioi, on^eto^opoi, and bovKLvidropts 
correspond (Phil. 737 22 -738 4 ) to the drakonarioi, skeuophoroi, signo- 
phoroi, and sinatores of the Excubiton respectively. Aa/3ap^(noL are 
mentioned in the sixth century (Peter Patr., Cer. 404 4 ), when they 
seem to have been under the magister officiorum. 

(10) The jutai;8arope9 appear Cer. 578 9 /mera a-naQiuv Kat o-Kovra/nW. 
There were also Aeyara/noi (Phil. 738 U ), o-Kouraptoi 1 (Cer. 236 9 ), 
i and Starpe'xopres (Phil. 746 20 ) attached to the Arithmos. 



1 Pseudo-Symeon (719 17 ) has /ze'xP 1 rwi/ o-/courapicoj/, evidently a mistake for 
ft-Kov&irw, see the corresponding passage in George Mon. (ed. Bonn.) 875 2l 
(ed. Muralt, p. 800), Leo Gramm. 289 23 . 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 63 

(4) 6 8ojHe'0TtKOS T&V IKCLVCLTtoV. 

The tagma of the Hikanatoi is not mentioned in our sources till 
the ninth century, and it was said to have been first organized by 
Nicephorus I. Our authority for this is a passage in the Vita 
Ignatii, ascribed to Niketas the Paphlagonian (in Mansi, xvi. 213) : 
8e 7ipcoroi> fJitv Se/caer?] Tvy^dvovTa run? Aeyojue^coi' iKaz>ar&)i> Trapa 
<acrl TOV Trdirirov Trpo/3e/3A.rj(T0ai, 6Y ov tKelvo TO Trpay/ia 
KdTacrTTJvaL. That is, Nicephorus created his grandson Nicetas 
(afterwards the Patriarch Ignatius), domesticus of the Hikanatoi at the 
age of ten years, on whose account that body (for -Trpay/xa read 
ray/za) was first instituted. The biographer does not commit 
himself to either statement; he records both the appointment of 
Nicetas l and the institution of the tagma as resting on report ($ao-i). 
It would therefore be rash to say that this date for the origin of the 
Hikanatoi is certain. Schlumberger has published two seals (Siy. 
351) 2 which might belong to the eighth century, but he has not 
demonstrated that they could not belong to the ninth ; the chronology 
of the types is not at all clearly enough defined to justify his 
observation that the type of these seals 'vient dementir cette 
hypothese' (namely, of the origin under Nicephorus I). A very 
large number of seals which he has published he ascribes to the 
6 eighth or ninth century 9 without being able to define the date more 
precisely. 

The Domestic of the Hikanatoi appears in Takt. Usp., with the 
rank of protospatharios (119). 3 In the Arabic list of Kudama 
which, as we saw, represents roughly the same period as Takt. Usp. 
the fourth body of cavalry guarding the capital are termed fidaratiyin. 
Uspenski holds that the Hikanatoi are meant, 4 and apparently 
suggests that the text should be amended. But it is clear that the 
writer meant to say $ot6"eparoi. Now, as Gelzer points out, a body 
of <oi8eparot is mentioned in our sources as existing in the early years 
of the ninth century. Leo the Armenian (afterwards Leo V) was 
rewarded by Nicephorus I, for abandoning the cause of Bardanes, by 
the post of commander of the ^cuSeparoi (Gen. 10 12 = Cont. Th. 9 18 ). 
The revolt of Bardanes was in A.D. 803. Gelzer does not notice that 

1 This statement is borne out by Cont. Th. 20 5 . 

2 /3(ao-iAuca>) a' (nr[a6]apia) <ai So/xe(rrifc(o)) ro)V [i]Kni>ar (a>v), and [. . .] KOI 



T(O>V) [iKava\Ta>(v). Is it possible that the first of these might be 
loannes Krokoas who was Dom. Hik. under Basil I (George Mon. 847i 6 ) ? 

3 Orestes, dom. T>V IK., present at the Council of Constantinople A.D. 869, 
was a protospathar, Mansi, xvi. 309. 

4 See above, p. 48. 



64 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

ten years later, after the accession of Leo, A.D. 813, Thomas was 
made a captain of the (oi8eparoi : Gen. 12 14 Tovp^apyjqv els <pot8eparou? 
TTo-Tr)crev, and he seems to have held this post at the time of Leo's 
death (Cont. Th. 5.2). Then, in Takt. Usp., we find among the 
spatharii (123) ot Tovppapyai T&V (pi/Sepeirooi;. 1 In view of this evidence 
we cannot hesitate to connect the foederati of Kudama with these 
(/xndeparoi who existed under that name as late, at least, as A.D. 81314. 

The possibility then might be entertained that the Hikanatoi are 
the foederati under a new name, and that Kudama's authority (Al- 
Garmi) used an old notitia in which they were called by the old 
name. Such a view, I think, must be rejected. For in the first 
place, there is no evidence whatever that the Hikanatoi were foreigners, 
as the $oi8eparoi certainly were. In the second place, as our only 
evidence for the origin of the Hikanatoi refers their creation to the 
reign of Nicephorus I, and as <oi8epcroi still existed three years after 
his death, a conversion of the one body into the other is excluded. 
And that the <ot8eparoi in A.D. 813-14 were differently organized from 
the Hikanatoi is proved by the title ' turmarch of the foederati ' which 
Thomas bore, and which is guaranteed by the Takt. Usp. ; the 
Hikanatoi had no turmarchs. 

In the reigns of Basil I and Leo VI we find the foreign soldiers in the 
service of the Empire organized as the ercupeuu, under the ercupetapxai 
or eraipeiapxrj? (in connexion with which post they will be considered 
below, p. 106). We may therefore safely identify the $oi8eparot of 
Kudama and the Takt. Usp. with the later craipetat, and conclude 
that the Hikanatoi are not mentioned by Kudama. It is possible 
that Al-Garmi used a notitia which was anterior to the creation of 
the Hikanatoi. 

The corps of Hikanatoi seems to be called 6 iKavaros in Trept raf. 
484 15 (cp. TOV IKCLVCLTOV Cont. Th. 389 5 ) : one would rather expect r6 
LKavdrov, for 6 iKararos 1 usually means the Domestic (Trept raf. 460 13 , 
489 6 , Cer. 598 19 ). The number of the Hikanatoi in the official 
document of A.D. 949 (Cer. 666 13 ) is given as 456, including officers 
(possibly eight banda of fifty men, and fifty-six officers). 

All the officials of the Hikanatoi, except the topoteretes, 2 are 
below spathar rank. The officium, as observed above, is identical 
with that of the Arithmos, except that a protomandator corresponds 
to the akoluthos, and he is placed after, instead of before, the 
In Phil. 738 12 the mandatores are omitted accidentally. 

1 The same corruption appears in the MS. of Genesios, 10 12 , 12 14 . 

2 He is a spathar in Takt. Usp. 124, where for ot r-ai read 6 
8 Takt. Usp. 129 6 KO^S TWV IK., read 01 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 65 

(5) 6 0/j(,'oTUOJ T&V 



Iii our literary sources, the troops known as TO. vovy.*pa are first 
mentioned as such in Takt. Usp. 119 and Kudama. It is at least 
generally agreed (so Gelzer and Uspenski) that De Goeje's emenda- 
tion of mwnrh to nwmrh = numera, in Kudama^s text, is certain. 
The importance of this text is that it describes the Numeri as a body 
of infantry. 1 The Numeri and their Domestic are mentioned in 
other texts relating to the reign of Michael : Nicetas, Vit. Jgnat. 
apud Mansi, xvi. 233 (Leo Lalakon Dom. Num.) 2 ; Cont. Th. 
17o 18 , 20 . 3 Both these passages mention the Numera, a barracks in the 
palace which was used as a prison (like the Chalke), and is frequently 
referred to in the Book of Ceremonies (cp. also Cont. Th. 430 16 ). The 
Domestic is often called, more Byzantine, 6 ixw/xepos (Cont. Th. 175 18 , 
Cer. 293 16 , wepl raf . 460 14 ). 

We have, however, a piece of evidence for the Numeri which 
seems to be older, in the form of a seal which Schlumberger ascribes 
to the seventh or eighth century 4 : Nq/cTj^opeo /3(ao-iAiKo>) Kavbibarfo) 
KCU bpovvyapito [ro]u poujjuepov]. The corps is here called by a' 
collective singular TO vov^pov and the officer is a drungarios. Now 
there were no drungarioi under the Domestic of the ninth century, 
and it is permissible to infer that in older times the commander bore the 
title of Drungarios. The titles of some of the subordinate officers 
prove to a certainty that these troops were not a comparatively new 
institution like the Hikanatoi. The survival of the names rpifiovvoi 
and fiiKcipLOL is a guarantee of antiquity (cp. also Troprdptot). Now 
in the sixth-century document (probably from the Karaorao-is of 
Peter the Patrician) describing the accession of Justin I, we have 
the following passage : ^jjAoxrez; 8e /cat 6 rrjs Otias Arjfecoy 'lovo-rtro? 
rot? orparitorcuy KCU rpifiovvois /ecu (3iKapiot.s cuTavTrjcrai. KCU TOVS Trpcorov? 
(sic) r&v ef/cou/3tropco^ (Cer. 426). Justin was Comes Excubitorum. 
This suggests that the tribuni and vicarii were officers of a numerus, 
which then was subordinate to the comes excubitorum, and from which 
the later tagma of the Numeri descends. It may have been under 
a drungarios in the seventh century, and perhaps still subordinate to 
the comes excubitorum : it was probably organized under a Domestic 

1 Kudama says that it was 4,000 strong. But we have seen that we can attach 
no weight to these numbers. 

2 Cp. Pseudo-Symeon 668 12 . 

3 The Domesticus is mentioned in Cer. 109 n in a ceremony of which the 
description probably dates from the reign of Michael III. 

4 Sig. 355. Schlumberger confuses (after Reiske) the Numeri with the 
Arithmos. 

M 5 






66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

in the eighth century. Observe that the Drungarios had only the 
rank of a candidatus. In Takt. Usp. the Domestic is a proto- 
spathar (119). 

It is obvious that the first three items in the ofncium are (1) 
TOTnmjprjTTJ?, (2) xaprovAaptoj, (3) rpifiovvoi, and this correction of the 
text is demonstrated by another passage in Philotheos (753 X ), rovs bvo 

KOL \CLpTOV\CLpLOVS T&V VOVfJifptoV KCLL T6l)(ea)Z>, TplfioVVOVS, 

&C. 1 In 737 12 the tribuni precede the chartularius ; and 
while (5) ftLKapioi may be stratores (737 17 ), the (4) irptoTonavbaTup is of 
lower rank (738 8 ). The tribuni 2 and vicarii are commonly mentioned 
together, Phil. 789 21 , Cer. 293 17 , 294 12 , U9 295 22 . The tribuni 
evidently correspond to the Ko/x^res of the other tagmata, the vicarii 
to the K^vrap^oi,. In the Procheiron, xi. 20, p. 21, we read TOI/S- 
\apTov\apLovs KCU XrjyaTapiovs KCU Tpifiovvovs TOV apiQ^ov. As Phil. 
mentions no tribunes in the Arithmos, apiQ^ov is probably an error 
for vovfjitpov. The occurrence of Atyara/not here makes it probable 
that the Aeyarapioi mentioned immediately after the /3i*apioi in Phil. 
753 2 were \ey. T&V vovpepw Kal T&V retx^^ (6) juavdaropej. (7) 
= OvpcapoL 



(6) 6 6ojoicrrtK09 r&v 

Although entitled a Domestic, and counted as such, the Domestic 
of the Optimati held the position of a strategos, as governor of a 
geographical circumscription, the 0e'jua T&V O7rrtjuara>^, and resided at 
Nicomedia. But these commanders occasionally adopted the title of 
strategos, as on a seal (not later than ninth century) published by 
Schlumberger (Sig. 244) : /3(ao-tA.iKco) o-Ty^arrjya)) /cat 8oju,(eo-rtK6o) TOV 
O7m/xar(a>y). Their order of rank, considerably below that of all the 
strategoi, corresponds to the inferiority of the optimatoi as a branch 
of the army. 3 The observations of Constantine Porphyrogennetos 

1 Takt. Usp. 124 (under the spatharioi) of TOTT. TO>V vovp. Phil, enumerates the 
items of the officium as six (so also in the case of the K6p.rjs T. rei^.) ; they are 
really seven. 

2 Ducange, sub rpiftovvos, cites Martyrium S. Mauricii num. 3 Tpi&ovvo? 
^pr)fia.Ticrfv cTrio^/iordrou j/ou/uepou. I can find no trace of this document. It 
is not mentioned in his Index Auctorum. But the passage is irrelevant ; 
vovpepos is used in its wide sense. 

3 The treatise Trept ra. furnishes information as to duties, connected with the 
baggage mules, to which Optimati were deputed, during imperial progresses 
through Asia Minor (476, 477, 487). But in the sixth century the Optimati had 
a privileged position, belonging to the select troops (eViXeKTa), among which 
they acted as a reserve. They were under a taxiarch. See (Maurice) Strat. i. 3, 
28, cp. Aussaresses, op. cit. 16, who thinks they may have been about 2,000 
strong. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 67 

( Them. 26) show how they were looked down upon by the scholarians, 
&c. They were exclusively infantry, and Ibn Khurdadhbah says 
that they numbered 4,000 (Gelzer, 18). 

The Optimati were not divided into turms or drungoi (Them., 
loc. cit.), and so there was no turmarch or drungary in the officium 
of the Domestic. His officium was similar to that of the other 
Domestics, though he seems to have had no protomandator ; on the 
other hand, like the strategoi, he had a protocancellarius. The 
chartulary and the KO'/^TCS are enumerated among the strators, Phil. 



^ 

In Trept raf. 477 12 , 15 we find 5ta TOV KO'JUTJTO? T&V O7m/x<ra)i>. The 
question therefore arises whether fco/mqre? in Philotheos is a mistake 
for 



(7) 6 Kofjirjs T&V reiyjitov. 

This dignitary is called by Philotheos 6 bo^a-rtKos T&V retxeW twice 
(715 22 , 772 12 ), but elsewhere KOJLHJS (714 2 , 728 4 , 731 21 , 752 20 ), which 
was evidently the official title. So Takt. Uspenski 119, Cer. 6 7 . 
He was also called briefly 6 -retxecorr/s, Cont. Th. 175, 398, Cer. 295 21 , 
7Tpl Taf. 460 14 . 

The post is mentioned by Genesios (5), where the reference is to 
the reign of Michael I. But it is of much older date. In A. D. 
718-19 we meet an apx<*>v TOV Ttiyiov (Theoph. 401, TZIX&V Niceph. 
Patr. 56;,). 1 The question arises whether the Tei'xrj, with the care and 
defence of which he was charged, are the walls of the city, or the 
Long Wall of Anastasius. The title would apply to either, though 
in the latter case we might expect ^ctKpaw, but the singular TO reixtov, 
which comes no doubt from the common source of Theophanes and 
Nicephorus, would apply to the Long Wall, but not to the city walls. 
The Long Wall was called both TO /xa*poz> Tet^os and TO. fxa/cpa Tet'xTj 
(cp. De Boor, Index to Theoph., p. 655). The walls of the city were 
plural (including the T. 0eo8o<riaKoV or ^pa-alov and the TCI'XTJ irapaXta). 
Other considerations also point to the connexion of the KO/UU}? T. 
TeixeW with the Long Wall. 

Among the troops stationed in the capital, Kudama does not 
include those of the Count of the Walls. But among the themes, 
he designates, under the name of Tafla, a district, including 
Constantinople, and extending to a wall, two days' march from 
Constantinople (De Goeje 77). Masudi in a parallel passage 
(Gelzer, 86) names the wall Makrun Tihos. Gelzer cites a passage 






1 Anastasius has in his version of Theophanes comitem Titichei (ed. de Boor, 
259). 

M 52 



68 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

from the Acta of S. Demetrius (seventh century) to show that 
rtx<>? was used to denote the whole district between the Long Wall 
and Constantinople. 1 But he is undoubtedly wrong in his theory that 
both the military and civil administration of this district were in the 
hands of the Prefect of the City until the reign of Leo VI. For this 
there is no evidence. Uspenski has suggested that Kudama's 
province of Tafla should be connected with the KO'JUUJ? r&v ret^coj'. 2 
But neither Uspenski nor Gelzer have noticed the important texts in 
the laws of Justinian bearing on the subject. In Nov. 16 (p. 114) 
we meet an official named 6 /3iKa/nos TOV Maxpov TCI^OVS (March A.D. 
535). In Nov. 25 (published a couple of months later) we learn that 
there were two /StKaptoi TOV JJL. T., one military, the other civil (p. 170). 
Justinian, by this ordinance, combines the two offices in one, and 
gives to the new governor the title of -rrpamop 'lovoriznauo? errt paKTjs 
(p. 171). These texts permit us to infer that the district between 
the Long Wall and the capital had been segregated as a special 
circumscription by Anastasius when he built the Wall. The civil and 
military governors whom he set over it were vicarii respectively of the 
Praet. Prefect of the East and the Mag. Mil. per Thracias. We may 
take it, then, that the ap^cov TOV TCL^OV descends from the Justinianean 
praetor, who would certainly have been a comes primi ordinis. Though 
Kudamais wrong in co-ordinating the province of the Long Wall with 
the Themes, he is right in designating it as a district distinct from 
Thrace. 3 De Goeje's view (accepted by Gelzer) that Tafla should be 
corrected to Tafra = 17 ra^poy is not very convincing. It is to be 
noted that the Wall of Anastasius had no ditch. 4 

We have no evidence to show whether the Count of the W r alls 
retained the civil powers entrusted to the praetor Justinianus. It 
is not inconceivable, for another of the group of Domestics, the 
Dom. of the Optimati, had civil powers, like the strategoi, in his 
province. In Takt. Usp. the Count of the Walls is a proto- 
spatharios. 

The omcium T&V Ttiyjiu>v was modelled precisely on the officium 
vovfj,p(tiv, or vice versa. 



1 A A. SS. Oct. 8, iv. 179 C en p.r)V KOI GpaKTjs KCU TOV irpos Ev(avriov MaKpnv 
Tei\ovs. See also Theoph. 455 12 where, as Gelzer says (88), eV rols /ua/cpols re/^eo-t 
TT/S QpaKrjf means the district. 

2 Op. tit. 181. 

3 The Justinianean texts seem to me to dispose of the doubts of Vasil'ev (in 
his review of Gelzer's work, Viz. Vrem. 10, 201 (1903)), as to the existence of the 
circumscription. 

4 Cp. Schuchhardt, in the Jahrbuch des deutschen arch. Instituts, 16, 107 sqq., 
1901. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 69 
III. KpiraL 

(1) 6 e7T<>p)(OS T7JS TToAeO)?. 

The Prefect of the City 1 is one of the few high officials of the 
Empire who retained both his name and, for the most part, his functions I 
unchanged throughout successive ages. In the capital his authority 
was supreme, next to the Emperor's. 2 His functions were both 
administrative and judicial. He was the head of the police adminis- 
tration and was responsible for preserving order in the City ; and all 
the trades were organized in colleges under his control. Cp. the 
'Enapxi-Kov Bi/3Aioz> (see Bibliography), which is supposed to date 
from the reign of Leo VI. For his judicial functions see Zacharia 
von Lingenthal, Griech.-rom. Recht 366. His official quarters were 
the Praetorium (in the Mese, between the Augusteum and the Forum ' 
of Constantine), where was the chief prison of the city. 3 

In Takt. Usp. (115) the Prefect ranks after all the strategoi and 
immediately before the Domestic of the Excubitors. In Philotheos 
his place is higher. He ranks above all the strategoi of the western 
Themes, but on the other hand the Domestic of the Excubitors is 
placed immediately before him. This change in precedence was 
probably due to Basil I or Leo VI. The ceremony of the Prefect's 
investiture is described in Cer. i. 52. He was officially termed irarr/p i 
rr/s TToAea)? (ib. 264 12 , 528 2 ; Cont. Th. 461), and his office was one of 
the few which could not be held by a eunuch. 

It has been held by Zacharia (op. cit. 365) that on the abolition 
of the Praetorian Prefect some of that minister's functions were 
transferred to the Prefect of the City. Zacharia puts it much too 
strongly when he says that ' die letztere Dignitat [Praef. Praet.] in 
damaliger Zeit mit der ersteren [Praef. Urbi] verschmolzen war/ 
The fact that both offices are treated together in Bas. vi. 4 does not 
prove this. The only evidence we have is Epan. xi. 9, where the 
7rapxos is named as a judge of appeal; but it is not quite clear from 
this that appeals from provincial courts could come before his court, 
and the comparison of Bas. ix. 2. 7, to which Zacharia refers, does not 
prove it. The question must be left open. 4 

It seems probable, however, that another office was transferred to 

1 cTrapxos in the lawbooks, in the 'E-rrapxiicbv Rij3\iov, and in. the first list of 
Philotheos ; vnapx^s elsewhere in Philotheos and in Takt. Usp. 

2 Cp. Epan. iv. 11. 

:{ Cp. Chron. Pusch. ad ann. 532. The principal modern study of the functions 
of the Prefect is Uspeuski's KonstanHnopoP sldi Eparkh (see Bibliography). It is 
probably he who is designated by Ibn Khurdadhbah as Great Judge (p. 84). 

4 Uspenski accepts Zachariu's view without discussion, op. cit., 80, cp. 88. 






70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

the Prefect of the City. Justinian (A.D. 535) abolished the old 
Praefectus vigilum or vvKTCTrapxos, who was subordinate to the Praef. 
Urbis, and instituted instead the Praetor plebis 1 or irpaiYcop 8rj/xcoi> 
(Nov. 38) who had a court, an assessor, twenty soldiers, and thirty 
firemen (^ar/oiKa/not) 2 under him (ib. e'). 3 One of his most 
important duties was to put out fires. This Novel is reproduced in 
Bas. vi. 5, and Zacharia (op. cit. 372) infers that the office existed in 
the ninth century, notwithstanding the fact that it is not mentioned 
in the Epanagoge, or the Peira. 4 But the silence of the Taktikoii 
Uspenski and Philotheos seems to be decisive against this supposition. 
It is not conceivable that such an important official could have been 
passed over in these notitiae if he had existed ; and there is no reference 
to him in the Ceremonial Book of Constantine. We must infer that 
the title in the Basilica has, like so many in that compilation, only 
antiquarian significance; that the praetor plebis and his court had 
been abolished, and that his duties devolved upon the Prefect and his 
officium. 



(1, 2) The o-vfji-novos and the AoyofleY?/? TOV -npair^piov were co-equal 
in rank (Cer. 274 3 ). In Takt. Usp. 127-8 they precede the chartularii 
of the military themes and domesticates, but are below spathar rank. 
In Phil. 735 10 they are included among the possible spathars. They 
appear together at court ceremonials 750 4 , 752 4 , 772 14 . The pro- 
cedure of their investiture is described in Cer. i. c. 57. Both officials 
are described as O-V^TTOVOL in Cont. Th. 470. Cp. also Cer. 13 6 . 

The title (rvpTtovos is equated with assessor in the Glosses to the *"* 



1 The Novel speaks throughout of praetores plebis in the plural. But it also 
refers to vvKTenapxoi in the plural. Only one praetor seems to be contemplated. 
See Procopius, H. A. 20, p. 125 npaiTapa drjpav. Cp. Zacharia, op. cit., 372, n. 
1336. 

2 This seems to be the meaning of parpiKaptoi, cp. Ducange, s. v. Fire-engines 
are mentioned in the older Vita Theodori Stud. (Migne, 99, 312), rfjv TO>V <r 



3 Cp. also Nov. 98, p. 10. 

4 Zacharia refers to the fact that the office is mentioned by Codinus, De off., 
p. 60, but the list of Codinus is full of obsolete titles. He also refers to Canta- 
cuzenus, iv. 9, p. 53 Siyrjpbv TOV Trpaircopa 8r t fj,ov (selected as an envoy to the Pope). 
I suspect that the office which Sigeros held was that of Prefect of the City. Leo 
Diaconus, there can be little doubt, used npairap in this sense, 65 6 , 95 22 . The 
latter passage runs rais pcyurrais rrjs TroXireias ap^ai? oiKelovs avftpas dT 
7rpaiVa>pa KQI roC TrXcot'juou dpovyydpiov rrjs re fBly\r)s KCU ov KaAovcri 

There was no distinct great officer entitled wKTfTrapxos. We must read rfjs 
re (SiyXrjs ov Ka\ovat vvKTeirapxov, ' the drungarios of the Vigla who is known as 
vvKTeirapxos', viz. on account of his sentinel duties in keeping watch over the 
emperor's tent. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 71 

Basilica. It seems impossible to identify this official with any of 
the subordinates of the Praefectus Urbis, who appear in Not. Dig. 
Occ. We may conjecture that he was the successor of the consiliarius 
or adsessor of the Prefect, who is found in a constitution of Theo- 
dosius II A.D. 444 (C. I. i. 51. 11), f non parum adsessoribus 
magistratuum maiorum . . . ideoque consiliarios virorum illustrium 
praefectorum tarn praetorio quam huius inclitae urbis/ &c. This 
may perhaps be borne out by a constitution of Zeno, in which such 
coadjutors (consiliarii, adsessor es) are described by the term 
(C. I. i. 51. 13 = Bas. 6. 1. 71) , though it is possible that 
may have been substituted for some other word by the compilers of 
the Basilica. We learn something about one branch of his duties 
from the ^irap-^LKov /3i/3Aiov, where he appears as acting for the Prefect 
in overseeing the guilds of the Acoporo/xot, apToiroioi and KaTnyAot. 
Thus xviii. 4 irpocrtpyjicrOtocrav rw Trap^(a), tva bia TOV CTV^TTOVOV oi 
(TTaOfjiol T&V aprcav irpos TTJJJ efcoz/rjo-iy yivtovrai, also xiv. 2, xix. 1. 
Nicole is quite in error (p. 90) in supposing that the corporations, or 
most of them, had each a O-V/^TTOI>OS of its own. It is quite clear that 
in all three texts the reference is to the <n>u.7rovos of the Prefect. 1 

There is no direct evidence for the functions of the logothete of the 
praetorium. His equality with the a-vfj.irovos makes it virtually certain 
that the sphere of the Prefect's administrative functions was divided] 
into two complex departments, in one of which he was represented \ 
and assisted by the crvunovos, in the other by the logothete. In the ' 



former was included the administration of the guilds; while from 
the title of the latter (associating him with the Praetorium, which 
was the Prefect's courthouse, and the chief prison of the city) we may . 
infer that his functions were specially connected with the administra- 
tion of justice. XoyoOtrrjs points to the descent of this official from 
an accountant in the Prefect's bureau, possibly from the chief of the 
numerarii (Not. Dig. Occ. iv. 24). 

(3) The Kptral T&V pcyc&vvv (who were, in the phraseology of the 
Notitia Dignitatum, sub dispositione but not in officio praefecti) . See 
Zacharia v. Lingenthal, Gr.-Rom. Recht, 373. (He thinks that they 
correspond to the old curatores regionum of the Descr. Urbis Cplanae. 
I would rather identify the latter with the ytiroviapyai, see below.) 
They might have the rank of protospathars, Phil. 732 18 . 2 

1 It may be doubted whether the o-vfirrovoi of seals published by Panchenko, ix. 
34o, and Schlumberger, Sig. 598, belong here. For a seal of a Xoy. TOV irpa(.T. 
see Konstantopulos, no. 407 ft. 

2 For a seal with the inscription IIoAuSwpa) peyewraptw (6th-7th cent.) see 

Schlumberger, Mel. , 210. 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

(4) For the 7rt<rK7rn/rai or inspectors we have no evidence to 
distinguish their functions from those of the similarly named Mirrai. 

(5) There were two TrpeoroKay/ccAAa/not, or chiefs of the bureau 
(Phil. 772 19 ). This exceptional arrangement suggests that a second 
officium was at some time or other combined with the officium proper 
of the Prefect, and that the TrpooroKayKeAAa/noi or principes of both 
were retained in the amalgamated office. We saw above that the 
praefectus vigilum, who used to be subordinate to the Prefect of the 
City, was replaced by the Trpairu>p T&V SYHJLUV under Justinian. This 
praetor existed under Maurice (Theoph. Sim. 6. 10. 6), but after- 
wards disappears. I conjecture that his functions were handed over 
to the Prefect, and the second TrpcoroKayKeAAa/jtos descends from the 
princeps of the praetor. In Cont. Th. 442 only one protocancellarius 
seems to be contemplated. 

(6) The name of the KtvTvpiav points to the office being relatively 
ancient. We may conjecture that he commanded the crrpan5>rai who 
were under the Prefect. See Epan. iv. 8 e'x et or/ocmwraj CTU TTJ dpr\vy 

KCU 7Tt TO aVCL(f)plV COTO) TO, TtGLVTCL\QV KLVOVjJLVa. 

(7) The eTTOTjrai rfjs TroOuw? (Phil. 750 7 ) were four in number 
(Phil. 772 19 ). 

(8) The efapxot were heads of guilds. In the eirapxiKov (3i(3\iov we 
find an eapx? of the irpavbioTrpdrai. (v. 1, 3), and ap\oi of the 
/merao7rparai. The presidents of other guilds were Tr/oocrrarai (men- 
tioned below). The Book of the Prefect does not refer to the heads 
of all the guilds ; some of them it describes by the general term 
6 Tr/ooeoTwj. Probably in these cases the president was either an 
ea/>xo? (Nicole thinks in the case of the most important) or a irpo- 
orarrjj. 

(9) The twelve yemmapxat (Phil. 772 10 ) correspond to the curatores 
regionum of the Descriptio Urb. Const., who however were thirteen 
(p. 243 in Seeck's ed. of Not. Dig.}, the fourteenth region having none. 
Uspenski (op. cit. 100) would identify them with the old Vicomagistri, 
but these were far more numerous, sixty-five in all (Descr. ib.}. 

(10) For the college of the VO^LKOL or notaries l (cp. Cer. 12. 4) see 
the t-napxi-Kov fiifikiov i. (-n^pt Taf3ovX\apLa>v) , 13, 15, 16; cp. Nicole, 
pp. 82 sqq., who has not noticed the Glossa nomica cited by Zacharia 
(Gr.-Rom. Recht, 297, n. 99) ra/3eAAiW (that is, tabularius) 6 ra rr/? 

ypafyuv 0-uju/3o'\cua, 6 irapa rots -rroAAotj vofJUKns Aeyo'/xero?, 
a T&V TTO\LT&V ypa/xjuareta, tKacTTov avT&v OLKCLOVS t 



1 The yfpuv vofjuKos tls TO. 2^opai'ou in Scr. Incert. (Leo Gramm.^ ed. Bonn, 
p. 350) was one of these. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 73 

(11) The duty of the /SovAAcorcu was to mark with the bull or seal 
of the Prefect the weights, scales, measures, and sometimes the goods 
of the merchants and tradesmen. See ^ap^aCov /36/3AtW, viii. 3. 

(12) Trpoorarai, heads of trade corporations; cp. above under (8). 
From the enapx^ov fiifi\iov we learn that the presidents of the 
o-aTT&woTrparcu, \topoTOjJLOt, \oLp^iropoL y l^Ovon parcu, pyo\d(3oi y &c., had 
this title. 

(13) KayK\\dpioL. See above under (5). 

(14) For the TrapaflaAao-o-mjs, whose name connects his duties with 
the policing of the seashore, see Peira, li. 29 (ot Se irAeowi r^v OaXaaaav 
KCU viroKcivrat, TU> irapaQaXaa-cjLrrj). His position here argues that in 
the time of Philotheos he was not an important official; but half 
a century later Liutprand (Ant. 3. 7) speaks of him as if he were one 
of the high dignitaries of the court. He is mentioned in irept raf. 
461 4 . On the occasion of the Cretan expedition A.D. 902 he was 
directed to arm 1,200 men (Cer. GGOg). 1 Uspenski compares the comes 
riparum and the comes portus who were under the Prefect of Rome. 2 

Another member of the officium, not included in this list, is 
mentioned by Philotheos 750 8 (as a guest in the Palace) 6 Xtyarapios 
TOV Trpcurcopiof . The ti:apyj.Mv fiifiXiov, c. xx, treats of this functionary 
and explains his duties, which consisted in supervising foreign 
merchants and inspecting their merchandise. 3 

(2) 6 KvaioTo>p. 

The Quaestor sacri palatii survived the changes of time, but the 
range of his functions was altered and his official rank was lowered. 
In early times his chief duties were leges dictandae and preces. He 
had to draft the Imperial laws and deal with the petitions addressed 
to the Emperor. He was the chief legal authority in the state and 
the legal adviser of the government. Cp. Cass. Var. vi. 5 (formula 
quaesturae) . 4 The quaestor of the ninth century had a court of his 
own and extensive judicial functions. 

1 OTTO avvdocreus rwv avrwi/, Reiske ntrrcoi>, from a contribution by the citizens. 

2 Op. cit. 100. (See Not. Dig. Occ., iv. 6, 7.) Cp. Zacharia, op. cit. 373. See 
also M. Goudas, 17 KciTu/jLeTprjais rS>v (fjLjropiKwv nXoiav, ill Bvfavris, I. 35 sqq. 1909. 
In the twelfth century there was a o-tKperov rrjs Ba\a(r<rrjs, and two parathalassitai 
are mentioned along with the notaries of this bureau, Miklosich-Muller Acta et 
Dip', vi. 3, 124. (In Manuel Comnenus, Nov. 54, p. 537 eparcho parathalassite , 
should we not read eparchi ?) Was Addaeus in Proc. H. A. c. 25 a parathalassites ? 

3 Cp. Uspenski, op. cit. 97. There is no reason whatever for the suggestions 
that the Xeyarapios is identical with the (TV/J.TTOVOS (Nicole) or with the \oy. TOO 
Trpair. (Vogt, Basile I er ', 142). 

4 He used to assist in the appeal court of the Praetorian Prefect. Cp. Jus- 
tinian, Nov. 46. 



74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

This change arose from the fact that the Quaestor of the Sacred 
Palace had taken over the duties of the new quaestor or quaesitor > 
(epewTjrrJs) who had been created by Justinian. The law which 
created the new office is Nov. 99. 1 Here the official is called 
quaestor, but Procopius, H. A. 20 (p. 125), and Lydus, 2. 29 (p. 85), 
call him quaesitor (/cvcno-tYco/)) ; Lydus however also speaks of him and 
the Quaestor together as ol a/uuo> Kuaia-ropes (3. 20, p. 109). In Bas. 
vi. 6 they are treated as the same office ; the compilers evidently did 
not realize that they were originally two. The section of the Epana- 
goge (5) on the quaestor merely reproduces Justinian^s Novel. But 
it would be erroneous to draw the conclusion that the later Quaestor 
is simply the Quaesitor and that this old Quaestor was abolished. 
This is disproved by the Quaestor's officium, in which we find the 
avTiypa$ri<$, that is the old magistri s. scriniorum (see below), whose 
functions were closely associated with those of the Quaestor of the 
Sacred Palace. This proves the continuity, which is borne out by the 
fact that a eunuch could not hold the post of Quaestor, a circumstance 
pointing to its ancient associations and prestige. 

For the functions of the Quaestor, derived from those of the 
Quaesitor, see Zacharia v. Lingenthal, op. cit. 368. They were of 
an administrative as well as judicial order : supervision of travellers 
and provincials visiting the capital ; supervision of beggars ; decision 
in the case of complaints of coloni or tenants against their landlords 
who resided in the capital ; duty of punishing injustice in such cases ; 
duty of reporting misconduct of magistrates to the Emperor ; judging 
all cases of forgery. Besides these duties (imposed on the Quaesitor 
by Justinian) the Quaestor had others connected with wills and in- 
heritances. All wills were sealed with his seal and opened in his 
presence ; 2 he had powers of supervision over the execution of 
wills, and especially over the administration of the property of 
minors. 3 

The Quaestor ranks after the General Logothete both in the 

1 It is entitled irepl rat-fas KaiaicrTapos KOL ra>v j3or/$a>j> avrov /cat rwv dvTiypa(p6a>v. 
This title is obviously late. The law has nothing- to do with the dvTiypcKprjs, who 
are not mentioned in the text. 

2 These formalities formerly devolved on the magister census (for whom see 
Booking, Occ. 193-4). See Nov. 44 of Leo VI (cp. Peira, xiv. 11), Nov. 7 of 
Constan tine VII (at ftiadfJKdi Trapa TQ> Koiatorcopi dvoiyovrai, p. 258). The motive of 
transferring the duty to the quaestor (or quaesitor), after Justinian, may have 
been the competence of this minister in cases of forgery. See Zacharia, op. cit. 
157. For the /xdyioTpoy T&V KJJIXTGJI/ (in connexion with orphans) cp. Justinian, 
Nov. 151, p. 275. 

3 Cp. Peira, xvi. 5. 13. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 75 

Taktikon Uspenski and in Philotheos. 1 For the ceremony of his 
creation see Cer. i. 54. 

(1) The &vTiypa^rjs (spathars, Phil. 752 4 ; of inferior rank, Takt. ^ 
Usp. 127, 128; in both texts, precede the Q-V/UTJWOS and Aoy. Trpatr.) are 
the old magistri scriniorum. 2 In the fifth century they were four inj 
number (memoriae, epistolarum, libellorum, graecarum : Not. Dig. Or._ 
xi and xix). 3 Their scrinia were sub dispositions of the Master of the 
Offices, not of the Quaestor, but the quaestor who had in former times 
no officium of his own made use of adiutores from the bureaux of 
the magistri (Not. Or. xii). In John Malalas 494 8 the cbnypa^rjs 
are mentioned along with the quaestor. 4 Their transference to the 
officium of the quaestor was probably connected with the abolition of 
the post of magister officiorum. In the Proem to the Ecloga of Leo III 
(TOVS h'booTa.Tovs VTTCLTOVS Kal avriypafyds, p. 3) they are associated 
with the quaestor [A.D. 740]. Cp. also George Mon. ed. Bonn. 
749 9 . 

The magister memoriae dealt with decisions made in the form 
of annotationes by the emperor on the margins or backs of documents 
presented to him ; he also replied to petitions (preces). The magister 
epistolarum drew up the answers to communications from foreign 
powers and from the civitates of the empire; examined the questions . 
propounded by officials (consult ationes) ; and dealt with such petitions 
as were connected with his other duties. The magister libellorum 
dealt with the appeals to the emperor from lower courts and 
with petitions from parties to suits in such courts. The magister 
epistolarum Graecarum ' eas epistolas quae graece solent emitti aut 
ipse dictat aut latine dictatas transfert in graecum* (Not. Dig. Or., 
xix. 13). 5 

It is clear that the duties of the magistri epistolarum connected ^ 
them more closely with the magister officiorum, while those of the ' 
two other magistri associated them with the quaestor. All four had 
the right of direct access to the emperor, but the functions of the \ 

1 He comes last among the officials who have Patrician rank in the Acta of the 
6th General Council, A. D. 680, Mansi, xi. 209 'ladvvov TOV evdo^ordrov dno vTrdruv 
irarpiKiov Kal KoiauTTtopo?. 

2 Mommsen, 482. Peter Patr. fr. 14 dvriypa(j)fvs rfjs pvrjurjs. Suidas sub 
'Adpiavos, dvr. ru>v f7no"roXa>i/ (see also Procop., B. P. 2. 23, H.A. 14 ; Justinian, 
Nov. 10, 113, 124, 133, 1). Cp. Bury, Magistri scriniorum (see Bibliography). 

3 I do not include the comes dispositionum who was under the Master of Offices ; 
he was not one of the magistri scriniorum. He superintended the programme 
of the emperor's daily movements. 

4 We meet an dvriypafavs in Chron. Pasch., s. a. 605, p. 973. Cp. also Menander, 
fr. 6, p. 248 els TWV ftcuriXtioav diaiTrjTwv ovs drj dvriypafaas d 

B For fuller explanation see Karlowa, i. 834 sq. 



76 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

magister memoriae would naturally bring him into most frequent 
contact with the sovran. 

As Greek became the official language of the empire, the necessity 
of a second magister epistolarum was less cogent, though so long as 
Africa (throughout the seventh century) and the Exarchate of Italy 
(till the middle of the eighth) were held, there must have been some 
provision for Latin. 

The abolition of the Master of Offices involved a change in the posi- 
tion of the scrinia. What seems to have happened was this. The 
magister memoriae remained an independent minister under the Greek 
name 6 rl rS>v berfo-twv (see below), while the magister libellorum and thej 



magister epistolarum (now Greek) along with their scrinia were sub- 



ordinated to the quaestor. That one of the quaestor's avTiypatyrjs was 
the mag. lib. is supported by the occurrence of the A.t/3e\urios (see 
below) in his officium. That there were two avTLypatyijs in the ninth 
and tenth centuries seems a probable inference from a passage in the 
ceremony of their investiture, Cer. 274 14 KCLV re ts eon K&V re bvo. 1 

(2) The o-Kpifias of the quaestor is mentioned in a constitution of 
Constantine VII (Nov. vii, p. 259). We may conjecture that he 
descends from the scriba of the magister census, who in the fifth cen- 
tury was subordinate to the Prefect of the City (Not. Dig. Occ. iv). This 
official, whom Lydus describes as apyovra T&V apxtTvnuv 

had a scriba, instead of a notarius, in his scrinium (a-Kplfiav /uev 
avrl TOV viToypcKpta uTnjpereurtfai, Lydus, 2. 30). This identification is 
borne out by the circumstance that the functions of the magister 
census in connexion with the sealing and opening of wills were trans- 
ferred to the quaestor (see above), and we know the o-Kptpas represented 
the quaestor in looking after the interests of minors (Nov. 7, c. 3, of 
Constantine, vii, p. 259). 

(3) The o-KeVrco/o, evidently = exceptor, must descend from the 
eocceptores 2 of the sacra scrinia. In these scrinia the officials were 
(1) proximus, (2) melloproximus, (3) exceptores, (4) memoriales or 
epistolares or libellenses (respectively). The o-KeWcop had doubtless a 
number of clerks under him who performed duties similar to those of 
the exceptores, copying documents and writing from dictation. In 
Const. Porph,, Nov. vii, c. 2 the quaestor is said to have two vordpioi 3 : 
Zacharia (op. cit. 368) suggests that they are the vKeirTwp and 

\lj3t\LOTLOS. 

1 In Vita Steph. iun. Migne P. G. 100, 1140 we meet Koju/3o*:oi/a>i>a rbv avnypafa'a. 

2 Cp. Grenfell and Hunt, Oxyrhynchus Papyri, i,p. 91 (A.D. 295) eWKeV(ropo-i). 

3 Peira, xiv. 11 ol ror<f/jtot ToO KoiaHrrwpiov, li. 21 TOV vorapiov UVTOV (sc. 
quaestoria}. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 77 

(4) The Ai/3eAio-tos descends from the libellenses of the scrinium 
libellorum as the oWTrrcop from the exceptores (cp. Justinian, Nov. 46, 
c. 9, p. 286). 

(5, 6) The TrpcoroKayKeAAa'pio? was under spathar rank, Phil. 73P 7 . 
The KayK\\dpLoi are mentioned in the above-cited Novel of Con- 
stantine VII, where, as in Cer. 269 3 (rovs avnypafytas /cat Kay/ceAAaptous), 
the TrpcoroKay/ceAAapio? is obviously included. The domesticus of the 
quaestor's cancellarii is once mentioned, Cer. 11 25 . The cancellarii 
used to recite Latin chants at the procession of the emperors to 
St. Sophia (ib. and c. 74, p. 369), perhaps because they were sup- 
posed to have some acquaintance with Latin. 

The seal in Schlumberger, Sig. 578, of a chartularius and protono- 
tarius of the quaestorium is of later date than our period. 



(3) 6 ITU rS>v 

The functionary known as irl T&V berfcrfw, of which the Latin 
would be a precibus, must be regarded as the successor of the magister 
memoriae, one of whose functions was precibus respondere (Not. Dig., 
Or. xix. 7). It is true that on the magister libellorum and the 
magister epistolarum it also devolved preces tractare (ib. 9. 11) ; but 
the scrinium memoriae was the chief of the sacra scrinia (it is always 
mentioned first), and was therefore the most likely to have been made 
an independent office, and we have seen that there is reason for think- 
ing that the magister libellorum was one of the avTiypatyrjs subordinated 
to the quaestor. The mag. epist. need hardly be considered, as preces 
tractare can only have been a minor and incidental part of his 
business. While the airo Serjo-ecozj belonged to the judicial class, it 
does not appear that he had a court of his own ; he seems to have 
only examined and prepared petitions to be presented to the Emperor. 
Cp. Zacharia, Gr.-rb'm. Recht, 3 356. 

In Takt. Usp. 123 he is of spathar rank ; in Phil. 729, 732 he 
may be avOviraroSy TrarptKio? or Trpwroo-Traflapios. 1 It was obligatory for 
him (Kara TVTJW) to accompany the Emperor when he made excur- 
sions by sea in the neighbourhood of Constantinople (De adm. 
.imp. 234) . 

It may only be an accident, whether of his own or of a copyist, 
that the officium of the eni r&v ber/crew is omitted in the list of 
Philotheos ; but it may well be that he had no officium (except clerks) . 
If he had one, we have no materials for reconstructing it. Philotheos 
twice mentions an official whose name appears in the MS. as 

1 Cp. Nicephorus Phocas, Nov. 22, p. 299 6 Trpcoroo-zra^aptos Bacrt'Aeios 6 eVi TOJV 



78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



o), 758 20 , and 8eK0-a)ypa<o>, 774 4 . Reiske proposed to read 
btri<roypd<p(*). This form seems impossible ; we should have to go 
further and write 8rj<riypa</>a>. But even if an emendation of this 
kind were accepted, it is not probable that the official in question 
was connected with the tm r&v 8e?jo-eG>z/. He is quite mysterious. 
In both passages he is named next the aktuarios and ot rov fj\iaKov 
irapao-TCLTai. 

In the provinces there were officials subordinate to the minister for 
petitions. Schlumberger (Sig. 493) has published the seal (eighth or 
ninth century) of an M r&v ^rja-f^v SiKeAia?. There are some other 
seals which probably belong to the minister himself. Schlumberger, 
Mel. 265 (eighth or ninth century), of Basil, /3ao-. o-iraO. and MT&V 
8erj<reW (cp. also Mel. 269) ; Panchenko, 8. 220 (tenth or ninth cen- 
tury) Kcozxrfrai/jriVw [/3(ao-iAt/ca>)] a'[o"7r]a0api(i> /cat [en-]! r(a>)y o"e?j[o-e]coz;, 
9. 394 (ninth or eighth century) Bao-tA?7a> T&V o"e?7(rea>(j;) K(f)., where 
Panchenko proposes /ce^aArj ; but we should obviously read Ke^aXa ; 
Basileios Kephalas was the name of the person. 

IV. (TeKperiKOl. 

As all the officials of this section, except the Logothete of the 
Course (4) and the Chief Secretary (7), are connected with financial 
administration, it will be convenient to discuss here as a whole the 
troublesome but important question of the origin and nature of the 
financial bureaux which existed in the ninth century. One of our 
greatest difficulties in understanding and estimating the policy of the 
later Roman Emperors lies in our ignorance of the machinery of the 
financial administration. The chroniclers notice financial measures 
rarely and briefly, but do not explain the details in such a way as to 
let us see how they operated and how they were carried out. Official 
documents are few. Even for the earlier period, from Constantine to 
Justinian, though we have much information about the raising of the 
revenue and the methods of taxation, we have very little about the 
expenditure and how it was divided among the several treasuries. 

Under the system of Constantine there were two great financial 
ministries, unconnected and independent. These were the fisc, under 
the comes sacrarum largitionum (Ko'jur?? T&V Otlav Oya-avp&v), and the ^ 
res privata under the comes rei privatae (K. T&V 0eio>z> 7rpi/3arcoz> or TOV 
0iov rafjiiov). Besides these two principal and independent treasuries 
there were also the chests of the Praetorian Prefects, to which part of t 
the fiscal revenue was diverted and from which the army was paid. 1 

1 For the praefectoria area in the fifth century cp. C. Th., 11. 9. 17 (where it 
is distinguished from utrumque nostrum aerarium = s, iarg. and respriv.). For the 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 79 

In the sixth century, if not earlier, the Praetorian Prefect of the East 
had two distinct chests, or at least two distinct accounts, which are 
designated as the yvi<r\ and the IO"IKTJ rpaTrefa in laws of Justinian and 
Justin II. 1 We do not know the nature of the distinction. 

Besides the res privata there was another administration of the 
same kind, the divina domus per Cappadociam, which was under the 
control of the praepositus sacri cubiculi, and was administered through \ 
his subordinate, entitled comes domorum per Cappadociam 2 (KOjurj? 
rG>v OLKL&V, Justinian, Nov. 46. 2). We meet in Novels of Justinian 3 
6 0eio? OLK.OS distinguished from ra Oela Trpt/Bdra and TO Otiov Trar/oi/xwznoy, 
and as these laws do not refer to Cappadocia but to the provinces of 
Arabia and Phoenicia Libanensis, it would seem that the domus 
divinae, which were under the comes r. priv. (Not. Dig., Or. xiv. 3), 
had been detached from the res privata and joined with the dom. div. 
per Capp. as a separate administration. Now in A. D. 566 we find, 
instead of the 7re/)t/3Ae7rTo? KO/^ITJ? r&v otKi&v, a jueyaXoTrpeTreararos 
Kovparap T&V oiKi<Sz;. 4 This is more than a change of name. We can 
infer that the div. dom. per Capp. has been withdrawn from the 
praepositus (otherwise he must have been mentioned in the context, 
in which all the ministers who had financial charges are enumerated) ' 
and, with the other domus divinae, placed under a Curator. 

Another financial administration, named the sacrum patrimonium 
(TO delov TraTpijjiuviov), was instituted by Anastasius I about the end of 
the fifth century. 5 We may doubt whether there was any distinction 
in principle between this sacrum patrimonium, which was called . 
T; i8uTj KTTyo-i?, and the res privata, which was called rj 181*1) 
Ticpiovcria. The word KTTJO-LS (not KTTjjuiaTa) might suggest that the 
res privata had become so large, through landed property falling 
to the state, that Anastasius placed under the control of a new 
minister recent acquisitions and all that should be acquired in the 
future. It is doubtful whether the expressions of Lydus really 
signalize an important principle of distinction between the two 
offices. 6 It is to be observed that the organization of the office of 

chest of the Pref. of Illyricum cp. Justinian, Nov. 163, p. 351 ; Justin II, 
Nov. I, p. 4. The officials of the Prefect's area are called dpxapioi, Justinian, 
#.,96, p. 542; 163, p. 353. 

Justinian, ib. 96. 9, p. 536 -rrpovoeiv TI)S etorrpa^fcos 1 T>V drjfjLOffimv <fjopa>v T>V 
fls eKarepav rpdnf^nv elcrffoepOfAevav TOV 8iKao~Tr]piov rrjs o~rjS VTrcpo^rjs, rfj rf IdiKrj 17; 
re ycvuqj, also 11, 12, &c. Justin II, Nov. 1, p. 4. Cp. Lydus, 3. 36. 

2 C. /., 12. 24. 3 ; 3. 26. 11 ; 12. 5. 2. 

8 53, p. 357 ; 55, pp. 366-7. Also 17 17/zere'pa oma, 158. 2. 

4 Justin II, Nov. 1, p. 4. 

5 C.I., 1. 34. 1 ; Lydus, 2. 27. 

6 Ib. Ko/itTa 7rp(/3aTa>i> dvrl TOV T&V Idia TTWS rot's- (3a<rt\ev<ri Trpoa-rjKovT&v, and 6 



80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

the Patrimony was an exact copy of the office of the res privata 
(Kara piprio-iv avrrjv SIOIKCOZ;, C. /., 1. 34. 1, where it is also enacted 
that the officials of both shall have the same privileges). 

In the sixth century, then, there were (omitting Africa and Italy 
from consideration) seven independent treasuries. (1) The fisc \ 
(largitiones) ; (2) the two TpciTrefai of the Praetorian Prefect of the j 
East ; (3) the chest of the Praetorian Prefect of Illyricum ; to which 
must be added (4) the chest of the Justinianean quaestor of Moesia 
and Scythia (Justin II, Nov. 1, p. 4). These four coffers were 
replenished by the general taxation of the Empire. (5) Res privata ; 
(6) sacrum patrimonium ; (7) domus divinae ; three treasuries deriving 
their revenue from the Imperial estates. 

When we come down to the ninth century we find a variety of 
bureaux with a new nomenclature : the yew/coV, o-aKe'AAto*;, o-rparicoriKoV, 
/3earia'pioi>, juteyaA?7 Kouparcopeta, dye'Aai, ora/3AozJ, et5t/coV. Of these the 
ytvimov corresponds to the sacrae largitiones. The orpartcortKo^ fulfils 
the functions of the arcae of the Praet. Prefects so far as military 
finance is concerned. The jue'yas /couparcop is the descendant of the 
Kovpdrcop T&V OLKI&V of the sixth century. The /Scoriapior is the old 
vestiarium sacrum which used to be under the control of the comes 
s. larg. (Not. Dig., Or. xiii. 28), and has become an independent office. 
The dye'Aat and crrdftXov are the greges and stabula which used to be 
under the comes r. priv. The ei8i/coV is concerned with the state- 
factories which used to be under the magister officiorum and the 
comes s. larg. All these offices will be discussed in detail below. 

More may be said here about the aaKt\\iov, because an important 
change is involved. o-a/ceAAa or a-aKeAAtoi/ means purse, and ora/ceAAapto? 
keeper of a purse. The Patriarch had a sakellarios (cp. e.g. Chron. 
Pasch. 697, sub A. D. 607), and we hear of the sakellarios of a 
( strategos ' of Numidia (Ada Maximi, Migne, P. G., 90. 1 12). l Now 
the Emperors, manifestly, must always have had a private purse 
(apart from the treasuries of the res privata and s. largitiones), and 
an official in charge of it. Such an official, if he were mentioned in 



airl TOV <uAa TIJS tdiq TTQ>S avrjKoio-rjs rc5 /SaaiXei K 
n-poyovoav irepiovo-ias. The last clause does suggest a distinction, and also perhaps 
the use of rots /Sao-iAeicn in one case, and ro> /Sao-iXet in the other. Pamphronios in 
Menander, fr. 8 (A. D., 561) Trpotorcora rrjs auroO /3a(7iAeajs irepiovo'ias, was pre- 
sumably com. r. priv. 

1 A o-aKK(\\dpios is mentioned in a papyrus of seventh century, published in 
Wessely's Griechische Papyrusurkunden kleineren Formats,, no. 992, p. 174 (1908) 
and in the early Arab period craKfXAa is used apparently for the central treasury 
of that province ; e. g. Pap. Brit. Mus. iv, no. 1336 (A. D. 709) ano TTJS a., 110. 
1412 (A. D. 710) els rr,v a: 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 81 

the Notitia Dignitatum at all, would have appeared in the officium of 
the Praepositus where there is an unfortunate lacuna in our texts. 
The Sakellarios first appears as a prominent official, under this name, 
at the beginning of the seventh century ; but he seems to be men- 
tioned in the sixth under the periphrasis ra/xtas r&v J3a(ri\iKu>v \pf]^ar^v 
(see below under (ra/ceAAapios). I infer that the o-axe \\iov and 
0-aKeAA.apio? had long existed, but that in the sixth and seventh 
centuries they begin to emerge from vomparative obscurity into 
administrative importance. 

Now it is to be observed that in the seventh century, while the 
Sakellarios is ascending in rank and prominence, we cease to hear of 
the comes rei privatae. In the ninth century we find no single 
department which can be pointed to as simply the old res privata 
with a new name. The management of the res priv. and the 0euu 
oucoi seems to be divided between two departments, that of the 
o-a/ce'AAioz; and that of the Great Curator the general administration 
of the estates being presumably under the latter, and the revenue 
being dealt with by the cra.K\\iov. We may conjecture that this new 
arrangement, which led to the disappearance of the comes r. p., and 
also of the comes s. patrimonii, came about in the seventh century. 
The administrative importance which the Sakellarios possessed in the 
reign of Justinian II, when he must have had a bureau of officials 
under him, points to this conclusion. The imperial estates res priv., 
s. pair., and 0eioi ot/cot were placed under the control of the Sakel- 
larios and the Curator (Kou/>dro>p T&V olKi&v), the former acting as\ 
Receiver, the latter as High Steward. We may suspect that this 
change may have been partly due to the loss of the Imperial estates 
in Syria and Egypt. 

This development was an intelligible consequence of the connexion 
which we may reasonably assume to have existed between the 
sakellion and the revenue of the Imperial estates in the fifth and sixth 
centuries. We may take it that the sakellion was the receptacle of 
the net profit arising from the Imperial estates. The treasuries of 
the s. largitiones and the Praetorian Prefects provided for the standing 
expenses of the government army, civil service, &c. and it is 
highly improbable that any money was diverted from these sources 
into the Emperor's sakellion. We may assume that, when the 
treasuries of the Private Estate, the Patrimony, and the Divine Houses 
had paid the expenses of administration, and perhaps certain stand- 
ing charges which were allocated to them, the net annual profits were 
deposited in the sakellion, which not only supplied the Emperor with 
money for his personal expenses, but also provided for extraordinary 

M 6 



82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

and irregular outlay, such as on wars, buildings, &c. The large 
accumulations which were made by the parsimony of Anastasius I 
were doubtless stored in the sakellion. 

It is to be noticed that the resprivata was itself a spending depart-, 
ment. Its expenditure was known as the largitiones privatae, for 
which there was a special scrinium. 1 This bureau must have been 
incorporated in the new organization of the Sakellion in the seventh 
century. 

Another change of great importance was subsequently made in the 
financial administration. In the ninth century the head of the 
Sakellion is no longer the Sakellarios, but the x a P TOV ^P ws T v 
<rafccAAfou. It is evident that this functionary was originally one 
of the chief subordinates of the Sakellarios, but he has become the 
minister in charge of the department. The Sakellarios himself has 
not disappeared ; he has been exalted to a new position. He has no 
special officium of his own, but he exercises a general control over all 
the financial bureaux and is superior to all the financial ministers. In 
the words of Philotheos, e he supervises what is done in each bureau 
(a^Kptrov) by the written reports of his own notary/ This is a fact 
of the highest importance, which has escaped notice. It places the 
later financial system in a new light. There was in the ninth century 
a general and methodical control exercised over all the offices which 
dealt with finance or administered the sources of revenue, and this 
control, which was not only a check on malversation but helped to j 
mitigate the disadvantage of not having a single central exchequer, 
was an innovation and improvement on the Constantinian system. 
We cannot determine whether this arrangement was due to the 
Heraclians or to the Isaurians. Under the Heraclians, considerable 
changes were made in financial administration. The Sakellarios 
first becomes prominent in the reign of Heraclius himself. Under 
his dynasty the comes s. larg. disappears and his place is taken by 
the Logothete of the Genikon. The Logothete of the Stratiotikon 
appears under Constantine IV, and was probably created either by 
Heraclius or by Constantine II. But it seems not unlikely that the 
Sakellarios under the Heraclians remained simply the minister of the 
Sakellion, and that his later office, as General Comptroller, was an 
innovation of the Isaurian period when the various administrative 
changes which had come about in the previous century were 
systematized and developed. It may be added that on general 
grounds it seems probable that the Sakellion, as a treasury, not as 
a department, was in the keeping of the Sakellarios. 
1 Not. Dig., Occ. xii. 4. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 83 

The heads of most of the later financial bureaux were entitled 
logothetes, or chartularies. Aoyofo'rrjs- is the word which in early 
times was used to render rationalis, and in the Constantinian system 
the rationales were all financial subordinates of the great financial 
ministers. 1 The chartularies were much lower in the scale ; they were 
clerks in the various scrinia, and so we hear little about them. The 
Notitia Dignitatum does not enumerate the members of the scrinia. 
At that time, however, the head of a scrinium under the Castrensis 
bore the title of Chartularius (Not. Dig., Or. xvii. 10 ; Occ. xv. 11). 
The rise of the chartularii to importance is a subject which deserves 
a special investigation, but it lies outside my present scope. I will 
only note the schola chartulariorum in the officium of the Praetorian 
Prefect of Africa, as organized by Justinian (C. 1. 1. 27. 1) 2 ; the impor- 
tance of the three Chartularies of the Cubiculum (Justinian, Nov. 16) 3 ; 
the distinction drawn between frp-^ovrcs \apTov\apiKoi and 0Tpcma>riicoi 
by Peter the Patrician (Cer. 92, p. 418) 4 ; the evidence of Lydus (iii. 
17, 18, 20, 27) ; and the Italian material in the letters of Gregory 
the Great and the Liber Pontificalis (reviewed by Diehl). 5 The 
original function of the chartularii, from which they derived their 
name, was probably to keep and register chart ae receipts, dockets, 
&c., connected with the financial business of the bureau to which they 
belonged. The registers, e.g. containing the debts to the fisc were 
called chartae, cp. C. Th. 11. 28. 2; 6 (chartis quibus debita publica 
continentur), 12, &c. 

A word may be said about the term (rtKperov = secretum (the long 
vowels are preserved in aorTjKpfjn?). Hesychius (s. v.) explains it as 
Kovo-HTTtopLov, and in C. Th. 6. 35. 7, we find intra consistorii secreta 
of notaries. Cp. Cass. Var. 6, 16 principis secretum et consilium. 
Also in Theoph. Sim. 8, 8, 9, the Emperor Maurice, having given an 
audience to Germanos, //.eflt'orarai rov Trapa'Pco/uatois AeyojueWv o-eupcTOv. 
It appears from these passages that originally crtKpcrov meant the 
Imperial Consistorium or Council, and the precincts in which it met. 

1 Andreas, 6 OTTO XoyoQeratv, became Prefect of the City in A. D. 563, Theoph. 
239 8 . 

3 Cp. also the chartularii numerorum militarium, C. I. 12. 37. 19. Cp. too 
Justinian, Nov. 141, p. 221. 

8 Cp. also ib., p. 404 15 , rovs #. r&v ftappdpav, and 405 18 . For chart, in the 
serin . fabr. of the mag. off. see Justinian, Nov. 108, p. 61. 

* L'exarchat de Ravenne, 154-5. Cp. also the chartarii in Cass. Var. 7. 43 
(apparently of the comes patrimonii, cp. 8. 23). 

5 Cp. Chron. Pasch. 703, sub A. D. 612 : Philaretos was one of these chartu- 
larii. For a seal of a <nraddptos KOI ^aprovXaptoff, seventh or eighth century, see 
Panchenko, 8. 225. 

M 62 



84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

In these precincts the notarii (who were under the primicerius not., 
Not. Dig., Or. xvii) discharged their duties. This early meaning of 
the term explains the usage in the Ceremonial Book of Constantine, 
in describing some of the court solemnities : e.g. Cer. 218 10 KOI 
KaQtvOivrav TU>V eo-7ror<Szj, 6e'xoz/rcu TO creKperov, viz. magistri, patricians, 
&c., successively according to rank. When the reception is over 
eepx ercu T v^KpcTov, except the patricians who toraz>rai Koixrio-Ttopiou. 
(This latter phrase is frequent in the ceremonies : since the Con- 
sistorium had coalesced with the Synkletos, Koro-iorcopioi/ ceased to be 
used except in a ceremonial sense x with torao-dat, ' stand in atten- 
dance*.) Again 226 12 TO o-e/cpeToy oAoz>, 212 6 TO a. T&V ^Tremor, 616 10 
TO" <r. T&V (TvyK\t]Ti.K&v (and 618 18 of official ladies received by the 
Empress) . 

In C. Th. 6. 35. 7, the officials of the scrinia (sacra), of the finance 
bureaux, of the castrensis, &c., are distinguished from the notaries of 
the secreta. But the term o-cKptrov in time became extended to all 
or most of the bureaux in which the work was chiefly secretarial and 
clerical, and all their officials were called o-eKpeTiKoi. Philotheos 
confines the term to a certain number of such offices, but it was also 
used in a wider sense, covering most of the offices in classes III, 
V-VII, as appears from Cer. 527, cp. esp. 1. 21, where the virap\o$ 
is distinctly classed as a o-eKpeTuo'y. (Compare also 575 10 , 12 , 608 ]0 , 
698 I8 , 524 U .) 

The offices ((reKptra) of the creKpeTiKot in the restricted meaning 
were in the Palace. 

(1) 6 (raKcAAapios. 

In the reign of Heraclius we meet Theodore, a financial functionary 
termed /3ao-iAuos o-aKeAAaptos by Theophanes (A. D. 635 ; 337 23 , 
338 3 ). In the reign of Constans II a sakellarios conducted the 
examination of the Abbot Maximus (TO> 0-aKeAAapuo TrpcoTw TTJV aftW 
Tvy%dvovTi, Ada Maximi, Migne, P. G. 90, 88, 112, 113) . 2 Under 
Justinian II the office was held by the notorious and influential 
Stephen (Theoph. 367 15 ). 

This functionary also appears in our records under another descrip- 
tion, Tdjuua? T&V j3a(n\iK&v xp^^circor. The equation of this expression 
with o-a/ceAAaptos results from three data. Nicephorus in his Chronicle 

1 Also, of course, TO peya *., a hall in the palace. 

2 The Abbot Maximus addressed a letter (c. A.D. 629) Trpo? Kcoyorni/Tti/oj' cra*fX- 
Xdptoi/ (Ep. 24, Migne, 91, G08), but he may have been an ecclesiastical, or a 
local, sakellarios. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 85 

applies it (1) to Theodore (23 12 ) and (2) to Stephen (37 13 ), whom, as 
we have seen, Theophanes designates as sakellarioi. He also (3) 
applies it to Leontios (5 6 , A.D. 609), who is described as 6 dud 
craK\\apLO)v in Chron. Pasch. 701, sub A.D. 610. Hence we can 
infer that Philagrios, to whom he applies the same title (28 12 ), was 
Sakellarios in A.D. 640. 

The equation also enables us to trace the Sakellarios in the sixth 
century. For Agathias (3. 2, p. 140) designates Rusticus (who was 
sent by Justinian with money to the army in Lazica) as ra/uas T&V 

y and explains ov IM]V T&V K TT 

(i.e. he was not comes s. larg.), ciAAa r<3z> ova ec T&V 
6r)(ravpG>v cTreTro/u^ei. Rusticus was Sakellarios. 

The history of the Sakellarios, so far as our meagre records enable 
us to discern it, has been traced above. At first he was simply 
the keeper of the Emperor's sakellion or treasury which received 
the surplus derived from the Imperial estates. In the seventh century, 
he took over the more specially financial functions of the ministers 
who managed the estates, and the Sakellion became an important 
ministry. As a treasury it was no longer merely the receptacle of 
a reserve fund for extraordinary expenses, but bore some of the 
regular state expenses. The Proem to the Ecloga of Leo III orders 
payments to be made CK TOV eixrefiovs fjn&v aa.KK\\iov to the quaestor, 
the avTLypcKfrrjsy &c. The third stage is reached when, probably in 
the eighth century, the Sakellarios (doubtless retaining the charge of 
the treasury) becomes a sort of Comptroller, with authority over 
all the financial ministries, while his place as head of the bureau of 
the Sakellion is taken by the -^aprovXapLos TOV o-aKeAAiov. 1 

The Taktikon Uspenski (p. Ill) attests the importance 2 of the 
office of Sakellarios in the reign of Michael III by placing him at 
the head of all the officials of the Empire, not only the civil but also 
the military. But this position in the hierarchy depended on the 
order of rank of the man who held it, and the Sakellarios appears 
again in this document immediately after the Domestic of the 
Excubitors and before the General Logothete. In the list of 
Philotheos, he comes immediately after the strategoi of the western 
themes and before the General Logothete. However his place might 
vary in the scale as a whole, he had precedence over all the other 

1 In George Mon. 842 22 (ed. Bonn), TOV craKfX\iov doubtless means x n P T ' T v <raK ' 

2 Leo, who was sakellarios with Patrician rank under Michael II, was em- 
ployed hy him to negotiate with Theodore of Studion and the Image worshippers 
in A. . 824, Theod. Stud. Ep. ii. 129 (Migne, P. G. 99). He may have been 
chosen because he was on friendly terms with Theodore. 



86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

cabinet officials (o-e/cperiKoi) . Under Basil I the office was held by 
Baanes, patrician and praepositus (irepl raf. 503) . l 

The importance of the Sakellarios as General Comptroller of the 
bureaux dealing with finance has been emphasized already (p. 82). 
The expression of Philotheos vTroreraxrat ra d</><iKia is perhaps to 
be confined to the financial offices ; it may not have extended e. g. 
to the o-fKptTov of the protoasecretis. Philotheos mentions his notary, 
which obviously implies notaries/ and he had also mandatores at his 
special disposal (Cer. 698 18 ). 3 

See further Cer. 525, 572, 606, irepl raf. 471 (where he acts with 
the elbiKos). 

On the few extant seals of Sakellarioi, the office is generally com- 
bined with the rank of protospatharios. See Panchenko, 9. 385 
(No. 269 : ninth-tenth century) ; Schlumberger, Sig. 580. 4 

(2) 6 \oyoO&rjs TOV yeviKOV. 

The title comes sacrarum largitionum vanishes in the seventh 
century. The latest ministers whom we meet bearing the title are 
Theodore, under Tiberius II (Menander, fr. 46), Athanasius in 
A.D. 605 (Chr. Pasch. 973), Anastasius in A.D. 608-9 (Theoph. 
297 20 ). The title AoyofleVrjs TOV yeviKov (often briefly designated 
6 yvi*6s) first occurs in the reign of Justinian II (Theodotos, Niceph. 
Patr. 37 19 ; Sergius, Theoph. 365 24 , A.D. 692). It is possible, how- 
ever, that it had come in long before, for in A.D. 626 (Chr. Pasch. 
721) we meet Theodosius 6 ey8ofo'raTos TraT/ouaos KOL \oyoOfrrjs (evidently 
a high post). 6 The ycvucov \oyo6e<nov had generally the same functions 

1 6 Av8os o-ttK.in Niketas, Vit. Ign., Mansi, xvi. 281, was sac. of the Patriarch. 

2 In a charter of A. D. 1088 (Miklosich-Muller, Acta et Dipt., vi. 57), we meet 
a &aort\iKbs vordpios TOV <Tf*pcTov TOV aaKeXXupi'ou, KptTrjS xal dvaypafavs TO>V Ku/eXu- 
dw vr)0-Q>v. Cp. ib. 120 (A. D. 1186) ToartitpeTOV TOV /zeyaXou (ra/ceXXapi'ou. 

3 In later times (twelfth century) the Sakellarios was called 6 p.tyas <r. : 
Miklosich-Muller, Acta et diplomata, vi. 120 (A. D. 1186), TO acKpeTov TOV /xeyaXou 
a: Cp. 57 (A. D. 1088) /Sao-iXtKos vordptos TOV vcKpeTov TOV O-O.K. Tliis volume of 
Miklosich-Muller contains important material for the financial offices in the 
eleventh and twelfth centuries. 

4 A seal of loannes rrpaToo-iraBapia* cirl TOV 8fo<f)v\dKTov KOIT&VOS Kal /3a0-iXi* ( ? 
crafXXapi'a) is published by Schlumberger, Sig. 526. He ascribes it to the time 
of the Comneni, and at the same time attributes it to loannes, a eunuch who was 
sakellarios under Irene in the eighth century. 

6 The patrician Constantino Lardys is described as Xo-yotfeVqr, and ex-Prae- 
torian-Prefect in Chron. Pasch. 694 (A. D. 602). Theophylactus Simocatta (8. 9. 6) 
says I TTJV f)yfp.oviav T>V <f>6pa>v Trjs earns npo TWOS Kaipov imb TOV avTOKparopos dncL- 
X?7<^i, bv fTrap\ov npaiTwpiuv tla)6ao-iv OVOUM^IV 'Ptopicuoi. But for the statement in 
Chron, Pasch. , these words would naturally be taken to mean that he was still 
Fraet. Pref. It looks as if \oyo&irr}s must mean here com. s. larg. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 87 

as the ministry of the sacrae largitiones ; it surveyed and collected 
the taxation of the Empire. Some departments indeed were with- 
drawn from the Logothete^s control, especially the vestiarium which 
became an independent bureau. For early seals of XoyoOirai ytvLKoi see 
Schlumberger, Sig. 530 No. 1, 531 No. 10. 1 

(1) The \apTov\apioi ptyaXoi TOV (reKptrov (below spathar rank 
Takt. Usp. 127; spathars Phil. 735 13 ) probably were the heads of 
a number of different departments or scrinia. Many of the same 
scrinia which existed in the officium of the comes largitionum must 
have continued down to later times. They are enumerated in the 
Not. Dig., Or. xiii (canonum, aureae massae, &c.). Their chiefs were 
then called primicerii. 2 

(2) \apTov\apioL T&V apK\&v, also called ol eo> \apTov\dpLoi TOV 
yfViKov (Cer. 694 18 ), where !co shows that they functioned in the 
provinces. T&V apK\uv suggests that they may have taken the place of 
the praepositi thesaurorum of the Notitia. This, however, is by no 
means certain. But they cannot be identified with the chartularii 
de cohortalibus officiis uniusque provinciae, mentioned in a constitu- 
tion of Leo I (C. I. 10. 23. 3, A.D. 468) as revising taxes, for these 
are evidently mere clerks. There is an interesting seal (of a later 
period, tenth-eleventh century) in Panchenko, 13, 129, of Eustathios, 
spatharocandidatus, who was (at the same time, apparently) /3a<nAt/c6s 
rot; yeviKov \oyo6eo-iov xapTov\dpio$ and irpcoro^oraptos T&V 'AparoAt/coSz;. 
In the latter capacity he was subordinate to the Chartulary of the 
Sakellion (see below). 

(3) The eTroVrcH T&V 0e/xdira)i> were the provincial tax-controllers. 
Cp. Cont. Th. 346, Schlumberger, Sig. 513. The efi<ra>rcu seem 
to have been different from the eTroVrcu. The two names are closely 
associated in Cont. Th., loc. cit., but they are enumerated distinctly 
in Alexius Comn., Nov. 30 (Zach., p. 374). [The seal of Michael 
Kamateros, efio-corTjs rrjs AiVecos (end of twelfth century, Sig. 516) is 
hardly relevant.] 

(4) The functions of the Ko'/oujres vSdrcoi; must have been connected 
with the aqueducts, probably not in Constantinople but in all parts 
of the Empire. Cp. the comes formarum, under the Prefect of Rome 
in Not. Dig., Occ. iv. 4. 

1 The curious seal, published by Panchenko 13. 124, is too uncertain to build 
on. He ascribes it to the first half of the seventh century, and restores ['ijuayi/nv 
v8o^o[r(aTov) ? a7r]o VTr(aTO)i') irarpi<(L)\ov Ao]yo0e'(Tou) /3acriX(iKa)i>) [a ?]/?fcu[pt'a>]i'. 
If dpKapictv is right, J. was a rationalis under the Praetorian Prefect. 

2 For the creKperov of the Log. Gen. in the eleventh century see Miklosich- 
Miiller, op. cit. vi. 50, 54-5, where peyaXot ^aprovXdpioi and \oyapiao-rai are 
mentioned ; cp. his Xoyapiaa-rrjs and voidpioi in Alex. Comn. Nov. 34, p. 398. 



88 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

(5) 6 ouacrriKo's. The name of this official is rightly given in 
Phil. 789 2 , but appears as 6 KHTUKO? in the list of officia and in 736 7 . 
The true form is shown by two seals of the Comnenian period 
(Siff. 559) : (1) laavvr) /3(ao-iAiKa>) cr7ra#(apia>) K.CLI \apTovXapia TOV OLKL- 
CTTLVOV (sic) ; (2) Ado [ = AautS] [a']j;orapta> TOV OIKIOTIKOU ; also a seal 
(3) in Konstantopulos, No. 435 a VOT. TOV OLKKTTLKOV. It is impossible to 
admit Panchenko's theory that ofcioruco? is a mistake for TUCTTIKOS 
(xiii. 116). The /3ao-iAi/cdj TTIOTIKOS of the three seals which he has 
published and who, as he has shown (ib. vii. 40 sqq.), 1 had functions 
connected with maritime commerce, must be accepted ; but there can 
be no doubt that OIKIOTIKO? was also an official title. Besides the 
seals cited above, cp. OLKLO-TLK&V in the Donation of Alex. Comn. 
A.D. 1087, Miklosich-Muller, Ada et Dipl. vi. 28. The meaning is 
quite obscure. 

(6) The KovpepKiaptoL were the officers who collected duties and 
customs throughout the Empire. They represent the comites com- 
merciorum of Not. Dig*, Or. xiii. 6, and are thus evidence of the 
continuity between the spheres of the comes s. larg. and the General 
Logothete. The term Koju//epKiapios is officially used in the sixth 
century. Schlumberger publishes a seal (Mel. 237, KO^ Tvpov) 
which he ascribes to that period, and another dates from the reign 
of Justin II (Siff. 317). In Chron. Pasch. 721 (A.D. 626) we meet 
0eo'5ft>po? 6 vbooTaTos KOfi/xep/adpios o TT\V IO-CLTIV (?), 2 evidently a comes 
commerciorum. 

A seal [ro)V /3]curiAiK<Sz> K0juficpjcla>]> oTpcmyias 'EAAaSojY] is dated 
to A.D. 708 (Mel. 221, and cp. 200). Early seals of nowtpKidpioi are 
comparatively numerous, cp. Siff. 471 sqq. ; Panchenko, viii. 18 sqq. 
I may note those of Constantine (Siff. 165) aTTotTTdpxwv /cat ytviKov 
KO(jip,pKtapLov airoOYiKrjs 'EAAafios (airoOrjKrj = customs depot), and of 
Kosmas (Panchenko, xiii. 115) Ko/xjuepKiapioi ^Tro^TJKrjs 'AyKi;pas (?), 
both belonging to the reign of Constans II, and the latter dated 
apparently to A.D. 644. These officials might have the rank of 
hypatos or spathar : cp. Panchenko, ib. 147 No. 489, 149 No. 495. 

(7) 6 T^y Kovparcoptaj, fuller title 736 2 6(o-7ra0. /cat) cm TTJS Kovparoopta? 
T&V fiao-LkiK&v olK<av. This functionary presided over a special depart- 
ment dealing with the fiscal revenue derived from the taxation of the 
Imperial estates (res privata). I believe that this was the function 
of the magistri privatae who are under the com. s. larg. in Not. Dig. 
(Or. xiii. 15). For we find that before Justinian's innovation in the 

1 Cp. Ashbnrner, The Rhodian Sealaw (1909), cxxxii. 93 ; Leontios, Vita lohannis, 
erL Gelzer, xxvii, xxviii ; Pap. Brit. Mus. iv. No. 1341, p. 13. 

2 .Rendered in the Latin version of Ducange, commerciarius Glatsti. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 89 

government of Cappadocia in A. D. 536, the collection of the fiscal 
revenue in the Imperial estates was in the hands of /xayiVrepe? 
(Nov. 44. 2, 4, p. 266), who are evidently the magistri privatae. 
Justinian replaced them, for Cappadocia, by TrpaKropey. At some 
subsequent period, these irpaKTopes were either replaced by, or placed 
under, a single controller 6 CTrt TTJS KovpaTutpias. This title is ex- 
plained by the concrete use of Kovpar^pia = res privata. Cp. 
Theoph. 487 2 TO. 5e Kpeirrova T&V KTTj/xarooy ts TJ\V pa<rt\LKT)V Kovpa- 
Topiav (upcr0ai. 

(8) It may be conjectured with probability that 6 KO'JUUJS TTJS Aajiuas 
(cp. lamna, see Reiske, ad loc.) had to do with bullion and mines, 
and it is tempting to identify him with the comes metallorum per 
Illyricum who appears under the comes s. larg., in the Not. Dig., 
Or. xiii. 11. For a seal of a K. rijs A. see Konstantopulos, No. 206. 

(9) The btoLKrjTdL were the officers who presided over the collection 
of taxes. (Cp. Leo VI, Nov. 61, p. 157 rov? em o-vX\o-yi]v r&v 
br]fj.oa-i(>)v (fdpMV KafliorajuieVovj, StouriTa? 8' avrov? f) o-w??0a>s ojuuAia 

.) Paulos 6 erdofoYaro? airo vTrarw KOL SIOIKTJT^S T&V avaroXiKutv 
, in the Acts of the Sixth Ecum. Council A. D. 680 (Mansi, 
xi. p. 209) probably represents the e comes largitionum per dioecesim 
Asianam ' (Not. Dig. Or. xiii. 5) . The abolition of the diocesan divisions 
led to the replacement of the e comites largitionum per omnes dioceses ' 
by bioLKrjTai of themes and districts. See the seals of Stot/crjrat in 
Siff. 496-7 (cp. Mel. 205 Stot/cr^rf) rrjs v A^8pov, saec. ix) ; Panchenko, 
xiii. 131 8101*77x7} 2ajutou Kat TTJS Xtou, saec. viii-ix ; Mansi, xii. 837 
dioecete quod Latine dispositor Siciliae dicitur}. 1 They were respon- 
sible to the General Logothete for the fiscal revenue from their 
districts, and liable to punishment if it fell short (cp. Theoph. 
367 27 , from which it appears that Theodotos, the Logothete under 
Justinian II, was unreasonably strict in calling the 8totK?;rat to 
account). It appears from Theoph. 412 18 that there were 8iour]rcu 
at Constantinople as well as in the provinces. The TrpaKropes, who 
are often mentioned in our sources, must not be confounded with 
the 8iotK7?rat. The TrpaKropes were the officials who actually went 
round and collected the taxes (^opoAoyot), and every StotKrjrrjs must 
have had a number of npaKTopes under him. 

(10) KOjutei/rtaros (KofavTiavos ?) 2 seems to be equivalent to K0ju/3ez>na- 
vos from icofA/3eWos = conventus (e. g. Chron. Pasch. 596 20 , John Mai. 
438 23 , 494 12 ), cp. Cer. 422 n , 433 5 <nAeWoz> Kat KO 



1 The office of 8. might be united with that of Ko^epKiapioSf cp. the seal (saec. 
viii-ix) published by Panchenko, xiii. 87. 
8 The letters /A and (3 were easily confused. 



90 PROCEEDLNGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

but the meaning is obscure. Can it have anything to do with 
market dues? 

(11, 12) TTpcoroKayKeAAapioy, /cayKeAAaptot. 

(3) 6 AoyofoYrjs TOV crrpcmamKou. 

In the fifth and sixth centuries one of the most important functions 
of the area of the Praetorian Prefect was to furnish the pay of the 
army (cp. C. I. 12. 37). Difficulty has been felt as to the duties 
of the schola chartulariorum in the officium of the Pr. Pr. of Africa 
(C.I. 1. 27. 1 (38)). 1 I conjecture that some of their duties were 
connected with the annonae militares. In the Prefecture of the East 
we find scriniarii of the Pr. Pr. administering military expenditure 
((TrpaTitoTiKa o"toiKeu>), and in Egypt such a scriniarius was called 
orparimro's ; see Justinian, Nov. 96. 13, p. 544. 

In the seventh century we find that a separate military chest, \ 
called TO crrpariamKoV, has been formed, at least for the eastern 
portion of the Empire, and removed from the control of the Prae- 
torian Prefect. In A. D. 680 we meet Julian 6 ei;8ofo'raro? ^TTO inraTuv 
Trarpi/aos /cat orpartamKoO Aoyo0err;y, as one of the ministers who, 
along with the Emperor, are present at the Sixth General Council 
(Mansi, xi. 209). Schlumberger has published (Mel. 242) a seal 
EvaraOlov STRAT LOGOTHETOY which seem to belong to the seventh 
century. 2 

Under Irene we meet loannes XoyoQ ir^s TOV orpcmcortKou Aoyo0(Tiou, 
holding the rank of (/Sao-iAi/co?) oVrtaptoj (therefore a eunuch) in 
A.D. 787 (Mansi, xii. 999, 1051) and attending the sessions of the 
Seventh Council; two years later he is Sakellarios as well as Aoy. 
orpar. 

(1) xaprovAaptot TOV tre/cpe'rov. Takt. Usp. ot \apT. TOV orpari&oriKov 
127 (6 x<*pr. 129) ; Cer. 524 15 , 694 19 , Phil. 752 3 (TOV <rrp. Aoyotfe'rov); 
Siff. 353 seal of Constantine /3' o-7ra#apoKaz;8idara) KCU x a P T> r ' orpaTTjor' 
(eighth-ninth century) and of John UTrarw /meya\a> x.^ 70 ^^^ Tov 
<rrpem&>riKou Aoyofleoriou (perhaps tenth century). 

(2, 3) \apTovX&pioi T&V ^e/uaro)V and T&V rayjutarcoz;. The chartularius 
of a theme or a tagma was subordinate to the Log. Strat. as well as 
to the Strategos or Domestic. He performed similar duties to those 
which used to be performed by scriniarii (orpcmwros, &c.^ see above) 
of the Praetorian Prefect. 

1 Cp. Karlowa, i. 887. 

2 For other seals see *%. 352. Panchenko, ix. 372 '\.u>(dvvii) \>Tr(arw) [X]oyo^[tV]t 
[(j]Tp[aJno[r]tK[oD] (eighth-ninth century). 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 91 

(4) We met Aeyara/uoi also in the office of the Excubiton and 
the Arithmos. 

(5) oKTLovts, the officers who distributed pay to the soldiers (ot 
oiTTLoves T&V Tay^cLTtov Phil. 738 6 ). This was their function in the 
sixth century, Procopius, B. V. i. 17, ii. 20 ; Justinian^ Nov. 150. 1, 
p. 262. (Cp. Nov. 141. 11, p. 221 in case of foederati.) 

(6) 7rp(DTOKayK\\apioSy implying KayKeAAa/uot. 

(7) pavba-Topes. 

The voTa.pt.oL TOV arpartwrtKoC, not mentioned in this list, appear in 
Cer. 694 20 (they received half the honorarium of the chartularii). 

(4) 6 Xoyodlrqs TOV bp6fj.ov. 

This title should correspond to rationalis cursus publici. There 
was no such official, and we may conclude that the Logothete of the 
Course descends from the Curiosus cursus publici praesentalis who 
was in the officium of the magister officiorum (Not. Dig., Or. xi. 50, 
cp. Lydus, 2. 10). 

The magister officiorum can be traced in the seventh century 
to the reign of Constantine IV. In the reign of Heraclius the post 
was held by Bonus (Chron. Pasch. 718, 726), by Anianus and 
Theodorus (Niceph. Patr. 24 6 , 25 ]8 ). 1 In A.D. 680 it was held 
by Niketas (TOV e^So^ordrov and vTiaTtov iiarpiKiov KOL juayurrpou raw 
(3a(n\iK&v d</>4>t/ua>2'j Acta Cone. Const. Ill, Mansi, xi. 209, 217). 
For the break-up of the office and for the jua'ytorpoi of the eighth 
century see above B (14) p. 29. 

The magister had performed multifarious duties, and he was the 
functionary who most nearly corresponded to a minister of foreign \ 
affairs. This important part of his work was transferred to the 
curiosus who presided over the state post. It seems not unlikely 
that before the time of Leo III the magister had been deprived of 
some of his functions, and, for instance, that the state post may have 
been raised to a separate and independent office. In any case the 
official who derived his title from the state post and was named 



TOV bpofjiov, a name which does not appear till the eighth . 
century, took over also from the mag. off. the duties connected with 
diplomacy, correspondence with foreign powers, and the reception of 
ambassadors. 

When AoyofleVrjs is used without qualification, in Byzantine writers, ' 
the Logothete of the Course is generally meant (e.g. Cont. Th. 122 3 , 

1 In Chron. Pasch. 696, A.D. 605, the subadiuva of the magister is 
mentioned. 



92 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

198 16 , Cer. 520.3). 1 The office was sometimes united with others, 
e. g. in the reign of Theophilus, Theoktistos was Logothete and also 
CTTI TOV KavLK\fiov (Gen. 83 17 ). This must also, I think, have been 
the case with Gregory Bardas under Leo IV, of whom Schlumberger 
has published a seal (Sig. 528) which he reads [/3a<ri]A.iK(co) ao-iK/nr' 
KCU XoyoQtr (rf) TOV bpopov. I suspect that CKTLKPLT is intended for 
a ao-iKpir* = TrpwToao-rjKpTJr^, though it is of course possible that an 
on becoming logothete might retain his position in the 



The logothete was received in audience every morning by the 
Emperor (Cer. 520) in the Chrysotriklinos. It was his duty to 
present ministers and officers (strategoi, domestici, &c.) to be invested 
by the Emperor (ib. 525 sqq.). At the silention in the Magnaura, 
at which the Emperor makes a public speech, the logothete is 
associated with the protoasecretes and the chief of the Imperial 
notaries (ib. 546 9 ). He naturally played the most important part 
at the reception of foreign envoys or potentates (ib. 568, 138) ; also 
at the exhibition of captives (610 7 , 15 ). 

(1) The TrptoTovoTapios TOV opopov (spathar Phil. 735 5 , and Takt. 
Usp. 124, or inferior ib. 127) appears in some of the ceremonies 
(conducting captives at a triumph, Cer. 609 21 , 613 3 ; bearing the 
sportula of the archon of Taro, 138 22 , 569 5 ). He is mentioned in 
Cont. Th. 198 19 . 

(2) xaprovAapioi TOV bpopov (spathars Takt. Usp. 125 ; omitted 
accidentally in the list of spathars in Phil.), in full ot x- TOV ofe'ou opo^ov 
Phil. 788 22 , and so De adm. imp. 184 (Sinartes, a eunuch) x- T - o4os o. 
They are probably to be identified partly with the curiosi per omnes 
provincias 3 (Not. Dig., Or. xi. 51), and partly with the xaprouAapiot T&V 
fiapfidpaiv who play a part in the reception of the Persian ambassador, 
as described by Peter the Patrician (Cer. 404 15 , 405 14 ) and belonged 
to the scrinium barbarorum (see below). For vordpioi in the scrinium 
of the (provincial ?) yapTovXapios we have the evidence of a seal (tenth 
or eleventh century) : Aeoy(n) VQT TOV x a P 7 ' TOV fyop (Mel. 240). 

1 We may, I think, assume that Thomas the logothete, in Vita Euthymii (ed. 
De Boor) 16. 9, was Log. of the Course. Probably Xuaravts o-r[p]aro(pi) TOV \o- 
y(odf<riov), Mel. 260 (ninth-tenth century), belonged to this officium. 

2 We have also a seal of Martin, Imperial spatharocandidatus and Xoyo&TT? TOV 
of<*s dpnpov (Sig. 529) and one of Stylianos (533) ? 

After the eighth century the Logothete would hardly have as low as spatharo- 
candidate rank. Theoktistos was a patrician. Under Leo VI the office was 
held by his father-in-law Stylianos, with the rank of magister (Cont. Th. 35J 9 ) ; 
in the tenth century Leo Rhabduchos was payiorpos KUI Xo-yotfeYqs T. dp. (Dc adm. 
imp. 156). 

a Cp. C. Th. 6. 29, De curlosis. 






THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 93 

(3) e7ri<rKe7jT?jrcu. There are some late seals of eTmnceTrrTJrai who 
possibly belong here,, e. g. that of Epiphanios, fiacnkiKov 7rta-K7rrirou 
UobdvTov (Sig. 315). They probably had to report on matters con- 
nected with the safety of the provinces and frontiers. 1 

(4) fpfjLr]VVTaC are the interpretes diversarum gentium in the officium 
of the mag. off. in Not. Dig., Or. xi. 52. Cp. Peter Patr., in Cer. 404 16 . 
(On this subject cp. Bury, Byzantinische Zeitschrift, xv. 540-1. 2 ) 
The body of interpretes must have belonged to the scrinium barba- 
rorum which is mentioned in A. D. 441 in a constitution of Theodosius 
II, addressed to the mag. off. (Nov. 21), and is referred to in the 
text of Peter (Cer. 400 8 ), from which we learn that, besides the char- 
tularii an optio (6 dimW r&v /3., 401 6 ), was attached to it, who was 
sent to Chalcedon to supply the Persian envoy with money. 

(5) 6 KovpaTMp TOV CLTTOKpLariapieiov. The airoKpLcnapLzlov was (as 
the title Kovpdrcap shows) a building ; and we may readily conjecture 
that it was a hostel for the entertainment of foreign envoys 



(6, 7) Siarp(fxoz>res (= cursores) and /xaz^aropes, cp. Phil. 786 18M9 . 

The scrinium barbarorum, though not mentioned by Philotheos in 
connexion with the Logothete, seems to have been still in existence. 
Phil. 725 5 mentions 6 (Bappapos (see also -Tre/n raf. 461 4 ), who is 
evidently identical with 6 TH T&V fiapftdptov, who is recorded by 
several seals. Schlumberger has published six seals of Staurakios, a 
protospathar, who held this office. A seal of Peter ^8. a' oriratiapLos KOL 
irr) TMV pappapow he ascribes to the ninth century. Sig. 448 sqq. 
See also Panchenko, ix. 357, xiii. 142 ; Konstantopulos, No. 307. 
Rambaud thinks that the function of the scr. barb, was to defray 
the expenses of foreign ambassadors. It seems to me more probable 
that the fidpfiapos exercised supervision over all foreigners visiting 
Constantinople. 

(5) 6 \apTovXdpios TOV craKeXAiou. 

The Sakellion has been already dealt with. The Chartulary is 
sometimes called briefly 6 TOV o-aK\Atov (Phil. 777, Cer. 115 20 ). We 
also find craKe'AA^s instead of aa/ceAAi'ov (e. g. Takt. Usp. 127, Phil. 



1 There were eVrio-KfTrrrjTru under (1) the Prefect of the City, (2) the Logothete 
of the Course, (3) the Great Curator, (4) the Logothete of the Flocks. Seals of 
officers with this title are generally ambiguous, e. g. that of an enurx. and K.OU- 
f3ovK\Lcrios published by Panchenko, xiii. 113. 

2 A fp[j.rjvfvs for Arabic, in the army, is mentioned by Theoph. Sim. 2. 10. 6. 

3 This word was applied to foreign as well as Imperial envoys ; cp. Theoph. 



94 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

735 22 , 750 18 , 763 6 . Schlumberger (Siff. 580) has published a seal of 
uncertain date (' VIIP-XP siecle') of a Chartulary : 

A.' /cat )(ap[rouX]ap' TOV /3[aa-(tAtKoi>) (r]a,KeA[At]ou. 

(1) vordpLOL /3ao-iAt/cot TOV (TKpTov (Takt. Usp. 6 vordpios 
read ot 01, under spathar rank), Phil. 735 21 ol a-iraddpioi KOI 
vordpioi rf/9 o-aKeAArjy, 752 5 v. TOV o-ctKeAAt'ov, Cer. 694 2o ot v. Trjs 
o-ctKe'AArjs, 594 7 . They correspond to the primiscrinii of the comes 
rei priv. (Not. Dig. Or. xiv). 

(2) vptoTovoTdpLoi OepaTuv. 1 The duties of a Trpcoro^oraptos of a theme 
are illustrated in the schedule of the preparations for the Cretan 
Expedition of A.D. 902, Cer. ii. c. 44. There we find the proto- 
notary of the Thrakesian theme arranging for the purchase of the 
provisions required by the soldiers, for a supply of flax for caulking 
the vessels and for the use of the Greek fire-guns, and for a supply 
of nails (p. 658). The protonotary of the Cibyrrhaeot theme is to 
buy 60,000 nails for fastening hides to the vessels (p. 659). For 
duties connected with moving the Imperial baggage, which the 
Emperor left behind when he crossed the Saracen frontiers, see Tre/ot 
raf. (see further 464 3 , 466 2 , 477 9 , 479 ]8 , 489 2 .) The protonotaries had 
it in their power to oppress the provincials, Cont. Th. 443 15 . Their 
seals are common. 2 

(3, 6, 7) The ez>o5o'xot and yrjpoKopoi (spathars Phil. 736 4 , 6 ; inferior 
Takt. Usp. 127) were heads of (fv&vcs 3 and yrjpoKo^ela supported by 
the state. They appear in the company of 6 TOV o-aKeAAtou (sc. \o-pr. .), 
Cer. H5 20 , Phil. 777 r The \apTov\apiot. T&V ot/ca>i>, i. e. T&V evay&v 
otKO)^, dealt with the accounts and expenditure of these establishments. 
Possibly evay<3j/ should be restored here : Takt Usp. has ot \aprov\- 
Aa/not T&V evay&v oliuav 127, and so Phil. 753 4 . evayTJs was technical, 
in this connexion, from an early period: cp. C.I. 1. 3. 41 (11), A. D. 
528 T&V re tvay&v i><t>v(av /cat uoo-oKOjotetW *rA. * the pious hostelries, 
hospitals/ &c. ; Justinian, Nov. 60, p. 388. 

(4, 5) The Cuyoo-rarris (spathar Phil. 736 4 , inferior Takt. Usp. 127) 
examined and weighed the nomismata which came into the treasury. 

1 Cont. Th. 447 17 . 

2 Cp. Sig. 103, 112, 122, 298-9, 345, &c., &c. See also MM. 208 2r6</)ava> /3' 
KavS' teat dvor. SiKeX', saec. ix ; 223 ft' a-nnSap' navft Kai avorap* IlfAoTroi/', saec. xi ; 
236 Aeoj/Ti viraro) KCII avorap XaASmy saec. viii ix. 

3 e. g. those of Sampson, Theophilus, Eubulus, Narses, St. Irene. There was 
a ^vo^o\fiov at Nicaea, cp. Panchenko, ix. 352 Mai/ou^X /3aa-iXt/<w irptoToairaBapiqi 
Kai ^fi'oSo^wNtKains (see Schlumberger, Sig. 381, Mel. 300) ; at Lopadion in Bithy- 
nia (%. 381), &c., &c. Cp. Panchenko, ix. 387-9. See also below under the 
Great Curator. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 95 

Cp. the constitution in C. Th. 12. 7. Julian refers to fuyoorarai 
in the various cities (ib. 2 : quern sermo graecus appellat per singulas 
civitates constitui zygostateri), who decided if there was any dispute 
de qualitate solidorum. The jxer/orjrai had similar duties connected 
with weights and measures. 1 

(8^ 9) TrpcoTOKay/ceAAapcos and KayKeAXaptoi. 

(10) 6 5o/me0TiKos rr/s $vf/,e'A?;? (6 ap^coz; TT}? Q. Cer. 382 2 ) had for 
his province expenditure on public amusements. We may regard him 
as the successor of the tribunus voluptatum of the fifth century (C. Th. 
15. 7. 13). For QvptXr] in this technical sense cp. the edicts of A.D. 426, 
C. Th. 8. 7. 21, 22 (actuaries thymelae et equorum currulium) ; 
Justinian's edict Trept rG>v vTrdrcov, addressed to the comes s. largitionum, 
Nov. 81, p. 468 ray CTT! rrjs a-Krjvijs re KOL tibp&iff fibviraOeias. There 
seems to have been a theatrical treasury controlled by the Prefect 
of the City in the sixth century (TTJ flearpaAta, Nov. 84, p. 480). 



(6) 6 -)(apTov\apios rov 

In the fifth century (as stated above) the vestiarium sacrum was a 
scrinium in the officium of the comes s. larg., and its chief was, as 
usual, entitled primicerius. The officials at the head of the depart- 
ment were in the East the magistri lineae vestis (Not. Dig., Or. xiii. 14), 
in the West the comes vestiarii (ib., Occ. xi. 5). We may conjecture 
that the elevation of the vestiarium into an independent office, under \ 
a chartularius, was coincident with the transformation of the s. 
largitiones into the ytvtKov, was in fact part of that transformation. 
But when the vestiarium branched off from the fisc, the new office was 
increased in compass. In fact, three of the scrinia, which used to be 
under the comes s. larg., namely scr. vest, s., scr. ar genii, and scr. a 
miliarensibus, were combined to form a new office which was called 
the pea-Tiapiov. The minting departments of the argentum and a 
miliarensibus are represented in the new officium by the apyav rr/j 



The vestiarium or public Wardrobe must be carefully distinguished 
from the Emperor's private Wardrobe, the sacra vestis , over which 
a comes s. vestis (who was a cubicularius) presided (see C. Th. xi. 
18. 1 with note of Godof redus) . These two wardrobes remained 
distinct in later times, though they have been confounded by Schlum- 
berger (in his Sigillographie) and by other writers. The comes s. 
vestis, who was under the control of the praepositus s. cub., is 

1 Cp. Justinian, Nov. 152. 15, p. 282. The/urpa ando-ratf/za supplied by Praet. 
Praef. and Com. larg. are to be kept in the most holy church of each city. For 
a Sq/ioo-tof fuyoorarrys in Egypt A.D. 609 see B. G. U, iii. 837. 18. 



96 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

represented in the ninth century by the 7rpa>ro/3e<ma/H09 (an office 
confined to eunuchs), and his wardrobe is distinguished as rbolKtiaKov 
f3ao-L\LKov (BecTTidpiov (irepl raf. 465 14 , 17 , 47 8 9 ) from the wardrobe 
of the Chartularius (TO PCCTT. or TO PCLVL^IKOV /3eor. Cer. 672, 676 18 ). 1 

For the sphere of the public vestiarium cp. C. Th. vii. 6 de 
militari veste, and xi. 18 de vestibus holoveris et auratis. Duties 
connected with the equipment of ships seem to have been attached to 
the department in later times (cp. efa/>rior?is below, and Cer. 672 
and 676) . 2 

Two seals, which seem to belong to our period (ninth century), 
are published by Schlumberger 3 (Big. 603) AZOVTL //ayiorpo) /cat CTTI TOV 
/3e<ma/nov TO S/cAr/poo, and Mi^ar/A VTrarco (nAcurtapta) Kat \aprov\apiM 
TOV (Bao-iXiKov /3eoriapiou. Schlumberger suggests the ascription of 
the former to Leo Skleros^ who became Strategos of the Peloponnesus 4 
in A. D. 811. 

Another of the same period is published by Panchenko, ix. 364, 
TTp<aToanra(0apt.(i)) /cat [\apJrouA (a/no)) r(ou) /3(curiAiKoi;) 



(1) This secretum has /SacriAiKot voTdpioi. TOV o-eKpe'rou like that of 
the sakellion, from which it otherwise differs. These notaries 
(spathars, Phil. 735 22 ; inferior Takt. Usp. 127 6 VOT. TOV /3eor.) are 
mentioned, Cer. 594 6 and 694. Cp. seal of Comnenian (?) age in 
Panchenko, xiii. 101 AeW aorr7K[p7/]Ti[s] voT(dpios) T(OV) 



(2, 3) We may conjecture that the occurrence of a KVTap\o<f 
(6 K. TOV (3(TTiapiov Phil. 738 10 ) is due to the circumstance that the 
supply of military uniforms was an important department of this 
office. But we have no evidence for his duties or those of the 
Aeyara/no?. 

(4) The apxaiv rrj? x a P a 7^ ? was chief of the mint (at all events for 
silver and bronze, see above), yapayri is regularly used for moneta. 
Philotheos elsewhere mentions 6 xpvrroex/^rTJs (auricoctor) 736 4 , 789 2 , 
who also appears in Takt. Usp. 127. Perhaps he belonged to the 

OlKtlCLKOV p(TTldpLOV. 

(5,6) apTL(TTris. x a P T ovXdpios. The juxtaposition suggests that this 

1 It is not clear which wardrobe is meant in Constantine, Them. 15, where it is 
said that dpyvpa ptva-ovpia (dishes) avdyXvtya Kelrai ev r<5 /3aa. /3oT. For the 
private wardrobe see below D, II (2). 

2 In the eleventh century the vestiarium (TO o-cKpeTov TOV /3.) seems to have 
dealt with vacantia : Alex. Comnenus, Nov. xx. 348-9. 

3 Schlumberger groups the officials of the public and the private wardrobes, 
and also the fico-TrjTopf , under the same heading. 

4 Script. Incert. 336 (Leo Gramm. ed. Bonn). 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 97 



chartulary is the x.aprov\dpios rf* Xcyoptvrjs efaprrjo-ea)?, mentioned 
in a synodic epistle published by Combefis (Manipulus rerum Cplarum), 
and reprinted in Mansi, xiv. 113. (In the reign of Leo V, to which 
this text refers, the post was filled by one Basil, whom the Emperor 
sent in search of oracles and divinations.) efapr?7<nj (properly 
(gdprva-is) was an arsenal or dockyard (cp. De adm. imp. 75 9 , George 
Mon. ed. Bonn, 883 21 ). We may infer that naval expenditure 
belonged to the department of the Vestiarium. 

(7) Kovpdropes. 

(8) x. 0(r P a *1 TaL (appear along with silentiarii in Cer. 234 9 ). The 
derivation is obscure, but the gloss /SeoTiaptrrj? quoted by Ducange 
s. v. is borne out by the fact that these functionaries belonged to the 
Vestiarium. 

(9, 10) In having ^avbdropcs (we must read in the text of Phil. 

this office resembles the 



(7) 6 

The aa-rjKprjraL (who might have protospathar or spathar rank, Phil. 
733 p 758^ 735 5 ; spathar or lower, Takt. Usp. 124, 1.27) descend 
from the older imperial notarii. Cp. Lydus, 3. 27 ad fin. TOVS 
Xeyo/xeVou? do-rjKprjru rrjs avXfjs, Procop. H. A. 14, B. P. 2. 7. (cp. 
Procop. H. A. 16 with Theoph. 186 15 ). Their chief, the TT/XOTO- 
ao-rjKprjr^ (might be avQ. K. TrarpiK., Phil. 729 4 ; protospathar, Takt. 
Usp. 124). Their seals are frequent (Sig. 444 sqq.). 

Asecretis, however, was not merely a new name for notarius. 
The schola of do-Tj/cpTJrai was differentiated from that of notarii, as 
a superior and select class, though the functions of both were similar. 
The protoasecretis took the place, in rank and dignity, of the 
primicerius notariorum of the Notitia ; and if the direct descendant 
of the primicerius is, as seems probable, the Trpcoroyorapioy, this office 
was reduced in dignity, overshadowed by the protoasecretis, to whom 
it was subordinate. The growth of the term asecretis is illustrated 
by the passages cited from Procopius and Lydus. 1 We meet an 
do-rjKpr/ns in the reign of Phocas. 2 Maximus, the Confessor, was 
Trpcoroao'rjKprjrTjs under Heraclius. 3 Two ao-eKperts are mentioned in 

1 Cp. also Malalas 494 8 : an d<rcKpTJTis, along with the quaestor and Prefect, 
takes part in a criminal investigation. For the aarrjKpTjTfla in the Palace cp. e.g. 
Gen. 20,!, George Mon. ed Bonn 822 4 , Cer. 520 7 . 

2 Theophyl. Sim. 8. 10. 2 (one of the ficur. raxvypufoi, cp. Lydus, loc. cit.). 

3 Vit. Max., Migne, P. G. 90. 72 imoypa^ea irp5>Tov T>V ftrHriXiKuv vTro^v^/zaro)". 
For vrroypa<j>f)s = the Imperial notarii see Socr., H. E., 7. 23 ; ' first of the Em- 
peror's vtroypa^fis ' in Agath. Pref., p. 7, means primicerius notariorum. Cp. 
Gen. 85 M eWi rG>v fiaxr&lKW V -rrp^rois vtroypcKpfw = Cont. Th. 161 2 o^povrt TTJV 
raw a(Tt]KprjTd)V (V Trpwroiy TifJUjV. 

M7 



98 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

the Acts of the Council of A.D. 680 (Mansi, xi. 232, 324, 329): 
Paulus 6 fjiya\o7rpf7r(TTaros do-eKperts KCH {3aaL\LKbs 0-eKperapio? and 
Diogenes TOV ^yaXoir. ao-KpTis creKperaptov /3a<nAiKoi5. The Emperor 
Artemius had been an dcrrj/cpT/Tts (TTJS rS>v doTf/cp^-ruou cr^oXrjs Trporcpov 
ytvoptvos tvapiOfjuos, Agathon Diac. in Mansi, xii. 193 ; Niceph. Patr. 
49 20 ). The Patriarchs Tarasius and Nicephorus had belonged to 
this service (Theoph. 458, 481). It seems to have devolved upon 
the protoasecretis to draw up the Imperial x/wo-o/3ovA.\ta (Basil II, 
Nov. 29, p. 313 ed. Zach.). 

(1) Many seals of do-r/Kprjrat are extant. See Schlumberger, Sig., 
444 sqq., Mel. 264, Panchenko, xiii. 89. 

(2) For seals of VOT&PIOI see i0r.,.551 sqq., Panchenko, ix. 356. 
The TrpwrovoTdpios or chief of the school of the notaries is not 

mentioned here but appears along with the protoasecretis in various 
ceremonies (Cer. 7^, 10 22 , 20 17 , 123 3 , 546 10 ). From the school of the 
notaries were drawn the vorapioi /3ao-iA.t/coi attached to most of the 
financial bureaux. The two categories are distinguished thus, Cer. 
575 10 _ 12 01 d<ri]KpTJrai KCH ot vordpioi. T&V 00-77 Kprjreiwv = the notaries 
under the protoasecretis ; and ot T&V o-KpeTO)v (yaprovXdpioi KOI) 
vordpLOL = the notaries of the finance ministers. Cp. 693 13 6 vor. T&V 
aa-rjKpr]TL&v. It seems impossible to say for certain whether seals 
of TTptoTovordpLoi, without definition, belong here ; probably some of 
them do. Note the late seals with aarjKpiJTis KOI -np^rovorapi^ (Sig. 
444, 552). 

(3) The SeKovoj appears with the d<r|Kp?}reu in the ceremony of 
creating Patricians, Cer. 246 21 . On the Emperor's military expedi- 
tions the decanus had a baggage horse ets rd /3ao-tAtKa yapria (wept 
raf. 479 8 ). [For the decani who were under the castrensis in the 
fifth and sixth centuries see the texts cited by Bocking, and Not. Dig., 
Occ. iii. 299-300.] 

(8) O 771 TOV dblKOV. 

The functions of this minister, generally known as 6 cioW?, have 
been commonly misunderstood. The name, though always spelt with 
ct, has been connected with tduco'?, and the office thus brought into 
relation with the old res privata l = 77 tdiK?) -rrepiovo-i'a or the old sacrum 
patrimonium = y Ibmy Krfjaris. There is, however, no connexion either 
between the names or the offices. TO clbiKov does not mean the private 
treasury, it means the special treasury, opposed to ytvinov, and its 
functions have nothing in common with those of the res privata or 
the patrimonium. 

1 So Reiske and Ducange. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 99 



The most important text we have bearing on the functions of this 
office is the list of supplies for the Cretan expedition of A. D. 949, in 
Cer. ii. 45. There we have an account of the bidtyopa eidrj 1 which 
were airo TOV o~KpeTov TOV elbiKov f^obiao-OevTa (673). Compare the 
list, p. 671, where it is noted on 77 efobos T&V apfjievuv KCUT&V bi^Oepioov 
o^etAei eepxe<r0ai euro rd dbiKov. The office had a storehouse: 
cp. 674 22 bLtydepitov airb T&V a7ro/cei/xeVa>z> els TO elbutov. 2 Nearly all the 
equipments and hardstores required for the expedition seem to have 
been supplied by the eidikon and the vestiarion. In addition to sails, 
ropes, hides, axes, wax, tin, lead, casks, &c., the eidikon also furnished 
clothes (underclothes, leggings, &c.), 677-8. Another text bearing 
on the elbiKov is Cont. Th. 257, where we learn that Michael III 
deposited in its treasury gold which he had obtained by melting down 
works of art. 

The titles of officials under the eto"iKo'j further show that his sphere 
had nothing to do with that of the old comes rei privatae. It was 
specially concerned with the epyoSoVia or factories. In the fifth 
century the factories, fabricae, of arms (scutaria, clibanaria, armamen- 
taria, &c.) were under the control of the magister officiorum; the 
procuratores of other public factories were subordinate to the 
comes s. largitionum. We may therefore infer that when the s. 
largitiones was transformed into TO yeviKov, the management of the 
factories was constituted as a separate ministry, and termed, in con- 
tradistinction, TO elbiKov. 

The elbiKos had a treasury (probably supplied by the sale of manu- 
tures), from which we find him disbursing three litrae to the comes 
ibuli (Trept raf. 462 3 ), and sums to the Imperial household (ib. 463 13 ), 
m occasion of an Imperial expedition. On such an occasion he 
himself takes charge of the transport of all kinds of ei8?/, from shoes 
to candlesticks, with a caravan of forty-six pack-horses (ib. 473-4), 
and he, with his hebdomarioi, gives out' the supplies (cp. ib. 481 7 ). 
important item was the supply of barley for the animals ; this 
furnished at the several stations by the protonotary of the theme 
to the comes stabuli, the amount being entered in the presence of the 
and after the expedition the accounts were made up by the 
protonotaries and the chartularius stabuli in the bureau of the dbu<6s 

(ib. 



1 It would not be correct to derive TO elSinov from eiSq in this sense. In 
r ptian papyri clBos frequently occurs for ' tax ' but generally suggests a tax in 

:ind, cp. Kenyon, Pap. Brit. Mus. iv, No. 1346. 

2 Cer. 180 13 eVt TOV eldiKov. Does this mean the bureau of the elSiKos, in the 
lace ? 

M 72 



100 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

The earliest mention of the et8iKoy is in Takt. Usp., where he 
appears with the rank of protospatharios (120 6 Trpooroo-Tr. /cat em TOV 
IbiKov). Under Basil I, Nicetas, son of Constantine Triphyllios, held 
the post (Photius, Ep. 130, ed Valettas ; Gen. 71). The seals 
published by Schlumberger (Sig. 518) belong to the Comnenian 
epoch ; likewise that published by Panchenko (xiii. 98, where I 
disagree with his Trpcoroyorapu*) [KCU] ei5iK(w) and would read [TOT;] 



(1) The Eidikos, like most of the other finance officers, had i/oraptot 
/3a0-iA.iKoi in his secretuni. (Spathars, Phil. 735 23 ; inferior, Takt. 
Usp. 127.) They received a large honorarium from newly appointed 
officials (Cer. 694 17 ). Demetrius, a fiao; VOT. TOV ei8i/co, took part in 
a conspiracy against Romanus I (Cont. Th. 400 12 ). There is a seal 
of a TTptoTovordpios of the Comnenian age (Sig. 517). 

(2, 4) apyovTcs and jotetfoVepot T&V epyoSoonW. 1 These apxovrts are 
doubtless descended from the tpya(TTr}piap\ai KCU apx ozrre? ^ whom 
two seals are preserved (Schlumberger, Mel, 240-1, Panchenko, xiii. 
114), belonging to the seventh century, probably A.D. 643-4. For 
the term jutetfoYe/oos = mayor, overseer, cp. Grenfell and Hunt, 
Oxyrkynchus Papyri, I. 158. 6 Ko/utert f/etforepa), ib. 2 ro> petfovi = 
overseer, 156. 5 xapToiAapi'ois xai /uei'Coori ; VI. 922 21 |ueibre/oou, 943 3 ; 
B. G. U. iL 368 : all documents of sixth to seventh century. 

(3) The e/38ofxa/>tot TOV tlbiKov are mentioned in ire pi ruf. 478 10 , 487 22 . 

(9) 6 /Wyos Kouparcop, and (10) 6 KovpaTMp T&V Mayyd.vwv. 



It was shown above (p. 79) that, in the reign of Justinian, the 
divinae domus, which had been administered by the comes r. priv., and 
the divina domus per Cappadociam, which had been under the Praepo- \ 
situs, seem to have been formed into a new and separate administration ' 
under a Kovpfowp r&v OIKI&V, whom we meet in A. D. 566. This 
functionary probably appears earlier in A. D. 557, for Agathias explains 
that Anatolios, who then bore the title of Kovparwp, had the charge of 
the Emperor's ot/coi and Kr^ara (5. 3, p. 284). We meet Aristobulos 
6 Kovp. T&V /3ao-iAiK<3y otxcoi; in the reign of Maurice (Theoph. 261 3 ). 
The various estates and properties had special curators, subordinate 
to the Curator : Justin II, Nov. 8 (p. 19) ot re i>ofo'rarcH /cov 
T&V QttcDv o?Ka)i, Tiberius II, Nov. 12 (p. 26) T&V tvbo OTCLTUV rf 



We may say that the Curator has taken the place of the 
1 Theophanes, A. M. 6285 (A. D. 792) mention ro {3avt\tKov cpyoftoa-iov rS>v 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 101 

Comes domorum, 1 who was under the comes r. priv. ; but he has 
become an independent minister, and his administration has been 
enlarged. 

The Curator was doubtless called /uufya? to distinguish him from 
the subordinate curators. He had in his hands a considerable part 
of the administration which used to fall within the province of the 
comes r. priv. and comes s. patrimonii. The financial control, as we 
have seen, belonged to the Sakellion. The office was called TO jue'ya 
; it and the office of Mangana were twins (TO. bvo 
ol bvo KovpaT&pts, Cer. 461j, 3 ). Philotheos says that the 
only difference was that there were no ^evM^oi under the Koup. r. 
Mayy. But did the sameness consist in actual identity or in same- 
ness of type (like the officia of the strategoi) ? The jueifoYepos ro>r 
'EhtvOepiov, majordomo of the house of Eleutherios, occurring in both 
officia, if Philotheos is accurate, points to actual identity. The 
question is whether the TraAcma and KTrj/uiara were divided between the 
two Curators, so that the subordinate Kovparwpes in the officium of 
each were different persons, or whether both controlled all the private 
estates, but for different purposes. The latter alternative seems to be 
supported further by the existence of a special Kovpdr^p of the Kr?jjoiara. 
He is designated in irepi ra. 461 2 as 6 Kr??ju,arii>os, where he is 
distinguished from ot bvo Kovpara>pes, and in Phil. 788 21 as 6 K. TOV 
KTTHJLCLTOS. In the list of the officium the text gives KoupaVcopes r&v 
but the passages quoted point to the correction Kovparwp. 
'his official was subordinate to the two Curators. 

The origin of the second Curator may be inferred from his title, 
tovpdrap T&V Mayyaiwi; (cp. Cont. Th. 397 6 ). The Imperial ( houses 5 , 
named Mangana 2 and New House, were founded by Basil I, and 
were really large agricultural estates (OIKOS like domus, in this sense), 
the revenues of which were destined to defray the costs of the Im- 
jrial banquets. This is explained in Constantine's Vita Basilii 
(Cont. Th. 337 /urj fiovXofjievos yap ra Srjjuoo-ta ^pi^ara &irp ol e/c TOV 
virrjKOov (fropoi ye^z/wrres av^dvovdiv eiy otKetas Ka.TavaXio'Keiv \petas Kal 
T&V ava TTCLV eros vif CLVTOV Ke/cA?jjueVcoi/, Kat rovs Irepcoi' TTOVOVS T^V 
^av fjbvveiv 17 crvyKporctr, rous TOLOVTOVS OLKOVS 7rei;or](raro KOL 
bovs K yewpytas dircTofev V avrots iKaraj, a^)' &v 77 /3curiAiK7) Travbaicria 

-ov T Kal T&V jucr' CLVTOV afyQovov /cat oLxaiav Ti]v \opr\yiav l/xeAAei' e 



1 C. Th. 10. 1. 15, A. D. 396. 

2 Mangana seems to have been acquired by Basil from the Patriarch Ignatius, 
rho, when he returned to Constantinople to resume the patriarchal throne, was 

provisionally lodged ev rols yovutols avrov TraXariois roiy KO\OV pivots M.ayK.avois ( Vita 
fgnatii, Mansi, xvi. 257). The palace had seemingly belonged to his father, 
Michael I. 



J02 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

ai). This important text proves that the Kovparap r&v Mayyaviav was 
a new creation of Basil I. We might reasonably infer that the v4os 
OIK 09, established for the same purpose, was likewise under his control. 
But what Philotheos states about the officia seems to show, as we 
have seen, that he had to do with other estates and palaces, such as 
TO. 'EA.ev0epiou. It looks as if Constantine's account were defective, 
and that Basil had also allocated a portion of the revenue from 
other estates to the same purpose as the revenue from Mangana, and 
that all such portions were dealt with by the /coup. r. Mayyavav. If 
this were so, some (not necessarily all) of the special Koupdrwpes who 
were subordinate to the Great Curator would be for this purpose sub- 
ordinate also to the Curator of Mangana. But the whole question is 
very doubtful and obscure. 

Schlumberger has published (Sig. 142) a seal (which he ascribes 
to the ninth century) of Leo, protospatharios, /xeyaAw Kovpdr&pi TOV 
/ScunAiKou OLKOV r&v Mayyavav, which shows that the Curator of Man- 
gana also claimed the epithet juteya?. See also the later seals (eleventh 
century), id. 151. 

(1, 2) In this officium the Trpcorovordptos * is designated as well as 
the /3a(riAiKol voTapioi. 

(3) Kouparcopes r&v -rraAaruoz;. The curator T&V 'Op/xuro'ou, Ckron. 
Pasch.y A. D. 602, p. 972 2 ; the curator T&V 'Avno^ov, Theoph. Sim., 
3. 3. 11 (cp. Chron. Pasch., p. 973). The curator in Cer. 374 10 is the 
curator of the palace of Hiereia. The curae palatiorum were in early 
times under the castrensis s. palatii (Not. Or. xvii). 

(4) Koupdrcopes r&v Kn/^droor. Probably an error for Koupdrwp r. K., 
cp. above and Phil. 788 21 . Perhaps, however, the plural includes both 
6 KTIHJLCLTLVOS K. and also a number of subordinate local Kovpdrcopes. Cp. 
rj Koupanopeia T&V Tpvyjivav (in Lydia), -rrept ra. 462 7 . 

(5) The Palace of Eleutherios had a /zeiCoVepoy instead of a xovparwp. 
The Palace was built by Irene. 3 It is mentioned in MichaePs Vit. 
Theod. Stud. (Migne, P. G. 99. 269). 

(6, 7, 8) The evooyda of Sangaros, Pylae, and Nicomedia were 
exceptionally under the Great Curator. The other >o8oxeta were 
under the Sakellion. 

1 Phil. 735 2 5 01 (nrad. /ecu Trpcoroj/OTaptoi rou fjeya\ov xovparuipiKiov must be cor- 
rected either to the singular or, more probably, by the addition of /cat TOV Mayya- 
va>v Kouparcopi/a'ov. Cp. Cer. 461 2 ot 5vo TrpcoropoTaptoi ra>v dvo Kovparo)piKia)v. 

8 Cp. Acts of Council of A. D. 680, Mansi xi. 209 KuvvTavrivov TOV evdogor. OTTO 
VTrdrcDV narpiKiov KOI KovpaTcapos TOV f3ao-i\iKov raw 'Op/zterSou OIKOV. 

3 riarpia, ed. Preger , 267 13 . It was probably no longer a palace in the thirteenth 
century ; cp. the seal of George in Sig. 155. For the term /ueioTpos see above 
under 6 crrt TOV fi 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 103 



(9) The eTTKrKeTJTT/rai were the inspectors whom the Great Curator 
sent to inspect the management of the palaces and estates, 



11. 

The 6p(f)avoTp6^os was the Principal of the great Orphanage of _ 
Constantinople, TO optyavorpofyeiov, which was situated north of the 



Acropolis near the Porta Eugenii. 1 In the reign of Leo I, Acacius, 
afterwards Patriarch, 2 and Nikon, a presbyter, were successively or- 
phanotrophoi, and in a constitution of that Emperor (C. I. i. 3. 34, 
A.D. 472) reference is made to Zotikos qm prius huiusmodi pietatis 
qfficium inuenisse dicitur. Theophanes records that in A.D. 571-2 
(244 7 ) Justin II began to build the Church of SS. Peter and Paul, 
(V ro) opQavoTpotytLto. According to the Tldrpia Ka)i>oraz/nz;ou7ro'Aea>j, 
III TTpl Kn'oyjtaroojj, 47, p. 235, TOV ayiov YlavXov TO 
avriyetpcv 'lovcrrlvos Kal 2o^>ta* <J)<raura>? /cal TOV oaiov 
ro Aevrepov}' Kal erviraxrey avaTtavto-dai rovs A.a>/3ovy e/cet KCH 
Xafjipdveiv. Trapurraro 8e ZO>TIKO? 6 7rpa>TO/3eoTiapios' avrov rots 
criv (cp. 164, p. 267). M. Schlumberger has published a small 
seal, with the busts of SS. Peter and Paul on the obverse, and on the 
reverse a monogram surrounded by the legend OP<t>ANOTP00r. 3 
This seal he dates from the reign of Justinian, for the same monogram 
appears on some bronze coins of that Emperor and has been explained 
as 1 VCTI N I AN V. 4 This interpretation is, I think, erroneous. The 
true interpretation is, I have no doubt, 'lovo-rtvov Kal 2o$tas, 5 and we 
may infer that the coins, as well as the seal, were connected with the 
foundation of the new orphanage by Justin II and Sophia. 

From this evidence it may perhaps be deduced that before the time 
of Leo I, and most probably in the fourth century, 6 an orphanage was 
founded in Cple by a certain Zotikos, whose piety was re- 
warded by the title of 00-109. Justin and Sophia founded a new 
orphanage, which was dedicated to SS. Peter and Paul, and restored 
the house of Zotikos, which was perhaps converted into a home for 
lepers (A.o>/3orpo<etoy). Both these establishments were under the 

1 Mordtmann, Esquisse topographique , 50. 

2 Theodores Lector, i. 13 roG opcfravoTpofov ; Evagrius,ii. 11 TO Karaywyiov r&v 

6p(f)aVO)V TrpOfKTTTjKfl. 

8 Mel. 299 and PL xiv. 16 ; Sig. 380. 

4 Sabatier, Description generate, i. 86, 191. Wroth, Imperial Byzantine Coins, 
i. 72. $ is supposed to represent <\aiu'ou. 

5 Another group (Wroth, ib. 73) omits the K(OI). 

6 The tradition was that he lived in the time of Constantius.il, riarpta, ed. 
Preger, p. 235. 



104 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



control of the dpcfravoTpoQosj who was probably always an ecclesiastic. 1 ' 
We do not know how he was appointed in early times, but we may 
probably conjecture that he was appointed by the Emperor, at all ( 
events since the reign of Justin II. In the ninth century he appears 
as one of the great officials who may hold Patrician rank. Cp. Takt. 
Usp. 117 6 ircLTpLKLos Kol 6p(j)avoTp6(j)os. A letter of Theodore Studites 
(i. 29, ed. Migne) is addressed Atovri 6p<j>avoTp6<$>u> 3 and this Leo was 
a Patrician, as his wife is mentioned in the letter as TTJS Kvpias, rrjs 



Judging from his officium, the Orphanotrophos does not seem to 
have possessed any control over, or duties regarding, provincial or- 
phanages. Other public charitable institutions (tvobo%la, evayei? 
owcoi, &c.) were subject to the administration of the Chartulary of the 
Sakellion and the Great Curator. The Orphanotrophos, therefore, 
cannot be rightly described as a minister of assistance publique. 2 

Schlumberger has published a seal which may have belonged to 
John, the famous Orphanotrophos, brother of Michael IV. The legend 
is l(d(avvrj) Moz>ax(o>) /cat, O/)$az>orpo(/>(a>). See Sig. 380, Mel. 299. 
Another seal (tenth or eleventh century, Sig. 379, Mel. 298) has the 
legend irp^rr] fxaflrjTcoi; acfrpayls optyavoTpotyov. Schlumberger says that 
optyavoTpotytov is intended, but he has not observed that the inscription 
is metrical. The seal is probably to be referred to the great Orphanotro- 
pheion. Another, seal of the eleventh century bears the legend Mi^a^A) 
ALCLKOV(OS) KXnpiKos [/cat] dvos TOV Op$az>(o)r(po(/>eiov) o TerpaTro 
Siff. 379, Mel. 297. M. Sorlin-Dorigny has explained dvos as 
voo-oKOfjiosy or chief of the hospital staff. But I very much doubt this 
interpretation. There seems to be no mark of abbreviation after dvos, 
and I do not see how it can be otherwise explained than as = avQpu>-nos y 
for which it is the normal abbreviation in MSS. This would mean 
( dependent * or ' retainer '. 

(1, 2) XaprovXdpioL TOV OLKOV and \apTov^dpioi TOV ocriou. There were 
thus two distinct establishments under the Orphanotrophos, each of 
which had its staff of accountants. We may take it that these 
establishments were the new Orphanotropheion ( e St. Paul 5 ) founded by 

1 Nicetas, Vit. Ignatii Patriarchae, in Mansi, xvi. 275. Nicephorus, Bishop of 
Nicaea, became op(f>avoTp6<j)os. A letter of Photios (186, ed. Valettas)is addressed 
Teupyio) 8iaKovq> Ka\ opcjbavoTpo'^o), but it is not clear that this person was the 
Orphanotrophos ; he may have been the director of some provincial orphanage. 

The most famous Orphanotrophos, John (brother of Michael IV), who virtually 
governed the Empire for some years, was a monk. 

3 On the general subject of t assistance publique see Ducange, Cplis.^ Christiana, 
B. iv, c. ix, and Schlumberger, M61. 281 sgq. Cp. also Pargoire, L'Eglise byzan- 
fine, 80 sqq. , 324 sqq. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 105 

Justin and Sophia, and called 6 OLKOS, and the older foundation bearing 
the name of 6 oarios Zom/co's. 1 A late seal (thirteenth century) is pre- 
served (Siff. 155) of Niketas, Bishop of lonopolis and yaprovXapiu TOV 



(3) dp/capias. If the singular is right, both houses had a common 
area and treasurer. For apKapios cp. Justinian, Nov. 163 /3', p. 353 $ 
Grenfell and Hunt, Oxyrhynchus Papyri, I. cxxvi. 15 (A.D. 572). 

(4) Kovparcopes. Perhaps the curators of dependent or affiliated 
institutions. 

V. 



(1) 6 Srjjutapxos v Be^e'row, (2) 6 brjjJLap-^o^ T&V 

The organization of the denies (877/0101, jme'prj) of Constantinople is 
a subject in itself, 2 and I do not propose to go into it here, or to dis- 
cuss the functions of the officials, closely connected as they are with 
the hippodrome and the horse races. It must be sufficient to observe 
that there were four denies, the Blues and Greens of the city, and the 
Blues and Greens of the Asiatic suburbs. The city Blues, ol TroAiriKot 
BeWroi, and the city Greens, ol TroAtriKot Updo-wot, were under 
Demarchs ; the suburban Blues, ol Trepan/cot BeVeroi, and the suburban, 
Greens, ol Trepan/col npao-iz;oi, were respectively under the Domestic 
of the Schools and the Domestic of the Excubiti, who, acting in this 
capacity, were called Democrats. But the term dij/xo/cparTjs was applied 
in a general sense also to the Demarchs (Phil. 715 20 ). 

The demarch might have the rank of av0vira.Tos. The ceremony of 
his creation is described in Cer. i. 55. 

1. 6 aevrepevcoz/. Cp. Cer. 269 16 , 798 20 . 

2. 6 xaprouAapioj. The text of Philotheos is confusing ; he should 
have used either the plural or the singular throughout. That each of the 
two denies had its chartularius is shown by Cer. 799 2 . 

3. OTTO'S. Cer. 272 17 , 799 5 . 

4. 6 apx<*v. Is this the same as 6 jucuorcop (Cer. 272 18 ) ? In Cer. 
269 16 rots AoiTroty ap%ov(n TOV jutepovs seems to mean the chartularius, 
the Trotr/rTJy, and the 



1 The explanation of Vogt (Basile I er , 171) is impossible. ' Les chartulaires 
"TOV OIKOV" administraient probablement la partie materielle de 1'orphanotro- 
phion tandis que les chartulaires " TOV 6o~iov " en avaient 1'administration morale^ 
religieuse et intellectuelle. ' TOV 6o-iov could not possibly signify ' 1'administra- 
tion morale', &c., nor would the instructors be called xpTou\dptoi. 

2 See Uspenskij Partii tsirfca i dimy v Konstantinopolie , Viz. Vrem. 1 . 1 sqq. 
1894. The demes were the urban populace organized as a local militia. For 
their importance in Egypt (fourth to seventh centuries) cp. M. Gelzer, Stud, xur 
byz. Verw. Acgyptcns, 18, n. 2 X 



106 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



5. 6 yeiTomdpxys. Cer. 799, 269 16 , 271, , 272 16 . 

6. 6>eAioT7is. Cer. 799 6 , 272 17 . 

7. 6 vordpios. Cer. 111 5 , 271 55 n . As the notarius was distinct 
from the chartularius (cp. also Philotheos, 738 14 ), the text in Cer. 
272 17 6 vordpios TJTOI 6 \apTov\dpios should be corrected by the omission 
of 7/rot. 

8. ot i]vio^oi. I write the plural supposing that the tyaKTLovdpios and 
the fjn.KpoTrav(rr)s are meant. Cp. Cer. 338 12 , and 799 3 , where, after 
the chartularii, are enumerated 6 (franTiovdpios Be^eVcoz;, 6 $. Upaariv&v, 

\CVKOS, 6 /z. /5ov<rtos. Cp. 337 17 ot bvo (franr. KCU ot bvo 



9. ra TTppTcta. Cp. Cer. 269 17 , 337 19 . 

10. 8^/otcSrat. 

The names of many other officials of the denies will be found in 
Cer. 799 (cp. 804) ; also 310 sqq., 352, &c. 

It is to be noted that there was a staff of Hippodrome officials who 
were not under the control of the Demarchs, 77 rafts TOV t7T7ro5po/xto7;. 
Their titles will be found in Cer. 799-800, and 804. The chief of 
them was the Actuarius. In Cer. 341 14 he stands in the Kathisma of 
the Hippodrome. For his duties cp. ib. 366 5 , 304 12 . In Philotheos 
he is not assigned to any officium but is mentioned several times. He 
may be a spathar, 735 18 (in Takt. Usp. 127 he is of lower rank). 
He is entertained at Imperial banquets, 750 19 , 758 20 , 774 4 . 

VI. 

(1) 6 e 
The Hetaeriarch or Great Hetaeriarch was the captain of the 



/3a<nAiKTj eratpefa, 1 a body of guards, largely foreigners, who were in 
close personal attendance upon the Emperor. He is not mentioned 
in the Takt. Usp., nor in the first list of Philotheos ; but he appears 
in the classified list; and in the Jerusalem MS. he occurs in the 
general list after the drungarios rrjs /3tyA.ay. The Hetaeriarch existed 
in A.D. 867 (Andreas, George Mon., ed. Bonn, 817 18 , and in A.D. 867 
Artavasdos a Persian, ib. 838 7 ) and under Basil I, in whose reign we find 
Stylianos holding the post of )atK/o6slratpetdpx^^ 2 and Michael Katudares 
that of Oxe'ycts) erat/o. 3 Under Leo VI we meet Nikolaos, a confidant 
of the Emperor, holding the office of Hetaeriarch (Cont. Th. 361 7 ). 
One of the most important duties of the /ueyas eraipfiapx^s was to 
protect the Emperor against plots (cp. the action of Nikolaos, ib., 

1 To be distinguished from the e'rcupei'a of a erTparqyds. 

2 Georg. Mon. 846 13 . 3 Ib. 847^. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 107 

and also Cont. Th. 470 2 ). Romanus I was created Hetaeriarch, with 
the rank of magister, before he became Basileopator ; he was succeeded 
in the post by his son Christophoros (Cont. Th. 394-5). 

From the fact that Hetaeriarchs are not mentioned either in Takt. 
Usp. or in the first list of Philotheos (transcribed from an older list), 
we may perhaps infer that they were first created in the reign of 
Michael III. But the eraipeta was an older term. In Takt. Usp. we 
find -nptoTopavbaTopes rijs ereptas (129). We must, I think, identify 
the Hetaireia with the body of troops called </>ot8epdroi in the early 
part of the ninth century. The evidence for the (/>oto'6paroi was cited 
above (p. 63, in connexion with a passage in Kudama). We saw 
that they were under rovp^dpyai, who are mentioned in the Takt. 
Usp. We may conclude that in Michael's reign these troops were 
reorganized, and that the turmarchs were replaced by Hetaeriarchs. 

The organization presents some difficulties. We have seen that 
there was a JUIK/OOS eraipetapx??? in BasiPs reign. This seems to imply 
a pu/cpa eratpeta. We often hear of fj pcyaXri eratpta (Cer. 519 15 
553 18 , &c.) and of ^ /uVrj eraipeta (518 19 , 553 10 , &c.) ; but never, so 
far as I know, of ^ /at/cpa er. Yet the existence of the latter seems to 
be implied by the term fxe'cnj, which must have meant an intermediate 
body between the great and the little Hetaireiai. The only possible 
explanation seems to be that a little Hetaireia, which existed under 
Basil, was afterwards abolished ; we do not hear of a little Hetaeriarch 
after his reign. 1 In the tenth century we find that the juieV?; or /xeo-ata 
(Cer. 576) was under the creupeicipx*?? a well as the /zeyaA.??, and 
% ercupcfa, used without qualification, seems to have included both 
bodies. This may be inferred from Cer. ii. 1, where the daily opening 
of the palace is described. When the papias opens the doors in 
the morning, he is accompanied by the Hetaeriarch /*cra T>V apyor- 
T<t)v TTJS trcupetaj /cal r&v rfjs eraipetas e/38ojuapuoz;. Presently the 
members of the eraipeia break up into two parts, those of the fxeVrj 
(518 19 ) and those of the /xeyaArj (519J. We find them distinguished 
in other passages of the Ceremonies (553, 576, 607). 

From Cer. 576 3 we learn that there were Macedonians (Slavs?) in 
the ftey. r. In wept raf. 478 14 , 15 we find distinguished ol CTT! rfjs 
eratpetas az>8pcs <r and ol p lOviK.ol T&V em rfjs ercupei'aj. Besides the 
two eratpetat there were attached to them, and included under the 
general name fj ercupeta, two other bodies of foreign soldiers, namely, 
Khazars and Pharganoi. Cer. 576 8 fj pcy. er., OJUOUDS teal rj /xecraia 



1 Vit. Euthymii, i. 11 mentions the presence of members of the Hetaireia at 
the hunting expedition in which Basil I met his death ; Stylianos was also 
present. 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

KOL T&V 3>apydv(Dv Kal Xafdpav. Cont. Th. 358 Xafdpovs r&v e/c TT)S 
ercupetaj TOV /3a<riA.a>s AeWro?. Pharganoi as well as the Hetaireia 
attended Basil I in his fatal hunting expedition in A.D. 886 (Vit. 
Euthymn, i. 12). Among the troops sent to South Italy in A.D. 935 
were thirty-one of the jzey. er., forty-six of the ^(rrj, forty-five Phar- 
ganoi, and forty-seven Khazars (Cer. 660). An appointment to the 
fj.y. T. cost a minimum of sixteen litrae, to the jueVrj a minimum of 
ten, to the Pharganoi or Khazars a minimum of seven (Cer. 692-3). 
Philotheos mentions (772 17 ) ot ZOviKol rijs traipeCas olov Tovpnoi, Xaupeis 
Kal \OLTTOL. Turks means Hungarians in Byzantine writers of this 
period, though it would have been a perfectly proper description of 
the 3>apydvoL, who were Turks from Central Asia (Transoxiana and 
especially Ferghana, whence their name). 1 

Each division of the Iraipeta had its own commanders (ol ap-^ovrfs 
T. er. Cer. 518 5 ) ; the /ueyaArj and the jueVrj had each its e^do/xa/not or 
TrapeflbofJidpioL (ib.). The jueyaAr/ had a logothete, Anon. Vari, 6 6 TJJS 
/uey. T. 6 XoyoOfrrjs. Protomandatores of the Hetaireia are mentioned 
in Takt. Usp. 129. 

The Hetaireia is constantly found in association with the jmay/cXa- 
/3iTat, 2 who were perhaps also under the control of the Hetaeriarch. 
For the duties of the Hetaeriarch and Hetaireia in guarding the 
Imperial tent see vtpl raf. 481. For his appearance in ceremonies 
in association with the TraTua? (both these officers were responsible for 
the safety of the palace) see Cer. 116 5 , 122 5 . Cp. also 442 16 . The 
Hetaeriarch might be a eunuch, Phil. 784 14 . 



(2) o A/oouyya/Hos TOV Tr 

The history of the naval commands in the seventh and eighth centuries 
has been elucidated by Diehl and Gelzer. Before Leo III the navy 
was under the supreme command of a high admiral entitled or/oan/yo? 

1 It seems probable that there may have been &apydvoi among the subjects of 
the Caliph who deserted to the Empire in the days of Babek's rebellion, under 
Caliph Mamun. This is suggested by the case of Theopharies 6 etc Qapyavuv, 
Georg. Mon., ed. Bonn., 815 and 821. It is suggested by Reiske (860) that the 
obscure 6 /3ap/3apos in Phil. 725 5 may be the Hetaeriarch, so called as commander 
of foreign troops, but see above, p. 93. 

2 Cp. Anon. Vari, 5 24 ; Cer. 9 16 TO nay\d$iov KOI f) eVaipem, 7 19 , 25 24 , 607 1S . We 
meet /LtayXa^Irai who were candidati (Phil. 786 8 ), stratores (ib. 736 18 ), and proto- 
spathars (ib. 785 10 ). Some of them were stationed in the Lausiakon, but they 
are not necessarily to be included among oi TOV Anvo-taKoG apxovres (785 17 ) ; 
for we find the stratores of the payXaftiov distinguished from the stratores of the 
Lausiakon (736 18 ) ; nay\dptov seems to have meant a stick, see Reiske, 53 sqf/. 
It occurs in the sense of ' stripe', De adm. imp. 236 10 ; George Mon., ed. Bonn., 
804 l3 . 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 109 



KapafiHTLavaiv. Under him was the bpovyydpios T&V 
(a post held by Apsimar before he became Tiberius III). Leo III 
abolished the great naval command, and subdivided it. He raised 
the drungarios of the Kibyrrhaeots to the rank of strategos. 1 The 
other principal naval theme, that of Dodekanesos or the Aiyaiov 
ireXayos was under a drungarios during the eighth century, 2 and until \ 
the reign of Michael III. For in the Taktikon Uspenski (120) the 
title is 6 bpovyydpios TOV Alyaiov vtkdyovs. The third naval theme, 
that of Samos, is not mentioned in the eighth century, nor does it 
appear in the Takt. Usp. It follows that it was instituted under 
Michael III, Basil I, or in the early years of Leo VI, as it is registered 
in the lists of Philotheos. According to Constantine Porphyrogennetos 
(Them, i, p. 41) Samos was formerly the capital TOV Oeparos T&V TrAcotfo- 
HV(Dv (which must be equivalent to the 0. T&V Kapa/3i<riaz/a)/;) . When 
this large naval province was broken up Samos was probably included 
in the drungariate of the Aegean Sea. 

The provincial fleets were known as 6 0e/xart/cos oro'Aos. 3 Inde- \ 
pendent of them, there was always a fleet at Constantinople under 
the command of 6 bpovyydpios TOV 7r\oifjLov. It is not improbable that 
this commander existed already in the seventh century, subordinate 
to the strategos of the Karabisians. He is not mentioned in the 
eighth century, but there can be no doubt that the office existed then, 
and the fleet of Constantinople must have formed part of the squadron 
of 800 chelandia which conveyed an army to the Bulgarian coast in 
the reign of Constantine V. 4 6 bpovyydpios 6 TOV TI\OL^OV appears in 
the Taktikon Uspenski (120), where his rank is inferior to that of all 
the Domestic! and Chartularii. He comes immediately after the 
Protostrator and before the K TT/XXTWTTOV r<2z> 0e/*dra>z;. This fact has 
considerable importance. It shows that in the interval between the 
early years of Michael III and A. D. 900 the post of the Drungarios 
had become considerably more distinguished and important ; for in 

1 Theoph. 410 6 . 

a A dpovyydpios rrjs Aa>$eKavr)<rov meets us in A. D. 780 (Theoph 454 19 ). This 
record shows that Isaac, the father of Theophanes the chronographer, bore the 
title of drungarios and not strategos. For as he died when his son was a child 
and his son was born in A. D. 759, he must have held the post before A. D. 780. 
The text in the Vita (ex officio festi eius diet) is (de Boor, ii. 28) TOV Se Trarpor 
Tf\evTTi(ra.'To$ ev 77; I>TT' avrov SifTro/zei/T/ TOIV Alyaione\ayr)T5)v apxfj. Gelzer (80), 
ignoring this decisive passage, leaves the question open. 

8 Cont. Th. 55 19 , 79 17 . The three themes of the Kibyrrhaeots, the Aegean 
Sea, and Samos were the naval themes par excellence, cp. Cer. 656 Sia rS>v irXoipuv 
TO>J/ y QepaTcav, &c. , but it must be remembered that other themes, e. g. Hellas, 
Peloponnesus, Cephallenia, Paphlagonia, had small naval establishments. 

4 Theoph. 402 30 . 



110 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

Philotheos he comes immediately after or immediately before the 
Logothete of the Course (the order varies), and is superior to the 
Domestics of the Hikanatoi and Numeroi, to all the Chartularioi, and 
to several other officials who had formerly preceded him in rank. This 
change corresponds to the revival of the importance of the fleet in 
the ninth century a revival which is generally set down to Basil I 
and his son, but which really began under Michael III. We may 
be confident that the Drungariate had attained its new eminence 
when it was filled by Nicetas Ooryphas, a Patrician, in the reign 
of Basil. The fleet which was commanded by the Drungarios was 
now distinguished (from the thematic fleets) as the Imperial fleet, TO 
/3a<riAiK07rAo'i>oz; (Cer. 651 18 , 664 8 , &C.). 1 

In the Taktikon Uspenski (120) we meet a naval commander who 
does not appear elsewhere, 6 bpovy-ya.pt.os TOV KO\TTOV. He is enumerated 
immediately after the drungarios of the Aegean. 2 The KO'XTTO?, so 
called without closer definition, must have been in the neighbourhood 
of Constantinople, and we may, I think, infer that the naval establish- 
ment which was stationed at or near the capital was, in the eighth and 
early part of the ninth century, under two admirals, the 5p. TOV irXot/xou 
and the 6> TOV KO'ATTOV. When the naval establishment was reorganized 
under or before Basil I, the latter command was abolished, and the 
whole fleet of Constantinople was placed under the 6p. TOV TrXoipov, 
who at the same time was elevated in rank and importance. The 
KO'ATTOS- was hardly the inner part of the Golden Horn? (cp. 
Cont. Th. 58 U h T$ irpos BXa\pvais KO'A.TT<J>). It was rather the 
Gulf of Kios ? 

It may be observed that the information given by Constantine 
Porphyrogennetos in De adm. imp. c. 51 concerns only the ships 
appropriated to the personal service of the Emperor, and not the navy. 
The organization of this service by Leo VI was probably subsequent 
to A.D. 900, as the officer who controlled the marines of the Imperial 
dromonia and agraria, 6 irptoToo-naOdpios TTJS (pidXrjs, is not mentioned 
by Philotheos. 

The officium of the drungarios of the fleet corresponds to the type of 
the Domesticates, in (1) the roTronjpTjrTfc (Const. De adm. imp. c. 51, 
p. 238), (2) the xapTov\dpios (cp. Panchenko, ix. 386, ]eWr[t 
x]aprou[\a]p(i<i>) TOV \_(3(a(TL\LKOv) 7rAa>]i/z(ov), a seal of eighth or ninth 
century; and Niceph. presb. in Vit. MS. And. Sal. apud Ducange), 

1 At the time of Basil's accession Elias was 6 TrfpifyavivraTos r 
O~TO\OV dpovyyapioy, Nicetas, Vit. Ign. apud Mansi, xvi. 257. 

2 The order is o dp. 6 TOV 7r\oip.ov t 6 e< TrpocrcoTrou TO>V $e/xaro>i>, 6 dp. TOV aly. 
6 dp. TOV KO\TTOV. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 111 



(3) the TrpvTOfjiavbdTtop (Cont. Th. 401 22 ), and (7) pavbaTopts, (4) the 
Kc^T/re?, 1 and (5) KeVapxot. But like the officium of a strategos it has 
(6) a KOfjiris rfjs Iratpctas (commander of foreign marines, esp. 'Po>s or 
Scandinavians). 

For the irpa>TOKapafioi see De adm. imp, 237 (cp. Cont. Th. 400 13 ), 



(3) 6 \oyo6*Tr]$ T&V 

Philotheos includes the Minister of the Flocks and Herds among 
the a-Tpardpxai, though as a logothete one might expect him to be 
enumerated among the o-e/cperiKou But from his officium it appears 
that he had no crtKptToVy and his duties were entirely connected with 
the army. He controlled the management of the large tracts in 
Western Asia Minor where horses were reared for the supply of the 
army, in the /urjraro, or military colonies. In the wept raf. 458-9 we 
find him distributing the burden of furnishing horses and mules 
among the various jurjrara of Asia and Phrygia, and transporting 
them to Malagina. (Cp. 460 2 .) 

His province shows that he descends from the praepositus gregum of 
the Not. Dig. ( Or.xiv. 6), who was subordinate to the comes reiprivatae. 
The pascua and saltus of the res privata seem to have been largely 
utilized for military settlements, and were designated (perhaps already 
in the fourth century) as 1 fjLrjrdra (fjurdra, John Malalas, 347 18 , cp. 
Theoph. 72 21 ). Compare Justinian, Nov. 150. 9, p. 265 ; Tiberius II, 
Nov. 12. 6, p. 29 (fjLT&Ta>i>). 

(1, 2) 6 wpcorororapios 'Aorta?, 6 Trpwro^orapto? <J>pvytay. We can 
infer that the ju^rara were entirely in Western Asia Minor ; cp. the 
passage in wept ra. referred to above. 

(3) We may identify the StoiKTjrat T&V /Mjraraw with iheprocuratores 
saltuum of the Not. Dig. 

(4, 5) The Logothete, like the two Curators, has e-n-ta-KeTrr^rat, in- 
spectors, who were doubtless a check on the dtotKrjrat. There is no 
evidence for the functions of the Kojurjrej. 

Schlumberger (Sig. 467) has published a late seal of a yapTov\dpio$ 
y not mentioned by Philotheos. 



(4) 6 irp(DTO(rira0dpio$ T&V 

ot /3acriXtKot avOpwoL frequently appear in the court ceremonies 
(e. g. Cer. 20 20 , 30 15 , 15 7 ). They were divided into rafets of different 
orders : spatharocandidati, spatharioi, stratores, candidati, and man- 
datores. Cp. Philotheos, 769 20 (BaviXiK&v avOptoirvv 0716 TTJS rafew? r&v 

1 Phil. 750 6 TUV Kop.T]Ta rov TrXot/xov, read rovs 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



i. e. all the /3a(rtAi/cot 
av0pi7Tot. except the candidati and pavbdropes (cp. 773 5 ). The ^SatnAt- 
xot (nra0dpLOL (Cer. 7 5 ; 10 12 where they carry the Imperial arms) or cnra- 
Bdpioi of the cnraOapiiaov ; the /3ao-iAt/col /caz^tSa'rot (Phil. 767 13 ,770 6 ) ; 
and the /3ao-tAi/coi pavbdropcs (Cer. 81 20 , Phil. 770 5 ) were under the 
control of the 7jy>a>rocr7ra0a/jio? ra>i> /3ao-tAtK<3z; ; the stratores were under 
the Protostrator (see below) ; as to the spatharocandidati we are not 
told (cp. Cer. 81 6 ) and we may suppose that there was no rat? of this 
order distinct from those who were on duty in the Chrysotriklinos 
(Phil. 733 19 ), or the Lausiakos (ib. 734), or performed some other 
special service in the palace. The Protospatharios, as his name in- 
dicates, was originally the chief of the spatharioi, and his control was 
afterwards extended over the taxeis of the candidati and mandatores. 
For some of his ceremonial duties cp. Phil. 706. 

The Protospatharios was also called 6 Kare7rdVa> T&V pacnXiK&v, 
cp. Cer. 20 20 ot /3ao\ &v0. /jtera /cat TOV Kareirdvcd avr&v /cat TOV 6*o/xeori- 
KOV O.VT&V (so also 6 4 , 9 15 , 568 9 ), and 6 KareTraW simply, Phil. 709 24 . 
In Anon. Vari. 6 8 the Katepano and the Domesticus are called ot 
Kare7ra/,'o) r&v /3a<nA.iK<S^ avOpto-nuv. When the archon of Taron is 
introduced to the Imperial presence he is accompanied by the Kate- 
pano and the Logothete of the Course, Cer. 138 17 . 

(1) Under the Protospatharios was the Domesticus, who appears 
separately in the list of high officials, but without an officium of his 
own. 1 

(2) aritaQdpioi. The earliest Imperial spatharioi were perhaps cubi- 
cularii who had a military character and bore a sword. Cp. Theoph. 
181 34 Kalapodios cub. and spath., 185 13 Kov/3. /cat o-7ra0., in the reign 
of Justinian. In iheActa cited in Chron. Pasch. sub A.D. 532, Kala- 
podios is designated as (nra6apoK.ov{3iKov\dpios. This seems to show 
that at that time there were other spatharioi also. In Peter the 
Patrician (Cer. 402 9 ) we meet 6 (nraddpios rod /3ao-tAe'&>?, and in Cass. 
Var. 3. 43 a spatharios of Theodoric. (Under Anastasius I the Duke 
of Pentapolis had a spatharios under him, Zacharia von L., S. B. of 
Vienna Acad., Feb. 17, 1879, p. 142 ; and probably other military 
governors and generals had military attendants known by this name. 
Nilus, at the beginning of the fifth century, addresses a letter 2io-izWw 
a-nadapiv, i. 277, Migne, P. G. 79.) The o-naOdpioi /3a<rtAt/coi' must be 
carefully distinguished from the (nraOdpioL of a strategos (cp. Pseudo- 
Maurice, Strat. 1. 9 ; Leo, Tact. 14. 81), and also from those who 
bore the title as an order of rank. There was a special hall in the 

1 Panchenko, ix. 386, has published a seal (saec. ix-x) of a TrpwrocrTr. m So/*. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 113 

Palace for the spathars, called the spatharikion (see e. g. Cer. 157 7 and 
cp. Bieliaev, ii. 238). 

For seals of Imperial spatharioi see Schlumberger, Sig. 590-3, and 
note those of Theodore (No. 6) and Maurianos (No. 14) which he 
ascribes to the seventh century. 

(3) The Kavbibdroi are said to have been instituted by Gordian and 
to have been chosen for their size and strength from the scholarii, 
Chron. Pasch., ann. 3. 1 Their original connexion with the scholarian 
guards seems to be borne out by the ceremony of their creation de- 
scribed by Peter Patricius (Cer. 391). Candidati are mentioned at 
the beginning of the fifth century in the letters of Nilus, but we hear 
little of them till the sixth. From the passage of Peter we learn that 
they had a primicerius, and that their insigne was (as in the ninth 
century) a gold chain. In Procopius, B. G. 3. 38 (p. 468), we meet 
Asbados, who ej TOVS Kavbibdrovs KaXovfjLtvovs rA.<Sz> TV\, and was in 
command of a troop of cavalry at Tzurulon. A seventh century seal 
of a /Sao-iAuo? Kavb^dros is published by Panchenko, viii. 231, cp. 
xiii. 79. The seal of CARELLU(S) CANDIDATU(S) in Sig. 459 
is probably earlier. Drosos, Chartularius of Thrace in eighth or 
ninth century, had the rank of candidatus, ib. 122. For other seals 
cp. ib. 214 (turmarch of Sicily), 197, 355, &c. 

(4) We have already met /mai/8aropej who acted as adjutants in 
the staffs of military and other functionaries (Strategoi, Domestics, 
the Logothete of the Course, &c.). Besides these there were Im- 
perial mandatores (/3ao-tAiKoi /x.), one of whom acted as spokesman of 
Justinian in the Hippodrome on the occasion of the Nika revolt. 2 
Theophylaktos, whose seal (eighth to ninth century) is published by 
Schlumberger, Sig. 536, was a dioiketes who had belonged to the 
taxis of mandatores (/3ao-iAiK&> /xarSaropi /cat Stviciri). For a few other 
seals see ib. 

(5) 6 Ko'joujy TOV oraAou. 



The fco/uqs T&V fiao-iXiK&v oravAooz; appears in the sixth century. 
The post was held by Baduarius, brother of Justin II (Theoph. 246 U ). 3 

1 Cp. Vegetius, 2, 7, who describes them as milites principales qui privHegiis 
muniuntur. 

2 Theoph. 182 sq. Two mandators, with ten excubitors, were sent to bring 
the Abbot Maximus to Constantinople in the seventh century, see Ada of the 
examination of Maximus in Migne, xc. 109. At the Second Council of Nicaea 
(A. D. 787) 6 XapiTrpoVaros /3n<r. ftaj/Sareop enters the Council with a message from 
the Emperors, Mansi, xii. 1051. 

8 Under Michael II we meet Damianus holding this office (KOWTO, TOV . 
with rank of protospathar . Cont. Th. 76 15 . 

M 8 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

Formerly the praepositus or praepositi stabulorum stood under the 
comes rei privatae (Not. Or. xiv. 6), but they were also called comites 
stabuli (C. Th. 11. 17. 3, A. D. 401) and tribuni sacri stabuli (C. Th. 
6. 13. 1, where C.I. 12. 11. 1 substitutes comites). 

The officium has dropped out in the MS., but we have material for 
reconstructing it, at least partially. In wept raf. 459 10 the higher 
officials, ot apxoures TOV ora/3Aou, are enumerated (cp. 480 15 ; Phil. 
732 20 ot Trpo)TO(nr. Kat ap\ovTes T&v o*ra/3Aa>z/, Anon. Vari, 5 22 ol TOV err. 
&P\., Cont. Th. 231 4 , though here ap^ovrts is more general). 

(1) 6 xaprovAaptos. Takt. Usp. 128, Phil. 737 10 , 788 23 ; irepl raf. 
45 9 6 , 476 17 . He is distinguished as 6 lo-o) x from 6 x T&V MaXayivav, 
see below. Panchenko (ix. 390) has published a seal (tenth to eleventh 
century) in which the title seems to be x.apTov\api(p KCU ex irpoo-uTrov r&v 



(2) 6 fcrcfcrijs. Takt. Usp. 128, Phil. 737, 789, wepi raf. 459 6 , 
478 18 . An occupant of the post in the reign of Leo VI is named in 
Cont. Th. 362. The word means an overseer who presses a work on, 
epyootwKTT??, cp. Theoph. 442 23 , 367, 384 9 . 

(3) 6 x.aprov\dpios r&v MaXayivvv (ire pi rag. 476 9 , 479 3 ). Presumably 
the same as 6 efo>. x, 459 7 . At Malagina there were important mili- 
tary stables. 

(4) 6 o-affrpafjLfvrapLos. The text here gives 8ia T&V o-a^pajaeWcor, but 
other passages in the same treatise, 476 10 , 47 9 4 , show that it must be 
amended : either 8ta TOV a-a^pa^evTapiov or more probably 5ta TOV T&V 
vafypaptvTtov (cp. 6 rrjs Karaorao-ea)?, &c.). The meaning is unknown. 

(5) ot b' KOfJLrjTes T>V MaXayivtov (uept ra^. 479 5 , 45 9 9 ). 
Besides these, there seem to belong here : 

(6) ol pf o~vvTpo(j)OL T&V cr\\api<0v (-Trept raf. 479 2 ), ot cruvTpo(f)OL rG>v 
bvo o-ra^Awv (Cer. 698 22 ), sc.of the city and Malagina. 

(7,8) 6 /ccAAaptos and 6 aTroOfrrjs. Trept raf. 478 18 5ta TOV avoOeTov 
TOV KeXAaptov TOV ft. ora/3Aov, cp. 479 19 6 KOJUITJ? TOV o*. Kal 6 x a P~ 
rovAapio? Kal 6 KcAAaptos. This xeAAapios must be distinguished from 
6 otaeiaKos KeAAaptoj, ib. 464 n . See below, p. 121. 



VII. 'Afi' 

(1) 6 /Sao-tAeoTrarcop. 

This dignity was instituted, about six years before Philotheos wrote, 
by Leo VI, in order to give a pre-eminent political position to Zautzes 
Stylianos. Immediately after his accession (A. D. 886) he had 
appointed Stylianos to be Logothete of the Course, and conferred 
upon him the title of magister, with rank before the other magistri 






THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 115 

a position designated by -TrpoorojxayioTpos. 1 After the death of his wife 
Theophano (Nov. A. D. 893) he married Zoe (already his paramour), 
the daughter of Stylianos, doubtless in 894,, and at the same time 2 
conferred on Stylianos the new title of /3aa-iA.eo7rara>/>, or /3ao-iAo7rara>/>. 3 
The general care of affairs of state was recognized as belonging: 
to this office. 4 The office of e Empress's father ' 6 was one which 
from its very definition could only be occasionally filled. It was 
conferred upon Romanus Lekapenos when the young Emperor 
Constantine VII married his daughter. 

The quasi-imperial title added to the prestige and authority of 
Stylianos, but probably did not increase the sphere of his political 
power. As -Trpcorojuayto-rpoj he had been virtually prime minister. 
For Leo had interpreted ^aytorpos in the ancient sense of Master of 
Offices ; in fact, he had revived that post, with a new meaning. In 
the long series of laws which are addressed to him, Stylianos is styled 
ro> 7r7rep(/>U(JTara> juayiVrpw T&V Oticav d0(/H/aW (Leo VI, Nov. 18 et sqq.). 
See above, p. 31. These laws were evidently promulgated before 
A.D. 894. Stylianos died in 896. 6 



(2) 6 ' 

Philotheos is the earliest writer who mentions the Rector (whom 
Liutprand calls Rector domus, Antap. 6. 10), and we may assume 
with confidence that the post was not introduced before the latter 
half of the ninth century, by Basil I or by Leo VI. Basil the Rector, 
mentioned in George Mon., ed. Bonn, 837 n , must have held the office 
in one of these reigns. The Rector's prerogative probably consisted in 
exercising some authority over the Imperial household. He appears 
(Cer. 23) along with the praepositi and the members of the Kovfiov- 
K\CIOV. The ceremony of his creation (ib. 528) was probably composed 
in the reign of Constantine VII and Romanos II. He is mentioned in 

1 Vita Euthymii } ii. 1 irapevdv 2r. TrpoaropayicrTpov KaBio-rrjcriv, Georg. Mon., 
ed. Bonn. 849 = Cont. Th. 354 Trpoe/SaXero ST. /zayiarpoj/ KOI Xoyoderrjv TOV dpopov. 
See above, p. 31. 

3 Vita Euthymii, ib. /ztr' ov TTO\V 8c KCU /SatnXoTraropa avadciKwo-i. The chronology 
is well discussed by De Boor in his comments on this passage, 95-107. He con- 
cludes that Zoe was brought into the Palace, and her father created basileopator 
early in 894, and that the marriage was celebrated towards the end of the same 
year. Cp. Georg. Mon. 852. 

3 This form occurs three times in the text of the Vita Euthymii. Cp. 
$a<rtXo0upa (see Ducange). 

Vita Euthymii) ib. T>V fjrfp\ofjLva>v rfj /3a<riXfia SiotK^crecoi/ rrjv eVicrrao'iav /cat 
(ppovrida 6 O.VTOS 2r. dieVoap eyvapi^ero. 

6 It is commonly taken to mean ' Emperor's father'. 

6 De Boor, Vita Euthymii, 105-7. 

M 8-2 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

Cer. ii. 9, which seems to date from the reign of Michael III, but the 
passage in question is probably an addition of Constantine VII (544 19 ). 
The Emperor Alexander created a cleric, 1 named Joannes, Rector 
(Cont. Th. 379). He was one of those who assumed the direction of 
affairs at the time of the death of Alexander (Vita Euthymii, xxi. 1 
<rvv rw paiKTtopi 'lo&pi}) ; he continued to hold the office in the first 
years of Romanos I ; and he was sent on a military expedition (Cont. 
Th. 399, 401, cp. 406 ; cp. Liutprand, Antap. 3. 26). The office 
was also held by a cleric under Constantine VII (De adm. imp. 241-2). 
The Rector occupied a prominent place in the ceremonies seen by 
Liutprand in the reign of Constantine VII (Antap. 6. 10). 

Schlumberger has published a seal (eleventh century) inscribed 
Bao-tAeico paiKTvprj (Mel. 243) , 2 See also Konstantopulos, Nos. 139, 
150, 488-9. 

(3) 6 (TVyK\\OS. 

The position and functions of the synkellos deserve a careful 
examination, but as they belong to ecclesiastical organization, lie 
outside the scope of the present study. The important point is that 
the synkellos of the Patriarch of Constantinople, 3 sometimes 
described as the synkellos of Constantinople, 4 was an Imperial 
official and appointed by the Emperor. 5 We may conjecture that 
his chief charge was occasionally to conduct communications between 
the Emperor and the Patriarch, but the duties seem to have been 
very light. 6 Synkelloi were not infrequently elevated to the Patriarchal 
throne, and it may be suspected that the Emperors of the ninth 

1 The tenure of the office by clerics led Ducange (Gl. s. v.) to suppose that the 
office was ecclesiastical. Reiske (834) rightly denied this. 

2 In the ninth century another Basil held the office, see Georg. Mon. 837u 
(ed. Bonn). 

3 George, the chronographer, e. g. , is described as the synkellos of Tarasios 
(in the title of his Chronicle) and in Theoph. 3. 

4 Theoph. 164 10 . 

6 That the Emperor appointed is a certain inference from the fact that the 
post was one of the Imperial ai'ai conferred 8ia Xo'you. The account, in the Vita 
Euthymii (c. iv), of the appointment of Euthymios illustrates this. AVhen 
Stephanos (son of Basil I), who had held the post, became Patriarch, he urged 
Euthymios to accept the office of synkellos, which is described as a fiaariKiKov 
dio>/za (58) ; and 6 (3a.(ri\cvs (Leo VI) (ruveuSo/cfi KOI ra opoia. \fycov /carepeve. 
Moreover, Stephanos says that the synkellate was conferred on himself by his 
father (eVc rrarpcoov fiwpear). 

Vita Euthymii, ib. 5 KO\OV yap ttrn K.CLI dfiapes KO\ dvm\r]7TTov TO irpayiia. 
He was expected to be constantly in the Palace, and to take part, like other 
members of the o-jry/cXf/ros-, in some of the ceremonies, ib. 9. 10. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 117 

century aimed at making this succession a regular practice, since it 
would secure them the unrestricted appointment of the Patriarch. 1 



(4) 6 -^apTovXdpios TOV 

This official, generally called 6 erri rov KaviKXtiov, first appears in 
our sources in the ninth century. Under Michael II it was held by 
Theoktistos, and Genesios (23 20 ) thus explains the meaning of the 
title : Tj]V 7Tt TOV (3acri,\LKov KaXd/JLOV ey/cexeip taTO Kpovotav, bC ov KariKAtos 
(bod(fTo. His duty evidently was to be present when the Imperial 
pen signed state documents, and he also signed for the Emperor. 
A bull of Manuel Comnenus (Nov. 63, p. 457) was endorsed 5m TOV 
7n roi; KavtKXtiov KCU biKaioboTov &ob<apov TOV SrDTretojrou. He also 
prepared the codicilli of the Patricians, Phil. 710 U . Such duties 
required no officium, 2 and the post was often combined with another 
office. Thus Theoktistos was at the same time Logothete of the 
Course, and A.D. 869 the post was held by Christophoros, who was 
protoasecretis (Acta of Fourth Council of Cple., Mansi, xvi. 409). 

The title x. a P T vhapios shows that originally this official was one of 
the chartularii of the 



(5) 6 TT/ocoroorparoo/o. 

The Protostrator was strictly the chief of the taxis of stratores, 
whose duty originally was to assist the Emperor in mounting his horse 
(cp. Hist. Aug. xiii. 7 cum ilium in equum strator eius levaret) 
and perform the duty of grooms (wnroicofiot). 8 In the sixth century 
we meet a schola stratorum in the officium of the Praetorian Prefect 
of Africa (C. I. 1. 27, 33). We meet a So/meWi/cos rG>v 
in the time of Justinian II along with a Trpcoroo-r/ocmo/} TOV 
In A.D. 765 we meet a <nraO. Kal /3cu7iAi/cds TrpoorooTparcop (ib. 438 15 ). 
See also Cont. Th. 18 9 , 24 3 . Basil, the Macedonian, began his 
career in the Imperial service as a strator and then became Proto- 
strator (ib. 231). He had before been protostrator (chief groom) of 
Theophilitzes (ib. 225 10 ). 

The Protostrator rides beside the Emperor, with the Comes stabuli, 

Cer. 81 18 . At a triumph he rides close to the Emperor, with the 

flamullum, ib. 609 10 , and places the Imperial spear on the necks of 

1 Cp. the observation of Cedrenus (Skylitzes)^ ii. 581. 

2 But there was a person described as 6 o-Kcvdfav TO Kcu>LK\ftov the manu- 
facturer or mixer of the ink (Cer. 798 16 ). nav. seems to have properly meant 
the inkbottle., cp. Ducange, s. v. 

3 C. Th. 6. 31. 1 (A.D. 365-373?) concerns stratores in the province of Nova 
Epirus, but it is not clear that they belong to the Emperor's personal service. 



118 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

captives, 610 19 . He may introduce foreign visitors, instead of the 
Protospatharios r. /3ao-iAiKwv, or the Comes stabuli, 568 15 . In the age 
of Philotheos his place in the official hierarchy was not high, but in 
later times it grew in dignity and importance, and in the age of the 
Palaeologi it was one of the highest of all (Codinus, 9). Nicetas 
equates it with the marshal, /lapeo-xaA/coj, of the western kingdoms. 

(1) (rrpcmopej, TOV (3a(ri\iKov oTparcoptKiou Phil. 736 19 . Cp. Cer. 
81 19 , 24 . Most of the seals of /3a<rtAuo! arparopes published by Schlum- 
berger are late, but there are two (Siff. 597) of the eighth to ninth 
centuries. 

(2) ap{JLO(f)v\aKs (for apfmroc^vAaKescp.ap/iaro^iAaKetoz;, seeDucange, 
s.v.), meaning officials in charge of the ap/xara = oirXa, military gear 
in the Imperial ap^a^lvrov. There is, however, a difficulty, for the 
apjjLa^vroV) which was under the control of the Magister Officiorum (cp. 
Justinian, Nov. 108, 1, 3), 1 was managed under Phocas (Theoph. 
297) by an official named 6 en-a^oo TOV apjua/xeVrou, and he survived till 
the tenth century at least : see Phil. 736 5 6 o-naO. KOL apyav TOV ap/x., 
and 788 21 ; Cer. 673 20 (a protospatharios, A.D. 949) and 676 15 TOV 
KaTtirdvw rov apjuaro? (so Reiske, but the MS. has apfxa T , and we should 
unquestionably read ap^a^vrov). The difficulty is that he is not 
mentioned in the official lists of Philotheos. It is hardly possible to 
regard him as included under the appotyvXaKts. One would expect 
him to be mentioned distinctly. In the Takt. Usp. he appears, 6 apxcoy 
TOV apuafj.tvTov, immediately after 6 TTJS Karaora<recoj (124). The seal 
of an apx<*v TOV j3ao-L\LKov dp/xa/xeWov is published by Konstantopulos, 
No. 186. 

(3) ora/3XoKoV??re9. They were three in number : the o-ra/SAoKo'/^j 
TTJS TToAecos, and ol bvo o-ra/3Ao /CO/XT? res (? of Malagina), Trept ra. 
478 20 , 479 r 

(6) 6 eru rrjs Karaorao-ewy. 

This official, generally called 6 TTJJ Karao-rao-eco?, does not appear in 
the list of possible patricians, but may be a protospathar, in Philotheos 
(in Takt. Usp. he is a spathar or lower, 124, 127). The title may be 
rendered Master of Ceremonies. [The use of Karaorao-is in the sense 
of f order * is illustrated by Trept ra . 503 TTJV ^\v KardnrTao-iv rrjs 
7ro\0)? feat (f)L\oKa\iav Tyroijuaoraro 6 eVapxo?.] The court ceremonial in 
former times was controlled by the magister officiorum, and a work 
on the subject, entitled Trept r?]? Karao-rao-eco?, was compiled in the 
sixth century by Peter the Patrician who held that office. Under the 
magister was the scrinium dispositionum, of which the head was the 

1 ro 6eiov >y/za>v ap/xa/xeVrot/. It contained k}p6<na orrXa. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 119 

comes dispositionwn (C. Th. 6. 26. 10 and 18), and it devolved on him 
to arrange for the details of the Emperors daily programme. 6 eiri TT/S 
Karaora'aeo)? seems to descend from this functionary (/caraorao-is may 
represent dispositio) . 

There was a special officium ammissionum under the magister (Not. 
Or. xi. 17), of which the chief was the proximus ammissionum (Peter, 
in Cer. 394 2 ) ; but in the time of Justinian there was already a KO'/XIJS 
r&v abjjL7]V(n6v(av (Peter, Cer. i. 84). In one ceremony we meet 
a Ko'jurjy T&V ab^o-iovctiv (i. 41. 209). The official named 6 afyxrjj;- 
aowdXios is more frequently mentioned (Cer. 800 8 , 23 8 , 239 21 , 442 10 ), 
and from 269 16 it appears that he might be under the orders of 6 nj? 
KaTaoraVecoy. This is what we should expect, for in the sixth century 
6 afjiicro-uovdXios was e the first of the silentiaries 3 (Lydus, 73 19 ). 1 In 
Cer. 800 8 , 802 17 he is mentioned along with the Stcurapiot of the Palace, 
and must have been a subordinate of one of the eunuch officials (such 
as the TraTuaj or Sevrepos). 

Under 6 TTJJ Karaorrao-ecos- were the rAgeis of those orders of rank 
which Philotheos distinguishes as senatorial from Imperial in the 
stricter sense, namely, the #7raroi, the vestetores, the silentiaries, 
the apoeparchontes (for all of which see above under B, p. 23 sqq.). 
Besides these o^y/cA^ri/cof are also mentioned in the officium, which, 
if the text is correct, points to a lower class of o-uy/cArjnKoi not 
belonging to those five or higher orders. It is difficult to believe 
that such a class existed, and it seems to me highly probable, if not 
certain, that O-V/KX^TLKOL is an error for orparrjAarai, who were a 
synkletic order, and would naturally, along with the apoeparchontes, 
belong here. 

We constantly find the Master of Ceremonies acting in conjunction 
with silentiaries, e.g. Cer. 81 15 , 127 25 , 238 4 , 503 6 . From Phil. 710 10 
we learn that a newly elevated Patrician gave a fee of twelve nomis- 
mata to the Master of Ceremonies, avtv TOV d\/a/aov, and a fee of 
eighty nom. to be divided among the O^LKLOV. This is explained by 
the ceremony of the creation of Patricians, Cer. i. 47. The silentiarii 
act as an escort of the new Patricians ; cp. 239 12 , 241 7 _ 9 . 



(7) 6 8ojue'aTiKOS T&V 
See above under 6 Trpwroo-Traflapios T&V (3aa-i\iK&v (VI. 4). 

1 Cp. Pet. Patr. in Cer. 404 3 , 15 , 405 15 . 



120 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

D. DIGNITIES AND OFFICES OF THE EUNUCHS. 

In the fifth century the cubicularii were the most important class 
of the Palace servants and were under the Praepositus. The other 
court servants were under the Castrensis s. palatii, so far as they 
were not under the Master of Offices. 1 The castrensis seems to have 
disappeared by the sixth century. 2 The cubicularii included the chief 
officials who had charge of the private wardrobe, the Imperial table 
and cellars, as well as the Imperial bedchamber. 

The history of these domestic offices is parallel to the history of 
the offices of state in the principles of its development. (1) A 
number of the subordinate officials are elevated to independent, 
co-ordinate positions, and (2) titles of office are adopted as grades 
of rank. 

The cubicularii of the bedchamber, who were specially distinguished 
as Kotrajytrai, 3 are separated from the rest of the cubiculum, under their 
chief the Parakoimomenos, who becomes a high official. The private 
wardrobe becomes an independent office under the Protovestiarios, 
and similarly the service of the table under 6 CTTI rfjs TpaiTe&s. 

The rest of the cubiculum (ot Kov(3u<ov\dpioL TOV KOvfiovKXtiov, dis- 
tinguished from ot K. TOV flacriXiKov KOIT<SI>OS) seem to have remained 
under the Praepositus, and the primicerius s. cubiculi of the fifth 
century (Not. Dig., Or. i. 17) continued to be their chief (Phil. 721 21 , 
Cer. 798 17 ). 

The servants who attended to the cleaning, heating, lighting of 
the Palace, the porters of the gates, &c., had probably been under 
the control of the castrensis. In the later period we find that two 
have been raised to the dignity of independent officials, the Papias 
and the Deuteros. 

In a wide sense of the term all the eunuch officials belonged to 
the cubiculum. They were graded in eight ranks, and of these the 
praepositi, protospathars, primicerii, and ostiarii are described as 
ol Trpoeoroires TOV HVVTLKOV KOv{3ovK\iov (Phil. 750 16 ). 4 77 rafts TOV K., 
Phil. 705 20 , seems to be used in the wide sense. 

The term otxetaKos (privy, domestic) may be explained here. We 
find it used of the Parakoimomenos (Phil. 784 6 ), and of the private 
vestiarion (see above under 6 \apT. TOV /3eor.). In the latter case 
it distinguishes the private from the public Imperial Wardrobe, and 
its most important significance is to limit the term /3ao-tAtKos. There 

1 Cp. Mommsen, 513. 

2 Mommsen,z7>.j suggests that his place was taken by the cura palatl. 

3 Cp. Phil.,734 22 _ 23 . 

4 Cp ; Cer. , 551 1 6 




THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 

were many /3cunAiJte, of various ranks, who were not eunuchs and 
did not belong to the cubiculum, but were engaged in the more 
personal and domestic service of the Emperor in the Palace. These 
(protospathars, spatharocandidates, spathars, &c.) were distinguished 
as ot/ceiaKot. Compare Cer. 100 17 r&v apyovTvv rov KovfiovuXeiov KOL 
pa<ri\iK.G>v OIKCUIK&V (and 103 16 ). So in Takt. Usp. 118 ot OIK. TT/XOTO- 
(TTraOdpLoi, 123 ot a-naQdpioi K.OI ot/c., 128 ot oiKetaKot (candidati, &C.), 1 
and cp. Phil. 785 22 . The a-naQapioi, &c., who were under the Proto- 
spatharios r&v /3ao-tAtK<3z> were of course not oiKetaKot, nor were the 
protospathars, &c., of the n-ayXafiiov . On the other hand, the pro- 
tospathars, &c., of the Chrysotriklinos (Phil. 732 17 , 733 19 ) probably 
were oi/ceiaKot. 

We also find the term used of K/otrat, Phil. 733 20 ot a-naOapoK. ot OIK. 
Kat KpircLL. But 732 18 ot TrpoiToo-TT. Kat Kp., 735 2 ot anaO. Kal up. These 
judges were doubtless those who were known later as the Kptrat 
TOV (Bri\ov or em rov linTobpo^ov (Zacharia von L., Geschichte des 
griechisch-rom. Rechts, 358 sqq.). otxetaKot seems to be used to 
distinguish them from the K/nrat r&v peyecoz/coz; who were under the 
Prefect of the City. 

The financial office eirt rS>v otKeiaKwz;, which was important in later 
times, was not instituted as early as the ninth century. The seal 
of Basil, a spathar who held this office, cannot be as early as 
Schlumberger thinks (Sig. 556). 

I. 'At'at 8ta fipafieiav. 

Of the eight orders by which the eunuchs of the Palace were 
graded, they shared two in common with barbati, namely, the proto- 
spathariate and the patriciate. The others are, as already observed, 
names of office which have become grades of rank. 

(1) vi\lst,crTL(ipLo$ Insigne (iBpafB^lov): linen Ka/ouVioz; with purple 

embroidery. 

(2) KovfiiKovXdpios KCLfjiio-iov edged with purple, 

and Trapayavbiov. 

(3) (nradapoKovfiiKovXapLos gold-handled sword. 

(4) oorta/Hos gold band with jewelled 

handle. 

(5) TrptjuuKTJ/oios white tunic with gold 

broidered shoulderpieces. 

(6) TTpuToo-TTaOdpLos gold collar with jewels and 

pearls. 

(7) Tipanroo-LTos ivory tablets, not inscribed. 

(8) TraT/HKtos ivory inscribed tablets. 



1 The meaning of irpwrooiKfiaKoi, 124., is not clear. For a seal of a protosp. 
Sig. 558. 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



(1) 

The name of the rtx/ao-riapioi shows that their function was to 
preside over the Imperial ablutions. See Cer. 9 17 . The linen 
(chemise), which was their emblem of rank, was 
ayjipaTi <iaAiov, which I understand to mean, with the figure of 
a basin embroidered in purple. 1 



(2) Kovfii 

The denotation of cubicularii has been explained above. When 
the palace staff was arranged in grades of dignity the general term 
was naturally appropriated to one of the lowest. 



(3) cnraOapoKovfiiKovXapioL. 

We find among the cubicularii, in the sixth century, some who 
were also spatharii. Compare Theoph. 185 13 KovfiutovXapiovs Kal 
avaQapiovs. Kalapodios (ib. 181 34 ) and Narses (Chr. Pasch. 626, 
sub a. 532) were such. These eunuch spathars were afterwards 
distinguished from other a-naQapioi /3a<nAi/coi by the compound a-na- 
6apoKov/3iKovXapioi% (cp. o-Tra^opoKaz/St^arot, avOvnaTOTraTpiKioi). Cp. 
Cone. Const. IV (A. D. 869), Act 4 init., Mansi, xvi. 329 3 ; Cer. 148 23 . 

(4) OOTtdptOl. 

For the duties of the ostiarii (properly door-keepers) cp. Cer. 10 3 , 
172 25 &c. 4 In A.D. 787 we meet John, a fiacriXiKos daTidpios, who 
holds the office of Logothete of the Stratiotikon (Mansi, xii. 1051) . 
This is important, because it seems to prove that oo-ndpios had 
become a title of rank as early as the eighth century. One of the 
ostiarii retained the original functions of the ost., see Phil. 706 4 , 8 
6 j3a<n\LKo$ oortaptoy. For seals of ostiarii, later than the ninth 
century, see Schlumberger, Sig. 560-1. 



(5) 

We saw above that the old primicerius sacri cubiculi continued 
to exist as a distinct official. There was also a primicerius of the 
Empress's bedchamber: Eustathius, Vita Eutychii, c. 85 (Migne, 
P. G. 86. 2, p. 2372 rw Tjyn^. AvyovoTTjs) ; a seal is preserved of 
Nikolaos, primicerius of the Empress Eudoxia in A.D. 106 7 (Sig. 570). 

1 The Latin translation treats (f)id\iov as = cucullus, a cowl. 

2 Cer. 244 13 , the text has (nradoKovpiKovXdpim. 

s Gregorios <nradapoK. is here described as OTTO rcov r^y o-vyK\^rov. 
4 There were special quarters in the Palace for the ostiarii, called the oormpt- 
Cer. 802 22 . 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 

The domestic of the Great Palace was also called primicerius (see 
below under the Deuteros). The extension of the term to denote 
a rank is parallel to that of //aytorpo?. Ostiarii who had been raised 
to the grade of primicerii sometimes designated themselves by both 
titles : cp. the seal of a Trpt//,. /3ao-iAuos KOI dor. KOL CTTI T&V oiVeia/ccoz; 
in Siff. 138. This seems to be the meaning of d<mapo7rpijuuKi?ptoi 
in Cer. 71 21 (not, as Lat. version gives, primicerii ostiariorum) . For 
seals of primicerii see Siff. 407-8, 569-70. Cp. Cer. 259 24 , 574 13 . 

(6) 'irpwroo'TraOdpioi. 

The insigne of the eunuch protospathars is described as pavidKiov, 
necklet, which probably differed in shape from the KAoio'y, collar, of 
the other protospathars ; the pearls which Philotheos mentions were 
probably a further differentiation. Moreover, the eunuch protospathars 
had a special dress which Philotheos describes, a white tunic adorned 
with gold, in the shape of a &t/tyri{<rio?j and a red doublet with gold 
facings. Cp. also Cer. 574 10 . 

(7) TTpatTToVlTOl. 

In the fifth to sixth centuries the Praepositus s. cubiculi was one 
of the highest officials in the Empire, following in rank the Prefects 
and the Magister Militum (Not. Dig., Or. 1. 9). Besides his duties 
in the Palace, as head of the cubicularii, 1 he was the minister in 
charge of the Imperial estates in Cappadocia. He exercised, doubt- 
less, control over the castrensis and the primicerius s. cub. (cp. 
Bocking, Comm. ad Not. Occ. vii a) ; but on account of the loss of 
pages in the MSS. of the Not. Dig. we are unable to determine the 
organization of the s. cubiculum. The three chartularii of the s. cub. 
(Justinian, Nov. 16, p. 114) were probably under the primicerius. 
The Praepositus seems (as was shown above, p. 79) to have been de- 
prived of his financial functions before the end of the sixth century. 

There was also a praepositus of the Empress's bedchamber, cp. 
C. J. 12. 5. 3 and Peter Patr. (Cer. 418) ol dv'o wpawroWoi (A.D. 491). 

In the seventh or eighth century TiyxuTroViros (like juayitrrpos) became 
an order of rank. This change was connected evidently with another. 
The chief officers of the cubicularii who had been under the Praepositus 
(protovestiarius, &c.) became independent of any higher control than 
the Emperor's. But the old Praepositus continued to preside over 
part of the cubiculum (see above, p. 1~0), and he had important 

1 Cp. Theoph. 246 17 vpanroffiros T&V Kov/3iKovXnpiW. He was himself considered 
a cubicularius, cp. Chron. Pasch. 610, nab a. 518. 



124 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



ceremonial duties to perform. The ceremonial functions which had 
devolved in the fifth and sixth centuries on the magister officiorum * 
belonged in the ninth and tenth to the TrpaiTroViros in conjunction 
with the officer known as 6 TIJJ Karaoracrea)?. We find a second prae- 
positus taking part in ceremonies : Cer. 245 14 (6 Mov irpanr., i.e. the 
praepositus who was in the Chrysotriklinos, cp. Bieliaev, 2. 202). 
The Praepositus, at the distribution of Imperial bounties, received, if 
he were a patrician, as much as the magistri (Phil. 784 4 ) and pro- 
bably he was almost always a patrician (cp. 706 12 where 6 Trarpi/aos 
/cat IT p. precedes the other eunuch patricians, who precede the 
av6vTtaToi\ though not necessarily. Cp. 730 17 and 784 10 (where we 
should probably read TOV irpaDToa-TraOdpiov KCU irpaiTroo-iTov). Thus the 
Praepositus, although it is convenient to consider him here, more 
properly belongs under the higher grade of the patricians. He was 
sometimes distinguished from the other praepositi as 6 Trpeoro- 
(Cer. 527 6 ). 2 Schlumberger has published a seal (Siff. 568), 
7jy)ai7roo-iV[<o], which he ascribes to the eighth or ninth century. 
Under Basil I, Baanes the Praepositus was also Sakellarios. When 
Basil was absent on his expedition against Tephrike, Baanes acted as 
regent (ano^ov^) in Constantinople, along with the chief Magister 
and the Prefect of the City : Constantine Porph. says that this 
used to be the customary arrangement (nep\ ra. 503. 6 SieTrcoz; was 
another name for the aTrojj.ovtvs, ib. 504 4 ). 

(8) TTdTplKtOl. 

The eunuch Patricians had precedence over the avdinraroi K.CLL 
TrarpiKioi, Phil. 727 8 , 730 13 . 

II. 'Afuu 5ta Ao'you. 

In his list of the offices which were appropriated to eunuchs, 
Philotheos names only the chiefs ; he does not enumerate the sub- 
ordinates. Many functionaries connected with the palace- service 
are mentioned in our sources, but in consequence of this omission of 
Philotheos it is difficult to place them. 

(1) 6 TTapaKOLjjLw{JiVos TOV decTTro'rov. 

Those of the Koiromrcu who slept adjacent to the Emperor's bed- 
room were called -Trapa/cotjuiw^erot : Theoph. 453 12 (A. D. 780), where 



1 In the ceremonies connected with the reception of foreign ambassadors, the 
Logothete of the Course took the place of the Mag. Off., and in the tenth century 
the Logothete replaced the Praepositus in some other ceremonies. Cp. Bieliaev, 
ii. 17. 

2 JPhotius, Ep. 122 Bau^ei Tr/jaiTrtxn'ro) KOI 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 125 

three persons are designated as KovfiiKovXdpioi KOL 7ra/)aKot/oiwjuez>oi. As 
it would always have been the duty of the chief of the Koirowrai to 
sleep near the Emperor, he came to be called 6 Trapa/cotjuco/xeros. The 
term occurs in Theoph. 285 17 , under the reign of Maurice (A.D. 602). 
At that time he was subordinate to the Praepositus (Ducange is, of 
course, wrong s. v. in identifying him with the Praepositus). We 
may conjecture that Stephen, the sacellarius of Justinian II, was also 
the parakoimomenos ; Theoph. calls him TrpcoroewoOxo? (367). In 
the ninth century, the post was held by Scholastikos (an ostiarios) 
under Theophilus, and by Damianos (a patrician) under Michael III 
(De adm. imp. 231), who afterwards appointed Basil the Macedonian 
to this office, though it was supposed to be confined to eunuchs. 1 
Under Basil the post was left vacant (ib.}. Philotheos (784 6 ) calls 
the p. 6 oiKeiaicos Trapa/cot/xtojuezJO? TOV /3a<riAeW. 

The seals of Parakoimomenoi are rare, and later than the ninth 
century. See Schlumberger, Sig. 562. 

(2) 6 7rpa)ro/3eoTi<ptos' TOV 8eo"7roYot>. 

The Protovestiarius descended from the old comes sacrae vestis of 
the fifth century. He presided over the private wardrobe (sacra vestis, 
oLKtictKov pea-Tidpiov) of the Emperor, to be distinguished from the 
public wardrobe which was under the Chartularius TOV (Sea-Tiaptov (see 
above, p. 95). 

This wardrobe was a store of much besides dress (see Trept raf. 
466 sqq.}, and probably a treasury. It supplied the gratifications 
(a7roKo/x/3ia) which were given to the court officials at the Brumalia 
and on other occasions (cp. Cer. 605 ]4 ). There must have been 
a considerable staff, but we only know that the chief subordinate was 
6 TrpijuiKTJpios' TOV /3eoT. (iTpi ra. 466 8 , cp. Leo, Gramm. 300 18 ). 

For protovestiarii in the ninth century see Georg. Mon. 791 (Leo 
under Theophilus), 831 (Rentakios under Michael III), 845 (Proko- 
pios, sent by Basil I on an expedition to Sicily), 855 (Theodosius, 
a patrician, under Leo VI) 2 . The second Basileus had a proto- 
vestiarius of his own (ib. 846), and likewise the Caesar (ib. 830). 
We also hear of a prot. of the Domestic of the Hikanatoi (ib. 847). 



(3) 6 7rl rrj? rpaTrefrj? TOV 

The post of 6 em TTJS rpaWfts or 6 rr/y r. was apparently important 
in the seventh century : in the Acta Maximi^ c. 6, p. 120, we find 

1 See De adm. imp. 231 17 ; Cont. Th. 206 4 . 

2 See also Vita Eutliymti, eel. De Boor, i. 8, xiv. 1, viii. 10. 



126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

Sergios Eukratas 6 eut rrj? r. rrjs /3ao-iAiK?}9 taking part in an examina- 
tion of Maximus. The full title seems to have been SojueWiKos rrjs ft. 
, see Mansi, xvi. 209 (A.D. 869) Aeovriou TOV k^oqorarov CLTTO 
KOL 8oju. TJJS ft. T. In the reign of Leo VI we find Constantine 
6 rr/y r. appointed to command a military expedition to South Italy 
(Cont. Th. 356 17 ). 

Under this minister was probably 6 8ojueWtKos rrjs vnovpyias (irepl 
TO 463 95 464 lo , 491 8 , cp. Phil. 789J. Cp. Theoph. 462 n lffj\6c 
Tracra 77 /3a(riAi/c?) virovpyia /cat fj Koprj] ea>s MaXceytv&v (A. D. 786) ; 390 16 , 
468 . V7roi>/oyi/ca=supellex, ib. 199 19 , 303 2 . We meet a vordpLos rrjs 
vTiovpytaj in Leo Gramm. 303 18 (reign of Romanus I). Constantine, 
De adm. imp. 184, mentions Constantine, a protospathar, who was 
So/z. rrjs vir., and afterwards became Great Hetaeriarch and 



The Kaorp^o-tos (castrensis) probably also belongs here : Phil. 742 n , 
744 6 6 repnvos K., 744 15 6 xAetro? K. 

The arpiKXivai are not to be placed here. The office seems not to 
have been confined to eunuchs (spatharocandidates Phil. 733 21 ), and 
they probably formed a distinct rats, possibly under the Praepositus. 

(4) o 7U rr/s rpairefrj? r^y 



This functionary among his other duties had the care of the private 
barques (aypapia) of the Empress: De adm. imp. 235 19 . Those of 
the Emperor were under the management of the TTp<*>TO(nra0dpLos 



A seal is preserved of Nicetas Xylinites, who was eTrt rrjs 
of Eudoxia, wife of Basil I. Suspected of an intrigue with his 
mistress he was tonsured (Georg. Mon. 843, ed. Bonn). He was 
TrpaiToo-naOdpios Kal em rijs rpaTre'frjs rfjs OeocrTtTtrov Kvyov arris (Sig. 600). 
The incident shows that up to that time the office was not necessarily 
confined to eunuchs. 

(5) 6 Trcnri'as TOV jueyaAou TraAemou. 

The Papias x presided over all the service pertaining to the build- 
ings of the Palace (the Great Palace, as distinguished from its adjuncts ' l 
the Magnaura and the Daphne). He was responsible for the security 
of the doors and gates, and for all matters connected with clean- 
ing, lighting, &c. The keys of the gates and doors were in his 
possession, and in the case of a Palace conspiracy a great deal might 

1 For the connexion of the name with naTras, Trdrnras, TraTTTror, t&c.^cp. Bieliaev, 
i. 146,n. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 

depend upon his attitude. 1 As a rule he probably held the rank of 
protospathar. 2 

Under the Papias were : 

(1) diatrapiot, namely, ot Staira/noi TOV p,yd\ov iraXaTiov (Cer. 800 9 ), 
or chamberlains-in-waiting, who had the care of the various rooms 
(di'curcu) in the Palace. They served in weekly relays and were hence 
called e/38o/xapiot. Their chief was 6 dojueortKos TOV jueyaXov TraAartou 
(Cer. 800 10 ; Bieliaev, i. 159). 

(2) Xova-raC (Phil. 724 4 ), who seem to have had the care of the 
baths (see Cer. 554 6 _ 14 , 555 18 ), and to include the paXvLapinis and the 



(3) Kavbr]XdnTai. (Phil. 724J had charge of the lighting of the 
Palace; there were special Kav8r]A.a7rrat for the Lausiakos and the 
Triklinos of Justinian (724 5 , 6 ). 

(4) Kaprivdocs (Phil. 724 5 ) had charge of the heating of the Palace, 
and seem to have been also called KaXbdpioi (Cer. 800 18 , 803 2 ). 

(5) wpoAo'yot (Phil. 724 6 ) attended to the clocks. 3 

(6) (apdfiat, (Phil. 724 6 ). Their duties and the meaning of the 
word are uncertain. Reiske (859) thinks that fapa/Srj? is derived 
from the Arabic zarrab=pulsator } and that their function was to 
sound a gong (a-ri^avrpov) to announce the hours of divine service, &c. 

The Papias and his subordinates have been very fully discussed by 
Bieliaev, i. 145-63. 



(6) 6 $VTpOS TOV fJLyd\OV 

The Deuteros was the assistant of the Papias, and took his place 
when he was ill, but was independent of him, and had subordinates 
of his own. His special province was the care of the Emperor's 
chairs and thrones (and probably the furniture) in the Chrysotriklinos, 
as well as the curtains in those apartments, and all the Imperial 
apparel and ornaments which were kept there. See Phil. 724 n _ . 

His subordinates were : 

(1) ot rl T&V aXXa&iMv (Phil. 724 ]3 ), the attendants who took 
care of the Emperor's apparel ( e changes ' of dress). 

(2) ot /Seorrjropej (Phil. 724 14 ), with their primicerii, arrayed 
the Emperor on ceremonial occasions (cp. Cer. 9, &c., &c.). 

(3) ot em T&V afioojudroip (Phil. 724 15 ), the keepers of the insignia 
and ceremonial dresses worn by persons who were invested with 

1 Compare the part he played in the overthrow of Leo V and elevation of 
Michael II (Georg. Mon., ed. Bonn, 678, &c.). 

2 This is suggested by the context of 784i 4 . 

3 Cp. Reiske, 559 ; Bieliaev, i. 162, n. Constantine, -rrfpl TCT. 472. 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



dignities. These cr/ceurj r&v dfiw/xdnoz/ were kept in the Imperial 
wardrobes, some of them in the oratory of St. Theodore in the 
Chrysotriklinos (Cer. 640) , of which the Deuteros kept the key (Cer. 
623 7 ). Philotheos says (ib.) that these officials vvvdyovviv ra dfuo/zara 
Ttapa T&V \ajji(3av6vT(tiv ras dfias, which is interpreted to mean that 
they collected the fees paid by the recipients of the orders or offices, 
but we should expect rds vvvriOcias, not ra dt&>/uara. 

(4) ol diatrapioi. Phil. 724 tW^ei 6e 6 btvrtpos ra o-eAAta KOI TOVS 
SiaiTdptovs KOL TOV TT pLfjuKypiov avTQv. Bieliaev (i. 180) thinks that 
these were distinct from the Siatrdpiot who were subordinate to the 
Papias, and this seems borne out by the words of Philotheos (724 21 ) 
(TvvdytcrOaL 8e roi)j afx^orepwi/ tiuurapfovs, where Bieliaev is obviously 
right in explaining, f of both the Papias and the Deuteros/ But 
I suspect that the 5iaird*pioi TOV jueyaXov ?aXarou formed one ra^ts 
and had one primikerios or domestic, who was at the disposal of both 
the Papias and Deuteros, 1 though some of the diaitarioi were appro- 
priated to the duties over which the Deuteros specially presided. For 
these duties see further, Cer. 7 2 . 

For details see further, Bieliaev, i. 163-81. 



(7) 6 TnyKepvrjs TOV 8ecr7rorou, (8) 6 7rtyKeppT]9 Trjs Avyova'Trjs. 

The text of Philotheos has here, in the first case, eTriyKe'pz^j a form 
(which occurs in other texts also, see Ducange, s.v. -niyK.tpvr]s) evidently 
due to a false derivation from the preposition em. 2 

(9) 6 TraTTta? r?js Mavvavpas, (10) 6 Tramas rrjs Ad(f)vr]s. 

The Magnaura and the Daphne, though closely connected with the 
Great Palace, had each a Papias of its own. In the case of the 
Daphne this was an innovation made in the reign of Michael III, see 
Georg. Mon. 816, ed. Bonn ; and it is possible that the Magnaura, 
as well as the Daphne, was originally under the charge of the Papias 
of the Great Palace. The Domestic (of the 8iaira/noi) of Daphne, 
and the 8iatrdpioi of Magnaura are mentioned, Cer. 800 10 , 17 . 

It is to be noticed that besides the 5iairdptot of the Great Palace, of 
Magnaura, and of Daphne, there were other rdfeis of dicurdptoi serving 
in various parts of the Palace : thus the 5. TOV Kovo-io-Tupiov, 5. TOV ayiov 
2,T<f)dvov, 5. TY/S vircpayias 0oroKou, 5. TOV dorta/H/aou, 5. TOV oTara>pi/aoi>, 
5. T&V iff aKou/SiYaw (Cer. 800). 



1 In Phil. 721 9 the prim, is called 6 Trptfj.. avrov, sc. TOV devrtpov. 

2 The TT. is mentioned in Vita Euthymii, x. 12. 



THE IMPERIAL ADMINISTRATIVE SYSTEM 129 

I subjoin a list of officials mentioned by Philotheos, but not occur- 
ring in his lists of raeis and o-eKpera. Most of them have already 
been discussed incidentally. 

6 dSpn/aiomXios, see above under C. VII. 6. 

6 dicToudpios, see above under C. V. 1 and 2 ad fin. 

6 apx&>^ TOU dpjAau.eVTou, see above under C. VII. 5 (2). 

6 pdppapos, see above under C. IV. 4 ad fin. 

6 8eKaoYpd<J>os, see above under C. III. 3. 

6 fjuyo-oupcrrwp, 788 21 . Cer. 244 17 etra Xafitov TOV Qvyuarov 6 /u.tr<rov/)ara>/> 
rj KOL 6 Tramas TOV TiaA. rou ptyaXov ; again, 245 16 6 p., if a eunuch, raises 
the curtain (cp. schol. ad loc.). This official must be distinguished 
from the military fjuvo-ovparupes (who measured the ground for camps, 
computed road distances, &c.), frequently mentioned in tactical 
treatises (e.g. Leo, Tact. ix. 7). He is mentioned in Gen. 125 22 . 

ol irapaoTciTai TOU rjXiaicou, Phil. 758 20 , 774 5 , cp. above under C. III. 3 
(is the ^AtaKoV of the Chrysotriklinos meant?). 

ot TOiroTT)pT)Tal TWJ' XP"^ Phil. 738 22 . 

6 xp uor l l /r l T1 iSr see iibove under C. IV. 6 (4). 



M9 



AKPIBOAO1IA TH2 TUN BA2IAIK&N KAHTOPK2N KATA-^702 
2TA2E&2, KAI EKA2TOT TUN AEmMATflN IIPO2KAH2IS 
KAI TIMH, 2TNTAX0E1SA ES APXAI&N KAHTOPOAOFmN 
EHI AEONTO2 TOT 4>IAOXPI2TOT KAI 2O4>aTATOT HM11N 
5BA2IAE&2, MHNI SEIITEMBPmt, INAIKT. F', ETOT2 AIIO 
KTI2EH2 KO2MOT /rTH', TITO 4>IAO0EOT BA2IAIKOT 
IIPmX)2nA0APIOT KAI ATPIKA1NOT. 



'E7reto'??'7rep ^juds 7rpoerpe'\/fa<r0e, a> <iXa)i> dpto-rot, els rd 
TriKVfJL\lsai (Tvyypajutjuara, KaKtWev rov TrpoK^evov vovv rrjs T&V 
o /mmozj ra^ecoj cratyfj rw A.oy(p aKpifi&s irapaa'Tria'aarOai, ^>fpe T) ra> 
eXKO/xei'ot TTO^W, Ka0' oo"oy ec^tKroz;, ra e^era r?}s v/xerepas 

eK7rA.?]pc)(ra)ja^. TroAA.wz' yap ovrtov KCLL /xeydXcoy r<3z> irapa 
rots apxaiois Kara\L(f)0evT(DV afia)/ucira)z>, TroAArj re xat /xeydXr] /cat 
6vo-Xr]7rros ^ Trepl CLVT&V virdp^L o-a^TJi^cta. Kat yap at TroAAat rc5y 
5 d^ta>ftara)i; d/^aupco^etcrat rw yjpovu* TTpoa-KXrja-fLS, dAAa ftr)z/ Kat Trao-at at 
to-at dta)/^ara)i; 8ta^>opat a-^y^i;(7ty rtra Trapeto-dyou- 
aKpifiovs CLVT&V KaraA?J\^cos. Kat eTretS?] r^ fjjJitTepav d/xd0etai> 703 
TOVTOIV KaraA^ecos r^y 
K rwy irptorjv eyKet/xeVcoz; Kat 

o rjbvvri6r]iJLv, rr) ^/xcrepa (/uAt'a irepityav&s eKrt^e/xe^a. etSeVat yap v 
jSofAo/jte^a, ob <pi\oi, ort mi(ra fxe^ re^vwy eTrtarr/jitr] Trpoy rt ev\pr}(TTQV 
reAos r<Sy ez/ r<5 /3ta> crvvea'TrjKtv. 17 8e rc5z> dprtKAtraii; e7rto"r?7jut^ ey 
't dAAo) ro zv^prjo'TOv beLKWcrw, dAA' ?) Iz^ ra> rd^et Kat (rwra(ret Kat 
raj r<z> dtoojutdra)z; 6ta<^opas 5tao-reAAetr. Kat yap micra 
25 Trept^di'eta /3tou 97 tvbofos dfta)jtxdra)i; dfta er ot>8ez>t dAAa) rot? op&a-iv 
dAA' ^ ^ r?] KA?j(7t rrjy TrpoKa^eSptaj r^j er r?) Aa/a-rrpa 
Kat 7rept7ro^?jra) o-D^eorrtdo-et raw a-o^cordra)!; ^/xwy jSao-tAecoz;. 
et 8e rts eK r?}s ^jaaiz; aTrpoo-efuzs e7rto-(/)aA^j Trpoo-yeVrjrat (ruyxvo-ts rots 
/3ao*tAtKots KA^rcoptots, ov \LQVQV rds roaz> /3ao"tAtK<Sz^ d^t(o/utdra)y dperas 
30 KaraptTrret, dAAd Kat ^/xas avrovs KarayeAd(rroi>s Kat dxpetous r^s 6ta- 
8to ovv, dyaTrr^rot, 8et ^//ds ei; rr) rotavrr^ AaxoVras 
eAer^s Kat eTTtoTTJ/xr;? rds rwz; dfta)/xdra)2; KDpto- 
rw otKeta) root 7reptypa$etz>, Kat et^' ovrcos raj avr&v 8tatpeVets 
:at ti7ro8tatpeo-et9 Kat aKpt/3ets cruo-rdo-ets eK^tovtlv KOL KTL0(T0(u. dAA' 704 

His compendiis usus sum : L = Lipsiensis, H = Hierosolymitanus, B = Bekkeri 
1. (Bonnensis), R = Reiskius. 702 i KAHTHPinN B 3 KAHTHPOAOriXlN B 
KTHCEH2 L B : correxi 8 TrpoeTpfyatrQxi L ras LB ^ 16 irapTf]ffdyovfftv L 

22 ffvvf(TTiKev L 23 &\Ao L 24 5ioo"TeA.et L 

M9 2 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



eVetTrep rds r&v kpyattov eK0eVets ovyj. nda-as, dAA' oVas 6 xpo^os d/xat>- 
p<t)6fjvai e7roir?(rez>, eKoVrt TrapeSpd/xo/xez^, </>e'pe ^*) Ta * irl ra>i> /3ao-tAeW 
f)iji>v, Ae'oi>ros Kat 'AAefdz^poi;, yucoptfo/xeVas re a/xa /cat Trparro/xe'uas s 
eV TTivaKOS rafet o-Tixybbv V7rordo/xez;. 7rot<S/xei> 5e roro, ovx a>s rds 
r<3i> apyaidov crvyy pachas dmrpeTiwres, dAAd ras Trept TOVTWV eK^ea"t9 ws 5 
eu rafet KCLVOVOS ruTTSxrcu cnrovbdfovTfs, OTTCO? /xr) povov ot -Trept raura 
eo-xoAaKore? r^z; ei>X PV TOVTMV K-araX^iv l^coo-tz;, dAAa Kal ot Atav 
d/xa^ets ro) /xtKpw roi;r<i) KCLVOVL eTro/xerot ^VKard^TTTOV Kal aafyri rrjv Trept 
ras rdet? e^ptcrKaxrt Trpayjuareuw. O"L yap StKato^ eKpivajJifV rovs JUT) 
raOra aKpt^Sws e^o'Kr^juei'OVS eV rrj Toiavrrj rerd^at /SacrtAtKr) Aetroupyta, 10 
ort ov8e da-o^o) /cat ajuaflet /3acrtAet Trapecrrd^at ^/xet 1 ? ^v^oip^cra^v, dAAd 
Trdz^u ye (ro^cordro) /cat Ao'ya> Kat epya> rrj avooOev xdptrt rertjutr^/xerw. 6ta 
rouro 6r) ov^ TrapaKaAw ^/xas, 2> </>t x Aot, Kat Trdrras rous 
eto-tevat, /XT) -Trapepycos Kat d^co/xdAcos ro Trap' 

Aoytor, dAAa 'Trpoa'ox^ /xeAerry? rw ey a^rai eyKet/xe^oz; 15 
TVTTOV aKpifi&s ava^aTTdQai' Kat Trpwroz; /xer ras aKpt/3ets KVptoKA?](rtas 
r<3y dftcojotdra)^ yrcoptfetz^' Se^repoz^ 6e rds roimoz; 8tatpeVets Kat TJTTO- 
705 StatpeVets, av^o-ets re Kat /xetcocrets, Trpoa-KAT/o-ets re Kat TjTroKAr/o-ets 
aKpt/3<3s -TTotetcr^at, Ka^cos VTroreVaKrat. rds yap 6td ^pa^Setcoz; 8t8o/xez^as 
dftas KAt/xaKOS v/xtr rdfet ef di^o/xaros Trao-as eKre^etKa, et^' oi/rcos rds 20 
8td Adyov Trpoo'yt^o/xei'as e(rr//ixai'a, /xerd 8e ra?jras rds rai;rats VTTOK^L- 
/xevas o-vrerafa, rds /xer Kvptas Kat Trpcoras TOVTMV irpOKpivas rw Adyw, 
rds 8e VTroreray/xeWs t'8ta)s tKdorrrjv eKre^etKws. dAAd /XT)Z^ Kat rds 
rovrcou rdfets ev8tatpe'ra)s e8rjAa><Ta, Kat eKao-r^s rd rovrcoi; rd otKeta 
7rpeV/3eta 8td row rr/6*e crvyypd/x/xaros cra^ws K.aQvjr6pj](Ta, Kat vcra<pfj 25 
Kat VKaTaX.rjTTTOv rr\v Trept TOVTMV Trpay/xaretai', a>s ey ettraycoyr/s rd^et, 
ro?s kvTvyyjLVOva'i 5td njs iJTroKet/xei'Tys 7rAty^t8os eyz^coptora, tVa ot ravrrjv 
TY]V Tr\Lv6iba eTTt/xeAais eTTOTrrevo^res /xe/x^o-^e rl]s r;/xQ)y /xerptoV^ros 

/Xll6"a/X&)S KdTOKVri(TLV. 

(Tfoos a.) 30 

ys vTroOfffeoas rov \6yov. 



at yapiri eo t/xerat wpeat, a>s eK 
0eoi; r^ \j/fj(f)ov Aa/xjSdi'ouo'at, e?rt roS tepoC Kat Oav^aa'Tov /3ao"tAtKoi; 
j3r}/xaros rou Aa/xirpoi; yjpvcroTpiKXivov v atcrtats 7//xepats Trapd ra>r Oeoirpo- 
p\.rjTa>v /3ao-tAecoz; rots dftots (3pa(3vovrai, brjXovoTL Trapeo-rcoa-r/s 
rl/s rdfecos roO (Bao-iXiKOv KOv(3ovKXiov Kat avr&v T&V /3pa/3etG)^ 
706 \**tv(&v Tr\r](riov rr^s ^Qao-tAtK^s efoutrtas. ot yap /ixe'AAo^res 
avr&v drrtAr/\^ea)s T/ST; TrpoeurpeTrt^byrat VTTO rou reray/xerou 
Trp<tiTO(nra6apiov efco roi; f3ri\ov eo-roAto-/xeVot poatots o-aytots. 



704 2 7rapf5pdfj.MiJ.fv L 4 ffrix^^v L 12 TerTj^rj/xeV^ L 18 

705 25 KadiffTdpura L B correxi 27, 28 TrXyvOiSos, -iSa L 29 

30 hie, ut conicio, supplendum (rJ/tos a') 35 irapfffrdaffis L 706 39 e' 

L 




$IAO0EOr KAHTOPOAOriON 133 

TOVTMV eio^aycoyr} 7rpoo"weto*ep)(oi>Tat rw /3ao*tAtKa> bVrtapui) 6/xdrt/ixot r<Sz> 
/oieAAoVro)^ ru^et^ durtAT^ecos avbpes (nra6apo(f)6poi rpe??, Kat TO orvvrjOcs 
(re(3as TTOLrja-avTes dvafjLevovcrL irpbs TO {Bfj\ov eortSreJ TTJV TOV eto-ayo/xeVov 
iiapova-iav, Kat av0LS TOV firi\ov 7rera<r0eWos, crweto-epx^rat r<3 /3ao-tAtK(5 
5 oVrtapto) 6 T&V j3a(TL\LKMV TTp(tiTO<nra6dpLos flo-dyav TOV jueAAoura TV\IV__ 
dz>rtA?j\//-ea)?, Kat TOVTOV TTpoTp7r6[jLVOs rpttrt TOTTOLS Troifjcrai. Trjv Trpo<rK.v- 
vr](TLV, tvTiqcriv OLVTOV Kara TrpoVcoTroz; TOV fiacnXetos irpbs TO ef ot/cetcor 
\ip<i>v avTov Aa/3ety ro fipapetov TOV afioo/xaros. Kat [JUKpbv CLVTOV TOV 
TV\OVTOL bLaa"r^(Tas oTncrOoTrobtos o CLVTOS / 7rpa)Too"7ra0aptos Trept^dAXei avroi 
10 ro boQev Trapa TOV jQacriAecos /3pa/8etoy, /cat av0ty avroz; Trpoa-wOrjo-as 
ao~7rd(rao-6ai Trotet rov? tepov? TroSas TOV /3a<rtA.ea)S' K.aTa\QvTos 6e avrou 
rots /cdrco, ot 6//oVtjaot rou aftw/xaros arSpe? a>s laroTipov etcr- 
(f)L\ov, ro o-e^Qas irXrjpovvTCS TTJV tvyapurTtiav 8ta r^s Trpoo-- 
rw /3ao-tA.et Trpoa-fytovovcn, KOI o-vv()fp\T(U TOVTOLS. f] be 
Trdi^rooz; ra>y row Kov(3ovK\iov at'a roz; /3acrtXea aftcos eTrev- 
Kat avrr) crvve^epy^Tai TOVTOLS. tlo-dyovTcu be 7rao-at at rwr 
8ta fipafBtitoV d^tcojudrcoz; biatyopal Kara rdfiy Kat apiQ^bv TOV ^brj \- 707 
\6^(T(rdat, /uteXAorra, Kat ras o-vvrjOeias TiapeyjEiv 6<f)i\ovTas. Kat yap 
at /xez; CLVT&V bia /3pa/3etcoi> Trape'xo^rat, at 5e 8ta /3ao-iAtKoC Xo'you 
20 TTpooryivovTai, Kat O~VVTTOVT(U TOLS bia j3pa(3i(i)v bibofjitvciLS aftats, Kat 
at jiiez; CLVT&V rd iJ.6vLfj.ov ^OVCTLV, at Se padtcos TT&Xiv a^aipov^vai IK 






Ettrt 6e Trao-at o/xoC at 6ta ppafieiwv bLbopevaL TOV apiQ^bv oKrco- Affita /3pa- 

trtre? aTraf 8t6o'/ae^at ovba^s avaa-TptyovTaL. Statpowrat 8 
25 avrat ets )u,epr] duo, ets o-vyKAr;rtKoi)s Kat ets 7rpoeAei>o-t/x,atot>s. 



At 6~ 8ta Xo'you irpoa-yLVOfJLfvaL ravrat? Kat ro apyjEiv Zvb6a)s Xa/x- at 5i Xdyou 
fiavovo-ai eto-t Kat avrat 7rao-at roz^ apL0fj,bv f 
wo-Trep e$a/xi>, K Trpoo-eoTrcoz; ets Trpo'o-coTra /3ao-tA.tK(5 Ao'ya) 
3 bLdLpovvTCLL be Kat avrat ets fiepr; e'f, 0102; ets o-rparryyovy, ets 8ojueo-rtKous, 
6t9 Kptrdy, ets creKpertKovs, ets S^OKpdraj, ets t5ta 



rovs irpofla0iJ.tovs. <08 

8e Kvptcos a^Lu>fjLaTa)v T&V bia Ppafietaiv i:ap\o^v()V at Kvpto- 
K\rj(TLaL, ets a? Kat o$etAouo-> 8owat crvvrjOefas, flo-lv avrat. 

35 Trpwrry juez; rcou aAAcoz; aTrdrra)^ ws TTpofBddfJLLOS TJ]V d<rayu>yr}V T&V a 

rj TOV a-rpar?]Adrov 7rt 0e/xdra)z; dfta, ^rot 
j3pa(B < Lov i eyyeypajut/xei^os ^dpn/j, 8ta 



t irpoffvvrjffepxovTai L 4 ffvpfj/ros COni. R 7 otKluv L IO irpoffoO-fjffas L 

14 ffwepxerai L : corr. R TOUTOIS scrips! : roury L 707 23 at ... t^ quasi 

him in textu exhibet B oKTOKaiSeica L 25 Trpoffe\fv<rifj.atovs L B correxi 

27 at . . . ?{ quasi titulum B 28 TWJ/ apiQp.S>v L 708 32 hie inserit T^/xos a' B 

numeros in marg. non exhibet B 36 a|fa scripsi : d|U^ L B 



134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



/3a<rtAtK77? 

rot? TTpatTToa-trot? A^. 

8eurepa 8e 77 T>V criXtVTiapi(av, rjs fipafiz'iov, XP^ "^ pd/38o?, 8td 
/3a<rtAiK77? xetpo? e7Tt8t8orat. 8t8a>o-t (Tvvr\0tiav r<S Sevrepw 9', rot? Trpai- 
Troo-trot? o/3'. 

rptrrj 77 T>V (BccrrrjTopdov dta, 7^? /3pa/3etbzJ, ro (^t^SAarooptoz;, 8ta 
10? e7rt8i'8orat. 8t8et orvv^Oeiav rot? TrpatTroo-trot? K8 r , rai 



reraprrj ^ rwz^ (3a(TL\iK&v /^ta^Saropcoz; ata, ^? /3pa/3etoz/, 
pv0pobav(t)fjLvr], IK ^etpos /3ao~tXtK^s 7rt8t8orat. 8t8cocrt (rvvTjdeiav rw 



1 



e ' -Tre/utTTTT] 77 rwy Kar8t8drcoz/ dfta, 7^? /3pa/3etoz>, fj.avia,Kiov 

nXao-^voVy 8td x^V ? /3ao-tAtK7J? 7rt8t8orat. 

/3', rot? -TrpatTToortrot? g*'. 15 

709 T' eKrTj 7; rwz; o-rparopcoz; dfta, 77? ppaficlov, (^payeAtov XP V(T0 ^ V * K 

ra> TraTTio, Kat rw Sevrepw /3 , rot? TrpatTroo-trot? 8 . 



j 

7rt8t8orat. 8t8a>o't (rvwnOtLav rw 'Trpcorao'T/Kpr/rt? ,, <r , 20 



/% / ' A / \ A % / ' 

rot? TrpatTTOo-trot? t/3 , ra> Tra-TTta Kat rw 8evrep(p ^* . 
7' 6y8o77 77 rwi^ (nraOapL&v dta, T^? f3paj3iov, crTrdOr] xP V(T o Kav s> * K 

8 X , rot? (nraOapioLs t/3 , ra> TraTrta Kat rw Sevrepa),, /3 . 

K\a\aa-fj.vov K^Koo-y^^vov CK TreptAevKto?, eK /SacrtAtKTJ? xetpo? e7rt8t- 
8orat. 8t8a)crt (rvvrjOziav r<S TraTrta Kat rai 8eurepw 8 , ro> r^? Karao*rd- 



, rot? 



T) T&V 8torr'7rara>z; d^ta, ^? (Spafe'iov, y&pTir]s 

e-TTtStSorat. 8t8et (rvvrj0Lav rot? TrpatTroo-trot? ,, t/3 , 



^7 row TTpaiTocnTaOapitoV dfta, ^? j8pa/3etoz^, KAoto? 

K \LQu>v rt^tcoz; KeKoo-/xr/fx,eVo?, 8ta \ipb$ /3ao-tAea)? e-Trt- 
8t8a)o*t o~WiJ0etai> rot? Trpcaroo-Tra^aptot? 6vyo^x.ots ^8 , rot? 
TTp<DTO(nraOapLois /3ap/3arot? K8 , rw Kare-Trd^a) trj , rw 
710 /3ao-tAiK<3z> 9', rw Trama Kat rw Sevrepw ,,9'. et 8e et? roz; 

TrapaboOf), rw TraTTta 8t8a>o-t K8'. iarcov 8e, ort Kat, 8?}/>tapxo? et 
ef avT&v ri?, 8t8et rot? TrpatTroo-trot? o^3 . 6/otota)? Kat 6 r?j? Karao-rdo-eo)? 
rot? avrot? TrpatTroo-trot? o/3'. 
t/y 8a)8eKarr7 ^ TWV Trepi/SAe-Trrcoz; TrarptKta)^ d^ta, ^? /3pa/3tor, -rr 



3 ffcXfvnapiwv L et sic ubique 7 SiSi L 709 23 KareSo^eo-Ti/cy L : corr. R 

25 xpwrov L 30 St5t L 32 KA.uJy L, ot suprascr. man. rec. 710 37 Tt/0f; L 
38 5/5i L 40 TT\dKais L 



4>IA00EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 135 

\<f>avTLV(u KeKO(r/u,r7/xeVai vvv KO)8tKeAAots eyyeypa/^e'rots ets TVTTOV TOV 
vofjiov, K paa-iXiKTJs x.ipbs em8i8ozrrat. Trape'xet 8e rots Kotramrats, et 
apa Kat /xr/zwflrj, Atrpas /3 . eis 6e TO aTTOKo'/ui/Btoy rots TrpatTroo-trots o-w 
row Kov(3ovK\Lov Kat rots Aotmns XP V " Atrpas r? . raura 6e o$(/HKidAios 
5 Kat orparrjyos 5&OMWP. 6 8e aTrparos 8t'8et Atrpas f , Kat rw TTJS /cara- 
arev rou O^LKLOV tj8 , ro O^LKLOV TT , rw ^evrepco ^irep rfir 
cts ra ra/3Ata rou x^ az;t ^ t/01 ' > K , rw /caznKAeuo vTrep roo 



t^ , ets 



aTr) f] T&V avOvircLTtov dfta, ^s /3pa/3etor, KcoSt/ceAAot aAovp- iy' 
10 yoet6"et? yeypajUjueVot, CK /3acrtAtK^s x.etpos e7Ti8t6ovrat. 8t8a)(rt (rvvriOtiai' 
TOV TOV /cazn/cAetou ,, r]', Kat rai 8evrepa> 8', Kat rots TrpatTroo'trots K^. 

7] T&V e^Sofordrcor /xaytcrrpcoz; dfta, ^s fipapeiov, iS r 



KOKKIVOS K \{0(*)V TijJiitov KKo<T[jir]fjLV'ri, rJTis Aeyerat /3aArt8t^, em 
15 rou Kov(ri<TTopiov K ^3a(rtAtK7/s x L P os f7rt8t8orat. St'Saxrt crvvriQeiav rai 711 
r^s Karaordo-ecos ro Ka^Lcnv CLVTOV, rots o"e TrpatTroo-trots Kal /aaytcrrpots 
<Tvv<rTiaTai 7rap\a)v avTols Kat 8o r /xara t/xarta)z^. (rvvriOeiav be rots -Trpat- 
Troo-trots Kat juaytorpots Kat AotTrots r^z; roi; TrarptKtov 6t7rA^y avvrjOtiav 



20 TTVTKaibKaTrj 77 r?js fa)o-r?Js TrarptKtas dfta, ^s /3pa/3etoi^, 
o/xotcos rots TrarptKtots, CK ^Lpos /3ao-tAea)s 7rt8t8orat. 
rots ^3ao-tAtKots KAr;ptKots K', ro> Sevrepw ,, K^', roi)s Kotrcoz;tras 
Atrpas y', ro Kov/3ovK\iov <rvv rots TrpatTroo-trots /aoVots XP V(70 ^ Atrpas y' 
Kat ro o-rtxdpti; avr?Js rfi 'TrpatTrocrtrw. rw TTJS rpaTrefr^s rrjs avyovo-rrys 
25 /utera rr^z^ 7rpcoro/3eo'rtapta^ Kat r^ TrpLfjuKi^pLcrcrav Kat ras Kotrtoz.'trto"(Tas 
Kat KOv(SovK\apta$ Atrpas ^3'. 

^7 row KovpOTraAdrou dfta, ^s fipapciov, \LTO)V KOKKLVOS 
Kat xAa/xvs Kat C^^ 7 ?* ^ K X et P OJ /^acrtAe'cos eTit raov Kvptov 
e7rt8t8orai. StScotrt <rvvri6iav rr]v TOV /utaytorpov 
30 Sevrepa) Atrpaz; a', irapixfov ira<riv d^rtA^ets Kat ava(3L(3a(TjjLOvs. 

CTrraKatSeKdrr; ^ row zJco/SeArjo-t/tAov dfta, ^s j3pa/3et 
dAovpyt'8os xpvvoOeTos Kat xAajuvs Kat fw^, K x L P os /SatrtAecos 
Kvptou Aa/x,7rpws e7rt8t8orat. 8t'8axri crvvriOeiav Ka^a>s Kat 6 KcopoTraAdn/s. 

OKrcoKatSeKarr; ?J roi; Kato-apos dfta, Trapo/xota rrjs (3acri\iKfjs 8o'frjs, ^s 07' 712 
35 fipafitiov, a-Tttyavos x^P^ 5 orTavpLKOv TVTTOV, em vaov KvpCov eK /3ao-tAtK^s 
XCtpos em Kopv<f)fjs e-Trtrt^erat. 8t8a)0"t crvvrjOcLav, ws Kat 6 



*O 8e yeyo^cbs avroKpdrcop /3ao-tAevs bibaMnv ets TTJZJ aytai^ roi; 

^ Atrpas p', Kat rrj o-uyKATJro) 7700-77 o*vr 



7 KaviK\-i]u L 13 eVi/ils L 15 xp vff o(TToptov L correxit Bieliaev I 117 

(cf. Cer. 232 15 ) 711 15 ry L 16 Ka^iffiov B 17 S^aroL 20 irAttacus e\e- 
^Avrtvf L 21 ^TTtStSwrat L Sf5o(Tt L 24 ffnxdpiov B 25 KOiTUVir-fiffas L 

29 StSotrt L 712 37 adnotationem marginalem quasi titulum in textu exhibet B 



136 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



TO) TOV KOVfioVK\LOV KOi AotTTOtS \pV(TOV AtrpaS p , Kdl \L\ldaS bia(j)6pOVS 

jutAtaprjo-tW eKa0T(j> ray/xart Kat o(</>tKtW rr/ (rvoraorei. rots be Trpat- 
TToo-trots eV efatpe'ro) d$(/>tKta bLbaxnv Kat avTLXrj\lsL$ dftoo/xarcoz; ets 
Kat avOputTTOvs avr&v, Kat az/a/3i/3ao7xovs CLVT&V T>V 'npai'nocriTMV, 
az^ atrTJo-o^rai, Xa^ftavovo-iv. 5 

6 6e ye Sevrepo? jSao-tAevs 8t6too-t ro rjfjua-v TOVTMV. 
K be T&V irpo\X^dcvT<t)v ata)juara)z; at jutez; Trevre a^tat rrj o-vyKXrjra) 
i, olov rj CLTTO firdp^v, f] rG>v a-tXe^rtaptcoz;, 77 rwr /3eo-r?]ropa)j;, 
V Kdi bLcrvTrciTtov. at 8e AotTrat 7ra(7at e^ rots /3acrtAtKO?9 
Karararroz^rat Kca5tfiy. 10 

(Dignitates per edictum Ix.) 

at 8e 8ta Ao'yov (3a(TL\iKOv rots d^tots -Trpoo-yt^o/xez/at 6"o'at Kat ets ro 

ap\LV T&V VTrorerayjueVcof dc^o/oto-^eto-at et(rt Kat atrat rov apiOjJLOv f , 

atrtres, a>s l^a/aer, Xoya) /3a(rtAea)s T:pocryiv6^vai t iraXw paStcos d<^>at- 

povvrai Kat eK 7rpoo"()7ra)^ ets TrpocrcoTra ^OLcrravTai. '5 

713 [a'] Kat Trpcorrj /u,ez> Kat ^teyicrrr] ^ rou /3a<rtAeo7raropos Trapa Aeovros ro 



?/ rou patKrcopos dfta* 
17 row 



e rOV ofJL(TTLKOV TV 

<? f] TOV (TTpCLTr]yOV T&V 'ApfJLViaK(*)V 

' r] TOV (TTpaTrjyov r 

17' ^ roi; KOjar/ros roi; 

0' 77 row (TTpaTriyov T&V BouKeAAap&oy 25 

t' r; rou orparryyoi; Ka7T7ra8oKtas* 

ta 17 rou (TTpaTrjyov Xapo*taz^o{;* 

t/3' 77 rou (TTpaTrjyov KoAcor tas- 

ty' 77 roC (TTpaTrjyov na^Aaycoz/tas' 

t8 r r; rou crrpar^yoz) rr^s paKrys* 3 

te' ry roi) (TTpaTrjyov MaKebovias* 

ic? T] TOV o~TpaTT]yov XaAStas* 

t^' r; row 6o)uieo"rtKOu rwy e<rKov/3tra)z/ dta* 

117' 77 roO e-Trapxou TroAews dfta* 

t^' 77 row orparrjyou neAoTrow^Tjo-of 35 

K' 77 row (TTpaTrjyov NtKOTroAecos' 

Ka' 77 roi; o~TpaTrjyov T&V Kt/3t;ppata)r&)z;* 

K^3' 77 row (TTpaTrjyov *EAAci8os' 

Ky' 77 rou (TTpaTrjyov StKeAtas' 

K8 r r) roi; o~TpaTrjyov 2rpi;//oVo$' 4 



2 /C(O-TO L 3 e'lepera) L 6 notas marginales, quae desunt in B, ex codice 

addidi 713 35 neAoTro^o-ou L 



<I>IAOEOT KAHTOPOAOriON 137 






TOV o~TpaTT)yov 
Kff 77 TOV crrpaTrjyov 

K(' f] TOV (TTpCLTYiyOV TOV 

KTJ f f] TOV CTTpaTTjyOV T7J9 SttjUOf 

5 K#' r) TOV (TTpaTiqyov TOV Aiye'ov 
A' r) TOV o~TpaTr)yov 
Aa' f) TOV o-TpaTrjyov 
X(3 f rj TOV (TaKeAAaptoD* 
Ay fj TOV XoyoQtTov TOV 

10 Xo' TJ TOV KVCLL(TT(t)pOS CL^ 

Ae' f] TOV XoyoOcTov TOV 

AS"' f) TOV bpovyyapiov TTJS /3i'yAas- 

\C f] T v XoyoOeTov TOV opofjiov a 

XTJ' f) TOV bpovyyapiov TU>V 

A^' 77 TOV 7Tpu>TO(T7ra6apiov 

fji 77 TOV XoyoQtTov T&V dyeA<3i>* 

l^Oi f) TOV OOfJi(TTCKOV T&V IKCLVCLTW 

/Z/3 7] TOV 00[J,O~TiKOV TWV VOVjJLp(tiV' 714 

fJLy f) TOV bo]JL(TTLKOV T&V OT 

2O fj,b f] TOV KOjUt7]TOS T&V 

jue' f) TOV \apTovXap LOV TOV o-a/ceAAioir 
JUKJ"' 77 TOV x a pTOvXapLOv TOV (3o~Tiap(ow 
/mf r) TOV \apTovXapiov TOV KavLK\fiov 

fJLT]' f) TOV TTpMTOO-TpCLTOpOS' 

1*6' r) TOV TTpaiToao-TiKprjTis aia' 

V f) TOV K TTpOO-toTTOV T&V 0[JLaT(i)V 
Vdf f) TOV KOfJLYITOS TOV (TTafiXoW 
V$ 7} TOV lblKOV' 

vy f} TOV fjifydXov KovpaTaipos' 
3 ^8' 77 TOV KovpaTO)po$ T&V 

V f] T&V 

v^ j] TQV 
v fj TOV 

vj] f] TOV brjfjidpxov 
35 vQ' f) TOV TTJS 

f ' 7/ TOV bofJLZCTTlKOV T&V fia<TlXiKti>V. 

Kat avTai TO, vvv TL^rjdelcrat, a^tat e^rt Aeorro? 

(Classes vii dignitatum supradictarum.) 
biaLpovvTat, ovv avTai naval els juep?] eTrra, olov ets o-Tpa,Trjyovs, els 

bofJ,(TTLKOVS, 19 KpLTCLS, LS (TKpTLKOVS, tS brj^OKpCLTaS, 19 

Kal t9 t8iKa9 novas afui9. 

5 Alyaiov B 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



(I. orparT/yoi 6Vat \v rats T&V (TTpaTrjy&v Karardrrovrat rdfets etcrt TOV a 
K<?'- 6 crrparrjyos T&V ' AvaroXiKuv 6 crrparrjyos T&V 'A 
crrpar?7yos raw paKTjcruozr 6 KO/XTJS TOV 'O\/aKtov 6 orparrjyos T&V Bov- 
KeAAaptcozr 6 crrparrjyos KaTTTraSoKtas* 6 crrpar??yos Xapcrtavoir 6 crrpa- 
Trjybs KoAcouetas* 6 crrparryyos Ha^Aaycoznas' 6 orparTjyos rrjs paKrjs* 5 
6 crrparryyos MaKeSozn'as* 6 orparrjyos XaAcu'as. avrat ow at orpar^ycat 

715 rots 'AraroXtKots d^aa-iv (crvv)api0^ovvTai. at 8e r?js 8weci)s eto-ti; 
avrat* 6 orparryyo? neXoTroi'^Tyo'ov 6 orparryyos NtKOTroAecos* 6 orpa- 
TTjybs Kt^Suppatcorwi;' 6 arparTjyos 'EAAaSos' 6 orparryyos StKeAAtas* 6 
arpar^yds 2rpi;/xwos* 6 orparryyos Kec^aArjinas* 6 crrparryyds 0eo-(raAort- 10 
KTJS* 6 (rrparr/yos ro A^ppa^tov 6 arparrjyos TTJS 2ajuov 6 oTparrjyo? 
roi; Atyeou TreAayous* 6 orpar^yos AaA/martas- 6 arpar^yos 

feat ot e/c TrpocrcoTTOV etcrt r<Sz> ^ejutarcoi'. 
(II. So^e- a ^ g e ^ 9 go/aeo-rtKOVj rarro/xerat eta-t roz> apiO^bv f, otoi; 6 

rail; cr^oAwz;, 6 SojuteVrtKos rcSz; efo"Kov^3tra)z;, 6 Spouyyciptoj roC 15 
, 6 8o/xo-rtKOS r<Si> Uaz;ara)^, 6 8o/x,eVrtKOs rwi; vovptptov, 6 
ra>z^ OTrrrj/xaroozJ, 6 8o/xeVrtKOS rwi; retxea)^, ot Kat 

Aeyorrat. 
(III. rptrm'S) O t 8e ets Kptras Aoytfo/xerot eto-t ror apiO^bv y' ', otoy 6 eirap^os TroAecoy, 

6 Kueara>p, 6 rov 8e?}o-ea)s. 20 

(IV. a-KpTi- a l g^ e fc o-e/cpera KaOe^ofJievaC ctcrt Kat avrat roy apiO^ov la, olov 6 

0-ttKeAAapios, 6 Aoyo^erry? roi; yew/coS, 6 Aoyo^errys roi; (rrpartcortKoS, 

6 Aoyoflerrjs roi; bpopov, 6 \apTov\dpios TOV craKeAAtov, 6 ^aprovAaptos 

roC /3eo-rtaptov, 6 Trpajroao-^Kp^rtj, 6 ro) etdtKou, 6 juteyas Kovpcircop, 6 TWZJ 

payyavtov, 6 optyavoTpotyos. 2 5 

(V. dnpoicpd- at 8e et? 877 /a OK par as eto-t TOV apiQ^bv 8vo, otov 6 8?J/utapxos Bererco^ 

Kal 6 8?j/zapxos Tlpao-Lvow. 
(VI. orpa- at 8e ts o-rparap)(as etcrt Kat avrat roi; apiQ^bv e', otoy 6 erat- 

petapx^s, 6 bpovyyapios TOV TrAot/xov, 6 Aoyofle'rrjs raiz; dyeAwr, 6 -Trpcoro- 

cT7ra0dptos rwi; /3acrtAtKwz;, 6 Ko r /xrys roi; crrd/3Aot;. 
(VII. 6i'5tKai at 8e ets et'StKas ftoVas aft as eto-t Kat aSrat roi; apiQpbv f, otoi> 

716 ^ /3acrtAeo7rdrcop, 6 paforoop, 6 cnyyKeAAos, 6 \apTov\dpios TOV KCLVIK\(OV, 
6 -TTpcorocrrpdrcop, 6 rr/s Karacrrdcrecos, 6 So/^teVrtKos r<Sz; /3acriAtK(Sz>. 

(OFFICIA. ) 

At Se vTTorfrajfjLfvai eKdffrr) rovrcav apx? ' Ka * ffweirtficvou avrais flffiv e| bv6p.aros 35 

oSrat. 



TOVTU>V 
Kara ava\oyiav Kat raftr Kat r?js eKacrrou 7rpoeAev(rea>s, a Kat avra 

714 7 (ffvv)api6fji.ovvrai scrips! : apiO/novvrai L 715 8 ireXoirovliaov L 12 At- 

B 13 ot scrips! (sed fort. del. eiVl) : ot L e^^arwv scrips! : ffxo^v L 

17 OTTTTfjUaTCWI/ L $1 TcD^ apl9fJ.S}V L 716 36 00TO L 



<J>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 



139 

rpta- eis ray- 



6Vo/zabyrat. 6"tatpowrat 8e Kat avra eis 

IJLCLTIKOVS, CIS 06/^artKOVS Kttt IS (T Vy K\r] T I KOV S. 

ro) yap crrparrjya) r&v ' AvaroXLK&v VTiomTrrova-iv Kara fiadfjibv 

afia)/xara>z; ta', olov 

/ t 

5 1 TOVpfJidp^aL, 7 KO[JL7)TS 6/01010)?, 

2 /xepiapx.^?^ ^ Kevrapxos T&V 

3 KO/xr^s r^s Koprr/s, 9 KO^S rrjs eratpeta?, 

4 xaprovAapto? rou ^e/xaros, 10 

5 $OIJL(TTIKOS TOV 6^jJLaTOS, 11 

10 6 bpovyyapioL T&V fidvbav, 

ro) 8e SojuteortKO) r<3y 0-^0X0)1; VTroTriTTToww Kara fiaOfjibv etSrj dftca- 
M arcoV i', oloz; 

1 fia.0ij.ov TTptorov, TOTroTrjprjTYis, 6 TrportKropes, 

2 (/3 r ) 6vo Ko/x^rc? rwy o-)(oA5r, 7 
I 5 3 y 7 -^apTovXapLoSy 8 

4 8 r 6o/meVrtKot, 9 a 

5 7Tpoefr//xoj, 10 

ra> 8e a-rarrw rcSi; 'Ap/x,eiuaK<Sz; vTroTrfaTova-i Kat avrai ei8r; af t 



i. Strategi 

Orientalium 

omcmm. 



2. Domestici 
scholarum. 



Kara SaOuov, ocra Kat rw (rrparriyai ry 'Az>aroAtK<3u. Kat Ka^ef??? rats 
20 AotTrats o-rparTjytats, 

irXwz; er rots TrXotuotS' Trpoortflerai yap avrots Ke^rapvot Kat 7rpa>ro- 



rw 

n 

1 



ro7rorr;pryr??s, 



VTroreraKrat et8r/ a 
X, , , 

o crKVO(/)Opot, 



', otoi; 



2 5 



3 cTKptySores, 

4 7rpa)ro/zaz;6arft>p, 

5 SpaKoraptoi, 

t rr?s TroAeojs VTroreraKrat 



8 o-tr^ropes, Kat 



30 



35 



ra 

i l / 

1 (rvfjiTrovos, 

2 Aoyo^err/s ro Trpatrcoptov, 

3 Kptrat raJy peyew^coz^, 

4 e7rt<rKe7rr?7rat, 

5 TTpcoroKayKeAAaptot, 

6 KVTVpio)V, 

7 eTToVrat, 

rai 6e oraKeAAapta) VTror^raKrat ra 
o-Kper<p rr)v cTncrKOTrrjV r&v 
otKetou vorapiov 



, otor 



717 

? -1 ^ 16 28, 

Strategorum 

thematum 

reliquorum 

terrestrium 

et mariti- 

morum. 

14. Domestici 

Excubi- 

torum. 



15. Praefecti 
urbis. 



o 
o 

9 
10 



12 Trpocrrarat, 

13 KayKeAAaptot, 

14 6 TrapaflaAao-o-t'rrjs. 

-Trcirra 8ta ro er Kao-ro) 29. Sacel- 
TOV 



5 rpovfjLapxai L 6 /j.fpidpx^ s scrips! : ^^ueptcpx at L : H*p"ipX at ^ Io Spovyydpioi 
Scripsi : -os L B 14 ' scrips! : Suo L 717 24 TOTTOTTJPTJT^S scripsi : -raf L 

25 xaprouAaptos scripsi : -tot L 27 TrpwTo/icwSciTwp scripsi : -opes L 39 oliciov L 



140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



30. Logothe- 
tae genici. 



31. Quae- 
storis. 



718 



32. Logothe- 

tae 

Stratiotici. 



33. Drungarii 
arithmi. 



34. Drungarii 
classium. 



35. Logothe- 
tae cursus. 



36. Protospa- 

tharii 

basilicorum. 



ro> be Aoyofleny TOV yevLKOv VTroreraKrat etbrj dftco/u,dra>z> Kara 
', olov 
1 x.apTov\dpiOL jueydAot TOV <reKpe- 7 6 r?}s Kovparcopta?, 



TOV, 

% yapTovXdpioi T&V apK\&v, 
3 fTTOTTTdi T&V 06/uarcoi>, 
4 

5 6 oi 

6 KOVfJLtpKL&plOl, 

ra> 



8 6 KO//,??? r?/? Aa/xtas, 

9 bioiKrjTai, 

10 KopevTiavos, 

11 TrpcoroKayKeAAapio?, 

12 KayKeAAaptot. 



, ooz; 



10 



2 ffxptpas, 

3 (TKeTTTCOp, ( 

ra> 8e Aoyo0eY?7 roi; (rrpartcortKou vTroreraKrat 6^8?] dia)/xaYa)i' ^"', otoy 

1 )(aprovA(!tptot ro (reKpatrou, 5 oTrrtoi'es, 15 

2 \apTov\dpioi TU>V ^e/udrcoz;, 6 TrpcoroKayKeAAdpios, 

3 ^aprouAaptoi rwz; ray^ara)^, 7 /naz>8aropey. 

4 Aeyaraptot, 

ra> 8e bpovyyapiv TOV apiOpov VTroreraKrat et8r; dftco/xartoi' t', otoi; 

1 TOTTOTTJpTJTfJSf 6 (BcLvbocbopOl, 2O 

2 yapTovXdpios, 7 AajSovptVtot, 

3 aKoAov^o?, 8 

4 Ko'jur/res, 9 

5 Kcvrapxpi, 10 

ra> 8e Sponyyapta) rooi; TrAoi/xcoy VTroreraKrat etSr; d^tco/adrcoz; f, otoy 25 

1 roTTorrypryrTJj, 5 KVTapx<>i>, 

2 -^apTovXdpLos, 6 KOjotr;? r^j eratpetas, 

3 7rpa)ro//,a^8aro)p, 7 



r<3 8e Aoyo^er?/ row bpofjiov vTroreraKrac et8ry dftca/uarcoz/ f 7 , otov 30 

1 Trpcoroz/ordptos rod Spo/xou, 5 6 Koupdrcoproi; aTTOKpto-taptetot;, 

2 \apTOV\dpioi, TOV bpopov, 6 

3 7rto-K7rr?}rat, 7 



rwz; 



35 



otov 

1 bo[ji<TTiKOs T&V jSacTiXiK&v, 3 Kar8t8arot 6/Wa>y, 

2 (nraOdpLOL TOV cnTaOapiKiov, rjTOL 4 xat (3a<Ti\LKol 

TOV 



3 fffKpairov L (et saepe) 8 olKtcrriK6s com. R recte : KUTT^S L B 718 20, 26 TO- 

TTOTTJ/MJT^S SCripSl I -TJTOt L 2? K^7JTS T^S TOtp6JOS B 



4>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 



141 



1 6 Trpcoroyoraptos 'Ao-ta?, 

2 6 TrpMTovoTapLos 4>pvyias, 

3 OLOLKrjTOi T&V fJLrjTCLTMV, 



37. Logothe- 
tae gregum. 



8o/xeo-rtKO) T>V IKCLVOLTO^V vTroreraKrat ibr] dftoo/xara)^ & ', olov~ - 38. Domestic! 



1 roTrorijprjrrjs, 

2 xaprouAapios, 

3 

4 

5 KVTCLpXOl 



TOTTOTrjpYJTrjS, 



2 a rpifiovvoi, 



3 Trpcorojuaz^arcop, 
15 rcT 8e SojutecrrtKa) rwi; o-nrt/xarcoz; vTrorera/crat 6^77 dftcojutara)^ e', 

1 ro-TTorr/prjr?]?, 4 K.tvrap\oi, 

2 ^apTOvXdpios, 
3 



ro) 8e 8ojU(rru(p raiz; ret)(ecoz; -yTroreraKrat etdr; 

20 1 rOTTOrTJpTJTTJS, 4 

2 -^apTovXapios 2 a rpt/3owot, 5 

3 7rpa>ro/xai'8ara>p, 6 Tropraptoc. 

TO) 8e xoprouAapto) roi; o-aKeAAtov VTroreraKrat etdr/ dftco/xira)i' 

1 VOTCLpLOL fiCL(TL\I.Kol TOV (TKpTOV, 6 yrjpOKo'/XOl, 

25 2 TrptoTovordpLOL rS>v 0juara>ZJ, 7 ^apro^Aapiot 

3 ^euodo'xoi, 8 TrpairoKayKeAAaptoj, 

4 6 fuyoora'njs, 9 KayxeAAaptot, Kat 

5 /uerprjrcu, 10 6 So/xeWtKos TTJS 

ra> 8e \apTOV\apito TOV pecrTiapiov ^TroreraKrai etSry d 
30 1 /3ao-tAtKOt vordpioL TOV (TKpTov, 6 )(aprovAaptos, 

2 Kevrapxos', 7 Kovparope?, 

3 Aeyarapto?, 8 

4 apxjtov TTJS xapayfjs, 9 

5 efaprtoT?]?, 10 (jaar8dr)opS. 

35 rw 6e \apTOV\ap ta> roi; KaviKXeiov ovfev i;7ro7re7rra)K6 8ta ro 

fJLOVOV V 



otoz; 



hicanatorum. 



719 



39. Domestic! 
numerorum. 



40. Domestic! 

optima- 

torum. 



41.Domestici 
moenium. 



42. Chartu- 

larii 

sacellii. 



i, olov 43. Chartu- 
larii 
vestiarii. 



kavTov 44. Chartu- 
larii 
caniclei. 



I (e') supplevi 6 TOTTOTTjprjr^s SCripsi : roirorripirai L 

719 9 fjiavSarapfs L 12 TOTrorrjprjr^s scrips! : -rjrat L 13 et 21 x a P rov ^ L P L l T P l ~ 

fiovvoi L B correxi 16 et 20 TOTTOTT/P^T^S scrips! : Toiror-npl L : -rjTot B 28 /ue- 

rpirat L 33, 34 irp(aro^av5dr(<up t /iai/SarJopes scrips! : irpUTOfj-avSaTopes L B 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



45. Protostra- 
toris. 



46. Protoase- 
cretae. 



720 

47. Comiti 
stabuli. 

48. Idiei. 



49. Curatoris 
magni. 



50. Curatoris 
Mangano- 
rum. 

51. Orphano- 
trophi. 



52, 53. De- 
marchorum 
duorum. 



54. Ceri- 
moniarii. 



6e TrpcorooTpdropt VTroreraKrat lb-rj d 
orpdrcopes, 3 



y', olov 



, KOL 
TO) 6e Trpcoroao-TJKprjrts 1 v7ro7re7rra>Kez> flbrj dftaj/xdrcoz; y', olov 

1 do-ryKpr/rat, 3 6 6eKai>dy. 

2 vordpLoi /3a(rtXtKot, 

r<S 8e Ko'p?rt TOV <rrd/3Xov viroTtTCLKTai, flbrj a^^aT^v (. . olov). . 

rai be 7rl row etStKou Aoyou vTroreraKrat etr] d 

1 (3ao-i\iKol vorapLOi TOV (reK/oerou, 3 e/38o/xa/noi, 



V pyoboa-i(t)V, 



vorpioi, 

3 Kovpdropes T&V TraXartcor, 

4 KOVpaTOpS T&V 

5 /xetfo'repo? 



4 

1877 d 

6 6 

7 6 ^vobo^os Tlv\&v, 

8 6 

9 771(7X6777^70 1. 



epyoSocrtW. 10 



at 



15 



ro> oe Kouparopt rcor 
/uteydXw Koupdropt, TrX^ r<3i> 
ra> 8e op(f)avoTp6<f)<j) v 

1 \apTOV\dpLOL TOV OtKOU, 

2 x a P 7 " ov ^/ 3tot <r ^ ocriov, 
rots 8e 8u<rt 8^/xdpxots 

1 6eirepevoi^res, 

2 6 xaprouXaptos, ^at 

3 6 TrotTjr^s, 

4 dpxorres, 



6Va 



dto)ju,dra)i' 8', ot 
3 dpKaptos, 



20 



4 



Koupropey. 



5 yetrozudpxat, 
rai 8e em 

1 VTTCLTOl, 

2 
3 



vTroreraKrat etSi; dta>^ara)z; dra f, 

6 /xeXttrrat, 

7 voTapioi T&V /xep<3i>, 
8 

9 
10 



e r , oloi; 



721 Ai 



ews /col T^S TJ/ d 

ru>v ffvyqQfiwv avrwv. 

dftat Kat aiirat /u,6i^ 8 



avru>v KvpioK\r)(rias Ka\ 



bioovTai. 



yap at 



avraii; epyw rd? dft'a? ro/uttjacos Xappdvova-iv at 8e Xo'ya> roty dftots 35 
t Kat pa8ta)s eK Trpoo-cuTrcoi; et? TrpoVaiTra Xdya> /3ao-tXeajs 



3 ap/j.(ar)o(j>i>\aKs conicio 720 7 spatium duarum linearum in calce paginae 

vacat UTT& L : corr. R 14, 15 Kovpdrcapes B, et infra 22 t ' ? 24 ot 
Ac{/)iot /col oi TTOtTjrol expectes 29 oTrb eirdpxovTs LB 32 T 



4>IA00EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 143 

(Dignitates eunuchorum per insignia.) 

etVt o"e opov irao-cu al 6 to, /3pa/3eto>z> avrots Ttapeyopevai TOV apiOfJibv 
oKrco. 

Kat TrputTr) jj,V tv avrots 77 T&V m\//-to-rtapta)z> dfta yya>pterat, 779 <j 
5 (3pa(3iov Ka/xTJa-ioy Xtyow UTro/3Xarro'//,ez;oz> (r^TJ/^art fyiaXLov, Kat Xo'yw 
/3ao-tXea>s Trpo(rytz>o'juei>os. bibaxnv ow7J0taz> rots TrpaiTrocrtrots t/3', ra> 
o"ei>repa> y', ra> Trpt/uiiKrjpuj) avroC )3'. 

be fj TOV xovfiiKovXapiov afta, ^s (Spa(3iov f) ajuc^tao-ts rou /3 

Ka/xt(rtoi> Kat ^ ro{5 Xeyo^vov Trapayafibiov oroXr}, ^ Kai 
10 8ia TT^J rwz; Trpanroo-iTow irapovcrias yycoptferat* 8t8a)ort^ crvvriOciav rols 

TTpaLTTOCTLTOLS t/3', TW bfVTp<j> ', TO) 7T/)tjUt/C?7pia) j8'. 

rpi'ri; ^ rot) (nraOapoKOvfiiKovXapiov aCa, r)$ fipaflelov, cnraOCov y 
, 6/uoia>9 rots cnraOapioLS bia (3aa-L\LKrjs x^po? e7rtt8oraf 8t8axrt 
rots TrpatTroo-trots tr;', ra> TraTTta Kat rw Sevrepw /3', r -Trptjut- 
15 Krjpto) &'. 

f) T&V oo-rtaptcor dfta, ^s ^Spa^etoi;, XP V(T V pafibos e/c XiOwv 

tay exovo-a, 5ta \ipbs /3ao-tXea>s 7rt8t8orat. 
rw TraTrta Kat r<S Sevrepa) 6^, rots TrpatmHnrots K^', rai 



20 TTfjLTTTrj f] T&v up t/x tK7]p tcoz; dfta, ^s /3/oa/3etoi>, \ITU>V XevKos o-w 7ro- f 
/oitots Kat TrwXots xP vcr ov ( i>avTo<'S> A.afx,7rp<Ss djuc^taferat. 5t8et 
rots TrpatTTOortrots X^"', rw 8eure'p<j> t/3', ear apa G>(ret avroz; 

rw TTpl/XtKrjpUt) ,, ^ 

?; r<Sz> ez; avrots irpcoroo-Tra^apta)!^ d^ta, ^s (3pa(3eLov, \pv<rovv 
25 {JLavLCLKiov K \L0(i)v TifJLiMV KoL ^apyapLT&v, 7Tt rov av^vos bia 
jSao-tXecas eTTto-uyKXeterat. x 11 "^^ ^^ Ka ' ovTots XCVKOS 

Kat 8t7rXor]s KOKKtz^os o-i/z; ra/3Xfots \pvo- 
rots TrpatTTOo-trots Kai TrarptKtots evvov^ois Kat Trpcoroo-Traflaptots 

o/3 r , ra> TraTrta Kat ra> Sevrepw 9'. 
3 o kftbofjLrj be TT(f)VKV f) T&V Xa/X7r porarcor TrpatTrotrtrcoz; dfta, ^s 
/8pa/3etor, TrXaKes TrarptKtoVr^ros, az^ei; /uez; Kco^tKeXXcoz; 67rt 
XpV(roTpiK\ivov X 1 P' /Sao-tXecos eTrtStSoz^raf 6t8et crvvriQtiav, et apa 
Trpcoroo-Tra^ciptos ez^ ra> ajua, X. a', Kat r<j> 8evrep&) VTrep rwr TrXaKwz^ K8 r . 
t 8e Kat TrarptKtos 6 avros ^ ravrai rt/xr;^^, 8t8a)0"t crvvriOeiav a>s ot 
35 TrarptKtot. 

oydo'i? ^7 raiz; ey avrots TrarptKwoy dfta, ^s fipafieiov, TrXaKes, o^xotcos 
o-w Kco8iKeXXots ws Traa-t rots TrarptKtots bibovTai. ov 6"taXXarroi;0-i 8e 
ez; rats avru>v oroXats r?)s rwi^ Trpcoroo-Tra^aptcoz; d/x^tao-ecos TrXr/z> Xwpots 
Kat IJLOVOV, et apa Kat ^ r<Sz^ Trpcoroo-Tra^apttov avrots 



721 5 vvopXaTTo/ufvuv L Ajyos LB : correxi 9 KaKa^ffiov L ^ LB : correxi 
I7et722, ai St'StL 22 ^pL 23 t/iartj/ scrips! : r^aT^v L : /yuartovB 26 x- 
TWI/ L : xP varoK ^^ lTOS L 31 * Aa'/ccus L 32 Si5i L 34 ri/0fj L 36 TrAa/cozs L 
38 Aefipts L 



144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



, OlOV CLV e&TLV 6(j)<f)LKLOV, 

Trape\ov(riv be (rvvrjOeiav ol 



K(Jt)\VOVTCLl OL TrpatTToVtrOt V 6(j)(f)LKLOLS 

723 TOV flvai KOI TrpatTroVtro? Kat d((|)tKtaAto?. 
mirpiKtot evvov\oi Ka$o>? Kat ol /3ap/3arot. 

irapa be T&V els fafflCiaa Trpo^aAAo/xeVcou Travrav eKKo/xtfb/xeVov TOV 

>? eK Trpoo-toTrou TOV /3ao-iAe'o>?, TTJV CLTTOK.PKTIV rr/? 7rpo/3A?}- 5 
Xapfidveiv TOV CLVTOV TrpatTrorrtroy KaO* JfjcaoTOV ocfxpiKidkiov o~vvri~ 
Oeiav Kb'. umbels TOIVVV Trapa/Sat^e'rco TJ]V TOICLVTJ]V TO,LV re Kat o-racrti; 
T&V KTiOe^V(^v aftco/xarcoz;, rj aAXco? TTCOS ravra? //erepx.^ "^^* 7rA.?)y ra>z; 
K\rjpLKu>v KOL IJLOVOV. ovToi yap Aoyco jutoVa) nTpxovTai TCLS d^tas. 77 8e 

6apL(t)v aia bia ^acriAt/c^s \eipbs /aera eTTiptTrraptov /3ao-i- 10 
O 7rt(n;yKAeterat. rawa9 8e ras (rvvayofjievas o-vvrjOeCas T&V dftco- 

Trapa rot) TTCLTTLOV KOL TOV bevTepov fj,pi(r0ai avTots CTT' 10779 
r^5 o-vvrfOeias TOV \pvo-OTpiK\ivov, OTI /xoro/xepcS? rot; iraTTta eoTtz>. 
8e irXcLK&v KOL T&V /utaytarpa)^ Ka6 rwr TrptjuttK^ptcoy Kat rwz; Kovj3u<.ov\api<tiv 

dvei avra 6 8evrepo?, Ka^to? dz^corepo) 8iayopevet. roi; 6e 15 
o-TCLVpov TO) AvyovoTG) jutryi/i ^ep)(rat 6 mima?, Kat et rt az> 7rt- 
L, exet a^ra, Kat e CLVT&V bibaHriv Kat r<S Sevrepw /xepos rt. et 6e 
5t' abvvafjLiav etre vocrov OVK efep)(erat 6 Ttairias, efe'px^rat 6 bcvTtpos, 
Kat et rt au eTTKrvm^et, /xept^bi'rat a^ra o re Trama? Kat 6 8evrepos e 
t(rr]s. TTXL be 6 TraTuas raj e e/38o/xa8aj rovs 8tatraptoi;s Kat ro eXatoz^ 20 

724 ra>i> KafJiap&v TOV \pv(TOTpiK.\ivov avv T&V KavbrjXaTTT&v. TO be e\aiov 
TOV TroX.VKavbrj\ov TOV Kara ro fdcrov Kpe/xjutajueVou roi; y^pv<TOTpiK.Xivov Kat 
ra>r Ao tTrcSz; TroXvKavbrjktov Kat \/na0tW, eTtiKpaTovoriv avTa avTol ot Kai>- 
drjXaTrrat. eiteyjEi 6e Kat rovs Ao?;o-ra9 Kat rovs Ka^vdbas Kat rovs 
Kavbr)\diTTas TOV Xav&LaKov Kat rou 'lovo-rt^tayoi; Kat rovs wpoAoyovs Kat 25 
roi;j fapa^Sa?, Kat 6Vrt? e^ CLVT&V \etyr], e^et eovcriav Ttoie'iv avTia-rjKOVVTas, 
Kat Aaju/3az>et p x crvvr]6eiav avT&v, els /xe^ roi/s Trpt/xtKrjptov? ,, t^', Kat et? 
roi/j 8tatraptot? Kat AotTjm/? dz^a ,, <r , Xa^avovcri Se Kat ot 7rpt/HK?7ptot a , 
Kat 6 Aaos e'. eTreyjti 6e Kat 6 c"ei;repo? ra o-eAAta Kat roi>s Statraptov? 
Kat ror TTptfjiLK^piov avT&v Kat ra o-rejut/xara Kat rds ecr^ras rwy ^an-iAecoi' 3 
Kat ra ^8^Aa rov \pvaroT piK\ivov Kat rou? eTrt rwz; dAAaftjucoz; Kat rov? 
jBecrTTjTOpas crvv T&V TrptfxtKrjptoii' GLVT&V Kat ra a~Kevr] TU>V d^ta)/^ara)i' Kat 
roi? eTrt rear d^tco/xarcor, ot Kat (rwayoixTtz; ra d^tw/xara Trapa T&V Aa/x- 
fiavovTtov TCLS d^tas. Kat oorts ef avT&v Aetx/^r/, tVa Trapex?? o f*^AAwi> 
yiveo-Qai TCLS awrjfatas rw 8ei)repa), Karoos Kat 6 TraTrtas Aaju,/3a^et. et? 6e 35 
ras 7rpoe\ev(reis IVa o-vrayco^rat ot /3eo-r?jropes Kat ot Trpt/^ttKrjptot TrdVres, 
Kat fiao-Tafovcrtv ra KopviK\ia avv rot? a-Te^acriv. (rvvdyeo-Oai be TOVS 

725 afJL(f)OTep(tiv Statraptou? Kat /3a0Taetz> et? ra? 7rpoeAev(ret? ra ra/3Ata ra 
/3aortAtKa /uera rail' dAAaftjua)i>. aKoAov^etr 8e et? ra? TrpoeAewet? rou? 

723 12 eQiffff-ns L : eV )fa-r?s B : fort. e| ^s 13 fjLovo^fpbs L 15 forte (ra) 

20 ISoyiiaSos L 724 26 A.fy?7 L avriffiKovvTas L 27 ^2 L 33 

L per errorem ut videtur. Scribendum ras (rwrjOeias 34, 36 
t LB correxi 



<J>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 7 145 



rov? acriiKovs Kat rovy 
(3a<TTaovT KOL avTol vna6ia TO. fiaai\iKa els ras OYJKCLS CLVT&V. Kat Aa/x- 
fidvciv avrovs Trapa TOV (3ap(3dpov paiovftau eis ra TrpoKero-cu Aaju/3dz;etz/ 
o"e /cat vAoz> roy TraTtiav rrjv e/38ojutd5a iti&frav [JLLCLV, Kat TOV beurepov 
5 Trtcrcraz; /xtai/. rai;ra 8e Traz^ra ^vAdrrccr^at, rr^p?cr^at re /cat 
a7rapa(rd\VTa /cat 8ta/LteVety /3e/3ata, /cameos 77 evcre^r)? Kat 

c^e^ero, ws Kat e apyjcuitov T&V \p6va>v irapa r&v irpo fj 



(Dignitates eunuchorum per edictum.) 
8ta )8acriAt/coG A.J'you irpoffyivovrcu TOVTOIS aiau 

At 8e Aoya) upoayivo^vai TOVTOIS afuu t(rt Kat avrat roy apiOjJibv 

&' 



1 6 TrapaKoi/xco/zeuos ro{5 8eo"7rorov, 6 6 Sevrcpo? ro{) /xeydAov 

2 6 Trpcoro/SeoTidptoj roi; 8ecr7rorou, 7 6 77 tyKe/) 1/779 ro?5 6eo~7roroi;, 

3 6 em r?]s Tpaire&s TOV becriTOTov, 8 6 7rtyKep^r;s rr^s aiiyowrr??, 

4 6 eTrt rr^j rpaTreC^j rr/j avyovtrrryy, 9 6 TraTrtas rryj jjiavvavpas, 

5 6 TraTrtas roi; /uteydAov TraAartoi;, 10 6 Dramas rrjs Ad(f)vr]s. 
aAAa fAr)z/ Kat at aAAat Trao-at, 6Vat Kat rots ^3a/)/3drots 

TrAr/z; r^s ro{! 7rdp\ov Kat KueVrcopos Kat 8o/xeo-rtKO)^ aftas. 



20 T<W /8'. 726 

Sectio II. 
Tavras ovv aTrdcra? raj tpyco Kat Aoya> 8t5o/utera? d^tas crac^et Kat 

e Adyw 7rapao"r^(rat (T7rot;8do"arres, ov 
TOVTMV KaTairavaaL TOV \6yov, dAAa Kat, o /utdAto~ra v/ 
r^s Trept rwr KaOtbp&v aKpt^3etas KaOd^/aa-Oai Kat rr^z; viToOto-LV ets 
25 dydyat, Ka^a efrjrrjo-ao-fle. Kat yap TraAtz; a>s e7raz>aA?}\i/et rat? 

a-Trdo-at? xP 7 l (r ^t JLVOL T ^ v ^Aarrjs TOL^LV Kat K\rj(nv Kat otKetaz> Ka0opav 
aa(j)(rTpov vy^iv Kavovrjo-au e7r?Jx^r]/>te^. 6et yap roz; KaAeoz^ra apTiK\ivr]v 
TCLVTCLS fJLtv a7rd(raj aKpt/3a>s et8eVat, <i? ec/>a/xer, Kat rr/z; rcoz; tepaiy ^3ao-t- 
XLK&V K\r]T(opi(DV Kardcrra(rty 8trr&)9 Troteta-^at et? KOO-^CTLV, Kat ra> /xez/ 
Ao'ya) rTjz> K\.fj(nv rry? eKacrrou dftas otKeta? eK^epetz/, rrj 8e 8efta X et P Vt 
8ta roi) (r^ry^aros Trpo&btiKvveiv TOV eKacrrrj apfJi6ovTa TOTTOV, Kat roz> /xez; 
Trp(*)TOK\riTov <j)i\ov Trpos ro cvtovvjjiov TrporpeTreo'^at /xepos, OTTCOS 77 r?7S 
/Saa-tAtKTJs dftas (TTLOOO-LS V\pris rw -TrpcoroKATJra) yeV^rat ^>tAa), roz> 5e 
aTr' aiiroi; Sevrepor ey rot? Se^tdts Trpoo-KaAetcr^at, Kat Ae'yetv 

6 Trarptdpx^J 
6 Kat crap, 



725 4 TV scripsi : T^ L TT? e/35o^uo5t B 726 20 Hie incipit fragmentum cod. H 
2 3 farfireov L 24 irepi T^S TWV H 25 fi)r-i]<ra.ff8e H ^TT' cu/aA^e* B 30 om. 
Se H 31 roCro arxflfJ-aros H 33 MSuffis L 

M 10 



727 



146 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

6 KoupoTroAdrrjs, 
6 /3a<FtAeo7rdra>p, 
7) (/jOOTrj TrarptKta. 

e28eWt 8e Set, ort at avrai jzoVai aftat ez> rrj aTro/coTrrr) 
TOLS /3ao"tAeC(rtj>, a! 8e AotTrat Tracrai r^s Scvrepas V 



6 juaytorpos, 6 /xdytorpos 

(c 8e rts TOVT&V 6(f)(f)[Kiov rert/xijrat, TrpoKptVerat TOV kraipov, 
77). ctra 

6 pCLLKTOlp, 

6 o-vy/ceAAos 
6 av-/K\Xos 
(e^ 8e Kat rS>v rfjs 'A^aroA?jy TraTpiapx&v ru\oiv 

Kara TO. t5ta avT&v TraTpiaoi). eW oi/rcos 



Ta.ya 



10 



728 



VQVTO.I 

6 ap^iTTLa-K07ros BovAyaptas, 



KCU 

KOL 

/cat 

Kdl 

Kat 
/cat 
Kat 
Kat 
Kat 
Kat 
Kat 
Kat 
Kat 
[KO! 
Kat 
Kat 
Kat 
Kat 
Kai 
Kat 



15 



(6 6e a>v e avr&v kv 
6 avOvTraTos TrarpCKios 

6 avOvTTCLTOS TTCLTplKLOS 

6 avOviraros irarpLKLos 

6 avOvTTCLTOS TTCLTpLKlOS 

6 d^^VTraro? TrarptKtos 
6 avOvKaTos TrarptKtoy 
6 azj$v7raros Trarp^Ktoy 
6 avOviraros TrarptKto? 
6 avOviraros TrarptKtoy 
6 dz>07r7raroy TrarptKtoj 
6 avOvKCLTOs TrarptKtos 
6 avOvTraros TrarptKto? 
6 avOvTraTOs irarpCKLOs 
6 avOvTraTOs Trarp^Ktos 
6 avdvTraTos TrarptKtoy 
6 avdvTraros irarp^Ktos 
6 avOv-jraros TrarptKto? 
6 avQvTraTOs TrarptKtos 
6 tivOvTraros TrarptKtos 
6 



TrpoKpivtTCu. TOV 
crTparrjyos r&v * 

bofJ.<TTlKO$ T&V 

orparr/yos r<Sz; 'ApjutevtaKcor 

(TTpOLTTf]yO^ T&V 

KO'JUTJS roi; 'O\/rtKio 
o-rparr/yo? raii; Bov/ceAAap^cov 
(rrparryyo? KaTTTraSoKtas* 
crrparrjyos roO Xapo-iavov* 
orparryyds 
orpar^yo? 
errpar^yos r?js 
a-rpaT^yoy 
crrparryyoy XaAStay 
(rrparryyos] Kat 8o/xortKO? rw 
Trap\os rfjs 
arparT/yo? 
a-rpaTij-yos 
orparr^yo? rcoi> Kt/Svppatcorw^ 
orpar^yoj 'EAAciSoy 
crrparr/yos 2tKeAAtas* 



20 



*5 



I 

30 



35 



727 4 OTTO/COTTTJ TpoW^Tjs H 7 6 fjidyiffrpos semel H, bis L B 8 o<p<pncl((> H : 

i> L B traipov L : Sfvr^pov H 9 &rxoTa>s pro ^ff^aros $ H 11-12 cnry- 
K6Aos L 13 rotxvev L 14 TOUTO H 1 8 irarpiicios om. H et in sequentibus 

22 i ovfluiraroy /ctfyirjs H 25 ffTparyybs \apffiav6s H 31 /col o-rparrrybs L B : 

om. H 728 31 QffKovftir6p<av B : ^/c<r/cou/3/Ttov H 33 ireAoiroj/iVou L 34 6 di/fluir. 
. . . N</coWA.ea>r om. H 37 6 avQinraros /col crrpaTijybs A.oyyifiap5ias post 2</ceAjas H 



<t>IA00EOr KAHTOPOAOriON 147 



6 avOviTaTos TrarptKtos Kat orparTjyos 

6 avOviraros TrarptKtos /cat OTparrjyos 

6 avdvTraros 7rarp6ctos Kal orparrjyo's 

6 frvdviraros TrarptKtos Kal orparT/yos TOV &vppayj.ow 
5 6 avOviraTos TrarptKtos Kal orparrfyos TT/S 2a/utov 

6 avOviraros Trarp^aos Kal orparrjyos TOV Alyeov 

6 avdvTraTos TrarptKtos Kal orpar^yos AaA/uaras* 

6 avOviraros TrarptKtos Kal OTparrjybs Xepoxouos* 

6 avdvTraros irarpLKLos Kal o-a/ceAAa/otos* 
10 6 avdvTraros TrarpiKios Kal yeuiKos \oyoOerr]S' 

6 avOvTraros -rrarpuao? Kal Kueortop 1 

6 avOvTraros TrarpiKLos Kal \oyodcrrjs rov (rrparta>rt/coi;* 

6 avOviraTos TrarptKtos xal ftpovyydpios rrjs 

6 avOviraros irarpiKios Kal bpovyydpios T&V 
15 o av6vTraTOS Trarpt/ctos Kat \oyoOerrjs TOV bpopow 

6 avOviraros TrarpiKto? /cat Aoyoflerrjs rair 

6 avOvnaros TrarpiKLos Kal So/xea-rt/co? raii; 

6 avOvTraros Trarpt/cto? /cat 6oju,e0Ti/cos 

6 avOvTraros Trarp^ao? /cat So/xeort/cos 
30 6 avOvTraros Trarpt/ctos /cat /CO'/UTJS rai^ 

6 avOvTraros Trarpt/cto? /cat ^aprovAapto? rot) 

6 avOviraTos Trarpt/ctos Kat \aprov\dpios TOV /Seartapt'ov 

6 avdviraTos Trarp^Ktos Kat x.apTov\dpios TOV 

6 dyflvTraro? TrarptKtos Kat Trpcaroorparcop' 
2 5 6 avOviraTos Trarp^Ktos Kat TrpcoToacr^KpT^r^s 1 

6 avOvTraTos TrarptKto? Kat KO/mr;? roO crra^Aov 

6 a^^-Traroj TrarptKtos Kat CK Trpoo-wTrov r<oz; 

6 avOviraTos TrarptKtos Kat ^m roC 6t8tKoi5* 

6 d^VTraroy ^arptKtos Kat /xeyay Kovparcop* 
3 6 avOvTraTos Trarp^Ktos Kat Kovparcop raii; MayydVcozr 

6 avOvTraTos TrarptKto? Kat eirt 

6 dv^vTraros TrarptKtos Kat op^arorpoc^os* 

6 d^vTraro? Trarpuctoy Kat 

6 dz>0V7raros Trarp^Ktos Kat 
35 et 8e ^ eTez; Trai/re? avOviraToi ol kv rots o^c^tK^ot? rerayfi^roi, dAA' 
TTJ TWI^ TrarpiKtooi; dfta ra orparrjydra ^ ra 8o/xecrrtKara ^ ra 
TTpocr\dj3ovTo, ol fjicv Airot avOvTraTOi. T>V Iv rots d^x^tKiois rcray- 
arptKticor ^v rats Ka0e8pats irpoKpivowai, br)\ovoTt eKatrros avr&v 
Kara r^z^ ^TriboaLV TOV KcodtKeAAou avroC ra> 



6 Pdyalov B 9 trahreAAapis H IO 'yevtKo? H 13 6 di/dviraros icai fteyas 

CTfpidpX'ns' 6 avQinraros Kal OIKOVU/J.OS rfjs jU67c(A'>7S ^KK\r)ffias post pty\r)s H 14 irAof- 

/ta/ B 17 (i dv0i5ir. . . . iKa.va.TW om. H Si <i ivdwr. . . . ffcuce\\iov om. H 

729 36 ffrpa.T-riyd.ra. R B : ffrpaTijyfifjiaTa codd. 39 V(5a;<rij/ L 

M 102 



148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



TOV o-TpaTr]yov r&v 'AyaroAiKcoy KOL TOV 8o/zeo-rtKOi> T&V o-\o\^v OVTOL 
"yap fjidvoi, Kal fJLrj oVrej avdviraToi, ev rr) KaOtbpq TU>V avOvirdrtoV virept- 
yovviv airavras. et 6"e rives ef am&v, etre K rG>v avdviraTaiv, etre eK 
TMV XIT&V TraTpiKLMV, rj et? orparrjydra avr]ydT](Tav, eire kv aAA.a> rw 8ta 
730 Aoyou TTpoa-yivofJievto d^icojitari, l/cacrro? am&v Kara TT)ZJ rou O^LKLOV 5 
olKiav boav KCLL rrjs KaOtbpas airohavti. ov ^r\v 5e Kara r?)^ raiz> roi; 
(3a0fJiov rfjs eTrtSoVetos rou KO)8tKeAXov Kay rax T^XZ? 
TTpoKpLOijvai TOV Tr/xorou er oifa)8?]7rore d^x^tKta) rw 8ia Aoyou 
et 6e Kat Trayarot rvyoLev yjupls d^iKiW TrarptKtot, viroTriirrovcrL rots ra 

TrarptKiots. et 6e rty eK rwy Xy&4vr(&v ofyfyiKii&v 8ta- 10 
KP&TOV fiaOfjibv rfjs ra^ecos roi) KwdtKeAAov avrou dz^a- 
rrj KA?}o-et. KkrjT&ptvovTat. be aTravres o#ra>s. 



Sectio III. 



TT/S TWJ/ $ia<t>6pwv a|ia>/xaTa>?/ /ca^oAt/c^s KaOftipas. 



*O 

6 

6 



'5 



6 TCCLTptKLOS Kal TTpatTToVtrOS' 

ot mirptKtot ot evvovxpv 

ot avOvTraTOL TrarptKtot Kai crrparr^yot Kara ra orparr/ydra r/ ra o^^)tKta 



20 



TrarptKtot Atrot Kara rot)? KcoStKeAAovs avr&v 
TrarptKtot o-rparr/yot Kara ra (rr/oarrjydra avrtov T) ra o^ 
6 TrpatTrocrtros /a^ 0)^ mirptKtoj* 

(ci 8e Kat er 6(p(f)LKL^ rert/utr^rat, TrpoKptVerat rot; Irepov) 
6 TrpMToa-TraOdpLOS Kat crrpaTYjybs r&v ' 
6 TTptoToa-TraOapios Kat dojue'artKOS 
ot Trpcoroo-Tra^dptot orparryyot 
731 orparr/ytas avr&v 

6 TrpamxTTrafldpioy Kat 8o/xeWtKos 
6 Trpcoro(T7ra0dpioy Kat iTrap^o? r?}? 
ot 7rpa)roo"7ra^dptot Kat crrpaT7]yol 
o-rparr/ydra avr&v 
ol jur/rpOTroAtrar 
ot apxt7rtcTKO7rot Kara row? 
6 Trpcoroo'Tra^dptos Kat (raKeAAaptos 

Ot eTTtO-KOTTOt Ot 



25 



avaToXiK&v ^e/xdrcor Kara ra? 



Kara rd 



4 ety ffrparTtydra a.v-}ix^'n ffav L : ^ K ffrpa.r-nya.ro3V o.vt\v^t]oav H 730 6 T^J/ 

a^av H 9 TOtoGra H: TO?S T^ LB 17 <rvyice\os L 18 irarpiicios Kal om. H 

19 irarplKioi Om. H 22 aj/0. /cal Atrol H 23 irarpiKiot . . . ayraJi/ om. H 

28 /col rTpoTiJ7ol H 'Avaro\iKu>v B ar^ TO L 731 30 5 Trp<aroffiraGa.pios in H 
ut videtur evanuit f$Kovftir6p(av B : ftentovjS/rwr H 32 ras arparnyias H 



<f>IA00EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 149 



(et 8e Kat 7rpa>ro(T7ra0apto flviv, irpoKpivovraL T>V \irS>v 

et be Kal 6(f)<f>LKia 7rpo0"eAa/3oyro, Kal et$' ourcos TrpoKpivovrai 



6 TrpaiTocnTaOapios Kal Aoyotferrj? rov 

5 Ot OOTtaptOt TOV KOV(3oVKh.lOV 

(et 8e Kal 6<t><t>iKia tyoitv, TtpoKpivovTai T&V 

6 Kve'crrcop Kat JUT) &v TTp(DTO(nraOdpLOS' 

6 Trpa)TO(nra0dpios Kal Aoyo^err]? TOV 

6 Trpooroa-Trafla/oto? /cat bpovyydpios rfjs 
10 6 oiKOvofjios rijs /xeyaXi;s 

6 irpaiToa-TraOdpios Kal Xoyo^err/s roi; 

6 TTp(i)TO(nra6dpios Kal bpovyyapios T&V 

6 TTp(t)Too"7ra0dpLos Kal Aoyo^errys rair 

6 7rpa)Tocnra0apios Kal 67rt rail' 
15 6 TTpMToa-iraOdpLos Kal 8ojueVrtKO? ra>y LKavdrw 

6 Trpcoroo-Tra^apios Kat 6o/ieVrtKos r<3j> 

6 TTp<t)TO(T1TaOdpLOS Kal bofJL(TTlKOS 

6 TTp(DTO(nra6dpios Kal KOfjirjs T&V 

6 TTpa>TO(T7ra6dpios Kal yapTovhdpios TOV craK\\Lov 
20 6 TTpaiTocnraOdpios Kal ^apTovXapios TOV /3eorta/Hoir 

6 -Trpcoroo-Tra^apto? Kat \apTOv\dpws TOV KaviK\Lov 

6 7rpcoro(77ra^aptos Kat 7rp<oro<rrpara>/)* 

6 TTptoTocnraOdpios Kal Trpcoroaorr/KpT/rT/s' 732 

ot 7rpcoro(T7ra^aptot Kat CK irpoa'umov T&V ^e/utarcoz^ Kara ro tStoi' eKacrrou 
25 ^>a- 

6 TrpooToo-iraOdpios Kal KO^? ro(5 o-ra/3A.oir 

6 irptoToo-TraOdpios Kal em row etStKoi; Aoyov 

6 TrpcorocTTra^aptoj Kat /xeyas Kovparcop- 

6 Trpcoroo-Tra^apto? Kat Kovparwp ra>y 
30 6 7rpcoro(T7ra0apio9 Kat e?rt. 

6 7rpa)roo"7ra^apto9 Kat 

ot TrpcorocTTra^aptot Kat 

6 irpc&TocnraOdpios Kal 

6 7rpa>roo"7ra0aptos Kat 
35 6 Trpooroo-Traflapios Kat 7Tt r?7? Karaorao-ecos' 

ot Trpcoroo-Tra^aptot Kat aTro crrparT/ya)z> rwy ' 

Ot TTp(t)TO<TTTa0dplOL Kal OTTO bojJLCrTLKO)V TWV 

ot TrptorocrTra^aptot Kat aTro o^rparryyaiy rcou dj'aroAtKaiv 



7 KoiaiffTwp H 96 irpwrocnradcipios Kal /j-eyas erepuix 1 ) 5 H post 

10 Koflefc om. H 12 irXoi/JLcav B 20 6 irpwr. . . . Bfffriapiov om. H 

732 23 Kal H : om. L 26 ot trpwroffiraddpioi Kal /tcfywjTes TOU ffrav\ou H 27 J8t/cou H 
33 Tr Bfverwv B : BaiyeVcDJ/ H 34 rail' Tipa<riva>v B 36 6 TrpcaroffiraQdpios LB 

airoffrparfiyoL H : a7r6 ffrpaTriyov L 37 ^ irp(i>TO<nraOdpios LB cbroSo^eWtKoi H : 

OTrb &0/jL<rTlKOV L 38 Ot 7T/JWT. . . . 06/XOTWV Om. H 



150 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



Ot TTpU>TOO"naddpiOL Kal CLTTO 8o/X0TUC60I> T&V 

ol irp(DTOo"7ra6dpt,oL Kal diro itapy&v 
ot 7r/oa>ro<T7ra0aptoi Kal ano (TTpar-qyutv TTJS 
06 TrptoToarTraOdpioi KOL dirb Kveorwpaw 

ol TTpaiTocnraOdpiot, TOV \pvcr or piKXivov (TTpocKpiOrja-av TraAat T&V dirb 5 
a-TpaTrjy&v Kal onto firdpx^v)* 
ol irpa)TO(nraOdpioi Kal Kptrat* 
ol TTptoToo-TraddpLoi TOV fjLay\a(3iov Kal apriKXivai* 
ol 7rpa>roo-7ra0aptot Kal ap\ovTes TOV ora/3Aoir 
ol 7rpa)ro(T7ra0aptot Kal airo oc/xtKtW Kara ra TTOTC 
ot TrpwTocnraOdpioL Kal ^SatrtAtKot Kara ras Trpo(3o\as 
733 ot TTptoTocnraOdpiot. Kal ao-rjKpTJraf 
ol Trpa)TO(nra0apioi ol bia 7roA.ea)s* 
ot 7rpa)Toa"iraQdpi,oi ol ea>riKot. 
et 6e /XT) eteu Tra^res Trpcoroa-Tra^aptot, Kat ras 8ta Xoyov Trpoo-yivo/xeras 15 

, ot vvv (rrparrjyot Trjs re dmroArjs Kat r^? Svo-ecos ov\ 
TTJs >/8r] Aaxovtrrj? avT&v T&V QffjLaTwv KaOtbpas bia TJ]V 
TOV (3pa(3fLov avT&v, vTrdp^ovTos d^tw/xaros, dAA* kv rr) ra^t, r^ 
, Kara ro olKlov Oeyia KaOt&VTai. axravra)? ovy Kat 6 eVapx * 
Kat 6 KuatVrcop. ol 8e AotTrot TrdVres o(/)(^tKtaAtoi ^r rots 6/xori- 20 
wy 8ta /Spa^Setcay ftfdop&wiP dftaj/xarcoy Trporert/x^vrat. cz^ 8e r?j 
rafet rwr 6(f>(j)iKia)V eKaa-ros avT&v TT]V oltftav KaQtbpav Aa^ayet. 
(Spatharo- /aera 8e r^s ra>y 7r/xoroo-7ra0a/Ha>z; rt/zrjs Seurepa r; rwz; cnraOapoKav- 

candidati.) 8l8( Tft)i; e ^ yrat r ^ t? , otoz; 

cr7ra^apoKai'8t8arot Kat 6^)<^)tKiaAtot Kara ra o0<^tKta avT&v 35 

ol (T7raOapoKov(3iKovXdpLoi TOV fia(ri\iKov KOLT&VOS' 

v\dpLOi TOV Kov/3ovK\iov 
ol /3ao*tAtKot* 

ol Trpea-pvTtpoi Kal rjyov^evoL Kal 7rpe<r/3i;re/>ot r?js eKKA^a-tay 
ol o"7ra^apoKa^6t5arot Kat aTro (TTpaTrjy&v 30 

ol (nraOapoKavbibaTOL TOV \pva-oTpiK\ivow 
ol (nraOapoKavbibaToi ol otKetaKOt Kat Kptrat* 
ol 0-7ra0apoKaz>dt8arot Kat /uiayAa/Strat Kat 
ol 0"7ra0apoKaz>8t8arot ol 0:776 



I 6 irpwroffiraddoios LB AiroSo/tfVrt/cot H : for& So/uLfO-riicov L Q<rKov&ir6p<iiv B : 

4KffKOv0irvv H a iiroeir^xoi (sic) H 3 OTrotrTpoT^oi Tai/ rrjs H 4 Kue- 

B 5 fcal ^Trt TOU H ^({/a> H : ^ L : irciAat R B 6 /col dir? 

L : Trapo A.fovros TOV <t\oxp0 > TOt; Secrir^rou H 7 Kpyral L 9 TOW 

H: TWJ/ ffra&\<av LB II al om. H 733 12 TrpooroaffiiKprirai H 

14 o/ ante ^fo>r. om. H 20 &fj.orifuav avrSiv Sia (3pa0fi<0v StSoyueVw^ i|W H 

22 KaO&pav H : rof tv L B 23 T^J/ . . . ri/j.r)v conicio (TiraBaploov KavSijSdroav H 

26 ffiradapoKov&tKov\dpioi L : (Tira0opoKo>'8<5aTOi al KovfiiKov\apioi H 28 ot e irpeff&v- 

Tfpoi faff. H 32 of of/ctioKo! ical K^IJTO^ L : om. ol H 33 (rwaedpioi H et infra 

passim Apro/tXtVoi H 






4>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 151 

ot (nraOapoKavb tdaro i ol oticetaKot TOV \avo~LaKov' 734 

ot <nraOa.poKavbiba.Tot, Kal do^r/KpT/rat* 

ol cnradapoKavbibaToi Kal KA.eto~oupap)(ar 

6 o-naOapoKavbibaTos Kal roup/xdpx*?* T & v $&/3epdVa>y 
5 6 onraOapoKavbibaTos Kal roup/xdpx 7 ?? AvKaovias Kal Ylafji^vXCas* 

6 (TiraOapoKavbibaTos Kal roTrorr/prjrrjy T&V (rxo\&v 

ol (nraOapoKavbibaToi Kal roup/xap^at T&V rr/y avarokrjs 0e/xaVa>z> Kara 
ra OfpaTa avr&v 

6 (77ra0apoKar8t8droy Kat roTrorrjpTjrr/y T&V ^crKOV 
10 ot cnraOapoKavbibaTot, Kal Tovpfj,ap\aL T&V ^e/xarcoy 

6 (nraOapoKavbibaTos Kal TOTrorTjpTjrrjs TOV apL0fJLOV* 

ol (nradapoKavbibaTOL Kal rovppap^ai T&V 

6 (nradapoKavbibaTos Kal roTrorrypr/r^s TOV 

6 cnraOapoKavbibaTos Kal roTrorTypr/rr)? T&V Uaz/arcoy 
15 6 cnraOapOKavbibaTos Kal TOTfOTrjprjrrjs raiz; 

6 criraOapoKavbLbdTos Kal roTrorr/prjTT)? T&V 

6 (nradapoKavbibdTos Kal ro7rorr;pr/rr)y T&V Tftxtw 

ol o-TradapoKavbibaTOL ol bia -TroAecas Kal ol T&V o~KpT<t>v 

ol biorviraToi Kara ra? rafets avT&v. (Disypati.) 

20 fl be /XT) eteu ourot o-7ra^apo/<ai;8t8ciro6, raty /xev 8ia Ppafititov dftai? 
r 5e rot? rov (BaOfjiov avT&v 6<fxf)i,KioLS aKoAov^cos rt/ixa- 



et^' ovrcoy rcSr o"jradapLO)v cicrdytTai. rafts, olov (Spatharii.) 

ol Kov(3i.Kov\dpLoi. TOV jSacTtAtKot; 

35 Ot KOvfiiKOVkdpLOL TOV KOv(3oVK\lOW 

ol Kov(3ovK\L(noi, TOV 

6 olKovofjios Trjs /uteyaAr/y 

ot 8taKoi;ot ot /Sao-tXtKO^* 736 

ot otaKoz;ot rr^ 
30 ot cnraOdpioi TOV 

ot (nraOdpioL Kal Kptrat' 

ot (nraOdpLOL Kal payXafllTai Kal 

ot (nraOdpLOL olKeuaKol TOV Aaucrta/cov' 

ot (TiraOdpLOL Kal roup/xdp^at ara ra ^e/xara avraii;* 
35 ot (nraOdpLOL Kal roTrorrypryrat Kara ra rayjxara 



I of oiKftaKoi L : om. of H AcuW/cot/ H 734 4 of ffiradapoKavStSdroi /col rovpfuipx* 1 

T. </>. B : om. H 5 of <nra.e<ipioi ical rovpfuipxat H (ut videtur), ita B (cum OTT . . . ciroi) 

6 of ffiraOdpioi Kal TOTTOTTJ/J^TO! H (ut vid.), B (^Clim OTT . . . arot) 7 &varoA*/c^y H 

9 of (rvaddpioL Kal roirorrjpijTal rtav ^KcrKov&irwv H 3<rKov(3iTdp<i)v B II of 

airaOapioi Kal TOTTOTTJ^T/TO^ H 12 v\oifj.dr<i>v H 13 6 OTrafl. al TOTT. T. irAof/tov Om. H 
1 8 /cal Twy treKpercw H 23 ofoi' . . . KOITUVOS om. H 26 KovfiovK\flffioi H 

et forma contracta L : Kov&tKov\dpioi B 28 of SiaKovot of ... 4KK\-n<rlas om. H 

735 31 KPIJTCW L 32 ical ante /xa7. om. L ipro/cAtyat H 33 of oriraQdpioi 

oiKfiaKov TOV \avcriaKov H : om. L 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



ol (TiraOdpioi Kal 

(6 (TTTaOdplOS) Kttl TTpCOrOZ/OrdptOS TOV bpOfJLOW 

ol cnraOdpLOL TOV (nraOapLKCow 

6 (TiraOdpios Kal Kojutrys rrjs Koprqs TU*V 'AyaroA.tK<Sz>* 

ot (TiraOdpioL Kal KOjur^res T&V (T)(oX(av' 5 

ot (TiraOdpLOL Kal Ko'/zryres rr/s Koprrjs T&V dvaTo\LKu>v 0e/x,dra>i> Kara 
ra 0e/mara avT&v 

6 (nraOdpios Kal O-VIJLITOVOS TOV cTrdp^oir 

6 (TTtaOdpios KCU Aoyotferr/s T>V Trpatrcoptaw 

ot (nraOapioi KOL Ko/utryre? TT/S Koprrjs T&V Q^^aTu>v Trjs Svcrccoj Kara ra 10 



ol o-7ra6dpLoi Kal \apTov\dpioi TOV yeviKov Aoyo^erov 
ot anraOdpioi Kal avTiypafyris TOV Kvaia-Tapos* 
ol o-TtaOdpioi Kal yapTovXdpioi TOV o-r/)arta)riKoi5 Xoyo^erou* 
. 6 cnraOdpios Kal yapTOvXdpios TOV ^e'juaros T&V 'A^aroXtKwy 15 

6 (nraOdpios Kal \apTov\dpios TOV rayjuaros rwz; 
6 o~TraOdpLos Kal a/crouaptos* 
ot cnraOdpioi Kal ^aprouAaptot T&V avaToXiK&v 
6 o~TraOdpios Kal \apTov\dptos 
ol (riraOdpLOL Kal yapTov\dpioi T&V OVTLK&V 
ot (nraOdpLOL Kal paviXiKol z;ordptot r^s 
ot (riraddpioL Kal /3ao-tAtKOt voTapioi TOV /3e0rtapi'oi>* 
ot vnaOdpioi Kal fiacriXiKol voTapioi TOV LOLKOV' 
ol o"7raddpLOL Kal voTapioL T&V apK\S>v TOV yeviKov* 

6 (TTra^dptos Kal Trpoorozjorapioy TOV /uteydAov KovparcoptKtoi)* 25 

736 ot cnraOdpioL Kal bVTpvovTS T&V 8?7jadp^cov 

6 o~7ra6dpio$ Kal irl Trjs Kovparcoptas T&V /3a(rtXtKa>y otKcov* 

6 (nraOdpLos Kal SojueVrtKos r?/s 7;7rovpytas* 

6 (nraOdpios Kal fvyoo-rdrrys* 

6 (nraOdpios Kal xp^o"oe\^^r?iy 3 

6 (nraOdpios Kal apyav TOV d 

ot (nraOdpLOL KOL 

ot cnraddpiOL Kal 

ot oriTaOdpLOL Kal -Trpcoro^ordptot rw^ dtpaTtov Kara ra ^e/xara 



I 6 ffiraddpios a.ffrjKp-fjr'ns H 2 (6 <nra0opios) oi scrips! : Kal 6 L B 4 01 

ffiradapioi Kal KOfj.r]Tes L H B : COrrexi 6 ot (T?r. /cw/xT/res T. (r%. H : o< <nr. al K^. 

. . . 8f/j.ara, avrcov om. H 9 ol ffiraOdpioi Kal \oyo6crai Trpairwpiwv H 12 AOYO- 

0(r(ou H 13-14 ol <nr. K. avr. . . . r. ffrp. XoyoBcrov om. H 15 TOV om. L B 

6f/j.aros (non Oefj.drcay} L ai/aToA.iKa>> . . . TOW rdy/a-aros ra>v om. H 19 6 fftr. . . . 

H-ffKovftfrcav om. H 21 r^y ro/ceAArjs L : TOU fieffriapiov H 22 roC jSetTTtopiou L : 

TTJS ffaKKf\\ov H 24 ot o*ir. . . . yeviKov om. H 25 ot ffiraOdpioi /cat Trpoarovo- 

rdpiot L H B : COrrexi KovparopiKlov B 736 27 OIK?) par wv H 30 d enr. /cai 

Xpwr- om. H xpuffoe^tT^js L 31 ot ffiraddpioi Kal apxovrcs H appevrov B 

S3 yi}poK<&noi H 



<J>IAOGEOr KAHTOPOAOriON 153 

6 (HraQdpios Kat otKtortKoV 
ot (nraOdpioi, ol 8ta Tro'Aecos Kat ot efcortKo. 

et 8e JUT/ etey Kat OVTOL (nraOdpLOL, ras /xez/ 8ta /3pa/3etcoz> dtas VTTO- 
TrtTrreYaxray, eV 6e rots avr&v d<ciKiots Kara ratz> rt/xacrflcocraz;. rapt o 

5 jutera rovrous eto-ayeo-^co TtrapTT] ra^ty, 77 rwy V7rara)f, o-rparopcoj/, v* 7P a ^ 

/ /% \ SLl*3<LOr6S^ 

[j.avaTopa>v, /Seo-rr^ropcor, airpaTtoV, rayjutartKcoi; Kat candidati, 
S. mandatores, 

r>x\\ x/ \/ x/i^ ' vestitores, 

pacrtAtKot Kat yaprovXapioi Kat vorapioi T<av XtyOtvrMV (reKpercoz; s ii e ntiarii 

Kara rovs (3a6fjLovs T&V tavr&v O^LKLMV ex-praefectis, 

v , stratelatae.) 

10 vnaroi Trayavoi rr/s orvyK.\.i]rov 

K\r]pLKol TOV TraAartou Kat r^j /xeyaAr/s 

oT/oarcopes, et r^otei', roi; yjpvcrorpiKXivov 

(TTpdr copes Ojuotcos ro{) jutayAa/Stov 

o-rparajpes otKetaKot rou Aava-taKoi; Kat 
15 crrpdr copes roO /3a<rtAtKtw (rrparcoptKiov 

crrpar copes, o-Kpt/Scores rcoi^ effrKoi>/3tYcoj> Kat yapTov\apioi 

So/xeVrtKoi roi; rciy/xaros rwy a-)(oA5i'* 

SojueVrtKot rcoz^ ^e/xarcoz; r^s dyaroA^s Kat 8wecos Kara ra ray/txara 737 
O.VT&V Kat ras dftas CLVT&V 
20 ao-^KpijraL aTrparof 

vorapioi TU>V a 

Kaz^8t6arot pacrtAtKot row l 

KOL navbciTopts, ^ecrrTJropes, o-tAezrrtapiot, 8pouyyaptot rcoy 
aTrparot Kara ra OefjLara Kat rovs dpo'yyous CLVT&V 
25 Ko^res rcoz; 0e/xarcozJ o/^otcos* 

Ko/x?7res rcoi^ apiOfjiutv aTrparot* 

o xaprouAaptos ro ^ apiOfjiov Ojutotcos* 

Ko/x?yres roi; TrAo't/xaros 6/xotcos* 

6 xaprouAaptos roi) TrAot/xov 
30 Ko/x?]res rcoy LKavdrutv 6//,otcos* 

xaprovAaptos rcoi? LKavarutv 6//,otcos* 
6 xaprouAaptos TO^ o-ra^Aoi; 6/xotcos* 
6 eTrtKr^s roi; <Trd{3\ov 6/xotcos* 

(ot) TpL/BovvoL r&v 

6 \apTOV\dpLOS T&V 

01 rpifiovvoi T> 

6 \aprov\dpios r&v 
ot 8ei;repe7;oz;res rcor 
ot Ko'jurjres rcoz^ OTrrr/jixarcoi;* 



2 ot 5ta Tr^Aecws L : om. oi H 01 QoariKoi L : om. ot H 3 Kara ^Uej/ ray H : 

ras /xi/ L 737 18 rdy/ua L 34 ot addidi 35 locum ita scripserunt edd., 

notis correctionis in codice male intellects : ot' wo/*. T. OTTT^arwi/* OX-T. OTTT.* dx- T. 
Ttx." ot SCUT. T. STJ/*.' ot, rpt/J. T. retx 



154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



6 irpoe'^jotos T&V 
ol KeVrapxot TOV a 

ol KVTap\OL T&V 

ol TTpOrtKTOpeS T&V (T\0\&V 

Ot /3l*aptOt T&V VOVfJLp<t)V 

ol fltKapLoi T&V ret)(e&>z>* 

ol bpaKovdpLoi T&V e(TKOi;/3tVa>i>* 

ot orpanjAarar 

6 CLKOXOVOOS TOV apLdfJLOV* 

6 7Tpa>TO/uiaz>6'ara)p rou 

ol Trpcoroyorapioi T&V 0ejuarcoz; Kal T&V ayc\&v ol a-Trparoi* 15 

ol (3avbo<f)6poL TOV 
ol (BavbotyopoL T&V 

ol VTVXO<f>OpOl T&\ 
ol (TKVO<f)6pOL T&V 

ol Xaflov prior lot TOV apiQ^ov' ao 

738 ol o"Kr^'7rrpo</)opoi T&V 
ol cri,yvo<f)6poi T&V cc, 
ol (rTjjueiocjbo'pot roO a 

ol (T1)IJLlO(f)6pOl T&V 

ol dftcojutartKot T&V cr\o\&v 25 

ol (TivcLTapts T&V e<TKOi;/3 troop' 

ol bovKiviaTtopts TOV dpiO/Jiov' 

ol bovKLV tar copes T&V iKavaTW 

ol fjLavbaTwpts T&V o"xoh.&v 

ol TrpcoroKay/ceAAaptot T&V ^e/xarco^* 30 

ol OTTrto^es T&V TaypaTtoV' 

6 TrpcoroKay/ceAAaptos TOV yeviKov \oyo0Tow 

6 -TTpooroKayKeAAaptoj TOV Kfatorcopos* 

6 jrpcoro/izai'Sarajp r<3z> vovpeptoV 

6 TTpU>TOfJ.avbaT(^p T&V TL^<tiV' 35 

6 TrpcoroKayKeAAaptos rou o*a/ceAA.tou* 
6 /cerrap^os row /Seartaptou* 
ol pavbaTopts Kal Aeyaraptot rair e(TKou/3 
ol fjiavbaTopts Kal Aeyaraptoi ro apLOpov' 

ol ^(TKOV(3LTOpS' 4 

ol Ovpwpol TOV TraAartou Kal r<Si> creKpercov 
16 0avTo<t>6poi TOV apiepou L 738 38 ^o^Saropes scrips! : TrpwrOiitcu/SaTopeJ L B 






4>1AO0EOT KAHTOPOAOFION 155 

ol biarpe\ovre$ rov 

ol 

ol 

ol VOrdpLOL T&V 

5 01 xaprov\apt.oL r&v /uep<Sz>* 

ot TrotTjrat KOL /uteAio*rat T&V 

ol rjvio^oL r&v 

ot fjiavbdropes r&v 

ol pavbdropes r&v 
10 6 Aeyarapto? rov /3eartaptotr 

ol xoo-fiairai rov fteyaAou 

ot KcvrapxoL rS>v vr parrjy &v r&v d{j.ariK<av* 

ol iMKpoiravLrai* 

ol Trapa<j)v\aKs rG>v Ka&rpwv airparoi' 
15 Kfvrap\OL r&v 

ol 6r]/uo)raf 

ot bpovyydpioi r&v T 

ol Kay/ccAAaptot r&v 

ot roTTorrfprjral rutv 
30 ot crrpartwrat r&v 

ot orpartwrat rwy 

et 8e ex Trarrcor rovrcoz; r&v \\0fvra>v rives \OLV a^tas ras OLCL {3pa- 
jSetov bibofAtvas, eKaoros avr&v rfj a^ta rov o/xortjuov roi; fiaOfjibv Trport- 
jutcio-^a). et 8e -Trayayot TreAotcz^, er povois rots dffxpLKLOLS rtjuao-^axray Kara 739 
25 rrjr r/8r; (KreOtlvav rdw KAr^ropevo'/utei^ot. 

ot 8e ef eOv&v t<repxoiJ<voL'Trpeo-l3i,s KCLL rfjs rt/u-tas 0-weoTiaVea>s r<Si/ 
/Sao-tAecoz; ?y/i>twi; a^iov^voi K\r]roptvovrai KOL avrol o^rcos* 



Of fork *Pe5/x7jy 4it(ffKoifoi irpotKpiQyffav ruv Kaff rjfias 

ol IJLZV aTTo 'Pw/xr^s px6fj.voi, fdv tlffLV cTTtoTKOTTot, TTporifj.&vrai r&v 

30 tiTHTKOTTaiv rijs Ka6' fjfJMs KK\r]{Tias' (I 8e Trpecr/Svrepot ete^, wa-avrcos 

TTpoKpivovrai. OJUUHCOS Kal tv f-KCLcrrov rdyfjLa rrjs lfpo<rvvr]s ri]V Trpori- 

fjir](Tiv avabe\raL Kara rj]v KaOtbpav rrjv avu>rzpa)S prjOelcrav. TO avro 

be KpareicrOa) Kal eirl r&v Iv rrj araroAr) ovrwv rpi&v Trarptapx^v. crtfxrj- 

6r](rav be ol curb 'Pwjurjs ekOovres 5ta r^r eycoo-ty r?)? /c/cAr/(rtas 7rl 

35 Aeoz^roy ro (f)i\o\picrrov beo-norov, olov 6 eiria-KOTTOS NtKo'Aaos /cat Kapbrj- 

vd\io$ 'l<tidvvr]s, 7rdv(u irdcrris rrjs rafeco 



^ L 2O rayfjiaTuv scripsi : 6ffj.ti.Ttov L 739 25 ra^y L K\^rd)p. B 
27 K\i)T<op. B 28 of . . tiriffKoirwv quasi notam raarginalem uncis inclus. R B 

33 frt/ui0i7<rai/ L 



156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



Kal ol omb ' ' A.vrio^io-S Kal 'lepotroAvyuwi' ffvyKf\\oi irpoeKpidfjcrav iravrbs /u.ayiffTpov. 

(Wazrrcos Kal ol cnro 'Ai>rto)(etas Kal 'lepoo-oAv/xcoz/ o-uyKeAAot V rrj 
Sevrepa Secret rijs rpaTre'c^s irp&roc firdva) iravrbs /otaytarpoi;. 

(Saraceni amici.) 

ot 6e e* 'Aydpav </>tAot rrj T&V -TrarptKtW /cat orparryycoy VTTOTTITTTOVO-L 5 
rdet v rats Ka0e'6~pats, ot /xey dvaroXiKol irpoKpLvo^voL T&V eo-Treptcozr 
740 KaOe^ovTdi 8e ey r?/ evw^/uta) 0etrei, ^ reraprot (|>tAot, 17 Tre/iTrrot, Trpos ro 
cr rw ^eurepw jutVcra) r^j rpa^e^r/J 



(Bulgari amici.) 

ot 5e a-rro rwy Nowa)r, r/rot BovAyapcoz;, eto-epxo'/xei>ot ^>tAot ez; /xe^ rr) 10 
ra>r KOIV&V K\rjT(Dpia)v reraprot ^ TrejotTrrot ez; r^ evcovvfjup ^eVet 
brjXovoTL VTTOTriTTTovTts KOL avrol TTJ raiz; TrarptKtcoy /cat (rrpa- 
Kal TTCLVTUV T&V V rw /3?jA(i) TrarptKta)^ reray/xeWzJ 

Kat avrot roz> Sevrepoy \j,lv(Tov Trjs ^3ao-tAt/c^s 
8e roty t^ r r<3^ toprav aKoi/3trots K\r)T<*>pVovTai oy8oot Kat cWarot, 8?;- 15 
Aoz^ort VTroTTiTTTOvres rfj rafet roi; 7rpo\ex^eVros /3?jAov. 

(Francorum legati.) 

ot 5e 6K <J>payyo>y TrpeV/Sct?, et /ut^ e^oter XipoTOVias, Kara ravras 
K^rjOrjorovrai' et 5e Trayavot dcnv, rfj r&v ofyfyiK-iaXitoV viroTTiiTTOvcrL rafet. 

ot 8e K rwz^ AotTrcS^ tdv&v kp\6^voi fyi 
VTroirCTTTovari irdvTs dfta. 
Sectio IV. TJ/ios rerapros. 

'E7ret6^ r?J9 r<Si> apTLK\w&v eTrta-TTy/jtr/ 
ypd\jfacrOaL (nrovbd<raiJ,V, Kal ras TOV otKtou 7roA.tr e^/xaros afta? 

&s V rats Ka^eSpats aKpt/3(Ss efe^e/xe^a, Kat r^v rw^ tepwz; ySao-tAtKwy 25 



741 t8eas r<Sz> e^)' eKacrrry foprfj KiKA^crKo^era)!; ai<o/xara)ZJ Kat ras TOVTOIV 

d/x^tdVets OTTCOS Se? o'Ui'eta'dyeti' Ir rots KArjrcoptots, 
bLr]yrj<TOfj,aL. apfo/zat 8' evrv0V (ore) Kat ^ rrjs ^etas x^ptros r 

a7rapx?y, r^s Kat ot 607Tp6(3Xr)TOi Kal ^etoVarot ^/xcSy /3ao-tAets, 30 
riyy ZyKoo-juov Kal vTrepKoV/utof ramr\v TravqyvpifovTes \apfJLOVrjv Kara 
fJLL[JLr](rLi> TTJS Xpto-roS TTpos d^^pcoTTOVS eTTto'rjjittas, Kotz;rj rr)y Travb<riav rots 

TTtOTOtS (f)aTT\to(TaVT$ KOiV(t)VOV(TI, T7JS <T(ti[J,aTlKTJ$ 



*H yevfd\ios TOV Xpiffrov ?)jue'pa, ^ p irporidovTai al T&V 16' aicovfiircav ficdfffeis- 
Aet yap vjuas, a> ^>tAot, ei^ ravrr/ r?J AajutTrpa Kat TreptSo^w r<3y Xptcrrou 35 



at 7rova-ets Kat 



I Koi ot . . . irpoeK. IT. fiayiffrpov uncis inclus. RB I, 2 crvyKcXoi L 2 

X's L 740 10 NotWv, id est Qvwv quod fortasse legendum est 22 

741 28 a-t/j/Tjo-dVetf L 29 clre addidi 30 OeiwTaroi L 34 



4>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOFION 157 



uezj rfj /3ao-tAtKT/ rpa7re(J? Tov Kpa/zaro? TTJ? /xeyaArjs 
ety o-wecrrtWtr rcai; </>i\oxpioT(ov ^/xwr j3aa-L\ea)v /xe- 
ri}s /3acrtAiK?js cn;yKA?jroi> roz> dptfyxozj i{3', olov payivTpovs, 
, avOwiTaTovs, TTaTpiKiovs, (TTpaTrfyovs, d(/x/>tKtaAtot>s, ovs av 
5 60^77 rot)? avTOKpdropas Aaju,/3dz;e<r0af tlo-dyeiv be avrovy, areu /xeWot 
otKetW x.\a}j.vb(L>v, ^/zt/ueo-jueuous 8e ra Ka^o-ia Kat jutoVa. et tfe 
(rrparriyoi KeK^rj^voL, /utera rwz/ oiKftiav (TKapafjiayyttoV eto~aye(r^a)- 
> TO) SpoDyyapto) TT/S (3iy\r]$. V r^ ra>y t^ r aKovflfatoV rt/xico- 742 
rarr; Tpcartfy 8et ^as KaXetz^ ^ayicrrpovs bvo, avOvnaTovs TTarpLKiovs 
10 <TTpaTr]yov$ e^, BcnAyapovs tyiXovs bvo, 6(f)(j)iKia\iovs airb TTJS TOV (rrparico- 
rtKou XoyoOtrov rafecos Kat Karcorepa) 8vo, -n-pos ro <rvvavaK\i]0fjvai. rai 
j3aori\ r L tls TVTTOV TTJS a.TTO(TTo\LKrjs 8co8eKa8oj, <j)t\ovs TOV apiQfJibv t/3'* 
cn/roi)? 8et (m\r]bbv Kara raftr rfj? eKaoTOt; aia<$, tvbebv- 
raj otKetas avr&v \\afjivbas ^/XTrpoo-^etw r<3 a-^rj/xart, virobtfttfjLtvovs 
15 8e Kat ra otKeta KajutTrayta, Kat eto-ayayetz; avrovs /uera rr)z; a^t^tr r<3i> 
p.\XovTU)V Trapao-TavcLL flacrikiK.&v viTovpy&v re Kat /3ovKaA.tW, br]\ovoTL 
Xafiovros TO o-^/xa rou Kao-rpr/crtou rrj? /3a<rtA.tKf}s rpaTre^s Trapa roi; 
Trapeorwros Trepupavovs Trpat-Trocrtrov, Kat (rvvav^p^o^vov CLVTOIS 
roi; rpt/3a^fxou r^s (3a(nXiKfjs e^coxta?, Kat t(rrwi;ro? avrov? KwcAxo 
20 r?/9 rt/xtas rpaTre^s ets ro t8tKw? TrpoorKaXelcrOai 77X77 crteVrepoz; (f>iXov$ t 
ovs av ooy rw /SacrtAet. ey 8e rot? eKarepcoi; ra>r /xepSv aKovfifaois 8et 
TOUT?] rr) Aa/u,7rpa Kat Trept/SoT/ra) T^juepa r^r VTTO Ka//,7rayty 
Tracrav, olov acrr/KpTJraj, ~)(apTov\apiovs T&V jueyaAcor (TKpTa>v, 
voTapiovs T&V XeyOtvTUtv (rKpT(t)v, olov CLTTO T (nradapoKav- 
35 8tSara>r Kat Karcorepw, VTrarcor, 8to-D7rarcoy, KOju^rcoz; rwr cr^oX&v, (ri\V- 
Tiapitov, TTpoTiKTOpaiv, evTvyj[)<$)6pu>v, o-K7]7rrpo^)Opa)i;, dftco/jtartKwz; r<Sr 8ta- 743 
(f)6p(t)V TayfJLCLTaiv TOV apiQ^ov pr) f , 'Ayaprjv&v TOV Trpatrcoptoi) K^, raiz^ 
BovAydpcor 0tAcoy avOpvirovs t/3', Kat -TreVr^ras aSeA^ov? roz; apiOpov ifi'* 
7TpoKi(T(rVLv 8e a^roi/? (TTixrjbbv oi;rtoj' rot)? juei' o-vyK\7]TLKovs Kara ra? 
30 otKeta? CLVT&V afta? Kat ras rwz; d^^iKtcoy OLVT&V bia<J)opas 
V0V KaKtWev TOVS be ' Ayapyvovs KdTtvavTL TTJS o\js0)s rooy 
67Tt r?js KTr]$ Kat J3b6fjir]s rpaTre^ryy rovs 8e BovAyapco^ avdpunrovs eTrt 
rr/s ei'arr;? rpaTre^j rTy? avTrjs 7repto8ou* rovj 8e Tre^ra? Kai avroi;? 
Trpoo-KaAeto-^at eTTt r^j 0' rpaTre^r?? TTJS eiucowjuou ^eo-0)?, er ^ Trapacrrao-t? 
35 roi; bpovyyapiov ri>y)(aVet. etcrayeti; 8e 8et aTraz^ra? juera r^y afyi^iv TU>V 
uAcoz; r^s /3aa-tAtK^s rpaTre^s ovrto?' roi)y 

T&V OLKl(DV dAAaf LfJLCLTCOV, X^ a f Ji ^ 0(i)V T 

v Kara TOL^IV TOV CLVTOV d^tw/xaros Kat oc/x^tKtoir rot;? 8e 'Ayaprjvovs 
VTTobtbiJ.Vovs, brfXovoTL TrpOTropefo/xeVou CLVT&V TOV 



3 i5' L : corr. R 5 avroKparcapas L 6 Kafjiiffia B et passim 742 13 

5wi/ L 15 &<pir)iv L 16 fort, irapeffrdvai 22 nafiirdyiov B et passim 

743 34 irapda'Taa'fjs 35 a<pyj-iv L 39 amyous L irpoiropevofjitvcav avruv L : 
B 



158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



apTixXivov Kat (rvvavp\o^vov e</>' cKarepov T&V /xep<2z; bia 
TTJS OTTIO-OLOV 0eVea)? r&v avTutv aKovfifoctiV Kal ta TOV e/unrpoo-fltou TOTTOV 
^apL0fJiovvTos (/>' eKaorw dKOU/3ira) 8a)8eKaSa Trpooxoiraju fjiiav Kal /xr; 
crvyxwpovvTos TLVCL avaK\rjdrjvai /xe^pt TTJS K(f>a)vr] crea)? raw 'Trapecrrcorcoi' 
/3a<rtXiKa>z> /3oi>KaXtW. /xera o~e rr/r Trdrrcoz; av&K\r]criv 8et irpoar^eiv TO 5 

744 fjiovcTLKov /xe'Aos, Kat ?Jz;tKa ro tStoi^ aTrr^^o-et (^^ey/xa, efarto-rao-^at aTravras 
fls V(f)r)iJ.Lav r&v becnroT&v Kal ras 

dAA.a /xr)y Kat otraKt? ^ ro fjLova"LKov 

TI irpbs Tp\fsi,v KT\(rOfj 7rpay/xa, Kat ?yrtKa rt ppto<rifjiov K rrjs 
rpaTref?]? 8ta ro{5 repirvov K.a<rrpr](Tiov Ttpbs rovs 8atrv/otoVas 
<rrat. ez> 8e rrj TOVT<DV eo8a) 8et Trpoa-e^et^ rots 

Kat (rw r^ avrwz; eK^co^o-et Trpcwrexetr ro o-^^ta roi; KXeti^oi; Ka<TTpr)<riov, 
avi(TTav Travras TOVS KK\.r]^vovs x\av(.bo(f)6povs 8ta r^s 
^e(Tcos rwz; aKovfiirutv, Kat CTrarayeti; avrou? CK rwi^ Kara) TIRO'S 
arco irpocroiTfLKrjv eobov rfjs avrfjs Trepiobov. Kat et^* oi;ra)s /xera r^r 15 
reXetay V7ret8uo-tz;t Kat avrovs r?}? /3a<rtA.tK?J9 rpair^s bairvfjiovas 
87/Ao^oVt TrpoiroptvofjLtvov avrots rov K\LVOV Kaa-Tprja-iov r?js /3a- 
TLfjiias Tpaire&is. em 8e rrj? 8evrepas r/juepas 
Ka ' Xa/x-Trpas 7raz;8ecrtas 8et ^a? evTp7riLV els 

/3ao-tAtK7;s Trept/SAeTTrov rpaTreft? o/xotcos juaytVrpous, d^^u'TraroDy, mirpt- 20 
KLOVS, ocfxpLKLdkiovs, Kal olKLa.Kov$ Trptoroo'Tra^apiovj, roz> apiOfjiov LJ3 , 
crvvapiOiJiov^vov CLVTOLS eatpera>9 ro{5 8ojue<rriKoi> rcoz^ o'^oXwi' Kara TVTTOV 

745 etVayetr 8e avrovs Trdrras ez> rr) avr&v di^aKXr/o-et xXa^tSo^o'pous eoroXi- 
o-jueVovs Kara ro i8toy o-^/xa' rovj 8e otKetaKov? Trpcoroo-Tra^aptovs fxera 
rwz; otKettor o-7reKta>^ Kat ptoecor a-aytcaz;, cjutTrpoo-^ta) ra> o-^r/fxart, Ka&ws 25 
dycorepa) 8e5?7Xa>rat. ei^ 8e rot? Treptf dKOVjStrot? 8et KaXet 

/txepr] em 8uo aKovfliTaiv /3ao-tXtKoi/? di^pwTrou? aTro rr/? raiz; 
bibdroiv d^ta? Kat Karcorepar ey 8e rot? XotTro?? aKov/3trot? aTravras TOVS 
ap-^ovTas TOV rdy/xaro? raiz; o-)(oX(Sz;, otoz; roTrorrjprrrrjy, et rrj^ot avroz/ 
etz;at (nraOapOKavbibaTov, TOVS Ko'/xrjra? raiy <r)(oXft)z;, 8o/xeo-rtKOV? rwi; 30 
cr)(oXa)i;, roz; Trpoefry/xor, Trporr/Kropa?, cvTv^otyopovs, orKr/Trrpo^o'pov?, d^ta>- 
jxartKov?, pavbaTopas, TOV apiQ^ov <T\J! , Kat -rreVr/ra? roz; apiQpov ift' et<r- 
8e avrov? ez^ rr} d^aKXrja-et /xera rwz/ otKetco^ o-Kapa/xayytW, roy 
T07TOTr]pr}Tr)v Kat yja.pTOvXa.piQV TOV CLVTOV rdy/xaro? /xera Kat crayic&v 
, 8r]Xoz;ort TrpoTropeuo/xe^ou avro? roi; apTiKXivov Kara roz; Trpoypa- 35 
TVTTOV. CTTt 8e rr]? rptrr]? ry/xepa? rwv CLVT&V aKov(3iT(DV 8et ry/ota? 
et? TrpoVKXrjo-ti;, ez; /xez> rr} ^Saa-tXtKr) TpaTtefr) ap\ovTas /xeyt- 
rov? dvcorepa) eTTt rr?? btVTtpas r;^epa? iJivr]fjLOVvdfVTas TOV dptfyxov 
t^3', a(f)aipov^vov fj.V TOV T>V o-xoXwi^ bo^o-TiKOV, OLVTCLO-LOVTOS 8e Kara 
TVTIOV TOV 8o/x(rrtK07j rwi^ eo"KOD/3tra>z>, et(rdyti> 8e avrorj? ev rr) dva- 40 



744 12, 17 KA.JJ/OU L 16 virK$v<nv (etiam dWAi/(rt', oTr^Auo'ii') coni. R 17 5e 

Sr]\ov6ri L 19 5t (pro 8e<) L 745 27 cr& L : evrl K B 28 O.KKOV&ITOIS L 

39 a.vTi}ffi6vTos L 



<J>IA00EOT KAHTOPOAOFION 159 

KA?fcret xara TOV TrpobeL\6evTa TVTTOV. ev be roty eKarepoty T&V fjiep&v 
aKou/3troty bel KaAez/ 6/xoia>y e7rt roty bvcriv aKot>/3iroiy /3ao~iAiKoi>y avOp<&- 746 
Trovy ez> dta>fxao*tz'* eV 6e roy AotTnny aKovfiirois aVaz/ray rovy &p^ovras 
TOV rdiy/xaroy r<3z> ef0-Kou/3rcoz/, olov roTrorr/pr/rTJz/, o-Kpi/3coz>ay, roz> yjzprov- 
5 \dpiov, bpaKovapCovs, crKVO<f)6povs, criyvotyopovs, o~ez/dropay, Trpooro/xaz/- 
Saropa Kat jxaz/8aropay TOV apid^ov <rb r , Kai TreVr/ra? t/3', eta-ayetz; 8e avroi;? 
Kara roz; TrpopprjOevTa TVTTOV Kara ro o-^^a TTJS bfVTepas ^/xcpas. em 8e 
rTJs reraprrjs ^/xe'pas rr}s Tre/n^ayofo ravr?;s, a>s etTretz;, Seftworecos 8et 
evrpeTTtfetz^ efc K\ij(nv TTJS /3ao-tA.tK?J9 rtjuttas rpaTre^s eK ro>y drwre'pco 

10 (Kda-Trjv r)fjipav }JLVYiiJiovv6tvT<t)v apyovTMV cruv ra> Spovyyapta) r?js 

Kara TVTTOV TOV apiOfMov ifi', eto-ayetr 8e a-Trarray er r?j di>aKA.77<rei /xera 
rwr oiKt(*>v dAAa^t/uarcoz;, Ka0a>s etpr/rat* rw 8e bpovyydpiov 
/xera ro{> otKetov o-Kapa/uayytov Kat o-aytov po?Js. ez^ 5e rot? AotTrots 
jStrots Set ^/xa? KaAetz^ /Sao-tAtKovs avOptoirovs Kara roz; Aex#eVra 

15 Kat aTrauras rovy apxovTas TOV rdyjuaroy roi> apiOfjiov, olov roTrorrjpr/rrji;, 
roz> yapTovXapiov, rovy Ko/jiryray, rouy Keurap^ouy, fiavbocfropovs, \aj3ovprj- 
O~LOVS, crr;/uteto^)opovy, Soimznaropay, /aardaropay, Ovpapovs, Starpe'^oz^ray, 
ror apiOfjibv o~b', Kat eta-dye LV avrovs oirrcoy ror /utez; TOTTOTrjprjT^v 
poe'ov o-aytov, rovy 8e Aot7roi;y /xera rwr otKfi&v (TKapajuayytcoy, 

20 dzxore'pco 6e8?jAa)rat. e?rt 8e r?jy Tre'/uiTrrTyy ^e r pay 8et u/aa 

ety K\rjcriv rryy rt/mtay oz^rcoy jSao-tAtKTJy rpa-Tre^y 6/xou eK rair drcorepco 
T(i)v tvbo&v fxeytcrrdycoz/ trvz; row o"ojueo-r6cou rwz/ 
apiO^ov tfi', Kat etcrayetz; avrovy /xera rwr oZKetcor 
dz^core'pco SeSrjAairat. ez; 8e roty AotTroty aKou/3troty 8et 

25 o/xoO jSao-tAtKovy avOpuwovs, a>y d^corepa) elpr\Ka^V. fv 5e roty Karcorepa) 
rovy dp^ovTas TOV rayjaaroy rwz; CLVT&V iKavaTtov, olov roTTor^pT/riji;, rovy 
Ko'^ray, roz/ \apTov\dpiov, rovy Kerrdpxovy, fiavbotyopovs, 
8ovKtz^tciropay Kat (JLavbaTopas, o~b' TOV apiOfJiov, Kat TreVryray t^Q', 
8e avrovy eV r^ araKA^a-et, KaOcbs Kat eV roty AotTroty ray/xao'iz' Trpoeypd- 

30 (f)afjLV. <rr}}jLUDTov 6e roiJro* et yap ez^ r^ Trpwrr; rjfJ-epa rrjy e^35ojua8oy 
^ rcSz' vb6(*>v TOV Xpta-roi; yeye^Atoor eTreVrry eopr?j, Kat aTro ravrr/y ^ 
rcoz> t^' cLKOv(3LT<DV b^L(i)(TLs TTjv dp-)(rjv eTrtSet^T/rat, 6et ^/txay er r?j eKr?y 
?7/xepa em /uez; r?jy rtjuttay /3ao-tAtK^y TpaTTt&s (rvyKaXelv ety tor four iv TOV 

ap\LTTLO-KOTTOV K(DV(TTaVTlVOV7rO\(t)$ fJLTOL KOL t/3' fiyOVjJifVtoV T&V tv TTJ 

35 Trept ^/oiay ro/aw Ket/xeVcor, eto-ayetz; 8e avrovy ev r^ draKA?}(ret ovrcoy roz/ 
/xez; Trarptapx^z/ o-iz; ra> ^Sao-tAet a/xa rou o-rtxov ey ro em btypov Ka0- 
trQijvai' TOVS be OCTLOVS ^yov/xe'z/ovy o~rtx^Soz/ Kara r^z/ oiKetav TO.IV Kat 
apnoovo~av boav elcrdyeiv be O.VTOVS, Ka^a>y Kat rovy TrarptKtovy, /xera 748 



746 4 ToiroTTjprjTos L B : correxi 5 vpurofiaySdropa. scripsi : -opas L B 6 T^V 

apiBfibv scrips! : TOU apidpov L B 17 SovKtvdropas L B 18 rcl> /*ii/ L 19 ^a>6ov B 
747 21 ^JATOJ L 23 aAAai/icTj> B et passim 26 TI/ KO^TUV L B : correxi 

27 TO)J/ Ki/Tapx ftJI/ > &av8o<p6pwv, ffinj.fto<p6putf ) SovKivtar6p(av ol navSar6pwv L B : correxi 
30 ^ -yap L 32 5etWr?s L 



160 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



avTutv (f)eX(t>vi(i)V cLTroXeXvfjievto r<S (r^fjiaTL, brjXovoTL TrpoTro- 

peVOfJieVOV aVTOLS TOV j3a(TlXlKOV KCL(TTpr](TlOV, Kat 0/l/,0ia>? {(TT&VTQS KVK\(p 

Trjs /3ao-tAtKr/? rpaTrefrj? els TO 7rpoo-KaAeVa(r0at TrArjtrteVrepoz; e avr&v 
ovs az> bofrj ra> flaffiXei. h' be rot? AotTrot? aKot>/3t'rot? bel v^as KaXeiv 
TOVS K bicKfropwv fjLova(TTr]pi(t)v avaypatyofjievovs d(3dbas, rjyovv TOVS ra 5 
o-</>payt'6"ta Trap" r]^5>v etA??<o'ra?, TOV apid^ov O-IT'* elcrdyeLV 8e KOL CLVTOVS 

Ktt^O)? Kat Tols XotTTOt?, T] JU0 l(T^V OV S TO.S OtKCta? (TToAa? O>? 

avrovs e^> 
(Tiv KOL 

roz/ roO oiTTOfjiivo-ov fjiivo-ov, KOL tv TovT(p rw Kaipai eta-ayetr TT/DOJ ^eipovo- 10 
juttav raw avaKCLfJievtoV Kal ^aXKovTav Trarepa)^ TOV? 8^0 

KK\r](TLaS bofJ.(TTiKOVS KOL IcTTaV CLVTOVS *V0V KCLKfWtV TOV 

TpiK\Lvov Ttpos TO TTOteto-^at, ws etpr^rat, rr/r yeipovoniav cut 

8tW r<3z> avaKifJLva)V Xartp&V. biboTai ovv Kara rvTroi; Trapa ro{5 

Aoyoi) rot? ju,ez/ avaKifjLVois irl Trjs ftao-L^LKrjs Tpaire&s ifi f fjyovptvois ei? 15 

^)tAortjutta? eTTLOocriv ava z/o/xi(Tjuara>i> o* rot"? 8e AotTro?? JJLOVCL^OLS a r na(Tiv 

ava ro/otta-juaro? ew? Kat /xoVoir rot? 8e Svo 8ojU6(rrtKot? az^a VO^KT^OLT^V 

$ Kara TVTJW. 8et elotvai, OTL V avTy rrj fjiJitpq KOL ol Tre'z^re? ez/ ra> 

749 Koro-to-ropta) (rO(ov(nv, Aajut/3az/oz^re? rr/r Kara <rvvr\Qtiav tvXoyiav. et 8e 
ez; 5 r 77 TrejotTrrr; fjnepq Trjs e/38o;ua8o? ^ Xpta-roi; yevvrjoris Kararrrjoret, Kat 20 
aTro TavTrjs api]Tai rj KXija-is reAeta-^at r<Sz> aKOu^trwz^, 8et fyza? cr rrj 
KVpiaKrj Trjs TTpLobov Trjs avTrjs ffibojjidbos Trpo Trjs KAr/rreaj? ro{5 7rarptdp)(OD 
Kat rcoz; afidbctiv eKreAetz; ro Aeyo/ueroy K\rjTu>pLov TOV TTO\VTpL^ov f Kat 
VTp7ri^iv et? <rvvt(TTLa<riv <f)C\ovs em /xfi^ r?j? jQacrtAtKrj? rpaTreft? /jtayt- 
o-Tpovs, avOvircLTOvs KaTpiKiovs (rTpaTqyovs OKrcb Kat BouAyapov? (f)L\ovs 25 
8wo Kat rov? 5^0 brj^dpxovs Bez^ercoz; re Kat Tipa(rivu>v elcrdyeiv be Kat 
e^dyeiv CLVTOVS )(Xavibo(j)6povs, KaOa Kat arwrepa) 8e8?iAa)rat. er 8e rot? 

a.Koi;/3trot? 8et v/xa? KaAetz> ^3ao"tAtKoi;? avOpairovs eOviKovs 
olov <&apydvovs, Xa^apov?, 'Ayapr]vovs, <&pdyyov$ Kat 6Vot r^? 

e CLVT&V airoXavovo-i T&V poy&v TTpo^r] Betas' eivayew 8e CLVTOVS 30 
airavTas Kal e^ayeiv /uera ro eOviKov Ibiov o-x^J/xa, ot^o^et ro Trap 5 CLVT&V 
TTL\ey6fJievov KafidbiV* Kat t#' ovrco? r?j aTro ravrr^? ettrtowr? r^? e/38o- 
/xa8o? TeTpdbrj 7rpoo-KaAeto-0at rw Trarptapxrji' fiera rwr avroi; fjyovfjievutv 
fjfttpa g Ka \ novax&v, a>? TrpoAeAeKrat. evrt 8e rfj? eftbo^s r}^epas T&V CIVT&V 

CLKovpiTuv bel v^as empem^eiv els a-vvecrTLao-Lv em Trjs (Baa-iXiKrjs TpaTre&s 35 

750 az>0t>7raroi;?, TrarptKtoi;?, (rrparr^yov?, d(/)<iKtaAtoi>? o~w rw VTrapxw ^? 
TroAeo)? Kat rw Spovyyaptw rwr 7rAot'ju,G>i>, <f)iXovs bvo Kat 8eKa* et(rayetz> 8e 
avrov? Kat e^ayeiv jxera rwz/ otKetcoz; dAAaftjutarcor, Ka^a Kat 8e8rjAa)rar 
ez^ 8e rot? AotTrot? CLKOV^ITOLS KaXelv els ea-Tiacriv TOV (TV^TIOVOV Kat roz^ 
XoyoOeTrjv TOV vrpatrajptov, roy roTror^p^r^ rwi' TrAotjucozJ, ror \apTovXapiov 



748 4 5t L 17 vo^fffiaTos fris L 19 xP vffolffr P lu > L : corr - Bieliaev I 118 

(cf. supra p. 135 1. 15) 749 20 Terdprr) B 21 &pxnrai B 29 ayapivovs L 

30 eauTTjs L : corr. R 32 KaftdSiov B 



4>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 161 

TOV TiXoi^ov, roi/s KOJJLIITCLS TOV TtXotfWV, Kevrdp^ovs 6/^,0 icos, Kptrds rS>v 
pytoV(DV, 7T07rraj rrjs 7ro'Aea>9, yetro^etdpxas, roz; Aeyardptoz; ro 
rooptov, TOV KevTvpitova, TOVS TrpajroKayKeAAapious, KayKeAAaptoi>s, Kat 
o'dropas roC 7rAotjuoi>, TOV apiO^ov crb'' tivaytiv 6"e /cat e^dyetr auroi;? /xera 
5 r<Sz> oiKL(tiV (TKapajuayyuoz;, TrXrjv TOV roTrorrjp^roO /uerd /cat crayiaiv pajecoz>, 
a^corepco o'eo'^Acorat. e^u 6"e r^s oy8or]j 7//ixepas rwr CLVT>V CLKOV- 
e/creAetrat ro (3<*)Tov Traifoopofjiiov, KOL 6et v/xaj evrpeTrtfeti' et? 

(rW(TTLa(rLV T&V (3a(TL\t(DV TOVS TTpOV^OVTCLS T7/9 TafeO)? TOO fJLVCTTLKOV KOV- 
fioVK\LOV, olov TTpaLTTOO-lTOVS, TTp^TOCTTTaOapLOVS fVVOV^OVS, TTpLfJLLKTJpLOVS, 

10 dortaptovj, roz; apiQ^bv r\ ', TOV \apTov\apiov TTJS /3a(rtAtK?/? craKeAAr;?, ro^ 
7rt ro{> t8t/co! AoyoD, roi; aKTOvapiov /cat roi> r^j Karaorraa-eco?' eto-ayeti' 
be CLVTOVS juera rw^ ot/cetco^ dAAa^jotarcoz;, ov Ka^cos roi;? AotTroi;? airavTas 
cv rats -n-poAex^f tVat? ?Jjuepai9 /c rwv Kara) Trpos ra aVa) OT)^ ra> Kaa-Tprfa-itf 
TTJV TTOpiav Troiov^voi, aAA' aS^ts o-w rr; e^o^w rrj? /3aa-tAtK^j dz;a/cA?i(7a>9 751 

15 OTi)(^4V CLVTOVS /cara ro t8toi; d^tcojita KVK\U> Trjs rt/xta? /3acrtAtK^j rpa- 
wtftff, Kat a/ua r?/? K(f)0)vr{o-(tis T&V Trapco-rwrcoz; /3oi>/caAtcoz; avaK\iviv 
O.VTOVS V Tr\ Aa/utTrpordrr; TpaTftfrj, t^dyeiv be CIVTOVS Trd\iv rrj avrry aKO- 
\ovOiq, a>s etpi]rat. e^rt 8e rot? AOITHHJ aKOU/3troi? Trpo r?j? ^Sao-tAtK^? 
d^aKArja-ea)? 7rpoava.K\ivovTai Trez-^re? ot ra o-<payt8ta etA77(^o'r9, Kat ert 

20 CLVT&V avaKL^LV(tiV Kat tcrOLOVTaiv, tv rw Katpoi rot) JJLIVCTOV T&V bov\i<Ca)v, 
avahafjifidvovTaL ra boOevTa o-^>payt6ta T/TTO dpriKAtVov, Kat StSorat Kara 

TVTTOV TTCLpa TOV tlblKOV \6yOV eKaOTCO TTVr]Tl tS (3a(TL\iK1]V V\OyiaV ttTTO- 



aKoi>/3trcoz> reAet^rat K\7]T^piov bewvov, o Kat rpt>y?/rtKoz> KaAelrat, Kat 5e? 
25 iy/uias 7rpofrpe7rt{et^ et? crvvevTiacnv TOV beiirvov rw /3acrtAet <f>&.ov$ t/3', 
oloi' /xayto'rpous', d^^i'Trdroi;? TrarptKtous crrparr^yoi;? OKrcu, ^)tAoi? BovA- 
yapcDV bvo, Kat roi)? KaTpu>v bvo brffjidp^ovs. TrpocrKaXovvTai, be OVTOI 
Trapd rot) /3acrtAea)? 6 id roi; dpTLK\ivov Trpcota?, Kat 

(TVVL(Tp')(OVTaL TTaVTZS Ot KK\T]fJLVOL etj aVV(TTLa(TLV 

30 ((TTrepa?, Kat etddyorrat Kat e^dyorrat Trdrre? juera r<S 

fjidTwv Kat Ka/XTrayuoz; Kara anoXovOiav Kat TVTTOV T&V 7rpoypa(f)VT(av V 
ro?j dVo). cz; 8e rots eKarepo)^ r<5y fj.pS>v aKOVyStrot? Se? v/xd? KaAeti' Kara 
rw opoz^ r^s -rrpwrrjs fmepas TOVS virb KafjurdyLV o-vyK\.riTi,KOv$ airavTas, 752 
otov a<rr]Kpr)Ta$, airb TTJS T&V (TiraOapOKavbibaTcov dfta? Kat Karcorepca, 

35 \apTov\apiovs TOV yeviKov \oyo6tTov, yapTovXapiovs TOV o-rpartcortKOv 
Aoyo0e'rot>, d^rtypac^ets roi; KveVrcopo?, roz; O-VHTTOVOV, TOV Xoyo6tTr]v Kat 
rovs Kptrds, vorapiovs TOV o-aKtXXiov, voTaptovs TOV /3eo-rtaptov, voTapiovs 
TOV (tblKOV, viraTovs, (riXtvTiapiovs, ^3e(rrr/ropas Kat /xtKpovs dp^orras rwr 
ray/xdrcor, olov (TK^TTTpo^opovs, (TLyvocpopovs, evTV)(o(j)6povs, bpaKovapuovs, 



750 i TrAofjuaTos bis B : ?rAo/L rby Ko^ra LB : COrrexi 2 irpaTL : irpot- 

jrotrirov B : irpaiTcpiov scrips! 5 TOU roiror-nprirov SCripsi : TO)^ TOTTOTTJPTJTWJ/ L B 

13 KaffTpurly L 751 19 irpoavaKheivoyrcu TreVrjrais L 23 exwr L 752 35 x 
Aaptous bis SCripsi : -apiov B 36 /cuecrropos B 

M 11 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



"^ a' 



(TLVaTOpaS Kat boVKLViaTOpaS, Kat TOVS eKarepO)Z> fJLtp&V bpOfJifts aTTCLVTaS. 

Set be fla-dyciv TOVS pzv a~uyK\r]TiKovs airavTas jxera T&V otKetW dXXafr?- 
HaTtov Kat KajuurayiW, TOVS e Spojuety TTOLVTCLS /xera r<3z> CLVT&V TroSeW, 

Kat TOVS fJLV VLKrjTCLS M TTJS KptLTTOVOS 0(T<DS T&V CLKOvfiiTtoV TTpO(Tava- 

K\Cviv, TOVS 6e rjTTTjOcvTas em Trjs ere'pay 0eVea>y, kv r\ Kat TOVS 7reVri_ray 
/uiera 6e rr]v irpotopTOV $u>Tavyiav KOL TTJV firLOoo-iv T&V ^arXicoz; 
avTovs TrdvTas Kara roz; TVTTOV TOV irpoypatyevTa irao-iv. firl 6e TT}S 
rf^pas T&V avT&v aKovfiiTuv Set v^as VTp7TL^Lv et? K\TJ(rtv TTJS (3a(ri\iKfjs 

T / :)a7re 'C ? 7 ? OfJ.Ol(t)S avOvTTaTOVS TTCLTplKiOVS 6(f>(f)LKia\lOVS CTVV TO) 

roov vovfjitptov Kal rw Ko/mr;rt rwi> TL^(^v, (f)i\ovs t/3 /% etcrayetr 
Kat efayetz^ ftera rwi^ oiKetcoy oXKa^^aT^v /cara roz; Sr^Xco^eWa TVTTOV. 
753 > 8e rot? AotTrot? CLKOV/BLTOLS Set v/xas KaXeiv TOVS bvo roTrorr/prjra? Kat 
XapTovXapiovs T&V vovpcpuv KCU TCLX^V, Tpifiovvovs, fiiKapiovs, Aeyara- 
piovs, fj,avbcLTopas , ^vobo^ovSy yepoKOfjiovs, xapTOV\apiovs T>V tvay&v 
, dpx.tarpou? Kat rovy 5tatraptows roi; /neyaXoi) iraAartou Kat r^9 Aa- 
(rb f , Kat TreVryras t8 /0 TToKiv(TViv 6e 



754 






Kat yepoKo'/uouy \apTovXapiovs Kat laTpovs o~vv T&V StatraptW em rr) 
0eVet row aKovfifaov TOV /3a(rtXe6oy, TOVS 8e ap^ovTas T&V bvo 
em Trj Kara irpoo-amov 0eVet row /3ao-tXe'a>y eta-dyetz; 8e avrovy 
Kat edyetz> rouy /u,ez> ^fvobfyovs //era r<Su otKetW (TKapa/xayytW Kat pcoeW 
o-aytcoy, rovy 8e laTpovs airavTas /xera rwr otKetcor St/3ez;eVa)z;, rovy Se ra>r 
rayjudrcoz; ap\ovTas, TOVS /u.er roTrorryprjray Kat avroi/y jixera pcoe'cor 
ta' rovy 8e XotTrovs /aera o-Kapa/xayytwz; Trdrray. em 8e r^y 

aTretpyerat juez^ T; r<Sz; aKov/Strcoz; eKreXov/xe'yry KXiJa-LS, reXetrat Se ro KXr;- 
rcoptoz; eo-Trepay ez> ra> Trept^SXeVro) roi5 Movcrrtrtaroi; rpt/cXt^a). Trpoorrot- 25 
X^tTat yap ro avro K\r]Ttopi.ov irapa TOV /SacrtXe'coy Sta rou ai/roi; dprtKXtVov 
Trpauay, Kat Set ^/xay Trpoo-KaXeto-^at ety K\fj(riv TOV ai>Tov bciirvov /uayt- 
(TTpovs, dvdvTTaTovs, TrarptKtovy, ocfxpLKLaXiovs, Trpanroa'LTOvs, TrpcorocrTra- 
Oapiovs vvovx ovs > vplpuaiptovs, do-rtaptovy, /xayXa^Stray, Ko'/xryray ro(5 
o?5 Kat KtvTapxovs, TOV apiQpov Kara ro TTOO-OZ; r^y rpaTre^y, Kat 32 
rr]^ dtiav Trjs ecrTrepay fxixrraycoytau Sel ror KaXeVaz^ra dpTLKXivrjv 
TrdvTas cnroOta-Oat. ra tavT&v dXXa^TJ/xta Kat eTrevbvo-acrOaL 
TO, otKeta avr&v o-Kapa/xdyyta ety ro /xer 1 avT&v (rvveo-TiaQrjvai ra> ^Sao-tXet 
Kara rvTror. 77 Se dyta ra>^ (fxaTu>v 77/xe'pa tvr]v TLVCL Kat Trept^XeTrror 
XafJLTrpocfropiav flcrdyovcra davfJLacrTrjv Kat Traz^dyao'ro^ rr/y Se^ia)(rt^ eKreXet 
r?/y /3a(7tXtK7^y eortdVecoy. r^y yap evuxriv T&V ovpavtav Kat eTTtyetcoi' 
ray/xdrajy Sta rr?y Scopeay rot; dytou ^QaTrrtV/xaroy JJLVO-TLK^S < 
rovy ei; rdfet dyye'Xa)^ tepety rr^y /xeydX?7y roi; 0eoS KaOo\LKrjs 
Xev\rj[jiovovvTas ety (rvv<rTiacriv r<S /SacriXet o-t>z;?7ydyero. Kat Set rovy er 
TavTrj rr) r//xepa XaxoVray StaKOi^ta aKpt/3wy eTrtVrao-^at r?V e^Trpe-n-r] Kara- 40 
(TTacriv Trjs TTpi<f)avovs avT&v Kat tepay Se^twcrecoy. ez> yap rw reXoTj/xeVw 
Kpd/xart rr/y /oceydXr/y rou 0eo{5 eKKX^trtay Set" i$/xay KaXelz^ eTrt rr/y rt/xtay 
6 MSuffiv L 754 35 tKreAetV L 



<i>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 163 



/3acrtXtKTJs rpa-Trefts, juaytcrrpovs, avOvirarovs, TrarpiKtovs o-rparrjyovs, d<- 
<tKtaXiovs, TOV apL0[j,bv 18'' etcrayeti> 8e avrovs Kat edyetzJ juera r&v 
otKetW dXXaftjucoz;, aVev /xeVrot raw eavrcoz> gAapi&aw. ez; 8e rrj /3ao-tXtKrj 
rt/zia rpaWffl iipo ye mWcoz> owecmarat 6 Trarptdpx^S' rco /3a<rtXet, /cat 
5 8et r//uas KaXetr rovs Xoyd5as r?js eKKXr/crias, olov /xryrpoTroXtras crw ra> 
crvyKe'XXcp roy apiO^ov t/3', TrpocrTiyi&iv 8e avroi/j ez^ rr) avr&v ei<raya>yr) 
ap/xo8ta)9 Kara ror eKaa-rov Opovov, brjkovoTL Tjja^tea-^ei'ous a^rovj 7ra<ras 755 
ra? XetrovpytKa? avrooz; (rroAa? TrAr/z; rwz; co/xo^optcoz; Kat [JLOVOV crvvL(rdyiv 
8e avrovs /cat cfayet^ 8ta rou /3ao-tXt/co{) /caorp^o-tof, /cameos 6 rvVos r^s 

10 t(raya)y?ys Trepte'xet. e^rt 8f TWV Aotiraiz; d/cou/3tra)i; 8et v/xas /caXetr 
7rp(r(3vTpovs TOV ^yaXov TraXartov t^3 r , r^j /xeyaA-rjy e/CKXr/o-tas /c8', Sta- 
/corovs o/x,ouos rou TraXartou, r?js /xeyaXr/y e/c/cXrjcri'a?, r^s l^ay, XT', VTTO- 
8ta/coi>ous o/^otcoj X^"', dyayya)(rraj ojuotooy /c8', \^aXra? djuotcos K^' Kat 
TraTrao'as rot) tre/cperoi; roi; Trarpiap\ov XT'* o/xoi; (7t5" r * etaayety 8e avrovs 

15 /cat eayeti> ovrcos* rovs /ixez; tepcojuie^ovs aTraz^ras /otera r<Sz> otKetcoy Xcv/coiy 
, rovs e (re/cpert/covs, "v/^aXras re Kat avayvtocrTas /xera otKela 
fjiovov, o^Xo^ort Kara r^y raiv Kat e / K^e<rtz^ r?)^ dvcorepa) ^11^77- 
. 5et 8e Trpoa-ex^tv Iv rrj avrrj dz^aKXri(ret Kat roi> Kaipbv TOV 
T&V Xeyo/xei'toz^ SovXKtcoy, Kat (rw rr/ rovrcoi' et<ro8(i) cruz>eicrayeti> 

20 rovs 5vo r^s /xeyciXrjs eKKX?;a-tas Xa/utTrpovs Sojueo-ruovs crvz; r<Sz> 
re Kat opfyav&v aTtavTav TOV crvfypaylov, XevxrjfJLOVovvTas Kat 
juteVovs ra otKeta ^eXwz^ta' biaipelv be avrovs ez^^er KaKtWev irpd Trjs 
et(ro6ou avT&v ovrcos. ra> /ixe^ ez;t avT&v 8o/xeo-rtK<i) a/xa raV \ffa\T&v 756 
aTra^rco^ O-TL^L^LV em r^s 8eftas ^eorecos rwz; Ttp-rrv&v aKovfiiTw ra> 8e 

25 erepa) So/xeo-rtKO) avrcoy o-vy opfyav&v airavTaiv, Kat avroz; em rov evcoz^vjuov 
Kara TrpoVcoTroy ^eVecos ovVrjs rwz; aKov/3trcoy OT^few* eto-ayetz; 8e 
avrovs e</>' eKare'pa)^ rwy jutepwv a/m<^a) crw rrj evXoyta row 7rarptapx.ov, 
)(opo(rraret^ aTraz^ras Trpos avTifytoVov /xeXa)8iay. Kat ryi^tKa rwz; y' dz^rt- 
(j)u>vr](rL$ X?jfet, efdyetr avrovs Kl0V a/xa o^ey Kat eX?]Xv^ao-t^. 
Kat Trapa Aeoz^ros rov o-o<a)rarov 8eo-7roVov ets TrXetoz^a boav 
Kat fj,yi(TTr]v v\api(rTiav Trjs TreptoStKrys ravrrjs Kat (TfjBacr^iov 
topT&v evco)(tas, ev r?y avrr/ reXevrata r<SzJ aKov/3tra)v ?;juepa //era 
TrepataxrtzJ r^s Xe^^etcrrys rwz/ avTi(f)(*)V&>v ap^aLOirapaboTov KOIVTJS 
8tas, o-vreto-dyet^ ^/xas ey rw Katpai ra>y SovXKiW rovs 5 7 r?;s /xeydXrjs 
eKKXrjcrtas Trept^az^ets 8o/xeo-rtKovs, S^XovoVt ^^i^a-^vovs ra otKeta CLVT&V 
/ca/oirjo-ta Kat c^eXcoma jutoVa, Kat to-raz; avrovs eV rai //eVa) rov 7rept^8Xe7rrou 
rptKXtVov Kara Stao-rao-tz; ovrcos' roy //,ez> a' 8o/xeVrtKov r^s e/38o/xd8os 
Kara /xeVoy rcoy eKare'pco^ez; reo-crcipco^ Xa^7rpcoz> aKov/3ircoy, roi' 8e aTT* 
avrov btvTtpov bofjito-TiKov Kara juteVoz; o/xotcos rcoz; aTr' avT&v b' eKare'pco- 
^ez^ Xa/xTrpcoi' aKov/3trcoy, roi' 8e y' 8o/otecrriKoy TrdXtv 6/xotcos Kara jueVoz> 
rcoz; OTT' avrcoz^ eKarepcotfez; XajUTrpcoy aKov/Strcoi', ror 8e 8 r Kara /zecror Kat 757 



755 17 fj.vfiiJ.ovfvQriffo.v L 19 Tov\8i(DV L : COrr. R 756 24 aTrewra L : COIT. R 

25 /cal L : tri/j/ R B 31 fiixo-piffrfiav L 34 ffvvyffdyetv L 

M 112 



164 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



avTov T>V e eKaTepa>z> /xep<3i> Kat Aa/xTrpwz; a.K.ovfiiru>v. Kat (rvv rf) eTrt- 
uevVet Kat evAoyta TOV dytcoTaVov fjfjL&v irarpLap^ov a7rdpxeo-0at CLVTOVS 

TT}V TLfJiiaV Kat OtdptCTTOV CUV<TIV TTJV ef OtKCtW X.L\t(t)V TOV OrotfHtiTCLTOV 

Kat 0eo7rpo/3A?JTOv rin&v /Saa-tAeW Aeorro? t^vfyavQticrav, KOL a/xa TTJ 
eK^ooi/rjo-et Kal TroAvTe'x^fc) T^S \ipovo}j.Las Ktrrjo-et o^oOvfjiabov 5 
s roi)? avaKLfj.Vovs a6ety /cat (rv^aX^iv TO pj}Qtv iepbv ao-/xa TO 
e/c /jteA-taraya)^ x L ^ MV oraAaaz; aTracrt rots Trtorotj VTT^/CO'OIS. //era 6e 
r^r Trepaiiticriv TTJS dcoSe/carj/xe'poi) ra^rT]? r<3z; topT&v evco)(tas reAetrat 
aAAr; /xe^eopros ^//epa Seft/xoT;, (frepovcra Seftcoo-tz; //era (ra^ifjiov. TVTrca 
yap T\ovnvov TO TOV 8eft/xoi> Trepaj, t8tK?}r rtz^a KaTaa-Tacriv eto-dyet 10 
TraAtz;. ot yap ^eoTrpo^SAryrot cro<ot 8ecr7Torat /xera rr)y aTroAvcrt^ row 
rvTrt/coO bf^CfJiOV Trpo/ca^e^b^rat TraAti; ets TroAAwi' avTiXr]'^nv i K.CU, reAe^rat 

TO K\.7]TG>plOV 7Tt aTTO/COTTT^S TpaTTC^S, 6l> TW Aa/lXTTpOTaTQ) TptKAtZ^G) 'Ioi>- 

(TTiviavov TOV /aeyaAov, Kat Set T/juas evTpeTTtfetr ets crvvea-Tiavw T>V 
/3ao*tAeW (f>i\ov$ TOVS VTTO Ka^irdyiv airavTas, apxovTas TTJS OTV/K^TOV, 15 
aTTO Te /xayto-Tpcor, avdviraTtov, TraTpt/ctcor, o$(t/aaAtW, /3ao-tAtKwz; Trpco- 
758 TO(nraOapia>v, ao-rjKprjT&v, yja,pTov\apia)v T>V /xeyaAcor creKpeVcov, VTTOLTMV, 



, (TevaTopaiv /cat AotTraiz; ap\6vT(DV T&V b' Tay/xaTcoz;. 8et 5e 

CLTTCLVTCLS /caTa TO TTO(TOV Trjs TpaTre'ft?, Kat eto-ayety avTovs 20 
/cat e^ayeti; aTrazrraj /ueTa TO>V otKetcov dAAa^jtxaTcoz; ?7ju,<teo*/zeVoi>j Kat Tay 
^(Aa/xv8a? e/xTrpotr^ta) TO> (T^r/fjiaTL' Kat 8e? iipoa'tyjEiv TO TOV opydvov 

Kat 7/ytKa T?)Z; aTnix 7 ? " 1 ^ ro ^ (f^Ooyyov Travo-rj, tavL<TTq 
ets V(f>r]fj.(av T&V becriTOT&v, Kat av^ts eKTt^ea-flai Tas eavT&v 
/xe\pt TTJS d^)tfea)s TOV HLVOTOV T&V bov\Ki(ov, Kat -TrdAtv Tawas di'a- 25 
Aa//,/3dVecr0at Trdi'Tay, OTTCOS av /uteT* avT&v (TW^\9oLV tv TT} o/xota Tafet. 
TO 8e kiro^vov TW 8e^t/xo) tTTTrtKo^ aQXov TeAetTat fte^ Trj firavpiov TOV 
bc^ifjiov ^//e'pa, Kat fteTa T^y avToi; d-Tro'Avo-t^ TeAetTat K\r]Ta>piov tv T&> 
TptKAti>a> TcSi' Ka^t(7//aTO)^. Kat 8et T^/xas (VTptTrifciv (frfaovs ets avvf- 

(TTiaO~lV T&>V bt&TTOT&V KCLTO, TO 7TOOW T^9 TpaTT^rjS K TI/S O"l>yKA?JTOt> 30 

Trdo-r;?, otoz^ /xayta-Tpov?, TraTptKtovs, TrpatTrocrtToi;?, 6(f)(f)iKLa\iovs, 7rpt/ut- 
Krjpiovs, do*Ttaptovs, y3acrtAtKOi;s TrptoToo-TraOapiovs orvv TW aKTovapta> Kat 
TW bK(Toypd(j)(i) Kat TOIS TOV ^AtaKov TrapaoraTats, a/ua T<3z> <TKr]TTTpo(j)6p(v, 
bpaKovapicw, o-ry/xeto^o'pa)^ Kat (riyvo^opw eto-dyetz; 8e avTovj airavTas 
759 /JteTa TWZ; otKetooz; dAAafr;/xaTa)z; x.a>pts T 

Trapao-TCLTas /oteTa T<3z> otKetcoz; orKapajuayytcoz;. 
T?J 8e bfVTepa ^/xe'pa TOV 3>e/3povaptot> 

j V p( ov fin&v 'lyo-ov Xpto-Tov ev BAaxe'pratj, Kat 
Aa/u7rpas TrpoeAevo-eooj, TeAetTat TO fiao-iXiKov KXrjTtapiov ets TO^ Trept- 



757 3 Qfdpcrov B xet/jcDi' coni. R 6 avfj.^d\etv L 13 TCI; A. L 

758 22 T T. o. <f>eeyfj.a.Ti R B 25 a^ecos L 27 rcV Se L 32 aKraplw L : correxi 
33 T)\iaKov forma contracta L (non /c\t| ut ed. Bonn, falso adnotat) 759 35 r)\iaicov 
(non K\iaitov) L 37 ^UW/TJ (marg.) L 



4>IA00EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 165 



/3Ae7JTOy TpLK\LVOV TOV 'QKtCLVOV TTttAat eTTtKArjtfeVra 7TL 

rpa-Tre'c^S', Kat 8et ^juas 1 evrpe7rifeiz> et? crvvtcrTiaa-iv T&V /3a<TtAe'a>z; (f)i\ovs 
K T&V cruyK\7)TiKG>v, Tovs VTTO KCLfjiTrayLV TT&VTCLS, olov /xaytorpouy, avOv- 
Trarouj, TrpaiTroa-trou?, TrarptKtou?, 6*</><tKtaAioi;?, /Sao-tAtKoi/? 7rpa>roo"7ra- 
5 Oapiovs, o-vyK\r]TiKOVs, TOV TrpcoroaerTJKprjrts, yapTovXapiov T&V efo-KOiL- 
/3tra)z>, VTTCLTOVS, /3e<rr?7ropa?, trtAeyrtaptous, dAAafTJ/xara eK r<Sy rayjota- 
rtK(Sz> apxovTMV, TOV apid^ov Kara ro TTOO-QV rrjs rpaTref?;?- eta-aye tz; 6e 
ai&rovs /cat efayetz^ jutera r&ii' ot/cet<oi/ aAAai/xar<oz>, x w pt? rwz; ^ a l J 'V oa)V > 
Kara TT)I> eKao-ro) Trpoa-ovcrav Trjs bor}$ alav. 

10 Tr) 8e KVpiaKT] TTJS TU>V Kpe&v airovcrias enl y&v TTJS ^SacriAtK^s rpa7re^r/s 

<^)iAous ov 6e? (7i)yKaAe?cr^at. ro yap avro K\r]T(apiov rots irtvrjcriv v<f>- a rOK P fas 
a.TT\ovTai v rrj a\^t6t, Kat JJLOVOS 6 /3aa"tAevs roi/s eauroi) otxetovj /cat 760 
0vyyPl$ Trpoj kcrTiaviv (rvyKaXtirai. rry 6e rptrry r?;s rupotyayov f 
Trpoo-KaAetrat roi; jSatrtAea a/xa rr) ?rept avroz; o-vyKA^ra) 6 

15 Kw^o-raz/rtrovTro'Aecoj ez; rw evayet /xeyaAw Trarptap^tw, Kat reAou/xeVrjs 
r^j tepas Aetro^pytay, Trport^erat KArjrwptozJ cv rw /xeyaAco creKpeVco roC 
Trarptap^ou. Kat 8et ^/xas evrpe7rt{etr Trpos K\T)(TLV TTJS rotavrrys rpaTre'frjs, 
/xaytVrpovj, TrpatTroo-trou?, dy^Traroi;?, TrarptKtovs, o(/>^>tKtaAtoi>s, -Trpcoro- 
o"7ra^aptov9, (TTTaOapoKavbibaTovs, (nradapiovs, o-rparopas, Kav6t5arovs Kai 

20 ap^ovTas T>V TayfJiCLTMV Kara ro TTOO-OV TTJS rpa-Tre'^s* eto-ayetv 8e avrovs 
Kat efayetu /xera rwr oiKeiW (TKapa/xayyiW Kat [JLOVOV. 0,776 8e ro 
KOv^to-jLtaros rou Trpwrov jutVcrov o"et ^/x^j etcrayetz; roy Trpcorororaptor 
ro Trarptapxou /otera roi; otKetov avroS ava\oyiov re Kat /St^Atou Kat 
temp a^roi^ e?rt r^s CVCDVVJJLOV ^eVecos r?js ^ao-tAtK?}? rpaTre'^s Trpos ro 

25 VTravayv&vat, TOV Trept z^r^o-retay ap/xo^orra Ao'yoi'. /xera 6"e rr)y (rv/u- 
7rA?ipa)o-t^ Trayro? rou Ao'yov Kat rr)z; eto-o8oz; r<3z> TVp\f/LT>v fcojuwz; det 
rov? x/^aAras a/x^)co o-vz; rai avT&v 6o/xe(rrtKa), ror apiOpov 
wcratrra)? Kat rovs drayrwo'ras' a/xc^a) o'vy rw avrwz^ 8o/xeo~rtKa), ror 
o/uotcoj, Kat to-raz^ avrovs e<' eKarepa /xe'pry, ets ro Trpoo-aSetzJ 

30 tepoi' alvov Kara ru7roz>. ro?s 8e AotTrot? airacnv ava zvos Kat povov. r^ 761 
8e Tre/X7rr?7 r^s a^rr;? e/35o/uia8os (rvyKaAerrat et? ecrrtacrtz^ VTTO r<3z> 
jSao-tAetoz; ez> rw /xeyaAw TraAarta) 6 aytwraros Kat OLKOV^VLKOS 
Kai a-vveiorfpxovTcu avrw jurjrpoTroAtrai, ovs az; ftov\f]Q^ 6 atiros 
Kat Set ?Jjua? evrpe7rtetz> et? KXrjvLV TTJS rtfxtas CLVT&V o-weo-rtdo-eco? 

35 avT&v T&V ^rpoTroAtra)!', 0^9 ay T^X?7* K0 ^ ^pea-^Svre'pous roO 
TraAartov ef Kai riyovptvovs TWV fiaa-iXiK&v /xeyaAcoz; /xoz/acrr7]pta)z;, 
ay etyat rvx?7> K t o-eKpertKovs 7ra7ra8as roi; Trarptdpxov Kara ro VTTO- 
KfifjLcvov TTOO-OV Trjs rt/xtaj rpavre'^s' eto-ayetz; 6e avrovj Kat efayety fxera 
raw oiKL(tiv (TToX&v T Kat <p\a)ViU)v Kara ror TrpoAex^eyra T eV rai Trept 

40 roO 'lovo-riznarou /uteyaAa) KA?/rcopo^eo-ta) t. 

TT) 8e TTLovo-rj KDptaKrJ r^? ra>y aytW etKoVcoy opOoboias /utera r^y 

760 30 Kara finrov. hie lacunam SUSp. R 39 &/ r^5 rpiK\iytf 'loucrr. TOW /j.fyd\ov 

K\t]ropo&ff(ov rinrov exspectes 



166 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



Trjs e/c (B\a^pv^v i<nov(rrjs ^aetznys Atraz/etas Kat rryi> tepa)- 
/xu(rraya>ytai> eKreAetrat K\r]TU>piov eK rfjs v^pccrias TOV /meydAov 
ra> Aa/xTrpordra> Kat /xeydAo) TrarptapxiKO) <reKpeY(t>, Kat 8et 
evrpeTTifetz; ei? crvvea-Tiaa-iv <tAovs- ro) /3ao-tAet Kat r<3 ayicordrw 
Trarptdpx??* jmaytorpovs, TrpatTro0"trovs, di>0UTrdroi>j, TrarptKtouy, /txryrpo- 5 
TroAt'ras, dpxieTTio'Ko'Troi'?, ot/x/HKtaAiov? Kat ap-^ovras rrjs TrepK^avoGs 

762 (TuyKATJrov, Kara ror apiO^ov TOV TTO<TOV TTJS rpaTre^s* eto-ayetz^ 8e avrovs 

Kat efayetz; ovrcos* rous jaev (rvyKAr^rtKov? /xera raiz; otKetcoz; avr&v 

Kat jaoVoy, rovs 8e tepets jotra ra>z; otKeiW o-^/xfircoz/. 
M^v Maprtos. Tr) 8e KC' rou Maprtou fjirjvbs reAetrat 17 ev(rr;/xos Kat Trept^az;^? loprr) 10 
rou evayyeAtcr/xoi; rrj? VTrepaytas 8eo-7rotVrys ^jnoiz; 0eoroKOV Kat afLTrapOcvov 
Maptas, Kat TfXov^vrjs rrjs rvTTtKTJ? TrpoeAe^o-ecos ey rw I'aa) rw^ XaAKO- 
-Trparetcor eto-ep^ovrat ot /3ao-tAets e^ rw TraAartG) juera r?}? 7rapaboov 
Trda-rjs o-vyKA?jrov Aa/xTrpo^opowre?, Kat /mera r^y etcro8ov Tavrrjv CLTTO- 
riOovrai TTCLVTCS ras kavr&v trroAa? Kara rvTror, Kat (fropovvrtov T&V 15 
tvo-fp&v fjn&v /3ao-tAea>z; ra KXpva"cofteVa avr&v o-Kapajudyyta, 
(jovrai TT&VTCS o/xotcoj ra otKeta avr&v o-Kapa/udyyta, Kat reAetrat 
ptoz; ra> fiacTLXei v ro> 7repi<az>eoTar(t> rptKAtro) roi; 
KOTrr^s rpaTre^ryj, Kat 8e? ^/xas evrpeTrt^ety ets crvi'ea'rtacrti' 
ei/ rr) rotavrry ^/xepa /aaytcrrpovj, TrpatTroo-trovy, avOvnaTovs, -TrarptKtovs, 20 
orparrjyovj, d^)^)iKtaAtov9, (3a(ri\LKOVs -TrpcorocrTra^aptov? Kat AOITTOV? 
apxpvras K T&V fia<TL\iKG>v ray/xdrcoz; Kara ro TTOCTOV rfjs rpa-TrefrjS' 
eto-dyetr 8e avrovs Kat efayeiz> ei^ rrj KA?7o-et /xera ra>z> otKetcov a-Kapa- 
/utayytcoy Kat povov. rfj 8e Trpo r^? Xptaroi; draa-rdo-ecos Aa//7rpa KvptaKr) 

763 r<3i> /3at A cor reAetrat 17 Trpoe'Aevcris eV ra> ^eo^vAaKra) tepai TraAartw. Trpo- 25 
Ka0eo-0eVra>i> yap e?rt roO \pva-OTpLK\ivov T&V evo-efl&v fm&v /3acriAeW 
e^aAAay/xe^cor a/xa ra> oiKOf/xe^tKa) Trarptdp^^ ^at roi; Kov(3ovK.h.Lov Tra^ros 
Trpo Trpoo-coTroi; CLVT&V Kara rdftz; OTI)(?}O'OI> Trapecrrwro?, eto-dyovrat ot 

8' do/xeVrtKot rwz; ray/xdrcoi' o-vr rots St^rt Sry/xdpxot? Kat ra> yapTOV\api<*> 
rrjs /SacriAtKr/j (raKeAAr]9, Kat o-i)z; rovrots 8e Trdrres ot yr]pOKO/uot re Kat 30 
fez>o8o / xot TWI; tvayStv otKtoz;, Kat rr^s eto-KO/xt8^9 raw rt/xtcoi; crravptcoz^ 
Trap* avrots reAov/xeVr]?, etcrdyoz;rat Trdz^res, /utdyto-rpot, avOvTraroi, TrarptKtot 
Kat o^x^tKtdAtot Kara TrpoVcoTroz; r<3i> cvcrffi&v fiacriXttov, eorroAto-/xerot 
ra? eavrwz; AeuKa? x^ az; ^ as> * Ka ^ r ^ s Stayo/xT/j raiz^ ri/xtcoi' (rravpttor e^s 
avrovs yeva/xerrys, reAe^rat r} Atrdrtos T$/xz>&>8ta aTro roiJ raoO r^s aytas 
eoroKov roi; 4>dpov Trpos roz; I'aoy rr^s ayta? rptd8os r?js Ad^^s, Kat 
aTro rr^s VTroorpo^TJs ravrr/s reAetrat KAryrcoptoz; rot? /3ao-iAe{5(rti> eTrt ro{5 
Aa/xTrpordrov 'lovo-riz^taroiJ rptKAtVov, Kat 8et r;/xas cvTptTti&iv ets 
<TTia(Tiv T&V ^ao-tAecoy </>i'Aov?, /xaytVrpov?, TrpatTrofrtrovy, 
TrarptKtoi)?, o^x^tKtaAtovj, ^e^oSoxovj, yrypOKo/u,ovj, roTrorr/pryra? rcoz^ ray/ud- 
rcoi; Kara rov apid^dv TOV TTOO-QV Trjs rpaTre'fr/y, Kat etcrdyoprat Trdz/res ot 



761 3 \ap.Trpurarw L 762 16 KfXP vffo f Ji ^ va 



4>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 167 

juerd ran- otKeuoi; dAAaftjuuoz;, irhrjv T&V \\avib IODV, ol 6e yrjpo- 
KOL ^vobo\oi Kat T07Torr]p7]Tal T&V ray/xdreoz> /xerd rd otKeta CLVTUU' 
(TKapajudyyta. rrj 6e dyta Kat tepa 7rejui7jT?7 r?js AajUTrpds o^rcoj /cat Trept- 
(fravovs e/36ojota8oj, eV ?f 6 rr/? tfeiay /uwraycoytas Trapd r?Js dixo o-o<tas 764 
5 e^TJTrAcorat Setm'oy, reAetrat TrpoeAevcrty Trayazn/ ev r<3 AajUTrpai 
/cat TrpoeurpeTrt^rat Trap' ^//wz; ^7 ro{) (3aai\LKOv beiirvov K\TJ(TL<S 
Kat 8et ^7/jta? etrpeTrtfetr et? a-vvtorriaaiv r&v decrTroro)^ //aytVr/aovs, -Trpat- 
TTOo-trov?, az;0t;7raroi>s > , irarpiKLovs, d^x^t/ctaAtoDy, TrpaiToanraQapiovs fvvov- 
X.ovs, TtpLfjiLKripLovs, ocTTiapiovs, /xayAa/StVaj, Ko/xr]ras rot; apiOpov Kat 

10 Kez^rap^ODS Kara ro irocrbv rrjs rpaTre^y, Kat rovrouj irpoo'Kahe'io'Oai CTTI 
roz^ Try? e(T7Tpas Senr^oz^. aTroAvo/xerrjs ovz^ TT/S (rvyKA^rov Trao^r/s Kat 
TraAty TT/OOS &pav B' 7raviov(rr]s, crvvlp^ovTai TTCLVTCS ol KeKAr^/xe^ot eis 
ro reAeVat T7)r tepaz; e^coxtaz;, Kat //era TT)Z; aTroAvo-tz; r^s 
Aetrovpyta? Trport^erat ro /3a(rtAtKW KA^rooptoz^ eTrt row Tr 

15 rptKAiVoi) roi; 'lovo-rt^ia^oi;, Kat TrpoKa^ea-^crros roi; /3ao-tAeco? em r^s 
rt/utta? rpaTrefrjy, eto-ayoz>rat Traz^re? ot KK\TJIJL^VOL /xera rwz; otKttcoy o-Kapa- 
Kat povov, eirt 8e rf/ CLVT&V eo'8a> XafiovTts Trap" rj^Qv </>arAta 
^ep\ovrai Traz^re?. rw 6e aytw Kat rt/xtw o-aj3/3arw avt&xOevTos 
TOV \afjLTTpov TraAarto?;, reAetrat TrpoeAeuo-t? 8r])icoo-ta -Trpo? rr)z; aytaz; 

20 ^ofyiav, Kat {TraAAarrojoiei'^s r^s eV8i>r?js rrjs rt/xtas Kat aytas 
t(rep)(erat 6 fiacrikevs tv rw o-Kvo(/)i;AaKta), Kat r^s bLavofjLrjs 
roSy vapbuv, VTroa-rptytL TrdXiv 6 /3aa-tAevs /utera 6o^s ey r<S avrou 
TiaAarta), Kat 8et ^//a? ^rpe7rt{etv ets o-vvfa-riacnv TOV /3ao-tAecoy ez^ rai 765 
to-TTeptw 8et7rz^a> (|>tAoi;s, /^tayto-rpovy, TrpatTroo-troi)?, d^^fTrdrot;?, TrarptKtoi;?, 

25 TTptoToo-TTaOapiovs d^)^)tKtaAtoi)j, irp(*)TO(T7raOapiovs 

ocrTiapiovs, juayAa^Stray, roTrorryp^rd? Kat K rwv apyjovrav TOV 

Kara ro TTOCTOV TTJS rpaTrtC^y, Kat (TTOi^ov^lvov Trapa TOV /3a<rtAea>s rov 

avroi; K\.rT(*)iov, Kat 6 



30 <rov(TLV ol T?)S crvyKXrjTov irdvTs, Kat r?J9 ^eta? Aetrovpytas er rw 
rou 4>dpov T\ov{jLVY]s, /uerd r7)z; K(f)a>vr](riv TOV IJLVVTLKOV opydvov 

7raz>res rd? eaurwz; a-roAd?, Kat eTrez^iSwKOzmu rd otKeta o-Kapa- 
Kat tWarat rd KA^rcoptoz^ ez^ r<S Trept^az^eo-rdra) rptKAti'w roi; 
'lova-rtz/tai'oi}, Kat eto-dyoz^rat ^rdz^re? ot KKA?7//evot /zerd rair OLKLO>V 
3r a-Kapa/xayyto)^ Kat JJLOVOV /xerd 8e rr)z; tiriboa-iv T&V (^arAtcoz; 

TjjMV 01 7rCLVTS. 

*H 8e dyta Kat 6e8oa(r/>ter?] rry? Xptcrroi) avaord(recos 

^ 77 rd r^j a-corryptas T^/XWZ; otKoyoju?}^ Ke^dAatoz^, Kat 6 ^OLKOS *A8d/x 
eK r^s (frOopas Trpds TT)I; C^V eTravTJXOtv, Ka^irpdv Tiva Kat Trept^SAeTrroz; 
40 tv(t>yiav rots (Sacri\V(Tiv rj^&v -TrpoefeVrya-ez;. rd yap ity-os r^s tepas 
inro(f)aCvovTs K ra>^ Kara) KaOeop&v eavrov? 



764 4 <r<J>fas L 765 27 ffTvxovfj.evov L 28 viro\vovrai B 35 

40 Trpoffe^fyrjfffv B 



168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



766 irdpavTts irpbs vtyrjXriv Tiva Kat iroXvKvbov TOV /3r//xaros 0u>piav tavTovs 
7ravdyovo"L, Kat Trjs Xpto*ro{5 a\rjOovs dya / 7rr7<rea>s TOV acnraa-fjiov eK/zt- 

ro V7nJKooz> airav o-\TLK(as Karao-7rabz>rat, Kat avOis crvv rrj 
rvyK\r]T(f irpbs Tr]v ava> 2twzJ, TTJV Xptoroi) tKK\r](riav, a>s 
/xa0r)rat, jx,era bor]s CTVVT proven. rr)z> yap ircpibo^ov Trjs r/jzepa? yappo- 5 
vrjv vbeLKvvfJLVOi AajutTT potyopovcri rot? Xcopot?, ets TVTTOV rwu 6^ra^)ta)r 
Xptoroi) (TTrapyavMV ZCLVTOVS e^etAtrro^res. 8to Kat e^ rat? 8etcus \pcrlv 

aVTU>V TO VlKYjTLKOV TOV (TTCLVpOV KCLT^OVTCS T pOTTCLLOV , T7]V 

Trjs \o'iK.f)s f]fj,>v ova-Las v rats e^co^/xotj KaT^ovcn, Kat rr)z> 

rw @ea> avatyepovTts /xera rr)z; rwy aytcoy /^(rrrjptcoz; /utera- 10 
irpbs (Tfj.vbv Kpapa TOVS Trjs o~vyKX.rJTov TrpoKptrouy, a>s Kot^a)z;oi;9 
(ai>aj9 Trpoo-XajJipavovTai. Kat 8et ^/xa? tVTpemfav V rrj 
avr^ KA?jort roi; Kpa/xaros roi; reXov/xeVou Iz; rrj X/HOTOI) Ka6o\iKrj 
cria ts o-W<rTia(riv roi /SacrtAet <f>t\ovs and Trjs ra6o? r 
av6vTTaT(tiV, TrarptKtcoy, o-rparrjyoiy re Kat o^x/>tKiaA&oi>, ror apiQ^ov t8 r ' '5 
8e ai'rovs em rr^y avTrjs r/oaTre'fr/? oirrcos* rov? /xe 

Kat TrarptKiov?, rov? Awpov? l^fi^tc<r/xvovs /xera rfii; 
&v 6o)paKi(*)v Kat jWVOV, TtpOKpivtiv 8e er r^ rotarjrr; KaOebpq TOVS ra 
ia r)fjL(f)Lo-fjivovs VTTCp TOVS aXXovs TraTpiKiovs TOVS ra otKeta Ka/xrjo-ta 

767 (fropovvTas, KCLV Td\a Tvyoiev \CLTTOVS eTz^at ez; rr) 7rpo/3Ar/o-ef rov? 6e 20 
orparriyovs anavTas jutera rwv otKetoor avT&v cruapa^ayyi^v Kat povov 
TOVS be o^LKiaXiovs Kat avrov? /xera r<3z> otKetcoi; Ka/oir]o-t(oz;, ai^ev 



ifSi v w Kat ro Trept^az^e? Krrj/xa roi; 

els TLjjir]v irpotTcOr], 6et r/juas evrpeTrtfety ets crvvco-Tiao-LV rw 25 
jSatrtAet ^tAovj eK rwz; Trpo\f\6* VT(t) v /xaytVrpcor, avOviraTtoV, TrarptKtW, 
(TTparr]y>v, d<^)^)tKtaAta)r creKpertKcSi', OTTO rrys ra^ecos roO orrpartcortKoi; 
Kat Karaire'pco, dcr^Kpr/rwz; re 6/aoi; Kat KOjurjrcoz; rcoz^ (rxoAwr Kat 
(TKpifitoVtov, orvv T&V bvo K BovXydpoiv (^t'Acoz;, rw apiQ^ov X f ' tv 6e 
rats 7Tpi^fjs reVcrapa-t rwz; Ka^apfov rpaTre^at? aTro rr^s ra^eco? rwz> 3 
KavbibaTav, jQea-rryro'pcoz; re Kat 0-iAei>riapiW, 

, o-r]/xeto^)opa)y Kat asvaTopav TOV apiQ^ov AT'* 
K TOV /xeydAov Trpatrcoptov roz> apiO^ov if] , Kat eK rwr BovAya- 
pa)i> (^)tAa)z; dvOp^Trovs t,rj' f io~dyLV be avTovs Kat Trpocrrtxt^ety Trpo rr}s 
et(ro8oi; avr&v, TOVS fjiev eirt rrys ^pvcrrjs (3a(Ti\LKrjs rpaTreC^r/s 7Tpi(f)avis 35 
baiTvpovas /xera rwz; otKetW dAAaf^/xarcoz; Kat x\avibi(t)v, Trpoo-KaAeto-^at 
8e revs a7ro rwi; BouAyapcoy (f)i\ovs dirb Trjs rci^eco? rai^ <rrparr7y<Sz> ey rai 
8evre'pa) /uttz^o-o) errt rr^s erjwwjuoi; ^eVecos rf^j rpaTre'fr?? Trpoy ro 
768 avTovs TTffJLTTTOvs, rj Kat KTOVS (f)i\ovs, (TTL^i^LV be airavTas HvOev 

Kara rr^fy ap^o^pvcrav Trjs raecos eKacrra) So'^az'. OTTO 6e rr/s crrao"ea)s 4 



766 8 vr)KT)TiKbt' L 1 1 irpoKp-nrovs L 767 20 eActTTwyes L 24 /cA^ua L : 

corr. R 25 es rt^V B 27 o^iKmAtW, ffeKpenicwv B, non recte, cf. infra 784. 5 
fort. ToO (\oyo6frov TOV) ffrpari(ariKov sed vix necessarium 28 aa-r^Kpiriav L 



ro 



4>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 169 

X\OVTO)V TOVTMV <TTi\ifav avOis ZvOtv KaKL0v rovs duo rfjs 
rdfeo>s T&V KavSibaTcw Kal Kara>re'po> Trpos ro Ka0t(r6fjvai M T&V eKare'paw 
Svo TrpOKptrooy rpaTrefaw. enl 8~e rats Kara>re'pais rpaTre'^eus Set Trpoort- 
Xt&^j tvl JAW rr/s ef evcozw/uiov 0eVea>s rovs e 'Aydpa>z> 8eo7xtovs, eVl 8e 
5 TT/y erepas rpaTre^rys rovs rwi; c^iAaw BovAyapcoy avOptoirovs TravTOS'- 
dvayeiv 8e avrovs airavras Kal e^ayeti^ ovrws* rovs fxer a^ro r^s 
Traz^ras KCU raiz; rayjuarcoi; fxera rwy otxeicoy aAAa^/uicoy, rovs 
Aev/co<o'povs, afcorovs Kat V7ro8e8/xe7^ovs, rovs 8e BovA- 
yapcoi/ avOptoirovs /utera rwr otKetcoz; avrwy <Tyj]^aTit)v. btl 8e 
10 r^i; K<f)tovr](riv Kal a.Trrixr](TLV T>V ^OVCTIK&V opyavaiv, /cat ^in 

Hvov acrr/ jueAos, avio-rqv aTravras ets ev^/itaz; rwy 8ea-7rora)z; Kat av^ts 
ras eavrwz^ e/c8t8vo-Keo-^at x^- a M^ a? > Ka ^ ^ ra r ^J if^ffws rov JJLLVCTOV 
T&V bov\KL(*)v TtaXiv ravras avakayL^av^iv Trpbs ro /oter' avr<Si/ tKTropevtcrdai 
tv rrj CLVT&V efo^a). ez; 8e rr) avrr; d^aa-raoret 6ei Trpoo-exetu r6 ex /Sacrt- 
15 AIKTJS x et pos bibopfvov rfjs eyepo-ecos cr^r/j^ia, o-vz^ avrw 8e Kat rr/y eK^w- 
rov -Trapeo-rwros efcet KOV/3tKovAaptov, Kat av^ts ^avicrrav Kal 
rovs ro>z; 8' rpaTrefwz; KeKA?7jueVovs, fjiLKpov etpyoz;ras rovs a^co 
, Kat cT^' ovrcos o-wefepxo/u-eWvs aTrarras. 7rt 8c r^s 8evrepas 
f}[jLpas reAetrat /xe^eopros 7rpoeAevo-ts ei> rai a-ryKw rwz^ Kopv^atcov Kal 769 
20 ayiwv aTroo-ro'Acoz;. Kal TrAr/pov/xeVr^s r^s tepas Aetrovpytas, Trport^crat 
K\riTa>pLov 7rl aTTOKOTrrT/s rpa?r^s > rw /ueyaAco rptKAtz^a) r<Sr TraAartW, 
Kal 8et v/uas evrptTrtfetz; ets (rvvea-Tiaa-iv ro> /3ao-tAet jutaytVrpovs, Trpat- 
Trocrtrovs, d^VTrarovs, TrarptKtovs, crrpar^yovs, /urjrpoTroAtVas, d^^tKtaAtovs, 
Trpcoroo-Tra^aptovs, do-^KpTJras, xaprovhapiovs, VTrdrovs, /Seo-rrjropas, o-t- 
25 Acvrtaptovs Kal dAAaft'/utcoy roSz^ rayjmariKwi' apxovTav Kara ro Troabv r?js 
rpa-Tre^Tys* eto-dyetz> 8e avrovs Kal efdyety //era raw OLKCLMV dAAaftjutcoz; 
Kal Ka/iuo-iW, avev /ixeVrot rwv lavrai^ xAajyc&w* Trpoa-t\t.v 8e rots 
8?j/i/ots, Kal ^vtKa ap^ovrai aKroAoyetz/ rovs Sco-Tro'ras, Set 
qv TT&VTCLS rovs KK\rjfjLVovs Ttpos TO Kal avrovs Trpae'oos crwev- 
30 (f)r]fj,lv rovs 8eo"7ro / ras. rry 8e rptrT/ T/juepa r?}s avr^s e/38ojud8os reAetrat 
Trayavrj Trpoe'Aevo-ts /xera dAAaft/xarcoz^ e^Soz; rov TraAartbv, Kal reAetrat 
KAryrwptoy em rov XP V(TOT P LK ^ VOV Kara ro o-^rjfjia rrjs Trpwrr^s ^jue'pas. 
Kal Set ^/xas evrpeTrtfetr ets K\rj(nv eirl r^s xP V(r ys rpoWfts aTro r^s 
rafecos rwy /aaytorrpcoy, TrarptKtwz^ Kal AOITTO)^ o-vz; rw So/aeo-rtKO) raw 
35 o-)(o\S>v Kal fiacriXLK&v avdpuTTCDV airo rfjs rdfecos rwy o-7ra0apOKaz;8i6ara>z> 
jue'xpt rr)s rcifecos rtoy oTpara>pcoz>, Kara ro TTOO-QV rrjs rpaWfqs (^tAovs A 
eto-ayetz; 8e avrovs Kal efayetr, rovs //ez^ VTTO Ka^irayiv Travras /xera ra>z> 770 
otKetcoz; dAAafr/juidrcoz', TrA^r Kal xA<Br5o?* rou? ^^ 7rpa>roa"7ra^aptovs /xera 
o-TreKtcov Kal pcoe'coz^ (ray fay rovs 8e /3ao-tAtKovs fxera rwy o-Kapa/utayytW 
40 Kal fjiovov. eTrl 8e rats Kara) reVo-apo-t ra>v Ka/xapaw rpaTre'fats 8et ^jixas 
o-vyKaAeti> /3ao-tAtKOvs Kaz^8t8drovs Kal /xarSdropas Kal jutKpovs apyovras 
rov rdy/xaros raiz; <T)(oAa)ZJ, ro ^ opiO^ov o(3'- eto*dyetr 8e avrovs fxera 
768 19 crt/cy LB 769 24 do-rj/cptray 25 scribendum dAAa|i/ious 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

T&V otKetW crKapa/xayytW Kat dAAafrj/xdrow. r?} 8e rerdprr; r//xe'pa TIJS 
avrrjs evcoj(taj reAerat 6/xota)S TrpoeAeixrts irayavr) /xera dAAa?]/xdra)y 
eVSou roi; -TraXartou, Kat etcrdyorrat ra (^tortV/xara T^TTO roi; 6p$az>orpd(ov, 
/cat reAetrat ro K\rjTu>piov cv rw ca>r<3 XP V(TOT P LK ^ V( ? ^l rfjs xpvo-rjs 

Kat 8et i7/xds evrpemeti> et? oweo-rtWiz; raw jSacrtAe'aw <t'Aov?, 5 
r?j? rdea)9 raw /xaytVrpaw, TrarptKtcoz; <ryi/ roi; 6o)ue(rrt/cou r<Sv 
e^o"Kou/3tra)^ Kat rair avroi; (TKpt/3a)z>a>z> Kara rov f npo\^\Qivra Tvirov, Kat 
et<rayetz> avrou? Kat e^ayeti^, Ka0a etp^rat. 7rt 8e rat? Kara r<3i> Ka/xa- 
pwi' rpaTre^at? Set ^/xa? o-vyKa\ety eK rwr \yQevru)v (3aa-L\LK&v avOptoTrwv 
Kat roSi? fJLLKp&v apxovroDV TOV ef(TKOV/3troi> rw apid^ov ofi', Kat eto-ayeti/ 10 
avrous Kara rov TtpoXGyOevTa TVTTOV. rrj 8e Tre/XTrr?/ rj^pa rrjs avrfjs 
TrarSeortas eto-epx^TCtt 6 Trarptapx 7 ? 5 M er " T ^ I; ct-uroi; /xr^rpOTroA 

771 aycLTrrjv rw /3acrtAt, Kat reAeTrat Trpoe A everts Trayavrj bC dAAa^t/jtooz; 
row TraAartou, Kat (rvyKa^e'ferat ra> ^Sao-tAet ets (rvv(TTLa(riv 6 

em r^s aTTOKOTrr?}? xpvo'TJs rpaTre^rys cv rai ^pvcrea) rptKAtz^w, Kat e ?y/ixaj 15 
err! /xez; r^s XP V(7 ^ S Tpa/ytfqs (frfaovs airti /txez; rwr fjLfjrpo- 
Kat aTTo r^ (3a<n\iKGn> -Trpeo-^vrepcoi' row TraAartov ef, Kat 
T>V /SacrtAtKwr fjLovao-Tfjpuov t/3 r , etcrayeti/ 8e avrovs Kat efayetu 
ovrcoy rov? /xe^ /xryrpOTroAtra? /utera rwy otKetcoz; dAAa^/xarcoi^, 7rAr)i^ r<Sz> 

rovj 8e Trpeo-ySvrepovs /xera raiz; AevKwy fahowCtav, TOVS 8e 20 
Kat avroi)? /xera raiz; otKetcoy CLVT&V ^eAco^tcoi^. eVt 8e raiv 
^ 8et ^/xay (rvyKaAer^ aTro r<Sy /3a(rtAiK<i> K\ripiK>v airo 
rfjs rafecoj rwr bLaKovcav Kat Karcore'pto Kat cbrd roi; o-eKpatrou roi; 
irarpiapxov Trcnrdbas, TOV apiOfJiov. . . . etcrdyety 8e Kat efdyety avrovs 
/xera rwy otKetW avr&v Ka/xryo-tW Kat povov. rfj 8e eKrr/ ^/xepa r^9 25 
avr?i? TTpi6$ov reAetrat TrpoeAeua-ts trayavr] /xera aAAat/xdra)z> e^8oz; roi; 
TraAartov, Kat eto-dyorrat ot eK BovAydpcoz; ^)tAot /xera raiy eK BouAydpcoz; 
Kat reAetrat KAr]ra>ptoi> er rai avrw Trept^SAeVro) rptKAtVa) em 
(7?;j rpaire^s, Kat 8e? ?y/xas evrpeTrt^ety et? (rvvfOTCfWUt TOV 
/3a(rtAecoj (frikovs airo TIJS rd^ecoj r<3z> /xaytarpcoi;, avdviraTwv Kat AotTrovs 3 
0-iw rwz; eK BovAydpcoz; $tAa>y Kat rw ^povyyapta) r?js ftiyXrjs Kat rw 5o/xe- 
o-rtKO) r(2z; iK.ava.Ttov, TOV apiOfJibv A r * o-rixt / t etz; 8e avrov? Kat 

772 Kara rw Aex^eVra rvTroz; ri/s Trpwrr]? ^/xepas. eTTt 8e r<3z; Kara) 
8et o-vyKaAeti; aTro' re KO/xTJrcoz; Kat KtVTapyjAV TOV apiOpov Kat ra>z; 

rcoz; avbpas vb', Kat eK r<Sz> BovAydpcoz; fyiXuv avOpvTrovs {*{ (TTL^L^LV 35 
8e 8e? rov? Boi>Ayapa>i> avOptoTtovs em r?ys Kara) reAevratas /xtas 
fjiovovs' elcrdyeiv be CLVTOVS Kat e^dyetv /xera raw otKta)i^ CLVT&V 
/xayytW. rrj 8e e/38d/x?7 rj^pa rrjs avTrjs ^e^twcrea)? reAetrat 
irayavrj Trpoe'Aeixrty ez;8oi; roi; TraAartov, Kat ytrerat K\r]Tu>pLov v rw 
rpiKAiW em rr}s avrr^s rpaTre'ft?, Kat o-uyKaAowrat ets eo-rtaati; rai 40 
/3ao~iAer 6/xota)? aTro rrj? raea)9 rwr /xaytarpa)!' Kat 7rarptKta)r o~iw rw 
V7rdpx<j> TTJS Tro'Aea)? Kat rot's 8i;0-t 8o/xeo-rtKot?, vov^tptov re Kat 

771 14 (n/veflrflicunv L 20 ofjuxpopicav L 27 BouA'yaptay B 



<MAO0EOr KAHTOPOAOriON 171 

Kat T&V avr&v roTrorriprjr&v <rvv ra> Aoyofle'rr/ rov Trpatrooptoi* Kat ro> 
(TVjJiTTovto rov apiBfJibv A'. eto-dyoz>rat Se Kat eayoz>rat //era r<3z; otKetW 
avrQv dAAafijuara>z> Kat )(Aari8ta)z;. eV e rats Karco rpaTrefats crvyKa- 

\OVVrCLL TplfioVVOl, (3lKO.plOL, Oi tOviKol T7JS eratpetaS, oloV TotipKOl, XaaptS 

5 Kat AotTrot, roz> dpt0/xoi> vb'. em be r?js rt/xtas rpam-'fts o-vyKaAowrai 
ot 6co8e/ca yetrovtap^at, ot 6' eTTOTrrat Kat ot 8vo Tr/ocoroKayKeAAaptot rot) 
ct(rayorrat 6e /xera r5v otK6ta)i> Ka/xt(7ta)^ Kat juoroi>, ot 6e 
TO. 7<Sz; GLVT&V Ka(3abi(tiv. 8t8orat 8e rots yetroz^tap)( ats Ka ^ 
AoiTrots dz;a i^o/otto-juaros ci'o'?. eTrt 6e rwz; Trpo\afi6vT<t)v 
10 Aoi5^ro di'rt ro^rcoz; ot ro{! crKvo(j)v\aKLOv TTJS aytas 2o^)ii 

vTs T7]v avTT]v v\oyiav. rf) 6e rea KvpiaKfi, rrj /xe0eo'pra> roi; 773 
eKreAetrat -TrpoeAeuo-ts AajUTrpo^o'pos ez; ra> o-j8ao-/ut(j> raw r<3v 
aytcoz; dTrocrroAcoi'' Kat reAovjuteVry? r^? tepas Aetrovpytay, Trport^erat KA?j- 
rwpiov ev rw \X0VTi TpLK\LV(p e7rt r^s bcvTcpas ^juepa?, Kat oweortarcu 
15 rw ^Sao-tAet 6 aytwraros T^JUWZ; Trarptapx 7 ?? e^rt d-TTOKOTrr^? rpaWfty, Kat 
(rvyKaAowrat cts kfTTiaviv vvv rw /3ao-tAet ^)tAot Kara TVTTOV rfjs 8evrepas 
r?/ tiravpLov rov itpov Trao-^a. rrj 8e tTtavpiov rrjs veas 
eKreAetrat 6etcocrty be^ifJiov avtv o-aft)uov, Kat Ka^e'ferat 6 
em a7roK07rr?is rpaTre^r;? /xera ro otKetov brjfirjno-iov em roi; ' 
20 TpLK\(.vov. Kat 8et ^jua? o-vyKaAeti^ ets to-riavw airo rrjs ra^eoos r<3z/ 
/uayiVrpcoi;, TrpatTroo-trcor, dz>0wrarcoz;, TrarptKtcor, d(/)^)tKtaAta)y Ka^ \onr&v 
rG>v VTTO KafjLTrayLV Trdvraiv Kara ro iroo-bv rijs rpaTre'frys' eto-ayetr 8e Kal 
Trdrra? jaera rwz> otKetcoz; avr&v aAAaft/xarcoi; re Kat 

Kat ro JJLOVO-LKOV /xeAo? Kat ^avio-rav roi? 
25 rai TrpobrjkoiOtvri \pov<& et? evtyrjfjiCav r>v bo~TTorG>v. rr\ 8e iravpiov rov 
avrov bf^ifjiov reAe?rat kiro^vov ITTTTLKOV aTroAwi/xov, Kat e^aTrocrreAAorrat 
Trpo? ra otKeta ot aTro BovAyapcoi' ^tAot, Kat 7rport0erat KA^rcoptor ez; rai 774 
Trept/SAe'Trra) rptKAiz/w rwy KaOi(T}jidra)v, Kat o~vvfcr0Lovcri ra> ^Sao-tAet ot 
TrpatTToVtrot, TrarptKtot, ocfxpiKidXioi, Trpcoroo-Tra^aptot, ^aprovAaptot, inraroi, 
30 /Sea-rTJropej, o-tAe^rtdptot, 6 aKrouapto? Kat ot roi; rj\iaKOv crvv rut 8eKO-co- 
ypac^a), roz/ dpt0ju,o/; Kara ro Troabv rijs rpaTrefrys. eto-ayoz^rat 8e Kat 
e^ayoz^rat Kara roz; avoorfpa \eyj)vra rpoirov. fjLcrov(rr]s be rrjs eoprrjs 
rov ird(T\a reAetrat Trpoe'Aeva-t? ^ry/xoo-ta, Kat Trpoep^oz^rat ot ^aa-tAet? 
ejonrparrcos ets ror z/aor roi; aytov MooKtov, Kal reAov/xeV?]? r^? tepaj 
35 Aetrovpyta? irport^erat KA^rwptoz; ra> /3ao-tAe? eTrt aTTOKOTrr^s rpauefts ez^ 
rots eKeto-e rptKAiz^ots, Kat o-vvta-riarai 6 Trarptapx^s TW /3acrtAet, Kat 8et 
vrpiriLv ets (rvvta-riacriv avru>v $L\OVS CLTTO rrjs ra^ecos rwy 
J, avOvTrdrcw, irarpiKiutv, fx?]rpo7roAtras, d^^tKtaAtofs Kat rayjua- 
vs, Kat rwr eK rT/s o-vyKA^rov (-y-Tro) Ka^dyiv (ovjraiv Kara ro TTOO-OZ^ 
40 rr/s rpaTre'^s* eto-ayetz; 8e avrovs Kat efayety /xera rwr otKetcoz^ dAAa- 



772 9 vo^ff^aros L 773 II Qfwpru L 774 29 /cai xP T - B 30 Seijo-o- 

ypd<t>ci) B 39 (uTrb) Kafj.iro.yLV ovriav scrips! : ita/uLTray'icav rSiv L : Kafjuraylcav R B 

40 e<rii/ L aXXaicav B 



172 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



* v ^ r< ? 1Fpokex&4vTl TTJS 

(avicrTqv CLTTCLVTCLS TOVS KeKArj/xeVovs els eixfrrjiJLiav r&v 8eo"7ro- 
em 8e rfs 0etay Kat Lpas ^Ta (rapKos et9 ovpavovs dzJaArj\/rea>9 
rov Kvptov fjn&v 'Irjo-ov Xptorov flav/xaarr/j jy/iepas reAetrat Srj/xoo-ta 
Trpoe'Aevcris 1 irapa T&V /3a0-iAeW ?7fx<3z; r<3z> dytW ey rw 7raz;o-e7rra) KCU 5 
775 (re/3ao-/u(,ta) z/aw rr/s vTrepaytaj b(moivr)s rj^S>v eoroKot; TTJS Trrjyijs, KOL 
TT)$ te/oas Aetrovpytas, Trport^erac K\rjTu>piov rw /3ao~iAet CTTI 
rpaTre^?, /cat o-weo-riarat 6 Trarptapx 7 ? 9 r ^ /3ao-iAet, KCU o-vy- 
els (rvveo-riao-iv avrai <^)iAot OLTTO r^? rdfecos raiz; juaytVrpcoz; Kat 
Kara rr)z/ K0(riv KCU TO (ryfipCL r&v TTpoXex^KT&v 7ipL(f)avG>i> 10 



H TTOTJJ- Trj 8e ayta rr}? TTVTrjKO(TTrjs fjnepq reAetrat 7rpoeAev<Ti? Kara roz/ 
rvTroz; r^s rot; ae^ao-^iov Travya tv rrj ayta row 0eoi5 Ka^oAtK^ Kat aTro- 
(rroAtKr) eKKAryata, Kat Trport^erat Kpa/oia eKeure ro?? (BacrLh.evo'iv, Kat 

ai ol dz/corepo) Ae)(^eyre? ^)tAot. Kat VTTO(TTpo(f)fjs T&V /3ao"t- 15 
ez/ rw juteyaAa) TraAartw jutera TrpoeAevo-ecos yevojJLevrjs, Trport^erat ro 
K\r]To>pLov M cLTTOKOTTTrjs rpaTre'^s ez; ra> Trept^AeTrro) 'lof- 
(TTLviavov rptKAtVa), Kat o-weortwrrat rw /3aortAet ot Kara TVTTOV dvcorepco 
Aex^e^res ^>tAot, eto-ayojuevot Kat efayo/xez^ot /xera rwi^ otKetcoz; dAAaft- 
/xdrcoz; ^Mpls \Xav&iu>v. /xera 8e r^y ay tar r^s Trezm^KooT?}? rj^pav 20 
KreAe?rat ro oreS/a/xou roi) SecrTrorou. rr/ 8e Trpcorr/ rou Matou fJLrjvos 
eKreAowrat ra eyKat^ta r^? i>ea? eKKAr^crtaj, Kat Atraz^tou TrpoeAewecos 
s. yivofj,vr]s aTTO Tov vdov rfjs aytas 0eoroKOV roO 4>dpov, reAetrat ^ ^eta 
776 Aetroupyta, Kat Trport^erat KXrjrwpiov rot? /Sao-iAewrtz; ez; ra> repTrz^w XP V ~ 
o-orptKAtVo), Kat o-weo-rtarat rw /SacrtAet 6 Trarptdpx^s, Kat o-uyKaAowrat 25 
ets (rvveo-TLaa-Lv avrov CLTTO rrjs rcifea)? rail' /uayto-rpcoz;, 7rpat7roo-tra)z% 
TrarpiKLMv Kat XoLTT&v /3a(TL\LK&v avQpu>iT(*)V (rvv T&v /x^rpoTroAtrwy Kara 
ro 7TO(Tov rrjs TpaTtiCfls. rfj be la TOV CLVTOV Ma'tov ^rjvos reAetrat ro 
Trjs Tro'Aea)? ravr?]?, Kat eKreAetrat 8eftco(rts be^ifjiov \o)pls 
Kat tTTTTtKoz^ iTnTobpofJLiov, Kat reAetrat KA^rcoptoy Kara roi^ 3 
TVTTOV. rf) 8e dy8ory rou avrov Matof y^vos reAe^rat Trpoe- 
Aevcrts r?j? /xvrjjixr]? roi; eoAo'yoi) ez^ rai c E^8o'/x(i), Kat reAov/xeVrj? r?}? Aet- 
Tovpyias, Trport^erat KAr^rcoptoz', Kat (rvyKaAouz^rat Kara rvTro^ ot r?/^ 
(TvyKATJroD Trdrres Kara ro iroo-bv Trjs rpaWfts. rr} 8e K' rot) 'lovAtov 
Hr)vbs eKreAetrat 8ia XITCLVIOV TrpoeAevo-eco? eySof rov TraAartov r/ ja^rj/x>] 35 
"HAtov rov Trpo^rjrov, Kat 5t' avr?}? r; ava.K\r)cris TTJS TreptopTJa-ea)? roO 
ev<re/3o{5s rj^n&v /SacriAecos". TrpoeKreAe^rat 8e Trpo avr^? rr^s r//xepas eV rr) 
irapafjiovfj eo-Treptz^or ey r<S 4>dpw, Kat a8erat Trapa TTCLVTW aTroXva-L^ov 
oo-fjia lo-6fji\ov TOV ' (rvvTacfrevTts ', Kat 6t6orat rot9 /utaytVrpot?, Trpat- 
Troo-trots, avdvnaTois, TrarptKtots Kat d(/x^tKtaAtot? ets rvTror Trapa rov 4 
/3ao-tAea)S (rravptrfta dpyvpa. rrj 6e tTravpiov fjfjiepq, tv rf rr)z; eoprr/r 
eKreAov/xei', 7rpoKa0e / ferat 6 /3aa-tAevj /xera dAAaft/xdrcoy em rov vboov 

775 10 7r/9oA.e;K0T]<ra>j/ L 12 TrcvTLKoarrijs L 776 28 /u.irji'bs om. B 



10 



4>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 173 

%pV(TOTplK\lVOV, Kat TTd/OeCTTCOrOS' TOV JJLVCTTIKOV KOV(3oVK\lOV, tlddyOVTOLl 777 

o,re TOV craKtXXiov Kat ol ^evobo^OL Kat -yrjpoKOfjLOL, irpoo'dyovTes (rravpovs 
Xpvoroa-TOLpdaTovs Kara juu/^o""-' TS eoprrjs r<3i> fia'ttov, Kat Aa/x,7rpo- 
(f)opovvTo>v irdvTcov, ettrdycrat ^ rdt? TU>V fzaytVrjKou, di>0u7rdra>z;, Trarpt- 
5 KiW Kat <ty<j>tKiaMav e^irpoo-Oev TOV bwiroTov, Kat biavofjLrjs T>V 
(TTavpiav VTTO TOV /SacTtAecos ye^o/xeVr;?, reAetrat, w? e^)a/xe 
Atraz;tos TTpoe'Aevo-i? aTro ro{5 raoi; r?js ayta? eoroKOD roS <i>apo?j 7rt rdv 
TTpifi\TTTOv vciov Trjs fJi-/dX.7]s z>e'a? KK\r](rias, KOL T\ovfjLtvr]s TTJS tepas 
Aetrovpytas, Trport^erat K.Xr}T&piov rai /3ao-tAet 7Ti row XpvcroTpt,K\(vov, 
/cat o-wecrriarai rots fiao-iXtvcriv o,re 7rarptapx*7? fat ot ju?;rpo7roAtrat, 
juaytcrrpot, TrpatTroVtrot, avOvirciTOi, TrarptKtot, d^)^)t/ctaAtot Kat AOITTCH 
/3a(rtAtKOt Kara ro irocrbv rrj? rpaTre^?. TrpOKa^eferat 8e 6 /3a0-iAei>9 
/X6ra roC otKtof St/S^r^o-tof, Kat et ^/za? eto-dyet^ Kat efayeiz/ Trdi^ra? 
rovs KK\r]iJ.Vov$ juera r<3z; otKeia)z^ CLVT&V dAAaftjutdrcoz; )(a)pts raw \\avi- 

15 8tcoz;. rrj 8e tTravpiov reAetrat Seftcoo-t? Seft/xov Kat fteydAov (raft/jtov, 
Kat 7rpoTOevTO$ /3a<rtAtKoi; KA^rcoptou ewt d-TTOKOTrr^s TpaTrt&S tv rai 
'loua-rtrtayot} rpiKAt^o), 7rpOKa^efrat 6 /SacriAev? /xera roi; otKetov 8t/3r]- 
Tr)(riov, Kat 8et ?y^as e*rrpe7ueii> ets O-VVO-TLCLO-IV CLVTOV airo rrj? rdfeco? 
TrpatTToo'tra)^, TrarptKtcop, d(|)0tKtaAta)i' Kat aTro rwz; (reKpertKaii' rw^ VTTO 

20 Ka/xTrdytz; Trdz^rcoi; Kara ro TTOO-QV r^s rpaTrefrys* eto-ayetj' 8e avrovs Kat 

a r<Sz> oiKta>i; dAAaftjudrcoz; re Kat ^\avLGLO)v. TOVS be AotTrov? 778 
^uTrdroi;?, 7rarptKtoi>? Kat airavTas TOVS (3acri\iKOv$ av0pu>- 

TTOVS TCLfJiLtVeiV CLVTOVS fJifTCL OtopaKlCDV Kttt KO^bo^aVLKMV IS TO O-di{JLOV 

Trjs Tpcnre&s, \opevovTu>v 8e TTCLVTO^V Treptf r^? /3ao-tAtK?j? rpaTrefrys Kat 

25 r?/^ avdppvonv ev^/xowra)^ rou (ro^cordrou 8ea-7rdrou, 8t8orat Trap* a^rov 
rourots ets c^iAortjuuas 7ribo(riv aTTOKonfiiov (l^ov \pvcrov Atrpa? y r * Trpoo-- 
^^ o-KToXoyiav TOV br/fjiov, Kat efazno-rau CLTTCLVTCLS 
bs V(f)r] fjiiav TOV b0"7TOTov Kara roi> Trpoypa 
<^ef7/s 6e TavTrjs Trjs fjfdpas reAetrat TrefoSpo'jottoz^ fiaiTov T&V TroAtrwz/ 

30 rvTrco^ei; e-rrt Aeoi^ro? roi) (^tAoxptVrov 6eo-7roVov, Kat 6t8oz>rat a-^>payt8ta 
a>? Kara rvTiw ro{! {3a>TOv TrefobpofJiLOV, Kat irport^erat <Aryra>ptoz; rw 
ySao-tAet em aTroKOTmjs rpaTrefts Kara r^i; //eVr/z; 0eVti> roi; TTCprfavovs 
TpLKXivov rwr t0' Tepirv&v aKovfliTtoV, Kat (rv^ecrrtcorrat rw ^Sao-tAet ot 
TrpatTroVtrot <ri;^ rots ewowx ot ? TrpcorocrTra^aptot? Kat irpt/ixtK^ptots, rou 

?5 apiOy^ov e, axra^rcos Kat Trdrres ot Trerryres ot ra o-(/>payt8ta row /3ao-tAea>? 
8ta ytipbs T&V /oteyt(rrdz;coz; Aa/3oVres, Kat 8t8orat avrots a^oK.6^iv dva 
z^ojotto-jotaros a y'. Kat /ute^' ^jote'pas 6^0 reAetrat LTTTTLKOV LTnrobpdiJUOV, Kat 
7rpori'0erai KAr^rcoptoy eTrt roi; TpLKXivov TOV KafltVjuaros, Kat 8et 
e7/rpe7rieii> ets orvvzcrTiaanv roi /SacrtAet (friXovs Kara roz; e^ ro?s 

40 bpoiuKois KA^rcoptots Aex^eVra n;7jw. 67rt 6e r?}s ^ ro Avyovo-rov 779 
fj.rjvbs fjjjitpas eKreAetrat 17 Trpoe'Aevo-t? /uera dAAaft/xaros ez> r?) /neydAr/ 



77 3 fj.-{\ij.i}<nv L 778 26 ex 6 " 7 ^ 2 9 Tre&tip&fjuov L 32 juecrtz' L 36 OTTO- 

.$IOV B 



174 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 

roO eo KafloAtKT? eKKArjo-ta, /cat reAov/xe'yrjs rrjs tepay Aetrovpyta?, 
(TTI&VTOLI TO) /3a(7tAet ot TroAAaKi? em" ro Kpd/xaro? jui^/xozJeufleWe? </>t'Aot, 
Kat V7roo~rpe</>et 6 fBacriXevs em TO 7raAdrtoz> e/xTrpdrcos, Kat 7rport0erac 
K.\r\Tti>piov rw /3a<rtAet em aTTOKOTTTrjs rpaTrtfrjs \v rw 'lovortmayoi; rpt- 
KAtVa>, Kat Set T/jixas 1 evrpemfetz; eis crvvta-Tiaariv rw /3a<rtAet </>tAovj diro 5 
rr;s % rdfea)? r<3z> /utaytVrpcoz;, dr^VTrara}^, -TrarptKta)^, 60(/)tKtaAtcoy, irpa)- 
rocnraOapitoV KCLL XOITT&V crvyKAryrtKoSi' raw VTTO K.a^ayiv OVTMV Kara TO 

780 TTO(rbv Trjs Tpair^rjs' eto-ayetz; 8e avrovs Kat efayety juera raiy otKetcov 

(apls TU>V xA-artStcor 8ta ro Kat roz> /SarrtAea /utera rov otKetov 
TrpOKaOea-Orjvat. TTJ 8e te' ro{> avroi; fj,r]vbs fjnepq reAetrat 10 
Srj/xocna TrpoeAeucris T^S KOt/XTJo-ea)? rr/s vTrepaytas bwnoivr]? f)fj,S>v 0eo- 
roKOu er TO) 7raz;o-e7rra) raw avTrjs rai ey BAaxeprat?, Kat reAou/AeV??? r^s 
tepas AetroDpytaj, Trport^erat KArjrcoptoz/ em aiTOKoiTTrjs rpaTre'^ry? er rw 
Kara) rptKAtVa) ra> oz;rt em ra TraAarta r^s ^aAao-crrys, Kat 7TpOKa0e'erat 
6 jQaa-tAevs (rvr ra> Trarptapxj] /otera rou otKetoi; aiiroi; bi(3r]Tr](TLov. Kat 15 
8et ?7/x,a9 evrpeTrt^eti' ets (rvvtcrTiacnv CLVTOV (pfaovs airb TTJS ra^ea>? rear 
jiaytorpcozj, TrpatTroo'tra)^, avOviraTMV, TrarptKtcor, d^x^tKtaAtcor, /X7]rpo- 
7roAtra)z; Kat AotTrwz; ap\6vTa>v /3a0-tAtK<SzJ re Kat ray/oiartKO)^ Kara ro 
TTOcrbv TTJS TpcLTre&s. tlvayovTCii be Kat efayorrat oi/rcos- ot /xez> /uci- 
ytcrrpot, Trpat-TroVtrot, TrarptKtot, o(/>$iKtaAtot Kat ot T^TTO Ka^irayiv mures 20 
/xera rwz; otKetooz; dAAa?7/xarcoy ot 8e AotTrot /3ao-tAtKot juera rwz; otKetcor 
o-Kapa/xayytcoz; Kat jaoVor. ei^ 6e rrj avrr) ^/xe'pa 8etAr]s amp^erat 6 /3a<rt- 
Aevs ets roz; z^aoz^ rou dytov AtojUTJSovs, Kat rrj tiravpiov reAov/xeVrjs r^s 
Aetroupytaj, Trport^erat K\r]Tu>pLov Kara r^Troy, Kat vvvta'QiQva'i rw /3a(riAet 
o/xotcos ot eK r?Js o~vyKA?/roi; Trarrej. rr) 8e K^ X ro{5 a^roi; /xr/yoj ^juepa 25 
eKreAetrat ^ f^^nM TM dytou Kat 6pOob6ov //.eyaAou /3ao-tAe'coj ^/xwi' 
Bao-tAetov, Kat Trpoepxorrat /xera o-Kapa/xayytcoz; ez> ra> raw r<Sz/ dytcoz; 
dmxrroAcoi; ot /SacrtAet? e/xTrparrco?, Kat reAov/xeVry? rr^j tepas Aetrovpytas, 
vTToa-Tp(f)ova-LV o/xotcos otKa8e /xera 80'^?, Kat Trport^erat K\rjTu>pLov ev 
rw 'Iovo-riytai;oi5 rptKAtVw, Kat 8et ^/xa? evrpeTrt^etr ets o-ui/eo-rtao-tz; rots 30 
<tAot>s aTro r^s rafeco? r<3z; /xaytVrpcoz;, rfiv (rvyKkrjTLK&v 
avOptoTTMV, Kara ro 7700*0^ r^s rpaTre^s* etcrayeti' 8e avrois 
Kat ^dyiv jutera rwz^ oiKeicav (rKapa/xayyta)^ Kat JJLOVOV 8ta ro Kat rovs 
jSacrtAets ez; rw rotovrw (7)(^M art CLKOV^I^LV. rrj 8e tTravpiov eKreAetrat 
ta 6eft/xov ^ ez; Xpto-rai airoKparopta ra>y TTHTT&V /3ao-tAecoz;, AeWros 35 
Kat 'AAefai>o~poi>, Kat reAou/xeVov ato-tW rot; 6eft/xof, TrpoKa^efoz^rat 
ot eii(re/3ets 6eo-7ro'rat ets TroAAwy avTiX^iv em roO Opovov, KOL 

781 crrotxetrat ro KAr^rcopior roi; 8ecr7rorov, Kat 8et ^/xas evrpeTu^etzJ ets a~vv- 

T>V /SacrtAecoz; OTTO r^s rd^ecos ra)i^ jixaytcrrpcor, TrpatTrocrtrcor, 

/, TrarpiKtcor, fy$iKwXla*Vi TrArjy rwz; evvov^v, TOVS ^jtxtVovs 40 
, Kat d-Tro r?/s rdea>9 r^? i;7rd Ka/xTrdytz^ o-vyKATJrou, Kat raw 






780 10 5t/3r?Trj(rtou B 22 S^ATJS L 32 an (al) )3a(T. ? 35 auroKpa- 

rupta L B 



<I>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 175 

ray/uartKo>ZJ dAAatjuara>zJ Kara ro iroorbv rfjs rpa7re'r??> KCU, eto-ayetz> /uera 
T&V otKetcozJ aXXarifjLaT(i)V Kat x.Aazn8i6ozJ, TOVS be AotTrovy 

TafJ.lVLV ds yOpfVOriV Trj$ ~)(CLpaS TOV bcCTTTOTOV. KVK\(p yap 

/xera y^pvcr&v 0copaKtW TOVS tiraivovs TrXeKovo-L T&V var/3&v o"eo-7ror<3z>, 
5 Kat 8t'8orat TTCLCTLV <tAort/xtay b&pov, xpv<rov Atrpat i*?, /cat Staz^e/xerat 
TTCLO-L Trapa TOV Trpooro/xaytVrpoi; Kat TOV /3ao-iAtKo{> apTOKXivov Kara TVTTOV 
Kad* fjfws KovbaKLoiv. rr} 8e eTTtowr/ f)[J.tpq reAetrai 7ro/xeVa)s 
LTnrobpofjiiov, Kat Trport^erat ro KA^rwptoz^ e?rt rou TpiKXivov T&V 
rcoi;, Kat trvyKaAowrat et? (rvv^o-Tiacnv rw /SacrtAet <^>tAot Kara 
10 roi; ez; rot? tTTTrodpo/xiKot? KAryrcoptots ypa<^eWa TVTTOV. TTJ bf oy8or/ roi) 
27rre/x/3ptoi; fj,r]vb$ T/juepa reAetrat TrpoeAevcrts rwv yei/e^Atfoi' r^s v 
ytas bta-iroCvrjs fjfjL&v SOTOKOV Kat detTrap^eVoi) Maptas, Kat 
ot ^3ao-tAet? ejUTrparrcos /uera Trao-r/s r?js (ruyKATJroi; ey ra> z>a<S r^y aytas 
0eoroKoi; raiy XaAKOTrpartW, Kat reAov/xe^rys r^y tepas Aetrovpytay, VTTO- 
15 (rrpe^et 6 /3ao-tAei>s l^tiTTros /^era yjpvcrov o-Kapa/xayytov e/xTrparrcoy, Kat 782 
at K\t]Ta>pLov em ctTTOKOTrr^y rpaTre^y ey ra> 'lovoTtzuayoi; rpt- 
Kat crvv(TTL&VTaL r<5 ;3a(rtAe? ot aTro r?}y ai>yKA?]ro 
et(rciyoyrat 6e //era rait' otKetcou (TKapajuayyta)!/ Kat [JLOVOV. rfj 8e 
KatSeKarr; rou avroi; /xry^oy reAetrat ^ vx/^cao-ty Kat e/jK/miua row rt/mtou 
20 Kat (/ooTTOtoO o-ravpoi;, Kat avp\ovTai ot ^atrtAety opOpov jSa^e'coy ey r<3 
raw r^y aytay 2o(/)tay, Trore 8e Kat aTro eo"7repay Kat reAov/uieVrjy r^y 
TpiTrjs v^cya-ecoy ro Travayiov v\ov, KdTtpxovTai TraAtr otKaSe 6ta ra>v 
8ta/3artKS^ ei> Trpcoroty, Kal reAou//eVr;y irayavijs TrpoeAevorecoy eV8oi> rou 
TraAartov, Trport^erat K^rjT^piov tv rw 'loixrrtz/taz;o{; rpiKAti^w, Kat 8et 
25 ^/xay o-uyKaAeVao-^at ety (rvvtcrTiao-iv T&V /Saa-tAe'cor <f)(\ovs Kara roi> ^8r; 
raiz; K\r)T(i)pi(tiv Ae^^eWa nfnw eto-ayetz^ 8e Traz^ray jixera raw otKetcoy 
(TKapa/jtayytcoz; Kat povov. e-rrt 8e rou fJLrjvbs Noe/>t/3ptou reAowrat ra 
T&V 8ea"7ror<Sz/, Kat reAov/xeVov e^)' eKao-rov KArjo-et roi; eo-rrept'ov 
-aft/xoi) bibovTcu, aTroKo'/ui/Sta ra6e e?rt /xey rou /3pou/uaAtov 
30 Aeoz^roy ro ^tAoxptVrou 8eo-7ro'rou \pva-ov Atrpat K'- eTTt 6"e roi; evruxo^s 
'AAea^8pov avyovcrTov \pvcrov Atrpat t'* e?rt 8e rr/y V(T(3ovs Zwryy 
avyovaTTjs \pva~ ov Atrpat ?/ a Kat biavfj,ovTaL inrb TOV /ixeyaAoi; Trpcoro- 
fxaytcrrpoi; Kat roi; KAeaJo apTinXivov TOV /3ao-tAtKoi5 Kara roy 77pL\6fjiVov 783 
TVTTOV TOV K.a(f fjfjLCis KovbdKiov. avTGLi ovv TTacrat at rvTTtKat 7repto8tKa>y 
35 Ipxopfvai rw XP V( P ^ATJo-ety et8tKri^ rtz^a etcrayovo-tz^, a>y e$a/xez>, rcSz; 
v TCLLV. bib Kat ra?;ray ety i)ii6[wt]<nv T&V Ka6' fjfj.as reAov- 
s TrpodefjLtvoi aTrrato-ra) Ao'yw aiTrjviv 7rpo(rdyo[jiV 7rpoa-e'xetz> 
ravraty ety jyjuaiz' <rvvTripr](riv Kat KAeovy boav. 



781 3 xiapevffiv L : xwpevoj'Tes L 5 xP lff v X ( SCt XP vff v) L 7 KcovS. L B 

L 782 19 -Kf5f Karri L 20 a0ea>s LB 33 KA.ii/oO L 783 38 o'yi'- 

K\fovs Kal So^av coni. R : fortasse /cai roi5 /3aa-tAea)s S^lai/ 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



Tlepl Siavo/uioav TU>V tvffefiiui' TOV Pa<ri\e<as ev re rots Ppov/j.a\iois Kal ffre\l/ifj.ois 

avroKparopious. 



'E7Tt8rj rtres r&v fv dftcojixao-t StaTrpeTToVrooi', X^yyoTtpav TTJV e^ea-tv r&v 
Xprjjuarcoz; <lx. OVTS > fyfvrftnrfactS Ka l Aoyous eyetpowt Trept rr/s dta^o/iXT/s 
T&V 8t8o/xeVa)i> ^prjfjLaTMv Kal rfv e apyaitov T&V ^povMV TrapaKoAovfl?;- 5 
(rarrav (Tvvrjdetav d^arpeVeti' a"novbdov(TL' $epe 817 Ka6a>$ K T&V irpb 
eyypa^)cos TrapeAa^o/xe^ TVTTO^, Kat V[MV TrapabuKrcofjifv. TTCLV yap ro 
biafyepov atSeo-tjutoi;, ovre TTpoo-d^Krjv TU>V TraAat fJLavofJL&v KOLIV- 
ovpytlv (nrtvbovTes, ovre eAarrcaorty rwy irpoirpaxOtvTMV TTOLOV^VOL. Set 
yap roi' biavo^a ru>v TOLOVTMV aprLK^ivrjv Trpo ye TTCIVTMV TO Tro<rbv rijs 10 
dcopeas KfjLavQdviv, KOL et^' oi/rcos aKpt/3oAoyety ras rwz; dftco/xarcoy 6a- 
784 (fropds, KOL eKaoT?] a^tcojudrcoi; raei <rvyK.aTapi6iJ.tiv roi/j a^ 



KaraAeyeiz> roi^ re patKropa xal rr)i> ^OMTT^F 77arpt/cta^, roz^ (rvyKeAAoz; Kat 
rovj aTTo juaytorpfoi' juo^aStKOvs *at roy TrpatTrocriroy, a/uta 6e Kat rw otKetaKw 15 
TrapaKOLfjLU>fjiVu> TOV /uteyaAov fjjji&v /SacrtAecos* ets 8e r^v rwz^ avdvirdraiv 
TCLIV <rvvapiOfjL'iv TOVS evvov^ovs TrarptKiovj' cv 8e rrj rd^et rwy AotTrw^ 
o-vyKarardrrei^ rov? ez; rw /3rjA<> rwy TrarptKtcoz; reray/xerovs 
, rjyovv TOVS -Trpcoroo-Tra^aptoD? Kat crTpaTrjyovs, TOVS Trpcaro- 
(nraOapiovs Kal TrpatTroo-trovs, roz> 8o/uteo-rtKoi; rail' (rxoAwz;, roy ef0-KOV/3iroz>, 20 
ror virapxov, TOV yevtKov, TOV o-aKeAAdptoi', roy KueVrcopa, roy 6pouyydpio^ 
r^s /3tyAr/?, ro^ Trpwro/Seorrtdptov ro{] 8eor7ro'rov, rov rr)s rpaTre^s, Kat, et 
rvxotei^, TraTTtay /xe'yas Kat eratpetdp)(r]S TrpcDTOcnraOdpios vvov\os' ev 8e 
r?) rdet roiy <reKpertK&>i> 6<p(f)LKia\ia>v crvyKaTapiOfj-eiv TOVS evvov^ovs Trpco- 
TO(nra6apiovs (Kat) 7rpt//,tKT]ptoDs Kat o^rtaptoDs Kat rous e//7rpdrou? Kptraj 25 
Kai fjiovov. K 6e r?ys rdfeo)? rair Trpcoroo-Tra^aptcov Set 8iao-re'AAeii> rois 
roi) \pvcroT piK\ivov Kai /utayAa/3tVas Kat dprtKAtVa?, -fjyovv piKpov TrAeW 
Trport/xao-^at. rovs 8e crTra^apOKa^StSdrov? . . . (rvvapiO^lv rots o-rra- 
OapoKovpiKOvXapiots (roirs 6e Kou/StKouAaptoDs) /xera rwr (nraOapiav Kal 
o-rparwpaii; Kat air' avr&v TOVS KavbibciTOvs (Kat) /uai>8dra)pas cruyKara- 30 
Aeyetu, 8r]Aoi>drt rail' o r eKpertK(Si' voTapiwv v7reatpoi>/uez>a)ZJ eK Travrco 
row Aav<riaKoi; dpxoVraj^. Kat ^tKa eKao-rr/ apjutofoWoos rd^et rows 
/merd)(ouj eapt0/x?/crT7, Kara ro TTOO'OI' roi) 8a)poi> rr/s evepyeo~tas 
roi> o-vAAoyto-juoV, a>s Aex^rjo-erat. ^i/ua yap 6 /utdytcrrpos dro/xoz/ 
Ad/3r/ nvpav, olovel K, dc^etAet Aa/x/3ai>eti> 6 avOviraTOs TO rjfjuo-v TOVTOV, 35 
rojutV/utara t'. 6 8e TrarptKto? 60etAet VTTOTTLTTT^LV T& av6vnaT& ,, a , Kat 
\afjifidvtiv vofjLia-fjL. 0', o 8e o^iKtaAto? ro bifjLOipov TOV iraTpiKLOV vopfrp. 
T', ot 8e TTp<t)TO(T7raddpioi Atrot ro rj/xto-i; roi; TrarptKtoi; uo/xtV/u. 6 t. Trport- 



L 6 avaTpfiriv L 8 Siatyepuv L 784 14 <rvyK\ov L 

21 Kveffropa B 25 (KO!) addidi 27 j^yow erui : lacunam exhibet B 28 duo 
seu tres litt. oblitt. : fort. al 29 (TOUS 5e KovftiKov\apiovs} addidi 30 

rJpwv B (ical) addidi /mavSdropas B 31 u<|)e|. L 785 32 apuo 

35 oi'ovt L 37 o 8e (irpwToairaddpios Kal} o<p(p. conicio STj^otpw L 38 5' B sed L 

At (45) recte habet irpon^vrai L 



4>IA00EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 177 

8e ot rov \pvvoT pinkivov Kal ol TOV /xayAa/3tov Trpcoroo-Traflaptot Kal 

OL CLpTLK\LVOL VTTep TOVS AtrOVS TTp(^TO(TTTaOap(oVS rO/Xt(T/X. y ', Ot 8e <T7Ta- 

0apoKOv(3iKov\dpioi Kal o-7ra0apoKaz>8t8arot TO bi^OLpov TOV TTpaiTOcriraOapCov 

y'. ol 8e Kot>/3tKOuAaptot Kal (nraOdpioi Kat crrpartopes Aa/ix/3ai>ouort ro 

5 rjfJLKTV TOV Trpcoroo-Traflaptov ,, /38'* ot 8e Kau8t8arot /xayAa/Strat di>a ^._ 

Ot 8e <TKpTlKol ^CLpTOVXdpLOL Kal VOTapLOL VTrOTTlTTTOVVl TOls TOV ko.V(TLaKOV 

ap\ov<TLV, CKaoros Kara ro tbiov dta>/xa, rptroy. ot 8e ap^ovTcs TOV fiavi- 
\LKOV /3eo-ria/3tou V7ro7rt7rrovo-t Kat avrot Kara ras otKetas afta? aTro roSz; 
/3a(rt\tKcoi/ roi; XavcrtaKou Kara ro St/xotpov /uepos rou TrpcororuTrov, oto^ ot 

10 77pcoro(T7ra^aptot OTTO rcSi' otKetaKoii; Atrwi' 7rpcoroo*7ra^apta)z;, ro 8t/xotpoi^ ,, y', 
Kat ot o-TraOapOKavbibdTot, T>V Tpi&v TO bifjLOLpov /3 r , Kat ol cnraOdpLOi Kat 786 
o-rpara>pes rwz; 8vo ro bfaoipov ay, ot 8e Ka^8t8arot y', <^oA. K', ot 8e Xtrol 
Kat e/38ojuaptot a7ro ^9"', ot 8^ viroDpyot r^s rpa7ref?]s roC jSacrtAecoy Kal r^j 
avyovoTJjs OTTO {,() Trarrej. ot 8e 8ta TroAeco? Trpcoroo-Tra^aptot aTro 

15 a', ot 8e o-7ra^apOKa^8t8aroi diro ^9' [ot 8e <nra6dpioi arparcopey 

rovo-t ro rjiucrv TOV 7rpa>roo"7ra0aptoi; /38', ot 8e Kar8t8arot /xayAa/3trat dva,, 
<r', ot 8e o-6KpertKot yapTov\dpioi Kal uoraptot viroTiCiTTova-i rot? roi; Aav- 
o-taKoi; &pyov<rw, Kacrros Kara ro t8toi> dftcofia y'. ot 8e ap)(ovres rou 
(3a(TL\iKov /Seo-rtaptoi; vTroirCTTTOvo-i Kal avrol Kara ray otKetas dfta? aTro 

20 rwy /3ao-tA.tK<Si> rou Aavo-taKoi; Kara ro 8t/xotpoz; /xepos rou TrpcororvTrov], ot 
8e (nraQdpiot, crrparcopej, VTrarotd-Tro ^(), ot 8e Kar8t8arot pcorrJTopcs ano y'. 
8t8orat 8e Kal efw rovrou CK r^s avr^s Troo-oV^ro? r<S /xer 7rpcoro/3eo-rtapta) 
(row 8e)o-7roVoi> Kara rr)z; Trocrorr^ra rwz; XiTpStv rr) \iTprj,, d, rai 8e rrjs Kara- 
crrao-ecos K' Kal rai da-rtapto) K', ra> /xepet BeWrcor ( 8' Kal rai) /xepet ITpa- 

25 vivtov ,, 8', ra> opyjLCTTJ] ft , roty Ovp(topols y, ro?j) 8tarpexou(rt y", rots 
fxazj8arop(ri ro{) Aoyo^erov y', (rots ..... ) <vAaft y r , Kal rai dprtKAtr^ 

t .... t^3' ....... /xey cm r^s TWV /3pou/aaAta)i; 8<opea>z> 

8e rots ore'v/a/ixots rail' j3ao"tAea)i; Kal ra?s avroKparopats vTTf- 787 
aipovvTcit, TrdvTts ol TU>V oreKpera)!; )(aproi;Aaptot Kal roraptot Kal ra /3ecrrta 

30 Kal -y-TToupytat Kal ot 8ta TroAecos Travres. Kal ytWrat 77 8taro/xTj ets /xorovs 
rovs apx^^ras ro(5 Aavo-taKou, otov cts /xayta-rpovs, Trpai-rroa-trovs, avOvird- 
rovs, TrarptKtovs, Trpcoroo-Tra^aptoDs (ow rots evrovxot? Trpcoroo-Tra^aptots 
Kal fjiovov)' o-7ra^apoKar8t8arots, (TTra^aptots, Kal o-rparwpes Kal Kai>8t8a- 
rots, Kal eis rovs Ae^^ras efco/3pe/xa TWV aTTOKO/XjStcoi;. ot yap rou KOD- 

35 ^ovKAetov Trarrcs i8iafoWcos ra a7TOKo/x/3ta Xapfidvovcriv. 



3 S-fi/jioipov L et passim 4 <rr par opes B 5 5' i.e. 2 nom. et 3 miliaresia 

786 is 7' B : v L 14 fort. (5') 15 of 5e . . . 20 irpwroTwrou ( = 4~9 supra) uncis 
inclusi iset2i (TTpciTopesB 21 fort. (80 cum7 / sc. 23 ..... atrtrov 
lego, om. B om. B 24 5' (post BeyeTajv) in cod. oblitt. recte restituit B ; 
quod cum lacunam vix impleat ol inserui. 25 TO?? Qvp(<apois 7', TO?S) ita restitui ex 
vestigiis in loco oblitterato : opxurry . . . Siarpexovffiv B 26 TOU ^070 ,, 7 lego : TOV 
\oyoOerov B roTs vop.o$v\a.i B, non verisimile : fort, rots apfj.o<f>v\al-i, cf. Cer. 8oi t 
27 Stavfuovn rb o.-KOK6^iov. Kal ravra n\v B : Siavfjj.ovri . . . ift f a ..... j^v lego 

787 28 u<J>e. L 33 arpdropffi legendum 34 ^w^p^aroav B 

M 12 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE BRITISH ACADEMY 



Tlepl ywr)dfias TWV o.priK\ivu>v. 

e ras 8ta ra>y /3pa/3euoy Kat 8ta Ao'ycoy 

Kal vTroo'tatpe'o-ety, a#eu re Kat /xetwo-et?, TrpocrKArjo-ets re Kat 
v7roKX.rj(rLS, ei? rov/x^ayes eTrot'/jo-ajuey, $e'pe 6r) Kat ray eKTraAat roi/s dprt- 
KAt'yay Trapa T&V /3ao"tAe'a)y eKruTrcofletVas trwnjfatas, Kat eK rtya>y Trpoo-co- 5 
moy ravras 8to"o'yat aurots ffyoptotiri, eK raiy dpxatore'pcoy epayto-d/xeyot 
rrj8e rr) ypa^r) 7rapa8otr]juey. Trpo/SaAAo/xeyr;? yap fcoo-r^s 17 /xayiVrpou, 
6t8orat avror? ef Kaarroi avr&v KaBairaj; K'. r 
8t8orat aiirots awr/deia Trap' avrou KaOdira^ tj3 r . avayo/jLevov 8e 

788 ^ (Sapfidrov ets TrarptKtorryra, ^ di^^VTrarov yevoyAvw TLVOS, 8t8orat awor? 10 
ef eKaoTou avr&v t/3 r * o/xotcas Kat eK r?j? Si.avoiJ.fjs TOV KO^IOV rov 8180- 

Trapa rot; n^^vov warptKtou Xa^avova-iv VO\L((T\L. i(B f . ol 8e X L P~ 
(TTpaTrjyol Zv re rrj dz/aroArj Kat rrj Secret Trap^ovcnv avrots 
vojLttd-/u. t^S'. et 6e Kat eTTt/xeVwo-t crrparryyot, oo-aKt? ay poyevOuxrw, 
ol pep avarokiKol ava vo^icr}*. ifi', K.OLV rd\a rvyoitv et? ro tStoz; ^e'jua, 15 
rr)!' poyav avrutv cnrocrTaXrjvai. ol 8e r^j Swecos Kat /XT) poyevo/xe^ot, 
6o"aKts ay ey rr; /3ao~tAevov(TTy r3y TroAecoy eTrareA^axrt, Trape^oixrty avro?? 
dra yo/zta-/x. t/3 r . Trpo/SaAAojuteVoT; 6e eK TrpocruHrov crrpar^yov rj KAeto-- 
ovpap\ov TI KareTrdyco ITac^Aayamaj, 6t8orat avTots e eKao-rou avr&v ava 

rf ', Kat oaaKts eto-eA^oyre? poyeu^aio-t, TrdAty rr)y avryv Troo-orr^ra 20 

avrotj. ot 6e d^x/)iKtaAtot, Kay re rrj r<Sy Trpooroo-Tra^aptcoy 
rert/x^yrat df ta, Kay re Kat /x,?}, aTro re rou TrpatTroortrou Kat rou 8ojuteo-rtKOU 
rwy (TxoAwy /xe^pt T?Js roO Trpcoroo-Tra^aptoi; rwy /3a(rtAtK<y, 8t6oua-t Kat 
4i^rot aira^ ava t^3'* ot 8e AotTrot Trdyre? d</)^)tKtdAtot ^XP L T0 ^ SojuecrrtKou 
rwy ^SacrtAtKaiy dya r/. et 8e rt? evvov'xos irptoToo'TTaOdpios yeyr^rat, 8t- 25 
Saxrty avrots aTraf 77'* 7rpt/xtK?Jpto9 -^ da-rtdptoj dya ^ wcravra)? 6 ap)(coy 
roi; dpjuta/xe'yrou, 6 /i/,tyo-ovpara>p, 6 Kovpdrcop rou Kr^aro?, ot yapTOvXapiot. 
rov dtov bpofjiov, 6 aKrovdptoy, 6 -Trpcoroyordptos roi; 6"po'/zov, o \aprou- 

789 Adptos roi; ora^Aou, 6 eTrtKrr;? Kat 6 r^s virovpyias Sojueo-rtKO?, d fvyo- 
(rrdrr/9, d otKto-rtKos Kat d ^vo-oex/ayrrjy. eTTt 7rpo/3oA7J 8e Trayrdj Trpcoro- 30 
(nraOapCov aito re /ixayAa/Strwy Kat raiy ey r<S otKetaKO) /SatrtAtKw ^Secrrtapta) 
KaraAeyojueycoy, Kat ra>y et? rovj /Sao'tAtKoi/j avOptoTrovs crvyrerayjueycoy, 
Kat rwy eTTt r?}? j3a(n\iKijs rpaTre'fr;? Trapta-rajuteycoy, Kat ra>y 8ta WAeco? 
criy rwy ea>rtKa>y rt/zw/xeycoy, 8t5orat avrot? airaf dya yo/xttr/Lt. r/', ot 6e 
r?] ra>y cnraOapOKavoibdTtov rj (nraOapiav rtjuw/xeyot dfta dya ^, ot 8e r?J 35 
ra>y o-rparcopcoy ^ vTrdrcoy, 17 KayStSarcoy r) jutay8ardpa>y, ^ /Sea-rr^ro'pcoy, ^ 
o-tAeyrtaptcoy, 17 aTrd eTrdp^wy rtjutco/xeyot aft'a, Ttaptyowi Kat awot yo/xtor/x. 
(8'} ftxravrcos Kat e?rt rcSy creKpertK<3y rjyovv (TvyK\r]TLKov rt/xco/^teyou aurou 

ey dftw/xao-ty, 8t8orat ef eKacrrov avra>y Kara ro otKetoy d^ta>jua, ot /xey 



4 TO?S apriKXivais legendum videtur 5 rtywi/ L 8 o-iry/ceAou L 788 1 1 5t- 

L 14 uffdicis L fxayevduffivit 17 fiaffiXevovcri L 23 SiSoffi L 

25 S/Soortv L 789 30 xP vfff ty ir 'f]s L : correxi 38 numerura scriba non legere 
potuit. (S'} supplevi ; cf. infra 



4>IAO0EOT KAHTOPOAOriON 179 



rrj T&V TrptoToa-TTaBapitov ava if, ol be rr) r<Sz> oriradapoKavbibaT^v rj cnra- 
6api(DV ava ^, ol be rrj T&V orpartopcoz; r) virdrctiv TJ KavbcbaTo^v 77 fjiav- 
8aropa>z> 77 /3eoT7T.ropa)z> rj o~tAez>rtapta>z> ava vofALcrp* b^ airpaTtov be creKpe- 
TIK>V yevofjievitiv, ava y ', ol be T&V ray/u,drcoz> Kal T&V 7rAof/xa>z> /cat rG>v 
5 z>oujue'pa)Z' Kal reiyjiu>v roTrorryprirat a/xa rot? \apTOv\apfais avr&v ava <? '. 
ol 6e \oL7tol iravTes ap\ovTS a/aa rot? Tpifiovvois Kal fiiKapiOLS ava vofjii- 
(r/xaros tvos. TOVT&V TOLVVV avtKaOev TT\aTLK<*>Tpov eto-erryyeyjueVcoi', vvvl 
be us olov re j\v crac/xSs Kat ev&vvoiTTtos ev e7riro/xa) aweiAey/xeVcozJ, XPV 
rots, ocrot rr/z/ Trept rovrcoy typovriba Kal VTrrjpea-iav TreTrotr^i/rat Kara r?)i; 

10 TTpoKeinevrjv bibao-KaMav, Kal irepl T&V /3ao-iA.iK<3z; K\?;ra)ptW, /cat wept ry 
biavo[j,G>v, eK rovbe TOV raKrtKov TrapayyeAjuiaros a>s dird Kavovos, %, TO ye 
aXrjOea-Tepov, a>s e/c roi; fiaviXiKov ^eo-7rto-/uiaro9, drafx^)to-/3?ira)9 evepyelv. 
ebei fjiev ^juas rots (rvvTayOelvw Tiepl KaOebp&v Xo'yots xat r?iz;8e rr)z; TWV 
leparLK&v eTTi(rvvd\lsai TCLIV, a>s are jJLa\\ov ra -TrpeV^eta rfjs TrpcaroK^o-tas 

15 (frepovo-avi aAA' tVa /ix^ rts Ko'pos Ao'you rots avayLVw<TKOV(nv Treptcrrr), 
Kat ^ (TvyKXriTiKT] ra^ts a-i;^ r?} tepartKrj (rvvacfrOelcra avafyeiav rots elcrayo- 
fjievois bia r&v ovojjLaTaiv 7rotrj(rr/j ravTrjV TVTTLKUS [JLev 7/817 ^^ r ^ s raea)S 
rwy /xayttrrpcor, TrarptKtcor, i:pai/nQcr\.Tu>v Kat crTparr]yG>v 
wz^t 8e ri/s Trept rovrutv KVpLOK\.7](rias Kal TrpaiTOKaOebpias T&V re e 

20 Kat /UT7rpo7roA.tra>z>, ap^LeTTLcrKOTTC^v avroKe^aAcoy Kat eTrto-KOTrcou 

ypevtov rrjv ap^o^ovcrav TCLLV et8tK(Ss ejJLffravfjcraL povKopevoi, elbiK^v riva 
Kal rr\v Trpay/aaretaz^ crvyypa\^at TTpoeOv^Orj^ev. ra yap et8tKws 
Xeyopeva cra<j)fj ryv bibaa-KaXCav Trape'^et* ra 8e TTWS ez; o-vfuytats 
ypeva aa-dfyeiav TroAAaKts rots eVruyxaVotxri Trpofez^et. 8td Ka^ 

25 eKaorrys eirap^ias ras jutr/rpoTro'Aets eK0e'//,ezJOt, rai eKao-rw ftr/rpoTroAtrr/ 791 
roTra) r?]s KaOebpas bLecrrixriara^ev, Kal et# 5 ovrcos ras raiz; avro- 
pxieTna-KOTraiv Kara rd^iv bevrepav ov&av CLTTO T&V /ur/rpoTroAtrwz; 
a, /otera 8e rovrots rrj eKaorrr/ Trap\iq Kat /xr/rpoTro'Aet VTrorera- 
ypevas Tro'Aets Kat eTTto-KOTras ebrjXuxrafJiev, OVK eK T&V Kad* fjfjias KAryropo- 

30 Aoytcoz' fMovov ras d(|>opjuas eKAa/So/xez^ot, dAAa ye Kat eK rz^ roi; deweo'iov 
'Ei7Ti(j)avLov TOV dp^LeirLCTKOTTov K.v7Tpov (Tvyypatyrjs TO, 7rAe?o~ra dz^aAe^a- 
lv vfjieis ev rrj rotavrr; biaKOVia T&V dpTOK\ivG)V TvyxavovTes rera- 
^ 8e ez' rovrw roi /zepet rt 8tajutaprr/re, dAAa Kat ez; <a><rarots /u^ 
TrapoVros rov olKOVpeviKov Trarptap^ov, rv^?/ Kat ez; erepa) roVw, rr)z/ ireipav 

35 rail' KaOebp&v 8ta roO o*i?yypa/ot/xaros e\ovTa a7rrato*ra Kat d/xw/xrjra ra rt/xta 
^Sao'tAecoi' f][ji.G>v T&V dytcozJ etcrayryre. 



6 vofji-f}(rfj.aro5 L 790 13 0WTax07j<n' L 15 <f>epovcrr)s L : corr. R 16 
Ti/c^ L flffaycDfjifvois L 17 iroi-fiffei LB : correxi roir-rjKbs pet/ efti] L: corr. R 
OTT& L : eVl B 23 tro^e? L TTOJS LB : correxi 24 Sta Ka6i]p/j.bv L B : correxi 
791 26 ap[j.6ui/Ti L 5te<TT77X^<ra/*e' L 29 /cArjTtwpoA. B 32 $)i/ yyiceTs L : corr. R 
L 35 forreaTa L 36 etVaYerot L : eiVcfyere B : fiffdyrjTe scrips! 



13 8434 



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JUN 1 1 1982 



JAN 1 5 1982 



MAR 1 7 1983 



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LD21A-30m-10,'73 
(R3728slO)476 A-30 



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