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When the Supplement to The Imperial Dictionakt was at first commenced, it was 
anticipated it could be issued within a very limited period. However, as the Editor 
proceeded with his labours, the Work increased greatly in his hands beyond what he 
originally contemplated, partly from the more extended researches into which he was 
di'awn, partly from numerous contributions sent from all parts of the country, and partly 
from the very rapid introduction of new words in recent times. The following may 
be stated as comprising the chief points aimed at by the Editor in compiling the 
Supplement : — 

1. To supply such words, terms, and new significations, as had either come into use since 

the publication of The Imperlax Dictionary was commenced, or had escaped his 

2. To furnish such additional words and terms in the difterent departments of Literature, 

Arts* and Sciences, as he deemed to be suitable, and •which he was enabled to collect 
by travelling over a wide field of research. Of these the number collected by his 
own research is very great ; and not a few, besides, have been supplied by literary 
and scientific Correspondents in various parts of the kingdom. The different gentle- 
men, also, to whom the MS. has been submitted for revisal, have added considerably 
to the list. 

3. To introduce a much greater number of obsolete and obsolescent words than it was 

deemed necessary to insert in the Dictionary ; specially all words of this description 
in Shalcspeare, Spenser, and Chaucer, not inserted in the original Work ; and thus 
to furnish a complete key to the works of those great English poets. 

4. In addition to the Scottish terms admitted into the Dictionary (for the most part 

used by Burns), to introduce such as are found in the works of Sir Walter Scott. 
This has been done mainly for the benefit of the English readers of the great 

5. To make such emendations and corrections on the Dictionary as the Editor had 

discovered to be necessary, or which had been pointed out to him by others. 

The Supplement has gone through a course of careful revision by gentlemen 
specially versed in difierent departments of scientific knowledge, similar to that given 
to the original Work. 

On the whole, the Editor indulges a hope that this Supplement, although long 
delayed, will not disappoint expectations. The number of additional words which it 



contains, including additional significations to words already given, cannot be much under 
Twenty Thousand; and thus The Imperial Dictionary and Supplement, together, will 
fui-nish a more extensive vocabulary than any Dictionary that has hitherto appeared. 

In addition, the Pronouncing Vocabulary of Greek, Latin, and So-ipture Proper 
Names, and the copious List of Geographical Names, also with the pronunciation, pre- 
pai-ed by Professor Porter of Yale College, for a recent American edition of Webster's 
English Dictionary, has been appended. 

The Supplement is illustrated by nearly Four Hundred Figures on Wood ; and it 
is paged so that the portions corresponding with the Fii-st and the Second Volumes may 
be bound up with them ; or it will form a "Volume by itself, as purchasers may deem 
most suitable. 

To those numerous Subscribers who favoured the Editor with theii- contributions to 
the Supplement, he takes this opportunity of expressing his grateful acknowledgments. 
Of the greater number of terms thus communicated he has availed himself, as well as of 
several exceUent suggestions made by certain of the Contributors. Some terms proposed 
for insertion he has necessarily rejected, because they appeared to be unsuitable, or did 
not seem to rest upon sufficient authority; or because, having been sent without reference 
to the sources from which they were taken, he was unable to ascertain their precise import 
The Editor, however, cannot but acknowledge that he has received material aid from the 
numerous Correspondents already referred to. 


A BKRDEEN, March 26, 1855. 





A, a, as in fate. 

E, e, first a, as in prey. 

0, o, long, as in note. 

€H, as h. 

A. Vfl broad, as in fall. 

I, i, long, as in pine. 

(). 6, like 00, as in move. 

CH, as sh. 

j\, a, as in what. 

1, 1, e long, as in fatigue. 

U, long, as in tune. 

6, as }. 

A, a, Italian, as in father. 

1, 1, short u, as in bird. 

y, as in pull. , 

TH, vocal, as in thai. 

£, e, as in mete, meet. 

0, 6, short u, as in dove. 

€, as h. 

N.B.— In this Dictionars, the letter e simply is frequently substituted, both in the beginning and middle of words. 


the diphthong «, as predial for prffidial. 


a. stands for adjective. 

alffe. stands for algebra. 

adv. " " adTerb. 

ajuit. " " anatomy. 

con. " " connective, or conjunction. 

arch. " " architecture. 

txclam. " " exclamation, or interjection. 

arith. " " arithmetic. 

n. " " name, or noun. 

astr. " " astronomy. 

t " " obsolete, or not used. 

astral. " " astrology. 

VP. " " participle passive, and perfect. 

hot. " " botany. 

pjir. " " participle of the present tense. 

chem. " " chemistry. 

prep. " " preposition. 

colloq. ■" " colloquial. 

pre*. " " preterite. 

com. " " commerce. 

pron. " " pronoun. 

eccles. " " ecclesiastical. 

nng, " " singular. 

entom. " " entomology. 

V I. " " verb intransitive. 

etym. " " etymology. 

p. t. " " verb transitive. 

fnrt. " " fortification. 
geol. " " geology. 

At. " " Arabic. 

geom. " " geometry. 

Arm. " " Armoric. 

gram. " " grammar. 

Ch. " " Chaldee. 

her. " " heraldry. 

Com. " " Cornish. 

ich. " " ichthyology. 

Dan. " " Danish. 

Ian. " " language. 

D. " " Dutch, or Belgic. 

mar. " " marine. 

Eng. " " English, or England. 

math. '* " mathematics. 

Eth. " " Ethiopic. 

mech. " " mechanics. 

fr. " " French. 

med. " " medicine. 

G. or Ger. " " German. 

meta. " " metaphysics. 

Gr. " " Greek. 

mint. " " military. 

Goth. " " Gothic. 

min. or mineral. " mineralogy. 

Heh. " " Hebrew. 

mus. " " music. 

Jce. " " Icelandic. 

myth. " " mythology. 

Ir. " " Irish and Gaelic. 

nat. hist. " " natural history. 

ll. " " Italian. 

nat. order. " " natural order. 

Lat. ur L. " " Latin. 

ohs. or ohsol. " " obsolete. 

Norm. " " Norman. 

patho. " " pathology. 

Per. " " Persic, or Persian. 

persp. " " perspective. 

Port. " " Portuguese. 

phar. " " pharmacy. 

Ritss. " " Russian. 

phys. " " physiology. 

Sam. " " Samaritan. 

9«. " " query. 

Sans. " " Sanscrit. 

rhet. " " rhetoric. 

Sa.x. " " Saxon, or Anglo-Saxon. 

scrip. " " scripture. 

Sp. " " Spanish. 

scidp. " " sculpture. 

Sw. " " Swedish. 

sur. " " surgery. 

Syr. " " Syriac. 

theol. " " theology. 

m " " Welsh. 

zool. " " zoology. 

Linn., Linnajus or Linneean.— itf. xis.. Little used.— A^of mu. us.. Not much useiL 







A [add.] In some words a may be a 
9 contraction of at, of, in, to, or a7i. 
Tu some words of Greek origin a initial 
is a prefix of privative or negative sig- 
nification, as in aiioni/moits, achromatic, 
&c. Alpha and Ome<ja, the first and 
last letters of the Greek alphabet, are 
used in Scripture for the beginning and 
the end, representative of Clirist. In 
the English phraseology, " A landlord 
lias ten thousand a year ;*' " the sum 
amounted to ten pounds a man ;" a 
is merely the adjective one; and this 
mode of expression is idiomatic. A 
hundred in a [one] year; ten pounds 
to a [one] man. 

A, used by Shakspeare for he. 

AA, or AW, 71. Awe. [Scotch.] 

A'ARON'S KOD, n. In arch., a rod 
with a serpent twined round it. It is 
sometimes confounded with caduceus. 

A.B. An abbreviation of artium bacca- 
laureus, bachelor of arts. 

A'BACA, H. The name given in the 
Philippines to a species of banana 
(Miisa texlilis) Its fibre is used for 
making mats, cloth, and various other 

ABACK',t n [L. abacus.] A flat, 
square stone, or a square surface. 

ABA€'UHJS, n. [L.] A small tile of 
glass, marble, or other substance, of 
various colours, used in making orna- 
mental patterns in mosaic pavements. 

AB'A€US, n. A rectangular slab of 
marble, stone, porcelain, &c., of vari- 
ous colours, used for coating the walls 
of rooms either in panels or over the 
whole surface. 

AB'ACUS, n. [add.] A game among 
the Romans ; so called from its being 
played on a board, somewhat in the 
manner of chess. 

ABAD', n. In the East Indies, an abode ; 
a residence. It is much used in com- 
position ; as, Hyderabad, the capital of 

ABA'IST.pp. [Sec Abase.] Abashed; 
ashamed. [Cliaucer.] 

ABANDONED, pp. or a. [add.] De- 
stitute; forlorn. 

ABATAMENTUM, n. [L.] In law, 
an entry by interposition. 

ABATE, V. t. [add.] To deprive; to 
curtail; as, 

She hatli ithvted me of half my train 


ABaTE'MENT, n. [add.] This term is 
used in English law in three senses, 
viz., that of abating a nuisance, of 
I.— SUPP. 

abating an action or indictment, and of 
abating into a freehold. The abate- 
ment of a nuisance is tlie beating down 
and removing of it ; tlie abatement of a 
civil action or indictment is the beating 
down or overthrowing such action or 
indictment; and abatement into a free- 
hold, is where, upon the death of a 
person possessed of freehold lands, an- 
other wlio has no title enters upon 
those lands to the prejudice of tlie 
party entitled as lieir or devisee. Such 
person is said to abate into the freehold 
of the heir or devisee. 

ABATIS. See Abattis. 

ABA'TOR, n. [add.] An agent or cause 
by which an abatement is procured. 

AB'ATTIS, n. [add.] This military work 
p.-operly consists of felled trees, with 
the softer branches cut otT, laid side by 
side, with the ends from which the 
branches grew turned towards the 
enemy, thus forming an obstruction to 
his progress, and a breastwork for mus- 
ketry to fire over. Written also Ab'atis. 

AB-ATTISED,;>p. Provided mth an 

ABATTOIR, n. (iibatwar'.) [Fr. from 
abaltrc, to knock down.] A pulilic 
slaughter-house. [ Usualli/ applied only 
to large estabhshments outside of towns.] 

ABAW'ED,t pp. [add.] Astonished. 

ABBACI'NATE, v t. [Ital. ad, to, and 
bacino, a basin.] To deprive of sight 
by applying a red-hot copper basin 
close to the eyes. 

ABBACINA'TION, n. A horrid pun- 
ishment inflicted in the early ages on 
captive princes and persons of high rank 
and political influence. [See Abbaci- 


AB'BEY LAND, n. An estate in an- 
cient tenure annexed to an abbey. 

ABBRE'VIATE,t »■ An abridgment. 

TION. In Scots law, an abstract of 
adjudication. [See Adjudication.] 

ABBREVIA'TION, n. [add.] In vm.iic, 
a dash through the stem of a note re- 
duces Its duration one half. Thus a 
crotchet |' with one oblique dash be- 
comes J a quaver, and by an additional 
oblique dash it becomes a S semi- 
quaver, &c. 

ABBUOCH',t V. t. [E. ab, and Fr. 
brnche, a spit.] To forestal. 

ABBROCH'MENT,t n. The act of 

AB'DI€ANT, n. One who abdicates. 
ABDICA'TION, n. [add.] This term 

is now generally applied to the giving 

up of the kingly office. 
ABDITO'RIUM, n. [L.] An abditory, 

or hiding place, to hide and preserve 

goods, plate, or money ; or a chest in 

^^'hich relics were kept. 
ABDOM'INAL REGIONS, i-. In anat., 

the abdomen is arbitrarily divided into 

certain regions. An imaginary line (a a) 

JVbdomlnfil Rifgiona. 

is drawn transversely from the cartilage 
of the seventh rib on one side to the 
corresponding point of the opposite 
side, and another transverse line (6 b) 
between the anterior sujierior spines 
of the ilia. The part above the upper 
line is called the ej^igastric region, that 
between the upper and lower lines, 
the umbilical region, and that beneath 
the lower line the hyptigastric region. 
These regions are subdivided by two 
vertical lines (c c), one being drawn on 
each side, from the cartilage of the 
seventh rib to the anterior superior 
spine of the ilium. The central por- 
tion of the epigastric (1) region retains 
the name of epigastric; the lateral por- 
tions {4, 4) are called the right and left 
hf/pochondriacregions; the middle part 
of the umbilical region (2) is still called 
umbilical, while the parts to the right 
and left {5, 6) are called lumbar; the 
hypogastric region is denominated pi/ii'e 
in its central portion (3), and is divided 
on each side (6, G) into an iliac and 
inguinal region. 

ABDOMINA'LES, n. An order of 
inalacopterygious, or soft-finned fishes. 
[See Abdominal.] 

ABDOMINOS'€<JPT, v. [L. abdomen, 

and Gr. rxor'.M, to view or examine j 





An exanunation of the abdomen with 
a view to detect disease. 

ABDUCT', r. t. To take away surrep- 
titiously, and by force 

ABEAM', adv. In naut. Ian., on the 
beam. Guns are said to be pointed 
abeam, when they are pointed in a line 
at ri^ht angles to the ship's keel. 

ABECEDA'KIAX, a. Pertaining to, 
or formed by the letters of the alph;i- 
bet. — Abecedarian psalms, a name 
given in ancient times to those psalms 
each of whose verses began with a dif- 
ferent letter, such letters following one 
another in alphabetical series. 

ABEGGE'.t) 1-. t. (abeg', abey', abi'.) 

ABEYE',t >• Tosufferfor.[CTiai(cer.] 

ABIE-,t J [See Abt.] 

ABERK',t I'. I- To wander; to err. 

ABER'RANT, a. [add.] This term is 
applied in the classification of plants or 
animals, to those genera and species 
which deviate most from the type of 
their natural group. 

ABEKR.\'TIOX, «. [add.] Chromatic 
aberration. In optics, a term employed 
to denote the imperfection arising from 
the xinequal refrangibility of the rays, 
composing white light, in consequence 
of which the image of the object, viewed 
through a lens, will be surrounded by 
prismatic colours. Spherical aberration 
produces distortion, chromatic aberra- 
tion produces false colour of the object. 
— Circle of aberration, the circle of 
coloured light, observed in experiments 
with convex lenses, between the point 
where the violet rays and that where 
the red rays meet. 

ABET', r. t. [add.] To avow an appro- 
bation of; as, they abet their forefathers* 

ABETTER, n. One who abets; an 

ABETTOR, n. [add.] One who aids 
or encourages, in a good sense. [Pope.] 

ABEYANCE, n. [add.] In pop. Ian., 
a state of suspension or temporary ex- 

ABEY'ANT, a. In law, being in abey- 

ABHORRED, Pi), [add.] Disgusted; 

liow abhorred my imagination is. 


ABHOR'RISG, n. Object or feeling 
of abhorrence. 

ABI'DASCE, n. The act of abiding; 
abode; stav. 

ABIDDEX.t 1 pp. of Abide. [Chau- 

ABID'EN,+ f cer] 

AB'IES, n. [add.] To this genus (which 
includes the sections, or sub-genera, 
called Tsuga, Abies, Picea, Larii, and 
Cedrus), belong the silver fir {A. picea), 
the great Californian fir (.4. grandis), 
the balm of Gilead fir (A. balsan^ifera i, 
the large-bracted fir {A. nobitisi, the 
hemlock spruce fir {A. canadtnsis), 
sacred Mexican fir {A. retigiosa), Nor- 
way spruce fir (A. eicelsu), Oriental 
fir (A. orientalis), white spruce fir (A. 
alba), Douglas' fir {A. Douglasii), com- 
mon larch {A. larix), cedar of Lebanon 
(A. cedrus), &c. 

ABIET'I€ ACID, n. An acid dis- 
covered in the resin of trees of the 
genus Abies. 

AB'IETIXE, n. .4 resinous substance 
obtained from the Strasburg turpen- 

AB'IGAIL, n. A waiting woman. 
ABIL'IMEXT,t n AbUity. 
ABIT',f V. I. third person sing, of Abide. 
Abideth. [Cliaucer.] 

ABjCDICATE.t r. (. To give away 
bv judgment. 

AB JUDICA'TION, n. Rejection. 

AB'JUGATE,t 1-. t. [L. abjugo.} To 

ABLAQ'UEATE.t c I. To lay bare, 
as the roots of trees. 

A'BLE,t t'. t. To enable. 

ABLEEZE', adv. On fire; ma blaze. 
[.Scotch. '\ 

ABLEGATE,! v. I. [L. ablego.'] To 
send abroad. 

ABLEGATION.t n. Theact of send- 
ing abroad. 

ABLEP'SIA, n. [L.] BUndness; ab- 

ABLIGA'TION,t n. The act of tying 
np forms. 

ABLIGUKI'TION,t "■ [L- abliguri- 
tio.] Excess. 

ABLU'TIO.V, n. Not the cup given to 
the laity, as explained in Diet.; but 
the mixture of wine and water with 
which the officiating priest rinses out 
the chalice, after mass, himself drink- 
ing the same. 

ABNEGATIVE, a. Denjlng; nega- 
tive. [Rarely used.^ 

ABNORJIAI., a. [add.] In 6o/., where 
the organs of a plant have a greater or 
less number of parts than the regular 
number, they are said to be abnormal, i 
Plants, or parts of plants, are also 
called abnormal, when they present a 
ditferent structure from what a know- 
ledge of the allied plants would lead 
one to expect. 

ABOARD', adv. [add.] To lay aboard, 
to board. [.SAaA.] — To get aboard, to 
get_foul of, as a ship. 

ABOARD', prep. On board ; in ; with. 

ABOLETE',t a. [L. abolitus.] Old ; 

AISOO'S', \ prep. OT adv. Above. [Scot- 

ABUNE', / land,Yorhshire, and North 
of England. "l 

ABOOKD',t adv. [Fr. bord.'] From 
the bank. [Spenser.] 

ABOKD',t adv. [i'r. bord.'\ Across; 
from shore to shore. [Spenser.} 

ABOR'TIENT, a. [L. aborticus.'] In 
bot., sterile ; barren. 

ABORTION, n. [add.] In bot., the 
non-formation of a part which, theo- 
retically, should be present ; an incom- 
plete formation. 

ABORTIVE, a. [add.] In med., pro- 
ducing abortion ; as, abortive medicines. 
This term is applied to parts of plants 
imperfectly formed ; as, an abortive sta- 
men, whose filament has no anther, or 
its anther no pollen ; or to such as do 
not arrive at perfect maturity; as an 
ovule unimpregnated. 

ABORTIVE, n. [add.] Something 
which causes abortion. 

ABoTE ,t pp. [from abate.] Dejected; 
cast doi\Ti. [Chaucer.] 

ABOU-HAN'NES, n. The name given 
by the Arabs to the true Egyptian 
ibis ; the Numenius ibis (Cuv.) [See 

ABOUGHT',t pp. (abani;'.) [from 
abegge.] Endured ; atoned for ; paid 
dearly for. [CAawcer.] 

ABOUT'EN,+ prep. About. [Chaucer.] 

ABOVE'-BOARD, a. Open; frank; 
without concealment. [Colloq.] 

ABOVE-DECK, a. Upon deck; with- 
out artifice. 
ABOVE ONE'S BEND. Out of one's 
power ; beyond reach. [American 

ABOVE' STAIRS, n. On the floor 


ABRADING, n. In agric, the crumb- 
ling down of banks of earth, from tha 
effects of frost, or of the alternate ac- 
tion of drought and moisture. 

A'BRAHAM MEN, n. Formerly im- 
postors in England, who wandered 
about the country seeking alms, under 
pretence of lunacy. — To sham Abraham, 
is to feign sickness. 

ABRAHAMIT'ieAL, a. Relating to 

ABRAlD',t V. t. To rouse; to awake. 

ABRAlD'.t V. i. [Sax.] To awake ; to 
start. [Chaucer.] 

ABKAID',+ pp. [Sax. abredian:] 
Awaked. [5pens^r.] 

ABR.iIDE',t V. i. [Sax. abredian.] To 
rouse ; to awake. 

ABRAlDE',t pp. Awaked; started. 

ABRA'MIS, n. A genus of fresh-water 
malacopterygian fishes, belonging to 
the family Cyprinidse, and containing 
the common bream (Abramis brama). 
There are two other British species, 
but they are rare ; these are the white 
bream or bream-flat (A. blicca), and the 
Pomeranian bream {A. buggenhagii). 

ABRAN€HIAN, n. On* of the 

ABRASION, n. [add.] In mech., the 
effect of two rubbing surfaces when the 
wear between them is sensibly great ; 
the use of lubrication is to prevent 
abrasion and diminish friction. 

ABRAX'AS, n. A genus of lepidop- 
terous insects, containing the well- 
known black currant moth {Abraxas 

ABR.iY ,t V. i. [Sax.] To awake. 

ABR.\YD',+ V. t. Same as Abbaise, 
which see in this Supplement. [Spen- 

ABREDE'.t adv. Abroad. [Chaucer.] 

-ABRIDGE, V. t. [add.] In late, to 
make a declaration or count shorter by 
subtracting or severing some of the 
substance therefrom. 

ABRIDGMENT, n. [add.] Used by 
Shakspeare for pastime. 

.\BRlGE',t [Fr.] To abridge; to 
shorten. [Chaucer.] 

ABRO.iCH.t r.t. To tap; to set 

ABROACH'JIENT.t n. The act of 
forestalling the market. 

ABROCIIE ,t f. f. [Fr.] To tap; to 
set abroach. [Chaucer.] 

ABRO€OM.\, n. [Gr. i?.K, delicate, 
and »*ui;^ hair.] A genus of small rodent 
animals, natives of South America, re- 
markable for the fineness of their fur. 
[It is more properly spelled, and is often 
wTitten, Habrocoma.] 

AB ROGABLE, a. That may be ab- 

AB'ROGATE,ta. Annulled ; abolished. 

ABRO'M.i, n. [Gr. « neg. and g-«ita, 
food.] A genus of plants, nat. order 
Byttneriaceae. A. augusta is a native of 
the East Indies, and A. fastuosa of 
New South Wales. 

ABROT'ANOID, n. A species of 
coral belonging to the genus .Madre- 
pora. It is one of the reef corals of 
the East Indies. 

ABRUS, n. [Gr. -^•«, elegant.] .K 
genus of leguminous plants. A. pre* 
catorius, or wild liquorice, is a West 
Indian evergreen climber. Its polished 
and parti-coloured seeds, called jumble 
beads, were formerly strung and em- 
ployed as beads for rosaries, necklaces, 
ic. Its roots are used in the West 
Indies as liquorice is with us. 




) n. [add.] Generally, any 

yi i - 

C D Abscissi 


ABSCIS'SA, J part of the diameter or 
axis of a curve com- 
prised between some 
fixed point where all 
the abscisses begin, 
and another line 
called the ordinate, 
which is terminated 
in the curve. 


ABS€OND'ED,pp. Deep-hidden; con- 
cealed from view. 

ABS£fOND'ENCE,t n. Concealment. 

AB'SENT,t n. One who is not present. 

ABSENTA'NEOUS,t a. Relating to 
absence; absent. 

ABSIN'THATE, n. A salt formed by 
the imion of absinthic acid with a 

ABSlN'THie ACID, n. A peculiar 
acid contained in absintliiura, or worm- 

ABSIN'THINE.n. The bitter principle 
of wormwood (Artemisia absinlhium). 

ABSIN'THITES, n. Wine impregnated 
with wormwood. 

ABSIST^ V. i. [L. ahsisto.] To stand 
off; to leave off. 

AB'SOLUTE, a, [add.] In c/im., pure ; 
unmixed; as, absolute alcohol. In 
mech., the absolute magnitude of a force 
is its intensity measured by weight, as 
by pounds, &;c. 

AB'SOLUTE, «. [add.] Peremptory; 

AB'SOLUTIST, n. An advocate for des- 
potism, or for absolute government. 


ABSOL'VITOR, n. In law, a decree of 

A B'SONATE,t v. t. To avoid; to detest. 

ABSORBI"TION,t n. Absorption. 

ABSORPT',t 2^P- Absorbed; swallow- 
ed up. 

ABSORP'TION, n. [add,] Entire oc- 
cupation or engrossment of mind ; as, 
absorption in business. In physiol.^ one 
of the vital organic functions, by which 
the materials of growth and nutrition 
are absorbed and conveyed to the or- 
gans of the body, and by which the de- 
cayed and useless parts are absorbed 
and removed from the system. — Inter- 
stitial absorption, the function by which 
the particles of the tissue, which fill the 
meshes of the capillary net-wo'"U, are 
removed, as in the atrophy of the pupil- 
lary membrane in the fetus, and in the 
development of cells in bones. — Cuta- 
neous or e.rtertial absorption, the func- 
tion by which certain substances, when 
placed in contact with a living sui-face, 
produce the same effects upon the sys- 
tem as when taken into the stomach, 
or injected into the veins, only in a less 
degree. Thus, arsenic, when applied 
to an external wound, vrWl sometimes 
affect the system as rapidly as when in- 
troduced into the stomach ; and mer- 
cury, applied externally, has the effect 
of curing syphilis, and exciting saliva- 
tion. Plants absorb moisture and nu- 
tritive juices principally liy their roots, 
but sometimes by their general surfaces, 
as in sea-weeds. — Absorption of light, 
that quality in an imperfectly transpar- 
ent body, or at a polished surface, by 
which some portion of an incident pen- 
cil of light is retained within the body, 
while the rest is either transmitted 
through it, or reflected from it. 
ABSTAIN'ER, n. One who abstains 
from the use of intoxicating liquors ; a 

ABSTER'6ENT, n. [add.] A lotion or 
other application for cleaning a sore. 
[See Detersive.] 

ABSTER'SION, k. An abstergent or 

ABSTER'SIVENESS,t «• Quality of 
being abstersive. 

AB'STINENCY, h. Same as Absti- 

AB'STINENTS, n. plur. A name some- 
times given to tee-totallers. 

ABSTRACT', v. t [add.] To take se- 
cretly for one's own use from the pro- 
perty of another when placed in one's 
power ; to purloin ; as, to abstract goods 
from a parcel, or money from a bank. 

AB'STRA€T, a. [add.] Having the 
senses unemployed ; insensible to out- 
ward objects; abstracted. [Milton.] 

an epitome of the evidences of owner- 

ABSTRA€'TION, n. [add.] The act of 
withdrawing ; the taking for one's own 
use part of the property of another, 
when placed in one's power. — Abstrac- 
tion and absorption of heat, that power 
by which heat is made to pass from one 
body to whatever surrounds it, or to 
any conducting substance of lower tem- 
perature with which it is in contact. 
The abstraction may take place by ra- 
diation from the suiface of the heated 
body, or by an immediate communi- 
cation between the particles of caloric, 
and those of the bodies by which it is 
given and received. 

ABSTRACTIVELY, adv. In an ab- 
stractive manner. 

ABSTRI€'TED,t pp. [L. ahstrichis.] 

ABSUiMP'TION,t n. Destruction. 

ABUL'YIEMENTS, n. Habiliments; 
accoutrements. [Scotch.] 

ABUR'TON. In 7iaut. Ian., casks are 
said to be stowed a6«r/on, when placed 
athwartships in the hold. 

ABC'S ABLE, a. {s as z.) That may be 

ABUSE, V. t. (s as z.) [add.] To maim or 

ABUSE, n. [add.] Deception: puzzle. 

ABUT'MENT, n. [add.] In ar^-A., that 
which receives the end of, and gives 
support to, anji-hing having a tendency 
to spread or thrust outwards, or in a 
horizontal direction. 

ABUT'TER,n. He or that which abuts. 

ABYSS', instead of ABYSS. 

ABYS'SALjt ct. Relating to or like an 

ACA'CIA, n. [add.] This genus of 
plants belongs to ifie npt. order Legu- 
minosae, suborder Mimoseae. As ob- 
jects of ornament, the acacias are usu- 
ally of striking beauty. Some of the 
species produce catechu and gum-ara- 
bic ; the bark of others yields a large 
quantity of tannin, as, A. decurrens, and 
mollissima. Several species afford tim- 
ber of good quality; as, A. data, xy- 
locarpa, odoratissima, sundra, he. 

ACA'CIA TREE, n. A name some- 
times applied to the false acacia or lo- 
cust-tree (Robinia pseudacacia). 

AC'ACy,t n. Freedom from malice. 

ACADEM'IC, a. [add.] Figure of aca- 
demic proportions, in painting, a figure 
of little less than half the size of natiu'e, 
such as it is the custom fur pupils to 
draw from the antique, and from life : 
also, any figure in an attitude conven- 
tional, or resembling those chosen in 
life academies, for the purpose of dis- 
placing to the students muscular ac- 

tion, form, and colour, to the best ad- 

ACADEMY, n. [add.] The term aca- 
demy is especially applied to an institu- 
tion for the cultivation and promotion 
of the fine arts, partaking of the charac- 
ter both of an association of artists for 
mutual improvement, and of a school of 
instruction. — Academy figure, a figure 
w^hich the artist has selected and com- 
posed in such a manner as to exhibit 
his skill in design, but without due re- 
gard to the character of the personage, 
and the voluntary action of the subject 
of the picture or statue : also, a figure 
drawn, painted, or modelled from the 
nude solely, without any other inten- 
tion than that of studying the human 
form, and as a part of academic studies. 
The term academy figure is sometimes 
understood to be one in wliich the ac- 
tion is constrained, and the parts with- 
out mutual connection with each other, 
and designed to exhibit the develop- 
ment of certain muscles or members of 
the body. 

ACA'DIALITE, n. A siliceous mineral 
found in Nova Scotia ; red chabasie. 

ACAJOU, n. The cashew-nut tree. 

ACALE'PHANS, n. The same as Aca- 
LEPH^, — which see. 

ACA'LYCINE, a. [L. acalycinus.] In 
bot., Avithout a calyx or flower-cup. 

ACANTHA'CEtE, n. A nat. order of 
plants, having for its type the genus 
Acanthus. The species are common iu 
all tropical countries, and consist of 
herbaceous plants or shrubs, with op- 
posite leaves, and monopetalous corolla. 
Their properties are little known. 

ACAN'THICE, n. The sweet juice of 
ivy buds. 

ACAN'THION, n. A genns of rodent 
animals, separated from the porcupines, 
properly so called. 

ACANTHOCEPH'ALA,7i. [Gr. «««y- 
6oe, a spine, and xfijja?*), a head.] A fa- 
mily of intestinal worms, one species 
of which is often found in the aliment- 
ary canal of swine. Another species is 
foimd in the liver of the cat. 

ACAN'THODES, n. A genus of fossil 

ACAN'THOPHIS, n. A genus of ve- 
nomous serpents, allied to the vipers. 
The species are of small size, reside on 
the suiface of the dry land, and feed 
upon frogs, lizards, and small mammals. 
A. Brownii is an inhabitant of Australia. 

ACAN'THOPODS,n. A tribe of clavi- 
com coleopterous beetles, including 
those species with spiny legs. 

ACAR'DIAC, a. [Gr. « priv. and 
KfltgS-a, the heart.] Without a heart. 

ACAR'IDANS,) n. A division of Ar- 

ACAR'IDES, Y achnides, which com- 

ACAR'ID^, j prebends the mites 
{Acarus), and the ticks {Ricinus). The 
head, thorax, and body are all in one 

AC'ARON, n. The wild myrtle. 

ACAR'PIA, n. [Gr. «««;«?.] Unfruit- 

ACAR'PIOUS, a. Sterile; barren. 

ACARUS, n. The mite; a genus of in- 
sects belonging to the Acarides. In the 
Linnaean classification it comprehends 
the domestic mite {A. domesticus), tho 
itch-mite [A. scabici), the sparrow mite 
[A. passerinus), and many other species, 
wliich are now divided into distinct 

ACATALECTIC, a. Not halting 
short ; complete ; having the complete 
number of syllables ; as, an acatalectic 




ACAT.AXEP'SIA, 7J. [L.l Acatalepsy. 

ACATHAR'SIA, n. [add.] In med., im- 
puritv of the blood and humours. 

ACAULES'CENT, a. [Gr. « priv. and 
K»vk»s, a stem.] Stemless ; a term ap- 
plied to a plant in which the stem is 
apparently absent. 

A^^AU LINE, \ a. In bot.y having no 

ACAU LOSE,) stem or stalk. 

law, a writ IWng where a man has re- 
ceived, or fears, false judgment in an 
inferior court. It is issued by the chan- 
cery, and directed to the sheriff. 

A€CELERA'TION, n. [add.] In pht/- 
siol. and pathol., a term applied to an 
increased activity of the functions, but 
particularly of the circulating fluids. — 
Acceleration and retardation of the tides, 
certain deviations of the times of con- 
secutive hi;rh-water at any place, from 
those which would be observed if the 
tides occiu-red after the lapse of a mean 
interval. The interval between the cul- 
mination of the moon, or the occur- 
rence of her principal phases, and the 
nearest time of high-water, is also called 
the retardation of the tide. 

ACCELERATOR,??. In a;w/., a muscle 
which contracts to expel or accelerate 
the passage of the urine. 

RES, n. [L. aecendo.] In the Romish 
church, a lower rank of ministers, 
whose busiiiess it is to trim the candles 
and tapers. 

A€'CENT, H. [add.] In trigonometry, 
an accent at the right hand of a number 
indicates minutes of a degree ; two ac- 
cents, seconds, kc. ; as, 20'' 10' 30", 
twenty degrees, ten minutes, thirty se- 
conds. — In enyineering, similar signs 
are used to express feet and inches ; as, 
3' 6", three feet six inches. 

ACCENTED, pp. [add.] Accented 
parts of a bar, in music, are those parts 
of the bar on which the stress falls ; 
as the first and third parts of the bar, 
in common time, 

ACCENT OR, n. A genus or group of 
passerine birds, which includes our well- 
known hedge-sparrow (A. modularis). 
The genus has received its name from 
the sweet notes of the species compos- 
ing it. 

ACCEPT',! n. In Shah., consent or 

ACCEPTOR, «. One who accepts a 
bill of exchange. Before acceptance 
he is call drawee. 


AC'CESSARILY, adv. In the manner 
of an accessary. 

AC'CESSARINESS, n. State of being 

ACCESSARY, «. An accomplice. [See 

AC'CESSARY, a. Contributing to a 
crime ; additional. [See Accessory.] 
ACCESSE',t n. [Fr.J Afever. [Chau.] 
ACCESSORY, n. In bot., something 
additional, or not usually present. 
ditional valves placed near the umbones 
of the genus Pholas among shells, and 

a a, Actiessor; Talm of Pbotu chtloensit. 

on the edges of the pedunculated bar- 
nacles among annulose animals. 

ACCES'SUS, n. [L.] A climbing ma- 
chine ; a mode of electing a pope, called, 
in English, an election by acclamation. 

ACCIDEN'TAL, n. A property not es- 
sential. — 2. In music, a flat or sharp pre- 
fixed to the notes in a movement. 

secondary lights which are not accotmt- 
ed for by the prevalent eff'ect ; effects 
of light other than ordinary day-light, 
such as the rays of the sun darting 
through a cloud, or between the leaves 
of a thicket of trees ; the effect of moon- 
light, candle-light, or burning bodies. 

ACCIDENT.AL'ITY, n. The quality 
of being accidental. [Rarely used.] 

ACCIDIE,! n. [L. accidia.] Sloth; 
negligence ; indolence ; melancholy. 

ACCIPEN'SER, ;i. A genus of fishes. 
[See Sturgeon.] 

ACCIP'lENT,t n. [L. accipiens.] A 

ACCIP'ITRARY,t n. A catcher of 
birds of prey. 

ACCIP'ITRES, H. The first order of 
birds in the Linncean system. They 
form two families, the diurnal and noc- 
turnal: the vulture and hawk are ex- 
amples of the first, and the owl of the 
second. [See Accipiter.] 

ACClTE',t V. t [add.] To incline; to 
move ; as, 
WLat accites your thooghta to think so? 


ACCLAIM',t r. i. To applaud. 

AC'CLAMATE,t v. t. To applaud. 

ACCLAMATION, n. [add.] Unani- 
mous and immediate election, viva voce. 


ACCLI'MATEMENT,n. Acclimation. 
[Rarely used.] 

inuring to a climate. [Rarely used.] 


ACCLIMATIZED, pp. Inured to a 
different climate. 

ACCLI JLVTiZING, ppr. Inuring to 
a different climate. 

ACCLIVE',! a. Rising. 

ACCLOY',t ) V. t. [See Cloy.] To 

ACCLOTE'jf J cloy ; to encumber ; to 
embarrass with superfluity. [Spenser, 

ACCOl'EDjf pp. of AccoiE, or AcoiE. 
Plucked down, and daunted. [5pe;wer.] 

AC'COLENT, instead of ACCO- 

ACCOMMODATED, pp. [add.] Suit- 

ACCOM'PANIER, n. One who ac- 

ACCOM'PANIMENT, n. [add.] The 
harmony of a figured base, or thorough 
base, is also termed an accompaniment. 
— Accompaniment of the scale, the har- 
mony assigned to the seiies of notes, 
forming the diatonic scale, ascending 
and descending. — Accompaniment, 'u\ 
painting, an object accessory to the 
principal object, and serving for its 
ornament or illustration. 
ACCOMPLIC'ITY, n. The character 
or act of an accomplice. [Rarely used.] 
ACCOMPLISH, i-.f. [add.] lu Shah., 
to arm or equip. 

ACCOMPLISHABLE, a. Capable of 
ACCOMPT', n. (account.) An account. 

[See AccooT.] 
ACCOMPT'ABLE, a. (account able.) 

ACCOMPT ANT, n. (accoimt'ant.) A 
reckoner ; computer ; accouulant. 
Note. — Accompt and accomptant are 

technical, or are often used when the 
words are officially applied ; as, au 
accomptant-general, an officer in the 
Court of Chancer)" [see Accoustant- 
gesebal] ; but in other cases they are 
written account and accountant. 

ACCOMPT ING DAY,t n. Day of 

ACCORD'ANCY,n. Same as Accord- 

ACCOST'ING,t ppr. In falconry, 
crouching or stooping. [Spenser.] 

ACCOUCHEUSE, w. (akkooshooz'.) 
[Fr.] A midwife. 

ACCOUNT', n. [add.] Account cur- 
rent, a running account, and the state- 
ment of the mercantile transactions of 
one person with another, drawn out in 
the form of debtor and creditor. — Ac- 
count stated, the title of the common 
count in an action at law for the 
amount due upon a balanced account 
between the parties, the form of which 
is, that the defendant was indebted to 
the plaintiff in a certain sum of money, 
found to be due from the defendant to 
the plaintiff, upon an account then 
stated between them, and in considera- 
tion thereof promised pajTnent. 

ACCOUNT'ABLE,a. [add.] Of which 
an account can be given. 

ACCOUNT'ANT,ta. Accountable to. 

ACCOUNT'ANT, n. [add.] Account- 
ants are generally appointed to exa- 
mine the books of traders who 
have become bankrupt or embarrassed 
in their affairs ; or they may be called 
in by a trader to investigate his ac- 
counts, and to ascertain the state of 
his aftairs. The collection of debts or 
rents, and the mnding up of affairs of 
persons deceased, or who have given 
up business, are matters often put into 
their hands. 

ACCOUNT'ANTSHIP, n. The office 
or emplovment of an accountant. 



ACCOY'ED,t pp. [Sax.] Caressed; 
made much of. [SpenserT] 

ACCOYL'ED,t pp. Gathered together; 
crowded. [Spenser.] 

ACCRES'CENCE, n. Actofgromng 
to increase. [Rarely used.] 

ACCRETION, n. [add.] AccreHon oj 
land by alluvion, land gained from the 
sea by the washing up of sand or earth, 
or by dereliction ; as when the sea sinks 
back below the usual water-mark. 
"When the accretion is by small and 
imperceptible degrees, it belongs to 
the owner of the land immediately be- 
hind ; but if it is sudden and consider- 
able, it belongs to the crown. 


ACCREWEDjf pp. Increased; united. 
[Spenser ] 

ACCUIMINA'TION, n. Accusation. 

ACCROACHMENT,! «. Act of ac- 

ACCUMBENT,! n. One placed at a 

ACCUMULATION, «. [add.] Accu- 
mulation of power, a term applied to 
that quantity of motion which exists in 
some machines at the end of internals 
of time, during which the velocity of 
the moving body has been constantly 
accelerated : thus an accumulation of 
force is obtained in the modem coin- 
ing-press bv means of its flv-wheel. 

In law, when a person mider sentence 
for another crime is convicted of 
felony, the court is empowered to pass 




a second sentence, to commence after 
the expiration of the first; and this is 
termed an accumulative judgment. 

laio, a double legacy, as when equal, 
greater, or less sums are given in one 
will, or by two distinct writings of dif- 
ferent dateSj as by a will and a codicil, 
or by two codicils. 

A€€U'SAT1VE, n. The foui'th case 
of Latin nouns. 

A€€USATO'RIAL, a. Accusatory. 

A€€USATO'KIALLY, adv. liy way 
of accusation. 

A€-euSE,t «. Accusation. 

A€€USING, i)pr. [add.] bringing ac- 
cusation ; censuiing. 

arity. [Rarely used.\ 

ACEN'TRI€, a. \a neg. and centre.] 
Not centred. 

ACEPH'ALANS, n. In zooL, see 


ACEPH'ALIST,t n. One who ac- 
knowledges no head or superior. 

ACEPH' ALDUS, a. [add.] In anat., 
a term applied to a fetus having no 
head. Deprived of its first syllable, as 
a line of poetry. 

ACER, 71. [L. acer, sharp or hard, 
from Celt, ac] The maple, a genus of 
plants, many of which ai'e valuable for 
the sake of their timber or of their 
ornamental appearance. Nat. order 
Aceraceie. Tliere are numerous spe- 
cies, A. striatum^ an American species, 
yields the timber called moosewood ; 
A. platanoidesy is the Norway maple; 
and A. saccharinum, the sugar maple 
of North America. A. campestre, com- 
mon maple, and A. pseudo-platanus, 
sycamore maple, are British species. 
[See Maple.] 

AC'ERA, \ n. A family of apter- 

AC'ERANS,/ ous insects, charac- 
terized by the absence of antennae. 

ACERA'CE.^, n. A nat. order, 
comprehending the maples, and be- 
longing to the Thalamiflorae, orhypogy- 
nous, polypetalous division of dicotyle- 
donous plants. The species, which 
are all trees or shrubs, inhabit the 
temperate parts of Europe and Asia, 
the north of India, and North America. 
{See AcKR and Maple.] 

ACER^, n. A family of gastropodoua 
molluscs, approximating in many re- 
spects to the Aplysi^. The genus 
Bulla belongs to this family. 

AC'ERAS, 11. [Gr. a without, and 
tt^tti, a horn.] A genus of plants, nat. 
order Orchidaceee. A. anthropophora^ 
man-orchis, is a British plant. {See 

AC'ERATE, n. A salt formed of 
aceric acid and a base. 

ACER'BITUDE, n. Sourness; acer- 

ACER^DES, 71. plur. [Gr. « priv. and 
*»j<»f, wax.] Plasters made without 

ACERIN'E^, n. Same as Acerace^. 

ACERV'ATE, a. In nat. hist, heaped, 
or growing in heaps, or in closely-com- 
pacted clusters. 

ACERVA'TION,t n. The act of 
heaping together. 

AC'ERVOSE,t a. Full of heaps. 

ACES'CENCE,t >i. Acescency. 

ACETABULUM, ». [add.] In en- 
tomoKy the socket on the trunk on which 
the leg is inserted. A sucker of the 
cuttle-fish and of other molluscous 

ACE'TAL, n. A compound of aldehyde 
with ether, formed by the action of 

platinum black on the vapour of 
alcohol with the presence of oxygen. 

ACE'TIC, a. Having the properties of 
vinegar; sour. 

ACETIM'ETER, n. [L. acetum, vinegar, 
and Gr. fx.i.--^o¥, measure.] An in- 
strument for ascertaining the strength 
of vinegar. 

ACETIM'ETRY. n. The act, or me- 
thod of ascertaining the strength of 
vinegar, or the proportion of acetic acid 
contained in it. 

ACE'TONE, n. The new chemical 
name for pj/ro-acetic spirit, — which see. 

ACETO'SITY,t n. The state of being 

ACE'TOUS, ) a. Sour; acid; a5,acetous 

ACE'TOSE, ) spirit.— 2. Causing ace- 
titication; as, acetous fermentation. 

ACE'TYLE, H. An hypothetical radi- 
cal, produced by the abstraction of two 
atoms of oxygen from ethyle, by 
oxidating processes. The hydrated 
oxide of acetyle is termed aldehyde. 

ACETYL'IC ACID, n. A new name 
for acetic acid. 

ACE'TYLOUS ACID, n. A synonyme 
of aldehydic acid or lanipic acid. 

AClI'ATE,t H. [Fr. acheter.] Pur- 
chase; contract; bargain. [Chaucer.] 

ACHATES', 71. plur. [Fr.] Provisions. 

ACHATI'NA, n, A genus of gastero- 
podous mollusca, whicli feed on trees 
and shrubs in warm climates, such as 
Africa and the AVest Indies. 

ACHA'TOUR,t n. A purchaser; a 
purveyor; a caterer. [Chaucer.] 

ACHEK'ED,t ) pp. Choked. [Chatt- 

ACHECK'£D,t| cer.] 

ACHE'LOR. See Ashler. 

ACHER'NAR, instead of ACHER'- 

ACHERON'TIA, n. A genus of lepi- 
dopterous insects belonging to the 
family Sphingidse. A. atropos is the 
death's-head hawk-moth {which see), 
the larva of wliich is sometimes found 
in our potato-fields. 

ACHE'TA, n. A genus of orthopterous 
insects containing the well-known 
house-cricket {Acheta domestica). 

ACHILLE'A, n. Milfoil, a genus of 
plants, [^ee Milfoil.] 

ACHIL'LIS TEN'DO, n. [L.] The 
tendon of Acliilles ; the strong tendon 
of the gastro-cnemius and soleus mus- 
cles, which is inserted in the heel. 

ACHI'RUS, n. [Gr a. priv. and x'''i- ^ 
hand.] A genus of flat-fish, order 
Malacopterygii, and family Subbran- 
chia, of Cuvier. These fishes resemble 
in external form, the common sole, but 
are distinguished from all other genera 
by the total want of pectoral fins, hence 
their name. They abound mostly in 
the East and West Indies, and as they 
keep near the shores, they furnish a 
plentiful supply of wholesome food to 
the inhabitants. The flesh of the A. 
marmoratus is highly esteemed. 

ACH'RAS, 71. [Gr. axe«.% the wild pear- 
tree. J A genus of tropical plants, 
nat. order Sapotacefe, of several species, 
which yields a copious milky fluid when 
wounded. One species {A. sapota) is 
called in the West Indies, the sapodilla 
plum. The fruit is only eaten in a state 
of decay, and in that state it is very 
rich and sweet. [See cut in Dictionary^ 


ACIC'UL^, 71. ;5?Hr. ['L.acicula.] The 
spines or pricklt-s of some animals and 

ACIC'ULATE, a. In hot., needle- 

ACIC ULIFORM, a. Having the form 
of needles. 

which possesses the property of eon- 
verting a substance into an acid. No 
general acidifying principle exists. 

ACID'ULOUS, a. [add.] Acidulous 
mineral ivaterSf are such as contain 
carbonic acid. 

AC'IFORM, a. [L. acus, a needle, and 
forma, form.] Shaped like a needle. 

ACINA'CEOUS, a. [L. CEciHi«,agrape- 
stone.] Full of kernels. 

ACIN'ACES, n. [L.] A short, straight 

Fisure from the Persrpolitnn Sculptures wearing the 


dagger, worn on the right side, peculiar 
to the Scythians, Medes, and Persians. 

ACINI, 7?. plur. [L. acinus, a grape- 
stone.] The minute parts of the lo- 
bules of the liver, connected together 
by vessels. 

AC'INOS, n. [Gr. ««iv«, mid basil.] 
Basil-thyme, a genus of plants, now 
referred to Calamintha. A. vulgaris 
is the same as C. acinos. [See Cala- 

ACINUS, n. [add.] In anai.^ a term 
applied to the ultimate secerning fol- 
licles of glands; or the granulations 
composing the structure of some con- 
glomerative glands, as the liver. 

ACIUR'CxY, 71. [Gr. ccxi?, a point or 
something sharp, and i;yov, operation.] 
A description of surgical instruments, 
or a demonstration of surgical opera- 

A€KELE',t V. f. (akeel'.) To cool. 

ACK'ETON, n. See Hacqueton. 

ACKNOW',t V. t. To acknowledge; 
to confess. 

ACKNOWLEDGER,! n. One who 

ACKNOWN',t pp. Acknowledged. 

ACLIN'IC LINE, n. [Gr. « pi-iv. and 
seXikAi, to incline.] The name given by 
Professor August to an irregular curve 
in the neighbourhood of the terrestrial 
equator, where the magnetic needle 
balances itself horizontally. It has 
been also termed the mar/netic equator. 

ACMITE, n. [Gr. «*^i,. a point.] A 
mineral of the augite family, occurring 
in long pointed crystals. It is also 
written Achmite. 

A-COCK BILL. In 77(ar. Ian., the posi- 
tion of an anchor, when it hangs down 
by its ring from the cat-head. Yards 
are said to be a-coch bill, when they 
are topped up at an angle with the 


ACOIE',t V. t. (akoy'O To make quiet. 

A€OLI)',to. Cold. 
A€'OLYTH, ) c.. A coLTTE 

A€OiM'BER,t V. t To encumber. 

A€OJlB'ERD,t PP- Encumbered. 

ACONrTI€ ACID, n. An acid ob- 
tained from species of the genus Aconi- 
tura. It occurs in the form of small 
confused crystals. 

ACO'NITINE, n. An alkaloid obtained 
from the roots and leaves of several 
species of Aconitum. It is exceedingly 

ACONl'TUM, n. [Gr. «««-, a dart, from 
its use to poison such weapons.] A 
genus of poisonous plants, nat. order 
Kanunculaceoe. The species are hardy, 
herbaceous plants, many of them of 
great beauty. A. napellus, or wolf's- 
bane, is extremely virulent [see cut in 
Dict.j Wolf's-bane]; but the Bisk or 
Ilikk of Nepaul (.4. ferox) is said to 
possess the concentrated power of all 
the European species. 

A'€ORN-SHELL, n. The shell, of the 

A'CORTJS, 71. A genus of plants, now 
referred to the nat. order Orontiacene. 

ACOS'MIA, «. [Gr. » in'iv.and xoff^Lco;, 
order, or beauty.] IiTcgularity in dis- 
ease, particularly in crises; also, ill- 
health, -ft-ith loss of colour in the face. 

ACOS'MIUM, n. A genus of Brazilian 
plants belonging to the nat. order Legu- 

A€OTYLET)ONES, ) n. See Aco- 

ACOTrLEDO'NE^,> ttledon. 

ACOU'METER, n. [Gr. <.^..v^. to hear, 
and f£ir^o», measure.] An mstrimient 
for measuring the extent of the sense 
of hearing. 

A€OUS'TI€AL, a. Same as Acoustic. 
ACQUAlKT'ABLE, a. Easy to be 
acquainted mth. 

ACQUAINTANCE, n. [add.] To 
cultivate one's acquaintance, to treat or 
attend to one in order to gain his ac- 
quaintance, with a view to render it 
advantageous, or to derive pleasm-e 
from it. 

ACQUAlNT'ANT,t "• A person with 
whom one is acquainted. 
being acquainted. [Kot authorized.] 
ACQUIES CENCT, n. Same as Ac- 
ACQUIS'lTOR, 77. One who makes 
acquisition. [Eair?}/ used.] 
ACQUITTANCE,! v. t. To acquit. 
ACRASY,H. [add.] Excess; irregularity. 
ACRA'TIA, n. [Gr. * priv. and ;.ja7«, 
strength.] "Weakness: intemperance. 
A'CREA(jE, n. The number of acres 
in a piece of land ; measurement by the 
A'CRE-D^\XE, n. Land in a common 
field, different parts of which are lield 
by different proprietors. [Local.] 
A€RID'IANS,| n. A family of orthop- 
A€RID'ID^, > terous insects, con- 
taining the grasshoppers. All the spe- 
cies of this family can leap. 
ACRIDITY, n. Same as Acridness. 
ACRI'TA, \ n. The lowest division 
ACRI'TANS, S of the animal kingdom, 
in which there is no distinct discernible 
nervous system, or distinct and separate 
alimentary canal ; as the sponges, poly- 
pes, &c. 

ACRIT'ICAL, a. In vied., having no 
AC'RITY,f n. Sharpness ; eagerness. 


ACROAMAT'ICAL, a. Same as Ac- 
roam atic. 

AC ROBATE, n. [Gr. ax^^^aTsa., to go 
on tip-toe, to climb upwards. ] A rope- 

ACROB'ATES, n. A genus of marsu- 
pial animals, indigenous to Australia, 

Opossum Mous«, Am<hfi'e.% Pl/gmceut. 

containing the opossum mouse (A. pyg- 
iTUBusX one of the smallest of the mar- 
supial ia. 
AC'ROCHORD, \ n. A genus of 
ACROCHORD'US,) serpents found 
in Java, covered entirely with scales, 
which resemble granulated warts when 
the body is inflated. They are destitute 
of poison-fan^rs. 

ACROCHORD'ON, n. [Gr. a«r„, 
highest, extreme, and XH^^' ^ string.] 
An excrescence on the skin, with a 
slender base. 

ACROCrNUS, M. [Gr. «».«. point,, 
I move.] A genus of longicorn coleop- 
terous insects, of which the harlequin 
beetle of South America (A . longimanus) 
is the t>i>e. It is so called from its 
having the spine on each side of the 
thorax movable. 
[add.] This term is now extended to 
all those cr>-ptogamic or acotyledonous 
plants, which have a stem and leaves, 
in place of a frond or thallus. To it 
belong all the ferns, the Equisetaceze, 
Musci or mosses, &c. 
ACROG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. «;s5«, and 
7j*;a(, to write, or engrave.] The art 
of producing blocks in rehef, for the 
purpose of printing from, along with 
type, and thus to supersede wood-en- 
graving. Invented by M. Schonberg. 
ACROKE ,t a. (akrok'.) Crooked. 

ACROXEINE, n. [Gr. ««f«, and L. 
oleuin, oil.] A substance of a highly 
pungent odour, given off by oils and 
fats, when boiling at a high tempera- 

ACKOL'XTnAN, a. Pertaining to an 
acrolith ; formed like an acrolith ; as, 
an acrolithan statue. 
ACRO'MIAL, a. In anat., relating to 
the acromion. 
ACRON'ICAL, a. More properly 

ACRON'ICALLY, adv. More properly 
ACROS'TICAL,a. Same as Acrostic. 
ACROTE'RIAL, a. Pertaining to the 

acroter; as, acroterial ornaments. 
ACROTIS'MUS, n. [Gr. « priv. and 
a*6ro5, pulse.] In med., defect of pulse. 
ACRYLIC ACID, n. An acid obtained 
from acroleine. 

ACT, V. t. [add.] To practise; to 
exercise ; to perform the office or part 
of; as, to act tyranny ; to act the critic. 
ACT, 7/. [add.] Act before answer, in 
Scots laic, is when the lords ordain 
probation to be led before they deter- 
mine the relevancy, and then take both 
at once under their determination. 
— Act of curatory, the act extracted by 
tlie clerk upon any one's acceptance of 
being curator. — Act of grace, in Scot- 
land, an act passed in 160G, for provid- 
ing maintenance for debtors imprisoned 
by their creditors. In England, it is 


usually applied to insolvent acts and 
general pardons at the beginning of a 
new reign, or other great occasion. 
ACT^'A, rt. [Gr. «*r.), the elder, from 
the form of its leaves.] A Linniean 
genus of plants, found in various parts 
of Europe, the north of Asia, and 
America, nat. order Ranunculaceae. 
All the species are possessed of nau- 
seous and deleterious properties. A. 
spicata is known in England by the 
name of herb Christopher. [See Cimi- 


ACTERAI'IMINE, n. A star of the 
third magnitude in the left shoulder of 
ACTIN'EA, n. [axm, a ray.] A genus of 
animals belonging to the sea-nettles 
(Acaleph*, Cuv.) The mouth occupies 
the centre of the upper surface, and is 
surrounded by tentacula, which radiate 
from the centre, like the petals of a 
flower. Hence the genus has acquired 
the names of animal flotcers, sea- 
anemones, &c. These animals when at 
rest form a sort of ball, and assmne 
this form also when disturbed. 
ACTINIC, a. Pertaining to the radia- 
tion of heat or liglic. 
ACTIN'IFORM, a, [Gr. «*r,r, a ray, 
and L. format form.] Having a radiated 

ACTINISM, n. [Gr. ««r,r, a ray.] The 
radiation of heat or light; or that 
branch of natural philosophy which 
treats of the radiation of heat or light. 
ACTINOCAR'PUS, n. Star-fruit, a 
genus of plants, nat. order Alismacese. 
A. damasonium is a British plant, 
growing in ditches and pools, mostly in 
a gravelly soil. It is the AUsma 
damasonium^ Linn. 
ACTINOC'EROS, n. [Gr. a*rir, a ray, 
and «£;«;, a horn.] A generic term, 
signifying the radiate disposition of the 
horns or feelers of animals. 
ACTINOCKPNITE, n. An extinct 
animal of the encrinite genus. 
ACTINOCYC'LUS, In bot., a genus of 
diatomaceous plants, found in the sea, 
and sometimes in Peruvian guano, re- 
sembling minute round shells. 
ACTINOMETRIC, a. Of or belonging 
to the actinometer. 
AC'TINOTE, 71. A radiated mineral. 
ACTION, n. [add.] Principle of least 
action, a name given by Lagrange to 
a law of motion, which he enunciates 
thus : — " In a system of moving bodies, 
the sum of the products of the masses 
of the bodies by the integral of the 
products of the velocities, and the ele- 
ments of the spaces passed over is con- 
stantly a maximum or minimum." — 
Actions, in the animal body, are by phy- 
siologists divided into voluntari/, as tlie 
contraction of the muscles ; involuntari/, 
as those of the larynx, pharynx, sphinc- 
ters, &c., and those of the irritability; 
and mitred, as those motions or alter- 
nations of inspiration and expiration 
which constitute the acts of respu-ation. 
• — In Scots law, an action, is a prosecu- 
tion by any party of his right, in order 
to obtain a judicial determination. — In 
paint, and sculp, [add.] The effect of a 
figure orfigm-es acting together. Also, 
the principal event which forms the 
subject of a picture or bass-relief. 
ACTION -SERMON, n. The name 
given in Scotland to the sermon 
preached on a communion Sabbath, 
prior to the dispensation of the saci'a- 
ment of the Lord's Supper. 
Vis Viva. 




ACT'OK, n. [add.] In law, this word 
generally signifies a plaintiif. 
law, statutes made by the lords of 
session, by virtue of an act of Parliament 
passed in 15-10, which granted them 
power to make such constitutions aj 
they might think expedient for ordering 
the procedure and forms of administer- 
ing justice. These are termed acts oj 
sederunt, because they are made by the 
lords of session sitliny in judgment. 
ACTUAL, a. [add,] Present; existing; 
now in being ; as, the actual government 
of France. [Modern.] 
A€'TUARY, n. [add.] The manager of 
a joint-stock company, under a board 
of directors, 4)articularly of an insur- 
ance company. Also, a person skilled 
in the doctrine of life annuities and 
insurances, who is in the habit of giving 
opinions upon cases of annuities, rever- 
sions, &c. 

A€TUOS'ITY, ». Power or state of 
action. [Harehj used.~\ 

A€'TURE,t n. Action. 

ACUATI^f a. Sharpened ; pointed. 

A€U'ITY,t n. Sharpness. 

ACULEA'TA, n. A group of hj'menop- 
terous insects, in which the abdomen 
of the females and neuters is armed 
with a sting, connected with a poison 
reservoir. To this group belong the 
Praedones, and Melliferie or honey- 

A-CU'LEATE, n. A hymenopterous in- 
sect ; one of the Aculeata. 

A€U'LEATE, v. t. To form to a point ; 
to sharpen. 

AeU'LEUS, n. plur. Aculei. [L.] In 
bat., a prickle. 

ACUTE, V. t. To render the accent 
acute. [Rarely used.] 

ADA€T',t I'. (., [L. adiijo:\ To drive ; 
to compel. 

ADA'GlAL,t a. Proverbial. 

AD'AGrY,t n. Same as Adage. 

n. Water. [Colloq.] 

ADAP'TER, n. He or that which 

ADAPT'IVE, a. Tending to adapt; 
suitable. [Rarely used.] 

ADAPTO'RIAL, a. Tending to adapt 
or fit ; suitable. 

AD'ATAIS, n. A clear, fine Bengal 

ADAW',t 1 "• '• To awake. [Chau- 

ADAWE',tJ cer.] 

AD AW',fu?. To be daunted. [Spenser.] 

ADAW'ED,t pp. Awaked ; daunted. 

ADAW'LET, or ADAW'LUT,n. [Hin- 
dostanee.] 1. Justice, equity. — 2. In the 
East Indies, a court of justice, civil or 

AD'DA, n. A small species of lizard, 
celebrated throughout the East as being 
efficacious in the cure of various cuta- 
neous diseases to which the inhabitants 
of Egypt and Arabia are peculiarly 
subject. It is about six inches in length, 
with a cylindj'ical body and tail. 

AD'DABLE, a. See Addip.le. 

ADT)AX, n. A species of antelope 
(Oryx nasomaculata), and one of the 
largest of the genus. The horns of the 
male are particularly magnificent. They 
are about four feet long, and beautifully 
twisted into a wide-sweeping spiral of 
two turns and a-half, surrounded by a 
prominent wi-eath, which follows all 
their windings, and is gradually obli- 
terated towards the points, which are 
directed outwards. It was unknown 
to modem naturalists till discovered 
by the German traveller, Riippel, on 

the barren sands of Nubia and Kor- 
dofan. It is also found in the woody 

Head of Addai, Oryx vasomaculata. 

parts of Caffraria. It is the Strepsiceros 
of the older writers. 

AD'DER (Great Sea), n. The fifteen- 
spired stickleback, a species of marine 
fish, is so called on the coast. 

AD'DER-6EM, n. A species of charm. 

ADDER-PIKE, n. A species of fish 
found on our coast, called also the lesser 
weever or sting-iish. It is the Tra- 
cliinus vipera of naturalists. 

AD'DERSTONE, n. A stone or bead 
used by the Druids as an amulet. 

ADDER'S TONGUE, n. See Ophio- 


ADDITAMEN'TUM, n. [L. See Ad- 


ADDU'TIONAL, v. Something added. 
ADDI"TIONARY,t a. Additional. 
AD'DLE, 71. The dry lees of wine. 
AD'DLE-HEADED, a. Same as Ad- 


ADDORSE'.v. t In her., to place back 
to back. 

ADDRESS', V. i. To prepare. 

ADDRESS'ED, pp. In Shah., pre- 
pared ; ready. 

ADDRESS'FyL,t a. Skilful; dexter- 

ADDREST', pp. In Shah., ready. 

ADDREST,' pp. Addressed. 

ADDU€'TION, n. [add.] The action 
by wliich a part is drawn towards some 
other more principal part ; the action 
of the adducent muscles. 

ADENANTHE'RA, n. [Gr. aJv:,, a 
gland, and x^h^it. an anther.] Gland- 
flower, a genus of plants, natives of the 
East Indies and Ceylon ; nat. order Le- 
guminosse. A. pavonina is one of the 
largest and handsomest trees of India. 
The seeds, from their equality in weight 
(each = 4 grains), are used by gold- 
smiths as weights. 

ADEN'IFORiM, a. Of a gland-Uke 

ADENI'TIS, n Inflammation of a 

ADENOPH'YMA, h. [Gr. «5,., a gland, 
and ipv/j-ot, a suppurating tumour.] In 
med., a swelling of a gland ; as it occiu's 
in the liver, it is called hepatophyma ; 
but as it occm's in the inguinal gland, 
it is termed bubo. 

ADEPH'AGA, n. A family of carnivor- 
ous and very voracious coleopterous 
insects. It corresponds with the car- 
nivora of Cuvier. The tiger-beetle 
(Ctcindela campestris), and garden- 
beetle (Carabus violaceus), are familiar 

ADEPHA'GIA, n. [Gr. «.l-^v, abun- 
dantly, and <^x'/ai, to eat.J Voracious 
appetite ; bulimia. 

AD'EPS, n. [L.] Fat ; animal oil. 

ADHE'RENCE, n. [add.] In paint., the 

eft'ect of those parts of a picture, which, 

wanting relief, are not detached, and 


hence appear adhering to the canvas or 

AD HE-RENT, a. [add.] In bot., strictly 
signifies sticking to anything, but it is 
more commonly employed in the sense 
of adnate ; an adherent ovary, an ovary 
adnate to the tube of a calyx. 

ADHE'SIVE, a. [add.] Adhesive in- 
flammation, in med., that kind of in- 
flanmiation which causes adhesion.^ 
Adhesive slate, a variety of slaty clay 
adhering strongly to the tongue, and 
rapidly absorbing water. 

ADIIORT'ATORY, a. [add.] Exhort- 
ing ; encouraging. 

ADIAN'TUiVr, n. Maiden-hair, a genus 
of plants. [See Maiden-hair and Ca- 


ADL.VPH'ORACY,t n. Indifference. 
ADIAPH'ORY,t «• Neutrality ; indif- 
AD1PI€ ACID, n. An acid obtained by 
treating oleic with nitric acid. 
ADIPOC'EROUS, a. Relating to adi- 
pocere ; containing adipocere. 
ADIPOCIRE', n. See Adipocere. 
AD'IPOSE, a. [add.] Adipose sacs and 
ducts, are the bags and ducts which 
contain the fat. — Adipose tissue, an 
assemblage of minute round vesicles 
containing the fat closely agglomerated 
and imbedded in the interstices of the 
common cellular tissue. — Adipose sub- 
stance, animal fat. 

AD'IPOUS, a. Fat; of the nature of 

ADIP'SIA,) n. [Gr. a priv. and 8<-4-«, 
ADIP'SY, J thirst.] In med., the 
total absence of thirst. 
ADI"TION,tn. [L.arfco.] Act of going 

ADI'VE, n. The name of a fox found in 
Siberia, the Vulpes corsac of naturalists. 
ADJA'CENCE.t n. Pro.ximity; near- 
.•iJD'JE€TIVAL, a. Belonging to or 
like an adjective. [Rarely used.] 
AD'JEGTIVED, pp. Formed into an 
adjective. [Rarely used.] 
ADJUDICATOR, n. One who adju- 

AD'JUGATE, V. t. [L. adjugo.] To 
yoke to. 
ADJUN€T'LY, instead ot AD- 
ADJURE, V. t. [add.] To swear by ; as, 
to adjure the holy name of God. [ Un- 

ADJUST'AGE, n. Adjustment. [Rarely 
ADJUST'IVE, a. Tending to adjust. 

[Rarely used.] 

ADJUST'MENT, n. [add.] In a picture, 

the manner in which draperies are 

chosen, arranged, and disposed ; proper 

disposition or arrangement; adaptation. 

ADJU'TAGE,) n. Better AD'JU- 


TAGE. [add.] This name is given to 

a tube not exceeding a few inches in 

length, which may be fitted to an orifice 

in a reservoir or vessel, in order to 

facilitate the discharge of a fluid from 

siicli vessel 

arviify a staff-officer, one of those next 
in rank to tlie commander-in-chief. 
He superintends the details of all the 
dispositions ordered by the commander- 
in-chief, communicates general orders 
to the different brigades, and receives 
and registers the reports of the state of 
each as to numbers, discipline, equip- 
ments, &c. 
ADJU'TORY,t a. That helps. 




An assistant. — 2. In med.^ a substance 
added to a prescription to aid the opera- 
tion of the principal ingredient or 

AD'JUYATE,t r. t. To help 

AD LIB'ITUM,n. [L.] [add.] Vamusic, 
this term denotes that the performer is 
at liberty to pause, or to introduce any 
cadence or addition of his o-mi, as his 
judgment directs. An accompaniment 
is said to be ad libiUim, when it is not 
essential, and may be either used or 
omitted as circumstances niav require. 

ADMARGINATE, r. t. To note, or 
write on the margin. [Rarelj/ used.] 

ADIIIX'ISTR ABLE, a. Capable of ad- 

ADMIRABILaTY, n. Admu-ableness. 

ADMIRABLE, n. A drink or liquor 
made of peaches, plums, sugar, water, 
and spirit. 

AD'MIR-AL, n. [add.] The office of 
lord high admiral has been in com- 
mission since 1709, with the exception 
of about sixteen months, during which 
it was held by the Duke of Clarence, 
afterwards M'ilUam IV. The commis- 
sioners, styled the lords commissioners 
of the Admiralty, were formerly seven, 
but are now six in number. The first 
lord is always a member of the cabi- 
net, and it is he who principally exer- 
cises the powers of the office. The 
admirals of her ilajesty's navy are dis- 
tinguished into three classes, named 
after the colours of their respective 
flags, namely, admirals of the red, of 
the tchite, and of the blue. Admirals of 
the red, who form the highest class, 
bear their flag at the maintop-gallant- 
mast head, those of the wliite at the 
foretop -gallant -mast head, and those 
of the blue at the mizzentop-gallant- 
mast head. There are also vice-ad- 
mirals and rear-admirals of each flag. 
The title of Admiral of the Fleet is 
merely an honorary distinction. There 
are also a vice-admiral and a rear-ad- 
miral of the United Ivingdom; but these 
places are now sinecures, being usually 
bestowed upon naval officers of high 
standing and eminent serrices — The 
red admiral buttertly is the Vanessa 
atalanfa. The white admiral butterfly 
is the Limenifis Camilla. It is so called 
from its fine flight. 

AD'MIRAL SHELL, n. The popular 
name of a subgenus of magnificent 
shells of the genus Voluta. 

AD'MIRALTY, n. [add.] The office 
and jurisdiction of the lords commis- 
sioners appointed to take the general 
management of maritime aflairs, and of 
all matters relating to the royal navy, 
with the government of its various de- 
partments. The lords commissioners 
of the Admiralty are now six in num- 
ber [see under Admiral]. — Adiniralti/ 
court, or court of admiraltif, is a tri- 
bunal liaving jurisdiction over maritime 
causes, whether of a civil or criminal 
nature. It was formerly held before 
the lord high admiral, but is now 
presided over by his deputy, who is 
called the judge of the court. The 
court of admiralty is twofold : the in- 
stance court, and the prize court ; but 
these are usually presided over by the 
same judge. The civil jurisdiction of 
the instance court extends generally to 
such contracts as are made upon the 
sea, and are founded in maritime ser- 
vice or conside:ution. It also regulates 
many other points of maritime law — 
as dispi\tes between pai t-owners of ves- 

sels, and questions relating to salvage. 
It has like^Wse power to inquire into 
certain wrongs or injuries committed 
on the high seas, as in cases of collision. 
In criminal matters the court of ad- 
miralty has, partly by common law, and 
partly by a variety of statutes, cogniz- 
ance of piracy, and all other indictable 
offences committed either upon the sea, 
or on the coasts, when beyond the 
limits of any English coxmty. The 
prize court is the only tribunal for de- 
ciding what is, and what is not lawful 
prize, and for adjudicating upon all 
matters, civil and criminal, relating to 
prize, or every acquisition made by the 
law of war, which is either itself of a 
maritime character, or is made, whether 
at sea or by land, by a naval force. The 
Court of Admiralty for Scotland was 
abolished by 1 William IV., c. G9, and 
the cases formerly brought before this 
court are now prosecuted in the court 
of session, or in that of the sheriff', in 
the same way as ordinary civil causes. 

ADMiR'ANCE,tn. Admiration. [5iJe/z- 

AD MIRATIVE,t n. The point of 
exclamation or admiration, marked 
thus [!]. 

AD:M1S'SI0N, n. [add.] Admissions in 
a suit, those facts or matters necessary 
to support the case of the plaintiff", or 
of the defendant, in a suit in equity, 
the necessity of proving which is re- 
moved by the opposite party admitting 
them. Admissions are either upon the 
record, or by agreement between the 

ADMITTANCE, n. [add.] In law, 
the giving possession of a copy-hold 

ADJNut'TIBLE, a. Admissible. [Rar. 


AD.MURMURA'TIOX,t n. A mur- 
muring to another. 

ADNAS'CENT, a. [L. adnascens.] 
Growing upon. 

ADOBE, H. [Sp.J A sun-dried brick. 

AD'OLODE, n. [Gr. ct neg., and S.Xw, 
fraud.] An apparatus for detecting 
fraud in distillation. 

ADON'AI, n. A Hebrew, Chaldean, and 
SjTiac name of the Supreme Being, 
signifjnng Lord or Sitstainer. It is 
from this that Adonis is derived. 

ADOOIISM adv. At doors; at the 

ADORABIL'ITT, n. Quality of being 
adorable. [Rar. tis.] 

ADOUE'MENT,t «. AdorabUity. 

ADOX'A, n. [Gr. a ^vithout, and i'4», 
glory.] Moschatel, a genus of plants, 
nat. order Araliacese. The only spe- 
cies, A. moschatellina, is a little incon- 
sjiicuous plant, found iu woods and 
moist shady places in all parts of Europe. 
The flowers have a musky smell, and 
the plant is much sought after by the 
curious, for the sake of its modest deli- 
cate appearance. 

AD'RAGANT, n. Gum tragacanth. 
[See Tr.ygacaxth]. 

ADSCITI'TIOUSLY, adv. In an ad- 
scititious manner. 

AD'SCRIPT, «. [L. adscriptus.] One 
who is held to service as attached to 
some object or place ; as when a slave 
is made an adscript of the soil. 

ADULA'RIA, n. A very pure limpid 
variety of the common felspar, called 
by lapidaries moonstone, on account of 
the play of light exhibited by the ar- 
rangement of its crystalline structure. 
It is found on the Alps, but the best 
specimens are from Ceylon. 

ADULATE, V. t. To show feigned de- 
votion to ; to flatter. [Lit. us.] 

ADUL'TED,tpi?. Completely grown. 

ADUL'TEK,t r. i. To commit adultery; 
to pollute. 

ADULTERA'TIOX, n. [add.] The use 
of ingredients in the production of any 
article, which are cheaper and of a 
worse quality, or which are not con- 
sidered so desirable by the consumer as 
other or genuine ingredients for which 
thev are substituted. 

ADULT' SCHOOLS, n. Schools for 
instructing in reading and other bran- 
ches of knowledge grown-up persons 
who have not been educated in their 
youth. Adult schools were first estab- 
lished in England in 1811. 

ADUSTaBLE,trt. That may be burned 

ADVXNCE'-GUARD, ) n. The van- 

ADVANCED'-GUARD,y guard; the 
first line or division of an army in order 
of battle, in front of the main body ; 
opposed to rear-guard. — 2. A small 
body in advance of the main-guard. 

ADVA^XE MENT,7i. [add.] The pay- 
ment of money in advance ; money paid 
in advance. 

AD VANT'AOE, r. t [add.] To enjoy ; 
to profit by. [Shah.] 

ADVAUXST',t pp. [Fr. avance.] Ad- 
vanced ; driven forward ; impelled or 
hastened. [Spenser.] 

ADVENTTiy,! " An enterprise; an 

ADVENTURE, n. [add.] A remark- 
able occurrence ; a striking event more 
or less important ; as, the adventures 
of one's life. In commerce, a specula- 
tion in goods sent abroad under the 
care of a supercargo, to dispose of to 
the best advantage, for the benefit of 
his employers. — Bill of adventure, a 
writing signed by a merchant, stating 
that the property of goods shipped in 
his name belongs to another, the ad~ 
venture or chance of which the person 
so named is to stand, with a covenant 
from the merchant to account to him 
for the produce. 

ADVERSABLE,t a. Contrary to ; op- 
posite- to. 

ADVERSARIA, n. [add.] In litera^ 
ture, a miscellaneous collection of notes, 
remarks, or selections ; used as a title 
of books or papers of such character. 

ADVERSIFO LIATE,) a. [L. advcr^ 

AD VEKSIFO'LIOUS, ) sus, and/o/^ 
wm, a leaf.] Having opposite leaves; 
applied to plants where the leaves are 
so arranged on the stem. 

ADVERT',t V. t. To regard ; to ad- 



ADVICE', n. Used by Shah, for govern- 
ment, municipal or civil. 

ADVI(>'ILATE,t r. i. [L. advigilo.] 
To watch diligently. 

ADViS'ERSHIP, 71. The office of an 
adviser. [Lit. us.] 

ADViZE'.t V. t. See Advise. [Spenser.] 

AD'VOCATE, «. [add.] In church 
history, a person appointed to defend 
the rights and revenues of a church 
or monastery. — The lord advocate is 
virtually secretary of state for Scot- 
land. He is assisted by a solicitor- 
general, and some junior counsel, 
termed advocates-depute. He is un- 
derstood to have the power of appear- 
ing as prosecutor in any court in Scot- 
land, where any person can be tried for 
an offence, or to appear in any actioD 




^^•he^e the crown is interested. He and 
his assistants are always members of 
the ministerial party, and tliey all re- 
sign their offices on a change of minis- 
try. The FacuU}/ of Advocates consists 
of about 400 memberSj but of these 
only a small proportion profess to be 
practising lawyers. 

ADVOLA'TION,t n. Act of flying to 

ADVOU'TROXJS,t a. Adulterous. 

ADYNA'MIA, n. [Gr. « priv., and 
ivvocfjus, power.] In med-t a defect of 
vital power. 

ADTNAM'I€, a. [add.] Adynamic 
fevers, a term employed by Pinel to 
denote malignant or putrid fevers, at- 
tended with great muscular debility. 

ADY'TUM, n. [add.] The chancel or 
altar-end of a chm-ch. 

ADZE, V. t. To shape with an adze ; as, 
to adze logs of timber. 

ADZ'ING, ppr. Using an adze. 

.^'DIUTE, n. A species of mineral. 

AE'FAULD, a. Simple. [Scotch.] 

^'GA, n A genus of isopodous crus- 
taceans, parasitic on fish, and hence 
called fish-lice. 

^GA'GKE, 77. A wild species of ibex 
(Capra (cgafjrus), believed to be tlie 
original source of at least one variety 
of the domestic goat. In the stomach 
and intestines of this animal are 
found those concretions called Bezoar- 

.^OE'AN SEA, n. The name given by 
the Greek and Roman winters to that 
part of the Mediterranean now called 
the Archipelago. 

.^(JJER'ID^, n. A family of hetero- 
cerous Lepidoptera, comprising a mo- 
derate number of intei'osting insects. 
Tlie larvte live in the interior of the 
branches or roots of trees. Some of 
them feed upon the apple. One species 
{^O^ria tipuUformis) is destructive to 

jT'/61LOPS, n. A genus of grasses, one 
species, JE. ovata, found in the south 
of Europe, has been by some supposed 
to be the wild state of the cultivated 
wheat, an hypothesis quite untenable. 

a(S. a goat, /Sfcyx^f' the wind-pipe, and 
(fmv, voice.] in med., the bleating and 
bronchial voice ; the principal symp- 
tom in pleuropneumonia. 

iEGOPH'ONY, «. [Gr. «.|, a goat, and 
^»>vii, voice.] A peculiar sound of the 
voice resembling the bleating of a 

.^GOPOD'IUM, n, [Gr. «(« a goat, 
and s-owf, the foot.] Goutweed, a ge- 
nus of plants. [See Goutwort.] 

^NE'ID, or EN'EiD, n. The name of 
Virgil's heroic poem, in which ^neas 
is the hero. 

^O'LIAN, a. Pertaining to ^olus, the 
god of the winds. 
^0'LI£;, a. Pertaining to yEolia. 
^OLI'NA, n. A small musical instru- 
ment, consisting of a number of short, 
elastic, metallic laniinte, or springs, 
fixed in a frame, and acted on by the 
breath of the performer. It is now 
superseded by the accordion. 
JEOL'IPILE. ^^ee Eolipile. 
A'ER, n. [L.] Air. Used as a prefix 
in various terms. 
.^RA'RIUM, n. [L.] An exchequer or 

A'EUATE,r. L [add.] In zool, to change 
the circulating fluids of animals by the 
agency of the air ; to arterialize. 
A'ERATED, pp. [add.] Changed by 
the agency of the air; arterialized. 
I.— SUPP. 

A'ERATING, pp. [add.] Changing by 
the agency of the air ; arterializing. 

AERA'TION, n. [add.] The satura- 
tion of a liquid with air. In zool., the 
change in the circulating fluids of ani- 
mals, effected by the agency of air ; as 
tlie arterialization of the blood by res- 
piration in the higher animals, and the 
corresponding change in the lower 

aE'RIAL, a. [add.] A term employed 
particularly to specify that part of per- 
spective resulting from the interposi- 
tion of the atmosphere between the 
object and the eye of the spectator; 
the gi'adatioii of the distinctness of 
form and colour. — Aerial fi<jures, 
those by which painters seek to repre- 
sent the fabled inhabitants of the air ; 
as demons, genii, gnomes, &c. 

AE'RIAL ACID,f n. Carbonic acid; so 
named from an idea that it entered 
into the composition of atmospheric air, 

AE'RIAL IMAGES, n. Images which 
are caused by the convergence of re- 
flected or refracted rays of light, when 
theyajjpear to be suspended in the air; 
as the difterent kinds of mirage ; those 
images perceived by looking into or 
towards a concave mirror. 

AE'RIDES, n. [from L. aer, the air.] 
A genus of Epiphytes, nat. order Or- 
chidacese. These plants have the power 
of vegetating when simply suspended 
in the air, mthout any soil or direct 
supply of water, being supported only 
by the moisture of the atmosphere. 

aE'RIFY, v. t. [add.] To change into 
an aeriforai state. 

AEROG'NOSY, n. [Gr. «-„,^ air, and 
'yvaiiTts, knowledge.] The science which 
treats of the properties of air, and the 
part it performs in the operations of 

A'EROLITH, n. Same as Aerolite. 

aEROMET'RI€, a. Pertaining to areo- 
metry ; measuring air. 

AEROSTATIC, a. [add.] Pertaining 
to aerostatics. 

AEROSTAT'I€AL, a. Same as Ae- 

AEROSTATICS, n. The science 
which treats of the weight, pressure, 
and equilibrium of air and other elastic 
fluids, and of the equilibrium of bodies 
sustained in them. It is sometimes 
used to signify the science of aerial 

^RUOlN'EOUS, a. Rusty; having 
the rust of copper or verdigris. 

JEUU'CilNOUS, a. Same as .^eugi- 
NEOUS. [See Eruginous.] 

^RU'GO, n. [L.] Verdigris,— wA/cA 

jES, n. [L.] The Latin term for what 
appears to have been equivalent to our 
modern term bronze. It is frequently 
ti'anslated brass. 

^S€HYNOM'ENE, n. [Gr. a<ff;i;y.o^«/, 
to be modest.] A genus of plants belong- 
ing to the nat. order Leguminosse, and 
allied to Hedysarum. The JE. aspere 
has a spongy stem, which can be cut 
into slices resembling rice-paper. It 
is the Indian rice-paper, but not that 
of China. 

^S€ULA'CE^, n. A nat. order of 
plants, also called Hippocastanere, and 
now supposed by some to be a sub- 
order of Sapindaceas. They inhabit the 
north of India and North America. 
The species are handsome trees, or 
small bushes, chiefly remarkable for 
their large seeds, with an extensive 
hilum. The seeds are bitter, and con- 
tain a large quantity of starch, and a 

considerable proportion of potash. 
They are nutritive for man and many 
other animals, and are also useful as 

^S'€ULi'nE, n. An alkaloid lately 
discovered in the bark of Msculus hip- 
pocastamtm., or horse-chestnut ; sup- 
posed to be febrifuge. 

.S;S'€ULUS, n. The horse-chestnut, a 
genus of plants. [See Horse-Chest- 


jESTHE'SIA, n. [Gr. etme-^m. sensibi- 
lity.] Perception; feeling; sensibility. 
[See Anaesthesia.] 

iESTHET'ie, ) a. Relating to iES- 

^STIIET'I€AL,) thetics. 

^STHET'ieS, n. [add.] The science 
of the beautiful. iEsthetics may be 
considered as the science of sensations, 
or that which explains the cause of 
mental pain or pleasure, as derived from 
a contemplation of the works of nature 
and art ; the science of taste, or that 
which treats of the beautiful in natui'e 
and art. 

^STIVA'TION, n. See Estivation. 

^S-US'TUM, n. [L.] Burnt copper; 
a preparation consisting of equal parts 
of copper and rough brimstone, with a 
little common salt, exposed to the fire 
till the brimstone is burned out.- 

AETHEOG'AMOUS,a. [Gr. mOw, un- 
usual, and }.<«;«»(, marriage.] In hot., 
the same as cryptogamous. 

^'THER, n. See Ethee. 


yETHOOEN, n. [Gr. «,8™, briUiant, 
and yiivofAnu, to become.] A compound 
of boron and nitrogen, lately discovered 
by I\Ir. Balmain. It is so named, be- 
cause it gives a brilliant phosphorescent 
light when heated before the blowpipe. 

yETHU'SA, n. [from «/»«, to burn.] 
Fool's-parsley, a genus of umbelliferous 
plants. JE. cimapium, fool's-parsley, 
is one of the most poisonous plants 
known in Europe ; and many danger- 
ous accidents have occurred from mis- 
taking this plant for parsley, to which 
it bears a close resemblance. [See 

yETI'TES, «. Eagle-stone,— JcAicA we. 

AFF, prep, or adv. OS.—Aff-Uands, 
hands off. [Scotch^ 

AF'FABROUS, a. [L. aj(fahre:\ Skil- 
fully made. [liar. ?/^.] 

AFFABULA'TION,t «■ [L- affabula- 
tlo.'] The moral of a fable. 

AFFEAR',t v. t. To frighten. 

AFFEAR,"!- V. t. To confirm. [See 

AFFE€T',t n. Aifection; passion ; sen. 

AFFECT', V. t [add.] To resemble. 

AFFEC'TE, n. Affection. [Chaucer:] 

AFFE€T'EDLY, adv. [add.] Purposely. 

AFFEe'TIONATED,t a. Disposed; 

AFFE€'TIOUSLy,t adv. In an af- 
fecting manner. 

AFFEeTUOS'ITY.t n. Passionate- 

AFFERM'ED,+ pp. Confirmed. [Chau- 

AFFIDA'TION,t n. [Loiy L. ajgido.] 
A mutual contract of fidelity. 

AFFIDA'VIT, n. [add.] In km, a 
statement of facts in writing, on oath. 
Affidavits are necessary in a variety of 
cases, in order to bring facts under the 
cognizance of courts of justice. All 
evidence of facts must be given on oath, 
either by oral testimony, or by affida- 
vit ; and where evidence is to inform a 




court or judge, it is iisually reduced in- 
to the fomi of an afidavit. 

AFFIE',+ ) V. t. [Ft. at>ier.] To trust ; 

AFFT',t ) to credit; to rely upon. 
[Chaucer.] [See Afft.] 

AFFIL'IATED, pp. or a. Adopted; 
associated ; received into a society. — 
Affiliated societies, local societies, con- 
nected with a central society, or with 
each other. 

AFFILIATING, ppr. or a. Adopt- 
ing; associating; receiving into a so- 

AFFILIA'TIOX, n. [add.] In law, the 
assik'nment, by law, of a child, as a 
bastard, to its father. 

AFFlN'ED,f a. Joined in affinitv. 

AFFIMITATITELT, adv. By means 
of affinitv. 

AFFINITY, n. [add.] In chem., this 
term was introduced from the idea of 
peculiar attachments and aversions sub- 
sisting between the particles of differ- 
ent substances, as exhibited in the 
phenomena of combination ; those sub- 
stances combining together only, which 
have a relationship to, or resemble, 
eacli other, [^ee Chemical Affinity, 
under Chemical.] — Single affinity, the 
property by wliich two elementary 
bodies unite into a binary compound, 
as when iron combines with oxygen to 
form oxide of iron. — Reciprocal or 
disposing a.fiinity, the property by whicli 
bodies which have no tendency to unite, 
are made to combine by means of a 
third, called in tliis case the medium. 
Thus, when a clean plate of platinxun 
is introduced into a mixture of oxygen 
and hydrogen gases, the gases in con- 
tact with the metallic surface instantly 
unite and form water. — Quiescent af- 
finity, that property which prevents de- 
composition in a compound, by main- 
taining the elements in their existing 
state. — JDlvellent a.ffi7iily, that property 
which favours decomposition, by tend- 
ing to arrange the particles of a com- 
pound in a new form. — Inductive or 
current affinity, a term expressive of 
the peculiar exhibition of chemical af- 
finity in tlie simple voltaic circle. — 
Elementary affinity, that which takes 
place between the elements of a body. 
— In zool., affinity is a relation of ani- 
mals to one another, in the similarity 
of the greater part of their organiza- 
tion ; it is distinct from analogy, which 
denotes a resemblance of external 

AFFIRM'ANT, n. One who afBrms; 
one who makes affirmation instead of 
an oath. 

AFFLATUS, n. [L.] [add] In med.. 
a species of erysipelas which attacks 
persons suddenly. 

AFFLI€TIXGLT, ade. In an afHict- 
ing manner. 

AF'FLUENCT,n. Same as Afflcexce. 

AE'FLUEXT, n. A tributary stream ; 
a small stream or river flowing into a 
larger one. 

AF'FLUEXTXESS,t "■ State of being 

AFFOR'CIAMEXT,t n. A fort; a 

AFFRAT,t v.f. To fright; to terrify; 
to put one in doubt. 

AFFKEXD'ED,+ pp. See A ffeiexd- 
ED. f5/)enjrcr.] 

AFFRIGHT EX,t v. t. Toterrifv;to 

AFFUSION, n. [add.] In med., the act 
of pouring water on the whole, or part 
of the body ; a remedy in disease. Af- 
fusion may be performed by means of 

lotions, aspersions, the shower-bath, or 

AFILE',t V. t. To file ; to polish or re- 
fine. [Cliaucer.] [See Affile.] 

AFORE', prep, or adr. Before. [ScoicA.] 

AFREET. See Afkit. 

-IFTJie, a. Belonging to Afnca; 

AF'RI€. n. The country of Africa. 

.\F'KI€AXISM, n. A word or phrase 
peculiar to Africa. 

.\FRIT', \ n. In Mahometan myth., a 

.\FREET', > powerful evil jinnee, or 

EFREET, ) demon. 

.\FT, adv. Oft. [Scotch:] 

AFTER, prep, [add.] Next to in excel- 
lence; about; concerning. 

sense not at first admitted. 

AFTER-DINNER, n. In Shah., tlie 
hour just after dinner. 

AF'TER-EYE.t v. i. In Shak., to keep 
one in view. 

AFTERIIEND', adv. Afterwards. 
[Scotch. i 

-4F'TER-LAW,t n. A subsequent law 
or statute. 

AFTER-NIGHT, After nightfall; in 
the evening. [American.'] 

count given afterwards. 

A FTER-S AILS.— Definition in Dirt. 
erroneous; — substitute: All sails on the 
main and mizen masts are called after- 
sails ; that is to say, every sail that is 
on or abaft the main-mast, is an after- 

AFT'WAKD, adv. In naut. Ian., af- 
termost; hindmost. 

AGAIN, adv. [add.] A'ehemently, or ex- 
cessively ; as, she cried till she sobbed 

AG.ALAC'TIA, n. [Gr. a priv., and 
}-«?.<i, rmlk.] The defect of milk after 

AGAL'iL\. n. [Gr.] In law, the impres- 
sion or image of anything upon a seal. 

A'GAL-WOOD [usually corrupted to 
Eagle- Wood], n. Supposed by many to 
be the almug-tree of Scripture. [See 
Aquilariace^, Eagle-Wood, and 

AG' AMI.— Instead of Trophia, read 

AGAil'ID.^, n. [agama, the name of 
a lizard.] The name given by Cuvier 
to the first section of the iguanian sau- 
rians, characterized by the absence of 
palatal teeth, and by the caudal scales 
being imbricated. There are many 
genera, foimd both in the Old and in 
the New World. 

AG'AMOID, a. Pertaining to the Aga- 

AG'AP.tE, n. p/wr.of ..4gape(pronounced 
ag'a-pe). Love-feasts, or feasts of 
charity, common among the primitive 

AGAPAN'THUS, n. [Gr. «7«»i, love, 
and atSn, a flower.] A beautit'ul genus 
of plants belonging to that group of the 
LiUaceae called Hemerocallideae, much 
cultivated in our drawng-rooms and 

AGAPEMONE, n. [Gr. «>-«=,, love, 
charity, and fjunz. dwelling, abode. The 
abode of love, or of charity.] The name 
given to an institution at Charlinch, near 
Taunton, conducted on the principle of 
a community of goods. It was estab- 
lished by the Rev. Jlr. Prince in 1846. 
He was a clergyman of the Church of 
England; but, about 1845, embraced 
the tenets of a sect branched from the 
religionists called Lampeters. Their 
distinguishing belief is that " the day 

of grace and prayer is past, and the time 
of judgment arrived." Mr. Prince suc- 
ceeded in inducing several ladies of 
fortime to adopt his views, three of 
whom were soon afterwards married to 
three of his male disciples or coadjutors, 
and all took up their abode at the Aga- 
pemone. Since then, Mr. Prince and 
his coadjutors have been several times 
before the public, in legal proceedings, 
arising out of the conduct of " the abode 
of love," and, from the evidence ad- 
duced on these occasions, some glimpses 
have been obtained illustrative of its 
internal management. In 18-50, there 
were between fifty and sixty persons, 
male and female, living in community, 
at the establishment. They profess to 
carry out the belief in their peculiar 
tenets by the exercise of perpetual 
praises to God, using prayer no more; 
by a community of property; and by 
living in a state of constant joyousness 
and mutual love. They, however, do 
not despise the good thmgs of this life, 
and have horses and carriages at com- 
mand. They pay no respect to the 
Sabbath more than to any other day, 
every one doing as he pleases, with this 
exception, according to the statement 
of Jlr. Prince, that "all play at hookey, 
males as well as females." 

AG'APHITE, n. The turquoise or 
turkois stone. 

AGARI"CIA, n. The mushroom mad- 
repore, a genus of coral madrepores, so 
named from its resemblance to mush- 
rooms (.Vgarici). 

AGAR'ICUS, n. The generic name of 
the mushroom tribe of the Fungi, which 
grow in decaying animal or vegetable 
substances. It comprehends those plants 
which have a cap, or piteus, of a fleshy 
nature, supported upon a distinct stalk, 
and a number of parallel unequal ver- 
tical plates or gills, arising out of the 
cap, and inclosing the particles, called 
sporules. A thousand species have been 
enumerated, of which a large propor- 
tion are poisonous; a iew are whole- 
some. [See MrsHKOOM.] 

AG'ATE-RING, n. A ring embeUished 
with agate. 

AG'ATHIS, n. The same as Damhasa. 
A genus of plants. [See Dammjira and 
: AGATHO'TES, n. [Gr. .j..f«T;.-, excel- 
lence.] A section of Ophelia, a genus 
of plants found in India, nat. order 
Gentianaceae. The A. chirayta belongs 
to it, and is celebrated as a tonic, and 
anthelmintic, which latter circumstance 
has procured for it the name of worm 
seed plant . 

AG'ATIZE, V. t. To change into agate. 

AGA'VE, n. [add.] [named after the 
nymph Agave.] A genus of plants, nat. 
order Amyrillidacete. This genus com- 
prehends those plants called by garden- 
ers American aloes. There are many 
species, but the most important is the 
A.Americana. It yields, from incisions 
in the stem, a liquor, which by fer- 
mentation yields a beverage resembling 
cider, called by the Mexicans pulque. 
The fibres of the leaves are formed into 
thread and ropes, and an extract of the 
leaves is used as a substitute for soap; 
the flower-stem, when withered, is 
cut up into slices, and forms excellent 

AGE, n. [add.] In laxr, a person is said 
to be of age, when he has arrived at 
those periods of his life, at which he is 
supposed to have acquired sufficient 
discretion to enable him to do certain 




acts and enter into certain contracts. 
By the comvwn laic of England, a man 
at the age of twelve years may take the 
oath of allegiance ; at the age of four- 
teen, a person of either sex may choose 
a guardian. A female at the age of 
twelve years, and a male at the age of 
foiu-teen, may make a valid will of per- 
sonal estate, but no person under the 
age of twenty-one years can make a 
will of lands. A person of either sex, 
at the age of seventeen, may be an exe- 
cutor or executrix. A woman may, by 
law, consent to marriage at twelve, and 
a man at fourteen ; but parties under 
the age of twenty-one cannot actually 
marry without the consent of guardians. 
A man cannot be ordained a priest till 
twenty-foiu-, nor a bishop till thirty 
years of age. A person of either sex, 
who has attained the age of fourteen 
years, is liable to prosecution and pun- 
ishment for crimes, but a child above 
seven years of age, and under fourteen, 
may be tried and punished for a crime, 
provided it clearly appears that he is 
conscious of the nature and wickedness 
of the crime. — In Shah., the term age 
is used for seniority. 

A6EE. See Ajee, in this Supplement. 

AGENE'SIA, n. [Gr. at priv., and ytnTis, 
generation.] Impotence. Also, any 
anomaly of organization, consisting in 
absence or imperfect development of 
the parts. 

A66ER0SE', a. In heaps, or formed 
in heaps. 


AGGRAP'PES, n. pliir. Hooks and 
eyes used in armour or in ordinary cos- 

AGGREGA'TA, n. The name given by 
Cuvier to his second family of naked 
Acephalans, which consists of animals 
more or less analogous to the Ascidia^, 
but which are united in a common 
mass, except at their birth, when they 
live and swim about separately. 

AG'GREGATE, n. [add.] In iihysics, a 
mass formed by the union of homo- 
geneous particles ; in distinction from a 
compound, formed by the union of he- 
terogeneous particles. 

AGGRESS', V. t. To attack. [Rarely 

of being aggressive. 

AGHAST',t V. I. To terrify. {Spenser^ 

A6LL'L0€HUM, n. Aloes-wood. 

A6IST', instead of AGIST. 

A6IST'AGE, n. Same as Agistment. 

AGIST'ER, n. Same as Agistor. 

AG'LET-HEADED, a. Pointed with 
a tag at the head. 

AG'NUS, n. [L.] A lamb.— In the Rom- 
ish church, the image of a lamb, repre- 
senting oxu- Saviour. 

AGOMPHI'ASIS, n. [Gr. « piiv., and 
ya.u^e,*, a nail.] Looseness i)i the teeth. 

AGO'Nie LINES, n. [Gr. « priv., and 
•ymux., an angle.] The name given by 
Prof. August to two lines on the earth's 
surface, on which the magnetic needle 
points to the true north, or where the 
magnetic meridian coincides with the 
geographical. One of these lines, called 
the American agone, is in the western 
hemisphere, and the other, or Asiatic, 
is in the eastern hemisphere. Although 
they extend from south to north, they 
do not coincide with the meridians, but 
intersect them under different angles. 

AGONIS'TER,t ". A prize-fighter. 

AGONIS'TI€S, n. The art or theory of 

AGOU'TY, n. Same as Agouti. The 
agoutis belong to the genus Dasyprocta 
( IttiTvt. hairy, and ^^hxth, buttocks), and 
are separated from the Cavies properly 
so called. 

AG'llAPHIS, n. [Gr. <c neg., and }-;«^«(, 
to write.] A genus of plants belonging 
to tlie Liliaceaj, and nearly allied to the 
squills and hyacinths. A. nutans is the 
common wood-hyacinth. 

AGRA'RIAN, a. [add.] Pertaining to 

AGRA'RIAN, n. One in favour of an 
equal division of property among the 
inhabitants of a country. 

AGRA'RIAN IZE, v. i. To distribute 
among the people. 

AGRASTE',-f- pret. from Aggrace. Did 
so much aggrace ; showed so much 
gi'aceand favour. [Spenser.] 

AGRE',t V. t. To please; to reconcile. 

AGREE', f) adv. In goodpai't; Idndly; 

AGRE',t ) in a friendly manner. 

AGREE', V. i. [add.] To tally; to match. 

AGREFE',-!- adv. (agref.) In grief. 

AGREGE',t ) V. t. (agrej'.) To ag- 

AGRED6E',t) gravate. [Chaucer.] 

AGREVE',t f . t. (agreve'.) To grieve. 

AGRIG'OLIST, n. An agricidturist. 

AGRI€UL'TURALIST, n. An agri- 

Societies for promoting agricultural im- 
provements ; sucli as the improvement 
of land, the improvement of imple- 
ments, of the breeds of cattle, &c. 

AGRIMO'NIA, 71. [a corruption of Ar- 
gemone.] A genus of plants. [See 


AGRI'OPES, 1 71. A genus of acan- 

AGRI'OPUS, ) thopterygious fishes, 
particularly distinguished from most 
other genera of fishes by having only 
nine rays in the pectoral fins. The A. 
torvus, or sea-horse, is upwards of two 
feet in length, and is common on the 
shores of the Cape of Good Hope. 

AGROT'ED,t pp. Cloyed; surfeited; 
saturated. [Chaucer.] 

AGRYPNO€0'MA, n. [Gr. «5-;i,™«, 
sleeplessness, and «w^*, drowsiness.] 
A lethargic state, without actual 

AG'UA-TOAD, n. The Sufo agua of 
naturalists ; a gigantic species of toad 
found in intertropical America and 
Jamaica. It makes a loud noise, and 
grows to upwards of a foot long, 

A'GUE DROP, 71. A solution of the 
arsenite of potassa, or the liquor ar- 
senialis of the Pharmacopceia. 

AGUlL'ER,t n. [Fr. aiguille, a needle.] 
A needle-case. [Cliaucer.] 


AGUIS'D,t pp. Dressed. [Spenser.] 

A'GUISH, a. Productive of agues. 

AGUIZ'Djf pp. Adorned. [Spenser.] 

AGUlZE'jf V. t. See Aguise. [Spenser.] 

AHEAD', adi\ [add.] Forward ; in 
advance ; as, to go ahead, a phrase very 
common in the U. States. 

AHINT', prep, or adv. Behind. [Scotch.] 


A-HULL', for A-HDLL. 

A-HUN'GBY, n. Hungry. 

Al, n. The three-toed sloth, Bradi/pus 
tridactiilus, Linn., a Ri)ecies in which 
sluggishness, and all the details of the 
organization which produce it, are car- 
ried to the highest degree. It is as 
large as a cat, and is entirely adapted 

for Uving in trees. It is the only niam- 
miferous animal known which has nine 

Three-toed Sloth, Bradj/piu tridadj/lui. 

cervical vertebras. It is fouad in the 

tropical parts of South America. 
A'lA, or AIA'IA. 
AIB'LINS, adv. Perhaps. [See Ablins.] 

AIDE-DE-CAMP, n. (ad'e-kawng'.) 

[Fr.] plur. Aides-de-camp. See AiD- 


AID'ER, 77. [add.] In law, an advocate ; 
an abettor; an accessory. 

AID-MA'JOR,t "• The former title of 

_the adjutant of a regiment. 

AIDS, 7i. plur. A general name for the 
extraordinary grants which are made 
by the House of Commons to the crown 
for various purposes. In this sense, 
aids, subsidies, and the modern term 
supplies, are the same thing.— In the 
manege, cherishings used to avoid the 
necessary corrections. The inner aids, 
are the inner heel, leg, rein, &c. ; the 
outer aids, the outer heel, leg, rein, &c. 

AlG'LETS, propeTlyAiguilleUes, n. [Fr.] 
The tags or metal sheathings of the 
ribbons so constantly used to fasten or 
tie the difi'erent portions of dress worn 
during the sixteenth and seventeenth 
centuries. [See cut in Did., Points.] 

AIGBE, n. (a'gur.) The flowing of the 
sea. [See Eagre.] 

AI'GRE, a. Sharp ; sour. [S/iaft.] 

AIGUA'DO, n. [Sp.; Fr. aiguadel] A 
watering-place for sea-going vessels. 

AIGUILETT'ES, 7!. See Aiglets above. 

AIL, V. i. To feel pain ; to be in pain or 
trouble. [Rar. us.] 

AILLETT'ES, n. [Fr. little icings.] A 
term applied to the small square shields 


of ai'ms which were worn upon the 
shoulders of knights during a part of 
the middle ages. They were the proto- 
types of the modern epaulets. 

AILU'RUS, 77. A genus of carnivorous 
quadrupeds, belonging to the family 
Ursidse. The only species known is 
the A. refulgens, found in the north of 
India. It is of the size of a large cat, 
and is of a beautiful reddish-brown 


AIM, V. i. [add.] To guess or conjec- 
ture. [Shah.] 

AIMED, pp. [add.] Aimed at, guessed 
at. [Shaft.] 

AIN, a. Own. [Scotch.] 

* ' adv. Once. 






AIX'SELLS, n. Ownselves. [Scotch.] 
AIR, n. [add.] An aeriform body ; a gas. 

In Shak., appearance; as, the quality 

and air of our attempt. 

e^5j ] '"'''■ •^'^'*- [•^™"'*] 

AlR-'CHAM'BERS, n. In hot, the same 
as Air-Cklls, — tchich see. 

AIK-€UK'RENT, n. A stream or cur- 
rent of air. 

AIK-€USH'I0N, n. A bag of air-tight 
cloth, into which air is blown till it 
expands to the necessary degree of ful- 
ness. It may be used as a cushion, or 

AIK-EX'GIXE, n. .-Vnengineworked by 
heated air instead of steam. The form 
of air-engine contrived by Capt. Erricc- 
son, is named the caloric-engine, for 
no very good reason. 

AIR'ER, n. One who airs, or exposes to 
the air. 

AIR-HOLE, n. In founding, a fault in a 
casting, caused by a bubble of air pass- 
ing from a core outwards, and wliich 
is retained in the metal ; called also a 

ALR'ILY, adv. In an airy manner; 


AIRN, n. Iron. [Seo/cA.] 

AIK-PUJIP (of a steam-engine), n. The 
pump by which the condensing water 
and condensed steam is drawn oif from 
the condenser. It is an appendage of 
every condensing engine ; but is not, 
of course, requisite in high-pressure, or 
non-condensing engines. [See cut in 

Diet. SlEiM-EXGlNE.] 

AIRT, 1-. /. To direct. [Scotch.] 

ALR-TRAP, n. [add.] Also a recess at a 
knee of a water-main, for receiving 
and retaining air that may be liberated 
from the water. It is provided with a 
valve for taking off the air from time 
to time, as it accumulates. 

AIRTS, n. Points of the compass. 

AIT, n. A small island in a river or lake. 

Al'TAS, )i. plur. In Turkey, a kind of 
myrmidons, or military adventurers, of 
all nations, forming the irregular body- 
guard of a pasha, or provincial governor. 
In Europe, such are usually called Al- 

AIT'-MEAL, n. Oatmeal. [Scotch.] 

AITS, n. Oats. [&o(c/i.] 

AVER i "• ^ workhorse. [Scotch.l 

AJEE', adv. Awry; off the right line ; 
obliquely; wTODg. {Scotch.^ 

A'JtlGA, n. [Gr. a\vyr'j unmarried.] 
Bugle, a genus of plants, nat. order 
Labiatse. Four of the species are Bri- 
tish, inhabiting pastures chiefly; they 
are hardy perennials. 

AJUST',t V. t. To adjust; to apply. 

AKAN'Tlt:OXE. See Acanticone. 

AK'BEEK, n. In the East Indies^ a kind 
of red powder thrown on the clothes 
and person at Hindoo festivals. 

AKE'NIUM. See Achexicm. 

ARIM'BO, fl. Arclied; crooked. Tlie 
arms are akimbo, when the hands are 
on the hips, and the elbows arched 
outwards. [Sce Kimbo.] 

A'LA, n. plur. Ala^. [L.] A wing. [5ee 

ALABAS'TER, n. [add.] Among anH- 
quaries and artists, the name alabaster 
is given to varieties both of cai'bonate 
of lime and g> psum ; the alabaster ves- 
sels of the ancients having been formed 
of both those substances. 

ALA€'RI()US,t a. Cheerful; lively. 

ALA€'K10L'SLY,t adv. Cheerfully. 

A-LA-FRAXCAlSE',a. [Fr.] After the 
French fashion. 

ALAIIE'DA, n. [Sp.] A pubUc walk 
planted with trees. 

A - LA - MORT', a. [Fr.] Depressed ; 

AL'ANDS,t ) n. [Sp. alano.] A kind of 

ALAUN'S,t} bull-dog, chiefly used for 
hunting the boar. \^Chaucer.] 

ALaXE', adv. Alone. [Scotch.] 

ALANG'-ALA^G', n. A plant common 
in the islands of the Indian Archipe- 

A small nat. order of polypetalous peri- 
gj-uous dicotyledonous plants, allied, in 
the opinion of some, to the M>Ttace£e, 
of others, to the Cornacere. They are 

' almost entirely natives of India. They 
yield an edible, but not very palatable 
fruit. They afford good wood. 

A-L'ANGLAISE'. [Fr.] After the Eng- 
lish fashion, or manner. 

AL'AXTINE. 71. An amylaceous sub- 
stance extracted from the root of the 
Angelica archangelica, an umbellifer- 
ous plant. 

A'L AK, a. [L. ala, a wing.] Pertaining 
to, or having wings. 

ALARM, n. [add.] A mechanical con- 
trivance for awakening persons from 
sleep, or rousing their attention. 

ALAKM'--eLOCK, n. A clock which 
can be so set as to ring loudly at a 
particular hour, to wake from sleep, 
or excite attention. 

ALaRM'-GAUGE [of a steam-engine), 
n. An automic contrivance by which no- 
tice is given when the pressure of steam 
becomes too high, or the water is too 
low in the boiler, 

ALaRM'-GUN, n. A gun fired asasig- 
nal of alarm. 

ALARM'- WATCH, n. [add.] A watch 
that can be so set as to strike fre- 
quently at a particular hour, to awaken 

ALAS'MODON, n. A genus of bivalve 
mollusca, which contains the large fresh- 
water mussel of our streams {A. mar- 
guritiferum), in which pearls are fre- 
quently met with. 

ALATED, A'LATE, instead of 

alated, alate. 

A LAT^ERE. [L.] From the side. Le- 
gate a latere. [See under Legate.] 

ALAU'DA, ji. The lark, a genus of pas- 
serine birds, of many species, found in 
all parts of the globe, and distinguished 
everjTvhere for their vigilance and their 
singing. [See Lark.] 

ALAU'DIN.^, n. The lark family. 

ALB, or ALBE, n. 

AL'BA, n. [L.] A surplice, or white 
sacerdotal vest ; an alb. 

AL'BACORE, n. A large species of fish, 
of the same family as the mackerel, 
which is common in the Mediterranean, 
and is occasionally taken on our south- 
ern coast. It is the Lichia glauca of 

ALBAS'TKUS, n. In bot., a flower-bud. 

ALBE',t adv. Although; albeit. 

ALBEE',t adv. Albeit. [Spenser.] 



ALBUGIN EA, n. [L.] The partial coat 
of the eye, formed by the expansion of 
the tendons of its straight muscles, at 
theu' insertion into the sclerotica, 
aroimd the cornea. It forms the tchite 
of the eye. 

ALBU MEAN, a. Relating to an album. 
[Not authorized.] 

ALBU'MlNOSE,o. Sameas Alcumix- 



AL'BTTRN, a. Auburn. 

ALBURN'OCS, a. Relating to albur- 

AL'CA, n. In omith., the generic name 
of the auh. [See Auk.] 

AL'CADyE, n. A family of oceanic 
birds, including the auks, puffins, and 

ALCAL'DE. n. [Sp.] In Spain, a magis- 
trate or judge. 

AL€-VR'RAZAS, n. [Sp.] A species of 
porous pottery made in Spain, for the 
purpose of cooling water. 

See Alkarsine. 

ALCA'TO, n. [Ar.] A protection for 
the throat, used by the Crusaders, 
probably of the nature of a gorget of 

ALCED'INJ^, \n. A familv of in- 

ALCEDIN'lBiE,! sessorial birds, in- 
cluding the kingfishers. 

AL€HEM'I€. See Alchtmic. 

AL€HEMILXA, w. [From the Arabic 
alhemelyahj alchemy.] Lady's mantle, 
a genus of plants. [See Ladt^s 

AL'CO,n, The nameof the variety of dog 
kept by the aborigines of the AVest 
Indies. It was small, and much pet- 
ted. The minute woolly dog occasion- 
ally brought to this country, and called 
the Mexican mopsy, is a variety of it. 

AL'€OATES, n. The name given to 
crystalline compounds formed by al- 
cohol* with several of the salts which 
it dissolves. 

ALCOHOL, n. [add.] The strongest 
alcohol that can be produced is termed 
absolute alcohol, to denote its entire 
freedom from water. — Alcohol of sul- 
phur, a name given to the bisulphuret 
of carbon. 

ALCOHOL'ilETER,) n. [Alcohol, 

AL€OHOM'ETER, ) and Gr. t^sr^o, 
measure.] An instrument for deter- 
mining the strength of spirits, with a 
scale graduated so as to indicate the 
percentage of pure alcohol, either by 
weight or volmue. 


AL€0H0:MET'RI€.AX, > ingtothe 

ALCOOM'ETER, n. [Fr. alcoometre.] 
An instrument contrived by Gay-Lussac, 
for determining the strength of spirit, 
by indicating the percentage of pure 
alcohol by Tolume. 

ALCOOMET RICAL, a. Relating to 
the alcoometer. 

AL€ORAN'I€, a. Relating to the Al- 
coran, or Mahometanism. 

AL'CO\"E, or ALCOVE', n. [add.] A 
recess in a grove. 

ALCYO'NEiE, n. A group of marine 
productions, somewhat similar to the 
sponges, but more distinctly exhibiting 
an animated nature. They vary much 
in form, being either lobed, branched, 
rounded, or existing in a shapeless mass 
or crust. They are found in all seas, 
and at various depths. 

ALDER. The ancient genitive plural 
of the Saxon eal, all. It was formerly 
prefixed to adjectives in the superlative ; 
as, alder-Jxrst, first of all ; aider-best, 
best of all ; alder-liefest, or alder-lievest, 
dearest of all. 

4LDERAM IN, n. A star of the third 
magnitude in the northern constella- 
tion Cepheus. 

tish plant of the genus Rhamnus, the 
R. frangula. It is a shrub three or 
four feet high, and grows in woods and 
thickets. [See Rhamxus.] 




ALD'ERMANCy, n. The office of an 
^LDERAIAN'IC, a. Relating to, or 
becoming an alderman. 
ALDERMAN'ITY,t n. The society of 
^LD'ERMANRY, n. The office or qua- 
lity of an alderman. 
AL'DINE EDITIONS, n. A term ap- 
plied to those editions, chiefly of the 
classics, which proceeded from the 
press of Aldus Manutius, of Venice, for 
the most part in the sixteenth century. 
The ierm has been recently applied to 
certain elegant editions of English 

AL'DRIAN,t n. A star in the neck of 
the^Lion. [Chaucer.'] 

ALEAK', adv. In a leaking state. 

ALE€'TO,H. [A/ec(o, the fury.] A genus 
of the star-fish family, in which the 
rays are divided into two or three 
branches, and fui'nished with articu- 
lated threads. The name has also 
been given to a genus of zoophytes 
found in a fossil state. 

ALE€'TOR,H. [Gr. ttXizTa>^^, acock.] A 
genus of gallinaceous birds, peculiar 
to the New "World. They somewhat re- 
semble tm'keys, and have abroad tail of 
fourteen stiiV quills. There are several 
species of these birds, which are com- 
monly called curassows. They feed 
on fruit and buds, and are easUy do- 

ALE'GAR, n. [add.] Vinegar made of 

ALE6E',t V. i. faleg'.) [Fr. alleger.] To 
alleviate ; to soothe. iChaurer.] 

ALEG'EAUNCE,t n. Alleviation. 

ALEOt;'EAUNCE,t n. Alleviation. 

AL'EIS.t n. [Fr. alise.] Aloes; the 
lote-tree. [Chaucer.] 

ALEMAN'NI€, a. Belonging to the 
Alemanni, an ancient people of Ger- 

ALEMAN'NI€, n. The language of the 
Alemanni, or ancient people of Ger- 

ALE' -MEASURE, h. An old liquid 
measure for ale, in which the gallon 
contained 2S2 cubic inches. 

ALETTE', n. [Ital. alefta.] The face of 
the pier of an arch, extending from the 
arris of the reveal ; but more particu- 



Alette. A, Arch. B,B, PiUani. 0, 0. Alett<:s. 

larly, that portion betwixt the arris of 
the reveal and the pillar or pilaster 
which is used to decorate the arch. 

ALEWjf 71. Halloo ; howling ; lamen- 
tation. [Spender.] 

AL'EXANDERS, n. The English name 

of a genus of plants, Smyrnium, — which 

ALEXAN1)RINE,a. Including twelve 

syllables ; as a verse or line. 
ALEXIPIIARM'I€, instead of AL- 

ALEXIPHARM'ieAL, a. Same as 

ALEXlTER'I€AL,a. SameasALESi- 


AL'GA, n. [L.] Sea-weed, 
AL'GAL, n. and a. One of the lower 
class of plants, or algas ; of or belonging 
to the algaa ; having the natui'e of algae. 
AL'GA-ROBA, n. [At.] The Arabic 
name of a tree bearing pods, containing 
a nutritious powder, supposed by some 
to have been the locusts on which St. 
John fed in the wilderness. 

AX'GAZEL, n. A species of antelope in- 
digenous to N. Africa (A. gazella). It 
is frequently represented on the Egyp- 
tian monuments. 

ALGEBRA'I€, > a. [add.] Alge- 

AL(JrEBRAF-GAL, J braic signs, cer- 
tain signs or characters used in alge- 
braical and matliematical operations, 
to denote the relation of numbers, 
magnitudes, and quantities ; as, (=) 
equality, (-)-) plus, ( — ) minus, (X) 
multiplication, &c. [See Sign.] 


ALGuSE,t a. Extremely cold. 

ALGUAZIL', n. In Spain, an inferior 
officer of justice ; a constable. 

ALHA'GI, n. The Arabian name of a 
species of camel's - thorn, and now 
adopted as a genus in botany. It be- 
longs to the Leguminos£E, and contains 
several species. The A. camelorum is 
the true camel-thorn. A. maurorum, 
or an unknown allied species in Persia 
and Bokhara, yields manna by merely 
shaking the branches, and some writers 
are of opinion that it was with this 
manna that the cliildren of Israel were 
fed in the wilderness; but the varieties 
now found in Arabia and Egypt pro- 
duce no manna. 

AL'IBLE, a. Nutritive, or that may be 

AL'IDaDE, n. [Ar.] The index, or 
ruler, that moves about the centre of 
an astrolabe, or quadrant; the index 
of a graduated instrument. 

A'LIEN, n.^ [add.] By the Act 7 and 8 
Viet., c. GG, various privileges are con- 
ferred upon aliens, of which, as the law 
formerly stood, they were deprived. 
An alien can now be naturalized with- 
out an act of Parliament. 

A'LlEN,t w. t. To alienate. 

A'LIENOR, n. One who transfers pro- 
perty to another. 

ALIGN', V. i. To form in line ; as troops. 

ALI'MA, ji. A genus of stomapodous 
Crustacea, the species of wliich are 

phrenologists, the name given to the 
organ that communicates the pleasure 
which arises from eating and drinking, 
and which prompts us to take nourish- 

ALIS'MA, n. Water-plantain, a genus 
of plants belonging to the nat. order 
Alismacea?. [See Wateb-Plantain.] 

AL'ITURE,t n. [L. alitura.] Nourish- 

ALIZ'ARINE, n. [From alizari, the 
commercial name of madder in the 
Levant.] A peculiar colouring principle 
obtained from madder. 




ZATE, a. 
V. t. To make bodies alkaline. [See 
AL'IiALOID, a. Relating to, or con- 
taining alkali. 

ALKAN'A, n. See Alkenna, and Hen- 
na Plant. 

AL'ICER, n. A star of the third magni- 
tude in the constellation Crater. 

.^VLL, «. [add.] The utmost degree of; 
as, in all probability ; in all appearance. 

^LL-ALONG',a(/y. Throughout; in the 

ALL -AMORT', a. [Fr. a-la-mort] 
Dispirited. [Shah.] 

ALLANTO'I€, a. Pertaining to, or 
contained in the allantois. 

ALLANTO'IN, n. A crystalline sub- 
stance found in the allantoic fluid of 
the cow. 

AL'LA PRI'MA, n. [Ital.] A method 
of painting, in which the pigments are 
applied all at once to the canvas, with- 
out impasting or retouching. 

ALLAY',f V. i. To abate; to subside; 
to grow calm. 

ALL-BE',t conj. Although. [Spenser.] 

ALL-€ON^QUERING, a. That sub- 
dues everything. 

ALL-€ONSUM'ING, a. That con- 
sumes everything. 

ALL-€REAT'ING, a. Creating all 

ALL-DESlGNaNG, a. Designing aU 

ALL-DEVOURING, a. That eats or 
swallows up everything. 

ALL-DIRE€T'ING, a. Directing aU 

ALL-DIVINE, a. Supremely excellent. 

AL'LECRET, n. [Ger. all strength.] 
Light armour, used both by cavalry and 
infantry in the sixteenth century, and 

AHecret Armour, a.d. IMO. 

more especially by the Swiss. It con- 
sisted of a breastplate and gussets, 
often reaching to the middle of the 
thigh, and sometimes below the knees. 

ALLE€T',t V. t. [L. allecto, allicio.] 
To entice. 

ALLEGA'TION, n. [add.] Ecclesiasti- 
cal allegation, the term applied to the 
first plea in testamentary causes. In 
ecclesiastical proceedings of a criminal 
nature, the first plea is termed articles ; 
and in plenary, or ordinary causes, the 
first plea is called the libel. The term 
allegation is also applied to every sub- 
sequent plea in all causes. — Responsive 
allegation, the first plea given in by a 




defendant, the plaintifiTs answer to 
■which is called a counter-allegafion. — 
Exceptive allegation, an exception 
made by either party in the case, to 
the credit of any witness upon matter 
contained in his deposition. 
ALLEGE',! t*- 1. (aleg^.) To alleviate ; 
to lighten. [Spenser.] 
ALLEGGE',t To ease; to alleviate. 

ALLEGG EAUNCE,t n. Alleviation; 
ease; comfort. [Spenser.] 
ALLEGIANCE, n. [add.] Properly, 
the lawful obedience which a subject 
is bound to render to his sovereign. 
The bond of allegiance is mutual and 
reciprocal; by it, the subject is bound 
to obey, and the sovereign to protect. 
According to the law of England, the 
allegiance of a subject is permanent 
and universal. 
ALLE 6lANT,t a. Loval. 
ALLEGOR'I€,VL, a. [add.] Allegori- 
cal pictures, pictures representing alle- 
gorical subjects. They are of two kinds ; 
those in which the artist unites alle- 
gorical with real persons, and those in 
which he represents allegorical persons 
only. This latter is allegorical painting 
in the true sense of the term. 
AL'LEGORIZER, n. One who alle- 
gorizes, or turns things into allegory. 
ALLE'GRO, n. A piece of music per- 
formed in allegro. 

ALLEMANDE', n. A slow air in com- 
mon time ; or grave, solemn music, with 
a slow movement. Also, a moderately 
quick dance, written in two crotchet 
time. Also, a figure in dancing. 
^LL-FORGIT'ING, a. Forgiving all. 
ALL-FOUR. See Four. 
ALL-FOURS, n. [add.] The phrase, 
on all-fours, has been sometimes used 
to sigi^y even or evenly ; consistent or 
consistently ; parallel ; square. 
No simile can go on aU-foitrs. 
This eiaoiple is on aU-fonrs with the other. 
MacauJay's Essays. 
ALL-HAL'LOWMAS, n. AU-hallow 

ALL HALXO^N,t a. Relating to the 
time about All-saints' day. 
ALL-HO'LY, a. Perfectly holv. 
ALLIANCE, n. [add.] Holu alliance. 
[See under Holt.] 

cies of the Emydae or marsh -tortoises, 
with long tail and limbs, which cannot 
be entirely drawn within its bucklers. 
The alli;-rator tortoise [ Chehjdra serpen- 
tina) is a native of the lakes, rivers, and 
morasses of Carolina, where it is very 
destructive to fish and water-fowl. 
ALLIGN'MENT, n. See Alignment, 

AL'LIS, n. A species of fish belonging to 
the herring family, also called the shad 
{Alosa communis). 

being alliterative. 

ALLIT'ERATOR, n. One who nses 
ALL-KNO"W1NG,rt. Omniscient; all- 

ALL LOVES. A former mode of ad- 
juration, meaning, for the love of all, as 
of heaven, earth, &c. ; as, speak of all 
loves f 
AL'LOCATE, v. t. To place; to set 
apart; to distribute; to assign to each 
his share. 

AL'LOCATED, pp. Set apart; dis- 
tributed ; assigned. 

ALLOCATUR, n, [L.] In law, a cer- 
tificate of allowance of cost of taxation 
by the proper officer. - 

ALLODLiLLT, adv. In an allodial 

ALLON6E, r. i. (allnnj'.) To make a 
pass or thrust with a rapier. 

ALL0N6E', n. (allunj'.) [add.] A paper 
annexed to a bill of exchange, when 
there are so many successive endorse- 
ments'to be made that the original ' 
paper would not contain them. ! 

a. Pertaining to allopathv. 

ALLOPATH'ICALLY, adv. In a man- 
ner conformable with allopathy. 

ALLOPHYL'IAN, n. [Gr. «w.«, and 
<;vXr.y a tribe, a race,] '• The AUophylian 
nations," in archcEoL, is the term em- 
ployed by Dr. Richard in designating 
the primitive races supposed to have 
inhabited Britain and the continent of 
Europe, previous to the earliest historic 
indications of the Asian nations pass- 
ing into Europe. 

.4XLOT'5tENT, n. [add.] The act of 
allotting, or distributing by lot. — Allot- 
ment system, the practice of dividing 
land into small portions for cultivation 
by agricultural labourers, and other 
cottagers, at their leisure, and after they 
have performed their ordinary day's 
work. Since 1830, the adoption of this 
system has become common in all the 
agricultural counties in England ; but 
they are nowhere universal. The quan- 
tity of land allotted to each individual 
or family, varies from the eighth part 
of an acre to four or five acres. 

AL'LOTROPIC STATE, n. [Gr. «aa«, 
another, and res^sr, condition. | A term 
applied to the di^imilar condition ob- 
served in certain elements, of which the 
various forms of carbon, as diamond, 
graphite, &c., afiord a well-luio^^-n ex- 

^L OTER, adv. In familiar Ian., 
thoroughly; entirely; as, the book en- 
titledZ)om&eyanrf5o7i is Dickensa/Zorer. 

ALL O'VERISH, a. In loiclan., neither 
sick nor well. 

ALLO W,u.f. [add.] To approve. [.SAaft.] 
In America, to acknowledge ; to think. 
Used in a very loose manner, like the 
word guess. 

ALL-POWERFUL, a. Almighty; om- 

ALLS, n. plur. All one's goods or pro- 
perty. [Vulnar.] 

ALL-SEAKCH'ING, a. That searches 
all things. 

ALL'-SORTS, n. A term used in gin- 
palaces to denote a beverage composed 
of left drops of liquor of various de- 
scriptions mixed together. 

ALL SORTS OF. In the soutJiern 
states of America, a low term for ex- 
pert, acute, excellent, capital ; thus, all 
sorts of a felloic, means an excellent, 
or smart fellow. 

ALL TO SMASH. An expression used 
in low and familiar language, and sig- 
nifvine, all to pieces. 
<\LL-fRl'UMPHING, a. EveryT\here 

ALLU':>UNATE,t i*- '- To colour; to 
ALLURE',t n- Something set up to en- 
tice ; a lure. 

ALLUSION, n. [add.] In rAp/., a refer- 
ence to some striking incident in his- 
tory, or passage in some writer, which 
serves to illustrate, and at the same 
time pleases by similitude or resem- 
ALLU'VION, 7J. [add.] Jn phys. geog., 
a tract of allurial formation ; particu- 
larly applied to the bottom-lands and 
deltas of rivers. 


ALLY', r. I. To be closely tmited. 

AL'LYLE, n. A new radical, discovered 
in the essential oil of garlic {Allium 
sativum), which is a sulphuret of allyle. 

AL'iLA., n. See Alme. 

ALMA' AC, n. A star of the second 
magnitude in the northern constella- 
tion Andromeda. 

AL'MAI. See Alme. 


ALMAN'DRES,t n. Almond-trees. 

ALMAYNE' RIVETS, n. [Fr. alle- 
mayne, that is, German.] In one. 
armour, sliding rivets, or rather, rivets 
fitting into slot-holes, by which various 
of the overlapping plates were fastened 
together, for the purpose of permitting 
the armotir to jield to the motion of 
the bodv. 

AL'MERY, n. See Ambut. 

AL'MOND-OIL, n, A bland, fixed oil, 
obtained from ajmonds bv pressure. 

ALMOND-SHAPED, a. Shaped like 
an almond. 

AL'MONER, n. [add.] The office of 
lord high almoner of England has 
been long held by the archbishops of 
York. There is also a sub-almoner, 
and the hereditary grand almoner is the 
Marquis of Exeter. The lord almoner 
makes an annual distribution of alms 
in the sovereign's name, to a certain 
number of poor persons at "Wliitehall, 
on Maundy- Thursday. 

ALM'RY,t n. Same as Almonkv. 

ALMS, n. [add.] Grammarians regard 
the word alms as of both numbers. 
In respect to its original form, it is sin- 
gular ; but, in respect to its meaning, 
either singular or plural. 

aLMS'-DRINK, n. According to "War- 
btirton, a phrase among good fellows, 
to signify that liquor of another's share 
which his companion drinks to ease 

ALMS'-HOUSE, n. [add.] In England, 
an edifice, or collection of tenements, 
built by a private person, and endowed 
with a revenue for the maintenance of 
a certain number of poor, aged, or dis- 
abled people. 


AL'JIUCE, ) n. [L. almutium.] A furred 

AU'MUCE, ) hood, having long ends, 
hanging down the front of the dress. 

Figure wearing the Almace, frciD k S«pulchrtl BrKtf. 

something like the stole, and which 
was worn by the clerg>- from the thir- 
teenth to the fifteenth centuries, for 
warmth, when officiating in the church 
during inclement weather. 
AL'NATH,t n. The first star in the 




horns of Aries, whence the first man- 
sion of the moon takes its name. 

AL'NUS, n. [From the Celtic a?,^ near, 
and Ian, a river, or rather Heb. ^iVs, an 
oak.J The alder, a genus of plants, 
nat. order Betulace®. A. glutinosa, 
the common alder, is a well-known 
tree, which grows in damp places, or 
by the sides of rivers. It supplies ex- 
cellent charcoal for the manufacture of 
gunpowder; the bark is valuable for 
tanning, and tlie young shoots for dye- 
ing various colours, when mixed with 
other ingredients. Its stems, when hol- 
lowed out, are used for water-pipes, 
and underground purposes ; and the 
veiny knots of the wood are cut into 
veneers by cabinet-makers. A. incana, 
is the Turkey alder, which grows to a 
larger size than the common alder. A, 
cordffolia, the heart-leaved alder, is a 
native of Naples, and is one of the most 
interesting ornamental trees that have 
of late years been introduced into cul- 
tivation. There are several American 

ALOERETIN'ie ACID, n. An acid 
contained in the artificial bitter of 
aloes, along with aloetic acid. 

ALOET'I€, ) a. [add.] Consisting 

ALOET'I€AL,j chieflyof aloes; hav- 
ing aloes as a principal ingredient ; as, 
an aloetic preparation. 

ALOFT', prep. Above; as, alofi: the 
flood. [Shak.] 

ALONDEM adv. (alond'.) On land. 

ALONG', adv. [add.] Along, when it 
signifies by the side of, near to, is 
usually classed among prepositions. 

ALOPECU'KUS, n. [Gr. <^K^iTr.l a fox, 
and ov^oi, a tail.] Foxtail-grass, a genus 
of plants. [See Foxtail-Gkass.] 

AL'ORING, "^ n. Theparapetwall, or, 

AL'ORYING, I more correctly, the 

AL'ORYNG, 1» gutter, or horizontal 

AL'UR, foot and water path, 

AL'URA, J which the parapet 
supported and protected. The word 
was applied with a more extended sig- 
nification to any passage or gangwaj', 
such as the triforium and clerestory 
galleries of a church, or the covered 
ways at the sides of streets, as may 
still be seen in the "rows" of Ches- 

ALO'SA, n. [add. J Alosa vulgar is is the 
common shad, — which see. 

ALOS'EDjf P2). [Sax. hlisan.'] Praised. 

A-LOWE', adv. A fire; in a flame. 

ALP, n. A local name for the bullfinch. 

AL'PA-GA, n. A species of Auchenia, 
indigenous to Peru, and celebrated for 
its soft wool-like hair. [See Paco.] 

AL'PES,f n. jil'ir. Bullfinches. [Chau- 

AL'PHA ORCE'INE, n. The name 
given by Kane to one of two blue com- 
pounds contained in archil ; the other 
he terms Seta orceine. 

AL'PHERATZ, n. A star of the second 
magnitude in the head of Andromeda. 

ALPHON'SINE, a. Relating to Al- 
phonso, king of Leon, or his astrono- 
mical tables. 

AL'PIOENE, a. Produced, or growing 
in alpine regions. 

4LS,f arfy. Also ; likewise. [Chaucer.] 

AL-SEG'NO, n. In mw^., a notice to the 
performer that he must recommence. 

ALSIN A'CE^, n. The chickweed tribe 
of plants, a nat. order formerly, and 
Btill by most, included in the Caryo- 

phyllacere of Jussieu. It is distin- 
guished from lUecebraceae by nothing 
but the want of stipules. 

AL'SINE MEDIA, w. The name given 
by Linnaeus to common chickweed, or 
the Stellaria media of modern bo- 

^L'SO, adv. [add.] When this word 
notes addition or conjunction, it is 
usually reckoned a conjunction. 

ALSTRa:ME'RIA, n. A beautiful 
genus of South American plants, be- 
longing to the nat. order Amaryllidacese, 
.and much cultivated in our green- 

AL'TAN, n. A star of the first magni- 
tude in the northern constellation 
Aquila, the Eagle with Antinous. 

AL'TAR-SCREEN, v. In arch., the 
partition behind the high altar. 

AL'TAR-TOMB, n. In arch., a raised 
monument resembling a tomb. 

^L'TERATIVE, a. [add.] Having the 
power to restore the healthy functions 
of the body, without sensible evacua- 

^LTER'ITY, n. State of being another, 
or different. [Rar. us.] 


ALTERN'ANT, a. In gcoL, a term ap- 
plied to rocks composed of alternating 

ALTERN'ATE, a. [add.] In geom., al- 
ternate angles are properly the internal 
angles made by two lines with a third, 
on opposite sides of it. If the two lines 
are parallel, the alternate angles are 
equal. [See Alternate in Diet.] 

V. t. The latter accentuation is more 
generally used. 



hot., a term used where the leaflets of 
a pinnate leaf are placed alternately 
on the common petiole, as in some 

ING, 3);)r. 

ALTERN'ATIVE, a. [add.] Alternate ; 
as, alternative command. [Rowe.] 

ALTHE'A, or ALTHtE'A, n. 

ALTHE'INE, instead of ALTHEIN'E. 

ALTIL'OQUENT, a. High-sounding; 
pompous in language. 

ALTINOIA'CE^, n. A nat. order of 
dicotyledonous unisexual monochlamy- 
deous plants ; the same as Balsamitiuse, 
— which see. 

AL'TITUDE, n. [add.] Altitudes, 
haughty airs; excessive pride; as, to 
be in one's altitudes. 

ALTITUDINA'RIAN, a. Having alti- 
tude ; aspiring. [Not authorized ] 

AL'TO. [add. J In mus., the counter- 
tenor part, or that between the tenor 
and treble. [See Alt.] 

AL'TO CLEF, n. In mus., the counter- 
tenor clef. [See Alt.] 

AL'TOUN, n. Oldtown. [Scotch.] 

ALUCI'TID^, n. A family of small 
lepidopterous insects, nearly allied to 
the Tineidee, and having for its type 
the genus Alucita. The wings are sin- 
gularly divided into narrow, feathered 
rays; the antennas are long, slender, 
and setaceous; and the legs are long 
and slender. 

AL'UMED, a. Mixed with alum. 

ALU'MEN, «. [L.] A\um,-~which see. 

ALUMINIF'EROUS, a Containing or 
affording alum. 

ALU'MINITE, instead of AL'UMIN- 

ALUM'NI,??. plur. [L.] See Alumnus. 

ALUMO-CAL'CITE, n. A silicious 

AL'UM-OINTMENT, It. Common tm-- 
pentine, lard, and powdered alum. 

AL'UM-ROCK, n. Same as Alum- 

AL'UM-SCHIST, n. Same as Aldm- 

AL'UM-WATER, n. A solution of alum 
in water; used by painters in water- 

AL'URA, n. See Aloring. 

AL'VEATED, a. Formed or vaulted 
like a bee-hive. 

AL'VEOLAR, -^ n. [add.] Pertaining 

ALVE'OLAR, [ to the arteries and 

AL'VEOLAR Y, f veins of the sockets 

ALVE'OLARY, J of the teeth.— ^Z- 
veolar processes, the sockets of the 
teeth. — Alveolar structure, a term ap- 
plied to minute superficial cavities in 
the mucous membranes of the stomach, 
esophagus, and small intestines. 



ALVE'OLUS, instead of ALVEO'LUS. 

formed in the stomach or intestines. 

AL'VUS, n. [L.] The belly; the intes- 
tines; also the intestinal evacuation. 

ALY'S'SUM, n. [Gr. aXvcvo^.] A genus 
of plants, of the nat. order Crucifer*. 
The Koniga maritinia of Adamson was 
formerly called A. maritimum, and is 
still known as the sweet alysson; it 
is much cultivated, having white and 
fragrant honey - scented flowers, to 
which the bees are very partial. 

AJIABYR', n. An old British word, sig- 
nifying the price of virginity, and ex- 
pressing a barbarous custom whicli 
formerly prevailed in England and 
Wales, being a sum of money paid to 
the lord, when a maid was married 
within his lordship. 

AMACRAT'IC, \ a. [Gr. i^«. to- 

AMASTHENI€,5 gether,aud ;.§*t«, 
power, or (rfist-of, force.] Terms appli- 
cable to a lens photographically perfect, 
or which unites all the chemical rays 
into one focus. 

AMADI'NA, n. A genus of small birds, 
of the finch family, with short biUging 
beaks. There are several exotic species, 
which are called amadavats or ama- 

AM'ADINE, n. A substance produced 
from wheat and potato starch. 

AMAlST', adv. Almost. [Scotch.] 

AMALGAMATION, n. [add.] In 
America, the mixing or union of the 
white and black races. Amalgamation 
is a term applied particularly to the 
process of separating gold and silver 
from their ores by means of mercury. 
The mercury readily dissolves these 
metals, as disseminated in the minerals, 
and uniting with them, thus separates 
them from the earthy matters. The 
mercury is afterwards driven off from 
the amalgam by heat. 

AMAND',t V. t. [L. amando.] To send 
one away. 

AMANUA'TION,t n. Sending on a 

AMARANTHA'CE.^, n. A nat. order 
of monochlaniydeous dicotyledonous 
plants, chiefly inhabiting tropical 
countries, where they are often 
troublesome weeds. They are remark- 
able for the usually dry-coloured scales 
of which all their bractese and floral 
envelopes are composed. To this order 
belong the cock's - comb, the globe 
amaranth, the prince's feather, and 
the love-lies-bleeding of our gai'dens. 




AMAKTLLIDA'CE.E.n. The Narcis- 
sus tribe of plants, a nat. order of 
monocotyledonous plants, mth six sta- 
mens and an inferior fruit, wliicii com- 
prehends the daifodil, the Guernsey 
and belladonna lilies, the Brunsvigias 
and blood-flowers of the Cape of Good 
Hope. The bulbs of some are poison- 
ous, especially those of H(Bmanthns 
tojcicarius, and some neighbouring 
species, in which the Hottentots are 
said to dip their arrow-heads. The 
bulbs of Narcissits poeticus, and some 
other species, are emetic. 

AMASSETTE', n. [Ft.] In paint., an 
instrument of horn, with which the 
colours are collected and scraped to- 
gether on the stone during the process 
of grinding. 

AMATE'.t »■ '■ instead of v. i. [add.] 
To subdue or daunt. [.SiJcn^er.] 

AMAT'Ep,t pp. Perplexed. [Spenser.] 

AMATEUR', n. [add.] One who culti- 
vates any study or art, from taste or 
attachment, without pursuing it pro- 

AMATEUK'SHIP, n. The character or 
quality of an amatem*. [Xot authorized.] 

AMATOR'€ULIST,t n. [L. amator- 
cutus.] An insigniticant lover. 

AMATO'KIAN, a. Pertaining to love ; 
as, amatorian odes. 

AMATO'KII,7i.p/i(r. [L.] The superior 
oblique muscles of the eye; so named 
from the expression which they impart. 

logic, from the greatest tilings to the 

AJU'ZINGLY, adv. [add.] Wonder- 
fully; exceedingly; very much. [Used 
in colloquial Idnguage, and applied to 
trifling things.] 

AJ1'AZ0^'-A^'T, n. The Formica ru- 
/e^ceni is so called. The neuters of this 
species of ant make slaves of the neu- 
ters of other species of ants. 

AMAZON-LIKE, a. Resembling an 

AMBA'GINOUS, a. Circumlocutory; 
tedious. [Bar. us.] 

AMBA'GITORY, a. Same as Amba- 


AM'B AR IE, n. In India, an oblong seat, 
furnished with a canopy and curtains, 
to be placed on an elephant's back, for 
the accommodation of riders. 

AM'BARY, n. An East Indian plant, 
the hibiscus. 

AMBASSADE'.t n. [Fr.] Embassy. 

AMBASSADORIAL, a. Belonging to 
an ambassador. [Rar. us.] 

AM'BASSAGE,t n. An embassy. 

AMBASS'ATRLE,t n. [Fr.] Embassy. 

AJI BASSy,t n. An embassy. 

AM'BER, 71. [add.] Amber is chiefly 
used for ornamental purposes. It is 
cut, for instance, into beads for neck- 

AM'BER- WEEPING, a. Distilling am- 

AMBER-YELLOW, n. An ochre of a 
rich amber colour, in its raw state ; 
when burned it yields a fine brown-red. 

AM'BES-AS,t 71. [Fr.] Two aces at 
dice. [See Ambs-Ace.] [Chaucer.] 


AMBILOQUY.t "■ Use of doubtful 

AMBl'TIOUS, a. [add.] Anxious to 

AJIBI-'TIOUSLY, adv. [add.] Studi- 
ously; anxiously. 

AM'BITLS, n. [L.] [add.] A going 
round ; a circuit ; circumference. The 
circumference or exterior edge or bor- 

der of a thing, as of a leaf — -In Roman 
hist., a canvassing for votes by candi- 
dates for office. 

AMBLING, n. The motion of a horse 
that ambles. 

AMBLO'TIC, a. [Gr. .u;Sx««t, abor- 
tion.] Having the power to cause abor- 

AJIBLYATHIA, n. [Gr. .a^SXw, dull, 
and «(^,|, touch.] Insensibility of touch 
or general feeling. 

AMBLYO'PIA, n. Same as Ambltopy. 

AMBLYP'TERUS, n. A genus of fishes, 
with heterocercal tail, only found in a 
fossil state. The species are charac- 
teristic of the coal formation, 

AM BON, n. Same as Ambo. 

AMBRO'SIAN, a. Pertaining to St. 
Ambrose. — The Ambrosian office, or 
ritual, is a formula of worship in the 
church of Milan, instituted by St. Am- 
brose. — Amhrosiaii chant, a mode of 
singing or chanting introduced by St. 
Ambrose. It was more monotonous 
than the Gregorian, which was used 

AMBUL.A'CRA, n. [L. ambulacrum, an 
alley.] The narrow longitudinal por- 
tions of the shell of the echinus, or sea- 
urchin, which are perforated by small 
orifices, traversed by tentacular suckers, 
and alternated with the broad tuber- 
culated portions. 

AMBULANCE, n. [Fr.] A moving 
hospital or place of succour for the 
wounded, formed for the occasion in 
the immediate vicinity of the field of 
battle, so as to be out of the reach of 
the enemy's fire. Such hospitals are 
attached to every French army or di- 
vision of an army. They were intro- 
duced during the wars of Napoleon. 

AM'BULATOR, n. In road-surveying, 
an instrument for measuring distances. 
[See Peb.'vmbulator, of which this 
term is merely a contraction.] 

AM'BULATORY, a. [add.] In omith., 
formed for walking ; applied to the feet 
of birds mth three toes before and one 
beliind ; as the passerine birds. 

[add.j A body of troops lying in am- 

V. i. 

DED, pp. 


AMBUSCA'DO,+ n. An ambuscade. 

AJIBUSCA'DOED.t a. Privately post- 

AMBUST',t a. [L. ambusttis.] Burnt. 

AMEBE'AN, a. Answering alternately. 
[See Amobe.uj.] 

AMEER', ) »i. [Ar.] A nobleman ; a 

AMIR', ) chief ; an emir, — jvhich see. 

AJI'EL-CORN, J n. [Latin, ami/lum, 

AM'YL-CORN, ) starch.] A species 
of corn formerly used for starch. 

AMELIORATOR, n. One who ameli- 

AM'ELLED,t a. EnameUed. 

A^IEL'LUS, n. A plant mentioned by 
Virgil, and known to botanists as 
Aster ameUtfs ; it has the flowers in 
heads, like the other CompositBe, those 
in the centre yellow, those in the cir- 
cumference purple, from not under- 
standing which Dryden and other 
English poets have given an absurd 
translation of the passage. 

AM'ENAGEjf n. Manage; carriage. 
[See Amenance.] [Spenser.^ 

AM'ENAUNCE,t n. See Amenakce. 


A5rENT)E', n. [add.] In popular lan^ 
the phrase amende honorable is used to 
signify a public or open recantation and 
reparation to an injured party for im- 
proper language or treatment. 

AJIEND'ilENT, n. [add.] In parlia^ 
mentary proceedings, an alteration pro- 
posed to be made in the draught of any 
bill, or in the terms of any motion 
under discussion. Sometimes an amend- 
ment is moved, the effect of which is 
entirely to reverse the sense of the 
original motion ; but when this is the 
object in view, the more usual way is 
to move a negative. In public meet- 
ings held for discussion the term amend~ 
ment is used to signify an alteration 
proposed to be made in the terms of 
any motion ; and sometimes it is used 
to signify a counter-motion.— In /ate, 
this term properly signifies the correc- 
tion of mistakes in the written records 
of judicial proceedings. 


AMENTA'CE^, n. The name given 
by Jussieu to those plants, the flowers 
of which are arranged in a dense spike 
called an amentum ; as the poplar, the 
birch, the willow, the oak, the hazel, 
&c. But modern botanists have sepa- 
rated the Amentacefe into several dif- 
ferent orders, as Cupuliferje, Salica- 
ceie, Betulacese, and 

AMEN'TU.\!, n. [Lat.] 
The thong or strap by 
which the ancients fas- 
tened their sandals or 
shoes to the foot. 

A5IEN'TT,t «• [Fr. amentie.^ Mad- 

A:MEN'rSE,t V. t. [Fr. amenuiser.'] To 
lessen ; to diminish. [Chaucer.] 

AjMERCE'ABLE, a. Liable to amerce- 


A:MER'ICAN. Incorrectly written 
AMERI'CAN, in some of the earlier 
issues of the Did. 

Ail'ESS, n. Same as Almuce, — which 

AMETABOXIA, ) n. a division of 

AMETABO'LIANS,} insects which 
do not undergo any metamorphosis, but 
which escape from the egg nearly under 
the same form which they preserve 
through life. [See Metabohans.] 

AM'ETHYST, n. [add.] The Oriental 
amethyst is a rare violet-coloured gem, 
called corundlun or adamantine spar, 
with the qualities of the sappliire or 
ruby. The amethyst consists chiefly of 

AMETHYSTINE, a. [add.] Composed 
of the amethyst; as, an amethystine cup. 

AMHAR'IC, n. The vernacular lan- 
guage of South-Western Abyssinia. It 
is said to be a degenerated Shemitish 
dialect, with many African elements. 

AMHERSTXl, w. A genus of plants, 
named in honour of Lady Amherst, 
belonging to the nat. order Legumi- 
nos». The flowers are large, red, and 
form a raceme about three feet long. 
Its native country is unknown. There 
is only one species, tlie A. nobilisy of 
which three trees were observed by 
Dr. Wallich in Burmah,in which coun- 
try the flowers are collected and laid 
before the shrines of their deities. 

AM'IATITE, n. In miner., fiorite or 

A5IICABIL ITY, n. Quality of being 




AMI'-GAL, a. [L. amicus.'] Friendly; 

AM'I€T, n. Same as Amice. 

AM1'€US CU'KI.E, n. [L.] In law 
phrase, a friend ofthe court; astander- 
by, who informs the jud^e when doubt- 
ful or mistaken in matter of law. 

AM'IS^t n. [Amice.] Apparel; gai-ment. 

AMISS',t n. Fault. [Shah.'] 

AMIS'SlON.t n. [L. amissio.] Loss. 

AM'MIDE, n. A more correct ortho- 
p-aphy of AMIDE, — which see. 

AM'.MIDIHE, ) n. A compound of am- 

AM'IDIDE, I mide with a metal; 
as, the ammidide of mercury. 

AMM1D'06EN,) n. A basifyin^ and 

AMID'OGEN, j' basic principle, com- 
posed of two equivalents of hydrogen, 
and one of nitrogen. It is the same 
as Ammide. 

AM'MIUAL, n. An obsolete form of 

A genus of cyclostomous fishes, sepa- 
rated from the lampreys. One British 
species is known, the pride or stone-grig 
{A. branchialis)\ it is occasionally met 
with in our rivers, where it lodges in 
the mud. 

n. A genus of eel-shaped fishes, which 
contains two British species, the wide- 
moutlied launce {A. iobianus), and the 
small-mouthed launce {A. alliciens). 

AMMONI'ACUM,) n. Same as Am- 

AMMO'NIA€UMj moniac Gum,— 
which see. 

AM'MONITE, n. [add.] A fossil genus 
of cephalopodous molluscs, allied to the 
recent genus Nautilus. This genus, 
however, may be considered rather as 
a family, including many genera. To 
this family the name Ammoniiidrs is 
given It contains the genera, Gonia- 
tites, Ceratites, Ammonites, Scaphites, 
Hamites, and others. [See cut in Diet 

AMMOPH'ILA, n. [Gr. at^a^j, sand, 
and fi>.6t, a lover.] Sea-reed, a genus 
of plants, nat. order GramineEe. A, 
arundinacea, common marum, sea- 
reed, mat-weed, or sea-bent, grows on 
sandy sea-shores, and is extensively 
employed in Norfolk and Holland for 
preserving the banks of sand which 
protect those countries from the in- 
roads of the sea, as it serves to bind 
down the sand by its long tou:^h roots. 
It is also manufactured into door-mats 
and Hoor-brushes. In the Hebrides it 
is made into ropes, mats, bags, ami 
hats. It was formerly referred to the 
genus Arundo. — In zool., the name of a 
long-bodied genus of fossorial hymen- 
optera, commonly called sand-wasps. 

AMNE'SIA, n. "[Gr.] Forgetfulness ; 
loss of memory. 

AMNie'OLIST,t w. [L. amnicola.] 
One who dwells near a river. 

AiMNl6'ENOUS,t a. Born of a river. 

AMNIOT'I€, a. [add.] Pertaining to 
the amnion; contained in the amnion; 
as, the amniotic tlnid. 

AMOBE'AN, a. Properly AM(EBiE'- 

AMOBE'UM, n. Properly AMO^B^/- 

AMO'ME^, n. A nat. order of plants, 
now called by some Scitamineaj, by 
others Zingiberaceae. 

AMON'ESTE,t u. t. (araon'est.) [Fr.] 
To admonish; to advise. [Chancer.] 

AMONG, I i^rep. [add.] Used in im- 

AMONGST,) puting an action to a 
number of persons in general, without 
T.— SuPP. 

determining the agency of any of them 
in particular; as, you have among you 
killed a sweet and innocent lady. 

AMORETTE', ) h. [Fr.] An amorous 

AMOURETTE', J woman ; also, alove 
knot, or a trifling love affair. 


AMPARTIIRO'SIS, w. Same as Am- 


AM'PELIG ACID, n. An acid obtained 
from the oils of bituminous schist. An 
oily matter prepared from the same 
substance has been termed Ampelin. 

AMPEL'ID^, n. The chatterers; a 
family of insessorial or perching birds, 
distinguished by the enormous width 
of their gape, which in many extends 
beyond the eye ; most of them inhabit 
tropical America. [See Chatterer,] 

AMPELID Eii:, or VITA CE^, n. A 
nat. order of tlialamiilorous plants, to 
which the genus Vitis, including the 
V. vinjfera, or common vine, belongs. 

AIM'PELIS, 71. A genus of perching 
birds; the chatterers. [See Chat- 
terer. J 

AM'PEUTE, n. [add.] This term is also 
applied to a kind of slate, found in the 
fossiliferous series of rocks. There 
are two varieties ; the first is termed 
alum-slate, and the second, graphic- 

AMPELOP'SIS, n. [Gr. aumXos a vine, 
and t,-^.i resemblance.] A genus of 
plants, nat. order Ampelidese, or Vita- 
cese. Many of the species are known 
by the name of creepers. 

AMPERE'S THEORY, n. An electro- 
dynamic theory establi.shed by Andr^ 
i\Iavie Ampere. In this theory the 
mutual attraction and repulsion of two 
magnets is referred to the mutual ac- 
tion of electric currents, according to a 
certain fundamental law, in a manner 
resembling the polar attraction of elec- 
tricity in a state of tension. Ampere 
conceived that the magnetic action of 
the earth is the result of currents cir- 
culating within it, or at its surface, 
from east to west, in planes parallel 
to the magnetic equator. 

AMPHIB'IAL, a. Pertaining to the 
amphibials; having the power of living 
in air and water. [See Amphibious.] 

AftlPHIB lALS, ) 71. [add.] These 

AMPHIBIANS, J- terms are strictly 

AMPHIB'IA, ) applicable only to 
such animals as have the power of liv- 
ing indifferently at the same time, either 
upon landorin water, or to such animals 
as possess both lungs and gills. Four 
genera of batrachian reptiles are found 
to possess this double apparatus, viz., 
the a.voloils, the menobranchi, the sire7is, 
and the profeus. These are the only 
known vertebrated animals that are 
truly amphibious. Taking the term, 
however, in a sense somewhat more 
extended, it might be made to include 
the whole order of batrachians. Cuvier 
uses the term to designate a family of 
marine quadrupeds, including the seal 
and walrus. 


AMPHIB'OLOID, w. A rock composed 
of amphibole and felspar, in which the 
amphibole predominates ; a variety of 

AMPH1IJI{A€HYS, n. Same as Am- 

AMPHIDES'MA, n. A genus of marine 
bivalve sliells, wliicii live in the sand 
on the sea-coasts of this and other 
countries. The shell is inequilateral. 

AMPHIG'AMOUS, a. [Gr. cup, and 

jxcws, nuptials.] A temx applied by 
i)e CandoUe to those cellular crypto- 
gamic plants which exhibit no trace 
whatever of sexual organs. 

AMPHIOX'US, jt. The lancelet, a 
email fish of the lamprey family. So 
rudimentary is the structure of this 
genus of fishes, that Pallas regarded 
and described the first species as a slug 
(Limax.) One species (A. lanceolatus) 
is found on the coasts of England and 
Ireland, in the Firth of Clyde, and the 
Mediterranean. Two other species of 
this curious genus have lately been dis- 
covered, one in S. America, and the 
other in the Eastern seas. The genus 
is also called Branchiostoma. 

AMPHIPLEO'RA, n. In bat, a genus 
of diatomaceous plants allied to Navi- 
cula, with which it was combined by 
Ehrenberg, in his work on infusorice. 

AMPHIP'NEUSTS, n. [Gr. a.aj,, and 
ir.!4i, to breathe.] A term applied to the 
true amphibials ; as, the siren, and pro- 

Ai\IPHIPRO'RA, n. In hot., a genus of 
diatomaceous plants. 

AMPHITET'R AS, n. In bot., a genus of 

AMPHITHEAT'Rie, a. Same as Am- 



an amphitheatrical form. 
AM'PHITKITE, n. [add.] These ani- 
mals belong to the order Tubicola, and 
class Annulata, of Cuvier. They are 
easily recognized by their golden-co- 
loured setje, disposed in the form of a 
crown. Some of them construct slight 
tubes of a regular conical form, which 
they carry about with them. 
AMPHIT'RbPOUS, a. A term applied 
to the ovule of plants, when the fora- 
minal and chalazal ends are transverse 
with respect to the hilum. 
AIIPHIU'MA, n. A genus of batra- 
chian reptiles, which frequent the lakes 
and stagnant waters of N. America. 
They first appear in the tadpole form, 
and afterwards gradually acquire small 
legs and feet. The body is of great 
AMPHORA, n. In bot, a genus of dia- 
tomaceous plants founded on the Navi- 
cilia amphora of Ehrenberg. 
AM'PHORAL, a. Pertaining to, or re- 
sembling an amphora. 
amphora, a vessel.] In auscultation, a 
sound of the chest like that heard on 
blowing into a decanter. 
AM'PUL, n. [L. atnjmlla.] A vessel used 
in ecclesiastical rites, various in shape 
and materials, and 
formerly employed 
for containing the 
consecrated oil 
used in baptism, 
consecration, &c. ; 
and also at the co- 
ronation of mon- 
nrchs. In England 
and prance, a ves- 
tel of this liind is 
still in use for the 
anointing of sove- 
reigns. That for 
France was kept 
at R helms, and is 
t:aid to have been 
brought from hea- 
Ampui ™" ^^ ^ dove for 

the baptismal unc- 
tion of Clevis 1. It disappeared at the 
Revolution. The ampulla of England is 
an eagle of pure gold, and richly chased. 

a u 




AMTYX, 71. [Gr.] A broad band, or 
plate of metal, often enriched with 
precious stones, worn on the forehead 
by Greek and Roman 
ladies of rank. Ele- 
phants and horses were 
sometimes decorated 
with a similar orna- 

AM'SEL, n. A name 
sometimes given to the 
blackbird. [See Amzki. 

A'MDLE. See Amyle. 

AMUR€OS'ITY,t n. [L. amurea, lees 
of oil.] The quality of lees, or scum. 

AIWUR'COUS,t a. Full of dregs or 
leesj foul. 

AMUS'ABLE, a. Capable of being 

AMT'ELOUS, a. [Gr. * priv., and uliXc;, 
medulla.] In med.y a term applied to 
the fetus, in cases in which there is 
complete absence of the spinal mar- 
row. In cases in which tlie encephalon 
also is absent, the fetus is termed amj/- 

AMYG'DALjI^, n. A name given to 
the exterior glands of the neck, and to 
the tonsils. 

AMYGDAL'EiE, n. The almond tribe 
of plants, a sub-order of the Rosaceje. 
The species are trees op shrubs, with al- 
ternate leaves, with free stipules ; poly- 
petalous corolla ; perigynous stamens : 
ovary superior, solitary, one-ceiled ; 
style terminal ; fruit drupaceous, one- 
seeded. The peach, nectarine, plum, 
cherry, almond, apricot, prune, darason, 
and buUace are produced by different 
species of the order. The species are 
all, more or less, poisonous, from their 
leaves and kernels yielding an abund- 
ance of prussic or hydrocyanic acid. 

AMYG'B ALINE, n. [add.] This pro- 
duct contains nitrogen, and is one of 
the bases of hydrocyanic acid, though 
it does not possess the poisonous pro- 
perties of that powerful agent. 

AMYGDALOID'AL, instead of 

AMYG'D.AXUS, n. [add.] This genus 
comprehends the almond, peach, and 
nectarine, besides a few bushes. Of 
the common almond there are two prin- 
cipal varieties, the sweet and the bitter. 

A'MYLE, n. [Gr. etuvXot. starch, and Z\v, 
matter, Qr principle.] The hj-pothetical 
radical of a series of compounds derived 
from oil of potato-spirit, which is itself, 
when pure, the hydrated oxide of 
amyle, analogous to alcohol. Both the 
radical and its hydrated oxide are un- 
known in a separate state ; but a suffi- 
cient number of compounds has been 
obtained to render its existence highly 

AMYL'I€ ACID, n. A volatile acid ob- 
tained by digesting moistened starch 
with peroxide of manganese. 


AM'YLU-M, n. [L. from Gr. «.u^\o*.] 

AMYUIDA'CE.T:. See Amyride^. 

AM'YRIS, n. [From Gr. /av;(», myrrh.] 
A genus of plants, and perhaps the 
only legitimate one, of the nat. order 
Amyridace.-e. The species which are 
found in tropical climates are fragrant 
resinous shrubs. A. Plumierii is said 
to yield part of the gum-elemi of com- 
merce. A. iOTifera is said to be poi- 
sonous; while the wood of A. balsami- 
fera furnishes a sort of lignum-rhodium. 

AN, n. See Annats. 

ANABAP'TIZE,t r. (. To rebaptize. 

AN'ABAS, n. The name given by Cuvier 

to a genus of acanthopterygious bony 
fishes, remarkable for the power pos- 
sessed by the species of living for some 

time out of water, and making their 
way on land for considerable distances. 
There is but one species of this genus, 
the A. scandens, which inhabits India 
and the Indian Archipelago, living in 
marshes, and feeding on aquatic in- 
sects. It is about six inches in length. 
AN'ABLEPS, n. A genus of malacop- 
terygious bony fishes, remarkable for 
the curious structure of their eyes, 

AuttUitps, tetrooiihthalmus. 

which have two pupils, and appear as 
if double ; but there is only one crys- 
talline humour, one vitreous humour, 
and one retina. The A, tetraophthal- 
mus inhabits the rivers of Guiana. It 
has a cylindrical body, a flat head, and 
a blunt snout, while the upper jaw pro- 
jects beyond the lower. 

ANACARDIA'CE/E, n. The cashew- 
nut tribe of plants, and the same as 
Terebinthacce ; a nat. order of poly- 
petaJous dicotyledons, ^\ith perigynous 
stamens, a simple superior ovary and 
fruit, with a single ovule rising by means 
of a cord from the base of the cell, and 
alternate leaves without stipules. Tlie 
species are chiefly natives of tropical 
.\merica, Africa, and India ; they con- 
sist of woody plants, abounding in an 
acrid resin, and their juice is often used 
as a varnish ; but it is often dangerous 
to use, on account of the extreme acri- 
dity of the fumes. To the order be- 
long the rhus or sumach, the pistacias, 
the mango [Mangifera Indica), the 
cashew {Anacardiiun occidentale\ the 
marlving - nut {Semecarpus anacar- 
duim)y the varnish -tree of Martaban 
{Melanorrhece usifatisshna), and the 
Japan-lacqner [Stanmaria vernicijlua). 

ANA€ATHAR'SIS, h. [Gr. «i«, and 
xaSai^ai, to cleauso.] In med., cough, at- 
tended by expectoration. 

AXACEPHAL^'OSIS, n. [Gr. «»«- | 
xi^at^outuirif.] In ^/le^, a summing up; 

ANA€URON'I€, a. Containing ana- 

ANAC'RISIS, H. [Gr. inquiry.] Among 
civilians^ in former times, an investiga- 
tion of truth, interrogation of witnesses, 
and inquiry made into any fact, espe- 
cially by torture. 

AN.^MOT'ROPHY. n. [Gr. « priv., 
and iiuat, blood, and t^*;*!, nourishment. J 
In jned., a deficiency of sanguineous 

AN^STHET'IC, a. Of or belonging to 
ansesthesia; having the power of de- 
priving of feeling or sensation. Chlo- 
roform and sulphuric ether are power- 
ful ana?sthetic accents. 

AN.ESTUETa€,«. Asubstance which 
has the power of depriving of feeling 
or sensation ; as chloroform, when its 
vapour is inhaled. 

ANAGAL'LIS, w. [Gr. «*« again, and 
tt^xWM, to adorn.] Pimiiernel, or poor 
man's weatlier-glass, a genus of plants. 
[See Pimpernel.] 


ANAGLYPH'I€, a. instead of AN- 

ANAGLYPH'IC, n. In anc. sntlp., a 
term applied to chased or embossed 
work on metal, or to anything worked 
in relief. 

VING, n. That process of machine 
ruling on an etching ground, which 
gives to a subject the appearance of 
being raised from the siuiface of the 
paper, as if it were embossed, and is 
frequently employed in the representa- 
tion of coins, medals, bass-reliefs, &c. 

^Xvco, and y^xiai, to write.] The art of 
copying works in relief. 

ANAGNOR'ISIS, n. [Gr.] In rhet., 
recognition ; the unravelling of a plot 
in dramatic action. 

AN'AGRAM, v. t. To transpose; as the 
letters of a name. [Rar. us.] 

ANAGRAMMATaC, a. [add.] Found- 
ed, or pr ceeding on the transposition 
of letters. 

AN.VLE€'TA, n. plur. [L.] Fragments ; 
refuse ; collections of extracts or small 
pieces from different authors ; analects. 

ANALE€'TI€, a. Collected together; 
relating to collections, or selections, 

ANALEP'SIA, n. See Analepsis. 

ANAL'OGONjH. Something analogous. 
[Rar. usjj 

ANALYZA'TION, n. Act of analyzing. 


ANANAS'SA, n. The pine-apple, a 
genus of plants, nat. order BromeUaceas. 
[See Ananas and Pinc-Apple.] 

ANAN"GULAR, a. Without angles. 

ANAPEST 1€AL, a. Same as Ana- 


ANAPEST ICALLY, adv. In an ana- 
pestic manner. 

ANARTHROUS, a. [Gr. «. priv., and 
<■;()•»». a joint, or article.] In gram., 
without the article. — In eniomol., hav- 
ing neither wings nor legs, as some in- 

ttniTTr.f/j, to raise up.] A mode of ob- 
taining fac-simile impressions of any 
printed page or engraving without re- 
setting tlie tj-pes or re-engraring the 
plate. The printed page or engraving 
being saturated with dilute nitric acid, 
which does not affect the portion co- 
vered with printing-ink, a transfer is 
taken on a plate of zinc, which is soon 
eaten or corroded away by the acid 
from the non-printed parts of the page, 
leaving the printed portion in slight 
relief. A further application of acid 
deepens the corroding and heightens 
the relief to the e.\tent necessary to 
enable the subject to be printed in the 
ordinary manner. 

ANAS'TOMIZE, t). i. In bot, to grow 
together, as two parts which meet from 
different directions. 

ANATH E.MATIS.M,t n. Act of ana- 


AN'ATHEME, 71. An anathema. [Rar. 

ANAT'ED^i:, n. The duck kind, a fa- 
mily of web-footed birds, of whicli the 
genus Anas (Linn.) is the type. It com- 
prehends ducks, geese, and swans. 

ANATOMIZA'TION, n. The act of 

ANAT'OMY, n. [add.] Anatomy is both 
an art and a science. It is an art, be- 
cause the pursuit of it requires dexterity 
and skilful manipulation ; and it is a 




ecience, inasmuch as certain general 
principles are deducible from it : it may 
be termed the science of ore:anization. 
— Descriptive anatomn, tliat branch 
which treats of the organs of whicli the 
human body consists, with regard to 
their shape, position, and mutual rela- 
tions. — General anatomy, that branch 
which treats of the structiu-e ai^d phy- 
sical properties of the different tissues 
which are common to several organs, 
■without reference to the form or situa- 
tion of the organs tliemselves. — Special 
anattnny, that branch which treats of 
the healthy state of tlie organs ; in con- 
tradistinction to morbid or pathological 
anatomy, which treats of the diseased 
states of organs, and the clianges pro- 
duced upon them by disease. — Trans- 
cendental anatomy, that branch which 
investigates the plan or model upon 
which the animal frame or organs are 
formed. — Surgical anatovuj,ih3d,hrax\Q\\ 
which demonstrates the relative posi- 
tion of organs or parts, with a view to 
those operations wliich it may be ne- 
cessary to perform upon them. — Phy- 
siological anatomy, that branch which 
treats of the structure of organs, only 
in as far as it elucidates their functions. 
— Artificial anatomy, tiie art of malting 
models in wax, or other materials, to 
illustrate the healthy or diseased struc- 
ture of parts. 

ANAT'ROPOUS, instead of ANA'- 
TROPOUS, a. In hot, applied to the 
ovule when this is inverted ; so that its 
base is at the opposite extremity from 
the hilum. It indicates that the em- 
bryo is homotropal, or not inverted, and 
is of common occurrence in the vege- 
table kingdom. 

ANCES'TRAL, a. More usually AN'- 

AN'CESTRESS, n. A female ancestor. 
[Rar. Its.'] 

AN'€HOR, n. [add.] The anchors car- 
ried by ships have been reduced to four 
principal, and these all at the bows. 
Those of the largest size carried by 
men-of-war, are the best and small 
boioerSj the sheet, and the spare ; to 
which are added the stream and the 
hedge, which are used for particular or 
for temporary purposes. The anchor 
is said to be a-coeh-biU, when it is sus- 
pended vertically from the cat-head ; 
ready to be let go-a-peah, when it is 
drawn in so tight as to bring the ship 
directly over it ; a-trip or a-weigh, when 
it is just drawn out of the ground in a 
perpendicular direction ; a-icash, when 
the stoclc is hove up to the surface of 
the water. — To bach an anchor. [5ee 
under Back.] 

AN'€HOR,t n. [For Anchoret.] A 

AN'€H*OR-LlNING,n. Same as Bill- 
Boards, — ivhich see. 
AN'€HOR-STOCK,7i. The cross-piece 
of wood, or iron, at the head of the 
shank of an anchor, to make the flultes 
take hold of the ground. 
ANCHO'VY, n. [add.] The Engraulis 
of Cuvier, a genus of abdominal mala- 
copterygious fishes, separated by that 

Anchovy, Bngraviis encrastcfiolui 

naturalist from the Olupeae or herrings 
of Linnaeus. The species are all of dimi- 
nutive size, and, with exception of the 

common anchovy, E. encrasichohis and 
E. melet(a{hoth Mediterranean species), 
all inhabitants of the tropical seas of 
India and America. No condiment is 
more generally known and esteemed 
than anchovy-sauce. 
ANCHU'SA, 71. [add.] The species of 
this genus of plants are chiefly inhabi- 
tants of the temperate parts of the 
earth, either on the mountains of tropi- 
cal climates op the temperate zones. 
They are rough plants, and known by 
the common name of bugloss. A. oJ)i- 
cinalis, common alkanet or bugloss, is 
an inhabitant of Britain. The roots, 
when boiled, yield a demulcent drink, 
once in repute as a medicine. A. sem- 
pervirens, evergreen bugloss, is also 
found in Britain. 

ANCHU'SINE, n. The name given to 
a red colouring matter obtained from 
Anchusa tinctoria. It is resinous, and 
emits violet vapours when heated. 
AN'CIENT,t n. A flag or streamer of a 
ship; also, the bearer of a flag, now 
jcalled an ensign. 

AN'CIENTS, n. j^hir. Gentlemen of the 
Inns of Court and Chancery. In Gray's 
Inn, the society consists of benchers, 
ancients, barristers, and students under 
tlie bar ; and here the ancients are of 
the oldest barristers. In the Middle 
Temple, those who have passed their 
readings ai'e termed ancients. The Inns 
of Chancery consist of ancients, and 
students or clerks. 
ANCFLE, n. [L.] The shield of Mars; 
the sacred shield of the Romans. 
ANCIL'LA, )n. A genus of spiral, 

ANCILLA'RIA, ) univalve, marine 
shells, allied to the olives. The species 
are chietiy confined to tropical climates. 
One is known by the name of ivory- 

AN'CILLARY, a. instead of n. 
ANCILLE',t n. [L. ancilla.] A maid- 
servant. \ Chaucer.'] 
ANCIP'ITOUS,a. Same as Ancipital. 
ANXONOID, a. [Gr. «>«a,», the elbow, 
and iiios, likeness.] Elbow-like; ap- 
plied to a process of the cubit. 
AND, C071J. [add.] And is sometimes 
used to express indignation ; as, perfi- 
dious man ! and will you thus dishonour 
your past exploits. Sometimes, after 
premises, it introduces a conclusion in 
the form of an interrogation ; but its 
particular force must be gathered from 
the words with which it is connected. 
It is sometimes repeated to signify 
both ; as, and from behind, and from 
AND'IRON, n. [add.] An iron utensil 
at each end of a fire-grate, in wliich 
the spit turns. 
ANDR^A'CE^, n. A nat. order of 
plants proposed for the genus Andrea 
alone, and differing from the true 
mosses solely by the capsule splitting 
into four valves. By most, however, it 
is considered a mere group of the 
mosses or rausci. 
ANDR06'YNE,n. An hermaphrodite. 
ANDROI'DES, n. Same as Androib, 
but more freqxiently used. 
ANDROM'EDA, n. [Named after the 
virgin of that name.] A genus of plants, 
nat. order Ericacea;. The species are 
hardy shrubs, natives of Europe, Asia, 
and North America. A. polifolia is a 
British plant, called by various names ; 
as wild rosemary, moorwort, marsh 
holy rose, &c. There are several varie- 
ties. A. J), glauciphylla is a Canadian 
variety, a decoction of the leaves of 
which is said to be inebriating. 

AN'DROSPHINXES,n.[Gr.«v«j «^2«f, 


a man, and cp-A- a sphinx.] In Egyp- 
tian art, lions with human heads. 

AN'DROUS, a. In bot., denoting the 
male sex. 

ANEAL',+ V. i. See Anele. 

ANECDOT'ie, a. Same as Anecdoti- 


ANE€D0T'I€AL, a. [add.] Employed 
upon or dealing in anecdotes. 

AN'E€D0TIST, n. One who deals in 

Fig.l, Anelace ofthe time orEilwarri TV. Fin. 2, 
Anilaceofthi: time of Henry VII. 

monly worn at the gii'dle by civilians 
until the end of the fifteenth century. 
ANELE€'TEODE, w. The positive 
pole of a galvanic battery. [See Elec- 


ANEMOM'ETER,!!. [add.] Mr. Osier's 
anemometer, now generally used in 
observations, however, registers the 
direction as well as the force of the 
wind continuously. [See British As- 
sociation's Reports for 184G.] 

ANEMOM'ETRY, n. The process of 
determining the pressure or force of.tiie 
wind by means of an anemometer. 

ANEMO'NIA, n. See Anemonine. 

ANENCEPHA'LIA, n. [Gr. « priv., 
and iyxi^aXoi, the braiu.] The state of 
an encephaUis; the absence of a greater 
or less portion of the brain. 

ANENCE'PHALUS, n. A fetus born 
without brains. 

ANENT', 2irep. Opposite ; respecting. 

AN'EROID, n. Same as Androii>, — 
which see. 

strument for indicating the pressure of 
the atmosphere, the invention of M. 
Vidi, of Paris, for whom a patent was 
obtained in England by M. Fontaine- 
raoreau in 1844. It answers the pur- 
pose of the ordinary mercurial barome- 
ter, but less perfectly. It is, however, 
portable. It consists of an air-tight 
box, one side of which is a thin me- 
tallic plate, which yields to external 
pressure, and acts upon a spiral spring 
inside, in communication with a system 
of levers, terminating in an external 
index, by which the amount of pressure 
is exhibited on a circular scale. It 
contains no fluid ; hence the name froin 
« without, ir.f,o;, moisture, and v6<.;, like 
or form. It is likely to be completely 




superseded by M. Bourdon's metallio 
barometer, wliicli is more perfect. 

ANES, adv. Once. [Scy/f//.] 

ANES-ER'RAND, ado. Of set pur- 
pose; sole errand. [.VcofcA.] 

AN'ESIS, ». [Gr. «n«.-, from «..>:ni, to 
remit.] A remission or relaxation of a 
disease, or of its symptoms. 

ANE'TIIUM, n. [Gr. <!.», and «.(;«. to 
burn.] A genus of plants, of tlie nat. 

. order Umbellifene. A. graveolens is 
knorni by the name of dill \see Dill], 
and A. fcenictdiim (the Fceniculuiit 
vulgare of Hoffman), by tliat of fennel. 
[See FiENicnLUM and Fennel.] 

ANEUCH', a., adv., or n. Enough. 

AN'EUKYSM, n. See Aneuris.v. 

ANFRA€'TUOSE, a. Same as An- 

AN'6EL-BED, n. An open bed without 

AN'GELET, n. An old English gold 
coin, equal to half an angel. • 

ANGEL'I€A, a. [add.] The .4. arch- 
angelicay or Archamjelica officinaVts, is 
a native of the banks of rivers and of 
wet ditches in all tlie nortliern parts of 
Europe. It has a large Heshy aromatic 
root, and a strong-furrowed branched 
stem as Iiigh as a man. It is mucli 
cultivated on tiie Continent for the 
sake of its agreeable aromatic odour. 

Its blanched stems, candied with sugar, 
form a very agreeable sweetmeat, pos- 
sessing tonic and stomachic qualities. 
The roots contain a pungent, aromatic, 
stimulating principle, on which account 
they have been employed in scrofulous 
diseases, and in the forai of infusion 
and powder, as diiu-etics and sudori- 
fics; but they are no longer used in 
modern practice, at least in this coun- 
try. A. ."iylvestris, or wild angelica, pos- 
sesses similar properties, but weaker. 

ANGEL'ICINE, n. A crystallized com- 
pound found in the root of the Angeli- 
ca arcbangelica 

AN'GERNESS,+ «. The state of being 

ANGl'NAPECTORlS.n. [add.] This 
disease, called in English breast-pang 

and spasm of the chest, is attended by 
acute pain, sense of suil'ocation, and 

ANGIOCAR'POUS, instead of AN'- 
.\N6I0SP0R0US, instead of AN- 
AN'GLE, ». [add.] Angle of contact, 
this term lias been discarded fi-om 
modern mathematics, and when a curve 
is supposed to be composed of infinitely 
small rectilinciir elements, the infi- 
nitely small acute angle formed by oue 
elementwitli the production of thenext, 
answers for the old angle of contact. — 
Angle of drautjM. [SeeunderDRAUonx.] 
ANGLE,! n. One who may be easily 
enticed ; a null. 

AN'GLE JI ETER, [angle-measure.] The 
name specially given to an instrument 
employed by geologists for measuring 
the dip of strata. 
AN'GLE OF FKie'TION, 7i. In mech., 
the angle whose tangent is equal to 
the co-efficient of friction. The co- 
efficient of friction / of a body resting 
on an inclined plane, is found by ob- 
serring the angle of friction # (the angle 
at which the body begins to slide) when 
/is put equal to ^. 

AN'GLE OF REPOSE, n. Thatangleat 
which one body wiU just rest upon 
another without slipping. It varies of 
course with the natures of the bodies in 
contact, but is constant for the same 
bodies. It is called by Professor Mose- 
ley, the limiting angle of resistance. 
AN'GLER, n. [add.] The_ common 
angler {Loiihius piscatoriits) is not un- 
frequently met with on our coasts, and 
is known by the names of fishing-frog, 
toad-fish, and sea-devil. [5ee Fishing- 

AN'GLE-SIIADES, n. The name of a 
very common but very handsome moth 
found in this country- It is the Phlogo- 
phora meticulosa of naturalists. 
AN'GLICAN, n. A member of the 
Church of England. 
AN'GLI€.\NISM, n. The principles of, 
or adherence to the Established Church 
of England ; partiality to England. 
ANGLIC'IFY, v. t. To make English: 
to anglicize. [Not authorized.] 
AN'GLICUS SU'DOR. n. [L.J Sweat- 
ing-sickness, — tvhiek sec. 
.4N'GLO-NORM'AN, n. An English 
AN'GLO-SAX'ONISM, n. A word or 
idiom of the Anglo-Saxon language. 
AN'GOBEK, n. A kind of pear. 
ANGOSTU'R.A BARK, h. An excel- 
lent bai"k, possessing febrifugal proper- 

Angoitun. CjTk, CiMpnria/fbrifuga, 

ties, used by the Catalan Capucliin 

friai-s of the missions on the river Ca- 


rony, South America. It is the pro^ 
duceof Cusparia fehrifu(/a, or Galipea 
cusparia, a plant belonging to the nat. 
order Rutaocie. — False arujostura^ a 
name given to the baric of the strjch- 
nos 71UJ: vomicfi. 

ANGOSTU'RIN, n. A neutral principle 
obtained from angostura-bark. 

ANGUINA'KIA, A genus of zooph>-tes 
found occasionally on fuci, in the I5ri- 
tish seas. It is the snake coralline of 

ANGUIN'EAL.rt. [L.anffMiXaserpent.] 
Resembling, or pertaining to a serpent, 
or serpents. 

ANGUIN'tD^, 71. A family of ophi- 
dian reptiles, which combine the cha- 
racters of the serpents and the lizards. 
They are known by the name of slow- 

AN'GUIS, 71. [L.] A Linna?an genus of 
serpents, belonging to the order Ophi- 
dia of Cuvier. They are characterized 
externally by imbricated scales, vrith 
wliich they are completely enveloped. 
They have been separated into four 
sub-genera, viz., Pseudopus, Ophisau- 
rus, Anguis proper, and Acontias. Of 
the sub-genus Anguis proper, the slow- 
worm, or blind-worm {A. fragilis), is 
an example. It derives its specific 
name from being exceedingly brittle. 

AN'GTJLAR, a. Vot arhitrary processes^ 
read orbitayy processes. 

tron., those arcs of the equator which 
are intercepted between circles of de- 
clination passing through the objects 
observed. They are measured by means 
of the transit instrument and clock. 

kind of perspective in which neitlier of 
the sides of the principal object is pa- 
rallel to the plane of the picture; and, 
therefore, in the representation, the 
liorizontal lines of both converge to va- 
nishing points. It is also called oblique 

AN'GULAR VEIN, n. In anat., the 
name of the facial vein, when it has 
arrived at the side of the nose, near the 

solute velocity of a body moving round 
a fixed axis, at a unit of distance, and 
which is found by multiplying the cir- 
cumference described by a radius of 1, 
by the number of revolutions observed, 
and dividing the product by the time. 
Thus, the number of revolutions being 
10 in 30 seconds, the angular velocity 
referred to a unit of distance of 1 
foot is 3-141G X - X lo = 2-01)44 ft. 
per second. Hence, in any circular 
motion, the velocity of any point is 
equal to the angular velocity multiplied 
by its distance from the axis of rotation. 
If the angular velocity r= en, and the 
distance from the centre =f, then the 
velocity = 4; X ?■ The terra is chiefly 
xised in analytical mechanics. 

AN'GULATE, a. Angled ; applied to 
stems, leaves, petioles, &.C., which are 
of an angular shape. 

ANGULOM'ETEK, n. [L. angulus, an 
angle, and Gr. /*iTf«», measure.] The 
name given to au instrument for mea- 
suring external angles. {See Akgle- 
METER, in Siipp.'l 

ANGUSTIEO LIATE, a. Same as An- 


ANHANGM V. t. [Sax.] To hang up. 

ANHARMON'I€ RATIO, ». In geom., 
the name given by Chasler to a double 
ratio, compounded of AI3 to BC, and of 




CDtoDA,or(AB :BC)(CD : D A) 
when A, 15, C, D, are points taken in 
a straiglit line in any order. 

AN'HIMA, or ANHI'MA, n. This is 
the Palamedea cornuta of naturalists, 
or horned screamer. This latter name 
is derived from its loud, harsh voice, 

A'NI, n. A name given to a species of 
birds found in the West Indies and 
South America, belonging to the genus 
Crotophaga. They have large com- 
pressed beaks, dark plumage, and feed 
chiefly on insects. 

ANLENT'ISSED,t pp. fFr. anientir.] 
Reduced to nothing. [Ckaucer.\ 

AN'ILENESS, n. Same as Anilitv. 

AN'IMAL, n. [add.] An inferior or ir- 
rational creature, in contradistinction 
to mankind. 

ANIMAL'€ULA, instead of ANI- 

ANIMAL'€ULE, n. [add.] Animalcules 
are microscopic animals, existing iu 
livers and ponds, and in all animal and 
vegetable infusions. The term is now 
restricted to that division of infusoria 
termed 2)oft/f/as(rica. 

ANIMALIZA'TION, n. [add.] The 
process by which food is assimilated, or 
converted into animal matter. 

AN'IMALIZED, Pi?, [add.] Converted 
into animal matter. 

AN'IMALIZING, ;)?;r. [add.] Con- 
verting into animal matters. 


AN'IMAL JMECHANieS, n. See un- 
der Mechanics. 

branch of painting which is restricted 
to the representation of animals. The 
subjects are chiefly animals of the chase. 

AN'IMAL STRENGTH, 71. 6'ee under 

AN'IMATED, pp. [add.] A painting or 
statue is said to be animated^ when it 
is executed with such vigour and truth, 
that it appears full of life. 

ANTMATENESS,t n. The state of 
being animated. 

ANIMA'TION, n. [add.] In sculp, and 
paint. ^ a term applied to a figure wlien 
it exhibits a sort of momentary activity 
in its motions. 

AN^IMINE, n. The name given to an 
oily fluid, extracted from animal oils 
by distillation, and odorous like harts- 

AN'IMISM, n. [L. animay the soul.] 
The doctrine that the phenomena of 
the animal economy ai'e produced by 
the agency of the soul {aninia)^ as 
taught by Stahland Sauvages ; also, the 
doctrine that the living phenomena of 
organized bodies are produced by an 
actuating or vital principle, distinct 
from the substance of those bodies. 

ANIMOSE',t a. Full of spirit ; hot ; 
vehement; resolute. 

ANIMOSE'NESS,t n. Spirit; vehe- 
mence of temper. 

AN'IMUS, n. plur. Animi. [L.] Mind; 
intention; piu'pose. 

AN'IONS, n. [Gr. «»«, upward, and j&i», 
going.] Literally, that which goes up ; 
a term applied by Faraday to those ele- 
ments of an electrolyte, which in electro- 
chemical decompositions appear at the 
anode, and are usually termed the 
electro-negative ii.gredients of a com- 
pound; such as oxygen, chlorine, and 
acids. [.See Anode, Cations.] 
BOURDEAUX, n. [Fr.] A French 
liquor made by distilling anise, fennel, 
and coriander seeds, previously steeped 

in brandy, with sugar, and one-half 

ANI'SIG ACID, n. An acid obtained 
from anise-seed. It is crystallizahle 
and volatile, and forms salts which 
crystallize readily. 

AN'ISOLE, n. A product formed when 
anisic acid is heated with an excess of 
baryta. It is an oily liquid. 

sort of floating-house, supported upon 
two warkamoowees, connected with 
plonks, and used by the Singhalese, 
both for a habitation, and as a means 
of transporting nottery. wood, oil, &c. 

ANK'ER, n. For 32 gallons, read 10^ 

ANI\.'ER,-[- n. An anchorite, or hermit. 
[Chaucer. \ 

AN'ItLED, a. Relating to, or having 

AN'lvLE-DEEP, c. So deep as to reach 
the ankles. 

ANKYLO'SIS, n. [Gr,] A stiff joint 
from bony union. 

AN'LaCE, n. A short sword ; a dagger ; 
a wood-knife, 

AN'NA, 71. In the East Indies, the iCth 
part of a rupee, or about X{d, sterling. 

AN'NAL, 71. In the Horn. Cath. church, 
a mass said for any person every day in 
the year ; or a mass said on a pai'ticular 
day every year. 

AN'NAT, w. .See Annats. 

ANNEAL'ING, 71. The process of ren- 
dering a metallic body, as iron or steel, 
less brittle, or more malleable, by heat- 
ing it, and allowing it to cool slowly. 
The same process is applied to glass. 

AN'NEUDS, n. For Annelida^j read 

AN'NETT, n. A name applied to the 
kittiwake gull {Larus tridacti/lus). 

ANNEX',! "■ The thing annexed. 

AN'NICUT, n. In East Indies, a dam. 
Anr.icuts are built across rivers, to 
raise the level of the water, to facili- 
tate both navigation and irrigation. 

ANNl'HLLATUR, n. One who anni- 

ANNIVERS'ARY, a. [add.] Anniver- 
sary days, in the Rom. Cath. church, 
the days on which an office is yearly 
performed for the souls of the deceased, 
or on which the martyrdom of the 
saints is yearly celebrated. 

AN'NlVERSE,t n. Anniversary. 

AN'NODON, ;(. See Akodox. 

ANNOTA'TiONIST, v. An anno la- 

ANNOT'INOUS, a. In bot, being a 
year old. 


ANNOT'TA,! "• 

AN N Oy'ES,f n. plur. Annoyances. 
[Spenser. ~\ 

AN'NUALIST, n. An editor of, or a 
writer for, an annual publication. 
[Rar. us.~\ 

AN'NUALS, n. The name given by 
gardeners to all plants, which, if sown 
in the spring, will flower, perfect their 
seed, and perish in the course of the 
same season. Annuals, however, if 
sown in the autumn, become biennials, 
and the latter, if sown early in the 
spring, become annuals. Hardy an- 
nuals are such as grow in the open air; 
and tender annuals such as require to 
be raised in artificial heat. 

AN'NUARY,trt. Annual. 

AN'NUELLEK.t n. [Fr. annuel] A 
priest employed in singing anniversary 
masses for the dead. [Chaucer.] 

ANNU'I'TY, n. [add.] The term an- 
nuity, in its most general sense, signi- 

fies any fixed sum of money, which is 
payable, either yearly, or in given por- 
tions, at stated periods of the year. In 
an ordinary use of the term, it signifies 
a fixed sum of money payable to an 
individual during life. In the former 
case it is called an annuity certain, and 
in the latter, a life annuity. 

AN'NULARLY, adv. In the manner of 
a ring. 

ANNULO'SA, n. Sameas Annulosans. 

ring and pastoral staff" or crosier, the 
delivery of which by the prince was the 
ancient mode of granting investitures 
or bishoprics. 

ANNUN'CIATORY,<z. Making known; 
giving public notice. 

ANO'A, ;?. A species of ruminating ani- 
mal {A. depressicornis), allied to the 
buffaloes. It is about the size of a mid- 
dhng sheep, and is found among the 
rocky mountains of the island of Celebes. 

AN'ODE, n. [add.] That part of the 
surface of a decomposing body which 
the electric current enters ; the part 
immediately touching the positive pole. 

AN'ODON, ) n. [Gr. « priv., and 

ANODON'TAJ oIovtc^, teeth.] A ge- 
nus of lamellibranchiate bivalves, in- 
cluding the fresh-water muscles [A. 
ajiatinus and A. cygneus). Also the 
name of a genus of serpents, witii very 
minute teeth. The A. tyitus is a 
South African species, which lives on 
the eggs of birds. 

ANO'IE,t n. [Fr] Hurt; trouble. 

ANO'lE.t r. t. To hurt; to trouble. 

ANO'IFULjt a. Hurtful; unpleasant. 
[ Chaucer.] 

AN'OMAL, 71. An anomalous verb or 

ANOMALIS'Tl€ALLY, adv. Iiregu- 

ANOM'ALITE, n. An irregular mine- 

ANOM'ALY, 7J. [add.] In thiw., asmall 
deviation from a perfect interval in 
tuning instruments with fi.xed notes. 
[See Temperament.] — In astron., (his 
term is used to signify properly the an- 
gular distance of a planet from its 
perihelion, as seen from the sun. It is 
either true, mean, or eccentric. 

ANO'NA,n. A genus of plants, the tj-pe 
of the nat. order Anonaccce. A. squa- 
mosa, sweet sop, grows in the M'est 
Indian islands, and yields an edible 
fruit liaving a tliick, sweet, luscious 
pulp. A. niuricata, sour sop, is an- 

Sour Sop, Aiiona murieata' 

other species cultivated both in tlie 
M''est and the East Indiei, which pro- 
duces a large oval fruit of a greenisli 
yellow colour, containing a sweet pulp, 
mixed with a most agreeable aci'l. 




ANONTMOS'ITY, n. State of being 
anonymous. [Aof authorized,'] 

AXON'I'-MOUSNESS.n. State of being 

ANOPLOTHE'KIUM, n. [add.] The 
species of this genus had a long, thick 
tail, resembling that of the otter, and 
they are supposed to have been aquatic 
in their habits. 

ANOKM'AL, a. See Abnormal. 

AXOR'THOSeOPE, n. [Gr. «..;««,and 
«xBTi»r ] The name given by M. Plateau, 
of Brussels, to an instrument invented 
by him, for producing a peculiar kind of 
optical illusion, by means of two disks 
rotating rapidly opposite to each other. 
The posterior one is transparent, and 
has certain distorted figures painted 
upon it; the first one is opaque, but 
pierced with a number of narrow slits, 
through which the figures on the pos- 
terior disk are viewed. The principle 
is the same as that of the phenakisto- 

ANORTHU'EA, n. A name by some 
naturalists applied to the common men, 
from its cocked -up tail. 

ARCH, n. An arch in the form of a 
semi-ellipse, its chord being the major 

AN'SERES, n. [L.] See Anseks. 

AN'SWER, n. [add.] Anstcer, in Chan- 
cer;/, a defence upon the merits, which 
generally controverts the allegations 
stated in the plaintiff's bill, or some of 
them ; and states facts, showing the 
defendant's rights in the subject of the 

AN SWER, V. i. [add.] To respond to, or 
attend to ; as, an attentive servant in- 
stantly answers the bell ; to be ready 
to perform. [5/mA.] 

ANSWER, r. i. [add.] To undertake ; 
to guarantee ; to insure. 

AN'TA, n. 5ceAsTE. 

ANTAGOMST, a. [add.] Aniagonist 
potcers, in physics, two opposing powers 
or forces, of which the action of one 
counteracts that of the other, so as to 
maintain an equilibrium. Such are 
the centrifugal and centripetal forces, 
the attractive and repulsive agencies in 

ANTAG6nIST1€.\L, a. Same as 


ANTAL'Glt', n. A medicine to alle- 
viate pain ; an anodyne. 

ANTAL'KALI, ) n. In med., a rc- 

ANTAL'KALINE, | medy for the 
purpose of neutralizing alkali, or of 
counteracting an alkaline tendency in 
the system. 



ANT-€.VTCHER, n. The Myothera of 
niiger, a genus of birds resembling the 
thrush, which live chiefly on ants. 
Species of the genus are found on both 
continents. The ant-catchers include 
species of other genera of the tribe 
Myotherina ; they have all short wings, 
a very short tail, and rather long legs. 

AN'TEDATE, i: t. [add.] To give or 
effect something before the proper 
time ; as, no hostile hand can antedate 
mv doom. [Pope.] 

ANTELOPE, n. [add.] The gazelle, 
properly so called, is the Antilope dor- 
cos (Linn.) The other more remark- 
able species are the springbok, plunging 
antelope, rock-springer, algazel, cha- 
mois, gnu, &c. 

ANTEN'NAL, a. Belong'mg to the an- 

ANTENNATtlA, n. [Trom antenna.] A 

genus of plants, belonging to the nat. 
order Conipositce, nearly allied to 
Gnaphalium, and containing some of the 
everlastings of our gardens. The most 
common is A. viargaritacea, or pearly 

ANTEN'NIEORM, a. Shaped likean- 

ANTENNULA'RIA, n. A genus of 
zoophytes, found in the British seas. 
One species, the lobster's horn, co- 
ralline of Ellis {A. aniennina)j is com- 
mon on ovster-beds. 

.\N'TE-NUP, n. Antennptial fornica^ 
tion between persons who are after- 
wards married to each other. [5cofcA.] 

-■VNTEPAG JtENT, n. An ornamented 
jamb of a door. [5ee Antep.\gmexta.] 



AN'TEPONE.t P. i. [L. antepono.] To 

.4,N'TEP0KT, n. An outer port, gate, 
or door. 

ANTE'RIORLT, adv. In an anterior 

ANTES, n. In arch. See Ast^. 

.iNTHEXIA,n.p?Mr. of AxTHELiox, — 
which see. 

AN'THE.M, n. [add.] The anthem may 
be for one, two, or any number of 
yoices, but seldom exceeds five parts. 

ANTHERI€UM, n. [Gr.] Spider-wort, 
a genus of plants, nat. order Liliacese. 

.VNTHERID'IUM, n. plur. Antheri- 
dia. [L.] In iof., the anther-like bodies 
that are found in mosses and other 
crj-ptogamic plants, but the true nature 
of which is unknown. 

ANTHE SIS.n. [Or.] The period when 
flowers expand; the act of expansion 
in a flower. 

ANTHIARINE, n. See Antiakixe. 

ANTHOtJAR'POUS, a. [Gr., a 
flower, and xx^ts;, fruit.] In bot., a 
term applied to fruits formed by masses 
of inflorescences adhering to each 
other; as the fir-cone, pine-apple, &c. 

ANTHOt'H.E RA, n. A genus of Aus- 
tralian birds, belonging to the family 
Meliphagids, or honey-eaters. A. 
mellicora, the bush wattle-bird, is 
found wherever there are banksias, in 
New South "Wales, South Australia, 
and Van Diemen's Land. Its notes 
are harsh and peculiar, like a person 
vomiting, whence its local name, Goo- 
gtcar-ruck. It feeds on the blossoms 
of the banksias. 

ANTHOCY'ANINE, n. [Gr. ..te, a 
flower, and »»«.«, blue.] The blue 
colouring matter of plants. 

.\.NTH0L06T, n. [add.] A collection 
of flowers ; a garland. 

ANTHOL'YSIS,;!. [Or. ..fe, and Aw,-, 
a breaking up.] In bot., the change of 
flowers from their usual state to some 
other, as leaves, branches, 5:c. 

ANTHOMT'ZID.E, n. A general divi- 
sion of the Muscida?, composed of 
species having the appearance of com- 
mon flies. The wings are vibratile, the 
legs of moderate size, and the abdomen 
composed of four joints. 

ANTHORISMUS, n. See Asthoeism. 

AN'THOS, n. [Gr. «.8«.] A flower. 

ANTHOSPER ME^, n. A tribe of 

plants, belonging to the nat. order Ru- 

biacese. It consists of the genera Cop- 

rosma, Phyllis, Galopina, Ambraria, 

and Anthospermum. The species are 

small herbs or .shrubs, with opposite, or 

verticillate leaves. 

ANTHOTYPE, n. [Or. .,&.-, a flower, 

and rvrt;, type.] A generic term applied 
to photograpliic agents, which consist 
of papers impregnated with thecoloured 
juices of flowers and other parts of 
vegetables. Such substauces, when 
exposed to the chemical influence of 
light, produce well-defined photo- 

ANTHOXANTH'INE, n. [Gr. «,««,a 
flower, and Ittdt;, yellow.] The yellow 
colouring matter of plants. 

ANTHOXAN'THU-M, n. [Gr. =.5«, and 
«x>8m.] a genus of grasses with only 
two stamens, one species of which 
{A. odoratmn) is well known to f.irmers 
under the name of sweet vernal-grass, 
or spring-grass. [Sec Sprixg-Gr.ass.] 

ANTHRIS'CUS, n. Beaked parsley, 8 
genus of plants, nat. order Dmbelliferse. 
There are two British species, and one 
which has escaped from our gardens 
{A. cere.fuUum), which is well known 
as a salad and pot-herb, under the 
name of garden-chervil. 



ANTHROPOCRAPHY,?!. [add] This 
term is applied more particularly to 
that branch of physical geography 
which treats of the actual distribution 
of the human race, as distinguished by 
physical character, language, institu- 
tions, and customs. [See ExnNO- 


ANTHR0P0L'06Y, n. [add.] More 
definitely, this term implies the whole 
science or theory of man, considered 
physiologically, intellectually, and 
morally, or in his entire nature. 

ANTHROPOMETRY, n. [Gr. .,9;^..-, 
man, and fttr^er. measure.] The mea- 
sm-ement of the human body. 

The representation of the Deity under 
a human form, or with human attri- 
butes and affections. 

who represents Deity under a hiunan 
form, or with human attributes; an an- 

ing to .\xTIIROPOM0RPniSM. 

THR0P0M0RPHIT'I€AL, a. Per- 
taining to anthropomorphism. 

ANTHROPOP ATHISil, n. Same as 


ing to cannibalism. 

AN THUS, n. The pipit, a genns of 
birds separated from the genus Alauda 
(Linn.) There are four species found in 
the British islands, the Anthus Sichar- 
di, A. pratensis, or meadow -pipit, 
A. arboreus, the tree - pipit, and A. 
aguatiais, the shore-pipit. The mea- 
dow-pipit, or titling, is the species to 
whose fostering care the young cuckoo 
is most generally consigned. [See 
Pipit in this Supp.] 

ANTHYL'LIS, n. [Gr. «.e«, a flower, 
and icuAc; a beard or down.] Kidney- 
vetch, a genus of leguminous plants. 
[.^fp Kibxet-Vetcii.] 

opposes abolition. Specially applied 
to those who oppose the abolition of 
slavery in the United States of America. 

ANTI-ACID, n. See Axi-AciD. 

ANTIADl TIS, ;i. [Gr. «,r,.jK, the 
tonsils.] Inflammation of the tonsils. 



AN'TIAR, n. A Javanese poison de- 
rived fi-om the upas-tree. 
ANTI'AEIS, n. A genus of plants, nat. 




order Artocarpeae. A. macrophylla, or 
ioxicariaj is the celebrated upas-tree 
of Java. [See UpasJ 
ANTIASTHMAT'ie. See Anthas- 


ANTIBIL'IOUS, a. Counteractive of 
bilious complaints. 

ANTIBRA'€HIAL, a. [L. ajitibra- 
chium, the fore-arm.] Pertaining to the 
fore -arm. 

ANTI€AL'VINIST, n. One opposed 
to Calvinism. 
I ANTICALVINIST'I€, a. Opposed to 

AN'TI€HEIR, n. [Gr. av7/,and xnj,the 
hand.] The thumb, opposed to the 

ANTI€HRE'SIS, n. [Gr. «►«, and ;t?a«, 
X'^^"^, to lend.] An old law-term for 
ANTIGHRON'ICAL, a. [Gr. «vT/,and 
;t5ovaff, time.] Deviating from the pro- 
per order of time ; erroneously dated. 
an ti chronical manner. 
ANTICIPANT, a. Anticipating; ap- 
plied in med., to periodic diseases, each 
of whose attacks recurs at an earlier 
period than the preceding. 

ANTICIPATE, V. t. [add.] To occupy 
one's attention before the proper time ; 
as, I shall not anticipate the reader with 
farther descriptions of this kind. [Swift.] 

AN'TICKES,t H. plnr. Buffoons. [See 
Antic] [Spenser.] 

ANTICNE'iAIlON, n. [Gr. «vti, and 
K^ti^uvi, the calf of the leg.] The shin- 
bone, as opposed to the calf. 

AN'TICNESS, n, The quality of being 

ANTIDES'MEiE, n. A nat. order of 
dicotyledonous unisexual monochlamy- 
deous plants, to which Antidesma be- 
longs. It is now usually called Stila- 

ANTIDO'TALLY, adv. In the manner 
of an antidote ; by way of antidote. 

AN'TIDOTARY, a. Same as Anti- 

AN'TIENT. See Ancient. 

ANTIFED'ERALIS.M, n. Opposition 
to the ratification of the constitution of 
the United States. 

ANTIHE'LIX. See Antiieltx. 

for hydrophobia. 

ANTIHYDROPTC, n. A remedy for 

ANTILIA, n. A machine used' by the 
Greeks for raising the ivater from the 
wells of their sliips. It is supposed to 
have been the Archimedean screw. 

ANTILITHTG, a. Tending to prevent 
the formation of urinary calculi, or to 
destroy them when formed. 

ANTIL'OQUISTt «• A contradictor. 

ANTlL'OQUY,t «• [add.] Contradic- 

ANTIMA'SON, n. One hostile to ma- 
sonry, or freemasonry. 

ANTIMASON'ie, a. Hostile to free- 

ANTIMA'SONRY, n. Opposition to 

ANTI]MATRIMO'NIAL,a. Hostile to 

ANTIMONARCH'IC, a. Same as An- 

an oxide of antimony, combined with 
phosphate of lime. 

ANTIMO'NIAL WINE, n. In merf., 
a solution of tartar-emetic in proof- 

ANTIMO'NIOUS, a. Pertaining to, or 
containing antimony. 

ANTIMO'NIUJI, n. [L.] Antimony. 
ANTIMONY, n. [add.] Crude anti- 
mony, a name sometimes given to the 
ore or sulphuret of antimony. — Argen- 
tine flowers ofantimoni;, the ses'iuioxide 
of antimony. — Butter, (jlnss, and liver of 
antimony. [See these terms in their 
alphabetical jdaces.] 
ANTIiMOSA'ICAL, a. Opposing the 
authority of Moses, or of the Mosaic 

A law, or other thing, opposite or con- 


ANTIPARALYriGAL, a. Same as 
ANTIP'ATHOUS, a. Adverse; having 
a natural contrariety. 
ANTIPERIOD'lr, n. In mod., a re- 
medy possessing the property of pre- 
venting the return of periodic diseases, 
as intermittents. 

ANTIPHLOGISTIC, a. [add.] Op- 
posed to the doctrine of phlogiston ; 
as, tlie antiphlogistic system. 

ANTIPH'ONAL, «. A book of anti- 
phons or anthems ; an antiphonary. 

ANTIPO'DEAN, a. Antipodal ; per- 
taining to the antipodes. 

j>lur. of Antipode. As a Latin word 
it has no singular. 

ANTIPSOR'IC, a, [Gr. «vt*, and 4a;j« 
the itch.] Efficacious in curing the itch. 

ANTIPYRETIC, a. [Gr. «vTi, and ^v,.£- 
toi, fever.] Eilicacious in curing fever. 

AN'TIQUARY,t a. Old ; antique. 

ANTIQUES, n.p/«r.{anteek's.) Ancient 
works of art ; more especially works 
of Grecian art in sculpture, bass-reliefs, 
engraving of gems, medals, &;c., which 
serve as models for imitation. 

ANTIQ'UITIES, «. p/wr. In a limited 
sense, all the knowledge concerning 
the Greeks and Romans that lias been 
transmitted to our times, such as their 
forms of polity, systems of philosophy, 
of astronomy; with their political his- 
tory, architecture, sculpture, poetry, 
religion, domestic manners, &c. In a 
more extended sense, the term is ap- 
plied to the monumental remains, and 
to the works of art of numerous na- 
tions; as, the Egyptian, Persian, Baby- 
lonian, Hindoo, Peruvian, and Mexican 

ANTIRRHPNUM, n. [From Gr. «vt, 
with, and fiv, a nose or mask.] Snap-dra- 
gon, a genus of plants, nat. order Scro- 
phulariaceie. AH the species produce 
showy flowers, and are much cultivated 
in gardens. The leaves of A. majus 
are bitter, and slightly stimulant; and 
the leaves of A. oroniium, a^ well as 
those of other species, have been used 
as cataplasms in indolent tumours. 
[See Snap-Dragon.] 

AN'TIS. In arch., a portico is said to 
be in aniis, when columns stand in a 
line, in front, with the anta*. [See 

ANTIS'CII, n. phir. [L.] The same as 
Antiscians. [See Antiscian.] 


AN'TISCRIPT,t n. A writing in op- 
position to another writing. 

ANTISEP'TICAL, a. Same as Anti- 

ANTISLAV'ERY,a. Hostile to slavery; 
as, an antislavery meeting. 

AN'TISPAST, \ n. [Gr. «vxi. and 

ANTISPASTUS.J ^T^a*, to di-aw.] In 

prosody, a tetrasyllable foot, in which 
the first and last syllables are short, 
and the middle syllables long. 
ANTISPAS'TIC, a. [add.] Counter- 
acting spasm; antispasmodic. 
ANTISPAS'TIC, n. In old writers, a 
medicine supposed to act by causing a 
revulsion of the humours. — 2. A remedy 
that counteracts spasm ; an antispas- 

ANTISTROPU'lC, a. Relating to the 

ANTITH'ENAR, n. [Gr. «»«, and 3-«v«{, 
the palm of the hand.] A muscle which 
extends the thumb, or opposes it to the 
hand; also, the adductor muscle of the 
great toe 
ANTITH'ESES, n. plur. of Antithesis, 
— lohick see. 

ANTITH'ETON, n. plur. Antitheta. 
[Gr.] In rhet., something contrary; an 
ANTITROP'AL, \ a. Better AN- 
ANTIT'ROPOUS. [add.] More cor- 
rectly, a term applied to an embryo 
when in a seed the radicle is turned to 
the end farthest away from the hilum; 
it corresponds to a homotropous ovule. 
ANTITY'POUS,t a. Antitypical. 
ANTIVAC'CINIST, n. One who op- 
poses vaccination. 

ANT'LER,n. Thenameofamothfoimd 
in this country, the larvie of which 
sometimes destroy the herbage of 
whole meadows, so that their ravages 
are sometimes visible for years after- 
wards. It is the Ceraptcryx graviinis 
of naturalists. 

ANT'LIA, n. [L. a, pump.] A term ap- 
plied to the spiral instrument of the 
mouth of butterflies, and other allied 
insects, by which they pump up the 
juices of plants. It is what Ivirby and 

Antllti of Lepi.lopt^m. with the rurjlmenta of th9 
pivrtg of tliemoutli corresponding to those existing in 
rnandibuliited iiisects. 

Spence have called an imperfect mouth ; 
Savigny discovered in it, however, the 
rudiments of almost all the parts of 
a perfect mouth. Fig. 1 is the rudi- 
ment of the upper lip {labrum), c c' 
on each side, the rudimentary man- 
dibles ; fig. 2, the base of each half 
of the antlia, with a rudimentary pal- 
pus ; fig. 3 represents a profile view 
of a butterfly's head; fig. 4, the two 
tubes of which the antlia is com- 

Air-pump ; the name of a constellation 
in the southern hemisphere, situated 
between Hydra and Argo Navis. 

ANTLIA'TA, n. The name given by 
Fabricius to insects of the order Dip- 
tera, from their mouth having a sucker 
or proboscis. 

ANT'-LION, n. A neuropterous insect 
{Myrmeleon formicarius), long celo- 




brated ft>r the wonderful ingenuity ; 
which it displays in preparing a kind I 
of pitfall for the destruction of such | 
insects ichiefiy ants) as happen unwarily 

Aot-llon &Dd larva, ilfjrmeleon formtcarivu. 

to enter it. There are many species of 
the genus found in the more temperate 
and warmer parts of the globe. Some 
of them from "West Africa are at least, 
five inches across the wings. 

ANTfECI, n. plur. [L.J Antcccians, or 
antecians. {See Anteciax.] 

the figure antonomasia. 

AN'TKE,t 71. (an'ter.) [L. antrum.] A 

ANU'BIS, H. An Egyptian deity, the 
conductor of departed spii'its, and re- 

Aaubis, from an Ejjj-pt'iui paiotinf;. 

presented by a human figure with the 

head of a dog, fox, or jackal. 
AN'VLLLED, i>;>. Tasliioned on the 

ANYHOW, adv. In any manner; at 

any rate; on any account. [Proviw- 


expression used coUoquially for ar.i/ 


AN YWITERE, adv. In any place. 
AN'YWHITHEK,t adv. Anywhere. 
A'ORIST, a. Indetinite with respect to 


AORIS'TICAL, a. Same as Aoristic. 
AOKT'l€, a. Same as Aortal. 
APAU)',t;'i>. Paid; satisfied. [Cftaw- 


APANAGE, n. See ArPANAcn. 
AP'ARA, n. A species of armadillo (i)f7- 

st/pus Iricinctits), found in Brazil and 

Paraguay. It has the power of rolling 

itself into a complete bull. 
APAR'OIA, n. [Gr. a-r. from, and 

«;/ics. idleness (of the husbandman )|^ 

Hawk-bit, a genus of plants. [See 

APARTHRO'SIS, n. [Gr. aro and 

fl!;";". a joint.] Same as Abarticula- 

TiON, — which see. 

APATnET'I€AL, a. Same as Apa- 

APATniST'I€AL,rt. Apathetic. 

APATU'RA, Ji. A genus of diurnal 
Lepidoptera, containing many beautiful 
exotic species of butterllies, most of 
which are remarkable for their irides- 
cent colours. There is one British 
species, the Apatura inSy the purple 
emperor, one of the most beautiful of 
the buttertly tribe. It is found iu the 
south and west of England. 

APAYD',t ;>/).Paid; satisfied. [5pen.^-er.] 

APE, n. [add.] According to its modern 
zoological definition, the genus Ape, or 
Pithecus, includes those quadrumanous 
mammals which have the teeth of the 
same number and form as in man, and 
which possess neither tails nor cheek- 

APE, r. t. [add.] To ape one's betiers, a 
popular phrase, signifying to imitate 
one's superiors; to form into an awk- 
ward or disparaging resemblance. 

APEAK', adv. [add.] A yard or gaff is 
said to be apcaky when it bangs ob- 
liquely to the mast. 

APEEIv'. Same as Apeak. 

APEIRE,t t*. t. or i. (apeer'.) To im- 
pair; to detract fi"om; to be impaired; 
to go to ruin. [Chaucer.] [See Ap- 


APET'ALOUS, a. [add.] Apetalous, 
or more properly munochlamydeons 
plants, constitute one of the great divi- 
sions in the natural system of vege- 
tables. They comprehend all those 
genera which aie dicotyledonous or 
exogenous, and which have a single 
floral covering. 
APH^'RESIS, n. See Aprkresis. 
APHANIP TEKA. «. [Gr. ^;x.r.i, in- 
distinct, and r.-;§-vv, a wing.] An order 
of apterotis, haustellate insects, having 
perfect rudimentary wings. It is com- 
posed of the different species of fleas. 
APH'IDES, ) H. The second family 
APHID'IANS,J- of homopterous in- 
APHID'II, ) sects, having for its 
type the genus Aphis (Linn.) They are 
all injurious to vegetation, living ou 

the social bees, the solitary working 
bees, and parasitic bees. It is a most 
extensive family of insects, found in 
every part of the world. Even Gret-n- 
land has its hair-covered humble bees, 
which make their nests in the ground. 

A'PIS MUSGA, n. A new southern 
constellation, consisting of four stars. 

APLANAT'IG, a. [add.] Aplanatic 
lens, a lens so formed, that all the 
rays of light, which, diverging from, 
or converging to any one point in the 
axis, are incident upon it, after being 
transmitted through it, may converge 
to, or diverge from, one other point ia 
(lie same axis. In order that a lens 
may be apfanafic. it must have the true 
figure for correcting the abeiTation. and 
must be constructed of different media 
to correct the eii'ects of the unequal 
refrangibility of the different rays; in 
other words, it must be achromatic. 
Neither of those conditions can be ac- 
curately fulfilled in practice. 

APLASTIC, a. [Gr. « priv., and «x».r- 
Tixes, plastic] Not plastic; not easily 

APLY'SIA, n. The sea-hare, a genus of 
mollusca, of the order Tectibranchiata. 
Some of the species have the power of 
throwing out a deep purple liquor, with 
which the animal colours the water 
around to a considerable distance when 

WiiBAT Plant lof":: 

. Aphhffrajiiiria, 1, 3, Mate enlareeJ acd natural size. 
4, FciiitLle eoliirged and itncural size. 

the juices of plants, which they suck 
with their beaks. The ^\'heat plant- 
louse, A. granaria, inhabits corn -crops. 
In July and August it is sometimes 
abundant on the ears of wheat, sucldug 
the stem and impoverishing the grain. 

APHONIA, H. [L.] See Aphont. 

APHO'RIA. n. [Gr. « priv., and ?;.* 
to bear.] Barrenness ; sterility. 

APHOKISMATIC,) a. Relating to, 

APnORIS'MI€, ) or contiuning 

APHYL'LOSE.fl. Same as Aphyllous. 


APIA'RIAN, a. Relating to bees. 

AP'IGAL, a. Relating to the apex or 
top; belonging to the pointed end of a 
cone-shaped body. 

APlCULATE,o.Sameas ApicrLATET>. 

AP'ID.^, H. The bee family, comprising 

Gill bore, Afifj/Ha JtpOdns. 

it perceives any danger. A. depilans, 
or depilatory aplysia, is found in the 
European seas adhering to rocks; and 
it was long supposed that the acrid 
humour which it throws out occasioned 
the loss of the hair; this fluid is of a 
piu-ple hue, and long retains its colour. 
APO€'ALYPT, n. The author of the 
Apocalypse. [Lit. us.\ 
An apocalyptical wri- 
n. A bro\\n extractive 
matter, analogous to 
humiue, and derived 
from decaying vegeta- 
ble matter found in 
certain mineral waters. 
H, An advocate for the 
Doubtful ; not authentic. 
APOGYNA'CE-E, n. A nat. order of 
dicotyledonous plants, having for its 
type the genus Apocynum, or dogV 
bane. It is very nearly allied to the 
order Asclepiadacea?, from which it is 
distinguished by its stamens free from 
the style and stigma, and anthers of the 
usual form; and to Loganiaceae, from 
which it is separated by haWng a stig- 
ma contracted in the middle. The 
species have opposite or sometimes 
whorled leaves without stipules; the 
corolla gamopetalous, hypogynous, and 
with the stamens inserted upon it; the 
fruit two-celled. The stems, wlien 
wounded, yield a milky juice, which is 
generally poisonous; several yield 
caoutchouc. To the order belong tJje 
tanghin-tree ( Tanghinia veneni/era). 




milk-tree of Demerara {Tahemcemen- 
tana uiilis), the crcani-fruit of Sierra- 
Leone {lioupelUa (jhihra), &e. The 
bark of several species is a powerful 
febrifuge. Writjhtia iinctoria yields 
indigo of good quality, 

APO'CYNUM, n. Dog's-bane, a genus 
of plants, nat. order Apocynaceie. 
A, androsfEviifolinm, common dog's- 
bane, is an American plant. [5'ee Dog's- 

AP'ODA, w. An order of amphibious 
animals, comprising otdy one genus, the 
Ca!cilia, of a serpent-like form, and 
altogetlier destitute of feet. The term 
is also applied to an order of fishes. 
[See Ai'ODE.] 

AP'ODES, J n. An order of fishes, 

AP'ODA, > which, according to 

AP'ODALS, } Linnaeus, includes all 
those that want the ventral fins. Cu- 
vier has restricted the order to those 
fishes which, besides wanting the ven- 
tral fins, are likewise malacopterygious. 
The common eel furnishes an example. 

APODYTE'RlUM,n. instead of APO- 

APOG^'ON,tn. Apogee. 

APOG^'UM,w. [L. from Gr. ««y««y,] 
Same as Apooke. 

APO0lATU'UA,n. See Apoogiatura. 

APOLEP'SY.H. [Gr. <^■,=>.r.^ff,i.]An old 
medical tenn employed to signify re- 
tention or suppression of any natural 
evacuation, and also a suppressed fiuw 
of the animal spirits, to which apoplec- 
tic or cataleptic aifections were as- 

APOLLINA'KIST, n. Same as Apol- 


brated statue of Apollo in the Belvidere 
(whence the name) gallery of the Vati- 
can palace at Rome, esteemed one of 
the noblest representations of the hu- 
man frame, and one of the finest pieces 
of sciUpture extant. It was discovered 
at Porto- Ancio in the reign of Nero. 
APOLOGET'K'S, n. That branch of 
theology which has for its object a sys- 
tematic arrangement of those external 
and internal evidences of Christianity, 
or of the Holy Scriptures, by wliich 
Christians are enabled scientifically to 
justify and defend the peculiaiities of 
their faith. 

APOL'OGIZE, V. t. To excuse; to 
make an apology for ; as, to apologize 
an offence. [l/njisuaL] 
APONEUROTIC, a. Relating to the 

APONEUROT'OMY, n. [Gr. »^o mu- 
^•9, a nerve, and tc^»(, a cutting.] Dis- 
section of the aponeuroses. 

APOPHLEG'MATISM, n. A medicine 

to draw away phle;,'m. 

Apothegm ATicAL. 
LITE, n. 
AP'OPLEXY, «. [add.] A congestion 
or rupture of the brain, with sudden 
loss of sensatiun and motion ; an affec- 
tion of the animal functions, the or- 
ganic functions remaining compara- 
tively unimjiaired. The premonitory 
symptoms of this dangerous disease are 
drowsiness, giddiness, dulness of hear- 
ing, frequent yawning, disordered vi- 
sion, noise in tlie ears, paralysis, i^c. 
APOR'ETINE, 11. A resin obtained 
from rhuliarb. 
I. — Surr. 

APO'RIA. See Apory. 

APORRHOi'A, n. [Gr. a-rc^pca, to flow 
from.] In med., a defiuxion of humours, 
vapours, and effluvia. 

APOSEP'LDIN, n. [Gr. ««, and ffr.-n- 
hwv. putrefaction.] A peculiar crystal- 
lized substance obtained from putrid 

APOSTASIA'CEiE,??. A nat. order of 
monocotyiedonous plants scarcely dif- 
ferent from the Orchidacea^, from wliich 
they chiefly differ by having three 
perfect anthers, instead of only one or 
two. The species are found in damp 
woods in the hotter parts of India, but 
tlieir properties are unknown. 

APOS'TASIS, n. [Gr.] In av dent med., 
the termination or crisis of a disease by 
some secretion, in opposition to metas- 
tasis, or the termination by transfer to 
some other part. — Hence, 2, An apos- 
teme, imposthume, or abscess. — 3. Tlie 
throwing off' or separation of exfoliated 
or fractured bones. 

APOS'TATE, V. [add.] In the Bom. 
Cath. churchy one who, without a legal 
dispensation, forsakes a religious order 
of which he has made profession. 

APOS'TATE.t V. i. To apostatize. 

APOSTAX'IS, n. [Gr. «Tfl and cr^-Zu, 
to drop.] The droi)ping ot any fluid, as 
of blood from tlie nose. 

AFOS'TIL, ) n. [Fr. aposHlle.'] A 

APOS'TILL, 3 marginal note or refer- 
ence; a postscript. 

APOSTOL'ICISM, n. The quality of 
being apostolical. [Jtar. ws.] 

APOSTOLIC'ITY, n. The quality of 
being apostolical. 

APOSTROPH'IC, instead of APOS'- 

APOTELESMAT'IG, a. [Gr. arroTtUff- 
u.'x.Ttxos, from etToTO.iCf^at, an effect uf the 
stars.] Relating to astrology; teaching 
by the science of the stars. 

APOTHE'CIUiM, n. plur. Apotheda. 
[Gr. otTo, and ^y.zyt, a capsule.] In bot, 
apotheda are the shields or reproduc- 
tive organs of lichens. They appear on 
the thallus in the form of little warts, 
cups, or lines, and have a hard disk 
often surrounded by a rim, and contain- 
ing spores, either naked, or inclosed 
within long or roundish tubes, called 
thecse or asci. 

AP'OTHEGM,n. pron. Ap'oihem. 

APOTROP^'A, n. 2dur. [Gr. «rro, and 
Tgirai to turn.] In andent poetrij, verses 
or hymns composed for averting the 
wrath of incensed deities. 

AP'PANAOE, n. [add.] Formerly in 
France, the provision of lands or feudal 
superiorities assigned by the kings for 
the maintenance of their younger sons, 
but on condition that on the failure of 
male issue, such lant^ or superiorities 
were to revert to the crown. By means 
of their ajtpanages, and through the 
operation of the Salic law, whicli made 
their inheritance of the crown a less 
remote contingency, the princes of the 
blood-royal in France were at all times 
a distinct and formidable class of men. 

APPAN'AOlST, n. [Fr. apanagiste.] 
A prince to whom an appanage was 

APPAR'AIL,! V. t. [Fr.] To prepare. 

[L.] The Sculptor's Workshop; a con- 
stellation situated in that region of the 
heavens immediately to the eastward of 
the large star Fomalhault, and hardly 
rising above the horizon in our hemi- 

APPAR'ELS, n. Appendages worked 

in silk and gold, embroidered with or- 
naments or sacred imagery, sometimes 
enriched with pe;wls and precious 
stones, worn from the 13th to the 14th 
century, attached to the alb, and other 
ecclesiastical vestments. They either 
went round the wrist, the bottom edge 

of the garment, or the collar, and were 
often quadrangular pieces attached to 
the end of the maniple, the ends of the 
stole, or the bottom edge of the dress. 
The accompanying figiu-e is from a 
brass in Heylesden church, Nort'olk, 
and represents Richard Thasebury, 
who died 1387. 

APPAY'ED, a. Tn Shall., Satisfied; 

APPEACH'ED,t pp. Censured, or im- 
peached. [Spenser. '\ 

APPEACH'ER,t n. An accuser. 

APPEAL', n. [add.] Appeals in criminal 
causes were abolished in England by 
the Act 59 Geo. III., c. 40. 

APPELE',t V. t. [See Appeal.] To ac- 
cuse. [Spenser.'\ 

APPEL'LANCY, n. Appeal; capability 
of appeal. 

APPEL'LANT, a. Appealing. 

APPEL'LATE, a. [add.] To or from 
which there may be an appeal. 

APPEL'LATIVENESS, n. Quality of 
being appellative. 


AP'PENAGE. See Appanage. 

APPEND'AGE, «. [add.] In bot., a 
part subordinate to another part, as 
hairs and glands to a stem or leaf, or 
nectaries to the corolla; more strictly, 
any part arising from and around the 
axis, as leaves around the stem. 

APPEN'DANT,«. instead of APPEN'- 
DANT, n. 

APPEN'DANT, n. [add.] A thing of 
inheritance belonging to another in- 
heritanee which is more worthy ; as an 
advowson, common, &c., which maybe 
appendant to a manor ; common of fish- 
ing, to. a freehold; a seat in a church, 
to a house, &c. 

APPENSE', a. Being hung iip, as a hat 
on a pin. — In bot., applied to an ovule 
attached to the placenta by some point 
intermediate between the apex and the 

AP'PETITE,t V. t. To desire; to 
covet. [Chancer.'] 

APPETl"TIOUS,t a. Palatable; de- 

AP'PETIZE, u. t. To create an appe- 

AP'PETiZED, pp. Having an appe- 
tite; rendered hungry. 

APPETIZER, n. He or tbat which ap- 





APTLE, n. [add.] The apple is essen- 
tially a fruit of the colder and more 
temperate regions of the globe, over 
which it is almost universally spread 
and cultivated. From its hardiness 
and great abundance, combined unth 
its excellent flavour, it constitutes one 
of the most important productions of 
cold climates. In its wild state it is 
tlie austere crab-apple of the hedges. 
Fourteen hundred varieties of the apple 
have been described, and it is probable 
that this is not more than half the 
number known. 
AP'PLE-BLIGHT,n.Aspeciesof aphis, 
covered nith a white cottony secretion, 
and which mtiltiplies exceedingly in the 
crevices of diseased apple-trees. 
AP PLE-BRANDT, 5 n. In America, 
APPLE-JACK, J a liquor dis- 
tilled from cider; also called cider- 
AP PLE-BUTTER, n. In America, a 
sauce made of apples stewed down in 
AP PLE-DUJrPLIXG, 71. A dumpling 
made of apple;;. 
AP'PLE-JOHX, n. A kind of apple 
wliich keeps long, but becomes viiih- 
AP PLE-MOTH, n. The Tortrix po- 
monana, a lepidupterons insect, the 
larvte of wliich take up their abode in 

APPLE-PIE ORDER. An expression 
used in familiar conversation, denoting 
perfect order; as, everjlhing in the 
house was in apph-pie order. 
AF PLE-SNAIL, n. The shells of the 
genus Ampullaria are often so called. 
AP PLE-TREE, n. [add.] Apple-trees 
are trained in the form either of stand- 
ards, dwarfs, espaliers, or balloons; and 
they are propagated by seeds, cuttings, 
suckers, layers, ingrafting, or inocula- 

AP PLI€ANT, n. A diligent student ; 
one who applies himself closely to his 
studies. [American.] 
APPLICATE.t «. t. To apply to. 
APPOINT', f. (. [add.] Milton uses this 
verb in a peculiar sense in his Sampson 
Agonistes: — " Appoint not heavenly dis- 
position;" that is, point not at it by 
way of censure or condemnation ; ar- 
raign it not. 
APPOINT', I', i. To ordain ; to deter- 
mine, 2 Sam. ivii. 14. 
APPOINT'MENT, n. [add.] A com- 
mon law-deed or conveyance of a de- 
rivative nature, relating to or dependent 
on some precedent assiu^nce, in which 
a power to appoint to certain uses has 
been created or preserved to the party 
thereby granting or appointing. 
proportion. i 

APPOSI 'TION, n. [add.] A term ap- i 
plied to that part of the function of 
nutrition, by which the components of 
the blood are transformed on the free 
siuface of an organ into a solid unor- 
ganized substance, which is the mode 
of growth of the tissues that are not 

APPRAISE', f. (. [add.] To value ; to 
set a price upon ; to estimate the value 
of. It is generally used for the act of 
valuing by men appointed for the pur- 
pose, under direction of law, or by 
agreement of parties; as, to appraise 
the goods and estate of a deceased per- 
son, or goods taken under a distress for 
APPRAIS'ED, pp. Valued ; having the 
worth iixed by authorized persons. 

APPRAISE'JIENT, n. [add.] The act 
of setting a value under some authority 
or appointment; also, the rate at which 
a thing is valued; tlie value fixed, or 
valuation. In England, according to 
the present law, when goods have been 
taken under a distress for rent, it is 
necessary, in order to enable the land- 
lord to sell them, that they should be 
previously appraised or valued by two 
appraisers, who are sworn by the 
sheriff, under-sheriff, or constable, to 
appraise the goods truly, according to 
the best of their understanding. 
APPRAIS'ER, 71. [add.] No person can 
act as an appraiser without a special 
license. In London there are about 
900 licensed appraisers, and in other 
parts of England and Wales about 

Note. — Appraise, appraised, ap- 
praisement, &c., are now almost uni- 
formly used, instead of apprize, ap- 
prizer, apprizement, &c., although the 
latter were formerly used by good Eng- 
lish authors, as Lord Bacon, Bishop 
Hall, &c. 

APPRE€A'TION,t n. [L. apprecor.] 
Earnest praver. 
.\P PREeATORY,t a. Praying or 
wishing anv good. 

APPREHENb', r. i. To think; to sup- 
pose ; to imagine. 

APPREHENSION, n. [add.] The act 
of sei2ing or taking hold of; as, the 
hand is an organ of apprehension. — 
Simple apprehension, in logic, that act 
or condition of the mind, in which it 
receives a notion of any object. — In- 
complex apprehension regards one ob- 
ject or several, without any relation 
being perceived between them, as a 
man, a horee, cards ; complex appre- 
hension is of several objects with such 
a relation, as of a man on horseback, a 
pack of cards. 
APPRENTICE-FEE, n. A sum given 
to the master of an apprentice, as a 
premium for the instruction of the 
APPRISE', V. t. Generallv written AP- 
APPK1SE',+ a. InformaHon. 
APPRIS'ED, ) GeneralhwTittenAP- 
APPROACHING, n. In gardening, the 
act of ingrafting a sprig or shoot of one 
tree into another, without cutting it 
from the parent stock; called also 
ingrafting, and inarching by approach. 
APPROBA'TION, n. [add.] In Shah., 
probation ;_ proof. 
APTR ORATOR, n. One who approves. 

[Rar. us.] 
APPROVE , V. t. [add.] In milit. affairs, 
to sanction officially; as, to approve 
the decision of a court-martial. — In 
Shah., to confii-m. 
APPROVED, pp. [add.] In Shah., 
proved ; as, an approved wanton. 
APPRoVE'ilENT, n. [add.] Formerly 
in law, the particulars of the approver's 
disclosure w ere called an appeal, and 
the persons whom the approver named 
as the partners of his crime, were 
called the appellees. The appeal by 
approvers is now abolished, and the 
present practice is to prefer a bill of 
indictment against all partiesimplicated 
in the charge, except the approver, and 
to permit the criminal who confesses 
his guilt to give evidence against his 
companions before the grand jury If 

on the trial the demeanour and testi- 
mony of the accomplice are satisfactory 
to the court, he is recommended to 

APPROXaMATE, a. [add.] Approxi- 
mate quantities, in math., are those 
which are nearly, but not absolntely, 

APPROXaJIATELY, adv. By ap- 

A'PRU-FOOL DAY, n. The first day 
of April. 

ATRON-STEING, n. The string of an 

AP'SLDAL, a. In arch., of or pertaining 
to the apsis ; as, apsidal chapels. 

AP'SIDAL, a Pertaining to the ap- 
sides. [See Apsis.] 

AP'SIS, 71. plur. Apsides, or Apses. 
[add.] In modern astron., the apsides 
or apses are the two points of the or- 
bit of a planet or satellite, at which it 
is moving at light angles to the line 
drawn to the primary. These two 
points being at the extremities of the 
major axis of the orbit, are those at 
which the planet is at its greatest and 

least distances from the primai-y. The 
point at the greatest distance is called 
the higher apsis, and that at the least 
the lower apsis. In regard to the 
earth and the other primary planets, 
these two points correspond to the 
aphelion and perihelion ; and in regard 
to the moon, they correspond to the 
apogee and perigee. The line of the 
apsides has a slow angular motion in 
the plane of the planet's orbit. In the 
annexed figure, A and B are apsides, or 
points of greatest and least distance of 
a planet from the sun, the orbit of such 
planet being an ellipse with the sun in 
one of the foci, as at S. 

APTENODYTES, n. [Gr. .^«., 
wingless, and hjm, a diver.] The pen- 
gnins, a genus of web-footed diving 
birds, peculiar to the Antarctic shores. 
Their wings are too short for flight, and 
are used as fins or paddles for swim- 
ming under water. The great penguin 
(A. patagonica) is the representative of 
the genus. The aptenodytes feed on 
various species of crabs and other crus- 
taceous animals, and their stomach has 
also been found to contain from 2 lbs. 
to 10 lbs. of pebbles. They attain a 
great weight, having been captured 
weighing 78 lbs. Though on the ice 
or on land they move slow ly and awk- 
wardly, yet they slide over the surface 
of deep snow at a considerable pace, by 
lying down on their beUy and impelling 
themselves along by their powerful feet. 
[See cut in Diet. Pexguis.] 

AP'TERANS. See Apteka. 

APTEROUS, a. In zool., destitute of 
wings ; applied to insects of the genus 
Aptera. — 2. In hot., destitute of mem- 
branous expansions, as a stem or pe- 
tiole ; opposed to alate. 

AP'TERYX, 71. [add.] Three species of 
this ciuious genus of New Zealand 
birds are now known. A specimen of 
one of these, the Apteryx mantellii, is at 
present (1852) alive in the Zoological 
Gardens, London. It sleeps during the 




day, ar.d is very active at niglit. It 
uses its long beak sometimes in wallt- 
ing, almost as if it was a third leg. 

Apteryx, Apteryx ntanceUi. 

None of the species are much larger 
than a good-sized fowl. It is a genus 
of birds that in a few years will be ex- 

A'PUS, re. [add.] [Gr. « priv., and (row, 
a foot.] A name given to a genus of 
crustaceous animals which inhabit 
ditches, lakes, and standing waters, 
generally in innumerable ciuantities. 

APYRETie, a. [Gr. « priv., and irv?, 
fire.] In med., a term that lias been 
applied to those days in which the in- 
termission happens in agues, and also 
to local affections which are not accom- 
panied with febrile excitement of the 

AP'YRINE, n. An alkaline substance 
found in the Cocos lapidea. It is a 
white powder, forming crystalline salts 
with acids. 


A'QUA DISTILLA'TA, n. [L.] Dis- 
tilled water. 

A'QDA-FONTA'NA, n. [L.] Spring- 


AQUA MIRAB'ILIS, n. [L.] A medi- 
cal water. 

A'QUA POT.\S'S^, n. [L.] The 
aqueous solution of potassa. 

AQUA'KIUM, n. [L.J An artificial 
pond, cistern, or place in a garden for 
cultivating aquatic plants. 


AQ'UEDUCT, n. [add.] In miat., a term 
applied to cci'tain canals occurring in 
different parts of the body; as, the 
aqueduct of the cochlea, and of the 

A'QUEOUS, a. [add.] Made by means 
of water ; as, an aqneaus solution or hy- 

A'QUEOUS ROCKS, re. In yenl, rocks 
of the second and third classes, as com- 
posed of matter deposited by water. 
They are also termed vtetamorphiCj and 
stratijicd rocks. 

AQUIFOLIA'CE^, re. The holly tribe 
of plants, a nat. order of the polycar- 
l>ous group of polypetalous exogens. 
The species consist of trees and shrubs, 
■with alternate or opposite coiiaceous 
leaves; small, axillary, solitary, or fas- 
cicled flowers; and a fleshy indehiscent 
fruit. The useful plants of the order 
are found in the genera Ilex, Mygin- 
da, and Prinos. 

AQUILARIA'CE^, re. The agalloch- 
\\m tribe of plants, a nat. order of the 
tubiferous group of incomplete exogens. 
The species are trees with smooth 

branches and a tough bark ; alternate, 
entire leaves; the fruit a capsule, pear- 
shaped, and valved. The order consists 
of only three genera, Aijuilaria (or more 
properly Agallaria), Ophiospermum, 
and Gyrinops. Aloes-wood and eagle 
or agal wood are yielded by species of 
Aquilaria. AU the species of the order 
are natives of the East Indies. 

AQUILE'6IA, n. [From aquila, an 
eagle, whose claws the nectaries re- 
present.] 5€e definition under Aquale- 
GiA, which is an incorrect orthography. 

AQUITE'.t "■ *• [Fr-] To pay for. 

A'QULA, re. [L. dimin. of aqua, water.] 
A fatty tumour under the skin of the 

AQUOSE',"!- «. Watery. 

AQUOS'ITY,t re. Watcriness. 

A'RA, n. [L.] The Altar; a southern 
constellation, containing nine stars. It 
is not visible in our latitude. 

ARAB, or AR'AB, re. A native of Ar- 

ARAB'I€AL, a. Ai'abian; Arabic. 

AR'ABIN, re. A name given to the prin- 
ciple which forms the base of all gums. 

AR'ABIS, re. [Gr. «;i»^.j.] Wall-cress or 
rock-cress, a genus of plants. [See 

ARACA'RI, re. [add.] The aracaris are 
not woodpeckers, but birds belonging 
to the genus Pteroglossus, of the Tou- 
can family. 

AKACE'.t V. t. [Fr. arrachei:] To tear 
up by the roots ; to draw away by 
force. [Chaucer.] 

ARA'CE^, re. The arum tribe of plants, 
a nat. order of monocotyledonous 
plants. Tlie species are herbaceous 
plants, with leaves sheathing at the 
base ; the flowers unisexual, and with- 
out a perianth, on a spadix; anthers, 
nearly sessile ; and the fruit succulent. 
They are natives chiefly of tropical 
countries; and a principle of acridity 
generally pervades them, and exists in 
so strong a degree in some of them, as 
to render them dangerous poisons ; as 
the dumb cane of the West Indies 
and South America. The order was 
originally called Aroidea?, and then in- 
cluded Typhacea! and Orontaceai. 

ARA'CEOUS, a. Pertaining to the nat. 
order of plants Arace^e. 
ARACHIS, re, [add.] A genus of legu- 
minous plants, called the earth-nut or 
pea-nut, much cultivated in warm cli- 
mates, and esteemed a valuable article 

T-.Tthnut, AracJiis hypogtaa, 

of foo'' It is allied to the bean. The 
most rv.iiiarkable species is the A. hy- 
pogcea, the fruit of which, instead of 
hanging down from among the leaves, 

conceals itself in the earth, and is 
deeply buried when it becomes ripe. 
The pod, when mature, is oblong, often 
contracted in the middle, wrinkled, of 
a pale yellow colour, and contains two 
or three seeds, the size of a hazel-nut, 
in flavour sweet as almonds, and yield- 
ing, when pressed, an oil not inferior 
to that of olives. 

ARACH'NIDANS,) n. Same as Ar- 
ARA€H'NIDES, ) achnida. 
ARACH'NOID, re. In aHnf.,the arach- 
noid tunic or membrane. [See the Ad- 

ARA€H'NOID, a. [add.] In hot., re- 
sembling cobweb; seeming to be co- 
vered with cobweb, in consequence of 
the entanglement of long white hairs. 
ARA€HNOIDIS'CUS, re. In hot., a 
genus of diatomous plants. The A, 
Ehrenhergis is a beautifid microscopic 
object, resembling a minute circular 
TIS, n. Inflanmiation of the arachnoid 

ARjEOM'ETER, n. See .Areometer. 
ARALIA'CEjE, re. A nat. order of 
plants nearly related to the Umbellifenc, 
from which they are distinguished 
chiefly by their three or more celled 
fruit, simple epigynous disk, usually 
valvate corolla, and more shrubby 
habit. The species are natives chiefly 
of China, India, North America, and 
the tropics of the New World. The 
true ginsenri of the Chinese is produced 
by Panax ginseng, a plant found in 
China, Nepaul, and Japan ; that so 
called in North America (P. quinque- 
folium), is considered distinct. A species 
of aralia is used in North America as a 
substitute for sarsaparilla. The true 
rice - paper of tiie Chinese, obtained 
only from the island of Formosa, is 
believed by some to be a species of 
aralia, and called A. pam/rifera, but 
its flowers have not yet been seen by 
ARAlIyE'AN, a. Relating to Aram, or 
to the Chaldeans, or to their language. 
ARAMA'IC, ff. A term applied to the 
language of the Chaldeans and Syrians, 
their literature, &c. 
ARANE'IFORM, a. Resembling a spi- 
der; having the form or shape of a 

AKAN'GOES, re. A species of beads 
made of rough carnelian, generally of 
a cylindrical shape. They constituted 
an article of traffic with Africa pre- 
vious to the abolition of the slave-trade, 
and were imported from Bombay. 
ARA'TOR, re. [L.] A ploughman. 
ARAY ',+ V. t. To array ; to dress ; to 
set in order, [Spenser.] 
AR'BALEST, re. A cross-bow. [See 

SR'BlTKACiE.t re. Arbitration. 
ARBITRA'TION, n. [add.] This mode 
of settling differences is very frequently 
resorted to, as a species of amicable 
litigation, and a means of avoiding the 
delay and expense of a lawsuit, and 
the publicity of a trial. A dispute may 
be referred to arbitration, either when 
there is an action already pending be- 
tween the parties relating thereto, or 
when there is no such action. No in- 
jury can be the subject of arbitration, 
unless it is such as may be a matter of 
civil controversy between the parties. 
By the law of England, the authority of 
an arbitrator cannot be revoked by any 
of the parties, without the leave of the 


court, or of a judge. In Scofiandj the 
system of ai'bitratiou is a mollification 
of that of tlie Roman law. The sub- 
mission by which the parties agree to 
abide by the decision of an arbiter, is a 
regularly executed contract, and it re- 
quires all the solemnities peculiar to 
the execution of deeds in Scotland. If 
there be more than one arbiter, they 
must be unanimous; but if they are 
not so, an oversnian may be appointed 
to decide. 

XRBOK'ItWL.t a. Relating to trees. 

ARBOUICUL'TURAL, a. Relating to 

practises arboriculture. 

XRBOR IFOKM, a. Having tlie form 
of a tree. 

AUBU'TUS, n. A genus of evergreen 
shrubs. [*'ee Ardutb.] 

All'^A, n. A genus of bivalve moUusca, 
whicli has numerous teeth on the hinge. 
The species are known by the name of 
arh'Shi'lls. Some of them are natives 
of the Ci-itish seas ; one of these is 
called Area No(P, or Noah's ark. 

ARCA'DED, a. t'urnished with an ar- 

AUCA'DIAN, m. a native of Arcadia. 

AR'CADYjf H. The country of Arcadia. 

AU€A'MIM, n. [add.] In met/., a secret 
remedy; a remedy which owes its 
value to its being kept secret. — In the 
old cheiiiiiirj/t the secret vu'tue of any- 

AKt'II.I^OG'RAPnY, n. [Gr. «a«'«'- 
>--e6(j»i, a wiitiug.] A writing or treatise 
on antiquity. 

AUCH.i:OLO'GlAN, «, An archie- 

AUt UA'IC, fl. Ancient; obsolete. 

In archceul., the period between the 
introduction of metals, of which copper 
and tin were the principal, and the dis- 
covery of iron. 

ARCIIA'1C\L, a. Same as Archaic. 

AKCll-BOAUD, ». A plank placed 
along a ship's .ctern. and immediately 
under the knuckles of the stern-timbers. 
On this board the ship's name is some- 
*i res painted. 

ARCH-BL'FFOON', n. The chief buf- 

ARCH-BUTLER, «. [add.J Tliis office 
is now extinct. 

ARCH-BUTTRESS, n. [Fr. arc-bou- 
tanf.] In arch., a boldly projecting but- 
tress, with an npeiiing under it, forming 
an arch. In William of Worcester's 
Jtinerari/, it is called arck-buttant. 

AR€HK'AL,t a. Pertaining to the 
archeus ; as, arckeal ideas ; caused by 
the archeus ; as, arckeal diseases. 
[See Arciieits.] 

XRCHEDI'ACRE,! n. An archdeacon. 

XUCH'ER, n. [add.] In zooL, the tox- 
otes of Cuvier, a genvis of acanthoptery- 
gious fishes. [See Toxotes.] 

ARCHERY, H. [add.] In former times, 
a service of keeping a bow for the 
lord's use, in the defence of his castle. 

XRCH'ES, H. A name given to several 
species of moths ; thus, the Psilura 
moiiacha is tlie black arches; the Xijlo- 
phnsia lithonjleay the li'jht arches ; 
Folia herhiila, the ureen arches, &e. 

ARCH'ES-UOURT, h. [add.j The 
arches-ecurt lias a general appellate 
jurisdiction in ecclesiastical causes 
arising within the province of Canter- 
bury. The dean of the arches, for 
the time being, is president of the col- 
lege of doctors of law, who practise 


in the ecclesiastical and admiralty 
courts. He is selected from the col- 
lege of advocates. 

anat., a term applied to an ideal skele- 
ton, constructed by Professor Owen, 
and of which the endo-skeletons of all 
the vertebrata are modifications. In 
this skeleton is arranged the succession 
of vertebral segments of those animals, 
together with their various processes, 
foramina, and appendages. 

ARCHETYPTCAL, a. Relating to an 

ARCHE'WIVES,t«.p/«r. (arch 'wives.) 
Wives of a superior order. [Chancer.] 

aRCH'IATER, ) fi. [add.J This term 

ARCHUATER, S is applied, on the 
continent of Europe, to the first, or 
body physician of princes, and to the 
first physician of some cities ; in Russia, 
to the first imperial phvsici^n. 

ARCHtEPIS'COPACY, n. The state 
of an archbishop. 

AUCHIEPIS€OP.VTE, n. The othee 
or jurisdiction of an archbishop; an 

XRCHlG'RAPHER,«.[Gr.«5x9.- chief, 
and >ja^ai to write.] A chief secretary. 

AR€HlLO'€HlAN, a. [add.] In au- 
cient prosody, this term is applied to 
denote the four metrical combinations 
invented by Arcliilochus. There are 
three dactylic Archilochian distichs, 
and one iambic Archilochian distich. 
The third verse of the Uoratian stanza 
is also sometimes called Archilochian. 

XRCH'ILOWE, n. [Derivation un- 
known.] A peace -ofi^ering ; the return 
wiiich one who has been treated in an 
inn or tavern, sometimes reckons him- 
self bound in honour to make to the 
company. AVhen he calls for his bottle, 
he is said to give his archilotve. Also 
written archihufh. [Scotch.] 

ARCHIMANDRITE, n. [add.] In the 
Greek church, a chief of a monastery, 
corresponding to abbot in t!ie Romish 
church; or a superintendent of several 
monasteries, corresponding to superior 
abbot in the Romish church. — In the 
Russian Greek church, the term is ap- 
plied to the higher order of chiefs of 
monasteries, corresponding to the Rom- 
ish abbot. 

XR€H1PELA6'IC, a. Relating to an 

to architecture. 

ARCHITEC TOR,t «. An architect. 

ARCM'-WaY, /(. An entrance or pas- 
sage under an arch. 

XRCU'-WIFE', «. A woman in the 
higher ranks of society, or the wife of 
a person of high rank. 

XRCH'-WORk,H. Formation of arches. 

AUCH'Y, a. Resembling, or having 
arches ; archini:. 

ARCTIA CAJA, n. The tiger-moth, 
a noctiu'ual lepidopterous insect, the 
larva of which is clothed with long 

AUCTUID.E, n A family of lepidop- 
teroiis insects, belonging to the section 
Ileteromera. The types of the family 
are distinguished by their larvjp being 
very thickly clothed with long hairs, 
wlience they have obtained the name of 
u'oollf/ bears. They feed upon the ex- 
ternal parts of plants, and inclose 
tiiemselves in cocoons, when about to 
undergo their transfoi-niations. To 
this family belong the tiger-moths. 

ARCTOMYS, H. [Gr. aj^^i, a bear, 
and fxv!, a raf.] The marmot, a genus 
of rodent animals. [.See Marmot.] 


XR€'UATILE,t a. Bent or cnrved. 

XRCUBUS, n. A species of gun, with 
a trigger ; an arquebuse. 

XRC'US SEM LIS, n. [L.] The bow 
of old age ; an opacity round the mar- 
gin of the cornea, occurring in advanced 

ARDAS'SINES, ». A very fine sort of 
Persian silk; the finest used in the 
looms of France. 

XR'DEA, w. a Linnican genus of wad- 
ing birds, including the herons, storks, 
cranes, bitterns, &c. Modern zoolo- 
gists have formed this genus into seve- 
ral distinct genera, and the genus 
Ardea has been restricted to the herons 
proper, of which our common heron, 
Ardea cinerea, is the type. 

AUDE ID^E, n. The heron tribe, a 
family of grallatorial or wading birds, 
including the herons, cranes, and storks. 
The beak is long, thick, and stout, 
usually with cutting edges, as well as 
a point. 

AR DENCY, n. [add.] Among seamen, 
the tendency of a vessel to gripe. 

ARDISIA'CE.E, n. A nat. order of 
plants, now called Myrsinacefe. 

ARDOR, n. [add.] Among pht/sicianSf 
heat; a sense of heat or burning. 

AUDU'lTY,t «. Height; ditttculty. 

AR'DUUE.t n. [L. ardor.] Bui-ning. 

AREAD',fv. ^ [add.] To pronounce. 

ARE'€A, n. [add.] Besides the Areca 
catechu, there is another important spe- 
cies of this genus, viz., the A. oleracea, 
or cabbage-tree, or cabbage-palm. [See 

AREDE,t v.L (ared.) To interpret. 
[See Rede.] [Chaucer.] 

AREED'Sjf n. plur. Advices j dis- 
courses, [^y-e/wer.] 

AUElSE',f If. t. (areys'.) To raise. 

geoL, containing sand and gypsum, as 
the red sandstone. 

ARENA'RIA, n. Sandwort, a genus of 
plants. [See S.\ndwort.] 

botanical name of one of the palms that 
produces sago, and from which palm- 
wine is obtained. It is found in all the 
islands of the Indian Archipelago. Be- 
sides yielding wine and sago, the fibres 
of the stem and leaves are manufactured 
into strong cables. 

ARENICOLA, h. The lob-worm, a 
genus of dorsibranchiate annelids, com- 
mon on our coasts, and sought for by 
fishermen for bait. 

AREOLA, n. See Areole, 

AR'EOL.^, n. More usually written 

AREOP'AGIST, n. A member of the 

AREOSYS'Ti'LE, n. See Arxosy- 


ARERE'jf V. t. (areer'.) [Sax. araeran.] 
To rear or raise up ; to excite. [Chau- 

ARE'SON,t f- t. [Fr. arraisoner.] To 
reason with ; to censure ; to arraign. 

ARETTE',t V- '• (aref.) [Fr. arrester.] 
To impute to ; to reckon, value, or es- 
timate; to lay to the charge. [Chaucer.] 

AREW'.f '( adv. In a row; in regular 

ARE WE',t ) succession. [5;>t'/wer.] 

AR'GAL, instead of ARGAL, n. 

AR'G.AXjf adv. A corruption of the 
Latin ergo, therefore. 

AR'GALA, n. The Indian name of the 
adjutant, or gigantic crane, Ciconia 
argala of Temminck. 




XU'GEL, ) n. A plant found in Upper 

All G HEL, I Egypt and Arabia Petrfea, 
the Sulenostemma argel, ami belonging 
to the Asclepiadaceae, and used for 
adulterating Egyiitian senna, than 
which, however, it is much more grip- 

ARGEMO'XE. n. A small genus of 
plants, nat. order Papaveraceie. The 
species are all ornamental, and natives 
of Mexico. From the seeds of A. 
Mei'icana, the IMexicans obtain an oil 
very useful to painters. The haiid- 
soinest species is A. gratidiflora, which 
has large Howers of a pure wliite colour. 

AR'GENTATE, n. Fulminating silver 
is sometimes called argentate of am- 

from silver. 

AKOENTI'NA, n. A genus of raala- 
copterygious fishes, belonging to the 
salmon family, so named from their 
silvery scales. A. sphi/r^na is a well- 
known species, caught in the Mediter- 
rannean. The Sheppy argentine of 
Pennant (Scopehts Pennani'd) is taken 
occasionally on our coast. 

[add.] In zool., silver-coloured ; silvery ; 
applied to the scales of fishes. 

[add.] A name common to the species of 
Argentina, — which see. 

AKGEN'TUM, n. [L.] SUver. 

AR'GHEL. See Argkl. 

clay, or potters'-earth ; the earth or 
clay called by chemists alumina. 

homogeneous soft substances which 
comprise the shale or slate clay, bitu- 
minous shale, clav, and marl. 

staining clay and iron, as a mineral. 

AR'GO, n. A constellation. [.SVcAkgo- 

AR'GOIL,t « [See Akgil.] Potters'- 
clay. [Chaucer.] 

AR'GOL, n. See Abg.\l. 

ARGONAU'TID.E, «. The name of 
the family of cephalopodous molluscs, 
wiiich contains the argonaut or paper- 
sailor. This famed mollusc swims only 
by ejecting water from its funnel, and 
crawls in a reversed position, caiTying 
its shell over its back like a snail. The 
account of its floating on the surface of 
the sea, with its sail-shaped arms ex- 
tended to catch the breeze, originated 
with Aristotle, and has been repeated 
by poets ever since; there is no otiier 
foundation for tlie fable. [See cut in 

Pict. AllfiONAUTA.] 

XR'GUABLE, a. That maybe argued; 
admitting argument. 

XR'GUFY, v. i. To import; to have 
weight, as an argument. [Provincial.] 

AR'GUFY, v. t To argue. [Vul<jar.] 

AR'GUMENT,H. [add.] In a. ■it ron., the 
term arfjument may be defined the 
angle or quantity on wliich a series of 
numbers in a table depends. Suppose, 
for example, a table of the sun's decli- 
nation wt^re formed, corresponding to 
every degree, &c., of longitude, so that 
the longitude being known, the decli- 
nation might be found opposite to it in 
tlie table, then the longitude would be 
made the a'-gumcnt of the declination, 
and the table must be entered with the 
argument. — In Shak., argument is used 
for conversation ; subject-matter. 

XR'GUMENT, v. i. To reason; to dis- 
course. [Rar. us.] 

ARGUMENT'ATIVE, a. [add.] Ad- 

dicted to argument; as, an argumenta- 
tive WTliQV. 

argumentum ad HOMINEM. 

[L.] [See under Argument.] — Argu- 
mentumadverecundiam. [See under Ar- 
gument.] — Argumentum ad ignoran- 

^ tiam^ in logic, the employment of some 

' kind of fallacy, in the widest sense of 
that word, toward such persons as are 
most likely to be deceived by it. 

AR'GUS, n. A watchful person; so 
named from the fabled Argus, who had 
a hundred eyes. — In oruith., a genus of 
gallinaceous birds found in the south of 
Asia, the male of wiiich has a very 
long tail and long quills in the ^vings 
covered with ocellated spots. It is the 
argus pheasant (Argu^- giganteus). — The 
medusa's head, a species of starfish 
(Astrophi/tnn scutatum), is sometimes 
also so called. 

AllGYN'NlS, n. A genus of diurnal 
lepidopterous insects or butterflies, re- 
markable for the silvery spots on the 
under part of the wings. A. paphia is 
abundant in the south of England, and 
A. lafhonia on the Continent. 

AllGYRrTIS, n. [Gr. «;-/'^;as, silver.] 
An old name of litharge. 

A'RIANIZE, V. t. To render conform- 
able to Arianism. 

A'RIETIS, 71. A star of the second 
magnitude in the head of Aries or the 

ARTLLATE, a. Relating to, or formed 
like an arillus. 

ARrON, n. A genus of pulmoniferous 
niollusca, containing tlie great black 
slug {Arion ater). This slug feeds on 
living and decaying vegetable sub- 
stances, and deposits its blui.-sh eggs in 
a cluster at the roots of plants. 

AR'IOSE, a. [From arioso.] Charac- 
terized by melody, as distinguished 
from harmony ; as, the ariose beauty of 

ARIOSO, a. [add.] This term is used 
adverbially to signify, in the manner of 
an air. as contradistinguished f^om re-- 
citativc; but in instrumental music, it 
denotes, in a sustained vocal style. 
Prefixed to an air, it denotes a sustained 
elaborate style, appropriate to the gi'eat 
airs of the opera. 

AR'IST.\RCH, n. [From Aristarchus, 
an ancient critic distinguished for 
severity.] A severe critii;. 

ARTSTXRCH, n. [Gr. ^g-^Tfl,-. best, and 
«§x«' chief.] A good man in power. 
[Har. us.] 

ARrSTARCH'IAN, a. Severely criti- 
cal; like the ancient critic Aristarchus. 


ARISTOC'RATIZE, v. t To render 
aristocratic. [Rar. us,] 

ARISTOC'RATY,t n. Same as aristo- 

wort tribe of plants, a nat. order of dico- 
tyledonous monochlaiiiydeous plants, 
with an inferior 3-0-ce!led fruit, with 
numerous ovules, small embryo, and 
copious albumen. The species princi- , 
pally inhabit the hotter parts of the 
world, and are in many cases used 
medicinally, on account of their tonic 
and stimulating properties, and some 
of them, as the Aristolochia serpentaria, 
or Virginian snake-root, are reputed 
remedies for the bite of venomous ser- 
pents. The genus Aristolochia is re- 
puted emmenagogue, especially the 
European species. Rotunda longa and 
clematis. A. bracteata is used in In- 
dia as an anthelmintic; A. odoratis- 
sima, a West Indian species, is a valu- 

able bitter and alexipharmic. The 
roots of -4. serpentaria are used as a 
remedy in various Itinds of fever. 
Several species of Asarum are also used 

MANCY, n. 

AlvK, n. [add.] In earlj/ English and 
Scottish writers^ a chest or cotifer; as, 
an ark for meal. 

ARLE- PENNY, n. Earnest - penny. 

ARLES, n. plur. Earnest-money given 
to servants. [Scotch.] 

ARM, n. [add.] lu marine Ian., the ex- 
tremity of a yard, beam, or bracket. 

ARM, V. t. [add.] To take up in the 
arms; as, to ar/n a child. [Skah.] To 
fit up ; to fLirnish with the means of 
action or effect; as, to arm a hook in 
angling ; to arm a dressing in surgery. 
To arm a loadstone, is to tit it with an 

ARMADIL'LA, 71. [Sp.] A small fleet; 
a squadron. 

ARMADIL'LO, n. [add.] This genus 
of animals belongs to the order Eden- 
tata, and forms, with the allied genera 
Chlamyphorus and Orycteropus, a 
small family, intermediate between the 
sloths and ant-eaters, and character- 
ized by the possession of molar teeth 
only. The tropical and temperate re- 
gions of South America are the original 
and proper habitat of all the known 
species of armadillos. Cuvier divides 
the whole genus into five small groups, 
viz., the Cachicames, the Apars, the 
Encouberts, the Kabassous, and the 
Priodontes. These groups are princi- 
pally distinguished frt)m each other by 
the number and form of their teeth and 

ARiAt'ATURE, h. [add.] The armature 
of a magnet, as now used, is simply a 
piece of iron connecting the two poles, 
in order to maintain the magnetic 
power undiminished. Horse-shoe mag- 
nets have been substituted for the old 
armed magnets, and the armature of 
such a magnet is the piece of iron ap- 
plied to the two poles to connect them. 

ARM'ED,py>. [add.] Furnished with an 
armature or a piece of iron so as to con- 
nect the poles, as a horse-shoe magnet, 

• — In bat., having prickles or thorns. 

ARMENTOSE',} a. Abounding with 

ARME'RIA, n [Fr. armoirics latin- 
ized.] Thrift or sea-pink, a genus of 
plants belonging to the order of 
Plumbaginacefe, distinguished from 
Statice by the hairy styles and capi- 
tate flowers. A. maHtima, a well- 
known species on our shores, is much 
used for edgings in gardens. [See 
Statice armeria.] 

ARMET', n. [Fr.] A helmet used in the 
l-lth, 15th, and Kith centuries. "When 

Fig. 2, Armot-petit. 

worn with the beaver, it was called 

armet-grand (fig. 1); when without, and 
supplied with a triple - barred face- 
guard (fig. 2), it Avas called armet- 



XRM'-GATJNT,+ a. [See Gacst.] 
Slender as the arm ; lean^ meagre. 

ARM'-GKETE,a. (arm-great.) As thick 
as a man's arm. [Chaucer.] 

ARMIF EROrS, a. [L. armit, and fero, 
to bear.] Bearing arms. [liar, ks.] 

ARJULAES.l, ^l. \^..-] A garment 


.^rTDilaiua, ftum an itlumination of the Tflarteenth 

[ similar to the surcoat, in use by the 
Saxons and Xormans 
ARjriXG-POIXTS^n. Thetiesholding 
together the various parts of armour. 
AKM'IXS, n. CoTerings of cloth or vel- 
vet for the handle of a piUe. to give the 
heated hand a more seciu-e hold 
ARJXIS OXAXT, a. Same a3 Akmi- 

ARIIOIRE, 11. (arm-war'.) [Fr.] i 
clothes'-press ; a closet. 
ARMOR I€.VN LEAGUE, n. A league 
which e.'iisted from the most ancient 
times among all the tribes of Gaul 
dwelling near the sea-shore, andagainst 
which Julius Cajsar had to employ three 
army divisions. At a later period, this 
league only included the tribes in- 
habiting the sea-board between the 
Seine and the Loire. 
ARMOUR, n. [add.] vlmour of a mag- 
net. The same as Armatube 
ARMOURER, n. [add.] One who has 
the care of the arms and armour of 
another, as of a knight, and who dresses 
nim in armour. i 

ARMOZEEN-, n. A thick, plain, black 
silk. I 

-\R MS'-LENGTH, n. The length of the I 
arm. To keep at arm's-lenqth is some- I 
times used./;./Kra^ii-e/i/, for keeping one 
off; not allotting one to come into close 
contact or familiarity. 
ARM YOCR PRIZE, in Shah., sig- 
mfaes, offer your arm to the lady vou 
have won. 

ARNATTO, n. See Aexotto. 
AR'NI€\, n. [.A. corruption of ptar- 
mica.] [add.] There is one European 
species of this genus {A. montana). The 
whole plant, especially the root, pos- 
sesses a peculiar aromatic but not plea- 
sant odour, and a nauseous taste. In 
some parts of the Continent it is called 
tabac. In every part of this plant 
there has been found an acrid resin 
and a volatile oil, and in the flowers an 
acrid, bitter principle called amicine. 
I he root contains also a considerable 
quantity of tannin. This plant was at 
one time admitted into all the liritish 
pharmacopoeias, and in Germany aU 
parts of it are used in cases of low 
fever, in nervous disorders, in amenor- 
••n5!?i?,"'^ adjTiamic diseases generally. 
Alt JSICIXE, n. .\ bitter principle con- 
tained la the flowers of the Arnica 
munlana. [See AK^■IC.^.1 
AROINT'. See Abotxt. 
AROMA, n. [add.] The characteristic 
odour ot other substances besides 

,\RPEN, n. See Abpext. 
AR'PENTATOR,t »• A measurer or 

surveyor of land. 
AR'QUATED, a. Shaped like a bow; 

AR'RA,t n. [L. arrlia, or atra.] A 

AR-RACK-PUXCH, n. A liquor con- 

taining arrack. 
ARRAUGHT.t PP- (arawf.) Raught 

or reached. [Spenscr.l 
ARREARAXCE,t n. Same as Ak- 


ARREPTION.t n. The act of taking 

ARREST', n. [add.] For treason, felony, 
or breach of the peace, any person may 
arrest without warrant or precept, but 
in all other cases an arrest must be 
made by virtue of a warrant. In e.\- 
j traordinary cases a warrant may be 
granted by the privy council, the secre- 
taries of state, and some other public 
officers ; but in the ordinary adminis- 
tration of the law, the only warrants 
wliich occur are issued by justices of 
the peace. Arrest in civil cases is of 
two kinds, viz., that which takes place 
before trial, and is called arrest on mesne 
process, and that which takes place after 
trial and judgment, and is called arrest 
on final process, or arret in execu- 
tion. By the statute 1 and 2 Vict., 
c. 110, the law with regard to arrest 
on mesne process has been materially 
altered, and since that statute no de- 
fendant can be arrested before a judg- 
ment has been obtained against him 
unless it be shown by the affidavit of 
the plaintiff, or some other person, to 
the satisfaction of a jud:,'e of one of 
the superior courts, that such plaintiff 
has a cause of action against the de- 
fendant to the amount of £20, or up- 
wards, or has sustained damage to that 
amount, and that there is probable 
cause for believing that the defendant 
IS about to quit England unless he be 
forthwith apprehended. The judge is 
then authorized to issue a w rit of capias 
against such defendant. By the statute 
7 and 8 Vict., c. 96, an important al- 
teration has also been made in arrest 
on final process, or in execution. By 
that statute it is enacted that no person 
shall be taken or charged in execution 
upon any judgment obtained in any 
court, in any action for the recovery of 
any debt wherein the sum recovered 
shall not exceed the sum of £20, ex- 
clusive of costs. 
ARREST'JIEXT, n. [add.] In Scots 
late, in civil causes, arrestment is a pro- 
cess by which a creditor mav attach 
money or movable property which a 
third party holds for behoof of his 
debtor. It bears a general resemblance 
to foreign attachment bv the custom of 
London. It is of two kinds, arrestment 
in judgment, and arrestment in execution 
I he former can proceed onk on the 
decree of a court, on a deed containing 
a clause of registration for execution 
or on such documents as bills of ex- 
change, promissory notes, &c. The 
atter class of arrestments may proceed 
by the order of a judge. 
.4RRET , « [add.] this is a French 
term, and is at present applied par- 
ticularly to the jufii,'ments and decisions 
of courts and tribunals in France. It 
also signifies an arrest 
ARRI£RE'-VOU.SSURE, n. [Fr 1 A ' 
rear- vault; anarch placed within the 
opening of a window or door, and of a 
difterent form, to increase the lightway 

of the window, and to admit of the bet- 
ter openiDg of the door; it seems also 

to have served the purpose of an arch 

ot discharge. 
ARRIS'ION, n. [L. arrisio] The act of 

smding; a smiling upon. 
ARRIVAL, „. [add.] The person or 

tlung amving; as, news brought by 

the last arrival. 
ARRIVE',t «■ Arrival. 
ARRoDE', f. t. [L. arrodo.] To gnaw 

or nibble. 

-^K'EOGATIVE, instead of ARRO- 

AR'ROW-HEAD, „. [add.] In hot. 
[See Sagittaria.] 
AR'ROW-ILE.iDED, a. Shaped like 
the head of an amovf.— Arrow-headed 
<:nmacters. [See under Arkow-Head.] 
I i- '^ "• [^'■•"n L. aro, to plough.] 

In former times, one day's work at the 
plough, which the tenant was obliged 
to give his lord. 
AR'SENAL, n. [add.] A public estab- 
Ushment where naval and military en- 
gines, or warlike equipments, are manu- 
factured or stored ; as at Woolwich 
family or class of minerals, in which 
arsenic acts the part of the electro-ne- 
gative element. They occur in primitive 
districts in metalliferous veins, usually 
associated with metallic sulphurets 
phur salt, formed by the union of a 
sulphuret of arsenic with a base ; as, 
the arsenio-persulphurei of potassium' 
ARSENITKET.) ;,. A combination of 
ARSEXTRET, ^ ai-senic nith a me- 
tallic, or other base. The arseniurets 
of cobalt, nickel, and ii-on are found 
both in veins and in beds. 
n._ A gas generated by fusing arsenic 
with Its own weight of gi-anulated zinc, 
and decomposing the alloy with strong 
hydrochloric acid. It is colouriess, has 
a fetid odour like that of garlic, and is 
frightfully poisonous when breathed 
ARSENOVIXie ACID, n. An acid 
produced by the action of arsenic upon 
ARSIS, n. [add.] In prosodi/, that point 
in a measure where the ictus is put, or 
which is marked by a greater stress or 

A R S' M E T R I K E,t n. Arithmetic. 

ART, n. [add.] Formerly, in an academi- 
cal sense, the arts, or the liberal arts 
denoted the sciences and philosophy, 
or the circle of academical education : 
hence, degrees in the artss master and 
bachelor of arts. 

ARTAXTHE, n. [Gr. ..r:^. to tie 
together, and a.6«, a flower.] .\ genus 




of plants belonging to the nat. order 
Piperaccip. One species, A. salvicefoUa, 
from Peru, is a well-known astringent 
and styptic, under the name of Matico. 

ARTE,' V. t. (iivt.) [L. arlus.^ To nai-- 
row; to constrain. {Chaucer. \ 

XRTEL'RIES,t «• plur. Artillery. 

XRTE'RIA, n. [L.] An artery. 

ARTE'RIAL, a. [add.] Arterial blood 
differs from venous blood, particularly 
by its lighter florid red colour, and its 
greate*' warmth and coagulability — 
changes produced by the process of 

conversion of the venous into tlie ar- 
terial blood during its passage through 
the lungs, by tlic evolution of carbonic 
acid, and the absorption of ogygen from 


Navigation by means of rivers, deepened 
streams, canals, and artificial water- 

JCRTERI'TIS, 71. Inflammation of an 
artery or arteries. 

ARTHRO'DXAL, (t. Belonging to a 
joint; pertaining to that form of joint 
called hall and socket joint. 

ARTHROD'I€,a. Same as Arthodial. 

ARTHRODYN'IA, n. [See Arthkodv- 
Nic] Pains in the joints. 

ARTHR0L'06Y, h. [Gr. «§fl§oy, a joint, 
and Xoyof, discom-se.] A description of 
the joints. 

AR'TI€LE, n. [add.^ In the article of 
death — [ articulo mortis] — literally, 
in the moment of death; in the last 
struggle or agony. — Articles ofwar^ the 
code of regulations for the better 
government and discipline of the army 
and navy. — Articles of the peace, a term 
applied to an obligation to the king, 
entered on record, and taken in some 
court, by some judicial officer, whereby 
the parties acknowledge tiiemselves 
to be indebted to the crown in the sum 
required, with condition to be void and 
of none eifect if tiie party shall appear 
in court on such a day, and in the mean- 
time shall keep the peace. — Lords of 
articles. \^See under Lord.] 

AR'TXGLED €LERK, n. A pupil of an 
attorney or solicitor, who undertakes, 
by articles of clerkship containing cove- 
nants mutually binding, to instruct him 
in the principles and practice of the 

ARTI€'ULATE, «. [add.] Clear; dis- 
tinct ; as, articulate pronunciation. 

ARTICULATE, v. i. To utter articu- 
late sounds ; to utter distinct syllables 
or words ; as, to articulate distinctly. 

ARTI€'ULATE, v. t. [add.] To form 
into elementary sounds; to form into 
distinct syllables or words ; as, to ar- 
ticulate letters or language. 

ARTI€'ULATED, pp. or a, [add.] 
Exhibited in articles. [Used by Shak.\ 

ARTIG'ULATOR, n. One who articu- 

ARTIFI"CIAL, a. [add.] Artificial 
horizon. [5ee under Horizon.] 

ARTlPr'CIAL, n. The production of 
art. \llar. us.] 

ARTIEr'CIAL, a. [add.] Ingenious; 
artful. [Shak.\ Subtle; trickish. 

XllTIFrCIALlZE, V. L To render 
artificial. [Rar. w*'.] 

ARTILLERY, n. [add.] The science of 

artillery and gininery. 

AR'TIST, n. [add.] In present ttsage, one 

who professes and practices one of the 

liberal aits, in which science and taste 

preside over the manual execution; as 
painting, sculpture, engraving and ar- 
chitecture. The artist is thus dis- 
tinguished from the artisan, who fol- 
lows mechanically the rules of his 
handicraft or art. 

ARTifSTE', n. (arteesf.) [Fr.] Among 
the French, a term of very extensive 
application, denoting one who is pe- 
culiarly dexterousand tastefid in almost 
any art; as an opera-dancer, and even 
a hair-dresser or a cook. The term 
should not be confounded with tlie 
English word artist. 

ARTIST'I€, \ a. Pertaining to an 

ARTIST'I€AL,> artist; relating to 
the arts or to the fine arts; made in the 
manner of an artist; conformable to 
art ; regular. 

ARTISTTCALLY, adv. In an artistic 

ARTO€ARP'OUS, ) a. Relating to 

AUTO€ARP'EOUS,i bread-fruit, or 
the bread-fruit tree. 

aRTO€ARP'US, n. The bread-fruit, 
a genus of plants belonging to the nat. 
order Urticacese; sub -order Artocar- 
peaj. Many species are known, some 
of which yield valuable timber in the 

Jack fruit, Arlucarpaa intcgHJoUa. 

forests of Bengal and Malabar; but 
the most important species are the 
A. incisa, or true bread-fruit, and A. 
integrifoliay or jack-fruit. [See Arto- 


XRT'-SPUN, a. Spun, or made by art. 

ART-U'NION, ?i. An association or so- 
ciety, the object of wiiich is to aid in 
extending the knowledge of, and love 
for, the arts of design, and to give en- 
couragement to artists beyond that af- 
forded by the patronage of individuals. 
Each member subscribes annually a 
certain siun, and a part of the aggregate 
sum thus raised is generally set apart 
for the purpose of engraving some 
work of art, a copy of which is given 
to every subscriber for each guinea 
subscribed. The greater part of tlie 
sum annually subscribed is employed 
as a fund for the purchase of pictures, 
sculpture,and other works of art, which 
are distx'ibuted by lot among the mem- 
bers. A part of the funds is also 
frequently applied to the offering of pre- 
miums for original designs, and the 
production of bronzes and medals. 

A'RUM, instead of ARUM. 



ARUN'DO, n. [add.] This genus of 
grasses is now usually confined to the 
A. donaXy and the species which raost 
nearly agree with it. A. donax is a 
native of the south of Europe, Egypt, 
and the East. It is one of the largest 
grasses in cultivation, and sometimes 
attains a height of nine or ten feet, 
with broad and long leaves. A. avena- 
ria, or sea-reed, is by modern botanists 
called Ainmophila arundinacea. A. 
phragmitesy the common reed, now 
forms the genus Phragmites; it was, 
however, called Arundo by the Romans 
equally with the Donax. 

ARVIC'OLA, n. A geims of rodent 
animals. A. amphibia is the water-rat, 
and A. agrestis is the field-vole, or 
short-tailed field-mouse. The latter is 
a most destructive species, multipljing 
as it does prodigiously in some seasons, 
when it proves a great nuisance in gar- 
dens, plantations, and fields. 

AS, adv. [add.] As if, in tlie manner that 
it woidd be if. — As to, with respect to. 
— As icell as, equally with. — As though, 
as if. — As it is, as the case stands ; in 
present circumstances. — As it iccre, a 
qualifying plirase, used to soften ex- 
pressions which might otherwise seem 
harsh. As followed by as sometimes 
signifies although; however. 

AS'ARONE, H. A volatile solid obtained 
from Asarum Europa^um. It has a re- 
markable tendency to crystallize in 
beautifully defined forms, and also to 
pass into the amorphous condition, from 
which it may be again brought into the 
crystalline state. 

ASBES'TI€, a. Relating to or contain- 
ing asbestos. 

ASBES'TIFORM, a. Having the struc- 
ture of asbestos. 

AS€AL'APHUS,7i. Agenus of neurop- 
terous insects, with long thread-shaped 
antennae, knobbed at the ends. There 
are many species found on the shores 
of the Mediterranean and in tropical 
countries. They are allied to the ant- 
lions, but the larvae never construct a 

ASCAR'IDiE, n. A family of Entozoa, 
or intestinal worms, which live in the 
bodies of other animals. The body is 
round, elastic, and tapering toward 
each end. 

AS'-GARIS, n. [add.] A. lumhricoides is 
the long and round worm which in- 
habits the intestines of emaciated per- 
sons. A. vermicularis is the thread or 
maw worm. 

AS€AUNCE',t adv. See Askance. 

ASCEND'ANT, v. [add.] In astrol, the 
first of the twelve houses of heaven, 
and the planet, or other heavenly body 
which rules in this liouse, is called lord 
of the ascendant; hence, to be in the 
ascendant, signifies to have commanding 
power or influence; and lord of the 
ascendant, one who has possession of 
such power or influence ; as, to riUe, 
for a while, lord of the ascendant. 

ASCEND ENT,! a. Rising ; mounting ; 
proceeding upwards. 

ASCEND'ENT,) a. In hot., when an 

ASCEND'ANT,} ovule, or seed, is 
attached to the middle of the cell of 
the ovary, or fruit, and is du'ected ujj- 

ASCEN'DING, ppr. In hot., rising up- 

ASCEN'SIONAL, a. Relating to as- 
cension; ascending; or rising up. [See 
Ascensional Difference under Ascen- 




ASCET'I€, n. [add.] One wlio prac- \ 
tisp<! untlue rij:our and self-denial io i 
rel .;ii»ns tl»iiii,'s. 

ASCID'IA, n. [add.] There are many 
species of this genus, most of tliem in- 
iialiitants of the European seas in hi^jh 
latitudes. They adhere by their base 
to rocks, shells, and other submarine 
substances ; they are more or less ^e- ! 
latinous, and some are eatable; they 
contract and dilate themselves alter- ' 
nately, and have the power of squirting 
out the water they have imbibed, some 
to the height of three feet. This con- 
stitutes their principal means of de- 
fence, t 

ASCI'DIAXS, n. Same as AsciDiA. I 

ASfLE'PIAS. A Greek physician, and 
also the Greek name of ^Esculapius. 

ASCLE'PIAS,n. A genus of plants, the ' 
type of the nat. order Asclepiadace^e. 
Alost of the species are North Ameri- 
can herbs, having opposite, alternate, 
or verticillate leaves. Many of them 
possess powerful medicinal qualities. 
A. decumhens is diaphoretic and sudo- 
rific, and has the singular property of 
exciting general perspiration, without 
increasing in any sensible degree tlie 
heat of the body; A. curassavtca is 
emetic, and its roots are frequently sent 
to England as ipecacuanha; the roots 
of ^. fuberosa are famed for diaphoretic 
piuperties ; the root and tender stalks 
of .4. vohtbilis (Linn.), sicken and excite 
expectoration. Sfany other species are 
also used as medicines. 

ASEP TA, n. plur. [Gr. a priv., and 
ffr,*«, to putrefy.] Substances which 
are free from the putrefactive process. 

ASEPTIC, a. A term applied to sub- 
stances which are free from the putre- 
factive process. 

ASEXUAL, a. [a neg., and se.rttal.'\ 
In bot., having no distinct sex. 

ASH'-€OLOUR,7i.Thecolourof ashes; 
the colour of the bark or leaves of the i 
ash-tree. I 

ASH'E>",t n. pfur. [Sax.] Ashes. 
[Chaucer.] ' 

ASH'ERY, ;i. [add.] A manufactory of 
pot or pearl ashes. i 

ASH'ES, «. pittr. [add.] The remains of | 
an>'thing burnt, whether of vegetable , 
or animal origin, and to a certain ex- 
tent of mineral bodies also ; but in 
com., the term is restricted to the ashes 
of vegetable substances from which are 
extracted the alkaline matters, called 
pot-ash, pearl-ash, kelp, barilla, &c. — 
Volcarnc ashes, the loose earthy matter 
ejected by volcanoes. 

ASH'ET, n. [Fr. assieffe, a trencher- 
plate.] A large flat plate, generally of 
an oval shape, on which meat is brought 
to the table. [Scotch.] | 

ASH-FLY, n. The oak-fly, Cynipsquer- 
cusfolii. I 

ASH'LERIXG, n. [add.] In mosonri/, 
the act of bedding ashlar in mortar. 

ASH'-PAX, «. A pan beneaih a grate 
or furnace to receive ashes. 

TORETH. instead of ASHTAROTH, 
.\SH'-TUB, n. A tub to receive ashes, 
ASH'Y, a. [add.] Consisting of ashes; 
as. an ashr/ heap. 

AS'ILUS, n. The hornet-fly, a genus of 
dipterous insects, of which above sixty 
European speries have beenenumerated. 
The t>*pe is Asihts crabrotiiformis. 
ASI"TI.\,H. [Gr «priv.,and«T«<,food.] 
Loss of appetite. 

.\SK, n. Au asker, or water-newt. 

ASK, r. t. [add.] To ask of, is used in 
Shah, for to ask for; as, ask of Doctor 
Cains' house. 

ASK ING, n. The making of a request; 
a petition. [Lit. iis.\ 

ASLEEP', a. [add] In marine fan.f the 
canvas is said to be asleep when the 
wind is just strong enough to distend the 
sails, and prevent them from shaking. 

ASMATOGRAPHY', n. [Gr. «£*•. a 
song, and j-jo;*. to write.] The art of 
composing songs. [Rar. us.] 

ASO.\K', a. Soaking in water; in a 
state of soaking 

A S O M ' O N E b, t pp. Summoned. 
[Chaucer ] 

ASP, n. See Aspev. 

ASP.IL'ATHU.M, n. Thecalambac; a 
variety of the agallochum, or aloes- 

ASPAR'Afil, 71. A nat. order of plants 
constituted by Jussieu : part of tiiis, 
including the genus Asparagus, is now 
united to the Liliacex; part, having re- 
ticulated veined leaves, forms the nat. 
order Smilaceae. 

ASP.\'SIA, H. [Gr. arraXet^M. to em- 
brace.] A genus of elegant plants, with 
the aspect of Epidendrum. The flowers 
of A. variegaium are deliciously sweet 
in the morning. Nat. order Orchida- 

ASPE',t "• (asp'.) A species of poplar. 
[See Aspen.] [Chaucer.] 

ASPE€T',t V. t. To behold. 

ASPER'6ES, n. [L. aspergo.] In the 
Bom. Catholic church, the rod used for 
sprinkling the holy water. [See As- 

ASPEROILLI'M, n. A genus of shell- 
fish, belonging to the family Tubicolces 
of Lamarck. The A. Javanum is known 
to collectors as the icatering-pot. 

ASPERGLLXUS, n. The brush used in 
the Rom. Catholic church, iov sprinkling 
holy water on the people. — 2. A genus 
of cr>'pto.gamic plants, the species of 
which, along nith many others, form 
what is called mould on various sub- 
stances. They are found on all de- 
caying substances. A. glaucus is the 
blue mould which forms on cheese, 
lard, bread, &c. 

ASTERLY.f adv. Roughlv; sharply. 

ASPERNA'TIOX,t n. [L. aspematio.] 
Neglect ; disregard ; contempt. 

ASPERSION, n. [add.] Calumny; 

ASPER'SIA'E, a. Tending to asperse; 
defamatory ; calumnious ; slanderous. 

ASPERSIVELY'^, adv. By way of as- 

or hoi v- water basin. 

ASPEUU GO, n. [From L. asper, 

rough.] Catch-weed, a genus of plants, 

nat. order Boraginace<e. A. procinn- 

I hens, trailing catch-weed, fe a British 

plant growing in waste places. 

ASPER'ULA.H.[From L.o.-r/>fr, rough.] 
AVood-rufl", a genus of plants, nat. order 
' Rubiaceee. An infusion of ^l-Ci/woncAica, 
small wood-rutf, has a little astringency, 
and has been used as t gargle. [See 

ASPHALTE', n. Asphaltic mastic: an 
artificial bituminous compound, em- 
ployed for the covering of roofs and 
arclies, the lining of tanks for pave- 
ment and flooring, and as a cement. 
The chief ingredient in tliis compound 
is a brown bituminous limestone found 
near the Jura mountains. This stone 
is broken to powder, and mi.xed w ith a 
portion <)f mineral tar when intended 

i for fine work, as the covering of roofs, 

and applic'**ion as cement; or when 
intended for the coarser purposes of 
pavement, with mineral tar . nd sea- 
grit. The whole is then heaied in 
large caldrons, until the ingredients 
are perfectly united. It is then formed 
into cakes or blocks, and delivered for 
use ; but as it is applied in the liquid 
state in la>ing pavements, covering 
roofs, &c.. the cakes are re-melted by 
heat, and an additional quantity of 
mineral tarisadded. — Among opticians, 
the name asphalte is applied to a thick 
solution of the finest asphalte in spirits 
of turpentine, and is used for making 
cells on pieces of glass, in which ob- 
jects may be preserved in liquid, for the 
use of the microscope. 
ASPHALT'ENE, n. A solid black sub- 
stance, obtained by submitting the 
bitumen of Bechelboriura, purified by 
ether, to a prolonged high temperaturo. 
ASPHALT'OS,) rt. Same as Asphal- 
ASPHODEL'E^E. [add.] Now nnited 

to the Liliaces. 
ASPHO'DELUS, n. [Gr. a neg., and 
e^\kv. to supplant.] Asphodel, a genus 
of monocotyledonous plants, nat. order 
Liliacefe. A. luteiis is the common 
yellow asphodel, a beautiful perennial ; 
^4. albus is the white asphodel, and 
A ramosus, so common in gardens, is 
probably a variety of this species. 
ASPHYX lA, n.' [L. See AspnvxY.] 
Originally, interrupted pulse, or cessa^ 
tion of the motion of the heart and 
arteries; but as now used, apparent 
death, or suspended animation ; inter- 
rupted respiration, particularly from 
sutfocation or drowning, or the inhala- 
tion of irrespirable gases ; applied also 
to the collapsed state in cholera, with 
want of pulse. 
ASPID'IUM,n. Shield-fern, a genus of 
crs-ptogamian plants. [See Shield- 
ASPiE'.t V. i. (aspy'.) To espy. [Chati- 

AS PIRATE, n. [add.] In gram., the 
aspirate, or spiritus asper, is an accent 
peculiar to the Greek language; it is 
marked thus ['], and denotes that the 
letter over which it is placed should 
be strongly aspirated, that is, pro- 
nounced as if A w ere prefi.xed. In Eng- 
lish, ch, as in church, gh, as in though, 
I th, as in this, are aspirates. 
ASPiKE'. r. i. [add.] To rise; to ascend ; 
as, the flames aspire. [Pope.] 
ASPIRE',t ^'- '• To aspire to; to ascend 
or rise to ; as, to aspire thrones ; to cw- 
pirethe clouds. Properly the verb here 
is used ellipticallv for aspire to. 
AS'PRE,t a. [Fr.] Rough; sharp. 

ASPRE'DO, n. A genus of abdominal, 
malacopterygious fishes, characterized 
by the horizontal flatness of tlie head, 
and the enlargement of the anterior 
part of the trunk, owing to an unusual 
development of the bones of the 
shoulder. The principal species is the 
Silunts aspredo of Linn., which in- 
habits the rivers and lakes of North 
AS'PRENESSE,tn. Sharpness. [Cftou- 

ASS. or AlSE, n. Ashes. [Scotch.] 
ASS.\F(ET IDA, n. See As.\fetida. 
AS'SAG.\I, n. An instrument of war- 
fare among the Kaffirs: a throwing 
spear; a species of javelin. 
. AS'SAG AI, V t. To kili with an assagaL 




AS'SAGAIED, pp. Killed by means of 
an assagai. 

AS'SAPAN, n. Species of flying squir- 
rels, belonging to the genus Sciiirop- 
terus. They live among trees, and are 
found in the Eastern islands. 

ASSAS'SIN,t V. t. To murder; to as- 

ASSAS'SlNACY,t n. The act of assas- 

ASSAS'SINATE,t An assassin; nmr- 

ASSAULT', n. [add.] In Scotland, as- 
sault i^ a punishable offence, usually 
prosecuted by the public prosecutors 
attached to the sheritfs' courts, to the 
police courts, and justice of peace 
courts. When, however, the assault is 
of a liighly criminal cliaracter, it is 
brought before the supreme criminal 
court, and is then charged as assault 
with some specific aggravation. There 
is no division, as in England, into a*- 
saxilt and assavH and battery. 

ASSAUT',t H. [Fr.] Assault. [Chaucer.] 

ASSAY', n. [add.] The determination of 
the quantity of any particular metal in 
an ore, or other metallic compound al- 
loy; or more especially, the determi- 
nation of the quantity of gold or silver 
in coin or in bullion. Also, the sub- 
stance to be assayed. 

ASSAY', V. t. [add.] 'to determine the 
amount of a particular metal in an ore, 
alloy, or other metallic compound. 

ASSaY'EK, n. [add.] One who examines 
metallic ores or compoimds, for the 
piu"pose of determining the amount of 
any particular metal in the same; par- 
ticuUrly of gold and silver. 

ASSAY'ING, n. The determination of 
the amount of any particular metal in 
a metallic compound. [See Assay.] 

ASSE€TA'Tl()N,t n. Attendance, or 
waiting upon. 

ASSEGE',t n. [Fr.] Siege. {Chaucer.] 

ASSEM'BLY, h. [add.] In a civil or 
j)olitical sense, a meeting convened by 
authority, for the transaction of public 
business ; as, the assemblies of the Ro- 
man people ; the national assembly in 

ASSEN'TTENT, a. Yielding assent. 

ASSEN'TIVE, fl. Giving assent ; com- 
plying. [Lit. us.] 

AS'SER, n. In arch., a thin rafter, board, 
or lath. 


ASSESS', V. t. [add.] To value or tix the 
profits of business, or the amount of 
yearly income, for the pm'pose of taxa- 

ASSESSED TAXES. 5ee under Tax. 

ASSESS'OR, n. [add] In England, as- 
sessors are persons chosen to assist the 
mayor and aldermen of corporations in 
matters concerning elections. In Scot- 
land, the magistrates of corporate 
burghs who exercise judicial powers 
generally employ some professional 
lawyer to act as their assessor. Those 
persons whose duty it is to assess the 
value of property for local or public 
taxation, are usually called surveyors, 
not assessors. 
AS'SETU,tn. Sufficient; enough. [See 
Assets.] [Chaucer.] 
AS'SETS, n. plnr. [add.] The entire 
property of all sorts belonging to a 
merchant, or to a trading association. 
ASSl£6E',t i^. t. [Fr. assieger.] To 

ASSIGN', V. t. [add.] In /a«', to transfer, 

or make over to another, the right one 

has in any object, as an estate, chose 

in action, or reversion. — To assign, in 

I.— SUPP, 

bankruptcy is to transfer property to, 
and vest it in, certain persons called 
assignees, for the benefit of creditors. 

AS SIGN AT, H. [add.] In French law, 
the assignment of an annuity on an 
estate, by which the annuity is based 
on the security of the latter. Hence 
the name given to paper cui*rency is- 
sued by the revolutionary government 
of France, based on the security of the 
lands belonging to the state, and those 
appropriated by it. 

ASSIGNEE', 71. [add.] Assignees, in 
bankruptcy, in England, are persons 
appointed under a commission of bank- 
ruptcy, to manage the estate of the 
iianlfrupt for the benefit of his credi- 

ASSiGN'MENT, n. [add.] In banJi- 
ruptcy, the transfer of the property of 
a bankrupt to certain persons called 
assignees, in whom it is vested for the 
benefit of creditors. 

ASSIMILABIL'ITY, n. The quality of 
being assimilable. [Rar. us.] 

ASSIM'ILATE, v. i. [add.] To be con- 
verted into the substance of the body ; 
as, flesh assimilates more readily than 

ASSIMILA'TION, h. [add.] In physiol, 
the conversion of nutriment into tlie 
fluid, or solid substance of the body. 
Formerly, the supposed conversion of 
the fluids of the body to the nature of 
any morbiKc matter. 

ASSINE'GO, instead of ASSINEGO. 

ASSlSE',f n. (assiz'.) [Fr.] Situation. 

ASSIZE', K. ) [add.] In England, 

ASSIZ'ES, n.plur.) thecourtof assize, 
popularly called the assizes, is the ses- 
sion held by at least one of the judges 
of the superior courts in each of the 
counties, under commissions of assize 
for civil cases, and of oyer and terminer, 
and jail delivery, for criminal cases. 
Assizes are holden twice a-year through- 
out the whole of England and Wales, 
excepting London and the parts ad- 
joining. The commission of assize 
originally directed the judges to take 
assizes, or the verdicts of a particular 
jury, called the assize, now obsolete. 
The word assize was used to signify a 
statute, or ordinance generally ; as, 
the assizes of the realm; the assizes of 
the forest, rules and regulations for the 
management of the royal forests.— Also, 
an ordinance fixing the standard of 
weights and measures; hence, the stand- 
ard weights and measures ; as, the 
custody of the assize. [See Size.] 

ASSO'CIAIiLE, a. [add.] Sociable; 

ASSO'CIATE, a. [add.] In med., con- 
nected by habit or sympathy ; as, as- 
sociate movements, such as occur sympa- 
thetically, in consequence of preceding 
motions. Thus, the eye cannot be moved 
inwards by the action of the rectus 
internus, without contraction of the iris 
being produced. 

ASSO'CIATE, V. i. [add.] To join in 
a confederacy or association. 

ASSOIL'ED,t pp. Absolved. [Spen- 

ASS'OILIZE, V. t. See Assoilzie. 

AS'SONANT, n. [Sp. asonaide.] In 
Spanish verse, a resemblance of sound 
in the termination of verses diflering 
from rhyme. 
ASSORT'ED, VP- [add.] Fitted or 
adapted to. 

They appeiir . . . . no » ny assorted to tliose 
with wlioiii tliev most assocuite. Burke. 

ASSORT'ING,ppr. [add.] Agreeing. 

ASSOT',t V. t. [add.] To make to doat 
upon ; to bewitch ; to deceive. [Spen- 

ASSOT',t pp. Stupified. [Spenser.] 

ASSOYLE',t V. t. [See Assoil.] To 
liberate, or set free. [Spenser.] 

ASSOYL'ED,t 1*P- Released ; set free. 

ASSU'MENT,t n, [L. assumentum.] A 
patch . 

ASSU'RANCE, n. [add.] A contract for 
the payment of a sum on oC(!iision of a 
certain event; as loss, or death. Of 
late years the term assurance has been 
used in relation to life contingencies, 
and insurance in relation to other con- 
tingencies; as, fire, losses at sea, &c. — 
Insurance, in laic, is a term applied to 
the legal evidences of the translation of 
property, called common assurances, 
by which every man's property is se- 
cured to him. 

ASSUR'ED, 2>p. [add.] In Shak , affi- 
anced ; as, I was assured to lier. 

ASS R'lN GLY, adv. In a way to create 

ASTA'CIAN, n. A crustaceous animal. 
[See AsTACus.] 

AS'TAGUS, n. A genus of long-tailed 
crustaceous animals, formed from the 
genus Cancer of Linn., and of ancient 
authors. It includes the common lob- 
ster (A. marinus), and the craw-fish 
{A. fiuviaiilis). By some authors the 
lobster and its allies are made to form 
another genus called Homarus, wliile 
the name Potamobius is sometimes 
given to the fresh-water craw-fish. A 
curious species (without eyes) is found 
in the caves of Kentucky; it is named 
Antaeus pellucidus. 

ASTART',t V. t. To escape ; to release ; 
to alarm ; to take unawares. [See 
AsTcnTE.] [Spenser.] 

ASTAR'TE, 71. Ashtoreth, a goddess of 
the Sidonians, supposed to be the 
same as the Venus of the Romans. — ■ 
2. A genus of bivalves, or conchifers. 
Some of them are English shells, and 
they are generally found on the sandy 
mud of coasts. There are also many 
fossil species. 

ASTAT'IC, a. [Gr. a priv., and irraat, 
to stand.] Being without polarity. An 
astatic needle is a magnetic needle, 
having its directive property destroyed 
by the proximity of another needle of 
the same intensity fixed parallel to i(, 
but with the poles reversed, so that the 
north pole of the one is adjacent to the 
south pole of the otiier. In this posi- 
tion the needles neutralize each other, 
and are therefore unaffected by the 
magnetism of the earth, wliile at tlie 
same time they are subject to the in- 
fluence of galvanic action. They were 
formerly employed in the electric tele- 

A-STAY', adv. In marine Ian., when, in 
heaving tiie anchor, an acute angle is 
formed between the cable and the sur- 
face of the water, the anchor is said to 
be a-stay ; and to be a long stay-peak or 
a short stay-peak, according to the dis- 
tance of the anclior from the vessel. 

ASTER, 7^ [add.] Many species are cul- 
tivated in our gardens under the name 
of ]\Iichaelmas daisy. 

ASTERA'CE^E, 7i. In hot., a name 
given by some to the nat. order of 

ASTE'RIAS, n. [add.] The Linnaian 
genus Asterias comprised every form 
of radiation which appears in the tnbe 
of radiated animals ; but Lamarck 'in- 
cludes only the star-tishes properly so 




called. Those which have an angular 
body, the rays of which are short, not 
exceeding the diameter of the disk, he 
calls scutellated star-tishes ; and those 
which have a body furnished with 
elongated rays, he calls radiated star- 
fishes. A. iesselata is an example of 
the former division, and A. glacialis, 
common star-fish, or five-finger, is an 
example of the latter. 

ASTEROID, or ASTEROID', «. [add.] 
The name asteroids was given by 
Herschel to the small planets Ceres, 
Pallas, Juno, and A'esta, discovered 
about the commencement of the present 
century. A number of other small 
planets have been discovered more 
recently between the orbits of Mars 
and Jupiter, as Astriea, Flora, Iris, 

SCALE, n. [Gr. as^r?- star, Mti?. scale.] i 
A genus of tishes, now only found in a 
fossil state in the old red sandstone. 
From the remains, it would seem that 
these fishes must have sometimes at- 
tmned the length of eighteen or twenty 
feet. The structure of this curious , 

AsTiBOLEPisL i.Bjroitl j-Ute of Ait^rolepis, l-9:h natuml siw. 
2. Itit«nuil ridge o( liyuiJ pUit«, l-ltli nstural siie. 

fossil is elucidated by Mr. Miller in an 
interesting volume called Footprints of 
the Creator ; oi; the A^terolepis of 
Stromtiess. AVe have figured one of its 
most characteristic bones, the liyoid 
plate, with its central strengthening 
ridge. The stellate markings, from 
which the genus derives its name, seem 
to have been restricted to the dermal 
plates of the head. 

ASTERTE',t v. i. (astert'.) [Sax.] To 
move ; to get away ; to escape. [Chau- 

ASTHE'MA,)n. [.See Asthenic] 

AS'THENY, ) DebUity; want of 

ASTHMATIC, n. A person troubled 
with asthma. 

ASTHMAT ICAL, a. Same as Asth- 

asthmatical manner. 

ASTIR', «. Stirring; active. 

ASTON'lEDNESS,t H. State of being 

ASTONISH, V. f. [add ] To astonish is 
used by Shah, to signify to stun with a 

ASTOUXD',t V. I. To shake ; to strike 

ASTU.E'.\, 71. One of the small planets 
or asteroids between the orbits of Mars 
and Jupiter, discovered by Eneke, a 
Prussian astronomer, December S, ISio. 
It revolves round the sun in 1-511*10 
soUr days, and is about 2^ times the 
distance of the earth from the sun. 

ASTRAG'ALUS,«. Milk-vetch, an ex- 
tensive genus of plants, nat. order 
Legimiinosa?. Gum-tragacanth is ob- 
tained from .4. verus, a species found 
in many parts of the Levant; but the 
same substance is prepared from several 
other species, as A. creticus, and A. 
aristatus. A few species are found in 

Britain ; several are cultivated in gar- 

ASTRAL L.\MP, «. [add.] This lamp 
is constructed so as to throw a strong 
and uniuterrupted light on the table 

ASTRAPiE'A, n. [Gr. «*^j«t»), light- 
ning.] A genus of plants, belonging to 
the nat. order of Dombeyaee«. It is 
remarkable for the splendid colour of 
the riowers, which are collected into 
large heads, and for its large stipules. 
A. Wallichii is a native of Madagascar, 
but is cultivated and flowers readily in 
our gardens. 
AS'TRELABRE,t n. Astrolabe. 

ASTRICT", r. t. [add.] To constrict; to 
contract ; to restrict ; to confine. 
ASTRINGE', V. t. [add.] Figurativehj, 
to oblige ; to constrain ; to bind by 

ASTRINGENTLY, adv. In an as- 
tringent manner. 
ASTKOCAKYUM, n. A genus 
of palms inhabiting the tropical 
parts of America. The stems 
are all covered over with stitf 
and very numerous prickles. 
The fruit resembles cocoa-nuts, 
and the fleshy part of the fruit 
of A. murumuru is considered a 
great delicacy by the Americans. 
The wood of A. aj/rt is much 
u^ed for bows, and similar pur- 
poses; and the fibres of the 
leaves of A. tucuma are used 
for fishing-nets. 
ASTKOGNO'SIA, instead of 
ASTKOU XOSY, ». Same as 


ASTROL'OOY, n. [add.] The term 
astrologu was used by the ancients in 
the sense of astronotut/. 

ASTRUXOM'I€ON,i- «. A treatise on 
the stars. 

ASTROPHY'TON, n. A genus of ra- 
diated animals, containing the me- 
dusa's head star-fish. 

€OPY.t n. 

ASTCTE LY, adv. Shrewdly; sharply; 

ASTY'L.\R, a. [Gr. a priv., and cnXe?, 
a colunm.] In arch., a term applied to 
a building \\ithout columns. 

ASAVEV ED,t pp. [Sax. f^wefed.] Stu- 
pified, as in a dream. [Chaucer.] 

ASWOUNE',t adv. See Aswoon. 

ASYLUM, n. [add.] An institution for 
the relief or protection of tlie unfortu- 
nate or destitute ; as, an asi/lum fur the 
poor, for the blind, for the deaf and 
dumb, or for the insane. 

ASYM'.AlETROUS,t a. Asymmetrical. 

AS'YMPTOTE, n. [add.] Sometimes 

ASYMPTOTIC, a. Same as Asymp- 

AT, prep, [add.] For ; as, a ream of son- 
nets purchased at a crown a sheet. 

ATAGHAX', n. See Attaghan. 

A-TAUNT , or A-TAUNT'O. A ves- 
sel is said to be aV-ataunt, when she 
is fully rigged. 

ATAX'IA, n. Same as At.\xt, but 
more generally used by medical men. 

ATAX'IC, n. In med., irregular, charac- 
terized by great irregularity. — Ataxic 
fever, a term applied by Pinel to nia- 
li;rnant tvphus fever. 

AT-EAR'ST',t adv. [Sax.] Lately; at 
length; suddenly; instantly. [Speiiser.] 

ATE'LIER, n. '[Fr. a workshop.] A 

word derived from the French, and 
applied specially to the work-room of 
sculptors and painters, also called a 

[It.] In musiCy a direction that, after 
any change of movement by accelera- 
tion or retardation, the original move- 
ment be restored. 

ATHA'N AS, n. A genus of long-tailed 
crustaceans, containing one British 
species, the Athanas nitescens, found on 
the south coast of England. 

ATHANA'SIAN, n. A follower of 
Atbanasius, or a believer in his creed. 

A'THEIZE, r. t. To render atheistic. 

A'THEIZEK.f n. One who atheizes. 

ATHENE, or ATHENA, n. Among 
the Greeks, the goddess of wisdom, of 
arts and sciences, known to the Romans 
as Minerva — In ornith., the name of a 
genus of owls, from the owl having 
been the attendant bird of Jlinerva. 

ATHER'MANOUS, a. [Gr. o priv., and 
Bi'ur], heat.] A term applied to those 
substances which have the power of 
retaining all the heat which they re- 
ceive. Those bodies which transmit 
the heat they receive through their sub- 
stance are called diathennanous. 

nat. order, nearly allied to MonimiacejD, 
and belonging to the monochlamydeous 
class of dicotyledonous plants; they 
have usually unisexual flowers, anthers 
opening by valves, several superior car- 
pels, the styles of which become fea- 
thery, and opposite leaves in short 
stipules. There are only three genera, 
two of which are trom Australia, the 
third from Chili. All are fragrant. 
Doryophora sassafras is called sassa- 
fras in New Holland. 

ATHLE T.E, ) n. [See Athletic] 

ATHLETES,) Among the Greeks 
and HomanSy contenders at the public 
games for victorv; wrestlers; boxers, &c. 

ATHLET IGALLY, adv. In a strong, 
robust, or athletic manner. 

ATHLE TIS>I. I 71. The act of con- 

ATHLET ICISM.) tending at the 
public games; muscular strength. [Rar. 

A-THRE',t adv. In three parts. [Chau- 

ATHY'.AnA, a. [Gr. « priv., and J^^ak, 
courage.] Lowness of spirits; despond- 
ency; melancholy. 

ATLANTA, n. A genus of heteropo- 
dous molluscs, found in the seas of all 
hot climates. The shell is very deli- 
cate, spii"ally rolled on it-self, and liaving 
a thin and irlassv operculum. 

AT MOSPHEUE,7i. [add.] Ina^;/Mra- 
Hve sense, pervading influence ; as, a 
moral atmosphere. 

variety of steam-engine used only for 
pumping, and known also as the single- 
acting engine. The piston-rod is at- 
tached to one end of the beam, and the 
pump-rods to the other; and the 
weight of these last are so adjusted as to 
be capable of draw ing the piston to the 
top of the cylinder, when steam of a 
pressure equal to that of the atmo- 
sphere is admitted below it. In this 
position the steam is condensed, and a 
vacuum thereby created under the pis- 
ton, which in consequence descends by 
the pressure of the atmosphere acting 
on the upper surface of it. 

ATMOSPHERIC LINE {of a steam- 
pressure dia>jram\ n. The line drawn 
by the pencil when the steam is shut off 
from the piston of the indicator, and it 




is acted on by the pressure of tlie atmo- 
sphere alone. The height of tlie steam- 
line above this sliows the pressure of 
the steam, and the deptli of the 
vacuum line below shows the degree 
of condensation which is then taking 
place in the engine. 

weight of the atmosphere on a unit of 
surface, as a square inch. The mean 
atmospheric pressure referred to this 
unit is 14'7 lbs. It is also measured by 
the height of a mercurial column which 
it supports in a barometer; referred to 
this measurement, the atmospheric 
pressure is equal to 29!) inches. 

railway so constructed that the motive 
power is derived from the pressure of 
the atmosphere. A continuous iron 
tube of uniform bore, about eighteen 
inches diameter, is laid along the mid- 

Fis. 1. 

die of the line, parallel with the rails, 
and in tliis tube a piston A (Hg. 1), of 
peculiar construction is contained, and 
gives motion to a traction vehicle in 
lead of the train of carriages to be pro- 
pelled, by virtue of the predominating 
atmospheric pressure behind it, induced 
by partially e.vtracting the air from 
that end of the tube or main towards 
which it is advancing. To obtain a 

r«. 2. 

connection of the vehicle, the piston is 
provided with a long bar projecting 
backwards, and carrying a weight B, at 
its e.xtremity, to balance the weight of 
the piston itself, and at the middle of 
its length a flat plate C, called the coul- 
ter, is attached, and projects upwards 
through a longitudinal slit in the tube: 
to this plate the traction vehicle is at- 
tached in any convenient way. The 
slit through which the coulter projects 
extends throughout the entire length 

Fig. 3. 

of the tube, and is covered by a con- 
tinuous claclt-valve D (in figs. 2 and 
3), consisting of a band of leather, 
strengthened with plates of iron. 
When no train is passing, tliis valve is 

close, as seen in fig. .3, and is made 
Jiir-tight by some sealing composition 
(of wax .and tallow) melted upon the 
loose edges, and it is protected from ex- 
ternal injury by a thin valve E (figs. 
2 and .3), attached also to the tube by a 
leather hinge. That the coulter may 
readily pass along the slit of the tube, 
without inj uring the valve, four wheels 
or rollers F (seen in fig. 1), are at- 
tached to the piston-bar, so as to raise 
it sui^iciently high to keep it clear of 
the coulter. After the coulter has 
liassed, the valve is pressed down by 
tlie wheel G (fig. 3), and immediately 
sealed by the heater H, attached to the 
after-end of the vehicle. The propul- 
sion of the piston is elfected, as already 
intimated, by partially exhausting the 
air from tijat end of the tube towards 
which it is advancing; which is done 
by means of an appropriate system of 
air-pumps worked by stationary power. 
The system, however, has not hitherto 
fulfilled the expectations of its pro- 
moters, and is therefore meantime 
AT'OLL, ) n. The name given by the 
ATOL'LON,) natives of the Mal- 
dives to coral-islands, consisting of a 
strip or ring of coral surrounding a 
central lagoon. In (jeoijraplnj, it is 
applied to all coral-islands inclosing a 
lagoon. They are said to be simple if 
not encircled by reefs, or compound 
when they are so encircled. They pre- 
sent often an exceedingly picturesque 
appearance ; a comparatively narrow 
sti'ip of coral-rock thinly coated with 
soil, and covered with a vigorous 

growth of coeoa-nnt, pandanus, and 
bread-fruit trees, inclosing a large, 
stiU sheet of water, usually of con- 
siderable depth, and often well sup- 
plied with fish. The circle of coral is 
often complete, showing no apparent 
communication with the surrounding 
sea; at other times it is interrupted, 
and presents one or more openings, 
frequently of sufficient extent and 
depth to be used as a boat passage. 

ATOM'ICISM,t n. Atomism. 

ATONE', V. t. [add.] In Shali., to make 
at one; to reconcile; to make in con- 
cord. — To alone toijether, to unite. 

ATON'IA, 71. SeK Atony. 

ATON'ie, a. [add.J In med., charac- 
terized by atony, or want of vital 
energy; as, an atonic disease. 

ATON'I€, n. In gram., a word that has 
no accent. 

AT'ONY, n. [add.] Want of vital 
energy and strength of action in the 
heart and lungs. 

ATRABlLAlRE',t a. [Ft.] Melan- 
choly; atrabiliary. 
ATUABIL'IARY,) a. Melancholic, or 
ATRABIL'IOUS, | hypochondriacal ; 

from the supposed preponderance of 

black bile. — Airubiliaru capsules, the 

renal or supra-renal glands or capsules. 

ATRABI'LIS, n. [L. from aira, and 

bills.] Black bile, a thick, lilack, acrid 

fluid, supposed by the ancients to be 

secreted by the spleen, pancreatic, or 

atrabiliary capsules, but only a morbid 

state of the bile. 



A'TRED,t a. (a'terd.) [L. ater.] Tinged 

with a black colour. 
AT'KIPLEX, 7i. [Gr. a neg., and r^t^ur, 
to nourish.] Orache, a genus of plants. 
[See Or.\ciie.] 
AT ROPOUS, a. [Or. u. priv., and tjs™, 
to turn.] In hot., a term applied to the 
erect ovule. It is synonymous with 
ATTAC'CA, n. [It.] In music, a direc- 
tion which denotes that the next move- 
ment is to follow immediately, without 
any pause. 
ATTACH', V. t. [add.] To connect with, 
in a fiyurative sense ; as, to attach 
great importance to a particular cir- 
ATTACH', V. i. [add.] To take hold of, 
in a literal sense ; as, to attach the hand 
of a lady. [.s/imA.] 
ATTACH'MENT, n. [add.] The pro- 
cess of foreign attachment, exists in 
London, Bristol, Exeter, Lancaster, 
and some other towns in England. In 
Scotland, this proceeding is called ar- 
restment. — Attachment is also tlie name 
given to a process issuing in a summary 
manner from a court of record, against 
the person of any one guilty of a eon- 
tempt of its rules ; 
as, against attorneys 
for malpractice, 
-""- sheriffs for making 

a ftilse or no retiu-n 
_■- to awrit,and parties 

j.'-'-" neglecting to pay 
costs, when ruled 
to do so. — The term 
attachment is also 
used to signify that 
by which one thing 
is attached to an- 
other ; as, to cut the 
attachments of a 
muscle; also, some 
adjunct, attached to 
an instrument, ma- 
chine, or other object ; as, the Eolian 
attachment to the pianoforte. 
AT'TAGEN, n [add.] A genus of birds 
(Syrrhaptes), of which the only known 
species is somewhat allied to the par- 
tridges. It is a native of the deserts of 
Central Asia, and is rarely met with in 
the south of Eui-ope. 
ATTAIN'DER, n. [add.] By the act of 
3 and 4 Wm. IV., c. 106, the conse- 
quences of attainder are limited to the 
life of the person attainted.— iiiV; of 
attainder, the same as act of at- 
ATTAINT', n. Sig. 4. [add.] Theuritof 
attaint was abolished by 4 Geo. IV., o. 
60. A corrupt juror is punishable by 
fine and imprisonment, upon an indict- 
ment or information. 
ATTAINT', a. Convicted; attainted. 

ATTAIiE',t) V. t. [Sax.] To overtake. 
ATAKE',t )■ [Chaucer.] 
ATTAMED,! pp. [Ft. cntame.] Open- 
ed ; begun ; tasted ; felt ; disgraced. 
ATTEM'PRE,+ a. (attem'per.) [Ft.] 
Temperate. [Ch<iiicer.] 




ATTEJIPT', V. i. To make an attack 
or a trial. 

ATTEMPT', V. t [add.] To tempt. 

ATTEND'ANT, o. [add.] Affendant 
hei/s, in music, the kejs or scales on the 
fifth above and fifth below, (,or fourth 
above,) any key-note or tonic, con- 
sidered in relation to tlie key or scale 
on that tonic. 

ATTEND'ED, pp. [add.] In Shah., 
waited for ; as, to attend a person in 
secret ambush. 

ATTK.\T',t n. Attention. [Spenser.'] 

ATTEN'TION, v. [add.] The word of 
command given to soldiers before per- 
forminji any exercise or evolution. 

ATTENT'LY, a. Attentively. 

ATTEN'UATE, a. [add.] In boi., at- 
tenuated; growing slender towards a 
point or extremity. 

ATTES'TIVE, a. Giving attestation ; 

AT'Tlt', a. [add.] Marked by such 
qualities as were characteristic of the 
Athenians. — An Attic style, a pure, 
classical, and elegant style.— A//iC dia- 
lect, the dialect of the ancient Greek 
language, used by the Athenians. 

ATTIUEV- [add.] Attire as a botanical 
term is obsolete. 

AT'TITUDE, H. [add.] The posture or 
position of a person, or the manner in 
which the parts of his body ai'e disposed; 
as, a graceful attitude, a becoming atti- 
UidCy an ungraceful or unbecoming atti- 
tude. The term is used particularly in 
relation to some purpose or emotion ; 
as, an attitude of defiance, a threatening 
attitude, an attitude of entreaty. 

ATTITUDINA'IUAN, n. Onestudious 
of attitudes. 

ATTITUDINIZE, v. i. To assume af- 
fected a+titudes, airs, or postures. 

ATTUNE '.t «rfu. (atton'.) Together; at 
once. [.Si>e/wer.] 

A'J'TOKN', V. t. To turn or transfer the 
homage or service of a vassal or ten- 

ATTOKN'EY, «. [add.] An attorney is 
either public or private. A private 
attorney is one authorized to make 
contracts, and do other acts for his 
principal out of coiu-t, by an instru- 
ment called a letter of attorney. A 
public attorney, or attorney-at-law, is 
an officer of a court of record, legally 
qualified to prosecute and defend ac- 
tions in coiu-ts of law, on the retainer 
of clients. A solicitor differs from an 
attorney in practising in courts of 
equity, instead of common law. By 
an Act 6 and 7 Vict., c. 63, the whole 
of the laws relating to attorneys and 
solicitors were consolidated, and spe- 
cial care is taken to prevent un- 
qualified persons practising, and per- 
sons seeking to be admitted attorneys 
are subjected to a regular examination. 
— Letter or power of attornet/, an in- 
strument by which one person au- 
thorizes another to do some act for 
him ; as to execute a deed, to collect 
rents or debts, to sell estates, &c. 

terial offit-cr of the crown, specially 
appointed by letters patent. He is the 
public prosecutor on behalf of the 
crown ; liaving general powers to act 
in all legal proceedings in which the 
crown is a party; particularly to pro- 
secute in criminal matters afi'ecting 
the state. The attorney-general lias 
precedence of all other counsel, and 
the solicitor-general ranks next to 


The office of attorney-general. 

ATTOUUM "• [f'r-J Head-dress. 

ATTKA€'TIVE, ii. That which draws 
or incites. 

AT TRAHENS AU'RIS, n. [L. atiraho, 
to draw to.] A muscle which draws 
the ear forwards and upwards. 

AT'TKAIIENT, n. That which draws 
to, or attracts ; as a magnet. — 'J. In 
7ned., a substance formerly supposed to 
possess the property of drawing the 
humours to the part applied, but whicli 
in reality only excites action in the 
part, and thus may increase excretion, 
as a blister, sinapism, rubefacient, or 

ATTKAPT',f pp. Adorned. [Spcjjser.] 

ATTRIBUTE, n. In paint, [add.] At- 
tributes are subordinate natural beings, 
or products of human workmanship, 
which serve to denote the character and 
action of the principal figures. 

ATTUiTE', n. [add.] In Rom. Catholic 
theology, repentant only through fear 
of punishment. 

ATTRY,t ) a. [Sax. cctran, to poi- 

AT'T£RLY,t) son.] Poisonous; per- 
nicious ; virulent. [Chaucer.] 

ATTCNE', r. t. [add.] In a Jigurative 
sense, to arrange fitly ; to make accord- 
ant; to bring into harmony with; as, 
to attune the thoughts ; to attune the 
heart; to attune our aims to the Divine 

ATTUN'ED,/>?). [add.] Made accordant, 
in ajl</urative sense, 

ATTUN'ING,_?)/>r. [add.] Making ac- 
cordant, in a fujurative sense. 

ATWEEI/. I wot well. [Scotch.] 

A-T WINNE,'t ) adv. {a-twin'.) In two; 

A-TWO',t J asunder. [Chaucer.] 

ATWIST', a. Awry; distorted. [Mar. 

AT'YA, n. A genus of crustaceous ani- 
mals, forming a peculiar subdivision of 
the shrimp family. One species {Atya 
scabra), is found in the mountain 
streams of some of the West Indian 

ATYPIC, a. [Gr. a priv., and TVTot, a 
type.] Having no type ; irregular. [Jiar. 

AU. In words commencing with this 
syllable, the a has the broad sound, as 
in all 

AUCHE'NIA, 7i. A genus of ruminat- 
ing animals, aUied to the camel. The 
only distinct species are the llama, paco 
or alpaca, and vicugna or vicuna. 

AUCIIT, > i\t. To possess or belong to; 

AUGHTJ as, whae's aught it? to 
whom does it belong? [Scotch.] 

AUCHT, ) n. Possession : property. — In 

AUGHT, j ane's aught, in ones keep- 
ing or possession. [Scotch.] 

AU fOUUANT', a. [Fr.] Well ac- 
quainted with what is going on; ap- 
plied either to public or private mat- 

AUG'TION, V. t To sell by auction. 
[Rar. us.] 

AUCTION, 71. [add.] Dutch auction, a 
method of public sale, which consists 
in the uffer of property at a price be- 
yond its value, and then gradually 
lowering or dhninishing that price, un- 
til some one among tlie company agrees 
to become the purchaser. — Auction- 
duly, a duty levied upon goods sold by 

AU€ TION-ROOM, n. A room where 
an auction is held. 

AUt"'TlVE,f a. Of an increasing qua- 
lity . 


AU€'TOUR,t «. [L. auctor.] A writer 

of credit. [Chaucer.] 

AUDIBILITY, n. Audibleness. [Rar. 

AUD'IBLE, n. The object of hearing. 
[Rar. us.] 

[L.] In laic, a writ or commission to 
certain persons, for appeasing and pun- 
ishing any insurrection or great riot. 

AUD'IT, V. i. To sum up. 

AUDI' TION.f n. A hearing. 

AUD'IT-OFFICE, n. The office where 
the commissioners tor auditing the 
pubhc accounts transact their business. 
It is at Somerset House, and is under 
the immediate control of tiie Lords of 
the Treasury. 

AUDITOR, n. [add.] The auditors of 
the exchequer, were officers appointed 
to take the accounts of receivers of 
public revenues. At present there is a 
board of six commissioners for auditing 
the public accounts. Two of them are 
empowered to examine persons on oath, 
and to do all acts concerning the audit 
of public accounts. Auditors are an- 
nually elected by the burgesses, under 
the municipal corporations act, two for 
each borough. They audit tlte borough 
accounts half-yearly, and must not be 
members of the council. 

AUDIT'UAL, rt. Related to hearing. 
[Rar. us.] 

AU FAIT, (o' fa'.) [Fr.] Literally, ac- 
quainted with ; up to the accomplish- 
ment of anything; that is, master of 
it; perfectly able to perform it. 

AU'GER-SHELL, «. The shells of the 
genus Terebra are popularly so called. 

AUGET', 71. [Fr.] A tube tilled with 
powder, and extending from the cham- 
ber of a mine to the extremity of the 
gallery; used in exjiloding mines. 

AUGMENT ATlVK,n. A word formed 
to express greatness. 

AUGURING, jj;>r. or a. Prognosticat- 
ing ; prescient ; as, auguring hope. 

AUGURIST, n. An augur. [Rar. «s.] 

AU'GURSHIP. H. The office, or period 
of office, of an augm*. 

AUGUST'INES. See Avgustins. 

AUGUST'LY, adv. In an august man- 

AULA'RIAN, a. [L. aula, a haU.] Re- 
lating to a hall. 

AULD, «. Old. [Scotch.] 

AULD LANG SYNE. A phrase used 
to express days, or times long since 
past, [Scotch.] 

AULD-WARLD, a. Old-fashioned; 
ancient ; antique. 

AU'LI€, a. [add.] The aulic council of 
the former G erman empire, became 
extinct when that empire was dissolved 
in 1806. There is, however, an aulic 
council at Vienna, for the affairs of the 
war department of the Austrian em- 
pire. It consists of twenty-five coun- 
cillors. ^ 

AULMONIERE, n. [Fr.] A purse. 

AULN, n. (awn.) A French cloth-mea- 
sure. [See AuNE.] 

AUL'NAOE,t H. (aw'-naj.) Measure- 
ment by the ell. [See Alnagk.] 

AUL'NAGER, n. See Alnaoer. 

AULOS TOMA, n. [Gr. a»Xot, a pipe, 
(rrfl.u-a, a mouth.J A genus of acanthop- 

Heftil of Aulostoma ntaculatum. 

terygious fishes, including the pipe- 
mouthed fishes, or those species which 




are tliaracterized by a mouth which is 
lengthened into the form of a pipe or 

AUJiAYLD'.t VP- [See Aumail.] En- 
amelled. [.S;>e?wer.] 

AUM BLE.t n. See Amble. 

AU'MENEK.t ) n. [Fr. aumoniere.] A 

AU'MERE.t j purse. [Chaucer.] 

AUNT, H. [add.] A proem'ess ; any old 
woman. [Shah.] 

AUN'TER, for AVENTUKE. [Chau- 


AU'R.\, Ji. [add.] Among physicians, a 
peculiar sensation resembling that pro- 
duced by a current of air. — Einlepiic 
aura {aura epileptica), a sensation as of 
a cui-rcnt of air, rising from some part 
of the body to the head, preceding an 
attack of epilepsy. — Electric aura, a 
term expressive of electricity, as re- 
ceived from a point, from the sensa- 
tion it conmumicates. 

AU'RAL, a. Pertaining to the air. 

AU'REATE, a. [add.] Same as Aurate. 

AURE'LIAN, 71. An amateur collector 
and breeder of insects, particularly of 
the Eepidoptera. 

AURIt'ULAR, n. [add.] Pertaming to 
the auricles of the heart. — Auricular 
feathers, in birds, the circle of feathers 
surrounding the opening of the ear. 

AUia€'ULATE, a. [add.] In cunchol., 
a term applied to certain bivalves, 
which have a Hat, angulated projection 
on one or both sides of the unibones or 
bosses ; most developed in the pectens. 

AURl'GAL, a. Pertaining to a chariot 
or carriage, [liar, us.] 

AUKIG'KAPHY, n. [h. aurum, gold, 
and Gr. y^^^st, to write.] The art of 
writing witli gold instead of ink. 

AUR1S€ALP'1UJI, n. [L.] See Ac- 


AU'RITED, a. [L. aurilus.] Eared; 
auriculate; having lobes or append- 
ages like an eai'; a term used both in 
bot. and zool. 

ringing noise in the ears. 

AU'RO€U,H. [add.] This species of wild 
bull was once abundant, roaming in 
herds over many parts of the continent 
of Europe, preferring the neighbour- 
hood of extensive forests. The exteu- 

Auroch, Uos 

sion of civilization has reduced its num- 
bers, and were it not for the protection 
alibrded to a few herds of this species 
by the Emperor of Russia, it would 
soon be e.\tinct. A noble stuffed speci- 
men, presented by the Emperor of 
Russia, exists in the coUeotion of the 
Britiili Museum. 

AURUNG', n. In Itidia, the place where 
goods are manufactured. 

AUSX'ULTATOR, n. One who prac- 
tises auscultation. 

AU'SPI€ATORY, a. Of or belonging 
to auspices or omens. 

AUSPl'CIAL, a. Relating to prog- 
nostics or omens. 

AUSTRALA'SIAN, a. Relating to 

AUSTRALA'SIAN, n. A native of 

AUSTRALIA, n. The name of the 
largest island in the world, otherwise 
called New Holland. It is sometimes 
improperly applied to all the oceanic 
regions between Asia and America. 
In this latter sense the word is sub- 
stituted for Australasia, or the fifth 
division of the globe, which properly 
includes only the islands extending 
from Papua or New Guinea to lat. 60° 
S., and from long. 110° to 180° E., the 
principal of which are Pai>ua, Australia, 
Van Dienien's Land, New Zealand, 
New Caledonia, tStc. 

AUSTRA'LIAN, a. Pertaining to Aus- 
tralia or to New Holland. 

AUSTRA'LIAN, n. A native of Aus- 

AU'TAR€HY, n. [Gr. kutc,-, self, and 
»SX*t) government.] A government by 
one ; self-sufficiency. 

AU'TER.t n. [Fr.] Altar. [Chaucer.] 

AU'TER-VIE, }). (o'ter vee.) [Law 
Fr.] Another's life. — Tenant pour auier- 
vie, one who holds an estate by the life 
of another. 

AUTHENTIC, ) a. [add.] Genu- 

AUTHEN'Tl€AL,j ine; real; ap- 
plied to persons ; as, an authentic au- 
thor ; an authentic sage ; an autheidic 
wit. — In law, vested with all due 
formalities ; executed by the proper 
authorities, and legally attested. — In 
music, having an immediate relation 
to the key-note or tonic; in distinction 
from plaijal, having a corresponding 
relation to the tifth or dominant, in the 
octave below the key-note. — Aidhentic 
meludies, those which have then* prin- 
cipal notes between the key-note and 
its octave, in distinction from plaijal 
melodies, which have their principal 
notes in the octave below the fifth of 
tiie key. — Authentic moods or tones, in 
the ancient church music, the four 
moods introduced by St. Ambrose, in 
which the principal notes of the melo- 
dies are confined within the octave 
above the key-note, in distinction from 
the plagal moods or tones introduced 
by Gregory the Great, in which the 
principal notes of the melodies are con- 
fined within the octave below the fifth 
of the key. — Authentic cadence, the 
same as perfect cadence. [See under 
Perfect.]— /"/«!/«; cadence, the chord 
or harmony of the fourth or sub-domin- 
aii(. followed by that of the tonic. 

ALTUEN TI€ATE, v. t. [add.] To 
determine as genuine ; as, to authenti- 
cate a portrait. 

AUTHEN'TIGLY, adv. Authentically. 
[1-iar. vs.] 

AUTHEN'TI€S, n. An extract from 
the novels of .Uistinian, by w liich a law 
of the code is either clianged or abo- 

AU'THORISM,?!. Authorship ; quality 
of an author. [Har. us.] 

AU'THORIZABLE, a. That may be 

AU'THOKLESS, o. Without an author. 

AUTHORLY, a. Belonging to an 
author. [liar, us.] 

writes his own life. 




AUTOCARPOUS, instead of AUTO- 


AUTOCHTHON, n. plur. Autoch- 
thones, [add.] An aboriginal or native. 
— 2. That which is original to a par- 
ticular country, or which had there its 
first origin. 

AUTOCHTHONAL, ) a. Indige- 


manner of an autocrat. 

AUT0C;RAT0R, n. An autocrat; a 
person invested with absolute inde- 
pendent power, by which he is ren- 
dered unaccountable for his actions. 

AUTOCRATOR ICAL, a. Pertaining 
to an autocrat ; supreme ; absolute ; as, 
autocratorical power. 

AUTOe'RATRlCE,«. A female abso- 
lute sovereign. 

AU'TOCRATSHIP,n. The office of an 

The process of uniting pieces of metal 
by the fusion of part of theii' own sub- 

AUTOG'RAPHAL, a. Same as Auto- 


AUTOG'RAPliy, n. A process in 
Uthoijraphii, by which a writing or 
drawing is transferred from paper to 

AUTOM'ATAL, a. Same as Adtoma- 

AU'TOPISTY, n. [Gr. a«„s, self, and 
nrijwf, faitii.] Internal worthiness of 
belief; the quality of credibility exist- 
ing in itself independent of external 

AUTOP'SIA, n. [Gr. «vrt;, self, and 
oiTTcfLKi, to see.] Post-mortem examina- 
tion; inspection of the body after 

Note. — Aufopsia and its derivatives 
are rarely used except by medical 

AUTOTHE'ISM, n. The doctrine of 
the self-existence of God. [Har. us.] 

AU'TUMN, n. [add.] In pup. Ian., 
autumn comprises August, September, 
and October. 

AUXET'lC,t a. Amplifying; increas- 

AUXIL'IAR,^- n. An auxiliary. 

AUXILTAR, ) a. [add.] Auj-iliar!/ 

AUXIL'I A RY, i verb, a verb that assists 
in the conjugation of other verbs. [See 
the Noun.] — Auxiliarii scales, in music, 
the six keys or scales, consisting of any 
key major, with its relative minor, and 
the attendant keys of each. 

AUXIL'IARLY, adv. By means of aid 
or help. 

AVADAV'AT, n. An East Indian bird, 
much kept by the natives in cages, on 
account of its pretty plumage. 

AVAlL',t t'. t. See Avale. 

AVALE',t I', t. [Fr. avaler.] To let 
down ; to lower, as a sail ; to cause to 
descend ; to depress ; to make abject. 

AVALE',t f. !• To fall, as rain, or the 
tide; to descend; to dismount. 

AVANCE',t !'. !. (avans'.) [Fr.] To 
advance; to profit. [Chaucer.] 

AVANT',t "■ [Fr.] Boast. [Chaucer.] 

AVANT'AGE,t n. Advantage. [Chau- 

AVANT' COU'RIER, instead of A- 

AVANTE',t V. i. (avanf.) [Fr.] To 
boast. [Chaucer.] 


AVATA'RA, instead of AVATARA. 

AVAUNC'EMENT,t «. Advancement. 

AVAUNT', t V. i. To come before; to 

AVAUNT',t adv. [Fr.] Forwaid. 




:CE,t{ n. 


AVAV^■T'A^XE,f J- n. Boasting. 

AVAUNT ING,t ppr. [See Vauxt.] 
Boasting. [Spenser.] 

A'VE, n. An ave-niary. 

AVELL'jfr.r [L.avelio.'] To pull away. 

A'VE-MA'RY, or A'VE-MARI'A, h. 
[add.] In JRom. Catholic countries, a par- 
ticular time, about half-an-hour after 
sunset, and also at early dawn, when 
the bells ring, and the people repeat 
the ave-marv. 

AVEXAUM^t «. [Fr.] Becoming; 
well-looking. [Chaucer.] 

AVEXGE',t n. Revenge. 

AVENGE FIJL, a. Revengeful. [7?ar. j 

AV'ENS, n. Geum, a genus of plants. 
Common avens, or herb-bennet, is 
G. urbamim. Its root has been em- 
ployed as a gentle styptic, coiToborant, . 
and stomachic, and it is also esteemed \ 
on the Continent as a febrifuge. The i 
root of G. rivale, or water-avens, is in ; 
high estimation in America in the cure I 
of intermittents, and has been alleged 
by some to be as efficacious as Perunan I 
bark. Mountain-avens is a species of [ 
Drv;^, the D. octopetala. 

AVENTAYLE',-^ n. (aventavl'.) See 

AYENTAILE', ) Vextail in Diet, i 

AYEN'TRED,tijp. [Fr.] Adventured. ■ 
[Spenser.] I 

AVEN'TRIXG, ppr. Adventuring;! 
pushing forward. [6i)en,ver.] I 

AVENT'CRINE, n. A brownish- 
coloiu-ed glass, interspersed with | 
spangles, formerly manufactured at 
Venice, and employed for many orna- j 
mental purposes. It derived its pe- 
culiar brilliancy from the presence of i 
copper-filings. ' 

A'VER, n. See Aiver in tliis Supp. 

AVER', V. f. [add.] In /air, to offer to 
verify. [See Atermest.] 

AVERAGE, n. [add.] Average, in the ! 
ordinary use of the term, may be de- I 
fined, a quantity intermediate to a num- 
ber of quantities, so that the sum-total 
of its excesses above those which are 
less, is equal to the sum-total of its de- 
fects from those which are greater. , 
Hence, to find the average of any num- ' 
ber of quantities, add them all together, ' 
and divide the sum by the number of 
quantities: thus 7 is the average of the 
six numbers, 2, 3, 5, S, 1<>. and 14, for 
the sum of these is 42, and 42 divided 
by 6 gives 7. The averatje quantity is 
a valuable test of the goodness or bad- 
ness of any particular lot, when there 
is a perfect similarity of circumstances 
in the things compared ; but its value 
diminishes as the quantities averaged 
vary more from each other. Avera'jes, 
in the corn trade, is the average amount 
of prices of the several kinds of grain 
in the principal corn-markets. Gene- 
ral average, in maritime law. [See Did., 
Atebage, Sig. 1.] Every species of loss 
incurred on any part of a ship's cargo 
in the course of the voyage, is some- 
what loosely termed average, or i>ar- 
ticular average. 
AVERAGE, a. [add.] Estimated upon 
a medium or mean proportion. 
AVERA'XO, n. Brazilian birds of the 
family Ampelidie and genus Casmarhyn- 
chus, wliich have no feathers on the 
AVER CORN, n. In /air, a rent paid 
in corn. 

AVERDCPOIS'. See Avoirdupois. 
AVER'SlVE,t a. Avei-se ; tmning 

AVICEN'NIA, n. [add.] This genus 

forms the small group Avicenuiese of 

the nat. order Verbenacea?. 
AVICULA, n. A genus of bivalve mol- 

lusca, of which one species (A. hirundo) 

is occasionally met with on our coasts. 

Several species are met with in a fossil 

AVID, a. Eager; greedy. [liar, us.] 
AVID'IOrS, a. Eager; sreedv. 

In /air, from the bonds of matrimony; 

a form of divorce. 

AVISM ». [Fr.] Advice. [Chaucer.] 
WISAND.t " ^ "- 


AVISAND'.t ppr. [Fr.] Observing 

A\ ISDE'jf pp. Advised; considered; 
bethought. [5/>en*er.] 

AViSE,t V. i. [add.] To see; to look; 
to observe — To avise oite''s self^ to be- 
think one's self. [Spenser.] 

AVlS'IIsGjt ppr. Observing; looking 
upon. [5pe«5er.] 

AA'I'SIOXjt H. A'ision. [Chaucer.] 

AViZD.i" pret. of Avise or Avtze. 
Saw. f5;>en5er.] 

A V 1 Z E F y L L,t a. Circumspect. 

AVOCADO. See Avigato. 

AVOCAT, H. [Fr.] An advocate, a 
name given to the higher class of French 

AVOCATE, V. t. [add.] To remove 
authoritatively from an inferior to a 
superior court. 

AVO'CATl^VE,t a. CaUing off. 

AVOLATE,t V. i. To fly away; to 
escape : to exhale. 

AVOUE', n. [Fr.] In France, originally 
a protector of a church or religious 
community; but at present applied to 
the lower class of French lawyers. 

AVOUR'.f ) n. [Fr. avouer.] Confes- 

AVOURE',f ) sion ; acknowledgment. 

AVOUTERER,t| n [Fr.] .\n adul- 

AVOU'TRER.t ) terer. [Chaucer.] 

AVOU'TEUIE,t) n. Adultery. [CVmu- 

AVOU'TRIE,t J cer.] 

AVOWABLYjf adv. In an avowable 

AVOWAL, n. [add.] The owning or 
acknowledgment of a thing. 

AVCL'SIOX, n. [add.] In laic, a term 
applied where lands are. by an inunda- 
tion, or current, torn off from property 
to which they originally belonged, and 
gained to the estate of another; or 
where a river changes its course, and 
instead of continuing to fiow between 
two properties, cuts off part of one and 
joins it to the other. The property of 
the part thus separated continues in 
the original proprietor, in which re- 
spect avulsion differs from alluvion. 

AWAlTE', n. (await.) [Fr.] Watch. 

A WARE'JSING, n. [add.] Act of awak- 

AWaKE'XING, ppr. Rousing from 
sleep ; alarming. 

AWaKF/NINGLY, adv. In a manner 
to av.aken. 

AWAP'ED,t pp. [Sax. ira^^an.] Con- 
founded; stupified. [Chaucer.] 
AW^E, V. f. [add.] To dread. 
AWE, n. [add.] Overa\\ing inSuence. 
AWE, V. i. To owe. [Scotch.] 
AWE -COMPEL XING, a. Enforcing 

AWEEL', adv. Well. [Scotch.] 
AWHAPE',t r. t. [add.] To terrify. 

AWHAP'£D,t pp. Terrified. [Spen- 

A-WH 0,ELS,+ adv. On wheels. 

AWM'BRY, n. See Ambht. 
AW'MOUS. n. Alms. [Scotch.] 
AWN,orASV'IN,ppr. Owing. [Scotch.] 
AWREKE',t V. f. (arek'.) [Sax. atr- 

recan.] To wreak: to persecute; to 

take vengeance on ; to avenge. [Chau~ 

AW'SOJIE.ff. Awful ; teirible. [Scotch.] 
AX, > V. f. The old English verb for 
AXE,) ask. It is still in use in various 

parts of England among the common 

AXAYA'CATL, instead of AXAYA'- 

AXE'-SHAPED, a. In hot., having a 

resemblance to an axe or hatchet; do- 

AXE-STONE, H. See in Diet, after 


AX'IAL LIXE, n. The name given by 
Faraday to the line in which the mag- 
netic force passes from one pole of a 
horse-shoe magnet to the other. 

AX lALLY, adv. According to, or in a 
line with the axis. 

AXIL'LA, n, [L.] The arm-pit. [See 

AXIOMAT'IC, a. [add.] Consistmg of 

AXIS, n. [add.] In hot., the root and 
stem of the whole plant; the central 
part or column around which the other 
parts are disposed; divided into the 
ascending axis, or stem, and the de- 
scending oj-is, or root, which two are 
united by the collum or neck. — Axis of 
rotation, tlie line about which a body 
turns. — Arts of si/mmetry, a line on 
both sides of which the parts of the 
body are disposed in the same man- 
ner, so that to whatever distance the 
body extends in one direction from 
the axis, it extends as fur in the direc- 
tion exactly opposite. The middle line 
of a cone, the diameter of a sphere, the 
line drawn through the middle of the 
opposite faces of a cube, are examples 
of axes of symmetry. — Aris of refraC' 
Hon, the straight line drawn perpen- 
dicular to the surface of the refracting 
medium, through the point of incidence 
of the refracted ray. Some crystals 
havetwoaxes of refraction. — Arisofa 
lens, a straight line drawn through the 
optical centre of the lens, and perpen- 
dicular to both its surfaces. — Arisofa 
spherical, concave, or convex mirror, a 
straight line which passes through the 
geometrical and optical centres of the 
mirror. — Aris of a beam of light, the 
middle ray of the beam. — Aris of a 
magnet, the imaginary line which con- 
nects the north and south poles of the 
magnet. — An/ic/j/ja/ arts, the imaginary 
line lyini; between the strata that dip 
in opi:csi;e directions; or it is the line 
of common section made by the meet- 
ing of the strata. [See Anticlinal.] 
— Axis of rotation, or axis of revolution. 
In meek., the axis of rotation is the axis 
about which all the parts of a rotating 
body turn ; the axis of revolution is 
the axis about which a revolving body 
moves. The axis of rotation is in the 
body itself; the axis of revolution is at 
the centre of the circle, or other curve, 
in which the body is moving. These 
terms, which are often confounded, are 
exemplitied by the motions of the earth, 
which rotates on its own axis, and re- 
volves about a line passing through tlie 
sun's centre, and perpendicularly to the 
orbit in which it moves. 
AXIS, n. A species of Indian deer, the 
Cervus axis, of which there are two or 
three varieties. The body of the com- 




nion axis is beautifully marked with 
^vliite spots. 

AX'LED, a. Furnished with an axle. 

AX'OLOTL, instead of AXOLOTE, 
ii, [add.] The axolotis constitute the 
tcenus Axolotes. They belong to the 
true amphibia?, havinc; permanent gills 
or branchiae, and also lungs. The 
axolotl of tiie Mexicans [A. edulis) is 
sold in the markets of Mexico, and 
is esteemed a great luxury by the in- 
habitants; another species has been 
lately described in the annals of na- 
tural history. 

AY, )'ac?«. [add.] Indeed : noting anger 

AYE, ) and reproach, or sliglit surprise. 

AY'AH, n. In the East Indies, a native 
waiting-woman, or lady's-maid. 

AYE-AYE, n. A sinp;u!ar nocturnal 
quadruped found in INIadagascar, the 
Cheiromys Madagascariensis. In its 
liabits it resembles the sloth, but it is 

Aye-aye, Cheiromys .Vudag^ucarientis. 

classed by some naturalists with the 
monkey tribe, from the hand-like struc- 
ture of its hinder feet. Cuvier places 
it among the rodent animals after the 

squirrels. It is about the size of a 
hare, and is called aye-aye by the na- 
tives, from its peculiar cry. 

AYEN',t \ adv. or prep. Again ; 

AYEN'ST,t ) against. [Chaucer.] 

AYEN'WARDjtarfy. Back; backward. 

AY'GULETS,t n.plur. [Fr. aiyiiUette.] 
Tagged points. [Spenser,] 

AYUNTAMIEN'TO,«. [Sp.] In Spain 
and Spanish America, a corporation, or 
body of magistrates in cities and towns. 

AZA'LEA, ". [Gr. a^aAea;, dry, from a. 
neg., and ?«&- to live. J A genus of 
plants, nat. order Ericaceje. A. pro- 
cumbens is the only species; it is a 
British plant, growing on dry heathy 
ground on many of the IliglUand moun- 
tains. Many beautiful species of rho- 
dodendron, with deciduous leaves, are 
also known under the name of azalea 
in gardens ; these are principally from 
North America, but what is called A. 
Po7itica, is a native of Asia Minor; it 
possesses poisonous properties. 

AZELA'I€ ACID, n. An acid obtained 
by treating oleic with nitric acid. It 
closely resembles suberic acid. 

AZOBENZO'IDINE, n. A chemical 
compound derived from benzoyle. 

AZOBENZOILIDE, ?i. A chemical 
compound derived from benzoyle, iso- 
meric with azobenzoidine. 

AZOBEN'ZOYLE. See Azobenzule. 

AZOERYTU'RINE, n. A colouring 
principle obtained from the archil of 

AZO'I€, a. [Gr. « priv., and ^nvj. life.] 
Destitute of organic life. 

AZO'LEI€ ACID, n. An acid formed 
by the action of nitric acid on oleic acid. 
It occm'S in the form of an oily liquid. 

AZOLIT'MINE,?!. A colouring matter 
of a deep blood-red colour obtained 
from litmus. 

A'ZOTANE, n. Chloride of azote. 

AZOT'IG ACID, n. Same as Nitric 

AZOT'ie GAS, n. Nitrogen, or nitro- 
gen gas. 

AZ'OTIZED, pp. or a. [add.] Those 
articles of food which contain the least 
quantity of azote are least adapted by 
themselves to afford nourishment to 
the solid fabric of the body ; whilst 
those which, like meat of various kinds, 
are almost exclusively composed of 
azotized compounds, are the most cap- 
able of serving this purpose. Saccha- 
rine and oleaginous matters are termed 
iion-azotized substances, and are in- 
capable by tiiemselves of supporting 
animal life. 

AZO'TOUS ACID, n. Nitrous acid. 

AZ'RAEL, n. The name given by the 
Turks and Arabs to the angel of 

AZITL'MI€ ACID, n. The name given 
to the black matter deposited during 
the decomposition of prussic acid. It 
is very similar to ulmic acid. 

AZ'URE, n. and a. More usually written 
A'ZURE (pron. a zJiur). 

AZURE, V. t. instead of AZ'URE. 

instead of AZ'URED, AZ'URE- 
STONE, &c. 

A'ZURINE, 71. The elegant blue plum- 
aged maluri, small birds found in 
Australia, are sometimes so called. — A 
species of fresh-water fish found in 
Lancasliire (the Leuciscus c/xruleus), is 
so called from its colour. 


B[add.] To knoui aH from ahidVs foot. 
• It is a very common phrase to say, 
" He does not know a B from a bull's 
foot," meaning that a person is very 
illiterate, or very ignorant. The term 
hulVs foot is most probably chosen for 
the sake of the alliteration, or from old 
pictorial letters, where B was repre- 
sented by a bull. 

BA', n. A ball; a hand-ball or foot-ball. 

-BAB, n. A bunch ; a tassel. [Scotch.] 

BA'BA, n. In the East Indies, a lady. 

BAB'BLER,n. Two or three species of 
soft-billed birds are so called. They 
are famed for their fine song. 

BABIA'NA, 71. A genus of Cape plants, 
nat. order Iridace*. Among the species 
are some of the handsomest of the Cape 
bulbous plants. They have narrow- 
plaited sword-shaped leaves, and the 
flowers are yellow, purple, and scarlet, 
of considerable size, and extremely 

BAB'ILLARD, n. The name of a small 
insectivorous passerine bird, the Cur- 
rucu garrula, also called lesser white- 
throat, nettle-creeper, kc. 


BABI'SHNESS, n. Childishness. 

BA'BOO, ) n. A Hindoo title of respect 

BA'BU, ) paid to gentlemen, equiva- 
lent to musteVy sir. 

BABOON', n.. [add.] The baboons have 

been considered by more recent zoolo- 
gists as constituting a genus of quad- 
rumana, or four - handed mammals, 
forming tlie last link in the chain that 
unites the Simiae, properly so called, 
with the lower animals. The baboons 
are of a gloomy and sullen temper, and 
they exhibit a considerable degree of 
ferocity when attacked. The wan- 
deroo, magot, gray baboon, mandrill, 
and drill are species. 

BABU. See Baboo. 

BA'BY-FEATURED,u. Having infan- 
tine features. 

BA'BYISM, n. The state or quality of a 

BA'BY-JUArPER, n. A strong band of 
galvanized caoutchouc, usually suspend- 
ed from the roof of a room, with a seat, 
in which a little child may be securely 
fastened, attached to it. When the 
child's feet touch the ground and par- 
tially .support its weight, the caout- 
chouc band contracts, and thus a jump- 
ing or bobbing motion is produced. 

BABYLONISH, a. See Babylonian. 

BAB'YLONITE, n A name given to 
the arrow-shaped Babylonish charac- 

BA'BYSHIP, ji. The state or condition 
of a baby. 

BACA'RIA, n. A genus of composite 
plants. £. spinoza is an interesting 
plant, growing well in peat and loam. 


BACCALAU'REUS, n. [L.] A bachelor 
of arts. 

BACCHANA'LIA, n. plur. [L.] Feasts 
or festive rites in honoiu* of Bacchus. 
[See Bacchanals.] 

BACCHANT, instead of BAC- 
CHANT', H. [add.] A mad priest of 

BACCHAN'TES, instead of BAC- 

BAC'CHICAL, a. Same as Bacchic. 

BACCHUS-BOLE, n. A plant pro- 
ducing large ilowers. 

BACE,t a. [See Base.] Low. [Spen- 

BACE,f ) n. The game of prisoner" shase, 

BASE, j more generally written base. 
[See Base.] 

BACH'ELER,t H. A bachelor ; a knight. 

B ACH'ELERIE,t n. Knighthood ; 
knights. [Chaiicer.] 

BACH'ELORlS:\I, n. The state of a 

popular name of a plant of the genus 
Ranunculus, the R. acris, or common 
butter-cup, but with double fiowers. 
It has yellow blossoms. A white one, 
sometimes, but improperly, also so 
called, is R. aconitijolius, but the more 
usual popular name of this last is fair 
maids of France. 

BACILLA I\lA,7i. An extensive family 




of infusorial animalcula, constituted by 
BACIL'LUS, n. [L.] In bot, the name 
given by Link to the cotyledon of the 
hyacinth.— In zool., a genus of Phas- 
midre, or wal king-stick insects. 
BACK, 71. In bj-eireries, kc, a water-cis- 
tem or reservoir. The liquor-bach in a 
brewery, is the water-reservoir. 
BACK, adv. [add.] Back is often used 
in familiar language for ago: as, a little 
while back, that is, a short time ago. 
BACK, r. f. [add.] In seamanship, to 
back a vessel is to make her move astern. 
A sailing vessel is backed by means of 
the sails, and a steamer by reversing 
the motion of the paddles, or screw- 
propeller, or, in other words, by back- 
ing ike engine. — To bach the field, in 
horse-racing, is to bet against a particu- 
lar horse or horses, that some one of all 
the other horses in the field will beat 
them. — To bach out, a current phrase, 
signifying to retreat from a difficulty, 
to refuse to fulfil a promise or engage- 

BACK, ^ n. A coal-scuttle. — Ass- 

BACK'ET, ) ftacAef, a scuttle for ashes. 

BACK-BOARD, n. [add.] A board at- 
tached to the rim of a water-wheel, to 
prevent the water from running off the 
floats or paddles into the interior of 
the Ti'heel. 

BACK-BOXES, n.plur. The boxes on 
the top of the upper case, used for 
printers' types, usually appropriated to 
small capitals. 

BACK'-CHaIX, n. A chain that passes 
over the cart-saddle of a horse, to sup- 
port tiie shafts. 

BACKER, n. [add.] One who backs or 
supports another in a contest. 

BACK'-FILLIXG, n. The act of re- 
storing to its place earth which has 
been removed; the earth so restored. 

BACK'-GROUXD, n. [add.] In paint., 
the space behind a portrait, or group of 
figures. I 

BACK'ING, n. In horsemanship, the ' 
operation of breaking a colt for the i 
saddle. — 2. In book-binding, the prepar- 
ing of the back of a book with glue, 
&c., before putting on the cover. 

BACK'ING-UP, n. A term used in ^ 
cricket, and certain other games, i 
for stopping the ball and driving it i 

BACK'-LASH, «. In mech., the reaction | 
upon each other of a pair of wheels ; 
produced by irregularities of velocity, | 
when the load is not constant, or the j 
moving power is not uniform. j 

BACK' Backward?. [Scotch.] 

BACK'-LOOK, 71. Retrositective view; 
as, to take a back-looh. [Scotch.] 

BACK'-PARLOtJR, n. A parlour in ' 
the back part of a house. 

BACK-ROPES, n. See JIartingalk. 

BACKSIDE, «. Sig. 3. [add.] An old 
law term. 

BACKSLIT)ING, ppr. or a. Aposta- 
tizing from faith or practice ; falling 
insensibly from religion into sin or J 
idolatry- , ! 

BACK'lSPEED, n. In mech., a second 
speed-gear of a lathe, which can be 
brought into action on the fore-speed, 
and second series of speeds of the 
spindle be thereby obtained. I 

BACK-STAY, n. In printing, a strap ! 
of leather used to check the carriage 
of a printing-press. I 

BACK'-TRICK, n. A mode of attack- 
ing behind. 

BACK'-WATER,w. A current of water 

from the inland, which clears off the 
deposit of sand, &c., left by the action 
of the sea : water in a stream which, 
in consequence of some obstruction be- 
low, flows back up the 
stream. — In hydraidics, 
the rise of water in the 
tail-race of a wheel, 
&:c., in consequence of 
the used water not 
being allowed to flow 
freely away. The term 
is applied whenever the 
tail-water rises above 
its usual level in con- 
sequence of floods, &C.5 
or of its having too 
little clearance to get 

Yard behind a house. 
BACTLITE, n. [add.] 
The bacxilites are poly- 
thalamous, or many- 
chambered cephalopods, 
belonging to the family 
of Ammonites. The spe- 
cies are only known in 
a fossil state. The shell 
is straight, more or less 
(compressed, conical, and 
very much elongated. 
Thechambersare sinuous, 
and pierced by a mar- 
ginal siphon. The exter- 
nal chamber is consider- 
ably larger than the rest. 
BACULUS, \ n. [L.] A 
BA€TLUM,J staff; a 
stick ; a sceptre. 
B.ADG'ER, n. [add.] The badgers, 
constitute a separate genus, the Meles 
of Cuvier. 3/. vulgaris is the common 
badger ; 3/. Labradorica, the American 
BADG'ER, r. t. To follow up, or pur- 
sue mth great eagerness, as the badger 
is hunted ; to pester ; to worry ; to tease. 
BADGERING, n. The practice of 
buying corn or victuals in one place, 
and selling them in another for profit. 
The Act 7 and 8 A'ict., c. 24, utterly 
abolished the offence of badgering. 
B ADl6'EON,instead of B.AJ)lGE'ON. 
[add.] Also, a mixture of saw-dust and 
glue, used by joiners to fill up defects 
in their work. The same name is given 
to a preparation for colouring houses, 
consisting of powdered stone, saw-dust, 
slaked lime, alum, &c. 
B/E'CKIA, n. A genus of interesting 
plants, natives of New Holland. Nat. 
order Mvrtaceae. 
B^OM'YCES, n. [Gr. $a.n>ff, small, 
and fj-vxit, fungus.] A genus of fungi. 
The species appear like some small 
kinds of Agaricus, or Heivilloj and are 
generally found upon heath, oaks, or 
BAFF, n. A blow; a heavy thump. 

BAFF'ULD,ti>p. Baffled; treated with 
the greatest ignominy imaginable. 
BAG, V. i. [add.] To distend, as a bag; 
as, he bagged his leathern pocket with 
gold. [Gay.] To huok up, and gather 
BAGATELLE', n. [add.] A game 
played on a board having at the end 
nine holes, into which balls are to be 
struck with a rod held in the hand of 
the plaver. 
BAG GAGE, n. [add.] A playful, saucy 
female ; a flirt. [Familiar.] 

BAG'GA6ER,t «• One who carries the 


two-masted Arab boat, used both for 

Baggala cr Dow. 

commerce and for piracy in the Indian 
Ocean, between the ilalabar coast and 
the Red Sea. Large numbers of them 
trade between Muscat, the Red Sea, 
and India, making one voyage each way 
annually with the monsoons. They 
are generally of 2<Xt to 250 tons burden, 
exceedingly weatherly, and sail with 
great rapiditv. 

BAGGE,t v'i. To swell; to swell with 
disdain, pride, arrogance, or self-con- 
ceit; to squint. [Chancer.] 

BAGGING, «. [add.] The act of put- 
ting into bags. 

BAGG'INGLY,t adv. Sulkily; squint- 
ingly. [Chaucer.] 

BAG'LO, n. An Arab boat. See Bao- 


B AG'NET, 7?. An interwoven net in the 
form of a bag for catching fish. 

BAGO US, n. A genus of coleopterous 
insects, belonging to the family Cur- 
culionidEe. They are small beetles, of 
a mud coloiu*, and feed upon aquatic 
plants. Several species are found in 

BAGUETTE', n. (bagef.) [Fr.] See 

BAIK, n. Beck; a curtsy; reverence, 

BAIL, n. [add.] Common bail is now 
completely abolished, and as the law 
stands at present, in civil cases, when 
a defendant is arrested [see Arrest} 
upon a writ of capias, it is incum- 
bent on the sherift"3 officer to liber- 
ate the defendant, on two responsible 
pereons signing a bond, called a bail- 
bond, conditioned for the defendant's 
putting in special bail, or as it is termed 
bail above, to answer the action within 
eight days from the arrest, which if the 
defendant or his bondsmen do not per- 
form, or if the defendant do not return 
into custody before the end of the 
eighth day, the bond is forfeited, and the 
bondsmen are liable to pay the debt 
and costs. If the defendant procures 
at the end of the eight days the same, 
or two other responsible housekeepers 
or freeholders, to enter into a recog- 
nizance before a judge, that they will 
either pay the debt or costs, or render 
the defendant to prison, the defendant 
is discharged from custody until the 
termination of the suit. This second 
suretiship is called in practice putting 
in special bail, and is the performance 
of the condition of the first suretiship, 
the practice of which is attended with 
considerable expense. There are other 
cases of bail, such as attachments for 




contempt, in which the process is some- 
what ditFerent. In almost all criminal 
cases, two jnstices may admit a party 
to bail if the evidence be not such as to 
raise a strong presumption of guilt, but 
still afford reasonable ground of inquiry. 

BAlLEjf n. Power. [Spenser.] 

BAFLEY, n. [Lat. hallium; Fr. haille.'] 
The name given to the courts of a castle 
formed by tlie spaces between the cir- 
cuits of walls or defences which sur- 
rounded the keep. The Old Bailey in 
London is so derived. 

BAILIE, n. See Baillie. 

BAI'LIFF, n. [add.] This name of 
office is legally applied to the chief 
magistrates of some towns, and keep- 
ers of royal castles, persons having 
the conservation of the peace in hun- 
dreds, and in some pai-ticular juris- 
dictions, as the bailiff of Westminster, 
and returniiig-othcers in the same ; but 
the chief functionaries to whom the 
name is applied are the bailiffs of 
sheriffs who execute all processes di- 
rected to him ; bailiffs of liberties or 
franchises, and bailiffs of manors, — 
Bailiff of husbandnj, a chief servant 
to a private person of good estate; 
a sort of steward in respect of farming 
business. — A bailiff of the forest is 
the keeper of a walk, and is immedi- 
ately subordinate to the verderers, 

BAILL'IACiE, n A French term equi- 
valent to bailiwick. 

BAlL'LIEjf n. Custody; government; 
jurisdiction. [Chaucer.] 

BAILOR, 71. See Bailer. 

BAIN'BERGS, n. [Gev. Bein-beroen.] 
Shin-guards ; a term for the greaves or 
jambs, fu'st used by the military as an 
additional protection, less vulnerable 
than the chain-mail with which tlie 
body was protected. 

BaI'RAM, n. A Mahometan feast, in- 
stituted in imitation of the Easter of 
the Christian cliiu-ch, and following the 
fast of Ramadan. 

BAIR'MAN, n. An old law-term de- 
noting a debtor sworn in court not to 
be in possession of property worth five 
shillinETS and tivepence. 

BAIRN'S PART. See under Bairn. 

B A IS 'E MAINS,! «• (bfis'mdns.) Com- 
pliments ; respects. [Spenser.] 

'BAlTH,a.,prun.,orco7ij. Both. [Scotch.] 

BAIT'ING, 71. The act of furnishing a 
bait; refreshment. 

BAIT'TLE, ji. Kicli pastiu-e. [Scotch.] 

BAJU'RY,! n. In the East Indies, a 

BAJ'RA, ) species of grain, Holcus 
spicatus, much used for feeding horses 
and cattle. 

BAKE, V. t. [add.] To harden with cold; 
as, the eai'th bahed\\\i\\h-ost. [Shah.] 

BA'KER, n. [add.] A small tin oven on 
which baking is performed. 

BACKER'S -ITCH, n. A species of 
psoriasis, or scall, so called wlien it is 
confined to the back of the liand. It 
often appears in bakers. 

BA'KER'S-SALT, n. Subcarbonate of 
ammonia, or smelling-salts, so called 
from its being used by bakers as a sub- 
stitute fur yeast, in the manufactm'e of 
some of tlie finer kinds of bread. 

BA'KING, «. [add.] The act of harden- 
ing by heat ; the employment of a 

BAK'SHISH, ) n. [Ay.] A present, or 

BUK'SHEISH, ) gratuity; over-money. 
Nothing can be done with tlie Araljs 
and Egyptians without buksheish. 
BAL'ACIIONG, n. A substance con- 
sisting of pountfed or bruised fish, and 
used in the East as a condiment to rice. 
I, — SUPP. 

BAL^'NID^, n. The whale family, 
consisting of cetaceous vertebrata, in 
which the head constitutes one-third, 
or even one-half of the entire length. 
The common or Greenland whale, 
Bal<Bna mysticetus, is the type. ISee 

BAL^NOP'TERA, n. De Lacepede's 
name for those whales which, being dis- 
tinguished from the other Bala^nae by 
an adipose fin on their back, are hence 
caMed fin?iers by sailors; as, the north- 
ern rorqual (Balcenoptera phi/salis). 

BA'LA LIMESTONE, «. A slaty lime- 
stone of a dark colour, forming a sub- 
ordinate portion of tlie Cambrian group 
of rocks. 

BAL'ANCE, n. [add.] Figuratively, 
vacillation ; wavering; indetermina- 
tion ; fiuctuation. — Balance of power., 
in politics, a system by which the re- 
lative power of different states and 
alliances is so maintained as to render 
any extensive derangement improbable. 
It is by a few of the leading powers of 
a number of separate and sovereign 
states being made to counterpoise each 
other, that tlie balance of power is 
principally maintained, and the safety 
of the smaller states secured ; and the 
leading rule by which this has been 
effected has been (at least in modern 
times) to oppose every new arrange- 
ment which threatens either materially 
to augment the strength of one of the 
greater powers, or to diminish that of 
another. — Balance of torsion. [See 
Torsion Balance.] 

BAL'ANCE, V. i. [add.] In dancing, to 
move towards a person opposite, and 
then back. 

An instrument constructed un the 
principle of the common balance and 
weights, to estimate the mutual attrac- 
tion of oppositely electrified surfaces. 
A glass pillar is fixed in a stand A, to 
which the beam of a delicate balance, 
B' B, is suspended at the point D. 
A scale-pan, d, is suspended from one 
ai'm, and just rests upon the support E, 

U;tlance-Glect rom et« r 

likewise insulated and fixed upon the 
stand A. From the other arm is sus- 
pended a light gilt cone a, the base of 
which is opposed totiie base of another 
inverted cone b, which may be fixed 
at any distance from it by sliding upon 
the insulated pillar d'. Tiie metallic 
balance may be connected with the 
interior of a Leyden jar, or battery, and 
the cone h, with the exterior, and the 
attractive power of any charge at any 
variable distance between the cones, 
may be estimated by weights placed in 
the scale-pan. 


BAL'ANCE-KNIFE, «. A kind of 
table-knife, which, when laid on the 
table, rests wholly on the handle, w ith- 
out the blade touching the cloth. This 
is effected by making the weight of the 
handle counterbalance that of the 

BALANDRA'NA, n. A wide cloak or 
mantle, used as an additional garment 

Duluuiiiaoa, Irom the Itoyal MS. Brit. Muiieuui. 

by travellers and others in the 12th and 
l;3th centuries. 

B AL ANI'TIS, n. [Gr. /3aXay«, an acorn.] 
Inflammation of the mucous membrane 
of the glans penis. 

BALANOPIlERA'CEiE, n. In hot., a 
curious nat. order of flowering plants, 
resembling mushrooms. They have 
a one-celled fruit, with a single seed, 
which contains a minute undivided 
embryo almost on the one side of a 
copious albumen. It is usually referred 
to the class of monocotyledonous vege- 
tables. One of the best-known species 
is the Ci/nomoriiiin coccineum, or Fuji- 
gus melitensis of druggists, which at 
one time enjoyed a great reputation as 
a stvntic 

BALAUS'TA, n. [L.] In hot, the fruit 
of the pomegranate, having a leatliery 
rind, a superior calyx, and several cells, 
with many drupaceous seeds in each. 

BALBU'CINATE.t ( v.i. [h.balbttlioA 

BALBU'TIATB.t ) To stammer in 

BALBUTIES, n. [L. balbus.'\ Stam- 

Having balconies. 

BAL'€ONY, or BAL€0'NY, n. 

BALD'-MONEY, n. A British plant of 
the genus Meum, M. athamariticum, 
called also spignel, and meu. [.See 

BALD'Kie, n. See Baldrick. 

BALD'RICK, ) n. [add.] Also called 

BALD'llI^J, ) cordon. A plain or 
ornamental band, belt, or girdle, worn 
pendant from the shoulder, diagonally 
across the body, to the waist, and em- 
ployed to suspend a sword, dagger, or 

BALD-TY'RANT,«. A species of South 
American bird, belonging to the genus 
Gymnocephalus, so called from the 
absence of feathers on the face and 

BALE,t a. Baleful ; pernicious. 

BALE.f n. [add.] Poison. [Spenser.'] 

BALEEN', n. [Fr. buleine, from L. 6a- 
IcBna, a whale.] A name given by 
whale-tishers to the whalebone of com- 

U z 




BaLE'-GOODS, H. Goods or merchan- l 
dUe done up in itales. 

BAL'ES,t «. A sort of bastard ruby, i 
[See B.VLASS.] [Chaucer.] 

BALES'SAN, n. A balsam obtained I 
from a species of Balsamodendron, — 
ichich see. 

BaL IXG, II. The act or operation of 
making up in a bale, as cotton, &c. ; 
the act of freeing from water, as a boat. 

BALI SAUK, «. An Indian quadruped, 
allied to the badger (Mt/dmis coliaris). 

BALK',f pp. Balked ; disappointed. 

BALK EL), pp. [add.] Heaped ; piled up 
in balks, or ridj^es. [Skak.] 

BALL, n. [add.] The name of a well- 
known game. — In farrieri/, a form of 
medicine, corresponding to the term 
bolus in pharmacy. It is generally in 
the form of a cylinder two or three 
inches in length. — Ball and socket, en- 
arthrosis, a species of movable articu- 
lation, as that of the hip-joint. 

BAL'LAD, n. In music, a short air, re- 
peated to two or more stanzas, simple 
in construction, and having an accom- 
paniment of a strictly subordinate cha- 

BAL'L AD-FAR CE, n. A musical drama. 
BAL'LAD 1ST, n. A writer or singer of 

BAL'LAD-OP'ERA, n. A burlesque 
BAL'LAD-SING'IXG, n. The act of 

singing ballads. 
BAL'LANT, n. A ballad. [Scotch.] 
B-AL'LAST, n. [add.] A sliip is said to 
be in ballast, when she sails ttdthout a 
cargo, having on board only the stores 
and other articles requisite for the use 
of the vessel and crew, as well as of 
passengers who may be on board. 
B-IL'LASTING, n. [add.] The act of 
furnishing a ship with ballast. The 
art of properly ballasting a ship con- 
sists in placing the centre of gravity 
neither too high nor too low. 
BALL-CAR TRIDGE, 72. A cartridge 
containing a ball. 
BAL'LED,t pp. from Ball. Smooth as a 
ball; bald; deprived of hair. [Chaucer.] 
BAL'LER, n. One who makes up sew- 
ing thread into balls, for domestic use. 
Bailers are commonly young females. 
BAL'LET, n. [add.] A ballet, properly 
so called, is a complete pantomime, or 
theatrical representation, in which a 
story is told, and actions, characters, 
and passions represented by gesture, 
accompanied by characteristic or illus- 
trative music; and to which dancing, 
scenery, decorations, &c., are the ac- 
cessories. Exhibitions iu theatres, which 
consist chiefly of distortion of the per- 
son and unnatural action, are impro- 
perlv called ballets. 
BAL'LETTE, n. A ballet. 
BALLIS'MUS, n. [Gr. ^ax>j£a.. to trip, 
or caper.] A fonn of palsy, attended 
with tits of leaping or running. 
BAL'LISTER, n. See Balistek. 
BALLOONING, n. The art of making 
and managing balloons. 
BAL'LOT, n. [add.] Voting by ballot^ 
signifies voting by putting little balls of 
ditlerent colours into a box or urn ; the 
greater number of one colour put in 
determining the result. In the case, 
however, of an election to an office, 
where only one or a smaller number of 
candidates than are put in nomination 
can be elected, it is usual to place sealed 
lists or tickets, containing the name or 
names of the candidates which the 
voters make choice of into a glass urn, 

from which, after all the votes have 
been collected, they are taken and ex- 
amined, in order to determine in whose 
favour the greatest number of votes has 
been given. In clubs, scientific socie- 
ties, insurance offices, commercial as- 
sociations, &c., the members, managers, 
or directors are almost unixersally 
elected by ballot, and for this purpose 
coloured balls are usually employed ; 
hence, the expression to black bull, 
signifying to reject a candidate. 

BAL'LOTEK, n. One who ballots or 
votes bv ballot. 

BAL'LOTIST, n. An advocate for vot- 
ing bv ballot. 

BAL'LO"\V,tn. A pole. [Shak.] 

BALL'-ROOM, n. A room for assem- 
blies or balls. 

BALM'IFY,t r. f. To render balmv. 

BKEATUING, a. Fragrant; odo- 

B-AXCENICEPS, n. A gigantic gralla- 
torial bird, about three feet and a-half 
in height, with a large beak,«omewhat 
resembling the boit-bill. It has teen 

lately found in the interior of Africa. 
Its large tlat bill must be useful to it 
in capturing and crushing the lizards 
and other reptiles on which it feeds. 
BALSA, ^ n. [Sp. from balsa, a kind of 
B-VL'ZA, ) light porous wood used in 
Peru for constructing rafts. J A kind 
of boat used on the coasts and rivers of 
Peru, and other parts of South America. 

BAL SAM,t V. t. To render balsamic; 
to soften. 

BALSAMINA'CE^,) n. Asmallorder 

BALSAMIN'E-E, ) of plants with 
an irregular calyx and corolla, each of 
several pieces, and hj-pogynous stamens. 
It has been placed by some along with 
the gj'nobasic orders, but the fruit is 
not gynobasic. 

BAL'SAMINE, n. [add.] The common 
name of the Balsamina hortensis, or 
Impatiens balsamina (Linn.) [See Bal- 

BALSA MODENT)R ON, n. A genus of 
plants scarcely distinct from Protium, 
and belonging to the nat. order Bur- 
seracese, w hich has by some been made 
a division of AmjTidaceie. B. myrrha 
yields myrrh or bobali; it is called 
kerobeta by the Abyssinians ; B. opo- 
balsamum jields the balm of Mecca, 
beshan, or balessan, of Bruce; B. Gt- 
leadense is also said to produce it ; B. 
Africamim vields the African bdellium. 

BAL'TEI, ». plur. The bands in the 
danks of Ionic pulvinated capitals. 

BAL'TEUM,^n. [L.] The belt by 

BAL'TEIS, > which the sword or 
quiver was suspended. 

BAM, n. A cheat; an imposition. [Cant 

BAilBOO', r. f. To punish or strike 
with a bamboo ; to bastinado. 

BAMBOO'-R AT,n. A species of rodent 
animal of the genus Rhizomj^s is so 

BAMBUSID'E.E, n. The bamboo, a 
group of grasses of great economical 
importance, of which upwards of thirty 
species have been enumerated. Of 
these the genus Bambusa, or Bambos, 
is the type. Some of the most import- 
ant ai*e the B. arundinacea. [See 
Bamboo.] B. spinosa, common about 
Calcutta; B. tulda, used for scatVold- 
ing, and covering the houses of the 
natives of India ; B. Balcooa, xised in 
India for building purposes ; B. picta, 
used for light walking-sticks ; B. taha- 
caria, the joints of which are used for 
pipe-sticks; andJ[)c;trfn)C«/rt/M«A"s/rit'^K*, 
used in India for the shafts of lances. 

BA'MIA, n. A species of silunis, fished 
in the Red Sea. It is much used 
iu a dried state as food for native 

It is formed of two inflated seal-skins, 
connected by a transom, on which the 
passengers or goods are placed. 
BALSAM, n. [add.] The opinion that 
balsams necessarily contain or furnish 
benzoic acid is not now generally sus- 
tained. The substances known as bal- 
sams properly consist of resin and es- 
sential oil. — Balsam of Mecca, the 
same as the balm of Gilead. [See 


BAN, n. [add.] This word is now rarely 
used by authors, either as a substantive 
or verb ; but it occurs in a secondary 
sense, in common language, to denote 
cursing, denouncing woe and mischief 
against one who has offended. When 
it denotes notice of marriage, or a 
matrimonial contract, it is used in the 
plural. [See Bans, Baxxs.] 

BANa'NA-BIRD, n. The name given 
in Jamaica to the Icterus leucopteryx, a 




pretty bird which frequents the fruit- 
trees arounJ the houses. It is very 

Banunii WriJ, Icterus leucopu-rj/x. 

fond of the ripe fruit of tlie banana and 

BANCKE,t n. A bank; a scat of Iion- 
our. [SpeiLScr.] 

BAN'€0. See Bank. 

B AND, f pret. or pp. of Sati. Did curse; 
cursed. lSj}e7iser.] 

BANI),t V. t. To disband; to interdict. 

BAND,! n. A bond; an obligatory 

BAND. n. A bond. [Scotch.] 

BAN'DACE, 17. t To l)ind up or dress, 
as a wound, a fractured limb, &.C., with 
a roller or bandage. 

BAN'DAGED, P2). Bound up with a 

BANDAN'A, n. [add.] This term was 
originally applied to a peculiar kind of 
silk handkerchief manufactured by 
the Hindoos ; but it is now commonly 
given to silk and cotton handkerchiefs 
manufactured in tliis country, which 
have a uniformly <^ed ground, usually 
of bright red or blue, ornamented with 
circular, lozenge - shaped, or other 
simple figures, of a perfectly white 
or yellow colour. The term is also 
applied to a style of calico-print- 
ing, in imitation of bandana handker- 

BAN'DEAU, n. plur. Bandeaux, [Fr.] 
A fillet or head-band. 

BAN'DELET, n. [Vv. handelette.] Any 
little band, flat moulding, or fillet; an 

BAND'-FISn,n. A genus of acanthop- 
terygious fishes (Cepola), very thin and 
flat in proportion to their length. C. 
Mediierranea is a native of the Medi- 
terranean, and varies in length from 
eighteen inches to three feet. C ru- 
bescens, or red band-flsJi, is found on 
our coasts, and varies from ten to fif- 
teen inches in length. 

BANDILEEKS. See Bandoleers. 

BAND'liN'G-PLANE, n. A plane used 
for cutting out grooves, and inlaying 
strings and bands in straight and cir- 
cular work. It bears a general resem- 
i)lance to the plane called a. plough. 

BAND LET, n. A small band for en- 
circling anything; as, an indian-rubber 

BAN'-DOG, n. [add.] A large, fierce 
kind of dog; usually kept chained. 
Hence the name bando'j, a corruption 
of hand-dori. 


BAND'Y, n. [add. J The nameof a play, 
in which a ball is struck with a club 
bent at the end. 

BANE, n. [add.] A disease in sheep, 
more commonly called tiie rot. 

BANE, 71. Bone. [Scotch.] 

BANG, n. A spring; abound. [Scotch.] 

BANG, \ n. An intoxicating drug, 

BANGUE, 3 prepared in India from 

the hemp plant, to which opium is 
sometimes added. 

BAN'GHY, n. In the East Indies, a. sort 
of bamboo pole, which is carried on a 
person's shoulder, with a basket sus- 
pended at each end, containing, gene- 
rally, the baggage of a palankeen tra- 
veller. The bearer of the banghy is 
called banghy- icallah. 

BANG'ING,rt. Huge; great; surpassing 
in size. [Vtdgar.] 

BAN'GLE-EAR, h. An imperfectly 
formed ear of a horse. 

BANGLE EARED, a. Flap-eared, 
like a spaniel. 

BANG'STER, n. A violent fellow who 
carries everything before him. [Scotch.] 

BANGUE, n. See Bang. 

BANIAN', n. Banian-days^ in seamen^s 
Ian., are days in wliich the sailors have 
no flesh -meat served out to them. 
Formerly two days (not three, as stated 
in Diet.), viz., Tuesday and Friday, 
were so called, but lately only Friday, 
on which salt-fish, plum-pudding, &c., 
were issued. (To be substituted for 
explanation in Diet.) 

BANISTE'RIA, instead of BANIST'- 

BANK, n. [add.] In barbarous Latin 
this word is bancus, and signifies liter- 
ally a bench 'or hit,'h seat; but, aa a 
legal term, it denotes a seat of judgment, 
or tribunal for the administration of 
justice. The ancient Britons were 
accustomed to construct mounds or 
benches of turf for the accommodation 
of their superior judges. Hence t!ie 
king's judges, or those immediately ap- 
pointed by the crown, to administer 
justice in the superior courts of common 
law, were in process of time called jus- 
tices of thebench. or justiciar 11 de banco, 
and the judges of the court of com- 
mon pleas retain the technical title of 
justices of the bench at Westminster 
to this day. The phrase of sitting in 
banco, or in bank, merely denotes the 
sessions dui'ing the law-terms, when 
the judges of each court sit together 
upon their several benches. On the 
revival of commerce, about the middle 
of the 12th century, and when the cities 
of Italy engrossed nearly all the tracle 
of Europe, a necessity arose for the 
employment of bankers, or dealers in 
money transactions. At first tliey car- 
ried on their business in the public mar- 
ket-places or exchanges, where their 
dealings were conducted on benches [It. 
banco; low Lat. bancus\ whence the ori- 
gin of the word bank as applicable to an 
establishment for the custody and issue 
of money. — The word bank is used, 
in carpentry, to signify a piece of fir- 
wood unslit, of about six inches square, 
and of any length. — It is also the name 
of a kind of table used by printers. — 
Days in bank. [See under Dav.] 

BANK, V. t. [add.] To make a heap, or 
bank in ; as, shoals of fish that bank 
the mid sea. [Milton.] 

BANK' A, 71. A passage-boat without 
outrigger, used on the river and roads 
at Manilla. It is formed of a single 
piece of wood, is sixteen to twenty- 
three feet long, and carries three or 
four passengers. 

BANK'-BILL, Ji. In this country, a note 
or a bill of exchange of a bank, payable 
at some future specified time. Such 
bills are negotiable, but form, in the 
strict sense of tlie term, no part of tlie 
currency. — In America, bank-bill and 
bank-note are synonymous. 


ten promises given by bankers to their 
customers as acknowledgments of hav- 
ing received money for their use. They 
are payable to the bearer on demand, 
and considered as money, and transfer- 
able from one person to another by 
delivery; but they are now seldom made, 
their use having been superseded by the 
introduction of checks. 

H. AVritten orders or re<iuests addressed 
to bankers, and drawn upon them by 
a party having money in their hands, 
requesting them to pay on presentment 
to a person therein named, or to bearer, 
a certain sum of money. 

BANK- FENCE, n. A fence made of a 
bank of earth. 

BANK'ING, a. Pertaining to, or con- 
ducted by a bank; as, banking opera- 

BANK'RUPT-LAWS, n. A system of 
statutory regulations, under which the 
property and effects of a merchant or 
trader, on his becoming insolvent, are 
distributed among his creditors. The 
bankrupt-laws have the double olyect 
of enforcing a complete discovery and 
equitable distribution of the property 
and ert'ects of an insolvent trader, and 
of conferring on the trader the advan- 
tage of security of person, and a dis- 
charge from all futui'C claims of his 

BAN'LIEU, n. [Fr.] The territory 
without the walls, but within the legal 
limits, of a town or city. 

BAN'NER, n. [add.] A banner is essen- 
tially a piece of drapery attaciied to the 
upper part of a pole or staft", and in 
some way indicative of dignity, rank, 
or command, or as being carried on 
some occasions with which ideas of 
dignity are connected. The word ban- 
ner may be regarded as a generic tei*m, 
of which the words standard, colours, 

jlag, pendant, streamer, ensign, &c., in- 
dicate particular species. 

B.\N'NKRAL,t n. A bandrol; a little 
flag. [Spenser.] 

B.\NNES,f n. plur. Bans; curses. 

BAN'NING, n. [See Ban.] An execra- 
tion or cursing of another. 

BANNI"TION,t n. Expulsion; ban- 

BANNOCK-FLUKE, w. A turbot. 

BANQUETTE', In. [add.] The foot- 

BANQUET', / way of a bridge, 
when raised above the carriage-way, 

BANS, ) n.plur. [add.] In the church 

BANNS,5 of England, banns of ma- 
trimony are published in the churches 
and chapels, in a manner similar to that 
employed in Scotland. 

BAN'TAM, n. [add.] A kind of painted 
or carved work, resembling that of Ja- 
pan, only more gaudy. 

BANX'RING, n. A genus of curious in- 
sectivorous mammalia (Tupaia), found 
in the eastern islands. They live on 
trees, where they find their insect-food. 
They have long tails. 


BAN'YAN, n. A Hindoo merchant, or 

BAN'YAN, a. Meagre; fasting: a5, a 
banyan day. [See Banian.] 

BAP'TISM, n.[add.] Hypothetical bap- 
tism, the name given in the Episcopal 
church to baptism when administered 
to persons, in respect to whom it is 
doubtful whether they have or have 
not been baptized before. The formula 




in this case is, " If thou art not al- 
ready baptized, I baptize thee," &c. 

BAPTIS'MALLY, adi\ In a baptismal 

BAPTIZA'TION,t n. The act of bap- 

Bar, n. [add.] The term bar is applied 
in the liouses of Parliament to the par- 
tition which divides from the body of 
the respective houses a space near the 
door, beyond which none but the mem- 
bers and clerks are admitted. At these 
bars counsel stand when admitted to 
plead before the respective houses, and 
to the same bar witnesses, and such as 
have been ordered into custody for 
breaches of privilege, are brought. — A 
trial at bar, is one winch takes place 
before all the judges, at the bar of the 
court in which the action is brought. — 
Plea in bar, in law. a pleading showing 
some ground for ban'ing or defeating 
the action at common law. It is a sub- 
stantial and conclusive answer to the 
action. Pleas in bar are divided into 
pleas by way of traverse, and pleas by 
confession and avoidance. In equity, 
a plea in bar is a defence resorted to 
(when there is no defect apparent 
on the face of the plaintitTs bill), 
inducting affirmative matter, and re- 
ducing the case to a particular point, 
seeking to displace the plaintitf's equity. 

BA'RAH, n. In the East Indies, a native 
menial who cleans furniture. 

BAKB, n. [add.] The name of a noble 
breed of horses reared by the Moors of 
Barbary and Morocco, and introduced 
into Spain during their dominion in 
that country. These animals, however, 
have greatly degenerated in Spain since 
the expulsion of the Moors, and the 
noble race of Barbary horses called 
barbs, are of rare occurrence even in 
their own country. Tlie true barb 
does not excel in sjminietrical beauty, 
but he is unrivalled in speed, abstinence, 
docility, patience, and endurance under 

BAR'BA.n. [L.] Abeard;abarb. [See 

BaR'B A€AN AGE, | n. In former 

BaR'BI€ANAGE, 3 /(/ne.T, money paid 
to the maintenance of a barbacan or 

11. A plant. [See Poinciana Acu- 


BaR'BaRA, n. A term in logic, being 

the first word in the technical verses 
intended to represent the various forms 
of the syllogism ; it indicates a syllo- 
gism, the three propositions of which 
are universal affirmatives. 

BaRBAR'E A, ». Winter-cress, a genus 
of plants, formerly dedicated to St. 
Barbara. [See Winter-Cress.] 

Bar BARY APE, n. Pithecus iunus, a 
species of ape remarkable for docility, 
and which, by force of discipline, is 
made to exhibit considerable intelli- 
gence. It is common in Barbary and 
the lower parts of Africa, and it has 
been the '" sho^Muan's ape *' from time 

Barbary r.mi. v. Morocco gum: 
a variety of gum-arabic, said to be pro- 
duced by the Acacia tjummiffra. 

BaR'BASTELLE, n. A small kind of 
bat ; the Plerotus ba7'ba.'itt'l/us. 

BaRBE, n. [add.] Armour of leather 
for horses, studded with iron spikes. 

BARBE, 71. [L. bnrba.] A covering for 
the lower part of the face and chin, 
reaching midway to the waist. It was 
peculiar to nuns and widows. In the 

accompanying figure, from the brass of 
Elizabeth Porte, 1516, in the eburch at 

Etwall, Derbyshire, the barbc is well 

BAU'BECUE, n. [add.] In^/HenVa,this 
term, from its original signification, has 
come to denote a large social entertain- 
ment in the open air, at which animals 
are roasted whole, and other provisions 
of all kinds are consumed. 

BaRBE'-FEATHEKS, «. plur. The 
feathers under the beak of a hawk. 

BaR'BEL, w. [add.] The bai-bels are 
distinguished by four beards, or fieshy 
tentacnla, which grow from the lips, 
two at the nose, and the other two at 
the corners of the mouth ; whence the 
name. The species are numerous, both 
in the Old and New World, and many of 
them attain a very large size. The 
common barbel {Barbits vulgaris) is 
found abundantly in the Thames; its 
flesh is extremely coarse and imsavoury. 
The binny, another species, inhabits 
the Nile. The beards, or fleshy ten- 
tacnla, which grow from the lips of the 
barbels, are also termed bai'bels. 

BaRBES, I H. A disease incident to 

BAR'BLES,) horses. [^>e Barbel.] 

BARBES,t n. plur. [See Barb.] Bits or 
bridles. [5i>c;w«'.] 

BaR'BET, n. [add.] Thebarbets consti- 
tute a family of scansorial or climbing 
birds, and are distinguished by their 
large conical beak, which appears swol- 
len, or, as it were, puffed out at the 
sides of its base, and by being bearded 
with five tufts of stiff bristles directed 
forwards; whence the name. They 

African Darbet, PoffoniaxhirnUiu. 

are divided into tliree subgenera ; viz., 
Pogonias. tlie species of which inhabit 
Africa and the Indies; Bucco, or true 
barbets, found in Africa and America ; 
and Tamatia, or puff-birds, inhabitants 
of America. 
BAR'BI€ANS,n.Aspecies of birds with 

scansorial feet, belonging to the genus 
Pogonias. They are natives of Africa 
and India, and live chiefly on fruit. 

Barriers, n. [An Indian temi.] A 
chronic affection prevalent in India. 

BaRBULE, n. [L. barbula.] A small 
barb, or a little beard. 

BaR'BUS, n. A genus of fresh-water 
fishes, of the family Cyprinidte, so 
called from the beards or filaments 
about the mouth. It contains the 
barbel, — ichich see. 

Bar DIN, n. [Fr. barde'.] In militart/ 
antiquities, a complete set of armorial 
trapping for a horse. The plural is 
written bardi/nges. 

BARE, a. [add.] Under bare poles. [See 
Bare Poles.] 

BARE, 71. The part of an imajre or sta- 
tue which -epresents bare flesh. 

BARE,t a. [add.] Raw; as, bare flesh. 

BAREFOOT, a. [add.] TraveUed or 
passed over without shoes ; as, a bare- 
foot wav. [Shah.] 

BARE'-HANDED, a. Having the hands 

BARE'-POLES, n. [add.] [5ee SccT>.] 

BARE'-WOBN, a, Wornbai-e; naked 
of turf. 

BAR-FEE, n. In laic, a fee of twenty 
pence, which every prisoner acquitted 
(at the bar) of felony pays to the jailer. 

BARGAIN, «. [add.] Into the bargain, 
moreover; besides; as, she lost a thou- 
sand pounds, and her bridegroom into 
the baroain. [Addison.] 

Bar GAIN, i\ i. [add.] To agree. 

B.VR'GAIN, V. i. To dispute; lo con- 
tend; to fight. [Scotch.] 

BARGAINING, n. The act or art of 
making bargains. 

Bar GAINOK, n. One who sells to, or 
contracts with another, called the bar- 

BAR'GARET',t «■ [Fr. bergerette.] A 
sort of song. [Chaucer.] . 

BAR'-GO WN, n. The gown or dress of 
a law>'er. 

BA'RIA, n. Barvta, — which see. 


Bar -IRON, n. Iron ^vrought into mal- 
leable bars. 

BARIT'ONO, n. [It.] See Barytone. 

DARK, H. [add.] Several kinds of bark 
are used for processes in tlie arts, or 
for medicine ; as, oak-bark, cork-bark, 
quercitron-bark, Peruvian -bai'k, cinna- 
mon-bai'k, &c. 

Bark, r. t. [add.] To inclose as the 
bark does a tree ; as, a tetter barked 
about all my smooth body. [Shah.] 

BARK. V. t. To tan leather. [Scotch.] 

B.\R'-kEEPER, n. One who attends to 
the bar of an inn. 

Barken, n. The yard of a house. 

BaKK'EN, r. t. To incrust. [Scotch.] 

BaHK'ERS, n. In London, and other 
large towns, a name given to persons 
stationed at the door, where auctions of 
inferior goods are held, to invite stran- 
gers to enter. 

BaKR ERS -AIILL, «. [add.] This ma- 
cliine, as modified by Mr. James White- 
law, is extensively employed under the 
name of the Scotch turbine. 

BaRK'ERY, n. A tan-house, or place 
where bark is kept. 

BaRK'HAUSIA. Same as Bohkhau- 
siA. — which see. 

BARK ING-BIRD, n.The Pteropfochos 
rnbecula, a tennirostral bird common 
in Chiloe and Chonos, islands in the 
South American Archipelago. It has 
received its English name from its 




cry, which resembles the barking of a 

BARK'IT, pp. or a. Tanned. [Scotch.] 
BARIv'LESS, n. Destitute of bark. 
BaRK'-LOUSE, n. A minute insect 

that infests trees. 
BABK'-PIT, n. A tan-pit, or pit for 

tanning or steeping leather. 
BARK-STOVE, 71. Sfe Bark-Bed. 
BARXA-FUMMIL. An exclamation 

for a truce by one wlio has fallen down 

in wrestling or play. [Scotch.] 
BaR'LEY. [From Parley.] A cry among 

boys at their violent games for a truce. 


BXR'LEY-BIRD, «. A name of the 
siskin. Tiie wryneck {Tunx tor- 
quilla) is also sometimes so called. 
Barney -€AIvE, n. Cake made of 
BaR'LEY-FEVER, n. Illness caused 
by intemperance. [North of Eng.] It 
corresponds to barley -sickness in Scot- 

BaR'LEY-MEAL, n. Meal made from 

BaR'-iMAID, n. A maid or woman who 
tends the bar of an inn. 

BARME,t «. [Sax.] Tiie bosom; the 
lap. — Banne-clothf an apron. [Chau- 

court, not of record, within the Hun- 
dred of the Peak, in Derbyshire, for 
the regulation of groves, possessions, 
and trade of the miners, and lead. 

BARN'ABEE, h. An insect; the lady- 

BAR'NaBITE, a. Of or belonging to 
the order of St. Barnabas; as, a Bar- 
nabite monk; a Barnabite friar. 

BaRN-DOOR fowls, «. A name 
given to the common domestic fowls. 

BARNE,t 71. A child. [Shak.] 

BaRN'FULL, 71. As much as a barn 
will hold. 

BaRN'-OWL, n. The common owl 
(Strix jiammea) is generally so called 
from beini? found in barns, where it 
pi'oves very useful, by destroying mice 
and other vermin. 

BaRNS'-BREAKING, n. An idle 
frolic. [Scotch.] 

BaRN'-YARD, n. A yard adjacent to a 

BARN-YARD FOWL, n. The common 

BAROCO, n. In loiiic^ a barbarous 
term employed to indicate a species of 
syllogism, of whicli the first proposi- 
tion is a universal affirmative, and the 
other two are particular negatives. 

BAROL'0(iY, H. [Gr. ^xgo?, weight, 
iind Aayw, discourse.] The science of 
weight, or of the gravity of bodies. 

BAROMA€KOM'ETER,«. [Gr. ^^jef. 
weight, jwaxoof, long, and fMiT^ov, mea- 
sure.] An instrument invented by 
Professor Stein for determining the 
weight and the length of new-born 

ence of the barometer ; also, the art of 
making barometric observations. 
BAKOMET RI€, a. Same as Baro- 


BAROMET'ROGRAPH, 71. [Gr.^«gof. 
weight, fi'.T^ov, measure, and y^x<p<u, to 
write.] An instrument contrived f'lr 
inscribing, of itself, upon paper the 
variations of atmospheric pre.ssure. 

BAR'O.METZ, n. A singular vegetable 
production, consisting of the prostrate 
hairy stem of a species of cibotium, a 
fern. From its shaggy appearance, it 
looks something like a crouching ani- 

mal, from which circumstance it has 
obtained the name of Scythian lamb, 

n trnmeU, vUintium assamiciim, 

and many fabulous stories have been 
told about it. 

BAR'ON, 71. [add.] In cookery^ a baron 
of beef consists of two sirloins not cut 

BAR'ON-€0URT, n. See Court- 

B AR'ONY, n. [add.] In Ireland, a terri- 
torial division, corresponding nearly to 
the English hundred, and supposed to 
have been originally the district of a 
native chief. There are 252 baronies 
in Ireland. 

BAROUOHET', w. [Fr.] A small kind 
of barouche ; or a four-wheeled open 
carriage, with a head. 

BAR'-POSTS, n. Posts driven into the 
ground to form the sides of a field- 

Barque, n. [Fr.] See Bark. 

BAR'RACE, 71. Bounds; lists for com- 

BAR'RACOON, n. [Sp.] A negro -bar- 
rack; a slave-depot; a bazaar where 
men of the African races are sold. 
Barracoons are raised at various points 
of the west coast of Africa, also in 
Cuba, Brazil, &c. African barracoons 
are comi)osed of large but low-roofed 
wooden sheds, in which the human 
article is stored, mth attaching bolts, 
chains, &c. Some have defensive works, 
to resist the attacks of the British 
forces engaged in the slave-trade pre- 
ventive service. The public barracoons 
at the Havana, &c., are comparatively 
solid buildings, serving as prisons, and 
having a imtio, or open show-place, in 
the centre. The plantation-prisons, in 
which the field-negroes of Cuba are 
locked up after their daily labour is 
concluded, are also called barracoons. 


BAR'REL-BULK, w. in shipping, a 
measure of capacity for freifjht, equal 
to five cubic feet. Eight barrel-liulk, or 
40 cubic ft., equid one ton measurement. 

BAR'REL-DRAIN, n. A cylindrical 

BAR'REL-ORGAN, n. See Organ. 

Howers without fruit. 

BAR'REN IVY, n. Creeping ivy which 
does not flower. 

BARREN LAND, n. In agriculiitre, 
land which is not fertile or productive ; 
land in which the plants generally 
cultivated do not prosper or arrive at 
B AR'REN MONEY, n. In the civil la\v, 
money which is not put out to in- 

BAR'KEN-SPIRITED, «. Of a poor 
or mean spirit. [.S7/rtA,] 

BAR 'REN - WORT, n. fadJ-J One 
species of the genus Kpiniedium is found 
in Persia, and anotlier in America. 

BAR'RING, OTir. [add.] Tliis word is 
used in loxo style for excepting; as, 
barring accidents, I warrant the goods 
to be sound. 

BARRING-OUT, )!. [add.] The act of 
closing the doors of a school-room 
against a schoolmaster, a boyish mode 
of rebellion in schools. 

BARRINGTO'NIA, n. A genus of 
plants, nat. order Barringtoniacea;. 
One species is a lofty Indian tree, with 
large liandsome tiowers. 

BARRINGTONIA'CE/T:, «. a nat. 
order of plants, closely allied to the 
Myrtacea;, with which it is frequently 
conjoined, but differing by the large 
albumen, and alternate often serrated 
leaves, which have no pellucid dots. 
Barringtonia, Stravadia, Careya, and a 
few other genera, belong to it. 

BAR'RIS, n. A name given on the 
Guinea coast to the chimpanzee ; and 
also to the mandrill (Cj/nocephalus mor- 

BAR'RISTER, n. [add.] The distinc- 
tion between ntlcr, or outer barristers, 
and inner bai'riste7-s, is now wixoUy 
abolished, tlie former being called bar- 
risters generally, and the latter falling 
under the denomination of students, 

Ijarrow. [.Scotch.^ 

BaB'-SHOE, n. A particular kind of 


BARYPHO'NIA, n. [Gr. ^«|w, heavy, 
and ^fljii), voice.] Ileiiviness of voice; 
dirticulty of pronunciation. 

BARY'TA, BARY'TES, instead of 

BARYTE', n. Same as B.iRYTES. 

BARY'TIN, 71. A new vegetable base 
obtained from the rhizoma of Veratrum 
album, or white hellebore, so named in 
consequence of its being precipitated 
from its solution like baryta. 

BARY'TO-€AL'CITE, instead of 

BARY'TUM, instead of BAR'YTUM. 
.*>ee Barium. 

BASAL'TES, n. The old name of 

Bis BLEU, n. (b.iblew.) [Fr.] A lite- 
rary lady; a blue-stocking. 

BASE, n. [add.] In war, a tract of 
country protected by fortifications, from 
which the operations of an army pro- 
ceed. — In chem., a base is sometimes 
defined, the electro-positive ingredient 
of a compound, or the electro-positive 
ingredient of a salt.— In the arts, the 
term base is sjTionymous with morilant, 
and is applied" in dyeing to a substance 
that has an affinity for both the cloth 
and the culom-ing matter. — In coiirhol., 
the term ba.w is generally used in op- 
position to the aper, or pointed extre- 
mity of univalve shells ; in bivalves, 
which adliere to other substances by 
one of their valves, that which adheres 
is termed the basal valve. — [In sig. 1.3, 
for Thorough 6rt5S,read Thorough base.^ 

BASE, I', t. [add.] In a figurative sense, 
to found ; to lay the foundation of ; as, 
to base an argument upon facts. 

BASE' €OURT, n. [add.] In law, an 
inferior court, not of record, as a court- 
baron, court-leet, &c. 

BASE' FEE. In law, to hold in base 
fee is to hold in fee jit the will of the 
lord ; opposed to socn<je tenure. 

BASE'-HUJIILITIE.t n. Subjection. 




BASE' INFEFTMENT. In Scots law, 
a disposition of lands by a vassal, to be 
held of himself. 

BASELAUD,n. An ornamental dagger 
worn hanging at the girdle, immediately 
in front of the person. Such weapons 

Figure Hc.ihug'lird, frotu Gou^b'a Scp;ilcfaRil 

were worn by gentlemen of right, and 
by all pretenders to gentility in the 
reign of Henry V. 

BASELLA'CE.E, n. A nat. order of 
the monoclilamydeous dicotyledonoas 
plants. They are usually fleshy and 
scandent, but otherwise like Cheno- 
podiaceae. The stamens are perigynous, 
and the calvx coloured. 

membrane which covers every free sur- 
face of the body, both external and in- 
ternal. It forms the outer layer of the 
true skin, Ijing between it and the 
epidermis or scurf-skin. It forms also 
the lining of the mouth, stomach, and 
intestinal tube, with all the canals open- 
ing into these; it also forms the inner 
layer of the serous membranes, and it 
lines the blood-vessels and other tubes. 
It is also called the primary membrane. 

BAS'EN,t pp. or a. Wide; extended. 

B.\SE'XET. See Basciset. 

BASE'-ROCKET,n. The common name 
of two British plants of the genus Re- 
seda, R. lutea and R. fruiiculosa. [See 

Bases, n. a kind of embroidered 
mantle, wliioh hung down from the 
middle to about the knees, or lower, 
worn in ancient times by knights on 

BASE' TENURE, n. In ?flir,atenureby 
viUenage, or other customary service. 

BA'Slt:, a. [add.] This term is often 
applied to a salt in which the base is 
in excess, or constitutes a large propor- 
tion of the neutral salt. — Basic tcater, 
a term applied to water which appears 
in some cases to act the part of a base, 
as in phosphoric acid. 

BAS'ILAK, ) a. [add.] Relating to 

BAS'IL.IRY,} the base; situated at 
tlie base. 

BAS ILI€, or BASIL'I€, n. 

BASIL'I€, or BASIL'I€A, n. 

BAS'lLir, or BASIL'ie, a. 

BASIL'I€A, n. Same as Basilic. 

BASIL'I€OIv,t n. A basilisk. [C/iaw- 

BASILISTUS. n PL.] See Basilisk. 

BAS'lLISK, n. [add.] This cannon car- 
ried an iron ball of the weight of 2001bs., 
but it is not now used. Modern writers 

give this name to a cannon of smaller 
size, from ten to fifteen feet long, carry- 
ing a forty-eight pound ball. 

BAS'IL THYilE, 71. A British plant, 
the TlujmuSy Linn., and the Acinos vul- 
garis of modern botanists. It has 
bluish purple flowers, and a fragrant, 
aromatic smell. 

BA'SIX, n. [add.] In pli>/s. geog., a cir- 
cular or ovaJ valley or depression of the 
earth's surface, the lower part of which 
is generally occupied by a lake, or tra- 
versed by a river; also the entire tract 
of country drained by a river. It is 
also applied to any collection of water, 
as seas, lakes, and rivers, and compre- 
hends all the countries which are 
drained by the waters which run into 
such sea, lake, or river. 

B.\ SIXED, a. Inclosed in a basin. 

B A ' S I N - S H A ? E D, instead of 

BASIS'OLUTE, a. [L. basis, and soht- 
ius, free.] A term applied to leaves pro- 
longed at the base, below the point of 

BASQUE, a. (bask.) Relating to Biscay, 
or the language of the natives of Biscav. 

B.\S-KELIEF', n. 5ee Bass-Relief. 

BaSS, n. [add.] A door-mat for wiping 
dirty shoes on ; so named because at 
first made chiefly of the bark of the 
bass or lime-tree. 

BASSE,t n. (bass'.) A kiss; a buss. 

Basse, «. The sea-perch (Labrax 
lupus) is so called. [See Bass.] 

BAS'SET, a. Inclined upwards; as, the 
basset edge of strata. 

BASSETTE',71. [Fr.] A game at cards. 
[See Basset.] 

BaSS'-HORN, n. Amusical instrument 
which is a modification of the bassoon, 
but much lower and deeper in its tones, j 
It is now generally substituted in field- ! 
music for the serpent. ' 

BAS'SIA, n. A genus of tropical plants 
found in the East Indies and Africa, and 
belonging to the nat. order Sapotacea?. 
One species, S. Parkii, is the shea-tree 
of Park, the fruit of which yields a kind 
of butter. i 

B.A.S'SINET, n. A wicker-basket with ' 
a covering or hood over one end, in 
which young children are placed as in , 
a cradle. I 

BAS'SO, n. In music, the Italian word 
for bass, or base. 

B.iS SOCK, instead of BASSOC. 

BAS'SO-DI-CAM'EUA, h. A double- 
bass or con tra-basso, reduced in size and 
power, but not in compass, and thus 
adapted to small or private rooms. It 
has four strings, of the same quality as 
those of the violoncello, but all propor- 
tionably thicker. They are tuned in 
fifths to the same literal notes as the 
violin, but two octaves lower. In 
quality of tone and in compass it is 
superior to the double-bass in chamber- 

BASSOO'LAH,«. A small adze used in 
India ; its blade, in place of being cir- 
cular, like that of the common adze, is 
plane set at an angle of -±-5 or 50 degrees 
to the handle, which is very short. 

BASS-RELIEF, instead of BASS- 

BASS' VOICE, ) n.Inmi/^V,thelowest 

BASE' VOICE, ] male voice, the usual 
compass of which is from G or F below 
the base-statf, to D or E above it. 

BaS'TARD-.VL'KANET, «. A plant, 
the Lithospermum arvense (Linn.) 

B.\S TARD-BALM,n. A plant, the Me- 

liitis melissophyllum. [See Melittis.] 


The Geoffrova inermis of botanists. 

BaS'TARD-CEDAR, n. A name given 
to various trees which are known in 
our colonies by the name of cedar, but 
are quite distinct from it. Among 
these may be mentioned the various 
species of Cedrela, and the genus Bub- 

BaS'TARO-DITTANY, n. A plant; 
white horehound. 

Bastard hare's-ear, n. a shmb 

from the Canary isles, remarkable for 
the beauty of its leaves; it is called 
Pht/llis nobla. 

American shrub, from which indigo 
■*7as formerly obtained; it is the Amor- 
pha fructicosa of botanists. 

B.\S'TARDLT,t a. Spurious. 

name given to the various species of 
Cameraria, a genus belonging to the 

plant, the Sison amomum.[S€e Sisox.] 

BAS'TARD TOAD-FLAX, n. A plant, 
the Thesium linophyllum. [5eeLlSABlA, 
and Toad-Flas.] 

BASTnrENT.f ) n- [Fr. hasHmenWl 

BASTIMEN'TO,tJ A rampart. 

BAS'TIONED, a. Provided with bas- 

BAS'TON, n. [add.] A truncheon or 
small club, used in the tournament in- 
stead of the mace in the regular fight. 

B.\S'YLE, K. [Or. (So*^!.-. a base, and v>.n, 
nature or principle.] In chem., a term 
recently employed to denote the metal- 
lic radical of a salt, or any electro-posi- 
tive ingredient of a compound. 

BAT, n. [add.] The negroes in Jamaica 
call the true bats, rat-bats, to dis- 
tinguish them from butterflies, which 
thev call bats. 

BATARD-EAU'. [add.] [Tr. hattre, to 
repel, and eau, water.") 

B ATE,j pret. of Bite. Did bite. [Spen- 

BATE, r. t [add.] To dull or blunt ; as. 
to bate the sc>'the*s keen edge. [Shah.] 

3aTH, n. [add.] Immersion in a bath ; 
as, to take a bath — Partial bath, a bath 
applied to some particular part of the 
body, as the head, foot, kc. — In chem., 
a bath is an apparatus for modifying 
and regulating the heat in various che- 
mical processes, by interposing a quan- 
tity of sand, water, or other substance, 
between the fire and the vessel intended 
to be heated. When a liquid bath of a 
highertemperaturethan^l^" is required, 
saturated solutions are employed, 
in which the boiling point is higher 
than that of water. — Metal bath, a 
chemical bath for higher temperatures 
than can be produced by liquid baths. 
iMercury, fusible metal, tin, or lead, are 
employed for this purj^ose. — Knights of 
the Bath, an order of knighthood sup- 
posed to have been instituted at the 
coronation of Henry IV. in 1399. It re- 
ceived this name from the circumstance 
of the candidates for the honour being 
put into a bath the preceding evening, to 
denote a purification or absolution from 
their former misdeeds, and that they 
were now to commence a new life. 
The present order of the Bath, how- 
ever, was instituted by George I. in 
1725. It was a military order, and 
consisted, exclusive of the sovereign, of 
a grand-master, and thirtj-six com- 
panions. In 1815, the order was 
greatly extended, and it is now com- 
posed of three classes, viz., military and 




c'i\n\ knights grand-crosses, knights- 
coinmanders, and knights-corapantons. 

Bidf^ and Collar of the Ditti. 

The badge is a golden cross of eight 
points, with a lion of England between 
the four principal angles, and having 
on the sides a rose, thistle, and sham- 
rock ; motto, Tria juncta in vno. A 
silver star is also worn by tlie first two 

BATH'^BRICK, n. A preparation of 
calcareous eartli in the form of a brick, 
used for cleaning knives. 

BATilE, 71. Act of bathing; the immer- 
sion of the body in water ; as, to take 
one's usual bathe. 

BATHETIC, a. Relating to bathos; 
sinking. [Har. vs.^ 

BATHING, H. [add.] The temporary 
surrounding of the body, or a part of 
it, with a medium different or of a dif- 
ferent temperature from tliat in which 
it is usually placed, as water, watery 
vapour, or air of a temperature differ- 
ent from that of the common atmo- 
sphere. Bathing is usually employed 
for the prevention or cure of disease, 
or for the pleasure derived from the 

BATHING-ROOM, n. A bath-room. 

BATH'- METAL, n. An alloy of metal, 
composed of 4^ ounces of zinc, and 1 
ounce of brass. 

BATH'-OOLITE. See Bath-Stone. 

BAT'-HOIISE, ) n. A horse allowed 

BAW'-HORSE,y to a batman in the 
British army, for conveying the utensils 
in liis charge. [See Batman.] 

B A'THOS, n. [add ] A ludicrous descent 
from the elevated to the mean, in 
writing or speech. 

BATID'EiE, n. A nat. order instituted 
by Martins for the Batis fruticosa. It 
belongs to the unisexual monochlamy- 
deous dicotyledonous plants. Its fruit 
and seeds are unknown, and conse- 
quently its affinities very doubtful. 

BATIFO'LIUM, n. A movable wooden 
tower used by besiegers in attacking 
a fortress. 

B A'TIS, n. A small genus of plants, con- 
sisting of a single species, forming the 
nat. order Batidene of Martius. It is 
remarkable for the quantity of barilla 
which it contains. 

BAT'-MONEY, \ n. Money paid to a 

BAW-MONEY,; batman. 

BAT'-NET, n. A net to put over the 
nests of bats. 

BAT'OLITE, n. [Fr. baton, a staff, and 
Gr. XiOoi, a stone.] A genus of straight, 
cylindrical, bivalve fossil shells, allied 
to the hippurites. Some are of great 
length, and form masses of rock in the 
high alps. 

BAT'ON, ) n. [add.] The badge or 

BATOON',1 truncheon of inferior 
officers of justice, as the baton of a con- 
stable.— In mu6lc, a term denoting a 

rest of four semibreves. — In her., tlie 
baton is used to denote illegitimate 

BATONNIER', n. [Er.] In France, an 
elected president of an order or fra- 

BAT'RACHITE, n. [add.] A fossil 
batrachian or frog; also, a mineral 
found in a mountain in Southern Tyrol, 
considered to be a silicate of mag- 

^»T^»X»i, a frog, and ctej^*, a seed.] A 
genus of fresh-water algie. The species 
have more or less the appearance of a 

BAT'-SHELL, n. A species of Voluta, 
of a dusky brown colour. 

BAT'TEL, V. I. [add.] To reside at the 
university; to keep terms. 

BATTEL,! f-'- To render fertUe ; to 

BATTEL, n. [add.] Provisions taken 
by Oxford students from the buttery; 
and also the charges thereon. — At 
Eton college, a small allowance of food, 
which, in addition to the college allow- 
ance, the collegers receive from their 

BAT'TELLER,) n. [add.] A student 

BATTLER, § at Oxford, who 
stands indebted, in the college books, 
for provisions and drink at the buttery. 
Hence, one who keeps terms, or resides 
at the university. 

BAT'TEN, ?i. t. [add.] To fasten with 
battens. — To batten down, to fasten 
down with battens, as the hatches of a 
ship during a storm. 

B AT'TENED, pp. [add.] Fastened with 

BATTENING, n. [add.] The operation 
of fixing battens to walls for naibng 
up laths. 

BAT'TER-RULE, n. A plumb-line so 
contrived, that while the plummet 
hangs vertically, the wall to which it is 
applied may be sloping or battered. 
This is effected by forming the edge of 
the instrument so as to incline towards 
the vertical line of the plummet, in 
proportion to the slope of the wall. 

BAT'TERY, n. [add.] Troi/rih batten/. 
[See Galvanic battery under Gal- 
van in.] 

BxVT'TIL,t V. i. To battel, or batten ; 
to grow fat. [Spenser.l 

BAT'TLE, 71. [add.] A drawn battle is 
one in which neither party gains the 
victory. — A battle-royal, a battle with 
fists or cudgels, in which more than 
two are engaged ; a melee. The term 
is also applied to a fight of gamecocks, 
in which more than two are engaged. 

BAT'TLE, v.t. [add.] To encounter; 
to engage in battle. 

BAT'TLINGS,t n. An allowance of 

BAT'TON,t7i. A baton or club. [5^)^/1- 

BATTS, n. Botts. [Scotch.'] 

BATTU'TA, w. [add.] In music, the 
motion of beating with the hand or 
foot, in directing the time. 

BATZ, or BATZE, n. 

BAU'BLE, n. A trifling piece of finery; 
a gewgaw ; that which is gay and 
showy, without any real value. [See 

BAUDE,t a. (baud.) [Fr.] Joyous; 
riotously joyous. [Chaucer.] 

BAU'DEKIN, 77. [Said to be ivomBaU 

deh OT Babylon.] A sumptuous species 

of cloth for garments, used by the 

nobility of the middle ages, and com- 


posed of silk interwoven with tlireads 
of gold. 

BAUDELAIRE',t n. [Fr.] A small 
knife carried about the person, or in the 

BAUD'ERIE.f ) n. Bawdry, [aiau- 

BAUD'RIE,t ) cer.] 

BAUD'RICKE,t \ ??. A baldric. 

BAULD'RICKE,t/ [Spottier.] 

BAU'DRONS, n. Fuss; a cat. [Scotch.] 

BAUD'Y,t a. Bawdy. [Chaucer.] 

BAUHIN'IA, instead of BAU€III'- 

BAUKS, 7h Balks; uncultivated places 
between ridges of land. [Scotch.] 

BAULD, a. Bald; also bold. [Scotch.] 

BAU'LEA, n. A round-bottomed boat 
used on the shallower parts of the 
Ganges, fur transporting passengers. 
It is not deep, though sometimes it is 
provided with a mast; but the wind 
must be very light before it dare unfurl 
its sail. Bauleas are chiefly propelled 
with oars, and are much used by 
Europeans and rich natives. 

BAU'LITE, n. A white transparent 
mineral, in very thin splinters, found 
in the matter ejected by Krabla in 
Iceland. It is a silicate of alumina, 
and melts before the blowpipe into a 
clear glass. 

BAVARETTE',t n. A bib to put be- 
fore the bosom of a child. 

BAVIN, n. [add.] Bavins for jiresliips, 
fagots of easily-kindled brushwood, 2 or 
3 ft. long. The bush ends are all laid 
one way, dipped in melted composition, 
and afterwards confined by the hand, to 
keep them from breaking off, and to 
make them burn more fiercely. 

BAWBEE, 77. See Baubee. 

BAWL, 77. A vehement clamoiu*; an 

BA"\VNES,t n. ptnr. [See Bawn.] 
Eminences. [Spenser.] 

BAW'SON - FACED, )«. Having a 

BAW'SINT- FACED,! white spot on 
the forehead or face, as a horse, cow, 
&c. [Scotch.] 

BAX'TER, n. A baker. [Scotch.] 

BAY, 77. [add.] A stand made by one 
pursued or attacked, during which the 
enemy holds oft'. — To keep or to stand 
at bay, is to face the enemy; to ward 
off an attack ; to keep an enemy from 
closing in. Also the noise, or repeated 
barking of a dog when the game turns 
round upon him ; and when a stag 
turns round upon the dogs, he is said 
to keep thom at buy, or barking, be- 
cause they dare not close in and attack 

BAYADEER', n. In the East Indies, a 
regularly bred dancing-girl; a prosti- 

BAY'-BERRY TALLOW, 77. A waxy 
substance obtained from the bay-berry 
or wax-myrtle {Myrica cerifera), called 
also mvrtle-ira.r. 

BAYEUX' TAPESTRY, 77. A singular 
monument of the middle ages, which 
consists of a web or roll of linen cloth 
or canvas, upon which a continuous 
representation of the events connected 
with tlie conquest of England by the 
Normans is worked in woollen thread 
of different colours, in the manner of a 
sampler. It is 214 feet in length, and 
20 inches in width, and divided into 72 
compartments. It is traditionally said 
to be the work of Matilda, queen to 
William the Conqueror, and presented 
by her to the cathedral of Bayeux. 

BAY'ING, n. The barking of a dog, 

BAY'ONET-CLUTCH, n. [add.] In 
machinery, a form of clutch armed 




usually with two prongs a, a, which, in 
gear, act on the ends or "lugs" of a 
friction-strap 6, fitted on a side-boss 
of the wheel to be driven, and which 
is loose on the same shaft. The clutch 
is attached to the shaft by a feather- 
key, and when drawn back, or out of 
gear with the strap, the wheel remains 

at rest, and the clutch continues to re- 
volve with the shaft. M^hen it is re- 
quired to set the machinery again in 
motion, the clutch is throwu forward 
by the fork c, and its prongs, engag- 
ing with the strap, gradually put the 
wlieel in motion. 

BAY'-RUM, n. A spirit obtained by dis- 
tilling the leaves of the bay-tree. 

BAYS, n. See Baize. 

BAYT,t V. t To rest. [Spenser.] 

BAY'-TREE, n. The laurel-tree (Zaa- 
rus 7iobilis). 

BDELXIUM, n. [add] The Indian 
bdellimn, according to Royle, is the 
produce of a species of Amyris, the A. 
commiiihoray Roxburgh. The African 
bdellium is a product of the Hendelotia 
Africana, a plant belonging to tlie ca- 
shew tribe. The Sicilian bdellium is 
produced by the Daucus HUpanicus ; 
and the Egyptian bdellium is supposed 
to be produced by the Borassus fi<ibeUi- 
f or mis, Linn. 

BEACH'ING, Ji. The act of running a 
vessel on shore, after springing a leak, 
to prevent her from sinking; or when, 
from peculiar circumstances, she may 
be otherwise placed in imminent peril. 
The term applies also to running a 
vessel on the beach, for the purpose of 
being loaded, or careened, where there 
is no suitable accommodation. 

BEA'€ON, r. t. To afford light or aid, 
as a beacon ; to light up. 

BeA'COIsLESS, a. Haring no beacon. 

BEAD, n. [add.] A small piece of metal 
on a gun-barrel, to take sight by. 

Bead, n. lu joinerj/, a round moulding 
variously modified; as — 1. Bead and 
butly framed work, where the panel is 
flush with the framing, and has a bead 
run on two edges in the direction of 
the grain only, wliUe the ends are left 
plain {ing. l).—2. Bead and JliisJi, framed 
work in which a bead is run on the 






edge of the framing (fig. 2). — 3. Bead 
and quirk, a bead formed or stuck, as 
it is called, on the edge of a piece of 
stuff flush with its surface (fig. 3.) — i. 
Bead and double quirk, or return bead, 
a bead stuck on a piece of stuff, and 


quirked or relieved on both surfaces. 
(fig. 4). — 5. Bead butt and square work, 

when the panel has beads on two of its 
edges on one side only, and the other 
side is plain. — 6. Beadjlush and square, 
when the framing is beaded on one side 

BKADXERY, n. The oflice or jurisdic- 
tion of a beadle. 

BEAD-MOULD, n. A species of fungus 
which attacks fruit - preserves. Its 
stems consist of single cells, loosely 
jointed together, so as to present the 
appearance of strings of beads. 

BEAD-PLANE, ?(. In joinery, a plane 
for forming a bead. 

BEADS, H. A number of glass globules 
for trying the strength of spirits. These 
globules are all numbered according 
to their specific gravities, and the 
strength of the spirit is denominated 
by the number of that one which re- 
mains suspended in it, and neither sinks 
to the bottom, nor floats on the surface. 
This is but a rude way of determining 
the strength of spirits, and is nowsuper- 
seded by the hydrometer. 

BEAD'-SNAKE, n. Aspecies of coluber, 
of a brown colour, with spots. 

BE AD'-TOOL, n. A turning tool which 
has its cutting face ground to a concave 
curve, so that it may produce a con- 
vex moulding when appUed to the 

BEAD'-TREE, n. [add.] The Melia 
azedarach. Its nuts are used for 
beads in necklaces, which are worn by 
the Roman Catholics, especially in 
Spain and Portugal, hence the name. 
The root is bitter, and is used as an 
aiithelmintic in North ^Vmerica. 


BEAK'-IROX, 71. [add.] Tools of the 
same name, but very milike those of 
the blacksmith, are used by copper- 
smiths and workers in sheet-metal. 
They are often very long, and are sel- 
dom attached to the anvil, but generally 
held in the jaws of the vice. 

BEAK'-RUSH, n. The common name 
of two British herbaceous plants of the 
genus Rhynchospora. [See Ruynchos- 


BEAL, ) n. [Gael.] A mouth ; an open- 

BIEL, ) ing. 

BEAM, H. [add.] In optics, a collection 
or body of panillel rays of light. The 
middle ray of a beam is called its axis. 
[See Pencil.] 

BEAM, r. t. [add.] To emit in beams or 
rays. This verb is generally followed 
by forth ; as, to beam forth light, 

BEAMED, a. The head of a stag is said 
to be beamed, when it has all its ant- 
lers put forth. 

BEAM'ED, ]}p. Emitted in beams or 

BEAM'-EN(ilNE,«. A steam-engine in 
which the motion of the piston is trans- 
mitted to the crank by means of an 
overhead-beam and connecting-rod, as 
distinct from a direct - action engine 
and a side-lever engine, in which the 
motion is communicated by two side- 
levers or beams, below the level of the 
piston cross-head. j 

BEAM-FEATHER, n. A long feather i 
of a hawk's vnn^. j 

BEAM-FILLING, n. [add.] In naut. 
Ian., that portion of the cargo which is ; 
stowed betwixt the beams. . [ 

BEAMS, n.]dur. In ship~buildin(t, strong 
pieces of timber, extending from one 
side of the vessel to the other. They : 
rest upon the clamps or shelf-pieces, | 
and, besides binding the vessel together, 
they are indispensable as supports to { 

the deck. — Break-beams, beams intro- 
duced at the break of a deck. — Breast- 
beams, in vessels furnished with a poop 
and topgallant forecastle, the beams 
which are placed at the forepart of the 
quarter-deck, and at the afterpart of 
the forecastle. — Half-beams, or fork- 
beams, short beams wliich are intro- 
duced for the purpose of supporting 
the deck, either in places where the 
framing is kept asunder by hatchways, 
or there is no framing at all. — Hoid- 
beams, in trading vessels, the lowest 
range of beams, 

BEAM'-TREE,n. [add.] The Cratagus 
aria, Linn., and the Ptjnis aria. De 
Candolle. It is also called white-beam ; 
its wood is hard, compact, and tough, 
and is used for axle-trees, naves of 
wheels, and cogs of machinery. 

Bean, a. See Beix in this Supp. 

BEAR, n. Barley that has more than 
two rows of grain in the ear. [Scotch.] 

BEAR, r. I. [add.] To press, with upon; 
as, to bear heavily upon one's spirits ; 
to bear hard upon an antagonist. — To 
relate or refer to, ^\ith on or upon ; as, 
how does this hear on the question. — 
To convey intelligence ; as, the letters 
bore that succour was at hand. 

BEAR, n. [add.] The brown or black 
bear of Europe is the Vrsus arctos. It 
is a native of almost all the northern 
parts of Europe and Asia, and was at 
one time common in the British islands. 
It is savage and solitary. The Ameri- 
can black bear is the Vrsus Americanus, 
somewhat smaller than the European 
brown bear. The grisly bear (Vrsus 
ferox) is an inhabitant of the Rocky 
Mountains; it is a ferocious animal, 
and has a bulky and unwieldy form, 
but is nevertheless capable of great 
rapidity of motion. The Siberian bear 
( Ursus collaris) approaches closely 
to the brown bear. The polar bear 
{Ursus maritimus) is an animal pos- 
sessed of great strength and fierceness, 
but the accounts of early navigators of 
the size, strength, and ferocity of these 
animals have been found to be greatly 
exaggerated. They are, indeed, said 
to be seen frequently in Greenland in 
great droves, and will sometimes sur- 
round the habitations of the natives, 
and attempt to break in. — Bears and 
bulls, cant terms applied to persons 
engaged in the gambling transactions 
of the stock-exchange. A bear is one 
who contracts to deliver, at a specified 
future time, stocks which he does not 
own ; a bull is one who contracts to 
take them. Hence, in the intervening 
time, it is the interest of the former to 
depress stocks, and of the latter to 
raise them. The stock is, in fact, never 
delivered, and was never meant to be 
so ; and when the time of delivery ar- 
rives, the losing party pays the differ- 
ence between the price of the stock 
then and at the time when the contract 
was made. — A rude, unpolished, or un- 
couth man is in common parlance called 
a bear. 

BEAR -BIND, w. A plant, the Calyste- 
gia septum. Brown, aud Convolvolus 
sepium, Linn. 

BEARD, V. t. [add.] To furnish «-ith 

BEARD,t r. /. To affront. [Spenser.] 

BEARD -GRASS, n. The common 
name of two well-known British plants 
of the genus Po!>'pogon, nat. order 

BEARD'ING-LINE, n. In ship-build- 
ing, a curved line formed by reducing the 




surface of the dead-wood to the shape 
of the vessel's body. [See Beakding.] 

BE ARD'-MOSS, n. A species of lichen, 
which grows on the fir, ash, oak, and 

BEARD'Y, «. The local name of the 
whitethroat {Sylvia cinerea), one of our 
most lively and loquacious little birds. 
— Also the local name of the loche 
(Cobitis barbatula), A small fresh- water 
fish, so called from the threads about 
its mouth. 

BEARE,t n. A bier. [Spenser.] 

BEAR'ERS,t n. In law, persons who 
oppress otliers; usually called main- 

BEARING, n. [add.] In geography and 
navigation, the direction or point of 
the compass in which an object is seen, 
or the situation of one object in regard 
to another, with reference to the points 
of the compass. Thus, if from a 

situation, a, an object, b, is seen in the 
direction of nortli-east, the bearing of 
tlie object is said to be N.E. from a. — 
To take bearings, is to ascertain on 
what point of the compass objects lie, 
The term is also applied to the situa- 
tion or direction of any object esti- 
mated with reference to some part of 
a ship ; as, on the beam, before the beam, 
abaft the beam, &c. The bearings of 
a vessel are the widest part of her 
below the plank-sheer. 

BEAR'ING-CLOTH, n. Theclothvrith 
which a child is covered when carried 
to church to be baptized. 

BEAR'S'-GREASE,n. The fat of bears, 
extensively used to promote the growth 
of hair. 

BEAR'-SKIN, n. The skin of a bear.— 
2. A coarse shaggy woollen cloth for 

British plant, the Arctosiaphylos uva 
ursi, or Arbutus uva ursi, Linn. Its 
leaves possess manifest astringent, and 
under certain circumstances, diuretic 
properties. Tliey have been used in 
medicine in cases of tendency to cal- 
culous diseases. 

BEAR'-WARD, n. A keeper of bears. 

BEAST'EE, n. In the East Indies, a 
native water-carrier. 

BEAST'LIHEAD,-!- n. A greeting to a 
beast, addressed as a person. [Spenser. 1 

Beat, n. [add.] A round or coui'se 
which is fre<iuently gone over ; as, a 
watchman's beat. Also, a place of 
habitual or frequent resort. — In music, 
beats is a term applied to denote the 
beatings or pulsations resulting from 
the joint vibrations of two sounds of 
the same strength, and nearly the same 
pitch, or almost in unison. When the 
unison is complete no beats are heard. 

BEAT, V. t. [add.] To beat hollow, to 
surpass or overcome completely; as, 
the author of The Diary of a Physician 
beats Sir Walter Scott hollow. [Col- 

BEAT, V. i. [add.] To be tossed so as 
to strike the ground frequently; as, 
1. — burp. 

floating corps lie healing on the shore. 
[Addison.] To be employed in inces- 
sant and painful thought. 

Do not iul'cst your mind with beating on 
the stniugeucss of tliis business. Shak. 

BEAT, \pp. or a. [add.] Rendered 

BEATEN, J trite by frequent discus- 
sion; as, fcea^en subjects; 6ea(en topics. 

BEATH'ED.t pp. Bathed; hardened 
by fire. [Spenser.] 

BEATS, or BEATINGS, n. In music. 
[See under Beat in this Supp., and 
under Beating in Diet.] 

BEAUMONT'ITE, n. In mineralogy, a 
hydrosilicate of copper. 

BEAU'PERES,t n. plur. [Beau and 
peer,] Fair companions. [Spenser.] 

BEAU-SEM'BLANT,t n. (bo-sem'- 
blant.) [Fr.] Fair appearance. [Chau- 

BEAU'SHir, n. The character and 
qualitv of a beau. 

BEAU-SIRE,t n. (bo'-slre.) [Fr.] Fair 
sir; a mode of address. [Chaucer.] 

BEAU'TIFUL, n. That which possesses 
beauty ; as, the beautiful in nature or 

BEAU'TILESS, a. Destitute of beauty. 
BEAU'TY BEAMING, a. Diffusing 

BEAUX ESPRITS, n. plur. (boz'- 
espre'.) [Fr.] Men of wit or genius. 
BEA'VER, n. [add.] Of the American 
beaver (Castor fiber), so much prized 
for its fur, and the castor which it 
yields, tliere are several varieties; as, 
the nigra, or black beaver, the varia, 
or spotted beaver, and tlie alba, or 
white beaver. Beaver-skins are not so 
much sought for as they used to be ; 
the general use of silk hats has driven 
them, in great measure, out of demand. 
BEA'VER, a. Made of beaver, or of the 
fur of beaver. 

BEA'VER, ] 71. In armour, the mova- 
BEE'VOR, ( ble face-guard of a hel- 
BE'VOR, ( met, sometimes also used 
BE'VER, J to signify the whole hel- 

He wore his beaver up. 

Shak. Hamlet, act i. scene 2. 
What, is my beaver easier than it was ? 

Skak. Eichard III 

Fig. 1. 

Fig. 2. 

HuLMET, time of Henry VII. Fije. I, B«aver cloeeiS. 
Fig. 2, Beaver lulseO. 

BEAVER-RAT, n. The musk-rat,— 
ivjdch see. 

BEAVERTEEN', n. Aspecies of fustian 

BEBEE'RINE, In. The active princi- 

BEBEA'RINE, ) pie of the bark of the 
hebeeru tree of Guiana. It appears to 
be analogous to quinine, and both it 
and its salts are bitter, and liiglily 

BEBEE'RU, ) n. A tree of British Gui- 

BEBEA'RU,) ana {Nectandra Ro- 
dicei), the timber of which is known to 
wood-merchants by the name of green- 

[add.] Tlie true becafico or pettycliaps, 
is the Sylvia hortensis of Bechstein. 

BECAUSE', [add.] Because, used to 
e.\pres9 the motive or end, is either [ 

improper or obsolete; as, the multi- 
tude rebuked them, because they should 
hold their peace (iMatt. xx. 31). We 
should now use that, or in order 
BECHANCE',-)- ado. Accidentally; by 

BECHE DE MERE, n. [Fr.] The tre- 
pang, a species of holotliuria. [See 

BE'€Hie, instead of 
BEtUIC, n. 
BECKS, n. Pendant tip- 
pets of the head-dress, 
turned like a beak over 
the forehead ; worn in 
the time of Henry VI. 
BE€OM'ED, a. Used by Shah, for 

BED, n. [add.] Bed of a stone, slate, or 
mortar, in masonry, the under surface. 

BED,t ti. t. for Bid. [Spenser.] 

BEDXRK'EN, v. t. To obscure ; to dar- 

BED'-BUG, n. The Cimex lechilarius, 
a troublesome beaked insect of the 
order Heniiptera, with an offensive 
smell, which infests the crevices of 
bedsteads, &c. 

BED'-CHAIR, n. A chair for the sick, 
with a movable back, which rises or 
falls, to sustain the patient while sit- 
ting up in bed. 

person who resides in a bedehouse, or 
is supported by the funds appropriated 
for this purpose. One that prays for 
or to ; a poor pensioner. [Scotch.] 

BEDEVILLED, pp. or a. Thrown 
into utter disorder and confusion. 

BEDIGHT',t pp. Called or named. 

BED'LAM-BEGGARS, n. The name 
anciently given to such patients of the 
hospital of bedlam as, being partially 
cured, were allowed to go at large, or 

BED'-LIN'EN, 71. Linen for beds, as 
slieets, pillow-covers. 

BEDOUINS, n. plur. The name of 
those Arabs who live in tents, and are 
scattered over Arabia, Egypt, and other 
parts of Africa. 

BED'-PAN, n. An utensil for a person 

BED'-PLATE, n. In mechanics, the 
sole-plate or foundation-plate of an 
engine, &c., is often thus named. 

BED'-QUILT, n. A quilted cover for a 
bed. . 

BED'RAL, n. A beadle ; a. person who 
is bedrid. [Scotch.] 

BEDREINTE',t PP- (bedrenf.) [Sax. 
bedrencean.] Drenched ; thoroughly 
wetted. [Chaucer.] 

BED'-STEPS, n. Steps for ascending a 

BED'-STRAW,«, Inbot. [See Galium.] 

BED'TICK, n. A case of strong linen 
or cotton cloth for containing the 
feathers or other materials of a bed. 

BEDUNG', V. t. To cover with dung. 

BEE, Ti. In America, the name given to 
an assemblage of people, generally 
neighbours, to unite their labours for 
the benefit of one individual or family. 

BEEBERA. MisprintforBEBEERU,— 

which see in this Sujfp. 
BEE'-BIRD, n. The local name of the 

spotted fly-catcher (Muscicapa grisola), 

so called from its catching bees. 
BEECII'-FINCU, n. The chaffinch 

(Fringilla ccelebs) is locally so named. 
BEECH'-GALL, n. A hard nut on the 

leaf of the beech. 
BEECH'-NUT, n. The nut of the beech- 




tree, from which an oil is extracted. 
[See Beech-Oil.] 

B£ECH'T,a. Made of beech; consisting 
of beeches. 

BEEF-WOOD.n. The Australian name 
of the wood of the species of the genus 
Casuarina. It is of a reddish colonr, 
hard, and close-grained, with dark and 
whitish streaks. It is chieSy used in 
fine ornamental work. 

BEE■-H.■i.^yK, n. The honey-buzzard 
(Pemis apivora) is so called, from 
prejing on h>Tnenopterous iusects, 
such as wasps, &c. Lepidopterous in- 
sects of the genus Sesia are also often 
called bee-hawks, cr bee-hawk moths 

BEE'-HOUSE, n. .\ house or repositorj- 
for bees. 

BEE-LINE. In America, to take a hee- 
line is to take the most direct oi 
straight way from one point to another, 
as bees do in returning loaded with 
honey to their hives. 

BEE'-MOTH, 71. A moth, from whose 
eggs are produced caterpillars which 
infest bee-hires. It is the Galkria 
cereana of naturalists, 

BEEN.t 1. phir. Bees. [Chaucer.^ 

BEE-OK€HIS, n. A British plant of 
the genus Ophrys, the 0. apifera. [See 

BEER'-SHOP, n. A shop m which beer 
is sold. 

BEES"-W.A.X, n. The wax collected by 
bees, and of which their cells are con- 
structed. [See VfAX.] 

BEETLE, 7?. [add.] In entom., this term 
is more properly used to designate those 
insects which are covered by a strong 
horny substance, the abdominal part 
of the body being protected by two 
sheaths, under which the ^\'ing3 are 
folded. Hence, the term is synonymous 
with coleoptera. The " black beetles " 
of kitciiens and cellars are cockroaches 
{Blatia germanica\, and belong to the 
order Orthoptera. 

BEEVOK, H. In annour. [See Beater.] 

BEFLAT TER, v. t. To flatter; to 

BEFLOWER, r. t. To besprinkle, or 
scatter over with eruptions or pustules. 

BEFLUM'XIED, pp. or a. Palavered ; 
flattered. [Sir W. ScoH.] 

BEFOG', V. t. To involve in fog. 

BEFoREN',+ ladv. or prep. Before. 

BEFOR>'E',t f [Chattcer.] 

BEFRIEXDMEXT.n.Actof befriend- 

BEFUR', V. i. To cover or supply with 

BE'GA, n. A Bengal land-measure, 
about one-thii-d of an English acre. 

BEG'GAR-BR.-VT, n. A child that begs. 

BEG'GAR'S-LICE, n. The name of a 
noxious American weed, the Eckino- 
spermum virginicttm. It has a bur-like 
fruit, or nut, with hooked prickles, 
which fasten on tliose who pass by. 

BEGH.ARDS',) n. [add.] A German 

BEGUARDS'.j word, signifj-ing one 
who begs with importunity. In this 
sense it was frequently applied to the 
Franciscan and other mendicant orders, 
denoting the practice by which they 
gained their subsistence. The term 
was also applied to a class of persons 
distinguished for the fervour and fre- 
quency of their prayers. 

BEGINNE', for Begiskisg. [Speiiser.] 

BEGOX',t pp. Gone. [Chaucer.] 

BEGO'NIA, n. A genus of plants. [See 


BEGONNE,t pp. 


(begon'.) Begun. 

BEGRUT TEN, pp. or a. Exhausted 
with weeping. [Scotch.] 

BEGUIN', n. [Fr.] [add.] The .Be!7"iis 
were properly certain tertiaries, or half- 
monks, who followed the third rule of 
St. Francis, in the 13th century. They 
were the Beghards of Germany. [See 

BEGUINES', n. [Fr.] .4.n order of fe- 
males who sprung up in Germany and 
Belgium in the 1.3th century. Without 
taking the monastic vows, they formed 
themselves into societies, for the pur- 
poses of devotion and charity, and lived 
in houses called beguiiiages. Com- 
munities of Beguines still subsist in 
Holland, Belgium, and Germany. 

BEGUM', V. t. To daub or cover with 

BEGUNK', ) , 4 • , ro . I T 

BEGOKE'i r- "^ "^ • 1^'^°''''^ 

BEHAVE',t I', t. [add.] To possess, use, 
or occupv. [Spenser.] 

BEHEMOTH, n. [add.] Some authors 
consider the behemoth as a kind of 
type, or representation of the largest 
land animals, under the generic name 
of behemoth, which is a plural, denoting 
literally, beasts. 

BE'HEN.j n. [add.] The white behen 

BEN, \ of the shops is the root of 

BEK'EN, ) the Centaurea behen, a na- 
tive of the Levant; the red behen is 
the root of the Statice limonium, or 

BEHESTE,t n. (behest'.) Promise. 

BEHETE.t I', t. (behet.) [Sax.] To 
promise. [Chaucer.] 

Coloured. [Chaucer.] 

BEHIGHT'EN,+ \pp. [See Bebight.] 

BEHIGHTE'.t ) Promised. [Chau- 

BEHOLD ING, n. Act of seeing.— 
2.t Obligation. 

BEHOOVE'.t n. Advantage ; behoof. 

mSEl' }"■ Shelter. [Scotch.] 

BEIN, a. 'Wealthy; well to do; com- 
fortable ; well provided. [5t'otcA.] 

BE'ING-PLACE.t n. A place to exist 
in : a state of existence. 

BEIS'FINGS, n. The name among 
farmers for the first milk of the cow 
after the birth of a calf. [See Biest- 


BE IT SO. A phrase of anticipation — 
sJtppose it to be so ; or, of permission — 
let it be so. [Shah.] 

BEJAUN'DICE, v. t. To infect with 
the jaundice. 

BEL-.l€€OYLE', n. [Fr. W, and ac- 
cueii.] Kind salutation and reception. 

BELAYD'.t pp. [&e Belay.] Laid over 
or decorated. [Spenser.] 

BELCH, r. i. To eject wind from the 
stomach ; to issue out with eructa- 

Balection Mouldi.vgs. 

BELEC'TURE, f. /. To vex with lec- 
tures ; to lecture. 

BELEMNIT'ID.E. n. The family of 
cepha!opodous mollusca which contains 
the belemnites, of which at least ICK) 
species are known in a fossil state. 

BEL ESPRIT, n. (beV espree.) Pbir. 
Beaux esprits. A wit ; a fine genius. 
Also, a pretender to wit. 

BEL'FRY, n. [add.] In ships, the orna- 
mental frame usually fixed on the top 
of the pawl-bit, in which the ship's 
bell is hung. 

BELGARDES.t See Bellg.irds in 
this Supp. 


BELIEVE', V. t. [add.] To think to be 
true ; to suppose. 

BELIKE', adv. Perhaps. [ScofcA.] 

BELm;', \adv. Bvandby; speedily. 

BELTVE', f [Scotch.] 

BELL, n. [add.] To curse by bell, book, 
and candle, in the Rom. church, was to 
read a form of execration against an 
excommimicated person, with the ring- 
ing of bells and candles lighted, to in- 
spire the greater dread. — 
Bell-roof, in arch., a roof, 
the vertical section of which, 
perpendicular to the wall or 
its springing line, is a curve 
of contrary flexure, being con- 
cave at bottom and convex 
at top. 

BELL, V. t. To bell the cat, to encounter 
and cripple an adversary of a greatly 
superior power. The phrase is derived 
from the fable of the mice resolving to 
put a bell on the cat, to guard them 
against its attack. 

BELLA'TRIX, n. [L.] A ruddy glitter- 
ing star of the second magnitude, in 
the left shoulder of Orion ; so named 
from its imaginary influence in exciting 

BELL'-BIRD, n. A species of chatterer 
(Procnias carunculata), distinguished 
by a long soft caruncle at the base of 
its beak. It is a native of South Ame- 
rica, and its loud sonorous voice exactly 
resembles the tolling of a bell, being 
all the more striking, that it is, perhaps, 
the only bird which is not silent during 
the heat of the day. 

BELL -CRANK, 7i. In mech., a rectan- 
gular lever by which the direction of 
motion is changed through an angle of 
ninety degrees, and by which its velo- 
city-ratio and range may 
be altered at pleastu-e, by 
making the arms of differ- 
ent lengths. It is so named 
from its being the form of 
crank employed in chang- 
ing the direction of the 
bell-wires of house-bells. 
F is the fixed centre of motion, about 
which the arms oscillate. 

BELLE,t a. (bel.) [Fr.] Fair. [Chau- 

BELLE,t i: >. [Sax.] To roar; to bel- 
low. [Chaucer.] 

BELL'-FOUND ERT, ) 71. A place 

BELL'-FOUND'RT, )' where bells 
are founded or cast. 

BELLG-A.RDS',t «■ plur. [Tr. belles 
reaardes.] looks. |5i)e7«er.] 

BELL'-HANGER, 7i. One who hangs 
and fixes bells. 

BELL'-HANGING, 7i. The hanging 
and fixing of bells. 

BEL'LICOSE, 1 n. Inclined to war; 

BEL'LICOUS, I warUke. [Lit. xu.] 

BEL'LIED, pp. or a. [add/j In hot., 
ventricose ; swelling out in the middle ; 
as a monopetalous corol. 

BELLl6'ER.\TE,t i: t. [L. belligero.] 
To make war. 

BELL'-MOCTHED, a. GraduaUy ex- 
panded at the mouth in the form of a 
bell ; applied to the intake end of 
water-mains, usually thus formed. 

BELXOWER, 71. One who bellows. 

BEL'LOWS-MaKEK, 71. One who 
makes bellows. 

BELLOWS-SOUND, n. In ausculta- 
tion, an unnatural sound of the heart, 
resembling the puffing of a small bel- 

BELL-PULL. 71. .\ bell-rope ; that by 
which a bell is made to ring. 

BELL'-ROPE, n. A rope for ringing a 




bell ; an appendage to the vesture of a 
Roman Catholic priest. 

BELL'-SHAPED.o. [add.] In 60?., cam-. 
panulate; swelling out, without a tube 
at the base, as a monopetalous corol. 

BELL THE CAT. See Bell, v. t. 

BELL'- W A VERING,;.;)r. Wandering. 

BEL'LT, n. [add.] Bellv of a sail, the 
concave or hollow side of a sail, when 
it is inflated by tlie wind.— Belli/ of a 
curved timber, the concave side of it, or 
the inside, the outside being termed the 

BEL'LY-BAND, n. [add.] In sea Ian., 
a band of canvas to strengthen a sail ; 
viz., between the lower reefs and the 
foot of a topsail or course. The beUy- 
band, or gripes of a quarter-boat or 
stern-boat, serve to keep the vessel 
steady in rolling or pitching. 
BEL'ONE, n. [add.] A genus of fishes 
of the family Esocidaj, of wliich one 
species, the common gar {B. vulgaris), 
is taken in our seas. The bones of this 
species become green by boiling. 
BELORD', o. (. To domineer over. 
[Bar. as.] 
BELOVE',+ V. t. To love. 
BEL'SlRE,t ". An illustrious ancestor. 
BELT, n. [add.] A band, usually of 
leather, passing round any piece of 
machinery, as a wheel or axle.— A long 
narrow plantation. 
BELT'EIN, n. See Beltane. 
BELU'GA, n. [add.] The sea-beluga is 
the Delphinaptera leucas, or D. albi- 
cans ; but the Russians apply the term 
. beluga properly to the white sturgeon 
(Acipenser puso), which furnishes isin- 
glass and caviar; caught particularly 
in the Volga and other rivers of the 
BE'LUS, 1 J!. The chief deity of the 
BEL, f Babylonians and Assyrians; 
also called Baal. [See Baal.] 
BELVEDERE', n. [It.] In Italian arch., 
a small building constructed at the top 
of a house or palace, and open to the 
air, at least on one side, and frequently 
on aU. It is constructed for the pur- 
pose of obtaining a view of the country, 
and forenjoying the cool evening breeze. 
— In France, the name is given to a 
summer-house in a park or garden. 
The word is improperly written belvi- 
EELVISIA'CE^, n. A small nat. order 
of plants, having an inferior several- 
celled fruit, a monopetalous corolla 
furnislied with a corona, a valvate calyx, 
many stamens, amygdaloid cotyledons, 
and alternate leaves. Its affinities are 
obscure, some things indicating a re- 
semblance to the Myrtaceae, others to 
the Passifloracese, and others to the 
KJiizophoracece. Tliere are only two 
genera, Asteranthus and Napoleona, 
which last is sometimes caUed Belvisia. 
All are from tropical Africa. 
BEMAT'TER,t »■ <• To smear or cover 

with matter. 
BEM'BEX, n. A genus of Iiymenopte- 
rous insects, peculiar to hot climates, 
and resembling wasps both in size and 
colour. They form the typical group 
of the family Bembicid^ of Leach. 
BEMBIDI'IDyE, n. A family of minute 
carnivorous beetles, which generally 
frequent the margins of rivers, ponds, 
and ditches. They ai'e usually of a 
bright blue or green metallic colour, 
having two or four pale yellow spots on 
the elytra; the terminal joint of tlie 
palpi is sharp-pointed, hence the name 
subulipalpi frequently applied to them. 

BE'MES,t n. plur. [Sax.] Trumpets. 
BEMOIL'ED,t pp. Bemired. 
BE'MOL, n. In music, B-flat, a semitone 
below B-natural. 
BEMUD'DLE, v. t. To confuse; to 

BEMUSE', V t. To enchant or overcome 
by the muses. [Poetical.] 
BEN, n. [be-in.] The inner apartment of 
a house. [Scotch.] 

BEN, adv. Towai-ds the inner apartment 
of a house.— 2'a bring far ben, to treat 
with great respect and hospitality. — 
To be far ben with one, to be on terms 
of intimacy or familiarity with him ; to 
be in great honour with him. [Scotch.] 
BENCH'-MABKS, n. Fixed points left 
on a line of sm-vey for futiu-e refer- 
BEND, ,.. I. [add.] Tu bend the sails, is 
to extend and make them fast in their 
proper positions. 
BEND, n. [add.] In naut. Ian., a knot 
by whicli two ropes are united; as 
cable bends, carrick ientis, a fisherman's 
bend, »&c. 

BEND'ER, n. In New York, a spree; a 
frolic. — To go on a bender, is to go on a 
BEND'-LEATHER, n. The strongest 
kmd of sole-leatlier for shoes, made 
from cow-hides. [Scotch.] 
BENDS, n. Ribbands or bandages for 
the head, used, in ancient times, by 
ladies, in imitation of the circles of gold 
among the Normans. 
BEN'EDI€T,n. [add.] This word, used 
as a cant term for a married man, or a 
man newly-married, is derived from one 
of tlie characters in Shakspeare's play 
of Much ado aboxit nothing. 
BENEDICTORY, a. Conferring be- 
BEN'EFIT, n. [add.] Indulgence; con- 
cession; a performance at a tlieatre, 
the proceeds of which go to one of the 
actors as part of his recompense. The 
same name is given to a public per- 
formance, the proceeds of which go to 
some indigent deserving person, or to 
some public institution or charity 
BEN'EFIT-PLAY, n. A play acted for 
the advantage of some one. 
societies, — which see. 
BENEMPTE', pp. Benamed. [Spen- 
lence. [Bar. us.] 
BEN'GAL- LIGHT, n. A species of 
fireworks used :is signals by night or 
otherwise, producing a steady and vivid 
blue-coloured fire. 
BEN'GAL-QUINCE, «. A plant, the 
Agle marmelos. 
BEN'GAL- STRIPES, «. A kind of 
cotton cloth woven with coloured 
stripes; ginghams. 
BEN'ICKE, «. In Turheij, a kind of 
military fete, similar to the tournament 
of the middle ages in Europe, but 
without the presence of ladies. 
BENIG'NANTLY, adv. In a benignant 
BENIME.t V. t. Gienim'.) [Sax.] To 
take away. [Chaucer.] 
BEN'JAMIN TREE, n. The Laurus 
benzoin; also, a species of ficus, the 
/'. beiijamina. 
BEN'NISON, n. See Benisom. 
BEN'-NUT.S, n. The seeds of an Ara- 
bian plant, Moringa pteruqosperina, 
which yield an oil called oil of ben, or 
ben-oil. They liave been employed in 
syphilitic diseases. 

BEN'-OIL, n. The expressed oil of the 
ben-nut, which is remarkable for not 
becoming rancid for many years. It is 
perfectly inodorous, on wliich account 
it is much used by perfumers, to retain 
the scent of the more fragrant oils. At 
a low temperature it separates into two 
parts, the one solid and the other 
liquid ; and the latter is employed by 
watchmakers, in preference to any 
other oil, for lubricating their delicate 
works, on account of its having no ac- 
tion upon tlie metals. 
BENO'MEN,+ pp. from Benime. Taken 
away. [Chaucer.] 
BEN'SHIE, n. An Irish fairy, or a 
iairy's wife. 
BENT, ) n. [add.] Bent, in 

BENT'-GRASS, ) Scotch, is used me- 
taphoricalbj, to signify the hill; the 
moor.— To taK the bent, to take the 
field ; to run away. 
BENTHA'MIA, n. A genus of plants, 
nat. order Cornaceie. C. frugifera is 
a very handsome plant, and yields an 
c-atable fruit. It is a native of the 
East Indies. 
BENUMB'ERS, n. In >n«rf, agents 
which cause topical numbness, or mus- 
cular weakness. 
BEN'ZOYLE.n. The radical of benzoic 
acid, of oil of bitter almonds, and of an 
extensive series of compounds. [See 
Benzile, Benzule.] 
BEPLAS'TER, v. t. To cover with 

plaster; to embellish. 
BEQUEATH', v. t. [add.] To hand down 
to posterity; as, to bequeath a family 
BEQUOTE', V. t. To quote frequently 

or much. 


BER'BERINE, n. [add.] This sub- 
stance is used in dyeing yellow. 
BER'BERIS, n. [add.] Tlie species of 
this genus are known by the common 
name of barberry. They are interesting 
both for their utility and their beauty. 
The berries of the common barberry 
{B. vulgaris) are acid and astringent, 
and form with sugar an agreeable re- 
freshing preserve. The stem and bark 
are excessively astringent, and are for 
that reason employed by dyers. The 
root yields a yellow dye. 
plant, the JEcidium. berberidis, which 
is parasitic upon the leaves of the com- 
mon berberry. 
BERDE',t«.(berd.) Beard. [Chaucer.] 
BERE'ANS, n. A sect of dissenters 
from the church of Scotland, the foun- 
der of which was John Barclay. They 
profess to follow the example of the 
ancient Bereans mentioned in the New 
Testament, in building their system of 
faith and practice upon the Scriptures 
alone, without regard to human autho- 
rity. _ 

BEREA'VER, n. One who bereaves, or 
deprives another of something valued. 
BERENGA'RIANS, n. A sect which 
followed Berengarius or Berenger, 
archdeacon of St. Jlary's at Anjou, who 
in the 11th century, denied the pre- 
sence of the body and blood of Christ 
in the sacrament. 
BER'EWI€,+ n. [Sax.] A village or 

BERG'ANDER.n. [add.] The Tadorna 
vulpanser, or sheldrake. 
BER'GIL, ) n. The species of acan- 
BER'GYLT,J thopterygian fishes ol' 
the genus Labrus are so called. 
BERME, n. [add.] The bank or side of 




B canal wUich is opposite to the towing 
path ; called also btnne bank. 

BEKME,t "• (benu.) Yeast; barm. 

BERNE,t ". (l>ern.) A barn. [CJiamer.] 

BEK'NICLE GOOSE, n. The Beriii- 
cla leitcopsis, a bird which inhabits the 
Arctic regions, but in autumn and win- 
ter visits England, France, Germany, 
Ilolland, &c. It is ratlier more than 
two feet in length, and weighs about 
five pounds. [Ace Bae.vacle.] 

BE'KOE, 71. A genus of small marine 
animals, belonging to the class Acale- 
pha. The species, which are transpa- 
rent and gelatinous, are either oval or 
globular, and float in the ocean, where 
they are widely difl'used. They are 
phosphoric, and shine at night like 
lamps suspended in the sea. Two or 
three species occur in the British 

BEKO'SUS, n. .V genus of fresh-water 
coleopterous insects, usually found in 
ponds, in which tliey may often be seen 
swimming in an inverted position. 

BEK'KYA, n. A genus of plants, be- 
longing to the nat. order of Tiliaceae. 
S. ammomlla is the Trincomalee wood 
tree, a native of Ceylon, where it is 
called ammonilla. It received its bo- 
tanical name in honour of Dr. Berry, of 

BERTH, n. [add.] To give the land, or 
any object, a icicle berth, is to lieep at a 
proper distance from it, — Berth and 
space, in ship-buildiit/, the distance 
between the moulding edge of one 
timber and tlie moulding edge of the 
one next to it. 

BER'THIERITE, instead of BER'- 

BERTH'ING, 71. A term used by seamen 
most generally to denote the bulwarli of 
a merchant sliip. — In ships of war it 
is the planking outside above the 
sheer-strake, and is designated the 
bcrthiwj of the quarter-deck, of the 
poop, or of the forecastle, as the case 
may be. It is also used to denote tlie 
close boarding between the head-rails, 
and in this case it is called the berihinij 
of the head. 
BESAGNES', 7i. [Fr.] The two circular 
plates, about the size of a shilling, which 
covered the pins on 
which the visor of 
the helmet turned. 
BESAGUE-, 7i. [Fr.] 
A cornuted staff or 
club used by knights 
until the end of tlie 
14th century. 

BESEKE',t »• '■ 0>e- 

seek'.) To beseech. 


BESETE',t \ PI'- [Sax ] Placed ; em- 
BESETTE',tJ ployed. [Chaucer.] 
BESEYE'j-f- }ip. from Besee. Beseen. 

BE'SHAN, 7!. A kind of balsam. [See 

BESUET',t pp. from Beshut. Shut up. 

BESIDES', prep. [add.] Except; bating; 

near. [Spenser.] 
BESI'REN, V. t. To alUu-e or entice as 

a siren. 
BESLOB'BER, i: I. To daub ; to soil. 
BESMOTRED.t pp. from Besmut. 

Smutted; blackened witli smut. [Chau- 
BESPEAK', V. t. [add.] To secure ; as, 

to bespeak one's favour. 
BESPET ',t pp. [Sax.] Spit upon. 


BESPEW, V. t. To daub with spew or 

BESPRINT',-}- pp. Besprinkled. [Spen- 

BESPUT'TER, v . I. To sputter over. 

BEST, a. [add.] Best is sometimes fol- 
lowed by a verb in the infinitive ; as, 
I sat down to consider what I had best 
to do. 

BEST.iDDE',+ ) pp. from Bestead. 

BESTAD',t ) Situated; circum- 
stanced well or ill ; distressed. [Chau- 

BESTE,t 71. A beast. [Chaucer.] 

BEST'IATE.t I', i. To make like a 

BESTIL'LED, pp. Dissolved. [Shah.] 

BESTOW, V. t. [add.] To give or im- 
part, in a bad sense ; as, to bestow cen- 

BESTREAK', v. t. To mark or cover 
with streaks. 

BESTROW, V. t. To scatter over ; to 
besprinkle ; to bestrew. 

BESOllE', adv. [For to be sure.] Cer- 
tainly; surely. [Colloq.] 

BES'Y,t a. Busy. [Chaucer.] 

BET.BETTE, for Better. [Chaucer.] 

BETAKE',t ti. t. [Sax.] To give; to 
recommend to ; to commit. [^peTi^er.] 

BETE.t c. (. (bef.) [Sax.] To prepare; 
to mend; to make; to heal. [Chaucer.] 

BETE,t V. t. [Fr.] To beat. [Chaucer.] 

BETECHE,i- for Betake orBEiEACH. 

BETEE M', i>. t. [add.] To allow ; to 
suffer. [Shah.] 

BET£ElME,t V. t. To give ; to deliver. 

BE'TELGEUSE, 71. A star of the first 
magnitude in the southern constellation 

BETH,t r. !. imperat. Be ve. [Chaucer.] 

BETID ^t \ pp. from Betide. Hap- 

BETlDDE'.t) pened. [Chaucer.] 

BETlGHT'.t pp L.1 Betide. Happened. 

BETOKE',t PP- from Betake. Recom- 
mend. [Chaucer.] 

BE'TON, 71. A niixtiu'e of lime and 
grave], which grows into a compact 
mass, and is used to form an artificial 
foundation when the ground is insecure ; 

BETON'6lA, n. A genus of marsupial 
mammalia alUed to the kangaroos, one 
species of which {B. cunicidus) is called 
the forest-rat by the colonists of Van 
Diemen's Land. 

BETO'NICA, 71. Betony, a genus of 
plants now merged in the genus Sta- 

BE'TOOIiE',t pret. of Betake. Deli- 
vered ; committed. [Speiiser.] 

BETRAIS'ED,t pp. [Fr.] Betrayed. 

BETROTH'AL, n. Betrothment. [Rur. 
BETT, for Bettek. [5pc7i.ser.] 
BET'TEK.t I'- i- To grow better ; to 
become better. 

BET'TERMENTS, 7!. piur. Improve- 
ments made on new lands, by cultiva- 
tion, fences, buildings, iS;c. [American.] 
BET'TING, 71. The laying of a wager; 

the practice of laying wagers. 
BETUTOR, v.t. To instruct; to tutor. 

[Bar. us.] 
BETWEEN DECKS,) 71. The space 
TWIXT DECKS, i between any 
two decks of a vessel. 

; BETWIX'.t ) P'-ep. Between. 

BETWIX'EN,t) [Chaucer.] 

[ BEVEL, a. [add.] Slant; having the 

I form of a bevel. 

I BEVEL, t'. !. [add.] To slant or incline 

off to a bevel-angle, or from a direct 

BEVEL-ANGLE, n. Any angle which 
is greater or less than a right angle. 

BEVELLED, pp. [add.] Iii inineral., 
replaced by two planes inclining equally 
upon the adjacent planes, as an edge ; 
having its edges replaced as above, as a 
cube or other solid. 

BEVELLING, a. [add.] Slanting to- 
ward a bevel-angle. 

BEVELLING, 71. [add.] The hewing of 
timber with a proper and regular slant 
toward a bevel-angle, according to a 
mould laid on one side of the surface. 
The bevelling of a piece of timber also 
signifies the angle contained by two of 
its adjacent sides ; if this angle is acute, 
it is called an under bevelling or bevel, 
and if the angle is obtuse, it is termed a 
standing bevel. 

BE'VER, 71. In armour. [See Beaver.] 

BEVIE.t 7!. See Bevy. [Spenser.] 

BE'VOR, 71. In ar7«0M7-. [See Beaver.] 

BEVY, 71. [add.] Sportsmen now con- 
fine this term to a tlock of quails. 

BEWAlLE',t V. t. [See Bewail.] To 
make choice of; to select. [Apcii- 

BEWEPE',t V. t. To weep over. [Oiau- 

BEW'HORE', II. t. To corrupt with re- 
gard to chastity. — 2.f To pronounce a 

BEWREY',t ) V. t. To discover. [Chau. 

BEWRIE',t J cer.] 

BEYE,t V. t. To buy. [aiaucer.] 

BEYETE',t pp. (beyef .) [Sax.] Begot- 
ten. [Chaucer.] 

BEY'RAGHEE, 71. In the East Indies, 
a native beggar. 

BEZOAR'TI€.4.L, a. Having the qua- 
lities of an antidote. 

BEZONIAN, 71. [From It. bisogno.] An 
indigent wretch. [SAaA.] 

B-FLAT, 71. The common bed-bng is 
sometimes so called. 

BI. [L. bis, twice.] In chem., a prefix of 
certain saline compounds, into wliich 
two proportions of acid enter for one 
of base ; as fci'-arseniate. 

BIADET'TO, 71. [Ital.] The same as 

BIAN'CO SECCO, 71. [Ital.] A white 
used in fresco painting, consisting of 
lime macerated in water until its caus- 
ticity is removed, to which pulverized 
marble is added. 

BIAX'AL, ) TT • ^ 

BI \X'IAL ( "■ Havmg two axes. 

BIB, 71. [add.] The bib is a species of 
the cod family,and is theMorrhua lusca 
of naturalists. In Shetland it is called 
the smeltic. 

BIB'BED,t pp. Drunk. [Chaucer.] 

BIB'IO, 71. [add.] A genus of dipterous 
insects, belonging to the family Tipu- 
hdie. All the species are of small size, 
and their flight is slow and heavy. 
They are found in damp, marshy places, 
and fly but little, being very sluggish. 

BIB'ITOKY, a. Pertaining to drinking 
or tippling. 

Bt'ELE,"!- 71. .\ny great book. [Cliaucer.] 

BIBLE CHRISTIANS, 71. A religious 
sect in America, who abstain from all 
animal food and spu-ituous liquors, and 
live on vegetables and fruits. They 
profess to follow the great doctrines of 
the Bible, and reject all human autho- 
rity in matters of religion. 

BIBLE-OATH, 71. An oath on the 
Bible; a sacred obligation. 

BIBLICALLY, adv. According to the 

BIB'LICIST, 71. One skilled in tlie 




knowledge and interpretation of the 
bibliographical manner. 
BIBLIOLOG'I€AL, a. Relating to 
BIBLIOL'06y, n. [Gr. /S;jAof, a book, 
and Xoycg, discourse.] Biblical literature, 
doctrine, or theology; a treatise on 
books; bibliography. 
ness; j)ibIiomania. [Not authorized.'] 
BIBLIOM'ANIST, n. One atiected by 

BIBLIOPH'ILISM, n. [Gr. ^<a«, and 
^t'Aioi, to love.] Love of bibliography or 
of books. 
BIBLIOPH'ILIST, n. A lover of biblio- 
graphy or of books. 

BIBLIOPHO'BIA n. [Gr. ^.a«f, and 
(^otiofj-aiy to fear.] A dread of books. 
BIBLIOPOL'IGAL, a. Relating to 
bookselling or booksellers. 
BIBLIOP'OLISM, H. The employment 
of a bibliopolist ; bibliomania. 

BIBHOPOLIS'TIG, a. Relating to a 
bookseller or bookselling. 

BIB'LUS, n. [L.] The papyrus, an Egyp- 
tian aquatic plant. \See Papyrus.] 

acid produced by bibromisatine. 

BICE, n. [add.] Blue bice, mountain- 
blue, a native carbonate of copper. — 
Green bice, mountain-green, or mala- 
chite green, also a carbonate of copper, 
mixed with a small proportion of the 
oxide of iron, 

BI'CEPS, a. [L. bis, double, and capitt, 
the head.] Two-headed, or having two 
distinct origins, as applied to a muscle 
of the thigh and of the arm. 

acid yielded by bichlorisatine when 
treated with caustic potash. 

BICII'Y, or CO'LA, «. The Cola 
acuminata, a tree belonging to the nat. 
order of Sterculiaceae. It is from the 
north coast of tropical Africa, but has 
been introduced into the West Indies, 
&c., by the negroes, who use the seeds 
for bowel complaints. 

BICK'ERING, n. Contention; skir- 

Bl€LIN'IUi\I, n. [L.] In ancient Ro- 
man houses, a dining-room with only 
two beds or reclining benches in it. 

Bl'€OLOR, a. [L. bis, and color.] Of 
two colours. 

BICON'GREGATE, a. [L. bis, and 
congrego.] In bot., bigeminate, or ar- 
ranged in two pairs, as the leaflets of 
Mimosa unguis cati. 

BICON'JUGATE, a. [L. bis, and con^ 
jugo, to unite.] In pairs ; placed side by 

Bi€OR'NIS, a. [L. bis, double, and cor- 
nu, a horn.] In anat., a terra applied 
to the OS hf/o'ideSj which has two pro- 
cesses or horns. 

Bl€RE'NATE, a. [L. bis, and crena, 
a notch.] In bot., doubly crenate, a 
term applied to crenate leaves when the 
crenatures or toothings are themselves 

[add.] In anat., a term applied to teeth 
haviDg two fangs, or tubercles ; as 
the two first pairs of grinders in each 

Bf€US'PIS, n. [L,] A tooth with two 

BIDDE.t f. (. To bid; to offer; to 
order. [Chaucer.l To wish ; to pray. 

BID'DERY WARE, n. A kind of me- 
tallic ware made at Biddery in Hindos- 
tan, composed of copper, lead, tin, and 

BIDDING OF BEADS, n. A praying 
with beads ; also, a charge given by a 
Roman Catholic parish priest to his 
parishioners at some special time, to 
come to prayers upon any festival or 
saint's day. 

BID'DINGS, n. The raising of the price 
of a thing at a sale or auction. 

BID'DY, n. A domestic fowl; a chicken; 
a term generally used in calling fowls 
to meat. 

BIDE, for Bid, v. t. [Spenser.] 

BIDE, i\ i. To stay ; to reside. As a 
verb active, to endure. [Scotch.] 

BIDE, V. t. [addJ To wait for ; as, I 
bide my time. [Scotch.] 

BI'DENT, instead of BIDE'NT, n. 

BIDENT'AL, -| a. [add.] In iiool, 

BIDENT'ED, I having two teeth, 

BIDENT'ATED, f or two tooth-like 

BIDENT'ATE, J processes. [Bi- 
DENTAL and BiDENTEDare little used.] 

BIDEN'TIAL, a. Having two teeth; 

BIDET', n. [add.] An article of bed- 
room fiu'niture used in washing the 

BIDIti'ITATE, a. [L. bis, and digitus, 
a finger.] In bot., a term applied to 
leaves, the common petiole of which 
has two leaflets- at its e.xtremity. 

BiD'ING, pjir. Abiding; waiting; re- 
siding. [Scotch.] 

BIELD, n. See Beild in this Supp. 

BIEX, a. See Bfas in this Supp. 

BIEN'NIAL, n. A plant which requires 
two seasons of growth to produce its 
flowers and fruit, and which pei'ishes 
as soon as its seeds are ripened. 

BIF'FIN, n. A baked apple crushed 
down into a flat round cake. 

BIFLO'RATE, a. SaraeasBirLOROUs. 

BIFOXIOLATE, a. [L. bis, aai folio- 
turn, a little leaf.] In 6o<., aterm applied 
when two folioles or leaflets are deve- 
loped at the same point at the end of 
the petiole. Tiie term is synonjTnous 
with conjugate. 

BI'FORINES,n. plur. [L. bis,a.nA forts, 
a door.] Minute oval sacs found in the 
interior of the green pulpy part of the 
leaves of some araceous plants. The 
sacs taper toward each end, where they 
are perforated, and within each there 
is a second sac or bag, filled with fine 
spiculas, the space between the two 
bags being filled with a transparent 
fluid. When the biforine is placed in 
water, it discharges its spiculae first 
from one end, and then 
from the other, until 
it becomes empty. 
The use and origin of 
these bodies are un- 

BIG, V. t. To build. 
[Scotch.] _, '- - '^ 

BI'GA, n. [L.] A cha- -~ 

riot or car drawn by 
two horses. 

BIGAS TER, a. [L. 
bis, and Gr. yuinrt^, 
belly.] Two-bellied; 
a term appUed to mus- 
cles, and synonymous 
with biventer and di' 

BlGEN'TIAL, a. (L. 
bis, and gens, nation, 
tribe.] Comprising two tribes of peo- 
ple. [American.] 

BIG'GIT, i)p. Built. [Scotch.] 

BIG'GONET, ) n. A large hood or cap 
BIG'GON, ; with ears, like those 

Blgf;onet, from the Roy&l MS. Brit Moseum. 

worn by nuns, and particularly by the 
BIGNO'NIA, n. A genus of plants of 
many species, inhabitants of hot cli- 
mates, nat. order Bignoniacea;. The 
species are usually climbing shrubs, 
furnished with tendrils ; the flowers 
are mostly in terminal or axillary 
panicles; the corollas are trumpet- 
shaped, hence the name of trumpet- 
flower has been given to tliese plants. 
All the species are splendid plants when 
in blossom. B. fcquinoxialis, a native 
of Guiana, is applied by the negroes to 
swellings of the feet ; B. leucoxylon, a 
native of Jamaica, is a tree, the wood 
of which is said to be an antidote to 
the poison of manchineel; the wood of 
B. chica yields a red colouring matter, 
with which the Indians paint their 
bodies ; B. radicans, or Tecoma radi- 
cans, is a well-known much admired 
species, capable of living in the open 
air in this country against a wall. 
BIG-WIGS, n. A cunt name for great 
people, or people of consequence. Ap- 
plied especially to judges, from their 
large wigs. 

BYKE i "• '^ ^^^ bee's nest. [Scotch.] 
BIKH, or BISH, n. The name given by 
the natives of Nepaul to a poison con- 
tained in the root of the Aconitumferox. 
It is most virulent, and was used by the 
inhabitants of Nepaul to poison their 
wells when the British invaded them. 
BILA'LO, or GUILA'LA, n. A two- 
masted passenger-boat, about sixty, 


five feet long and ten feet broad, pe- 
culiar to the bay of Manilla, combining 
local arrangements with Eui'opean 




forms. Behind the mainmast is a 
large cabin. It carries also an outrig- 
ger for use when it blows fresh. 
BILAM'ELLATED, a. Same as Bila- 


BtLD'ER.t n. A builder. [Chaucer.'] 


BILGE'-KEELS, ) n. Pieces of tim- 

BILGE'-PIECES,) ber fastened edge- 
ways to the bottom of a ship, for the 
double purpose of keeping her from 
rolling heavily, and from drifting to 

BILGE'-PLANKS, n. Thick planks 
which run round the bilge of a ship, 
both inside and outside. 

BILGE'-WAYS, n. In ship-building, 
planks of timber placed under a ves- 
sel's bilge on the building-slip to sup- 
port her while launching. They are 
also termed iaunching-wai/s. 

Malayan name of a species of acid fruit 
belonging to the genus Averrhoa, used 
in pickles. 

BI'LINE, n. The name given by Berze- 
lius to what he conceived to be the 
constituent principle of bile, but which 
is found to be nothing more nor less 
than either pure bile or choleic acid. 

BILIN'GDAL, \a. [&e Bilixguous.] 

BILIN'GUAK, f Containing two lan- 
guages ; as, a bilimual inscription. 

BLLIN'GUIST, n. One who speaks two 

BILiVEK'DINE, n. \n ingredient in 
the bUe. It is the principal constituent 
of the yellow matter forming the con- 
cretions found in the ox, and much 
prized by painters. 

BILK, n. A cheat ; a trick. [Rar. us.] 

BILL, n. [add.] Bill of sight, a form of 
entry at the custom-house, by which 
goods, respecting which the importer 
is not possessed of full information, may 
be prorisionally landed for examina- 
tion. — Bill of health, a certificate from 
the proper authorities as to the state of 
health of a ship's company at the time 
of her leaving port. — Bill of credit, a 
bill or note for raising money on the 
mere credit of a state. — Bill in Parlia- 
ment, [add.] Bills are either public or 
private. A public bill is one which 
relates to the public generally, or to 
the kingdom at large ; a private bill is 
one which directly relates to the con- 
cerns of private individuals, or bodies 
of indiriduals, and not to matters of 
state, or to the community in general. 
Money-bills, that is, bills for raising 
money by any species of ta.\ation, must 
always be brought first into the House 
of Commons, but bills of every other 
kind may originate in either House. — 
Bills of mortality, returns of the deaths 
which occur within a particular district, 
specifying the numbers that died of 
each different disease, and showing in 
decennial or shorter periods the ages 
at which death took place. \_See Mor- 


BILL,+ n. A letter ; a billet. [Chaucer.] 
BILLARDIE'RA,n. A genus of plants, 
uat. order Pittosporaceie. The species 
are called apple-berries ; they are climb- 
ing shrubs, natives of New Holland and 
Van Diemen's Land. They bear edible 
BILL'-BOARDS, n. Pieces of timber 
fixed between the projecting planks 
of the bow of a vessel, and also pieces 
fixed to the bulwarks, serving to guide 
the bill of the anchor past those pro- 
jecting planks. 

BILL'-BOOK, n. A book in which a 
person keeps an account of his bills, 
bills of exchange, &c., thus showing all 
that he issues and receives. 

BLLL'-BROlvER, n. An exchange- 
broker. [See Brokeb] 

BILL'-CHAMBER, n. X department 
of the Court of Session in Scotland, in 
which one of the judges officiates at all 
times during session and vacation. All 
proceedings for summary remedies, or 
for protection against impending pro- 
ceedings, commence in the bill-cham- 
ber, such as interdicts. The process of 
sequestration or bankruptcy issues from 
this department of the court. 

BILLED, a. Furnished with a bill. 

BIL'LET-UEAD, h. A round piece of 
timber fixed in the bow or stern of a 
whaling-boat, round which the line is 
run out when the whale daits off after 
being harpooned. 

BILL'-FISH, n. A fish of considerable 
size, found in the great lakes of North 

BIL'LING, n. The act of joining bills, 
or of caressing. 

BILLINGSGATE, n. [From a market 
of this name in London, celebrated for 
fish and foul language.] Foul lan- 
guage; ribaldry. 

BILL'-M.\N, n. One who uses a bill or 
hooked axe ; formerly applied to a 
soldier armed with a bill. 

BIL'LOT, H. Gold or sUver bullion in 
the mass ijrevious to being coined. 

BIL'LOW.t ". '• To raise in waves or 

BILL'-STICKER,n. One who posts up 
bills or advertisements in public places. 

BIL'LY, ) 71. A companion ; a comrade ; 

BILTiIE, ) a term expressive of affec- 
tion and familiarity; a lover; a bro- 
ther; a young man. [iSVofcA.] 

BIL'LY - BITER, n. A famiUar name 
given to the pretty blue titmouse (Parus 

BI-AIAC'ULATE, a. instead of BI- 

BIMA€'UL.\TED, a. Same as Bima- 


BIOIANE, a. [See Bimanous.] Having 
two hands. 
BniENE'.t V. t. (bimen'.) To bemoan. 


BlMES'TRIAL,a. [L. iiinesirtj.] Hap- 
pening every two months ; continuing 
two months. 

BIN, for Bisus, as a prefix, is synony- 
mous with Bi. 

BIN, n. [add.] .\ large chest or wooden 
erection for containing a ship's stores. 

BI'NARY, a. [add.] Binary compound, 
in chem., a compound of two elements, 
or of an element and a compound per- 
forming the function of an element, 
or of two compoimds performing the 
function of elements, according to the 
laws of combination. — Binary star, a 
double star, whose members have a 
revolution round their common centre 
of gravity. — Binary logarithms, a sys- 
tem of logarithms contrived and calcu- 
lated by Euler for facilitating musical 
calculations. In this system, 1 is the 
logarithm of 2, 2 of 4, &c., and the 
modulus is 1*442C95; whereas in the 
kind commonly used, 1 is the logarithm 
of 10, 2 of 100, &c., and the modulus 
is ■43429M8. 

BIND, 11. In drinhing, as much liquor as 
one can carry under his band or girdle. 

BIND'INGS, n. plur. In shipbuilding 
the beams, transoms, knees, wales, keel- 
son, and other chief timbers used for 

connecting and strengthening the vari- 
ous parts of a vessel. 

BINK, n. A bench; a bank; acclivity. 

BINN, ) n. A heap of unthrashed corn. 

BING,i [5eo<eA.] 

BIN'NA. Be not. [Scotch.] 

BINO€'IILUS,n. [aid.]In««r.,aband- 
age for securing the dressings on both 

BINOMIAL, a. [add.] Binomial equa- 
tion, an algebraical equation consfsting 
of two terms; as, ax" -\~ bx"' = o. 

BINO'MIAL, n. In alge., a quantity 
consisting of two terms connected to- 
gether by the sign plus or minus. [See 
the Adjective.] 

BINOX'ALATE, n. In chem., an oxa- 
late in which there are two equivalents 
of the acid to one of the base ; as, bin- 
oxalate of potash. 

BINOX'IDE, n. In chem., deutoxide, 
— which see. 

BINT, for BisDETH. [Chaucer.] 

BINT'^\TiONGS, n. plur. Carnivorons 
mammalia of the genus Ictides, found 
in India. They are allied to and some- 
what resemble the raccoon. 

BIOTHTTCM, n. X genus of plants, 
nat order Oxalidacese. B. sensilivum 
is a very pretty Chinese annual, with 
rich yellow flowers. The pods open 
when touched. 

BI'OTINE, ) n. [From Biot, a French 

BIOTI'NA, ) naturalist.] A variety 
of anorthite, found among the volcanic 
debris of Vesuvius. [See Axorthite.] 


BIPELTA'TA, n. A famUy of crusta- 
ceans, belonging to the order Stoma- 
poda, in which the shell is divided into 
two shields, the anterior of which is 
very large, more or less oval, compos- 
ing the head; and the second, corre- 
sponding ^nth the thorax, is transverse 
and angulated in its outline, and bears 
the foot, jaws, and the ordinary feet. 
There is but one genns (Phyllosoma), 
containing the elegant transparent glass- 
crabs, several species of which are in- 
habitants of the Atlantic and Eastern 
oceans, while one is occa- 
Ajiy\ sionally met with in the 

/ \ Mediterranean. 

\y«4_«. / BIPEN'NIS, 7!. [L.] An axe 
1 g V nith two blades, or heads, 
one on each side of the 
handle. It is the weapon 
usually seen depicted in the 
hands of the Amazons. 
BI'PES, instead of BI'- 

BIPET'ALOUS, a. [L. bis, and Gr. 
irimXsi, a petal.] Having two petals. 

BlPIN'NATED,a. SameasBipiNNATE. 


BI'PONT, ) a. In bibliography, re- 

BIPONT INE,5 lating to editions of 
the classic authors, printed at Deux 
Fonts [L. Bipontium], Germany. 

BIQU.\D'R-A.TE,insteadofBI QO^D- 

BIRCH-BROOM, n. A broom made 
of birch. 

BIRD'-CHERR Y, n. [add] The Prunus 
padus, Linn., and the Cerasus padus, 
De Candolle. 

BIRDE, for Bride. [Chaucer.] 

BIRD-EYED,a. Having eyes like those 
of a bird ; quick-sighted. 

BIRD-FANCIER, n. One who takes 
pleasure in rearing birds. — 2. One who 
keeps for sale the various kinds of 
birds which are kept in cages. 




BIRD OF PARADISE. See Bird, v. i. 

BIRDS, n. [See Bird.] Naturalists 
have arranged birds in various orders, 
founded chiefly on the organs of man- 
ducation and of prehension. The fol- 
lowing is Cuvier's arrangement: — 1. 
Accipifres, or birds of prey. 2. Pas- 
seresy or passerine birds. 3. Scansores, 
or climbers. 4. GaUin<Sj or gallina- 
ceous birds. 5. GrallcB, or waders. 
6. Palmipedes, or web-footed birds. 
Each of these orders is subdivided into 
families and genera, principally accord- 
ing tQ the formation of the beak. La- 
tham, lUJger, Viellot, Temmincb, Vi- 
gors, Latreiile, and other ornithologists, 
have adopted systems of arrangement 
differing in several respects from that 
of Cuvier. The arrangement adopted 
by Linnaeus is given under Avis. 

BIRD'S-EYE, «. The eye of a bird ; a 
plant; a species of primrose, or wild 

BIRD"S-E?E VIEW. See Bird-Eye. 

BIRD'S-FOOT, n. [add.] In hot. [See 

In hot. \See Lotus.] 

BIRD'-SPIDEK, n. A species of spider. 
The Mygale avicularia, and otlier spe- 
cies of the genus Mygale, were at one 
time believed to catch birds, and hence 
received this name. 

BIRK, n. Bh-ch. [Scotch.'] 

BIRK'EN, a. Birchen. [Scotch.] 

BIRK'IE, 71. A child's game at cards ; a 
lively young fellow. [Scotch.'] 

BIR'LING, ppr. Drinking ; administer- 
ing liquor; making a grumbling noise, 
like an old-fashioned spinning-wheel, 
or hand-mill in motion. [Scotch.] 

BIR'LY-MAN, n. The petty officer of a 
burgh of barony. [Scotch.] 

BIRN, n. A burden. — Skin an^ biim, the 
whole of anything. [Scutch.] 

BIR'RUS, n. [Li.] A coarse species of 
thick woollen cloth, used by the poorer 
classes in the middle ages, for cloaks, 
and external clothing. — Birnis was also 
a name for a woollen cap, or hood, worn 
over the shoulder, or over the head, as 
a cowl. 

BIRSE, n. Bristles. — To set up one's 
birse, to rouse him to his mettle; to 
put him in a towering passion. 

BIRTH'DAY, a. Relating to the day 
of one's birth ; as, birthday festivities. 

BIRTH'-HOUR'S BLOT, n. A cor- 
poral blemish. [Shah.] 
BIRTH'-SIN, n. Original sin. 
BIS'CUIT, 71. [add.] In sculp., a species 
of unglazed porcelain, in which groups 
and figures are formed in miniature. 
BISE'RIAL, a. Arranged in two series 
or rows ; bifarious. 
BISH'OP, n. [add.] Bishops in partibus 
{irifidelium), in the church of Rome, 
bishops who have no actual see, but 
who are consecrated as if they had, 
under the fiction that they are bishops 
in succession to those who were the 
actual bishops in cities where Chris- 
tianity is extinct; as in Syria, Asia 
Minor, Greece, and the northern coast 
of Asia. The term is applied to thoso 
missionaries sent forth by the pope as 
bishops into a country imperfectly 
Christianized, and where the converts 
are not brouglit into any regular church 
order. Such missionaries are not con- 
secrated as bishops of the country in 
which their services are required, but 
as bishops of some of the extinct sees. 
— Boy-bishoj), in former times, a boy 
elected a bishop on St. Nicholas'-day, 

in the cathedral and other greater 
churches. He was usually one of the 
children of the choir, and was invested 
with the robes and other insignia of the 
episcopal office, and he continued from 
St. Nicholas'-day to the feast of the 
Holy Innocents to practise a kind of 
mimicry of the ceremonies in which 
the bishop usually officiated. 

BISH'OP'S-€OURT, n. lx\ England, 
an ecclesiastical com't held in the ca- 
thedral of each diocese, the judge 
whereof is the bishop's chancellor, who 
judges by the civil canon law. 

BISH'OFS-LENGTH, 7z. In painting, 
canvas measuring 58 inches by 94. The 
half-bisliop measures 45 inches by 5Q. 

BISIL'IQUOUS, a. Having seed in two 

BISMARE',t n. [Sax.] Abusive speech. 

BISMIL'LAH, ) In the name of God! 

BIZMEL'LAH,} [Turkish.] An ad- 
juration or exclamation common with 
the devout, or pretendedly devout, in 

BIS'MUTH, n. [add.] Butter of bismuth, 
the chloride of bismutli. / 

BIS'MUTH-GLAUCE, n. An ore of 
bismuth. — Prismatic bismuth- glance is 
a sulphuret of bismuth ; and acicular 
bismuth' glauce is the same as needle- 
ore, — which see. 

BISOG'NO, n. [It.] A person of low 
rank ; a beggar. 

BI'SON, instead of BISON. 

BISUL'€ATE,rt. [add.] In 2oo7., cloven- 
footed, or having two-hoofed digits. 

BIT, n. [add.] A name common to all 
those exchangeable boring tools for 
wood applied by means of the crank- 
formed handle known as the carpen- 
ter's brace. The similar tools used for 
metal, and applied by the drill-bow, 
ratchet, brace, lathe, or drilling-ma- 
chine, are termed drills or drill-bits. 
The distinction, however, is not uni- 
formly maintained; very frequently all 
those small revolving borers which 
admit of being exchanged in their 
holders or stocks, are included under 
the name of bits. The variety is, 
therefore, very great, and the particu- 
lar names used to designate them are 
derived, in most cases, from their forms 
and the purposes for which they are 
employed. For wood, the typical form 
is the shell-bit (fig. a), which is shaped 
like a gouge, with the piercing end 
sharpened to a semicircular edge for 
shearing the fibres round the circum- 
ference of the hole. When large, it is 
termed a gouge-bit, and when small, 
a quill-bit. Some- 
times the piercing 
end is drawn to a 
radial point, and it 
is then known as the 
spoon-hit — of which 
the cooper^s dowel- 
hit and the table or 
- , ' \ furniture bit are ex- 

r l^'^'l amples. Occasion- 

yj V t;' V ^^^y ^^^ ^"^^ '^ ^^^^ 

into a semicircular 
form horizontally, 
and it then becomes 
The centre-bit (fig. 
6), is another typical form, of which 
there are many modifications. The 
end is flat, and provided with a centre- 
point or pin, filed triangularly, and 
which serves as a guide for position; 
a shearing edge or nicker serving to 
cut the fibres round the margin of 
the hole, and a broad chisel-edge or 


the duck-nose bit. 

cutter to pare away and remove the 
wood within the circle defined by the 
nicker. The plug-centre bit, used 
chiefly for making countersinks for 
cylinder-headed screws; the button- 
tool, which retains only the centre- 
pin and nicker, and is used for cutting 
out discs of leather and the like; the 
Jfule-drillj the cup-key tool, the wine- 
cooper's bit, are all modifications of 
this borer, suited to special kinds of 
work. The half-round bit (fig. c), is 
employed for enlarging holes in metal, 
and is usually 
fixed in the lathe 
or vertically. 

The cutting end 
is ground with 
an incline to tiie 
right angle, both 
horizontally and 
three to six de- 
grees, according 
to the hai'dness 
of the material 
to be bored. The 
rose-hit (fig. d) is cylindiical, and ter- 
minates in a truncated cone, the 
oblique siu-face of which is cut into 
teeth like the rose- countersink, of 
which it is a modification. It is also 
used for enlarging holes of con- 
siderable depth in metals and hard- 

BIT, n. In the southern states of 
America, &c., a silver coin of the 
value of one-tighth of a dollar, is 
railed a bit. 

BIT, 71. A small space ; a spot. 

BIT, for BiDDExn. [Chaucer.] 
BIT, a. Used as a diminutive; as, a bit 
burn^ a small rivulet ; a bit lassoch, a 
little girl. [Scotch.] 
BITE, V. t. [add.] To bite in, to corrode 
copper or steel plates ; as by nitric 
acid. — To bite the thumb at a person, 
was formerly a mark of contempt, de- 
signed to provoke a quarrel. 
BITE, n. [add.] In letter-press printi7tg, 
that part of the impression which is 
improperly printed, owing to the frisket 
not being sufficiently cut away. 
BITE, n. A bit.— Bite of bread, a mouth- 
ful of bread. [Scotch.] 
BlT'ING-IN, n. In engraving, a term 
used to describe the action of the aqua- 
fortis upon the copper or steel, on those 
parts from which the etching ground is 
removed by the graver and other 
BIT'-MAICER, n. One who makes bits. 
BIT NO'BEN, n. Instead of khola mi- 
muc, read khala nimuk. 
BlT'ORE,t n. [Fr.] A bittern. [Chau- 
BlTRENT',t PP- [Sax.] Twisted; car- 
ried round. [Chaucer.] 
BITS, n. plur. In ships. [See Bitts.] 

lus amara. 
BIT'TER-ASH, n. A tree ; called also 

BITTER-BEAN, n. A deleterious or 
poisonous nut. 
BIT'TER-€U€UMBER, n. The same 
as Bitter-Gourd. 
BITTER -DAMSON, n. A tree, a 
species of quassia. 

BITTER-EARTH, n. Talc earth; cal- 
cined magnesia. 
BIT TERFUL,t a. Full of bitterness. 
BIT'TERING, n. A preparation used 
by brewers to adulterate beer. [See 
Bittern in this Supp.] 




BITTERX, n. [add.] A very bitter 
compound of quassia, cocculus-indicus, 
liquorice, tobacco, &c., used by fraudu- 
lent brewers in adulterating beer. It 
is also called biftering. 

BITTER-OAK, n. A plant, the Quer- 
C'l! cerris. 

BIT'TLE, ) n. A wooden bat for beat- 

BEE'TLE,) ina of linen. [5co(cA.] 

BIT'TOCK, n. [Dimin.] A litUe bit; a 
short distance. 

BIT TUR.t n- A bittern. [SpcTwer.] 

best bituminous cements are obtained 
from natural asphalt, which is met 
with in large quantities on the shores 
of the Dead Sea ; in Albania ; in Trini- 
dad; at Lobsaun and Bekelbroun, 
in the department of the Bas-Rhin ; 
in the depaitment of Puy-de-D6me ; 
near Seyssel, in the department of Ain ; 
at Gaugeac, in the Landes; and would 
in all probability be found near Castle- 
ton, in Derbyshire, if carefully sought 
for. There are two sorts in commerce, 
the pure and the impure. The first 
does not contain extraneous matter in 
any great degree ; the second contains 
a variable proportion of carbonate of 
lime, and is therefore better adapted to 
such works as are exposed to the 
effects of the sun. The purer asphalt 
melts in such positions, but is better 
for subterranean works. In commerce 
much fraud takes place by mixing coal- 
tar and pitch; but these materials, 
though very valuable by themselves, 
destroy the superior qualities of the 
mineral asphalts. — [G. R. Bntnell.] 

same as Bituminous Cemext, — which 
see in this Supp. 

BiTusiixous Shale, — tchich see. 

impregnated with petrolevun, naphtha, 
&c. In Persia, there are numerous 
springs of almost pure petroleum. 

BrVALVED, a. Having two valves. 

BIVOUAC, n. [add.] The system by 
which soldiers on a march, or in ex- 
pectation of an engagement, remain all 
night in the open air, in contradistinc- 
tion to the systems of encampment and 
cantonment. This is the present sig- 
nitication of the term. 

BIVOUAC, t>. t. [add.] To remain all 
night in the open air without tents or 
covering, as an army on march, or in 
expectation of an engagement. 

BIWOF'EN,t pp. from Beicepe. 
Drowned in tears. [Cftaucer.] 

BLACK, n. [add.] A scoundrel. A 
Latin use of the word. 

BLACK'AVICED,) a.Darkcom- 

BLACK'AVISED,) plexioned. 

BLACK'-BALL, n. [add.] A ball of a 
black colour, used as a negative in 

kind of beer manufactured at Dantzie. 
It is of a black colour, of a sjTupy con- 
sistence, and is much prized. 

BLACK'-BRYONY", n. A plant of the 
genus Tamus, the T. communis. [See 

BLACK'-CANHvER, n. A disease in 
turnips and other crops, produced by 
a species of caterpillar, 

BLACK'-€OAT, n. A common and fa- 
miliar name for a clergyman ; i^ 7'ed' 
coat is for a soldier. 

BLACK'-CURRANT, n. A well- 
known garden-plant and its fruit, of 
the genus Ribes, the R. nigrum. 

BLACK'-DAT, n. A day of gloom and 

BLACK'-DEATH, n. The name given 
to an Oriental plague which occurred 
in the 1-ith centiu-y, characterized by 
inflammatory boils and black spots of 
the skin, ind[icating putrid decomposi- 

BLACK'- DISEASE, n. The black 
plague or pestilence, the Morbus niger 
of the Latin WTiters. 

BLACK'-DRAUGHT, n. A popular 
purgative medicine, consisting of the 
infusion of senna with sulphate of mag- 

BLACR'-DROP, n. A liquid prepara- 
tion of opium in vinegar, sold as a nos- 
trimi, and known also under the names 
of Lancaster, and Quaker's black-drops. 

BLACK-DYE, n. A compound of oxide 
of iron with gallic acid and tannin. 

BLACK'ET, pp. or a. Blackened. 

BLACK-EXTRACT, n. A preparation 
from cocculus-indicus, imparting an in- 
toxicating quality to beer. 

BLACK'EY, n. A black person; a negro. 

BLACK'-FISH, n. [add.] The tantog or 
Lahrus Americanus ; also, a small kind 
of whale about twenty feet long, — In 
Scotland, fish newly spawned are called 
blach or foul fish, and the practice of 
taking salmon in the rivers, when they 
newly come up to spawn, is called 

BLACk-FISH'ERS, n. Poachers who 
kill salmon in close time. [5cofcA.] 

BLACK-FLEA, n. An insect of the 
beetle tribe, injurious to turnips ; the 
Haltica nemorum of naturalists. 

BLACK'-GAME, n. A species of grouse. 
[See Black-Cock and Gbouse.] 

BLACK'-GUARD, v. t. To revile in 
scurrilous language. [ Vulgar.] 

BLACK'-GUARD, a. Scurrilous; abu- 
sive ; low; vile. 

BLACK'-GUM, n. An American tree of 
the genus Nyssa, which bears a deep 
blue berry. The wood is sohd, and not 
apt to split, and hence is used for naves 
and in ship-building. It is also called 
velloic-gum and sour-gum. 

BLACK' -HAIRED, a. Having black 

BLACKING, n. [add] The name given 
by founders to a black-wash, composed 
of clay, water, and powdered charcoal, 
with which cores and loam-moulds are 
coated, to give the requisite smoothness 
to the surfaces which come into contact 
with the melted metal. 

BLACK'-IRON, n. Malleable iron, in 
contradistinction to iron which is 
tinned, called white-iron. 

BLACK'-LEG, n. A notorious gambler 
or cheat. 

BLACK-LETTER, a. Written or 
printed in black-letter; as, a black- 
letter manuscript or book. 

BLACK-MARTIN, n. A bu-d of the 
swallow tribe, the Ci/pselus apus ; also 
known bv the name of the swift. 

BLACK-MATCH, n. A pjTotechnical 
match or sponge. 

BLACK-NAPHTHA, n. Petroleum or 

BLACK'-NEBS, n. Democrats; factions 
discontented revilers. 

BLACK-PIGMENT, n. A fine, light, 
carbonaceous substance, or lamp-black, 
prepared chiefly for the manufacture 
of printer's ii.k. By a recent process, 
it is obtained by burning common coal- 

BLACK' - PUDDING, n. A kind of 

sausage made of blood and suet (un- 


rendered tallow), and boiled; blood- 

And fut iJael-pudJhi/js. proper food 
lor narriors tliat delight iu blood. 


BLACK'-KOD, n. [add.] This officUl 
is styled Gentleman-usher of the Black 
Rod, and his deputy is styled the Y'eo- 
man-usher. They are the official mes- 
sengers of the House of Lords; and 
either the gentleman or the yeoman- 
usher simimons the Commons to the 
House of Lords w hen the royal assent 
is given to bills; and also executes 
orders for the commitment of parties 
guilty of breach of privilege and con- 

BLACK'-RUST, n. A disease of wheat, 
in which a black moist matter is de- 
posited in the fissure of the grain. 

BLACK'-SALTS, n. In America, wood- 
ashes after they have been lixiviated, 
and the solution evaporated, until the 
mass has become black. 

BLACK'-SALT'WORT, n. A British 
plant of the genus Glaux, the G. mari- 
tima, called also sea-milkwort. [See 

BLACK- SIL'YER, n. A mineral, 
called also brittle silver-ore, consisting 
of silver, antimonv, and sulphur. 

BLACK'-SNAKE, n. [add.] The black- 
snake of Jamaica is the A^atrir atra. 
Though not poisonous, its bite is very 
severe ; it feeds chiefly on lizards. 

BLACK'-SPAUL, n. A disease inci- 
dent to young cattle, especially calves, 
called also black-leg, and black-quarter. 
It is indicated by lameness in the fore- 
foot {spaul or leg), and gives a black 
hue to the flesh. 

A solution of isinglass, with some 
tincture of benjamin, brushed over 
black sarsenet. 

BLACK'-TURTETH, n. The protox- 
ide of mercury, commonly called the 
grav, ash, or black oxide, 

BLACK'-TWITCH, n, A noxious 
weed in wet grounds, [See Twitch- 

Melanorrh(Ea usitatissima, an East In- 
dian tree, which, when wounded, yields 
a black varnish, called Theet-see or 
Kheu. It is extremely dangerotis, as 
the skin, when rubbed with it, inflames, 
and becomes covered with pimples, 
which are difficult to heal. 

BLACK'-VO.MIT, n. Melar.a eruenta, 
a discharge from the stomach of sub- 
stances of a black appearance, as in 
vellow fever, li'c. 

BLACK'-WALNUT, n. The Juglans 
nigra, an American tree, the wood of 
which is of a dark coloiu", forming a 
beautiful material for cabinet-work, 

BLACK'-WARD, n. A sub- vassal who 
held ward of the king's vassaL 

BLACK-WATCH, n. The designation 
given to the companies of loyal High- 
landers raised after the rebellion in 
Scotland in 1715, for preserving peace 
in the Highlands. They were so named 
from their dark tartan habiliments. 
The black watch formed the nucleus 
of the •t2d resiment. 

BLACK'Y'-TOP, n. A local name given 
to the stone-chat (Saxicola rubicola), 
from the black head and throat of the 
male bird. 

BLAD DER, r. t. To puff up; to fill 
with wind. [Rar. us.] 

BL.AD'DER-ANGLING, n. Fishing 
by means of a baited hook attached to 
an inflated bladder. The sudden rising 




of the bladder, after it has been pulled 
under water, never fails to strike the 
fish as effectually as the spring of a rod. 
BLAD'DEK-FERN, n. Cystea, or Cy- 
stopteris, a genus of cryptogamian 
plants, nat. order Polypodiaceie ; so 
named from the blad3er-lilce form of 
the capsules. There are several British 

BLAD'DER-GREEN, n. A green pig- 
ment prepared from the ripe berries of 
the buckthorn {Rhamnus catkarticus), 
mi.xed with gum-arabic and lime-water. 
BLAD'DEK-lvELP, n. Another name 
for bladder-wrack. 

BLAD'DER-TREE, n. A handsome 
American shrub of thegenus Staphylea, 
the S. trifolia, called also three-leaved 
bladder-nut. [See Staputlea.] 
BLAD'DER-WORT, n. Utricularia, a 
genus of plants. [See Utkicularia.] 
BLAD'DER-WKACK, n. A sea- weed, 
the pucits vesiculosusy called also sea- 
oak and sea-wrack. [See Fucus.] 
BLAD'DEEV - FEVER, n. Vesicular 
fever, in which the skin is covered witii 
BLADE'-FISH, n. An acanthoptery- 
gious fish of the genus Lepturus ; so 
called from its flatness and resem- 
blance to a sword-blade. It is occa- 
sionally found oif our coasts. 
BLaDE'-METAL, 71. Metal for sword- 

BLAEBERRY, n. In Scotland, the 
name given to a plant and its fruit, of 
the genus Vaccinium, the V. myrtiUus, 
which grows on heaths and in woods. 
[See Vaccinium.] 
BLANCH, V. I. [add.] In gardening, to 
whiten, by excluding the light, as the 
stalks or leaves of plants, by earthing 
them up, or tying them together. 
BLANCH'-FARM, ) 71. A kind of quit- 
BLANCH'-FEKM,) rent; rent paid 
in silver. [See under Blanching.] 
BLANCH'-FIRM, n. [Fr. bla7ichir, and 
law Lat. firma, rent.] White -rent; 
rent paid in silver, not in grain or 
BLANCH'-HOLDING. [See under 

ELANCH'ING, n. [add.] In garde7nng, 
the process of whitening the stalks and 
leaves of plants. [See the Verb in this 
tion of chloride of lime used for bleach- 
BLANCK.t a. [See Blank.] Con- 
founded; out of countenance. [Spen- 
BLANCK'ED,t pp. Confounded or 
disappointed. [Spenser.] 
BLANC-MANGE, n. (blomonje'.) [Fr.] 
Same as Blanc-Mangkr. 
BLANDFORD'IA, n. A genus of 
beautiful plants, natives of New South 
Wales. Nat. order Liliacese. 
BLAN'DISE,t «. t. To blandish; to 
flatter. [Cha.neer.'] 
BLANK' -BAR. \a law. [See under 
Blank, n.] 
BLANK'-€AR'TRIDGE, n. A cart- 
ridge filled with powder, but having no 

BLANK'-DOOR, ) n. A sinking 

BLANK'-WINDOW, S i" a wall, 

either in the exterior or interior of a 

building, finished with dressings like a 

door or window. 

BLANK'-VERSE, n. Any verse with- 
out rhyme ; applied particularly to the 
heroic verse of five feet without rhyme ; 
such as that adopted in dramatic poetry, 
and in Milton's Paradise Lost. 
I. — Supr. 

BLANQUETTE', n. (blanket'.) [Fr.] 
In cookery, a white fricassee. 
BLaR'NEY, n. A marvellous narration; 
gross flattery ; smooth, deceitful talk ; 
unmeaning or vexatious discourse. 
BLAS'PHEMY, n. [add.] Etymologi- 
cally, this term denotes speaking so as 
to hurt ; using, to a person's face, re- 
proachful, insulting, and injurious lan- 
guage, calumny, reviling, &c. In this 
general way it is used by Greek writers, 
and also in the New Testament. — In 
the modern and restricted sense, blas- 
2>lw77t!/ signifies the use of insulting or 
derogatory, or unbelieving language, 
with respect to God and divine things; 
and the kind of blasphemy cognizable 
by the law of England is described by 
Blackstone to be " denying the being 
or providence of God, contumelious re- 
proaches of oiu" Saviom- Christ, profane 
scoffing at the Holy Scripture, or ex- 
posing it to contempt and ridicule." 
The crime of blasphemy is punished 
by the laws of most civilized nations. 
In Roman Catholic countries, speaking 
disrespectfully of the Vbgin Mary 
and of the saints is held to be blas- 
BLAS'PHEMY, n. A blasphemous 

person. [Shah.] 
BLAST, n. [add.] A current of air di- 
rected on a furnace by bellows or by a 
blowing machine, for the purpose of 
quickening the combustion, and in- 
creasing the heat. — A flatulent disease 
in sheep. 

BLAST, V. i. To wither; to be blighted. 
BLAST, V. i. To pant; to breathe hard; 
to smoke tobacco ; to boast ; to speak 
in an ostentatious manner. [Scotch.] 
BLASTE'MA, n. [Gr. ^A«,rTa.i», to bud.] 
In hot., the axis of growth of an em- 
bryo ; the thallus of lichens. — In a/iat., 
the granular gelatinous basis of the 
ovum ; the rudimental mass of an or- 
gan in the state of formation. 
BLAST'ODERM, instead of BLAS- 

BLAST'-PIPE, n. The waste-pipe of 
a steam-engine; more especially a pipe 
in a locomotive steam-engine to carry 
the waste steam up the chimney, and 
to urge the fire, by creating a stronger 
current of air. In the figm'e, a a re- 
present in section the cylinders of a 


locomotive, from which the steam, 

after doing its duty, escapes by the 

blast-pipe b, into the chimney d; C is 

the smoke-box. 
BLAS'TUS, n. [Gr. /»Aa»7.,-, a shoot.] In 

bot., a term sometimes applied to the 

plumule of grasses. 
BLATTA, n. A genus of orthopterous 

insects, including the cocki'oachcs. 

BLAT'TER,t v. i. [add.] To raU or 
rage. [Spenser.] 

BL-iT'TID-iE, 71. In Diet. ,{ovhaherlce, 
read haherlac. 

BLAW, ti. i. To blow ; to breathe ; to 
publish ; to brag ; to boast. As a verb 
active, to flatter ; to coax. — To blaw ih 
one^s lug, to cajole ; to flatter a person. 
Hence, « blaiv-i7i-7nij-lug, is a name for 
a flatterer ; a parasite. [Scotch.] 

liLAW'ORT, ) n. A plant ; blne- 

BLAE'WORT, ) bottle, Ce7itaurea cy- 
anus, Linn. [Scotch.] 

BLAZE, n. [add.] In America, a white 
spot made on trees, by removing the 
bark with a hatchet. Such marks are 
often made on trees in dense forests, to 
enable a traveller to find his way, or to 
retrace his steps. 

BLAZE, V. i. [add.] To blaze avjay, to 
keep up a discharge of firearms. 

BLAZING OFF, h. Burning off the 
composition of oil, suet, wax, and other 
ingredients, with which saws andsprings 
are cooled in the process of harden- 

BLAZING-STAR, n. A plant, the 
Aletris fari7iosa, the root of which is 
greatly esteemed by the Indians, and 
people of the western states of Ame- 
rica, as a tonic and stomachic. 

BLA'ZON, V. i. To make a brilliant 
figure ; to shine. [Rar. us.] 

BLE,t ) 71. [Sax. bleoh.] Colour; hue. [Chaucer.] 

BLEA'BERRY, k. See Blaebeekv. 

BLEACU'FIELD, n. A field where 
cloth or yarn is bleached. 



BLEAK, 71. [add.] The bleak is the 
Leuciscus albumus ; the silvery scales 
of this species are used in the manu- 
facture of artificial pearls. 

BLEAR'LY, adv. In a bleak manner; 

BLEAR, n. Something that obscures 
the sight. — To blear otie's e'e, to blind 
by flattery. [Scotch.] 

BLEAR'-EYE, n. Lippitude ; a chronic 
catarrhal inflammation of the eyelids. 

BLE€H'NIJM, n. Hard-fern, a genua 
of plants. [See Hakd-Fekn.] 

BLEEZE, Ji. or i>. Blaze. [Sco(cA.] 

BLEINE.t ». (blein'.) [Sax.] A pustule. 

BLENCII'ER,t n. He or that whicli 

BLENCH'ES,! «. plur. Deviations. 

BLENCH'ING, ?)pr. For " checked; 
deadened," read, checking ; deadening ; 

BLENCH'ING, «- A shrmking back; 
a giving way. 

BLEND, ) ?!. [For " Ger. bh7iden, to 

BLENDE,) bind," read, Ger. blenden, 
to blind.] [add.] The term blende is 
most commonly used by mineralogists 
to denote an order of minerals, to which 
the following genera belong:— Man- 
ganese-blende, zinc-blende, antimony- 
blende, ruby-blende. 

Note. — "The word should be always 
written bletide, not blcTui. 

BLEND'ING, n. In painting, a process 
by which the fusion or melting of the 
pigments is eifected by means of a soft 
brush of fitch or badger's hair, called a 
blender or softener, which is passed over 
the little ridges ivith a soft feathery 

BLEN'NIUS, 71. The blenny, a genus of 

small acanthopterygious fishes, living 

in small shoals, and frequenting rocky 

coasts. They are distinguished by their 

7 B 




having the Tcntral fin placed before the 
pectoral, and containing generally but 
two rays. Their bodies are covered 
with a mucous secretion, the form is 
elongated and compressed, and there is 
but one dorsal tin. Several species fre- 
quent our coasts, as the B. Monlagui, or 
Jfontagu's blenny ; B. ocellaris, the 
ocellated blenny, or butterfly-fish ; B. 
galerita, the crested blenny ; B. pholis, 
the shanny. 

BLENT,t pp. of Blend. Confounded; 
blemished ; disgraced. [5'/>e?wer.] 

BLER'£D,"f"i>p. Bleared; imposed upon. 

BLEST,ti)i"rf. OTpp. ol Bless. Acquitted ; 
preserved. [5/>e7wer.] 

BLETH'ER, i'. i.and t. To speak in- 
distinctly ; to prattle ; to talk nonsensi- 
cally. [5co<c/i.] 

BLETH'ER, n. Nonsense; foolish talk. 
Often used in the plural. [Scotch.] 

BLETHER, n. A bladder. [Scotch.] 

BLE'TIA, 11. A genus of tnberous- 
rooted flowering plants, the species of 
which are natives of tropical climates. 
Nat. order Orchidacese. 

BLETS, n. plur. The spots formed on 
ripe fruits during the process of decom- 

BLETTING, n. [Fr. blet,bleHe, over- 
ripe, half-rotten.] A term adopted by 
Dr. Lindley to denote the peculiar 
spotted appearance exhibited by ripe 
fruits when, after being kept for some 
time, they undergo the process of de- 
composition, and are no longer fit for 
the ordinary uses of man. 

BLEVE,t V. t. [Sax.] To stay. [Chaucer.] 

BLIGHT, n. [add.] A name given to 
certain downy species of the aphis, or 
plant-louse, destructive to fruit-trees. — 
Also, a slight palsy, induced by sudden 
cold or damp, applied to one side of 
the face. 

BLIND, ». t. [add.] To hide ; to conceal. 

BLIND'AGE, ( n. A military building, 

BLIND, j of a temporary n.iture, 

consisting usually of stout timbers, to 
secure troops, stores, or artillery. In 
fortresses^ structures of this kind are 
employed to supply the place of regular 

BLIND-BEETLE, n. An insect; the 
cockchaffer is often so called from fly- 
ing against persons, as if it were blind. 

BLIND ER, K. He or that which blinds. 
— Blinders, expansions of the sides of 
the bridle of a horse, to prevent him 
from seeing on either side. They are 
also called blinhers and winkers. 

BLlNKjTi. A glance of the eye; glimpse; 
a twinkling. [5co?cA.J 

BLINK, V. t. To shut out of sight; to 
avoid or purposely evade ; as, to blink 
the question before the house. 

BLINK-BEER, n. Beer kept un- 
broached till it is sharp. 

BLINK'ING, ppr. [add.] Evading; 

BLINKS, n. In hunting, boughs broken 
dox^Ti from trees, and thrown in a way 
where deer are likely to pass, with the 
view of hindering their running, and of 
recovering them the better. 

BLISSE,t f. t. To bless. [Chaucer.] 

BLIST,+ prei. of Blisse. [Fr. blesser] 
AVounded. [5;»en.«er.] 

BLISTER-BEETLE, n. The blister- 
fly. [&e CAXTHiRis.] Species of Myla- 
bris are also used as blister-beetles, and 
are so called. 

ELIS TER-PLAS'TER, «. Aplasterof 
Spanish flies, designed to raise a blister. 

BLISTER-STEEL, n. Iron bars when 
converted into steel have their surface 

covered with blisters, probably from the 
expansion of minute bubbles of air. 
Steel is used in the blister state for 
welding to iron for certain pieces of 
mechanism, but is not employed for 
making edge-tools. It requires for this 
purpose to be converted into cast or 
shear steel. 

BLITUM, n. A genns of plants, nat. 
order Chenopodiacea;. B. capitatum, 
and B. vinjatum, and some others, are 
known by the name of strawberry-blite. 
The herb, Good-Henry, orChenopodium 
bonus Henriais, is by several placed in 
this genus. 

BLIVE,t ) adv. [Sax.] Quicklv. 

BELIVE'.tJ [Chaucer.] 

BLOAT'ER, n. A dried herring. [See 

BLOB, n. [From blabber.] A small 
lump; omething blunt and round; a 
bubble; a dew-drop. [Provincial.] 

BLOB'TALE, n. A teU-tale; a blabber. 

BLOCK, n. [add.] In America, a con- 
tinuous row of buildings; as, a block of 
houses. — The wooden mould on which 
a hat is formed. — Sig. 6. [add.] Blocks 
are sometimes made of iron, as well as 
of wood. Blocks, to which the name 
of dead-eyes has been given, are not 
pulhes, being unprovided with sheaves. 
Many of the blocks used in ships are 
named after the ropes or chains which 
are rove through them; as, bow-line 
block.<', clue-line and clue-garnet blocks. 
— Jewel-block, a block used for hoisting 
the studding-sails. — Sister-block, one 
for raising the topping-lifts and reef- 

BLOCK, r. t [adj.] To form into blocks. 

BLOCK'HEADISM, n. The quality of 
a blockhead. [A low word.] 

BLOCK'-HOUSE, n. A military edifice 
or fortress of one or more stories, so 
named because constructed chiefly of 
hewn timber. Block-houses are sup- 
plied with loopholes for musketry and 
with embrasures for cannon, and w*hen 
of several stories, the upper ones are 
made to overhang those below, and 
are furnished with machicolations or 
loopholes in the overhung floor, so that 
a perpendicular fire can be directed 

Bloc]i-liou£« ei^ttd in :-iO near Che Mobavk riwr, tj.3. 

against the enemy in close attack. 
The accompanying figure represents 
Fort-Plain block-house, erected dur- 
ing the American Revolution, near the ' 
Mohawk river, United States. When 
a block-house stands alone, it consti- 
tutes an independent fort, and is of 
great advantage in mountainous coun- 
tries ; when it is formed in the interior 
of a field-work, it becomes a retrench- 
ment or redoubt. Stockades are some- 
times called block-homes. 

BLOCKaNG, n. A small rough piece 
of wood fitted in and glued to the in- 
terior angle of two boards. [5ee Block- 

matic assemblage of machines for mak- 
ing the shells and sheaves of the wood 
blocks used for ship-tackle. 

BLOCK'-MaKER, n. One who makes 

BLOCK'-PRINTING, n. The act or art 
of printing from engraved blocks of 

BLONCK'ET,t a. Gray. — Bloncket- 
tiveries, gray coats. [5pen^er.] 

BLONDE, a. Of a fair colour or com- 

BLONT)E, n. [Fr.] A person of very 
fair complexion, with light hair, and 
light-blue eyes. — 2. Blond-lace. 

BLONT,tn. Blunt; stupid; unpolished. 

BLOOD, n. [add.] Natural disposition. 

BLOOD'-BAPTISM, n. In the ancient 
church, a term applied to the martyr- 
dom of those who had not been bap- 
tized. They were considered as bap- 
tized in blood, and this was regarded 
as a full substitute for literal baptism. 

BLOOD-BOLT ERED,+ a. [add.] 
Applied to one whose blood has issued 
out at many wounds, as flour of com 
passes through the holes of a sieve. 

BLOOD-BROTHER, n. Brother by 
blood or birth. 

BLOOD -LIKE, n. ResembUng blood. 



BLOOD-RELA'TION, n. One related 
bv blood or descent. 

BLOOD -SHOTTEN, a. Blood-shot. 

BLOOD'-SPIL'LER.n. One who sheds 

BLOOD'-STROKE, n. An instantane- 
ous and universal congestion, without 
anv escape of blood from the vessels. 

BLOOD -SWOLN, a. Suflused with 

BLOODY, a. [add.] Bloodi/ fire, a fire 
in the blood. [SAaA.] 

BLOOM,t r. '. [add.] To cover with 

BLOOM'ARY. See Blomakt. 

BLOOM'ING, n. A clouded appearance 
which varnish sometimes assumes upon 
the surface of a picture ; so called, be- 
cause it somewhat resembles the bloom 
on the surface of certain kinds of fruit, 
such as plums, grapes, &c. 

BLOSME,t 1. and v. i. (blosm.) Blos- 
som ; to blossom. [Chaucer.] 

BLOS'MY,t a. Full of blossoms. [Chau- 

BLOS'SOMED,t a. Covered with bios- 
soms ; in bloom ; as, blossomed beans. 

BLOUSE, n. [Fr.] A light loose gar- 
ment, resembhng a frock-coat, made of 
linen or cotton, and worn by men to 
protect from dust, or supply the want 
of a coat. 

BLOW, r. t. [add.] In low Ian., to turn 
informer on an accomplice. — To blow 
up, to scold or abuse either in speaking 
or writing. [Vulgar.] — To blow a 
horse, to put him out of breath, to 
cause him to blow from fatigue. 

BLOW, n. [add.] Blow-out, a feast ; on 
entertainment. [Colloq.y—Bloic-up, a 
quarrel; a dispute. [Colloq. -athA fami- 

BLOW, V. 1. [add.] To blow over, to 
pass away ; to subside ; as, the present 
disturbances will soon blow over. 

BLOW'-FLY, n. The Mitsca vomitoria, 
M. carvaria, and other species of dip- 




terous insects, which deposit their eggs 
or larva} on flesh, and thus taint it, are 
so called. 

BLOW-MlLK, n. Milk from which 
cream is blown off. 

BLOWN, pp. [add.] Out of breath; as, 
the horse was very much blown. — 
Blown upon, made common or stale ; 
as, a passage in an author not yet blown 

BLOW-OFF PIPE, 71. In steam-boilers, 
a pipe at the foot of the boiler, com- 
municating with the ashpit in land, 
and wtth the sea in marine boilers, and 
furnished with a cock, by opening which 
the steam forces the water and sedi- 
ment or brine out; the operation is 
called blowing-o^ff. 

BLOWSE. See Blouse in this Supp. 

BLOW- VALVE, n. The snifting-valve 
of a condensing engine. 

BLOWY, a. Windy; blowing. [Local.] 

BLUE, a. [add.] The blues (a contrac- 
tion for blue-devils), low spirits ; melan- 
choly. — To look blue, to be confounded 
or terrified. [Provincial.] — To look 
blue at one, to look at one with a coun- 
tenance expressive of displeasure or 
dissatisfaction. [Colloq.] 

BLUE, }i. One of the soven primary co- 
lours ; the colour of the sky. [6ce tiie 

BLUE'-BELL, n. A well-known, beau- 
tiful fljwering plant, the Campanula 
rotundifolia, with blue bell - shaped 

Where the blue-bell and gowan lurk lowly un- 
seen. Burns. 
[See cutm Diet. Hare-Bell.] 

BLUE'-BERKY, n. See Blaeberry. 

BLUE'-BLACK, n. Ivory-black, so 
called from its bluish hue; a colour 
resembling ivorv-black. 

BLUE'-BONNET, n. A familiar name 
given to the blue titmouse {Parus cce- 

BLUE'-BOOK, n. In the U?iited States, 
a book containing the names of all the 
persons in the employment of the go- 

BLUE-BUT'TERFLY, ». A name ap- 
plied to several species of butterflies of 
the genus Polyommatus; the upper 
side of the wings being often of a blue 

BLUE'-CAP,n. [add.] A species of small 
bird. [See Blue-Bonnet.] 

BLUE'-€AT, «. A Siberian cat, valued 
for its fur. 

BLCE'-COMPOUNDS, w. Chemical 
compounds employed as blue pigments 
or dyes ; as, Berlin blue, a sesquiferri- 
cyanide of iron ; Saxon blue, a sulphate 
of indigo ; blue verditer, an impure 
carbonate of copper; TirnbidVs blue, 
ferrocyanide of iron. 

BLUE €OPPER-ORE, w. The finely 
crystallized subcarbonate of copper. 

BLpE'-DEVILS, n. A cant phrase for 
dejection, hj^ochondria, or lowness of 

of the ancients ; a disease in which the 
complexion is tinged with blue or 
venous blood. 

BLtJE'-DYES, n. Indigo, Prussian blue, 
logwood, bilberry, elder- berries, mul- 
berries, privet-berries, and some other 
berries, whose juices become blue by 
the addition of a small portion of alkali, 
or of the salts of copper. 

BLUE'- JOHN, n. A namegiven to fluor- 
spar by the miners in Derbyshire. 

BLUE'-LIGHT,n. A composition which 
burns with a blue flame, used as a night- 
signal in ships. 

BLUE'-PETER, n. [A corruption of 
blue repeater.] In the British marine, a 
blue flag having a white square in the 
centre, used as a signal for sailing, to 
recal boats, &c. 

BLUE-PIG'MENTS, n. Prussian blue, 
mountain-blue, blue verditer, iron-blue, 
cobalt-blue, smalt, charcoal-blue, ultra- 
marine, indigo, litmus, &c. 

BLUE'-POT, n. A black-lead crucible. 

BLUE'-RUIN, n. A cant name for 
whisky, gin, &c. 

BLUE'-STOCKING, n. [add.] A lite- 
rary lady ; applied usually with the im- 
putation of pedantry. The term is de- 
rived from the name given to certain 
meetings held by ladies, in the days of 
Dr. Johnson, for conversation with dis- 
tinguished literary men. One of the 
most eminent of these literati was a Mr. 
Stillingfleet, who always wore blue 
stockings, and whose conversations on 
literary subjects at these meetings was 
so much prized, that his absence at any 
time was felt to be a great loss, so that 
the remark became common. " We can 
do nothing without the 6/«e stockings C 
hence these meetings were sportively 
called blue-stocking clubs, and the 
ladies who attend them, blue-stock- 

learning or pedantry. [Unauthorized.] 

BLUE'-WING, n. A genus of ducks is 
so called from the colour of its wing- 
coverts. One species {Cyanopterus dis- 
cors) is brought in great quantities to 
market in Jamaica, the fle^ being 
highly esteemed for its flavour. 

BLUID, n. Blood. [Scotch.] 

BLUMENBA'CHIA, n. A genus of 
ornamental plants, nat. order Loasa- 

BLUN'DER, I', t. To mix or confound 
foolishly; to utter in a blundering 
manner; as, to blunder out senseless 

BLUNK, n A name in Scotland, for 
calico, or cotton cloth manufactured 
for being printed. Hence blunher sig- 
nifies a calico-printer. 

BLUN'KER, n. A bungler; one that 
spoils everything he meddles with. 
[Scotch.] [See Blunk.] 

BLUNT'ISH, a. Somewhat blunt. 

BLYS'MUS, n. [Gr. ^Xw<^fju6?, source.] A 
genus of plants, nat. order Cyperaceie. 
Two species are found in Britain, viz., 
B. compressus, and B. rufus. They 
grow on boggy or marshy places, or by 
river-sides, especially near the sea. 

BO'A, n. An article of dress for the neck, 
made of fur, and worn by ladies ; so 
called from its resemblance to the ser- 
pent of the same name. 

BOARD, n. Sig. 4. [add.] A term ap- 
plied to certain persons in their collec- 
tive capacity, to whom is intrusted the 
management of some office or depart- 
ment, usually of a public or corporate 
character ; as, the Board of Admiralty, 
tiie Board of Customs, Board of Trade, 
Board of Taxes, &c. The same term 
is applied to designate those persons who 
are chosen to manage the operations of 
any joint-stock association, and who 
are styled the board of directors. The 
guardians of the poor in parishes are 
called the Board of Guardians, or Par- 
ochial Board. — In arch., a piece of tim- 
ber of undefined length, more than 
four inches in breadth, and not more 
than two inches and a-half in thick- 
ness. When boards are thinner on one 
edge than the other, they are called 
fcatker-edged boards. — Board-lear, or 

tear-hoard, the board upon which the 
lead work of a gutter is laid, to pre- 
vent it sinking between the rafters. 
Listed boards, boards which are re- 
duced in their width by taking off the 
sap from their sides. — Valley -hoards, 
those fixed on the valley -rafters, or 
pieces for the leaden gutters of the val- 
ley to rest on.— The boards or college- 
hoards in the English universities, are 
the official list of the members of the 
university. — To go by the board, in 
marine Ian., is for the mast of a ship 
to be broken off and thrown over the 
bord or side; hence used figuratively 
to denote a complete sweep or destruc- 
tion. A ship is said to make a stern 
board when, on either tack, she fetches 
stern-way instead of gaining ground. 

BOARD'ED, pp. [add.] Accosted. 
[Shah.] — Board ed-Jloors, floors covered 
with boards. 

BOARD'ING, n. The act of entering a 
ship by force in combat. — 2. The act 
of covering m'th boards, and also the 
covering itself. — 3. The same as 6oarrf; 
food ; diet. — Boarding-joists, those in 
naked flooring to which the joists are 
to be fixed. 

BOARD'ING-HOUSE, n. A house 
where board is fm-nished. 

of stout nettings put round a ship to 
prevent her being boarded. [See Net- 

BOAR'-FISH, 71. The Capros aper, an 
acanthopterygious fish, resembling the 
dory in its general outline, but it has no 
spines along the dorsal or anal fin. It 
has the power of extending and con- 
tracting its mouth at will. When ex- 
tended the mouth takes the form of a 
hog's snout, whence the name. 

BOAST, V. t. To threaten ; to endeavour 
to terrify or intimidate. [Scotch.] 

BOASTING, n. In masonry, the act of 
paring a stone with a broad cliisel and 
mallet, but not in uniform lines. — In 
carving, the thorough cutting round 
the ornaments, to reduce them to their 
contours and profiles before the in- 
cisions are made for forming the mi- 
nuter parts. 

BOAT, n. [add.] The boats belonging 
to a ship of war are the launch or long- 
boat, which is the largest, the barge, 
the pinnace, the yawl, cutters, the 
jolly-boat, and the gig. The boats be- 
longing to a merchant vessel are the 
launch, or long-boat, before mentioned, 
the skiff, the jolly-boat, or yawl, the 
stern-boat, the quarter-boat, and the 
captain's gig. 

BOAT'-FLY,n. An aquatic hemipterous 
insect, of the genus Notonecta. Tliese 
insects swim on theu" backs; and their 
hind-legs aptly enough resemble a pair 
of oars, the body representing a boat, 
hence the name. 

BuAT'-LIKE, «. Resembling a boat. 

BOAT'-SHELL, h. The name of the 
species of shells of the genus Cymba, 
belonging to the family Volutidie. 

BOATSWAIN, n. [add.] Pronounced 
bos^n by seamen. 

BOB, n. [add.] A short, jerking action; 
as, a bob of the liead. 

BOB, r. t. [add.] To move in a short, 
jerking manner; as, to bob one's head; 
to bob a coiu-tesy. 

BOB, n. A familiar name for a small 
wheel made entirely of a thick piece of 
bull-neck or sea-cow leather, perfo- 
rated for the reception of its spindle, 
and used in polishing the insides of the 
bowls of spoons and other articles. 




BOB'BED, pp. [add.] Moved short and 

BOBBERY, n. A squabble; a row. 
[CoUog. and i-utgar.] 

BOB'BIN, n. [add.l Round tape. 

BOBBINET', n. A kind of lace which 
is wrought by machines, and not by 

BOB'OLINK, n. [add] This bird is the 
Dolichonyx ort/zivoriis of naturalists. 
It is destructive to the growing crops 
in many parts of the United Stiites. 

BOB'ST.\y, n. A chain or a rope em- 
ployed to retain a vessel's bowsprit 
down towards the stem or cut-water, 
and counteract the upward strain of 
the stays. The bobstaij is attached to 
the stem of the vessel by iron plates, 
called bobstaij- plates, the upper end 
being fastened to the bowsprit by a 

BOB TAILED, a. [add] Having the 
tail cat short. 

BOB'TAIL-WIG, n. Same as Bob- 

BOC'CIUS'-LIGHT, n. Aform of gas- 
burner invented by 3Ir. Boccius. It 
consists of two concentric metal cylin- 
ders placed over the flame, within the 
usual lamp-glass, and between which 
the gas is emitted. 

BOCHE,t 1. (bosh.) [Fr. bosse.'\ A 
swelling ; a wen ; a boil. [Chaucer.^ 

BOD'ACH, H. [Gael.] An old man. 

BOD'DLE, n. See Bodle. 

BODE, n. AVhat is bidden; an offer 
made in order to a bargain. [5co(c7<.] 

BODE,f pp. from Bide. Remained. 

BODE.t ) IV- from Bede. Bidden ; 

BOD'E>f,t ) commanded. [Chaucer.'] 

BODE'KIN,t n. (bodkin.) A dagger. 


BOD'ILT, adv. [add.] In respect to the 
entire body or mass; entirely; com- 
pletely ; as, to carrv away bodihj. 

BOD'RAGS,t "■ plur. Bordragings ; 
incursions. [Speascr.] [See BoRn- 


BOD'Y, n. [add.] The material or- 
ganized substance of an animal, whether 
living or dead ; the main central part 
of an animal, in distinction from the 
head and extremities. 

BODY, r. t. [add.] To incarnate; to in- 
vest with a bodv. 

BOD'Y-€OLOURS, n. \ term applied 
in oil-painting to pigments, or to their 
vehicles, and expresses their degree of 
consistence, substance, and tinging 
power. — In water - colour paintinij, 
works are said to be executed in body- 
colours, when, in contradistinction to 
the early mode of proceeding in tints 
and washes, the pigments are laid on 
tiiickly, and mixed ivith white, as in 

BOD'Y-PL.A.N, n. In ship-building, an 
end view, showing the contour of the 
sides of the ship at certain points of 
her length. 

BOD'Y-POLITie, n. The collective 
body of a nation under civil govern- 

BODT-SNATCH'ER, n. One who 
secretly disinters the bodies of the dead 
in church-yards, for the purposes of 

BOD-Y-SX-VTCHING, n. The act of 
robbing of the grave, for the purposes 
of dissection. 

BOG-AS'PHODEL, n. A British plant 
of the nat. order Juncacese, and genus 
Narthecium, the N. ossifragum. It 
has sword - shaped leaves, handsome 

but small yellow flowers, and grows on 
wet heaths. [See Nartuecicm.] 

BOG'-BUMPER, n. A local name for 
the bittern {Bvtaurus stellaris). 

BOG'GLEK, n. [add.] A jilt; one false 
in love. [SAaA.J 

BO'GIE, n. The frame of the carriage of 
a locomotive. 

BOG'-IRON ORE. See Bog-Ore. 

BOG'-MOSS, n. Sphagnum, a genus of 
aquatic moss-plants. [See SpHAGNUii.] 

BOG'-OR€HIS, n A British plant of 
the genus Mala.xis, the Af. paludosa. 
[See iLvLAxis.] 

BOG'-RUSH, n. \ British plant of the 
genus Schoenus, the S. nigricans. 
[See ScH<ENUs.] 

BOISTE.t n. [Fr.] A box. [Chaucer.] 


BOlSTOrSLY, for Boisterously. 

BOKE'LER, for Buckler. [Chaucer.] 

BOKE'LING, for Buckling. [Cliau- 

BOL'ASjf K. Bullace; a sort of sloe. 

BOLE, n. .4 cornmeasure of six bushels; 
a round head of land ; a boss ; a bul- 
lock. — Tennyson's Princess. 

BOLE, 1 n. A small locker in the wall 

BO.\L, ( of a cottage, for keeping 
books, &c.; also, an opening in the wall 
of a house, for occasionally admitting 
air or light, usually with a wooden 
shutter instead of a pane of glass. 



joiner]/, mouldings which project be- 
yond the surface of the framing. 

BOLE'RO, n. [Sp.] A favourite dance 
in Spain. 

BOL'L.\RDS. See Boll, v. i. 

Boll, i'. i. 

BOL'LEN,f pp. from Bulge. Swollen. 

BOLOGNA-PHI.\LS,H. Small phials 
of unannealed glass, which fly in pieces 
when their sui-fuce is scratched by a 
hard body, as by dropping into them 
an angular fragment of flint, whereas a 
lead bullet, or other smooth body, may 
be dropped into them without causing 

preparation of the powdered calcined 
sulphate of barytes, or Boloynian stone, 
which has the property of shining in 
the dark like phosphorus. 

BOL'STER, V. i To lie together, or on 
the same bolster. [iSAaA.] 

BOL'STERS, n. In ships, pieces of tim- 
ber planted on various parts of a ship, 
to prevent the works or ropes from 
being abraded. 

BOLT, v. i. [add.] To throw precipi- 
tately; to swallow without chewing; 
as, to bolt food down one's throat. 

BOLT.t 7t. A long narrow piece of silk 
or stuff". 

BOLTING, n. [Sax. bolt, a house.] A 
term used in the inns of com^ to sig- 
nify a private arguing of cases, pro- 
bably so named because done privately 
in the house for instruction. In Lin- 
coln's Inn, Alondays and "IN'ednesdays 
are the bolting days. 

BOLTONIA, H. A genus of interesting 
plants, very closely resembling the ' 
species of the genus .A.ster. Thev are I 

natives of North America. Nat. order 

BOMB, n. [add.] Bombs are now termed 

BOMBARDIER', n. [add.] A non- 
commissioned ofiicer of the Royal Ar- 
tillery, whose duty it is to load shells, 
grenades, &c., to make and fix the 
fuses, and who is particularly appointed 
to the service of mortars and howitzers. 

Brachinus crepitans, a coleopterous in- 
sect found under stones. It possesses, 
when under a sense of danger, a re- 
markable power of violently expelling, 
from the anus a pungent, acrid fluid, 
accompanied by a loud report. 

BOMBiiRD'MENT, n. [add.] The act 
of throwing shells, carcasses, aud shot 
into an enemy's town, in order to de- 
stroy tlie buildings, and chiefly the 
militarv magazines. 

BOM'BAKDS.t n. Padded breeches. 

BOMBASJN', i n. [add.] A twilled 

BOMBAZINE', ) fabric, of which the 
warp is silk and the weft worsted, or- 
dinarily blaoli. 

BOMB -SHELL. See Bomb. 

BOMBYL'IOUS, a. Resembling the 
noise of a large kind of bee. 

BON, a. [Fr. from L. bonus.] Good; 
valid as security for something. 

BON, n. [Fr.] X good saving; a jest; a 

BONA, n. plur. [From L. bonum.] In 
the civil laic, a term which includes all 
sorts of property, movable and im- 

BO'NA FI'DES, n. [L.] Good faith; 
fair dealing. [See Bona-Fide.]^ 

BO'NA MOBIL'IA, ii. plur. [L.] In 
law, movable effects and goods. 

BONA NOTABIL'IA, n. plur. [h.] In 
law, where a person dies, having at the 
time of his death goods aud chattels in 
some other diocese or jurisdiction, be- 
sides those in the diocese or jmnsdic- 
tion where he dies, to the amount of 
five pounds, he is said to have bona 

BONAPART EAN, a. Pertaining to 

BONAPaRT'IST, n. One attached to 
the policy of Bonaparte. 

BONA PERITU'RA, n. plur. [L.] 
Perishable goods. 

BONA SIA, n. A subgenus of the true 
Tetraonidffi, or grouse family. It con- 
tains the ruffed grouse ( Tetrao umbel- 
lus), and hazel-grouse ( Tetrao bonasia). 

BON'-BON, H. [Fr.] Sugar-confection- 
ary ; a sugar-plum. 

BOND, n. [add.] In law, a deed by 
which he \vho makes it, called the ob- 
ligor, binds himself to another, called 
the obligee, to pay a sum of money, or 
to do, or not to do, any other act. 
Bonds for the payment of money are the 
most common. — Penal bond. AVhen 
a man is required to oblige himself to 
do or not to do any act, he often enters 
into a bond for payment of a certain 
sum of money as a penalty, in case he 
departs from his agreement. This is 
termed a pejial bond. Penal bonds 
have now almost superseded in general 
use single bonds, or bonds without 
condition. — Bo7ids, in arch., a general 
term which includes the whole of the 
timbers disposed in the walls of a house, 
as bond-timbers, wall-plates, lintels, 
and templets. 

BOND'-€REDITOR, n. X creditor 
who is secured by a bond. 

BOND'-DEBT, n. A debt contracted 
under the obligation of a bond. 




BOND'-TENANTS, n. A name some- 
times given to copy-holders and cus- 
tomary tenants. 

BONE, for Boon. \Chaiicer.] 

BONE'-BREAIvER, n. The sea-eagle, 
an antiquated name, the translation of 
ossifragus. a name given to the young 
of the white-tailed ea.^le. 

BONE'-BROWN, n. Abrown pigment 
produced by roasting bones or ivory 
till they become of brown colom* 

BONEIjL'IA, n. A genus of echino- 
dermatous zoophytes, Iiaving an oval 
body, and a proboscis formed of a 
folded fleshy plate, susceptible of 
great extension, and forked at its ex- 

BONE'-SPIRIT, n An ammoniacal 
liquor of a brown colour, obtained in 
the process of manufacturing charcoal 
from bones. 

BONFTO, n. A scomberoid fish, the 
Thynnus lyelamis, Cuvier, common in 
the tropical ocean. It is also called 
the striped tunny. 

BON'NALLY, ) ??. A parting-cup with 

BON'NAILE, ) a friend, in earnest of 
wishing him a prosperous journey. 

BONNE -BOUCHE, n. fbon hoosh'.) 
[Fr.l A delicate morsel or mouthful. 

BON'NET-LAIRD, n. A small pro- 
prietor of land. \Scotch.] 

BONNET-LIMPET, n. The name of 
the various species of shells of the 
family Calyptrseida^, which are found 
adhering to stones and shells. The 
name is more particularly applied to 
the species of the genus Pileopsis, one 
of which, the P. huiigaricus, is a native 
of the British coast. 

BON'NY-WAWLIES, n. Toys; trin- 
kets. \Scotch.] 

BON'SPIEL, ) 7?. [Supposed to be from 

BON'SPELL,) Belg. ftowHe, a village, 
a district, and s})el, play.] A match at 
the diversion of curling on the ice, be- 
tween two opposite parties. [Scotch.] 

BO'NDS, n. [add.] An extra dividend 
or allowance to the shareholders of a 
joint-stock company out of accumu- 
lated profits. 

BO'NUSHEN'Rl€US,n. Good-Henry, 
a plant of the genus Chenopodium, ac- 
cording to some, the C. bonus Henri- 
cus, by others placed in the genus Blitum . 
It was formerly supposed to possess 
medicinal properties. [See Cheno- 
podium and Goosic-FooT.] 

BOO'BY, n. [add.] The English name 
of a genus of birds belonging to the 
pelican family, the Dysporus of Illiger, 
Moras of Vieillot, and the Sula of Bris- 
son. The boobies are also known by 
the name of gannets, but navigators 
apply the term booby to the Sula jits- 
ca. [See Booby in Dicl.^ where, how- 
ever, the account of its beak is erro- 
neous.] The Sula bassana is the gan- 
net of the English, and the solan-goose 
of the Scotch. 

BOO'BY, a. Having the characteristics 
of a booby. 

BOO'BY-IIUTCH, m. A clumsy, ill- 
contrived, covered carriage or seat, 
used in the east part of England. 

BUDDh'I -See Buddha in 5w;)p. 
BOOD'HISM. See BuoDiiissf in Surp. 
BOOD'HIST. See Buddhist. 
BOOK'BiNDERY, n. A place where 

books are bound, 
BOOK'CASE, n. A case with shelves, 

and commonly doors, for holding 


BOOK'-DEGT, n, A debt for goods 
delivered, and charged by the seller on 
hi^ book of accounts. 

ledge gained by reading books, in dis- 
tinction from knowledge obtained from 
observation and experience. 

BOOK'-MAKER, n. One who writes 
and publishes books. 

BOOK'- MONGER, n. A dealer in 


BOOK'-SeORPION, 71. A species of 
arachnidan (Chelifer cancrjides), re- 
sembling a scorpion without a tail, 
often found in old books, 

BOOK'SELLING, n. The business of 
selling books. 

BOOK'-STALL, w A stand or stall, 
commonly in the open air, on which 
books are placed which are offered for 

BOOK'-STAND, n. A stand or small 
case for books. Also a stand or frame 
for containing books offered for sale on 
the streets. 

BOOK'-sfORE, n. [add.] An Ameri- 
canism for a bookseller's shop. 

BOOM, n, [add.] A strong beam, and 
sometimes merely a cable, stretched 
across the mouth of a river, or the en- 
trance of a harbour, to prevent the 
approach of an enemy's ships. — A deep, 
hollow roar, as of waves or of cannon. 
— Booms, a space in a vessel's waist, 
used for stowing the boats and spare 

BOOM, V. i. [add.] To boom along, to 
move rapidly, as a ship under full sail. 

BOOM'ING, ppr. or a. Rushing with 
violence ; moving rapidly ; roaring like 

BOOM'-IRONS, n. Rings of iron at- 
tached to a vessel's yard for traversing 
the studding-sails. 

BOOM'KIN, Jh See Bumrin. 

BO'OPS, n. [add.] A genus of acan- 
thopterygious fishes, with oblong, com- 
pressed bodies, found chiefly in the 
Mediterranean. The species are gene- 
rrWly of brilliant colouring, and have a 
small mouth and large eyes. The 
Balcena hoops is a species of Greenland 
whale. [See Boops in Diet.] 

BOpRD,t V. t or i. [Fr. bourder.] To 
accost ; to address ; to attack in speech 
sportively, jeeringly, or jestingly ; to 
jest, to jeer, to banter. — To board bt/, 
to run sportingly by, as a river. [Spen- 

BOORD'ED,t pret. of Boord. Ac- 
costed; addressed. [Sj^enser.] 

BOOS'ER, n. One who guzzles liquor; 
a tippler. 

BOOT,t n. [add.] According to Tooke, 
the phrase, to booty is the infinitive of 
the Saxon verb botan^ and signifies to 

B00T'-(;RIMP, n. A frame or last 
used by bootmalcera for drawing and 
shaping the body of a boot. 

BOOTH, n. [add.] A sort of shop made 
of M'ood, erected in a fair or market. 

BOOTH'AGE, n. Customary dues paid 
to the lord of a manor or soil, for the 
pitching or standing of booths in fairs 
or markets. 

BOOT'IKIN, n. The diminutive of 6oo^- 
a little boot. 

B O OT'I N G - €ORN,t ) n. [Sax. hotCy 
B O T'l N G - €()RN,t [ compensa- 
tion.] Rent-corn. 
BOOT'LESSNESS, n. The state of 
being unavailing or useless. 
BOOTS, n. A cani name for a servant 

in hotels, who cle.ins the boots of 
lodgers; formerly called a boot-catcher. 

BO'RA€OUS, a. Partaking of borax; 
containing borax. 

BORA'GO, 71. [Gr. /J,?*, food, and L. 
ago.] Borage, a genus of plants, the 
type of the nat. order Boraginacere. 
All the species are rough plants, with 
fusiform roots, oblong or lanceolate 
leaves, and blue, panicled, drooping 
flowers. B. o,fficinalls, or common 
borage, is a British plant, growing in 
waste ground near houses. The flowers 
were formerly supposed to be cordial, 
and were infused in drinks. 

BO'RAX, n. [add.] Borax is prepared 
both in England and France from soda, 
and boracic acid imported from Tus- 

BORBO'NIA, n. A genus of Cape 
plants, nat. order Leguminoso). The 
species are very showy when in flower. 

BOR'BORUS, n. A genus of two- 
winged flies, belonging to the family 
MuscidcC. These little flies are found 
in marshy places, and on putrid sub- 
stances, but more particularly on dung- 

BORBORYG'MUS, \n. [Or. ^o^^o^vy- 

BOR'BORYGM, f /*«.] The rum- 
bling noise caused by wind within the 

BORD,t n. [Fr. bourde.] A jest; a pre- 
tence. [Spenser.] 

BORD, V. t. [See Boord in this Supp.] 
To accost or address. [Spenser.] 

BORD,t n. [Fr.] Border; the side of a 
ship. [Chaucer.] 

BORDE.t n. A table. [Chancer:] 

BORD'ER- WARRANT. See after 

BORE, V. t. [add.] To weary by tedious 
iteration or repetition; to molest by 

BORE, V. i. [add.] To penetrate the 
earth by means of a chisel, or other 
proper boring instrument, for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining the presence of 
minerals, as veins of ore or beds of 
coal, or for obtaining springs of water, 
as in Artesian wells or fountains of 
salt-water, &c. — Among horsemen, a 
horse is said to bore when he carries his 
nose to the ground. 

BORE, n. [add.] A person or thing that 
wearies by iteration ; a tiresome per- 
son or unwelcome visitor, who makes 
himself obnoxious by his disagreeable 
manners, or by a repetition of visits. 

BORE, n. [add.] A phenomenon which 
occm's in some rivers, near their mouth, 
at spring-tides. When the tide enters 
the river, the waters suddenly rise to 
a great height, and rush with tremen- 
dous noise against the current for a 
considerable distance. In England, 
the bore is observed more especially in 
the Severn, the Trent, Wye, and in 
Solway Frith. 

BORE'COLE, n. [add.] The leaves of 
this kind of cabbage are curled or 
wrinkled, and have no disposition to 
form into a heart or head. It is chiefly 
valued for winter use. The best sorts 
are the Colebrookdale-borecole, and 
the Scotch kail. 

BOR'EL,t n. [Fr. bureau.] Coarse cloth 
of a brown colour. [Chaticer.] 

BOR'EL, ) a. Made of plain, coarse 

BOR'REL,) ^tuf^.— Barrel -folk, or 
borrel-men, laymen. [Chaucer.] 

BORES, n. plur. Wounds or thrusts. 

BORING, ppr. [add.] Making hollow; 
wearying by tedious iteration. 

BOR'ING, n. [add.] Borhigs, the chips 




made by perforating a body. — Boring 
instruments are of various kinds, as 
awls, or brad-awls, gimblets, augers, bits 
of various kinds [sec Bit], drills, &c. 

BOR'ING-BAR, n. In mech. [See 
Cutter-Bar, of which it is an enlarged 

BOR'ING-BLOCK, n. In mech., a 
strong cylindrical piece fitted on the 
boring-bar of a boring-mill, and in 
which the cutters are fixed. 

BORKIIAU'SIA, n. A genus of plants 
named after Moritz Borkhausen, nat. 
order Conipositje, tribe Cichoraceje. 
There are several European species. 
The flowers are yellow or pale purple. 
Several are cultivated in gardens, where 
they form a pretty border-plant. B. 
taraxacifolia and B. fcetida are British 

BORN, 2>P- [add.] To be born with a 
silver sjioon in one's mouth, in collo- 
quial phrase, i? to inherit a fortune by 

BOR'NEEN, n A compound of carbon 
and hydrogen found in valeric acid, 
supposed to be identical with liquid- 

BOR'NEO-CAMPHOR, «. The cam- 
phor of the camphor-tree of Sumatra 
{DryobaUinops aromatica). 

BOR'OUGU, n. [add.] A borough may 
be defined to be a town possessed of cer- 
tain municipal institutions, its organi- 
zation for local government forming 
the natural or necessary basis of its 
jiolitical character and efficiency. — 
Parliamentary boroughs, such towns 
or boroughs as send representatives to 
Parliament. By the Reform Act, 
wherever the words city or borough^ 
or cities and boroughs, may occur 
throughout the act, those words shall 
be construed to include, except there 
be something in the subject or context 
manifestly repugnant to such con- 
struction, all towns corporate. Cinque- 
ports, districts, or places within Eng- 
land and Wales, which shall be en- 
titled to return a member or members 
to serve in Parliament, other than 
counties at large , and ridings, parts and 
divisions of counties at large, and shall 
also include the town of Berwick-upon- 

BOR'OUGH-COURTS, «. Private and 
limited species of tribunals, held by 
prescription, chai-ter, or act of Parlia- 
ment. They are erected in particular 
districts for the convenience of the in- 
habitants, that tiiey may prosecute 
small suits, and receive justice at 

BOR'OUGU -HEADS, n. Borough- 
holders, or bors-holders. 

BOR'OUGH-MONGER, n. One who 
buys or sells the patronage of aborough. 

elective municipal officer, exercising 
functions analogous to those of the 
shire-reeve or sheri.ff'. 

established in boroughs, under the 
Municipal Corporation's Act. They 
are held by the recorders of the respec- 
tive boroughs, once a quarter or oftener. 
The jurisdiction is over such offences as 
are cognizable by the county- sessions. 

BOR'OWE,t H. [See Borrow.] A 
pledge ; a security. — Boroive-base, base 
pledges ur usury. [Spenser.] 

BOR'REL,t a. [Fr. bureau.] Rustic; 
plain. [.S7>r>;?.sTr.J 

BOR'REL- LOONS, n. Low, rustic 
rogues. [Scotch.] 

BORRE'RA, n. A genus of Kchens, 

very interesting to the cryptogamist, on 
account of the natural habit of the 

BORRE'RIA, 7t. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Cinchonacete. The species are 
mostly herbs or under-shrubs, and are 
nearly all natives of tropical America. 
B, ferruginea is a native of Brazil, and 
yields a bastard ipecacuanha. 

BOR'R0W,t 71. [add.] A pledge or 
suretv. [Spemser.] 

BORROWING-DAYS, n. The three 
last days of ftlarch, old style ; so named, 
because it was beheved that March 
borrowed them from April. [Scotch.] 

BOR'URET, n. A compound of boron 
with a metal. 

BOR'WE,t n. [Sec Borrow.] A se- 
curity; a pledge. [Chaucer.] 

BOS'ARD,f n, A buzzard. [Chaucer.] 


BOS'OPRIC ACID, n. [Gr. $ovi, an 
ox, and «oT§#f, dung.] A strong, colour- 
less acid procured from fresh cow-dung. 
It is of great efficacy in purifying mor- 
danted cotton in the cow-dung bath. 

BOSS, n. [add.] In mech., the enlai'ged 
part of a shaft on which a wheel is to 
be keyed, is called the wheel-boss. The 
term is, however, applied ordinarily to 
any enlarged part of the diameter, as 
to the ends of the separate pieces of a 
line of sliafts connected by couplings. 
HoUow shafts through which others 
pass, are sometimes iJso called bosses, 
but impi'operly. 

BOSS, a. Hollow. [Scotch.] 

BOST,t n. Pride; boasting. [Oiaucer.] 

BOST,t adv. Aloud. [Chaucer.] 

BOS'TRICHUS, n. A genus of coleop- 
terous insects, belonging to the group 
Xylophila, some species of which are 
highly destructive to wood. One of 
the most destructive species is the 
B. typographicus, or typographer- 
beetle, which devours, both in the larva 
and perfect state, the soft wood be- 
neath the bark of trees, and thus causes 
their death. 

BOTAN'I€ GARDEN, n. A garden 
devoted to the culture of plants col- 
lected for the purpose of illustrating 
the science of botany. 

BOT'ANIZING, n. The seeking of 
plants for botanical purposes; also, the 
studying of i)lants. 


BOT'ANY, n. [add.] Structural botany, 
that branch of the science of botany 
■which relates to the laws of vegetable 
structure or organization, internal or 
external, independently of the presence 
of a vital principle. It is also called 
organogrojihy. — Physiological or or- 
ganological botany, that branch wfiich 
relates to the history of vegetable life, 
the functions of the various organs of 
plants, their olianges in disease or 
health, &c. — Descriptive botany, that 
branch which relates to the description 
and nomenclature of plants. It is also 
called phytofjraphy. — Systematic bo- 
tany, that branch which relates to the 
principles upon which plants are con- 
nected with, and distinguished from 
each other. It is also called taxonomy. 
— Palteontological botany embraces the 
study of the forms and structures of 
the plants found in a fossil state, in the 
various strata of which the earth is 

BOTAU'RUS, n. The generic name of 
the bitterns. [See Bittkrn.] 

BOTCH'EKLY,rt. Clumsy; awkwardly 
patched, [liar, us.] 

BOTE,t V. t. [Sax.] To help. [Chau- 

BOTE,t;>p. from Bite. Bit. [Chau- 

BOT-FLY, n. The gadfiy, an insect of 
the genus Oestrus. 

BOTH'ER, V. t. [add.] To perplex; to 
confound; to pother. [Zou\] 

BOTHERATION, n. Trouble; vexa- 
tion ; perplexity. [^4 low word.] 

BOT'-HOLE, H. A hole in askm made 
bv a bot. 

BOTHREN'€HYMA, «. [Gr. Mt^, a 
pit, and %yx*ju,'i., a tissue.] In bot., a 
term appbed to denote the pitted tis- 
sue or dotted ducts of plants. It is 
either articulated or continuous. 

BOTH-SHEETS-AFT. In marine Ian., 
a square-rigged vessel is said to have 
both-shects-aft when the yards are 
squared, and the ship is running before 
the wind. 

BOTH'UM,t n. [Fr. bouton.] A bud, 
particularly of a rose. [Chaucer.] 

BOTH'Y, n. A hut; a hovel; a place 
where labouring servants are lodged. 

BOTRY'CHIUM, n. [Gr. /Sorew, abunch 
of grapes.] Mouu-wort, a genus of 
ferns, nat. order Osmundacese. It has 
distinct capsules (thecae or sporangia) 
disposed in a compound spike, attached 
to a pinnate or bipinnate frond. B. 
lunaria, common moon-wort, is a na- 
tive of Britain. It has lunate-shaped 
pinnae, hence the English name. Both 
magical and healing powers were for- 
merly attributed to it. 

BOTRY'OOEN, n. A red or ochre- 
coloured mineral, consisting of the 
hydrous sulphates of protoxide of iron, 
oxide of iron, magnesia, and lime. It 
is said to have been found on Vesuvius. 

BOTT, n. The name given by lace- 
weavers to the round cushion placed 
on the knee, on which the lace is 

BOTTLE-BUMP, n. A name given by 
some to the bittern. 

BOTTLE-FISH, «. An eel-like fish of 
the genus Saccopharynx, the S. ampul- 
laceus. The body is capable of being 
inflated like a sack or leathern bottle. 

Bottle-flsb inflated, Saccopharynx ampuUaccus- 

hence the name. It is from four to six 
feet long, and is believed to be very 
voracious. A few specimens have been 
met with floating in the Atlantic Ocean. 

BOT'TLE-GLASS, n. A coarse, green 
glass, used in the manufactiu'e of bot- 

BOT TLE-NOSE,7i. A species of whale 
of the genus Hyperoodon. 

BOT'TLE-TIT, n. A name applied to 
the long-tailed titmouse (Parus cau~ 
datus), from its long, curious, bottle- 
shaped nest. 

BOT'TOM, 71. [add.] Heart; secret 
thoughts ; real inclination opposed to 
apparent conduct ; as, he is sincere at 
bottom ; we are still at bottom as good 
friends as ever. 

BOTTS. See Bots. 

BOTULIN'IC ACID, n. A fatty acid 
obtained from sausages. 

BOUCHE, 71. (boosh.) [Fr. mouth.] A 
term used anciently to denote a certain 
allowance of provisions from the king 




to knights and others who attended 
him in any military expedition. Also 
written bouge, and budge, [5eeBouoE.] 

BOUCHE, n. [Fr.] The indent at the 
top of a shield to admit a lance, which 
rested there, without depriving the 
soldier of tlie protection afforded by 
his shield to the lower part of the face 
or neck. 

BOUCHETE', n. [Fr.] The large buckle 
used for fastening the lower part of the 
breastplate to the upper one. 

BOU6E,t n. [add.] A cask.— Bof/f/e of 
court, «was an allowance of meat and 
drink for the tables of the inferior offi- 
cers and others, who were occasionally 
called to serve and entertain the 

BOUrt'ET,tn. [Vv.bougetie.'] A budget 
or pouch. [^Spenser.'] — In her., the re- 
presentation of a vessel for carrying 

Among licensed brokers, the practice is 
to enter or register in a book the terms 
of any contract they effect, and the 
names of the parties, which is legally 
binding: as, when the broker for a 
seller treats with a buyer, he is deemed 
the agent of both, and he in strictness 
should sign the book, and deliver a 
transcript or memorandum titereof to 
each party, which is called a bought 
and sold note. 

BOUGHTES,t V. (bawts.) Circular 
folds; tmsts. [Sperrser.^ 

BOUKE,t n. [Sax.] The body. [Chau- 

geol., a term recently introduced to 
express what were formerly termed di- 
luvial deposits. 


BOU'LEVARD, n. (boo'leviir.) [Fr.] 
Originally, a bulwark or rampart of a 
fortification or fortified town. At pre- 
sent applied to the public walks or 
streets occupying the site of demo- 
lished fortifications. 

BoULT'ED,t pp. Bolted ; sifted. 

BOUN,t a. [Sax.] Ready, [Chaucer.] 

BOUNCE, V. t. To drive against any- 
thing suddenly and violently ; as, he 
bounced his head against every post. 

BOUNCE, n. [add.] A bold lie; as, that 
was a bounce. [Colloq. and familiar.] 

BOUNCER, n. [add.] A bold liar. 
[Colloq. And familiar.] 

BOUND'EN, a. [add.] Appointed ; in- 
dispensable; obligatory. This word 
was originally the past participle of 
bind, but it is now used only as an ad- 
jective ; as, bounden duty. 

BOUND'ENLY,a(/o. In a dutiful man- 

BOUND'LESSLY, adv. In a bound- 
less manner. 

BOUN'TIE,tH. [Fr, bonte'.] Goodness. 

BOUN'TITH, 71. The bounty given in 
addition to stipulated wages. [Scotch.] 

BOUN'TY, n. [add.] Goodness; gene- 
rosity. [Speiiser.] — Queen Anne" shounty, 
a provision made in the reign of Queen 
Anne, for augmenting poor clerical liv- 

BOUQUET', n. [add.] An agreeable 
aromatic odour, which is perceived on 
drawing the cork of any of the finer 

BOURD.t V. I. To jest ; to joke. 
BOURD,t u. t. See Boobd in this 

BOURD, 7?. A jest; a scoff. [Scotch.'] 

BOURDE,t V. i. [Fr.] To jest. [Chau- 

BOURDON^ 7?. [Fr.] A walking-staff ; 
a pilgrim's staff. 

BOURGEOIS, n. (borzh-wa'.)[Fr.l A 
citizen ; a burgher ; a man of middle 
rank ; an employer. 

BOURGEOISIE, 71. [Fr.] The middle 
classes of a country, especially those 
dependent on trade, but including 
bankers, sliippers, brokers, and even 
professional men or their families. — 2. 
The burgesses or burgiiers of a city, 
town, &c. 

BOURN'LESS, a. Having no bourn or 

BOUR'OCKS, ) ;(. Confused heaps ; 

BOUR'A€HS,j; crowds; miserable 
huts; small inclosures. [Scotch.] 

BOURSE, «. (boors.) [Fr.] The French 
name for an exchange ; a place where 
merchants assemble for general busi- 

BOUR'TREE-BUSH, n Elder-bush. 

BOUSE, or BOUZE,t n. Liquor; 

BOUTANT. See Arc-Boutant. 

BOUTS-RIMES', n. plur. (boo-rema'.) 
[Fr.] Words that rhyme given to be 
formed into verse. 

BOUZ'ING,t 2'pr. or a. Drinking. 

BO'VID.^, n. The ox tribe; a family 
of ruminating animals, of which the 
genus Bos is tiie type. The antelopes, 
and all the hollow-horned Ruminantia, 
are placed in this family. 

BO'VIFORM,a. Having the form of an 

BOW, n. [add.] In arch., the part of 
any building which projects from a 
straight wall. It is sometimes circular, 
and sometimes polygonal on the plane. 

BOW, jt. A boll; a dry measure con- 
taining the sixteenth part of a chalder, 
or four firlots. [Scotch.] 

BOW'-CHASERS, n. The guns pointed 
from the bows of a ship-of-war. 

BO W'-€OMP ASSES, n. A pair of com- 
passes with a bow, or arched plate of 
metal, rivetted to oue of the legs, upon 
which the other leg slides, to steady 
the motion. 

BOW'-DRILL, n. A drill worked by a 
bow and spring. 

BOW'ELLED, pp. Having bowels or a 
belly; eviscerated. 

BOW'ENITE, n. A bright apple-green 
mineral, found at Smithfield in Rhode 
Island. It is a hydrous silicate of 

BOWER,) n. [Gaelic, bhoear.] The 

BOO'ER, y party who farms a dairy. 

BOW'-GREASE, 7i, See Bow-Grace. 

BOWIE, 71. A cask with the head taken 
out; a tub; a milk-pail. [Scotch.] 

BO WIN,) 7(. [Scotch, from the Gaelic, 

BOO'IN, ) bhd.] A boivin of cows, a 
dairy farmed out either by the landlord 
or tenant of a farm, the terms gener- 
ally being so much per head, grass and 
other provender included, according to 

BOWK,) „ ,, rc . I 1 

BOUK, 5 "• ^^^'- L'^^'cA.] 

BOWL, V. i. [add.] To roll the ball at 
cricket; also, to move rapidly, smoothly, 
and like a ball ; as, the carriage bowled 

BOWL, V. t. [add.] To boivl out, in 
cricket, is to knock down one's cricket 
by bowling. 

BOW-LEG, 7!. A crooked leg. 

BoWL'ING,7i. [add.] The act of rolling 
the ball at cricket. 

BOWL'ING, ppr. [add.] Rolling the 
ball at cricket. 

BOW-PEN, 71. The name given to a 
pair of small compasses for describin?^ 
small circles, the pen-point of which 
is jointed, so that it may be bent to any 

BOWRES,tn. plur. Bowers; chambers, 

BOWRS,f «. -See Bhawned Bowrs in 
this Sifpp. 

BOW-SAW, 71. [add.] The bow-saw hag 
a narrow blade stretched in an elastic 
frame, in the manner of an archer's 

BOWSE, V. t. In nautical Ian., to haul 

BOWSPRIT, n. [add.] A standing bow 
sprit is a iiermanently fixed bowsprit; 
a rumiing bowsprit one that can be eased 
out and in like a jib-boom, as in sloops 
and smacks. — Bou's2:>rit shrouds, strong 
ropes attached to the bowsprit for sup- 
porting and strengthening it. 

BOWTELL, 7i. The shaft of a clustered 
pillar, or any plain round moulding ; 
perhaps also used for the horizontal 
bars or transoms. — A boutell, grete 
bojctelle, are terms often used by Wil- 
liam of Worcester. 

BOW-TIMBERS, n. In ship-building, 
the timbers that form the bow of a 

BOW-WOW, 71. The loud bark of a 

BOX, n. [add.] The driver's seat on a 

BOX, H. [add.] Sioift uses this word to 
signify a blow on the head given with 
the wings of a bird. 

BOX'ED-SHUTTER, n. A shutter 
which folds into boxes on the side of 
the opening, or in the interior face of 
the wall. [See Boxings of a Win- 

BOX'-ELDER, u. The ash-leaved 
maple {Acer negundo, Linn.), a native 
of North America. 

BOX'INGS,n. Among millers, the name 
used to designate a coarse flour separ- 
ated in the process of bolting. 

BOX'-TREE, n. Buxus, a genus of 
plants. B. scmpervirens is a British 
species, growing on dry hills in the south 

Box-tree, Buxus sempcrvirens. 

of England. Its hard, close, yellowish 
wood is employed in making mathe- 
matical instruments, and for wood- 
engraving. [See Buxu.s.] 
BOX'-WOOD,7i. The fine hard-grained 
timber of the box-tree, used by the 
turnei", wood-engraver, matliematical 
instrument - maker, pipe, and Hutft- 
maker. Wheels, pegs for musical in- 




stmments, knife-handles, and combs are I 
made of it, as well as many other use- ; 
ful articles. 

BRACE, 11. [add.] In arch., an inclined 
piece of timber used in trussed parti- 
tions and in framed roofs, in order to 
form a triangle, by wliich the assem- 
blage of pieces composing the framing 
are stiffened and strengthened. When 
a brace is used to support a rafter, it is 
called a strut. — Brace is also the name 
of a boring instrument, of which there 
are various forms. The most common 
is the carpenter's brace, wliich consists 
of a crank -formed shaft, with a metal 
socket at one extremity, called the pad, 
and on the other end is a swivelled 
head or cushion, or shield, by which the 
boring tool or bit, fixed in the pad, is 
pressed forward by the workman. For 
smith- work this instrument, instead of 
the cushion, has a centre-point which 
acts against a plate of metal on a 
weighted lever, by which it is pressed 
forward; it then becomes the smith's 
press-drill. But for work of a higher 
or more accurate description, it is ap- 
plied by means of a fixed drill-frame, 
consisting of a grab with adjustable 
arm, caiTying a feed-screw, acting on 
the crank-arm of the brace, and which 
allows of its being pressed forward at 
such rate as the nature of the work 
may require, and so accurately as to 
render the hole parallel. -A-nother form 
of the instrument is the Angle-brace, 
which consists of a rectangular crank- 

Angle- bmce. 

frame like the carpenter's brace, but 
usually much stronger, and which 
carries a parallel tool-spindle, termina- 
ting in a pad a, or bit-socket of the ordi- 
nary form. On this spindle is a small 
bevel-wheel, which gears into a second 
wheel on the axis of a winch-handle, 
by which motion is communicated to 
the tool. This instrument is chiefly 
used for boring holes in angular posi- 
tions, where the ordinary revolving 
brace cannot conveniently be applied. 
For heavy work, it is usually mounted 
in the ordinary drill-frame. 
BRACE, t'. t. [add.] To brace a yard 
in marine Ian., is to turn it round hori- 
zontally by means of the braces. — To 
brace aback, to brace the yards so 
as to lay the sails aback. — To brace 
by, to brace the yards in contrary 
directions on the dift'erent masts, so 
as to stop the vessel's way. — To brace 
up, to lay the yards more fore-and- 
aft, to cause the ship sail closer to the 

BRACE-AND-BIT. See the word 
Brace and the word Bit. 
BRA'CER, n. A guard for the arm, used 
by archers to prevent the friction of 
the bowstring on the coat. 
BRACH, n. [add.] A species of scent- 
inghound, generally of a small kind. 
BRAt'HE, n. Same as Brach. 
BRA'CHICM, II. [L.] The arm ; the 
part from the shoulder to the elbow. 
BRA€HY€ATALE€'TIf, instead of 

BRACUYDIAG'ONAL, n. The short- 
est of the diagonals in a rhombic prism. 

BBACHYPO'DIUM, n. [Or. ^..xw. 
short, and jrsw, a foot.] False brome- 
grass, a genus of grasses, distinguished 
from Triticum by the unequal glumes 
alone. Two species, B. si/?ua(!cum, and 
B. pinnatum, are British. 
BRACHYP TERES, instead of BRA- 
€HYP TERIS. Also written BRA- 

^{tix""'! shortest, and j;(«'«) time.] A 
cm-ve in which a body descending by 
the force of gravity, arrives at a given 
point, in a shorter time than if it fol- 
lowed any other du-ection. It is also 
called the curve of quickest descent, and 
is the same as the cycloid. 
BRACHYTELES, instead of BRA- 

BRACHYTJ'RA, n. A tribe of short- 
tailed crustaceans, comprehending the 
crabs. The tail or abdomen is doubled 
up beneath the carapace. 
BR.A.CE'ET, c. (. To place withm 

brackets ; to connect by brackets. 
BRACK'ETING, n. In large cornices 
executed in plaster, the name given to 
the series of wooden ribs nailed to the 
ceiling, joists, and battening, for sup- 
porting the cornices. 
BR ACK.'ETS,ii. In iniHirorft, projecting 
pieces attached to a 
wall, beam, &c., for 
caiTying or stipport- 
ing a line of shaft- 
ing. They are of 
very many different 
forms, according to 
the situations in 
which they are 
placed, but the an- 
nexed figures exem- 
plify the two in most 
common use. The first (fig. 1), isnsually 
bolted to a strong sole of wood, at- 
tached to the joists 
of the flat, or to 
beams supporting 
the floor above ; 
and the second (fig. 
2), is attached to 
walls by means of 
metal soles or wall- 
plates, bolted 
against the wall at 
the required posi- 
tion of the bracket. 
Furnished with 
71. Silver bracte- 
ates, a species of 
early coins in Scotland. 
BRA€T'LESS, a. In hot., destitute of 

BRAD, n. [add.] Brads, in place of a 
round spreading head, have a slight 
projection on one side. They are of 
various kinds; as, joiner's brads, for 
hard wood; batten brads, for softer 
woods ; and bill or quarter brads, used 
for a hastily laid floor. 
BRAG, r. t. To boast of; as, he brags 
his service. [iSAaA.] 
BRAG,f a. Proud ; boasting. 
BRAH'iAlA, ji. In Indian myth., one of 
the deities of the Hindoo trimurti or 
triad, and at the present day the least 
important of the three. He is termed 
the Creator, or the grandfather of gods 
and men ; Iiis brothers Vishnu and 
Siva being respectively the preserver 
and the destroyer. Bralmia is usually 
represented as a red or golden-coloured 
figiu'e w ith four heads. He has like- 

wise four arms, in one of which he 
holds a spoon, in a second a string of 
beads, in the third a water-jug, and in 
the fourth the Veda, or sacred writings 


Fig. a. 


Brabrca. from Coleman'a Hindoo MjUiology. 

of the Hindoos; and he is frequently 
attended by his vehicle, the goose or 
swan. In Hindostan the temples of 
this deity have been overturned by the 
followers of Vishnu and Siva ; and he 
is now bttle regarded, and seldom, if 
at all worshipped, except in the wor- 
ship of other deities. Like the other 
gods, he has many names. 
BRAHiIA'I€, a. Braminical, — which 

BR.\H'MIN. See Bramin. 

BRAH'MIN BULL, n. The Indian ox 
or zebu (Bos Indicus). The Hindoos 
regard the zebus as animals worthy of 
veneration, and consequently consider 
it sinful to slaughter them \^See cut 
in Diet. Zebc] 

BRAID, V. t. [add.] To plait ; to inter- 
twine ; as, to braid the hair. 

BRAID, 11. [add.] A sort of narrow tex- 
tile baud or tape, formed by plaiting 
several strands of silk, cotton, or wool- 
len together. It is used as a sort of 
trimming for female dresses, for stay- 
laces, &c. — A texture ; sometliing 
braided ; a knot. 

BRAID, a. Broad. [Scotch.] 

BRAlDE.t f. i. or t. [Sax. bra!dan.] To 
spring; to start; to a^^ake; to draw 
out quickly ; to take off. [Chaucer.] 

BRAlDEjf 11. A start; a spring. [Chau- 

BRALD'ED,pp.[add.] Plaited ortwisted 
in an ornamental manner, as hair. 

BRaIN'ED, a. Furnished with brains. 

BRAIK -FEVER, n. An old term for 
an inflammation of the brain. 

BRAIRD, V. i. To spring up, as seeds. 

BRAIZE, n. The sea-bream ; an acan- 
thopterygian fish of the genus Pagrus, 
found in oiu" seas. 

BRAIiE, n. [add.] A contrivance for 
retarding or arresting motion, applied 
particularly to the wheels of carriages, 
and especially railway carriages, which, 
by pressing on the wheels, retards or 
stops their motion. Brakes are usually 
worked by screws. In the figure, a is 
the frame of an engine-tender ; b b the 
wheels; cc the brake-blocks of hard- 
wood, acted on by levers worked by 




the screw (/, turned by the hand-wheel e. 
— The name is also used to designate a I 

form of dynamometer, called Promfs 
fricfion-brahe, for measuring the power 
yielded by water-wheels, &e. 

BRAKE, n. [add.] An ancient instru- 
ment of torture, called also the Duke 
of Exeter's dauohte.r. 

BRAKE'HOPPEU,;?. A local name of 
the grasshopper- warbler {Sylvia locus- 

BRAK'ET,f w. A sweet drink made of 
the wort of ale, honey, and spices. 
Also termed hragget, and bragivort. 

BRAMBLE, n. [add.] See Rubus. 

BRAM'liLING, v. A bird, the moun- 
tain-finch {Frinijilla vumi if ring ilia). 
It is larger than the chaffinch. 

BRaME,-!" a. \^Q.\. hremman.] Cruel; 
sharp ; severe ; vexatious. [Spenser.'] 

BRAN, n. A local name of the carrion- 

BRANC, n. A linen vestment, similar 
to a rochet, anciently worn by women 
over their other clothing. 

BRANCHED-WORK, «. The carved 
and sculptured leaves and branches in 
monuments and friezes. 

BRAN'CHIAL, a. Relating to the gills 
or respiratory organs of fishes, and 
other animals that breathe water in- 
stead of air. 

TEGANS,n. [.SceBiiANrniosTEGOus.] 
A tribe of cartilaginous fishes, compre- 
hending those in which the gills are 
free, and covered by a membrane. It 
includes the sturgeon and chimitra. 

BRAN€HIOS TOMA, n. [Gr. ^^ccyx^"-, 
gills, and ffiofA.(t., mouth.] Also called 
amphioxus. The lancelet, the most 
anomalous of all living fishes, and of all 
vertebrated animals. It is a vertebrated 
animal without a brain, a fish with the 

^NcniosTOMA i^NCFOLATUM (the lancelet). I, A fin. 
2. Uoder-part ot tl.e bead, WHH mouth. 3, Filaments 
on the margin of the mouth. I 

respiratory system of a mollusc, and j 
the circiUatory system almost of an 
annelide. It is about two inches in j 
length, of a lanceolate form, tapering | 
to each extremity, and riband-like. It ! 
was first discovered on tlie coasts of 1 
Britain. A species has been lately 
I. — SUFP. 

described from the Philippine Islands, 
su that the geographical range of the 
genus is very extensive. [*S'ee 
BRAN'DER, n. A gridiron. 

BRAN'DERED, a. Grilled; 

broiled. [Scotch.] 
BRAN'DIED,a. Mingled with 
brandy ; made stronger by the 
addition of brandy. 
BRAN'DISU, 71. A flourish. 
BRAN'DLE,t > v. i. [Fr. bran- 
BRAN'LE,t > ler, brandil- 
ler.] To waver ; to totter ; to 
shake; to reel. 
BRANDY-FRUIT, n. Fruits preserved 
in alcohol, to which sugar is usually 
BRANK'-NEW,) a. Quite new. 

New.] [Scotch.] 
BRANKS, n. A British plant of the 
genus Polygonum, the P. fagopyrum, 
also called buck-wheat, — which see. — 
2, In Scotland, a name for the mumps 
or parotitis. 
BRANS'LES,t \n. plur.[Yv.branshr.] 
BRANS'ELS,t ) Brawls or dances, 
wherein many men and women, hold- 
ing by the hands, sometimes in a ring, 
and sometimes at length, move all to- 
gether. [Spenser.] 
BRANT'-FOX,H. A small kind of fox. 
BRASH, n. Transient fit of sickness. 

BRaS'SA6E, n. A sum formerly levied 
to defray the expense of coinage, and 
taken out of the intrinsic value of the 
BRXS'SARTS, n. plur. [Fr. bras, the 
arm.] Plate armour for the upper part 

[See Bband- 

of the arm, reaching from the shoulder 
to the elbow, 

BRASS'-BAND, 7?. A company of mu- 
sicians who perform on instruments of 
brass; as the trumpet, bugle, cornet-a- 
pistons, &c. 

BRASS'ED, pp. Covered or coated over 
with brass. Copper plates and rods 
are often brassed externally, by being 
exposed at a high temperature to the 
fumes of zinc, and afterwards laminated 
or drawn. 

BRaSS'-FOIL, 7?. Dutch leaf or Dutch 
gold, formed by beating out plates of 
brass to great thinness. 

BRATT,t n. [Sax.] Clothing; a coarse 
mantle or cloak. [Chaucer.] 

BRAT TACH, n. [Gael.] A standard. 

BRATTIS'IIING, n. [Fr. hretissement.] 
A crest, battlement, or other parapet. 

BRAVED, ?)??. [add.] Made fine. [Shak.] 

BRA'VINGLY, adv. In a defying man- 

BRAVtI'RA, v. [add.] An air, charac- 
terized by minute divisions, giving 
several notes to a syllable, and requir- 

ing great force and spirit in the per- 
former, and serving to display his 
power, volubility, and distinctness of 

BRAWLTNG, n. [add.] In ?««', the of- 
fence of quarrelling, or creating a dis- 
turbance in a church or church-yard. 

B RAWLY, adv. Bravely; finely. 

BRAWN, n. [add.] The flesh of the 
boar or of swine, collared so as to 
squeeze out much of the fat, boiled, and 

sinewed arms. — Boxers, the flexor 
muscles of the arms ; so named be- 
cause they serve to bow or bend the 
arms. [Spenser.] 

BRAWS, n. Braveries; finery; one's 
best apparel. [Scotch^] 

BRAYNED',t PP- for Brained. 

BRAZIL'-WOOD, n. [add.] The pro- 
duce of the Ccesalpinia crista and C. 

BREACH, n. [add.] In marine Ian., the 
sea is said to make a breach over a 
vessel when a wave breaks over her. — 
Breach of close, in law, an unwarrant- 
able enti'y on another's land. — Breach 
of covenant, a violation of a covenant 
contained in a deed, either to do a direct 
act, or to omit it. — Breach of duty, the 
not executing any oflice, employment, 
trust, &c., in a proper manner. — Breach 
of trust, a violation of duty by a trustee, 
executor, or otiier person in a fiduciary 

BREACir-BATTERT, n. A battery 
raised against a face or salient angle of 
a bastion or ravelin, for the purpose of 
making an accessible breach. 

BREAD- ROOT, n. A plant of the 
genus Psoralea, the P. esculenta. [See 
Psora LEA.] 

BREAD'-STUFF, n. In the Uriited 
States, bread-corn, meal or fiour bread. 

BREADTH, n. [add.] In the language 
of art, a term employed to express that 
kind of grandeur which results from 
the arrangement of objects, and the 
mode of proceeding in delineating tlieni. 
— In jyainting, it is applied both to de- 
sign and to colouring. It conveys the 
idea of simple arrangement, free from 
too great a multiplicity of details, fol- 
lowing which, the lights and shades 
spread themselves over the prominent 
pai'ts without dazzling or intei-fering 
with each other, so that there is breadth 
of effect, the result of judicious colour- 
ing and chiaro oscuro. When a work 
offers these results, we say it has 
breadth ; and broad touch, broad pen- 
cil, are terms applicable to this man- 
ner of working, when the touches and 
strokes of the pencil produce breadth 
of effect. — In a similar sense, in en- 
graving, we say, a broad burin. 
BKEaK, )'. t. [add.] To break cover, to 
come fortli from a lurking place, as 

game when hunted. — To break in, to 
train, or accustom ; to make tractable, 
as a horse. — To break the pai'le, to 
begin the parley. [Shak.] — To break 

ground, in marine Ian., to lift the anchor 

from the bottom — Tu break shear, is 

when a vessel at anchor, in tending, is 

forced the wrong way by the wind or 

current, so that she does not lie so well 

for keeping herself clear of her anchor. 
BREAK, V. i. [add.] To break up; to 

separate; to dissolve itself; as, tht 

council breaks. [Pope.] 
BREAK'ABLE, a. Capable of being 





BREA!t'A6E, n. [add.] The act of i 
breaking; damage occurring to goods I 
during carriage by railway, carrier, 
steamer, ship, &c. ; allowance for what 
is accidentally broken. 

BREaK'EKS, n. In seamen s Ian., smaM 
flat casks used in boats, filled with 
water, for ballast and for emergency. 1 
\See Breaker.] ' 

BREaK-IX, n. In carpentru, to make ■ 
a breah-iiu is to cut or break a hole in 
brick- work w ith the ripping chisel, for 
the purpose of inserting timber, or to 
receive plugs, the end of a beam, or 
the like. 

BREaK'ING, n. Bankruptcy; irrup- 

BREaK'ING-IN, n The act of subdu- 
ing and training to labour: the training 
of a voung horse or colt ; an inroad. 

BREaIv'-MAN. n. See Brakeman. 

BREAK'-NECK, a. Endangering the 

BREaK'-SHaRE, n. A. disease or 
diarrhoea in sheep. 

BREAM, n. [add.] The Cyprinus brama 
of Linn., and the Abramis brama of 
modern naturalists. By anglers it is 
often called the carp-breara. The 
sea-bream is the Pagrus centrodontus, 
the young of which is known by the 
name of chads; the white bream or 
bream-tlat is the Brama blicca. 

BREAM IXG, 71. In^eo Ian., the act of 
burning off the filth, such as grass, sea- 
weed, ooze, &c., from a ship's bot- 

BRfs^flT^'^' } H. The breast. [5co/cA.] 
BRE.\ST, 'n. [add.] A rank; a line on 
which persons or things are ranged 
side by side ; as, the troops marched in 
close order, the foot by twenty-four in 
a breast, and the horse bv sixteen. 
BREAST'-B.\yD, n. A band of can- ^ 
vas or a rope, passed round the body 
of a man who heaves the lead in sound- 
ing, and fastened to the rigging, to 
prevent his falling into the sea. 
BREAST-WHEEL, n. [add.] It is only 
when the water is laid on about the 
level of the axis that this name is ap- 
plied. AVhen the water is laid on con- 
siderably above the axis, the wheel 
becomes a pitch-back, und ^hen laid 
on very much below the axis, the wheel 
is umlcrsfiot. 

BREATH INXr, n. [add.] Au- in gentle 
motion: applied also, Ji(iurafiveit/, to a 
gentle influence or operation; as, the 
breathinos of the Spirit. 
BRECH,'t n. Breeches. [Chaucer.] 
BRECH'AM, n. A work-horse's col- 
lar. [Scotch.] 

BRE€n AN, ) -r. re . 7 1 

BUECKAN^ f "• ^^'■"- [Scotch.] 
BREDE.-j- n. Breadth. [Chaucer.] 
BRED'-SORE,| «. A whitlow, or a 
BREEDER, ) sore coming without 
a wound or visible cause. 
BREECH, V. i. To suffer whipping on 
the breech. [5AaA.] 
BREECH-BAND, n. 5fc Breeching, 
second noun. 
BREECHED, pp. or a. (breeeht.) Put 
into breeches ; having on breeches ; 
whipped on the breech. 
BREED, r. i. [add.] To breed in and in, 
in agri., to breed from animals of the 
same stock that are closely related. 
[See Breeding.] 
BREEKS, n. Breeches. [Scotch.] 
B R E E :M E.t ) a. [Sax. bremman.] 
BREME,t > Fiu-ious; fierce; out- 
rageous. [Spenser, Chaucer] 

BREER, \i\ 1. To germinate; to , 

BRE.ARD, f shoot forth from the 
eanh, lis grain [Scotch.] 

BREER, \ n. The first appearance of 

BRAIRD,) grain crops above ground 
after thev are sown. [Scotch.] 

BREEZE, ) n. [add.] The name 

BREEZE-FLY, ) breeze is also given 
to different species of the genus Qi^strus. 

BREEZE, n. Small ashes and cinders 
used instead of coal, for burning 

BKEG'MA, n. [Gr. ^»txat, to moisten.] 
In anat.. the fontanel; the two spaces 
left in the head of the infant, where 
the frontal and occipital bones join the 
parietal. It was so named because in 
infants it is tender and moist. 

BRENNE,t f. t. (bren.) [Sax.] To 
burn. [Chancer.] 

BREN'NINGLT,t adv. Hotly. [Otau- 

BRENT-BROW, n. A high forehead. 

BRENT-GOOSE, ) n. A bird of the 

BRANT-GOOSE,) genus An5er,the 
A. bemicla. It is much smaller than 
the common goose, but has much 
larger wings, and it traverses greater 
distances in its migrations. Its breed- 
ing places are in the far north, but it 
migrates for the winter as low down as 
the middle of France. 

BRERES,t n. Briars. [Chaucer.] 

BRES'SOMER, n. A term used in 
architecture for a beam, or brest-sum- 

BRESTE,t V. i. [Sax.] To burst. 

BRET EXED, a. In arch., embattled. 
Every tower bretexed was so cleiie 
Of chose stone, that were far asunder 

Lydgate's Troy. 

BREVE, n. A name of Indian birds of 
the genus Pitta, with short tails and 
bright plumage, are so called. They 
are allied to our thrushes. 
BREyET',>n. [add.] In France, 
B R E VE T, ) formerly, any warrant 
granted by the sovereign to an indivi- 
dual in order to entitle him to perform 
the duty to which it refers. In the 
British scrvicey a commission confer- 
ring on an officer a degree of rank in 
the army, above that which he holds 
in his particular regiment, without, 
however, conveying a power to receive 
the corresponding pay. It does not 
descend lower than the rank of cap- 
tain, nor ascend higher than that of 
lieutenant -colonel. It is given as the 
reward of some particular service, and 
qualifies the officer to succeed to the 
full rank on a vacancy occurring, in 
preference to one not holding such 
brevet, and whose regimental rank is 
the same as his own. It does not exist 
in the royal na\">'. 
BREVET, \a. For the words, ••'a bre- 
BREVET', ) vet-colonel is a colonel 
in rank, with the pay of a lieutenant- 
colonel,'* read, a brevet -lieutenant- 
colonel is a lieutenant-colonel in rank, 
but w ithout the pay of a lieutenant- 
BREVET CY. n. The rank or condi- 
tion of a brevet. [Bar. us.] 
BREVIAT, I n. [add.] A lawyer's 
BREVIATE.) brief. [Hudibras.] 
BREVIPEN NATE, a. Having short 
wings. [See Bkevipenxes.] 


BREWING, n. [add.] The process of 

extracting a saccharine solution from 

malted grain, and converting that solu- 


tion into a fermented and sonnd spiri- 
tuous beverage called aie or beer. The 
process usually followed by the brewer 
may be divided into eight distinct parts, 
viz., the grinding of the malt, mashing, 
boiling, cooling, the fermentation, th^ 
cleansing, the racking or vatting. and 
the fineing or cleaning. The art of 
brew ing is a perfectly chemical one in 
nearlv all its stages. 

BRIA'REAN, a. Hundred-handed; 
from Briareus, a fabled giant with a 
hundred hands. 

BRlBE,f n. What is given to a beggar; 
what is given to an extortioner or cheat. 

BRiB'EN,t V. t. or I. To beg or steal. 

BRIBE-PAN'DER.. «. One who pro- 
cures bribes. 

BRIBERY, n. [add.] In English laic, 
this term has a threefold signification ; 
first, judicial bribery, or the offence of 
a judge, magistrate, or any person con- 
cerned judicially in the administration 
of justice, receiving a reward or con- 
sideration from parties interested, for 
the purpose of procuring a partial and 
favourable decision; secondly, the re- 
ceipt or pa>-ment of money to a public 
ministerial officer, as an inducement to 
him to act contrary to his duty; and 
thirdly, the giving or receiring of money 
to procure votes at parliamentary elec- 
tions, or elections to public offices of 
trust. The first kind of bribery, since 
the Revolution in 16SS, has been alto- 
gether unknown in England. 

BRiB'OUR,t n. A beggar; a thief; a 
robber. [Chaucer.] 

BRICK, n.[add.]The materials of which 
bricks are made may consist of clay 
mixed with sand or fine coal-ashes, and 
particles of small coal sifted, called 
breeze ; or of clay and sand, or of clay 
mixed with chalk and other substances; 
or of clay alone. The ancients botli 
baked their bricks, and also dried them 
in the sun. The Egj-ptians used sun- 
dried bricks in the constructions about 
their tombs, and in the large walls 
which inclosed their temples. 

BRICK'LAYERS ITCH, n. A species 
of local tetter produced on the hands 
of bricklayers by the contact of lime. 

BRICK'LE, a. Brittle; ticklish. 

3RICKXE,t a. [add.] Fit for bricks; 
as. brickie clav. [5i>e/wer,] 

BRICli'-MASON. n. A bricklayer. 

BRICK'-YARD, n, A place where 
bricks are made. 

BUIDDE, for Bird. {Chaucer.] 

BRIDE, r. t. To make a bride of; to 
marrv. [liar, us.] 

BRIDEWELL, n. [add.] A house in 
which offenders are subjected to soli- 
tary confinement and hard labour. 

BRIDGE, n. [add.] Military bridge. 
[See PoxToox.] 

range of planks which forms a com- 
munication between the paddle-boxes 
of a steam - vessel, and which being 
bolted and fastened with knees to the 
paddle-boxes, serves to lessen their 


BRIDGING-FLOORS, «. In arch., 
floors in which bridging-joists are em- 

BRlDOaNG-JOISTS, n. In arch., 
joists which are sustained by transverse 
beams below, called binding -joists ; 
also those joists which are n.ailed or 




fixed to the flooring boards. In the 
hgure, a is the flooring ; b the gii'der ; 

cc,the hndging-joisfs; dd the ceiling- 
joists ; and ee the straps. 

BRi'DLE-MAKER,n. One who makes 

BRI'DLE-PORTS, n. Ports cut in a 
ship's counter for getting out hawsers, 
either to moor by in harbour or to clap 
springs upon. 

BRIDOON', n. A light snaffle or bit of 
a bridle, in addition to the principal bit, 
and having a distinct rein. 

BRIEF, n. [add] In law, an abridged 
relation of the facts of a litigated case, 
with a reference to the points of law 
supposed to be applicable to them, 
drawn iip for the instruction of an ad- 
vocate in conducting proceedings in a 
court of justice. — Church brief or King's 
letter, an instrument which consisted 
of a kind of open letter issued out of 
Chancery,in the king's name, and sealed 
with the privy seal, directed to the 
archbishops, bishops, clergymen, magis- 
trates, churchwardens, and overseers of 
the poor, and authorizing them to col- 
lect money for the purposes therein 
specified, and requiring the several per- 
sons to whom it was directed to assist in 
such collection. This practice is now 
discontinued, and the sovereign's letter 
is sent at certain intervals to the arch- 
bishops of Canterbury and York, au- 
thorizing collections within their pro- 
vinces for the building, enlarging, or 
repairing of churches generallythrough- 
out the country. — Papal or apostolical 
brief, the name given to the letters 
which the pope addresses to individuals 
or religious communities, upon matters 
of discipline. Sometimes they are mere 
friendly and congratulatory letters to 
princes and other persons high in office. 

BRIEF, rt. Common; rife; prevalent. 

BRIEF'-MAN, n. One who makes a 
brief; a copier of a manuscript. 

BRI'ERY, n. A place where briers grow. 

BRIG, n. A bridge. [Scotch.] 

BRIG'ANTS,t " plur. [See Brigand.] 
Brigands ; robbers ; vagabonds. [Spen- 

BRIG'BOTE,t n. [Sax. brig, and hate.] 
The contribution to the repair of 
bridges, walls, and castles. 

BRlGEjf n. [Fr. brigxie.] Contention. 

BRIKE,fn. A breach; ruin. [Chaucer.] 

BRILL, n. A malacopterygious fish, the 
Pleuronectes rhombus. In its general 
form it resembles the turbot, but is in- 
ferior to it both in size and quality. It 
is taken on many parts of our coasts ; 
the principal part of the supply for the 
London market being from the southern 
coast, where it is most abundant. 

BRILLIANCE, n. Same as Brilli- 

BKIM'FILL,t I', t. To fill to the top. 

BRIi\IME,t a. (brim.) Same as Breme, 
— which see. [Chaucer.] 

BRINT)LE-MOTHS, n. Some British 

moths of the genus Xylophasia are so 
called bv collectors. 

BRINE'-PUMPS, n. Pumps employed 
in some steam - vessels to clear tlie 
boiler of the brine which collects at the 
bottom of it. 

BRINE'-SHRIMPJ n. A branchiopo- 

BRINE-WORM, ] dous mollusc, the 
Artemia salina. It is a small crusta- 
cean, about Iialf an inch in length, com- 
monly found in the salt-pans at Lym- 
ington, when the evaporation of the 
water is considerably advanced. 

BRIS'TLE, V t. [add.] To make bristly. 

BRISTLE-FERN, n. An elegant Bri- 
tish fern of the genus Trichomanes, 
the T. brevisetum or speciosum. [See 

BRIS'TLE-GRXSS, n. Setaria, a genus 
of grasses. [See Setaria.] 

BlUS'TLE-HERRING, n. Chatoessus, 
a genus of the herring family found in 
the tropical seas, so called from the 
last ray of tlie dorsal fin prolonged into 
a wliip-like filament. 

BRISTLE-MOSS, rt. A species of moss. 

BRIS'TLE-TaIL, n. A Hy having the 
tail terminated by hairs. 

BRISTLINESS, n. The quality of 
being bristly. 

Bristol Stone, — which see. 

BRIT, n. A fish of the herring kind, 
from one to four inches long, found, at 
some seasons, in inmiense numbers on 
tiie eastern coast of New England. 

BRITANNIA-METAL, n. A metallic 
compound or alloy of tin, with a little 
copper and antimony, used chiefly for 
teapots, spoons. &c. 

BRITHER, n. Brother. [Scotch.] 

BRI'ZA, n. [add.] See Quaking- 

BROACH, n. [add.] A taper; a torch 
or candle rod. [Provincial.] — A nar- 
rows-pointed chisel used by masons for 
hewing stones. [See the Verb.] 

BROACH, 77. In mech., a general name 
for all tapered boring-bits or drills. 
Those for wood 
are fluted like the 
shell-bit, but ta- 
pered towards tlie 
point; but those 
formetal are solid, 
and usually three, 
four, or six sided. 
Their usual forms 
are shown in the 
annexed figures. 
Broaches are also 
known as widen- 
ers and rimers. 
Fig. a is an ex- 
ample of the broach or rimer for wood, 
and fig. b of those for metal. 

BROACH, V. t. [add.] In Scotland, a 
term among masons, signifying to rough- 

BROACH'ED-WORK, n. In Scotland, 
a term among viasons, signifying work 
or stones that are rough-hewn, and 
thus distinguished from ashlar or po- 
lished work, 



chisels by which broached work is 

BROAD' AWARE', a. Wide awake ; 
fully awake. 

BRO^D'-BILL, 7i. The common name 
in America of a wild duck {Anas marila) 
which appears on the North American 
coast in large numbers in October. In 
this country it is called the scaup-duck. 

BRO^D'EN, V. t. To make broad ; to 
increase in breadth; to render more 
broad or comprehensive. 

BROAD'-LEAVED, a. Having broad 

BROAD'-SlGHTED,r/. Having a wide 
view ■ seein" far, 

BROCAT', %i. The original term for 

BROCCEL'LO, n. [Fr, brocatelle.] 
Among drapers, a kind of light thin 
woollen cloth, of silky surface, used for 
linings, &;c. 

BROCHE,t n. The tongue of a buckle 
or clasp ; the buckle or clasp itself. 
[See Broach, Brooch.] [Chaucer.] 

BROCHETTE', n. [Fr.] A skewer to 
stick meat on ; a mode of frying chic- 

BROCHURE', 71. [Fr.] A pamphlet. 

BROCK, n. A badger. 

BROCK'IT-€OW, n, A white-faced 
cow. [Scotch.] 

BRO'DiUM, 7i. A term in pharmacy, 
synonymous with broth, or the liquor 
in which anything is boiled. — Brodium 
salis, a decoction of salt. 

BROEL'LA, 71. A coarse kind of cloth 
used for the ordinary dresses of coun- 
trymen and the monastic clergy in the 
middle ages. 

BROG, n. A pointed instrument, as a 
shoemaker's awl. 

BROG, V. t. To prick with a sharp- 
pointeJ instrument, [Scotch.] 

BRO'KAOE. See Brocage. 

BRO'KEN, pp. or a. [add,] Separated 
into fragments; crushed; subdued. — 
Broken number, a fraction. 

BRO'KEN COLOURS, n. Colours 
produced bythemixtm"eof one or more 

BRO'KENLY, adv. [add.] To speak 
brokenly, to speak in broken or imper- 
fect language. [Shah.] 

BRO'KEN-MAN, n. An outlaw; a 
bankrupt. [Scotch.] 

BRO'KEN MEAT, n. Fragments of 
meat ; meat that has been cut up. 

BROKEN-WIND, n. [add.] In this 
disease the expiration of the air from 
the lungs occupies double the time 
that the inspiration of it does ; it re- 
quires also twoeftbrts rapidly succeed- 
ing to each other, attended by a sliglit 
spasmodic action in order fully to ac- 
complish it. It is caused by rupture of 
the air-cells, and there is no cure for it, 

BRO'KERA(iE,».[add.] The business 
or employment of a broker. 

BROK'KING,t ppr. [From Break, 
Broke.] Throbbing; quavering. [Chau- 

BROMAtOL'OOY, n. instead of 

BROME, n. See Bromine. 

BROMILIA'CEyE,n. ladd.] The plants 
of this order are all capable of existing 
in a dry hot air without contact ^vith 
the earth. They are al) natives of the 
continent or islands of America. 

BROMI'SATINE, n. A compound of 
bromine and isatine, analogous to chlo- 

obtained from bromisatine, 

mide, L. argentum, and Gr. tuto;, type.] 
A very delicate photograpiiic agent, 
prepared by brushing over paper a 
solution of 100 grains of nitrate of sil- 
ver in an ounce of water, and when dry 
a solution of forty grains of bromide of 
potassium in an ounce of water, and 
again drying it, and then applying one 
more wash of the silver solution. 




BRO'MURET, rt. A compound of bro- 
mic acid with iodine, phosphorus, sul- 
phur, &c. 

BRO'MUS, n. [Gr. 0i9u»t.'] Brorae-grass, 
a genus of gi-asses. Thirteen species 
are enumerated by British botanists ; 
they are known by having their spike- 
lets many-flowered ; two awnless 
glumes to each floret; two paleae or 
valves, the lowermost of which has a 
rough, straight, rigid awn proceeding 
from below the tip of the valve. None 
are of anv value to the farmer. 

BRONCH'I.tE,) n. [See Broxchial.] 

BRONCHIA, } The subdivisions, or 

BRONCHI, 5 ramifications of the 
trachea in the lungs. 

BRONt'H'IAL, a. [add.] Bronchial 
tubeSy the minute ramifications of the 
bronchi, terminating in the bronchial 
cells, or air-cells of the lungs. — Bron- 
chial membrane, the mucous membrane 
lining the bronchiie. The term bron- 
chial has been applied also to the whole 
extent of the air-tube of animals, in- 
cluding the trachea and its ramitica- 

BRONCH'OCELE, instead of BRON- 

BRON'CHUS, n. [Gr. ^jryx^f, the wind- 
pipe.] [add.] A ramiiication of the 
trachea. [See Trachea.] 

BROND,t n. A torch ; a brand. [Chau- 

BRON'ZED,pp.ora. Made to resemble 
bronze ; browned. 

BRONZE-LIQUOR, n. A solution of 
chloride of antimony and sulphate of 
copper, used for bronzing gun-barrels, 

BRONZE'-PO'V\T>ER, n. A metallic 
powder, mixed witli oil-paint, for imi- 
tating bronze. Tlie yellow is composed 
of pulverized brass, and the red of 
pulverized copper. 

BRONZING, ppr. [add.] Turning to 
the colour of bronze. 

BROO, ) II. Broth ; juice ; water ; 

BREE, ) moisture of any kind. — Also, 
opinion founded upon bruit or report. 

BROOCH'ED, pp. or a. Adorned; or- 
namented with brooches or jewels. 

BROOD, V. i. [add.] To remain fixed in 
the thoughts, as a subject of medita- 
tion ; a.^, this subject had long been 
brooding in Ijis mind. 

BROOD'-^LIRE, n. A mare kept for 

BROS'TEN,t pp. Bursten, or burst. 

BROT'EL,t a. Brittle. [Chaucer.] 

BROTH'ER-IN-L AW, ». The husband 
of a sister, or a wife's brother. 

BROUD EO,t pp. [Fr. brode.] Em- 
broidered. [Chaucer.] 

BROUETTE', n. [Fr.J A small two- 
wheeled carriage. 

BROUGHAM, h. (I'rom.) A modern 
species of wheel -carriage. 

BROUK'£N,t V. t. infin. To brook; to 
enjoy; to use. [Chaucer.] 

BROWN, V. t. [add.] To give a bright 
brown colour to articles of iron, as gun- 
barrels, by forming a thin, uniform 
coat of oxide on their sxurface. 

BROWN-COAL, «. Wood-coal, or 

BROWN'-GULL, n. The brown gannet, 
or booby of the south seas. 

BROWN'ING, n. The act or operation 
of giving a shining brown lustre to ar- 
ticles of iron. It is chiefly applied to 
the barrels of fowling-pieces, and sol- 
diers' rifle-s, to conceal the lirearms 
from the game and the enemy. It is 

effected by means of chloride of anti- 
mony, called, from its use in processes 
of this kind, bronzing -salt. — Also, a 
preparation of sugar, port- wine, spices, 
' &c., for colouring and flavouring meat, 
and made di>!ies. 

n. A dwarf, or subterranean elf. 

BROWN -OCHRE, n. A strong, dark- 
yellow opaque pigment, found native in 
various countries. 

BHOAVN'-PINK, n. A vegetable yellow- 
pigment, forming one of the yellow 

BROWN'-RED, n. A native pigment; 
but that used in painting is chiefly pre- 
pared from vellow ochre calcined. 

BR0WN'-R'UST,». a disease of wheat 
in which a dry brown powder is sub- 
stituted for the farina of the grain. 

BROWN-STOUT, n. A superior kind 
of porter. 

BROWSER, n. One that browses. 

BUOWSE-WOOD, «. Brushwood, or 
twi^s on which animals feed. 

BKOWST, n. That which is brewed; 
as much of malt liquor as is brewed at 
one time. [Scotch.] 

BROW'SY, for BowsT, a. [Dryden.] 

BRU'ANG, n. The Malay name for a 
species of sun-bear, Helarctos Malay- 
anus. It has sliort hair, a white or 
yellow mark on its breast, and a long 

BRU'CHUS, n. A genus of coleopterous 
insects of the group Rhynchophora, the 
females of which deposit their eggs in 
the germ of the bean, pea. and other 
leguminous plants. Tlie seed becoming 
matured is devoured by the larva, and 
the holes so often observed in pease, 
are those made by the periect iusect to 

Bruchus pisi. tiatarnl size ard m9>rt)ifled. 

etfect its escape. The genus is divided 
into several subgenera, constituting a 
family named Bruchidje ; they have all 
a short, broad, flattened beak, and ex- 
posed tiliform palpi. A species found 
by Humboldt and Boupland feeds on 
palm-nuts; the useful cocoa-nut is lia- 
ble to the attack of another species 
{B. ruficornis). 
BRU'CIA, n. See Brucina. 
BRUCK'LE,! a. Brittle ; ticklish. 
BRICK'LE, ) [Scotch.] 
BUUICK, V. t. See Bbuik.. 
BRUIL'ZIE, n. See Brultie. 
BRUN'NEN'S GLANDS, h. In a»«^, 
small flattened granular bodies in the 
mucous membrane of the small intes- 
BRUNOL'IC ACTI>, n. One of the 
acids found by Runge in coal-tar. Little 
! is known respecting it. 

BRUNO'NIAN THEORY, n. In phys., 
j a theory founded by John Brown, ac- 
[ cording to which no change can take 
i place in the state of the excitable 
f powers, without previous excitement; 
j and it is only by over-excitement that 
the excitability, witli life, can be cx- 
! hausted, 
BKUN'STANE, n. Brimstone. [Scotch.] 
BRUNS MICK-GREEN, «. A pigment 
j formed of carbonate of copper, luixed 
I with chalk or lime. 

BRU'NY,t n. [Teut. bntnia.] A breast- 
plate ; a cuirass. 

BRUSH'INESS, n. The quality of being 

BRUSH'-MAKER, n. One who makes 

BRUSH-TURKEY, n. The name given 
by the colonists to a large gregarious 
rasorial bird of Australia, the Talle- 

Brush -turkey, TaJUifoUa LathamL 

galla Lathami. This curious bird was 
at one time regarded as a vulture. It 
collects great quantities of sticks and , 
leaves, with which it raises mounds, in 
which the female deposits her eggs. 

BRUSH UP, r. i. To prepare one's self; 
to take courage. [CoUoq.] 

BRUST'EN, iv>. or a. Bui-sted. 

BRUS'TLE, V. i. [add.] To erect the 
hair or bristles, as a lion. [Cowley.] 

BRU TALISM, n. Quality of a brute; 

BRUTAL'ITY, n. [add.] A savage, 
shameless, or inhuman act. 

BRUTALIZA TION, n. Act of brutal- 

BRUTELY. rtffy. [add.] Obsolete ; oc- 
curs in Milton. 

BRU'TISM, n. [add.] A term used by 

BRYO'NIA, n. Bryony, a genus of 
plants, nat. order Cucm'bitaceie. The 
B. dioica is the wild bryony of our 
hedges, the root of which was formerly 
much employed in rural pharmacy as a 
drastic, but it is now disused- On ac- 
count of the powerful drastic properties 
of the root, the French call it devil's- 
turnip. [See Bryony.] 

BRY'ZES,+ H. The breezes, or gadflies. 

BUBO, n. A subgenus of owls, sepa- 
rated by Cuvier, and characterized by 
a small concha, or ear aperture, and a 
facial disk, less perfect than in the sub- 
genus Syrnium. To this subgenus be- 
long the great ow*l or eagle-owl (B. 
maximus). the largest of the nocturnal 
birds; and the Virginian horned owl 
{B. Virginianus). 

BUCANEER'. ) r. i. To act the part 

BUCCANEER',) of a pirate or sea- 

BUCANEER'ING, | h. The employ- 

BUCCANEER'ING,) ment of buc- 


BUC'CINAL, rt. Shaped like a trumpet ; 
sounding like a horn or trumpet. 

BUCENT'AUR, n. [Gr. $wi, an ox, and 
*£vT*t/5«, a centaur.] A mythological 
monster, half man and half ox. 

BUCK'A. See Bucrer. 

BUCK'ETFUL, instead of BUCK'ET- 

BUCK'ET- VALVE, n. A round valve 
employed in the au"-pump of a steam- 




BUCK'IE, n. A general name in Scot- 
land for univalve marine shells; the 
name is more yiarticnlarly applied to 
the Fusus aniiquus, which is collected, 
boiled, and eaten ; the shell is the 
"roaring bucliie" in which children 
hear the sound of the sea. In Shet- 
land this shell is suspended horizontally 
and used instead of a lamp, the cavity 
holding the oil and the canal the wick. 
— Deevil's huckic, a perverse refractory 
youngster; a mischievous madcap, that 
has an evil twist in his character. 

BUCK'ISn, a. Pertaining to a buck or 
gay young fellow; foppisli. 

BUCK'ISM, n. The quality of a buck ; 

BUCK'LERS, n. Pieces of wood used 
instead of hawse-plugs in war ships and 
large merchant vessels. 

BUCK'KA, ». [In the language of the 
Calabar coast, a demon, a powerful 
and superior being.] A white man ; a 
term universally applied to white men 
by the blacks of the African coast, the 
West Indies, and the soutliern states 
of America. — Swnmja buchra, an ele- 
gantly dressed white man or dandy. 
It appears originally to signify merely 
white; thus, bvchra-ynm is a white 
kind of yam in favour with the negroes 
in the West Indies. 

BUCK'KAM, V. t. To make stifF; to 
distend to an apparent bulk or magni- 
tude by adscititioti^ mean'^, analogous 
to the buckram used by tailors. [Cow- 


See Bakshish in this St/pp. 

British plant of the genus Plantago, tlie 
P. coronopus. It is a common plant, 
growing in sandy and gravelly ground, 
chiefly near the sea. [See Plantain.] 

BUCK'SKIN, a. Made of the skin of a 
buck ; a species of leather. 

BUCK'UM-AVOOD,7(. A name for sap- 
pan-wood, — which see. 

BUCRA'NIA, n. i^hir. [L. ox-skulls.] 
Sculptured ornaments I'cpresenting ox- 
skuHs adorned with wreaths or other 

that have arrived at a state of bliss, 
that are disengaged from the bonds of 
matter, and inhabit the immaterial 

ornaments, which were employed to 
decorate the frieze of the entablature, 
in the Ionic and Corinthian orders of 

BUD, n. [add.] An unexpanded flower; 
as, the hud of a rose. 
BUDDIPA,} n. In Indian myth., the 
BUDDII, > generic name of several 
BOODH, ) dcifiedsages of the Budd- 
hist sect ; the most celebrated of whom 
is generally understood to have lived 
about luOn years p..c. It also signifies, 
1. The supreme being, the creator, 
identical with Brahma, and named Ade- 
Buddha. 2. A deity emanated from the 
trimurti or Indian trinity. 3. The 
priests of that deity and his religion. 
4. The genius of the planet Mercury. 
Buddha likewise signities the souls i 

Buddha, from Moore's Hindoo Pantheon. 

world. And lastly, it is applied to 
different incarnations of the divine in- 
BUDDHISM, ) n. The religion of 
BUDDH'AISM, \ Buddha, the religi- 
BOODH'ISM, ) ous doctrine found- 
ed by Sakia in the East Indies. It 
admits of no distinctions of caste in 
respect of religion, no bloody sacritices, 
and no salvation without an ascetic 
and contemplative life. It denies the 
existence of spirits, and does not admit 
the real absolute existence of anything 
but matter. Buddhism struggled for a 
long time against Brahminism, but was 
ultimately expelled from India. It now 
prevails in China, IMongolia, Tibet, 
Burmah, Siam, Ceylon, &c. 
BUDDH'IST, H. A worshipper of 

Buddha or Boodh. 
BUDDH'IST, \a. Relating to 
BUDDHIS'TI€, J Buddha or to 
Buddhism, the religion of Buddha. 
BUD'DING, 71. The putting forth or 
producing of buds or germs. — In horti- 
cnlture, an operation by means of \viiich 
the branches of one kind of tree are 
often made to grow upon the stem of 
another kind. It is performed by in- 
troducing the leaf-bud of one kind into 
the branch of another, when the bud 
thus intro- 
duced sends 
forth roots, 
forms a stem, 
and becomes 
in all respects 
similar to its 
parent, re- 
taining all the 
special pecu- 
liarities of the 
latter. Roses, 
plums, peaches, nectarines, cherries, ' 
and many other kinds of fruit, are pro- 
pagated in this way. 
BUDDLE'A, n. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Scrophulariaceie. The species, 
which are numerous, are shrubs with 
mostly quadrangular branches, opposite 
leaves, and usually orange- coloured 
flowers. They inliabit South America 
and the East and West Indies; some 

are cultivated in our gardens, as B. 
glohosa, and all are worth cultivating 
on account of their showy blossoms. 

BUDE'-LIGHT, n. A name which ha.s 
been employed to denote various con- 
trivances for increasing the brilliancy 
of artificial lights, proposed by Mr. 
Gurney, of Bude, in Cornwall. The 
original proposal consisted in supplying 
a small stream of oxygen gas to the 
flame; but latterly the author has con- 
fined himself to endeavours to augment 
the intensity of the light by reflectors 
and refractors of various sorts, but with 
very little success; and although the 
name lias been retained, these schemes 
have nothing in common with the ori- 
ginal purpose. 

BUD(jE, n. Lamb-skin with the wool 
dressed outwards. 

BUDci'ERO, V. A large Bengal plea- 

BUDG'ET,n. [add.] The /am//mr name 
given to the annual financial statement 
which the Chancellor of the Exchequer, 
or sometimes the First Lord of the 
Treasury makes in the House of Com- 
mons, in a committee of ways and 
means. In making this statement the 
minister gives a view of the genei'al 
financial policy of the Government, 
and shows the condition of the country 
in respect to its industrial interests. 
At this time also an estimate is pre- 
sented of the probable income and ex- 
penditure for the following twelve 
months, and a statt\nent is made of 
what taxes it is intended to reduce or 
abolish, or what new ones it may be 
necessary to impose. If the revenue 
exhibits a surplus, a reduction of taxes 
is proposed ; and if there be a deficiency, 
additional taxes become necessary. 

BUDY'TES, n, A genus of birds allied 
to Motacilla, and containing the yellow 

BUFF, a. Of the colour of buft' leather; 
light yellow; made of buff; as, a bu^ 

BUF FALO-GRASS,n. Trifoliumpen- 
Sf/IvaJiicum, an American species of 
short grass which covers the vast prairies 
on which buffaloes feed. 

BUFF'-COAT, n. A close military 
outer garment, with short sleeves, and 
laced tightly over the chest, made of 
buffalo-skin, or other thick and elastic 
material, much worn by soldiers in the 
17th century as a defensive covering. 

BUF'FER, ?i. [add.] Thisapparatus con- 
sists of powerful springs and framing, 
attached to railway carriages and wag- 
gons to deaden the buff or concussion 
between them when they come into 

tjNDEB-FnAME 07 BAILWHY 0AnBl*nB. «. BufRnR-tprings ttcUJ ' 
from the buffing-blocks bb. 

11 ut the ends by rods 

collision. It is sometimes called a apparatus. Any apparatus for 
deadening the concussion between a 
moving body and one on which it strikes 
may be called a buffer. 

BUF'FET,7i. [Fr.] In mw^ic, that part of 
tlie cabinet-work of an organ which 
incloses the pipes. 

BUF'FO, n. [It.] The comic actor in an 




BUFFO'NIA, n. A genus of plants, 
nat. order Caryophyllaceje. Thespecies 
are insigniticant slender herbs. B. 
annua, toad-grass, is a native of France, 
and is said to have been foxind in Eng- 

BUFTONT, n. A projecting covering 
of gauze or linen for a lady's breast, 


which stuck out from beneath the chin 
like the breast of a pigeon, much worn 
about 1750. 

BUFFOON', V. I. To act the part of a 
butToon ; to excite merriment without 
regard to dignity or decorum. 

BUF'FY, a. Resembling the buff-co- 
loured fibrin whicli appears on the sur- 
face of the crassamentum of blood 
drawn in certain states of disease. — 
2. Pertaining to buff on the blood. 

BUF'FY-€oAT, H. The buff-coloured 
fibrin on the surface of the crassa- 
mentum of blood. l^See Bufft in this 

BU'FO, n. A genus of batrachian rep- 
tiles, comprehending the different spe- 
cies of toads, at once distinguished 
from the frogs by their thick squat 
body, covered with tubercles : two 
species are found in the British Islands. 
[See Toad.] 



BUGGY, 7?. In the East Indies, a gig 
with a large head, or top to screen 
those who travel in it from the sun's 

BU'GLE, 71. [add.] Bugles are elongated 
beads, commonly black, but sometimes 
of various colours, used in decorating 
female apparel, and also in trafficking 
with savage tribes. 

BU'GLE, H. [add.] See Ajuga. 

BUGLE-HORN, n, [add.] A musical 
brass mnd-instrument ; latterly im- 
proved by keys, so as to be capable of 
all the inHections of the scale. 

BU'GLE-UORN,tn. A drinking vessel 
made of horn. [Chaucer.] 

BUHR'-STONE, n. [add.] This is a 
quartzose sandstone, very much used 
for millstones. The French huhr-stone 
is the best. 

BEUK { "• ^ book. [Scotch.'] 

BUILD, n. (bild.) Construction ; make; 

BUILD'ING, n. [add.] The art of con- 
structing editices ; the mass of materials 
shaped into an edifice. — Building of 
beamsy the same as scarfing, — tchick 

BUILD UP, V. t. To establish ; to found ; 
to raisd ; as, to build up a settlement ; 

to build up a character, &c. [Ameri- 

BUILT, pp. [add.] In marine Ian., this 
term is used as a compound with others, 
to signify the peculiar form or con- 
struction of a vessel; as, frigate-6j»7/. 
clipper-6^^(/^ >S;c. — .1 hnilt mast or bloclt, 
is one composed of several pieces. 

BUIST, ) n. The mark set upon cattle 

liOOST, f by their owners. [Scotch.] 

BULB, n. [add.] A spherical protube- 
rance on a stalk : as, the bulb of a 

BULBA'CEOUS, a. Bulbous. 

BULB'LET, n. [Fr. bulhiUe.] A bulb 
which separates spontaneously from 
the stem of a plant, as in Liliumbulbi- 

BUL'BOSE, a. Same as Bulbous. 

BUL'BUL, n. A Persian bird, the 
Eastern rival of the nightingale, but 
belonging to the shrikes, a difierent 
family of its class ; represented by the 
poets as enamoured of the opening 
rosebud, and, perched on some neigh- 
bouring stem, as pouring out his song 
in her ear, while she, proud of her 
youth and beautv, laughs at his plaints. 

BUL'BULE, H. [L. bulbulus.'] A little 

BUL'BUS, n. [L.] A bulb; a scaly leaf- 

BULIM'IA, ?j. Voracious appetite. [See 

BIJLI'MUS, 71. A very extensive genus 
of terrestrial molluscs, allied to the 
genus Helix. In the tropical forests 
some of the species are of large size, 
and their eggs might almost be taken 
for those of small birds. 

BULK'ER, 71. In shipping concerns, a 
person employed to ascertain the capa- 
city of goods, so as to fix the amount 
of freight or shore-dues to which they 
are liable. 

BULL, 71. [add.] Bulls and bears. [See 
under Bear.] 

BULL, n. A blunder or contradiction ; 
more exactly, an apparent congruity, 
but real incongruity of ideas, suddenly 

BULL'ACE, 7}. [add.] The Prunus insi- 
titia, called also buUace - plum, and 
bullace-tree. It is a British plant. 
[See Prunus.] 

BULL'-BAT, n. The American goat- 
sucker {Caprimultjus Amcricanus) is 
often so called in the United States, 
partly from its resemblance to a bat, and 
partly from a booming sound it some- 
times makes in the air, like the bellow- 
ing of a bulk 

BULL-COMBER. ii. The local name 
of several species of beetles of the family 
Scarabseidie ; the TyphcBus vulgaris is 
commonly so called. 

of plav. 

BUL'LET-PROOF. «. Capable of re- 
sisting the force of a bullet, 

BULLET-WOOD, n. A wood of a 
greenish- hazel colour, close and hard, 
resembling Green-heart, the produce 
of the Virgin Isles, West Indies. It is 
probably the Achras sapota of bota- 
nists, which is called bully-tree, and 
also Naseberrv bullet-tree. 

BULL'-FINCH, n. [add.] The name of 
a genus of birds (Pyrrhula), separated 
by Brisson from the grosbeaks. The 
species chiefiy inhabit cold and tem- 
perate climates. The conmion bull- 
finch is the P. vulgaris (Loxia pyrrhula 
Linn.) It is a well-known and pretty 
bird, and when tamed may be taught 
to whistle musical airs- P. st/noica is 

an Asiatic species, and P. cineriola an 
inhabitant of Brazil. 

BULL'-FLY, or BULL'-BEE,n.radd.] 
The gadrtv. 

BULL'-FROG, n. [add.] The bull-frog 
of New England is the Bana pipiens, 

BULL'-HE AD, n. [add.] The river bull- 
head, or miller's thumb, is the Coftus 
gobio; the armed bull-head is the C. 
aspidophonts, found in the Baltic and 
northern seas; the six -horned bull- 
head {C hexacorms)isa North Ameri- 
can species. 

BULL'ION, 72. [add.] In political ceo- 
nomy, this word is frequently used to 
denote gold and silver, both coined and 

BIJLL'IONIST, n. An advocate for an 
exclusive metallic currency, or of a 
paper currency always convertible into 

BIJLL'IRAG, V. t. To insult in a bully- 
ing manner. [ Vulaar.] 

BULL'OCIv'S-EYE, 7L A small thick 
glass or skvlight in a covering or roof. 

BULL'-RUSH, 7j. [add.] The EngUsh 
name of two species of plants of the 
genus Tj-pha, the T. latifolia, and T. 
angustifolia. [See Reed- Mace.] The 
same name is also sometimes given to 
Scirpus lacustris, a tall I'ushy-like 
plant, from which the bottoms of chairs, 
mats, &c., are often manufactured. 
[See Scirpus.] 

BULL'-SEGG, n. In Scot/and and the 
7iorih of England, a castrated bull. 

BULL'S-EYE, n. [add.] In arch., any 
small circular aperture for the admis- 
sion of light or air. Called also bul- 
lock's -eye. 

BULL-STAG, n. In the south of Eng- 
land, a castrated bull. 

BULSE, 71. In the East Indies, a cer- 
tain quantity of diamonds. 

BUL'WARK, n. [add.] The bulwarks 
or berthing of a ship, are the boarding 
above the level of the decks, nailed on 
the outside of the stanchions and tim- 

BUMBARDS, n. Ale-barrels. [Shak.] 

BUMB.\Z'ED, ;7). Amazed; confused; 
stupified. [Scotch.] 

BUMBE LO, n. A glass flask used for 
subliming camphor. 

BUM'BLE, 71. A local name for the 

BUM'BLE,t r. i. [From Bum.] To 
make a humming noise; to cry like a 
bitteru. [Chaucer.] 

BUMTER, 71. [add.] A crowded house 
at a theatre, &c., in honour of some 
favourite performer. 

BUN, n. See Bcnx. 

BUND, n. In the East Indies, an em- 

BUNDLE, V. t. [add.] To sleep in the 
same bed mth the clothes on, as a man 
and woman; a practice said to have 
been formerly resorted to in America, 
on a scarcity of beds, when husbands 
and parents permitted travellers to 
bundle with their wives and daughters. 
Bundling is also s^d to be practised in 
M'ales. — To bundle off, to send a person 
off m a hurry or pet. [Provincial.] - 

BUN DLE, V. i. To prepare for depar- 
ture; to depart. [Provincial.] 

BUN'DLING-PRESS, n. A machine 
for packing yarn into ten lb. bundles. 

BUNGALOW, 71. In the East Indies, 
a thatched or tiled cottage of one 
story, used for temporary residence. 

BUNION. See Bunvos in this Supp. 

BUNKER, 71. [Dan. bunker; Goth. 
ba-n k, a bench.] A bench or sort of 
low chest, that serves for a seat ; also. 




a seat in a window, which also serves 
for a chest, opening with a hinged lid. 

A wiiiiiock buukrr i' tlie cast. Burns 

BUNK'UM, 7?, A phrase used in the 
United States of America, and applied 
to members of Congress, when it is 
evident they are speaking chietJy witli 
the^iew of gratifying tlieir constitu- 
ents, the majority of whom seem to 
value their representatives in propor- 
tion to the length of their speeches in 
Congress, and are very fond of seeing 
those speeches in the newspapers. 
The following extract explains the ori- 
gin of the phrase: — 

The iionouralile menilier for Hu n combe 
addressed CoaKiess in a lontj-winded, irrele- 
vant speecli. The house became impatient; 
some members tried to put down tlic speaker, 
and many leit the house He was not, liow- 
evcr, to 1)6 so easily shelved; so lie told the 
honourable members that tliey niii^lit do as 
they pleased; lie cared Htfle whether tliey 
hstened lo liim or uot, us he was not speaU- 
inif for tlirni but f>M- Buncombe — BuTiromhe, 
in Nnrih Carolina, being the place which he 

BUNN,\ n. [add.] The usual orthogra- 

BUN, f phy of this word is bun. 

BUNT'ING-CROW, n. The hooded 
crow (Co7TH5 corni.r). 

BUN'YON, ^ n. An excrescence or ball 

BUN'ION, ) at the inside of th^ ball 
of the great toe, arising from an in- 
flammation of the bursa mucosa. 

BUOY, 71. [add.] A float; a floating 
mark on the sea, to point out the po- 
sition of objects beneath the water, as 
anchors, shoals, rocks, &c., or to mark 
out the course a ship is to follow. 

BUOY'AGE, 71. A series of buoys or 
floating beacons, for the guidance of 
vessels into or out of port, &c. 

BUOY'ANCE, 71. Same as Booyancv. 

BUOY'ANCY, n. [add.] The property 
which certain bodies have, by which 
they are supported at the surface of a 
fluid, so as to sink in it as much only 
as a part of their depth or thickness. 
Thus ice, most kinds of wood, and all 
bodies specifically lighter than water, 
are said to have buoyancy m that fluid. 
The term is frequently used to desig- 
nate the weight necessary to make a 
solid piece of wood, or a vessel of wood 
and metal, sink in water, till its upper 
surface is on a level with that of the 
water, or till a horizontal section of the 
body, at a given distance from its up- 
per or lower surface, is on a level with 
the surface of the water. The buoy- 
ancy of a body is the weight of the 
volume of water displaced by the float- 
ing body. 

BU PHAGA, n. [add.] Besides the 
Buphaga Africana^ another species, 
B. erythrorhyncha, has been discovered 
in Madagascar. It is about one-third 
less than the B. Africana. They are 
called ox-peckers. 

BUPLEU'RUiM, 71. [&i>vi, an ox, and 
tXekjow, a rib.] Ilare's-ear, a genus of 
plants. \See Hare's-Eak.] 

BUPUES'TIS, 71. A Linneean genus of 
serricorn beetles, distinguished by the 
toothed or serrated form of the anten- 
nae, and the splendour of their colours. 
The largest and most brilliant of these 
beetles are found chieHy in tropical 
climates; their larv^ are wood-eaters 
or wood-borers, and attack both fruit 
and forest trees. About 500 species 
are known, which differ considerably 
in form among themselves. Natural- 
ists have divided them into several 
genera, constituting a family (Bupres- 

tida^). Four or five small species are 
found in this country. 

BUR'BOT, n. [add.] This fish (Gadus 
lota) is found in several of the English 
rivers and lakes of the northern coun- 
ties ; but it is said to arrive at its great- 
est perfection in the Lake of Geneva. 
With the ling it forms, in modern sys- 
tems of ichthyology, a genus to which 
the name Lota is given. 



BUR'DOUN,t "- [Er. bourdon.] A 
humming noise ; the bass in music. 

BUREAU', 71. [add.] A department for 
the transaction of public business. On 
the Conli7ient the highest departments 
of government iu most countries have 
the name of bureau; as, the bureau of 
the minister for foreign affairs. In 
Emjland, the term is confined to in- 
ferior and subordinate departments, 

BUREAUCRATIC, a. Relating to 

BUREAU'CRATIST, n An advocate 
for or a supporter of bureaucracy. 

BURETTE', n. [add.] This instrument, 
which was contrived by Gay-Lussac, 
consists of a graduated glass tube, and 
a smaller tube parallel to it, connected 
with it at the base, and recurved at the 

BUR'6EIN,t V. i. To bourgeon; to 
blossom or bud. [Sife7iser.1 

BURG'-GRAVE, w. See Burgkave. 

BURGH'AL, a. (burg'al.) Belonging to 
a burgh. 

BURG'HOLDER, ) . ,.,, . 

BORSE'HOLDER,} "■^*'*^'"S-"i'''"- 

BURG'LARER,t n. A burglar. 

BURG'-MASTER. See Burgomas- 

BURG'-MOTE, n. A borough-court. 

BURG'OMASTER, n. [add.] An aqua- 
tic bird, the glaucous gull (Larus 
glaucus), common in arctic regions, 
which lays its eggs in the holes of rocks. 
It is so called from its domineering 
over the smaller species of gull and 
other aquatic birds. 

BURG WARD, h. [Burg and ward.] 
A/icientfy, the custody or keeping of a 

BURIAL-SERVICE, n. The religious 
service performed at the interment of 
the dead. 

BUR'IELSjf n. plur, Burying-places. 

BURK, I', t. [add.] To smother; to 
shelve; to get rid of by a side-wind ; 
as, to bu7'h a parliamentary question. 
[Not degaid.] 

BURL, n, A small knot or lump in 

BUR-MAR'IGOLD, ». A genus of 
plants (Bidens), of which there are two 
British species, viz., nodding bur-mari- 
gold {Bidens cernua), and three-cleft 
bur-marigold {B. tripartita), both an- 
nuals, growing by the sides of ponds 
and ditches. Nat. order Compositae. 

BURN, 71. [add.] Bu7'/is are produced 
by heated solids, and scalds by heated 

BURN, V. t. [add.] In surg., to apply an 
actual cautery; to cauterize. — To burn 
daylight, to waste time. [Shak.\ — To 
burn one's fingers, to suffer loss by a 
specidation. [Colloquial.] — In the game 
of bowls, to burn a bowl, is to displace 
it accidentally, and the bowl so dis- 
placed is said to be burned. 

BURN,v.i. [add.] To burn with labour^ 
to be full of basy stir and activity. 


BURN'ED,tpi>.[Fr.67-7/ni>.] Burnished. 

BURN'ET, n. [add.] The great burnet 
is the Sanguisorba officinalis, and thtj 
salad-burnet, the Poterium sanguisor- 
ba. [^See Sanguisorba and PoTERiuM.] 

BURNET-MOTH, n. Beautiful red 
and black hawk-moths, of the genus 
Anthroctra, Two or more species 
are found in this countrv. 

BURN'ET -SAXIFRA6E, ». [add.] 
The common name of three different 
species of British plants of the genus 
Pimpinella. [See Pimpinella.] 

BURNETTE',t n. (burnef.) [Fr. 6r»- 
7}ette.] Cloth dyed of a brown colour. 

BURNT'-SPON6E. ^fieuuderSpoNOE. 

BUR'-PARSLEY, n. Caucalis, a genus 
of plants, nat. order Umbelliferas. 
Two species are British, of which one, 
small bur-parsley (C. daucoides), is fre- 
quently found in corn-fields, in chalky 
soils, in England. 

BURR, n. A partially vitrified brick; a 

BUR'RA, n. In the East Indies, great, 
large, powerlul ; as, BujTa Beebee, or 
Baba, that is. Great Lady, the common 
native name of the East India Com- 

BUR'-REED, n. The common name of 
three British plants of the genus 
Sparganium, which grow by the sides 
of lakesaud pooh. [See Sparganium.] 

BUR'ROW, V. i. [add.] To excavate a 
hole in the earth. 

BUR'ROW-DUCK, n. The sheldrake, 
— which see. 

BUR'ROWING-OWL, H. An American 
species of owl, the Nociua ciancularia. 
In Buenos Ayres it inhabits the holes 
of the hizcacha^ or viscacha; but in 
Banda Oriental it excavates holes for 

BURR'-STONE. See Buhr-Stone in 

BUR'RY, a. Full of burs; resembling 

BURSAL'06Y, n. [Gr. ^v^cot, a sac, and 
Ao^flf, an account.] A description of 
tlie bursa mucostp. 

BUR'SA MUCO'SA. 72. [add.] The 
burs<E 7nucos(B are of different sizes, and 
are situated near the joints, particu- 
larly the large joints of the extremities. 

BURSATEL'LA, n. A genus of marine 
molluscs, without shells, found in the 
Indian seas. 

BURSCH, (boorsh.) n. lAur. Bursclie7i. 
[Ger.] In Gtrman^/, a youth ; a student 
at a university. 

BURSERA, 71. [Named after Joachim 
Burser.] A genus of tropical plants, 
the type of the nnt. order Burseracete. 
B. aciuninata yields a yellow concrete 
essential oil; and B. paincidata, called 
Bois de colophaue in the Isle of France, 
gives out, from the slightest wound in 
the bark, a copious flow of limpid oil, 
of a pungent turpentine odour, which 
soon acquires the consistence of butter, 
having the appearance of camphor. 

BURST, 7\ i. [add.] To open spontane- 
ously, as an abscess. 

BURTON, 71. [add.] A single Spanish 
bjirton has three single blocks, or two 
single blocks, and a hook iixed to one 
of the bights of the standing part of 
the tackle.— -cl double Spa7nsh burton 
has one double and two single blocks, 
and is more poweiful than the former. 
BURTO'NIA, n. A pretty genus of 
New Holland plants, nat. order Legu- 
BUR'- WEED, n. Xanthium,a genus of 
plants. [See Xanthium.] 




BU'RT, n. [Er. beiirri.] A delicate pear 
of sereral varieties. 

BUR'YIXG-BEETLES, «. Species of 
coleoptera, of the genus Kecrophorus, 
which actually bury dead moles, mice, 
and other small animals and birds, be- ! 
fore feeding on the carcasses. [See cut i 

BUR TING-GROUND, n. Same as 
Burtixg-Place, —tchich see. 

BUSH, n. [add.] A thicket or place ' 
abounding in trees or bushes. [This 
was the original sense of the word, as 
in the Dutch bosh, a wood, and was so 
used by Chaucer. It also bears this 
signitication in our English translation i 
of Exod. iii. 2, where it is said, " The j 
angel of the Lord appeared unto Moses i 
in a Harae of fire out of the midst of a , 

BUSH-CHAT, n. The whin-chat and \ 
stone-chat are so called, from these 
birds being often seen about bushes. j 

BUSH'ING, n. The operation of fitting 
a circle of metal into the sheaves of 
blocks with iron pins, or axles, to re- 
duce friction, and prevent the wearing 
of the blocks; the operation of fitting 
a circular piece of metal into any other 
circular orifice in which an axis or 
journal turns, or any orifice which is 
liable to wear and become too large, as 
the vent of a gun. 

BUSH'-JIETAL, h. Hard-brass; gun- 
metal ; a composition of copper and 
tin, used for journals, bearings of shafts, 
&c. This is the brass commonly em- 
ployed for engineering purposes. 

BUSU'-SHRIKES, n. A subfamily 
(Thamnophilinse) of the Laniadae, or 
Imtcher-birds. These birds live among 
thick trees, bushes, and underwood, 
where they are perpetually prowling 
about after insects, and young and 
sickly birds, and are great destroyers 
of eggs. They seize their prey with 
their bill, which is very powerful, and 
very abruptly hooked at the end. Nu- 
merous species of bush-shrikes are found 
in the hotter latitudes of America. [See 
BUSIv'ING.p/»r. Dressing. [5e«BrsK.] 
BUSS, n. Cuntraction and diminutive 
of omnibits, for which the word is some- 
times used. — Also, a cab. [Proviiieial.] 
BUST, n. [add.] The chest or thorax ; 
the trunk of the human bodv. 
BUS'TARD, n. [add.] The English 
name of a genus (Otis) of land-birds, 
belonging to the family StruthiooidfB 

Great Bustard, Otis tarda. 

of Vigors. The great bustard (Otis 
tarda)\s an European species: O. nitiri- 
ceps is an Asiatic species ; and O. cmru- 
lescens, an African species. 
BUS'TLE, n. [add.] A pad stuffed ^-ith 
cotton, feathers, See, worn by ladies 
for the double purpose of giving a 
greater rotundity or prominence to the 
back part of the body immediately be- 
low the waist, and of setting off the 
smallness of the waist ; but more espe- 
cially to relieve the weight of the 

BUT, n. The outer apartment of a ' 
house, consisting of only two apart- 
ments [Scotch.] I 
BUT-A^^D-BEN. [Be~out and be-in.] 
The outer and inner side of a partition- 
wall, in a house consisting of two apart- i 
ments. [Scotch.] 

BUTCHER-BIRDS, n. A subfamily 
(Lanianre) of the Laniadse or shrikes, 
including the genus Lauius of Linneeus. 
They are characterized by having a 
short toothed bill, and by seizing their 
prey with the foot, the claws being j 
slender and acute. They have received I 
the name of butcher-birds from their ! 
habit of suspending their prey, after 
depriving it of life, upon thorns, as a 
butcher does his meat, and then pulling 
it to pieces, and devouring it at their 
leisure. One species (Laniiis excubitor) 
inhabits Europe, and is occasionally 
seen in England. [See cut in Diet. 

R usees. 
ME AT, w. The flesh of animals slaugh- 
tered for the table. 

BU'TEA, n. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Leguminosa\ tribe Papilionaceae, 
named after the Earl of Bute, a distin- 
guished patron of botanical science. 
The species are natives of the East In- 
dies ; they are trees having pinnately 
trifoliate leaves, with racemes of deep 
scarlet fiowers. B. frondosa fields a 
red juice, which is brought into the 
mai'ket under the name of East India 
BU'TEO, n. A genus of accipitrine birds, 
containing the buzzards. They have 
long i^nngs and an even tail. 
BUt'OMUS, «. [Gr. /S«-.-, an ox, and 
T£u>». to cut.] Flowering-rush, a genus 
of plants, the type of the nat. order 
Butomaceae. [See Flowering-Rush.] 
BUTT, n. [add.] In ship-building, the 
end of a plank or piece of timber which 
unites with another endways ; also, the 
joining of two such pieces. Planks 
which unite endways butt against each 
other. — In carpentry and cabinet-icork, 
this junction is styled a butt-joint. — The 
butt-end of a piece of timber is that 
end which was nearest the root of the 
tree. — Butt-end of a musket or folding- 
, piece, that end which butts against the 
I shoulder when the gun is being dis- 
charged. [See Bit-End] — A butfs- 
length, the ordinary distance from the 
place of shooting to 
the butt or mark ; 
as, not two pair of 
butt's-hngth from 
the town. — Butts 
and bounds, [See 
Butts.] — In mech.y 
the square end of a 
connecting-rod or 
^— ^ I other link, to which 

-^^yj the bush-bearing is 

'^ '' attached by a strap, 

fastened to the btdt 
by a cutter and gib. In the annexed 
figure b marks the butt. 
BUT TED, pp. [add.] 2. a. Having 
abuttals; as, the land is butted and 
bounded as follows. 

BUTTER, n. [add.] The substances to 
which the old chemists gave the name 
of butter are certain chlorides, and they 
were so named from their soft but>Ta- 
ceous consistence, when recently pre- 
pared. Thus, the sesquichloride of 
arsenic was called butter of arsenic; the 
chloride of bismuth, butter of bismuth ; 

the chloride of zinc, butter ofzinc, &c. 
— Vegetable butters, a name given in 
vegetable cliemistr!/ to certain concrete 
fixed vegetable oils, from their resem- 
blance to butter produced from the 
milk of animals ; such as those of the 
cacao, and cocoa-nut, of the nutmeg, 
&c., which are solid at common tem- 
peratures. — Bun-butter, clarified butter; 
butter melted and potted for culinary 
use. — Butter and egg^, a plant, the 
Narcissus incomparabilis. — Butter and 
tallow tree, a name given to a tree of the 
genus Pentadesma, the P. butyracea. 
[See Pentadesma.] 

BUT TER-BIRD, «. In Jamaica, the 
rice-bunting {Dolichonyx oryzivortts) is 
so called. It is in great request there 
for the table. 

BUT TER-BUR, n. [add.] See Peta- 


BUT'TER-FISH,n. A small acanthop- 
terygious fish, allied to the blennies, and 
so called from the copious mucous se- 
cretion of the skin. It is the Murce- 
twides ffuttatus, or spotted gunnel. 
BUTTER-FLOWER, n. [add.] Same 
as Butter-Cup. 
BUT TERFLY-FISH, n. A fish found 

on our coast, the Blennius oceUaris. 
tish plants, of the genus Habenaria of 
Brown, the H. chlorantha and H. hifolia 
[Orchis bifolia, Linn.) It grows in 
woods and open heaths. 
Indian plant of the genus Oncidium, 
the O. papilio. [See Oncidium.] 
BUT TERFLY-VALVE, n. In mech., a 
species of double clack-valve, consist- 
ing essentially of two semicircular clap- 
pers, clacks, or wings hinged to a cross- 
rib cast in the pump-bucket, and so 
named from its butterfly appearance 
when open, as represented in section in 
the annexed cut. 
This form of valve 
is employed in the 
lift-buckets of large 
water-pumps, and for 
the air-pump buckets 
of condensing steam- 
engines. Theordinary 
I f^ HH ^ construction of the 
clappers is described 
under Clack-A'alve 
in the Dicf., bnt the introduction of 
vulcanized caoutchouc into the arts has 
led to a considerable modification of 
this kind of valve, especially as em- 
ployed in the air-pumps of marine en- 
gines. Tl)e bucket is provided with a 
metal-grating extending over its whole 
area, and on this a circular plate of 
the vulcanized caoutchouc is laid, ren- 
dering it quite water-tight when the 
pxmip is on the lift, but which, when 
the bucket is descending, as in the 
I .. figure, rises from 

the grating, and al- 
lows the water to 
pass. To prevent 
the unduedisplace- 
cover, or continu- 
ous clapper,a metal 
guard, of the form 
of a basin, is placed 
over it, and fixed 
by the spear, which, 
pa5:sing through the centre, binds the 
flexible plate between it and the eye 
for jeceiring the end of the pump-rod. 
Being thus confined only at the centre, 
when the bucket is descending, tho 



flexible cover is raised by the pressure 
of the water off the grating and thrown 
against the surface of the guard, which, 
rising gradually towards the circum- 
ference, permits the water to pass freely. 
AVhen the bucket begins to rise, the 
flexible plate, of course, falls, and ap- 
plies itself over the grating. 

BUT'TER-WORT, n. [add.] The Pin- 
guicula vulgaris. 
BUTT'-HIN6ES,) «. Hinges employed 

BDT'-HINGES, ) in the hanging of 
doors, shutters, casements, &c. They 
are placed on the edges, with the 
knuckle projecting on the side in which 
the closure is to open, and the other 
edges stopping against a small piece of 
wood left in the thickness of the closure, 
so as to keep the arris entire. There 
are several kinds of these hinges. 

BDT'TING-JOINT,n. A joint formed 
by the surfaces of two pieces of wood, 
of which one surface is perpendicular 
to the fibres, and the other in the direc- 
tion of the fibres, or making an oblique 
angle with them : as the joints made 
by the struts and braces with the truss- 

BUT'TON-TOOL, n. An instrument 
used chiefly for cutting out the disks or 
buttons of leather, which serve as nuts 
for the screwed wires in the mechanism 
connected -with the keys of the organ 
and pianoforte. It is a modification 
of the ordinary centre-bit. [iSee Bit.] 

BDTTS, n. [add.] Butts and bounds, the 
abuttals and boundaries of land. 

BUTYR'ie ETHER, n. Butyrate of 
oxide of ethyle. It is a very mobile 
liquid, of an odour somewhat similar to 
that of pine-apples. It is very soluble 
in alcohol, and is employed to flavour 
spirits. It may be formed by distilling 
a mixture of alcohol and butyric acid, 
with the addition of a little sulphuric 

BUTY'RONE, n. A substance formed 
along with carbonate of lime when 
butyrate of lime is distilled. It is 
analogous to acetone. 

BUXBAU'MIA, n. A genus of plants 
belonging to the nat. order of Mosses. 
The B. aphylla is almost destitute of 
leaves, and resembles a fungus more 
than a moss. It is a British plant, but 
is very rare. 

BUX'OM, a. [add.] Yielding; compres- 
sible; as, the buxom air; the buxom 

BUX'OME,t a. Buxom. — Buxome and 
bent, meek and obedient. [Spenser.] 

BUX'US, n. [Gr. ,i,|«.] [add.] {Hee 
Box-Tree, Box-Wood.] 

BUZ. An interjection of ridicule. 

BUZ'ZARD, n. [add.] The common 
buzzard is the Falco buteo, Linn., and 
the Buteo vulgaris of modern natu- 
ralists ; the moor-buzzard is the Circus 

a-ruginosus; the bald buzzard is the 
Pandion halimlus, or osprey ; and the 
honey-buzzard is the Pernis apivorus. 
The rough-legged buzzard is the 
Buteo lagopus. All these species are 
BY, or BYE, n. Something not the im- 
mediate object of regard ; as, by the by, 
or by the bye ; that is, by the way, in 
passing. [See the prep. Bv.] 
BY, as a 2>refix, in compound words, 
signifies peculiar and especial ; private, 
adapted or intended for private and 
partial ends or purposes; within otir 
especial privity, knowledge, or posses- 
sion ; accessary or collateral. 
BY, prep. Beyond; besides; over and 
above. [Scotch-I 

BY'ARD, n. A piece of leather crossing 
the breast, used by the men who drag 
sledges in coal-mines. 
BY-BIDDER, n. In the United States, 
a person employed at public auctions 
to bid on articles put up for sale, in 
order to obtain higher prices. 
BY'-BLOW, n. A side or accidental 
blow ; an illegitimate child. 
BYE, adv. Down-bye, downwards; 
down yonder; notfarofi'. [Scotch.] 
BY'GANES, \n. plur. What is gone by 
BY'GONES, ( and past. [Scotch.] 
BYLEVE',t "■ i. [Sax. belifan.] To 
remain ; to stay. [Chaucer.] 
BYNEMPT',t pp. [Be and nempne.] 
Dictated or named ; bequeathed. [Spen- 

than ordinary. [Scotch.] 
BY-PASSAGE, n. A pri- 
vate or retired passage. 
BY'-PLACE, n. A retired 
place, spot, or situation. 
BY'-PLAY,n. On the stage, 
a scene which is carried on 
aside, and commonly in 
dumb show, while the 
main action proceeds, with 
a view ordinarily to en- 
hance the sport. 
BY-PURPOSE, n. An in- 
direct or concealed purpose 
or design. 

BYRAFT',t PP- Bereft; taken away. 
BYRE, n. A cow-house. [Scotch.] 
BYR'RHUS, n. A genus of coleopterous 
insects. B. piluta, or pill-beetle, is 
found on various plants in gardens. 
BYS'SINE, a. Made of silk ; having a 
silky or flax-like appearance. 
BYSSO'MYA, n. A genus of acephalous 
molluscs, which live in the fissures of 
rocks, attached by a byssus. 
BYS'SUS, n. [add.] In conchology, along, 
delicate, lustrous, and silky bunch of 
filaments, by which the Mytilus, Pinna, 
and other shells, are attached to conti- 
guous bodies. — In bot., a genus of fila- 
mentous fungi. The species inhabit 

cellars and subterranean abodes, but 
are now ascertained to consist of fun- 
gaceous plants in an early state of 
growth, and referable to various genera. 
^Byssus, among the ancients, was the 
name of a cloth of exceedingly fine 
texture, but whether of linen, cotton, 
or silk, is not certain. 

BY'-TIME, n. Odd time; interval of 
leisure. As an adv., now and then. 

A style of architecture developed in 
the Byzantine Empire about A.n. 300, 
and which, under various modifications, 
continued in use till the final conquest 
of that empire by the Turks in a.d. 
1453. It spread so widely, and was so 
thoroughly identified with all middle- 
age art, that its infiuence even in Italy 
did not wholly decline before the 16th 
century. Its ruling principle is incrus- 
tation, the incrustation of brick with 
more precious materials ; large spaces 
are left void of bold architectiu-al 
features, to be rendered interesting 
merely by surface ornament or sculp- 
ture. It depended much on colour for 
its effect, and with this intent, mosaics 
wrought on grounds of gold, or of posi- 
tive colour are profusely introduced. 
The leading forms which pervade the 
Byzantine are the round-arch, the dome, 
the circle, and the cross. The capitals 
of the pillars are of endless variety, and 
full of invention ; whilesome are founded 

PfK. 1 


on the Greek-Corinthian, many ap- 
proach in character to those of the 
Norman ; and so varied are their deco- 
rations, that frequently no two sides of 
the same capital are alike. Both the 
Norman and the Lombardic styles may 
be considered as varieties of the Byzan- 
tine, and all of these are comprised 
under the term Romanesque, which 
comprehends the round-arch style of 
middle-age art, as distinguished from 
the Saracenic and the Gothic, which 
are pointed-arch species. The mosque 
of St. Sophia, Constantinople, and the 
church of St. Mark's, Venice, are pro- 
minent examples of Byzantine archi- 


C[add.] In musiCy C after the clef is 
• the mark of common time, in 
which each measure is a semibreve, 
corresponding to ;. C is also the name 
of a note in the scale; the key-note 
major and the third minor of the na- 
lural scale. 
I, — ^Supr. 

€ A', u. i. To call ; to drive ; as, to cd 
oxevy to drive oxen. [^Scotch,^ 

€AA'BA, n. A square stone in the 
temple at Mecca, regarded with adora- 
tion by Mahometans, as having been 
presented by the angel Gabriel to Abra- 
ham, on the occasion of building the 

temple. The entire temple is some- 
times called by this name. 

CAB, n. A carriage with two or four 
wheels, drawn by one horse. It is an 
abridgment of cabriolet, the French 
expression for a similar vehicle. 

■GABAS'SOU, n. A large species of ar- 
7 D 




madillo, a native of South America 
{Dasi/pus unicinctus). 

€AB'BA(jE, n. [add.] A cant name for 
pieces of cloth purloined by tailors in 
cutting out garments. 

€AB'BAGE-BAKK, ii. The Surinam 
bark ; the bark of the Andiva inermis, a 
leguminous plant of the West Indies, 
an anthelmintic. 

€ A B'B AGE-DAISY, n. The globe- 
flower. — which see. 

CABBAGE-PALM, «. The cabbage- 
tree, — which see. 

€AB'BAGE-ROSE, n. A species of 
rose, the Hosa centtfolia, of many varie- 

€AB'BAGE-WOOD, n. Another name 
for partridge-wood, the timber of the 
Keisteria cocrinea. 

CABBALA, n. See Cabal, Cabala. 

CAB'IAI, n. [add.] The cabiai is now 
ranked in a distinct genus, of which it 
is the only species [Uydrockcerus capy- 

CABINET, n. [add.] The collective 
body of ministers who direct the go- 
vernment of a nation or country ; a 
government council. — In Great Britain, 
the cabinet consists essentially of the 
prime-minister, who is the head of it. 
the lord-chancellor, the three secre- 
taries of state for home, colonial, and 
foreign affairs, and the chancellor of 
the exchequer. These, in their collec- 
tive capacity, are called also the admi- 
nistration, the ministry, his (her) ma- 
jesty's ministers, or the government. 
They are styled by way of eminence, 
cabinet ministers, and are more im- 
mediately responsible for the acts of 
the sovereign, as well as for public 
measures. Other heads of public de- 
partments may also be called upon to 
take a seat in the cabinet, as the first 
lord of the admiralty, the postmaster- 
general, the president of the board of 
control, the president of the board 
of trade, the paymaster-general, the 
lord privy-seal, the master of the 

council of cabinet-ministers held with 
privacy to deliberate upon public affairs. 

CABLE, n. [add.] In vessels of this 
country chain-cables have now greatly 
superseded rope-cables. — Cable-bemh, 
small ropes for fastening the ends of a 
rope-cable, so as to secure the knot by 
which it is attached to the anchor-ring. 

CA'BLE, p. ^ To fasten with a cable. — 
In arch., to till the tiutes of columns 
with cables, or cylindrical pieces. 

CA'BLED, a. [add.] Having the archi- 
tectural ornament called a cable. 

CABOCEER', n. In Western Africa, 
the name given to local governors ap- 
pointed by the king over towns or 

CAB'RIT, n. The prong-horned ante- 
lope of North America {Antilocapra 
furcifera) is so named by the hunters. 

CACA'O, n. [add.] This name is gener- 
ally applied to the bruised seeds of the 
Theobroma cacao, which, when reduced 
to a paste, mixed with sugar and fla- 
voured with vanilla, form chocolate. It 
is usually corrupted into cocoa, on ac- 
count of which it is frequently supposed 
to be obtained from the cocoa-nut 

CACA'O-NUTS, n. The fruit of the 
Theobroma cacao. [See Tiieobroma.J 

CACA'O-TREE,* «. A tree of the 

CACA'O, ) genus Theobroma, 

the T. cacao. [See Theobroma.] 
CACCIlE.f V. t. To catch. [Chaucer.] 

CACHiE'MTA, n. [Gr. Kax»',. bad, and 
&,tlJM., blood.] A vitiated state of the 

CACHET , n. (cashay'.) [add.] Lettres 
de cachet were letters proceeding from, 
and signed by the kings of France, and 
countersigned by a secretary of state. 
They were at first made use of occasion- 
ally as a means of delaying the course 
of justice, but as warrants for the de- 
tention of private citizens, and for de- 
priving them of their personal liberty, 
they appear to have been rarely em- 
ployed before the I7th century. During 
the reign of Louis XIV. their use be- 
came frightfully common, and by means 
of them persons were imprisoned for 
life, or for a long period, on the most 
frivolous pretexts. In the reign of 
Louis XV. they were openly sold by 
the mistress of one of tlie ministers. 
Thev were abolished at the Revolution. 

CACHEX'IA, n. See Cachexy. 

CACHEX'Y, H. [add.] Any chronic 
morbid affection of the functions de- 
pendent on the great sympathetic 
nerve, not including fever orintiamma- 

CACIQUE', n. (caseek'.) The Mexican 
word from which cazique is derived. 
[See Cazique.] 

CACOCHYM'XA,n. 5ee Cacochymt. 

CAC'ODYLE, n. See Kakodule in 
Diet., now generally written Kakodyle. 

CACOETHES, 71. [add.] A bad quality 
or disposition in disease. 

A diseased propensity for writing; an 
itch for authorship. 

CACOPHO'NIOUS, a. [See Caco- 
phony.] Sounding harshly; cacophon- 

CACOPH'ONOUS, a. Harsh sound- 
ing ; relating to cacophony. 

CACOTU ELIXE, n. A compound 
formed by the action of nitric acid upon 

CACOX'ENE, \n. [Gr. xclko,, and 

CACOX'ENITE, f $;.<.,-.] A mineral 
occurring in yellowish, radiating tufts, 
and consisting of phosphoric acid, with 
alumina, fluoric acid, and water. 

CACTA'CE.E, n. The Indian tig tribe, 
a nat. order of dicotyledonous plants. 
The species are succulent shrubs, usually 
without leaves, and with spinous buds; 
the fruit is succulent, and very similar 
m its properties to that of Grossulacea;, 
but destitute of the excessive acridity 
of some gooseben-ies and currants. All 
the species are American, and are 
abundant in the tropical regions of 
that country. The principal genera 
are Melocactus, Echinocactus, Opuntia, 
and Mammillaria. 

CACTA'CEOtS, a. Relating to or re- 
sembling the cactus. 

CACTUS, n. [add.] The old name of a 
group uf plants once considered to 
form a single genus, but now divided 
into several, and elevated to the rank 
of a natural order, Cactaceffi, — which 

CAD, n. [From Scotch, cadie, a boy; a 
boy or person who may be employed in 
running of errands, or in any inferior 
sort of work.] A boy or person who 
attends at the door of an omnibus; an 
assistant to a coachman ; a runner or 

CAD, 71. Cadger; a vulgar fellow. 

CADAS'TER, n. [Fr. cadastre; a word 
of uncertain etymology. Some derive 
it from the Greek, i.e., ««ra, relating 
to, and ffTijiiw, to deprive; bereave {which 
see)\ take trom those who cannot show a 

title. Bescherelle derives t!ie term 
from the low Lat. capitas, containing, 
or contents.] In Louisiana law, a. de- 
tailed survey of the lands of a country, 
their extent, divisions, and subdivisions, 
nature of culture, &c. Tlie Domes- 
day book is a kind of cadaster, and 
the only one England has ever had. 

CADAVERIC, a. Relating to a dead 
body; relating to the changes induced 
in a corpse by putrefaction; as, cada- 
veric phenomena. 

CAD'DIS-GARTER, n. A garter of 
ferret. [Shak.] 

CA'DENCE,^n. [add.] In music, the 

CA'DENCY, J close of a musical pas- 
sage or phrase, or the resoluti-in of a 
dissonant chord into a consonant one. 
Also, an extemporaneous addition made 
by the performer at the end of a piece 
of music. — A perfect cadence is com- 
posed of the chord of the dominant, 
followed by that of the tonic, likewise 
of the chord of the dominant seventh, 
followed by that of the tonic. — An im- 
perfect cadence consists of the chord of 
the tonic, followed by that of the do- 
minant, but rarely occurs as a final 
close. — The inten-upted or deceptioc 
cadence, is formed by a chord quite 
foreign to that which was expected, 
thus evading the close, and deceiving 
expectation. — The plagal cadence con- 
sists of the chord of the subdominant, 
followed by that of the tonic, occa- 
sionally used in sacred music. 

CADEN'ZA, n. [add.] A musical ca- 
dence; an addition made by the per- 
former at the end of an air or con- 

CADET', n. [add.] One who is trained 
up for the army by a course of military 
discipline, at Woolwich, Addiscombe, 
&c., previous to obtaining a commission 
in the East India Company's service. 

€'AD(j'Y, a. Lively; frisky; wanton. 

CADMIUM, n. [add.] This metal oc- 
curs in the form of carbonate, as an in- 
gredient in various kinds of calamine, 
or carbonate of zinc. It is also fount! 
in the form of sulphuret, as the rare 
mineral greenockite, and to the extent 
of 5 per cent, in some kinds of sul- 
phuret of zinc. In all its relations it 
is very analogous to zinc, and is almost 
invariably associated with it. When 
strongly heated in the air, it burns, 
forming oxide. Like zinc, it forms 
only one oxide, chloride, sulphuret, &c. 

CADMIUM-YELLOW, n. A pigment 
prepared from the sulphuret of cad- 
mium. It is of an intense yellow 
colour, and possesses much body. 

C^CIL'IA, ) 71. A genus of ophidian 

CCECIL'IAj reptiles, in which the 
eyes are either very small or entirely 
absent. At first sight the species seem 
to have a naked skin, but minute scales 
have been discovered by Cuvier on dis- 
secting the skin. 

C^'CUM, n. [L. cfficits, blind.] In anat.. 
the blind intestine {caput coli), so 
named from its being prolonged in- 
feriorly under the form of a cul-de-sac, 
or closed tube. 

CAER. See Car. 


gery, the operation by which the fetus 
is taken out of the uterus by an inci- 
sion through the parietes of the abdo- 
men, ^vheu the obstacles to delivery are 
so great as to leave no other alterna- 

C^ES'PITOSEj a. See Cespitose. 




C^SU'RAL, a. Pertaining to the 
ccesura or cesura. 
C^T'ERIS-PAR'IBUS. [L.] Other 
things beingequal in like circumstances. 
€AF'FRE, \ n. [Arabic, whence Caf- 
KAF'FRE, / fraria in Africa.] An un- 
believer; a name given to a people in 
South Africa, who reject the Maho- 
metan faith. 

CAHIER', n, [Fr.] IJteralbj, a number 
of sheets of paper put loosely together; 
but now applied to the sui^cessive por- 
tions of a work, when printed in parts 
or numBers. 
€A'I€, ) n. [Fr. caique.'] A skiff bc- 
€A'IQUE,j longing to a galley; a 
€AICK'LING,ppr. Cackling. [Scotch.] 
€AILL'IACHS, n. plur. [Gael.] Old 
CaIMA€AN', n. A Turkish word for 
alieutenant or a lieutenant-governor. 
C AIMED, pp. or a. (kaimed.) Combed. 

€A"ING-WHALE, n. [Catling-whah.] 
A small species of whale, not uncom- 
mon among the Orkney and Shetland 
islands, where it often proves a great 
prize, as the species goes in herds, and 
when it gets into shallow water, its 
companions follow it; whence the 
name. It is the Delphinus melas, or 
D. deductor of naturalists. 
CA-IRA. (sa'-era'.) [Fr. "It (the revo- 
lution) shall go on. "J The burden of a 
French revolutionary song, made by 
the revolutionists about 1789 or 1790 
CAISSON', ) n. [add.] 1. A vessel in 
CAISOON', j the form of a boat, used 
as a flood-gate in docks. — 2. An appa- 
ratus used for docking vessels while at 
their moorings, without removingstores 
or masts. It consists of a large tank, 
surrounded by an air-receptacle capable 
of sustaining its whole weight. By fill- 
ing it with water, and allowing a small 
quantity to enter the air-receptacle, the 
caisson is sunk to the depth of the ves- 
sel's keel, under which it is then drawn, 
and the water being pumped out, the 
.ship is entirely raised out of the water 
CAI'TIFF, a. Belonging to a caitiff; 
servile; base. 
CArTIFFLY, adu. Knavishly; ser- 
vilely; basely. 
€ArTIVE,ta. Servile; base; caitiff. 
CAJ'EFUT, n. [add.] This oil is ob- 
tained from the Melaleuca cajeputi, or 
cajeput-tree of Roxburgh. It is anti- 
spasmodic, stimulant, and sudorific, 
and is said to be a remedy in Asiatic 
cholera. The word Is from the Malay, 
and should be written kd^u lulih. 
€AJOLE'MENT, n. Cajolery. [Rar. 
CAKE, n. [add.] A silly, soft, coaxing 
person ; a spoiled child. 
CAKED, pp. Formed into a hard flat 
CAKI'LE, ?!. (kaki'ley.) A genus of 
cruciferous plants. The species are 
smooth, fleshy, glaucous, annual 
branched herbs, with pinnatifid or 
toothed leaves. C. maritima, purple 
sea-rocket, is a native of Britain. [See 
Sea-Rocret.] There are two other 
species, C. Americana, and C. ccqualis, 
all pretty annuals. 
CAKING, ppr. Forming into a hard 

flat mass. 
CaK'ING, n. The act of forming into 

CAK'ODYLE. See Kakodule. 
CAKODYL'IC. .See Kakodvuc. 
CALAMAGROS'TIS, n. [Gr. ««x«^„, 
and aj-jjj-r.'t.] Small-reed, a genus of 

grasses, separated fromthegenus Amn- 
do, Linn. The species are mere weeds. 
Three species are enumerated by Bri- 
tish botanists. 
CAL'AMINE, 71. [add.] An impure 

carbonate of zinc. 
CALAMIN'THA.n. A genus of plants, 
nat. order Lamiaceae. Five species are 
British, viz., C. nepota, lesser calamint; 
C. officinalis, common calamint; C. 
syhatica, wood-calamint; C. acinos, 
common basil-thyme; and C. clinopo- 
dium, common wild-basil. They all 
contain a volatile oil. 
CAL'AMIST,t n. A piper; one who 
plays on a reed or pipe. 
CAL'AMITE, instead of CAL'AMIT, 
n. [add.] A genus of fossil plants, stri- 
ated and jointed. It is one of the most 
frequent and characteristic genera of 
fossil plants, and occurs abundantly in 
the carboniferous system of strata, and 
generally in the sandstones and shales 
which alternate with coal. These 
plants are considered to have been 
allied to the Equisetaceae. 
CALAMOPH'ILUS, n. [Gr. »«*.,»«,, a 
reed, and ^iAof, a friend.] A subgenus of 
birds, separated from the titmice. One 
species (C. biarmicus), the bearded tit- 
mouse, is a native of Britain, frequent- 
ing reedy districts. 
CAL'AMUS, n. [add.] In hot., a genus 
of palms, the different species of which 
constitute the rattan-canes of com- 
merce. This genus holds a middle 
station between the grasses and palms, 
vrith the habit of the former and the 
inflorescence of the latter. The species 
are principally found in the hotter 
parts of the East Indies ; the stems of 
C. verus, C. ohlongus, C. rudentum, and 
C. extensus, grow to the length of from 
100 to GOO feet; they are extensively 
used for the sake of their hard flinty 
coating, being readily split into strips, 
from which the bottoms of chairs and 
similar articles are manufactured. The 
resin called dragon's blood is chiefly 
yielded by C. petraius, C. rudentum, 
C. verus, and C. Slumeana. C. zalacca 
(now called Zalacca Wallichiana) is 
cultivated for its fruit, which is about 
the size of a walnut. 
In anat., a groove of a pen-like ap- 
pearance upon the anterior wall or 
floor of the fourth ventricle. Its pen- 
like appearance is produced by the 
divergence of the posterior median 
columns, the feather by the lineca trans- 

CALAN'DRA, n. A genus of coleop- 
terous insects, belonging to the section 
Rhynchophora, and family Curculioni- 
dse. Some of the minute species commit 
great havock in granaries, both in their 
larva and perfect state. They are very 

CoKN-wimvu., Cutandra ijraTiaria. Fig. I, natural 
size. Fig. B, mogriifled. 

numerous, and among them is the well- 
known corn- weevil (,C. granaria). The 
gru-gru worm, which destroys palm- 
trees in South America, is the larva of 
a large species of calandra; this grub 

is eagerly sought for by the natives, 
! who eat it when cooked. 
€AL A'THIAN-VI'OLET, n. A peren- 
nial species of the Gentiana 

The coarse calcareous building-stone of 
Paris. It forms an extensive stratum, 
or rather series of strata, in the Paris 
basin, and belongs to the eocene tertiary 
CAL'CAR, n. [add.] In bat., a spur ; a 
hollow projection from the base of a 
petal having usually a conical figure. 
It is the nectart/ of Linn. 
formerly applied to lime. 
CALCA'REOUS GRIT, n. In geol., a 
subdivision of the middle oolitic for- 
CALCA'REOUS ROCK,n. Limestone. 
which lime forms a principal compo- 
nent part. 
CALCA'REOUS TDFA, n. An allu- 
vial deposit of carbonate of lime, 
formed generally by springs, which, 
issuing through limestone-strata, hold 
in solution a portion of calcareous 
earth ; this they deposit on coming in 
contact with air and light. 
CAL'CES, or CALX'ES, n. [L. plur. 
of calx.] A name formerly applied to 
oxides, from their earthy character, 
resembling lime. [See Calx.] 

ATORY, n. 
CALCINE', or CAL'CINE, v. t. 
CALC'-TUFF, 71. [add.] See Calca- 
reous Tufa in this Siip/i. 
chines or contrivances by which the 
results of arithmetical operations may 
be obtained by inspection, such as the 
Roman abacus, Napier's bones, the 
sliding rule, the machine invented by 
Mr. Babbage. This latter machine has 
never yet been completed. It is in- 
tended not only to perform arithmeti- 
cal operations with absolute certainty, 
but also to transfer the results imme- 
diately to copperplates, from which any 
number of copies may be printed with- 
out a possibility of error. 
CALC'ULED.tpp. Calculated. [Oiau- 

CAL'CULI, 71. [L. plui'. of calculus, — 
which see.] 
CAL'CULUS, 71. [add.] In pathol, a 
general term for inor.ganic concretions 
of various kinds, formed in various 
parts of the body, and bearing a general 
resemblance, or shape, or composition 
to stones. Those concretions formed 
in the gall-bladder are called biliarv 
calculi, or gall-stones ; those formed by 
a morbid deposition from the urine in 
the kidney or bladder, are called urinary 
calculi; those found \i\ the substance 
of the hings, or in the ramifications of 
the bronchi, are called pulmonary cal- 
culi; and those formed in the salivary 
glands, or their ducts, are called sali- 
vary calctdi. There are also gouty 
concretions, called arthritic calculi, and 
others called pnnrreatic cilculi, lacliru- 

mal calculi, spermatic calculi, &c. 

Calculus of functions, that branch of 
mathematical analysis which investi- 
gates the form of a function, and not 
its value in any, nor the 
conditions under which it may have a 
particular value. Thus, the calculus of 




functions may be considered as simi- 
larly related to algebra as algebra is to 
arithmetic. [5ee Function.] — Calcu- 
lus of variations. [See under Varia- 

€AL'EDO>'ITE, n. A blue, or green- 
ish-blue mineral, a cupreous sulphato- 
carbonate of lead. It is found in at- 
tached crystals, with other compounds 
of sulphate and carbonate of oxide of 
lead, at Leadhills in Scotland. 

€ALEFA€'TOR, h. A small cooking- 

e ALEF A€ TORY, n. A warming-room 
in a monastery. 

€ALEMBEKRE', n. A species of Co- 
romandel wood, of a lighter colour than 
the calamander. and striped. It is a 
scarce wood, and is found only in Cey- 

€AL'EArBOURG, n. [Fr.,fipom a Ger- 
man, Count Kahlemberg, noted for his 
blunders in the French language.] A 
pun ; a witticism. 

CALENDAR, n. [add.] In criminal 
courts, a list of criminal causes which 
stand for trial ; as, a heavy calendar; a 
light calendar. 

G-ALENDA'RIAL,a. Belonging to the 

CALEN'DRICAL, a. Pertaining to a 

CALF'-WAR0,n. Aplace where calves 
are kept in the field. [Scotch.] 

CAL'IATOUR-"\VOOD, n. A kind of 
dye-wood which grows in India on the 
Coromandel coast. It is sometimes 
confounded with red sandal-wood. 

CALICXLAR, a. [L. calix, a cup.] 
Formed like a cup. 

CALI'GO, n. [L. darkness.] A disease 
of the eye, imparting dimness, cloudi- 
ness, obscurity. — In entom., a genus of 
South American buttertiies. 

CALIPASH', In. [add.] In cookery, 

■CALIPEE', f ca^iposA is that part of 
a turtle which belongs to the upper 
shell ; and calipee, that part which be- 
longs to the lower shell. 

CALLIPER, n. Same as Caliber, or 

€AL'IPERS, ) n.Com- 

with curved legs, for measuring the cali- 
ber or diameter of round bodies. [See 

CAL'IPH, n. See Calif. 

CAL'IPHATE, n. See Califate. 

CAL'IPHSHIP, n. The office of a ca- 
liph; caliphate. 

CALIP'PIC PERIOD, n. In ancient 
chronologv, a correction of the metonic 
cycle of niueteen solar years, proposed 
by Calippus. At the end of four of 
these cycles, there is an excess of one 
day and six hours over the number of 
lunations. Calippus, therefore, pro- 
posed to quadruple the metonic cycle, 
and deduct a day from the end of it, by 
reducing the days of one of the months 
from thirty to twenty-nint. 

CALL. n. [add.] Call of the House, a 
parliamentary phrase implying an im- 
perative summons sent to every mem- 
ber of the House, to be present at a 
stated time, for the consideration of 
some important measure, or for ascer- 
taining what members are absent with- 
out leave or just cause. 

CAL'LAN, ) n. A young lad; a fine 

CAL'LAXT,) fellow. [Scotch.] 

€ALL'-BIRf), n. A bird taught to al- 
lure others into a snare, as the linnet, 
goldfinch, &c. 

€ALLE,t «. [Fr.] A sort of cap. 

eAL'LER, a. 1. Cool; refreshing.— 

2. Fresh ; in proper season ; as opposed 

to what is beginning to corrupt, in 

consequence of being too long kept, or 

, is actually in a state of putridity ; as, 

' caller herrings. [Scotch.] 

CALLEVA, n. Roman name for Sil- 

i:\L1AD, a. [L. callidus.] Hardened 
in craft ; shrewd. [Rar. us.] 

€AL'LIDNESS,t n. Shrewdness: cal- 

CALLIG'RAPHER, n. One skilled in 

CALLIGRAPHIC, ) a.Relatingto 

€ALLIGRAPH'IC.AX,) calligraphy. 

CALLIG'RAPHIST, n. One skilled in 

CALLIG'RAPHY, n. [add.] The art of 
beautiful writing; polite literature. 

€ALLIMAN'€0, n. See Cala- 

CAL'LIXG, n. [add.] Name. [Shak] 

CAL'LING-CRAB. n. Gelasimus, a 
genus of crabs found in tropical coun- 
tries. The males have one of the claws 
much larger than the other. This, 
when disturbed, they hold up before \ 
them, as if beckoning or calling upon i 
some one. "With the large claw they ) 
close up the mouth of their burrow. 

CALL'IPASH,! c,, r,„„.,„ 

CALL'IPEE. \ ^'^ Calipash. 

■CALLIS'THENICS, n. See Calis- 

CALLIS'TUS, n. A genus of coleopte- 
rous insects of the family Harpalidte. 
Only one species is known, C. lunatusy 
found almost aU over Europe, and con- 
spicuous from its beauty, hence its name 

CAL'LITRICHE, n. A genus of plants. 
[See Star-Wort.] 

■CALLOS'OMA, n. See Calosoma. 

CAL'LOT, n. A cap. [See Calotte.] 

CALOCHOR'TDS, n. A beautiful ge- 
nus of bulbous plants, nat. order Lili- 
aceae. Several species have been intro- 
duced into England from California. 

CALOPHYL'LUM,n.Agenusof plants, 
nat. order Guttifers. The species are 
trees, the leaves of which have nume- 
rous transverse parallel veins, which 
give them a very beautiful appearance, 
hence the name. C. inophi/llum, an 
East Indian species, exudes a yellow 
viscid juice, nsed for medical purposes. 
The nuts afford a fixed oil which is 
used for burning in lamps, for making 
ointment, &c. C calaha, calaba-tree, 
is a native of the Caribbee Islands, and 
>ields one form of the resin called ta- 

CALORIC, n. [add.] Sensible or free 
caloric, that which produces the sensa- 
tion of heat, or affects the thermometer. 
— Insensible caloric, the same as latent 
heat, — which see. — Speeijic caloric, the 
relative proportion of caloric which 
any body retains, without the effects 
being sensible ; or, it is the quantity of 
thermometric heat required to raise 
similar quantities of different bodies to 
the same temperature. That quality 
of bodies, by which they require differ- 
ent quantities of heat to raise them to 
the same temperature, is called their 
capacity for caloric ; thus, water has a 
capacity for caloric three times greater 
than mercury. — Absolute caloric, the 
total amount of heat in bodies. [See 

CALORIFER, n. [L. calor, heat, and 

fero, to bear.] An apparatus for con- 

vering and distributing heat; a term 

particulai'ly applied to an apparatus for 


heating conservatories, kc, by means 
of hot water circularing in tubes. 

■CALORIFICATION, n. The produc- 
tion of heat, especially animal heat. 

CALORIFICIENT, n. [h. calor, heat, 
and facio, to make.] Heat-producing. 
A term applied by physiologists to 
materials of food, of which the basis is 
carbon, as fat, gum, sugar, starch, and 
which are believed to be expended in 
the production of heat in the svstem. 

CALORIMO TOR, instead of €ALO- 

biting heat.] A term applied to a dan- 
gerous symptom in typhus, in which 
there is a biting and pungent heat upon 
the skin. 

CALQUE, V. t. To calk,— wjAicA see. 

CALQ'UING, n. [It. calcare.] Copying 
a drawing, by rubbing over its back 
some dry colouring material in fine 
powder, such as red-lead, or black- 
chalk, laring this side on a sheet of 
paper, and then tracing over the lines 
of the drawing with a blunt pointed 

CALUM'BINE, n. The bitter principle 
of calumba. 

CALUM'BO, n. See Calcmba. 

CALVAHIA, n. [,bald.] The 
upper part of the cranium ; the skull. 

CALYI'TIES, n. [L. from calvus, 
bald.] Baldness. 

CAL'YCES, n. [L. plur. of cali/x.] 
In anai., small membranous cup-like 
pouches, which invest the points of the 
papillse of the kidney. Their anion 
forms the infundibula. 

CAL'YCLE, n. [add.] In zool., a term 
applied to the small cup-like pro- 
minences, containing each a polype- 
shell, covering the surface of many 

CAL'YCULE, n. [L. cahjculus, a little 
calyx.] The membranaceous border 
surrounding the apex of a seed ; a little 
calvx exterior to another proper one. 

CALYM'ENE, n. A genus of fossil tri- 
lobites, found in the Silurian rocks. 

C-ALYP'SO, n. A genus of North Ame- 
rican plants, nat. order Orchidaceae. 

CALYP TER, n. In bot. [See Caltp- 

C.AX'yPTORHYN'CHUS, n. [Gr. ;r«- 
A^TTw, to conceal, and pvyz'^-' * snout or 
bill.j A genus of New Holland birds, 
belonging to the parrot family. One 
of the best-known species is Banks' 
cockatoo, C. Sanksii. The species are 
chiefly dark -coloured, with some red or 
yellow marks on the T^nngs and tail. 

CALYP'TRA, n. [add.] According to 
Lindley, the calppfra of mosses is that 
part of the membranous covering in- 
closing the sporangium or theca (cap- 
sule), which, when the membrane bursts 
around, as the theca approaches matu- 
rity, is carried up and sustained on the 
summit of the latter. The same name 
is given to a hood-like body connected 
in some other plants with the organs 
of fructification, in the genus PUean- 
thus it covers over the flower, and is 
formed of united bracts ; in Eucalyptus 
and Eudesmia it is simply a lid or oper- 
culum to the stamens; in Jungerman- 
nia it exists in the form of a cup or 
^Tapper at the base of the fruit-stalk, 
which, instead of carrying it up upon 
its point, pierces through its apex, and 
leaves it behind. 

€ALYSTE'6lA, it. A genus of plants, 
composed of species formerly included 
under Convolvulus. The species are 
lactescent, glabrous, twining, or pros- 




f, a, Calyy,. 

Cam fill. 

trate herbs, with solitary one-flowered 
peduncles. Two British species, C. 
sepium, and C. soldanella, are known 
by the name of bindweed. 
GAL'yX, n. [add.] The calyx is tlie 
most exterior integument of a flower, 
consisting of several verticillate leaves, 
called se2>als, united by their marglas, 
or distinct, usually 
of a green colour, 
and of a less deli- 
cate texture than 
the corol. In some 
plante the calyx 
grows to the sides 
of the ovary, ex- 
cept, perhaps, a 
small portion at 
the extremity, in 
which case it is termed superior, but 
when it is quite separate from the ovary 
it is called inferior. — In anat. {See 
CAM, n. Slisplaced : see after Campy- 
€AMAIL',n. [Fr.J 
Inarwient armour, 
a guard for the 
throat of chain- 
mail, worn by 
knights in the 
14th century, so 
called from its 
resemblance to 
the tippets of 
camel's-hair then 
much in fashion. 
tjAMAY'EU,) n. [Vr.camaieu.] Mono- 
CAMAI'EU, ) chrome painting, or 
painting with a single colour, varied 
only by the effect of chiaro-oscuro. 
Pictures in two or three tints, where 
the natural hues of the objects are not 
copied, may also be called en camaieu. 
We speak of brown, red, yellow, green, 
and blue camaieus, according to their 
principal colours. 
€AM'BER, n. [add.] In arch., an arch 
on the top of an aperture, or on the 
top of a beam. — Camber-window, a 
window arched at the top. 
•CAM'BIAL, a. Belonging to exchanges 

in commerce. 
CAMBISTRY, n. The science of ex- 
change, weights, measm-es, &c. 
CAM'BIUM, n. In bot. [See Cams.] 
^Velsh group of rocks, constituting the 
upper of the clay-slate series, and com- 
prising the Snowdon rock, tho Bala 
limestone, and the Plinlimmon rocks. 
CAM'BRIC, n. [add.] Cambric is 
also made of fine cotton-yarn, hard 
CAMEL-BIRD, n. A name applied to 
the ostrich. 

CAMELI'NA, n. A genus of plants, 
nat. order Cruciferae. C. sativa, gold 
of pleasure, has pear-shaped pouches 
and small yellow flowers. It is found 
in Britain, growing in cultivated fields, 
chiefly among flax. 
CAM'ELINE,t "■ [Fr. camelot.] Cam- 
let ; a stuft' made of camel's - hair. 
CAM EL-INSECT, ) n. Names given 
CAlI'EL-LOeCST, ) to orthopterous 
msects of the genus Mantis, from the 
long thorax resembling the elongated 
neck of the quadruped. 
melopard or Giraffe, a northern con- 
stellation formed by HeveUus. It is 
situated between Cepheus, Perseus, 

Ursa Major and Minor, and Draco, 
and contains thirty-two stars. 
CAM'EL'S-HAIR, n. The hair of the 
camel, imported into this country 
chiefly for the manufacture of fine pen- 
cils for drawing and painting. 
CAME'LUS, n. The generic name of 
the camel, including two species, C 
bactrianus and C. dromedarius. 
CAM'EO, n. [add.] Instead of bivalve 
shells read univalve. The inner strata 
of porcellanous shells are sometimes 
differently coloured from the outer; 
the makers of shell-cameos in this way 
get white or rose-coloured figures on 
a dark ground. Two or three species 
of cassis and strombus are employed. 
As many as 300,000 specimens of tho 
Strombus gigas were imported from 
the Bahamas to Liverpool in 1850, for 
the manufacture of cameos, and for the 
porcelain- works. 
CAM'EO, ) n. [add.] Camayeu, or 
CAMA'YEU, V Camaieu, are not pro- 
CAMA'IEU, ) periy applied to stones 
cut in relief, but to painting with a 
single colour. — See above. 
CAMERO'NIAN, n. A name given to 
the followers of Richard Cameron, in 
Scotland, who refused to accept the 
indulgence granted to the Presbyterian 
clergy in the persecuting times of 
Charles II., lest by so doing they should 
be understood to recognize his eccle- 
siastical authority. They form what is 
now called the Reformed Presbyterian 
CAMES, n. Small slender rods of cast- 
lead in glazing, twelve or fourteen 
inches long, of which, by drawing them 
separately through a species of vice, 
the glaziers make their turned lead for 
receiving the glass of casements. 
CAMISA'DO, n. A loose garment like 
a shirt. 

CAM'ISaTED, a. Dressed with a shirt 
outward, or above the other gar- 

CAM'ISE, n. [Sp. camisiac.'] A shirt. 
See Ononis. 
CAM'OUFLET, n. (cam'ouflay.) [Fr.] 
In military mining, a small charge of 
powder sunk in the wall of earth, be- 
tween two parallel galleries, in order, 
by blowing the earth into one of them, 
to suffocate or cut off the retreat of 
the miner who is at work in it. It is 
also caUed a stifler. 
CAMPAG'NA, n. [It.] A champaign ; 
a large open plain ; an extensive tract 
of level ground ; a campaign. 
CAMPA'NjE, \n. The drops or 
CAMPAN'UL^, ] gutta; of the Doric 
CAMPAN'ERO,n. Thebell-bird(Proc- 
nias carunculata) of South America, 
so called from the bell-like sound of 
its voice. It is one of the few birds 
which is heard during the day in the 
forests of Demerara. 
CAMPANOL'OGIST, n. A bell-ringer. 
CAMPAN'ULA, n. [add.] A genus of 
plants, the type of the nat. order Cam- 
panulacese. It is one of the largest 
and most showy in the vegetable king- 
dom. The species are herbaceous, with 
bell-shaped flowers, and usually of a 
blue or white colour. Ten species are 
enumerated by British florists, of which 
the most interesting is the C. rotundi- 
folia, bluebeU or harebell. [See Hake- 
bell.] Most of the species of Cam- 
panula are worth cultivating on ac- 
count of their beautiful flowers. 
CAMPANULA'RIA, n. A genus of] 

zoophytes in which the polype-cells as- 
sume a bell-shape. 
CAMP-BED'STEAD, n. A bedstead 
made to fold up within a narrow space, 
aS used in war ; a tressel bedstead. 
CAMPEPH-AGA, n. [Gr. «o=^t,, a ca- 
terpillar, and fs^yu, I eat.] A genus of 
passerine birds found in Asia and Africa, 
where there are several species, which 
live chiefly on caterpillars. These 
birds have the rump-feathers with stiff 
CAM'PHENE, n. [add.] The liquid so 
called, and used for camphene-lamps, is 
highly rectified spirits of turpentine. 
Ordinary spirits of turpentine leaves a 
stain upon paper, and becomes viscid 
on exposure to the air, owing to the 
presence of some balsam. When freed 
from this it is called camphene. It is 
then highly evaporable, and leaves no 

CAM'PHINE, n. A spirit for burning 
in lamps, said to consist of oil of tur- 
pentine with a species of naphtha. 

CAM'PHO(>EN, n. A colourless Mquid 
procured by distilling camphor with 
anhydrous phosphoric acid. It is a 
carbo - hydrogen, and occurs naturally 
in the oil of cumin. [See Camphene.] 

CAMPHOL'ie ACID, n. An acid ob- 
tained when camphor is passed in va- 
pour over a heated mLxture of hydrates 
of potash and lime. It has the con- 
sistence of camphor, but contains two 
parts more of hydrogen and oxygen. 

CAM'PHOR-OLL, n. [add.] This sub- 
stance is obtained in Borneo and Su- 
matra from the Dryobalanops cam- 
phora. It is supposed to be camphor 
in an imperfect state of formation. 

CAMP'ION, n. [add.] In bot., bladder- 
campion is the Silene inflata ; sea- 
campion, the Silene maritima; moss- 
campion, the iSVfene acaulis; red alpine- 
campion, the Lychnis alpina ; red or 
rose campion, the Lychnis sylvestris; 
and white campion, the Lychnis vespcr- 
tina. [See Silene and Lychnis.] 

CAMP'- MEETINGS, n. Religious 
meetings among the Methodists, held 
in the open air {campus) in Britain and 

CAMP'ONG, n. A native village in the 
islands of the Eastern Archipelago. 

CAMP'-STOOL, n. Aseat or stool with 
cross legs, which folds up when not 

CAMP'- VINEGAR, n. A mixture of 
■vinegar with Cayenne pepper, soy, 
walnut-ketchup, anchovies, and garlic. 

OT'ROPOUS, instead of CAM'PU- 

CAMPYLODIS'CUS, n. In bot., a 
genus of diatomaceous plants, of which 
the frustules are saddle-shaped. 

CAMPYLOP'TERUS, n. A genus of 
humming-birds, with large sickle - 
shaped wings. 

CAMSTE'RIE, ) a. Forward; per- 

CAMSTAI'RIE,)' verse; unmanage- 
able. [Scotch.] 

CAM'-STONES, n. Small concretions 
found in some clay-beds near Glasgow. 
They are oblate, generally of an oblong 
figure, and all lie in a horizontal posi- 
tion. Cam-stone is also the name 
given in Scotland to the mineral of 
which pencils are formed for ciphering 
on slate. 

CA'MUS. See Camis. 

CAM'USE.t a. [Fr.] Camous; flat. 

CAM'-WHEEL, J2. A wheel formed so 




as to move eccentrically, and produce 
a reciprocating and interrupted motion 
in some other part of machinery con- 
nected with it. [See Cam after Cam- 


€AM'-WOOD, n. [add.] This dye-wood 
is said to be the produce of the Baphia 
nitida. It is used by turners for making 
knife-handles, and by cabinet-makers 
for ornamental knobs to furniture. 
€AN,t r. t. [add.] To feel; to see; to 
perceive; to understand; to know hovr 
to do anything; to be able; to have 
the ability or power. [See Ca\, v. ?.] 
CAN. Often used in old writers for 

gan or began. 
CANADA -RICE, n. The Zizania 
aquatica, a plant growing in deep 
water, along the edges of ponds and 
sluggish streams, in the northern states 
of America and Canada. 
CANAL', n. [add.] In anat., any cylin- 
drical or tubular cavity in the body, 
whether occupied by a solid, fluid, or 
aeriform substance ; as, the canal of the 
spine, the semicircular canals of the 
internal ear, the ciliary canal. Sec. — In 
conchol.y a groove observed in different 
parts of certain spiral shells, belonging 
to the Zoophaga, and adapted for the 
protrusion of the long cylindrical si- 
phon possessed by those animals. 
CANAL'-BOAT, n. A boat used on ' 
canals for convening goods or passen- 
CANALIF'ERA, n. Atribeof zoopha- 
gous univalves or gastropods, of which 
the shell is characterized by a long 
straight canal terminating its mouth. 
CANALIZA'TION, n. The construc- 
tion of canals. 
CANA'RY,t V. i. To dance; to frolic; 
to perform the old dance called a 

CANA'RT-BIRD, n. [add.] The FHn- 
giUa canariay Linn., and the Carduelis 
canaria, Cuv. 
CANARY-FINCH, n.Thecanary-bird. 
CANA'RY-WOOD,H. A woodof a light 
orange colour, straight and close in the 
grain, adapted for the purposes of the 
cabinet-maker and turner. It is im- 
ported into England from the Brazils, 
under the name of Madeira mahogany. 
It is probably the wood of Laurus in- 
CAN'CEL, 7?. In printing^ the suppres- 
sion and reprinting of a page or more 
of a work ; the part thus altered, 
CANCELLA'REATE, a. Belonging to 
a chancellor. 

CANCELLA'RIA, n. A genus of uni- 
valve Testacea, in which the shell ia 
turbinate, scabrous, and generally reti- 
culated; the spire and aperture nearly 
equal, and the body ventricose. 
CAK'CER, n. [add.] The term Cancer 
was applied by Linna?us to a very ex- 
tensive genus of animals, correspond- 
ing to the first three orders of Cuvier's 
class Crustacea, and including the crab, 
lobster, shrimp, crayfish, kc. Tiie term 
is now confined to a genus of Crus- 
tacea, including only the common 
European crab (C. paywrus), and a few 
allied species found in North and 
South America and New Zealand. — In 
surgery, cancer exists under two forms, 
one of which is termed schimis or oc- 
cult cancer, and the other cancer, pro- 
perly so called, that is, ulcerated or 
open cancer. Cancer is seated chietly 
in parts which have a glandular struc- 
ture. It is much more frequent in the 
female than the male. Its most com- 
mon seat in the female is the breast, 

and in the male the lips. In an ad- 
vanced stage of the schirrus, the cuta- 
neous veins enlarge, become what is 
termed varicose, and spread out over 
the livid and puckered skin iu such a 
manner, as to present some likeness to 
the body of a crab, with its claws ex- 
tended ; whence it has received the 
name of cancer. — Cancer-bandage, a 
bandage resembling a crab in the num- 
ber of its legs, and called the split- 
cloth of eight tails. — Tropic of Can- 
cer. [See Tropic] 

CAN'CERATED, pp. Grown can- 

CAN'CRED,ta. [5eeCANKER.] Cross; 
ill-natured. [Spenser.] 

C AN'CRINITE, n. In mineral, ^aothev 
name for nepheline. 

CANDELABRUM, n, [add.] Cande- 
lebra were used by the ancients both 
in their public edifices and private 

CANDIDATE, n. Sig. 4. [add.] This 
signification is peculiar to America. 

CAN'DIDATESHIP, n. The state of a 

CAN'DLE, n. [add.] To hold the candle 
to onCy is to wait on him ; to render 
him some menial assistance; hence the 
phrase, "You are not fit to hold a 
candle to him," is equivalent to, You 
are not fit to be even his servant, or to 
render him the most tri\nal menial aid. 

CAN'DLE-€OAL, n. See Cannel- 


CANDLE-TREE OIL, n. A solid oil 
obtained from the berries of the candle- 
berry-tree, — ichich see. 

CAN 'DROY, n. A machine used in pre- 
paring cotton cloths for printing. 

■CAN'DY-t:ARROT, n. A plant, the 
Athamanta Matthiola. 

CANDT-TUFT, n. Iberis, a genus of 
cruciferous plants. [See Iberis.] 

CAN'EL,t n. fFr. canale.^ Channel. 
\ Chaucer.'] 

CANE -MILL, n. A mill for grinding 
sugar-canes for the manufacture of 
sugar. [See Scgar-Mill.] 

CANE'VAS,t n. Canvas. [Chaucer.'] 

CAN'GICA-W'OOD, n. A wood of the 
rose-wood character, imported from 
the Brazils. It is lighter and of a 
yellower brown than rose-wood. It 
is imported in trimmed logs, from 6 to 
10 inches diameter, for the use of the 
cabinet-maker and turner. 

CA'NID.^, n. The dog-tribe, a family 
of digitigrade carnivorous mammalia. 
It includes the dog, fox, wolf, and 

CAN'lFLEjf n. A small knife or dag- 

■CA'NIS, n. i)lur. Canes. [L.] A genus 
cf digitigrade mammalia, restricted in 
modern systems of zoology to the spe- 
cies of dog, wolf, and jackal; but by 
Linnaeus applied in a. wider sense, to 
include the fox and hyena. Of the 
domestic dog {Canis familiaris), there 
are many varieties. [See Dog.] 

CANISTER-SHOT, n. Same as Case- 
Shot, — tchich see. 

CANKER-BLOOM, > n. Flowers of 

CANK'ER-BLOSSOM,J the canker 
or dog rose. — Anything that corrodes 
or devours like a canker. [Shah.] 

CANKERED, pp. [add.] Eaten; cor- 

CANNA, n. [add.] There are several 
species of this genus of plants, all of 
which are known by the name of In- 
dian shot. They are so named from 
their seeds, which are round, shining, 
hard, heavj-, resembling shot. C. tn- 


dica, C. patens, and C. coccinea are 
common plants within the tropics on 
all the continents. Their leaves are 
large and tough, and are employed for 
forming envelopes for articles of com- 
merce. The rootstock of C. edulis is 
used for making arrow-root. Nearly 
all the species contain starch in the 
rootstock, which renders them fit to be 
used as food after being cooked. 

CANNA. Cannot. [Scotch.] 

CANNEL--eOAL,\n. [add.] This 

CANDLE -COAL, I species of coal 
is found in most of the English col- 
lieries, especially at "Wigan in Lanca- 
shire. It is black, opaque, compact, 
and brittle, and breaks with a con- 
choidal fracture, but does not soil the 
fingers. When biu-ning, it splits and 
crackles, but does not cake. It is 
sometimes used for ink-holders and 

CAN'NIBAL, a. Relating to canni- 
balism ; as, cannibal barbarity. 

CAN NIL Y, adv. Skilfully ; cautiously, 

CAN'NON, n. [add.] In m^rA., ahollow 
jDg shaft passes, and on which it is car- 
ried,and may revolve independently, and 
with a greater or less speed than that 
of the shaft. Ex- 
ample — the pro- 
~ ^ — , ^ longation of the 

I eye of a wheel, 

when bored to fit 
a spindle or shaft, 
on which it is intended to work loose, 
is termed a cannon, as the part a of the 
wheel A, loose on the shaft b. 

CANNONEER', v. t. To cannonade. 
[Rar. us.] 

CAN'ON, n. [add.] This term is applied 
to express certain grammatical rules 
formed by the critics, and intended to 
serve as guides in criticism. It is also 
used for the rule of persons who are 
devoted to a life strictly religious, as 
monks and nuns; and it is likewise ap- 
plied to the book in which such rule 
was written. — Canon-law, a collection 
of ecclesiastical constitutions for the 
regulation of the church of Rome, con- 
sisting for the most part of ordinances 
of general and provincial councils, de- 
crees promulgated by the popes, with 
the sanction of the cardinals, and de- 
cretal epistles and bulls of the popes. 
There is also a canon-law for the regu- 
lation of the church of England, which, 
under certain restrictions, is used in 
the ecclesiastical courts, and in the 
courts of the two universities. — Canons 
of inheritance^ in laxc, are the rules 
directing the descent of real property 
throughout the lineal and collateral 
consanguinity of the ancestor, or, as he 
is technically called, the purchaser, 

CAN'ON, «. See Caxox-Bit. \Sptn^ 

CANONIC'ITY, n. The qnality of 
being canonical; the state of belong- 
ing to the canon or genuine books of 

CAN ONiZER, n. One who canonizes. 

CANON-LAW, «. 5ee under Canox, 

CAN ON-LAWYER, n. One versed in 
the canon-law, 

CANT, n. [add.] Vulgar pretension 
without sincerity. 

CANT, n. [add.] An inclination from a 
horizontal line; as, to be on the cant. 

CANT, a. Vulgar; inelegant j affected; 
as, a *.ant word or phrase. 

CANT, f. t. In carpentry, a term used 
to express cutting off the angles of a 




square body.— In arcli., canted is ap- 
plied to pillars, turrets, or towers, 
whose plan is a polygon. 

CANTAB', n. A contraction for Can- 
tabriijiemis, of or belonging to Cam- 
bridge ; also a colloquial term for 
a Cantahriijian. 

CANTAB ILE, instead of CANTA'- 

CANTABRI6IAN, a. Relating to 
Cambridge or its university, 

CAN'TALOUPE,! n. A small round 

CAN'TALEUP, ) variety of musk- 
nieloft, globular, ribbed, of pale green 
or yellow colour, and of a very delicate 

CANTANK'EROUS, a. \Con, and 
tanherousj frctfiU.] Vile in the highest 
degree ; contentious ; disputatious. 
[Local. \ 

CAN'TATOKY, a. Containing cant or 
affectation •, whining ; singing. [Rar. 

CANTA'TRICES, l7i. Dr. MacgUli- 

CANTATO'RES, f vray's names for 
an order of musical birds; as the 
orioles, thrushes, warblers, wrens, &c. 

CANTEEN', n. |add.J In the British 
army, a small wooden vessel capable of 
containing three pints of liquor, which 
is carried by each soldier on the march, 
on foreign service, or in the field. Also 
a square box, fitted up with compart- 
ments, in which officers on foreign ser- 
vice pack a variety of articles, as spirit- 
bottles, tea and sugar, plates, knives, 
forks, &c. The same name is given to 
a place in barracks where provisions, 
liquors, coffee, &c., are sold to non- 
commissioned officers and privates. 

CAN TEL, n. The hind bow of a sad- 
dle ; that which is added above mea- 
sure ; a piece of anything ; also written 

€AN'TEL,t ". See Cantle. [Chau- 

CAN'TELEUP, n. See Cantaloupe 
in this Supp. 

CANTERBURY, n. A receptacle for 
music, portfolios, loose papers, &c., 
being a stand with divisions. 

moderate gallop of a horse, commonly 
called a canter j said to be derived 
from the pilgrims ridiug to Canterbury 
at this pace. 

€ANTHAREL'LUS, n. A genus of 
fungi. C. cibarius is one of the best 
of our eatable mushrooms. 

CANTHAR'ID^, n. A family of cole- 
opterous insects of the section Trache- 
lides, the type of which is the genus 
Cantharis ; other genera ai'e Meloe 
and Mylabris. 

€ AN'TH ARIS, v. [add.] The blistering- 
beetle or Spanish Hy is the Cantharis 

CAN'THARUS, n. A genus of acan- 
thopterygious osseous fishes, inliabiting 
chiefly the Mediterranean and Atlantic. 
C'. griseus, Cuv., is the black bream of 
Montagu, found on the southern shores 
of England. 

CAN'THIUM, n. A genus of East 
Indian plants, nat. order Cinchonaceae. 
C. dubiiim is an ornamental shrub. 

CAN'TILEVER, n. See Cantalivek. 

CANTING, n. In arch. [Sec Cant.] 

CANT'ING, a. Affectedly pious; as, a 
canting hypocrite. 

CAN'TLE, H. [add.] A corner. [Shah.] 
— The back part of the head. [Scotch^ 

CAN'TONED, a. A term applied to a 
body furnished at its angles or on its 
sides with some projecting part. In 
this sense it is applied to a building 

when its corners are decorated with 
projecting pilasters or quoins. The 
expression is more particularly em- 
ployed in describing the pillars of the 
Roman churches which have a pro- 
jecting shaft on each of their faces, or 
on each of tlieir angles. In the first 
case such pillars are said to be can- 
tonnh en croix, and in the second case 
cantonncs diagonalements. The term is 
borrowed from heraldry. 

€AN'TONMENTS, n. The dvvelling- 
places occupied by an army during any 
suspension of active operations in the 
field ; the temporary shelter which an 
army may occasionally take; as, during 
a season of excessive heat, the troops 
are distributed in villages, houses, &c., 
but so as not to be widely scattered. 
The term is also frequently used to 
designate the winter-quarters of an 

CAN'TONS, for Cantos. [Shah.] 

CANTOON', n. A kind of fustian with 
a fine cord visible on one side. 

CANT'UAR, n. An abbreviation for 
Cantuaria, the Latin name of the city 
of Canterbury. 

■CANTUA'KIA, tz. The Roman name 
for Canterbury. 

CANNULA, n. [L. dimin. of canna, a 
reed.] A small tube, generally applied 
to tliat of the trocar, &c. 

CAN'VAS, a. Made of canvas; noting 
a coarse cloth of hemp or flax for sails. 

CAN'V AS-BACK, w. A speciesof duck, 
the Anas valisneria, highly esteemed 
for the delicacy of its flesh. It is found 
in the rivers of the Chesapeake Bay, 
and derives its name from the colom* 
of its back. 

€AN'VASS, V. i. [add.] To go through 
in the way of solicitation ; as, to can- 
vass a city, district, or county for 


[add.] The canzonet is now confined to 
songs for a single voice. 

€AOUT CHINE, ) n. An inflam- 

CAOUT'CUOUCINEjj mable vola- 
tile oil produced by distillation of 
caoutchouc at a high temperature. 

C AOUT'CHOUC, instead of CAOUT- 
CHOUC, n. [add.] This remarkable 
substance is obtained from many dif- 
ferent plants. It is yielded by the 
Siphonia elastica, and most other 
euphorbaceous plants. Various urti- 
caceous plants yield it, especially i^tcws- 
elastica. In Papantla it is yielded by 
a plant called ule ; in Sumatra by 
Urceola elastica ; and in Madagascar 
by a species of Vahea. A new mode of 
preparing caoutchouc or india-rubber 
has recently been discovered, by which 
its elasticity is greatly increased and 
rendered permanent at all tempera- 
tures. [See Vulcanization.] 

■CAP, n. [add.] In ship-building y a term 
applied to square blocks of wood laid 
upon others, on which rests the keel 
of the vessel. Anything in the form of 
a cap which serves to cover something 
else ; as, the cap of a percussion-lock, 
a covering of lead put over the heads of 
iron bolts to prevent their corrosion. — 
To set her cap at him. a familiar phrase 
applied to an unmarried lady who 
directs her particular attentions to a 
gentleman, with the view of xcinning 
his affections. — Percussion-cap, a little 
copper box or cell containing a small 
quantity of detonating mixture, which 
is adjusted over the touch-hole of a 
musket, and so arranged as to the other 

part of the lock, that a smart blow 
bursts the cap and explodes its con- 
tents, the little cell itself being de- 
stroyed so that a new one is required 
for each firing. [See Percussion- 

CAPAC'ITY, n. [add.] Capability.— In 
law, an ability or fitness to do or to 
receive, to sue or be sued. 

■CA'PE, n. [L. cai>io, to take.] A judicial 
writ relative to a plea of lands or tene- 
ments, divided into cape magnum, or 
the grand cape, and cape parvuni, or 
petit cape. It is abolished. 

■CAPE-JAS'MINE, n. A plant, the 
Gardenia jiorida. 

CAP'EL.t 71. [Gael, capull.] A horse. 

CAP'ELLaNE, n. [Fr. capelan.] A 
chaplain ; the curate of a chapel. 


€A'PER, n. [add.] To cut capers, to 
leap or dance in a frolicsome manner. 

CA'PER-SPURGE, n. A plant, the 
Euphorbia lathyris. 

CAPIA'I, or CABIA'I, n. The capi- 
bara, or water-hog. 

CAPIB'ARA, ) K. The largest known 

■CAPYB'ARA,) rodent quadruped, 
the Hydrochonrus capibara. It in- 
habits various parts of South America, 
but is most common m Brazil. It is of 
aquatic habits, and frequents rivers, 
like the otter, whence it has obtained 
the name of the water-hog, — which see 
for figure. 

CAPILLAIRE', n. [add.] This name is 
now given to a syrup made of sugar, 
honey, and orange-flower water. 

CAP'ILLARINESS, n. The state of 
being capillary. 

CAPILLARITY, n. The state or con- 
dition of being capillary. 

[add.] A fine vessel or canal. The 
capillaries are the minute vessels of 
the sanguineous system which inter- 
vene between the minute arteries and 
veins. They are too minute to be de- 
tected by the naked eye. 

[add.] Pertaining to capillary tubes, or 
to the capillary vessels or capillaHes in 
animals; as, capillary action. 


repulsion which is exhibited when a 
capillary tube is dipped into mercury, 
so that the fluid stands lower within 
the tube than without. 

LARY VESSELS, n. In anat., the 
minute ramifications of the arteries and 
other vessels. They are also termed 
capillaries. [See under Capillary.] 

CAPILLI"TIUM, n. [L. capillus, a 
hair.] A kind of purse or net in whicii 
the sporules of some fungi are retained. 

CAP'ILLOSE, a. Hairy ; abounding 
with hair. 

CAPIS'TRUM, n. [L. capio, to take.] 
Literally, a bridle. — In sur., the single 
split-cloth bandage, so named because 
it is used to support the lower jaw, like 
a bridle. 

CAP'ITAL, n. [add.] In political eco- 
nomy, the produce of industry which 
remains, either in the shape of national 
or of individual wealth, after a portion 
of what is produced is consumed, and 
which is still available for use only, or 
for further production. The capital of 
a country or community consists of 
those portions of the produce of iu- 




dustry existing in it which may be made 
directly ayailable either for the support 
of human beings, or the facilitatiog of 
further pmiuction. Capital may be 
applied either directly in the employ- 
ment of labour, or directly in aid of 
labour ; it may be spent in the food and 
clothes of labourers, or in tools and 
other auxiliary machinery, to assist 
their labour, and increase its produc- 
tiveness. The former is usually termed 
circulating capital, and the latter .fixed 
capital. Both, however, are indis- 
pensable to the progress of the arts 
and national wealth, and are used in 
combination. — Capital felonies, those 
crimes upon conviction of which the 
offender is condemned to be hanged, as 
high-treason, murder, unnatural of- 
fences, robbery accompanied with stab- 
bing or wounding, setting fire to a 
dwelling-house, any person being there- 
in, &c. 

CAPITALIZE, V. t. To convert into 
capital, as money; to form or print in 
capital letters. 

CAPITAN'-PACHA', ( w. The chief 

€AP'TAIX-PASHA',> admiral of the 
Turkish fleet. 

CAPITULAR, a. [L. capitulum.] Be- 
longing to a chapter; capitulary. — In 
bot., growing in small heads, as the 
dandelion, and plants of the order 

CAPITULA'RILM, n. [L.] The laws 
issued by Charlemagneand other French 
kings of the first and second races. [See 

CAPIT'ULATE,t v. t. To jield or 
surrender on conditions. 

CAP'LIX, or CAPPING, n. [Qu. a 
corruption of coupling.] A thong of 
leather or skin by which the swingel of 
a flail is fastened to the staff. [Local.] 

n. A fish, the Mallotus grcenlandicus, or 
Salmo arcticus. It is about sis or seven 
inches long, and resembles a smelt in 
form and colour, but has very small 
scales. It is delicate eating, but its 
chief value is as bait for cod. The 

Capiio, Sal 

masses of this fish which frequent the 
shores of Newfoundland and Labrador 
would appear incredible; were not the 
fact witnessed by thousands for many 
years. Dense shoals of them are some- 
times kno^vn to be more than fifty 
miles in length, and several miles 

€APOCH', r. t. [add.] To hood; to 
blindfold. [Hudibras.] 

CAPONIEKE', )n. [add.] In fort., a 

CAPONNIERE', f passage from one 
part of a work to the other, protected 
on the right and left by a wall or para- 
pet, and sometimes covered overhead. 
When there is a parapet on one side 
onlv, it is called a demicaponiere. 

CAP'PAGH-BROWN, n. Manganese- 
bro^NTi ; a bituminous earth, coloured 
by oxide of manganese and iron, which 
yields pigments of various rich bro^^•n 
coloiu^, two of which are distinguished 
as light and doj'k Cappagk-bj'otcns. 
Cappagh-broicn derives its name from 
Cappagh, near Cork, in Ireland. 

CAP PELINE, n. A small skull-cap of 
iron worn by archers in the middle 

■CAPPERXOIT Y, ) a. Crabbed; pee- 

CAPPERXOIT'ED, ( vish. [Scotch.] 

CAP'PIE, n. Diminutive of Cap. 

CAP PING-PLAXE, n. In joinery, a 
plane used for working the upper sur- 
face of staircase-rails. 

CAP'RATE, n. A salt formed by the 
union of capric acid with a base. 

€APRE'OLUS,t n. The tendril of a 
plant : cirrhus. 

CAPRIC'CIO, instead of CAPRIC- 

CAPRICCIO'SO, instead of CA- 

CAPRlCH'IO,t n. Freak; fancy. 

CAP RID^, n. [L. caper, a goat.] The 
goat tribe, a family of ruminating 
animals, in which the horns are directed 
upwards and backwards, and their bony 
core is partly cellular. It includes only 
the goats and sheep. 

€APRIFICA'TION, n. [add.] This is 
a process for accelerating the ripening 
of the fig in the Levant. It is effected 
by placing a quantity of the branches 
of the wild fig-trees upon the cultivated 
plant, when the fruit of the latter is 
preparing to ripen. The branches of 
the ^'■iId fig bring along with them a 
great number of small insects of the 
genus Cynips, which, by puncturing the 
fruit for the purpose of Ia\ing their 
eggs, simply hasten the ripening. Cap- 
rification may be artificially imitated 
by puncturing the fruit with a needle 
dipped in oil. 

CAPRIMTL'filD.E, n. The goat- 
suckers, a family of passerine birds, re- 
markable for their nocturnal habits, 
light and rapid flight, and great activity. 
There is only one European species, 
the Caprimulgus Europepus, a summer 
visitant in Britain. Several are found 
in America, one of which is known as 
the whip-poor- vrill, and another as the 
night-hawk. [See cut in Did. Goat- 
Suck ek,] 

CAP RINE, n. A substance found in 
butter, which, ^\ith but>Tine and cap- 
rone, gives the butter its peculiar agree- 
able taste and odour. It is a compound 
of capric acid and glycerine, or a cap- 
rate of glycerine. 

CAPRIOLE', n. [add.] A caper in 

CAP'ROATE, n. A salt formed by the 
union of caproic acid with a base. 

CAP'ROMYS, n. The hog-rat, a genus 
of rodent animals, different species of 
which are found in the M'est Indies. 
One species inhabits Cuba, where it is 
called hutia or utia. 

CAP'RONE, n. A substance found in 
butter. It is a compound of caproic 
acid and glycerine, or a caproate of 

CAPRYL'IC ACID, n. An acid found 
in butter, analogous to capric and cap- 
roic acids. 

CAPSEL'LA, n. Shepherd's-purse, a 
genus of plants. [See Shephebd's- 


CAP'SICINE, n. The active principle 
of the capsules of Capsicum annuuniy 
or Cayenne pepper. It has a resinous 
aspect, and a bm-ning taste. It is 
soluble in alcohol, and forms crystalliz- 
able salts with acetic, nitric, and sul- 
phuric acids. 

CAP'SICL'.M, n. [add.] Capsicum an- 
nuum is known by the name of Guinea 
pepper, — xchich see. C. baccatum, or 
bird-pepper, the Cfrut€scens,OT Chilies 
(calledalso Cayenne pepper), are natives 
1 of the East and West Indies, and South 

America. C. fruticositm, or goat-pep- 
per, is a native of the East Indies, and 
is much hotter than the other spe- 
cies. C. grossum, or bell-pepper, is 
an East Indian species, ^rith lai'ge 

CAP STAN, n. [add.] Capstans are 
used in large ships chiefly for weighing 
anchors, hoisting sails, &c. The power 
of the capstan may be greatly increased 
by adapting an arrangement of wheel- 
workto it, an improvement now adopted 
in the royal navy.— To rig the capstan, 
to prepare the capstan for heaving, 
by fixing the bars in the holes or 
otherwise. A capstan is distinguished 
fi'om a vrindlass by the axis, and con- 
sequently the barrel being vertical. It 
is chiefly used on land for moving great 
weights short distances, as blocks of 
stone from quarries, &c. When em- 
ployed for drawing coal from pits it is 
usually called a gin, and when worked 
bv horses it is termed a whim-gin. 

TAIN-GENERALSI^ n. The office 
or jurisdiction of a captain-general. 

€AP'TAIN-PASHA,«. See Capitan- 

CAPTIOUS, a. [add.] Irritable; 
touchv. — Capable of receiving. [5AaA.] 

CAP tlVAUNCE,t n. Captivity. 

CAP'UL, n. A horse or mare; a work- 
horse. [Scotch.] 

CAP'ULET, n. In farriery, a tumour, 
or enlargement on the point of a horse's 

CATUT, n. [L. the head.] In Cam- 
bridge, a council of the university, by 
which every grace must be approved 
before it can be submitted to the senate. 
It consists of the vice-chancellor, a 
doctor of each of the faculties of di- 
vinity, law, and medicine, and two 
masters of arts, chosen annually by the 

CA'PUT-MORT'UUM, n. [add.] Dead 
matter ; lees ; worthless remains, or 

CAPY'B'ARA, n. See Capibara. 

CAR'ACAL, n. A species of lynx, the 
Felis caracal, Linn., a native of North- 
ern Africa and South-western Asia. It 
is about the size of a fox : possesses 
great strength and fierceness, and is 
used in the chase of the smaller quad- 
rupeds, and of the larger kinds of 

geol., a division of the lower Silurian 
rocks, consisting of red, purple, green, 
and white micaceous and sometimes 
quartzose grits and limestones, con- 
taining corals and moUusca. 

CARAGA'NA, n. A handsome genus 
of leguminous plants. Most of the 
species are adapted for shrubberies. 

CAR'AOENINE, n. A pecuhar mucil- 
age obtained from the Caragheen or 
Irish moss. 

CAR'AGHEEN-MOSS, n. The Irish 
moss, a species of algse, the Chondrus 

CAR'AMEL, n. [Fr.] Anhydrous or 
burnt sugar. It is used for colouring 
spirits, &c. It gives out, when heated, 
a peculiar odour, called the odour of 
caramel. [See Caromel.] 

CAR'AMOTE, n. A rather large species 
of shrimp {Penceus sulcaius) common in 
the Mediterranean, whero it is caught 
in great numbers and salted for expor- 

CAR' APACE, n. [add.] The shell which 
protects the body of chelonian reptiles. 




The term is also applied to the superior 
surface of the crustaceans. 

CAR'APINE, n. A substance found in 
Carapa guianensis, a plant of Guiana. 
It is a white, ijearly, fusible powder, 
very bitter, soluble in water and alco- 
hol, forming crystallizable salts with 
acetic and sulphuric acids. 

CAR'APUS, n. A genus of apodal 
malacopterygious fishes. 

CAR'ATACH, h. In Turkei/, the tax 
imposed on Christians, Jews, &c., resi- 
dent in the oountry. 

€AR'AVAN, «. [add.] A large close 
carriage un springs, for conveying wild 
beasts, when carried from place to 
place as a show, 

CARAVEL'LA, ;?. [It.] A Turkish 
frigate carrying forty guns. 

€AR'A"SVAY-€OiMFIT, n. A sweet- 
meat containing caraway. 

CAR'AWAYS, n. The seeds of the 
Carum cflrui, used as an agreeable car- 
minative by confectioners, and also in 

€aR'BAMIDE, 71. A compound of 
amidogen and carbonic acid ; an ingre- 
dient of chloro-carbonate of ammonia. 

€ARBAZ'OTATE, n. A salt formed 
by the union of carbazotic acid with a 
base ; called also nitropinrate. 

CaR'BINE. See Carabine. 

€ARBOL'IC ACID, n. An acid found 
in that part of the oil of coal which 
boils between 300° aud 400''. It is an 
oily liquid, colourless, with a biu-ning 
taste and the odom* of creosote. 

CaRBONA'RO, n. jihw. Carbonari. 
[It.] Literall//, a coalman. A name 
given to the members of a secret poli- 
tical society which appears to have 
been formed in Italy at the commence- 
ment of the present century, and which, 
after the fall of the new republics, had 
for its object the expulsion of the 
stranger, and the establishment of a 
democratic government. Towards 
1818 the society spread into France. 

CAR'BONATE, n. [add.] The carbon- 
ates are an important class of salts, 
many of them being extensively used in 
the arts and in medicine. 

CaRBON'IC acid, n. [add.] This 
acid is formed during the respiration 
of animals, and in all ordinary combus- 
tions, from the oxidation of carbon in 
the fuel. It exists in large quantity in 
all limestones and marbles. It is 
evolved from the coloured parts of the 
flowers of plants both by night and day, 
and from the green parts of plants 
during the night. 

geol., the great group of strata which 
includes nearly all the valuable coal 
yet discovered. It consists of tlie coal- 
formation and the mountain-limestone 

CaRBUN C'ULAR, a. instead of €aR- 

€aRBUN€'ULATE, a. Same as Car- 


Carcajou, instead of carcajo, 

n. [add.] A species of lynx found in 
Canada and other parts of North 

■CAR'CASEjt ». A dead body ; a car- 
cass. [See CARf'ASs.] 

Carcass, n. [add.] Carcass-flooring, 
in arcli.y the grated frame of timber- 
work which supports the boarding or 
floor-boards above, and the ceiling be- 
low. — CarcaA-s-roct/iHi/,thegratedframe 
of timber- work which spans the build- 
ing, and carries the boarding and other 
X. — Supr. 

CARCHA'RIAS, ?^. A genusof chond- 
ropterygian fishes, containing some of 
the most voracious of the sharks ; for 
example, the white shark (C. vuhjaris). 

CaR'CINUS, h. [Gr. y.a^^i.c;, a crab.] 
A genus of decapod Crustacea, contain- 
ing the most common crab on our coast 
(C. ■ma?nas). 

GaRD, n. [add.] A note published by 
some one in the public papers, con- 
taining a brief statement, explanation, 

€aRD'AMINE, n. [add.] The species 
of this genus of cruciferous plants are 
numerous, and are usually smooth herbs, 
with stalked, entire, lobed, or pinnately 
cut leaves, and racemes of white or red 
flowers. C. pratensisy cuckoo-flower, 
common ladies'-smock, or bitter cress, 
is exceedingly abundant in some parts 
of Britain. It has a bitter taste, and 
at one time it had the reputation of 
being a diuretic and antispasmodic. It 
is known also to possess antiscorbutic 
properties. It is generally in blossom 
when the cuckoo returns to this 
country, lience the name, ciickoo- 
Jlower. Four other species are de- 
scribed as natives of Britain, viz., C, 
amarOf C. imjmtiens, C. hirsutay and 
C. sijlcatica. 

CARD'AMOMS, n. The aromatic cap- 
sules of diff'erent species of Amomum. 
Those known in the shops are tlie large, 
supposed to be produced by Amomum 
augustifoliiim, a Madagascar plant ; the 
middle-sized and small, both supposed 
to be the produce of Amo7num carda- 
momum, a native of Sumatra and other 
eastern islands. Malabar cardamoms 
are the best sort, and are produced by 
Amomum repeus. — Ceylon cardamoms, 
the fruit of the grain of paradise-plant 
uf Ceylon. 

CAR'DIA, 71. [Gr. a«eSi«, the heart.] 
The entrance into the stomach, so called 
from being near the heart. 

CAR'DIAC, \ «.[add.] The cardiac 

CARDI'ACAL, ) orifice oj the stomach, 
called also cardia, is the upper or left 
orifice. — Cardiac passion, an old name 
for heart-burn. — Cardiac arteries and 
veins, the coronary arteries and veins of 
the heart. — Cardiac confection, the aro- 
matic confection. 

GaRDIA'CE.^, n. [From cardium, one 
of the genera.] A family of molluscous 
animals, including the cockles and 
their allies. They have equivalve bi- 
valve convex shells, having salient sum- 
mits curved towards the hinge, whicli, 
when viewed sideways, give them tlie 
appearance of a heart. The respira- 
tory organs are usually prolonged into 

CAR'DIAC-WHEEL, n. The heart- 
wheel; a cam-wheel of the form of a 

GaRDIAL'OIA, n. Pain in the sto- 
mach. [See Cardialgy.] 


nalis vinjinianus {Loxia cardinalis, 
Linn.), a North American bird, with a 
fine red plumage, and a crest on the 
head. Its song very much resembles 
that of the nightingale, hence one of 
its common names, Vinjinian nightin- 

CARD'ING, n. The act of combing, 
breaking, and cleaning wool, cotton, 
flax, &c., with cards or a carding- 

^CARDIOGRAPHY, n. [Gr. ^a^Si*, 
the heart, and y^a^u, to describe.] A 
description of the heart. 

CARDIOL'OOY, n. [Gr. K«,(bia, the 
heart, and Acyos, discourse.] A discourse 
or treatise on the heart. 

GXR'DIUM, n. [Gr. y.a(im, the heart.] 
The cockle, a genus of mollusca, be- 
longing to tlie family Cardiaceie. The 
foot is largely developed, and is used 
by most of these animals, not merely 
for progression, but in the excavation 
of hollows in tlie sand or mud of the 
shores on wliich tliey dwell. The most 
common species is the C. edule, or 
edible cockle 

CaRDOON','". [add.] This is the Ci/n- 
ara cardunculus of botanists, a Spanish 
plant, the thick fleshy stalks and ribs 
of whose leaves are blanched and eaten 
in Spain and France, as an esculent 
vegetable. Tliey have been reckoned 
to possess aphrodisiacal properties. 

CARD-PARTY, n. A party assembled 
for the purpose of playing cards. 

CaRD'-PLAYER, n. One who plays 

GAR'ECTES,! n. jilur. Characters. 

CAREEN'ACiE, n. A place to careen a 
ship ; expense of careening. 

CARE-KILLING, a. Putting an end 
to care. 

CARESSINGLY, adv. In a caressing 

CARE'-WORN, n. Worn or vexed with 

CA'REYA, n. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Myrtaceae. C. herhacea is a most 
splendid herbaceous stove-plant. 

C A RFE,f pp. [From carve J\ Cut ; carved. 

CARFUF'FLED, hj;>. or a. Rufiled; 

CURFUF'FLED, f rumpled. [Scotch.] 

CARIA'MA, i n. [add.] The Dicholo- 

SARIA'MA, ) phus crista tus oiVWiger, 
a grallatorial bird, of the size of a 
heron, inhabiting tlie great mountain- 
lilains of Brazil, where its sonorous 
voice often breaks tlie silence of the 
desert. It is a bird of retired habits, 
and bears a relation both to the waders 
and gallinaceous birds. 

CARIATIDES. See Caryatides. 

CARIN'THINE, n. A subvariety of 
augite from Carinthia. 

CAR'JACOU, n. A species of deer 
found in North America {Cervus vir- 

CAROLINE, n. See Carlin. 

CaR'MEINE, n. The colouring prin- 
ciple of cochineal. [See Carminh.] 

GARMIN'ATIVE, n. [add.] Carmina- 
tives are chiefly obtained from the 
vegetable kingdom, and are employed 
as agents to promote the expulsion of 
flatulence. The principal of these are 
ginger, cardamom, anise, and caraway 
seeds. Several of the essential oils are 
also used as carminatives, as those of 
peppermint, anise, caraway, juniper; 
also, ardent spirits, especially aromatic 

CAR'MiNE,«. [add.] The pure colour- 
ing matter or principle of cocliineal, 
precipitated by spontaneousevaporation 
from the alcoholic tincture of cochineal, 
in the form of crystals of a fine red 

CARMIN'IC ACID, n. Carmeine or 
carmine, — which see. 

CARNA'RIA,«. [L.carOjCarnis, flesh.] 
Flesh-eating animals. The name given 
by Cuvier to an order consisting of a 
varied assemblage of unguiculated quad- 
rupeds possessing like man and the 
(luadrumana three sorts of teeth, but 
having no opposable thumb to their 
fore-feet, like the quadrumana. Theu- 
7 !■; 




food is animal, and the more excliisiTely , 
so, as their grinders are the more 
trenchant ; the cat, dog, and bear fami- 
lies are examples. 

€ARNA'TIOX, n. [add.] The carna- 
tions of the florists, are varieties of the 
Dianthus canjophyUus, obtained by art. 
They are much prized for the beautiful 
colours of their sweet-scented double- 
flowers. A great many varieties are 
cultivated. They are arranged into 
three classes, viz.. iiakes, having two 
colours only, aud the stripes large, 
goingquite through the petals; bizarres, 
variegated in irregular spots and stripes, 
with not less than three colours ; pico- 
teesy with a white ground, spotted or 
pounced with scarlet, red, purple, or 
other colours. 

€aR'NEL, a. Inship-carpejiti'i/yTugged, 
shapeless ; applied to a ship in a rough, 
uDfloished state. 

CAR'KEL-WORK. See under Cab- 


CAR'NIFEX, n. [L.] A public execu- 
tioner; a hangman. 

€ARMF1€A TION, n. [add.] Hepa- 
tization. Applied also to that state of 
the lungs in pleurisy complicated with 
slight pneumonia, in which they are 
converted into a substance resembling, 
both in appearance and consistence, 
muscular flesh which has been beaten 
to make it tender. 

€AROeOL LA, h. A genus of land- 
snaOs which adhere tenaciously to 
limestone -rocks. The C. lapicida is a 
native of this countrv. 

€AR'OL, n. [add.] In England, this 
term is often applied to a religious 
song or ballad in celebration of Christ- 

€A'ROL, or CARTIOL, n. [Lat. sta- 
dium.^ In arch., a small closet or in- 
closure, under a window, vnth a seat. 
[Ancient Rites of Durham.'] 

€AROLl'NA-PlNK, n. A plant of the 
genus Spigelia, the S. marilandica ; 
also known bv the name of worm-grass. 

€XR'OLLING,t n. A hymn or song of 
devotion. [^Spenser.'] 

CAROON', n. A species of cherry. 

oriental weight, varying from five to 
nine pounds. 

CAROT'lD, a. [add.] This word is 
derived from Gr. jwjea-, to induce sleep, 
and the arteries which it designates 
were so named because they supply 
the head with blood, and the ancients 
believed that sleep was caused by an 
increased flow of blood to the head 
through these arteries. 

^AROT'lD, n. An ai*tery of the neck. 
[See the Adjective.] 

€AROT LD.AL, a. Carotid. 

CaRP, n. [add.] The common carp is 
the Cyprinus carpio ; the golden carp, 
the C. auratus ; and the crusian or 
Prussian carp, the C. curassius. 

CXRP'-BREAM, 71. Anotlier name for 
the common bream {Abramis brama.\ 

€\RTENT£R-BEE, n. The common 
name of the diflerent species of hy- 
menopterous insects of the genus 
Xylocopa. One species (X. violacea) 
nihabits the south of Europe ; in Asia, 
Africa, and America, the species are 
numeruus. They are generally of a 
dark violet blue, and of considerable 
size. They usually form their nests in 
pieces of half-rotten wood, cutting out 
various apartments for depositing their 
eggs. They have sharp, pointed, tri- 
angular mandibles, well adapted to 
form holes in wood. 

CARPENTERING, n. The employ- 
ment of a carpenter. 

€aR PENTERS-R0LE, n. The rule 
or measure by which carpenters take 
their dimensions. It is usually made 
of box-wood, three feet in length, and 
jointed so as to fold up. By the aid of 
a brass slide it also serves as a sliding- 

under Square. 

€aR'PET-MONGER, n. A dealer in 
carpets: a lover of ease and pleasure. 

CARPET-WAY, «. A green way ; a 
strip or border of green sward left 
round the margin of a ploughed field. 

CaR'PET-AVEED, h. a North Ameri- 
can small spreading plant, a species of 
Molliigo, which is common in cultivated 

CAR'PHOUTE,n. 5ee Karpholite. 

€aRPHOLO(>'IA, n. [Gr. »«.?*,-, the 
nap of clothes, and ?.<;*. to pluck.] 
A picking of the bed-clothes ; flocclUa- 

€aRPHOSID'ERITE, n. See Kar- 


CARPIN'CHO-SKIN, n. The skin of 
the capibara or water-hog, carpincho 
being the name of that large rodent 
animal in Paragnav. 

€ARP ING, ;>/>r.[add.] Jesting. [Shah.] 

CARPOCLONIUM, n. Among the 
algiP. [See Silicle in Supiy.] 

CARPOPHORE, n. [L. carpophorum, 
from Gr. zajTSf. fruit, and ^E*4i, to bear.] 
In hot., the prolongation of the axis of 
the plant ^vithin the flower which beai-s 
the ripe carpels ; it is called gymphore 
when the fruit is young: formerly it 
was restricted to when it bore pistils 
only without stamens ; and then it was 
said to be a gonopkore when it also 
bore stamens ; and anthophore, if, in ad- 
dition, it bore petals; but now it is 
used in a more general sense. 

MOSS, «. Chondrus crispus, marine 
pearl-moss or laver, a lichen found on 
the west coast of Ii-eland, and on the 
sea-coasts of various other countries, 
used for making soups, jellies, size, &c. 
It is also attempted to be used as a 
remedy in pulmonary complaints, diarr- 
hoea, scrofula, rickets, iScc. 

CAR'RAINE.fn. Carrion. [Chaucer.] 

Carrara, in Italy.] A species of white 
marble, distinguished from the Parian 
or statuary marble by being harder and 
less bright. 

CAR'REL, n. The arrow used in cross- 
bows ; a quarrel, — which see. 

CAR'RIAGE, «. [add.] The part of a 
printing-press on which the tyjies are 
placed to be printed, which is nm in 
till they are immediately imder the 
platen, and, when the impression is 
taken, run out in order to change the 
sheet of paper, and to ink the types 

CAR'RIAGE, n. [add.] In Scots ioK, 
horse- and -cart serrice. 

CARRIAGEABLE, a. That may be 
conveved in carriages. 

€AR'RlAGE-HOUSE, n. A horse used 
in a carriage. 

the mind fixed upon something different 
from the business in hand ; having the 
wits gone a-wool-gathering. [Sir W. 

CAR'RIER, n. [add.] One who for 

hire undertakes the conveyance of goods 

or persons for any one who employs 

i him. In a legal sense, the term ex- 


tends not only to those ^Nho convey 
goods by land, but also to the owners 
and masters of ships, maU- contractors, 
and even to wharfingers who under- 
take to convey goods for hire from 
their wharfs to the vessel in their own 
lighters, but not to mere hackney-coach- 
men. Carriers are responsible for the 
safety and preservation of the goods 
committed to them. 

€AR'RIER-SHELLS, n. The species 
of the genus Phorus are so called from 
the whorls of the shell having stones 
or shells usually attached to them. 

€AR'RIKE,t 'in. [Fr. carraque.] A 

CAR'RACK,t [ large heavy sort of 
ship, used formerly by the Portuguese. 

€AR'RITCH, In. Catechism. 

CAR'RITCHES, f [Scotch.] 

CAR'RY, V. t. [add.] To conduct; to 
take with one ; as, I carried the 
secretary this afternoon to the mar- 
quis. [Temple.] — In military affairs, 
to obtain possession of by force ; aSj to 
carry the outworks of a place. — To 
carry coals to Xeiccastle, a colloquial 
phrase, signifjing to take things to a 
place where they already abound; to 
lose one's labour. — To carry on. [add.] 
To conduct in a ^vild reckless manner; 
to riot ; to frolic ; as, he carries on at 
a great rate. 

CAR RY-ALL, n. [add.] A light vehicle 
for one horse, having usually four 
wheels, and designed to carry a num- 
ber of persons. [American.] 

C'aRTE-BLANCHE, n. [add.] Uncon- 
ditioned terms ; unlimited power to de- 

CAR'TEL, or CARTEL', n. 

CAR'TER, n. A flat fish found on our 
coasts, the Pleuronectes megastuma. 

CART'ER.t n. A charioteer. [Chau- 
cer. ^ 

€ARTESIAN-DEVIL, n. A phUoso- 
phical toy, consisting of a small hollow 
figure of coloured glass, usually made in 
conformity \vith the popular idea of the 
devil, with horns, tail, &c. There is a 
small aperture at the lower part of the 
figure, usually at the end of the tail, 
which allows it to be filled \*ith au* 
previous to its being placed in a tall 
vessel, nearly but not quite full of water, 
of which it has nearly the same specific 
gravity. An air-tight cover of caout- 
chouc being tied over the mouth of 
the vessel to wliich the figure is placed, 
the apparatus is complete. To exhibit 
its action, the hand is pressed on the 
elastic cover of the vessel, and the air 
between it and the surface of the water 
being thereby compressed, and the 
pressing, of course, transmitted in all 
directions equally, a portion of the 
water goes into the figure, and the 
specific gravity of it being thereby in- 
creased, it sinks, and again rises when 
the pressure is withdrawn. In this 
way, by successively applying and re- 
moving the pressure of the hand, the 
figure is made to perform corresponding 

CARTE'SIANISM, n. The doctrine or 
philosopbv of Des Cartes. 

Cartful, ». As much as a cart will 
hold; a cart-load. 

CAR THAMINE, n. An astringeut 
bitter principle obtained from the 
flowers of the Carthamus tinctoria, 
or safflower. It is a beautiful red pig- 
ment, and is used in silk dyeing. It is 
also called carthamic acid. 

CARTlLAGlNEOUS,ta. Cartilagin- 




One who 

ing to car- 






makes charts. 

CARTOGRAPirie, ) a. 



charta ; Gr. ^^^«<^v ] The 
art or practice of form- 
ing maps or charts of a 

€ARTOUCII', n. [add.] 
The ilame given by Cham- 
pollion to the ovals on 
ancient Egj^jtian monu- 
ments, and in papjTi. 
containing groups of 
characters, expressing the -^^'*^ — "^ 
names or titles of kings. <-'*rK>^<;^- 

CARTOUCHE', n. [Fr.] A sculptured 
ornament in the form of a scroll un- 
rolled, used as a field for inscriptions, 

CART'-WHIP,n. A large whip used in 
driving horses, &e., in carts. 

CAR'UCA(iE,+ H. [5ef CARucAxn.JAct 
of ploughing; a duty or tax on the 
plough. Also written carrucage. 

CA'RUM, 7i. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Umbeiliferaj. The species are 
glabrous herbs with perennial tuberous 
edible roots, pinnate leaves, and white 
flowers. The C. carui is the well- 
known caraway-plant, the fruit of which 
is known in the shops as caraway-seeds. 
[See Caraway.] C. verllcillatum is a 
native of the western parts of Eu- 

CARUN'CULA, instead of GAR'UN- 
CULTTS. [See Caruncle.] 

CARUN'CULATE, a. Same as Carun- 


CAR'VEL-BUILT, a. [See Caravel.] 
A term applied to a ship or boat, the 
jilanks of which are all flush, and not 

CAR'VEN.t r. t. To cut; to carve. 

CAR'VING,n. [add.] This term is usu- 
ally understood to refer exclusively to 
works in ivory or wood. Car^nng in 
marble or stone properly comes under 
the term sculpture, and carving in me- 
tals is called chasing. 

CaR'VIST, n. [A corruption ot carry- 
fist.] In falconry, a hawk which is of 
proper age and training to be carried 
on the hand. 

CaR'VY, 77. Caraway. [Scotch.] 

CARYAT'ID, a. Relating to caryatides, 
or like figures. 

CARYOCATAC'TES, n. The nut- 
crackers, a genus of birds, allied to the 
crows, also called Nucifraga. One 
species is occasionally met with here. 
It is a brown bird, spotted with 

CARYOPHYLLA'CE^.,77. [add.] This 
order, established by Jussieu, is now 
divided into two distinct suborders; 
viz., Silenaceae and Alsinace», the lat- 
ter of which only differs from Parony- 
chiacere by the absence of stipules. 

CARYOPHYL'UNE, n. A crystalline 
substance deposited by a strong tinc- 
ture of cloves. 

CASjf n. [Fr.] Chance. [Chaucer.] 

CA. SA. In law jiroceedmcjs, the usual 
abbreviation of capias ad satisfacien- 

CASCAL'HO, n. The name given in 
Brazil to the alluvial deposit in which 
the diamond is found. 

CAS'CO, 77. A boat of the Philippines 
used chiefly on the river at Manilla. It 

is almost of rectangular form, very flat, 
and very dm-able, and is much used at : 

Casco of iMaiiilla. 

Manilla for conveying cargo to and from 

CASE, 77. [add.] In a. priiitivg-nfice, the 
receptacle for the types, from wliich 
the compositor gathers them separately 
and arranges them in lines and pages 
to print from. There are two cases, an 
upper and a louier ; the upper is divided 
into a number of recesses, or separate 
boxes, and contains the capitals, ac- 
cented letters, figures, &c.; the lower- 
case is also divided into recesses, and 
contains the small letters, spaces, &c. 
— In Shak.y the word case is used to 
signifytheskin; outside; outward show. 
— Case of lives, several lives. — Case of 
a door, the wooden frame in which a 
door is hung. — Case of a stair, the wall 
surrounding a staircase. — Action upon 
the case, in laiv, is a general action 
given for redress of wrongs and injuries, 
done without force, and not particularly 
provided against by law, in order to 
have satisfaction for damage. This ac- 
tion is in practice the most universal of 
any, and is equally applicable to conse- 
quential injuries to the real or personal 
property, and to the personal character 
of the party by whom it is brought. 

CaSE'-BAGS, n. In arch., the joists 
framed between a pair of girders in 
naked flooring. 

CaSE'-CHARR, v. The name of a 
salmon found in the northern lakes; it 
is the Salmo umMa. 

CASED, jyp. [add.] In arch., a term ap- 
phed to the outside wall of a building, 
when it is faced or covered with mate- 
rials of a better quality than those of 
the wall itself; as when a brick-wall is 
faced with stone or with bricks of a 
superior quality to those used in the 
inner wall. — Cased sash-frames, sash- 
frames which have their interior verti- 
cal sides hollow, to admit the weights 
which balance the sashes, and, at the 
same time, conceal them. 

CASE-HARDENING, n. The process 
by which the surface of iron is con- 
verted into steel, while the interior re- 
tains the softness and toughness of 
malleable iron. 

CA'SEIC ACID, w. An acid extracted 
from cheese, and supposed to contain 
many of the properties of thaj sub- 

CA'SEINE, 71. The basis of cheese 

CASE'-MAN, 77. Among printers^ one 
wlio works at the case or sets types; a 

CASE'MATE,7(. [add.] A vault of stone 
or brick-work, usually built in the 


thickness of the rampart of a fortress, 
and pierce-d in front vrith embrasur-?s, 
through which 
artillery may 
be fired. The 
term casemate 
is also applied 
to the shell- 
proof vaults of 
Btone or brick, 
erected in for- 
tresses, to 
protect the 
troops, ammu- 
nition, and pro- 

n. [add.] In 

|j; arck.f a glass 
frame or sash, 

which is made 

~ to open by turn- 

ing on hinges 
affixed to the vertical sides of the frame 
into which it is fitted ; also, a com- 
partment between the mullions of a 
CASF/MENTED, a. Having casements. 
CA'SEOUS, instead of CAS'EOUS. 
CA'SEOUS OXIDE, 77. Aposepediue; 
a substance procured by the putrefac- 
tion of animal matter. 
CASE'-RACK, n. A frame of wood 
to receive printers' cases when not in 

CA'SERN, instead of CAS'ERN. 
CA'SEUM, n. Same as Caseine. 
CASH, n. sing, or 2>^"r. Thin pieces of 
copper, perforated, and strung on a 
thread, used by the Chinese as small 
change. Twenty-two such pieces are 
equal to one penny sterling. 
CASH'-ACCOUNT, n. [add.] The na- 
ture of a cash-account consists in the 
bank giving credit on loan, to the ex- 
tent of a sum agreed upon, to any indi- 
vidual, or house of business, that can 
procure two or more persons of un- 
doubted credit and property to become 
surety for the re-payment, on demand, 
of the sum credited, with interest. 
Persons having such accounts, draw 
upon them for whatever sums within 
their amount they have occasion for, 
repaying these advances as they find 
opportunity, but generally within short 
periods. Interest is charged only on 
the average balance which may be due 
to the bank. 
CASH'-CREDIT,«. Acash-account,or 

a credit granted on it by a bank. 
CASHEW-BIRD, n. In Jamaica, one 
of the tanagers {Tanayra zena) is so 
named. It feeds on the berries of the 
bully- tree. 
CASHEW-NUT, n. [add.] A nut which 
protrudes at one end of the fruit of the 
cashew (Anacardium 
occidentale), of the size 
and shape of a hare's 
kidney. It has two 
shells, an outer and 
an inner, and between 
these there is a thick 
inflammable oil which 
is very caustic, and has 
been applied as a cure 
for ringworm, can- 
cerous ulcers, and 
corns. The kernel 
abounds w ith a sweet, 
milky juice, and forms 
Cashew-nut. an ingredient in pud- 
dings, &c. 
CASH'MERE, a. Relating to the fabric 
of shawls, so called. 




CASH'MERE, ) n. [add.] Cashmrre 

CASHMERE, y shawls or fabrics are 
formed of the fine downy wool found 
about the roots of the hair of the Cash- 
mere goat or Thibet goat. Ten goats 
are required to furnish sufficient wool 
for a shawl a yard and a half square. 
Cashmere shawls are now successfully 
imitated in France and Britain. 

CASHME'RIAN, a. Relating to the 
country of Cashmere, in the north of 

Casing, 71. [add.] The covering of 
anvthina: with a case. 

CASfNCinsteadof CASING,??, [add.] 
A term formerly applied to a house 
capable of affording defence, on a small 
scale, against an attacking force. On 
the continent of Europe, it is applied 
to a club-house, or building used for 
social meetings. 

•CASK, v. t. To put into a cask. 

CAS'QUETEL, n. [From casque.] A 
small steel cap or open helmet, without 

Casqobtbi., time of Edward IV,, side and back vIctt. 

beaver or vizor, but having a projecting 
umbril and overlapping plates behind, 
for ease in throwing the head back. 

CASSAMU NAR, n. An East Indian 
bitter, medicinal root ; the root of the 
Zingiher cassamunar. 

J^llh/s Casserhis, of Padua.] A large 
semilunar ganglion, formed by the fiftli 
nerve, and immediately dividing into 
the ophthalmic, superior and inferior 
maxillary nerves. 

CASSIA, H. [add.] A genus of legu- 
minous plants, chiefly inhabiting the 
tropical and temperate parts of the 
world. The species, which are very 
numerous, consist of trees, shrubs, or 
herbs ; tJie leaves are simply and 
abruptly pinnated, and usually bear 
glands on their stalks. C. Jistuhi, or 
Cathartocar pus fistula, is found wild in 
India and the tropical parts of Africa. 
Its legumes contain a quantity of thick 
pulp, which is a mild laxative, and en- 
ters into the composition of the con- 
fection of cassia and the confection of 
senna; but it is chiefly employed to 
form what is termed essence of coffee. 
The leaves and flowers are also purga- 
tive. C obovaia furnishes the Aleppo 
senna, and C. acutifolia, Alexandrian 
senna, the most valuable of all the 
sennas. C. lanceolata yields the sen- 
na of Mecca and East Indian senna. 
The Lauras cassia, Linn., which is 
said to yield the cassia-buds of the 
shops, belongs to the nat. order Lau- 

CASSIA-BUDS, n. The unexpandcd 
flowers of a species of Cinnamomura, 
the C. cassiOy C. aromaticum, or C. zey- 

CAS'SIA-LIGNEA,) n. The bark of 

CASSIA-BARK, ) the same tree 
that >ields the cassia-buds. Its flavour 
somewhat resembles that of cinnamon. 

CASSIA-OIL, n. The common oil of 
cinnamon, procured from cassia-bark 
and cassia-buds. 

CAS'SIMERE, n. A kind of woollen 
cloth woven in imitation of Cashmere 

CAS'SIN^, n. Helmet-shells; a sub- 

family of the ^turicidre, the type being 
the genus Cassis. They are large, and 
often of a gigantic size; some of the 
species are used for making artificial 

CASSINETTE', n. A cloth made of 
a cotton warp, and the woof of very 
tine wool, or wool and silk, used for 

CAS'SIS, n. A genus of gastropodous 
molluscs, including the species known 
by the name of helmet-shells. They 
belong to the family Muricidie, sub- 
family Cassinje. 

CASSUiMU'NAR. See Cassamdnar. 

CAST, V. t [add.] To cast o^f copt/, to 
ascertain how many printed pages will 
be made by a manuscript, by setting up 
a portion for trial. [See Castixg.] — To 
cast the lead, in naut. lan.j is the same 
as to heave the lead. — To cast off, to 
loosen from, or let go; as, to cast off a. 
vessel in tow. 

CAST, n. In foundino, a contraction of 
casting, which denotes the operation of 
running the melted metal into the 
moulds prepared for its reception. 
The sum-total of the operation in the 
foundry is called a cast^ of which, in 
iron-foundries, there is usually only one 
a-day. The term casting is usually em- 
ployed in speaking of the article cast : 
hence the terms good castingy heavy 
casting, &c. 

Cast, n, a twist; a contortion; op- 
portunity; chance; a turn or event of 
any kind ; lot ; fate. [Scotch.] 

CaSTA'NEA, instead of CaST'- 

CASTE, ». [add.] Besides the original 
Citstes in Hindostan, viz., the Brahmins, 
Cheteree, Bice, and Sudras, numerous 
mixed classes or castes have sprung up 
in the progress of time. Hence the 
term has come to signify a separate and 
fixed order, or class in societv. 

CASTELLE', n. {h.castellum'.'] Abuild- 
intc containing a well or cistern. 

CASTER, n. [add.] One who assigns 
the parts of a play to the actors. 

CASTERS, n. plur. A stand for the 
table, vnt\\ small bottles for holding 
vinegar, oU, &c. 

CASTiLE'-SOAP, n. A kind of fine, 
hard, white, or mottled soap, made 
with olive-oil and soda. 

CAST'ING, H. [add.] The assigning of 
parts in a plav to particular actors. 

CAST'ING- WEIGHT, h. A weight 
that turns the scale of a balance, or 
makes it preponderate. 

CAST'-KNEES, n. Hanging knees 
used in a ship of war for arching over 
the corner of a gun-port, &c. 

CASTLING, a. Abortive. 

CAST-OFF, pp. or a. Laid aside; re- 
jected; as, cosZ-o^ clothes. 

astron., the constellation Gemini or 
the Twins, into which the sun enters 
annually about the 21st May. Castor, 
or a. Geminorum, is also the name of 
one of the bright stars in the head of 
the Twins, being the nearer of the two 
to the pole. It is a double star, or 
consists of two stars, so close together, 
as to be inseparable to the naked eve. 

CAS TOR -BEANS, n. The seeds of 
tlie castor-oil plant {Ricinus communis). 

CAS'TOR FIBER, n. The generic and 
specific name of the beaver from which 
the castor of the shops is obtained. 

CASTO RID^E, n. The beaver tribe; 
a family of rodent animals, comprising 
the beavers, voles, lemmings, &c. 

€AS TOR-OIL, ». [add.] This oil is 

used medicinally as a mild and agree- 
able purgative. 

CAS'TORY, n. An oil drawn from 
castoreum. and used in the preparation 
of colours. 

CAST OUT, r. '*. To fall out ; to quar- 
rel. [Scotch.] 

CAST UP, r. t. To throw in one's teeth; 
to reproach with. In a tieuter senses to 
appear. [Scotch.1 

CASUAL EJECTOR, n. In late, the 
fictitious Richard Roe, in the mixed 
action of ejectment. 

CASUALTY, n. [add.] Any injury of 
the body from accident, whether result- 
ing in death or not. — In military re- 
turns, the head of casualties embraces 
all men who die, desert, or are dis- 
missed. — Casualty of icards, in Scots 
law, the mails and duties due to the 
superiors in ward-holdings. 

CASUA'RIUS,;t. A genus of struthioni- 
dous birds, containing the cassowary, 
a bird said now to be found only in one 
of the Eastern islands, so that, like the 
dodo and maa, its extinction may be 
expected at no verv remote epoch. 

CATABRO'SA, n. [Gr. *«r«^;*^(5. a 
gnawing.] .\ genus of plants, uat. order 
Gramineae. C. aqiiatica is a British 
species ; it has an equal panicle, with 
half whorls of patent branches, and 
obtusely broadly linear leaves ; and 
grows in ponds, and ditches, and wet 

CATACLYSM, n. [add.] In geol., a 
term sometimes applied to denote vari- 
ous inundations, or deluges, supposed 
to have occurred at ditterent periods, 
and to have deposited different forma- 
tions of diluvian or drift. 

CAT'ACLYS'MAL, a. In geol, of or 
belonging to a cataclvsm. 

CATAFALQUE'. [Fr.] See Catafalco 
in Diet. 

CATALECTIC, o. [add.] In prosody, 
a catalcctic verse is one which wants a 
syllable of its proper length, or which 
terminates in an imperfect foot. 

CATALECTIC, n. In prosody, a verse 
wanting one syllable of its proper 
length. , 

sonii'.) [Fr.] A catalogue of books, 
paintings, &c., classed according to 
their subjects. 

CATAL'PA, «. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Bignoniaceae. The species are 
trees with simple leaves, and terminal, 
panided flowers. C. syringeefoUa, a 
North American species, is well adapted 
for large shrubberies: its branches ai'e 
used for dyeing wool of a cinnamon 
colour. C. longissima contains much 
tannin in its bark, and is known in the 
"West Indies by the name of French 

CATALYTIC, a. [add.] Catalytic 
force, that modification of the force of 
chemical affinity in certain bodies by 
which they resolve others into new 
compounds, merely by contact with 
them, or by an action of presence, as it 
has been termed. — Catalytic agent, a 
body which produces chemical changes 
in another merely by contact; thus, 
yeast resolves sugar, by contact, into 
carbonic acid and alcohol. 

CATAMARAN, n. [add.] Catamarans 
are used in short navigations along the 
sea-shore in the West Indies ; and on 
tlie coast of South America, catamarans 
of a very large size are employed. This 
name was also applied to the flat-bot- 
tomed boats constructed by Bonaparte 
for the invasion of England. 




CATAMOUN'TAIN, } the mountain; 
the wild cat. 

■CATANAD ROMOUSJ a. [Gr. »«r«, 

CATANa)[lOMOUS, > «»«,atida«o- 
juo;.] In ich., passing once a-year from 
salt-water into fresh, and returning, as 
the salmon. 

CATAPHON'ie, a. Relating to cata- 

CATAPH'ORA, n. [Gr. ko-tcc, and ^t^ar, 
to bear.] A variety of lethargy, ac- 
tended with short remissions, or inter- 
vals of imperfect waking, sensation, and 

CATAR'RHINES, )". [Gr. *«t«, at, 

CATARRHl'NA, ] and ^.y, nose.] A 
tribe of quadrumanous animals, includ- 
ing those which have the nostrils ap- 
proximated, and the intervening septum 
narrow, as in the apes of the old world. 

CASTAS'TKOPHE, n. [add.] In gcol, 
a supposed change in the globe, from 
sudden physical violence, causing ele- 
vation or subsidence of the solid parts, 
or cataclysm of the waters. 

€ATAS'TROPHIST, n. In geol., one 
who believes in catastrophes, or in 
changes in the globe, from violent phy- 
sical causes. 

CATCH, V, i. [add.] To catch a Tartar. 
{See under Tartar.] 

CATCH,? «. A name given in commerce 

CUTCH,! to catechu. 

CATCH'-FLT, «. [add.] This name is 
applied to various species of plants of 
the genus Silene. [6'ee Silene.] 

€ATCH'LAND, n. Land of which it is 
not known to what parish it belongs. 
CATCH'-MEAD'OW, n. A meadow 
which is irrigated by vrater from a 
spring or rivulet on the declivity oi 
a hill. 

CATCH'INIENT, n. In hydraulics, a 
surface of ground, of which the drain- 
age is capable of being directed into a 
common reservoir ; a natural basin of 
greater or less area, of wliich the water 
is collected for economical purposes. 
A water-company is, accordingly, said 
to have so many square miles of catch- 
ment, or of catchment- ground, when 
the supply depends on the area of sur- 

CATCH'-PENNY, a. Made or got up 
to gain money; beyond its value ; worth- 
less; as, a catch-pen?iJ/ pamphlet. 

CATCH'-WEED, n- [add.] [See As- 
FERUGO in this Supi}.] 

CATCH'-WORD, n. [add.] Among 
actors, the last word of the preceding 
speaker, which reminds one that he is 
to speak next. 

CATCH'-WORK, n. A work or artifi- 
cial water-course, for throwing water 
on such lands as lie on the declivity of 
hills; a catch-drain. 

CATECHET'ICS, n. Oral instruction; 
teaching by question and answer. 

CAT'ECHINE, h. [add.] This peculiar 
principle is obtained not merely from 
catechu, strictly so called, but also from 
gambir, and some kinds of cinchona- 
bark. It is one of the most delicate 
tests of some of the salts of u'on, when 
these are devoid of any free acid, as it 
strikes a most beautiful dark-green 
colour, without precipitation. It is also 
employed as a therapeutic agent for 
arresting haemorrhage in distinct or- 

catechistical manner. 

Catechin'e. [See Catechine in Diet. 
and Supp.] 

CAT EGORIZE, v, f. To place in a 
category or list ; to class. [Rar. its.] 

CA'TEL,t n. [Fr.] Goods; valuable 
things of all sorts. [Chaucer.] 

CATF'NA, n. [L.] A chain ; a series 
of things connected with each other; 
any band or tie ; a bond of union. 

-CAT'ENARY, ?i. A catenary curve. 
[See Catenarian.] 

€ATEN'ULATE, instead of CAT'EN- 
ULATE, a. [add.] In nat. hist., present- 
ing on the surface a series of oblong 
tubercles, resembling a cliain. 

CAT'ERAN, n. A kern ; a Highland or 
Irish irregular soldier; a freebooter. 

name given to the larvae of certain ich- 
neumon flies ; also, to birds of the 
genus Campephaga. 

CAT'-FISH, n. [add.] This is the Anar- 
rhichas lupus, or wolf-fish, one of the 
most formidably-armed of our fish, from 
the size, strength, and number of its 

CAT'-GOLD, n. A variety of mica, of 
a yellowish colour. 

€ A T 11 A R ' T E S, n. [Gr. ««0«{T^f, a 
cleanser, or scavenger.] A genus of 
the vulture family, containing the tur- 
key-buzzard, and other species of Ame- 
rican vultures, of great use, from their 
living on carrion. The species are often 
protected as public scavengers. 

CATHaRTOCaRP US, n. A genus of 
leguminous plants which was formerly 
comprehended under Cassia, but was 
separated by Persoon. C. fistula is the 
purging cassia ; C. javanicus, horse- 
cassia, a native of Java and the Moluc- 
cas, the pulp of which is used as a 
horse-medicine in the East Indies. [See 
Cassia in Diet, and Supp.] 

CAT'-HEAD STOPPER,) n.In .?;»>, 

€AT'-STOPPER, ) apiece of 

rope or chain rove through the ring of 
an anchor, for hanging it by, previously 
to casting anchor. 

CATHEDRA,! H. [See Cathedral.] 

■CATH'EDRA,/ The episcopal chau- 
in a cathedral ; a professor's chair ; a 
place of authority. 

CATH'OLIC, n. [add.] A member of 
the church of Rome ; a Roman Catliolic. 

signation which Roman Catholics give 
to the church of Rome. This church 
they define to be *' the community of 
the faithful united to their lawful pas- 
tors, in communion with the see of 
Rome or vnt\i the pope, the successor 
of St. Peter, and vicar of Christ on 
earth.*' [See the Adjective.] 


CATUOLaCOS, n. The spiritual head 
of the Armenian church, who ordains 
bishops, and consecrates the sacred oil 
used in religious ceremonies. 

CA'-THROW'.n. Di-^^tm-bance; preven- 
tion. [Scotch.] 

CAT'LING, n. [add.] Lute-string. 

CATOBXEPAS, n. A genus of rumi- 
nating quadrupeds, with a large soft 
muzzle, and horns bent down and again 
turned up. It belongs to the antelope 
family, and contains the gnu of South 
Africa. [See Gnu in Diet.] 

CAT'-ROPE, 71. A rope that hauls up 
the anchor of a ship from the water's- 
edge to the bow. 

CAT*S'-EYE, 71. A mineral consisting 
of quartz, inclosing annanthus or as- 
bestos, thence possessing the property 
described by the French as chatogaut. 

CAT'S'-MILK, n. A plant; the Eu- 
phorbia helioscopia, called also wart- 
€ATS'-PAW, n. [add.] The instrument 
which another uses to accomplish liis 
designs ; a dupe used by another to 
serve his own purposes, and to screen 
himself. [This application of the term 
is derived from the story of the monkey 
which, to save its own paw, used the 
paw of the cat to draw the roasting 
chestnuts out of the fire.] 
€AT'S'-PURR, 71. A characteristic 
sound of the chest as heard by the 

CAT'S'-TAIL, n. [add.] In bot. [See 


CAT'S'-TAIL GRASS, 7i.Thecommon 

name of several British plants of the 

genus Phleum, but applied especially 

to the Phleum jyratense. [See Puleum.] 

C'AT'-STANES, h. [Br. cad, or Celt. 

c«iA, signifying a battle.] Conical cairns 

found in various parts of Scotland. 

CAT'STOPPER, n. See Cathead- 

Stoppeb in this Supp. 
■CAU'CALIS, n. Bur-parsley, a genu? 
of plants. [See Bur-Parsles in this 
CAU'DLE, V. t. [add.] To make into 
C AUF, n. [add.] A corb. — In coal-mines, 
a vessel, formerly of wicker or basket 
work, but now usually made of sheet- 
iron, and employed to raise the coal 
from the bottom of the shaft to the 
mouth of the pit. 
CAUFF, n. Chaff. [Scotch.] 
CAU'FLE, n. A band or drove of cap- 
tured negroes. 
CAUF-WARD, n. See Calf-Wakd 
in this Supp. 
CAU'KER, n. A calkin or calker. 
CAULD, 71. or a. Cold. [Scotch.] 
€AULD'RIFE, a. Chilly ; susceptible 

of cold. [Scotch.] 
CAU'LET, n. Colewort. 
CAU'LICLE, n. [L. caulicidus, a little 
stalk.] A term applied by some bota- 
nists to the neck of the embryo, to 
distinguish it from the plumule or oem- 
viule. The term cauUcles or caiilicidi 
is also applied to those small stems 
which proceed from buds formed at 
the neck of a plant, without the pre- 
vious production of a leaf. 
€AULKaNG, n. In arch., the mode of 
fixing the tie-beams of a roof, or the 
binding joists of a floor, down to the 
wall-plates. It is also termed cocking. 
CAULS, n. plur. Pieces of wood em- 
ployed to save work, when being glued 
together, from being injured by the 
screws used to press the parts into close 
contact until the glue has dried. 
CAUP, n. A cap, or wooden bowl. [See 
Cap.] [Scotch.] 
CAUSA'TION, instead of CAUS'A- 
TION, n. [add.] Various theories of 
causation have been propounded; but 
although the subject has been oue on 
which the most subtle thinkers have 
always exerted their powers of analysis, 
opinions remain still as conflicting as 
when the inquiry first began. It ap- 
pears, hoivever, to be agreed that, 
although in evpry instance we actually 
perceive nothing more than that the 
event, change, or phenomenon B, al- 
ways follows the event, change, or phe- 
nomenon A, yet that we naturally 
believe in the existence of some un- 
known quality or circumstance, belong- 
ing to the antecedent A, in virtue uf 
which the consequent B always has 
been, is, and will be produced. 




CAUSE, n. [add.] Material cause of a 
thing, that out of which the thing is 
made, or that tpn wliich the agent works 
to produce the eft'ect; as the marble 
out of which a statue is made. — Formal 
causey that which must supervene to 
the uiatter or material, in order to give 
the thing its precise individual exist- 
ence astliat thing and no other; as the 
shape which the sculptor communicates 
to the marble. 

CAUS'ENjt V. i. To assign reasons; to 
argue or debate. [Spenser.] 

€AUS'Tie, \a.[add,]FiguraHvcI>/, 

■CAUS'TICAL, f severe; cutting: as, 
a caustic remark. 

■tAUS TIC ALLY, adv. In a caustic or 
severe manner. 

CAUSTICITY, n. [add.] Figuratively^ 
severity ; cutting remark. 

CAU'SUS, n. [add.] A burning remit- 
tent fever. 

CAU'TELS, n. plur. Deceitful pur- 
poses. [Shak.] 

CAU'TERANT, n. A cauterizing sub- 

CAViE'DIUM, n. [Lat.] An open court 
in the houses of the ancients, supposed 
to be the same as atrium, or hall. 

CAVALRY, n. [add.] In the British 
armj/y the cavalry/ consists of two 
regiments of life-guards, one of horse- 
guards, seven of dragoon -guards, and 
seventeen of light dragoons. A com- 
plete regiment of cavalry is divided 
into four squadrons, and each of these 
into two troops, and to each troop is 
assigned a captain, a lieutenant, and a 

CAVD.t ^ pp. [See Cave.] Made 

CAV'ED,f> hoUow. [Spenser.] 

CA'VEAT, n. [add.] As a general law 
term, a caveat denotes a formal notice 
or caution given, by a party interested, 
to a court, judge, or public officer, 
against tlie performance of certain 
judicial or ministerial acts. The com- 
mon law takes no notice whatever of a 
caveat; but in the spiritual courts a 
caveat is said to be binding for three 

important experiment for determining 
the density of the earth, suggested by 
the Rev. John Mitchell, and tirstmade 
by the celebrated Henry Cavendish; 
J fterwards repeated by Professor Reich, 
uf Freiberg; and finally in a much more 
complete way by the late Francis Baily, 
of London, at the expense of the British 
Government. The nature of the ex- 
periment consists in determining the 
relative attraction of masses of lead of 
known magnitude and density by means 
of the torsion -balance. The balance, 
consisting of a deal-rod six feet in 
length, with a ball of lead at each end, 
about two inches diameter, was sus- 
pended horizontally from a beam by a 
tine metallic wire of forty inches length. 
Immediately under the balance a strong 
plank of eight feet length was placed, 
l.aving at each end a leaden ball of 
twelve inclies diameter, and capable of 
turning about an axis in tlie line of the 
wire of the torsion-balance. The object 
was then to determine how much the 
small balls were attracted out of their 
places horizontally by the large balls, 
and from this to compute the force of 
the mutual attraction of the masses; 
and tlience, by known methods, the 
density of the earth could be calculated 
from a comparison of its attractive 
force, which is very exactly known by 
experiments on the pendulum. The 

result obtained by Cavendish gave the 
mean density of the earth equal to 5"45 
times tliat of water; Reich found it 
equal to 5-4-4 ; but Baily, whose experi- 
ments were conducted with every con- 
ceivable precaution and variation, made 
it as high as 5675, ^ith a probable 
error of -0038. Hence, the actual 
weight of the earth, in terms of the 
pound avoirdupois, may be calculated 
from the formula, 5675 X 02'231 X vo- 
lume of the earth in cubic feet. 

CAVERNOUS, a. [add.] In anaf., a 
term applied to a ganglion of the head, 
and to two sinuses of the sphenoid 

geol.y a term applied to that texture of 
aggregated compound rocks which is 
characterized by the presence of nume- 
rous small cavities, as in lava. 

CA'VERS, n. Offenders relating to the 
mines in Derbyshire, punishable in the 
bergmote, or miners-court ; also, officers 
belonging to the same mines. 

CAVE -SWALLOW, n. A species of 
swallow indigenous to the West Indies, 
which suspends its mud-formed nest 
to the roofs of caves on the sea-shore. 
This swallow is the Hirundo pocciloma 
of naturalists. 

CA'VEY, ) . . re- , 1.^ 

CA'VIE 4 "* A hen-coop. [Scotch.] 

CA'VID^, H. The guinsa-pig tribe, 
a family of rodents inhabiting tropical 
America, where they replace the hares 
and rabbits of cold climates. 

CAVILS, n. In sea Ian. [See Kevels.] 

CA'VY, n. [add.] A genus of rodent 
animals (Cavia), natives of tropical 
America, which seems to hold a middle 
place between the mouse and rabbit 
tribes. The most familiar example of 
this genus is the well-known little 
animal called the guinea-pig (Cavia 

CAW, n. The cry cf the rook or crow. 

CAWF, n. Same as Cauf, — which see. 

CAW'ING, n. The crying of the crow, 
rook, or raven. 

CAWK, w. See Cauk. 

CAWK'Y, a. See Caury. 

CAW'-QUAW, n. A species of porcu- 
pine found in Canada {Erethizon dor- 
saium). Its spines wore often used as 
ornaments by the Indians. 

CaY, IvAY, or t'AY O, n. [Sp. cayo, 
a rock, a shoal, an islet.] Names given 
to small islands, generally sandbanks 
or shoals, wliich appear above water. 
[Often improperly termed keys.] 

CAY'TIVE,t a. [See Caitiff.] Base.— 
Cai/tive courage, a mean and abject 
mind or spirit. [Spenser.] 

CE^BUS, n. A genus of monkeys, with a 
wide space between the nostrils. The 
species are peculiar to South America. 
[See Sapajous.] 

CECIDOMY'IA, ». [add.] The larvse of 
these insects often occasion great mis- 
chief to the corn-crops, from their 
ravages on the gro^\ing cereal plants. 
The far-famed Hessian tly is one of 

CECRO'PIA, n. A genus of plants, 
nat. order Urticacea?. The species 
inhabit South America. They are 
beautiful plants, attaining to a height 
of upwards of fifteen feet. 

CE'CROPS, n. A genus of crustaceans 
found on the gills of the tunny and 
turbot. They belong to the family 
Poecilopoda (Cuv.) 

CEDAR, a. Made of cedar; belonging 
to cedar. 

CE'DAR-CIRD, h. The American 

wax\\-ing {Ampelis americanus) is so 
called in tlie United States, from the 
trees which it chiefiy frequents. 

CEDRE'LA, n. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Cedrelaceae. The bark is frag- 
rant and resinous. The bark of C. 
toonay bastard -cedar, or toon-wood, an 
East Indian species, is a powerful 
astringent, and is accounted febrifugal. 
C. odorata is the cedar of the British 
West India islands. The bark of C. 
febrifugay a native of Java, is said to 
have a better effect on some of the 
fevers of India than cinchona. It is 
also a powerful astringent, and the 
wood is good for many purposes. 

CEDRELACExE, «. A nat. order of 
polypetalous exogenous plants. [-See 

CEDBE'LE.'E, n. For Cedrela Swie- 
tenia, read Cedrela, Swietenia, 


CELAKDINE, n. In chem., a poisonous 
principle extracted from the swallow- 
wort iChelidoiiiiim mojus). 

southern constellation containing six- 
teen stars. 

CELASTKA'CE^, n. [add.] This 
order of plants is not of much econo- 
mical importance. The commonest 
European form of the order is the genus 
Euonymus (Linn.), or spindle-tree. 

CEL'EBRANT.n. One who celebrates; 
one who performs a public religious 
rite ; applied particularly to the offi- 
ciating priest in the Koman Catholic 

CEL'EBRATE, v. i. [add.] To mention 
often; to talk of ; to solemnize. 

CEL'EBRATED, a. Having celebrity; 
distinguished ; well-known ; famous. 

CELES'TIALNESS, n. The quality of 
being celestial. [liare.^ 

CEL'IBACT, instead of CELIB'ACT. 

CEL'IBATE, n. [add.] One who ad- 
heres to or practises celibacy. 

CEL'IBATE, a. Unmarried; single; 
as, a celibate state. 

CELIB'ATIST, «. One who lives or 
adheres to a single life. [Rare.^ 

CEL'IBITE, 71. A monk living under a 
common and regular discipline ; an 
adherent to single life. 

CEL'LARAGE, ii. [add.] Charge for 
storage in a cellar. 

CELL-BRED, a. Bred in a cell; 
brought up in a cell. 

CELLETORA, n. A genus of corals, 
belonging to the family Cellularii. It 
consists of masses of small calcareous 
vesicles or cells, crowded one upon 
another, and each perforated by a little 

CEL'LULAR,a. [add.] In ana(., a term 
applied to designate the structure of 
the mastoid process, the structm'e of 
the lungs, &c. — Cellular tissue, same 
as cellular membrane, — ichich see. [See 
f.lso Tissue.] 

CELLULA'RES, n. A name given to 
one of the grand divisions of the vege- 
t:ible kingdom, consisting of plants tlie 
tissues of which are principally cellular. 
They form the greater portion of the 
acotyledonous or cryptogamic plants. 
[See A'ascdlares.] 

CELLULA'RIA, n. A genus of corals, 
in which tlie cells are so arranged as 
to form branching stems, but without 
a tube of communication to the axis. 

CELLULARII, n. A family of corals 
in which each polypus is adherent in a 
corneous or calcareous shell, mth thin 




CEL'LULOSE, a. Containing cells. 

CEL'LULOSE, n. In bat., the essential 
part of tlie structure of cells and ves- 
sels. It is in many respects allied to 
starch, and is changed into starch by 
heat, sulphuric acid, or caustic potash ; 
when iodine is applied to it, it becomes 
yellow, unless sulphuric acid be added, 
when, by its conversion into starch, a 
blue colour is produced. Cellulose has 
been also recently detected in the 
tunics of ascidia and other molluscous 

CEL'SIA, 71. A genus of ornamental 
planti, nat. order Scrophulariaceje. 
Several species are cultivated in this 
country as green-house plants. 

CELT, 1 n. [add.] It appears 

CEL'TIC, > from various writers 

CEL'TICISM,) on Celtic antiquities, 
that the word Celt was originally pro- 
nounced Kelt, in accordance with the 
Greek form of its plural, Karci or Ko.Tai, 
but it seems to have been introduced 
into our language from the Latin Celta, 
Welsh Celt, or Gaehc Cei7^,and accord- 
ingly it has received the pronunciation 
Selt, in conformity with a rule in Eng- 
lish orthoepy, viz., that when C initial 
is followed bye, t,or y^it uniformly takes 
its soft sound. 

CELT, n. In arch^oL, an implement, 
sometimes made of stone and sometimes 
of metal, found in an- 
cient tumuli and bar- 
rows of the Celtic pe- 
riod, in Great Britain, 
Ireland, and on the 
continent of Europe. 
Some have supposed 
the celt to be a weapon 
of offence, while others 
have contended that it 
is a tool which served 
the united purpose of an axe and a 

pipes which have been found in Scot- 
land and Ireland, showing that smok- 
ing had been practised in this country 
long before the time of Raleigh. In 
place of tobacco, however, it is sup- 
posed that a kind of moss was used. 

CEMENT', n. [add.] Among builders, 
those hydraulic limes which do not 
contain magnesia are termed cements. 
They set quickly. 

CEMENTA'TION, n. [add.] Iron is 
converted into steel by cementat'iuit 
with the powder of charcoal ; green 
bottle-glass is converted into porcelain 
by cementation with sand, itc. 

CEN'OTAPHY, n. Same as Ceno- 

CEN'SER, n. [add.] A vessel for burn- 
ing and wafting incense, used by the 
ancients in their sacrifices to the gods. 

CEN'SOR, n. [add.] In schools and 
seminaries, a pupil appointed to keep 
the register of all who attend, to mark 
those who are absent each day or meet- 
ing, to report faults, &c. 

CEN'SORSHIP, n. [add.] Censorship 
of the press, a regulation which for- 
merly prevailed in most countries of 
Europe, and is still in force in many, 
according to which, printed books, 
manuscripts, pamphlets, and news- 
papers, are examined by persons ap- 
pointed for the purpose, who are em- 
powered to prevent publication if they 
see sufficient reason ; that is, if they 
find anything in such books or writings 
obnoxious to the prevailing political or 
religious svstems. 

CENS'URE, n. [add.] Opinion. [Shah.] 

CENS'URE, V. t. [add.] Simply, to 

CEN'SUREK, H. One who censures. 

CENTAU'EEA, n. Centaury, a very 
extensive genus of plants, nat. order 
Composite. C. cyanus, corn blue- 
bottle, C. moschata, pm-ple or white 
sidtan, and C. suaveolens, yellow sultan, 
are sometimes cultivated in gardens, 
but the species in general are of very 
little importance, and many ai-e mere 

CENTENA'RIOUS, a. Belonging to a 
hundred years. [Rar. us.] 

CEN'TlGRAiAiaiE, n. [Fr.J See Cek- 


CEN'TILKTRE, n. [Fr.] See Centi- 

CENTifME', n. [Fr.] The hundredth 
part of a franc. 

CEN'TIMETRE, n. [Fr.] See Centi- 

CEN'TIPEDE, n. See Centiped. 

CENTORYN'CHUS, in Diet., read 

CEN'TRAL ECLIPSE, n. An annular 
eclipse, — which see. It is so named be- 
cause tlie centres of the sun and moon 
appear to coincide. 

CEN'TRAL FORCES, n. In mech., 
those forces which govern a body mov- 
ing in a curve. 

CEN'TRALISM, ». The quality of 
being central ; the combination of 
several parts into one whole ; centrali- 

CENTRALIZA'TION, n. [add.] The 
act of bringing or reducing to a centre, 
or within a small compass; the com- 
bination of several parts or things 
into one whole. 

CEN'TRALIZE, v. t. [add.] To render 
central; to bring within a small com- 
pass ; to combine several parts or 
things into one whole. 

CENTRAN'THUS. n. [Gr. xi^r^c,, a 
spur, and onBoi, a flower.] A genus of 
plants, nat. order Valerianaceai, distin- 
guished from the true valenan by the 
spur, and having only one stamen. 
The species are smooth herbs, with 
white or red tlowers. C. ruber, red- 
flowered spmTcd valerian, is a sweet- 

. scented plant, a native of Britain, and 
grows in chalk-pits and on old walls. 
Some of the species are grown in gar- 
dens, and are elegant border-flowers. 

CEN'TRE, n. [add.] In a general sense, 
any point of a figure or solid body, 
such that the whole of the figure or 
body migiit be collected into that 
point, without any alteration in some 
respect or other, which is specified. 
In a solid figure of uniform density, 
the centre is the same with the centre 
of gravity. — Centre of dis2}lacement, in 
ship-building, the mean centre of that 
part of the vessel which is immersed 
in the water. It is also called the 
centre of cavity, and sometimes the 
centre of immersion, or centre of buoy- 
ancy. — Centre of attraction, the point 
to which bodies tend, in consequence 
of the action of gravity.— CeH/re of 
equilibrium of a system of bodies, a 
point such, that if the system were 
suspended from it, the whole would 
remain in equilibrium. — Centre of a 
conic section, that point which bisects 
any diameter, or that point in which 
all the diameters intersect each other. 
—Centre of a curve of the higher hind, 
the point where two diameters concur. 
— Centre of friction, that point on 
which anything turns when put in 
rapid and independent motion ; thus 

the extremity of the peg round which 
a top spins, is the centre of friction. — 
Centre of a basiiojK a point in the mid- 
dle of the gorge of a bastion, whence 
the capital line commences, and is 
generally at the angle of the inner 
polygon. — Cadres of a door, in arch., 
the two pivots on which the door 
turns. — Centre of gyration, the point 
at which, if the whole mass of a re- 
volving body were collected, the ro- 
tatory effect would remain unaltered. — 
Centre of oscillation, the point of a 
body suspended by an axis, at which, if 
all the matter were concentrated, the 
oscillations would be pei-formed in tlie 
same time. — Centre of percussion, the 
point at which, if a moving body en- 
countered an immovable obstacle, the 
motion w^oidd be arrested without pro- 
ducing any strain on the axis. It co- 
incides with the centre of oscillation, 
when the percutient body moves about 
a fixed point ; and with the centre of 
gravity, wlien the body moves in a 
straight line. — The cadre of pressure 
of a fluid against a plane, is the point 
at which, if the wliole pressure of the 
fluid were concentrated,the plane would 
sustain it without being inclined to 
either side. — Ceidre of gravity, a point 
in the interior of a body, so situated, 
that any plane whatever that passes 
through it, divides the body into t\^'0 
pai-ts, of which the weights are exactly 
equal. [See Gravity.] — Centre of con- 
version, a point in a body, about which 
it turns, or tends to turn, when a force 
is applied to any part of it, as when a 
bar of h-on lies horizontally, and is 
struck at one end perpendicularly to 
its length, one point in the rod remains 
at rest, as a centre about w hich all the 
other points tend to revolve. 
CEN'TRE-BIT, n. A carpenter's tool 
for boring large circular holes, which 
turns on an axis or central point when 
in operation. [See Bit, and Stock in 
CEN'TRE - GARTH, n. A buryiug- 
ground. [Aticient Jiites of Durham.] 
CENTRIC IT Y, n. The state of being 

CENTRIF'UGAL, a. [add.] Centrifu- 
gal evolution, or centrifugal inflores- 
cence, in hot., that kind of inflo- 
rescence in which the terminal or 
central flower is the first to expand, as 
in a true cyme. The elder and vale- 
rian furnish examples. It is also 
called definite injlorescence. 
CEN'TRING, n. The act or operation 
of placing or fixing on a centre, or of 
collecting toa point. [6'ee Centering.] 
CENTRIP'ETAL, a. [add.] Centri- 
petal evolution, or centripetal it{fio- 
rescence, in hot., that kind of inflores- 
cence in wliich tlie lower or outer 
flower is the first to expand, as in 
spikes, racemes, umbels, corymbs, and 
heads. The laburnum, hemlock, onion, 
and daisy are examples. It is also 
called indefinite inilorescence. 
CENTRIP ETENCY, n. Tendency to 
the centre 

CENTROLIN'EAL, a. [L. centrum, a 
centre, and linea, a line.] A term ap- 
plied to lines converging to a centre. 
CENTROLIN'EAL, n. See Centko- 


CEN'TKOPUS, n. [Gr. «4.ts«, a spur, 
and iTti/f, afoot.] The pheasant- cuckoo, 
a genus of scansorial birds, belonging to 
the cuckoo family ; so called from the 
long, spur-like claw of one of the hind- 
toes. They bring up their own young. 




CENTUNeULUS, n. A gemis of 
plants, imt. order Primulaceie. The 
only species is C. minimus, bastard- 
pimpernel, or cliaff-weed, a native of 
Britain. It is a very minute plant, 
^Wth a prostrate siera, and flowers of 
a pale rose coUuu-. It grows in damp, 
sandy, and gravelly places. 

CE'01vL,t u. A freeman of the lower 
rank among the Anglo-Saxons. [Com- 
pare Churl.] 

CEPH.ALAL'6ie, n. A medicine for 
the headache. 

CEPH.U.ANTHE'RA, n. A genus of 
plants, nat. order Orehidaceie. It is, 
however, rather a section of Epipactis 
than a distinct genus. There are three 
British species, known by the common 
name of helleborine. 

CEPHALAS'PIS, 71. A genus of fishes, 
now fomid only in a fossil state in the 

Cephalaspis tyellii. 

old red sandstone. The liead is very 
large, and is formed of a large buckler, 
which is prolonged behind into two 
CEPH.Ail'TlS,?!. Inflammation of the 

CEPH'ALODTNE, n. [Gr. »i;.x„, the 
head, and eSum. pain.] Headache; pain 
in the head. 

CEPHALOP'ODOUS, a. Pertaining 
to the cephalopoda. 

CEPHALOP'TEKUS, n. A section of 
the genus Coracina, or fruit-crows, 
having an enlarged crest of feathers on 
the head, which advances in front, and 
overshadows the bill. 

CEPHALOTACE.E, «. A natural 
order of exogenous plants. It con- 
tains only one single genus, and that 
genus consists of only one species, the 
Cephahtus foUicularis, New Holland 
pitcher-plant. This plant has small, 
white flowers, witli a simple scape, 
bearing a compound terminal spike ; 
the leaves are exstipulate, and have 
mingled amongst them operculate 

CEPHALOTES, n. A genus of coleop- 
terous insects belonging to the tribe 
Carabidw, also called Broscus. One 
species, B. cephahtes, is common in 
this country, especially near the sea. — 
Also, a genus of the bat family (Cheir- 

CEPHALOTHO'RAX, n. [Gr. x,fx>.^, 
the head, and ejujaf. the thorax.] The 
anterior division of the body in spiders, 
scorpions, &c., wliich consists of the 
head and chest blended together. 

CEPH'ALOUS, a. Having a head. 

CEPH'ALUS, n. A genus of gymno- 
dontes, found in the European seas. 
The short sun-tish (C brevis) is an 
example. The genus derives its name 
from the fish composing it, appearing 
as if all head (xufxin). [See cut in 
Diet. Siix-Fisn. | 

CERAJIIC, a. [Gr. «t{«u«s, potter's- 
clay.] Of or belonging to tiie fictile arts, 
or the manufacture of porcelain and 
earthenware. Jlore properly Keiamic. 

CER.\MID'IUJr, H. Among alya, a 
peculiar kind of conceptaculum, being 
always external, furnished vrith a ter- 
minal pore, and containing a tuft of 
pear-shaped spores or tetras'pores ; tliev 

are usually ovate, spherical, or m*n- 

CER'APUS, n. .\ genus of amphipodous 
crustaceans, which live in a tube, some- 
what as the caddis-worm among insects. 

CER'ASITE, n. [add.] The native mu- 
ri,ate of lead. 

CERAS'TES, H. [add.] A genus of In- 
dian and African vipers, remarkalile 
for their fatal venom, and for two little 

Cerastes, Cem^tet horrldu4. 

horns or pointed bones, pla<'ed one 
over each eye. Hence tliey have re- 
ceived the name of horned vipers. C. 
horridiis is an example. 
CERASTIUM, H. [add.] Mouse-ear 
chickweed, a genus of herbaceous 

CER'ATO-GLOS'SDS, n. [Gr. «se«t, a 
horn, and yitassm. tlie tongue.] In 
anaL, a muscle running from one of 
the cornua of the os-hyo'ides to the 
group of plants, of very doubtful aftinity, 
but perhaps nearest Urticacea;. It com- 
prehends the single genus Ceratophyl- 

CERATOPHYL'LUM, n. [Gr. «!..j,a 
horn, and ^i,}.>.n. a leaf.] Horn-wort, a 
genus of aquatic plants, nat. order 
Ceratophyllaceie. Two species inhabit 
CER ATOPHY'TA, n. A tribe of corals, 
the internal axis of which has the ap- 
pearance of wood or horn. 
CERAU'NITE, n. [Gr. x^xv^c;, thun- 
der.] In mill., thunder-stone. 
CERCLE,! «. A circle. [Chaucer.] 
CER€OP'ID.E, n. A family of ho- 
mopterous insects, remarkable for their 
grotesque forms. It includes the cuckoo- 
spits and frog-hoppers. The exotic spe- 
cies are very numerous, and often very 

CER€OPITHE CUS, h. [Gr. «e;«.-. a 
tail, and -nhxc:, an ape.] A genus of 
long-tailed monkeys, found in Africa. 
Tliey are very active, and are often pret- 
tily variegated. 

CEREBER'IUM.t n. An iron skull- 
cap for tlie head of a soldier. 
CER'EBRIC ACID, ». A fatty acid, 
forming one of the components of brain . 
CER'EBROSE, a. Brain-sick ; mad ; 
wilful. [Rare.} 
CER'EBRO-SPINAL, a. In anat., the 
cerebro-spinal system of nerves is the 
bundle of nerves with which the spinal 
cord terminates at its lowest extremity. 
CER EBKUJI, «. [add.] The chief por- 
tion of tlie brain, occupjnng the whole 
upper cavity of the skull. 
CE'RIA, «. A genus of dipterous insects, 
of the family Syrphidje. C.conopsoidcs 
is a British species. The antennae are 
united at the base. 
CER'IAL.f a. Belonging to the species 
of oak called cerru.^. [Cliaucer.'] 
CERIC ACID,n. An acid produced by 
the action of tlie fixed alkalies on wax. 
CER TAIN,t «• Quantity; part. [Chau- 
CERTAINLT. adv. [add.] At least. 
CERTHI'ADJJ. n. A family of perch- 
ingbirds, consisting of the tree-creepers, 
nut-hitches, &c. 


CER'TIE, n. By tm, certie, a kind of 
oath equivalent to, by my faith ; in good 
troth. [Scotch.] 

CERT' MONEY, «. [Certain monej/.] 
Head-money, paid yearly by the resiants 
of several manors to the lords thereof, 
for the certain keeping of the leet, and 
sometimes to the hundred. 
CERU'MINOUS, a. Relating to or con- 
taining cerumen. 

CERU'RA, n. A genus of bombycidous 
moths, of which the best known is the 
C. vinula, or puss-moth, wliicli feeds on 
the willow, poplar, &c. The caterpil- 
lars have a cm'ious anal appendage, 
which is extensile ; hence the name 
(»£§«,-. a horn, and tv^x. a tail). 
CER'VID.E, »i. Tlie stag tribe, a fa- 
mily of ruminant animals, in which the 
antlers are periodically cast off. 
CER'VIX, n. [L.] The neck; the hinder- 
pai*t of tlie neck, the fore-part being 
termed colluni. The same term is also 
applied to the neck of the bladder, and 
of tlie uterus. 

CES'ED,t pp. For seised. [Chaucer.] 
CESSA'VIT, H. [add.] This writ was 
abolished by 3 and 4 AVm. IV-, c. 27. 
CESSE,t r.i. [Ft.] To cease. [Chaucer.] 
CESTOIDEA, n. [Gr. «i<rT«, a girdle, 
and uia;, form.] Tape-worms, an order 
of the entozoa. 
CESTRA'CE.^, n. A group of niono- 
petalous exogenous plants, nearly allied 
to, and by most referred to Solanaoea?. 
It includes tlie bastard-jasmines of 
North and South America, and the 
West India islands. Several species 
of Cestruui, the typical genus, ai-e 
CESTR.A.'CION, n. A genus of cartila- 
ginous fishes, belonging to the shark 
family. The species are found in New 
CES'TUI QUE TRUST, n. In law, the 
person who is entitled to the benefit of 
a trust. — Cestui que use, tlie person who 
is entitled to a use. [See Use ] — Cestui 
Que vie, the person for whose life any 
lands, tenements, or hereditaments may 
be held. 

CETA CEA, n. .-Vn order of marine 
mammiferous animals, surpassing in 
size all others in existence. They are 
viviparous, suckle then- young, have 
warm blood, and respu-e through lungs, 
for which piu'iiose they must frequently 
come to tlie surface of the water to 
take in fresh supplies of air. The or- 
der comprises the wliale, dolphin, por- 
poise. &c. [See "WtiALt:.] 
CE'TE, n. [Gr. »^to.-, a whale.] The 
name given by Linmeus to his sixth 
order of mammalia, comprising tliose 
marine species wliich are destitute of 
hinder extremities. It contains the 
genera Monodon, Phoca^na, Delpliinus, 
Physeter, and Bala^na, and corresponds 
with the carnivorous group of the Ce- 
tacea of Cuvier. 

CET'ERACH, n. A genus of true ferns, 
belonging to the suborder Polypodi- 
aceai. C. ojficinarum, common ceter- 
ach, or spleenwort, grows on rocks and 
walls, and is most abundant in lime- 
stone countries, and the south of Eng- 
land and Ireland. It has been recom- 
mended in diseases of the chest, and in 
nephritic and calculous cases. 
CETRARIA, n. [add.] Celrariaislan- 
dica, in its natural state, is tonic, sto- 
machic, febrifuge, demulcent, and nutri- 
tious. It has acqiured a high reputa- 
tion, not merely as an article of diet, 
but as a medicinal agent in consump- 
tion. The inhabitants of Norway, Lap- 




land, and, above all, of Iceland, use it 
extensively as an alimentary substance, 
either made into cakes, or boiled in 

CE'TYLE, n. See Cetule. 

CETT'Lie ACID,n.5eeCETULicAcii>. 

CEYLON' MOSS. n. The Fucus amyla- 
ceuSf a cryptogamie plant, of the order 
AlgfE. It grows in Ceylon and on the 
east coast of Bengal, and it has been 
lately introduced as a substitute for 
farinaceous foods. 

CHABLIS, 71. (shab-le'.) [Fr.] A white 
French wine. 

CHACE, Jh See Chase. 

t. To chase; to pursue. 

A snack ; a luncheon. 


CHACK, 7. 

CHACK, V. i. In the manege, to beat 

upon the hand, as a horse that does not 

hold his head steady, but tosses up his 

nose and shakes his head to avoid the 

subjection of the bridle. 
CHACMA, n. A baboon found in South 

Africa {Cynocephahis porcarius). 
CHA€ONE', ) «. [Sp. chacona.] A tune 
" " "N'J 




kind of dance 

CHAFF'-€UTTER,) 7*. An agricul- 
CHAFF'-EN6INE, ) tural machine 

for cutting up hay, straw, &;c., into 

chaflP, as food for cattle. 
CHAF'FINCH, n. [add.] TheFringilla 

ccelebs, whose short and often-repeated 

song is heard early in spring. 
CHAFTRED,t ) pp. [See Chaffer.] 
CHAF'FERED,t3 Sold; exchanged. 

CHAFF'- WEED, «. [add.] [See Cen- 


CH AFaNG-GE AR, «. In ships, mats or 
other soft substances placed on the rig- 
ging, spars, &c., to prevent chafing. — 
Chajing -boards, battens fastened upon 
the rigging of a ship to prevent its 
being chafed. 

CHAFTS, n. Jaws. [Scotch.] 

CHAIN'-BOLTS, n. In ships, the bolts 
by which the chain-plates are fastened 
to the vessel's sides. 

CHaIN'-€ABLE, or CHAIN, n. A 
cable composed of iron links. [See 
under Chain ; see also Cable.] 

CHAIN'-LOCKEK, ) w. In ships, the 

CHAIN'-WELL, f receptacle for 
the chain-cable below deck. The deck- 
pipe, through which it passes, is made 
of iron. Steam- vessels have frequently 
a movable box on deck for this purpose. 

CHAIN'-PLATES, n. In ships, iron 
plates for the r^irpose of securing the 
shrouds of the lower rigging to the ves- 
sel's sides. They are also called channel- 

CHAIN'-R (JLE, n. A rule of arithmetic, 
by which, when a succession or chain of 
equivalents is given, the last of each 
being of the same kind as the first of 
the next, a relation of equivalance is 
established between numbers of the first 
and last kind mentioned. Thus — if 112 
lbs. avoirdupois make 104 lbs. of Hol- 
land, and 100 lbs. of Holland make 89 
of Geneva, and 110 of Geneva make 
117 of Seville, how many lbs. of Seville 
will make 100 lbs. avoirdupois ? The 
process of solving such questions is 
nothing but that of composition of ra- 
tios, and therefore may be brought un- 
der compound proportion 

CHAIN'-WHEEL, n. An inversion of 
the chain-pump, by which it is con- 
verted into a recipient of water-power. 
It consists uf a bucket-chain, which 
passes over a pulley F, and through a 
I. — Supp. 

pipe A, of such a size that the buckets 
very nearly fill its section. The water 
flows into the pipe at the upper end, 
and descending,carries the buckets with 
it, thus setting the whole chain, and 

therefore the pulley in motion. This 
wheel is also knowTi as Lamoliere's pis- 
ton-wheel, the application having been 
first made by Lamoliere. It is said to 
realize from 71 to 72 per cent, of the 
power of the water. 

CHAIR, n. [add.] Joint-chaiVy one that 
secures the connection of two rails in 
a railway. 

CHAIR, or CHAIR'-DAY, n. A term 
used by Shak. for the evening of life. 

CHAIR, V, t. To place or carry in a 
chair ; to carry publicly in a chair in 
triumph ; applied to a popular candi- 
date for otiice who has gained his elec- 

CHaIR'ED, pp. or a. Canied or seated 
on a chair. 

CHAlR'ING, ppr. and n. Carrying a 
successful candidate in a chair, in token 
of triumph. 

CHAISE'-LOUNOE, n. [Fr.] A sort of 
sofa, open at one end. 

CHArSET,t n. [Old Fr.] An upper gar- 

CHALXEDON, n. Same as Chalce- 


CHALCOG'RAPHY, n. [Gr. ;t«=^*«, 
brass, and y^ufw, to engrave.] A modern 
term for the art of engraving on copper. 

CHALDE'AN, a. Relating to Chaldea. 

CHAL'DER, n. A dry measure for grain 
consisting of sixteen bolls. [Scotch.] 

CHAL'DER, 7(. In ships, a name given to 
that part of the rudder-band which is 
bolted to the stern-post, and into which 
the pintle goes down. It is also called 
rudder-gudgeon. — A dumh-chalder is a 
species of cleat fixed to the stern-post 
so as one of the pintles may rest upon 
it, thereby easing the strain of the others 
and lessening the friction. 

CHAL'LENGE,«. [add.] An in\'itation 
to a contest of any kind ; as, a.challe}ige 
to a public debate ; the act of a sentry 
who challenges those who appear at or 
near his post. — In elections, an excep- 
tion to a person as not legally qualified 
to vote. — In criminal cases, challenges 
may be made either on the part of the 
crown or on that of the prisoner, and 
either to the whole array or to the se- 
parate polls. In capital cases, the pri- 
soner is allowed an arbitrary species of 
challenge without showing any cause 
at all, limited, in cases of treason, to 
thirty-five, and in felonies, to twenty. 

CHAL^LENOE, v. t. [add.] In elections, 
to object to a person as not legally 
qualified to vote. 


CHAL'LTS, V. (shariy.) An elegant 
twilled, fine woollen fabric. 

€HA'MA, n. [Gr. x«^, to gape.] The 
gaping-cockle, a genus of large, marine, 
bivalve shells, belonging to the family 
Chamaceae. The valves of the shell are 
equal, elate, and convex, and the mouth 
gapes, as in the oyster. C. gigas, or 
giant-chama, is the largest and heaviest 
shell yet discovered. It is found in the 
Indian Ocean. 

CHAMA'CEANS, w- See Chamacej:. 

instead of CHAM^E'LEON FRO- 

CHAM^LEON'ID.^, h. The cham- 
aeleon tribe, a family of saurians. It 
consists but of one genus, Chameeleo. 
[See Chameleon.] 

CHAM'ANXSM, > n. The idolatrous 

SHAM'ANISM, > worship of the Os- 
tiaks, Samoyedes, and other Finnish 
tribes. [See Shamanism.] 

CHaM'BER, 7!. [add.] Chamber of com- 
merce, a board to protect the interests 
of commerce, chosen from among the 
merchants and traders of a city. — Cham- 
bers of the eye, the space between the 
cornea and anterior surface of the iris, 
called the anterior chamber ; and the 
space between the posterior surface of 
the iris and the crystalline lens, called 
the posterior chamber; both spaces be- 
ing filled with the aqueous humour. 

CH AM'BER-€0UN'SEL, n. See under 

CHaM'BERED, pp. or a. Shut up, as in 
a chamber. - In conchol., divided into 
compartments by walls or partitions ; 
as, a chambered shell. 

CHAM'BERERE,t n. [Fr.] A cham- 
ber-maid. [Chaucer.] 

CHAM'BERLAIN,n. [add.] An otlicer 
charged with the direction and manage- 
ment of the private apartments of a 
monarcli or noble. He was originally 
keeper of the treasure -chamber, and 
hence, in some municipal corporations, 
the term denotes treasurer. The duties 
which devolve upon the lord great- 
chamberlain of England are the dress- 
ing and attending on the king at his 
coronation ; the care of the ancient 
palace of Westminster; the provision 
of furniture for the houses of Parlia- 
ment, and for Westminster Hall when 
used on great occasions ; and attending 
upon peers at their creation, and upon 
bishops when they perform theii* hom- 
age. The office is now jointly held by 
the families of Cholmondeley and Wil- 
loughby de Eresby, and the honours are 
enjoyed in each alternate reign by each 
family successively. The oflice of lord- 
chamberlain of the king's household is 
quite distinct from that of the great- 
chamberlain, and is changed with the 
administration. This ofiicer has the 
control of all parts of the household 
{except the ladies of the queen's bed- 
chamber) which are not under the di- 
rection of the lord-steward, the groom 
of the stole, or the master of the 
horse. The king's (queen's) chaplains, 
physicians, surgeons, &c., as well as the 
royal tradesmen, are by his appoint- 
ment ; the companies of actors at the 
royal theatres are under his regulation; 
and he is also the licenser of plays. He 
lias under him a vice-chamberlain. 

CHAMBERS, n. Rooms or apartments 
belonging to the inns of court. 

CHAM'BER-STORY. n. That story of 
a house which is appropriated for bed- 

€HAME'LE0N,». [add.] Thechamele- 




ons are now formed into a distinct 
Kenus, Chaniieleo, family Chamaeleo- 
nidie. C. vuhjaris is an inhabitant vi 
Africa, India, Egypt, Barbary, and 
south of Spain. There ai"e several other 
€UAI\rELOT,t V. Camlet. [Sjienser.] 
CHAI\rFKED,t /'/>. [See Chamfek.J 
_^Chapt or wrinkled. ^Spenser.] 
Chamois, n. (sham-me or shamiJi'.) 
The Antelope rnpicapra, which inhabits 
the alpine regions of Western Europe. 
CHAJIP, n. The name given to a valu- 
able kind of timber produced in the 
East Indies by MannuUa cxcelsa. 
CHAMTAIN-LINE, «. In ornamental 
carved ivorli, formed of excavations, the 
line parallel to the continuous line, 
either ascending; or descending. 
CHAM PARTlE.t "• L^r.] A share of 
land; a partnersliip in power. [Chau- 
CHANCE, n. [add.] A term applied to 
events which do not happen in confor- 
mity iNith any law of sequence; which are 
not related through causation, and in 
which there are no grounds fur inferring 
a uniformity. Eventsare, sepai-ately, the 
effects of causes, and therefore of laws, 
and do not therefore happen by chanuu?, 
or casually; but two events which are 
neither cause and effect, nor the effects 
of the same cause, nor the effects of 
causes between which there subsists 
a law of co-existence, are conjoined by 
chance; they co-exist or succeed each 
other by chance. 

CHivNCEjf adv. By chance; per- 

CHANCELLOR, n. [add.] Chancellor 
of a diocese, or of a bishop, the vicar- 
general to tlie bishop, who holds his 
courts, and directs and assists him in 
matters of ecclesiastical law. — Chan- 
cellor of ilia dnchij of Lancaster, an 
officer who presides either in person, or 
by deputy, in the court of the duchy of 
Lancaster concerning all matters of 
equity, relating to lands holden of the 
king (queen) in right of the duchy of 

CHANCE'-MEDLEY, n. [add.] Origin- 
ally this term signified a casual affray 
or riot, accompanied with violence, but 
without deliberate or preconceived ma- 
lice ; but it is applied at present to a 
particular kind of homicide, viz., the 
killing of another in self-defence, upon 
a sudden and unpremeditated encoun- 
ter. The term lias been sometimes 
applied to any kind of homicide by mis- 
adventure, but in strictness is appli- 
cable to such killing only as happens in 
defending ona's self against attack. 
CHAN'CERY, n. [add.] In Scotland 
there is no com't of chancery separate 
from the courts of common law, tho 
whole judicatures of Scotland having 

i become subject to the court of session, 

i where the chancellor in former times 

' presided, dispensing both equity and 

j common law. — Inns of chancery. \_See 

I under Inn.] 

CHAN'CY, a. Lucky. [Scotch.] 
CHANDLER, n. [add.] A dealer in 

I general ; tho particular meaning of the 
term being determined by a prefix ; as, 

I tallow-c//n7«//(??*, ship-<?/(rt/u//e/', &c. 
CHANGE, V. i. [add.] To be trans- 
formed : as, to change into flame. 

I CHANOEFyLLY,flrfy. In a changeful 
CHANGE'FULNESS, n. Quality of be- 

I ing changeful. 


I of vai'ious but definite sizes, by which 

the angular velocity of an axis may be 
changed in any required relation. Sup- 
posing there arc two axes whose posi- 
tions are fixed in the machine, and that 
one of them has a uniform velocity 
which it is desirable to vary at the 
second axis according to a given set of 
valves. The mode usually adopted is 
to provide as many pairs of wheels as 
there are to be valves, and of which tlie 
sums of the pitch radii are pair and 
pair equal to the distance of the axes, 
and to coimect the axes by that pair 
of these wheels which gives the required 
speed. The set of wheels provided 
for this purpose are commonly termed 
change-wheelSf and the ratios of their 
radii are termed the change-ratios of 
the set. Every lathe for cutting screws, 
&c., is provided with such a set of 

CHANG'ING-PlECE,t n. A term of 
contempt for one who is fickle or 

CHAN'NEL. 7?. A kennel. [Shah.] 

CHAN'NELLED, instead of CHAN'- 

CHANNELLING, instead of CHAN'- 

CHAN'NELS, n. In skii>s, the channels 
(main, fore, and mizen) ore yjieces of 
plank, of considerable thickness, pro- 
jecting horizontally from the vessel's 
sides. The chain-plates ai-e carried 
through notches on their outer edge, in 

Shromls extended on the Ch&nnela. 

orde r to extend the shrouds of the lower 
rigging, and keep them clear of the gun- 
wale. They are also called chain-icales, 
guard - boards, or channel - boards. — • 
Channel-plates. [See Chain-Plates.] 
CHANSONNETTE', n. [Fr.] A Uttle 

CHANT, n. [add.] A peculiar kind of 
sacred music, in which prose is sung 
with less variety of intonation than in 
common airs. 

CHANT'ER,n. [add.] TheEnglish name 
of Accentor, the genus of bii'ds contain- 
ing the hedge-sparrow. 
CHXNT'ERlE,t n. [Fr.] An endow- 
ment for the payment of a priest to 
sing mass agreeably to the appointment 
of the founder. [5ee Chantry.] [Chau- 

CHXNT-ING, n. [add.] The act of sing- 
ing or uttering after the manner of a 

CHAP'EAU BRAS, n. (shap'po bni.) 
[Fr.] A kind of military hat which can 
be ffattened and put under the arm 
CHAP'EL,n. [add.] This term is pretty 
generally used to designate the places 
of worship erected by various sects of 
Dissenters under the Act of Toleration. 
The name chapel is generally given, 
by Protestants at least, to the Roman 
Catholic places of worship. — Chapel is 

also a name given to a printer*s work- 
house, said to be so designated because 
printing was first carried on by Caxtou 
in a chapel attached to AVestrainster 

CHAPERON, M. [add.] One who at- 
tends a lady to public places, as a guide 
or protector. 

CHAP'LAINRY, n. Same as Cuap- 

CHAP'MANHEDE,t n. The condition 

of a chapman or tradesman. [Chaucer] 
CHAP'PIT, 2>p. Struck; pounded; 

mashed. [Scotch.] 
CHAPS. 71. ftlur. The iaws of a vice. 
CHAP'TEK, n. [add.] In cedes, politij, 

the canons in the cathedral or conven- 
tual churches, when assemblecl, form 
what is called the chapter. Anciently 
the chapter was the council of the 

bishop. — The members of the College 
of Arms are said to hold a chapter, 
when they meet to confer on the busi- 
ness of their office ; and in like manner, 
chapters of the order of the Garter are 
held. — The term chapter is also applied 
to an organized branch of some society 
or fraternity, as of the free-masons, 

CHAR, «. [add.] A single, separate act; 
a turn ; a bout. 

CHaR, for Chariot. [Chaucer.] 

CHA'RA, n. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Characere, or, as some think, a 
genus of alga;. The species are jointed 
leafless plants, with verticillate branch- 
es, composed either of one or of several 
tubes adhering in bundles, and in- 
crusted with calcareous matter. They 
inhabit pools and slow streams, to 
^vhich they communicate a nauseous 
and offensive odour. Six species are 
enumerated by British botanists, known 
by the name of stonewort, or water- 
horsetail. They are usually distin- 
guished into the genera Chara, which 
has several tubes, and Nitella, with 
the frond of only one tube. 

CHAR'ACTER, n. [add.] Peculiar 
nature. . 

CHARADE, n, [add.] [Possibly from 
the French, pronounced shah-rad.] A 
riddle, enigma, &c. 

CHAR'BON, «. [Fr.] A little black spot 
or mark, remaining after the large spot 
in the cavity of the corner-tooth of a 
horse is gone. 

CHAR'BONCLE,t n. A cai-buncle. 

CHXR'€OAL-BLACKS,«. Black pig- 
ments, consisting of bm*nt ivory, bones, 
vine -twigs, peach - stones, nut and 
almond shells, the condensed smoke of 
resin, &c. 

CHARES, n. [See Char.] Work. 

CHAR'FRON, w. [Fr. chanfrein.] A 
plate of steel, or piece of leather, to 
protect the face of a horse in plate- 
armour. [See cut in Diet. Cham- 


CHXR(:iE'ANT,t ppr. Burthensome. 

CHAR0E'-HOUSE,t n. A school- 

CHARITY, n. [add.] In the co^irt of 
chancery the term charity is used to 
signify such charitable bequests as are 
within the letter and the spirit of the 
statute of Elizabetli, as gifts, devises, 
kc, for the relief of aged, impotent, 
and poor people, for schools of leai-ning, 
free-schools, and scholars of universi- 
ties, for repairs of bridges, ports, high- 
ways, churches, for education and pre- 
ferment of orphans, &c. By the statute 




above-mentioned all devises for super- 
stitious uses are proliibited. 

CHARIVARI, n. {shiirevaree'.) [Fr.] In 
the United States of America, a mocit 
serenade of discordant music, kettles, 
tin-horns, &c., designed to annoy and 

CHaRLATAN'IC, a. Kesembling a 


CHARLATANISM, n. Quackery ; 

CHAK'LOCK, n. [add.] In hot., Ra- 
3>hanus raphanisirinn and Sinapis ar- 
ven.fis, very pernicious weeds in corn- 
fields and among turnips. 

CHARMES,t V. i)hir. [See Charm.] 
Soups ; lays. [S/je/wt^r.] 

CHaR'NEL, n. A repository for the 
bones of the dead ; a charnel-house. 

CHaR'QUI, n. In South America, the 
name given to jerked-beef. It is the 
flesh of the animal (bullock, buffalo, or 
cow) cut into long strips, and dried in 
highly airy localities, being well ex- 
posed to sun and wind; tlie heat of the 
former turns it into a substance having 
the appearance of glue. 

CHARR, n. [add.] The Salmo saheli- 
nus, which inhabits the lakes of Scot- 
land, Wales, and of the north of Eng- 
land. Its flesh is held in high estima- 
tion. [.S'ee Char.] 

CHaRTA'CEOUS, a. In hot., papery; 
resembling paper. Applied to the 
paper-like texture of leaves. 

CHARTAGRAPH'IC, a. Belonging to 

C'HaRTE, n. (shurt.) [Fr.] The consti- 
tution orfundamental law of the Frencli 
monarchy, as established on the restora- 
tion of Louis XVIII., in 1814. 

CHART'EL,t n. [Fr. cartel] A letter 
of defiance, or challenge to a single 
combat. \See Cartel.] 

CHAR'TER, n. [add.] In Enulish laic, 
the term charter was used to denote 
any public instrument, deed, or writing, 
being written evidence of things done 
between man and man, and standing as 
a perpetual record. Charters are di- 
vided into royal charters^ or charters 
of the crown, and charters of private 
persons, lioi/al charters were such 
instruments as conferred some liberty, 
right, or franchise. Such was the 
charter granted by William the Con- 
queror ; the charters of liberties granted 
by Henry I., Stephen, Henry 11. , John 
[see Magna CiiaktaJ, Henry 111., and 
Edward I.; cliarters to boroughs and 
municipal bodies; charters to univer- 
sities and colleges ; charters to colonies 
and foreign possessions, &c. Charters 
of private j)ersons, are the title-deeds 
of lands, many of which are the ancient 
grants of feudal lords to their tenants. 

CJIAR'TERER, n. One who charters 
or hires a ship for a voyage ; also, a 
Cheshire freeholder. 

CHAR'TERIST, «. An adherent to the 

CHARTOM'ETER, n. [L. charta, and 
fji.iT^ov, measure.] An instrument for 
measuring maps and charts. 

CHASE, 71. [add.] A wide groove. — In 
ship-hvildinff, a long sloping mortice.— 
7b ytue chase to, to pursue. — Beasts of 
the chase, properly, the buck, doe, fox, 
martin, and roe ; but in a common and 
legal sense, the term extends to all the 
beasts of the forest, which, besides the 
others, are reckoned to be hart, hind, 
hare, boar, and wolf; and, in a word, 
all wild beasts of venery, and hunt- 

ing. — In operative mech., when the 
thread of a screw is fonnedin the turn- 
ing-lathe it is said to be chased, and 
the operation of making it is called 
chasing. A lathe adapted to screw- 
cutting is accordingly sometimes called 
a chasinij-latlie. 

CHAS'ED, pp. [add.] Embossed. 

CHASE'-MORTlCE,n. Misplaced: see 
after Chasm ed. 

CHASE'-PORTS, n. The gun-ports at 
the bows and stern of a ship of war. 

CHaS'ER, n. [add.] In marine Ian., a 
vessel which pursues another, called 
the chase. — Soio-ckasers, tlie guns 
pointed from the bows of a ship of war. 
— Stern-chasersy the guns pointed from 
the stern of a ship. 

CHAS'ING, ppr. [add.] Embossing on 


CHAS'TIE.t for Chastise. [Chaucer.] 

CHAS'TONS,t n. Breeches of mail 
used by knights in the 13th century. 

OhITELATNE, h. [Fr., a female 
castle-keeper.] A modern appendage 
worn by fashionable ladies. It con- 
sists of a bunch of steel or golden 
chains depending from the waist, from 
each of wliich chains is suspended some 
article of houseliold use, as a key, a pin- 
cushion, a thimble-case, a penknife, a 
corkscrew, &;c., &c. A similar appen- 
ilage for gentlemen is called a chate- 

CHATTEL, 7?. [add.] Goods and chat- 
tels, a phrase used to express all tliat a 
man has, except such estates in land as 
are freehold estates; but tlie word 
chattels alone expresses the same thing 
as goods and chattels. 

CHATTERA'TION, n. Act of chat- 
tering; disposition or habit of talking 
much. [Colloq.] 

CHAU'DRON,t «. See Chawdron. 

CHAUK'-DAW, 7i. The local name for 
the red-legged crow or chough {Fre- 
ffihis grandits). 

CHAUNT. See Chant. 

CHAUS'SES, n. [Fr.] The tight cover- 
ings for the legs and body, reaching to 

J;he waist, in use by the Normans. 

OHaY, n. A chaise. [Amcricaii.] 

CHAY'A-ROOT, )n. The root of the 

SHAY'A-ROOT, ( Oldenlandia umbel- 
lata, a biennial plant which grows wild 
on the Coromandel coast, and is like- 
wise cultivated there for the sake of 
the red colouring matter which the 
bark of the root yields. This dye-stuff 
is used for giving tlie beautiful red of 
the Madras cottons. 

CHEAP O'T. Well deserving of it; 
deserving worse. [Scotch.] 

CHEAR'EN,t V. i. [See Cheer.] To 
grow cheerful. [Spenser.] 

CHEAT, V. t. [add.] To acquire by 
cheating; as, to cheat an estate from 
one. [Coiclei/.] 

CHEAT'ER.t n. Escheater. [Shah.] 

CHEAT'ERY, n. Fraud; imposition; 
deception. [ Vul<tar.] 

CHEBAC'CO-BOAT, n. A description 
of fishing-vessel or large boat employed 
in the Newfoundland fisheries, and so 
named from the former name of the 
place where they are made, now Essex, 
in Massachusetts. 

CHECK, V. t. [add.] To make a mark 
against names in going over a list. 
CHECK, 71. [add.] A mark put against 
names in going over a list; a token 
given to railway passengers, serving to 
identify them in claiming their lug- 
gage, &c. Also, a similar token given 
in theatres to identify those who go 

out expecting to return. A species of 
chequered cioth, in which coloured 
lines or stripes cross each other rect- 
angularly, like a chess-board. 

CHECK'ED,t pp. or a. Clieqnered. 

CHECKER-BOARD, n. A board for 
playing checkers or draughts. 

CHECKERED,) 7)p. Variegated; di- 

CHEQ'UERED,} versified. 

CHECK'LATON,t ) n. A kind of 

CHEKE'LATOUN,t> chequered or 
motley stuff". [Chaucer.] 

CHECK'-MATE, v. t. [add.] To put in 
check ; to make a move in chess which 
stops all further moving, and ends the 
game; to control; to defeat. 

CHECKS, n. A name given to a kind of 
checkered cloth, as ginghams, aprons, 
plaids, &ic. [See Check.] 


CHED'DER, a. Noting a rich, fine- 
flavom'ed cheese, made at Chedder in 

CHED'DER-PINK, n. In hot., a species 
of dianthus. 

CHEEK'-BAND, n. A strap of a head- 
stall ; a throat-band. 

CHEER, n. [add.] Face: countenance. 

CHEER, V. i. [add.] To be in any tem- 
per of mind. 

How ckeer'st thoii, Jessica. Sh/il: 

CHEER'ED, pp.instead of CHEERED. 

CHEER'ER, n. instead of CHEERER. 

CHEERFUL, a. instead of CHEER- 

Cli'EER'FULLY, adv. instead of 

CHEERFULNESS, n. instead of 

CHEER'ILY,arfu, instead of CHEER- 

CHEER'INESS, n. instead of CHEER- 

CHEER'ING, 2)i>r. or a. instead of 

CHEER'INGLY, adv. instead of 

CHEER'lSHNESS,t n. instead of 

CHEERLESS, a. instead of CHEER- 

CHEER'LESSNESS, n. State of being 
destitute of cheerfulness or comfort. 

CHEER LY, a. instead of CHEERLY. 

CHEER'LY, adv. instead of CHEER- 

CHEER'UP,) V. t To make cheerful; 

CHIRR'UP, i to enliven. [Collofj.] 

CHEER'Y, a. instead of CHEERY. 

CHEES,t p2). from Chcse. Chose. 

CHEESE, H. [add.] There are a great 
many kinds of cheese, which differ from 
one another according to tlie quality of 
the milk employed, and the mode of 
preparation ; as, brichhat, Chedder, 
Cheshire, Dcrhyshire, Dunlop, Glou- 
cester, of which tliere are two kinds, 
the single and double; sage or grecn^ 
cheese, Slipcoat, Stilton, &c. ; Gouda 
cheese is made in Holland, and derives 
its flavour from the muriatic acid used 
in curdling the milk ; Parmesan cheese 
is a skim-milk cheese made at Parma, 
in Italy. The name cheese is also 
given to a mass of pomace or ground 
apples placed on a press. 

CHEESE-CEMENT', h. A kind of 
glue used in joining broken china, 
painters' panel-boards, &c. 

CHEESE'-FAT,n.Cheese-dish; cheese- 
form. [Sir W. Scott.] 

CHEESE-LEP, n. A bag in which 
rennet for cheese is kept. 




CHEESE'-MITE, n. An insect of the 
genus Acarus, the^. domesttcuSy wliich 
infests cheese. 

CHEESY, a. instead of CHEESY. 

CHEET, V. i. To cheet, to chatter or 
chirrup. [ Tentii/son.] 

CHEG'OE, H. [add.] The Pulex pene- 
trans of Linnseus, formed by modern 
naturaUsts into a genus called Sarcop- 
sylJa, from its being able to penetrate 
into the flesh. 

CHEiLOG'NATHA, n. [Or. xs'Ac.-. a 
lip, and yoaB^t, a jaw. In words having 
the initial syllable cAei, naturalists 
frequently change the ei into i. as 
chiiognathay ckironectes, chiropteray 
&c.] An order of mjTiapods in which 
the two mandibles and the tongue are 
united to form a large lower lip. 

CHEIKOGAL'EUS, n. [Gr. x^^i^ the 
hand, and yxXiv;, a young cat or wea- 
sel.] A genus of quadrumanous mam- 
mals which inhabit Madagascar. They 
belong to the family of lemurs. 

CHEIROL'OGY, n. [Gr. x'-'i, the hand, 
and >.•>■«, discourse.] The art of con- 
versing with the fingers, practised 
generally bv the deaf and dumb. 

CHElRONEe'TES, n. [Gr. x^^, the 
hand, and tr.xat, to swim.] The frog-tish 
or hand-fish, a genus of aeanthoptery- 
gious fishes, having the pectoral tins sup- 
ported, Uke short feet, upon peduncles, 
by means of which they are enabled to 
creep over mud and sand when left 
dry by the receding tide, and also to 
take short leaps like a Irog. They are 
found in the estuaries of the north- 
east of Australia. The same name is 
given by llliger to a genus of raarsu- 
pialia, in which the hinder-hands are 
webbed. One species is known, a 
spotted quadruped, found in some parts 
of South America. 

instead of GHEIROPTER, CHEIR- 
OPTERA, [add.] [6ec Bat, Vesper- 


■GHEiROP'TERGUS, a. Belonging to 

the cheiroptera or bat tribe; fiu-nished 
with elongated fingers or toes, for the 
expansion of membranes which serve 
as wings. 

CHEKE,t See Check. [Chaucer.] 

CHEK:E'-MATE,t See Check-Mate. 

CHEK'ERE,t See Checker. [Chau- 

CHELA, n. [Or. x^^^t,, a claw.] The 
name given to the tirst pair of forceps 
of the crab, lobster, &c.; also written 

CUELAUN'DRE.t n. [Fr.] A gold- 
finch. [Chaucer.] 

[Gr. z*i>*), a claw, and «>;j«;. a horn.] 
A name given to the prehensile claws 
of the scorpion and spider, which are 
the homologues of antenna?. 

CHELIDO'NIUM, instead of fHELl- 

■CHEL'LFER, n. A genus of arachnidie, 
remarkable for the resemblance which 
the species bear to scorpions. They 
are very small, and resemble miniature 
scorpions deprived of their tails ; they 
run quickly, and often sideways like 
crabs. Two or three species are found 
in this country, where they ai*e called 

MANCHE', n. A clumsy kind of boat 
used on the coast of Coromandel, more 
especially at JIadras and Pondicherry, 
for transporting passengers and light 
goods acrojs the bai' and through the 

surf. The chelingues are formed of 
broad, thin, hard planks, sewed to- 
gether with cocoa-nut fibre; they are 
broad, flat-bottomed, light, elastic, and 
stand high out the water, are difficult 
to manage, present a great surface to 
the wind, and sail slow ; but they are 

CHER'LISH.f a. See Cuurlisu. 


CHEROOT', n. A kind of cigar. The 
genuine cheroot is from Manilla, in the 
Philippine Islands, and is much prized 
for the delicacy of its flavour, 

CHER'RIES, «. Spherical cutters or 

Chelingue or Hosula-bottt of Mivlrns. 

admirably adapted for the purpose for 
which they are used, and sustain unin- 
jured continual shocks on the bars and 
on the shores, any one of which would 
be sufficient to break up an European 
CHELO'NE, n. A beautiful genus of 
herbaceous plants, nat. order Scrophu- 
lariacete. The species are known by 
the names of tortoise-flower, shell- 
flower, and snake-head. 
CHELO'NIA, )H.[add.] [5ee Tor- 
CHELO'MANS,) toise. Turtle.] 
CHELO'MD^,n. The turtles,a family 
of chelonian reptiles, distinguished by 
the incompleteness of their shelly cover- 
ing, and by the peculiar modification of 
the feet for shimming. 
CHEMISETTE', n. [Fr.] An under- 
garment worn over the chemise. 
CHEMO'SIS, n. [From Gr. x*"*-. to 
gape.] An affection of the eye in which 
the conjunctiva is elevated above the 
transparent cornea. 
CHEN'ZIE. n. A chain. [Scotch.] 
CHEPE,t H. Cheapness. [Chaucer.] 
CHEPE,t V. t. To cheapen; to buy. 

CHEQ'UER, n. [Abbreviation of Ex- 
chequer.] A treasury. 
CHEQUER-BERRY, n. A hand- 
some little creeping plant, the 
Mitchella repenSy growing in North 
CHEQ'UERS, n. In masonri/y stones in 
the facings of walls, which have all 
their thin joints continued in straight 
lines without interruption or breaking 
joints, thus presenting the appearance 
of chequer-work. — 2. The game of 
CHERCH,t n. A cliurch. [Chaucer.] 
CHERE,t H. [Fr.] The face; visage; 
countenance; appearance; entertain- 
ment; good cheer. [See Cheer.] 

CHER'ICE,t V. t [Fr.] To cherish. 
CHER lSANCE,t «. [Fr.] Comfort. 

CHERL,t ". See Churl. [Chaucer.] 
CHERLER'IA, 71. A genus of ornamen- 
tal plants, nat. order Alsinacese. C. 
sedoides has densely crowded roots, 
bearing close tufts of stems, which, 
with the slender leaves, form a thick 
mass of short verdure. It grows near 
the summits of the higher mountains 
of Scotland. 


countersinks used in making bullet- 

CHER'RY,n. [add.] All the varieties of 
cherries known in our gardens are the 
produce of Cerasus avium, or Cerasus 
vulgaris, or of plauts obtained by the 
intermixture of those two original spe- 
cies. The timber of cherry-trees is 
valuable for the more common kinds of 

CHERRY,t V. t Tocherish. [Spenser.] 

CHER'RY-BAY, n. The laurel. 

CHERRY-BRANDY, h. Brandy in 
which cherries have been steeped. 

CHERRY-WINE, n. Wine made from 

CHER UP, n. (cheer'up) An act of 
quickening or of enlivening ; encou- 
rai^ement. [ CoUoq.] 

CHER UP, V. t. See Cheerup. 

CHERVIL, n. See Nbedle-Cheryil, 
and ScANDis. 

CHESE,tr.^ 5ec Choose. [Chaucer.] 

CHES'IBLE, «. [add.] [5ee Chasuble.] 

CHES'SEL, n. A mould or vat in which 
cheese is formed. 

CHESTE,tn. A coffin; debate. [Chau- 

CHEST'EINE,t h. [Fr. chasfaigne.] 
The chestnut-tree, or its fruit. [Chau- 

CHET'WERT,«. [Ger. Tschetirert.] A 
Russian grain-measure, equal toO'7218 
of an imperial quarter, or about three- 
fourths nearly. 

CHEVAL', n. plur. Chevaux. [Ft.] A 
horse ; cavalry. — In compositiotty a sup- 
port, or frame ; thus, a cheval-glass is 
a large sning-glass mounted on a frame, 

CHEVALIER', n. [add.] In or7«7ft.,the 
Totanus glottis, a grallatorial bird, 
called by some green-shank, and by 
others the green-legged horseman. It 
stands very high on its legs. 

CHEV'ALRlCt H. See Chivalry. 

CHEVAS TER, \n. [Fr.] In surg., a 

OHEVES TRE, J double roller applied 
to the head in cases of fracture or luxa- 
tion of the lower jaw. 

CHEVE,t r. r. [Fr.] To come to an 
atrreeraent or conclusion. [Chaucer.] 

CHEV'ERIL,n. fadd.] MetaphoHcalltiy 
a yielding or pliable disposition. As 
a;i adjective, yielding; pliable; as, a 
cheveril conscience. 

CHEVESAILLE', n. {shevesayl'.) [Fr.] 
A necklace. [Chaucer.] 




CHEVE'TAIN.t n. [Fr.] A chieftain. 

CHEV'ISAUNCE.t n. [See Chevis- 
ANCE.] Enterprise; bargain; cliief- 
dom. [Spenser.] 

CHE VRETTE', n. [Fr.] An engine used 
in raising guns or mortars into their 

CHEV RON, n. |add.] The distinguish- 
ing niarlis on the sleeves of non-com- 
missioned otiicers' coats. 

CHEVRON- WORK, n. In arch. [See 


CHEWING-BALL, v. A medicinal 
ball f<?r a horse, composed of the wood 
of the bay and juniper trees, asafetida, 
liver of antimony, and pellitory of 



CHl'ASTRE, n. [Gr. x'-i", to form the 
Greek letter X' chi.] A bandage for 
stopping hemorrhage from the tem- 
poral artery, shaped like a cross, or the 
Greek letter x> chi. 

CHIBOUQUE', 7!. A Turkish pipe, of 
which the amber mouth-piece, and 
sometimes the ball which contains the 
leaf, is adorned with precious stones. 
Tlie long chibuiique's dissolving cloud supply. 
Huron, Vor&air. 
Resign'd liis geni-adornt'd chUwiqite. 

Byron, Bride of Ahtjdos 

CHI'CA, 11. [add.] A fermented liquor 
used by the Peruvians, and obtained by 
them from the Indian corn. 

CHICHE,t a. [Fr.] Niggardly ; sparing. 

CHICK'ABIDDY, n. A young chicken. 

CHICK ADEE, n. In America, a name 
given to the black-cap titmouse, from 
its peculiar note. 

CHICK'EN-GRAFE, n. An American 
species of the vine, the Vitis cordifoUa, 
or heart-leaved vine ; also termed win- 

CHICIv'ETS, n. Fastenings; a term 
used by Ford in describing tlieEscurial 
in Spain — " the green shutters and 
chichets are offensive." It is probably 
from the old Fr. cliquet, the linocker or 
hammer of a door. 

GHlGieLING-VETCH, n. A plant of 
the genus Lathyrus, the Z. sativus. 
When used as food, it causes an incur- 
able rigidity of the limbs in either man 
or beasts. 

A plant of the genus Trientalis, the T. 
europwa. [See Tbientalis.] 

CHICORY, ) n. [add.] A plant of the 

CHIC'CORY, ) genus Cichorium, the 
C. intiibus, nat. order Compositae, sub- 
order Cichoracea;. The whole plant is 
bitter and aromatic, and the leaves as 
well as the root have been used in 
medicine, in the form of a decoction, 
as a tonic bitter and diuretic. Chicory 
is extensively cultivated in Belgium and 
Germany for the purpose of preparing 
from the root a powder which can be 
substituted for coffee, and which is 
extensively employed for adulterating 
coffee. Cattle and sheep are said to be 
fond of the leaves of chicory. [See cut 
in Diet. SuccoBV.] 

CHID'ERESSE,t) n. A female scold. 

CHIDE'STER.t 5 [Chaucer.] 

CHIEF, a. [add.] Chief .ieyiant,a.\Qvi^\\i 
in caplte, or tenant-in-chief. [See 

CHIEF-JUSTICE, n. The presiding 
justice, particularly the presiding judge 
in the courts of common pleas and 
king's bench. 

CHIEF'-EENTS, n The same as Qbit- 

RENTS, — witich see. 

CHIEF'TAINCl', n. The oflice or sta- 
tion of chieftain. 

CHIER'TBE,t n. [Fr.] Tenderness; 
affection; charity. [Chaucer.] 

CHIFF'-CHAFF, n. The white-throat 
(Si/lvin hippolais), one of our song- 
birds, is so called from its note. 

CHIFFONNIER',n. (shiftbneer'.) | Fr.] 
Literally, a receptacle for rags or 
shreds. — 2. A movable and ornamental 
cupboard or receptacle. — 3. In France, 
a rag-picker. 

CHIGOE, CHIG'KE, n. See Chegoe. 

CHIK'ARY, n. In the East Indies, a 
native huntsman. 

CHIKE.t n. A chicken. [Chaucer.] 

CHIL'BLAIN, V. t. To render sore by 
cold or frost ; to produce cliilblains. 

CHILDE, n. A noble youth ; the son of 
a nobleman ; a cognomen formerly pre- 
hxed to his family name by the eldest 
son of .a nobleman until he succeeded 
to the titles of his ancestors, or gained 
new honours by his own prowess. 

CHILD'ING, a. Producing; as, the 
childinn autumn. [iSArzA.] 

CHILD'NESS,t n. Childish playfulness; 
sportive gaiety of a child. 

CHILD'WIT,t n [Child, and Sax. 
wite,a fine or penalty.] A fine or penalty 
of a bondwoman unlawfully begotten 
with cliild. 

CHIL'IASM, instead of CHIL'IASM. 

CHILIAS'TIC, a. Relating to the mil- 
lennium ; millenarian. 

CHILL, n. [add.] In a figuradve sense, 
a check to feelings of joy ; as, a chill 
came over the assembly. 

CHILL,+ V. i. To shiver. 

CHIL'LED, jip. [add.] In painting, a 
term applied to the varnish of a pic- 
ture, when the cloudiness or dimness 
called blooming appears on the surface. 

CHIL'LY, a</i'. Coldly; with coldness. 

CHILOGNATHES, ( n. [Gr. x"^«, a 

CHILOG'NATHA, j lip, and >,«»«, a 
jaw.] An order of the myriapoda or 
centipedes, distinguished by having the 
two mandibles and the tongue so united 
.as to form a large lower lip. They are 
found beneath the bark of trees, and in 
humid places. 

€HIM^'RA, n. See Chimera. 

€HIM.^'RID^, n. A family of car- 
tilaginous fishes, distinguished from the 
other families of the cartilaginous order 

Chlimem monstrosn. 

by the head being furnished with ap- 
pendages, and the tail terminating in a 
point, it contains the genera Chi- 
mera and Callorhynchus. 

CHIME, or CHINE, n. In ship-building, 
that part of the water-way left above 
the deck, to allow the lower seam of 
spirketting to be easily calked, and hol- 
lowed out to form a water-course. 

CHIMED, jip. In ship-building, notched 
or hollowed out to form a water-course. 

CHIMERE, n. [add.] The upper robe, 
to which the lawn-sleeves of a bishop 
are attached. 

CHIM'LEY-NEUK, n. Chimney-cor- 
ner. [Scotch.] 

CHIM'NEY, n. [add.] A fire-place; the 

lower part of the body of brick or 

stone which confines and conveys 


smoke ; also, a tall glass to suiTound 
the flame of a lamp. 

CHIMNEY-CAN,) H. A cylindrical 

CHIM'NEY-POT, J pipe of earthen- 
ware or brick, placed on the top of 
chimneys to prevent smoking 

rundo rustica, one of our most common 
species of swallows. 

CHIM'NEY-TOP, lu The summit of a 

CHl'NA-CLAY, >!. Kaolin,— w/iicA see. 

CHl'NA-GLAZE,n. A preparation for 
printing blue frit. It is composed of 
ten parts of glass, two of lead, and 
three or more of blue calx. 

CHr'NAMAN'S-HAT, n. The name 
given by collectors to a shell found on 
our coasts, the Cabjptraa sinensis. 

CHI'NA-PINK, n. A flower; a species 
of dianthus. 

CHI'NA-STONE, n. Decomposed gra- 

CHrNA-WARE,?;.Fine porcelain, ori- 
ginally from China. [See Porcelain.] 

CHINC'APIN, n. In America, a name 
given to the dwarf-chestnut, Castanea 
puniila, which produces nuts. It grows 
in the southern states. 

CHINCHE,t n. Same as Ciiiche. 

CHINCHERIE,+ n. Niggardliness. 
[Chaucer. ) 

CHINCHIL'LA, n. A genus of rodent 
animals, peculiar to the South Ameri- 
can continent. The species are nearly 
of the form and size of the rabbit. 
C. lani'jera produces the gray fur 
which has been so much prized in 
Eiu'ope for many years. [See Chin- 

CHIN'-€LOTH, n. A sort of muffler 

worn by ladies in the time of Charles I. 

CHINESE'-FIRE, n. A composition 
used in fire-works. 

CHINESE'-GLUE, n. A superior glue 
and varnish obtained from a species 
of algse which abounds on the shores 
of China. When once dried, it resists 
the action of water, and is employed 
by the Chinese to fill up the lozenge- 
shaped interstices in the net-work of 
bamboo, of which their windows are 
frequently constructed, as well as to 
strengthen and varnish the paper of 
their lanterns. 

plant of the genus Nepenthes, the 
N. phyllamplwra of Willdenow [See 

CHINESE'-WHITE, n. An empirical 
name given to the white oxide of zinc; 
a valuable pigment recently introduced 
into the arts, as a substitute for the 
preparations of white-lead. 

CHIN'GLY, a. Gravelly; abounding in 

CHINK, n. A term for money, used ii\ 
various parts of England. [ Vulgar.]— 
Also, the name of a bird, the reed-bunt- 
ing (Emberiza schainiculus), probably 
derived from its note. 





America, the process of tilling with 
chips and clay the chinks or interstices 
between the logs of liouses. 

CHIN'NA, n. An Oriental plant of the 
pea or vetch land. 

CHIN'-S€AB, ;j. A disease in sheep, 
called by shepherds, darters. 

CHIP, «. [add.] A chip of the old block, 
a familiar phrase applied to a child 
or individual, who, either in person, or 
in sentiments and disposition, resembles 
his father. 

CHIP-HAT, 71. A hat made of chips, 
or wood cut into thin filaments, and 
plaited, so as to resemble a straw -hat. 
Ladies at one time very commonly 
wore chip-hats. 

CHIP'PING-PIECES, n. The project- 
ing pieces of iron cast on the faces of 
iron framing, when intended to be 
rested against each other. 

CHIP'PY, a. Abounding in chips. 

CHIRCH,t H. A church. [Chaucer.] 

CHIRCU lIA"\VE,t it. A church-yai-d. 

CHIRCH'REVE,t n. A church- 
warden. [Chaucer.] 

CHIRKING,! n. A disagreeable 
sound. [Chaucer.] 

CHIRRUP, r. t. See Cheerup. 

CHIR'RIIP, I', i. To chirp. 

CHIRUU'GEOXLY, adv. After the 
manner of a surgeon. 


CHISELLED-WORK, n. In masonnj, 
thestateof stones, the sm-face of which 
is formed bv the chisel. 


CHIS'EL-SHAPED, a. Formed like a 

CHIS'LET, a. In aj/nV.,aterm applied 
to a soil betwixt sandy and clayey, con- 
taining a large admixture of gravel and 
small pebbles. 

CHIT, n. [add.] An instrument for 
cleaving laths, 

CHIT,t for Chideth. [Chaucer.] 

CHI'TINE, H. [Gr. x'~^., a tunic] A 
principle discovered in beetles and 
other insects, consisting of the base of 
their external skeleton. It is also 
termed entomolim\ and is obtained by 
plunging the insects into a hot solution 
of potass. 

CHITTERLINGS, n. [add.] The 
smaller intestines of swine, »S:c., fried 
for food. 

CHiVE'-GARLI€, h. A British plant 
of the genus Allium, the A. schcenop- 
rasum, used as a pot-herb. 

CHIV'ER,t V. i. [Sax.J To shiver. 

€HLONAPH'TASE, n. The name 
given by Laurent to a substance ob- 
tained by acting on subchloride of 
naphthaline, by alcoholic solution of 
potash. To other compounds obtained 
by the action of chlorine on naphtlia- 
line, Laurent gives the names, chlo- 
tiaphtese, chlojiaphiisCf chlonaphfose^ 
talese, chhnaphtalise. 

CHLO'RA, 71. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Gentianaceae. C. perfoliata, yel- 
low-wort, is a British species. [See 

CHLORAL, w. [add.] Chloral is a 
colourless, transparent, oily - looking 
fluid, having a pungent smell. It com- 
bines with bromine, iodine, and sulphur, 
and consists of six equivalents of ciilo- 
rine, four of oxygen, and nine of carbon. 


Compounds derived from naphthaline, 
in which the hydrogen is replaced by 
bromine and chlorine at once. 

Compounds derived from the action of 
chlorine and bromine on naphthalinTe. 

CHLORIC ACID, 71. An acid which 
consists of one equivalent of chlorine, 
and five of oxygen. It may be obtained 
by adding dilute sulphuric acid to chlo- 
rate of barytes, in which case sulphate 
of barj-tes is precipitated, and chloric 
acid remains in solution. When very 
strong, it forms a yellowish, oily-look- 
ing liquid, very sour to the taste. 
Perchloric acid consists of one equiva- 
lent of chlorine, and seven of oxygen. 
Its best known salt is the perchlorate 
of potash. 

CHLORIC ETHER, ii. A substance 
which results from the action of chlo- 
rine on olefiant gas, and is generally 
known as the oil of the Dutch chemists. 
The same name is given to a substance 
obtained by passing hydrochloric acid 
gas into alcohol to saturation, and dis- 
tilling the product. It is also termed 
hydrochloric ether. 

CHLORIC OXIDE, n. The peroxide 
of chlorine. 

CHLORI'ODATE, n. A compound 
formed by the union of chloriodic acid 
with a base. 

CHLORIT I€, a. Pertaining to, or 
containing chlorite; as, chloritic sand. 

[Chloi'idc; L. ai-gentum; and Gr. TyT«;, 
tj'pe.] A photographic agent, extremely 
sensitive to the action of light, and pre- 
pared by moistening a piece of paper 
with a solution of common salt, and 
then dipping it in one of nitrate of 
silver. By this means, a thin covering 
of nitrate of silver is formed on its sur- 


RIDE OF FORMYLE, n. [Gr. x?-^-,.^,-, 
yellowish-green, and L. formicuy an 
ant. 5eeFoKMYLE.] A volatile colour- 
less liquid, of an agreeable, fragrant, 
sweetish apple taste and smell, of the 
specific gravity of 1"48, and discovered 
by Soubeiran and Liebig in 1SIJ3. It 
is prepared by cautiously distilling to- 
gether a mixture of alcohol, water, and 
chloride of lime, or bleaching-powder. 
The inhalation of the vapour of this 
liquid chloroform through the lungs 
was first employed by Dr. Simpson, of 
Edinburgh, in 1S47, and since that time 
it has been extensively used by him and 
the medical profession, as an amesthetic 
agent, to procure temporary insensi- 
bility during delivery, and surgical ope- 
rations. The inhalation of chloroform 
first produces slight mtoxication ; then, 
frequently, slight muscular contrac- 
tions, nnruliuess, and dreaming; then 
loss of voluntary motion, and conscious- 
ness, the patient appearing as if sound 
asleep; and at last, if too much be 
given, death by coma and syncope. Bad 
efiects, hosvever, are rarely found to 
ai'ise from the proper use of chloro- 
form; and, therefore, all objections to 
it are obviated if it is perfectly pure, if 
it is administered on a folded liandker- 
chief (only to the extent of a finid 
drachm at a time), so as to allow some 
atmospheric air to be inhaled along 
with it ; and if there is no disease of 
the heai't, lungs, or brain present. The 
few fatal cases which have occurred 

from its use, out of the tens of thou- 
sands in which it has been given, have 
arisen from inattention to these rules. 
The use of cldoroform allows opera- 
tions to be more comfortably performed; 
prevents tiie shock of the system pro- 
duced by them, and thus diminishes 
their mortalitv. 


CHLO ROUS ACID, n. An acid ob- 
tained by mixing oil of vitriol very 
gradually and cautiously witli chlorate 
of potash, and appl>ing to the mass a 
very gentle heat. Chlorous acid is given 
off as a deep-yellow gas, very easily 
decomposed, and very explosive. It 
consists of one equivalent of chlorine 
and four of oxygen. 

CHLOROUS POLE, I n. A term ap- 

CHLO'RO'iD POLE, > plied, on the 
electrical hypothesis, to the negative 
pole of a galvanic battery, from its ex- 
hibiting the attraction which is charac- 
teristic of chlorine. The positive pole, 
according to the same hypothesis, is 
termed tlie ziucons, or ziiicoid pole. 

CHOAST. ». A cough. [Scotch.] 

CHOCK, n. [add.] In ship-huildintj, a 
piece of wood employed in filling up a 
deficiency. — Anchor -chocks, pieces in- 
dented in the shank of a wooden anchor- 
stock when it is defective. — Boat's 
chocks, clamps on which a boat rests 
when stowed on deck. — Chock-aft^ 
chock-home, chock-out, &c., fully aft, 
home, tS:c. — Choch-a-hloch, or bloch- 
and-bloch, the position of tackling when 
the blocks are hauled close together. 

CHOCK, r. t. In marine Ian., to put a 
wedge under a cask or other body to 
prevent it from moving. 

CHOCK,t V. i- To fill up a cavity; (to 
choke;) as, the wood-work exactly 
chocked into the joints.— 2. To encoun- 
ter. [See SnocK.] 

CHOIR, n. [add.] In cathedrals, and 
collegiate churches and chapels, that 
part eastward of the navc,and separated 
from it usually by a screen of open- 
work, in which Divine service is per- 
formed. Over the screen the orgau is 
commonlv placed. 

CHOIROPOT'AMUS, n. A genus of 
mammalia belonging to the swine fa- 
mily, two ur three species of wliich are 
natives of Africa. 

CHOIR-WALL, n. In arch., the wall 
bounding the chancel or choir. 

CHOKE, I'. /. [add.] To choke the luff, 
in marine Ian.., so to arrange the fall of 
a tackle in the jaw of the block as to 
prevent it from rendering. 

CHOKE'DAR, n. In the East Indies, a 
native domestic watchman. 

CHO'LATE, H. A salt formed by the 
union of cholic acid with a base. 

CHOL'ERICLY, adt\ In a choleric 

CHOLES TERATE, n. A salt formed 
by the union of cholesteric acid with a 

CHOL'IC ACID. 5ee Choleic Acid. 

CHOLIN'IC ACID,H. A non-azotized 
acid, formed when bile is acted on by 
fusion with caustic alkalies. It re- 
sembles the resinous acids. 

■CHOLOID'IC ACID. See Choleic 

CHONDROGLOS'SUS, n. [Gr. x«'»<«. 
a cartilage, and yXve-e-x, the tongue.] 
In anat., a muscle, running from the 
cartilaginous joininj^ of the body and 
horn of the os-hvoides to the tongue. 

CIIONDROM ETER, n. [Gr. x«3'*?, 
grain, and ^stjov, measure.] A small 




instrument, of the steelyard kind, for 
weicliint^ corn. 

taining to tlie cliondropterygii ; gristly- 



CHOP, n. A sliop. [Scote/i.] 

CHOP, 1'. i. [add.] To jabber; to speak 
unintelligibly; as, to chop French. 

CHOP'INE.t n. A high-heeled shoe. 

CHOP'NESS, n. A kind of spade. 

CHOP'PER, n. He or that which chops ; 
a butcher's cleaver. 

€HO'RALlST, n. A member of a choir; 
a musician. 

€HOR'DA, n. i>lur. Chordm. [L ] In 
anat., a cord ; a tendon ; a filament of 
nerve, &c. — In but., a genus of algas, 
C. filum, known by the name of sea-- 

■CHOREE', n. Same as CnoBEns. 

€HOREPIS'€OPAX,, instead of €H0- 

€HOREPISeOPUS, n. A local or 
suffragan bishop. 

CHO'Rie, a. Relating to a chorus. 
[Rar. HT.] 

€HORIS'TIC, a. Belonging to a choir; 
choral. \_Lit. m5.] 

CHO'RUS, n. [add.] Any union of 
voices in general; as, a chorus of con- 
tinued laughter. — In music, a com- 
position sometimes in two or three, but 
generally in four parts, sung by many 
voices, accompanied by the whole band 
when performed in an orchestra, or on 
the stage, but by the organ alone when 
sung in a choir. A double chorus is in 
eight vocal parts,and sung by two choirs. 

CHOUGH, n. [add.] The Cornish 
chough is separated from the crows by 
modern naturalists, and is the Fregilus 

CHOUL'TRY, 71. In the East Indies, a 
place of rest and shelter for travellers 
or merchants, similar to the caravan- 
sary or khan of "Western Asia. 

CHOUT, n. In theJ?as(/H(/ie.s,afoarth 
part of the clear revenue. 

CHOW, n. [Chinese.] A town or city of 
the second class. 

CHOWL, n. Jowl. [Scotch.'] 

CHOWRY, n. In the East Indies, a 
whisk to keep off Hies ; it is often formed 
of the tail of the yak, a species of ox. 

€HRIS'MAL, instead of €HRISMAL. 

€HRIST-eROSS-RO\V, n. An old 
term for the alphabet, probably from 
the cross anciently set before it. 

CHRISTENDOM, n. [add.] Christen- 
ing. [Shak.'] 

€HRISTIAN'ITY, n. [add.] Confor- 
mity to the laws and precepts of the 
Christian reUgion. 

CHRISTIAN PERIOD, »^.InarcA(^o/., 
from the birth of Christ to the present 

€HRIST'MAS, a. Belonging to the 
time of Christ's nativity. 

CHRISTMAS-BOX, n. [add.] A 

CHRISTMAS-TALE, n. A story for 
Christmas, generally of a fabulous clia- 

€IiRIST'MAS-TIDE, n. Christmas- 

€H11IST'MAS-TIME, n. The season 
of Christmas. 

n. Sir David Bre\\'ster's name for an In- 
strument consisting of several rectan- 
gular plates of glass placed with their 
sui-faces in contact, and intended to 
measure the difference between the 

temperature of the glass and that of 
any body, solid or fluid, which may be 
applied to it. It is so named because, 
when a heated body is placed in con- 
tact with the edges of the glass plates, 
a polarizing action takes place, and 
fringes of various colours are produced 
in the plates by the application of bodies 
of different temperatures. The tints 
thus jjroduced serve as a scale to in- 
dicate the differences of temperature 
between the glass and of bodies ap- 
plied to it. 

€HR0MAT0L'06Y, n. [Gr. ;ts^."«, 
colour, and Xoya;, discourse.] A treatise 
on colours. 


€HRO'MOTROPE,f lour, and rges-^., 
to turn.] A modified form of the phena- 
kistoscope, in which the usual figures 
of horsemen, &c., are replaced in the 
revolving disk by a double set of highly- 
coloured circular arcs, all passing 
through the centre of motion, and in- 
tersecting each other, pair and pair, in 
such a way that the limbs exhibit a 
slightly different relation in each suc- 
cessive pair, on the same principle as 
ordinary phenakistoscopic figures are 
arranged. When the disk is made 
to rotate in one direction, the effect 
of the arrangement is such as to give 
au appearance of streams of colours 
issuing from the centre as a focus; 
and by reversing the motion, the colours 
seem to flow back into the centre. The 
illusion is highly beautiful, but is only 
fully realized by means of coloured 
transparencies in the magic-lantern. 

€UROaiE'-ALUM, n. A crystallizable 
double salt, formed of the sulphates of 
chromium and of potash. 

CHROME-GREEN, n. A beautiful 
dark green pigment, prepared from the 
oxide of chromium. 

CHR0iME'-lRON,H. Chromateofiron; 
the ore from which the compounds of 
chromium, used in the arts, are derived. 
It occurs massive and crystallized. 

CHROME'-RED, n. A beautiful red 
pigment prepared from red-lead. It 
is a chromate of lead. 

€HR0ME'-YELLOW, n. The most 
poisonous of the pigments prepared from 
chrome, and to be entirely rejected in 

CHRO'MITE, n. A mineral containing 

CHROMIUM. See Chrome. 

CHROMOTYPE, «. {Chrome, and Gr. 
Tt/Toe, type.] A photographic agent, pre- 
pared by washing thin paper ^vith a 
solution of bichromate of potass, and 
drying it quickly before a tire. It is 
used for copying lacework, ferns, &c. 

CHRO'MULE, n. [Gr. ;t«***«. colour.] 
The colouring matter of plants. 

CHRON'ICLE, n. [add.] A title applied 
by Shoh. to Nestor, whose great age 
and knowledge made him a sort of liv- 
ing register of past events. 

€HRON'I€ON,7i. Same as Chronicle. 

€URON'OGRAPH,n. Same as Chro- 

CHRONOM'ETER,n. [add.] This term 
is applied to those time-keepers which 
are used for determining the longitude 
at sea, or for any other purpose where 
an accurate measm'e of time is required, 
with great portability in the instru- 
ment. — To rate a chronometer, is to as- 
certain the exact rate of its gain or loss, 
as compared with true time, for the pur- 
pose of making the proper allowance in 
computations dependent thereon. — In 
music, an instrument by wliich the time 

of a composition is determined. \_See 

CHRON'OSeOPE, n. [Gr. x;»v.f. and 

0-KOJiu. to observe.] A pendulum to 

measure time. 
CHRYS'ALID, a. Pertaining to a 

€HRYSO€HLO'RA, n. A genus of 

dipterous insects of the family Stra- 

tiomydes. The species are of large size. 
CHRYSOL'OGY, h. [Gr. xi'^'O', gold, 

and Xoye;^ discourse.] That branch of 

pohtical economy which relates to the 

production of wealth. [^-1 continental 

CHRYS'OPS, n. [Gr. xi^'^"-,, gold, and 
ar^]/, eye.] A genus 
of dipterous in- 
sects of the family 
Tabanidte. Three 
species are found 
in this country, 
all of which are 
great blood-suck- 
ers. The name of 

Common Ci F.n. ftmrilei. thcgCnUS is derived 
Chrysops aBcuticnu fj.^j,^j ^;^Q sparkling 

gold-colom'ed eyes of the species when 

CHRYS'OTYPE, h. [Gr. x$"<'«?» gold, 
and ruToc, type.] A photographic agent 
prepared by impregnating paper with a 
neutral solution of chloride of gold. 
It produces a picture with a splendid 
purple ground. 

CHUB'-CHEEKED, a. Having full 

CHUCK, 71. [add.] A slight blow under 
the chin. — Chuck for a turning-lathe, 
an appendage to tix any material for 
the purpose of turning it into any de- 
terminate form. The term, therefore, 
includes all those contrivances which 
serve to connect the material to be 
operated upon to the mandril of the 
lathe. — Simple chucks are such as are 
capable only of communicating a mo- 
tion round a determinate axis, such as 
they themselves receive. — Complicated 
chucks are those by means of which the 
axis of the work can be changed at 
pleasure, such as eccentric chucks, oval 
chucks, segment^ engine, and geometric 
chucks, &c. 

CHUCK'IES, 71. Barn-door fowls. 

CHUCK IE - STAKES, n. Pebble- 
stones, such as children play at chuck- 
farthing with. [Scotch.] 

CHUCK'LA, n. In the East Indies, a 
tract of territory equal to an average 
English county, and comprising several 

CHUCK'LE, n. A short suppressed 
laugh . 

CHUCK'LE, V. i. [add.] To laugh in a 
supijressed or broken manner ; to feel 
inward triumph or exultation. 

CHUCK'LING, V. Suppressed laugh- 
ter; inward triumph or exultation. 

America, the popular name of a bird 
of the family Capri mulgida), or goat- 
suckers ; the Caprimidyus carolinensis. 

CHUF'FY, a. [add.] Orhjinally, fat or 
swelled out, especially in the cheeks, 
as, a chuji'i/ lad. 

CHUF'FY-BRICKS, ji. Bricks which 
are puffed out by the escape of rarefied 
air or steam in the process of burning. 

CHUM, ?(. [add.] This term is sometimes 
used coUoquiallu in the more extended 
sense of companion, fellow. 

CHUM, V. i. In American colleges, to 
occupy the same chamber or room with 




CHD'NAM,)!. IntlieSfuV/nrfics.aname 
given to lime. The Madras chunani, 
made of calcined shells, is esteemed the 
best in India. 

CHUNK,?!. For CoUocpdal, read Provin- 

CHUNK'Y, a. Short and thick. iCol- 
loquial in America.^ 

CHUPR.\PEE', H. In the East Indies, 
a native government messenger. 
CHURCH, Ji. [add.] The collective body 
of saints, in heaven and on earth, called 
the invisible church. 

clesiastical rule, or jurisdiction ; ecclesi- 
astical polity. 

CHURCH'ISM, n. Adherence to the 
church. [Rar. us.'\ 

CHURCH-LIVING, n. .A. benefice in 
an established church. 
CHURCH- JIIL'ITANT, n. The church 
as warring against spiritual evil of all 

CHURCH'-OWL, n. A bird, a species 
of goat-sucker. 

CHURCH'-PARTY.n. Aparty devoted 
to the church. 

fice or advancement in the chm-ch. 
CHURCH-RATES, n. In England, 
rates raised by resolutions of a ma- 
jority of the parishioners in vestry as- 
sembled, from the parishioners and oc- 
cupiers of land within a parish, for the 
piirpose of repairing, maintaining, and 
restoring the body of the church, and 
the belfry, the church-yard fence, the 
bells, seats, and ornaments, and of de- 
fraying tiie expenses attending the ser- 
vice of the church. 

CHURCH-SCOT, n. In former limes, 
customary obligations paid to the parish- 
priest, from which duties the religious 
sometimes purchased an exemption for 
themselves and tenants. 
CHURCHWARDEN, n. [add.] There 
are usually two churchwardens to each 
parish, but by custom there may be 
only one. 

CHURCH- WRIT, n. An ecclesiastical 

CHURL, ) n. [add.] A tenant-at-will, 
CHURLE, } of free condition, who 
held land of the thanes on payment of 
rent and services. There were two 
sorts of churls, one who hired the 
lord's tenementary estate, like our far- 
mers, the other that tilled and manured 
the demesnes, called sockmen. 
CHURLES.t "• I'tur. [See Chukl.] 
Hinds. [Spenser.] 
CHUKN'-OWL, n. A localname for the 
nightj;ir, or goat-sucker (Caprimulgus 

CHUR'-TREE, n. In the East Indies, 
the india-rubber tree. 
CHUT'NEE, H. In the East Indies, a 
condiment compounded of sweets and 
acids. Strips of ripe fruit, raisins, 
spices, sour herbs, cayenne, lemon- 
juice, &c., are the ordinary ingredients, 
pounded and boiled together, and then 
bottled for use. Chutnee is much eaten 
in India with curries, stews, &c. 
CIIYLD'ED,t pret. or i>p. of Child. 
Furnished with a child ; conceived ; 
delivered of a child. 

CH?LDING,t ppr. Bringing forth a 
child ; conceiving ; productive. 
CHYLIFie.A'TION, n. The process 
by which the chyle is separated from 
the chyme. [See Chtlifaction.] 
CHYLIFICA'TORY,a. Making chyle. 
CHYM'lCt «• A chemist. 
CHYM'ICS.t ". Chemistry. 
CaYND.t pret. or pp. [See Chine.] 

Divided into parts ; broken in the back. 
[Spenser. '\ 
CICADA, n. [add.] This name is now 

restricted by zoologists to species which 
do not leap. The males have on each 
side of the body a kind of drum, with 
which they can make a considerable 
noise. The pupaj were called tetliiju- 
metr<e by the Greeks, and some of the 
species are named locusts in the United 
CICEN'DIA, n. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Gentianace^. The species of this 
genus were formerly referred to Gen- 
tiana or Exacum ; they are few in num- 
ber, and all annual. C. filiformis has a 
thread-shaped stem, forked, and yel- 
low flowers, solitary, on long stalks. 
It is found in damp sandy places in 
England and Ireland; by some it has 
been separated and made the genus 
CICHORA'CE^, n. In io(., a subdi- 
vision of the nat. order Composita\ 
It is characterized by the flowers all 
perfect, the corollas all ligulate, and 
the juice usually milky, bitter, astrin- 
gent, and narcotic. To this subdivision 
belong the succory, endive, lettuce, 
salsafy, tragopogon, dandelion, tfec. 
CICHO'RIUM, n. Succory or chicory, 
agenus of plants, nat. order Compositas. 
CICH'ORY, n. Chicory,— jcAicA see. 
CI'DARIS, for Raniaria, read Radia- 
CIDER-MILL, n. A mill for making 

CIDER-PRESS, n. A machine for 
pressing out cider. 

CILERY, 71. In arcA., the drapery or 
foliage carved on the heads of columns. 
CIL'IA, «. pltir. [add.] Cilia are found 
on the surface of the tissues of most 
animals, but chiefly on tissues which 
ai'e in contact with water, or which 
produce fluid secretions. They are 
constantly in a state of active move- 
ment, and communicate to the fluid 
with which they are in contacir the 
same motion. This is called vibralile 
or ciliary motion. In most of the 
lower animals the respiratory function 
is performed by means of the vibratile 
cilia ; many animalcules move by a 
similar mechanism ; and in the highest 
classes of animals vibratile cilia have a 
share in the performance of some im- 
portant functions. 

CIL'IARY, a. [add.] In anat., this 
term is applied to designate arteries, 
processes, follicles, &c., belonging to 
the eyelids. — Ciliaru circle or ligament, 
a kind of grayish ring, situated between 
the choroid membrane, the iris, and 
the sclerotica. 

CIL'IATE, u. Same as Ciliated. 
CIL'IOGRADE, «. [L. ciliiim, an eye- 
lash, and (jradior, to advance.] An ani- 
mal that swims by means of vibratile 
cilia. The ciliogrades form a group 
of the acalephiB, in which the organs 
of motion consist of vibratile cilia dis- 
posed upon the surface of the body, 
which in their motion and office re- 
semble those of the polygastric animal- 

CIMAR'. See Simar. 
CIMBER, misprint for CIM'BEX. 
[add.] The antenna; of these insects is 
clubbed at the end; the larvae make a 

CIMEX, n. A Linuajan genus of heni- 

ipterous insects, now subdivided into 

several families or sections, according 


to the general shape or habit of the 
insects. The bed-bug (C lectularius) 
may serve as a general example of this 
very extensive tribe ; the generic name 
Cimex is retained for the bed-bug and 
its con'''Gnprs. 

CIMIC°IDjE, 71. A family of hemipter- 
ons insects, having for its type the 
genus Cimex, or the bug. [See Bug.] 
CIJIICIFUGA, n. [L. cimer, a bug, 
and fngo, to drive away.] Bug-wort, a 
genus of plants, very closely allied 
to Acta?a, nat. order Ranunculacea*. 
The species are perennial herbs, having 
roots which act as drastic purgatives, 
and are poisonous. C. fcetida, stink- 
ing bng-wort, is a very fetid plant, and 
is used in Siberia for driving away 
bugs and fleas. C. racemosa, black 
snake-wort or bug-wort, is a native of 
North America, and has a reputation 
for healing the bites of snakes, and pre- 
venting their poisonous effects on the 
CIN€HONA'CEOUS, a. Relating to 

CIN'CHONATE, n. A salt formed of 
cinchonic acid and a base ; a quinate. 
CINCHONIC ACID, n. Kinic or 
quinic acid. [See KiNic] 
CINCHO'NINA,) n. [add.] This vege- 
CIN'€HONINE, \ table alkaloid is 
CINCHO'NIA, ) contained in all the 
varieties of Cinchona, but principally 
in C. lancifuUu, or pale bark. It crys- 
tallizes very readily, and is not so bitter 
as quinine, although highly febrifuge. 
It is very sparingly soluble in water, 
but very soluble in alcohol, especially 
when heated. With acids it forms 
crystallizable salts, which may be sub- 
stituted for those of quinine. 
CINCHO'VATINE. ii. A vegetable 
alkaloid found in Cinchona ovata. 
CINCLO'SOMA, n A genus of passer- 
ine birds, belonging to the family of 
thrushes. C. punctatum, or spotted 
gronnd-thrush, inhabits Van Diemen's 
Land and Eastern Australia; other 
species are found in the East Indies. 
CIN'CLUS, H. A genus of birds of the 
family Merulidse, including the water- 
ouzel or dipper. [See Dipper.] 
CINt'T'URED, a. Girded with a cinc- 

CIN'DER-SIFTER, n. A vessel or 
machine for sifting cinders. 
CIN'DERY, a. Resembling cinders; 
containing cinders, or composed of 

CINEN 'CHYMA, «. [Gr. xnu^, to move, 
and lyx^iJ-^, infusion.] In bot., a term 
applied to the laticiferous tissue in 
plants, distinguished by its irregular 
branching and anastomosing character. 
CINERA RIA, )i. Flea-wort, a genus 
of plants. [See Flea-Wort.] 
CINERI'TIOUS, a. [add.] In anat., a 
term applied to the exterior or cortical 
part of the brain. The cineritioiis 
tubercle is the floor of the third ven- 
tricle of the brain. 

CINNAMO'MUM, n. A genus of East 
Indian plants, nat. order Lauracea;. 
This genus is important on account of 
some of the species yielding cinnamon 
and cassia. [See Cinnamon, and Cas- 

CIN'NAMYLE, n. See Cinnamule. 
CINNYR'IDiE, n. Sun-birds, a family 
of the perchers, remarkable for the 
splendid metallic lustre of their plu- 
mage. It derives its name from the 
typical genus Cinnyris. [See SuN- 


CI N Q'U E - C E N T O, n. (tchinkwa 




tchento.) [It.] Literally 500, but used as 
a contraction for 1500, the century in 
which the revival of the architecture of 
Vitruvius took place in Italy, and ap- 
plied to distinguish the architecture of 
the Italo-Vitruvian school generally — 
a school marked by the formation of 
tiie " five orders by the use of attached 
columns, unequal intercoluniniations," 
broken entablatures, and the collocation 
of arches with culuninar ordinances. — 
In decorative art, a term applied to that 
attempt at purification of style and re- 
verting to classical forms introduced 
towards the midiUeof the iGth century, 
and practised by Agostino Busti and 
others, more particularly in the nortli 
of Italy. This style aimed at a re- 
vival of the gorgeous decorations of 
Rome, throwing out all those arbitrary 
forms whicli are never found in ancient 
examples, as the scrolled shield and 
tracery ; and elaborating to the utmost 
the most conspicuous characteristics of 
Greek and Roman art, especially the 
acanthus-scroll and the grotesque ara- 
besques, abounding with monstrous 
combinations of iiuman, animal, and 
vegetable forms in the same figure or 
scroll-work, but always characterized 
by extreme beauty of line. The term 
is often loosely applied to ornament of 
the IGth centm'y in general, properly 
included in the term Renaissance. 

CIR. In words beginning with c/r, the 
initial syllable should be pronounced 
ser^ and not swr, as in the Diet., the 
e iiaving the same sound as in viet, 
vermin^ vernal^ &c., which sound, as 
Walker observes, approaches to the 
sound of short u. 

CIRC^'A, ?!. Enchanter's night-shade, 
agenus of plants, nat. order Onagrace?e. 
There are two British species, C.alpina, 
and C. luteiiana. ySee under En- 

CIRC^E'AN, a. See 

CIR'CAR, n. In the East Indies, a 
large portion of a province. A few 
circars form a grand division, province, 
or soubah. — 2. The district govern- 
ment. — 3. A sircar, — which see. 

CIR'CE, n. In myth., a celebrated sor- 
ceress, daughter of Sol and Perseis. 
She married a Sarmatian prince, whom 
she assassinated; driven from his king- 
dom, she fled to the island of (Eta, near 
Monte Circella, on the coast of Italy, 
where she practised her enchantments 
on Ulysses and Iiis companions, who 
were thrown upon the island. 

CIRCEN'SIAL, \ a. Relating to the 

CIRCEN'SIAN,) amphitheatre at 

CIRCINUS, n. [L.] The Compasses, a 
modern constellation near the south 
pole. It consists of four stars. 

C\W £,hK,n.\ixAi!i.^ Astronomical circlesy 
instruments used in astronomy for 
measuring angles, as the equatorial 
and repeating circles; but the term 
astronomical circle is usually confined 
to those instruments which are solely or 
principally employed to measm-e angles 
of altitude or zenith distance ; as the 
viural and transit circles, altitude and 
azenith circles. — Rcjleciing circle. [6'ee 

CIR'COCELE. See Ciksocele. 

CIR'CUIT, K. [add.] In England and 
^Vales,^ the circuits of the judges are 
eight in number, viz., tlie nortliern, 
western, Oxford, Midland, Home, Nor- 
folk, South Wales, and North Wales. 

CmeUTTY, n. [add.] Circuity oj 
actio7t, in lew, a longsr course of pro- 
L — Supp. 

ceeding to recover a thing sued for 
than is legal. 

CIRCU'ITY, n. Round-about proceed- 
ing ; departure from the nearest or 
straightest way or line ; as, the circuity 
and delay of justice. 

In the undulatory theory of light, the 
name given to a supposed circular ro- 
tation in the particles of ether in cer- 
tain media, when a pencil of plane 
polarized light is allowed to pass tlirough 
these media. 

CIRX'ULAR SAW, 71. A saw with a 
circular blade mounted on a spindle, 
like a wheel with its teeth on the peri- 
phery. The teeth of circular saws are 
generally wider apart, more inclined, 
and "wider set, than the teeth of recti- 
linear saws. 

CIH'CULATING, ppr. and fl. Instead 
of pure, and mixed pure, read, pure and 
mired; pure, &c. 

CIR'CULATIVE, a. Circulating ; 
causing circulation. 

CIR'CUMCISING, jypr. Cutting off 
the prepuce ; purifying spiritually. 



CIR'CUMFLEX, n. [add.] A wave of 
the voice, embracing both a nse and 
fall on the same syllable. 

CIR'CUMFLEX, a. Moving or turn- 
ing round. 

CIRCUMFLEX'ION, ?i. The act of 
giving anything a circular direction or 

CIRCUMFLEX'US, n. [L.] In anat.a 
muscle of the palate, which serves to 
stretch it. The same term is applied 
to the axillary nerve. 

CIR'CUMFUSE, V. t. [add.] To enve- 
lope; to shroud. 

CIRCUMl"TION, n. A going round, 

CIRCUM-MUR'ED, instead of CIR- 

CIRCUMRO'TATORY, instead of 

CIRCUMSCRIBE', v. t [add.] To de- 
fine or mark about ; to mark out cir- 
cularly; as, to circumscribe thetioating 
worlds their rounds. 

CIR'CUMSTANCE, n. [add.] Circum- 
locution. [Shak.] 

CIRCUMSTANCE, v. i. [add.] To 
furnish with incidents. 

circumstantial; to fill with detailed 
recitals of circumstances or particulari- 

CIRCUS, n. [add.] In ornith., a genus 
of Falconida?, containing the hen-har- 
rier {Circus cyaneus). 

CIRL-BUNT'ING, w. A bird of the 
genus Emberiza, the E. cirlus (Linn.) 

CIRRHOSIS, n. [Gr. «i,«?«(, yellowish.] 
A disease consisting of diniinution and 
deformity of the liver, which becomes 
dense, granulated, and wrinkled, and 
frequently of a rust-brown coluur. 

CIR'RHUS, \n. Agenus of fossil spiral 

CIR'RUS, J shells of the chalk-de- 
posit. It bears great resemblance to 
trochus, from which, however, it may 
be distinguished by its deep funnel- 
shaped umbilicus. 

CIR'RI, M. plur. [L. See Cirrus.] In 
bot.y the fine thread-like tendrils or 
filaments by which certain climbing 
plants attach themselves to stones, 
walls, trees, &c. — In zool.y soft fila- 
mentary appendages representing the 
feet of barnacles, and which are also at- 
taclied to the jaws of certain fishes. 

CIRRIFORM, a. [L. cirrus a.ndforma.] 
Formed like a tendril. 

CIS'LEU, n. See Cihsled. 

CISSAMTELIN, n. A new vegetable 
alkali found in the root of Cissampelos 
pareira or Parcira brava. 

CIS'SOID, for CISSOID', «. [add.] 
This curve was invented by Diodes 
with a view to the solution of the 
famous problem of the duplication of 
the cube, or the insertion of two 
mean proportionals between two given 
straight lines. The curve is generated 
in the following manner: — In the dia- 
meter, A 13, of a circle described about 
c, take B M = A N, and erect the ordi- 
nates mq =: nr, and join a t^: the 

locus of tiie point p, in which the line 
A Q cuts the ordinate n r, is the cissoid. 
To find its equation, let an = x, 
p N = y, A c =: u, then since 

Q M = V 2ar — a:" 

A M = 2a — X 
the equation is 2/" {3 a — x) -=. x'. 
The curve has an equal branch on the 
other side of a b ; the two branches 
meeting in a cusp at the point a, and 
have the line ii k as an asymptote. 
The area included between the curve 
and the asymptote is three times the 
area of the generating circle. In the 
cissoid of Diodes the generating curve 
is a circle; but this term has been em- 
ployed in later times to all curves 
described in a similar manner, where 
the generating curve is not ij. circle. 

CISSOUDAL, a. Resembling the cis- 
soid of Diodes, applied to mechanical 
curves partaking of that character. 

CIS'SUS, n. A genus of vine-bearing 
plants, nat. order VitaceaJ. It differs 
from the vines in having the leaves 
divided into five distinct segments, and 
is remarkable for the rich crimson hue 
which the leaves assume in autumn. 
Some of the species, as C. cordata and 
C. setosa, have acrid properties, and 
are used by the natives of Hindostan 
as an external application for indolent 
suppurating tumours. All the species 
are climbing plants. 

CIST, 71. [Gr. xttTTT); L. cista.'] In arch. 
and sculp., a chest, or basket. The 
term is used to denominate the mystic 
baskets used in processions connected 
with the Eleusinian mysteries. They 
were originally formed of wicker-work, 
and when afterwards made of metal, 
the form and textm'e were presei-ved, 
in imitation of the original material. — 
2. An excavation; a case; ategument. 
[See Cyst.] 

CIST, n. [W.cist; Gael.ciste; Sax. cyst; 
Gr. xiffT-n.] In arch<Eol.,a place of inter- 
ment of the Celtic period, consisting of 
7 Q 




a stone-chest formed of two parallel 
rows of stones tixed on their ends, and 

covered by similar flat stones, in length 
about seven feet. 

CISTE'LA, n. A genns of coleopterous 
insects, belonging to the section Hetero 
mera. The species are generally found 
amongst leaves and flowers. Several 
are found in this country. 

CISTERN, n. [add.] A reservoir for 
water, sunk below or formed above 

TERIS, n. Bladder-fern, a genus of 
cryptogamous plants. [See Bladder- 
Fees, and CrsTOPTEKis, in this 

CIST'VAEN, n. In archreol., a species 
of stone - receptacle, often found in 
barrows or mounds of earth, and con- 
taining bones. 

CITABLE, a. That may be cited or 

CITA TIOX, n. [add.] In Eng. law, a 
process in the commencement of a suit, 
by which tlie parties are commanded 
lo appear before the consistorial courts. 
Id the prorogative com-t it is called a 

CIT'EE-t n. A citv. \ataucer.] 

CITH'AKA, n. [L. ; Gr. *.ex-«.] An 
ancient stringed instrument of the l>Te 

CUhan, froin tbe EgTptlin MonomeobL 

kind, resembling the more modern cit- 
tern, or guitar. It is mentioned by 

CITIZEN, n. [add.] According to an- 
cient and modern usage, tbe word citi- 
zen is applied only to the members of 
those governments wliicli are republican 
in their character, comprehending such 
as are monarchical in a limited sense. 
In other words, those members of a 
state or government are properly termed 
citizens who enjoy, or some considerable 
number of them, some share of the so- 
vereiijn power. 

CIT'IZENESS, n. A female citizen. 
[Har. us.] 

CITIZENSHIP, n. [add.] Citizenship 
is properly applied only to those states 
in which the constitution gives to those 
who are members of such states, or to 
some considerable number of them, 
some share of the snpreme power. 

CIT'IZEX-SOLDIER, n. One who is 
both a citizen and a soldier; as the 
French national guard, and the militia 
of the United State?. 

mon name of the unguentum hiidrar- 
Qi/ri nitratis of the pharmacopoeia. 

CITTERN, or GIT TERN, n. [From 
L. citkara.] A musical instrument of 
the lute kind, mentioned by our old 
dramatists. It resembled a guitar. 
[5ee CiTHARA.j 

CIT'Y, n. [add.] Certain large and an- 
cient towns, both in England and in 
other countries, are called cities, and 

are supposed to rank before other 
towns ; but on what the distinction is 
founded is not well ascertained. 

CIVET, n. The civet-cat, — which see. 
The musky substance is often so called. 

CIVET, r. t To scent with civet; to 

CIVIL'IAN, n. [add.] One whose pur- 
suits are those of civil life, not military 
or clerical. 

CIVILiZ'ABLE, a. That may be civi- 

CIVILIZA'TION, n. [add.] The fun- 
damental ideas contained in the word 
civilization may be stated to be the 
continual advancement of the society in 
wealth and prosperity, and the improve- 
ment of the man in his indiWdual ca- 
pacity. The development of the moral 
and intellectual faculties must go hand 
in hand i^nth the cultivation of the in- 
dustrial arts; imited, they form the 
great engine for civilizing the world. 

CIVIL LIST, n- The term formerly 
applied to the list of all the expenses of 
tlie government, or of all the heads of 
public expenditure, excepting those of 
the army, navy, and other military de- 
partments. The term, however, is con- 
fined at present, by a recent act, to ex- 
penses proper for the maintenance of 
lier Majesty's household, and of the 
honour and dignity of the Crown, 
amounting to £3S5,00O per annum. 

CIVISM, 7J. The privileges or state 
of a citizen; citizenship; patriotism. 

€LACK'-BOX, n. The box in which a 
clack-valve works. 

€LACK'-DISH,t n. A dish formerly 
used by mendicants, having a mov- 
able cover, which they clacked to excite 
the notice and sympathy of passengers, 
and also to signify that the dish was 

CLACK'-DOOR, n. A plate of iron or 
brass covering an aperture in the side 
of the clack-box. It is attached by 
screws, and can be removed to grive 
access to the valve-seat, or recess, into 
which the valve fits. 

CLACK'-GEESE, 71. Barnacle-geese. 

€LACK'-VALA"E, n. A x&Ue with a 
single fiap, usually attached to the 
bucket with a leathern joint. "Wlien 
the valve has two tlaps, as represented 
by the cut in the Dict.^ it Is commonly 
called a butierfii/ -valve, from the ap- 
pearance it has when the flaps are 

CLA'DIUir, n. Twig-rush, a genns of 
cvperaceous plants. [See Twig-Rush.] 

CLADOC ER A, n. [Gr. x\a.%oi, a brand, 
and srE*a;, a horn.] A family of ento- 
mostracous Crustacea, with branched 
antenna?. These antennae serve as 
oars. The arborescent water-flea, well 
known as a microscopic object, is one of 

€LAG. V. f. To clog. [Scotch.] 

CLAG GED, CLAG GIT, T*;*. Clog- 
ged. [Scotch.] 

CLAIMANT, a. Claiming; demand- 
ing ; cr>nng out. 

■CLAIRE'-COLE,) n. The priming or 

CLEAK'-COLE, y first painting an 
absorbent surface with a preparation of 
size, to prevent the sinking in of the 
subsequent coats of oil-paint. Except 
in particular cases, it is an objection- 
able practice, as it prevents the adhe- 
sion of the oil-paint to the surface of 
the work. 

CLAIR'SHACH.) .. rc .n 

CLAIR'SHO, i "• -^ *^^^P- [Scotch.] 

CLAIRVOYANCE, instead of 

CL^SE^* } "• C^o^^^^s. [Scotch.] 

CLAlTHaNG, n. Clothing. [Scotch.] 

CLAITHS, n. Clotlies. [Scotch.] 

CLAM, r. t. To clog with any glutinous 

CLAMBE,tv. f. TocUmb. [Chaucer.] 

CLAMB EN,t prtf. of Climb. Did 
climb; climbed. [Chaucer] 

CLAME,t n. [See Claim.] Call. 

€LAME,t r. i. [L. clamare.] To call 
aloud ; to cry aloud. 

€LAM'ED,t;»i>. CaUed. 

CLAMP, n. [add.] An instrument made 
of wood or metal, with a screw at one 
end, generally used by joiners for hold- 
ing pieces of timber closely together 
until the glue hardens. Also, a piece of 
wood fixed to another with a mortise 
and tenon, or groove and tongue, so 
that the fibres of the piece thus fixed 
cross those of the other, and thereby 
prevent it from casting or warping. 
Also, a heavy footstep or tread. [Local.] 

CLAMP, r. f. [add.] To tread heavily 
in walking. [Local.] 

CLAMP, 1-. i. To tread heavilv. [Local] 

CLAMYHE WIT, n. A stroke, [Scotch.] 

CLANG, V. i. To make a loud, shrill 

CLAN'GTILA, n. A genus of ducks, 
containing the golden-eye and harlequin 

CLAN JA^M'FRIE, n. A mob ; tag-rag 
and bob-tail. [Scotch.] 

CLANK, r. t. [add.] To move or strike 
certain things in such a manner as to 
make that peculiar harsh and loud 
noise which is produced by the collision 
of some masses of metals, 

CLANK, r. i. To make a shrill noise by 
striking ; to clink. 

CLAP, n. A stroke ; a moment. [Scotch.] 

CLAP'-BOARD, n. [add.] This word, 
as applied to a thin board for covering 
wooden houses, is confined to the 
United States. 

CLAP'-BOAED, r. t. To cover with 
clap-boards, as a house. [U. States.] 

CLAP-DISH, «. A clack-dish,— tcAicn 
see in this Supp. 

€LAP' DOWN, or CLAP, v. L To set 
down ; to charge to one's account. 

CLaPE, n. In Xeto Yorky America, the 
common name of the golden-winged 

CLAP'ER.f In. [Fr. clapier.] A 

CLAP'PEk,t J coney-burrow. [Chau- 

CLAPPE,t r. i. To knock repeatedly ; 
to talk fast. [Chaucer.] 

CLAPPER, n. [add.] Among seamen, 
the valve of a pump-box. 

CLAPPING,! n. Noisy talking. [Chau- 

CLAPPING, n. The act of striking 
the hands together, ordinarily by way 
of applause. 

€LAPS'ED,ti>p. Clasped. [Chaucer.] 

CLAP-TRAP, n. [add.] Fvjurativeht, 
an artifice or device to elicit applause 
or gain popularity ; management to en- 

CLAP'-TR^VP, a. Insnaring; deceit- 
ful; artful. 

CLAR'ET, n. [add.] In England, the 
name given to the red \\ine of Medoc, 
or rather a mixture of that wine and 
wine of some other kind. In France, 
the name is applied to those wines 
■which are red or rose-coloured. 

CLAR'IEiER, n. [add.] A large pan, 




made of copper or iron, for clarifying 
sugar, &c. 

€LAK'INET, ) n. [add.] The com- 

€LAR'IONET, ) pass of the clarinet 
is from E the third space in the bass, 
to G in altissimo. — Bass-clarinet, an in- 
strument played on in the same manner 
as the common clarinet. Its compass 
is four octaves, and it descends to B- 
flat below the bass-staff. It is of 
wood, and its length is two feet eight 
inches. — Cojttra-bass clarinet, an in- 
strument whicli, in form and manner of 
fingeri«g, differs Init little from the bass- 
clarinet. It is of the size of the bas- 
soon, and in compass four notes lower. 

€LAKR6,tn. [Fr.] Wine mixed with 
honey and spices, and afterwards strain- 
ed till it is clear. 

•CLAKT'Y, 1 a. Unclean; very dirty. 

€LORT'Y, f [Scotch.] 

€LASH, n. Tittle-tattle; scandal ; idle 
talk. [Scotch.] 

CLASP'ER, K. I add.] In zoo!., a term 
applied to hands of monkeys, and to 
appendages on the legs of male insects. 

€LASS'-FELLO\V, n. One of the same 
class ; a fellow-student. 

CLAS'SI, 71. plur. The name given to 
Mussulman sailors from Arabia or Hin- 
dostan, employed in navigating the 
Red Sea. 

CLAS'SIBLE, a. That may be classed. 

€LASSI€, n. [add.] One versed in the 

€LAS'SI€, a. [add.] Pertaining to a 
class or classes. 

€LASSieALISM, n. Same as Cl.\ssi- 


CLASSICISM, n. A classic idiom or 
CLAS'SICIST, n. One versed in the 

€LAS s'le ORDERS,!!. In arcA., the 
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders. 

CLASSIS, n. [add.] A judicatory in the 
Reformed Dutch and French churches, 
corresponding to a presbytery. 

€LASS'-MAN, n. plur. Classmen. The 
name given to scholars in the univer- 
sity of Oxford, who are examined for 
their degrees according to their rate of 
merit ; answering to the optimes and 
wranglers in the university of Cam- 

€LAT, ) V. t. To rake together. As 

CLAUT, ) a noun, an instrument for 
raking together mire, weeds, &c. 

CLATH'RATE, a. [L. clathrus, a lat- 
tice.] In hot. and zool., latticed ; di- 
vided like lattice-work. 

CLAT'TER, V. Tattle. [Scotch.] 

CLAT'TER-TRAPS, n. A ludicrous 
name for tools and accoutrements. 

CLAUGHT, pp. Clutched; snatched 
violently. [Scotch.] 

CLAUSE.t n. An end or conclusion. 

CLAUSIL'IA, n. [L. clausus, shut up.] 
A genus of land-snails, so named be- 
cause the aperture of the shell is closed 
internally by a spiral lid. Many species 
of this genus are natives of Britain. A 
species has been lately found fossil in 
the coal-formation in North America. 

CLAUSU'RA, n. [L. claudo, to shut.] 
In anat., the imperforation of any canal 
or cavity. 

CLAUT. See Clat in this Supp. 
CLAVA'TION, n. [L. clams, a nail.] 
In anat., a species of articulation in 
which the parts are fixed like a nail by 
a hammer, as the teeth in the sockets. 
It is also termed gomphosis. 

■CLAVEAU', n. (clavo'.) [Fr.] A dis- 
ease in sheep ; sheep-pox. 

CLA'VERING, ?);ir. or a. Talking idly 
and foolishly. [Scotch.] 

CLA'VERS, n. Idle talk. [Scotch.] 

€LA'VI€LE, n. For channel-bones,iestd 

€LAV'I€ORNS, 7 n. [L. clams, a 

CLAVICOR'NES.i club, and cornu, 
a horn.] A family of pentamerous 
beetles, so named from the antenna; 
being thickened at the apex, so as to 
terminate in a club-shaped enlarge- 
ment. The species are partly terres- 
trial and partly aquatic. 

CLAVICULAR, a. Pertaining to the 
collar-bone or clavicle. 

CLAV'IOER, n. [L. clavus, a club, and 
gero, to carry.] A genus o coleopterous 
insects belonging to the section Penta- 
mera, and the family Pselaphidae. Tlie 
species are found under stones, and in 
the nests of small yellow ants ; one 
species is occasionally found in this 
country ; it is quite destitute of eyes. 

CLAVIU'EROUS, a. Bearing a club 
or key. 

€L.\V'IPALPS, ) n. [L. claims, and 

CLAVIPAL'PI, } palpi, feelers.] A 
family of tetramerous coleoptera, so 
named from the being termi- 
nated by a perfoliate club. Many of 
the species feed upon fungi and boleti, 
and their form is often rounded and 

CLA'VY, ) n. In arch., a mantel- 

CLA'VEL, ! piece. 

CLAW, n. [add.] The hand, in contempt. 

CLAW,t I). (. To stroke. [Chaucer ] 

CLAW, I'. (. on". To scratch ; to scrape. 
— To claw up their mittens, to give them 
the finishing stroke. — To claw favour, 
to curry favour. [Scotch.] 

CLAW'-IIAJIMER, n. The ordinary 
nail-hammer, so named from one end 
of it being divided into two claws, for 
convenience of drawing nails out of 

CLAW'ING-OFF, n. In seamanship, 
the act of beating or working off from 
a lee-shore, or from another vessel. 

CLAY, 71. [add.] Indurated clay, a va- 
riety of trap-rocks with a dxdl earthy 
fracture, varying in colour from green- 
ish-gray to grayish-white, or red, or 
brown, or even black. — Kimmeridge 
clay, Oxford clan, Weald clay. [See 
these terms in their alphabetical places.] 

CLAY, a. Formed or consisting of clay. 

CLAY'ING, jfjir. Covering or manuring 
with clay ; purifying with clay ; pud- 
dling with clay. 

CLAY'-IRON ORE, !i. One of the ferri- 
ferous rocks, from which iron is pro- 
cured in great abundance. 

CLAY'-IvILN, n. A stove for burning 

CLEAD'ING, n. [Scotch, clothing.] A 
term applied to the jacket or outer 
covering of the cylinder of a steam- 
engine ; also to the timber casing in- 
closing the boiler of a locomotive engine, 
and fire-box ; and to the covering of 
hair-felt put on steam-pipes to prevent 
the radiation of heat. Among Scotch 
workmen, the term has a wider appli- 
cation, and is used to denote any kind 
of covering, such as the slating-boards 
of a roof, the boards of a floor, &c. 
CLE AN'ER, n. He or that which cleans. 

CLEAN'ING, n. Tlie act of making 
clean. — 2. The after-birth of cows, 
ewes, &c. 

CLEAN' KAAI, n. Nothing to the pur- 
pose. [Shah.] 

CLEAN' PROOF, n. In printing, a 

proof having few or nt) faults or 

CLEAN-SHaPED, a. WeU- propor- 

CLEAR, n. Amon'; carpenters and 
builders, the nett distance between two 
bodies, where no other intervenes, or 
between their nearest surfaces. [Sec 
the Adverb.] 

Misplaced : see after Clear-Story. 

CLEAR'-COLE. See Claire-Cole. 

CLEAR-HEADED, a. Having a clear 
head or understanding. 


CLEAR'ING-NUT,n. The fruit of the 
Strychnos potatorum, used in the East 
Indies for clearing muddy water. [See 

CLEAR'-STARCHED, pp. or a. Stif- 
fened with starch, and then cleared by 

CLEAT, n. [add.] A piece of iron worn 
on a shoe ; a thin metallic plate ; a 
piece of wood nailed on in joinery for 

CLEAVING, 7!, The forcible separation 
of a body into parts, particularly of 
wood, in the direction of its fibres. 

CLECK, V. t. or i. To collect; to bring 
together ; to hatch. [Scotch.] 

CLECIv'lNG-TIJLE, n. Hatching-time. 

CLEDG'Y, a. In agri., an epithet ap- 
plied to stubborn, tenacious soils, or 
those mixed with clav. 

CLEED, v. t. To clothe. [Scotch.] 

CLEEK, \v. t. To hook; to catch as 

CLEICK, ) by a hook; to seize; to 
snatch up hastily. As a noun, a hook. 

CLEEK' IT, pp. Caught as with a hook; 
seized. [Scotch.] 

CLEF, n. [add.] There are three clefs ; 
the treble, the mean or C clef, and the 

CLEFT'-GRAFTING, n. A mode of 
grafting in which the scion is inserted 
in a cleft made in the stock ; called also 

CLEM'ENCY, n. [add.] Softness or 
mildness in respect to tlie elements ; as, 
tJie clemency of the weather. 

CLEN'ENESSE,t n. Purity; cleanness. 
[Chaucer. \ 

CLEO'ME, n. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Capparidaceas. C. gigantea is a 
native of South America. It is a beau- 
tiful plant, but has a disagreeable 
odour, and an acrid ta.ste. The root 
of C. dodecandra is used as a vermifuge 
in the United States. C. rosea is a 
native of Rio-Janeiro, and has beauti- 
fully rose-coloured flowers. 


CLERE'-STORY,!!. SmClear-Storv. 

CLER'GlAL,t a. Learned. [Chaucer.] 

CLER'GION,t "• A young clerk. 

CLER'GY, n. [add.] In England, this 
term is commonly restricted to minis- 
ters of the Established churcii. 

CLER'OYABLE, a. Entitled to, or 
admitting the benefit of clergy; as, a 
clergyable felony. 

CLERGYMAN, n. [add.] A man regu- 
larly authorized to preach the gospel, 
and administer its ordinances. — \nEng- 
land, the term is commonly restricted 
to ministers of the Established church. 

CLER'IS Y, n. The body of learned men ; 
the literati. [Rare.] 

CLERIC, n. (kliirk.) [add.] A writer or 
assistant in an oflice ; a keeper of ac- 
counts in a shop, warehouse, &c. — Clerh 




of the crowfi^ in cJianceri/, an officer of 
the crown in attendance upon both 
Houses of Parliament, and upon the 
great seal. In the House of Lords, he 
makes out and issues all writs of sum- 
mons to peers, -m-its for the attendance 
of the judges, commissions to summon 
and pi'orogue Parliament, and to pass 
bills; and performs various other duties. 
In connection "nnth the commons, he 
makes out and issues all «Tits for the 
election of members in Great Britain, 
&c. This office is called the crown- 
ojffice. — Clerk of the House of Com- 
mons, an officer appointed by the crown 
to make entries, remembrances, and 
journals of the tilings done and passed 
in the House of Commons. — Clerk of 
ike pipe. This office is now abolished. 
— Clerk in orders, in the church of 
Enalaiui, a licensed clergyman. 
CLEUGH, n. A cliff; a raiine. {Scoich.^ 
€LEVE,t n. [Sax.] A rock, or cUff. 

{Chaucer J] 
CLIAN'THUS, n. A gemis of plants, 
nat. order Leguminos®. The C. puni- 
ceus is a very elegant plant with crimson 
flowers; it attains the height of eight 
or ten feet, and resembles the Suther- 
landia fnttcscens, when in flower. It 
is a natjve of New Zealand. 
CLICHEi *n. [Fr.] The impression of a 
die in a mass of melted tin or fusible 
metal. The term cliche is also applied 
to the French stereotype casts from 
wood-cuts. — It is also used to denote 
the negative picture in photographv. 
CLICHE-CASTING, n. A mode of 
casting, in which the mould or matrix 
is made to fall with force suddenly and 
perpendicularly on metal in fusion. 
CLICH Y-WHITE, n. A pure white- 
lead manufactured at Clichy in France. 
CLICIC, n. In meek., the arm which 
communicates motion to a ratchet- 
wheel, called also a ratchet, or a paul, 
and contradistinguished from the deieid, 
or latch, which prevents the wheel from 
moving backwards in the intervals be- 
tween the steps of tlie click. 
CLICK, n. [add.] A small sharp sound. 
CLICK-BEETLE, n. The species of 
elateridce are so called, from the click- 
ing noise they make with the spine and ' 
groove on their breast. 
CLICKING, n. A small sharp noise. 
CLIFT,t V. t. To split open. 
CLIF'TY. a. Same as Clifft. 
CLIKET,t H. A key; a latch-key. 

LIMAC TERIC,) a. [add.] aimac- 
CLI.MACTEIMC,) teric disease, a 
sudden and general alteration of health, 
occurring at a certain period of life, 
and of uncertain duration. — Climacteric 
teething, the production of teeth at a 
very late period of life, generally be- 
tween the sixty-third and eighty-first 

IC, n. 
CUMACTER'ICAL, a. Same as Cli- 
macteric, a. 
CLI'MATAL, a. Pertaining to a climate 

or climates. 
CLIMA'TION, n. The act of inuring 

to a climate, as plants. 
ing to the study of the variations of 
CLIMAT0L'06Y, «. [add.] An in- 
vestigation of the causes on which the 
cliniate of a place depends. 
CLIMB, f. I. [add.] To mount or ascend 
by means of tendnls or adliesive fibres^ 
applied to pltvits. 


CLIMB, V. t. [add.] To mount or ascend 
by means of tendiils or adhesive fibres, 
as certain plants. 

CLINAN'THIUM, n. [Gr. *Xi»i,. a bed, 
and atddf, a flower or blossom.] In bot., 
a term sometimes given to the recep- 
tacle of a composite plant. 

CLING, V. t, [add.] To apply firmly and 

1 clurtff ray legs as close to his sides as I 
could. Swift. 

CLINK, r. I. [add.] To rhyme. 

And yet I must except tlie Rhine, 
Because it clinks to Caroline. Srcift. 

CLINK, n. A smart stroke; a jingling 

sound; money. [Scotch.] 
CLINKER, n. [add.] Black oxide of 
iron. It is always formed when iron is 
heated to redness in the open air, and 
is readily obtained at the blacksmith's 

CLINK'ET, pp. Clanked; struck. 
CLIN'OlD, a. [Gr. *>,«,. a bed, and uh:, 
resemblance.] In anat., a term applied 
to designate the four processes sur- 
rounding the sella-turcica of the sphe- 
noid bone, from their resemblance to 
the knobs of a bedstead. 
CLINOMETRY, n. Tlie art of mea- 
suring the dip of 
mineral strata. 
A genus of plants, 
nat. order Labiatie. 
[See Wild-Basil.] 
CLIO, n. In myth.^ 
the muse who was 
usually supposed to 
preside over history. 
She is usually repre- 
sented with a scroll 
in her hand, and also 
sometimes ^rith a 
scrinium to keep 
MSS. in, by her side. 
She is also sometimes 
represented with a 
Ivre by lier side. 
family of naked ma- 
riue molluscs, placed 
by Cuvier as the first 
of his class Ptero- 
poda, and having for its type the genus 
CLIPPE,t V. i. To cut hair ; to embrace. 

[Chaucer.] ■ 

CLIPPER, n. [add.] A fast-sailing 
vessel; a small schooner 'nith raking 
masts, built and rigged with a view to 
fast sailing. Larger vessels are some- i 
times built after the model of clippers, 
when thev are said to be clipper-built. 1 
CLIPPING-TIME, n. The nick of ; 
time. — To come in clipping-time, to 
come as opportunely as he who visits 
a sheep-farmer at sheep-shearing time, 
when there is always mirth and good ! 
cheer. [Scotch.] j 

CLIP'SY,t a. As if eclipsed. [Cliaucer.] I 
CLIQUISH, a. (cleek'ish.) Relating to j 
a clique or party. 
CLITORIS, n. [Gr. «AuT«{if, from *l(i«, ' 
to inclose or hide.] In anat., a small ' 
elongated organ of tlie female puden- 
dum, concealed by the labia majora. 
CLOA'CA, n. [L. a common-sewer.] 
The excrementory cavity in birds, rep- 
tiles, many fishes, and some mammalia, 
formed by the extremity of the intes- 
tinal canal, and which receives the 
faeces and the urine, together with the 
semen of the male and the ovum of the 
female. i 

CLOA'CA, n. plur. [L.] In patho., the 

openings, in cases of necrosis or morti- 
fication of the bones, leading to the 
inclosed dead bone. 
CLOAK-PINS, n. Projecting pegs fixed 
into a rail, attached to a wall, on which 
to hang hats, cloaks, great-coats, &c. 
CLOB BED,t a. [Sax.] Like a club. 

CLOCK, H. [add.] Instead of ocloch. 

Pope and Addison use a-clock. 
CLOCK-CASE. n. The case or recep- 
tacle of the works of a clock. 
CLOCKING-HEN, «. A clucking, 

hatching, breeding hen. [Scotch.] 
CLOD, r. f. To throw clods at ; to throw 

with violence. [Scotch.] 
CLOIS'TERER, n. One belonging to a 

CLOISTER-GARTH, n. In arch., the 

space inclosed by a cloister. 
CLOMB'EN,t pret. of Oimb. Did 

climb. [Chaucer.] 

CLOOT, )n. Divided hoof; cloven 

CLOOVE. f hoof. — aoo/-anrf-c/oof, 

hoof-and-hoof, i.e., every hoof. [Scotch.] 

CLOOTIE, n. A name for the devil. 

CLOSE, r. f. (s as z.) [add.] To close 
the land, among seamen, an expression 
sometimes used to imply coming near 
to the land. 
CLOSE, arfr. [add.] Close to the icind . 
When the head of a ship lies near 
enough the ^dnd to fill the sails with- 
out shaking them, the vessel is said to 
sail close to the tcind. 
poration which fills up its own vacan- 
cies, the election of members or office- 
bearers not being open to the public. 
CLOSED DUCTS, n. In hot., some- 
times improperly called spiral ducts ; 
these are vessels or ducts having a spiral 
fibre in their interior, which breaks if 
pulled out: they merely differ from 
spiral vessels by this latter possessing 
sufficient tenacity to permit of their 
being pulled out. 
CLOSE -GRATED, a. Shut up with 

close gratinirs. 
CLOSE'-HAULED.a. [add.] As applied 
to a square-rigged vessel, this term sig- 
nifies that the vessel is sailing with her 
j-ards braced up, in order to get as much 
as possible to ^^•indward. 
CLOSE'-QU ARTERS,n. [add.] To come 
to close-quarters, to come into direct 
contact v,-\th an enemy. 
CLOS ER,t n. An inclosure. [Chau- 
"WRITS, n. Royal letters under the 
great seal, addressed to particular per- 
sons for particular purposes, which, l>e- 
cause they are not intended for public 
inspection, are closed and sealed, and 
recorded in the close-rollsy in the same 
manner as letters-patent are in the pa- 
CLOSE-STRING, n. In arch., in dog- 
legged stairs, a staircase without an 
open newel. 
CLOS'ET, «. [add.] A small apartment, 
frequently made to communicate with 
a bed-room, and used as a dressing- 
room. When a closet is used for tlje 
reception of stores, it is called a store- 
CLOT'ERED,t/>p. Clotted. [Chaucer.^ 
CLOTH, n- [add.] The cloth U a t^rni 
familiarly used for the clerical profes- 
sion or clergy ; so we say, a person of 
your cloth. 
CLOTHES, n. (kloths or klOze.) 
CLOTHES' -BRUSH, n. A brush for 
removing dust, &c., from clothes. 




€LOTHES''-MAN, n. A dealer in 

CLOTIIES"-FRESS, n. A press or re- 
ceptacle for clothes. 
CLU'TUO, n. [Gr. x>.oOu. to spin.] A 
genus of curious small spiders which 
inhabit Egypt and the soxith of Europe, 
remarkable for the curious nest or 
habitation which they construct for 
their vnunc:. 

CLOTir-PUESSING, n. Act of press- 
ing cloth ; act of pressing stuffs when 

€LO:B'TED-eRKAi\I.) n. Cream pro- 
€LOUTED-€REAM,( duced in the 
form of clots on the surface of new 
milk when it is warmed. [See the 
verb To Clout.] 
€LOUCH,t V. f. To snatch; to clutch. 
CLOUD, n. [add.] Fiaurativebj, a state 
of darlcness, obscurity, or danger; as, 
amidst the clouds of war; a cloud hung 
over his character; there was a cloud 
thrown over their prospects. 
CLOUD'-BllEAK, n. A name given in 
Germany to a sudden descent of water 
( Wolkenbruch ) from the atmosphere, of 
a delu,'ing and destructive character. 
CLOUD'LET, n. A small clnnd. 
CLOUr; ILARCUES, n. (clof.) Crooked 
arches by which the water is conveyed 
from the upper pond into the chamber 
of the lock of a canal, on drawing up 
the clough. They are also termed 

CLOUR, n. A bump upon the head 

from a blow; indentation in a brass or 

pewter vessel; defacement; inequality ol 

surface produced by a blow. [Scotch.] 

€ L O U R E D, pp. or a. Indented. 

\ Scotch.] 
CLO'VATR, a. In conchoL, aterm used 
when a shell is thicker towards the top, 
and elongated towards the base. — In 
zooi., a term very generally used when 
any part is thicker at the end tlian at 
the base. 

CLUVE'-HOOK, n. In ships, an iron 
clasp in two parts, moving on the same 
pivot, and overlapping one another, used 
for bending chain-sheets to the clews 
of sails. 

CLOVE'-PINK, n. Clovc-gilly flower, 
or carnation-pink, Dianthus caryophyl- 
his, so named from a supposed resem- 
blance lietween the odour of its flowers 
and that of cloves. 

CLOVER-FLOWER, ?i. The flower 
of clover. 

CLOVES, n. In bof., the small bulbs 
formed within the nether bulb of cer- 
tain plants, such as garlic. 
CLOWN'S ALL-HI-.AL, n. A plant, 
the Starhys 2)aluslris. 
CLOY'D,t pp. [See Clot.] Spiked; 
pricked, as a horse in shoeing. [Spen- 

CLOYSE, n. A clough or sluice. 
CLUB, n. [add.] An association of per- 
sons who meet under certain self-im- 
posed regulations, for the promotion of 
some common object, as literature, 
science, politics, hilarity, &c. Also, an 
association for the support of a club- 
house, — which see. — A club is defined 
by Johnson to be "an assembly of 
good fellows meeting under certain 
conditions," and this definition is sufti- 
ciently correct as regards the clubs of 
his time; but it does not take in all the 
associations that in modern times have 
assumed the name of clubs. 
CLUB, V. t. [add.] To unite for the ac- 
complishment of a common end; as, to 
ctid) expenses 
CLUB'BING, vpr. [add.] In naut. Ian., 

drifting down a current with an anchor 
CLUB'-GRaSS, n. A species of grass, 
the Corf/nephorus articiifatus. 
CLUB-IIOUSE, 7i. [add.] Club-houses 
are places of rendezvous and entertain- 
ment, always open to those who are 
members of them, the members being 
subject to no other forms and rules 
than the being balloted for upon ad- 
mission, and the payment of an annual 
subscription for the support of the 
house. To the original character of 
coffee-room and news-room, the mo- 
dern club-houses, or clubs, as they are 
loosely called, add that of library and 
reading-room, and are furnished with 
card, billiard, and smoking rooms, and 
even with baths. The cuisine and do- 
mestic departments are also complete: 
in short, luxurious refinement reigns 
throughout; and the whole is upon a 
scale that maybe called princely. The 
club-houses of the metropolis, at least 
the more modern ones, answer to the 
character of palatial structures, eclips- 
ing in external appearance, as well as 
in internal spaciousness, the town-man- 
sions of the nobility. 
CLUB'-RUSH.w. [add.] [5eeSciRFUS.] 
CLUCK'ING-HEN, 71. A curious bird 
of the rail family {Arnmus scolopaceus) 
is so named in Jamaica, from its hal)it 
of uttering sounds like those of a hen 
with chickens. It is a solitary bird, 
and is found among the mountains. 
eLUi\I,t n. [Sax. clumian.] A note of 
silence. [Chaucer.] 
CLUMP'Y, a. Consisting of clumps; 
massive; shapely. 

CLUS'TEKED, pp. In bot, collected 
in parcels, each of which has a roundish 
figure, as tlie flowers of cuscuta. 
CLYP'EIFORM, a. [L. chjpeus, a 
shield, and forma, shape.] Shield- 
shaped ; a term applied to the large 
prothorax in beetles. 
CLYS'TERiZE,t v. t. To apply a clys- 

CNI'CINE, n. A crystalline matter 
found in Centaurea bencdicta, and in 
plants of the order Cynaraceas. It is 
neutral and bitter, and very similar to 
CNI'DIUM, 71. Pepper-saxifrage, a ge- 
nus of plants, nat. order Umbelliferas. 
They are worthless herbaceous plants. 
[See Pepper-Saxifrage.] 
CO ACTIVITY, n. Unity of action. 
eOADJUTANT, n. An assistant; an 

eOADJU'TOR, n. [add.] In the Rom. 
Catholic church, the assistant of a 
bishop or other prelate. 
COADJU'VANT, n. In med., an in- 
gredient in a prescription, designed to 
aid some other ingredient. 
COAG'ULANT, n. That which pro- 
duces coagulation. 
COAGULATION, n. [add.] This term 
was formerly synonymous with crys- 
tallization, but is now used to signify 
the partial solidification of a fluid body 
by exposure to cold, or by the addition 
of some agent or coagulum. — Spon- 
taneous coagulation, the cohesion of the 
particles of the blood, of some eft'used 
fluids, &c. — Induced coaijulation, the 
effect produced upon albumen by heat, 
alcohol, acids, rennet. 
COAG'ULATORY, a. Tending to 

coagulate or unite. 
GO'-AID, n. A fellow-helper; conjunc- 
tive assistance. | Pope.] 

€OA'ITI, n. [add.] Thismonkey is often 
called the four-fingered monkey, and 
belongs to the genus Ateles, so named 
from the want of the thumb {<x.TO.y.i, 
imperfect). It has a prehensile tail, 
which amply compensates for the want 
of the thumb. 
COAK, n. In the construction of wood- 
framings, a small cylinder of hard-wood 
let into the ends of the pieces to be 
joined, by which means the joining is 
ren tiered more secure. 
COAK, n. See Coke. 
€uAL, V. t. To load a steam - vessel 
with its requisite supply*of coals; to 
take in coals; as, the vessel coaled at 
COALES'CENT,a. Growing together; 
COAL'-FITTER, «. Afactorwho con- 
ducts the sales between the owner of 
a coal-pit and the shipper of coals. 
COAL'-HEAVER, n. One who is em- 
ployed in carrying coal, and especially 
in discharging it from coal-ships. 
€OAL'-HEUGH, n. A place where I 
coals are dug. [Scotch.] 
COAL'-HOOD, \n. Local names of 
-COAL'LY-HOOD,/ thebull-finch,de- 

rived from its black crown. 
€OALr'TIONIST, )rt. One who is 
€OALl"TIONER, f an advocate for 

coalition ; one who joins a coalition. 
COAL'-MAN, n. One who deals in or 

carries coal. 
COAL'-MERCHANT, n. One who 
deals in coals. 
CoAL'-NOTE, n. A particular descrip- 
tion of promissory note in the coal- 
trade. According to law, all lighter- 
men, and other buyers or contractors 
of coal aboard-ship, in the port of Lon- 
don, shall, at the time of the delivery 
of such coals, either pay for the same 
in ready money, or give their promis- 
sory note for payment, expressing 
therein the words, ''value received in 
coals," and such notes may be protested 
and noted as inland bills. 
COAL'-TIT, n. The Parus ater,ox\Q of 
the titmice, is so called from its glossy 
black head and neck. 
COAL'-TRIMMEU, n. One who is em- 
ployed to stow and trim the fuel for 
the fires of the boilers of marine steam- 
■COAPTA'TION, n. [add.] In 5?ir.,the 
act of placing the broken extremities 
of a bone in their natural position. It 
is otherwise termed sotting. 
COARC'TATE, a. Same as Coarc- 


€OAUSE'-STUFF, n. In plastering, a 
mixture of lime and hair, used in the 
first coat and floating of plastering. 

COAST'ING, n. Tlie act of sailing 
along or near a shore. — 2. In some 
parts of the United States, the sport of 
sliding down a hill-side upon sledges 
in winter. [Old French, coste, a hill- 

COAST-WAITER, n. An oiBcer of 
the customs, who superintends the 
landing and shipping of goods coast- 
ways. \S€e Land-Waiter.] 

COAST'-WlvSE, adv. By way of, or 
along the coast. 

COAT, n. [add.] In ships, a piece of 
canvas, painted ur tarred, phiced round 
a mast, at the aperture where it enters 
the deck, in order to make it water- 
tight, called a mast-coat, A similar 
coating applied to the pumps is called 
a pump-Coat. 

COii.T-CAKD, n. A card bearing a 
coated figure ; viz., the king, queen, or 




loiave ; now corrupted into court- 

COATEE', n. A coat with sliort 

€OAT'ING,n. [add.] In cAem.,a method 
employed for securing or repairing glass- 
retorts used in distillation ; also, the 
substance used for this purpose, which 
is a kind of lute, composed of marly 
earth, kneaded with fresh horse-dung, 
or slaked -lime and linseed -oil, &:c. 
[See LoRTCATiON.] 

€0'BALT-BLUE, n. A beautiful pig- 
ment, which is a compound of alumina 
and phosphate of cobalt. 

-eOBALT-GREEX, n. A preparation 
of cobalt, the green colour of which is 
due to the presence of iron. 

COBALT'INEjH. An arsenio-sulphuret 
of cobalt, a mineral of a silver or 
yellowish colour, with a tinge of red, 
occurring in cubic crystals. 

TASSIUM, H. A salt formed by the 
union of cobalt, cyanogen, and potas- 
sium. It is a singularly permanent 
salt, resisting the action of the strongest 
acids. It has been applied by Liebig 
to the separation of cobalt from nickel 
in analysis. 

C0B,AXT'0-CYAN'06EN, 77. A com- 
pound of cobalt and cyanogen, known 
only in combination witli hydrogen, 
potassium, &c. It is analogous to fer- 
vid cyanogen in constitution, and, like 
it, is tribasic. 

COBBING, n. A beating on the 
breech with a flat piece of wood. 

COB'-HOKSE,7j. A kind of stout-made 

€0€CID'ItTM, 77. Among the ahj<B, a 
kind of conceptaculum ; it is either ex- 
ternal or half- immersed in the sub- 
stance of the plant, and usually imper- 
forate. There are two kinds ; one 
contains, beneath a membranous peri- 
carp, a tuft of filaments whose cells are 
finally changed into spores ; the other 
contains, beneath a thick pericarp, a 
mass of spores on a central placenta. 

€0€€ONE'lS, «. In bot., a genus of 

€0€€0XE'MA, n. In hot., a genus of 
diatomaceous plants, closely allied to 
Cymbelhi, but the frustules are fur- 
nished with a stalk. 

€0€eOS'TEUS, 71. A genus of fossil 
fishes with curious tuberculated scales; 
it is found in the old red sandstone. 

€0€€OTHRAUS TES, n. A genus of 
passerine birds with a very thick coni- 
cal beak, containing the haw-finch and 
green grosbeak. 

€0€CUS, n. [add.] The most impor- 
tant species of this genus is the Coccus 
cacti, or cochineal insect. [See Co- 

€OCH'ERI\GS, ) n. Irish exactions or 

COSU'EKINGS,) tributes, now re- 
duced to chief-rents. 

COCHIN IL'LIME,7i. A colouring mat- 
ter obtained from cochineal. It is a 
constituent of carmine. 



COt'HLEA'KE, n. [L. from cochlea, a 
snail's shell.] A spoon; a spoonful. 

€0€HLEA'KIFORM, a. Having the 
form of a snail's shell, or of the ear. 

COCH'LEOUS, a. Of a spiral form. 

COCIILOSPER MUM, 77. A genus of 
South American plants, usually placed 
in the nat. order Ternstromiaceae. A 
decoction of the roots of C. insigne is 
taken by the Brazilians as a cure for 
all internal bruises. C. tinctorium is 

used in cases of amenorrhoea, and also 
as a vellow dve. 
€OCIN'IC-ACrD, n. An acid found 
in the butter of the cocoa-nut, combined 
with glycerine. It forms snow-white 
crystalline scales, and is volatile. The 
salts {cocinates) of this acid, with the 
alkalies, are soaps, like those of all 
fatty acids. 

COCK, ) n. A kind of turn- 

STOP-COCK, [ valve, contrived for 

PLUG-COCK,) the purpose of per- 
mitting or arresting the flow of fluids 
through a pipe. When applied at the 
end of a pipe, to regulate the discliarge 
of a liquid, it is termed a crane or dis- 
charge-cock. When the plug has one 
passage directly through it, the cock 
is of the ordinary kind, and is not dis- 
tinguished otherwise than as above; 
but when the plug has three passages 
radiating from its axis, the cock is said 
to be ihree-xcai/ed, or it is a three'Way 
cock; when it has two through pas- 
sages at right angles to each other, the 
cock is four-wayed, or it is a four-way 

COCK, n. [add.] Of the common do- 
mestic cock {Gallus domesticus) there 
are innumerable varieties. — Cock of 
the rocky the Pipra rupicola (Linn.), a 
beautiful bird, which inhabits Guiana, 
and forms the type of the genus Rupi- 
cola ; it is of a beautiful orange colour. 
— Coch of the woodj the capercailzie, — 
ichich see. 

COCKATOO', n. [add.] There are 
several species of cockatoo ; as, the 
broad - crested {Psittacus cristafus) ; 
great sulphur-crested cockatoo {Psit- 
tacus sulphureus)\ the red-vented 
cockatoo {Psittacus phiUppinarum). 

C O C K'-B R E E, \ 77. Cock - broth. 

COCK'-BROO,; [Scotch.] 

COCK'CHAFER, instead of COCK'- 

COCK'ER, n. According to Cocker, a 
phrase for arithmetically accurate. 
Cocker was the author of a work on 
arithmetic, deemed a great authority 
in olden time. 

COCK'ERNONIE, n. The gathering 
of a young woman's hair imder the 
snood or fillet. [Scotch.'] 

COCKERS, 71. High-laced boots worn 
by countrymen in the time of Eliza- 

COCK'EY, n. A common-sewer. 

COCK'-EYE, n. A squinting eye. 

COCK'LE, 71. The body or fireplace of 
an air-stove. 

COCK'LE-BRAINED, a. Chuckle- 
headed; foolish. [Scotch.\ 

COCKLE-SHELL, 7i. The sheU or 
covering of a cockle. 

COCK'LE-STOVE, n. A close-cham- 
bered stove, the fire-chamber of which 
is of a cylindrical form, with a fiat or a 
dome-shaped head, and is surrounded 
at a little distance with a mass of brick- 
work concentric with the chamber ' 
and its dome, in order to allow a cur- 
rent of air to come in contact with the 
exterior surface of the fire-chamber. 
The air, being thus heated, passes 
through one or more apertures into the 
apartments to be warmed. The fixe- I 
chamber is the cockle. , 

COCK' -LOBSTER, 77. The male of the 

COCK'NEY, a. Related to, or like 

COCK'NEYFY, r. /. To form with 
the manners or character of a cockney. 

COCK'NEYISH, a. Relating to, or like 


C0CK'NEYIS:M, «. The condition, 
qualities, manner, or dialect of tho 
COCKTIT, 77. [add.] The name given 
to the room in Westminster in which 
her Majesty's privy-council hold their 

I sittings, from its having been the site 
of what was formerly the cockpit 
belonging to the palace at Whitehall. 

COCK'-SP ARROW, n. The male of 
the sparrow. 

CqCK'-SURE, a. [add.] This term is 
said to be derived from the cock of a 
firelock, as being much more certain to 
fire than the matcli of the old match- 

COCK'-WATER, n. Among miners, a 
stream of water brought into a trough 
to wash away sand from ores. 

CO'COA, 71. A name given to a simple 
preparation of the ground kernels of 
the cacao or chocolate tree, considered 
to be more healthy than chocolate. It 
is a corruption of cacao, the proper 
name of the plant. [See Cacao, and 

CO'COA-NUT OIL, n. An orange- 
coloured oil obtained from the nuts of 
the Cocos butyraceOf called also palm- 

COCOA-PLUM, n. The fruit of C^ry- 
sohalanus icaco, which is eaten in the 
West Indies. 

COC'OLITE, n. [Gr. x.->xxoi, and ?.-0of, a 
stone.] Bury-stone, a variety of augite. 

COCON',t n. [Fr.] A cocoon. 

COCOON, n. An antelope of South 
Africa, allied to the gnu {Catoblepas 

COCQUES-DE-PERLE, 77. p/7ir. [Fr.] 
A kind of half-formed pearls found 
growing to the linings of the shells of 

COC'TIBLE, a. That may be boiled or 
baked. [See Cocxios.] 

CO'CUS-WOOD, 77. A kind of wood, 
the produce of the Amerimnum ebenus, 
brought from the West Indies, and 
used for turning purposes. 

CO-DEFENDANT, n. In Zajr, a joint- 

CODET'TA, 77. [It.] In music, a short 
passage connecting one action with 
another, and not composing pai-t of a 
regular section. 

CO'DES, n. [add.] A code; a manu- 
script volume, as of a classic work, or 
of the Sacred Scriptures. 

CODIL'LA, 77. The coarsest part of 
hemp, which is sorted out by itself; 
also, the coarsest part of flax. 

CODLING-MOTH, n. A small moth 
{Pyralis pomara), tlie larva of which 
feeds on the apple. 

COD'-LIVER OIL, 77. An oil obtained 
from the livers of the connnon cod 
{Morrhua vulgaris, or Gadus vulgaris)y 
and from allied si>ecies. It is con- 
sidered an important medicine in cases 
of rheumatism, consumption, scrofula, 

COECIL'IA, n. See Cecilia. 

CtE'CUM, 71. [L. cflec7/5, blind.] In anat,, 
the blind gut or cul-de-sac at tlie com- 
mencement of the large intestine. 

CO'EHORN, 71/ A small mortar for 

throwing grenades, invented by the 

engineer of that name. 

COERCE ABLENESS. Misprint for 


COERC'IBLENESS, n. The state of 

being coercible. 
COETAL, a. [add.] Of equal duration. 
COFF, 71. The offal of pilchards, [io- 

COFFE'A, n. A genus of aiborescent 




plants, nat. order Cinchonace;E. [See 


COFFEE-BERRY, n. The fruit of the 

€OF'FEE-BIRD, n. A species of biiU- 
finch {PyrrJnila vlolaeea) is so called in 
Jamaica ft'om building its nest in coftee- 

COE'FEE-ROASTER, n. The iron 
utensU in which cofVee is dried over the 
fire before being jjround. 

COF'JFEE-ROO.Ar, n. [add.] A public 
room, or apartment, in an inn or hotel, 
\vhere*guests are supplied with refresh- 
ments and newspapers. 

COFTEE-TKEE, n. The Co.iTea ara- 
bica, which produces the berries from 
which coffee is manufactui'ed. [See 


■eOF'FEU, n. [add.] A trough in which 
tin-ore is broken to pieces. 

eOF'FlN, n. [add.] The crust of a pie; 
a cotfer. [Shak.] 

COF'FLE, H. ^'eeCAUFLE in this Sup}^. 

■GOG, 71. [add.] A trick or deception. 

COG'GING, 71. Same as CaulkinGj — 
which see. 

COGGING, ;)pr. Wheedling; deceiv- 
ing ; cheating ; inserting deceitfully ; 
fixing cogs, as in a wheel. 

■eOGlTATlV'lTY,«. Power of think- 
ing. [Not authorized.] 

COG'NA€, n. (kon'yak.) [Fr.] A 
kind of French brandy. [See Cog- 


€OG'NIZABLE, a. (kog'nezabl or 
kon'ezabl . ) 

COG'NIZABLY, adv. (kog'nezably or 

€OG'NIZANCE, n. (kog'nezans or 

COGNIZANT, «. (kog'nezant or kon'- 

GOGNIZEE', n. (kognezee' or kon- 

COGNIZOK', n. (kognezor' or ko- 

COGNO'VIT, n.[L.he acknowledges.] 
In law, a term used when the defend- 
ant acknowledges the plaintiff's claim 
{cognovit actionem), or a part of it, and 
suffers judgment to be entered against 
him without trial. 

GOG' WARE, 7i. A coarse narrow cloth 
like frieze, used by the lower classes in 
the 13th centnry. 

GOHABITA TION, n. [add.] Venereal 
act or coit. 

GOHAB'ITING, jn>r. or lu Dwelling 
together, or the act of doing so. 

GOHE'SION, «. [add.] Magnciical co- 
hesion, that power by which two mag- 
netical bodies adliere together, as iron 
to a piece of loadstone. 

€OHIBI"TION, n. Hindrance; re- 

CO'HOBATE, 1?. t. For "Among 
chemists" read " Among earij/ chem- 
ists." ^ 

GOIFFETTE, n. [Fr.] A skull-cap of 
iron worn by soldiers in the 12th and 
13th centuries. 

COIFF'URE, n. [Fr.] The head-dress 
of a lady. 

GOI'LONS, n. iilnr, [Fr.] Testicles. 
[Chaucer. \ 

COINXIDENCY, n. Same as Coinci- 

COIN'CIDENT, «. A concurrence; a 

COIN'ING, n. See Cotnage. 

€OINT,t a. [Fr.] Neat; trim. [Chau- 


COKE, V. t. To convert into coke; to 
deprive of volatile matter, as coal. 

COKEWOLD,t n. A cuckold. [Chau- 

COK'ING-KILN, ) n. A chamber in 

COieiNG-OVEN.J which coal is 
coked, of which there are many forms. 

COLBERTEEN',t n. A kind of open 
lace with a square grounding. 

COL'CIIICINE, n. A vegetable alka- 
loid obtained from Colchicum autum.' 

COL'CHIGUM,7i. A genus of bulbous- 
rooted plants, all the species of which 
form ornamental flowers, nat. order 
Melanthacese. [See Colchicum Au- 


CoLD,f V. i. To grow cold. [Chaucer.] 
COLD SHORT-IRON, n. Malleable 
iron which withstands the greatest de- 
gree of heat without fnsion, and may 
be forged under the heaviest hammer 
when hot, but is brittle when cold. Its 
brittleness is attributed to the presence 
of a little silica. 
COLD-SHOUL'DER, n. To give the 
cold shoulder to any one, is n familiar 
pin-ase, signifying to treat him with cool 
and studied neglect. 
COLEOF'TERIST, n. One versed in 
coleopterous insects. 
COL'ER,t n. A collar, [Chaucer.] 

CoLE'-RAPE, 7i. A plant, Brassica 
rapa, or common tiu-nip. 

COL'ERED,t x>p. or a. Collared; 
wearing collars. [Chaucer.] 

CoLE'-SEED, 71. A plant, Brassica na- 
pus, called also rape. 

COL'ET, \n. A corruption of Acolyte. 

COL'LET, ( An inferior church-ser- 
vant. [See Acolyte.] 

CO'LIAS, n. [Gr. xo>^iku, to skip.] A 
genus of diurnal lepidopterous insects, 
of many species. C. hi/ale, clouded 
yellow butterfly, and C. edusa, clouded 
saffron- butterfly, are British species. 
These butterflies are irregular in their 

GOL'IG, n. [add.] This disease is at- 
tended witli severe pain of the bowels, 
remitting and recurring at intervals, 
with constipation, and witliout fever. 
Its seat is conceived to be chiefly, if not 
entirely, in the colon; hence its name. 
It arises from a great variety of causes. 

COL'ICKY, a. Pertaining to colic. 

COLISE'UM, 72. The amphitheatre of 
Vespasian at Rome; also written Co- 
losseum, — ivhick see. 

CO'LIUS, ?i. A genus of birds allied to 
the plantain-eaters, whicli climb among 
trees somewhat like parrots, and are 
said to sleep suspended from the branch | 
with their head downwards. They are 
natives of Africa. One species is found 
at the Cape, where it is called the 
"mouse-bird." This bird is very de- 
structive in the gardens there, as it 
attacks the young plants as fast as they 
come up. 

COLL,t V. t. [add.] To embrace the 

COLLAB'ORATOR, n. [Fr. coUaho- 
rateur.] An assistant; an associate in 
labour, especially in literary or scien- 
tific pursuits. [Txecciit.] 

COLLAPSE', n. A wasting of tlie body, 
or an extreme depression of its ener- 
gies ; a more or less sudden failure of 
the circulation or vital powers, as of the 
brain, or of the whole system ; a shrink- 
ing or falling together, as of the sides 
of a hollow vessel. 

COL'LAK, n. [add.] In arch,, a collar- 
beam, — u-hichsee. — In 7«eL7i.,a ruft'on a 
shaft at one end of a journal, to prevent 
the shaft from shifting endwise. The 
journal has sometimes a collar at both 

ends, but more commonly a collar at 
one end and a boss at the other ; tlie 
pillow-brasses fit exactly between, and 
so prevent endlong motion of the sliaft. 
— In hot., the ring upon the stipe (stem) 
of an agaric; the point of junction 
between the radicle and plumula; the 
point of divergence of the ascending 
and descending axis ; that is to say, of 
the root and stem. 

COL'LARAGE, 77. A duty on the col- 
lars of drauglit-horses. 
COLLAT'ABLE, n. That may he col- 
COLLAT'ERAL a. [add.] Subordi- 
nate ; not chief. — Collateral assur- 
ance, in law, that wliich is made over 
and above the deed itself. — Colla- 
teral consanguinity or kindred, — see 
No. 2. in i>ict. — Collateral issue is 
where a criminal convict pleads any 
matter allowed by law in bar of execu- 
tion, as pregnancy, t!ie king's pardon, 
an act of grace, or diversity of per- 
son, viz., that he or she is not the 
same that was attainted, &c., whereon 
issue is taken, which issue is to be 
tried by a jury instanter. — Collateral 
warranty was wliere tlie heir's title 
to the land neither was, nor could 
have been, derived from the warranting 
ancestor, as wliere a younger brother 
released to his father's disseizor, with 
warranty, this was collateral to the 
elder brother. This warranty is now 
GOLLAT'ING,77.The act of comparing; 
the act of examining by comparing, a^i 
manuscripts and books; the act of pre- 
senting and instituting, as a clergyman 
to a benefice. — Among printers, the 
examining of tiie sheets of a book to 
ascertain whether they are gathered 
COLLA'TION,t n. [Fr.] A conference. 

COLLEGTA'NEA, n. plur, [L. things 
collected.] In literature, a term applied 
to a selection of passages from various 
authors, usually made for the purpose 
of instruction. 
COLLECTIVE, a. [add.] Having the 

oflice or power of collecting together. 
COLLECTOR, n. [add.] Electrical 
collectoi', the upijer plate or disk of a. 
condenser, employed for collecting 
COLLECTORATE, n. Tiie district of 

a collector; a coUectorship. 
COL'LED,*!- />/). Embraced round the 
neck. [SiJenser.] 
COL'LEED, %n\ or a. Blackened ; 
smutted ; black ; discoloured. [See 
Colly.] [Shaft.] 
COI/LE6E, n. [add.] In England, a 
college is an eleemosynary lay corpora- 
tion, of the same kind as an hospital, 
and it exists as a corporate body either 
by prescription or by the grant of the 
sovereign. A college is not neces- 
sarily a place of learning, although in 
the academical sense of the word it is 
so. A college is called eleemosynary 
because its object is the perpetual dis- 
tribution of alms or the bounty of the 
founder, among sucli persons as he has 
mentioned in tlie terms of the endow- 
ment. It is called a lay corporation, 
because it is not subject to the juris- 
diction of the ecclesiastical courts, or to 
the visitation of tlie ordinary or dio- 
cesan in his spiritual capacity. A 
college generally consists of a head, 
called a provost, a master, rector, prin- 
cipal, or warden, and of a body of fel- 
lows, and generally of scholars, besides 




various officers or servants, according 
to the peculiar nature of the fonnda- 
tioD. Of late years various places of 
learning have been incorporated under 
the name of coUeijeSy by royal charter, 
such as University CoHege and King's 
College, London. AVhcn a college 
possesses mthin itself all the means of 
instruction, and the rights and faculties 
which are incident to a university, the 
terms university and college are in 
effect convertible, and are used indis- 
criminately, as in the case of Trinity 
College, Dublin, and the Scottish col- 
leges, although the latter, not possess- 
ing a regular body of fellows, and 
scholars receiving stipend, cannot, in 
the strict sense of the term, be called 
collegiate bodies. The universities of 
Oxford and Cambridge, on the other I 
hand, are composed of a number of I 
colleges united together under the same i 
discipline and government, and in which 
the powers peculiarly belonging to a | 
university are wielded by one class of 
authorities, and the functions of the 
colleges superintended by another. 
[See Umveusitt.] — In France, the 
term college signifies a school, or rather 
a gymnasium, one of these being in 
every large town. — College of justice, 
in Scotland, a term applied to the 
supreme civil courts, composed of the 
lords of council and session, together 
^^^th the advocates, clerks of session, 
clerks of the bills, writei's to the signet, 

€OLLE'6lATE, a. [add.] Collected; 
combined ; united. [Bacon.^ 

COLLIDE', V. i. [add.] To encounter 
violentlv ; to meet in shock. 

COL'LIE, H. A cur; a dog. [Scotch.] 

COL'LIE-SHANGIE, n. A quarrel; 
a confused uproar like that produced 
when collies fall a-worrying one another 
about one of their own kind, that has 
got a sltangie, i.e., a canister, &:c., tied 
to his tail. [Scotch.] 

€OL'LIMATLN'G, a. Correcting the 
error of sight. 

€OL'LINGES,t n. plur. (kollings.) 
[Fr.] Embraces round the neck. 

COLLl'SlVEjf a. Causing collision; 

€OLLO'DION,n. [Gr.«.WL», glue, and 
uits, resemblance.] A new substance, 
which forms a very elegant and useful 
substitute for adhesive plaster in the 
case of small wouuds and cuts of the | 
skin. It is prepared by dissolving gun- 
cotton in ether. "When the fluid solu- I 
tion is applied to the cut or wound, it I 
immediately dries into a semi-transpar- ! 
ent, tenacious film or crust, which 
adheres firmly to the part, and under 
it the wound or abrasion of the skin 
heals without inflammation. i 

COLLO'QUIALISM, n. A word or 
phrase used in common conversa- ! 

COLLOQUIAL'ITY, n. The state of 
being colloquial. [Xot aidhorized.'\ \ 

COLLTJTO'RIUM, n. [L. culluo, to ! 
wash, and as, oris, the mouth.] A lotion 
for rinsing the mouth. 

COLON, n. [add.] In anat., the colon 
is distinguished into the right lumbar 
or ascending colon; the arch of the 
colon, or traiisverse colon ; the left 
lumbar, or descending colon ; and the 
sigmoid flexure, or left iliac colon. 
COL'ONEL, v.i. (kur'nel.) To play the 
part of a colonel; to act the colonel. 
t;OLONEL'LING, ppr. or n. Roving 

about ; raking.— 2. Plajing the part of 
a knight- errant. 
Then did sir knight al>andon dwelling. 
And ou he rode a colonelling. Hudibras. 

COLONI'TIS, n. Inflammation of the 

cate for colonization. 

■eOL'ONlZER, n. One who establishes 



COLOSSO'CHELTS, n. A gigantic 
genus of tortoises, found in a fossil 
state in India. One species is known, 
named by its discoverers C. ailasj from 
its immense size. 

■COLOSTRUM, n. [L.J The first milk 
secreted in the breasts after childbirth. 
— 2. A mixture of turpentine with the 
yolk of an egg. 

COL'OUR, «. [add.] Prismatic colours, 
colours produced by transmitting white 
light through colourless prismatic 
bodies, as a triangular glass prism. 
[See Spectrum.] — Primary coloursy 
the colours of the spectrum. Accord- 
ing to Sir D. Brewster, there are only 
three primary colours, viz., red, yellow, 
and blue; the other four, viz., orange, 
green, indigo, and violet, being pro- 
duced by combinations of the former, 
and therefore properly termed second- 
ary or compound colours. — Compli- 
mentary colours, in jyainting, those 
which are composed of the opposites of 
any given colour. — Harmony of colours 
results from an equal distribution of 
the three primarj" colours, red, blue, and 
yellow, either pure Or compounded with 
each other. — Contrast of colour. Each 
of the tliree primitive colours forms a 
contrast to the other two, and this con- 
trast is termed simple ; but by mixing 
the primitive colours we produce com- 
pound contrasts ; thus, orange forms a 
compound contrast to blue. Blue is 
termed a cold colour, and orange a 
v:arm colour. — Colours of plates, those 
variously tinted rings or bands which 
appear when light is transmitted 
through, or reflected from, the surfaces 
of a lamina formed of any transparent 
medium. When the lamina? are less 
than the tenth of an inch in thickness, 
or extremely attenuated, the colours 
are said to be those of thin plates; 
when the thickness exceeds the tenth 
of an inch, the colotu^ are said to be 
those of thick plates; and when a film 
of some liquid is interposed between 
two plates of glass, the colours are said 
to be those of mixed plates. — In lair, 
a probable plea, but which is, in fact, 
false. Its design is to draw the trial 
of the cause from the jury to the judges, 
and therefore colour ought to be matter 
in law, or doubtful to the jury. — Colour 
of office, an act unjustly done by the 
countenance of an office. 

CoL'OURED, pp. or a. [add.] Coloured 
rings. [See under Kjng.] 

COL'OUR-MAN, n. One who prepares 
and sells colours. 

COL'PORTAUE, n. The system of 
distributing tracts, &c., by colporteurs. 

COL'PURTER, n. Same as Colpok- 


COLT,t V. t. [add.] To abuse or defile. 

COLT'-EYIL, n. A sweUing in the 

sheath, a distemper to which young 

horses are liable. 
COLTISHLY, adv. In the manner of a 



C OLU' G O, n. An animal of the Asiatic 
islands, described by Linnseus as a le- 
mur, by modem naturalists regarded 
as the type of a new genus, Galeopi- 
thecus, — see that word in Diet. 
COLUM'BA. ^ee Callmba. 
COLUM'BA, n. A genus of birds which 
form the transition from the passerine 
to the gallinaceous orders. It comprises 
the pigeons, which are characterized by 
the double dilatation of the crop, and 
I by their habit of feeding their yoimg 
I with food disgorged from this recep- 
tacle. [See Pigeon.] 
COLUMBA'RIA, n.i>/Hr. [L.] Inarch., 
j holes left in walls for the insertion of 
pieces of timber, now commonly called 
I putlog holes. 

COLUMBA RIUM, n. [L. a pigeon- 
{ house.] Among the Romans, colura- 
j baria were places of sepultiu*e for the 
I ashes of the dead, after the custom of 
I burning the dead had been introduced 
j among them. They consisted of arched 
j and square-headed recesses formed in 
j walls, in which the cinerary urns were 
I deposited, and were so named from the 
, resemblance between these recesses and 
those formed for the doves in a dove- 
COLUMBIUM, n. [add.] Columbium 
occurs very sparingly in the minerals 
tantalite or columbite, and >-ttro-tan- 
talite, as columbic acid. The metal is 
obtained by the action of potassium on 
the double fluoride of columbium and 
potassium, as a black powder, which, 
when compressed, exliibits metallic 
lustre ; and, when heated, burns in air, 
vielding columbic acid. 
COLUMELLA, n. [add.] In concAo/., 
the upright pillar in the centre of most 
of the univalve shells, round which the 
whorls are convoluted. 
COLUMELLIA'CE^, n. A small nat. 
order of monopetalous exogens. The 
species are South American and Mexi- 
can bushes, of no known use. 
COLU-MNA, 71. [L.] A column or pillar; 
applied in anat. to various parts of the 
body which in their shape or oflice re- 
semble columns ; as the columns car- 
ne(p, or muscular fasciculi of the internal 
walls of the heart ; columna veriebralis, 
the vertebral column, i:c. 
COLUMXA'RIA, n. A genus of zoo- 
phytes, belonging to the polypi or coral 
family, so named from the columnar 
form of the axis. 
COLUMXAR'ITT, n. The state of 
being columnar. 
COL'UMNED, a. Having columns. 
COLUMNIE'ER^E, n. An old name of 
malvaceous plants. 
COLYMBID.^,n. The divers, a family 
of natatorial or swimming birds, inha- 
biting the northern regions, and distin- 
guished by their legs being placed so 
far back that they always assume an 
erect position when standing. The 
wings are remarkably short, and the 
bill lengthened, strong, and straight. 
They dive for the fish on which they 
feed. The typical genus is Colymbus, 
the loon, of which three species are 
met with in the British sea; the C 
glacialis, or northern diver ; the C. 
arcticus, or black -throated diver; and 
C septentrionalis, or red-throated diver. 
To this family also belong the genus 
Una, containing the guillemots. 
CO'MA, n. [add.] A morbid condition 
of the brain, attended with loss of sen- 
sation and voluntary motion, the patient 
lying as if in deep sleep. 




€OM'BATABLE, a. That may be dis- 
puted or opposed; that may be com- 

eOMBINA;TION, n. fadd.] Combina- 
iion-rooni, in the universitif of Cam- 
bridge^ a room into which the fellows 
withdraw after dinner, for wine, dessert, 
and conversation. 

COMBINED',!);), [add.] Bound. [S/inA.] 

COMB'ING, n. [add.] Act of using a 

COMBINGS, n. See Coamings. 

eOMB'-MAKING, n. The art or busi- 
ness of making combs. 

COMB'OLO'IO, n. A Mahometan ro- 
sary consisting of ninety-nine beads. 
And by her comboloio lies 
A Koruu of illuminaleil dyes 

B'/Ton, hride of Abjdos. 

€OM'BRE-WORLD,t n. An incum- 
brance to the world 

COMBUSTIBILITY, n. Quality of 
being combustible. 

eOMBUS'TION.n. [add.] Those bodies 
which are considered as the causes of 
the phenomenon of combustion are 
called suppoiiers of comhustiun ; as 
oxygen, chlorine, iodine, and the com- 
pounds which they form with eacli 
otlier, and with azote; and those sub- 
stances whicli combine with them are 
called combustibles. — Invisible combus- 
Uon, a term appUed by Sir H. Davy to 
those phenomena of combustion which 
are etfected without the disengagement 
of light, as when oxygen and hydrogen, 
contined in tubes, are cax'efuUy exposed 
to a high temperature. 

COME, I', i. [add.] To be about, or on 
the point ; as, I now come to consider 
the next branch of tlie subject. — To 
come off, to pay. {Shah.l 

COMEAT'ABLE, a. That maybe come 
at; that may be reached or obtained. 

COMEN'IC ACID, n. See Komenic 

COME-OUT'ER, n. One who forsakes 
establislicd communities or societies; 
a radical reformer. 'lAmericaii.'] 

€OM'l- ORTABLE, n. A warm coverlet 
for a bed, containing down or cotton 
quilted in. [Amencan.] 

COMFORTER, n. [add.] A knit wool- 
len fabric, long and narrow, for tying 
round the neck in cold weather ; a sort 
of tippet of similar fabric, worn by 

COM'FORTFUL, a. Full of comfort. 

eOM'FORTLESSLY, adv. In a com- 
fortless manner. 

COM'ING, 2'Pr. [add.] Coming to, or 
coming up, in marine Ian., a term applied 
to a vessel when her head is approacli- 
ing towards the direction of the wind. 
It is opposed to falling off. 

COMINGS, n. See Co.^mings. 

The office or jurisdiction of a governor 
of a Spanish province or colony. 

COMMAND'ER, n. [add.] Commander- 
in-chief, one who has tlie supreme com- 
mand; a generalissimo; tlie officer in 
whom is vested the supreme comnjand 
of all the land-forces of the British Em- 
pire, lie is appointed by the ministry 
of the day, and is assisted by several 
subordinate oihcers. 

COMMaND'ERSIIIP, n. The office of 
a commander. 

COMMAND'ERY, Ui. [add.] Among 

COMMAND'RY, / several orders of 
/mights, a district under the control of 
a member of the order, who received 
tlie income of the estates belonging to 
the kniglits within that district, and 
I. — Supp. 

expended part for his own use, and 
accounted for the rest. 

■COMMAND'MENT, n. [add.] In laiv, 
the offence of inducing another to 
transgress the law or do anything con- 
trary to it ; called by the civilians man- 

COMMEMORA'TION, n. [add.] Com- 
memoration-day, in tlie university of 
Oxford, an annual solemnity in honour 
of the benefactors of the university, 
when orations are delivered, and prize 
compositions are read in the theatre. 
It is the great day of festivity for the 

€OM'MEN,+ V. i. To commune; to 
discourse together. [^Spenser.'] 

COMMEND'AM, n. [add.] By a recent 
statute, it is enacted that no ecclesias- 
tical dignity, office, or benefice, shall be 
held in commendam by any bishop, un- 
less he so held the same at the time of 
passing the act ; and that every com- 
mendam in future granted, whether to 
retain or to receive, and whether tem- 
porary or perpetual, shall be absolutely 
void to all intents and purposes, 

COMMENDATARY, a. Holding in 

Letters written by one bishop to an- 
other in behalf of any of the clergy, or 
others of his diocese, travelling tliither, 
that they may be received among the 
faithful ; or tliat tlie clerk may be pro- 
moted ; or necessaries administered to 

COMMEN'TATIVE, a. Making or 
containing comments. 

to comments, 

COMSIERE, n. [Fr.] A gossip; a 
goody; a godmother. 

€OM'MIA, n. A genus of plants, nat. 
order Euphorbiaceie. C. cochinchinen- 
sis, a native of Cochin-Cliina, is a small 
tree, with a resinous juice, which is 
emetic, purgative, and deobstruent. It 
is recommended in cases of dropsy. 

COM'MINUTE, a. Comminuted; di- 
vided into very small parts. 

COMMISERATIVE, a. Compassion- 
ate. [Rare.'] 

COMMISSION, n. [add.] In military 
affairs, the document by which an 
officer is authorized to perform duty for 
tile service of the state. In tlie regular 
array, all such documents must be signed 
by tlie sovereign ; but in the navy tliey 
are signed by the lords-commissioners 
of the admiralty. — 2'o jmt a ship info 
commission, to send it forth on public 
service after it has been laid up.— To 
put the great seal into commission, 
to place it in the hands of commis- 
sioners during the period that inter- 
venes between the going out of one 
lord-chancellor and the accession of 
another. — In civil affairs, the war- 
rant, or letters-patent, which all per,sons 
exercising jurisdiction, either ordinary 
or extraordinary, have, to authorize 
tliem to hear or determine any cause or 
action, or to do other lawful things; 
as, the commission of the judges, &c. — 
Commission of delegates, a commission 
issued under the great seal to certain 
persons, usually lords, bishops, and 
judges, to sit upon an appeal to the 
king in the court of cliancery, where a 
sentence was given, in any ecclesiastical 
cause, by tlie archbishop. It is now 
repealed.— C'ommwsioft of the jieace, a 
commission issuing under tlie great seal 
for the appointment of justices of the 


COMMIS'SION-DAY,n. The opening 
day of tlie assizes. 

COMMISSIONED, pv. or a. [add.] 
Commissioned officers, in the army and 
navy, officers who hold commissions, in 
distinction from subaltern officers. 

committing. [Jiaye.] 

■COMMISSU'RA, n. [L.] In ayiat. [See 


COMMISU'RAL, a. Belonging to a 
line or part by which otlier parts are 
connected togetiier. The connecting 
line or part,is termed tlie commissure. 

COMMODE, «. [add,] A chest of 
drawers, often witli shelves added, and 
other conveniences. 


COM'MON, a. [add.] Common chord, 
in music, a perfect chord, which con- 
sists of any given note together with a 
major third and perfect fifth. — Common 
law, the ordinary law of any country. 
In England, that body of customs, 
rules, and maxims, which have acquired 
tlieir binding power and the force of 
laws, in consequence of long usage, 
recognized by judicial decision, and not 
by reason of statutes now extant. — 
Common lAeas. [add.] Tliis court is at 
present composed of tive judges, one of 
whom is chief-justice, and the other four 
are puisne-justices ; all created by the 
king's (queen's) letters-patent. — Com- 
mon sense. [See Sense.] — Common term, 
in logic, a term which is applicable in 
tlie same sense to more than one indi- 
vidual object. Common terms are called 
predicahles. — Common bar, in law, tlie 
same as blank bar. [See Blank.] — Com- 
mon bench, the ancient name of tlie 
court of common pleas. — Common fine, 
a sm;ill sum of money. 

COMMONALITY n. See Common- 

or tenants, or tenants and inliabitants, 
who have the right of common, or 
commoning in open field. 

COM'MONER, n. [add.] In Oxford, a 
commoner corresponds to a pensioner at 

COM'MON JOISTS, n. In arch , those 
joists in single naked flooring to which 
the boards are fixed. 

COM'MONLY', oj/f. [add.] Together; 
jointly. [L. coiumuniter.] [Spenser.! 

COM'MON RAFTERS, n. In arch., 
those rafters in a roof to which tlie 
boarding or lathing is attached. 

COM'MON ROOFING, n. In arch., 
tliat kind of roofing which consists of 
eonimon rafters only, which bridge over 
the purlins in a strongly-framed roof. 

COMMONWEALTH', )n. [add.] In 

COM'MON WEALTH, f English his- 
tory, the (orm of '^^overnment established 
on the death of Charles I., and which 
existed under Cromwell and his son. 

who favom'ed the English common- 

eOM'MUNE, n. [add,] In the country 
a commune sometimes embraces a num- 
ber of villages, w liile some large cities 
are divided into a numher of communes, 

COM'MUNE,t n. [Fr.] Commonalty. 

COM'MUNES,t n. plur. Commoners; 
common people. [Chaucer.] 

COMMU'NICANT, a. Communicat- 
ing; imparting. [liar, us.] 

COMMU'NICATE,!.. i. [add.] To be a 

member of any church. [Pojie.] To 

reach ; to extend to ; to be imparted to. 

7 II 





arch.y those doors \vhich, wlien open, 
throw two apartments into one. 


eOM'MUTATOR, n. In cJedro-mag- 
neiic experiments, an apparatus included 
in the circuit between tlie battery and 
the electro-magnetic apparatus, for re- 
versing tlie current witliout the neces- 
sity of changing' the arrangement of the 
conductors from the poles. 

COMOCLA'DI A, «. A genus of plants, 
nat. or<ier Anacardiacea*. C. dentata, 
tooth-leaved maiden-plum, is a native 
of Cuba and of St. Domingo. A gluti- 
nous milky juice exudes from it, which 
becomes black by exposure to the air, 
and stains linen and the skin black. 
The tree is poisonous. C. integrifo/iay 
a native of Jamaica, gives out a watery 
juice, having properties similar to those 
of the juice of C. dentata. 

COMPACT', a. [add.] Compaet of 
credit, credulous. [6'A«A.] 

COMPAC'TIBLE, a. That may be 

COMPACT'LY, instead of COM- 


COM'PANAGE,t n. All kinds of food, 
except bread and drink. 

COM PANIES, H. }dnr. [See Com- 
pany.] Companions. [Shak.\ 

eOMPAN'IOX-LADDEU, n. See un- 
der Companion. 

COMPANION-WAY, n. In merchant 
ships, the staircase to the cabin. 

Company, h. [add.] in milHaryaf- 
fairs,X\\Q body of men which constitutes 
one of the principal divisions of a bat- 
talion of infantry, and corresponds to 
the troop in a regiment of cavalry. In 
the regiments of guards and of the ar- 
tillery, a compani/ consists of 12u men ; 
but in the regular infantry it consists 
of 100 men. In each battiilion there is 
a grenadier company and a light com- 
pani/y and these are called Jlank com- 
panieSy because, when tlie battalion is 
drawn up in line, they are at its ex- 
tremities. Every company is com- 
manded by a captain. — In Shak. the 
word company is used to signify com- 

being cumitarable. 

COMPARATIVE, a. [add.] Quick at 
comparisons; fruitful in similes. [Shah ] 

COMPAUT MENT, n. [add.] In arch., 
a subdivisional part, for ornament, of a 
larger division. 

arch., a ceiling divided into panels, 
which are usually surrounded by mould- 

an arrangement of varnished red and 
white tiles on a roof. 

•COM'PASS, n. [add.] Hanging-compass, 
a mariner's compass suspended with its 
face downwards from the roof of the 
cabin of a vessel. It is sometimes called 

COMPASSED, 2>;>. [add.] Arched. 

tOM PASSED "WINDOW, n. A bow- 
window. [^ViflA,] 

COM PASSES, n. phir. [See Compass, 
No. 6.] A mathematical instrnmentfor 
describing circles, measuring figures, 
distances between two points, &c. — 
Common compasses, or dividers, consist 
simply of two pointed legs, movable on 
a joint or pivot, and used for measuring 

and transferring distances. For describ- 
ing circles, the lower end of one of the 
legs is removed, and its place supplied 
by a holder for a pencil, or by a steel- 
pen. — Hair-compasses, compasses in 
which one of the legs has the lower 
part attached to the upper by a spring, 
so that by means of a screw a very 
small motion may be given to the lower 
end. It is used for very accurate di- 
viding. — Boic-compasses. [See Bow- 
CoMPASscs in this Sitpp.] — Triangular 
compasses. [See Triangular.] — Beam- 
compasses. [See Bkam.] — Propor- 
tional compasses, [^fc Proportional.] 

€0MPAS'S10NATE, «. [add.] Plain- 
tive; complaining. [Shah.] 

COM PASS-ROOF, «. In arcA., an open 
timber roof. "Willis' Survey describes 
Ely cathedral as compass-roofed. 

COM PASS-TIMBEK, n. In ship- 
buihling, curved or crooked timber. 

CO-AIPASS-MINDOW, w. In arch., 
a circular bay-window or oriel. 

€OM'PAST,t a. [From compass.] Cir- 
cular. — Compassed creast, the round 
part of a helmet. [^pcH.?*'/".] 

COMPAT IBLE, a. [add.] Compatible 
terms, in logic, terms expressive of two 
views which may be taken of the same 
object at the same time ; as, to be 
white and cokl. 

COxMPA'TRIOT, 71. instead of C0:M- 

COMPATRIOT, rt. instead of COM- 


COMPENSATION, n. [add.] Com- 
pensation-balance, in a watdi or cliro- 
nometer, a contrivance for correcting 
the errors occasioned by the variation 
of temperature, by making two oppo- 
site actions counteract each other's 
effects, and thus cquahze the momen- 
tum of the balance under all ciianges 
of temperature and climate. Compen- 
sation-bars, bars formed of two or more 
metals of different expansibilities, so 
that the expansion of one counteracts 
the expansion of another. They are 
used to produce perfect equality of mo- 
tion in the balances of chronometers, 
and the pendulums of clocks. 

COMPETE', V. i. [add.] To be in a state 
of competition; to rival; to contend ; 
to seek after, or strive, or endeavour to 
attain that which anotiier is seeking 
after or striving to attain, viz., in rivalry 
or in emulation. 

COMPETITION, n. [add.] To come 
into competition ivith another, to strive ; 
to contend for; to make equal claim to 
a thing with another; to challenge, 
covet, or sue for a thing as well as an- 
other. Also, to hold one's self every- 
way as good as another. 

€OMPET ITIVE, a. Relating to com- 
petition ; emulous. [Rare.] 

COMPET ITOR, 71. [add.] A com- 
panion; an associate; afellow. [Shah.] 

COMPET ITORS, ». plur. Confede- 
rates; associates. [iS'AaA.] 

COMPLAIN ', V. i. [add.J To complain of 
good breeding, in Shah., signities to 
complain of tlic want of good breeding. 

COMPLAISANT I.V, instead of 


GOM'PLAN ATE, a. Flat or laminate ; 
having thin plates. 

COMPLEAT'. See Complete. 

COMPLEMENT, n. [add.] Accom- 
plishment. [.S'/iuA.j— Character. [Spen- 


COMPLE.MENT'ARY, a. Completing; 
supplying a deficiency; complemental, 
— Complementary colours. [See Col- 
our in this Snpp.] 

COM'PLEMENTS,t n. plur. Cere- 
monies; accomplishments; making that 
peifect which was wanting ; every- 
thing which serves to complete the 
virtue of courtesy. [Spenser.] 

COMPLEX'ION, n. [add.] Natural in- 

COMPLICITY, n. [add] The state of 
being an accomplice ; partnership in 

COM PLIMENT, «. [add.] Respect for 
forms. [Shah.] 

mentary. [Ba}-e.] 

COM PLlSHING.t ppr. Accomplish- 
ing; fultilling. [^pc/wer.] 

COMPLY, V. i. [add.] To suit, or tally 
with ; as, the altar was shaped so as to 
comply with the inscription that sur- 
rounded it. [Addison.] 

COM'PLYNES,t ". idur. [See Com- 
pline.] Even-song; the last service of 
tiie day. [Spenser^] 

COMPOSE', r. i. To agree ; to come to 
an agreement. [Shah.] 

piece of brass rule which is laid in a 
compositor's composing-stick, and upon 
wiiich he arranges the types ; it facili- 
tates the process, and by means of it 
the compositor empties his stick when 
it is full. 

COMPOS'ITE,! a. [add.] Made up of 

COMPOSITE,) parts; as, a compo- 
site language ; compounded ; united 

COMPOSITE, «. A composition; a 

COMPOSI'TION, n. [add.] In late, the 
agreement between a bankrupt, after 
his last examination, and nine-tenths 
of his creditors, for tlie satisfaction of 
their claims, which has the effect of 
superseding the tiat of bankruptcy. — 
In the fne arts, that combination of 
the several parts whereby a subject or 
object is agreeably presented to the 
miud, cavli part being subordinate to 
the whole. 

COMPOSITIVE, a. [add.] Com- 

COMPOS MENTIS. [L.] Being of 
sound mind. — Non compos mentis, being 
of unsound mind. 

COMPOST, n. [add.] A mixture or 
composition for plastering the exterior 
of houses, usually called compo. 

COMPOST', V. t. [add.] To plaster. 

COMPOST, a. Combined; mixed to- 

COMPOTE, n. [Fr.] Stewed fruit; 
fruits prepared in syrup ; generally 

COM'POUND, a. Sig. 8, for Compound 
qualities, read Compound quantities. 

COxM'POUND, n. [A corruption of the 
Portuguese word campanha.] In the 
JiJast Indies, the inclosure in wliieli 
isolated houses stand. The compound 
contains the dwelling, which is gen- 
erally in the centre, the out-offices, 
stable or awning for horses, the farm- 
yard, and the garden. 

COMPOUND , V. i. [add.] To imite. 

COMPOUNDER, n. [add.] One who 
compounds with a debtor or felon. 
One at a university who pays extra- 
ordinary fees, according to his means, 
for the degree he is to take. 

COMPOUND ING, ppr. instead of 

COMPOUNDING, n. The act of ar- 





ranging or of coming to terms. — Com- 
puunding of felony, in law, is where the 
party robbed, not only knows the felon, 
but also takes his goods again, or other 
amends, upon an agreement not to 
prosecute. This offence is denominated 
theft-bote, and is punishable by fine and 

In arith,, such tiuantities as consist of 
more than one denomination, as five 
pounds, six shillings, and ninepence, or 
four miles, three furlongs, and ten 
yards. The operations of adding, sub- 
tracting, multiplying, and dividing such 
quantities are termed compound addi- 
tion, compound subtraction, compound 
vmliipJication, and compound division. 
\Sce Compound, No. 8.] 

€OMPOWN'ED,t/)7J. Composed ; put 
together. [Chaucer A 

COMPRA'DOU, 11. [Port.] In the 
Chinese jwrts, as Canton, &c., a native 
trading manager for European mer- 
chants or residents. The compradors 
are a kind of agents, and their names 
are inscribed in the police-registers, 
security being taken for their probity 
in dealing for their employers. Every 
European House of business has its 
comprador, who is its factotum on all 
ordinary occasions, even to the regula- 
tion of a resident's houseliold. 

COMPREIIEND'ER, n. One who com- 
prehends. [Rar. us.] 

COMPRESSION, n. [add.] In med., a 
diseased state of the body, or of a part ; 
the effect of pressm'e, as compression of 
the brain. 

COM'PRINT, 71. The surreptitious 
printing of a work belonging to another; 
a work thus printed. 

COMPTE, «. (kont.) [Fr.] Account. 

COMPTR<:)L'LER,n. (kontrol'ler.) An 
officer appointed to keep a counter-re- 
gister of accounts, or to oversee, con- 
trol, or verify the accounts of otlier 
officers ; as, the comptroller of the cus- 
toms, [See CONTKOLLER.] 

COMPTROL LEUSHIP, n. (kontrol'- 
lership.) The office of comptroller. 


€OM'PlJKGATOR,n. Instead oi bore, 

COMTE, 71. (kont.) [Fr.] A count. 

CON'At'RE, n. The conacre system,\n 
Ireland, tlie subletting by a tenant of 
one or more acres of his farm, with or 
witliout manure, for a single crop. 

CONCEAL'EIiS,trt. Persons who were 
employed to find out concealed lands, 
that is, such lands as were privily kept 
from the king by common persons, 
having nothing to show for their title 
or estate tliercin. 

€ONCElT',t v.i. To form a notion; to 

€ONCfc;iT'ED,?jp. ora. [add.] Ingeni- 
ous; imaginative. [Shah.] 

CONCEIVE', V. t. [add.] To draw up ; 
to express ; to frame. 

CONCEN'TER. See Concentre. 

CONCEN'TRATIVE, a. Tending to 

CONCENTRED. -See Concknteued. 

CONCENTRICALLY, adv. In a con- 
centrical manner, 

CONCENTRING. See Concenteb- 


CONCEP'TACLE, ) n. Among the 
CONCEPTAC'ULUM,) o/j/ff, applied 

to a one-celled case, containing a great 

many spores or tetraspores. 

of being conceivable. 

CONCERT', V. i. To cousult with ; to 

CONCERTI'NA, n. A musical instru- 
ment recently invented by Professor 
AVheatstone, tlie principle of whicli is 
similar to that of the accordion. It is 
composed of a bellows, with two hexa- 
gonal faces or ends, and on these are 
placed the various stops or studs, by the 
action of which air is admitted to the 
lamina; (ortongues, or steel bars), which 
produce the sounds, and hereon are also 
fixed the thumb-straps and finger-rests. 
The finger-stops are in four rows; tlie 
two middle rows being confined to the 
notes of the natural scale, and the two 
outer to the sharps and fiats. The 
compass of the instrument is three 
octaves and three notes. There are 
also tenor and bass concertinas. 

CONCER'TION, n. Contrivance; ad- 

CONCERT'MENT, n. The act of con- 

CONCETE',t n. Conception; appre- 
hension. [Chaucer.] 

CONCH'A, n. In arch., the concave 
ribless surface of a vault. 

CONCHA'CEA, instead of CON- 

C0NCI10L'06lST,n. [add.] The name 
given to species of shells of the genus 
Phorus, from their often attaching 
shells to the margins of their whorls as 
they grow. Some species prefer stones, 
and are called miner alo<jists. 


CON€HYLIOM'ETRY,n. [L. conchy- 
Hum, ami Gr. f^ir^ov, measure.] The 
art or science of measm-ing shells or 
their curves. 

CONCIERGE", n. (konsarj'.) [Fr.] A 
keeper, as of a ijrison, a palace, &c. 

CONCIL'IATE, V. t. To render com- 
patible; as, to conciliate the qualities 
of a soldier with those of a philosopher. 

CONCILIATIVE, a. Reconciling; 

CON'CIO AD CLE'RUM. [L.] A ser- 
mon to the clergy. 

a cardinal is allowed to take with him 
into the conclave for the choice of a 

CONCLU'SIVE, a. [add.] Finishing; 
ending; closing. 

CONCOCT', V. t. [add.] Fitjurativehj, 
to form and prepare in the mind; as, 
to concoct a scheme. 

CONCOCT'ER, n. One who concocts. 

CONCORD',t V. i. To agree. 

CONCORD'AT, h. [add.] A formal 
agreement between t!ie see of Rome 
and any foreign government, by which 
the ecclesiastical discipline of the Ro- 
man Catholic clergy, and the manage- 
ment of the churches and benefices 
within the territory of that government 
are regulated. The most celebrated 
concordat was that agreed upon be- 
tween Cardinal Gonsalvi, in the name 
of Pius VII., and the first consul Bona- 
parte, in July, ISOl. By it the head of 
the state had the nomination of bishops 
to the vacant sees ; the clergy became 
subject in temporal matters to the civil 
power; all immunities, ecclesiastical 
courts, and jurisdictions, were abolished 
ill France, and even the regulations of 
the public worship and religious cere- 
monies, and the pastoral addresses of 
the clergy, were placed under the con- 
trol of the secular authorities, Jlcst 
of these provisions remain in France at 
the present day. 


CONCRESCn^E, a. Growing toge- 
ther ; uniting. 

■CON'CRETE,a. [add.] In pho7iologj/, a 
concrete sound, or movement of the 
voice, is one which slides continuously 
up or down, as distinguished from a 
discrete movement, in wliich the voice 
leaps at once from one line of pitch to 

In o^f^l-y a term applied to designate 
those recent alluvial strata, whicli in- 
clude calcareous and other deposits 
from springs, stalactites, travertines, 
bog-iron ore, and salt. 

CONCRE'TIVELY, adv. In a concre- 
tive manner. 

CONCU'BINARY, a. Relating to con- 

CONCUR'RENT, rt. [add.] Tending 
towards, or meeting in the same point; 
as, lines concurrent to their centre. 

CONCUR'RENTS, n. plur. \n chron., 
the common years consist of fifty-two 
weeks and one day, and bisextile years 
consist of fifty-two weeks and two days. 
The day or two days supernumerary are 
called concurrents, because they concur 
with the solar cycle, whose course they 
follow. The first year of this cycle is 
called concurrent 1, the second 2, the 
third 3, the fourth 4, the fifth G (instead 
of 5, because that year is bisextile), the 
sixth 7, the seventh l,the eighth 2, the 
ninth 4 (instead of -3, because that year 
is likewise bisextile), and thus with 
other years, always adding one in com- 
mon years and two in bisextile years, 
and always recommencing with one 
after having reckoned seven, because 
there are no more tlian seven concur- 
rents — that being tlie number of days 
in a week, and of the Dominical letters. 

CONCUS'SED. a. Shaken. 

CONCUS'SION, n. [add.] In med., a 
term applied to injuries sustained by 
the brain and other viscera, from falls, 
blows, &c. 

COND,t ) pp. from Conne. Knew, 

CONDE,t) or was able. [Chaucer.] 
— Learnt. [Spetiser.] [See Con, v. t.] 

CONDENS'ER, n. (add.] He or that I 
which condenses. — Condenser of elec- 
tricity, any apparatus by \;hicli the 
electric fluid can be accumulated ; but 
the term is chiefly applied to such in- 
struments as are employed to collect 
and render sensible very small quanti- 
ties of the fluid. 

strument for increasing the density of 
air in a given space; a condenser. 
[See Condenser.] 

CON'DISE,! n. plur. [Fr.] Conduits. 

CONDP'TION, n. [add.] That which 
must exist, as the ground or necessary 
adjunct of something else. — Condition 
in a deed, or express, that which is 
joined by express words to a feoff'inent, 
lease, or other grant. — A condition in 
law, or implied, is when a person grants 
another an oflice, as that of keeper of 
a park, steward, bailiff", &c., for term 
of life. — Condition inherent is that 
which descends to the heir, with the 
land granted, &C. — Condition collateral 
is that which is annexed to any colla- 
teral act. — Condition affirmative, that 
which consists of doing an act. — Con- 
dition neuative, that which consists of 
not doing an act. 

CONDI'TIONAL, a. [add.] Condi- 
tional limitation, in lata, a limitation 
which partakes of the natiu-e both of a 
condition and a remainder. Such is 




the limitation to A for life, in tail or 

in fee, provided that, when C returns 

from Rome, it shall henceforth remain 
to the use of B, in fee. — Conditions of 

safe, the particular terms set forth in 

writing, in pursuance of which an 
estate or interest is to be sold by 
public auction. 

€ON0OTTIE'RI, n. plur. [It.] In 
Italian ftistor;/, a class of mercenary 
military adventurers in the 14lh and 
loth centuries. 

€ON'DUt'T, n. A conductor. [Skah.^ 

€OiSDU€TlBIL'ITY, «. Capability of 

bein? conducted : as, the condudibility 
of the electric fluid, or of heat. 

COXDUe TIBLE, a. That may be 
conducted or conveyed. 

CONDUCTING, myr. or a. [add.] 
Transmitting^; convejing. — Conductinfj 
powers of bodies. The freedom with 
which heat is propagated in a body re- 
ceiving it, is termed its conducting 
power, and when one body propagates 
the heat it receives more freely or 
readily than another, it is said to have 
a greater conducting power : thus rods 
of metal have a greater conducting 
power than rods of wood. 

CONDUCTION, H. [add.] A term ex- 
pressive of that property by which cer- 
tain bodies transmit heat or electricity 
through their substance. 

CONDUC TORY, a. Having the pro- 
perty of conducting. 

CONDUIT, n. (kon'dit.) [add.] In oji- 
cient arch., a narrow walled passage, 
usually under ground, for the purpose 
of secret communication between 

CON DYLE. instead of CON'DYL. 


CONDYLOP ODA, n. [See Coxbt- 
LOPE.l Articulated animals, with 
jointed legs ; as insects, crabs, and 

CONE, n. [add.] Oblique cone, same as 
Scalene Coxe. 

CONEY-FISH, n. The burbot, a fresh- 
water fish of the cod family, is so 

CON F.\B, n. [Contracted from Con- 
fabulation.l Familiar talk or conver- 
sation. \Co' oquiai.] 

CONFAB'ULAR, a. Relating to con- 
versation: conversational. [Rar. us.] 

CONFECTIONERY', instead of 
meats, or the place they are 
made or sold. 

CONFECTURE,t n. [Fr.] Composi- 
tion. [Chaucer.] 

CONFEREE', n. One who is conferred 

CON TERENCE, n. fadd.] A meeting 
of divines for ecclesiastical purposes. 
Also, a stated meeting of preachers in 
the \Yesleyan Methodist Church, for 
transacting business of an ecclesiastical 

CONFES'SION, 71. [add.] Plea by con- 
fession and avoidance, in /air, a plea in 
a bar, admitting the matter of fact in 
the declaration to be true, but sliowing 
some new matter of fact tending to 
obviate or take off its legal effect. — 
Confession bij culprit, the acknowledg- 
ment of the offence charged against a 
culprit, when he is asked to plead to 
the indictment. 

CONFES SORSHUP, n. The office of a 

CONFIRM' ATIVELY,arfr. In aman- 
ner tending to confirm. 
CONFIRM'EDLY, adv. "With confirm- 

CONFIS'C ATE, r. f. instead of CON'- 

CONFIS'CATE, a. instead of CON'- 

CONFISCATED, pp. instead of 

CONFISCATING, ppr. instead of 

CONFLUX'IBLE, a. Inclined to flow 

or run together. [Lit. us.] 


CONFORMABLE, a. [add.] Ingeof., 
when the planes of one set of strata are 
parallel to those of another set which 
are in contact with them, the strata are 
said to be conformable, whatever their 
dip may be. On the other hand, when 
i a set of strata are so connected vrith. 
another that the planes of stratifica- 
tion of the one series have a ditferent 
direction from those of the other series, 
the strata are said to be uncoiiformable. 

beins conformable. 

C0NF0R':MATE, a. Having the same 

CONFORM'ITY,n. [add.] Bin of con- 
formittj. In laic, when an executor or 
administrator finds the affairs of his 
testator or intestate so much involved 
that he cannot safely administer the 
estate, except under the direction of 
the court of chancery, he files a bill 
against the creditors generally, for the 
purpose of having all their claims ad- 
justed, and a final decree settling the 
order and payment of the assets. This 
bill is called a bill of conformity/. 

CONFRONT'ER, n. One who con- 

CONFUCLVN, \n. A follower of 

CONFU'CIANIST, f Confucius, the 
Chinese philosopher, 

CONFU'CIAN, a. Relating to Confu- 

CONFOSE'jf pp. Confused; confound- 
ed. [Chaucer.] 

CONFU'TATI\'E, a. Adapted or de- 
signed to confute. 

CON'OE, n. [Fr.] [add.] In arch., the 
same as Apoputge, — tchich see. 

CON OEADLE, a. In laic, lawful; 
lawfully done; done with permission; 
as, entry cotvieable ; courteous. 

CON'6E-D'-ESLIRE', \ n. (kon'sha- 

CON'GE-D*-ELIRE', ( da -leer.) 
[Fr.] [See Coxge, r. i.] 

CONGEE',71. liiiheEast 7mf/e*, water 
in which rice is boiled. 


CONGENER IC^VL, a. Same as Cox- 

CONGEN'IOUS. a. Of the same Idnd. 

CONOES'TION, n. [add.] In merf., a 
preternatural accumulation of blood in 
the capillary vessels of the satiguiferous 
system, attended with disordered func- 
tion of the organs in which such an ac- 
cumulation takes place. 

CON'6lUS, n. [L.] A measure of capa- 
city among the Romans. [See Cox- 


CONGLU'TINATE, a. Same as Co s- 


CON GOU, n. See Congo, 

CONGRAT'ULATE, r. t. [add.] To 
express joy for. 

CON'GRESS, n. [add.] A meeting of 
sovereign princes to concert measures 
for their common good, or to adjust 
their mutual concerns. 

CON GREVE, n. A match prepared by 
being dipped into a phosphoric prepa- 
ration ; a lucifer match. 

CON'GRUOUSNESS,n. Fitness; con- 

CONIC, > a. Figs. 1 and 2 mis- 

CON'ICAL.j placed. 

thod of representing part of a sphere 
upon a plane, called also the method of 

CON'ICINE, n. Same as Coxia,— 
which see. 

CONIC SECTIONS, n. [See under 
Coxic] Algebraically considered, the 
conic sections are curves of the second 
degree, and may be treated as generated 
by the motion of a point on a plane. 
Their ditferent properties may be in- 
vestigated by the modern algebraic 
analysis, as well as by geometry. 

CONI'INE, n. Same as Coxl4, — which 

CON'ILITES, n. A genus of fosa'l 
cephalopods, the shell of which is coni- 
cal, straight, or slightly curved. 

CONIROS TRAL, a. Having a thick 
conical beak, as crows and finches. 

CON'ISAUNCE.t n. [Fr.] Under- 
standing. [Chaucer.] 

CO'NIUM. n. Hemlock, a genus of 
plants. [See Hemlock.] 

CONICRE' t r. i, [L. conjuro.] To 
conspire. I Spenaer.] <. [Fr.] To project. 
[Chaucer ] 

deals in coniectures, 

CONJECTURE, v. i. To form con- 

CONJOINT'NESS, n. State of being 
joined or united. 

CON' JUG AL, a. [add.] Conjugal rightSy 
the privilege which husband and wife 
have of each others society, comfort, 
and affection. 

CONJUGAL'ITY, h. The conjugal 
state. [Rar. us.] 

CON JUGATE, a. [add.] In mathe- 
matics, a term applied to two points, 
lines, &:c., when they are considered 
together, with regard to any property, 
in such a manner that they may be in- 
terchanged ^\ithout altering the way of 
enunciating the property. — Conjugate 
point of a curve, a single point bing by 
itself, whose co-ordinates satisfy the 
equation of the curve, ^^'ithout its actu- 
ally being on any continuous branch of 
the curve. — Conjugate fociy in optics, 
when rays, falling upon a lens, are so 
refracted as to converge and meet in a 
point, either nearer the lens than the 
principal focus, or farther from it, the 
point in which they meet, and the prin- 
cipal focus, are called, with respect to 
each other, conjugate foci. Thus, the 
parallel rays c A, c B, falling upon the 
lens A B, converge in the principal 

focus b; but the rays d, d, which have 
an inclination towards each other be- 
fore entering the lens, converge at a; 
therefore, a and b are conjugate foci in 
the case illustrated. 
CONJUGA'TION, h. Among alga^, 
a term applied to the mode in which 
two filaments of Zygnema and some 
analogous genera are seen to unite by 
means of tubes, the contents of one 
cell passing into a cell of the other 




tube, the resiUt of which is a germina- 
ting spore. 
€ONJUN€TION,n. [add.] The copu- 
lation of the sexes. 
CONJUNCTIVA, ?,. [add.] The mu- 
cous membrane which lines the poste- 
rior surface of the eyelids, and is con- 
tinued over the fore-part of the globe 
of the eye. 
In anat., the conjunctiva,— uVo'cA sec. 
CON'JUEE, t>. t. [add.] To conjure »;>, 
to raise up, or bring into existence 
withaut reason, or by unnatural means; 
as, to conjure up a phantom ; to conjure 
up a story. 
CON'JUKER, n. An enchanter; a jug- 
gler. [See CONJUROU.] 
CONJURER, n. One who solemnly 

enjoins or conjures. 
CONNE.t V- '• To know; to be able. 

[See Con.] [Chaucer.'] 
CONNECT', r. i. [add.J To have rela- 
tion to anything, so as to be influenced 
in common with it; as, this part will 
not connect with what goes before 
[Bp. Iforne.] 
CONNEC TOR, n. In cJietn., a small 
tube of caoutchouc for connecting to- 
gether the ends of glass-tubes in pneu- 
matic experiments. 
CO'NOID, a. Like a cone; applied to 
the surface generated by the revolution 
of a conic section about its axis. 
CONOID'AL, a. Approaching to a 
conical form ; nearly, but not exactly 
CO'NOPS, n. [add.] The C. calcitrans 
IS the type of the geims Stomoxys 
(Gr. iTTo^ioe, mouth, and cfat, sharp). 
The larvaj of the true species of conops 
are parasitic in humble-bees. 
CON'QUER, ;.. (. [add.] To get to the 
top of; as, to conquer a hill. I Addison 1 
CONSt'RIP'TION, n. [add.] A com- 
pulsory enrolment of individuals of a 
certain age, held liable to be drafted 
for military or naval service ; a system 
which existed among the Romans, and 
was introduced into France at the time 
of the first French revolution, as a mode 
of recruiting the army. 
CON'SECRATE, v. t. [add.] To sanc- 
tion ; to make inviolable. 
CON'SEeRATEDNESS, n. State of 

being consecrated. [Rare.] 
CON'SEIL,t n. [Fr.] Counsel. [Otau- 

CONSENS'UAL,tff. Irapljing consent. 
— Consensual contract, marriage. 

CONSENT', V. i. [add.] To feel or 
move correspondently to some existing 

CONSENT'ANT,tjJi)r. [Fr.] Consent- 
ing, f Chaucer.] 

CONSERVANCY, n. [add.] Conserva- 
tion ; preservation. 

CON'SERVATOR, n. [add.] Conserva- 
tors of the peace, officers who, by the 
common-law of England, were ap- 
pointed for the preservation of tlie 
public peace, before the institution of 
justices of the peace. Their powers 
were far inferior to those of modern 
justices of the peace. 

CONSID-ER, K. t. [add.] To regard in 
a particular light; to judge; to esteem; 
to reckon. 

CONSID-ER, V. i. [add.] To recollect; 
to observe. 

CONSIGNED', p/). [add.] Confirmed; 
ratified. [Shah.] 

CONSIGNIF'ICANT, a. E.xpressiug 
joint signification. 

CONSIGNIFY, !). t. To denote a joint 

CONSISTORY, n. [add.] In the Eng. 
lish church, the consistory court is held 
by the bishop's chancellor or commissary, 
and l)y archdeacons or their officials, 
either in the cathedral church or otiier 
convenient place in the diocese, for 
the hearing and determining of matters 
of ecclesiastical cognizance happening 
within that diocese. The consistory 
courts grant probates of wills for the 
goods and chattels of a deceased person 
whicli are witiiin tlieir jurisdiction. In 
some cliurches, as tlie Dutch, a consis- 
tory is the lowest tribunal, correspond- 
ing to a church-session; and in others, 
is composed of ministers and elders, 
corresponding to a presbytery. 
CONSOL'IDATE, v. t. [add.] In a 
general sense, to unite various particu- 
lars into one mass or body; as, to con- 
solidate the forces of an army ; to con- 
solidate various funds. 
n. In law, the joining of two or more 
actions together by a court or a judge. 
Tills is done when two or more actions 
are brought by the same plaintitt', at 
the same time, against the same de- 
fendant, for cause of action which might 
have been joined in the same action, 
the court or the judge deeming the 
proceedings to be oppressive. 
CONSOLIDATION, n. [add.] The 
uniting of several particulars into one 
body or whole ; as, a consolidation of 
the funds. 
CONSONANT'AL, a. Relating to, or 
partaking of the nature of a consonant. 
CON SORDINI. [It.] In music, a 
direction to perform a passage, if on 
the pianoforte, with the dampers down, 
and if on the violin, witli the mute on. 
It is usually abbreviated into C. S. 
CONSPEC-TABLE,«. Easytobeseen. 
CONSPEG'TUS, n. [L.] A view; an 
abstract, draught, or sketch. 
CONSPIR'ACY, n. [add.] An agree- 
ment between two or more persons to 
do an unlawful act, which is injurious 
to individuals or to the public. Every 
such agreement is a misdemeanor by 
the common-law of England. 
CON'STABLE, n. [add.] Constables, 
in the usual acceptation of the term at 
the present day, are of two kinds; viz., 
constables of hundreds, who are still 
a^Wed high constables; und constables of 
vills or tilhings, who are called either 
petty constables, or tilhing-men. High 
constables are now appointed either at 
quarter-sessions, or by the justices of 
tlie hundred out of sessions ; and petty 
constables are annually sworn into the 
office at quarter-sessions for each parish, 
upon presentment of the vestry. The 
duties of the high constable, respecting 
the preservation of the peace, are now 
merely nominal, but he is still of use to 
represent the hundred in certain legal 
actions, and to perform certain ministe- 
rial oflices connected with the adminis- 
tration of justice. A iietli/ constable has 
authority to arrest all persons who 
commit an aft'ray, assault, or breach 
of tlie peace in his presence, and keep 
them in safe custody until they can be 
brought before a magistrate; and he is 
also authorized to execute all such war- 
rants as are legal and committed to his 
hands by competent authorities. In 
London, the police force are appointed 
by direction of the secretary of state, 
and sworn in as constables by the com- 
missioners. Two or more justices of 
the peace, upon information that dis- 
turbances exist or are apprehended, are 

authorized to appoint special consta- 
bles ; and in boroughs, the magistrates 
are authorized to swear in as many in- 
habitants as they tliink fit to act as 
special constables when called upon 
CON'STABLE, n. [add.] To outrun the 
constable, to escape from the subject in 
dispute, when one's arguments are ex- 
hausted. [Hudibras.] 
CONSTAB LERIE,t n. [Fr.] A ward 
or division of a castle, under the care 
of a constable. [Chaucer.] 
€ON'STANT,M. [add.] In phusics, fha.t 
which remains unchanged or invariable. 
Thus, a quantity, force, law, Sic, when 
it continues unchanged, is called a con- 
CON'STANT- -WHITE, \n. A pig- 
PER'iMANENT- WHITE, )' ment pre- 
pared from the sulphate of barytes, use- 
ful in water-colour painting. It is very 
CON'STAT, V. [add.] The office of 
clerk of the pipe, to which this term 
refers, is now abolished. [See under 
CONSTIT'UENT,a. [add.] Having the 
power of constituting or appointing. 

A question of right arises between tin-- con- 
stituent and rqiresaiialhe body. Jmihts. 
bridge universittj, the name given to a 
walk taken for health and exercise. 
This term is used chiefly in the United 
Cambridge universitij, to lake a walk 
for health and exercise. The usual 
time for constitutionalizing is between 
two and four o'clock p.m. 
CONSTRAIN', v.t. [add.] To cheek; 
to repress; to control; as, I am con- 
strained by your presence. 
CONSTRICTIVE, a. Tending to con- 
tract or compress. 
law, implied trusts, including those 
which stand upon the presumed inten- 
tion of the parties, and those which are 
forced upon the conscience of the party 
by the mere operation of the law, as in 
cases of money paid by accident, mis- 
take, or fraud. It is a rule in equity, 
that all persons coming into possessicm 
of trust property, with notice of the 
trust, shall be considered as trustees by 
implication, and bound, with respect to 
tliat special property, to execute the 
trust. [See Trust.] 

consubstantial manner. 


CONSUETUDINARY, a. instead of 

CONSUETU'DINARY, n. A ritual of 

customary devotions. [Kare.] 
CONSUL, n. [add.] In France, during 

the first revolution, a chief magistrate, 

in imitation of the Romans. 
CONSUL'TARY, a. Relating to con- 
sultation Consultaru response, the 

opinion of a court of law on a special 

CONSUM'MAR, n. In the East Indies, 

a native head-servant. 
CONSUM'MATE, v.t. instead of 

CONSUMMATED, instead of CON'. 


CONSUM'MATING, instead of CON'- 

CONSUMPT', n. Consumption; as, the 

produce of grain is scarcely equal to 

the consumpt. 




€ONTA'GlONIST, n. One who be- 
lieves in the contaarious character of 
certain diseases, as the plague, &c. 

CONTAIN', V. t. [add.] To retain. 

CONTAIN', V. I. [add.] To repress 
curiosity ; to repress any desire in 

CONTAINER, n. He or that which 

CONTEKE',t n. [Sax.] Contention. 

CONTE.MERATE,t v. t, [L. con- 
iemero.] To violate ; to pollute. 

CONTEM'PLATE, v. t. instead of 

CONTEMPLATE, v. i. instead of 

CONTEMPLATED, instead of €ON'- 

CONTEMPLATING, instead of 

of beins contemplative. 

CONTEilPORANE'lTY, n. Contem- 

The state or quality of being contem- 

CONTEMPT', n. [add.] Contempt, in a 
court of law, is a disobedience of the 
rules, orders, or process of the court, 
or a disturbance or interruption of its 
proceedings. Contempts committed 
out of court are punishable by attach- 
ment, and contempts done before the 
court may be punished or repressed in 
a summary way, by commitment or by 
fine. The power of enforcing their 
process, and of vindicating their au- 
thority against open obstruction or 
defiance, is incident to all superior 

CONTEMPTIBIL'ITY, n. Quality of 
being contemptible. [Rar. us.] 

CON'TENANCE.f n. [Fr.] Appear- 
ance; pretence. [Chattcer.] 

CONTEN EMENT, h. [add.] In law, 
that which is necessary for the support 
and maintenance of men, agreeable to 
their several qualities or states of 

CONTENT', «. [add.] A paper de- 
livered to the searcher by the master of 
a vessel, before she is cleared outwards, 
describing the vessel's destination, and 
detailing the goods shipped, with other 
particulars. This content has to be 
compared vdth the cookets and the 
indorsements and clearances thereon. 

CONTENT',n. instead of CONTENT. 

CONTENTS', ;i. plur. That which is 
contained ; the thing or things held, in- 
cluded, or comprehended within a limit, 
boundary, or line ; the heads of a book. 
— In geom., the area or quantity of 
matter or space included in certain 
lines. {See Content.] 

CONTERM INAL, a. Same as Con- 

CONTEST'LESS, instead of CON'- 

CONTEX TUR.AX, a. Jlisplaced: see 
after Contexture. 

CONTINENTS, n. plur. Banks, as of 
rivers. [Skak.'] 

CONTIN GENT,a. [add.] In logic, a. 
term applied to the matter of a pro- 
position when the terms of it in part 
agree and in part disagree. 
CONTIN GENT. a. ladd.] Uncertain. 

law. {See Remaindek.] 
n. Quantities in continued proportion. 
]_See Continued.] 

CONTIN'UaTOR, instead of CON- 

CONTINUE, v.t. [add.] To confine; 
to keep in custody; to secm-e. [Shak.] 
— To sufter, or cause to remain ; as, to 
continue judaes in their posts. 

CONTIN UED BASE, n. In mH«c, the 
figured base of a score used throughout. ; 
The term is only to be found in very j 
old music. , 

CONTIN'UER, n. [add.] One who car- 
ries forward anything that had been 
begun by another; as, the continuer of j 
a historv. \ 

CONTIN'UOUS, a. In bot., the reverse 
of articulated. A. stem is said to be 
continuous which has no joints. 

CONT'LINE, n. In ships, the space 
between the bilges of casks which are | 
stowed alongside of each other. 

C0NT0RNL\'TI, n. plur. [It. cantor- | 
m'.] In nHmi>maric5, a species of medals | 
or medallions in bronze, having a cm-ved 
furrow {contomo) on each side, supposed 
to have been struck in the days of Con- 
stantine the Great and his successors, 
and to have formed tickets of admission 
to the public games of the circus of 
Rome and of Constantinople. 

CONTOR'SION, n. See Contortion. 

CON TRABAND,t v. t. To prohibit: 
to import goods prohibited. 

CONTRACT, n. [add.] In /air, con- 
tracts are divided into three classes : — 
i. Contracts of record, such as judg- 
ments, recognizances, and statutes of 
staple ; 2. Specialities, which are under 
seal, such as deeds and bonds ; 3. Simple 
contracts, or contracts by parol. Both 
verbal and written contracts are in- 
cluded in the class of verbal con- 

CONTRACTILITY, n. [add.] In 
phl/siol.f the property by which the 
fibrous tissues return to their former 
dimensions after being temporarily ex- 
tended. The shortening of the mus- 
cular fibre, on the application of a 
stimulus, is more properly termed irri- 

CONTRACTION, n. [add.] In sur., 
an abnormal and permanent alteration 
in the relative position and forms of 
parts, arising from various causes, as 
in anchylosis, distortion, club-foot, \\Ty- i 
neck, tSJc. — In pinjsics, a decrease of j 
volume, bulk, or dimensions, the usual i 
etfect of a diminution of heat. All , 
bodies expand by the application of | 
heat, and contract their dimensions 
when heat is withdi-awn. '• 

CONTRACTIVE, a. Tending to con- 

CON TRA-DANCE, n. [add.] [See . 
TIONS, n. In logic, propositions which, 
having the same terms, ditfer in quan- 
tity and qualitv. [See Contrary.] 

CONTRAIRE ,t v. t. [Fr. contrairer.] 
To cross; to thwart; to resist; to 
withstand. [57>e/iser.] 

CONTRAJER'VA, n. See Contra- 

CONTRA'RIE,t 1-. t. [Fr.] To contra- 
dict. [Chaucer.] 
CON'TRA-ROTA'TION, n. Circular 
motion in a direction contrary to some 
other circular motion. 
CON'TR ARY, f n. An adversar)'. 

CON TRARY TERMS, n. In logic, 
those terms which, coming imder some 
one class, are the most different of all 
that belong to that class ; as, wise and 


CONTRAST', r. i. To stand in contrast 
or opposition to. 

The joints wl.icli divide the snndsiODe <on- 
trast finely nith tlie diviEioiuil pluue^ which 
separate the hasalt into pillars. L^elL 

CON'TRA-TENO RE, n. Id music, 
the same as Contralto, — vrhich see. 

CON'TRE-DANCE, n. [Fr.] Same as 
Contra- Dance. 

CON'TREFETE.f r. /. [Fr.] To coun- 
terfeit. [ Chaucer. } 

C O N TR E-TEMPS', n. {kon'-tr-tang'.) 
[Fr.] An unexpected accident, which 
throws everything into confusion. 

CONTRlBli TIONAL, a. Furnishing 

CONTRIT'URATE, r. t. To pulverize 
or reduce to small particles. 

CONTRlVE',r.f. [add.] To wearaway ; 
to spend ; as, to contrive the afternoon. 

CONTROL', V. t. [add.] To confute or 
conrict. f.SArtA.J 

CONTROVE',t tj. t. [Fr.] To invent. 

CONTU'MULATE,r. t. [L. contumiilo.] 
To lay or bury in the same tomb or 

CONTUMULA'TION, n. Act of laying 
or bur%ins in the same tomb or grave. 

CONTC'NE'.f 5ee Continue. [Chau- 

CON'USABLE, a. Liable to be tried or 

CONVALES'CENTLY,adt?. In a con- 
valescent manner. 

CONVECTION, n. [add] The act of 
carrjing or conve>ing. A mode of com- 
munication of heat through fiuid bodies. 
M'hen a portion of water or of air is 
heated above or cooled below the sur- 
rounding portions, it expands or con- 
tracts in magnitude, and thus becoming 
specifically lighter or heavier, rises or 
sinks accordingly, carrying with it the 
newly acquired temperature, whatever 
that temperature may be. 

CONVEN'ER, n. [add.] The chairman 
of an organized body, as of a committee ; 
it being his province to convene or call 
the members together. 

CONVENT ,t r. i. [add.] To serve ; to 
agree ; to be convenient. [Shah.] 

C b N V E N T'E D, pp. Summoned. 

CONVEN'TION, n. [add.] Military 
convention, a treaty made between the 
commanders of two opposing armies 
concerning the terms on which a tem- 
porary cessation of hostilities shall take 
place between them.— Conren/io/i trea- 
ties, treaties entered into between dif- 
ferent states, under which they each 
bind themselves to observe certain 
stipulations contained in the treaty. 

CONVEN'TIONAL, a. [add.] .^rising 
out of custom or tacit agreement; as, 
a conventional use of language.— Con- 
verttional estates, those freeholds not of 
inheritance or estates for life, which 
are created by the express acts of the 
parties, in contradistinction to those 
which are legal, and arise from the 
operation and construction of law. 

which is received or established by con- 
vention or agreement ; a conventional 
phrase, form, or ceremony. 

adheres to a convention or treaty. 

tional mode of living and acting ; a 
conventional term, principle, or custom. 

C0NVEN'T10NALLY,a(/r. In a con- 
ventional manner; by tacit agree- 




€0NVER(VEXCE,) n. [add.] In 

CONVEUG'ENCYJ 7nath., the gra- 
dual diminution oi tlie terms of an 
indefinitely continued series. [See 

€ONVERCi'EXT, a. [add.] Convergent 
series. [See Convergent.] 

CONVERO'ING, jypr. or a. [add.] 
When a series of numbers, proceedin,t^ 
without end, has terms which gradually 
diminish in such a manner that no 
number whatsoever of them added to- 
gether will be as great as a certain 
giveu number, the series is said to be 
converging or convergent. But when 
such a number can be added together 
as will exceed any given number, how- 
ever great, the series is said to be di- 




[Rar. ws.] 

ANT, a. 

CON'VERSANT,t n. One who con- 
verses with another, 

CON'VEUSANTLY, adv. In a con- 
versant or familiar manner. 

who excels in conversation. 

CONVERSAZIO'NE, n. [add.] A 
meeting for conversation, particularly 
on literary subjects. 

CONVERS'ELY, instead of CON- 
VERSELY, adv. [add.] In maih., by 
conversion. [See Conversion.] 

CONVEUS'IUN,«. [add.] CoHct-mowo/ 
proportiojis, in math., is, when of four 
proportionals it is inferred that the 
first is to its excess above tlie second, 
as the tliird to its excess above the 
fourth, and the four terms, when thus 
arranged, are said to be proportionals 
by conversion. 

CONVER'SIVE, a. Conversable; so- 
ciable ; that may be converted or 



CONVEY', V. i. To play the thief. 

CONVEY' ANCE,n. [add.] In law, ^ 
deed or instrument in writing which 
passes real or personal property. Con- 
veyances operate according to the 
rules of the common-law, or under the 
statute of uses, and in the case of lease 
and release they operate in both modes. 
This latter is the most usual modern 
mode of conveying land and heredita- 
ments. Conveyances simply transfer- 
ring personal property are csMq^ assign- 

CONVEY'ERS, w. Fraudulent appro- 
priators of property ; jugglers. [Shah- 
spear e.] 

CONVICTED, pp. [add.] Over- 
powered. \ Skak.] 

CONVICTION, n. [add.] Strong be- 
lief, on the ground of satisfactory evi- 
dence, w^itliijut any implication of pre- 
vious error; as, a coHciV/ion that there 
is nothing honourable which is not 
accompanied with innocence. 

CONVINCE', i; t. [add.] To refute; 
as, to convince atheism. [Bacon.] 

CONVlV'IALIST,n. A person of con- 
vivial habits. 

CONVOCA'TIONAL, a. Relating to 
a convocation 

CON'VOLUTE, \ a. [add.] Convo- 

CON'VOLUTED,} hted hones, the 
upper and lower turbinated bones of 
tlie nose. 

CONVOLU'TION, n. [add.] In anaf., 
a term applied to the windings and 
turnings of the cerebrum, and to the 
foldings of the small intestines. 

CONVOLVE', u.^ [add.] To unite in 
circular motion. 

eONVOLVULA'CEOUS, a. Relating 
to the convolvulus. 

CONVUL'SIONAL, a. Having convul- 
sions ; relating to convulsions. [Rare.'] 

CONY'ZA, 71. [add.] This genus belongs 
to that group of Compositie called 
Corymbifera;. It was formerly very 
extensive as well as heterogeneous, com- 
prehending many herbs and shrubs 
found in all the quarters of the globe. 
It is now better understood, and is 
limited to seventy or eigiity plants of 
no consequence. The C. squarrosa, 
tiea-bane or ploughman's-spikenard, is 
now known by the name of Inula 
coni/za ; it is a common plant on cal- 
careous soils in Great Britain ; it yields 
a volatile oil with a peculiar scent, and 
is used for the purpose of driving away 
fleas and gnats. C anihelniintica, now 
called Venionia anthelnuntica, is an 
East Indian species, the fruit of which is 
used by the doctors of India as a power- 
ful remedy for worms. C. genistel- 
foides, now placed in tlie genus Bac- 
charis, contains a bitter extractive 
matter and an aromatic oil, and is em- 
ployed in the Brazils in intermittent 

COO'IE, n. The cry or call of the Aus- 
tralian aborigines. 

COO'IE, I', t. To cry or call like the 
aborigines of Australia. 

COOK'UOUSE, n. Also called the 
galley. An erection on a ship's deck 
for containing the caboose or cooking- 

COOK'lE, n. A kind of small sweet- 
bread for eating at tea. [Scotch.'^ 

COOL, a. [add.] Impudent in a very 
high degree; as, when speaking of some 
pretension, trick, &c., we say, " Tliat 
is cool.'" [Familiar.] 

COOL'IE, n. In the East Indies; a por- 
ter or carrier. 

COOL-TANK' ARD, n. An old English 
beverage of various composition, but 
usually made of ale, with a little wine, 
or wine and water, with an addition of 
lemon -juice, spices, and borage, or 
other savoury herbs. 

COOL'-WORT, n. In America, the 
popular name of a plant, the Tiarella 
cordifolia, the properties of which are 
diuretic and tonic. It is prepared by 
the Shakers. 

COOMB, \n. A valley on the decli- 

COOiMBE, f vityof ahill, in theshape 
of an amphitheatre. [See Comb.] 

COOP'EK, V. t. To do the work of a 
cooper; to make barrels, hogsheads, 
casks, &c.; to mend, or put in order, 
as a cooper does casks. 

COOP ERAOE, n. [add.] The work or 
business of a cooper. 

CO-OP'ERANT,«. Operating together. 

COOP'EKING, i^ir. Malting casks, or 
putting them in oi'der. 

CO-OR'DIN.VTE, v. i. To make co- 

CO-OK'DINATES, n. phtr. [add.] In 
geum., a term applied to a system of 
lines, to which points imder considera- 
tion are referred, and by means of 
which their position is determined. 
Co-ordinates either determine the po- 
sition of a point in space or in a plane 
which is understood to contain all the 
figure under consideration, as in the 
fu'st six books of Euclid. They deter- 


mine position by straight lines only, or 
by a straight line and angles; in the 
latter case they are called jiolar co- 
ordinates. When co-ordinates are at 
right angles to each other, they are 
called rectangular co-ordinates, and 
when they make any other angle with 
each other, they are called obliqjte co- 
ordinates. In plane geoni., one of the 
co-ordinates is called the abscissa, and 
the other the ordinate. The co-ordi- 
nates of a star are its distances from 
the pole of the heavens and from the 
meridian of the place of observation, 
measured in degrees of the respective 
circles. In the fig., 
C D and B A are 
co-ordinates, the first 
being an abscissa, 
to which, through the 
puint D, is drawn the 
ordinate B A. In 
co-ordinates, the 
abscissa and ordi- 
nates may be drawn making any angle 
with each other. 
COOST, pfi. Cast. [Scotch.] 
COOT, n. [add.] The common coot is 
the Fnlica atra ; Wilson's coot is the 
F. Wilsoni, which inhabits various 
parts of North America; the crested 
coot is the F. cristata, which inhabits 
Madagascar. The coots belong to 
the order Graliatores, and family 
COP, n. [add.] The conical ball of 
thread formed on the spindle of a 
wheel or spinning-frame. 
CO'PAL, n. [add.] Tliis substance is 
often improperly called guni-copal. — 
Me.vican copal is supposed to be the 
produce of a plant allied to the Hy- 
mencca courbaril. [S'.'e Courbaril.] — 
Indian copal is produced by Valeria 
indica ; it is known in England by the 
name of gum-animi. — Brazilian copal 
Hows from several species of Hymen^a, 
and from Trachylobium martianum, 
both of the nat. order Leguminosje. 
COPAL'CHE-BARIv, n. The bark so 
called is obtained from two widely dif- 
ferent plants ; the one is the copalche- 
bush, which is Croton pseudo-china, of 
the nat. order of Euphorbiaceje; the 
other is the copalche-plant, Strychnus 
pscudo-quina, of the nat. order of Lo- 
gan iacere. 
COP ATAIN-HAT,n. A high-crowned 

hat. [Shah.] 
COP V'TRIOT, instead of CO- 

COPE, V. t [add.] To encounter; as, I 
love to cope him in these sullen fits. 
COPE.fn. [Fr. cape.] A cloak. [Chau- 

COPECK, n. A Russian coin. [S^e 
CO'PIE,t n. [L. copia.] Copiousness. 
CO'PING,^^. [add.] In ship-buHding,the 
turning the ends of iron lodging-knees, 
so as to hook into the beams, and thus 
ease the strain oft* the necks of the 
bolts wlien the vessel rolls. 
COPPE,t 71. [Sax-] The top of any- 
thing. [Chaucer] 
colour of copper. 
COP'PER-NICKEL, n See Kupfer- 


COP'PER-PLATE, n. [add.] A print 
or impression on paper, &c., from a 

COP'PER-PLATE, a. Relating to en- 
graving on copper, or printing from a 




tOP'PEKS, ln./)/«r.Thecast- 

SHIP'S eOP'PEKS, / iron apparatus 
used on board ship for cookins, and 
erected in the cookho ise or cailey 
€OPPEK-SPOT, 71. A species of pre- 
daceous beetle, the elytra of which are 
black, and marked with rows of hollow 
copper-coloured dots (Calosoma cali- 
dum). In Canada it is common in 
meadows and ploughed fields. 
€OP'PLE-DUST, n. [add.] The same 
fxs C irPEi.-D U'^T 
COP'lUD-E, 11.' [Gr. «.T-..-, dung.] A 
family of coleopterous insects, wliich 
are found in dung, and so called from 
the typical genus Copris. The males 
have projections on the head and tho- 
rax. Some of the African and Indian 
species are of large size. 
eOPKOPH'AGi, ) n. [Gr. ,.=r=..-. 
COPKOril'AGANS,) dung, ai'id 
fxyu, to eat.] A section of lanielli- 
corn beetles, which live in and upon 
the dung of animals. It contains the 
searabajus of the ancients, and the 
" shard-borne beetles'' of this country. 
eOPKOPH'AGOlS, a. Feeding upon 
dung or filth ; a term particularly ap- 
plied to certiiin insects. 
COPSE, V. t. [add.] To plant under- 
eOPSE-WOOD, n. A growth of 
shrubs and bushes. 
COP'TIS, 71 A genus of plants, nat. 
order Kanunculaceje. C. trifuliaj 
gold-thread, found in Canada and the 
northern parts of the United States of 
America, is a small plant with white 
tlowers, and a yellow fibrous rhizoma, 
wiiich runs in all directions. A decoc- 
tion of the leaves and stalks is used by 
the Indians for giving a yellow colour to 
cloth and skins. The rhizouiata, w hich 
are bitter, when administered in medi- 
cine, act in the same way as quassia, 
gentian, and other bitlei-s. 
COP Y, n. [add.] A theme. [Shah] 
COPY-HOLD, 71. [add.] Co,nj-hotds 
now descend to the heir-at-law, accord- 
ing to the rules that regulate the de- 
scent of all other kinds of land. 
for copying any piece of writing with 
perfect accuracy, or for producing du- 
plicates of letters, invoices, and other 
manuscripts; such as Watt's and Kit- 
chic's copying - presses, Wedgwood's 
manifold writer, &ic. 
COQUET TISULY, ode. In a coquet- 
tish manner. 
COQL'IL LA-NUT, n. The fruit of the 
palm, Allalta fimifvra, one of the 
cocoa-nut group, which grows abun- 
dantly in South America. The nuts 
are extensively used in turnery, and 
especially for making umbrella-handles. 
{See PiiCiBA.] 
COR, 7!. [Lat., genit. cordis.'] In anat., 
the heart ; the central organ of circula- 
COKACIAS, n. A genus of birds, al- 
lied to the crows, containing the rol- 
lers, one species of which (C. ijamda) 
is a rare visitant of the British Is- 
COK'ACOID, 7i. [add.] This name is 
now extended to a large Battened 
bone, passing from the shoiUder-joint 
to the sternum, in birds, reptiles, and 
COR A(iE,f 7!. Coiu^ge; heart; mind. 

COK'ALLED, a. Furnished with coral. 

\ Poetical.] 
COKAL'LID.E, 7!. A family of com- 
pound polyps, yieldinj, the substance 

called coraly and constituting the third 
order of the class PolvpL 

a term applied to those recent or allu- 
vial strata which consist of the marine 
banks, shoals, and islands, entirely com- 
posed of coral. 

COK.A.LLOKHIZA, n. A genus of 
plants, nat. order Orchidace:B. C. m- 
natOy coral - root, is a British plant, 
having thick fleshy roots, with much 
branched tibres. The flow ers are seated 
on a spike, and are of a yellowish colour. 
It is found in mountainous woods, but 
is a rare plant. 

COR'AL-KOOT, n. [add.] [5<;e Co- 
EALLOEHIZA in this Siipp] 

CORAM NO BIS. [L.J Before us; a 

CORANT'0, 71. See Cocr-ixt, Cou- 


CORBAN, n. [add.] In Jeicish anti- 
quity, an offering, sacrifice, or oblation 
of any kind presented before God. 
CORBES,t n. pltir. Corbels. Orna- 
ments in building. [A>)e7we7-.] 

COK-CAR'OLl, 71. A star of the third 
magnitude in Canes Venatici, situated 
on the neck of the Low er Dog. I 

CORD'ED, pp. or a. [add.] Striped or i 
fiuTOwed, as bv cords, 

C O R D ' £ TH,t tor Accobdetu. 

COED -GRASS, n. A genus of plants, 
Spai'tina, — which see. 

COR'DIAL, 71. [add] Aromatized and 
sweetened spirit, employed as a beve- 

eORDILERES.t "• plur. Cordeliers. 
[Chaueer.] . 

CORDIL'LERA,n.[Sp.].4namesome- I 
times given to the mountain-range of j 
the Andes in South America, but pro- ' 
perly applicable only to the innermost 
and highest ridge of the mass. j 

CORD ON, n. [add.] Cordon-sanitaire, 
a line of troops or military posts on the 
borders of a district of country infected 
with disease, to cut off communication, 
and thus prevent the disease from [ 
spreading. — A baldiick or sack worn 
across the breast, in the orders of 
knights, is also called a cordon. 

CORpUROY',H [add.] Corduroy-road, 
in \orth America, a road constructed 
with logs laid together over swamps or 
marshy places, for carriages to pass 
over. They derive their name from 
their ribbed appearance, resembling 

COKD'"\VAYNE,t "■ Cordwain,— 
which see. [Spenser.] I 

COR DY, 71. In the hat-trade, a kind of : 
man's hat, the body of which is of felt, 
having a fine covering of camel's or 
goat's hair. Cordies have nearly been i 
superseded by inferior plated hats. | 

COKE, 71. i^add.J lii arch., the interior i 
part of anything; as, the core of a I 
column or wall. 

COKEG'ONUS, 71. A genus offish, se- 
parated from the salmons. It contains 
at least one British species, the gwi- 
niad or vendace. 

COREL ATIVE. See Cokrelative. 

C^OR-UY DK^E, 71. [L.] A star of the 
first magnitude in the southern con- 
stellation Hvdra. 

COKIAN DKUil, 71. A genus of an- 
nual plants, nat. order Umbelliferas. 
C. sativum, the officinal coriander, is a 
native of Emope, which is cultivated 
on account of its seeds. [See CoEi- 


COR lUJI, 71. [Lat.] Leathern body- 
armour, formed of overlapping leaves 

or sc.nles, worn by the Roman soldiers 
and other nations of antiquity. In this 

country it continued in use till the 
reign of Edward I., the scales being 
sometimes tinted of different colours. 
CORK, 71. In the United Stales, a term 
applied to express what in this country 
is called ^o.t(-«aife, or nails driven into 
the shoes of horses to prevent them 
from falling upon the ice. 
€'OUIv'LING, ( n. Acanthopterygious 
CORK' WING,) fish, species of the 
genus Crenilabrus, ai-e so called in 
CORK-TREE, 7i. The Quercus suber, 
from the outer bark of wliich, called 
cpiphlopum, corks are made. [See 
CORKY, a. [add] Dry; mthered ; 

husky. [Shah.] 
COR-LEO'NIS, 71. [L.] The Lion's- 
heart; another name for Kegulus, a 
star of the first magnitude in the con- 
stellation Leo. 
COR MOR.\NT, 71. [add.] The common 
cormorant is the Phatacrocorax carbo 
of Temminck, and the Pelecanus carbo 
of Linn. A species of cormorant is 
trained and used by the Chinese to aid 
them in fishing. 

CORN, f. (. [add.] To feed a horse with 
CORNA CEOUS, a. Relating to the 
cornus or cornel-slirub. 
CORN -BIN, 71. .\ bin or box for hold- 
ing corn. 
CORN'-COCKLE, ti. A British plant 
of the genus Agrostemma, the A. 
githago. [See Agrostemma.] 
CORN' CROW-FOOT, 71. A plant of 
the genus Ranunculus, the lianmwulus 
CORNED, pp. or a. [add.] Cured by 
salting moderately; as, corned beef; 
fed with oats, as a horse. Drunk. 
CORNED-BEEF 11. Beef moderately 

fruit of the Cornus mas, or mascula, 
wliich is eatable. 

CORNER,!!. /. In the United States, 
to corner a ):erson, is to get the advan- 
tage of him in an argument, as though 
he were physically iilaced in a corner 
from which he could not escape. — To 
Jloor a person, is used colloquially with 
us to signify the same thing. 
CORN ER-CAP,t 71. The chief embel- 
lishment or ornament. 
CORN ER -TOOTH, 71. One of the 
four teeth of a horse, between the mid- 
dle teeth and the tusks, two above and 
two below. 
CORNET, 71. [add.] A standard or 

flag. [Obsolete.] 
brass wind musical instrument, like the 
French-horn, but capable of much 
greater inflexion, from the valves and 




stoppers (instons) with wbich it is fur- 
nished, whence the name. 
€ORNET"n, n. [It.] A method of 
riding, or a motion of a horse. 
CORN'EULE, n. [Diminutive of L. cor- 
nea.] In entom.y a term applied to the 
minute transparent segments which 
defend the compound eyes of insects. 
€ORN'INE, n. A new principle dis- 
covered in the bark of Cornus Jiorida, 
having properties resembling those of 
€0RN'ISH-EN6INE, ». A single- 
acting,steam -engine used for pumping 
water. The pump-rods appended to 
one end of the beam ;ire loaded so as 
by their gravity to have sufficient force 
to raise the water, and t!ie down-stroke 
of the steam-piston at the other end of 
the beam is used to raise them. The 
steam is generally employed at a con- 
siderable pressure, and worked very 

plant of the genus Limosella, the Z. 
aquatica ; called also mudwort. 
eORN'-LAWS, 71. [add.] The cot-n- 
laws of this country were repealed in 
1846, and foreign grain is now admitted 
CORN'-MINT, 11. A plant of the genus 

Mentha, the M. arvejisis. 
CORN'MUSE,t n. [Fr.] A bagpipe. 

CORNO'PEAN, n. A kind of horn ; a 
musical instrument of modern inven- 
€ORN'-POPPY, n. Red poppy (Pala- 
ver rAceas), a troublesome weed in corn- 
€ORN'-RENT, n. [add.] A money- 
rent varying in amount according to the 
fluctuations of the price of corn. In 
many parts of the south of Scotland, 
corn-rents are paid according to the fiar 
prices of corn. 
CORN'-SALAD, n. The common name 
of several species of British plants of 
the genus Fedia. \See Fedia.] 
CORN'U, n. plur. Cornua. [L.] A horn; 
a term applied to warts, from their 
horny hardness; and in cmat., to pai'ts 
resembling a horn in form. 
€ORN'U-AMMO'NIS, n. [add.] In 
anat., a designation of the pes-hippu- 
campi of the brain, from its being bent 
like a ram's horn, the famous crest of 
Jupiter Ammon. 
CORNU'BIANITE, n. A slaty rock, 
abundant in the western part of Corn- 
wall, in contact with granite. It is of 
a dark blue or purple colour, hard and 

CORN'US, n. Instead of nat. order 
Caprifqlise, read nat. order CornaceEe. 
€ORNUTE',a. Horned; having horns. 
€ORN'-VAN, n. A machine for win- 
nowing corn. 
€ORN'-WEEVIL, n. The Calandra 
granaria, also called Sitophilus gra- 
variuSj an insect very injurious to 
grain. [See AVeevil.J 
€OR'0€ORE,n. A boat of the Indian 
Archipelago, of various form. That 
used in Celebes, and employed fre- 
quently for piratical purposes, is pro- 
pelled by oars, and has a curious appa- 
ratus raised above and projecting 
beyond the gunwale, and projecting 
also beyond the stern, on which a 
second row of rowers is placed, in ef- 
fect rendering the vessel similar in 
some respects to the ancient hireme. 
It is often manned with sixty men. 
Others, as those used in the Mollucas, 
are masted vessels, broad, with narrow 

extremities, fifty to sixty-five feet long, 
and covered throughout about four- j 

so named from itssupposed resemblance 
to a crow's bill. 

Corocofo of Celebes. 

fifths of their length with a sort of 

COR'OLLARY, 7t. [add.] Any neces- 
sary consequence of a proposition ; 
something added to what was pro- 
mised or agreed for, or to what might 
be expected, or to what regularly re- 

€OR'OLLATE, \a. Like a corolla; 

€OR'OLLATED,> having corollas. 

COROLLIFLO'R^, instead of €0- 

tiful brown wood from the coast of 

CORONA, n. [add.] A crown or cir- 
clet suspended from the roof or vault- 
ing of churches, to hold tapers lighted 
on solemn occasions. Sometimes they 
are formed of double or triple circlets, 

an'anged pyramidically. — In iinaf.f a 
term used to designate certain parts 
supposed to resemble a crown. — Corona 
ciliaris, the ciliary ligament. — Corona 
glandisj the margin of the glans penis. 

COR'ONACH,) n. [Gael.] A dirge; a 

€OR'ANICII, j lamentation for the 

COR'ONAL, or €ORO'NAL, a. 


CORONA'MEN, n. In zool, the su- 
perior margin of a hoof, called, in vete- 
rinaru sur., the coronet. 

CORONATED, a. In conchol.y a term 
applied to spiral shells which have their 
whorls more or less surmounted by a 
row of spines or tubercles, as in seve- 
ral volutes, cones, mitres, &c. 

CORO'NE, n. [Gr. ^e^a-v^, acrow.] The 

acute process of the lower jaw-bone; 


€OR'ONEL. V. [Sp.] The upper part of 
a jousting-lance, constructed to un- 
horse but not to wound a knight. [See 
cut in Diet. Tournament.] 
COR'ONER, n. [add.] Most commonly 
there are three or four coroners in each 
county in England, but the number 
varies, and in some there are six or 
seven coroners. The council of every 
borough, to which a separate court of 
quarter-sessions has been granted, is 
empowered to appoint a coroner for the 
borough. By the Act 7 and 8 Vict., 
c. 92, coroners may be appointed for 
districts within counties, instead of the 
counties at large. 

COR'ONER'S-COURT, n. A tribunal 
of record, where the coroner holds his 
CORONIL'LA, n. A genus of plants, 
nat. order Leguminosa?. C. emerus, 
scorpion-senna, is a common plant all 
over the south of Europe. It has bright 
yellow flowers, and its leaves act as a 
cathartic, like those of senna. The 
leaves of another species {C. varia) 
have a diuretic action on the system, 
and also purge. The species of this 
genus are numerous, and all adapted 
for ornamental cultivation. 
COKON'OPUS, n. A genus of plants, 
nat. order Crucifer^e. It being un- 
certain that these were the plants so 
called by the ancients, the name Sene- 
biera is now generally preferred. Two 
species inhabit Britain, and are known 
by the common name of wart-cress. 
-GOROUNE',t n. (koroun'.) [Fr.] A 

crown or garland. [Chaucer.] 
COR'PORA, n. [Lat.] plu7\ of Corpus. 
[See Corpus.] 
COR'PORALSIilP, n. [add.] A cor- 
poral's ortice or command. 
CORPORA'TION,??. [add.] Corpora- 
tions nre distinguished into aggregate 
and sole [see Diet.], corporations ec- 
chsiasiical and iay, civil and eleemo^ 
synary, regular and secular. Again, 
they are divisible into corporations of a 
public character, established for the 
purpose of general or local govern^ 
ment, and those whicli have been 
created to facilitate the object of pri- 
vate associations. The corporations 
established for local administration of 
towns are now generally called muni- 
cipal corporations. [See Munici- 
CORPORIFICA'TION, n. The act of 

giving body or palpability. 
CORPUS'CULA, n. [plur. of L cor- 




pusculum.] Corpuscles, or small par- 
ticles or atoms. 

CORPUS €ULAR, a. [add.] Corpus-^ 
c^tiar theory, a theory for explaining; 
the nature of lii^ht. According to this 
theory, the sun and all oilier luminous 
bodies have the property of emitting 
exceedingly minute particles of their 
substance, '.vith prodigious Telocity, and 
these particles entering the eye produce 
the sensation of vision. It has also been 
termed the emission theory. \^See Light, 
and Undulatory.J 

€ORPUS€ULAR'lTY, n. State of be- 
ing corpuscuhir. 


eOKRADIATE, r. /. To concentrate 
to one point, as light or rays. 

€ORRAL', H. [Sp.] A yard; inclosed 
ground adjoining a house. In the pam- 
pas of South America, and elsewhere, 
horses are kept in the corral. 


CORREC TORY, c. Containing or 
making correction. 

the fine a)is, the adaptation of the 
parts of a design to one another. 

CORRESPOND ENT, a. [add.] Obe- 
dient ; conformable in behaviour ; as, 
to he correspoiulettt to Qon\m3.nd.[Sh a k.] 

corresponding manner. 

COR'RIGE,! V. t. [Fr.] To correct. 

CORRIC"; lOLA, H. A genus of plants, 
nat. order lllecebrace.T. There is only 
one British species, C. UttoraUs, known 
by the name of strap-wort. [See Strap- 

CORROBORATORY,^/. Tending to 
strengthen ; corroborative. 

COR ROBORY, n. A kind of Austra- 
lian dance of friendship. 

€ORRUMP'ABLE,ta. [Fr.] Corrupt- 
ible. [Chaucer.] 

CORRUMPE^t r. t. To corrupt. 

COKRUP TIONIST, «. A defender of 

COR'SaIR. n. [add.] A piratical vessel. 

€0R-SC0RP10 NIS, «. [L. the heart 
of the scorpion.] Another name for 
Antares, a star of the first magnitude 
in the zodiacal constellation Scorpio. 

CORSE-t V. i. (cors.) To cmse [Chau- 

€ORSEINT',t l«- [Fr.] A holy body; 

CORSAYNT',t ( a saint. [Chaucer.] 

CORS'ICAN MOSS,». The Gioartina 
hehnintho-coiion, a crjptogamic plant, 
of the order Alga*, used in Corsica as a 
remedy for intestinal worms. 

COR'SIVE,t a. For Corrosive, for- 
merly accented corrosive. [Spenser.] 

COR'TICAL, a. [add.] Cortical sub- 
stance, the exterior part of the brain 
and of the kidney, so named from its 
bark-like appearance. The same name 
is given to the bony-like substance 
which covers the fang of a tooth. 

COR'TICINE, H. An alkaloid found in 
the bark of the Poj^ulus tremens. 


CORUSCA'TION, n. [add.] Figura- 
tivelt/y intellectual brilliancy ; as, the 
corru.'iculions of genius. 

CORVEE', n. [Fr.] In feudal law, an 
obligation on the inhabitants of a dis- 
trict, to perform certain services, as the 
repair of roads, &c., for the sovereign 
or the feudal lord. 

CORV'EN,t pp. [From carve] Cut; 
carved. [Chaucer. \ 

CORVETTE', n. [add.] A corvette 

ranks next below a frigate ; it is frigate- 
rigged, with three masts, and built for 
fast sailing. 

CORYDALIS, n. A genus of plants, 
nat. order FumariaceiC. The species 
are mostly small glaucous herbs, with 
ternate or pinnated leaves, and fusiform 
tuberous or fibrous roots. Upwards of 
forty species have been described, seve- 
ral of which are found in Britain, and 
known by the common name of fumi- 
tory. They were formerly referred to 
the genus Fumaria (Linn.), but ditfer by 
baring a pod nith several seeds. IMany 
of the species are well adapted for 
flower-borders and rock-work. Of late 
this genus has been also divided into 
several. — Also, the name of a genus of 
neuropterous insects, found in North 
America, the males of which have large 
jaws hke horns. 

CORYM BIATE, a. Same as Corym- 


CORYM BOSE, a. Relating to, or like 
a corymb. 

CORYM BUS, n. [L.] A corymb,— 
tchich see. 

CORYPH^'NA, n. [add.] The dolphin 
of the ancients is the C. hippui-is. All 
the species are very rapid in theii" mo- 
tions, and very voracious. They are of 
brilliant colours, and are objects of ad- 
miration to everv voyager. 

CORYZ'A, n. [Gr. xcf-.^^.] Inflamma- 
tion of tlie mucous membrane of the 
nostrils, eyes, &c., usually arising fi'om 

COSOINODIS'CUS, n. In hot., a genus 
of Diatomace^e, resembling minute cir- 
cular shells ; they are good microscopic 

€OS'ENAGE, n. See Cosinage. 

CO'SEY, a. Snug; comfortable; warm; 
easy; social; talkative; chatty. [See 

COSHERING. See Cociiering. 

CO'SILY, adv. In a cosey manner; 
snugly; comfortably. 

COS'IN.f n. or a. A cousin or kinsman ; 
allied; related. [Chaucer.] 

COSMOG'ONAL, a. Relating to cos- 


COSMORAMTC,a. Relating to a cos- 

COS'MOS, n. [Gr. *•*,««.] This word 
originally signified uinanient (as an 
adornment for a man, a woman, a horse); 
in njtigurative sense, it implied the order 
or adornment of a discourse. It after- 
wards came to signify the universe and 
the order which pervades it; the as- 
semblage of all things in heaven and 
earth ; the universality of created things 
constituting the perceptible world. In 
this latter signification, Himiboldt has 
adopted the word as the title of his re- 
cent work on ''The Physical Descrip- 
tion of the Universe." 

COS'MOSPHERE, n. [Gr. M«ra»f, 
world, and <r;oe *x, a sphere.] Au ap- 
paratus for sho« ing the position of the 
earth, at any given time, with respect to 
the fixed stars. It consists of a hollow 
glass globe, on which are depicted the 
stars forming the constellations, and 
witliin which is a ttrrestrial globe. 

COSS, H.[add.]In /;i(/i«,a road-measure, 
of variable extent, ranging between one 
mile and two miles. — Hule of coss, the 
name originally given to algebra. [See 

COS'SET, V. t. To fondle; to make a 
pet of. 

COS'SIC, a. [add.1 "When algebra was 

first introduced into Europe, it was 
called the rule of coss, probably from 
the Italian. — Regola di cosa^ the rule 
of the thing, the unknown number be- 
ing called cosa. 

COST.f n. [L. casta.'] A rib or side. 

COS'TA, «. [L. a rib.J In hot., the mid- 
rib of a leaf. 

€OST'A6E,t H. Cost; expense. [Chau- 

COSTE'lE,t V. I. [Fr.] To go by the 
coast. [Chaucer.] 

COS TIE, H. In the West Indies, the 
offspring of a white and a fustie. 

€OSrLEW,t a. Costly. [Chaucer.] 

COST'LY, a [add.] Occasioning much 
expense; as, costly vices. 
, COS TRELL,t «. A drinking vessel. 
' [Chaucer.] 

j COSTS, n. plur. [See Cost.] In law, 
the expenses incurred by parties in 
' proceedings at law or in equity. In 
some cases double and treble costs are 
expressly given by statute. M'here a 
statute gives double costs, the prevail- 
ing pai-ty is allowed his simjle, or com- 
mon costSy wluch include the expenses 
of witnesses, counsel's fees, iStc, and 
afterward he is allowed half of the 
single costs. — Treble costs consist of the 
single costs, half of the single costs, and 
half that half again. 

COT, COTE, or C0.4T, at the end of 
names of peaces, are derived generally 
from the Saxon cot, a cottiige. 

COT, ) c ^ ^ 

COTT ("■ ■^''^*-^TT. 

CO'TARNINE, «. An alkaline base 
derived from narcotine. 

COTE,f n. A woman's gown. 

COTE,t n. A coat. [Chaucer.] 

COT'ED, for Quoted. [Shak.] 

COTERIE', n. [add.] A meeting for 
social, literarv, or political intercourse. 

COTl'DAL LINES, n. Imaginary lines 
on the surface of the ocean, tliroughout 
which high-water takes place at the 
same instant. 



COTONEAS'TER, n. A genus of 
plants, nat. order Rosacea. C. vul- 
garis is a British species, having rose- 
coloured petals, the margins of the 
calyx downy. The other species are 
natives of the south of Europe and 
various parts of the East Indies. They 
are all adapted for shrubberies. 

COTT,t ". A little boat. [See Cot.] 

COT'TABUS, n. An ancient Greek 
game, which consisted in throwing 
wine from cups, without spilling, into 
little basins of met;il, suspended in a 
particular manner, or tioating in water. 

C( >T'TAGE, H. [add.] This terra is now 
also applied to small country-residences 
and detached suburban houses, adapted 
to a moderate scale of living, yet witli 
all due attention to neatness, comfort, 
and refinement. To the particular 
style in which these cottages aie built, 
the name coti age-architecture has been 

tions of ground which are allotted to 
the dwellings of country-labourers, for 
the purpose of being cultivated by them 
as gardens. Sometimes these allot- 
ments are attached to the dwellings, 
and at other times they are apart from 
them. [See Allotment System, under 
Allotment in this Supp.] 

COT TID.E, n. A family of acanthop- 
terygious fishes, including the bull- 
heads or miller's-tlnunbs. The name 




is derived from the typical genus 

COT'TLES, n. Parts of moulds used by 
pewterers in the formation of their 

€OT'TON, I'. (. [add.] Tii cotton to one, 
is a cant phrase in the United States, 
signifying to talte a liking to one, to 
fancy him ; literally, to stick to him, as 
cotton does to clothes. 


COTTONOCRACY, n. In the United 
States, a cant term applied to the Bos- 
ton cotton-manufacturers. 

COT'TONOUS, a. Same ns Cottont. 

eOT'TON-PRESS, n. A machine for 
pressing cotton into bales. Bramah's 
press is generally used for this purpose. 

eOT'TON-WOOD, n. A tree of the 
poplar kind, the Popnhts canadensis. 

tOT'TON-WOOL, n. A name some- 
times given to cotton in its raw state. 

COTUR'NIX, n. In Cuvier's arrange- 
ment, the generic name of the quails, 
separated from the partridges on ac- 
count of their smaller size, and the 
males wanting spurs. \_Sce Quail.] 

eOTYL'IFORM, instead of COTYLI'- 

eOT'YLOlD, a. In anat., a term ap- 
plied to the acetabulum, or the cavity 
of the hip, which rcL'eives the head of 
the thigh-bone. 

COUCH, 11. (. [add.] To cause to couch. 

COUCH'ANCY, n. Act of repose by 
lying down. 

COUCHEE, «. (co'she.) [Fr.] Bedtime, 
or visits received about bedtime; op- 
posed to /ciiM. 

COUCH'ING, n. [add.] The spreading 
of malt to dry. 

COUGH'ING,' n. A violent effort, with 
noise, to expel the air from the lungs. 

COUG'NAR, n. A three-masted Malay- 
boat, rigged with square sails. It is 


broad, sits low in the water, is decked 
or not, according to fancy, sails well, 
and carries a large cargo. 

COU'LEUR-DE-ROSE, n. (koo'laur- 
de-roze.) [Fr.] Literally, of a rose- 
coloiu'; hence, under an aspect of 
beauty and attractiveness; as, to see 
everything coideur-de-rose. 

COULPE,t n. [Fr.] A fault. [Chaucer.] 

€OUL'TER-NEB, n. A common sea- 
bird, the Frutercula arctica, so called 
from its beak being compressed to- 
wards the point. 

COUN'CIL-CHAMBEK, n. An apart- 
ment occupied by a council, or appro- 
priated to deliberations on government. 

€OUN'CIL-MAN, n. A member of a 
city common-council. 

eOUN'SEL, n. [add.] In England, the 

duty of counsel is to give advice in 
questions of law, and to manage causes 
for clients. They are styled common- 
law, equity, or chamber counsel, ac- 
cording to the nature of the business 

COUN'SELLOR, v. [add.] In England, 
a counsellor is a baiTister, or one who 
has kept twelve 'terms at one of the 
four inns of court, and has been called 
to the bar. — Privfj-councillor, mis- 
placed : tlie term should have been 
placed under Councillor. 
COUNT, V. i. [add.] To swell the num- 
ber ; as, each additional one counts. 
COUN'TENANCE, n. [add.] Be- 
haviour ; bearing ; false appearance. 
surg., a means of reducing a fracture 
by making extension in the opposite 
dii'ection. [See Extens[on in this 
COUN'TEUFEIT, n. [add.] Likeness 

or copy; portrait. [Shak.] 
counterfeiting; dissimulation. [Spenser.] 
stance employed to produce an artifi- 
cial or secondary disease, in order to 
relieve another or primary one. 
€OUN'TER-IR'RlTATE,r,^ In mcd., 
to produce an artificial or secondary 
disease, in order to relieve another or 
primary one. 
med., the production of an artificial or 
secondary disease, in order to relieve 
another or primary one. The practice 
is also called derivation and revidsion. 
may be countermanded. 
COUN'TER-OP'ENING, 71. In surg., 
an opening made in a second part of an 
abscess opposite to a first. 
COUN'TERPElSE,t n. [Fr.] Coun- 
terpoise. [Cltaucer.] 

v.t. [Fr.l To plead 
against. [Chaucer.] 
[add.] In music, this 
term, which signifies 
literally point against 
point, originated in the 
circumstance of the 
notes being formerly 
placed one against or 
over the other, in com- 
positions of two or 
more parts, the notes 
- .^ being mere points or 

dots without stems. 
Counterpoint is now 
JT'^. .. synonymous vrith har- 
mony, and nearly so 
with composition ; but 
the latter implies more of invention and 
of imagination, particularly as relates 
to melody, than counterpoint does. 
Counterpoint is divided into simple, 
florid or figuratc, and double. Simple 
counterpoint is a composition in two or 
more parts, the notes of each part 
being equal in value to those of the 
corresponding part or parts, and con- 
cords. In florid counterpoint, two or 
more notes are written against each 
note of the subject, or canto-fermo, and 
discords are admissil)le. — Double coun- 
terpoint is an inversion of the parts, so 
that the base may become the subject, 
and the subject the base, »Sic., thus pro- 
ducing new melodies and new har- 
COUN'TERPOISE, «. [add.] Gene- 

rally, a mass of brass or other metal, 
so disposed as to keep a part of some 
instrument or machine in equilibrio. 
COUN'TER-POl'SON, n. An antidote 
to poison. 
counterbalance ; to weigh against. 
COUNTER-PROOF, n. Inengraving, 
an impression yielded by a newly- 
printed proof of an engraved plate, by 
passing it again through the press with 
a fresh sheet of paper, on wiiich the ink 
is tlirown off. Such proofs were for- 
merly used as a means of comparing 
the plate with the impression without 
the aid of a reversing mirror. 
COUN'TER-ROUND, n. A body of 
officers going to visit and inspect the 
rounds or sentinels. 

eOUN'TERSiGN, n. [add.] The sig- 
nature of a secretary or other subor- 
dinate officer to a writing signed by the 
principal or superior, to attest its au- 
COUN'TERSTEP, n. An oppo-^ite step 
or procedure. 
COUN'TERWAlT,t v. i To watch 
against. [Chaitcer.] 
COUNTER-WEIGHT, n. A weight 
in the opposite scale ; a counterpoise. 
COUN'TlES,t n. plur. [See Count, 
County.] Nobles. [Shah.] 
COUNTOUR',t n. [Fr.] A counting- 
house. [Chaucer.] 
€OUNTRETAILLE',t ». [Fr.] A tally 
answering exactly to another. [Chau- 
COUN'TRIFY, V. ^ To conform to the 
country ; to make rustic. 
€OUN'TRY-BASE,n. Game of prison- 
bars, or prison-base. [Shah.] 
eOUN'TRY-DANCE, n. [Fr. contre- 
dance.] A dance in which the partners 
arc arranged opposite to each other in 
lines. Originally and properly, contra- 
gentleman resident in the country. 
COUNTRY-SEAT, n. A dwelling in 
the country, used as a place of retire- 
ment from the city. 

COUN'TY, n. {In Diet., instead of d, 
read n.) County -rates, [add.] County- 
rates are taxes levied for the purpose 
of defraying the expenses to which 
counties are liable. They are now 
collected by the boards of guardians. 
COUN'TY-SES'SIONS, «. The gene- 
ral quarter-sessions of the peace for 
each county, held four times a-year. 
COUN'TY-TOWN, «. The chief town 
of a county ; that town where the 
various courts of a county are held. 
COUP, V. t or I. To turn over. [Scotch.] 
COUP, ?'. i. or i. To bai'ter; to buy 

horses or cattle. [Scotch.] 
COUP-DE-SANG, w. (koo-da-song'.) 
[Fr.] Blood-stroke; a form of haemorr- 
liage occurring in the brain, the lungs, 
and in most of the other organs of the 
body, and consisting in an instantane- 
ous and universal congestion, without 
any escape of blood from the vessels. 
COUP-D'-ETAT, n. (koo-da-ta'.) [Fr.] 
A sudden, decisive blow in politics ; a 
stroke of policy. 
COUPE', n. {koopa'.) [Fr.] The front 
apartment of a French diligence. 
COUP'ING, pjir. Buying, particularly 
horses; trucking; bartering. [Scotch.] 
COUP'LABLE, a. Fit to be coupled. 
COUPXE, n. [add.] The namo given 
by M. Poinsot to a pair of equal and 
opposite forces not equilibrating- with 
each other. The theoretical investiga- 
tion of the nature and effects of such 




pairs of forces or couples, is termed the 
theory of couples. 

€OUP'LE-BEGGAR, «. One who 
makes it his business to marry beggars 
to each other. [An old term.] 

COUP LE-CLOSE, h. In arch., a pair 
of spars for a roof; also used by 
lieraldists as a diminutive of the 

eOUP'LER, n. That which couples.— 
In .nn onjan, the mechanism by which 
any two of the ranks of keys or keys 
and pedals, are connected together, so 
as to act together when the instrument 
is pla\ed upon. 

COUP'LING, n. [add.] In millworh, a 
contrivance for connecting one portion 
of a system of shafting with another, 
and of which there are three kinds: — 
1. Permanent couplinns. Tliese are em- 
ployed for connecting two or move 
lengths of shafting longitudinally into 
one continuous line, usually by means 
of a ring of metal called a coupling- 
box, which is made to embrace the two 
contiguous ends of the lengths of shaft 
to be connected. Of these there are 
several varieties, of which the most 
common are tlie thimble, square, half- 
lap, and disc couplings, — ichich see in 
this Sujyp. 2. Shifting coupWigs. 
These are contrivances adopted when 
the object to be attained is the engage- 
ment and disengagement at pleasure of 
certain parts of the gearing without in- 
termptii m to the other parts. Of these 
there are also several varieties, as the 
disengaging or clutch coupling, ttiefrir- 
tion-cune coupling, the differential or 
train couplijig^ and i\\ebayonet-clutch, — 
which see in this Supp. 3. Slip-coup- 
lings, which are interposed for the pur- 
pose of modifying the injurious effects 
consequent on sudden variations of the 
working resistance, as the friction- 
coupling, luch-pulli'ijy and friction- 
wheel. [See these terms in this Supp."] 
€0UF'LING-BOX,H. Inmt^worA, the 
ring of metal embracing the contiguous 
ends of two lengths of shaft perman- 
ently coupled. [See Coupling.] 

COUP'LING-PIN, H. A pin used for 
coupling or joining railway-carriages 
and other machinery. 

COUPON ',21. (koo-pong'.) [Fr.] An inte- 
rest certificate printed at the bottom of 
transferable bonds (state-bonds,raiiway- 
bonds, &c.), given for a term of years. 
There are as many of these certificates 
as there are payments to be made. At 
each time of payment one is cut oXf, 
and presented for payment ; hence its 
name, coupon, or cut o,tf. The term, 
together with the practice, is borrowed 
from France. 
C0UR'A6E, «. [add.] The plural 

courages is used by Bacon. 
COURD.t pret. ov pp. [See Cowered.] 
Cherished with care; protected. [Spen- 
COURE,t V. i. [Fr.] To cower; to 
crouch. [Chaucer.] 
t OUR'IEK, n. [add.] The title of a 

a crown or cu'cle of cups.] An appar- 
atus employed in voha-electrical ex- 
periments, consisting of a range or 
circle of glass-vessels containing salt- 
water or dilute sulphuric acid, and 
connected together by compound me- 
tallic arcs of silver and zinc. For this 
purpose, wires of silver and zinc, S and 
Z, are soldered together in pairs, and 
altertiately placed in the glasses. No 
action takes place till the extreme wires 

S and Z are brought into communica- 
tion by means of a metallic wire, when 

CouroQ ue-tiej-lnsses. 

each silver wire is seen to evolve hy- 
COURSE, n. [add.] Course of the face 
of an arch, in arch., the face of the 
arch-stones whose joints radiate to the 
centre. — Course of a plinth, its con- 
tinuity in the face of the wall. 
COURSED, pp. or a. [add.] Coursed 
masonry, that kind of masonry in which 
the stones are laid in courses. 
COURS'ER, H. [add.] A genus of gral- 
latorial birds; one species is occasion- 
ally met with in Britain, the cream- 
coloured courser (O^r^ortw^wa/'e/^jwHA'). 
The genus derives its name from the 
great swiftness of the birds. [See 
CuRSORius in Diet.] 
COURS'ING-JOINT, n. A joint be- 
tween two courses of masonry. 
Court, n. [add.] In arch., an un- 
covered area before or behind a house, 
or in the centre of it. [See Courts.] 
COURT'-CRAFT, n. Political ai-titice. 
CuURT'EPY,t ". [Teut.] A short 

cloak or gown. [Chaucer.] 
COURT'ESANSIIIP, «. The character 

or practice of a courtezan. 
COURTESY, n, [add.] Courtesy of 
England, the title of a husband to en- 
joy for life, after his wife's decease, 
hereditaments of the wife held by her 
for an estate of inheritance, of which 
there was seizui-e during the wife's 
life, and to which issue of the mar- 
riage is born, wliich by possibility may 

COURT-FOOL, n. A buffoon or jes- 
ter, formerly kept by kings, nobles, &;c., 
for amusement. 
COURTIER-LIKE, a. Resembling a 

COURT'-MAN,n. A courtier. [CJian- 
COURT'-MAR'SHAL, n. One who acts 

as marshal at a court. 
COURT -PARTY, n. A party attached 
to the court. 

COURT'-ROLLS, n. The records of a 
court. [See Roll.] 
COURTS, n. Places where justice is 
administered, Tliere are many different 
courts of justice, but they are all di- 
vided by the rules of English law into 
courts of record, and not of record; the 
first being those which are held by 
course of common-law in pleas of or 
above forty shillings, with power to 
tine or imprison ; the second arechicHy 
those wliich are subject to the control 
of other courts when they exceed their 
jtu-isdiction. These are subdivided 
into courts superior nnd coui'is inferior. 
The courts superior are the lords" 
house of Parliament, the chancery, 
king's {queen's) bench, common-pleas, 
and exchequer ; then those courts 
holden by commission, such as jail- 
delivery, assizes, &c., central criminal 
court for London and its environs, and 
I nisi-prius; then courts established by 

custom or charter, such as the courts of 
Lancaster, Durham, or Marshalsea, or 
by acts of Parliament, as the courts of 
bankruptcy or insolvency; lastly, such 
courts as act by virtue of the king's 
(queen's) commission and acts of Par- 
liament, as the quarter-sessions, court 
of sewers, courts of conscience, &c. 
The courts not of record are the courts 
of equity, courts-baron, county-courts, 
hundred-courts. The inferior courts 
of record are eorporation-com-ts, courts- 
leet, and what is termed the sheriff's 
tourn. Courts of judicature are either 
civil or criminal. 

CoURT'-Y ARD, n. A court or inclosure 
round a house, or adjacent to it. 

COUS'lN, n. [add.] A title given by a 
king to a nobleman, particularly to 
those of the council. 

COUSINLY, adv. Like or becoming 
a cousin. 

COUTEL', n. [Fr. coxdelas.] A short 
knife or dagger, in use during the 
middle ages. 

COUTH,t \v. t. [Sax.] To know; to 

COUTHE,t i understand ; to be able, 
[See Can, Could.] [Chaucer.] 

COUTH,t \pret. Knew; was able. 

COUTHE,t ) [Chaucer.] 

COUTHE,tl^^' ^°°'^"' [<^«"<^^1 

COVE, 71. A cave. [Scotch.] 

COVED, pp. or a. Arched over; as, a 
coved ceiling. 

COVENANT, n. [add,] Covenants, in 
laic, are of many different kinds; as in 

fact, and in law, implied or express, 
real and personal. Covenant is also a 
form of action, which lies where a 
party claims damages for breach of a 
covenant or contract under seal. 

COVENANTOR, n. The person who 
makes a covenant, and subjects him- 
self to the penalty of its breach. 

COV'ENT,t n. [Old Fr. covent for 
co7ive7it.] A convent or monastery; 
hence Covent Gat^den in London. 

COVENTRY, n. To se7id to Coventry, 
a phrase among military men, signify- 
ing to exclude from the society of the 
mess ; to shut out from all social in- 
tercom'se, for conduct regarded as 
mean or ungentlemanly. 

COVENTRY-BLUE, n. Blue thread 
of a superior dye, made at Coventry, 
in England, and used for embroidery. 

COVER, 71. In slating, the lai) of a 
slate, or course of slates, over the course 
next but one underneath it. 

COVERT-BARON, «, Same as 
Feme-Covert. [See Covert, a.] 

COVERT-WAY. ^>e Covered-Wat. 

COW'AOE, n. See Cowiiage. 

COW'ARDI£,tn. Cowardice. [Chau- 

CO W'ARDREE,tn. Cowardice. [5pCH- 

COW'-CALF, n. A female calf. 

COW-CHER'VIL,> n. A plant of the 

COW-PARS'LEY,) genus Chiero- 
phyllum, the C. sylvest7'e, which grows 
in hedges, waste places, pastm-es, and 
by walls and roads, and is eaten by 
cattle. [See Chj;rofhyllum.] 

COW'DIE, 7^ A name for the Dam- 
mara ansti-alis, or New Zealand pine. 

COWERING, ppr. or a. Bending 
down; crouching; timorous. 

COW-FEEDER, n. One who feeds 
cows; a cow-herd. 

COWHEARD,t«. Coward. [Spenser.] 

COW-HIDE, 71. The skin of a cow, 
made or to be made into leather. — 2, In 
the United Stoics, a particular kind of 
riding-whip nuide of cow's-hide. 




€OW-HlDE, V. t To beat or whip with 
a cow-hide. [Afneriran.] 

€OW'lSH, n. A plant and root found 
in the valley of the Oregon. The root 
resembles in taste the sweet-potato. 

€OW'ITCIi, n. See Cowhage. 

€OW'-KEEF'ING, ?i. The business of 
keeping milk-cows. 

COWL, n. [add.] A wire cap coverin.c; ; 
the top of a locomotive-engine. 

eOW'-LICIv, n. A reversed tuft of hair 
on the human forehead, so named from 
its resemblance to hair licked by a cow 
out of its natural position. 

COW'^MAN, 71. A man who keeps or 
takes care of cows. 

€OW'-PEA, ) n. Akindofpeaculti- 

€OW'-GRASS,i vated instead of clo- 
ver, the TrifoUum meduim. 

€0\V'I>ER'S-GLANDS, n. In anat.y 
the two small rausciparous glands, each 
about the size of a pea, placed parallel 
to each other before the prostate 

€OW'RY, 71. [add.] Many tons weight 
of the money cowries are annually im- 
ported into this country, and again 
exported for barter with the natives of 
"Western Africa. In 18-18 sixty tons 
of them were imported into Liverpool, 
and in 1849 nearly 300 tons were 
brought to the same port. 

€OWTE f "■ [iicotch.j 

€OX'A,n. [L.] In aHflf., the hip, haunch, 
or hip-joint, also the os-coccygis. 

€OXAL'0lA, n. [L. coxa, and Gr. 
a-^yos, pain.] Pain of the hip or 

COX'SWAIN, 72. The person who steers 
a boat ; the captain of a boat. Usually 
contracted to cox'n. 

€OY,t V. t [Fr.] To quiet; to soothe. 

COY'POU, n. [add.] The Myopotamus 
coypits of zoologists. 

GOZ'IER, n. A butcher. [See Cosier.] 

€0'ZILY,«(/u. Snugly; warmly; com- 

COZOTOTOTL, n. In ornith., a species 
of Mexican finch. 

COZQUAUTLI, n. In ornith., the 
Mexican vulture. 

COZY, w. [acid.] Chatty; talkative. 

CR. In hook- keeping, an abbre^nation of 
the word creditor. 

€RAB, n. [add.] In zool., the lomj- 
amied crab belongs to the genus 
Corystes; the hermit-crab to the genus 
Pagurus; and the land-crab to the 
genus Gecarcinus. — A kind of portable 
Avindlass or machine for raising weights, 
&c. Crabs are much used in build- 
ing operations for raising stones or 
other weights, and in loading and dis- 
charging vessels. They are also applied 
in raising the weights or rammers of 
pile-driving engines. Crab or capstan 
is also the name given to a machine 
used in rope-works for stretching the 
yarn to its fullest extent before it is 
worked into strands. — Also, wooden 
castagnettes used in Siani, consisting of 
two short sticks, which the Siamese 
accompany with the voice, striking them 
against each other. 

CRAB'-CATCllEK, n. A richly-co- 
loured species of bittern, the Herodius 
virescenSy indigenous to Jamaica, is so 
called from the Crustacea on which it 

CRAB'-LOUSE, n. A species of body- 
louse, the Pediculus pubis (Linn.) It 
is the Pkthirius inguinali^ of modern 

CRA'BRO, n. A genus of hymenop- 
terous insects belonging to the family 
Fossores ; also, the specific name of 
another hymenopterous insect belong- 
ing to the wasp family, the hornet, or 
Vespa crabro. 
€RAB'-TREE, n. [add.] The wild 
apple-tree, Pyrus malus. 
CRACK, a. Excellent; first-rate; hav- 
ing qualities to be proud of ; as, a crack 
ship ; a crack regiment. [Familiar^ or 
CRACK, V. t. [add.] To cause to soiind 

quickly and smartly. 
CRACK, V. i. [add.] To break. [Swift.] 
CRACK, V. I. To boast; to talk boast- 
ingly; to chat; to talk freely and 
familiarly. [Scotch.] 
CRACK, a. New ; showy. [Scotch.] 
CRACK, 7i. Boasting; chat; free con- 
versation. [Scotch.] 

A little paper-cylin- 
der filled with pow- 
der or combustible 
matter, which ex- 
plodes with a noise ; 
a squib. Also, a small 
hard biscuit. Also, 
a bird, the pin-tail 
duck {Anas acuta). 
€RA'COWES,t n. 
Long-toed boots or 
ehoes, introduced in 
1384: ; named from 
the city of Cracow, 
whence the fashion 
is supposed to have 
been imported. 
CRA'DLE, n. [add.] 
Alargewooden frame 
in which a boat or 
barge may be floated 
in order to be con- 
veyed by pulleys, 
without the aid of the usual locks. — 
2. A machine in which gold is washed 
from the earth, &c., containing it. It 
is so named from its being rocked in 
the process of washing as a child's 
CRIMES,} n. Warehouses where 
KRAMES, > goods are crammed or 
CREAMS, ) packed; range of booths 
for the sale of goods. [^Scotch.] 
CRAFT, n. A croft. [Scotch.] 
CRAGGE,t n. The crag; the neck. 

CRAIG, n. A crag; a rock; the neck ; 
the throat. [Scotch.] 
CRAIG'SMAN, n. One who is dex- 
terous in climbing rocks. [Scotch.] 
CRAKE, n. [add.J The Crex pratensiSf 

or land-rail. 
CRAKE,+ V. i. To crack; to boast. 

CRAK'EL,t f- i' To crackle; to qua- 
ver hoarsely in singing. [Chaucer.] 
CRAM, n. In weavirifi, a warp having 
more than two threads in each dent or 
split of the reed. 
CRAM'MING, 71. In the English uni- 
versities, a ca7it term for the act of 
preparing a student to pass an exami- 
nation by going over the topics with 
him beforehand, and fui-nishing him 
with the requisite answers. 
CRAMP, n. [add.] An uon instrument 
having a screw at one end, and a mova- 
ble shoulder at the other, employed by 
carpenters and joiners for closely com- 
pressing the joints of framework. 
CRAMP'-BARK, n. In the United 
States, the popular name of the Vibur- 
num oxycoccus, a medicinal plant hav- 
ing antispasmodical properties. 

Cractiwes, from the 
Haileiiiu MS. 

CRAMP'-IRON, ) 7?. A piece of metal, 

CRAMP'ERN, V usually iron, bent 

CRAMP, ) at each end, and 

let into the upper surface of two pieces 
of stone, when their perpendicular 
faces are joined together. Cramps are 
commonly employed in works requiring 
great solidity, for the purpose of fasten- 
ing the stones securely together. In 
common works they are applied chiefiy 
to the stones of copings and cornices, 
and generally in any external work 
upon the upper surface, or between the 
beds of the stones. 

CRAMP'ISH-t V. t To contract; to 
cramp. [Chaucer.] 

CRAN, ) 71. In Scotland, a measure of 

CRANE,) capacity for fresh-herrings, 
as taken out of the net. A ci'an of 
herri7igs is understood to be such a 
quantity as, when cured, shall fill a 
barrel (thirty-two gallons, wine-mea- 
sure). Hence the cran is lai'ger than 
the barrel. 

CR AN'BERRY-TART, n. A tart made 
of cranberries. 

CRaNCE, 7t. In shipSy any boom iron, 
but particularly an iron cap attached 
to the outer end of the bow -sprit, 
through which the jib - boom tra- 

CRANCK,f ) a. Lusty; stout; coura- 

CRANK,f ji" geous. [Spe7iscr.] 

CRANE, 71. [add.J The cranes belong 
to the genus Grus, family Gruidae. The 
common crane is the G. ci7ierea, the 
Siberian crane is the G. giga7itea, and 
the brown crane the G. canadcTisis. 

CRANE-LIKE, a. Resembling a 

CRAN'GON, n. The shrimp, a genus 
of macrourous crustaceans. The com- 
mon shrimp is the Crangon vulga7i,s ; 
the shrimp common in the arctic re- 
gions is the Crangon boreas. 

CRA'NIAL, a. Relating to, or like a 

CRANK, a. [add.] Healthy; sprightly; 
lively ; wry ; distorted. [Sicift.] 

CRANK'-BIRD, ??. The name of the 
lesser spotted wood-pecker [Picus 

CRANK'- HATCHES, n. Hatches 
on the deck of a steam-vessel, raised to 
a proper elevation, for covering the 
cranks of the engines. 

CKANKTNG,2'/'»*' Bending; winding. 

CRANKS,t n. plur. [See Crank.] The 
sudden or frequent involutions of the 
planets. [Spettser.] 

CRAN'NY, a. Pleasant ; brisk ; jovial. 

CRAP, «. The crop; produce of the 
ground. [Scotch.] 

CRAP, n. The top of anything; the craw 
of a fowl ; used ludicrously for n mail's 
stomach . [ Scotch . ] 

CRAP, n. Darnel; buckwheat. [Local.] 

CRAP'PIT-HEADS, 7i. Puddings made 
in the heads of haddocks. [Scotch.] 

CRAP'ULENT, c. Same as Crapu- 

CRARE, H. A small ship. [Shah.] 

CRASHED SUGARj n. See Crushed 

CRASSAMEN'TUM, k. [L, from cras- 
sus, thick.] The cmor or clot of blood, 
consisting of fibrin and red globules. 

CBASS'IMENT, n. Thickness. 

CRAS'SULA, n. A genus of plants, the 
type of the nat. order Crassulacea". It 
consists of succulent herbs and shrubs, 
chiefly natives of the Cape of Good 
Hope. Various species are cultivated 
for the be.auty of their flowers. 




€KATCHING,t »• A scratching. 

■CRA'VEN. a. Cowardly; base. 

CRaV'IKGLY, adv. In an earnest or 
craving manner. 

€RAW-FISH,) n. [add.] The common , 

CRAY -FISH, ) craw-fish is the ^- 
iaciis fiuuiaiitis. I 

CRAWL IKGLY, adv. In a crawling 
manner. , 

CRAZE, n. Insanity ; craziness. I 

CRE'ACH, ) n. [Gael.] A Highland 

CRE'AGH,) foray ; a plundering ex- 
cursion, j 

t'RE.\K, T'. i. To cause to make a harsh 
protracted noise ; as, to creak the shoes. ' 

CREAM'-CHEESE, n. Cream dj-ied by 
exposure to the air till it forms a solid 
mass. It is not properly cheese, not 
being formed into curd. 

CREAM-COLOURED, a. Having or 
resembling the colour of cream. 

CREAM'-FRLIT, n A kind of edible 
fruit found at Sierra Leone, said to be 
produced by some apocynaceous plant. 

CREANCE,t n. rpr] Faith; belief. 

CRE'AXCE,t V. t. [Fr.] To borrow 
money. [Chancer.] 

CREAS ING-TOOL, In. A tool used 

CREASE, f by the workers 

in sheet-metals in producing tubes and 
cylindrical mouldings. It consists of a 
stake, or small anvil, with grooves of 
dilierent sizes across its smface. The 
metal is laid over these, and, by means 
of a wire, or cylinder of metal corre- 
sponding to the inner dimensions of the 
cmTe required, is driven into the con- 
cavity of the proper groove. 

€REAST'£D,t a. Crested; tufted; 
plumed. [^i)en«r.] 

CREaT'ABLE, a. That may be created. 

CREATE', a. Begotten; composed; 
created. [5/inft.] 

€REATE',t PP- Created. [Chaucer.] 

CRE'ATINE, n. [Gr. «;i«, flesh.] A 
nitrogenous crystallizable substance ob- 
tained from muscular fibre. 

CREAT'UR AL, a. Belonging to a crea- 
ture ; having the qualities of a creature. 

CREB'RlTCDE.t n. [L. creber.] Fre- 

CKEDEX DUM, n. plur. Credenda. [L. 
See Ckedenda.] Something to be be- 

CRED IT, n. [add.] Leiler of credit, an 
order given by bankers, or others, at 
one place, to enable a person to receive 
money from their agents at another 
place. A letter of credit is not trans- 

CRED ITORS BILL, n. In law, a bill 

in equity, liled by one or more creditors, 

by and in behalf of him or themselves, 

and all other creditors who shall come 

in under the decree, for an account of 

the assets and a due settlement of the 


■CREE, I", t. To seethe ; to boil grain till 

it is soft ; to pound or bruise. [Local.] 

CREEIv'y, a. Full of creeks; winding. 

CREEL, n. A basket, or pannier. — To 

be in a cree', or, to have ones tcits in a 

creel, to labour under some temporary 

confusion or stupefaction of mind. 


CKEEL'FU", n. A basketful. [Scotch.] 

CREEP, V. i. [add.] To be put into a 

motion resembling that of worms; as, 

the sight made my flesh creep. 

CREEPER, n. [add.] In ornitholugy, 

the common creeper is the Ccrihia 

familiaris; the wall-creeper is the 

Tichodroma muraria. 


plant of the genus Ranunculus, the i?. 
repens, which grows in meadows and 
CREETH,^ V. 1. To boil anything to 
CRITH, ) softness; as, creethed 
wheat; probably from xeiCii, barley, — 
g.d., treated as barley is prepared for 
food. [See Cbee in this Supp.] 

CREE^'h \ "■ C1'"'^'>S6; tallow. [ScodA.] 

CREISH''lNG,i)f>r. Greasing. [Scotch.] 

CREMONA, II. [add.] A name errone- 
ously given to a stop in the organ, be- 
ing a corruption ofhrutiihorn,axi ancient 
wind-instrument which the stop was 
originally designed to imitate. [See 
Ckcmorxa in this Supp.] 

CRENAT'ULA, n. A genus of bivalve 
shells of the mussel and pearl-oyster 
family. The hinge shows a row of 
roundish or oval pits, making it appear 
as if crenulated. This shell is found in 
sponges, and moored to corallines. 

CRENC'LED,t PP- Crinkled ; formed 
in flexures. [Chaucer.] 

CRE'NEL,t n. The peak at the top of 
a helmet. 

CREN ELL ATE, v. t. To form crenelles; 
to notch ; to fortify. 

CREOSOTE, n. tee Cbeasote. 

CREP'IL.t R. [Sax.] A cripple. [Chau- 

CKE'PON, n. [Fr.] A fine stuft", made 
either of tine wool or of wool and silk, 
of which the warp is twisted much 
harder than the weft. The crepom of 
Naples consist altogether of silk. 

CREPUS'CULtJM, n. [L.] The twi- 
light. [See Cr.EPuscLE.] 

CRESCENDO. For the mark >, 
substitute ■< . 

CRES'CENT-LIICJ:, a. Resembling a 

CRESS, 11. [add.] Common cress is the 
Lepidiutn sativum ; water-cress, the 
Nasturtium officinale; Normandy cress, 
Barbarea prcecox ; Indian cress, Tro- 
pcBolum viajus. 

CKESS'-ROCKET, I!. A genus of 
plants ( Vella). ( See Vella.] 

CRESrED DIVER, ) n. A large 

CRESTED GREBE, j water- fowl, 
the Podiceps n-iitatus. 

A British plant of the genus Cynosurus, 
the C. cristattis, [See Ctnosukcs in 
this Supp.] 

the reverse of relief. — To engiave en 
creii:c, is to cut below the surface. 

CBEyASSE',t n. fcrevas'.) [Fr.] A 
chink or crevice. [Chatrcer.] 

CREVASSE', n. [Fr.] A rent across a 
glacier, frequently very broad, and al- 
ways as deep as the glacier is thick. 
iThis word has been adopted fi-om the 
'rench ; crevice being evidently too 
diminutive, and rent being equally ob- 
jectionable, from not conveying the re- 
quisite idea.] In the United States, liie 
term crevasse is used to denote a breach 
in the embankment or levee of a river, 
occasioned by a pressure of the water, 
as in the Lower Jlississippi. 

CREWELS, n. Scrofula. [Scotch.] 
CRI'ANDE,+ j'Pi^' from Crs/. Crying. 

CRIB, n. [add ] A cribble or sieve. 
*--'RIB, V. I. To be confined to a crib. 
CRIB'BA(!iE,n. [add.] Agame at cards 
in which the dealer makes up a thud 
hand for himself, partly out of the hand 
of his opponent. — Crib'uage-board, a 
board used for marking in the game of 


or crib ; a bad habit of hoi ses, caused 
by disease in the teeth, or rough usage 
bv the person who currycombs them. 

CRIBBLE, rt. Coarse ; as, cribble bread. 

CEIBK.\TO'EES, n. Sifters; Dr. 
MacgillivTay's name for the order of 
swimming birds which contains the 
geese and ducks, from their mode of 
taking their food. 

CRIBKOSE, a. [L. cribrum, a sieve.] 
Perforated like a sieve. 

CRICE'TUS, n. The hamster, a genus of 
rodent animals, with teeth like those of 
the rat. The tail is short and hairy, and 
the two sides of the mouth are hollowed 
into sacks or cheek-pouches, in which 
they transport the grain they collect to 
their subterranean abodes. The com- 
mon hamster, C. ndgaris {Mus ciicetus, 
Lian.), is common in all the sandy re- 
gions that extend from the north of 
Germany to Siberia, and is very de- 
structive to grain. [See IIa-msier.] 

CRICK'ET, n. [add.] The crickets be- 
long to the order Orthoptera, although 
they formed part of the Linnaran order 
Hemiptera. The house-cricket is the 
GruUus do7!tcsticus, also called Adteta 
domesiica; the field-cricket is the Cryl- 
Ills campestris, or Acheta eampcstris; 
the mole-cricket is the Gryllotalpa vul- 
garis; the New Zealand grand cricket is 
the Veinacrida heteracantha. 

CRICK ET-BIRD, n. The grasshopper 
warbler (Sylvia locustella) is so called 
from its note resembling that of a 


species of apple. 

CRIME, «. [add.] Reproach. [Spenser.] 

CRliriXAL, a. [add.] Criminal infor- 
mation, in laic, a proceeding at the suit 
of the sorereigDj without a prcnous in- 
dictment or presentment by a grand jmj. 
— An ex-o^(cio cnminal itifonr.ation, is a 
formal written suggestion of an offence 
committed, filed by the attorney-gene- 
ral, or in the court of queen's bench. 
It lies for misdemeanours only, and not 
for treasons or felonies. — Criminal in- 
formation by the master of croicn-of- 
ficCj is liled at the instance of an indi- 
vidual, with the leave of the court, and 
is usually confined to gross and noto- 
rious misdemeanours, riots, batteries, 
libel, and other immoralities. — Crinxi- 
nal'lau; the lav: which relates to crimes. 
This division of English jurisprudence 
comprehends not only the geuei-al cri- 
minal law as administered either in the 
court of queen's bench, or at the 
sessions in London and Middlesex, and 
in the countrj" at sessions and the as- 
sizes, but also the admin Jsti-atiou of the 
crown -law by the court of queen's 
bench at V.*estminster, consisting prin- 
cipally of a sort of quasi criminal-jaw, 
as indictments for libels, nuisances, re- 
pair of roads, bridges, &c., informa- 
tiuns, the judicial decisions of questions 
concerning the poor-laws, &c. 

In laic, aduiieiy; illicit intercourse with 
a married woman, for which the party 
is liable to an action for damages. It 
is usually abbrevi