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Full text of "The imperial dictionary of the English language; a complete encyclopaedic lexicon, literary, scientific and technological. New ed., carefully rev. and greatly augm. Edited by Charles Annandale"

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THE 



IMPEEIAL DICTIONAEY 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



Kn-. I" 



THE 



IMPERIAL DICTIONARY 



OF 



THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE 

A COMPLETE ENCYCLOPEDIC LEXICON, LITERARY, SCIENTIFIC 

AND TECHNOLOGICAL 

BY 

JOHN OGILVIE, LL.D. 



Author of ** The ComprebensiTe En^uh Dictionary " " The Student's English Dictionary &c. &c. 



NEW EDITION 

CAREFULLY REVISED AND GREATLY AUGMENTED 

EDITED BY 

CHARLES ANNANDALE, M.A.. LL.D. 



WITH ABOVE THREE THOUSAND ILLUSTRATIONS PRINTED IN THE TEXT AND A 
SERIES OF ENGRAVED AND COLOURED PLATES 



VOL. IV. 
SCREAM— ZYTHUM 





PED 



BLACKIE & SON, Limit^ 

LONDON, GLASGOW, EDINBURGH, AND DUBLIN 



CONTENTS. 



VOLUME IV. 

Pass 
ABBREVIATIONS USED in this dictionary, - - vii 

EXPLANATIONS regarding PRONUNCIATION and CHEMICAL SYMBOLS, viii 

TEXT OF DICTIONARY: SCREAM— ZYTHUM, 1-685 

SUPPLEMENT (Giving Additional Words, Meanings, &c.), 686 

APPENDIX: 

Pronouncing Vocabulary of Classical and Scriptural Names, ----- 703 

Explanatory List of Foreign Words and Phrases met with in Current English, - 723 

Forms of Address, -- 735 

Moneys, Weights, and Measures of the World, 737 

Abbreviations and Contractions commonly used in Writing and Printing, - - 741 

Signs and Symbols used in Writing and Printing, - - 747 

PLATES: 

Precious Stones — Iu,u8trations of the Principal (in Colour). 

Mammalia — Terms relating to the Structure and Classification of Mammals. 

Renaissance Architecture — Illustrations or its Characteristic Features in the 
Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Centuries. 

RsPTiLES — Terms belonging to Reptiles and Amphibia. 

Signal-Flags, Pilot-Flags, and Flag-Signals — Illustrations of the different 
Flags (in Colour). 

Ships — Illustrations or Terms applied to the most recent Type of Ships. 
DESCRIPTIONS OF THE PLATES. 



LIST OF THE ABBEEYIATIONS 

USED IN THIS DICTIONARY. 



a. or ad j «t««ls for adjective. 

abbrev. ... abbreviation, abbreviated. 

ace. ... accusative. 

act. ... active. 

adv. ... adverb. 

agn. ... agriculture. 

alg. ... algebra. 

Amer. ... American. 

aruU, ... anatomy. 

anc, ... ancient. 

antiq, ... antiquities. 

aor. ... aorist, aoristic. 

At. ... Arabic. 

orci. ... architecture. 

archaol. ... archaeology. 

ariih. ... arithmetic. 

Armor. ... Armoric. 

art. ... article. 

A. Sax. ... Anglo-Saxon. 

astrol. ... astrology. 

aslron. ... astronomy. 

at. wt. ... atomic weight. 

aug. ... augmentative. 

Bav. ... Bavarian dialect. 

Uol. ... biology. 

Bohem. ... Bohemian. 

bot. ... botany. 

Braz. . . . Brazilian. 

Bret. ... Breton (= Armoric). 

Bulg. ... Bulgarian. 

Catal. ... Catalonian. 

carp. ... carpentry. 

caus. ... causative. 

Celt. ... Celtic. 

Chal. ... Chaldee. 

chem. ... chemistry. 

chr&H. ... chronology. 

Clan. ... Classical (=Greek and 

Latin). 

cog. ... cognate, cognate vrith. 

colloq. ... coUoquiid. 

earn. ... commerce. 

comp. ... compare, 

compar. ... comparative. 

conch. ... conchology. 

conj. ... conjunction, 

contr. ... contraction, contracted. 

Com. . . Cornish. 

oystal. . . . crystallography. 

Cym. . . Cymric. 

D. Dutch. 

Dan. Danish, 

dat. ... dative, 

def. ... definite, 

deriv. ... derivation. 

dial. ... dialect, dialectal. 

dim. ... diminutive, 

diitrib. ... distributive. 

dram. ... drama, dramatic. 

dyn. ... dynamics, 

i!., Eng. ... Rngliah 

ecclti. ... ecclesiastical. 

Egypt. ... Egyptian. 

eUct. ... electricity. 

tngin. ... engineering. 

engr. . . . engraving. 

entom. . . . entomology. 

Eth. ... Ethiopic. 

ethu. . . ethnography .ethnology. 

«<vm. .. etymology. 

Biur. . . European. 

accUtin, ... exclamatioiu 

fern. . . . femimne. 

fo. ... figuratively, 

n. ... Jlemish. 

fort. ... fortification. 

Fr. ... French, 

freq. ... frequentative. 

Fris. ... Frisian, 

fut. ... future. 

G. ... German. 

Gael. . . . Gaelic. 



galv. stands for galvanism, 

genit. ... genitive. 

geog. ... geography. 

geol. ... geology. 

geom. ... geometry. 

Goth. ... Gothic. 

Gr. ... Greek. 

gram, ... grammar. 

fun. ... gunnery. 

teb. ... Hebrew. 

A«r. ... heraldry. 

Hind. ... Hindostanee, Hindu, or 

hist. ... history. [Hindi. 

hart. ... horticulture. 

Hung. ... Hungarian. 

hydros. ... hydrostatics. 

Icel. ... Icelandic. 

ich. ... ichthyology. 

imper. ... imperative. 

imperf. ... imperfect. 

impers. ... impersonal. 

incept. ... inceptive. 

ind. ... indicative. 

Ind. ... Indie. 

indef. ... indefinite. 

Indo-Eur. ... Indo-European. 

inf. ... infinitive. 

intens. ... intensive. 

inter), ... interjection. 

Ir. ... Irish. 

Iran. ... Iranian. 

It. ... Italian. 

L. ... Latin. 

Ian. ... language. 

Lett. ... Lettish. 

L.6. ... Low German. 

lit. ... literal, literally. 

Lith. ... Lithuanian. 

L.L. ... late Latin, low do. 

mac/i. ... machinery. 

manuf. ... manufactures. 

masc. ... masculine. 

mat/i, ... mathematics. 

meeh. ... mechanics. 

med. ... medicine. 

Med. L. ... Medieval Latin. 

mcntur, ... mensuration. 

metal, ... metallurgy. 

meiaph. ... metaphysics. 

meteor, ... meteorology. 

Mex. ... Mexican. 

M.H.G. ... Middle High German. 

milit, ... miUtary. 

mineral. ... mineralogy. 

Mod. Ft. ... Modem French. 

mifth, ... mythology. 

N. ... Norse, Norwegian. 

». ... noun. 

nat. hitt. ... natural history. 

nat. order,... natural order. 

nat. phil, ... natural philosophy. 

naut. ... nautical. 

tMvig. ... navigation, 

neg. ... negative. 

neut. ... neuter. 

N.H.G. ... New High German. 

nom. ... nominative. 

Norm. ... Norman. 

North. K ... Northern English. 

numu. ... numismatics. 

obj. ... objective. 

obs. ... obsolete. 

obsoles. ... obsolescent. 

0. Bttlg. ... Old Bulgarian (Ch. Slavic). 

O.E. ... Old iSglish (i.e. English 
between A. Saxon and 
Modern English), 

0. Ft, ... Old French. 

O.H.G. ... Old High German. 

O.Prus. ... Old Pmssian. 

O.Sax. ... Old Saxon. 

orrtith. ... ornithology. 



p. stands for participle. 


palceon. 


palaeontology. 


part. 


participle. 


pass. 


passive. 


paihol. 


pathology. 


pejor. 


pejorative. 
Persic or Persian. 


Per. 


perf. 


perfect. 


pers. 


person. 


persp. 
PeruT. 


perspective. 
Peruvian. 


Pg. 


Portuguese. 


pkar. 


pharmacy. 


philol, 
philos, 
Phoen. 


philology. 

philosophy. 

Phoenician. 


piMtog, 


photography. 


phren. 


phrenology. 


phys. geog. .. 


physical geography. 


physioL 


physiology. 


pi. 
Pl.D. 


plural. 
Piatt Dutch. 


p>iev,m. 


pneumatics. 


^t ■:: 


poetical. 
Polish. 


pol. earn. .. 


political economy. 


poss. 


possessive. 


pp. 


past participle. 


ppr. 


present participle. 
Provencal. 


Pr. 


prep. 


preposition. 


pres. 


present. 


pret. 


preterite. 


priv. 


privative. 


pron. 


pronunciation,pronounced. 


pron. 


pronoun. 


pros. 


prosody. 


prov. 


provincial. 


psychol. 


psychology. 


rail. 


railways. 


R.Cath.Ch.. 


Eoman Catholic Church. 


rhet. 


rhetoric. 


Rom.antiq, . 


Roman antiquities. 


Bus. 


Russian. 


Rax. 


Saxon. 


Sc. 


Scotch. 


Scand. 


Scandinavian. 


Scrip, 


Scripture. 


scalp. 


sculpture. 


Sem. 


Semitic. 


Serv. 


Servian. 


sing. 


singular. 


Skr. 


Sanskrit. 


Slav. 


Slavonic, Slavic. 


Sp. 


Spanish. 


sp. gr. 


specific gravity. 


Stat. 


statute. 


subj. 


subjunctive. 


superL 


superlative. 


surg. 


surgery. 


sitrv. 


surveying. 


Sw. 


Swedish. 


sym. 


symbol. 


syn. 


synonym. 


Syr. 


Syriac. 


Tart. 


Tartar. 


technol. 


technology. 


teleg. 


telegraphy. 


term. 


termination. 


Teut. 


Teutonic. 


theol. 


theology. 


torieol. 


toxicology. 


trigon. 


trigonometry. 


Turk. 


Turkish. 


typog. 


typogi-aphy. 


var. 


variety (of speciesju 


v.i. 


verb intransitive. 


v.n. 


verb neuter. 


v.l. 


verb transitive. 


W. 


Welsh. 


zooL 


zoology. 


t 


obsolete. ( (^ 



EXPLANATIONS 

REGARDING PRONUNCIATION AND CHEMICAL SYMBOLS. 



a as m 

8, 

a „ , 

» ., . 



PRONUNCIATION. 

In showing the pronunciation the simplest and most easily understood method has been adopted, that of re-writing 
the word in a different form. In doing so the same letter or combination of letters is made use of for the same 
tound, no matter by what letter or letters the sound may be expressed in the principal word. The key by this 
means is greatly simplified, the reader having only to bear in mind one mark for each sound. 

Accent.^Words consisting of more than one syllable 
receive an accent, as the first syllable of the word labour, 
the second of delay, and the third of comprehension. The 
accented syllable is the most prominent part of the word, 
being made so by means of the accent. In this dictionary 
it is denoted by the mark '. This mark, called an accent, 
is placed above and beyond the syllable which receives the 
accent, as in the words la'bour, delay', and comprehen'sion. 

Many polysyllabic words are pronounced with two ac- 
cents, the primary and the secondary accent, as the word 
excommunication, in which the third, as well as the fifth 
syllable is commonly accented. The accent on the fifth 
syllable is the primary, true, or tonic accent, while that on 
the third is a mere euphonic accent, and consists of a slight 
resting on the syllable to prevent indistinctness in the utter- 
ance of so many unaccented syllables. Where both accents 
are marked in a word, the primary accent is thus marked ", 
and the secondary, or inferior one, by this mark ', as in the 
word excommu'nica"tion. 



I, 
i, 
6, 



. fate. 
. for. 
. fat 
. foU. 
. me. 
. met. 
. her. 
. pine. 
. pin. 
. note. 



Vowels. 

o, 

o, .... 

u 

u, 

« 

u, 

oi,.... 

ou 

y 



. . . not. 

. . . move. 

. . . tube. 

. . . tub. 

. . . bull. 

. .. Sc. ab«ne(Fru). 

. .. oil. 

. . . pound. 

... Sc. tey(=e+i). 



Consonants. 



oh. 



th, 



wh, 
zh. 



as in 



. then. 

thin. 

wig. 
. uthig. 

azure. 



. as in . . oAain. 
6h, .. ,, .. Sc. locA, Ger nacAt 
i ■ . job. 

e, .. „ ■ . go. 

t, .. „ . . Fr. ton. 
ng sin^. 

The application of this key to the pronunciation of 
foreign words can as a rule only represent approximately 
the true pronunciation of those words. It is applicable, 
however, to Latin and Greek words, as those languages are 
pronounced in England. 



CHEMICAL ELEMENTS AND SYMBOLS. 



By means of chemical symbols, or formulas, the composition of the most complicated substances can be very 
easily expressed, and that, too, in a very small compass. An abbreviated expression of this kind often gives, in r 
single line, more information as to details than could be given in many lines of letterpress. 



Elements. Symbols. 

Aluminium, Al 

Antimony (Stibium), . . . Sb 

Arsenic, As 

Barium, Ba 

Bismuth, Bi 

Boron, B 

Bromine Br 

Cadmium, Cd 

Gessium, Cs 

Calcium, Ca 

Carbon C 

Cerium, Ce 

Chlorine, CI 

Chromium Cr 

Cobalt, Co 

Copper (Cuprum), . . . . Cu 

Didymiuni D 

Erbium, £ 

Fluorine, F 

Oallium, Ga 

Glucinium, . . . . . G 

Gold (Aurum), Au 

Hydrogen H 

Indium In 

Iodine I 

Iridium Ir 

Iron (Ferrum) Fe 

Lanthanium, La 

Lead (Plumlium), . . . . Pb 

Lithium. L 

Magnesium, Mg 

Manganese, Mn 



Elements. Symbols. 

Mercury (Hydrargyrum), . Hg 

Molybdenum Mo 

Nicliel, m 

Niobium, Nb 

Nitrogen, N 

Osmium, Os 

Oxygen, 

Palladium, Pd 

Phosphorus, P 

Platinum, Pt 

Potassium (Kalium). . . K 

Rhodium, R 

Rubidium, Rb 

Ruthenium, Ru 

Selenium, Se 

Silicon, Si 

Silver (Argentum). . . . Ag 
Sodium (Natrium), . . . Na 

Strontium Sr 

Sulphur, S 

Tantalum, Ta 

Tellurium Te 

Thallium, Tl 

Thorium, Th 

Tin(Stannum) Sn 

Titanium, Ti 

Tungsten (Wolfram), . . W 

Uranium, U 

Vanadium V 

Yttrium, Y 

Zinc, Zn 

Zirconium Zr 



When any of the above symbols stands by itself it indi- 
cates one atom of the element it represents. Thus, H 
stands for one atom of hydrogen, O for one atom of oxygen, 
and CI for one atom of chlorine. {See Atom, and Atomic 
theory under Atomic, in Dictionary.) 



When a symbol has a small figure or number under- 
written, and to the right of it, such figure or number indi- 
cates the number of atoms of the element. Thus — Oj 
signifies two atoms of oxygen, Sj five atoms of sulphur, and 
Cio ten atoms of carbon. 

When two or more elements are united to form a chemi- 
cal compound, their symbols are written one after the 
other, to indicate the compound. Thus — HjO means water, 
a compound of two atoms of hydrogen and one of oxygen ; 
Ci.jHaOu indicates cane-sugar, a compound of twelve 
atoms of carbon, twenty-two of hjdrogen, and eleven of 
oxygen. 

These two expressions as they stand denote respectively 
a molecule of the substance they represent, that is, the 
smallest possible quantity of it capable of existing in the 
free state. To express several molecules a large figure is 
prefixed, thus : 2 H« O represents two molecules of water, 
4(Ci2HeOu) four molecules of cane-sugar. 

When a compound is formed of two or more compounds 
the symbolical expressions for the compound are usuallv 
connected together by a comma; thus, the crystallized 
magnesic sulphate is MgSOj , 7 HoO. The symbols may also 
be used to express the changes which occur during chemical 
action, and they are then \\Titten in the form of an equsk- 
tiou, of which one side represents the substances as they 
exist before the change, the other the result of the reaction. 
Thus, 2H2-l-02=2 H2 expresses the fact that two mole- 
cules of hydrogen, each containing two atoms, and one of 
oxygen, also containing two atoms, combine to give two 
molecules of Wiiter, each of them containing two atoms of 
hydrogen and one of oxygen. 



THE 



IMPEEIAL DICTIONAEY 



ENGLISH LANGUAGE. 



SCREAM 



SCREW 



Scream (skrem), v.i. [Comp. Icel. skramga, 
to scream ; probably imitative, like screech, 
shriek, &c. ] 1. To cry out with a shrill 
voice ; to utter a sudden, sharp outcry, as 
in a fright or in extreme pain ; to utter a 
shrill, harsh cry; to shriek. 

I heard the owl scream and the crickets cry. 

Shai. 
So sweetly screams if it (a mouse) comes near her. 
She ravishes all hearts to hear her. S-wi/t. 

2. To give out a shrill sound; as, the railway 
whistle gcreamed. 

Scream (skrSm), n. l. a shriek, or sharp 
shrill cry uttered suddenly, as in terror or 
in pain. * Screams of horror rend the af- 
frighted skies.' Pope.— 2. A sharp, harsh 
sound. ' The scream of a madden'd beach 
dragg'd down by the wave,' Tennyson. 

Screamer(skrem'6r),n. l. One that screams. 
2. A name given to two species of South 
American grallatorial birds, the Palamedea 
comuta and Ohauna chavaria. They are 
remarkable for their harsh and discordant 
voices, and for the sharp hard spurs with 
which the wings are armed. See Palame- 
dea.— 3. Something very great; a whacker; 
a bouncing fellow or girl. [Slang.] 

Screaming (skrem'ing), p. and a, 1. Crying 
or sounding shrilly.— 2. Causing a scream; 
as, a screaming farce, one calculated to 
make the audience scream with laughter. 

Scree (skrf), n. [Comp. Icel. skritha, a lana- 
slip on a hill-side. ] A small stone or pebble; 
in the pi. debris of rocks; shingle; a talus; 
accumulations of loose stones and fragments 
at the base of a cliff or precipice. * Grey 
caims and screes of granite.' Kingsley. 

Before 1 bad got half way up the screes, which 
gave way and rattled beneath me at every step. 

SeitChey. 

Screech (skrech), v.i. [A softened form of 
«crea* (which see), Icel. skrcekja, sknekta, to 
Bcreech, skrcekr, a screech, Sw. skrika, Dan. 
tkrxge, to screech: an imitative word; comp. 
Sc. scraich, Gael sgreach, W. ysgrechiaw, to 
screech.] To cry out with a sharp, shrill 
voice; to scream; to shriek. 'The screech- 
owl screeching loud.' Shak. 

These birds of night . . . screeched and clapped 
their wings for a while. Bolingbroke. 

Screech (skrech), n. \. A sharp, shrill cry, 
such as is uttered in acute pain or in a sud- 
den fright; a harsh scream. 'The birds 
obscene . . . with hollow screeches.' Pope. 

A screech or shriek is the cry of terror or passion ; 
perhaps it may be called sharper and harsher than a 
scream ; but, m human beings especially, scarcely to 
be distinguished from it. C. Richardsen. 

2. A sharp, shrill noise; as, the screech of a 
railway whistle. 

Screech-owl (skrech'oul). n. An owl that 
utters a harsh, disagreeable cry at night, for- 
merly supposed to be ominous of evil ; an 
owl, as the bam -owl, that screeches, in 
opposition to one that hoots. 

The owl at Freedom's window scream'd. 
The screech-erw/. prophet dire. Churchill. 

Screechy ( skrech 'i). a. Shrill and harsh; 
like a screech. Cockham. 

Screed (skred), n. [Prov. E. s<^eed, a shred, 
A. Sax. «cretia0, a shred. See next entry.] In 
Tpkuiering, (o) a strip of mortar of about 6 or 
8 inches wide, by which any surface about to 



be plastered is divided into bays or compart- 
ments. The screeds are 4, 5, or 6 feet apart, 
according to circumstances, and are accur- 
ately formed in the same plane by the plumb- 
rule and straight-edge. They thus form 
gauges for the rest of the work, the inter- 
spaces being latterly filled out flush with 
them. (&) A strip of wood similarly used. 

Screed (skred), n. [A form of shred; a Scotch 
word. See above.] 1. The act of rending 
or tearing; a rent; a tear. Burtis.—2. That 
which is rent or torn off; as, a screed of cloth. 
3. A piece of poetry or prose; a harangue; a 
long tirade upon any subject.— .4 screed o' 
drink, a drinking bout. Sir W. Scott. 

Screed (skr6d), V. (. [Sc. See the noun.] 1. To 
rend: to tear.— 2. To repeat glibly; to dash 
off with spirit. Bums. 

Screeket (skrek), v.i. Same as Screak. 

Screen (akren), n. [O.Fr. escren, escrein, 
escran, Fr. ^cran, a screen, perhaps from 
O.H.G. skranna, a bench, a table.] 1. An 
appliance or article that shelters from the 
sun, rain, cold, Ac, or from sight; a kind 
of movable framework or partition, often 
hinged so that it may be opened out more 
or less as required, or be folded up to occupy 
leas space, used in a room for excluding cold, 
or intercepting the heat of a fire. ' Your 
leaSy screens.' Shak. 

Our fathers knew the value of a screen 
From sultry suns. Ctnvper. 

2. That which shelters or protects from 
danger; that which hides or conceals, or 
which prevents inconvenience. 

Some ambitious men seem as screens to princes in 
matters of danger and envy. Bacon. 

3. A kind of riddle or sieve; more especially, 
(a) a sieve used by farmers for sifting earth 
or seeds. (&) A kind of wire sieve for sifting 




Builder's Screen. 

sand, lime, gravel, Ac. It consists of a rect- 
angular wooden frame with wires travers- 
ing it longitudinaPy at regular intervals. 
It is propped up in nearly a vertical posi- 
tion, and the materials to be sifted or 
screened are thrown against it, when the 
finer particles pass through and the coarser 
remain. A similar apparatus is used for 
separating lump coal from the small coal 
and dross, and also for sorting crushed ores, 
&c. — 4. In arch, (a) a partition of wood. 
stone, or metal, usually so placed in a church 



as to shut out an aisle from the choir, a 
private chapel from a transept, the nave 
from the choir, the high altar from the east 
end of the building, or an altar tomb from 
a public passage of the church. See Par- 
CLOSE. (6) In medieval halls, a partition 
extending across tJie lower end, forming a 
lobby within the main entrance doors, and 
having often a gallery above, (c) An archi- 
tecturally decorated wall, inclosing a court- 
yard in front of a l)uilding.— 5. Naut. the 
name given to a piece of canvas hung round 
a berth for warmth and privacy. 
Screen (skren), v.i. [From the noun.] 1. To 
shelter or protect from inconvenience, in- 
jury, or danger; to cover; to conceal; as, 
our houses and garments screen us from 
cold ; an umbrella screens us from rain and 
the sun's rays; to screen a man from punish- 
ment. 

Back'd with a ridge of hills. 
That screen'd the fruits of th' earth. ' Milton. 

2. To sift or riddle by passing through a 
screen ; as, to screen coal. 

Screening -machine ( skren'ing-ma-sheu), 
n. An apparatus, having a rotary motion, 
used for screening or sifting coal, stamped 
ores, and the like. 

Screenings (skren'ingz), ?i. pi. The refuse 
matter left after sifting coal, &c. 

Screigh-of-day(8kreeh-ov-da),?i. [Comp. D, 
krieken va}i den dag, peep of day; krieken, 
to peep, to chirp.] The first dawn. [Scotch.) 

Screw (skro), n. [Same word as Dan. skrue^ 
Sw. skrvf, Icel. skri(/a, D. schroef, O.D. 
schroeve, L.G. schritive, G. schraube, a screw. 
Or perhaps from O. Fr. escroue, the hole in 
which a screw turns, Mod.Fr. Scroti, which 
Littr6 regards as from one or other of the 
above words, but Diez, rather improbably, 
derives from L. scrobs, scrobis, a trench. 
The word does not appear very early in Eng- 
lish. Shakspere uses the verb, and no doubt 
the noun was familiar before this.] 1. A 
cylinder of wood or metal having a spiral 
ridge (the thread) winding round it in a 
uniform manner, so that the successive turns 
are all exactly the same distance from each 
other, and a corresponding spiral groove is 
produced. The screw forms one of the six 
mechanical powers, and is simply a modifi- 
cation of the inclined plane, as may be 
shown by cutting a piece of paper in the 
form of a right-angled triangle, so as to re- 
present an inclined plane, and applying it 
to a cylinder with the perpendicular side 
of the triangle, or altitude of the plane, pa- 
rallel to the axis of the cylinder. If the 
triangle be then rolled about the cylinder, 
the hypotenuse which represents the length 
of the plane will trace upon the surface of 
the cylinder a spiral line, which, if we sup- 
pose it to have thickness, and to protrude 
from the surface of the cylinder, will form 
the thread of the screw. The enei^y of the 
power applied to the screw thus formed is 
transmitted by means of a hollow cylinder 
of equal diameter with the solid or convex 
one, and having a spiral channel cut on its 

inner surface so as to correspond exactly to 

the thread raised upon the solid cyhnder. 
Hence the one will work within the other, 

and by turning the convex cylinder, while 



Fate, fir, fat, fftll; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move: tiibe, tub. bull; 
ch, cAain; th, Sc. locA; g, j^o; J, iob; fa, Fr. to?i; ng, sin^; TH, (Aen; th, (Ain; 
Vol. IV. 



oil. pound; ii, Sc. abune; y, Sc. ley. 
-, trig; wh, whig; zh, azure —See KEV. 
189 



SCREW 



2 



SCRIBBLE 



the other remains fixed, the former will 
pass through the latter, and will advance 
every revolution through a space equal to 
the distance hetween two contiguous turns 
of the thread. The convex screw is called 
the external or male, and the concave or 
hollow screw the internal or female screic, 
or they are frequently termed simply the 
screw and nut respectively. As the screw 
is a modification of the inclined plane it is 
not ditlicult to estimate the mechanical ad- 
vantage obtained by it. If we suppose the 
power to be applied to the circumference of 
the screw, and to act in a direction at right 
angles to the radius of the cylinder, and 
parallel to the base of the inclined plane by 
which the screw is supposed to be formed ; 
then the power will be to the resistance as 
the distance between two contiguous threads 
to the circumference of the cylinder. But 
as in practice the screw is combined with 
the lever, and the power applied to the ex- 
tremity of the lever, the law becomes: The 
power is to the resistance as the distance 
between two contiguous threads to the cir- 
cumference described by the power. Hence 
the mechanical effect of the screw is in- 
creased by lessening the distance between 
the threads, or making them finer, or by 
lengthening the lever to which the power Is 
applied. The law, however, is greatly modi- 
fied by the friction, which is very great. 
The uses of the screw are various. It is an 
invaluable mechanism for fine adjustments 
such as are required in good telescopes, 
microscopes, micrometers, &c. It is used 
for the application of great pressure, as in 
the screw-jack and screw-press ; as a borer, 
in the gimlet; and in the ordinary screw 
nail we have it employed for fastening sepa- 
rate pieces of material together.~^rc/iM/ie- 
^an screw. See Archimedean. --£ndZe«s 
screw or perpetual screw. See under Endless. 
^Right and left screw, a screw of which the 
threads upon the opposite ends run in dif- 
ferent directions.— Kttnier's screw consists 
of a combination of two screws of unequal 
fineness, one of which works within the 
other, the external one being also made to 
play in a nut. In this case the power does 
not depend upon the interval between the 
threads of either screw, but on the differ- 
■ence between the intervals in the two 
screws. See Hunter's Screw, and Differ- 
ential screw under Differential.— Screw 
propeller, an apparatus which, being fitted 
to ships and driven by steam, propels them 
through the water, and which, in all its vari- 
ous forms, is a modification of the common 
screw. Originally the thread had the form of 
& broad spiral plate, making one convolution 




De Bay Screw Propeller. 

Tonnd the spindle or shaft, but now it con- 
sists of several distinct blades. The usual po- 
sition for the screw propeller is immediately 
before the stern-post, the shaft passing 
parallel to the keel, into the engine-room, 
where it is set in rapid motion by the steam- 
engines. This rotatory motion in the sur- 
rounding fiuid, which may be considered to 
be in a partially inert condition, produces, 
according to the well-known principle of 
the screw, an onward motion of the vessel 
more or less rapid, according to the velocity 
of the shaft, the obliquity of the arms, and 
the weight of the vessel. The annexed figure 
shows a somewhat rare form of the screw 
propeller. — Screw nails and wood screws, 
a kind of screws very much used by car- 
penters and other mechanics for fasten- 
ing two or more pieces of any material to- 
gether. When they are small they are 
turned by means of an instrument called a 
screw-driver. — Screw tcrench or key, a me- 
chanical instrument employed to turn large 
screws or their nuts. — 2. One who makes a 
sharp bargain ; an extortioner ; a miser ; a 



skin-flint.— 3. An unsound or broken-down , 
horse. [CoUoq.]— 4, A small parcel of to- ; 
bacco twisted up in a piece of paper, some- i 
what in the shape of a screw.— 5. A steam- 
vessel propelled by means of a screw.— 6. A 
screw-shell (which see). 

His small private box was full of peg-tops . . . 
screti's, birds eggs, &c. T. Hitches. 

7. The state of being stretched, as by a 
screw. 'Strained to the last screw he can 
bear.' Cmrjier.— 8. Wages or salary. [Slang.] 
—A screic loose, something defective or 
wrong with a scheme or individual. 

My uncle was confirmed in his original impression 
that something dark and mysterious was going for- 
ward, or, as he always said himself, that there was a 
scrciv loose somewliere. Dickens. 

— To 2ittt on the screw, to bring pressure to 
bear (on a person), often for the pui-pose of 
getting money. — To put under the screw, to 
influence by strong pressure; to compel; 
to coerce. 

Screw (skro), v.t. l. To turn, as a screw; to 
apply a screw to ; to move by a screw ; to 
press, fasten, or make firm by a screw; as, 
to screw a lock on a door; to screw a press. 

2. To force as by a screw; to wrench; to 
squeeze; to press; to twist. 

I partly know the instrument 

That screws mc from my true place in your favour. 

ShaA. 

Wefaill 

But scre7v your courage to the sticking-place, 

And we'll not fail. Shak. 

3. To raise extortionately ; to rack. 'The 
rents of land in Ireland, since they have 
been so enormously raised and screioed up.' 
Swift.— i. To oppress by exactions; to use 
violent means towards. ' Screicing and rack- 
ing their tenants.' Swift. 

In the presence of that board he was provoked to 
exclaim that in no part of the world, not even in Tur- 
key, were the merchants so scre7ved and wrung as in 
England. Hallam. 

5. To deform by contortions; to distort. 
'Grotesque habits of swinging.his limbs and 
screipivii; his visage.' Sir W. Scott. 

He scrnu'd his face into a harden'd smile. Dryden. 

Screw (skro), v.i. 1. To be oppressive or 

exacting; to use violent means in making 

exactions. 'Whose screwing iron-handed 

administration of relief is the boast of the 

parish.' Uowitt.—I. To be propelled by 

means of a screw. 'Screwing up against 
the very muddy boiling current.' W. H. 
Russell. 

Screw-bolt (skrO'bolt), n. A square or 
cylindrical piece of iron, with a knob or 
flat head at the one end and a screw at Uie 
other. It is adapted to pass through holes 
made for its reception in two or more pieces 
of timber, Ac, to fasten them together, by 
means of a nut screwed on the end that is 
opposite to the knob. 

Screw-box (skro'boks), n. A device for cut- 
ting the threads on wooden screws, similar 
in construction and operation to the screw- 
plate. 

Screw-cap (skrb'kap), n. A cover to protect 
or conceal the head of a screw, or a cap or 
cover fltted with a screw. 

Screw-clamp ( skro'klamp ), »i. A clamp 
which acts by means of a screw. 

Screw -coupling (skro-ku'pl-ing), n. A 
device for joining the ends of two vertical 
rods or chains and giving them any desired 
degree of tension; a screw socket for uniting 
pipes or rods. 

Screw-dock (skrb'dok). n. A kind of grav- 
ing-dock furnished with large screws to 
assist in raising and lowering vessels. 

Screw-driver (skrb'driv-Sr), n. An instru- 
ment resembling a blunt cnisel for driving 
in or drawing out screw-nails. 

Screwed (skrbd), a. Drunk. 'For she was 
only a little screwed.' Dickens. [Slang.] 

Screwer (skrb'^r), n. One who or that which 
screws. 

Screw-jack (skrb'jak), n. A portable ma- 
chine for raising great weights, as heavy 
carriages, *.tc., by the agency of a screw. 
See Jack. 

Screw-key (skrb'ke). n. See under Screw. 

Screw-nail (skrb'nal), n. See under Screw. 

Screw-pile (skrb'pil), n. See under Pile. 

Screw-pine (skrb'pin), n. The conmion 
name for trees of the genus Pandanus, which 
forms the type of the nat. order Pandanaceie. 
(See Pandanus.) The screw-pines are trees 
which grow in the East Indies, the Isle of 
Bourbon, Mauritius, New South Wales, and 
New Guinea. They have great beauty, and 
some of them an exquisite odour; and their 
roots, leaves, and fruit ai-e all found useful 



for various purposes. Screw-pines are re- 
markable for the peculiar roots they send 
out from various parts of the stem. These 




Screw-pine (Pandanus odaratissitnus). 

roots are called aerial or adventitious, and 
serve to support the plant. 

Screw-plate (skrb'plat), n. A thin plate of 
steel having a series of holes of varying 
sizes with internal screws, used in forming 
small external screws. 

Screw-post (skrb'pbst), n. Naut. the inner 
stern-post through wliich the shaft of a 
screw propeller passes. 

Screw-press (skrb'pres), n. A machine for 
communicating pressure by means of a 
screw or screws. 

Screw-propeller (skrb'pro-pel-6r), n. See 
Screw. 

Screw-rudder (skrb-rud'6r), n. An appli- 
cation of the screw to purposes of steering, 
instead of a rudder. The direction of its 
axis is changed, to give the required direc- 
tion to the ship, and its efficiency does not 
depend upon the motion of the ship, as with 
a rudder. E. H. Knight. 

Screw-shell (skro'shel), n. The English 
name for shells of the genus Turbo; wreath- 
shell. 

Screw-steamer (skrb'stem-6r), n. A steam- 
ship driven by a screw-propeller. See 
Screw propeller under Screw. 

Screw-stone (skrb'stbn), n. A familiar 
name for the casts of encrinites from their 
screw-like shape. 

Screw-tap (skrb'tap), n. The cutter by 
which an internal screw is produced. 

Screw-tree (skrb'tre), n. Helicteres, agenus 
of plants, of several species, natives of warm 
climates. They are shrubby plants, with 
clustered flowers, which are succeeded by 
five carpels, which are usually twisted to- 
gether in a screw-like manner. See Helic- 
teres. 

Screw- valve (skro'valv), n. A stop-cock 
furnished with a puppet-valve opened and 
shut by a screw instead of by a spigot 

Screw-well (skrb'wel), n. A hollow in the 
stern of a ship into which a propeller is lifted 
after being detached from the shaft, when 
the ship is to go under canvas alone. 

Screw-wheel (ski-o'whel), n. A wheel which 
gears with an endless screw. 

Screw-wrench (skrb'rensh), n. See under 
Screw. 

Scribablet (sknb'a-bl), a. Capable of being 
written, or of being written upon. 

ScribatiOUS t (^skri-bashus), a. Skilful in 
or fond of writing. Barrow. 

Scribbett (skrib'et), n. A painter's penciL 

Scribble (skribl), v.t pret. & pp. scribbled; 
ppr. scribbling. [A word that appears to be 
based partly on scrabble, partly on L. scribo^ 
to write; comp.O.H.G. sArndein, to scribble.] 
1. To write with haste, or without care or 
regard to correctness or elegance; as. to 
scribble a letter or pamplilet.~2. To fill with 
careless or worthless writing. 'Every mar- 
gin scribbled, crost, and cramm'd.' Tenny- 
son. 

Scribble (skribl), v.i. To scrawl; to write 
witliout care or beauty. ' If Mtevius scribble 
in Apollo's spite.' Pope. 

Scribble (skrib'l), n. Hasty or careless writ- 
ing; a scrawl; as, a hasty scribble. 'Current 
scribbles of the week.' Swift. 

Scribble (skribl), v.t. [Sw. skrubbla, Q. 
schrabbeln, to card, to scribble.] To card 
or tease coarsely; to pass, as cotton or wool, 
through a scribbler. 



Fate, far, fat, fftU; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not» move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abune; y, Sc. fey. 



SCRIBBLEMENT 

Scribblement (skrib'l-ment), n. A worth- 
les.s ov careless writing; scribble. [Rare.] 

Scribbler (skrib'l^r), n. l. One who scribbles 
or writes carelessly, loosely, or badly ; hence, 
a petty author; a writer of no reputation. 

Venal and licentious scribblers, with just sufficient 
talent to clothe the thoughts of a pandar in the style 
of a bellman, were now the favourite writers of the 
sovereign and of the public. Alacaulay. 

2. In a cotton or woollen manufactory, the 
person who directs or has chaise of the 
operation of scribbling, or the machine 
which performs the operation. 

Scribbling (skrib'ling), a. Fitted or adapted 
for being scribbled on; as, scribbling paper; 
scribbling diary. 

Scribbling (skribling), n. 1. The act of 
writing hastily and carelessly. —2. In woollen 
manuf. the first coarse teasing or carding 
of wool, preliminary to the final carding. 

Scribblingly (skribling-li), adv. In a scrib- 
blinii way. 

Scribbling -machine (skrib'ling-ma-shen), 
n. A machine employed for the first coarse 
carding of wool. Called also Scribbler. 

Scribe (skrib), n. [Fr. scribe, from L. scriba, 
a clerk, a secretary, from scribo, to write.] 

1. One who writes; a writer; a penman; 
especially, one skilled in penmanship. 

He is no ereat scri&e. Rather handling the pen 
like the poclcet staff he carries about vrith hira, 

Dur/tdPis. 

2. An official or public writer; a secretary; 
an amanuensis ; a notary ; a copyist — 

3. In Jewish and sacred hist, originally a 
kind of military ofl^cer whose principal 
duties seem to have been the recruiting and 
organizing of troops, the levying of war- 
taxes, and the like. At a later period, a 
writer and a doctor of the law ; one skilled 
in the law; one who read and explained the 
law to the people Ezra vii.— 4. In brick- 
laying, a spike or large nail ground to a 
sharp point, to mark the bricks on the face 
and back by the tapering edges of a mould, 
for the purpose of cutting them and re- 
ducing them to the proper taper for gauged 
arches. 

Scribe (skrib), v. t pret. & pp. scribed; ppr. 
scribing. 1. 1 To write or mark upon ; in- 
scrilje. Speiiser.—2. In carp, (a) to mark by 
a rule or compasses; to mark so as to fit one 
piece to the edge of another or to a sur- 
face, (b) To adjust, as one piece of wood 
to another, so that the fibre of the one shall 
be at right angles to that of the other. 

Scriber (skrib'^r), n. A sharp-pointed tool 
used by joiners for marking lines on wood; 
a scribing-iron. 

Scribing (skrib'ing), n. Writing; handwrit- 
ing.' 

The heading of a cask has been brought aboard, 
but the scribing upon it is very indistinct. 

Capt. M'Cliutock, 

Scribing-lron (skrib'ing-i-^m), n. An iron- 
pointed instrument for marking casks or 
timber; a scriber. 

Scribism ( skrib 'izm), n. The character, 
manners. and doctrines of the Jewish scribes, 
especially in the time of our Saviour. F. W. 
Robertson. [Rare. ) 

Scrld (skrid), n. [SeeScRKED.] A fragment; 
a shred; a screed. [Rare.] 

Scrlene^t n. A screen or entrance into a 
hall. Spenser. 

Seriate (skrev). v. i. To move or glide swiftly 
along: also, to rub or rasp along. Bums. 
[Scotch.] 

SCTlggle (skrig'l), V. i. To writhe; to struggle 
or twist about with more or less force. 
[Local.] 

Scrike.t v.i. [See Screak.] To shriek. 

Speuner. 

SCTlmert (skri'm^r), n. [Fr. escrimeur, from 
escrimer, to fence.] A fencing-master; a 
swordsman. 

The scrimers of their nation. 
He swore, had neither motioQ, guard, nor eye. 
If you opposed them. Shak. 

Scrininiage,8crummage(8krim'aj, skrum'- 
aj), n. [Corruption of iAnnnwA.] A skirmish; 
a confused row or contest; a tussle; specifi- 
cally, in football, a confused, close struggle 
round the hall. 'Always in the front of the 
rush or the thick of the scrimmage.' Law- 
rence. 

Ain't there just fine scrummages then? 

T. Hughes. 

Scrimp (skrimp), v.t. [Dan. skrximpe. 8w. 
skrnmpna, L.O. acArttmpen, to shrink, to 
shrivel ; A. Sax. scrimman, to dry, wither, 
shrivel, is an allied form.] To make too 
small or short; to deal sparingly with in 
regard to food, clothes, or money; to limit 
or straiten; to scant or make scanty. 



Scrimp (skrimp), a. Scanty; narrow; defi- 
cient; contracted. 

Scrimp (skrimp), ?i. A niggard; a pinching 
miser. [I'nited States.] 

Scrimply (skrimp'li), adv. In a scrimp man- 
ner; barely; hardly; scarcely. Burns. 

Scrlmpness (skrimp'nes), n. Scantiness; 
small allowance. 

Scrimptlon (skrim'shon), n. A small por- 
tion; a pittance. Halliwell. [Local.] 

Serine t (skrin), n. [O.Fr. eserin, Mod. Fr. 
tfcriH. It. scrigno, from L. scrinium, a box 
or case for papers, from scribo, to write. ] A 
chest, bookcase, or other place where writ- 
ings or curiosities are deposited; a shrine. 

Lay forth out of thine everlasting serine 
The antique rolles which there he hidden still. 
Spenser. 

Scringe (skrin j), v.i. [A rare form of cringe; 
comp. creak, screak; cranch, scranch.] To 
cringe. [Provincial English and United 
States. ] 

Scrip (skrip), n. [Icel. skreppa, Dan. skreppe, 
a bag, a wallet; L.G. schrap, Fris. skrap.] 
A small bag ; a wallet ; a satchel. * And in 
requital ope his leathern scrip.' Milton. 

Scrip (skrip), n. [For script, L. scriptum, 
something written, from scribo, to write.] 
1. A smali writing; a certificate or schedule; 
a piece of paper containing a writing. 

Bills of exchange cannot pay our debts abroad till 
scrips of paper can be made current coin. Locke. 

2.t A slip of writing; a list, as of names; a 
catalogue. 

Call them man by man, according- to the scrip. 
Shak. 
3. In com. a certificate of stock subscribed 
to a bank or other company, or of a sub- 
scription to a loan ; an interim writing en- 
titling a party to a share or shares in any 
company, or to an allocation of stock in 
general, which interim writing, or scrip, is 
exchanged after registration for a formal 
certificate. 

Lucky rhymes to him were scrip and share. 

Tennyson. 

Scrip-company (skrip'kum-pa-ni), n. A 
company having shares which pass by de- 
livery, without the formalities of register or 
transfer. 

Scrip-holder (skripTiold-^r), n. One who 
holds shares in a company or stock, the 
title to which is a written certificate or scrip. 

Scrippsiget (skrip'aj), n. That which is con- 
tained in a scrip. • Though not with bag and 
baggage, yet with scrip and scrippage. ' Shak. 

Script (skript). n. 1. 1 A scrip or small writ- 
ing. 'This sonnet, this loving script.' Beau. 
<t FI.—2. In printing, tyi>e resembling or in 
imitation of handwriting.— 3. In law, the 
original or principal document. 

Scrijptorium (skrip-to'ri-um), n. [L., from 
scriptor, a writer, scribo, to write.] A room 
for writing in; a room set apart for the 
writing or copying of manuscripts. 

Scrlptory (skrip'to-ri), a. [L. scriptorius, 
from scriptor, a writer, from scribo, to write. 
See Scribe. ] l. Expressed in writing; not 
verbal ; written. ' Wills are nuncupatory 
and*crip(ory.' Swift.— 2. Used for writing. 
'Reeds, vallatory. sagittary. scriptory, and 
others.' Sir T. Browne. [Rare.) 

Scriptural (skrip'tur-al), a. Contained in 
or according to the Scriptures: biblical; as, 
a scriptural phrase ; scriptural doctrine. 

Scripturalism ( skrip'tur-al-izm X n. The 
quality of being scriptural; literal adherence 
to Scripture. 

Scripturalist (skrip'tfir-al-ist), n. One who 
adheres literally to the Scriptures and makes 
them the f<itniilation of all philosophy. 

Scrlptnrally ( skrip'tur-al-li ), adv. In a 
scriptural manner. 

Scrip turalne 88 (skrip'tur-al-nes), n. Qua- 
lity <»f being scripturaL 

Scripture (skrip'tur), n. [L. scriptura, from 
scribo, to write.) l.t Anything written; a 
writing; an inscription; a docimient; a 
manuscript; a book. 

It is not only remembered in many scriptures, but 
famous for the death and overthrow of Crassus. 

Sir It'. Raleigh. 

2. The books of the Old and New Testaments; 
the Bible: used by way of eminence and 
distinction, and often iu the plural preceded 
by the definite article; as, we find it stated 
in Scripture or in the Scriptures. 

There is not any action that a man ought to do or 
forbear, but Ihe Scriptures will give hira a clear pre- 
cept or prohibition for it. Soulh. 

3. Anything contained in the Scriptures ; a 
passage or quotation from the Scriptures; a 
Bible text. 'Hanging by the twined thread 
of one doubtful Scripture.' Milton. 

The devil can cite Scripture for his purpose. Shak. 



SCROGGY 

Scripture (skrip'tur), a. Relating to the 
Bible or the Scriptures; scriptural; &% Scrip- 
ture history. Locke. 

Why are Scripture maxims put upon us, without 
taking notice of Scripture examples. Sp. Atterbury. 

Scripture-reader (skrip'tur-red-6r), n. One 
employed to read the Bible in private 
houses among the poor and ignorant. 

Scripture-wort (skrip'tur-w6rt), n. A name 
applied to the species of Opegrapha or letter 
lichen. 

Scripturian (skrip-tii'ri-an), n. Same as 
Script nri-^t. [Rare.] 

Scripturientt (skrip-tu'ri-ent), a. [L.L. 
scripturio, from scribo. to write.] Having 
a desire or passion for writing ; having a 
liking or itch for authorship. 'This grand 
scripturient paper-spiller.' A. Wood. 

Scripturist (skrip'tur-ist), n. One well 
vei-sed in the Scriptures. 

Scritcll (skrich), n. A shrill cry; a screech. 

Perhaps it is the owlet's scritch. Coleridge. 

Scrivello (skri-vel'lo), n. An elephant's tusk 

under 20 lbs. weight. 
Scrivener (skriv'ndr), «. [O.Fr. escrivain. 

It. scrivano, from a L.L. scribantis, from L. 

scribo,to write.] 1. Formerly, a writer; one 

whose occupation was to draw contracts or 

other writings. 



We'll pass this business privately and well: 

Send for your daughter by your servant here : 

My boy shall fetch the scrivener presently. Shai. 



2. One whose business it is to receive money 
to place it oUt at interest, and supply those 
who want to raise money on security; a 
money-broker; a financial agent. 

How happy in his low degree 

Who leads a quiet country life. 

And from the griping scrivener free. Dryden. 

— Scrivener's palsy. See Writer's cramp 
under Writer. 

Scriven-like.t rt. Like a scrivener. Chau- 
cer. 

Scrobiciaate, Scrobiculated (skro-bik'u- 
lat, skro-bik'u-lat cd), a. [L. scrobicuhts, 
from acrobs, a furrow.] In bot. furrowed or 
pitted; having small pits or ridges and fur- 
rows. 

Scrobiculus cordis (skro-bik'u-lus kor'dis), 
n. [L.] In anat. the pit of the stomach. 

Scrod, Scrode (skrod, skrod), 71. Same as 
Escrod. 

Scrofula (skrof'u-Ia), n. [L. scrofulce, a 
swelling of the glands of the neck, scrofula, 
from scrofa, a breeding sow, so called be- 
cause swine were supposed to be subject to 
a similar complaint.] A disease due to a 
deposit of tubercle in the glandular and 
bony tissues, and in reality a fonn of tuber- 
culosis or consumption. It generally shows 
itself by hard indolent tumours of the glands 
in various parts of the body, but particu- 
larly in the neck, behind the ears and under 
the chin, which after a time siippurate and 
degenerate into ulcers, from whlWrTinstead 
of pus. a white curdled matter is discharged. 
Scrofula is not contagious, but it is often a 
hereditary disease; its first appearance is 
most usually between the third and seventh 
year of the child's age, but it may arise be- 
tween this and the age of puberty ; after 
which it seldom makes its first attack. It 
is promoted by everything that debilitates, 
but it may remain dormant through life and 
not show itself till the next generation. In 
mild cases the glands, after having suppu- 
rated, slowly heal ; in others, the eyes and 
eyelids become infiamed, the joints become 
affected, the disease gradually extending to 
the ligaments and bones, and producing a 
hectic and debilitated state under which 
the patient sinks; or it ends in tuberculated 
lungs and pulmonary consumption. Called 
aLso Stru)na and King's-evil. 

Scrofulous (skrof'u-lus). a. I. Pertaining 

to scrofula or partaking of its nature ; as, 

scrofulous tumours; a scrofulous habit of 

body.— 2. Diseased or alTected with scrofula. 

Scrofulous persons can never be duly nourished. 

Arbuthnot. 

Scrofulously (skrofu-lus-li), adv. In a 
scrofulous manner. 

Scrofulousness (skrof'u-lus-nes), n. State 
of beini; scmfulous. 

Scrog (skrog), n, [Gael, sgrogag, some- 
thing shrivelled or stunted ; sgrog, to shrivel, 
to compress; comp. scrag.) A stunted bush 
or shrub. In the plural it is generally used 
to designate thorns, briers, &c., and fre- 
quently small branches of trees broken off. 
[Provincial Enulish and Scotch.] 

Scroggy, Scroggle (skrog'i), a. [A provin- 
cial word. .See??CKcxi.] 1. Stunted; shrivelled. 



ch, cAain; 6h, Sc. loch; e,go; Ujoh; h, Fr. ton; ng, ung; th. (Aen; th, thin; w, ifig; wh, whig; zh, azure.— See Key. 



SCROLL 



SCRUTINIZBR 




ScroU-head. 



2. Abounding with stunted bushes or brush- 
wood. 
Scroll (skrol), n. [Formerly also scrota. 

0. Fr. escrol, escrou. Mod. Fr. ecrou, a scroll, 
a register; L.L. scroa, sknia, a memoir, a 
scliedule ; probably from the Teutonic, in 
which we find such words as Icel. skrd, a 
scroll, Sw. skra, a short writing. L.G. sckraa, 
by-laws. The form of the English word has 
been influenced by roll, and tlie Frenchforms 
have been modified in a .similar manner.] 

1. A roll of paper or parchment; or a writ- 
ing formed into a roll; a list or schedule. 

The heavens shall be rolled together as a scroll. 

Is. xxxiv. 14, 

Here is the scroll of every man's name, Shak. 

2. An ornament of a somewhat spiral form; 
an ornament or appendage distantly resem- 
bling a partially unrolled sheet of paper; as, 
(a) in arch, a convolved or spiral ornament, 
variously introduced ; specifically, the vo- 
lute of the Ionic and Corinthian capitals. 
(&) The curved head of instruments of the 
violin family, in which are inserted the pins 
for tuning the strings, (c) A kind of volute 
at a ship's bow. See Scroll-head, (d) A 
flourish added to a person's name in signing 
a paper. — 3. In her. the ribbon-like appen- 
dage to a crest or escutcheon on which the 
motto is inscribed. 

Scrolled (skrold). a. 1. Inclosed in a scroll 
or roll; formed into a scroll.— 2. Ornamented 
with scrolls or scroll-work. 

ScroU-head (skrol'hed), n. An ornamental 
piece of tim- 
ber at the bow 
of a vessel, 
finished off 
with carved 
work in the 
form of a volute or scroll 
turning outward. Called 
also Billet-head. 
Scroll-saw (skrol'sa), n. 
A thin and narrow blad- 
ed reciprocating saw 
which passes through 
a hole in the work-table 
and saws a kerf in the work, which is moved 
about in any required direction on the table. 

Scroll-work (skrol'wSrk), ». In arch, orna- 
mental work characterized generally by its 
resemblance to a band, arranged in undula- 
tions or convolutions. 

Scroop (skrbp), ?i. [Imitative.] A harsh 
tone or cry. 'Every word, and scroop, and 
shout.' Dickens. 

Scropliularia (skrof-u-la'ri-a), a. [From its 
supposed virtue in curing scrofula.] A ge- 
nus of plants, the species of which are 
known by the common name of fig-wort. 
See Fig-wort. 

ScropllulariaceaB(skrof'u-la-rJ-a"se-e),?i.pi. 
[Scrophularia, one of the genera.] A very 
large nat. order of herbaceous or shrubby 
monopetalous exogens, inhabiting all parts 
of the world except the coldest, containing 
about 160 genera and 1900 species. They 
have opposite or alternate entire toothed 
or cut leaves, and usually four or five lobed 
irregular flowers with didynamous stamens, 
placed in axillary or terminal racemes; with 
a two-celled ovary and albuminous seeds. 
Many of the genera, such as Digitalis, Calceo- 
laria, Veronica, Pentstemon, itc, are valued 
by gardeners for their beautiful flowers. 

Scrotal (skro'tal), a. Pertaining to the 
scrotum ; as, scrotal hernia, which is a pro- 
trusion of any of the contents of the abdo- 
men into the scrotum. 

Scrotlfonu (skro'ti-form), a. [L. scrotum, 
and forma, form.] In hot. formed like a 
doul)le bag, as the nectary in plants of the 
genus Satyrium. 

Scrotocele (skro'to-sel), n. [Scrotum (which 
see), and Gr. kele, a tumour.] A scrotal 
hernia. 

Scrotum (skro'tum), n. [L.] The bag which 
contains the testicles. 

Scrouge (skrouj), r.(. [Comp. Dan. sknigge, 
to stoop, and Kshruy. ] To crowd; to squeeze. 
[Provincial.] 

Scrow (skrou), n. l.f A scroll. 'Scroio, or 
schedule of paper. ' Huloet. —2. Curriers' cut- 
tings or clippings from hides, as the ears and 
other redundant parts, used for making glue. 

Scroylet (skroil), n. (o.Fr. escrouelles; Fr. 
icrouelles, the king's-evil, from L. L. scrofellce, 
from L. scrofulce, a swelling of the glands 
of the neck. See Scrofula.] A mean fel- 
low; a wretch. Probably originally applied 
to a person afflicted with king's-evil. 

The scroyles of Angiers flout you, kings. Shak. 

Bcnib (skrub), v.t. pret. & pp. scrubbed; ppr. 



scrubbing. [Sw. skruhba, Dan. skrubbe, D. 
schrobben, L.G. schrubben, to rub, to scrub; 
probably allied to scrape, scrabble, or it may 
be from rub, with initial sc, sk, having an 
inteiis. force.] To rub hard, either with the 
hand or with a cloth or an instrument; 
nsually, to rub hard with a brush, or with 
something coarse or rough, for the purpose 
of cleaning, scouring, or making bright; as, 
to scrub a floor ; to scrub a deck ; to scrub 
vessels of brass or other metal. 

Now Moll had whirl'd her mop with dext'rous airs. 
Prepared to scrub the entry and the stairs. S-wi/t. 

Scrub (skrub). v.i. To be diligent and penu- 
rious; as, to scrub hard for a living. 
Scrul) (skrub), n. [From the verb to scrub.] 

1. A worn-out brush; a stunted broom. — 

2. A mean fellow; one that labours hard and 
lives meanly. 

We should go there in as proper a manner as pos- 
sible, not altogether like the scrubs about us. 

GoldsfntVt. 

3. Something small and mean. 

Scmib (skrub), a. Mean; niggardly; con- 
temptible; scrubby. 

How dismal, how solitary, how scrub does this town 
look I //. IVatpole. 

With a dozen large vessels my vault shall be stored. 
No little scrub joint shall come on my board. Stvi/t. 

Scrub (skrub), n. [Same word as shrub, 
A. Sax. scrcb, Dan. dial, skrub, a shrub.] 
Close, low, or stunted trees or brushwood; 
low underwood. 

He threw himself on the heathtiy scrub which met 
the shingle. 7". Hughes. 

Scrubbed (skrub'ed), a. Same as Scrubby. 
' A little scrubbed boy, no higher than thy- 
self.' Shak. 

Scrubber (skrub'^r), n. 1. One who or that 
which scrubs; a hard broom or brush.— 
2. An apparatus for ridding coal-gas from 
tarry matter and ammonia. 

Scrubby (skrub'i), a. Small and mean; vile; 
worthless; insignificant; stunted in growth; 
as, a scrubby cur; a scrubby tree. 

Scrubbyisb ( skrub 'i-ish), a. Somewhat 
scrubby. 

I happen to be sheriflTof the county: and, as all writs 
are returnable to me, a scrubbyish fellow asked me to 
sign one against you. Colman the Younger. 

Scrub-oak (skrub'ok), n. The popular name 
in the United States for several stunted spe- 
cies of oak, such as Quercus ilicifolia, Q. agri- 
folia, &.C. 

Scrub-race (skrub'ras), n. A race between 
low and contemptible animals got up for 
amusement. 

Scrubstone (skrub'ston), n. A provincial 
term for a species of calciferous sandstone. 
Scruf t (skruf), n. Scurf. 
Scruff (skruf), n. [For scitff (which see).] 
The hinder part of the neck. 

I shall take you by the scruff oi the neck. Marryat. 

Scrummage (skrum'aj), n. See Scrimmage. 
Scrumptious (skrump'shus), a. 1. Nice; 
particular; fastidious; fine. [United States.] 

2. Delightful ; first-rate ; as, scrumptious 
weather. [Slang.] 

Scninch (skrunsh), v.i. To crush, as with 
the teeth; to crunch; hence, to grind down. 

I have found out that you must either scrunch them 
(servants) or let them scrunch you. Dickens. 

Scruple (skro'pl), n. [Fr. ^crupuie, a scruple, 
from L. scrupulus, a little stone (dim. of 
scrupus, a rough or sharp stone), the twenty- 
fourth part of anything, hence, figuratively, 
a trifiing matter, especially a trifling matter 
causing doubt, difficulty, or anxiety; hence 
doubt, difficulty, uneasiness.] 1. A weight of 
20 grains; the third part of a dram, or the 
twenty-fourth part of an ounce in the old 
apothecaries' measure. Hence— 2. Any small 
quantity. 

Nature never lends 
The smallest scruple of her excellence ; 
But, like a thrifty goddess, she determines 
Herself the glory of a creditor. Shak. 

3. In old astron. a digit.— 4. Hesitation as to 
action from the difficulty of determining 
what is right or expedient; doubt, hesita- 
tion, or perplexity arising from motives of 
conscience; backwardness to decide or act; 
a kind of repugnance to do a thing, the 
conscience not being satisfied as to its right- 
ness or propriety; nicety; delicacy; doubt. 

He was made miserable by the contest between his 
taste and his scruples. Macaulay. 

Scruple (skro'pl), v.i. pret. & pp. scrupled; 
ppr. scrupling. To have scruples; to be re- 
luctant as regards action or decision ; to 
hesitate about doing a thing; to doubt: 
often followed by an infinitive. 

He scrupled not to eat 
Against his better knowledge. Milton. 



We are often over-precise, scrupling to say or do 
those things which lawfully we may. Fuller. 

Men scruple at the lawfulness of a set form of 
divine worship. South. 

Scruple (skro'pl), t). (. To have scruples about; 
to doubt; to hesitate to believe; to question; 
as, to scruple the truth or accuracy of an 
account or calculation. [Now rare.] 

The chief officers ' behaved with all imaginable per- 
verseness and insolence ' in the council of state, scru- 
pling the oath to be true to the commonwealth against 
Charles Stuart or any other person. Hatlant. 

Scrupler (skro'pl6r), n. One who scruples; 
a doubter; one who hesitates. ' Away with 
those nice «crKpiers.' Bp. Hall. 

ScrupuliSt (skrb'paiist), n. One who 
doubts or scruples; a scrupler. Shaftes- 
bury. 

Scrupullze (skro'pu-liz), v.t. pret. <fc pp. 
scrupulized; ppr. scrupulizijtg. To perplex 
with scruples of conscience. ' Other articles 
may be so scrupulized.' Mmitague. 

Scrupulosity (skrb-pu-los'i-ti), n. [L. «crtt- 
pulositas. See Scruple.] The quality or 
state of being scrupulous; hesitation or 
doubtfulness respecting some point or pro- 
ceeding from the difficulty of determining 
how to act; caution or tenderness arising 
from the fear of doing wrong or offending; 
nice regard to exactness and propriety; pre- 
ciseness. 

The first sacrilege is looked upon with some horror ; 
but when they have once made the breach their scru- 
pulosity soon retires. Dr. H. More. 

So careful, even to scrupulosity, were they to keep 
their sabbath, that they must not only have a time to 
prepare them for that, but a further time also to pre- 
pare them for their very preparations. South. 

Scrupulous ( skrb ' pu - lus ), a. [L. scrupu- 
losits, Fr. scrupuleux. SeeSCRUPLE.] 1. Full 
of scruples; inclined to scruple; hesitating 
to determine or to act; cautious in decision 
from a fear of offending or doing wrong. 
' Abusing their liberty, to the offence of their 
weak brethren which were scrupulous.' 
Hooker. — 2.^ Given to making objections; 
captious. Shak.— Z.\ 'Sice; doubtful. 

The justice of that cause ought to be evident; not ob- 
scure, not scrupulous. Bacon. 

4. Careful ; cautious ; vigilant ; exact in re- 
garding facts. 

I have been the more jrfw/K/ci/j- and wary in regard 
the inferences from these observations are of import- 
ance. H'oodu-ard. 

5. Precise; exact; rigorous; punctilious; as, 
a scrupulous abstinence from labour. 

Scrupulously (skrd'pu-lus-li), adv. In a 
scrupulous manner; with a nice regard to 
minute particulars or to exact propriety. 

The duly consists not scrupulously in minutes and 
half hours. yer. Taylor. 

Henry was scrupulously careful not to ascribe the 
success to himself Addison. 

Scrupulousness (skro'pii-lus-nesX n. The 
state or quality of being scrupulous; as, (a) 
the state of having scruples; caution in de- 
termining or in acting from a regard to 
truth, propriety, or expediency. 

Others by their weakness, and fear, and scrupulous- 
ness, cannot fully satisfy their own thoughts. 

Dr. Puller. 

(&) Exactness; preciseness. 
Scrutable (skro'ta-bl), a. [See Scrutiny.] 
Capable of being submitted to scrutiny; dis- 
coverable by scrutiny, inquiry, or critical 
examination. 

Shall we think God soscrutable or ourselves so pene- 
trating that none of his secrets can escape us? 

Dr. H. More. 

Scrutatlon (skro-ta'shon), n. [L. scruta^ 
tio.] Search; scrutiny. [Rare.] 

Scrutator (skrb-ta't^r), n. [L. , from scrutor, 
scrutatus, to explore.] One who scrutin- 
izes ; a close examiner or inquirer ; a scru- 
tineer. Ayliffe; Bailey. 

Scrutineer (skrb-ti-ner'), n. One who scra- 
tinizes; one who acts as an examiner of 
votes, as at an election, &c.,.to see if they 
are valid. 

Scrutinize (skrd'tin-iz), v. t. pret & pp. scru- 
tinized; ppr. scrutinizing. [From scrutiny.] 
To subject to scrutiny; to investigate closely; 
to examine or inquire into critically ; to re- 
gard narrowly ; as, to scrutinize the mea- 
sures of administration; to scrutinize the 
private conduct or motives of individuals. 
'To scrutinize their religious motives.' War- 
burton. 

Scrutinize (skro'tin-iz), v. i. To make scru- 
tiny. * Thinks it presumption to scrutinize 
into its defects.' Goldsmith. 

Hatton remained silent and watched him with a 
scrutinizing eye. D'Jsrculi. 

Scrutinizer (skro'tin-iz-^r), n. One who 
scrutinizes; one who examines with critical 
care. 



Fate, far, fat, fftll; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tiibe, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abune; J', Sc. ley. 



SCRTTTINOTTS 



SCTJPPER 



Scrutinous (skro'tin-us), a. Closely inquir- 
iuj^ or examining; captious. 

Age is froward, uneasy. scrutiHOHs, 

Hard to be pleased. Sir y. Denhant. 

Scrutinously (skro'tia-us-li), adv. By using 
scrutiny; searchingly. 

Scrutiny ( skro'tin-i ), n. [1. scrutinium, 
Ft. gcrutin, from L. serutor, to search care- 
fully, to rummage, from gcruta, trash, frip- 
pery.] 1. Close investigation or examina- 
tion; minute inquiry; critical examination. 

Thenceforth I thought thee worth my nearer view 
And narrower scrutiny. Milton. 

Somewhat may easily escape, even from a wary 
pen, which will not bear the test of a severe scrutiny, 
Atterbury. 

2. In the primitive church, an examination 
of catechumens in the last week of Lent, 
who were to receive baptism on Easter-day. 
This was performed with prayers, exorcisms, 
and many other ceremonies. — 3. In the canon 
laic, a ticket or little paper billet on which 
a vote is written. — 4. An examination by a 
competent authority of the votes given at 
an election for the purpose of rejecting those 
that are bad, and thus coirecting the poll. 

SCTTitiiiy+ (skrb'tin-i), v.t. pret. & pp. scru- 
tinied ; ppr. serutinying. To scrutinize. 
Johnson. 

Scrutoire (skru-twarO, ». [See Escritoire.] 
An escritoire. 

Scruzet (skruz), ^-f- l-^ form of scrm/^e,] 
To crowd; to compress; to crush; to squeeze. 
Speiiger. 

Scry t (skri), r. (. To descry. Spenser. 

Scryt (skri), n. A flock of wild-fowl. HaUi- 
well. 

Scryt (skri), n. A cry. Bemers. 

Scryne t (skrin). n. Same as Serine. 

Scud (skud), v.i. pret. scudded; ppr. scud- 
ding. [A. Sax. gciidan, to run quickly, to 
flee; O.Sax. scuddian, L.G. and D. schudden, 
to set in rapid motion, to shake; Sw. skutta, 
to run tiuickly; allied to shudder.] 1. To 
run quickly; to be driven or to flee or fly 
with haste; to run with precipitation. 

Sometimes he scuds far off, and there he stares. 
Shak. 
Foam-flakes scud along the level sand. Tennyson. 

2. Xaut. to be driven with precipitation 
before a tempest with little or no sails 
spread. 

8cu,d(skud),n. 1. The act of scudding; a driv- 
ing along: a running or rushing with speed 
or precipitation. — 2. Loose vapoury clouds 
driven swiftly by the wind. * And the dark 
scud in swift succession flies.' Falconer. 
Borne on the ncud of the aea.* Lon^elloic. 

3. A slight flying shower. (Provincial Eng- 
lish.] — i. A small number of larks, less than 
a flock. [Provincial English.] — 5. In school 
slang, a swift runner; a scudder. 

* 1 say,' said East, looking with much increased 
respect at Tom, 'you ain't a Dad scud.' T. Hughes. 

Scad (skud), v.t. To pass over quickly. 

His lessening flock 
In snowy groups diffusive scudvixc vale. Shenstone. 

Scudder (skud'^r), n. One who scuds. 

Scuddick (»kud'ik), n. \. Anything of small 
value, IIalliwell.—2. A shilling. [Slang.] 

Scuddle (skud'l), v.i. pret. scuddted; ppr. 
scuddlinfj. [A dim. of scud.] To run with 
a kind of affected haste; to scuttle. 

Scuddy (skud'i), n. A naked infant or young 
child [Scotch] 

Scudlax (skutl'Iar), n. A scullion. [Scotch.] 

Scudo (sko'do). n. pi. Scudi (skb'de). [It, 
a shield, a crown, from L. scutum, a shield: 
so calletl from its l>earing the heraldic 
shield of the prince by whom it was i8sue<).] 
An Italian silver coin of dilferent value in 
the different states in which it was issued. 
The Genoese scudo was equivalent to about 
bs. 4f^ ; the Roman, 4«. id.\ the Sardinian 
and Milanese, 3x. 9d. This coin has gradu- 
ally disappearetl before the decimal coinage 
of the Italian kingdom, but the name is 
sometimes given to the piece of 5 lire (about 
4k.). The old Roman gold scudo was worth 
10 silver scudi. 

Scuff (skuO,n. [SeeScuFT.] The hinder part 
of the neck; the scruff. [Provincial.] 

Scuff (skuf). v.i. [See ScuFPLE.] To walk 
without raising the feet from the ground or 
flixtr; to shuflle. 

Scuff (skuf), v.t. To graze gently; to pass 
with a .slight touch. [Scotch.] 

Scuffle (skuf^), v.i. pret. scujfied; ppr. sciif- 
Jling. [Freq. from A. Sax. sceofan, scfi/an, 
to shove (see Shove); Sc. scuff, to graze; Sw. 
*frw/a. to shove. Seealso Shuffle. Shovel] 
To struggle or contend with close grapple; 
to fight tumultuously or confusedly. 

A nailant man prefers to fight to great disadvan- 



tages in the field, in an orderly way, rather than to 
scu_ffle with an undisciplined rabble, 

Eikon Basiliki. 

Scuffle (skuf'l), n. [Partly from verb; comp. 
also \y-d.x\.skuffe,io hoe.] 1. A struggle in which 
the combatants grapple closely; any con- 
fused quarrel or contest in which the parties 
struggle blindly or without direction; a tu- 
multuous struggle for victory or superiority; 
a fight. 

The dog leaps upon the serpent and tears it to 
pieces; but in the scuffle, the cradle happened to 
be overturned. Sir R. V Estrange. 

2. A child's pinafore or bib. [Provincial 
English.] — 3. A garden hoe. [Provincial 
English.] 

Scuffler (skuf16r), n. l. One who scuffles. 
2. In agri. a kind of horse-hoe. Its use is 
to cut up weeds and to stir the soil. It re- 
sembles the scarifier, but is much lighter, 
and is employed to work after it. See Sca- 
rifier. 

Scuit (skuft), n. [Also written Scuff"; comp. 
Icel. skoft, Goth, sku/ts, hair] Same as 
Scruf. Mrs. Gaskell. 

Scug (skug), v.t. [Dan. skygge, to shade; Sw. 
skugga, Icel. skuggi, a shadow, a shade.] To 
hide: to shelter. [Scotch.] 

Scug (skug), n. The declivity of a hill; a" 
place of shelter. [Old English and Scotch.] 

Sculduddery (skul-dud'er-i), n. l. Forni- 
cation; adultery. — 2. Crossness; obscenity. 
Ramsay. 'Sculduddery sangs.' Sir W. 
Scott. [Scotch.] 

Sculk (skulk), v.i. Same as Skulk (which 
see). 

Sculker (skulk'fir), n. Same as Skulker. 

Scull (skul), «. Same as Skull. 

Scull (skul), n. [Origin uncertain. Comp. 
Icel- skjdla, a pail, a bucket ; Prov. £. and 
Sc. skeel, a milk - pan ; also Icel. skola, 
to wash.] 1. A boat; a cock-boat. See 
Sculler.— 2. One who sculls a boat— 3. A 
short oar, whose loom is only equal in length 
to half the breadth of the boat to be rowed, 
so that one man can manage two. one on 
each side. Also an oar when used to propel 
a boat by being placed over the stern, and 
worked from side to side, the blade, which 
is turned diagonally, being always in the 
water. —4, A large shallow basket without 
a l>ow handle, used for carrying fruit, po- 
tatoes, fish. itc. [Scotch.] 

Scull t (skul), n. [A form of shoal. See 
Shoal.] A shoal or multitude of fish. 

Scull (skul), v.t. To impel or propel by 
sculls; to propel by moving and turning an 
oar over the stem. 

Scull-cap (skullcap). See Skitll-cap. 

Sculler (skul'^r), n. 1. A boat rowed by one 
man with two sculls or short oars.— 2. One 
who sculls or rows with sculls; one who 
impels a boat by an oai- over the stem. 

ScUilerv (skul'^r-i), n. [O.Fr. eseueiUier, a 
place where bowls are kept, escuelle, a bowl, 
a platter, from L. scutella, dim. of scutra, a 
dish; allied to scutum, a shield.] A place 
where dishes, kettles, and other culinary 
utensils are cleaned and kept, and where 
the rough or dirty work connected with the 
kitchen is done; a back-kitchen. 

Scullion (skul'yon), n. [See Sctllert] 
1. A servant that cleans p<)ts and kettles, 
and does other menial services in the kit- 
chen or sculler>'. Hence— 2. A low, mean, 
worthless fellow. ' The meanest scullion 
that followed his camp.' Smith. 

Scullionly (skul'yon-li), a. Like a scullion; 
base; low; mean. 'Scullionly paraphrase.' 
MiUo)i. 

Sculp (skulp), v.t. [See Scclptcre.] To 
sculpture; to carve; to engrave. 

O that the tenor of my just complaint 
Were satlpt with steel on rocks of adamant. 

Sandys. 

Sculpin (skurpin). n. A small sea-flsh, the 
Cottu* octodecimspinosus, found on the 
American coasts. The gemmeous dragonet 
{Callionyvxus lyra) is so called by the Cor- 
nish fishermen. Spelled also Skulpin. 

Sculptile (skulp'til), a. [L. sculptilis. See 
ScuLiTi'RE.] Formed by carving. 'Sculp- 
tile images.' Sir T. Browne. 

Sculptor ( skulp'tor ), n. One who sculp- 
tures; one who cuts, carves, or hews figures 
in w()<id, stone, or other like materials. 

Sculptress (skulp'tres), n. A female artist 
in sculpture. Quart, iiev. 

Sculptural (skulp'tur-al), a. Pertaining to 
sculpture or engraving. 

Sculpturally (8kulp'tur-al-U),adr. By means 
of sculpture. 

The quaint beauty and character of many natural 
objects, such as intricate branches, grass. &c., as 
well as that of many animals plumed, spined, or 
bristled, Ss sculptttraliy expressible. Kuskin. 



Sculpture (skulp'tur), n. [Fr. , from L. sculp- 
tura, from sculpo, sculptum (also scalpo), to 
grave] 1. The art of carving, cutting, or 
hewing wood, stone, or other materials into 
images of men, beasts, or other things. 
Sculpture also includes the moulding or 
modelling of figures in clay, to be cast in 
bronze or other metal.— 2. Carved work; any 
work of sculpture, as a figure cut in stone, 
metal, or other solid substance, represent- 
ing or describing some real or imaginary 
object. ' Some sweet sculpture draped from 
head to foot. ' Tennyson. 

There too. in living sculpture, might be seen. 
The mad affection of the Cretan queen. Dryden. 

Sculpture (skulp'tur), v. t. pret. & pp. sculp- 
tured; ppr. sculptuHng. To represent in 
sculpture; to carve; to form with the chisel 
or other tool on wood, stone, or met^ 
' Ivory vases sculptured high.' Pope. 

The rose that lives its little hour 

Is prized beyond the sculptured flower. Bryant. 

Sculpturesque (skulp'tiir-esk), a. Relat- 
ing to or possessing the character of sculp- 
ture ; after the manner of sculpture ; re- 
sembling sculpture. 'Sculpturesque beauty.' 
Dr. Caird. 

Scum (skum), n. [Sw. and Dan. skuniy G. 
schaum, D. schuim, O.H.G. scCim, scum; cog. 
L. spuma, foam. Fr. ^cume, O.Fr. escume is 
from the German. ] 1. The extraneous matter 
or impurities which rise to the surface of 
liquors in boiling or fermentation, or which 
form on th^ surface by other means; also, 
the scoria of molten metals.— 2. The refuse; 
the recrement; that which is vile or worth- 
less. 

The great and the innocent are insulted by the 
scufft and refuse of the people. Addison. 

Scum (skum). v.t. pret. & pp. scummed; ppr. 
scumming. To take the scum from; to clear 
off the impure matter from the surface; to 
skim. *You that scum the molten lead.' 
Dryden. 

Scum (skum), v.t. To throw up scum; to be 
covered with scum. 

Life and the interest of life have stagnated and 
scu/nnied over. A. A'. H. Boyd. 

Scumber (skumTjSr), n. [Contr. from dis- 
cumber.] Dung; especially, the dung of the 
fox. [Obsolete and Provincial.] 

Scumber, Scummer (skum'ber. skuni'6r), 
v.i. To dung. [Obsolete and Provincial.] 

Scumble (skum'bl), v.t. pret. & pp. scum- 
hied; ppr. scumbling. [Freq. of scum.] In 
painting, to cover lightly or spread thinly, 
using a nearly dry brush, with a neutral 
colour of a semi-transparent character to 
tone down or modify a too bright colour; in 
drawing, to soften with the stump or the 
blunt point of the chalk. 

Scumble, ScumlOling(skum'bl,skum'bling), 
n. In painting and drawing, the toning 
down of a picture by one who scumbles it. 

Scummer (skum'6r),n. He who or that which 
scums: specifically, an instrument used for 
taking uff the scum of liquors; a skimmer. 
Jiay. 

Scummer, n. and v. See Sctjmber. 

Scummlngs (skum'ingz), n.pl. The matter 
skinmied from boiling liquors; as, the scum- 
mings of the boiling-house. 

Scummy (skum'i), a. Covered with scum. 
Breathe away as 'twere a.]X scummy slime 
From off a crystal pool. Keats. 

Scuncbeon (skun'shon), n. The stones or 
arches thrown across the angles of a square 
tower to support the alteniate sides of the 
octagonal spire; also, the cross pieces of 
timber across the angles to give strength 
and firmness to a frame. See Sconcheon, 

SyUIXCH. 

Scunner (skun'^r), v.t. [A Scotch word: 
A. Sax. scunian, to shun, onscunian, to shun, 
to loathe.] 1. To loathe; to nauseate; to 
feel disgust.- 2. To startle at anything from 
doubtfulness of mind ; to shrink back from 
fear. 

Scunner (skun'fir), n. Loathing; abhor- 
rence. [Scotch.] 

Scup (skup), 71. [From Indian name.] The 
name given in Rhode Island to a small fish 
belonging to the sparoid family. In New 
York it is called porgy. 

Scup (skup), ?i. [D. «c/io?j, aswing.] A swing: 
a term still retained by the descendants of 
the Dutch settlers in New York. 

Scup (skup), v.i. In New York, to swing. 

Scupper (skup'^r), n. [Generally connected 
witn scoop. Wedgwood, however, refers it 
to O.Fr. and Sp. escupir, to spit; Armor. 
skopa, to spit. The Teutonic forms (G. spei- 



ch, cAaln; Ch, Sc. locA; g, go; j, job; fi, Fr. ton; ng, sing; lu, then; th, (Ain; w, loig; wh, wAig; zh, azure.— See KEY. 



SCUPPER-HOLE 



SCtTTlBRANCHIATE 



gat, Dan. spy-gat, lit. spit-hole) confirm his 
derivation.] A'aut. a channel cut through 
the water-ways and sides of a ship at proper 
distances, and lined with lead, for carrying 
off the water from the deck. 
Scupper-hole (skup'6r-h61), n. A scupper. 

See SCUi'l'KR. 

Scupper-hose (skup'6r-h6z), n. A leathern 
pipe attached to the mouth of the scuppers 
of the lower deck of a ship to prevent the 
water from entering. 

Scupper-nail (skup'fer-nal), n. A nail with 
a very broad head for covering a large sur- 
face of the scupper-hose. 

Scuppernong (skup'6r-nong), ?i. The Ame- 
rieaii name fur a species of grape, supposed 
tn lit- a variety of Vitis vulpiiia, cultivated 
and found wild in the Southern States. It 
is said to have come from Greece. 

Scupper-plug (skup'6r-plug), n. A plug to 
stop H scupper. 

Sour (sk6r), v.i. To move hastily; to scour. 
[Obsolete or provincial.] 

The light shadows 
That in a thought satr o'er the fields of corn. 

Ji^au. Cr Fl. 

Scurf (ak6rf),n. [O.E. alsowor/, scrof, A.Sax. 
scurf, Icel. skurfur {^\.), Dan. skui-v, Sw. 
skorf, G. schorf, scurf.] 1. A material com- 
posed of minute portions of the dry external 
scales of the cuticle. These are, in moderate 
quantity, continually separated by the fric- 
tion to which the surface of the body is sub- 
ject, and are in due proportion replaced by 
others deposited on the inner surface of the 
cuticle. Small exfoliations of the cuticle, 
or scales like bran, occur naturally on the 
scalp, and take place after some eruptions 
on the skin, a new cuticle being formed un- 
derneath during the exfoliation. When scurf 
separates from the skin or scalp In unna- 
tural quantities, it constitutes the disease 
called pityriasis, which, when it affects 
children, is known by the name of dandruff. 

Her crafty head 
Was overgrown with scurfand filthy scald. 

S/>eTiser. 

2. The soil or foul remains of anything ad- 
herent. [Rare.] 

The scuryis worn away of each committed crime. 
Dryiten. 

3. Anything adhering to the surface. 

There stood a hill whose jfrisly top 

Shone with a glossy scurf. Milton. 

4. In hot. the loose scaly matter that is found 
on some leaves, &c. 

Scurff (sk6rf), n. Another name for the 
hull -trout. 

Scurflness(8k6rf'i-nes),n. The state of heing 
scurfy. Skeltan. 

Scurfy (sk^rf i), a. 1. Having scurf; covered 
with scurf. ~2. Resembling scurf. 

Scurrer (sk6r'6r), ?i. One who scurs or 
moves hastily. Berners. [Obsolete or pro- 
vincial] 

Scurrile (skur'ril), a. [L. scurrilis, from 
scurra, a buffoon, a jester] Such as befits 
a buffoon or vulgar jester ; low ; mean ; 
grossly opprobrious in language ; lewdly 
jocose; scurrilous; as, scurrile scoffing; 
scurrile taunts. 

A scurrile or obscene jest will better advance you 
at the court of Charles than your father's ancient 
name. Sir IV. Scott. 

Scurrility (skur-ril'i-ti), 71. [Fr. scurrility, Ij. 
scurrilitas. See SCURRILE.] 1. The quality of 
being scurrilous; low, vile, or obscene jocu- 
larity. ' Please you to abrogate scurrility.' 
Shak. — 2. That which is scurrilous ; such 
low, vulgar, indecent or abusive language 
as is used by mean fellows, buffoons, jesters, 
and the like ; grossness of abuse or invec- 
tive; obscene jests, &c. 

We must acknowledge, and we ought to lament, 
that our public papers have aboundedin scurrility. 

Bolingbroke. 

Sctirrllous (skm*'ril-us), a. 1. Using the low 
and indecent language of the meaner sort 
of people, or such as only the license of 
buffoons can warrant; as, a scxvrrilous fel- 
low. 'A scurrilous fool.' Fuller.— 2. Con- 
taining low indecency or abuse; mean; foul; 
vile ; obscenely jocular ; as, scurrilous lan- 
guage. 

He is ever merry, but still modest; not dissolved 
into undecent laughter, or tickled with wit sairril- 
ous or injurious. Habington. 

3. Opprobrious; abusive; offensive; infa- 
mous. 

How often is a person, whose intentions are to do 
good by the works he pubhshes, treated in as scitr- 
riloHS a manner as if he were an enemy to mankind. 
Addison. 

Scurrilously (skur'ril-us-li), adv. In a scur- 



rilous manner; with gross abuse; with low 
indecent language. 

It is barbarous incivihty scurrilously to sport with 
what others count religion. Tillotson. 

ScurrilousnesB (skur'ril-us-nes), ?i. The 
quality of being scurrilous; indecency of 
language; baseness of manners; scurrility. 

Scufry(8kur'ri),u.i. [Comp. scur, skir, sc&iir.] 
To move rapidly; to hasten away or along; 
to hurry. 

He commanded the horsemen of the Numidians to 
scurry to the trenches. North. 

Scurry (skur'ri), n. Hurry; haste; impetu- 
osity. 

ScurvUy (sk^r'vi-li), adv. In a scurvy man- 
ner; basely; meanly; with coarse and vulgar 
incivility. 

The clergy were never more learned, or so scur^ 
vi/y treated. S-wi/t. 

Scurviness (sk6r'vi-nes), n. The state of 
being scurvy; meanness; vileness. 

Scurvy (sk^Pvi), «. [From 8CM;/(which see).] 
A disease essentially consisting in a de- 
praved condition of the blood, which chiefly 
affects sailors and such as are deprived for 
a considerable time of fresh provisions and 
a due quantity of vegetable food. It is char- 
acterized by livid spots of various sizes, 
sometimes minute and sometimes large, 
paleness, languor, lassitude, and depression 
of spirits, general exhaustion, pains in the 
limbs, occasionally Avith fetid breath, spungy 
and bleeding gums, and bleeding from al- 
most all the mucous membranes It is 
much more prevalent in cold climates than 
in warm. Fresh vegetables, farinaceous sub- 
stances, and brisk fermented liquors, good 
air, attention to cleanhness, and due exer- 
cise, are among the principal remedies; but 
the most useful article, both as a preven- 
tive and as a curative agent, is lime or le- 
mon juice. 

Scurvy (skfer'vi), a. l. Scurfy; covered or 
affected by scurf or scabs; scabby; diseased 
with scurvy. ' Scurvy or scabbed.' Lev. 
xxi. 20.— 2. Vile; mean; low; vulgar; worth- 
less ; contemptible ; as, a scurvy fellow. 
' A very scurvy tune to sing at a man's 
funeral.' Shak. 'That scurvy custom of 
taking tobacco.' Swifts. Offensive; mis- 
chievous; malicious; as, a scurvy trick. 

Nay, but he prated 
And spoke such scurvy and provoking terms 
Against your honour. Shak. 

Scurvy-grass (skfer'vl-gras), n. [A corrup- 
tion of scurvy-cress, so named because used 
as a cure for scurvy.] The common name of 
several British species of plantsof the genus 
Cochlearia, nat. order Cruciferse. They are 
herbaceous plants, having alternate leaves, 
the flowers disposed in terminal racemes, 
and usually white. The common scurvy- 
grass (C. officinalis) grows abundantly on 
the sea coast, and along rivers near the sea. 
The leaves have an acrid and slightly bitter 
taste ; they are eaten as a salad, and are 
antiscorbutic and stimulating to the diges- 
tive organs. 

Some scut vy-jp'ass do bring. 
That inwardly applied's a wondrous sovereign thing. 
Drayton. 

'Scuse (skiis), n. Excuse. Shak. 

Scut (skut), n. [Icel. skott, afox's tail; comp. 
L. Cauda, W. cwt, a tail; W. cwta, short.] 
A short tail, such as that of a hare or deer. 

How the Indian hare came to have a long tail, 
whereas that part in others attains no higher than a 
scut. Sir T. Browne. 

Scutage (sku'taj), n. [L.L. sctitagium, from 
L. scutum, a slield.] In feudal law, same 
as Escuage. 

No aid or sruitrg-e should be assessed but by con- 
sent of the great council. Hallani. 

Scutate (sku'tat), a. [L. scutatus, from «cw- 
turn, a shield.] 1. In hot. formed Uke an 
ancient round buckler; as, a scutate leaf.— 
2. In zool. applied to a surface protected by 
large scales. 

Scutch (skuch), v.t [Perhaps same as scotch, 
to cut, to strike; comp. also Fr. escosse, a 
husk, as of a >»ean or pea; escosser, to remove 
the husk from.] 1. To beat; to drub. [Old 
English and Scotch.]— 2. To dress by beating; 
specifically ,(«) inflax mamif. to beat off and 
separate, as the woody parts of the stalks 
of flax ; to swingle. (6) In cotton manuf. 
to separate, as the individual fibres after 
they have been loosened and cleansed, (c) In 
silk manuf. to disentangle, straighten, and 
cut into lengths, as floss and refuse silk.— 
Scutching machine, a machine for rough- 
dressing fibre, as flax, cotton, or silk. 

Scutch (skuch), n. Same as Scutcher, 2. 



Scutcheon (skuoh'on), n. [A contr. of e«- 
cutcheon (which see).] 1. A shield for ar- 
morial bearings; an emblazoned shield; an 
escutcheon. 

A shielded scutcheon blushed with blood of kings 
and queens. Keats. 

They tore down the scutcheons bearing the arms 
of the family of Caraffa. Prescott. 

2. In a?ic. arch, the shield or plate on a 
door, from the centre of which hung the 
door handle.— 3. The ornamental cover or 
frame to a key-hole.— 4. A name-plate, as on 
a coffin, pocket-knife, or other object. 

Scutcher (skuch'6r), n. l. One who scutches. 
2. An implement or machine for scutching 
fibre. See SCUTCH, v.i. 

Scute (skijt), n. [L. scuiMm, a buckler.) 
l.t A small shield. Gascoigne.—2. A scale, 
as of a reptile. See Scutum.— 3. An ancient- 
French gold coin of the value of 3a. 4d. 
sterling. 

Scutel (sku'tel), n. Same as Scutellum. 

Scutella (sku-tei'la), 7i. pi. Scutellse (sku- 
tel'le). [L., a salver, dim. of scutra, a tray.} 
One of the horny plates with which the feet 
of birds are generally more or less covered, 
especially in front. 

Scutellaria (sku-tel-la'ri-a), n. [L. scutella, 
a salver, in allusion to the form of the 
calyx. ] A genus of herbaceous annuals- 
or perennials, natives of many different 
parts of the world, nat. order Labiatae. 
They are erect or decumbent, with often 
toothed, sometimes pinnatifid leaves, and 
whorled or spiked blue, violet, scarlet, or 
yellow flowers. There are two British spe- 
cies, S. galericxdaia and S. minor, known 
by the common name of skull-cap. They 
grow on the lianks of rivers and lakes, and 
in watery places. 

Scutellate, Scutellated (sku'tel-lat. skii'- 
tel-lat-ed), a. [See Scutella.] Formed 
like a plate or platter; divided into small 
plate-like surfaces; as, the scutellated bone 
of a sturgeon. Woodward. 

Scutellidse (sku-tel'i-de), n. pi. [L. scutella, 
a saucer, and Gr. eidos, resemblance.] A 
family of radiated animals, belonging to the 
class Echinodemiata and order Echinidae, 
having a shell of a circular or elliptic form, 
frequently verj' depressed. The ambulacra 
are so arranged as to bear some resemblance 
to the petals of a flower. There are many 
genera and species, both recent and fossil; 
these forms being popularly named ' cake- 
urchins. ' 

ScutelUform (sku-telli-form), a. [L. scu- 
tella, a saucer, and forma, shape.] Scutel- 
late. In hot. the same as patelliform, but 
oval instead of round, as the enibi^o of 
grasses. 

Scutellum (sku-tel'um), n. pi. Scutella 
(sku-tel'a). [L., dim. of scutum, a shield.] 
1. In hot. a term used to denote the small 
cotyledon on the outside of the embryo of 
wheat, inserted a little lower down than 
the other more perfect cotyledon, which is 
pressed close to the 
albumen. — 2. A term 
applied to the little 
coloured cup or disc 
found in the sub- 
stance of lichens, 
containing the tubes- 
filled with sporules, 
as in the annexed 
figure of Lecanora 
tartarea.—Z. In entom. a part of the thorax, 
sometimes invisible, sometimes, as in some 
Hemiptera, large, and covering the elytra 
and abdomen. 

Scutibranchlan, Scutihranchiate (sku- 
ti-brang'ki-an, sku-ti-brang'ki-at). n. A 
member of tlie order Scutibranchiata. 

Scutibranchiata (sku'ti-brang-ki-a"ta), n. 
pi. [L. f^cutfun, ashield, and &mHcAiVe. gills.) 
The name given to an order of hermaphro- 




Scutella in Cudbear 
{Lecanora tartarea). 




Scutibranchiata— Venus' Ear {Haliotis tubercitlata'i. 



ditegasteropodons molluscs, including those 
which have the gills covered with a shell in 
the form of a shield, as the Haliotis, or 
ear-shell. 

Scutihranchiate (sku-ti-brang'ki-at), a. 
Pertaining to the order Scutibranchiata; 



Fate, ita, fat, fftll; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abune; y, Sc. ley. 



SCUTIFER0T7S 



SEA 



having the gills protected by a shield-like 

shell. 
ScutiferouB (sku-tU'6r-u3), a. [L. gcutum. 

a shield, and fero, to bear.] Carrying a 

shield or buckler. 
Scutiform (skO'ti-form), a. [L. scutum, a 

buckler, and forma, form.] Having the 

f<.irm of a buckler or shield. 
Scutter (skut'er), v. i. (From or allied to scud; 

comp. scuttle, to run.] To run or scuttle 

away with short quick steps; to scurry. 

I saw little Miss Hughes sa4itertHz across the field. 
Mrs. H. Wood. 

Scuttle (skut'l), n. [A. Sax. scuiel, scxittcl, 
a dish, a scuttle; Icel. scutill; from L. scii- 
tella, dim. of scutra, a dish or platter.] 1. A 
broad shallow basket: so called from its 
resemblance to a dish. 

The earth and stones they are fain to carry from 
under their feet in scuttles and baskets. Hake-will. 

2. A wide-mouthed metal pan or pail for 
holding coals. 

Scuttle (skutl). n. [Probably for shuttle. 
a dim. from the verb to shut Comp. also 
O.Fr. escoutille, Mod.Fr. ^coutUle, Sp. esco- 
tilla, a hatchway; origin doubtful.] 1. A 
B(|uare hole in the wall or roof of a house, 
with a lid; also, the lid that covers such an 
opening.— 2. Aawf.aamall hatchway or open- 
ing in the deck, with a lid for covering it; 
also, a like hole in the side of a ship, or 
through the coverings of her hatchways, 
&c.~Air- scuttles, ports in a ship for the 
admission of air. 

Scuttle (skut'l), c.(. [From the noun.] Naut. 
to cut holes through the bottom or sides of 
a ship, for any purpose ; to sink by making 
holes through the bottom ; as, to scuttle a 
ship. 

He was the mildest manner'd man 
That ever tcuitled ship or cut a throat. Byron. 

Scuttle (skutl). t.i. pret &. pp. scuttled; 
ppr ifcuttliiu/. [A form of seuddU, a freq. 
of ifcud. ] Xo run with affected precipitation; 
to hurry ; to scuddle. * Tlie old fellow 
scuttled out of the room.' ArbuthtwL 

Scuttle (skutT), n. (See the verb.] A quick 
paL-e: a short run. Spectator. 

Scuttle-butt, Scuttle -cask (skutlbut. 
skut'1-kask), n. A butt or cask with a hole, 
covered by a lid, in its side or top, for hold- 
ing the fresh water (or daily use in a ship 
or other vessel. 

Scuttled-butt (skut'ld-but), n. Same as 

S'-'ltf/f-hHtt. 

Scuttle-fish (skut'l-flsh), 7>. The cnttle- 
hsli. 

Scutum (sku'tum), n. [L.] 1. The shield of 
the heavy-armed Roman legionaries. It 
was generally oral or of a aemi- cylindrical 




Various forms of the Roman Scutum. 

shape, made of wood or wicker-work, covered 
with leather, and defended with plates of 
iron.— 2. In anat. the patella or knee-pan. 
from its shape.— 3. In zotA. (a) the second 
section of the upper surface of the segment 
of an Insect (&) Any shield-like plate, es- 
pecially such as is developed In the integti- 
ment of many reptiles.— 4. t In oW law, a 
penthouse or awning. 

Scybala (sib a-la), n. pi. [Or. skybal&n, 
dung.) In pathiA. small indurated balls or 
fragments into which the freces become con- 
verted when too long retained in the colon. 

Sere (81), n. The curve cut in a body piece 
of a garment before the sleeve is sewed in, 
to suit the contour of the arm. 

Scylet (sil), v.L [A.Sax. Mcylan, to separate, 
to withdraw.! To conceal; to veil Chau- 
cer. 



Sc^llsa (sil-le'a), n. A genus of nudibran- 
chiate gasteropods. The common species 
{S. pelagwa) is found on the Fucus nataiis, 
or gulf-weed, wherever this appears. 

Scyilarian (sil-la'ri-an), n. One of the family 
Scyllarida;. 

Scyllarldae (sil-la'ri-de), n. pi. [See below.] 
A family of long-tailed decapodous crabs, 
characterized by the wide, flat carapace, the 
large and leaf-like outer antennae, and the 
partly flexible tail-fan, by which they drive 
themselves through the water. They live in 
moderately shallow water, where the bed of 
the sea is soft and muddy. Here they bur- 
row rather deeply, and only issue from their 
retreat for the purpose of seeking food. 

Scyllarus (sil-la'rus).. n. [Gr. skyllaros, a 
kind of crab.] A genus of long-tailed ten- 
footed crustaceans, family Scyllaridaj, of 
which there are several species, some of 
which are eatable, and in Japan are con- 
sidered iis delicacies. 

Scylliidse (si-li'i-de), n. pi. [Gr. skylion. a 
kind of shark.] The dog-fishes, a family of 
small-sized, but very abundant sharks, three 
species of which occur off our own coasts. 
They have a pair of spiracles, two dorsal 
fins placed above the ventrals, which latter 
are abdominal in position, and an anal fin; 
their branchial apertures, which are small, 
are situated above the base of the pectoral 
fin. They are oviparous, depositing their 
e^s fecundated in curious oblong homy 
cases, provided with filamentary append- 
ages. These cases are frequently cast upon 
the beach, and are known as mermaid's- 
purses or sea-pumes. See Dog-fish. 

Scymetar, Scymitar (sim'i-tir), rt. A short 
sword with a convex blade. See Scimi- 
tar. 

ScymnldSB (sim'ni-de). n. pi. [Gr. 8kym}ws, 
a lion's whelp.] A family of sharks, desti- 
tute of an anal fin, but possessing two dor- 
sals, neither of which is furnished with 
spines, llie lobes of the caudal fin are 
nearly e<iual, and the head is furnished with 
a pair of small spiracles. The Greenland 
shark is the best known species. 

Scyphifonu (skif'i-form), a. [Gr. skyphos, 
acup, and E./orm.] Goblet-shaped, as the 
fructification of some of the lichens. 

Scypbulus (sif'u-Ius), n. [Dim. of scyphut] 
In bot. the cup like appendage from which 
the seta of Hepaticie arises. 

SC3n?hus (ski'fus). n. [Gr. skyphos, a cup or 
goblet.} 1. A kind of large drinking-cup 
anciently used by the lower orders among 
the Greeks and Etrurians. Fairkolt.—2. In 
bot. the coronet or cup of such plants as 
narcissus ; also, in lichens, a cup-like dila- 
tation of the podetinm or stalk-like elonga- 
tion of the thallus, bearing shields upon Its 
margin. 

SOTtale (si'ta-le). n. [L. and Gr.] A genus 
of very poisonous snakes. The species are 
stout, cylindrical, and rather long. The 
back and tail possess keeled scales. The 
poison-fangs resemble those of the rattle- 
snake. Oue species, S.pyramidumt is very 
glentlful near Cairo and in the neighbour- 
ood of the pyramids. 

B<^rtlie (siTU), n. [Better written sithe; 
A. Sax. sithe for sintke, Icel. sigth; from 
root of sickle.] 1. An instrument used in 
mowing or reaping, consisting of a long 
cunring blade with a sharp edge, made fast 
at a proper ancle to a handle, which is bent 
into a convenient form for swinging the 
blade to advantage Most scythes have two 
projecting handles fixed to the principal 
handle, by which they are held. The real 
line of the handle is that which passes 
through both the hands, and ends at the 
head of the blade. This may be a straight 
line or a crooked one, generally the latter, 
and by moving these handles up or down 
the main handle, each mower can place 
them so as l)e8t suits the natural size aixl 
position of his body. For laying cut com 
evenly, a cradle, as it iscalle<l, may be used. 
The cradle is a species of comb, with three 
or four long teeth parallel to the back of 
the blade, and fixed in the handle. Fig. 2 
shows a species of scythe which has been 
called the cradle-scythe, as it is regularly 
used with the cradle for reaping in some 
localities. It has a short branching handle 
somewhat in the shape of the letter Y, hav- 
ing two small handles fixed at the extremi- 
ties of the two branches at right angles to 
the plane in which they lie. The Hainault 
scythe is a scythe used with only one hand, 
and is employed when the com is much 
laid and entangled. The person has a hook 



in one hand with which he collects a small 
bundle of the straggling corn, and with the 
scythe in tiie other hand cuts it. — 2. A 




I, Common Scythe. 2, Cradle Scythe. 

curved sharp blade anciently attached to 
the wheels of war chariots. 

Scythe (siiii), v.t. pret. & pp. scythed; ppr. 
scything. 1. To mow; to cut with a scythe, 
or as with a scythe. 'Time has not scythed 
all that youth begun." Shak.—2. To arm or 
furnish witli a scythe or scythes. 'Chariots, 
scythed, on thundering axles rolled.' Glover, 

Scytbeman (siiH'man), n. One who uses a 
scythe; amower. 'The stooping «ci/(Acjnan.' 
Marston. 

Scs^the-stone (siTH'ston), n. A whetstone 
f<ir sliarpciiing scythes. 

Scytlilan(sith'i-an),a. Pertaining to Scythia; 
a name given in ancient times to a vast, In- 
definite, and almost unknown territory 
north and east of the Black Sea, the Caspian, 
and the Sea of Aral. 

Scytbian (sith'i-an), n. A native or inhabi- 
tant of Scythia. * The barbarous Scythian,' 
Shak. 

Scythrops (sith'rops). n. [Gr. skythros, 
angry, and ops, aspect.] The channel-bill, 
a genus of birds belonging to the cuckoo 
family. Only one species is known, the S. 
A'ov<e Hollandice, a very handsome and ele- 
gantly coloured bird iuhabiting part of 
Australia and some of the Eastern Islands, 
about the size of the common crow. It has 
a laive and curiously formed beak, which 
gives it so singular an aspect, that on a 
nasty glance it might almost be taken for a 
toucan or hombill. 

ScytOdepslc (sit-o-dep'sik), a. [Gr. ekytos, 
a hide, and depneo, to tan.] Pertaining to 
the business of a tanner. [Rare.]- Scyfo- 
depaic principle, isjxnm. Scytodepsic acid, 
gallic acid. 

Sdayn, t Sdeignt (sdan), n. and v. t. Disdain. 
Spenser. 

'Sdeath (sdeth), interj. [Corrupted from 
God's death. ] An exclamation generally ex- 
pressive of impatience. * 'Sdeath I'll print 
k' Pope. 

StUathl 
The rabble should have first unroof d the city. 
Shak, 

Sdelnfult (sdan'ful). a. Disdainful. 

Sea (se), 71. (A. Sax. see, D. see, zee, O.Fris. 
se, Dan. so, Icel, sctr, tidr, sj&r ir being 
merely the nom. sign), 6. see, Goth, saivs, 
sea; same root as Gr huei (foTSuei), it rains; 
8kr. sava, water. Grimm thinks sea and 
8otd are both from a root signifying restless 
billowy movement. See Soul.] 1. The 
general name for the continuous mass of 
salt water which covers the greater part 
of the earth's surface; the ocean. (See 
OCEAN) The term is also applied in a 
more limited though indefinite sense to an 
offshoot of the main sea or ocean which, 
from its position or configuration, is con- 
sidered deserving of a special name, aa the 
Mediterranean Sea, the Black Sea, the Bal- 
tic Sea, &c. Inland lakes, in some cases, 
are also called seas, as the Caspian and 
Aral Seas, the Sea of Galilee.— ± A wave ; 
a billow ; a surge ; as, the vessel shipped a 
sea. 

The broad seas swell'd to meet the keel. 
And swept behind. Tennyson. 

3. The swell of the ocean in a tempest, or 
the direction of the waves; as, we head the 
««a-— 4. Any large quantity; an ocean ; a flood; 
as, a sea of difficulties. ' That sea of blood.* 
Eikon Basiliki. ' Deep-drenched in a sea 
of care." Shak.~b. A large basin, cistern, 
or laver which Solomon made in the temple. 



ch, cAain; th, Sc. loeA; g, go; i,job; b, Fr. ton; ng. ^ng; TH, tAen; th, tAin; w, wig; wh, whig; zh, azure. — See Key. 



SEA-ACORN 



SEAFARER 



BO large as to contain more than six thou- 
sand gallons. This was called the Brazen 
Sea, and used to hold water for the priests 
to wash themselves. 2Chr. i\'.2.— At sea, {a) 
on the open sea; out of sight of land. 'When 
' two vessels speak at sea.' Dana, (b) In a 
vague uncertain condition ; wide of the 
mark; quite wrong; as, you are altogether 
at sea in your guesses.— ^(/uH sea, at high 
water; hence, at the height. ' God's mercy 
w&s at/uU sea.' Jer. Taylor.— Beyond the 
sea, or seas, out of the realm or country. — 
Cross sea, chopping sea, waves moving in 
different iMrections.— The four seas, the seas 
bounding Britain, on the north, south, east, 
and west. ' Within the four seas, and at 
the distance of less than five hundred 
miles from London.' Macaulay. ' A figure 
matchless between the four seas.' Law- 
rence. — To go to sea, to follow the sea, to 
follow the occupation of a sailor. —Half 
seas over, half drunk. 'Our friend the 
alderman was half seas over.' Spectator. 
[Colloq.] — HertPi/ sea, a sea in which the 
waves run high. — The high seas, or main 
sea, the open ocean ; as, a piracy on the 
high seas. — A long sea, a sea having a uni- 
form and steady motion of long and ex- 
tensive waves. — ■ Molten sea, in Scrip, the 
name given to the great brazen laver of the 
Mosaic ritual. 1 Ki. vii. 23-26. —On the 
sea, by the margin of the sea, on the sea- 
coast. 'A clear- wall'd city 071 (Ae «ea.* Ten- 
nyson.-^Short sea, a sea in which the waves 
are irregular, broken, and interrupted, so 
as frequently to break over a vessel's bow, 
side, orquarter.— [Sect is much used in com- 
position, many of the compounds being self- 
explanatory. A number of others are given 
below.] 

Sea-acom (se'a-korn), n. A name sometimes 
given to the Balani, small crustaceans pos- 
sessing triangular shells, and which encrust 
rocks, from their fancied resemblance to the 
oak-acorn. 

Sea -adder (se'ad-6r), n. The Gasterosteus 
spinachia, or flfteen-spined stickleback, a 
species of acanthopterygious fish found in 
the British seas. 

Sea -anemone (se'a-nera-o-ne), n. The 
popular name given to the actinias, a ccelen- 
terate genus (class Actinozoa) of animals. 
They are distinguished by the cylindrical 
form of the body, which is soft, fleshy, and 
capable of dilatation and contraction. The 
same aperture serves for mouth and vent, 
and is furnished with numerous tentacula, 
by means of which the animal seizes and 
secures its food. These tentacula, when 
expanded, give the animals somewhat the 
appearance of flowers. They may be very 
numerous, in some cases exceeding 200 in 
number, and are as a rule capable of being 
retracted within the body when the animal 
is initated. When fully expanded the ap- 
pearance of the sea-anemones in all their 
varieties of colour is exceedingly beautiful. 
But upon the slightest touch the tentacles 
can be quickly retracted within the mouth- 
aperture, and the animal becomes a mere 
mass of jelly-like matter 

Sea-ape (se'ap), n. 1. The name given by 
some to tlie sea-otter, from its gambols. — 
2. The sea-fox or fox-shark. 

Sea - bank (se'bangk), n. l. The sea-shore. 
' The wild sea-banks.' Shak. — 2. A bank or 
mole to defend against the sea. 

Sea-bar (se'ljar), n. The sea-swallow. 

Sea-barrow (se'bar-o), n. The egg-case of 
the skate or thornback. Called also Sea- 
pincu-shion. 

Sea-basket (se'bas-ket),n. See Basket-fish. 

Sea-bass, Sea-basse (se'bas), n. See Bass. 

Sea-bear (se'bar), n. 1. The white or Polar 
be&T^lIrsus or Thalarctos maritimus). — 2. A 
species of seal (vl?'c(oeepAai«swrsijms) found 
in great numbers about Kamtchatka and 
the Kurile Islands. Having larger and better 
develoi)ed limbs than the generality of seals, 
it can stand and walk better than the other 
members of the family. The fur is extremely 
soft and warm, and of high value. 

Sea-beard (se'berd), n. A marine plant. 
Conferva rupestris. 

Sea-beast (se'best), n. A beast of the sea. 
'That sea-beast Leviathan.' Milton. 

Sea-beat, Sea-beaten (se'bet, se'bet-n), a. 
Beaten i)y tlie sua; lashed by the waves. 
' Along the sea-beat shore.' Pope. 

Sea-beet (se'bet), n. See Beta. 

Sea-belt (se'belt), n. A plant, the sweet 
fucus ( Laminaria saccharina), which grows 
upon stones and rocks by the sea-shore, the 
fronds of which resemble a belt or girdle. 



Sea-bent (se'bent), n. See Ammophila. 

Sea-bird (se'b^rd), n. A general name for 
sea-f<»wl or birds that frequent the sea. 

Sea-biSClllt (se'bis-ket), n. Ship-biscuit. 

Sea-blubber (se'blub-6r), n. A name some- 
times given to the medusa or jelly-flsh. 

Sea-board (se'bord), ?i. [Sea and board, 
Fr. bord, side. ] The sea-shore ; the coast- 
line ; the sea-coast ; the country bordering 
on the sea. 

Sea-board (se'bord), a. Bordering on thesea. 

Sea-boat (se'bot), n. A vessel considered as 
regards her capacity of withstanding a storm 
or the force of the sea. 

Sea-bord (se'bord), n. and a. Same as Sea- 
board. Spenser. 

Sea-bordering (se'-bor-d6r-ing), a. Border- 
ing or lying on the sea. Drayton. 

Sea-bom (se'born), a. 1. Boni of the sea; 
produced by the sea. ' Xeptune and his sea- 
born niece.' Waller.— 2. Born at sea. 

Sea-borne (se'born), a. Wafted or borne 
upon the sea. ' Sea-borne coa.V Mayhew. 

Sea-bound (se'bound), a. Bounded by the 
sea. 

Sea-boy (se'boi), n. A boy employed on board 
ship. 'The wet sea-boy. ' Shak. 

Sea-breach (se'brech), n. Irruption of the 
sea by breaking the banks. SirR. L' Estrange. 

Sea-bread (se'bred), n. Same as Hard-tack. 

Sea-bream (se'brem), n. See Bream. 

Sea-breeze (se'brez), n. See Breeze. 

Sea-brief (se'bref), n. Same as Sea-letter. 

Sea-buckthorn (se'buk-tborn), n. A plant 
of the genus Hippophae, the H. rhamnoides. 
Called also Sallow-thoni. See Hippophae. 

Sea-bugloss (se'bu-glos), n. A plant of the 
genus Lithospermum, the L. maritimum. 
Called also Sea-gromwell. 

Sea-built (se'bilt), a. 1. Built for the sea. 

The sea-built forts (ships) in dreadful order move. 
Dry den. 

2. Built on the sea. 
Sea-cabbage, Sea-kale (se'kab-baj, se'kal), 

n. A plant of the genus Crambe, the C. 

maritima. See Crambe. 
Sea-calf (se'kaf), n. The common seal, a 

species of Phoca, the P. vitulina of Linnceus 

and the Calocephalus vitulinus of Cuvier. 

The sea-cai/or seal is so called from the noise he 
makes like a calf. A'. Grew. 

Sea-cap (se'kap), n. A cap made to be worn 

at sea. Shak. 
Sea-captain (se'kap-tan or se'kap-tin), n. 

The commander of a ship or other sea-going 

vessel, as distinguished from a captain in the 

army. 
Sea-card (se'kard), n. The mariner's card or 

compass. 
Sea-carp (se'karp), n. A spotted fish living 

among rocks and stones. 
Sea-cat (se'kat), n. See Wolf-fish. 
Sea-catgut (se'kat-gut), n. The name given 

in Orkney to a conmion sea-weed, Chorda 

filum; sea-lace (which see). 
Sea-Change(se'chanj),ji. a change wrought 

by the sea. 

Nothing of him that doth fade 

But doth suli'tr a sea-change 

bito something rich and strangle. Shak 

Sea-chart (se'chart), n. Same as Chart, 2. 

Sea-coal (se'kol), n. Coal l)rought by sea. a 
name formerly used for mineral coal in dis- 
tinction from cAarcoai; used adjectively in 
extract. 

We'll have a posset for't soon at night, in faith, 
At the latter end of a sea-coal tire. Shak. 

Sea-coast (8e'kost),n. The land immediately 
adjacent to the sea; the coast. 'Thesoutheru 
sea-coast. ' Bryant. 

Sea-cob (se'kob), n. A sea-gull. 

Sea-cock (se'kok), n. l. A naine given to two 
fishes, Trigla cuculus and T. hirax, much 
sought after by Russian epicures, and owing 
to their scarcity fetching a high price. —2. A 
sea-rover or viking. Kingsley. 

Sea-colewort (se'k61-w6rt), n. Sea-kale 
(wliich see), 

Sea-compass(se'kum-pas), n. Themariner's 
compass. 

Sea-cow (se'kou), n. A name given to the 
dugong or balicore. and also to the manatee. 
(See Manatee, Dugong.) The name is also 
given to the walrus or sea-horse {Trichechus 
rosmanis). 

Sea-crab (se'krab), n. A name applied by 
Goldsmith to the strictly maritime Crusta- 
cea, such as the Cancer pagurus and the 
species of Portunidre, &c. 

Sea-craft (se'kraft), n. In ship-building, 
the uppermost strake of ceiling, which is 
thicker than the rest of the ceiling, and is 
considered the principal binding strake. 
Called otherwise Clamp. 



Sea-crawfish (se'kra-fish), n. A crustacean 
of the genus Palinurus, remarkable for the 
hardness of its crust. The common sea- 
crawfish or spiny lobster (P. mdgaris) is in 
common use as a wholesome article of food. 

Sea - crow (se'kro), n. A bird of the gull 
kind; the mire-crow or pewit-gull. 

Sea-cucumber (se-ku'kum-b6r), n. A name 
given to several of the most typical species 
of the Holothuridse, a family of echinoderms, 
including the Ij^che-de-mer or trepang of the 
Chinese. Called also Sea-pudding. 

Sea-dace (se'das), n. A local name for the 
sea-perch. 

Sea-devil (se'de-vil), n. l. The fishing-frog 
or toad-fish, of the genus Lophius (L. pisca- 
toriiis). See Lophius.— 2. A large cartila- 
ginous fish, of the genus Cephaloptera (C. 
Johnii or horned ray): so called from its 
huge size, homed head, dark colour, and 
threatening aspect. 

Sea-dog (se'dog), n. 1. The dog-fish (which 
see). —2. The sea-calf or common seal. — 
3. A sailor who has been long afloat; an old 
sailor. 

Sea-dottrel (se'dot-rel). n. The turn-stone, 
a grallatorial bird. See Turs-stoxe. 

Sea-dragon (se'dra-gon), n. A teleostean 
fish {Pegasus draco), included among the 
Lophobranchii, and occurring in Javanese 
waters. The breast is very wiile, and the 
large size of the pectoral fins, which form 
wing-like structures, together with its gen- 
eral appearance, have procured for this fish 
its popular name. The name is also given 
to the dragonets, fishes of the goby family. 

Sea-duck (se'duk), n. An aquatic bird be- 
longing to the Fuliguliuffi, a sub-family of 
the Anatidae or duck family. The eider- 
duck, sui-f-duck, and buffel-duck are placed 
among the Fuligulinre. 

Sea-eagle (se'e-gl), n. l. A name given to the 
white-tailed or cinereous eagle (Haliaetug 
albicilla). It is found in all parts of Europe, 
generally on the sea-coast, as it is a fish- 
loving bird. It often, however, makes in- 
land journeys in search of food, and seizes 
Iambs, hares, and other animals. The name 
has occasionally been also applied to the 
American bald-headed eagle (Haliaetus 
lexicocephalwi) and to the osprey. — 2. The 
eagle ray, a fish of the genus Myliobatis, 
mostly found in the Mediterranean and 
more southern seas. It sometimes attains 
to a very large size, weighing as much as 
800 lbs. 

Sea-ear (se'er). 71. A gasteropodous mollusc, 
with a univalve shell, belonging to the genus 
Haliotis. See HaliotiS. 

Sea -eel (se'el), n. An eel caught in salt 
water; the conger. 

Sea-e|^g (se'eg), n. A sea-urchin, especially 
with Its spines removed. See Echinus. 

Sea-elephant (se'el-e-fant), n. A species of 
seal, the Macrorhinus proboscideus or Mo~ 
rtinga proboscidea; the elephant -seal: so 
called on account of the strange prolongation 
of the nose, which beai-s some analogy to the 
proboscis of the elephant, and also on ac- 
count of its elephantine size. Tt is an in- 
habitant of the southern hemisphere, and 




Sea -elephant [Macrorhinus proboscideus). 

is spread through a considerable range of 
country. It moves southwards as the 
summer comes on and northwards when 
the cold of the winter months makes its 
more southern retreats unendurable. It 
attains an enormous size, frequently mea- 
suring as much as 30 feet in length and 
from 15 to 18 feet in circumference. It is 
extensively hunted for the sake of its skin 
and its oil, both of which are of very excel- 
lent quality. 

Sea-fan (se'fan), n. A kind of coraL See 
Alcvoxaria. 

Seafarer (se'far-6r), n. l. A traveller by 
sea. 'Some mean seafarer in pursuit of 
gain.' Pope.— 2. A sailor; a mariner. 



Fate, f^, fat, fgU; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tiibe, tub, b^U; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abune; ^, Sc. tey. 



SEAFARING 



9 



SEAL 



SeafEirinS (se'far-ing), a. Following the 
business of a seaman : customarily em- 
ployed in navigation Shak. 

Sea-fennel (se'fen-nel), ii. Samphire. 

Sea-fem (se'fem), «. A popular name for 
a varifty of coral resembling a fern. 

Sea-fight (se 'fit), 71. An engagement between 
ships at sea; a naval action. 

Sea-fir (se'f^r), n. A popular name applied 
to many animals of the ccelenterate order 
Sertularida (which see). 

Sea -fish (se'flsh), n. Any marine fish; any 
tish tliat lives usually in salt water. 

Sea-foam (se'fom), n. l. The froth or foam 
of the sea.— *2. A popular name for meer- 
schaum, from an idea that it is sea-froth in 
a concrete state. 

Seaforthia (se-for'thi-a). n. A genua of 
palms indigenous to the eastern coast of tro- 
pical Australia and the Indian Archipel- 
ago, named in honour of Francis, Lord Sea- 
forth. The species are elegant in appear- 
ance, with pinnate leaves. The flower- 
spikes are at first inclosed in spathes vary- 
ing from one to four in number, and have 
numerous tail-like branches, along which 
the flowers are arraugetl either in straight 
lines or in spirals, the lower portions having 
them in threes, one female between two 
males, and the upper in pairs of males only. 
One species, S. elegans, has been introduced 
into our collections, and thrives in light 
sandy loam and heath mould. 

Sea -fowl (se'foul), n. A marine fowl; any 
bird that lives by the sea and procures its 
fo'ii! from it. 

Sea -fox (se'foks), n. A fish of the shark 




Fox-sha>k {AUfUu vuifet\. 

family, Alopias or Alopecias vulpett, called 
a.liiO F'ox-ghark OT Thresher. It measures from 
12 to 15 feet in length, and is characterized 
by the wonderfully long upper lobe of the 
tail, which nearly e(iuals in length the body 
from the tip of the snout to the base of the 
tail. The lower lobe is quite short and in- 
conspicuous It is called sea-fox fTom the 
leui^tli and size of its tail, and threxher from 
its habit of using it as a formidable weapon 
of attack or defence. 

Sea -gage, Sea-saucre (se'gaj), n. i. The 
dejith tluit a vessel sinks in the water. — 
2. An instrument for ascertaining the depth 
of the sea beyond ordinary deep-sea sound- 
ings. It is a self -registering apparatus, in 
which the condensation of a body of air is 
caused ity a column of quicksilver on which 
the watrr acts. 

Sea-gUllflOWer (se-jini-flou-*r), n. A Bri- 
tish plant, Armeria maritima, called also 
Sr'apiiik and Thrift. See SEA-PINK. 

Sea - girdle (seger-dl), n. A sea-weed, the 
Laiiitnaria dtgitata, called also Tangle, 
Sea-irmul, Ac. 

8ea-girklli(se'g£r'kinXn. A name common 
to several members of the family Holothu- 
ridae, akin to the sea-cucumber (which see). 

Sea-girt (se'gert). a. Surrounded by the 
water of the sea or ocean; as, a sea-girt isle. 

Pass we the joys and ■sorrows sailors find, 
Coop'd in their winged sea-girt ciudel. Byron. 

Sea-god (se'god), n. A marine deity ; a di- 
vinity supposed to preside over the ocean 
or sea. as Neptune. 'Borne lusty sea-god.' 
li Jonnon. 

Sea-goddess (se'god-es), n. A female deity 
of the ocean; a marine goddess. Pope. 

Sea -going (se'go-ing), a. Lit. going or 
travelling on the sea; specifically, applied 
to a vt'ssci which makes foreign voyages, as 
opposed to a coasting or river vessel. 

Sea- gown t (se'goun). n. A gown or gar- 
ment with short sleeves worn by mariners. 
* -My xea-'jown scarf' d about me.' Shak. 

Sea -grape (se'grap), n. l. The popular 
name of a genus of plants. Ephedra, espe- 
cially £". diMachya, nat. order Gnetaceie, 
closely allied to the conifers. The species 
consist of small trees or twiggy shrubs with 



jointed stems, whence they are called also 
Joint-firs.— -2. A popular name for the gulf- 
weed.— 3. A popular name for the eggs of 
cuttle-fishes, which are agglutinated toge- 
ther in masses resembling bunches of 
grapes. 

Sea -grass (se'gras), n. A British plant of 
the genus Zostera, the Z. marina, called 
also Grasgwrack and Sea-wrack. See Grass- 
wrack. 

Sea-green (se'gren), a. Having the colour 
of sea-water; being of a faint green colour. 

Sea-green (se'gren), n. i. The colour of 
sea -water. — 2. A plant, the saxifrage.— 
3. Ground overflowed by the sea in spring- 
tides. 

Sea-gromwell (se'grom-wel), n. See Sea- 

BlGI.n.'iS. 

Sea-gudgeon (se'gu-jon), n. The rock-fish 
or black goby {Gobixis niger), found in the 
Gei-man Ocean and on the Atlantic and 
Mediterranean coasts of Europe. 

Sea-gull (se'gnl), n. A bird of the genus 
Larus; a gull. See Gull. 

Seah (se'a), n. A Jewish dry measure con- 
taining nearly 14 pints. Simmonds. 

Sea-liare (se'har), n. A molluscous animal 
of the genus Aplysia (which see). 

Sea-heath (se'heth), n. The common name 
of two species of British plants, of the ge- 
nus Frankenia, the F. IcevUs and F.puiveru- 
lenta. See Fraskema. 

Sea-hedgehog (se'hej-hog), n. A species of 
Kchinus, so called from its prickles, which 
resemble in some measure those of the 
hetlgehog; sea-egg; sea-urchin. 

Sea-hen (sehen), n. The guillemot (which 
see). 

Sea -hog (seTiog), n. The porpoise (which 
see). 

Sea-hoUy (seTiol-li), n. a plant of the ge- 
nus Eryngium, the E. vmritimuin. See 
Eryngo. 

Sea-holm (seliolm or seliomX n. A small 
uninhabited isle. 

Sea-holm (se'holm or seTiCm), ti. Sea-holly. 

Cornwall brinjfeth forth greater store of sea-hoim 
and &atnphire than any other county. Carew. 

Sea-horse (se'hors). n. 1. The morse or 
walrus. See Walrus. — 2. Same as Hip- 
pocampus. See Hippocampus.— 3. A fabu- 
lous animal depicted with fore parts like 
those of a horse, and with hinder parts 
like those of a fish. The Nereids used sea- 
horses as riding-steeds, and Neptune em- 
ployed them for drawing his chariot In 




the sea-horse of heraldry a scalloped fin 
runs down the back. 

Sea-lelly (se'jel-li), n. Same at Jelly-fish. 

Sea-kale (selcal), n. A species of colewort, 
the Crambe maritima. Called also Sea- 
cabbage. See Crambe. 

Sea-king (se'king), n. [Icel. scekonungr, 
a sea-king, a diking.] A king of the sea; 
specifically, one of the piratical Northmen 
who invested the coasts of Western Europe 
in the eighth, ninth, and tenth centuries; 
a viking (wliich see). ' Sea-king's daughter 
from over the sea.' Tennyson. 

Seal (sel), n. [A. Sax. seol, seolh, 3c. selch, 
silch, IceL selr, Dan. seel, O.H.O. selach: 




MarMcd Seal {Phoca ducolor). 

origin doubtful.] The name given gener- 
ally to mammals of certain genera belong- 



ing to the order Caraivora and to the sec- 
tion Pinnigrada, which differ from the typi- 
cal carnivores merely in points connected 
with their semiaquatic mode of life. The 
seals are divided into two families— the 
Phocidae, or common seals, which have no 
external ear; and the Otaridae, or eared 
seals, which include the sea-bear, sea-lion, 
and other forms. Species are found in 




Hooiiea or t_ rested se.ii \L\s:c^nora cnstata). 

almost every sea out of the limits of the 
tropics, but they especially abound in the 
seas of the arctic and antarctic regions. 
The body is elongated and somewhat fish- 
like in shape, covered with a short dense 
fur or coarse hairs, and terminated behind 
by a short conical tail. The Phocidse have 
their hind-feet placed at the extremity of 
the body, and in the same line, so as to 
serve the purpose of a caudal fin ; the fore- 
feet are also adapted for swimming, and 
furnished each with five claws. They are 
lai^ely hunted for their fur and blubber, 
a valuable oil being obtained from the lat- 
ter; and to the Esquimaux they not only 
furnish food for his table, oil for his lamp, 
and clothing for his person, but even the 
bones and skins supply material for his 
boats and his summer tents. There are 
numerous species. The common seal {Phoca 
vitulina) is not uncommon on British coasts. 
It averages about 4 feet in length, and its 
fur is grayish -brown, mottled with black. It 
iseasilytamed.andsoonbecomesattached to 
its keeper or those who feed it. Closely 
allied to the common seal is the marbled 
seal (P. diifcolor) found on the coast of l-Yance. 
The P. greenlandica (harp -seal or saddle- 
back seal) forms the chief object of pursuit 
by the seal-fishers, and has its familiar 
name from a black or tawny mark on the 
back, resembling a harp in shape, the Iwdy 
fur being gray. The great seal {P. barbata) 
measures from 8 to 10 feet in length, ana 
occurs in southern Greenland. The gray 
seal {Halichcerus griseus) frequents more 
southern regions than the preceding, and 
attains a length of from 8 to 9 feet. The 
smallest of the Greenland seals, P. foetida, 
is so called liecause of the disagreeable 
odour emitted by the skin of old males. A 
species of the genus Phoca, known as the 
P. caspica, is found in the Caspian Sea, and 
also in the Sil)erian lakes Aral and Baikal. 
The crested seal (Cystophora crigtata) is com- 
mon on the coasts of Greenland, Ac. The 
so-called crest is a bladder-like liag capable 
of being inflated with air from the animal's 
nostrils. The Otaridaj, or eared seals, have 
a small external ear, and the neck is much 
better defined than in the Phocidie. They 
are also able to move about on land with 
greater ease, owing to the greater freedom 
of the fore-limbs. The l>est known forms 
are the Otaria ursina (sea-bear) and Otaria 
jubata (sea-lion). The famous imder fur 
which forms the valued 'seal-skin' is ob- 
tained from species of the Otarida;. See 
SEA-BEAR, Sea-elephant, Sea-lion. 
Seal (sel), n. [A. Sax. sigel, sigl, from L. si- 
gillum, a little figure or image, a seal, 
dim. of signum, a sign, a token (whence 
sign, signal, signet).] 1. A piece of stone, 
metal, or other hard substance, usually 
round or oval, on which is engraved some 
image or device, and sometimes a legend 
or inscription, used for making an im- 
pression on some soft substance, as on the 
wax that makes fast a letter or other in- 
closed paper, or Is attixed to legal instru- 
ments in token of performance or of authen- 
ticity. Seals are sometimes woni in rings. 
—Great seal, a seal used for the United 
Kingdoms of England and Scotland, and 
sometimes Irelaiul, in sealing the writs to 
summon parliament, treaties with foreign 
states, and all other papers of great moment 



ch, cAain; £h, ScIocA; g,go; J, job; ft, Fr. ton; ng, sin^; TH, (Aen; th, (Aln; w, irig; wh, wAig; zh, a^ure.— See Key, 



SEAL 



10 



SEA-MONSTER 



The office of the lord- chancellor, or lord 
keeper, is created by the delivery of the 
great seal into his cii&tody.— Privy -seal, 
lord privy-seal. See Privy-SEAL.— 5eai ojf 
cause, in Scots laic, the grant or charter by 
which a royal burgh or the superior of a 
burgh of barony has power conferred upon 
them of constituting subordinate corpora- 
tions or crafts, and which defines the privi- 
leges and powers to be possessed by the 
subordinate corporation. — 2. The wax or 
other substance impressed with a device 
and attached as a mark of authenticity to 
letters and other instruments in writing; 
as, a deed under hand and seal. 

Till thou canst rail the seal from off my bond. 
Thou but offend* St thy lunjjs to speak so loud. 
• Shak. 

3. The wax, wafer, or other fastening of a 
letter or other paper. 

Arthur spied the letter in her hand, 
Stoopt, took, brake senl, and read it. Tennyson. 

4. That which authenticates, confirms, rati- 
fies, or makes stable; assurance; pledge. 
2 Tim. ii. 19. 

But my kisses, brings ag'ain, brin^ a^ain ; 
Seals of love, but sealed in vain. Shak. 

5. That which effectually shuts, confines, or 
secures ; that which makes fast. Rev. xx. 
3. 'Under the seal of silence.' Milton. — 
To set one's seal to, to give one's authority 
or imprimatur to; to give one's assurance of. 

Seal (sel), v.t. [From the noun] 1. To set 
or affix a seal to, as a mark of authenticity; 
as, to seal a deed. Hence— 2. To confirm; 
to ratify; to establish; to fix. 'Seal the 
bargain with a holy kiss.' Shak. 

And with my hand I seal our true hearts' love. 

S/iak. 
When therefore I have performed this, and have 
sealed to them this fruit, I will come by you into 
Spain. Rom. xv. 28, 

Thy fate and mine are sealed. Tennyson. 

3. To fasten with a fastening marked with a 
seal; to fasten securely, as with a wafer or 
with wax; as, to seal a letter. 

I have seen her . . . take forth paper, fold it. 
write upon't. read it, afterwards seal it, and a^ain 
return to bed. S/tak. 

So they went and made the sepulchre sure, sealing- 
the stone and setting a watch. Mat, xxvii, 66. 

4. To shut or keep close ; to keep secret: 
sometimes with up; as, seal your lips; seal 
up your lips. 'Sealed the lips of that evan- 
gelist.' Tennyson. 

Open your ears, and seal your bosom upon the 
secret concerns of a friend. Dwi^ht. 

5. To inclose ; to confine ; to imprison ; to 
keep secure. ' Sealed within the iron hills.' 
Tennyson. 

Back to the infernal pit I drag thee chain'd. 
And seal thee so, as henceforth not to scorn 
The facile gates of hell. Milton. 

6. Among the Mormons and some other po- 
lygamous sects, to take to one's self, or to 
assign to another, as a second or additional 
wife. 

If a man once married desires a second helpmate, 
. , . she is sealed to him under the solemn sanction 
of the church. Hoivard Stansbttry. 

7. To Stamp, as an evidence of standard 
exactness, legal size, or merchantable qua- 
lity; as, to seal weights and measures; to 
geaHeather. [American. ]— 8. In hydraulics, 
to prevent flow or reflux of, as air or gas in 
a pipe, by means of carrying the end of the 
inlet or exit pipe below the level of the 
liquid.— 9. Inarch, to fix, as a piece of wood 
or iron in a wall, with cement, plaster, or 
other binding material for staples, hinges, 
&c. 

Seal (sel), V. i. To fix a seal. 

Yes, Shylock, I will seal unto this bond. Shak. 

Sea-lace (se'las), n. A species of algre 
(Chorda Filum), the frond of which is slimy, 
perfectly cylindrical, and sometimes 20 or 
even 40 feet in length. Called also Sea- 
catgtit. 

Sea-lark (selark), n. 1. A bird of the sand- 
pit)er kiinl.— 2. A bird of the dotterel kind; 
tiie riuir dotterel or plover. 

Sea-lavender (se'Ia-ven-ddr), n. A British 
plant of the genus Statice (5. Limonium). 
nat. order Plumbaginacene. The root pos- 
sesses astringent properties. ' The sea-la- 
vender that lacks perfume.' Crabbe. 

Sealed-earth (seld'^rth). n. Terra sigillata, 
an old name for medicinal earths, which 
were made up into cakes and stamped or 
sealed. 

Sea-leech (seHech). n. See Skate-stjcker. 

Bea-lega (se'legz). n. pi The ability to walk 
on a ship's deck when pitching or rolling; 
as, to get one's sea-legs. [Colloq.] 



Sea-lexnon (se'lem-on), 71. A nudibranchi- 
ate gast^ropodous mollusc, of the genus 
Doris, having an oval body, convex, marked 
with numerous punctures, and of a lemon 
colour. 

Sea-leopard ( selep-ard ), n. A species of 
seal, of the genus Leptonyx {L. Weddellii), 
so named from the whitish spots on the 
upper part of the body. 

Sealer (sel'^r), n. Que who seals; specifi- 
cally, in America, an officer appointed to 
examine and try weights and measures, and 
set a stamp upon such as are according to 
the proper standard ; also, an officer who 
inspects leather, and stamps such as is 
good. 

Sealer (sel'^r), n. A seaman or a ship en- 
gaged in the seal-fishery. 

Sea-letter (se'let-6r), n. A document from 
the custom-hous'e, expected to be found on 
board of every neutral ship on a foreign 
voyage. It specifies the nature and quan- 
tity of the cargo, the place whence it comes, 
and its destination. Called also Sea-brie/. 

Sea-level (se-lev'el), ?i. The level of the 
surface of the sea. 

Seal-fishery, Seal-fishing (sel'ftsh-er-i, sel'- 
fisii-ing), n. The occupation of hunting seals. 

Sealgh, Selch (s^lCh). ?i. The seal or sea- 
calf. Written also Silck. [Scotch.] 

Sea-light (se'lit), n. A light to guide mari- 
ners during the night. See LIGHTHOUSE, 
Harbour-light. 

Sealing (sel'ing), n. [From seal, the ani- 
mal.] The operation of catching seals, cur- 
ing their skins, and obtaining their oil. 

Sealing-wax (sel'ing-waks), n. A composi- 
tion of resinous materials used for fasten- 
ing folded papers and envelopes, and thus 
concealing the writing, and for receiving 
impressions of seals set to instruments. 
Common bees'-wax was first used in this 
country, and in Europe generally, being 
mixed with earthy materials to give it con- 
sistency. Ordinary red sealing-wax is made 
of pure bleached lac, to wliich are added 
Venice turpentine and veraiilion. In in- 
ferior qualities a proportion of conanon 
resin and red-lead is used, and black and 
other colours are produced by substituting 
appropriate pigments. 

Sea-lion (se'li-on), n. 1. A name common 
to several large members of the seal family 
(Otaridie), the best known of which is the 
Otaria jubata, or 0. Stelleri. It has a thick 




Sea-lion [Otaria Jubata). 

skin, and reddish yellow or dark bro\vn 
hair, and a mane on the neck of the male 
reaching to the shoulders. It attains the 
length of 10 to 15 feet, and is found in the 
southern hemisphere, as also in the North 
Pacific about the shores of Kamtchatka and 
the Kurile Isles.— 2. In her. a monster con- 
sisting of the upper part of a lion combined 
with the tail of a flsh. 

Seal-lock (sel'lok), 71. A lock in which the 
key-liole is covered by a seal, which can be 
so an-anged that the lock cannot be opened 
without rupturing the seal. 

Sea-loach (se'loch). n. a British flsh of 
the genus Motella (M. vulgaris), of the fa- 
mily Gadidie. so called from its wattles and 
general resemblance to the fresh-water loach. 
Called also Three-bearded Rockling, Whistle- 
fifth. Three-bearded Cod, Three-bearded Gade. 

Sea-louse (se'lous), n. A name common to 
various species of isopodous Crustacea, such 
as the genus Cymothoa, parasitic on fishes. 
The name is also given to the Molucca 
crab, or Pediculus marinus. 

Seal-ring (sel'ring), 71. A signet-ring. 

I have lost a seal-ring of my grandfather's, worth 
forty mark. Skak. 

Seal-skin (sel'skin). 71. The skin of the seal, 
which when dressed with the fur on is made 
into caps and other articles of clothing, or 



when tanned is used in making boots, &c. 
The skin of some species, as the sea-bear or 
fur-seal, when the coarser long outer hairs- 
are removed, leaving the soft under fur, is- 
the expensive seal -skin of which ladies' 
jackets, &c., are made. 
Seal-wax (sel'waks), n. Sealing-wax. 

Your organs are not so dull that 1 should inform 
you 'tis an inch, sir, of seal-wax. Sterne. 

Seam (sem), 71. [A. Sax. sedm, sim, a hem, 
a seam; Icel. saumr, Dan. and Sw. som, D. 
zomn,G.saum. all from verb to sew. See SEW.f 

1. A joining line or fold formed by the sew- 
ing or stitching of two different pieces of 
cloth, leather, and the like together; a su- 
ture. 

The coat was without seatn, woven from the top 
throu^ihout. Jn. xix. 23, 

2. The line or space between planks when 
joined or fastened together. —3. In geoL 
(a) the line of separation between two strata. 
(t) A thin layer, bed, or stratum, as of ore, 
coal, and the like, between two thicker 
strata.— 4. A cicatrix or scar. 

Seaxn (sem), v.t. 1. To form a seam on; to- 
sew or otherwise unite with, or as with, a 
seam.— 2. To mark with a cicatrix ; to scar^ 
as, seamed with wounds. 'Seamed with aa 
ancient sword-cut.' Tennyson. 

Seam (sem), n. [A. Sax. seam, G. saum, a 
sack of 8 bushels, a hoi-se-load; from L.L. 
sauma, ealma, for L. sagma, Gr. sagma, a 
pack-saddle.] A measure of 8 bushels of 
com, or the vessel that contains it— .4 
seam of glass, the quantity of 120 pounds, 
or 24 stone of 5 pounds each. 

Seam (sem), n. [Also written saim, sayme, 
probably from an old French form with m, 
equivalent to It. *«i»/ic, grease, lard, though 
the ordinary French form is sain; from L 
sagina,a fattening, fatness. ] Tallow; grease; 
lard- ' Bastes his arrogance with his own 
seam. ' Shak. [Provincial. ] 

Sea-maid (se'mad), «. 1. The mermaid. ' To 
hear the sea-maid's music' Skak. See 
MERMAin.— 2. A sea-nymph. P. Fletcher. 

Sea-mall (se'm^l). n. A gull; a sea-mew. 

Seaman (se'man), n. 1. A man whose occupa- 
tion is to assist in the navigation of ships 
at sea; a mariner; a sailor: applied both to 
ofllcers and common sailors, but technically 
restricted to those working below the rank 
ot officer.— Able-bodied seaman, a sailoT who 
is well skilled in seamanship, and classed in 
the ship's books as such. Contracted A.B. 
— Ordinary seaman, one less skilled than 
an able-bodied seaman. — 2. A merman, the 
male of the mermaid. ' >'ot to mention 
mermaids or seamen.' Locke. [Rare.] 

Seamanship (se'man-ship), ?». The skill of 
a good seaman; an acquaintance with the 
art of managing and navigating a ship at 
sea. 

Sea-marge (se'marj), n. The border or 
shore of the sea. ' Thy sea-marge, sterile^ 
and rocky hard.' Shak. 

Sea-mark (se'mark), 71. Any elevated object 
on land which senes for a direction to ma- 
riners in entering a harbour, or in sailing 
along or approacliing a coast; a beaeon, as 
a lighthouse, a mountain, &c. 

They were executed at divers places upon the sea- 
coast, for sea-marks or lighthouses, to teach Per* 
kin's people to avoid the coast. Bacon. 

Sea-mat (se'mat), n. See Polyzoa. 

Sea-maw (se'ms), n. The sea-mew or sea- 
gull. ■ Gi'e our ain fish-guts to our ain sco- 
inaws.' Scotch proverb. [Scotch] 

Seam-hlast (sem'blast), 71. A blast made 
by filling with powder the seams or crevices 
made by a previous drill-blast. 

Seamed (semd), a. In falconry, not in good- 
condition; out of condition: said of a falcon. 

Sea-mell (se'mel), n. A sea-mew or gull. 

Seamer (sem'^r). n. One who or tliat which 
seams; a seamster. 

Sea-mew (se'mu), 71. A species of gull; a 
sea-gull. See Gull. 

The night wind si^hs, the breakers roar. 
And shrieks the wild sea-meit.: Byron. 

Sea-mile (se'mll), n. a nautical or geogra, 
phical mile: tlie sixtieth part of a degree ot 
latitude or of a great circle of the globe. 

Sea-milkwort (se'milk-w^rt). n. A British 
plant of the genus Glaux, the G. viaritima. 
See GIAVX. 

Seaming -lace, Seam-lace (sem'ing-las, 
sem'las), n. A lace used by coach-makers 
to cover seams and edges. 

Seamless (sem'les), a. Having no seam. 

Sea-monster (se'mon-st^r), n. 1. A huge, 
hideous, or terrible marine animal, '^^^le^e 
luxury late reigned, sea-monster's whelp.* 



Fate, far, fat, fftll; me. met. hfir; pine, pin; note, not, mOve; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; u. So. abune; J, Sc. fey. 



SEA-MOSS 



n 



SEARCHER 



Milton. —2. A fish, Chiinctra moiintrosa. See 
Chimera, 4. 

Sea-moss (se'mos). n. A marine plant of 
the iienus Corallina (C ojffichialis), formerly 
used in medicine. •Sea-moss ... to cool his 
hoilini; blood." Drayton. See Corali.isa. 

Sea-mouse (se'mous), n. A marine dorsl- 
brancliiate aimelid of the family Aphrodi- 
tidjB, of which the genus Aphrodite is the 
type. The common sea-mouse {A.aculeata) 
of the British and French coasts is about 

6 or 8 inches long and 2 or 3 in width. With 
respect to colouring it is one of the most 
splendid of all animals. The sea-mice are 
easily recognized by two rowsof broad scales 
covering the back, under which the gills are 
situated in the form of fleshy crests. The 
scales are covered by a substance resembling 
tow, which, while excluding mud and sand, 
admits of the free access of water. 

Seam-presser (sem'pres-6r), n. In a^rj. an 
implement consisting of two cast-iron cylin- 
ders, which follows the plough to press 
down the newly-ploughed furrows. 

Seam-rent (sem'rent), n. A rent along a 
seam. 

Seam-rentt (sem'rent),a. Hating the seams 
of one's clothes torn out; ragged; low; con- 
temptible. 'Such poor seam-rent fellows.' 
B. Joiuoa. 

Seam-roller (sem'rol-^r), n. An agricul- 
tnral implement; a speciesof roller consist- 
ing of two cylinders of cast-iron, which, 
following in the furrnw, press and roll down 
the eartli newly turned up by the plough. 

Seamstert (sem'st^r),/!. One who sews well, 
or whose occupation is to sew. 

Our scliismatics would seem o\xi seamsters, and our 
renders will needs be our reformers and repairers. 
Bfi. iraudfH. 

Seamstress (sem'stres), n. [A. Sax. seam- 
egtre, with term, -ess.] A woman whose oc- 
cupation is sewing: a sempstress. 

Sesimstressyt (sem'stres-i), it. The business 
t>f a sempstress. 

Sea-mud (se'mod). n. A rich saline deposit 
from salt-marshes and sea-shores. It is also 
called ooze, and is employed as a manure. 

Sea-mtQe (se'mul), n. The sea-mew or sea- 
guU. 

Seamy (sem'i), a. Having a seam; contain- 
ing seams or showing them. 

Ever>-Ihinz has its fair, as well as its seafny, side. 
Sir li. Scott. 

Sean Csen), n. A net. See SEINE. 

Sea-navel (se'na-vel), n. A common name 
for a small shell-flsh resembling a navel. 

8eance(sa'^ns),n. [Fr. seance, from L. sedeo, 
to sit.] 1. Session, as of some public body. 
2. In spiritualism, a sitting with the view 
of evoking spiritual manifestations or hold- 
ing intercourse with spirits. 

Sea-needle (se'ne-dl), n. a naue of the gar 
or pirli-li. See GARFISH. 

Sea-nettle (se'net-l), n. A popular name 
uf those medusas which have the property 
of stiiiLriiig when touched. 

Seannachle (sen'a-che), n. [Gael, seanna- 
ehaidh, one skilled in ancient or remote his- 
tory, a reciter of tales — seannachar, saga- 
cious, sean, old.] A Highland genealogist, 
chronicler, or bard. Sir W. Scott. 

Sea-nymph (s€'nimf), n. A nymph or god- 
desii of the sea; one of the Inferior Olympian 
divinities called Oceanides. 

Her maidens, dressed like ita-nytnphs or graces. 
handled the silken tackle aod steered the vessel. 
5. Sharpt. 

Sea-oak (se'ok). n. Same as Sea-xcrack. 

Sea-onlon (se'un-yun). n. A plant, the 
Sciila iiiaritima, or squill. 

Bea-ooze (se'dz), n. Same as S^a-mtMl. 
Mortimer. 

Sea-orb ( ^e'orb ). n. A marine flsh almost 
round; the globe-flsh. 

Sea-otter (se'ot-^r), n. a marine mammal 
of the genus Enhydra (E. marina), of the 
family Mustelidae, and closely allied to the 
common otter. It averages about 4 feet in 
length including the tail, which is about 

7 inches long. The ears are small and erect, 
and the whiskers long and white, the legs 
are short and thick, the hinder ones some- 
what resembling those of a seat The fur 
is extremely »< tf t, and of a deep glossy black. 
The skins of the sea-otters areof great value, 
and have long been an article of consider- 
able commercial importance. 

Sea-owl (se'oul). n. The lump-flsh, belong- 

iu'^ to tiie genus Cycloptenis. 
Sea-pad fse'pad). n. The star-fish. 
Sea-parrot (se'par-ot). n. A name soroe- 

tiiiies given to the puffin, from the shape of 

its hill. 
Sea-pasa (se'pasX n. a passport carried by 



neutral merchant vessels in time of war to 
prove their nationality and insure them 
from molestation. 

Sea-pea (se'pe), n. A British plant of the 
genus Lathyrus, L. maritimiis. 

Sea-pen (se'pen). n. A compound eight- 
armed polyp, ihePeniiatula phospkorea, not 
unfrequently dredged on our coasts. See 

ALC YON ARIA. 

Sea-perch (se'pferch), n. A marine fish, 
Labrax lupus, of the family Percidre, and 
closely allied to the perch. Its spines, es- 
pecially the doraal spines, are strong and 
sharp, and the gill-covers are edged with 
projecting teeth that cut like lancets, so 
that if grasped carelessly it inflicts severe 
wounds. It is voracious in its habits. Called 
also Bass and Sea-dace. 

Sea-jpheasant (se'fez-ant), n. The pin-tail 
duck. 

Sea-pie (se'pi), n. A name of the oyster- 
catcher (which see). 

Sea-pie (se'pi), n. a dish of food consisting 
of paste and meat boiled together: so named 
because common at sea. 

Sea-piece (sepes), n. a picture represent- 
ing a scene at sea. 

Painters often employ their pencils upon sea-pieces. 
Addison. 

Sea-pike (se'pik), n. l. Centropomue unde- 
cimali^, a fish of the perch family, found on 
the western coasts of tropical America. It 
resembles the pike in the elongation of its 
form, and attains a large size. The colour 
is silverj'-white, with a green tinge on the 
back. — 2. Another name for the garfish 
(which see). 

Sea-pincusblon (se'pin-k\ish-on). n. The 
egg-case of the skate. See Sea-barrow. 

Sea-pink (se'pingk), n. A plant of the genus 
Armeria, nat. order Plumbaginaceie, grow- 
ing on or near the sea-shore. The common 
sea-pink (A. viaritima) is fctnnd on all the 
coasts of Britain and on many of the moun- 
tains. It is often used in gardens as an 
edging for borders, in place of box. Called 
also Thrift, Sea-thrift. 

Sea-plant (se'plant), n. A plant that grows 
in salt-water; a marine plant. 

Sea-plantain (se'plan-tan), n. A British 
plant of the genus Plantago {P. maritima), 
nat- order Plantaginacefe. 

Sea-poacher (se'pdch-^r), n. a British 
acanthopterygious fish of the genus Aspi- 
dophoruB {A. etiropceus). It is a small flsh, 
seldom exceeding 6 inches in length. Called 
also Armed BuU-kead, Pogge, Lyrie, and 

Sea-pool (se'pol), n. A pool or sheet of 
salt water 

I have heard it wished that all land were a sea-pool. 
Spenser. 

Sea-porcupine (se'por-ku-pin), n. A fish, 

the DiodoH Hystrix, the body of which is 

covered with spines. 
Seaport (se'port), n. l. A port or harbour 

on the sea.— 2. A city or town situated on 

a harbour, on or near the sea. 
Seapoy (se'poi), n. a sepoy: an improper 

spelling. 
Sea-pudding (se'pud-ing), n. Same aa Sea- 

cucumber. 
SeSt-purse (sS'p^rs), n. See under Sctlli- 

IV JE. 

Sea-purslane (se'p^rs-lan), n. A British 
plant of the genus Atriplex. the A. portuUt- 
coides, culled also Shrubby Orach. See 
Orach. 

Sea-pye (se'pi). n. See Sea-pie. 

Sea-^uake (se'kw&k), n. a quaking or con- 
cussion of the sea. 

Sear (serX v.t. [A. Sax. Mdrian, to dry up, 
to parch, from«erfr, dry, sere; L.G. «(wr,O.I>, 
»»re. score, D. zoor, dry; other connections 
doubtful] 1. To wither; to dry. 'Aacatter'd 
leaf, sear'd by the autumn blast of grief.' 
Byron.— 2. To bum to dryness and hardness 
the surface of; to cauterize ; to bum into 
the su)>stance of; also, simply to burn, to 
scorch ; as, to sear the flesh with an iron. 
•Red-hot steel, to sear me to the brain.' 
Shak. 'The sun that seared the wings of my 
sweet boy.' Shak. 

I'm sear'd with burning steeL Row€. 

3. To make callous or insensible. 

It was in vain that the amiable divine tried to give 
salutary p.itn to that seared conscience. Macauiay. 

4. To brand. 

For calumny will star 
Virtue itself. Shak. 

—To sear up, to close by searing or cauter- 
izing; to stop. 

Cherish veins of good humour, and sear up those 
of Ul. ^ir ty. Temple. 



Sear (ser), a. Dry; withered; no longer 
green ; as, sear leaves. Spelled also Sere. 
'Old age which, like sear trees, is seldom 
seen affected.' Beau, d- Fl. 

My way of life, 
Has fallen into the sear, the yellow leaf. Shak, 

Sear (ser), n. [Fr. serre, a lock, a bar, from 
L. sera, a bolt or bar.] The pivoted piece 
in a gun-lock which enters the notches of 
the tumbler and holds the hammer at full 
or half cock. 

Sea-radish (se'rad-ish), n. A British plant 
of the genus Raphanus, the R. maritimus. 
See Rafhanus. 

Sea-rat (se'rat), n. A pirate. Massinger. 

Sea-raven (se'ra-vn), n. An acanthoptery- 
gious fish of the sculpin or bullhead family, 
genus Hemitripterus. The common species 
(H. Acadianus), called also yellow sculpin 
and Acadian bullhead, inhabits the Atlantic 
shores of North America. 

Scarce (s6rs), n. [Also written searse, sarse. 
See Sarse. ] A sieve; a bolter. 'A sieve, or 
searce to dress my meal, and to part it from 
the bran and husk.' Defoe. [Obsolete or 
local. ] 

Searce (s&n), v.t. pret. & pp. searced; ppr. 
searcing. To separate the fine part of, as 
meal, from the coarse; to sift; to bolt 
•Finely searcerf powder of alabaster. ' Boyle, 
[Obsolete or local.] 

For the keeping of meal, bolt and searce it from 
the bran, Mortimer. 

Searcer (sSrs'^r), n. One that sifts or bolts. 
[Obsolete or local.] 

Search (s6rch), v.t. [O.E. serche, cercke, 
O.Fr. cercher, cerckier, Mod. Fr. chercher, 
to search; It. cercare, to run about, to search; 
L.L. cercare, circare, from L. circus, a. circle. 
See Circle.] l. To look over or through, 
for the purpose of finding something; to ex- 
amine by inspection; to explore. 

Send thou men, that they may search the land of 
Canaan. Num. xiti. 2. 

Help to search my house this one time. If 1 find 
not what I seek, show no colour for my extremity. 
. Shak. 

2. To inquire after; to seek for. 'To search 
a meaning for the song.' Tennyson. 

Enough is left besides to search and know. Milton. 

3. To seek the knowledge of, by feeling with 
an instrument; to probe; as, to search a 
wound. — 4. To examine; to try; to put to 
the test. 

Thou hast searchtd me and known me. 

Ps. cxxxix. I. 

—To search mit, to seek till found, or to 
find by seeking. 'To search out truth.* 
Watts. 
Search (s^rch), v.i. l. To seek ; to look; to 
make search. 

Satisfy me once more; once more search with me. 
Shak, 

2. To make inquiry; to inquire. 

It suffices that they have once with care sifted the 
matter, and sea rcheii inio all the particulars. Locke. 

Search (sSrch), n. The act of seeking or 
looking for something; the act of examining 
or exploring; pursuit for finding; inquiry; 
quest: sometimes followed by for, of, or 
after. ' Make further search for my poor 
son. ' Shak. 

The orb he roam'd 
With narrow search, and with inspection deep. 
Milton. 
The parents, after a long search for the boy, gave 
him up for drowned in a canal. Addison. 

This common practice carries the heart aside from 
all that is honest in our search after truth. lyatts. 
Throughout the volume are discernible the traces 
of a powerful and independent mind, emancipated 
from the influence of authority, and devoted to the 
search lytruth. Macauiay. 

—Search of enctimhrances, the inquiry made 
in the special legal registers by a purchaser 
or mortgagee of lands as to the burdens and 
state of the title, in order to discover 
whether his purchase or investment is safe. 
—Right of search, in maritime law, the right 
claimed by a nation at war to authorize the 
commanders of their lawfully commissioned 
cruisers to enter private merchant vessels 
of other nations met with on the high seas, 
to examine their papers and cai^o, and to 
search for enemy's property, articles contra- 
band of war. &c. 

Searchable (s6rch'a-bl), a. Capable of being 
seartlit'd or explored. Cotgrave. 

Searchableness (s^rch'a-bl-nes), n. The 
state uf being searchable. 

Searcher (s^rch'Sr), n. One who or that 
which searches, explores, or examines for 
the purpose of finding something, obtaining 



ch, cAain; £h, 3c. locA; g, yo; J,;ob; ft, Fr. ton; ng. sin^; th, (Aen; th, (Ain; w. wig; wh, irAig; zh, azure.— See KEY. 



ssabjchh^g 



12 



S£AS01!r 



information, and the like ; a aeeker ; an in- 
quirer; an examiner; an investisator. 

He whom we appeal to is truth itself, the great 
searcher of hearts, who will not let fraud go unpun- 
ished. Addison. 

Avoid the man who practises anything unbecoming 
a free and open searcher after truth. IVatts. 

Speciftcally, (a) a person formerly appointed 
in London to examine the bodiea of the 
dead, and report the cause of their death. 
(6) An officer of the customs whose business 
is to searcli and examine ships outward 
bomid, to ascertain whether they have pro- 
hibited goods on board, also ])aggage, goods, 
d-c. (c) A prison official who searches or 
examines the clotliing of newly arrested 
persons, and takes temporary possession of 
the articles found about them, (d) A civil 
officer formerly appointed in some Scotch 
towns to apprehend idlers on the street 
during church hours on Sabbath. 

If we bide here, the searchers will be on us. and 
carry us to the guard-house for being idlers in kirlc- 
time. Si*" "^- Scott- 

(e) An inspector of leather. [Local.] (/) An 
instrument for examining ordnance, to ascer- 
tain whether guns have any cavities in them. 
(17) An instrument used in the inspection of 
butter, Ac, to ascertain the quality of that 
contained in firkins, &c. 

Searching (s^rch'ing), -p. and a. 1. Looking 
into or over; exploring; examining; inquir- 
ing; seeking; investigating.— 2. Penetrating; 
trying; close; keen; as, a, searching discourse; 
a searching examination; a searching wind. 

Searchlngly (86rch'ing-li), adv. In a search- 
ing manner. 

Seaxchingness (sfirch'ing-nes). n. The qua- 
lity of being searching, penetrating, close, 
or trying. 

Searchless (sferch'les), a. Eluding search or 
investigation; inscrutable; unsearchable. 

The modest-seeming eye. 
Beneath whose beauteous beams, belying heaven, 
Lurk search/ess cunning, cruelty, and death. 

Tho^tson. 

Search-wajrraJlt (s6rch'wor-ant), n. In law, 
a warrant granted by a justice of the peace 
to a constable to enter the premises of a 
person suspected of secreting stolen goods, 
in order to discover, and if found to seize, 
the goods. Similar warrants are granted to 
search for property or articles in respect of 
which other offences are committed, such 
as base coin, coiners' tools, also gunpowder, 
nitro-glycerine, liquors, Ac, kept contrary 
to law. 

Sear-Cloth (ser'kloth), n. [For cere-cloth.] 
A waxed cloth to cover a sore; sticking- 
plaster. 

Sear-cloth (ser'kloth), v.t. To cover with 
sear-cloth. 

Sea-reach (se'rech), 71. The straight course 
or reach of a winding river, which stretches 
out to seaward. 

Searedness (serd'nes), n. The state of being 
seared, cauterized, or hardened ; hardness ; 
hence, insensibility. 'Delivering up the 
sinner to a stupidity, or searedness of con- 
science. * South. 

Sea-reed (se'red), n. A British grass of the 
genus Ammophila (^. arundi}Uicea), found 
on sandy sea-shores, where its roots assist in 
binding the shifting soil. See Ammophila,1. 

Sea-reeve (se'rev), n. An officer formerly 
appointed in maritime towns and places to 
take care of the maritime rights of the lord 
of the manor, watch the shore, and collect 
the wreck.s. 

Sea-risk, Sea-risque (se'risk). n. Hazard 
or risk at sea ; danger of injury or destruc- 
tion by the sea. 

He was so great an encourager of commerce, that 
he charged himself with all the sea-risque of such 
vessels as carried corn to Rome in the winter. 

Arbitthnot. 

Sea-robber (se'rob-6r), n. A pirate; one 
that robs on the high seas. 
Trade is much disturbed by pirates and sea-robbers. 
Milton. 

Sea-robin (se'rob-in), n. A British acan- 
thopterygious fish of the genus Trigla (jT. 
cucalus), otherwise called the Red or Cuckoo 
Gurnard. It is about 1 foot long, and of a 
beautiful bright red colour. 

Sea-rocket (se'rok-et), n. A British plant 
of the genus Cakile, the C. maritima, grow- 
ing on the sea-shore in sand. It belongs to 
the nat. order Crucifera;. 

Sea-room (se'rom), n. Sufficient room at 
Bea for a vessel to make any required move- 
ment; space free from obstruction in which 
a ship can be easily manoeuvred or navi- 
gated. 

There is sea-room enough for both nations, without 
offending one another. Bacon. 



Sea-rover (se'r6v-6r), n. 1. A pirate; one 
that cruises for plunder. 'A certain island 
. . . left waste by sea-rovers.' Milton.— 
2. A ship or vessel that is employed in cruis- 
ing for plunder. 

Sea-rovlng (se'rov-mg), a. Wandering on 
the ocean. 

Sea-roving (se'rov-ing), n. The act of rov- 
ing overthe sea ; the acts and practices of 
a sea-rover; piracy. 

Nor was it altogether nothing, even that wild sea- 
roving' and battling, through so many generations. 
Carlyie. 

Searse (sers). v.t. and n. Same as Scarce. 

Sear-spring (sei-'spring), n. The spring in 
a guu-h)ck which causes the sear to catch in 
the notch of the tumbler 

Sea-ruff (se'ruf), n. A marine fish of the 
genus Orphus. 

Sea-salt (se'salt), n. Chloride of sodium or 
common salt obtained by evaporation of 
sea-water. See Salt. 

Sea-sandwort (se'sand-w6rt), n. A British 
maritime perennial plant of tlie genus Hon- 
kenya (//. peploides), nat. order Caryophyl- 
laceaj. It grows in large tufts on the sea- 
beach, its rhizome creeping in the sand and 
throwing up numerous low stems with fleshy 
leaves and small white flowers. 

Seascape (se'skap), n. (Formed on the 
model of landscape.] A picture represent- 
ing a scene at sea; a sea-piece. 'Seascape 
—as painters affect to call such things.' 
Dickens. [Recent, but in good usage.] 

Sea-scorplon (se'skor-pi-on), n. An acan- 
thopterygious marine fish {Cotttis scorpius) 
1 foot in length, with a large spine-armed 
head. It is very voracious. 

Sea-serpent (se's^r-pent), n. 1. A name com- 
mon to a family of snakes, Hydridaj, of sev- 
eral genera, as Hydrus, Pelamis, Chersydrus, 
•Sec, These animals frequent the seas of 
warm latitudes. They are found off the 
coast of Africa, and are plentiful in the 
Indian Archipelago. They are all, so far as 
known, exceedingly venomous. They delight 
in calms, and are fond of eddies and tide- 
ways, where the ripple collects numerous 
fish and medusee, on which they feed. The 




Sea-serpent [Hydrus Stokesii), 

Hydrus Stokesii here depicted, inhabits the 
Australian seas, and is as thick as a man's 
thigh. Called also Sea-snake.—Z An enor- 
mous animal of serpentine form, said to 
have been repeatedly seen at sea. Its length 
has been sometimes represented to be as 
much as 700 or 800 feet, and it has been de- 
scribed as lying in the water in many folds, 
and appearing like a number of hogsheads 
floating in a line at a considerable distance 
from each other. That people have honestly 
believed they saw such a monster there is 
no doubt, but naturalists generally suppose 
that they have been deceived by a line of 
porpoises, floating sea-weed, or the like, and 
are rather sceptical as to the real existence 
of the great sea-serpent. 
Sea - service (se's^r-vis). n. Service in the 
royal navy; naval service. 

You were pressed for the sea-service, and got off 
with much ado. Swift. 

Sea-Shark (se'shark), n. The white shark 

(Squalus carcharias). 

Sea- Shell (se'shel), n. The shell of a mol- 
lusc inhabiting the sea ; a marine shell ; a 
shell found on the sea-shore. Mortimer. 

Sea-shore (se'shor), n. 1. The coast of the 
sea; the land that lies adjacent to the sea 
or ocean. —2. In laic, the ground between 
the ordinary high- water mark and low- 
water mark. 

Sea-sick (se'sik), a. Affected with sickness 
or nausea by means of the pitching or roll- 
ing of a vessel. 

Sea -sickness ( se'sik-nes ), n. A nervous 
affection attended with nausea and convul- 
sive vomiting, produced by the rolling, but 
more especially the pitching of a vessel at 
sea. Its origin and nature are still imper- 
fectly known. It usually attacks those per- 
sons who are unaccustomed to a seafaring 



life, but persons so accustomed do not 

always escape. It may attack the strong 

and cautious, while the debilitated and in- 
cautious may go free. It may attack on 
smooth waters, while a rough sea may fail 
to produce it. It may pass away after the 
lapse of a few hours, or last during a whole 
voyage. One good authority explains it as 
an undue accumulation of the blood in the 
nervous centres along the back, and espe- 
cially in those segments of the spinal cord 
related to the stomach and the muscles con- 
cerned in vomiting, and recommends as the 
best remedy against it the application of 
ice-bags to the spinal column. In some 
cases its violence may be considerably miti- 
gated by iced brandy, by small doses of 
opium, by soda-water, or by saline draughts 
in the effervescent state. 

Sea- side (se'sid). n. The land bordering 
on the sea; the country adjacent to the sea 
or near it. 'The gi'een sea-side.' Pope. 
Often used adjectively, and signifying per- 
taining to the sea-aide or coast ; as, a sea- 
side resiilence or home. 

Seaside-grape (se'sid-grap),n. A small West 
Indian tree of the genus Coccoloba (C. uvi- 
/era), nat. order Polygonacea;, growing on 
the sea-coasts. The wood is heavy, hard, 
durable, and beautifully veined, and the 
fruit, which consists of a pulpy calyx invest- 
ing a nut, is pleasant and sub-acid, in ap- 
pearance somewhat resembling a currant 
The extract of the wood is so astringent as 
to have received the name of Jamaica 
kino. 

Sea-slater (se'slat-Sr), n. Ligia oceanica, a 
small marine crustaceous animal. 

Sea-sleeve (se'slev), »*. See Calamary. 

Sea-slllg (se'slug). n. A name applied gen- 
erally to sea-lemons and other gasteropo- 
dous molluscs destitute of shells and be- 
longing to the section Nudibranchiata, The 
name has been derived from the resemblance 
presented by these marine gasteropods to 
the familiar terrestrial slugs. 

Sea -snail (se'snal), n. A British malacop- 
terygious fish of the family Discoboli and 
genus Liparis, the L. viflgaris, called also 
Unctuous Sucker. It is a small fish, seldom 
exceeding 4 or 5 inches in length, and de- 
rives its popular names from the soft and 
slime-covered surface of its body. 

Sea-snake (se'snak), n. same as Sea-ser- 
pent. 

Sea-snipe (se'snip), 7i. i. The bellowa-flsh 
(which see).— 2. The dunlin. 

Season (se'zn), n. [O.E. seson, sesoun, O.Fr. 
seson. seison. Mod. Fr. saison, Pr. and Sp. 
sazon, fit or due time, time of maturity, 
season, from L. satio, sationis. a sowing, from 
sero, satum, to sow. Originally, therefore, 
it meant the time of sowing certain crops, 
hence season in general] 1. One of the 
periods into which the year is naturally 
divided, as marked by its characteristics 
of temperature, moisture, conditions of 
nature, and the like. In the temperate re- 
gions of the globe there are four well- 
marked divisions or seasons— spring, sum- 
mer,autumn,aud winter. Astronomically the 
seasons are marked as follows: spring is from 
the vernal equinox, when the sun enters 
Aries, to the summer solstice: summer is 
from the summer solstice to the autumnal 
equinox; autumn, from the autumnal equi- 
nox to the winter solstice; and winter, from 
the winter solstice to the vernal equinox. 
The cliaracters of the seasons are, of course, 
reversed to inhabitants of the southern 
hemisphere. Within the tropics the seasons 
are not greatly mai'ked by the rise or fall 
of the temperature, so much as by dryness 
and wetness, and they are usually distin- 
guished as the wet and the dry seasons.— 

2. A period of time, especially as regards its 
fitness or suitableness for anything contem- 
plated or done; a convenient or suitable 
time; a proper conjuncture; the right time. 

All business should be done betimes; and there's 
as little trouble of doing it in season too. as out of 
season. Sir R. L' Estrange. 

3. A certain period of time not very long; a 
while; a time. 

Thou Shalt be blind, not seeing the sun for a season. 
Acts xiii. II. 
After the lapse of more than twenty-seven years, 
in a season as dark and perilous, his own shattered 
frame and broken heart were laid with the same 
pomp in the same consecrated mould. Macaulay. 

4. That time of the year when a particular 
locality is most frequented by visitors or 
shows most bustling activity; as, the Lon- 
don season; the Brighton season. Also, that 
part of the year when a particular trade. 



Fate, ftr, fat, fftll; me, met, hfer; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, buU; oU, pound; ii. Sc. abune; y, Sc fay. 



SEASON 



13 



SEA-WEED 



profession, or business is in its greatest state 
of activity; as, the theatrical season; the 
publishing ««(wt)n; the hay-making or hop- 
picking season. — S.i That which seasons or 
gives a relish ; seasoning. ' Salt too little 
which may season give to her foul-tainted 
flesh." Shak. 

\'ou lack the season of all natures, sleep. Skai. 

Season (se'zn), v.t. [From the noun (which 
see).] 1. To render suitable or appropriate; 
to prepare; to fit. 

And am I then revenged. 
To take him in the purging of his som. 
When he is fit and seasoneJ for his passage ? ShaA. 

2. To fit for any use by time or habit; to ha- 
bituate: to accustom ; to mature ; to inure; 
to acclimatize. 

How many things by season season d are 
To their right praise and true perfection ! Shai. 
A man should harden and season himself beyond 
the degree of cold wherein he lives. Addtson. 

3. To bring to the best state for use by any 
process; as, to season a cask by keeping 
liquor in it; to season a tobacco-pipe by 
frequently smoking it ; to season timber by 
drying or hardening, or by removing its 
natural sap. 

Only a sweet and virtuous soul. 

Like seasoned timber, never gives. G. Herbert. 

4.- To fit for the taste ; to render palatable, 
or to give a higher relish to, by the addition 
or mixture of another substance more pun- 
gent or pleasant; as, to season meat with 
salt; to season anything with spices. 

And every oblation of thy meat offering shall thou 
season with salt. Lev. ii. 13. 

6. To render more agreeable, pleasant, or 
delightful: to give a relish or zest to by 
something that excites, animates, or exhila- 
rates. 

You season still with sports your serious hours. 

Dryden. 

The proper use of wit is to seasoft conversation. 

Tiilotson, 

6. To render more agreeable, or less rigorous 
and severe; to temper; to moderate; to qua- 
lify by admixture. ' When mercy seasons 
justice.' Shak. 

Season your admiration for a while. Shak. 

7. To gratis ; to tickle. * Let their palates 
be season'd with such Wands.' Shak.~H. To 
iznbue; to tinge or taint 

Season their younger years with prudent and pious 
principles. jfer. Tayior. 

Parents first seas&n as : Uien schoolmasters 
Deliver us to laws. G. Herbert. 

9 t To copulate with; to Impregnate. Hoi- 
land. 
Season (se'zn), v.i. I. To become mature; 
to grow fit for use; to become adapted to a 
climate, as the human body.— 2. To become 
dry and hard by the escape of the natural 
Juices, or by being penetrated with other 
substance. 

Carpenters rough-plane boards for flooring, that 
they may set them by to season. Maxon. 

8.t To give token; to smack; to savour. 

Lose not your labour and your time together ; 
It stasons of a fool. Bean. Gr PL 

Seasonable ( se'zn-a-bl ), a. Suitable as to 
time ur season; opportune; occurring, hap- 
pening, or being done in due season or pro- 
per time for the purpose; as, %seawnabU 
supply of rain. 

This . . . was very serriceabte to us on many 
other accounts, and came at a very seasonable time. 

Cook. 

Seasonableness (se'zn-a-bl-nes), n. The 
state or (quality of being seasonable; oppor- 
tuneness. 

Seanria^leness is best in all these things which 
h.ivc their rii>eness and decay. Bp. Hail. 

Seasonably (se'zn -a-bli), adv. In due time ; 

in time convenient; sufficiently early; as, to 

8*^1 w nr plant %ea^onabiy. 
Seasonaget (se'zn-aj), n. Seasoning; sauce. 

Charily is the grand seasona^e of every Christian 
duty. South. 

Seasonal (&e'zn-al), a. Pertaining to the 
seasons; relating to a season or seasons. 
*The deviations which occur from the sea- 
sonal averages of climate.' Encye. Brit 

Seasoner (se'zn-^r), n. One that seaioiM; 
that which seasons^ matures, or gives a rel- 
ish 

Seasoning (se'zn-ing),n. l. The act by which 
anything is seas^>ned or rendered palatable, 
fit for use, or the like.— 2. That which is 
added Ut any species of food to give it a 
higher relish ; usually, something pungent 
or aromatic, as salt, spices, Ac. 

Many vegetable substances are used W mankind 
as seasonings, which abound with a highly exalted 
aromatic oil; as Ihyme and savory. Arbttthnat. 



3. Something added or mixed to enhance the 
pleasure of enjoyment ; as, wit or humour 
may serve as a seasoning to eloquence. 

Political speculations are of so dry and austere a 
nature, that they will not go down with the public 
without frequent seasotiin^s. Addison, 

Seasonless (se'zn-les), a. Without succes- 
sion uf seasons. 

Season-ticket (se'zn-tik-et), n. A ticket 
which entitles its hohler to certain privi- 
leges during a specified period of time, as a 
pass for travelling by railway, steamboat, 
or other means of conveyance at pleasure 
during an extended period, issued by the 
company at a reduced rate ; a ticket of ad- 
mission to a place of amusement for an ex- 
tended period, purchased at a reduced rate. 

Sea-splder (se'spi-d^r), n. A marine crab 
of the genus Maia (3/. squinado). The body 
is triangular; the legs slender, and some- 
times long. Also applied to members of the 
arachnidan order Podosomata. 

Sea-squirt (se'skw^rt). n. An ascidian. 

Sea-Star (se'star), n. The star-fish. Sir T. 
Browne. 

Sea-Starwort (se'star-wfirt), n. A British 
maritime plant of the genus Aster {A. Tripo- 
lium), nat. order Compositte. It is a pretty 
plant, 6 inches to 2 feet high, with lance- 
shaped, smooth, fleshy leaves, and stems 
terminating in corymbs of purple-rayed 
flower-heads. Called also Sea-side Aster. 

Sea -stick (se'stik), n. A herring caught 
and cured at sea. A. SmitA. 

Sea - stock (se'stok), n. A British plant of 
the genus Matthiola, M. sinttata. See Mat- 

THIOLA. 

Sea-sxinflower (se'sun-flou-^r), n. The sea- 
anemone, a cadenterate polyp of the genus 
Actinia. 

Sea-svallow (se'swol-ld), n. l. A provincial 
name of the storm-petrel (Thalassidroma 
pelagiea).—2. The common tern, so called 
from its excessively long and pointed win^s, 
and from its forked tail, which render its 
flight and carriage analogous to those of 
swallows. See Tern. 

Sea -swine (se'swln), »i. A common name 
for the porpoise ^which see). 

Seat (set), n. [Directly from the Scandina- 
vian : Icel. 8(eti, set, Sw. sate, a seat, from 
root of sit; so h.(i. sitt. G. sitz. The A. Sax. 
had only the dim. form setl in this sense.] 
1. The place or thing on which one sits; 
more especially in such narrower senses as, 
(a) something made U> be sat in or on, as a 
chair, throne, bench, stool, or the like. ' The 
tables of the money chancers, and the seals 
of them thatsold doves.' Mat.xxi.l2. (6) That 
part of a thing on which a i>er8on sits; as, the 
seat of a chair or saddle; the seat of a pair of 
trousers, (c) A regular or appropriate place 
of sitting; hence, aright to sit; a sitting; 
as, a seat in a church, a theatre, a railway- 
carriage, or the like. —2. Place of abwle; 
residence; mansion; as, a gentleman's coun- 
try seat.—Z. Place occupied by anything; 
the place where anything is situated, fixed, 
settled, or established, or on which anything 
rests, resides, or abides; station; abode; as, 
a seat of learning ; the seat of war ; Italy is 
the seat of the arts; London the seat of 
commerce. '\V'hile memory holds a seat 
in this distracted globe." Shak. 

This castle hath a pleasant seat ; the a!r 

Numbly and sweetly reconimends itself 

Unto our gentle senses. Shah. 

Earth felt the wound ; and Nature from her seat, 

SigbinK through all her work, gave signs of woe. 

Miiton. 

[It was formerly used exactly as we now use 

site, and may be regarded as having that 
meaning in the al>ove passage from Shak- 
spere. So also in the following:— 

Neither do 1 reckon it an ill seat only when the air is 
unwholesome, but likewise where the air is unequal. 
fiacon (Of Builiiiti^).] 

4. Posture or way of sitting, as of a person 
on horseback; as, he has a good firm seat.— 

5. A part on which anotherpart rests; as, the 
seat of a valve. 

Seat (sSt), V. t. 1. To place on a seat; to cause 
to sit down; as, we teat our guests. 

The guests were no sooner seated but they entered 
into a warm debate. Arbmthnot. 

2. To place in a post of authority, in office, or 
a place of distinction. 

Thus hiah, by thy advice. 
And thy assistance, is kidf; Riciiard seated. Shak. 

S. To settle ; to fix in a particular place or 
country; to situate; to locate; as, a colony 
of (ireeks seated themselves in the south of 
Italy, another at Massilia In GauL 

Sometimes the grand dukes would travel through 
the vast regions of Central Asia to the court of the 



Great Khan, which at this time was seated on the 
banks of the river Amoor, in Chinese Tartary. 

Brougham. 

4. To fix; to set firm. 

From their foundations, loosening to and fro. 
They pluck'd the seated hills. Milton. 

5. To assign seats to; to accommodate with 
seats or sittings; to give sitting accommoda- 
tion to ; as, the gallery seats four hundred. 

6. To fit up with seats; as, to seat a church; 
a hall seated for a thousand persons.— 7. To 
repair by making the seat new; as, to seat a 
garment. —at To settle; to plant with in- 
habitants; as, to seat a counti-y. 

Seatt (set), v.i. To rest; to lie down. 
'The folds, where sheep at night do seat.' 
Spenser. 

Sea-tang (se'tang), n. A kind of sea- weed; 
tang; tangle. 'Their nest of sedge and 
sea-tang. ' Longfellow. 

Sea -tangle (se'tang-gl), n. The common 
name of several species of sea-weeds of the 
genus Laminaria. L. digitata is the well- 
known tangle of the Scotch. 

Sea-term (se't^mi), n. a word or term used 
appropriately by seamen or peculiar to the 
art of navigation. Pope. 

Sea-thief (se'thef), n. A pirate. 

Sea-tbong (se'thong), n. One of the names 
fur tlie British sea-weed Himantkalia lorea. 

Sea-thxift (se'thrift), n. Same as Sea-pink. 

Seating (set'ing), n. l. The act of placing on 
a seat; the act of furnishing with a seat or 
seats. ~2. The material for making seats or 
the covering of seats, as horse-hair, Ame- 
rican leather, and the like. 

Sea*tltling (se'tit-ling), n. A British denti- 
rostral bird of the genus Anthus or pipits 
(A. aqttaticus or obscunis), abundant on the 
sea-coast, but rare inland. It is of dark 
plumage, and a good songster. Called also 
Shore-pipit. 

Sea-toad (se'tod), n. The angler or flshing- 

frn>:. See Lftl'HIl'S. 

Sea -tortoise (se'tor-tois), n. A marine 

turtle. See Turtle. 
Sea-tossed, Sea-tost (se'tost), a. Tossed 

by the sea. 'The sea-tost Pericles.' Shak. 
Sea-turn (se't^m), n. A gale, mist, or breeze 

from the sea. 
Sea-turtle (se'tAr-tl), n. 1. A marine turtle. 

2. A marine bird, the black guillemot {(Iria 

onjlle). 
Sea - unicorn ( se ' u - ni ■ kom ), n. See Nar- 

WAL. 

Sea-urchin (se'fir-chin), n. A name popu- 
larly given to the numerous species of the 
family Echiuidre. See Echinus. 

Seave (sev), n. (Dan. siv, a rush, Icel. sef, 
sedge.] A rush; a wick made of rush. 

Sea-view (se'vu), n. A prospect at sea or 
of the sea, or a picture representing a scene 
at sea; "i marine view; a seascape. 

Sea-wall (se'wal), n. A strong wall or em- 
bankment on the shore to prevent encroach- 
ments of the sea, to form a breakwater, Ac. 

Sea>walled (se'wftld), a. surrounded or de- 
fended by the sea. ' Our sea-walled garden. ' 
Shak. 

gea-wand (se'wond), n. Same as Sea-girdle. 

Seaward (se'w6rd), a. Directed ttiward 
the sea. ' To your seaward steps farewell ' 
Dofine. 

Seaward (seV^X f^^^- Toward the sea. 

The rock rush'd sea-ward with impetuous roar. 
Ingulf d, and to the abyss the boaster bore. Pofe. 

Sea- ware (se'war), n. [See Ware.] A term 
frequently applied to the weeds thrown up 
by the sea in many situations, and which are 
collected and made use of as manure and for 
other purix)ses. 

Sea-water (se'wft-t^r), n. The salt water of 
the sea or ocean. Sea-water contains chlor- 
ides and sulphates of sodium (chloride of 
sodium =comnu>n salt), magnesium, and po- 
tassium, together witli bromides and cai'bon- 
ates, chiefly of potassium and calcium. 

Sea-tvaUr shatt thou drink. Shak. 

Sea-wax (se'waks), n. Same as Afaltha. 

Sea-way (se'wa), n. Naut. (a) progress 
made by a vessel through the waves, (b) An 
open space in which a vessel lies with the 
sea rolling heavily. 

Sea-weed (se'wed), n. A name given gener- 
ally to any plant growing in the sea, but more 
particularly to members of the nat. order 
Algre. The most important of these plants 
are the Fucacew, which comprehend the 
Fuci, from the species of which kelp is 
manufactured ; the I..aminariffi or tangles ; 
tlie Kloridete. which includes the Carrageen 
moss (Chondrus crispus) and the dulse of 
the Scotch (Rhodomenia palmata). 



ch, chain; eh, 8c. loM; e,ffOi Ui^h; h, ft. ton; ng, sin^, vh, then; ih,thin; w, wig; wb, wAig; zh, azure.— See Ket. 



SEA-WIFE 



14 



SECOND 



8ea-Wife (se'wlf), n. An acantliopterygious 

marine fish of the genus Labrus (L. vetula), 

allied to the wFasse. 
Sea- Willow (se'wil-lo), n. A polyp of the 

genus Oorgonia. 
Sea- wing (sewing), n. 1. A bivalve mollusc 

allied to the mussels.— 2. A sail. [Rare.] 

Antony, 
Claps on his sea--}i<in^, and like a doting mallard, 
Leaving the fight in height, flies after her. Shak. 

Sea-wlthwlnd (se'with-wind), n. A species 
of bindweed {Convolmtliis Soidanella). 
Sea-wold (se'wold), n. A wold, or a tract 
resembling a wold, under the sea. 

We would run to and fro, and hide and seek, 
On the broad sea-tuolds. Tennyson. 

Sea-wolf (se'wulf). '*• ^ name sometimes 
given to the sea-elephant, a large species 
of seal ; also to the wolf-fish {^Anarrhicha^ 
lupus) and to the bass. See Wolf-fish, 
Bass. 

Sea -wormwood (se'w6rm-wud), n. A 
plant, the Artemisia maritiina, which 
grows by the sea. 

Sea -worn (se'wom), a. Worn or abraded 
l>y the sea. Drayton. 

Sea- worthiness ( se ' w6r - thI - nes ), n. The 
state of being sea-worthy. 

Sea-worthy (se'w6r-THi), a. Applied to a 
ship in good condition and fit for a voyage; 
worthy of being trusted to transport a cargo 
with safety; as, a sea-worthy ship. 

Dull the voyage was with long dela^. 
The vessel scarce sea-worlhy. Tennyson. 

Sea-wrack (se'rak), n. A plant, the Zos- 
tcra marina; sea-grass. See Grasswrack. 

Seh (seb), n. One of the great Egyptian di- 
vinities represented in the hieroglyphics as 
the father of the gods, a character ascril)ed 
to other gods, as Keph, Pthah, &c. He mar- 
ried his sister Nutpe, and was father of 
Osiris and Isis. He corresponds to the Greek 
Kronos. 

Sebaceous (se-ba'shus), a. [L.L. sebaceus, 
from L. sebum, tallow.] 1. Pertaining to tal- 
low or fat ; made of, containing, or secret- 
ing fatty matter; futty. —Sebaceous glands, 
small glands seated in the cellular mem- 
brane under the skin, which secrete the se- 
baceous humour. — Sebaceous humour, a 
suet-like or glutinous matter secreted by 
the sebaceous glands, which serves to de- 
fend the skin and keep it soft.— 2. In bof. 
having the appearance of tallow, grease, or 
wax ; as, the sebaceous secretions of some 
plants. Henslow. 

SehaciC (se-bas'ik), a. [See above.] Inchem. 
pertaining to fat; obtained from fat; as, se- 
bade acid, an acid obtained from olein. It 
crystallizes in white, nacreous, very light 
needles or laminae resembling benzoic acid. 

Sebastes (se-bas'tez), n. [Gr. sebastos, ven- 
erable.] A genus of acanthopterygious 
fishes of the family Cottidae. The 5. rnari- 
nu8 or ^orvegica is the Norway haddock, 
■which resembles the perch in fonii. It 
abounds on the coast of Norway, and is 
found at Iceland, Greenland, off Xewfound- 
land, &c. Other species are found in the 
Mediterranean, in the Indian and Polyne- 
sian seas, at Kamtchatka, the Cape of Good 
Hope, and elsewhere. 

Sehate (se'bat), n. In chem. a salt formed 
by Bebacic acid and a base. , 

Sehestan, Sebesten (se-bes'tan, se-bes'ten), 
n. [It. and Sp., from Pers. sapisUln.] The 
Assyrian plum, a name given to two species 
of Cordia and their fruit, the C Myxa and 
C. latifolia. The fruit was formerly used as 
a medicine in Europe, but now by the na- 
tive practitioners of the East only. See 
Cordia. 

Seblferous (se-bif'6r-us). a. [L. sebum, tal- 
low or wax, and fero, to produce.] Produc- 
ing fat or fatty matter. In bot. producing 
vegetable wax. 

Sebiparous (se-bip'a-rus), a. [L. sebum, tal- 
low, and pario, to produce.] Lit. tallow, 
fat, or suet producing; specifically applied 
to certain glands, called also sebaceous 
glands. See Sebaceous. 

Sebka (seb'ka), n. A name of salt marshes 
in North Africa, sometimes so hard on the 
dried surface that laden camels can traverse 
them, sometimes so soft that these ventur- 
ing to enter them sink beyond the power of 
recovery. 

Sebundy, Sebundee (se-bun'di, se-bun'de), 
n. In the East Indies, an irregular or na- 
tive soldier or local militia-man, generally 
employed in the service of the revenue and 
police. 

Secale (se-ka1e), n. [I., rye, or black spelt, 
from aeco, to cut] A genus of cereal grasses. 




to which the rye (S. cereale) belongs. Se- 
cale comutum, ergot or spurred rye, used in 
obstetric practice. See Ergot. 

Secamone (sek-a-mo'ne), n. [Altered from 
squamona, the Arabic name of 5. cegypti- 
aca.] A genus of plants belonging to the 
nat order Asclepiadacea;, found in the warm 
parts of India, Africa, and Australia. The 
species form erect or climbing smooth 
shrubs with opposite leaves and lax cymes 
of small flowers. Some of them secrete a 
considerable portion of acrid principle 
which makes them useful in medicine. Thus 
the roots of S. emetica, being emetic in ac- 
tion, are employed as a substitute for ipe- 
cacuanha. 

Secancy (se'kan-si), n. A cutting or inter- 
section; as, the point of secancy of one line 
with another. 

Secant (se'kant), a. [L. secans, secantis, ppr. 
of seco, to cut (whence section, dissect, &c.).] 
Cutting; dividing into two parts.— 5ecan£ 
plane, a plane cutting a surface or solid. 

Secant (se'kant), n. [See the adjective.] In 
geoni. a line that cuts another or divides it 
into parts; more especially, a straight line 
cutting a curve in two or more points ; in 
trigon. a straight line 
drawn from the centre of 
a circle, which, cutting the 
circumference, proceeds 
till it meets with a tan- 
gent to the same circle. 
The secant of an arc is a 
straight line drawn from 
the centre of the circle of 
which the arc is a part, to 
one extremity of the arc, 
and produced till it meets 
the tangent to the other 
extremity. Thus, a c b is. the secant of 
the arc C D. The secant of an ai'c is a 
third proportional to the cosine and the 
radius. 

Secco (seklto), n. [It,, from L. siccus, dry.] 
In the Jine arts, a kind of fresco painting in 
which the colours have a dry sunken appear- 
ance, owing to the colours being absorbed 
into the plaster. 

Secede (se-sed'), v.i. pret. seceded; ppr. se- 
ceding. [L. secedo—se, apart, and cedo, to 
go.] To withdraw from fellowship, com- 
munion, or association ; to separate one's 
self; to draw off; to retire; specifically, to 
withdraw from a political or rehgious or- 
ganization ; as, certain ministers seceded 
from the Church of Scotland about the year 
1733; the Confederate States of America se- 
ceded from the Federal Union. 

Seceder (se-sed'Sr), n. One who secedes; 
in Scottish eccles. hist one of a numer- 
ous body of Presbyterians who seceded 
from the communion of the Established 
Church in the year 1733, on account of the 
toleration of certain alleged errors, the 
evils of patronage, and general laxity in 
discipline. Theseceders, or Associate Synod 
as they called themselves, remained a united 
body till 1747, when they split into two on 
the question of the lawfulness of certain 
oaths, especially the burgess oath necessary 
to be sworn previous to holding office or 
becoming a freeman of a burgh. The 
larger division, who held that the oath 
might be conscientiously taken by seceders, 
called themselves Bui^hers, and their op- 
ponents took the name of Antiburghers. But 
in 1820 the Burghers and Antiburghers co- 
alesced again into the United Associate 
Synod. In May, 1847, the body of dissenters 
forming the Relief Church united with the 
Associate Synod and formed one body, named 
the United Presbyterian Church. (See lie- 
lie/ Church under Relief.) A portion of 
the body of secedei-s, who adhered to the 
principle of an established church, separ- 
ated in 1806, calling themselves the Original 
Seceders. They now form the Synod of 
United Original Seceders. 

Secern (se-sern'), v.^ [L. secerns, secretum 
(whence secret)se, apart, and cerno, to sep- 
arate.] 1. To separate; to distinguish. 

Averroes secerns a sense of titlllation and a sense 
of hunger and thirst. Sir IV HatniltoH, 

2. In physiol. to secrete. 

The mucus secerned in the nose ... is a laudable 
humour. A rbuthnot. 

Secernent (se-sfer'nent), n. 1. TJiat which 
promotes secretion. Darwin. — 2. In anal. 
a vessel whose function it is to secrete or 
separate matters from the blood. 

Secernent (se-s6r'nent), a. In physiol. hav- 
ing the power of separating or secreting; 
secreting; secretory. 



Secemment (se-sfirp'ment), n. The pro- 
cess or act of secreting; secretion. 

Secesh (se-sesh'), n. A cant term in the 
United States for a Secessionist, of which it 
is an abbreviation. 

Secesst (se-ses'), n. [L. secessus, from se- 
cedo, secestann. See Secede.] Retirement; 
retreat. 'Silent 8ece»«, waste solitude.' Dr. 
H. M<rre. 

Secession (se-se'shon), n. [L. secessio, se- 
cessionis, from secedo, seceseum. See SE- 
CEDE. ] 1. The act of seceding or withdraw- 
ing, particularly from fellowship and com- 
munion; the act of withdrawing from a po- 
litical or religious organization. — 2. The act 
of departing; departure. 

The accession of bodies upon, or secession thereof 
from, the earth's surface, disturb not the equilibrium 
of eitlier hemisphere. Sir T. Browne. 

3. In Scottish eccles. hist the whole body of 
seceders from the Established Church of 
Scotland. See Seceder. 

Secessionlsm (se-se'shon-izm), n. The prin- 
ciples of secessionists ; the principle that 
affirms the right of a state to secede at its 
pleasure from a federal union. 

Secessionist (se-se'shon-ist), n. One who 
maintains the principle of secessionism; spe- 
cifically, in the United States, one who took 
part or sympathized with the inhabitants 
of the Southern States of America in their 
struggle, commencing in 1861, to break 
away from union with the Northern States. 

The author seems to have been struck . . . that 
the Unionists . . . did not shoot or stab any of the 
Secessionists. Safitrday Kev. 

Seche.t v.t. [An old and softened form of 
seek.] To seek. Chaucer. 

Sechium (se'ki-um), n. [From Gr. «efro8, a 
pen or fold in which cattle are reared and 
fed. The fruit serves to fatten hogs in the 
mountains and inland parts of Jamaica. 
where the plant is much cultivated.] A 
West Indian edible vegetable, the Sechium 
edule. The fruit in size and form resembles 
a large pear. The plant is a climber, with 
tendril -bearing stems, rough cordate five- 
angled leaves, and monoecious yellow fiowers, 
nat. order Cucurbitacese. 

Seckel (sek'el), n. A small delicious pear, 
ripe about the end of October, but only 
keeping good a few days. 

Seclet (sek'l), 7i. [Fr. sUcle, L. secuhnn, a 
generation, an age, a century.] A century. 

It is wont to be said that three generations make 
one sec/e, or hundred years. Hatnnwnd. 

Seclude (se-kludO, v.t pret. &. pp. secluded; 
ppr. secluding. [L. secludo — se, apart, and 
clatido, cludo, to shut] 1. To separate or 
shut up apart from company or society, and 
usually to keep apart for some length of 
time; to withdraw into solitude; as, per- 
sons in low spirits seclude themselves from 
society. 

Let Eastern tyrants from the light of heav'n 
Seclude their bosom slaves. Tftontson. 

2.t To shut out; to prevent from entering; 

to preclude. 

Inclose your tender plants in your conservatory, 
sectudiug all entrance of cold. Evelyn. 

Secluded (se-klud'ed), p. and a. Separated 
from others; living m retirement; retired; 
apart from public notice ; as, a secluded 
spot; to pass a secluded life. 

Secludedly (se-klud'ed-U), adv. In a se- 
cluded manner. 

Seclusenesst (se-kliis'nes), n. The state of 
being secluded from society; seclusion. Dr. 
H. More. 

Seclusion (se-klu'zhon), n. The act of se- 
cluding or the state of being secluded; a 
separation from society or connection ; a 
shutting out; retirement; privacy; solitude; 
as, to live in seclusion. 'A place of seclu- 
sio7i from the external world.' Horsley. 

Seclusive (se-klu'sivj, a. Tending to seclude 
or shut out from society, or to keep separate 
or in retirement. Coleridge. 

Second (sek'und), a. [Fr., from L. secundus, 
second, from seqtior, secittus, to follow 
(whence sequence, consequent, persecution, 
Ac, and also sue, pursue, &c.).] 1. Imme- 
diately following the first; next the first in 
order of place or time ; hence, occurring or 
appearing again ; other. ' A second fear 
through all her sinews spread.' Shak. 

And he slept and dreamed the second time. 

Gen. xli. 5. 
There has been a veneration paid to the writings 
and to the memory of Confucius, which is without 
any second example in the history of our race. 

Brouj^Miim. 

2. Next to the first in value, power, excel- 
lence, dignity, or rank; inferior; secondary; 



Fate, far, fat, fi^ll; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, mGve; tiibe, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, So. abune; y, So. fey. 



SECOND 



15 



SECRET 



as, the silks of China are second to none in 
<iuality. ' Art thou not second woman in 
the realm.' Shak. 

None I know 
Sicond to me, or like ; equal much less. Milton. 

3.t Lending assistance; helpful; giving aid. 

Xay, rather, good my lords, be second to me ; 
Fear you his tyrannous passion more, alas. 
Than the queen's life? Shak. 

—SecoJid coat, a second coating or layer as of 
paint, varnish, plaster,(te.--5eco7irf distance, 
in painting, that part of a picture between 
the foreground and background. — At second 
/land. See Skcond-hand, n,— Second violin, 
or jiddle, an ordinary violin, which in con- 
certed instrumental music plays the part 
next in height to the upper part or air, or 
in other words, that part which is repre- 
sented by the alto in vocal music— To play 
second Jiddle, (Jig.) to take a subordinate 
part. 
Second (sek'und),n. 1. One next to the first; 
one next after another in order, place, rank. 
time, or the like; one who follows or comes 
after. 

"Tis KTCat pity that the noble Moor 
Should hazard sucn a place as his own second 
With one of an ingraft infirmity. ShaJt. 

2. One who assists and supports another; 
specifically, one who attends another in a 
<iuel, to aid him, mark out the ground or 
distance, and see that all proceedings be- 
tween the parties are fair; hence, the prin- 
cipal supporter in a pugilistic encounter. 

He propounded the duke as a main cause of divers 
jnfinnities in the state, being sure enough of seconds 
after the first onset. Wotton. 

After some toil and bloodshed they were parted 
by the secondt. Addison. 

3.t Aid; help: assistance. 'Give $eeond and 
my love is everlasting thine.' J. Fletcher.— 

4. The sixtieth part of a minute of time or 
of that of a degree, that is the second di- 
vision next to the hour or degree. A degree 
-of a circle and an hour of time are each 
divided into 60 minutes, and each minute 
into 00 seconds, often marked thus 60". In 
old treatises seconds were distinguished as 
minute gecundce, from tninutte pritnce, min- 
utes. See Degree. — 5. In music, (a) an 
interval of a conjoint degree, being the 
difference between any sound and the next 
nearest sound above or Iwlow it. There are 
three kinds of seconds, the minor second or 
semitone, the major second, and the ex- 
treme sharp second. (&) A lower part added 
to a melody when arranged for two voices 
or instruments. —6. pi. A coarse kind of Hour; 
hence, any baser matter 

Take thou my obUtion. poor bat free, 
M'hich is not mix'd with seconds. ShaJk. 

Becond (sek'nnd), v.i. [L. teeundo, Fr. se- 
conder. See the adjective.] 1. To follow In 
the next place ; to follow up. ' Sin is seconded 
with sin.' South. 'To second ills with ills.' 
Shak.~2. To support; to lend aid to the 
attempt of another ; to assist ; to forward ; 
to promote; to encourage; to act as the 
tnaJntainer; to back. 

^^'e have supplies to second our attempt ShaA. 
The authors of the firmer opinion were presently 
seconded by other wittier and better learned 

Hooker. 

5. In legislative or deliberative assetnblies 
and puhlie meetingg, to support, by one's 
voice or vote; to unite with a person, or act 
as his second, in proposing some measure 
or motion; as, to second a motion or pro- 
]>o8ition: to second the mover.— 4. In the 
Koyal Artillery and Royal Engineers, to 
put into temporar)' retirement, as an officer 
when he accepts civil eniph»ymeut under 
the crown. He is seconded after six 
months of such employment, that is. he 
loses military pay. but retainshisrank.Ac, 
in his corps. After being seconded for ten 
years he must elect to return to military 
duty or to retire alUfgether, 

Secondarily (sek'und-a-ri-li), adv. I. In a 
serou.liiry or sulwniinate manner; not pri- 
niririly or originally. Sir K. Diahy.—2. Sec- 
ondly; in the second place. ' First apostles. 
froiutarily prophets, thirdly teachers.' 1 
<or xii. 28. 

Secondaziness (sek'und-a-rines), n. The 
state- of being secondary. ' The primariness 
and s-'r>,iulftrinrssoi the perception.' A'wrw. 

Secondary f 8ek'und-a-ri).a. [L. seeundarius, 
from urcundus. See SECOND.] L Succeed- 
ing next in order to the first; of second 
place, origin, rank, importance, and the like; 
not primary; sulrardinate. 

Where there is moral r^hl on the one hand, no 
MCOfdary risht can difcharge U. SirX. L'Estrange. 



As the six primary planets revolve about him. so 
the secondary ones are moved about them. Bentley. 

The supreme power can never be said to be lodged 
in the original body of electors, but rather in those 
assemblies of secoiidary or tertiary electors who 
chose the representative. Brougham. 

2. -A^cting by deputation or delegated autho- 
rity; acting in subordination or as second 
to another; subordinate. 'The work of 
ieconrfary hands.' Milton.— Secondary acids, 
acids derived from organic acids by the 
substitution of two equivalents of an al- 
coholic radical for two of hydrogen. — 
Secondary amputation, amputation of a 
limb, &c., deferred till the immediate ef- 
fects of the injury on the constitution have 
passed away. — Secondary battery, in elect. 
a number of metal plates, usually plat- 
inum, with pieces of moistened cloth be- 
tween, which, after being connected for a 
time with a galvanic battery, become in 
turn the origin of a cuiTent. — Secondary 
circle, in geom. and astron. a great circle 
passing through the poles of another great 
circle perpendicular to its plane. —.Second- 
ary colours, colours produced by the mix- 
ture of any two primary colours in equal 
proportions. — Secondary conveyances, in 
law, same as Derivative Conveyances. See 
under Derivative.— S^cojuian/ creditor, in 
Scots law, an expression used in contradis- 
tinction to Catholic creditor. See under 
Catholic— Secondary crystal, a crystal de- 
rived from one of the primary forms. — 
Secoiuiary current, in elect, a momentary 
current induced in a closed circuit by a 
current of electricity passing through the 
same or a contiguous circuit at the ban- 
ning and also at the end of the passage of 
the primitive cwrTent— Secotidary evidence, 
indirect evidence which may be admitted 
upon failure to obtain direct or primary 
evidence.— 5econdari/ fever, a fever which 
arises after a crisis or a critical effort, as 
after the declension of the small -pox 
or measles.— Seco/idari/ plane, in crystal. 
any plane on a crystal which is not one of 
the primary p\&nei.— Secondary pla)iet. See 
ThAUKT. — Secotidary qualities of bodies, 
those qualities which are not inseparable 
from bodies, as colour, taste, odour, »fec. — 
Secondary strata, Secondary rocks. Second- 
ary formation, in geol. the mesozoic strata. 
fiee ylESOT^lC.-Secondary tints.in painting, 
those of a subdued kind, such as grays, &c. 
—Seco7idary tone, in music, same as Har- 
monic.— Secondary use. See under Use. 
Secondaz7 (sek'nnd-a-riX n. 1. A delegate 
or deputy ; one who acts in subordination 
to another; one who occupies a subordinate 
or inferior position. 

I am too htf;h-bom to be propertied. 

To be a secondary at controC Shak. 

2. One of the feathers growing on the second 
boneof abird's wing.— 3. A secondary circle. 
See under the adjective. —4. A secondary 
planet. See under Planet. 

Second-'best (sek'und-best), a. Next to the 
l)e8t; of second kind ortiuality. 'The linen 
iXiSX iA csXiz^ second-best' R. Collins.— To 
come off second-best, to be defeated ; to get 
the worst of it 

Second-cousin (sek'und-kuz-n), n. The son 
or daughter of a cousin -germ an. 

Seconder (sek'und-^), n. One that seconds; 
one that supports what another attempts, 
or what he affirms, or what he moves or 
proposes ; as. the seconder of a motion. 

Second-fiouT (.'(ek'und-flourX n. Flour of a 
coarsi-r quiility; seconds. 

Second-band (sek'und-handX n. Possession 
received from the first possessor. — At second- 
hand, not in the first place, or by or from 
the first; not from the first source or owner; 
by transmission; not primarily; not origin- 
ally; as, a report received at second-hand. 

In Imitation of preachers at second-hand, I shall 
transcribe from Bruyire a piece of raillery TatUr. 

Second -band (sek'und-hand), a. 1. Not 
original or primary; received from another. 

Some men build so much upon authorities they 
have but a second-hand or implicit knowledge. 

Those manners next 
That fit us like a nature second-hand; 
Which are indeed the manners of the great. 
Tennyson. 

2. Not new; having been used or worn; as, 
a seccmd-AaTid book.— 3. Dealing in second- 
hand goods; as, a second-hand bookseller. 

Second-hand (sek'und-hand). n. A hand 
for marking seconds on a watch. 

Secondine (sek'und-In), n. In bot see 
Seccndise. 



Secondly (sek'und-li), adv. In the second 
place. 

First, she hath disobeyed the hiw ; and. secondly, 
trespassed against the husband. Ec. xxiii. 23. 

Second-rate (sek'und-rat), n. The second 

order in size, quality, dignity, or value. 
' Thunder of the secoiid-rate.' Addison. 

Second-rate (sek'und-rat), a. Of the second 
size, rank, quality, or value ; as, a second- 
rate ship; a second-rate cloth; a second-rate 
champion. 

Second-scent (sek'und-sent), n. [Formed 
on the model of second-sight] A power of 
discerning things future or distant by the 
sense of gmell. Moore. [Rare.] 

Second-Sight (sek'und-sit). n. The power 
of seeing things future or tlistant; prophetic 
vision— a well-known Highland supersti- 
tion. It is alleged that not a few in the 
Highlands and Isles of Scotland possess the 
power of foreseeing future events, especially 
of a disastrous kind, by means of a spectral 
exhibition, to their eyes, of the persons 
whom these events respect, accompanied 
with such emblems as denote their fate. 

Second- sighted (sek'und-sit-ed), a. Having 
the power of second-sight. Addison. 

Secre,t n. and o. Secret. 

Secrecy (se'kre-si), n. [From secret] 1. A 
state of being secret or hidden; concealment 
from the observation of othere, or from the 
notice of any persons not concerned; secret 
manner or mode of proceeding; as. to carry 
on a design in secrecy; to secure secrecy. 

This to me 
In dreadful secrecy impart they did. Shak. 

The lady Anne, 
Whom the king; hath in secrecy long married. 
This day was view'd in open as his queen. Shak, 

% Solitude; retirement; privacy; seclusion. 

Thou in thy secrecy, although alone. 
Best with tnyself accompanied, seek'st not 
Social communication. Milton. 

It is not with public as with private prayer; in this, 
rather secrecy is commanded than outward show. 
Hooker. 

3. The quality of being secret or secretive; 
forbearance of disclosure or discovery; fidel- 
ity to a secret; close silence; the act or habit 
of keeping secrets. 'For secrecy no lady 
closer.' Shak. 

Thanks, provost, for thy care and secrecy.. Shak. 

4. t A secret. 

The subtle-shining secrecies 
Writ in the glassy margents of such books. Shak, 

SecreOtt a. Secret. Chaucer. 

Secrenesse,t n. Privacy; secretness. Chavr 
cer. 

Secret (se'kret), a. [Fr. secret, from L. secret- 
Hs, pp, of secemo, secretuin, to set apart — se, 
apaxt. and ceriio, to sift, distinguish, discern, 
perceive (whence discern, discrete, concern, 
concrete, &c.); Gr. krino, to separate, search 
into; Skr.A-n'.to separate, to know.] 1. Apart 
from the knowledge of others ; concealed 
from the notice or knowledge of all persons 
except the individual or individuals con- 
cerned; private. 'Smile at thee in secret 
thought.' Shak. 

I have a secret errand to thee, O king. Judg. iiL iql 

2. Not revealed ; known only to one or to 
few ; kept from general knowledge or ob- 
servation; hidden. 'Their «ecre( and sudden 
arrival.* Shak. 

Secret things belong to the Lord our God. 

Dent. xxix. 39 

3. Being in retirement or seclusion; pri- 
vate. 

There secret in her sapphire cell. 

He with the Nais wont to dwell. Fenton. 

4. Affording privacy; retired; secluded; pri- 
vate. 'The secret top of Oreb, or of Sinai.' 
Milton. 'Abide in a secret place and hide 
thyself.' 1 Sam. xix. 2.-5. Keeping secrets; 
faithful to secrets intrusted; secretive; not 
inclined to betray confidence. *I can be 
secret as a dumb man.' Shak. 

Secret Romans that have spoke the word. 
And will not palter. Shak. 

6. Occult ; mysterious ; not seen ; not appa- 
rent; as, the secret operations of physical 
causes. 'Physic, through which secret art.' 
Shak. —7. Privy; not proper to be seen. 
1 Sam. V. 9. 

Secret (secret), n. [See the adjective.) 
l.Somethingstudiouslyhidden or concealed; 
a thing kept from general knowledge; what 
is not or should not be revealed ; as, a 
man who cannot keep his own secrets, will 
hardly keep the secrets of others. 

A talebearer revealeth secrets. Prov xi. 13. 
To tell our own secrets is often folly ; to communi- 
cate those of others is treachery- Ratnbltr. 



ch, cAain; 6h, Sc. locA; g. go; j.j'ob; ft, Fr. ton; ng, ting; ?H, «Aen; th, thin; w. wig; wh, irAig; zh, azure.— See KKT. 



SECRET 



16 



SECTION 



2. A thing not discovered or explained; a 
mystery 'The secreU: of nature.' Shalt. 
• All eecreU of the deep, all nature's works," 
Milton.— Z. Secrecy. [Rare.] 

Letters under strict stcrrt vrere at once written to 
bishops selected from various parts of hurope. 

Cardinal .Manning. 

4. In some church services, a prayer recited 
by the priest in an inaudible voice. — 6 
Armour, or a piece of armour, worn covered 
over, and so concealed. — 6. j;!. The parts 
which modesty and propriety require to be 
concealed.— /n secret, in privacy or secrecy; 
privately. ' Bread eaten in secret is pleas- 
ant.' Prov. ix. n.— Discipline o/ the secret, 
in the early Christian church, the reserve 
practised concerning certain doctrines or 
ceremonies, founded un Christ's words, ' Give 
not that which is holy unto the dogs'. 

Secrett (se'kret), ».«. To keep private; to 
secrete. Bacon. 

Seoretage ( se'kret-a] ), n. In furriery, a 
process in preparing or dressing furs, in 
which mercury or some of its salts is em- 
ployed to impart to the fur the property of 
felting, which it did not previously possess. 

Secretarial (sek-re-tii'ri-al), a. Pertaining 
to a secretary. 'Some secretarial, diplo- 
matic, or official training.' Carlyle. 

Secretariat, Secretariate (sek-re-ta'n-at, 
sek-re-tii'ri-at), n. 1. The office of a secre- 
tary.— 2. The place or office where a secre- 
tary transacts business, preserves records, 

Secretary (sek're-ta-ri), n. [L. L. secretarius, 
¥i: secretaire, from L. secretus, secret ; ori- 
ginally a confidant, one intrusted with se- 
crets ] 1. One who is intrusted with or who 
keeps secrets. 'A faithful secretary to her 
sex's foibles.' Sir W. Scott. [Rare.]— 2. A 
person employed by a public body, by a 
company, or by an individual, to write 
letters, draw up reports, records, and the 
like; one who carries on another's business 
correspondence or other matters requiring 
writing.— 3. A piece of furniture with con- 
veniences for writing and for the arrange- 
ment of papers; an escritoire.— 4. An officer 
whose business is to superintend and man- 
age the affairs of a particular department 
of government; a secretary of state. There 
are connected with the British govern- 
ment five secretaries of state, viz. those 
for the home, foreign, colonial, war, and 
Indian departments. The secretary of state 
for the home department has charge of the 

grivy signet office; he is responsible for the 
iternal administration of justice, the main- 
tenance of peace in the country, the super- 
vision of prisous, police, sanitary affairs, &c. 
The secretary for foreign affairs conducts 
all correspondence with foreign states, ne- 
gotiates treaties, appoints ambassadors, &c. 
The colonial secretary performs for the colo- 
nial dependencies similar functions to those 
of the home secretary for the United King- 
dom. The secretary for war, assisted by the 
commander-in-chief, has the whole control 
of the army. The secretary forlndia gowerm 
the affairs of that country with the assist- 
ance of a council. Each secretary of state 
is assisted by two under-secretaries, one 
permanent and the other connected with 
the administration. The chief secretary for 
Ireland is not a secretary of state, though 
his office entails the performance of similar 
duties to those performed by the secretaries 
of state.— Se<rr«torT/ of embassy, or of leya- 
lion, the principal assistant of an ambassa- 
dor or envoy. — 5. In printing, a kind of 
script type in imitation of an engrossing 
hand. —6. The secretary-bird. 
Secretary-bird (sek're-ta-ri-bSrd), ?». An 




Secretary-bird (Gypogeranus serpenlarius). 

African bird of prey (order Raptores), of the 
genus Gypogeranus, the G. serpentarius, 



called also the Snake-eater or Serpent-eater. 
It is about 3 feet in length ; the legs are 
remarkably long, the beak is hooked, and 
the eyelids projecting. It has an occipital 
crest of feathers, which can be raised or 
depressed at pleasure, and which has been 
fancied to resemble quill pens stuck behind 
a person's ear; hence the name. It inhabits 
the dry and open grounds in the vicinity of 
the Cape, where it hunts serpents and other 
reptiles ou foot, and thus renders valuable 
services. 

Secretaryship (sek're-ta-ri-ship), n. The 
office of a secretary. 

Secrete (se-kref), v.t. pret. <fe pp. secreted; 
ppr. secreting. [L. seeerno, secretum. See 
Secret, a.] 1. To hide; to conceal; t»je- 
move from observation or the knowledge of 
others; as, to secrete stolen goods; to secrete 
one's self. 

Folded in the mystic mantleof tradition, or «crf/frf 
in the forms of picturesque ceremony, or visible 
through the glow of affectionate fiction, the essential 
truths of Christianity found a Hying access to the 
heart and conscience of manlcind. y. Martineau. 

2. In physiol. to separate from the circulat- 
ing fluid, as the blood, sap, &c., and elabo- 
rate into a new product, differing in accord- 
ance with the particular structure of the 
secreting organs, which are chiefly the 
glands. 

why one set of cells should secrete bile, another 
urea, and so on, we do not know. Carpenter. 

—Conceal, Hide, Disguise, Secrete. See un- 
der Conceal. 

Secret-false (se'kret-fftls), a. Faithless in 
secret; undetected in tmfaithf ulness or false- 
hood. Shak. 

Secreting (se-kret'ing), p. and a. Separating 
and elaborating from the blood substances 
different from the blood itself or from any of 
its constituents; as, secreting glands; secret- 
ing surfaces. 

Secretion (se-kre'shon), n. 1. The act or pro- 
cess of secreting : (a) in animal physiol. the 
act or process by which substances are sepa- 
rated from the blood, differing from the 
blood itself or from any of its constituents, 
as bile, saliva, mucus, urine, &c. The organs 
of secretion are of very various form and 
structure, but the most general are those 
called glands. The animal secretions are 
arranged by Bostock under the heads aque- 
ous, albuminous, mucous, gelatinous, fibrin- 
ous, oleaginous, resinous, and saline. Ma- 
gendie arranges them into three sorts: (1) 
Exhalations, which are either external, as 
those from the skin and mucous membrane, 
and internal, as those from the surfaces of 
the closed cavities of the body, and the 
lungs; (2) Follicular sccrefions, which are 
divided into mucous and cutaneous; and 
(3) Glandular secretions, such as milk, bile, 
urine, saliva, tears, &c. Every organ and 
part of the body secretes for itself the nutri- 
ment which it requires, (b) In vegetable 
physiol. the process by which substances are 
separated from the sap of vegetables. The 
descending sap of plants is not merely subser- 
vient to nutrition, but furnishes various mat- 
ters which are secreted or separated from its 
mass, and afterwards elaborated by particu- 
lar organs. These secretions are exceed- 
ingly numerous, and constitute the great 
bulk of the solid parts of plants. They have 
been divided into— (1) General or nutritious 
secretions, the component parts of which 
are gum, sugar, starch, lignin, albumen, 
and gluten; and (2) Special or non-assimil- 
able secretions, which may be arranged un- 
der the heads of acids, alkalies, neuter prin- 
ciples, resinous principles, colouring mat- 
ters, milks, oils, resins, Ac— 2. Tlie matter 
secreted, as mucus, perspirable matter, &c. 
Secretlstt (se'kret-ist),7i. A dealer in secrets. 
• Those secretists, that will not part with one 
secret but in exchange for another." Boyle. 
SecretltlOUS (se-kre-tish'us), a. Parted by 
secretion. 'Sccre(i(iou< humours.' Floyer. 
Secretive (se-kre'tiv), a. 1. Causing or pro- 
moting secretion.— 2. Given to secrecy or to 
keep secrets ; as, he is very secretive; of a 
secretive disposition. 

In England the power of the Newspaper stands in 
antagonism with the feudal institutions, and it is all 
the more beneficent succour against the secretive 
tendencies of a monarchy. Emerson. 

Secretlveness (se-kre'tiv-nes), n. The qua- 
lity of being secretive; tendency or disposi- 
tion to conceal ; specifically, in phren. that 
quality the organ of which, when largely 
developed, is said to impel the individual 
towards secrecy or concealment. It is situ- 
ated at the inferior edge of the parietal 
bones. 



Secretly (se'kret-li),atic. l.Privately;privily; 
not openly; underhand; without the know- 
ledge of others; as, to despatch a messenger 
secretly. 

Let her awhile be secretly kept in. 

And publish it that she is dead indeed. Skak. 

2. Inwardly; not apparently or visibly; 
latently. 

Now secretly with inward grief she pin'd. Addison. 

Secretness (se'kret-nes), n. 1. The state of 
being secret, hid, or concealed. — 2. The 
quality of keeping a secret ; secretlveness. 
honne. 

Secretory (se-kre'to-ri), o. Performing the 
office of secretion; as, secretory vessels. 

Sect (sekt), n. [I'r. secte; L. secta, from seco, 
sectum, to cut] 1. A body or number of 
persons who follow some teacher or leader, 
or are united in some settled tenets, chiefly 
in philosophy or religion, but constituting 
a distinct party by holding sentiments dif- 
ferent from those of other men; a school; a 
denomination ; especially, any body which 
separates from the established religion of a 
country; a religious denomination. ^ Sects 
of old philosophers.' Dryden. 

Slave to no sect, who takes a private road. 
But looks through nature up to nature's God. 

Pope. 

2. t Section of the community; party; faction; 
class; rank; order. 'Packs and sects of 
great ones.' Shak. 

All sects, all ages smack of this vice. Shak. 

3.t A cutting or scion. 

But we have reason to cool our raging motions, 
our carnal stings, our unbitted lusts, whereof I take 
this, that you call love, to be a sect or scion. Shak. 

Sect (sekt). n. Sex: an incorrect usage met 
with in some of our early writers, and among 
the uneducated of our own day. 

So is alt her sect: an they be once in a calm they 
are sick. Shat. 

Sectarian (sek-ta'ri-an), a. [Fr. sectaire, a 
sectary. See Sect. ] Pertaining to a sect 
or sects; peculiar to a sect; strongly or big- 
otedly attached to the tenets and interests 
of a sect or religious denomination; as, sec- 
tarian principles or prejudices. 'Men of 
sectarian and factious spirits.' Barrow. 
Sectarian (sek-ta'ri-an), n. One of a sect; a 
member or adherent of a special school, de- 
nomination, or philosophical or religion* 
party; especially, one of a party in religion 
wliich has separated itself from the estab- 
lished church, or which holds tenets differ- 
ent from those of the prevailing denomina- 
tion in a kingdom or state. 
Sectarianism ( sek-ta'ri-an-izm ), n. The 
state or quality of being sectarian; the prin- 
ciples of sectarians; adherence to a separate 
religious sect or party ; devotion to the in- 
terests of a party; excessive partisan or de- 
nominational zeal. 

Sectarlanize (sek-ta'ri-an-iz), v. t. pret & pp. 
sectarianized ; ppr. sectarianizinij. To im- 
bue with sectarian principles or feelings. 
Sectarlsm (sek'ta-rizm), n. Sectarianism. 
[Rare.] 
Sectarlst (sek'ta-rist), n. A sectary. [Rare.) 

Milton was certamly of that profession or general 
principle in which all sectarists agree : a departure 
from establishment. T. It arion. 

Sectary (sek'tari), n. [Fr. sectaire. See 
Sect. ] l. A person who separates from an 
established church, or from the prevailing 
denomination of Christians; one that belongs 
to a sect; a schismatic; a sectarian. 

I never knew that time in England when men of 
truest rehgion were not called sectaries. Milton. 

2. t A follower; a pupil 

Galen, and all his sectaries affirm that fear and 
sadness are the true characters, and inseparable acci- 
dents of melancholy. Chilnuad. 

Sectatort (sek-ta'tfir), n. [I,.] A follower; 
a disciple; an adherent to a sect, school, or 
party. 'Aristotle and his sectators.' Sir 
W. Raleigh. 

The philosopher busies himself in accommodating 
all her (nature's) appearances to the principles of a 
school of which he has sworn himself the sectator. 
ll'arbnrton. 

Sectlle (sek'til), o. [L. sectilis, from seco, 
sectum, to cut] Capable of being cut; m 
mineral a term applied to minerals, as talc 
mica and steatite.which can becut smoothly 
by a knife without the particles breakmg, 
crumbling, or flying about. Page. 

Section (sek'shon). lu [L. sectio, from »eco, 
«ec(»m, to cut. ] l.The act of cuttmgor divid- 
ing; separation by cutting. ' The «ec(ton of 
bodies." Wotton.—% A part cut or separated 
from the rest; a division; a portion; as.spe- 
ciflcally, (a) a distinct part or portion of a 
book or writing; the subdivision of a chap- 



Fate, fiir, fat, 1»U; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; 



tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; u, Sc. abune; J'. Sc. ley. 



SECTIONAL 



17 



SECURE 



ter; the dhision of a law or other writing; 
a paragraph ; hence, the character §, often 
used to denote such a division. (6) A dis- 
tinct part of acountry or people, community, 
class, or the like ; a part of territory separ- 
ated by geographical lines or of a people 
considered as distinct. 

The extreme section of one class consists of bigoted 
dotards, the extreme section of the other consists of 
shallow and reckless empirics. Macaulay, 

(c) In the United States, one of the portions 
of one square mile each into which the pub- 
lic lands are divided ; one thirty-sixth part 
of a township.— 3. In gemn. the intersection 
of two superficies, or of a superficies and a 
solid : in the former case it is a line, in the 
latter a surface.— 4. A representation of a 
building or other object as it would appear 
if cut through by any intersecting plane, 
showing the internal structure; a diagram 
or picture showing what would appear were 
a part cut off by a plane passing through or 
supposed to pass through an object, as a 
building, a machine, a succession of strata, 
or the like. Thus, in mechanical drawimj, 
a longitudiixal section usually presents the 
object as cut through its centre lengthwise 
and vertically^ a cross or transverse section, 
as cut crosswise and vertically; and a hori- 
zontal section as cut through its centre hori- 
zontally.— Ofeitgiw sections are made at vari- 
ous angles. — 5. In jnusic, a part of a move- 
ment consisting of one or more phrases. — 
Conic sections. See under CONIC. 
Sectional (sek'shon-al), a. 1. Pertaining to 
a section or distinct part of a larger body or 
territory. 

AH sectioftal interests and party feelines. it is 
hoped, will hereafter jield to schemes of ainbition. 
Story. 

2. Composed of or made up in several inde- 
pendent sections; as. a sectional tx>at; a 
sectional steam-boiler; a sectional dock, and 
the like. 

Sectionalism (sek'shon-al-izm), n. A feeling 
of peculiar interest in and affection for 
some particular section of a country, <tc. 
(United States.) 

Sectlonallty (sek-shon-ari-ti), n. Quality 
of being sectional; sectionalism. 

Sectionally (sek'shon-al -li), adv. In a sec- 
tional manner. 

Sectlonlze(8ek'shon-i2), TJ.«. pret. A pp. sec- 
lionized; ppr. sectiotiizing. To form into 
sections. [Rare.] 

Sectlo-planography (sek'8hi-6-pIa-nog"ra- 
fl). n. [L. sectio, a section, planum, a plane 
surface, and Gr. grapiio, to describe] A 
method of laying down the sections of engin- 
eering work, as railways, and the like. It 
Is performed by using the line of direction 
laid down on the plan as a datum-line, the 
cuttings being plotted on the upper part, 
and the embankments upon the lower part 
of the line. 

Sectlsm (sekt'izra). n. Sectarianism; devo- 
tion to a sect. [Rare.] 

SdCUat (sekt'ist). n. One devoted to a aect; 
a sectarian. [Rare.] 

Sectioncle (sek-ti-ung'kl), n. A petty sect 
' Sf»me new sect or sectiujicU.' J. Martineau. 
[Rare.] 

Sective (sek'tiv), a. Same as SectHe 

Sect-master (sekt'mas-t^r), 7i. The leader 
of a sect. [Rare.] 

Sector (sek'tor), n. [L., a cutter, from seco, 
iectum, to cut. ] 1. In geoin. a part of a cir- 
cle comprehended be- 
tween two radii and 
the arc; or a mixed 
triangle, formed by 
two radii and the arc 
of a circle. Thus 
CBD, contained with- 
in the radii CB, CD 
and the arc BD, is a 
sector of the circle 
of which the arc bd 
is a portion. — Sec- 
tor of a sphere, the 
solid generated by the revolution of the 
sector of a circle about one of its radii, 
which remains fixed; or, it is the conic solid 
whose vertex coincides with the centre of 
the sphere, and whose base is a segment of 
the same sphere —2. A mathematical instru- 
ment so marked with lines of sines, tangents, 
secants, chords, Ac, as to fit all radii and 
scales, and useful in making diagrams, lay- 
ing down plans, Ac. Its principal atlvan- 
tage consists in the facility with which it 
gives a graphical determination of propor- 
tional quantities. It becomes incorrect. 




Sector. 



comparatively, when the opening is great. 

ch. ehain; 6h, Sc. locA; 
Vol. IV 



It consists of two rulers (generally of brass 
or ivory), representing ihe radii of a circular 
arc. and movable round a joint, the middle 
of which forms the centre of the circle. 
From this centre there are drawn on the 
faces of the rulers various scales, the choice 
of which, and the order of their arrange- 
ment, may be determined by a considera- 
tion of the uses for which the instrument 
is intended.— 3. In astron. an instrument 
constructed for the purpose of determining 
with great accuracy the zenith distances of 
stars, passing within a few degrees of the 
zenith, where the effect of refraction is 
small. — Dip sector, an instnmient used for 
measuring the dip of the horizon. 

S^Cltoral (sek'to-ral), a. Of or belonging to 
a sector; as, a sectoral circle.— Sectoral bar- 
ometer, an instrument in which the height 
of the mercury is ascertained by observing 
the angle at which it is necessary to incline 
the tube in order to bring the mercury to a 
certain mark on the instrument. 

Sectorial (sek-to'ri-al), a. Adapted or in- 
tended for cutting : said of the form of the 
cutting teeth of certain animals, called also 
sci^isor teeth, from their working against 
each other like scissor-blades. 

Secular (sek'u-16r), a. [Fr. s^culaire; L. 
smcularis, from sceculum, an age or genera- 
tion, a century, the times, the world.] 

1. Coming or observed once in an age or 
century, or at long intervals; as, tlie secular 
games in ancient Rome. 

The secitiar year was kept but once in a century. 
Addison. 

2. Extending over, taking place in, or ac- 
complished during a long period of time ; 
as, the secular ine<iuality in the motion of a 
heavenly body; the secular refrigeration of 
the globe. —3. Living for an age or ages. 
*A secular bird (the phoenix).' Milton.— 
4- Pertaining to this present world or to 
things not spiritual or sacred; relating to or 
connected with the objects of this life solely ; 
disassociated with religious teaching or 
principles; not devoted to sacred or religious 
use; temporal; profane; worldly; &s,8ectUar 
education; secular music. 

New foes arise 
Threatening to bind our souls with secular chains. 
Milton. 
This style (Arabesfjue) ts almost exclusively secu- 
lar. It was natural for the Venetians to imitate the 
beautiful details of the Arabian dwelling-house, 
while they would with reluctance adopt those of the 
mosque for Christian churches. Jiusii/t, 

5. Not bound by monastic vows or rules ; 
not confined to a monasterj-. or subject to 
the rules of a religious community; not 
regular; as, a secular priest. ' The clergy, 
both secular and regular.' Sir W. Temple. 

He tried to enforce a stricter discipHne and greater 
rei^ard for morals both in the religious orders and 
the seaUar clergy. PrescoU. 

Secular (sek'u-ier), n. l.t One not in holy 
orders; a layman. 

The clergy thought that if it pleased the seculars it 
might be done. Hales. 

2. An ecclesiastic not bound by monastic 
rules; a secular priest.— 3. A church officer, 
whose functions are confined to the vocal 
department of the choir. 
Secularism (sek'ai^r-izm), n. Supreme or 
exclusive attention to the affairs of this life; 
specifically, the opinions or doctrines of the 
secularists. See Secularist. 

The aim of secularism is to agerandlze the present 
life. For eternity it substitutes time : for providence 
science; for fidelity to the Omniscient usefulness to 
man. Its great advocate is Mr. Holyoake. Fleming. 

Secularist (sek'u-l^r-ist), n. One who theo- 
retically rejects every form of religious faith 
and every kind of religious worship, and ac- 
cepts only the facts and influences which are 
derived from the present life ; one who re- 
fuses to believe, on the authority of revela- 
tion, in anything external to man's present 
state of existence; also, one who believes 
that education and other matters of civil 
policy should be conducted without the in- 
troduction of a religious element. 

Secularlty(sek-a-iar'i-ti), n. Supremeatten- 
tion to the thingsof the present life; worldli- 
ness; secularism. 

Littleness and secularity of spirit is the greatest 
enemy to contemplation. T. Burnet. 

Secularization (sek'u-l^r-iz-a"8hon), n. 
The act of rendering secular, or the state of 
being rendered secular; the conversion from 
sacred or religious to lay or secular posses- 
sion, purposes, or uses; as, the secularization 
of a monk; the secularization of church pro- 
perty. 



Secularize (sek'u-16r.iz), v.t. pret. & pp. 
secularized; ppr. secularizing. [Fr. seen- 
lariser. See Secvlar.] 1. To make secular; 
as, (a) to convert from regular or monastic 
into secular; as,tosecHian>eanionk or priest. 
(6) To convert from religious or ecclesias- 
ticai appropriation to secular or commoa 
use; as, the ancient abbeys were secularized. 
2. To make worldly or unspiritual. 

Secularly (sek'u-16r-li), adv. In a secular 
or worldly manner. 

Seculamess (sek'u-16r-nes), ii. The state 
or quality of being secular ; a secular dis- 
position; worldliness; worldly-mindednes:^. 
Johnson. 

Secund (se'kund), a. [L. secundus. See 
Second.] In hot. arranged on one side only; 
unilateral, as the leaves and flowers of Con- 
vallaria inajalis. 

Secundate (se-kun'dat), v.t. [L. secundo, 
from secundus, secona, prosperous.] To 
make prosperous; to give success to; to di- 
rect favourably. [Rare.] 

Secundation (se-kim-da'shon), n. [See 
above. ] Prosperity. [Rare. ] 

Secundine (se'kun-din), 71. [Fr. secondine, 
from second, L. secundus, from sequor, to 
follow.] 1. In bat. the outermost but one 
of the inclosing sacs of the ovulum, imme- 
diately reposing upon the primine.— 2. All 
that remains in the uterus or womb after 
the birth of the offspring, that is, the pla- 
centa, a portion of the umbilical cord, and 
the membranes of the ovum; the after-birth: 
gfiiurally in the plural. 

SeCTindo-geniture (se-kun'd6-jen"i-tur), n. 
[L. secundus, second, and genitura, a be- 
getting, birth, or generation.] The right of 
inheritance belonging to a second son; the 
possessions so inherited. 

The kingdom of Naples . . , was constituted 
a secuitdo-geniture of Siiaiii. Bancroft. 

Securable (se-ku'rabl), a. Capable of being 
secured. 

Secure (se-kur'), a. [L. securus, without 
care, unconcerned, free from danger, safe 
— ««, apart, and cura, care, cure. Sure is 
this word in a more modified form.] 1. Free 
from fear or apprehension; not alarmed or 
disturbed by fear; confident of safety; dread- 
ing no evil; easy in mind; careless; unsus- 
pecting; hence, over-confident. 'Though 
Page be a secure fool.* Shak. 'Secure, 
foolhardy king.' Shak. 'But thou, secure 
of soul, unbent with woes.' Dryden. 
Gideon . . . smote the host, for the host was seatre. 
Judg. viii. 3. 
Confidence then bore thee on, secttre 
To meet no danger. Milton, 

[In this sense formerly often used in opposi- 
tion to safe. See also SAFE. 

1 was too bold ; he never yet stood safe 

That stands secure. Quarles.) 

2. Confident; relying; depending; not dis- 
trustful : with of. 

It concernsthe most j««r^<yTiis strength to pray to 
God not to expose him to an enemy. Daniel Rogers, 

3. Free from or not exposed to danger; in a 
state of safety; safe: followed by against or 
from ; as, secure against attack or from an 
enemy. ' Sectire frmn Fortune's blows.* 
Dryden. Formerly sometimes of. 'Secure 
0/ thunder's crack or lightning's flash." Shak, 

Provision had b«en made for the frequent convoca* 
tion and secure deliberations of parliament. 

fi/acaulay. 

4. Such as to be depended on ; in a stable 
condition; capable of resisting assault or 
attack; as, the fastening is now secure; 
Gibraltar is a secure fortress; to build on a 
secure foundation.— 5. Certain; sure; confi- 
dent: with of; as. he is secure of a welcome 
reception. * 0/ future life wcure.' Dryden. 
6, t Resolved; determined; as, secure to die. 
Diyden.—?. In safe custody. 

In iron walls they deem'd me not secure. Shak. 
—Safe, Secure. See SAFE. 
Secure (se-kur'), v.t. pret. <fe pp. secured; 
ppr. securing. 1. To make safe or secure; 
to guard effectually from danger; to protect; 
as, fortifications may secure a city; ships of 
war may secure a harbour. 

We'll higher to the mountain; 

There secure us. ShctJk. 

I spread a cloud before the victor's sight. 
Sustained the vanquish'd and secured ms flight. 
Dryden. 

2. To make certain ; to put beyond hazard ; 
to assure ; as. good government secures to 
every citizen due protection of person and 
property: sometimes with of. 

He secures himself i?''a powerful advocate. 

/*'■ Broome. 

8. To inclose or confine effectually; to guard 



g. yo; J. job; fi, Fr. ton; ng, sinj;; th, then; th, th\n\ w. wig; wh, icAIg; 



zh, azure.— See Key. 
140 



SECXTRELY 



18 



SEDIMENT 




effectually from escape; sometimes, to seize 
and confine; as, to secxire a prisoner.— 4. To 
make certain of payment (as by a bond, 
surety, (fee); to wan-ant against loss; as. to 
secure a debt by mortgage; to secure a credi- 
tor,— 5. To make fast or firm; as. to secure 
& door; to secure the hatches of a ship. —6. To 
obtain ; to get possession of ; to make one's 
self master of ; as, to secure an estate. — To 
secure arms, to hold a rifle or musket with 
the muzzle down, and the lock well up under 
tile arm, the object being to guard the wea- 
pon from the wet. 
Securely (se-kur'li), adv. 1. In a secure 
manner; insecurity; safely; without danger; 
as, to dwell securely in a place; to pass a 
river on ice securely.— 2. Without fear or 
apprehension ; carelessly ; in an unguarded 
state; in confidence of safety. 

Devise not evil against thy neighbour, seeing he 
dwelleth securely by thee. Prov. iii. 29. 

Sectirement t (se-kur'ment), n. Security; 
protection. Sir T. Browne. 

Secureness (se-kur'nes), n. 1. The feeling 
of security; confidence of safety; exemption 
from fear; hence, want of vigilance or cau- 
tion. 'A strange neglect and secureness.' 
Bacon. —2. The state of being secure or safe ; 
safety; security. 

Securer (se-kiir'6r), n. One who or that 
which secures or protects. 

Securifer (se-ku'n-f6r), n. One of the 
Securifera. 

Securifera (sek-ii-rif'6r-a), n. pi. [L. 
securis, a hatchet, and fero, to bear.] A 
family of hymen- 
opterous insects, 
of the section 
Terebrantia, 
comprehending 
those in which 
the females have 
a saw-shaped or 
hatchet - shaped 
terebra or ap- 
pendage to the 
posterior part of 
the abdomen, 
which not only 
serves for the 
purpose of de- 
positing the eggs 
in the stems and securifera— Tenihredo viriais. 
other parts of 

plants, but for . 2.PartoftheabdoInen,show- 
f^ '• „» „ inethesawti, 3, The saw ex- 

prepanngaplace tracted. showing the two 

for their recep- blades. 

tion. 

Securlfonn (se-ku'ri-form), a. [L. securis, 
an axe or hatchet, and forma, form.] Hav- 
ing the form of an axe or hatchet. 

Securitan t (se-ku'ri-tan), n. One who lives 
in fancied security. 

The sensual seatrttan pleases himself in the con- 
ceits of his own peace. B^. Hall, 

Security (se-ku'ri-ti), n. [Fr. sicuriU, L. se- 
curitas. See SECURE.] 1. The state or qua- 
lity of being secure ; as, (a) freedom from 
care, anxiety, or apprehension ; confidence 
of safety; hence, carelessness; heedlessness; 
over-confidence; negligence. 

And you all know, security 

Is mortals' chiefest enemy. Shak. 

He means, my lord, that we are too remiss; 
Whilst Bolingbroke, through out security. 
Grows strong and great in substance and in power. 
Skak. 

(&) Freedom from danger or risk; safety. 

Some . . . alleged that we should have no j-^cwrt^ 
for our trade while Spain was subject to a prince of the 
Bourbon family, S7vift, 

(c) Certainty; assuredness; confidence. 

His trembling hand had lost the ease 

Which marks security to please. Sir W. Scott. 

2. That which secures or makes safe; protec- 
tion; defence; guard; hence, specifically, (a) 
something given or deposited to make cer- 
tain the fulfilment of a promise or obliga- 
tion, the observance of a provision, the pay- 
ment of a debt, or the like; surety; pledge. 
'To lend money without security.' Shak. 

Those who lent him money lent it on no security but 
his bare word. Macaulay. 

(&) A person who engages himself for the per- 
formance of another's obligations; one who 
becomes surety for anotlier. —3. An evidence 
of debt or of property, as a bond, a certificate 
of stock, or the like; as, government securi- 
Ues. 

Exchequer bills have been generally reckoned the 
surest and most sacred of all securities. Siuift. 

Sedan, Sedan-chair (se-dan', se-dan'char), 
ft. [From Sedan, a town in the north of 
France, where it is said to have been first 



used. ] A covered chair or vehicle for carry- 
ing one person, borne on poles by two men. 
They were introduced into this country about 




Sedan-chair, time of George II. 

the endof the sixteenth century, were largely 
used in the reigns of Anne and the first 
Georges, but are now seldom if ever em- 
ployed. * Close mewed in their sedans.' 
Dry den. 

Sedate (se-daf), a. [L. sedatus, from sedo, 
to calm or appease, to cause to subside, 
cans, of sedeo, to sit. See Sit.] Composed; 
calm; quiet; tranquil; serene; unruffled by 
passion; undisturbed. 'Countenance calm 
and soul sedate.' Dryden. ' That calm and 
sedate temper which is so necessary to con- 
template truth.' Watts. 

Sedately (se-dat'li), adv. In a sedate 
manner; calmly; without agitation of mind. 
Locke. 

Sedateness (se-dat'nes), 7^. The state or 
quality of being sedate ; calmness of mind, 
manner, or countenance ; freedom from 
agitation ; a settled state ; composure ; 
serenity ; tranquillity ; as, sedateness of 
temper or soul; sedateness of countenance. 

There isa pa rticularjffi^ij^^/^ji in their conversation 
an.t behaviour that qualifies theiri for council. 

Sedation t (se-da'shon), n. Tlxe act of calm- 
ing. Feltham. 

Sedative (sed'a-tiv), a. [Fr. s^datif, from L. 
sedo, to calm. See SEDATE.] Tending to 
calm, moderate, or tranquillize; specifically, 
in med. allaying irritability and irritation; 
diminishing irritative activity ; assuaging 
pain. 

Sedative (sed'a-tiv), u. A medicine which 
allays irritability and irritation, and irrita- 
tive activity, and which assuages pain. 

Sede,t v.i. To produce seed. Chaucer. 

Se defendendo (se de-fen-den'do). [L.] In 
law, in defending himself, the plea of a 
person charged with slaying another that 
he committed the act in his own defence. 

Sedent(se'dent), a. Sitting; inactive; quiet. 

Sedentarily (sed'en-ta-ri-li), adv. In a 
sedentary manner. 

Sedentariness (sed'en-ta-ri-nes), n. The 
state of being sedentaiy. 

Those that live in great towns , . . are inclined to 
paleness, which may be imputed to their sedefitciriness 
or want of motion, for they seldom stir abroad. 

L. Addison, 

Sedentary (sed'en-ta-ri), a. [L. sedentarius, 
from sedens, sedentis, ppr. of sedeo, to sit; Fr. 
sMentaire.] 1. Accustomed to sit much or 
to pass most of the time in a sitting posture; 
as, a sedentarif man. ' Sedentary, scholastic 
sophists.' WarburtoJi.—2. Requiring much 
sitting;as, a, sedentary occnyyation oremploy- 
ment. —3. Passed for the most part in sitting; 
a.s,asede7itary\ife.^'i. Inactive; motionless; 
sluggish. ' Till length of years and seden- 
tary numbness craze my limbs.' Milton. 

The soul, considered abstractly from its passions, is 
of a remiss, sedentary nature, slow in its resolves, 
Addison. 

Sedentary (sed'en-ta-ri), n. One of a sec- 
tion of spiders, which remain motionless till 
their prey is entangled in their web. 

Sederunt (se -de 'runt). [Third pers. pi 
perf. indie, of sedeo, to sit. Lit., they sat.] 
A term employed chiefly in minutes of the 
meetings of courts to indicate that such 
and such members were present and com- 
posed the meeting; thus, sederunt A. B., 
C. D. , E. F., &c., signifies that these indi- 
viduals were present and composed the 
meeting. Tlie same term is also used as a 
noun to signify, specifically, a sitting or 
meeting of a court, but has been extended 
to signify a more or less formal meeting or 
sitting of any association, society, company, 
or body of men. 

'Tis a pity we have not Burns's own account of that 
long sederunt. Prof. JVilson. 



An association . . . rliet at the Baron D'Holbarh's; 
there had its blue-light sederunts. CarlyU. 

— Acts of Sederunt, ordinances of the Court 
of Session, under authority of the stat. 1540, 
xciii., by which the court is empowered 
to make such regulations as may be neces- 
sary for the ordering of processes and the 
expediting of justice. The Acts of Sederunt 
are recorded in books called Books of Sede- 
r^int. 

Sedge (sej), 71. [Softened form of A. Sax, 
secg, Sc. segg, L.G. segge, a reed, sedge; 
comp. Ir. and Gael, seisg, W, hesg, sedge. 
The root is perhaps that of L. seco, to cut; 
the name would therefore signify origin- 
ally a plant with sword-like leaves; comp. 
gladiolus.] The popular name of plants 
of the genus Carex, an extensive genus, 
containing about 1000 species of gi-ass-like 
plants, mostly inhabiting the northern and 
temperate parts of the globe, nat. order 
Cyperaceaj. They are easily distinguished 
from the grasses by having the stem desti- 
tute of joints. The culms are triangular, 
and the leaves rough upon the margins and 
keel. They grow mostly in marshes and 
swamps and on the banks of rivers. Vp- 
wards of sixty species are enumerated by 
British botanists. 

Sedge -bird (sej'bSrd), n. Same as Sedge- 
warbler. 

Sedged (sejd), a. Composed of flags or sedge. 
' Xaiads of the wand'ring brooks, with your 
sedged crowns.' Shak. 

Sedge -warbler (sej'wftr-bl-6r), n. The 
Salicaria phragmitis of Selby, a species of 




Sedge-warbler {Salicaria fihragmitis). 

insessorial bird of the warbler family, which 
visits this country about the middle of April 
and migrates in September. It frequents the 
sedgy banks of rivers. 

Sedgy (sej'i), a. Overgrown with sedge. 
'Gentle Severn's sedgy bank.' Shak. 

Sedigitated(se-dij'i-tat-ed), a. [L. sed^itus, 
having six fingers — sex, six, and digitus, a 
finger.] Having six fingers on one or ou 
both hands. Darwin. 

Sedilla(se-diri-a). M.jji. [L. sedt7c,aseat.l In 
arch, stone seats for the priests in the south 
wall of the chancel of many churches and 
cathedrals. They are usually three in num- 
ber, for the use of the priest, the deacon. 




Sedilta, Bolton Percy, Yorkshire. 

and subdeacon during part of the service of 
high mass. 

Sediment (sed'i-ment), n. [Fr. sediment, 
from L. seditnentum, from sedeo. to settle. 
See Sedate.] The matter which subsides 
to the bottom of wat«r or any other liquid; 
settlings; lees; dregs. 

It is not bare agitation, but the sedirmni at the 
bottom, that troubles anS defiles the water. South. 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tiibe, tub, bull; oil, pound; U, Sc. abune; J, Sc. ley. 



SEDIMENTARY 



19 



SEE 



Sedimentary (sed-i-ment'a-ri), a. Con- 
taining sediment ; consisting of sediment ; 
formed by seiliment ; consisting of matter 
that has subsided. — Sedimentary rocks, 
rocks which have been formed by materials 
deposited from a state of suspension in 
wuter. 

Sedimentation (sed'i-meu-ta"shon), n. The 
depositiouof sediment; the accumulation of 
earthy sediment to form strata. 

There must have been a complete continuity of 
life, and a more or less complete continuity of sedi- 
fftentation, from the Laurentlan period to the present 
day. H. A. Nicholson. 

Sedition (se-di'shon), n. [L. seditio, sedi- 
tionis, a dissension, discord, sedition— «ed, 
or se, apart, aside (a preposition used only 
in composition), and itio, itionis, a going, 
from eo, itum, to go— lit. a going apart.] A 
factious commotion in a state, not amount- 
ing to an insurrection; or the stirring up of 
such a commotion; a rousing of discon- 
tent against government and disturbance 
of public tranquillity, as by inflammatory 
apeeches or writings; acts or language tend- 
ing to breach of the public peace; as, to be 
guilty of sedition; to stir up a sedition; a do- 
cument full of sedition. Sedition, which is 
not strictly a legal term, comprises such 
offences against the state as do not amount 
to treason. It is of the like tendency with 
treason, but without the overt acts which 
are essential to the latter. Thus there are 
seditious assemblies, seditious libels, <fcc., 
as well as direct and indirect threats and 
acts amounting to sedition; all of which are 
punishable as misdemeanours by flne and 
imprisonment. 

And he released unto them him that for sedition 
and murder was cast into prison. L.uke xxiii. 35. 

—Insurrection, Sedition, Rebellion, Ac. See 

INSURREPTION. 

Seditionary (se-di'shon-a-ri), n. An inciter 
or pr'tiimter of sedition. Bp. Hall. 

Seditious (se-di'shus), a. [Ft. s^ditieux, L. 
teditioms.] 1. Pertaining to sedition; par- 
taking of the nature of sedition ; tending 
to excite sedition; as, seditions behaviour; 
$editioua strife; seditiotis words or writings. 
2. Exciting or aiding in sedition; guilty of 
sedition; as, *erft7ioH« persons. 

Seditiously (se-di'shus-li), adv. In a sedi- 
tion.^ manner; with tumultuous opposition 
to law ; in a manner to violate the public 
peace. ' Such sectaries as ... do thus sedi- 
tioti^ly endeavour to disturb the land.* Bp. 
Ba nn-oft. 

SedltlOUSneB8(se-di'shus-nes), n. The state 
or (iiiality of Ijeing seditious; the disposition 
to excite popular commotion in opposition 
to law; or the act of exciting such commo- 
tion; factious turbulence. 

Sedrat (sed'rat), n. In Mohammednn myth. 
the lotus-tree which stands on the right side 
of the invisible throne of Allah. Each seed 
of its fruit contains a houri, and two rivers 
issue from its roots. Innumerable birds 
carol in its branches, which exceed in width 
the distance between heaven and earth, and 
numberless angels rest in their shade. 

Seduce (se-dusO, v.t. pret & pp. seduced; 
ppr. seducing. [L. sed%ieo—se, apart, and 
dueo, to lead. ] 1. To draw aside or entice 
from the path of rectitade and duty in any 
maimer, as by promises, bribes, or other- 
wise; to tempt and lead to iniquity; to lead 
astray; to corrupt 

Mc the gold of France did not stduct. Shak. 
In the latter times some shall depart from the 
laith. ^rtnK heed to seducing spirits. i Tim. iv. t. 

Specifically— 2. To entice to a surrender of 
chastity. 
Seduceiuent (sS-dQs'ment), n. 1. The act 
of seducing; seduction.— 2. The means em- 

Sloyed to seduce; the arts of flattery, faise- 
ood, and deception. 

Her hero's dancers touched the pityinjf power. 

The nymph's seducements, and the ma^c t>ower. 
Pope. 
Seducer (se-dus'er), n. l. One that seduces; 
one that by temptation or arts entices an- 
other to depart from the path of rectitude 
and duty; pre-eminently, one tliat by flat- 
tery, promises, or falsehood, persuades a 
female to surrender her chastity. 

Grant it me, O king; otherwise a x^^Mcrr flourishes. 

And a poor maid is undone. Shak. 

2. That which leads astray; that which en- 
tices to evil. 

He whose firm faith no reason could remove. 
Will melt before that soft seditcer, love. Dryden. 

Sedudble (se-dus'i-bl), a. Capable of being 
seduced or drawn aside from the path of 
rectitude; corruptible. 'The power which 



our affections have over our seducible under- 
standings. ' Glanville. 

SedUGlngly (se-dus'ing-li), adv. In a se- 
ducing manner. 

Seducive (se-dus'iv), a. Seductive, Ld. 
Lijtton. [Rare.] 

Seduction (se-duk'shon), n. [L. seductio, 
seductionis. See Seduce.] 1. The act of se- 
ducing, or of enticing from the path of duty; 
enticement to evil ; as, the seductions of 
wealth.— 2. The act or crime of persuading 
a female, by flattery or deception, to sur- 
render her chastity. 

A woman who is above flattery, and despises all 
praise but that which flows from the approbation of 
her own heart, is, morally speaking, out of reach of 
seduction. Richardson. 

Seductive (se-duk'tiv), a. Tending to seduce 
or lead astray; apt to mislead by flattering 
appearances. 'Soft seductive arts.' Lang- 
home. 

Seductively (se-duk'tiv-Ii), adv. In a seduc- 
tive in:uiner. 

Seductress (se-duk'tres), n. A female se- 
ducer; a female who leads astray. 

Sedulity (se-du'li-ti), n. [L. sedulitas. See 
Sedulocs.] The quality or state of being 
sedulous ; diligent and assiduous applica- 
tion ; constant attention ; unremitting in- 
dustry. 

Let there be but the same propensity and bent of 
will to rehgion, and there will be the same sedulity 
and indefatigable industry in men's inquiries into it. 
South. 

Sedulous (aed'u-lns); a. [L. sedulus, from 
the root of sedeo, to sit; as assiduous, from 
assideo.} Lit. sitting close to, an employ- 
ment; hence, assiduous; diligent in appli- 
cation or pursuit; constant, steady, and 
persevering in business, or in endeavours to 
effect an object; steadily industrious. ' The 
sedulous bee." Prior. 

What si^iiies the sound of words in prayer without 
the aflfection of the heart, and a sedulous AopWcation 
of the proper means that may lead us to such an end ? 
Sir R. L' Estrange. 

Sedulously (sed'u-lus-li). adv. In a sedu- 
lous manner ; assiduously ; industriowsly ; 
diligently; with constant or continued ap- 
plication. * Sedulously think to meliorate 
thy stock.' J. Philips. 

Sedulousness (sedu-lus-nes), n. The state 
or quality of being sedulous; assiduity; as- 
siduousness; steady diligence; continued 
industry or effort. 

By their sedulousness and their erudition they dis- 
covered difficulties. Boyle. 

Sedum (se'dnm), n. [From L. sedum, the 
house-leek; probably connected with sedeo, 
to sit, sedo, to assuage, to allay.] A genus 
of plants, nat. order Crassulaceae. It com- 
prises about 130 species of succulent herbs, 
erect or prostrate, with opposite, alternate, 
or whorled leaves, and usually cymose 
white, yellow, or pink flowers. They are 
inhabitants of the temperate and colder 
parts of the earth, and are often found in 
dry. barren, rocky, or arid situations, where 
nothing else will grow. Many of them are 
British, and a number of the foreign species 
are cultivated in our gardens. The British 
species are known by the common name of 
stonecrop. ITie leaves of S. Telephium were 
sometimes eaten as a salad, and the roots 
were formerly in request as a remedy in 
hiemorrhoids and other diseases. 5. acre 
(acrid stonecrop or wall-iwpper) was for- 
merly much used as a remedy in scorbutic 
diseases. When applietl to the skin it pro- 
duces vesication, and when taken internally 
it causes vomiting. S. album, or white 
stonecrop, was also formerly used in medi- 
cine, and eaten cooked, or as a salad. 

See (se), ?i. [Formerly also se, sea, from 
O.Fr. se, sed, from L. sedes, a seat] 1. The 
seat of episcopal power; the diocese or juris- 
diction of a bishop or archbishop ; as, the 
see of Durham ; an archiepiscopal see. —2. The 
authority of the pope; the papal court; as. 
to appeal to the see of Rome. —3. t A seat of 
power generally; a throne. 

Jove laugh'd on Venus from his soverayne see. 
Spenser. 

See (se). v.t. pret. saw; pp. seen. [A. Sax. 
sefm, contr. for seahan, to see ; pret. seah, 
I saw, s&won, we saw, pp. gesewen; cog. 
Icel. sjd, to see, »^, I see; Dan. see, D. zien, 
Goth, saihwan, G. seken— to see. The root 
evidently had a flnal guttural, and some 
connect see with L. sequor, to follow, or 
with seco, secare. to cut.] 1. To perceive by 
the eye; to have knowledge of the existence 
and apparent qualities of objects by the 
organs of sight; to behold. 



I will now turn aside and see this g^reat sight. 



iii. 3. 



2. To perceive mentally; to form a concep- 
tion or idea of; to observe; to distinguish; 
to understand; to comprehend. 

All will come to nought. 
When such bad dealing must be seen in thought. 
Shai. 

3. To regard or look to ; to take care of ; to 
give attention to ; to attend, as to the exe- 
cution of some order or to the performance 
of something. ' See the lists and all things 
fit.' Shak. 

Lend me thy lantern, to see my gelding in the stable. 
Shak. 
See that ye fall not out by the way. Gen. xlv. 24, 
Give them first one simple idea, and see that they 
fully comprehend it before you go any further. 

Locke. 

4. To wait upon; to attend; to escort; as. to 
see a lady home.— 5. To have intercourse or 
communication with; to meet or associate 
with. 

The main of them may be reduced ... to an im- 
provement in wisdom and prudence, by seeing men 
and conversing with people of diflferent tempers and 
customs. Locke. 

6. To call on; to visit; to have an interview 
with; as, to go to see a friend. 

Come. Casca, you and I will yet ere day 
See Brutus at his house. Shak. 

7. To feel; to suffer; to experience; to know 
by personal experience. 

If a man keep my saying he shall never see death. 

Jn, viii. 51. 
When remedies are past the griefs are ended 
By seeing the worst. Shak. 

Make us glad according to the days wherein thou 
hast afflicted us, and the years in which we have seen 
evil. Ps. xc. 15. 

Seen was formerly used as an adjective in 
the sense of skilful, familiar l)y frequent 
use or practice, versed, accomplished. ' A 
schoolmaster well seen in music' Shak. 
' A gentleman . . . extraordinarily seen in 
divers strange mysteries.' Beau, d- Fl. 
' Noble Boyle, not less in nature seen.' Dry- 
den. 

Sir James Melvil was too well seen in courts to have 
used this language. f/. Hurd. 

—To see out, to see or hear to the end; to 
stay or endure longer than. 

I had a mtnd to see him out, and therefore did not 
care to contradict him. Addison. 

I have heard him say that he could see the Dundee 
people out any day, and walk home afterward;, with- 
out staggering. Dickens. 

—God you see or God him see, may God keep 
you or him in his sight.— Se^, Perceive, Ob- 
serve. Simply to see is often an involuntary, 
and always a mechanical act; to perceive 
implies generally or always the intelligence 
of a prepared mind. Observe implies to look 
at for the purpose of noticing facts connected 
with the object or its properties. 
See (se), v.i. 1. To have the power of per- 
ceiving by the proper organs, or the power 
of sight ; as, some aniuiais are able to see 
best in the night. 

Though neither eyes nor ears, to hear nor see. 
Yet should I be in love by touching thee. Shak. 

2.T0 have intellectual sight or apprehension; 
to perceive mentally; to jienetrate; to dis- 
cern; to understand: often with throu</h or 
into; as, to see through the plans or policy of 
another; to see ijito artful schemes and pre- 
tensions. 

I see into thy end, and am almost 
A man already. Shak. 

Many sagacious persons will . . see through all 
our fine pretensions. Ttllotson. 

3. To examine or inquire ; to distinguish ; 
to consider. 

See now whether pure fear and entire cowardice 
doth not make thee wrong this virtuous gentlewoman 
to close with us. Shak. 

4. To l)e attentive; to pay attention; to take 
heed; to take care. ' Be silent, let's see fur- 
ther. ' Shak. 

Mark and perform it, see'st thou; for the fail 
Of any point in't shall not only be 
Death to thyself but to thy lewd-tongued wife. 
Shak. 

—To see to, (a) to look at ; to behold. * An 
altar by Jordan, a great altar to see to.' 
Josh. xxU. 10. [Obsolete in this sense.] 
(b) To be attentive to; to look after; to 
take care of. ' She herself had seen to that.' 
Tennyson. 

I will go and purse the ducats straight, 
See to my house, left in the fearful guard 
Of an unthrifty knave, Shak. 

—To see about a thing, to pay some attention 
to it; to consider it. — See to it, look well to 
it; attend; consider; take c&Te.—Letme see, 
let us see, are used to express consideration, 
or to introduce the particular consideration 



ch, cAain; th. 3c. locA; g, go; J, job; fi, Fr. ton; ng, sin^; th, then; th, thin; w, wig; wh, whig; zh, amre. — See KJEY. 



SEE 



20 



SEEL 



of a subject— See is used imperatively, or 
as an interjection, to call the attention of 
others to an object or a subject, signifying 
lo ! look I behold 1 as. See, see, how the bal- 
loon ascends I 

Sff what it is to have a poet in your house I Po/e. 

Bee (se). interj. Lol look! observe! behold! 
See the verb intransitive. 

8e©t(s^), rt. The sea. Chaucer. 

Seed (sed), n. [A. Sax. seed, from sdwan, to 
sow; comraou to all the Teutonic tongues. 
See Sow.) 1. The impregnated and ma- 
tured ovule of a plant, which may be de- 
fined as a body within the pericarp, and 
containing an organized embryo, which on 
being placed in favourable circumstances is 
developed, and converted into an individual 
similar to that from which it derived its 
origin. The reproductive bodies of flower- 
less plants, such as sea-weeds and mush- 
rooms, differ in structure and in their mode 
of germination, and are not considered as 
true seeds, but are named sporules. The 
seed is attached to the placenta by a small 
pedicel or xm^Uical cord. In some plants 




Various forms of Seeds. 

1, Eschscholtzia californica, 2, Com Blue-bottle 
{Cenlattrea Cyanus). 3, Oxalis rosea. 4, Opium Poppy 
{Papaver sotn/n/ent7n). 5, Stellariamedia. 6, Sweet- 
william [Dianthiis barbatus). 7, Foxglove (Digita- 
lis purpurea). 8, Saponaria calabrica. 

this pedicel is usually expanded, and rising 
round the seed forms a partial covering to 
it, named the arilUts, as in the nutmeg, in 
which it constitutes the part called mace. 
The point of attachment of the cord or 
podosperm is named the hUum. The seed 
is composed of an external skin, the testa or 
perisperm, and akernel or tiucletts. In some 
cases the seeds constitute the fruit or valu- 
able part of plants, as in the case of wheat 
and other esculent grain ; sometimes the 
seeds are inclosed in the fruit, as in apples 
and melons. — 2. The fecundating fluid of 
male animals; semen; sperm: in this sense 
it has no plural. — 3. That from which any- 
thing springs ; first principle ; original ; as, 
the seeds of virtue or vice. 'The seeds 
and roots of shame and iniquity.' Shak. — 

4. Principle of production. 

Praise of great acts he scatters as a seed. IValler. 

5. Progeny; offspring; children; descend- 
ants ; as, the seed of Abraham ; the seed of 
David. In this sense the word is applied to 
one person or to any number collectively, 
and is rarely used in the plural. * We, the 
latest seed of time.' Tennyson. ' The seeds 
of Banquo kings!' Shak.— 6. Race; gener- 
ation; birth. 

Of mortal seed they were not held. fValUr. 

— To nm to seed. See under Run, v.i. 

Seed (sed), v.i. 1. To grow to maturity, so 
as to produce seed ; as, maize will not seed 
in a cool climate. — 2. To shed the seed. 
3fortimer. 

Seed (sed), v.t. To sow; to sprinkle or sup- 
ply, as with seed ; to cover with something 
thinly scattered; to ornament with seed-like 
decorations. ' A sable mantle seeded with 
waking eyes.' B. Jonson.— To seed down, 
to sow with grass-seed. 

Seed -basket (sed'bas-ket), n. In agri. a 
basket for hohUng the seed to be sown. 

Seed-bed (sed'bed), n. A piece of ground 
prepared for receiving seed. 

Seed-bud (sed'bud), n. The germ, germen, 
or rudiment of the fruit in embryo ; the 
ovule. 

Seed-cake (sedTtak), n. A sweet cake con- 
taining aromatic seeds. 

Seed -coat (sed'kot), n. In bat. the aril or 
exterior coat of a seed. 

Seed - cod (sed'kod), n. A basket or vessel 
for holding seed while the husbandman is 
Sowing it; a seed-lip. [Provincial.] 

Seed-corn (sed'kom), n. Corn or grain for 
seed; seed-grain. 



Seed-crusher (sed'krush-6r), n. An instru- 
ment for crushing seed for the purpose of 
expressing oil. 

Seed -down (sed'doun), n. The down on 
vegetable seeds. 

Seeded (sed'ed), p. and a. 1. Bearing seed; 
hence, matured; full-grown. 'Seeded pride.' 
Shak. 'The silent seeded meadow-grass.' 
Tennyson.— 2. Sown; sprinkled with seed.— 

3. In her. represented with seeds of such or 
such a colour: said of roses, lilies, &c., when 
bearing seeds of a tincture different to the 
flower itself. 

Seeder ( sed'6r ), n. One who or that which 

sows or plants seeds. 
Seed-field (sed'feld), n. A field for raising 

seed. ' The seed-field of Time.' Carlyle. 
Seed-garden (sed'gar-den), n. A garden for 

raising seed. 
Seed-grain (sed'gran). n. Seed-corn ; that 

from which anything springs. ' The primary 

seed-grain of the Norse Religion.' Carlyle. 
Seediness (sed'i-nes), n. State or quality 

of being seedy; shabbiness; state of being 

miserable, wretched, or exhausted. [Colloq.] 
A casual visitor might suppose this place to be a 

temple dedicated to tne Genius oi Seediness. 

Dickens. 
What is called seediness, after a debauch, is a plain 

proof that nature has been outraned, and will nave 

ner penalty. Pro/. Blackie. 

Seed-lac (sedlak). See Lac. 

Seed - leaf (sed'lef), ?i. In hot. the primary 
leaf, or leaf developed from a cotyledon. 

Seed-leap (sed'lep), n. Same as Seed-lip. 

Seedling (sed'ling), n. A plant reared from 
the seed, as distinguished from one propa- 
gated by layers, buds, &c. 

Seedling (sed'ling), a. Produced from the 
seed; as, a seedling pansy. 

Seed-lip, Seed-lop (sed'lip, sedlop), n. [A. 
Sax. seed-leap, a seed-basket— «(cd, seed, and 
leap, a basket] A vessel in which a sower 
carries the seed to be dispersed. [Provin- 
cial English.] Called also Seed-leap. 

Seed-lobe (sed'lob), n. in hot. a seed-leaf; 
a cotyledon. 

Seednesst (sed'nes), n. Seed-time. 

Blossoming time 
That from the seedness the bare fallow brings 
To teeming foison. Shak. 

Seed-oil (sed'oil), n. A general name for 
the various kinds of oil expressed from 
seeds. 

Seed-pearl (sed'pferi), ?i. A small pearl re- 
sembling a grain or seed in size or form. 

Seed-plat, Seed-plot (sed'piat, sed'plot), n. 
A piece of ground on which seeds are sown 
to produce plants for transplanting; a piece 
of nursery ground. 

Seed-sheet (sed'shet), n. The sheet con- 
taining the seed which a sower carries with 
him. Carlyle. 

Seedsman ( sedz'man ), n. 1. A person who 
deals in seeds.— 2. A sower; one who scat- 
ters seed. 

The seedsman 
Upon the slime and ooze scatters the grain. 
And shortly comes to harvest. Shak. 

Seed-time (sed'tim), n. The season proper 
for sowing. 

While the earth remaineth, seed-time and harvest, 
and cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day 
and night, shall not cease. Gen. viii. 22. 

Seed-vessel (sed'ves-el), n. In hot. the peri- 
carp which contains the seeds. 

Seed -wool (sed'wul), ». A name given in 
the southern states of America to cotton- 
wool not yet cleansed of its seeds. 

Seedy (sed'i), a. 1. Abounding with seeds ; 
running to seed. — 2. Having a peculiar fla- 
vour, supposed to be derived from the weeds 
growing among the vines: applied to French 
brandy. — 3. Worn-out; shabby; poor and 
miserable-looking ; as, he looked seedy ; a 
seedy coat. [Said to be from the look of a 
plant whose petals have fallen off, thereby 
disclosing the naked ovary.] [Colloq.] 

Little Flanigan here is a little see^y. as we say 
among us that practise the law. Goldsntiih. 

'Devilish cold," he added pettishly, 'standing at 
that door, wasting one's time with such serdy vaga- 
bonds.' Dickens. 

4. Feeling or appearing wretched, as after a 
debauch. [Colloq.] 

Seeing (se'ing), conj. Because; inasmuch 
as; since; considering; taking into account 
that. 

Wherefore come ye to me, seeing ye hate me? 
Gen. xxvi. 27. 



How shall they have any trial of his doctrine, 
eariiiiijj and ability to preach, seeing that lie may 
not publickly either teach or exhort! Abp.lVhitgift. 



Seek (sek), v. t. pret & pp. sought. [O. E. seke, 
also seche, A. Sax. sScan, s^cean, to seek, 
pret sdhte, pp. sdht. Common to the Teu- 



tonic tongues: Icel. soekja, Dan, sope, Sw, 
soka, D. zoeken, G. suchen, Goth. sCkjan. In 
English an original has been changed to 
e by umlaut. (See Reck.) The root is prob- 
ably the same as in L. sequor, to follow 
(whence consequence, &c.). Beseech is from 
seek, with prefix be-.] 1. To go in search or 
quest of; to look for; to search for; to take 
pains to find: often followed by out. 'To 
seek me out.' Shak. 

The man asked nim, saying. What seekest thouf 
And he said, I seek my brethren. Gen. xxxvU. 15. 16. 

For 'tis a truth well known to most. 

That whatsoever thing is lost. 

We seek it, ere it come to light, 

In every cranny but the right. Ccnvper. 

2. To inquire for ; to ask for ; to solicit ; to 
try to gain. 

The young lions roar after their prey, and seek 
their meat from God, Ps. civ. 21. 

Others tempting him, sought of him a sign. 

L-uke XL 16, 

3. To go to ; to resort to ; to have recourse 
to. 

Seek not Beth^el, nor enter into Gilgal. Amos v. 5, 
And hast ihou sought thy heavenly home . 
Our fond dear boy! D. M. Moir. 

4. To aim at ; to attempt ; to pursue as an 
object; to strive after; as, to seek a person's 
life or his ruin. ' What I seek, my weary 
travels' end.' Shak. Often governing an 
infinitive; as, to seek to do one harm. 

A thousand ways he seeks 

To mend the hurt that liis unkindness marr'd. 

Shak. 

5. To search. 

Have I sought every country far and near. 

And, now it is my chance to find thee out. Shak. 

Seek (sek), V. i. 1. To make search or inquiry; 
to endeavour to make discovery. 

I'll not seek far ... to find thee 
An honourable husband. Shak. 

Seek ye out of the book of the Lord, and read. 

Is. xxxiv. 16. 

2. To endeavour; to make an effort or at- 
tempt; to try,— 3. To use solicitation. 

Ask and it shall be given you, seek and ye shall 
find. Mat. vii. 7, 

—To seek after, to make pursuit of; to at- 
tempt to find or take. 'How men of merit 
are sought after.' Shak.— To seek for, to 
endeavour to find. 

The sailors sought for safety in our boat. Shak, 

—Toseekto,\ to apply to; to resort to. IKi. 
X. 24. 

I will, I will once more seek to my God. //". Brooke. 

—To he to seek, (a) to be at a loss; to be 
without knowledge, measures, or experi- 
ence. 'Unpractised, unprepared, and still 
to seek.' Milton. 

I do not think my sister so to seek. 

Or so unprincipled in virtue's book. Milton. 

(6) To require to be sought for; to be want- 
ing or desiderated ; as, the work is still to 
seek. [Scarcely used now in the former 
sense. ] 

Seeker (sek'fir), n. l. One that seeks; an in- 
quirer; as, a seeker of truth.— 2. t One that 
makes application. 

Cato is represented as a seeker to oracles. 

Bentley. 

3. One of a sect in the time of Cromwell 
that professed no determinate religion. 

SirHenryVane . . . set up a form of religion in a 
way of his own ; yet it consisted rather in a with- 
drawinej from all other forms than in any new or par- 
ticular opinions or forms, from which he and his 
party were called seekers. Burnet. 

Seek-sorrow (sek'sor-o), n. One that con- 
trives to give himself vexation; a self -tor- 
mentor. Sir P. Sidney. 

Seel (sel), v.t. [Ft. ciller, siller, from a'l, L, 
cUium, an eyelash.] 1. To close the eyes of 
with a thread; a term of falconry, it being 
a common practice to run a thread through 
the eyelids of a hawk, so as to keep them 
together, when first taken, to aid in making 
it tractable. 'A seeled dove that mounts 
and mounts.' Bacon. Hence— 2. To close, 
as a person's eyes; to blind; to hoodwink. 

She that so young could give out such a seeming. 

To see/ her father's eyes up, close as oak. Shak. 

Cold death ... his sable eyes did seel. Chapman. 

Seelt (sel), v.i, [Comp. I.G. sielen, to lead 

off water.] To lean; to incline to one side; 

to roll, as a ship in a storm. 

When a ship seels or rolls in foul weather, the 
breaking loose of ordnance is a thing very danger- 
ous. Raleigh. 

Seelt (sel), n. The rolling or agitation of a 

ship in a storm. 

All aboard, at every seele. 
Like drunkards on the hatches reele. Sandys. 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abune; J', Sc. tey. 



SEEL 



21 



SEGREQATE 



Seelt (sel), 71. [A. Sax. 8(el, a good time 
or opportunity, luck, prosperity.] Time; 
opportunity; season: used frequently as the 
second element in a compound; as, h&y-seel, 
hay-time; h&rley -iteel, \\hea.t-seel, &c. [Pro- 
vincial English.) 

SeelUyt (sel'i-li), adv. In a silly manner. 

Seely t (sel'i), a. [A. Sax. scelig, lucky, pro- 
sperous. See Seel, time. Silly.] 1. Lucky; 
fiirtunate; happy. 'To get some seely home 
I had desire.* Fairfax. — 2. Silly; foolish; 
simple; artless. Spenser. 

Seem (sem), v.i. [A. Sax. siman, gesiman, to 
compose, to conciliate, to adjust, to judge, 
to aeem, to appear, from root of same (which 
see).] 1. To appear; to look like; to pre- 
sent the appearance of being; to be only in 
appearance and not really. ' That we were 
all as some would seem to be.' Shak. ' So 
shall the day seem night' Shak. 

Thou art not what thou seem'st. Shalt. 



n'd well pleas'd ; all . 



n'd, but were not 
Milton. 



2- To appear; to be seen; to show one's self 
or itself; hence, to assume an air; to pre- 
tend. ' My lord, that so confidently seetns 
to undertake this business.' Shak. 

There did seem in hira a kind of joy to hear it. 
Shak. 
3. To appear to one's opinion or judgment; 
to be thought : generally with a following 
clause as nominative. 

It see>ns to me that the true reason why we have 
so few versions which arc tolerable, is because there 
are so few who have all the talents requisite for 
translation. Dryden. 

(Hence, 'it ^ems to me* = I think, I am in- 
clined to believe.]— 4. To appear to one's 
self; to imagine; to feel as if; as, I still seem 
to hear his voke ; he still seemed to feel 
the motion of the ye^s^X.— It seems, it would 
appear; it appears: used parenthetically, 
<o) nearly equivalent to. as the story goes; 
as is said; as we are told. ' 

A prince of Italy, it seems, entertained his mistress 
tipon a great lake. Addison. 

(b) r»ed sarcastically or ironically to con- 
demn the thing mentioned, like forsooth; 
as, this, it teems, is to be my task. For- 
merly seem was often used impersonally in 
such phrases as me seems, him seemed, 'the 
people seemed' (it seemed to the people. 
Chancer); hence, meseems as a single word. 
Seemer (sem'^r), n. One who seems; one 
who makes a show of something; one who 
carries an appearance or semblance. 

Hence we shall see. 
If power chanye purpose, what our seemtrs be. 
- . . Shak. 

Seeming (sem'mg), p. and a. \, Appear- 
ing; having the appearance or semblance, 
whether real or not. 'Showed him a seeti\- 
ing warrant for it.' Shak. 'The father 
of this seeming lady.' Shak.— 2. Specious 
or plausible in appearance; as, seeming 
friendship. • That little seeming substance. * 
Shak. 

Seeming (sera'ing). n. 1. Appearance; show; 
senibhiuce, especially a false appearance. 
'She that, so young, could give out such a 
teeming.' Shak. 

He is a thing made up of seemings. y. BaiUie. 

2. Fair appearance. 

These keep 
Seeming and savour all the winter long. Shak. 

8 t Opinion; judgment; estimate; appre- 
hension. 'Nothing more clear unto their 
Beeming.' Hooker. 

His persuasive words imprega'd 

^\ ith reason to her seeming. Milton. 

Seemlngt (sSm'ing). adv. in a becoming or 
seemly manner; seemly. 

Bear your body more setmint^, Audrey. Shak. 

Seemingly (sem'ing-Ii), adv. In a seeming 
manner; apparently; ostensibly; in appear- 
ance; in show; in semblance. 

This the father seemingly complied with. 
_, Addison. 

They depend often on remote and seefningty dis- 
proportioned causes. Atterbury. 

SeemlngnesB (sem'ing-nes), n. Fair appear- 
an.f : plausibility ; semblance. Sir K. 

Seeralesst (sem'les), a. Unseemly; unfit; 
iiiil'-.-nnnis, Chapuinn. 

Seemimead,t SeemUiiedt (sem'li-hed). n. 
Sfftiiliiiess; comely or decent appearance. 

Seemlllyt (semni II), adv. Decently; come- 
lily. 

Seemllnesa (semli-nes), n. The state or 
qu.ility of lieing seemly; comeliness; grace; 
ntnesa; propriety; decency; decorum. Cam- 
den. 



Seemly (sem'li), a. [Icel. scemUigr, scemr, 
becoming, fit, seemly. See SEEM.] Becom- 
ing; fit; suited to the object, occasion, pur- 
pose, or character; suitable; decent; pro- 
per. 'Not rustic as before, but seemlier 
clad.' Milton. 

Suspense of judgment and exercise of charity were 
safer and seemlier for Christian men than the hot 
pursuit of these controversies. Hooktr. 



In a decent or suit- 



Seemly (semli), adv. 
able manner. 

There, seemly ranged in peaceful order stood 
Ulysses" arms, now long disused to blood. Pope. 

Seemlyhed,t Seemlyhoodt (sem'li-hed, 

sem'li-hud), n. Same as Seemlihead. Speti- 
ser. 

Seen (sen), pp. of see. 

Seep (aep), v.i. To flow through pores; to 
ooze gently; to sipe. [Scotch and United 
States. ] 

Seepy (sep'i), a. Oozing; full of moisture; 
specifically, applied to land not properly 
drained. [Scotch and United States.] 

Seer (se'6r or ser), n. 1. One who sees. ' A 
dreamer of dreams, and a seer of visions.' 
Addison.— 2. A prophet; a person who fore- 
sees future events. 1 Sam. ix. 9. ' Thou 
death-telling seer. ' Campbell. 

She call'd him lord and lieffe. 
Her seer, her bard, her silver star of eve. 

Tennyson. 

Seer (ser), n. A weight which varies all 
over India; in Bengal there are forty seers 
to a mauud, which is about 74 pounds avoir- 
dupois. 

Seerliand (serOiand), n. A kind of East In- 
dian muslin, which, from its retaining its 
clearness after washing, is particularly 
adapted for dresses. 

Seershlp (se'Ar-ship or ser'ship), h. The 
ottlce or quality of a seer. 

Seer-sucker (ser'suk-^r), n. A blue and 
white striped linen, imported from India. 

Seer-wood (ser^w^d), n. Dry wood. 

See-saw (se's^), n. (A reduplicated form of 
sate, the motion resembling the act of saw- 
ing.] 1. A child's game, in which one sits on 
each end of a board or long piece of timber 
balanced on some support, and thus the two 
move alternately up and down.— 2. A board 
adjusted for this purp<»8e.— 3. Motion or ac- 
tion resembling that in see-saw; a vibratory 
or reciprocating motion. 'A see-saw between 
the hypothesis and fact' Sir W. HamUttm. 
4. In whist, the playing of two partners, 
so that each alternately assists the other to 
win the trick; a double ruff. 

See-saw (se'sft), a. Moving up and down 
or to and fro; undulating with reciprocal 
motJnn. • His wit all see-saw, between that 
and this.' Pope. 

See-saw (se'sa), v.i. To move as in the game 
see-saw; to move backward and forward, 
or upward and downward. 

So they went see-sawiftg up and down from one 
end of the room to the other. Arbuthnot. 

See-saw(se'sA). r.f. 

see-saw manner. 



To cause to move in a 



'Tis a poor idiot boy. 
Who tits in the sun and twirls a bough about. 
And. staring at his bough from morn to sunset, 
See-stnos his voice in inarticulate noises. 

Coltridge. 
He ponders, he see-saws himself to and fro, 
_ Lord Lyttem. 

Seetbe (sern), v.t. pret. seethed, (tod, ob- 
solete); pp. seethed, sodden {tod, 6ii9o\eiey, 
ppr seething. [A. SaK. se6than, sidthan. to 
seethe; Icel. sjdtha, G. sieden, to boil.] L To 
boll; to decoct or prepare for food in hot 
Uqaor; as, to seethe tiesh. ' Sodden UfAter.' 
Shak. 

Thou shalt not seethe a kid in his mother's milk. 
Ex. xxiii. 19. 

2. To soak; to steep and soften in liquor. 
' Cheeks mottled and sodden.' W. Collitis. 

There was a man — sleeping — still alive ; though 
seethed in drink, and looking hlce death. 

jy. Jerrold. 

Seethe (scTH^, t? i. pret. seethed; ppr seeth- 
ing. To be m a state of ebullition; to boil, 
to be hot. 

Loven and madmen have such seething brains. 
Shak. 
Thus over all that shore. 
Save for some whisper of the seething seas, 
A dead hush fell. Tennyson. 

Seether (seTH'^r), n. One who or that which 
seethes; a boiler; a pot for boiling things. 
She sets the kettle on ; 
Like burnished gold the little seelhtr shone. 
Dryden. 

Seiatlan (se-fa'shi-an), n. One of a sect of 
Mohaninietlans who hold peculiar views 
with regard to the essential attributes of 
God. They are opposed to the Motazilites. 




Seg (seg), n. Sedge; also, the yellow flower- 
de-luce (iris Pseuduconis). [Provincial.] 
Seg, Segg (seg), n. A castrated bull; a bull 
castrated when full grown; a bull-segg. 
[Scotch.] 
Segart (se-garO- See Cigar. 
Sege.t n. A siege. Chaucer, 
Seggar (seg'gar), n. [Prov. E. saggard, saggar, 
contr. for safeguard. Comp. seggard, a rid- 
ing surtout.] The case of fire-clay in which 
fine stoneware is inclosed while being baked 
in the kiln. Written also Sagger. 
Seghol (se-gol'), n. A Hebrew vowel-point, 
or short vowel, thus "—indicating the 
sound of the English e in men. 
Segholate (se-gol'at), a. Marked with a 
seghol. 
Segment (seg'ment), n. [L. segmentum, 
from seco, to cut.] 1. A part cut off or 
marked as separate from others; one of the 
parts into which a body naturally divides 
itself; a section; as, the segments of a calyx; 
the segments of an orange; the segments 
or transverse rings of which the body of 
an articulate animal or annelid is com- 
posed.— 2. In ^eom. a part cut off from any 
figure by a Ime or plane. A segment of 
^ a circle is a part of 

" the area contained by 

an arc and its chord, 
as ACB. The chord is 
sometimes called the 
base of the segment. 
An angle in a segment 
is the angle contained 
by two straight lines 
drawn from any point 
in its arc, and termin- 
ating in the extremities of its chord 
or base. — Similar segments of circles are 
those which contain equal angles, or whose 
arcs contain the same number of degrees. — 
Segment of a sphere, any part of it cut 
off by a plane, not passing through the 
centre. r 

Segment (seg-mentO. v.i. To divide or be- 
come divided or split up into segments; 
specifically, in physiol. applied to a mode of 
reproduction by semi-fission or budding. 
See extract. 

Before this occurs, however, if it does not divide, 
the vegetal unit segments or buds, the bud grows 
into a unit similar to its parent, and this in its turn 
also segments or buds. Bastian. 

Segmental (seg-ment'al), a. Pertaining to, 
consisting of , or like a segment.— AVowie^Mi 
organs, certain organs placed at the sides 
of the body in Auuelides, and connected 
with excrttion. 

Segmentation (seg-men-ta'shon), n. The 
act uf cutting into segments; a division into 
segments ; the state of being divided into 
segments. 

Segment-gear (seg'ment-ger), n. In meek. 
a curved cogged surface occupying but an 
arc of a circle. 

Segment -saw (seg'ment-so). n. 1. A saw 
which cuts stuff into segmental shapes.— 
2. A veneer saw whose active perimeter con- 
sists of a number of segments attached to a 
disc. — 3. In giirg. a nearly circular plate of 
steel serrated on the edge, and fasteiied to 
a handle : used in operations on the bones 
of tlie cranium. &c. 

Segment-shell (seg'ment-shel), n. In ar- 
tillery, an elongated shell consisting of a 
body of iron coated with lead and Ituilt up 
internally with segment- shaped pieces of 
iron, which, offering the resistance of an 
arch against pressure from witliout, are 
easily separated by the very slight bursting 
charge within, thereby retaining most of 
their original direction and velocity after 
explosion. 

Segment-wheel (seg'ment-whel), 71. \ 
wheel a part of whose periphery' only is 
utilized. 

Segnitude.t Segnlty t (seg'ni-tud, seg'ni-ti), 
n. [From L. «e^/(f*-, sluggish.] Sluggishness; 
dulness; inactivity. 

Segno (sen'yo). n. [It., sign] In music, a 
sign or mark used in notation in connection 
with repetition, abbreviated ft. — Al segno, 
to the sign, is a direction to return to the 
sign.— i>af segno, from the sign, is a direc- 
tion to repeat from the sign. 

Segreant (se'gre-ant), a. In her. a term 
applied to a griffin when standing upon its 
hind-legs, with the wings elevated and en- 
dorsed. 

Segregate (seg're-gat), v.t. pret. & pp. se- 
gregated; ppr. segregating. [L. segrego, se- 
f^regatum — se, apart, and grego, to gather 
into a flock or herd, from grex, gregis, a 



ch, cAain; fih, Sc. locA; g. ^,0; j. fob; fi, Fr. ton; ng, si;^; th, (Aen; th, tAin; w, tcig; wh, wAig; zh, azure. -See KEY. 



SEGREGATE 



22 



SEJANT 



flock or herd] To separate from others; to 
set apart 

They are se^egated, Christians from Christians, 
under odious desii;nations. Is. Taylor. 

Segregate (seg're-gat), v.i. To separate or 
(.''■ a|p:iit; speofflcally, in crystal to separate 
fioiii a mass and collect about centres or 
lines of fracture. 

Segregate (seg're-gat), a. Separate; select. 
■A kind of segregate or eal)inet senate." 
Wotton.— Segregate polygamy (Polygamia 
segregata, Linn.), in bot. a mode of inflor- 
escence, when several Horets comprehended 
within an anthodinm, or a common calyx, 
are furnished also with proper perianths, as 
in the dandelion. 

Segregation (seg-re-ga'shon), ji, 1. The 
act of segregating, or the state of being 
segregated; separation from others; a part- 
ing; a dispersion. 'A segregation of the 
Turkish fleet.' Shak.—i. In crystal, sepa- 
ration from a mass and gathering about 
centres through cohesive attraction or the 
crystallizing process. Dana. 

Segue (seg'wa). [It., it follows; L. sequor, 
to follow.] In music, a word which, prefixed 
to a part, denotes that it is immediately to 
follow the last note of the preceding move- 
ment. 

Seguidilla (seg-i-del'ya), n. [Sp.] A merry 
Spanish tune; also, a lively dance. 

The common people still sung their lively sfgiti- 
dittas. Prescott. 

Seld (sed), 11. (Ar, prince.] One of the de- 
scendants of Mohammed through his daugh- 
ter Fatima and his nephew Ali. 

Seldlltz-powder (sid'lits-pou-d6r), n. A 
powder intended to produce the same effect 
as seidlitE-water ; composed of tartrate of 
potassa and soda (Rochelle-salt) with bi- 
carbonate of soda in one paper, and tartaric 
acid in another paper, to be dissolved sepa- 
rately in water, then mixed, and taken 
while effervescing. 

Seldlltz-water (sid'lits-W9-t«r), n. The 
mineral water of Seidlitz, a village of Bohe- 
mia. Sulphate of magnesia, sulphate of 
soda, and carbonic acid are its active in- 
gredients. 

Seie,t Sey.t pret. &pp. of see. Saw; seen. 
Chaucer. 

Selgneurlal (sen-yo'ri-al), a. [See Seignior.] 
1. Pertaining to the lord of a manor; mano- 
rial. Sir W. Temple.— 2. Vested with large 
powers; independent. 

Seignior (seu'ySr), n. [Fr. seigneur. It. si- 
gnorc, Sp. seilor, Pg. senhor; from L. senior, 
elder, senex, old.] 1. In the south of Eu- 
rope, a title of honour. See SiaNiOR.— 
Grand Seignior, a title sometimes given to 
the Sultan of Turkey.— 2. In feudal law, the 
lord of a fee or mRnor.— Seignior in gross, a 
lord without a manor, simply enjoying su- 
periority and services. 

Seigniorage, Seiguorage (sen'ySr-aj), n. 

1. Sometliing claimed by the sovereign or 
by a superior as a prerogative; specifically, 
an ancient royalty or prerogative of the 
crown, whereby it claimed a percentage 
upon bullion brought to the mint to be 
coined or to be exchanged for coin; the 
profit derived from issuing coins at a rate 
above their Intrinsic value. 

If government, however, throws the expense of 
coinage, as is reasonable, upon the holders, by mak- 
mg a charge to cover the expense (which is done by 

fiving back rather less in coin than is received in 
uUion, and is called "levying a seigniorage'), the 
coin will rise to the extent of the seigniorage above 
the value of the bullion. y. i', J\fi//^ 

2, A royalty; a share of profit; especially, 
the money received by an author from his 
publisher for copyright of his works. 

Seigniorial (sen-yo'ri-al). The same as Set- 

gneurial. 
Selgnlorlze (sen'y4r-iz), v.t. To lord it over. 

Ffiirntx. [K;ne.] 
Seigniory, Selgnory (sen'y6r-i), n. [Fr. 

seigneune. See SEIONIOR.] A lordship; 

power or authority as sovereign lord. See 

SlONIORY. 

O'Neal never had any seignory over that country, 
but what he got by encroachment upon the English. 
_ Spenser. 

Sell (sel), V.t. [Sw. sila, to strain.] To 
strain through a cloth or sieve. [Scotch.] 

Seln,t pp. of see. Seen. Chaucer. 

Seine, Sean (sen), n. [Fr. seine, from L. 
sagena, Gr. sayeni, a seine.] A large net for 
catching fish, such as mackerel and pilchard, 
often from 160 to 200 fathoms in length, and 
6 to 10 in breadth, buoyed by corks and 
weighted so as to float perpendicularly. 

The seine is a net of about forty fathoms in length. 



with which they encompass a part of the sea, and 
draw the same on land. Carew. 

Seine-boat (sen'bot), n. A flshing-boat, of 
about 15 tons burden, used in the fisheries 
on the west coast of England to carry the 
large seine or casting-net. 
Selne-fisher (sen'flsh-6r), n. A seiner. 
Seiner (seu'er), n. A fisher with a seine or 
net. Carew. 
Selnt,t ?i. A cincture; a girdle. Chaucer. 
Selntuarle.t n. Sanctuary. Chaucer. 
Selp (Sep), v.i. [See SiPE.] To ooze; to 
leak. [Scotch.] 

Selr - fish ( ser'fish ), n. A fish of the genus 
Cybium (C. guttatum), family Scomberidie, 
bearing a close resemblance to the salmon 
in size and form as well as in the fiavour of 
its fiesh. It is one of the most valuable 
fishes of the East Indian seas. 
Seise (sez), V. t. inlaw, see SEIZE. 
Seisin (se'zin), n. See SEIZIN. 
Seismic, Selsmal (sis'mik, sis'mal), a. [Gr. 
seismos, an earthquake, from seio, to shake] 
Of or pertaining to an earthquake. — The 
seismic area, the tract on the earth's surface 
within which an earthquake is felt — Setg- 
mtc vertical, the point upon the earth's sur- 
face vertically over the centre of effort or 
focal point, whence the earthquake's im- 
pulse proceeds, or the vertical line connect- 
ing these two points. Goodrich. 
Seismograph (sis'mo-graf), n. [Gr. seismos, 
an eartliquake, and grapho, to write. ] An 
electro-magnetic instrument for registering 
the shocks and concussions of earthquakes 
See also Seismometer. 
Selsmographlc (sfs-mo-graf'ik), a. Pertain- 
ing to seismography; indicated by a seismo- 
graph. 

Maps or charts constructed so as to indicate the 
centres of convulsion, lines of direction, areas of dis- 
turbance, and the like, are termed seismografhic. 
~ , ''age. 

Seismography (sis-mog'ra-fl), n. The study 
or observation of the phenomena of earth- 
quakes by means of the seismograph or 
seismometer. 

Seismologist (sis-mol'o-jist), n. A student 
of, or one versed in, seismology; one who 
studies the phenomena of earthquakes. 
" The main work presented for seismologists 
in the immediate future.' R. Mallet. 

Seismology (sis-mol'o-ji), n. [Gr. seismos, 
an earthquake, lit a shaking, and logos, 
discourse. See Seismic] The science of 
earthquakes; that department of science 
which treats of earth((uakes and all phenom- 
ena connected with them. 

Seismometer (sis-mom'et-er), n. [Gr. sets- 
mtjs, a shaking, an earthquake, and metron, 
a measure.] An instrument for measuring 
the direction and force of earthquakes and 
similar concussions. There are various con- 
trivances for this purpose, the most perfect 
of which is perhaps the form used in the 
observatory on Mount Vesuvius. It consists 
of a delicate electric apparatus, which is 
set to work by the agitation or change of 
level of a mercurial column, which records 
the time of the first shock, the interval be- 
tween the shocks, and the duration of each; 
their nature, whether vertical or horizon- 
tal, the maximum intensity; and in the case 
of horizontal shocks the direction is also 
given. 

Selsmoscope (sis'mO-skop), n. [Gr. seismos, 
an earthquake, and skopeo, to see.] A seis- 
mometer (which see). 

Selsura ( se-zh(i'ra ), n. [Gr. «eto, to shake, 
oura, tail.] A genus of Australian birds 
belonging to the family Muscicapidae or fly- 




Seisura inquieta (Restless Seisura). 

catchers. The .S. volitans is the dish-washer 
of the colonists of New South Wales. 
Seity (se'i-ti), n. [L. se, one's self.] Some- 
thing peculiar to a man's self. TaOer. 
[Rare] 



Selzable (sez'a-bl), a. Capable of being 
seized; liable to be taken. 

Seize (sez), v. l. pret. <fe pp. seized; ppr. seiz- 
ing. [Fr. saisir, to seize; Pr. sazir, to take 
possession of ; It. sagire, to put in posses- 
sion of — according to Diez, from O.H.O. 
sazjan, to set, bisazjan, to occupy.] 1. To 
fall or rush upon suddenly and lay hold on; 
to gripe or grasp suddenly. 

Then as a tiger, who by chance hath spy'd 
In some purlieu two gentle fawns at play, 
Straight couches close, then rising changes oft 
His couchant watch, as one who chose his ground. 
Whence rushing, he might surest seize them both, 
n ™, 1 , iViilon. 

2. lo take possession by force, with or with- 
out right 

At last they seize 
The sceptre, and regard not David's son. Mii/on. 

3. To have a sudden and powerful effect on; 
to take hold of; to come upon suddenly; to 
attack; as, a fever seizes a patient. 

And hope and doubt alternate seize her souL Po^e. 

4. To take possession of, as an estate or 
goods, by virtue of a warrant or legal au- 
thority. 

It was judged by the highest kind of judgment, 
that he should be banished, and his whole estate con- 
fiscated and seized. Bacon. 

5. To fasten; to fix. 

So down he fell before the cruell beast. 
Who on his neck his bloody claws did seize. 
Spenser. 

6. Naut. to fasten two ropes, or different 
parts of one rope, together with a cord — 

7. To make possessed ; to put in possession 
of: with of before the thing possessed; as, 
A B was seized and possessed of the manor. 
'All those his lands which he stood seized 
of. ' Shak. ' Whom age might see seized of 
what youth made prize.' Chapman. 

If his father died seized, the infant being noble, 
could not be called on to defend a real action. 

Brougham. 

[In this, what may be called its legal sense 
often written SeiscJ — S. To lay hold of by 
the mind; to comprehend. 

The most penetrating sagacity in seizing great 
principles of polity ate to be constantly found in the 
wriUngs of the philosophers. Brougham. 

Seize (sez), v.i. To grasp; to take into pos- 
session: with on, or upon, to fall on and 
grasp ; to take hold of ; to take possession 
of. ' Thee and thy virtues here I seize upon. ' 
Shak. 

Even Jezebel projects not to seize on N'aboth's 
vineyard without a precedent charge. Dr. H. Mori. 

Seizer (sez'Sr), n. One who or that which 

seizes. 

Seizin (sez'in), n. [Fr. saisine, seizin, from 
saisir, to seize. See Seize. ] In law,(^a) pos- 
session. Seizin is of two sorts — seizin in 
deed or fact and seizin in law. Seizin in 
fact or deed is actual or corporal possession; 
seixJM. in law is when something is done 
which the law accounts possession or seizin, 
as enrolment, or when lands descend to an 
heir but he has not yet enteied on them. 
In this case the law considers the heir as 
seized of the estate, and the person who 
wrongfully enters on the land is accounted 
a disseizor, (b) The act of taking possession, 
(c) The thing possessed; possession. — Livery 
of seizin. See LIVERT.— Seizin-or, in Scots 
laic, a perquisite formerly due to the sheriff 
when he gave infeftment to an heir holding 
crown-lands. Spelled also Seisin. 

Seizing (sez'ing), n. Xaut. the operation 
of fastening together ropes with a cord; 
also, the cord or cords used for such fasten- 
ing. 

Seizor (sez-or^), it. In law, one who seizes or 
takes possession. 

Seizure (sez'ur), n. 1. The act of seizing or 
taking sudden hold; sudden or violent grasp 
or gripe ; a taking into possession by force 
or illegally, or legally a taking by warr.ant; 
as, the seizure of a thief; the seizure of an 
enemy's town ; the seizure of a throne by a 
usurper; the seizure of goods for debt. 

All things that thou dost call thine 
Worth seizure do we seize into our hands. Shak. 

2. Ketention within one's grasp or power; 

possession; hold. 

Miike o'er thy honour by a deed of trust. 
And give me seizure of the mighty wealth. 

Dryden. 

3. The thing seized, taken hold or possession 
of — 4. A sudden attack of some disease. 

Sejant, Sejeant (se'jant), o. [Xomi.; Fr. 
seant, ppr. of seoir, from L. sedeo, to sitj 
In her. sitting, like a cat, with the forelegs 



Fate, far, fat, fgll; me, met h«r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; u, Sc. abune; y, Sc. ley. 



SEJOIN 



23 



SELF 




Lion sejant. 



straight: applied to a lion or other beast. — 

Sejant addorsed. sitting back to back: said 

of two auiraals.— Se;aH( 

affronte, borne in full ^— — : ^ 

face, sitting, with the 

fore-paws extended side- 
ways, as the lion in the 

crest of Scotland. —AV- 

jant rampant, sitting 

with the two fore -feet 

lifted up. 
SeJoin (se-join'), v.t. 

[Preflx se, apart, and 
join.] To separate. 

There is a season when God, and nature, sejoins 

man and wife in this respect. Jt'. IVhateiy. 

Seju^ous (se-ju'gus), a. [L. sejugU—sex, six, 
and^»</»jH,a yoke.] In hot. having six pairs 
of leaflets. 

Sejunction (se-jungk'shon), n. [L. sejunc- 
tio, seju)ictionis~~8e, from, and jungo, to 
join.] The act of disjoining; a disuniting; 
separation. 'A sejunction and separation 
of them from all other nations on the earth.' 
Bp. Pearson. 

Sejun^ble (se-jun'ji-bl), a. Capable of be- 
ini; disjoined or separated. Bp. Pearson. 

Seke.t a. Sick. Chaucer. 

Sekos (se'kos), n. [Gr. , sekos, a pen, a sacred 
inclosure. a shrine.) A place in an ancient 
temple in which were inclosed the images 
of (K'ities. 

Selachian (se-la'ki-an). n. A fish belong- 
um to the section Selachii. 

Selachii (se-la'ki-i), n.pl. [Gr. selachos, a 
cartilaginous fish, probably a shark.] A sec- 
tion of elasmo branchiate fishes, which in- 
cludes the sharks and dog-ftshes. 

Selaglnacesa (se-la'ji-na"se-e), n. pi. A small 
nat. order of perigynous exogens, consisting 
of herbs or small shrubs chiefly from South 
Africa, and allied to Verbenacese and Myo- 
poraceae, but differing from them in their 
anther being always one-celled only. They 
are herbs or small shrubs, with alternate 
leaves and blue or white (rarely yellow) 
flfiwers in heads or spikes. 

Selbite (sel'bit), h. An ash-gray or black 
ore *if silver, consistint; chiefly of silver car- 
bonate, found at Wulfach in Baden, and 
tlie Mexican mines, where it is called plata 
aziil. 

Selcoutht (sellcoth), a. [A. Sax. seleiUh, 
geldci'th^sel, seld, rare, and e&th, known.] 
Rarely known; unusual ; uncommon; strai^^. 

Yet nathemore his meaning she ared 
But ivondred much at his so se/cott/h c 



Sfenstr. 
Shak. 



Seldt (seld), adv. Rarely; seldom. 

Seld t (sehl). a. Scarce. 

Seldezi,t adv. Seldom. Chaucer. 

Seldom (serdom), adv. [A. Sax. seldan, 
eeldon, seldum, Icel. sjaldan, Dan. sielden, 
D. zelden, G. gelten; from A. Sax. seld, O.G. 
sell, Goth. sUd, rare, whence gUdaleiks, 
strani;e, odd.] Rarely; not often; not fre- 
quently. 

Wisdom and youth are ///rfi»w joined in one. Hooker. 

— Seldom or never, very rarely, if ever. 

' Seldom or never changed.' Brougham. 
Seldom (sel'dom), a. Rare; unfrequent. 

' Tlie tfeld'jin discharge of a higher and more 

nohle oftice.' Milton. 
Seldomness (sel'dom-nes). n. Rareness; 

infrf<iuciicy; uncommonness. 
Tlie sfldomneis of the sight increased the more in- 

(luiet l'jn;;injf. Sir P. Sidney. 

Seld-shownt (seld'shon), a. Rarely shown 
-T txliibited. Shak. 

Select (se-lekf), vt. [L. seligo, selectum— 
se. from, and le(^o. to pick, cull, or gather] 
To choose and take from a number; to 
take by preference from among others ; to 
pick out: to cull; as, to seUct the best 
authors for perusal ; to select the most 
interesting and virtuous men for associates. 

A certain number, 
Though thanks to all, must I se/eef from all. SAat. 

Select (selektO, a. Taken from a number 
by preference ; culled out by reason of ex- 
cellence ; nicely chosen ; choice ; whence, 
preferable; more valuable or excellent than 
others; as, a body of select troops. 

And happy constellations on that hour 
Shed their seiectest influence. .Milton. 

A few select ^pints had separated from the crowd, 
and formed a fit audience round a far greater teacher. 
.Macaulay. 

Selectedly (s^-lekt'ed-li). adv. With care 

in si-lei ti'-n, 'Prime workmen . . . w- 
lertrdh/ employed.' Heytcood. 
Selection (se-lek'shon), n. [L. seleetio, se- 
lectionis. See SELECT.] 1. The act of se- 
lecting or choosing and taking from among 



a number; a taking by preference of one 
or more from a number. — 2. A number of 
things selected or taken from others by pre- 
ference. — Natural selection, that process 
in nature by which plants and animals best 
fitted for the conditions in which they are 
placed survive, propagate,and spread, while 
the less fitted die out and disappear ; sur- 
vival of the fittest ; the preservation by 
their descendants of useful variations aris- 
ing in animals or plants. 

This preservation of favourable individual differ- 
ences and variations, and the destruction of those 
which are injurious. I have called Natural Selection. 
or the Survival of the Fittest. . . . Several writers 
have misapprehended or objected to the term natural 
selection. Some have even imagined that natural se 
lection induces variability, whereas it implies only the 
presepiation of such variations as arise and are bene- 
ficial to the being under its conditions in life, Danvin. 

Selective (se-lek'tiv), a. Selecting; tending 
to select. ' Selective providence of the Al- 
mighty.' Bp. Hall. 

Selectman (se-lekt'man), n. In Xew Eng- 
land, a town officer chosen annually to 
manage the concerns of the town, provide 
for the poor, &c. Their number is usually 
from three to seven in each town, and these 
constitute a kind of executive authority. 

Selectness (se-lekt'nes), 7t. The state or 
quality of being select or well chosen. 

Selector (se-lekt'6r), n. [L.] One that 
selects or chooses from among a number. 
' Inventors and selectors of their own sys- 
tems." Dr. Knox. 

Selenate (sel'en-at), n. A compound of 
selenic acid with a base; as, selenate of 
soda 

Selene (se-le'ne), n. [Gr. , from selas, light, 
brightness.] In Greek myth, the goddess of 
the moon, called in Latin Luna. She is the 
daughter of Hyi)erion and Tlieia, and sister 
of Helios (the sua) and Eos (the dawn). 
Called also Pheebe. 

Selenic (se-len'ik), a. Pertaining to sele- 
nium; as, selenic acid (H^SeO,). This acid 
isfomied when selenium is oxidized by fusion 
with nitre. It is very acid and corrosive, and 
resembles sulphuric acid very much. It hasa 
great affinity for bases, forming with them 
salts called selenates. 

Selenide (sel'en-id). n. A compound of se- 
lenium with one other element or radical. 

Seleniferous (sel-e-nif'er-us), a. [Sele- 
nium, and L. fero, to produce.] Containing 
selenium; yielding selenium; as, selenif- 
erous ores. 

Belenions (se-le'ni-us), a. Of, pertaining 
to, or produced from selenium. — Seleiiious 
acid (HaSeO,), an acid derived from sele- 
nium. It forms salts called selenites. 

Selenite (sel'en-it), n. (From Gr. seleng, the 
moon.] 1. Foliated or crystallized sulphate 
of lime. Selenite is a sub-species of sul- 
phate of lime, of two varieties, massive and 
acicular.— 2. One of the supposed inhabit- 
ants of the moon. 

Selenitic (sel-e-nit'ik). o. 1. Pertaining to 
selenite ; resembling it or partaking of its 
nature and properties.— 2. Pertaining to the 
moon- 
Selenium (se-le'ni-um), n. [From Gr. 
selen^, the moon, so named by Professor 
Berzeiius from its being associated with tel- 
lurium, from L. tellus, the earth.] Sym. 8e. 
At. wt. 79'5. A non-metallic element ex- 
tracted from the pyrite of Fahlun in 
Sweden, and discovered in 1818 by Berze- 
iius. In its general chemical analogies it is 
related to sulphur and tellurium. It gener- 
ally occurs in very small quantity in some 
of the varieties of iron pyrites and as an 
Impurity in native sulphur. When pre- 
cipitated it appears as a red powder, which, 
when heated, melts, and on cooling forms a 
brittle mass, nearly black, but transmitting 
red light when in thin plates. When heated 
in the air it takes fire, bums with a blue 
flame, and produces a gaseous compound, 
oxide of selenium, »vhich has a most pene- 
trating and characteristic odour of putrid 
horse-radish. 

Seleniuret, Selenuret (se-len'u-ret), n. 
See Selenide. 

Seleniuretted (se-len'u-ret-ed), a. Con- 
taining selenium : combined or impreg- 
nated with selenium. — Seleniuretted hy- 
drogen (HaSe), a gaseous compound of hy- 
drogen and selenium obtained by the action 
of acids on metallic selenides. It has a 
smeU resembling that of sulphuretted hy- 
drogen, and when respired is even more 
poisonous than that gas. Seleniuretted 
hydrogen is absorbed by water, and precipi- 
tates most metallic solutions, yielding selen- 



ides, corresponding to the respective sul- 
phides. 

Selenocentric(se-le'n6-sen"trik), a. Having 
relation to the centre of the moon; as seen 
or estimated from the centre of the moon. 

Selenograph (se-le'no-graf), ji. [See Se- 
lenography.] A delineation or picture of 
the surface of the moon or part of it. 

Selenographer, Selenograpliist (sel-e- 
nog'ra-fer, sel-e-nog'ra-ttst), n. One versed / 
in selenography. / 

Selenographic, Seleno^rapMcal (sede'- 
no-giaf"ik, se-le'n6-graf"ik-al), a. Belong- 
ing to selenography. 

Selenography (sel-e-nog'ra-fi), 7i. [Gr. 
selene, the moon, and grapho, to describe.) 
A description of the moon and its phe- 
nomena; the art of picturing the face of 
the moon. 

Selenological (se-le'no-loj"ik-al), a. Of or 
pertaining to selenology. 

Selenology (sel-e-nol'o-ji), n. [Gr. selerie, 
the moon, and logos, description.] That 
branch of astronomical science which treats 
of the moon. 

Self (self). [A. Sax. self, selfa, a pronominal 
word common to the Teutonic tongues ; O. 
Sax. self, D. zelf, Dan. selv, Icel. sjdlfr, G. 
selb, selbst, Goth, silba; probably fonned by 
compounding the reflexive pronoun se, si 
( = L. se), seen in Icel. s^r, to himself, sik, 
self, G. sich, with some other word. In the 
oldest English (A. Sax.) as well as later self 
was a kind f f pronominal adjective, most 
commonly used after the personal pro- 
nouns, but also, in the sense of same, stand- 
ing before nouns, quite like an adjective. 
Thus the following forms occur: ic self, or ic 
selfa, I myself; mXn selfes, of myself; iM 
selfum, to myself; me sel/ne (acc.V my- 
self; tkil selfa, thyself; hi selfa, hmiseU; 
wf silfe, we ourselves; on tkdm sylfan gedre, 
in that same year, *fcc. The dative of the 
personal pronoun was also prefixed to se^, 
the latter being uuileclined, as ic me self, I 
myself; h^ him self, he himself; and these 
forms gradually led to the forms myself, thy- 
self, ourself, yourself, Ac. , in which the geni- 
tive or possessive form is prefixed to self. 
After this it was not unnatural for self to be 
often regarded as a noun with the plur^ 
selves, like other nouns ending in/. In him- 
self, themselves, the okl dative is still re- 
tained.] A pronominal element affixed to 
certain personal pronouns and pronominal 
adjectives to express emphasis or distinc- 
tion ; also when the pronoun is used re- 
ftexively. Thus for emphasis, I myself will 
write; I will examine for myself. Thou thy- 
self shalt go; thou shalt see for thyself. The 
child itself shall be carried ; it shall be 
present itself. Retlexively, I abhor my- 
self) he \ove^ himself ; it pleases tteg^; we 
value ourselves. Except when added to pro- 
nouns used reflexively, self serves to give 
emphasis to the pronoun, or to render the 
distinction expressed by it more emphatical. 
'/ myself will decide,' not only expresses 
my determination to decide, but the deter- 
mination that no other shall decide, //im- 
seif, herself, themselves, are used in the no- 
minative case, as well as in the objective. 

Jesus Aimsel/'baptized not, but his disciples. 

Jn. iv. 2. 

Sometimes self is separated from my, thy, 
&c., as, my wretched self; *To our gross 
selves' {Shak.y. and this leads to the similar 
use of self with the possessive case of a 
noun: as, 'Tarquin's «*■(/" (SAaA-,), giving sey 
almost the character of a noun, which it 
fully takes in such cases as are illustrated 
in next article. 

Self (self), n. 1. The individual as an object 
to his own reflective consciousness; the man 
viewed by his own cognition as the subject 
of all his mental phenomena, the agent in his 
own activities, the subject of his own feel- 
ings, and the possessor of faculties and char- 
acter; a person as a distinct individual; 
one's individual person ; the ego of meta- 
physicians. 

A man's self may be the worst fellow to converse 
with in the world. Pofie. 

The self, the I, is recognized in every act of intel- 
ligence as the subject to which that act belongs. It 
is I that perceive, I that imagine, I that remember, 
I that attend, I that compare, I that feel, I that will, 
I that am conscious. Sir W. Hamilton. 

2. Personal interest; one's own private in- 
terest. 

The fondness we have for self . . . furnishes an- 
other long rank of prejudices. H \ttts. 
Love took up the harp of life, and smote on alt the 

chords with might : 
Smote the chord of sel/, that, trembling, passed in 

mu.sic out of sight. Tennyson. 



ch. cAain; 6h, Sc. locA; g, go; j, job; fi, Fr. ton; ng, sing; th, then: th. (Ain; w, loig; wh, wAig; zh, azure.— See Kkt. 



SELF 



24 



SELF-DENYING 



3. A flower or blossom of a uniform colour, 
especially one without an edging or border 
distinct from the ground colour.— S^Z/ is 
the first element in innumerable compounds, 
generally of obvious meaning, in most of 
which it denotes either the agent or the ob- 
ject of the action expressed by the word 
with which it is johied, or the person on 
behalf of whom it is performed, or the 
person or thing to, for, or towards whom or 
which a quality, attribute, or feeling ex- 
pressed by the following word, belongs, is 
directed, or is exerted, or from which it 
proceeds ; or it denotes the subject of, or 
object affected hy, such action, quality, at- 
tribute, feeling, and the like. Goodrich. 
Selft (self), a. Same; Identical; very same; 
very. Self still has this sense when followed 
by same. See Self-same. 

Shoot another arrow that se/fway 

Which you did shoot the first. Skafc. 

I am made of that jc//"metal as my sister. Shak. 

At that «^moment enters Palamon. Drydejt. 

Self-abased (self'a-bast), a. Humbled by 
conscitius guilt or 8hame._ 

Self-abasement (self-a-bas'ment).?i. l. Hu- 
miliation or abasement proceeding from 
consciousness of inferiority, guilt, or shame. 
2. Degradation of one's self by one's own 
act. 

Enoufrh ! no foreign foe could quell 

Thy soul, till from itself it fell. 

Yes ! self-abasement paved the way 

To villain-bonds and despot sway. Byron. 

Self-abasing[ (self-a-bas'lng), a. Humbling 
by the consciousness of guilt or by shame. 

Self-abhorrence (self-ab-hor'eus), n. Ab- 
horrence of one's self. 

Self-abhorrlng (self-ab-hor'ing), a. Abhor- 
ring one's self. 

Self-abuse (self-a-bus'), n. 1. The abuse of 
one's own person orpowers. Shak.— 2. Onan- 
ism; masturliation. 

Self-accused (selfak-kuzd), a. Accused by 
one's own conscience. 

Self-accusing (self'ak-kuz-ing), a. Accusing 
one's self. 

Then held down she her head and cast down a 
seif -accusing- look. Sir P. Sidney. 

Self-acting (selfakt-ing), a. Acting of or 
by itself: applied to any automatic contriv- 
ances for superseding the manipulation 
which would otherwise be required in the 
management of machines; as, the self-act- 
ing feed of a boring-mill, whereby the cut- 
ters are carried forward by the general mo- 
tion of the niacliine. 

Self-action (self-ak'shon), n. Action by or 
originating in one's self or itself. 

Self-activity (self-ak-tiv'l-ti), n. Self-mo- 
tion or the power of moving one's self or 
itself without foreign or external aid. 

If it can intrinsically stir itself, . . . it must have a 
principle oi self-activity which is life and sense. 

Boyle. 

Self-adjusting (self-ad-just'lng), a. Adjust- 
ing by one's .self or by itself. 

Self -admiration (self'ad-mi-ra"shon), n. 
Admlratiun .»f one's self. 

Self-atfairs (self'af-farz), n. pi. One's own 
private business. Shak. 

Self-affected (self-af-fekt'ed), a. Well-af- 
fected towards one's self; self-loving. Shak. 

Self-affrighted (.self-af-frlt'ed), a. Fright- 
ened at oiifs ^flf. Shak. 

Self-aggrandizement (self-ag'gran-diz- 
ment). n. The aggrandizement or exalta- 
tion of one's self. 

Self-annihilation (self'an-ni-hi-la"shon), n. 
Annihilation by one's own act. Addison. 

Self-applause (self-ap-plaz'). n. Applause 
of one's self. ' Xot void of righteous se?/- 
applanse.' Tenmjgon. 

Self-applying (self-ap-pli'ing), a. Apply- 
ing tu or by one's self. Watts. 

Self-approbation (self ap-pr6-ba"shon), n. 
Api>i'itl)uti<in of one's self. 

Self-approving (self-ap-prov'ing), a. Ap- 
proving one's self or one's conduct or char- 
acter. 

One sel/-apfro7.'in^ hour whole years outweighs 
Of stupid starers and of loud huzzas. Pope. 

Self- asserting, Self-assertive (self-as- 
s^rt'ing, 8elf-as-86rt'iv), a. Forward in as- 
serting one's self, or one's rights and claims; 
putting one's self forwai'd in a confident 
way. 

Self-assertion (self-as-s6r'shon), n. The 
act of asserting one's self or one's own 
rights or claims; a putting one's self for- 
ward in an over -confident or assuming 
manner. 

Self-assumed (self'as-sumd), a. Assumed 



by one's own act or by one's own authority; 

as, a Mlf-a^sxuned title. 
Self-assumption (self-a8-sum'shon),n. Self- 
conceit. 'In Ki'if-assmnption greater than 

in the note of judgment.' Shak. 
Self-assured (self'a-shord), a. Assured by 

one's self. 
Self-banished (self'ban-isht), a. Exiled 

voluntarily. Pope. 
Self-begotten (self-be-got'n), a. Begotten 

by one's self or one's own powers. 'That 

self-begotten bird in the Arabian woods,' 

Milton. 
Self-blinded (self-blind'ed), a. Blinded or 

led astray by one's own actions, means, or 

qualities. ' Self-blinded are you by your 

pride.' Tennyson. 
Self-bom ( self 'bom ), a. Born or begotten 

by one's self or itself; self-begotten. ' From 

himself the phoenix only springs, self-born.' 

Dry den. 
Self-bountyt (self-boun'tl), n. Inherent 

kindness and benevolence. 

I would not have your free and noble nature. 
Out o( sel/-bo!i>tty, be abused. Shak. 

Self-breatht (self'breth), n. One's own 
speech or words. 'Speaks not to himself 
but with a pride that quarrels at self- 
hreath.' Shak. 

Self-centration (self-sen-tra'shon), n. The 
act of centring or state of being centred on 
one's self. 

Self-centred (self'sen-tferd), a. Centred in 
self. 

Self-charity + (self'char-i-ti), n. love of 
one's self. Shak. 

Self-closing (self'kloz-ing), a. Closing of 
Itself; closing or shutting automatically; as, 
a self-closing bridge or iloor. 

Self-coloured (self-kul'^rd), a. All of one 
colour: applied to textile fabrics in which 
the warp and weft are of the same colour. 

Self-command (self'konvmand), a. That 
steady equanimity which enables a man in 
every situation to exert his reasoning fa- 
culty with coolness, and to do what exist- 
ing circumstances require ; self - control. 
Hume. 

Self-commitment (self-kom-mit'ment), 7i. 
A committing or binding one's self, as by a 
promise, statement, or conduct. 

Self- communicative ( self-kom-mu'ni-ka- 
tiv), a. Imparting or communicating by its 
own powers. 

Self-complacency (self-kom-pla'sen-si), n. 
The state of l)eing self-complacent ; satis- 
faction with one's self or with one's own 
doings. 

Self-complacent (selfkom-pla'sent), a. 
Pleased with one's self or one's own doings; 
self -satisfied. 'A self-complacent repose 
superior to accidents and ills.' Dr. Caird. 

Self-conceit (self-kon-set'),n. A high opinion 
of one's self; vanity. — Egotism, Self-conceit, 
Vanity. See under EGOTISM. 

Thyself from flattering self-conceit defend. 

Sir y. Denham. 

Self-conceited (self-kon-set'ed), a. Having 
self-conceit; vain; having a high or over- 
weening opinion of one's own person or 
merits. 

A self-conceited fop will swallow anything-. 

Sir R. L' Estrange. 

Self-conceitedness (self-kon-set'ed-nes), n. 
The quality or state of being self-conceited; 
vanity; an overweening opinion of one's 
own person or accomplishments. Locke. 

Self- condemnation ( sel f ' kon - dem - ua"- 
shon), n. Condenniatiou by one's jown con- 
science. 

Self- condemning (self-kon-dem'ing), a. 
Condemning one's self. ' Self -condemning 
expressions.' Boswell. 

Self-COnfldence (self-kon'fl-dens), n. Confi- 
dence in o!ie's own judgment or ability; re- 
liance on one's own opinion or powers with- 
out other aid. 

Self-coyifidence is the first requisite to fjreat under- 
takings, yohnson. 

Self-confident (self-kon'fl-dent), a. Confi- 
dent of one's own strength or i)owers; rely- 
ing on the correctness of one's own judg- 
ment, or the competence of one's own 
powers, without other aid. 

Self-confiding (self-kon-fld'ing), a. Confid- 
ing in one's own judgment or powers; self- 
confident Puye. 

Self-conscious (self-kon'shus), a. l. Con- 
scious of one's states or acts as belonging to 
one's self. 'Self-conscious thought' Caird. 
2. Conscious of one's self as an object of ob- 
servation to others; apt to thiuk much of 
how one's self appears to othsrs. 



Self-consciousness (self-kon'shus-nes), n. 
State of being self-conscious; consciousness 
of one's own states or acts. 

I am as justly accountable for any action done 
many years since, appropriated to me now by this 
selfconsaottsness. as I am for what I did the last 
moment. Locke. 

Self- considering (self-kon-8id'6r-ing), p. 
and a. Considering in one's own mind; de- 
liberating. ' Self -considering, aahe stands, 
debates.' Pojte. 

Self-consumed (self-kon-sumd'), a. Con- 
sumed l>y one's self or itself. 

Self-consuming (self-kon-sum'ing), a. Con- 
suming ones self or itself. ' A wandering, 
self-consuming fire.' Pope. 

Self-contained(self'kon-tand),al. Wrapped 
up in one's self; reserved; not expansive or 
communicative. ' Cold, high, self-contained, 
and passionless.' Tennyson.~-2. A term ap- 
plied (especially in Scotland) to a house 
having an entrance for itself, and not ap- 
proached by an entrance or stair common 
to oitieT?,.— Self-contained e7J5ri7te, an engine 
and boiler attached together, complete for 
working, similar to a portable engine, but 
witliout the travelling gear. E. H. Knight. , 

Self-contempt (self kon-temt), n. Contempt 
for one's self. Tennyson. 

Self-contradiction (self'kontra-dik"8hon). 
n. The act of contradicting itself; repug- 
nancy in terms. To be and not to be at the 
same time. Is a self-contradiction; that Is, a 
proposition consisting of two members, one 
of which contradicts the other. Addiion. 

Self-contradictory (self kon-tra-dik"to-ri), 
a. Contradicting itself. * Doctrines which 
are self -contradictory.' Spectator. 

Self-control (self-kon-trol'), n. Control ex- 
ercised over one's self; self-restraint; self- 
command. Tennyson. 

Self-convicted (self-kon-vlk'ted), a. Con- 
victed by one's own consciousness, know- 
ledge, or avowal. 

Guilt stands self -convicted wtien arraigned. 

Savajre. 

Self-conviction (self-kon-vik'shon), ?i. Con- 
viction proceeding from one's own con- 
sciousness, knowledge, or confession. 

Xo wonder such a spirit, in such a situation, is 
provoked beyond the regards of reUgion or self-con- 
vict iott. Swift. 

Self - covered ( self-kuv'6rd ), a. Covered, 
rlothed, or dressed lu one's native sem- 
blance. Shak. 

Self-created (self-kre-at'ed), a. Created by 
one's self; not formed or constituted by an- 
other. 

Self-culture (self-kul'tiir), n. Culture, train- 
ing, or education of one's self without the 
aid of teachers. Prof. Blackie. 

Self-danger (self-dan'jer), n. Danger from 
one's self Shak. 

Self-deceit (self-de-sef), n. Deception re- 
specting one's self, or that originates from 
one's own mistake; self-deception. 

This fatal hypocrisy and self-deceit is taken notice 
of in these words. Who can understand his errors? 
Cleanse thou me from secret faults. Addison. 

Self- deceived (self-de-sevd'), a. Deceived 
or misled respecting one's self by one's own 
mistake or error. 

Self-deception (self-de-sep'shon), n. De- 
ception concerning one's self, proceeding 
from one's own mistake. 

Self-defence (self-de-fens'), n. The act of 
defending one's own person, property, or 
reputation. 

I took not arms, till urged by self-defence. 
The eldest law of nature. Rewe. 

—The art of self-defence, boxing; pugilism. 
Bijrtjn. 

Self-defensive (self-de-fen'siv), a. Tending 
to <h'fend one's self. 

Self-delation (self-de-la'shon), n. [See Dk- 
LATiuN'.] Accusation of one's self. 'Boimd 
to inform against himself to l>e the agent 
of the most rigid self -delation.' Milman. 

Self-delusion (self-de-li\'zhon), n. The de- 
lusion of one's self, or delusion respecting 
one's self. So^ith. 

Self-denial (self-de-ni'al), n. The denial of 
one's self; the forbearing to gratify one's 
own appetites or desires. 

The religion of Jesus, with all its self-denials, wr- 
tues, and devotions, is very practicable. Watts. 

Self-denying (seU-de-ni'ing), a. Denying 
one's self; forbearing to indulge one's own 
appetites or desires. ' A devout, humble, 
sin- abhorring, self -denying iT:?i.\\\Q of spirit.* 
South. —Self -denying ordinance, in Eng. 
hist, a resolution passed by the Long Par- 
liament in 1645, that ' no member of either 
House shall, during the war, enjoy or exe- 



Fate, far, fat, f^ll; me, met, h^r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; u, Sc. abune; y, Sc. tey. 



SELF-DENYINGLY 



25 



SELF-LEFT 



cute any office or command, civil or mili- 
tary. ' 

Self-denylngly {self -tie -ui'ing-li), adv. In 
a self-^it.'ii\iiii; inaiuier. 

Belf-dependent, Self-depending (self-de- 
peud'eut, self-de-peud'ing), a. Depending 
on one's self. ' Self-dependent poyiGT.' Gold- 
smith. 

Self- destroyer (self-de-stroi'6r), n. One 
\vlii) ilfstriivs liiinself. 

Self-destruction (self-de-struk'shon),n. The 
destriKtiim <>£ one's self; voluntary destnic- 
tion. Sir P. Sidney. 

Self-destructive (self-de-struk'tiv),rt. Tend- 
ing to the destruction of one's self. 

Self - determination ( self ' de - t6r - min-a"- 
shon). n. Determination by one's own mind; 
or determin:iti<'n by its own powers, with- 
out extraneous impulse or influence. Locke. 

Self- determining (self-de-tfir'min-ing), a. 
Capable of self-determination. 

Every animal is conscious of some iadividual, self- 
moving, self-deterfuinins principle. 

Afartinus ScribUrus. 

Self - devoted ( self -de- vot'ed X a. Devoted 
in person, or voluntarily devoted. 

Self-devotement cself-de-v6t'ment),n. The 
devotini,'of ones person and services volun- 
tarily to any ditticult or hazardous employ- 
ment. 

Self-devotion (self-de-vo'ahon), n. The act 
of devoting; one's self ; willingness to sacri- 
fice one's own interests or happiness for the 
sake of others; self-sacrifice. 

Self- devouring (self-de-vour'ing), a. De- 
vouring one's self or itself. ' Self -devouring 
silence." Sir J. Denham. 

Self -diffusive (self-dif-fuz'iv), a. Having 
power to diffuse itself; diffusing itself. 
Surria. 

Self-disparagement (self-dis-par'aj-ment). 
n. Disparagement of one's self. 

Inward self-disparagement affords 
To meditative spleen a grateful feast. IVordsworth. 

Self-dispraise (self-dls-prazO, n. Dispraise, 
censure, or disapprobation of one's self. 

There is a luxury in ulf-dispraise. Wordsworth. 

Self -distrust (self-dis-trusf), n. Distrust 

of or want of confidence in one's self or in 

one's own powers. * It is my shyness, or 

my gelf-dijitrust.' Tennyson. 
Self - educated (self-ed'u-kat-ed). a. Edu- 

catt-d liy one's own efforts or without the 

aid of teachers. 
Self - elective (self-e-lek'tiv), a. Having 

tht' right to elect one's self, or, as a body, 

of electing its own members. 

Ati oliifsrchy on the setf-4lective principle was thus 

est.iblislic'l. Brougham. 

Self-endeared(self-en-derdO,a. Enamoured 
of one's s»;If; self-loving. Shak. 

Self -enjoyment (self-en-joi'ment), n. In- 
ternal satisfaction or pleasure. 

Self-esteem (self-es-tem^, n. The esteem 
or L'ooil opinion of one's self. MUton. 

Self-estimation (self'es-ti-ma"8honVn. The 
esteem or i;ood opinion of one's self. 

Self-evidence (self-ev'i-dens), n. The qua- 
lity of Itcing self-evident. *By the same 
self -e vide tice that one and two are equal to 
three.' Locke. 

Self -evident ( self-er'i-dent ), o. Evident 
without proof or reasoning; producing cer- 
tainty or clear conviction upon a bare pre- 
sentation to the mind; as, a self-evident pro- 
position or truth. 

Many politicians of our time are in the habit of 
Laying it down as a setf-rvident proposition, that no 
people ouifhl to be free tilt they are fit to use their 
freedom. Macaulay. 

Self- evidently (self-ev'i-dent-li), adv. By 
means of self-evidence; without extraneous 
proof or reasoning. 

These two quantities were self-evidtnily equal. 
H'hfwelt. 
Self- evolution (self'ev-6-lu"i4hon), n. De- 

vclopin-'iit I'V jnlit^rent pf^wer or quality. 
Self-exaltation (self'egz-ftl-ta"8hon),7i. The 

exaltatii-n of one's self. 
Self-examinant(self'egz-am'in-ant),n. One 
wlio exutnines himself. 

The huniitialed self-examinant feels that there Is 
evil in our nature as well as ^ood. Coleridge. 

flelf- examination (8eiregz-am-i-na"shonl 
n. An examiitation or scrutiny Into one s 
own state, conduct, and motives, particu- 
larly in regard to religious affections and 
duties. South. 

Self-example (self-egz-am'pl), n. One's own 
example or precedent. SfCak. 

Self-existence (self-egz-ist'ens), n. The qua- 
lity of being self-existent; inherent exist- 
ence; the existence possessed by virtue of a 



being's own nature, and independent of any 
other being or cause, an attribute peculiar 
to God. 

Living and understanding substances do clearly 
demonstrate to philosophical enquirers the necessary 
self-existence, power, wisdom, and beneficence of 
thoir Maker. Bentley. 

Self-existent (self-egz-ist'ent), a. Existing 
by one's or its own nature or essence, in- 
dependent of any other cause. 

This self-existent Being hath the power of perfec- 
tion, as well as of existence in himself. N. Greu>. 

Self-explanatory (self-eks-plan'a-to-ri), a. 
Capable of explaining itself; bearing its 
meaning on its own face; obvious. 

Self- explication (self'eks-pli-ka"shon), n. 
The act or power of explaining one's self or 
itself. ' A thing perplexed beyond self -ex- 
plication.' Shak. 

Self-faced (self'fast), a. A term applied to 
the natural face or surface of a flagstone, 
in contradistinction to dressed or hewn. 

Self- fed (self'fed), a. Fed by one's self or 
itself. Milton. 

Self-feeder (self-fed'6r), n. One who or that 
which feeds himself or itself; specifically, a 
self-feedintf apparatus or machine. 

Self- feeding (self-fed'ing), a. Capable of 
feeding one's self or itself; keeping up auto- 
matically a supply of anything of which 
there is a constant consumption, waste, use, 
or application for some purpose ; as, a self- 
feeding boiler, furnace, printing-press, &c. 

Self-fertilization (8elf'fer-til-iz-a"9hon), n. 
In hot. the fertilization of a fiower by poUen 
from the same fiower. 'The evil effects of 
close interbreeding or self-fertilization.' 
Darwin. 

Self-fertilized (self'f^r-til-izd"). P- and a. In 
hot. fertilized by its own pollen. See ex- 
tract. 

A self fertilized plant . . , means one of self- 
fertilized parentage, that is, one derived from a 
flower fertilized with pollen from the same flower, 
... or from another flower on the same plant. 

Darivin. 

Self-flattertn^ (self-flat't6r-ing),a. Flatter- 
ing one's seUT 'Self-jlattering delusions.' 
Watts. 

Self-flattery (self-flat'tfir-i), n. Flattery of 
one's self. 

Self-gathered (self-gaTH'erd), o. Gathered, 
wrapped up, or concentrated in one's self 
or itself. 

There in her place she did rejoice, 
Selfgatiter'd in her prophet-mind. Tennyson. 

Self-glorious (self-glo'ri-us), a. Springing 

from vainglory or vanity ; vain ; boastful. 

' Free from vainness and self-gloriotts pride.' 

Shak. 
Self-governed (self-gu'vfimd), a. Governed 

by one's self or itself; as, a self-governed 

state 
Self-government (self-gu'v6m-ment), n. 

1. The government of one's self; self-control. 

2. A system of government by which the 
mass of a nation or people appoint the 
rulers; democratic or republican govern- 
ment; democracy. 

It is to se/fgoz-ernmenf, the ^eat principle of 
popular representation and administration — the sys- 
tem that lets in all to participate in the counsels 
that are to assign the good or evil to all — that we 
may owe what we arc and what we hope to be. 

D. WeHter 

Self-gratiilation <Be1f'grat-ii-la"8honX n. 
Gratulation of one's self. Shak. 

Self-harming (self'harm-ing), o. Injuring 
or hurting one's self or itself. 

Self- heal (selfhel ), n. A British plant of 
the genus Prunella, the P, vulgaris. See 
Prunella. Also, a plant of the genus Sani- 
cula (which see). 

Self -nealing (selfTiel-ingy o. Having the 
power or property of healing Itself; as, the 
se{f-healing power of living animals and 
vegetables. 

Self-help (selflielp), n. Assistance of or by 
one's self ; the use of one's own powers to 
attain one's ends. S. Smiles. 

Self-homicide (self-hom'i-sfd), n. Act of 
killing r>ne'8 self; suicide. ffakewUl. 

Selfhood (self 'hnd). n. Individual or in- 
dependent existence; separate personality; 
individuality. 'AH that had been manly 
in him, all that had been youtli and selfhood 
fn him, fiaming up for one brief moment.' 
Harper's Monthly Mag. [Rare.] 

Self-idolized (seifl-dol-izd), a. Idolized by 
one's self. Cowper. 

Self- ignorance (self-ig'no-ranB), n. Igno- 
rance of one's own character or nature. 

Self-ignorant (Belf-ig'n6-rant), a. Ignorant 
of one'.s self. 

Self -imparting (self-im-part'ing), a. Im- 
partmg by its own powers and wilL Norris. 



Self-importance (self-im-port'ans), n. High 
opinion of one's self; pride. Cowper. 

Self-important (self-im-port'ant), a. Im- 
portant in one's own esteem; pompous. 

Self-imposed (selfim-pozd), a. Imposed 
or voluntarily taken on one's self; as, a self- 
imjiosed task. 

Self-imposture (self-im-pos'tur), n. Impos- 
ture practised on one's self. South. 

Self -indignation (self'in-dig-na"shon), n. 
Indignation at one's own character or ac- 
tions. ' Opposite and more mixed affections, 
such as . . . self-indignation.' Baxter. 

Self-indulgence (self-in-durjens), n. Free 
indulgence of one's passions or appetites. 
'Love of ease and self-itidulgence.' Sir J. 
Haivkins. 

Self-indulgent (self-in-dul'jent), a. Indulg- 
ing one's self ; apt or inclined to gratify 
one's own passions, desires, or the like. 

Self-inflicted (self-in-flik'ted), a. Inflicted 
by or on one's self; as, a self-infiicted pun- 
ishment. 

Self - insufficiency ( self ' in-suf -fl"shen-si ), 
n. Insufficiency of one's self. Clarke. 

Self-interest ( self-in't6r-est X n. Private 
interest ; the interest or advantage of one's 
self. 

Self-interested (self-in't6r-est-ed), a. Hav- 
ing self-interest; particularly concerned for 
one's self ; selfish. Addison. 

Self-invited (self-in-vit'ed), a. Come with- 
out being asked; as. a self-invited guest. 

Self-involution (self'in-v6-lu"shon), n. In- 
volution in one's self; hence, mental abstrac- 
tion; reverie. 

Self-involved (self-in-volvd'), a. Wrapped 
up in one's self or in one's thoughts. Ten- 
nyson. 

Selflsh (selfish), a. Caring only or chiefly 
for self; regarding one's own interest chiefly 
or solely; proceeding from love of self; in- 
fluenced in actions solely l)y a view to pri- 
vate advantage; as, a selfish person; a selfish 
motive. ' The most aspiring, selfish man.' 
Addison. 

That sin of sins, the undue love of self, with the 
postponing of the interests of all others to our own, 
had for a lonj; time no word to express it in Eng- 
lish. Help was sought from the Greek, and from 
the Latin. * Philauty' had been more thaq once 
attempted by our scholars, but found no acceptance. 
This failing, men turned to the Latin; one writer 
trying to supply the want by calling the man a ' suist,' 
as one seexmg his own things ('sua*), and the sin 



itself, 'suicism.' The gap, however, was not really 
tilled up. till some of the Puritan writers, drawing on 
our Saxon, devised ' sel^sh' and ' selfishness,' wot As 
which to us seem obvious enough, but which yet are 
not more than two hundred years old. Trench. 

Selfishly (self ish-li), adv. In a selflsh man- 
ner; with regard to private interest only or 
chiefly. Pcjpe. 

Selfishness (self'ish-nes), n. The quality of 
being selflsh; the exclusive regard of a per- 
son to his own interest or happiness ; the 
quality of being entirely self-interested, or 
proceeding from regard to self-interest 
alone, without regarding the interest of 
others ; as, the selfishness of a person or of 
his conduct. 

Selfishness (is) a vice utterly at variance with the 
happiness of him who harbours it, and as such, con- 
demned by self-love. Mackintosh. 

Selfishness and self-love are sometimes con- 
founded, but are properly distinct. See also 
Self-love and extracts there. 

Selfishness is not an excess of self-love, and con- 
sists not in an over-desire of happiness, but in placing 
your happiness in something which interferes with, 
or leaves you regardless of, tnat of others, ll'hately. 

Selfism ( self izm ), n. Devotedness to self ; 
selfishness. (Rare.] 

Selflst (selfist), n. One devoted to self; a 
selflsh person. ' The prompting of generous 
feeling, or of what the cold selfist calls quix- 
otism.' Jer. Tat/lor. [Rare.] 

Self-Justification (self'ju8ti-fi-ka"8hon), n. 
Justilkation of one's self. 

Self-justifler (self-ju8'ti-fi-6r),n. One who 
excu.ses or justifies himself. 

Self-Wiled (self'kild), a. Killed by one's 
self. Shak. 

Self-Wndled (self-kin'dld), a. Kindled of 
itself, or without extraneous aid or power. 
Druden. 

Self-knowing (self-no'ing), a. Knowing of 
itself, or without communication from an- 
other. Milton. 

Self-knowledge (self-nol'ej), n. The know- 
ledge of one's own real character, abilities, 
worth, or demerit. 

Self-left (self 'left), a. Left to one's self or 
to itself. 

His heart I know how variable and vafn. 
Self-left. Milton. 



ch, cAain; 6h, So. locA; g,go\ j.^ob; fi. Fr. ton; ng, sin^^; th, tAen; th, Min; w, uig; wh, wAig; zh, azure.— See Est. 



SELFLESS 



26 



SELF-SUFFICIENT 



Selfless (self les), a. Having no regard to 
self; unselfish. 

Lo, now, what hearts have men! they never mount 
As higii as woman in her selfless mood. Tennyson. 

Selflessness (self'les-nes), n. Freedom from 
selfishness. 

Self-life (self lif), n. Life in one's self; a 
living solely for one's own gratification or 
advantage. 

Self-liket (selflik), a. Exactly similar; cor- 
responding. 

Till Strephon's plaining voice him nearer drew. 
Where, by his words, his self-like case he knew. 
Sir P. Sidney. 
Self -limited (self ' llm-it-edX a. In patkol 
a term applied to a disease which appears 
to run a definite course, but is little modi- 
fied by treatment, as small-pox. 
Self-love (self luv), n. The love of one's 
own person or happiness ; an instinctive 
principle in the human mind which impels 
every rational creature to preserve his life, 
and promote his own happiness. 

And while self-love each jealous writer rules. 
Contending wits become the sport of foots. Pope. 
Not only is the phrase self-lo-ve used as synonymous 
with the desire of happiness, but it is often con- 
founded with the word selfishness, which certainly, 
in strict propriety, denotes a very different disposi- 
tion of mind. D. Stewart. 

So long as self-lave Aosz not degenerate into selfish- 
ness it is quite compatible with true benevolence. 
Fleming, 

As to difference between self-love and sel- 
fishness see also Selfishness. 

Self-loving (self luv-iug), a. Loving one's 
self. Iz. Walton. 

Self-luminous (self-lii'min-us), a. Lumin- 
ous of itself ; possessing in itself the pro- 
perty of emitting light; thus, the sun, fixed 
stars, flames of all kinds, bodies which shine 
by being heated orrubbed,are self-luminous. 

Self-made (self mad), a. Made by one's 
self; specifically, having risen in the world 
by one's own exertions; as, a self-made man. 

Self-mastery (self -mas' t6r-i), n. Mastery 
of one's self; self-command; self-control. 

Self-mate (self'mat), n. A mate for one's 
self. Shak. 

Self-mettlet (selfmet-l), n. One's own flery 
temper or mettle; inherent courage. 

Anger is like 
A full hot horse, who, being allow'd his way. 
Self-mettle tires him. SHak. 

Self-motion (self-m6'shon),n. Motion given 
by inherent powers, without externad im- 
pulse; spontaneous motion. 

Matter is not endued with self-motion. Cheyne. 

Self-moved (self-mbvd'), a. Moved by in- 
herent power without the aid of external 
impulse. 'Self -moved with weary wings.' 
Pope. 

Self-movent (self-mbv'ent), a. Same as 
Self-movi7ig. 

Body cannot be self-existent, because it is not self- 
movent. N. Greiu. 

Self-moving (self-mbv'ing), a. Moving by 
inherent power, without extraneous influ- 
etiee. Martinus Scriblerus. 

Self-murder (self-mfir'dSr), n. The murder 
of one's self; suicide. 

By all human laws, as well as divine, self-murder 
has ever been agreed on as the greatest crime. 

Sir W. Temple. 

Self-murderer (self-m6r'd6r-6r), n. One 
who voluntarily destroys his own life; a 
suicide. Paley. 

Self-ne^lecting (self-ne-glekt'ing), 71. A 
neglectmg of one's self. 

Self-love, my liege, is not so great a sin 

As self-7teglecting. Shak. 

Self-offence (self of-f ens), n. One's own 

oJfeuce. Shak. 
Self-opinion (self-6-pin'yun), n. 1. One's 

own opinion. —2. Exalted opinion of one's 

self; overweening estimate of one's self; 

self-conceit. 

Confidence as opposed to modesty, and distin- 
guished from decent assurance, proceeds from self- 
opinion, occasioned by ignorance and flattery. 

yeremy Collier. 

Self-opinioned (self-6-pin'yund),a. Valuing 
one's own opinion highly. *A bold self- 
opinioned physician.' South. 

Self-ori^nating (self-6-rij'i-nat-ing), a. 
Originating in, producedby. beginning with, 
or springing from one's self or itself. 

Self-partiality (self-par-shal'i-ti), 71. That 
partiality by which a man overrates liis own 
worth when compared with others. Lord 
Karnes. 

Self- perplexed (self-p6r-plekst'), a. Per- 
plexed by one's own thoughts. 

Here he looked so self per flext. 
That Katie laugh'd. Tennyson. 



Self-pity (self pit-i), n. Pity on one's self. 
And sweet self-pity, or the fancy of it. 
Made his eye moist. Tennyson. 

Self-pleached (self-plech'ed), a. Pleached 
or interwoven by natural growth; inter- 
twined; intertwisted. 

Round thee blow self-pleached deep, 

Bramble-roses, faint and pale. 

And long purples of the dale. Tennyson. 

Self-pleasing (self-plez'ing), a. Pleasing 

one's self; gratifying one's own wishes. 

Bacon. 
Self-pollution (self-pol-lu'shon), n. Same 

as Stilf-abuse, 2. 
Self-possessed (self'poz-zest),a. Composed; 

not disturbed. ' Neither self -possess' d nor 

startled. ' Tennyson. 
Self-possession (self-poz-zesh'on), n. The 

possession of one's powers; presence of 

mind; calmness; self-command. 
Self-praise (self praz), n. The praise of 

one's self; self-applause; as, self-praise is 

no commendation. 

Self-praise is sometimes no fault. IV. Broome. 

Self-preference (self-pref'Sr-ens), n. Pre- 
ference of one's self to others. 

Self-preservation (self'prez-6r-va"8hon), n. 
The preservation of one's self from destruc- 
tion or injury. 

The desire of existence is a natural affection of the 
soul ; it is self-preservation in the highest and truest 
meaning. Bentley. 

Self-preserving (self-pre-z6rv'ing), a. Pre- 
serving- one's self. 

Self-pride (self prid), n. Pride in one's own 
character, abilities, or reputation; self- 
esteem. Colton. 

Self-proflt (self pro-fit), 71. One's own profit, 
gain, or advantage ; self-interest. ' Un- 
biassed by self -profit. ' Tennyson. 

Self- propagating (self-prop'a-gat-ing), a. 
Propagating by one's self or itself. 

Self- registering (self-rej'is-ter-ing), a. 
Registering automatically; an epithet ap- 
plied to any instrument so contrived as to 
record its own indications of phenomena, 
whether continuously or at stated times, or 
at the maxima or minima of variations; as, 
a self-reaistering barometer, thermometer, 
or the like. 

Self-regiQated (self-reg'u-lat-ed), a. Regu- 
lated by one's self or itself. 

Self-regulative (self-regTi-lat-iv), a. Tend- 
ing or serving to regulate one's self or itself. 
Whewell. 

Self-reliance (self-re-li'ans), n. Reliance 
on one's own powers. 

Self-reliant (self-re-li'ant), a. Relying on 
one's self; trusting to one's own powers. 

Self-reljring (self-re-li'ing), a. Depending 
on one's self. 

Self-renunciation (5elfre-nun-si-a"shon), 
n. The act of renouncing one's own rights 
or claims; self-abnegation. 

Self-repellency (self-re-pel'en-si), n. The 
inherent power of repulsion in a body. 

Self-repelling (self-re-pel'ing), a. Repel- 
ling by its own inherent power. 

Self-repetition (self rep-e-ti"shon), n. The 
act of repeating one's own words or deeds; 
the saying or doing of what one has already 
said or done. 

Self-reproach ( self -re-proch'), n. The act 
of reproaching or condemning one's self ; 
the reproach or censure of one's own con- 
science. 

Self- reproached (self-re-prochf), a. Re- 
proached by one's own conscience. 

Self- reproaching (self-re-proch'ing), a. 
Reproaching one's self. 

Self-reproachingly ( self-re-proch 'ing-li), 
adv. By reproaching one's self. 

Self-reproof (self-re-prof ), n. The reproof 
of one's self; the reproof of conscience. 

Self-reproved (self-re-prbvd'), «. Reproved 
by consciousness or one's own sense of guilt. 

Self-reproving (self-re-prov'iug), a. Re- 
proving by consciousness. 

Self-reproving (self-re-prov'ing), n. Re- 
proof of one's own conscience; self-reproach, 
Shak. 

Self-repugnant (self-re-png'nant), a. Re- 
pugnant to itself; self -contradictory; incon- 
sistent. 

A single tyrant maybe found to adopt as incon- 
sistent and self-repugnant a set of principles, as 
twenty could agree upon. Brougham. 

Self-repulsive (self-re-pul'siv), a. Repul- 
sive in or by one's self or itself. 

Self-respect (self-re-spekf), n. Respect for 
one's self or one's own character. 

Self - restrained (self-re-strand'), a. Re- 
strained by itself or by one's own power of 



will; not controlled by external force or 
authority. 

Power, self-restrained, the people best obey. 
Dry den. 

Self-restraint (self-re-stranf),?!. Restraint 
or control imposed on one's self; self-com- 
mand; self-control. 

Self-reverence (self-rev'er-ens), n. Rever- 
ence or due respect for one's own character, 
dignity, or the like. 

Self-reverence, self-knowledge, self-control. 
These three alone lead life to sovereign power. 
Tennyson. 

Self-reverent (self-rev'er-ent), a. Having 
reverence or due respect for one's self. 
' Self -reverent each, and reverencing each."" 
Tennyson. 

Self-righteous (self-rit'yus), a. Righteous- 
in one s own esteem. 

Self- righteousness (self-rit'yus-nes), n. 
Reliance on one's own supposed righteous- 
ness ; righteousness, the merits of which a 
person attributes to himself; false or Phari- 
saical righteousness. 

Self-rolled ( self rold), a. Coiled on itself. 
'In labyrinth of many a round self -rolled f 
Mitt on. 

Self-ruined (self-rb'ind), a. Ruined by one's 
own conduct. 

Self-sacrifice (self-sak'ri-fis), n. Sacrifice of 
one's self or of self-interest. 

Give unto me, made lowly wise. 

The spirit of self-sacrifice. Wordsworth. 

Self- sacrificing ( self - sak ' ri - fis-ing ). a. 

Yielding up one's own interest, feelings^ 

&c. ; sacrificing one's self. 
Self-same (selfsara), a. [Self here is the- 

adjective, same, very.] The very same; 

identical 

And his servant was healed in the self-same hour. 
Mat. viii. 13, 
The self-samt moment I could pray. Coleridge^ 

Self-satisfied (self-sat'is-fid). a. Satisfied 
with one's self. 

No caverned hermit rests self-satisfied. Pope. 

Self-satisfying (self-sat'is-fi-ing), a. Giving 
satisfaction to one's self. Milton. 

Self-scorn (self 'skom), n. Scorn of one'* 
self. 

Deep dread and loathing of her solitude 
Fell on her, from which mood was born 

Scorn of herself; again from out that mood 

Laughter at her self-scorn. Tennyson. 

Self-seeker (self sek-6r), n. One who seeks 
only hisown interest. 'AH i^eat self -seekers^ 
trampling on the right.' Tennyson. 

Self-seeMng (self sek-ing), a. Seeking one's- 
own interest or happiness ; selfish. ' A 
tradesman; a self-seekincf wretch.' Arhuth- 
not. 

Self-seeking (self sek-ing), ?i. Undue at- 
tention to one's own Interest. 

Self-slain (self slan), a. Slain or killed by- 
one's self; a suicide. 

For that the church all sacred rites to the self slain 

denies. y. Batllie. 

Self-slaughter (self-sl?i't6r), n. The slaugh- 
ter of one s self. Shak. 

Self-slaughtered (self-sla't6rd). a. Slaugh- 
tered or killed by one's self. Shak. 

Self-Styled (selfstild), a. Called or styled 
by one s self; pretended; would-be. 'Those 
self-styled our lords.' Tennyso7i. 

Self-subdued (self-sub-diid'), a. Subdued 
by one's own power or means. Shak. 

Self - substantial (self-sub-stan'shal), a. 
Composed of one's own substance. 'Feedest 
thy life's flame with self-substantial fuel." 
Shak. [Rare] 

Self-subversive (self -sub -v^r'siv), a. Over- 
turninLT or subverting itself. 

Self-sufficience (self-suf-fi'shens), Ji. Same 
as Self-sujficieucy. 

Self-sufiBciency (self-suf-fi'shen-si), n. The 
state or quality of being self-sufiicient : (ay 
inlierent fitness for all ends or purposes; 
independence of othei-s; capability of work- 
ing out one's own ends. ' The self-sufficiency^ 
of the Godhead.' Bentley. (6) An over- 
weening opinion of one's own endowment* 
or worth; excessive confidence in one's own 
competence or sufliciency. 

Self-su_ff!ciency proceeds from inexperience. 

Addison. 

Self-sufficient (self-suf-fi'shent), a. 1. Cap- 
able of effecting all one's own ends or ful- 
filling all one's own desires without the aid 
of others. 

Neglect of friends can never be proved rational 
till we prove the person using it omnipotent and self- 
sufficient, and such as can never need mortal assist- 
ance. South. 

2. Having imdue confidence in one's own 



Pate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abtme; J*, Sc. fey. 



SELF-STJSTAINED 



27 



SEMENCINE 



strength, ability, or endowments; haughty; 

overbearing. 

This is not to be done in a rash and self-sM0cUni 
manner; but with an humble dependence on divine 
grace. Watts. 

Self-sustained (self'sus-tand), a. Sustained 

by ..lie's ielf. 

Self-taught (self' t^t), a. Taught by one's 
self; us, a ^elf-tauQht genius. 

Self-thlnkiiLg (self tlilngk-ing), a- Think- 
ing fur one's self; forming one'sown opinions 
irrespective of others. 

Our self-thinking inhabitants agreed in their ra- 
tional estimate of the new family. Mrs. S. C. Mali. 

Self-tormenting (self-tor-ment'ing),o. Tor- 
menting one's self or itself. ' Self-tonnent- 
iiui am.' Ci-aihaw. 

Seif-tormentor (self-tor-ment'6r), n. One 
Willi t'lriiieiits himself. 

Self-torture (self -tor' tur). n. Pain or tor- 
ture inflicted on one's self; as, the self-tor- 
ture of the heathen. 

Self-trust (self'trust). n. Trust or faith in 
one's self; self-reliance. Shak. 

Self- View (self'vu), n. 1. A view of one's 
self or of one's own actions and character. 
2. Ke;.'anl or care for one's personal interests. 

Self-violence (self-vio-lens), n. Violence 
ti> ones self. Yoxnig. 

Self-will (seU'wil), n. One's own will; 
obstinacy. 

In their anger they slew a man, and in their self-will 
they diy^ed down a wall. Gen, xlix. 6. 

Self- Willed (self 'wild), a. Governed by 
one's own will ; not jielding to the will or 
wishes of others; not accommodating or 
compliant; obstinate. 

Presumptuous are they, self -■willed, a Pet. ij. lo. 

Self-worship (self-w^r'shipX n. The idol- 
izing (if une's self. 
Self- worshipper (self-w6r'Bhip-6r), n. One 

will, iii.ili/es himself. 

Self-wrong (selfrong), n. Wrong done by 
a person to himself. 

But lest m^lf be guilty of stlf-wrimf 

I'll stop mine ears against the mermaid's s(Hig. Skak. 

Selion (sel'i-on), n. [L.L. gelio, selionis ; Fr. 
jtiUoH. a ridge, a furrow.] A ridge of land 
rising between two furrows, of a breadth 
sometimes greater, sometimes leaa. 

8«11 1 (sel), n. [Also selle, from Fr. telle, L. 
teila, a seat, a saddle.] 1. A saddle. 

What mighty warrior that mote be 
Who rode in golden sell with single speare. Sficnstr, 

Some commentators on Shakspere think 
that the well-known passage in Macbeth, 
act L scene 7, 

I have no spur 



To prick the sides of my intent, but only 
Vaulting ambition whicn o'erleaps itself 

And falJ^ on the other. 



should read, ' Vaulting ambition which o'er- 
leaps its kII.'—I. A throne; a seat. 
A tyrant proud frowned from his lofty sell. Fairfax. 
Sell (sel), v.t pret. A pp. aold; ppr. selliruf. 
[A. .Sax. nellan, gylUtn, to give, to deUver up; 
I ,• ...//.,„ icel. 9etja, to sell, to deUver; 
i . to offer, to sacrifice. The ori- 
iig would seem to have been to 
-fer in a solemn manner] 1. To 
property, or the exclusive right 
1. to another for an etjuivalent; 
i-.,..v ..p i-^'r a consideration; t^j dispose of 
fnr something else, especially for money. It 
is cnn-elative to buy, as one party buys what 
the other sells, and is now usually distin- 
guished from exchange or barter, in which 
onecommodityisgivenfor another; whereas 
in selling the consideration is generally 
money or its representative in current 
notes. 

If thou wilt be perfect go and sell that thou hast, and 
give to the poor. Mat. xir. 21. 

2. To make a matter of bargain and sale of; 
to accept a price or reward for, as for a 
breach of duty, trust, or the like; to ti^e a 
bribe for; to betray. 

You would have sold your king to slaughter. Shai. 

& To Impose apon; to cheat; to deceive; to 
befool. [Slang.] 

We could not but laugh quietly at the complete suc- 
cess of the Rajah's scheme ; we were, lo use a vulgar 
phrase, 'regularly i^/rf.* fV. H. Russell. 

—To sell one's life dearly, to cause great loss 
to those who t^e one's life; to do great in- 
jury U) the enemy before one is killed. — To 
sell one up, to sell a debtor's goods to pay his 
creditors. 

Sell (sel). V. i. 1. To have commerce; to prac- 
tise selling. 

I will buy with you, stli with yoo ; but I vU) not eat 
with you. SkaJk. 



2. To be sold; as, com sells at a good price. 

Few writings sell which are not filled with great 
names. Addison. 

— To sell out, (a) to sell one's commission in 
the army and retire from the service. (&) To 
dispose of all one's shares in a company. 

Sell (sel), n. An imposition; a cheat; a 
deception; a trick successfully played at 
another's expense. [Slang.] 

Sellanders. Sellenders (sellan-d^rz, seV- 
len-derz), n. [Fr. solandres. Comp. malan- 
ders.] A skin disease in a horse's hough or 
pastern owing to a want of cleanliness. 

Sella Turcica (sel 'la tur'si-ka), n. [So 
named from its supposed resemblance to a 
Turkish saddle.] A cavity in the sphenoid 
bone, containing the pituitary gland, and 
surrounded by the four clinoid processes. 

Selle.t n. A cell. Chaucer. 

Selle,t n. A sill; a door-sill or threshold. 
Chaiicer. 

Sellet (sel). n. [Written also Sell (which 
see).] 1. A seat; a settle; a throne. 

Many a yeoman, bold and free, 

Revell'd as merrily and well 

As those that sat m lordly selie. Sir JF. Scott. 

2. A saddle. 
Seller (sel'er), 71. One who sells; a vender. 

To things of sale a sellers praise belongs. Skak. 

Selters-water (selt'^rzwa-t^r), n. A highly- 
prized medicinal mineral water found at 
Nieder-.Sei(er« in the valley of the Lahn. 
Nassau, Germany. It contains chloride of 
sodium, carbonates of magnesium, sodium, 
and calcium, and a large quantity of free 
carbonic acid. Called less correctly 5«/(^«r- 
ipfff^r. 

Seltzogene (selt'zo-ien), n. Same as Qazo- 
'jfiie. 

Selvage (sel'vaj), n. See Selvedge. 

Selvagee (sel-va-je'), «. Xaut. a skein or 
hank of rope-yam wound round with yams 
or marline, used for stoppers, straps, &c. 

Selve t (selv). a. Self; same; very. Chaucer. 

Selvedge (sel'vej). n. [Self and edge ; lit. an 
edge formed of the stutf itself, in opposition 
toonesewedon. Comp. D. zelfkant, ze^egge, 
zel/einde, L.G. selfkant, sel/ende.G. seWende, 
lit. self-edge, self-end] I. The edge of cloth 
where it is closed by complicating the 
threads; a woven border or border of close 
work on a fabric; Ust. 

Meditation is like the selvedge, which keeps the cloth 
from ravelling. Echard. 

2. A'o ut. same as Selmpee. —3. The edge-plate 
i)f a lock through which the l>olt shoots. 

Selvedged, Selvaged (sel'vejd. sel'vajd). a. 
Havinu' a selvedge. 

Selves (selvz), pL of se{f. ' Our paat selves.' 
Locke. 

Sely t (seli). a. Same as Seely. 

Selynesst (seTi-nes), n. [From sely or seely, 
j>n»sperou8 ] Happiness. Chaucer. 

Semaphore (sem'a-for), n. [Gr. sema, a 
sign, and phero, to l>ear.] A kind of tele- 
graph or apparatus for conveying informa- 
tion by signals visible at a distance, such as 
oscillating arms or flags by daylight and lan- 
terns at night. Many kinds of semaphores 
were in use before the invention of the elec- 
tric telegraph, and a simple form is still 
employed on railways to regulate traffic— 
Semaphore plant, a name given to Desmo- 
dium gyrang, frt.»m tlie peculiar movements 
of its leaves. See I)Ksmoi.il'.m. 

Semaphoric. Semaphorical (sem-a-for'lk, 
sem-a-for'ik-al), a. Relating tti a semaphore 
or to .semaphores; telegr;ii>hic. 

Semaphorically ( sem - a - f or ' ik - al - li ), 
adv. By means of a semaphore. 

Semaphorlst (se-mafor-ist), ?». One who 
has charge of a semaphore. 

SematolOgy (se-ma-tol'o-ji), 71. [Gr. sema, 
s^matos, a sign, and logos, discourse.] The 
doctrineof signs, particularly of verbal signs, 
in the operations of thinking and reasoning; 
the science of language as expressed by signs. 
Smart. [Rare.] 

Se2nblablet(sem'bla-bl), a. [Fr. ] Like; 
similar; resembling. 

It is a wonderful thing to see the semblable coher- 
ence lA his men's spirits and his. Shai. 

Semblablet (sem1>Ia-bl),n. Likeness; repre- 
sentation; that which is like or represents. 

His semblable is his mirror. Shak. 

His semblable, yea, himself Timon disdains. Shak. 

Semblabljr t (sem'bla-bli), adv. In a similar 
manner; similarly. 

A gallant knight he was, hif name was Blunt ; 
Semblably fumish'd like the kii^ himself. Shak. 

Semblance (semldans), n. [Fr. sejnblance, 
from setnbler, to seem, to appear, from L. 



-> •^ 






similare, simulare, to make like, from sUni- 
lis, like. Root saihe as that of E. same.] 

1. Similarity ; resemblance ; hence, mere 
show or make-believe. ' High words that 
bore semblance of worth.' Milton.~2, Ex- 
ternal figure or appearance; exterior; show; 
fonn. 

Their sentblance kind, and mild their gestures were. 
Fairfax. 
He made his Masque what it ought to be, essentially 
lyrical, and dramatic only in semblance. Macanlay. 

3. A form or figure representing something; 
likeness; image. 

No more than wax shall be accounted evil 
Wherein is stamp'd the semblance of a devil. Shak. 

Semblantt (sem'blant), n. Show; figure; 
resemblance. Spenaer. 

Semblant (sem'blant), a. l.flike; resem- 
bling. Prior.— 2. Appearing; seeming rather 
than real; specious. 

Thou art not true ; thou art not extant — only sem- 
blant. Carlyle. 

Semblative t (sem'bla-tiv), a. Itesembling; 
seeming. 

And all is semblative a woman's part. Shak. 

Semblaunt.t Semblant, t ;i. {¥t. semblant.} 
Seeming; appearance. Chaucer. 

Semble (sem'bl). I'.t. [Fr. sembler, to 
unitate. See Semblance.] l.t To imitate; 
to represent or to make similar; to make a 
likeness. ' Where sembling art may carve 
the fair effect' Prior.— 2. In laic, used 
impersonally, generally under the abbrevia- 
tion sem. or iemb. for it seems, and com- 
monly prefixed to a point 
of law (not necessarj' to be 
decided in the case) which 
has not been directly 
settled, but on which the 
court indicates its opin- 
ion. 

Sem6 (sem'a), a. [Fr., 
sown] In Aer. a term em- 
ployed to describe a field 
Semtf of fleur-de-lis. or charge powdered or 
strewed over with figures, 
as stars, billets, crosses, &c. It is also called 
Poicdered. 

SemecarpUS (se-me-kttr'pus), n. [Or. 
semeion, a mark, and karpos, fruit.*] A 
small genus of Asiatic and Australian trees. 
nat. order Anacardiaceaj, so named from the 
remarkable property possessed by the juice 
of the fruit, whence it is commonly called 
marking nut. They have alternate, simi>le, 
leathery leaves, and terminal or lateral pam- 
cles of small white flowers. & Auacardiuni 
has long been known for the corrosive re- 
sinous juice contained in the nut. This juice 
is at first of a pale milk colour, but when the 
fruit is perfectly ripe it is of a pure black 
colour, and very acrid. It is employed in 
medicine by the natives of India and to mark 
all kinds of cotton cloth. The bark is as- 
tringent, and yields various shades of abro wn 
dye. A soft, tasteless, brownish-coloured 
gum exudes from the bark. See Malacca. 

Semeiography (se-mi-og'ra-fi), n. [Gr. 
semeion, a mark, a sign, and grapho. to 
write. ] The doctrine of signs; specifically, 
in pathol. a description of the marks or 
symptoms of diseases. 

Semeiological (se'mi-6-loj"ik-al), a. Relat- 
ing to semeiology or the doctrine of signs; 
specifically, pertaining to the symptoms of 
diseases. 

Semeiology (se-mi-ol'o-ji), 7i. [Gr. se- 
mfion, a mark, a sign, and logos, discourse.) 
The doctrine of signs; semeiotics. 

SemeioUc (se-mi-ot'ik). a. Relating to se- 
meiotics ; pertaining to signs ; specifically, 
relating to the symptoms of diseases; symp- 
tomatic. 

Semeiotics (se-mi-ot'iks), n. [Gr. semeion, 
a mark, a sign.] 1. The doctrine or science 
of signs; the language of signs.— 2. In pathol. 
that branch which teaches how to judge of 
all the symptoms in the human body, 
whether healthy or diseased; symptoma- 
toloiiy; semeiology. 

Semeliche,t Semely,t a. 

Chaucer. 
Semelyhede,t n. Seemliness; comeliness. 

Romaunt of the Rose. 
Semen (se'men), n. [L., from root of scro, 

to sow.] 1. The seed or prolific fiuid of male 

animals; the secretion of a testicle; sperm. 

2. The seed of plants, or the matured ovule.— 
Se^nen contra. See SEMENCINE. 

Semen<dne (se'men-sin). n. A strong aro- 
matic, bitter drug, which has long been in 
much repute as an anthelmintic. It con- 
sists of the dried flower-buds of a number 



Seemly; comely. 



ch, cAain; 6h, 3c. locfc; g, go; i,joh; ft, Fr. ton-: ng. MXng; th. tAen; th, Uun; w, idg; wh, wAig; zh, azure.— See Kbt. 



SEMESE 



28 



SEMINARY 



of species of Artemisia. Called also Satonici 
Semen, Semen Contra, Wonnseed, &c. 
Semese (sem-es'), a. [L. semi, half, and 
esvs, eaten, from edo, esum, to eat.] Half- 
eaten. [Rare.] 

No; they're sons of gyps, and that kind of thing, who 
feed on the senuse fragments of the high table. 

Farrar. 

Semester (se-mes't6r), n. [L. semestris, 
half-yearly— sex, six, and nunsis, month.] A 
period or term of six months. 
Seml (sem'i). [L. semi, Gr. hemi.'\ A prefix 
signifying half; half of; in part; partially. 
The compounds are generally of very obvious 
meaning if the latter parts be known, and 
we give only a certain number of them be- 
low. 

Semi-acld (seni'i-aS'id), n. and a. Half-acid; 
sub-acid, 

Semi-amplexicaiil (sem'i-am-plek"si-kal), 
a. [L. semi, half, amplector, amplexiis, to 
embrace, and caulis, stem.] In bot. par- 
tially amplexicaul; embracing the stem half 
around, as a leaf. 
Semi-angle (sem'i-ang-gl), n. The half of a 

given or measuring angle. 
Semi-annual (sem-i-au'nu-al), a. Half- 
yearly; occurring every half year. 
Semi-annular (sem-i-an'Du-16r), a. [L. 
semi, half, and annulus, a ring.] Having 
tlie figure of half a ring; forming a semi- 
circle. N. Grew. 
Semi-Arian (sem-i-a'ri-an), n. [See 
Arian.] a member of a branch of the 
Arians, who in appearance condemned the 
errors of Arius but acquiesced in some of 
his principles, disguising them under more 
moderate terms. They did not acknowledge 
the Son to be consubstantial with the Father, 
that is, of the same substance, but admitted 
him to be of a like substance with the Father, 
not by nature, but by a peculiar privilege. 
Semi-Arian (sem-i-a'ri-an), a. Pertaining to 

Semi-Arianism. 
Semi-Arianism (sem-l-a'ri-an-izm), n. The 

doctrines or tenets of the Semi-Arians. 
Semi-attached (sem'i-at-tacht"),a. Partially 
attached or united; partially bound by affec- 
tion, interest, or special preference of any 
kind. 

We would have been ser>ii-attached as it were. We 
would have locked up that room in either heart where 
the skeleton was, and said nothing about it. 

Thackeray. 

— Semi-attacked house, one of two houses 
joined together, but both standing apart 
from others. 

Semi - barbarian ( sem ' i - bar - ba " ri - an ), a. 
Half savage; partially civilized. 

Semi -barbarian (sem'i-bar-ba"ri-an), n. 
One who is but partially civilized. 

Semi-barbaric (sem'i-bar-bai-"ik), a. Half 
barbarous; partly civilized; as, semi-bar- 
baric display. 

Semi - barbarism ( sem-i-barHjar-izm ), n. 
The state or quality of being serai- bar- 
barous or half civilized. 

Semi -barbarous (sem-i-bar'ba-rus), a. 
Half civilized ; semi-barbarian ; semi-bar- 
baric. 

Semibreve (sem'i-brev), n. In music, a note 
of half the duration or time of 
the breve. The semibreve is 
the measure note by which all 
others are now regulated. It 
is equivalent in time to two Semibreve. 
minims, or four crotchets, or 
eight quavers, or sixteen semiquavers, or 
thirty-two derai-semiquavers. 

Semlbrief t (sem'i-bref), n. Same as Semi- 
breve. 

Semi-bull (sem'i-bul), n. Eccles. a hull 
issued by a pope between the time of his 
election and that of his coronation. A semi- 
bull has only an impression on one side of 
the seal- After the consecration the name of 
the pope and date are stamped on the re- 
verse, thus constituting a double bull. 

Semi-calcined (sem-i-kal'sind), a. Half 
calcined; as, semi-calcined iron. 

Semi-castrate (sem-i-kas'trat), v.t. To 
de|)rive nf one testicle. 

Semi -castration (sem'i-kas-tra"shon), n. 
Half castration ; deprivation of one tes- 
ticle. Sir T. Browne. 

Semi-chorus (sem-i-ko'rus), n. A chorus, 
usually sliort, or part of a chorus, performed 
by a few singers. 

Semicircle (sem'i-s6r-kl), n. 1. The half of 
a circle ; the part of a circle comprehended 
between its diameter and half of its circum- 
ference. —2. An instrument for measuring 
angles; a graphometer.— 3. Any body in the 
form of a half circle. 

Semicircled (sem'i-sfir-kld), a. Same as 



Semicircular. ' A semicircled farthingale.' 
Shak. 

Semicircular (9em-i-s6r'ku-16r), a. Having 
the form of a half circle. — Semicircular 
canals, in anat. the name given, from their 
figure, to three canals belonging to the organ 
of hearing, situated in the petrous portion 
of the temporal bone, and opening into the 
vestibule- 
Semi - circumference ( 8era'i-s6r-kum"f6r- 
ens). n. Half tlie circumference. 
Semicirque (sem'i-s6rk), n. A semicircle; a 
semicircular hollow. 'The semicirque of 
wooded hills.' Fraser's Mag. 

Upon a semicirque of turf-clad ground. 

The hidden nook discovered to our view 

A mass of rock. If'ordrvjorth. 

Semicolon (sem'i-ko-lon), n. In gram, and 
punctuation, the point ( ; ), the mark of a 
pause to be observed in reading or speak- 
ing, of less duration than the colon, and 
more than that of the comma. It is used 
to distinguish the conjunct members of a 
sentence. 

Semi-column (sem'i-kol-um), n. A half co- 
lumn. 

Semi-columnar (8em'i-ko-lum"n6r),a. Like 
a half column ; flat on one side and round 
on the other: a botanical term, applied to 
a stem, leaf, or petiole. 

Semi - conscious (sem-i-kon'shus), a. Im- 
perfectly conscious, De Quincey. 

Semicopet (sem'i-kop), n. An ancient cleri- 
cal garment, being a half or short cloak. 
Chaucer. 

Semi-crystalline (8em.i-kris'tal-in),a. Half 
or imperfectly crystallized. 

Semicubical (sem-i-kub'ik-al), a. In conic 
sections, applied to a species of parabola 
defined by this property, that the cubes of 
the ordinates are proportional to the squares 
of the corresponding abscissas. This curve 
is the evolute of the common parabola. 

Semicubium, Semicupium (sem-i-kuT)!- 
um, sem-i-ku'pi-um), n. [L.L., from semi, 
half, and cupa, a tun, a cask.] A half-bath, 
or one that covers only the lower extremi- 
ties and hips. [Rare.] 

Semicyltnder (sem-i-sil'in-dfer), n. Half a 
cylinder. 

Semi-cvMndrlc, Semi-cylindrical (sem'i- 
si-lin"(lrik, sem'i-si-lin"diik-al), a. HaU- 
cylindncaX. — Semi-cylindrical leaf , in bot. 
one that is elongated, fiat on one side, round 
on the other. 

Semi - deml - semiguaver ( sem ' i - dem-i- 
8em"i-kwa-v6r), n. In music, a note 
of half the duration of a demi-semi- ~ ^ 
quaver; the sixty-fourth part of a ->p- 
semibreve. 

Semi-detacbed (sem'i- de-tacht"). a. Partly 
separated : applied to one of two houses 
which are detached from other buildings, 
and joined together by a single party-wall; 
as, a semi-detached villa. 

Semi-diameter (sem'i-di-ara"et-6r), ?i- Half 
a diameter; a radius. 

Semi - diapason (sem'i-di-a-pa"zon), n. In 
music, an imperfect octave, or an octave 
diminished by a lesser semitone. 

Semi - diapente (sem'i-dl-a-pen"te), n. In 
music, an imperfect or diminished fifth. 

Semi-diaphaneity (sem'i-dl-a-fa-ne"i-ti), ?i. 
Half or imperfect transparency. Boyle. 

Semi - diaphanous (sem'i-di-af"an-us), a. 
Half or imperfectly transparent. *A semi- 
diaphanous ^^rey.' Woodicard. 

Semi-diatessaron(sem'i-di-a-tes"sa-ron),n. 
In iitusir, an imperfect or diminished fourth. 

Semi-ditone (aeml-di-tOn), n. In music, a 
minor third. 

Semi-diurnal (sem'i-dT-6r"nal), a. l. Per- 
taining to or accomplished in half a day or 
twelve hours; continuing half a day. —2. Per- 
taining to or accomplished in six hours. — 
Semi-diurnal arc, in astro7i. the arc de- 
scribed by a heavenly body in half the time 
between its rising and setting. 

Semi -dome (sem'i-dom), n. Half a dome, 
especially as formed by a vertical section. 

Semi-double (sem-i-du'bl), n. An inferior 
or secondary ecclesiastical festival, ranking 
next above a simple feast or bare commemo- 
ration, liev. F. G. Lee. 

Semi-double (sem-i-du'bl), a. In bot. having 
the outermost stamens converted into petals 
while the inner ones remain perfect: said 
of a flower. 

Semi -fable (sem'i-fa-bl), n. A mixture of 
trutl: antl fable; a narrative partly fabulous 
and partly true. De Quincey. [Rare.] 

Semi-flexed (sem'i-Hekst), a. Half-bent. 

Semi-floscular (sem-i-ttos'ku-16r), a. Same 
as Semi-jiosculous. 



Semi-flosculous, Semi-floscuJose (sem-i- 
flos'ku-lu5, sem-i-flus'ku-16s), a. [Semi, and 
L. jlosculus, a little flower] In bot. having 
the corolla split and turned to one side, as 
in the ligule of composites. 

Semi 'fluid ( sem-i-flu'id ), a. Imperfectly 
fluid. 

Semi-formed (sem'i-formd),«. Half-formed; 
imperfectly formed; as, a semi-formed crys- 
tal. 

Semi-horal (sem-i-ho'ral), a. Half-hourly. 

Seml-llgneous (semilig'ne-us), a. Half or 
partially ligneous or woody. In bot. applied 
to a stem which is woody at the base and 
herbaceous at the top, as the common rue, 
sage, and thyme. 

Semi-Hquid (sem-i-lik'wid), a. Half-liquid; 
semi-fluid. 

Semi-liauidity (8em'i-lik-wid"i-ti), n. The 
state of being semi-liquid; partial liquidity. 

Semilor (sem'i-lor), n. [Prefix semi, half, 
and Fr. I'or, gold.] An alloy, consisting of 
five parts of copper and one of zinc, used 
for manufacturing cheap jeweliy, &c. 

Semilunar (8em-i-lu'n6r), a. [Fr. shniXu- 
luiire^L. semi, half, and luna, the moon.] 
Resembling in form a half-moon. 'A semi- 
lunar ridge.' N. Grew.— Semilunar carti- 
lages, in anat. two fibro-cartilages which 
exist between the condyles of the os femoria 
and the articulate surfaces of the tibia.— 
Semilunar ganglia, in anat. the ganglia 
formed by the great sympathetic nerve on 
its entrance into the abdomen, from which 
nerves are sent to all the viscera.— Semi- 
lunar notch, in aimt. an indentation in the 
form of a half-moon between the coraccdd 
process and the superior l>order of the 
scapula. — Semilunar valves, in anat. the 
three valves at the beginning of the pul- 
monary artery and aorta; so named from 
their half-moon shape. 

Semlluuary, Semilunate (sem-i-Iu'na-ri), 
sem-i-lu'nat), a. Semilunar. 'A semilunary 
form.' Sir T. Herbert. 

Semi-membranous(sem-i-mem'bra-nu8),o. 
Half or partially membranous. In anat. 
applied to a muscle of the thigh, from the 
long flat membrane-like tendon at its upper 
part. It serves to bend the leg. 

Semi-menstrual (sem-i-men'strb-al), a. [L. 
semi, half,and menstnialis.montMy.] Half- 
monthly; specifically, applied to an inequa- 
lity of the tide which goes through its 
changes every half-month. 

Semi-metal (sem'i-met-al), ?i. In old chem. 
a metal that is not malleable, as bismuth, 
arsenic, nickel, cobalt, antimony, manga- 
nese, tic. 

Semi - metallic (sem'i-me-tal"ik), a. Per- 
taining to a semi-metal ; partially metallic 
in character. 

Semi-minim (sem'i-min-im), n. In mugic, 
a half minim or crotchet. 

Semi-mute (sem'i-mut), a. Applied to a per- 
son who, owing to losing the sense of hear- 
ing, has lost also to a great extent the 
faculty of speech, or who, owing to congeni- 
tal deafness, has never perfectly acquired 
that faculty. 

Semi -mute (sem'i-mut), n. A serai-mute 
pereon. 

Seminal (sem'in-al), a. [L. seminalis. from 
semen, seed- See Semen.] 1. Pertaining to 
seed or semen, or to the elements of repro- 
duction. —2. Contained in seed; germinal; 
rudimental; original. 

These are very imperfect rudiments of ' Paradise 
Lost ; ' but it is pleasant to see great works in their 
semirta/ state, pregnant with latent possibilities of 
excellence. yohnson. 

— Seminal leaf, the same as Seed-leaf. 
Semlnalt (sem'in-al), ». Seminal state. 'The 

seminals of other iniquities.' Sir T. Browne. 
Seminality (sem-i-nal'i-ti), n. The state of 

being semiiml; the power of being produced. 

Sir T. Browne. 
Seminarian. Seminarist (sem-i-na'ri-an, 

sem'in-a-rist), n. A member of a seminary; 

specifically, an English Roman Catholic 

priest educated in a foreign seminary. 

Seminarists now come from Rome to per\ert souls. 
Sheldon. 

Seminary (sem'i-na-ri), 7*. [Fr. s^minaire; 
L. seminarium, from semen, seminis, seed, 
from root of sero. satum, to sow.] l.t A 
seed-plot; groimd where seed is sown for 
producing plants for transplantation; a 
nursery; as, to transplant trees from a semi- 
na}-y. Mortimer.— 2.\ The place or original 
stock whence anything is brought. 

This stratum, . . . being the seminary or promp- 
tuary, that furnishes forth matter for the fonnation 
and increment of animal and vegetable bodies. 

Woodward. 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, So. abune; y, Sc. iey. 



SEMINARY 



29 



SEMPSTRESS 



3. A place of education; any school, academy, 
college, or university in which young per- 
sons are instructed in the sever^ branches 
of learning which may qualify them for 
their future employments.— 4. f A seminary 
priest : a Roinau Catholic priest educated 
in a seminary; a seminarist. 

A while acone. they made me, yea nie, to mistake 
an honest zealous pursuivant for a seminary. 

J>. yonson. 

Seminary (sem'i-na-ri). «■ l. Seminal ; be- 
longing to seed. 'S^muuzri/ vessels.' Dr. 
John Smith —1. Trained or educated in a 
foreign seminary: said of a Roman Catholic 
priest. 'All Jesuits, seuiiimry priests, and 
other priests.' Hallaui. 

Seminatet (sem'i-nat), v.t. pret. & pp. wjni- 
nated; ppr. tseininating. (L. seniino, semi- 
nattim, to sow. See Semen.] To sow; to 
spread ; to propagate. ' Doctors, who first 
tteininafed learning.' Waterhouse. 

Semination (sem-f-na'shon^ n. [L. semina- 
tio, iteiiiitiationU, from setnijio. See Semen.] 
1. 1 The act of sowing: the act of disseminat- 
ing. Svelyn. —2. In bot the natural disper- 
sion of seeds ; the process of seeding. The 
seeds of plants are dispersed in various waj's. 
Some are heavy enough to fall directly to 
the ground ; others are furnished with a 
pappus or down, by means of which they 
are dispersed by the wind; while others are 
contained in elastic capsules, which, burst- 
ing open with considerable force, scatter 
the seeils. 

Seminedt (se'mind), a. Thick covered, as 
with seeds. 'Her garments blue, and se- 
mined with stars.' B. Jonton. 

Seminiferous (sem-i-nif 6r-us), a. [L. semen. 
KeimHi*; seed, and /ero, to produce.] Seed- 
bearing: prtHluriiig seed. 

Seminific, Seminiflcal (sem-i-nifik. sem-i- 
nif'ik-al). a. [L. semen, seminis, seed, and 

/acio, to make.] Forming or producing 
seed or semen. 

Semlniflcation(8em'in-if-i-ka"shon), n. Pro- 
pauatiim from the seed or seminal parts. 
Sir .\f Il'ile. [Rare.] 

Seminole (sem'i-nol), n. and a. [Amer. In- 
dian, wild, reckless] One of, or belonging 
to, a tnl»e of American Indians, originally 
a vagrant offshoot from the Creeks. They 
gave great trouble to the settlers in Georgia 
and Florida, and after a tedioos war the 
remains of the tril>e were removed to the 
Indian territory beyond the Mississippi. 

Semi-nude (sem'i-nud), a. Partially nude; 
half naked. 

Seml-nympll (sem'i-nimf), n. In entmn. the 
nympti of insects which undergo a slight 
chuitue only in passing to a perfect state. 

Semio^aphy ( se-ml-og'ra-flX n. Same aa 

S'.-infio-irapfiif. 

Semiologicai (s^mI-d-loj"ik-al). a. Same 

us S'lio indnjical. 
Semiology (se-ml-ol'o-JiX n. [Gr. timeion, 

a sign, and logos, discourse.] Same aa Se- 

meititicn. 

Semi-opacouB t (sem'i-d-pa'TtuB), a. Seml- 
opaijue. Boyle. 
Semi -opal (iem-l-ypalX n, A variety of 

ojiul not posoessing opalescence. 
Semi-opaque (sem'i-d-pak"), a. Half trana- 

p.iittit Miiiv; h.'df opaque. 
Semi-orbicular (8em'i-or-bik''u-16r),a. Hav- 

iny the shape of a half orb or sphere. 
Seml-ordinate(sem-i-or'din-at),7i. Inconie 

sectioitn. Bee ORDINATE. 

SemlotiC (se-ml-ot'ikV a. ^me Bi Semeiotie. 
Semiotics (se-mi-ot'lks), n. See Skmkio- 

TltS. 

Semi - palmate, Semi-palmated (sem-l- 
pal'miit, seiri-i-parmat-eil). a. In Z'>id. hav- 
ing the feet webbed only partly down the 
toes. 

Semi - parabola (ftem'i-pa-rab"6-la). n. In 
nutth. a curve of such a nature that the 
powers of its ordinates are to each other as 
the next lower powers of its abacissaa. 

Semlped (sem'i-ped). n. [Semi, and L. pes, 
I'dix, a foot] In pros, a half-foot 

Semipedal (Bemi-pe'dal), a. Id pros, con- 
lainin;^' a half-foot. 

Semi - Pelagian ( sera'ipd-la"jf-an ). n. In 
ecdeif. hi>it a follower of John Cassianus, a 
monk who, about the year 430, modified 
the doctrines of Felagius. by maintaining 
that grace was necessary to salvation, but 
that, on the other hand, our natural facul- 
ties were sufficient for the commencement 
of repentance and amendment; that Christ 
died Uiv all men; that his grace was equally 
offered to all men: that man was bom free, 
and therefore capable of receiving its in- 
fluences or resisting them. 



Semiqua^ ers. 

To sound or sing in, or 



Semi-Pela«ian (sem'i-pe-la"ji-an), a. Per- 
taining to the Semi-Pelagians or their tenets. 

Semi - Pela^anism (sem'i-pe-Ia"ji-an-izm), 
n. The doctrines or tenets of the Semi- 
Pelagians. 

Semi-pellucid (sem'i-pel-lu"3id), a. Par- 
tially pellucid ; imperfectly transparent ; 
as, a semi-pellucid gem. 

Semi-plantigrade (sem-i-plan'ti-grad), a. 
In zuol. applied to certain families of mam- 
mals, as the Viverrida; or civets, and the 
Mustelidie or weasels, in which a portion 
of ttie sole of the hind-feet at least is ap- 
plied to the gi'ound in walking. 

Semi - quadrate, Semi - quartUe (sem'i- 
kwod-rat, sem'i-kwar-til), n. [L. xemi, and 

?uadrat\is, quadrate, or quartus, fourth.] 
n astrol. an aspect of two planets when 

distant from each other the half of a quad- 
rant, or 45 degrees. 
Semiquaver (sem'i-kwa-v^r), n. In mxisic, 

a note of half 

the duration of 

the quaver; the 

sixteenth of the 

semibreve. 
Semiquaver 

(sem'i-kwa-v6r), v.t. 

as in, semiquavers. 

With wire and catgut he concludes the day, 
^uav'rintf and sentiqnavrin^^ care away. Cowfitr. 

Semi-Quletlst (sem-i-kwi'et-ist), n. One of 
a sect of mystics who, while maintaining 
with the Quietists that the most perfect 
state of the soul is passive contemplation, 
yet maintains the incompatibility of this 
state with any external sinful or sensual 
action. 

Semlquintile (sem'i-kwin-til). n. In ctstrol. 
an aspect of two planets when distant from 
each other half of the quintile, or 36 degrees. 

Semi-recondite (sem-i-rek'on-dit), a. Half- 
hidden or concealed ; specifically, in zovl. 
applied Ut the head of an insect half con- 
cealed within the shield of the thorax. 

Semi-septate (sem-i-sep'tat), a. In bot. half- 
partitioned : having a dissepiment which 
does not project into the cavity to which it 
belongs sufficiently to cut it off into two 
separate cells. 

Seml-seztUe (sem'i-^eks-tll). n. In astrol. 
an aspect of two planets when they are dis- 
tant from each other the half of a sextile, 
or 30 degrees, 

Semi-sniile (sem'i-smn), n. A half laugh; 
a forced grin. ' A doleful and doubtful se^ni- 
xmile of welcome.* Lord Lytton. 

Semlsoun,t n. A half-sound; alow or broken 
tone. Chaucer. 

Seml-Bpheric, Semi-spherical fsem-i-sfer'- 

ik. semi-sfer'ik-al), a. Having the figure of 
a half sphere. 

Semi-spinal (semispinal), a. In anat. ap- 
plied to two muscles connected with the 
transverse and spinous processes of the ver- 
tebne. 

Semi-steel (sem'i-stel), n. A name given in 
the I'nited States to puddled steel. 

Semi-tangent (sem'i-tan-jent), n. In math. 
the taiik'eiit of half an arc. 

Semite (sem'it), n. A descendant of Shem; 
one of the Semitic race. See under Semitic. 
Written also Shemite. 

Semite (sem'itX a. Of or belonging to Shem 
or his descendants. Written k\%o Shemite. 

Semltendinose (sem-i-ten'din-dz), a. In 
aiuxt. applied to a muscle situated obliquely 
along the back part of the thigh. It assists 
in bending the leg. and at the same time 
draws it a little inwards. 

Semitertian (sem-i-t^r'shi-an), a. In med. 
applied to a fever possessing both the char- 
acters of the tertian and quotidian inter- 
mittent. Jhingliiton. 

Semitertian (sem-i-t^r'shi-anX n. A semi- 
tertian fever. 

Semitic (se-mit'ik), a. Relating to Shem or 
his reputed descendants; pertaining to the 
Hebrew race or any of those kindred to it, 
as the Arabians, the ancient Phoenicians, 
and the Assyrians. —5emiftc or Shemitie 
languages, an important group or family of 
languages distinguished by triliteral verbal 
rootsand vowel inflection. It comprises three 
branches— Xorthem. Aramasan, Aramaic or 
Chaldean ; Central orCanaanitish; and South- 
em or Arabic. These have been subdivided 
asfollowH :— (l).i4ra»wean,including Eastern 
and Western Arama;an ; the Eastern em- 
braces the Assyrian, the Babylonian, from 
which several dialects originated, as the 
Chalflaic, the Syro-Cbaldaic ; and the Sa- 
maritan- The Western Aramiean includes 
the Syriac dialect, the Palmyrene. and the , 



Sabiau idiom, a corrupted Syriac dialect. 
(2) Canaanitish comprises the Phcenician 
language, with its dialect the Punic or Car- 
thaginian, and the Hebrew with the Rab- 
binic dialect. (3) A rabic proper, from which 
originated the Ethiopian or Abyssinian. 

Semltlsm (sem'it-izm). n. A Semitic idiom 
or word; the adoption of what is peculiarly 
Semitic. 

Semitone (sem'i-ton), n. In 7nusic, half a 
tone; an interval of sound, as between mi 
and /a in the diatonic scale, which is only 
half the distance of the interval between 
ut (do) and re, or sol and la. A semitone, 
strictly speaking, is not half a tone, as there 
are three kinds of semitones — greater, lesser, 
and natural. 

SemitoniC (sem-i-ton'ik), a. Pertaining to 
a semitone ; consisting of a semitone or of 
semitones. 

Semi - transept (sem'i-tran-sept), n. The 
half of a transept or cross aisle. 

Senii-transparency(sem'i-trans-pa"ren-si), 
n. Imperfect transparency; partial opaque- 
ness. 

Semi-transparent (sem'i-trans-pa"rent), a. 
Half or imi>erfectly transparent. 

Semi-vltrification(sem-i-vit'ri-fi-ka"shon), 
n. 1. The state of being imperfectly vitri- 
fied.— 2. A substance imperfectly vitrified. 

Semi-Vitrified (sem-i-vit'ri-fid), a. Half or 
imperfectly vitrified; partially converted 
into glass. 

Semi -vocal (sem'i-vo-kal), a. Pertaining 
to a semi-vowel; half-vocal; imperfectly 
sounding. 

Semi- vowel (sem'l-vou-el), n. A half- vowel; 
a sound partaking of the nature of both a 
vowel and a consonant : an articulation 
which is accompanied with an imperfect 
sound, which may be continued at pleasure, 
as the sounds of I, m, r. Also, the sign re- 
presenting such a sound. 

Semmit (sem'mit), n. [Perhaps a contr. 
of Fr. chemisette. ] An undershirt, generally 
woollen. [Scotch.] 

Semnopitliecus (sem'n6-pi-the"ku8),7i. [Gr. 
semnos, august, venerable, and pithekos, an 
ape.] A genus of catarhine or Old World 
apes, having long slender tails, well-devel- 
oped canine teeth, and tulierculate molars. 
One of the most familiar species, 5. Entellus, 
the sacred monkey of the Hindus, is of a 
grayish or grayish-brown colour, with black 
hands, feet, and face. All the species are 
natives of Asia and Asiatic islands. 

Semola, Semolella (sem'o-m, sem-o-leFla), 
n. Same as Semolina. 

Semolina (sem-O-li'na), n. [It. semoUno.'] 
A name given to the large hard grains re- 
tained in the bolting-machine after the fine- 
fiour has been passed through it. It is of 
various degrees of fineness, and is often 
made intentionally in considerable quanti- 
ties, being a favourite food in France, and 
to some extent used in firitain for making 
puddings. See Manna-croiI'. 

Semoule (sa-molO, n. [Fr.] Same as Semo- 
lina. 

Sempervirent (sem-p6r-vi'rent), a. [L. sem- 
per, always, and viretis, virentis, flourish- 
ing] Always fresh; evergreen. 

Sempervive (sem'p^r-viv). n. The house- 
leek Bacon. See SEMI'ERVIVUM. 

Sempervivum(sem-p6r-vi'vum),n. [L. .from 

«ej;i/*er. always, and vivux, living] A genus 
of plants which includes the house-leek. See 

HoUSE-LEEK. 

Sempiternal (sem-pi-t^r'nal), a. [Fr. sem- 
piternel; L. nempiternus— nemper, always, 
and etemus, eternal.] 1. Eternal in futu- 
rity; everlasting; endless; having beginning, 
but no end. 

Those, though they suppose the world not to be 
eternal. ' a parte ante,* are not contented to suppose 
ft to be sefftPitcrnai, or eternal, *a parte post.' 

Sir M. Hale. 

2. Eternal ; everlasting ; without beginning 
or end. 
Sempitemity (sem-pi-t^r'ni-ti), n. [L. sem- 

piiernitan. See SEMPITERNAL.] Future 
duration without end. ' The future eternity 
or gempiteniity of the world.' Sir M. Hale. 

Semple (sem'pl), a. Simple; low-born; of 
mean birth: opposed iu gentle. [Scotch.] 

Sempre (sem'pra). [It.] In muaic, always 
or throughout- 

Sempster (semp'st^r), n. A seamster (which 
see). 

He supposed that Walton had given up his busi- 
ness as a Unen-draper and sempuer. Bosweil. 

Sempstress (semp'stres), n. [A. Sax. seame- 
stre, a sempstress, with term, -ess.) A wo- 
man who lives by needle-work. Swij't. 



ch, cJialn; th, Sc. locA; g, yo; J, ^b; A, Fr. ton; ng, ting; th, then; th, thin; w, toig; wb. wAig; zh, aziu*e. — See K.EY. 



SEMPSTRESSY 



30 



SENNA 



Sempstressy (semp'stres-i), n. See Seam- 
stress y. 
Semuncia (se-mun'si-a), n. [L. semi, half, 
and uHcia, the twelfth part of an eis.] A 
small Roman coin of the weight of four 
drachms, being the twenty-fourth pai't of 
the Roman pound. 
Sent (sen), adv. Since. 
Senary (sen'a-ri), a. [L. senaritis, from seni, 
six each, from «ea;, six.] Of six; belonging 
to six; containing six. 
Senate (aen'at),7i. [Ft. sMat,fTOTaL. seiiatris, 
from senex, senis, old, aged; Gr. heiios, Skr. 
satias, old.] 1. An assembly or council of 
citizens invested with a share in the govern- 
ment of a state; as, (a) originally, in ancient 
Rome, a body of elderly citizens appointed 
or elected from among the nobles of the 
state, and having supreme legislative power. 
The number of senators during the best 
period of the Roman republic was 300. (b) The 
upper or less numerous branch of a legisla- 
ture in various countries, as in France, in the 
United States, in most of the separate states 
of the Union, and in some Swiss cantons. 
Hence, (c) in general, a legislative body ; a 
state council; the legislative department of 
a government. ' The crown, the senate, and 
the bench.' A. Fonhlaiique. — 2. The gov- 
erning body of the University of Cambridge. 
It is divided into two houses, named regents 
and non-regents. The former consists of 
]^Iasters of Arts of less than five years' stand- 
ing, and doctors of less than two, and is 
called the upper house or white-hood house, 
from its members wearing hoods lined with 
whitesilk. All other masters and doctors who 
keep their names on the college books are 
non-regents, and compose the lower house 
or black-hood house, from its members wear- 
ing black hoods. 

Senate - chamber (sen'at-cham-b6r), n. A 
chamber or hall in wliich a senate assem- 
bles. 

Senate-house (sen'at-hous), ji. a house in 
which a senate meets, or a place of public 
council. Shak. 
Senator (sen'at-or), 71. 1. A member of a 
senate. In Scotland the lords of session 
are called senators of the college of justice. 
2. In old English law, a member of the king's 
couuL-il; a king's councillor. Burrill. 
Senatorial (sen-a-to'ri-al), ft. 1. Pertaining to 
a senate; becoming a senator; as, senatorial 
robes; senatorial eloquence. 

Go on, brave youths, till, in some future age, 
Whips shall become the senatorial badge. 

r. IVharton. 

2, In the United States, entitled to elect a 
senator; as, a senatorial district. 
Senatorlally (sen-a-to'ri-al-li), adv. In a 
senatorial manner; in a way becoming a 
senator; with dignity or solemnity. 

The mother was cheerful ; the father senaforiaZ/jy 
grave. v4. Drurninond. 

Senatorian (sen-a-to'ri-an), a. Same as 
Senatorial. 

Propose your schemes, ye senatorian band. 
Whose ways and meeins support the sinking land. 

yohiison. 

Senatoriouat (sen-a-to'ri-us), a. Senatorial. 

Senatorship (sen'at-or-ship), n. ' The office 
or dit,aiity of a senator. Richard Carew. 

Senatus (se-na'tus), ?i. [L.] A senate; a 
governing body in certain universities.— 
Senattis acadeynicus, one of the governing 
bodies in Scotch universities, consisting of 
the principal and professors, and charged 
with the superintendence and regulation of 
discipline, the administration of the uni- 
versity property and revenues, subject to the 
control and review of the university court, 
and the conferring of degrees through the 
chancellor or vice-chancellor.— Se7i«(i«co?i- 
sultuin, a decree of the ancient Roman 
senate, pronounced on some question or 
point of law. 

Sencet (sens), n. Sense; feeling; sympathy. 
Spenser. 

Send (send), v.t. pret. & pp. sent; ppr. send- 
ing. [A. Sax. sendan, to send, pret. ic sende, 
I sent; O.Fris., Icel. senda, ]5an. sende, D. 
zenden, G. senden, Goth, sandjan, to send, 
lit. to make to go ; Goth, sinthan, to go, 
from sinths, A. Sax. stth, a path; cog. Skr. 
sadh, to go.] 1. To cause to go or pass from 
one place to another; to despatch. 

God 
Thither will send his winfjed messengers 
On errands of supernal grace. Milton. 

2. To procure the going, carrjing, transmis- 
sion, (tc, of; to cause to be conveyed or 
transmitted. 

(He) stnt letters by posts on horseback. 

Est, viii. 10. 



3. To impel ; to propel ; to throw ; to cast ; 

to hurl; as, this gun sends a ball 2000 yards. 

In his right hand he held a trembling dart 
Whose fellow he before had sent apart. Spenser. 

4. To commission, authorize, or direct to go 
and act. 

I have not sent these prophets, yet they ran. 

Jcr. xxiii. 21. 

5. To cause to take place; to cause to come; 
to bestow; to indict. 

He . . . sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust. 

Mat, V. 43. 
The Lord shall send upon thee cursing, vexation, 
and rebuke. Deut. xxviii. 20. 

6. To cause to he. ' God send him welL ' 
Shak. 

Send her victorious, 

Happy and glorious. National Anthem. 

7. Before certain verbs of motion, to cause 
to do the act indicated by the principal verb. 
It always, however, implies impulsion or 
propulsion; as, to sei\d one packing. 

He flung him out into the opon air with a violence 
whicli setit him staggering several yards. Warren. 

Shall we be at once split asunder into innumerable 
fragments, and sent drifting through indefinite 
space. iVarren. 

The royal troops instantly fired such a volley of 
musketry as sent the rebel iiotsejlyittg in all direc- 
tions. Macaiday. 

~-To send forth or out, (a) to produce ; to 
put or bring forth ; as, a tree sends forth 
branches. (6) To emit; as, flowers send 
forth tlieir fragrance. 

Send (send), v.i. 1. To despatch a message; 
to despatch an agent or messenger for some 
purpose. 

See ye how this son of a murderer hath sent to 
take away mine head! 2 Ki. vi. 32. 

2. Naut. to pitch precipitately into the hol- 
low or interval between two waves : with 
sended as pret. 

She j-<r«rf/rf forward heavily and sickly on the long 
swell. She never rose to the opposite heave of the 
sea again. Mich. Scott. 

—To send for, to request or require by mes- 
sage to come or be brought; as, to send for 
a physician; to send for a coach. 

Send (send), n. The motion of the waves, 
or the Impetus given by their motion. 

Sendal (sen'dal), n, [O.Fr. and Sp. cendal, 
sendal; L.L. cendalum, usually derived from 
Gr. situion, a fine Indian cloth, from Sindhu, 
the Sanskrit name of the river Indus, whence 
the name Indiu is derived,] A light thin 
stuff of silk or thread. 

Sails of silk and ropes of sendal. 

Such as gleam in ancient lore. Longfellow. 

Sender (send'Sr), ?i. One that sends. Shak. 

Senehlera (8en'e-bi-e"ra), n. [In honour of 
John de Senebisr, of Geneva, a vegetable 
physiologist.] A genus of plants, nat, order 
Cruciferie; sometimes called Coronopus. S. 
Coronopus (common wart-cress) is a native 
of Europe and North America, and was for- 
merly eaten as a salad. S. didynm is a 
native of Great Britain, growing on waste 
ground near the sea. S. nilotica is eaten as 
a salad in Egypt. They are insignificant 
weeds with prostrate diffuse stems, finely 
divided leaves, and small white flowers. 

Seneca (seu'e-ka), n. See Senega. 

Seneca-oil (sen'e-ka-oil), n. A name for 
petroleum or naphtha, from its having ori- 
ginally been collected and sold by the 
Seneca Indians. 

Seneca-root (sen'e-ka-rot), n. See Senega. 

SeneciO (se-ne'shi-o), n. [From L. senex, an 
old man ; the receptacle is naked and re- 
sembles a bald head.] A genus of plants, 
known by the common names of groimdsel 
and ragwort. See Groundsel, Ragwort. 

Senectitude (se-nek'ti-tud). n. [L. senectus, 
old age, from senex, old.] Old age. 'Senec- 
titude, weary of its toils.' H. Miller. [Rare.] 

Senega, Seneka (sen'e-ga, sen'e-ka), n. A 
druji consistintr of the root of a plant called 
also seneca and rattlesnake-root, belonging 
to the genus Polygala, J*. Senega, a native 
of the United States. The drug is said to 
have been used as an antidote to the effects 
of the bite of the rattlesnake. It is now 
almost exclusively used in cough mixtures, 
being similar in Its effects to squilL See 
Polygala. 

Senegal (sen'e-gal). See Gum-senegal. 

Senescence (se-nes'sens), 71. [L. senesco. 
from senex, old.] The state of growing old; 
decay by time. 

The earth and all things will continue in the state 
wherein they now are, without the least senescence or 
decay. If^oodinard. 

Senescent(8e-ne5'sent),a. Beginning to grow 
old. ' Now as the night was senescent7 E. 
A. Poe. 



Seneschal (sen'es-shal), n. [Fr. sin^ehal, 
O.Fr. seneschal, L.L. senescallus, senescal- 
ciis, O.G. eenescalh—sene, oId = L. senex, and 
scale, scalh, a servant (seen also in mar- 
shal).] An officer in the houses of princei 
and dignitaries, who has the superintend- 
ence of feasts and domestic ceremonies; a 
steward. In some instances the seneschal 
was an officer who had the dispensing of gu&- 
tice. 

Seneschal is a word rarely used except by person* 
who affect a kind of refinement of style, which they 
think is attained by using words of exotic growth 
rather than words the natural growth of their own 
soil. In poetry and romance writing it is sometimes 
used for a pnncipal officer in the household of dis- 
tinguished persons, when it is thought that the word 
steward would be too familiar. Penny Cyclopedia. 

Seneschalship (sen'es-shal-ship), n. The 
oflice of seneschal. 

Senge»t v.t. To singe. Chaucer. 

Sengreen (sen'gren), n. [G. singriin, a 
plant, as periwinkle — sin, a root, signifying 
strength, force, duration, and griin, green.] 
A plant, the house-leek, of the genus Sem- 
pervivum. 

Senile (se'nil), a. [L. senilis, from senex, 
old. See Senate.] Pertaining to old age; 
proceeding from age; especially pertaining 
to or proceeding from the weaknesses usu- 
ally accompanying old age ; as, senile gar- 
rulity; senile driveL 'Senile maturity of 
judgment.' Boyle. 

Loss of colour of the hair may be accidental, pre- 
mature, or senile. Copland. 

Senility (se-nil'i-ti), n. The state of being 
senile; old age. Boswell. 

Senior (se'ni-6r), a. [L. senior, compar. of 
senex, old.] 1. More advanced in age; older; 
elder: when following a personal name, 
as John Smith, senior (usually contracted 
senr. or sen.), it denotes the elder of 
two persons in one family or community of 
that name. —2. Higher or more advanced 
in rank, office, or the like ; as, a senior pas- 
tor, officer, member of parliament, <fcc.— 
Senior wrangler. See Wrangler. 

Senior (se'ni-^r), n. 1. A person who is 
older than another; one more advanced in 
life. 

He (Pope) died in May, 1744. about a year and a 
half before his friend Swift, who, more than twenty 
years his senior, had naturally anticipated that he 
should be the first to depart. Craii. 

2. One that is older in ofiice, or whose first 
entrance upon an office was anterior to that 
of another; one prior or superior in rank or 
office.~3. A student in the fourth year of 
the curriculum in American colleges; also, 
one in the third year in certain professional 
seminaries. — 4. An aged person; one of the 
oldest inhabitants. ' A senior of the place 
replies. ' Dryden. 

Seniority (se-ni-or'i-ti), n. 1. State of l>eing 
senior; superior age; priority of biith; as, 
he is the elder brother, and entitled to the 
place by seniority.— 2. Priority or superi- 
ority in rank or office ; as, the seniority of 
a pastor or an officer.— 3, An assembly or 
court consisting of the senior fellows of a 
college. 

The dons were not slow to hear of what had hap- 
pened, and they regarded the matter in so serious a 
li^ht, that they summoned a seniority for its imme- 
diate investigation. Farrar. 

Seniorizet (sen'i-6r-iz), v.i. To exercise 
lordly authority; to lord it; to rule. Fair- 
fax. 

Senioryt (sen'y6r-i), n. Same as Seniority. 

If ancient sorrow be most reverent. 

Give mine the benefit of senu*ry. Shak. 

Senna (sen'na), n. [Ar. send, senna.] The 
leaves of various species of Cassia, the best 
of which are natives of the East. The Brit- 
ish Pharmacopoeia recognizes two kinds of 
senna, the Alexandrian and the llnnevelly. 
Alexandrian senna {Senna A lexa ndrina) 
consists of the lance-shaped leaflets of C. 
lanceolata and the obovate ones of C. obo- 
rata, carefully freed from the flowers, pods, 
and leaf-stalks. It is grown in Nubia and 
Upper Egypt, and imported in large bales 
from Alexandria. It is liable to be adulter- 
ated by an admixture of the leaves, flowers, 
and fruit of the argel {Solenostemma Argel). 
Tinnevelly or East Indian senna {Senna 
Indica) is a very fine kind, and consists of 
the large lance-shaped leaflets of C.elonga la. 
The leaflets of C. obovata are from their 
shape called also blunt-leaved senna, and 
from their place of export Aleppo senna. 
The true senna leaves are distinctly ribbed 
and thin, and generally pointed, and are 
readily distinguished from the leaves of 
argel by their unequally oblique base and 



F&te, fftr, fat, fftll; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, b^ll; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abune; y, So. fey. 



SENNACHY 



31 



SENSIBILITY 




J lanceolata). 



their freedom from bitteniess. Senna is a 
general and efficient laxative in cases of 
occasional or habitual constipation. Given 
alone it occasions 
gripingand nausea; 
it is therefore best 
administered with 
aromatics or with 
neutral laxative 
salts, which at the 
same time increase 
its activity. It is 
used in dyspepsia 
and in febrile and 
intlammatory dis- 
eases; but, as it is 
sometimes drastic. 
It must be avoided 
when the alimen- 
tary canal is much 
affected. — Bladder 
senna, the Cotittea 
Grhorescetis, a na- 
tive of the south 
of Europe, and em- Senna (G 
ployed to adulter- 
ate blunt-leaved senna. Scorpion senna.the 
Corouilla Emerus, a native of the south of 
Europe. The leaves are purgative and dras- 
tic, but are inconvenient on account of their 
griping effects. 

Sennachy (sen'na-ehiX n. Same as Sean- 
nachie. 

Sennet t (sen'net), n. [Probably from L. 
si'jnum, a signal J A particular set of notes 
on a trumpet or comet, different from a 
flourish. The word occurs chiefly in the 
stage directions of old plays. Variously 
written Sennit, Senet, Synnet, Cynet, Sig- 
net, and Si'jnate. 

Se'nnlght (sen'nitX n. [Contr. from seven- 
ni'jht, HB /'jrtni^ht from /ourteenniffht.] The 
space of seven nights and days; a weelc 

If the interim be but a sennight. Time's pace is $o 

hard 
That it seems the length of seven year. Shak. 
My love for Nature is as old as I ; 
But thirty moons, one honeymoon to that. 
And three nch sennights more, my love for her, 
Tennyson. 

Sennit (sen'nit), n. [From ««en and knit.^ 
Saut. a sort of flat braided cordage used 
for various purposes, and formed by plait- 
ing rope-yarns or spun-yam t<^rether. 

Senocular (se-nok'u-lSr), a. {L. mni, six 
each, from mx, six, and ocuhu, the eye.] 
Having six eyes. 

-M'jst animals are binocular, spiders octonocular, 
and some stftocutar. Dtrhatn. 

Sehor (sen-yorO, n. A Spanish title or form 
of address, corresponding to the English 
Mr or sir; a gentleman. 

Senora (sen-yd'ra). n. The feminine of 
>i<:uur; maclame or Mrs. ; a lady. 

Sensate,t Sensatedt (sens'at, aens'at-ed),a. 
I'<iitivcci Ity the senses. 

Sensatet (sens'at), v.t. To have perception 
'■I', as an object of the senses; to apprehend 
by tlte senses or understanding. 

Sensation (sen-sa'shon), n. [Fr. sensation, 
from L L. sensatio, sensationis, from L. «en- 
tio, ^ntttm, to feel, hear, see, Ac, to per- 
ceive. See SENSE] 1. The effect produced on 
the sensorium by something acting on the 
bodily organs; an impression made upon 
the mind through the medium of one of the 
organs of sense; feeling produced by exter- 
nal objects, or by some change in the inter- 
nal state of the body; a feeling; as, a wn- 
Mtion of light, heat, heaviness, Ac Sensa- 
tions are conveyed by means of nerves to 
the brain or sensorium. An impression pro- 
duced by something extemal to the body is 
sometimes spoken of as an extemal gerua- 
tinn; when it proceeds from some change 
taking place within the living system, and 
an-.iiiir from it.s own actions, it is feeraied an 
int'/nal st-mation; thus the Impression 
communicated to the mind by the effect of 
light on the retina, and the painful sensa- 
tion produced by a blow, are external gen- 
^itiom; the feeling of hunger and of rest- 
iKssness are internal genaatum*. The exter- 
nal organs by which those Imprewlons which 
cause sensations are primarily received are 
tailed the organs of the senses; these are 
the eye, the ear, the nose, the tongue, pa- 
late, &<:., which constitute the organ of 
taste, and the extremities of nenes. dis- 
r>ersed under the common integuments, 
which give rise to the common sensation, 
feeling or touch In addition to these, ac- 
cording to Professor Bain. ' the feelings con- 
nectc'i with the movements of body, or the 
action of the muscles, have come to be re- 



cognized as a distinct class, differing mate- 
rially from the sensations of the five senses. 
They have been regarded by some metaphy- 
sicians as proceeding from a sense apart, a 
sixth or muscular sense, and have accord- 
ingly been enrolled tinder the general head 
of sensations. That they are to be dealt 
with as a class by themselves, as much so as 
sounds or sights, the feelings of affection, 
or the emotions of the ludicrous, is now 
pretty well admitted on all hands.'— 2. The 
power of feeling or receiving impressions 
through organs of sense; as, inorganic 
bodies are devoid of senmtion. 

This great source of most of the ideas we have, 
depending wholly upon our senses, and derived by 
them to the understanding, I call sensation. Locke. 

3. Agreeable or disagreeable feelings occa- 
sioned by causes that are not corporeal or 
mateiial; purely spiritual or psychical affec- 
tions; as, sensations of awe, sublimity, ridi- 
cule, novelty, &c. — 4. A state of excited In- 
terest or feeling; as, to create a sensation. 

The sensation caused by the appearance of that 
work is still remembered by tuany Brougham. 

5. That which produces sensation or excited 
interest or feeling. * The greatest sensation 
of the day ; the grand incantation scene of 
the Freischiitz. ' Tiuies newspaper. —6. Only 
as much of anything as can be perceived by 
the senses; a very small quantity; as, a sen- 
sation of brandy. [Slang.]— The word is 
often used as an adjective in the sense of 
causing excited interest or feeling; as, sen- 
sation novels, drama, oratorj*, &c.~Sensa- 
tion novels, novels that produce their effect 
by exciting and often improbable situa- 
tions, by taking as their groundwork some 
dreadful secret, some atrocious crime, or 
the like, and painting scenes of extreme 
peril, high-wrought passion, &c. 
Sensational (sensa'shon-al), a. 1. Having 
sensation; serving to convey sensation; sen- 
tient. J)unfflison.—2. Relating to or imply- 
ing sensation or perception by the senses. 

that he 
outline of 
purest of the seftsa- 
F II' Robertson. 



He whose eye is so refined by discipline 
n repose with pleasure upon the serene oi 
lautiiul form has reached the purest of thi 



can 

beautil 

tu>nal raptures. 



3. Producing sensation or excited interest or 
emotion; as, a sensational novel. — 4. Per- 
taining to sensationalism. 

Are we then obliged to give in our adherence to 
the sensatii^nal philosophy? Farrar. 

Sensational lam (sen-sa'shon-al-izm), n. In 
metaph. the theory or doctrine that all our 
ideas are solely derived through our senses 
or sensati'ins; sensualism. 

Sensationalist (sen-sashon-al-ist), n. In 
nietaph. a believer in or upholder of the 
doctrine of sensationalism or sensualism. 
Sometimes used adjectivally. 

Accordingly we are not surprised to find that Locke 
was claimedas the founder of a sensationaiitt school, 
whose ultimate conclusions his calm and pious mind 
would have indignantly repudiated. . . . We con- 
sider this on the whole a less objectionable term than 
* sensualist * or ' sensuist; ' the laner word is uncouth, 
and the former, from the thmgs which it connotes, is 
hardly fair. Farrar 

Sensatlonary (sen-sa'shon-a-ri). n. PosseBB- 
ing or relating to sensation; sensationaL 

Sense (sensXn. [L.««/L«u#, sensation, a sense, 
from sentio, sensum, to perceive by the 
senses (whence sentence, content, dissent, 
assent,&c.\] 1 One of the faculties by which 
man and the higher animals perceive exter- 
nal objects by means of impressions made on 
certain organs of the body. The senses enable 
us to become acquainted with some of the 
conditions of our own bodies, and with cer- 
tain properties and states of extemal things, 
such as their colour, taste, odour, size, form, 
density, motion. Ac. A sense is exercised 
through a specialized i>ortion of the ner- 
vous system, capable of receiving only one 
series or kind of impressions. The senses 
are usually spoken of as being five in num- 
ber, namely, sight, hearing, taste, smell, 
and touch; and each of them is exercised in 
the recognition of an impression conveyed 
along some nerve to the brain. Some phy- 
siologists, however, recognize a sixth or 
muscular sense arising from the sensitive 
department of the fifth pair and the com- 
pound spinal nerves. (See under Sensa- 
tion.) Others again treat of a seventh or 
visceral sense, a term which they apply to 
the instinctive sensations arising from the 
ganglionic department of the nervous sys- 
tem.— 2. Perception by the senses or Iwdily 
organs; sensation; feeling. 'Bum out the 
sense and virtue of mjne eye.' Shak. 

In a living creature, though never so great, the I 



sense and the affects of any one part of the body in- 
stantly make a transcursioii throughout the whole. 
Bit ton. 

3. Perception by the mind ; apprehension 
through the intellect; recognition; under- 
standing; discernment; appreciation; feel- 
ing. 'Basilius, having the quick sense of a 
lover." Sir P. Sidney. 'Having sense of 
beauty.' Shak. 

Have they any sense of what they singT Tennyson. 

4. iloral perception; consciousness; convic- 
tion; as, to have a sense of wrong, a sense of 
shame. Tennyson. 

Some are so hardened in wickedness as to have no 
sense of the most friendly offices. SirJi. L'Estrange. 

5. Sound perception and reasoning; correct 
reason; good mental capacity; understand- 
ing; as, a man of sense. 'Lost the soise 
that handles daily life.' Tennyson. 

Immodest words admit of no defence, 
For want of decency is want of sense. Roscommon. 
Yet, if he has sense but to balance a straw. 
He will sure take the hint from the picture I draw. 
Smoilftt. 

6. Perceptive faculties in the aggregate; 
faculty of thinking and feeling; mind. 'Did 
all confound her sense.' Tennyson. 

Are you a man? have you a soul or sense t Shak. 

7. That which is felt or is held as a sentiment, 
view, or opinion; judgment; notion ; opinion. 

The municipal council of the city had ceased to 
speak the sense of the citizens. Macaitiny. 

8. Meaning; import; signification; as, the 
tme seiise of a word or phrase; a literal or 
figurative sense. 

When a word has been used in two or three senses, 
and has made a great inroad for error, drop one or 
two of those senses, and leave it only one remainii^. 
If'atts. 

—Common sense. See under Common. 
Senset(sens),i7.t To perceive by the senses. 

Is he sure that objects are not otherwise sensed by 
others than they are by him? Glanvitle. 

SensefOlt (sens'f^ii), a. Reasonable; judi- 
cious. ' Hearkening to his sense/ul speech. ' 
Spenser. 

Srasele8S(8en8les),a. 1. Destitute of sense; 
having no power of sensation or perception; 
incapable of sensation or feeling; insens- 
ible; as, the body when dead is senseless; 
but a limb or other part of the body may be 
senseless when the rest of the body enjoys 
its usual sensibility. 

The ears are senseless that should give us hearing. 
Shak. 

2. Wanting feeling, sympathy, or apprecia- 
tion; without sensibility. 

The senseless grave feels not your pious sorrows. 
Rovje. 

3. Contrary to reason or sound judgment; 
ill-judged; unwise; foolish; nonsensical. 

They would repent this X\\^\t senseless perverse- 
ness when it would be too late. Clarendon. 

4. Wanting understanding; acting without 

sense or judgment; foolish; stupid. 

They were a senseless stupid race. Swi/i. 

Senselessly (sensles-li), adv. In a sense- 
less manner; stupidly; unreasonably; as, a 
man senselessly arrogant. Locke. 

Senselessness (sens'les-nes), n. The state 
or quality of being senseless ; as, (a) w:\iit 
of sensation, perception, or feeling. ' A gulf, 
a void, a sense of senselessness.' Shelley. 
(b) Want of judgment or good sense; un- 
reasonableness; folly; stupidity: absurdity. 
' Stupidity and senselesKiiess. ' Hales. 

Sensibility (sensi-bil'i-ti), n. [Fr. sensi^ 
bililt-, from sensible. ] 1. The state or quality 
of being sensible or capable of sensation ; 
that power which any organ or tissue of the 
body has of causing changes inherent in or 
excited in it to be perceived and recognized 
by the mind; as, a frozen limb loses its 
sensibility. — 2. Capacity to feel or perceive 
in general ; specifically, the capacity of the 
soul to exercise or t(» l>e the subject of emo- 
tion or feeling, as distinguished from the 
intellect and the will; the capacity of being 
impressed with such sentiments as those of 
sublimity, awe, wonder, Ac. — 3. Peculiar 
susceptibility of impression, pleasurable or 
painful ;delicacyor keenness of feeling; quick 
emotion or sympatliy ; as, sensibility to 
praise or blame ; a man of exquisite sensi- 
hUity. 

Modesty is a kind of quick and delicate feeling in 
the soul : it is such an exquisite sensibility as warns 
a woman to shun the first appearance of everything 
hurtful. AiidtsoH. 

The true lawgiver ought to have a heart full of 
sensibility. Burke. 

In this sense used frequently in the pIuraL 

'Twere better to be l»om a stone. 
Of ruder shape, and fueling none. 
Than with a tenderness like mine 
And sensibilities so fine. Cinuptr. 



ch, cAain; Ch, Sc. locA; g, go; J Job; h, Fr. ton; ng, ^ngx th, tAen; th, tkm\ w, w\%\ wh, icAig; zh. azure.— See KEY. 



SENSIBLE 



SElTSUOrS 



4. Experience of sensations ; actual feeling. 
Burke. ~ 5. That quality of an instrument 
which makes it indicate very slight changes 
of condition; delicacy; sensitiveness; as, the 
sensilnlihj of a balance or of a thermometer. 
Sensible (sens'i-bl), a. tf'r. sensible, from 
L. ttcntiibilis, from setunis. See SENSE.] 

1. Capable of being perceived by the senses; 
apprehensible through the bodily organs; 
capable of exciting sensation. 

Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible 
To feeling as to si^ht? Or art thou but 
A dagger of the mind, a false creation? Sftak. 
Air is sensible to xyielouchhy its motion. Arbttthnot. 

2. Perceptible to the mind ; making an im- 
pression on the reason or understanding; 
keenly felt. 

The disgrace was more sensible than the pain. 
Sir W. Temple. 

3. Capable of sensation; having the capacity 
of receiving impressions from external ob- 
jects ; capable of perceiving by the senses 
or bodily organs; as, the eye is sensible to 
light. 

I would that your cambric were as sensible as your 
finger, that you might leave pricking it for pity. S/ta<t. 

4. Capable of emotional influences; emo- 
tionally affected. ' If thou wert sensible of 
courtesy.' Skak. ' Seyisible of v/rong.' Dry- 
den. — 5. Very liable to impression from 
without ; easily affected ; sensitive. ' With 
affection wondrous sensible.' Shak.—Q. Per- 
ceiving or having perception either by the 
senses or the intellect; perceiving so clearly 
as to be convinced; cognizant; satisfied; 
persuaded. 

I do not say there is no soul in man because he is not 
««j-iW«ofit in his sleep; but I do say he cannot think 
at any time, waking or sleeping, without hcvi^ sensible 
of ir. Locke. 

They were now sensible it would have been better to 
comply than to refuse. Addison. 

7. Easily or readily moved or affected by 
natural agents; capable of indicating slight 
changes of condition; sensitive; as, a sen- 
sible thermometer or balance. — 8. Possess- 
ing or containing sense, judgment, or rea- 
son; endowed with or characterized by good 
or common sense; intelligent; understand- 
ing; reasonable; judicious; as, a sensible 
man; a sensible proposal. *To be now a 
se>isible man, by and by a fool.' Shak.— 
Sensible note or tone, in rmisic, the seventh 
note of any diatonic scale : so termed because, 
being but a semitone below the octave or 
key-note, and naturally leading up to that, 
it makes the ear sensible of its approaching 
sound. Called also the Leading Note. 
Sensible t (sens'i-bl), n. 1. Sensation; sensi- 
bility. 

Our torments also may in length of time 
Become our elements; these piercing fires 
As soft as now severe, our temper changed 
Into their temper ; which must needs remove 
The sensible of pain. Milton. 

2. That which produces sensation; that 
which impresses itself on the senses; some- 
thing perceptible ; a material substance. 
Dr. H. More.—Z. That which possesses sen- 
8il)ility or capability of feeling; sensitive 
being. 

Tliis melancholy extends itself not to men only, but 
even to vegeials and sensibles. Burton. 

Sensibleness (sens'i-bl-nes), n. The state 
or quality of being sensible; sensibility; as, 
(a) capability of sensation; as, the sensible- 
ness of the eye to light. (&) Possibility of 
being perceived by the senses, (c) Sensitive- 
ness; keenness of feeUng. ' This feeling and 
sensibleness and sorrow for sin." Hammond. 
(rf) Good sense; intelligence; reasonableness; 
as, the se}isibleness of hiB conduct orremarks. 

Sensibly (sens'i-bli), adv. In a sensible 
maimer; as, (a) in a manner perceived by 
the senses; perceptibly to the senses; as, 
pain sensibly increased; motion sensibhj 
accelerated. (6) With perception, either of 
mind or body; sensitively; feelingly; as, he 
feels his loss very sensibly. 

What remains past cure 
Bear not too sensibly. Milton. 

(c) With intelligence or good sense; judi- 
ciously; as, the man converses \cvy sensibly 
on all common topics. 

Sensiferous (sen-sif'fir-us), a. Producing 
sensation. [Rare.] 

Sensiflc (sen-sif'ik), a. [L. sensxis, sense, 
and/acio, to make.] Producing sensation. 

Senslsm (sens'izm), n. In metaph. same as 
S-)i>!Halism. 

Sensist (sens'ist), n. Same as Sensationalist. 

Sensitive (sens'i-tiv), a. [Fr. sensitif, L.L. 
scnsitiims. See SENSE.] 1. Having sense or 
feeling, or having the capacity of receiving 
impressions from external objects. 'The 



sensitive appetite. ' Dryden. ' The sensitive 
faculty.' Ray.— 2. Having feelings easily 
excited ; having feelings keenly susceptible 
of external impressions; readily and acutely 
affected ; of keen sensibility ; as, the most 
sensible men are the least sensitive. 

She was too sensitive to abuse and calumny. 

Maaiulay. 

3. In physics, easily affected or moved; as, a 
sensitive balance ; a sensitive thermometer. 

4. In ckem. and photog. readily affected by 
the action of appropriate agents; as, iodized 
paper is sensitive to the action of light.— 

5. Serving to affect the senses ; sensible. ' A 
love of some sensitive object.' Hammond. 
[Rare.]— 6. Pertaining to the senses or to 
sensation; depending on sensation; as, sen- 
sitiveTansculuT motions excited by irritation. 
Sensitive flames, Hames which are easily 
affected by sounds, being made to lengthen 
out or contract, or change their form in 
various ways. The most sensitive flame 
is produced in burning gas issuing from a 
small taper jet. Such a flame will be affected 
by very small noises, as the ticking of a 
watch held near it or the clinking of coins 
100 feet off. The gas must be turned on so 
that the flame is just at the point of roaring. 
—Sensitive plant. See Sensitive-pi.ant. 

Sensitive t (sens'i-tiv), n. Something that 
feels; sensorium. 

Sensitively (sens'i-tiv-li), adv. In a sensi- 
tive manner. Hamm,ond. 

Sensitiveness (sens'i-tiv-nes), n. The state 
of being sensitive or easily affected by ex- 
ternal objects, events, or representations; 
the state of having quick and acute sensi- 
bility to impressions upon the mind and 
feelings. 

Sensitive -plant (sens'i-tiv-plant), n. A 
name given to several plants which display 
movements of their leaves in a remarkable 
degree, not only under the influence of light 
and darkness, but also undermechanical and 
other stimuli. The common sensitive plant 
is a tropical American leguminous annual 
of the genus 
ilimosa (Jtf . pu- 
dica). It is a 
low plant, with 
white flowers 
disposed in 

heads, which are 
rendered some- 
what conspicu- 
ous by the 
length of the 
stamens ; the 
leaves are com- 
pound, consist- 
ing of four 
leaves, them- 
selves pinnated, 
united upon a 
common foot- 
stalk. At the ap- 
proach of night 
the leaflets all 
fold together; 
the same takes 
place with the 
partial leaves, 
and, finally, the common footstalk bends 
towards the stem ; at sunrise the leaves 
generally unfold. The same phenomena 
take place on the plant being roughly 
touched or irritated, only that it recovers 
itself in a short period. The same property 
belongs to other species of Mimosa, and to 
species of other genera, as the Hedysarum 
gyrans, the teniate and pinnate species of 
dxalis, the Dioncea miisci2nila, Ac. 

Sensitivity (sens-i-tiv'i-ti), n. The state of 
being sensitive ; specifically, (a) in chem. 
and photog. readily affected by the action of 
appropriate agents ; as, the sensitivity of 
prepared paper. (&) In physiol. that pro- 
perty of living parts by which they are cap- 
able of receiving impressions by means of 
the nervous system; sensibility. 

Sensitize (sens'i-tiz), v.t. pret. & pp. sensi- 
tized; ppr. seiisitizing. To render sensitive 
or capable of being acted on by the actinic 
rays of the sun; as, sensitized paper or a sen- 
sitized plate: a term in photography, &c. 

Sensitory (sens'i-to-ri), n. Same as Sen- 
sory. See Sensorium. 

Sensivet (sen'siv), a. Possessing sense or 
feeling; sensitive. Sir P. Sidney. 

Sensor (sen'sor), a. Sensory. [Rare.] 

Sensorial (sen-so'ri-al), a. Pertaining to 
the sensory or sensorium; as, sensorial 
faculties; sensorial motions or powers. 

Sensorium (sen-s6'ri-um), n. [From L. 




Sensitive-plant {Afimosa 
pndica). 



sensus, sense. ] 1. A general name given to 
the brain or to any series of nerve-centrea 
in which impressions derived from the ex- 
ternal world become localized, transformed 
into sensations, and thereafter transferred 
by reflex action to other parts of the body. 
The term has been sometimes specially ap- 
plied to denote the series of organs in the 
brain connected with the reception of spe- 
cial impressions derived from the organs of 
sense. Thus the olfactory and optic lobes, 
the auditory and gustatory ganglia, &c., 
form parts of the typical sensorium in this, 
latter sense. The older physiologists held 
the theory of a sensorium commtme which 
extended throughout the whole nervous- 
system. — 2. The term formerly applied to 
an ideal point in the brain where the soul 
was supposed to be more especially located 
or centralized ; according to Descartes a 
small body near the base of the brain called 
the pineal gland. 

Sensory (sen'so-ri). a. Relating to the sen- 
sorium; as, seJi«ory ganglia; sensory nerves. 

Sensory (sen'so-ri;, n. 1. Same as Senso- 
rium, 1. 

Is not the sensory of animals the place to which the 
sensitive substance is present, and mto which the sen- 
sible species of things are carried through the nerves of 
the brain, that there they may be perceived by their im- 
mediate presence to that substance. Sir I. Xaolon. 

2.t One of the organs of sense. 

That we all have double sensor ies, two eyes,two ears, 
is an effectual confutation of this atheistical sophism. 
Ben/ley. 

Sensual (sen'sii-al), a. [L. sensualis, from 
sentio, sensum, to perceive by the senses. 
See Sense.] l. Peri;aining to, consisting in, 
or affecting the senses or bodily organs of 
perception. 

Far as creation's ample range extends 

The scale of sensual, mental pow'rs ascends. Pope. 

2. Relating to or concerning the body, in dis- 
tinction from the spirit; not spiritual or 
intellectual; carnal; fleshly. Jas. iii. 15; 

Jude 19. 

The greatest part of men are such as prefer. . . that 
good which is sensual before whatsoever is divine. 
Hooker. 

3. Pertaining to or consisting in the gratifi- 
cation of sense or the indulgence of appe- 
tite; luxurious; lewd; voluptuous; devoted 
to the pleasures of sense and appetite. 

No small part of virtue consists in abstaining from 
that in which sensual men place their felicity. 

A Iter bury. 

4. Pertaining, relating, or peculiar to sensu- 
alism as a philosophical doctrine. 

Sensualism (sen'su-al-izm), n. 1. In metaph. 
that theory which bases all our mental acta 
and intellectual powers upon sensation ; 
sensationalism. The theory opposed to it 
is intellectualism.—2.. A state of subjection 
to sensual feelings and appetites; sensuality; 
lewdness. 

Tyrants, by the sale of human life. 
Heap luxuries to their sensualism. Shelley. 

Sensualist (sen'su-al-ist), n. 1. A person 
given to the indulgence of the appetites or 
senses ; one who places his nhief happiness 
in carnal pleasures.— 2. One who holds the 
sensual theory in philosophy; a sensational- 
ist. 

Sensualistlc (sen'sii-al-isfik), a. 1. Up- 
holding the doctrine of sensualism.— 2. Sen- 
sual. 

Sensuality (sen-su-al'i-ti), n. [Fr. sensu- 
aliti. See Sensual.] The quality of being 
sensual; (a) devotedness to the gratiflcatiun 
of the bodily appetites ; free indulgence in 
carnal or sensual pleasures. ' Those pam- 
per'd animals that rage in savage sensuality. 
Shak. 

They avoid dress, lest they should have affectioni 
tainteu by any sensuality. Addison. 

(6) Carnality; fleshliness. Daniel Rogers. 

Sensualization (sen'su-al-iz-a"Ehon), n. 
The act of sensualizing ; the state of being 
sensualized. 

Sensualize (sen'su-al-iz), v.t. pret. & pp. 
sensualized; ppr. sensualizing. To make 
sensual ; to subject to the love of sensual 
pleasure; to debase by carnal gratifications. 
' Sensualized by pleasure, like those who 
were changed into brutes by Circe.' Pope. 

Sensually (sen'su-al-li), adv. In a sensual 
manner. 

Sensualness ( sen'su-al-nes ), n. The qua- 
lity of l)eing sensual; sensuality. 

Sensuism (sen'su-izni), n. The same as 
Sensualism. 

Sensuosity (sen-su-os'i-ti), n. The state 
of being sensuous. 

Sensuous (sen'su-us). a. 1. Pertaining to the 
senses; connected with sensible objects; ap- 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, Sc, abune; y, Sc. fey. 



SENSUOUSLY 



33 



SEPARABLE 



pealing to or addressing the senses; abound- 
iug in or suggesting sensible images. 

To this poetry would be made precedent, as beinj' 
less subtle and fine, but more simple, sensuous, and 
passionate. MiUan. 

To express in one word all that appertains to the 
perception, considered as passive and merely recipi- 
ent, I have adopted from our elder classics the word 
sensuous. Coleridge. 

2. Reailily affected through the senses; alive 
to the pleasure to be received through the 

senses. 

Too soft and sfftsuous by nature to be exhilar- 
ated by the conflict of modern opinions, he (Keats) 
f.-und at once food for his love of beauty, and an 
cpiate for his despondency in the remote tales of 
Greek inytholojfy. Quart. Rev. 

Sensuously (sen'su-us-li), adc. In a sensu- 
ous iiiaiiner Coleridge. 

Sensuausness ( sen'su-us-nes ), n. Quality 
of bt'iuL; sensuous, in both its meanings. 

There is a suggestion of easy-goine sensuousuess 
in the lower part of the face, especially in tlie fulness 
of the chin. EdOt. Rri'. 

Sentt (sent), n. Scent; sensation; percep- 
tion. Sj)enyer. 

Sent (sent), pret. & pp. of send. 

Sentence (sen'tens), n. [Fr; L. sen^nHa, 
from stentio, to perceive by the senses. See 
Sex^E ] 1. An expressed or pronounced 
opinion; judgment; a decision. Acts xv. 19. 

My sentence is for open war. Milton. 

The sentence of the early writers, including the 
fifth and sixth centuries, if it did not pass for mfal- 
lible, was of prodigious weight in controversy. 

Hal lam. 

2. In laic, a definitive judgment pronounced 
by a court or judge upon a criminal; a 
judicial decision publicly and officially de- 
clared in a criminal prosecution. In techni- 
cal language nentence is U9e<l only for the 
declaration of judgment against one con- 
victed of a crime. In civil cases the decision 
of a court is called a jwdgrmi-jtr In criminal 
cases sentence is a judgment pronounced; 
doom —3 A determination ordecision given, 
particularly a decision that condemns, or 
an unfavourable determination. 

Let him set out some of Luther's works, that by 
them wc may pass sentence upon his doctrines. 

j^t/er/'ury. 

4 A maxim ; an axiom ; a short saying con- 
taining moral instruction. 

Who fears a seftteftce or an old man's saw 
Shall by a painted cloth be kept in awe. Skak. 

6. In gram, a period ; a number of words 
containing complete sense or a sentiment, 
and followed l>y a full point; a fonn uf 
words in wliich a complete thought or pro- 
position is expressed. Sentences may be 
divided into t-imple, compound, and compUx. 
A simple mntence consists of one subject 
and one finite verb; as, *the Lord reigns.' 
A compomul sentence contains two or more 
subjects and finite verbs, as in this verse — 
*He fills, he bounds, connects and ei|uals 
all.' J''/pe. A complex sentence consists of 
one principal sentence together with one 
or more tlependent sentences; as, 'the man, 
who cauK* yesterday, went away to-day.' It 
differs from th • comprnmd sentence in hav- 
ing one or more clauses subordinate to a 
principal clause, whereas in the compound 
the clauses are co-ordinate, or on the same 
footing.— 6 t Sense; meaning; significance. 
'The (liscourse itself, voluble enough, and 
full of xentence.' Milton. 
Sentence (sen'tens), v.t pret <t pp. sen- 
fenced; ppr. sentencing. 1. To pass or pro- 
nounce sentence or judgment on ; to con- 
demn; to doom to punishment- 
Nature herself is sentenced in your doom. Dryden. 
Sentencing^ an officer of rank and family to the 
pillory in the regular course of judicial proceedings, 
gave general dis^st. Brougham. 

2.t To pronounce as judgment: to express 
as a decision ur determination; to decree. 

Let them . . . enforce the present execution 
Of what wc chance to sentence. Shnk. 

3 t To express in a short energetic manner. 

Let me hear one wise man sentence it. rather than 
twenty fools, garrulous in their lengthened title. 

FelcMafn. 

Sentencer (sen'tens-dr), n. One who pro- 
nounces a sentence. Southey. 

Sentential (sen ten'ahal), a. 1. Comprising 
sentences. —2. Pertaining to a sentence or 
fiili jieriod; as, & sentential 1*^X19,^. 

Sententially (sen ten'shal-li ). adv. In a sen- 
tenlial manner; by means of sentences. 

Sententlarian, Sententiary (senten-shi- 
iVri-an, ^en■teIl'shi a-ri). a, F»»rmerly. one 
who read lectures or commented on the 
Liher sententiarum of Peter Lombard, a 
school divine of the twelfth century. Iliia 



manual consisted of an arr ,nged collection 
of sentences from Augustine and other 
fathers on points of Christian doctrine, with 
objections and replies, also collected from 
authors of repute. 

Sententiosity I (sen-ten'shi-os"i-ti), 7i. Sen- 
tentiousness. Sir T. Browne. 

Sententious (sen-ten'shus), a. [L. sen- 
tentioHUS, Fr. sententieux. See SENTENCE.] 
1. Abounding with sentences, axioms, and 
maxims; rich in judicious observations; 
pithy; terse; as, a xententiotis style or dis- 
course; sententious truth. 

How he apes his sire. 
Ambitiously sententious! Addison. 

2 Comprising sentences; sentential; as, 'sen- 
teniiuiis marks.' S. Grew. 
Sententiously (sen-ten'shus-li), adv. In 
a sententious manner ; in short expressive 
periods; with striking brevity. 

N'ausicaa delivers her judgment sententiously, to 
give it more weight. //'. Broome. 

SententiOUSness (sen-ten'shus-nes), n. The 
quality of being sententious or short and 
energetic in expression ; pithiness of sen- 
tences; brevity of expression combined with 
strength. 

The Medea I esteem for the gravity and senteu- 
tiousness of it. Dryden. 

Sentery + (sen't^r-i), n. A sentinel. See Sen- 

TI'.Y. MiUnn. 

Sentience, Sentiency (sen'shi-ens, sen'shi- 
en-si), n. The state of being sentient; the 
faculty of perception; feeling. 'Sentience 
or feeling.' yatitre. 

Sentient (sen'ahi-ent), a. [L. sentiens, sen- 
tientig, ppr. of sentio, to perceive by the 
senses. See Sense] 1. Capable of perceiving 
or feeling; having the faculty of perpoption; 
as, man is a sentient being ; he possesses a 
sentient faculty. ' The series of mental states 
which constituted his sentient existence.' 
J. S. Mill.— 2. In physiol. a term applied to 
those parts which are more susceptible of 
feeling than others; as, the sentient extre- 
mities of the nerves, Ac. 

Sentient (sen'shi-ent). n. One who has the 
faculty of perception; a perceiving being. 
Glanville. 

Sentiently (sen'shi-ent-li), adv. In a sen- 
tient or perceptive manner. 

Sentiment (sen'ti-ment), n. [Fr.; L.L. sen- 
timentmn. from L sentio, to perceive by 
the senses, to feel. See SENSE.] 1. A thought 
prompted by passion or feeling; a feeling 
toward or respecting some perstm or thing; 
a particular disposition of mind in view of 
some subject. 

We Hieak of sentiments of respect, of esteem, of 
gratitude ; but I never heard the pain of the gout, or 
any other feeling, called a sentiment. Reid. 

2 Tendency to be swayed by feeling; tender 
susceptibility; feeling; emotion; sensibility. 

I am apt to suspect . , . that reason and senti- 
ment ronciir in almost all moral determinations and 
conclusions. Hunu. 

Less of sentiment thao sense 
Had Katie. Tennyson. 

3. Thought; opinion; notion; judgment; 
the decision of the mind formed by deliber- 
ation or reasoning; as, to express one's «/*- 
thr^nts on a subject. 

On questions of feeUng. taste, observation, or re- 
port, we define our sentiments. On questions of 
science, argument, or metaphysical abstraction, we 
define our opinions. ft-'. Taylor 

4. The sense. th<iught, or opinion contained 
in words, but considered as distinct from 
them; as, we may like the sentiment, when 
we dislike the language Hence— 6. In the 
fine arts, the leading idea which has gov- 
enied the general conception of a work of 
art, or which makes itself visible to the eye 
and mind of the spectator through the work 
of the artist. Fairholt ~G A thought ex- 
pressed in striking words; a sentence ex- 
pressive of a wish or desire ; a toast, gener- 
ally couched in proverbial or epigrammatic 
language ; as, ' More friends and less need 
of them.' 

Ill give you a sentiment. Here's success to usury. 
S/teridan. 

7 In phren. a term employed to designate 
the second division of the moral or affective 
faeulties of the mind, the first being termed 
pi "j'^nirities. See Phrenology. 
SenitmentaKsen-ti-ment'al), a. 1. Having 
sentiment; apt to be swayed by sentiment; 
indulging in sensibility; manifesting an ex- 
cess of sentiment ; affecting sentiment or 
sensibility; artificially or mawkishly tender. 

A sentimental mind is rather prone to overwrought 
feeling and exaggerated tenderness. ff'Aately. 



2. Exciting sensibility; appealing to senti- 
ment or feeling rather than to reason. 

Perhaps there is no less danger in works called 
sentimental. They attack the heart more success- 
fully because more cautiously. Dr. k'nox. 

— Romantic, Sentimental. See under Ro- 
mantic. 

Sentimentalism (sen-ti-ment'al-izm), «. 
The quality of being sentimental or having 
an excess of sensibility; affectation of senti- 
nientorsensihility; sentimentality. 'Kscliew 
political senti)nentalism.' Disraeli. 

Sentimentalist (sen-ti-ment'al-ist), n. One 
who affects sentiment, fine feeling, or ex- 
(luisite sensibility. 

Sentimentality (sen'ti-ment-al"j-ti), n. Af- 
fectation of fine feeling or exquisite sensi- 
bility: sentimentalism. 'The false pity and 
sentimentality of many modem ladles.' T. 
Warton. 

Sentimentalize (sen-ti-ment'al-iz), v.i. pret. 
& pp. sentimentalized; ppr. sentimentaliz- 
ing. To affect extjuisite sensibility; to play 
the sentimentalist. 

Sentimentally (sen-ti-ment'aMi), adv. In 
a sentimental manner; as, to speak senti- 
mentally 

Sentinet (sen'tin), 7i. [L sentina, a sink.] 
A place into wliich dregs, dirt, Ac, are 
thrown ; a sink. 'A stinking sentine of all 
vices.' Latimer. 

Sentinel (sen'ti-nel), n. [Fr. sentinelle; It. 
sentinella ; orfgin doubtful; by some re- 
garded as from L. sentio, to perceive.] l.One 
who watches or keeps guard to prevent sur- 
prise; especially (milit.), a soldier set to 
watch or guard an army, camp, or other 
place from surprise, to observe the approach 
of danger and give notice of it. 

The fix'd sentinels almost receive 
The secret whispers of each other's watch. Skak 
Where Love reig^n?, disturbing Jealousy 
Doth call himself Atf*ction*s sentinel. Shak. 

2.t The watch, guard, or duty of a sentinel. 
' 'That princes do keep due sentinel. ' Bacon. 
Used adjectively. 

The sentinel stars set their watch in the sky. 
CamfiMl. 

Sentinel (sen'ti-nel), r.f. 1. To watch over as 
a sentinel. 'To sentinel enchanted ground.' 
Sir W. Scott.— 2. To furnish with a sentinel 
or sentinels ; to place under the guard of 
sentinels. It. Pollok. 

Sentiy (sen'tri). n. [Corruption of sen tinel. ] 

1. A soldier placed on guard; a sentinel.— 

2. Guard; watch; duty of a sentinel. O'er 
my slumlters sentry keep.' Sir T. Browne. 

Sentry-box (sen'tri- boks), n. A small shed 
to cover a sentinel at his post, and shelter 
him from the weather. 
Senza (sant'za). [It., without] In music, a 
term signifying without; as, nenza stromen- 
ti, without instruments. —SfHZrt sordini, 
without the dampers; in pianoforte playing, 
meaning that the dampers are to be raised 
front the &iriu^&.— Senza sordino, in violin 
or violoncello playing, signifies tliat the 
mute is to be removed. 
Sepahl (sep'a-hi), n. A sipahi; a sepoy. 
Sepal (se'pal), n. [Fr. s^pale, an invented 
term made to re- 
^-^ semble j>^tate, a 

s /|'' V petal] In 6of. one of 

^ ■■ theseparatedivisions 

of a calyx when that 
organ is made up of 
various leaves. When 
it consists of but one 
part it is said to be 
monosepalmis ; when 
of two or more parts, 
St. Sepals. itissaid toberf/-, rrt-, 

tetra-,pentasepaloti8, 
A'c. When of a variable and indefinite num- 
ber of parts, it is said to be polysepalous. 
Sepaline (sep'al-in), a. In bot. relating to 
a sepal or sepals ; having the nature of a 
sepal, 

Sepaloid (sep'al-oid), a. Like a sepal, or 
di-stinct jiart of a perianth. 
SepalOUS (sep''al-us), a. Relating to or hav- 
in;; sepals- 

Separabillty (sep'a-ra-bil"i-ti), n. The qua- 
lity of being separable, or of admitting sep- 
aration or disunion; divisibility. 

Separability is the greatest argument of real dis- 
tintliun. Clanville. 

Separable (sep'a-ra-bl), a. [L. separabilis. 
See Separate. ] Capable of being separated, 
disjoined, disunited, or rent; divisible; as. 
the separable parts of plants; qualities not 
separable from the substance in which they 
exist. 




eh, cAain; 
Vol. IV. 



th, Sc. locA; g, go; }. joh; t, Fr. ton; ng, aing; th, (Aen; tli, (Ain; w, trig; wh, trAig; 



zh, azure.— See Key. 
141 



SEPARABLENESS 



34 



SEPTENNIAL 



Sdparableuess (sep'a-ra-bl-nea), n. The 
quality of being separable, or capable of 
separatiun ur disuniou. 

Trials permit me not to doubt of the scparahUness 
of a yellow tincture from gold. Boyle. 

Separably (sep'a-ra-bli), adv. In a separ- 
able inauuer. 

Separate (sep'a-rat), M.i. pret. & pp. se^a- 
raUd; ppr. separating. [L. separo, separa- 
tum— se, aside, undparo, to put, set. or plaoe 
in order (whence prepare, ttc.).] 1. To dis- 
unite; to divide; to sever; to part, in almost 
any manner, either things naturally or 
casually joined; as, the parts of a solid 
substance may be separated by breaking, 
cutting, or splitting, or by fusion, decom- 
position, or natui'al dissolution; acompounil 
body may be separated into its constituent 
parts ; friends may be separated by neces- 
sity, and must be separated by death ; the 
prism separates the several kinds of coloured 
rays; a riddle separates the chaff from the 
grain.— 2, To set apart from a number, as 
For a particular service. 

Separate me Barnabas and Saul for the work 
whereuiuo I have called them. Acts xiu. a. 

8. To make a space between; to sever, as by 
an intervening space ; to lie between ; as, 
theAtlantic separates Europe from America. 
Separate (sep'a-rat), v.l 1. To part; to be 
disunited; to be disconnected; to withdraw 
from each other. 

When there was not room enough for their herds 
to feed, they by consent separated, and enlar^red 
their pasture. Locke. 

2. To cleave; to open ; as, the parts of a 
substance separate by drying. 
Separate (sep'a-rat), a. [L. separatus, pp. 
of separo. See the verb.] 1. Divided from 
the rest ; being parted from another ; dis- 
joined; disconnected: used of things that 
have been united or connected. 

Come out from among them, and be ye separate, 
saith the Lord. a Cor. vi. 17. 

2. Unconnected; not united; distinct: used 
of things that have not been connected. 

Such an high priest became us, who is holy, harm- 
less, undefiled, and separate from sinners. 

Heb. vii, 26. 

3. Alone; withdrawn; without company. 

Beyond his hope. Eve separate he spies. MiUon. 

4. Disunited from the body; incorporeal; 
as, a separate spirit ; the separate state of 
souls. Locke. Separate estate, the property 
of a married woman, which she holds inde- 
pendently of her husband's interference and 
control. —Separate j/iai»(eHa?ice, a provision 
made by a husband for the sustenance of 
his wife, where they have come to a reso- 
lution to live separately. 

Separately (sep'a-rat-li), adv. In a separate 
or unconnected state; apart; distinctly; 
singly; as, the opinions of the council were 
separately taken. 

Conceive the whole toeether, and not everything 
separately and in particular. Dryden. 

Separateness (sep'a-rat-nes), n. The state 
of being separate. 

Separatical (sep-a-rat'ik-al), a. Pertaining 
to separation in religion ; schismatical. 
Dioight [Rare.] 

Separation (sep-a-ra'shon), 7i. [L. separatio, 
separationis. See Separate.] 1. The act of 
separating, severing, or disconnecting; dis- 
junction; as, the separation of the soul from 
the body.— 2. The state of being separate; 
disunion ; disconnection. 

As the confusion of tongues was a mark of separa- 
tion, so the being of one language was a mark of 
union. Bacon. 

3. The operation of disuniting or decompos- 
ing substances; chemical analysis. Bacon. 

4. Divorce ; disunion of married persons ; 
cessation of conjugal cohabitation of man 
and wife. ' A separation between the king 
a.ndK&t\ia.Thie.' Shak.— Judicial separation, 
the separation of a husband and wife by 
decree of the Court of Divorce. It may be 
obtained by a husband or by a wife on the 
ground of adultery, cruelty, or desertion 
without cause for two years and upwards. 
The parties, not being divorced, cannot 
marry again ; but there is no longer the 
duty of cohabiting. Other effects of a judi- 
cial separation depend on the terms of the 
order, the judge having considerable dis- 
cretion, so as to deal with each case accord- 
ing to its merits. The Scottish law nearly 
coincides with the English, the Court of 
Session having jurisdiction. Neither in 
England nor in Scotland are husband and 
wife entitled to live apart unless by common 



consent, or by decree of a court of law. See 
Divorce, Mess a. I 

Separatism (sep'a-rat-izm), 71. The state of 
being a separatist; the opinions or practice 
of separatists; disposition to withdraw from j 
a church; dissent. I 

Separatist (sep'a-rat-ist), 71. [Er, si^para- ; 
tiate. See SEPARATE.] 1. One who with- ' 
draws or separates himself; especially, one , 
who withdraws from a particular church; a 
dissenter; aseceder; aschismatic; asectary. 

After a faint struggle he yielded, and parsed, with 
the show of alacrity, a series of odious acts against 
the separatists. Macau/ay. 

2. One who advocates separation, especially 
the separation of Ireland from Britain. 

Separatlstic (sep'a-rat-ist"ik), a. Relating 
to or characterized by separatism ; schis- 
matical. 

Separative (sep'a-rat-iv), a. Tending to 
separate; promoting separation. Boyle. 

Separator (scp'a-rat-6r), n. One who or 
that which separates, divides, or disjoins; 
a divider. 

Separatory (sep'a-ra-to-ri), a. Causing or 
used in separation; separative; as, separa- 
tor;/ ducts. Cheyne. 

Separatory (sep'a-ra-to-ri), n. 1. A chemi- 
cal vessel for separating liquors.— 2. A sur- 
gical instrument for separating the peri- 
cranium from the cranium. 

Sepawn (se-p^n'), 71. A species of food 
consisting of meal of maize boiled in water. 
[United StAtes.] Written also Sepon. 

Sepeliblet (sep'e-li-bl),a. [L. sepeUbUis, from 
sepelio, to bury. ] Fit for, admitting of, or 
intended for burial; that may be buried. 

Sepelitiont (sep-i-li'shon), 71. [See above.] 
Burial; interment. Bj). Hall. 

Sepia (se'pi-a), n. [L., from Gr. sepia, the 
cuttle-fish or squid.] 1. The cuttle-fish, a \ 
genus of cephalopodous molluscs, order Di- 
branchiata. See Cuttle. — 2. In the fine 
arts, a species of pigment prepared from 
a black juice secreted by certain glands of 
the sepia or cuttle-fish. The Sepia qffi.ci~ 
nalis, so common in the Mediterranean, is 
chiefly sought after on account of the pro- 
fusion of colour which it affords. The se- 
cretion, which is insoluble in water, but 
extremely diffusible through it, is agitated 
in water to wash it, and then allowed slowly 
to subside, after which the water is poured 
off, and the black sediment is formed into 
cakes or sticks. In this form it i.s used as a 
common writing ink in China, Japan, and 
India. When prepared with caustic lye it 
forms a beautiful brown colour, with a fine 
grain, and lias given name to a species of 
monochrome drawing now extensively cul- 
tivated. 

Sepiadse (se'pi-a-de), n. [See Sepia.] A 
family of ceplialopods, including those forms 
which are popularly called cuttle-fishes. 
See Cuttle. 

SeplC (se'pik), a. 1. Pertaining to sepia.— 
2. Done in sepia, as a drawing. 

Sepicolous (se-pik'o-lus), a. [L. sepes, a 
hedge, and colo. to inhabit.] In bot. in- 
habiting or growing in hedgerows. 

Sepldaceous (se-pi-da'shus), a. In zool. of 
or relating to molluscs of the genus Sepia. 

Sepiment (sep'i-ment), n. [L. sepimentum, 
from sepio, to inclose.] A hedge; a fence; 
something that separates. 

SepiOllte (se'pi-o-lit), n. [Gr. sepion, the 
bone of the cuttle-fish, and lithos, a stone.] 
See Magnesite. 

Sepiostaire (se-pi-os'tar), n. [Gr. sejiia, a 
cuttle-fish, and osteon, a bone.] In zool. the 
internal shell of the cuttle-fish, conmionly 
known as the cuttle-bone. H.A. Nicholson. 

Sepometer (se-pom'et-6r), 71. [Gr. sepo, to 
putrefy, and metron, a measure.] An instru- 
ment for determining, by means of the de- 
coloration and decomposition produced in 
permanganate of soda, the amount of or- 
ganic impurity existing in the atmosphere. 

Sepon (se-pon'), n. Same as Sepawn. 

Seposet (se-p6z'), v.t. pret. & pp. seposed; 
ppr. deposing. [L. sepono, sepositum — se, 
apart, and pono, to place.] To set apart. 

God seposed a seventh of our time for his exterior 
worship, Donne. 

Seposit t (se-poz'it), v. t. To set aside. Fel- 
tharn. 

Sepositiont (sep-o-zi'shon), n. The act of 
setting apart; segregation. Jer. Taylor. 

Sepoy (se'poi), n. [Per. sipahi, a soldier.] 
1. A name given in Hindustan to the native 
soldiers in the British service.— 2. In Bom- 
bay, a foot messenger. Stocqueler. 

Seps (seps), 71. [Gr. seps, a small lizard, 
the bite of which causes putrefaction, from 



sepo, to make putrid.] The name of a genus 
of scincoid saurian reptiles, sometimes 
called serpent-lizards. They are found in 
the East Indies, the Cape of Good Hope, 
and on tlie coasts of the Mediten-anean. 
These animals have elongated bodies, short 
and indistinct feet, non-extensile tongues, 
and scales covering their bodies like tiles. 

Sepsidse (sep'si-de), 71. pi. A family of liz- 
ards, of which the type is the genus Seps. 
See Sei>s. 

Sept (sept), 71. [Probably a corruption of 
sect] A clan, a branch of a race or family: 
used particularly of the races or families in 
Ireland. 

The terms ' tribe ' and ' sept' are indifferently used 
by many writers on Irish antiquities; but Sir Henry 
Maine thinks the first applies to the larger unit of 
the above description, and the second to the minor 
groujifi it includes. , . . The sept was known by a 
second name, the Fine or Family, and it was evi- 
dently a distinct organic group in the main connected 
by the ties of blood, and claiming descent from a 
common ancestor, yet certainly containing other ele- 
ments introduced by adoption and like processes. la 
this respect it had much affinity with the Roman 
"Gens" and the Hellenic ' House'; and it was singu- 
larly Hke the Hindoo 'Joint Family' united in kin- 
dred, worship, and estate, and one of the earliest 
monads of Aryan life. Edin. Rev. 

Sept (sept), n. [L. septum, an inclosure.} 
In arch, a railing. Britton. 

Septa (sep'ta), pi. of septum (which see). 

Septsemia, n. See Seiticj.mia. 

Septal (sep'tal), a. Of or belonging to a 
septum. 

Septangle (sep'tang-gl),n. [L. «ep(fi7n, seven, 
and anyulus, an angle.] In geom. a figure 
having seven sides and seven angles; a hept- 
agon. 

Septangular (sep-tang'gQ-lfer), a. Having 
seven angles. 

Septaria (sep-ta'ri-a). 71. [From L. septum, 
an inclosure, from sepio, to inclose.] 1. A 
genus of acephalous molluscs belonging to 
the family Tubicolidte of Lamarck.— 2. In boL 
a genus of fungi. 

Septarium (sep-ta'ri-um), 71. pi. Septa- 
ria (sep-ta'ri-a). a name given to spheroidal 
masses of calcareous marl, ironstone, or 
other matter, whose interior presents nu- 
merous flssiu'es or seams of some crystal- 
lized substance which divide the mass. 

Septate (sep'tat), a. Partitioned off or di- 
videil into compartments by septa. 

Septeml>er (sep-tem'b6r), n. [L., from sep- 
tem, seven.] The ninth month of the year, 
so called from being the seventh month from 
March, which was formerly tlie first month 
of the year, 

Septembrist (sep-temljrist), n. [Fr. $eptem- 
brijste, scptembrixeur.] The name given to 
one of the authors or agents of the dreadful 
massacre of prisoners which took place in 
Paris on September 2d and 3d, 1792, in the 
first French revolution; hence, a malignant 
or bloodthirsty person. 

Septemfluous (sep-tem'flO-us), a. [L. eep- 
tem, seven, andy^uo, to flow.] Divided into 
seven streams or currents ; having seven 
mouths, as a river. 'The main streams of 
thi^scptemjlvmisrivev.' Dr.U.More. [Rare.] 

Septempartite (sep-tem'par-tU),a. Divided 
nearly to tlie base into seven parts. 

Septemvir (sep-tem'v6r), n. pi. Septem- 
Viri (sep-tem'vi-ri). [L. septevi, seven, and 
vir, a man, pi. viri, men.] One of seven men 
joined in any office or commission ; as, the 
septetnviri epulones, one of the four great 
religious corporations at Rome. 

Septemvlrate (sep-tem'v6r-at),7i. The office 
of a septemvir; a government of seven per- 
sons. 

Septenary (sep'ten-a-ri), a. [L. septetiarius, 
from septeni, seven each, from septem, 
seven. ] 1. Consisting of or relating to seven; 
as, a septenary number— 2. Lasting seven 
years; occurring once in seven years. 

Septenary (sep'ten-a-ri), 71. The number 
seven. Burnet. [Rare. ] 

Septenate (sep'ten-at), a. In bot. applied 
to an organ having seven parts, as a com- 
pound leaf with seven leaflets coming off 
from one point. 

Septennate (sep-ten'at), n. [L. septem, 
seven, and annus, a year.] A period of 
seven years. 

Septennial (sep-teu'ni-al), a. [L. septennis — 
septejn, seven, anda7i7tt<#, ayear.] 1. Lasting 
or continuing seven years; as. septennial 
parliaments. —2. Happening or returning 
once in every seven years; as, septennial 
elections. 

Being once dispensed with for his se/tennia/ visit 
... he resolved to govern them by suDaltem minis- 
ters. HoTfelL 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not. nidve; tube, tub, bull; oil. pound; ii, Sa abune; y, Sc fey. 



SEPTENNIALLY 

Septennlally (sep-ten'ni-al-li), adv. Once in 

sevt'ii veiii'S- 

Septerinluni (sep-ten'ni-um), n. [L.] A 
pt-riH(l .if seven years. 

Septentriai (sep-teu'tri-al). a. Of or per- 
tainiii^'ti'the north; septentrional. Drayton. 

SeptentriO (sep-ten tri-o), n. In astron. the 
cuustellatinn I'r&i Major or Great Bear. 

Septentrion (sep-teu'tri-on), n. [Fr. septen- 
trioii, L. f!€i>t£ntrio, neptentrionis, the north, 
from feptent nones, the seven stars near the 
north pole belonging to the constellation 
calleil the Wain or the Great Benvsepte7n, 
seven, and trioneg, ploughing oxen.] The 
ni-irth or northern regions. 

Thou art as opposite to every good 

As the south to the sefitentrion. Shak. 

Septentrion (sep-tentri-onX a. Xorthem. 
■CoUU<!i>rt/irriou blasts.' ilUton. [Rare.] 

Septentrional (sep-ten'tri-on-al),«. [L. sep- 
tenfrionnlis. See above,] Northern; per- 
taining to the north. ' The Gotlis and other 
gepteiitiiotiai nations.* Howell. 

Septentrionality (sep-ten'tri-o-nal"i-ti), n. 
state of lieiii^' northern; northerlinesa. 

Septentrionally ( sep-ten'tri-on-al-li ).arfc. 
Northerly ; towjinls the north. Sir T. 
Drotcae. 

Septentrionate (sep-ten'tri-on-at), v.i. 
pret. .t pp. neptfiitrionated; ppr. septentri- 
onatiifj. To tend toward the north. Sir T. 
Uioiae. [Rare.] 

Septet, Septette (sep-tef), "■ [L septem, 
sevL-n j In iiimic, a composition for aeveu 
voiies or instruments. 

Sept-foil (sept'foil), n, [L- sepUm, seven. 
aud>/iwr»- a leaf] 1. A British plant, the 
Potentilla TormeniiUa. See POTENTILLA.— 
2. A figure of seven ecjual segments of a 
circle used in the Roman Catliolic Church 
ad a symiK)! of the seven sacraments, aeren 
gifts of the llolv Spirit. &c. 

Septic, 3©ptical(8ep'tik, sep'tik-al), a. [Or. 
dptikoi, from >>ei*o, to pntrtfy.] Having 
power to promote putrefaction ; causing 
putrefaction ; as. septic poisons, which are 
tiiose furnislied by the animal kingdom. 

Septic (sep'tik), a. A substance that pro- 
motes or jiroduces the putrefaction of bodies; 
a substance tluit eats away the flesh witliout 
causing nuich pain. DuivjUmn. 

Septicaemia, Septseinia(sep-tiee'mi-a. sep- 
te'mi-a), n. [(iv. ^fptikos. ttepton. putrefying, 
from sepo, to putrefy, and haimn, bh»o(i.] 
fil I K>d -poisoning by absorption into the cir- 
calation of poisonous or putrid matter 
through any surface. Pysemia is a sub- 
variety. 

SepticaUy (sep'tik-al-li). 
adv. In a septic man- 
ner; by means of sep- 
tics 

Septlcidal (sep-ti-si'dal), 
a. [L. »eptiiin, a parti- 
tion, and ctedo, to cut or 
divide. See SEPrUM.] 
Dividing at the septa or 
partitions; in bot. said of 
a mode of dehiscing in 
which the fruit is re- 
solved into its ctmipo- 
nent carpels, which split 
asunder through the dis- 
sepiments. Treag. o/ Septlcidal Dehiscence. 
Botany. v. Valves, rf, Dis- 

SeptlCity(sep-tis'i-ti), n. sepiments. c. Axis 
The liuality of t>eing 
septic; tendency to promote putrefaction. 

SeptifarlOUS (sep-ti-fa'ri-na), a. [L. septi/a- 
ruiui, sevenfold, from septem, seven.] In 
hot. turned seven diiferent ways. Asa Gray. 

Septiferous (sep-tlf'^r-ns), a. [L. septum, 
an inclo=ure, and fero, to bear.] In bot. 
bearing .septa. See Septum. 

Septlfluous (sep-tlf1u-us). a. [L. septem, 
seven, AmXjirw, to flow] Flowing in seven 
streams. 

SeptlfoUous (sep-ti-foli-ns). a. [L. septem, 
seven, and folium, a leaf.] Having seven 
leaves. 

Septiform (sep'tl-form), a. [L. septxim, a 
partition, and /f/rma. shape] Resembling 
a septum or partition. 

SeptiAra^gal (sep-tifra-gal), a. [L. septum, 
a partition, and framjv, to break.] In bot. 
literally l>reaking from the partitions: ap- 
plied to a mode of dehiscing in which the 
backs of the carpels separate from the dis- 
sepiments whether formed by their sides or 
by expansions of the placenta. 
Septilateral (sep-ti-lat'6r-al), a. [L. teptem, 
seven, and latwf, laterU, a side.] Having 
seven sides; as, a septilateral figure. 




35 

Septile (sep'til), a. In bot. of or belonging 
to septa or dissepiments. 

SeptilUon (sep-til'li-ou), n. [L. septem, 
seven.] In Emj. notation, a million raised 
to the seventh power; a number consisting 
of a unit followed by forty-two ciphers. In 
French am\ Italian notation, a unit followed 
by twenty-four ciphers. 

Septimal (sep'ti-mal), a. [L. septimus, 
seventh, from septem, seven. ] Relating to 
the number seven. 

Septlmanarian(sep'ti-ma-na"ri-an),?i. [L. L. 
iirjitiinaua, a week, from L. se2)tem, seven.] 
A nionk on duty for a week in a monastery. 

Septimole (sep'ti-mol), n. In mu»>c. a group 
of seven notes to be played in the time of 
four or si.t. 

SeptisyllalDle (sep'ti-sil-a-bl), n. (L. sep- 
t'.in, seven, and K. syllable.} A word of seven 
syllables. 

Septuagenarian (8ep'tu-a-je-na"ri-an), n. 
[See SKi'TLAUENAKV.] A persou seventy 
years of ayre; a [lerson between seventy and 
eighty yeai-s of age. 

Septuagenary (sep-tu-aj'en-a-ri),a. (L. sep~ 
tmi'jenarius. consisting of seventy, septtia- 
(jeni, seventy each, from septem, seven.] 
Consisting of seventy or of seventy years; 
pertaining to a person seventy years old. 
' Moses's fieptuagetutry determination.' Sir 
T. Browne. 

Septuagenary (sep-tn-aj'en-a-ri), «. A sep- 
tuagenarian. 

Septtia^sima (sep'tu-a-jes"i-may n. [L. 
septua'jef^unus, seventieth.] The tninl Sun- 
day before Lent or before Quadragesima 
Sunday, so called because it is about seventy 
days before Easter. 

Septuagesimal (sep'tu-a-jes"i-mal). a. [See 
ai)ove. ] Consisting of seventy or of seventy 
years. ' Our abridged and aeptuagesimal 
age.' Sir T. Browne. 

Septuagint (sep'tii-a-jint), n. [L. septua- 
ginta, seventy, from septem, seven.) A 
Greek version of the Old Testament, usually 
expressed by the symbol LXX., so called 
either Iwcause it was approved and sanc- 
tioned by the sanhedrim, or supreme coun- 
cil of the Jewish nation, which consisted of 
about seventy members, or because, accord- 
ing to tradition, about seventy men were 
employed on the translation. It is reported 
by Josephus to have been made in the reign 
and by the order of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
king of Egypt, a!>out 270 or 280 years before 
the birth of Christ. It is supposed, how* 
ever, by modern critics that this version of 
the several books is the work, not only of 
different hands, but of separate times. It 
is pi-obable that at ttrst only the Pentateuch 
was translated, and the remaining books 
gradually. The Septuagint came to be very 
widely used, even among the Jews, and is 
the source fnun which most of the citations 
in the Xew Testament from the Old are 
taken. It is an invaluable help to the riglit 
understanding of the Hebrew Scriptures. 

8eptuairlnt(8ep'tu-a-jlnt). a. Pertaining to 
Uie Septuagint; contained in the Greek copy 
of the (^Id IVstament. 

The Stptuagint chronology makes fifteen hundred 
years citore from the creation to Abraham, than the 
present Hebrew copies of the Bible. Encyc. Brit. 

Saptuaryt(8ep'tu-a ri),n. [L. septem, %tyva.] 
Something couijKised of seven; a week. Ai^, 

Septulate (sep'tu-lat), a. In hot. applied 
to fruits having imperfect or false septa. 

Septum (sep'tum), n. pi. Septa (sep'ta). 
[L.. a partition, from sepio. to hedge in. to 
fence.] A partition; a wall se|>arating two 
cavities; specifically, (a) in hot. the x>&rtition 
of an ovary or fruit pro- 
duce4l by the sides of the 
carpels brought together 
and consolidated, {h) In 
anaL the plate or wall 
which separates from each 
other two adjoining cavi- 
ties, or which divides a 
principal cavity into sev- 
eral secondar>' ones; as, 
the septum of the nose. — 
Septum cordis, the parti 
tion between the two ventricles of the heart. 
C&\lei\aUo Septtnni'entrietilonnH. — Septum 
aitriculanim, the partition which separates 
the right from tlie left auricle of the heart. 
—Septum lucidttm, the metlullary substance 
which separates the two lateral ventricles 
of the brain. —Septum tran»ver»um. the 
diaphragm. — Septum nasi, the partition 
between the nostrils. 

Septuor (sep'tu-or), 7k. [Fr, a somewhat 
buarre form, compounded of L. septem. 




s s. Septa. 



SEQUEL 

seven, and the term, of quatuor, four, in 
music a quartette.] Same as Septet (which 
see). 

Septuple (sep'tu-pl), ft. [L. septuplun, from 
septem, seven.] Sevenfold; seven times as 
much. 

Septuple (sep'tu-pl), v.t. To make seven- 
fold. 

Let any one figure to himself the condition of our 
globe, were the sun to be septttpied. 

Sir y. Herschet. 

Sepulcliral (se-pul'kral), a. [L. sepxdchralis, 
h'omsepulchnun. See SEPULCHRE.] 1. Per- 
taining to burial, to the grave, or to monu- 
ments erected to the memory of the dead ; 
as, a sepulchral stone; a sepulchral statue. 

Our wasted oil unprofitably burns. 

Like iiidden lamps in old sepulchral urns. Cmvper. 

2. Suggestive of a sepulchre ; hence, deep ; 

grave; hollow in tone; as, a sepulchral tone 

of voice. 'The solemn sepulchral piety of 

certain North - Eastern gospellers.' Pro/. 

Black'ic. —Sepulchral mmmd. See Barrow, 
Sepulchralize (sepul'kral-iz), v. t. To ren- 

(it-r sepuUhral or solemn. [Rare] 
Sepulchre (sep'ul-ker), n. [L. sepidchrum, 

from sep€lio,sepultwn, to bury.] 1. A tomb; 

a building, cave, &c., for interment; a burial 

vault. 
He rolled a great stone to tlie door of the sepulchre, 

and depaned. Mat. xxvii. 6o. 

2. In eccles. arch, a recess for the reception 
of the holy elements consecrated on Maun- 
day Thureday till high-mass on Easter-day. 

Sepulchre (sep'ul-k^r, fonnerly also se-pul'- 
k6r), v.t. pret. & pp. sepidchred; ppr. se- 
pulchring. To bury; to inter; to entomb. 
'Obscurely sepidchred.' Prior. 'Where 
merit is not sepidchered alive.' B. Jonson. 

And so sepulchertd in such poitip dost lie. 
That kings for such a tomb would wish to die. 
Milton. 
An earthquake's spoil is sfpu/c/tered helovt. Byron. 

Sepulture (sep'ul-tiir),)i. [L.sepxdtura, from 
sepelio, sepultum, to bury.] 1. Burial; in- 
terment ; the act of depositing the dead 
body of a human being in a burial-place. 
'Where we may royal sepulture prepare.* 
J)rifden.—2. Grave; burial-place; sepulchre. 
Lamb; Cardinal Wiseman. 

Wlien ye comen by my sffinlture 
Rcmembrcth tliat your fellow resteth there, 

Chaucer. 

Sepulture (sep'ul-tur), v.t. To bury; to en- 
tomb; to sepulchre. Coieper. [Rw"e.] 

Sequacious (sekwa'shus), a. [L. seqtuux, 
se'ptacis, from sequor, to follow.] 1. Follow- 
ing ; attendant ; not moving on indepen- 
dently; disposed or tending to follow a 
leader. ' The fond sequacious herd. ' Thorn- 
son. 

Trees uprooted left their place. 
Sequacious of the lyre. Drydfn. 

2.t Ductile; pliant; manageable. 'The mat- 
ter being ductile and sequacious.' Bay.^ 

3. Logically consistent and rigorous ; con- 
secutive in development or transition of 
thought. ' The sequacious thinkers of the 
day.' Sir W. Hamilton. 

The motions of his mind were slow, solemn, and 
stquacious. De Quincey. 

SecLuaciOUsness (se-kwa'shus-nes), n. State 
of l>eing sequacious; disposition to follow. 
' The servility and seqtiaciousness of con- 
science.' Jer. Taylor. 

Sequadty (.^e-kwas'i-ti), ti, [L. sequacitas, 
from sequax. See above.] 1. A following 
or disposition to follow. 'Blind sequacity 
of other men's votes.' Whitlock. 

It proved them to be hypotheses, on which the 
credulous sequacity of philosophers had bestowed 
the prescriptive authority of self-evident truths. 

Sir If. HamilloH. 
2. t Ductility; pliableness. Bacon. 

Sequarious (se-kwa'ri-us), a. Following; 
8e«iuacious. Hoget. [Rare.] 

Sequel (se'kwel), n. [Fr. s^quelle; L. sequela, 
se(|ueU result, consequence, from sequor, to 
follow.] I. That which follows and forms 
a continuation; a succeeding part; as, the 
sequel of a man's adventures or history. 
* The sequel of the tale.' Tennyson. 

O, let me say no more 1 
Gather the sequel by what went before. ShaA. 

2. Consequence; result; event. 

The sequel of to-day unsolders all 

The goodliest fellowship of famous knights 

Whereof this world holds record. Tennyson. 

3. Consequence inferred; consequentlalness. 
[Rare. J 

What sequet Is there in this argument? An arch- 
deacon is the chief deacon : erf^o, he is only a deacort 
U'h: 



4. In ^ois law, see under THERLAOB. 



thiteifi. 



eh, cAain; 6li, Sc. locA; g, tfo; J. job; fi» Fr. ton; ng. si/jj; IH, ty«*n; th, (Ain; w, irig; wh, icAig; zh, azure.— See KEY. 



SEQUELA 



36 



SERBONIAN 



Sequela (se-kwe'la),n. pi. SequelSB (se-kwe'- 
le). [L. .from se^Hor, to follow. See Sequel.] 
Oue who or that which follows; as, (a) an ad- 
Iierent or baud of adherents. 'Coleridge 
and his sequela.' G. P. Marsh. (6) An in- 
ference ; a conclusion ; that which follows 
as the result of a course of reasoning. 'Se- 
quelm, or thoughts suggested by the pre- 
ceding aphorisms.' Coleridge. (c)lnpathol. 
the consequent of a disease; a morbid affec- 
tion which follows another, as anasarca 
after scarlatina, Ac— Sf^weia curi€e,in law, 
a suit of court. ^Sequela causce, the process 
and depending issue of a cause for trial. 

Sequence (se'kwens), ». [Fr. sequence, L.L. 
seqttentia, from L. seqiiens, sequeiitis, ppr. 
of sequur, secutus, to follow.] 1. The state 
of being sequent ; a following or coming 
after; succession. 

How art thou a kin^ 
But by fair sequence and succession T Shak. 

2. A particular order of succession or follow- 
ing; arrangement; order. 

Tlie cause proceedeth from a precedent sequence 
and series of the seasons of the year. Bacon. 

3. Invariable order of succession ; an ob- 
served instance of uniformity in following: 
used frequently in this sense by metaphy- 
sical writers in opposition to effect as fol- 
lowing a cause. 

He who sees in the person of his Redeemer a fact 
more stupendous and more majestic than all those 
observed sequences which men endow with an tina>;i- 
nary omnipotence, and worship under the name of 
Law — to him at least there will be neither difficulty 
nor hesitation in supposing that Christ . . . did utter 
his mandate, and that the wind and the sea obeyed, 
Farrar. 

4. A series of things following in a certain 
order; specifically, a set of cards immediately 
following each other in tlie same suit, as 
king, queen, knave, Ac; thus we say a se- 
quence of three, four, or five cards. — 5. In 
music, the recurrence of a harmonic pro- 
gression or melodic figure at a different 
Ditch or in a different key to that in which 
It was first given. ~6. In the R. Cath. Ch. a 
hymn introduced into the mass on certain 
festival days, and recited or sung imme- 
diately before the gospel and after the gra- 
dual, whence the name. 

Bsauent (se'kwent), a. [L. sequens, se- 
ifuentis, following. See above.] I. Con- 
tiiming in the same course or order; fol- 
lowing; succeeding. 'Immediate sentence, 
then, and sequent death.' Shak. 'Many 
sequent hours.' Keats. — 2. Following by lo- 
gical consequence. 

Sequent (se'kwent), n. l.t A follower. 
He hath framed a letter to a j^?/««^ of the stranger 
queen's. Shak. 

2. A secpience or sequel; that which follows 
as a result. [Rare.] 

Sequential (se-kwen'shal), a. Being in 
successiDu; succeeding; following. 

Sequentially (se-kwen'shaldi), adv. By 
setiiience or succession. 

Sequester (se-kwes't6r), v. t. [Fr. s4questrer, 
L. sequestra, to put into the hands of an in- 
different person, as a deposit; from sequester, 
a trustee, a depositary or pei-son intrusted 
with a thing claimed by litigants.] 1. In 
law, (rt) to separate from the owner for a 
time ; to seize or take possession of, as the 
property and income of a debtor, until the 
claims of creditors be satisfied. (6) To set 
aside from the power of either party, as a 
matter at issue, by order of a court of law. 
In Scots law, see Sequestrate. See also 
Sequestration. 

Formerly the goods of a defendant in chancery 
r/ere, in the last resort, sequestered and detained to 
enforce tlie decrees of the court. And now the pro- 
tits of a benefice are sequestered to pay the debts of 
ecclesiastics. Blackstone. 

2- To put aside; to remove; to separate from 
other things. ' To sepiester his mind from 
all respect to an ensuing reward.' South. 

I had wholly sequestered iny civil affairs. Bacon. 

3. To cause to retire or withdraw into ob- 
ssurity; to seclude; to withdraw. 

Why are you sequester'd from all your train? Shak. 
It was his tailor and his cook, his fine fashions 
and his French ragouts, which sequestered him. 

South. 

In this sense often used reflexively with 
one's self, themselves, and the like. 'When 
men most sequester themselves from action.' 
Hooker. 

Sequester (se-kwes'tSr). v.i. l.f To with- 
draw. ' To seq\iester out of the world into 
Atlantick and Utopian politicks.' Milton.^ 
2. In law, to renounce or <lecline, as a widow, 
any concern with the estate of her husband. 

Sequester ( se-kwes't6r ), n. 1. 1 The act of 



sequestering; sequestration; separation; se- 
clusion. 

This hand of yours requires 
A sequester from liberty. Shak. 

2. In law, a person with whom two or more 
parties to a suit or controversy deposit the 
subject of controversy ; a mediator or re- 
feree between two parties; an umpire. Bou- 
vier. 

Sequestered (se-kwes't6rd), p. and a. 1. In 
la w, seized and detained for a time to satisfy 
ademand.— 2. Secluded; private; retired; as, 
a sequestered situation. 

Along the cool sequester'd vale of life 

They kept the noiseless tenor of their way. Gray. 

3. Separated from others; being sent or hav- 
ing gone into retirement. 

To the wlitch place a poor sequester'd stag. 
That from the hunter's aim had ta'en a hurt. 
Did come to languish. S/utk. 

Sequestrable (se-kwes'tra-bl), a. Capable 

of Iteitiu' sequestered or separated; subject 
or liable to sequestration. 
Sequestrate (se-kwes'trat), v.t. pret. & 
pp. sequestrated; ppr. sequestrating. 1. In 
law, to sequester; especially in Scots law, to 
take possession of for behoof of creditors; 
to take possession of, as of the estate of a 
bankrupt, with the view of realizing it and 
distributing it equitably among the credi- 
tors.— 2. t To set apart from others; to se- 
clude. 

In general contagions more perish for want of ne- 
cessaries than by the malignity of the disease, they 

being sequestrated from mankind. Arbitlhuot. 

Sequestration (sek-wes-tra'shon), n. l. In 
law, (a) the separation of a thing in contro- 
versy from tlie possession of those who con- 
tend for it. (t) The setting apart of the goods 
and chattels of a deceased person to whom 
no one was willing to take out administra- 
tion, (c) A writ directed by the Court of 
Chancery to commissioners commanding 
them to enter the lands and seize the goods 
of the pel-son against whom it is directed. 
It may be issued against a defendant who is 
in contempt by reason of neglect or refusal 
to appear or answer or to obey a decree of 
court, ((f) The act of taking property from 
the owner for a time till the rents, issues, 
and profits satisfy a demand ; especially, in 
eccies.^rac^ice.aspeciesof execution for debt 
in the case of a beneficed clergyman issued 
by the bishop of the diocese on the receipt 
of a writ to that effect. The profits of the 
benefice are paid over to the creditor until 
his claim is satisfied, (e) The gathering of 
the fruits of a vacant benefice for the use of 
the next incumbent. (/) The seizure of the 
property of an individual for the use of the 
state; particularly applied to the seizure by 
a belligerent power of debts due by its sub- 
jects to the enemy. (<;) In Scots law, the 
seizing of a bankrupt's estate, by decree of a 
competent court, for behoof of the creditors. 

2. The act of sequestering or the state of 
being sequestered or set aside; separation; 
retirement; seclusion from society. 

When Squire and Priest and they who round them 

dwelt 
In rustic sequestration — all dependent 
Upon the Pedlar's toil— supplied their wants 
Or pleased their fancies with the wares he brought. 
IVords^oorth. 

3. t Disunion; disjunction; division; rupture. 
'Without any sequestration of elementary 
principles. ' Boyle. 

It was a violent commencement, and thou shalt see 
an answerable sequestration. Shak. 

Sequestrator (sek'wes-trat-6r), n. l. One 
who sequesters property or takes the posses- 
sion of it for a time to satisfy a demand out 
of its rents or profits.— 2. One to whom the 
keeping of sequestered property is com- 
mitted. 

Sequestrum (se-kwes'tnmi), n. [L. se- 
questra, to sever.] In pathol. the portion of 
bone which is detachedin necrosis. 

Sequin (se'kwin), n. [Fr. sequin, from It. 
zecchino, from zecca, the mint, from Ar. sik- 
kah, sekkah, a stamp, a die.] A gold coin 
fli-st struck at Venice about the end of the 
thirteenth century. In size it resembled a 
ducat, and in value was equivalent to about 
9s. 4d. sterling. Coins of the same name 
but varying in value were issued by other 
states. 

Sequoia (se-kwoi'a) n. [From Sequoyah, who 
invented tlie Cherokee alphabet. J A genus of 
conifers, otherwise called Wellingtonia, con- 
sisting of two species only— S. setnpervirens, 
the red-wood of the timber trade, and S. gi- 
gantea, the Wellingtonia of our gardens and 
the big or niammotli tree of the Americans. 
Both attain gigantic dimensions, reaching a 



height of upwards of 300 feet. See Red- 
wood. ilAMMoTH-TREE. 
Seraglio (se-ral'yo), 7i. (It. serrag'io, an in- 
closure, a palace, the sultan's harem, from 
Turk, serai. Per. sarai, a palace The senge 
of the Italian fonn has been influenced by 
serrare, to inclose, to shut, to shut up.] 
1. A palace; specifically, the palace of the Sul- 
tan of Turkey at Constantinople. It is of im- 
mense size, and contains government buihl- 
ings, mosques, «fcc., as well as the sultan's 
harem. Hence — 2. A harem; a place for 
keeping wives or concubines; and hence, a 
house of debauchery; a place of licentious 
pleasure. 

We've here no gaudy feminines to show. 

As you have had in that great seraglio. IV. Broome. 

3. t An inclosure; a place to which certain 
persons are confined or limited. 

I went to Ghetto, where the Jews dwell as in a suburb 
by themselves. I passed by ttie piazza J udea. where 
their seraglio begins. Evelyn. 

Serai (se-ra'), n. [Per. serai, a palace.] In 
Eastern countries, a place for the accom- 
modation of travellers; a caravansary; a 
khan. 

My boat on shore, r-y galley on the sea; 

Uli, more than cities and serais to me. Byron. 

Serai (se'ral), a. [L. sero, late] Lit. late; 
applied to the last of Prof. H. Rogers' fifteen 
divisions of the palfeozoic strata in the Ap- 
palachian chain of North America. 

Seralbumen ( se'ral -l)u-ni en), n. [Serum and 
albiimen.] Albumen of the blood: so called 
to distinguish it from ovalbumen, or the 
albumen of the white of an egg. from which 
it somewhat differs in its chemical reaction. 

Serang (se-rang'), n. An East Indian name 
for the I)oatswain of a vessel. 

Serape (se-ra'pa), ii. A blanket or shawl 
worn as an outer garment by the Mexicans 
and other natives of Spanish North America. 

Seraph (ser'af), n. pi. Seraphs; but some- 
times the Hebrew plural Serapnim is used. 
[Fi'om Heb. saraph, to burn, to be eminent 
or noble.] An angel of the highest order. 

As full, as perfect in vile man that mourns 

As the rapt serafh that adores and burns. Pope. 

Seraphic, Seraphical (se-rafik, se-raf'ik- 
al), a. 1. Pertaining to a seraph ; angelic ; 
sublime; as, seraphic purity; seraphic fer- 
vour.— 2. Pure; refined from sensuality. 
He at last descends 
To like with less seraphic ends. Swi/t. 

3. Burning or inflamed with love or zeal. 

Love is curious of little things, desiring to be of 
angelical purity, of perfect innocence, and serafih- 
iWj/ fervour. jfer. Taylor. 

Seraphically (se-rafik-al-li^ adv. In the 
manner nf a seraph; angelically. 

Seraphicalness (se-rafik-al-nes), n. The 
state or quality of being seraphic. [Rare.] 

Seraphicism t (se-raf'is-izm), n. The qua- 
lity (if being seraphic. Cudworth. 

Seraphim (ser'a-fim), n.pl. See Seraph. 

Seraphina, Seraphine ( ser-a-fi'na, ser'a- 
fen), 11. [Frt>m seraph.] A keyed wind- 
instrument the tones of which are generated 
by the play of wind upon metallic reeds, as 
in the accordion. It was the precursor of 
the harmonium. 

Serapis (se-ra'pis), n. The Greek name of a 
deity whose worship was Introduced into 
Egypt in the reign of Ptolemy I. He was 
considered as a combination of Osiris and 
Apis. His worship extended into Asia Minor 
and Greece, and was introduced int<j Rome. 

Seraskier, Serasquier(seras'ker), n. [Fr. 
seranquier, from Per. serasker — ser. seri, 
head, chief, and askcr, an army.] A Turk- 
ish general or commander of land forces. 
This title is given by the Turks to every 
general having command of a separate 
army, but especially to the commander-in- 
chief and minister at war. 

SerasMerate (se-rasTcer-at), n. The office 
of a seraskier. 

Serb (s^rb), n. [Native form. ] A native or 
inhabitant of Servia. 

Serbonian (s6r-bo'ni-an), a. Applied to a 
large bog or lake in Egypt surrounded by 
hills of loose sand, which, being blown into 
it, afforded a treacherous footing, whole 
armies attempting to cross it having been 
swallowed up. Hence the phrase Serbonimi 
hcj has passed Into a proverb, signifi'ing 
a difficult or complicated situation from 
which it is almost impossible to extricate 
one's self ; a mess ; a confused condition of 
affairs. ' No Serbonian bog deeper than a 
£5 rating would prove to be.' Disraeli. 

A gulf profound as that Serbonian bog. 
Betwixt Damiata and Mount Casius old. 
Where armies whole have sunk. Milton. 



Fate, far. fat, fall; me. met. hSr; pine, pin; note, not, mOve; tube, tub, buU; oil, pound; U. Sc. almne; f, Sc. ley. 



SEBCEL 



37 



SERIFORM 



Sercel (ser'sel), n. See Sarcel. 
Sere (ser), a. Dry; withered; sear. 'One 
sick willow sere antl small.' Tennyson. 
Ssre t (ser), n. [Fr. serre, a claw.] A claw 
nr talon. Chapman. 
Serein (se-raft), n. [Fr. serein, night dew, 
from L- serum, a late hour, but affected by 
L. serenus, serene] A mist or excessively 
fine rain which falls from a cloudless sky. a 
phenomenon u()t unusual in tropical cli- 
mates. Prof. Tyndall. 
Serenade (ser-e-nad'), «. [Fr. s^r^na4e, 
frnm It. gerenata. a serenade, night-music, 
clear iuid fine weather at night, from L. 
serenus, clear, fair, bright.] Music per- 
formed in the open air at night; usually, 
an entertainment of music given in the 
night liy a lover to his mistress under her 
window. Such music is sometimes performed 
as a mark of esteem and good-will towards 
distinguished persons. The name is also 
given to a piece of music characterized by 
the soft repose which is supposed to be in 
harmony with the stillness of night. See 
Ser EN. VTA. 

Shrill I the neighbours' nigh'ly rest invade 

At her deaf doors with some vile serenade 1 Dryden. 

Serenade (ser-e-nad'), v.t. pret. «& pp. sere- 
naded; ppr. serenading. To entertain with 
a serenade or nocturnal mhsic. 

He continued to seyenadf her every morning till 
the queen was charmed with his harmony. 

Spectator. 

Serenade (ser-e-nad'), v.i. To perform ser- 
enades or nocturnal music. 

A man might as well serenade in Greenland as in 
our region. Tatler. 

Serenader (ser-e-nad'6r), n. One who ser- 
enades or performs nocturnal music. 

Serenata (ser-e-na'ta), n. In music, ori- 
ginally a serenade, but latterly applied to a 
cantata having a pastoral subject, and to a 
work of large proportions, in the form, to 
some extent, of a symphony. 

Serenatet(ser-e-nat'),rt A serenade. Milton. 

Serene (se-ren'), a. (L. serenus, serene; 
allied by ('iirtiua with Gr. setrinos, hot, 
scorching, said of summer heat, Seirios, Si- 
nus, and Skr. stcar, heaven, *wri/a, thesun.] 

1. Clear or fair, and calm; placid; quiet; 
as, a serene sky; a serene air. 

Spirits live inspired 
In regions mild, of calm and serene air. Milton. 
The moon, serene in ^\oxy. mounts the sky. Pope. 

2. Calm ; unruffled ; undisturbed ; &a, Sk se- 
rene aspect; a serene soul. 

Hard by 
Stood serene Cupids watching silently. Keats. 

3. An epithet or form of address restricted to 
the sovereign princes of Germany, and the 
memlfers of their families; as, his serene 
highness prince so and so. 'To the most 
serene Prince Leopold, Archduke of Austria,' 
Milton. - Drop serene, the disease of the eye 
known as gutta serena; amaurosis or black 
cataract. Hilton. 

Serene (se-ren'), n. 1. Clearness. 

No mist obscures, nor cloud, nor speck, nor stain. 
Breaks the serene of heaven. Southey. 

2. Serenity; tranqnillity; calmness. [Poeti- 
cal.] 

To their master is denied 

To share their sweet serene. Young. 

3. The cold damp of evening; blight or un- 
wholesome air. 

Some serene blast me, or dire lightning strike 
This my offending face. B. jfonson. 

[In this sense the same as Serein (which 
see).] 

Serene (se-ren'), v.t. pret. & pp. serened; 
ppr serening. To make clear and calm; to 
quiet. 

Heaven and earth, as if contending, vie 

To raise his being and serene his soul. Thomson. 

2. To clear; to brighten. [Rare.] 

Take care 

Thy muddy beverage to ftreue and drive 
Precipitant the baser ropy lees. y. Philips. 

Serenely (serenlfX adw- l- Calmly; quietly. 

Th<: setting sun now shone serenely bright. Pope. 

3. With unruffled temper; coolly; deliber- 
ately. 'That men would, without shame or 
fear, confidently and serenely break a rule." 
Locke 

Sereneness (sc-ren'nes). n. The state of 
heinji serene; serenity. ' The «ffrctt</w«» of 
a lie;iUiiful conscience.' Feltham. 

Serenitudet (sc-ren'i-tud).n. Calmness. IToC- 

ton. 
Serenity (se-ren'i-ti), n, [Fr. s^rMit^, L. 
srrpnitas. See Sekenk. ] 1. The quality or 
condition of being serene; clearness; calm- 



ness; quietness; stillness; peace; as, the se- 
renity of the air or sky. 

.\ j,'t;neral peace and serenity newly succeeded a 
general trouble. Sir JK Temple. 

2. Calmness of mind; evenness of temper; 
undisturbed state; coolness. 

I cannot see how any men should transgress those 
moral rules with confidence and serenity. Locke. 

3. A title of respect or courtesy; serene 
highness. * The sentence of that court now 
sent to your serenity.' Milton. 

Serf (s^rf), n. [Fr., from L. serviis. a slave, 
front servio, to be a slave. ] A villein ; one 
of those who in the middle ages were in- 
capable of holding property, were attached 
to the land and transferred with it, and 
liable to feudal services of the lowest de- 
scription; a forced labourer attached to an 
estate, as formerly in Russia. 

Serfage, Serfdom <s6rf'aj, s6rf'dom),7i. The 
state or condition of a serf. 

Serfliood, Serfism (s6rf'hud, sSrf'izm), n. 
Same as Serfage. 

Sei^e (s6rj), n. [Fr. serge. It. sargia, a 
coverlet, sargano, serge; origin doubtful. 
Diez suggests L. sericum. silk. See SILK.] 
A kind of twilled worsted cloth of inferior 
quality.— SiYAr serge, a twilled silken stuff 
used by tailors for lining garments. 

Serge (serj), ?i. [Fr. cierge, a wax taper; L. 
cereus, waxed, cera, wax.] In the H. Cath. 
01. a name given to the large wax candles, 
sometimes weighing several pounds, buraed 
before the altar. 

Sergeancy (sar'jan-si), n. The office of a 
sergeant or serjeant-at-law. 

Sergeancy, Sergeantcy (sar'jan-si, sar'- 
jant-si), n. Same as Se rjeantship. 

Sergeant (sar'jant), n. [Also written Ser- 
jeant. From Fr. sergent, O, Fr. serjent, ori- 
ginally a servant, a servitor, from hserviens, 
servientis, ppr. of servio, to serve (servient-, 
servient-, serjent. See ABRIDGE).] l.t A 
sfiniro, attendant upon a prince or noble- 
man. —2. A sheriff's officer; a bailiff. See 
Serjeant. 

This fell ser^-eant, death. 
Is strict in his arrest. Shak. 

3. A non-commissioned officer in the army 
in the grade next above coi-poral. He is 
appointed to see discipline observed, to 
teach the soldiers their drill, and also to 
command small bodies of men as escorts 
and the like. Every company has four ser- 
geants, of whom the senior is the colotir- 
sergeant (which see). A superior cla.s8 are 
the staff-sergeants (see Staff-seroeant); 
and above all is the sergeant-major (which 
see). — Covering sergeant, a sergeant who, 
during the exercise of a battalion, stands 
or moves behind each officer commanding 
or acting with a platoon or company.— 
Lance kergeant, a corporal acting as a ser- 
geant in a company. —Pag sergeant, a ser- 
geant appointed to pay the men and to ac- 
count for all disbursements. — White ser- 
geant, a term of ridicule for a lady who in- 
terferes in military matters. See also Drill- 
sergeant. Quartermaster -sergeant. — 

4. A lawyer of the highest rank in England. 
See SERJEANT.— 5. A title given to certain 
of the sovereign's servants. See Serjeant. 
6. A police-officer of superior rank. (The 
two orthographies afri(7ca«( and Serjeant are 
both well authorized, but in the legal sense, 
and as applied to certain officers of the royal 
household, of municipal and le^slatlve 
bodies, the latter spelling is the one usually 
adopted ] 

Sergeant -major (sar'jant-ma-jSr). n. In 
the army, the highest non-commissioned 
officer in a regiment. He acts as assistant 
to the adjutant. 

Sergeantry, Sergeanty (sar-jant-ri, siir'- 
jant-i). n. Same a.i Serji'antry. 

Etergeantship (sjir'jantship). n. The office 
of a serueant. 

Serial (st'ri-al). a. 1. Pertaining to a series; 
consi.sting of, constituted by. or having the 
nature of a series. - 2. In bot. of or pertain- 
im; to ri>w3. Asa Oray. —Serial homology, 
ill zoot. the homology or similarity exhibited 
!>y organs or structures following each other 
in a straight line or series in certain animals 
(eg. the joints of a lobster's body). 

Sierlal (se'ri-al), n. 1. A tale or other com- 
position commenced in one number of a 
periodical work, and continued in succes- 
sive numbers. —2. A work or publication 
issued in successive numbers; a perio<licaI. 

Sertality (se-ri-al'i-ti). ?». The state or con- 
dition of following in successive order; se- 
quence. 

When we interrogate consciousness, we find that 



though the general seriality of the changes is obvi- 
ous, there are many experiences which make us hesi- 
tate to assert complete seriality. H. Spencer. 

Serially (se'ri-al-li), adv. in a series or 
in regular order; as, arranged serially. 

Seriate (se'ri-at), a. Arranged in a series or 
succession; pertaining to a series. 

Seriately (se'ri-at-li), adv. In a regular 
series. 

Seriatim (se-ri-a'tim), adv. [L] In regular 
order; one after the other. 

Sericeous (se-rish'us), a. [L. sericeus, from 
sericum, silk.] 1, Pertaining to silk; con- 
sisting of silk; silky. — 2. In bot. covered 
with very soft hairs pressed close to the sur- 
face; as, a sericeous leaf. 

Sericulture (se'ri-kul-tur), n. [L. sericum-, 
silk, and cultura, cultivation] The breed- 
ing and treatment of silkworms. Tomlinson. 

SeriCUlturist(se-ri-kurtu-rist), n. A culti- 
vator of silkworms. 

SeriCUlus (se-rik'u-lus), n. [From L. seri- 
cum, silk, from its glossy plumage] A 
genus of Australian insessorial birds belong- 
ing to the family of the orioles. S. chryso- 
cephabis is known by the name of the Ite- 
gent'bird. See Regent-bird. 

Serie.t n. Series. Chaucer. 

Seriema (ser-i-e'ma), n. [The Brazilian 
name.] The Dickolophiis cristattis of Illiger, 
a grallatorial bird of the size of a heron, 
inhabiting the great mountain plains of 
Brazil, where itssonorousvoiceoften breaks 
the silence of the desert. It is a bird of 
retired habits. ■ It is protected on account 
of its serpent-killing habits. Written also 
(^ariama and Ceriema. 

Series (se'rez or se'ri-ez), n. sing, and pi. 
[L., same root as sero, to join, to weave to- 
gether; Gr. seira, a cord; Skr. sarat, sarit, a 
thread.] 1. A continued succession of similar 
things, or of things bearing a similar re- 
lation to each other; an extended order, 
line, or course; sequence; succession ; as, a 
series of kings ; a series of calamitous 
events. 

During some years his life was a series of triumphs. 
Macduiay. 

2. In geol. a set of strata possessing some 
common mineral or fossil characteristic; as, 
the greensand series; the Wenlock series, 
&c. — 3. In chem. a group of compounds, 
each containing the same radical. — 4. In 
arith. and alg. a number of terms in suc- 
cession, increasing or diminishing according 
to a certain law. The usual form of a scries 
is a set of terms connected by the signs -t- 
or —.—Arithmetical series, a series in which 
each term differs from the preceding by 
the addition or subtraction of a constant 
number or quantity; or it is a series in 
which the terms increase or decrease by a 
common difference, as 1, 3, 6, 7, 9, 11, Ac, 
or 10, 8. 6, 4, 2, 0, -2, -4, -6, &c. Alge- 
braically, a, a-i-d, a-f 2d, a-|-3d, a-f-4d. »&c.; 
or z, z-d, z— 2d, z-Zd, z~4d, &c.; where 
a represents the least term, z the greatest, 
and d the common difference,— .4 circular 
series, one whose terms depend on circular 
functions, as aines, cosines, Ac. — A converg- 
ing series is one in which the successive 
tenns become less and less.— ^ diverging 
series, one in which any term is greater 
than the preceding.— .4 n exponential series, 
one whose terms depend on exponential 
quantities. — TAe general term of a series is 
a function of some indeterminate quantity 
X, which, on substituting successively the 
numbers 1, 2, 3, Ac, for x, produces the 
terms of the ser\eE.— Geometrical series, a 
series in wliich the terms increase or de- 
crease by a conmion multiplier or common 
divisor, termed the common ratio. See 
VROORES^-iWy. — Indeterminate series, one 
whose terms proceed by the powers of an 
indeterminateqnantity.— When the ntmiber 
of terms is greater than any assignable nimi- 
ber, the series is said to be infinite. — Law 
of a series, that relation which subsists be- 
tween the successive terms of a series, and 
by which their general term may be denoted. 
— A logarithmic series, one whose terms de- 
pend on logarithms. — .<4 recurring series, 
one in which each term is a certain constant 
function of two or more of the preceding 
terms; as, 1 -t-3x -h 4z2-+-7x* -t- llx^ Ac — 
Summation of series, the method of finding 
the sum of a series whether the number at 
terms be finite or infinite. See Progres- 
sion. 

Serifonn (ser'i-fomi), a. [L. Seres, the Chi- 
nese, and forma, form] Applied to a sec- 
tion of the Altaic fannly of languages, com- 
prising the Chinese, Siamese, Burmese, Ac. 



ch. cAain; 6h. 3c. locA; g, go\ J, 70b; b, Fr. ton; ng, Ung; TH. Men; th, CAin; w, wig; wh, wAig; zh, azure. — See KET. 



SERIN 



38 



SERPENTINE 



Serin (ser'in), ?*. [Kr.] A soug-bini of the 
fiiK'ii tribe (Frinffilla seri)ta), found in the 
central parts of Em-ope. It has a small, 
homy, and short bill; and its habits are 
uinstly similar to those of the canary bird. 

Serinffue (se-rin^ga). n, [Pg. seringa, a sy- 
ringe, caoutchouc having been first used to 
make syringes.] A South American name 
for the caoutchouc-tree, a species of Si- 
ptionia. 

Serio-comic, Serlo-comlcal (se'rio-kom"- 
ik. se'ri-6-kom"ik-a]), a. Having a mixture 
of seriousness and comicality. 

Serious (se'ri-us), a. [Fr. s^rieux, L. serius, 
serious, earnest.] 1. Grave in manner or 
disposition; solemn; not light, gay, or vola- 
tile; as, a serious man; a serious Iiabit or 
disposition. ' A weighty and a seWous brow.' 
Shak. 

He is always seriaits, yet there is about his manner 
a graceful ease. Macaulay. 

2. Really intending what is said ; being in 
earnest; not jesting or making a false pre- 
tence. 

I hear of peace and war in newspapers; but I am 
never alarmed, except when I am informed that the 
sovereigns want treasure : then I know that the mo»- 
archs are serious. Disraeli. 



8. Important; weighty; not trifling. 

I'll hence to London on a serious ms.X.teT. Shak. 

4. Attended with danger; giving rise to ap- 
prehension; as, a serums illness.— 5. Deeply 
impressed with the importance of religion. 
Seriously (se'ri-us-li), adv. In a serious 
manner ; gravely ; solemnly ; in earnest ; 
without levity; as, to think seriously of 
amending one's life. 

Juno and Ceres whisper seriously. Shak. 

Seriousness (se'ri-us-nes), n. 1. The con- 
dition or quality of being serious; gravity 
of mannei* or of mind ; solemnity; as, he 
8I>oke with great senoiisness, or with an air 
of seriousness. — 2. Earnest attention, par- 
ticularly to religious concerns. 

That spirit of religion and seriousness vanished all 
at once, Atterdury. 

Serjania(ser-ja'ni-a), 71. [In honour of Paul 
Serjeant, a French friar and botanist] An 
entirely tropical South American and West 
Indian genus of plants, nat. order Sapinda- 
ceffi. The species are climbing or twining 
shrubs with tendriis, with divided leaves 
and white flowers arranged in racemes. 
Some of them possess very poisonous pro- 
perties. S. triteniata is acrid and narcotic, 
and employed for the purpose of stupefying 
fish. 

Serjeant (sar'jant), ?i. [Fr. sergent. See 
Skrgeant.) 1. Formerly, an officer in Eng- 
land, nearly answering to the more modern 
bailiff of the hundred; also, an officer whose 
duty was to attend on the sovereign, and 
on the lord high steward in court, to arrest 
traitors and other offenders. This officer is 
now called serjeant-at-arms. A similar offi- 
cer, tenned a serjeant-at-arms, attends the 
lord-chancellor; another, the speaker of the 
House of Commons, and another the Lord- 
mayor of London on solemn occasions. — 
Common Serjeant, an officer of the city of 
London who attends the lord -mayor and 
court of aldermen on court days, and is in 
council with them on all occasions.— 2. J/iYi(. 
see Sergeant, which for this sense is the 
usual spelling.— 3. In England, formerly, a 
barrister of the highest rank. The Serjeants 
formed a special order or brotherhood, and 
tnok precedence overall the other barristers. 
They were appointed by the crown, and were 
selected from barristers of not less than six- 
teen years' standing. The common law 
judges used always to belong to the order 
of Serjeants. — Serjeants of the household, 
officers wlio execute several functions with- 
in the royal household, as the serjeant-snr- 
geon, <fec. — Inferior Serjeants, Serjeants of 
the mace in corporations, officers of the 
county, &c. There are also Serjeants of 
manors, &c. See Serqea^t.— Serjeants' iyui, 
a society or corporation which consisted of 
the entire body of serjeants-at-law. See 
under Isy. — Kinifs or queen's serjeant, the 
name given to one or more of the serjeants- 
at-law, whose presumed duty was to plead 
fill- the sovereign in causesof a public nature, 
as indictments for treason. &c. 

Serjeant-at-arms(sar'jant-at-armz), n. See 

SKRJEANT. 

Serjeant-counter (sar'jant-kount-or), 7i. A 

serjeant-at-law. 
Serjeantship (sar'j ant-ship), 7i. The office 

of a se!'jeant-at-law. Called also Scrjeancy. 

Serjeantci/. 
Serjeanty, Serjeantry (siii-'jant-i, aar'jant- 



ri). 71. An honorary kind of English tenure, 
on condition of service due, not to any lord, 
but to the king only. Serjeanty is of two 
kinds, grand serjeanty and petit sergeanty. 
Grand serjeanty is a particular kind of 
knight service, a tenure by which the ten- 
ant was bound to attend on the king in per- 
son, not merely in war, but in hie court, 
and at all times when summoned. Petit 
serjeanty was a tenure in wliich the services 
stipulated for bore some relation to war, 
but were not required to be executed per- 
sonally by the tenant, or to be performed 
to the person of the king, as the payment 
of rent in implements of war, as a bow, a 
l)air of spurs, a sword, a lance, or the like. 

Sermocination t (s^r-mo ' si-na"siion ), n. 
[L. seruwcinatio, from sennocinarl, to dis- 
course. See Sermon.] Speech-making. 'Ser- 
inocinations of ironmongers, felt-makei-s, 
cobblers, broom-men.' Bp. Hall. 

Sermocinator t (86r-mo'8i-na"tor), 7i. [See 
above.] <.)ne that makes sermons or speeches. 
' Obstreperous sermocinators. ' Howell. 

Sermon (s6i''mon), n. [L. sermo, sermonis, 
speech, discourse, connected discourse, from 
sero, to join together.] l.t A speech, dis- 
course, or writing.— 2. A discourse delivered 
in public, especially by a clergyman or 
preacher, for the purpose of religious in- 
struction or the inculcation of morality, 
and grounded on some text or passage of 
Scripture; a similar discourse written or 
printed, whether delivered or not; a homily. 

His preaching much, but more his practice wrought, 
A living sermon of the truths he taught. Dryden, 

3. A serious exhortation, rebuke, or reproof; 
an address on one's conduct or duty. 
[Colloq.] 

Sermon (s^r'mon), v.t. 1. 1 To discourse of, 
;-.s in a sennon. Spenser.— % To tutor; to 
lesson : to lecture. ' Come, sermon me no 
further' Shak. 

Sermon (s6r'mon), tj.t. To compose or de- 
liver a sermon. Milton. ■ 

Sermoneer (s^r-moner*), n. A preacher of 
sermons; a sermonizer; a semionist. B. Jon- 
son; Thackeray. 

Sermonlc, Sermonical (sfir-mon'ik, sSr- 
mon'ik-al). a. Like a sermon; hortatory. 
'Conversation . . . grave or gay, satirical 
or sermonic' Prof. Wilson. [Rare.] 

Sermoning (s^r'mon-ing), n. The act of 
preaching or teaching; hence, discourse; in- 
struction ; advice. 'A weekly charge of 
sermoning. ' Milton. 

Sermonish (s^i-'mon-ish), a. Resembling a 
sermon. [Rare.] 

Sermonist (s^i-'mon-ist), n. A writer or de- 
liverer of sermons. 

Sermonium (s6r-mo'ni-um), n. [L.] An in- 
terlude or historical play formerly acted by 
the inferior orders of the Catholic clergy, 
assisted by youths, in the body of the 
church. 

Sermonize (s^r'mon-iz), v.i. pret. & pp. ser- 
monized; ppr. sermonizing. X. To preach; 
to discourse. 

In sailor fashion roughly sermonizing 

On providence and trust in Heaven. Tennyson. 

2. To inculcate rigid rules. ' The dictates 
of a morose and sermonizing father.' Ches- 
terfield. — Z. To make sermons; to compose 
or write a sermon or sermons. 

Sermonize (s^r'mon-iz). v.t. pret. *fc pp. ser- 
monized; ppr. sermonizing. To preach a 
sermon to; to discourse in a sennonizing 
way to; to affect or influence, as by a ser- 
mon. 'Which of us shall sing or sermonize 
the other fast asleep.' Lander. 

Sermonizer (86i-'mon-iz-6r), n. One who 
sermonizes; a preacher. 

Serolin, Seroline (ser'6-lin),n. [L. sentm.] 
A peculiar kind of fat contained in the 
blood. It is a mixture of several sub- 
stances. 

Seroon, Seron (se-ron', se-ron'). »• tsp. 
seron, a frail or basket.) 1. A weight vary- 
ing with the substance which it measures. 
Tims a seroon of almonds is the quantity of 
87^- lbs.; of anise-seed, from 3 to 4 cwt.~ 
2. A bale or package made of hide or leather, 
or formed of pieces of wood covered or 
fastened witli liide, for holding drugs, &c. ; 
a ceroon. 

Serose t ( se'ros ), a. "Watery ; serous. Dr. 
H. More. 

Serosity (se-ros'i-ti), n. [Fr. s^rositJ. See 
Serum. ] l. The state of being serous.— 2. A 
serous fluid; serum; the watery part of the 
blood which exudes from the serum when 
it is coagulated by heat. Dwnglismi. 

Serotine (se'ro-tin), Ji, [Fr. sdrotine, L. 
serotinus, late.] A species of European bat, 



the Vespertilio or Scotophilus serotinus. It 
is somewhat rai'e in England, but common 
in France, of a chestnut colour, sohtaiy in 
its habits, frequenting forests, and of slow 
ffigbt. 

Serotinous (se-rot'in-us), a. [L serotinus, 
from serus, late.] In hot. appearing late in 
a season, or later than some other allied 
species. 

SeroUB (se'rus), a. [FT.s^revx. See Sercm.] 
1. Thin; wateiy; like whey: applied to that 
part of the blood wliich separates in coagu- 
lation from the gnimous or red part ; also 
to the fluid which lubricates a serous mem- 
brane. — 2. Pertaining to serum. — Serm(s 
membrane. See MEMBRANE. 

Serpens (s6r'penz), n. [L., a serpent.] A 
northern constellation. See Serpent. 

Serpent (ser'pent), n. [L. serpens, serpenHs, 
from serpo, Gr. herpo, to creep; Skr. sarpa, 
a serpent, from srip, to creep, to go,] 1. An 
ophidian reptile without feet; a snake. Ser- 
pents are extremely elongated in form, and 
they move by means of muscular contractions 
of their bodies. Their hearts have two auri- 
cles and one ventricle. This is the widest use 
of the term serpent. This term is likewige ap- 
plied to a family of ophidian reptiles which 
comprises all the genera without a sternum, 
and without any vestige of a shoulder, Ac. 
In Cuvier's arrangement serpents constitute 
the order Ophidia. See Ophibia. ~2. In 
astron. a con.steIlation in the northern hemi- 
sphere. SeeOPHiucHUS.— 3. A powerful bass 
musical instrument, consisting of a long 
conical tube of wood covered with leather, 
having a mouth-piece, ventages, and keys, 
and bent in a serpentine form; hence its 
name. Its compass is said to be from B 
flat below the bass-staff to C in the third 
space of the treble-clef. — 4. Fig. a subtle 
or malicious person.— 5. A kin*! of firework 
having a 8eri>entine motion as it passes 
through the air.— Servient stones or miake 
stones, populai- names sometimes applied to 
the ammonites. 

Serpent (ser'pent), v.i. To wind like a ser- 
pent ; to meander. 'The serpenting of the 
Thames.' Evelyn. [Rare.] 

Serpentaria (s^r-pen-ta'ri-a), n. A trivial 
name given to several plants that have 
been reputed to be remedial of snake bites, 
A& Ai-istolochia Serpentaria, &c. See Snake- 

ROOT. 

Seri)entarluB (s^r-pen-ta'ri-us), n. A con- 
stellation in the northern hemisphere. 
Called also Ophiuchus. 

Serpentary (ser'pen-ta-ri), n. A plant, the 
Aristolochia Serpentaria. 

Serpentary-root (ser'pen-ta-ri -rot), n. The 
root of Aristolochia Serpentaria, a Xorth 
American plant used in medicine as a tonic, 
stimulant, diaphoretic, and febrifuge. 

Serpent-boat (s^r'pent-bot), n. See Pam- 

BAN-MAXCIIE. 

Serpent - charmer (sei-'pent- charm -6r), «. 
One who chaims or professes to chann ser- 
pents; one who makes serpents obey his will. 

Serpent-cucumber (ser'pent kii-kum-b6r). 
n. A plant of the genus Trichosanthes, 
T. colubrina, so called from the remarkable 
serpent-like appearance of its fruits. 

Serpent - eater (s6i''pent-et-6r), n. A bird 
of Africa that devours serpents ; the secre- 
tary-bird (Gypogeranus serpentarius). See 
Secretary-bird. 

Serpent-fence (s6r'pent-fens). n. A zigzag 
fence made by placing the ends of the rails 
upon each other. 

Serpent -fish ( s^r'pent-flsh ), 7i. Same as 
Band-fish. 

Serpentiform (s^r-penfi-form), a. Ha%ing 
the fonu of a serpent; serpentine. 

Serpentigenous (ser-pen-tij'enus),a. Bred 
of a serpent. 

Serpentine (ser'pen-tin),a. [L. serpentinus, 
from serpens, serpentis, a serpent] 1. Per- 
taining to or resembling a serpent ; having 
the qualities of a serpent; subtle. *To free 
him from so serpentine a companion.' Sir 
P. Sidney —1. Winding or tiiming one way 
and the other, like a moving serpent ; an- 
fractuous; meandering; spiral; crooked; as, 
a serpentine road or course ; a serpentiiie 
worm of a still.— 3. In the manege, ajiplied 
to a horse's tongue when he is constantly 
moving it, and sometimes passing it over 
the bit. — Serpentine verse, a verse which 
begins and ends with the same word. The 
following are examples :— 

Crescit amor numnii, quantum ipsa pecunia crescit 
Greater grows the love of pelf, as pelf itself grows 
greater. 

Ambo flOTentes setatibus. Arcades ambo. 

Both in the sprti^ of Hfe, Arcadians both. 



Fate, fttr, fat, f*ll; me. met. hfer; pine, pin; n6te, not, m5ve; tQbe, ti^, bull; oil. pound; ti. Sc. abune; y, 8c. fey. 



SERPEKTINE 



SERVANT 



Serpentine (s^r'pen-tin), n. A rock, gene- 
rally uustratitled. which iB principally com- 
posed of hydrated silicate of magnesia, coni- 
mouly occuri'ing associated with altered 
limestone. It is usually dark -coloured 
green, red, brown, or gray, with shades and 
spots resembling a serpent's skin. Its de- 
gree of hardness, and the peculiar arrange- 
ment of its colours, form the distinctive 
characters of serpentine. Serpentine is 
often nearly allied to the harder varieties 
of steatite and potstone. It presents two 
varieties, precious serpentine and common 
serpentine. Though soft enough to be easily 
cut or turned, serpentine admits of a high 
polish, and is much used for the manufac- 
ture of various ornamental articles. 

Serpentine (s^i-'pen-tiu), v.i. pret. & pp. 
gerpen tilled; ppr. serpentining. To wind 
like a serpent; to meander. 

In these fair vales by nature form'd to please. 
Where Guadalquivir serpentints with ease. 

H'. Hartt. 

Serpentinely (ser'pen-tin-li), ftdp- In a ser- 
pentiiit--' niiiiiuer. 

Serpentinous (ser'pen-ti-nus). a. Relating 
to, Mf the nature of, or resembling serpen- 
tine. 

Serpentize (sfir'pen-tiz), v.i. pret. & pp. wr- 
pentized; ppr. serpentizmif. To wind; to 
turn or bend, first in one direction and 
then in the opposite ; to meander ; to ser- 
pentine. [Rare.] 

The river runs before the door, and serfentizes 
more than you can conceive. H. it alpoU. 

Serpent-like (s^i-'pent-llk), a. Like a ser- 
pent, ^hak. 

Serpentry (s^r'pent-ri), n. 1. A winding 
like that of a s»^rpent.— 2. A place infested 
by serpents. [Rare in both senses.] 

Serpent 's-tongne (sei-'pents-tung). n. 1. A 
fern of the genus (>phioglossum, so called 
from the form of its fronds; adder's-tongue. 
2- A name given to the fossil teeth of a spe- 
cies of shark, because they resemble tongues 
with their roots. 

Serpent-wlthe (s^r'pent-with), ». A plant, 
Ari^t"!'>chi'.i odoratitinma. 

Serpett (stVpet). n. [L. eirpicnlvs, a basket 
niadf ' >f rushes, from sirpuif, scirpus, a rush. J 
A basket. 

SerpiETinoua (a^r-pij'in-us), a. 1. Affected 
with serpigo. —2. In ined. applied to certain 
affections which creep, as it were, from one 
part to another; as, serpiginous erysipelas 

Serpigo (s^r-pi'go). n. [L L.. from L gerpo, 
t*> creep.] A former name for ringworm. 
Shak. 

Serplath (ser^plath), n. [Corruption of ear- 
2>lar] A weight equal to 80 stones. [Scotch.] 

Serpolet (^^er'po-lft), Ji. [Fr.] WiM thyme. 

Serpula (s^r'pu-Ia). n. [Dim. from L. serpn, 
to creep.] A genua of cephalobranchiate 
annelidans belonging to thtM)rderTul>icola, 
inhabiting cylindrical and tortuous oalcare- 



{ and upon that the more ^ross parts contract and 
I serr themselves together. Bacon. 

Serra (ser'ra), n. [L., a saw.] In anat. a 
dentation, or tooth-like articulating process 
of certain bones, as those of the cranium. 

Serradilla (ser-ra-dil'la). n. [Pg] A plant, 
ijnuthopus mtiims. See Ornithop'"S. 

Serranus (>er-ra'nus), n. [From L. serra, a 
saw — from the saw-like form of the dorsal 
fin.] A genus of teleosteau fishes, included 




Serpula. detached and In tube. 

OU9 tubes attached to rocks, shells, Ac, in 
the sea. The shells or tubes are in general 
exfiuisitely coloured. Several species are 
conmion on the British coasts, but the 
largest are found in tropical seat. 

Serpulean (s^r-pu'le-anX »■ One of the 
Serpuhda;. 

SerpuLidse (s^r-pu'li-de), n. pi. [Serpula 
(whicli see), and Gr. eido8, renemblance.] A 
family of tubfcolous annelidans.of which the 
genus .St.-rpula is the type. See Serpula. 

Serpulldan (s^r-pii'li-dan). n. A memi>er 
of the family Serpulida. 

SerpuUte (ser'pu-lit), n. Fnasil remains of 
the genus Serpula. 

Serrt (ser). v.t. [Fr. serrer, to press, to 
squeeze, from L. gero. to lock, sera, a bolt 
or bar.] To crowd, press, or drive together. 

Heat attenuates and sets forth the spirit of a body. 





Serranus seriha (Lettered Serranus). 

in the family Percidte or perches, but read- 
ily distinguished by their possessing only 
one dorsal fin and seven branchiostegous 
rays. The S. cabrilla and S. Couchii are 
found otf the British coast, where they are 
known under tlie name <if comber. S. scriba 
inlialulA till.' Mediterranean. 

Serrate, Serrated (ser'rat.ser'- 
rat-ed). a. [L. gerratus, pp. of 
serro, to »&w~gerra, a saw.] 
Notched on the edge like a saw; 
toothed; specifically, in bot. 
having sharp notches about 
the edge, pointing toward the 
extremity; as. a serrate leaf. 
When a serrate leaf has small 
serratures upon the lai^e ones, 
it is said to be doubly serrate, 
as in the elm. We say also a 
serrate calyx, corolla, or sti- 
pule. A gerrate-ciXiate leaf is 
one having fine hairs, like the 
eye-lashes, on the serratures. 
A serrate-dentate leaf has the Serrate Leaf, 
serratures toothed. 

SerraUon (ser-i-a'shon), n. Fonnation in 
the shape of a saw. 

Far above, In thunder-blue serration, stand the 
eternal ed^es of the anj^ry Apennine, dark with 
rolling impendence of volcanic cloud. Rnskin. 

Serratula (semt'u-la). n. A genus of com- 
posite plants. See Saw- WORT. 

Serrature (ser'ra-tur), n. A notching in the 
edye of anything, like a saw. Woodward. 

Serrlcom (ser'ri-kom), a. Belonging or 
pertaining to the family of coleopterous in- 
sects Serricornes; having serrated antennaj. 

Serrlcom (ser'ri-kom). n. A coleopterous 
in.sect of the family Serricornes. 

Serricomes (ser-ri-kor'nezX » pl- [L- wro, 
a saw, and &jrnu. 
a horn.] Cuvier's 
third family of 
coleopterous in- 
sec ts,comprehend- 
Ing those which 
have serrated or 
saw • shaped an- 
tenos, as the Bu- 

?resti8. £later, <£c. 
he cut shows (1) 
the springing- 
beetle(Elater).and 
the antennae of 
(2)PhyIlocerua,(3) 
Pftchyderes. 

Serried (ser'rid). p. and a. [See Serry] 
Crowded; compacted. ' To relax their ser- 
ried files.' Milton. 

SerroUS (ser'rus), a. Like the teeth of a 
saw; irregular. Sir T. Browne. [Rare.] 

Serriilate, Serrulated (ser'ru-lat, ser'ru- 
lat-ed), a. [ From L. serrtda. dim. otserra. a 
saw] Finely sen*ate; having very minute 
notches. 

Serrulation (ser-ru-Ia'shon), n. A small 
notching like the teeth of a saw; an inden- 
tation. 

Serryt (ser'ri). v.t. [Fr. serrer. See Serr] 
To crowd; to press togetlier. [Obsolete, 
except in pp. serried] 

Sertularia (ser-tfl-la'ri-a), n. [L. sertum, 
a gailund.] A genus of Hydrozoa, popu- 
larly called, from their resemblance to mini- 
ature trees, sea-firg. It is tlte type genus of 
the order Sertulartda (which see). 

Sertularian (s6r-tu-la ri-an). n. A member 
of the order .•<ertularida (which see). 

Sertularida (s^T-tula'ri-da). n. pi. An or- 
der uf coelenterate animals, class Hydrozoa, 




Scrricornes. 



comprising those whose hydrosoma (or en- 
tire organism) becomes fixed by an adlicrent 
base, called a hydrorhiza, developed from 
the end of the coenosarc. or the common 
medium by which the various polypites con- 
stituting the compound animal are united 
together. These polypites are invariably 
defended by little cup-like expansions called 
hydrothecK. The cujnosarc generally con- 
sists of a main stem with many branches, 
and it is so plant-like in appearance that 
the common sertularians are often mistaken 
for sea-weed, and are often called sea-firs. 
The young sertularian, im escaping from 
the ovum, appears as a free-swimming cili- 
ated body, which soon loses its cilia, fixes 
itself and develops a coenosarc, by budding 
from which the branching hydrosoma of the 
perfect organism is produced. 

Serum (se'rum), n. [L., akin to Gr. oros, 
whey, serum; Skr. sdra. water.] 1. The 
thiu transparent part of the blood; also, the 
lymph-like fiuid secreted by certain mem- 
branes in the human body, such as the peri- 
cardium, pleura, peritoneum, &c.. which 
are thence denominated seroua meinhranes. 
The serum of the blood, which separates 
from the crassanientnm during the coagu- 
lation of that liiiuid, has a pale straw-col- 
oured or greenish -yellow colour, is trans- 
parent when carefully collected, has a 
slightly saline taste, and is somewhat unc- 
tuous to the touch. It usually constitutes 
about three-fourths of the blood, the pressed 
coagulum foi^niing about one-fourth. See 
Blood.— 2. The thin part of milk separated 
from the curd and oil ; whey. Called also 
Serum- Lactis. 

Servable (sSrv'a-bl), a. Capable of being 
served. 

Serva«e,t u. Servitude. Chaucer. 

SerPUl (s^r'val). n. A digitigrade carnivor- 
ous mammal of the cat genus, the Leopardtis 
Serval of Southern Africa. It measures 
about 2 feet 10 inches in length, including 
the thick bushy taii. which is from 10 to 12 
inches long. The ground colour of the fur 
is of a bright golden tint, sobered with a 
wash of gray, and marked with black spots. 
Its food consists of small mammals and 
birds- Called also Bunh-cat and Tiger-cat. 

Serrand,! pp. oi serve. Serving. Chaucer. 

Servant (s^r'vant), n. [Fr., from servir, L. 
servire, to serve, whence also sergeant, 
which is little else than another fonn of this 
word.] 1. One who serves or does services, 
voluntarily or involuntarily; a person, male 
or female, who is employed by another f^ir 
menial offices or other labour, and is subject 
to his command; one who exerts himself or 
herself or labours for the benefit of a mas- 
ter or employer; a subordinate assistant or 
helper. The term servant usually implies 
the general idea of one who performs service 
for another accordii^ to compact; a slave, 
on the other hand, is the property of his 
master, and is entirely subject to his will. 
In a legal sense, stewards, factors, bailiffs, 
and other agents, are servants for the time 
they are employed in the business of their 
principal; so any person may be legally the 
servant of another, in whose business or 
under whose order, direction, or control he 
is acting for the time being. The tenn is 
often applied distinctively to domestics or 
domestic servants, those who for the time 
Iwing f«»rm part of a household ; as. Mrs. 
Smith hjia four servants.— Servants' hall, the 
room in a liouse set apart for the use of the 
servants in common, in which they take 
their meals together, Ac— 2. One in a state 
of subjection. 
Remember that thou waSt a servant in Egypt. 

Deut. V. 15. 
The rich ruleth over the poor, and the borrower ts 
servant to the lender. Prov. xxii. 7. 

3. An expression of civility used often by 
equals ; formerly, also a term of gallantry 
denoting nn admirer of a lady. 



— Your humble servant, your obedient ser- 
vant, phrases of civility used more espe- 
cially in closing a letter, and expressing or 
understood to express the willingness of the 
speaker or writer to do service to the per- 
son addressed. 

Our betters tell us they are our humble servants. 
but understand us to be their slaves. Swijt. 

—Servant of servants, (o) one debased to 
the lowest condition of servitude. Gen. Ix. 
25. (6) A title (servus gervotiim) assumed 
by the popes since the time of Gregory the 
Great. 



ch, cAaia; fth, 9c Unh; g.yo; j.^ob; h, Fr. ton; ng, sin^; SH, then; th. (Ain; w. trig; «rb, icAig; zh, onuv.— See K£T. 



SERVANT 



40 



SERVICE-BERRY 



Beirantt (sSr'vant), V. t To subject. 

My affairs are servan/ed to others. Shak. 

Servantesst (s^r'vant-es), n. A female ser- 
vant. Wycliffe. 

Servant-girl, Servant-maid (s^r'vant- 
gt'ii, sSr'vant-mad), n. A female or maid 
servant. 

Servant-man (s6r'vant-man), n. A male or 
man servant. 

Servantry (s6r'vant-ri), n. Servants collec- 
tively, or l)ody of servants. W. H. Russell. 

Servanty (s6i-'vant-i), n. The state or con- 
dition of a servant; the privilege of serving; 
or acting as a servant. ' God's gift to us of 
servanty.' E. B. Browning. 

Serve (serv), v.t. pret. & pp. served; ppr. 
serving. [Fr. servir, from L. servio, to serve, 
from servits, a servant.a slave or serf; by some 
supposed to be from same root as G. schwer, 
heavy, O.II.G. sioari, burdensome; Lith. 
swaras, a weight. It would therefore not be 
connected with L. servo, to keep carefully, 
to keep unharmed (whence conserve, pre- 
serve), this verb being from root of saliis, 
safety, salvus, safe. See Safe. ] 1. To work 
for; to perform regular or continuous du- 
ties in behalf of; to act as servant to; to be 
in the employment of, as a domestic, slave, 
hired assistant, official helper, or the like. 

Jacob loved Rachel ; and said, I will set-ce thee 
seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter. 

Gen. xxix. i8. 
No man can serve two masters. Mat. vi. 24. 

2. To render spiritual obedience and wor- 
ship to; to conform to the law of, and treat 
with due reverence. 

And if it seem evil unto yoti to .rerve the Lord, 
choose you this day whom ye m ul serve. 

Jos. xxiv. 15. 

3. To be subordinate or subservient to; to 
act an inferior or secondary part under; to 
minister to, 

Bodies bright and greater should not serve 
The less not bright. Milton. 

4. To wait on or attend in the services of the 
table or at meals; to supply with food. 

Others, pamper'd in their shameless pride, 
Are served in plate. Drydeit. 

5. To bring forward and place or arrange, 
as viands or food on a table: generally with 
up, rarely with in. 

How durst thou bring it from the dresser, ^nAserve 
it thus to me that love it not? Skak. 

Thy care is, under polished tins, 

To serz'e the hot-and-hot. Tennyson. 

Some part he roasts, then serves it up so drest. 

Dry den. 

Soon after our dinner was served in. Bacon. 

6. To perform the service of; to perform 
the duties required in or for; as, a curate 
may serve two churches. — 7. To contribute 
or conduce to; to be sufficient for; to pro- 
mote; to be of use to. 'Feuds serving his 
traitorous end.' Tennyson. ~8. To help by 
good offices ; to administer to the wants 
of. 'Serve his kind in deed and word.' 
Tennyson. —Q. To be in the place or in- 
stead of anything to; to be of use to instead 
of something else; to be in lieu of; to an- 
swer; as, a sofa may serve one for a seat and 
for a couch. 

The cry of ' Talbot * serves me for a sword. Shai. 

10. To regulate one's conduct in accordance 
with the fashion, spirit, or demands of; to 
comply with; to submit or yield to. 

They think herein we serve the time, because 
thereby we either hold or seek prefeniient. Hooker. 
The man who spoke; 
Who never sold the truth to serz-e the hour, 
Nor palter'd with Eternal God for power. 

Tennyson. 

11. To behave towards; to treat; to reciuite; 
as, he served me very ungratefully. — 12. To 
satisfy; to content. 

Nothing would serve them then but riding. 

Sir R. L' Estrange. 

13. To handle; to manipulate; to manage; 
to work; as, the guns were well served.— 

14. Naut. to protect from friction, »&c., as a 
rope by winding something tight round it. 

15. In law, to deliver or transmit to; to pre- 
sent to in due form: often with on or upon 
before the person. 

They required that no bookseller should be al- 
lowed to unpack a box of books without notice and 
a catalogue served upon a judge. Brougham. 

— To serve one's se^f "f> to avail one's self of; 
to make use of; to use. [A Gallicism.] 

If they elevate themselves, 'tis only to fall from a 
higher place, because they serve themselves of other 
mens wings. Dryden. 

—To serve out, to deal out or distribute in 
portions; as, to serve out provisions or am- 
munition to the soldiers; to serve out gi'og 



to the sailors. — To serve one out, to treat one 
according to his deserts; to give one what 
he richly deserves; to take revenge on one; 
to punish one. 

The Right Honourable Gentleman had boasted he 
had served his country for twenty years — served his 
country] He should have said served her out ! 

Lord Lytton. 

— To serve one right, to treat one as he de- 
serves; to let the consequences of one's ac- 
tions fall upon him : often used interjec- 
tionally. 'Workhouse funeral~«erue him 
right!' Dickens.— To serve the turn, to meet 
the emergency; to be sufficient for the pur- 
pose or occasion; to answer the purpose. 

A cloak as long as thine will serve the turn. Shak. 

— To serve an attachment, or writ 0/ attach- 
ment, in law, to levy it on the person or 
goods by seizure, or to seize. — To serve an 
execution, to levy it on lands, goods, or per- 
son, by seizure or taking possession. — To 
serve a process, in general to read it so as to 
give due notice to the party concerned, or 
to leave an attested copy with him or his 
attorney, or at his usual place of abode.— 
To serve a warrant, to read it, and to seize 
the person against whom it is issued.— To 
serve a writ, to read it to the defendant, or 
to leave an attested copy at his usual place 
of abode.— To serve a person heir to a pro- 
perty, in Scots law, to take the necessary 
legal steps for putting him in possession of 
the property. See Service.— To serve an 
office, to discharge the duties incident to it. 
Serve (s6rv), v.i. l. To be or act as a ser- 
vant; to be employed in labour or other 
services for another; in more specific senses, 
(a) to perform domestic offices to another; 
to wait upon one as a servant; to attend. 

But Martha was cumbered about much serving, 
and came to him, and said. Lord, dost thou not care 
that ray sister hath left me to serve alone? Lu. x. 40. 

(6) To discharge the requirements of an 
office or employment; more especially, to 
act as a soldier, seaman, &o. 

Many noble gentlemen, . . . who before had been 
great commanders, but now served as private gentle- 
men without pay. KnoUes. 
Likewise had he served a year 
On board a merchantman, and made himself 
Full sailor. Tennyson. 

(c) To be in subjection or slavery. 

The Lord shall give thee rest from thy sorrow, and 
from thy fear, and from the hard bondage wherein 
thou wast made to serve. Is. xiv 3. 

2. To answer a pui-pose; to accomplish the 
end; to be sufficient; to be of use. 

Ro*n. Courage man; the hurt cannot be much. 
Mer. No, 'tis not so deep as a well, nor so wide as 
a church-door; but 'tis enough, 'twill serve. Shak. 
Their hall must also serve for kitchen, Tennyson. 

3. To suit; to be convenient. 

And as occasion sen'es, this noble queen 

And prince shall follow with a fresh supply. Shak. 

Server (s6rv'6r), n. 1. One who serves.— 
Specifically— 2. One who assists the priest at 
the celebration of the eucharist, by lighting 
the altar tapers, arranging the books, bring- 
ing in the bread, wine, water, &c., and by 
making the appointed responses in behalf 
of the congregation. —3. A salver or small 
tray. 

Service (sSr'vis), n. [Fr., from L. servitium, 
slavery, servitude. See Serve.] 1. The act 
of serving; the performance of labour or 
offices for ahother, or at another's com- 
mand ; attendance of an inferior, hired 
helper, assistant, slave. Ac. on a superior, 
employer, master, or the like; menial du- 
ties. 

The banished Kent, who in disguise 
Followed his enemy king and did him service 
Improper for a slave. Shak. 

Specifically— 2. Spiritual obedience, rever- 
ence, and love. * Earnest in the service of 
my God. ' Shak. 

God requires no man's service upon hard and un- 
reasonable terms. Ttlt'otson. 

3. Place or position of a servant: employ- 
ment as a servant; state of being or acting 
as a servant; menial employ or capacity; as, 
to be out of service; to be taken into a per- 
son's service. ' To leave a rich Jew's ser- 
vice.' 'Have got another semce." Shak. 

None would go to service that thinks he has enough 
to live well of himself. Sir If. TempU. 

4. Labour performed for another; assist- 
ance or kindness rendered a superior; duty 
done or reciuired; office. 

As tiiou lovest me, Camillo. wipe not out the rest 
of thy sen.iices by leaving me now; the need I have 
of thee thine own goodness hath made. Shak. 

This poem was the last piece of service I did for 
my master. King Charles. Dryden. 



5. Duty performed in, or appropriate to, 
any office or charge; official function; hence, 
specitlcally, military or naval duty; per- 
formance of the duties of a soldier or sailor; 
as, to see much service abroad. 

When he cometh to experience of service abroad, 
he maketh a worthy soldier. Shak. 

6. Useful office ; advantage conferred or 
brought about; benefit or good performed 
or caused. 

The stork's plea, when taken in a net, was the ser- 
vice she did in picking up venomous creatures. 

Sir R. L Estrange. 

7. Profession of respect uttered or sent. 

Pray do my service to his majesty. Shak. 

8. Public religious worship or ceremony; 
office of devotion; official religious duty 
performed; religious rites appropriate to 
any event or ceremonial; as, a marriage 
service; a burial service. 

The congregation was discomposed, and divine 
service broken off. it 'atts. 

9. A musical composition for use in churches; 
specifically, a name of certain musical com- 
positions for the canticles in the morning 
and evening services of the Book of Com- 
mon Prayer. — 10. Things required for use; 
furniture; especially, (a) set of dishes or 
vessels for the table; as, a tea service, a 
dinner service; a service of plate. (6) An 
assortment of table-linen.— 11. A course or 
order of dishes at table. 

There was no extraordinary service seen on the 
table. Hakeu-itl. 

12. That which is served round to a company 
at one time; as. a«^rrtce of fruit, and the like. 
13 The material used iav serving a rope, as 
spun-yarn, twine, canvas, and the like- 
ly The duty which a tenant owes to a lord 
for his fee; thus, personal service consists in 
homage and fealty, &c. ; annual service in 
rent, suit to the court of the lord, &c. ; 
accidental services in heriots, reliefs, dtc— 
Service of an heir, in Scots law, a proceeding 
before a jury for ascertaining and deter- 
mining the heir of a person deceased. It is 
either general or special. A general service 
determines generally who is heir of another; 
a special service ascertains who is heir to 
particular lands or heritage in which a 
I)erson dies miait. — Service of a writ, pro- 
cess, Ac, in law, the reading of it to the 
person to whom notice ia intended to be 
given, or the leaving of an atte8t«d copy 
with the person or his attorney or at his 
usual place of abode. — Sern"c« of an at- 
tachment, the seizing of the person or goods 
according to the direction. — The service of an 
execution, the levying of it upon the goods, 
estate, or person of the defendant. — Sufr- 
stitution of service, in Ireland, a mode of 
serving a writ upon the defendant by post- 
ing it up in some conspicuous or public 
place in the neighbourhood or parish. 
This mode is allowed wlien entrance to the 
dwelling-place of the defendant cannot be 
effected. 

Service (s^r'vis), n. Same as Service-tree. 

Serviceable (s^i-'vis-a-bl), a. l. Capable of 
rendering useful service; pron»oting happi- 
ness, interest, advantage, or any good; use- 
ful; beneficial; advantageous. 'The most 
serviceable tools that he could employ.' 
Macaulay. 

Religion hath force to qualify all sorts of men, and to 
make them, in public atlairs, the more serviceable. 
Hooker. 

2. Doing or ready to do service; active; dili- 
gent; officious. ' Seeing her so sweet and 
serviceable.' Tennyson. 

1 know thee well, a serziceable villain. Shak. 

Serviceableness (s^rvis-a-bl-nes), n. l. The 
state uf being serviceable; usefulness in pro- 
moting good of any kind; beneficialness. 

All action being for some end, its aptness to be com- 
manded or forbidden must be founded upon its ser- 
viceableftess or disserviceableness to some end. 

Notris. 

2. Officlousness; readiness to do service- 
He might continually be in her presence. she«ving 
more humble serviceableness and joy to content her 
than ever before. Sir P. Sidney. 

ServiceaWy (s^-r'vis-a-bliX adv. In a ser- 
viceable manner. 

Servlceage t (s^r'vis-aj), n. State of senM- 
tude. ' Thraldom base and serciceage.' 
Fairfax. 

Service-berry (s6r'vis-be-ri). ?(. [See Ser- 
vice-tree.] 1. A North American wild plant 
(Ametaiirhier canadensis) and its fruit, al- 
lied to the medlar. The fruit is a good 
article of food. Called also Shad-btt^h, June- 
berry. —2. A berry of the service-tree. 



Fate, fftr, fat, fftll; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; xi, Sc. abune; y, Sc. fey. 



SERVICE-BOOK 



41 



SESQUIPEDALIAN 



Service-book (s^r'vis-buk), "• A book 
used in i-hurch service; a book of devotion; 
a prayer-book; a missal. Milton. 
Service-money (s^r'vis-raun-ni), n. Money 
paid for service 'Secret service-moixey to 
Betty." Addi^ofi. 
Servlce-plpe(,ser'vis-plp). n. A pipe, usually 
of lead or iron, for the supply of water, gas, 
and the like from the maiu to a building. 
Service-tree (s^r" vls-tre), n. [A corruption of 
L- ^"/T'fw.thesorborservice-tree.] The-Pynw 
(Sorbus) domestica, a tree of 50 or 60 feet in 
height, a rare native of England, yielding a 
valuable hard-grained timber and a small 
pear-shaped fruit, which, like the medlar, is 
only pleasant in an over-ripe condition. The 
wild service-tree (Ppnis tonninalix) also 
bears a fruit which becomes mellow and 
pleasant by keeping, and of which lai^e 
<iuantities are sent to the London market 
from Hertfordshire, 
Servient t (ser'vi-ent), a. [L. 8erme>is^ ser- 
cu'ntig, ppr. of servio, to serve.] Sul)ordi- 
tijite 'Servient youth and magisterial eld.' 
/'/ r. 'A form »eryiVn( and assisting.' Cow- 
y — Servient teiiement. in Scots la Wthiene- 
liiuiit or subject over which a predial servi- 
tude is constituted ; an estate in respect of 
which a service is owing, the dominant tene- 
ment being that to which the service is due. 
Serviette (sfir-vl-et'), n. [Fr. ] A toble- 
iiiipkin. 
Servile (»6r'vil), a. [Fr., from L. gervilis, 
from ttercio, to serve.] 1. Pertaining to or 
befitting a servant or slave; slavish; mean; 
proceeding from dependence; as, serviie fear; 
serciU obedience. — 2. Held in subjection; 
dependent 

Wh.it ! hare we hands, and shall we servile be? 
Why were swords made but to preserve men free? 
Daniel. 

Z. Cringing: fawning; meanly eubmiseive; 
as, aerviU flattery. 

She must bend the servile knee. Thotnscn. 

\. In gram, (a) not belonging to the original 
root; as, a gerciU letter - (b) Not itself 
sounded; silent, as the final e in servile, 
tune. Jkc. 
Servile (s^r'vilX n. In gram, a letter which 
forms no part of the original root: opposed 
^^ radical. Also, a letter of a word which is 
not S'luuited, as the final e in peace, plane, Ac. 
Servilely (u^r'vil-li), adv. In a servile 
manner: (a) meanly; slavishly; with base 
submission or obsequiousness. 

Who more than thou 
Once fawned and cringed, and servilely adored 
Heaven's awfut monarch? Milton. 

(&) With base deference to another; as, to 

adopt opinions itertfUely. 
ServilenesB (sc'i^vtl-nes), n. Same u Ser- 

vility. 
Servility fs^r-viri-ti), n. The state or qua- 
lity of being servile: as, (a) the condition of 
a slave or bondman; slavery. 

To he a queen in bondage is more rile 
Than is a slave in base servility. Shai. 

(6) Mean submission; baseness; slavishness; 
mean obsetjuiousness ; slavisli deference. 
' This unhappy servility to custom.' Dr. U. 
More. 



The very feellne which would have restrained us 
oin committine the act would have ted u$, after it had 
been committed, to defend it against the ravines of 



ier-vUity and superstition. ~ MaeaiUay. 

Servlng-I>oard(86i^ving-b6rd), n. Naut a 
piece of hanl woo<l flttei! with a handle and 
used for serving spun-yam on small ropes. 

Serring-maid (serving madX n. A female 
servant; a female domestic. 

8erving-maUet(86r'vlng-maI-let).n. Saut. 
aserni. ylindriral piece of wood, fitted with 
a handle, and having a groove on one side 
Vt rtt the convexity of a rope which it is 
used to serve or wrap round with spun-yam, 
(Vr . to prevent chatlng. 

Serving-man(8*r'ving-man), n. A male 
•i»r\;iiit; a menial Shak. 

Servltlum (u^rvish'i-uni). n. [L] In law, 
service; servitude. 

Servitor (s^r'vi-t^r),/*. [L L,fromL.«frrw>. 
to serve.) 1. A male servant or domestic; 
an attendant; one who acts under another; 
a follower or adherent. 

Thu» are poor tervUort. 
When others sleep ut>on their quiet beds. 
Constrained to watch in darkness,rain,and cold. Skak. 
Our Norman conqueror gave away to his servitors 
the lands and possessions of such as did oppose his 
invasion. Davits. 

2. In Oxford University, an undergra<luate 
who was partly supported by the college 
funds, and whose duty was originally to 
wait at table on the fellows antl gentlemen 



commoners. The servitors nearly corre- 
sponded to the sizars at Cambridge. 

That business of toadeater which had been his 
calling and livelihood from his very earliest years — 
ever smce he first entered college as a servitor. 

Thackeray. 

Servltorship ( s6r ' vi - t6r- ship ), n. The 
office of a servitor. BoswelL 

Servitude (sci-'vi-tud), n. [Vr., from L. ser- 
vitiido, servitude. See Serve.] 1. The con- 
dition of a slave ; the state of involuntary 
subjection to a master; slavery; bondage. 

You would have sold your king to slaughter. 
His princes and his peers to sen-itude. Hhak. 

2. The condition of a menial or underling. 

3. Compulsory service or labour, such as a 
criminal has to undergo as a punishment; as, 
penal«crt'irt/(/*?. See under Penal. —4. A state 
of slavish dependence. ' In love with a splen- 
did servitude.' South. —5.i Servants, col- 
lectively. ' A cumbrous train of herds and 
flocks, and numerous «eryt(udc.' Milton. — 
6. A term used in civil and Scots law to sig- 
nify a right whereby one thing is subject to 
another thing or person for use or conven- 
ience contrary to common right. Servitudes 
are divided into personal and prcediaX. A 
personal servitude is a right constituted 
over a subject in favour of a person without 
reference to possession or property, and now 
consists only in liferent or usufruct. A 
proedial servitude is a right constituted over 
one subject or tenement by the owner of 
another subject or tenement. Prsedial ser- 
vitudes are either rural or urban, according 
as they affect land or houses. The usual 
rural servitudes are passage or road, or the 
right which a person has ti> walk or drive to 
his house over another's land ; pasture, or the 
right to send cattle to graze on another's 
land; feal and divot, or the right to cut turf 
and peats on another's land; aqueduct, or 
the right to have a stream of water conveyed 
through another's land ; thtrlage. or the right 
to have other people's corn sent to one's own 
mill to be ground. Urban servitudes con- 
sist chiefly in the right to have the rain from 
one's roof to drop on another's land or house; 
the right to prevent another from building 
so ns to obstruct the windows of one's house : 
the right of the owner of the flat above to 
have his flat supported by the flat beneath. 
Ac— Servitude, Slavery, B<mdage. Servi- 
tude is general, and implies either the state 
of a voluntary servant or of a slave, but Is 
generally useil for the latter. Slavery is in- 
voluntary and compulsory servitude. Bond- 
age, slavery aggravated by oppression or con- 
finement. 

Bervltnret (s^r'vi-tur). n. Servants collec- 
tively; the whole body of servants in a 
family. 'Calling the rest of the servilure.' 
Milton. 

Sesame (ses'a-mS), n. {Gr. s^sami. sesanwn. 
L. sesamum.] An annual herbaceous plant 
of the genus Sesamum (which &ee).~Open 
Sesame, the charm by which the door of the 
robbers' dungeon in the tale of A It Baba and 
the Forty Thieves flew open; hence, a speci- 
fic for gaining entrance Into any place, or 
means of exit from it. 

These words were tlic only ' ofen Sesame' to their 
feelings and sympatluc^. E. Skelton. 

Sesamoid, Sesamoidal (se'sa-moid, se'sa- 
moi-dal), a. Resembling the seeds of sesame 
in form. —Sesamoid hones, small bones 
formed at the articulations of the great toes, 
and occasion- 
ally at the 
Joints of the 
thumbs and In 
other partsu 

SeflamQm(Be8'- 
a-mum),n. {See 
Sesame. ] A 
genus of an- 
nual herbace- 
ous plants, naL 
ortler Pedall- 
aceie. The spe- 
cies, though 
now cultivated 
in many coun- 
tries, are na- 
tives of India. 
They have al- 
ternate leaves 
and axillary 
yellow or pink- 
ish solitary Sesnmum ortentale {SetAmc). 
flowers. S ori- 

entale and S. iiutieum are cultivated in 
various countries, especially in India, Egypt, 
and Syria; they have also been taken to the 




West Indies. Sesamum seeds are sometimes 
added to broths, frequently to cakes by the 
Jews, and likewise in the East. The oil 
expressed from them is bland, and of a fine 
(juality, and will keep many years without 
becoming rancid. It is often used in In- 
dia as a salad-oil. The leaves of the plant 
are mucilaginous, and are employed for 
poultices. Of the seeds two varieties are 
known in commerce, the one white and the 
other black. 

Seslsan (ses'ban), n. A leguminous plant. 
See Sesbama. 

Sesbania (ses-ba'ni-a), n. [From Sesban, the 
Arabic name of S. cegyptiaca.] A genus of 
plants, nat. order Leguminosie. There are 
about sixteen species of shrubs or herbs 
found in the warmer parts of the world. 
They have pinnate leaves and lax axillary 
racemes, of yellow, scarlet, purple, or white 
flowers. 5. cegyptiaca, the Egyptian species, 
found also in India, forms a small and very 
elegant tree, the wood of which is employed 
in making the best charcoal for gunpowder. 
S. acxdeata, the dhanchi of Bengal, is cul- 
tivated on account of the fibres of the bark, 
which are generally employed for the drag- 
ropes and other cordage about flshing-nets. 

Sesell (ses'e-li), n. [L. and Gr. seselis, seseli.'\ 
A genus of umbelliferous plants. S. libano- 
tis is a British plant, found in chalky pas- 
tures in Cambridgeshire. It is known by 
the names of mountain meadow-saxifrage 
and hart wort. 

Seslia (sesh'a),- n. In Hind. myth, the king 
of the serpents, with a thousand heads, on 
one of which the world rests. Vishnu re- 
clines on him in the primeval waters. When 
depicted coiled he is the symbol of eter- 
nity. 

Seslerla (ses-le'ri-a), n. [In honour of M. 
Sesler, a physician and botanist of the eigh- 
teenth century. ] A genus of grasses belong- 
ing to the tribe Festuceic. The inflores- 
cence is in simple spikes ; spikelets, two to 
six flowered; glumes, two membranaceous, 
nearly equal and pointed or nmcronate ; 
flowering glumes, three to five toothed; sta- 
mens, three; styles, two. Its British repre- 
sentative is 5. coenilea or moor-grass 

Sesqul (ses'kwi). [L.] a prefix f-i_'nify- 
ing one integer or whole and a half; as, 
«f»7Kt-granum, a grain and a half, &t:. In 
ehem. this term is used to designate com- 
pounds in which an equivalent and a half 
of one su>)stance are comlnned with one of 
another; thus,«e«9ia'oxideof iron is an oxide 
containing 1 etjuivalent of iron to 1^ of 
oxygen, or 2 of iron to 3 of oxygen. In 
vxusic it signifies a whole and a half; joined 
with altera, terza, qvarta it is much used 
in the Italian music to express a set of 
ratios, particularly the several species of 
triple time. In gcom. it expresses a ratio in 
which the greater term contains the less 
once, and leaves a certain aliquot part of 
the less over; but such terms are nearly ob- 
solete. 

Sesqulaltera (ses-kwi-artfir-a), n. The name 
of a compound stop on the organ, consisting 
of several ranks of pipes sounding high har- 
monics, for the purpose of strengthening 
the ground tone. 

Sesquialteral (ses-kwi-al't^r-al), (I. [L. pre- 
fix sestjui. and alter, other ] 1. In math, a 
term applied to a ratio where one quantity 
or numl)er contains another once and half 
as much more ; thus the ratio to 6 is ses- 
quialteral.— 2. A sesquialteral Jloret, in bot. 
a large fertile floret accompanied with a 
small abortive one. 

Sesqulalterate (8e8-lEwi-art6r-&t), a. Same 
as S''>«iuiiilteral. 

Sesqulalterous (ses-kwi-al't^r-usX a. Ses- 
<iui.ilt'rid (which see). 

Sesqulduple (ses-kwi-dii'pl), a. Same as 
Sesqniduplicate. 

Sesqulduplicate (ses-kwi-du'pli-kat),a. |L. 
prefix sesqui. and duplicatus, double.] De- 
signating the ratio of two and a half to one. 
or where the greater term contains the 
lesser twice and a half, as that of 50 to 20. 

SesqulOZide (ses-kwi-oks'id), 7l a com- 
pound of oxygen and another element in 
the proportion of three equivalents of oxy- 
gen to two of the other. 

Sesauipedalian, Sesqulpedal (ses'kwi- 

pe-da"Ii-an. ses'kwip-e-daf). a. |L. sesqui- 
pedalis—sesqui. one an^l a half, an<l pedalis, 
from pes.a foot.] Containing nr measuring 
a foot and a half; as, a sesquipedalian 
pigmy : often humorously applied to lon^ 
words, as translation of Horace's * sesquv- 
pedalia verba.' 



ch, e^n; Ah, Sc locA; g, po; \,jo\}\ ft, Pr. t<m; ng. slru;; TH. cAen; th. tAin; w. tirig; wh, wAig; zh. azure.—See KEY. 



SESQUIPEDAUTY 



42 



t^T 



Se8auipedality(ses'kwi-pe-dal"i-ti).n.l.The 

quality or coiulitiou of being sesquipedalian. 
Stenw. — 2. The practice of using long words. 

Sesquiplicate (ses-kwlp'li-kat), a. [Prefix 
aesqiii, and plicate.] designating the pro- 
portion one quantity or uuuiber has to an- 
other in the ratio of one and a half to one; 
as. the sesquiplicate proportion of the peri- 
odical times of the planets. 

Sesquisalt (ses-kwi-sslf), n. A salt con- 
sisting of three equivalents of one element 
to two of another. 

Sesquisulpllide (ses-kwi-aul'fid), n. A basic 
compound of sulphur with some other ele- 
ment, in the proportions of three equiva- 
lents of sulphur to two of the other element. 

Sesquitertial (ses-kwi-tei-'shi-al), a. Same 
as Ses-jultertidii. 

Sesquitertian, Sesquitertianal (ses-kwi- 
t6i-'8hi-an, ses-kwi-tt.>i-'shi-an-al), a. [L. sen- 
qui, one and a half, and tertius, third] 
Designating the ratio of one and one-third 
to one. 

Sesst (ses), v.t. To assess; to tax. NorUi. 

Sess t (aes). n. A tax. See Cess. 

Sessat (ses'sa), interj. Prol)ably a cry used 
by way of exhorting to swift running. 
Dolphin, my boy. sessat let him trot by. SAai. 
Let the world slide, sessa I Sitak. 

Sessile (ses'sTl), a. [L. sessilis, from sedeo, 
sessum, to sit] In zool. and bot. attached 
without any sensible projecting support ; 
sitting directly on the body to which it 
belongs without a support ; attache<i by a 
base ; as, a sessile leaf, one issuing directly 
from the main stem or branch 
without a petiole or foot- 
stalk ; a sessile flower, one 
having no peduncle; s, sessile 





Sessile Leaves. 



Sessile Flower. 



gland, one not elevated on a stalk ; a sessile 
stigma, one without a style, as in the poppy. 
The first figure shows the sessile leaves of 
American snake-root(Po^i/i;aio Se)iega), and 
the second the sessile 'flower of chicory 
(Cichoriam Intybus). 
Session (se'shon), n. [Fr., from L. sessio, 
seasionis, from sedeo, sessum, to sit] 1. Act 
of sitting; state of being seated. 

For so much his ascension into heaven and his 
session at the right hand of God do import. Hooker. 
But Vivian . , . leaped from her session on his lap 
and stood. Tennyson. 

2. The sitting together of a body of indivi- 
duals for the transaction of business ; the 
sitting of a court, academic body, council, 
legislature, &c. , or the actual assembly of the 
members of these or any similar body for 
the transaction of business; as, the court is 
now in session, that is, the members are 
assembled for business. 

Summon a session that we may arraign 
Our most disloyal lady. Shnk. 

His pigeons, who in session on their roofs 
Approved him. bowing at their own deserts. 

Tennyson. 

3. The time, space, or term during which 
a court, council, legislature, and the like, 
meet daily for business or transact business 
regularly without breaking up. Thus a ses- 
sion of parliament comprises the time from 
its meeting to its prorogation, of whicli 
there is in general but one in each year. 
The session of a judicial court is called a 
term.—^. In law, generally used absolutely 
in the plural, a sitting of justices in court 
upon commission ; as, the sessions of oyer 
and terminer. See under Oyer. 

We have had a very heavy sessions, said the judee. 

T. Hook. 
— Sessions of the pmce, the name given to 
sessions held by justices of the peace, whe- 
ther petty, special, quarter, or general. — 
I'etty sessions, the meeting of two or more 
justices for trying offences in a summary 
way under various acts of parliament em- 
powering them to do io. Special sessions, 
sessions held by justices acting for a divi- 
sion of a county or riding, or for a burgh, 
for the transaction of special business, such 
as granting licenses, &c. — Quarter-sessions. 



See Quarter-sessions.— General session of 

the jieace, a meeting of the justices held for 
tlie purpose of acting judicially for the 
whole district comprised within their com- 
mission. The sessions that are held once 
I every quarter of the year are called the 
! general quarter-sessions of the peace. —Court 
I of Session, the supreme civil court of Scot- 
! land, having jurisdiction in all civil ques- 
( tions of whatever nature. It was instituted 
in 1532. The number of juilges is thirteen: 
the lord-president, the lord justice-clerk, 
and eleven ordinary lords. They sit in two 
divisions, the lord-president and three or- 
dinary lords forming the Hrst division, and 
the lord justice-clerk and other three ordi- 
nary lords the second division. The first 
and second division form what is called the 
inner fioiise. There are live permanent 
lords-ordinai'y, each of whom holds a court, 
the courts of the lords-ordinary forming 
what is called the outer house. The junior 
lord-ordinary officiates in the bill-chamber 
during session. (See Bill-chamber.) The 
judgments of inferior courts, except those 
of the small-debts courts, are mostly sub- 
ject to tlie review of the Court of Session. 
Judgments of the Court of Session may be 
appealed against to the House of Lords. 
The judges hold their office ad vitavi ant 
culpam, and their nomination and appoint- 
ment are in the crown.— Clerk of the session. 
See under CLERK.— Grcrt( Session of Wales. 
a court which was abolished by 1 'VViiliam 1 V. 
Ixx. ; the proceedings now issue out of the 
courts In London, and two of the judges of 
the superior courts hold regular circuits in 
Wales and Cheshire as in other Em^lish 
counties.— 5 In the Church of Scotland, see 

KiRK-SHSSION. 

Sessional (se'shon-al), a. Relating or be- 
longing to a session or sessions. —Sessional 
orders, in Parliament, certain orders agreed 
to by both Houses of Parliament at the com- 
mencement of each session, which are re- 
newed from year to year, and not intended 
to endure beyond tlie existing session. Sir 
E. May. 

Session-clerk (se'shon-klark), n. In Scot- 
land, one who officially keeps the books and 
documents of a kirk-session, makes all en- 
tries, and manges the proclamations of 
banns for marriages. 

Sess-pool (ses'pbl). n. See Cess-pool. 

Sesterce, Sestertius (ses't^rs, ses-t^r'she- 
us), n. [Fr. st-sterce, L. sestertius, lit what 
contains two and a \\B\t—semis, a half, and 
tertiiis, a third.] A Roman coin or denomi- 
nation of money, in value the fourth part 
of a denarius, and originally containing two 
asses and a half, about 2d. sterling. The 
Romans generally reckoned sums of money 
in sestertii, although tlie coin used in mak- 
ing payments was commonly the denarius. 
Large sums they reckoned by sestertia, that 
is, sums of a thousand sestertii. 

Several of them »vouId rather chuse a sum in ses- 
tenes than in pounds sterling. Addison. 

Sestet. SestettO (ses'tet, ses-tet'to). n. [It. 
sestetto, from L. *exfH«, sixth, from sex, six.] 
In music, a composition for six voices or six 
instruments. Written also Sestett. 

Sestlne (ses'tin), n. In pros, a stanza of six 
lines; a sextain. 

Set (set), v.t. pret & pp. set; ppr. setting. 
[Causative or factitive of sit; A. Sax. settan, 
to set, place, appoint, &c. ; O. Sax. settian, 
Icel. setja, Dan. sette, Goth, satjan G. setzen, 
to set] 1. To make or cause to sit; to place 
in a sitting, standing, or any natural pos- 
ture; to place uprieht: as. to set a box on its 
end or a table on its feet : often with uj) or 
down. 'Sets down her babe.' Shak. 

They took Dagon, and sef hini in his place again. 
I Sam. V. 3. 
Thy grand captain Antony 
Shall sei thee on triuiiiphant chariots and 
Put garlands on thy head. Shak. 

We'll set thy statue in some holy place, 
And have thee reverenced like a blessed saint. 
Sh^tk. 
2. Generally, to put, place, or fix; to put in 
a certain place, position, or station. 

I do sei my bow in the cloud. Gen. ix. i^. 
Where may we set our horsesS S^tak. 

More specifically, (a) to arrange; to dispose; 

to station; to post. 

Set we our squadrons on yond side o' the hill. 
In eye of Cresar's battle. Shak. 

Am 1 a sea or a whale, that thou settest a watch 

over me? Job vii. 12, 

{b) To place or plant firmly; as, to set one's 
foot upon a person's neck. ' Set him breast 
deep in earth.' Shak. (c) To establish in a 



certain post or office; to appoint; as, to set 

a person over others ; to set a man at the 
head of affairs.— 3. To make or cause to l>e, 
do, or act ; to put from one state into an- 
other; as, to 8e( a person right; to set at 
ease ; io set in order; to set a man to work. 
See also phrases below. 

I am come to set a. man at variance against his 
father. Mat. x, 35. 

I cannot think but in the end the vUlanies of man 
will set him clear. Shak. 

Blow, bugle, blow, set the wild echoes fiying. 

Tennyson. 

A. To fix or make immobile ; to render mo- 
tionless. 

Here comes Baptista; set yoMi countenance, sir. 
Skak. 
Set are her eyes, and motionless her limbs. Garth. 

5. 'i"o fix as regards amount or value; to de- 
termine or regulate beforehand ; 3a,%o set 
a price on a house, farm, or horse. 

And as for these whose ransom we have set. 
It is our pleasure one of them depart. Shak. 

6. To fix or settle authoritatively or by ar- 
rangement ; to prescribe ; to appoint ; to 
assign ; to predetermine ; as. to set a time 
or place for meeting; ioset an hour or a day 
for a journey. 'Set him such a task to be 
done in such a time.' Locke. 

I am to bruise his heel ; 
His seed (when is not set) shall bruise my head. 
Shak. 

7. To place in estimation; to value; to esti- 
mate; to rate; to prize. 

Ye have set at nought all my counsel. Prov. i 25. 
I do not set my life at a pin's fee. Shak. 

8. To regulate or adjust ; as, to set a time- 
piece by the sun. 

In court they deCeniiiiie the king's good by his de- 
sires, which is a kind cA setting the sun by the dial. 
Suekling. 

9. To fit to music; to adapt with notes; aa, 
to set the words of a psalm to music. 

Set thy own songs, and sing them to thy lute. 

Drydtn. 

10. t To pitch ; to lead off, as a tune in sing- 
ing. 

1 had one day set the hundredth psalm, and was 
singing the first line, in order to put the congrega- 
tion into tune. Spectator. 

11. To plant, as a shnib, tree, or vegetable, 
as distinguished from sowing. 

Whatsoever fruit useth to be set upon a root or a 
slip, if it be sown, will degenerate. Bacon. 

I'll not put 
The dibble in earth to set one slip of them. Shak. 

12. To fix for ornament, as in metal; as, a 
diamond set in a ring. 

Too rich a jewel to be set 
In vulgar metal for a vulgar use. X>ryden. 

13. To adorn, as with precious stones; to 
Intersperse; to stud; as, to set anything with 
diamonds or pearls. 

High on their heads, with jewels richly set. 
Each lady wore a radiant coronet. DiydeH. 

14. To reduce from a dislocated or fractured 
state: as. to set a bone or a leg. —15. To fix 
mentally; to fix with settled puipose; to 
place; to make intent on. as the heart or 
affections. 'Minds altogether set on trade 
and profit.' Addison. 

Set not thy sweet heart on proud array. Shak. 

16. To stake at play; to wager; to risk. 

I have set my life upon a cast, 
And I wilt stand the hazard of the die. Shak. 

17. To embarrass ; to pei-plex ; to pose ; to 
bring to a mental stand-stilL 

They are hard set to represent the bill as a griev- 
ance. AddisoH. 
Leaniing was pos'd. Philosophic was set, 
Sophisters taken in a fisher's net. G. Herbert. 

18. To pnt in good order; to put in trim for 
use; as, to set a razor, tliat is, to give it a 
fine edge; to set a saw, to incline the teeth 
laterally to right and left in order that the 
kerf may be wider than the thickness of the 
blade.— 19. To apply or use in action; to em- 
ploy: with to; as, to set spurs to one's horse. 
'Set the axe to thy usurping root.' Shak. 
' That the Lord thy God may bless thee in 
all that thou settest thine hand to.' Deut 
xxiii. 20.-20. To attach; to add to; to join 
with: to impart: with to or on. * Do «et a 
scandal 071 my sex.' Shak. 

Be Mercury, set feathers to thy heels. 

And fly like thought from them to me again. Shak. 

21. To incite; to instigate; to encourage; to 
spur: often with on. See also below. 'Sets 
Thersites to match us in comparisons.* 
Sfiak. 

Spit and throw stones, cast mire upon me, set 
The dogs o' the street to bay me. Shnk. 

22. To produce; to contrive. 

Most freely I confess, myself and Toby 

Set this device against Malvolio here. S^k. 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oU, pound; u, 3c. abune; y, Sc. fey. 



BErr 



43 



BETA 



23. To offer for a price; to expose for sale. 

There is not a more wicked thing than a covetous 
man; for such an one setuth his own soul to sale. 
l-ccUis. X. 9. 

24 To put in opposition; to oppose. 

Will you Sit your wit to a fool's? Shak. 

25. To let or grant to a tenant. 

They care not ... at how unreasonable rates they 
set their grounds, Bp. Haii. 

2R. To write; to note down: often with 
doi''n; as, I have his words all set down 
here. 

All his faults observed, 
S^f in a note-book, leam'd, and connd by rote. 
SA4Xjk. 

27. In print itig, (a) to place in proper order, 
aa types; to compose. (6) To put into type; 
as. to get a MS. : usually with up,--2S.yaut. 
(a» to loosen and extend ; to spread ; as, to 
set the sails of a ship. (6) To observe the 
bearings of, aa a distant object by the com- 
pass; as, to set the land; to set the sun.— 
29. To make stiff or solid ; to convert into 
curd; aa, to set milk for cheese. — 30. To 
become as to manners, rank, merit ; to be- 
come as to dress; to fit; to suit [Scotch.] 
— To set agai/ist, to oppose; to set in com- 
parison, or to oppose as an equivalent in 
exchange. * Setting the probabilities of the 
story against the uredit of the witnesses.' 
Brougham. — To set aside, (a) to omit for the 
present: to lay out of the question. 'Setting 
aside all other considerations.' TiUotmn. 
(6) To reject. Woodward, (c) To abrogate; 
to annul ; as, to set Oiside a verdict.— To set 
at defiance, to defy; to dare to combat — 
To set at ease, to quiet; to tranquillize; as, 
to set the mind at ease. — To set at naught, 
to regard as of no value or consideration; 
to despise.— To set a trap or snare, to pre- 
pare and place itsoasto catch prey; hence, 
to lay a plan to deceive and draw into the 
power of another.— To set at work, to cause 
to enter on work or actioir; to direct how to 
enter on work— To set before. (a)to present 
to view; to exhibit; to display. 'To set 
before your sight your glorious race. ' Dry- 
den, (6) To present for choice or consider- 
ation.— To set by, to reject; to put aside; 
to dismiss; to omit for the present— To set 
down, (a) to place upon the groun*! or floor. 
(6) To enter in writing; to register. Shak. 
(c)t To ordain; to fix; to establish. 'This 
law . . . which God hath set down with him- 
self.' Hooker. —To set eyes on, to fix the 
eyes in looking on; to behold. 

No sinRle soul can we setejes on. SJutt. 

— To set fire to. to apply fire to; to set on 
fire. — 7*0 «( /or(A, (o) to represent by words; 
to present to view or consideration ; to 
make known fully: to show. (6) To promul- 
gate ; to publish: to make appear (c)t To 
prepare and send out. * A fleet of sixty gal- 
leys set forth by the Venetians.' KnoUes.— 
To set fonoard, to advance; to promote; to 
further; as, to Kt forward a scheme. ' To 
set them forward in the way of life. ' Hotter. 
~~To set in, to put in the way to begin; to 
give a start to. ' If you please to assist and 
set me in.' Jeremy Collier. — To set in order, 
to adjust or arrange; to reduce to method. 

The rest will I «/ in order when 1 come. 

I Cor. xi. 34. 

—Toset muck (little, &c.) by, to regard much; 
to esteem greatly. 

His lUiDe was mucJt set by. i Sam. xriii. 30. 

— To get of. (a) to adorn ; to decorate; to em- 
bellish. Addiso9i. (6) To show to the best 
advantage; to recommend. 'That which 
hath no foil to set it of.' Shak. (c) To place 
against as an equivalent (rf) To remove. 
Shak.—Toset on or upon, (a) to incite; to 
instigate; to animate to action. 

Thou, traitor, bast stt an thy wife to this. SAnk. 
('/) To employ as in a task. ' Set on thy 
wife to observe.' Shai. (c) To determine 
with settled purpose. *A patch set on 
learning.* Shak --To set one's cap at. See 
under Cap. — To set one's teeth, to press 
them close together — To set on fire, to 
kindle; to inflame. • It will set the heart o»» 
fire.' Shak.— To get on foot, to start; to set 
agoing.— To set out, (a) to assign: to allot; 
as. to set out the share of each proprietor or 
heir of an estate. (6) To pubbsh, as a pro- 
clamation. 'That excellent proclamation 
get out by the king.' Bacmi, (c) To mark 
by boundaries or distinctions of space. 

Determinate portion* of those infinite abysses of 
space and duration, set out. or supposed to be dis- 
tinguished from all the rest by known boundaries. 
Locke. 



id) To adorn; to embellish. 

An ugly woman in a rich habit, set out with jewels, 
nothing can become. Dryden. 

(e) To raise, equip, and send forth; to fur- 
nish. 

The Venetians pretend they could set out, in case 
of great necessity, thirty men of war. 

Addison. 

(/) To show; to display; to recommend; to 
set off. 

1 could set out that best side of Luther. 

Atterbury, 
(g) To show; to prove. 

Those very reasons set out how heinous his sin 
was. Atterbttry. 

(A) To recite; to state at lai^e.— To set over, 
(a) to appoint or constitute as supervisor, 
inspector, governor, or director. 

I have set thee over all the land of Egypt. 

Gen. xli. 41. 
(6) To assign; to transfer; to convey. — To set 
right, to correct; to put in order.— To set 
sail (naut). See under Sail.— 2'o set the 
teeth on edge. See under Edge.— To get the 
fashion, to establish the mode; to detennine 
what shall be the fashion.— To set up, (a) 
to erect ; as, to set up a post or a monu- 
ment. (&) To begin a new institution; to 
institute; to establish; to found; as, toset 
up a manufactory ; to set up a school, (c) 
To enalde to commence a new business; as, 
to set up a son in ti'ade. (d) To raise; to 
exalt; to put in power ' I will set up shep- 
herds over them.' Jer. xxiii. 4. (e) To place 
in view; as, to se^ tip a mark, (f) To raise; 
to utter loudly. * III set up such a note as 
she shall hear.' Dryden. (g)To advance; 
to propose as truth or for reception; as, to 
set Hi; a new opinion or doctrine. (A)Torai8e 
from depression or to a sufficient fortune; 
as. this good fortune quite set him up. {i) 
Naut. to extend, as the shrouds, stays, &c. 
0) To fix; to establish; as, a resolution. 

Here will I set up my everlasting rest. Shat. 

(fr)In printing. (1) to put in type; as, to set 
up a page of copy. (2) To arrange in words, 
lines, (fee; to compose; as. to set up type.— 
To set up rigging (naut.), to increase the 
tension of the rigging by tackles. 
Set (set), v.i. 1. To pass below the horizon; 
to sink; to decline. 

His smother'd light 
Mayx^rat noon and make perpetual niifht. Shai. 

My eyes no objca met. 
But distant skies that in the ocean set. Dryden. 

2. To be fixed hard ; to be close or firm. 
' Maketh the teeth to set hard one againi^t 
another.' Bacon.— Z. To fit music to words 
'Your ladyship can set.' Shak. — 4. To con- 
geal or concrete; to solidify. 

That fluid substance in a few minutes begins to set. 
Boyle. 

5.t To begin a journey, march, or voyage; 
to go forth; to start. ' The king is set from 
London.* Shak. [Instead of the simple 
verb, we now use set out.]—G. To plant; to 
place plants or shouts in the ground ; as, 
to sow dry, and to set wet— 7. To How; to 
have a certain direction in motion; to tend; 
as, the tide sets to the east or north; the 
current sets westward. 

Trust me, cousin, all the current of my being sett to 
thee. Tennyson. 

8. To point out game, as a sportsman's dog; 
to hunt game Ijy the aid of a setter— 9, To 
undertake earnestly; to apply one's self. 
'If he sets industriously and sincerely to 
perform the commands of Christ' Ham- 
mond. — 10. To face one's partner in dancing. 
Out went the boots, first on one side, then on the 
other, then cutting, then shuffling, then setli^g to the 
Denmark satins. Dickens. 

— To set about, to begin; to take the first 
steps in; as. to set about a business or en- 
terprise.— To set forth or forward, to move 
or march; to begin to march; to advance. 

It is meet I presently sei/ortk. Shak. 

The sons of Gershon and the sons of Merari set 

f»r-Uf9rd. Num. X. 17. 

—To set in, (a) to begin; as, winter in Eng- 
land nsualty sets in alxmt December, (b) To 
become nettled in a particular state. * Wlien 
the weather was set in to be very bad.' Ad- 
dison, (c) To flow towards the shore: as, the 
tide sets in. ~To set of. (a) in printing, to de- 
face or soil the next sheet: said nf the ink on 
a newly-printed sheet, when another sheet 
comes in contact withit before it has liad time 
to dry. (h) To start; to enter on a jouniey. 
— To set an or upon, (a) to I>egin a jotimey 
or an enterprise. ' He that would seriously 
set upon the search of truth.' Locke, (h) 
To assault ; to make an attack; as, they all 
set upon him at once. 

Cassio has been set on in tlte dark. Skat. 



-To «e( out, (a) to begin a journey or course; 
as, to set out for London or from London; 
to set out in business: to set out in life or 
the world. (&) To have a beginning. — To set 
to, to apply one's self to.— 2*0 set up, (a) to 
begin business or a scheme of life; as, to set 
up in trade; to set up for one's self. 

There is no such thing as a powerful or even dis- 
tinguished family, unless in some province, as Egypt, 
of which the bashaw has rebelled and set ufifoi him- 
self. Brougham. 

(b) To profess openly; to make pretensions; 
as, he sets up for a man of wit; he sets up to 
teach morality. 
Set (set), p. and a. 1. Placed; put; located; 
fixed, »tc. — 2. Regular; in due form; well- 
arranged or put together; as, a set speech or 
phrase; a set discourse; a set battle. 

Rail'd on Lady Fortune in good terms, 
In good set terms and yet a motley fool. Shak. 

3. Fixed in opinion; detennined; firm; ob- 
stinate ; as, a man set in his opinions or 
way. — 4. Established; prescribed; settled; 
appointed; as, set forms of prayer. 

Set places and set hours are but parts of that wor- 
ship we owe. South. 

5, Predetermined ; fixed beforehand ; as, a 
set purpose. ~6. Fixed; immovable. 

He saw that Mamcr's eyes were set like a dead 
man's. George Eliot. 

—Set scene, in theatricals, a scene where 
there is a good deal of arrangement for the 
pose. — Set speech, (a) a speech carefully pre- 
pared beforehand, (b) A formal or methodi- 
cal speech. 
Set (set), 71. 1. A number or collection of 
tilings of the same kind or suited to each 
other, or to be used together, of which each 
is a necessary complement of all the rest; 
a complete suit or assortment; as, a set of 
chairs; a set of tea-cups; a net of China or 
other ware. [In this sense sometimes incor- 
rectly written Sett.]- 2. A number of per- 
sons customarily or officially associated; aa, 
a set of men; a set of officers; or a number 
of persons united by some affinity of taste, 
character, or the like, or of tilings which 
have some resemblance or relation to each 
other. 

In men this blunder still you find 
All think their little set mankind. 

Mrs. H. Afore. 
This falls into different divisions or sets of nations 
connected under particular religions, &c. R. ll'arel, 

3. A numl>er of particular things that are 
united in the formation of a whole; as, a set 
of features.— 4. A young plant for growth; 
aa, sets of white-thorn or other shrub. —Sets 
aiid eyes of potatoes, slices of the tul^ers of 
the potato for planting, eacli slice having 
at least one eye or bud.— 5. The descent of 
the sun or other luminary below the hori- 
zon; as, the set of the sun. ' Looking at the 
set of day.' Tennyson.— Q.^ A wager; a ven- 
ture; a stake; hence, a game of chance; 
a match. 

We will, in France, play a set 
Sliall strike his father's crown into the hazard. 

Shak, 
That was but civil war, an equal set. Dryden, 

7. An attitude, position, or posture. 

Moneys in possession do give a set to the head 
and a confidence to the voice. Comhitl Mag. 

8. A permanent change of figure caused 
by pressure or being retained long in one 
position: aa, the set of a spring. —9. The 
lateral deflection of a saw tooth. — 10. In 
plastering, the last coat of plaster on walls 
for papering. — 11. In music and dancing, 
the five figures or movements of a quad- 
rille; the music adapted to a quadrille; 
and also, the number of couples required to 
execute the dance.— 12. In theatres, a set 
scene, (See Set, j). and a. , and Scene. ) ' An 
elaborate set' Comhill Alag—\3. A direc- 
tion or course; as, the set of a current.— Se( 
or sett of a burgh, in Scots law, tlie consti- 
tution of a burgh. The setts are either 
established by immemorial usage, or were 
at some time or other modelled by the con- 
vention of burghs.—^ dead set, (a) the act 
of a setter dog when it discovers the game, 
and remains intently fixed in pointing it 
out. (&) A concerted scheme to defraud a 
person by gaming, Groxe. (c) A deter- 
mined stand in argument or in movement. 
[C'olloq.]— 7'ofrea?arfcarf«cf, tobeinafixed 
state or condition which precludes further 
progress. — 7*0 make a dead net, to make a 
determined onset, or an importunate appli- 
cation. 

86ta(se'ta), n. pi. Setse (&e'te). [L., abristle.] 
A bristle or slurp hair; specifically, in hot. 
a bristle of any sort ; a stiff hair; a slender 



ch. cAain; 6h, »c locA; g. ^o; j, job; h, Fr ton; ag, sing: th, (Aen; th, «Un; w, trig; wh, icAig; zh, amre.— See KSY. 



SETACEOUS 



44 



SETTLE 



straight prickle; also, the stalk that sup- 
sports the theca, capsule, or sporangrium of 
mosses. In zool. setce are thestitf short hairs 
that cover many caterpillars and insects, 
the bristles or processes tliat cover the limbs 
and ni:m(libles of many crustaceans. 
Setaceous (se-ta'shus). rt. [L. sefa, a bristle] 
1. Bristly ; set with bristles ; consisting of 
bristles; as, a stiff setaceous tail.— 2. In hot, 
bristle-shaped; having the character of settc; 
as, a setaceous leaf or leatlet. 
Setaria (se-ta'ri-a), n. [From L. seta, a 
bristle. The involucre is bristly.] A genus 
of grasses with spikelets in a dense cylin- 
drical spikelike panicle, containing a few 
species cultivated as corn-grains in some 
countries. The species are found in both 
the warm and tropical parts of the world. 
S. viridis is indigenous in England, S. ger- 
manica is cultivated in Hungary as food for 
horscs, and iS. italica is cultivated in Italy 
and other parts of Europe. (See Millet.) 
Tlie genus is sometimes included under 
Panicuni. 

Set-back (set'bak), n. In arch, a flat plain 
set-ntf in a wall. 

Set-bolt (set'bolt), n. In ship-building, an 
iron bolt for faying planks close to eacli 
other, or for forcing another bolt out of its 
hole. 

Set-down (set'doun), n. A depressing or 
humiliating rebuke or reprehension ; a re- 
buff ; an unexpected and overwhelming an- 
swer or reply. 

Setee (set-e'), n. A vessel rigged with lateen 
sails; a settee (which see). 

Set-fair (set'far), n. Tlie coat of plaster 
used after roughing in, and floated, or pricked 
up and Hoated. 

Set-foil (set'foil), n. See Sept-foil. 

Sethe (seTH), n. A name given to the coal- 
fish (which see). Written and pronounced 
variously Seath, Saith, Seethe, Sey. [Scotch. ] 

Sethlc (seth'ik), a. [A corruption of sothiac 
(whicli see).] In chroii. applied to a period 
of 14C0 years. 

Setiferous (se-tif'6r-us), a. [L. se^a, a bristle, 
and /i-ro, to bear.] Producing or having 
bristles. 

Setiform (se'ti-form), a. [L. seta, a bristle, 
and fonim, form.] Having the form of a 
bristle. 

Setlger (set'i-j6r), n. One of the Setigera. 

Setigera (se-ti j'6r-a), n. pi. [L. setlger, bristly 
—seta, a, bristle, and gero, to carry.] A tribe 
of abranchiate annelidans, wliose members, 
like the earthworms, are provided with 
bristles for locomotion. 

Setigerous (se-tii'6r-us),a. [L. seta, a bristle, 
ami gero, to bear.] Covered with bristles; 
setiferous. 

Setireme (se'ti-rem), n. [L. seta, a bristle, 
and renins, an oar.] In entom. one of the 
leys of some insects, as the diving beetle, 
that lias a dense fringe of hairs on the inner 
side enabling the animal to move on tlie 
water. 

Set -line (set'Iin), n. In fishing, a line to 
which a numl)er of baited hooks are at- 
tached, and which, supported by buoys, i^ 
extended on the surface of the water, and 
may be left unguarded during the absence 
of the fisherman. 

Setness (set'nes), n. The state or quality 
of being set. [Rare.] 

Set-off (set'of), n. 1. That which is set off 
against another thing; an offset — 2. That 
which is used to improve the appearance 
of anything; a decoration; an ornament.— 

3. A counter-claim or demand; a cross debt; 
a counterbalance; an equivalent. 

After the cheque is paid into a different bank, it 
wilt not be presented for payment, but liquidated 
by a set-ojfA^axnst other cheques. y. S. Mill. 

An example or two of peace broken by the public 
voice is a poor j^Aty?' against the constant outrages 
upon humanity and habitual inroads upon the happi- 
ness of the country subject to an absolute monarch. 
Broiighatn. 

4. In laxo, the merging, wholly or partially, 
of a claim of one person against another in 
a counter-claim by the latter against the 
former. Thus a plea of set-off is a plea 
whereby a defendant acknowledges the jus- 
tice of the plaintiff's demand, but sets up 
another demand of his own to counterbal- 
ance that of the plaintiff either in whole or 
in part — 5. The part of a wall, Ac, which 
is exposed horizontally when the portion 
above it is reduced in thickness. Also carei 
Offset.— 6. In printing, the transferred im- 
pression from a printed page, the ink on 
which is undried, to an opposite page, when 
the two leaves are pressed together. 

Seton (se'ton), n. [Fr., from L. seta, a 



bristle— hair or bristles having been origi- 
nally used for the purpose.] Insnrg. a skein 
of silk or cotton, or similar material, passed 
under the true skin and the cellular tissue 
beneath, in order to maintain an artificial 
issue. They are inserted by means of a 
knife and a probe, or a large needle called 
a seton needle, and are applied as counter- 
irritants to act as a drain on the system 
generally, or to excite inflammation and 
adhesion. The name is also given to the 
issue itself. 

Setose (se'tos), a. [L. setosus, from seta, a 
bristle.] In hot. bristly; having the surface 
set with bristles; as, a setose leaf or recep- 
tacle. 

Setous (se'tus), a. Same as Setose. 

Set-out (set'out), n. 1. Preparations, as for 
beginning a journey, A:c. ' A committee of 
ten, to make all the arrangements and 
manage the wholefie(-ou(.' Dickens.— 2..CoTa- 
pany; set; clique. 

She must just hate and detest the whole set-out of 
us. Dickens. 

3. A display, as of plate, &c.; dress and ac- 
cessories; equipage; turn-out. 

His drag is whisked along rapidly by a brisk chest- 
nut pony, well-harnessed ; the whole set-out, \ was 
informed, pony included, cost ;^5o when new. 

Mayheio. 

[Colloq. in all senses.] 

Set-screw (set'skrb), n. A screw, as in a 
cramp, screwed through one part tightly 
upon another to bring pieces of wood, metal, 
(tc. , into close contact. 

Set -Stitched (set'sticht), a. Stitched ac- 
cording to a set pattern. Sterne. 

Sett (set), n. 1. A piece placed temporarily 
on the head of a pile which cannot be 
reached by the monkey or weight but by 
means of some intervening matter.— 2. See 
Set, 1. — 3. A number of mines taken upon 
lease.— 5e(( of a burgh. See Set. 

Sette.t v.t. [See Set.] To set; to place; to 
put; to reckon; to fix. — To eette a man's 
cappe, to make a fool of him. Chavcer. 

Settee (set-te'), n. l. [From set] A long 
seat with a back to it; a large sofa-shaped 
seat for several persons to sit in at one 
time ; a kind of double arm-chair in which 
two persons can sit at once. 

Ingenious Fancy, never better pleased 
Than when employ'd t' accommodate the fair, 
Heard the sweet moan with pity, and devised 
The soft settee; one elbow at each end, 
And in the midst an elbow it received. 
United yet divided, twain at once. Cowper. 

2. [Fr. scitie. sHle.'l A vessel with one deck 
and a very long sharp prow, carrying two 




Settee. 

or three masts with lateen sails; used in 
the Mediterranean. 

Settee -bed (set-te'bed), n. A bed that 
turns up ill the form of a settee. 

Setter (set'er), n. 1. One who or that which 
sets; as, a setter of precious stones, or jewel- 
ler; a setter of type, or compositor; a setter 
of music to words, a musical composer, and 
the like. This word is often compounded 
with on, off, up, Ac. ; as, setter-on, setter-off, 
and so on. See the separate entries. — 2. A 
kind of sportsman's dog, which derives its 
name from its habit of setting or crouching 
when it perceives the scent of game, instead 
of standing, like the pointer. Setters are, 
however, now trained to adopt the pointer's 
mode of standing whilst marking game. It 
partakes somewhat of the character and 
appearance of the pointer and spaniel, and 
is generally regarded as having descended 
from the crossing of these two varieties.- 
3. A man who performs the office of a set- 
ting-dog, or finds persons to be plundered. 
Another set of men are the devil's setters, who 



continually beat their brains, how to draw in some 
innocent unguarded heir into their hellisih net. 

South. 

4. In gun. a round stick for driving fuses, or 
any other compositions, into cases made of 
paper. 

Setter - forth ( set'^r-forth ), n. One wln> 
sets forth or brings into public notice ; a • 
proclaimer. ' A setter-forth of strange gods.' 
Acts xvli. 18, 

Setter-grass (set'fir-gras), n. Same as Set- 
ter-wort. 

Setter-off (set'6r-of), n. One who or that 
which sets off, decorates, adorns, or recom- 
mends. 'Gilders, setters-off of thy graces." 
Whitlock. 

Setter-on (set'^r-on), n. One who sets on ; 
an instigator; an inciter. 

I could not look upon it but with weeping eyes, in 
remembering him who was the only setter on to do 
it. ^scAam, 

Setter-up (set'6r-up), n. One who sets up, 
establishes, makes, or appoints. 'Proud 
setter-np and puller down of kings ! ' Shak. 

Setter -wort (set'Sr-wSrt), n. A perennial 
plant.a species of Hellebonis, the H.fcetidus 
(bear's-foot). Called also Setter-grass. 

Setting (set'ing), n. l. The act uf one who 
or that which sets. 

I have touched the highest point of all my greatness. 

And from that full meridian of my glory, 

I haste now to my setting: Shak. 

2. Sporting with a setting-dog. 'When I 
go a-hawking or setting.' Boyle. — Z. Some- 
thing set in or inserted. 

And thou shalt set in it settings of stones, even four 
rows of stones. Ex. xxviii. 17. 

4. That in which something, as a jewel, is 
set; as, a diamond in a gold setting. — 5. The 
hardening of plaster or cement. Also, same 
as Setting-coat. 

Setting-coat (set'ing-kot), n. The best sort 
of plastering on walls or ceilings ; a finish- 
ing-coat uf fine stuff laid by a trowel over 
the fioating-coat, which is of coarse stuff. 

Setting -dog (set'ing-dog), n. A setter. 
Addison. 

Setting-pole (set'ing-pol), n. A long pole. 
often u-on pointed, used for pushing boats, 
(tc, along in shallow water. 

Setting- rule (set'ing-rbl), n. Jn printing, 
same as Composing-rule. 

Setting-stick (set'ing-atik), n. In printing, 
a composing-stick. 

Settle (set'l), n. [A. Pax. setl, a seat, a stool, 
a settle ; from set, sit. Comp. L. sella, a 
seat, for sedla, from sedeo, to sit. See Set, 
Sit.] 1. A seat or bench ; something to &it 
on ; a stool. ' An oaken settle in the hall.' 
Tennyson. 

The man, their hearty welcome first exprest, 
A common settle drew for either guest, Dryden. 

2. A part of a platform lower than another 
pari. 
Settle (set'l), n.t. pret. & pp. settled; ppr. 
Sftttimj. [Fiom set; a freq. in form.] 1. To 
place in a fixed or permanent position ; to 
establish. 

And I will multiply upon you man and beast . . . 
and I will settle you after your old estates. 

Ezek. xxxri. 11. 

But I will settle him in mine house, and in my king- 
dom for ever. i Chr. xvii. 14. 

2. To establish or fix in any way or line of 
life; to place or fix in an office, business, 
situation, charge, and the like ; as, to settle 
a young man in a trade or profession ; to 
settle a daughter by marriage ; to settle a 
clergyman in a parish. 

The father thought the time drew on 
Oi settlifig in the world his only son. Dryden. 

3. To set or fix, as in purpose or intention. 

Exalt your passion by directing and settling it upon 
an object. Boyle. 

4. To change from a disturbed or troubled 
condition to one of quietness, tranquillity, 
or the like; to quiet; to still; hence, to calm 
the agitation of; to compose; as, to settle 
the mmd when disturbed or agitated. 

God settled then the huge whale-bearing lake. 
Chapman. 

5. To clear of dregs, sediment, or impurities, 
by causing them to sink; to render pure and 
clear, as a liquid ; also, to cause to subside 
or sink to the bottom, as dregs, &c. ; as, to 
settle coffee grounds. ' So working seas 
settle and purge tlie wine.' Sir J. Davies.— 

6. To render compact, close, or solid; hence, 
to bring to a smooth, dry, passable condi- 
tion; as, the fine weather will £etffe the roads. 

Cover ant-hills up, that the rain may settle the turf 
before the spring. Mortimer. 

7. To detemiine, as something which is ex- 
posed to doubt or question ; to free from 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; 



tiibe, tub, bull; oil, pound; u, Sc. abune; y, Sc. ley. 



SETTLE 



45 



SEVENTY 



uncertainty or wavering; to make ftmi, sure, 
or constant; to ct^iftrm; as, to settle one's 
doubts; to settle a question of law. 
It will S€(t/e the wavering, and confirm the doubtful. 

8. To adjust, as something in discussion or 
controversy : to bring to a conclusion ; to 
arrange; to finish; to close up ; as, to settle 
a dispute by agreement, compromise, or 
force. —9. To make sure or certain, or to 
make secure by a formal or legal process or 
act; as, to settle an annuity on a person; to 
settle the succession to the throne. — 10. To 
liquidate; to balance; to pay; to adjust; as, 
to settle an account, claim, or score.— 11. To 
plant with inhal)itants: to people; to colo- 
nize ; as, the t lench first settled Canada ; 
the Puritans settled >'ew England. ' Pro- 
vinces first settled after the flood.' Mitford. 
— To settle the main -top -sail halyards 
(naut), to ease off a small portion of t)iem 
so as tt) lower the yard a little.— To settle 
tie la}id.to cause it to sink or appear lower 
by recedi ig from it. 
Settle (set'l), v.i. 1. To become fixed or 
permanent; to assume a lasting form or 
condition; to t>ecome stationary, from a 
temporary or changing state. 

And I too dream'd. until at last 
Across my fanoy, brooding' warm. 

The reflex of a legend past. 

And loosely settUd into form. Tennyson. 

2. To establish a residence ; to take up a 
permanent habitation or place of abode. 

The Spinetae, descended from the Pela^i. settled 
at the mouth of the river Po. Arbuthnot. 

3 To be established in a method of life; to 
quit an irregular and desultorj' for a me- 
thodical life; to enter the married state, or 
the state of a houselioMer; to l>e established 
in an employment or profession; as, tosettle 
in life; to settle in the ministry. 

As people marry now and sftf/e. 

Fierce love ab.ites his usual mettle. Prior. 

4. To become quiet or clear; to change from 
a disturbed or turbid state to the opposite; 
to become free from dregs, &c., by their 
sinking to the bottom, as liquids; to become 
dry and hard, as the ground after rain or 
frost; as, wine settles when standing; roads 
settle in the spriug. 

A government, on such occasions, is always thick 
before it settles. Addison. 

5. To sink or fall gradually; to subside, as 
dregs from a clarifying li(inid ; to become 
lowered, as a building, by the sinking of its 
foundation or the displacement of the 
ground beneath; as, cotfee grounds settle; 
the house settles on Us foundation. 

That country became a gained ground by the mud 
brought down by the NUus, which settled by degrees 
into a firm land, Sir T. Brovme. 

6. To become calm; to cease from agitation. 

Then, till the fury of his highness settle. 
Come nut before him. Shak. 

7. To adjust differences, claims, or accounts: 
to come to an i^creement; as, he has settled 
with his creditors. —8. To make a jointure 
for a wife 

He siifhs with most success that settles well. Garth. 

Settle-bed (setl-bed). n. A bed constructed 
so as to form a seat; a half-canopy bed. 
Settled (set'ld), p. and a. 1. ilxed; estab- 
lished; stable. 

A land of /rf^/^-i/ government, 
A laud of just and old renown. 
Where Freedom broadens slowly down 
From precedent to precedent. Tennyson. 

2 Permanently or deeply fixed; deep-rooted; 
firmly seated; unchanging; steady; decided; 
as, a settled gloom or melancholy; a settled 
conviction. —3. AiTanged or adjusted by 
agreement, payment, or otherwise; as, a 
settled bai^ain; a*e«/cdaccount.— 4. Quiet; 
orderly: methodical; as, he now leads a 
settled lite. -Settled estat*. in tow, an estate 
held by some tenant for life, under condi- 
tiuns ni'.if or less strict, defined by thedeed 

Settledness (set'ld-nes), u. The state of 
beiti- s> tlk'd; confirmed state. ' Settledness 
of disposition. ■ Up Hall. 

Settlement (»et'i ment), n. l. The act of 
setilm^'. or state of being settled : as. spe- 
cifically, (a) estiiblishint'nt in life; fixture In 
business, condition, or the like; ordination 
or installation as pastor. 

F.very man living has a design in his head upon 
wealth, power, or settlement in the world. 

Sir R. LEstranze. 

(&) The act of colonizing or peopling; coloni- 
zation; as, the settlement of a new country. 

The settlement of oriental colonies in Greece pro- 
duced no sensible effect on the character either of 
the language or the nation. IK Mure. 



(c) The act or process of adjusting, deter- 
mining, or deciding; the removal or recon- 
ciliation of ditferences or doubts; the liqui- 
dation of a claim or account ; adjustment ; 
arrangement; as, the settlement of a con- 
troversy or dispute; the settlement of a debt 
or the like, (d) A bestowing or giving pos- 
session under legal sanction ; the act of 
granting or conferring anything in a formal 
and permanent manner. 

My flocks, my fields, my woods, my pastures take. 
With settlement as good as law can make. Dryden. 

2. In law, («) a deed by which property is 
settled; the general will or disposition by 
which a pei"son regulates the disposal of his 
property, usually through the medium of 
trustees, and fur the benefit of a wife, chil- 
dren, or other relatives; disposition of pro- 
perty at marri^e in favour of a wife; 
jointure. 

He blew a settle>nent along ; 

And bravely bore his rivals down 

With coach and six, and house in town. Swi/t. 

(&) A settled place of abode ; residence ; a 
right arising out of residence ; legal resi- 
dence or establishment of a person in a par- 
ticular parish, town, or locality, which en- 
titles him to maintenance if a pauper, and 
sul)ject3 the parish or town to his support — 

3. A new tract of country peopled or settled; 
a colony, especially a colony in its earlier 
stages; as, the British settlements in Ameri- 
ca or Australia; &hAck settle me nt.—i.iThRt 
which settles or subsides; subsided matter; 
sediment: dregs: lees; settlings. ' Fuller's 
earth left a thick settlement.' Mortimer.— 
5, In the United States, a sum of money or 
other property granted to a clergyman on 
his ordination, exclusive of his salsiry. ~Act 
of settlement, in Eng. hist, the act passed in 
1702, by which the crown was settled (on 
the death of Queen Anne) upon Sophia, 
electress of Hanover, and the heirs of her 
Ijody (the present royal line), being Pro- 
testants. 

Settler (setn^r), n. 1. One who settles; par- 
ticularly, one who fixes his residence in a 
new colony. 

You saw the beginninus of cix-ilization as it were; 
and the necessity of mutual helpfulness among the 
settlers. IP'. Black. 

2 That which settles or decides anything 
definitely, as a blow that decides a fight. 
tCollofil 

Settlil^ (setling). n. 1. The act of one who 
or that which settles. — 2. pi. Lees; dregs; 
sediment. 

Settling -back (set'ling-bak). n. A recep- 
tacle in which a solution of glue in process 
of ninnufactiire is kept warm until the im- 
purities have time to settle. 

Settling-day (set'ling-da), 71. A day set 
apart for the settling of accounts; specifi- 
cally, the prompt day in the produce mar- 
ket; in the <((ocA: <'XcAaHif<'. the half-monthly 
account-day for shares and stocks. 

Settlor (set'lor), M. In law, the person who 
makes a settlement. 

Set-to (sct'tb), n. A sharp contest; a fight 
at fisty-cnITs; a pugilistic encounter; a box- 
ing match ; any similar contest, as with foils. 
[Colloq.] 

Setula (set'u-la), ». pi SetuUe (set'u le) 
[I>. dim. of seta, a bristle ] In hot. a small 
bristle or hair; also, the stipe of certain 
fungi. 

Setiue (set'ul), n. A small, short bristle or 
hair. Dana. 

Setulose (set'udds), a. Bearing or provided 
with sctiiles. Dana. 

Setwall (srt'wftl), n. A species of Valeriana 
( V }>iiir)i'i,'ra). Written also Setffwall. 

Seurement,t n. Security in a legal sense. 
Chancer. 

Seuretee, t n. Surety in a legal sense ; se- 
curity. Chaxtcer. 

Seven (sev'n). a. [A. Sa.x. seofon, seo/an; 
common to the Indo-European tongues: 
L- (I. seven, D. zeven, O. Sax. Goth, and 
ii.H.G. sibun, G. sieben Icel, sjau, Dan. syv 
(these being contracted forms). W. mith, Xr. 
seacht, Rus. semj, L. septem, Gr. hepta (for 
septa). Per. ha/t, Skr. sapta, saptan.] One 
more than six or less than eii;ht.~Seven 
stars, the Pleiades. See Pleiad. — Seven 
leise men, or seven sages of Greece, a name 
commonly applied to seven philosophers, 
several of whom were legislators, at an early 
period of Grecian history. They were Peri- 
ander of Corinth, Pittacus of Mitylene, 
Thales of Miletus, Solon, Bias of Priene, 
Chilo of Sparta, and Cleobulus of Lindus.— 
Secen wonders of the world. See Wonder. 



Seven (sev'n), n. 1. The number greater by 
one than six; a group of things amounting 
to this number. 

Of every beast and bird, and insect smnll 
Came sevens and pairs. Milton. 

2. The symbol representing this number, as 
7 or vii. 
Sevenfold (sev'n-fold), a. 1. Repeated seven 
times; multiplied seven times; increased to 
seven times the size or amount. 

What, if the breath that kindled those grim fires. 
Awaked, should blow them into sevenfold rasje. 
Milton. 
2. Having seven plies or folds; as, the seven- 
fiild shield of Ajax. 

Sevenfold (sev'n-fold), adv. Seven times as 
much or often; in the proportion of seven 
to one. 

Whosoever slayeth Cain, vengeance shall betaken 

on him se^-en/old. Gen. iv. 15, 

Sevennight (sev'n-nit), n. The period of 
seven days and nights; a week, or the time 
from one day of the week to the next day of 
the same denomination preceding or fol- 
lowing. See Se'nnight. 

Shining woods, laid in a dry room, within a seren- 
fiig^ht, lost their shining. Bacon. 

Seven-shooter (sev'n-shot-6r), 71. A re- 
volver with seven chambers or barrels. 
tColIoq] 

Sevensome (sev'n-sum), a. Consisting of 
seven things or parts; an*anged by sevens. 
A'. Brit. Rev. ' [Rare.] 

SevensomenesB (sev'n-sum-nes), n. The 
quality of being sevensome; arrangement 
or gradation by sevens. A'. Brit. iiev. 
[Raie ] 

Seventeen (sev'n-ten). a. One more than 
sixteen, or less than eighteen; seven and 
ten ad(ied; as, seventeen years. 

Seventeen (sev'n-ten). n. 1. The number 
greater by one than sixteen; the sum of ten 
and seven.— 2. A symbol representing this 
number, as 17 or xvii. 

Seventeenth (sev'n-tenth),a. 1. One next in 
order after the sixteenth; one coming after 
sixteen of the same class; as, the seventeenth 
day of the month. — 2. Constituting or being 
one of seventeen equal parts into which a 
thing may be divided. 

Seventeenth (sev'n-tenth). n. 1. The next 
in order after the sixteenth ; the seventh 
after the tenth.— 2 The quotient of a unit 
divided by seventeen ; one of seventeen 
equal parts of a whole.— 3. In music, an in- 
terval consisting of two octaves and a third. 

Seventh (sev'nth), a. 1. Next after the 
sixth. - 2. Constituting or being one of seven 
equal parts int'» which a whole may be di- 
vided; as, the seventh ptirt. 

Seventh (sev'nth), «. l.One next in order after 
the sixth. —2. The quotient of a unit divided 
by seven; one of seven equal parts into 
which a whole is divided. —3. In mvsic, 
(a) the interval of five tones and a semitone 
embracing seven degrees of the (Hatonic 
scale, as from C to B, or do to si: called also 
a major seventh. An interval one semitone 
greater than this, as from C to B, is an 
augmented seventh. An interval one semi- 
tone less than the major seventh is a minor 
seventh, and one a semitone less than tiiis 
again is a diminished seventh, {h) The 
seventh note of the diatonic scale rcekon- 
ing upwards; the B or si of the natural 
scale. Called also the leading note. 

Seventh-day (sev'nth-da), a. Pertaining or 
relating to the seventh day of the week or 
the Sabbathof the Jews.— 5epen^A-rfa(/ Bap- 
tists, a religious sect holding generally the 
same doctrinal views as the Baptists, Imt 
differing from them in ol)serving tlie seventh 
day of the week instead of the first as the 
Sabbath. Called also Sabbatarians. 

Seventhly (sev'nth-li), adv. In the seventh 
place. 

Seventieth (sev'n-ti-eth),a. 1. Next in order 
after tlie sixty-ninth; as, the seventieth year 
of his age.— 2. Constituting or being one of 
seventy parts into which a whole may be 
divided. 

Seventieth (sev'n-ti-eth), n. 1. One next in 
order after the sixty-ninth; the tenth after 
the sixtieth. — 2. The quotient of a unit 
divided by seventy; one of seventy equal 
parts. 

Seventy (sev'n-ti), a. [A. Sax. seofontig— 
seoftm, seven, and tig, ten ; but the Anglo- 
Saxon writers often prefixed Aunrf, as hiind- 
seofontig.] Seven times ten. 

Seventy (sev'n-ti), n. 1. The number which 
is made up of seven times ten.- 2. A sym- 
bol representing this number, as 70 or Ixx. 
—The Seventy, a name given to the body of 



ch. Main; Ch. Sc. locA; g. go; J, job; fi, Fr. ton; ng, si?*^; TH, then; th, (Ain; w, trig; wh, whig; zh, azure.— See KEY. 



SEVER 



46 



SEWERAGE 



scholars who first translated the Old Tes- 
tament into Greek. So called from their 
number or approximate number. See Sep- 

TUAGINT. 

Sever (sev'er), v.t [O.Fr. sevrer, severer, to 
separate; Mod. Fr. sevrer, to wean; from 
L. separare, to separate. See Separate.] 

1. To part or divide by violence; to separate 
by cutting or rending; as, to sever the body 
or the arm at a single stroke. -2. To part 
from the rest by violence, cutting, or the 
like; as, to sever the head from the body.— 
3. To separate; to disjoin, referring to things 
that are distinct but united by some tie; aa, 
the dearest friends severed by cruel neces- 
sity. —4. To separate and put in different 
orders or places. 

The angels shall come forth and sczrr the wicked 
from among the just. Mat. xiii. 49. 

5. To disjoin ; to disunite : in a general 
sense, but usually implying violence. 

Our state can not be severed; we are one. 

6. To keep distinct or apart. 

And I will sez'er in that day the lani of Goshen, in 
Tvhtch my people dwell, that no swarm of flies shall 
be there. Ex. vjii. 22. 

7. In law, to disxmite; to disconnect; to part 
possession ; as, to sever an estate in joint- 
tenancy. Blackstone. 

Sever (sev'fer), v.i. 1. To make a separation 
or distinction; to distinguish. 

The Lord wilt sever between the cattle of Israel 
and the cattle of Egypt. Ex. ix. 4. 

2. To suffer disjunction; to be parted or 
rent asunder. 

Her iips are se^'er'd as to speak. Temiysoit. 

Severable (sev'6r-a-bl), a. Capable of being 
severed. 

Several (sev'6r-al), a. [O.Fr. several, from 
severer. See SEVER.] 1. Separate; distinct; 
not common to two or more: now mainly 
used in legal phraseology; as, a several 
fishery; a several estate. A several fishery 
is one held by the owner of tlie soil, or by 
title derived from the owner. A several 
estate is one held by a tenant in his own 
right, or a distinct estate unconnected with 
any other person. 

Each might his several province well command. 
Would all but stoop to what they understand. 

Pope. 
We may assume that the Germans in their own 
country had no distinct ideas of several property in 
land. Brougham. 

2. Single; individual; particular. 

Each several ship a victory did gain. Drydeii, 

3. Different; diverse; distinct. 

Divers sorts of beasts came from several parts to 

drink. Bacon. 

Four several armies to the field are led. Dryden. 

4. Consisting of a number; more than two, 
but not very many; divers; as. several per- 
sons were present when the event took 
place. — A joint and several note or bu7id, 
one executed by two or more persons, each 
of whom is bound to pay the whole amount 
named in the document. 

Several (sev'6r-al), ?i. 1. A few separately 
or individually; a small number, singly 
taken: with a plural verb. 

Several of them neitlier rose from any conspicuous 
family, nor left any behind them. Addison. 

2.t A particular person or thing; a particu- 
lar. 

Not noted is't, 
. But of the finer natures? by some severals 
Of head-piece extraordinary ? S/tai. 

There was not time enough to hear . . . 

The severals. S/iai. 

3.t An inclosed or separate place; specifi- 
cally, a piece of inclosed ground adjoining a 
common field; an inclosed pasture or field, 
as opposed to an open field or common. 

They had their several for heathen nations, their 
several for the people of their own nation, their 
several for men. their several for women. Hooker. 

There is no beast, if you take him from the com- 
mon, and put him into the several, but will wax fat. 
Bacoii. 

—In several,^ in a state of separation or 
partition. 'Where pastures in several be.' 
Tiisser. 

Severality t (sev-6r-ari-ti). n. Each parti- 
cular singly taken; distinction. Bp. Hall. 

Severalizet (sev'6r-al-iz), v.t. pret. tfe pp. 
severalized; ppr. severalizing. To distin- 
guish. Bp. Hall. 

Severallt (sev'6r-al), adv. Severally; asun- 
der. Spenser. 

Severally (sev'6r-al-li), adv. Separately: 
distinctly; apart from others; as, call the 
men severally by name. 

Others were so small and close together that I 



could not keep my eye steady on thein severally so 
as to number them. Neivton. 

— To be jointly and severally bound in a 
contract, is for each obligor to be liable to 
pay the whole demand, in case the other or 
others are not alile. 

Severalty (sev'er-al-ti), n. A state of sep- 
aration from the rest, or from all others.— 
Estate in severalty, an estate which the 
tenant holds in his own right without being 
joined in interest with any other person. It 
is distinguished from joint- tenancy, copar- 
cenary, and common. 

The rest of the land in the country, however, was 
not possessed in severalty, but by the inhabitants of 
each district in common. Bronghajn. 

Severance (sev'6r-ans), n. The act of sever- 
ing or state of being severed; separation; 
the act of dividing or disuniting; partition. 

No established right of primogeniture controlled 
the perpetual severance of every icaiiu, at each suc- 
cession, into new lines of kings. Miiinan. 

— The severance of a jointure, in law, a sev- 
erance made by destroying the unity of in- 
terest. Thus when tliere are two joint- 
tenants for life, and tbe inheritance is pur- 
chased by or descends upon either, it is a 
Severance. So also when two persons are 
joined in a writ and one is non-suited; in 
this case severance is permitted, and the 
other plaintiff may proceed in the suit. 
Severe (se-ver'). «■ [i^'r. severe, from L. 
severiis, serious, severe.] 1. Serious or ear- 
nest in feeling or manner; exempt from 
levity of appearance ; sedate ; grave ; aus- 
tere ; not light, lively, or cheerful. ' With 
eyes severe and beard of formal cut.' Shak, 

Your looks must alter, as your subject does, 

From kind to fierce, from wanton to severe. Waller. 

2. Very strict in judgment, discipline, or 
government; not mild or indulgent; rigonms; 
harsh; rigid; merciless; as, sieKere criticism; 
severe pimishment. 

Come, you are too severe a moraier. Shak. 
Let your zeal, if it nmst be expressed in anger, be 
more severe against thyself than against others. 

yer. Taylor. 

3. Strictly regulated by rule or principle ; 
exactly conforming to a standard; rigidly 
methodical; hence, not allowing or peimit- 
ting unnecessary or florid oniament, ampli- 
fication, and the like; not luxuriant; as, a 
severe style of writing; the severest style 
of Greek architecture; the severe school of 
German music. 'Restrained by reason and 
severe principles.' Jer. Taylor. 'The Latin, 
a most severe and compendious language.' 
Z>n/den.— 4. Sharp; afflictive; distressing; 
violent; extreme; as, seuere pain, anguish, 
torture ; severe cold ; a severe winter. — 
5. Difficult to be endured; exact; critical; 
rigorous; as, a severe test; a severe ex- 
amination. 

Severely (se-ver'li), adv. In a severe 
manner ; gravely ; rigidly ; strictly ; rigor- 
ously; painfully; fiercely. 'Kt^t severely 
from resort of men.' Shak. 'A peace we 
may severely repent.' Swift. 'Fondly or 
severely kind.' Savage. 
More formidable Hydra stands within. 
Whose jaws with iron teeth severely grin. Dryden. 

Severeness (se-ver'nes), n. Severity. Sir 
W. Temple. 

Severian (se-ve'ri-an), n. Eccles. one of 
the followers of Severius, a Monophysite, 
who held, in opposition to the Julianists, 
that the Saviour's body was corruptible. 

Severity (se-ver'i-ti), n. [L. severitas. 
See Severe. ] The quality or state of being 
severe; as, (a) gravity or austerity; extreme 
strictness; rigour; harshness; as, the seve- 
rity of a reprimand or reproof ; severity of 
discipline or training; severity of penalties. 
'Strict age and sour severity.' Milton. 

It is too general a vice, and severity must cure it. 
Shai. 

(6) The quality or power of afflicting, dis- 
tressing, or paining ; extreme degree ; ex- 
tremity; keenness; as, the severity ot pain 
or anguish; the severity of cold or heat, 
(c) Extreme coldness or inclemency; as, the 
severity of the winter, (d) Harshness; cruel 
treatment; sharpness of punishment; as, 
severity practised on prisoners of war. 
(e) Exactness; rigour; niceness; as, the seve- 
rity of a test. (/) Strictness; rigid accuracy. 
'Confining myself to the severity of truth.* 
Dryden. 
Severyt (sev'6r-i), n. [Also written civery, 
and supposed to be a corruption of ci- 
borium.] In arch, a bay or compartment in 
a vaulted roof; also, a compartment or di- 
vision of scaffolding. Oxford Glossary. 



SevocatlOXit (se-vo-ka'shon), n. [From L. 
sevoco, sevocatuia — se, apart, and voco, to 
call.] A calling aside. Bailey. 

Sevoeja (sev-o-a'ha). n. A Mexican plant, 
the Stenanthium frlgiduin. It possesses 
acrid and poisonous qualities, and is used 
as an anthelmintic. 

Sevres Ware (sa-vr war), n. A kind of 
porcelain ware, unsui-passed for artistic 
tlesign and brilliancy of colouring, manu- 
factured at Shvres, in France. 

Sewt (su). v.t. [See Sue.] 1. To pursue; to 
follow. Spenser.— 2.. To bring on and re- 
move meat at table ; to assay or taste, as 
meats and drinks, before they are seiTcd up, 
or in presence at the table. 

Sew (so), v.t. [A. Sax. giwian, seowian; 
O.H.G. siuwan, Goth, sinjan, O. Fris. sia, 
Dan. sye, Icel. s»}ja; cog. L, suo, Skr. siv, to 
sew. Seam is from this stem.] To unite or 
fasten together with a needle and thread; 
to make or work by a needle and thread. 

They sewed fig leaves together, and made them- 
selves aprons. Gen. iU. 7. 

—To seiv up, (a) to inclose by sewing; to 
inclose in anything sewed. 

Thou sewest up mine iniquity. Job xiv. 17. 

If ever I said loose-bodied gown sew me up in 
the skirts of it. Shak. 

(P) To close or unite by sewing; as, to sew 
up a rent. — To be sewed up, (a) navt. to 
rest upon the ground, as a ship, when there 
is not snfticient depth of water to float her. 
A ship thus situated is said to be sewed up 
by as much as is the difference between the 
suiface of the water and her floating-mark 
or line. (&) To be brought to a standstill ; 
to be dead beaten; to be ruined or over- 
whelmed. Dickens. [CoUoq.] (c) To be in- 
toxicated. [Slang. ] 

Sew (so), v.i. To practise sewing; to join 
things with stitches. ' Or teach the orphan 
girl to sew.' Tennyson. 

Sew t ( 8U ), r. (. [ O. Fr. essuer, Fr. essuyer, 
now to wipe dry, but originally to draw off 
moisture or water; from L. exsucare, to ex- 
tract the juice — L. ex, out, and sucus, suc- 
cus, juice ; hence, sewer, sewage. ] To let 
off the water from; to drain a pond for 
taking the fish. 

Sew (su), v.i. To ooze out. [Provincial.] 

Sew,t«. A viand; a kind of pottage. Gower. 

Sewage (su'aj), n. [From sew, to drain, 
perhaps directly from sewer.] 1. The matter 
which passes tln'ough the drains, conduits, 
or sewers, leading away from human habita- 
tions singly, or from houses collected into 
villages, towns, and cities. It is made up 
of excreted matter, solid and liquid, the 
water necessary to carry such away, and 
the waste water of domestic operations, 
together with the liquid waste products of 
manufacturing operations, and generally 
much of the surface drainage water of the 
area in which the conveying sewers are 
situated. — 2. A systematic arrangement of 
sewers, drains. &c., in a city, town, &c.; the 
general drainage of a city, &c., by sewers; 
sewerage (which see). 

Sewel (sii'el), n. [Probably for shewell or 
showell, from sheio, show.] In Minting, a 
scarecrow, generally made of feathers, hung 
up to prevent deer from entering a place. 

Sewer (su'er), j*. [From sew,to drain ; O. Fr. es- 
suier, essuyer, a drain, a conduit.] A subter- 
ranean channel or canal foi-med in cities, 
towns, and other places to caiTy off super- 
fluous water, soil, and other matters. In 
Englantl, Courts of Commissioners of Sewers 
are temiwrury tribunals with authority over 
all defences, whether natm-al or artificial, 
situate by the coasts of the sea, all rivers, 
water-courses, &c., either navigable or en- 
tered by the tide, or which directly or in- 
directly communicate with such rivers. 

Sewer t (sii'6r), n. [From sew, to follow, to 
bring on and remove meats at table; O.Fr. 
sewer, squire.] An oflicer who serves up a 
feast and arranges the dishes, and who also 
provides water for the hands of the guests. 

Clap me a clean towel about you, like a sewer, 
and bareheaded march afore it with a good con- 
fidence. B. Jfonson. 

Sewer (so'er), n. One who sews or uses the 
needle. 

Sewerage (su'6r-aj), 71. 1. The system of 
sewers or subterranean conduits for receiv- 
ing and carrying off the superfluous water 
and filth of a city ; as, the sewerage of the 
city of London. See Sewer. — 2. The 
matter carried off by sewers. Called also 
Sewage. — Sewerage is generally applied to 
the system of sewers, and Sewage to the 
matter carried off. 



Fate, far. fat, fall; me, met, her; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; U, Sc. abune; S\ So. fey. 



SKWIN 

Sewin, Sewen (su'in, su'en). n. Aftshwhii-h 
has oft«n been regariieil as a variety of the 

sahnon trout, salmon peal, or bnll tront, 
tint is rejjiinled by Couch as a distinct spe- 
cies, the silver salmon (Salino cambriciia). 

Sewing (so'ing). n. 1. The act or occnpa- 
tinii of sewing or using the needle. — 2. That 
which is sewed by the needle.— 3. pi. Com- 
pound threads of silk wound, cleaned, 
doubled, and thrown, to be used for sewing. 

Sewing -machine (so'ing-ma-shen), n. A 
machine for sewing or stitching cloth, &c., 
now in extensive use.and largely superseding 
sewing l)y hand. Sewiug-machines are of sev- 
eral classes; as, («) those in which the needle 
is passed completely through the work, as 
in hand-sewiug: (b) those making a chain- 
stitch, which ia wrought by the crotchet 
hook, or by an eye-pointed needle and aux- 
iliarj- hook; (c) those making a fair stitch 
on one side, the upper thread being inter- 
woven by another tliread below; (rf) those 
making the lock-ftHeh, the same on both 
sides. The modifications, improvements, 
and additions matle to the sewing-machine 
since its introduction are very numerous. 
It has now l»een adapted to pr(»duce almost : 
all kinds uf stitchiu^f whioh-can be done by 
the hand. 

Sewlxig-needle (s6'ing-ne-dl), n, A needle 
used in sewing. 

Sewster t (so'st^r), n. A woman that sews; 
a seamstress. B. Jonson. 

Sex (seks), n. [Fr. sex^, from L. »exus (for 
sectua), a sex, from seco, to cut. to separate. ] 

1. The distinction between male and female, 
or that property or character by which an 
animal is niale or female. Sexual distinc- 
tions are derived from the presence and de- 
velopment of the characteristic generative , 
organs— ^^«<t< and ovary — of the male and ; 
female respectively.— 2. One of the two divi- j 
sions of animals formed on the distinction 
of male and female. ' Which two great nex^is ■ 
animate the worUl,' Milton.— Z. in but. the i 
structure of plants which con'esponds to sex j 
in animals, as staminate or pistillate; also, i 
one of the groups founded on this distinc- ] 
tion. See Sexual.— 4. By way of emphasis, 
womankinil; females: generally preceded by 
the deftnite article the. 

Unhappy s€x I who&e beauty is your soare, Drydett. 
Shame U hard to be overcome; but if tht sac 
once get the better of it, it gives them afterwards 
no more trouble. GtirtH. 

Sex (seks). A Latin prefix signifying six. 
Sexagecuple (sek-saj'e-ku-pl), a. Pro- 

ceednig liy sixties; as, a 8exaffee*.ipU ratio. 

/'op. Eiu'ij. 
Sexagenarian (seks'a-je-na"ri-an), n. [See 

Itelow ) A person aged sixty or between 

si.vty :iiid seventy. 
Sexagenarian (seks'a-je-na"ri-an), a. Sixty 

yeai-S'ild; sexagenary. 

I count it Strange, and hard to understand. 

That nearly all young poeU should write oid ; 

That Pope was lex'tgettarian at sixteen. 

And beardle^ Byron academical. E. B. Brcwtiit$g. 

Sexagenary(sek-saj'eu-a-ri),a. [L.maai0«n- 
ariu*. from gexa>jinta sixty, from sex, six.] 
Pertaining to the number sixty: coiDpos«4l 
of or proceeding by %\tlM^. Sexagenary 
arithmetic, that which proceeds according 
to the nuudwr sixty. See SEXAQKSiaiAL. 

Sexagenary (sek-Baj'en-a-ri), n. l. A sexa- 
genarian. 

The lad can be as dowff as a/em^mory like myself. 
Sir IK Scot:. 

2. A thing composed of sixty parts or con- 
taining sixty. 

Sexagealma (seks-a-Jes'i-ma), n. [L sexa- 
tje^iiitus, sixtieth.] The second Sunday lie- 
fore Len t.s* > called as being about the sixtieth 
day before Easter. 

Sexagesimal (seks-a-jes'i-mal), n. A sexa- 
;."Miii,dfr;irtir»n. See Under SEXAGESIMAL. a. 

Sexagesimal (seks-a-jes'i-mal), a. Sixtieth; 
prrtaiiiiiig to the nuni)>er »ixiy.~Sexageti' 
uud or sexagenanj arithmetic, a method of 
cuniputatiMU by sixties, as that which is 
used in dividing minutes into seconds.— 
Sexatjeninal fractions, OT sexagegitnaU, frac- 
tions whose denominators procetni in the 
ratio of sixty; as. „',;. ^,J-^, 7=,?;^^. The de- 
nominator is sixty or its niiiitiple. These 
fractio?is are calle*l also astronomical frac- 
tions. l>ecause formerly there were no others 
used in astronomical calculations. They are 
still retaineil in the division of the circle, 
and of time, where the degree or hour is 
divided into sixty minutes, the minutes into 
sixty secctiids, and so on. 

Sexanary (seks'a-na-ri), a. Consisting of 
six or sixes; sixfold. [Rare.] 



47 

Sexangle (seks'ang-gl), n. In geom. a figure 
having six angles, and, couse<iueutly, six 
sides; a hexagon. 

Sexangled, Sexangnlar(sek3'ang-gld, seks- 
ang'gu-ler), a. Having six angles; hexa- 
gonal. 

Sexangularly (seks-ang'gu-16r-li), adv. 
With six angles; hexagonally. 

Sexdecimal (seks-des'i-mal), a. [L. sex, 
six, and decern, ten. 1 In crystal, having 
sixteen faces: applied to a crystal when the 
prism or middle part has six faces, and the 
two summits taken together ten. faces, or 
the reverse. 

Sexdigitlsm (seks-dij'i-tizm), n. [L. sex. six. 
and di'jittis, a finger or toe.] The state of 
having six fingers on one hand or si.x toes 
on one foot 

Sexdigltlst (seks-dij'i-tist), n. One who has 
six fingers ou one hand or six toes on one 
foot. 

Sexduodecimal (seks'du-6des"i-mal), a. 
[h. »ex, six, and duodecim, twelve.] In 
crystal, having eighteen faces: applied to 
a crystal when the prism or middle part has 
six faces, and two summits together twelve 
faces. 

Sexed (sekst). a. Having sex: used in com- 
position. 'Gentle sexed.' Beau. <D Fl. 

Sexenary (seks'e-na-ri), a. Proceeding by 
sixes: applied specifically to an arithmeti- 
cal system whose base is six. 

Sexennial (sek-sen'ni-al), a. [L. sex, six, 
and annus, year.] Lasting six years, or 
happening otice in six years. 

Sexennially (sek-sen'ni-al li), adv. Once in 
six years. 

Sexfld, Sexifld (seks'fid, seks'i-fid), a. [L. 
xex, SIX, aud findo, fidi. to divide.] In hot. 
six-deft: as. a )<exnd calyx or nectary. 

Sexfoil (seks'foil).'n. [L. sex, six, and folium, 
a leaf.] A plant or flower with six leaves. 

Sexhlndman (seks-hlnd'manX »■ In early 
Eng. hixt. one of tlie middle thanes, who 
were valued at 600». 

SexUUon (sek-silli-on), n. Sextillion. 

Sexisyllable (seks'isil-la-bl), n. (L. sex, six, 
and E, syllable.] A word having six sylla- 
bles. 

Sexivalent (sek-Biv'a-lent),a. In chem. hav- 
ing an equivalence of six; capable of com- 
bining with or becoming exchanged for six 
hydrogen atoms. 

Sexless (seksTes), a. Having no sex; desti- 
tute of the characteristics of sex. Shelley. 

SexlOCnlar (aeks-Iok'u-I^r), a. [L. sex. six, 
and loculus. a cell.] In bot. six-celled; hav- 
ing six cells for seeds; as, a sexlocular peri- 
carp. 

Sexiyt (seksli). a. Belonging to a charac- 
teristic of sex; sexual. 

Should I ascribe any of these thin{rs to my Sfx/y 
weaknesses I were not worthy to live. 

QnetH Elixabtth, 

Sext, Sexte (sekst, seks'ti), n. [L. sextvs, 
sixth. 1 In the H. Cath. Ch. one of the can- 
onical hours of prayer, usually recited at 
nr>on; the sixth hour of the day. 

Sextain (seks'tan), n. [From L. ««£, six.] A 
stanza of six lines. 

Sextans (seks'tanz), n. [L] 1. In Horn, 
antiq. a coin, the sixth part of an a&— 2. In 
astron. the sextant. 

Sextant (seks'tant), n. [L. wxtoiw, sex- 
tantia, a sixth part] 1. In math, the sixth 
part of a circle. Hence — 2. An improved 
form of quadrant, capable of measuring 
angles of 120^ It consists of a frame of 
metal, ebony, Ac, stiffened by cross-braces, 
and having an arc embracing 60" of a 
circle. It has two mirrors, one of which 
is fixed to a movable index, antl various 
other appendages. It is capable of very gen- 
eral application, but it is chiefly employetl 
as a nautical instrument for measuring the 
altitudes of celestial objects, and their ap- 
parent angular distances. The principle of 
the sextant, and of reflecting instruments 
in general, depends upon an elementary 
theorem in optics, viz. if an object be seen 
by repeated reflection from two mirrors 
which are perpendicular to the same plane, 
the angular distance of the object from its 
image is double the inclination of the mir- 
rors. The annexed figure shows the usual 
construction of the sextant. QPisthegrathi- 
ated arc, hi the movable index. B mirror 
fixed to the index. A mirror (half-silvered, 
half- trans parent) fixed to the arm, qg' col- 
oured glasses, tliat may be interposed to 
the sun's rays. To find the angle between 
two stars hold the instrument so that the 
one is seen directly through telescope T and 
the unsilvered portion of the mirror, aud 



SEXUAL 

move the index arm so that the image of 
the other star seen through the telescope by 
reflection from B and A is nearly coincident 
with the first, the reading on the arc gives the 




angle required ; half degrees being marked 
as degrees, because what is measured by 
the index is the angle between the mirrors 
and this is half that between the objects. — 
Box sextant, a surveyor's instrument for 
measuring angles, and for filling in the de- 
tails of a siirvey, when the theodoli te is used 
for the long lines, and laying out the larger 
triangles. — 3. In astron. a constellation 
situated across the equator and south of 
the ecliptic. 

Sextary (seks'ta-ri), n. [L. sextarius, from 
sextns, sixth, from sex, six.] An ancient 
Roman dry and liquid measure containing 
about a pint. 

Sextaxyt (seks'tariX »• The same as Sac- 
risty.— Sextary land, land given to a church 
or religious house for maintenance of a sex- 
ton or sacristan. Also written Sextery. 

Sextet, Sextetto (seks'tet, seks-tet'tb), n. 
■Same as Sestet. 

Sextile (8eks'til),a. [L. sextu.s, sixth, from 
sex, six.] Denoting the aspect or position of 
two planets when distant from each other 
60 degrees or two signs. This position is 
marked thus >jc 

The moon receives the dusky Hpht we discern in 
its sextiU aspect from the earth s benignity. 

Gianvtlle. 

Used also as a noun. 

Sextillion (seks-til'Ii-on). n. (From L. sex, 
six, and £. million.] According to English 
notation, a million raised to the sixth power; 
a number represented by a unit with tliirty- 
six ciphers annexed ; according to French 
notation, by a unit with twenty-one ciphers 
annexed. Spelle<l also SexUlion. 

Sexto (seks'to). n. pi. Sextos (seks'toz). [L.] 
A book formed by folding each sheet into 
six leaves. 

SextO-declmo (seks-to-des'i-mo), n. [L. sex- 
tug decimus, sixteenth —sextus, sixth, and 
decimus. tenth.] A book, pamphlet, or the 
like, folded so that each sheet makes six- 
teen leaves; the size of the book thus folded. 
Tsually indicated thus. IGmo, 16°. Used 
also adjectively. Called also Sixteenmo. 

Sexton (sekaton), n. [Contr. from sacris- 
tan (which see) ] An under officer of the 
church, whose business, in ancient times, 
was to take care of the vessels, vestments, 
(fee., belonging to the church. The greater 
simplicity of Protestant ceremonies has ren- 
dered this duty one of small importance, 
and in the Church of Kngland the sexton's 
duties now consist in taking care of the 
church generally, to which is added the 
duty of digging and filling up graves in the 
churchyard. The sexton may be at tlie same 
time the parish clerk. 

Sextonryt (seks'ton-ri), n. Sextonship. 
Ilemers. 

Sextonabip (seks'ton-ship), n. The office of 
a sexton, 

Sextry t (seks'tri), n. Same as Sacristy. 

Sextuple ( seks'tu-pl ), a. [L.L. sextuphts, 
from L. sex, six.] 1. Sixfold; six times as 
much.— 2. In i»»>f('c, applied to music divided 
into bars containing six equal notes or their 
equivalents, generally considered a sort of 
compound common time. 

Sextuplet (seks'tii-plet), n. In imisic, a 
double triplet, six notes to be perfonned in 
the time of four. 

Sexual (sekB'u-al),a. [L. sexualis (Fr. sexueV), 
from sexiis, sex. ] Pertaining to sex or the 
sexes; distinguishing the sex; denoting 
what is peculiar to the distinction and office 
of male and female; pertaining to the genital 
organs ; as, sexual characteristics ; sexual 
diseases; sexual intercoui-se, connection, or 
commerce.— Sfxua/ system, in bot. a system 
of classification; the method founded on the 
distinction of sexes in plants, as male and 



ch, c/iain; 6ii, Sc. locA; g. ^ro; j,.;ob; h, Fr. toj*; ng, sing; TH, (Aen; th. lAin; w, icig; wh, whig; zh, azure.— See KBY. 



BEXUALIST 



48 



bHADE 



female. Called &\so Artificial System, Lin- 
ntxan System. See LiNN-EAN. 

Sexuallst ( seks'u-al-ist ), n. One who be- 
lieves and maintains the doctrine of sexes 
in plants; or one who classifies plants by 
the sexual system. 

Sexuality ( seks-u-al'i-ti ). n. The state or 
(juality of being distinguished by sex. 

Sexualize (seks'u-al-iz), v.t. To give sex to; 
to distinguish into sexes. * Sexualizing. as 
it were, all objects of thought.' Whitney. 

Sexually (seks'u-aMi),ady. In a sexual man- 
ner or relation. 

Sey (sy), n. [Fr. 8aye.'\ A sort of woollen 
cloth; say. [Scotch.] 

Sey (si), n. The opening in a garment 
through which the anu passes; the seam in 
a coat or gown which runs under the arm. 
Same as Scye (which see). 

Sey (sy), v.t. [L. G. sijen, A. Sax: stkan, 
se6n, to strain; Icel. sia, to filter.] To strain, 
as milk. [Scotch.] 

levi , . 

'Sfoot (sfut). inter). An imprecation abbre 
viated from God's foot. 

'S/oot, I'll team to conjure and raise devils. Shak, 

Sforzando, Sforzato (sfor-tsan'do, sfor-tsa'- 
to). [It., forcing, forced.] In music, a terra 
written over a note or notes to signify that 
they are to be emphasized more strongly 
than they would otherwise be in the course 
of the rhythm. Generally contracted sf. 

Sfregazzl (sfra-gat'si), n. [It. s/reggare, to 
rub— L. ex, mnX/rico, to rub.] In painting. 
a mode of glazing ailopted by Titian and 
other old masters for soft shadows of flesh, 
&c., and which consisted in dipping the 
finger in the colour and drawing it once 
along the surface to be painted with an 
even movement. Fairholt. 

SfumatO (sfo-ma'to), rt. [It., smoky.] In 
painting, a term applied to that style of 
painting wherein the tints are so blended 
that the outline is scarcely perceptible, the 
whole presenting an indistinct misty ap- 
pearance. 

Sgraffito (sgraf-fe'to), a. [It., scratched.] 
Applied to a species of painting in which 
the ground is prepared with dark stucco, on 
which a white coat is applied ; this is after- 
wards chipped away, so as to form the de- 
sign from the dark gi-ound underneath. 

Shall t (shab). v.i. [See Shabby.] To play 
mean tricks ; to retreat or skulk away 
meanly or clandestinely. [Old cant.] 

Shab (shab), v.t. [See Shabby.] To rub or 
sci'utch, as a dog or cat scratching itself. 

Shab (shab), n. [See Shabby.] A disease 
incident to sheep ; a kind of itch wliich 
makes the wool fall off; scab. 

Shabbedt (shab'ed), a. Mean; shabby. 

Tliey mostly had short hair, and went in a shabbed 
coniHtion, and looked rather like prentices. 

A. Wood. 

Shabbily (shab'i-li). arfy. in a shabby man- 
ner; as,{«) with threadbare orworn clothes; 
as, to be clothed shabbily, (6) Meanly; in 
a despicable manner. 

Shabblness (shab'i-nes), n. The quality 
of lieing shabby; the state of being thread- 
bare or much worn; meanness; paltriness. 

Shabble (shab'l), n. [A form of sabre, D. 
sabel. G. sabel, a sabre.] A crooked sword 
or hanger; a cutlass. [Scotch] 

Shabby (shab'i), a. [A softened form of scab- 
by; Prov. E, shabby, itchy, mangy, from shab, 
jtch; A. Sax. sceab, a scab, sceabig, scabby, 
mangy. See SCAB.] 1. Ragged; threadbare; 
ton) or worn. ' The necessity of wearing 
sAaftfty coats and dirty shirts.' Maca\day. — 

2. Clothed with threadbare or much-worn 
garments. 'The dean was s,o shabby.' Swift. 

3. Mean; paltry; despicable; as, a shabby 
fellow; shabby treatment. 

You're shabby fi;llows — true— but poets still. 
And duly seated on the immortal liill. Byron. 

Shabrack (shal/rak), n. [G. schabracke, 
Fr, chabrarjue. Hung, csabrdg, Turk, tshu- 
prdk.] The cloth furniture of a cavalry 
officer's charger. 

Shack (shak), n. [In meanings 1 and 2 from 
shake; in 3 more probably a form of shag.] 
1. Grain shaken from the ripe ear, eaten by 
hogs, &c., after harvest. [Provincial Eng- 
I'sh.]— 2. Beech, oak, iVc, mast for swine's 
food. [Provincial Eni^lish.]— 3. A liberty of 
winter pasturage. — Com 7non. of shack, the 
right of persons occupying lands lying to- 
gether in the same common field, to turn 
out their cattle after harvest to feed pro- 
miscuously in that field.— 4. A shiftless fel- 
low; a sturdy beggar; a vagabond. [Pro- 
vincial English.] 



Shack (shak),v.t. [Prov.E. and Sc, tnshake. 

See above. ] 1. To be shed or fall, as corn at 
harvest. —2. To feed in stubble, or upon the 
waste com of the field. —3. To rove about, 
as a stroller or t>eggar. [A provincial word.] 

Shackatoryt (sliak'a-to-ri), n. [For shake 
a Tory.] An Irish hound. TJekker. 

Shack-bolt (shak'bolt), n. In her. a fetter 
such as might be put on the wrists or ankles 
of prisoners. 

Shackle (shak'I), n. [Generally used in the 
plural.] [A. Sax. scacul, sceactil, a shackle, 
from scacan, sceacan, to shake; D. schakel, a 
link of a chain. It probal)ly meant origin- 
ally a loose, dangling fastening.] 1. A fetter, 
gyve, handcuff, or something else tliat con- 
fines the limbs so as to restrain the use of 
them or prevent free motion. 'Bolts and 
shackles.' Shak.~2. That which obstructs 
or emitarrasses free action. 

The shackles of an old love straiten'd him. 

Tennyson. 
It is wlien Milton escapes from the shackles of the 
dialogue, when he is discharged from the labour nf 
uniting two incongruous styles, when he is at liberty 
to indulge his choral raptures without reserve, that 
he rises even above himself. Macaulay. 

Z.Naiit. (a) a link in a chain-cable fitted 
with a movable bolt, so tliat the chain can 
be separated. (6) A ringon the port through 
which the port-bar is passed to close the 
port-hole effectually.— 4. A link for coupling 
railway-carriages, &c. [American.]— 5. t A 
fetter-like band or chain worn on the legs 
or arms for ornament. 

He told me . . . that they had all ear-rings made 
of gold and gold-shackles about their legs and arms. 
Datnpier. 

0. The hinged and curved bar of a padlock 
Ity which it is hung to the staple. 
Shackle (shak'l), v.t. pret. & pp. shackled; 
ppr. shackling. 1. To chain; to fetter; to 
tie or confine the limbs of, .so aa to prevent 
free motion. 

To lead him shackled and exposed to scorn 
Of gathering crowds. y. Philips. 

2. To bind or confine so as to obstruct or 
embarrass action. 

You must not shackle hiin with rules about indiffer- 
ent matters. Locke. 

3. To join by a link or chain, as railway-car- 
riages. [American.] 

Shackle (shak'l),w. [See Shack, n.] Stubble. 

[Provincial English.] 
Shackle-bar (shack'Mmr), n. The United 

States name for the coupling bar or link of 

a railway carriage. 
Shackle-bolt (shaka-bolt), n. A shackle; a 

gyve; a shack-bolt. 

' What device does he bear on his shield V asked 
Ivanhoe.— ' Something resembling a bar of iron, and 
a padlock painted blue on the black shield.' — 'A 
fetterlock and shackle-bolt s.z\xrc,' aaiA Ivanhoe; 'I 
know not who may bear the device, but well I ween 
it might now be nnne own.' Sir If. Scott. 

Shackle-bone (shak'l-bon), n. [Lit. the 
bone on which shackles are put; L.G. shake- 
bein] The wrist. [Scotch.] 

ShacklOCk^ (shak'lok). n. A shackle-bolt; 
a sort of shackle. W. Browne. 

Shackly (shak'l-i), a. Shaky; ricketty. 
[United States.] 

Shad (shad), 7i. sing, and pi. [Prov. G. 
schade, ashad; comp. Arm. sgadan, \V. ysga- 
dan, a herring] A teleostean fish of the 
genus Alosa, family Clupeida;, which in- 
habits the sea near the mouths of large 
rivers, and in the spring ascends them to 
deposit its spawn. It attains a length of 
3 feet, and is distinguished by the absence 
of sensible teeth, and by an irregular spot 
behind the gills. Two species of shad are 
found off the British coast, the Twaite (A. 
vulgaris) and the Allice shad (A.finta), Imt 
tiieir flesh is dry and not much" esteemed 
here. In the United States a species of shad, 
plentiful in the H dson, Delaware, Cliesa- 
peake, and St. Lawrence, is much esteemed 
and is consumed in great quantities in the 
fresh state. 

Shad -bush (shad 'bush), n. A name of a 
shrub or small tree common in the Northern 
United States (Amelanchier canadensis), so 
called from its flowering in April and May 
when the shad ascend the rivers. The fruit 
is edible and ripens in June, whence the 
name June-berry. Called also Service-berry. 

Shaddock (shad'dok), n. [After Captain 
S taddock, who first brought it to the West 
Indies, early in the eighteenth century.] A 
tree and its fruit, which is a large species of 
orange, the produce of the Citnis decumana, 
a native of China and Japan. The fruit 
weighs sometimes from 10 to 20 lbs., is 



roundish, with a smooth, pale yellow skin, 
and white or reddish pulp. See PoMPEL- 

MOOSE. 




Shaddock Tree (Citrus decttmatta). 

Shade (shad), n. [A. Sax. sceadu, shade, sha- 
dow. See Shadow.] l. A comparative ob- 
scurity caused by the interception, cutting 
off, or interruption of the rays of light; dim- 
ness or gloom caused by interception of 
light. Shade differs from shadow, as it im- 
plies no particular form or definite limit: 
whereas a shadow represents in fonn the o?*- 
ject which intercepts the light. Hence, 
when we say, let us resort to the shade of a 
tree, we have no thought of form or size, as 
of couree we have when we speak of mea- 
suring a pyramid or other object by its sha- 
dow. 

The fainty knights were scorched, and knew not 

where 
To run for shelter, for no shade was near. Dryden. 

2. Darkness; obscurity. In this sense used 
often in the plural. * Solemn shades of end- 
less night.' Shak. 

The shades of night were falling fast. Lonf/ellirw. 

3. A shaded or obscure place; a place shel- 
tered from the sun's rays, as a grove or close 
wood; hence, a secluded retreat. 

Let us seek out some desolate shade, and there 
Weep our sad bosoms empty. Shak. 

4. A screen ; something that intercepts 
light, heat, dust, (fcc. ; as, (a) a coloured 
glass in a sextant or other optical instru- 
ment for solar observations. (6) A hollow 
conic frustum of paper ormetal surrounding 
the fiame of a lamp, in order ttj confine the 
light within a given area, (c) A hollow 
globe of ground glass or other translucent 
material, used for diffusing the light of a 
lamp, gas jet. Ac. (d) A lioUow cylinder 
perforated with holes, used to cover a night- 
light. 

She had brought a rushlight and shade, which, 
with praiseworthy precaution against fire, she bad 
stationed in a basin on tlie floor. Dickens. 

(e) A hollow glass covering for protecting 
ornaments, &c., from dust. 'Spar figures 
under glass shades.' Mayhew. (/) A device 
for protecting the eyes frfim the direct rays 
of the sun or artificial light.— 5. Protection; 
shelter; cover. —6. In painting, the dai'k 
part of a picture ; deficiency or absence of 
illumination. 

'Tis everj- painter's art to hide from sight. 
And cast in shades, what seen would not delight. 
Dryden. 

7. Degree or gradation of light. 

While, red, yellow, blue, with their several degrees 
or shades and mixtures, as green, come only m by 
the eyes. Locke. 

5. A small or scarcely perceptible degree or 
amount: as, coffee is a shade lower. 'Slen- 
der shade of doubt.' Teiinysaii.—Q. A sha- 
dow. * Since every one hath, every one, one 
shade.' Shak. [Poetical.] 

Envy will merit, as its shade, pursue. Pf/v. 

10, The soul, after its separation from the 
body : so called because the ancients sup- 
posed it to be perceptible to the sight, not 
to the touch; a spirit; a ghost; as, the shades 
of departed heroes. 

Swift as thought the flitting shade 
Through air his momentary journey made. 

Dryden. 



Fate, far, fat, fall: me. met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abtzne; y, Sc. iey. 



SHADE 



49 



SHAFT 



11. pi. The abode of spirits ; the invisible 

worlii of the ancients; hades: with the. 

\'irgil. who represents him in the ihadfs surrounded 
by a crowd of aisciples. It'. Mure. 

Shade (shad), v.t. pret. & pp. shaded; ppr. 

shading). 1. To shelter or screen from light 

by intercepting its rays ; to shelter from 

the light and heat of the sun ; as, a large 

tree shades the plants nnder its branches; 

shaded vegetables rarely come to perfection. 

I went to crop the sylvan scenes. 

And shade our altars with their leafy greens. 

Dryden. 

2. To overspread with darkness or obscurity; 
to obscure. ' Bright orient pearl, alack, too 
timely shaded.' Shak. 

Thou shadst 
The full blaze of thy beams. Milton, 

3. To shelter; to hide. 'Sweet leaves, shade 
folly.' Shak, ' Ere in our own house I do 
shade my head." Shak. —i. To cover from 
injui-j'; to protect; to screen. 

Leave not the faithful side 
That gave thee being, stitl shades thee and protects. 
Afittou. 

5. In drawing and painting, (a) to paiut in 
obscure colours; to darken. (6) To mark 
with gradations of colour. —6. To cover with 
a shade or screen; to furnish with a shade 
or something that intercepts light, heat, 
dust, &c. 

He was standing' with some papers in his hand by 
a table with shaded candles on it. Dickens. 

Shade-fish (shad'flsh). n. See Maigre. 
Shadeful ( ^had'ful), a. Shady. Drayton. 
Shadeless (-jhad'les), a. Without shade. 

A gap in the hills, an opening 

Shadeless and shelterless. It'ordsworth. 

Shader (shad'^r), n. One who or that which 
shades. 

Shad-frog (shad'f rog). n. A very handsome 
speties of American frog, Rana haleeina, 
BO named from its making- its appearance 
on land at the same time the shads visit 
the .-ihore. It is very active and lively, mak- 
in;; leaps of from 8 to 10 feet in length. 

Shadily (sha'di-li), adv. In a shady man- 
ner; nnibrageously. 

Shadiness (^)ia'di-nes), n. The state of be- 
ing :;li:idy; unilirageousuess; &&, the shadi- 
nesK of tlie forest. 

Shading (shad'ing), n. 1. The act or pro- 
cess of making a shade; interception of 
light ; obscuration. — 2 That which repre- 
sents the efl'cct of light and shade in a draw- 
ing; the filling up of an outline. 

Shadoof, Shsuluf (sha-duf), n. A contriv- 
ance e.xtensively employed in Egypt for rais- 
ing water from the Nile for the purpose of 
irrigation. It consists of a long stout rod 
suspended on a frame at about one-fifth of 




Raising water by Shadoofs. 

its length from the end. The short end is 
weighted so as to serve as the counterpoise 
of a lever, and from the long end a bucket 
of leather or earthenware is suspended by 
a rope The worker dips the bucket in the 
river, and, aided by the counterpoise weight, 
empties it into a hole dug on the bank, 
from which a runnel conducts the water to 
the lan'ls to l»e irrigated. Sometimes two 
shadoctfrt are employed side by side. When 
the waters of the river are low two (or more) 
6hadr>ofs are employed, the one above the 
other. The lower lifts tlie water fr^m the 



river and empties it into a hole on the 
bank, the upper dips into this hole, and emp- 
ties the water into a hole at the top of the 
bank, whence it is conveyed by a channel to 
its destination. 
Shadow (shad'6). n. [A. Sax. scadu, sceadu, 
a shadow; O.Sax. scado, Goth, skadiis, D. 
schaduw. O.H.G. scato, Mod. G. schatten— 
shade, shadow, from a root ska, skad, Skr. 
chhad, to cover; comp. Gr. skotos, dark- 
ness.] 1. Shade witliin defined limits; the 
figure of a body projected on the ground, 
itc, by the interception of light ; obscurity 
or ileprivation of light apparent on a plane, 
and representing the form of the body 
which intercepts the rays of light; as, the 
shadoie of a man, of a tree, of a tower. 
Shadow, in optics, may be defined a portion 
of space from which liglit is intercepted by 
an opaque body. Every opaque object on 
which liglit falls is accompanied with a 
shadow on the side opposite to the lumin- 
ous body, and the shadow appears more in- 
tense in proportion as the illumination is 
stronger. An opaque object illuminated by 
the sun, or any other source of light which 
is not a single point, must have an infinite 
number of shadows, though not distinguish- 
able from each other, and hence the shadow 
of an opaque body received on a plane is 
always accompanied by a penumbra, or par- 
tial shadow, the complete shadow being 
called the umbra. See Pencmbra.— 2. Dark- 
ness; shade; obscurity. 

Night's sable shadows from the ocean rise. 

Sir y. Denharn, 

3. Shade ; the' fainter light and coolness 
caused by the interception of the light and 
heat of the sun's rays. 

In secret shadtrtu from the sunnv ray 

On a sweet bed of lilies softly latd. Spenser 

A. Shelter; cover; protection; security. 

He that dwelleth in the secret place of the Most 
High shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty. 

Ps. XCI. I. 

5.t Obscure place; secluded retreat. 'To 
secret shadows I retire.' Dryden. — 6. Dark 
part of a picture ; shade ; representation of 
comparative deficiency or al^nce of light. 

After great lights there must be great shadows. 
Dryden. 

7. Anything unsubstantial or unreal, though 
having the deceptions appearance of reality; 
an image produced by the imagination. 
' What shadows we aie and what shadows 
we pursue.' Burke. 

Shadtiws to-night 
Have struck more terror to the soul of Richard 
Than can the substance of ten thousand soldiers. 
Shak. 

8. A spirit; a ghost; a shade. ' If we sha- 
dows have offended.' Shak. ' A shadow like 
an angel.' Shak.-9. An imperfect and faint 
representation ; adumbration ; a preflgura- 
tion; a foreshowing; a dim bodying forth. 

The law having a shadow of good things to come, 
and not the very image of the things, can never, &c. 
Heb. X. I. 
In the glorious light<i of heaven we perceive a sha- 
dow of his divine countenance. Raleigh. 

10. Inseparable companion; that which fol- 
lows or attends a person or thing like a 
shadow. ' Sin and her shadow. Death.' Mil- 
ton. —11. Type; mystical representation. 
'Types and shadows of that destin'd seed.' 
Milton. —12. Slight or faint appearance. ' No 
variableness, neither shadow of turning.' 
Jam. i. 17. —13. A reflected image, as in a 
mirror or in water; hence, any image or 
portrait. 

Narcissus so himself himself forsook. 

And died to kiss his shadow in the brook. Shai. 

14. An uninvited finest, introduced to a 
feast by one who is invited: a translation of 
the Latin umbra. 

I must not have my board pester'd with shadows. 
That under other menS protection break in 
Without invitement. Massinger. 

—Shadow of death, approach of death or 
dire calamity: terrible darkness. Job iii. 5. 
Shadow (shad'o), tJ.(. 1. To overspread with 
obscurity or shade; to intercept light or 
heat from; to shade. 

The warlike elf, much wonder'd at this tree, 
So fair and great, that shadaw'd ali the ground. 
S/vnser. 

2. To cloud; to darken; to obscure; to throw 
a gl'iom over. ' The shadow'd livery of the 
bumish'd sun.' Shak. 

I must not see the face I love thus shadow'd. 
Bean. &• Fl. 

3. To conceal; to hide; to screen. [Rare.] 

L«t every soldier hew him down a bough. 

And bcar't before him ; thereby shall we shadow 

The number of our host. Shak. 



4. To protect ; to screen from danger ; to 
shroud. ' Shadotcing their right under your 
wings of war. ' Shak. —5. To mark with slight 
gradations of colour or light ; to shade. 
Peacham.—Q. To paint in obscure colours. 
' Void spaces which are deeply shadowed.' 
Dryden. —7. To represent faintly or imper- 
fectly; to body forth. 

Augustus is shadowed in the person of -4ineas. 
Dryden. 

8. To represent typically; as, the healing 
power of the brazen serpent shadoweth the 
efficacy of Christ's righteousness. In this 
sense the word is frequently followed by 
forth; as, to shadow forth the gospel dis- 
pensation.— 9. To follow closely; to attend 
as closely as a shadow, especially in a secret 
or unoljserved manner. 

Shadowiness (shad'o-i-nes), n. State of be- 
ini; shadowy or unsubstantial. 

Shadowing (shad'6-ing), n. l. Shade or 
gradation of light and colour; shading. 

Mor« broken scene made up of an infinite variety 
of inequalities and shadowings that naturally arise 
from an agreeable mixture of hills, groves, and val- 
leys. Addison. 

2. In painting, the art of correctly represent- 
ing the shadows of objects. 

Shadowish (shad'o-ish), a. Shadowy. * Our 
religion being that truth whereof theirs 
was but a shadowish preflgurative resem- 
blance.' Hooker. [Rare.] 

Shadowless (shad'o-les), a. Having no 
shadow, a. I'ollok. 

Shadowy (shad'o-i). a. [A. Sax, sceadwig. 

See Shadow.] 1. Full of shade; causing 

shade; accompanied by shade; dark; gloomy. 

'Shadowy forests.' Shak. 'This shadowy 

desert, unfrequented woods.' Shak. 

Tell them, that by command, ere yet dim night 

Her shadowy cloud withdraws, I am to haste. 

Milton. 

2. Faintly representative ; typical. ' Those 
sAaffotrt/ expiations weak, the Idood of bulls 
and goats.' Miltvn.-S. Unsubstantial; un- 
real. ' Uis (the goblin's) «/ia(fotrj/ flail.' Mil- 
ton. 

Milton has brought into his poems two actors of a 
slutdtnvy and fictitious nature, in the persons of Sin 
and Death. Addison. 

4. Dimly seen; obscure; dim. 

And summons from the shadoivy past 

The forms that once have been. Longfellow. 

6. Indulging in fancies or dreamy imagina- 
tions. 

Wherefore those dim looks of thine. 
Shadowy dreaming Adeline? Tennyson. 

Shadrach (sha'drak), n. [From Shadrach, 
one of the three persons on whose bodies 
the fiery furnace had no power, mentioned 
in Dan. iii. 2G, 27.] A mass of iron in wliich 
the operation of smelting has failed of its 
intended effect. 

Shady (sha'di), a. 1. Abuunding with shade 
or shades; casting or causing shade. 'And 
Amaryllis fllls the «Aa(/i/ groves.' Dnjden. 

2. Sheltered from the glare of light or sultry 
heat. 

Cast it also that you may have rooms shady for 
summer and warm for winter. Baron. 

3. Such as cannot well bear the light; of 
doubtful morality or character ; equivocal ; 
as, a shady character; a shady transaction. 

(Slang.] 

Our newspapers have not yet got the length of 
sending an emissary to the Treasury to ask Mr. Glad- 
stone It he does not think the Ewelme appointment 
a shady business. Sat. Rev. 

Shafflet (shaf'fl). v.i. [A form of shujte.] 
To hobble or limp. 

Shaffler t (ahaf'rt-6r), n. A hobbler; one that 
limps 

8haflite8<8haf'i-its),n.pZ. [From the founder, 
called Al'Shafei.] One of the four sects of 
the Sunnites or orthoilox Mohamnie^lans. 

Shaft (shaft). «. [G. schacht, \)».\\.skakt, the 
sliuft of a mine; comp. Sc. sheugh, a trench, 
a shaft, as in coa\ sheugh. As to change from 
guttural to labial comp. latigh.] In uiining, 
a narrow deep pit or opening made into the 
earth as the entrance to a mine or coal-fleld, 
by which the workers descend, and through 
which the mineral is brought to the suriace. 
Shafts are also formed to allow the passage 
of pure air into a coal-mine, or for drawing 
up through them the foul air from the 
workings. The former is named a downcast 
shaft, the latter an upcast. 

Shaft (shaft), 71. [A. Sax. sceaft. a dart, an 
arrow, a spear, a pole; Icel. skaft, skapt, an 
arrow or dart, a handle; Dan. skaft, a han- 
dle or haft, a column; D. and G. schaft, a 
shaft, pole, handle. I'sually regarded as 
lit. the thing shaped or smoothed by shaving 
or scrajting, from A. Sax. scafan, to shave, 



cb. cAain; 6h» Sc. locA; 

V uL. IV. 



S. go; hjoh; h, Fr. ton; ng, tin^; th, fAen; th, thin; w, tcig; wh, whig; zh. 



azure. — See KE¥. 
142 



SHAFT-ALLEY 



50 



SHAKE-rORK 



to scrape; but this is doubtful. Comp. L. 
scapiin, a shaft, scipio, a staff; Gr. skapiron, 
skeptron, a staff.] 1. Au arrow; a niiaaile 
weapon. ' Shafts of gentle satii'e, kin to cha- 
rity.' Tennysoii. 

So lofty was the pile, a Parthian bow 
With vigour drawn must send the shaft below. 
Dryden. 

2. Abody of alongcylindrlcal shape; astern, 
stalk, trunk, or the like; thecohimnar part 
of anything; specifically, in arch, (a) the 
body of a colunin between the base and the 
capital ; the fust or trunk. It always di- 
minishes in diameter, sometimes from the 
bottom, sometimes from a quarter, and 
sometimes from a third of its height, and 
sometimes it has a slight swelling, called 
the entasis, in the lower part of its height. 
In the Ionic and Corinthian columns the 
difference of the upper and lower diameters 
of the shaft varies from a fifth to a twelfth 
of the lower diameter. See Column, (ft) 
The spire of a steeple, (c) The part of a 
chimney which rises above the roof, (rf) In 
middle-age architecture, tine of those small 
columns which are clustered round pillars, 
or used in the jambs of doors and windows, 
in arcades, &c. — 3. The interior space of a 
blast-furnace. —4 The stem or stock of a 
feather or quill.— 5. The liandle of certain 
tools, utensils, instruments, or the like; as, 
the shaft of a hammer, axe, whip, &c.—6. A 
long lath at each eud of the heddles of a 
loom.— 7. In mack, (a) a kind of large axle; 
as, the shaft of a fly-wheel ; the shaft of a 
steamer's screw or puddles; the shaft or 
crank-axle of a locomotive. (&) A revolving 
bar or connected bars serving to convey the 
force which is generated in the engine or 
other prime mover to the different working 
machines, for which purpose it is provided 
with drums and belts, or with cog-wheels.— 
8. One of the bars between a pair of which a 
horse is harnessed to a vehicle; a thill; also, 
the pole or tongue of a carriage, chariot, &c. 
—To make a shaft or a bolt on't, a prover- 
bial expression put by Shakspere into the 
mouth of Slender (Me.ri'y IVives, iii. 4) sig- 
nifying to take the risk come what may. 
The shaft was the arrow of the long-bow, 
the l)olt that of the cross-bow. 

Shaft-alley (ahaft'al-li), n. A passage in a 
screw steamer between the after bulk-head 
of the engine-room and the shaft -pipe 
around the propeller shaft, and allowing 
airress thereto. 

Shaft-bender (shaft'bend-6r), n. A person 
wlio bends timber Ity steam or pressure. 

Shaft-coupling {shaft'kup-ling), n. A de- 
vice fiir connecting two or more lengths of 
shafting together. See Coupling. 

Shafted (shaft'ed), a. 1. Having shafts; or- 
namented with shafts or small clustering 
pi Hare. 

The lordly hatl itself is lighted by a fine Gothic 
window of sna feed stone at one end. Sir /f, ScoU. 

2. Having a handle; a term used in heraldry 
to denote that a spear-head lias a handle 
to it. 

Shaft-horse (shaft'hors), n. The horse that 
goes in the shafts or thills of a cart, chaise, 
or gig. 

Shafting (shaft'ing), n. In mack, the sys- 
tem of shafts connecting a machine with 
the prin)e mover, and through which mo- 
tion is communicated to tlie former by the 
latter. See Shaft. 

Shaftment, t Shaftnian+(shaf t'ment,shaf t'- 
man), n. [A. Sax. savftmund — savft . a 
shaft, and mund, a hand.] A span, a mea- 
sure of about 6 inches. 

The thrust mist her, and in a tree it strake 
And entered in the same a shaftman deepe. 

Harrin^on. 

Shag (shag), n. [A. Sax. sceacga, a brush 
of coarse hair; probably allied to Icel. skeg<j, 
Dan. skUvg, a beard, and perhaps connected 
with Icel. skaga, to stand out, to be promi- 
nent ; skagi, a promontory.] 1. Coarse hair 
or nap, or rough woolly hair. 'True Wit- 
ney broadcloth, with its shag unshorn.' 
Gay. —2. A kind of cloth having a long 
coarse nap. — 3. The green cormorant or 
crested cormorant (Phalacrocorax crista- 
tits). At the commencement of spring there 
rises on the middle of the head a flue tuft 
of outspread feathers, about 1^ inch high, 
capalde of erection, and in that state pre- 
senting a toupet or large plume. On the 
occiput also are ten or twelve i-ather long 
subulate feathers.- 4. A kind of tobacco cut 
into fine shreds. 

Shag (shag), a. Hairy; shaggy. 'Fetlocks 
shag and long.' Shak.—Shag tobacco. See 

811 AG, 4. 



8ha€ (shag), v.t. 1. To make rough or 
hairy. — 2. To make rough or shaggy; to de- 
form. 

Frigands who live in mountain caverns shagged 
with underwood, Fraser's M~x£. 

Shag-hark (shag'bark), n. In the United 
States, a popular name for Carya alba, a 
kind of hickory. Some call it Shell-bark. 

Shag-eared (shag'erd), a. Having shaggy 
ears. 

Thou liest, thou x/k»f-A»r'rf villain: Shak. 

[Some editions read here {Macbeth, iv. 2) 
shag ■ hair d, au epithet occurring also in 
II Henry VI. iii. 1.] 

Shagged (shag'ed), a. 1. Rough with long 
hair or wool. 

Lean are their looks, and shagged is their hair. 
Dryden, 

2. Rough as with wood; rugged. 
ShaggineBS, Shaggedness (shag'i-nes. 
shag'etl-nes), ». The state of being shaggy; 
roughness with lung loose hair or wool. 
Shaggy (shag'i), a. l. Rough with long hair 
or wool. 

A lion's hide he wears. 
About his shoulders hangs the shaggy skin. 

Dryden. 

2. Rough ; rugged ; as, the shaggy tops of 
the hills. Milton. 

Shag-hatred (shagTiard), a. Having long 
shaugy biiir, Shak. 

Shagreen (sha-gren'),'i. [Fr. chagrin, Vene- 
tian, sagriii, from Turk, sagri. Per. saghri, 
sliagreen.] 1. A species of leather prepared 
without tanning, from horse, ass, and camel 
skin, its granular appearance being given by 
imbedding in it, whilst soft, the seeds of a 
species of chenopodium, and afterwards 
shaving down the surface, and then by 
soaking causing the portions of the skin 
which had been indented by the seeds to 
swell up into relief. It is dyed with the 
green produced by the action of sal ammo- 
niac on copper filings. It is also made of the 
skins of the shark, sea-otter, seal, &c. It 
was formerly much used for watch, spec- 
tacle, and instrument cases. — 2. t Chagrin. 
See Chagrin. 

Shagreen, Shagreened (sha-gren', sha- 
grend';, a. ilade of the leather called sha- 
green. *A shagreen case of lancets.' T. 
Hook. 

Shah (sha), n. [Per., a king, a prince (hence 
chess). ] 1. A title given by European writers 
to the monarch of Persia, but in his own 
country he is designated by the compound 
appellation of Padishah. — Shah .\ameh 
[Per., the Book of Kings.], the title of seve- 
ral Eastern works, the most ancient and 
celebrated of which is the poem in the mo- 
dem Persian language by the poet Firdousi, 
It contains the history of the ancient Per- 
sian kings. —2. A chieftain or prince. 

Shahi (slia'hi), n. A Persian copper coin of 
the value of irf. 

Shaik (shak), n. See Sheik. 

Shailt (shal), v.t. [Allied to L.G. scheUn, 
Or. shielen, Dan. skiele, to squint, to be ob- 
lique.] To walk sidewise. 

You must walk strniglit, without skiewtng and 
shatltitg to every step you set. SirR. L'Estrange. 

Shake (shak), \>.t pret. shook; pp. shaken 
(shook obs. or vulgar); ppr. shaking. [A. Sax. 
scacan, sceacan, pret. sc6c.8ce6c, pp. scacen; 
Icel. and Sw. skaka, to shake ; allied to D. 
schokken, to shake, to jog; G. echaukeln, to 
swing. See also Shock.] 1. To cause to 
move with quick vibrations; to move ra- 
pidly one way and the other ; to make to 
tremble, quiver, or shiver; to agitate; as. the 
wind shakes a tree; an earthquake shakes 
the hills or the earth. 

I shoot: my lap, and said, So God shake out every 
man from his house and from his labour, that per- 
formeth not this promise, even thus be he shaken out 
and emptied. Neh. v, 13. 

The rapid wheels shake heaven's basis. Milton. 
Sound the pipe, and cry the slogan — 
Let the pibroch shakt the air. Aytoun. 

2. To move or remove by agitating; to throw 
off by a jolting, jerking, or vibrating motion ; 
to rid one's self of : generally with an ad- 
verb, as away, off, oxU, &c. 

Shake off the golden slumber of repose. Shak. 

At sight of thee my heart shakes off'Wi sorrows. 

Addison. 

3. To move from firmness; to weaken the 
stability of; to endanger; to threaten to 
overthrow. 

When his doctrines grew too strong to be shook 
by his enemies, they persecuted his reputation. 

Atterbury. 

4. To cause to %vaver or doubt ; to impair 



the resolution of; to depress the courage 
of. 

His fraud is then thy fear; which plain infers 

Thy equal fear, that my firm hope and love 

Can by his fraud be shaken or seduced. Milton. 

5. To give a tremulous or vibrating sound 
to; to trill; as, to shake a note in nnisic. — 

6. To rouse suddenly and with some degree 
of violence; as, to shake one from a trance. 
Thomson. In this sense usually with up. 

The coachman shook up his horses, and carried 
them along the side of the school close. Hughes. 

—To shake hands, a phrase which, from the 
action of friends at meeting and parting, 
sometimes signifies, (a) to make an agree- 
ment or contract ; to ratify, confirm, or 
settle; as, to shake hands over a bargain. 
(6) To take leave; to part. 

Nor can it be safe for a king to tarry among them 
who are shaking hands with tlieir allegiance. 

Jiikoit B as Hike. 

— To shake a loose leg, to live a roving, un- 
settled life. [Vulgar.] 

Shake a loose leg at the world as long as you can. 
/r, H. AinsTvorth. 

~To shake off the dnstfro)n the feet, to dis- 
claim or renounce solemnly all intercourse 
with a person or persons. 

And whosoever will not receive you, . . . shake 
off the T/ery dust from your feet for a testimony 
against them. Lu. ix. 5. 

— To shake the head, to express disapproba- 
tion, reluctance, dissent, refusal, negation, 
reproach, disappointment, and the like. 

For how often 1 caught her with eyes all wet. 
Shaking her head at her son and sighing. 

Tennyson. 
Shake (shak), v.i. To be agitated with a 
waving or vibratory motion; to tremble; to 
shiver; to quake; to totter; as, a tree shakes 
with the wind; the house shakes in a tempest. 
The foundations of the earth do shake. Is. xxiv. 18. 
Under his burning wheels 
The steadfast empyrean shook throughout. 
All but the throne itself of God. Milton. 

—To shake down, to occupy an improvised 
bed ; to betake one's self to a shake-down. 
'An eligible apartment in wliich five or six 
of ns shook down for the night.' H'. H. Rus- 
sell. [Colloq.]— To shake together, to be on 
good terras; to get along smoothly together; 
to adapt one's telf to another's habits, way 
of working, &c. 'The rest of the men had 
shaken wtll togetJter.' Macmillan's Mag. 
[Colloq.]— 2*0 shake vp, same as to shake 
together. 
1 can't shake up along with the rest of you. 

IV. Collins. 

Shake (shak),7t. 1. A vacillating or wavering 
motion ; a rapid motion one way and the 
other; a shock or concussion; agitation; 
tremor. 

The great soldier's honour was composed 
Of thicker stuff which could endure a shake. 

Herbert. 

2. A brief moment; an instant. [CoUoq.]— 

3. In viusic, (a) a rapid reiteration of two 
notes comprehending an interval not greater 
than one whole tone nor less than a semi- 
tone; a trill. (6) The sign {tr., abbreviation 
of trill) placed over a note indicating that 
it is to be shaken or trilled.— 4. A crack or 
tissure in timber, produced by great heat, 
strain of wind, rapid drying, seasoning, or 
the like. — 5. A fissure in the earth. [Provin- 
cial. }~6. The staves and heading of a cask, 
ready for setting up, and packed in small 
l)ulk for convenience of transport —7. pi. 
A trembling fit; specifically, ague; inter- 
mittent fever.— SAa^eo/ (Tie Aa^tti, a friendly 
clasp of another's hand. 

Our salutations were very hearty on both sides, 
consisting of many kind shakes of the hand. 

Addison. 

—No great shakes, lit. no great windfall; 
hence, nothing extraordinary'; of little value; 
little worth. [CoUoq.] 

I had my hands full, and my head too, just then, 
so it (his drama of ' Marino Faliero ') can be no great 
shakes. Byron. 

Shake-down (shak'doxm), n. A temporary 
substitute for a bed, as that formed on 
chairs urou the floor. The term is probably 

_ derived from straw being 

used to form the rough 
beds of early times. 
Shakee ( shake'). "■ An 
East Indian coin of the 
value of about 3d. ster- 
ling. 

Shake -fork (shak'fork), 
n. A fork to toss hay 
about. In /ler. the shake- 
fork is in form like the 
pall, but the ends do not touch the e<'ge8 of 
the shiehl, and have points in the same 
manner as the pile. 




Shake-fork. 



Fate, fjir, fat, fall; me. mat, hdr; pine, pin; note, not, mttve; fi&be, tub, b«ll; oil, pound; ii, Sc abuoe; y, Sc. teg. 



SHAKEN 



51 



SHALLOWNESS 



Shaken (shiik'n). p. and a. 1. Caused to 
shake; agitated.— 2. Cracked or split; as, 
shaken timber. 

Nor is the wood sftaien nor twisted, as those about 
Cape Town. Barrow's Travels. 

Shaker (shak'^r), n. 1. A person or thing that 
shakes nr agitates; as. Neptune, the «/wiA:erof 
the earth.— 2. A member of a religious sect 
founded ia ilanchester about the middle of 
tJie eighteenth century: so called popularly 
from tiie a;:itations or movements in danc- 
ing which forms part of their ceremonial, 
but calling themselves the United Society 
of Believers in Clirisfs Second Appearing. 
Tlie .Shakers teach a system of doctrine 
founded partly on the Bible and partly on 
the supposed revelations of Mother Anne 
Lee, their first inspired leader, and her suc- 
cessors. They lead a celibate life, hold their 
property in common, engage in agriculture, 
horticulture, and a few simple trades. They 
believe the millennium has come, that they 
hold communication with the spirits of the 
departed, and have the exercise of spiritual 
gifts. They wear a i>eculiar dress, and abstain 
from the use of pork as food. They teach the 
theory of non-resistance as opposed to war 
and Idoodshed. They are now mostly con- 
fined to the United States of America. Some- 
times called Shaking Quaker. — 3. A variety 
of pigeon. 

Shake-rag (shak'rag), n. A ragged fellow; 
a tattenlejnalioii. 

He was .1 shake-rtig like fellow, and, he dared to 
say. haii gypsy blood in his veins. Sir W. Scvtt. 

Shakerlam(shak'6r-izm), ». The principles 

i<f thf Shakers. 

Shaklness (shak'i-neB), «. State or quality 
i<i bi.-Jm; shaky. 

Shako (shak'6), n. [Fr. tcha^o, borrowed 
from W ung. csdko { nron. tshako ), Pol. 
tzako, a shako.] A kind of military head- 
dress, in shape somewhat resembling a 
truncatetl cone, with a peak in front and 
sometimes anttther behind, and generally 
ornamented with a splierical orother 6hai>ed 
body rising in front of the crown. 

Shaksperian, Shakspearlan (shak-spe'- 
ri-an ). a. Relating to or like Shakspere. 
Spt-Iled variou-jly Shakespearean, Shake- 
.•'/";ariitn. Shakgperean, and Shaks]>earean. 

Shaky(shak'i),a. 1. Loosely put to(.rether; 
rt^-ady to come to pieces. —2. Full of shakes 
or cracks; crackeil. split, or cleft, as timber. 
3. Disposed to shake or tremble ; shaking ; 
as, a i<hak>/ hand. [Colloq. ]— 4. Of (luestion- 
able integrity, solvency, or ability. Speci- 
fically ajiplied at the universities to one not 
likely to pas» his examination. [Collo(i.] 

Other cirrumstances occurred . . . which seemed 
to show that our director was— what is not to be found 
in Johnson's dictionary — rather sAaiy. Thackeray 

Shale (shal). n. f A form of &cale or ahell; G. 
schaU\ a skin or bark, a aliell, a thin layer. 
See SUKLL.] 1. A shell or husk. 

Your fair show shall suck away their souls 
Leaving them but the shaUs and husks of men. 
Shnk. 
2. In sr«o/. a species of schist or schistous 
clay ; slate clay : generally of a bluish or 
yellowish gray colour, more rarely of a dark 
blackish or reddish gray. <»r grayish black, 
or greenish colour. Its fracture is slaty, ami 
in water it moulders int'j powder. It is 
often fntnid in strata in coal-mines, ami 
conmionly )>ear3 vegetable inipreesions. It 
ia generally the ((»rerunner of coal. Bitu- 
minous shale is a sub-variety of ai^llaceous 
slate, is impregnated with bitumen, and 
bums with tlame. It yields, when distilled 
at a 1< >w red heat, an oil of great commercial 
imijortance, to which, from its being rich in 
parattln, the name of paraffin-oil has been 
given. The coal-measures of Linlithgow- 
shire are specially rich in bituminons shales 
of great value. Alum also is largely manu- 
factured from the shales of Lancashire. 
Yorkshire, aud Lanarksliire. There are 
sandy, calcareous, purely argillaceous, and 
carbonaceous shales. 
Shale (»hal), t.t To peeL 

IJfe in its tipper L;radcs was bursting its shell, or 
was fAa/iWf offits huik. Is. Taylcr. 

Shall (shal), originally r.^, now only auxil- 
iar\f. I'res. I ghall, thou fihali, he lihall, 
pi. 1, 2, and 3 »haU; iniperf. ghould, nhouldegt 
or ghoulfUtt, shtruld, pi. ghouUI. [Kormerly 
»ehal. ithal, nhnl. prot. sholde. ghutde; A. Sax. 
seal, Hceal, I shall. 1 have to, I ought; pi. #ch- 
lon, pret. scrolde. scolde, inf. scidan. This isa 
preteritive present, that is a preterite which 
lias been transformed intoa present, having 
then aojuired a new preterite of its own. 



Similar forms occur throughout the Teu- 
tonic tongues, all regarded as from a verb 
signifying to kill ; so that shall originally 
meant I have killed; hence, I have become 
liable for tlie wergild, then I owe, I otight, 
I shall.] 1. 1 As independent verb: (a) to 
owe; to l)e under obligation for. 'By that 
f aith I s/ta/ to God. ' Chaucer. (6) Have to; 
be called upon; be obliged; must. [In this 
sense almost the auxiliary.] 

First tel me wliider 1 shal {go) and to what man 
Citaucer. 
Al drery was his chere and his loking 
Whan that he sholde out of the chanibre go. 
Chancer. 

Z As an auxiliary; (a) to express mere fu- 
turity, forming the first persons singular aud 
plural of the future tense (including the 
future perfect), and simply foretelling or 
declaring what is to take place = am to, are 
to; as, I or we shall ride to town on Mon- 
day. This declaration simply informs an- 
other of a fact that is to take place. Of course 
there may be an intention or determin- 
ation in the mind of the speaker, but shall 
does not express this in the first person, 
though will does, I will go, lieing equivalent 
to I am detennined to go, I have made up 
my mind to go. Hence, I will l>e obliged, 
or we will be forced, to go Is quite wrong. 
The rest of the simple future is formed by 
the auxiliary will; that is to say, the future 
in full is, I shall, thou tctU, he ivUl, we 
shall, you icUl, they will. In indirect narra- 
tive, however, shall may express mere fu- 
turity in the secoud and third persons in 
such sentences as, he says or thinks he shall 
go. (b) In the second and third persons 
shall implies (1) control or authority on the 
part of the speaker, and is used to express 
a promise, coumiand, or determination; as, 
you shall receive your wages ; he shall re- 
ceive his wages: these phrases having the 
force of a promise in the pereon uttering 
them; thou shall not kill; he may refuse to 
go. Imt for all that he shall go. (2) Or it 
implies necessity or inevitability, futurity 
thought certain aud answered for by the 
speaker. 

Sorrow on love hereafter shall attend. Shai. 
He that escapes me without some broken limb 
shall acquit him well. Shajt. 

(c) Interrogatively, shall I go? shall me go? 
shall he go? shall they go? ask for direction 
or refer the matter to the deternUuation of 
the person asked. But shall you go? asks 
rather for information merely as to the 
future without referring to another's inten- 
tion, (rf) .After conditionals, as »/or whether, 
and in dependent clauses generally, shall, 
in all the persons, expresses simple futurity; 
as, 

1 1 skMll say, or we shall say. 
If- Thou shall say, ye or you shall say, 

( He shall say, they shall say. 

Whosoever (^if any one] therefore shall break one 
of these least commandments, and shall teach men 
so, he shall be called the least, &c. Mat. v. 19. 

(«) Should, though in form the past of shall, 
is not used to express simple past futiu'ity; 
thus,,! shall go. means I am to go. but we 
do not say I should go yesterday, for I was 
to go or to have gtme yesterday. In the 
indirect speech, however, it is so used; as, 
I said 1 sh&uUl go; I arranged that he shottld 

go 

The Parliament resolved that all pictures . . . 
should be burned. Macaulay. 

Should is very commonly used (1) to express 
present duty or obligation, as I, we, they 
should (now aud always) practise vii'tue; or 
to express past duty or obligation; as, 

I should ^ *'"^'*' P^*'* ^^^ '^''^ "" *^^" 

•\hmi Mhotildat I »»ft»^i; it was my duty, your 
He «Wrf ;-'>"^>'- *»«^"^>' '" P»y the bill 
Yon Zldd ) ^^i,;'""^^°^' ^'"^ *^ ^"^ "^^^ 
(2) To express a merely hsrpothetical case or 
a contingent future event, standing in the 
same relation to would that shall does to 
will ; thus, as we say I shall )>e glad if you 
trill come, so we say I should be glad if you 
would come. In such phrases as, if li should 
rain to-morrow, if you should go to London 
next week, if he shoidd arrive within a 
month, it is to be regarded as the future 
subjunctive. In Uke manner shotdd is used 
after though, grant, admit, allow, Ac. (3) It 
is often used in a modest way to soften a 
statement ; thus. ' I should not like to say how 
many there are,' is nuich the same as I hardly 
like, I do not like: so I shmUd not care if I 
were at home' = I do not. Similarly, 'It 
should seem ' often is nearly the same as 



' it seems'— but this expression is now less 
common than 'it would seem.' 

He is no suitor then t So it should seem. 

B. yonsott. 

Shall and will are often confounded by in- 
accurate speakers or writers, and even 
writers such as Addison sometimes make a 
slip. In quoting the following lines from a 
song in Sir George Etherege's ' She Would if 
she Could' (1704), Mr. li. Grant White says, 
' I do not know in English literature another 
passage in which tlie distinction between 
shall and will and would and should is at 
once so elegantly, so variously, so precisely, 
and 30 compactly illustrated.' 

How lon^ I shall love him I can no more »eU, 
Thau, had I a fever, when I shou'd be well. 
My passion shall kill me before I -will show it. 
Ana yet I Ttwi'rfgive aU the world he did know it; 
But oh how I sigh, when I think shou'd he woo me, 
I cannot refuse what I know icou'd undo me. 

See also Will. 

Shall! (slial'li), 71. [Connected with shawl; 
the same word as challis.] A kind of twilled 
cloth, made from the native goats* hair at 
Angora. Simmonds. 

Shalloon(shal-lon'), n. [Fr. chalon, awooUen 
stuft", said to be from Chdlons, in France.] 
A slight woollen stuff. 

In blue shalloon shall Hannibal be clad. Swift. 

Shallop (shal'lop), n. [Fr. chaloupe, French 
form of sloop; D. sloep. See Sloop.] I. A 
sort of large boat with two masts, aud 
usually rigged like a schooner— 2. A small 
light vessel with a small mainmast and 
foremast, with lug-sails. 'The shallop 
flitteth silken-sail'd.* Tennyson. 

Shallot (sha-Iof), n. [Abbrev. of eschalot 
(which see). See also SCALLION.] A plant, 
the Allium ascalonicum, a species of onion, 
the mildest cultivated. It grows wild in 
many parts of Palestine, especially near 
Ascalon, whence it derives its specific name. 
The bulb is compound, separating into divi- 
sions termed cloves, by which the plant is 
propagated. It is sutticiently hardy to en- 
dure the severest winters of England. The 
shallot is used to season soups and made 
dishes, and makes a good addition in sauces, 
salads, and pickles. 

Shallow (shaHo), a. [Probal)Iy same word 
as Icel. skjdlgr, wry, oblique, the water being 
shallow where the beach sinks oblitiuely 
downward; comp. also shoal, shelf.] 1. Not 
deep; having little depth; having the bottom 
at no great distance from the surface or edge; 
as, fc'ta/^ot^- water; & shallow tieuch; a.shaU<nff 
basket. 

I had been drowned but that the shore was slwivy 
and shallow. Shak. 

I ain made a shallow forded stream, 
Seen to the bottom. Dryden. 

2. Not intellectually deep; not profound; 
not penetrating deeply into abstruse sub- 
jects; superficial; empty; silly; as, a shal- 
low mind or understanding: shallow skill. 
' Deep vers'd in books, and shallow in him- 
self.' ililton.S. Thin and weak of sound; 
not deep, full, or round. 'The sound per- 
fecter, and not so shallow or jarring.' 
Bacon. 

Shallow (shario), n. A place where the 
water is not deep ; a ahoal ; a shelf ; a flat ; 
a sand -bank. 

A swift stream is not heard in the channel, but upon 
shallows of gravel. Bacon. 

There is a tide in the affairs of men. 
Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; 
Omitted, all the voyage of their life 
U bound in shallows and in miseries. Shak. 

Shallow (shal'lo), v.i. To make shallow. 

In long process of time the silt and sands shall so 
choak and shallow the sea in and about it. 

Sir T. Browne. 
That thought alone the state impairs. 
Thy lofty sinks, and shallows thy profound. Young;. 

Shallow (shario), n. A local name for the 
fish called also Rudd aud Red-eye. See 
KUIH), Yan-ell. 

Shallow-brained (shano-braiul), a. Of no 
dt'pth of intellect; empty-headed. 'A com- 
jiany of lewd, shallow-brained huffs.' South. 

Shallow-hearted (shal'Io-hart-ed), a. In- 
capable of deep or strong feeling or affec- 
tion. 'Ye sanguine, shallow-hearted boys." 
Shak. 

U my cousin, shal/ow-hearted! O my Amy, mine 
no more ! Tennyson. 

Shallowly (shal'lo-li), arfy. In a shallow 
manner; as. (a) with little depth. (6) Super- 
ficially ; simply ; with()Ut depth of thought 
or judgment; not wisely. Shak. 

Shallowness (siial'lo-nes), n. The state or 
(juality of being shallow; as, (rt) want of 
depth ; small depth ; as, the shalloumess of 



en. eAahi; Ah, Sc. loch; g, go; j,>ob; t, Fr. ton; ng, ting; th. then; th, thin; w. trig; wh, whig; zh, azure.— See Kkt. 



SHALLOW-PATED 



52 



SHANGIE 



water, of a river, of a stream. (&) Siiperfi- 

cialuess of intellect; want of power to enter 

deeply into subjects; emptiness; silliness. 

' The shallowness and impertinent zeal of 

the vulgar sort.' Howell. 
Shallow -pated (shal'lo-pat-ed), a. Of 

weak niinu; silly. Ash. 
Shalm, Shalmie (sh^m, shftm'i). n. A 

nnisical wind-instrument formerly in use; 

a shawm (which see). 
Shalote (sha-lof), n. See Eschalot and 

SHALLOT. 

Sbalt (shalt). The second person singular 
of shall; as, thou shalt not steal. 

Shaly (sha'li), a. Partaking of the qualities 
uf shale. 

Sham (sham), n. [Perhaps a form of shame; 
Prov. E. sham, shame; sham, to blush for 
shame; comp., however, Prov. G. schem, 
schemen, delusive appearance, phantom ; 
scheme, shade, shadow; O.H.G. scimaii, to 
^leam.j One who or that which deceives 
expectation; any trick, fraud, or device that 
deludes and disappoints; delusion; impos- 
ture; humbug. 

Helieve wlio will tlie solemn sham, not I. Addison. 
In that year (1680) our tongue was enriched with two 
words. Mob and Sham, remarkable memorials of a 
season of tumult and imposture. Macaulay. 

Sham (sham), a. False; counterfeit; pre- 
tended; as, a sAam fight. 

Self-interest and covetousness cannot keep society 
orderly and peaceful, let sham philosophers say what 
they will. KingsUy. 

—Sham plea, in law, a plea entered for the 
mere purpose of delay. 
Sham (sham), v.t. pret. <t pp. shammed; 
ppr. shamming, l.t To deceive; to trick; 
to cheat; to delude with false pretences. 

They find themselves fooled and shammed into con- 
viction. Sir /i. i: Estrange. 

2.t To obtrude by fraud or imposition. 

We must have a care that we do not . . . jArtwi falla- 
cies upon the world for current reason. 

Sir R. L' Estrange. 

3. To make a pretence of in order to deceive; 
to feign; to imitate; to ape; as, to sham \\\- 
uess.—Tosham Abraham, a sailor's term for 
pretending illness in order to avoid doing 
duty in the ship, &c. See Abraham-MAN. 
Sham (sham), y.i. Topretend; tomakefalse 
pretences. 

Then all your wits that fleer and sham, 
Down from Don Quixote to Tom Tram, 
From whom I jests and puns purloin, 
And slily put them off for mine. Prior. 

Sham-Abram (sham-a'bram), a. Pre- 
tended; mock; sham. Seeunder SHAM, v.t. 
' Sham-Abrain saints.' Hood. 

Shaman (sham'an), n. A professor or priest 
of Sliamanism; a wizard or conjuror, among 
those who profess Shamanism. 

Shaman (sham'an), a. Relating to Sha- 
manism. 

Shamanism (sham'an-izm), n. A general 
name applied to the idolatrous religions of a 
lunnber of barbarous nations, comprehend- 
ing those of the Finnish race, as the Ostiaks, 
Samoyedes, and other inhabitants of Siberia, 
as far as the Pacific Ocean. These nations 
generally believe in a Supreme Being, but 
to this they add the belief that the govern- 
ment of the world is in the hands of a number 
of secondary gods both benevolent and mal- 
evolent towards man, and that it is absolutely 
necessary to avert their malign inlluence by 
magic rites and spells. The general belief 
respecting another life appears to be that 
the conditiou of man will be poorer and 
more wretched than the present; hence 
death is an object of great dread. 

Siiamanist (sham'an- ist), n. A believer in 
sliamanism. 

Shamble (sbam'bl), n. [A. Sax. scamel, a 
stoul, a bench, a form; Dan. skammel. Icel. 
skemmUl, a footstool, a bench, a trestle; Sc. 
skemmils, shambles; from L. scamellum, 
gcamUlus, dims, of scammtm, a stool or 
bench.] 1. In mining, a nfche or shelf left 
atsuitable distances to receive the ore which 
is thrown from one to another, and thus 
raised to the top.~2.pl. The tables or stalls 
where butchers expose meat for sale; a 
slaughter -house; a flesh ntarket : often 
treated as a singular. ' To make a shambles 
of the parliament house.' Shak. 
Whatsoever issold in the x/i*?wW«,that eat. iCor.x.2S. 

Hence— 3. A place of indiscriminate slaugh- 
ter or butchery. 

The whole land was converted into a vast human 
shambles. Prescott. 

Shamble (sham'bl), v.i. pret. & pp. sham- 
bled; ppr. shambling. [A form of scamble 



(which see). ] To walk awkwardly and un- 
steadily, as if the knees were weak. 

Shambling(sham'bl-ing),a. [From shamble. ] 
Moving with an awkward, irregular, clumsy 
pace; as, a shambling trot; shamblijig legs. 

Shambling (sham'bl-ing), n. An awkward, 
clumsy, irregular pace or gait. 

By that shambitug in his walk it should be my rich 
banker, Gomez, whom 1 knew at Barcelona, Dryden. 

Shame (sham), n. [A. Sax. sceamu, scamu, 
Icel. skamm, skomm, Dan. and Sw. skam, 
G. scham, O.H.G. scaina, shame; probably 
from a root-verb skiman, to redden; seen 
also in A. Sax. sclma, a gleam; E. shim- 
mer.] 1. A painful sensation excited by a 
consciousness of guilt, or of having done 
something which injures reputation, or by 
the exposure of that which nature or mo- 
desty prompts us to conceal. ' Burns with 
bashful shame. ' Shak. 

Hide, for shame, 
Romans, your grandsires' images. 
That blush at tneir de^jenerate progeny. Dryden. 
Shatne prevails when reason is defeated. Rambler. 

2. The cause or reason of shame; that which 
brings reproach and degrades a person in 
the estimation of others. 'Guides, who are 
the shame of religion.' South. 

And every woe a tear can claim,. 

Except an erring sister's shame. Byron. 

3. Reproach; ignominy; dishonour; disgrace; 
derision; contempt. 

Ye have borne the shame of the heathen. 

Ezek. xxxvi. 6. 

4. The parts which modesty requires to be 
covered. Is. xlvii. 3. — For shame.' an inter- 
jectional phrase signifying you should be 
ashamed; shame on y<»u I— To put to shame, 
to cause to feel shame; to inflict shame, dis- 
grace, or dishonour on. 

Seeing they crucify to themselves the Son of God 
afresh, and /«/ him lo an open shame. Heb, vi. 6. 

Shame (sham), v.t. pret. & pp. shamed; ppr. 
shaming. 1. To make ashamed; to cause 
to blush or to feel degraded, dishonoured, 
or disgraced. ' Shame enough to shame thee, 
wert thou not shameless.' Shak. 

Who shames a scribbler ? Break one cobweb 

through. 
He spins the slight self-pleasing thread anew. Pofie. 

2. To cover with reproach or ignominy ; to 

dis^-ace. — 3. To mock at; to deride. 

Ye have shamed the counsel of the poor. Ps. xiv. 6. 

Shame (sham), v.i. To be ashamed. 

To its trunk authors give such a magnitude, as I 
shame to repeat. Raleigh. 

I do shame to think of it. Shak. 

Shamefaced (sham'fast), a. ['Shamefaced 
was once shamefast, shamefacedness was 
shame/astness, like steadfast and steadfast- 
ness; but the ordinaiy manifestations of 
shame being by the face, have brought it to 
its present orthography. ' Trench. See 
Shamefast.] Basliful; easily confused or 
put out of countenance. 

Conscience is a h\ns\\'mg shamefaced spirit, Shak. 
Your shamc/aced y'mue shunn'd the people's praise. 
Dryden. 

Shamefacedly ( sham'fast-li ), adv. Bash- 
fully; with excessive modesty. 

Shamefacedness (sham'fast-nes), n. Bash- 
fulness; excess of modesty. 

Shamefast t (sham'fast), a. [A. Sax. sceam- 
fiest.] Shamefaced; modest. 

He saw her wise, shamefast and bringing forth 
children. North. 

It is a pity that shamefast and shamefastness . . . 
should have been corrupted in modem use Xoshame- 
faced and shamefacedness. The words are properly 
of the same formation a& steadfast, steadfastness, 
soothfast, soothfistness, and those good old English 
words now lost to us, rootfast, rootfastness. As by 
rootfast our fathers understood that which was firm 
Awdfast by its root, so by shamefast, in like manner, 
that which was established and made /hj^ by (an 
honourable! shame. To change this mto shame- 
faced is to allow all the meanmg and force of the 
word to run to the surface, to leave us, ethically, a 
far inferior word. Trench. 

Shamefastness t (sham'fast-nes). n. Shame- 
facedness; <;reat modesty. 'In mannerly 
ajjarell with shamfastnes.' Bible, Tyndalc's 
trans., 1520. 

Shameful (sham'ful), a. 1. Bringing shame 
or disgrace; scandalous; disgraceful; injuri- 
ous to reputation. 

His naval preparations were not more surprising 
than his quick and shameful retreat. Arbnthnot. 

2. Raising shame in others; indecent. 'Phoe- 
bus flyiii;;somosts/jam<'/M/ sight.' Spenser. 

Shamefully (sbam'ful-li), adv. In a shame- 
ful manner; with indignity or indecency; 
disgracefully. 

Shamefulness (sham'ful-nes), n. The state 



or quality of being shameful ; disgraceful- 
ness; disgrace; shame. 

The king debated with himself 
If Arthur were the child of shamefulness. 
Or born the son of Gorlois. Tennyson. 

Shameless (sham'Ies), a. 1. Destitute of 
shame; wanting modesty; impudent; brazen- 
faced ; inmiodest ; audacious ; insensible to 
disgrace. 

To tell thee whence thou earnest, of whom derived 
Were shame enough to shame thee, wert thou not 
shameless. shak. 

2. Done without shame; indicating want of 
shame; as, a shameless disregard of honesty. 

The shameless denial hereof by some of their 
friends, and the more shameless justification by some 
of Uieir flatterers, makes it needful to exemplify 
«. , Raleigh. 

Shamelessly (sham'Ies-li), adv. In a shame- 
less manner; without shame; impudently. 

He mu.« needs be shamelessly wicked that abhors 
not this licentiousness. Sir M. Hale. 

Shamelessness (sham'les-nes), n. The state 
or quality of being shameless; destitution 
of shame; want of sensibility to disgrace or 
dishonour; impudence. 

He that blushes not at his crime, but adds shame- 
lessness to shame, has nothing left to restore him to 
virtue. jer. Taylor. 

Shame -proof (sham'prbf), a. Callous or 

insensible to shame. 

They will shame us; let them not approach. 
—We are shame-froof, my lord. ShaJt. 

Shamer (sham'^r). n. One who or that 
which makes ashamed. Beau, cfc Fl 

Sham-fight (sham'fit), n. A pretended fight 
or engagement. 

Shammel (sham'l), n. Same as Shamble. 

Shammer (sham'^r), n. One that shams; 
an impostor. 

Shanuny, Shamov (sham'i, sham'oi), n. 
[A corruption of chamois, the animal and 
its prepared skin.] 1. A species of antelope, 
the Antilope rupicapra; the chamois.— 2. A 
kind of leather originally prepared from the 
skin of this animal, but much of the article 
sold under this name is now made of the 
skin of the common goat, the kid, and even 
the sheep. 

Shamols (sham'oi), n. Same as Shammy. 

Shamoylng ( sham'oi-ing ), n. A mode of 
preparing leather by working oil into the 
skin instead of the astringent, or chloride 
of ammonium, commonly used in tanning. 

Shampoo (sham-po'), v.t. [Hind chdmptid, 
to shampoo.] 1. To rub and percuss the 
whole surface of the body of, and at the 
same time to extend the limbs and rack the 
joints, in connection with the hot bath, for 
the purpose of restoring tone and vigour^- 
a practice introduced from the East.— 2. To 
wash thoroughly and rub or brush effec- 
tively a person's head, using either soap or 
a soapy preparation. 

Shampoo (sham-po'), n. The act or opera- 
tion of shampooing. 

Shamrock (sham'rok), n. [Ir. seamrog, Gael. 
seamrag, trefoil, white clover.] The name 
commonly given to the national emblem of 
Ireland, as the rose is that of England and 
the thistle of Scotland. It is a trefoil plant, 
generally supposed to be the plant called 
white clover {Trifoliutn repens), but some 
think it to be rather the wood-soirel {(kcalis 
Acetosella)(yi\\\ch see). The plant sold in 
Dublin and elsewhere on St. Patrick's Day is 
the small yellow trefoil {Trifolium minus). 

Shan (shan). n. Same as Shaniiy. 

Shan (shan), n. yaut. a defect in spars, 
most conmionly from bad collared knots; 
an injurious compression of fibres in tim- 
ber; the turning out of the cortical layei-s 
when the plank has l>een sawed obliquely 
to the central axis of the tree. 

Shand (shand). a. [0,E. schande, schonde, 
A. Sax. scand, sceond, shame, disgrace.] 
Worthless. [Scotch- J 

Shand (shand), n. Base coin. [Scotch.] 

' I doubt Glossin will prove but shand after a', Mis- 
tress.' said Jabos. , . . ' but this is a gude half-crown 
ony way. Sir Jf. Scott. 

Shandry, Shandrydan (shan'dri, shan'dri- 
dan), n. A one-horse Irish conveyance. 
' An ancient rickety-looking vehicle of the 
kind once known as shandrydan.' Cornhill 
Mag. 

Shaildygaff (shan'di-gaf), n. A mixture of 
beer and ginger-beer or lemonade. 

(Men) slid into cool oyster cellars for iced ginger- 
beer and shandygaff. G. A. Sala. 

Shangie, Shangan (shang'i, shang'an), }}. 
A shackle ; a stick cleft at one end for put- 
ting the tail of a dog in by way of mischief, 
or to frighten him away. [Scotch.] 



Kite, fir, fat, fftll; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, buU; oil, pound; ii, 3c. abune; y, Sc. Uy. 



SHAKING 



53 



SHARK 



Shaning (shan'ing), n. Same as Shanny. 

Sliank i^shangk), n. [A. Sax. 8canc, sceanc, 
scanca, sceanca, the bone of the leg, the 
leg, eann-scanca, the arm-bone; Dan. & -Sw. 
skank; G. and D. schenkel, the shank. Akin 
Sc. skink, a shin of beef, and perhaps »hin/] 

1. The whtile leg, or the part of the leg 
from the knee to the ankle; the tibia or 
shin-bone, ' Crooked crawling shanks.' Spen- 
ser. 

His youthful hose, well saved, a world too wide 
For his shrunk s/nttii. Shak. 

2- In a horse, the part of the fore-leg be- 
tween the knee and the fetlock.— 3. That 
part of an instrument, tool, or other thing 
which connects the acting part with a handle 
or other part by which it is held or moved ; 
as. specifically, («) the stem of a key between 
the Ijow and the bit. (6) The stem of an 
anchor connecting the arms and the stock, 
(c) The tang or part of a knife, chisel, &c., 
insel-ted in the handle, (d) The straight 
portion of a hook, {e) The straight part of 
a nail between the head and the taper of 
the point. (/) The body of a printing type. 
(g) The eye or loop on a button. — 4. That 
part of a shoe which connects the broad 
part of the sole with the heel.— 5, In metal. 
a large ladle to contain molten metals, 
managed by a straight bar at one end and 
a cross-bar with handles at the other end, 
by which it is tipped to pour out the metal 
6. Inarch. {a) the shaft of a column. (6) The 
plain space between the channels of the tri- 
glyph of a Doric frieze.— To ride Shanks' 
nag or inare, to perform a journey on foot 
or on one's legs or shanks. [Colloq ] 
Shank (shangk), v.i. 1. To be affected with 
disease of the pedicel or footstalk ; to fall 
off by decay of the footstalk: often with 
off. 

The gerraens of these twelve flowers all swelled, 
and ultimately six fine capsules and two poor cap- 
sules were produced; only four capsules jAiiwi/w^ 
c^. DttnviH. 

2. To take to one's legs. [Scotch.] 
Shank (shangk), V. t [Scotch. ] To send off 

without ceremony. 

They think they should be tookit after, and some 
say ye should baith be shatikif alT till Edinburgh 
castle. Sir IV. Scolt. 

~To shank one's selfaiea', to take one's self 
off quickly. Sir W. Scott. 

Shank-beer (shangk'ber),n. SamesaSchenk- 
heer. 

Shanked (shangkt), p. and a. 1. Having a 
shank.— 2. Affected with disease of the 
shank or foutstalk. 

Shanker (shamik'^r), n. See Chancre. 

Shanklln-sand (shangk1ln-sand).n. In^^oi. 
another name for lower greensand of the 
chalk formation : so called from its )>eing 
conspicuously developed atShankUn in the 
Isle of Wight 

Shank-painter (shangk'pan-t^r), n. Saut 
a short rope and chain which sustains the 
shank and tlukes of an anchor against the 
ship's side, as the stopper fastens the ring 
and stock to the cat-head. 

Shanny (shan'ni), n. A small flsh allied to 
the blenny, and found under stones and sea- 
ueeds, where it lurks. It is the Blennixts 
pholis of Linnaeus, and the Phnlis Icevis of 
modern authors. By means of its pectoral 
flns it is able to crawl upon land, and when 
the tide ebbs will often creep upon shore 
until it flnds a crevice wherein it can hide 
until the tide returns. 

Shanscrlt (shan'skrit), n. An old spelling 
of Saiixcrit. 

Sha'nt (^hant). A contraction of Shall Xot 

[Colloc,.] 
Shanty (shan'ti). a. [A form of jaunty] 

Jaunty; n&y; showy. [Provincial.] 
Shanty. Shantee ( shan't! ), /t. [From Ir. 

sean, old, or from non, weather, and tig, a 

house] A hut or mean dwelling; a tempo- 
rary building. 
Shanty (shan'ti), v.i. To live in a shanty. 

[Rare ] 
Shanty-man (shan'ti-man), n. One who 

lives in a .Hhanty; hence, a backwoodsman; 

a lumberer. 
Shapahle (shap'a-bl), n. l. Capable of being 

shaped; shapeable. — 2. Having a proper 

shape or form. 

I made things round and shapabU, which before 
were filthy things indeed to look upon. Dt Fot. 

Shape (shap), t.t. pret. shaped; pp. shaped 
or shapen; ppr. shaping. [A. Sax. sc«apan. 
seapan, O.Sax. scapan, Goth, skopan, skap- 
Jan. Icel. skapa, Dan. skabe, O.H.G. sea/art. 
Mod. G. schaffen, to shape, form, create; 



perhaps from same root as ship. ] 1. To form 
or create; to make. 

I was shapen in iniquity. Ps. li. 5. 

Costly his garb— his Flemish ruff 
Fell o'er his doublet, shaped oihwS. Sir iV. Scott. 

2. To mould, cut, or make into a particular 
form; to give form or figure to; as, to shape 
a garment 

Grace shaped hfcr limbs, and beauty deck'd her 
face. Prior, 

3. To adapt to a purpose; to regulate; to 
adjust; to direct. 

Chaniied by their eyes, their manners I acquire. 
And shape my foolishnesii to their desire. Privr. 
To the stream ... he shapes his course. 

Sir J. Detiham. 

4. To image; to conceive; to call or conjure 
up. 

Oft my jealousy 
Shapes faults that are not. Shak. 

Shape (shap), v.i. To square; to suit; to be 
adjusted. [Rare.] 

Their dear loss 
The more of you 'twas felt, the more it shaped 
Unto my end of stealing them. Shak. 

Shape (shap),n. 1. Character or construction 
of an object as determining its external ap- 
pearance ; outward aspect; make; figure; 
form; guise; as. the shape of the head, the 
body, &c. ; the shape of a horse or a tree. 
' A charming shape.' Addison. 

Take any shape but that, and my firm nerves 
Shall never tremble. Sha/k. 

2. That which has form or figure; a figure; 
an appearance; a being. 

The other shape 
If shape it might be called that shape had none. 
Distinguishable in member, joint, or limb. Milton. 

3. A pattern to be followed ; a model ; a 
mould; as. to cut shapes for ladies' dresses, 
jackets, Ac — 4. In cookery, a dessert dish 
made of blanc-mange, rice, corn-flour, Ac, 
variously flavoured, or of jelly, cast into a 
mould, allowed to stand till it sets or firms, 
and then turned out to l>e served. — 5. Form 
of embodiment, as in wonls; form, as of 
thought or conception; concrete embodi- 
ment or example, as of some <iuality. 

Yet the smooth words took no shape in action. 
Proude. 

6.t A dress for disguise; a guise. 

This Persian shape laid by, and she appearing 
In a Grcekish dress. Massin^er. 

Shape, t pp. Formed; figured; prepared. 
Chaucer. 

Shapeable (shap'a-bl). a. l. Capable of being 
shaj>ed. ' Soft anri shapeable into love's 
syllables.* Itnskin,—2. Shapely. Spelled 
ulscr Shapable. 

Shapeless (shapTes), a. Destitute of regu- 
lar form; wanting symmetry of dimensions. 
' The shapeless rock or hanging precipice.' 
Pope. 

He is deformed ; crooked, old and sere. 
Ill-faced, worse bodied, shapeltss everywhere. 
Shak. 

Shapelessness (shap'Ies-nesX n. The state 
of Tteing shapeless; destitution of regular 
form. 

Shapellche^ta. Shapely; fit; likely. Chau- 
cer. 

Shapeliness (shap'li-nes), n. The state of 
l>eing shapely; beauty or proportion of form. 

Shapely (shap'li), a. Well formed; having 
a regular and pleasing shape; symmetrical. 
'The shapely column." T. Warton. 

Shapesmith (shap'smith), n. One that un- 
dertakes to improve the form of the body. 
[Burlesque ] 

No shapesmith yet set up and drove a trade, 
To mend the work that Providence had made. 
Garth. 

Shapoumet (sha-por'net). In her. see Cha- 

1*01' R NET. 

Shard (shard), ti. [Also sherd; A Sax. sceard, 
from sceran, to shear, to separate; cog. Icel. 
skard, a notch, a gap; Dan. skaar, an inci- 
sion, a sherd; akin share.] 1. A piece or 
fragment of an earthen vessel or of any 
brittle substance; a pHsherd; a fragment. 
'.5/iar<;ji, flints, and i>ebble8.' Shak. 'Dashed 
your cities into shards.' Tennyson. 
Thus did that poor soul wander in want and cheerless 

discomfort. 
Bleeding, barefooted, over the shards and thorns 

of existence. Long/ellcw. 

2. The shell of an egg or of a snail — 3. The 
wing-case of a beetle. 

They are his shards, and he their beetle. Shak. 

4. The leaves of the artichoke and some 
other vegetables whitened or blanched. 
'5Aarrf« or mallows for the pot' Dryden. 
5.t A gap in a fence. Stanihurst. — Q.i A 
bourne or boundary; a division. Spenser. 



Shard-home (shardTjorn), a. Borne along 
by its shards or scaly wing-cases. 'The 
shard-borne beetle.' Shak. 

Sharded ( shard 'ed). a. Having wings 
sheathed with a hard case. ' The sharded 
beetle.' Shak. 

Shardy (shard'i). a. Consisting of or formed 
by a shard or shards; furnished with shards. 
■ The hornet's shardy wings.' J. K. Drake. 

Share (shar), n, [A. Sax. scearu, a por- 
tion, a shearing, a division ; scear, sajer, 
that which divides, the share of a plough, 
both from sceran, to cut. Akin shear, 
sheer, shire, shore, sharp, short, scaur, skirt. 
See Shear.] l. A certain quantity; a part; 
a portion; as, a small share uf prudence 
or good sense. — 2. A part or portion of 
a thing owned by a number in connnon; 
that part of an undivided interest which 
belongs to each proprietor; as, shares in a 
bank; shares in a railway; a ship owned iu 
ten shares.— Z. The part of a thing allotted 
or distributed to each individual of a num- 
ber; portion among others; apportioned lot; 
allotment; dividend. 'My «Aar€ of fame.' 
Dryden,—^. The broad iron or blade of a 
plough which cuts the bottom of the f urrow- 
blice; ploughshare. 

Sharpened shares shall vex the fruitful ground. 
Dryiien. 

—To go shares, to go share and share, to 

partake, to be equally concerned. [Colloq.] 

She fondly hoped that lie might be inclined to go 

share and share a\i\ie with Twin junior. Thackeray. 

Share (shar), v.t. pret. & pp. shared; ppr. 
sharing. [From the noun.] 1. To divide in 
portions; to part among two or more. 
The latest of my wealth I'll share amongst you. 
Shak. 
Suppose I share my fortune equally between my 
children and a stranger. Srviyt, 

2. To partake or enjoy with others ; to seize 
and possess jointly or in common. ' Who 
stay to share the morning feast' Tenny- 
son. 

Great Jove with C.'esar shares his sov'reign sway. 
A/itton. 
In vain does valour bleed. 
While avarice and rapine share the land. AtiUon. 

3. To receive as one's portion; to enjoy or 
suffer; to experience. Shak. — ^.^ To cut; 
to shear; to cleave. 

Scalp, face, and shoulder the keen steel divides. 
And the shared visage hangs on equal sides. 

Dryden. 

Share (shar). t'.t. To have part; to get one's 
portion ; to be a sharer. 

And think not, Percy, 
To share with me in glory any more. Shak. 
A right of inheritance gave every one a title to 
share in the goods of his father. Locke. 

Share-beam (shar'bem), n. That part of a 
plough to whith the share is applied. 

Share-bone (sliai-'bon). n. The os pubis, the 
smallest of the three portions of the os in- 
nominatutn, which is placed at the upper 
and fore part of the pelvis. 

Share-broker (shai-'brok-Sr), n. A dealer 
or broker in the shares and securities of 
joint-stt»ck companies and the like. 

Shareholder (shar'h61d-6r), n. One that 
holds or owns a share or shares in a joint- 
stock company, in a common fund, or in 
some property; as. a shareholder in a rail- 
way, mining, or banking company, &c. 

Share-line (shar'lin), n. The summit line 
of elevated ground; the dividing line. 

Share-list (shar'list), n. A list of the prices 
of shares of railways, mines, banks, govern- 
ment securities, and the tike. 

Sharer (shar'^r). n. One who shares; one 
who participates in anything with another; 
one who enjoys or suH'ers in common with 
another or others; a partaker. 

People not allowed to be sharers with their com- 

E anions in good fortune will hardly be sharers in 
ad. Sir K. L' Estrange. 

Shark (shark), n. [Usually derived from L. 
carcharias, Gr. karcharias, a shark, f r()m kar- 
charos, sharp-pointed, with sharp or jagged 
teeth; but the want of intermediate forms 
renders this etymology a little doubtful. 
Perhaps from A. Sax. sceran, to shear, to cut. 
Comp. lcel.8kerthingr,SLshsirk. The noun and 
the verb appear to nave been applied to per- 
sons as early as to the fish. ] 1. One of a group 
of elasmobranchiate fishes, celebrated for 
the size and voracity of many of the species. 
The form of the body is eloiigateti, and the 
tail thick and fleshy. The mouth is large, 
and armed with several ruws of compressed, 
sharp-edged, and sometimes serrated teetlL 
The skin is usually very rough, covered with 
a multitude of little osseous tubercles or pla- 
coid scales. They are the most formidablo 



eh, chain; £b, Sc. \oeh; g, go; j, job; fi, Fr. ton; ng, iing; 1H, then; th, thin; w, wig; wb, whig; zb, azure.— See Krx. 



SHARK 

and voracious of all fishes, pursue other 
marine animals, and seem to care little 
whether their prey be living or dead. They 
often follow vessels for the sake of picking 
up any offal which may be thrown over- 
board, and man himself often becomes a 
victim to their rapacity. The sharks formed 
the genus Squalus, Linn., now divided into 




White Shark (Carcharias vuigtiris). 

several families, as the Carcharidte, or white 
sharks, Lamnids, or basking sharks, Scym- 
nidse, including the Greenland shark, Scyl- 
lidse, or dog-ftshes, Ac. The basking shark 
{Selache maxima) is by far the largest species, 
sometimes attaining the length of 40 feet, 
but it has none of the ferocity of the others. 
The white shark {Carcharias vulgaris) is one 
of the most formidable and voracious of the 
species. It is rare on the British coasts, 
but common in many of the warmer seas, 
reaching a length of over 30 feet. The ham- 
mer-headed sharks (Zygeena), which ai'e 



,^~'^, 




Hammer-headed Shark {Zygana malleus). 

chiefly found in tropical seas, are very vora- 
cious, and often attack man. The shark is 
ovipai'ous or ovoviviparous, according to cir- 
cumstances.— 2, A greedy, artful fellow; one 
who tills his pockets by sly tricks; a sharper; 
acheat. ' Cheaters, 8harks,?i\\A shifting com- 
panions.' Bp. liepnolds. — 3. Trickery; fraud ; 
petty rapine. ' Wretches who live upon the 
shark.' South. 

Shark (shark), v.i. [Origin doubtful. See 
the noun. Shirk appears to be a weakened 
form of this.] To play the petty thief, or 
rather to live by shifts and petty strata- 
gems; to swindle; to cozen; toplayameanly 
dishonest or greedy trick. B. Jonson. 

That does it fair and above-board without leg:erde- 
maiii, and neither sharks for a cup or reckoning, 
Bp. Earle. 

—To shark out, to slip out or escape by low 
artifices. [Vulgar. ] 

Shark (shark), v.t. To pick up hastily, silly, 
or in small (iiiantities: with tip. 

Young Fortinbras, . . . 
Hath in the skirts of Norway here and there 
Shark d up a list of lawless resolutes. Shak. 

Sharker (shark'fir), n. One who lives by 
sharking ; an artful fellow. ' A rengado 
. . . a dirty sharker.' Wotton. 

Shark-ray (shjirk'ra), 7i. SeeRHiNOBATro^. 

Sham (sh^rn). n. [A. Sax. scearn, dung, 
Icel. ^karn] The dung of cattle. [Scotch.] 

Sharock (shar'ok), n. A silver coin in India, 
worth about Is. sterling. 

Sharp (sharp), a. [A. Sax. scearp, from 
the root of sceran, to shear, to cut; L.G. 
sekarp, D, scherp. Icel. skarpr, G. scharf. 
See Share.] 1. Having a very thin edge or 
fine point; keen; acute; not blunt; as, a 
sharp knife, or a sharp needle; a sharp 
edge easily severs a substance ; a sharp 
point is easily made to penetrate it. ' My 
eimeter's sharp point ' Shak. —2. Terminat- 
ing in a point or edge ; not obtuse ; some- 
what pointed or edged; ridged; peaked; as, 
a hill terminates in a shai-p peak or a sharp 
ridge; a sharp roof. —3. Abruptly turned; 
bent at an acute angle ; as, a sharp tmn of 



54 

the road. — 4. Acute of mind ; quick to dis- 
cern or distinguish ; penetrating ; ready at 
invention; witty; ingenious; discriminating; 
shrewd ; subtle. ' The sharpest witted lover 
in Arcadia. ' Sir P. Sidney. 

Nothinjf makes men sharper than want. Addison. 

Many other things belong to the material world 
wherein the sharpest philosophers have not yet ob- 
tained clear ideas. Il'atts. 

Hence— 5. Subtle; nice; witty; acute: said 
of things. 'Sharp and subtle discourses.' 
Hooker. 

He pleaded still not guilty and alleged 

Many sharp reasons to defeat the law. Shak. 

6. Keen or penetrating as regards the organs 
of sense; as, (o) quick or keen in respect of 
sight; vigilant; attentive; as, a sharp eye; 
sharp sight. 

To sharp-eyed reason this would seem untrue. 
Drydeii. 

(^) Affecting the organs of taste like fine 
points; sour; acid; acrid; bitter; as, sharp 
vinegar; s/irtr/j-tasted citrons. '5/iarp phy- 
sic' Shak. (c) Affecting the oi^ans of hear- 
ing like sharp points; piercing; penetrating; 
shrill; as, a sharp sound or voice. 

The sound strikes so sharp as you can scarce en- 
dure it. Baco7i. 

7. Keen; acrimonious; severe; harsh* bit- 
ing; sarcastic; cutting; as, sharp words; 
sharp rebuke. 

Be thy words severe. 
Sharp as he merits ; but the sword forbear. Drydeti. 

8. Severely rigid ; quick or severe in pun- 
ishing; cruel. 

To that place the sharp Athenian law 
Cannot pursue us. Shak. 

9. Eager in pursuit; keen in quest; eager 
for food; as, a sharp appetite. 

My falcon now is sharp and passing empty. S^tak. 
To satisfy the sharp desire 1 had 
Of tasting these fair apples, Milton. 

10. Fierce; ardent; fiery; violent; impetu- 
ous; as, a shaip contest. 

A sharp assault already is begun, Dryden. 

11. Severe; afflicting; very painful or dis- 
tressing ; as, sha^-p tribulation ; a sharp fit 
of the gout. 'A sharp torture.' Tillot^on. 

Sharp misery had worn him to the bones. Shak. 

12. Biting; pinching; piercing; aa, sharp 
air; sharp wind or weather. —la Gritty; 
hard; as, sharp sand.— 14. Emaciated; lean; 
thin; as. a sharp visage. — lb. Keenly alive 
to one's own interest; keen and close in 
making bargains or in exacting one's dues; 
ready to take advantage; barely honest: of 
persons; hence, characterized by such keen- 
ness: of things. 

I will not say he is dishonest, but at any rate he 
is sharp. TroUope. 

Yet there was a remarkable gentleness and childish- 
ness aiiout these people, a special inaptitude for any 
kind oi sharp practice. Dickens. 

16. \\i phonetics, applied to a consonant pro- 
nounced or uttered with breath and not 
with voice ; surd ; non-vocal ; as, the shaip 
mutea p,t,k. ~17. In imisic, (a) raised a semi- 
tone, as a note. (&) Too high; so high as to 
be out of tune or above true pitch.— iSAwrp 
is often used adverbially. See separate entry. 
—To brace sharp (naut), to turn the yards 
to the most oblique position possible that 
the ship may sail well up to the wind. — 
Sharji is frequently used iu the formation 
of compounds, many of which are self- 
explanatory ; as, sharp - coiiiered, sharp- 
edged, sharp-pointed, sharp-toothed, &c. 

Sharp (sharp), n. l. An acute or shrill sound. 
• The lark, straining harsh discords and un- 
pleasing sharps.' Shak.— 2. In music, (a) a 
note artificially raised a semitone. (6) The 
sign (J) which, when placed on a line or 
space of the staff at the commencement of a 
movement, raises all the notes on that line or 
space or their octaves a semitone in pitch. 
When, in the course of the movement, it pre- 
cedes a note, it has the same effect on it or its 
repetition, but only within the same bar.— 
Double sharp, a character ( x ) used in chro- 
matic music, and which raises a note two 
semitones above itsnatural pitch. —3. A sharp 
consonant. See the adjective. —4. pi. The 
hard parts of wheat which require grinding 
a second time. Called also Middlings.— 5. t A 
pointed weapon. Jeremy Collier. —6. A por- 
tion of a stream where the water runs very 
rapidly. C. Kingsley. [Provincial.]— 7. A 
sewing-needle, one of the most pointed of 
the three grades— Wunte, betweens, and 
sharps. 

Sharp (sharp), v.t. 1. To make keen or 
acute; to sharpen. 'To sharp ray sense." 
Sj)enser.—% To mai'k with a sliai-p, in musi- 



SHARPNESS 



cal composition, or to raise a note a semi- 
tone. 
Sharp (sharp), v.i. To play tricks In bar- 
gaining; to act the sharper. 

Your scandalous life is only cheating or sharping 
one half of the year and starving the other. 

Sir R. L'Estrange. 

Sharp (sharp), adv. 1. Sharply. 

No marvel, though you bite so sharp at reasons. Shak. 
Is a man bound to look out sharp to plague himself? 
yeretny CcUier. 

2. Exactly; to the moment; not a minute 
behind. 

Captain Osborne . . , will bring him to the 
150th mess at five o'clock sharp. Thackeray. 

Sharp-cut (sharp'kut), a. Cut shai-ply and 
clearly ; cut so as to present a clear, well- 
defined outline, as a figure on a medal or an 
engraving; hence, presenting great distinct- 
ness; well-defined; clear. 

Sharpen (sharp'n), v.t. [From the adjec- 
tive, J To make sharp or sharper; as, (a) to 
give a keen edge or fine point to; to edge; 
to point; as, to sharpen a knife, an axe, or 
the teeth of a saw; to sharpen a sword. 

AH the Israelites went down to the Philistines to 
sharpen every man his share and his coulter, and 
his axe and his mattock. i Sam. xiii. 20. 

(&) To make more eager or active ; as, to 
sharpest the edge of industry. Hooker. — 

(c) To make more intense, aa grief, joy, 
pain, &c. 

It may contribute to his misery, heighten the 
anguish, and sharpen the sting of conscience. 

South. 

(d) To make more quick, acute, or ingenious. 
' Quickness of wit, either given by nature or 
sharpenedhy %t\i(iy.' Ascham. (e)Torender 
quicker or keener of perception. 

The air sharpen'd his visual ray 

To objects distant far. Milton. 

(/) To render more keen ; to make more 

eager for food or for any gratification ; as, 

tosharpen the appetite; to sharpenOk desire. 

Epicurean cooks 

Sharpen with cloyless sauce his appetite. Shak. 

(g) To make biting, sarcastic, 05 severe. 
' S/wrpen each word.' £d. Smith, (h) To 
render more shrill or piercing. 

Inclosures not only preserve sound, but increase 
and sharpen it. Bacon. 

(i) To make more tart or acid; to make sour; 

as, the rays of the sun sharpen vinegar.— 

ij) In inxmic, to raise, as a sound, by means 

of a sharp; to apply a sharp to. 
Sharpen (sharp'n), v.i. To grow or become 

sharp. 'Now sheaAarjwn*.' Shak. 
Sharper (sharp'er), n. [See the adjective.] 

A shrewd man in making bargains; a tricky 

fellow ; a rascal ; a cheat in bargaining or 

gaming. 

Sharpers, as pikes, prey upon their own kind. 
Sir R. U Estrange. 
Who proffers his past favours for my virtue 
Tries to o'erreach me — is a very sharper. 

Coleridge. 

Sharp-^OUnd (sharp'ground), a. Whetted 
till it IS sharp ; sharpened. ' No sharp- 
ground knife.' Shak. 

Sharpie (sharp'i), n. Xaut a long, sharp, 
fiat-bottomed sail-boat. [United States.] 

Sharpling(shai-p'ling),n. A fish, the stickle- 
back. [Provincial.] 

Sharp-looking (sharp'luk-ing), a. Having 
the appearance of sharpness; hungry look- 
ing ; emaciated ; lean. * A needy, hollow- 
eyed, sharp-looking wretch.' Shak. 

Sharply (sharp'li), adv. In a sharp or keen 
manner; as, (a) with a keen edge or a fine 
point. (6) Severely ; rigorously ; rouglily. 
•Rebuke them sharply.' Tit i. 13. {c\ 
Keenly; acutely; vigorously; as, the mino 
and memory sharply exercised, (d) Via 
lently; vehemently. 

At the arrival of the English ambassadors, the sol 
diers were sharply a:isailed with wants. Hayward 

ie) With keen perception ; exactly ; min- 
utely. 

You contract your eye when you would see sharply. 
Bacon. 

(/) Acutely; wittily; with nice discemiuent 
'To this the Panther sAarpiy had replied.' 
Dryden. (g)Xhraptly; steeply; as, the bank 
rises sharply up. 

Sharpness (sharp'nes), n. The state or qua- 
lity <»f being sharp; as, (a) keenness of an 
edge or point ; as, the sharpness of a razor 
or a dart, (b) Pungency; acidity; as, the 
sharpness of vinegar, (c) Eagerness of de- 
sire or pursuit; keenness of appetite, as for 
food, and the like, (d) Pungency of pain; 
keenness ; severity of pain or affliction ; as, 
I he sharpness of pain, grief, or anguish; the 
sharpness of death or calamity. 

And the best quarrels in the heat are curst 
By those that feel their sharpness, SMai, 



Fate, far, fat, fftU; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; ndte, not, move; tube, tub, bflll; oil, pound; u, Sc. abune; y, Sc fey. 



SHARP-SET 



55 



SHE 



(e) Severity of language; pungency; satirical 
sarcasm ; aa, the sharpness of satire or re- 
buke. 

Some did all folly with just sharpness blame. 

(/) Acuteness of Intellect; the power of 
nice discernment; quickness of understand- 
ing; ingenuity; as, sharpness of wit or un- 
derstanding, (if) Quickness of sense or per- 
ception ; as, the sharpjtesg of sight, (h) 
Keenness; severity; as, the sharpness of the 
air or weather (i) Keenness and closeness 
in transacting business or exacting one's 
dues; enuivocal honesty: as, his practice 
is charai-'terized by too much sharpness. 
Sharp-set (shurp'set), a. 1. Eager in appe- 
tite; affected by keen hunger; ravenous. 

T!ie sharp-s€t squire resolves at last, 
Whatcer befel him not to fast. SomervilU. 

2. Eager in desire of gratification. [Familiar 
in both senses.] 

The town is s^uirfi-set on new plays. Pofie. 

Sliaxp-shOOter ( sharp' shot -fer), n. One 
skilled in sliootin^? at an object with exact- 
ness; one skilled in the use of the rifle. In 
miiit a name formerly given to some of the 
best shots of a company, who were armed 
with rirtes. and took aim in firing. They are 
now superseded by the better arms and 
organization 4if modem armies. 

Sharp - Shooting (sharp'shot-ing), n, A 
sln'utink' with great precision and effect, as 
riHemen. Applied also to a sharp skirmish 
of wit or would- l>e wit. 

The frequent repetition of this playful inquirj* on 
the part of Mr. Pecksniff, led at last to playful an- 
swers on the part of Mr. Montage, but after some 
little sharp-shooiing on both sides, Mr. Pecksniff 
became grave almost to tears. Di<:k*ns. 

Sharp-sighted (sh&rp'sit-ed), o. 1. Having 

qui'-K nr :Kut« sight; as, a shaip-si'jhted 
eagk- ur li;twk. — 2. Having quick discern- 
ment r)r acute understanding; as, a sharp- 
sighted opponent; sharp-sighted judgment 
' A healthy, perfect, and sharp-gighted 
mind.* Sir. J. Davies. 

Sharp-tail (sharp'tal). n. A passerine bird 
of the suh family Syuallaxinse, family Cer- 
thidii' 'T (.TfL-epers. 

Sharp-visaged (shaip'vlz-ajd), a. Harlng 
a sh.ir|> or thin face. 

Tlie Welsh that inhabit the mountains are com- 
m'iniy iharf-vii-tged. Sir M. Hait. 

Sharp-witted (sharp' wlt-ed). a. Having an 
acute or nicely-di.%cemiag mind. ' A num- 
b^-r of dull-sighted, very «Aarp-«?t*ted men.' 
WiAton. 

Shasht (shash). n. l. A sash. Cotton — 
2. A turban. Fuller. 

8haster,Shastra(shft9't€r,8hfta'tra).n. [Skr. 
sh'isfra, from shiis, to teach. ] A law or book 
of laws among the Hindus : applied parti- 
cularly to a book containing the authorized 
iii-stitutes of their religion, and considered 
of divine origin. The term is applied, in a 
wider sense, to treatises containing the laws 
or institutesof the various arts and sciences, 
as rhetoric. 

Shathmont (shath'montX n. [See Hhaft- 
MAN] A measure of (i inches. [Scotch.] 

Shatter (shat't^r). v.t. [A softened form of 
saltier; to shatter is literally to smash into 
small pieces that scatter or fly apart. See 
SrATTER.] 1. To break at once into many 
pieces; to dash, burst, or part by violence 
into fragments; to rend, split, or rive into 
splintei-s; as, an explosion of gunpowder 
shatters ATOck; lightning «Aa<ter« the sturdy 
oak. 

He raised a siffh so piteous and profoond. 

As it did seem to shatter all his bulk. Skak. 

2. To break up; to disorder; to derange ; to 
give a destructive shouk to ; to r.verthrow ; 
aa, his mind was now quite shatt^ed. 
In the strength of this I rode, 
SHiUtering all evil customs everywhere. Tent^son. 

S.t To scatter; to disperse. 

I come to pluck your berries hanh snd cmde. 
And with torc'd nnifcrs ruile 
Skatttr your leaves beforre the mefiowlBr year. 
Afatan. 

4.t To dissipate; to make incapable of close 
and continued application. ' A man ... of 
shattered humour.' Xorris. 
Shatter ( shat'ter ), v.t To be broken into 
fragments; tu fall or crumble to pieces by 
any force applied. 

S'Jine shatfer and fly in many places. Bacon. 

Shatter (shat'ter), n. One part of many 
into which anything is broken; a fragment: 
used chiefly in the plural, and in the phrases 
ti} break or rend into shatters. 

Stick the candle so loose, that it will fall upon the 
flasa of the sconce, and break it into thattgrs. 

Sivift. 



Shatter-l)rain(shat'ter-bran), n. A careless 
gidi.lv pL-r-son; a scatter-brain. 

Shatter -brained, Shatter-pated (shaf- 
ter-brand, shat'ter-pat-ed ), a. Disordered 
in intellect ; intellectually weak; scatter- 
brained. 

You cannot . . . but conclude that religion and 
devotion are far from being the mere effects of ig- 
norance and imposture, whatever some shatter- 
brainedaxx^ debauched persons would fain persuade 
themselves and others. Dr. y. Goodman. 

Shattery (shat-t6i-'i), o. Brittle; easily fall- 
ing into many pieces ; not compact ; loose 
of texture. 

A coarse grit-stone ... of too shattery a nature 
to be used except la ordinary buildings. Pennant, 

Shauchle, Shaughle (shaiih'l), v. i. To walk 
with a. shuttling or shambling gait [Scotch.] 

Shauchle, Shaughle (shjiiih'l), v.t To dis- 
tort from the proper shape or right direction 
by use or wear. — Shaughled shoon. shoes 
trodden down on one side by bad walking; 
Jig. ajiplied to a jilted woman. Burns; Sir 
W. Scott. [Scotch.] 

Shaul (shftl), a. Shallow. 'Duncan deep, 
and Peebles shaul.' Burns, [Scotch.] 

Shave (shav), v.t. pret. shaved; pp. shaved 
or shaven; ppr. shaving. [A. Sax. sca/an, to 
shave, to scrape, to smooth, to plane; com- 
mon to the Teutonic tongues ; Icel. sca/a, 
Dan. skave, Sw. ska/va. D. schaaveti, Goth. 
skaban, G. schaben: same root as Or. skaptd, 
to dig; L. scabo, to scrape.] 1. To cut or 
pare off from the surface of a body by a 
razor or other edged instrument; aa, to 
shave the beard. Often with o/f. 

Neither shall they shave off the comer of their 
beard. Lev. xn. 5. 

2. To pare close; to make smooth or bare by 
cutting or paring from the surface of; espe- 
cially, to remove the hair from by a razor 
or other sharp instrument; as, to shave the 
chin or head; Ui shave hoops or staves. 

The bending scythe 
Shaves all the surface of the waving green. Gay. 

3. To cut in thin slices. ' Plants bruised or 
shaven in leaf or root.' Bacon.— 4. To skim 
along or near the surface of; to sweep along. 

He scours the right-hand coast, sometimes the left ; 
Now shax-es with level wing the deep. Milton. 

5. To strip: to oppress by extortion; to 
fleece. — To shave a note, to purchase it at a 
great discount, or to take interest upon it 
much beyond the legal rate. [United States 
coUortuialism.] 

Shave (shav), v.i. 1. To use the razor; to 
remove the beard or other hair with a razor. 

2. To be hard and severe in bargains; to 
cheat 

Shave (shav), n. [See the verb ] 1. The act 
or operation of shaving; a cutting off of the 
beard.— 2. A thin slice; a shaving.- 3. An 
instrument with a long blade and a handle 
at each end for shaving hoops, d:c.; also, a 
spokeshai'e. —4. The act of passing so closely 
as almost to strike or graze; an exceedingly 
narrow miss or escape: often with clote or 
near. [CoUoq.] 

The next instant the bind coach passed my engine 
by a shave. Dickens. 

' By Jove, that was a near shaz-e I ' This exclama- 
tion was drawn from us by a bullet which whistled 
within an inch of our heads. If. H. Russtll. 

6. A false report or alarm voluntarily pro- 
pagated with a view to deceive; a trick. 
[Slang] 

The deep cloom of apprehension— at first a shave 
of old Smith s, then a well-authenticated report. 

It' H Russell. 

Shave-arrass (shav'gras). n. A plant of the 
genus E(|uisetura \E. kyemale) employed 
for polishing wood, ivory, and brass. See 

Kt^n.^KTl'M. 

Shaveling (shav^ing). n. A man shaved; 
hence, a friar or religieux. [In contempt.] 

By St. George and the Dragon, I am no longer a 
shaveling than while niy froclc is on my back. 

Sir tV. Scott. 

Sliaver (shav'dr), n. 1. One who shaves or 
whose occupation is to shave.— 2. One who 
is close in bargains or a sharp dealer. 

This Lewis is a cunning shcti-er Staift. 

3. One who fleeces; a pillager; a plunderer. 

By these shavers the Turks were stripped of all 
they had. KnoUes. 

4. A humorous fellow; a wag.— 6. A Jocular 
name for a young boy; a youngster. [Com- 
pare as to this last sense Oypsy chavo, a 
child.] 

Shavte (shav'i),n. A trick or prank. *Mony 
a prank an' rairthfu' shav^.' Blackwood's 
Mag. [.Scotch.] 

Shaving (shav'ing), n. 1. The act of one 
who shaves,- 2. A thin slice pared off with 



a shave, a knife, a plane, or other cutting 
instrument. 

Shaving-'brush (8hav'ing-bru8h).n. A brush 
used in shaving, for spreading the lather 
over the beard. 

Shaw (sha), n. [A Scandinavian word; Dan. 
skov, Icei. sk6gr, Sw. skog, a wood or grove.] 
1. A thicket; a small wood; a shady place. 
'This grene shaw.' Chaucer. ' Close hid be- 
neath the greenwood shaw.' Fairfax.— % A 
stem with the leaves, as of a potato, turnip, 
&o. [Xow only Scotch or northern English, 
in both senses.] 

Shaw (sha). vt. To show. [Scotch.] 

Shaw-fowl (sha'foul), n. {Shaw here a 
formof sftow.] The representation or image 
of a fowl made by fowlers to shoot at. 

Shawl (shg,l), n. [Fi. chCile, from Ar. and 
Per. shdl, a shawl.] An article of dress, 
usually of a square or oblong shape, worn 
by persons of both sexes in the East, but in 
the west chiefly by females as a loose body 
or shoulder covering. Shawls are of seve- 
ral sizes and divers materials, as silk, cotton, 
hair, or wool; and occasionally they are 
formed of a mixture of some or all these 
staples. Some of the Eastern shawls, as 
those of Cashmere, are very beautiful and 
costly fabrics. They are now successfully 
imitated in Europe. The use of the shawl 
in Europe, at least of a vestment under that 
name, belongs almost entirely to the present 
century. " 

Shawl (shftl), v.t. To cover with a shawl. 

Rebecca was sha-wiing\ient\i in an upper apart* 
ment, Thackeray. 

Shawm, ShalmCsh^m). n. [O.Fr. chalemel. 
Mod. Fr. chalumeau, from calamellus, a 
dim. of L. calamus, a reed, a reed-pipe.) 
An old wind-instrument similar in form to 
the clarionet. Others think it was formed 
of pipes made of reed or of wheaten or oaten 
sti-aw. 

Shay (sha), n. A chaise. Lamb. [Collbq. 
vulgarism.] 

Shaya (sha'a), n. OldetUandia umbellata. 
See Shaya-root. 

Shaya -root (sha'a-rbt), n. The root of 
the Oldenlandta umbellata, nat. order Cin- 
chonacea3 The outer liark of the rootsof this 
plant furnishes the colouring matter for the 




Shaya {Oldentandia umbtilata). 

durable red for which the chintzes of India 
are famous. The plant grows wild on the 
Coromandel coast, and is also cultivated 
there. The leaves are considered by the 
native doctors as expectorant Written also 
Chaya-root. 
She (she), pron.— possessive her or hers, da- 
tive her, objective her; nom. pi. they, pos- 
sessive their or theirs, dative them, objec- 
tive them. [A. Sax. se6, the, that, the nom. 
fern, of the def. art. Though now used as 
the feminine corresponding to he, it is not 
strictly so, having taken the place of he6, 
the proper feminine, in the twelfth cen- 
tury. It was first used in the northern 
dialects as a pronoun in the forms sco, sho. 
The possessive her and the later hers are 
from the old feminine pronoim he6, genit. 
hire; whereas, se6 had genit. thanre.] 1. The 
nominative feminine of the pronoun of the 
third person, used as a substitute for the 
name of a female, or of something personi- 
fied in the feminine; the word which refers 
to a female mentioned in tlie preceding or 
following part of a sentence or discourse. 

Then Sarah denied, saying. I laughed not ; for she 
was afraid. Gen. xviii. 15. 



cb, Main; £h. 3c. locA; g. go:, j, >ob: % Pr. ton; ng. sln^; ra, CAen; th, tAln; w, wig; wb, wAlg; zh, a^ure.— See Key. 



SHEA 

2. She is sometimes used as a noun for wo- 
man or female both in the singular and in 
the plural, usually in contemptuous or hu- 
morous language. 

Lady, you are the cruell'st sMe alive. Sha/i. 

The shes of Italy should not betray 

Mine interest and his honour. Shak. 

3. She is used also as a prefix for female; as, 
a sAe-bear; a she-caX. 'A s/ie-angel.' Shak. 

Shea (she'a), n. The Bassia butyracea of 
botanists, a native of tropical Asia and 
Africa, and believed to be the fulwa or 
fulwara tree of India. The African shea 
tree {B. Parkii) resembles the laurel in the 
shape and colour of its leaves, but grows 
to the height of 30 or 40 feet. The trunk 
yields when pierced a copious milky juice. 
The shea or vegetable butter is found in 
the nut, and is obtained pure by crushing, 
boiling, and straining. The nuts grow in 
bunches, and are attached to the boughs by 
slender iilaments. They are of the shape 
and size of a pigeon's egg, of a light drab 
when new, but the colour deepens after- 
wards to that of chocolate. A good-sized 
tree in prolific condition will yield a bushel 
of nuts. Called also Butter -tree. See 
Bassia. 

Sheading (shed'ing), n. [A. Sax. sceddan, 
Gotli. skaidan, J), and G. sckeiden, to di- 
vide; akin shed, as in loatershed.] In the 
Isle of Man, a riding, tithing, or division, in 
which there is a coroner or chief constable. 
The isle is divided into six sheadings. 

Sheaf (shef), 71. pi. Sheaves (shevz). [A. Sax. 
seed/, a sheaf, a bundle, as of arrows; L.G. 
skqf, schof, D. schoof, Icel. skauf, G. schaub. 
The root is that of shove, A. Sax. scHfan, to 
shove, thrust, push.] 1. A quantity of the 
stalks of wheat, rye, oats, or barley bound 
together; a bundle of stalks or straw. 

The reaper fills his greedy hands 
And binds the golden sheaves in brittle bands. 
Drydett. 

2. Any bundle or collection; specifically, 
twenty-four arrows, or as many as fill the 
quiver. 

'Farewell!' she said, and vanished from the place; 
The sheaf of arrows shook and rattled in the case, 

Drydeft. 

Sheaf (shef), n. The wheel in the block of a 

pulley; asheave. See Sheave. 
Sheaf (shef), v.t. To collect and bind; to 

make sheaves of. 
Sheaf (shef), v.i. To make sheaves. 

They that reap, must shea/and bind. Shak. 

Sheafy (shef'i), ft. Pertaining to, consisting 
of, or resembling sheaves. Gray. 

Sheal (shel), n. [A form of shell] A husk 
or pod. [Old and provincial.] 

Sheal (shel), V. t. To take the husks or pods 
off; to shell. 'That's a shealed peascod.' 
Shak. [Old and Provincial.] 

Sheal (shel), n. [A Scotch word : Icel. skdli, 
S. skaale, a hut or shed, from root of skelter, 
shield.] 1. A hut or small cottage for shep- 
herds, or for fishermen on the shore or on 
the banks of rivers; a sheallng.— 2. A shed 
for sheltering sheep on the hills dui'ing the 
night. — 3. A summer residence, especially 
one erected for those who go to the hills 
for sport, &c. Written also Sheel, Shell. 

Shealing (shei'ing), n. The outer shell, pod, 
or husk of pease, oats, and the like. [Pro- 
vincial] 

Shealing (shei'ing). 71. Same as S/ieai. Writ- 
ten also Sheeling, Skeiling. [Scotch.] 

They were considered in some measure as pro- 
prietors of the wretched shealittgs which they inhab- 
ited. Sir ly. Scott. 

Shear (sher). u. t pret. sheared and sh&re; pp. 
sheared or shorn; ppr. shearing. [0. E. schere, 
shere, A. Sax. sceran, to shear, shave, share, 
divide; L.G. scheren, D. scheeren, to sheer, 
cut, clip, sheer off; Icel. $kera, to cut, carve, 
reap, slaughter; Dan. skcere, to cut or carve; 
G. scheren, to shear, shave, cheat. From a 
root skar, which appears without the initial 
s in Gr. keiro, Skr. kar, to cut. Akin share, 
sheer, shire, shore, sharp, skwt, scaur. ] 1. To 
cut or clip something from with an instru- 
ment of two blades ; to separate anything 
from by shears, scissors, or a like instru- 
ment ; as, to shear sheep ; to shear cloth. 
It is appropriately used for the cutting of 
wool from sheep or their skins, and for 
clipping the nap from cloth. —2. To separate 
by shears; to cut or clip from a surface; as, 
to shear a fleece. 

But she, the wan sweet maiden, shore away 
Clean from her forehead all that wealth ofhair, 
Te>i>iysoft. 

3. Fig. to strip of property, as by severe 



56 

exaction or excessive sharpness in bargain- 
ing; to fleece. 

In his speculation he had gone out to shear, and 
come home shorn. Mrs. Ricidell. 

4. [Old English and Scotch.] To cut down, 
as with a sickle; to reap. 
Shear (sher), v.i. l. To cut; to penetrate 
by cutting. 

Many a deep glance, and often with unspeakable 
precision, has he cast into mysterious Nature, and 
the still more mysterious Life of Man. Wonderful 
it is with what cutting words, now and then, he severs 
asunder the confusion ; shears down, were it furlongs 
deep, into the true centre of the matter: and there 
not only hits the nail on the head, but with crushing 
force smites it home, and buries it, Carlyle. 

2. To turn aside; to deviate ; to sheer. See 
Sheer. 

Shear (sher), n. l. An instrument to cut 
with. Chaucer. [Now exclusively used in 
the plural. See Shears]— 2. A year as ap- 
plied to the age of a sheep, denominated 
from the yearly shearing; as, sheep of one 
shear, of two shears, &c. [Local.] 

Shear-bill (sher'bil), n. A bird, the black 
skimmer or cut-water (Rhyncops nigra). See 
Skimmer. 

Sheard (sh6rd), n. A shard. See Shard. 

Shearer (sher'6r), n. l . One that shears; as, 
a shearer of sheep.— 2. In Scotland, one that 
reaps corn with a sickle; a reaper. 

Shear-hulk (sher'hulk), n. Same as Sheer- 
hulk. 

Shearing (sher'ing), n. 1. The act or oper- 
ation of clipping or shearing by shears or 
by a machine ; as, the shearing of metallic 
plates and bars ; the shearing of the wool 
from sheep, or the pile, nap, or fluff from 
cloth.— 2. The proceeds of the operation of 
clipping by shears; as, the whole shearing 
of a flock ; the shearings from cloth. — 3. A 
sheep that has been but once sheared ; a 
shearling, Youatt. —4. The act or operation 
of reaping. [Scotch.] — 5. In mining, the 
making of vertical cuts at the ends of a 
portion of an undercut seam of coal, serving 
to destroy the continuity of the strata and 
facilitate the breaking down of the mass. 

Shearing - machine (sher'ing-ma-shen), n. 
1. A machine used for cutting plates and 
bars of iron and other metals. — 2. A machine 
for shearing cloth, &c. 

Shearling (sher'ling), n. A sheep that has 
been but once sheared. 

Shearman (sher'man), n. One whose occu- 
pation is to shear cloth. Shak. 

Shears (sherz), 7i. pi. [From the verb.] 
1. An instrument consisting of two mov- 
able blades with bevel edges, used for cut- 
ting cloth and other substances by inter- 
ception between the two blades. Shears 
differ from scissors chiefly in being larger, 
and they vary in form according to the dif- 
ferent operations they are called on to per- 
form. The shears used by farriers, sheep- 
shearers, weavers, &c., are made of a single 
piece of steel, bent round until the blades 
meet, which open of themselves by the elas- 
ticity of the metal. — 2. Something in the 
form of the blades of shears; as, (a)t a pair 
of wings. Spenser. (6) An apparatus for 
raising heavy weights. See Sheers. --3. The 
ways or track of a lathe, upon which the 
lathe head, poppet head, and rest are placed. 

Shear-steel (sher'stel), n. [So called from 
its applicability to the manufacture of cut- 
ting instruments, shears, knives, scythes, 
&c.] A kind of steel prepared by laying 
several bars of common steel together, and 
heating them in a furnace until they ac- 
quire the welding temperature. The bars 
are then beaten together and drawn out. 
The process may be repeated. — Single 
shear-steel and double shear-steel are terms 
indicating the extent to which the process 
has been carried. 

Shear -tall (shei-'tal), n. A name given to 
some species of humming-birds ; as, the 
slender shear-tail (Thaumastura eiiicura) 
and Cora's shear-tail {Thaumastura Corce): 
so called on account of their long and 
deeply-forked tail. 

Shear -water (sher'wa-ter), n. The name 
of several marine birds of the genus Puffinus, 
belonging to the petrel family, differing 
from the true petrels chiefly in having the 
tip of the lower mandible curved down- 
ward and the nostrils having separate open- 
ings. P. cinereus (the greater shear-water) 
is about 18 inches long. It is found on the 
south-west coasts of England and Wales. 
The Manx or common shear-water (P. an- 
glorum) is somewhat less in size, but is more 
common on the British coasts. It occurs 
also in more northern regions. There are 



SHEATHY 

several other species. The shear-waters fly 
rapidly, skimming over the waves, whence 
they pick up small fishes, crustaceans, mol- 




Manx Shea: 



ter {/-'. a/is^iorum). 



luscs, &c. The name is sometimes given to 
the skimmer {Rhynchops nigra). 
Sheat-fish (shet'fish), n. [G. scheid, schaid, 
schaidfisch.] One of the fishes of the family 
Siluridae (which see). 

Sheath (sheth), n. [A. Sax. scoeth, seedtk, 
D. and L.G. schede, Dan. skede, Icel. sHtki, 
skeithir (pi.), G. scheide, a sheath; generally 
referred to same root as shed, 
A. Sax. sceddan, to divide.] 1. A 
case for the reception of a sword 
or other long and slender instru- 
ment; a scabbard, — 2. Any some- 
what similar covering; as, (a) in 
hot. a term applied to a petiole 
when it embraces the branch 
from which it springs, as in 
grasses; or to a rudimentary leaf 
which wraps round the stem on 
which it grows, as in the scape 
of many endogenous plants. The 
cut shows part of the stem of a 
grass ( A nthoxanthxnn Puelii ) 
a, Sheath, with sheath a. (b) The wing- 
case of an insect. —3, A structure 
of loose stones for confining a river within 
its banks. 

Sheath (sheth), v. (. To furnish with a sheath. 
Sheath-bill (sheth'bil). n. See Chionii)^. 
Sheath -Claw (sheth'kla), n. A kind of 
lizard of the genus Thecadactylus. It is 
allied to the gecko, and in Jamaica is com- 
monly called the croaking lizard, from its 
curious call on the approach of night. 
Sheathe (sheTH). v.t. pret. &pp. sheathed; 
ppr. sheathing. [From the noun, like Icel. 
skeitha, to sheathe.] 1. To put into a sheath 
or scabbard; to inclose, cover, or hide with a 
sheath or case, or as with a sheath or case ; 
as, to sheathe a sword or dagger. 

The leopard . . , keeps the claws of his fore-feet 
turned up from the ground, and sheathed in the skin 
of his toes. .V. Grevj. 

'Tis in my breast she sheathes her dagger now. 
Dryden. 

2. To cover up; to hide. 

Her eyes, like marigolds, had sheathed their light. 
Shak. 

3. t To take away sharpness or acridness from ; 
to obviate the acridity of; to obtund or 
blunt. ' They blunt or sheathe those sharp 
salts.' Arbuthnot.—4. To protect byacasing 
or covering; to case or cover, as with boards, 
iron, or sheets of copper; as, to sheathe a 
ship. 

It were to be wished, that the whole navy through- 
out were sheathed as some are. Kaieigh. 

— 3'o sheathe the sword {fig), to put an end 
to war or enmity ; to make peace. It cor- 
responds to the Indian phrase, to bury the 
hatchet. 

Sheathed (sheTHd). p. and a. l. Put in a 
sheath ; inclosed or covered with a case ; 
covered; lined; invested with a membrane. 

2. In hot. vaginate ; invested by a sheath or 
cylindrical membranous tube, which is the 
base of the leaf, as the stalk or culm in 
grasses. 

Sheather (shein'Sr). n. One who sheathes. 

Sheathinff (sheiH'ing), n. l. The act of 
one who sneathes. — 2. That which sheathes; 
especially, a covering, usually thin plates of 
copper or an alloy containing copper, to 
protect a wooden ship's bottom from worms. 

3. The material with which ships are 
sheathed; as, QO'^^er sheathing. 

Sheathing-nail (sheTH'ing-nal), n. A cast- 
nail of an alloy of copper and tin, used for 
nailing on the metallic sheathing of ships. 

Sheathless(shethnes), a. Without a sheath 
or case for covering; imsheathed. 

Sheath-winged (sheth'wingd), a. Having 
cases for covering the wings; coleopterous; 
as. a shcath-%cinged insect, 

Sheathy (sheth'i), a. Forming or resem- 
bling a sheath or case. Sir T. Browne. 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abwne; y, Sc. iey. 



SHEAVE 

Sbeave (Bhev). n. [O. D. schijve. Mod. D. 

xchijf, G. scheibe, a round slice, a disc. See 
Shive, which is a slightly different form of 
this word.] 1. A grooved wheel in a block, 
mast, yard, Ac, on which a rope works; 
the wheel of a pulley; a shiver. —2. A sliding 
scutcheon for covering a keyhole. 

Sheave (shev), v.t. To bring together into 
sheavfs; to collect into a sheaf or into 
sheaves- 

Sheavedt (shevd), a. Made of straw. Shak. 

ati3av3-hole (shev'hol), «. A channel in 
uiiiuli ;t shea^'e works. 

Shebander (slieb'an-d6r), n. [Per. shiih-i- 
bandar, ruler of the port.] A Dutch East 
[ndia commercial officer; a port-captain. 

Shebeen (she-ben'), n. [Pruoably an Irish 
term ] 1. An Irish smuggler's hut.— 2. An 
unlicensed house of a low character where 
excisable liquors are sold illegally. 

Shebeener (she-ben'^r), n. One who keeps 
a shebeen. 

Shebeening (she-ben'ing), n. The act or 
practice of Iteeping a shebeen; as, she was 
fined fur shebeening. 

Shechinah (she-ki'na), n. [Heb. shekinah, 
from shakan, to rest] The Jewish name 
for the symbol of the divine presence, which 
rested intheshapeof a cloud or visible light 
over the mercy-seat. Written also Shekinah. 

Shed fshed). v.t. pret. & pp. shed; ppr. shed- 
diu'j. [A. Sax. sceddan. seddan, to scatter, 
t» sprinkle, to shed (blood), to divide, to 
separate, to disperse; probably of same 
root as L. scindo, to cut, to split; akin also 
to O. Kris, skedda, to push, to shake; G. 
schUttea, to shed, to spill, to cast; itchutteln, 
to sh;ike; L.G »chudden, to shake, to pour; 
akin E. sktidder] I. To cause or suffer to 
flow out; to pour out; to let fall: used 
especially with regard to blood and tears; 
as, to shed tears; to shed blood. ' Shed seas 
of tears.' Shak. 

This is my blood of the new testament which is 
shtd for ntanyfor the remission of sins. Mat.11xvi.28. 
He weejjs like a wench that had sH^d her milk. 
Shak. 

2. To east; to throw off, as a natural cover- 
ing ; as, the trees shed their leaves in au- 
tumn; serpents shed their skin.— 3. To emit; 
to give out; to diffuse; as, flowers shed their 
sweets or fragrance. 

All heaven. 
And happy constellations on that hour 
ShrH their selectest influence. Afilton. 

4. To cause to flow off without penetrating; 
as, a roof or a covering of oiled cloth, or the 
like, is said to shed water.— 5. To sprinkle; 
to intersperse. ' Her hair ... is shed with 
gray.' B. Jonson. [Rare] 
8ned(8hed), v.i. To let fall seed, a covering 
or envelope, &c. 

White oats are apt to i/ud most as they lie. and 
black as they stand. ytorti>ner. 

Shed (shed), ?i. llie act of shedding, or 
causing to flow : used only in composition ; 
as, blood«Ae^. 

Shed (shed), n. [0. E. shodde. shudde, Prov. 
K.shoil, shud. a hut, a hovel, probably from 
a root meaning to defend or protect; comp. 
Sw.«Ary(W,adefence,«fri/rf(/rt,toiIefend;Dan. 
skytte. to protect, to shelter; (i. nchiitzen, to 
defend. Or the original meaning may have 
been a sloping roof or penthouse to tthed off 
the rain ] 1. A slight or temporary build- 
ing; a penthouse or covering of boards. »fcc. , 
for shelter: a pcx)r house or hovel; a hut; an 
outhouse. ' The first Aletes Iwrn in lowly 
shed. ' Fairfax. 

Here various kinds, by various fortunes led. 
Commence acquaintance underneath a jAci Shat. 

2. A large open structure for the temporanr 
storage of goo<ls. Ac. ; as. a shed on a wharf; 
a railway shed. 

Shed (shell ). vt. [A. Sax. teeddan, D. and 
(j- Kcheiden, Goth, skaidan — to separate, to 
diviile. from same TootanL seindc,QT.schiz6, 
to eleave. Hence sheading. See also the 
other .Shed, v.t] To separate; to divide; 
to part; as, to shed the hair. [Provincial 
English and Scotch. ] 

Shed (shed), n [An old term, but in mean- 
ing 1 now only provincial, more especially 
Sctch. See Shed, to separate.] I A divi- 
sion: a parting; as. the «A^d of the hair; the 
water-«A«rf of a district.- 2. In iceacing, the 
interstice between the different parts of the 
w,irp of a loom through which the shuttle 
passes.— 3. t The slope of a Idll. 

Shedder (shed'^r). n. One who sheds or 
■ auses to flow out; as, & shedder of blood. 
Kzek .tviii. 10. 

Shedding (shed'ing). n. 1. The act of one 
that sheds. —2. That which is shed or cast off. 



57 

Shed-line (sbedlin), n. The summit line 
of elevated ground ; the line of the water- 
shed. 

Shed-roof (shed'rbf). n. The simplest kind 
of roof, formed by rafters sloping between a 
high and a low wall. Called also a Pent-roof. 

Sheel (shel), v.t. To free from husks, &c.; 
to sheal. [.Scotch] 

Sheel, Sheelin^ (shel, shel'ing), 71. Same 
as Shealing (which see). 

Sheeling-hill (shel'ing-hil). n. A knoll near 
a mill, where the shelled oats were formerly 
winnowed in order to free them from the 
husks. [Scotch.] 

Sheen (shen). a. [A. Sax. fc'me, seine, bright, 
clear, beautiful. ¥Tom root of show (which 
see).] Bright; shining; glittering; showy. 
' By fountain clear, or spangled starlight 
sheen.' Shak. [Poetical.] 

Sheen (shen), n. Brightness ; splendour. 

The shten of their spears was like stars on the sea. 
Byron. 

Sheen (shen), r.t. To shine; to glisten. 
[Poetical and rare.] 

This town. 
That, shtening far, celestial seems to be. Byron. 

Sheenly (shen'li), adv. Brightly. Browning. 

Sheeny (shen'i). a. Bright; glittering; shin- 
ing; fair. ' SA«cHi/ heaven.' Milton 'The 
M^'etii/ summer mom.' Tenjiysoti. (Poetical ] 

Sheep (shep), n. sing, and pi. [A. Sax. scedp. 
sc^p, L.G. and D. schaap, G. schaf, a sheep. 
The word is not found in Scandinavian, and 
the origin is uncertain. It has been referred 
to Bohem. skopec, a wether, lit. a castrated 
sheep, and Diez recognizes a like connection 
between Fr. mouton and L. yntitUtis, muti- 
lated. The common word for muttoji in 
Italy is eastrato. ] 1. A ruminant animal of 
the genus Ovis. family Capritiw, nearly 
allied to the goat, and which is among the 
most useful species of animals to man, as 
its wool constitutes a principal material of 
warm clothing, and its flesh is a great ar- 
ticle of food. TTie skin is made into leather, 
which is used for various purposes. The 
entrails, properly prepared and twisted, 
serve for strings for various musical instru- 
ments. The milk is thicker than that of cows, 
and consequently yields a greater relative 
quantity of butter and cheese. The sheep 
is remarkable for its harmles^^ temper and 
its timidity. The varieties of the domestic 
sheep {Ovis aries) are numerous, but it is 
not certainly known from what wild species 
these were originally derived. Some at any 
rate of the domesticated breeds, more espe- 
cially the smaller short-tailed breeds, with 
crescent-shaped horns, appear to be de- 
scended from the wild species known as the 
Motion (which see). The principal varie- 
ties of the English sheep are the large Lei- 
cester, the Cotswold, the South-down, the 
Cheviot, and the blackfaced breeds. The ! 
Leicester comes early to maturity, attains a 
great size, has a fine full form, and carries 
more mutton, though not of finest quality, 
in the same apparent dimensions, than any 
other; wool not so long as in some, but con- 
siderably finer- weight of fleece 7 to 8 lbs. 
The Cotswolds have I>een improved by cross- 
ing with Leicesters. Their wool is fine, and 
mutton fine-grained and full-sized. South- 
downs have wool short, close, and curled ; 
and their mutton is highly valued for its 
flavour. They attain a great size, the quar- 
ter often weighing 25 to 30 lbs. ,an<] some- 
times reaching to 40or50. All the preceding 
require a good climate and rich pasture. 
The Cheviot is much hardier than any of 
the preceding, and is well adapted for the 
green, grassy hills of Highland districts. 



SHEEPISHNESS 

est of all, and adapted for wild heathery 
hills and moors. Its wool is long but coarse, 
but its mutton is the very finest. The Welsh 
resembles the black-faced, but is less. Its 
mutton, too, is delicious, but its fleece 
weighs only about 2 lbs. The foreign breeds 
of sheep are exceedingly numerous, some of 
the more remarkable species being (a) the 
broad-tailed sheep (Ovis laticauda). com- 
mon in Asia and Egypt, and remarkable for 
its large heavy tail, often so loaded with a 
mass of fat as to weigh from 70 to 80 lbs. ; 
(6) the Iceland sheep, remarkable for Ijav- 
ing three, four, or five honis; (c) the fat- 
runiped sheep of Tartary, with an accumu- 
lation of fat on the rump, which, falling 
down in two great masses beliind, often en- 
tirely conceals the tail; (d) the Astrakhan 
or Bucharian sheep, with the wool twisted in 
spiral curls, and of very fine quality; (e) the 
Wallachian or Cretan sheep, with very lai^e, 
long, and spiral horns, those of the males 
being upright and those of the females at 





Broad-tailed Sheep {Ovis iaticauda). 

The wool is short, thick, and fine. They 
possess good fattening qualities, and yield 
excellent mutton. The black-faced is hardl- 



Rocky Mountain Sheep (Ovis tnotttana). 

right angles to the head. The Rocky Moun- 
tain sheep, or y)ighom, is the only species 
native of the New World. See Bighorn, 
and also Mkrino, Argau.— 2. In contempt. 
asilly fellow.— 3. Fig. God's people, as beinir 
under the government an{l protection of 
Christ, the great Shepherd. John x. 11.— 
4. A congregation considered as under a 
spiritual shepherd or pastor. More usually 
termed njlock. 

Sheep-berry (shep'be-ri), n. A small tree 
of tne !_'fmis Viburnum (V. Lentogo). nat. 
i>rder Ciiprifidiacete, yielding an edible fniit. 
It is a native of North America, and has 
been introduced as an ornamental tree Into 
British gardens. 

Sheep-bite t (shepTjIt), t^.i. To nibble like 
a sheep: hence, to practise petty thefts. 

Sheep - biter t ( shep' bit - 6r ), n. One who 
practises petty thefts. ' The niggardly, ras- 
cally sheep-biter.' Shak. 

There are political sheef -biters as well as past0r.1l : 
betrayers of public trusts as well as of private. 

Sir fi. L' Estrange. 

Sheepcot, Sheepcote (shep'kot), 71. 1. a 

small inclnsure for sheep; a pen. — 2. The 
cottage of a shepherd. Shak. 

Sheep-dip (sbep'dip), n. A sheep-wash 
(which see). 

Sheep-dog (shep'dog). n. A dog for tend- 
ing slieep; a collie (which see). 

Sheep-faced (shep 'fast), a. Sheepish; 

lliLsllflll 

Sheepfold (shep 'fold), «. A fold or pen 

for Pticep. 
Sbeepheaded ( shep - hed ' ed ), a. Dull ; 

simile - minded ; silly. ' Simple, sheep - 

headed fools.' John Taylor. 
Sheephook (shep'hok). n. A hook fastened 

to a pole, by which shepherds lay hohl oi> 

the legs of their sheep; a sfaepherd'a 

crook. 

Thou a sceptre's heir. 
That thus affect st a sheephook I Shak. 

Sheepish (shep' ish). a. l,t Pertaining to 
sheep. 'How to excel] in sheepiMh surgery.* 
Stafford.— % Like a sheep; bashful; tim- 
orous to excess ; over-modest; meanly ditfl- 
dent 

Wanting change of company, he will, when he comes 
abroad, be a sheepish or conceited creature. J.cck*. 

Sheepishly (shep'ishli), adv. In a sheep- 
ish manner: bashfully; with mean timidity 
or diffiilence. 

Sheepishness (shep'ish-nes). n. The qua- 
lity of being sheepish ; bashfulness ; exceft- 



ch, cAain; Oh, .Sc. locA; g, ^o; j.job; h, Fr, ton; ng, siiiy; TH, <Aen; th, lAin; 



w, irig; wh, ujAig; zh, anire.— See KKY. 



SHEEP-LAUREL 



58 



SHEET 



give modesty or diffidence; mean timoroua- 
ues& 

She^isftness and ignorance of the world are not 
consequences of being bred at home. Locke. 

Sheep -laurel (shep'l,a-iel), n. A small 
North American evergreen shrub of the 
genus Kalmia {K. atignsti/olia), nat. order 
Ericacere. Like many otlier plants of tlie 
heathwort order, it has been Introduced 
into our gardens, and is deser^^edly a fav- 
ourite. It has received this name, as well 
as that of Lambkill, from its leaves and 
shoots being deleterious to cattle. 

Sheep-louse (sheplous), n. Same as Sheep- 
tick. 

Sheep-market (shep'mar-ket), n. A place 
wlicre sheep are sold. 

Sheep - master (shep'nias-t6r), 71. An 
owner of sheep. 

I knew a nobleman in England that had the greatest 
audits of any man in my time ; a great grazier, a great 
sheep'tnaster, a great timber man, &c. Bacon. 

Sheep-pen (shep'pen), 71. An inclosure for 
slieep; a sheepfuld. 

Sheep-run (shep'run), n. A large tract of 
grazing country rtt for pasturing sheep. A 
sheep-run is properly more extensive than 
a slieep-walk. It seems to have been ori- 
ghially an Australian term. 

Sheep's-bane (slieps'ban), 71. A name given 
to the common pennywort {Bydrocotyle 
vulgaris), because it was considered a fruit- 
ful cause of rot in sheep. 

Sheep*s-beard (sheps'berd), n. A name 
conunon to all the species of composite 
plants of the genus Tragopogon. 

Sheep's -hit (slieps' bit), n. A plant of 
the genus Jasione, the J. inontaim. See 
.Tasione. 

Sheep's-eye (sheps'i), n. A modest, diffident 
look; a wishful glance; a leer. 

Those (eyes) of an amorous, roguish look derive their 
title even from the sheep: and we say such an one has 
a sheep's-eye, not so much to denote the innocence as 
the simple slyness of the cast. Spectator. 

—To cast a sheep's-eye, to direct a wishful 
or leering glance. 

For your sanctified look I'm afraid 
That you cast a sheep's-eye on my ladyship's maid. 
Sivt/t. 

Sheep-shank (shep'shangk), n. Naut. a 
kind of knot or liitch, or bend, made on a 
rope to shttrten it temporarily. 

Sheep's-head (sheps'hed), n. A fish {Spams 
ovis) caught on the shores of Connecticut 
and of Long Island, so called from the re- 
semblance of its head to that of a sheep. 
It is allied to the gilthead and bream, and 
esteemed delicious food. 

Sheep-shearer (shep'sher-6r), 71. One that 
shears or cuts off the wool from sheep. 
Gen, xxxviii. 12. 

Sheep-shearing (shep'sher-ing). n. 1. The 
act of shearing sheep. —2. The time of 
shearing sheep ; also, a feast made on that 
occasion. 
I must go buy spices for our sheep-shearing. Shak. 

Sheep-silver (shep'sil-vSr), 71. 1. A sum of 
money anciently paid by tenants to be re- 
leased from the service of washing the lord's 
sheep. —2. The Scotch popular name of mica. 

Sheep-skin (shep'skin), n. 1. Tlie skin of a 
sheep, or leather prepared from it. — 2. A 
diploma, so named because commonly en- 
graved on parchment prepared from the 
skin of the sheep. [CoUoq.] 

Sheep-split (shep'split), n. The skin of a 
sheep split by a knife or machine into two 
sections. 

Sheep's-Borrel (sheps'sor-el), 71. An herb 
(ifitmea; Aceio- 
sella), growing 
naturally on 
poor, dry, gra- 
velly soil. 

Sheep - stealer 
{shep'stel-6r), n. 
One that steals 
sheep. 

Sheep- stealing 
(sbep'stel-ing),n. 
Tlie act of steal- 
ing sheep. 

Sheep - tick 
(shep'tik), 71. 
The Melophagtis 
ovinus, a well- 
known dipter- 
ous insect be- 
longing to the 
family HippoboscidEe, extremely common in 
pasture-grounds about the commencement 
of summer. The pupro laid by the female 




Sheep-tick (natural size and 
magnified). 



are shining oval bodies, like the pips of 
small apples, which are to be seen attached 
by the pointed end to the wool of the sheep, 
From these issue the tick, which is horny, 
bristly, and of a rusty ochre-colour, and 
destitute of wings. It ttxes its head in the 
skin of the sheep, and extracts the blood, 
leaving a large round tumour. Called also 
Sheep-louse. 

Sheep-walk (shep'w^k), n. A pastnre for 
sheep ; a tract of some extent where sheep 
feed. See Sheep-run. 

Sheep-wash (shep'wosh), 71. A wash or 
smearing substance applied to the fleece or 
skin of sheep either to kill vermm or to pre- 
serve tlie wool. 

Sheep - whistling ( shep - whis ' ling ), a. 
Whistling after sheep; tending sheep. 'An 
old sheep ivhiatling rogue, a i-am-tender.' 
Shak. 

Sheepy (shep'i), a. Pertaining to or re- 
sembling sheep; sheepish. Chaucer. 

Sheer (sher), a. [A. Sax_ sclr, pure, clear, 
bright, glorious ; Icel. skirr, skcerr, bright, 
clear, pure, sk^rr, clear, evident; Goth. 
skeirs. beautiful, clear, evident; G. schier, 
free from knots; probably from root of shine. 
In meaning 4, however, the root is no doubt 
that of shear, A. Sax. sceran, to cut, to di- 
vide, and this word might even explain the 
senses given under 2. Comp. downright, and 
Sc. *even down' in such phrases as 'even 
doion nonsense,' 'the eveii dowii truth.'] 
1. Pure; clear; separate from anything for- 
eign. ' Thou sheer immaculate and silver 
fountain.' Shak. — 2. Being only what it 
seems to be; unmingled; simple; mere; down- 
right ; as, sheer falsehood, sheer ignorance, 
sl^er stupidity, &c. 

Here is a necessity, on the one side, that I should do 
that which, on the other side.it appears lobe a j/JC^r im- 
possibility that I should even attempt. De Quincey. 

3. Applied to very thin fabrics of cotton or 
muslin; as, sheer muslin. —-4. Straight up 
and down; pei-pendicniar; precipitous. 'A 
sheer precipice of a thousand feet.' J. D. 
Hooker. 

It was at tecLSt 
Nine roods of sheer ascent. Wordsworth. 

Sheer t (sher). adv. [See above; and comp. 
G. schier, at once, immediately. ] Clean; 
quite; right; at once. 'Sturdiest oaks . . . 
torn up sheer.' Milton. 

Due entrance he disdain'd. and in contempt. 
At one slight bound high overleap'd all bound 
Of hill or highest wall, and sheer within 
Lights on his feet. Milton. 

Sheer t (sher), v.(. To shear. Dryden. 

Sheer (sher), v.i. [A form of shear.] To de- 
cline or deviate from the line of the proper 
course; to slip or nmve aside; as, a ship 
sheers from her course. —To sheer along- 
side, to come gently alongside any object. 
—To sheer of, to turn or move aside to a 
distance: to part or separate from; to move 
off or away.— To sheer ^ip, to turn and ap- 
proach to R place or ship. 

Sheer (sher), ?t. 1. The curve which the line 
of ports or of the deck presents to the eye 
when viewing the side of a ship. When these 
lines are straight or the extremities do not 
rise, as is most usual, the ship is said to have 
a straight sheer. — To quicken the sheer, in 
ship-building, to shorten the radius which 
strikes out the curve. — To straighten the 
sheer, to lengthen the radius.— 2. The posi- 
tion in which a ship is sometimes kept at 
single anchor to keep her clear of it. — To 
break sheer, to deviate from that position. 
Z. The sheer-strake of a vessel. 

Sheer-batten (sher'bat-n). n. 1. Xa^it 
a batten stretched horizontally along the 
shrouds and seized firmly above each of 
their dead-eyes, serving to prevent the 
dead-eyes from turning at that part. Also 
termed a Stretcher. —2. In ship-building, 
a strip nailed to the ribs to indicate the 
position of the wales or bends preparatory 
to those planks being bolted on. 

Sheer -draught (sher'draft), n. In ship- 
building, the plan of elevation of a ship; a 
sheer-plan. 

Sheer-hooks (sher'hbks). 71. An instru- 
ment with prongs and hooks placed at the 



extremities of the yards of fire-ships to en- 
tangle the enemy's rigging, &c. 
Sheer-hiilk (sher'hulk), n. An old worn- 



out ship fitted with sheers or apparatus to 
fix or take out the masts of other sliips. 
See Sheets. 




Sheerly.t (sberli), adv. At once; quite; ab- 
solutely. Beau. lI- Fl. 

Sheer-mould (sher'mold), 71. In ship-bvild- 
ing, a long thin plank for adjusting the 
ram-line on the ship's side, in order to form 
the sheer of the ship. One of its edges is 
curved to the extent of sheer intended to 
be given. 

Sheer-plan (sher'plan),*;. In shipAmildinff, 
same as Sheer-draitght. 

^eers (sherz), n. pi. A kind of hoisting 
apparatus used in masting or dismasting 
ships, putting in or taking out boilers, 
monnting or dismounting guns. Arc, and 
consisting of two or more pieces of timber 
or poles erected in a mutually inclined posi- 
tion, and fastened together near the top, 
their lower ends being separated to form an 
extended base. The legs are steadied by 
guys, and from the top depends the neces- 
sary tackle for hoisting. Permanent sheers, 
in dockyai-ds, &c., are sloped together at 
the top, and crowned with an iron cap 
bolted thereto. They are now usually 
mounted on a wharf, but were formerly 
placed on an old ship called a sheer-hulk. 
The apparatus is named from its resem- 
blance, in form, to a cutting shears. 

Sheer-strake (sher'strak), n. In ship-build- 
ing, the strake under the gunwale in the 
top-side. Called also Paint -strake. See 
Strake. 

Sheer-water (sher'wa-t6r),7i. SameasSAtfar- 
icater. 

Sheet (shet), n. [A. Sax. sc^te, a sheet, a 
flap or loose portion of a garment, also 
scedt, comer, part, region, covering, sheet, 
sceata, scyte, the lower part of a sail, a 
sheet, all from sce6tan, to shoot, dart, cast, 
extend; sceAt corresponds to Icel. skaut, 
the corner of a piece of cloth, a skirt, 
the sheet of a sail; Goth. ska\its, a border. 
a hem. (See Shoot. ) The root-meaning there- 
fore is something shot out or extended.] 

1. A broad, large, thin piece of anything, 
as paper, linen, iron, lead, glass, &c. ; spe- 
cifically, (a) a broad and large piece of 
cloth, as of linen or cotton, used as part of 
the fm-niture of a bed. (&) A broad piece of 
paper, either unfolded as it comes from the 
manufacturer, or folded into pages; the 
quantity or piece of paper which receives 
the peculiar folding for being bound in a 
book, or for common use as writing paper. 
Sheets of paper are of different sizes, as 
royal, demy, foolscap, Ac. (c) pi. A book or 
pamphlet. 

To this the following sheets are intended for a full 
and distinct answer. H'ateriand. 

(d) A sail. [Poetical.] 

Fierce Boreas drove against his flying sails. 
And rent the sheets. Dryden. 

2. Anything expanded ; a broad expanse or 
surface; as, a sheet of water: a sheet of ice. 
' Such sheets of fire, such bursts of horrid 
thunder.' Shak.— 3. Xaut. a rope fast- 
ened to one or both the lower comers of a 
sail to extend and retain it in a particular 
situation. In the scpiare sails above the 
courses the ropes attached to both clues are 
called sheets; in all other cases the weather- 



Fate, filr, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub. biUl; oil, pound; u, Sc. abune; J\ Sc. fey. 



SHEET 



59 



SHELL-WORK 



most one is called a tack. When a ship sails 
with a side-wind the lower comers of the 
main and fore sails are fastened with a tack 
and a sheet. The stay-sails and studding- 
sails have only one tack and one sheet each. 
—A sheet in the wind, somewhat tipsy. 
[Colloq.] 

Though S. mi^ht be a thought tipsy— a sheet or so 
in the ■wind—iic was not more tipsy than was custo- 
mary with him, TroUope. 

—Three sheets in the ici/w?, tipsy ; intoxicated. 
[Colloq.]— /u sheets, lying Hat or expanded; 
not folded, or folded but not bound : said 
especially of printed pf^es.— SAeef is of ten 
used in composition to denote that the sub- 
stance to the name of which it is prefixed is 
in the form of sheets or thin plates; as. sheet- 
lead, s/(fC^gla9S, *tc. 
Sheet <shet), v.t. l. To furnish with sheets. 
2. To fold in a sheet; to shroud. 'The 
sheeted dead.' Shak.—Z. To cover, as with 
a sheet; to cover with something broad and 
thin. 

Lilce the stajj. when snow the pasture skats. 

The bark of trees thou b«owsed*st. Shah. 

— To sheet home (iiaut), to haul home a 
sheet or extend the sail till the clue is close 
to the sheet-block. 

Sheet-anchor (shet'ang-k6r), n. [Orijyinally 
written Sftotc-anchor, that is, the anchor 
shot, or tlirown out for security or preserva- 
tion ] 1. The larj^est anchor of a ship, which 
is shot out in extreme danger. Hence — 
2. Fij. the chief snpport; the last refuge for 
safety: as. he dabbled in literature, but law 
was his sheet-anchor. 

Sheet -cable (shet'ka-bl), ». llie cable 
attuihed to the shee^anchor. which is the 
stntii;,'est and best in the ship. 

Sheet-copper (shet'kop-per), n. Copper in 
luMU'I tliin plates. 

Sheetful (slict'fiU). n. As much as a sheet 
(.niitiiiiis; L-noiit,'h to fill a sheet. 

Sheet-glass {sliet'i,'las). n A kind of crown- 
glrisa iiiadf at Hi-st in the form of a cylinder, 
whJL-h is cut longitudinally and placed in a 
furnace, where it opens out into a sheet 
under the infiuence of heat. 

Sheeting (shet'ing). n. 1. Cloth for sheets. 
2 .\ lining of timber or metal for protection 
of a river bank. 

Sheeting - pile ( shet'ing-pn ), n. Same as 

Sheet - iron (shet'i-6m), n. Iron !n sheets 
nr l.rnrid thin plates. 

Sheet-lead (shet'led), n. Lead formed into 
sbuftS- 

Sheet- lightning (shenit-ning), n. Light- 
ning api>earing in wide expanded flashes, as 
opposed to forked li/jhtning. 'Like sheet- 
(rjhtniiirj, ever brightening. Tennyson. 

Sheet - pile (shet'pil). n. A pile, generally 
funned of thick plank, shot or jointed on 
the edge, and sometimes grooved and 
ton;;ued. driven between the main or gauge 
piltjs of a cofferdam or other hydraulic worit, 
to inclose the space either to retain or ex- 
L-lnde water, as the case may be. 

Shefe,^ n. A sheaf; a bundle; a sheaf of 
arri'ws. Chaucer. 

Sheik (shek or shak), n. [Ar.anold man, an 
elder J A title of dignity properly belonging 
tothe L-hiefsoftheArabictribesor clans. The 
herid.^ oi monasteries are sometimes called 
shfiks among tlic ^lohammedaos, and it is 
also the title of the higher order of religious 
persons who preach in the mosffues. The 
sheik-ul'Islani is the chief mufti at Con- 
stantinople, The name is now widely used 
among Moslems as a title of respect or re- 
verence. 

Shell, Shelling (shel. sheHng), n. Same as 

Sh-tUn.J 

Sheildrake (shel'di-ak), n. Same as Shel- 

'inikr 

Shekarry (she-kai'i), n. A name giren in 
Hindustan to a hunter. 8ame as Shikaree. 

Shekel (shek'el). n. [Heb., from shakal, to 
weigh. 1 An ancient weight and coin among 
the Jews and other nations of the same 
stock. Dr. Arbuthnot mikes the weight to 
have been equal to 9 dwts. 2^ grs. Troy 
weight, and the value 2s, 3|d. sterling, 
others make its value 2s. Gd. sterling. 
The golden shekel was worth £1, 16«. Oa. 
sterling. The sliekel of the sanctuaiy was 
aaed in calculating the offerings of the 
temple, and all sums connected with the 
sacred law. It differed from the common 
shekel, and is supposed to have been double 
its value. 

Sheldnah (Hhe-kl'na). n. See Sitechi.vah, 

Sheld(sheld),a. Speckled; piebald. [Local] 

Sheld,t «. A shield. Chancer. 



Sheldafle, Sheldaple (sheld'a-fl, sheld'a-pl), 

H. A cliattinch. Also written Shell-apple. 

Shelde,t n. A French crown, so called from 
having on one side the figure of a shield. 
Chaucer. 

Sheldrake, Shieldrake (shel'drak, shel'- 
drak), n. [O.K. sheld, a shield, and drake; 
Icel. skjoldungr, from skjoldr, a shield. There 
is a somewhat ^lield-shaped chestnut patch 
on tlie breast. But it is not certain that this 
is the origin of some of the forms of the name; 
thus the Orkney names akeel-dnck, skeel- 
gouse, and »/y-goose, lead to Icel. akilja, to 
discriminate, to understand ;Sc.i(^cfi*/, wise; 
E. skill.] A name given to two species of 
British ducks, namely, the conmion shel- 
drake (rof/orjia vulpanser or Anas tadonia) 
and tJie ruddy sheldrake {Casarka nitUa). 
They are handsome birds, and remarkable 
for the singular construction of the wind- 
pipe, which is expanded just at the junction 
of the two bronchial tubes into two very 
thin horny globes. They are sometimes 
called burrow-ducks, from their habit of 
making their nests in rabbit-burrows in 
sandy soil. Also written Shelldrake, Sheil- 
drake. 

Shelduck (shel'duk), n. The female of the 
sheldrake. See Sheldrake. 

Shelf (shelf), n. pi. Shelves (shelvz). [A. 
Sax. scei/e, scyl/e, a shelf; Icel. skjdlf, a 
bench; Sc. skelj", a shelf, skelb, skelve, a 
splinter, a thin slice, skelve, to separate in 
laminiB. The root is probably that of sAeW, 
shale, scale. ] 1. A board or platform of boards 
elevated above the floor, and fixed horizon- 
tally to a wall or on a frame apart, for hold- 
ing vessels, books, and the like; a ledge.— 

2. A rock or ledge of rocks in the sea, ren- 
dering the water shallow and dangerous to 
ships; a shoal or sandbank. 'On the tawny 
sands and shelves. ' Milton. 

God wisheth none should wreck on a stranee she/f. 

3. A projecting layer of rock on laud; a 
stratum lying horizontal. — 4. lu ship-build- 
ing, an inner timber following the sheer of 
the vessel and bolted to the inner side of 
ribs, to strengthen the frame and sustain 
the deck-beams. — To put or lay on the shelf, 
to put aside or out of use; to lay aside, as 
from duty or active service. 

Shelf (shelf), v.t. To place on a shelf; to fur- 
nish witli shelves. More usually written 
Shelve (which see). 

Shelfy(8helf'i),a. Full of shelves; (a)al>onnd- 
ing with san(U>ank8 or rocks lying near the 
surface of the water, and rendering naviga- 
tion dangerous; as, a shelf y coast (6) Full 
of strata of rock; having rocky ledges cTo\i- 
ping up. 'So shelf y that the corn hath 
much ado to fasten its root.' Rich. Carew. 

Shell (shel), n. [A. Sax. seel, scell, Icel 
skel, D. scheL, 6. sehale, husk, shell, peel; 
Goth, skaljct, a tile; same root as sJuile, 
scale, skiU; A. Sax. scylan, Icel. skUja, to 
separate. See Scale.] 1. A hard outaide 
covering, particularly that serving as the 
natural protection of certain plants and 
animals; as, (a) the covering or outside 
part of a nut. (6) The hard orgauize<l sub- ! 
stance forming the skeleton of many inver- ; 
tabrate animals, which is usually external, ; 
as in most molluscs, as the clam, the snail, i 
and the like; but sometimes internal, as in | 
some cephalopodous molluscs, like the Spi- 
ruLa. (c) The hard covering of some verte- j 
itrates, as the armadillo, tortoise, and the ' 
like ; a carapace, (rf) 'Ilie covering or out- 
side layer of an egg.— 2. Any framework or 
exterior structure regarded as not being 
completed or filled in ; as, the shell of a 
house —3. Any slight hollow structure or 
vessel incapable of sustaining rough hand- 
ling; as, that boat is a mere shell. — 4. A kind 
of rough coiftn ; or a thin interior coflln in- 
closed by the more substantial one. — 5. Out- 
ward show without inward substance. * This 
outward shell of religion.' Aylijfe.—Q. The 
outer portion or casing of a block which is 
mortised for the sheave, and Ixired at right 
angles to the mortise for the pin, which 
forms the axle of the sheave. — 7. The outside 
plates of a boiler— 8. A musical instrument 
such as a lyre, the first lyre being made, ac- 
cording to classic legend, of strings drawn 
over a tortoise-shell. 'When Jubal struck 
the corded shell.' Dryden. — 9. An engraved 
copper roller used in calico print-works. — 
10. A hollow projectile containing a bursting 
chaise, which is exploded by a time or i>er- 
cussiou fuse. Shells are usually made of 
cast-iron or steel, and for mortars or smooth- 
bore cannon are spherical, but for rifled 



ordnance they are, with a few notable ex- 
ceptions, made cylindrical with a conoidal 
point. See Bomb, 

Shell (shel). v.t. 1. To strip or break oflf the 
shell of ; to take out of the shell ; as, to 
shell nuts or almonds. —2. To separate from 
the ear ; as, to shell maize. — 3. To throw 
bomb-shells into, upon, or among ; to bom- 
bard; as, to shell a fort, a town, &c. 

(Sir Colin Campbell) will batter down their mud- 
walls and shell their palaces. //'. H. Russell. 

Shell (shel). t'.i. 1. To fall oflf, as a shell, 
crust, or exterior coat.— 2, To cast the shell 
or exterior covering ; as, nuts shell in fall- 
ing.— To shell out, to give up, hand over 
money, &c. ; as, the rogues compelled him 
t(j shell out. [Colloq.] 

Shellac (shel'lak), n. Same as Shell-lac. 

Shell-apple (shel'ap-l). n. 1. A local name 
for the common crossbill {Loxia curviros- 
tra).—2. The chaftinch. 

Shell-hark (shel'bark). n. A species of 
hickory {Carya alba), whose bark is loose 
and peeling. This species produces a palat- 
able nut Called also Shag-bark. 

Shell-hit (shel'bit), n. A boring tool used 
with the brace in boring wood. It is shaped 
like a gouge; that is, its section is the seg- 
ment of a circle, and when used it shears 
the fibres round the mai^in of the hole, and 
removes the wood almost as a solid core. 

Shell-board (shel'bord). n. A frame placed 
on a wagon or cart for the purpose of car- 
rying liay. straw, Ac. 

Shell-button (shd'but-n). n. A hollow but- 
ton made of two pieces of metal, one for the 
front and the other for the back, usually 
covered with silk ; also a button formed of 
mother-of-pearl shell. 

Shell-camep (shel'kam-e-o), n. A cameo cut 
on a shell instead of a stone. The shells 
used are such as have the ditferent layers of 
colour necessary to exhibit the peculiar 
effects produced by a cameo. 

Shelldrake (shel'drak), n. Same as Shel- 
drake. 

Shellduc^ (shel'duk), n. Same as Shel- 
duck. 

Shelled (sheld), p. and a. 1. Deprived ot 
the shell; having cast or lost its shelL 

For duller than a shelled crab were she. 

7. BatlJu. 

2. Provided with a shell or sliells. 

Sheller (shel'^r), n. A machine for strip- 
ping the kernel from the stalk of Indian 
corn. 

Shell-flsh (shel'flsh), n. A mollusc, whose 
external covering consists of a shell, as oys- 
ters, clams, Ac; an animal whose outer 
covering is a crustaceous shell, as the lob- 
ster. 

Shell-flower (shel'flou-er), n. A perennial 
I»lant of the genus Chelone, formerly re- 
garded as a distinct species (C. glabra), but 
now recognized as a fonn of C. ohliijua, with 
an upright Ijranching stem bearing terminal 
spikes of flowers with an inflated tubular 
corona. Called also Snake-head and Turtle- 
head See Chelonk. 

Shelling (shel'ing), ?i. [from shell.} A com- 
mercial name for groats. Simmonds. 

Shell-gun (shel'gun), n. A gun or cannon 
fitted for throwhig bombs or shells. 

Shell-Jacket (sherjak-et), n. An undress 
militiiry jaiket. 

Shell-lac (sheriak), n. Seed-lac melted and 
formed into thin cakes. See Lao. 

Shell-Ume (shel'lim), n. Lime obtained by 
Iturning sea-stiells. 

Shell-llniestone (shell! m-s ton), n. Musch- 
elkalk (which see). 

Shell-marl (shermftrl), n. A deposit of 
clay and other suljstances mixed witli shells, 
which collects at the Iwltom of lakes. 

Shell-meat (shel'met), 71. Some kind of 
edible provided with a shell. [Rare.] 

Shellmeats may be eatea after foul hands without 
any luirm. FuiUr. 

Shell-proof (shel'prbf), a. Proof against 

shells; impenetrable by shells; bomb-proof; 
as. a nheU-jfniof luiilding. 

Shell-road (sliel'rod), n. A road, the upper 
stratum of which is formed of a layer of 
broken shells. 

Shell-sand (shel'sand), n. Sand abundantly 
intermingled with tlie triturated shells of 
mollusca, common on beaches in some loca- 
lities. Such sand is much prized as a fer- 
tilizer. 

Shellum (sherum), n. Same as Skellum. 
(Old English and Scotch.] 

Shell-work (shel'w6rk). n. Work com- 
posed of shells or adorned with them. 



ch, cAain; Oh, Sc. locA; g, 170; J, job; ft, Fr. ton; ng, sinj;; tu. then; th, thin; w, icig; wh, wAig; zh, arure.— See KET. 



SHELLY 



60 



SHERIFF 



Shelly (shel'i), o. 1. Abounding with shells; 
covered with shells; as, the shelly shore. 

Go to your cave, and see it in its beauty. 
The billows else may wash its shelly sides. 

J. BaiUii. 

2. Consisting of a shell or shells. ' As the 
snail . . . shrinks backward in his shelly 
cave.* Shak. 

Shelter (shel'tSr), n. [From O.E. sheli, 
A. Sa.x. sceld, scyld, a shield (whence scyldan, 
gescyldan, to protect, to defend). Allied to 
Icel. slejol, Dan. and Sw. skjul, a covering, a 
shelter; Skr. sA-m, to cover.] 1. That which 
covers or defends from injury or annoyance; 
a protection ; as, a house is a shelter from 
rain ; the foliage of a tree is a shelter from 
the rays of the sun. 

The healing plant shall aid. 
From storms a shelter, and from heat a shade. 

2 A place or position affording cover or pro- 
tection; protection; security. 'Who into 
shelter takes their tender bloom.' Voting. 

I will bear thee to some shelUr. Skak. 

Shelter (shel'tSr), v.t. 1. To provide shelter 
for; to cover from violence, injury, annoy- 
ance, or attack; to protect; to harbour; as, 
a valley sheltered from the north wind by a 
mountain. 'The weeds which his broad- 
spreading leaves did shelter.' Shak. 

Those ruins sheller'd once his sacred head. 

itf L . , , Dryden. 

We besought the deep to shelter us. Miltoit. 

2_ To place under cover or shelter; as, we 
sheltered our horses below an overhanging 
rock: often with the reflexive pronouns; to 
betake one's self to cover or a safe place. 

They sheltered themselves under a rock. 
on, * ^^fi- Abbot. 

3. 10 cover from notice; to disguise for pro- 
tection. 

In vain I strove to check my growing flame. 

Or shelter passion under friendship's name. Prior. 

Shelter (shel'tSr), v.i. To take shelter. 

There the Indian herdsman, shunning heat. 
Shelters in cool. Milton. 

Shelterless (shel't6r-les), 'a. Destitute of 
shelter or protection; without home or 
refuge. 

Now sad and shelterless perhaps she lies. 
Where piercing winds blow sharp. Roive. 

Sheltery (shel'tSr-l), a. Affording shelter 
' The warm and sheltery shares of Gibraltar ' 
Gilbert White. [Rare.] 

Sheltle (shel'ti), n. A small but strong 
horse in Scotland; so called trom Shetland 
wliere it is produced. 

Shelve (shelv), v.t. pret. & pp. shelved; ppr. 
shelving. 1. To place on a shelf or on 
shelves; hence, to put aside out of active 
employment, or out of use; to dismiss; as, 
to shelve a question, a person, or claim — 

2. To furnish with shelves. 
Shelve (shelv), i).i. [See Shelf.] To slope, 

like a shelf or sandbank; to incline; to be 
sloping. 

We must imagine a precipice of more than a hun- 
dred yards high on the side of a mountain, which 
shelves away a mile above it. Goldsmith. 

Shelve (shelv), ti. A shelf or ledge. ' On a 
crash's uneasy sAeiec' Eeati. [Rare.] 

Shelving (shelv'ing), p. and a. Inclining; 
sloping; having declivity. 

Amidst the brake a hollow den was found. 
With rocks and shelving arches vaulted round. 
— . 11 , , , . Addison. 

Shelving (shelv'mg), n. 1. The operation of 
fixing up shelves or of placing upon a shelf 
or shelves. —2. Materials for shelves; the 
shelves of a room, shop, &e., collectively. — 

3. A rook or sandbank lying near the sur- 
face of the sea. Dryden. 

Shelvy (shelv'i), a. Full of rocks or sand- 
banks; shallow. See Shelfy. 

I had been drowned but that the shore was shelvy 
and shallow. ^hak. 

Shemering.t n. [See Shimmer ] An im- 
perfect light; a glimmering. Chancer. 

Shemlte (shemat), n. A descendant of 
Shem, the oldest son of Noah. 

Shemltic, Shemitlsh (shem-it'ik, shem-it'- 
ish), a. Peitaining to Shem, the son of 
Noah. See Semitic. 

Shemitlsm (shem'it-izm), n. Same as Semi- 
tt.-iin. 

Shendt (shend), v.t. pret. & pp. shent. (A. 
Sax. scendan, to shame, slander, injure, 
from sceond, sceand, scand, shame; G. 
schande, Goth, skanda, shame.] 1. To in- 
jure, mar, or spoil. 'That much I fear 
my body will be shent.' Dryden. — 2. To 
put to shame; to blame, reproach, revile, 
degrade, disgrace. 'The famous name of 



knighthood foully shend.' Spenser.— S. To 
overpower or surpass. 

She pass'd the rest as Cynthia doth shfnd 
The lesser stars. Spenser. 

Shendfullyt (shend'ful-i), adv. Ruinously; 
disgracefully. 

The enemyes of the lande were shendfidly chasyd 
and utterly confounded. Fabyiitt. 

Shendshlp.t ?i. (See Shend] Ruin; pun- 
ishment. Chaucer. 

Shene.ta. [See Sheen.] Bright; shining; 
fair. Chaucer. 

She-oak (she'ok), n. A peculiar jointed, 
leafless, tropical or sub-tropical tree, of the 
genus Casuarlna (C. quadrimlvis), whose 
cones and young shoots, when chewed, 
yield a grateful acid to persons and cattle 
suffering from thirst. 
Sheol ( she'ol ), n. A Hebrew word of fre- 
quent occurrence in the Old Testament, and 
rendered by the Authorized Version grave, 
hell, or pit. The word is generally under- 
stood to be derived from a root signifying 
hollow, and taken literally it appears to be 
represented as a subterranean place of vast 
dimensions in which the spirits of the dead 
rest. Sometimes the idea of retribution or 
punishment is connected with it, but never 
that of future happiness. 
Shepen,t n. [Prov. E. shippen, shippon, A. 
Sax. scypen, a stable, a stall] A stable. 
Chancer. 
Shepherd (shep'Srd), n. [A. Sax. scedp-hirde 
sheep and herd.] 1. A man employed in 
tending, feeding, and guarding sheep in the 
pasture. — 2. A pastor ; one who exercises 
spiritual care over a district or commu- 
nity.— SftepAerd kings, the chiefs of a con- 
quering nomadic race from the East who 
took Memphis, and rendered the whole of 
Eg.vpt tributary. The dates of their inva- 
sion and conquest have been computed at 
from 25B7 to 2500 B.C., and they are stated 
by some to have ruled for from 260 to 500 
years, when the Egyptians rose and expelled 
them. Attempts have been made to con- 
nect their expulsion with the narrative in 
the book of Exodus. Called also Hycsos or 
Hyk-shos. — Shepherd's crook, a long staff 
having its upper end curved so to form a 
hook, used by shepherds.— SAepAerd's dog, 
a variety of dog employed by shepherds to 
protect the flocks and control their move- 
ments. It is generally of considerable size, 
and of powerful lithe build; the hair thick- 
set and wavy ; the tail inclined to be long, 
and having a bushy fringe ; the muzzle sharp, 
the eyes large and bright. The collie or 
sheep-dog of Scotland is one of the best 
known and most intelligent dogs of this 
wide -spread and useful variety. — S*ep- 
herd'a (or shepherd) tartan, (a) a kind of 
small check pattern in cloth, woven with 
black and white warp and weft (6) A kind 
of cloth, generally woollen, woven in this 
pattern — generally made into shepherd's 
plaids, and often into trouserings, &c. 
Shepherd (shep'Srd), ii.(. i. To tend or 
guide, as a shepherd. [Poetical.] 

White, fleecy clouds 
Were wandering in thick flocks along the mountains 
Shepherded by the slow, unwilhng wind. Shelley. 

2. To attend or wait on ; to gallant. 'Shep- 
herding a lady. ' Edin. Rev. 
Shepherdess (shep'Srd-es), ». A woman 
that tends sheep; hence, a rural lass. 

she put herself into the garb of a shepherdess. 
Sir P. Sidney. 

Shepherdia (shep-6r'di-a),)i. [After W. Shep- 
herd, a botanist.] A genus of plants, nat. 
order Elieagnacea;. The species are small 
shrubs, natives of North America, having 
opposite deciduous leaves with small flowers 
sessile in their axils. S. argentea, which has 
an edible scarlet fruit, is known in the 
United States as buffalo-berry. 

Shepherdlsht (shep'iSrd-ish), a. Resembling 
a shepherd ; suiting a shepherd ; pastoral ; 
rustic. 

She saw walking from her ward a man in shepherd- 
tsh apparel. Sir P. Sidney. 

Shepherdlsm ( shep'6rd-izm ), n. Pastoral 
life or occupation. [Rare.] 

Shepherdling (shep'ferd-ling), )i,. A little 
shepherd. W. Browne. [Rare] 

Shepherdlyt (shep'erd-li), a. Pastoral; rus- 
tic. 

We read Rebekah, in the primitive plainness and 
shepherdly simplicity of those times, accepted brace- 
lets and other ornaments, without any disparagement 
to her virgin modesty. Jer. Taylor. 

Shepherd's - Club (sllep'^rdz klub). n. A 
plant of the genus Verbascum, the V. Thap- 



Shepherd's-needle (shep'Srdz-ne-dl), n. A 
plant of the genus Scandix, the S. PecUn- 
Veneris, or Venus's comb. See SCANDIX. 
Shepherd's-plald (shep'Srdz-plad), a. Wool- 
len with black and white checks, after the 
pattern usual for shepherd's plaids ' He 
wore shepherd' s-plaid inexpressibles.' Dick- 
ens. 

Shepherd's - purse, Shepherd's - pouch 

(shep Crdz-pers, shep'erdz-poucli),?! A iilant 
of the genus Capsella, nat order Crucifera; 
C. bursa-pastoris is a very common weeil of 
world-wide distribution, having simple' or 
cut leaves, small white flowers, and some- 
what heart-shaped pods. 
Shepherd's-rod, Shepherd's-stafT (shep'- 
erdz-rod. shep'erdz-staf), n. A plant of the 
genus Dipsacus, the D. pilosus. 
Shepster t (shep'st^r), ji. One that shapes- 
a sempstress. Caxton. 
Sherardia (sher-ar'di-a), n. [In honour of 
W. Sherard, a consul of Smyrna.] A genus 
of humble annuals of the order Rubiacese 
distinguished by having a funnel-shaped 
corolla, and fruit crowned with the calyx 
S. arvensis (fleld-madder) is the only British 
species. See Field-madder. 
Sherhet (shtr'bet), n. [Ar. sherbet, shorbet 
sharbat. This word, as well as simp and 
shrub, is from the Ar. sharaba, to drink, to 
imbibe.] A favourite cooling drink in the 
East, made of fruit juices diluted with 
water, and variously sweetened and fla- 
voured. 

Sherd (sh«rd), n. A fragment; a shard : in 
this form now occurring only as a com- 
pound; as, potsAerd. 'The thigh ('tis called 
the knuckle-bone), which all in sherds it 
drove.' Chapman. 

Sheret (sher), v.t. To shear; to cut; to 
shave. Chaucer. 

Sheret (sher), a. [See Sheer.] Clear; pure; 
unmingled. Spenser. 

Shereef, Sheriff (she-ref, she-rif), n. [At.] 
1. A descendant of Mohammed through his 
daughter Fatima and Hassan Ibn Ali Writ- 
ten variously Scherif, Sherri/e, Cherif. — i. A 
prince or ruler; the chief magistrate of 
Mecca. 
Sherif (she-rif), «. .Same as Shereef. 
Sheriff (sher'if), n. [A. Sax, scire-gerffa, a 
shire-reeve— scire, a shire, and gerffa a 
governor, a reeve. See Shire and Reeve. ] 
1. In England, the chief officer of the crown 
in every county or shire, who does all the 
sovereign's business in the county, the crown 
by letters-patent committing the custody 
of the county to him alone. Sheriffs are 
appointed by the crown upon presentation 
of the judges in a manner partly regulated 
by law and partly by custom (see Prick- 
ing); the citizens of London, however, have 
the right of electing the sherifl's for the city 
of London and the county of Middlesex. 
Those appointed are bound under a penalty 
to serve the oftlce, except In specifled cases 
of exemption or disability. As keeper of 
the queen's peace the sheriff is the first man 
in the county, and superior in rank to any 
nobleman therein during his office, which 
he holds for a year. He is specially intrusted 
with the execution of the laws and the pre- 
servation of the peace, and for this purpose 
he has at his disposal the whole civil force 
of the county— in old legal phraseology, the 
posse emnitatus. The most ordinary of his 
functions, which he universally executes by 
a deputy called under-sheriff, consists in the 
execution of writs. The sheriff only per- 
forms in person such duties as are either 
purely honorary— for instance, attendance 
upon the judges on circuit— or as are of 
some dignity and public importance, such 
as the presiding over elections and the hold- 
ing of county meetings, which he may call 
at any time.— 2. In Scotland, the chief local 
judge of a county. There are two grades 
of sheriffs, the chief or superior sheriffs and 
the sheriffs-substitute (besides the lord- 
lieutenant of the county, who has the hon- 
orary title of sheriflf-principal). both being 
appointed by the crown. The chief sheriff, 
usually called simply the sheriff, may have 
more than one substitute under him, and 
the discharge of the greater part of the 
duties of the office now practieallv rests 
with the sheriffs-substitute, the sheriff being 
(except in one or two cases) a practising 
advocate in Edinburgh, while the sheriff- 
substitute is prohibited from taking other 
employment, and must reside within his 
county. The civil jurisdiction of the sheriff 
extends to all personal actions on contract, 
bond, or obligation without limit, actions 



Fate, fiir, fat, f»ll; me, met, hSr; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, b«ll; oil, pound; ti, Sc. abune; y, Sc. fey. 



SHERIFFALTY 



61 



SHIFT 



for rent, possessory actions, &c.,ia which 
cases there is an appeal from the decision 
of the sheriff-substitute to the sheriff, and 
from him to the Court of Session. He has 
also a summary jiu-isdiction in small debt 
cases, where the value is not more than 
£12. In criminal cases the sheriff has juris- 
diction in alt offences the punishment for 
which is not more than two years' imprison- 
ment. He has also jurisdiction in bank- 
ruptcy cases to any amount. 

Sheriffalty (sher'if-al-ti), n. A sheriffship ; 
a shrievalty- 

Sheriff-Clerk (sher'if-klark). n. In Scotland, 
the clerk of the sheriff 'scourt, who has charge 
of the records of the court. He registers 
the judgments of the court, and issues them 
to the proper parties. 

Sheriff- geld (s her" if -geld), n. A rent for- 
merly paid by a sheriff. 

Sheriff-officer (sher'if-of-fis-fir). n. In Scot- 
l.ind, an officer connected with the sheriff- 
court, who is charged with arrests, the serv- 
imr of processes, and the like. 

Sheriffship ( sher'if-ship ), n. The office or 
jurisdiction of a sheriff; a shrievalty. 

Sheriff- tooth (sher'if-toth). n. A tenure 
by the service of providing entertainment 
for the sheriff at his county courts; a com- 
mon tax formerly levied for the sheriff's 
diet. Wharton. 

Sheriffwick (sher'if-wikX Same as Sheriff- 
ghip, 

Sherris, ♦ Sherris-sack t (sher'is, sher'is- 
sak), n. Sherry. 

Your shirris warms the blood. ShaJk. 

But, all his vast heart jA^rrw- warmed. 
He ilashcd his random speeches. Tennyton, 

Sherry ( sher'ri ), 71. A species of wine, so 
called from X€re» in Spain, where it is made. 
The highest class of the many varieties are 
those that are technically called 'dry,' that 
is, free from sweetness, such as the Amon- 
tillado. Montilla, Manzanilla. (to. It is much 
used in this country, and when pure it agrees 
well with m<»st constitutions. Genuine and 
unadulterateil sherry, however, brings a 
very high price, and is rarely to l)e had, 
inferior Cape wines, &q.., being extensively 
sold under this name. Written fonnerly 
Hhtrns. 

Sherry-cobbler (sher-ri-kobl^r), n. Sherry 
and iced watt-r sucked up through a straw. 

Sherry-vallieS (sher'ri-val-iz), n pi. [Cor- 
rupted from Kr. chevalier, a horseman.) 
I'antaloons of thick cloth or leather, worn 
buttoned round each 1^ over other panta* 
loons when ridine. [United States.] 

8herte»t n. A shirt; also, a skirt or lap. 
Chancer. 

She-slip (shS'slip), n. A young female 
sci'm, branch, or member. ' The slight she- 
glips of loyal blood.' Tennyson. 

She-society (she-so-si'e-ti), n. Female so- 
ciety, Tennyxun. 

Shete.t r.r or t To ^oot. Chaucer. 

Shette,t Shet,t v.t. To close or shut. 
(.'haneer. 

Sheugh (sbui^b or shut>h), n. [See SHAFT (of 
aiiiiiR-H -Vfurrow; jiditoh;agulf. (Scotch.] 

Shew. Shewed. Shewn (shd, sh6d, shdn). 
.Set- sii'Av. ."'Hi'WKD, Shown. 

Shew-bread < ^bo'bred). See Show-brkap. 

Shewel^t SheweUe,t ». An example; some- 
thing held up to give warning of danger 
(A'are«) ; a scarecrow {Trench). 

So arc these bug-bears of opinions broi^rht byereat 
clearkes into the world, to serve as sheuellei, to keep 
them from those faults whereto elbe the vanitie of the 
world and weaknessc of senses mi^ht puli them 

Sir P. Sidtiey. 

Shewer (shd'^r), n. One that shows. In 
Seot4 law shewers in jur>' causes are the per- 
sons named by the court, usually on the 
suggestion of the parties, to accompany the 
six jurors when a view is allowed. See 

VlKWKK.S. 

She-world (sh^'wtrld), n. Tlie female in- 
hal'it;iiits of the world or of a particular 
P'Ttiuii of it. 'Head and heart of all our 
f lir "he-world." Tennygon. 

Sheytan (sha'tan). n. An Oriental name 
iov th<; devil or a devil. 

Shlah, n. See SiiIITE 

Salbbolethi8hib'l>6 1eth),n. [Heb.astream 
or ttiHui. from shabal, to go, to flow copi- 
ously ] 1 A word which was made the cri- 
terion by which to distinguish the Ephraim- 
ites from the tiileadites. The Ephraimttes 
not being able ti) pronounce the letter©, 
»A. pronounced the w(»rd ribboleth. See 
Judg. xii. Hence -2 The criterion, test, or 
watchword of a party ; that which distin- 
guishes one party from another; usually, 



some peculiarity in things of little import- 
ance. 

But what becomes of Beiitliamism, shorn of its 
shibboleth — its pet phrase, 'greatest happiness of 
tireatest imniberT" Quart. Rev. 

Shidder (shid'6r). See Bidder. 

Shide ( shid ), n. [ A. Sax. %(Ade, a billet of 
wood ; Icel. BkiOt, G. scheite; from verb to 
divide— A. Sax. sceudan, G. gcheidan, Goth. 
skaidan (cog. L. scitido, Gr. schizo, to split). 
See also SHED, v.t.] A piece split off; a 
thin or flat piece ; a plank or boar I ; a billet 
of wood ; a splinter. ^Shides of okes, with 
wed-^es great they clive.' Phaer. [Old and 
provincial English.] 

Shie(shi). v.t. To throw; to shy. See SHY, 
to throw. 

Shiel (shel), v.t To take out of the husk; 
to shell ; to husk. AUo written Sheal, Sheel. 
[Scotch.] 

Shiel (shel), ?i. A sheal or shealing ; a rustic 
cottage ; a hut. ' The swallow jinkin' round 
my shiel.' Burns. [Scotch.] See SheaL, 

SHKALI.NO. 

Shield (sheld), n. [A. Sax. scild, scyld, sceld. 
a shield, refuge, protection; common to the 
Teutonic languages ; Goth, skildxti, Icel. 
skjiildr, G. schild, from root seen in Icel. 
skjol, Dan. skjid, shelter, protection, Icel. 
and Sw. skyl^, Dan. skiiile, to cover, pro- 
tect; Skr. sku, to cover. Akin shelter.] 
1- A broad piece of defensive armour carried 
on the ann ; a buckler, used in war for the 
protection of the body. The shields of the 
ancients were of different shapes and sizes, 
triangular, square, oval, Ac, made of lea- 
ther, or wood covered with leather, and 
borne on the left arm. This species of 
armour was a good defence against arrows, 
darts, spears, &c. , but would be no protection 
against bullets.— 2. Anything that protects 
or defends ; defence ; shelter ; protection. 
Oly council is my shield.' Shak.—S. Fig. 
the person that defends or protects ; as, a 
chief, the ornament and shield of the nation. 

Fear not, Abram ; 1 am thy shuid, and thy exceed- 
ing great reward. Gen. xv. i. 

4. In her. the escutcheon or field on which 
are placed the bearings in coats of arms. 
The sliape of the shield upon which heraldic 
bearings are displaye<l is left a good deal to 
fancy ; the form of the lozenge, however, is 




1. Lozenge-shield. 3 and j. Fanciful forms. 4. Spade 

shield — the best heraldic form. 

used only by single ladies and widitwg. Tlie 
shield used in funeral prf>cessions is of a 
square form, something larger than the 
escutcheon, and divided i>er pale, the one 
half l)eing sable, or the whole black, as the 
case may be, with a scroll lionler around, 
and in the centre the arms of the deceased 
upon a shieM nf the usual form.— 5. In hat. 
a little cup with a hard disc, surrounded by 
a rim. and containing the fructification of 
lichens; an apothecium. — 6. In mining, 9^ 
framework for protecting a miner in work- 
ing an adit, pushed forward as the work pro- 
gresses. — 7. t A spot resembling or suggest- 
ing a shield. 

Bespotted as with xhields of red and black. Spenier. 

Shield (sheid). v.t 1. To cover, as with a 
shield : to cover or protect from danger or 
anything hurtful or disagreeable ; to defend; 
to protect ; as, to shield a person or thing 
from the sun's rays. 'To shield thee from 
diseases of the world.* Shak. 'To see the 
son the vanquish'd father shield.' Dryden. 

2. To ward off. 

They brought with them their usual weeds, fit to 
shield the cold, to which they had been inured. 

S^tiser. 

3. To forfend; to forbid; to avert. 

God shield I should di-iturb devotion. Shak. 



Shield-drake (sheld'drak), n. Same as 
Sheldrake. 

Shield-fem(sheld'ftfrn). n. A common name 
for ferns of the genus Aspidium, nat. order 
I'olypodiaceai, so named from the form of 
the indusium of the fructification. The 
sori are roundish and scattered or deposited 
in ranks ; the indusia solitary, roundly-pel- 
tate or kidney-shaped, fixed by the middle 
or the edge. The species are numerous and 
beautiful. Thirteen are natives of Britain, 
among which is the male-fern {A. Filix mas), 
the stem of which has been employed us an 
anthelmintic and as an emmenagogue and 
purgative. The fragrant shield-fern (A. 
fragrans) has been employed as a substitute 
fur tea. 

Shieldless (sheld 'les), a. Destitute of a 
shield or of protection. *The shieldless 
maid.' Smithey. 

Shieldlessly (shebnes-li), adv. In a shield- 
lei's niaiiiitr; without protection. 

Shieldlessness ( sheld ' les - nes ), n. The 
stale ur (jUidity of being shieldless; desti- 
tution of a shield or of protection. 

Shield-shaped (sheld'shapt), a. Having the 
shape of a shield; scutate; as, a shield-shaped 
leaf. Liiidle;/. 

Shieling, Shlelling (shel'ing), n. Same 
jis Shealing. 

Shift (Shift), v.t [A. Sax. scyjtan, to divide, 
to order, to drive away; L.G. schi/ten, to 
divide, to part; Dan. skifte, to change, to 
shift, to divide ; Icel. skipta, to divide, 
d stribute, also to change. Perhaps from 
root of shove. ] 1. To transfer from one place 
or position to another; to change; to alter. 

Unto Southampton do we shi/i our scene. Shak. 

The other impecunious person contrived to make 
both ends meet by shifting his lodgings from time to 
time. /r. Black. 

2. To put off or out of the way by some ex- 
pedient. 'I shifted him away.' Shak.— 

3. To change, as clothes; as. to shift a coat. 

4. To dress in fresh clothes, particularly 
fresh linen. 

\i> it were, to ride day and night; and . . . not 
to have patience to shi/f mc. Shai. 

—To shift off, (a) to delay; to defer; as, to 
shift off the duties of religion. (6) To put 
away ; to disengage or disencumber one's 
self of, as of a burden or inconvenience. 
Shift (shift), v.i. I. To change; to give place 
to other things; to pass into a different form, 
state, or the like. 

The sixth age shifts 

Into the lean and sltjiperM jtantaloon. Shak. 

If the ideas . . - constantly change and shift . . . 
it would be impossible for a man to think long of any 
one thing. Xofke. 

2. To move; to change place, position, or 
direction. * As winds from all the compass 
sh\ft and blow. ' Tennyson. 

Here the Baillie skifltd and fidgetted about in his 
seat. Sir if. Scott. 

3. To change dress, particularly the under 
garments. 

When from the sheets her lovely form she lifts. 
She begs you just would turn y<iu while she shifts. 
Young. 

4. To resort to expedients; to adopt some 
course in a case of difficulty; to contrive; to 
manage ; to seize one expedient when an- 
other fails. 

Men in dis^ess wilt look to themselves and leave 
tlieir companions to shift as well as they can. 

Sir R. L' Estrange. 

5. To practise indirect methods. 

All those schoolmen, though they were exceeding 
witty, yet better teach all their followers to ^hift than 
to resolve by their distinctions. Raleigh. 

6.1 To digress. 

Thou hast shifted out of thy tale into telling me of 
the fashion, Shak. 

".tTodivide; to part; todistribute. Chancer. 
— To tihift about, to turn <juite round to a 
contrary side or opposite point; to vacillate. 
Shift (shift), n 1. A change; a substitution 
of one thing for another. 

My going to Oxford was not merely for shift of 
air, It'ottafi. 

2. A turning fn)m one thing to another; 
hence, an expedient tried in difficulty; a 
contrivance ; a resource ; one thing tried 
when another fails. 

rU find a thousand sM0s to get away. Shak. 
(Eric) had to nm with his queen Gunnhilda and 
seven small children; no other .rA;/r for Eric. 

Carlyle. 

3. In a bad sense, mean refuge: last resource; 
mean or indirect expedient; trick to escape 
detection or evil; fraud; artifice. 

For little souls on little sAi/is rely. Dryden. 

When pious frauds and holy shifts 

Are dispensations and gifts. Hudibras. 



ch. Main; £h, So. locA; g. ^o; j,)ob« 6, Fr. to7i; ng, sin^; th, (Aen; th, tAin; w, icig, wh, tcAlg- zh, azure.— See Ket. 



SHIFTABLE 



62 



SHIXOLE 



4. [Lit. a change of underclothing] A 
woman's under garment; n chemise.— 5. A 
squad of men to take a syell or turn of work 
at stated intervals; hence, the working time 
of a squad or relay of men; the spell or turn 
of work; as, a day t:hi/t; a night xhifL~6. In 
mining, a fault or dislocation of a seam or 
stratum, accompanied by depression of one 
portion, destroying the continuity. — 7. In 
hnilding, a mode of arranging the tiers of 
bricks, timbers, planks, <fec., so that the 
joints of atljacent rows shall not coincide. — 
8. In imisic, a uhauge of the position of the 
left hand in violin playing, by which the 
first finger of the player has to temporarily 
becomethe nut. Shiftsarecompletechanges 
of four notes ; thus, the first shift is when 
the first finger is on A of the first string; 
the second shift, when it is on D above.— 
Shift of crops, in agri. an alteration or 
variation in the succession of crops ; rota- 
tion of crops; as, a farm is wrought on the 
five years' shift, on the six years' shift- 
To make shift, or to make a shift, to devise; 
to contrive; to use expedients; to find ways 
and means to do something or overcome a 
difficulty. 

I hope I shall make shi/t to go without him. 

Slllftable(shift'a-bl), a. Capable of being 

shifted or changed. 
Shifter (shift'6r), n. 1. One who shifts or 

changes; as, scene-shifter.— 2. Oiiewho plays 

tricks or practises artitlce. 

And let those shifters their own judges be. 
If they have not been arrant thieves to me. 

yohn Taylor. 

3. Xant. a person employed to assist the 
ship's cook in washing, steeping, and shift- 
ing the salt provisions. 

Shiftiness (shifti-nes), n. The quality of 
Ijein^' shifty in all its senses. 

Shifting (shift'ing), p. and a. Changing 
place or position; resorting from one expe- 
dient to another.— Shifting beach, a beach 
of gravel liable to be shifted or moved by 
the action of the sea or the current of 
n\'er».— Shifting saiul or sands, loose mov- 
ing sand; quicksand. 

Who stems a stream with shifting sand. 

Or fetters flaine with flaxen band. Sir IV, Scott. 

— Shifting or secondary use, in law. See 
l'sy,.—Sh^ti)ig centre. Same as Metacentre. 

Shifting (shift'ing), n. 1. Act of changing; 
change. 'The shif tings of ministerial mea- 
sures.' Burke. — 2. The act of having recourse 
to equivocal expedients; evasion; artifice; 
shift. 'Subtle shif tings.' Mir. for Mags. 

Shiftingly (shift'ing-li), adv. In a shifting 
manner; by shifts and changes; deceitfully. 

Shiftless (shift'les), a. Destitute of expe- 
dients, or not resorting to successful ex- 
pedients; wanting'in energy and resource; in- 
capable ;helpless;useless;as,as/ii/(ies«fellow. 

ShJitlessly (shift'les-li), ado. In a shiftless 
niiinner. 

Shiftlessness (shift'les-nes), n. A state of 
being shiftless. 

Shifty (shif'ti), a. 1. Changeable; shifting. 
ildin. iiev. [Rare.] — 2. Full of shifts; fer- 
tile in expedients; well able to shift for 
one's self. 

Shifty and thrifty as old Greek or modern Scot, 
there were few things he could not invent, and per- 
haps nothing he could not endure. Kingsiey. 

3. Full of or ready in shifts, in a bad sense; 
fertile in evasions; given to tricks and ai-ti- 
fices. 

Bhiite, Shiah (shi'it, shi'a), n. [Ar. shiai, 
sectarian or schismatic; shiah, shiat, a mul- 
titude following one another in the pursuit 
of some object, hence, the sect of All; from 
8hda,io follow.] A memberof one of the two 
great sects into which Mohammedans are 
divided, the other sect being the Sunnites or 
Sunnis. The Shiites consider Ali as being 
the only rightful successor of Mohammed. 
They tlo not acknowledge the Sunna, or 
body of traditions respecting Mohammed, 
as any part of the law, and on these ac- 
counts are treated as lieretics by the Sun- 
nites or orthodox ilohammedans. The 
Shiahs are represented by nearly the whole 
Persian nation, ami call themselves also el- 
Adiligyat. or "tlie I'pright,' while the Sini- 
nites are represented by the Ottoman Turks. 

Shikaree, Shikarree (shi-kai-'e), n. in the 
East Indies, a native attendant hunter; 
hence, applied generally to a sportsman. 

We came upon the traces of a bear, quite recent, 
so much so that the shikaree or huntsman said that 
he could not be twenty yards away. 

ir. H. Russell. 

Shilf (shilf), 71. [The same word as G. schilf^ 
sedge.] Straw, [Provincial English.] 



ShiU (shil), v.t. [Icel. skyla. See SHIELD.] 
To put under cover; to sheal. [Provincial 
English. ] 

Shillalah, Shillaly (shil-lala, shil-lali), n. 
Same as ShilleUih (which see). 

Shillelah (shil-iel'a), 71. [From Shillelagh, a 
barony in Wicklow, famous for its oaks: a 
corruption of Siol Klaigh, the descendants 
of Elach— atoi (pron. shel), seed, and Elaigh, 
Elach.] An Irish name for an oaken sap- 
ling or other stick used as a cudgel. 

ShiUing(shiring),n. [A. ^a\.8cylling,0.YT\%. 
O.Sax. Dan. and Sw. skilling, Goth, skiiliggs, 
G. schilling, probably from a root seen in 
Icel. and Sw. skilja, Dan. skille, to divide, 
the ancient shilling having been divided by 
two cross indentations, stamped deeply into 
it so as to be easily broken into four parts. 
Comp. Dan. skiUemynt, from skille, to sever, 
and inynt, coin, and G. scheidemiinze, from 
scheiden, to divide, and miinze, coin — both 
meaning small change.] A British coin of 
currency and account, etjual in value to 
twelve pennies, or to one twentieth of a 
pound sterling. Previous to the reign of 
Edward I. it fluctuated greatly in value, 
from fivepence to twentypence, with various 
intermediate values. The same name, under 
the forms skilling and schilling, is applied 
to coins of Germany, Denmark, and Nor- 
way. Shilling is also applied to diff^erent 
divisions of the dollar in the United States 
currency, 

Shilli-shalli, Shilly-shally (shilli-shal-i). 
v.i. [A reduplication of shall I? and equal 
to shall I or shall I not?] To act in an 
irresolute or undecided manner; to hesitate; 
as, this is not a time to shilly-shally. 

Shilli-shalli, Shilly-shally (shil'li-shal-1), 
adv. In an irresolute or hesitating manner. 

I don't stand shill-l-shall-I then : if I say't. I'll do't. 
■Coiigre^'e. 

Shllli-shiLlli, Shilly-shally (shil'ii -shall), 
7i. Foolisli trifiing; irresolution. [Collofj.] 
She lost not one of her forty-five minutes in pick- 
ing and choobing — no shilly-shally in Kate. 

De QtttNcey. 

Shilpit (shil'pit). a. 1. Weak; washy and in- 
sipid. ' Sherry's but shilpit drink.' Sir W. 
Scott. [Scotch.]— 2. Of a sickly white colour; 
feeble-looking. [Scotch.] 

The laird . . . pronounced her to be but a shilpit 
thing. Miss Ferrier. 

Shily (shi'li). Same as Shyly. 

Shim (shim). 7i. 1. In mach. a thin piece of 
metal placed between two parts to make a 
fit. — 2. A tool, used in tillage, to break 
down the land or to cut it up and clear it of 
weeds. Called also a Shim-plough. 

Shimmer (shim'6r). v.i. [A. Sax. scymrian, 
iveq. of scimian, to gleam, from sctina, a 
gleam, brightness, splendour; Dan. sktitire, 
G. schimmern, to gleam.] To emit a tremu- 
lous light; to gleam; to glisten. * The 
shimmering glimpses of a stream.' Tenny- 
son. 

Twinkling faint, and distant far, 
Shitnmers through mist each planet star. 

Sir ir. Scott. 

Shimmer (shim'6r), n. A tremulous gleam 
or glistening. 

The silver lamps . . . diffused . . a trembling twi- 
light or seeming shimmer through the quiet apart- 
ment. Sir ly. Scott. 

Shim-plough (shim'plou), n. See Shim. 

Shin (shin), n. [A. Sax. scin, the shin, scin- 
ban, the shin-bone; Dan. skinne, the shin, a 
splint; skianebeen. D. scheen, scheenbeen, 
the shin-bone; G. schiene. a splint of wood. 
schien-bein, tbe shin-bone: so called from its 
sharp edge resembling that of a splint of 
wood.] 'Ihe forepart of the leg between 
the ankle and the knee, particularly of the 
human leg; the forepai't of the crural bone, 
called tibia. 

Shin (shin), v.i. 1. To climb a tree by means 
erf the hands and legs alone; to swarm. 

Nothing for it but the tree ; so Tom laid his bones 
to it. shinning up as fast as he could. T. Hughes. 

2. To borrow money. [U.S. See Shinner.] 

Shin (shin), v.t. To climb by embracing 
with the arms and legs and working or pull- 
ing one's self \\\y; as, to skin a tree. 

Shin-bone (shin'bon), n. The bone of the 
shin; the tibia. 

Shindlet (shin'dl). n. 1. A shingle. 'Boards 
or shindies of the wild oak.' Holland. — 
2. A roofing slate. 

Shindlet (shin'dl). u.^. To cover or roof with 
shingles. Holland. 

Shindy (shin'di), 71. [' A shindy approaches 
so nearly in sound to the Gypsy word chin- 
garee, which means precisely the same 
thing, that the suggestion is at least worth 
consideration. And it also greatly resem- 



bles ckindi, which may be translated as 
'cutting up,' and also "quan-el." 'To cut 
up shindies ' was the first form in which thi.s 
extraordinary word reached the public' C. 
G. Leland.] 1. A row; a spree. [Slang.]— 
2. A liking; a fancy. Haliburton. [Ameri- 
can.]— 3. A game of ball; shmty. BarUett. 
[American.] 

Shine (shin), u. I. pret. shone; pp. shone; ppr. 
shining; shined, pret. & pp., is now obso- 
lete or vulgar. [A. Sax. sctnan, D. echij- 
nen, Icel. skina, Dan. skinne, Goth, skeinan. 
G. scheinen, to shine. Probablyfrom a root 
skan, skand, seen withoutthe « in L. candeo, 
toshine; candiduv, white; candor, whiteness 
(whence E. candid, candour); Skr. chand, to 
be light or clear.] 1. To emit rays of light; 
to give light; to beam with steady radiance; 
to exhibit brightness or splendour; as, the 
sun shines by day; the moon shines hy night. 
— Shining differs from sparkling, glistening, 
glittering, as it iisually implies a steady ra- 
diation or emission of light, whereas the 
latter words usually imply irregular or in- 
terrupted radiation. This distinction is not 
always observed, and we may say the fixed 
stars shine as well as that they sparkle. But 
we never say the sun or the moon sparkles. 

2. To be bright ; to glitter ; to be brilliant 
'Fish with their fins and shining scales.' 
Milton. 

His eyes, Uke glow-worms, shine when he doth fret. 
Shajk. 
Let thine eyes shine forth in their full lustre. 

Sir y. Denitam- 

3. To be gay or splendid; to be beautiful. 

So proud she shinedm. her princely state. 

SfittLSer. 

Once brightest shin'ditas child of heat and air. 

Pope. 

4. To be eminent, conspicuous, or distin- 
guished; as. to shine in courts. 'Shine in 
the dignity of F.R.S.' Pope. 

Few are qualified to shine in company. Stof/I. 

6. To be noticeably visible; to be prominent. 

Man is by nature a cowardly aniinal, and moral 
courage shines out as the most rare and the most 
noble of virtues. Prof. Blackie. 

— To cause the face to shine, to be propitions. 

Ps. Ixvii. 1.— Syn. To radiate, beam, gleam. 

glare, glisten, glitter, sparkle, coruscate. 
Shine ( shin ), v. t. To occasion or make to 

shine. 

Shinet (shin\ a. Bright or Bhinlng; glitter- 
ing. Spenser. 
Shine (shin), 11. 1. Fair weather; sunshine. 

' Be it fair or foul, rain or shine.' Dryden. 

'Shadow and shine is life.' Tennyson. — 

2. The state of shining; brilliancy; bright- 
ness; splendour; lustre; gloss. ' Tlie glitter- 
ing sh ine of gold. ' Dr. H. More. ' Fair open- 
ing to some court's propitious shine.' Pope. 
3- [In this sense the word may be an abbre- 
viation of shindy.] A quarrel; a row. — To 
kick up a shine, to make a row. [Slang.]— To 
take the shine out of, to cast into the shade; 
to outshine; to excel; to surpass. [Slang.] 

Shiner (shin'^r), n. 1. One who or that which 
shines. Hence— 2. A coin, especially a bright 
coin; a sovereign. [Slang.] 

' And now. Jingo.' asked tbe man of business. 
' whcre's the shiners f ' yerrold. 

3. The American popular name applied to 
several species of fish, mostly of the family 
Cyprinidae ; as, the shining dace {Leudsais 
nitidus); the bay shiner {Leueiscus ehry- 
sopterus); New York shiner {Leuci^cus or 
Stilbe chrysoleucas); and the bluut-uosed 
shiner (Vomer Brownii), belonging to the 
family Scombridre. 

Shiness (shi'ues). See Sht\xss. 

Shingle (shing'gl),u. [Formerly also sAmrfie, 
which was corrupted to shingle, the word, 
like G. schindel, being borrowed from L. 
scindula, a shingle, from L. scitido, to 'split. 




Shingles. 

to divide. In sense 2 the meaning would 
be originally fiat pieces of stone. ] 1. A thin 
piece of wood, usually having parallel sides 
and thicker at one end than the other, so as 



Fate, far, fat. fftll; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tiibe, tub, bull; oil, poimd; u, Sc. abtme; y. Sc. iey. 



SHINGLE 



63 



SHIP-OWNER 



to lap with others, used as a roof-covering 

instead of slates or tiles.— 2. Round, water- 
worn, and loose gravel and pebbles ; the 
coarse gravel or accumulation of small 
rounded stones found on the shores of rivere 
or the sea. 

The plain of La Cr; 



, in France, is composed of 
PinifrtcH. 



Turning softly like a thief. 
Lest the harsh sktngU should grate underfoot. 
Ttitnyson. 

— Shinffle ballast, ballast composed of 
shingle or gravel. 

BMngle (shing'gl), v.t. pret. & pp. shiiigled; 
ppr. nhiiifjUng. 1. To cover with sliingles; 
as. to shingle a roof. 'They shingle their 
bouses with it.' Evelyn.~% To perform the 
process of shingling on; as, to shiiigle iron. 
See Shinglixo. 

BMnKler {shing'gl-6r), n. One who or that 
which shingles; as, (a) one who roofs houses 
with shingles. (6) One who or a machine 
which cuts and prepares shingles, (c) A 
workman who attends a shingling hammer 
or machine, (d) A machine for shingling 
pnddleil iron or making it into blooms. 

Shingle-roofed ^shingrgl-roft), a. Having 
a rnof covered with shingles. 

BMngles (shing'glz). n. pi [L. cingulum, a 
belt, from cingo, to gird. ] A kind of herpes, 
viz. herpes zoster, which spreads around the 
body like a girdle; au eruptive disease See 
Herpes. 

Shingling (shlng'gl-ing), n. 1. The act of 
co%*ering with shingles, or a covering of 
ahingles. - 2. In iron mamif. the process 
of expelling the scoriie and other impuri- 
ties from the metal in its couversion from 
the ca.st to the mallealtle state. This 
operation is performed by sul)jecting the 
puddled iron either to the blows of a pon- 
derous forge hammer, to the action of 
sciueezers, or to the pressure of rollers. — 
Shingling hammer, a powerful hammer 
which acts upon tlie ball from the puddling 
furnace, and forces son»e of the remaining 
Impurities therefrom.— ;S'Atnfiritnr7»u7f,amill 
or forge where puddled iron is hammered. 
Ac, to remove the dross, compact the 
grain, and turn out malleable iron. 

Shingly ( shing'gl-i ), a. Abounding with 
fehinutc or gravel. 

Shining (shin'ing), p. and a. l. Emitting 
litiht; beaming; gleaming.— 2. Bright; splen- 
did; radiant.— 3. Illustrious; distinguished; 
conspicuous; as, a shining example of cha- 
rity.— 4. In hot. having a smooth polished 
surface, as certain leaves.— Syn. Glistening, 
bright, radiant, resplendent, effulgent, lus- 
troiis. brilliant, glittering, splendid, illus- 
trious. 

Shining (shin'ing). n. 1. Effnsion or clear- 
ness of light ; brightneas- 'The stars shall 
withdraw their «Atut»o.' Joel ii. 10.— 2. The 
act of making one's self conspicuous by dis- 
play of superiority; osteDtatioua display. 

Would 3rou both please and t>e instructed too. 
Watch well the rage oishinine to subdue. 

Shlnlngness Cshin'ing-nes), n. Brightness; 
-<pl'.inl(>ur. SjH-nJter. 

Shinner (sbin'er), n. [That is, one who 
plies his «^»uf or legs quickly.] L A person 
whtj goes about among his acquaintances 
borrowing money to meet pressing demands 
The practice itself is called thinning. [United 
States cant.]— 2.t A stocking. 

Bhlnney (shin'iX n. Same as Shinty. Halli- 

Shin - plaster (shin'plas-t^r), n. [Accord- 
\u\t to liartlett from an old soldier of the 
Revolutionary period having used a quan- 
tity of worthless paper currency as plasters 
for a wounded leg.) A bank-note, especially 
one of low denomination ; a piece of paper- 
money. [I'nited States slang ] 

Shinto, ShintOlsm (shin'to, shin'to-izm), n. 
[Chinese xhin, god or spirit, and to, way or 
law. J One of the two great religions of 
Japan. In its origin it was a form of na- 
ture worship, the forces of nature being re- 
garded as gods, the sun I>eing the supreme 
god. The s-iul of the sim-god. when on 
earth, founded the reigning house in Japan, 
and hence the emperor is worsliipped as of 
divine oriijin. Worship is also paid to the 
souls of drBtingnished persons. ITie essence 
of the religion is now ancestral worship and 
sacritlce i*} departed heroes. Written also 
Sintu, Sintnisia. 

ShlntoUt (shin'to-ist), n. A IwUever in or 
supporter of the Shinto religion. 

Shinty (shin'ti). n. (Oael. rinf-eag. a nkip. a 
I'oimd] 1. In Scotland, an outdoor game in 
which a ball and clubs with crooked heads 



are employed, the object of each party be- 
ing to drive the ball over their opponents' 
boundary. The game is called Hockey in 
England.— 2. The club or stick used in play- 
ing tlie game. 
Shiny (shin'i), a. l. Characterized by sun- 
shine; bright; luminous; clear; unclouded. 
' Like distant thunder on a shiny day.' Dry- 
den.— 2. Having a glittering appearance; 
glossy; brilliant. 
•^hlp (ship), n. [A form of shape (which 
see); A. Sax. -scipe.] A termination denoting 
state, office, dignity, profession, or art; as, 
lonlship, friend«A ip, siewardship, horseman- 
yhip, &c. 

Ship ( ship ), ?k [A. Sax. scip, scyp, a ship ; 
cotiimon to the Teutonic languages, L.G. 
schipp, D. schip, Icel. and Goth. «A-t^, Dan. 
skib, 0. H.G. scif, G. schif. The word passed 
into the Romance tongues from the Teu- 
tonic, our skif being re-borrowed from the 
Fr. esquif; so also equip. Probably con- 
nected with shape. Icel. skapa. to shape, 
skipa, to arrange, order. Some derive it 
from root signifying to dig or hollow out. 
whence L. scapha. Gr. skaphe, a bowl, a 
Iwat. a skiff; Gr. skapto, to dig.] 1. A ves- 
sel of some size adapted to navigation : a 
general term for vessels of whatever kind, 
excepting boats. Ships are of various sizes 
and fttted for various uses, and receive vari- 
ous names, according to their rig and the 
purposes to which they are applied, as man- 
of-war ships, transports, merchantmen, 
barques, brigs, schooners, luggers, sloops, 
xebecs, galleys, &c. The name, as descrip- 
tive of a particular rig, and as roughly im- 
plying a certain size, has been used to de- 
signate a vessel furnishe<l with a bowsprit 
and three masts— a main-mast, a fore-mast, 
and a mizzen-mast— each of which is com- 
posed of a lower-mast, a top-mast, and a 
top-gallant mast, and carries a certain num- 
ber of square sails. The s<iuare sails on the 
mizzen distinguishes a shipfrom a barque, a 
barque haviug only fore-and-aft sails on the 
mizzen. But the development of steam navi- 
gation, in which the largest vessels have 
sometimes only a schooner rig and some- 
times four masts, has gone far towards ren- 
dering this restricted application of the term 
ship of little value, ftwing to increase of 
size, and especially increase in length, some 
sailing vessels now have four masts, aud 
this rig is saitl to have certain advantages. 
Up to within recent times wood, such as 
oak, pine, Ac, was the material of which 
all ships were constructed, but at the pre- 
sent day it is being rapidly superseded by 
iron and steel; and in IJritain, which is the 
chiefship-buildiugcountryin the world, the 
tonuage of the wooden vessels constructed 
is but a fraction of that of those built of 
iron. The first iron vessel classed at Lloyd's 
was Imilt at Liverpool in 1838, but iron 
barges and small vessels had been con- 
structed long before l\\\e,.~ Armed ship. See 
under Akmki> — Ship's papers, the papers 
or documents required for the manifestation 
of the property of the ship and cargo. They 
are of two sorts, viz. (l) those required by 
the law of a particular country, as the cer- 
tificate of registry, license, charter-party, 
bills of lading, bills of health. &c., required 
by the law of England to be on board Brit- 
ish ships. (2) Those required by the law of 
nations to be on board neutral ships to vin- 
dicate their title to that character.— S/it> 
qf the line, a man-of-war large enough and 
of sufficient force to take its place in a line 
of battle. — Ship of the desert, a sort of poeti- 
cal name for the c&mel. —tiegistry of ships. 
See Lloyd's register, under Lloyd's. —2. A 
dish or utensil formeil like the hull of a 
ship, in which iucense was kept. Tyndale. 
Ship (ship), v.t. pret. & pp. shipped; ppr. 
shipping. 1. To put on board of a ship or ves- 
sel of any kind ; as, to ship goods at Glas- 
gow for New York. 

The emperor skipfiing his great ordnance, de- 
parted down the river. KnoUes. 

2. To transport iu a ship; to convey by 
water. 

This wicked emperor may have jAi>)j>'(/ her hence. 
Shak. 

3. To engage for service on board a ship or 
other vessel ; as, to ship seameu.— 4. To fix 
in its proper place; as, to ship the oars, the 
tdler, the rudder. —To ship off, to send away 
by water. 'Ship off senates to some distant 
shore.' Pope. —To ship a sea, to have a 



wave come aboard ; 
washed by a wave. 



to have the deck 



Ship (ship), v.i. 1. To go on board a vessel 
to make a voyage with it: to embark; as, we 
shipped at Glasgow.— 2. To engage for ser- 
vice on board a ship. 

Ship-biscuit (ship'bis-ket), n. Hard coarse 
ijiscuit prepared for long keeping, and for 
use on board a ship. 

Shipboard (ship'bord), n. The deck or side 
of a ship : used chiefly or only in the ad- 
verbial phrase on shipboard; as, to go on 
shipboard or a shipboard. 

Let him go an shipboard. Bramhall. 

What do'st thou make a shipboard t Dryden. 

Ship-boaxd (ship'bord), n. A board or plank 
of a ship. 

They have made all thy ship-boards of fir-trees of 
Senir. Ezek. xxvii. 5. 

Ship-boy (ship'boi), ». A boy that serves 
on l)oara of a ship. 

Ship -breaker (ship^brak-Sr), n. A person 
whose occupation is to break up vessels that 
are unfit for sea. 
Ship-broker (ahip'bro-k6r), n. A mercan- 
tile agent who transacts the business for a 
siiip when in port, as procuring cargoes, &c. ; 
also, an agent engaged iu buying and sell- 
ing ships ; likewise, a broker who procures 
insurance on ships. 

Ship-builder (sbip'bild-6r), n. One whose 
occupation is to c(uistruct ships and other 
vessels; a mival architect; a shipwright 
Ship-buUding (ship'lnld-ing), n. Naval 
architecture; the art of constructing vessels 
for navigation, particularly ships and other 
vessels of a large kind, bearing masts: in 
distinction from hoat-huilding. 
Ship-canal (ship'ka-nal), n. A canal through 
which vessels of large size can pass; a canal 
for sea-going vessels. 

Ship- captain (ship'kap-tin or ship'kap-tan), 
n. Tlie commander or master of a ship. See 
Captain. 

Ship - carpenter (sbip'kar-pen-t^r), n. A 
sliipwri^dit; a carpenter that works at ship- 
btiildini;. 

Ship-chandler (ship'chand-lSr), n. One 
who d».'al8 in cordage, canvas, and other 
furnitni-e of ships. 

Ship-chandlery (ship'chand-16r-i), n. The 
luisinehs and commodities of a ship-chand- 
ler. 

Ship-fever (ship'fe-v6r). n. A peculiar kind 
of typhus fever. Called also Putritl Fever, 
Jail/ever, and Hospital Fever. 
Shipful (ship'ful), n. As much or many as 
a ship will hold; enough to fill a ship. 
Ship-holder (sliiphoUl 6r). n. The owner 
of a ship or of shipping; a ship-owner. 
ShipleBS (shiples), a. Destitute of ships. 

Wliile the lone shepherd, near ihc shifUss m.iin. 
Sets o'er the hills advance tlie long-drawn funeral 
train. Rogers. 

Shiplett (ship'letX n. A little ship. Hol- 

inshed. 
Ship-letter (ship'let-ir). n. A letter sent 

by a coMunon shi]), and not by mail. 
Shipmant (ship'man), n. 1. A seaman or 
sailor. 

About midnight the shipment deemed that they 
drew near to some country. Acts xxvii. a8. 

2, The master of a ship. Chaucer. 

Shipmaster (ship'mas-tSr), 71. The cap- 
tain, master, or commander of a ship. Jou. 
i. 6. 

Shipmate (ship'mat), n. One who serves 
in the same ship with another; a fellow- 
sailor. 

Shipment (ship'ment), n. 1. The act of 
putting anything on board of a ship or 
other vessel ; embarkation ; as, he was en- 
gaged iu the shipment of coal for London. 
2. The goods or things shipped or put on 
board of a ship or other vessel ; as, the 
merchants have made large shipments to 
the United States. 

Ship-money (ship'mun-i), n. In Eng. 
hiH. an ancient imposition that was charged 
on the ports, towns, cities, boroughs, and 
counties of England for providing and fur- 
nishing certain ships for the king's service. 
Having lain dormant for many years, it was 
revived by Charles I., and was met with 
strong opposition. The refusal of John 
ilampden to pay the tax was one of the 
proximate causes of the Great Kebellion. 
It was abolished during the same reign. 

By the new writs for ship-moriey the sherilTs were 
directed to assess every landholder and other in- 
habitant accordinK to their judg-ment of his means, 
and to force the payment by distress. Hallant. 

Ship-owner (ship'6n-6rX n. A person who 
has a right of property in a ship or ships, or 
any share therein. 



oh, cAain; £h, &c. locA; g, gQ\ j.iob; fi, i-'r. ton; 



, siny; 3U, tAtiu; tb, ^in; w, wi^; wh, whA%\ ' zh, azuie.— See KEY. 



SHIPPED 



64 



SHIVER 



Shipped (shipt), p. and a. 1. Put on hoard 
a snip; carried in a ship, as goods. — 2. Fur- 
nished with a ship or ships. 

Is he welt shipfd^ 

His bark is stoutly tiinber'ti, and his pilot 

Of very expert and approved allowance. Shak. 

Shippen, Shippon (ship'en, ship'on), n. [A. 
Sax. scypen, gcepen, a stall, a shed.] A sta- 
ble; a cow-house. [Local.] 

Bessy would either do field-work, or attend to the 
cows, the shipfon, or churn or make cheese. 

Dickens. 

Ship - pendulum (ship-pen'du-lum), n. A 

pendulum with a graduated arc, used in 
the navy to ascertain the heel of a vessel, 
so that allowance may be made in laying a 
gun for the inclination of the deck. 

Shipper (ship'^r), n. 1. One who places goods 
on board a vessel for transportation. —2. tThe 
master of a vessel, or skipper; a seaman. 

Shipping (ship'ing), n. l. Ships in general; 
ships or vessels of any kind for navigation; 
the collective body of ships belonging to a 
country, port, &c. ; tonnage; as, the shipping 
of tl»e English nation exceeds that of any 
other.— 2. Sailing; navigation. [Rare.] 

God send 'em good shipping. Shak. 

— Shipping articles, articles of agreement 
between the captain of a vessel and the sea- 
men on board in respect to the amount of 
wages, length of time for which they are 
sliipped, &c.^To take shipping, to embark; 
to enter on board a ship or vessel for con- 
veyance or passage. Jn. vi. 24. 

Take, therefore, shipping; post, my lord, to 
France. Shak. 

Shipping (ship'ing), a. Relating to ships; 

as, tifii/'j'i/Kj (.-oncerns. 
Shlp-prop'eller (ship'pro-pel-6r), n. See 

Screiv-prnpeUi')- under SCUKW. 
Shippy (sliip'i), a. Pertaining to ships; 

frequented by ships. 'Shippy havens.' 

Vicars. 
Ship-railway (ship'ral-wa), n. A railway 

1 or conveying ships from one place to 
;inother, tluis to serve in lieu of a canal. 

Ship-rigged (ship'rigd). a. Rigged with 
Mjuare sails and spreading yards like a 
tliret'-masted ship. 

Ship-shape (ship'shap), a. or adv. In a sen- 
manlike manner, or after tlie fashion of a 
ship; hence,neataud trim; well arranged. 'A 
nhip-shape orthodox manner.' De Quincey. 

Look to the babes, and till I come again 

Keep everylliing ship-shape, for I must go. Tennyson. 

Ship's -husband (sliips'huz-band), n. A 
person appointed by the owner or owners 
of a vessel to look after the repairs, ecjuip- 
ment, &c., and provide stores, provisions, 
&c., for a ship while in port and prepara- 
tory to a voyage. 

Ship-tire t (ship'tir), n. A kind of female 
head-dress of unknown fashion. 

Thou hast the right arched beauty of the brow that 
becomes the ship-tire, the tirc-va!i<int, or any tire of 
Venetian admittance. Shak. 

Ship - worm ( ship ' w^rni ), n. The Teredo 
navalis, a testaceous mollusc whtcli is very 
destructive to ships, piles, and all submarine 
woodworks. See Teredo. 

Shipwreck (ship'rek), n. 1. The wreck of a 
ship; the destruction or loss at sea of a ship 
by foundering, strikhig on rocks or shoals, 
or by other means. ' JIade orphan by a 
winter ahipwreck.' Tennyson. 

We are not to quarrel with the water for inunda- 
tions antl shipivrecks. Sir R. VBstrange. 

2. Fragments; shattered remains, as of a 
vessel which has been wrecked ; wreck. 
[Rare.] 

They might have it in their own country, and that 
by gatlieriiig up the shipivrecks of the Athenian and 
Roman theatres. Dryden. 

3. Destruction ; miscarriage ; ruin. 1 Tim. 
i. 19. Spenser. 

Shipwreck (ship'rek). v.t. l. To make to 
suffer sliipwrecli. as by running ashore or 
on rocks or sandbanks, or by the force of 
wind in a tempest; to wreck; as, many vessels 
are annually shipwrecked on the British 
coasts. 

No doubt our state will shi'p^vrecked he 

And torn and sunk for ever. Sir y. Davits. 

2 To expose to distress, difficulty, or destruc- 
tion by the loss of a ship; to cast away. 

Shipiv ecked upon a kingdom, where no pity. 

No friends, no hope ; no kindred weep for me, Shak. 

Shipwright (ship'rit), n. One whose occu- 

l>ation is to construct ships; a builder of 

ships; a ship-carpenter. 
Shipyard (ship'yard), n. A yard or piece 

of giound near the water in which ships or 

vessels are constructed. 



Shlraz (she-raz'), n. A Persian wine from 

5/* iraz. 

Shire (shir), ?i. [A. Sax. scire, scyre, a di- 
vision, from sciran, sceran, to shear, to 
divide. Akin share, sheer, &c. See Share, 
Shear.] A name applied to the larger 
divisions into which Great Britain is di- 
vided, and practically corresponding to the 
term county, by which it is in many eases 
superseded. Some smaller districts in the 
north of England retain the provincial ap- 
pellation of shires; as, RichmondsAiVe, in 
the north riding of Yorkshire, HallamsAirc, 
or tile manor of Hallam, in the west riding, 
whicJi is nearly coextensive with tlie parish 
of Sheffield. The shire was originally a 
division of the kingdom under the jurisdic- 
tion of an earl or alderman, whose autlio- 
rity was intrusted to the sheriff (shire-reeve). 
On this officer the government ultimately 
devolved. The English county members of 
ttie House of Commons are called knights 
of the shire. The shires in England were 
subdivided into hundreds, and these again 
into tithings. In Scotland they were sub- 
divided into wards and quarters. — The 
shires, a belt of English counties running in 
a north-east direction from Devonshire and 
Hampshire, tlie names of which terminate 
in 'shire,' but applied in a general way to 
tlie midland counties; as, he comes from 
the shires; he has a seat in the shires. 

Shire-cl^k (shii-'klark), n. In England, an 
officer appointed liy the sheriff to assist in 
keeping the county court; an under-sheriff; 
also, a clerk in the old county court who 
was deputy to the under-sheriff. 

Shire-gemot, Shire-mote (shir'ge-mot, 
shir'mot)), n. [A. Sax. scir-gem6t, shire- 
meeting— sctre, a shire, and gemdt, a meet- 
ing.] Anciently, in England, a court held 
twice a year by the bishop of the diocese and 
the ealdorman in shires that had ealdor- 
men, and in others by the bishop and 
sheriffs. Cowell. 

Shire-reeve t (shii-'rev), n. A sheriff. See 
Sheriff. 

Shire-town (shir'toun), n. The chief town 
of a sliire; a county town. 

Shire- wick t (shir'wik), n. A shire; a 
county. Holland. 

Shirk (sli6rk), v.i. [Probably a form of 
shark.] l.t To shark; to practise mean or 
artful tricks; to live by one's wits.— 2. To 
avoid or get off unfairly or meanly ; to seek 
to avoid the performance of duty. 
One of the cities shirked from the league. Byron. 

— To shirk off, to sneak away. [Colloq.] 

Shirk (sherk), v.t. l.t To procure by mean 
tricks; to shark,— 2. To avoid or get off from 
unfairly or meanly; to slink away from; as, 
to shirk difficulty. [Colloq.] 

Shirk (sherk), n. One who seeks to avoid 
duty; one who lives by shifts or tricks. 
See Shark. 

Shirker (sh^rk'er). n. One who shirks duty 
or danger. ' A faint-hearted shirker of re- 
sponsibilities.' Comhill Mag. 

Shirky (sh^rk'i), a. Disposed to shirk; 
iharacterized by shirking. 

Shirlt (sh6rl). a. Shrill, 

Shlrl (sli6rl), ?i. Sliorl. [Rare.] 

Shirley (sh^i-'li), n. [Possibly from scarlet] 
The American name of a bird, called also the 
greater bullfinch, having the upper part of 
the body of a dark brown and the throat 
and breast red. Perhaps the pine grosbeak 
(Pyrrhula enucleato)'). 

Shirr (sh6r), n. [Comp. O.G. schirren. to pre- 
pare.] An insertion of cord, generally elas- 
tic, between two pieces of cloth; also, the 
cord itself. 

Shirred (shfird), a. An epithet applied to ar- 
ticles having lines or cords inserted between 
two pieces of cloth, as the lines of india- 
rubber in men's braces. 

Shirt (sh6rt), n. [Icel. skyrta, Dan. skiorte, 
a siiirt; Dan. skiort, a shirt, a petticoat; D. 
schort, G. schurz, an apron. The original 
meaning of shirt is a garment shortened. 
Skirt is the same word.] A loose garment 
of linen, cotton, or other material, worn by 
men and boys under the outer clothes. 

Shirt (shfirt), v.t. To put a shirt on; to 
cover or clothe with, or as with, a shirt. 

Ah ! for so many souls as but this morn 

Were clothed with flesh, and warm'd with vital blood. 

But naked now, or shirted but with air. Dryden. 

Shirt-front (sh6rt'frunt), n. The dressed 
part of a shirt which covers the breast; also, 
an article of dress made iu imitation of this 
part; a dickey. 

Shirting (sh^rt'ing), n. Bleached or un- 



bleached cotton cloth of a texture, quality, 
and wi-^th suitable for shirts. 
Shirtless (shdrt'les), a. Wanting a shirt. 

I,in&ey-woolsey brothers, . . . sleeveless 
Some, and shirtless others. Pope. 

Shist (shist), n. The same as Schist (which 

see). 

Shisticfshist'ik), a. Same as Schistic. 

Shistose, Shistous (shistos, shist'us), a. 
Same as Schistose, Schistous. 

Shittah-tree (shit'ta-tre), n. [Heb, skiitdh, 
pi. shitt'iiii.] A tree, generally recognized 
as a species of Acacia, probably the A. vera 
or A. Seyal, which grows abundantly in 
Upper Egypt, in the mountains of Sinai, and 
in some other Bible lands. It has small 




Shittah-tree (AcacM vera). 

pinnate leaves, and in spring is covered 
with yellow blossoms in the form of round 
balls. It is a gnarled and thorny tree, re- 
sembling a hawthorn in manner of growth 
but much larger. It yields gum-arabic, and 
also a hard close-grained timber, theshittim- 
wood of Scripture. Is. xli. 19. 

Shlttim-WOOd (shit'tim-wod), n. [See 
Shittah-tree.] a sort of precious wood 
of which the tables, altars, and boards of 
the Jewish tabernacle were made. It h 
produced by the shittah-tree (probably the 
Acacia vera or A. Seyal), and is hard, tough, 
smooth, durable, and very beautiful. Ex. 
xxv. 10, 13, 23. 

Shlttlet (shit'l), n. A shuttle. 

a curious web whose yarn she threw 

In with a golden shittle. Chapman. 

Shittlet (shit'l), a. Wavering; unsettled. 

We passe not what the people say or hate. 
Their shittle hate makes none but cowards shake. 
Mir. for Mags. 

Shittle-COCk t (shit'l-kok), ?i. A shuttle- 
cock. "Not worth a skittle-cock.' Skelton. 

Shittlenesst (shit'1-nes). n. Vnsettleduess; 
inconstancy. *The vain shittleness of an 
unconstant head.' Barret. 

Shive (shiv), n. [Icel. skifa, a slice, a shav- 
ing, skifa, to slice or cut in slices; Dan. 
skive, L.G. schieve, D. schijf, G. scheibe. See 
Sheave.] l. A slice; a thin cut; as, a shire 
of bread. [Old and provincial English. ] 

Easy it is 
Of a cut loaf to steal a shive we know. Sh.ik. 

2. A little piece or fragment; as, the shives 
of flax made by breaking.— 3 A name given 
by cork-cuttei-8 to the small bungs used to 
close wide-mouthed l»ottles, in contradis- 
tinction to the phial corks used for narrow- 
necked bottles ; also, a thin wooden bung 
used by brewers. 

Shiver (shiv'6r), v.t. [Same root as above; 
comp. G. schiefeni, to splinter; O.D. schev- 
eren, to break in pieces; scAere, a fragment, a 
shive.] To break into many small pieces or 
splinters; to shatter; to dash to pieces by a 
blow. 'The ground with shiver'd armour 
strown.' Milton. 

Shiver (shiv'^r), v.i. To fall at once into 
many small pieces or parts. 

The natural world, should g^ravity once cease, 
would instantly shiier into millions of atoms. 

// 'oodivard. 
The shattering trumpet shrilleth high. 
The hard brands shiver on the steel, 
The splinter'd spear-shafts crack and fly. 

Tennyson. 

Shiver (shiv'6r), n. [From shive, sheave; 
comp. G. schiefer, a splinter, slate. See also 
the verb. ] 1. A small piece or fragment 
into which a thing breaks by any sudden 
violence. 

He would pound you into shivers with his fist, as 
a sailor brealcs a biscuit. Shak. 

2.t A thin slice; a shive. 'A shiver of their 
own loaf.' Fuller.— Z. In mineral, a species 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, mt>ve; tube, tub, byll; oil, pound; u, Sc. abttne; y, Sc. fey. 



SHIVER 



65 



SHOE-HAMMER 



of blue slate ; schist ; shale. — 4. Naut a 
little wheel; a sheave. 
Shiver (shiv'^r), v.i. [O.E. chiver, chever; 
comp. Prov. G. schubbem, to shiver; CD. 
schoeveren, to shake.] To quiver; to tremble. 
as from cold; to shudder; to shake, as with 
ague, fear, horror, or excitement. 

Any very harsh noise will set the teeth on edge, 
and make all the body shiwr. Bacon. 

As the dog, withheld 
A moment from the vernnn that he sees 
Before hira. shivers as he springs and kills. 

Tf>inysi^n. 

Shiver (shiv'^r). v.t. Xaut. to cause to 
flutter or shake in the wind, as a sail, by 
trimming the yards or shifting the helm so 
that the wind strikes on the edge of the 
sail; as. to Mir^r the mizzen-topsail. 

Shiver (shi\''^r). n. A shaking fit; a tremu- 
lous motion. "Hie skiverof dancing leaves.' 
Tennymn.—The skivers, the ague. 

Shiverlngly (shiv'fir-ing-li), adv. With 
shivering or slight trembling. 

Shiver-spar (shiv'6r-spar). n. [G. schie/er- 
si>ath ] A carbonate of lime, so called from 
its i^Iaty structure. Called also Slate-spar. 

Shivery (shiv'6r-i), a. 1. Pertaining to or 
resemliling a shiver or shivering; charac- 
terized by shivering. 

Sad ocean's face 
A curling undulation shivery swept 
From wave to wave. MalUt. 

2. Easily falling into many pieces; not firmly 
cohering; incompact * Shivery stone.' 
Woodward. 

Shoad (shod), n. [ Probably a Cornish word. ] 
In mining, a train of metallic st<^)nes or 
fragments of ore washed down from a vein 
by water, or otherwise separated from it, 
which serves to direct explorers in the dis- 
covery of the veins from which they are 
derived. Woodward. Spelled also Shade. 

Bboadin^T (shdd'ing), n. . In mining, the act 
of tracing shoads from the valley in which 
they may be found to the mineral lode from 
which they are derived. See Shoad. 

Shoad - pit ( shod ' pit ), n. A pit or trench 
formed on shoading, or tracing shoads to 
their native vein. 

Shoad-stone (shod'stdn), n. A small stone 
or frai^nient of ore made smooth by the 
action of water passing over it Woodward. 

Shoal ( shol ), n. [A. Sax. scolu, $calu, a 
crowd, a shoal. Also found in forms scool, 
gehool.scuU.] A great multitude assembled; 
A crowd ; a throng : as, a shoal of herring ; 
shoals of people. ' Shoals of pucker'd faces.' 
Tennyson. 
The vices of a prince draw shoals of followers. 
Dr. H. More. 

Shoal (shol). r.i. To crowd; to throng; to 
assemble in a multitude. ' Entrail about 
which . . . flsh did shoal.' Chapman. 

Shoal (shol), n. [Probably from or allied to 
shallow. Sc. schaul. See Shallow. ] A place 
where the water of a river, lake, or sea is 
shallow or of little depth : a sandbank or 
bar; a shallow; more particularly, among 
seamen, a sandbank which dries at low 
water. 

Say, Wolsey. that once trod the ways of glory. 
And sounded all the depths and skoals o7 honour. 

Sha*. 

Shoal (shdlX V. i. To become more shallow; 
as, the water shoals as we approach the 
town. 

Shoal (shdl). v.t. Haul, to cause to become 
more shallow; to proceed from a greater 
into a lesaer depth of ; as, a vessel shoals her 
water by sailing from a deep to a shallow 
place. Marryat 

Shoal ff^hol), a. Shallow; of little depth; as, 
aliual water. 

Shoallnes8(sh6I'i-ne8),r». The state of being 
shoaly, or of abounding with shoals; shallow- 
ness; little depth of water; state of abound- 
ing with shoals. 

ShoaliXLK (shdl'ing), f). and a. Becoming 
shallow by being flllea up with shoals. 

Had Inveresk been a shoaling estuary as at pre- 
sent, it ii difficult to sec how the Komans should 
have made choice of it as a port. Sir C. Lyell. 

ShoalwlBe (sborwiz), adv. In shoals or 
crowds- 

When he K<^>es abroad, as he does now sk^atwise, 
John Bull 6nds a great host of innkeepers, Sec. 

Pro/. BlacJkie. 

Shoaly (sbdriX a. Full of shoals or shallow 
places. 

The tossing vessel sail'd on shoaly ground. DrytUn. 

Shoar (ahor), n. A prop; a shore. 

Shoat (shot), n. A young h<«. See Shote. 

Shock (shok), n. [Same word as D. «cAoifc, a 

bounce, a jolt;0. and Prov. O. schock, ashock. 

See the verb. ] 1. A violent collision of bodles; 



a concussion ; a violent striking or dashing 

against. 

The strong unshaken mounds resist the shocks 
Of tides and seas. Sir R. Blackmore. 

2. Violent onset; assault of contending 
armies or foes; hostile encounter. 'In this 
doubtful shock of arms." Shak. 

He stood the shock of a whole host of foes. 

Addison. 

3. That which surprises or offends the in- 
tellect or moral sense; a strong and sudden 
agitation ; a blow ; a stroke ; any violent or 
sudden impression or sensation. ' The thou- 
sand natural shocks that flesh is heir to.' 
Shak. 

Fewer shocks a statesman gives his friend. Young. 
Its draught 
Of cool refreshment, drain'd by fever"d lips, 
May give a shock of pleasure to the frame. 

Talfourd. 

4. In eUd. the effect on the animal system 
of a discharge of electricity from a charged 
body. —0. In med. a violent and sudden or 
instantaneous disorganization of the system, 
with perturbation of body and mind, conse- 
quent upon severe injury, overwhelming 
mental excitement, and the like. 

Shock (shok), v.t. [Perhaps directly from 
Fr. chtMiuer, to knock or jolt against, choc, 
a shock, jolt, collision, but this is itself 
from the Teutonic; D. schokken, to jog, to 
jolt, knock against; O.G. schocken, schoggen. 
Akin to shake, chock.] \. To shake by the 
sudden collision of a body; to strike against 
suddenly. — 2. To meet with hostile force; 
to encounter. 

Come the three comers of the world in arms 
And we will shock them. Shak. 

3. To strike, as with horror, fear, or disgust; 
to cause to recoil, as from something as- 
tounding, odious, appalling, or horrible; to 
offend extremely; to disgust; to scandalize. 

Advise him not to shock a father's will. Dryden. 

Stn. To offend, disgust, disturb, disquiet, 
affright, frighten, terrify, appal, dismay. 
Shock (shok), v.i. To meet with a shock; 
to meet in sudden onset or encounter. 
And now with shouts the shocking armies closed. 

Pope. 
They saw the moment approach, when the two 
parties would shack together. De Quincey. 

Shock (shok), n. [D. sch<^, G. sehode, Dan. 
skok, a heap, a quantity, but now a definite 
quantity or number, viz. threescore.] 1. A 
pile of sheaves of wheat, rye, &.z. ; a stock. 
Job v. 26. 
Behind the master walks, builds up the shocks. 
Thomson. 

Z. In com. a lot of sixty pieces of loose goods, 

as staves. ' 

Shock (shok), v.t To make up into shocks 

or stooks; as. to shock com. 
8ho<^ (shok), v.i. To collect sheaves into a 

pile; to pile sheaves. 

Bind fast, shock apace, have an eye to thy corn. 
Tusser. 

Shock (shok), n. [Modified from shag ] 1. A 
dog with long rough hair ; a kind of shaggy 
dog. — 2. A mass of close matted hair; as, her 
head was covered with a shock of coarse red 
hair. 

Shock (shok), a. Shaggy; baring shaggy 
hair. 

His red shock peruke . . . was laid aside. 

Sir !t\ Scoff. 

Shock -doe (shok'dogX n. A dog having 

very long snaggy hair; a shock. 
Shock - headed. Shock -head (shokTied- 

ed. shokTied), a. Having a thick and bushy 

head. 

The jK)plars. in long order due. 

With cypress promenaded. 
The shock-head willows two and two 

By rivers gallopaded. Tennyson. 

Shocking (shok'ing), a. Causing a shock of 
horror, ^i^ust, or pain; causing to recoil 
with horror or disgust; extremely offensive 
or disgusting; very obnoxious or repugnant 
'Thenossest and most «AocArt/i^ villanies.' 
Abp. Seeker. 

The French humour ... is very shocking to the 
Italians. Addison. 

Syn. Appalling, terrifying, frightful, dread- 
ful, terrible, formidable, disgusting, offen- 
sive. 

Shockingly (shok'ing-li). adv. In a shock- 
ing nuuint-r ; itis^'ustingly ; offensively. 
' Shanieiefe.>ly and fhockingly corrupt ' Burke. 

ShOCkingness (shok'ing-nes), n. The state 
of being sbockiiig. 

Shod (shod). Pret. & pp. of shoe. 

Shoddy (sbod'i), n. [Said to be from shod, 
a pr<»vincial pp. of shed — the original 
meaning of the word being the flue or 
fluff thrown off, or shed, from cloth in the 



process of weaving. ] 1. Old woollen or 
worsted fabrics torn up or devilled into 
fibres by machinery, and mixed with fresh 
but inferior wool, to be respun and made 
into cheap cloth, table-covers, &c. Shoddy 
differs from mungo in being of an inferior 
quality. — 2. The coarse inferior cloth made 
from this substance. 

Shoddy (shod'i). a. l. Made of shoddy; as, 
shoddy cloth. Hence— 2. Of a trashy or in- 
ferior character; as, shoddy literature. — 
Shoddy fever, the popular name of a species 
of bronchitis caused by the irritating effect 
of the floating particles of dust upon the 
mucous membrane of the trachea and its 
ramiflcations. It is of frequent occurrence, 
but is easily cured by effervescent saline 
draughts, &c. 

Shoddy - mill (shod'i-mil), n. A mill em- 
ployed in the manufacture of yarn from old 
woollen cloths and refuse goods. 

Shode t (shod), n. [Lit the place at which 
the hair is shed or parted.] The parting of 
a person's hair; the temple. Chaxtcer. 

Shode (shod), n. Same as Shoad. 

Shodelng, Shoding (shod'ing), n. Same aa 
Shfxiding. 

Shoe (slid), n. pi. Shoes (shoz), old pi. 
Shoon (shon). [O.E. scho, schoo, A. Sax. 
sc6, sce6, Dan. and Sw. sko, Icel. sk6r, Goth. 
skohs, G. sohuh, a shoe. Probably from root 
seen in Skr. sku, to cover, L. scutum, a 
shield, &c.] 1. A covering for the foot, 
usually of leather, composed of a thick 
kind for the sole, and a thinner kind for 
the upper. ' Over shoes in snow. ' Shak. 
The dull swain 
Treads on it daily with his clouted shoon. Milton. 
And the caked snow is shuffled 
From the ploughboy's heavy shoon. Keats. 

2. A plate or rim of iron nailed to the hoof 
of an animal, as a horse, mule, or other 
beast of burden, to defend it from injury.— 

3. Anything resembling a shoe in form or 
use ; as, (a) a plate of iron or slip of wood 
nailed to the bottom of the runner of a 
sleigh.or any vehicle that slides on the snow 
in winter. (6) The inclined piece at the 
bottom of a water-trunk or lead pipe, for 
turning the course of the water and dis- 
chai^ng it from the wall of a building, 
(c) An iron socket used in timber framing 
to receive the foot of a rafter or the end of 
a strut ill) A drag or sliding piece of wood 
or iron placed under the wheel of a loaded 
vehicle to retard its motion in going down 
a hill, (e) An inclined trough used in an 
ore cnishmg-mill. (/)The step of a mast 
resting on the keelson, {g) The iron arm- 
ing to a handspike, polar pile, and the like. 
—Shoe of an anchor, (a) a small block of 
wood, convex on the back, with a hole to 
receive the point of the anchor fluke, used 
to prevent the anchor from tearing the 

filanks of the ship's bow when raised or 
uwered. (b) A bmad triangular piece of 
thick plank fa-stened to the fluke to extend 
its area and conse<|uent bearing surface 
when sunk in soft ground. 

Shoe (shb), v.t. pret. & pp. shod; ppr. shoe- 
ing. 1. To furnish with shoes; to put shoes 
on; as, to shoe a horse.— 2. To cover at the 
bottom. 'The small end of the billiard 
stick, which is shod with brass or silver.' 
Evelyn. —To shoe an anchor, to place a shoe 
on its flukes. See under Shoe, n. 

Shoeblack (shololak), ». A person that 
cleans shoes. — Shoeblack brigade. See BRI- 
GADE. 

Shoeblacker (shd'blak-6r), n. Same as Shoe- 
black. 

Shoe -block (shbljlok), n. Naut a block 
with two sheaves, one above the other, but 
the one horizontal and the other perpen- 
dicular. 

Shoeboy ( shd'boi ), n. X boy that cleans 
shoes. 

Shoe - brush ( sho'brush ), n. A brush for 
cleaning slioes. For this purpose a set of 
three brushes is often employed— one, made 
with short hard hair, for removing the dirt; 
a second, with soft and longer hair, for 
spreading on blacking; and a third, with 
hair of medium length and softness, for 
polishing. 

SttloebUC^e (sho'buk-l), n. a buckle for 
fastening the shoe to the foot; an ornament 
in the shape of a buckle worn on the upper 
of a shoe. 

Shoe - factor (sho'fak-ter), n. a factor or 
wholesale dealer in shoes. 

Shoe -hammer (shb'ham-mer), n. A ham- 
mer with a broad slightly convex face for 
pounding leather on the lapstone to con- 



ch. cAain; 6h, 3c. \och\ 
Vol. IV. 



K> 90\ j,>ob; ii, Fr. ton; 



ng. alny; th, CAeu; th, fAin; w, wig; wh, wAig; zh, azure.— See Key. 

143 



SHOEING-HORN 



66 



SHOP 



■dense the pores, and for driving sprigs, pegs, 
Ac, and with a wide, thin, rounding peen 
used in pressing out the creases incident to 
tlie crimping of the leuther. 
Shoeing -horn, Shoe -horn (sho'ing-hom, 
sho'horn), n. 1. A curved piece of polished 
horn (now also of sheet-metal) used to facili- 
tiite the entrance of the foot into a tight 
shoe.— 2. t Anything by which a transaction 
is facilitated ; anything used as a medium; 
hence, a dangler on young ladies, encouraged 
merely to draw on other admirers. 

Most of our fine young ladies . . . retain in their 
service as great a number as they can of supernunier- 
-ary insignificant fellows, which tiiey use like whiftlers, 
and commonly call shoeing-hortts. Addison. 

S.t An incitement to drinking; something 
to draw on another glass or pot. 

A slip of bacon .... 
Shall serve as a skoHng-horn to draw on two pots of 
ale. Bp. Still. 

Shoe-knife (sho'nif), n. A knife with a thin 
bhide fixed by a tang in a wooden handle, 
used by shoemakers for cutting and paring 
leather. 

Shoe-latchet (sholach-et), n. A shoe-tie. 

Shoe-leather (shd'leTH-6r), n. Leather for 
singes. Boyle. 

Shoeless (s'ho'les), a. Destitute of shoes. 

Caltrops very much incommoded the shoeless Moors. 
Addison. 

Shoemaker (shb'mak-6r), n. Properly, a 
maker of shoes, though this name is often 
applied to every one connected with the 
calliug, as the person who makes boots or 
any other article in the trade, and also to 
the employing party as well as the em- 
ployed. 

Shoemaking ( shb'mak-ing ), n. The trade 
of making shoes. 

Shoe-pack (sho'pak), n. A moccasin made 
of tatined leather, with the black side in. 

Shoe-peg (shb'peg), n. A small pointed peg 
or slip of wood used to fasten the upper to 
the sole, and the outer and inner sole toge- 
ther. Pegs of compressed leather and metal 
rivets are also used for this purpose. 

Shoer (shd'6r), n. One that furnishes or 
puts on shoes; as, a %hoer of horses. 

Shoe-shave (sho'shav), n. An instrument 
on the principle of a spokeshave for trim- 
ming the soles of boots and shoes. 

Shoe - stirrup (shd'st6r-rup), n. A stirrup 
liaving a foot-rest shaped like a shoe. 

Shoe-stone (shb'ston), n. A whetstone for 
a shoe-knife. 

Shoe-strap (shb'strap), n. A strap attached 
to a shoe for fastening it to the foot. 

Shoe -stretcher (shb'strech-6r), n. An ex- 
pansible last made in two or more pieces 
for distending slioes. 

Shoe-string (shb'string), n. A string used 
to fasten the shoe to the foot. 

Shoe-tie (shb'ti), n. A ribbon or string for 
fastening the two sides of the shoe together. 

Shofe,t 2Jref. Shoved; thrust. Chaucer. 

Shog (shog), n. [A word originating partly 
in jog, pai'tly in shock.] A sudden sliake; a 
shock; concussion. Dryden; Bentley. 

Shog (shog), v.t. To shake; to agitate. 

Shojg (shog), v.i. To move off; to be gone; 
to jog. 

Come, prithee, let us sho^ off. 

And browse an hour or two. Beau. &■ FL 

Shogging (shog'ing), n. Concussion. 

ShOggle (shog'l), v.t. [Freq. of akog; comp. 

Joggle.] To shake; to joggle. [Provincial.] 

Shogun (sho'gun), n. The proper name of 
the major-domos of the imperial palace 
and generalissimos of Japan, who formerly 
usurped the governing power. Also called 
Tycoon. See Tycoon. 

Shola (shola), n. See Sola. 

ShOle t (shol), n. [See SHOAL. ] A throng ; a 
crowd ; a shoal. 

Shole.tft. [See Shoal.] Shallow. Speiiser. 

Shole (shol), n. Naut. a piece of plank 
placed under the soles of standards, or im- 
der the heels of shores, in docks or on slips 
where there are no groundways, in order 
to enable them to sustain the weight re- 
quired without sinking. Also, a piece of 
plank fixed under anything by way of pro- 
tection, as a piece put on the lower end of 
a rudder, which, in case of the ship's strik- 
ing the ground, may be knocked off without 
injury to the rudder. 

Sh01ide,t n. [A. Sax. second. See Shend.] 
Harm; injury. Chaucer. 

Shone (shon), pret. & pp. of shine. 

Shoo (shb), inierj. [Comp. G. sckeuchen, to 
scare.] Begone! off! away! used in scaring 
away fowls and other animals. Also written 
Skough, Shue. 



Shook (sh^k), pret. & pp. ot shake. 

Shook (shnk), n. [A form of shock, a pile of 
sheaves (which see).] A set of staves and 
headings sutflcient for one hogshead, barrel, 
and the like, prepared for use and bound 
up in a compact form for convenience of 
transport. Boards for boxes, prepared or 
fitted for use and packed in the same way, 
bear the same name. 

Shook (shiik), v.t. To pack in shooks. 

Shool (sIiUI), v.t. To shovel. [Scotch.] 

ShOOl (shtil), n. A shovel. [Scotch.] 

Shoont (shun), old pi. of shoe (which see). 

Shoot (shot), v.t. pret. & pp. shot; ppr. 
shootin}j (the participle shottcn is obsolete). 
[A. Sax. sceOtan, to shoot, rush, dart ; Icel. 
skjdta, to shoot (a weapon), to push, to 
shove ; Dan. skyde, to shoot, to push, to 
sprout ; so also D. schieten, G. schiessen, to 
shoot, dart, &c. Shut is a closely allied 
form.] 1. To let fly or cause to be driven 
with force; to propel, as from a bow or fire- 
arm : followed by a word denoting the mis- 
sile as an object ; as, to shoot an arrow, a 
ball, or the like. 'A fine volley of words, 
and quickly shot off.' Shak. 

This murderous shaft that's shot 
Is not yet lighted, and our safest way 
Is to avoid the aim. Shak. 

2. To discharge, causing a missile or charge 
to be driven forth ; to let off ; to fii-e off : 
with the weapon as an object, and followed 
generally by off. 'Examples, which like a 
warning-piece must be shot off to frighten 
others.' Dryden.— Z. To strike with any- 
thing shot; to hit, wound, or kill with a 
missile discharged from a weapon: with the 
person or thing struck as the object. ' Love's 
bow shoots buck and doe.' Shak. 'Shoot 
folly as it files.' Pope.—'i. To send out or 
forth with a sudden or violent motion ; to 
discharge, propel, expel, or enlpty out with 
rapidity or violence. 'A pit into which 
the dead-carts had nightly shot corpses by 
scores.' Macaulay. 'Open waste spaces, 
where rubbish is shot without let or hin- 
drance.* W. H. Russell. 

Mr. Weller wheeled his masternimbly to the green 
hill, shot him dexterously out by the side of the bas- 
ket. Dickens. 

5. To drive or cast with the hand in work- 
ing. 'An honest weaver as ever shot shuttle. ' 
B. Jonson. —6. To push or thrust forward ; 
to dart forth; to protrude. 

All they that see me laugh me to scorn; they shoot 
out the lip, they shake the head. Ps. xxii. 7. 

Beware the secret snake that sheets a sting. 

Dryden. 

7. To put forth or extend by way of vege- 
table growth. Ezek. xxxi. 14 ; Mark iv. 32. 

8. To variegate, as by sprinkling or inter- 
mingling different colours; to give a chang- 
ing colour to; to colour in spots or patches; 
to streak. 

The tangled watercourses slept. 
Shot over with purple and green and yellow. 
Ten »y son. 

9. To pass rapidly through, under, or over; 
as, to shoot a rapid or a bridge. ' She . . . 
shoots the Stygian sound.' Dryden. 'Shoot- 
ing Niagara.' CaWf/ie.— 10. In carp, to plane 
straight or fit by planing. ' Two pieces of 
wood that are shot, that is. planed or pared 
with a chisel.' Moxon. — To he shot of, to 
get quit of ; to be released from. [Colloq.] 

Are you not glad to be shot ^him ! Sir It'. Scott. 

— ril be Shot, a mild euphemistic form of 
oath. 

/'// de shot if it an't very curious. Dickens. 
Shoot (shbt), V.i. 1. To perform the act of 
discharging a missile from an engine or in- 
strument; to fire; as, to shoot at a target or 
mark. 

The archers have sorely grieved him, and shot at 
him. Gen. xlix. 23. 

2. To be emitted ; to dart forth ; to rush or 
move along rapidly; to dart along. 'And 
certain stars shot madly from their spheres.' 
Shak. 

There shot a streaming lamp along the sky. 

Dryden. 

3. To be felt as if darting through one ; as, 
shooting pains. 

Thy words shoot through my heart. Addison. 

4. To be affected with sharp darting pains. 

These preachers make 
His head to shoot and ache. Herbert. 

5. To sprout; to germinate; to put forth 
buds or shoots. ' Onions, as they hang, will 
shoot forth. ' Bacon. — 6. To increase in 
growth; to grow taller or larger. 

The monarch oak, the patriarch of the trees. 
Shoots rising up, and spreads by slow degrees. 
Dryden. 



7. To make progress; to advance. 

Delightful task, to rear the tender thought. 

To teach the young idea how to shoot. Thotnson. 

8. To take instantaneous and solid shape- 

If the menstruum be overcharged metals will shaot 
into crystals. Bacon. 

9. To push or be pushed out ; to stretch; to 

project; to jut. 

Its dominions shoot out into several branches 
through the breaks of the mountains. Addtson. 

— To shoot ahead, to move swiftly away in 
front; to outstrip competitors in running, 
sailing, swimming, or the like. 
Shoot (shot ), n. 1. The act of one who or 
tliat which shoots ; the discharge of a mis- 
sile; a shot. Shak. 

The Turkish bow giveth a very forcible shoot. 
Bacon. 

The spindle of the shuttle contains enough weft for 
several shoots or throws. English Encyc. 

2. A young branch which shoots out from 
the main stock; hence, an annual growth, 
as the annual layer of growth on the shell 
of an oyster.— 3. A young swine. [In this 
sense written also Shote, Shoat.] — 4. The 
thrust of an arch. — 5. In mining, a vein run- 
ning parallel to the strata in which it occurs. 

6. A kind of sloping trough for conveying 
coal, grain, &c., into a particular receptacle. 

7. A place for shooting rubbish into. 

These (refuse bricks) they usually carry to the 
shoots. Mayhew. 

8. A weft thread in a woven fabric. 

The patentee throws in a thick shoot or weft of 
woollen or cotton. Ure. 

Shoot (shbt), n. [Fr. chute, but the form 
has been modified by the verb to shoot] 
Same as Chute. 

Shooter (shbt'^r), n. 1. One that shoots; an 
archer; a gunner. — 2. An implement for 
shooting; a gun; as, a pea-shooter; a six- 
sAooter.— 3. A shooting-star. Herbert. [Rare.] 

Shooting (shbt'ing), p. and a. Pertaining to 
one who or that which shoots ; especially, 
pertaining to or connected with the killing 
of game by firearms ; as, a shooting license; 
the shooting season. 

Shooting (shot'ing), ?*. 1. The act of one 
who shoots; the act or practice of discharg- 
ing firearms; especially, the act or practice 
of killing game with firearms; as, to be 
fond of shooting and fishing.— 2. A right to 
shoot game over a certain district. —3. A 
district or defined tract of ground over 
which game is shot. — 4. Sensation of a quick 
glancing pain. 

I fancy we shall have some rain by the shooting of 
my corns. Goldsmith. 

5. In carp, the operation of planing the edge 
of a board straight. 

Shooting-board (shbt'ing-b6rd),n. A board 
or planed metallic slab with a race on which 
an oliject is held while its edge is squared 
or reduced by a side-plane. It is used by 
carpenters and joiners, and also by stereo- 
typers in trimming the edges of stereotype 
plates. 

Shooting-hOZ (shbt'ing-boks), n. A house 
for the accommodation of a sportsman dur- 
ing the shooting season. 

Shooting-coat (shbt'ing-kbt), n. The name 
given by tailors to a variety of coat sup- 
posed to be suitable for sportsmen. 

Shooting-gallery (shbt'ing-gaI-16-ri), n. A 
place covered in for the practice of shoot- 
ing; a covered shooting range. 

Shooting-jacket (shbt'ing-jak-et).n. A name 
given by tailors to a kind of jacket supposed 
to be suitable for shooting purposes. 

Shooting-Star (shbt'ing-star), n. A meteor 
in a state uf incandescence seen suddenly 
darting along some part of the sky. See 
Aekolite, Meteor, 2. and Meteoric. 

Shooting-stick (shbt'ing-stik), n. An im- 
plement used by printers for tightening or 
loosening the coins that wedge up the pages 
in a chase. It is in the shape of a wedge 
about 1 inch broad and 9 inches long, and is 
made of hardwood or iron. 

Shooty (shbt'i), a. Of equal growth or size; 
coming up regularly in the rows, as pota- 
toes. [Local.] 

Shop (shop), n. [A. Sax. sceappa, a treasurj'. 
a storehouse; O.D. schop, l.G. schvpp, G. 
schoppen, schuppen, a shed, booth, A'c] l.A 
building or apartment, generally with afront- 
age to the street or roadway, and in which 
goods are sold by retail. —2. A building in 
which workmen or operatives cany on their 
occupation; as, a joiner's shop; an engine 
shop; a vforkshop.—Z. One's business or pro- 
fession: generally used in connection with a 
pei'son whose mind is of a limited range and 



Fate, far, fat. fftU; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abttne; y, Sc. f«y. 



SHOP 

confined to his own calling. ' The shop sits 
heavy on him.' Dickem. [Colloq.] 

He thinks he has a soul beyond the sftofi. 

ComhUl Mag, 

—To talk shop, to speak of one's calling or 
profession only. 

Shop (shop), v.i. pret. shopped; ppr. shop- 
ping. To visit shops for purchasing goods: 
used chiefly in the present participle ; as, 
the lady is shopping. 

Shop-tlll ( shop'bif), n. An advertisement 
of a shopkeeper's business or list of his 
goods, printed separately for distribution. 

Shop-board (shop'bord), n. A bench on 
which work is performed. 

Nor till the late age was it ever known that any 
one served seven years to a smith or tailor, that he 
should commence doctor or divine from the shofi- 
board or the anvil. South. 



Shop-book (shopTjuk), n. A book in which 
a tradesman keeps his accounts. Locke. 

Shop-boy (shop'boi), n. A boy employed in 
a bhup. 

Shope.t pret. of shape. Shaped; framed. 
Chaucer. 

Shop-glTl (shop'girlX n. A girl employed 
in a shop. 

Shopkeeper (shdp'kep-«r), n. 1. One who 
keeps a shop for the retail sale of goods ; a 
trader who sells goods in a shop or by re- 
tail, in distinction from a merchant, or one 
who sells by wholesale; a tradesman. 

To found a great empire for the sole purpose of 
raising up a people of customers may at first sight 
appear a project only for a nation otihopkttperi. 
Ad. Smilk. 

2. An article that has been long on hand in 
a shop; as, that bonnet is an old shopkeeper. 
[Familiar] 

Shopkeepin^ (shop'kep-ing), n. The busi- 
ness 'if keeping a shop. 

Shoplifter (shop'lift-er), n. One who steals 
anything in a shop or purloins goods from 
a shop; particularly, one who under pre- 
tence of buying goods takes occasion to 
steal Swift. 

Shoplifting (shoplift-ing), n. Larceny com- 
mitted in a shop; the stealing of anything 
from a shop. 

Shoplike (shop'lik). a. Low; vulgar. 'Be 
she never so shoplike or meretricious.' B. 
J'jttson. 

Shop-maid (shop'madx n. A young woman 
who attL-iids in a shop. 

Shopman (shop'mao), >i. 1. A petty trader; 
a shopkeeper. 

The shttpman sells, and by destraction lives. 

• « . DrydtH. 

2. One who aerves in a shop. 

My wife . . . could be of much use as a shopman 
to me. idUr. 

Shopocracy (shop-ok'ra-si), n. The body of 
sh"i)keeper8. (Humorous.) 

Shopper ( shop'6r), »t. One who shops; one 
wiiM fre<|Uent« shops. 

Shopplsh (shop'ish). a. Having the habits 
ana manners of a shopman. 

Shoppy (shoi/i), a. 1. Pertaining to a shop 
or shops; abounding with shops: as. a shoppy 
neighbourhood. -2. A term applied to aper- 
«on full of nothing but bis own calling or 
profession. Mrs. Giukell. [Colloq. in both 
senses. ] 

Shop-8hlftt (shop'shift). n. The shift or 
tricK uf a shopkeeper; deception. ' lliere's 
a thop-thi.n: plague on 'em.' jB. Jonson. 

Shop-walker (shop'wak-tr), n. An attend- 
ant or overseer in a large shop who walks 
in front of the counter attending to cus- 
tomers, directing them to the proper de- 
partment for the goods they need, seeing 
that they are served, and the like. 

Shop- woman (shop'wn-man), u. A woman 
wih. scr\fs in a shop. 

Shop-worn (shop'wom), a. Somewhat worn 
or diiTii;ti;nl by being kept long in a shop. 

Shorage (^hor'iij), n. Duty paid for goods 
br.iugbt on shore. 

Shore (shor), pret. of shear. 

This heard Geratnt. and erasping at his sword, . . . 
iJi'^rt through the swarthy neck. Tennyson. 

Shore (shOr), n. (A. Sax. score, the shore, 
from «ceron, «tnran, to shear, to divide; O.D. 
schoore, schitor. The shore is therefore the 
Hue at which the sea is divided from the 
land. See .SHEAR.) 1. l^he coast or land 
adjacent to a great body of water, as an 
ocean or sea, or to a large lake or river. 
'The fruitful shore of muddy Nile.' ,^n- 
»er 'The dreadful shore of Styx.' Skak. 
* When loud surges lash the sounding shore. ' 
Pope. 

And two such shorts to two such streams made one. 
Two such controlling bounds shall you be, kings. 
To these two princes, if you marry them. Sh4th. 



67 

2. In law, the space between ordinary high- 
water mark and low- water mark; fore- 
shore. 

In the Roman law, the s/iore included the land as 
high up as the largest wave extended in winter. 

BitrriU. 

Snore (shor), v. t. To set on shore. 

I will brinp these two moles, these blind ones 
aboard him, if he thinks it fit to shore them again. 

Shore (shor), n. A sewer (which see). 

Shore (shor), n. [D. and L.G. schore, schoor, 
Icel. skortha, a prop, a shore. The word may 
have meant originally a piece or length of 
timber, and is thus from A. Sax. sceran, to 
shear, and akin to shore, the beach.] A prop; 
a piece of timber or iron for the temporary 
support of something. 

As touching props and shcres to support vines, the 
best (as we nave said) are those of the oke or olive 
tr«e. Hoiland. 

Especially, (a) a prop or oblique timber 
acting as a strut on the side of a building, 
as when it is in danger of falling, or when 
alterations are being made on the lower 
part of it, the upper end of the shore rest- 
ing against that part of the wall on which 
there is the greatest stress. (&) In ship- 
building, (1) a prop fixed under a ship's side 
or bottom to support her on the stocks, or 
when laid on the blocks on the slip. (2) A 
timber temporarily placed beneatli a beam 
to afford additional support to the deck 
when taking in the lower masts. See also the 
articles Dog-shore, .Skeg-shore, and Spur. 
— Dead shore, an upright piece fixed in a 
wall that has been cut or broken through 
to support the superstructure during the 
alterations being made on the building. 
Shore (shor), v.t. pret. & pp. shored; ppr. 
shoring. To support by a post or shore; 
to prop: usually with up; as, to shore up a 
building. 

The most of his allies rather leaned upon him than 
shored him «/, (yollan. 

Shore (shorX v.t. To threaten; to offer. 
[Scotch.] 

A panegyric rhyme. I ween. 

Even as I was he shcred me. Bums. 

Shorea (shO're-a), n. [Perhaps from some 
person of the name of Shore.] A small genus 
of Indian plants, nat. order Dipteraceie. One 
species (5. robusta) is a lofty and orna- 
mental tree with en- 
tire leaves and axillary 
and terminal panicles 
of very sweet yellow 
flowers, which are 
succeeded by shuttle- 
cock-like fruits, the 
shape of which is 
caused by the ultimate 
enlargement of the 
sepals into erect leafy 
wmga surmounting 
the fruit. It yields the 
timber called in India 
saxU or sal, which is 
employed in the 
North-west Prcrvinces ^rmt of Sk^rea fv6usia. 
in all government 
works, house timbers, gun-carriages, Ac. 
The wood is of a uniform light-brown col- 
our, close-grained and strong. The tree 
exudes a resin called by the natives ral or 
dhnona. See Sal. 

Shoreage (slior'aj), n. Same as Shorage. 

Shore-land (shor'land), n. Land bordering 
on a shore or sea-beach. 

Shoreless (shor'les), a. Having no shore or 
coast; of indefinite or unlimited extent. 

The short channels of expiring time, 

<Jr shsireUss ocean of eternity. Ycung. 

Shorellng (shoraing). n. Same as Shorting. 
Shoreward (shor'werd), adv. Towards the 

shore. 

This mounting wave will roll us shorrward soon. 
^. Tennyson. 

Shoreweed (shoi'wed), n. A British plant 
of the genus Littorella. the L. lacustris. See 

LlTTOREM.A. 

Shoring (shoeing), n. 1. The act of sup- 
porting with props or shores.— 2. A number 
or set of prr>p3 or shores taken collectively. 

Shorl. See Schorl. 

Shorlaceous (shorda'shus). See Sghorla- 

CEol'S. 

Shorllng (shorling), n. [From shear, pret. 
shore.] 1. Wool shorn from a living sheep, 
in opposition to that of a dead sneep or 
moriing (which see).— 2. A sheep of the first 
year's shearing; a shearling; a newly shorn 
sheep. — 3 t A shaveling; a contemptuous 
name for a priest 

ShorUte (shorlit). See Schorlitk. 



SHORT 




Shorn (shorn), pp. of shear. 1. Cut off; as, 
a lock of wool shom.~2. Having the hair or 
wool cut off; as, a shorn lamb.— 3. Deprived; 
as, a prince shorn of his honours. ' Koyalty 
. . . not shorn of its dignity.' Quart. Rev. 



Nor appeared 
— angel ruined, and the excess 
Of glory obscured: as when the sun, new-risen. 



Less than archangel ruined, . 



Looks through the horizontal misty air, 
Shorn of his beams. MUlou. 

Short (short), a. [A. Sax. sceort, scort, short, 
from the stem of shear, to cut off ; O. H G 
scurz, short, cut off; Icel. skorta, to be short 
of, to lack, hence skort, participle, used in 
such phrases as to be short, to fall short.} 

1. Not long; not having great length or 
linear extension; as, a short distance; a 
short flight; a short piece of timber. 

The bed is shorter than that a man can stretch 
himself on it. Is. xxviii. 20. 

2. Not extended in time ; not of long dura- 
tion. 

The triumphing of the wicked is short. Job xx. 5. 

3. Not Up to a fixed or certain standafd ; 
not reaching a certain point; limited in 
quantity; insufficient; inadequate ; scanty; 
deficient ; defective ; as, a short supply of 
pro visions; s/ior( allowance of money or food; 
short weight or measure. * Praise too short' 
Shak. 

I t's not to put off bad money, or to give short mea- 
sure or iighfweight. Jerroid. 

4. Insufficiently provided; inadequately sup- 
plied ; scantily furnished ; not possessed of 
a reasonable or usual quantity or amount : 
only used predicatively.and often with of; as, 
we have not got our quantity, we are" still 
shmt; to be short of money or means. 'Short 
(i/" succours, and in deep despair' Druden. 

5. Not far in the futtire; not distant in "time; 
near at hand. * Sore offended that his de- 
parture should be so short' Spenser. 

He commanded those who were appointed to at- 
tend him to be ready by a short day. Clarendon. 

6. Limited in intellectual power or grasp ; 
not far-reaching or comprehensive; con- 
tracted; narrow; not tenacious; as, tt. short 
memory. ' Since their own short understand- 
ings reach no further than the present' 
iioK'e.—7.Curt;brief; abrupt; pointed;sharp; 
petulant; severe; uncivil; as, a short answer. 

1 will be bitter with him. and passing short. Shak. 

8. Breaking or crumbling readily in the 
mouth; crisp; as, the paste is light and Mort 

His flesh is not firm, but short and tasteless. 
^ Iz. It'alton. 

9. Brittle : friable : as, iron is made cold- 
short, that is, brittle when cold, by the pre- 
sence of phosphorus, and hot-short or red- 
short by the presence of sulphur.— 10. Not 
prolonged in sound; as, a short vowel or 
syllable ; the o-sound is long in coat and 
short in co<.— 11. Unmixed with water; un- 
diluted, as spirits; neat [Slang.] 

Come, Jack, let us have a drop of something short, 
TroUope. 

12. Followed by of, and used predicatively 
in comparative statements; (a) less than; 
below; inferior to; as, his escape was nothing 
short qf a miracle. 

Hardly anything short of an invasion could rouse 
them to war. Landor. 

(6) Inadequate to; not equal to. 

Immoderate praises the foolish lover thinks short 
of his mistress, though they reach far beyond the 
heavens. Sir P. Sidney. 

—At short siffht, a term used with reference 
to a bill which is payable soon after being 
presented to the acceptor or payer.— SAorf 
allowance. ]esa than the usual or regularquan- 
tity served out, as the allowance to sailors or 
soldiers during a protracted voyage, march, 
siege, or the like, when the stock of pro- 
visions is getting low, with no prospect of 
a speedy fresh supply. In the royal navy 
officers and men are paid the nominal value 
of the provisions so stopped, such sum being 
called short allowarice money.— Short is used 
in the formation of numerous self-explain- 
ing compounds, as short-artned, short-enred, 
short-legged, short-tailed, &c. 
Short (short), adv. In a short manner: not 
long; limitedly; briefly; abruptly; suddenly; 
as, to stop short; to run short; to turn short 
—To come short, to be unable to fulfil, as 
a command, demand, hope, expectation, or 
the like ; to be unable to reach, as a certain 
necessary point or standard ; to fail in ; to 
be deficient in: generally followed by of. 

For all have sinned, and come short of the ^lory ot 
God. Rom. lii. 23. 

To attain 
The htghth and depth of Thy eternal ways 
All human thoughts come short. Milton. 



ch,cAain: bh. Sc. lot*; g.jo; J, job; fi, Fr. ton; ng, sinjr; IH, tAen; tli, «Ain; w, uiig; wh, isAig; zh, azure. -See KEY 



SHORT 



68 



SHOT 



—To /all short, (a) to be inadequate or in- 
sufficient; as, provisions fall short; money 
/alls short, {b) To be not equal to ; to be 
unable to do or accomplish. ' He /ell much 
short of what I had attained to." Newton. 
'Their practice fell short of their know- 
ledge.' South.~To sell short, in stock-brok- 
ing, to sell for future delivery what the 
seller does not at the time possess, but hopes 
to buy at a lower rate.— 7*0 stop short, (a) to 
stop suddenly or abruptly ; to arrest one's 
self at once. ' As one condemned to leap a 
precipice . . . stops short' Dryden. (&) Not 
:to reach the extent or importance of ; not 
to go so far as intended or wished ; not to 
reach the point indicated. ' Opposition 
which stopped short of open rebellion.' 
Macaulay.—To take short, to take to task 
suddenly; to check abruptly; to reprimand; 
to answer curtly or uncivilly: sometimes 
with wp.— To turn short, to turn on the spot 
occupied; to turn without making a com- 
pass; to turn round abruptly. * For turning 
short he struck with all his might.' Dryden. 
Short (short), n. 1. A summary account; 
as, the short of the matter. 

The short on't is, 'tis indifferent to your humble 
servant whatever your party says. Dryden. 

2. In pros, a short syllable ; as, mind your 
longs and shorts. [School slang.]— /n short, 
in few words; briefly; to sum up in few 
words. 

In short, she makes a man of him at sixteen, and a 
boy all his life after. Sir R. V Estrange. 

—The long and the short, a brief summing 
up' in decisive, precise, or explicit terms. 
* The short and the long is, our play is pre- 
ferred. ' Shak. 

Short (short), v.t. 1. To shorten. -2.t To 
make the time appear short to ; to amuse ; 
to divert : used reflexively. 

Furth I fure ... to schort me on the sandis. 

Sir D. Liftdsay. 

Shortt (short), v.i. To fail; to decrease. 

His sight wasteth. his wytte mynysheth, his lyf 
shorteth. The book of Good Manners, i486. 

Shortage (short'aj), n. Amount short or 
deficient; often an amount by which a sura 
of money is deficient. 

Short-billed (short'bild), a. Having a short 
bill or beak; brevirostrate; as, short-billed 
birds. 

Short-bread (short'bred),7i. Same as Short- 
cake. 

Short-breathed (short'bretht), a. Hav- 
ing short breath or quick respiration. Ar- 
hxtthnot. 

Short-cake (short'kak), ». A sweet and 
very brittle cake, in which butter or lard has 
been mixed with the flour. 

Short-clothes (short'kloTHz), 71. pi. Cover- 
ings for the legs of men or boys, consisting 
of breeches coming down to the knees, and 
long stockings. 

Shortcoming (short'kum-ing),n. 1. A failing 
of the usual produce, quantity, or amount, 
as of a crop.— 2. A failure of full perform- 
ance, as of duty. 

Short-dated (short'dat-ed),a. Having little 
time to run. ' The course of thy short-dated 
life.' Sandys. 

Short-drawn (short'drsn), a. Drawn in 
without filling the lungs; imperfectly in- 
spired; as, short-drawn hvQa.t\i. 

Shorten (short'n), v. t. [From short ] 1. To 
make short in measure, extent, or time; as, 
to shorten distance ; to shorten a road ; to 
shorten days of calamity.— 2. To abridge; to 
lessen ; to make to appear short ; as, to 
shorten labour or work. 

We shorten'd days to moments by love's art. 

Suckling. 

3. To curtail; as, to shorten the hair by clip- 
ping. —4. To contract; to lessen; to diminish 
in extent or amoimt; as, to shorten sail; to 
shorten an allowance of provisions.— 5. To 
confine; to restrain. 

Here where the subject is so fruitful, I am shortened 
by my chain. Dryden. 

6. To lop; to deprive. 'Spoil'd of his nose, 
and shorten'd of his ears.' Dryden.— 7. To 
make short or friable, as pastry, with butter 
or lard. 

Shorten (short'n), v.i. 1. To become short 
or shorter. ' The sAor(e7mi{; day. ' Swift — 
2. To contract; as, a cord shortens by being 
wet; a metallic rod shortens by cold. 

Shortener <short'n-6r), n. One who or that 
which shortens. 

Shortening (short'n-ing), n. 1. The act of 
making short.— 2. Something used in cook- 
ery to make paste short or friable, as butter 
or lard. 



Shorthand (shorfhand), 71. A general term 
for any system of contracted writing; a 
method of writing by substituting charac- 
ters, abbreviations, or symbols for words; 
stenography. 

In shorthand skilled, where little marks comprise 
Whole words, a sentence in a letter lies. Creech. 

Short-handed (short'hand-ed), a. Not hav- 
ing the necessary or regular number of 
hands, servants, or assistants. 

Short-head (shorfhed), n. A sailor's term 
for a sucking whale under one year old, 
which is very fat and yields above thirty 
barrels of blubber. Siinmonds. 

Short-horn (shorfhom), n. One of a breed 
of oxen, having the horns shorter than in 
almost any other variety. The breed ori- 
ginated in the beginning of this century in 
the valley of the Tees, but is now spread over 
all the richly pastured districts of Britain. 
The cattle are easily fattened, and the flesh 
is of excellent quality, but for dairy purposes 
they are inferior to some other breeds. The 
word is often used adjectively; as, the short- 
horn breed. 

Short -homed ( short 'homd), a. Having 
short horns ; as, the short-homed breed of 
cattle. 

Short-Jointed (short'joint-ed), a. 1. Hay- 
ing short intervals between the joints: said 
of plants.— 2. Having a short pastern: said 
of a horse. 

Short -laid (short'lad), a. A term in rope- 
making for short-twisted. 

Short-lived (short'livd), a. Not living or 
lasting long; being of short continuance: 
as, a short-lived race of beings ; short-lived 
pleasure; short-lived passion. 'Short-lived 
pride. ' Shak. 

Suit lightly won. and short-lived ^ain. 

For monarchs seldom sigh in vain. Sir TV, Scott. 

Shortly (short'li), adv. In a short or brief 
time or manner; as, (a) quickly; soon. 'Did 
return to be shortly murdered.' Shak. 

The armies came shortly in view of each other. 
Clarendon. 

(6) In few words; briefly; as, to express 
ideas more shortly in verse than in prose. 
Shortness (short'nes), n. The quality of 
being short ; as, (a) want of length or ex- 
tent in space or time; little length or little 
duration ; as, the shortness of a journey or 
of distance ; the shortness of the days in 
winter; the shortness of life. 

I'd make a journey twice as far. to enjoy 
A second night of such sweet shortness, Shak. 
They move strongest in a right line, which is caused 
by the shortness of the distance. Bacon. 

(&) Fewness of words; brevity; conciseness. 

The necessity of shortness causeth men to cut off 
impertinent discourses, and to comprise much matter 
in a few words. Hooker. 

(c) Want of reach or the power of retention; 
as, the shortness of the memory, (d) Defi- 
ciency; imperfection; limited extent; pov- 
erty; as, the shortness of our reason. 

Short-rib (short'rib), n. One of the lower 
ribs ; a rib shorter than the others, below 
the sternum; a false rib. Wiseman. 

Shorts (shorts), n. pi. 1. The bran and 
coarse part of meal, m mixture.— 2. A term 
in rope-making for the toppings and tailings 
of hemp, which are dressed for bolt-ropes 
and whale lines. The term is also employed 
to denote the distinction between the long 
hemp used in making staple-ropes and in- 
ferior hemp. — 3. Small clothes; breeches. 
'A little emphatic man, with a bald head 
and drab «Aor(5.' Dickens. [Colloq.] 

Short - shipped (short'shipt), a. 1. Put on 
board ship in deficient quantity.— 2. Shut 
out from a ship accidentally or for want of 
room. 

Short-sight (short'sit), n. Near-sighted- 
ness; myopia; vision accurate only when 
the object is near. 

Short-sighted ( short' sit -ed), a. 1. Not 
able to see far; having limited vision; my- 
opic; near-sighted. 

Short-sighted men see remote objects best in old 
age. Newton. 

2. Not able to look far into futurity; not 
able to understand things deep or remote; 
of limited intellect. 

The foolish and short-sighted die with fear 
That they go nowhere. Sir J. Denham. 

3. Proceeding from or characterized by a 
want of foresight; as, a short-sighted policy. 

Short-sightedness (short'sit-eil-nes), n. 
The state or quality of being short-sighted : 
(a) A defect in vision, consisting in the in- 
ability to see things at a distance or at the 
distance to which the sight ordinarily ex- 



tends; myopia; near-sightedness. (6) Defec- 
tive or limited intellectual sight; inability 
to see far into futurity or into things deep 
or abstruse. 

Cunning is a sort o{ short-sightedness. Addison. 

Short-spoken (short'spo-kn), a. Speaking 
in a short or quick-tempered manner; sharp 
in address. 

Short-waisted (short'wast-ed), a. Ha\ing 
a short waist or body: said of a person, a 
dress, or a ship. 

Short-winded (short'wind-ed), a. Affected 
with shortness of breath ; having a quick 
respiration, as dyspnoic and asthmatic per- 
sons. 

He sure means brevity in breath, short-winded . Shak. 
Short-Witted (short'wit-ed), a. Having 
little wit; not wise; of scanty intellect or 
judgment. 

Piety doth not require at our hands that we should 
be either short-ivitted or beggarly. Sir M. Hale. 

Shory (shor'i), a. Lying near the shore or 
coast. [Rare. ] 

Those shory parts are generally but some fathoms 
deep. T. Burnet. 

Shot (shot), n. [Both Shot and Shots are 
used as the plural. ] [From shoot (which see); 
A. Sax. gescot, an arrow.] 1. The act of shoot- 
ing; discharge of a firearm or other missile 
weapon. 

He caused twenty shot of his greatest cannon to 
be made at the king's army. Clarendon. 

Here once the embattled farmers stood 
And fired the shot heard round the world. Emerson. 

2. A missile, particularly a ball or bullet. 
The term shot is generally applied to all 
solid projectiles, and also to hollow pro- 
jectiles without bursting charges. In heavy 
ordnance spheres of stone were originally 
used, but lead and iron balls were after- 
wards substituted. The introduction of 
rifled firearms has led to the almost uni- 
versal adoption of elongated shot, and, as 
in the case of the Palliser shot, the same 
projectile may be used with or without a 
bursting charge, as it is cast hollow so as 
to answer the functions either of a shot or 
shell. Spherical shot of cast-iron are still 
retained in use for mortars or smooth-bore 
ordnance. Various kinds of shot are or 
have been used, and are classified according 
to the material, according to form, and ac- 
cording to structure and mode of operation; 
as, angel-shot, bar-shot, buck-shot, chain-shot, 
case-shot, canister, crossbar-shot, grape-shot, 
round-shot, sand-shot (which see).— 3. Small 
globular masses of lead for use with fowling- 
pieces, &c., made by running molten lead 
combined with a little arsenic through a 
sieve or pouring it from a ladle with a ser- 
rated edge from the top of a high tower 
(see Shot-tower) into water at the bottom. 
The stream of metal breaks into drops which 
become spherical. To obviate the use of the 
high tower various expedients have been 
tried, such as dropping the metal through 
a tube up through which a strong current 
of air is driven, or dropping the molten 
lead through a column of glycerine or oil. — 
4. The flight of a missile, or the range or 
distance through which it passes; as, a 
musket shot distant. 

A how-shot from her bower-eaves 

He rode between the barley-sheaves. Tennyson, 

Hence— 5. Range; reach. 

Keep you in the rear of your affection. 
Out of the shot and danger of desire. Shak. 

6. Anything emitted, cast, or thrown forth. 
'Shots of rain.' Ray. —7. In Scotland, 
among fishermen, the whole sweep of nets 
thrown out at one time; also, the number 
of fish caught in one haul of the nets. — 
8. One who shoots; a shooter; a marksman; 
as, he is the best shot in the company. * A 
little, lean, old, chapt, bald shot' Shak.: 
used as a collective noun. 'A guard of 
chosen shot' Shak.— 9. An inferior animal 
taken out of a drove of cattle or flock of 
sheep; also, a young hog. See Shote. — 
10. In weaving, a single thread of weft car- 
ried through the warp at one run of the 
shuttle.— 11. In blasting, a charge of powder 
or other explosive in a blast-hole, usually 
fired by a slow match.— SAo( 0/ a cable 
(naut), the splicing of two cables together, 
or the whole length of two cables thus 
united.—^ shot in the locker, money in the 
pocket or at one's disposal. [Colloq.] 

My wife shall travel like a lady. As long as there's 
a shot in the locker she shfiU want for nothing. 

Thackeray. 

Shot (shot), V.t pret. & pp. shotted; ppr. 
shotting. To load with shot over a car- 



Fate, f4r, fat, fftU; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abttne; y, Sc. fey. 



SHOT 



SHOUT 



tridge; as, to shot a gun. [The term is 
confined to charging cannon.] 
Shot (shot), p. and a. Having a changeable 
colour, like that produced in weaving by all 
the warp threads being of one colour and all 
the weft of another; chatoyant: as, shot- 
silk; hence, interwoven; intenningled ; in- 
terspersed. 'Black hair a little shot with 
grey.' G- A. Sala. 

The tangled water-courses slept. 

Shot over with purple, and green, andjrellow. 

Tifnnyson. 

ShOtft pp. of shette. Shut. Chaucer. 
BhOtt (shot), a. Advanced in years. 

Spenser. 
Shot (shot), n. [A corruption of scot (which 

see).] A reckoning, or a person's share of a 

reckoning; charge; share of expenses, as of 

a taveni-bilL 

rU to the alehouse with you presently; where for 
oneMe/of fivepence thou shalt have five thousand 
welcomes, Shak. 

As the fund of our pleasure, let us each pay his shot. 
B. yonson. 

Shot-anchor t (shot'ang-k^r), n. A sheet- 
ancJior. 

Shot-belt (ahofbelt), n. A leathern belt or 
long pouch for shot wore over the shoulder 
by sportsmen, and having a charger at tlie 
lower end. 

Shot-belted (shot'belt-ed), o. Wearing 
a shot-belt. 

Shot - cartridge (shotTtar-trij), n. A car- 
tridge fur use in a fowling-piece, &c., con- 
taining small shot instead of a bullet. 

Shot - clog t (shot'klog), lu A person who 
was a mere clog on a company, but tolerated 
because he paid the shot for the rest. 

Keep your distance, and be not made a skotelog 
any more. B. yansim. 

JEUlOte (shot), n. 1. [A.Sax. scedta, a shooting 
or darting flsh, from sceotan, to shoot.) A 
fiah resembling the trout. Itich. Carew. — 
2. A young hog ; a pig partially grown ; a 
shoat, shoot, or shot. [Provincial English.] 

Shotert (9hot'6r), u. A shooter. 

ShOt-free (shot'fre), a. 1. Free from shot 
or charge: exempted from any share of ex- 
pense; scot-free. 

Though I could 'scape shot-frte in London, I fear 
the shot here. Skak. 

2. Not injured or not to be injured by shot. 
*He that believes himself to be shot-free, 
and so will run among the hail of a battle.' 
FeUham.—S.i Unpunished; uninjured; scot- 
free. 

Shot-garland (shot'gar-land), n. Naut. a 
frame to contain shot secured to the coam- 
ings and ledges round the hatchway of a 
vessel. 

Shot-gauge (shot'g&j), n. An instrument 
fur testiii;; cannon projectiles. Shot-gauges 
are of two kinds— ring gauges and cylinder 
gaugea Two sizes of the first kind are em- 
ployed for each calibre. The shot or shell 
most pass through the larger but not through 
the smaller. It is afterwards rolled through 
the cylinder gauge, any jamming or sticking 
in which causes the rejection of the pro- 
jectile. 

Shot-glass (ahot'glas). n. In weaving, same 
as Cloth-prover. 

Shot-gun (shot'gun), n. A light, smooth- 
bored gun, especially designed for firing shot 
at short range; a fowling-piece. 

Shot-hole (shot'hdl), n. A hole made by a 
shut or bullet discharged. 

Shot-locker (shot'lok-^rX n. A strongly 
constructed compartment in a vessel's bold 
for containing shot. 

Shot-metal (shot'met-al), n. An alloy of 
lead o*i parts, and arsenic 1, used for making 
small .sbnt. 

Shot-plug (shot'plug), n. A tapered cone 
of wood driven into a shot-hole in a vessel's 
aide U> prevent leakage. 

Shot-pouch (s)iot'pouch), n. A pouch for 
carrying >«mall shot. It is usually made 
of leatlx-r, the mouthpiece being provided 
with a nifitsure having an adjustable cut-off 
to dt'tt-Tiiiint; the quantity of the charge. 

Shot-proof (.shot'prof). a. Proof against 
shot; nicapable of iH-ing damaged by shot. 

Shot-prop (shot'prop), n. A wooden prop 
or plug cuvered with hemp to stop a shot- 
hole in a !ilii]>'s side. 

Shot-rack (shotnik). n. A wooden rack in 
which a (_-<^Ttain quantity of shot is kept 

Shot-silk (shot'silk). n. A silk stuff whose 
warpund weft threudsareofditferentcolours 
so as to exhil)it changeable tints under vary- 
ing circumstances of light 

8hotte,t n. An arrow; a dart. Chaucer. 

Shotted (shot'ed), p. and a. 1. Loaded with 



shot over a cartridge : said of cannon. — 
2. Having a shot attached. 'The sei^e 
cap and shotted chain of any galley-slave.' 
Dickens. 
Shotten t (shot'n), a. [Pp. of shoot. ] l. Hav- 
ing ejected the spawn; as, a shotten herring. 
If manhood, good manhood, be not forgot upon the 
face of the earth, then am I a shotten herring. ShaA. 

2. Shot out of its socket ; dislocated, as a 
bone.— SAo(ten milk, a local term for sour, 
curdled milk. 

Shot-tower (shot'tou-^r). n. A lofty tower 
for making shot by pouring melted lead 
through a colander from the sunnnit, which 
forms into globules, cools and hardens as it 
falls, and is received into water or other 
liquid. 

Shot-window (shot'win-do), n. 1. A small 
window, chiefly filled with a board that 
opens and shuts. [Scotch.] 

Go to the shot--windo7ti instantly and see how many 
there are of them. Sir vy. Scott 

2. A window projecting from the wall. 
Shough t (shok), n. A kind of shaggy dog; 
a shock. 

Shoughs. water-rugs, and demi-wolves, are clept 
All by the name of dogs. Shak. 

Shough (sho). interj. [See Shoo.] Begone; 

away; a cry used to scare away fowls, &c. 

Shough, shough t up to your coop, peahen. 

Beau. Gf Ft. 

Should (shyd). The pret of shall. See 
Shall. 

Shoxilder (shol'dfir), n. [O.E. shulder, Sc 
shouther, A. Sax. sculdor, Dan. skulder, Sw. 
skuldra, D. schouder, G. schulter, the shoul- 
der, the shoulder-blade; from root of shield, 
and signifying lit. a broad shield-like bone ; 
comp. the other names shield-bone, blade- 
bone, 8houlder-6iarf«, and also Sc. spaul, 
O.Fr. espaule (Fr. ^ixiule), a shoulder, from 
L. spatula, from spatha, a broad wooden 
instrument] l.The j(unt by which the arm 
of a human !)eing or the foreleg of a quad- 
ruped is connected with the body; or in 
man, the projection formed by the bones 
called scapulie or shoulder-blades, which 
extend from the basis of the neck in a hori- 
zontal direction ; the bones and muscles of 
this part together — 2. The upper joint of 
the foreleg of an animal cut for the market; 
as, a shoulder of rtwxiio'n.—Shonlder-of-mut- 
ton sail, a triangular sail, so calle^I from the 
peculiarity of its form. It is chiefly used to 
set on a boat's mast. The upper comer is 
sometimes converted into a gatf top -sail, 
which can be lowered behind the other part 
of the sail when required to diminish the 




Boat with Shoulder-of-mutton Sail. 

quantity of sail aloft— 3. pi. The part of the 
human body on which the head stands; 
the upper part of the back; the part on 
which it is most easy to carry burdens. 

Thy head stands so tickle on thy shoulders that a 
milkntaid. if she be in love, may sigh it off. Shak, 
V\\ take that burden from your back. 
Or, lay on that shall make your shoulders crack. 
Shak. 
Adown her shoulders fell her length of hair. 

Dry den. 

Hence— 4. pi. t'sed as typical of sustaining 
power; the emblem of supporting strength. 
' Weak shoulders overborne with burthening 
grief.' Shak. — 5. That which resembles a 
human shoulder; a prominent or projecting 
part ; a declination or slope ; as, the shoul- 
der of a hiU. 

Jasper was coming^ over the shoulder of the Her* 

mon-Law. //c^y. 

More especially, a projection on an object to 
oppose or limit motion or form an abutment; 
a horizontal or rectangular projection from 



the body of a thing; as, (a) the butting-ring 
on the axle of a vehicle. (J>) The contraction 
of a lamp-chimney just above the level of 
the wick. (c)In carpentry, the square end of 
an object at the point where the tenon com- 
mences, as of a spoke, the stile of a door, 
&c. (d) In printing, the projection at the 
top of the shank of a type beyond the face 
of the letter, (e) In archery, the broad 
part of an arrow-head. —6. In fort, the angle 
of a bastion included between the face and 
flank. — 7. In the leather trade, a name given 
to tanned or curried hides and kips, and 
also to English and foreign oflaX.— The cold 
shoulder, the act of receiving without cor- 
diality, especially one with whom we have 
been on better temis ; a cold reception ; as, 
to give a person the cold shoulder.— To put 
one's shoulder to the wheel, to assist in bear- 
ing a burden or overcoming a difficulty; to 
exert one's self; to give effective help; to 
work personally. — Shoulder to shoidder, a 
phrase expressive of united action and mu- 
tual co-operation and support. 
Shoulder (shol'dSr), v.t. l.To push or thrust 
with the shoulder; to push with violence. 

Around her numberless the rabble flow'd 
Shouldring each other, crowding for a view. 
RoTve. 
2. To take upon the shoulder or shoulders; 
as, to shoulder a basket —3. Milit. to carry 
vertically at the side of the body and rest- 
ing against the hollow of the shoulder; as, 
to shoulder anns; to shoulder a musket, &c. 
'Shoulder'd his crutch and showed how 
fields were won.' Goldsmith. 

Shoulder (shol'd^r), v.i. To push forward, 
as with the shoulder foremost; to force 
one's way as through a crowd. * We shoul- 
dered throuixii the swarm.* Teniiyson. 

Shoulder-loelt (shol'dfir-belt), 7t. A belt 
that passes across the shoulder. 

Shoulder-blade (shol'd^r-blad), n. The 
bone of the shoulder, or blade-lwne, broad 
and triany:ular, covering the hind part of 
the ribs: called by anatomists scapida and 
otnoplate. 

I fear, sir, my shoulder-blade is out. . Shak. 

Shoulder-block (shol'dSr-blok), »*. Naut. a 
large single block having a 
projection on the shell to pre- 
vent the rope that is rove 
through it from becoming 
jammed between the block 
and the yard. 

Shoulder-bone (shSl'd^r-bon), 
11. The scapula; the shoulder- 
blade. * To see how the bear 
tore out his shoulder -bone.' 

Shoulder-block. Shak. 

Shoulder-clapper (shol'd^r- 
klap-6r), n. One that claps another on the 
shoulder, as in familiarity or to arrest him; 
a bailiff. 

A black friend, a shouldtr-elapper, one that coun- 
termands 
The passages of alleys. Shak. 

Shouldered (shol'd^rd), a. Having shoul- 
ders. 'Thighed and shouldered like the 
billows; footed like their stealing foam.' 
Ruskin. 

Shoulder-knot (shol'dSr-not), ?i. An orna- 
mental knot of ribbon or lace worn on the 
shoulder; an epaulet 

Before they were a month in town, great shoulder- 
knots came up ; straight, all the world was shoulder- 
knots. Swift. 

Shoulder-pegged (shol'd^r-pegd), a. Ap- 
plied to horses that are gourdy, stiff", and 
almost without motion. 

Shoulder-pitch (shol'dfir-pich), n. The pro- 
cess which terminates the spine of the sca- 
pula, and is articulated with the clavicle; 
the acromion. Cotgrave. 

Shoulder- shotten (shol'dSr-shot-n), a. 
Spraiufdintheshdulder, as a horse. 'Swayed 
in the back and »hoytlder-xhotten.' Shak. 

Shoulder-slip (shol'dfer-slip), n. Disloca- 
tion of the shoulder or of the humerus. 

The horse will take so much care of himself as to 
come oir with only a strain or a shoulder-slip, S-wi/t. 

Shoulder-splayed (shol'dSr-splad), a. Ap- 
plied to a horse when he has given his 
shoultlers such a violent shock as to dislo- 
cate the shoulder-joint 

Shoulder-strap (shol'dAr-strap), n. A strap 
worn on or over the shoulder, either to 
support the dress or for ornament, or as a 
badge of distinction. 

Shoulder-wrench (shol'd^r-rensh), n. A 
wrench in the shoulder. 

Shout (shout), v.i. [Perhaps a softened 
form of «cow(, or onomatopoetic ; comp. 
shool and hoot.'i To utter a sudden and 



cb, Main; Ah, Sc. \oeh\ g, go% i,iob; ft, Fr. ton; ng, aingr; th, CAen; th, tAin; w, uig; wh, uAig; zh, azure.— See Key. 



SHOUT 



70 



SHOWER 



loud outcry, as in joy, triumph, or exulta- 
tion, to animate soldiers in an onset, to 
draw the attention of some one at a dis- 
tance, or the like. 

When ye hear the sound of the trumpet, all the 
people shall shout with a great shout. Jos. vi. 5. 

—To shout at, to deride or revile with 
shouts. 

That man would be shouUd at that should forth in 
his trreat-grandsirc's suit, though not rent, not dis- 
coloured. £p Hall. 

Shout (shout), 71. A loud burst of voice or 
voices; a vehement and sudden outcry, par- 
ticulai'ly of a multitude of men, expressing 
joy, triumph, exultation, or animated cour- 
age, &c. 'Applause and universal shout.' 
Shak. 

The Rhodians seeing the enemy turn their backs, 
gave a great shout m derision, Knolles. 

Shout (shout), v.t. To utter with a shoUt: 
sometimes with out; as, he shouted out his 
name. 

Shouter (shout'Sr), n. One that shouts. 
D/yden. 

ShOUther (shuTH'^r), 71. Shoulder. [Scotch.] 

Shouting (shout' ing), ii. The act of a 
shouter; a loud outcry expressive of joy or 
animation. 2 Sam. vi. 15. 

Shove (shuv), v.t. pret. & pp. shoved; ppr. 
shoving. [A. Sax. sceCfan, sciifan, O. Fris, 
shuva, Icel. skilfa, D. schuiven, O.H.G. and 
Goth, skiuban, G. schiehen, to shove. From 
this stem comes shovel.] 1. To drive along 
by the direct application of strength with- 
out a sudden impulse; particularly, to push 
so as to make a body slide or move along 
the surface of another body, either by the 
hand or by an instrument ; as. to shove a 
bottle along a table ; to shove a table along 
the floor ; to shove a boat into the water. 
'■Shoving back this earth on which I sit.' 
Dryden. 

The hand could pluck her back that shoved her 
on. Shak. 

2. To push aside; to press against; to jostle. 

He used to shove and elbow his fellow-servants to 
get near his mistress. Arbttthnot. 

—To shove away, to push to a distance; to 
thrust ott". * Shove away the worthy bidden 
guest.' Milton.— To shove by, to push away; 
to delay or to reject. ' Offence's gilded hand 
may sAove &i/ justice.' Shak. — To shave off, 
to thrust or push away; to cause to move 
from shore by pushing with poles or oars; 
as, to shove off a boat— To shove down, to 
overthrow by pushing. 

A strong man was going to shove dovn St. Paul's 
cupola. j4 rbuthnot. 

Shove (shuv), v.i. 1. To push or drive for- 
ward; to urge a course.— 2. To push off; to 
move in a boat by means of a pole or oar 
which reaches to the bottom of the water: 
often with off or from. 

He grasped the oar. 
Received his guest on board, and shoved /rom shore. 
Garth. 

Shove (shuv), n. 1. The act of shoving, push- 
ing, or pressing by strength without a sud- 
den impulse; a push. 

I rested two minutes and then gave the boat an- 
other shove. Swift. 

2. Tlie central woody portion of the stem of 
ilax; the boon. 

Shove -hoard (ahuvT^ord), n. A sort of 
game playetl by pushing or shoving pieces 
of money along a board with the view of 
reaching certain marks; also, the board on 
which the game was played. At one time 
it was played with silver groats, hence the 
old name shove-groat. Called ailso Shovel- 
board, Shvffie-board. 

Shove -groat (shuv'grot), n. See Shove- 
board. 

Quoit him down, Bardolph, like a shove-groat 
shilling. Shak. 

Shovel (shuv'el),n. [Yrora shove; A. ^ax.sceofl, 
scojl, D. schoffel, L.G. schufel, Dan. skovl, G. 
schaiif el, a, shovel. See also Scoop,] An instru- 
ment consisting of a broad scoop or hollow 
blade with a handle, used for taking up and 
removing a quantity of loose substances to- 
gether, as coals, sand, loose earth, gravel, 
corn, money, &c. The construction of 
shovels is necessarily very much varied to 
adapt them for their particular purposes. 
A Jire shovel is an utensil for taking up coals, 
cinders, or ashes. The barn shovel, for lift- 
ing and removing grain, has the blade gen- 
erally of wood. 

Shovel (shuv'el), v.t. pret. & pp. shovelled; 
ppr. shovelling. 1. To take up and throw 
with a shovel; as, to shovel earth into a 



heap or into a cart, or out of a pit.— 2. To 
gather in great quantities. i 

Ducks jAtwiT/ them up as they swim along the waters. ; 
Derhatn. 

— To shovel up, (a) to throw up with a ' 
shovel, (b) To cover up with earth with a , 
spade or shoveL j 

Oh 1 who would fight and march and countermarch, ] 
Be shot for sixpence in a battle-field, I 

And sho^ell'd up into a bloody trench ? Tennyson. 

Shovelardt (shuv'el- ard), n. Same as Sho- 
veller, 2. 

Shovel-board (shuv'el-bord), n, 1. A kind 
of game more common formerly than now ; 
shove-board (which see). — 2. A favourite 
game aboard ship played by shoving with a 
cue wooden discs so that they shall rest in 
one of nine squares chalked on the deck. 

Shovelful (shuv'el-ful), »■ As much as a 
shovel will hold; enough to fill a shovel. 

Shovel - hat (shuv'el-hat), n. A hat with a 
broad brim turned up at the sides, and pro- 
jecting in front like a shovel, worn by cler- 
gymen of the Church of England. ' Walk- 
ing, as became a beneficed priest, under the 
canopy of a shovel-hat.' C. Bronti. 

Shoveller 'shuv'el-6r),n. l.One who shovels. 
2. A species of duck (Spatula or Rhynchas- 
pis clypeata), remarkable for the length and 
terminal expansion of the bill. It is a win- 
ter visitant to the British Isles, is altout 
20 inches in length, and has beautifully 
marked plumage. 

Show (Bho), v.t. pret. showed; pp. shown or 
showed; ppr. showing. It is also written 
Shew. Shewed, Shewn. [A. Sax. scedwian, 
D. sckouwen, Dan. skue, G. schauen, Goth. 
scavjan, to view, look at, inspect, &c. ; sup- 
posed to be from a root skaw or «iay, which 
appears without the s in L. caveo, to take 
care, caxitus, E. cautious.] 1. To exhibit or 
present to Uie view ; to place in sight ; to 
display. 

Go thy way, shoiv thyself to the priest. Mat. viii. 4. 
Not higher that hill, nor wider, looking round. 
Whereon for different cause the tempter set 
Our second Adam in the wilderness. 
To show him all earth's kingdoms and their glory, 
Milton. 

2. To let be seen ; to disclose ; to discover ; 
not to conceal. 

AH the more it seeks to hide itself, 
The bigger bulk it shows. Shak. 

S. To communicate; to reveal; to make 
known; to disclose. 

I was afraid, and durst not show you mine opinion. 
Job xxxii. 6. 
O, let me live. 
And all the secrets of our camp I'll show. Shak. 

Know. 1 am sent 
To show thee what shall come in future days. 
Milton. 

4. To prove; to manifest; to make apparent 
or clear by evidence, reasoning, &c. ; to ex- 
plain; as, to show a person's error. 

His eye, which scornfully glisters like fire. 
Shows his hot courage and his high desire. Shak. 
I'll show my duty by my timely care. Dryden. 

5. To inform; to teach; to instruct. 

The time cometh when I shall no more speak unto 
you in proverbs, but I shcill sho^ you plainly of the 
Father. Jn. xvi. 25. 

6. To point out to, as a guide; hence, to 
guide or usher; to conduct; as, to show a 
person into a room. 

Thou shall show them the way in which they must 
walk. Ex. xviii. 20. 

Come, good sir, will you show me to this house ! 
Shak. 

7. To bestow; to confer; to afford; as, to 
show favour or mercy on any person. ' To 
iAou) justice.' Shak. ' Felix, willing to sftou? 
the Jews a pleasure.' Acts xxiv. 27. 

That mercy I to others show. 

That mercy show to me. Pope. 

8. To explain ; to make clear; to interpret; 
to expound. ' Interpreting of dreams, and 
showing of hard sentences.' Dan. v. 12. — 

9. To indicate; to point out. 

Why stand we longer shivering under fears. 
That show no end but death t Milton. 

—To show forth, to manifest; to publish; to 
proclaim. 1 Pet. ii. 9.— To show off, to set 
off; to exhibit in an ostentatious manner; 
as, to shoiD off one's accomplishment*. — To 
show up, (a) to show the way up or to an 
audience of some one ; as, show up that 
gentleman, sir (6) To expose ; to hold up 
to animadversion, to ridicule, or to con- 
tempt; as, the power which public journal- 
ists have of showing up private individuals 
ought not to be recklessly exercised. [CoUoq. ] 
Show (sho), v.i. 1. To appear; to become 
visible. 

The fire i" the flint 
Shows not till it be struck. Shak. 



2. To appear; to look ; to be in appearance- 
just such she shows before a rising storm. Dryden. 

How the birch-trees, clothed with their white and 
glistening baric, showed like skeletons. 

Corn hill Mag. 

3. t To become or suit well or ill. 

My lord of York, it belter shaw'd with you. Shak. 
—To show off, to make a show; to display 
one's self. 

Show (sho), n. 1. The act of showing or 
exhibiting to the view ; the exposure or ex- 
hibition to view or notice. 

I love not less, though less the show appear. Shak. 

2. Appearance, whether true or false. 

Flowers distill'd, though they with winter meet, 
Leese but their show; their substance still lives 
sweet. Shak. 

But now they by their own vsun boasts were ty'd 
And forc'd at least in show, to prize it more. 

DrydeH. 

3. Ostentatious display or parade; pomp. 

Nor doth his grandeur and majestic shoiv 
Of luxury, though called magnificence, 
Allure mine eye. Milton. 

I envy none their pageantry and show. Young. 

4. An object attracting notice; an aspect 

Throng our lai^e temples with the shows of peace. 
And not our streets with war. Shak. 

The city itself makes the noblest show of any in 
the world. Addison. 

5. A sight or spectacle ; an exhibition ; a 
play ; specifically, that which is shown for 
money; as, a travelling show; a flower-sAow; 
a cattle-sftoio. ' Tragic «/iowj«. ' Shak. 

Some delightful ostentation, or show, or pageant, 
or antique, or firework. Shak. 

6. Semblance ; likeness. ' In show plebeian 
angel militant.' Milton.-". Speciousness ; 
plausibility; pretext; hypocritical pretence. 
* For a show make long prayers.' Luke xx. 

47. 
But a short exile must for show precede. Dryden. 

8. A mucous discharge, streaked with blood, 
which takes place one, two, or three daya 
before a woman falls into labour. — A show 
of hands, a raising of hands, as a means of 
indicating the sentiments of a meeting upon 
some proposition. 

Show-bill (sho'bil), n. A placard or other 
advertisement, usually printed, containing 
announcements of goods for sale. 

Show-box (sho'boks), n. A box containing 
some object or objects of curiosity, carried 
round as a show. 

Show-bread (8h6'bred).n. Among the Jews, 
bread of exhibition; the loaves of bread 
which the priest of the week placed before- 
the Lord on the golden table in the sanctu- 
ary. They were made of fine flour unleav- 
ened, and changed every Sabbath. The 
loaves were twelve in number, and repre- 
sented the twelve tribes of Israel. They 
were to be eaten by the priest only. Written 
also Shew-bread. 

Show-card (sholtard), n. A tradesman'a 
card making an announcement ; a card on 
which patterns are exhibited in a shop. 

Show-case (sho'kas), n. A case or box, with 
plates of glass on the top or front, within 
which delicateorvaluable articles are placed 
for exhibition. 

Shower ( sho'er ), n. 1. One who shows or 
exhibits,— 2. That which shows, as a min-or 
Wickli^e. 

Shower (shou'6r), ?i. [O.E. shoure, schovre^ 
A.Sax. scfir, Icel. sfrwr, Sw. skur, O.H.G. «ciir, 
a shower, a tempest; D. schoer, a great fall 
of rain; G. schauer, a shower, a shuddering 
fit; Goth, skura, a shower, a gust or blast 
of wind; L.G. schuur, a passing fit of ill- 
ness; Sc. shoiver, a throe, as in childbirth. 
The root-meaning may be in Goth, skjuran, 
to move violently.] 1. A fall of rain of 
short or not very great duration: this is ita 
regular meaning when used alone, but we 
may also say a shower of snow. 

Fall on me like a silent dew. 

Or like those maiden showers. 
Which, by the peep of day, do strew 

A baptism o'er the flowers. Herrick. 

2. A fall of things in thick and fast succes- 
sion; as, a shower of darts or arrows; a 
shower of stones.— 3. A copious supply be- 
stowed ; liberal distribution. 

Sweet Highland girl ! a ver>- shower 

Of beauty is thy earthly dower. Wordsworth. 

Shower (shou'6r). v.t. 1. To water with a 
shower or with showers; to wet copiously 
with rain. ' Dissolve and shower the earth." 
Milton.- 2. To pour down copiously and 
rapidly; to bestow liberally; to distribute 
or scatter in abundance. 

On their naked limbs the flowery r^iof 
Shower'd roses. .Mtlton. 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, hfir; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, b^ll; oil, pound; ii, Sc. abune; J', Sc. fey. 



SHOWER 



71 



SHRIEK-OWL 



Cesar's favour, 
That show'rs down greatness on his friends. 
Addisptt. 
He spoke not, only shotver'd 
His oriental gifts on every one. Tennyson. 

Sbower (shou'er). v.%. To rain in siiowers; 
to fall as a shower; as, tears showered down 
his cheeks. 

Down shcrwer the gambolling waterfalls. Tennyson, 

Shower-batZl (shou'6r-bath), n. A bath in 
which water is showered upon the person 
from above; also, the apparatus for pouring 
upon the body a shower of water. 

Showeriness (shou'^r-i-nes), n. The state 
of l>eins showery. 

Showerless (shou'fir-Ies), a. Without 
shi 'Wei's. Armstrong. 

Showery (shou'6r-i), a. Raining in showers; 
abouudinj? with frequent falls of rain. Addi- 
son, 

Show-glass (sho'glas), n. A glass in or by 
means of which anything is seen ; a show- 
man's glass; a mirror. 

Showily (sho'i-li), adv. In a showy manner; 
pompously; with parade. 

Showiness (sho'i-nes), n. State of being 
showy; pompousness; g^^at parade. 

Showing (shd'ing), n. a presentation to 
exhibition; representation by words. 

The first remark which suggests itself is, that on 
this sh<rwing, the notes at least of private banks are 
not money, y. S. Mill. 

Showlsh (aho'ish), a. Splendid; gaudy; 
ostentatious. [Rare. ] 

The escutcheons of the company are sJumtisk, and 
will look magnificent. S-un/t. 

Showman (sho'man), n. One who exhibits 
a show, especially the proprietor of a tra- 
velling,' exhibition. 

Shown (shon), pp. of show. 

Show -place (sho'plas), n. 1. A place for 
public exhibitions.— 2. A translation by 
North {Plutarch's Lives) of the Greek 
word gymnasion, gymnasium, adopted by 
Shakspere. ' The common show-place where 
they exercise.' Ant. & CUop. ill ft. See 

GVMNASICM. 

Show-room (sho'rom), n I. A room or 
apartment In which a show is exhibited. 

The dwarf kept the gates of the shaiv-rocm. 

A rbutknet 

2. A room or apartment, as in a warehouse 
or the like, where goods are displayed to 
the best advantage to attract purchasers, 
or in a hotel an apartment set aside for 
the use of commercial men in which they 
can exhibit samples to their customers. 

Show-stone (sh6'8t6n),n. A glau or crvstal 
biill tty means (^f which fortune-tellers nave 
professed to show future events. 

Showy (sho'i), o. .Making a great show or 
appearance; attracting attention; splendid; 
gaudy; gay; ostentatious; brilliant. 

The men would make a present of everything that 
is rich and showy to the women. Addison. 

Men of warm imaginations neglect solid and sub- 
stantial happiness for what is s)urwy and superficial. 
Addison. 

Sti?. Splendid, gay. gaudy, gorgeous, fine, 

magnificent, grand, stately, sumptuous, 

pompous, ostentatious. 
Shragt (shrag), n. [Probably a softened 

form of scrag, a branch or stump.] A twig 

of a tree cut off. 

Shrag t (shrag). v.t. To lop. Huloet 
Shraggert (shrag'firX n. One who lops; 

i-Uf ub') trims trees. Huloet. 
Shram t (shram), v.t. To cause to shrink or 

shrivel, as with cold; to benumb. [Local] 
Shrank (shrangk). pret. of shrink. 

His generous nature shran* from the indulgence 

of a selfish sorrow. Prtscott. 

Henry, proud and self-willed as he was. shrank, 

not without re-ison. from a conflict with the roused 

si'tril of the n.-\tion. Macauiay. 

Shrap.l Shrapet (shrap, shrap). n. A 
place baited with chaff to invite birda 
/>> BedHl. 

Shrapnel-Shell (shrap'nel-shel). n. [After 
General Shrapnel, the inventor.) A shell 
filled with bullets and a small bursting 
charge just sufHcient to split the shell open 
and release the bullets at any given point, 
generally a!>out 80 yards Ijefore reaching 
the object aimed at After opening, the 
bullets and fragments fly onwards in a 
shower with the remainin^^ velocity of the 
shell, and when fired against l>odies of 
troops the effect under favourable circum- 
st^mces is great Called also Spherical 
Canfuhot. 

Shread - head (shred ' hed ), n. The same as 
Jerkin-head (which see). 

Shred (shred), v.t, pret A pp. shred; ppr. 
shredding. [A. Sax. screddian, to shred; 



Sc. screed, a piece torn off; O.Fris. skrida, 
D. schrooden, O. H. G. scrdtan, to tear. 
Shroud is from this stem.] 1. To tear or cut 
into small pieces, particularly narrow and 
long pieces, as of cloth or leather; to tear or 
cut into strips; to strip. — 2.t To prune; to 
lop; to trim. 

Shred (shred), n. 1. A long narrow piece 
torn or cut off; a strip; any torn fragment 

A beggar might patch up a garment with such 
shreds as the world throws away. Po^, 

2. A fragment; a piece; as, shreds of wit. 

His panegyric is made up of half a dozen shreds 
like a schoolboy's theme. Swift. 

Shredding ( shred 'ing), n. I. A cutting 
into shreds. —2. That which is cut off; a 
piece. * A number of short cuts or shred- 
dings.' Hooker.— Z. pi. In carp, short, light 
pieces of timber, fixed as bearers below the 
roof, forming a straight line with the upper 
side of the raftera 

Shreddy (shred'i), a. Ck)nsisting of shreds 
or fragments. 

Shredless (shredles), a. Having no shreds. 

Shreetalum (shre'ta-lum), n. An East 
Indian name for the talip<^ palm {Corypha 
umbrae idi/era). Cyc. of India. 

Shrew (shrb), n. [O.E. shrewe, wicked, evil, 
a wicked or evil person (the shrewe was the 
devil, the evil one); hence the obsoL shrewe, 
shrewen, to curse, to beshrew, whence the 
adjective shrewd. The word seems to occur 
in A. Sax. only as the name of the mouse, 
screatoa, the shrew-mouse, lit the evil or 
venomous mouse. It is allied probably to 
Dan. skraa, G. schrdg, oblique, awry. ] 

1. Originally, a wicked or evil person of 
either sex, a malignant, spiteful, or cantan- 
kerous person, but now restricted in use to 
females; a woman with a vile temper; a 
virago; a termagant; a scold. 

Come on, fellow; it is told me thou art a shrew. 
Bi>. Stiii. 
By this reckoning he is more a shrrw than slie. Shak. 
The man had got a shreiv for his wife, and there 
could be no quiet in the house with her. 

Sir R. L' Estrange. 

2. A shrew-mouse. 

Shrew t (shro), v.t. To beshrew; to curse. 

Shreiv me, 
If I would lose it for a revenue 
Of any king's in Europe. Shak. 

Shrew-ash (shro'ash), n. An ash-tree into 
a hole in the body of which a shrew-mouse 
has t^een plugged alive. Its twigs or 
branches, when applied to the limbs of 
cattle, were formerly supposed to give them 
immediate relief from the pains they en- 
dtyed from a shrew-mouse having run over 
them. See Ranpike. 

Shrewd (shrodX a. [Originally much the 
same in sense as cursed or curst, from old 
shrewe, to curse, shrewe, evil. See Shrkw.] 

1. Having the qualities of a shrew or wicked 
person; evil; iniquitous. 

Is he threivd &aA unjust in his dealings with others? 
Souih- 

2. Vixenish; scolding; shrewish. 

Whea she's angry she is keen and shrrwd. Shak. 

3. Vexatious; troublesome; annoying; pain- 
ful; mischievous. 

Every of this happy number 
That have endured shrewd dAy^ and nignts with us 
Shall share the good of our returned fortune. Shak. 
No encmv is so despicable but he may do a body a 
shrewd lum. Sir R. L Estrange. 

4. Sly; cunning; artful; arch. ' That «Ar0Ufr2 
and knavish sprite.' Shak.—h. Astute; sa- 
gacious; discriminating; discerning; as, a 
shrewd man of the world.— 6. Invohing or 
displaying an astute or sagacious judgment; 
as, a nhreipd remark. * Shrewd, keen, prac- 
tical estimates of men and things.' W. 
Black. [The word is now hardly used ex- 
cept in the last two senses.]— Syn. Sly, cun- 
ning, arch, subtle, artful, astute, sagacious, 
discerning, acute, keen, penetrating. 

Shrewdly (8hrbd'H).rtrfp. [SeeSHREWP.] In 
a shrewd, manner : (a) in a high or mischiev- 
ous degree; mischievously; destructively. 

This practice bath most shrewdly passed upon 
thee. Shak. 

(6> Vexatiously; annoyingly; sharply; some- 
what severely. 

The obstinate and schismatical are like to think 
themselves shrewdly hurt by being cut from that 
body they chose not to be of. South. 

Yet seem'd she not to wince though shrewdly pain'd. 
Dryden. 

(c) Sharply; painfully; keenly. 

The air bites shrewdly ; it is very cold. Shak. 

(d) Astutely; in a discerning or discriminat- 
ing manner; sacaciously. ' Any man at first 
hearing will shrewdly suspect.' Locke. 



Shrewdness (shrbd'nes). ?i. The state or 
quality of being shrewd ; as, (a) sly cunning; 
archness. 

The neighbours round admire his shrewdness 
For songs of loyalty and lewdness. Sit/i/t. 

(&) Mischievousness ; vexatiousness ; pain* 
fulness. (c)t Wickedness; iniquity. 

Forsothe the erthe is corupt before God and is ful- 
filled with shrewdnes. jyickliffe, 

(d) Sagaciousness ; sagacity ; the quality of 
nice discernment; as, a man of great shrewd- 
ness and penetration. 

Shrewish (shrb'ish), a. Having the quali- 
ties of a shrew ; given to exhibitions of ill- 
temper; vixenish: said of women. 

My wife is shrewish when I keep not hours. Shak. 

Shrewlshly (shro'ish-li), adv. In a shrew- 
ish manner; peevishly; ill-naturedly. 'Hfr 
speaks very shrewishly.' Shak. 

Shrewishness (shro'ish-nes), n. The state 
or quality of being shrewish. 

I have no gift in shre7vishness, 

I am a right maid for my cowardice. Shak. 

Shrew-mole(shro'm6I),7i. An insectivorous- 
mammal {Scalops aquaticus) found in North 
America. The muzzle is long and cartila- 
ginous at its tip, and the nose is proboscis- 
like. The claws of the fore-feet are long 
and powerful, and well adapted for burrow- 
ing. The outer ears are undeveloped, and 
the eyes are small. The fur is fine and 
closely set. like that of our mole. The 
length of the animal is about 7 inches. It 
is usually found near rivers and streams, 
and burrows much like the common mole. 

Shrew-mouse (shro'mous), n. [A. Sax. 
scredica, a shrew-mouse. The name is equi- 
valent to venomous mouse, their bite hav- 
ing been beUeved to be fatal. See SHREW.] 
A harmless little animal, resembling a 
mouse, but belonging to the genus Sorex, 
order Insectivora, while the mice proper 
belong to the Rodentia. The common shrew 
or shrew-mouse {S. araneus) may be easily 




Common Shrew-mouse (Sorex araneus). 

distinguished by its prolonged movable 
muzzle and its reddish-brown fur. It is 
about 4 inches long, the square-shaped tail 
taking up half of this measurement It 
feeds upon insects and their larvse, and 
inhabits dry places, making a nest of leaves 
and grasses. These little animals are very 
voracious, often killing and devouring each 
other. In former times its bite was con- 
sidered venomous, while its body, variously 
treated, was regarded as a cure for many 
complaints. Besides the common shrew- 
mouse, two other species, the water-shrew 
and the oared-shrew, inhabit this country. 
The habits of both are aquatic, as their 
names import 

ShrlOh,t r.i. To shriek. Chaucer. 

Shriek (shrek), v.i. [A softened form of 
screak (which see), and parallel with screech, 
only in the latter the final guttural is soft^ 
ened, while in this it is the initial guttural 
that is softened.] To utter a sharp shrill 
cry; to scream, as in a suddeu fright, in 
horror or anguish. 

It was the owl that shriek'd. Shak. 

At this she shrieked aloud. Dryden. 

Shriek (shrek), n. A sharp shrill outcry or 
scream, such as is produced by sudden 
terror or extreme anguish; a shrill noise. 

A solitary shriek, the bubbling cry 

Of some strong swimmer in his agony. Byron. 

My pulses closed their gates with a shock on 
my heart as I heard 
The shrill-ed^ed shriek of a mother divide the shud- 
dering nignt. Tennyson. 

Shriek (shrek). v.t. To utter with a shriek 
or with a shrill wild cry. 

On top whereof aye dwelt the ghostly owl. 
Shrieking his baleful note. Sfenser. 

She shrieked his name to the dark woods. Moore. 

Shrieker (shrek'6r), n. One who shrieks. 
Shriek-owl (shrek'oul), n. Same as Screech- 
owl. 



ch. cAain; 6h, Sc. loch; g.go; j.>ob; 6, Fr. ton; ng, ting; fH, then; th, thin; "w, trig; wh, wAlg; zh, arure.— See Kbt. 



SHRIEVAL 



72 



SHRIVALTY 



Bhrievait (shrev'al), a. Pertaining to a 

siieriff. 
Slirievalty (shrev'al-ti), n. [From shrieve, 

a sheriff.] The office or jurisdiction of a 

sheriff. 

It was ordained by q8 Edw. I. that the people shall 
have election of sheriff in every shire, where the 
ihricvalty is not of inheritance, Blackstone. 

Shrieve t (shrev), n. Sheriff. 

Now may'rs and shrieves all hush'd and satiate lay. 

Pope. 

Slirieve (shrev), v.i. Same as Shrive. 

It is the Hermit good ! 
He'll shrieve my soul, he'll wash away 

The albatross's blood. Coleridge. 

Shrift (shrift), n. [A. Sax. scri-St, from 
scrl/an, to receive confession. See Shrive.] 

1. Confession made to a priest ; as, to make 
shrift to a priest. 

Shrift was no part of the Church of England sys- 
tem, yet she gently admonished the dying penitent 
to confess his sins to a divine, and empowered her 
ministers to soothe the departing soul by an absolu- 
tion which breathes the very spirit of the old religion. 
Macaulay 

2. The priestly act of shriving; absolution. 

I will give him a present shrift and advise him for 
a better place. Shak. 

Shrift-father (shrift'fa-TH6r), n. A father 
confessor. Fairfax. 

Shrightt (shrit). Shrieked. Spenser. 

Shright t (shrit), n. A shriek. Spenser. 

Shrike (shrik), n. [From its harsh, shriek- 
ing cry.] A general name applied to the 
members of a family (Laniidaj) of insessorial 
birds belonging to the dentirostral division 
of the order. The family is conveniently 
divided into two groups, the Laniina?, or 
true shrikes, and the Thamnophilinte, or 
bush-shrikes. The genus Lanius is distin- 
guished by the broad base of the bill, which 




Great Gray Shrike (Lanius excubitor) 

is hooked at the tip. The nostrils, which 
are situated laterally, ai-e surrounded by 
bristles. The fourth quill is longest in the 
wings, and the tail is of graduated or conical 
shape. The great gray shrike {L. excubitor) 
makes its appearance in Britain during the 
winter. This species is coloured gray on 
the upper and white on the under parts; 
the quills of the tail being black with white 
tips, whilst a band of black crosses the fore- 
head, surrounds the eyes, and terminates at 
the ear covers. The average length is about 
9 or 10 inches. The food consists of mice, 
shrew-mice, small birds, frogs, and insects; 
and these birds have the habit of impaling 
their prey on thonis or suspending it on 
the branches of trees, in order to tear it to 
pieces with greater ease, a habit which has 
obtained for them the name of butcher- 
birds. The red-backed shrike {Lanius or 
Enneoctonus collurio), a summer visitant to 
Britain, is our most common species. Its 




Forked-tail Crested Shrike (Dicrurtis cris/aius). 

average length is 6 or 7 inches. A popular 
name for it (and also for other species) is 
the nine-killer, from a belief that it impales 



nine creatures together before beginning to 
eat them. The woodchat shrike (L. or E. 
ri{fu>i) sometimes appears in Britain. In 
the Thamnophilina;, or tree-shrikes, the bill 
is long and possesses an arched keel, the tip 
being hooked and bristles existing at the base. 
Some of the species attain a length of from 12 
to 13 inches. They are common in South Ame- 
rica. The name of drongos or drongo-shrikes 
has been given to certain birds allied to the 
shrikes, and forming the family Dicrurinse 
(which see). The forked-tail crested shrike, 
a bird inhabiting India, about 10 inches in 
length, is an example of these. 

Shrill (shril), a. [Also by metathesis shirl, 
softened from an older skrill; So. skirl, a 
screech or shrill sound, to make a shrill 
sound ; N. skryla, to cry in a high note ; 
L.G. skrell, G. schrill, shrill. Probably ono- 
matopoetic in origin. Skill is also a form.] 
1. Sharp or acute in tone; having a piercing 
sound; as, a shrill voice; shrill echoes. ' The 
shrill matin song of birds on every bough.' 
Milton.-~% Uttering an acute sound; as, a 
shrill trumpet. 

Shrill (shril), v.i. [G. schHllen, Sw. skrdlla. 
See above.] To utter an acute piercing 
sound. 

Break we our pipes that shrtlVd as loud as lark. 
Spenser 
The shattering trumpet shrilleth high. Tennyson. 

Shrill (shril), v.t. l. To cause to give a 
shrill sound.— 2. To utter in a shrill tone. 

The blood-red light of dawn 
Flared on her face, she shrilling ' Let me die !' 
Tennyson. 

Shrill (shril), n. A shrill sound. Spenser. 
Shrill-edged (shril'ejd), a. Acute, sharp, or 

piercing in sound. ' The shrill-edged shriek 

of a mother.' Tennyson. 
Shrill-gorged (shril'gorjd), a. Having a 

gorge or tliroat that gives a shrill or acute 

sound; having a clear or high-pitched voice 

or note. ' The shrill-gorged lark.' Shak. 
Shrillness (shril'nes), n. The quality of 

being shrill; acuteness of sound; sharpness 

or fineness of voice. 
Shrill-tongued (shril'tungd), a. Having a 

shrill voice. ' When shrill-tongued Fulvia 

scolds.' Shak. 
Shrill -voiced (shril'voist), a. Having a 

shrill or piercing voice. 

What shrill-voiced suppliant makes this eager cry? 

Shak. 

Shrilly (shril'li), adv. In a shrill manner ; 
acutely; with a sharp sound or voice. 
Mount up aloft, niy muse; and now more shtilly 
sing. Dr H. More 

Shrilly (shril'i), a. Somewhat shrill. 

Some kept up a shrilly mellow sound, Keats. 
Shrimp (shrimp), n. [Prov.E. shrimp, any- 
thing small ; Sc. scrimp, to deal out spar- 
ingly to, to give to in insufficient quan- 
tity. The word is allied to A. Sax. scrym- 
man, to dry, to wither, G. schrumpfen, to 
shrivel; perhaps also toE. cr\nnpleyt>. krim- 
pen, to wrinkle, shrink, diminish.] 1. A 
small crustacean of the genus Crangon, 
order Decapoda, and sub-order ilacroura, 
allied to the lobster, crayfish, and prawn. 
The form is elongated, tapering, and arched 
as if humpbacked. The claws are not large, 
the fixed finger being merely a small tooth, 
the movable finger hook-shaped; the beak 
is very short, which distinguishes it from 
the prawn; and the whole structure is deli- 
cate, almost translucent. The common 
shrimp (C. vulgaris) is abundant on our 
sandy beaches; it is about 2 inches long, of 
a greenish-gray colour, dotted with brown. 
It burrows in the sand, and is taken in large 
numbers by a drag-net, being esteemed as 
au article of food. Various allied forms 
belonging to different genera are also called 
by this name.— 2. A little wrinkled person; 
a dwarfish creatiu'c; a manikin: la con- 
tempt. 

It cannot be this weak and writhled shrimp 
AVould strike such terror to his enemies. Shak. 

Shrlmpt (shrimp), v.t. [See the noun.] To 
contract; to shrink. 

Shrimper (shrimp'er), n. A fisherman who 
catches shrimps. 

Shrimp -net (shrimp 'net), n. A small- 
meshei,! bag-net, mounted on a hoop and 
pole, for catching shrimps. 

Shrine (shrin), n. [Softened from older 
serine (which see).] 1. A reliquaiy or box 
for holding the bones or other remains of 
departed saints. The primitive form of the 
shrine was that of a small church with a 
high-ridged roof. (See woodcut) Shrines 
were often richly ornamented with gold, 



precious stones, and artistic carved work. 
They were generally placed near the altar 
in churches.— 2. A tomb of shrine-hke con- 




Portable .'al- 



.:ry .\bbey. 



figuration; the mausoleum of a saint in a 
church; as, the shrine of St. Thomas Becket 
at Canterbury. 

It was a national as well as a religious feeling that 
drew multitudes to the shrine of Becket, the first 
Englishman who since the Conquest had been ter- 
rible to the foreign tyrants. Macaulay. 

Hence— 3. Any sacred place or object; an 
altar; a place or thing hallowed from its 
history or associations; as, a shrine of art. 

Shrine of the mighty ! can it be 

That this is all remains of thee ! Byron. 

Shrine (shrin), v.t. pret. & pp. shrined; ppr. 
shrining. To place in a shrine; to enshrine. 
'Shrined in his sanctuary.' Milton. 'Me- 
thinks my friend is richly shrined.' Tenny- 
son. 

Shrink (shringk), v.i. pret. shrank and 
shrunk; pp. shrunk and shrunken (but the 
latter is now rather an adjective); ppr. 
shrinking. [A. Sax. scrincan, O.D. schrincken, 
Sw.skrynka, to shrink. From root of shrimp, 
shrug. The same root non-nasalized is also 
seen in D. schrikken, to start back, to startle; 
G. schrecken, erschrecken, to be terrified.] 

1. To contract spontaneously; to draw or be 
drawn into less length, breadth, or compass 
by an inherent quality; as, woollen cloth 
shrinks in hot water; a flaxen or hempen 
line shrinks in a humid atmosphere. 

Water, water everywhere, 

And aJl the boards did shrink. Coleridge. 

2. To shrivel ; to become vrrinkled by con- 
traction, as the skin, 'And shrink like 
parchment in consuming fire.' Drj/den. — 

3. To withdraw, or retire, as from danger; 
to decline action from fear; to recoil, as in 
fear, horror, or distrust. 

Feeble nature now I find 
Shrinks back in danger, eind forsakes my mind. 
i)ryden. 
What happier natures shrink at with affright, 
The hard inhabitant contends is right. Pope. 

4. To express fear, hoiTor, or pain by shrug- 
ging or contracting the body. 

ril embrace him with a soldier's arm- 
That he shall shrink under my courtesy. Shak. 
Enid shrank far back into herself. Tennyson. 

Shrink (shringk), v.t. To cause to contract; 
as, to shrink flannel by immersing it in boil- 
ing water. 'Shrink the com in measure.' 
Mortimer.— 2. To withdraw. 'The Lybic 
Hamnion sftWnArs his horn.' Milton. [Rare.] 
— To shrink on, to fix firmly by causing to 
shrink, as the tire of a wheel or a hoop 
round a cannon is shrunk on by making it 
slightly smaller than the part it is to fit, 
expanding by heat till it can be slipped into 
place, and then allowing it to cool. 

Shrink (shringk), n. 1. The act of shrink- 
ing; a spontaneous drawing into less com- 
pass; contraction, 'A shrink or contraction 
in the body.' Woodward.~2. A withdraw- 
ing from fear or horror; recoil, 

Not a sigh, a look, or shrink bewrays 
The least felt touch of a degenerous fear. Daniel. 

Shrinkage (shringk'aj), 7i. 1. The contrac- 
tion of a material into less compass, either 
by cooling, as metals, after being heated, or 
by desiccation or drying, as timber and clay. 
2. Diminution in value; as, shrinkage of 
real estate. 

Shrinker (shringk'er), n. One that shrinks; 
one that withdraws from danger. 

Shrinking - head (shringk'ing-hed), n. A 
mass of molten metal to pour into a mould 
to compensate for the shrinkage of the first 
casting. Called also Sinking-head. 

Shrinkingly ( shringk 'ing-li), adv. In a 
shrinking manner; by shrinking. 

Shrite (shrit), n. A name of the thrush. 

Shrivalty (shriv'al-ti). See Shrievalty. 



Fate, fir, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, b^U; oil, pound; U, Sc. abune; y, Sc. iey. 



SHRIVE 



73 



SHTJDE 



Shrive (shriv), v.t pret. shrove, shrived; pp. 
shriven, skrioed; ppr. shriving. [A. Sax. scri- 
/an, gescri/an. to enjoin, to impose a duty 
upon, hence to impose penance or rules for 
guidance, to shrive; sometimes regarded as 
borrowed from L. scribo, to write, but its 
early occurrence and distinctive meaning, 
as well as the fact of its being originally a 
strong verb, render this very doubtful. It 
may, however, be from the same ultimate 
root, skrabh, whence also Gr. grapho, to 
write. The Latin word would aeem, how- 
ever, to have had a considerable influence 
on the corresponding verb in the allied 
tongues ; comp. Icel. skrifa, to scratch, to 
paint, to write; Dan. skrive, to write.] 1. To 
hear or receive the confession of; to ad- 
minister confession to, as a priest does. 
'He thrives this woman.' Shak. — 2. To con- 
fess and absolve; to grant absolution ta 
Let me go hence. 
And in some cloister's school of penitence. 
Across these stones, that pave the way to heaven, 
"Walk barefoot, till my guilty soul is shriven. 

Longfellow. 

3. To confess : used reflexlvely. 

Bid call the ghostly man 
Hither, and let me skrive me clean and die. 

Tennyson. 

Shrive (shriv), v.i. To administer confes- 
sion. ' Where holy fathers wont to shrive.' 
Spenaer. 

Shrivel (shriv'el), v.i. pret <fe pp. shrivelled; 
ppr. shrivelling. [Probably based partly 
on rivel, to shrink or shrivel, partly on 
shrink; comp. Prov. E. shravel, dry wood, 
faggots.] To contract; to drawer be drawn 
into wrinkles ; to shrink and form corruga- 
tions: as, a leaf shrivels in the hot sun; the 
skin xhrivels with age. 

Shrivel (shriv'el), v.t. To contract into 
wrinkles ; to cause to shrink into corruga- 
tions. 

And shrivefd herbs on withering stems decay. 
Dry den. 
His eyes, before they had their will. 
Were shrivelfd into darkness in his head. 

Teftnyson, 

Shriven (shriv'n), pp. of shrive. 

Shriver (ahriv'6r), n. One who shrives; a 

confessor. 

When he was made a shriz'er, twas for shrift. 
SHak. 

Shriving (shriv'ing), n. Shrift; confession 
taken Spenser. 

Shriving -pew (shriv'ing-pu). n. A term 
.sometimes applied to a confessional. 

Shroff (shrof), n. In the £a&t Indies, a 
banker or money-changer. 

Shroffage ( shrof'aj ), n. The examination 
of coins, and the separation of the good 
from the debased. Simmonds. 

Shrood (shrod), v.t. See SHROUD, v.t 

Shroud (shroud), n. [A. Sax. scrild, an ar- 
ticle of clothing, a garment, a shroud: in 
the nautical sense directly from the kindred 
Scandinavian form : Icel. ttkrud, shrouds, 
tackle, gear, furniture, a kind of stuff; N. 
skn'td, shrouds, tackle. From root of shred.] 
1. That which clothes, covers, protects, or 
conceals; a garment; a covering. 'Swad- 
dled, as new-born, in sable shrotids. ' Sandys. 
'Jura answers, through her misty shroud.' 
Byron. —2. The dress of the dead ; a wind- 
ing-sheet. 'The knell, the shroud, the 
mattock, and the grave.* Young.— 3.\ A 
covered place serving for a retreat or shel- 
ter, as a den or cave; also, a vault or crypt, 
as that under a church. ' The shroud to 
which he won bis fair-eyed oxen." Chapman. 

4. A'auL one of a range of large ropes ex- 




Sbrouds. 

tending from the head of a mast to the 
right and left sides of the ship, to support 
the mast. Tlie shrouds, as well as the sails, 
^c, are denominated from the masts to 



which they belong; they are the main, fore, 
and mizzen shrouds; the main-top-mast, 
foretop-mast, or mizzen-top-mast shrouds ; 
and the main-top-galiaut, foretop- gallant, 
or mizzen-top-gallant shrouds. There are 
also futtock shrouds, bowsprit shrouds, &c. 
5. The branching top or foliage of a tree. 
Warton.—6. One of the two annular plates 
at the periphery of a water-wheel which 
form the sides of the buckets. E. H. Knight. 
Shroud (shroud), v.t. l. To shelter or con- 
ceal with a shroud or covering; to protect 
completely; to cover; to hide; to veil; as, 
a hill-top shrouded in mist. 'Some tem- 
pest rise ... to shroud my shame. ' Dry- 
den. 

So Venus from prevailing Greeks did shroud 
The hope of Rome, and saved him in a cloud. 
iValler. 
Beneath an abbey's roof 
One evening sumptuously lodged ; the next 
Humbly, in a religious hospital; 
Or haply shrouded in a hermit's cell. IFordsworth. 

2. To put a shroud or winding-sheet on; to 
dress for the grave ; to cover, as a dead 
body. 

The ancient Egyptian mummies were shrouded in 
several folds of linen besmeared with gums. Bacon. 

3. [See Shroud, n. 6.] To lop the branches 
from. ' By the time the tree was felled and 
shrouded.' T.Hughes. Written also SArood. 
(Local.] 

Shroud (shroud), v.t. To take shelter or 
harbour. 

If your stray attendance be yet lodg'd 

Or shreud within these limits. Milton. 

Shrouding ( shroud'ing ), n. The plates at 
the peripliery of water-wheels which form 
the sides of the buckets. 

Shroudless (shroud'Iesj.a. Without a shroud. 
'A mangled corpse . . . shroudless, unen- 
tombed.' Dodsley. 

Shroud-plate (shroud'plat), n. l. Naut. an 
iron plate of a futtock-shroud.— 2. In mach. 
see Shroud, 6. 

Shroud-rope (shroud'rop), n. A finer qua- 
lity of liawser-made rope used for shrouds. 

Shroud-stopper (sliroud'stop-^r), n. Apiece 
of rope made fast alwve and below the 
damaged part of a shroud which has been 
injured by shot or otherwise, in order to 
secure it. 

Shroudy ( shroud'i ), a. Affording shelter. 
[Rare.] 

Shrove t (shrov), v.i. To join in the festivi- 
ties of Shrove-ti<le. ' As though he went 
a-shroviiig throUi^'h the city.' J. Fletcher. 

Shrove-tlde ( .-^hrov'tid ), n. [Shrove, pret. 
of shrive. :ind tide, time, season.] Confession 
tide or time; specifically, that time when 
the people were shriven, preparatory to the 
Lenten season ; the period between the 
evening of the Saturday before Quinqua- 
gesima Sunday and the morning of Ash- Wed- 
nesday. See Shrovk-Tuesday. 

"Tis merry in hall when beards wag all. 

And welcome merry Shrove-ttde. Shai. 

Shrove-Tuesday (shroVtuz-da), n. Confes- 
sion-Tuesday ; the Tuesday after Quinqua- 
gesima Sunday, or the day immediately pre- 
ceding the first of Lent, or Ash- Wednesday, 
on which day all the people of England, 
when Roman Catholics, were accustomed 
to confess their sins to their parish priests, 
after which they passed the day in sports 
and merry-making, and dined on pancakes 
or fritters. The latter practice still con- 
tinues, and it has given this day the appel- 
lation of Pancake Tuesday. The Monday 
preceding was called CoUop Monday, from 
the primitive custom of eating eggs on col- 
lops or slices of bread. In Scotland Shrove- 
Tueaday is called Fastern's E'en or Fasten's 
Ken. 

Shrovin^ (shrov'ing). n. Performing the 
ceremonies or enjoying the sports of Shrove- 
Tuesday. 

Eating, drinking, merry-making. . . . what else, I 
beseech you, was the *hole life of this miserable 
man here, but in a manner a perpetual shroz'in^t 
Hales. 

Shrow t (shrou), n. A shrew; a vixen. 'Be- 
shrew all shrovos.' Shak. 

Shrub (shrub), n. [A. Sax. scr<^, serobb ; 
Dan. (dial.) skrub, a bush; perhaps from 
same root as shrivel, shrimp. Scrub, low 
shrubby trees, is the same word.] A low 
dwarf tree; a woody plant of a size less than 
a tree; or more strictly, a plant with several 
permanent woody stems dividing from the 
bottom, more slender and lower than in 
trees. All plants are divided into herbs, 
shrubs, and trees. A shrub approaches the 
tree in its character, but never attains the 
height of a tree, and is generally taller than 



the herb. For practical purposes shrubs 
are divided into the deciduous and ever- 
green kinds. There are many ornamental 
flowering shrubs, among the best known of 
which are those belonging to the genera 
Rosa, Rhododendron, Azalea, Kalmia, Vi- 
burnum, Philadelphus, Vaccinium, &c. 
Among the evergreen shrubs are the box, 
various heaths, &c. 

Gooseberries and currants are shrubs; oaks and 

cherries are trees. Locke. 

Shrub (shrub), v.t. pret. & pp. shrubbed; 
ppr. shrubbing. To prune down so as to 
preserve a shrubby form. Aiit. Anderson. 

Shrub (shrub), n. [At. shurb, drink, any- 
thing drunk; allied to syrup and sherbet. ] A 
liquor composed of acid, usually the acid of 
lemons, and sugar, with spirit (chiefly rum) 
to preserve it. 

Shrubbery ( shrub'6r-i ), n. l. Shrubs in 
general. — 2. A plantation of shrubs formed 
for the purpose of adorning gardens and 
pleasure-grounds. 

Shrubblness ( shrub 'i-nes), n. The state 
or quality of being shrubby. 

Shrubby (shrub'i), a. I. Full of shrubs: as, 
a shrxMjy plain. 'Due west it rises from 
this shrubby point.' Milton. — 2. Resem- 
bling a shrub: specifically applied to peren- 
nial plants having several woody stems.— 
3. Consisting of shrubs or brush. ' The goats 
their shrubby browze gnaw pendant.* J. 
Philips. 

Shrubless (sh^^b^es), a. Having no shrubs. 

Shruff (shruf ), n. [A form of scurf or scruf. ] 
Refuse; rubbish; dross of metals; light dry 
wood used as fuel. [A local word.] 

Shrug (shrug), v.t. pret. & pp. shrugged; 
ppr. shrugging. [From root of shrink; allied 
to D. schrikken, to startle, to tremble.] To 
draw up; to contract; as, to shrug the 
shoulders: always used with regard to the 
shoulders, and to denote a motion intended 
to express dislike, dissatisfaction, doubt, 
&c. 

He shrugs his shoulders when you talk of securi- 
ties. Addison. 

Shrug (shrug), v.i. To raise or draw tip the 
shoulders, as in expressing dissatisfaction, 
aversion, &c. 

They grin, they shrug. 
They bow, they snarl, they scratch, tliey hug, 
S7i'i-7. 

Shrug (shrug), n. A drawing up of the 
shoulders, a motion usually expressing dis- 
Uke. 

The Spaniards talk in dialogues 

Of heads and shoulders, nods, and shrugs. 

Hudibras. 

Shrunk (shrungk), pret. & pp. of shrink. 

His youthful hose well sav'd, a world too wide 
For nis shrttnk shank. Shak. 

Shrunken (shrungk'n), p. and a. [See 
Shrink.] Having shrunk; shrivelled up; 
contracted; as, a shrunken limb. ' Shrunken 
sinewes.' Spenser. 

Shtshob (shchob), n. [Rus.] A machine 
used in Russia for making calculations, 
something similar to the abacus. It con- 
sists of a small wooden box without a lid, 
a number of wires being stretched across it, 
on each of which wires ten movable wooden 
rings are placed. 

Shuck (shuk), n. 1. [Perhaps from shock, 
shaggy.] A shell or covering; a husk or 
pod : especially, the covering of a nut, as a 
walnut, chestnut, or the like.— 2. A shock; 
a stook. [Provincial in both senses. ] 

Shuck (shuk), vX To remove the husks or 
shells from, as grain; to shell, as nuts. [Pro- 
vincial.] 

Shudder (shud'^r), v.i. [L.G. schuddem, 
CD. schudderen. G, schUttem, to shake, to 
shiver, freq. forms from L.G. and D. schud- 
den. G. sckutten, O.H.G. scuttan, to shake; 
allied to E. shed, to cast. ] To tremble or 
shake with fear, horror, aversion, or cold ; to 
shiver; to quiver; to quake. 'The fear 
whereof doth make him shake andshudder.* 
Shak. ' The shuddering tenant of the frigid 
zone.' Goldsmith. 'O ye stars that shud- 
der over me.' Tennyson. 

Shudder (shud'^r), n. A tremor; a shaking 
with fear or horror. 'Into strong shudders 
and to heavenly agues.' Shak. 

Shuddering (shnd'6r-ing). p. and a. Tremb- 
ling or sliaking with fear or horror; quaking; 
quivering. ' Shuddering tea.T.' Shak. 'Blows 
the «A?/dt/t'nH<7 leaf between his lips.' Hood. 

Shudderingly (shud'6r-ingli), adv. With 
tremor. 

Shude (shud), n. [Perhaps connected with 
shoddy, and vert) to shed. ] The husks of rice 
and other refuse of rice mills, largely used 
to adulterate linseed-cake. Simmonds. 



ch, chain; eh, Sc. lo<A; g, yo; i.^ob; fi, Fr. ton; og^ting; TH, <Aen; th, tAln; «, icig; wh, u>Aig; zh, azure.— See ]S:et. 



SHITE 



74 



SHUTTLE 



Shue (shu), interj. See Shoo. 

Shuffle (shuM), V. t. pret. & pp. shuffled; ppr. 
shufflinij. [A dim. from ghove; cog. L.G. 
schuffeln, schii/elii, to shuffle, to shove hither 
ami thither. Sci(^ is another form.] 1. Pro- 
perly, to shove one way and the other ; to 
push from one to another; as, to shuffle 
money from hand to hand.— 2. To mix by 
pushing or shoving; to confuse; to throw 
into disorder; specifically, to change the re- 
lative positions of, as cards in the pack. 

Inmost thinjfs good and evil lie s/tit^eci and thrust 
up together in a confused heap. South. 

A man may shuffle cards or rattle dice from noon 
to midnight, without tracing a new idea in his mind. 
Rambler-. 

3. To remove or introduce by artificial con- 
fusion. 

It was contrived by your enemies, and shuffled 
into the papers that were seized. Dryden. 

—To shuffle off, to push off; to rid one's self 
of. 'When we have shuffled off this mortal 
coil." Shak. 

If, when a child is questioned for anything, he per- 
sists to shuffle it ^with a falsehood, he must be 
chastised. Lockt. 

—To shuffle Up, to throw together in haste; 
to make up or form in confusion or with 
fraudulent disorder. 'To shuffle up a sum- 
mary proceeding by examination, without 
trial of jury. ' Bacoii. 

Shuffle (shuf'l), v.i. 1. To change the rela- 
tive position of cards in a pack by little 
shoves. 'A sharper both shuffles and cuts." 
Sir R. L' Estrange.— 2. To change the posi- 
tion ; to shift ground ; to prevaricate ; to 
evade fair questions; to practise shifts to 
elude detection. 

I myself sometimes, . . - hiding my honour in my 
necessity, am fain to shuffle. Shak. 

Every one who has seen the consequence of sever- 
ity in parents upon the characters of children, and 
marked its direct tendency to make them shuffle, and 
conceal, and prevaricate, and even lie, will admit 
that fear generated by despotic power necessarily 
makes its slaves false and base. Brougham, 

3. To struggle; to shift. 

Your Hfe, good master. 
Must shuffle for itself. Shak. 

4. To move with an irregular or slovenly 

and dragging gait. 

The aged creature came 
Shuffling fdong with ivory-headed wand. Keats. 

5. To shove the feet noisily to and fro on 
the floor or gi'ound ; to scrape the floor in 
dancing. — To shuffle off, to move off with 
low, short, irregular steps; to evade.— Syn. 
To equivocate, prevaricate, quibble, cavil, 
evade, sophisticate. 

Shuffle (shuf'l), n. 1. A shoving, pushing, 
or jostling; the act of mixing and throwing 
into confusion by change of places. ' The 
unguided agitation and rude shuffles of mat- 
ter.' BenUey.—l. An evasion; a trick; an 
artifice. 

The gifts of nature are beyond all shams and shuffles. 
Sir R. L' Estrange, 

3. In dancing, a rapid scraping movement 
with the feet ; a compound sort of this is 
the double shuffle. 

Shuffle-boaxd (shuf l-bord), n. Shovel- 
board. 

Shuffle-cap (shuf'1-kap), n. A play per- 
formed by shaking money in a hat or cap. 

He lost his money at chuckfarthing, shuffle-cap, 
and all-fours. Arbuthnot. 

Shuffler (8huf'l-6r), n. One who shuffles; as, 
(a) one who mixes up cards previous to 
dealing. (6) One who moves with a dragging 
irregular gait, (c) One who prevaricates or 
plays evasive mean tricks. 

Shuffle-wing (shuf'1-wing), n. A local name 
fur tlie hedge-sparrow {Accentor modularis), 
from its peculiar flight. 

Shuffling (shuf'1-ing), p. and a. 1. Moving 
with irregular gait. 

Mincing poetry, 
'Tis like the forced gait of a shuffling nag. Shak. 

2. Evasive; prevaricating; as, a shuffling ex- 
cuse. 

ShufBlingly (shuf'l-ing-li), adv. In a shuf- 
fling manner; with shuffling; prevaricatingly; 
evasively; with an irregular gait or pace. 

I may go shufflingly, for I was never before 
walked in trammels. Dryden. 

Shug (shug), V.i. 1. To shrug; to writhe the 
liii.lv, as persons with the itch; to scratch. 
[i'r.'>vincial.]— 2.t To crawl; to sneak. 

There I'll shug in and get a noble countenance. 
Ford. 

Shulde.t Shulden,t Should. Cha-ucer. 
Shule(sbul), n. A shovel. (Scotch.] 
Shulle, ShuUeiLt Shall. Chaucer. 
Shumach (slm'mak). See Sumach. 



Shun (shun), V. t. pret. & pp. shunned ; ppr. 
shunning. [O.E. shune, shonne, shunen, 
schuneiiy sconnen, &c., to shun; A. Sax. 
scunian, oJiscunian, to detest, fear, avoid, 
shun ; connections doubtful ; perhaps ulti- 
mately from the same root as E. shove or to 
shy. Shunt is from shun.] 1. To keep clear 
of ; to keep apart from ; to get out of the 
way of; to keep from contact with; to 
avoid ; to elude ; to eschew. 

But shun profane and vain babblings, i Tim. ii. i6. 
So chanticleer, who never saw a fox. 
Yet shunn'd him, as a sailor shuns the rocks. 

Dryden. 
Thoult shun misfortunes or thou'lt lejirn to bear 

them. Addison. 

2. To decline; to neglect. 

I have not shunned to declare the whole counsel 
of God. Acts XX. 27. 

Shimless (shun'les), a. Not to be avoided ; 

inevitable; unavoidable. '5A«nk«s destiny.' 

Shak. 
Shunt (shunt), v.i. [From«A«n. See SHUN.] 

l.f To step aside; to step out of the way. 

I shunted from a freyke 
For I would no wight in the world wist who I were. 
Little John Nobody, 1550 (quoted by Halli-well). 

2.t To put off; to delay.— 3. In rail to turn 
from one line of rails into another ; as, we 
shunted at the station. 
Shunt (shunt), v.t. 1. To shun; to move 
from. [Provincial.] — 2. To give a start to; 
to shove. [Provincial.]— 3. To move or turn 
aside ; as, (a) a railway train, or part of it, 
from the main line into a siding ; to switch 
off. (&) To shift to another circuit, as an 
electric current. Hence— 4. To shove off; to 
put out of one's way ; to free one's self of, 
as of anything disagreeable, by putting it 
upon another. 'Shunting your late partner 
on to me.' T. Hughes. 

It is not wonderful that old-fashioned believers in 
'Protestantism' should shunt the subject of Papal 
Christianity into the Limbo of unknowable things, 
and treat its renascent vitality as a fact of curious 
historical reversion. Card. Manning. 

[This is an example of a word, which had 
become obsolete in cultivated language, 
brought again from its provincial obscurity 
into general use, probably by railway em- 
ployees. ] 

Shunt (shunt), n. 1. A turning aside; espe- 
cially in raU. a turning off to a siding or 
short line of rails that the main line may be 
left clear.— 2. A wire connected across the 
tei-minals of an electric coil, so as to divert 
ai portion of tlie current. 

Shunter (shunt'6r), n. One who shunts; 
specifically, a railway servant whose duty it 
is to move the switches which shunt a train 
or carriai:re from one line to another. 

Shunt-gun (shunt'gun), 71. A rifled cannon 
with two sets of grooves, down one of which 
the ball passes in loading, passing out by 
the other when fired, having been shunted 
from one set to the other by turning on its 
axis. 

Shure (shiir), pret. of shear. [Scotch.] 

Robin shure in hairst, 
I shure wi' him. Bums. 

Shurf (shurf), n. A puny, insignificant per- 
son; a dwarf. Hogg. [Scotch.] 

Shurkt (sh6rk), v.i. To shark. 

Shut (shut), u.(. pret. & pp. sh^U; ppr. shtit- 
ting. [0.'E.shutte,shitte,shette,A.Siix.scyttan, 
scittan, to bolt, to lock, to shoot the bolt, 
from scedtan, to shoot; hence, also scyttel, a 
bolt. See Shoot. A shuttle is what is shot 
or cast.] 1. To close so as to prevent ingress 
or egress; as, to shut a door or gate; to shut 
the eyes or mouth. ' His own doors being 
«/im( against his enti*ance.' Shak. 'AndsAwi 
the gates of mercy on mankind.' Gray. — 
2. To close up by bringing the parts together; 
as, to shut the hand; to shut a book.— 3. To 
inclose; to confine; to surround on all sides. 
'Shut me round with narrowing nunnery 
walls. ' Tennyson. 

Is all thy comfort shut in Gloster's tomb! Shak. 

4. To forbid entrance into; to prevent access 
to; to prohibit; to bar; as, to shut the ports 
of a country by a blockade. 

Shall that be shut to man which to the beast 
Is open? Milton. 

5. To preclude; to exclude. 'Shut from 
every shore and barred from every coast.' 
Dryden. 

I will not shut me from my kind. Tennyson. 

— To shut in, (a) to inclose; to confine. ' And 
the Lord shut him in.' Gen. vii. 16. (&) To 
cover or intercept the view of ; as, one point 
shuts in another. —To shut off', (a) to exclude ; 



to intercept; as, shut ojf from assistance or 
supplies. (&) To prevent the passage of, as- 
steam to an engine, by closing the throttle- 
valve.— To «ft«( ow(,to preclude from enter- 
ing; to deny admission to; to exclude; as, a^ 
tight roof shuts out the rain. 'In such a 
night to shut me out.' Shak.— To shut up, 
(a) to close ; to make fast the openings or 
entrances into ; as, to shut up the house. 
(6) To inclose; to confine; to imprison; to- 
lock or fasten in ; as, to shut up a prisoner. 
'Wretches shut up in dungeons.' Addison, 
But before faith came, we were kept under the law, 
shut up unto the faith which should afterwards bo- 
revealed. Gal. iii. 23. 

(c) To bring to an end; to terminate; to con- 
clude. 

Death ends our woes, 
And the kind grave shuts up the mournful scene. 
Dryden. 

(rf) To unite, as two pieces of metal by weld- 
ing, (e) To cause to become silent by argu- 
ment, authority, or force ; to put an end to 
the action of. [CoUoq.] 

It shuts them up; they haven't a word to answer. 
Dickens. 
Our artillery seemed to shut the hostile guns up^ 
and to force them back. iV. H. Russell. 

Shut (shut), V. I. To close itself; to be closed; 
as, the door shuti of itself ; certain flowers- 
shut at night and open in the day.— To shut 
up, to cease speaking. [Slang.] 

On this occasion he seemed to be at some loss for 
words: he shut up, as the slang phrase goes. 

Trollope. 

Shut (shut), a. 1. Not resonant or sonorous; 
dull: said of sound.— 2. In orthoepy, having 
the sound suddenly interrupted or stopped 
by a succeeding consonant, as the i in pit, 
the in got, &c.— 3. Rid; clear; free. — To be 
shut of, to be cleared or rid of ; to be shot 
of. [Colloq.] 

Shut (shut), n. 1. The act of closing; close; 
as, the shut of a door. 'Just then returned 
at shut of evening flowers.' Milton. 
Since the shut of evening none had seen him. 

Dryden. 
It was the custom then to bring away 
The bride from.home at blushing shut of day. 
jLgats. 

2. A small door or cover; a shutter. 

At a round hole, . . . made in the jA«/ of a win- 
dow, I placed a glass prism. Newton. 

3. The line where two pieces of metal aie^ 
united by welding. — Qt^d shut, the imper- 
fection of a casting caused by the flowing 
of liquid metal on partially chilled metal; 
also, the imperfect welding in a foi^ng 
caused by the inadequate heat of one sinr- 
face under working. 

Shutter (shut'6r), n. 1. One who or that- 
which shuts or closes.— 2. A covering of som& 
strength for a window designed to shut out- 
the light, prevent spectators from seeing- 
the interior, or to act as an additional pro- 
tection for the aperture. There are insidfr 
and outside shutters; the former are usu- 
ally in several hinged pieces which fold 
back into a casing in the wall called a box- 
ing. The principal piece is called the front 
shutter, and the auxiliary piece a back flap. 
Some shutters are arranged to be opened 
or closed by a sliding movement either hori- 
zontally or vertically, and others, particu- 
larly those for shops, are made in sections, 
so as to be entirely removed from the win- 
dow. 

Shutting (shut'ing), n. The act of joining: 
or welding one piece of iron to another. 
Shuttle (shut'l), n. [A. Sax. scedtel, scytel, a 
shuttle, from sceOtan, to shoot; so called be- 
cause shot to and fro with the thread ia 
weaving; so Icel. skutul, Dan. skyttel, D. 
schietspoel (schieten, to shoot, and spoel, a- 
weaver's quill or reed), shuttle. See Shoot, 
Shut.] 1. An instrument used by weavers 
for passing or shooting the thread of the 
weft from one side of the web to the other 
between the threads of the warp. The mo- 
dern shuttle is a sort of wooden carriage 
tapering at each end and hollowed out in 
the middle for the reception of the bobbin 
or pirn on which the weft is wound The 
weft unwinds from this bobbin as the shut- 
tle runs from one side of the web to the 
other. It is driven across by a smart blow 
from a pin called a picker or driver. There 
is one of these pins on each side of the 
loom, and they are connected by a cord to 
which a handle is attached. Holding this 
handle in his right hand, the weaver moves 
the two pins together in each direction al- 
ternately by a sudden jerk. A shuttle pro- 
pelled in this manner is called a fly-shuttle, 
and was invented in 1738 by John Kay, a 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; ii. So. abune; y, Sc fey. 



SHUTTLE 



75 



SIC 



mechanic of Colchester. Before the inven- 
tion the weaver took the shuttle between 
the finger and thumb of each hand alter- 
nately and threw it across, by which much 
time was lost in the operation.— 2. In seic- 
iwi-machuiee, the sliding thread holder 
wiiich carries the lower thread between the 
needle and the upper thread to make a 
lock-stitch. —3. The gate which opens to 
allow the water to flow on to a water-wheel. 
4. A small gate or stop through which metal 
is allowed to pass from the trough to the 
mould.— 5. t A shuttle-cock. 
Shuttle (shutl), v.i. To scuttle; to hurry. 

I harl to fly far and wide, shtt/tlvtg- athwart the big 
Biibel. wherever his calls and pauses had to be. 

Carlyie. 

Shuttle-box (shutl-hoks), n. A case at the 
end of a weaver's lay for holding shuttles 
so as to facilitate the weaving of cloth com- 
posed of yarns of more than one colour. 

Shuttle-cock (shut'I-kok), 7i. [Shuttle and 
cork.\ A cork stuck with feathers made to 
be struck by a battledore in play; also, the 
play. 

Shuttle-cock (shutl-kok), v.t. To throw or 
bandy backwards and forwards like a shnt- 
tle-ock. 'If the phrase is to be shuttle- 
corked between us,' Thackeray. 

Shuttle - cork t (shut'l-kork), n. Same as 
Shuttle-cock. 

Shuttle-race (shut'l-ras). n, A sort of 
smooth shelf in a weaver's lay along which 
the shuttle runs in passing the weft. 

Shwaupan (shwan'pan).n. A calculating in- 
strument of theChinese similar in shape an<l 
construction to the Roman abacus, and used 
in the same manner. 

Kby (shi), a. [Dan. sky, shy, skittish, skye, 
to shun, to avoid; IceL skjarr, G. scheu, 
shy, timid. There are also similar forms 
with final guttural, as O.E. schiech, A. Sax. 
sceoh, So. tflciech, Sw. shygg, with similar 
meanings. Perhaps allied to sAun.] 1. Fear- 
ful of near approach; keeping at a distance 
through caution or timidity; timid; readily 
frightened; as, a shy bird; a shy horse. — 

2. Sensitively timid; not inclined to be fa- 
miliar; retiring; coy; avoiding freedom of 
intercourse; reserved. 'As shy, as grave, 
as just, as absolute, as Angeto.' Shak, 'A 
ghy retiring posture." Addison, 

What makes you so sAy, my good friend? 

Arbttthnot. 
Shy she was, and I thought her cold. Tennyson. 

3. Cautious; wary; careful to avoid com- 
mitting one's self or adopting measures: fol- 
lowed by of. 

I am very shy of using corrosive liquors in the pre- 
paration of medicines. Bcyte, 
We grant, altho' he had much wit. 
He was very shy (j/ using it. Hudibras 

4. Suspicious; jealous: often with of. 

Princes are by wisdom of state somewhat sky of 
their successors. H'ott^n. 

Shy (shT), c.t. pret A pp. shied; ppr. ikying. 
To turn suddenly aside or start away from 
any object that causes fear: said of a horse. 

This horse don't shy, does he? iniJuircd Mr. Pick- 
wick, Shy, sirt He wouldn't shy if he was to meet 
a vaggin load of monkeys with their tails burnt off. 
Dickens. 

Shr Tshi), 71. A sudden start aside made by 

aTli'Ji se. 
Shy (shi). v.t. [Perlmps akin to shy, a. and 

V. above.] To throw, timg, or tou; as, lu 

»hy a stone at one. [Colloq. ] 

Though the world does take liberties with the 

?:ood-tempered fellows, it shies them many a stray 
avour Letfr. 

ShyfshT), n, A throw; a fling; a hit; a jeer; 
a trial; an attempt. [Colloq.] 

Had Sir Richard himself been on the spot, Frank 
Gresham would •-till, we may say, have had his fine 

shift at that unfortunate one Trollope. 

Shyly (slii'Ii), adt. In a shy or timid man- 
ntr; timidly; coyly; diflidently. 

Shyness (ahi'nes), n. The quality or state 
of being shy; fear of near approach or of 
familiarity; reserve; coyness. 'My«Aj/7i««« 
or my self-distrust.' Tennyson. 

Si fse). In inuaic, a name given in some sys- 
tems to the seventh note of the natural or 
normal scale (the scale of C); in others to 
the seventh note of any diatonic scale. It 
was ixtpularly adopted as a scdfeggio sylla- 
ble on the suggestion of Le Maire of Paris 
alK.iit vm. 

Si-a^ush (si'a-gush), n. A feline quadruped, 
tlif Fclis caracal. See Caracal. 

Sialagoffue (si-al'a-gogX n. See Sialo- 

Sialldae (5!-al'i-de),n. pi. tFrom Sialis, one of 
the genera, and Gr. eidos, resemblance.] A 
small group of neuropterous insects, having 



very lai^e anterior wings. They frequent 
the neighbourhood of water, and pass their 
larva state in that element. The may-ily 
(Sialis Intaria) is a well-known bait with 
the angler. See May-fly. 

SlalOgOgue (si-al'o-gog), n. [Gr. sialon, sa- 
liva, and ayfigos, leading.] A medicine that 
promotes the salivary discharge, as pyre- 
thrum, the various preparations of mercury, 
.tc. 

Siamang (si'a-mang), n. The Hylobates 
t-ijndactylits, a quadrumanous animal be- 
longing to that division of apes called gib- 
bo}is. It inhabits Sumatra, and has very 
long fore-arms. It is very active among 
trees. 

Siamese (si-a-mez'), n. I. si7ig.andpl. An in- 
habitant or native or inhabitants or natives 
ofSiam.— 2. sing. The language of the people 
of Siam. See MONOSYLLABIC. 

Siamese (si-a-mezO. a. Belonging to Siam. 

Sibt (sib), n. [A. Sax. sih, peace, alliance, 
relation; L.G. Fris. and O.D. sibbe, G. sippe, 
siirpschaft, relationship. ITie word is still 
retained in English in gossip = God-sib. See 
Gossip.] A relation. 'Our puritans very 
sibs unto those fathers of the society* (the 
Jesuits). Mountagu. 

Sib.t Sihbet (sib),a. [See the noun.] Akin; 
in affinity; related by consanguinity. [Re- 
tained in the Scottish dialect] 

Let 
The blood of mine that's sid to him. be suck'd 
From me with leeches. Beau. &■ Fl. 

Slbary (sib'a-ri), n. Same as Severy. 

Slhbaldia (si-bal'di-a). n. [In honour of 
Robert Sibbald, a professor of physic at 
Edinburgh.] A genus of dwarf evergreen 
alpine plants, nat. order Rosacea;. S. pro- 
cumbens is a British plant, and found on 
the summits of the higher mountains of 
Scotland as well as in similar localities in 
Europe and America. It has trifoliate leaves 
and heads of small yellowish flowers. 

Sibhens, Siwens (sib'enz, siv'enz), n. A 
disease which is endemic in some of the 
western counties of Scotland. It strikingly 
resembles the yaws in many respects, but 
entirely differs in others. It is propagated 
like 8>-philis by the direct application of 
contagious matter. This disease has not yet 
been thoroughly investigated. 

Siberian (si-be'ri-an), a. Pertaining to Si- 
beria, a name given to a great and indefinite 
extent of Russian territory in the north of 
Asia; as, a Siberian winter.— Siberian crab, 
a Slljerian tree of the genus Pjxns (P. pru- 
ni/olia), havingpink flowers.— Sifiertandogr, 
a variety of the dog, distinguished by 
having its ears erect, and the hair of its 
body and tail very long; it is also distin- 
guished for its steadiness, docility, and en- 
durance of fatigue when used for the pur- 
pose of draught. In many northern couu- 




Siberian Dog 

tries these dogs are employed In drawing 
sledges over the frozen snow. — Siberian 
pea-tree, a leguminous tree or shrub of the 
genus Caragana, growing in Siberia. 

Slberite (si-be'rit), n. Red tourmalin or ru- 
bellite. 

SibilanceCsil/i-lans), n. The quality of being 
sibilant; a hissing sound as of s. 

Sibllancy (sib'i-Ian-si), n. The character- 
istic of l>eing sibilant, or uttered with a 
hissing sound, as that of a or z. 

Certainly Milton would not have avoided them for 
their sifiihiHcy. he who wrote . . . verses that hiss 
like Medusa's head in wrath. y R. L<ywell. 

Sibilant (sib'i-lant), a. [L. stbilans, sibi- 
lantis, ppr. of sibilo, to hiss.] Hissing; mak- 
int; a hissing sound; as, s and z are called 
ftihilant letters. 

Sibilant (sib'i-lant), n. A letter that is ut- 
tered with a hissing of the voice, as s and z. 

Sibilate (sib'i-lat), v.t. pret. & pp. sibilated; 



X>l)T. sibilating. [L. sibilo, sibilatum, to hiss.} 

To pronounce with a hissing sound, like that 

of the letter s or z; to mark with a character 

indicating such a pronunciation. 
Sibilat^on (sib-i-la'shon), n. The act of 

sibilating or hissing ; also, a hissing sound; 

a hiss. ' A long low sibilation.' Tennyson. 
Sibllatory (sib'i-la-to-ri), a. Hissing; sibi- 

lous. 
Sibllous (sib'i-lus), a. Hissing; sibilant. 

The grasshopper lark began his sibilous note in 
my fields yesterday. G. White. 

Sibthorpia (sib-thor'pi-a), n. A genus of 
plants, named after Dr. Humphry Sibthorp, 
formerly professor of botany at Oxford. It 
belongs to the nat. order Scrophulariacefc, 
and contains a few species of small, creep- 
ing, rooting, hairy herbs, with small alter- 
nate uniform leaves, and axillary, solitary, 
inconspicuous flowers, natives of Europe, 
North Africa, and the Andes. S. europcea 
is a native of Europe, and is found in Por- 
tugal, Spain, and France, and in some parts 
of England, especially in Cornwall, whence 
it has received the name of Cornish money- 
wort. 

Sibyl (9ib'il),n. [L. andGr. «i6t/Wa.] l.Anam© 
common to certain women mentioned by 
Greek and Roman writei*s, and said to be en- 
dowed with a prophetic spirit. Theirnumber 




:^^ 



Sibyl of Delphi. 



is variously stated, but is generally given 
as ten. Of these the most celebrated was 
the Cumwan sibyl (from Cuma; in Italy), 
who appeared before Tarquin the Proud 
offering him nine books for sale. He refused 
to buy them, whereupon she went away, 
burned three, and returned offering the re- 
maining six at the original price. On being 
again refused she destroyed other three, 
and offered the remaining three at the price 
she had asked for the nine. Tarquin, as- 
tonished at this conduct, bought the books, 
which were found to contain directions as to 
the worship of the gods and the policy of the 
Romans. These books, or books professing 
to have this history, were kept with great car© 
at Rome, and consulted from time to time 
by oracle - keepers under the direction of 
the senate. They were destroyed at the 
burning of the temple of Jupiter. Fresh 
collections were made, which were finally 
destroyed by the Christian emperor Hono- 
rius. The Sibylline Oracles referred to by 
the Christian Fathers belong to early eccle- 
siastical literature, and are a curious mix- 
ture of Jewish and Christian material, with, 
probably, here and there a snatch from the 
older pagan source.^2. A prophetess; a sor- 
ceress; a fortune-teller; a witch. 

A sibyl, that had number'd in the world 
The sun to course two hundred compasses. Shak. 
A siiyl old, bow-bent with crooked age, 
That far events full wisely could presage. Milton. 

Sibylline (sib'il-lin), a. Pertaining to the 
sibyls; uttered, written, or composed by 
sibyls; like the productions of sibyls; pro- 
phetical; as, sibylline leaves ; sibylline ora- 
cles; sibylline verses. 

Some wild prophecies we have, as the Haramel in 
the elder Edda ; of a rapt, earnest, sibylline sort. 
Carlyie. 
— Sibylline books, sibylline oracles. See 
Sibyl. 

Sibylllst (sib'il-list), n. A devotee of the 
sibyls; a believer in the sibylline prophecies. 

Celsus charges the Christians with being Sif'yllis/s. 
5. Sharpe. 

Sic (sik), adv. [L.] Thus, or it is so: a word 
often used in quoting within brackets in 



ch, cAain; 6h, Sc. loc/i; g, ^o; \, job; fi, Fr. ton; ng, siri^; th, (Aen; th, tAin; w, t/iig; wh, icMg; zh, a^nre.— See Key. 



SIC 



76 



SIDE 



order to call attention to the fact that the 
quotation is literally given. It is generally 
used to suggest that thei'e is or seems some- 
thinj; wrong in tlie quotation, to indicate 
a difference of opinion, or to express con- 
tempt. 

Sic (sik), a. [Northern form of such.] Such. 
[Scotch. ] 

Slcamore (silta-mor), n. More usually writ- 
ten Sifcamore (which see). Peacham. 

Sicca (sik'ka), n. [Hind.] Au Indian jewel- 
ler's weight of about 180 grains Troy.— 
Sicca 1-upee, a rupee formerly current in 
India, which contained about 176 grains of 
pure silver, and was equal to about 2s. 2d. 
sterling. 

Siccan (sik'an), a. [ = E. such an.] Such 
kind of; as, siccan times. 'There's nae 
honest men carry siccan tools.' Sir W. Scott. 
[Scotch.] 

Siccar (sik'ar), a. [See Sicker. Siker.] Se- 
cure; safe; cautious; possessing solid judg- 
ment ; precise in speech. Written also 
Sikkar. [Scotch. ] 

Siccate ( sik'at ), v. t. [L. sicco, siccatum, to 
dry.] To dry. 

Siccatlon (sik-ka'shon), n. The act or pro- 
cess of drying. 

Siccative (sik'a-tiv), a. Drying; causing to 
dry. 

Siccative (sik'a-tiv). n. That which pro- 
motes the process of drying, as a varnish 
added to an oil-paint to make it dry quickly. 

Siccific (sik-sif'ik). a. [L. siccus, dry, and 
/acio, to make.] Causing dryness. 

Sicclty (sik'si-ti), n. [L. siccitas, from siccus, 
dry.] Dryness; aridity; destitution of mois- 
ture. 'The siccity and dryness of its flesh.' 
They speak much of the elementary quality of 
siccity or dryness. Bacon. 

Sice (sis), n. [Fr. six. See Six.] The num- 
ber six at dice. 

My study was to co? the dice. 

And dexl'rously to throw the lucky sice. Dryden. 

SiCht (sich). Such. Spenser. [Still used by 
Cockneys and others.] 

Sicilian (si-sil'i-an), a. Of or pertaining to 
Sicily or its inhabitants.— 5ict^ia»i Vespers, 
the name commonly given to the great 
massacre of the French in Sicily in the year 
1282. The insurrection which led to this 
massacre broke out on the evening of Easter 
Monday, the signal being the first stroke of 
the vesper-bell, whence the name. 

Sicilian (si-sil'i-an), n. A native or inhabit- 
ant of Sicily. 

Siciliana, Siciliano (si-sil'i-a-na, si-sil'i-a"- 
no), 71. In music, a composition in measures 
of ^ or ^, to be performed in a slow and 
graceful manner: so called from a dance 
peculiar to the peasantry of Sicily. 

Sick (sik), a. [O.E. and Sc. seke, A. Sax. 8e6c, 
O.Sax. sioc, sue, Goth, siitks, L.G.seek, siek, 
D. ziek, Icel. sjukr, O.H.G. sink, Mod. G. 
siech; cog. Armor, seach, sick; Lettish s^ffri, 
to fade away.] 1. Affected with nausea; in- 
clined to vomit; tending to cause vomiting; 
as, sick at the stomach; a sick headache. 

If you are sick at sea, 
Or stomach-qualiii'd at land, a dram of this 
Will drive away distemper. Shak. 

2. Disgusted ; having a strong dislike to: 
with of; as. to be sick of flattery; to be sick 
of a country life. 

He was not so sick of his master as of his work. 
L' Estrange. 
Sick, sick to the heart oj life am I. Tennyson. 

3. Affected with disease of any kind; not in 
health: ill; as. to fall sick: followed by of; 
as, to be sick of & fever. 

In poison there is physic; and this news, 
That would, had I been well, have made me sick. 
Being sick, hath in some measure made me well. 
Shak. 

Hence— -4- Applied to indispositions of the 
mind, or to any irregular, distempered, or 
corrupted state; diseased; unsound. 

My sick heart commands mine eyes to watch, Shak. 

'Tis meet we all go forth 
To view the sick and feeble parts of France. Shak. 

6. Pining; longing; languishing: with for. 
'Sick for breathing and exploit' Shak.— 
6. Applied to a place occupied by or set 
apart for sick persons; as, a ^c*-room; a 
sick-hed. — The sick, persons affected with 
disease; as, the sick are healed. 'Cheating 
the sick of a few last gasps.' Tennyson. — 
Syn. Diseased, ill, disordered, distempered, 
indisposed, weak, ailing, feeble, morbid. 

Sickt (sik), v.t To make sick. 

SiCk^ (sik), v.i. To sicken; to be ill. * Edward 
sick'd and died.' Shak. 

Sick-bay (sik'ba), n. Naut a portion of the 



main deck, usually in the bow, partitioned 

off for invalids. 

Sick-l[>ed (sik'bed), n. A bed on which one 
is contined by sickness. 

Sick -berth (sik'btrtli), n. An apartment 
for the sick in a ship of war. 

Sick-brained (sik'brand), a. Disordered in 
the brain; distempered in mind. 

Sicken (sik'n), v.t. l. To make sick; to dis- 
ease. 

Why should one earth, one clime, one stream, one 

breath. 
Raise this to strength, and sicken that to death ? 

Prior. 
2. To make squeamish or qualmish ; as, it 
sickens the stomach. —3. To disgust; as, it 
sickens one to hear the fawning sycophant. 
4.t To impair; to weaken. ' So sickened their 
estates.' Shak. 

Sicken (sik'n), v.i. 1. To become sick; to 
fall into disease; to fall ill. 

The judges that sat upon the jail, and those that 
attended, sickened upon it and died. Bacon. 

2. To become qualmish; to feel sick; to be 
disgusted ; to be filled with aversion or ab- 
horrence; as, he sickened at the sight of 
so much human misery. ' That surfeiting, 
the appetite may sicken.' Shak. 

I hate, abhor, spit, sicken at him. Tennyson. 

3. To become distempered; to become weak; 
to decay; to languish; as, plants often sicken 
and die. 

AI) pleasures sicken and all glories sink. Po^. 
The toiling pleasure sickens into pain. Gotds^niih. 

Sickening (sik'n-ing), a. Making sick; dis- 
gusting. 

Alp turn'd him from the sickening sight. Byron. 

Sicker (sik'Sr), a. [Also siker, sikur, Sc. 

siccar, O. Fris. siker, sikur, O. Sax. sikor, D. 

zeker, G. sicker, from L. securus, secure.] 

Sure; certain; firm. Spenser; Bums. [Old 

English and Scotch.] 
Sicker t (sik'Sr), adv. Surely; certainly. 

Speiuer. 
Sickerlyt (sik'6r-li), adv. Surely; certainly; 

firmly. 
Sickemess (sili'6r-nes), n. The state of 

being sicker or secure ; security ; safety. 

[Obsolete and Scotch.] 
Sick-fallen (sik'fal-n), a. Struck down with 

sickness or disease. 

Vast confusion watts, 
As doth a raven on a sick/aWn beast. Shak. 

Sicklsh (sik'ish), a. 1. Somewhat sick or 
diseased. HakeiDill.~2. Exciting disgust; 
nauseating; as, a sickish taste. 

Slckisbly (sik'ish-li), adv. In a sickish man- 
ner. 

Sickishness (sik'ish-nes), n. Tlie quality of 
being sickish, or of exciting disgust. 

Sickle (sik'l), 71. [O.E. sikul, A. Sax. sicel, 
sicol, D. sikkel, O.H.G. sihhila, G. sichel, 
Icel. sigthr, sigth, Dan. segel, a sickle: a 
dim. form from a root seen alsoinsc^/^Ae, and 
perhaps in saw.] 1. A reaping-hook; an in- 
strument used in agriculture for cutting 
down grain. It is simply a curved blade or 
hook of steel with a handle, and having the 
edge of the blade in the interior of the curve. 

Thou shalt not move a sickle unto thy neighbour's 
standing corn. Deut. xxiii. 25. 

In the vast field of criticism on which we are entering 
innumerable reapers have put in their sickles. 

Atacaulay. 

% A group of stars in the constellation Leo 
having the form of a sickle. 
Sickled (sik'ld), a. Fui-nished with a sickle. 

When autumn's yellow lustre gilds the world. 
And tempts the sickled swain into the fields. 

Thomson. 

Sickleman (sik'l-man), n. One that uses a 

sickle; areaper. ' YonsunburatsicHe?Hen.' 

Shak. 
Sickler (sik'l-6r), n. A reaper; a sickleman. 

Sandys. 
Sickless (sik'les), a. Free from sickness or 

disease. 

Give me long breath, young beds, and sickless ease. 
Mars ton. 

Sickle-wort (sikl-wfert), n. A plant of the 
genus Coronilla. 

Sickliness (sik'li-nes), n. 1. The state of 
being sickly; the state of being in ill health 
or indisposed; indisposition. 
I do beseech your majesty, impute his words 
To wayward sickliness and age in him. Shak. 

2. The state of being characterized by much 
sickness; prevalence of sickness; as, the 
sickliness of a season. ' The sickliness, health- 
f ulness.and fruitf ulness of the several years. ' 
Graunt.~Z.The disposition to generate dis- 
ease extensively ; as, the sickliiiess of a cli- 
mate. 



Sick-list (siklist), n. A list containing the 

names of the sick. 

Sickly (sik'li), a. 1. Somewhat sick or ill; 
not healthy; somewhat affected with dis- 
ease or habitually indisposed; as, a sickly 
person; a sickly plant. ' For he went sickly 
forth.' Shak. 'Onethat isstcWw, orinpain.' 
X. Grew. 'Another son, 2l sickly one.' J'en- 
nyson.— 2. Connected with sickness; attended 
with or marked by sickness ; often, marked 
with much or prevalent sickness; Q.%,a.sickly 
time ; a sickly autumn. ' My sickly couch.* 
Swift. 

Physic but prolongs thy sickly days. Shak. 

3. Producing or tending to produce disease; 
as, a sickly climate. — 4. Faint; weak; lan- 
guid ; unhealthy; appearing as if sick. 

The moon grows sickly at the sight of day. Dryden. 
Versification in a dead language is an exotic, a far- 
fetched, costly, sickly imitation of that which else- 
where may be founcf in healthful and spontaneous 
perfection. Macau/ay. 

Stn. Diseased, ailing, infirm, weakly, un- 
healthy, healthless, weak, feeble, languid, 
faint. 

Sicklvt (sikli), v.U To make sickly or dis- 
eased ; to give the appearance of being sick 
to. 'Sicklied o'er with the pale cast of 
thought. ' Shak. 

Sickly (sik'li), adv. In a sick manner or con- 
dition; as, (a) unhealthily. 'Who wear 
our health but sickly in his life.' Shak. 
(6) Reluctantly; with aversion or repug- 
nance; languidly. ' Cold and sickly he vented 
them. ' Shak. 

He sickly guessed 
How lone he was once more. Keats. 

Sickness (sik'nes), n. 1. The state of being 
sick or suffering from some disease; disease; 
illness; ill health. 'Serviceable to noble 
knights in sickness.' Tennyson. 

I do lament the sickness of the king. Shak. 
Trust not too much your now resistless charms. 
Those age or sickness soon or late disarms. Pope. 

2. A disease; a malady. 

Himself took our infirmities, and bare our sick- 
nesses. Mat. viii. 17. 

3. A particular state of the stomach which 
occurs under three forms— nausea, retching, 
and vomiting. Shak. — 4. Any disordered 
state. ' A kind of will or testament which 
argues a great sickness in his judgment.' 
Shak. 

Sick-thoughted (sik-th&t'ed). a. Full of 
sick thouglits; love-sick. ' Sick-thoughted 
Venus.' Shak. 

SiclatOUn,t n. [O.Fr. ciclaton, a word of 
uncertain origin. ] A rich kind of stuff which 
in ancient times was brought from the East 
Written also Syclaton, Siglaion, CiclatouHt 
&c. 

Siclet (sikl), n. A shekel. 

The holy mother brought five sides and a pair ol 
turtle-doves to redeem the Lamb of God. 

y^er. Taylor. 

Siclike (sik'lik), a. Such like; of the same 
kind or description; similar. [Scotch.] 

Siclike (siklik), adv. In the same manner, 
[Scotch.] 

Sida (si'da), n. [ Theophrastus gave this 
name to an aquatic plant supposed to 
be identical with Altha;a.] An extensive 
genus of herbs and shrubs, nat. order 
Malvacese. The species are very numerous, 
and very extensively distributed through- 
out the warm parts of the world, and are 
abundant in India. They abound in mucil- 
age, like all malvaceous plants, and some of 
them have tough ligneous fibres, which are 
employed for the purposes of cordage iu 
different countries, as S. rhomboidea, rhoin- 
bifolia, and tilicefolia. S. indica, asiatica, 
and populifolia are employed in India as 
demulcents. The chewed leaves of S. car- 
pinifolia are applied in Brazil to the stings 
of wasps and bees. At Rio Janeiro the 
straight shoots of S. macrantha are em- 
ployed as rocket-sticks. 

SiddOW (sid'do), a. Soft; pulpy. 'Eat like 
salt sea in his siddow ribs.' Marston. [Old 
and provincial.] 

Peas which become soft by boiling are said to be 
siddow. Halliwell. 

Side (sId), 71. [A. Sax. side, a side, sld (ad- 
jective), wide, long; Sc. side, long, ample; 
Dan. side, a side, sid, long, flowing; Icel. 
sida, a side, sidr, long, loose, flowing; G. 
seite, a side. The side is the long edge or 
border of a thing, as opposed to the end.] 
1. The broad and long part or surface of a 
solid body, as distinguished from the end, 
which is of less extent, and may be a point; 
one of the parts of any body that run col- 
laterally, or that being opposite to each 



Fate, far, fat, fftll; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tube, tub, bull; oil, pound; \\, Sc. abune; y, Sc. tey. 



BIDS 



77 



SIDEEITIS 



other, are extended in length ; as, the »ide 
oi a plank ; the side of a chest ; the side of 
a bouse or of a ship. 

The tables were written on both their sides; on the 
one side and on the other were they written. 

Ex. xxxii. 15. 

2. Margin; edge; verge; border; the ex- 
terior line of anything considered in length: 
as. the side of a tract of land or a field, as 
distinct from the end; the side of a river; 
the side of a road. 

Empty it in the muddy ditch close by the Thames 
"dt. Shak. 

A sylvan scene with various greens was drawn. 
Shades on the sides and in the midst a lawn. Dryden. 

3. The part of an animal between the hip 
and shouhler; one of the halves of the body 
lying on either side of a plane passing from 
front to back through the spine; one of the 
opposite parts fortified by the ribs ; as, the 
right side; the left side. 

Pinch them, arms, legs, backs, shoulders, sides, and 
slims. shak. 

Hence— 4. The part of persons on the right 
handor the left; immediate nearness; prox- 
imity; close neighbourhood; vicinity. 

The lovely Thais by his side 
Sat Ulee a blooming Eastern bride. Dryden. 
What love could press Lysander from my side I Shak. 

5. The part between the top and bottom; 
the slope, declivity, or ascent, as of a hill 
or mountain ; as, the side of Mount Etna. 
•The side of yon small hill.' Hilton.— 

6. One of two principal parts or surfaces 
opposed to each other ; one part of a thing 
considered apart from and yet in relation 
to the rest; a part or position viewed as 
opposite or as contrasted with another. 

So turns she every man the wrong sieU out SMak. 
May that side the sun's upon 
Be all that e'er shall meet thy glances. Moore. 
We are both of us on the right side of thirty, sir. 
_ , ^ IV. CMins. 

7. Any part considered in respect to its 
direction or its situation as to the points of 
the compass ; quarter ; region ; part ; as, to 
whichever side we direct our view ; we see 
difficulties on every side. 

The crimson blood 
Circles her body in on every side. Shak. 

8. Any party. Interest, or opinion opposed 
to another; as, on the same side in politics. 

The Lord is on my side: I will not fear. 

_. Ps. cxviii. 6. 

mere began a sharp and cruel fight, many being 
slam and wounded on both sides. Kttoites. 

W'ise men and gods are on the strongest side. Sedley. 

9. Branch of a family ; separate line of de- 
scent traced through one parent as distin- 
guished from that traced through another; 
as. by the father's side he is descended from' 
a noble family; by the mother's side his birtli 
18 respectable. 

Brother by the mother's side, give roe your hand, 
, - . Shak. 

1 lancy her sweetness only due 
To the sweeter blood by die other side. Tennyson. 

10. In geom. any line which forms one of 
the boundaries of a right-lined figure; as, 
the side of a triangle, s<|uare, <tc. ; also, 
any of the bounding surfaces of a solid is 
termed a side; as, the wide of a parallelo- 
piped, prism, &c.—By the side of, near to; 
close at hand.— £r<«rwr side, in fort, see 
EXTKRi0R._/nten<«- side, the Une drawn 
from the centre of one bastion to that of 
the next, or the line of the curtain pro- 
duced to the two oblique radii in front — 
Side by side, close together and abreast — 
Tu chor/se sides, to select parties for compe- 
tition in exercises of any kind — ro take a 
side, to embrace the opinions or attach 
one's self to the interest of a party when in 
opposition to another. 

Side (Sid), o. [See the noun.] 1. Lateral- 
being on the side. 

Take of the blood, and strike it on the two side 
P"*"- Ex. xii. 7. 

2. Being from the side or toward the side ; 
oblique ; indirect ; as, a side view ; a side 
blow. 

The law hath no side respect to their persons. 
One mighty squadron with a side wind sped. Dryden. 

3 Long; large: extensive; hanging low. as a 
garment (Old English and Scotch.] 

Had his velvet sleeves. 
And his branch'd cassock, a side sweeping gown. 
All his formalities. §, Jonsou. 

Side (sid), T.i. pret. A pp. tided; ppr. siding. 
1 To lean on one side. [Rare. ]— 2. To em- 
brace the opinions of one party, or engage 
in iu interest, when opposed to another 
party; to engage in a faction: often followed 



to side with the ministerial 



by with; as, 
party. 

The nobility are vexed, whom we see have sided 
In his behalf. Shak. 

All side in parties and begin th' attack. Po/e. 

Side t (sid), V. t. 1. To stand or be at the side 
of. Spenser. — 2. To take the part of; to 



join ; to attach to a side or party. Shak.— 
S. To suit ; to pair ; to match ; to be equal 
with. 

Thou wilt proportion all thy thoughts to side 
Thy equals, if not equal thy superiors, ford. 

Side-arms (sid'armz), n. pt. MUit. arms 
or weapons carried by the side, as sword, 
bayonet, &c. 

Side -axe (sid'aks), n. An axe with the 
handle bent somewhat askew, to prevent 
striking the hand in hewing. 
Side - bar (sid'biir), n. In the Conrt of Ses- 
sion, the name given to the bar in the outer 
parliament-house, at which the lords ordi- 
nary were in use to call their hand-rolls.— 
Side-bar rule, in Jing. laic, a rule obtained 
at chambers without counsel's signature to 
a motion paper, on a note of instructions 
from an attorney. 

Sideboard (sid'bord), n. 1. A piece of fur- 
niture or cabinet-work, consisting of a kind 
of table or box with drawers or compart- 
ments, placed at the side of a room or in a 
recess, and used to hold dining utensils, &c. 

No sideboards then with gilded plate were dress'd. 
n T • . Dryden. 

2. In jmnery, the board placed vertically 
which forms the side of the bench next to 
the workman. It is pierced with holes 
ranged at different heights in diagonal di- 
rections, so as to admit of pins for holding 
up one end of the object to be planed, the 
other end being supported by the bench- 
screw. 

Side - box ( sid'boks ), n. A box or inclosed 
seat on the side of a theatre. Pope. 
Side-Chain (sid'chan), n. In locomotive en- 
gines, one of the chains fixed to the sides of 
the tender and engine for safety, should the 
central drag-bar give way. 
Side-cut (sid'kut), n. 1. An indirect blow or 
attack. —2. A canal or road branching out 
from the main one. (United States) 
Slde-CUttlng (sid'kut-ing), n. In civil engin. 
(a) an excavation made along the side of a 
canal or railroad in order to obtain material 
to form an embankment (6) The formation 
of a road or canal along the side of a slope, 
where, the centre of the work being nearly 
on the surface, the ground requires to be 
cut only on the upper side to form one-half 
of the work, while the material thrown 
down forms the other half. 
Sided (sid'ed), a. Having a side: used in com- 
position; as, one-sided, two-sided, many- 
sided. 

Slde-dlsll (sid'dish), n. A dish placed at the 
side of a dining-table, instead of at the head 
or bottom. 

How we dining.out snobs sneer at your cookery 
Jmd pooh-pooh your old hock. . . . and know that 
the side.dtshes of to-day are rechauffees from the 
dinner of yesterday. Thackeray 

Slde-glance (sid'glans), n. A glance to one 
si<lf; a silk-long glance. 

Side-head (sid'hed), n. An auxiliary slide- 
rest on a pliining-machine. 

Side-hook (sid'hok), n. In carp, a piece of 
Wood having projections at the ends, used 
for holiling a board fast while being oper- 
ated on by the saw or plane. 

Side-lever (sid'le-vSr), n. In steam-engines, 
a heavy lever, working alongside the steam- 
cylinder, and answering in its functions to 
the working - beam. —Stdc-fcoer engine, a 
marine engine having aide levers instead of 
a w(trking-tieam. 

Slde-llght (sid'lit), n. Light admitted Into 
a building, <tc., laterally; also, a window in 
the walls of a building, in contradistinction 
to a skylight; also, a plate of glass in a 
frame fitted to an air-port in a ship's side, 
to aiimit light 

Sideling (sid'Iing), adv. (See Siublonq.] 
Sidelong; on the side. 

A fellow nailed up maps in a gentleman's closet, 
some sideling, and others upside down. Swi/t. 

Sideling (sidling), a. Inclined; sloping; 
oblique; as, sideling ground. [Rare.] 

Sideling (sid'Iing), n. The slope of a hill ; 
a line of country whose cross-section is in- 
clined or sloping. [Local.] 

Sidelong (sid'long), adv. [Side, and term 
■long, -hug. as in headtoii^, duTkling. ] 1. Lat- 
erally ; obliquely; in the direction of the 
aide. Milton.— 2. On the side; with the side 



to lay a thing sidelong. 



An oblique look ; 



ch,(*aln; 4h,Sclo<!A; g,,o; l,Job; fi, ITr. ton; ng, m.^; ih, Uien; th, <Ain; 



horizontal ; 
Evelyn. 

Sidelong (sidaong), a. Lateral; oblique; not 
directly in front; as, a sidelong glance. ' An 
oblique or stdeioji^ impulse." Locke. 'The 
bashful virgin's sidelong looks of love ' 
Goldsmith. 

Side-look (sidluk), »i. 
side-glance. 

Slde-plerolng (sid'pers-ing), a. Capable of 
piercing the side; hence, affecting severely- 
heart-rending. 

O thou side-fiiercin^ sight. Shak. 

Slde-plpe (sid'pip), n. In the steam-engine, 
a steam or exhaust pipe extending between 
the opposite steam-chests of a cylinder 

Side-plane (sid'plan), n. A plane whose bit 
is presented on the side, used to trim the 
edges of objects which are held upon a 
shooting-board while the plane traverses in 
a race. 

Side-post (sid'post), n. In carp, one of a 
kind of truss-posts placed in pairs, each dis- 
posed at the same distance from the middle 
of the truss, for the purpose of supporting 
the principal rafters, braces, crown or cam- 
ber beams, as well as for hanging the tie- 
beam below. In extended roofs two or 
three pairs of .side-posts are used. 

Slder (sid'^r), n. One that sides ; one that 
takes a side or joins a party. ' Papists and 
their si'rfers." A. Wood. 

Slder t (si'd4r), n. Cider. 

Slderal (si'dsr-al), a. 1. Relating to the 
stars; sidereaL [Bare.] 

This would not distinguish his own hypothesis of 
the^irfrm/ movements from the self.styled romances 
of Descartes. Sir »' Hamilton. 

2. Affecting unfavourably by the supposed 
influence of the stars; baleful. 'Vernal 
nippings and cold sideral blasts. ' J. Philips 
Slderatedt (sid'Sr-at-ed), a. [L. siderattts, 
pp.otsidera. See SIDERATION.] Blasted ' 
planet-struck. Sir T. Browne. 
Slderatlon t (sid-^r-a'shon), n. [L. sideratio 
siderationis, from sidero, to blast from 
sidus, a star.] The state of being planet- 
struck; a blasting or blast in plants; a 
sudden deprivation of sense ; an apoplexy • 
a slight erysipelas. 'A mortification or 
sideration' Hay. 

Sidereal (sidereal), a. [L. sideralis, sider- 
eus, from sidiis, sideris, a star] 1. Pertain- 
ing to the stars ; starry; astral ; as, sidereal 
light; the sidereal regions. —2. Measured 
or marked out by the apparent motions 
of the stars; as, a sidereal day.— Sidereal 
clock, a clock adapted to measure sidereal 
time. It usually numbers the hours from 
to H.— Sidereal day, the time in which the 
earth makes a complete revolution on its 
axis in respect of the fixed stars; or it is the 
time which elapses between the instant 
when a star is in the meridian of a place 
and the instant when it arrives at the meri- 
dian again. A sidereal day is the most con- 
stant unit of time which we possess. Its 
length is 23 hours, fA minutes, 4 092 seconds. 
—Sidereal magnetism, according to the be- 
lievers in animal magnetism, the influence 
of the stars upon patients. -Sidereal system, 
the system of stars. The solar system is con- 
sidered a member of the sidereal system in 
the same sense as the earth with its moon, 
and Saturn with its satellites, are considered 
members of the solar system. —Sidereal 
time, time as reckoned by sidereal days, or 
as measured by the apparent motion of the 
stars— .S'id«reo( year, the period in which 
the fixed stars apparently complete a revo- 
lution and come to the same point in the 
heavens ; or it is the exact period of the 
revolution of the earth round the sun. A 
sidereal year contains 366 2663612 sidereal 
days. 

Sldereous t (si-de're-us), a. Sidereal. ' The 
sidereoiis sun." Sir T. Browne. 
Slderlsmua (sid-4r-iz'mus), ji. [From Gr. 
sidirus, iron.] The name given by the be- 
lievers in animal magnetism to the effects 
produced by bringing metals and other in- 
organic bodies into a magnetic connection 
with the tuiman body. 
Slderlte (sid'6r-it), n. [L. sideritis, Gr. sider- 
ills, from sidiros, iron.] 1. In mineral, a term 
applied to (a) magnetic iron ore or load- 
stone; (6) native ferrous carbonate or spathic 
iron ore; (c) cube-ore; (d) a blue variety of 
quartz.— 2. In hot. a plant of the genus Si- 
deritis. 

Slderltls (sid-4r-i'tis), n. [Gr. sidiros, iron; 
80 named from their supposed efficacy in 
curing flesh-wounds made with an iron in- 
strument] Ironwort, a genus of plants, 



w, wig; wh, uiAig; zh, anire.— See KET. 



SIDERODENDRON 



78 



siaH 



pat. order Labiate. The species are nu- 
meroua, and are inhabitants of Southern 
Europe, the northern parts of Asia, and the 
Canary Isles. They consist of herbs and 
shrubs, with opposite leaves and small yel- 
lowish flowers arranged in whorls. S. ca)ia- 
riensis (or canary ironwort) and S. nyriaca 
(Syrian or sage-leafed ironwort) are culti- 
vated in gardens. In both species the leaves 
are clothed with a villous wool on both sur- 
faces. 

Siderodendron (sid'6r-o-den"dron), n. [Gr. 
sidi'ros, iron, and dendron, a tree.] The 
ironwood tree. See SiDEROXYLON. 

Slderographlc, Siderographical (sid'^r-6- 
graf'ik, sid'6r-6-graf"ik-al), a. Pertaining to 
siderography; performed by engraved plates 
of steel; as, siderographicasi; siderographic 
impressions. 

SiderograpMst (sid-6r-og'ra-flst), n. One 
wlio engraves steel plates or performs work 
by means of such plates. 

Siderography (sid-6r-og^ra-fl),7i. [Gr.mleros, 
steel or iron, and grapho, to engrave.] The 
art or practice of engraving on steel : par- 
ticularly applied to the transfer process of 
Perkins" In this process the design is first 
engraved on steel blocks, which are after- 
wards hardened, and the engraving trans- 
ferred to steel rollers under heavy pressure, 
the rollers being afterwards hardened and 
used as dies to impress the engraving upon 
the printing plates. 

Siderolite (sid'er-o-lit), n. [Gr. sideros, iron, 
and lithos, a stone.] 1. A meteoric stone, 
chielly consisting of iron.— 2. A nummulite, 
a fossil many-chambered organism having 
a stellated appearance. 

Sideromancy (sid'6r-o-man-si), n. [Gr. si- 
derus, iron, and manieia, divination.] A 
species of divination performed by burning 
straws, &c., upon red-hot iron. By observing 
their figures, bendings, sparkling, and burn- 
ing, prognostics were obtained. 

Sideromelane (sid-er-o'me-lan), n. [Gr. 
sideros, iron, and inelas, melanos, black.] 
An amorphous ferruginous variety of labra- 
dorite. Dana. 

Sideroschisolite (sid'er-6-shis"o-lit), n. [Gr. 
sideros, iron, schizo, to cleave, and lithos, a 
stone.] A velvet -black or dark greenish- 
gray mineral which occurs in six-sided 
prisms. It consists chiefly of silicate of iron. 

Sideroscope (sid'6r-6-sk6p), n. [Gr. sideros, 
iron, and skopeo, to view or explore.] An 
instrument for detecting small quantities 
of iron in any substance by means of a deli- 
cate combination of magnetic needles. 

Siderostat (sid'6r-6-stat), n. [L. sidus, si- 
deris, a star, and Gr. statos, placed, stand- 
ing, from hixtemi, to stand.] An apparatus 
for observing the light of the stars in pre- 
cisely the same way in which the light of 
the sun may be studied with the heliostat. 
It consists of a mirror moved by clockwork, 
and a fixed object-glass for concentrating 
the rays into a focus. 

Siderotype (sid'6r-6-tip), n. [L. sidiis, si- 
deris, a star, and Gr. typos, impression.] 
A method of producing sun-pictures by 
means of ammonio-ferric citrate. Paper 
impregnated with this salt is exposed to 
light in the camera, and the picture is de- 
veloped with a neutral solution of gold, or, 
better, of silver. Weale. 

Sideroxylon (sid-6r-ok'sil-on), n. [Gr. si- 
deros, iron, and xylon, wood.] A genus of 
trees and herbs, nat. order Sapotacese, in- 
cludingaboutsixty species, natives of Africa, 
America, the East Indies, and Australia. 
They are evergreen trees with leathery 
leaves, and axillary and lateral fascicles of 
flowers. They are remarkable for the hard- 
ness and weight of their wood, which sinks 
in water, and the genus has hence derived 
the name of ironwood. The S. inertJie, or 
smooth ironwood, is a native of the Cape 
Colony, and has long been cultivated in the 
greenhouses of Europe. 

Side-saddle (sid'sad-l), n. a saddle for a 
woman, in which the feet are both presented 
on one side, the right knee being placed 
between two horns. 

Side-saddle -flower (sid'sad-l-flou-6r), n. 
a popular name of the species of Sarracenia, 
having hollow, pitcher, or trumpet-shaped 
leaves. The flowers are somewhat like a 
pillion, whence the name. Called alsoPitcher- 
plant and Buntmian'8-cup. See Sarra- 

CESIACE.S. 

Side-scription (sid'skrip-shon), n. In Scots 
law, the mode of subscribing deeds in use 
before the introduction of the present sys- 
tem of writing them bookwise. The suc- 



cessive sheets were pasted together and the 

party subscribing, in order to authenticate 

them, signed his name on the side at each 

junction, half on the one sheet and half on 

the other. 
Sidesman (sidz'man), n. 1. An assistant to 

the churchwarden; a questman.— 2. A party 

man; a partisan.— 3/ tif oh. 
Side-stick (sid'stik), n. In printing, a ta- 
pering stick or bar at the side of a page or 

column in a galley, or of a form in a chase. 

The matter is locked up by driving quoins 

between the stick and the side of the galley 

or chase. 
Side-stitch (sid'stich), n. A sudden sharp 

jtain or stitch in the side. * Side-stiches that 

shall pen thy breath up." Shak. 
Side-table (sid'ta-bl), n. A table placed 

either against the wall or aside from the 

principal table. 
Sidetaking (sid'tak-ing), n. A taking sides 

or eiiLjaging in a party. Bp. Hall. 
Side-timber, Side- waver (sid'tim-b6r, sid'- 

wav-er), n. In building, same as Purlin 

(which see). 
Side-view (sid'vii), n. An oblique view; a 

side-look. 
Side-walk (sid'wftk), n. A raised walk for 

foot-passengers by the side of a street or 

road ; a footway. 
Sideways (sid'waz), adv. Same as Sidewise. 

Milton. 
Side-wind (sid'wind), n. A wind blowing 

laterally; Jip. an indirect influence or means; 

as, to get rid of a measure by a side-wind. 
I am a straightforward man, I believe, I don't go 

beating about for side-wiftds. Dickens. 

Sidewise (sid'wiz). adv. l. Toward one side; 
inclining; as, to hold the head sidewise. — 
2. Laterally; on one side; as, the refraction 
of light sidewise. 

Siding (sid'ing). n. 1. The attaching of one's 
self to a party. 'Discontents drove men 
into sidings.' Eikon Basilike. — I. In rail. 
a short additional line of rails laid at 
the side of a main line, and connected 
therewith with points so that a train may 
either pass into the siding or continue its 
course .along the line.— 3. lucarp. the board- 
ing of the sides of a frame building.— 4. In 
ship-building, that part of the operation of 
forming or trimming ships' timbers, &c., 
which consists in giving them their correct 
breadths. 

Sidle (sidT), v.i. pret. sidled; ppr. sidling. 

1. To go or move side foremost; to move to 
one side; as, to sidle through a crowd. 
Swift. 

He . . then sidled c\oi.& to the astonished girl. 
Sir If. Scott. 

2. To saunter idly about. [Provincial Eng- 
lish.] 

Sidling (sid'ling), adv. Sidewise. See Side- 
LiNG, Sidelong. 

Sie.t For 5'eie, pret. of see. Saw. Chaxicer. 

Siege (sej), 71. [Fr. si^ge, a seat or sitting, a 
siege, which supposes a Latin form sedium, 
sidium, seen in obsidium, the sitting down 
before a town, a siege, from sedeo, to sit.] 
1. The sitting of an army around or before 
a fortified place for the purpose of compel- 
ling the garrison to surrender ; the invest- 
ment of a place by an army, and attack of 
it by passages and advanced works which 
cover the besiegers from the enemy's fire. 
A sie^e differs from a blockade, as in a siege 
the investing army approaches the forti- 
fied place to attack and reduce it by force; 
but in a blockade the army secures all the 
avenues to the place to intercept all sup- 
plies, and waits till famine compels the 
garrison to surrender. — 2. Any continued 
endeavour to gain possession. 

Love stood the sie^^'e, and would not yield his breast. 
■ ■ Dryden. 

3.t Seat; throne. 

Besides, upon the very siege of justice. 
Lord Angelo has, to the public ear, 
Profess'd the contrary Shak. 

4.t Place or situation ; place or position oc- 
cupied. ' A hearn put from her sie^re.' Mas- 
singer. 

Ah traiterous eyes, com out of your shamelesse 
siege for ever. Palace of Pleasure, 1579. 

5.t Kank; place; class. 

I fetch my life and being 
From men of royal siege. Shak. 

6.t Stool; excrement; fecal matter. 'The 
siege of this moon-calf.* Shak.— 7. In glass- 
making, the floor of a glass-furnace.— 8. A 
workman's table or bench. 
Sieget (sej), v.t. To besiege; to encompass; 
to beset. Chapman. 



Siege-train (sej'tran), ?i. The artillery, car- 
riages, annnuuition, and equipments which 
are carried with an army for the purpose of 
attacking fortified places. 

Slenite (si'en-it). n. Same as Syenite. 

Sienitic (si-en-it'ik), a. Same as Syenitic. 

Sienna, Sienna-earth (sl-en'na, si-en'na- 
erth), n. Terra di Sienna, earth from Si- 
enna in Italy, a ferruginous ochreous earth 
of a fine yellow colour, used as a pigment 
in both oil and water-colour painting. It is 
known as raw and bunit sienna according 
to the treatment it has received. See Burnt- 
sienna. 

Sierra (se-er'a), n. [Sp., from L. serra, a 
saw.] A chain of hills or mass of moun- 
tains with jagged or saw-like ridges. 

Siesta (se-es'ta), n. [Sp.] The name given 
to the practice indulged in by the Spaniards, 
and the inhabitants of hot countries gener- 
ally, of resting for a short time in the hot 
part of the day, or after dinner. 

Siester (ses'tfir), n. A silver coin of Bava- 
ria, worth about 8\d. Simmonds. 

Sieur (se-6r), n, [Fr., abbrev. from seigneur.\ 
A title of respect used by the French. 

Sieve (si v), 71. [O.E.«iye, seve,sefe, A.Sax.«i/e, 
L.G. seve,sef,^.zeef,G. sieb,lce\.sia, ior siva 
OTsi/a, a sieve; perhaps so called from being 
made originally of rushes (see Seave); or 
from same root as Prov. seye, IceL sia, to 
strain or filter; Dan. sive, to ooze.] 1. An 
instrument for separating the smaller par- 
ticles of substances from the grosser, as 
flour from bran. Sieves are made of various 
forms and sizes to suit the article to be sifted; 
but in its most usual form a sieve consists of 
a hoop from 2 to 6 inches in depth, forming 
a flat cylinder, and having its bottom, which 
is stretched tightly over the hoop, consti- 
tuted of basket-work, coarse or fine hair, 
gut, skin perforated with small holes, can- 
vas, muslin, lawn, net-work, or wire, ac- 
cording to the use intended. In agriculture 
sieves are used for separating corn or other 
seed from dust or other extraneous matter. 
— Brum sieve, a kind of sieve in extensive 
use amongst druggists, drysalters, and con- 
fectionei-s, so named from its form. It is 
used for sifting very fine powders, and con- 
sists of three parts or sections, the top and 
bottom sections being covered with parch- 
ment or leather, and made to fit over and 
under a sieve of the usual form, which is 
placed between them. The substance to be 
sifted being thus closed in, the operator is 
not annoyed by the clouds of powder which 
would otherwise be produced by the agita- 
tion, and the material under operation is at 
the same time saved from waste. — 2. A kind 
of coarse basket. 

Sieves and haif-sieves are baskets to be met with 
in every quarter of Covent Garden market. Steez-ens. 

3. In calico-printing, a cloth extending over 
the vat which contains the colour. 

Sifflementt (sifn-ment), n. [Pr., from si^r, 
to whistle.] The act of whistling or hiss- 
ing; a whistling or a sound resembling a 
whistling. 'Uttering nought else but idle 
si0ement8.' Ant. Brewer. 

Sift (sift), v.t. [A. Sax. si/tan, from sife, a 
sieve; L.G. siften, D. zij'ten, to sift. See 
Sieve. ] 1. To pass through a sieve ; to 
operate on by a sieve ; to separate by a 
sieve, as the fine part of a substance from 
the coarse; as, to sift meal; to sift powder; 
to sift sand or lime ; to sift the bran from 
the flour.- 2. To part, as by a sieve; to sep- 
arate. 

When yellow sands are sifted from below. 
The glittering billows give a golden show. 

Dryden. 

3. To examine minutely or critically; to 
scrutinize; as, let the principles of the party 
be thoroughly sifted. 

1 could si/t him on that argument. ShaA. 

We have si/ted your objections. Hooker, 

HeedfuUy I si^ed all my thought. Tennyson. 

Sifter (sif t'6r), ?i. One who sifts; that which 
sifts; a sieve. 

Sig (sig), n. [From root of A. Sax. sthan, to 
strain, to filter, to flow down. See Sigger.] 
I'rine: stale urine. [ProWncial English.] 

Sigaultian (si-gal'shi-an), a. [From Sigavlt, 
aFrench physician, who first performed the 
operation. ] In obstetrics, applied to an 
operation for augmenting the diameter of 
the pelvis. See Symphyseotomy. 

Sigger (sig'^r), V. i. [Allied to sig (which see); 
G. seigen, to filter, seiger, a strainer or fil- 
ter. ] In mining, to trickle through a cranny 
or crevice; to ooze into a mine. 

Sigh (si), v.i. [O.E. syke, A. Sax. slcan, Sc 
SIC, sicA, to sigh; Dan. sukke, to sigh; D. 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move: tube, tub, b\ill; oil, pound; u, Sc. abune; y, Sc. ley. 



SIOH 



79 



SIGN 



zugt, a sigh, zugten, to sigh; G. seu/zeri. All 
probably imitative; comp. sough, noise of 
the wind, as among trees, Sc. son/, to breathe 
heavily or deeply. ] 1. To make a deep single 
respiration, as the result or involuntary 
expression of grief, sorrow, or the like ; 
hence, to grieve; to mourn; to complain. 

He sighed deeply in his spiriL Mark viii. 12. 
Tosigk 
To the winds whose pity, sighing back again. 
Did us but loviny wrong. Shak. 

2 To utter or give expression to a sonnd 
like, or suggestive of, a sigh. 'Whenever a 
March wind sighs.' Tennyson.— To sigh /or, 
to long or wish ardently for. 

Long have I sighed for a calm. Tennyson. 

Sigh (si), -ct. 1. To emit or exhale in sighs. 
'Never man sigh'd truer breath.' Shdk. — 

2. To lament; to mourn. 

Ages to come and men unborn 

Shall bless her name and sigh her fate. Prior. 

3. To express by sighs. 

The gentle swain sighs back her grief. Hoeie, 

4. Used with an adverb or prepositional ex- 
pression, to denote an effect. 

In such a night 
Troilus methmks mounted the Troyan walls 
And sigh'd his soul toward the Grecian tents. 

Shak. 

Sigb (si), n. A single deep involuntary re- 
spiration ; the inhaling of a larger quantity 
of air than usual and the sudden emission 
of it; a simple respiration modified by men- 
tal conditions, and giving involuntary ex- 
pression of fatigue, or some depressing emo- 
tion, as grief, sorrow, anxiety, or the like. 

My sighs are many, and my heart is faint. 

Lam. i. 33. 

SlSher (8i'6r), n. One who sighs. 'A sigher 
to be comforted. ' Beau. <t Fl. 

SiShingly (si'ing-li), adv. With sighing. 

Sight (sit), n. [A. Sax. gUit, gesiht,O.G. siht, 
sTjd. G. sickt, Dan. and Sw. sigte; from root 
of see.] 1. The act of seeing; perception of 
objects by the eye; view; as, to gain sight of 
land; to lose sight of a person. 

A cloud received him out of their sight. Acts i. 9. 
A sight ot yoa, Mr. H., is good for sore eyes. 

Tro/io^. 

2- The power of seeing; the faculty of vision, 
or of perceiving objects by the instrumen- 
tallty of the eyes; as, to lose one's sight. 

Thy sight is young and thou shalt read. Shai. 
O loss of sight, of thee I most complain. Milton. 

3 Range of unobstructed vision ; space or 
limit to which the power of seeing extends; 
<ipen view; visibility. 

Hostile Troy was ever full in sight. Pope. 

4. Notice, judgment, or opinion from seeing; 
knowledge; view; estimation; consideration. 

Let my life ... be precious in thy sight. 

2 Ki. i. 13. 

6. Inspection ; examination ; as, a letter in- 
tended for your sight only.— 6. The eye or 
•eyes. 

From the depth of hell they lift their sight. Dryden. 

7. That which is l>eheld; a spectacle; a show; 
particularly, something novel and remark- 
able; something wonderful or worth seeing; 
AS, to see the sights of a town. 

They never saw a sight so fair. Spenser. 
Moses said, I will now turn aside and see this^eat 
sight, why the bush is not burned. Exod. iu. 3. 

«. A small aperture through which objects 
are to )>e seen, and by which the direction 
is settled or ascertained ; as, the sight of a 
<iuadrant. —9. A small piece of metal near 
the muzzle, or another near the breech, of 
a Hrearm, as a rifle, cannon, <&c., to aid the 
■eye in taking aim. — 10. A great many; a 
ni ultitude. [Colloq. ] 

Very many colloquialisms current in America but 
not now used in England, and generally supposed to 
be Americanisms, are, after aU, of good ola British 
family, and people from ihe Eastern States, who arc 
sometimes ridiculed for talking of a sight of people, 
may find comfort in learning that the famous old 
Totuance. the prose ' Morte d'Arthur,' uses this word 
for multitude, and that the high-bom dame. Juliana 
Bcrncrs. lady prioress of the nunnery of Sopwell in 
the fifteenth century, infonns us that tn her time a 
bomynabU syght of monies was elegant English for 
a targe company of friars. G. P. Alarsh. 

—At gight,c^ter sight, terms applied to bills 
or notes payable on or after presentation.— 
To take sight, to take aim ; to look for the 
purpose of directing a piece of artillery, &c. 
—Field 0/ sight. Same as Field 0/ Vision. 
See FlELb. — Stn. Vision, view, show, spec- 
tacle, representation, exhibition. 
Sight (sit), v.t. 1. To get siijht of ; to come 
iu sight of; to see; to perceive; as, to sight 
the land. —2. To look at or examine through 
a sight; to see accurately; as, to sight a star. 



3. To give the proper elevation and direction 
to by means of a sight; as, to sight a rifle or 
cannon. 

Sight, + Sighte.t Sighed. Chaucer. 

Sight (sit), v.i. To look along or through 
the sight or sights of an instrument; to take 
aim by means of a sight or sights, as with a 
rifle; to take sight. 

Sight-draft (sit'draft), n. In com. a draft 
payaltle at sight or on presentation. 

Sighted (sit'ed), a. 1. Having sight or seeing 
in a particular manner : used chiefly or ex- 
clusively in composition; as, long-sighted, 
seeing at a great distance; short-sighted, able 
to see only at a small distance; quick-sighted, 
readily seeing, discerning, or understanding; 
sharp-sighted, having a keen eye or acute 
discernment.— 2. Having a sight or sights; 
as. a rifle sighted for 1000 yards. 

Sightfult (sit'f\U), «. Visible; perspicuous. 

Sightfolnesst (sit'ful-nes), n. Clearness of 
sight. 

Let us not wink, though void of purest sight/ulness. 
Sir P. Sidney. 

Sight-hole (sifhol), n. A hole to see through. 

SlghtlUg-shOt (sit'ing-shot), 71. A shot made 
for the puipose of ascertaining if a flrearm 
is properly sighted ; a trial shot allowed to 
each shooter previous to marking his score. 

Sightless (sitQes), a. 1. Wanting sight; 
blind. 'Of all who blindly creep, or sight- 
less sobt.' Pope. ' Sightless yiilton.' Words- 
XBorth. — 2.t Offensive or unpleasing to the 
eye. 'Full of unpleasing blots, and sightless 
stains.' Shak.~Z.\ Not appearing to sight; 
invisible. 

Heav'n*s cherubim horsed 
Upon the sightless coursers of the air. Shak. 

Sightlessly (sitTes-liX adv. In a sightless 

manner. 
Sightlessness (sitles-nes), n. The state of 

beiTiu sightless; want of sight. 
Sightliness (sitli-nes), ». The state of being 

sightly; comeliness; an appearance pleasing 

to the sight. 

Glass eyes may be used, though not for seeing, for 
sightliness. Fuller. 

Sightly (sit'li), a. Pleasing to the eye; 
striking to the view. 'Many brave sightly 
horses. Sir R. U Estrange. 

Sight-seeing (sit'se-ing),n. The act of see- 
ing sights ; eagerness for novel or curious 
sights. 

Sight-seer (sit'se-fir), n. One who is fond 
of or who goes to see sights or cxiriosities; 
as, the streets were crowded with eager 
sight-seers. 

Sight-shot (sit'shot), n. Distance to which 
the sight can reach; range of sight; eye-shot. 
Cowleij. [Rare.] 

Slghtsman (sits'man), n. In music, one who 
reads music readily at first si^ht. 

Sigil (sij'il), n. [L. sigillum, dmi. of sigmim, 
a sign. ] A seal ; signature ; an occult sign. 
'5iflTti# framed in planetary hours.' DryiUn. 

Slglllaxia (sij-il-la'ri-a), n. [L. sigUlum, a 
seal.) The name given to certain large forma 
of plants, discovered in the coal formation, 
which have no representatives in present 
vegetation. They were so named by M. 
Brongniart. from the leaf-scars on their 
Anted stems, which resemble so many seal 
impressioDB on the raised flutings. The 




Sigillaria In a Coal>mine near Liverpool. 

stems are of various sizes, from a few inches 
to upwards of 3 feet in circumference, and 
of great length. Their internal structure 
most nearly approaches that of the Cyca- 
daceiB. ITieir roots are known by the name 
stigmaria, being at first regarded as fossils 
belonging to a distinct and separate genus. 
Siglllative (sij'il-at-iv), a. [¥t. sigillat^f, 
from L. sigillum, a seal.] Fit to seal; be- 
longing to a seal ; composed of wax. Cot- 
grave. 



Sigla(sigla),?i.pi. [L.] Thesigns.characters, 
abbreviations, or letters used for words in 
ancient manuscripts, printing, coins,medals, 
and the like. 

Sigma (sig'ma). n. The name of the Greek 
letter S, C, a-, s, equivalent to our S. 

Sigmodon (sig'mo-don), n. [Gr. sigma, the 
letter s, and odous, odontos, a tooth.] A 
genus of small rodent mammalsof the family 
Murida), and sub-family Arvicolinaj. Only 
one species (5. hispidum) is known, about 
6 inches long. It is a native of Florida, and 
very destructive to the crops. 

Sigmoid, Slgmoidal (sig'moid, sig-moi'dal), 
a. [Gr. sigma, and eidos, resemblance. ] 
Curved like the letter sigma in its ancient 
form of C. In anat. a term applied to 
several parts, as the valves of the heart, the 
semilunar cavities of certain bones, and the 
flexure of the colon. The sigmoid jtexttre is 
the last curve of the colon, before it termi- 
nates in the rectum. 

Sign (sin), n. [Fr. sigiie, from L. signum, a 
mark, a sign, of which the dim. is sigil- 
lum, hence seal. See Seal.] l. That by 
which anything is shown, made known, or 
represented; any visible thing, any motion, 
appearance, or event which indicates the 
existence or approach of something else ; a 
token; amaflt; an indication ; a proof; as, 
signs of fair weather or a storm ; a sign of 
rain. 

O ye hypocrites, ye can discern the face of the sky ; 
but can ye not discern the signs of the times? 

Mat. xvi, 3, 

2. A motion, action, or gesture by which a 
thought is expressed, a wish made known, 
or a command given ; hence, one of the 
natural or conventional gestures by which 
intelligence is communicated, or conversa- 
tion carried on, as by deaf-mutes. 

They made sights to his father, how he would have 
him caJled. Luke i. 62. 

3. A remarkable event considered by the 
ancients as indicating the will of a deity ; 
a prodigy; an omen. —4. Any remarkable 
transaction, event, or phenomenon regarded 
as indicating the divine will, or as manifest- 
ing an interposition of the divine power for 
some special end; a miracle; a wonder. 

Except ye see signs and wonders, ye will not be- 
lieve. John iv. 48. 

6. Something serving to indicate the exist- 
ence or preserve the memory of a thing ; a 
meraorifd; a token; a monument. 

The fire devoured two hundred and fifty men; and 
they became a sign. Num. xxvi. lo. 

6. Any symbol or emblem which prefigures, 
typifies, or represents an idea; hence, some- 
times, a picture. 

The holy symbols, or sigfis. are not barely signifi- 
cative, but what they represent is as certainly deliv- 
ered to us as the symbols themselves. Brerewood. 

7. A word regarded as the outward manifes- 
tation of thought. 

When any one uses any term, he may have in his 
mind a determined idea which he make^ it the sign 
of. Paeon. 

8. A mark of distinction; cognizance. 

When the great ensign of Messiah blazed. 

Aloft by angels borne, his sign in heaven. Milton. 

9. That which, being external, represents or 
signifies something internal or spiritual : a 
term used in tlie formularies of the English 
Church in speaking of an ordinance consid- 
ered with reference to that which it repre- 
sents. — 10. Something conspicuously hung 
or placed over or near a door, as a lettered 
board, or carved or painted figure, indicat- 
ing the occupation of the tenant of the 
premises, or giving notice of what is sold or 
made within; a sign-board. *An ale-house' 
paltry sign. ' Shak. 

The shops were therefore distin^ished by painted 
signs, which gave a ^ay and grotesque appearance 
to the streets. Macaulay. 

11. In astron. a portion of the ecliptic or 
zodiac containing 30 degrees, or a twelfth 
part of the comiilete circle. The signs are 
reckoned from the point of intersection of 
the ecliptic and equator at the vernal equi- 
nox, and are counted onwards, proceeding 
from west to east, according to the annual 
course of the sun, all round the ecliptic. 
In printing they are represented by the fol- 
lowing marks, which are attached to their 
respective names :— Aries ty , Taurus ^ , 
Gemini n. Cancer So, Leo Q^, Virgo nj^. 
Libra ^^. Scorpio XY^, Sagittarius ^ , Cap- 
ricomus >y , Aquarius ZH!^, Pisces X . The 
first six signs, commencing with Aries, are 
called northern signs, because they lie on 



cti, cAaln; <^, Sc. locA; g, go\ j.job; b, Fr. ton; ng, sin^; 7E» then; th, <Aln; w, uig; wb, wAig; zh, azure.— See Key. 



SIGN 



80 



SIGNIFICANCE 



the north side of the equator; and the other 
six, commencing with Libra, are called 
southern signs, because they lie on the south 
side of the equator. The six beginning with 
Capricornus are called ascending signs, be- 
cause the sun passes through them while 
advancing from the winter to the summer sol- 
stice, and is consequently acquiring altitude 
with respect to inhabitants of the northern 
hemisphere. The other six, beginning with 
Cancer, are called descending signs, because 
the sun in passing through them diminishes 
his altitude with respect to inhabitants of 
the northern hemisphere. These names are 
borrowed from the constellations of the 
zodiac of the same denomination, which 
were respectively comprehended within the 
foregoing equal divisions of the ecliptic at 
the time when those divisions were first 
made ; but on account of the precession of 
the equinoxes the positions of these con- 
stellations in the heavens no longer corre- 
spond with the divisions of the ecliptic of 
the same name, but are considerably in ad- 
vance of them. Thus the constellation 
Aries is now in that part of the ecliptic 
called Taurus. — 12. In arith. and math, a 
character indicating the relation of quan- 
tities, or an operation performed by them; 
as the sign -f [plus] prefixed to a quantity 
indicates that the quantity is to be added; 
the sign — [minus] denotes that the quantity 
to which it is prefixed is to be subtracted. 
The former is prefixed to quantities called 
affirmative or positive; the latter to quan- 
tities called negative. The sign x [into] 
stands for multiplication, -^ [divided by] 
for division, V ^^^ t^^ square root, ^ for 
the cube root, ^ for the nth root, &c. The 
signs denoting a relation are, = equal to, 
> greater than, < less than, &c. — 13. In 
med. an appearance or symptom in the 
human body, which indicates its condition 
as to health or disease.— 14. In mime, any 
character, as a flat, sharp, dot, &c. — Syn. 
Token, marli, note, symptom, indication, 
symbol, type, omen, prognostic, presage, 
manifestation. 

Sign ( sin ), v. t. 1. To express by a sign ; to 
make known in a typical or emblematical 
manner, in distinction from speech; to sig- 
nify ; as, to sign our acceptance of some- 
thing by a gesture.— 2. To make a sign upon; 
to mark with a sign or symbol. 

We receive this child into the congregation of 
Christ's flock, and do sig-n him with the sign of the 
cross, in tolcen that hereafter he shall not be ashamed 
to confess the faith of Christ crucified. 

Coittnton Prayer. 

3. To affix a signature to, as to a writing or 
deed; to mark and ratify by writing one's 
name; to subscribe in one's own handwrit- 
ing. * To si^n these papers. ' Dry den. 
Give him this deed and let him J^^t it. Shak. 

4.t To convey formally; to assign.— 5. t To 
dress or array in insignia. 'Thy hunters 
stand signed in thy spoil.' S/iafr. — 6. t To 
make known; to betoken; to denote. 

You sijs^n your place and calling, in full seeming. 
With meekness and humility. Shak. 

Sign (sin), v.i. l.t To be a sign or omen. 
Shak. — 2. To make a sign or signal ; as, he 
signed to me to advance. 

Signable (sin'a-bl), a. Capable of being 
signed ; requiring to be signed ; as, a deed 
signable by A B. 

Signal (sig'nal),n. [Fr. signal, L.L. signale, 
from L. sigmtm. See SIGN. ] 1. A sign that 
gives or is intended to give notice of some- 
thing to some person, especially from a dis- 
tance. Signals are used to communicate 
information, orders, and the like, to persons 
at a distance, and by any persons and for any 
purpose. A signal may be a motion of the 
hand, the raising of a flag, the showing of 
lights of various colours, the firing of a gun, 
the ringing of a bell, the beating of a drum, 
the sounding of a bugle, or anything which 
will be understood by the persons intended. 

Stir not until the signal. Shak. 

2.t Sign; token; indication. 

Meantime, in j-i£-/m/ of my love to thee, . . . 
Will I upon thy party wear this rose. Shak. 

Signal (sig'nal), a. Distinguished from what 
is ordinary; eminent; remarkable; notable; 
as, a. signal failure; & signal exploit; a signal 
service; a signal act of benevolence. 

As signal now in low dejected state. 

As erst in highest, behold him where he lies. 

Milton. 

Syn. Eminent, remarkable, memorable, ex- 
traordinary, notable, conspicuous. 



Sir 



Signal (sig'nal), v.t. pret. & pp. signalled; 
ppr. signalling. 1. To communicate or make 
known by a signal or by signals; as, to sig- 
nal orders; a vessel signals its arrival. — 
2. To make signals to ; as, the vessel sig- 
nalled the forts. —3. To mark 
with a sign. Layard. 

Si^al (sig'nal), v.i. 1. To 
give a signal or signals. — 
2. To be a sign or omen. 

Signal-Tjox (sig'nal-boks), n. 
A small house, often of wood, 
in which railway signals are 
worked. 

Slgnal-flre (sig'nal-fir), n. 
A fire intended for a signal. 

Signalist(sig'nal-ist),«, One 
wlio makes signals. 

Slgnalityt (sig-nal'i-ti), n. 
Quality of being signal or remarkable. 
T. Browne. 

Signalize (sig'nal- iz), v.t. pret. & pp. signal- 
ized; ppr. signalizing. [From signal.] 1. To 
make remarkable or eminent; to render 
distinguished from what is common : com- 
monly used reflexively with the pronouns 
myself, himself, themselves, and the like, or 
with some noun so closely connected with 
the subject as to be almost equivalent to a 
reflexive pronoun; as, the soldier signalized 
himself; he signalized his reign by many 
glorious acts. ' Having signalized his valour 
and fortune in defence of his country.' 
Swift. 

It is this passion which drives men to all the ways 
we see in use oi signalizing themselves. Burke. 

2. To make signals to ; to indicate by a sig- 
nal; to signal. [Not in good use.] 

Signal-lamp (sig'nal -lamp), n. A railway 
lamp, with a bull's-eye in it, made to give 
out light of different colours as signals. 

Signal-light (sig'nal-lit), n. A light shown 
as a signal. 

Signally (sig'nal-li), adv. In a signal man- 
ner; eminently; remarkably; memorably; 
as, their plot failed signally. 

Si^ial-man (sig'nal-man), n. One whose 
duty it is to convey intelligence, notice, 
warning, &c., by means of signals. 

Signalment (sig'nal-ment), n. 1. The act of 
signalling. — 2. A description by means of 
peculiar or appropriate marks. E. B. Brown- 
ing. 

Signal-post (sig'nal -post), n. A post or pole 
for displaying flags, lamps, &c., as signals. 

Signatary (sig'na-ta-ri), n. and a. Same as 
Signatory. 

Signationt (sig-na'shon), n. Sign given; act 
of betokening. Sir T. Browne. 

Signatory (sig'na-to-ri), a. 1. Relating to 
a seal; used in sealing. — 2. Setting a sig- 
nature to a document; signing; speciflcally 
applied to the head or representative of a 
state who signs a public document, as a 
treaty; as, the parties signatory to the Treaty 
of Paris. Written also Signatary and Sig- 
nitary. 

Signatory (sig'na-to-ri), n. One who signs; 
speciflcally, the head or representative of a 
state who signs a public document, as a 
treaty. 

If the Grand Duke called upon the signatories of 
the treaty to fulfil the guarantee of neutrality con- 
tained in it, grave questions would undoubtedly arise. 
Titnes neivspaper. 

Signature (sig'na-tiir), n. [Fr., L.L. signa- 
tura, from L. signo, to sign.] 1. A sign, 
stamp, or mark impressed. ' The brain being 
well furnished with various traces, signa- 
tures, and images.' Watts. 'The natural 
and indelible signature of God, stamped on 
the human soul.' Bentley. — 2. Especially, 
the name of any person written with his own 
hand, employed to signify that the writing 
which precedes accords with his wishes or 
intentions.— 3. In oldmed. an external mark 
or character on a plant, which was supposed 
to indicate its suitableness to cure particu- 
lar disease, or diseases of particular parts. 
Thus plants with yellow flowers were sup- 
posed to be adapted to the cure of jaun- 
dice, &c. 

Some plants bear a very evident signature of their 
nature and use. Br. H. More. 

4. In printing, a letter or figure at the bot- 
tom of the first page of a sheet or half sheet, 
by which the slieets are distinguished and 
their order designated, as a direction to the 
binder. In older books, when the sheets 
are more numerous than tlie letters of the 
alphabet, a small letter is added to the capi- 
tal one, ^ A a, B b; but afterwards a figure 
before the letter came to be used, as lA, 
2 A. In modem printing figures only are 



very generally used for signatures.— 5. Ad 
external mark or figure by which physiog- 
nomists pretend to discover the temper and 
character of persons.— 6. In music, the signs, 
placed at the commencement of a piece of 




Key and Time Signatures on the Treble and Bass Clefs. 

the bar. 



I. Key of C ; two minims (or their equivalents) 
of G; four crotchets in the bar. 



bar. 4. Key of F; three minims 
three crotchets in the bar. 



Key 

1 the 

5. Key of B flat; 



Key of D ; two crotchets^in the 
n the bar. 



music. There are two kinds of signatures, 
the time signature and the key signature. 
The key signature, including the clefs, is 
usually written on every stave; and the 
sharps or fiats there occurring affect all 
notes of that degree (with their octaves) 
throughout the piece. The time signature 
is only placed at the beginning of the first 
line and where changes occur. It indicates 
the number of aliquot parts into which the 
bar is divided.— 7. In Scots law, a writing 
formerly prepared and presented by a 
writer to the signet to the baron of ex- 
chequer, as the ground of a royal grant to 
the person in whose name it was presented; 
which having, in the case of an original 
charter, the sign-manual of the sovereign, 
and in other cases the cachet, appointed by 
the act of union for Scotland, attached to 
it, became the warrant of a conveyance 
under one or other of the seals, according 
to the nature of the subject or the object 
in view. 
• Signature t (sig'na-tiir), v.t. To mark out; 
to distinguish. Dr. G. Cheyne. 

Signaturist (sig^na-ttir-ist), n. One who 
holds to the doctrine of signatures impressed 
upon objects, indicative of character or 
qualities. Sir T. Browne. 

Sign-board (sinl^ord),?!. A board on which 
a man sets a notice of his occupation or of 
articles for sale. 

Signe t (sin), v.t. To assign; to appoint ; to 
allot. Chaucer. 

Signer (sin'Sr), n. One who signs, especially 
one who signs or subscribes his name; as, a 
memorial with 100 signers. 

Si^et (sig'net), n. [O.Fr. signet, dim. of 
signe, a sign. See Sign.] A seal; particu- 
larly, in England, one of the seals for the 
authentication of royal grants. The signet, 
in Scotland, is a seal by which royal war- 
rants for the purpose of justice seem to have 
been at one time authenticated. Hence the 
title of clerks to the signet or writers to the 
signet, a class of legal practitioners in Edin- 
burgh who formerly had important privi- 
leges, which are now nearly abolished. They 
act generally as agents or attorneys in con- 
ducting causes before the Court of Session. 
— Clerk of the signet, an officer in England, 
continually in attendance upon the princi- 
pal secretary of state, who has the custody 
of the privy signet. 

Signeted (sig'net-ed), a. Stamped or marked 
with a signet. 

Signet -ring (sig'net-ring), n. A ring con- 
taining a signet or private seal. 

Signifer t (sig'ni-f6r), n. [L. signum, a sign,, 
and/ero, to bear.] The zodiac. Chaucer. 

Signifi.aunce,t n. Signification. Chaucer. 

Significt (sig-nif'ik), a. Significant. Chau- 
cer. 

Significance, Significancy (sig-nif'i-kans, 
sig-nif'i-kan-si), n. [See Significant.) 
1. Meaning; import; that which is intended 
to be expressed. 

If he declares he intends it for the honour of an- 
other, he takes away by his words the sigftijicance 
of his action. Bp. Stillingfieet. 

Hence— 2. The real import of anything, as 
opposed to that which appears; the internal 
and true sense, as contradistinguished from 
the external and partial. 

Our spirits have cHmbed high 
By reason of the passion of our ffrief.— 
And. from the top of sense. looked over sense, 
To the signijieance and heart of things 
Rather than things themselves. E. B. Browning.. 

3. Expressiveness; impressiveness ; force; 
power of impressing the mind ; as, a duty 
enjoined with particular signijieance. 

I have been admiring the wonderful significancy 
of that word persecution, and what various interpre- 
tations it hath acquired. STtnfl. 



Fate, far, fat, fall; me, m|^, h6r; pine, pin; note, not, move; tiibe, tub, bftll; oil, pound; ii, Sc. ab«ne; y, Sc ley. 



SIGNIFICANT 



81 



SILENT 



4 Importance; moment; weight; cooBe- 
quence. 

Many a circumstance of less si^^ii^cancy has been 
construed into an overt act of high treason. 

Slgntficant ( sig-nif i-kant ). a. [L. signifi- 
cant, significantis, ppr. of significo. See 
Signify.] l. Serving to signify something; 
fitted or intended to signify something ; as, 
(a) bearing a meaning ; expressing or con- 
taining signification or sense ; as, a signifi- 
cant word or sound. (6) Expressive in an 
eminent degree; forcible. 

Common Hfe is full of this kind of sigitijicant ex- 
pressions. Holder. 

(c) Expressive or suggestive of something 
more than what appears; meaning; as, to 
give a person a significant look, (d) Be- 
tokening something; representative of some- 
thing; standing as a sign of something. 

It was well said of Plotinus,that the stars were Jijf- 
nificant, but not efficient. Raleigh. 

To add to relign">is duties such rites and cere- 
monies as are signijicant, is to institute new sacra- 
ments. Hooker. 

2. Important; momentous; as, a ^nifi/^nt 
event. 

SigDificant t (sig-nifi-kant), n. That which 
is significant; a token. Shak. 

Significantly ( sig-nif'i-kant-li ). adv. In a 
significant manner: (a) so as to convey 
meaning or signification; \^) meaningly; ex- 
pressively; signifying more than merely ap- 
pears. 

Slgnificate (sig-nif'i-kat), n. In lo^, one 
of several things signified by a common 
term. Wluitely. 

Signification (sig'ni-fi-ka"8hon), n. [L. svg- 
nificatio. See Signify.] 1. The act of sig- 
nifying, or of making known by signs or 
words, or by anything that is understood. 

AU speaking or signification of one's mind implies 
at) act or address of one man to another. South. 

2. Tliat which is signified or expressed by 
signs or words; meaning; import; sense; 
that which the person using a sign intends 
to convey, or that which men in general who 
use it understand it to convey. The signi- 
fication of words is dependent on usage; but 
when custom has annexed a certain sense 
to sound, or to a combination of sounds, 
this sense is always to l>e considered the 
signification which the person using the 
words intends to communicate. So by cus- 
tom certain signs or gestures have a deter- 
mined signification. Such is the fact also 
with figures, algebraic characters, &c.— 

3. That which signifies; a sign [Rare.] 
Significative (sig-nifi-kat-iv), a. [Fr. »igni- 

fimfif. See SIGNIFY.] 1. Betokening or 
representing by an external sign; as, the 
itgnifieative symbols of the eucharist. — 
2. Having signification or meaning ; expres- 
sive of a meaning; sometimes strongly ex- 
pressive of a certain idea or thing. 

There is apparently a significative coincidence 
between the establishment of the aristocratic and 
oligarchical powers, and the diminution of the pro- 
sperity of the state. RHsAin. 

Slgnlficatlvely (sig-nifi-kat-iv-ll). adv. In 
a significative manner; so as to represent 
or express by an external sign. 

Bread may be the body of Christ signijictiiivtly. 
Zibfi. Ussher. 

Slgnlficatlveness (sfg-nifi-kat-iv-nes). n. 

'iTie quality of being significative. West. 

Jtev. 
81gnlficator(8ig-niri-kat-6r), n. One who 

or t)mt wliich signifies or makes known by 

words, signs, &c. 

In this dia^am there was one signitteator which 
pressed remarkably upon our astrologer's attention. 
Sir W. Scott. 

Signlflcatory (sig-nif'i-ka-to-ri), o. Having 

siLcniHcation or meaning. 
Slgnlficatory ( sig-nif i-ka-to-ri), n. That 

which t)etokens, signifies, or represents. 

Here is a double significatory of the spirit, a word 
and a si^rn. yer. Taylor. 

Signlflcavlt(sig'ni-fl-ka"vit),n. (Third pers. 
siiig. pret ind. of L. significo, to signify.] 
In eeeles. law, a writ, now obsolete, issuing 
out of Chancery upon certificate given by 
the ordinary of a man's standing excom- 
municate by the space of forty days, for the 
keeping liim in prison till he submit him- 
self to the authority of the church. Whar- 
ton. 

Signify (sig'ni-fi), v.t. pret. A pp. signified; 
ppr. signifying. [Fr. signifier, from L. sig- 
nifico— signnm, a sign, and facio, to make] 
1. To make known by signs or words ; to 
ezpreasor communicate to another by words. 



gestures, &c. ; as, he signified to me his in- 
tention. 

Then Paul . . . entered into the temple, to ji^wi/y 
the accomplishment of the days of purification. 

Acts xxii. 26. 

2. To give notice ; to announce ; to impart ; 
to declare; to proclaim. 

My friend Stephano, signify, I pray you, 

Within the house, your mistress is at hand. Shak. 

3. To mean; to have or contain a certain 
sense; to import; as, in Latin ' amo ' «(/7ii^s 
*I love.'— 4. To suggest as being intended; 
to indicate. 

Let him have some plaster, or some loam, or 
Some rough-cast about him, to signify wall. Shak. 

5. To weigh; to matter: used almost in- 
transitively in particular phrases; as, it 
signifies much or little; it signifies nothing; 
what does it signify t 

What signifies the people's consent in making and 

repealing taws, if the person who administers hath 

no tie! Sivift. 

And whether coldness, pride, or virtue dignify 

A woman — so she's good, what can it signify t 

Byron. 

Stn. To express, manifest, declare, utter, 
intimate, betoken, denote, imply, mean. 

Signify (sig'ni-fi), v.i. To express meaning 
with force. 'If the words be but comely 
nnd signifying.' B. Jonson. [Rare.] 

Slgnlor (sen'yor), 71. An English form of 
the Italian Signore, Spanish Sefior, a title of 
respect e^iuivalent to the English Sir or Mr., 
the French Monsieur, and the German Herr. 
Written al&oSigiU)r, Seignior. SeeSElGNlOR. 

Slgnlorlzet (sen'yor-iz), v.t. To exercise do- 
minion over; to lord it over. 'He that si- 
gnisrizeth hell.' Fairfax. 

Signlorizet (sen'yor-Iz). v.i. To exercise do- 
minion, or to have dominion. 

O'er whom, save heaven, nought could signiortxe. 
Kyd. 
Sl^niory, Slgnory (sen'yo-ri), n. 1. A prin- 
cipality; a province. 

Through all the signiories it was the first. 
And Prospero the prime duke. Shak. 

2. The landed property of a lord; a domain; 
an estate; a manor. 

Eating the bitter bread of banishment. 

Whilst you have fed upon my signiories. Shak. 

3. Government; dominion; power; seigniory. 
'The inextinguishable thirst for signiory.^ 
Kyd. — 4. A governing body. 'My services 
which I have done the signiory.' Shak.— 
6.t Seniority. 'The benefit of signiory.' 
Shak. 

Slgnltary (sig'ni-ta-ri), a. Same as Signa- 
tory. 

Sign - manual { sin-man'u-al ). n. A signa- 
ture; the subscription of one's own name to 
a document; specifically, a royal signature, 
which must l>e adhibited to all writs which 
have to pass the privy seal or great seal. 

Slgnor (sen'yor), n. Same as Signior. 

Signora (sen-yo'ra), n. An Italian title of 
address or respect, equivalent to Madam, 
Mrs. 

Slgnorlna (sen-yo-re'na), n. An Italian title 
of respect, equivalent to the English Miss 
an<l the I'^rench Mademoiselle. 

Slgnory. Set Signioky. 

Sign-painter (sin'pant-6r), n. A painter 
of signs fur tradesmen, &c. 

Sign-post (sin'post), n. A post on which a 
sign hangs. 

Slgnum (sig'num), n. [L.] In tow, across 
prefixed as a sign of assent and approbation 
to a charter or deed. 

Slke,t a. Such. Spenser. 

Slke (sik), n. [Icel. sik.] A small stream of 
water; a rill; a marshy bottom with a small 
stream in it [Scotch and Xorth of Eng- 
land.] 

Sike.t a. Sick. Chancer. 

Sike,t 71. Sickness. Chaucer. 

Slke,tw.t. To sigh. Chaucer. 

Slke,t n. A sigh. Chaucer. 

Slkert (sik'^r), a. or adv. Sure; surely. See 
Sicker. 

Sikerly.t adv. Surely; securely. Chau4xr. 

Sikemesst (sik'Sr-nes), n. Sureness; safety. 

Slkb (sek), n. One of an Indian commu- 
nity, half religious, lialf military (founded 
about A. P. 1500), whicli professes the purest 
Deism, and is chiefly distinguished from the 
Hindus by worsbippiiig one only invisible 
God. They founded a state in the Punjaub 
about the end of the eighteenth century, 
which was annexed to the British Empire in 
India in 1849. Written also Seik. 

Sllaus (si'la-us), n. [A name given to an 
undiclliferous plant by Pliny.] A genus of 
plants, nat. order Umbelliferje. They are 
tall perennial herbs, with finely divided 



leaves and umbels of white or yellowish 
flowers, natives of Europe and Asia. S. pra- 
tensis (meadow-pepper saxifrage) is found in 
damp and moist places in England, other 
parts of Europe, and Siberia. The whole 
plant has an unpleasant smell when bruised, 
and cattle generally avoid it in pastures. 

Sile (sil), n. [Sw. stl, a strainer; slla, to 
strain, to sift; L.G. sielen, to draw off water; 
akin silt.] A sieve; a strainer. [Old and 
Provincial English and Scotch.] 

Sile (sIl), v.t. To strain, as fresh milk from 
the cow. [Old and Provincial English and 
Scotch.] 

Sile (sil), v.i. To flow down; to drop; to- 
fall. [Provincial.] 

Silenese (sMe'ne-e), n. plur. [From Silene.'j 
A tribe of Caryophyllacea;, the members of 
which have a tubular calyx and petals with 
claws. See Caryophyllacea. 

Silence (si'lens), n. [Fr. silence, from L. si- 
lentium, silence, from sileo, to be still, to 
be silent; comp. Goth, silan, anasilan, to> 
be silent. ] 1. The condition prevailing when. 
everything is silent; stillness or entire ab- 
sence of sound or noise; as, the silence of 
midnight. 'The night's dead silence.' Shak. 
There was silence deep as death ; 
And the boldest held his breath, 
For a time. Catnpbell. 

2. The state of holding the peace; forbear- 
ance of speech in man or of noise in other 
animals; taciturnity; muteness; as, to keep- 
silence; to listen in silence. 

Be check'd for silence, but never tax'd for speech. 
Shak. 

3. The refraining from speaking of or mak- 
ing known something ; secrecy ; as, to re- 
ward a person for his silence. — 4. Stillness; 
calmness; quiet; cessation of rage, agitation, 
or tumult; as, the elements reduced to si- 
lence.—5. Absence of mention; oblivion; ob- 
scurity. 

Eternal silence be their doom. Mil/on. 

A few more days, and this essay will follow the- 
Defensio Pofnli to the dust and silence of the upper 
shelf. Macanlay. 

Silence (si'lens), v.i. pret. & pp. sileiiced; 

ppr. silencing. To make silent ;. to put 

to silence; (a) to oblige to hold the peace; 

to cause to cease speaking; as, to silence a 

loquacious speaker. 

To silence envious tongues : be just, and fear not. 
Let aU the ends thou atm'st at be thy country's. 
Thy God's and truth's. Shak. 

(b) To restrain in reference to liberty of 
speech; especially, to restrain from preach- 
ing by revoking a license to preach; as, to- 
silence a minister of the gospel. 

Is it therefore 
The ambassador is silenced f Shak. 

The sitenc'd preacher yields to potent strain. 

Pope. 

(c) To cause to cease sounding; to stop the^ 
noise or sound of; to make to cease. 

Silence that dreadful bell. Shak. 

It is the little rift within the lute. 
That by and by will malce the music mute, 
And ever widening slowly silence all. 

Tennyson. 

(rf) To still; to quiet; to restrain; to ap- 
pease. ' Would have silenced their scruples. ' 
Dr. J. Rogers. 

This would silence a\\ further opposition. 

Clarendon. 

(e) To stop the noise of firing from; to make- 
to cease firing, especially by a vigorous can- 
nonade; as, to silence guns or a battery. 

Silence (si'lens), interj. Used elliptically for 
let there be silence, or keep silence. 

Sllene (sT-le'ne), n. [Origin doubtful.] An 
extensive genus of plants belonging to the 
natural order Caryophyllaceae. The species 
are in general herbaceous; the stems are 
leafy, jointed, branched, and frequently 
glutinous below each joint. The greatest 
proportion are inhabitants of the south of 
Europe and north of Africa; many occur in 
the temperate regions of both hemispheres. 
Several species are Uritish, which are known 
by the names of campion and catch-fly. 
Many are cultivated in gardens as orna- 
mental flowers. S. compacta or close- 
flowered catch-fly is one of the most beau- 
tiful of the genus. S. infiata, or bladder- 
campion, is edible. The young shoots boiled 
are a good substitute for green peas or as- 
paragus. 

Silent (silent), a. [L. silens, silentis, ppr. 
of sileo. See SILENCE, «.] 1. Not speaking; 
mute; dumb; speechless. 

O my God, I cry In the daytime, but thou hearest 
not ; and in the night season, and am not silent. 

Ps. xxii. 2. 
Her eyes are homes of silent prayer. 

Tennyson. 



ch, cAain: 6b, Sc. \och\ 
Vol. rv. 



g> ffo; if i'ob; ft, Fr ton; ng, siny; th, then; th, tAin; w^ wig; 



wh, tcMg; zh, azure.— See E.EY. 



SILENT 



82 



SILIQTJOSA 



■2. Habitually taciturn; spealcing little; not 
inclined to much talking; not loquacious. 

Ulysses, he adds, was the most eloquent and the 
most silent of men. IP'. Broome. 

5. Not mentioning or proclaiming; making 
no noise or rumour. 

This new created world, of which in hell 
Fame is not silent, Milton. 

4. Perfectly quiet; still ; free from sound or 
noise; having or making no noise; as, the 
silent watchesof the night; the silent groves. 
'Sparkling in the silent waves.' Spenser. 

But thou, most awful form I 
Risest from forth thy sile/tt sea of pines, 
How silently. Coleridge. 

^. Not operative; wanting efficacy. * Causes 
. . . silent, virtueless, and dead.* Raleigh. 
-6. Not pronounced or expressed ; having no 
sound in pronunciation; as,e is silent in/able. 
— Silent partner. Sume as Dormant Partner. 
■See under Dorhaht.— Silent system, a sys- 
tem of prison discipline which imposes en- 
tire silence among the prisoners even when 
assembled together. — Syn. Dumb, mute, 
speecliless, taciturn, soundless, voiceless, 
quiet, still. 

'Silent (si'Ient), n. Silence ; silent period. 
' Deep night, dark night, the silent of the 
night.' Shak. 

-Silentiary (si-len'shi-a-ri), n. l. One ap- 
pointed to keep silence and order in a court 
of justice. — 2. A privy-councillor; one sworn 
not to divulge secrets of state. Ba)'row. 

;Silenti0US (si-len'shus), a. Habitually si- 
lent; taciturn; reticent. 

JSilently (si'lent-Ii), adv. In a silent man- 
ner; as, (a) witliout speech or words. 

Each silently 
Demands thy grace, and seems to watch thy eye. 
Dry den. 

(&) Without noise; as, to march silently. 

With tiptoe step vice silently succeeds. Cowper. 

(c) Without mention. 

The difficulties remain still, till he can show who is 
meant by ri^ht heir; in all those cases the present 
possessor has no son : this he silently passes over. 
Locke. 

Silentness (silent-nes), n. State of being 
silent; stillness; silence. 

The moonlight steeped in silentness. 

The steady we^ithercock. Coleridge. 

Silenus (si-le'nus), n. [Gr. Silenos.] A 
Grecian divinity, the foster-father and at- 
tendant of Bacchus, and likewise leader of 
the satyrs. He was represented as a ro- 
bust old man, generally in a state of intoxi- 
cation, and riding on an ass carrying a can- 
tliarus or bottle. 

Slleryt (sil'^r-i), n. In arch, foliage carved 
on the tops of pillars. 

Silesia (si-le'shi-a), n. A species of linen 
cloth, so called from its being manufactured 
•originally in Silesia, a province of Prussia; 
thin coarse linen. 

Bilesian (si-le'shi-an), n. A native or in- 
haltitant of Silesia. 

Silesian (si-le'shi-an). a. Pertaining to Si- 
lesia; made in Silesia; as, Silesian linen. 

Silex (si'leks), n. [L.] Same as .Wica (which 
see). 

Silhouette (sil'd-et), n. 
[From Etienne de Sil- 
houette, French minister 
of finance in 1759, in deri- 
sion of his economical at- 
tempts to reform the fin- 
ancial state of France 
while minister. Every- 
thing supposed to be ex- 
cessively economical was 
then characterized as in 
the Silhouette style, and 
the term has been retained for this sort of 
portraitj A name given to the representa- 
tion of an object filled in of a black colour, 
the inner parts being sometimes indicated 
by lines of a lighter colour, and shadows 
or extreme depths by the aid of a heighten- 
ing of gum or other siiinlng medium. 

Silica (siri-ku), n. [L. silex, silicis, a flint.] 
(SiOa) Oxide of sihcon. This important sub- 
stance constitutes the characteristic ingre- 
dient of a great variety of minerals, among 
which rock-crystal, quartz, chalcedony, and 
flint may be considered as nearly pure silica. 
It also predominates in many of the rocky 
masses which constitute the crust of our 
globe, such as granite, the varieties of sand- 
stone, and quartz rock. It is the chief sub- 
stance of which glass is made ; also an in- 
gi-edient, in a pulverized state, in the manu- 
facture of stoneware, and it is essential in 
the preparation of tenacious mortar. Silica, 
when pure, is a fine powder, hard, insipid, and 




Silhouette. 



inodorous, rough to the touch, and scratches 
and wears away glass. It combines in definite 
proportions with many salifiable bases, and 
its various compounds are termed silicates. 
Plate -glass and window-glass, or, as it is 
commonly called, crown-glass, are silicates 
of sodium or potassium, and flint-glass is a 
similar compound, with a large addition of 
silicate of lead. See Silicic. 
Silicate (sil'i-kat), n. A salt of silicic 
acid. Silicates formed by the union of silicic 
acid, or silica, with the bases alumina, lime, 
magnesia, potassa, soda, «fcc., constitute the 
greater number by far of the hard minerals 
which encrust the globe. The silicates of 
potash and soda, when heated to redness, 
form glass— Sth'cate paint, natural silica, 
when dried and forming an almost impalp- 
able powder, mixed with colours and oil. 
Unlike the ordinary lead paints, all tlie sili- 
cate colours are non-poisonous. Silicate 
white has great covering power; is not af- 
fected by gases; and heat of 500° is suc- 
cessfully resisted. 

Silicated (sil'i-kat-ed), a. Coated, mixed, 
combined, or impregnated with silica. — 
Silicated soap, a mixture of silicate of soda 
and hard soap. 

Sllicatization (siri-kat-Iz-a'^shon), n. The 
process of combining with silica so as to 
change to a silicate. 

Siliceous, Silicious (si-lish'us), a. Per- 
taining to silica, containing it, or partaking 
of its nature and qualities; as, siliceous 
limestone; siliceous slate; siliceous nodules, 
&c.— Siliceous cement, a hydraulic cement 
containing a certain proportion of a silicate. 
—Siliceous earth, silica (which see).— Sili- 
ceous waters, such as contain silica in solu- 
tion, as many boiling springs. 

Silicic (si-lis'ik), a. Of or pertaining to 
silica; as, si7tcic ether; silicic acid— Silicic 
acid, an acid obtained by decomposing so- 
dium silicate with hydrochloric acid and 
dialysing the liquid so obtained. Silicic 
acid has not been obtained in the pure 
form, as it undergoes decomposition into 
water and silica when heated. JIany si- 
licic acids are believed to exist. The nor- 
mal acid is H4Si04. 

Silici-calcareous (si-lis'i-kal-ka"re-u8), a. 
Consisting of silica and calcareous matter. 

Siliciferous (sil-i-sif'6r-us), a. [L. silex, 
silicis, silex, and /ero, to produce. ] Pro- 
ducing silica, or united with a portion of 
silica. 

Siliciflcation (si-lis'i-fl-ka"shon), n. Petri- 
faction ; the conversion of any substance 
into stone by siliceous matter. 

Siliclty (si-lis'i-fi), v.t. pret. & pp. silicified; 
ppr. silicifying. [L. silex, silicis, flint, and 
facio, to make.] To convert into or petrify 
by silica. 

Silicify (si-lis'i-fi), v.i. To become silica; to 
be impregnated with silica. 

Silicimuilte (si-lis'i-mu"rit), n. [Z. silex, 
flint, and muria, brine.] An earth composed 
of silica and magnesia. 

SiliCite (sll'i-sit), n. A variety of felspar, 
consisting of 50 parts of silicic acid, alu- 
mina, lime, soda, and peroxide of iron. 
Called also Labrador Spar and Labra- 
dorite. Dana. 

SlliCited (si-lis'it-ed), a. Impregnated with 
silica. Kinvan. [Rare] 

Silicium (si-lis'i-um), n. [L. »ilex, flint.] 
See Silicon, 

Siliciureted, Siliciuretted (si-lis'i-u-ret- 
ed), a. In chem. combined or impregnated 
with silicon. — Siliciureted hydrogen, a gas 
composed of silicon and hydrogen, which 
takes flre spontaneously when in contact 
with air, giving out a brilliant white light. 

Silicle (sil'i-kl), 7i. [L. silicula, dim. of 
siliqua, a pod. ] In hot a kind of seed- 




Silicle or Pouch. 

I, Shepherd's -purse {Capsella iursa -pastoris). 
2. Do. opened, to show the placenta?, the seeds, and 
the two valves. 3, Vernal Whitlow-grass {Draha vemcx 
or Erophita vulgaris). 4, Do. opened, to show the 
valves, the dissepiment, and the seeds. 5, Penny- 
cress { Thlaspi arvense). 

vessel, in structure resembling a siliqua. 
but differing from it in being as broad as it 
is long or broader. Examples of it may be 



seen in the whitlow-grass, in the shepherd's- 
purse, and in the horse-radish. Among the 
alga: the name is given to a similar vessel, 
pod-like, oblong, conical, linear, or lanceo- 
late, transversely striated, and formed either 
of transformed branches or portions of a 
branch. It is not quite certain that these 
are connected with the reproduction of the 
plant. See Siliqua. 

Silico - fluoric (sil'i-k6flu-or"ik), a. The 
name of an acid, HsSiF'g. When silicic acid 
is dissolved by hydrofluoric acid a gas is pro- 
duced which is colourless, fuming strongly 
in the air. It is absorbed by water and hy- 
drated silicic acid is deposited, while an 
acid is found in the water which is termed 
silico-Jluoric acid, or hydrofiuosilicic acid. 
With bases this acid forms salts called silico- 
fluorides, which are nearly all insoluble. 

Sllico-fluoride(sll'i-k6-flu"or-id),rt.(MoSiF6.) 
A salt of silico-fluoric acid. See SlLico- 

FLUORIC. 

Silicon (sil'i-kon), n. [From L. silex, silicis, 
a flint.] Sym. Si. At. wt. 28. The non- 
metallic element of which silica is the oxide. 
Silicon may be obtained amorphous or crys- 
talline. In the latter form it is very hard, 
dark-brown, lustrous, and not readily oxid- 
ized. It is insoluble in all ordinary acids, 
with the exception of hydrofluoric. Silicon 
unites with hydrogen, chlorine, <tc., to form 
well-marked compounds. In its general 
analogies it closely resembles carbon. Called 
also Silicium. 

Silicula, Silicule (si-lik'Q-la, sil'i-kul), n. 
Same as Silicle. 

Siliculosa (si-lik'ii-16"8a), n. pi. One of the 
two orders into which Linnjeus divided hia 
class Tetradynaniia. It comprehends those 
plants which have a silicle. See Silicle. 
Siliculose, Siliculous (si-lik'u-los, si-lik'u- 
lus), o. 1. Having silicles or pertaining to 
them.— 2. t Full of or consisting of husks; 
husky. Bailey. 

Siliginose,t Siligiuoust (si-lij'in-6s, si-lij'- 
in-us), a. [L. siligo, ailiginis, a very flne kind 
of white wheat. ] 
Made of white 
wheat. Bailey. 
Siling-dlslx (sil'ing- 
dish), n. [See Sile.] 
A colander ; a 
strainer. [ Obsolete 
or local.] 

Siliqua (siri-kwa),n. 
pi. Siliqua (sil'i- 
kwe). [L. siliqua, a 
pod, also a very 
small weight.] 1. In 
bot. the long pod-like 
fruit of crucifers; a 
kind of seed-vessel. 
It is characterized 
by dehiscing by two 
valves which separ- 
ate from a central 
portion called the 
replum. It is lin- 
ear in form, and is always superior to the 
calyx and corolla. The seeds are attached 
to two placentae, which adhere to the re- 
plum, and are opposite to the lobes of the 
stigma. Examples may be seen in the stock 
or wall-flower, and in the cabbage, turnip, 
and mustard.— 2. A weight of 4 grains, used 
in weighing gold and precious stones; a 
carat. 

Siliquaria (sil-l-kwa'ri-a), n. A genus of 
marine gasteropodous 
molluscs, found both fos- 
sil and recent. The shell 
is tubular, spiral at its 
beginning, continued in 
an irregular form. divided 
laterally through its 
whole length by a narrow 
slit, and formed into 
chambers by entire septa. 
Recent siliquariae have 
been found in sponges. 
Cuvier places the genus 
in the order Tnbulibran- 
chiata. 
Silique (si-lek'), n. Same 

as Silimta. Siliquaria anguina. 

Siliquella (sil-i-kweHa). 
n. In bot. a subordinate part of the fruit 
of certain plants, as the poppy, consisting 
of a division or carpel and the two pla- 
centae. 

Sillquiform (si-lik'wi-form), a. Having the 
form of a siliqua. 

Siliquosa (sil-i-kw6'sa), 7i-pl One of the two 
orders into which Linnaeus divided his class 




Siliqua or Pod. 

I, Mustard. 2, Wall-flower. 
3. Do. opened, to show the 
valves, replum or dissepi- 
ment, and seeds. 




F&te, tix, fat, fall; me, met, h6r; pine, pin; ndte, not, m5ve; tube, tub, buH; oil, pound; ii, So. abuue; S, So. fey. 



SILIQTTOSE 



83 



SILT 



Tetradynamia. the other being Siliculosa. 
It comprehends those plants which have a 
aiU(iua, as the cabbage, turnip, mustard, Ac. 

Sillquose, Siliq,U0UB(siri-kw6s, sH'i-kwus), 
a. I.L. b-iliquoau^, from sUiqua, a pod] In 
hot. bearinji siliqua;; having that species of 
pericarp called siUqxia; as, siliqiiose plants. 

Silk (silk), n. [A. Sax. seoloc, silk, for sertc, 
from L. sericitm, Gr. serikon, silk, lit. Seric 
Btutf, from Seres, the Greek name of the 
Chinese.] 1. The fine, soft thread produced 
by the larvse of numerous species belougnig 
to the genus Bombyx and other genera of 
the family Bombycidie, lepidopterous in- 
sects of the section popularly known by the 
name moth, the most important of which 
is the Boiiibyx mori, or common silkworm, a 
native of the northern provinces of China 
Silk is the strongest, most lustrous, and 
most valuable of textile fabrics, and is a 
thread composed of several ttner threads 
which the worm draws from two large or- 
gans or glands, containing a viscid sub- 
stance, which extend along great part of the 
body, and terminate in two spinnerets at 
the mouth. With this substance the silk- 
worm envelops itself, funning what is 
called a cocoon. Raw silk is produced by 
the operation of winding otf, at the same 
time, several of the balls or cocoons (which 
are immersed in hot water to soften the 
natural gum on the tllament) on a common 
reel, thereby forming one smooth even 
thread. Before it is fit for weaving it is 
converted into one of three forms, viz. 
singles, train, or organzine. Singles (a col- 
lective noun) is formed of one of the reeled 
threads, Ijeing twisted in order to give it 
strength and firmness. Tram is formed of 
two or more threads twisted together. la 
this state it is commonly used in weaving, 
as the shoot or weft. Thrown sUk is formed 
of one, two, three, or more singles, accord- 
ing to the substance required, twisted to- 
gether in a contrary direction to that in 
which the singles of which it is composed 

' are twisted. The silk so twisted is called 
organzine. Spun silk is waste silk, pierced 
cocoons, floss, &c., dressed, combed, formed 
into rovings, and spun by processes and on 
machinery analogous to that used in the 
worsted manufacture.— TiM^aA sUk, a terra 
applied to the raw silk produced by a 
variety of moths other than the ordinary 
fiilkworm, Bombyx mori.— 2. Cloth made of 
silk. In this sense the word has a plural, 
sUks, denoting different sorts and varieties; 
as, black silk, white silk, coloured silks. 

tie caused the shore to be